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Full text of "The Indian empire: history, topography, geology, climate, population, chief cities and provinces; tributary and protected states; military power and resources; religion, education, crime; land tenures; staple products; government, finance, and commerce. With a full account of the mutiny of the Bengal army; of the insurrection in western India; and an exposition of the alleged causes"

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One of the most agreeable diversities that can occur in the life of a European resident 
in Hindoostan, is a visit to the Hills — the common term applied in India to the lower 
ranges of the Himalaya Mountains. Many are driven from the plains to try the effects 
of a more bracing climate for the recovery of health ; but there are some to whom a love 
of the picturesque, and a restless desire to seek amusement in ever-varying change of 
scene, prove the chief incentive for a tour into the recesses of the mighty and mysterious 
range that forms the northern boundary of our Indian empire. The favourite and 
most exciting route, when undertaking such an expedition, is by Saharunpore, a frontier 
town of the province of Delhi (sometimes called the threshold of the hill districts), 
whence it is usual to penetrate through the valley of the Deyrah Dhoon, to the interior 
of the Himalayas, and the sources of the Jumna and the Ganges. 

On commencing a journey towards the valley, the road of the traveller is through 
the Keeree Pass ; and this lovely portal to a new country gives delightful promise of 
the scenery beyond. The distant view which may have been already caught of the 
great Himalaya, from a spot in the neighbourhood of Saharunpore, is of that dreamy, 
poetical description, which, though full of beauty, presents little that is definite, and 
only excites curiosity. From this spot two inferior belts, divided from each other 
by deep intersecting vales, appear to rise tier above tier, the pyramidal snow-capped 
heights, which seem to lift themselves into another world, crowning the whole with 
almost awful majesty. From the site mentioned, the mountain-ranges have all the 
indistinctness that belong to the land of faerie, and which, leaving the imagination to 
luxuriate in its most fanciful creations, invest the scene with a species of enchantment. 
The pure, dazzling whiteness of the regions of eternal snow, give occasionally a cloud- 
like appearance to the towering summits, and may almost induce the belief, that they 
indeed form part of the heaven to which they aspire; while, in other states of the atmos- 
phere, they stand out in bold relief, catching the rays of the sun, and reflecting a golden 
tint, or rearing their lofty points, white with the unsullied snow of ages, they proclaim, 
that while all else on earth is liable to change, themselves endure, immutable and for ever. 

Upon entering the Keeree Pass, the distant view of the true Himalaya — the birth- 
place and abode of the gods of Hindoostan — is lost, and the scene becomes one of the 
softest beauty imaginable; the devious valley winds amongst rocky eminences, richly 
clothed with stately trees. At every step forward the landscape changes its features ; 
and, though its character still remains the same, presents so great variety of forms — of 
crag and precipice, wild rock, deep forest, and luxuriant valley — that the traveller 
is lost in pleasurable amazement; — now exulting with that joy which the exile alone can 
feel when suddenly encountering some point of resemblance to a well-known object 
near a far-off home — now struck with wonder by some dazzling specimen of native 
growth. Here, for the first time, is beheld, in all its native luxuriance, the giant 
creeper {Scandent banhinia), with justice termed the monarch of its tribe. This enormous 
parasite winds its snake-like stem — which attains the size, and somewhat resembles the 
body, of the boa-constrictor — round the trunks of the forest-trees, either mingling their 
flowers with its foliage, or flinging them from the festoons which it forms from branch to 



brauch as it travels along. The rich scent of these superb blossoms, together with that 
of tlie baubool, fills tlie air with perfume, and gratifies at once both sight and smell. 

There are two halting-places in the Keeree Pass: one, the Moliun Chokee, at the 
entrance; the other, the Slioupore Chokee, withia the pass, which extends to a length 
of upwards of six miles. A party of tourists, wheu consisting of several persons, having 
with them a numerous cortege — comprising horses, elephants, and bullocks, for the con- 
veyance of baggage — presents an imposing appearance ; and the usual encampment at 
the Mobun Chokee becomes extensive and picturesque, when animated by groups of 
attendants, assembled round their fires — the horses and elephants picketed under tbe 
trees, and the bullocks reposing on the ground. 

Advancing from this spot, tlie traveller approaches the low hills, which compose, as it 
were, the outworks of the Himalaya. Of these, the elevatiou varies from 500 to 900 feet 
above the plains, and about 2,500 above the level of the sea. The thick forest and 
brushwood with which they are clothed are full of peacocks ; and, amidst game of less 
importance, the tiger is found; while hares, and the black and grey partridge, literally 
swarm around. There are, however, parts of the woody ranges beyond Keeree, so strongly 
infected with poisonous exhalations, tliat at the worst season they are deserted even by 
the brute creation ; monkeys, tigers, every species of quadruped, and even the birds, 
urged by some instinctive warning, quit the deadly spot, and seek a resting-place in 
distant and more healthy ueighboui'hoods. 


Emerging from the Keeree Pass, the road proceeds in the direction of Hurdwar 
(Hari-dwar, the Gate of Vishnu), near the point at which the sacred waters of the 
Ganges enter the plains of Hindoostan. The scenery around Hurdwar affords some of 
the most splendid landscapes which are to be found on the bright and beautiful river 
whose majestic course is diversified by so many interesting objects. The town stands at 
the base of a steep mountain, on the verge of a slip of land reclaimed from the forest, 
and surrounded on all sides by thick jungle. The leafy fastnesses of the Deyrah 
Dhoon appear immediately above the pass ; and below, the uncultivated wastes of the 
Terraic stretch their wildernesses for many miles. The locality about Hurdwar has for 
ages been held in high veneration by the worshippers of Vishnu, and the town itself is 
one of the most frequented resorts of Hindoo pilgrims, who flock thither from all parts 
of India, to perform their devotions in the mystic stream at the moment of its emancipa- 
tion from the untrodden recesses of the vast Himalaya, in whose profound solitudes the 
infant waters spring from their everlasting fount. 

To behold the Ganges at the moment in which its faith-inspiring current bursts into 
freedom from its mountain boundary, and glides in one broad stream along the plain, 
is to the exhausted devotee who has endured weeks, perhaps months, of fatigue and 
privation consequent upon a painful and hazardous journey, an ample recompense for 
all his toil and sufl'eriug. He gazes enraptured on the holy river, and, gathering up 
his failing strength to the task, presses onward, but too happy to yield up life with the 
first plunge of his body in the hallowed wave. Guided by faith in the doctrine of his 
race, the worshippers of Bramali believe that a blessed immortality is secured to the 
person who shall thus end his earthly career ; and, consequently, many who are wearied 
of life, or are anxious to enter scenes of purer enjoyment, will cheerfully commit 
suicide, or, if too w eak to perform the act themselves,'will prevail on their nearest friends 
to accelerate the progress of dissolution by leaving their bodies to float down the sacred 
stream, while their souls are absorbed in the Divine Essence. 

It is at this point of emergence from the hills that persons journeying from a great dis- 
tance are anxious to fill their jars with water, that their homes may be hallowed by a portion 
of the sacred element. Rich and pious Hindoos, who inhabit the provinces remote from 
this spot, spend large sums of money in procuring it by meaus of messengers, who are 









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employed specially for the purpose. The water-pots are oftentimes convej'ed to their desti- 
nation in a picturesque manner, being enclosed in a framework decorated with flowers 
and featliers, and slung upon bamboos resting on the shoulders of long files of men, who 
will convey it thus, without contamination, for several hundred miles. The bearers of 
the sacred fluid, although enjoying immunity from danger from all otiier enemies, are 
yet frequently waylaid and murdered by the Thugs, who consider murder to be an act of 
duty towards their goddess Bliowannee, the destructive power; and who will murder the 
poorest victim that falls in their way, to propitiate their deity, and induce her to provide 
them with richer sacrifices. 

Beyond the poiut at which the Ganges enters the plains, to its final junction with the 
ocean (a distance of 1,200 miles), it flows smoothly and placidly along, occasionally vexed 
and ruffled by tempest; or, assuming an alarming degree of velocity when swollen by the 
melting of the snows, its strong current glides witli the speed of an arrow. There are, 
however, no cataracts in its long descent towards the sea, the fall being somewhat less 
tlian a foot a mile, through a channel which varies in width very considerably iu 
different places, and at particular sef^sons ; until, as the mighty river approaches the 
ocean, it spreads out its waters afar, pouring them forth iu a flood ten miles broad. 
The Ganges is not fordable below its confluence with the Jumna at Allahabad ; but 
though it may be crossed by men and animals at several places previous to its junction 
with that tributary, the navigation is not interrupted from the spot in which it enters 
the plains. Its rise is seldom above thirty-two feet ; but when it reaches this height, it 
spreads over the adjacent country like a sea, inundating the low land, and frequently 
destroying whole villages ; those that remain, rising like islands iu the midst of the watery 
wjiste. The waters of the Ganges are so charged with earthy particles, that when the 
floods begin to subside, the quantity of alluvial matter deposited is inconceivably great; 
and an instance is recorded iu which a branch of the river was filled up nearly to a level 
with the adjacent country in the space of a week, the material deposited being equal 
to 900,000,000 solid feet. Between the mountains and the sea, the stream of the 
Ganges is augmented by the contributions of eleven large rivers, some of which are 
equal in magnitude to the Rhine, and none are less than the Thames. Its extreme 
length, from its source to the sea, is estimated at 1,560 miles. 


Toe town of Hurdwar, which is small, but well built, is adorned with several commodious 
ghauts, constructed of cut freestone, descending by long flights of steps to the river. It 
consists chiefly of one principal street, running north and south, parallel with the course 
of the water, and composed of handsome houses belonging to rich merchants and 
Brahmins from every part of India. Many of the best edifices of Hurdwar have tiieir 
foundations laid in the bed of the sacred river. 

The roofs of the houses at this place are generally covered by troops of monkeys, who 
are held in much veneration in every stronghold of Hindoo superstition, and are, con- 
sequentl}-, suffered to increase in such unchecked abundance, that they become an 
intolerable nuisance to their protectors, it being difficult to prevent their intrusion into 
the most private apartments. 

The resident population of Hurdwar being small, the accommodation for pilgrims and 
others, who repair in great numbers to the place at certain seasons, is of a temporary 
description only, the wealthy portion of the pilgrims being alone indulged with the 
shelter of a roof over them; the remainder of the vast multitude whom religion, pleasure, 
or business brings to the spot, being content to bivouac under canvas, or beneath the 
shadows of the trees. At an adjacent town named Kunkul, there are, however, 
numerous serais for the accommodation of strangers, consisting of long, low, quadrangular 


buildings, surrounded with suites of small apartments, in which human and animal life 
mingle together in one confused mass of noise, disorder, and excitement. 

During the fair (of whie'^ we shall presently speak), on either side of the approach 
to Hurdwar, for a distance of two miles, are to be seen large and handsome tents 
belonging to the civil and military officers of the Company, who repair thither on duty; 
while others who visit the place for amusement only, avail themselves of the shelter of 
the same encampment. These canvas abodes are diversified by the more substantial 
residences of rich natives, sheltered by large mango groves, and beautified with rare and 
magnificent flowers ; and so great is the necessity for temporary habitations during the 
fair, that artificers resort to the place from a considerable distance, in order to construct 
houses of thatch and grass mats, on a bamboo frame. 

This celebrated fair is yearly held in the month of April, and lasts nearly a month. 
It is attended by pilgrims and traders from all parts of India — the first impelled by devo- 
tion to perform their ablutions in the sacred river ; the other by a desire to profit by the 
opportunity presented by the vast assemblage, for mingling business with devotion. The 
auspicious monicnt for the observance of the religious portion of the affair is calculated by 
the Brahmins ; who aver, that a great increase in the efficacy of the rite is derivable from 
its performance when Jupiter is in Aquarius, or the Sun enters Aries — which happens 
every twelfth year. 

The climate of Hurdwar, during the early part of April, is exceedingly variable from 
four in the afternoon until nine or ten on the following day : the wind generally blows 
from the north or east, over the snowy mountains, rendering the air delightfully cool : 
during the intermediate hours, however, the thermometer frequently rises to 94° ; and 
the clouds of dust arising from the concourse of people and cattle, add considerably to 
the annoyance sustained from the heat. 

The Ganges, during the rainy season, is a mile in width at Hurdwar, pursuing its 
course between low woody islands, some of which afford very commodious camping- 
ground. On the west bank the eye rests upon a ridge of hills, rising to the height of 
600 feet, covered with thick brushwood mingled with trees. These hills are cleft in 
many places into rugged and deep ravines, which afford cover to numerous wild animals. 
The background of the landscape is formed of part of the range of blue mountains, from 
6,000 to 8,000 feet in height, which conceal the base of the Himalaya or snowy region, 
and fill up the distance in the most magnificent manner possible. 


It is difficult to convey an adequate idea of the grandeur and beauty that render 
Hurdwar one of the places most worthy of a traveller's attention in India, or to attempt 
to describe the diversified swarms of animate creation that, in the form of men and beasts 
of every race and clime, cover the whole ground around the holy station during the 
annual festival of the pilgrims at Hurdwar, in April. Horse-merchants from Bolihara 
and Cabool occupy the stony, central portions of the river ; while those from Torkistau 
take up quarters behind the houses of the town. Elephant dealers incline to the suburbs 
for the sake of fodder ; but, morning and evening, traverse the roads with their studs, each 
elephant having a bell attached to its neck to give warning of approach. Buneas, 
or grain-sellers ; Hulwaes, or confectioners ; cloth, shawl, and toy-merchants, occupy the 
roadside, close to the town ; their dwelling-places being interspersed with enclosures 
containing piles of barley and straw, heaped up and ready for sale. 

On the sides of the hill to the west, thousands of Seik families are clustered, with 
their huts, tents, camels, bullocks, mules, and horses, crowded together in wild confusion. 
Near these are the tents of the better order of visitors, in groups of two or three, and 
constructed of white or striped canvas, gaily fringed and ornamented with scalloped 




borrlerings of scarlet cloth. There, also, are the tents of the superior horse-dealers, 
Arab or Persian merchants, who have brought animals of the purest breed, for which 
they demand enormous prices. Men are there, too, with bears, leopards, tigers, deer of 
all kinds, monkeys, Persian greyhounds, beautiful cats, and rare birds for sale. In short, 
there are collected at this fair, samples of the most rare, beautiful, and costly of the 
productions of the East, natural and artificial ; while Europe also contributes largely to 
the stock of valuable merchandise brought to this great mart for distribution among 
the swarming races of Hindoostan. 

The crowding and confusion of buyers and sellers; the native groups in every 
imaginable variety of costume — some shining in cloth of gold, and surrounded by 
followers richly arrayed ; others less expensively, but picturesquely, dressed, and many 
half-naked or wildly clad — all mingled together, among priests, soldiers, and religious 
mendicants — half beggar, half bandit; with here and there a cluster of Europeans 
mounted upon elephants, and affecting to look with supreme contempt upon the scene 
around them — exhibit altogether a combination of individualities that no other place in 
the world is capable of presenting. As may be easily imagined, the noise baffles all 

During the time of the fair, the neighbouring roads are crowded by thousands of 
travellers in every description of vehicle, and mounted on elephants, bullocks, and camels, 
on horseback and on foot, and of all ages, complexions, and costumes. As they pass the 
pagodas on their way, the air resounds with shouts of " Mahadeo Bol !" which is repeated 
from front to rear, until the distant echoes take up the note, and the welkin rings with 
the cry of " Bol ! Bol !" The fair and the ghaut divide the attention of persons whom 
mere curiosity has drawn to the spot. In the ghaut immense crowds succeed each other 
without intermission; the vast influx of people thronging to the river-side, especially at 
the auspicious moment in which ablution is considered most efficacious. This ceremony 
has, until of late years, been generally productive of serious accident. Formerly a narrow 
avenue led from the principal street to the ghaut; the rush through this was tremendous, 
and numerous lives were lost — not fewer than seven hundred having fallen a sacrifice in 
one day to the enthusiastic zeal with which the devotees pressed forward to the river. 
The road has, however, been widened, and a convenient ghaut constructed by direction 
of the government; and the pilgrims at Hurdwar have since been able to perform an 
essential rite of their religion without danger. 

The Brahmins are, of course, conspicuous in the throng : they collect the tribute, but 
do not otherwise exercise their sacerdotal functions, the bathing being performed without 
any peculiar ceremony : there are also a vast number of mendicants of every description, 
many being, from their filth, their distortion, or their nakedness, the most disgusting 
objects imaginable. The utter absorption of every faculty in the duty performed by the 
bathers, who are only intent upon saturating their bodies with the sacred waters, offers 
an extraordinary contrast to the listless, indifferent air of the European spectators, who, 
lazily reposing on their elephants, survey the scene at a convenient distance. A few 
missionaries distributing copies of the Scriptures translated into the various dialects of the 
East, are the only types of European intelligence that appear to take an interest in the 
scene around them. 

Frequently, upon this occasion, a large congregation of the magnates of the land is 
assembled at Hurdwar. The Begum Sumroo, during her lifetime, would often make her 
appearance, with a retinue of 1,000 horse and 1,500 infantry. Here, also, was wont to 
assemble the Nawab of Nujibabad, the Rajahs of Ghuosgarh, Uchet, and Sadwa; the 
Putteeala rajah and his vakeel, whose attendants were distinguished by their light yellow 
turbans and sashes ; and the Rajah of Balespoor in the mountains : all of whom, the latter 
especially, making it a point to traverse the fair mornings and evenings. The Balespoor 
rajah usually appeared seated on a remarkably tall elephant, in a large howdah overlaid 
with plates of solid silver glistening in the sun, and covered with a pointed dome-like 
canopy of scarlet, supported on four silver pillars richly embossed. He wore a large 
white conical turban; and amongst the jewels that adorned his person were two enormous 
pearls, set as ear-rings, the hoops being of gold three inches in diameter. A servant sat 
behind him, waving slowly, backwards and forwards over his head, a splendid chowrie, 
or feather-fan, as an emblem of rank. Many of his relatives followed upon elephants 


caparisoned in various degrees of splendour, surrounded by horsemen showily dressed and 
accoutred, capering and curvetting about. Besides these were the usual rabble route on 
foot (the constant attendants upon Eastern sovereignty), crowding in the rear, heedless of 
the vicious animals rearing and leaping on all sides, as their riders fired off muskets, 
matchlocks, and pistols, and made the adjacent hills reverberate with the sound. 

Among these wild but truly Oriental pageants, Rhutz (four-wheeled carriages) 
abound at the fair, the roofs covered with white linen or scarlet cloth, and terminating 
with ornaments of gold or silver : these are chiefly occupied by women, six or eight of 
whom are crowded into one vehicle; small curtained apertures at the sides, enabling 
them to snatch hasty glances at the multitude around, without themselves being visible. 
Troops of dancing-girls also establish themselves at Hurdwar during the fair, and are 
to be seen performing either in front of the houses, or in the interior of the dwellings of 
the rich inhabitants. 

As soon as darkness sets in, the whole of the river, the town, and the inhabited 
portion of the forest, present a continuous blaze of illuminations, the display being 
varied by occasional bursts of fireworks. Nothing can be more pleasing than the effect 
of the lamps, sparkling and gleaming between the trees; while the islands and woody 
shores of the river are distinctly marked by innumerable vessels of oil, kindled and sent 
floating down the stream. 

At these immense annual gatherings the peace of the promiscuous multitude is 
usually preserved by a large detachment from the Sirmoor battalion of Goorkas, or 
hill-rangers, who come down from their quarters at Deyrali Dboon, and garrison one 
of the islands in the centre of the river, where they are out of the way, and yet suffi- 
ciently near to prevent disturbance. A considerable body of police, with the civil 
magistrates, are also present to enforce regulations for the preservation of order. 


Leaving Hurdwar, the traveller may proceed up the valley of the Dhoon to the village of 
Rajpoor, at the foot of the secondary chain of the Himalaya. Part of the road con- 
ducts him through a thick forest of lofty trees, among which will be found the rhododen- 
dron in full bloom : the underwood is composed of richly flowering plants, and the air 
laden with the fragrance of the corunda, whose white staiTy blossoms are redolent 
with perfume. In some places the road forms itself into an avenue, the branches of 
the trees meeting overhead. In this beautiful valley, part of which is watered by a clear 
stream, shaded by alders, the turf is enlivened by the amaranth, a bright scarlet and 
pink flower, and several species of the ranunculus. There are also found large bushes of 
sage springing from a carpet of thyme, which gives out its aromatic odour to eveiy 

The town of Deyrah, in this valley, is the station of the Goorka battalion of hill- 
rangers, whose faithful and energetic services through the war of the sepoy revolt, has 
been frequently and justly acUnowledged by every commander under whom they have 
fought. It has long been selected for the residence of the political agent of the province, 
and has many advantages to boast of. Deyrah is celebrated for a temple, sacred to the 
memory of a Hindoo devotee by whom it was founded ; but the chief claim of this 
individual to favourable recollection, arises from the fact of his having constructed a 
handsome stone tank, which occupies an acre of ground, and is an ornamental as well as 
useful boon to the inhabitants. 

The ascent from Deyrah to Rajpoor is so gradual as to be hardly perceptible ; but 
from the latter place it becomes more abrupt, the road winding along the sides of 
precipices of the most romantic character, craggy with rocks, and richly clothed with 
trees that descend to the bottom of deep and almost unfathomable ravines, through 








which, however, the ear can detect the sound of gushing waters, as they pursue their 
course through channels impervious to the eye of man. 

Rajpoor is an exceedingly pretty village, sufficiently elevated to admit of a clear and 
unobstructed view of the ever-beautiful Dlioon : near it are some natural curiosities 
worth visiting, one being tlie dripping rock of Shansa Dhare. From a precipitous height 
of overhanging clitf a stream descends in perpetual showers of crystal, each drop pro- 
ducing a petrifaction : and the cliff being worn away by the continual action of the water, 
assumes a cavernous appearance, formed entirely of spar. In this natural temple a 
Brahmin has erected an altar, dedicated to Mahadeo (the Great God.) Opposite to tliis, 
in another direction, is a spring containing a large proportion of sulphureous particles, 
rising out of a mass of limestone, and tinging the adjacent stones with its colouring matter. 
At Mala Pani, in the vicinity, is a monument erected to the memory of General Gillespie 
and the officers who fell before the fortress of Kalunga, in the Goorka war of 1815. 

The summit of the ridge on which Raj pore is situated, is elevated 8,000 feet above 
the level of the sea, and from its utmost height a glorious burst of landscape is presented ; 
the plains below stretching far and wide, bounded on either side by the Jumna and 
the Ganges, which, at a distance of forty miles apart, pursue their tortuous career until 
their silvery traces are lost in the meeting skies. After winding for several hundred 
miles in a south-easterly direction, these beautiful rivers unite — the Jumna throwing 
itself into the Ganges at Allahabad ; thus enclosing an extensive tract of country, called 
the Dooab, which, by their fertilising waters, is rendered one of the most productive 
districts in India. 

Turning in another direction to the mountain scenery, height rises upon height, 
intersecting valleys appear interminable, and the mind is wrapped in astonishment and 
awe, as the gigantic wonders of the vast scene are unfolded. Mussooree, the site of a 
station which is now one of the chief I'esorts of visitors from the plains, stands at an 
elevation of 7,500 feet above the level of the sea, and is situated on the southern face of 
the ridge called the Landour range, overlooking a village of that name, which has been 
selected for the establishment of a military sanitarium for officers and soldiers of the 
Bengal army who may have lost their health in the plains. Mussooree, in consequence 
of tlie great resort of invalids, is rapidly increasing in size and im[)ortance ; but the 
dwellings erected by the European residents have been compared, not inaptly, to gulls' 
7iests on the side of a cliff. There is so little table-land — the level plain, composed of a 
few square yards, being chiefly cut out of the rock — that the foundations of many of the 
cottages are built up with masonry at the edge of precipices, and there is scarcely an 
enclosed piece of ground round any dwelling. The roads are narrow, and in manj' 
places scooped out of the sides of steeps of the most fearful-looking nature ; yet, so 
speedily does the eye become accustomed to the appearance of danger, that ladies gallop 
along them without experiencing any apprehension. 

The Mussooree heights are composed of transition limestone, very craggy and bold, 
and argillaceous schistus, the slate exceedingly crumbling; there is also a large vein of 
trap in its valleys. No great expense is incurred in the building of houses at Mus- 
sooree; the abundance of timber in its immediate vicinity affording all necessary wood- 
work in inexhaustible quantities, among which the oak and rhododendron — the latter 
attaining tiie size of a forest-tree — are prominent. Some Europeans have been rather 
unfortunate in the site of their houses; others, more happily placed, are sheltered from 
the north wind, which, passing over the snowy mountains, exercises a chilling influence 
over everything exposed to its keen i)iasts. The trees on the northern side of the range 
are stunted and withered ; but luxuriance and beautj' characterise the south — the one 
side being covered with rhododendrons, rich with flowers; while the other is gloomy, with 
a clothing of sombre pines. 

The rhododendron tree bears a magnificent crimson flower, and forms one of the 
most beautiful as well as the most prominent features of the scene. The cherry, pear, 
and barberry are also found. The first European mansion constructed at Mussooree 
belonged to a Colonel Young, commanding a Goorka corps stationed in the Dhoou. It 
was called by the undignified appellation of the Potato-garden, in consequence of a 
plantation of that useful vegetalile; and remained for years the only hal)itation of the 
kind upon the hill. The house was prettily situated, perched upon the summit of one of 



the lower kuoUs, that cluster together, and rise one above the other from the Mus- 
sooree range. 

The neighbouring valleys and ridges afford to the lovers of field-sports, domiciled at 
Mussooree, abundant opportunities for procuring every sort of game, although there is 
doubtless some difficulty in the pursuit of it. The pheasants are exceedingly numerous, 
and of great size and beauty. 

The station assumes a very interesting appearance at night, with the lights from its 
numerous houses sprinkled about the hill-sides, and the fires which native servants 
kindle on the ground wherever they can find space. Many of the builders of houses 
among the Mussooree hills appear to have been solely influenced in the choice of a site 
by the prospect it commands ; others, however, have looked more to the eligibility and 
convenience of the situation as regards water ; for though the mountain streams may be 
heard, and are even seen, meandering through the bed of the ravine immediately below 
the windows, they are not accessible but with much cost of time and labour ; and the 
necessary supply of water frequently becomes very expensive, on account of the carriage. 

Estates here are purchased or rented on lease from the rajah of the district, who is 
very willing to let to strangers, land which has hitherto contributed little or nothing to his 
annual revenue. Spots thus taken are indicated by a board bearing the proprietor's name, 
who thus frequently possesses himself of a large and beautiful estate, consisting, perhaps, 
of a whole hill covered with forest-trees, and stocked with abundance of game; of which 
he is sole master, subject only to some regulations which have been found necessary to 
prevent the wanton demolition of timber. In the dearth of amusement, it has been 
known that the cuttiug down trees, either for fuel, or merely for the purpose of watching 
their fall, has formed the employment of vacant minds ; but of late years, such senseless 
pastime has been restricted ; and those who would have disregarded the appeal of taste 
and propriety, have been compelled to bow to the prohibitory mandate of superior 


Although the general appearance of Mussooree might have been much improved by 
more tasteful arrangements on the part of the early residents, yet there are many habita- 
tions in the locality which possess a considerable portion of picturesque beauty; and 
amongst these the mansion which, with greater regard for European associations than 
for local propriety, has been entitled " The Abbey," stands conspicuous. 

The abbey at Mussooree occupies a very commanding site, apart from all other 
habitations, on the extreme summit of a rugged mountain. During the fine weather, 
the prospects obtained from its elevated situation much more than compensate for any 
disadvantage; but, in the wet season, it is completely enveloped in mist, and 
damp clouds penetrate through every aperture. The intrusion of fog into a house is 
sufficiently disagreeable ; but in these altitudes the clouds take the same liberty ; and 
suddenly, if sitting in an apartment with the door or window open, the inhabitants often 
find themselves wrapped in a very poetical but very inconvenient garment. The storms, 
also, experienced in these elevated situations are exceedingly terrific ; occasionally they 
rage below the residence, encircling some sublime peak of the Landour range; but at 
other times they pour their unbroken fury on the devoted mansion and its terrified 
inhabitants— the thunder peals amidst the snow-storm, while lightning flashes around 
like a continuous sheet of fire, and a tremendous hurricane threatens destruction to 
whatever opposes its progress. 

The extent of miscliief occasioned by these elementary conflicts is often very great in 
:hese exposed regions; and it is with fear and trembling that, after the fury of the 
storm has passed by, the inhabitants venture forth to survey the havoc that traces its path. 




Ou one side are seen ti-ees torn up by their roots ; on another are rocks wrenched from 
their foundations, and precipitated down the side of the mountain, carrying with them, 
in their descent to some dark abyss, the soil and vegetation in their path. Sheep and 
poultry are scattered about lifeless, crushed by the descending mass; and it has occa- 
sionally happened, that human life also has loeen found equally insecure among these 

' alpine heights. 

In consequence of the frequent mutations of Anglo-Indian society, the abbey has 

! more than once changed its owner, but has always been considered a desirable property, 
notwithstanding its exposure to all the winds of heaven. It is scarcely possible to have a 
finer or more extended view than that which is commanded from the windows. The 
gigantic Choor is visible to the right, capped with snow, which remains unmelted during 
the greater part of the year ; while, on every side, hills and valleys, in endless succession, 
present flourishing villages, surrounded with rich cultivation, scattered hamlets, and 
thick forests. To the left, a partial glance at the Dhoon and the plains beyond close the 
prospect; while, in the distance, the river Jumna can be seen threading the mazes of 
the champaign country, and marking its course by a thread of silver. 

During the months of July and August the rain falls almost incessantly, and the 
inhabitants of Mussooree are compelled to find amusement within the shelter of their 
homes. At this period the views from the abbey are naturally circumscribed ; but good 
fires impart a glow of genial warmth and comfort to the weather-bound ; and whenever 
the sky clears up, the most beautiful effects are visible in the scenery, either wholly or 
partially unveiled by the sunbeams breaking through the clouds. A lover of nature 
domiciled in one of these altitudes will always find something to interest him and 
command attention in the numerous changes which take place in different states of the 
atmosphere, imparting endless variety to scenery always sublime. Sunrise is accom- 
panied by the highest degree of splendour in these alpine regions, lighting up the mountain- 
brows with gold, and flmging over the snowy range afar off those gorgeous hues which 
only the hand of nature can display. Then, as the mists curl upwards, and the veil is 
drawn from the face of the earth, the distant towns and villages gradually appear, and 
give to the rich and varied landscape the charm of almost fairy-like beauty. Such 
are amongst the attractions of the hill station of Mussooree. 


The Himalaya Mountains, signifying by name "the abode of snow," form the 
tremendous barrier which, stretching from the Indus on the north-west, to the Biama- 
pootra on the south-east, divides the plains of Hindoostan from the wilds of Thibet and 
Tartary. This chain of mountains comprises numerous ranges, extending in different 
directions west of the Indus. One of its ramifications, running in a still more westerly 
direction, is known to the Afghans by the name of the Ilindoo-Koosh, the whole 
stupendous range being merely broken by the Indus. From the north-east point of 
Cashmere it takes a south-eastern course, stretching along the sources of all the Punjab 
rivers, except the Sutlej, where it separates the liilly portion of the Lahore province 
from those tracts which iiave been designated, in modern geography, Little Thil)et. 
Still pursuing the same direction, it crosses the heads of tiie Ganges and Jumna, and 
forces their currents towards a southward channel. Farther east, the chain is supposed 
to be less continuous, it being the generally received opinion that it is penetrated by the 
Gunduck, the Arun, the Cosi, and the Tecsta rivers. Beyond the limits of Bootan, the 
course of tlie chain extending into an unexplored country, it can be traced no longer; 
but the supposition is in favour of its running to the Chinese sea, skirting the northern 
frontier of the provinces of Quangsi and Quantong, and lessening in height as it 
approaches the east. The portion of this extensive chain which borders Hindoostan, 

III. c 


rises to an elevation far exceeding that of any other monntains in the world, in some 
places forming an impassable barrier to the countries beyond, and rendering their extent 
a matter of conjecture only. The breadth of the snowy chain varies in different parts 
between the Sutlej and the Ganges; but it has been estimated at about eighty miles 
from the plains of Hindoostau to those of Thibet. The heights of this splendid barrier are 
unsurmountable by man ; but in some places, the beds of rivers which intersect it afford 
access to its wild and gloomy fastnesses ; and as a few have succeeded in penetrating the 
gigantic mass, there is a possibility that the efforts of science and daring combined, may 
yet force a passage through the rocks and snows of these desert wastes. The ranges of 
hills, extending in a southerly direction from the Himalaya, are divided into numerous 
principalities to the eastward of the Sutlej — Sirmoor, Gurhwal, Kumaon, Nepau! ; and 
many others are to be found, several of which were unknown to the European intiabitauts 
of India previous to the Goorka wars of 1815. 

The plains of India may with justice be deemed one vast prison, in which the sun, 
aided at one period of the year by the hot winds, acts the part of gaoler. It is only 
during a brief interval in the morning and evening, that exercise can be taken with 
impunity, except during the cold season ; and even then a carriage or a horse is required. 
Emancipation, therefore, from these restraints — a feeling of power to wander at will ia 
the open air, and the invigorating influence of a bracing atmosphere, combine to 
render individuals, on their arrival at Mussooree, like captives newly liberated from a 
dungeon, or schoolboys breaking loose from their forms. 

From Mussooree a road has been cut at the elevation of 7,000 feet above the sea 
level, that completely encircles the height chosen for the sanitarium of Laudour; per- 
mitting the residents to make an easy excursion of about four miles, either on horseback 
or on foot ; every step of the way being fraught with objects of beauty and interest. 

In no place can the snowy range of the Himalaya be seen to more advantage than 
from the western side of Landour; the distance being about thirty miles. From this 
point it rises with a majesty and distinctness which is in some measure lost when the 
traveller, at a nearer approach, becomes shut in as it were amid lofty peaks, which circum- 
scribe his view; and where, in consequence of the extraordinary purity of the atmos- 
phere, they, especially soon after sunrise, appear to the eye much nearer than they really 
are. The intermediate country is then veiled in mist, spreading like a lake; and the 
snowy eminences beyond, rising from its margin, when lighted up by the slanting rays 
of the sun, seem as if they could be gained by an easy effort : it is not until those silvery 
mists have cleared away, and the sun shines out with broader splendour, revealing the 
true state of the case, that the illusion is dispelled. Dhawallaghiri (the white mountain), 
in which the river Gunduck has its source, is considered to be the most lofty of these 
peaks : its height has not been exactly determined ; but accounts that are esteemed 
accurate, render it 27,400 feet above the level of the sea. Jumnoutri and Guugoutri, 
whence the Jumua and the Ganges have their birth, are next in proportion, both exceed- 
ing 24,000 feet; but the last-named is the most highly honoured by the natives, some of 
whom affirm, that on its topmost summit Mahadeo has erected his throne; while others 
reverence the whole mountain as the god. 

Villages are to be found at an elevation of 14,000 feet ; but dwelling at this altitude 
is not healthy, and the inhabitants have a wretched and attenuated appearance. Culti- 
vation has been carried, in some places, 500 feet higher; and vegetation does not totally 
cease until stopped, at the height of 16,000 feet, by that eternal barrier of snow which, 
asserts supreme dominion over the sullen wastes above. 

From another pcJint of Landour the eye embraces the splendid range of mountains 
through which the sacred river forces its impetuous course — now fretting along a narrow 
channel, which it has worn amid the rocks; and now flinging itself down in glittering 
volumes from ridge to ridge; until at length, emerging from the hills, it is seen winding 
and wandering along the level country in curves of beauty, which the eye may trace 
until they are lost in distance. 

From the crest of the Sowa Khola ridge, at a short distance from Landour, the whole 
valley of Deyrah Dhoon, the small Sewalik range which encloses it to the south, and the 
dim plains of Saharunpoor still further in the distance, burst upon the delighted vision ; 
the snowy mountains forming a magnificent background, and the monarch of the 






secondary belt — tlie sublime Choor — standing out in bold relief; while in the vast 
expanse of plain, the silver lines of the Ganges and Jumna are seen shining through 
the haze. 


In India, it has long been considered a natural consequence of the position, that all 
adventurous persons who take up their head-quarters at any of the hill-stations, should 
make excursions through the mountain passes beyond; and it has not unfrequently 
happened that some, more enterprising than others of the migratory tribe, have pene- 
trated to the sources of the Ganges and the Jumna. When projecting a tour in the 
Himalayas, with the latter object in view, it is always desirable that a party of three or 
more Europeans should unite, each providing himself with some eight or ten servants, 
who in turn require the assistance of a strong corps of coolies, or porters. They must 
provide themselves with teuts, sure-footed ponies, find chairs, called jhampans; the bearers 
who carry them on their shoulders on poles, being called jhampauis. It is not always easy 
to induce the natives to engage in these expeditions. Despite their servile obsequiousness, 
they look upon the Feriughees — who are not content with the comforts they might enjoy 
under a good roof, and voluntarily expose themselves to hardships and privations solely 
from an absurd admiration of mountains, rocks, trees, and horrid snows — as little better 
than madmen. Accordingl}-, the instant that any disastrous cii'cumstances occur — when 
food and fuel become scarce, the cold intense, and the prospect threatening — a general 
strike is almost certain to take place; and these mutinies are only suppressed by returning 
fine weather, the opportune acquisition of a fat sheep, or the materials for a good fire; 
discontent gradually subsiding under the genial influence of sunshine, roast mutton, or 
even the blaze without the meat. 

The perils to be encountered from cold, hunger, and rebeUion, are notorious among 
travellers ; but a natural ardour in tlie pursuit of the picturesque renders such contin- 
gencies of minor importance; and the tourists should stai't from Mussooree in good 
spirits, and with a detei'mination to accomplish the object for which they set out. Very 
shortly after the commencement of their travels, they will reach the spot whence the 
accompanying view was taken. 

Tynee, or Marma, stands at an elevation of about 10,000 feet, and affords an 
opportunity for enjoying in full perfection the sublimity of mouutaiu scenery. The 
foreground of the vast picture is composed of a ridge richly covered with timber (the 
growth of ages), aTid contrasting, by its dark foliage, with the barer eminences around, 
which, rising in all directions, appear as if the tumultuous waves of a stormy ocean had 
suddenly been frozen into solidity; while the forest, standing forth in the midst, looks 
like a peninsula stretching far into the billows. Beyond this wild and confused sea of 
mountains, arise, in calmer majesty, vast towering piles of stainless snow, which, 
from whatever point they may be viewed, never fail to inspire sentiments of admira- 
tion and of awe. The higher cluster of white peaks near the centre are those of Bunda- 
pooch, above Jumnoutri, the source of the Jumna. To the right are the Rudra Hima- 
laya, near Gungoutri, whence springs the Ganges; and still further to the cast, tiie 
loftiest of the peaks, the Dhawallaghiri, may sometimes be discovered at a distance of 250 
miles, i-earing its snowy coronet, and looking down from its height of 27,000 feet upon the 
pigmy world below; while far to the east and west, the hoary tributaries of the giant 
mountain stretch their snowy eminences in space until they melt into air, and are lost to 
straining sight. Although the distance from the spot whence this view is taken, to tlie 
nearest mountains of the snowy range, is not more than thirty miles, it requires a 
fatiguing journey of many days to reach them, and involves a route of at least ninety 
miles. Several persons have succeeded in forcing a passage to the northward of those 
hills ; but the peaks themselves are yet untrodden by human feet. 


In the progress of the journey the scene becomes wild, and frequently impressive, 
the valley narrowing as the travellers advance, and the rocks on either side rising with 
greater abruptness : the stream which flows along the path is sometimes boiling over 
rocks, making a sea of foam ; at others diving into ravines, and gurgling amidst impene- 
trable darkness. Occasionally, the savage landscape is relieved by spots of a calmer nature 
— the castle of some mountain rajah crowning with picturesque beauty a lofty crag, with 
greensward beneath sloping down to the water, embellished with scattered trees, and 
approached over a carpet of thyme studded with flowers of every hue, whose fragrance 
is borne upon the loitering air. The scene changes, and the travellers are sur- 
rounded with precipitous rocks— the level space circumscribed to a few yards; aud 
cascades are roaring and tumbling about in every direction. One particular day's march 
may be described as peculiarly attractive. 

The first part conducts the tourists through a narrow gorge, walled on either side by 
fantastic rocks, and wooded with fine alders, the stream rolling deep beneath their feet; 
while the path is overhung by dreadful precipices, toppling crags now and then 
threatening to follow the huge fragments that have already fallen, and to crush whatever 
impedes their progress : then the scene widens, and a natural terrace shaded by splendid 
mulberry -trees, offers rest and repose — the rocks scattering themselves around, and 
being traversed at one place by a foaming cataract. Ascending a steep and rugged 
eminence, up rock and crag, another halting-place of table-land is reached, adorned 
with fine cliesnut-trees, and commanding an extensive view backed by the snowy 
ranges; while immediately below appears a rich confusion of waterfalls, wild preci- 
pices, and luxuriant foliage. The air here is delightfully cool and bracing; and the 
meal that awaits the tourists in their halting-place will be heartily enjoyed. 

From this point the savage aspect of the route is seldom relieved by scenes of 
gentle beauty; the ranges of hills, crossing aud apparently jostling each other in 
unpaj-elleled confusion, being all rugged, steep, and difficult to thread; some divided from 
the rest by wide but rough valleys, their summits crowned by forests of venerable 
growth; while others, more sharp and precipitous, are nothing more than ravines 
descending suddenly to an appalling depth— bare solid rocks, several hundred feet 
in height, or dark with wood, and apparently formed by the torrents that, in the course 
of ages, have worn for themselves a passage through these gloomy passes. In such a 
country, cultivation is difficult; small patches of ground can alone be reclaimed from 
the wilderness, and agriculture is carried on with unremitting toil for very inefficient 


Wherever human habitation is found in the course of a tour through the Himalaya, 
ample proof is afforded of the inveterate nature of the prejudice entertained by the 
people of the mountains against personal cleanliness ; and yet the Puharies (as the 
hill people are called), though, perhaps, not equal in mental capacity to the inhabi- 
tants of the plains, exhibit no want of intelligence, and are easily inade to comprehend 
the means of procuring for themselves additional comforts to their scanty stock : but 
there is one quality essentially necessary to render them agreeable to European visitors — 
which is unteachable ; and that is, cleanliness ! 

Dirt, and all its odious concomitants, appear to give zest to the existence of the 
Puharie; and thus, while strangers pause to admire the picturesque appearance of their 
villages, the ingenuity displayed in the construction of the houses, and the convenient 
arrangement of some of the interiors, they are deterred from anything approaching to 
close contact either to men or dwellings, by the vermin and horrible smells that invariably 
accompany both. 





The number of houses composing the village of Naree is small; the primitive hamlets 
of the hill districts not usually exceeding twenty-five or thirty, and the families being 
in the same proportion. The advantages of the division of labour not being yet under- 
stood, all the mechanical arts belonging to one trade are carried on by the same indi- 
vidual, who transmits his occupation to his descendants. The greater number of these 
mountaineers call themselves Rajpoots — i.e., descendants of rajahs; but they are not 
able to show any legitimate claim to the title — a degenerate race, seldom springing from 
warlike ancestry. From whatever circumstance it may be caused, it is clear they do not 
exhibit the intrepidity, hardihood, and enterprise which usually characterise people who 
inhabit alpine regions; but their timidity and apathy are not so offensive as their total 
want of manly sentiment. Notwithstanding the absence of refinement of feeling in the 
Hindoo character generally, the people of the plains manifest a high sense of honour: 
their marriages may be contracted without respect to that mutual aff'ection which seems 
so requisite for the security of domestic happiness; but they regard female chastity as an 
essential ; and, if not so easily roused to jealousy as the Mohammedans, will not brook 
dishonour, and will sacrifice themselves, and those nearest and dearest to them, rather 
than see their women degraded. On the hills, on the contrary, no sort of respect is paid 
to the sex : women are looked upon as expensive articles, since every man must purchase 
his wife ; and in order to diminish the cost attendant upon the acquisition and support of 
the domestic slave, four or five brothers will join in a partnership for the joint possession 
of the woman. The demand being small, it is generally supposed that the infanticide 
common to many of the Rajpoot tribes is practised chiefly with regard to daughters ; since 
the proportion of unmarried females in the houses of their parents, is far less than it 
would be if the number of female children reared bore any proportion to that of the 
males. The Hindoo of the plains, though sunk in sensuality, occasionally evinces some 
susceptibility of high feeling ; but nothing of the kind can exist amidst a people who, 
like the Puharies, can neither understand or appreciate the charm of female purity ; while 
the women, so long as the abominable system of polygamy prevails (which, from time 
immemorial, has been established in the Himalaya), must inevitably remain in their 
present abject and unnatural condition. 


In travelling through the hill districts, tourists are continually surprised into a remark 
respecting the changeful nature of the scenery on their line of march; and it is difficult 
to attempt even a brief description of the country without frequent repetition of the 
observations to which such sudden alternations in the landscape naturally give rise. 
Ascending or descending, the transitions from heat to cold, and vice versa, are fre- 
quently very sudden and unexpected — the tourist being sometimes annoyed by the 
incumbrance of clothing while passing through a deep and sunny valley, and envying 
the freedom of the native attendants, who make no scruple of divesting themselves 
of every superfluous garment ; at other times, and within a few hours, actually shivering 
with cold. 

The features of the landscape are subjected to equally striking m\itations : a horrid 
region of barren rocks, bare and bleak, without a trace of vegetation, surmounted by 
beetling cliffs frowning in unreclaimed sterility, aflford an awful portraiture of desolation 
and famine. No living creature is to be seen in these dismal solitudes — neither bird nor 
beast intruding on the rugged wild. The pass threaded, some steep and rocky pathway 
is ascended, when, gaining the summit of a ridge, the traveller looks down for several 
hundred feet upon a tangled scene — trees scattering themselves between the rocks, 
through which an impetuous torrent rushes with dash and foam : anon emerging into 
green and smiling pastures, enamelled with flowers, and shaded with fruit-trees; amid 


which some interesting memorial of the ingenuity and industry of man meets the eye : 
such, for instance, as the bridge at Bliurkote, which, in its way, is a perfect specimen 
of the architecture of the Himalayan engineers. 

When, as in the case of the stream at Bhurkote, the space is too wide to be spanned 
by single trees, the banks on either side are brought nearly to a level by means of stone 
buttresses of solid construction ; these are surmounted by rows of stout beams laid close 
to each other, one end projecting about one-fourth of their extreme length across the 
stream, and the other firmly secured to terra firma. Over them another row of beams is 
placed, projecting still further, and supported by those below; and in this manner the 
sides are raised, floor above floor, until the vacant space between may be crossed by 
single planks. The whole is very skilfully put together — neither glue, nails, or ropes 
being emploj'ed ; the absence of those articles, and the tools which a European work- 
man would consider necessary for any structure of the kind, being supplied in a very 
ingenious manner by contrivances that are quite sufficient for the purpose. Even the 
masonry is occasionally bound together with a framework of wood, employed as a substi- 
tute for mortar, and so admirably managed as to give great strength and solidity to the 
fabric. The platform across is furnished on either side with rails ; but although they 
afford some appearance of safety, the springing motion of the planks, and the rapidity of 
the current that hurries along the rocky bed beneath, render considerable steadiness 
of brain necessary in crossing. This bridge is constructed of a species of larch, and the 
river is shaded by some very fine alders, which here attain a gigantic size. 


Approaching Kursalee (a well-built village on the route to the glen of the Jumna), the 
immense assemblage of mountains — range swelling upon range — again forcibly suggests 
an idea of the waves of a mighty ocean lashed into fury and rearing their billows on high, 
until, suddenly checked by an All-powerful hand, they cease their wrath, and are stilled 
into sullen, motionless majesty. The clothing of these hill-sides favours the idea, by 
adding considerably to their wave-like appearance, and presenting altogether a chaotic 
mass of wild and singular grandeur. 

The road to the village passes through a noble forest, in which the oak and the 
rhododendron mingle freely with the pine ; and, on emerging from the woody labyrinth, 
opens abruptly upon the Jumna, as it sweeps round the base of a lofty mountain 
covered with wood to its topmost height. Descending thence to a little valley, the 
route lies along the side of gentle eminences in a high state of cultivation ; amid which, 
shaded by a grove of fruit-trees, stands a temple in one of the most beautiful situations 
imaginable — an opening between the neighbouring hills, at the same time, affording a 
fine view of the snowy mountains, and of a cascade that conveys their welcome tribute 
to the plains. The valley, in addition to its natural beauties, has a neat appearance — 
the evidence of human occupation. Apricots in abundance, of the largest size, offer 
their juicy ripeness to the hand, and enclosures of flowering hedge-rows contribute their 
fragrance to enhance the charms of the prospect. 

The scenery of the glen of the Jumna is, without question, exceedingly beautiful, 
and scarcely to be paralleled throughout the mountain-range. One portion of the 
route from Kursalee is up a steep ascent, winding through woods of oak and rhodo- 
dendron, which extend a whole mile. Upon reaching the summit, a grand prospect of 
the snowy peaks is obtained from Bundapooch to the right, and Bachunch to the left — 
the view below being wide and varied, showing the course of the Jumna to the south- 
west, until it is lost in distance. The mountain-ridge uow traversed is white with snow; 
but many of the surrounding peaks, which rise still higher, are, on account of their 
•greater steepness, and shaft-like summits, of the most deep and sombre hue. Descend- 









ing from this elevation, a beautiful tract of forest laud, of a perfectly new character, 
spreads out before the traveller — the trees beiug ash, sycamore, horse-chesnut, bamboo, 
and the wild pomegranate, which here grow in rich luxuriance, at the elevation of 6,867 
feet above the level of the sea. 

At a short distance from Kursalee is a celebrated hot spring, issuing from the bed of 
a torrent that falls into the Jumna, at a place called Banass. This torrent bursts from 
the cleft of one of a range of mountains which hem in a small valley, or rather dell, and 
rushes down, in one unbroken volume, from a height of eighty feet. The hot spring 
rises from the base of an opposite mountain, and mingles its waters with those of its 
colder but more impetuous neighbour. The water is of scalding temperature, and will 
not admit of the immersion of the hands or feet for a single moment, the thermometer 
standing at 144° when placed in the nearest part of the spring to the rock from whence 
it issues. The water is pure and tasteless; but the stones it flows over are dis- 
coloured, and encrusted with a black substance. The rocks from which it issues are 
all quartz, surrounded by gneiss and mica schist on every side, except that on which 
the torrent falls. This spot is considered by the Hindoos to be exceedingly holy, and 
the devotees are frequently rapt in a pious ecstasy, happy in the belief that they have 
secured the road to heaven by off'ering worship in this exti-aordinary dell. 

The width of the channel allowing the river to spread at this place, renders the 
stream less tumultuous than either above or below ; and its comparatively tranquil 
surface forms a pleasing contrast to the furious tributary which rushes headlong into it. 
The rocks, piling themselves one above another in fantastic confusion, are a shelter for 
thousands of pigeons, which, when disturbed, flock out in clouds ; and, amid a scene so 
fitting for such a guest, the gigantic elk of the mountains finds a favourite haunt. 
The country around partakes of the same wild and savagely-romantic character. Paths, 
rough and dangerous, asceud and descend along the sides of precipitous heights, down to 
ravines whose gloom is never dispelled by the rays of the sun ; then, winding upwards, 
they lead to a halting-place on some rugged ledge, or natural terrace, where the hunter 
may take his stand and watch for an opportunity to slay the musk deer, which, though 
scarce and shy, are sometimes within his reach; while the tourist, in search of the 
picturesque, looks from heights, of hundreds, or even thousands of feet, to trace the 
course of some wandering stream, ere it flings itself in echoing cascades to some dark 
abyss below. The foliage of these tremendous solitudes harmouises well with the 
character of the scene — luxuriant, sombre, and heavy; but enlivened by magnificent 
clusters of white roses, and enriched by the innumerable family of ferns, which, mingled 
with a bright variety of flowers, spring, as it were, to welcome the footsteps of man. 


The village of Kursalee stands at the height of 7,860 feet above the sea-level, and is one 
of the largest of the class usually found in the Himahiya, consisting of at least thirty 
houses, with a population amounting to about 300 persons. It is seated on a plain oi 
considerable dimensions, on the left bank of the rocky ravine which forms the channel 
of the Jumna, surrounded by an amphitheatre of mountains, piled one upon another — 
some dark with i-ock and forest, and others shining in all the bright resplendence of 
eternal snow. The village is reached by an extremely steep and rugged road. Although 
the winters are severe, and the temperature always low, Kursalee is a place not only of 
great beauty, but of abundance ; being cultivated into a perfect garden well wooded with 
luxuriant fruit-trees, which, while they add attraction to the landscape, arc pleasingly 
associated with ideas of wealth and comfort among those who live beneath tlicir shade. 

Kursalee, notwithstanding its limited population, is a flourishing village, fidl of 
temples and Brahmins — the latter always establishing themselves iugreat numbers near 


haunts in most repute with pilgrims resortii)g to the sacred sources of the Jumna 
and the Ganges ; from whose pockets the holy fraternity contrive to pick a very tolerable 
subsistence. Some of the temples at Kursalee are said to have been miraculously 
raised by the gods themselves, and, of course, acquire superior sanctity from that circum- 
stance. They are adorned, according to the zeal and means of the devotees, with orna- 
ments of varied description ; among which are musical instruments, and rude images of 
every imaginable form and material. The horns of deer are also favourite decorations, 
both of temples and tombs, among the people of the hill districts, who attach some 
peculiar virtue to such sylvan trophies, and believe that they exercise mysterious 
influence over their present and future fortunes. In addition to the worship of the 
numerous deities introduced by the Brahmins of the plains, these mountaineers have a 
very extensive catalogue of superstitions peculiarly their own; and they offer religious 
worship to a variety of symbolical representations of good or evil beings, which their 
imaginations have invested with productive and controlling power. The cow is reverenced 
by all ; although its sacred character does not exempt it from hard work ; it being 
employed in the laborious operations of agriculture, in the manner pursued by the more 
orthodox Hindoos of the plains; but in the hills it is better treated, and is fed and 
tended with much greater care than the ill-used animal mocked by the worship of the 
former, who often, despite their veneration, prove cruel task-masters to the sacred 

Some fine pieces of land, attached to the village, are wholly appropriated to the main- 
tenance of the temples and their priests; and the images in some of the places used for. 
worship, are remarkably well executed. At Lakha Kundul (a beautiful village near 
Kursalee), a religious edifice, dedicated to the Pandoo deities of Ellora, contains a bullock 
couchant, in black marble, of life-size, sculptured with astonishing fidelity and masterly 
execution, by some hand that has perhaps been powerless for ages, as it bears indications 
of very remote antiquity. 

The people of Kursalee have become much accustomed to the visits of European 
strangers on their route to the source of the Jumna; and it is the custom for the 
principal inhabitants to come out to meet the pilgrims, of whatever religion, who pass 
through the village. The Hindoos of these districts are exceedingly tolerant in their 
faith, and are, generally speaking, eager to extend the benefits to be obtained from their 
gods to everybody that comes in their way. Accordingly, all who choose to submit to the 
operation, are daubed on the forehead with a distinguishing mark of yellow ochre, 
denoting the peculiar sect of the operator ; into which the bedaubed disciple is supposed 
to be admitted or regenerated by the act. The Hindoo servants of European strangers 
joyfully avail themselves of such a testimonial of their near approach to what they con- 
sider one of the most holy places in the world. Christian tourists of course dispense 
with the ceremony ; but while they omit the mark of reverence for the pagan deities of 
the place, the hill people are far from appreciating their reasons for refusal, and do not 
believe that motives of science or mere curiosity can have induced them to expose them- 
selves to toils and dangers which, in their opinion, religious zeal is alone sufficient to 
account for. 


Though the distance from Kursalee to Jumnootree is only eight miles, the difficulties 
and hazards of the route render it a very arduous journey for European tourists. 
Starting from the usual resting-place, at a short distance from the former village, they 
very soon enter upon a tortuous, uneven path of varied altitude, sometimes having 
nothing but a notched tree by which to ascend to a traversable ledge above them ; at 
others, compelled to wander backwards and forwards, through the shallow bed of a 

a:" Dellii .-aid -Aft-a, 


stream, as either side offers the prospect of better footing ; and not unfrequently having 
to pursue their route, step by step, on stones projecting from the midst of the torrent 
that crosses the direct line of progress. This devious way, however, is at length amply 
compensated for by a succession of exceedingly beautiful cascades ; the Jumna being here, 
in several places, joined by tributary streams, tumbling from immense heights, aud the 
precipitous masses of rocks on either side possessing a still greater degree of noble 
grandeur. Completely shut in by these raouutaiu-ranges, which rise abruptly on both 
sides of the narrowing stream, the traveller can now only catch occasional glimpses of 
the snowy peaks beyond. The course of the river is here little more than a mere chasm 
in the rock, cut and worn by the action of the water in its continuous flow through 
bygone ages. In some places, the solid masses, on either side, rise almost perpendicular 
to an extraordinary height, and are occasionally so far overhanging, as to render the 
opening at the top more narrow than the space below ; forming a dark pass — the foliage 
of trees springing from clefts and shallow beds of earth, meeting at the summit. At each 
step the path becomes more difficult and laborious : deep pools oblige the traveller to 
mount to the top of a precipice, and presently to leap down again from before heights 
too steep to be surmounted; while, at every movement, the danger of being precipitated 
into the rapid waters, boiling and foaming below, is increased. ■ Then again it becomes 
necessary to clamber up loose fragments of cliff of a gigantic size, which appear to have 
been tumbled from above purposely to block the way ; and then to scramble through a 
shifting sea of crumbling stones bedded in quagmire, and exceedingly difficult to pass 
where trees, that are occasionally laid along to form a pathway, are wanting. 

It is not very often that the traveller in the Himalaya will find himself accommo- 
dated with such a bridge as the one already described at Bhurkote ; and repairs being 
considered as works of supererogation throughout the greater part of Asia, the chances 
are strongly against his crossing even that after a very few years of use. 

The most common contrivance in the hill districts, when the stream is sufficiently 
narrow to admit of its employment, is the sangha, the rudest of all rude conceptions of 
bridge architecture. No one being at the trouble to repair a work that is for the use of 
every one, these sanghas are usually in an exceedingly perilous condition; and side 
rails being quite out of the question, the narrow footway, only sufficient to admit of the 
passage of one traveller at a time, offers a method of crossing a torrent that is neither 
easy or agreeable. Where tvvo projecting rocks are found facing each other, they are 
employed as the supports of a couple of fir-trees, the ends resting on either side. Upon 
these a pathway is constructed of boughs laid transverse, without any fastening or care in 
the arrangement of them to prevent gaps, or secure a level footpath. So long as the 
traveller can keep in the centre of this awkward apology for a bridge, he may be tolerably 
safe ; but the moment that he places his foot either to the right or to the left, he is in 
danger of being precipitated into the torrent below, by the bough on which he is 
treading tilting up at the opposite end. Persons possessing the very steadiest head, find 
their nerves severely tried in these difficult passes : few cau look upon the impetuous 
current beneath them, and preserve any accuracy of vision : the best plan, therefore, is 
to fix the eyes upon some oi)ject on the opposite side, and to walk firmly and steadily 
along, since there is neither jjarapet nor guiding rail ; and, in a high wind, the frail bridge 
is so fearfully swayed, that even the mountaineers themselves refuse to cross it. Many 
accidents, of course, occur; and, as not only men, but baggage of various kinds is 
occasionally conveyed across, it would be surprising if they did not. The Mussulman 
servants and Hindoos from the plains, who attend the tourists upon these excursions, look 
upon the tottering expedient with undisguised horror; and nothing but a sense of shame, 
and the fear of ridicule, can induce them to make an attempt to cross. 

It is not every European who sallies from the hill-stations on an exploring expe- 
dition, that fulfils his original intentions: many find the difficulties and dangers of the 
enterprise too great to be compensated by the mere beauties of the landscape; and turn 
back — some on the very threshold of the undertaking, and others before they have pro- 
ceeded half-way. Long ere the poirit to which the travellers have now attained is 
reached, they will be obliged to dispense with their ponies and jhampans — the greater 
aud most perilous portion of the journey being necessarily performed on foot. 

As the source of the Jumna is approached, the cold is fie(iuontly excessive, the 

111. D 

thermometer, in the shade, being below the freezing point ; but the exertion necessary to 
progress is generally of a nature to render the state of the temperature of little moment. 
The glen of the Jumna now becomes narrower and darker at every step, and the 
precipices, on either side, more steep, more lofty, and of a still more awful character. The 
Brahmins, who never fail to derive some advantage from their distinctive calling, here 
volunteer their services as cicerones; the coolies who accompany the tourists, having got 
so far, will of course now determine to avail themselves of the crovruing advantages of the 
pilgrimage; and a numerous train of fakeers, hunting in pack to participate in the great 
present anticipated by the chief Brahmin, from the burra buxies, generally swell out the 
train of the European travellers, who, in their further progress, must emulate the 
monkeys as they scramble on hands and knees, with every contortion of body, while 
clinging and climbing the very steepest ascent that it is possible for human beings to sur- 
mount. Upon gaining a breathing-place, they will presently find themselves upon a spot 
accounted eminentlj' holy, as being the portal of the sacred source of the Jumna. A 
small shrine or temple, dedicated to Bhyram Jhee, and called Bhyram Gliati, is erected 
at this spot. A Brahmin is in perpetual attendance, and signifies his watchfulness by 
continually striking upon a bell. The prospect from Bhyram Ghati is surpassingly 
grand : being immediately above the glen of the river, the lofty ridges that enclose it 
can be traced nearly as far as the plains : immediately opposite, bare and bleak precipices 
arise, rearing their lofty and sterile peaks to an astonishing height; while, to the north- 
east, the western angle of Bundapooch stands out glittering in its snowy mantle; and, 
nearly in front, immense masses of frozen snow — amongst whicli the infant Jumna is 
cradled — are piled in majestic grandeur. 

Whilst recovering breath, and enjoying the glorious prospect, the devotees of the party 
usually employ themselves in gathering an offering for the shrine, from the flowers that 
adorn the wild and desolate spot. The difficulties of the approach evidently precluded 
the pious architects of this place from any great attempt at ornament ; and the altar is, 
conseqnentlj', of a very rude description, being a mere collection of loose stones, put 
clumsily together, and enclosing a few idols of most wretched workmanship. And yet to 
these men bow ! Strange it is, that having so grand a shrine, so wonderful a temple, made 
by the Deity himself in the midst of the sublimest portion of his creations, man should 
disregard the fitness of the scene for that instinctive homage which the least religiously 
inclined Christian would offer to the mighty Author of the surrounding wonders, and 
blindly stoop to adore the misshapen works of his own feeble and ill-employed hands. 


The glen of the Jumna — a deep and winding valley, sunk amidst a most chaotic 
confusion of mountains — is inconceivably wild and grand throughout the whole of its 
course to the plains. In many places the river struggles through narrow passages, 
formed by the augles which project into its bed ; and the torrent, when circumscribed in 
places scarcely twenty feet wide, boils and foams so fearfully, that to gaze upon it causes 
the brain to whirl, and sight and sense would probably fail if contemplated for many 
minutes without strong assurance of security. A remarkable fall of the river is shown in 
the accompanying sketch, at a short distance below its source, near the point at whicli 
it receives a very considerable tributary stream. The latter may be traced to its moun- 
tain birthplace, winding over the rocky platform in graceful, noiseless undulations ; its 
gentle murmurings, together with those of other rivulets speeding to the same point, 
being lost in the roar of the Jumna, which comes raging and thundering onwards, 
until it falls with prodigious force into a basin it has formed in tlie solid rock, 
whence it again springs in a sea of foam, and pui'sues its turbulent course towards 






the plains, first precipitating its raging torrent down an abyss that yawns fright- 
fullv below. 

The Jumna flows in a southerly direction through the province of Gurhwal, where, 
at Kalsee Ghaut, in 30° 30' N. lat., it is joined by the Tonse ; which latter, though a 
much more considerable stream, loses its name at the point of junction. Notwith- 
standing the rocks and rapids that impede tlie course of these rivers, it has Ijceu 
considered possible that timber might be floated down them ; an undertaking which, if 
accomplished, would render the hills immensely profitable to the government or to 
private speculators, since the surrounding regions are, in many places, so thickly covered, 
that one single square mile might furnish timber for a navy ; and the growth of an 
entire mountain, would, it is asserted, suffice for all the navies iu the world. 


By dint of untiring perseverance, and no small exertion of Ijodily strength, the travellers 
may at length find themselves on the confines of eternal snow. As they approach 
Jumnootree, the river is seen gliding under arches of ice, through which it has worn its 
passage ; until at length, these masses having become too hardly frozen to yield and 
mingle with the current, the stream itself can be no longer traced ; and here, therefore, 
is seen, if not its actual source, at least the first visible stage of its existence. It is 
rarely possible to suppress emotion at the successful accomplishment of a pilgrimage to 
a spot so deservedly celebrated, by enterprise that few people have the opportunity of 
exerting, and still fewer the nerve to undertake ; and tourists, therefore, may well 
congratulate each other on the achievement, when, at last, they stand on the congealed 
pavement of unsullied snow that is spread before the birthplace of the mountain torrent. 
The glen at this place is not more than from thirty to forty feet in width, and the rocks 
on either side are of the noblest dimensions, crowned with dark, luxuriant foliage; while 
the impracticable region beyond — solemn, majestic, and wonderfully beautiful — seems to 
proclaim the hopelessness of mortal eftort to penetrate the mysteries veiled by its frozeu 

The most sacred spot near the source of the river is upon the left bank of the glen, 
where a mass of quartz and silicious schist rock sends forth five hot springs into the bed 
of the river, boiling and splashing furiously. When mingled with the icy-cold stream of 
the Jumna, these smoking springs form a very delightful tepid bath ; and pilgrims, after 
dipping their hands iu the hottest part, perform much more agreealde ablutions where 
the temperature offers a desirable medium between the scalding water abuve and the 
chilling stream below. It is usual here with the devotees to make an offering of money 
to the divinity of the river, which, of course, finds its way to the pouch of the officiating 
Brahmin, who, in return, prays over the bathers, and marks them on the forehead, in 
the most orthodox fashion, with the sacred mud of the Jumna. 

Tlie heigiit of the snow bed at Jumnootree is about 10,000 feet ; and, in the mouth 
of October, wlien a portion of the snow dissolves at this place, it is sometimes possible 
to advance a little nearer to the real source than at any other period. Crossing 
to the spot whence the water emerges, is a work of some difficulty ; but when ac- 
complished, the infant river is seen divided into three streams, each forming a separate 
waterfall, and flowing over steep, green hills. The lower of these is surmountable, but 
not without danger, as tlie stones are loose, and slip from under the feet. The most 
direct stream of the river does not arise from any part of Buudapooch, but from the 
mountain-range that runs oft' it to the westward. Standing at Jumnootree, these small 
streams are perceptible before their junction into one fall, which loses itself under a 
mass of snow, whence it again issues near the hot springs before mentioned. 

The forest stretches at least 1,500 feet above the snowy i)eil of the Jninua, before 


vegetation is entirely forbidden by the frosts of the giant heights above. Tlie geologist 
may make, at Jumnootree, a very interesting collection for his cabinet, as beautiful 
specimens of garnet, shorl, and tourmaline crystals are found. There is a considerable 
quantity of talcose gneiss rock ; but the greater proportion is a coarse gneiss ; while the 
granite summits of the mountain peaks rise to the height of 10,000 feet above. 

After indulging in the gratification which the sublime prospects of this interesting 
place afford, travellers usually proceed to satisfy some of those cravings of appetite that 
forcibly recall tliem to a sense of their terrestrial nature. Fortuuately, one of the first 
duties that a native of India undertakes to perform at a halting-place, is to kindle a fire, 
and commence preparations for a meal. Such of the Hindoos as bring rice with them, 
boil it over the hot springs by enclosing it in a cloth, and suspending it at the end of a 
stick. In the veut of the chief spring, which issues with great force from a fissure in 
the rock, the temperature of the water is about 194°. Several of these hot springs are 
found along the course of the Jumna; for which, according to native belief, the world is 
indebted to the merits of an exceedingly devout Brahmin, who was favoured by the gods 
with these hot-water fountains for his special use, whenever he found the water of the 
river too cold for the comfortable performance of his ablutions. At his request, tlie boou 
was perpetuated for the benefit of future devotees. 

The difficulties likely to be encountered in getting back to Kursalee, are rarely con- 
sidered previous to the attempt to reach Jumnootree ; or the probability is, such attempts 
would be of rare occurrence, since, practically, they are infinitely more serious thau 
any met with on the approach. In the course of the first day's journey by the down- 
ward route, the Jumna has to be crossed more than thirty times : it is also necessary 
to slide down places previously scrambled up; and to leap gaps that are much more 
easily passed from the other side. But the retrograde journey is not without its charms. 
The spots on which the traveller occasionally rests, offer, in their soft loveliness, a pleasing 
contrast to the rugged horrors of many portions of the scene behind — the beautiful 
mingling largely with the sublime. Sometimes he is seated upon banks of violets of the 
richest blue, surrounded by luxuriant vegetation of fruit and flower — the strawberry 
spreading itself far and wide, and raspberry, blackberry, and black currant bushes 
forming a perfect garden ; while the influence of the scene is exquisitely soothing and 
refreshing : at another point, the sudden turn of an angle brings the wayfarer in imme- 
diate contact with the snow ; which, smooth and hard, is unbroken by human tread, and 
glitters in its unsullied purity: and thus, surrounded by the wild and magnificent scenery 
of the mountain-ranges, the descent by a new route towards Kursalee is accomplished. 


Tourists having crossed the various streams and rivers of the mountain districts in, as 
they imagine, eveiy possible sort of way — that is, by fording, swimming, on the trunk 
of a tree, by the sangha, or by the commodious structure at Bhurkote — must also 
be initiated into a new method of getting over a stream by means of the jhoola. The 
natives perform the operation with great apparent ease: to strangers it is not unaccom- 
panied with difficulty, and occasionally with danger ; and the following is the process of 
crossing the Tonse — a tributary of the Jumna — by the jhoola. 

Upon Jipproaching the river, which is too deep to be fordable, it will be seen that 
the bank on which the travellers stand is considerably higher than that on the opposite 
side of the river. From this elevated ground a three-stranded rope, about as tiiick as a 
man's wrist, is attached to a log of wood secured among the rocks. The rope being 
then stretched across the river, is passed through the prongs of a fork, or wooden prop, 
planted firmly in the grouiid; and being now divided into three strands, is secured to 
the trunk of a tree, kept in its place by heavy stones. Upon this rope, well twisted aud 









gre.ised, is placed a semicircular slide of hollowed wood, with two handles, to which a loop 
is attached. In this novel conveyance the traveller seats himself, and, holding by the 
handles, is launched from the higher to the lower bank of the river with astonishing 
celerity; a thin cord at the same time remains attaclied to the slide, from either side of 
the river, for the purpose of recovering it, or of pulling the traveller from the lower to 
the higher bank. 

Otlier jhoolas in the mountains vary a little in their construction: half-a-dozen 
stout worsted ropes are stretched across the river, and fastened to a projecting 
buttress on either side. On these ropes runs a block of wood, which is drawn 
backwards and forwards to either side of the stream, by means of strings attached 
to it. There are other loops which pass round the body of the passenger, who, thus 
secured, swings off from the buttress, and is hauled across. In this manner goats and 
sheep are conveyed one by one ; and though the danger appears to be considerable, it is 
only realised, ia fact, by the chance of having to trust to a rope that has seen too much 
service. If the apparatus be new, and sufficiently strong to bear the weight placed 
upon it, there is not the least peril in this method of getting across the deep and rapid 
rivers of the Himalaya: but such a fortunate accident must not always be depended 
upon ; and fatal results have occasionally been produced through the fragile state in which 
the jhoolas are permitted to remain. 

The existence of the river Tonse was not known to Europeans previous to the year 
1814. Losing its name in the Jumna (which it trebles in size previous to its junction 
with that stream), it is one of the most considerable of the mountain-torrents. When 
it issues from its bed of snow, at an elevation of 12,784 feet above the level of the sea, it 
flows in a volume thirty feet wide, and three deep — maintaining its dignity of character 
until its confluence with the river Jumna; which should, if rivers had their just rights, 
have been considered its tributary, and have borne its name. 



When sufficiently recovered from the fatigue and bruises attendant on the journey to 
the source of the Jumna, it is not an unusual occurrence for European tourists to 
arrange an expedition from Kursalee to the springs of the Ganges at Gungootree, in the 
Himalaya. The shortest route from Kursalee to tliat place may be traversed in four 
days; but as it is tlie most difficult one, the natives always endeavour to dissuade 
travellers from taking it, recommending, in preference, a lower and more circuitous, but 
more easily accessible path. The former road leads over an arm of the Buudapooch 
mountain, which separates the valleys, or rather channels, along which the sacred 
rivers hurry from their icy birthplace. The greater part of the tract is desert and 
Uninhabited, conducting tlie wayfarer through regions of rock and snow, destitute of the 
habitation of man, or of supplies for his use : l)y tiiis route, also, there is danger that 
fuel may be wanting for that necessary solace to the weary — a blazing fire ; a serious 
object when the necessity for dispensing with everything like superfluous baggage, obliges 
the traveller to find shelter for the night as best he can, in caves and clefts of the rocks. 
One of the most formidable evils reported of this route, is the bis-ka-kowa, or 
poisonous wind, said to blow over the highest ridge of the mountains, and to bring with 
it exhalations from noxious plants on the borders — a very natural supposition among 
a race ignorant of the causes of atmospheric influences at so great an elevation. 
Having prudently determined upon the longer route, the travellers will proceed on the 
descent to a village named Nangang, which when, after encountering some slight diffi- 
culties, they at length reach, will afford prospects that amply compensate for the incon- 
veniences sustained in the approach to them. Below is s|)read a rich and cultivated 
scene; hanging terraces (common to the hills) waving with grain, and watered by 


sparkling streams which wind along the bases of high ridges covered with wood, and 
sometimes shooting up into peaks crowned with foliage. Beyond these, the giant moun- 
tains appear in all their sublimity — some having their crests mantled with snow; others 
clothed with majestic forests of venerable timber ; and, again, some bleak, bare, and 
barren, rising in gloomy majesty from the bosom of green and sunnj' slopes which smile 
below them. Between these ditferent ranges are deep ravines, dark with impenetrable 
forests, and rendered more impi'essively mysterious by the wild music of the torrents 
that roar through their hidden depths ; while presently their streams issue into open day, 
and are seen winding round green spots )-ichly covered with fruit-trees and glorious 
flowers. Such, or nearly such — for every traveller sees them under a different medium, 
and from a varied point of observation — are the prospects which beguile the tourists as 
they slip, rather than walk, down the almost precipitous side of the mountain. Nan- 
gang forms the first halting-place on the route to Gungootree; to reach which several 
days' march have yet to be endured, with more mountains to climb — more forests to 
thread — more roeky streams to ford. A diversity in the timber is now apparent ; the 
tree most abundant being the chesnut, of which there are here many of most magnifi- 
cent growth. Plenty of game is found at this elevation ; among which is the monal, a 
feathered wonder of the Himalaya; and several varieties of the pheasant trilie, which 
flutter amongst these vast solitudes, and often pay welcome tribute to the guns of 
invading strangers. 

On the line of march from Nangang, several delightful halting-pbices are reached — 
grassy terraces carpeted with strawberr^'-plants and wild flowers; amongst which the 
cowslip, the primrose, and the buttercup, unite to recall vivid thoughts of fields at home. 
Leaving this luxuriant vegetation, the road approaches the summit of a ridge covered 
with snow, and presenting the appearance of a spot hemmed in on all sides with thick- 
ribbed ice — vast, chilling, and impassable. Emerging from this semblance of an arctic 
prison, the path descends through the snow to the boundary line between the districts of 
the Jumna and the Ganges. The extreme limits of these river territories are marked in 
the manner usually adopted in rude and desolate places, by huge heaps of stone, many 
of which have been collected together by Europeans, who have sought thus to comme- 
morate their pilgrimage and their success. 

The next point of great interest is the summit of a ridge whence the first view of 
the Ganges is obtained ; a sight which never fails to raise the drooping spirits of the 
Hindoo followers, and excites no small degree of enthusiasm in the breasts of- European 
travellers also. The sacred river, as seen from this height, flows in a dark, rapid, and 
broad stream ; and though apparently at no great distance, must still be reached by 
several toilsome marches. From a height about two miles above Gungootree, the first 
glimpse is obtainable of that holy place, which lies sequestered iu a glen of the deepest 
solitude — lonely, and almost inaccessible to man ; fur few there are who persevere in 
surmounting the diflSculties of the approach. A considerable distance has now to be 
traversed o\er projecting masses of rougli stones — flinty, pointed, and uncertain ; many 
being loose, and threatening to roll over tlie enterprising individual who seeks a footlmld 
amongst them. Sometimes the face of the rocks has to be climbed from clifl' to clitf; 
at others, where there is no resting-place for hand or foot, ladders, formed of notched 
trees, are placed in aid of the ascent; wliile awful chasms, and precipitous ravines, are 
only crossed by some frail spar, flung loosely across from side to side. These frightful 
rocks might suffice to form insurmountalile obstacles to any invasion of the holy place ; 
but religious enthusiasm on the one hand, and scientific research, stimulated by 
curiosity, on tlie other, render the barrier inadequate for the purpose of resisting the 
eff'orts of man. The difficult nature of the access, however, prevents any great concourse 
of pilgrims, whose less fervent, devotiimal requirements may be satisfied by resorting to 
altars more easily attainable upon the lower stream of the hallowed river. 

The grandeur of the scene that opens upon the travellers as they at last Stand upon 
the threshold of Gungootree, cannot be described by words. Rocks piled upon rocks in 
awful grandeur, their summits broken into points, and rising upon one another in 
indescribable confusion, enclose a glen of the wildest character; at the extremity of 
whicli the mighty Ganges — beautiful in its every haunt, from its birth|)lace to its jiuictiou 
with the oceau — pours its infant waters over a bed of shingle, diversified by jutting 




rocks, and eveu here shadowed by the foliage of some fiue old ti-ees. The devotee — who 
undouhtiiigly believes that every step he hus taken towards the source of the holv river 
■which, from his childhood, he has been taught to look upon as a deity, will lead him 
towards eternal beatitude — seldom terminates his pilgrimage at Gungootree, because 
the true source of the stream is actually to be found much higher in the mountains, and 
amidst solitudes still less accessible to man. Stimulated by the fervour of religious zeal, 
or goaded forward by the ever-craving requirements of science, these silent recesses 
have, however, been invaded ; and the true birthplace of the Ganges no longer remains 
a mystery to the world. 

Long before the commencement of the present century, the upward course of the 
Ganges had been traced, by Hindoo devotees, to the great r.inge of the Himalava: and it 
was believed by them to have its .origin in a vast and inaccessible lake, far north of that 
chain, through which it passed by a subterraneous passage into India. The opening 
whence it issued on the south side of the mountains, was called by the pilgrims Gan- 
goutri, or the Cow's ]\Iouth — an appellation it still retains. The portion of the river 
supposed to be on the north side of the range, had been approached at some remote 
period by Lama surveyors of Thibet ; but their researches terminated at a ridge of 
mountains that skirt the south and west of the Lama's territory, and all that intervened 
between that point and Guugoutri was purely conjectural. A few years since, scientific 
and political reasons combined to induce the government of Bengal to depute Captain 
Hodgson, of the 10th native infantiy, to survey the upper portion of the Ganges ; and 
that officer, in pursuit of his mission, on the 31st of May, 1817, descended to the bed of 
the river, and saw the Ganges issue from a low arch at the foot of a vast bed of frozen 
snow. It was bounded on each side by rocks ; but in the front, over the debouche, the 
mass was nearly perpendicular; and from the river to the surface the height was above 
300 feet. Prom the brow of this curious facade of suow, which lay in distinct layers, 
as if marking each accumulating year, numerous large and hoary icicles were suspended. 
The width of the stream was about twenty-seven feet, and its depth from ten to 
eighteen inches; the lieii;ht of the arch being barely sufficient to let the water pass from 
its cavernous recess. The altitude of the spot was computed at 12,914! feet above the 
level of the sea ; and the height of an adjoining peak, which Captain Hodgson called 
St. George, was estimated at 22,240 feet. 

A pilgrimage to Gungootree is accounted one of the most meritorious actions that a 
Hindoo can perform ; and, in commemoration of a visit to this holy place, some pious 
Goorka chieftain has left a memorial of his achievement and his devotion in a small 
pagoda, erected, in honour of the deity of the place, on a platform of rock, about twenty 
feet higher than the bed of the river. The Brahmins who have the care of this temple, 
are accommodated with habitations in its close vicinity ; and there are a few sheds for 
the temporary residence of pilgrims, many of whom, however, are content with such 
shelter as the neighbouring caves afford. The usual ceremonies of bathing, praying, and 
marking the forehead, are religiously observed at this place; the officiating Brahmin 
taking care that the fees are duly paid. Notwithstanding the stern and solitary nature of 
his retreat, at some periods of the year he may be said to lead a busy life — conversing 
with devout pilgrims, and carriers of the sacred water to distant lands, who require the 
authentication of his seal to verify the purity of their much-coveted burdens. 

Like all the large rivers of the torrid, and the adjacent parts of the temperate zones, 
the Ganges is subject to periodical inundations, both from the melting of the snow on 
the southern declivities of the Himalaya, and from the heavy rains that fall during the 


The Choor is the most lofty eminence belonging to the secondary Himalaya, running 
south of the great snowy range; and, from whatever point it may be seen, forms a grand 


and prominent object, towering majestically towards the skies, amid a host of satellites. 
Progressing from the south-east, the road conducts to the village of Khandoo, situated 
about 9,000 feet abovp the level of the sea. The principal building in this vilhige is a 
religious edifice, occupying the right in the engraving, and differs little in character from 
the generality of temples dedicated to the numerous idols of the Himalaya. It is rather 
more lofty than the rest of the houses; the cornices are decorated with a fringe of 
wooden pendants, and the timber employed in its construction is elaboratelv carved. 
Generally it is not diflncult for European travellers, in want of such accommodation, to 
obtain a lodging in the outer vestibule of a temple; but at Khandoo, and some other 
places, the villagers will not permit the holy shrines to be thus desecrated. Their reli- 
gious worship chiefly consists in offerings of flowers, sweetmeats, and grain, upon the 
altars, with occasional saltatory exhibitions, when the deities are exhibited to the people 
for adoration. 

In the inferior ranges of these hills, the leopard, and other mountain cats, are verv 
common ; and the hyena is also frequently found ; but the great potentate of the 
Himalaya forests and fastnesses, is the bear. This monster attains a great size, and 
would be very formidable were he as bold as he is savage; which, fortunately for tourists, 
he is not. The scenery of this portion of the mountains is of superlative loveliness, and 
the traveller wanders, without effort, amoug shady and secluded dells, sheltered from the 
sun by overhanging rocks, festooned with ivy and creepers, and diversified by clumps of 
holly and wild cherry. Now he enters an open space of greensward, surrounded by 
patches of wild rose — scenting the fairy dell with their delicious perfume; while a little 
silvery stream bubbles from the rocks above, and meanders over the elastic turf — its 
course defined by belts of violets and cowslips, and ferns of every variety, which dance 
gracefully in the breeze, and lave their feathered heads in the tiny wave as it sparkles 
on its way to join a sister streamlet, and mingle with the distant torrent. 


This pretty and picturesque village is distinguished for the remarkable height and 
luxuriance of a species of larch, which botanists designate as the pinus deodora. The 
group represented in the accompanying engraving affords a good specimen of the 
character of this fine tree, which attains an almost increddjle height in some parts of the 
hill districts — the tallest of those delineated measuring 160 feet; but it is asserted, that 
some are to be found 180 feet in height. 

The Choor mountain, from its great altitude and peculiar situation, presents eveiy 
variety of vegetation that mountainous regions afford ; and it is scarcely necessary to 
proceed further to become thoroughly acquainted with the leafy products of the hills of 
Hindoostan. The bases of the mountains are carpeted with flowers, anemones, and 
ranunculuses, mingling with the violet, the cowslip, and the daisy; while the forest 
scenery is rich and luxuriant to the highest degree. The rhododendon, with its profuse 
and brilliant scarlet blossoms, is succeeded by oak, walnut, birch, elm, and, lastly, pines. 
The highest of the two peaks of the mountain being covered for a considerable part of 
the year with snow, is destitute of verdure; and the lower one, composed of immense 
granite blocks, is also bare of trees. Where the snow has melted, it reveals stunted 
shrubs of juniper and currant; but a little lower down, at an elevation of 11,500 feet, 
the most splendid pines in the world rear their majestic heads. The ferns of these 
ranges are peculiarly beautiful, and in great variety; while fruits of every kind abound. 



The height of the loftiest peak of this magnificent mountain is ascertained to be 12,149 
feet above the level of the sea, being the most considerable of the range south of the 
Himalaya, between the Sutlej and Jumna rivers. From its commanding position, it 
separates and turns the waters of Hindoostan, the streams rising on the southern and 
eastern face being forced into the direction of the Pabar, the Giree, the Tonse, and the 
Jumna, which find their way over the great plain into the bay of Bengal ; while those 
that have their sources to the north and the west, are forced towards the Sutlej and 
the Indus, and, uniting in the last, pour their waters into the Arabian sea. During a 
great part of the year, the Choor is hoary with snow; and, in bad weather, intense cold 
is experienced at a considerable distance below the highest peak. Travellers will here 
find themselves in a region of ice ; and, when the scene is lighted up by the rising moon, 
may be charmed by the novel efiect produced by floods of molten silver, which shed their 
soft radiance over the carpet of stainless snow. Moonlight — ever beautiful — amid these 
snowy masses assumes a new and more exquisite form of enchantment. The rugged 
peaks, stern and chilling as they are, lose their awful character, and become resplendent 
as polished pearl : the trees, covered with pendant icicles, seem formed of glittering 
spar; and the face of nature being thus wholly and beautifully changed, imagination 
suggests to the contemplative mind the presence of another world — beautiful, calm, and 
tranquil ; but cold, still, and deathlike. From such a dream, however, the storms that 
frequently rage through these solitudes will rudely awaken the enthusiast by suddenly 
destroying the serenity of the landscape, which, in an instant, becomes enveloped in 
clouds that, upon some capricious change of the atmosphere, again roll away like a drawn 
curtain, and reveal the cold, bright, and pearly region beyond. To be overtaken by a 
snow-storm in crossing the Choor, is one of the least agreeable incidents of a tour amidst 
the hills; but such frequently happens to be the fate of travellers in these regions. 

In a recent instance, some tourists had proceeded satisfactorily thus far; but their 
journey was not completed without a fair share of the vicissitudes of travel. While 
marching rather wearily along, the aspect of the heavens changed — the clouds darkened — 
and, presently, down came a heavy storm of hail, followed by a dense fall of snow. On 
seeking their tents, they were found bending beneath the flaky burden, which also lay 
several feet in thickness upon the ground ; while no wood could be procured without 
immense difficulty. Having no fire, there could be no cooking; and the night was passed 
in a miserably freezing condition by the whole party. Morning dawned only to show a 
fresh fall of snow, and a prospect of more ; for if the fleecy shower ceased for a few minutes, 
the change merely developed a sullen black canopy above, threatening to overwhelm 
everything with its gathered burden ; but the adverse elements were not the only 
obstacles to enjoyment. Loud rose the cries of mutiny in the camp of the adventurous 
travellers ; many were the groans of their followers (the native coolies), who did not 
scruple to vent their feelings in expressive, but fortunately unintelligible, language ; 
while some Mohammedan servants, paralysed and aghast at a predicament so new to 
them, looked unutterable things. As long as the snow lasted, there was no possibility 
of doing anything to elffect an improvement in the wretched condition of the party, 
patience being the only alternative from suffering ; which it was folly to attempt to teach 
men dragged into so disagreeable a dilemma against their own consent. The wind all 
this time continued to blow intensely cold and sharp, adding materially to the sufl'erings 
of the unfortunate half-clad native servants ; but at length, about noon, the clouds 
began to break away, and to reveal patches of blue sky, and most welcome glimpses of 
sunshine : in another hour the heavens became clear and genial, and then some efforts j 
were made to render the situation more endurable. Persuasion, threats, and tempting 
off'era of reward, lavishly distributed, at length induced the half-frozen followers to bestir 
themselves in real earnest. Having braced their energies to the encounter, and 
procured sufficient fuel, fires once more blazed in the camp ; and though the cold was 
still severe, its bitterness was alleviated by the influence of the warm potations that were 



gratefully imbibed, and cheerfulness pervaded the encampment, until sound and 
refreshing sleep obliterated all recollection of the storm. 

The weather still continuing to improve, the travellers rose iu the morning with 
renovated spirits ; and notwithstanding the fierce intensity of the cold, and the 
difficulties which the large masses of snow encumbering the path threw in their way, 
they proceeded vigorously onward, sometimes sinking to the waist, and at all times 
knee-deep in snow, which, concealing the danger of a road over rough and unseen 
blocks of granite, frequently threatened to precipitate them into some abyss iu which 
life or limb would be perilled. The servants, loaded with baggage, lagged far behind 
on their unwelcome journey ; and their masters were obliged to be content, the 
following night, with a sort of canvas awning rather than a tent (as only a portion of 
the latter was forthcoming), and to make a scanty meal of tea and hastily-kneaded cakes 
of flour. 

The servants who had accompanied them from the plains looked upon these occa- 
sions as the very images of despair ; they were completely at fault, knowing not what 
to do in so unaccustomed a difficulty, and feeling utterly incapacitated for exertion 
by the effects of the frost, which shot bolts of ice into their hearts, and froze the 
very current in their veins. It was impossible not to sympathise with them in their 
distress as they lay upon the cold ground, when it was recollected how active those same 
men had been during the burning hot winds, which peeled the skin from the European 
face, and obliged every one not habituated to an Indian sun to seek shelter from its 
scorching influence 


The small and obscure village of Jerdair stands upon the slope of a mountain in the 
province of Ghurwal — a tract of country extending, on the north-east, to the summit 
of the Himalaya ; on the north-west to the banks of the Sutlej ; and bounded 
on the east and south by the province of Delhi. The general aspect of the country is 
exceedingly mountainous, and difficult of cultivation ; yet parts of it are tolerably 
fertile ; and, though now but thinly peopled, Ghurwal retains the vestiges of mighty 
works, the achievements of former possessors of the soil. The sides of many of its hills 
exhibit a succession of terraces, of very solid construction ; and upon the surfaces thus 
produced, water necessary for the cultivation of rice is still retained. Several branches 
of the Ganges flow thi'ough the valleys of this highly picturesque country, which is 
regarded with peculiar veneration by the people of Hindoostau, in consequence of its 
containing the holy ground from which the waters of the tine Ganges issue into open 
light. Formerly this province comprehended all the territory extending to Hurdwar, 
and stretched eastward to the borders of Nepaul : it is now restricted within much 
narrower limits. 

Notwithstanding its extreme elevation, the climate of Ghurwal, owing to its south- 
western aspect, is very mild ; and though the site of the village of Jerdair presents little 
more than a bleak and barren waste, the greater part of the province is richly clothed 
with trees. In many places the productions of the temperate and the torrid zones 
meet and mingle : the tiger makes his lair upon the confines of eternal snow ; and the 
elephant is enabled to endure the severity of the climate by a provision of nature 
unknown to animals of his species in warmer latitudes — namely, by a shaggy covering 
of hair. 

The inhabitants of Jerdair, like those of the province generally, are termed Khayasa; 
and all boast descent from Rajpoots of the highest caste, and are therefore exceedingly 
scrupulous in their eating, and iu their regard for the sacred cow. They will not sell 
one of those animals except upon assurance that the purchaser will neither kill it himself, 
nor suffer it to be killed by another: their prejudices prevent them from keeping 































poultry; anrl travellers must bring sheep with them for food, or be content to live on fish 
and fj;imc, botli of which are exceedingly abundant. 

Many of the views of mountain scenery wliich open as the footpaths wind round 
projecting points, are magnificently sublime. The high ledges of the rock are the 
haunts of the cliamois, and eagles have their eyries on hoary peaks, inaccessible to 
the depredations of man. Ghnrwal is celebrated for a peculiar breed of ponies, called 
" ghoouts" — rough, stunted, and shaggy, but exceedingly sure-footed, and well adapted to 
carry a traveller iu safetj^ along the dizzy verge of narrow pathways, from which the eye 
endeavours in vain to penetrate the darkness of the abyss below. 


The village of Teree, in the province of Ghurwal, is a small and insignificant place, 
distinguished only by the romantic scenery that surrounds it, and its bridge, which, 
suspended in mid-air, throws a graceful festoon over the rapid and rock-bound stream 

Suspension-bridges, formed of grass ropes — the simple and elegant invention of the 
rude mountaineers of the Himalaya — are of great antiquity in the provinces where they 
are found, and may be supposed to have given the original hint for the chain-bridges 
of Europe. The bridge at Teree is a beautiful specimen of its class, the adjacent 
scenery on cither side of the river, adding much to its picturesque effect. Iu some of 
the hill districts, where the natural advantages of the country are not so great, the 
bridge is suspended from scaffolds erected on both banks of the stream. Over these are 
stretched ropes of great thickness, to afford on each side a support for the flooring, 
which is formed of a ladder, wattled with twigs and branches of trees, and attached to 
the balustrade by pendent ropes. The main ropes are extremely slack, and, where the 
banks are not very high, the centre of the bridge is sometimes within a foot of the 
water ; but even at this trifling altitude, the danger from immersion is very great, since 
the current of the mountain streams runs with such impetuosity, that the best swimmer 
would find considerable difficulty in effecting a safe landing. The ropes of the bridge at 
Teree are constructed from the long coarse grass wliich grows on the sides of the hills ; 
each is about the size of a small hawser, and is formed with three strands. They arc 
obliged to be renewed constantly; and even when iu their best condition, the passage 
across is, from its altitude, rather a perilous undertaking. Some very melancholy acci- 
dents have occurred to European visitors upon the fragile bridges among the hill 

But there are still more extraordinary methods resorted to by the natives who reside 
near Rampoor, on the banks of the Sutlej. The river at this place is about 200 feet 
broad, and, during the summer months, is crossed by a jhoola or swing bridge, which is 
erected in May, and is usually employed until the early part of September; after which 
time there is no bridge, but the passage across the river is effected upon the hide of a 
buffalo or bullock, inflated with air, on which a single person, together with the ferry- 
man, can be conveyed. The latter throws himself on his breast athwart the skin, and 
directs its course by the rapid action of his feet in the water, assisted by a paddle three 
feet in length, which he holds in his right hand. lie thus crosses the stream with case; 
but it is sometimes necessary to launch two or three skins together, in order more 
effectually to stem the force of the current. The passenger by this conveyance sits 
astride the back of the ferryman, resting his legs on the skin ; and the tail and legs of 
the bullock being left entire, serve to support and prevent him fi'oni being wetted. 
Tiiere is some danger of the bursting of the skin, in which event the passenger finds 
himself iu a disagreeable predicament ; for the velocity of the current is so great, and 
the river so full of rocks, that an expert swimmer woidd hardly succeed iu reaching 


the shore. When natives of rank desire to cross the river during the season that tlie 
jhoola is relieved from duty, a commodious seat is improvised by lashing two or more 
skins together, and then placing a charpoy, or common bedstead, across them; which, 
although not very dignified in appearance, is always found to answer the purpose for 
which it is designed. 

The province of Ghurwal chiefly consists of an assemblage of hills in close con- 
tiguity, the distance between each range being exceedingly circumscribed, and not a 
spot is to be seen that would afford room for an encampment of 1,000 men. Some of 
the ranges are covered with wood, and wear an aspect of eternal verdure ; among them, 
the arbutus and other flowering trees attain to great perfection, and the polyandria 
monogynia, which grows to the height of forty feet, and loads the air with most fragrant 
perfume. lu other places, ridges of bare rock are piled upon each other; and the whole 
is wild, broken, and overrun with jungle. There* is but little cultivation, and the 
revenues of the province have always been inconsiderable. 

It is reported by a native writer, that the district, in consequence of its poverty, was 
for many years exempted from tribute. Akbar, however, not being willing that any of 
his neighbours should escape a mulct, demanded from the chief of Ghurwal an account 
of the revenues of his raj, and a chart of the country. The rajah being then at court, 
repaired to the presence the following day; and, in obedience to the imperial command, 
presented a true but not very tempting report of the state of his finances ; and, as a 
correct representative of the chart of his country, facetiously introduced a lean camel, 
saying — " This is a faithful picture of the territory I possess — up and down, and very 
poor." The emperor smiled at the ingenuity of the device, and told him, that from the 
revenue of a country realised with so much labour, and in .amount sc small, he had 
nothing to demand. The province, however, subsequently paid an annual tribute of 
25,000 rupees. 


The village of Jubberah lies to the north of the Mussooree and Marma ridges, on the 
route from the latter to the source of the Jumna. The hills at this place have the 
regular Himalaya character — a three-quarter perpendicular slope to a hollow, whence 
abruptly a similar eminence rises. From the summit of a neighbouring promontory 
may be obtained one of those striking views which so much delight the lovers of the 
picturesque ; but which, though they fill the bosom with strange and thrilling sensations, 
are unfitted for canvas. The pure white pyramid of one of the highest of the snowy 
range, towers in bold relief to the clear heaven, which it seems to touch, contrasting 
grandly with the dark hills in front ; yet with a transition so abrupt, that persons who 
never beheld so novel an effect, would fancy the attempt to pourtray it as some eccen- 
tric whim of the artist. A very common remark applies peculiarly to the scenery of the 
Himalaya — namely, that the most usual Oriental sky is often thought to be an exagge- 
ration when its mellow beauty is represented on canvas or paper ; and yet, in reality, 
no painting can afford a just idea of its glory. 

The skies of England, though not without their charms, and producing occasionally 
some fine effects, do not suggest the slightest notion of this mountain hemisphere, with 
its extraordinary variety of colours — its green and scarlet evenings, and noon-day skies of 
mellow purple, edged at the horizon with a hazy straw colour. It is impossible, in fact, 
to travel through the Himalaya without perpetually recurring to the rich aud changeful 
hues of its skies; every day some hitherto unnoticed state of the atmosphere producing 
some new effect. This is particularly the case at dawn ; for while the lower world is 
immersed in the deepest shade, the splintered points of the highest ranges, which first 
catch the golden ray, assume a luminous appearance, flaming like crimson lamps along 



InJ) w 

6S1 ■§ 










the heavens ; and as yet they seem not to belong to earth, all below being involved in 
impenetrable gloom. As daylight advances, the whole of the ehain flushes with a 
deeper hue — the grand forms of the nearer mountains emerge, and night slowly with- 
drawing her veil, a new enchantment pervades the scene : the effects of the lights and 
shadows are now not less beautiful than astonishing, as they define distant objects with 
a degree of sharpness and accuracy that is almost inconceivable. Until the sun is high 
up in the heavens, the lower ranges of the mountains appear to be of the deepest purple 
hue; while other summits, tipped with gold, start out from their dark background in 
bold and splendid relief. A new and subhme variety is also afforded when a storm is 
gathering at the base of the snowy chain; and dark rolling volumes- of clouds, spreading 
themselves over the face of nature, impart an awful character to the scene. 

One of the most delightful spots in the vicinity of Jubberah, is found on a rocky 
platform, scooped by the hand of nature, in the precipitous side of a lofty mountain. 
Above the level, crag has piled itself on crag, the interstices being clothed with luxuriant 
foliage : from the rifts in the sides of the mountain, forest trees lift their spreading 
branches to extraordinary heights; while below, creepers, of countless variety and 
exquisite beauty, fling their garlands and festoons in graceful undulations over the 
ground. In front of this platform are a chaotic confusion of hills, some separated from 
the rest by deep and narrow ravines ; while others run off into long ridges, whose rami- 
fications are interminable. 


Travellers in the Himalaya must early accustom themselves to the most dangerous 
and slippery means of crossing the deep ravines or mountain torrents that it is possible 
for man, in an artificial state, to imagine; and the bridge represented in the accom- 
panying plate, over a tremendous rocky chasm at Deobun, is one of the expedients for 
getting over a difficulty that seems almost as much fraught with peril as the abyss it 
spans. Habituated from infancy to the sight of the steepest and most formidable preci- 
pices in the world, the mountaineers of the Himalaya are indifferent to circumstances 
that produce giddiness in the heads of those who may have hitherto traversed com- 
paratively level ground. The cattle of these mountains, also, guided by some extra- 
ordinary instinct, can make their way in safety over the frail and slippery bridges which 
at some places span rapid streams, and, at others, are thrown across deep ravmes. 
Morning and evening the flocks and herds may be seen passing the narrow footways; 
and, accustomed to their daily path, they will cross to their distant pastures, or to their 
way home, without any human being to direct them. To the great difficulty of com- 
munication that exists in the hill districts, it is possible the low intellectual state of the 
mountaineers of the Himalaya may, perhaps,. in a great measure be attributed. 

Living in isolated circles, ap'art from each other, and separated by frightful preci- 
pices or gloomy ravines, the people of the hills have little opportunity for acquirmg 
information by any interchange of ideas with their neighbours, and they grovel on 
through life without an effort to improve their condition, or a desire to increase the 
facilities of access to the adjoining districts ; and the number of Europeans who visit 
the hills for health or amusement, is too small to effect much in the way of example, 
except in the immediate vicinity of the stations which they have themselves established. 



The village of Moluma is situated upon a high ridge iu the secondary Himalaya, stretch- 
ing between the Tonse and the Jumna, which, at this place, is called Deobun, and gives 
its name to a tract lyiug to the north-westward of Landour. The ridge itself is charac- 
terised by inany of the beauties peculiar to these mountain streams, and presents a 
succession of rugged rocks piled graudly upon each other, entwined with lichens and 
creepers of every kind and hue, and affording, at intervals, large clefts, Avhence spring 
the giant wonders of the soil — magnificent trees of immense growth and redundant 

The lofty, precipitous, and almost inaccessible rocks above the village, are the 
favourite haunts of the musk-deer, a denizen of these mountains, and highly 
prized by hunters, who recklessly scale the apparently insurmountable crags, and risk 
life and limb to secure this scarce and much-coveted species of game. English 
sportsmen in the hills often obtain a fair shot at the animal; but the natives have 
another and surer method of securing the prize. No sooner is a musk-deer espied, than 
the people of the nearest village are informed of the fact, and the whole population 
being interested in the intelligence, it is conveyed with extraordinary celerity through 
the hills. The country being thus up, a cordon is formed round the destined victim ; 
heights are climbed that appear to be perfectly impracticable ; aud men are to be seen 
perched like eagles upon the steepest points and pinnacles. Tlie moment that the whole 
party have taken up their position, the assault is commenced by hurling down large 
fragments of stone ; and presently, the shouts and cries of the hunters so bewilder the 
affrighted animal, that he knows not where to run. Meantime he is wounded— the 
ring closes round him — he seeks in vain for some opening, and, in the desperation of his 
terror, would plunge down the first abyss; but there, also, he is met by horrid shouts; 
while, struck to the earth by some overpowering blow, he sinks to rise no more. The 
musk-deer are seldom met with lower than 8,000 feet above the level of tiie sea; and 
everj^ attempt to keep them alive in a state of captivity has failed. 

The natives of these districts are generally gooduatured and obliging, and may be 
easily managed by kindness : the women are particularly attentive to the Europeans 
who wander among the mountains, aud are said to manifest a very amiable conside- 
ration for their comforts. 


To the European tourist unsatiated by previous wanderings among the wild and magnifi- 
cent scenery of the Himalaya, the varied and extensive views obtained from the Mus- 
sooree hills, afl'ord daily sources of healthy and picturesque enjoyment. Among these 
heights, rugged and sometimes intricate footpaths conduct to points from whence the 
range of vision embraces romantic glens and aiuphitheatres of rocks, scattered over the 
beautiful valley of Deyrah Dhoon, which stretches out in the distance, intersected by 
the Ganges, pursuing its course towards the plains in devious windings that occasionally 
burst into sight, and glitter in the suulike streams of molten silver. Beyond this, the 
eye ranges boundlessly over space, the distance being softened into the tint of the at- 
mosphere, aud rendering it impossible to distinguish the liue of horizon that separates 
the heavens from the earth. 

The close vicinity of the valleys of Kearda and Deyrah Dhoon to Mussooree, renders 
the latter station particularly eligible for parties who seek excitement iu the pursuit of 




tigers. The snrroundiug forests abound with bears, leopards, aud wild elephants j but 
tliey live in comparative safet}', since the coverts are so heavy, and so completely cut up 
by deep aud precipitous ravines, that they are inaccessible to the mounted sportsman. 
Lower down, however, where the tiger chiefly roams, elephants may be brought against 
the tawny monarch of the wilds. A battue of this kind, when there arc several 
elephants in the field, and a proportionate number of scouts and beaters, affords a wild 
and animated picture, in strict keeping with the jungle scenery. The adventures of a 
small party of Europeans from Mussooree, in connection with a tiger hunt in this 
locality, are always a source of interest ; and the story of one expedition of the kind 
may be described in illustration of the fact. 

When arranging for a field-day among the denizens of the jungle, men are 
sent forward upon the look-out, to take their position r-.pou the trees near the ap- 
pointed scene of action, being thus, by their elevation and experience, enabled to 
give information of the whereabout of the animal sought for; which though often 
charging with great spirit when first aroused, generally endeavours to change its 
original quarters for a lair of greater security. The Europeans referred to, having 
received intelligence that three tigers had taken possession of a particular spot, 
proceeded to beat down the banks of a ravine for several hours, without finding any 
trace of them, and were beginning to suspect they had been misinformed, when, coming 
to a patch of very tall jungle-grass, they stumbled upon the remains of a bullock, half- 
eaten, and exhibiting unmistakable indications that the gourmand had not long risen 
from his meal ; thus atfording hopes that the unexpected and unwelcome visitors were 
at no great distance from his after-dinner retreat. Advancing, accordingly, through the 
jungle, the leading elephant presently began the peculiar kind of trumpeting which 
indicates uneasiness, and plainly showed that the intruders were not far from the object 
of their search ; besides which, several deer had started off about 300 yards in advance 
of the party, in evident terror — affording another indication of proximity to the animal 
sought for." At length a distant view of an enormous tiger was caught, as he 
endeavoured to cross a ravine ; and one of the party fired at him a long shot, which 
only had the effect of accelerating his pace. The elephants now pushed on ; two more 
shots were fired, and suddenly the tiger fled across an open space in front of his 
pursuers, who followed as rapidly as possible, crossing and crashing through the bed of 
a nullah, to which the animal had betaken himself. While thus in full chase, two fresh 
tigers got up growling angrily, almost under the feet of the sportsmen ; and, after the 
discharge of a few shots, haughtily and slowly retired to cover. Presently the glare of 
an eye piercing through some brushwood betrayed the retreat of one of the monsters; 
and a ball, aimed with excellent precision, passing through his brain, he fell without 
an effort to resent the insult offered to him in his native haunts. The second tiger was 
also dispatched in a very short time, though it took several shots to stretch him on the 
ground ; but the third was still abroad, and apparently as yet unhurt. Upon arousing 
him for the third time, the brute went oft' again in good style, but considerably ahead. 
At length a long shot from a rifle struck him, and the infuriated animal turned and 
charged his assailants gallantly, fortunately offering too fair a mark to be missed by 
them; and thus, just as he crouched to spring upon the foremost elephiint, a wejl- 
aimed bullet stopped its career, and it fell lifeless. On that day the party returned 
to their camp in great triumph, with three royal tigers borne by the baggage ele- 
phants, and presenting a cavalcade that Landsecr might not have thought unworthy of 

his pencil. 

On the following day the same persons proceeded along the Dhoon, without any 
intention of looking for tigers, but with a hope to obtain some deer on their way. While 
beating some lemon-bushes, to their great surprise an immense tiger broke cover, and 
went off before they could get him Avithin range. A considerable space of open country, 
interspersed with swam))s, and bounded by a thick forest, formed the hunting-ground 
on tliis occasion ; and the success of the sport depended on their turning the anunal 
before he could reach the fjrest : the pedestrians of the party were therefore directed to 
climb the trees, and to shout with all the power of their lungs if the tiger a))proached 
their stations. Meantime the animal had been lost sight of; but his pursuers were 
guided to the vicinity (jf his lair by a flock of vultures perched upon a tree— a 


tolerably sure indication that the royal larder was at uo great distance. The cover 
here was exceedingly heavy, and great difficulty was sustained in beating ; but, after 
some time, a sudden glimpse of a tawny stripe through the jungle-grass, gave assur- 
ance that the search had not been in vain. The elephants now began to trumpet 
forth their apprehensions with increased vigour, but the hunters pushed forward, 
being warned, by the shouts of the people in the trees, that the tiger was making 
for the forest. Turned at all points, the creature doubled back, and got into a long 
narrow strip of high jungle-grass, which was separated from a. dense wood ou the 
right by about twenty yards of bare bauk, and divided from the heavy covers he had 
abandoned by a pool of clear water. The sportsmen immediately beat up this strip, 
leaving an elephant on the bank to prevent a retreat to the forest. Presently the tiger 
got up about 200 yards ahead, and again doubling back, one of the party had a fair 
shot, which brought him on his haunches, until another ball made him move off to some 
broken ground, where he took up his last position. As the party advanced, the noble 
animal was seen in the grandeur of his rage, lashiug his tail, roaring, and grinding his 
teeth, preparatory to a charge ; and, on firing again at him, the provocation was com- 
plete, and his rage became furious. With a roar that made the whole dell echo, he 
sprang forward upon the party, the whole of whom fired simultaneously, and the 
splendid animal fell lifeless at the very feet of the elephants. 


The city of Nahun is situated forty-six miles north-west of Saharunpoor, and is the 
capital of the small province or raj of Sirmoor. The place, though small, is considered 
one of the best designed and handsomely built cities in India, and is approached through 
a very picturesque, well-watered, and finely-wooded valley, which the city, from its position 
on the summit of a rock, commands. The country round about is intersected with 
valleys and ravines, clothed in the richest luxuriance of foliage and verdure ; the Deyrali 
Dhoon stretching out in the distance to the south-east, and the comparatively low belts 
of hills in the neighbourhood affording very pleasing specimens of mountain scenery. 
The road leading to the town is exceedingly steep and narrow, and is cut in a precipitous 
ascent, which, however, is surmountable by elephants, even when encumbered by 
baggage. On entering the place, the streets have the semblance of stairs, so numerous 
are the steps occasioned by the unevenness of the rock on which they range ; yet the 
inhabitants of the place may be seen riding about on horseback, and mounted on 
elephants, as if the place were a perfect level. Within view of the city is the fortress 
of Tytock, 4,854 feet above the level of the sea ; which cost the lives of four British 
officers in its capture during the Goorka war. The fall of those brave men is com- 
memorated by a lofty obelisk, which marks their graves, and presents an object of 
melancholy interest to wanderers who come suddenly upon the remote resting-places 
of their countrymen. Nahun is considered to be healthy, though rather inconveni- 
ently warm, notwithstanding its elevated position at upwards of 3,000 feet above the 

The late rajah of Nahun was rather proud of his Hilar, or fortress, which is of 
imposing appearance, and contiguous to the city, and he seldom omitted to invite Euro- 
pean strangers that might be in the vicinity, to pay him a visit and inspect his troops, 
the latter being neither very numerous or highly disciplined ; their unsoldierlike appear- 
ance readily accounting for the facility with which the more martial Sikhs and Goorkas 
possessed themselves of the territory of their chief. This rajah, who was indebted to 
British aid for the rescue of his dominions from the Goorkas, was always exceedingly 
polite and attentive to Europeans, and readily afforded them every assistance while 
within his territory. 






-a I 




I I 

a I 







Few things could be more absurd than the interviews which occasionally took place 
between the small native potentates of India and the civil or military Europeaa 
travellers, that by chance found themselves passing through a remote rajahship. The 
tourists, when pounced upon for a visit of ceremony, were usually in the deplorable state 
of dishabille natural to travellers among the wild scenery of the hill districts, and might 
consider themselves supremely fortunate if they possessed a decent coat at hand to 
exhibit upon the occasion. A long journey had, in all probability, sadly deteriorated 
the appearance of the cattle and the followers ; and the traveller might feel perfectly 
willing, and even desirous, to relinquish the honour about to be conferred upon 
him; but he could have no choice. The rajah, on the other hand, was anxious 
to exhibit as a personage of importance ; and having given due notice of his 
intended visit, would pay his respects to the fugitive representative of Great Britain, 
with all the pomp and circumstance he could command. The cavalcades on such occa- 
sions were sometimes exceedingly picturesque, and afforded a striking display of elephants 
handsomely caparisoned, ornamented howdahs and litters, gaudily-dressed troopers, and 
crowds of men on foot, brandishing swords, silver maces, and rusty matchlocks; while 
the deep and rapid sounds of the kettle-drums, aud the shrill blasts of the silver 
trumpets, came upon the ear in wild and warlike melody. It was indispensably neces- 
sary, notwithstanding the numerous discrepancies appearing in the make-up of the 
reception by the multitude of ragged followers, and the consciousness of the unfitness of 
well-worn travelling costume as accessories to a visit of state, that the much-honoured 
stranger should preserve a steady countenance, since any indulgence of the risible faculty 
would, upon such an occasion, have given mortal offence; and by no effort at explanation, 
would levity of manner be attributed to other than intentional insult. The sensitiveness 
of the rajah of Nahun might possibly have been increased by the fact of his impoverished 
condition, the territories of which he was chief consisting merely of the thinly-peopled 
and scantily-cultivated mountainous regions between Deyrah and Pinjore, and his 
revenues being, consequently, of very inadequate amount on which to support the state 
of an independent chieftain. 


Ruined villages, of which, even prior to the revolt of 1857, there were already an abun- 
dance in India, are not, however, more plentiful than are the hill fortresses of the upper 
provinces, and of other parts of the country where mountain defences are possible. In 
such localities, it seems as if every little rajah or petty chief had, at some time or other, 
climbed an eminence, and intrenched himself within walls of mud or stone, according as 
his means would enable him, and opportunities for the purpose served : his eagle's nest 
was then garrisoned by troops of adherents or retainers, armed with spears and bows, 
and rusty matchlocks, and every household became invested with a military character. 
Nor was this without sufBcient cause, since when not engaged in combating an invading 
stranger, these chieftains were constantly at feud with each other, and had no security 
for life or property except when fortified upon heights they deemed inaccessible to a 
hostile force. The native idea, that safety was best found at great elevations, has 
doubtless greatly improved the appearance of the country in the hill districts ; and 
whatever modern fortifications of European construction may have gained in strength, 
they have certainly lost in picturesque effect, as is quite evident when the bastions and 
towers of the Mohammedan era are compared with the fortifications of the present age. 

The country comprehended under the name of Rajpootana, embraces so many dis- 
tricts, that every variety of scenery is to be met with in it ; but though the valley of 
Oodipoor, and other equally beautiful portions, are celebrated for the excpusito loveliness 
of their landscapes, the general character of the covmtry is that of sterility. 'J'he 
III. 1' 


landscape, tlierefore, represented in the plate as surroiindiuo; tlie fortress of Bowrie, may 
be considered a favourable specimen, as wood and water, whicli fail in many other tracts, 
are there abundant. Tlie banian supplies its umbrageous foliage to the scene; and the 
one represented in the engraving may suffice to give an accurate idea of the manner in 
which a whole grove is produced from the parent stem — each of the pendant fibres, 
upon reaching the ground, taking root, and all'ording support to the branch from which 
it has descended; thus enabling it to push out further, and fling dowu other supports, 
imtil at length a wide area rouud the original trunk is formed into avenues, which some- 
times cover several acres of ground. The natives, who regard this beautiful product of 
their country with great veneration, will never willingly consent that a banian tree shall 
be cut down or mutilated. The small fig produced by the banian, furnishes uutritious 
food to immense multitudes of monkeys, squirrels, peacocks, aud various other denizens 
of the forests, who live among the branches of this father of trees; and, from the protec- 
tion it thus afl:ords to the inferior classes of the animal creation, it is not surprising that 
Hiudoos should look upon it as .a natural temple, and be inclined to pay it divine 

On the banks of the Nerbudda, a tree of this species covered a tract of ground 2,000 
feet iu circumference ; and only the principal stems (250 in nuiliber) were counted 
within that range. Travellers often seeic the shelter of these natural pavilions ; and the 
religious tribes of Hindoos are particularly fond of resting beneath their umbrageous 
canopy. Under many such, a resident Brahmin may be found; and in few instances are 
the devotees without an attendant priesthood. 


The small, dilapidated, but picturesque village of INIakundra, of which the principal 
street is shown in the accompanying plate, is situated in the valley of Boondee, about 
thirty-eight miles from Kotah, the capital of the state of tliat name, and to whose rajah 
it belongs. Makundra derives its principal claim to celebrity from its being the pass 
through which, in the summer of 1804, a brigade of English troops, under General 
Monson, was compelled to retreat after an encounter with Jeswunt Rao Ilolcar, and to 
seek safety by a difficult march to Agra. The village is beatitifuUy situated in a valley 
of circular form, and not more than three-quarters of a mile in di;imeter. Tlie hills on 
every side are nearly precipitous ; aud the pass, defended at the north and south ends 
by lofty stone walls and gates, guarded by chowkeedars in the service of the rajah of 
Kotah, is the only means of communication for many miles through the mountain ridge 
that divides Malwa from the state of Harravali, in Ajnieer. 

In the retrograde movement to which reference has been made, it appears that 
General Monson was offered shelter in this pass by the rajah of Kotah; but the valley 
had too much the appearance of a trap, to permit the cautious solilier to avail himself of 
the offer of a prince whose fidelity he could not be assured of; and he preferred the 
chances of open warfare to the risk of being surrounded in a defile, in which a 
treacherous and vindictive enemy would have every advantage. The retreat was therefore 
continued; and though, from the numerous obstacles that had to be encountered in 
penetrating a wild and difficult country, it was attended with many hardships and 
losses, still it was considered a masterly evolution, and one that reflected great credit 
upon the discipline aud good conduct of the little force concerned. In India, uninter- 
rupted good fortune is essential, if the favourable opinion of the natives is to be 
preserved ; and iu the neighbourhood of Makundra, the retreat is still spoken of as a 
flight, to which some degree of obloquy is supposed to attach — the inhabitants, iu refer- 
ring to the affair with Holcar, always describing it to have happened at tlic time " when 
Monson ran away !" Fortunately, the prestige lost by the occurrence has since been 


restored, and tlie adjacent hills and pass have resounded with British shouts of triumph; 
a force under General Donkin having, not long afterwards, fallen in with the van of 
Kurreem Khan's horde of Piiidarries, near Makundra, which they comiiletely routed, 
taking the caparisoned elephant of the chief, with his favourite wife and all his" baggage. 
The gallantry of the captors of course secured to the lady the highest degree of deference 
and protection ; but the rest of Kurreem Khan's effects were speedily appropriated by 
the victors. The spoil underwent a very summary process, being sold by a sort of 
drum-head auction on the spot, and the proceeds were forthwith divided among the 
parties interested — the most certain as well as the most speedy method of securing 
prize-money ; but a process by no means satisfactory to prize agents. 

Makundra had frequently been the theatre of Pindarrie warfare, and the haunt of 
Bheel robbers, and other wild predatory tribes, inhabitants of the hills, who, like the 
generality of mountaineers in the East, consider plundering to be their lawful occupa- 
tion ; but since the dispei-sion and subjection of the Pindarries, and the entire settlement 
of Malwa and its adjacent districts, this celebrated thoroughfare has often been the 
scene of murders still more appalling than those formerly perpetrated by the armed 
and mounted freebooters, who would gallop into a village and put to the sword all 
who were unable to effect their escape from the sudden and furious onslaught. The 
Pindarries at least waged open warfare, and travellers acquainted with their danger 
provided against it by assembling in large bodies, and furnishing themselves with 
weapons of defence. In the apparently peaceable state in which the country reposed 
after the Pindarrie war had terminated, these precautions were abandoned, and solitary 
travellers, or small parties, set forward upon long journeys, unconscious that their path 
was beset by assassins, from whom neither riches nor poverty were a protection. 

From the time of the first invasion of India by the Monghols and Tartars, the whole 
of the upper provinces of India have swarmed with a class of banditti, or murderers, 
called Thugs, or Phansegars, from their dexterity in strangling their victims. These 
men have secret signs, by which they become known to each other while mingling in 
communities perfectly unsuspicious of the desperate courses in which they are engaged. 
During a part of the jear they remain quietly in their own homes, engaged in culti- 
vating the hind; but, at the end of the rainy season, each vili;ige sends out its gang, and 
parties of from ten or a dozen, to thirty, collect together, and, in the guise of travellers, 
pursue their way towards the central provinces. They are totally without weapons, and 
are careful to avoid every appearance which might excite alarm — the instrument with 
which they perpetrate their murders being nothing more than a strip of cloth. While 
journeying along the high roads they mark out for destruction all whom they fall in with 
that do not present a very formidable appearance, following their victims for several 
days, until they come to a place in which they may conveniently effect their purpose. 
In lonelj' parts of the country very little time is lost. A select number of the band 
(called Lughaes) go forward and dig the graves; those who, by their dexterity and 
strength, have attained the distinction of being stranglers (Bhuttotes), slip the cloth 
round the necks of the doomed, whose bodies are stripped in an instant, and carried off 
to the place selected for interment. In more populous districts greater precaution is 
used. The min-der is generally deferred until nightfall; and the custom adopted in 
India, of bivouacking in the open air, greatly facilitates the design of the murderers. 

Travellers usually carry along with them the materials for their simple repast ; they 
kindle fires on the ground, prepare their cakes of meal, and sit down to the enjoyment 
of their pipes. The Thugs, who by means of their Sothaes, or inveiglers, employ the 
most insinuating arts to entice persons pursuing tlie same route to join their company, 
appear to be employed in the same preparations ; but, at a given signal (generally some 
common and familiar word, such as " bring tobacco"), the work of death commences, 
and is jjcrfected often in full view of some neighbouring village. Nothing, however, 
occurs which could give a distant spectator an idea of the tragic scene enacting before 
his eyes: one or two persons are seen singing and playing on the tomtom, in order to 
impart an air of careless festivity to the group, and to drown any cry that might escape 
the victims. The murders are simultaneously performed upon all the party marked out 
for destruction, aiul the dim and fast-fading twilight involves the whole scene iu 
impenetrable obscurity. The bodies are hastily deposited in the ground, and fires are 



immediately kiudled upon the spot, to prevent the traces of newly-turned earth from 
being discernible. When the accumulation of booty becomes large, a detachment is 
sent off with it to some convenient depot, where it is sold or otherwise disposed of for 
the benefit of the gang. Pedestrian travellers in India often carry valuable property 
about with them, both in money and ornaments; and as appearances are often deceitful, 
the Thugs make no distinction, and seize upon those who bear the marks of poverty as 
well as upon persons of substance, accompanied by baggage and attendants. They are 
careful not to attack the inhabitants of a place through which they may have to pass, as 
a person missing from a village would possibly lead to their detection. Months may 
elapse after the victims of Thuggee have mouldered in their graves, before suspicion of 
their fate has risen in the minds of their relatives, in consequence of the immense dis- 
tance which wayfarers in India traverse to their various destinations, and the slowness 
of their method of travelling. 

This terrible race of assassins have agents and abettors among the inferior members 
of the police, who are known to furnish them with important intelligence, and to use 
the most artful endeavours to explain away appearances which might tend to criminate 
them. The institution still exists ; but the energetic measures of late taken by govern- 
ment, with a view to its thorough eradication from the soil of India, will probably, at no 
distant period, have the effect of putting an end to the practice of Thuggee by the 
worshippers of Bhowanee, the " destroyer." 


The name of Katteawar is frequently applied by the natives to the whole of the penin- 
sula of Guzerat, which is situated principally between the 21st and 24th degrees of 
north latitude, and is bounded on the north by the province of Ajmeer, on the south by 
the sea and the province of Aurungabad, on the east by Malwa and Kandeish, and on 
the west by a sandy desert, the province of Cutch, and the sea. The south-western 
quarter of the province approaches the shape of a peninsula, formed by the gulfs of 
Cutch and Cambay ; and the interior is inhabited by various tribes of professed robbers, 
who prey not only upon their peaceable neighbours, but also on one another ; and, 
being all well mounted, they extend their depredations to a considerable distance, 
and render travelling, unless in large and well-armed companies, very insecure. 
The influence of European association may, in some trifling degree, have repressed this 
tendency to lawless appropriation ; but, being accustomed for ages to a predatory life, 
the natives of this district are very reluctantly compelled to relinquish habits congenial 
to their nature, and never fail to return to them upon every favourable occasion. They 
are a bold, warlike race, but not numerous — a circumstauce partly owing to the practice 
of female infanticide. 

The predatory disposition of the inhabitants of Katteawar (or Guzerat), renders it 
necessary, as before observed, that those who undertake long journej's among tiiem 
should travel well protected. The scene represented in the plate shows a party of 
travellers, with their escort, just arriving at the halting-ground, which has been chosen 
on a plain, thickly scattered over with the remains of tombs and other edifices. The 
sepulchres of India are so completely devoid of those features that in other countries 
naturally render them distasteful to the living, that ti-avellers seldom make any objec- 
tion to take up their temporary abode among them, as wells arc generally found iu their 
vicinity; and the localities selected are usually pleasant; while, during the greater 
portion of the year, the nights in India are so remarkably fine, that the shelter aflbrded 
by a pavilion opeu (as the one in the plate) to all the winds of heaven, proves quite 
sufficient for comfort. Eires are then speedily lighted for the evening bivouac, animals 
unloaded, and the baggage piled in some place that offers the greatest chance of security. 



A cloak or blanket, or at most a thin mat or mattress, suffices for a bed; and, 
altogether, a night encampment in India often embraces more of comfort than persons 
unacquainted with the climate and the manners of the people can readily imagine 

The people of Katteawar trouble themselves but little about the distinctions of caste. 
Rajpoots by descent, and children of the sun, they worship that luminary; but while 
equally superstitious with the Hindoos, they are certainly not influenced by the same 
excess of religious zeal. The province is famous for a breed of horses which is esteemed 
throughout India ; and its camels, which come from Marwar (a district in the north of 
Guzerat), are also considered the finest in India, being taller^ more muscular, and of a 
more tractable disposition than any other of their species. 


The river Ganges, in its progress through the plains, waters many spots of remarkable 
beauty ; but in the whole course of its briUiant career, it can scarcely boast a more 
splendid landscape than that iu which the rocks of Zanghera form a prominent feature. 
Standing boldly out in the stream, near a place called Sultaugunge, in the pro\dnce of 
Behar (about ninety miles east of Patna), this picturesque pile forms a beautiful object. 
It consists of several masses of grey granite, heaped one upon the other in an irregular 
manner, forming ledges and terraces, which have become the sites of numerous small 
temples. In some places, a crevice in the side of the rock has afforded room for tlie 
roots of magnificent trees to shoot upwards, and crown the romantic height with bright 

Zanghera is supposed to have been, in former times, connected with the mainland bv 
an isthmus ; but the action of the river, in its ceaseless rolling towards the sea, has long 
since worn a passage for its waters between the rock and the shore, and the former is 
now completely isolated. From time immemorial the spot has been reputed eminently 
sacred, and a succession of fakeers have established themselves upou it, who derive a 
considerable revenue from the off'erings of pious voyagers and tourists on the river. At 
the back of the rock, a ghaut, or landiug-place, has been constructed, whence rude stairs 
conduct the pilgrims who are desirous to perform their orisons at the hallowed shrine, 
to a temple at the summit, dedicated to Naryan, who reigns here as priucipal deity of 
the place. An idol of the myth adorns the temple that crowns the romantic pile ; and 
his image, with those of Vishnu, Seeva, and other gods of the Hiudoo pantheon, is 
carved on different parts of the rock. 

The chief fakeer of this singular establishment preserves a dignified seclusion; and when, 
upon rare occasions, he condescends to reveal himself to suppliaut devotees, seems as 
motionless and silent as the idol he worships. At such times he appears seated on a tiger- 
skin, and is unencumbered with any covering except the chalk and ashes that form his sacer- 
dotal garment, and with which he is profusely smeared, to the inteuse admiration of his fol- 
lowers. This personage has, however, numerous disciples and attendants, who, by their 
noisy importunity, make up for the silence of their chief, and are at the trouble of exacting 
tribute, or endeavouring to do so, from all who pass the rock, whatever may be tlieir 
creed or country. These fellows watch the boats upon the river, as they approach eitlier 
way, and pushing out from the rock whenever the state of the water will permit, follow 
the voyagers with noisy importunities until a satisfactory contribution has been 
obtained; but when the Ganges is full, and the current, strengthened by the melting of 
the snow, comes down in an impetuous flood, there can be no loitering under the rock of 
Zanghera; and a vessel sailing up with a strong wind against this tide, makes rather a 
perilous navigation as it stems the rapid waters. In going down the (inriges at such 
a time, the rock is passed by the voyager as if he were an arrow shot from a bow, and 


it is only possible to snatch a transient glance of its picturesque beauty; but when the 
river is low, aud the current flows gently, it can be ^aewed at leisure ; and many persons, 
under such favouring circumstances, land, that they may obtain a momentary glance at 
the grim deity of the temple, aud its no less repulsive high priest. 

Zanghera stands at the very portal of Bengal, a district differing very widely from 
the high table-laud of Hiudoostan proper. The arid plains and bare cliffs that, except 
during the season of the rains, give so dreary an aspect to the upper provinces, are now 
succeeded by fields of never-fading verdure ; as the damp climate of Bengal maintains 
vegetation in all its brilliance throughout the year — the period of the rains being only 
marked by a coarser and ranker luxuriance, proceeding from the redundance of plants 
that overspread the soil. Zanghera, thus happily placed between the rugged scenery of 
the upper provinces and the smiling landscapes of Bengal proper, partakes of the 
nature of both ; the Ganges spreading itself like a sea at the foot of the rock on oue 
side, while on the other a wide expanse of fertile country lays revealed, having for a 
background the low ranges of hills that separate Behar from Bengal. 


The remarkable cluster of rocks at Colgong — about a day's sail below Zanghera — claims 
prominent notice amidst the exceedingly picturesque scenery of the Ganges. In the 
rainy season, the mighty river rushes through them with frightful turbulence, spreading 
out its broad waters like an ocean, of which tlie projecting points of Colgong and Pater- 
gotta form an extensive and beautiful bay, surrounded by an amphitheatre of hills. 

These rocks are esteemed holy by Hindoo devotees, and are sculptured in many 
places with rude effigies of their gods. Wild garlands, formed by the luxuriiuit 
creepers of the soil, fluig their rich wreaths over the rugged faces of the crags ; and 
tangled shrubs spring from wherever a shallow bed of earth permits them to take root. 
The luxury of rich foliage can scarcely at any place be seen to greater advantage than 
from the rockj^ islets of Colgong, which overlook woods spreading in all directions on 
the opposite shore ; while beyond, the Rajmahal hills gleam with the purple glory of the 
amethyst. These crags are the haunts of numerous birds : pigeons nestle in the trees ; 
and, on the slightest alarm, myriads of small waterfowl rush out in snowy flocks, and 
add, by their noisy flight, to the animation of the scene ; while the uumei'ous flotillas of 
native craft, of strange but highly picturesque construction, serve hourly to increase the 
beauty of the surrounding view. 

Colgong is the occasional habitation of a fakeer, but is not the settled residence of 
any recluse of celebrity, as is Zanghera. Here there are no regular temples, although a 
rude shrine has been shaped out of one of the largest blocks of granite that crown the 
summit of the rock to the westward of the group. There are also caverns in these islets; 
and it is seldom that either a living or dead specimen of the religious meudicants that 
swarm over India, is not to be found among them. 

All the mooring-places within a day's sail of Colgong, are distinguished for their 
surpassing beauty ; and the whole voyage hence, down to Calcutta, conducts the tourist 
through a region of enchantment. Rajmahal, a once royal city on the Ganges, about sixty- 
five miles north-west of Moorshedabad, particularly merits the attention of all who have 
any taste for charming scenery ; and the ruins of its once splendid palaces add a 
melancholy interest to the landscape that surrounds them. The origin of this city is lost 
in the obscurity of ages ; but it is certain that it has possessed importance and dignity 
as the capital of Bengal, during a long succession of princes, who profusely embellished 
it with tasteful architecture. The stone principally found in these interesting remains is 
a red granite, and its colour, decayed by age, harmonises with the foliage in which vast 
masses of it are embedded. Occasionally, some remains of marble — the favourite mate- 


rial of the luxurious Moguls, brought into wse about the period of Akbar — are met with. 
Among the relics of its past magniticeuce is a hall of noble dimensions, erected by the 
Sultan Shuja, the brother of Aurungzebe — lined throughout with costly marbles ; but 
which, of late years, has been employed as a receptacle for coals to supply the steamers 
that navigate the river. 

The reverence for the dead, which is a distinguishing trait of the natives of India, is 
strongly manifested in the lonely tombs that occupy the heights around Rajmahal. 
Wherever the traveller comes upon one of those mausoleums, however neglected and 
apparently deserted the place may be, he is certain to find traces of pious care from 
human hands. The precincts of a tomb may, perhaps, be the haunt of a solitary jackal, 
or other beast of prey, too little accustomed to man's intrusion to be alarmed at his 
approach ; and yet, even when it would seem the prowling savage was sole tenant of the 
wild, the newly-swept pavement, strewed with fresh flowers, shows that some human 
being has recently performed a pious task. It is not always possible to guess who has 
been at the pains to keep the shrine free from the pollutions of bats and birds ; but 
occasionally, scarcely more human in his outward form than the wild animals that range 
amidst these solitudes, some attendant fakeer will slowly advance to sight, his long, 
matted locks, and the distinguishing marks of his caste and calling (chalk and dirt), 
forming his sole attire. Money to a personage so totally independent in the way of 
clothing and lodging, if not of food also, would appear to be perfectly superfluous ; but 
though not always solicited, it is never rejected ; and considering that where there are 
no garments there can be no pockets, the rapidity with which an offered rupee vanishes 
is truly marvellous. 


The native suwarree, or train of a great personage in India, has always formed a pic- 
turesque and animated pageant ; but through the depressed condition of many of the 
native chieftaius, in consequence of the changes of the last half-century, none, in point 
of magnificence, could of late years compare with those of Runjeet Sing, a chieftain that, 
in his progresses, was always accompanied by a glittering train of martial followers, 
whose flasliiug swords had won for their master the broad lands and tribute of many 
warlike tribes that surrounded the state of which he was the dreaded ruler. 

Runjeet Sing, like other native potentates, when seen in public, was always attended 
by hawk and hound, his falconers bearing the royal birds upon their wrists, and having a 
pack of dogs led before him. Surrounded by a brilliant cavrilcade, composed of superb- 
looking men, mounted upon stately elephants or fiery steeds, and shining in all the 
barbaric splendour of polished weapons, jewels, and gold, his encampment, or halting- 
place, realised the beau ideal of Asiatic grandeur and romance. In the annexed plate 
the hoary warrior, who has alighted from his elephant in the midst of a group of his 
principal officers, is represented as halting under the shade of an immense banian ; 
while the troops forming his ordinary escort are passing the resting-place of their chief, 
towards the Sutltvj, on the opposite bank of which is a fortified Seik town — the snowy 
peaks of the Himalaya, at a distance of 120 miles, being visible from the spot. 

The elephiints, camels, and horses of this extraordinai'y personage were always of 
the finest breed, and of great beauty. Among the latter animals, he retained, with 
much pride, a noble horse presented to him by Lord William Bentinck, during 
the time he held the governor-geueralship. This fine creature was of the Sutt'ulk breed, 
usually employed as beasts of draught in the great brewing establishments of 
London ; but in the hands of the Seik chieftain, it was promoted to the dignity of some- 
times carrying the formidable Runjeet himself, who, in consequence of its immense size 
and breadth, distinguished it by the appellation of Hathee-sa-ghora Cor Elephant- Horse.) 


Upon occasions of state, at one period of his career, Runjeet Sing, whose dress was 
at all times resplendent with jewellery, seldom appeared without wearing, on some part 
of his gorgeous attire, the remarkable diamond that has since excited so much curiosity 
in this country, under the title of the " Koh-i-noor, or Mountain of Light," which, since 
his relinquishment of it, has become a brilliant addition to the diamonds belonging to 
the Queen of England. The history of the method by which the maharajah himself 
became possessed of the jewel, is as follows : — 

In September, 1812, the queens of Shah Shuja and Zemaun Shah, of Cabool, took 
refuge from the troubles of their country, and were received in Lahore with great 
demonstrations of regard. Shuja, a deposed king, having been made a prisoner by 
treachery, was conveyed by the governor of Attock to his brother, who at the time riiled 
over Cashmere. Two grand objects of Runjeet's ambition and avarice — the possession of 
that celebrated valley and of the " mountain of light" — appearing now to be brought by 
fortuitous circumstances within his grasp, he determined, if possible, to make the attain- 
ment of the one a pretext for insisting upon the concession of the other; and, with this 
view, he gave the queen to understand that he was resolved to espouse the cause of her 
husband in the most chivalrous manner, to liberate him from his confinement, and 
bestow upon him the fort of Rotas, with suflBcient territory for the maintenance of his 
dignity. The afflicted lady, overjoyed and gratified, expressed her deep appreciation of 
the intended kindness; and it was then delicately hinted by her attendants, that in order 
to stimulate her powerful friend to immediate action, it would be ad\dsable to present 
him with the Koh-i-noor — a gem he had particularly admired. Tlie queen had some 
suspicion excited by the proposition ; but, with great presence of mind, declared herself 
quite certain, that the moment her husband found himself at liberty, he would be but too 
happy to gratify the wishes of the invaluable friend who had sympathisea in his distress ; 
but that, at the moment, the precious jewel was in pawn at Candahar for two lacs of 
rupees. Runjeet Sing affected to believe the representation so made; but having 
exhibited his anxiety to possess the diamond, it became necessary to prevent its being 
dispatched to a place of security; and, therefore, throwing aside the chivalric charactei 
he had assumed for the occasion, he first threw the confidential servants of the unfor- 
tunate princesses into close confinement, and then suiTounded the abode of their mis- 
tresses with sentinels, who had orders to search every person that should attempt to pass 
them. This step not having the desired eflPect, Runjeet resorted to one yet more unjus- 
tifiable and unmanly, and deprived the ladies and their household of all supplies, either 
of food or water, for two days. The betrayed princesses still holding out, the Seik chief 
became at length ashamed of continuing a system that could only terminate in the 
death of two royal ladies who had claimed his hospitality, and whom he had assured of 
protection ; and was fain to be content with a promise of the jewel, to be redeemed when 
the imprisoned monarch to whom it belonged should be put in possession of Rotas. 
Runjeet Sing now began to work in earnest, and having entered into an alliance with 
the ruler of Afghanistan, they agreed to send a large force into Cashmere (which had 
rebelled), to subdue the country, and to obtain the liberation of Shah Sliuja. 

The expedition was successful ; but it cost Runjeet Sing rather dearly, many of his 
Seiks perishing in the snow ; and his ally, Futty Khan, deriving the greater share of 
advantage from the campaign. The latter chieftain lia\ang installed his brother in the 
government of the valley, the Seik was for the present obliged to be content with the 
person of the royal captive, who was conveyed to his family at Lahore. The success of 
the expedition furnished a fair pretext for the renewal of the inhospitable demand for the 
great diamond ; and the king vainly endeavoured to elude the sacrifice, by professing his 
willingness to fulfil the promise made by his wife, when the restoration of' his territory 
should enable him to redeem the coveted prize. Runjeet, impatient of delay, became 
incensed at each obstacle to the gratification of his avarice, and at once threw oiF the 
mask : he imprisoned his unfortunate guests, threatened them with severe and irksome 
treatment, and, as a commencement, kept the whole of them without food for several 
days. Perceiving resistance to be useless. Shah Shuja at length yielded, stipulating for 
a sum of money and a month's time to pay off the loan on the diamond, and recover 
possession of it. This was promptly acceded to by the wary Seik, who well knew how 
easily he could repossess himself of money advanced to a prisoner : he therefore produced 



the two lacs required without hesitation, and a day was appointed for the surrender of 
the Koh-i-noor. 

The day arrived; Shah Shuja, the representative of a line of kings, sat in dignified 
silence opposite his avaricious and false friend, whose family, raised to power hy a freak 
of fortune, could only trace their descent from thieves. It is said that for a whole hour 
the unfortunate monarch gazed impressively upon the rohber-chief, without speaking, 
and that Runjeet Sing, whom this mute eloquence had failed to move, at length 
desired somebody acquainted with the Persian language to remind his majesty of tiie 
purpose for which they had met. The Shah, without opening liis lipSj "spoke with his 
eyes," to an attendant, who retiring, returned with a small parcel, which he placed 
between the two great men. The envelopes were quickly removed, and the jewellers 
who were in attendance in the presence, recognised the diamond, and assured their 
despotic master that the veritable Koh-i-noor was before him. 

Having so far triumphed, nothing now remained but to repossess himself of the two 
lacs, and this was speedily accomplished, llunjeet at once dispatched a picked body of 
his satellites to the residence of his unfortunate guests, with orders to bring away, 
without any reservation, the whole of the money and jewels belonging to the party. 
Those commands were literally obeyed : not only was every ornament taken, but rich 
dresses also, and such swords, shields, and matchlocks as were mounted in gold or silver. 
The robber-chief ajipropriated everything he thought worthy of retention, to his own use, 
and sent hack to the owners those articles he considered of little or no value; observing, 
at the time, to his people, that '' it was useless to get a bad name for such rubbish." 
Nothing more being procurable, and some feeling of remorse or policy preventing liim 
from taking the lives of those he had so shamefully plundered, Runjeet Sing allowed 
the females to escape to Loodiana, where, after some time, they were joined by their 
husbands, on whom the British government settled an annual allowance of 50,000 
rupees (£5,000), which they continued to enjoy in security for many years. 


Among the vestiges of Asiatic grandeur that still invest the scenery of Hindoostan -with 
great historical interest, the temples and tombs that have been designed to perpetuate 
the memory of individuals who, from age to age, have exercised dominion over, and have 
alternately been the scourge and the benefactors of their people, are eminently entitled to 
notice. Of such edifices, the mausoleum of the Afghan chief, Shere Shah, at Sasseram 
(a town of the province of Bengal, about 38 miles south of Buxar, and 360 from Calcutta), 
still affords a remarkable example. The warlike potentate, for the reception of whose 
mortal remains the immense pile was raised, ascended the throne of Delhi in 1540, 
having succeeded, by force and by treachery, in expelling from that throne the Hindoo 
emperor Humayun, one of the most venerated sovereigns of his race. The mausoleum 
of the usurpei", as represented in the plate, is built in the centre of an immense tank, 
upon a square platform, surrounded by a terrace, approachable from the water on all 
sides by handsome flights of steps. The building is protected by a high embankment, 
constructed of the earth displaced for the foundation of the vast pile; and the four angles 
of the platform are occu|>ied i)y low dome-crowned towers. The mausoleum itself is of an 
octagonal form, and consists of two stories surmounted by a dome, each tier having a flat 
terrace running round it, adorned with small pavilion-sliaped turrets open at the sides, 
and terminated by cupolas; the central dome is similarly crowned, the cupola being in 
this case supported on four slender pillars, producing an air of lightness and elegance 
which contrasts with the stern massiveness of the substructure. The whole edifice is 
constructed of stone from the neighbouring hills, and theieby forms an exception to the 
usual character of jMohammedau architecture; while the fact vouches for the antiquity of 
III. r. 


tlie building, as, at the period of its erection, marble had not yet been employed in 
the erection of Mohammedan structures of any kind. The interior of the mausoleum 
contains several sarcophagi, in which the remains of the fortunate Afghan, and some 
members of his familj"^, are enshrined. 

A majestic solemnity pervades the vicinity of this remarkable structure, whose dark 
grey walls and mouldering turrets are grouped around the dome-crowned chamber that 
holds the remaius of the most remarkable personage of his day; but the redundance of 
foliage that now springs through the interstices which time has worn in the basement of 
the tomb, affords certain indication of its approaching destruction; and there is little 
doubt that, unless the shrubs are speedily removed, the foundations will ultimately 
become undermined by their roots, and that, in a few years, the shapeless ruins of the 
once magnificent structure will fill up the surroimding tank or reservoir. The building 
was formerly connected with the mainland by a bridge of five arches, long since 
destroyed: a portion of the remains are shown in the accompanying plate. In the 
absence of a bridge or boat, the natives gain access to the platform of the mausoleum by 
inserting the four legs of a charpoy (or bedstead) into earthen vessels, called Kedgaree 
pots, which float the raft so formed; and then seating themselves upon it, they paddle 
over, taking care, however, not to strike the jars, as a single fracture would inevitably 
consign the voyagers to the bottom of the reservoir. 

The death of Shere Shah has been variously accounted for by the native historians; 
some of whom aver that, being an expert marksman and fond of fire-arms, he made an 
essay, with his own hands, of the capacity of a large piece of ordnance sent to him from 
Bengal; but the gun, being too heavily charged, burst when the match was applied, antl a 
fragment striking the emperor, killed him on the spot. Ferislita, the historian, attributes 
the occurrence to the efi'ect of a wound received by the emperor during his siege of the 
hill fortress of Kallinger, in Bundelcund, in 1545; and, in relating the particulars of the 
catastrophe, says — " The warlike monarch, though desperately wounded, allowed not his 
spirit to share in his bodily sufferings, but still continued to cheer on his troops to the 
attack. The place was vigorously assaulted; and, in the evening, the dying moments of 
the soldier were soothed by intelbgence of its reduction. Exclaimiug, ' Thanks to 
Almighty God !' he breathed his last amidst the lamentations of his victorious army." 

The original patronymic of Shere Shah was " Ferrid ;" but having in early youth 
distinguished himself by acts of heroic daring, in the presence of the Sultan ^lahmood, 
his name was changed by that prince to Shere Khan (the Lion Knight, or chief.) He is 
represented by his biographers as ambitious, cruel, and perfidious, but possessing great 
abilities for government, and ever earnest in promoting measures for the welfare of the 
people over whom he had acquired dominion. Among other great works, commenced or 
perfected by him during his brief reign, was the construction of a main road from the 
eastern extremity of Bengal to the fort of Rotas, which he had built between the Indus 
and the Jhelum, extending a distance of above 3,000 miles. Along this road caravansaries 
were erected at convenient stages, and furnished, by liis command, with provisions, to be 
gratuitously supplied to poor wayfarers, and with attendants of proper castes for his 
Hindoo as well as Mohammedan subjects. ]\Iosques also were built, and wells dug, along 
the route; the entire distance being planted on each side with fruit trees, for the refresh- 
ment and shelter of travellers; thus encouraging commerce, by affording merchants from 
distant countries unusual facilities for travelling and for the transportation of their goods. 
Turning from the remote p.ast to the immediate present, we find that, at an early 
period of the sepoy revolt of 1857, Sasseram, in common with the adjacent districts, was 
subjected to continual alarm by the movements of the mutinous troops, as they 
approached to, or receded from, the vicinity; but it was not until the beginning of 
August of that year that the town was actually invaded by the rebels. On the 8th of 
that month, a force of 2,000 men, consisting of the mutineers from Arrah and other 
places, attacked and plundered the town, destroying all they could not carry away with 
them. A gallant resistance was maintained for six hours by the townspeople, led by a 
native in the service of government, named Shah Kubecr Ooddeen Ahmed ; and ulti- 
mately the rebels withdrew in the direction of Mirzapoor, with t^he loss of twenty killed, 
and a great number wounded. Shah Ahmed, who had thus presented an honourable 
exception to his race, received the thanks of government for his loval and gallant 


conduct, and was subsequently appointed an liouorary magistrate in the district of Shalia- 
bad ; but, as the circumstance of Lis being the )iead of a religious institution, rendered it 
impossible to confer on bim any other honorary title, the lieutenant-governor of Bengal 
recommended that a substantial reward should be provided for him out of the forfeited 
estates of Koer Sing, when the exact position of those estates should be ascertained. 


There are few cities of the Eastern world, however splendid they may be, that present 
so great a variety of attractive objects at a glance as Benares {Caslii, or the splendid), 
for ages regarded as the holiest of the sacred cities of Hiudoostan. The total absence of 
all regular design, the infinite diversity of the styles of architecture, the continual 
mixture of the stern and solemn with the light and fantastic, give an indescribable variety 
to the scene ; but the effect of the whole is magnificent, and many of the details are of 
almost inconceivable beauty. 

Benares is situated in the east part of the province of Allahabad, and on the north- 
west bank of the Ganges, which at this place makes a noble curve of three or four 
miles, the city occupying the convex side. It is called by the Hindoos of the present 
era Varanaschi, in addition to its ancient appellation. The Brahmins assert that their 
holy city {Cas/u) was originally built of gold ; but, for the sins of the people, it was changed 
into stone; and that a farther increase in the wickedness of its inhabitants, has since 
converted a great part of it into clay. It was for many years the most populous city 
in India. 

The annexed view is taken from the upper part of the city. The minarets of 
Aurungzebe's mosque appear in the distance, and below them is one of those stately and 
fortress-like mansions that, a short time since, were to be met with in every part of India, 
though now, through the occurrences of the past two years, for the most part to be found 
in ruins. Beyond the minarets, to the left, the residence of the Peishwa is visible, 
towering above the other edifices ; and although there is no garden or pleasure-ground 
attached to this palace, the building afl'ords a fair specimen of the habitations of wealthy 
Hindoos. Only on one side, next the street, are there outer windows ; the range 
of building on that side containing seven spacious apartments rising over each 
other, the rest of the chambers opening upon covered galleries which surround three 
sides of a small court; the communication between the different stories being as 
follows: — A single flight of stairs leads from the lower to the upper apartment, which 
must be crossed before the next flight is reached — a mode of construction that accords 
with the jealous precautions of the inmates. Several of the apartments are furnished 
with bedsteads peculiar to the Mahrattas — beiug a platform of polished wood slightly 
curved, and suspended from the ceiling at an easy distance from the ground ; the panels 
and pillar? of the rooms are richly carved, their decorations beiug composed of rich 
carpets and silver vessels of various descriptions, elaborately wrought. The ghauts, or 
huiiling-places at Benares, are incessantly thronged with people, some of whom are busy 
lading or unlading the native vessels that are employed in the commerce of this grand 
mart of Hiudoostan proper; while others are drawing water, performing their ablutions, 
or engaged in prayer; for notwithstanding the multiplicity of their temples, the religious 
worship of the Hindoo is always ofl'ered in the open air. 

Although the view of Benares from the river is considered beautiful, yet no correct 
idea of the city can be formed without penetrating to the interior, threading its mazy 
labyrinths, and catching a inrd's-eye view from some towering height. This opportunity 
is afi'ordcd by the minarets of the numerous mosques that arc built about the place; but 
the ascent is seldom attempted, unless by those who are not afraid of encountering 
fatigue, and risking some degree of danger; the open cupola or lantern at the top being 



gained by steep and narrow stMirs, and the apertures for the admission of light and air 
at tlie summit being left totally uiiguiirded : few persons can look down from these dun- 
gerons apeitures without encountering a very painful degree of dizziness and terror. 

After winding through lanes and alleys, so narrow that a single individual must be 
jostled by every person he meets, and where a Brahmanee hull — an animal privileged to 
roam wlieresoever lie chooses — may block up the passage, and render it impassable during 
his pleasure, the a'<tonishment is great, when it is perceived that the closeness of the city 
is chiefly confined to its avenues. Looking down, as the city spreads itself like a map 
before him, the tourist is surprised by the stately gardens and spacious quadrangles I 
that occupy the ground between the high buildings that line the narrow streets. Some I 
of these sechuled retreats are remarkably beautiful, surrounded by cloisters of stone, ; 
decorated with a profusion of fiorid ornament, and flanked by high towers, from whence 
the most delightful prospect imaginable may be obtained of the adjacent country, with 
its fertile plains and ever-shining rivers. Others, smaller, are laid out in parterres of 
flowei-s, with fountains in the centre; and all are tenanted by numerous birds of the 
brightest plumage. 

Many of the principal habitations in Benares occupy extensive portions of ground ; and 
the seclusion desired by Asiatics in their domestic residences, is completely attained by 
the mode of building generally adopted, the walls being high, and the towers strong, 
enabling the females to enjoy something more than the partial glimpse of the heavens, 
to which the greater portion of Hindoostanee women are confined. It is not an uncom- 
mon circumstance for the rajahs and chiefs of India, whose residences are at a great 
distance from Benares, to build or purchase an habitation in the holy city, to which they 
may repair during the celebration of the festivals of their idols, and where, also, they may 
finally spend their last days on earth — since those wiio die at Benares in the odour of 
sanctity, and in favour with the Brahmins, are assured of immediate absorption into the 
divine essence. 

Although the rooted hatred entertained by the followers of tlie prophet against every 
species of idolatry, incited them to promulgate their own creed by fire and sword, where- 
soever their victorious armies penetrated, the desecration of the holy city was not efl'ected 
imtd the reign of Aurungzebe, which C(mimenced in 1658. Tliat emperor having deter- 
mined to liumble the pride of the Brahmins, levelled one of their most ancient hud 
most venerated temples with the ground, and forthwith erected on its site a mosque, 
whose slender spires, shooting upward amidst the golden expanse that surrounds them, 
seem to touch the skies. In a city so crowded with splendid architectural objects, it 
required some bold and happy innovation upon the prevailing features, to produce a 
building which should eclipse them all ; and this was happily eB:'ected by the mosque of 

Previous to the erection of this trophy of the Mogul conquest of Hiudoostan, the 
Brahmins pretended that their city could not be all'ected by any of the changes and 
revolutions which distracted the world, of which it formed no part, being the creation of 
Seeva after the curse had gone forth, which brought sin and sorrow upon earth ; and ever 
upheld by the point of his trident. The priesthood have, however, been forced to abate 
some of their lofty pretensions, since Moslem temples have been raised beside the shrines 
of their deities ; and blood, besides that required for sacrifices, has been, and still continues 
to be, shed within the precincts of their city. 

The reputation fur sanctity which this city possesses in tKe estimation of all Hindoos, 
renders it an especial point of attraction to pilgrims from most parts of India. A great 
number of these devotees being exceedingly poor, subsist wholly upon charity, and are, 
conseqiiently, often reduced to a state of the most abject misery. Many of the native 
residents of Benares are men of extraordinary wealth, and, as diamond merchants and 
bankers, have occasionally rendered great service to the state by facilitating the monetary 
transactions of the East India Company. 

Benares is also celebrated as having been, in ancient times, a principal seat of Bndi- 
minical learning, and its educational status has not been deteriorated by the rule of its 
English masters. At the time of the establishment of the British empire in India, the 
schools of Benares were found to be in a declining condition ; but an impulse was shortly 
afterwards given to the progress of native intelligence, by the establishment of thu 


Hindoo Sanscrit college, in 1791, to wliich an English class was added iu 1837. An 
iinfortnnale notion tliat prevails among the native teachers (many of whom are eminent 
scholars), that were they to accept any remuneration for their labours, all the religious 
merit of teaching the P'edas would be lost, restrains them from receiving any benefit from 
the professorships attached to the institution ; and as they will not accept payment from 
their scholars, they are chiefly dependent upon the donations and pensions of the rajahs 
and wealthy pilgrims who visit the sacred city. For the above reason, the Hindoo college 
has 7iever flourished to the extent anticipated by its founders. 

During the present century many schools have been established in Benares, both bv 
the assistance of the government, and the endowments of native benefactors. In 1843, 
the province contained six important scholastic foundations, under the inspection of a 
council of education, established at Calcutta in the previous year. Of tliese, tlireo were 
at Benares ; namely, the Sanscrit college, the English seminary, and the branch school : 
the other three were severally at (jliazepoor, Azimghur, and Goruckpoor; and, in the 
whole of them, there were about 1,300 pupils, most of whom were Hindoos. I\Iany of 
these native children were instructed in the English, Persian, and Ilindoostanee languages, 
as well as in the other elementary branches of useful education. The London, and other 
missionary associations, have of late years given consideral)le attention to the city of 
Benares, as an important central station for their operations in the religious instruction 
of the natives of Hindoostan. The government of Benares has been virtually exercised by 
the English since 1775, the rajah holding merely a nominal authority, and being a 
stipendiary of the government. 

The accustomed quiet of Benares was rudely disturbed in the month of June, 1837, 
by an unexpected outbreak of the 37th regiment of native infantry, which led to the 
disarming of that corps, and to a conflict between it and her majesty's troops under 
Colonel Neill, in the evening of the 4th of that mouth. In the rencontre that ensued. 
Captain Guise, of the irregular corps, with several subalterns, were killed. The state of 
the European residents was, for some time, one of great peril, and the loss of property 

The extraordinary influence which the British government had for a long time 
possessed in India, was in no place more strikingly displayed than at Benares, where the 
Brahmins were formerly undisputed lords of the ascendant, and might commit any act 
they pleased with perfect impunity; for the Mohammedans, though leaving a proud and 
defiant emblem of their triumph in the mosque before mentioned, did not make any 
permanent conquests in the immediate neighbourhood of the holv city. The privileges 
of a Bralimin are not recognised by the law of the British courts of judicature when they 
militate against the peace of society or the safety of individuals; and thus, if a murder 
be proved against him, he must now suff'er for the crime as another felon would do; aiul 
although all suicides cannot be prevented, they are far less frequently perpetrated than 
formerly. The oirious custom of "sitting dhurna," formerly common among Hindoos, 
has not, for many years, been practised to so great an extent at Benares as in other parts 
o^ India, where debts have been recovered, and grievances i-edressed, by the most extra- 
ordinary means which the weak ever devised to obtain justice from the strong. In 
sitting "dhurna," the oppressed party, either singly or in numbers, clothed in mourning 
attire, with ashes on the head, sit down in some spot convenient to the residence of the 
debtor or oppressor, refusing to eat or sleep until they shall obtain justice. The enemy 
thus assidlcd is compelled, by the prejudices of iiis religion (if a Hindoo), to abstain from 
food also, until he can come to a compromise, the blood of the person dying under this 
strange infliction being upon his head. Even Christians, whose consciences have not 
been so tender upon the subject, have felt themselves awkwardly situated when a 
" dhurna" has been enacted at their doors, especially at Benares, where, upon one 
occasion, nearly the whole population assumed the attitude of moiu-ning, sitting exposed 
to the weather, and to the danger of starving, to procure the repeal of an obnoxious tax. 

Benares is famous for several manufactures, and is one of the great marts of the 
riches of the East. Diamonds, pearls, and other precious gems, are brought hither from 
all Asia, with shawls, spices, gums, and perfumes. It is only at Benares, and very few 
other places, that the finest products of the looms of Dacca are procurable. Hindoostaneo 
females of rank delight iu attiring themselves iu drapery of a texture so thin and trans- 


parent as scarcely to be visible, except when folded many times togetber. This is called 
" nio-lit-devv :" and it is related, that a certain king, objecting tu the indecency of his 
daughter's apparel, was told that she had clothed lierself ia several hundred yards of 
muslin. This delicate article is enormously expensive, and, happily, has not yet found 
its way to the markets of Europe. 


The history of the pagoda, in the annexed engraving, is precisely similar, in many 
respects, to that of other buildings of equal beauty and antiquity in India The foundation 
has been gradually undermined, and the structure it should have supported has sank into 
the river whose banks it once adorned. The antiquity of this temple is shown by the 
pointed mitre-like domes that surmount the towers ; the round, flattened cupolas, as seen 
in the mausoleum of Aurungzebe at Sasseram, not having been introduced into Hindoo 
architecture until after the occupation of the country by the Mogul invaders. 

At an early hour in the morning, the officiating priests of the different temples of 
Benares commence their daily duties. Some repeat passages from the Vedas (sacred 
books), for the edification of those who bring holy water from the Ganges, to pour upon 
the idols, or who come to make offerings at the shrines ; while others strew flowers 
around the sacred precincts. Baskets filled with floral treasures, magnificent in size and 
splendid iu hue, are brought for sale to the gates of the temple, the pavements of which 
are strewed with large red, white, and yellow blossoms, which would form the most 
brilliant natural carpet in the world, were it not for their destruction by the streams of 
sacred water that are poured down on all sides while the idols are receiving their cus- 
tomary ablutions. 

Priests are but men all the world over; and it is not therefore a surprising fact, that 
some of these temples maintain a set of dancing-girls, who reside in apartments appro- 
priated to their use, belonging to the establishment. These ladies, who are generally 
selected for their beauty, are not required to be perfectly immaculate, and ai'e not the 
less esteemed for a slight defection from the strict rules of morality, iu the intervals of 
leisure between their attendance at religious processions and festivals. Another feature 
connected with the temples of Hindoostan, consists of crowds of beggars of every descrip- 
tion, who block up the avenues to pagodas in particular favour with the devotees. 
Many of these mendicants are of the most hideous and repulsive description, maimed 
and distorted, some by the eS'ects of accident, but mostly by the severe inflictions they 
impose upon themselves by their religious zeal, and by the endurance of which 
they acquire a reputation for extraordinary sanctity. Whatever opinion a European 
may entertain as to that acquisition, he cannot for a moment hesitate to admit their claim 
to extraordinary' filthiuess and disgusting ugliness. Numbers of these miserable wretches 
have no covering whatever, except a coating of mud and chalk, with which they bedaub and 
smear themselves; their long untrimmed beards and shaggy hair being matted with filth 
of the vilest description. Others there are amongst them who are steady and well clad — ■ 
who demand alms after the fashion of the mendicant of Gil Bias, and would consider 
themselves degraded if they condescended to obtain a livehhood by industry', or any other 
way than that recognised by their peculiar craft. 

In the courts of some of the principal pagodas, it is not uncommon to find a fat 
Brahmanee bull comfortably established. These pampered and petted beasts are suffered 
to roam at their pleasure through the bazaars, where they help themselves to the grain 
or vegetables that may be within their reach. No one dare refuse them the food they 
select, nor may molest them; and, unless under very peculiar circumstances indeed, few 
would be desirous to dispute the road with an animal so rigidly protected by law, as well 
as bv its own strentrth. Sometimes these Indian Joves in disguise, will lie down across a 

i!i;i(yi™'iiii:iiii!i.r.i iiiiiiiiinffiii;iiiiii)iyiiiiii:iiiii!i(!iiih'!i 






street, and, grown lazy by hipjh feeding, will refuse to rise for hours. In this state of 
affairs, the Hindoo has no alternative but to wait patiently until the sacred brute shall 
move of his own accord : but the Mohammedans and Christians of the place, who have 
less consideration for its sanctity than for its flavour, try a more summary mode of 
freeing themselves from the obstruction, and do not hesitate to apply their sticks to the 
venerated hide in their way. It is not denied that the irreverence of the lower classes of 
both religions sometimes extends so far, that if the darkness of the night favours them 
upon such occasions with the opportunity, they will quietly lead the animal away to a 
sequestered spot, where, having administered the coup de grace, they for several days 
afterwards fai-e sumptuously upon the sacred cai'cass. 

Notwithstanding the sanctity that is accorded by the Hindoos to the whole species, 
the bulls taken under the protection of the priesthood are alone exempted from mal- 
treatment. A worshipper of Brahma, though he would not kill an ox or a cow for the 
world, seldom has any reluctance to starve or overwork it, if it is to his advantage or 
convenience to do either. All the animals belonging to the city of Benares, or any place 
under the exclusive dominion of the Hindoo priesthood, are secure from violence; but 
there are a few peculiarly sacred, which go under the name of Brahmanee. The bulls 
have already been mentioned ; there are also Brahmanee ducks and lizards. Of the 
former, an interesting tradition is still received among the devout Hindoos, who believe 
tliem to be animated liy the souls of human delinquents, transmigrated into the bodies of 
tliose birds, and punished by an extraordinary affection for each other, which renders 
separation a source of the most poignant anguish. The male and female, it is said, are 
compelled, by a mysterious instinct, to part at sunset ; they fly on the opposite sides of 
the river, eacii supposing that its mate has voluntarily abandoned its nest, and imploring 
the trviant to return by loud and piercing cries. The pitiable condition of these mourners 
has excited the compassion of the Brahmins, who have thrown the eegis of their name over 
the unfortunate beings thus cursed by the gods. 


The extraordinary monument, of which a representation is given in the accompanying 
plate, stands near the European station of Secrole, about four miles distaut from Benares, 
and is an oject of great curiosity and interest to all antiquarian travellers. This tower 
is about 150 feet in circumference, and its remains are yet above 100 feet in height. 
It is solidly constructed, the lower part having a casing of harge blocks of stone neatly 
joined together, well polished, and decorated near the base witli a broad band, on wliicli 
is carved the figure of Boodii, in a curiously formed medallion, richly enwreathed with 
foliage and flowers. Around the sub-story of the tower arc a series of projections, 
advancing about eight inches beyond the solid wall, and each having a niche in the upper 
part. Three of these are shown in the engraving; but the ornaments of the remainder 
of this remarkable structure (if, indeed, it possessed any) have been swept away by the 
remorseless hand of time. The upper portion of the ruin has been supposed to be an 
addition of a period more recent than the original structure, being built of brick ; the 
casing of stone (if it ever had one) having disappeared, and the ruinous state of t!ie 
summit aft'ording no clue to its original design and formation. The monument is, 
however, acknowledged to be Boodhist, and is imagined to have been of a pyramidical or 
globular shape; the forms of these lioly places being always similar to the gigantic 
mounds that, in the early ages, were raised over the ashes of the dead. 

The foundations of a very large building are yet to be traced, at about the distance of 
200 yards from the tower; and it has been supposed that, iu remote times, the priests 
belonging to the adjacent temple had here a rebgious establishment, it being the custom 
to congregate in bodies iu the neighbourhood of tiiese temples. These remains, some 


fifty years since, attracted the attention of several scientific gentlemen, at that time 
resident in the European cantonments of Secrole, and they commenced an active investi- 
gation of the spot. Their labours were, after some time, rewarded by the discovery of 
several excavations, filled with an immense number of flat tiles, having representations of 
Boodh modelled upoji them in wax. 

The temples of the Boodliists are mere tombs, or buildings, to commemorate the 
actions of men. In their deity there is no all-pervading influence : he is supposed to 
maintain a quiescent state — untroubled by the government of the world, and wholly 
unconcerned about the affairs of men. Tbe followers of Boodh imagine that, although 
their god takes no interest in the good or evil actions of his creatures (which are rewarded 
and punished in this world — prosperity being the universal consequence of virtue, and 
misfortune the constant attendant upon vice), that sanctity of a very superior order, 
extraordinary acts of self-denial, and the good wrought by the reformation of their 
brethren, secure to the devotee rigidly performing such duties, the power of working 
miracles, and, after death, a certain degree of those God-like attributes which may be 
employed to influence the destinies of mankind. The religious worship of the Boodliists 
is duly paid to these saints; and the time-defying towers, which afi'ord conclusive proof 
of the wide dissemination of their doctrines, and arc found in opposite quarters of the 
globe, are said to contain either the bodies, or some relic — such as a tooth, or portion of 
the hair — of these hoh' persons. 

The religion of the Boodliists is perfectly unimpassioned and soulless : their notions of 
eternal bliss are confined to the absence of all care and pain; and their supreme being is 
rejiresented as slumbering over a busy world, in which he takes no interest. The silver 
and marble images of this quiescent deity, occasionally met with, have familiarised 
Europeans with the objects that the disciples of Boodhism render homage to. The figure 
is that of a human being in a state of meditation, or rather, perfect abstraction. The 
posture is always that of repose — the hands folded over the knees, and the featm-es 
imperturbably composed. The semblance is invariably that of the human species ; and 
there are not any of the fantastic and absurd devices of the Hindoos resorted to, to 
convey ideas of superior bodily and intellectual powers. Although belonging to a difl'ereut 
creed, the ground on which a similar temple at Sarnat stands, is esteemed by the Brah- 
mins as more highly blessed than any in the neighbourhood of the holy city of Benares. 


This blood-stained town of the L^pper Provinces of Bengal, whose name is associated with 
infamies by which the indignation of the whole civilised world has been ai-oused, is 
situated on the western bank of the Ganges, about 52 miles south of Luckuow, and 123 
north-west of Allahabad. Like many other Oriental towns, Cawnpoor, previous to the 
terrible events of June and July, 1857, had a picturesque, if not an imposing appearance 
from the river, and might boast of edifices that had some claim to arcliitectural beauty; 
but in the piniisiiment brought upon it and its inhabitants through an act of unparalleled 
treachery, and the cold-blooded slaughter and nameless horrors by which that treachery 
was consummated, many of the most attractive features of the place have been sadly 
and irreparably defaced. It still, however, owing to its great length along the bank of 
the Ganges, occasionally presents to view some interesting specimens of Hindoo scenery, 
interspersed with isolated temples and mosques, embedded in magnificent foliage. Two 
of such temples, crowned with the mitre-shaped dome common to the sacred architecture 
of Hindoostau before the Mohammedans had possessed themselves of the country, are 
represented in the accompanying engraving — the white building on the left of which is a 
house belonging to a wealthy native; and in the far distance, on the right, are the 
remains of two bungalows, formerly occupied by European residents. 

The view of the town on the land side is very limited, being almost entirely obstructed 
by a low ridge crowned with wood, which skirts the sandy plain that separates the towu 























from the cantouments. The ancieut, or native, and the modern, or European towus, 
closely adjoin each other, and, together, extend for about six miles along the river 
bank, which, for the greater portion of the distance, was formerly studded with the 
substantial and almost palatial residences of the wealthy natives, iutermino-led with 
temple, and mosque, and ghaut, and the bungalows of Europeans in the civil and mili- 
tary service of the Company. The portion of the town stretching back iuland, con- 
sisted of an heterogeneous mass of buildings, chiefly constructed of unbaked mud, and 
possessing no particular features of interest. Amidst this mass, however, were some 
residences of Europeans and wealthy inhabitants, composed of brick or other durable 
material, and generally surrounded by pleasant gardens, by which they were detached 
from the bulk of the town. The principal edifices of the European town of Cawnpoor, 
previous to the revolt of 1857, were a churcli, a free school, military hospital, theatre' 
assembly-rooms, custom-house, and gaol. Of these buildings, the one in which the free 
school was located seems to have been the first erected, the establishment liaving been 
placed on a permanent footing, under the auspices of Lord Amherst, in 1823. Christ- 
church, in the immediate vicinity of the former, was but of recent erection, the religious 
services of the protestauts of Cawnpoor having been for mauy years performed alternately 
in the riding-house of the royal dragoons, and in a bungalow hired for the purpose at the 
other end of the cantonments; through the parsimony of the government, aud the 
apathy, or avarice, of the protestant community, which withheld the funds necessary for 
the erection of a church — to the great scaudal of professing Christians, in the estima- 
tion of the native residents. The assembly-rooms and theatre were two very fine buildings, 
particularly the latter, which was entirely surrounded by a corridor, supported by pillars 
of the Ionic order. Of the two last-mentioned edifices, the first — which had been 
converted into shambles, in which English women and children were ruthlessly massacred 
by order of the ferocious and cowardly traitor, Nana Sahib, on the night of the 16th of 
July — has been razed to the ground, having a stone placed on its site, which records the 
execrable aud unexampled act of butchery there perpetrated. From the centre of the 
town, an avenue of magnificent trees extends to the race-course, on the western side of 
tlie grand trunk road to Allahabad ; and this route constituted the usual evening drive of 
fashionable society at Cawnpoor. 

The cantonments, which are irregular in form, extend over a space of ground six miles 
in length, by two in breadth, and formerly presented a very agreeable diversity of 
houses, gardens, aud park-like grounds, intermingled with the barracks aud magazines, 
&c., of the military. During the events to which reference has been made in connection 
with the sepoy revolt, this portion of Cawnpoor suffered greatly : but it will be for ever 
memorable as the spot, on a portion of which was the intrenchment so gallantly im- 
provised and defended by General Sir Hugh Wlieeler and his heroic band, against the 
assaults of overwhelming numbers, during a jjciiod of twenty-two days ; for the greater 
part of which the terrors of famine were added to the calamities of war, aud the shrieks 
of agonised mothers and dying children mingled with the crash of falling walls aud the 
yells of an enemy, human only in outward form, and regardless of all the usages of 
civilised warfare. 

Previous to the revolt of 1857, the cantonment often contained, in addition to its 
European aud military population, some fifty or sixty thousand native inhabitants. 
The native infantry here stationed, were geuerally encamped in the cool season, on 
which occasion there were regular streets and squares of canvas, stretching over a vast 
space of ground : each regiment was provided with its bazaar ; and in the rear, aud far 
beyond tlie lines of tents, were the bivouacs of the camp-followers of every kind, who 
usually congregated in immense numbers. All these, witli the families of Europeans, 
and those of the military officers in their bungalows and lodges, contributed to give 
great animation to the cantonment. The accommodation provided was equal to the 
reception of seven or eight thousaud troops of all arms ; but the number actually sta- 
tioned at Cawnpoor rarely amounted to more than half of that force; and when the 
revolt broke out, on the 4th of June, 1857, the troops iu cantonment, hotii native and 
European, did nut altogether exceed 3,845 men, of whom 240 only were English. 

The Ganges at Cawnpoor forms the boundaiy line between the territory of the East 
ludia Company, on the western bank of the river, aud the kingdom of Oude ou the 
Jii. H 


opposite side ; and, subsequent to the annexation of that kingdom, the military impor- 
tance of Cawnpoor, as a frontier station, had considerably diminished : still, from the 
great extent of the cantonmeuts, and other causes, there was always a great amount 
of military duty to be performed at Cawnpoor; and it Avas, consequently, not a favouiite 
station: there were also many temptations to expense common to all large towns, that 
are not thrown in the way of young officers on joining inferior stations; but those 
inconveniences were perhaps almost compensated for by the opportunity fur association 
•with a better class of residents, the facihty that existed for procuring books and other 
articles from Em-ope, and the pleasure of constaat intercourse with persons proceeding 
up and down the country; all which advantages afforded an agreeable variation fiom the 
usual monotony of a provincial station. 

Although Cawnpoor is situated in the Dooab, which is celebrated for its ricliness of 
soil and fertility, the country immediately around it is one wide waste of sand. At 
Nawaubgunge, a short distance from the northern extremity of the cantonments, the 
houses occupied by the civilians are seen in the midst of sterility; and, at the other 
extremity, the same characteristics of soil prevail; the encamping-ground being abso- 
lutely treeless and leafless, and frequently presenting the appearance of the mirage. 
The cantonments, which are much broken by ravines, are, on the contrary, thickly 
planted; and being interspersed by native temples and village-like bazaars, they afford 
a variety of interesting drives. The houses, though principally bungalows, were built 
upon a very large scale, and their general appearance was much improved by the addition 
of circular ends, stuccoed with chunam, and of a dazzling whiteness. Manv of such 
bungalows contained splendid suites of apartments, fitted up with much elegance ; and all 
were furnished with fire-places after the European style, the severity of the weather in 
the cold season rendering a blazing hearth absolutely necessary for comfort. In the 
European gardens, all the vegetables common to the West are raised without difficulty in 
the cold season, with the exception of broad or AVindsor-beans. Fruit is abundant, and 
the bazaars were well supplied with butchers'-meat, poultrj', and game. It is needless 
to remark, that the outrages committed by the rebellious soldiery and their followers 
during the brief interval in which they held the place, and the result of the meaus taken 
for their punishment, has frightfully changed the general appearance and condition of 


The city of Agra is the capital of the Anglo-Indian ])roviuce similarly named, and the 
official seat of the lieutenant-governor of the North-Westeru Provinces of Bengal. It is 
situated on the south-west bank of the river Jumna, 115 miles S.S.E. from Delhi, and 
185 N.W. of Cawnpoor. Its origin is supposed to be traced to a very remote antiquity; 
and, by the Hindoos, it is asserted to have been the scene of the avatar, or incarnation of 
their god Vishnu, under the name of Parasu Rama. Having, probably through the lapse 
of ages, dwindled from its original importance, Agra, at the close of the fifteenth century 
of the Christian era, was little better than an inconsiderable village. At length its 
natural attractions brought it under the notice of the emperor Akber, who chose it for 
the site of a royal residence, and gave it the name of Akbarabad. Under this name it 
flourished as the seat of the Mogul government until 1674, when the emperor Shah 
Jehan removed the imperial court to Delhi ; and from that period, Agra, or Akbarabad, 
has progressively again declined in importance. 

Agra was wrested from the sovereignty of the IMoguls by the Mahratta chief Madajec 
Sindia, in 1784, and continued in the possession of the victors until the year 1803, when, 
after a short but vigorous siege, the city was taken by the English forces under Lord 
Lake. It has since remained in the hands of the British government, and is the seat of 
a civil establishment for the collection of revenue and the administration of justice. The 

^ a 















city rises from the river in the form of n vast semicircle, surrounded by a wall of red 
granite, and a ditch of considerable width. The houses generally are of stone, and lofty, 
but the streets are scarcely of sufficient width to admit the passage of a carriage throu"!i 
them. A few years since, the city contained about 700 mosques, and an equal number 
of baths. Among the buildings within the walls, are a fort and some remains of a palace 
of the Mogul emperors; and on the opposite side of the river are a number of ancient 
tombs and other buildings, of extraordinary architectural beauty. Independent of the 
desolation caused by recent events at Agra, in connection with the sepoy revolt of 1857, 
a great portion of the edifices within and around the city wall, have been, for many years, 
in a state of dilapidation ; in short, the pristine extent and splendour of the city was only 
to be traced by the number and variety of the ruins, whicli spread themselves around 
on every side. Vast tracts, covered with old buildings, the remains of wells, and frag- 
ments of walls, which originally flourished in the midst of verdure and under the shade 
of forest trees, now only render the wide waste of sand, which has swallowed up all 
vegetation, still more desolate. The country between the fort and the Taj Mahal (a 
superb mausoleum erected by Shah Jehan) is a perfect desert ; and visitors, after winding 
their way through an arid plain, only diversified by sand-heaps aud crumbling masses of 
stone, come, as if by enchantment, upon the luxuriant gardens which still adorn the 
mausoleum, where the mighty emperor, and the beautiful partner of his throue and 
empire, sleep together in undisturbed repose. 

The marble cupola on the left of the engraving, crowns a beautiful musjid, or mosque, 
attached to the Taj. Beyond, flanked by its slender minarets, the Taj itself appears ; and, 
in the distance, the eye rests upon the cupolas and turrets of the magnificent gateway 
that forms the principal entrance to this terrestrial paradise. Constant irrigation is 
necessary in India to preserve the beauty of gardens, which soon disappears if not con- 
tinually refreshed by the revivifyiug stream. The pleasure-grounds belonging to the Taj 
Mahal are watered daily, and they are clothed in perpetual verdure j while the surround- 
ing country is a parched wilderness. 

The beautiful arched gateway and square tower on the right of the plate, opens into 
an enclosure of considerable extent, between the plain and the gardens of the Taj. Many 
buildiugs of the same design skirt the gardens, and some were fitted up for the residence's 
of European families during the rains. The superior elegance of the native architecture 
often rendered it a subject for regret, that so few of the deserted buildings in the vicinity 
of Agra had been adapted to the use of the European inhabitants ; not more than three 
or four of the mosques and tombs having been fitted up for their comfortable occu- 
pation, while the far greater number are lodged in excessively ugly bungalows, built with 
the old bricks which cover miles of the suburbs of Agra, aud which can be had for the 
trouble of collecting them. 

The church belonging to the cantonments was a handsome structure, built under the 
superintendence of an ofliccr of the Company's engineers. In the course of the events of 
July, 1857, this edifice, together with the English and Orieutal college, the government 
house,the Metcalfe testimonial,and, indeed, nearly everybuildiug of European construction, 
were destroyed by the mutinous bands that followed 'the retiring force under Brigadier 
Polwhele, after the engagement at Futtehjjoor Sikri on the 5th of July. 


The great lion of Agra is the world-renowned Taj, or imperial mausoleum, erected 
by the emperor Shah Jehan, over the remains of his favourite wife, the empress Nour 
Jehan, or " Light of the M'orld ;" which is situated about three miles from the canton- 
ments, and one mile from the fort of Agra. Tliis " crown of edifices," as its name implies, 
13 built of white marble, on a terrace of the same material, intermingled with a fine yellow 


stone. It contains a central hall, surmounted by a capacious dome, beneath which are 
the tombs of the founder and of his empress, and around the central space are a number 
of small apartments and corridors. The mausoleum, which has been esteemed the finest 
specimen of Indian architecture now extant, is reported to have cost £750,000 ; and with 
its clusters of light minarets, its noble gateway, mosque, and other buildings, forms a most 
exquisite group. The costly mosaics of twelve different sorts of stones, with which the 
mausoleum was paved, have gradually disappeared ; but the general beauty of the structure 
had remained, to a great extent, unimpaired up to the period of the revolt of 1857. The 
height of the Taj Mahal, from the lower terrace to the golden crescent that surmounted 
the principal dome, was upwards of 250 feet, and the erection of the building occupied 
twenty years. 

Thelate Bishop Heber, in speaking of this superb tomb, says — "After hearing its 
praises ever since I had been in India, its beauty rather exceeded than fell short of my 
expectations. The building itself is raised on an elevated terrace of white and yellow 
marble, and has, at its angles, four tall minarets of the same material. In the centre hall, 
enclosed within a carved screen of exquisite design and workmanship, is the tomb of the 
favourite Nour Jehan ; and upon a marble dais slightly raised, by the side of her remains, 
is that of the emperor himself. The windows are of white marble, elaborately traced, and 
perforated for light and air — of the same design as the screen. The walls, screens, and 
tombs are covered with flowers and inscriptions, executed in beautiful mosaics of cornelian, 
lapis- lazuli, pearl, and jasper; and yet, though everything is finished like an ornament 
for a drawing-room, the general effect is solemn and impressive, irrespective of the 
associations naturally attached to it in the mind of the spectator." 

The entrance-gate to this region of enchantment is itself a palace, both as regards its 
magnitude and its decoration, being built of a deep red stone inlaid with white marble, 
and surmounted with domes and open cupolas. The centre forms a large circular hall, 
having a domed roof and gallery running round, and the interior walls are also embellished 
with splendid mosaics in rich patterns of flowers, so delicately formed that they look like 
embroidery on white satin — thirty-five different specimens of cornelians being employed 
in the single leaf of a carnation ; while agates, lapis-lazuli, turquoise, and other precious 
materials, are spread over the place in unparalleled profusion. 


This magnificent building fronts the Delhi gate of the fort, which is visible on the right 
of the engraving ; the architecture is extremely grand and solid, flanked by octangular 
towers, and strengthened by massive buttresses. A lofty gateway, surmounted by 
minarets, leads to the interior, which is rich but chaste, and marked by simplicity of style. 
The Mohammedan religion rejects all extraneous decoration in the adornment of places 
of worship, and the lofty cupola'd hall is free from that florid ornamentation which the 
tasteful Mogul delights to lavish upon edifices designed for the abodes of the living, or 
the reception of the dead. 

The Jumma Musjid is still in good preservaticn, notwithstanding its exposure to 
damage, from proximity to the fort, during the investment of that place in July and 
August, 1857. 

The fort of Agra forms one of the most interesting specimens of military architecture 
that is to be found in India ; and was evidently a place of vast strength before the art of 
war became entirely changed by the invention of gunpowder : its higli battlemented walls 
of red granite, lofty towers, posteru gates, and inclined planes, with the golden symbol 
of Mogul supremacy gleaming above its pinnacles and cupolas, altogether present an 
imposing assemblage of objects. Until the events of 1857, no attempt had ever i)een 
made to maintain the fort of Agra against a hostile force, and it consequently had remained 

! ■ ■ ,' I , 


uninjured by violence. The walls embraced an area of very considerable extent, within 
which is an" immense hall, formerly the place in which the Mogul emperors held their 
durbars, but now converted into an arsenal. The Mootee Musjid, or Pearl Mosque, and 
a palace of Akber, are also comprehended within the fortifications. The palace itself, 
which is built entirely of white marble, is a splendid fabric, in excellent repair, with the 
exception of some of the chief apartments, in which the ceilings were of polished silver, 
and have long since disappeared. The principal hall is still a superb apartment, sup- 
ported on pillars and arches in a florid style of architecture; and among the suites of 
smaller chambers, are many highly decorated, the walls being inlaid with a mosaic work 
of flowers, executed in an almost endless variety of cornelians, agates, bloodstone, lapis- 
lazuli, and jasper. These beautiful apartments overlook the Jumna as it winds along 
banks planted with luxuriant gardens, and decked at every jutting point with light and 
elegant pavilions; numerous quadrangles and courtyards intersect the building, each 
having its postern, its marble basins, or its fountains ; multitudes of pigeons of various 
colours — blue, pink, brown, and green — nestle amid the pinnacles, adding the gleaming 
beauty of their plumage to the gorgeous flowers, and the sparkling waters that flow 
through channels scooped out of the pavement to receive them. 

The palace of the great Akber, though it may justly vie with the far-famed Alhambra, 
and is even superior to that celebrated building in the delicacy and finish of its ornaments, 
is yet eclipsed by the surpassing beauty of the Pearl Mosque, an edifice of which it is 
almost impossible to convey any adequate description, so exquisitely lovely is it in every 
part. The dazzling resplendence of the material of which it is composed can only be 
compared to a flood of moonlight; but the admiration and astonishment which it calls 
forth, is speedily absorbed in the delight excited by the chaste grandeur of the architec- 
ture : an immense quadrangle, cloistered on three sides with a rich arcade, surmo\mted at 
intervals with octagonal pavilions, leads to a hall supported by several rows of arches, 
most beautifully springing out of each other, and crowned with a light dome. A marble 
basin is hollowed in the centre of the court, in the midst of which a fountain per- 
petually adds its soothing whispers to the calm and silvery radiance of this region of 


Previous to the devastating outrages upon property as well as persons, that characterised 
the sepoy rebellion of 1857, the eastern bank of the river Jumna, at Agra, was adorned 
by a succession of beautiful gardens of great luxuriance and vast extent, where the 
orange, the citron, and the vine vied with the richest and fairest fruit, and exquisite 
flowers charmed the senses with their beauty and perfume; while numberless fountains of 
crystal waters, among pavilions of marble, invited to repose those who delighted to indulge 
in the pomp and indolence of Oriental luxury. The Jahara Bang, or garden, was the name 
given to one of those delightful retreats ; and in wandering through its stately avenues, the 
readers of the Arabian tales might in imagination realise the picture of the imperial 
pleasure-grounds on the banks of the Tigris, the fabled scene of the adventures of the 
caliph Haroun Alraschid, with the fair princess Noureddin Ali, and her Persian 

Nothing, however, can be imagined more beautiful in reality than the view from the 
pavilion represented in the plate ; which was erected on the extreme point of a small 
peninsula overhanging the rocky bed of the river. On the opposite bank, one of the most 
celebrated cities of Hindoostan, beautiful even in its ruins, spreads its architectural splen- 
dours before the admiring gaze; the marble palace of Shah Jehan glitters on the very 
edge of the stream ; while its terraces, turrets, and pinnacles, are reflected in the bright 
mirror that stretches itself below : in the background, the bastioned walls and massive 
gateways of the city, appear crowned with the shining cupolas of the Pearl Mosque, and 


partially concealed by the shading foliage of the neem, the pecpul, and the tamarind tree ; 
the long and beautiful perspective of tower, palace, ;,'haut, and embowering grove, is 
closed by the tall minarets and lofty dome of the Taj jMahal. 

Nothing short of a stereoscopic view could possibly convey an adequate idea of the 
multiplicity of beautiful objects that riveted the senses in this extensive and magnificent 
prospect, or the imposing effect which it produced when seen at the moment iu which 
the rising sun bathed the whole scene in one bright flood of golden light. The sinuosities 
of the river afforded a perpetual succession of views ; but from the minarets of Etcmad-ud 
Dowlah's tomb (the father of Nour Mahal), in the immediate vicinity, the eye could take 
in a wide and richly varied prospect, many miles in extent, at a single glance. This 
building, which stands in the midst of a wilderness, near the Jaliara Bang, has been 
esteemed the most chaste and beautiful specimen of architecture that the Moguls have 
left for the adornment of the land subjected to their rule. It was erected by Nour Mahal, 
to protect the remains of her father. 

Compared with many of the sepulchral monuments of India, the tomb of Etemad-ud 
Dowlah is small, consisting only of one central hall, with octagonal apartments at the 
angles, surmounted by a dome and four open minarets. The whole edifice was covered 
with a lattice of marble wrought witli flowers and foliage, intermingled with tracery, and 
forming a rich veil of most exquisite workmanship. This building has not for some years 
attracted the attention of the government ; and as there are no funds available for keep- 
ing it in repair, the ravages of time will doubtless, in a few more years, effect its slow but 
certain destruction. 


Thk tomb of the emperor Akber at Secundra, about seven miles distant from Agra, is 
conjectured to have formerly been enclosed withiu the gates of rhat city. For many 
years past, however, visitors to this extraordinary pile have had to trace their way to 
it through a picturesque country strewed with ruins, and along the narrow streets of 
a second-rate but bustling commercial town, situated midway between the city and 
the tomb, to the village of Secundra, a place which still retains some vestiges of former 
greatness, but now sheltering only a few of the poorest peasants, who are content to 
dwell beneath the crumbling roofs of decaying grandeur. 

The magnificent pile which heaps terrace upon terrace over the ashes of the mighty 
Akber, if not the most chaste and beautiful in its design, is perhaps the most spacious of 
the monuments erected to pernetuate the glories of the Mohammedan rulers of Hiu- 
doostan. It stands in the centre of a park-1'ke plantation of some forty acres in extent, 
the whole area being surrounded by a battlemented wall, strengthened by an octagonal 
tower at each corner, built iu a Ijold style, and crowned with an open cupola at the top. 
Four gateways open into this enclosure, one of which is considered the most magnificent 
edifice of the kind to be found even in India. 

The mausoleum itself is exceedingly singular iu its design, and differs widely from the 
usual features of Mogul architecture. It forms a perfect square, the basement storey con- 
taining nothing worthy of note excepting its outer colonnade, the four passages leading from 
the four gateways, and the dim vault in which the remaius of Akber, enclosed in a marble 
sarcophagus, repose. A lamp, burning on the tomb, is daily fed by the pious care of a few 
poor brethren of the Mohammedan priesthood, who also strew fresh-gathered flowers over 
the unconscious dead — a custom prevalent in every part of Hindoostan. Above this 
storey there is a second, a third, and a fourth, each forming a distinct range, rising 
directly over the tomb, and each containing a marble sarcophagus : the rooms in eacli 
range are small, and can only be entered from the marble verandahs of the terraces. 
Flights of stairs lead from the entrances below to the first platform, the building being 
somewhat iw the form of a pyramid with the apex cut off. This storey consists of four 








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noble terraces, or rather one quadrangle, with the cefttral chamber before-mentioned ; its 
suites of small apartments, and cloistered arcade in the midst, presenting the s-dtncfagade 
on every side. The whole is surrouuded by a noble balustrade; and at epcii angle there 
is a large pavilion-shaped turret with an open cupola. Flights of stairs lead to the second 
terraced quadrangle, which is precisely the same as the lower one, except that it is smaller; 
each tier diminishing in size until the summit of the building is reached, and the 
visitor treads upon a vast platform, surrounded by a screen of white marble per- 
forated in every compartment in beautiful designs of arabesques, and having turreted 
marble cupolas at the augles. In the centre of this platform stands a f.tth sarcophagus, 
most delicately and Ijeantifully carved, the name of the monarch who sleeps below being 
inscribed ujion it in gems. Though exposed to every change of atmosphere, its beautv still 
remains unimpaired by the sunny climate of the East ; and notwithstanding the lapse of 
years siace the potent monarch whose ashes it covers was gathered to his fathers, it is 
still as pure, as white, and as brilliantly polished, as when it came from the skilful hand 
of the artificer by whom its beauty was thus brought to perfection. The three storeys 
that intervene between this platform and the basement floor are constructed of red 
granite, inlaid with white marble. The cupolas are covered witli coloured tiles, composed 
of a coarse description of enamel; and, altogether, there is more of barbaric pomp displayed 
in this mausoleum than is usually found in the edifices raised by Mohammedans to per- 
petuate the memory of their rulers. 

While the upper part of the building may be open to objection in an architectural 
sense, nothing can be finer than the gateways, and the wide marble colonnades, which 
sweep along the four sides of the mausoleum. These spacious cloisters would afford 
shelter and accommodntion for a large army; and a regiment of English dragoons which 
was quartered in them during the siege of Agra, by Lord Lake, occupied but a very small 
portion of the space afforded. They lead to marble chambers screened off from each other, 
in which several members of the imperial family are enshrined, and are flanked with solid 
towers, their cupola'd summits forming pavilions to the terrace above. The interior of 
the arch at the principal entrance (shown on the right of the plate) is covered with 
verses that commemorate the virtues and triumphs of the founder, and expatiate upon the 
instability of human grandeur. 

The renowned monaich for whose remains this stupendous monument was erected, 
was the son of the emperor Humayun. He was proclaimed emperor of Hindoostan on the 
death of his father in 1555, and died in October, 1605, after a glorious reign of forty-nine 
years, nearly the whole of which he was a cotemporary ruler with Elizabeth of England. 
The virtues of Akber's private character, his long and prosperous reigu, and the stability 
which his invariable success gave to an empire which had nearly fallen under the dominion 
of the Afghans a second time, have inspired the people of Hindoostan with the highest 
regard for his memory; and even, to the present time, pilgrims from far and foreign lands 
come to ofl'er homage at his lonely sepulchre. 

One of the recesses around the shrine of Akber contains the ashes of a Hindoo 
princess, Jod Bae, whom her father, the rajah Moota of Joudpoor, gave to Akber in 
marriage, receiving in return from tlie conqueror four provinces, yielding .£200,000 of 
annual revenue — certainly a royal price for a wife ! 


The town of Euttehpoor Sikri is situated about nineteen miles W.S.W. of Agra, and, for 
many years, was a favourite retreat of the emperor Akber and his descendants. Its more 
recent claim to historical celebrity will, however, henceforth date from its association 
with the rebellions movements of some native regiments of the Bengal army ; a portion 
of which, consisting of about 9,000 men, with a train of artillery, on then' way from 


Neemuch towards Agra, was encountered near the place on the 5th of July, 1857, by a 
European force numbering, with volunteers, about 950 men, under Brigadier Polwh'ele. 
The enemy was attacked with great spirit and determination by this handful uf men, and, 
for a time, victory appeared to crown their valour ; but the ammunition of the little baud 
having failed, the latter was compelled to fall back ou Agra, and take shelter in the fort. 
The rebels, emboldened by the retrograde movement, followed their assailants as far as 
the cantonments, which, being left without protection, they entered, and committed the 
most brutal excesses. Their first act was to set free the prisoners in the gaol ; and the 
next, to pillage and destroy by fire whatever property appeared to belong to the Euro- 
peans. The amount of such property carried off, or rendered valueless, was afterwards 
estimated at more than teu lacs of rupees ; and while the havoc proceeded, thirty-four 
native Christians, who had neglected to seek protection in the fort, were savagely massa- 
cred. Having at length accompHshed their nefarious purpose, the rebels withdrew from 
the ruined cantonments, to augment the native army at Delhi. 

Though now a place of mere huts and ruins, scantily inhabited by a few poor villagers, 
the architectural remains of other days at Futtehpoor Sikri, are yet of the most spleudid 
description, and equal, if they do not surpass, those of any other portion of the vast 
empire of the Moguls. 

The gateway represented in the plate, leads to the mosque attached to the palace of 
Akber, and is considered the most beautiful specimen of the kiud to be fouud iu the 
world. It opens into a quadrangle of magnificent proportions, surrounded on three sides 
with a fine piazza, the mosque itself forming the fourth side. The latter is a handsome 
building, in a plain, solid style of architecture, but far inferior iu design to the magnifi- 
cent portal by which it is approached. The euclosure is about 500 feet square, and its 
chaste grandeur produces au effect naturally associated with ideas of monastic seclusion 
and meditative study. 

Upon entering this spacious area, the visitor cannot fail to be struck by the imposing 
coup d'ceil presented to him. Facing the entrance are two mausoleums, wrought with 
all the care and dehcate workmanship that distinguish the efforts of Mogul art. In 
the one on the right, several members of the imperial family lie entombed; the other, 
which is represented as the shrine of Sheik Solimau, is a perfect gem in design aud 
execution, elaborately worked in marble of the finest whiteness and most delicate sculp- 
ture. This holy personage, now esteemed aud honoured as a saint by the Mohammedans, 
was the friend aud councillor of Akber; and dying in the odour of sanctity, his shrine 
is regarded by Mohammedans with peculiar veneration. 

The mosque is siirmouuted by three domes of white marble ; and the turret-crowned 
embattlemented quadrangle, with its arched cloisters, splendid gateway, aud isolated 
tombs, leave nothing to desire. To the right of the mosque the remaius of Akber's ruined 
palace rise amidst courts and terraces, in various stages of decay ; but the portions which 
remain entire are particularly interestiug : amoug these the stables of the emperor are 
worthy of notice ; they consist of a spacious street, with a piazza on either side, fifteen 
feet in width — supported upou handsome pillars, and roofed iu by enormous slabs of stone 
extending from the parapet to the wall. The residence of Akber's favourite minister, 
though upon a small scale, affords a very pleasing specimen of Oriental luxury, realising 
the ideas of pavilions aud miniature palaces, with which Ave become familiar iu the 
Arabian tales. 

In the court of the zenana another of those exquisite pieces of workmanship is yet extant, 
iu the bedchamber of one of Akber's wives, the daughter of the sultan of Constantinople. 
The remaius of this bijou are exceedingly beautiful : three windows of perforated marble, 
in the exquisite tracery that occurs so profusely in all Mogul buildings, are stid entire as 
ou the day they received the last touch of the "sculptor's chisel. The wall was disfigured 
by Aurungzebe, the third sou of Shah Jehan; who, iu order to divert the minds of the 
people from dwelling upon his usurpation of his father's throne, and his relentless perse- 
cution of his brothers, affected much religious zeal, and displayed it chiefly by strict 
observance of the outward forms aud precepts of the Korau. The interior of the pavilion 
was beautifully carved with trees, clusters of grapes, aud vine-leaves; amoug which were 
birds and animals executed with wonderful skill : but as the strict regulations of Islamism 
»do not permit of such representations, the emperor ordered them to be demohshed, or 





defaced. Another chamber in this extensive area was paved vrith lozenges of black and 
white marble, forming an enormous chess-board, on which the emperor and his nobles 
played, human beings personating the various pieces employed in the game so deeply 
studied by Asiatics of all ages. 

The audience chamber of Akber, though more curious than beautiful, forms an object 
of great attraction to the visitors of Futtehpoor. It is a pavilion of stone, about twenty 
feet square, surrounded by a gallery of the same material : the musnud, or throne, in 
form somewhat resembling a pulpit, rises in the centre ; and from each of the four sides 
of the gallery, a narrow bridge, without rails, leads to the place, where the emperor, 
seated iu solitary state, received his courtiers, who were not permitted to advance beyoud 
the galleries. 

The town of Futtehpoor Sikri, though now but thinly inhabited, is surrounded by a 
mouldering turreted wall, five miles in circumference. From the gateway, on the road 
to Agra, a spacious street presents itself, bearing ample voucher that it was once bounded 
by palatial residences of the nobles of Hindoostan ; now falling rapidly into masses 
of shapeless ruins. The gate of the mosque (as shown in the plate) forms, by its great 
elevation, a sort of beacon to the distant traveller; and from its topmost storey a splendid 
view rewards those who are sufficiently courageous to make the ascent. From this height 
the eye may wander over a vast extent of country — fields that, till of late, were highly 
cultivated, producing cotton, mustard, rice, and other kinds of grain ; wooded with 
mango and tamarind groves, watered by broad jheels, and interspersed with a profusion 
of picturesque buildings. Serais, mosques, crumbling palaces, old tombs, and ruined walls, 
spread themselves, on the north-west, to the walls of Bhurtpoor — the fortress so famous iu 
the military annals of Hindoostan ; while, on the opposite side, the city of Agra, with the 
snowy dome of the Taj Mahal, gives an enchanting finish to the picture. 


The city of Muttra, or Mathura, is situated on the Jumna, about thirty miles N.W. 
from Agra. It has ever been one of the strongholds of Hindoo superstition; and, previous 
to the early Mohammedan conquests, was considered of great sanctity and importance, 
being reverenced as the birthplace of Krishna, the Hindoo Apollo. Its splendid temples 
and shrines, in which the idols were of pure gold, are supposed to have tempted the 
invader, Mahmood of Ghuznee, to ravage the country in which it stood. That monarch 
seized the city, and carried off its treasures of every kind; and the immense value of 
the spoil with which he loaded his camels, inducing others to follow his rapacious ex- 
ample, the temples were quickly plundered of all that he had overlooked. Mahmood, in 
fulfilment of the duty enjoined to all true believers, overthrew the principal temple at 
Muttra, which was afterwards rebuilt at the cost of thirty-six lacs of rupees. Auruugzebe, 
as great a bigot as his predecessor, destroyed the second temple, and constructed, on its 
site, a mosque with the materials of the desecrated fane; but the Moslem conquerors, 
though planting the victorious Cresceut upon the smoking ruins of Hindoo shrines, 
could not succeed in rooting out, or even diminishing, the spirit of idolatry with which 
the inhabitants of the city were imbued. 

The Hindoo temples at Muttra are very numerous, though not equal in point of size, 
and grandeur of design, to many places of Brahminical worship in other parts of India : 
still they are finished with much elegance ; and the architectural splendours of the ghauts, 
with their accompanying pagodas, exceed in beauty many of the numerous superb landing- 
places which spread themselves on both sides of the Jumna, and are found adorning its 
wildest solitudes. The city is well built, after the Indian fashion; many of the houses 
being constructed with much solidity, the walls massive and lofty, and embellished with 
richly carved ornaments in wood and stone. The lofty, dark, and frowning walls of the 


fort at Miittra, vA\en seen against the red flush of an Eastern sunset, have a very imposing 
appearance from the river. In coming down with the current, it is passed shortly after 
it is first seen ; but in toiling up against the stream, full leisure is obtained to gaze upon 
the massive bastions which have, in former days, successfully opposed the hostile projects 
of surrounding chieftains. This castellated edifice stands upon the western bank of the 
river, and was, in former times, a place of great strength ; its appearance being still 
formidable, as may be conceived from the plate annexed. The walls enclose, and cover, a 
large extent of ground, containing many buildings of various degrees of interest ; but the 
once beautiful and still interesting relic of feudal power at Muttra, has long been 
abandoned to the despoiling influence of time, without an eftbrt to arrest its progress. ! 

The principal distinction that has, from a remote period, belonged to Muttra, consists 
in the troops of monkeys with which the whole of its avenues swarm : those creatures are [ 
to be seen everywhere ; and there is no possibility of keeping them out of any place they 
may choose to invade : they climb upon the tops of the houses, descend to the interior 
courts and gardens, perch upon the walls and doorposts, and assail the passengers below \ 
with missiles. Few persons can have rambled through the streets of Muttra without 1 
experiencing this kind of annoyance ; but to reseut it by killing or injuring one of the f 
tormenting animals, would involve very serious consequences. Not many years since, \ 
two young officers, who fired at a monkey in the neighbourhood, were drowned in tiie i 
Jumna, in the vain attempt to escape from the violence of an exasperated multitude that 
pursued them to their destruction. Monkeys are reverenced by the Hindoos, in 
consequence of one of their sacred books recording that Huniayuu had led an army 
of these animals to the assistance of their god Rama, when defeated in a conflict with the 
great Ravanu, one of the evil powers of the Hindoo pantheon. 


The modern city of Delhi, for a short time the head-quarters of a sanguinary rehellio:i 
that was intended to wrest the sceptre of Hindoostan from the royal hand of Britain, 
was founded in 1G31, by the emperor Shah Jehan, upon part of the site of a former 
city, which is said to have covered a space of twenty square miles, over great part of 
which its ruins are still scattered. The modern city stands on the west bank ot the 
Jumna, and is about seven miles in circumference, enclosed on three sides by a fortified 
wall and towers; and on the fourth, partly by the palace of the late titular king, and 
partly by the river. It was entered by seven gates of beautiful architecture, of which 
the one named from the city is nearest the palace — the Lahore gate being immediately 
opposite to the principal entrance of that structure, and the Cashmere gate being nearest 
to the English cantonments. The palace, of which one of the entrances is seen in the 
accompanying engraving, was also built by Shah Jehan, who surrounded it with a moat 
and embattled wall, which, towards the city, was sixty feet high, with several small towers, 
and two noble gateways. Not far from the palace is a mosque of red stone, whose domes 
appear in the central distance of the picture; and within which, on the 17th of February, 
1739, the conqueror. Nadir Shah, sat from sunrise to raid-day, to witness the massacre of 
the inhabitants, which did not cease until near 100,000 persons had fallen by the swords 
of his infuriated soldiery. The palace itself, as seen from a distance, exhibited a cluster 
of pinnacles and towers, many of which have been shaken to the ground, through the 
terrible occurrences that have followed the insane attempt to re-establish the empire of 
the Moguls upon the ruin of that of England, in Hindoostan. Through the gate shown 
in the engraving, the infatuated descendant of a worn-out dynasty, on the 12th of May, 
1857, after sufi'ering himself to be proclaimed king of Hindoostan, issued, surrounded by 
Oriental pomp ; and, amidst the salutes of artillery and the clangour of martial instru- 
ments, proceeded through the city, to receive the homage of his subjects, and to animate 
them in their treacherous and rebellious war against the English. Through this gate, 








also, on the 21st of the following September, the phantom kinp;, intercepted in his iiseless 
flight from the retribution he had provoked, was lirought back to the palace he had 
occupied as ruler of India, a wretched prisoner, divested of rank and title, to await 
the result of a trial that, in all probability, would consign him, in the extreme winter of 
his existence, to the doom of a traitor and a felon. It is not in the province of this 
descriptive work to trace the progress, or to record tlie triumphs, of the struggle 
unnaturally forced upon this country by the treachery and vindictiveness of the people of 
India; and as the subject is fully treated in works devoted to the purpose, to those pages 
we must refer for details that are now of national importance and of world-vride interest, ' 


The village of Cootub — in which the remarkable column represented in the accompanying 
engraving, rises in towering majesty over the scattered relics of the ancient capital of 
the Mogul empire — is situated about ten miles south-west of modern Delhi, amidst a scene 
of desolation that has been spreading around it for nearly two centuries. The origin of 
the Miuar is ascribed to the early part of the thirteenth century, during the reign of the 
Sultan Shems-ud-din Altemsh (betweeu the years 1210 and 12i51), being founded by the 
viceroy of that monarch, Cootub, from whom its name is derived. The base of the column 
is circular, and forms a polygon of twenty-seven sides, the exterior of the shaft being 
fluted to the third storey, in twenty-seven circular and angidar divisions, the flutings 
varying in each compai-tment. Four balconies encircle the pillar, the first being at the 
height of ninety feet from the ground, the second at 140, the third at 180, and the fourth 
at 203 feet. Tiie summit was originally crowned with a majestic cupola of red granite, 
which has long fallen from its elevated position, and lies scattered in fragments around 
the base of the pillar. The upper storey of the edifice, considerably above the fourth 
balcony, bore inscriptions, four in numi)er, declaratory of its object, and designating its 
founder; but the letters have, to a great extent, become so dilapidated, and the difficulty 
of near approach so much increased by the decay of the material, that it has long 
been only possible to decipher a portion of them by the aid of a powerful telescope. In 
the Asiatic Researches* the following fragment of the fourth inscription is given as the 
only inteUigible portion of the record now remaining: — 

"The erection of this building was commenced in the glorious time of the great 
sultan, the mighty king of kings, the master of mankind, the lord of the numarclis of 
Turkestan, Arabia, and Persia ; the sun of the world and religion, of the faith and the 
faithful ; the lord of safety and protection ; the heir of tlie kingdoms of Suliman. Abu 
Muzeffa Altemsh Nasir Amin ul Momenin." 

The entire heiglit of tlie Minar is 242 feet as it now stands, without the cupola; 
the stone of which it is composed is principally red granite, but there is an admix- 
ture of black and white marlile — tlie ujjpcr divisions being entirely formed of tlie latter 
material. An irregular spiral staircase, in which there are many openings for the 
admission of light and air, leads to the top : this ascent was difficult and perilous 
until repaired by order of the government, which desired to rescue so valuable a relic of 
the past from impending ruin. 

Some remains of an unfinished mosque are in the close vicinity of the Minar. 
To the eastward a court extends, enclosed by a high wall, and bordered on tv,o sides 
by arcades, formed of pillars carved in the richest style of Hindoo art. The domes 
in this quarter are particularly elegant, but appear to have been formed before the 
true principles of the aixli had become known in India. Arcades of the same descrip- 
tion, but with little ornament, extend also to the south and east of the Minar. 
Immediately at the base of the column are the remains of one of the superb portals 

.* Vol. xiv., p. 481. 


common to the buildings of the Moslems. This splendid entrance, and the accompanying 
line of arches, is supposed to be the eastern front of a mosque, commenced also by the 
viceroy Cootub, but never completed. The archway of this gate is sixty feet in lieight, 
and the ornaments with which it is embellished are matchless, being cut with the 
delicacy of a seal engraving; the edges remaining, to this day, perfectly sharp, and 
uninjured by the elemental conflicts they have been exposed to during the lapse of 
centuries. The arcade (which stretches to the right of the picture) beneath the gateway 
is of granite, and is covered with inscriptions highly and minutely finished, according 
to the usual style of the Patans or Moguls, who were said to build like giants, and to 
embellish like jewellers. 

From the summit of the Cootub Minar the view is sublime : the eye wanders for 
miles over a wide waste of ruins, amidst which the mausoleums of Humayun and Sufter 
Jung alone remain in a state of tolerable preservation. The silvery Jumna rolls its 
current through the midst of the desolation, making large curves as it glides snake- 
like along. In the background, the large feudal towers of Selimgurh rear their dark 
turreted heights in gloomy magnificence; and still farther in the distance are seen the 
white and glittering mosques of modern Delhi, mingled with the ruins produced by the 
ravages of modern revolt, and the just but terrible punishment that has followed it. 


The mausoleum of Humayun (Auspicious), son of Baber, and sixth in descent from 
the imperial Timoor, still remains one of the most perfect edifices that are to be found 
amongst the ruins of old Delhi. This prince, equally celebrated for his misfortunes 
as for his virtues, exercised a troubled sway over a portion of Hindoostan proper, 
from the death of his father, in 1530, to the period of his own existence, in 1555; 
during which time he was more than once exposed to the perils of rebellion and the 
privations of exile, the whole of which he triumphantly surmounted, and died in the 
undisturbed possession of a mighty and united empire. The tomb of this prince, 
erected by his son Akber, has always been an object of veneration to the people of 
India ; which may, in some degree, account for its preservation in the midst of a sea 
of ruins. But great as may have been its attraction in the eyes of the native population, 
as a memorial of the faded glories of the Mogul rulers of their country, the circum- 
stances that have connected the mausoleum with the retributive justice which followed 
in the track of the Mohammedan revolt of 1857, will henceforth impart to it, in the 
eyes of Europeans, a far greater and more solemn interest. From the mausoleum of 
Humayun, on the 22nd of September, 1857, two of the rebel sons, and a grandson, of 
the then captive titular king of Delhi, were dragged, while suiTounded by a host of armed 
adherents, to expiate their crimes against the state and humanity, by a sudden and violent 
death, as exemplary as it was merited. 

The comb of Humayun is situated upon a plain, about five miles distant from the 
Agra gate of the modern capital. It is a noble pile of granite inlaid with white marble, 
less florid, and altogether of a simpler stjde of architecture than that of his son Akber, 
at Secundra. The basement of the edifice is a terrace 200 feet square, raised upon 
cloisters, and having a wide flight of steps on each si3e ; the central building is also 
square, containing one large circular hall, with smaller apartments at the angles ; the 
whole being crowned with a dome of white marble, and enriched with the pediments of 
four beautiful gateways. Accordnig to the Asiatic custom, the body of the emperor is 
interred in a shrine upon the basement flour ; the sarcophagus is of w hite marble, raised 
upon a slight elevation from the pavement, in the centre of the hall, and immediately 
under the dome ; the interior of the chamber still preserves rich decorations of gilding 
.and enamel ; but the tassels of gold, that formerly hung suspended from the roof, have 




been removed. Several members of Humayun's family lie entombed within the 
chambers at the angles, having sarcophagi, beautifully carved in white marble, on the 
upper floor: the whole design is simple, chaste, and of noble proportions. 

The mausoleum originally stood in the centre of a large garden surrounded by a hat- 
tlemented wall — cloistered on the inside, flanked by towers, and entered by four gateways ; 
but this garden, with its stately groves, its terraces and fountains, has long been 
neglected, and is now a wilderness. By the aid of the only spring of water that is not 
dried up, some poor families, who live iu the outbuildings of the tomb, cultivate a little 
grain for their subsistence ; but sand has encroached upon the pastures ; and from the 
terrace of the mausoleum, the view is over desolated plains covered with ruins, and 
bounded by a range of hills equally bleak and barren. The building itself appears on the 
left of the plate, with all that is entire of its surrounding walls; the foreground of the 
picture affords a faithful portraiture of the rugged soil, cumbered with fragments of 
temples, towers, and palaces that lie scattered around. In the distance, to the right, 
gateways and dome-crowned tombs appear, intermingled with a scanty ioliage of shrubs — 
one solitary palm rearing its head over the prostrate ruins. 

The death of Humayun, in 1555, is thus related by Ferishta, the Persian historian: — 
" The monarch had ascended the terrace at the top of his library, to enjoy the cool 
evening air, and give orders respecting the attendance of astronomers to note the rising 
of Venus, which was to be the signal for the announcement of a general promotion among 
the nobility and officers. While preparing to descend the steep and highly-polished 
stairs, protected only by an ornamental balustrade a foot high, a muezzin (or crier) 
announced the hour of prayer from the minarets of the adjoining mosque, where the 
people, being assembled, had just offered the monarch the usual koinesh (or salutation.) 
Humayun, intending to repeat the customary formula, attempted to seat himself on the 
spot; but his foot becoming entangled in the folds of his robe, he fell headlong down 
the steps, receiving a contusion on the right temple, of wliich he died in the forty-ninth 
year of his age." The history of this prince is full of romantic and chivalrous incident. 
He was succeeded on the throne of Hindoostan by the great Akber, by whom India was 
consolidated into one formidable empire, by the absorption of the various small indepen- 
dent kingdoms around his paternal territories. 


The mosque represented in the accompanying engraving, stands on the west bank of the 
Jumna, a short distance from the walls, at the upper part of the modern city of Delhi. 
The cupolas and the gateway, which are still entire, possess strong claims to admiration; 
and though upon a smaller scale than many of the magnificent remains in the neighbour- 
hood, afford a very just idea of the elegance pertaining to nearly all the places of 
Mohammedan worship in India. The grove which shades this venerable and time-worn 
ruin, whose origin is lost amidst the decay of the capital it once adorned, was, in all 
probability, planted hy the founder; since a Moslem, when building a temple or a monu- 
ment, always provided at the same time for the comfort of travellers in its vicinity. The 
whole of the neighbourhood of Delhi is strewed with fragments of ruined tombs, temples, 
serais, and palaces ; and jheels of water, and swamps, have formed themselves in the 
hollowed foundations of prostrate edifices, adding to the gloomy wildness of the scene. 
After traversing these dismal wastes, it is refreshing to emerge upon the banks of the 
Jumna, and to gaze upon its cool waters; the beauty of the landscape, as here shown by 
the engraving, being much enhanced when the dark ruins intercept the hriglit silvery 
light of a full-orbed moon, shining in its majesty over plain, and grove, and gently 
gliding river. The character of the Jumna difl'ers widely from that of the Ganges, and 
its scenery is by many travellers considered more picturesque. Its banks are distin^ 


guished by multitudes of ruins in the last stages of desolation : the crowds upon the 
ghauts are less numerous; many splendid specimens of Oriental architecture in these 
landing-places being wholly unfrequented, or occupied only by a few solitary batliers. 
Every cliff is crowned with the remnants of a fortress; and castles and temples, all bear- 
in" marks of decay, ^ive to the sandy wilderness a solemn and melancholy air. It is 
true the Jumna overflows the country ; but its waters at this place do not bring with them 
fertility : the bed of the river being very strongly impregnated with natron, ycgetation is 
destroyed by the periodical inundations ; and in consequence of the deleterious effects of 
the floods and the neglect of the wells, a great part of the country about Delhi is 
converted into an ocean of sand, through which the camels, plodding their weary 
way, do not find a bush or a blade of grass. The nature of the soil, and the numberless 
holes and hiding-places in the crevices and fissures of the ruins, afford abundant harbour 
for snakes. These and other reptiles may be seen gliding among the mouldering walls 
of many a crumbling mosque and palace, rearing their crests in the porticos and halls, or 
basking in the courts and terraces. Wolves and jackals secrete themselves by day in the 
vaults and recesses presented by the ruins of the deserted city; coming forth at night in 
packs, and making the walls resound with their hideous yells; while the white vulture 
keeps lonely ward upon the towers and pinnacles, screaming as it snuffs its prey in the 
distance, or as its keen eye follows the track of some disabled animal, in whose quivering 
flesh its talons will presently be buried. 


Amidst misshapen fragments of marble and prostrate masses of stone — where the mosque 
of the faithful aud the temple of the idolater lie indiscriminately together in one wide 
sea of ruin — the circular towers which appear in the accompanying plate, still retain 
a considerable portion of their pristine beauty, and afl'ord a pleasing relief to the eye 
weary of the utter desolation that extends in every direction over the site of old 
Delhi. It is not known, at the present day, to whose memory the monument occupying 
the centre of the quadrangle flanked by these towers was raised ; but the portion that 
still remains, shows that, in its pristine state, it must have been a splendid embellishment 
of the once magnificent scene. The tomb is erected upon a terrace supported by arches, 
with a round tower surmounted by an open cupola at each angle ; that which occupies 
the foreground of the engraving being the only one remaining in a tolerable state of 
preservation. This beautiful memorial of the past, is situated at the northern extremity 
of the ruins of the old city, and about a mile from the walls of modern Delhi. In the 
period of its splendour, this ancient capital of the Patau and Mogul emperors was said to 
cover a space of twenty square miles, and its ruins are still scattered over an area nearly 
equal in extent. Prior to the Mohammedan invasion, it had been a place of great re- 
nown, as the remains of Hindoo architecture, mingling with relics of the Moslem con- 
querors, still attest. The sepulchres of 180,000 saints and martyrs belonging to the 
faithful, were, it is said, to be found amidst the wrecks of temples and palaces, before all 
had crumbled into the nndistinguishable mass which now renders the scene so desolate. 
In the time of its glory, groves aud gardens spread their luxuriant foliage over a soil 
now so parched and sterile, that at the time the staircase of the Cootub IMinar was iu 
too ruinous a state to admit of ascent, not a bamboo could be found to form a scaffolding 
for its repair. 

The ruins which have formed the subject of the accompanying engraving, arc situated 
within a short distance of an old Patau fortress of Ferozeshah, which still retains 
possession of a Hindoo relic to which great interest is attached. The fortress is of great 
extent, and contains a mosque, erected upon the site of a Hindoo temple. In the 
front of this ruined mosque, and iu the spot on which its principal gate was erected, 



is a pillar of mixed metal, about twenty-five feet in height, embellished with inscrip- 
tions in ancient, and now unintelligible, characters. This column is said to have been 
cast, amid spells and incantations, by an ancestor of the rajah Paitowra, who was assured, 
by the astrologers of his court, that as long as it continued standing, his children should 
rule over the inheritance which he bequeathed to them. Upon learning this tradition, 
Feroze Shah stayed the work of demolition he had commenced upon the temple, and 
suffered the column to stand in the place where it had been originally erected, in order to 
show the fallacy of the prediction. He strewed the pavement around it with the broken 
idols of Hindoo worship, which have long been turned to dust ; but the pillar still remains 
— a trophy of Moslem power, although no longer of its independence. The last decisive 
battle fought between the Mohammedans and the Hindoos, which secured to the former 
the supremacy over Indraput, occurred nearly 600 years ago ; and as the work of devas- 
tation has continued with little intermission ever since, it is not surprising that the ruins 
of Delhi should be so extensive. 


The scene represented in the accompanying engraving stretches far away on the south 
side of the ancient city of Delhi ; and there is now great difficulty and uncertainty in 
giving a name to even the most perfect of the edifices which still rear their lofty domes 
amongst the crumbling heaps that give incontestable proofs of the ravages of time, and 
the no less destructive vengeance of man ; for, as regards old Delhi, there are now no 
authentic records to refer to; and tradition, ever doubtful, becomes yet more imaginative 
when handed down by the descendants of a race whose origin is a myth, and whose whole 
history is a series of brilliant romance. As to the founders of many of the imposing 
structures whose ruins now so sadly speak of bygone magnificence, there can be no 
question, since the massive grandeur of the Patau and Afghan architects is peculiar 
to their age and habits. Many of the buildings reared by those extraordinary people 
are still remarkable for their solidity, in the midst of the ruin that surrounds them ; 
and nothing short of the wanton ravages of man, aided by the hostility of nature, could 
have caused a devastation so great as is here presented to view. 

The old city of Delhi was indebted for the greater portion of its most interesting 
edifices to Feroze Shah, who employed a reign of forty-three years [i.e., from 1351 to 
1394; more than ordinarily exempt from the troubles and disturbances which have usually 
characterised empire in the East) in the adornment of his capital, and in projects for the 
peaceful aggrandisement of his empire. His plans were designed upon the noblest 
scale of architectural proportions ; and the extent and durability of his works, which are 
not more remarkable for their gigantic dimensions than for the exquisite delicacy and 
beauty of their finish, excite to this day the wonder and admiration of the traveller who 
visits the region enriched by his munificence and advanced by his taste. 

The reign of this potentate — son of the capricious and despotic emperor Mohammed 
Toghlak — affords a pleasing contrast to that of his predecessor, whose recklessness of the 
lives and welfare of his subjects has scarcely been paralleled in the history of Eastern 
monarchs. Thus, for instance, desiring to transfer the capital of his empire from the 
then flourishing city of Delhi to Deogiri, as being a more central position, he pro- 
ceeded to execute his design by commanding all the inhabitants of the former to 
remove at once to the latter place, to which he gave the name of Dowlatabad, and 
there built the massive fort which still exists. After this the people were twice permitted 
to return to Delhi, and again twice compelled, on pain of death, to leave it ; these 
removals being all, more or less, attended with the horrors of famine, occasioning death 
to thousands, and distress and ruin to many more, besides spreading decay and desolation 
among the edifices of the city he desired to abandon. His son, Feroze Shah, on 


the contrary, devoted himself to the welfare of his people, and to the consolidation 
aud improvement of the empire to vphich he succeeded upon his father's death ; and 
among other efforts of amelioration and advancement that entitle his memory to grate- 
ful veneration, may be meutioned the diminution of capital punishments, the aboli- 
tion of torture and mutilation, and the removal of numerous vexatious taxes, all which 
evinced the solicitude of the ruler for the welfare of those under his sway. Reservoirs and 
canals for irrigation, mosques, colleges, caravansaries, hospitals, public baths, bridges, and 
other public edifices, were built; and revenues arising from laud were assessed by him for 
their maintenance. The chief of these works still remains a noble monument to the 
memory of its founder, in the canal extending from the point where the Jumna leaves the 
mountains by Kurnaul to Hansi and Hissar. A portion of this, extending about 200 
miles, was, a few years back, restored to usefulness by the British government. Soon 
after the death of this great monarch, the Mahratta power, which had already threatened 
to reduce the whole of India to a desert, began to be felt; and, amid all the struggles 
which succeeded, increased in strength, until the necessity of seeking refuge within the 
walls of new Delhi (founded by Shah Jehan in 1631), from the ferocious horde that 
tyrannised over the descendants of Aurungzebe, occasioned the total abandonment of the 
old city, which was already partly in ruins, and laid waste by its modern conquerors. 


This important city, the principal seat of the government of British India, is situated on 
the eastern bank of the river Hooghl)', a navigable branch of the Ganges, at a distance of 
about 100 miles from the sea. Its geographical position is found in lat. 22° 33' 54" N., 
and long. 88° 20' 17" E. From Calcutta, in a north-easterly direction, the travelling 
distances to the three chief seats of recent rebellion, are as follow : — From Benares, 
428 miles ; from Lucknow, 649 ; and from Delhi, 976. The spot chosen for the 
site of the capital is by no means the most favourable that might have been selected, 
as the surrounding country is flat and marshy; and extensive muddv lakes, with an 
immense forest, stretched in close proximity to the town, and produced a deleterious 
influence upon the general health of the inhabitants. Much has been effected, within the 
last few years, to obviate some of these local disadvantages, by draining the streets, filling 
up the stagnant pools, and clearing tlie jungle ; but the air is still considerably affected by 
the vicinity of the marshy district called the Sunderbiinds ; through which, in many 
channels, the Ganges pours its mighty stream into the Bay of Bengal. The Hooghly, at 
Calcutta, is about a mile in breadth at high water ; but, during the ebbs, its opposite side 
presents an unsightly range of long, dry sand-banks. 

The city of Calcutta affords a remarkable instance of rapid advancement from compara- 
tive insignificance as an obscure village, to a state of almost imperial splendour as the 
capital of an immense empire, originating in the following accidental and somewhat 
romantic incident of the 15th century*: — " Jehanara, the favourite daughter of Shah 
Jehan, in retiring one night from the imperial presence to her own apartment, set her 
dress on fire while passing one of the lamps which lit the corridor; and, fearful of calling 
for assistance while the male guards of the palace were within hearing, the terrified princess 
rushed into the harem, enveloped by fire, and was fearfully burned before the flames 
could be extinguished. The most famous physicians were summoned from different parts 
of the empire : and the surgeons of the English ships then at Surat, having obtained 
considerable repute for cures performed on some Mogul nobles, an express was sent to 
that place for one of them. A Mr. Gabriel Broughton was selected for the occasion ; 
and having, fortunately, been conspicuously instrumental in aiding the recovery of the 
princess, was desired by the grateful father to name his reward. With rare disinterest- 
Martin's Indian Empire, vol. i., p. 214. 




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edness, Brougliton asked only for advantages to the Company of which he was the 
servant ; and, in return for his skilful treatment of the suffering princess, and his subse- 
quent attendance upon the household of the emperor, and Prince Shuja, the governor of 
IJengal, he obtained a licence to the company of English merchants trading to the East 
Indies, for unlimited trade throughout the empire, with freedom from custom dues in all 
places except Surat, and permission to erect factories; which was speedily availed of, by 
the establishment of them at various places; and of which one was at Hooghly, on the 
western bank of the river. At this factory the Company continued to trade until 1696, 
when the emperor Aurungzebe permitted them to remove their establishment to the 
petty native village of Govindpoor, on the eastern bank ; and, in the following year, to 
secure their possession by a small fort. So slow was the early progress of the new settle- 
ment, that up to 1717, Govindpoor — the site of Calicafa, or Calcutta, now the "City of 
Palaces" — remained an assemblage of wretched huts, with only a few hundreds of inhabi- 
tants; and even so late as 1756, it had not more than seventy houses in it occupied by 
Europeans. In 1742, it was found necessary to augment the means of defence against 
the incursions of the Mahrattas, who had become troublesome; and the fort was 
surrounded by a ditch — a precaution that was found utterly useless when, in June, 
1756, the subahdar, or viceroy of Bengal, Surajah-ud-Dowlah, made an attack upon the 
factory, of which he obtained possession, and immortalised the memory of his conquest 
by the wanton destruction of the European residents by suffocation in one of the 
dungeons of the fort." The catastrophe is thus related : — " Upon the soldiers of Surajah- 
ud-Dowlah entering the fort, after a well-sustained resistance, by which they had lost 
many men, the inhabitants surrendered their arms, and the victors refrained from blood- 
shed. The subahdar, notwithstanding his character for inhumanity, showed no signs of 
it on this occasion, but took his seat iu the chief apartment of the factory, and received 
the congratulatory addresses of his officers and attendants with extreme elation ; all 
angry feelings being merged in the emotions of gratified vanity at the victory he had 
achieved. The smallness of the sum found in the treasury (50,000 rupees) disappointed 
him ; but when Mr. Holwell, a member of council (upon whom the defence of the factory 
had devolved after the troops had deserted the place), was brought into his presence with 
fettered hands, he was immediately set free; and notwithstanding some expressions of 
resentment at the English for the defence of the fort, Surajah declared, upon the faith of 
a soldier, not a hair of their heads should be touched. The conference terminated about 
seven in the evening, and Mr. Holwell returned to his companions in captivity (146 in 
number), while the question was diseussed by their captors, liow they were to be secured 
for the night. No suitable place could be found ; and while the guards were searching 
about, the prisoners, relieved from fear by the unexpected gentleness of Surajah Dowlah, 
stood in groups conversing together, utterly unsuspicious of their impending doom. The 
chief officer at length reported, that the only place of security he could find was the 
garrison prison — known, in military parlance, as ' the Black Hole' — a chamber eighteen 
feet long by fourteen broad, lit and ventilated by two small windows secured by thick 
iron bars, and overhung by a verandah. Even for a dozen European oft'eiulers, this 
dungeon would have been insufTerably close and narrow ; but the prisoners of the 
subahdar numbered 146 persons, the greater part of whom were English, whose constitu- 
tions could scarcely sustain the fierce heat of Bengal in the summer season, even with 
the aid of every mitigation that art could inventor money purchase. These unfortunates, 
in their ignorance of Mahratta nature, at first derided the idea of being shut up in the 
' Black Hole,' as being a manifest impossibility; but their incredulity was of short duration, 
The guards, hardened to the sight of suffering, and habitually careless of life, forced them 
all (including a half-caste woman, who clung to her husband) into the cell at the point of 
the sword, and fastened the door upon the helpless crowd. Mr. Holwell strove, by 
bribes and entreaties, to persuade an old man of some authority among the guard, to 
procure their separation into two places. He apparently made some attempt to effect 
this ; but returned, declaring that the subahdar slept, and none dared disturb him to 
request the desired permission, without which, no change could be made in the disposi- 
tion of the prisoners. The scene which ensued perhaps admits but of one comparison 
in horror — that one is, the hold of a slave-ship. Some few individuals retained conscious- 
ness to the last; and after hours of agony, surrounded by sights and sounds of the mos^ 



appalling description, they rendered up their souls tranquilly to their Creator ; while 
others, maddened by the double torment of heat and thirst, fought with each other like 
furious beasts, to approach the windows, or to obtain a share in the pittance of water 
procured through the intervention of one compassionate soldier; the other guards hold- 
ing lights to the iron bars, and shouting with fiendish laughter at the death-agonies and 
frantic struggles of the prisoners. Towards daybreak, the tumult in the cell of death 
began to diminish; shrieks and supplications were succeeded by low, fitful moans; a 
sickly pestilential vapour steamed through the bars — the majority of the prisoners had 
perished; corruption had commenced; and the few who yet survived, were sinking fast. 
The sleep of Surajah Dowlah at length ceased, and he was informed of the importuni- 
ties of the prisoners. The door was then forced open by his command. After the 
suffocatiug vapour had partially escaped, the guards ordered the prisoners to come forth; 
and from the dark gloom of that dungeon, and over the corpses that laid thick upon its 
floor, twenty-three ghastly figures stagjjered into the ligiit of day, one by one, faint and 
crushed by the intensity of their sufferings through the suffocating agonies of that 
dreadful night." Among the survivors of this horrible catastrophe were Mr. Holwell and 
the half-caste woman mentioned, who entered that dungeon a devoted wife, and left it a 
forlorn and broken-hearted widow — her European husband having fallen in the sacrificial 
oblation to ]\Iahratta vengeance. Upon the result of the night's work being reported to 
the chief, he ordered a pit to be dug in front of the dungeou, into which the bodies of 
the 123 murdered meu were promiscuously thrown. 

No appearance of regret was manifested by the subahdar for this atrocity. The first 
flush of exultation had passed away, and resentment for his pecuniary disappointment 
became now the dominant feeling. Mr. Holwell, unable to walk, was carried into his 
presence, and harshly interrogated regarding the treasure of the Company, which had been 
removed previous to the capture of the fort. As no satisfactory answer could be given to 
his inquiries, the few surviving victims were lodged in miserable sheds, fed on grain and 
water, and left to endure, as they might, the crisis of the fever consequent upon their 
imprisonment through the night of the 20th of June. Several did survive; and their 
release was eventually procured through the intercession of the grandmother of Surajah 
Dowlah, and a native merciiant named Omichuud. Upon the return of jNIr. Holwell to 
Europe some time afterwards, that gentleman and a Mr. Cooke, a sharer of his sufferings, 
gave a painfully-interesting account of the whole catastrophe before a committee of the 
House of Commons.* In October, 1756, Calcutta was recovered by a force under General 
Clive, after a siege of two hours only; at the end of which the Mahratta chief and his 
garrison sought their safety by flight. The "Black Hole" was afterwards converted 
into a warehouse ; and an obelisk, fifty feet high, raised before the entrance, com- 
memorates the names of the victims that perished within its fatal enclosure. 

Passing by the gradual development of this now important city until it had taken 
rank among the capitals of empires, it may be observed, that within little more than half a 
century from the event above-mentioned, the inconsiderable village and fort of 1756, 
which merely covered a few acres of land, had grown into a magnificent city, extending 
for more than six miles alonsj the river side, and penetrating inland, in some places, to 
nearly the same distance. The authoress of Sce7ies and Characteristics of Hindoostan, 
when exercising her pleasingly-descriptive pen upon reminiscences of Calcutta, says — " The 
approach to the ' City of Palaces' from the river is exceedingly fine ; the Hooghly, at all 
periods of the year, presents a broad surface of sparkling water; and as it winds through a 
richly-wooded country, clothed with eternal verdure, and interspersed with stately build- 
ings, the stranger feels that banishment may be endured amid scenes of so much 
picturesque beauty, attended by so many luxurious accompaniments." The usual landing- 
place, Cliampaul Ghaut, is formed by a magnificent flight of stone steps, ascending from 
the water to a noble esplanade, which opens to the town by a triumphal arch of fine 
proportions, and supported by columns of elaborate design. Passing beneath this orna- 
mental structure, a wide plain (or meidan), occupying a spacious quadrangular area, is 
intersected by broad roads which lead towards the interior. On two sides of this quad- 
rangle, a part of the city and of the fashionable suburb of Chowriiigee extend themselves. 
The houses are, for the most part, detached from each other, or are counected only by long^ 

* Pari. Papers (East India Company), 1772. 


ranges of raised terraces, surmounted, like the flat roofs of the houses, with bahistrades. 
In many instances pillared verandahs extend the entire height and width of the buildings, 
only intersected bj' spacious porticos : the architectural eft'ect of the interminable clusters 
of columns, balustered terraces, and lofty gateways, occasionally intermingled with 
brilliant foliage and shrubs of surpassing loveliness, is indescribably beautiful. The 
material of the houses is termed puckha — brick coated with cement of dazzling whiteness; 
and although the claims of the " City of Palaces" to high architectural merit have been 
questioned, and there may be many faults discoverable when tested by the strict rules of 
art, there is still sufficient to inspire the stranger with unmingled admiration at the mag- 
nificence of the coup d'wil that is presented from the Champaul Ghaut, from which point 
the eye embraces a wide range of the city, diversified by palaces and temples, spires and 
minarets, domes and towers, whose sharp, clear outlines are thrown into bold relief by the 
umbrageous verdure with which they are intermingled. 

The magnificent building erected by the Marquis Wellesley for the residence of the 
governor-general of British India, is situated on one side of the spacious quadrangle 
mentioned ; and in a line with it, on either side, is a range of handsome buildings occupied 
as offices of the government, and the abode of the higher class of officials in its service. 
The governor-general's palace consists of a rustic basement, with a superstructure of the 
Ionic order. A spacious flight of steps, on the north side of the edifice, extends over an 
arch by which carriages approach the principal entrance; and the south side is decorated 
with a circular colonnade, surmounted by a dome. The wings contain the private apart- 
ments of the palace, which are connected by circular passages, arranged to have the 
advantage of the air from all quarters. The central portion of the building contains 
several magnificent apartments for state occasions, and the council-chamber of the 

The principal square of Calcutta, called Tank-square, occupies a quadrangular area of 
about 500 yards ; in the centre of which is a large tank, sixty feet deep, surrounded by 
a wall and balustrade, and having steps descending to the bottom. The square contains 
the old fort of Govindpoor (the original Calicata) and the custom-house — a noble build- 
ing, in front of which a handsome quay has been formed. This portion of Calcutta is 
called " The Strand," and extends hence more than two miles along the bank of the 
river. During the administration of the Marquis of Hastings, from 1813 to 1823, much 
WHS done to improve the sanitary state of the capital by drainage and ventilation. A 
street sixty feet wide was opened through the centre of it, from end to end, and several 
squares were laid out, each of which, like the one already mentioned, has a tank in the 
centre, surrounded by planted walks. The southern part of the city is chiefly inhabited 
by Europeans; but a view of Calcutta limited to that portion only, would give a very 
erroneous idea of the whole of the metropolis of British India. 

The portion principally occupied by the natives is called Black Town, and lies 
northward of the European quarter, to which it presents a marked contrast. In extent 
it comprises about three-fourths of the entire space built over ; the streets and avenues 
being narrow, dirty, and unpaved. Many of the houses of the better class of inhabitants 
are built of brick, two storeys high, with terraced roofs; but the far greater number of 
habitations arc either mud cottages, or huts built of bamboo, or other slight material, 
and swarm with an excess of population in proportion to the accommodation they are 
calculated to afford. From the close contiguity, and fragile material used in these build- 
ings, fires are frequent and destructive in the Black Town, but do not often affect the 
European quarter. Upwards of twenty bazaars, well supplied with merchandise from all 
parts of the world, and with provisions in abundance, offer to the inhabitants all that is 
requisite for their consumption. 

Besides the government-house and the old fort, the other public buildings of note in 
Calcutta are the town-house, the courts of justice, the theatres and assembly-rooms, and 
numerous places of worship adapted to the various rituals that flourish under the 
tolerant ride of Britain. Amongst them are two churches belonging to the English — one 
of them being the cathedral of the diocese of Calcutta ; other edifices, dedicated to 
Christian worship, belong to the Portuguese, the Armenians, and the Greeks; and there 
are also several temples and mosques belonging to the Hindoo and Mohammedau 

Fort William stands about a quarter of a mile below the town, aud lias been con- 
sidered the strongest fortress belonging to the English throughout their possessions in 
India. In form it is an irregular octagon, built at a cost of £200,000, after a design 
approved by Clive soon after the battle of Plassy, in 1757. The five sides of tlie octagon 
next the land are extensive, and are mounted with a formidable armament for the protec- 
tion, or, if necessary, for the destruction of the town, or any adverse force in possession 
of it : the three sides towards the river completely command the approach to the town 
in that direction. The interior of the fort is open, aud afifords a vast space for military 
parades, besides well-arranged and shaded promenades, kept in excellent order. The 
barracks, which are bomb-proof, are sufficiently large to accommodate 10,000 men; and 
it would require, with its 619 pieces of cannon in position, aud adequately manned, as 
many troops to garrison it as would form an army capable of takiug the field. Besides the 
quarters for the men. Fort William contains only such buildings as are absolutely neces- 
sary for the convenience of the establishment ; a house for the commandant, officers' 
quarters, and the arsenal, which is kept well supplied with military stores. The entire 
cost of this fortress, since its construction in 1757, has exceeded £1,000,000 sterling. 

As the seat of government, Calcutta possesses also the supreme court of judicature for 
the presidency of Bengal. This court is under the control of a chief justice aud two 
puisne judges, appointed by the crown. The native courts of Sudder Dewanny Adawlut, 
and Nazamut Adawlut (the former for civil, and the latter for criminal causes), are courts 
of appeal from the provincial courts in all parts of Hindoostan. 

Calcutta was erected into a diocese under the prelacy of the Rev. Dr. Heber in 
1814; and the annual stipend of the bishopric is £5,000, with an episcopal palace. The 
religious, educational, literary, aud scientific institutions of Calcutta are numerous, and 
of a high order. A Sanscrit college, a Mohammedan college, and an Anglo-Indian col- 
lege are severally supported by grants from the government, which also affords aid to 
many establishments for instructing the native children, and those of the poorer classes of 
Europeans. The college of Fort William (founded by the Marquis Wellesley) is 
chiefly directed to the completion of the education, in native languages, of cadets and 
ernployis of the East India Company, who have been partially educated at Haileybury. 
The opulent inhabitants of Calcutta, both native and European, also contribute liberally 
to the support of charitable foundations of various kinds. 

Besides tlie five libraries of the public institutions, such as those of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal (founded by Sir William Jones in 1784), Fort William College, the 
Botanical Society, the Agricultural and Horticultural Societies of India, the Calcutta 
Literary Society, &c., the capital is amply supplied with excellent subscription libraries 
and reading-rooms. Of these, the Calcutta Public Library is entitled to the first rank. 
A Mechanics' Institute has also been established, and is well supported by the class for 
whose benefit it was designed. 

The Botanical Gardens are situated on a bend of the river at Garden Reach, the 
favourite summer residence of opulent Anglo-Indians; aud are within about half-an-hour's 
row from Champaul Ghaut. This noble establishment of the government is at all times 
open to visitors : it contains all the varieties of vegetation known throughout Hindoostan ; 
with a vast collection of exotics, chiefly from Nepaul, Pulo-Penang, Sumatra, and Java ; 
besides contributions from Brazil, the Cape, and other regions of the Americas and of 
Africa, as well as from Australia and the islands of the Southern Ocean. Above this 
magnificent garden is a large plantation of teak — a wood which is not indigenous in this 
part of India, but is most invaluable iu ship-building; a branch of national industry that 
is carried on at Calcutta to a considerable extent. 

One of the great inconveniences of Calcutta arises from its great deficiency of water. 
It has not unfrequently happened, in aud about the city, that after boring to a depth 
of more than 150 feet, no springs have been reached : the water-supply of a great portion 
of the inhabitants is therefore dependent upon bheesties (or water-carriers), who are 
attached to almost every establishment. 

The markets of Calcutta are profusely supplied with butchers' meat, venison, game, 
fish, vegetables and fruits, all of which are generally to be obtained at moderate prices. 
The game consists of hares, wild ducks, teal, ortolans, snipes, &c. Amongst the water 
products is the mango-fish — which derives its name from appearing in the river only at the 


season in which the mangoes ripen ; and is regarded as a great delicacy. Pine-apples, 
melons, oranges, peaches, guavas, loquats, strawberries, &c., are produced in infinite 
variety, and are of the most exquisite flavour. 

Amongst the luxurious abundance beneath which the tables of the upper class of 
public servants at the seat of government literally groan, it is amusing to find that the 
recognised delicacies of an entertainment chiefly consist of hermetically-sealed salmon, 
red-herrings, cheese, smoked sprats, raspberry jam, aud dried fruits : these articles coming 
from Europe, and being sometimes difiicult to procure in a desirable state, are frequently 
sold at almost fabulous prices. 

The population of Calcutta, exclusive of the suburbs, was, in 1850, estimated at 
413,182; that of the entire place, with the districts adjacent, comprised within a circle of 
twenty miles, was computed by the magistrates, a few years since, at 2,325,000 persons ; 
and the numbers have progressively increased to the present time. Besides the human 
crowds which people the capital and its suburbs, the swarms of animal life, of an inferior 
order, that are attracted by the enormous quantity of viands, of every kind, that are 
daily thrown into the thoroughfares, are remarkable. The exceeding waste of animal 
aud other food by European families at this place, is partly accounted for by the fact of 
the religious prejudices of the native servants, who will not partake of food prepared by 
others than of their own caste. The lower order of the Portuguese, who constitute the 
bulk of European society of their class, and to whom much of the wasted abundance 
might be serviceable, cannot consume the whole, and their inefficiency is accordingly 
made up for by amazing flocks of crows, kites, and vultures; which, undisturbed by man, 
live together, and, at times, almost cover the houses and gardens. In their useful occu- 
pation as scavengers, the kites and crows are assisted, during the day, by the adjutant- 
bird, or stork, and, after sunset, by pariah dogs, foxes, and jackals, which then emerge 
from the neighbouring jungles, and fight over their garbage, making " night hideous with 
their discordant noises." 

Calcutta, from its position aud local resources, was not likely to be materially affected 
by the insurrectionary outbreak that carried fire and sword with desolating fury through 
the fair provinces of which it was the capital ; and many reasons conspired to secure this 
immunity. For instance, there were, on all occasions, more Europeans at Calcutta than 
in any other city in India, who could present a formidable barrier to the efforts of the 
disaffected : there was the immediate presence and influence of the viceregal court — 
objects of great weight upon the native mind ; the head-quarters of all authority was 
concentrated in the city, ensuring the promptest measures tliat, in any exigency, might 
be required : and besides all this, it was the port of debarkation for successive arrivals 
of European troops — a fact which alone would have sufficed to quench the aspirations of the 
most sanguine amongst the rebelliously inclined of its native population. Yet the capital 
was not altogether free from causes of disquietude, nor was the government regard- 
less of the necessity for unremitting vigilance. Two important measures, however, that were 
considered requisite for the safety of the state — namely, a bill restraining the exuberant 
tone of the press, and for the registration of arms — met with much popular clamour. A 
great cause of uneasiness also arose from the fact that, at the time of the outbreak, scarcely 
any English troops were quartered in Fort William ; while the proximity of the military 
stations at Barrackpoor and Dumdum (the first being sixteen miles, and the latter only 
eight miles from the seat of government, and, at the time of the mutiny, chiefly occupied 
by native troops), was a circumstance well calculated to inspire alarm : fortunately, 
beyond alarm, no immediate evil result afflicted Calcutta society, in connection with the 
revolt. The first occasion for disquietude arose on the 17th of May, immediately after 
intelligence of the outrages at Meerut and Delhi had reached the government. Some 
men belonging to a native regiment, encamped on the esplanade between the Coolie 
Bazaar and Fort William, were reported as having made mutinous overtures to the 
soldiers on duty at the fort ; their object, in the first instance, being to obtain ammuni- 
tion, and then, in conjunction with the sepoys, to take possession of the fort during the 
night; and after putting the Euroi)eans within the walls to death, to turn the guns of 
the fort upon the shipping, to prevent intelligence being conveyed from the country; 
and then to play upon the city while the European population were massacred, and their 
property destroyed. Having eflccted thus much, the city was to be given up to pillage. 


and the native troops, laden with spoil, were then to march to Delhi, and join the standard 
of the Mogul. However much or little of truth there might be in the report, it v/as at 
once conveyed to the fort-major by the men to whom the alleged design had been, 
revealed, and steps were immediately taken fur the protection of the fort and city. 
The drawbridges at Fort William were raised, and ladders of communication withdrawn 
from the ditches ; the guns on the several bastions were shotted, and additional guards 
placed over the arsenal. European sentinels were stationed at the officers' quarters, and on 
the ramparts; while patrols were kept on duty through the city, to report the first 
symptom of active outbreak. The night, however, passed over without any attempt to 
disturb the peace; and on the following day a sufficient European force was moved into 
the capital, and the regiments on the esplanade were then quietly disarmed. 

About the middle of June, circumstances transpired that rendered it expedient to 
remove the ex-kiug of Oude (who had, for some time previous, occupied a residence at 
Garden Reach, a suburb of Calcutta) from the native iuflueuces that surrounded him ; 
aud it was determined that, for a time, his majesty should become an inmate of Fort 
William, to which he was accordingly removed, under the following circumstances : — 
At daybreak on the morning of the 15'th of June, a detachment of the 37th regiment, 
which had just arrived at Calcutta from Ceylon, was marched down to Garden Reach, 
with two guns ; and, before its approach was observed, had surrounded the palace. The 
officer in command then demanded an audience of his majesty; and, reaching his pre- 
sence, respectfully announced his mission, and, at the same time, delivered an autograph 
from the governor-general, addressed to the king, in the following terms : — 

"Fort William, June 15th. 

" Sir, — It is with pain that I find myself compelled to require that your majesty's 
person should, for a season, be removed to within the precincts of Fort William. The 
name of your majesty, and the authority of your court, are used by persons who seek to 
excite resistance to the British government ; and it is necessary that this should cease. 
Your majesty knows that, from the day when it pleased you to fix your residence near 
Calcutta to the present time, yourself, and those about your majesty, have been entirely 
free and uncontrolled. Your majesty may be assured, then, that it is not the desire of 
the governor-general in council to interfere needlessly with your movements and actions. 
Your majesty may be equally certain that the respect due to your majesty's high position 
will never be forgotten by the government or its officers, and that every possible provision 
will be made for your majesty's convenience and comfort. — Canning."* 

The surprise was so perfect, and the arrangements so well carried out, that not the 
slightest chance of successful opposition to the measure existed. No resistance was 
offered ; and, at seven o'clock in the morning, the king of Oude, accompanied by two 
commissioned officers of the governor-general's staff, was quietly conveyed a prisoner to 
apartments prepared for his reception in Fort William. 

Numerous arrests followed this decisive step ; and the subsequent conspiracy for a 
general rising iu the city and suburbs, as well as in other parts of the province of iSengal, 
aud the late kingdom of Oude, became known to the government iu ample time to 
enable it to adopt measures fur the security of the capital. 


The city of Madras (or Fort St. George), the capital of a presidency, and the chief 
emporium of commerce on the western shore of the Bay of Bengal, is situated in lat. 13° 
5' N., long. 80° 21' E. In travelling distances, it is 1,030 miles S. from Calcutta, 
758 S.E. from Bombay, and 1,275 S.E. from Delhi. The approach to Madras from tlie 
seals peculiar: low, flat, sandy shores extend far to the north and south; aud small 
• History of the IndUm Mutiny, vol. i., p. 586. 


barren hills, that form the boundary of the view inland, contribute to impress the spec- 
tator with a sense of sterilit}' and loneliness that only wears off with a near proximity to 
the land, when the beach is seen, as it were, alive with the swarms of animate nature that 
cover it to the very verge of the sea. The public offices and buildings erected near the 
beach are handsome, with colonnades or verandahs to the upper storeys; supported 
on arched bases, and covered with the beautiful shell mortar (or chunam) of Madras — 
liard, smooth, and polished like marble. Within a few yards of the sea the fortifications 
of Fort St. George present an imposing appearance, and beyond them are seen minarets 
and pagodas, intermixed with luxuriant foliage. Within the fort a lighthouse rears its 
monitory crest ninety feet above the level of the sea, and is visible from the mast-head of 
a large ship, at a distance of twenty-six miles. 

Madras has no harbour, and vessels of heavy burthen are obliged to moor in the roads 
— about two miles from the fort. A strong current runs along the coast, and a tremen- 
dous surf breaks on the shore, rendering it difficult to land even in the calmest weather. 
In crossing this surf the natives use boats of a peculiar construction, built of verj' thin 
planks laced together, and made as pliable as possible. The boats from the vessels often 
row to the outside of the surf, and wait for the masulah (or native boats) to take the pas- 
sengers on shore. Fishermen, and others of the lower class employed on the water, fre- 
quently use a simple kind of conveyance for passing the surf, called a "catamaran," which 
they resort to when the sea is too rough for the masulah boats to venture out. These 
substitutes are formed of two or three logs of wood about ten feet long, lashed together, 
with a piece of wood between them to serve as a helm. Sitting astride this unique 
barque, two men, armed with paddles, launch themselves upon the surf to fish, or to con- 
vey messages to and from the ships in the roads, when no other means of communication 
is available. The Madras boatmen are expert swimmers; and when, as is frequently the 
case, they are washed from the catamaran by the force of the surging waves, they make 
no difficulty in regaining their perilous seats, and proceeding on their mission. 

The most striking ohject from the sea is Fort St. George, which, as it now stands, 
embraces the remains of the original fortress (erected in 1640), and long since converted 
into storehouses and public offices. The present building is strong and handsome, 
extensive, and well defended ; its face towards the sea being deemed impregnable, as the 
heavy surf would eft'ectually prevent the landing of an enemy. Within the walls are the 
post-ofBce, magazines, storehouses, barracks, hospitals, and other necessary requirements. 
The governor's residence is a spacious building of some pretension to architectural 
beauty ; and on the esplanade in front of it, is a marble statue of the Marquis Cornwallis. 
Southward from the site of the Old Fort is a large and commodious church, in which has 
been erected a splendid memorial of Bishop Heber — sculptured by Cliantrey, and repre- 
senting the estimable prelate in the solemn act of confirming two native converts in the 
doctrines of a faith more pure, more holy, than those of the benighted race from whose 
errors they have been rescued. 

The southern exit from the fort leads to the fashionable drive of European Madras — 
the South Beach, which is a strip of road about a quarter of a mile in length along the 
shore. At the end of the drive is an oval enclosure, consisting of a lawn and gravel- 
walks; in the centre of which a military band "discourses sweet music," for about an 
hour, to the i-lile'of Madras society, on three evenings of the week. There are several 
other pleasant drives in the vicinity of the town, especially the Mount-road — so named 
from its leading to the artillery station at St. Thomas's Mount. This road, which is sis 
miles in length, presents a continuous succession of charming villas, interspersed with 
luxuriant foliage, and nestled in gardens, where the rich glow of Oriental flowers is tem- 
pered i)y the sober verdure of the groves that surround thera, and leave nothing for 
fancy to desire for delighting the eye or enchanting the imagination. " Here," says a 
recent traveller, "are to be seen, in the most lavish abundance, the plume-like broad- 
leaved plantain, the gracefully drooping bamboo, the proud coronet of the cocoa waving 
with every breeze, the fan-leaf of the still taller palm, the delicate areca, the ohclisk-like 
aloe, the majestic banian with its droopiiig stems — the giant arms outstretching from a 
columnar aud strangely convoluted trunk, and shooting forth the pliant fibrous strings 
which plant themselves in the earth below, and add support and dignity to the umbra- 
geous canopy above them." 


Near the Mount-road is the racecourse, on the town side of which is a stone bridge 
of many arches, over a wide and deep ravine which forms a channel for the waters during 
the rainy season — a shallow stream meandering along its bed at other times; on the banks 
of which are generally collected some hundreds of dhobies (washermen), with the tents 
in which their families are located. It is noticed as peculiarly characteristic of the arro- 
gance and exclusive pretensions of Europeans in India, that their own vehicles alone are 
permitted to traverse this bridge ; the bullock hackeries of the natives being compelled to 
descend on one side, and, after wading through the water, ascend the somewhat precipi- 
tous bank on the other. With such, and many equally offensive assumptions of superiority 
regulating the intercourse between the English residents and the native population, it is 
hardly likely that any other feeling could be cherished by the latter than that of hatred, 
not the less intense because veiled heneath a mask of servile obsequiousness. 

Government-house, which is by no means remarkable either for architectural beauty 
or the accommodation it affords, is situated at the head of the Mount-road. The garden, 
or park, by which it is surrounded, is spacious, and extends to the shore, where the gov- 
ernor of the presidency has a smaller habitation, named the "Marine Villa." 

The Black Town, which is beyond the fort from the sea, is described by a recent 
traveller as being large and very populous : the streets mostly run at right angles, and 
parallel with each other. As the mercantile business of the place is transacted here, the 
shops of Europeans and natives are chiefly established in the Black Town; and, with 
the residences of the Portuguese and natives, occupy a considerable area. The joint 
population of the two towns is estimated at 480,000. 

The climate of JNIadras is considered to be less sultiy than that of Bengal; and such 
stations as are situated on the higher grounds of the table-land, enjoy a very agreeable 
temperature. Society is more limited than that of Calcutta, and displays less attention 
to the elegancies of life. Parbury, in his Handbook of India, describes the manners of the 
Europeans as of a haughty and ridiculously exclusive character — an assertion which seems 
to be warranted by the fact related of the Ravine bridge. 

During the recent calamitous events that have deluged a vast portion of the sister pre- 
sidency with blood, that of Madras remained almost entirely free from disturbance. With 
one solitary exception (the 8th regiment of Madras native cavalry), the native troops not 
only kept faith with the government that fed and paid them, but also cheerfully offered 
their services against the mutinous sepoys of Bengal. Many of the regiments were 
employed in the course of the struggles of 1857-'8, and rendered good service in the 
battles fought with the insurgent troops. The only instance of dissatisfaction and reluc- 
tance to obey the orders of their commander, was furnished by the regiment above-men- 
tioned, which mutinied on its way from Bangalore to Madras (where it was to embark for 
Calcutta), on the ground of the unsatisfactory rates of pay, batta, and pension. The local 
government unwisely yielded to the demands of the men in this instance, and the 
regiment resumed its march; but after proceeding thirteen miles further, the troopers 
again halted, and declared " they would not go forth to war against their countrymen." 
Prompt measures were then taken to put an end to this insubordinate conduct : the men 
were unhorsed and disarmed, and sent to do dismounted duty at Arcot ; and their 
horses and arms were forthwith shipped to Calcutta, where the accession was, at the mo» 
ment, of great value to the government. 


The island, town, and harbour of Bombay, from which the presidency has been named, 
lie off the western shore of the Concan, in the province of Bejapoor ; the town occupying 
the south-eastern extremity of the island, and being in lat. 18° 56' N., long. 72° 57' E. 
Its distance from Calcutta is 1,301 miles south-east ; and, from Madras, 774 miles, also 


south-east. The small island upon which the capital of the presidency is situated, is 
ahout eight miles in length from north to south, and is three miles broad in its voidest 
part. Separated from the mainland by an arm of the sea, Bombay forms, with the 
contiguous islands of Colaba, or " Old Woman's Island," Salsette (" Butclicr's Island"), 
and Carauja — visible in the annexed engraving — one of the finest harbours in Hin- 
doostan. Two derivations have been assigned to the present name of the island — one 
from the Hindoo goddess, Bomba (Devi); the other from the Portuguese, Buon Bahia 
(a good bay or harbour.) 

The harbour of Bombay presents one of the most striking and beautiful views that 
ever delighted the eye of an artist. The splendour and sublimity of its scenery offer 
such numberless claims to admiration, that it is considered by many to bear the palm 
from the far-famed Bay of Naples. During the best season of the year the sea is 
smooth, its undulations resembling rather those of an inland lake than the waters of 
an ocean ; while the breeze blowing in-shore during the greater part of the day, 
enables the very smallest boats, with the assistance of the tide, to voyage along the 
coast, or to the several islands which gem the, scarcely ruffled wave, and to return with 
the succeeding flood without encountering any of the dangers that are experienced in less 
secure places. Even during the monsoon, wheu many other points of the Indian coast 
are unapproachable — wheu the lofty and apparently interminable mountains which form 
the magnificent background are capped with clouds, and the sea-birds that love the storm 
skim between the foam-crovpued billows — the fishing-boats breast the waves iu Bombay 
harbour, and pursue their occupation without hindrance. At this season, although the 
reality of the danger is nothing to experienced sailors, the aspect of the harbour becomes 
wild and even terrific ; dai'kness envelopes the sky, aud the woody promontories and bold 
romantic cliffs, rising above village, town, and tower, are obscured by the dingy scud 
which drives along. When, however, the wrath of the storm-king has subsided, and the 
fury of the. monsoon has exhausted itself, settled weather and clear skies once more 
appear, and the harbour is again seen iu all its beauty and luxuriance. 

Bombay derives its origin and importance, as a European settlement, from the 
Portuguese, to whom it was ceded by the Mogul government in 1530; having previously 
been a dependency belonging to a Hindoo prince residing at Tanna, iu the island of 
Salsette. It came into possession of the English in 1662, on the marriage of Charles II. 
with the infanta Catherine of Portugal, as part of the marriage dowry of that princess. 
By the king it was disposed of to the East India Company, who took possession of it on 
the 23rd of September, 1668, aud retained it in their hands until their territorial rights 
in India were surrendered to the crown of England in 1858. 

Standing principally on a narrow neck of land at the south-eastern extremity of the 
island, the fort and town command a beautiful prospect across a bay diversified with 
rocky islets, and crowned by a background of picturesque hills. The town itself is low, 
and, during the rainy season, is subject to inundation. The fortifications are extensive, 
and would require a numerous garrison for their defence : towards the sea, they are of 
great strength ; but on the land side, an enemy having once obtained a footing on the 
island, would find little difficulty with them. The fort or garrison embraces a surface of 
234 acres, and contains a very large population. On one side, between the fort aud the 
sea (at Back Bay), is a tract of almost level ground, 387 acres in extent, aud about 
1,800 yards in length along the shore; which is not available for any purpose of improve- 
ment, through a regulation which prohibits the erection of any permanent building 
within 800 yards of the batteries. This regulation is, however, evaded by the exjiensive 
and inconvenient expedient of erecting, and demolishing annually, a line of temi)orary 
erections, of about three-quarters of a mile in length; which, for the time allowed, supply 
the place of houses. These habitations are constructed of wood, with trellis-work of 
bamboo, and surrounded with a canvas like a large tent. They are thatched over with 
cadjous, or the leaves of the palrayra-trce, and lined inside with curtains or ornamental 
cloth, and are chiefly occupied by the highest class of the military officers and civil 
servants of the government. Beyond this line is a large encampment for officers tem- 
porarily resident in Bombay, who occupy tents. The bungalows are surrounded by 
ornamental railings, covered with the passion-flower, and other rapidly-growing creeping 
plants, aud are generally furuisiied with flower or vegetable gardens. The compound 



thus formed, opens out on the sea-beach on one side, and on a line of road nearly parallel 
with the batteries on the other. The effect of the whole is highly picturesque and 
pleasing ; but the garrison regulations require that they shall be removed once a year. 
Up to the middle of jNIay, then, we have a line of beautiful rustic villas, which, together 
with the officers' tents at its extremity, extends nearly a mile along the shore. All at 
once, as though some panic had seized the inhabitants, or a plague had broken out in 
the doomed suburb, the bungalows or villas of the esplanade begin to be deserted, and 
are forthwith demolished, the materials of which they are composed being rapidly 
removed. So quickly does the work of destruction proceed, that, in the course of a 
fortnight, not a vestige is to be seen of the lately populous suburb of Bombay. By the 
first fall of rain, the dwellings have vanished as if by magic — roofs, walls, and frame- 
work ; the very tents and their occupants are also gone. The esplanade, for a few days, 
presents a very unsightly appearance : the floor and foundations of houses, torn paper- 
hangings, the refuse of straw used for packing, fragments of broken fences, and the 
remains of ruined shrubberies and flower-pots, are all that is left to designate the site of 
the departed town. Another week, and all this is changed : the first fall of rain covers 
everything with grass ; and the esplanade, which was, on the 15th of May, covei'ed by a 
town, and on the 1st of June presented a scene of slovenly and unsightly desolation — by the 
15th of June is a bright green sward, as close and continuous as that on which the deer 
of some ancestral manor in England have browsed for centuries. The reappearance of 
these ephemeral habitations is nearly as magical as their departure : the loth of Sep- 
tember sees the esplanade a verdant lawn ; October again witnesses the suburb formerly 

Many of the permanent residences, both within and without the fort, are, however, 
commodiously built, particularly in the European quarter. Those within the fort, that 
were originally erected by the Portuguese, have wooden verandahs, supported by pillars 
of the same material ; and as this style of building has been continued, Bombay bears no 
resemblance to the sister capitals of Calcutta and Madras. The northern quarter of the 
fort, inhabited chiefly by Parsee fanatics, is dirty and ofi'ensive; and the lower classes of 
the inhabitants live in little clay huts thatched with palmyra-leaves, outside the fort. 

There are several churches belonging to the Portuguese and Armenians, as also three 
or four synagogues, both within and beyond the fortifications, as well as a number of 
mosques and Hindoo temples. The largest of the latter, dedicated to the worship of 
Bomba Devi, is about a mile and a-half from the fort. The only English church in 
Bombay is within the fort. 

The government-house, or Castle, as it was originally designated, is a large commo- 
dious building; but it has long been disused as a state residence, and is appropriated for 
public offices. The governor has two other residences for his accommodation ; the 
one named Parell, at a short distance northward from the fort, being usually occupied as 
a town residence ; the other, used as a retreat in the hot weather, being at Malabar Point. 
Parell, originally a college of Jesuits, though not built in a commanding position, is 
described as very prettily situated " in the midst of gardens, having a rich background 
of wood ; while, from the upper windows, the eye, after ranging over luxuriant groves, 
catches a view of the sea, and is carried away to more remote regions by the waving 
outline of distant hills melting into the soft haze, until it effaces all their details."* The 
house is an irregular structure, without pretension to architectural design or ornamenta- 
tion, but yet having something noble in its appearance ; an impression which is increased 
•by a fine portico and castellated roof. The interior is spacious and convenient. Two 
flights of marble stairs, twelve feet wide, lead into a handsome suite of drawing-rooms, 
with galleries on either side. The terrace over the portico, separated from this suite of 
rooms by a verandah, is casilj' convertible into another reception-room, being roofed iu 
by an awning, and furnished with blinds which, in the daytime, give an Italian air to 
the entire building. The gardens are purely Italian, with cypress-trees and fountains, 
and the arrangements of the grounds are sufficiently picturesque to satisfy even fastidious 
criticism. A broad terrace, overlooking a large tank, runs along one side of the gardens; 
and beyond, upon a rising hill, are seen the new horticultural gardens, and a part of the 
picturesque village of Metunga. Tlic floral features of the gardens at Parell are of the 
* Miss Roberts' Overland Journey to Bombay. 


most choice description; but the abundance of roses seems to defy computation, bushels 
being collected every day for mouths without any apparent diminution ; and it has been 
questioned whether there is, in any part of the world, so great a consumption of this beau- 
tiful flower as in Bombay. The natives cultivate it largely ; and as comparatively but few 
employ it in the manufacture of rose-water, it is gathered and given away in the most 
lavish profusion. "At Parell," writes Miss Roberts, "every moruing, one of the garden- 
ers renews the flowers which decorate the apartments of the guests : bouquets arc placed 
on the breakfast tables ; vases, filled with roses, meet the eye in every direction, and 
present specimens of this beautiful flower — the common productions of the garden — that 
are rarely found even in the hothouses of Europe." 

Malabar Point, the summer retreat for the governor's establishment, is a remarkable 
promontory on the island of Bombay ; where there is a hole or cleft in the rock, of much 
sanctity with the Hindoos. Pilgrims resort thither for the purpose of regeneration, 
which they conceive to be effected by passing themselves through the cleft. The spot is 
of considerable elevation, among rocks of difficult access ; and, in the stormy season, 
is incessantly lashed by the surf of the ocean — a circumstance that involves no difficulty 
in it when viewed through the eye of fanaticism. Near it are the ruins of a temple 
believed to have been destroyed by the Portuguese, in their pious detestation of the idols 
of any other faith than their own. 

The governor's mansion, and several bungalows around it, occupy the side of a hill 
overlooking and washed by the sea. The views are beautiful ; the harbour affording, at 
all times and from every point of view, scenes of great liveliness and interest ; while the 
aerial summits of the hills in the distance, amid their purple splendours, complete the 
charm. The numerous fairy-like skiffs, with their white sails catching the sunlight, give 
animation to the picture ; while tlie cottages of the fishermen are often placed, with 
artistic effect, upon the neighbouring sliore. Since their expulsion from Persia by the 
Mohammedans, the Parsees, or Fire-worshippers, have constituted a large portion of the 
population of Bombay. They are a peculiar race, and adhere scrupulously to their 
ancient religious customs and observances. In the morning and evening they crowd to 
the esplanade or the sea-shore, to prostrate themselves iu adoration before the sun. 
Taken as a whole, they are an active, intelligent, and loyal body of men, aud contribute 
greatly to the growth and prosperity of the settlement, the mercantile wealth and property 
of which is principally in their hands. Among the lower class of these people, it is 
observed that, though the men are found in the service of every European family, they 
do not allow their wives or daughters to become domestics to foreigners, and only permit 
them to become servants among their own people. Their funerals are of a remarkable 
character — the dead being deposited in large cylindrical towers open to the air, aud left 
imtil the vultures denude the bones, which are then removed, aud mysteriously disposed 
of. The houses of the European families at Bombay are described as of a superior order, 
in regard to interior embellishment, to those of Calcutta; the greater part having 
handsome ceilings, and the doorways and windows being decorated with mouldings, and, 
in other respects, better fitted up and furnished. The portion of the town formerly 
denominated the "Black Town," but now known as the Bhoua Bazaar, is a broad street, 
forming the high-road to the fort. This is the avenue most frequeuted by Europeans; 
and is remarkable for the strange variety and grotesque irregularity of its buildings. 
Most of the better kind of houses are ascended by a flight of steps, which leads to a sort 
of verandah, formed by the floor above projecting over it, and supported by wooden 
pillars, or some sort of framework, in front. In the Parsee houses of this kind, there is 
usually a nitch in the lower storey for a lamp, which is kept always burning. The 
higher classes of natives have adopted European equipages, and associate much with the 
corresponding ranks of English society. 

There is much variety of heat and cold in the diSiirent seasons at Bombay. The dry 
season is the most uniform, and extends from October to June. The cold period sets iu 
early in November, and continues to the beginning of March, when the heat gains 
strength again, and prevails until about the third week iu May, when the uniform bright- 
ness of the sky begins to be interrupted. About the 6lli of June, sudden blasts and 
squalls ensue, aud the rain descends in an unbroken sheet of water. The first fall 
usually commeuces at night, and continues for thirty or forty hours ; and then, not only are 


the contents of spouts from the house-eaves rushing dowu in absohite cataracts, but every 
water-channel overflows with an impetuous torrent. The streets and level grounds are 
flooded for miles. The entire duration of the south-west monsoon is nearly four months. 
From June to the end of September, the hills are shrouded by thick, black, impenetrable 
clouds, out of which the rain pours without intermission. It would be difficult for a 
European not having been in India, to imagine tiie interruption which the rains occasion 
to general intercourse throughout the greater part of the country during the three rainy 
months. Originating in the mountain-ranges, the streams which flow through the level 
lands, and ultimately, in many instances, form vast rivers, will often rise and fall from 
ten to fifteen feet perpendicularly in the course of twenty-four hours ; and five-and- 
twenty feet are not an unusual variation between the fair and wet weather elevations. 

The population of the island of Bombay has been estimated at 222.000 persons, and it 
continues to increase. The insurrectionary storm that troubled Bengal and the north- 
west, once only affected the capital of the presidency of Bombay : but the province itself 
was partially infected by the taint of rebellion ; and during tiie months of June and Julv, 
1857, symptoms appeared at Kolapore, Poona, and in various other quarters to the north, 
south, and east of the capital, that required careful watching, and, in more than one 
instance, prompt and vigorous action also, to restrain the growing mischief from overflow- 
ing Bombay with its destructive waves. 


The celebrated and favourite resort of the f'/«7e of European society from all parts of 
India, that is known by this name, must be sought for among hills that rise between the 
Sutlej and the Jumna, below the lower range of the Himalaya; and situated at the 
north-eastern extremity of Bengal, about 1,112 miles from Calcutta. The spot occupied 
by this Cheltenham of the East, in one of the most salubrious and picturesque districts of 
Hindoostan, has risen to its present importance from the accidental circumstance of a 
military station and sanatarium having been established at a village called Sabathoo, in 
its immediate vicinity ;* followed by the erection of a summer residence for the political 
agent at Lahore — the site for which was happdy selected .amidst the delightful scenery of 
Simla. From its early establishment as a European station, the place has maintained a 
high repute for its sanitary influences, and it has, consequently, been periodically visited, 
for the purposes of health and recreation, by successive governors-general, and the 
superior military and civil authorities of Bengal and the sister presidencies : nor has the 
church been regardless of its attractions; since the bishops of Calcutta, and other digni- 
taries of the establishment, have frequently sought to recruit their enfeebled energies 
among its pure and bracing influences. 

As a town or village, the station is built in two distinct divisions, named Simla and 
Cota (or Minor) Simla ; a deep ravine, through which, in the rainy season, an impetuous 
torrent rushes downward to the plains, separating the two portions, which are, however, 
connected by a bridge of simple construction, erected in 1828, by Lord Conibermere, 
then the commander-in-chief in India. Previous to the accommodation thus afl'orded, 
Simla may be considered as comparatively luiknown, there being at the place only two or 
three houses, and scarcely any practicable road by which to approach them. The interest 
taken in the prosperity of the infant settlement by the gallant officer, induced him to 
make it for a time his head-quarters ; and to his active interference and influence, Simla 
is indebted for most, if not all, of its early improvements; among the foremost of 

• Sabathoo is the only spot in the Himalaya garrisoned by British troops : it has barracks, a parade- 
ground on a level area of four or five acres, and all other military requirements. In the winter it is 
warmer than Simla, its elevation being less hy 3,000 feet; and being more quiet and retired, it is preferred 
by many to the more fasiiionable locality above it. 

g S 

f" IP 
S ^ 
E «3 


which were some excellent roads, broad, safe, and free from any abrupt acclivities. 
The bridge represented in the accompanying engraving, connects the most important 
of these, which encircles the hill on which the station is built; another, that stretches to 
a very considerable distance, is of sufficient breadth and giadient for st angers to ride 
along with rapidity and safety. Bungalows, or dak-houses, were also erected at conve- 
nient distances, varying from eight to ten miles, for the accommodation of travellers pro- 
ceeding to the inner ranges of the Himalaya. 

The greater number of houses at Simla are built at an elevation that ranges from 
seven to eight thousand feet above the level of the sea. A very consideral)le portion of 
these residences have an ornamental appearance; and many of the sites chosen for them 
are exceedingly beautiful — the summit of a small green knoll, sheltered by a steeper hill 
at the back, and looking down upon a valley, being usually selected. Every part of this 
delightful region is magnificently wooded with stately pines, intermingled with larch and 
cedar, the evergreen oak and the rhododendron, which here grows as liigh and as thickly 
foliated as any English forest tree, and bears masses of ricii crimson blossoms, whose 
only fault is that their glowing tints throw too much bright colour into the landscape. 
Captain Tliomas, in some Descriptive Views of Simla, published in 1846, writes enthusi- 
astically of the scenery around this mountain retreat. After tracing the route from 
Umballah (a military station a few miles south-west of the settlement) to the bank of the 
river Gumbhur, about three miles below it, he says — " From the foot of the ghaut, or pass, 
which begins its upward course beside the river, the ascent to Simla is steep and tedious : 
at length, emerging from barren hills, you are suddenly in the midst of forests of oak and 
walnut, and every variety of pine ; and with these, as you proceed, are mingled masses of 
the crimson rhododendron. Advancing still further, you are again surrounded by pines 
and cork, intermingled with lesser trees covered with the blossoms of the wild cherry, 
the pear, the apple, the apricot, the wild rose, and, lastly, to remind you still more 
forcibly of home, the may; while violets cast their perfume around your feet at every step: 
and in the midst of this profusion of natural lovelmess the first full view of Simla bursts 
upon the delighted traveller. From March, when the sleet and snow may be said to have 
passed away, to the middle of July, the climate is heavenly. There is nothing like it on 
earth! Nothing! Nothing in Italy ! Nothing in France ! Nothing anywhere that I 
know of. Recall the fairest day, naj' hour, of sunshine you have ever known in an English 
spring, and conceive the beauty and gladness of that sunshine, brightened by continuing 
without a storm, almost without a shower daily, for months together, and deck the fruit 
trees and bushes in a thousand English blossoms, and spread violets and daisies, and 
strawberry blossoms and wild roses, and anemones, thickly over the bright close emerald 
turf; over crags, amid the pine-roots, and far away down amid the ferns beside the 
' runnels,' and you may fancy something of what our Simla spring and too brief summer 
are. And then, alas, come the rains ! From the middle of July to the middle of 
September you have healthy weather still, but no end to rain ; in short, a climate as per- 
fectly English as England is nearly three-parts of the year. From early in September 
to the end of December, you have a dry, clear, frosty weather, very delicious, and very 
bracing ; and from that time till spring again you may count upon living, like ' the ancient 
mariner,' in a land of mist and snow; very healthvj certainly, but not agreeable." 

Among many delightful spots about Simla, are two picturesquely situated waterfalls 
about half a mile from each other — the lovely valley of Annadale, covered with pines and 
walnut-trees; and at about half-a-dozen miles distant, the magnificent forest of Ma- 
hassoo. The racecourse of Simla is in the valley of Annadale ; and it is remarkable 
for having a descent, at a sharp turning, of twenty-three yards in 200, with a precipice 
immediately below it ! 

An excellent bazaar is established in each division of Simla, well supplied with foreign 
products, and with provisions in abundance from the plains. A theatre and assembly-rooms 
offer their attractions to the rich and fashionable visitors to the hills; who, combining 
benevolence with pleasure, have frequently rendered a sojourn at this place the means 
of extensive benefit to the surrounding jiative and other popidation. Annadale has 
repeatedly been the scene of festive enjoyment through the medium of fancy fairs, at 
which large sums have been realised for the establishment of schools for the native 
children. Simla was chosen, on account of its position, as one of the Indian stations 


for carrying ou some recent important magnetical observations under the auspices of 
government. The first fire insurance company ever establislied on tlie Bengal side of 
India was formed at Simla, but has since been removed to Calcutta. 

A singular practice is recorded by Captain Thomas, as prevalent among the natives of 
the hills in the neighbourhood of Simla; namely, their custom of putting infants to sleep 
with their heads under running water. This, he observes, " is a strange custom, and yet 
a very common one; and the traveller to Simla from the plains, may see, any day about 
sunrise, or from that till noon, half a score of children {infants of a few days old), some 
of tliem lying asleep under any convenient brook by the road-side : when the brook, 
flowing over some bank or stone, makes a descent from two to four feet, the water is 
caused to run through a narrow tube or spout, consisting simply of a long straight piece 
of the bark of a pine-tree. Beneath this, with its bare skull immediately below the concen- 
trated body of water (whose circumference may measure some four inches, and of whose 
current the force is, of course, considerably increased by its compression), the infant, 
while still ' wide awake,' is laid upon a blanket, which, if the mother be over-careful, may 
be secured from thorough saturation by the interposition of a few whisps of the lank 
coarse grass that commonly fringes either bank. The somnific effects of this chilly 
application are really incredible. I have seen a child cry at being placed upon its watery 
bed; and yet, ere it had been there many seconds, it was asleep."* 

Several varieties of deer are met with in the neighbourhood of Simla ; but the 
favourite sport of the natives is hog shooting. The tusks of the wild hog of these hills 
are larger than those of his brethren of the plains ; his colour is iron gray, and he is 
large, fleet, strong, and of indomitable courage, not hesitating to charge even a score of 
spearmen after he has got a ball or two in him. The liill people, when they go out 
hog shooting, unshackled by the presence of the English, struggle as hard for the honour 
of the first ball, as the latter do in tiie plains for the first spear ; and, with them, 
whoever draws " first blood," is entitled to the boar's head. When the party is 
numerous, and several shots have been fired, the struggle for this often involves serious 
contention, and sometimes the efl'usion of a little human blood. Whenever a wild hog 
is killed, it is necessary to send a leg of it to the chief of the pergunnah, or, in his 
absence, to his locum ienens. " These," writes Captain Thomas, " are the only game 
laws I have heard of among the hills, and they are said to be as old as the hills 

Game is not abundant at Simla, although earnest sportsmen have found it practicable 
to employ dogs with success ; but it is very necessary to keep a vigilant eye upon the 
canine race about Simla, for the hyena and the leopard are its deadly enemies. Tiie 
former prowls about at night, and will sometimes, in the dusk of the evening, rush at a 
solitary dog, and walk off with him with the greatest ease — occasionally carrying one 
away from the very door of a European dwelling. The leopard will make the attack in 
open day; and, when pursued, these animals manage to conceal themselves with so 
much adroitness, as to lead persons to suppose they have taken to earth. A solitary 
tiger will occasionally struggle up to the neighbourhood of Simla; and the natives, 
though not distinguished for their bravery, will, ou such an emergency, attack him very 
boldly, and generally succeed in at least driving him off. 

The terrible events that convulsed India in the summer of 1857, were not without 
some unpleasant influences even at the remote station of Simla; and although the 
sword of the traitor, and the torch of rebellion, did not penetrate its mountain homes, 
circumstances occurred that, for a brief space, rudely interrupted the agreeable occupa- 
tions of its society, and changed the abodes of enjoyment into a scene of terror and 
lamentation. The incidents which led to this sudden interruption of social quiet were as 
follows : — Early in May, 1857, the then commander-in-chief (General the Hon. George 
Anson, K.C.B.) was enjoying at Simla a short period of relaxation from the duties of his 
high command, when the harsh notes of rebellion broke upon the qidet of his retreat, 
and called him to instant action. The mutiny at Meerut had been succeeded by 
outrages and I'cvolt at Delhi ; and the whole native army of Bengal appeared to be 
falling from its allegiance, and scattering fire and slaughter among the cities of the 
plains. At this period, it became necessary to concentrate a European force for the 
• Thomas's Views of Simla ; published in 1846. 


recovery of Delhi; and the military station of Umbajlah was, from its proximitv to 
the commander-in-chief, selected for the purpose. A regiment of Europeans that'had 
hitherto been quartered at Simla, was accordingly moved down to Umbidlah — their 
place being supplied by a battalion of Goorkas. It happened, about this time, that a 
portion of the latter force was under orders to furnish an escort for a siege-train, on its 
way from Phillour to join the army about to proceed to Delhi, and tiie men were 
forbidden to take their families with them — an arrangement in the highest degree 
offensive to the sensitive and jealous mountaineers. In addition to this grievance, they 
were further offended by having the charge of the treasury and other important posts 
transferred from their hands to those of the armed police; and having represented these 
causes of discontent to their officers, the men, one and all, declared their intention 
not to move from the station until the offensive orders were rescinded. After some 
parley, this was done by order of the commander-in-chief, and the men returned to 
their duty. 

But, in the meanwhile, rumour, with her " thousand tongues," had proclaimed 
throughout the settlement, that the Goorkas were in a state of open mutiny, and that 
Simla was about to become a scene of carnage and desolation. A panic instantly 
robbed age of its prudence, and manhood of its valour. The European residents, many 
of them men holding high public appointments, waited not to learn if any grounds 
existed for the report, but sought, in hasty and undignified flight, for a chance of 
escape from the imaginary dangers that menaced them. Some of these fugitives, who had 
but a day or two previously affixed their signatures to a requisition for enrolling a 
volunteer corps for the defence of the station, were the first to show an example of 
pusillanimity, and fled down the khuds (ravines), leaving women and children to their 
fate in the hands of the Goorkas — whatever that might be. The consternation became 
general; and its effects were speedily contagious throughout the European circle. Old 
and young — the healthy and the sick — hysterical ladies and " strong-minded" women — 
screaming children and terror-stricken nurses — half-clad, and ill-provided for exposure 
to the weather, rushed down the rough and precipitous bye-paths of the ravine, hoping, 
in its depths and recesses, to find shelter from the murderous knives of the terrible 
Goorkas. Property of all kind was abandoned to the mercy of the native servants ; 
homes were deserted ; households rudely scattered : only one thing seemed wortliy of 
preservation, and that was clung to with a tenacity that enabled tlie fugitives to endure 
every hardship and inconvenience so that life might be secure. Of the haul ton that 
had dignified the hills at Simla with its presence, there were many individuals of both 
sexes that, but the day before, would have felt indignant at the supposition of so vulgar a 
possibility as that they could walk a mile ; aud yet who, in their flight, actually accom- 
plished fifteen and even twenty miles before they could be prevailed upon to halt and 
look calmly around them. Old men, decrepid with age and tottering with infirmity, 
became once more young and vigorous, and vied with the most active to be foremost in 
the general flight ; the road from Simla to Dugshaie being, for upwards of twenty-four 
hours, thronged with terror-stricken fugitives, of all sorts and conditions. " On ! on to 
Dugshaie!" was the cry; "the Goorkas have slaughtered all who were mad enough 
to remain at Simla, and they are in close pursuit to murder us !" At length the panic 
died away from sheer exhaustion, since not even the shadow of a Goorka could be seen 
to keep up the requisite stimulus ; and the runaways, by degrees, came to a conclusion 
that their alarm was groundless. They presently regained sufficient confidence to 
return to their deserted homes at Simla; but, as might have been expected from the 
manner of their flight, not a few of their household gods had availed themselves of the 
opportunity to take flight also. 

This sadly derogatory and inexcusable conduct on the part of the male portion of the 
European community at Simla, subjected the individuals to a galling fire of raillery and 
sarcasm, which lost none of its force for lack of application. A marked anxiety for 
self-preservation had been exhibited by several individuals of the sterner sex, without 
any perceptible care for the protection or comfort of their gentler companions of the 
ball-room or the ride ; and this fact, coupled with a tendency to repeat the uncere- 
monious flight upon a subsequent occasion, when some of them again sought a refuge 
in the khuds, at length subjected the valiant "light-heels" of Simla to the following 


infliction, which appeared in the columns of a local newspaper, and was circulated 
iliroughout Bengal : — 

" Notice. — On \Yednesday, the loth of July, the ladies of Simla will hold a meeting 
at Rose Castle, for the purpose of consulting about the best measures to be taken for 
the protection of the gentlemen. 

" The ladies beg to inform those who sleep in the khuds, that they sincerely compas- 
sionate their sufferings ; and are now preparing pillows for them, stuffed with the purest 
ivhite feathers. Should they feel inclined to attend the meeting, they will then be pre- 
sented to them. Rest ! warriors, rest ! 

" Clementina Bricks." 


The city of Jeypoor — capital of the Rajpoot state of similar name, one of the central 
provinces of India — is situated about 150 miles south-west of Delhi, in lat. 26° 56' N., 
long. 75° 40' E.; and is considered to be one of the handsomest towns in Hindoostan. 
Spacious streets, lined with magnificent edifices, intersect each other at right angles; 
and the palace-fortress of Shuhur, or Umeer, which rises boldly on a steep rocky 
eminence, and commands the entire place, is encompassed by a line of fortifications 
four miles in extent, and rich in those picturesque features that occasionally break the 
level monotony of the plains of Central India. The fortress was considered, by the late 
Bishop Heber, as not inferior to Windsor Castle ; and it certainly presents an object of 
feudal grandeur that carries the imagination of the European stranger back to the ages 
of chivalry and romance. Jeypoor, iu addition to its being the chief mart in the north 
of India for the horses brought from Cabool and Persia, is also a grand emporium for 
diamonds and other precious gems, which are procured with little trouble or expense in 
the rocky districts of the principality. The garnets so obtained are particularly 
beautiful ; and amethysts and other gems sell at comparatively low prices. Occasionally, 
great bargains may be obtained of the dealers in pearls, as the common prices are much 
below those demanded in places more remote from the commerce of Persia. 

Some historical traditions connected with the fortress of Shuhur are interesting, and 
strikingly illustrate the political influence that has been retained by females in provinces 
which have never been thoroughly subjected to the jealous domination of Mogul rulers. 
The late (or present) sovereign of Jeypoor was a surreptitious child, placed upon the 
throne wholly by the intrigues of the artful and clever woman who professed to be his 
mother. She had been a principal favourite of the former rajah, but was childless ; and, 
at his death, being anxious to preserve to herself the share she had obtained iu the 
government of the country, she imposed upon the chief officers the offspring of one of 
her domestics, as her own son by the rajah, born in due time after his decease, and 
consequently heir to the musnud. Aided by the influence of a chief of high rank and 
popularity, she then contrived to get herself appointed to the regency, with the title of 
Malia Ranee ; and, as soon afterwards as practicable, she introduced the child at a 
banquet in the castle of Shuhur, where a large proportion of the nobles of Rajast'hau 
were invited to attend — presenting the infant as the future sovereign of Jeypoor. By 
this means she secured the recognition of the child as rightful heir to the throne ; 
inasmuch, as after the nobles had eaten rice with it in that character, the imposture, if 
ever discovered, would never be made a subject of dispute. The real mother of the 
infant was a Pariah (or sweeper) — a class held iu the utmost abhorrence by the high-born 
Hindoos, who would have considered themselves polluted if a child of such an outcast 
race had even touched their garments. Had the true parentage of the infant been 
revealed at any period subsequent to the feast of recognition, many heads of Rajpoot 
houses must have shared iu the inevitable degradation to which he v^ould have been 




subjected; since Jill who had dipped their hands ia the same dish with him would have 
lost caste throughout ludia; and, consequently, if the worst shoidd happen iu respect to 
discovering the imposture, tlieir silence and co-operation were eflectualiy secured. The 
ascendancy thus gained by the ambitious intriguant at length became irksome to the 
nobles; but the times were not favourable for resistance to her authority; and the 
fortunate descendant of the most degraded and despised race among the populations of 
the East, remained iu tranquil possession of the high rank to which lie had been 
elevated by his ambitious patroness, and iu due time became the undisturbed rajah of 


The temple represented in the accompanying engraving, is situated in the obscure and 
otherwise uninteresting village of Chandgoan, in the south-eastern quarter of the 
Jeypoor territory, and near the direct route from Agra to Kotah, and other places in 
Central India. Chandgoan occurs in the middle of a stage, and it is therefore rarely 
but from accident that travellers lialt iu its neighbourhood, or obtain more thau a passing 
glance of the temple as they jouruey on. The country round about is tame and sterile, 
consisting of a series of flat, arid plains, thinly dotted with attenuated trees, which so 
often fatigue the eye during a journey through the Upper Provinces of Hindoostan. 

The temple at Chandgoan is a picturesque and interesting structure, afibrding a good 
specimen of Hindoo architecture, unadulterated by foreign innovations. The pointed, 
mitre-like form of the towers show the antiquity of the edifice; the greater number 
of Hindoo buildings erected after the settlement of the Mohammedans in the country, 
having the round domes introduced by the conquerors. The shrines of the deities are 
placed in these steeple-crowned towers ; the part devoted to the religious services of the 
temple bearing a very inconsiderable proportion to that appropriated for the accommoda- 
tion of the officiating Brahmins and their various and numerous attendants, including, 
generally, a troop of nautch, or dancing-girls — the inseparable adjuncts of a large and 
well-endowed establishment. These young ladies, though dedicated to the service of the 
temple, are not supposed to be the most immaculate of their se.K ; but their devotiou 
sanctifies their occupation ; and being under the protection of the Brahmins, nautch- 
women belonging to a temple are not considered impure and degraded, as is the case 
with such of the sisterhood as have not the honour of priestly protection. Among the 
poorer classes of the Hmdoos, there is no difficulty iu finding parents who will readily 
devote their daughters to the service of their deities, or rather of their priests ; and 
deserted children, who are sometimes adojited from compassionate motives by the 
Brahmins, are always brought up to assist in religious festivals, and at their sacrifices — 
the young and most beautiful being generally the first victims of the obscene and 
degraded ritual. 

Among the religious festivals of the Hindoos, there is one especially in honour of 
Krishna ; in which, after the dancing-girls have displayed their charms of art and allure- 
■ rueut, a ballet is performed by young aud handsome bays, educated for the purpose, who 
represent the early adventures of the deity during his sojouru iu the lower world. 
These boys are always Brahmins ; and the most accomplished corps of them belong to 
Muttra, a town scarcely inferior to Benares for sanctity and karning. The corps de 
bullet — if they may be so denominated — attached to any Hindoo establishment of high 
celebrity, travel about during the seasons of particular festivals, and perform at the 
courts of the native princes. They are always well paid for their exertions, aud 
frequently become a source of great wealth to the temjile to which they belong. 

Of the history of the temple at Chandgoan, liitle or nothing is at present known, 
except that it exists, and that, from its uuusud state of good repair, there are evideutly 

111. M 


native resources available for the purpose of its preservation. The state in which it is 
situated is under British protection ; but its capital, Jeypoor, has been rarely visited bv 
the Anglo-Indian residents of Hindoostan; and consequently, although it is decidedly the 
finest town in Rajpootana, it has hitherto attracted but a comparatively small portion of 


The province of ^lalwa, one of the most elevated regions of Hindoostan, is situated 
principally between the 22ud and 23rd degrees of north latitude. Perawa, whose 
ancient fort is the subject of the accompanying plate, is an irregular and meanly built 
town, about seventy miles distant from Oojeiu, the original capital of the province. It is 
a place of little importance — surrounded by a decayed wall of mud and brickwork, so 
weak and dilapidated as scarcely to oppose a barrier to the incursions of truant cattle. 
The only building connected with Perawa that is at all worth notice, is the old stone fort 
represented in the engraving ; which, though not boasting much architectural beauty, is in 
the highest degree picturesque, and affords a fair specimen of edifices of similar character 
that are ficquently met with in the wildest and most remote districts of India. The 
style of this fortress is partly ]\Iohammedan, and partly Hindoo — the ghaut, with its 
open pavilions (to the left of the picture), affording a pleasing contrast to the bastioued 
walls of the citadel. This approach terminates with a gateway, which, although it will 
not bear comparison with the noble portals of many of the places of arms in other parts 
of India, is not wholly destitute of artistic merit. 

Early in the thirteenth century, Malwa was either entirely conquered, or became 
otherwise tributary to the Patau sovereigns of Delhi. It was afterwards raised to inde- 
pendence by the Afghans, who fixed their capital at ]\Iandoo. But the state did not 
long maintain its supremacy, becoming subject to the Moguls, to whose empire it was 
attached until the death of Aurungzebe. The Mahratta power then obtained the mastery 
over Malwa; and during a long series of years, its possession was disputed by difi"erent 
chieftains, whose struggles afforded their less formidable neighbours opportunity to 
invade, plunder, and appropriate every village their armed followers were strong enough 
to keep m subjection. The unsettled state of provinces thus continually at war with 
each other, and exposed to outrages of every description, rendered such fortresses as 
that of Perawa of vital importance to rulers who were frequently dependent upon the 
protection of their walls for bare existence. Many such were strong enough to resist the 
ineffective weapons of native warfare ; but with the exception of Gwalior, Bhurtpoor, and 
a few other strongly-fortified places, few could withstaud the power of European ordnance ; 
and it was not thought within the limits of probability that the old fort at Perawa would 
ever reassume the warlike character of its early days.' 

Some short time after the commencement of the present century, a formidable band 
of robbers, organised under the uame of Pmdarries, attracted the notice of the Anglo- 
Indian government. These men, in the first instance, had composed the mercenary 
troops attached to the service of the Peishwa, Sindia; and upon his withdrawing from the 
field, had thrown themselves upon the people for subsistence by pillage. The contribu- 
tions so gathered from their own and the neighbouring states, soon rendered the occupa- 
tion popular with idle and depraved men of all castes and religions, who thronged to the 
banners of the chiefs, and carried on their lawless pursuits with impunity. At length, 
however, the force became so formidable, and its depredations were so extensive, that the 
English government felt itself bound to interfere for the protection of the tributary states 
exposed to their ravages. An army from Bengal was therefore dispatched against the 
Pindarries; and, after some severe campaigns, succeeded in completely defeating them, 
and their auxiliaries, at the battle of Mehidpoor, and subsequently took possession of the 






whole of their fortresses. The government was then enabled, through Sir John Malcolm, 
to dictate the terms of a peace, by which it established a subsidiary force in Malwa, and 
placed the capital, Oojein, and the family of the reigning prince, under its immediate 
surveillance. Tranquillity was thus restored to, or rather established in, Malwa, which 
for a long period had known only the transient and fitful repose of liollow truces. 

The calm that spread over the country, under the auspices of Sir John Malcolm, 
was not, however, destined to endure without interruption ; and thus, in the progress of 
the sepoy rebellion of 1857, the towns and villages of Malwa became again the theatres 
of frightful outrage. The defection of the Gwalior contingent at ludore ; the revolt and 
its associated atrocities at Mhow ; and the disorder that prevailed iu almost every part 
of the province, testified to the fact, that the wild and lawless tendencies of the Pin- 
darries had not been entirely discouraged by the people of Malwa, and that the 
natural disposition of the latter was prone to turbulence, aud impatient of wholesome 

Malwa is a fruitful province, its soil consisting chiefly of a black vegetable mould, 
which, in the rainy season, becomes so soft as to render travelling hardly practicable. 
On drying, it cracks in all directions ; and the fissures in many places along the roads 
are so wide and deep, that the traveller is exposed to much peril ; for a horse getting his 
foot into one of these openings, not only endangers his own limbs, but the life of his 
rider also. The quantity of rain that falls in ordinary seasons is so considerable, aud the 
ground so retentive of moisture, that wells are not resorted to for the purpose of irriga- 
tion, as in other parts of Hindoostan; and thus a great portion of the labour necessary in 
some places is saved. But this advantage is counterbalanced by tlie greater severity of 
suffering upon a failure of the periodical rains ; for the husbandman, accustomed to 
depend upon the spontaneous bounty of Providence, is with difiicuUy persuaded to under- 
take the unusual labour of watering his fields, especially as that operation must be 
preceded by the toil of well-digging. 

The harvest here, as in Hindoostan generally, is divided over two periods ; oue being 
in March and April, the other in September and October. From its elevation, Malwa 
enjoys a temperature favourable to the production of many kinds of fruit that are 
destroyed by the heat of the Lower Provinces. The most abundant product, however, of 
the region is opium, which is, from this place, held in great estimation by the Chinese, 
who consider it moi'e pure than that of auy other growth. In some districts the opium 
is adulterated with oil ; but the practice is avowed ; aud the reason assigned is to prevent 
the drug from drying. In adulterations that are secret, and considered fraudulent, the 
leaves of the poppy, dried and powdered, are added to the opium. The poppy, which is 
sown in November or December, flowers iu February ; and the opium is extracted iu 
March or April, according to the time of sowing. In thinning a piece of ground under 
cultivation, the very young plants are used as pot-herbs; but when they attain to a foot 
and a-half in height, their intoxicating quality renders them highly dangerous for 
that purpose. 


BooRHANPOOR, formerly the capital of the province of Candeish, is situated in lat. 
21° 16' N., and long. 70" 18' E., on the north bank of the Taptee river, which rises 
in the province of Gundwana, and running westward, nearly in a parallel line with 
the Nerbudda, falls into the Gulfof Cambay at Surat. Tliis beautiful stream, which is 
fordable during the dry season, laves the walls of the picturesque ruins of the King's 
Fort, whose time-worn bastions aud dilapidated ramparts arc mirrored on the tranquil 
surface of its shining waters. 

Boorhanpoor, when under Moslem rule, was a largo aud flourishing city. Being 


fouDcled by a holy person of great repute, it was early chosen as the residence of one of 
the most powerful chiefs established in the Deccan — Boorhan-ood-deen, who is represented 
to have been one of those ambitious and daring impostors which Islamism has so often 
produced since the days of its founder. This chief raised himself to great authority 
during his lifetime; and, since his death, has been esteemed as a saint. His mausoleum, 
at Rozah, surpasses in splendour the imperial sepulchre of Aurungzebe ; and far greater 
honours are paid to his memory. Lamps are still kept burning over the venerated dust, 
and his sarcophagus is canopied by a pall of green velvet — the sacred colour, which indi- 
cates that those who are permitted to use it, are either descendants of the prophet, or 
have performed the pilgrimage to Mecca. The precincts of the building are the abode of 
moollahs, and other pious men, who are in daily attendance at the tomb ; and upon great 
occasions, large nobuts (or drums), which are kept in one of the ante-chambers for the 
purpose, are beaten by the faithful to commemorate the merits of the deceased saint. 

The King's Fort (or Citadel of Boorhanpoor), no longer formidable as a place of arras, 
is picturesque in its decay. Rising boldly from an elevated bank of the river, it con- 
veys to the spectator an idea of strength which a closer inspection does not warrant : for its 
vast tenantless courts are cumbered with huge fragments of ruins, and rank vegetation 
has penetrated to its most secret recesses. Still it is an interesting relic of Moslem 
grandeur fadiug before the relentless footsteps of Time ; and the deserted chambers and 
ruined courts cannot be contemplated without a feeling of sadness. The adjoining citv is 
still comparatively populous, and has been considered to be one of the largest and best 
built in the Deccan. The greater number of the houses are of brick, handsomely orna- 
mented ; and many of them are three storeys high : there is also a large chowk (or 
market-place), and an extensive thoroughfare called the Raj Bazaar. The remains 
of Mohammedan tombs and mosques in the neighbourhood, show that Boorhanpoor, under 
its original masters, was an important place. Its principal religious edifice, the Jurama 
Musjid, still bears substantial evidence of the wealth of its rulers, and is a handsome 
building of grey marble, crowned with lofty minarets. The followers of Boorhan-ood- 
deen, by whom this mosque as well as the fort was built, are still very numerous among 
the resident population, and constitute a peculiar sect known by the denomination of 
Bohrahs. They are a noble-looking race, and are distinguished from the rest of the 
inhabitants by a costume, in which is blended that of the place, and also of Arabia, the 
supposed birthplace of the saint whose precepts they follow. They are men of active 
habits, and generally of great wealth, acquired in mercantile pursuits. The best houses 
in the city are occupied by the Bohrahs', and they are celebrated all over India for their 
commercial probity and enterprise. 

After the decline of the IMohammedan empire in Hindoostan, Boorhanpoor and its 
adjacent territory fell into the hands of the Mahrattas; and these, with the neighbouring 
fortress of Asseerghur (styled the key of the Deccan), were among the first trophies of the 
campaigns which, under Lake, Wellesley, and others, ultimately sul)ducd the formidable 
power which had risen upon the ruin of the Mohammedan states, and threatened to 
involve the whole of India in a cruel and devastating war. 


Mandoo is a ruined city of Central India, situated about forty-seven miles south-west 
from Oojein, and was once the magnificent capital of a district of the same name, 
between 22° and 23° N. lat. It is now a mass of ruins, almost veiled from sight by 
jungle, and daily crumbling into fragments. Ancient writers have recorded that it 
was founded by the Patau sovereign of Malwa — Mohammed Kliiljee; and that, within its 
circuit of thirty-seven miles, abounding with treasures of art, it far surpassed in splendour 
all the other great cities of Central Hindoostan. Occupying the crest of the V^indhya 







mountains, enclosed in every direction by a natural ravine, and a strong interior wall 
nearly inaccessible, it appears in its prosperity ratlier to bave been a fortified district tlian 
a mere city ; but after its reduction by the emperor Akber, in 1575, it fell rapidly into 
decay; and when, some forty years afterwards (1615), it was visited by Sir Thomas Roe, 
ambassador from James I. to the emperor Jeliangeer, the city was much dilapidated, and 
" Ichabod" appeared already written upon the portals of its temples. 

The wide chasm that separates the platform of the mountain on which the city is 
built, from the neighbouring hills, although a natural formation, has the appearance of 
an artificial ditch of enormous dimensions. Over it, towards the north, is a broad 
causeway, which at some seasons forms the only approach to the city, the surrotmding 
ravine being filled with water during the rains. This passage was guarded by three 
gateways, still nearly entire, placed at a considerable distance from each other — the last 
being on the summit of the hill, which is ascended by a winding road cut througli the 
rock. The masses of ruined buildings which remain amidst a profusion of vegetation 
(apparently the unchecked growth of ages), somewhat resemble those of the city of Gour 
in Bengal, where, also, the forest has intruded upon the courts and halls of palaces. The 
prevailing style of the architecture that lies scattered around is Afghan; and some of the 
specimens are among the finest which that splendid race has left iti India : the material 
is chiefly a fine calcareous red stone; but the mausoleum of Hossein Shah, one of the 
most remarkable relics yet existing, is composed entirely of white raai'ble brought from 
the banks of the Nerbudda. 

The Jumma Musjid at 'Mandoo is still believed to have once been the finest and 
largest specimen of the Afghan mosque to be met with amongst the marvellous architec- 
ture of an extraordinary people. The remains of a piazza (as shown in the accompanying 
plate) would indicate that the sacred edifice was enclosed iti a quadrangle; and the sraall- 
iiess and perfectly circular form of the cupolas, declare the peculiar characteristics of 
Afghan architecture : while the wild and desolate aspect of the whole ruin, is exactly cor- 
respondent with the state of the city, whose fragments lay scattered around. Adjacent 
to the remains of the Jumma Musjid are the ruins of a large structure, once the abode 
of learning, now little more than a silent heap of crumbling stones ; the small number 
of human beings that share the once glorious city with tlie wild beasts of the forest, 
being merely a few Hindoo devotees, who are at little pains to defend themselves from 
the attack of tigers that prowl amongst the ruins, because they believe that death 
inflicted by one of those animals aflfords a sure passport to heaven. 

Another beautiful relic of Afghan magnificence is presented by the ruins of Tehaz Ka 
Mahal (or Water Palace), which is erected upon an isthmus that divides two large tanks 
of water from each other. The situaticni is exceedingly picturesque; and the calm, quiet 
beauty of the structure, particularly where reflected from the glassy surface of the water 
that stretches itself on either side, affords an object of delightful though pensive con- 
templation to the traveller before whom the interesting ruin is suddenly unveiled. 

The decay of Mandoo commenced, as already observed, more than a century 
before Malwa became tributary to the Anglo-Indian government. For a long period it 
formed an occasional retreat for a predatory tribe called Bheels, who, having ravaged 
the surrounding country, established themselves, from time to time, in the fortress of the 
almost deserted city : these, however, have long since given place to a race of inhabitants 
scarcely more destructive or ferocious than themselves : the jackal, the vulture, the 
serpent, and the wolf, are their successors, and, witli the tiger and the leopard, make 
their lairs amid the temples, and bring forth their young in the halls of kings. 

In 1792, so little remained of this once celebrated abode of princes, that in the 
narrative of a tour made by some Europeans between Agra and Oojein, no mention what- 
ever is made of a ruin so remarkable, though the travellers must have crossed the river 
Chumbul, almost contiguous to the site of Mandoo. It has of late years, and until the 
more serious events of the sepoy rebellion gave other occupation to the Europeans in the 
vicinity, been an occasional object of attraction to the niilitary officers and others 
stationed atMhow; who can only have derived a melancholy gratification when wandering 
amidst the scenes of fallen greatness that arc unveiled to them at every step; since the 
most exuberant and buoyant spirit could scarcely avoid becoming depressed by the 
solemn stillness and utter desolation that pervades Mandoo. 


The doom of Mandoo appears to have long been irrevocably pronounced : its desola- 
tion is complete ; and, in a few more years, the last vestiges of its pristine glory will have 
passed away for ever. 


Tagara (Deoglmr, or Dowlutabad) is a town and fortress in the dominions of the Nizam — 
situated upon the road between Ellora and Aurungabad, at the distance of seven miles 
from the latter city. When the Mohammedans, under Allah-ud-deen, overran this part 
of the Deccan about the year 1293, Tagara, or Deoghur, was the residence of a power- 
ful Hindoo rajah, who was defeated by the invader — his capital being taken, and plundered 
of immense riches. In 1306, the city and surrounding district were reduced to perma- 
nent subjection by Malek Naib, the jMogul emperor's general ; soon after which the 
emperor Mahommed made an attempt to establish the capital of his empire at Deoghur, 
the name of which he changed to Dowlutabad. In the endeavour to effect this removal, 
he almost ruined Delhi, by driving its inhabitants to his new seat of government — a dis- 
tance of 750 miles from their habitation: the scheme, however, proved abortive, after he 
had sacrificed some thousands of his wretched subjects iu the experiment. 

About the year 1595, Dowlutabad came into the possession of Ahmed Nizam Shah ; 
and on the fall of his dynasty, the place was seized by Malek Amber, originally an 
Abyssinian slave, but then esteemed the ablest general, politician, and financier of the 
age. The successors of this extraordinary man continued to hold Dowlutabad until 163i, 
when it was taken by Shah Jehau, who converted the whole district into a soubah of the 
Mogul empire. The capital was then transferred from Dowlutabad to the neigh))ouring 
town or village of Gurka, which becoming the favourite residence of Aurungzebe during 
his viceroyalty of the Deccan, it received from him the name of Aurungabad. Dowluta- 
bad was subsequently comprehended in the dominions of the Nizam of Hyderabad, and 
was looked upon as tiie key of the Deccan. 

So long as the early Asiatic mode of warfai'e prevailed, hill fortresses were considered 
by all races as of great importance; and none could possibly be more so than the rock 
fort of Dowlutabad, which nature and art had combined to render one of the strongest, as 
well as the most remarkable of all the places of the kind iu Hiudoostan. A rocky hill, which 
in shape has been compared to a compressed bee-hive, rises abruptly from the plain, at 
about a mile distant from the foot of the range of Ellora, so famed for its excavations, and 
from which, it has been assumed, the mountain must have been forcibly separated by some 
convidsion of the earth. The form and size of this isolated eminence were particularly 
favourable for the exercise of the skill and patieuce of which Hindoo architects have left 
so many imperishable monuments. The height of the hill is from five to six hundred 
feet, and it is about a mile in circumference. The face of the rock has been rendered 
precipitous by the labour of man, and forms, round the base of the hill, a steep smooth 
wall, or scarp, of one hundred and fifty feet in height ; a wide and deep ditch giving addi- 
tional security to the already inaccessible defences. Upon crossing the ditch, the ascent 
is through an excavation iu the heart of the rock, which is carried in a most singular 
manner to the upper works, winding through the intricate recesses aud caverns of the 
hill. The commencement of this sidDterrauean passage is low, and can only be traversed 
in a stooping position ; but after a few paces, it emerges into a lofty vault, illuminated 
by torches. From this hall, a gallery twelve feet high by twelve feet broad, ascending 
by a gradual and gentle incline untd it approaches the summit of the mountain, conducts 
the visitor to various halting-places, where there are trap-doors, from which narrow flights 
of steps lead to the ditch that surrounds the hill. In these subterraneous communications 
there is no light, except such as is aftorded by torches. Several avenues branch off at 
different elevations from the main passage, towards store vaults, formed by recesses within 

& p 


the rock ; all of which are protected by massive iron gates. After ascending for a con- 
siderable distance, the passage terminates in a cavity about twenty feet square, having 
at the upper end a circular opening of about five feet diameter, through which the 
remainder of the ascent must be accomplished. This aperture is protected by a large 
iron plate, which can be laid over it in case an enemy should penetrate so far up the 
mountain ; when a large fire would be kindled, and, by means of holes for directing a 
current of flame in the proper direction, the heat of the furnace would have the eflect of 
suff'ocating an approaching enemy in the subterraneous passages. 

Upon emerging from the bowels of the mountain, the road becomes steep and 
narrow ; the ground is in many places covered with brushwood, and several buildings are 
scattered over it. The house of the governor is large and handsome ; and, from the flag- 
staff, the view is extensive and beautiful. On the extreme apex of the hill, a large brass 
gun has been placed, for the jjurpose of salutes or signals. The difficulty of the under- 
taking is said to have been immense, and was only overcome by the persevering 
assiduity of an engineer, who, on promise of being allowed to return to his own home, 
suffered no obstacle to relax his efforts, and, after numerous trials, at last accomplished 
his object. 

The suspicion inherent to Asiatic rulers, rendered the post of honour conferred 
upon the officer entrusted with the command of Dowlutabad, one of discomfort and 
danger. His family were compulsorily detained as hostages at Hyderabad, and, upon 
the least appearance of irregularity, were dependent upon the caprice of the sovereign for 
life. Under the Mogul emperors, Akber and Jehangeer, no one was suffered to retain 
the important and dangerous command for more than three years ; and many of the 
governors fell victims to the awakened suspicions of their masters even before that brief 
term of authority had expired. 

Dowlutabad is almost wholly destitute of ordnance; and under the present system of 
military operations, has lost much of its original importance : it does not command any 
road, pass, or country, and is now chiefly interesting as affording a very remarkable speci- 
men of a liill fortress in Hindoostau. 


RozAii is a small town in the province of Aurungabad, and about fourteen miles from the 
city which gives its name to the district ; standing upon a highly elevated tract of table- 
land, the summit of a hill-pass between Dowlutabad and Ellora, it commands a very 
beautiful and extensive view. Aurungabad appears in the distance; and that bold, abrupt 
conical mound, Dowlutabad, the pyramidal wonder of the scene, crowned with a bristling 
rampart, and deeply scarped at its base — the most siu^nilar of the hill fortresses of India — 
forms a conspicuous object from the elevated platform on which the sepulchral town of 
Rozah has been built. The place is approached by a well-paved causeway twenty feet 
wide, and is surrounded by a wall constructed with great solidity : it contains numerous 
• vestiges of its oiigiual magnificence, as the resting-place of the last mighty emperor of 
the Mogul dynasty; but the sculptured walls of the palaces of the Omrahs, which, in the 
days of Mogul glory, here reared their proud pinnacles to heaven, are now fast verging 
to the last stages of decay. 

Rozah being the royal burial-place during the period in which Aurungabad formed 
the capital of the Mogul empire, it is thickly strewn with tombs of great and pious men; 
and it is probable, in the first instance, that from its already possessing the mausoleums of 
many reputed saints, a monarch who professed to feel the strongest zeal for the cause of 
Mohammedanism, was induced to select it for the place of his own sepulture; and thus 
the tomb of the last of the imperial descendants of Tamerlane, who maintained the ances- 
tral glory bequeathed to them by that mighty conqueror, stands within the same euclo- 


sure ill which the remains of a Moslem saint are deposited : but the mausoleum of 
Boorliau-ood-deeii eclipses iu splendour that of the arbiter of the hundred thrones of 
HindoostaUj while Lis memory is yet far more highly reverenced. 

Auruugzebe's tomb, though picturesque, has little claim to grandeur or even 
elegance. The monarch's taste and liberality have been called in question by those 
who suppose it to have been his own work; but as he always displayed great plaiuness, 
and even simplicity, in his personal appearance, if lie actually was himself the architect 
of his own monument, it was only iu keeping with the character he desired to maintain. 

Tlie marble sarcophagus containing the ashes of the last of the conquering IMoguls, is 
covered with a paltry cauopy of wood, which has long presented a wretchedly dilapidated 
appearance; lamps are no longer lighted before it, and the utmost neglect is visible in 
every part. Some of the monarch's family also re])0se iu the same enclosure ; but the 
place would scarcely repay a visit, except as it is associated with the memory of one 
whose unenviable greatness has rendered his name an historical souvenir, alike suggestive 
of admiration and of horror. 

Upon attaining the summit of his ambition through treachery and parricide, 
Aurungzebe rendered his imperial sway acceptable to the people whom he governed ; 
but his public virtues were obscured by the atrocities of his private life, his filial impiety, 
and the cruel persecution of his more popular brothers. Though enduring the monarch 
who ruled with wisdom and moderation, the vast multitude, while readily yielding 
obedience to laws justly administered, detested the man; and thus, notwithstanding the 
reputatiou for sanctity which he strove to acquire, the emperor remained uncanoiiised ; 
and, while his relics were carelessly resigned to the care of a few of the most indigent of 
the priesthood, incense is burned, and flowers are still strewed, before the neighbouring 
shrine of a comparatively unimpertant individual. The emperor Aurungzebe died at 
Ahmednuggur — the capital of one of the sovereignties of the Deccan — in February, 1707 ; 
having entered upon the fiftieth year of his reigu, and the eighty-ninth of his age. 

A passage in his farewell letter to his sous, exhibits, in disconnected sentences, the 
utter inefiBcieucy of earthly power to still the voice of conscience, when the portals of the 
tomb are about to open before frail mortality. " Wherever I look," writes the dying 
emperor, " I see nothing but darkuess — I know nothing of myself — what I am — and for 
what I am destined. The instant which passed in power hath left only sorrow behind 
it. I have uot been the guardian and protector of the . empire. Wherever I look 1 see 
uothing but darkuess ! I have committed many crimes, and know uot with what 
punishments I may be seized. The agonies of death come upon me fast. Farewell ! 
farewell ! farewell !" The will of this monarch contained directions for his funeral, the 
expense of which was to be defrayed by a sum " equal iu value to teu shillings, saved 
from the price of caps which he had made and sold ; and 805 rupees, gained by copying 
the Koran, were to be distributed among the poor."* It may be, the parsimonious 
directions of Aurungzebe in regard to his burial, had some influence upou the feeling 
that afterwards consigned his tomb to neglect and uncared-for dilapidation. 


The valley of Sassoor, in tiie Deccan, situated a few miles to the south-east of Poona, is 
a sort of oasis iu the desert ; its splendid architectural treasures, cool, transparent waters, 
and luxuriant foliage, contrasting most beautifully with the country that surrounds it, 
which is singularly barren and unattractive. The most secluded and remote districts in 
India frequently display to the astonished eyes of the European traveller, scenes of 
beauty and splendour which, if situated iu any other part of the world, would attract 
crowds of tourists to the spot ; and the surprise of a traveller proceeding through a tract 

* Vide Elphinstone's India, vol. ii., p. 551. 























> 1 

,s p 

=3 -=■ 



2 a 





of country divested of any peculiar claims upon his admiration, may be easily conceived, 
when a scene like that represented in the engraving is suddenly unveiled before him, as 
is the case on reaching Sassoor, on the way from Poona to Bejapoor. lu this valley of 
enchantment, splendid ghauts, shrines, and temples, are erected at the confluence of two 
streams — a circumstance which, in the eyes of an Hindoo, always invests the spot in 
which it occurs with peculiar sanctity. The junction, in this instance, takes place near 
the fortified hill of Porhundhur, to the south-east of Poona. The principal temple 
observed in the engraving, is dedicated to Mahadeo, and is surrounded by several 
shrines, sepulchral erections, and memorials of suttee — for the celebration of which 
inhuman rite this beautiful valley was once notorious. Very few Hindoo castes bury 
their dead ; but, in many instances, after immolation of the corpse witli the living victim 
of a cruel law, the ashes are collected and preserved in edifices prepared for their 
reception. Of such records of human sacrifices upon the funeral pile of a deceased 
husband, there are many specimens at Sassoor; the practice being esteemed so honour- 
able, that it is generally commemorated. To the right of the magnificent temple, with 
its singularly formed domes and spiral terminations, is a lofty and massive wall, 
enclosing the palace of one of the great Brahmin fiimily of Porundhurree, whose 
fortunes, for more than half a century, were intimately connected with those of the 
Peishwas of the Deccan. Like other buildings of similar importance, this palace is 
strongly fortified; and, in the war of 1818, against Bajee Rao, its garrison held out for 
ten days against a division of the British army. 

The neighbouring town of Sassoor contains a considerable number of substantial 
brick and stone buildings ; and the adjacent fortress of Porhundhur commands a very 
extensive view over the valley, which is richly cultivated, being watered by fertilising 
streams that, in India, are so highly valued as to become objects of veneration. To this 
feeling may be attributed the beautiful pagodas, and other erections, which rise upon 
their banks, and aflord, with their accompanying ghauts, opportunities for recreation 
and enjoyment to the inhabitants, and of rest and refreshnent to the wayfarer. 

In the engraving, the usual idlers at an Indian ghaut are seen bathing, praying, 
gossiping, or drawing water, together with the ever-present gosa, iri (a saint or holy 
person),* who may be distinguished in the stream by the drapery thrown over his 
right arm. Looking beyond the ghaut, in the direction of some distant towers seen 
through the trees, is the small camp of a European party resting on their journey; and, 
' in the foreground (to the right of the picture) is a native equipage used i)y females of 
rank, called a rhat, or rheta. The vehicle is surmounted by a canopy of fine scarlet 
cloth, ornamented at the top with a golden pine-apple. Such carriages are usually 
drawn by two bulloeks of the purest white; and two Mahratta horsemen, armed with 
their long and tapering spears, form the escort of the veiled beauties, enshrined withia 
the ample folds of drapery that fall from the canopy. 


GoLCONDA, a city once celebrated throughout the world for the mines of diamonds in its 
vicinity (now long since worked to exhaustion), is situated on a hill, six miles west of 
Hyderabad, the capital of the Nizam's dominions, in hit. 17° 15' N., aud long. 78° 32' M. 
Golc(mda has been repeatedly the capital of an extensive kingdom : first under native 
Hindoo princes, and afterwards, for many years, under one or other of the iudeiicudcnt 
Mohammedan sovereignties, which ultimately were subdued by the emperor Auriiiigzel)c, 
who, by uniting tlie whole empire in his own person, bequeathed so vast and unwieldy a 
territory to his descendants, that it was broken in pieces and lost. Conquered at an 

• "According to tradition, the .irdour of devotion attained by these Mohammedan saints is such, that 
their heads and limbs fall from their bodies, in the last act of worship." — Furbes. 


early period by the followers of the prophet, the Deccan Decame the seat of several suc- 
cessive dynasties; but it would be impossible, in a brief notice like the present, to trace 
the devious fortunes of the successive adventurers that, from time to time, have hehl 
supreme power in this the diamond-throned capital of the most potent of Asiatic 

In the vicinity of the city is the fortress of Nulgonda, which crowns the summit of a 
conical hill, about six miles W.N.W. from Hyderabad. Into this fortress — so strong by 
nature and art, that it is believed by the natives to be impregnable — no European had 
been admitted until within a very recent period ; but the principal inhabitants and 
bankers of Hyderabad were suffered by the Nizam to have residences within the fort, to 
which they retire with their money and other treasure on any occasion of alarm. 

The magnificent buildings represented in the engraving, are tombs of the kings.of the 
Kootb Shall dynasty, which was founded at Golconda about a.d. 1513, by a Turcoman 
soldier named Kooli Kootb, who came from Haraadan, in Persia, in quest of military 
service — entered the guards of the Bahmaui kings of the Deccan, was promoted, and, ou 
the dissolution of the monarchy, held sway over Telingana, which he retained until his 
death iu 1543, making Golconda his capital. The most ancient of these tombs is the mau- 
soleum of the founder, Kooli Kootb; which was built above 300 years ago — the remainder 
being erected at intervals during about 150 years subsequently, which gives the date of 
the last erection. The tombs of the kings are spread over a wide plain on the north side 
of the city, about 600 yards from the fort ; and many of them still present very splendid 
specimens of the Saracenic style of architecture that has since spread over the civilised 
world, and effected so much for the ornamentation of the gi'eat cites of Europe. The 
form of the tomb of Kooli Kootb is quadrangular, crowned by a dome — the basement 
resting upon a spacious terrace, approached by flights of steps, and surrounded by an 
arcade, each face of which presents an equal number of pointed arches surmounted 
by a rich and lofty balustrade, with a minaret at each angle. Above the arcade the 
body of the building rises in the larger tombs about thirty feet, the four faces being 
ornamented in stucco, and supporting a balustrade and minarets, smaller and more 
simple than those on the arcade. From the centre of this portion of the building 
springs the dome, which, by its magnitude, forms the principal feature of the design. 
It swells considerably as it rises, the largest diameter being about one-third of the 
entire height. The lower portion of these edifices is composed of grey granite, very 
finely wrought ; the upper storey being coated with stucco or chunam : some are orna- 
mented by the porcelain tiles generally used iu Mohammedan buildings. These 
decorations are, in several of the tombs, disposed iu a kind of mosaic work, and still 
retain the brilliancy of their colours undiminished. Extracts from the Korau fre- 
quently occur as ornaments to the cornices — e.\ecuted in white letters upon a blue 
polished surface; all in good preservation, and producing a fine cfl'ect. 

The body of Kooli Kootb Shah (assassinated in his ninetieth year, at the instigation 
of his second son Jamsheed, who, having already put out the eyes of his elder brother, 
theu ascended the throne) is deposited in a crypt, under a ponderous slab of plain 
black granite ; and immediately over it, in the principal apartment of the tomb, a highly 
ornamented sarcophagus indicates the spot where the remains of the ferocious conqueror 
of Nulgonda were left to their last repose. The circumstances connected with the capture 
of the hill fort of Nulgonda, were as follow : — Having repeatedly, but vainly, at- 
tempted to carry the fort by storm, the Sultan Kooli Kootb Shah at length sent a flag 
of truce to the commandant. Rajah Hari Chandra, promising to withdraw the troops if 
he would consent to become tributary to Golconda; but threatening, in the event of 
refusal, to procure reinforcements, destroy the neighbouring towns, and devastate the 
country, and thus reduce the place by cutting oft' its supplies, in which case he would not 
spare the life even of an infant in the garrison. The rajah, hopeless of being able to 
resist the power of the sultan, yielded consent; and the latter, upon being assured of his 
submission, reuiarked, that as Nulgonda was the only hill fort which had successfully 
resisted him, he should like to see it, and therefore desired to be allowed to enter with a 
few attendants. The request being granted, Kooli instructed his body-guard (whom, to 
disarm suspicion, he had left in the town below) how to act, and ascended the hill with 
four chosen soldiers completely armed. Ou entering the gateway, he drew his sword 


and cut down one sentinel ; while his companions, attacking the others, held possession 
until their comrades came rushing up to their assistance; and the whole of his army soon 
poured into the fortress. Neither man, woman, or child was spared on this occa- 
sion; and the rajah, thus taken by surprise, on being made prisoner, was for some 
time kept confined in an iron cage, and was eventually put to death by his trea- 
cherous enemy. 

In some of the tombs of the royal descendants of this founder of a line of kings, the 
dome forms the roof of the principal chambers ; but in others, it is separated by a ceiling 
stretching over the whole quadrangle. According to the usual custom in such buildings, 
there is a mosque attached to each; and formerly the whole was surrounded by pleasure- 
grounds, well planted with trees and flowers, and watered by fountains. These beautiful 
accessories have long since disappeared, together with much of the interior decorations of 
the buildings — such as the rich carpets that covered the floors, and the magnificent 
draperies once thrown over the sarcopiiagi that still remain to indicate the spot in which 
the bodies of the dead were deposited. The large tomb on the left of the engraving, was 
erected over the corpse of a female ruler, Hyat Begum ; whose father, having no male 
issue, bequeathed his kingdom to the husl)aud of his daughter; aiid upon the death of the 
latter, her grateful consort had her here interred among the kings of her race. 


Hyderabad, the capital city of a province similarly named, in the dominions of the 
Nizam of the Deccan, is the seat of his government, and is situated in lat. 17° 15' N., 
long. 78° 42' E., on the banks of the river Musah, a stream of inconsiderable note, 
except in the rainy season, when it is augmented by the floods from the hills. The city 
was originally founded by Mohammed Kooli, the fifth of the Kootb Shah kings, who 
began to reign in 1580. He removed the seat of government from Golcoiida to a site 
in the viciruty, where he built a magnificent city, called Bhagnuggur, in honour of Bhag- 
muttee, his favourite mistress — a public singer, for whom 1,000 cavalry were assigned as 
an escort. After her death, the name was changed to Hyderabad, bj' which it has since 
been distinguished by the Mohammedans, although the Hindoos still call it by its original 
appellation, " Bhagnuggur." The place was taken and plundered by the armies of the 
emperor Aurungzebe in 1687 — the principal inhabitants escaping the violence of his 
soldiers by taking shelter in the neighbouring fortress of Golcouda. 

The city is encompassed by a wall of stone, of sufficient strength to resist the attacks 
of cavalry; and within this enclosure, the buildings and streets extend about four miles 
in one direction, and three in another. Most o* the houses are but of onfe storey in 
height, and are built of slight materials. The streets, as in moat Indian towns, are very 
narrow ; but having long been the principal Mohammedan station in the Deccan, it con- 
tains an unusual number of mosques, some of which are very handsome. The Nizam, 
who here maintains some semblance of Oriental pomp, has large magazines at Hyderabad; 
in which have been deposited, through successive reigns, the costly presents received from 
I'juropean sovereigns. The population of the city, including the suburbs, is estimated at 
about 120,000 persons. A liandsome bridge, sufficiently broad to allow two carriages to 
pass, crosses the river Musah; and about a mile westward from the city is a large tank, 
said to cover a space of 10,000 acres. 

The magnificent building represented in the accompanying plate, was erected for the 
accommodation of the British resident at the court of the Nizam, ijy a former ruler of tlie 
territory. The original plan was designed, and the progress of the works superintended, 
i)y a young officer of the Madras engineers — a l)rauch of the service which has chiefly 
supplied the architects of the European community in India. The facade shown in the 
engraving, is the south or back front, looking towards the city, from wliich it is separated 
by the river. The front towards the noith is erected in a corresponding style of ele- 


gance, beiug adoraed with a spacious Corinthian portico of six columns. The house to 
the right, standing immediately above the bank of the river, is occupied by the officer 
commanding the resident's body-guard; and the whole landscape, with its fine accom- 
paniments of wood and water, affords a magnificent and striking scene, scarcely less im- 
posing than that which is presented by the government-house at Calcutta. The artist 
has seized the occasion presented by one of the visits of ceremony, that were formerly 
frequent between the Nizam and the British resident at his court, to introduce one of the 
picturesque cavalcades which form the splendid pageants of the East. The covered 
ambarry — a vehicle usually of silver or gold, canopied with gold brocade, which sur- 
mounts the back of the foremost elephant — is an emblem of royalty none except 
sovereign princes are permitted to use. The second elephant bears the common 
native howdah, which is often formed of solid silver, or of wood covered with silver 
plates, and is the conveyance used by nobles and persons of high rank. There is 
room in front for two persons, and a seat behind for an attendant, who, upon ordi- 
nary occasions, carries an umbrella; but in the presence of monarchy, no person of 
inferior rank is permitted to interpose any screen between the sun and his devoted 
head. The British resident, as the representative of his sovereign, has a right to a 
seat in the ambarry ; and it is the etiquette upon state occasions, for the prince who 
desires to testify his respect for the government with which he is in alliance, to invite 
the party he desires to honour, to a seat upon his own elephant. 

The court of Hyderabad is still kept up with great splendour, and there is more of the 
ancient ceremonial retained than is usual in the present depressed state of the native 
princes. Tlie Omrahs are men of considerable wealth ; and there has long been an 
increasing demand for foreign luxuries and elegancies at the capital of the Deccan. 


This ruined city, which is left almost alone to commemorate the short but splendid 

reign of the Adil Shahee dynasty, has been styled, by Sir John Mackintosh, " the Palmyra 

of the Deccan." It contains the relics of an immense number of buildings, not less 

interesting than magnificent, which arose and were finished within two centuries, and 

which, despite of the desolation which has fallen upon them, still retain a considerable 

portion of their original beauty, many having yet been scarcely injured by the lapse 

of time, the utter abandonment of man, or the strife of the elements. On approaching 

from the north, the great dome of Mohammed Shah's tomb first attracts the eye, it being 

visible from the village of Kuuuoor at the distance of fourteen miles ; and in drawing 

nearer, other cupolas, towers, and pinnacles spring up so thickly and continuously, that 

it is impossible to avoid the idea of approaching a populous and still flourishing capital. 

The road to the outer wall, it is true, leads through a long vista of ruined edifices ; but 

this is no uncommon circumstance in the environs of Indian cities ; and the impression is 

not dispelled until the traveller actually finds himself in the streets, many of which are 

so choked with jungle as to be impassable. Bejapoor is now a city of tombs and ruins ; 

and travellers wandering through its noiseless solitudes, have remarked the melancholy 

contrast aflbrded by the admirable state of repair which distinguishes those edifices 

reared in honour of the dead, with the utter decay and desolation of the houses formerly 

inhabited by the living residents of the city. 

The magnificent remains of the ancient capital of the province of Bejapoor are to be 
found in hit. 17° 9' N., long. 75° 43' E., and about 345 miles S.E. from Bombay. The 
origin of the city — which, on its foundation, was designated Vijaya-pura, the " Impreg- 
nable" — is, like that of most of the cities of India, somewhat obscure ; but its alleged 
founder (who was also the founder of the Adil Shahee dynasty, which arose from 
obscurity in 1489) was Yusuf Adil Shah, who reigned from that date until 1510. Tins 
personage is said to have been a son of the Ottoman emperor Amurah, at whose death 


he escaped destruction by the contrivance of his mother, who had him conveyed to Persia, 
from whence, at the age of sixteen, he was compelled to fly, through suspicions wliich 
had been awakened with regard to his birth. In liis effort to escape the pursuit of his 
enemies the prince was captured, and afterwards sold at the Bahmaui court (a kingdom 
of the Deccan) as a Georgian slave. From this ignoble position lie rose, according to 
the practice of Mamaluke adventurers, until, by favour of his patron, he became the 
governor of Bejapoor; and then, taking advantage of the death of his sovereign, by an 
act of flagrant disloyalty, for which the age and country att'orded him abundance of pre- 
cedent, he seized the first opportunity to declare himself an independent prince. From 
that moment he became occupied in hostilities with the chiefs around his usurped 
dominions ; who, like himself, were endeavouring to exalt tiiemselves upou the disjointed 
fragments of a once powerful state. After a time he succeeded in forming alliances with 
the new rulers of Ahmednuggur and Berar, by which their mutual aggressions were 
recognised, and their several kingdoms strengthened by a confederacy for mutual 

Notwithstanding the internal troubles and foreign wars in which the successors of 
Yusuf Adil Shah were constantly engaged throughout the whole period of their rule, 
they have severally left behind them works that would seem to require a protracted 
interval of the most profound peace to accomplish. There is at the present time 
scarcely a city throughout India which can exhibit erections of so much original 
beauty and utility as Bejapoor. The mosques and tombs of the shahs are numerous 
and magnificent even in decay ; aud the aqueducts remaining are extensive, and eveu 
superb in design. There are, also, innumerable fountains, wells, tanks, aud bowlees 
(ponds) — for which the city was indebted to the magnificence of the shahs — still spread 
over tlie place, and bearing testimony of their regard for the comfort of the people and 
the adornment of their capital. 

In 1689, Bejapoor was seized by Aurungzebe, at which period it covered an extensive 
area — its fort alone being eight miles in circumference. Between the fort and the city 
wall there was sufficient space for an encampment of 50,000 cavalry. Within the citadel 
was the king's palace, with numerous mosques, gardens, residences of the nobility, 
magazines, &c. ; and around the whole was a deep ditch always well supplied with water. 
Beyond the city walls were large suburbs with noble buildings ; and native historians 
assert that, during its flourishing state, Bejapoor contained 984,000 inhabited houses, and 
1,600 mosques. After its capture, the country around became waste to a great distance ; 
and at present, the site of the city aud fort presents to view a district composed of ruins, 
interspersed by several detached towns and villages. Toorvee (or Torway) especially, 
about a mile and a-half from the western wall, is surrounded by magnificent piles of 
ruins, amongst which are the tombs of several Mohammedan princes aud saints, which 
are still the resort of devotees. 

To Ali Adil Shah, the fifth monarch of his race, the city of Bejapoor was indebted for 
the aqueducts which still convey water through the streets. The fountains erected by 
him would alone suffice to perpetuate the greatness of his design for tiie embellishment 
of the city and the convenience of its inhabitants. The building represented on the 
left of the picture, is a portion of the Jumma Musjid, which has hitherto survived the 
ruin around it in every direction. This superb edifice is also the work of Ali Adil Shah, 
aud is a noble building, having the peculiarity of being entirely open on one side : the 
mosque is, in fact, composed of rows of arches, forming entrances that stretch along the 
whole facade, fronting a spacious quadrangle enclosed with a cloister or piazza, arched 
in the same manner as the principal building. A large light dome springs from the 
centre, and the court beyond is embellished by a reservoir and fountain. The faith- 
ful often perform their devotions by the side of this basin, prostrating themselves upon 
the ground, and touching the pavement many times with tlieir foreheads. 

Tiie interior of the Jumma Musjid is very richly ornamented with inscriptions 
of gold upon lujns lazuli. Its entire aspect reminds the spectator of the solemn 
grandeur of the, cathedral structures of Europe : the series of iirchcs which suc- 
ceed and cross each other, from whatever point of view observed, produce a noble 
perspective; and the stylp of ornaments, which are judiciously, though s[)aringly, dis- 
tributed over the walls, is iu true keeping with the character of the building. A few 


poor priests still attend to perform the services of the mosque ; but the outer chambers, 
formerly appropriated to the accommodation of the moollahs and holy persons belonging 
to it, are now inhabited by some of the most disreputable classes of Bejapoor society. 
Occasionally, of late years, a transient gleam of splendour has been imparted to the 
desolate and romantic city of Bejapoor, by a visit from one or other of the rulers of 
the presidency of Bombay : and upon one sncli occasion, some few years since, the 
honours paid to the governor of Bombay had nearly proved the downfall of the 
"mouldering fragments of architectural grandeur that still embellish and give a charm 
to the place, many of which were shaken to their foundations by the concussion of 
air produced by the thunder of artillery. 

There were formerly preserved among the curiosities in the fort at Bejapoor, a number 
of enormously large guns; but they have gradually been removed, until there is now but 
one remaining — a piece of ordnance by some said to have been cast by Aurungzebe to 
commemorate the reduction of the city. There is reason, however, to believe that it is 
of far more remote origin, as it is an object of veneration to the Hindoos of all castes and 
sects, who ofter to the uuseen power lodged in the vast engine of destruction, a homage 
almost amounting to divine honours. Many fabulous legends are preserved by the 
natives about this gun, named " Mulk-i-Meidan" (Sovereign of the Plain); whichj 
they assert, became the spoil of Ali Adil Shah, who took it in his war with the king 
of Ahmednuggur in 1562. According to another version of its history, this splendid 
piece of ordnance was the workmanship of Chuleby Rlioomy Khan, an officer in the 
service of Hoossein Nizam Shah at Ahmednuggur ; and the mould in which it was cast 
is still in existence, but lying neglected in the garden of the tomb of the founder, 
■which has been converted into quarters for an English officer. However this may be, 
it is certain the weight of the " Sovereign of the Plain" is forty tons ; and it is of 
correspondent dimensions — so large, in fact, that it has never yet been charged with 
the quantity of powder which its chamber would contain. The metal of which it is 
composed is said to have a large portion of silver, and a smaller quantity of gold, 
mixed with the tin and copper that form its chief materials. It is enriched with 
inscriptions and devices in the usual florid style of Oriental embellishment, and when 
struck, emits a clear but somewhat awful sound, similar to that of an enormous bell, 
which is only endurable at a considerable distance. This mighty voice given forth 
by a touch, added to the terrible idea of havoc conveyed by the ponderous tube, has 
doubtless assisted in impressing the natives with a feeling of reverence towards a 
prodigy of strength and power, which they do not imagine to have been wholly the work 
of man. Thus they burn incense before it, and decorate it ; and Europeans visiting 
Bejapoor, have frequently seen, with surprise, the natives advance towards it with 
joined hands and devotional gestures. At such times flowers are strewn on the bore, 
and the fore-part of the muzzle is anointed with cinnabar and oil; while marks, as 
well as odours of burnt perfumes, plainly indicate that a propitiatory offering has 
been made to the spirit residing in the warlike shrine. For its calibre, an iron ball 
of the weight of 2,646 pounds would be required. 

A notion is prevalent that vast treasures are concealed among the ruins of this city; 
and from the habit of the people of the East in hiding their property in times of danger, 
it is not improbable that such may be the case. 


The Burra Gumbooze (Great Dome), as it is called by the natives, which surmounts the ; 
massive tomb of the most popular monarch of the Adil Shahee dynasty, forms the principal , 
attraction of a city full of wondrous beauty amidst premature decay. Mahomed 
Shall was the last independent sovereign of Bejapoor : he succeeded to the throne 



in the sixteenth year of his age, and found a large treasury, a country still flourishing, 
and a well-appoiuted army, reported to be 280,000 strong. 

The taste for architectural splendour and posthumous fame, so remarkably exemplified 
in the tombs of Hindoostan, is displayed to the fullest exteut in the mausoleum of 
Mahomed Shah, which was constructed in the lifetime of the monarch, and under his 
own auspices. Though somewhat heavy and cumbrous iu its structure, its amazing size, 
and the symmetry of its proportions, fill the mind with reverential feelings from whatso- 
ever point it is surveyed : whether near or at a distance, its surpassing magnitude reduces 
all the surrounding objects to comparative insignificance; while its grave and solemn 
character assimilates very harmoniously with the desolate grandeur of the ruins which 
it overtops. 

The Burra Gumbooze exceeds the dome of St. Paul's iu diameter, and is only 
■inferior to that of St. Peter's at Rome. It crowns a stately quadrangular building, 
consisting of a single hall, 150 feet square, and, including the cupola, upwards of 150 
feet in height. There are four octagonal towers, one at each angle — each surmounted 
by a dome, and containing a spiral staircase, by which the ascent to the roof is made. 
Although there is more of apparent solidity than elegance in this vast structure, its 
ornaments are rich and appropriate, and none are introduced that injure its simplicity, 
or detract from its general character ; but, unfortunately, the prodigious weight of the 
dome, and perhaps the faultiness of the foundation for so vast a structure, have reduced 
the whole fabric to a state approximating general decay; and an engineer, who visited 
Bejapoor a short time since, reported, that the primary walls are not only rent in 
some places through and through, but also in a parallel direction to their faces ; so that, 
in all probability, and at no distant period, the whole will fall in one mighty crash to the 
ground. The tomb is raised upon a terrace of granite 200 yards square, the lower 
portion being divided into a labyrinth of gloomy chambers, now for the greater part 
filled with rubbish, and forming lairs for the wild and ferocious animals that haunt the 
desolate abode of powerless royalty. The spacious quadrangle in front of the main 
building is adorned with fountains ; and on the western side is a second terrace, leading 
to a mosque corresponding iu form with the mausoleum, but embellished by two slight 
and elegant minarets, which give grace and lightness to the whole. The sarcophagus of 
Mahomed Shah is placed upon a raised platform of granite, under a wooden canopy in 
the centre of the hall : on the right of it are the tombs of his son and daughter-iu-law ; 
on the left, those of his wife and daughter, and of a favourite dancing-girl : the whole 
are now covered with a thick coating of holy earth brought from JNIecca, mixed with the 
dust of sandal-wood ; which, although calculated to excite the devout admiration of the 
true believers in the doctrines of the Koran, by no means enhances the beauty of the 
monuments. A shrine of solid silver is said to have originally encased the tomb of 
Mahomed; but this having fallen a prey to the rapacity of the Mahrattas, a covering of 
humbler materials was substituted. The surrounding walls are embellished with 
inscriptions from the Koran, iu alto relievo ; the characters being gilded and raised upon 
a deep-blue ground of enamel, formed by a liquid coating of lapis lazuli ; the gold orna- 
ments, beautifully interwoven together, and embossed upon this splendid ground, are 
introduced with great judgment, aiul produce a very fine effect. 

The inhabitants of Bejapoor retain more vivid traditions of the Shah Mahomed than 
of any of his predecessors : he is represented to have been a prince of amiable character, 
and to have possessed the virtues most esteemed among yVsiatics : he is still extolled for 
his wisdom, his justice, and, above all, for his munificence. During the whole of his 
reign he maiutained a good understanding with the Mogul emperor Shah Jehau, with 
whom he corresponded through the medium of the favourite son of the latter, the prince 
Dara; until the intimacy and confidence which existed between the sovereign of Bejapoor 
and the latter, excited the jealousy of Auruugzebe, who, independent of his ambitious 
desire to bring all the Mohammedan kingdoms of India under his own sway, entertained 
a personal hatred to all who espoused the interests of his brother; and the enmity thus 
drawn upon Bejapoor was openly displayed by the fratricide at the first convenient 
opportimity. Maliomed, who died iu November, IG56, was succeeded by his son Adil 
Shah II., a youth of nineteen, who mounted the throne without any complimentary 
reference or observance of the homage which Auruugzebe professed to claim by right of 


a concession from Mahomed Shah. The Mohammedans in the interest of Aurungzebe, 
thereupon immediately reported that Adil was not a son of the Lite shah, and that it was 
incumbent on the emperor to nominate a successor to the throne of Bejapoor. A war ensued, 
the result of which was the subversion of the independence of the kingdom. " This war," 
observes the historian, "upon the part of the Moguls, appears to have l)een more completely 
destitute of apology than any that is commonly found even in the unprincipled transactions 
of Asiatic governments." It is recorded, that on the final reduction of Bejapoor, the 
conqueror received a severe reproof from the lips of his favourite daughter. Boasting of 
the success with which Providence had crowned his arms in every quarter, and of his 
having, by the extinction of this sovereignty, accomplished all the objects of his ambi- 
tion, and subdued and dethroned every powerful king throughout Hindoostan and 
the Deccan ; the begum observed — " Your majesty, it is true, is the conqueror of the 
world ; but you have departed from the wise policy of your illustrious ancestors, who, 
when they subdued kingdoms, made the possessors of them their subjects and tribu- 
taries, and thus became king of kings ; while you are only a simple monarch, without 
royal subjects to pay you homage." Aurungzebe, it is related, was forcibly struck 
with the justice of this remark, which occasioned him so much mortification, that he 
expressed iiis displeasure by au order for the imprisonment of the princess. 


Very few Eastern cities have the advantage, in a picturesque sense, of so much variety in 
the style of their ancient buildings, as is to be met with among the ruined palaces and 
tombs" of Bejapoor; a circumstance which may, probably, be in some measure accounted 
for by the encouragement given to foreign visitors and artistes at the court of its princes, 
who were themselves of Ottoman descent. For a considerable period, the greater portion 
of the nobles in attendance upon the kings of Bejapoor, consisted of Persians, Turks, and 
other Eastern adventurers, who met with a gracious reception, and contributed, by their 
wealth and magnificence, to enhance the barbaric splendour of the court. Gradually 
settling down among the native adherents of the sovereign, many of them were doubtless 
stimulated by the example of the latter to add to the architectural embeUishments of the 
capital, and thus introduced those novelties in the style of Asiatic buildings that are so 
frequently met with among the existing ruins of the city. Ferishta, the Persian 
historian, states, that the first sovereign of the Adil Shahee dynasty invited artists from 
distant lands to assist in the embellishment of his capital-city, and " made them easy 
under the shade of his bounty ;" and it may be fairly assumed, that to the eucourage^ 
ment thus given, the city of Bejapoor owed much of its pristine magnificence. 

The beautiful remains of the once splendid palace (represented in the accompanying 
engraving) are situated within the bounds of the fortified portion of the city. The style 
of its architecture, which is of a light and graceful character, differs much from that pre- 
vailing among the numei'ous ruins which surround it, and attract the eye in every direc- 
tion over the vast area now silent as the tomb, but once resounding with the echoes of an 
immense and busy population. 

History appears to be almost silent, and Time itself has presen'ed but few traditions 
of the " Palace of the Seven Storeys." That within its walls the gorgeous pageants of 
Oriental magnificence, as well as the gloomy deeds of Asintic treachery and revenge have 
often been enacted, it would be unreasonable to doubt : but the days of its glory and of 
its guilt have alike passed into the shadowy obscurity of the past, and have left no trace 
of their existence in the ruined towers and roofless chambers of the desolate palace 
that, little more than three centuries since, was thronged with the ghttering chivalry of 
an Eastern court. 



From a comparison of the Palace of the Seven Storeys with any other of the most 
important architectural remains at Bejapoor, it has been considered most probable that 
the edifice iras designed for, and used as, the residence of Yusuf Adil Shah (the founder 
of the monarchy), who reigned from a.d. 1489 to 1510, and that it continued to be the 
palace of his successors, the kings of Bejapoor, until the subversion of the monarchy 
by the emperor Aurungzebe, in 1656. 

An incident in the history of Ibrahim Adil Shah, the foui-th king of Bejapoor (a.d. 
1535), is probably so far connected with the Palace of the Seven Storeys, as to deserve 
mention in connection with it. This prince had formed an alliance with Bhoj Turmul 
(who had obtained the throne of Beejanuggur by the murder of its young occupant, his 
own nephew) against Rama Rajah, the regent, and brother-in-law of the murdered 
sovereign. Ibrahim sent an army to the assistance of Bhoj Turmul, who, in return, paid 
him down fifty lacs of boons ( a coin equal to eight shillings), or two millions sterling, and 
promised to acknowledge himself a tributary to the kings of Bejapoor. In carrying out 
this arrangement, the presence of the traitor, Bhoj Turmul, was necessary at the court of 
the latter ; and he had been received at the palace with the honours due to his preten- 
sions as king of Beejanuggur ; where he remained until after the departure of the army 
intended to support his usurpation. No sooner, however, had the Bejapoor troops left 
the cit}-, than Rama Rajah, justly incensed at the perfidy of Ibrahim, with whom he had 
been at peace, assaulted it, and carried fire and sword through its streets and palaces. 
The king and his protigi were constrained to shut themselves iip in the Palace of the 
Seven Storeys, from the lofty towers of which they could behold the devastation they had 
brought upon the city by their guilty ambition. Mad with rage and despair, in a 
paroxysm of fury, Ibrahim commanded that all the royal elephants and horses should be 
ijlinded, to prevent their being useful to the enemy; and collecting together, in one 
glittering heap, the diamonds, rubies, emeralds, pearls, and other gems, amassed by 
the princes of his race, he caused them to be crushed to powder between mill-stoues ; 
and prepared to collect the gold and other treasures of the palace into a pile, pre- 
vious to firing the interior, and perishing, with all his court, in the flames, rather than 
fall into the hands of the incensed rajah. From this extremity he was, however, saved 
by the accidental return of a portion of his army, just as the attack upon the palace had 
commenced; and the enemy retired, satisfied with the punishment they had inflicted upon 
a perfidious ally. Bhoj Turmul, on finding that the unexpected result of his ambition 
had involved the ruin of the capital of his friend, had no other prospect before him than 
a cruel death at the hands of one or other of the offended and injured parties; and mis- 
taking the return of the Bejapoor troops to the palace for the approach of those of the 
hitherto victorious Rama Rajah, he rushed to the upper apartment of the Tower of Seven 
Storeys, and fixing a sword-blade into the tracery of a pillar, rushed upon it at the 
moment the palace gates were opened to admit the troops of the king. 

Ibrahim Adil Shah, who, with all his faults, possessed the taste and munificent spirit 
of his race, immediately began to repair and restore the city to somewhat of its former 
magnificence ; but in the midst of his eft'orts to accomplish that object, he was stricken 
down by n complication of diseases brought on by extravagant indulgences, which 
speedily laid him in the tomb — an event, doubtless, accelerated hj his conduct to his 
physicians, several of whom he caused to be trodden to death by elephants, for failing to 
cure him; whereupon all such of them as could escape, fled for their lives, leaving the 
tyrant to perish at his leisure. His successor, Ali Shah, inherited, with the taste of his 
.predecessor, his cruelty also ; since he greatly improved and beautified the capital, by 
constructing the wall which surrounded it, and the splendid aqueducts which still couvey 
water through the streets; but, at the same time, having entered into an alliairce with 
Rama Rajah, and united his forces with those of the latter, they jointly invaded the terri- 
tory of Nizam Shah, and, according to Fcrishta, " laid it waste so thoroughly, that from 
Purenda to Joonere, and from Ahmednuggur to Dowlutabad, not a vestige of population 
was left." 

The numerous vicissitudes to which the city of Bejapoor has been subjected, have 

suggested the idea that immense treasures, in gold and jewels, are secreted amidst its 

ruins ; and there are persons resident within the walls who are yet willing to give large 

sums to the local government for the privilege of digging among the foundations. As 

ni. o 


yet, the beautiful remains of the Seven-Storied Palace have been preserved from the 
dangerous operations of the treasure-seekers; though, as the building has already 
suffered more from the injuries which time and war have brought upon Bejapoor 
than most of its immediate neighbours, its final ruin has now advauced too far to be 

Of the city generally, it is observed by those who have wandered amidst its ruins, 
that the freshness and unimpaired strength of many qf the buildings are remarkable, 
when compared with the prevailing character of decay and desolation which, in some 
parts, exhibit such a wild waste of ruin, that it seems scarcely credible so much destruc- 
tion could have been effected by man's neglect in the ordinary course of time, but rather 
that some violent convulsion of nature (of which, however, there is no record extant) 
must have caused the mighty, terrible, yet partial devastation. Tiiis idea is certainly 
borne out by the numberless beautiful and massive remains which have escaped the 
fearful havoc, and which, still exhibiting the noblest specimens of Eastern architecture, 
give promise of almost endless durability. It is observable also, that the remains of the 
carved work and gilding, still to be found in the interior of the Seven-Storied Palace, 
have not yet lost their first gloss and brilliancy ; while the elaborate ornaments of many 
of the exterior, retain their minute and exquisite degree of finish wholly unimpaired. 


This beautiful edifice stands near the centre of the city, in an open area leading from 
the principal street. The quadrangle by which it is surrounded is entered by a large 
massive gateway, under a noble arch. Time, which has been busy with the buildings 
that lie prostrate on every side, has dealt gently with the mosque of Mustapha Khan, 
which rears its graceful dome and minarets, almost wholly uninjured amidst the general 
desolation. This temple, though far inferior in size to the Jumma ]\Iusjid, is lofty, and 
beautifully proportioned ; and the external ornaments, though of a less florid character 
than those of many other structures in its neighbourhood, are chaste and appropriate ; 
while there is something peculiarly elegant in the shape and decorations of the dome. 
The high, narrow arches that run along the front, and are continued throughout the 
interior, afi'ord a variety to the ordiuary style, and the e2"ect of their perspective is 
exceedingly pleasing. 

Hitherto Bejapoor has only been a place of casual sojourn for amateur tourists, who 
have satisfied themselves, or have been compelled for want of time to be content, with a 
hasty and cursory glance at its decaying beauties ; while the most diligent among them 
have left the greater part of the splendours springing up on every side wholly undescribed : 
and thus, amidst other objects of deep interest, of which there is no authentic history 
extant, we vainly seek for any detailed account of the mosque of Mustapha Khan, or ot 
the personal history of its founder. 

Not far from the outer enclosure of this sacred building, is a small pool of water, 
which is pointed out to the curious as possessing a high degree of sanctity in the 
minds of the Hindoos, and which the Moslems, who believe in many of their neighbours' 
marvels, look upon with some degree of respect. It is milky in its appearance, but 
perfectly wholesome. No other spring of the kind is found in any part of the neighbour- 
hood ; and none may presume to question the truth of the tradition which ascribes it to 
the piety of a Brahmin, who brought a small quantity of the holy water of the Ganges to 
this remote spot. Rapidly increasing into the pool tliat yet spreads its pearly surfoce to 
the air, it maintains its distinct character, and affords to the devout believer a miraculous 
proof of the sanctity of the far-distant and venerated river. 

A tomb in the neighbourhood of this mosqvie, named the Mootee-gil (House of Pearl), 
in consequence of the pure whiteness and brilliant lustre of the chunam with which it is 



lined, has an interesting story recorded of its occupant — a cliief of high rank at the 
court of Ibrahim, who had amassed an enormous quantity of wealth. The reputation of 
it at length awakened the avaricious propensities of his sovereign, who desired to transfer 
the treasui-e to his own coffers, and resorted to a practice common to Eastern despots to 
accomplish his object. It was determined to bring an accusation of treason against 
the envied possessor, and upon this plea to seize and appropriate his riches. The 
plot was deeply laid ; but the intended victim, having obtained timely information of 
his danger, explained to the females of his zenana the predicament in which he stood, 
and consulted with them upon the best means of avoiding the fatal consequences of his 
too good fortune. 

It happened that the greater part of the chief's coveted acquisitions consisted of 
valuable pearls, and other ornaments for the zenana; and the faithful and devoted women 
to whom he had confided his danger, immediately devised a plan, which, though it 
involved the sacrifice of objects dear to woman's vanity, promised to secure to them a still 
dearer life. They proposed to break into pieces the pearls which had excited the king's 
cupidity ; and they were accordingly reduced to powder ! The destruction of those 
gems becoming a topic of general notoriety, it was no longer worth while to persecute 
the owner for the sake of obtaining them. The king, foiled by the stratagem, and not 
caring to avow his object for oppressing the chief (who was much beloved by the 
people), ceased further persecution; and his intended victim, though impoverished by 
the prudent destruction of his treasures, spent the residue of his days in tranquillity, 
and, at his death, was interred in the Mootee-gil prepared for him — the chunam lining of 
which was partly composed of the pulverised ornaments of the ladies of his zenana. 


About half a mile to the northward of the city, in the garden of the Twelve Imaums, the 
Durga of Abou al Muzatfir (as the natives term the majestic tomb of Ibrahim Adil Shah 
II.) rises with a pomp of architecture exceeding the most sumptuous of the edifices in its 
neighbourhood. The great and amiable sovereign who sleeps within this noble pile, is 
represented by Eerishta, his historian and contemporary, as having been one of the 
brightest ornaments of royalty. His virtues still live in the memory of the people of the 
Deccan; and, to this day, the ashes of the good and great — the pai'ent, the instructor, and 
the friend — are visited, with equal reverence and delight, by the Mussulman, the Hindoo, 
and the Christian traveller. 

This splendid mausoleum was built under the direction of Mulick Secunder, or, as he 
is sometimes called, Mulick Scindal, who is said to have constructed the Taj IBowlee at 
his own expense. According to report, it was commenced in the reign of Ibrahim, and 
intended as the tomb of his beloved daughter, Zoran Sultana, who died at the age of six 
years, and whose infant virtues are commemorated in a Persian inscription upon her 
tomb. The death of the monarch who planned the design in all its grand and beautiful 
proportions, took place before it was completed ; but he lies interred, surrounded by the 
members of his family, in the mausoleum of the garden which gave its name to the neigh- 
bouring entrance of the city, formerly called the Imaum's, but now known as the Mecca 
gate of Bejapoor. 

The style of Ibrahim Shah's tomb differs entirely from that of the Burra Gumbooze, 
bearing a stronger resemblance to the generality of the Durgas seen in Hindoostau. It 
consists of a mosque and mausoleum raised upon the same platform, both of which are 
represented in the accompanying engraving. The basement of these superb edifices is 
130 yards in length, and fifty-two in breadth, rising to the height of fifteen feet, and 
enclosed by buildings of a single storey, open both from without and within, and intended 
for the accommodation of travellers, visitors, aud the attendants of the palace. The 


entrance to the interior quadrangle, which is seen to the right of the plate, is on the 
north side of the main edifice, and is a lofty and elegant gateway, flanked by tall 
minarets of exquisite grace and lightness. This portal leads to a handsome flight of 
steps, and through another gate of a novel construction, up to the raised terrace, on 
which the mosque and the place of sepulture stand. The sarcophagi of the king and 
his family are placed in a large hall in the centre of the building. This hall is enclosed 
by an outer and inner verandah; the first thirteen feet broad and twenty-two feet high; 
the other twenty feet by thirty, supported by seven arches on each face. The dome 
above is raised on arches ; five in the length of the curtain, and three in the depth. A 
staircase leads to a flat terrace spreading above the verandah ; and from the minarets 
at each corner, a lofty balustraded wall, richly ornamented, extends on every side: a 
second balustrade, of similar proportions, a storey higher, forms a spacious balcony 
round the base of the dome; and it is furnished in the same style of elegance, 
with corresponding minarets at the angles, difl"ering only from those below in their 
height, as may be observed in the engraving. The dome is thirty-five feet in diameter ; 
but, unlike that of the Jumma Musjid, it has the shape of a segment of a globe, cut 
through one-third part of its perpendicular axis. This form is airy and elegant, but 
would be difficult to execute upon a large scale, ov/ing to the narrow span of its aperture, 
and the great exterior flexure of the curve which overhangs its base. A column rises 
from the summit of the dome, surmounted by a crescent. 

The simplicity of the central hall, which contains the monumental remains of the 
king and his family, forms a striking contrast to the splendour of embellishment 
lavished on the exterior ; yet its ornaments are not less effective or worthy of admiration. 
The apartment is forty feet «quare and thirty feet high, and the walls are of such finely- 
grained black granite, as to have been mistaken for marble. The ceiling is particularly 
fine, the whole roof being formed of the same kind of stone, and, as it is asserted, with- 
out the slightest admixture of timber. It is so constructed that it does not appear to 
rest upon the main walls of the building, but on a cornice projected from them, so that 
the area is reduced from forty to twenty-two feet on each side. The roof is quite flat, 
and richly ornamented, being divided into square compartments, the traverses of which, 
though of several pieces, look like solid beams ; and it excites wonder, that a heavy mass, 
so disposed, should have existed so many years without the slightest derangement of its 
parts. The death of Ibrahim Adil Shah II. took place in 1626. His sepulchre, there- 
fore, must be about 232 years old, as the building was commenced in his lifetime, and 
only occupied twelve years in its erection. The interstices of the stones on the top of 
the arches in the surrounding verandahs, are filled with lead, and clamped together by 
ponderous bars of iron, some of which have been wrenched from their places by the 
destructive Mahrattas, who probably expected to find a rich treasure deposited near 

The verandahs and walls are ornamented with beautiful sculpture, chiefly from the 
Koran, the whole of which is said to be carved on the several compartments. The 
inscriptions are raised in basso-relievo ; and so highly polished as to shine like glass. 
On the northern side, the letters are given a greater degree of prominence, by being gilt 
and embossed on a blue enamelled ground, adorned with flowers ; and the whole has 
been compared to the illuminations of an Oriental MS. seen through a magnifying glass, 
and adding the beauties of sculpture to those of painting. The doors, which are the 
only specimens of wood-work used in the building, are exceedingly handsome, and were 
studded with golden bosses; the doorways, on either side, are adorned with a great 
variety of ornaments beautifully executed ; and there are windon's on each side of the doors, 
which are four in number : these, and the arches above, are filled with a singular 
stone lattice-work of Arabian sentences, instead of the ordinary pattern of similar 
perforations : the light that they admit, proceeding through the verandah, is not strong ; 
and the whole of the hall is characterised by a gloomy solemnity, in correct keeping with 
the last resting-place of the illustrious dead, but not usually a feature in Mohammedan 
sepulchral architecture. 

The sarcophagi lie north and south. The first contains the body of Hajee Burra 
Sahib, the Padshah's mother; next to her, is Taj Sultana, his queen; thirdly, the king 
himself: on his left, Zoran Sultana, the beloved daughter to whom the building was 




originally dedicated. Boran Shah, the youngest sou of Ibrahim, lies interred by the 
side of this lamented princess; and beyond, at the farthest extremity, Shah Jaslah the 
monarch's eldest son. The canopies over these tombs, on which Mosfems usually expend 
lavish sums, are of tattered silk, scarcely retaining a vestige of their original magnificence 
— a circumstance accounted for by the small number and the distressed condition of the 
followers of the prophet in the neighbourhood. 

The gallery on the verandah which surrounds this hall, is remarkable on account of 
its stone roof, which is most tastefully sculptured. It is divided into compartments, 
oblong and square, 144 in number, very few of which have the same ornaments. Each 
division is formed of a single stone, and exhibits an elegant combination of arabesques in 
flowers and wreaths, in those fanciful and spirited designs in which Indian artists excel, 
and which are of so truly oriental a character. Imagination has here shown how rich 
and exhaustless are its stores ; and these excellent delineations are executed with the 
same masterly power exhibited in the grouping and combination of the endless variety of 
interwoven garlands. One of the cross-stones which support the roof of the verandah on 
the north face, was struck by a cannon-ball during the last siege of Bejapoor. The shot 
was said to have been fired from the ]\Iulk-e-Meidan before mentioned ;* which may not 
be improbable, as the mausoleum lies within the range of that extraordinary piece of 
ordnance. The stone, though split at both ends, and hanging only by the pressure of a 
single arch against the lower part of the splinter, which holds fast in the cornice, has 
remained in that position since the year 1685, without any perceptible alteration. 

The mosque, which fronts this splendid mausoleum at a distance of forty yards, having 
a piece of water and a fountain between, is a plain building, 115 feet by 76, crowned with 
a dome, and flanked at the angles of each storey with slender and lofty minarets. The 
stones of both these buildings are so neatly put together, that it is scarcely possible to 
perceive where they are joined ; and the whole pile, notwithstanding the absence of the 
white marble, which adds such brilliant relief to the mausoleums of Hindoostan, may vie 
in magnificence with the most celebrated shrines of Eastern monarchs. 

The attendants at the tomb of Ibrahim Padshah II. are poor, and few in number, 
owing the income allotted for their maintenance entirely to the bounty of the rulers of 
the city. About 3,500 rupees are annually distributed, from the revenues of the district, 
among the Mohammedan attendants at the diff'ereut shi-ines and mosques; and they 
have no other means of subsistence, except at the hands of charity. Such, now, are the 
only courtiers of the once mighty sovereign of Bejapoor, Ibrahim Padshah. 


The fine reservoir of water, Taj Bowlee (or Crown of Ponds), delineated in the engraving, 
is situated under the walls of Bejapoor, at a short distance from the gate of the Imaums, 
towards Mecca, and is said to have been the work of Mulick Scindal, the favourite archi- 
tect and friend of the Sultan Mahraoud, the most popular of the Adil Shahee race of kings ; 
and who signalised his gratitude for the favours conferred upon him by his sovereign, by 
the formation of one of the most splendid tanks which can be found in this part of India. 
The pond, or bowlee, as it is called, is nearly a Imndred yards square, and is fifty feet 
deep, surrounded, on three sides, by a colonnade with a gallery above : on the fourth, the 
entrance is through a magnificent gateway flanked by handsome wings, expressly built 
for the accommodation of travellers. The water is kept very pure by the few natives 
who inhabit the vicinity; and though sometimes polluted by contact with Christian 
bathers, the European visitors usually desist from that mode of annoyance when remon- 
strated with on the subject. 

At a short distance from the Taj Bowlee, there is another very interesting building, 

* See ante, p. 94. 



consisting of a mosque and gateway, called the Maitree Kujoos. It is small, but elegant 
in its design, and elaborately finished : the material is a fine, closely-grained black stone, 
capable of receiving a high polish. The building is three storeys in height ; and from the 
angles are attached an embellishment not uncommon in India, consisting of massive 
stone chains, cut out of solid blocks, there being no joinings perceptible in the links. A 
tradition connected with this mosque is worthy repetition, and is as follows : — Its founder 
was a Hindoo outcast, belonging to the very lowest class of society, following an occupa- 
tion of the most degrading nature, and who could not, in the ordinary course of things, 
attain to either wealth or consequence ; his class being that of the Pariahs, and his 
employment that of a sweeper — to this day the most abject of the menials tolerated in an 
Indian establishment. The subsequent good fortune of this individual was owing to an 
accident, which disconcerted the schemes of a pretender to the occult art, at the court of 
Bejapoor. The king, Ibrahim Shah I., having for a long period been afflicted with a 
distressing malady, and having in vain consulted the physicians, who could render him 
no relief, at length summoned to his chamber an astrologer of high repute in his king- 
dom, and inquired of him whether he could procure his restoration to health through the 
influence of the stars. The sage determined that one person, at least, should be benefited 
by their means; and intending that the good fortune should fall into his own lap, told 
the king that the heavenly bodies would prove favourable to his wishes, if, upon a par- 
ticular morning, he should present a very large sum of money (naming the amount) to 
the first human being he should see. There is no doubt, according to the tradition, that 

the astrologer intended to present himself to the notice of the king ; but Ibrahim, in his 
natural eagerness to avail himself of so easy a mode of procuring relief, arose at an 
unusually early hour ; and, proceeding across a court of the palace, was met by a sweeper 
— a domestic compelled to be astir early in the morning, that his presence should not 
offend the sight of his superiors. The king, in strict compliance with the directions of 
the astrologer, called the trembling servant to him ; and, to the astonishment of the 
latter, instead of smiting off his head for daring to be visible in the presence of the sove- 
reign, put the money into his hands, and bade him use it as the gift of the king. The 
pariah, who knew that, outcast as he was, the possession of wealth would not procure for 
him respect and distinction, and that a temple raised by him to the deities of his people 
would be considered a profanation, determined to employ it in the erection of a building 
in which the Mohammedan subjects of his royal benefactor could offer their prayers for 
his recovery to health ; and, accordingly, he built the Maitree Kujoos, which still remains 
entire, and attracts the traveller's admiration by the symmetry of its proportions, and the 
beautiful carved work with which it is adorned. 

It may be presumed that neither the stars or the pious gratitude of the Pariah were 
of any avail in mitigating the disease by which the king was afflicted, as it is recorded 
among the traditions of the Seven-Storied Tower, that, after causing several of his ph3'si- 
cians to be trampled to death by his elephants, for their inability to cure him, he sank 
under the ravages of his malady, and left an unquiet kingdom to Ali Shah, his son and 
emulator in works of taste and in acts of cruelty. 


The accompanying engraving affords a correct view of one of the numerous palaces, now 
in the last stage of ruin, which embellished the once flourishing capital of Bejapoor. 
The massive pile stands upon the margin of a broad moat which encircles the ruined 
citadel, in the central part of the city, where the progress of decay has been more rapid 
and extensive than in any other of the desolate quarters of this extraordinary city of 
premature ruins. 

The annals of Bejapoor contain some curious instances of the political influence and 
the bold interference of females in affairs of state, tolerated in that kingdom; for 
notwithstanding the jealous exclusion, by the Mohammedans, of females from any part of 




the government, and the little influence they were permitted to have in society, they, 
upon many occasions, contrived to take an active part in the intrigues and revohitious of 
courts ; and with one of those instances of womanly interference in the affairs of state 
the Asser jSIahal appears to have been connected. The occasion was as follows : — Upon 
the death of the third monarch of Bejapoor, his son and rightful successor, Ismail Adil 
Shah, was a boy of tender age, who had not yet left the zenana of the palace ; and the 
affairs of the kingdom were consequently administered for a time by a regent, Khumnl 
Khan, who, by the desire of the dying king, was to govern for his son during the 
minority of the latter. The regent, however, preferred to govern for himself; and 
formed a design to seize the prince, and, by his death, to remove the chief oljstacle to his 
ambitious intentions. The queen-mother became aware of the plot, and determined to 
preserve her son by the assassination of the treacherous regent. This important point 
was accomplished; but the counter-plot, though successful as far as the death of Khumul 
Khan was concerned, was nearly frustrated by the measures resorted to by the mother of 
the murdered regent ; who, concealing the fact of her son's death, had his body magnifi- 
cently dressed, but supported by pillows, as if labouring under indisposition ; and, in this 
state, presented it at an open balcony of the palace, to receive the accustomed homage of 
the nobles ; during which ceremony, she directed her grandson to proceed to the Asser 
Mahal, the royal residence, with an armed force, and seize the person of the young king. 
The queen-mother, who had been informed of the approach of troops, imagined that 
Khumul Khan had escaped the dagger aimed at his heart; and, in her terror, was at first 
disposed to throw herself at the feet of her enemies — a step she was, however, prevented 
taking, by the counsel of Dilshad Agha, the young monarch's foster-aunt, who addressed 
the guard of the king upon the imminent danger of their royal master, and, ordering the 
palace gates to be closed, dispatched messengers to the foreign chiefs in her retinue, who 
had lately accompanied her from Persia, to inform them that the palace was surrounded 
by the troops of the usurper ; adjuring them not to heed the superiority of numbers which 
the enemy could bring against tbem, but to stand up valorously for their prince, and 
overthrow the traitor who, for his ingratitude and ambition, was accursed of God and 
man. The foreign guards instantly drew tlieir weapons in defence of the young sove- 
reign, and proceeded towards the palace. Meanwhile, the troops within resisted every 
attempt of the enemy to gain admittance; the queen-mother, and Dilshad Agha, ani- 
mated the garrison by assuming male attire, and appeared on the walls clad in the harness 
of warriors, and armed with bows and arrows, but still wearing their veils. The boy-king, 
Ismail Adil Shah, accompanied them, attended by a Turkish woman named Moortufa, 
who held the yellow umbrella (the emblem of sovereignty assumed by his fatlier) over the 
head of the young prince. An animated conflict ensued beneath the walls ; and though 
the foreign guard without, and the little garrison within the palace, fought with deter- 
mined resolution, the disparity of numbers would eventually have secured the victory to 
the traitors, had not a body of Toorkoraans, resident in the city, been enabled to gain 
admission to the palace by scaling the terrace at a distant part of the building, and tlms 
coming to the rescue of tlie king. This fortunate accession liad scarcely been reported 
to the queen-mother, when the outer gate of the palace was forced, and the besiegers 
rushed into the first court, from which they were speedily driven by the troops led by 
Dilshad Agha. The young king, with his mother and a few attendants, were together 
on the tower over the outer gateway, from whence they could perceive the course of 
events below on either side ; and when, on the repulse of the rebel troops, the latter 
emerged through the gateway, the young king, observing that Jufdar Khan, the late 
regent's son, had crouched down to avoid a flight of arrows, opportunely rolled from the 
parapet a ponderous stone upon the .stooping traitor, which crushed him ; and his adhe- 
rents, dismayed by his fate, abandoned the attack on the palace, and sought to provide 
for tlieir own safety by timely flight. 

Bejapoor, in its prosperous d.ays, was distinguished for the magnificence with which 
the great festivals of the faithful were celebrated within its walls; and more especially 
that of the MoUurrum, which the majority of the inhabitants kept with the greatest 
degree of solemnity and splendour; and, upon these occasions, high state was kept in tlie 
royal palace of Asser Mahal, now so desolate, and whose deathlike silence is only broken 
by the shrill cry of the jackal, or the hoarse scream of the famished vulture. 



The remains of a royal palace, built by one of the early sovereigns of Bejapoor, at a 
village called Torway, about five miles from the western gate of the city, are represented 
in the accompanying plate. The ruins of a mosque, and the fragments of other 
important buildings scattered around, would seem to imply that Torway had been a 
place of some importance during the prosperous state of the kingdom whose capital it so 
nearly adjoined. The direct road from Poona to Bejapoor lies through Torway, from 
several points of which, magnificent views of the lonely city present themselves ; and 
here, as from all other points which command a prospect of the capital, the majestic 
dome of the mausoleum of Mahomed Shah (the Burra Gumbooze) arrests the wander- 
ing eye, as it rises in solemn grandeur above the clustering towers and pinnacles of the 
surrounding buildings. At this spot, the extreme desolation of the country, its scanty 
cultivation, and the scarcity of its inhabitants, are seen in its undisturbed loneliness, iiud 
do not fail to impress the mind of the spectator with melancholy sentiment. Never, 
perhaps, could the traveller who has followed at a distance the devastating progress of 
Mahratta conquest, behold at one glance more striking proofs of the misery to which 
the rule of that power has doomed every portion of the land submitted to its sway, 
than is spread before him as he stands upon the ruined towers of Siugham Mahal at 

Delighting in a roving existence, and preferring the uncertain but exciting shelter 
of a camp to the more quiet and peaceful abodes of cities, the Mahrattas cared nothing 
for fine buildings, and the skill of the architect was lavished upon them in vain. Unlike 
the Moslems, who, whenever they extended their dominion, introduced new arts and 
luxuries ; and when pulling down the temples of the unbelievers, never failed to erect 
mosques of equal or superior magnificence in their stead — who converted waste places 
into flourishing cities, and have left almost imperishable marks of their genius and their 
glory wherever they planted the standard of the prophet— the Mahrattas, on the 
contrary, passed over a land like a pestilence, blighting and destroying all that came 
within their baleful influence, and converting the fairest possessions into a sterile desert, 
or shattered ruins. Bejapoor has sufl"ered much from their devastating fury ; and yet less 
than many other cities that have been overrun by them, since they have actually, for 
some cause or other, set apart a portion of its revenues for the support of its tombs and 
mosques — an almost isolated instance of their liberality in regard to the works of their 
predecessors when rulers of the country. 

The ruin delineated upon the accompanying engraving, consists of a, succession of 
square towers of various elevations, rising from an artificial platform considerably al)ove 
the level of the surrounding district. The approach to the interior is by a singularly 
pointed arch of great height, but beautiful proportions, in a square tower at the right 
extremity of the building. A series of narrow courts, communicating by gateways of 
smaller dimensions, occupy the interior area of the ruin, few of the chambers being now 
accessible. On the left of the picture, a smaller arch conducts to a guard-chamber and 
some inferior courts, which communicate with the gardens of the palace, now in a state 
of utter dilapidation and ruin. Many of the lower apartments of the palace have been 
appropriated by some natives in the' vicinity for dwelling-places, owing perhaps to the 
contiguity of a small bowlee (or pond), which is situated at a short distance from the 
outer wall of tlie main building. The sohdity of the workmanship and materials of the 
Singham Mahal, will doubtless, for many years to come, enable it to resist the wear of 
time and the fury of the elements; but'" Ichabod" is written over its gates: and it is 
impossible to stand upon the massive tower and look down upon the country at its 
feet, without feeling of a truth that the glory of the land has departed. 

The ruin before us was evidently but a small portion of the original structure, 
which would appear to have been less burthened with ornament than the buildings of 
tlie city, and to approximate in style to the design of the Asser Mahal before noticed, 
and wi'th which, in all probability, it was coeval, if not built by the same architect. 





























Seen from a distance, the broad wliite towers of Sinnjliam Malial stand out against the 
liorizon like some pale spectral monitor, to proclaim the transitory grandeur of man, 
and the ephemeral duration of kingdoms, as represented I)y the oblivion to which their 
founder has been consigned, and by the ruins of his capital that lie scattered before it. 


The singularly interesting remains represented in the accompanying engraving occur in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the ancient city of Madura, situated almost at the 
southern extremity of the Indian peninsula, and about 270 miles S.W. of Madras. 
The city is enclosed by old bastioned stone walls, and was formerly the capital of a 
province. Its principal streets are wide and regular, and the public buildings, for the 
most part, are magnificent ; but its private dwellings are unusually mean and insignifi- 
cant. At this place are still the remains, in excellent preservation, of some of the most 
remarkable buildings in India, comprising an extensive palace, a vast temple with 
pyramidal towers, and a choultry, or inn, of very large dimensions. The temple covered 
an amazing extent of ground, and had numerous shrines dedicated to the favourite 
deities of the country. 

Madura was celebrated, for several centuries, as the seat of learning in this part of 
the world, its college being famous throughout the East ; and, previous to the changes 
which took place after the I\Iohammedau conquest, it exercised a strong degree of 
influence over the entire native population. It continued to flourish during seven cen- 
turies, securing to both male and female children (for in those days the sex was not 
degraded) the advantages of a liberal education. By the rules established at the founda- 
tion of this college, every person, without respect to caste, was eligible to become a 
professor, upon showing the requisite qualifications; and, at a somewhat later period, 
when the prejudices of the Brahminical faith had become more confirmed, two persons 
presented themselves who were Pariahs, a brother and sister. An attempt was made 
to exclude these candidates; but, confidently appealing to the laws passed on the 
establishment of the college, and being found to excel all other competitors, they were 
elected, and speedily arrived at the head of the institution, where they continued all 
their lives. Tunvaluver, the brother, and the author of many distinguished works in 
the Tansil language, became the president; and to Avyia, the sister, the country was 
indebted for the best elementary treatises that had yet appeared — her productions being, 
to this day, the class-books of scholars of the highest rank and caste in all the 
Hindoo schools of the Southern Carnatic. 

The ruins at Madura are objects of particular attention at the present time, on 
account of attempts recently made to revive learning in the East, and to restore the 
college to its original splendaur. In consequence of the influence so long exercised by 
it over the Hindoos in the southern peninsula of India, two celebrated Jesuit mis- 
sionaries, Robertus de Nobilius, and Berchi, who lived in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, formed plans for its revival, and commenced the restoration of such parts of 
the building as had fallen into decay ; but, owing to dissensions in their order, they were 
unable to carry their design into effect. Some progress in the restoration was, however, 
made by them, and a material deviation from the architectural style of the original 
builder was occasioned at the suggestion of the Jesuit Nobilius, who, with a view to the 
introduction of the religion he liiniself professed, recommended the ornamental appen- 
dages of angels on various parts of the pyramidal towers — an innovation upon the rules 
of the sacred architecture of India that none but a zealous champion of the church of 
Rome, regardless of consequences, would have ventured upon. 

At a much later period, another effort was made to restore the college to efficiency, 
under the auspices of the British authorities; but obstacles intervened, and it now pre- 


sents but a faint shadow of its former importance. The city itself is still regarded by 
the Hindoos as peculiarly sacred. 


Elephanta is the name given to an island in the harbour of Bombay, situate about 
•seven miles south-west of the city, and sumething more than six miles iu circumference. 
By the natives of the adjacent coast it is still called by its original name, "Gare-poori" 
(the Place of Caves) ; but the Portuguese, during their occupation of the island of 
Bombay, distinguished it by the term " Elephanta," from a colossal but rude figure of 
an elephant carved out of the solid rock, which once formed a striking object on 
approaching the shore ; but has now, for many years past, been little more than a huge 
misshapen mass of stone. Upon landing, visitors to the island are conducted, by Brah- 
mins in attendance, from the shore to the platform of the temple by a steep and narrow 
pathway, which winds through very beautiful scenery, sometimes stretching along the 
margin of a precipice, and then meandering through richly wooded groves, where the 
gloriosa supei-ba spreads its clustering flowers amidst luxuriant branches bending with fruit 
and foliage. In the route, the prospects obtained of the harbour, the opposite shore of 
Salsette, and of the northern part of the island, are bold yet interesting. At intervals 
glimpses may be caught, between the interstices of the surrounding trees, of the distant 
ghats on the mainland, and the upper part of the beautiful bay in which Elephanta is 
embosomed — the high ground broken into innumerable ridges, and thickly covered by 
magnificent topes, amongst which the coronals of the Tara palm are conspicuous, and 
aftbrding to the delighted gazer one of the grandest displays of forest scenery, with its 
bright and never-fading verdure, gigantic leaves, and gorgeous blossoms, that can be 
found along the coast of India. 

Having accomplished about two-thirds of the ascent of the hill, the path opens upon 
a platform of exquisite loveliness, immediately in front of the entrance to the Cavern 
Temple roofed in by the wood-crowned mountain, within which its mysterious treasures 
are concealed ; and whose /acarfe presents a combination of architectural and artistic 
skill, that imperceptibly prepares the mind for the development of the yet greater 
wonders that lay hidden in the mysterious gloom of the fane itself. 

The view given in the annexed plate represents the front or principal entrance to the 
cave, the main features of which consist in the multiplicity and arrangement of beauti- 
fully sculptured columns, by which the ponderous roof is sustained, and through which 
a dim yet magnificent perspective is presented along cathedral-like aisles of vast dimen- 
sions, that is at length lost in the profound darkness of the space prepared for a worship 
whose ritual has been imperfectly preserved among the traditions of an antiquity coeval 
with European notions of the creation. 

The stone of which the Cavern Temple of Elephanta is composed, appears to be of a 
quality resembling porphyry, and the tracery and sculptures with which the singularly- 
formed columns of the entrance, and also of the interior, are decorated, are exquisitely 
delicate, and, in many places, still preserve the fresh impress of the original design. 
But, with these works of marvellous beauty and grandeur, as with those found in the 
interior of the temple, ignorance and superstition have committed strange and barbarous 
havoc ; and the blind fanaticism of the Portuguese has more than aided the ravages of 
time in the work of dilapidation and ruin. The ultra-bigots of the European peninsula, 
who have never been able to tolerate any idolatry but their own, very soon after their 
first settlement upon the island of Boml)ay and its dependencies (of which Gare-poori 
was one of the most remarkable), found employment for their ill-directed zeal in the 
destruction of every accessible relic of the worship of the natives, however curious and 
wonderful, as a work of art, might be the object of their antipathy. In these caves, 


among other means of accomplishing their object, they adopted a process for the mutila- 
tion of the cohimus and sculptures tliat was ingenious and partly effective. Lighting 
large fires around the columns, and before the massive sculptures within the temple, they 
■would, when the masses had become sufficiently heated, throw cold water upon them, 
which, causing expansion, made the stone split in all directions. Of the pillars seen in 
the accompanying plate, many of the shafts and capitals have been subjected to this 
destructive process ; and others, although still erect, have had large splinters rent off 
from the top to the bottom. This, however, was not the only method resorted to by the 
iconoclasts of Portugal, in India : at times, guns were brought to the island, and dis- 
charged at the columns and sculptures, for the purpose of battering them down. Thus 
few of the remarkable groups and isolated figures that ouce filled this singular temple 
with a theogony so darkly mysterious, and powerful in its influences upon an 
imaginative people, are now in a perfect state; and it is to be regretted, that what of 
mischief was left unaccomplished by the Portuguese zealots in those days of bigotry, has 
been since effected to a lamentable extent by modern travellers from other couutries, 
who, carried away by an affectation of geological studies, or a yet less e.xcusable propen- 
sity to obtain memorials of these extraordinary relics of far-distant ages of mankind, 
have broken and carried off fragments of fohage and statuary to a merciless extent, 
merely for the sake of specimens. 

The period attributed for the construction of the Cavern Temple of " Gare poori" is 
involved in impenetrable doubt and obscurity. The traditions connected with it, as with 
the Caves of Ellora, are so vague and unsatisfactory, as to afford little assistance in 
arriving at any probable conclusion. The occurrence of these temples iu one particular 
portion of the peninsula, and upon ground exclusively occupied by the Mahrattas, 
render very probable the supposition that they were the work of some great people insu- 
lated from the rest of the world, and whose existence has been forgotten in the lapse 
of ages ; and it cannot be doubted, that a nation must have progressed many years to 
produce works requiring such extraordinary and persevering labour. 

The area occupied by the temple is nearly a parallelogram, being 130 feet deep, and 
about 133 broad, divided into nine aisles formed of twenty-six pillars, of which eight 
are broken away altogether, and most of the remainder are much injured. Time has 
done much to accomplish this; but man, to his discredit, has immeasurably outstripped 
the wear of time, in the extent of mischief perpetrated iu the Cave Temple of 


For a proper examination of the wonders of this far-famed temple, the visitor is provided 
with torches by persons who hover about the caverns for the purpose of conducting 
strangers to the interior. A dim light tliat gradually fades into intense dark- 
ness at the further extremity of the cavern, faintly reveals the innumerable specimens of 
characteristic sculpture that cover the walls from the entrance to the farthest recess of 
tlie excavation; but as the torches advance, and their light is thrown upon the mystic 
forms that meet the eye in every direction, one massive object, amidst the gloom of 
distance, fronts the spectator, and arrests his attention probably to the exclusion for a 
time of every other idea than that of surprise and awe. The colossal triple-headed bust, 
represented in the engraving, is the wonder of Elephanta, and occupies a vast recess at 
the extremity of the central aisle of the temple. The dimensions of this extraordinary 
relic of ancient art and superstition are, from the bottom of the liust to the summit of 
the cap on the central head, eighteen feet; the principal face is five feet iu length ; and 
the width, from the front of the ear to the middle of the nose, is three feet four inches : 
the width of the whole bust is twenty feet. The face of the central head is presented 
full, and is expressive of dignified composure, and of the absorbed state whicli constitutes 


the supreme felicity of the Indian deity; a towering pyramidal cap surmounts the head, 
once richly decorated with superb jewels; and tlie devices with which the ca[) is covered 
are exquisitely wrought : around the neck of the same figure was formerly suspended a 
broad collar, composed of precious stones and pearls, long since appropriated to a more 
useful purpose than the decoration of a block of carved stone in the bowels of a mountain. 
The face on the left of the central figure is in profile. The head-dress, like that of 
the former, is elaborately decorated, and the countenance is expressive of gentleness and 
benignity. One hand is shown of this figure, in which is held the sacred lotus; in the 
other is grasped a fruit resembling a pomegranate; and a ring, fashioned and worn like 
those used by Hindoos at the present time, is placed upon one of the wrists. The head 
on the right also shows the face in profile ; but the expression, and the person 
represented, are distinctly contrasted with those of the sculptured deity just described. 
In this case, stern ferocity marks the features ; the forehead projects ; the eyes seem to 
glare upon the spectator; snakes supply the place of hair; and human skulls are 
embossed upon the mitre-shaped covering of the head. One hand of this terrific-looking 
image grasps a monstrous cobra de capella; the other holds a smaller reptile of the 
same deadly species ; and the effect of the design is indescribably repulsive. 

The whole of this singular triad is hewn out of the solid rock, which is a 
coarse-grained dark-gray basaltic formation, called by geologists trachyte; and, as before 
mentioned, it occupies a recess cut into the rock to the depth of thirteen feet, including 
the thickness of the doorway screen, or wall, projecting beyond it, which is about two feet 
and a-half. The basement upon which it rests is raised two feet nine inches from 
the ground, having at each corner holes, apparently for the purpose of receiving door- 
posts; and a groove runs along the floor in front, which, it is probable, was intended to 
receive a screen or veil, let down occasionally to conceal the mj^sterious group. On each 
side of the niche is sculptured a gigantic human figure, having in one hand an attribute 
of the Deity, and with the other resting upon a dwarf-like figure standing by its side. 

Niches, or recesses of large dimensions, and crowded with sculpture, appear on eitiier 
side of the one occupied by the triad. In that on the right-haud side is a colossal figure, 
apparently a female, but with one breast only. This figure has four arms ; the foremost 
right-haud rests on the head of a bull; the other grasps a cobra de capella. A circular 
shield is borne on the inner left-hand; but the second arm on that side has been broken 
off. The head-dress of this figure is like that of the central triad, and is richly 
ornamented. On the right of this female is a male figure of smaller proportions, bearing 
a pronged instrument representing a trident; on the left, a female bears a sceptre. 
Near the principal figure described, is an elephant, surmounted by a beautiful youth; 
and above the latter is a figure with four heads, supported by birds. Opposite to these is 
a male figure with four arms, sitting on the shoulders of another personage, who has a 
sceptre in one of the hands ; and at the upper part of the back of the recess are numerous 
small sculptured figures, in a variety of attitudes and dress, supported by clouds. 

Turning to the niche on the left, the most conspicuous of the group that is presented 
to sight is the statue of a male, near seventeen feet in height, having ibur arms. To the 
left of this is a female fifteen feet in height : rings, of the same pattern as now worn 
by Hindoo women, are shown on the wrists and ankles of this figure, and her hair is also 
arranged strictly in accordance with the style among Hindoo females at the present time. 
The countenance of this statue is sweetly feminine, and expressive of gentleness and 
amiability. In the background is a figure with four heads, supported by birds; and 
another with four arms, sitting on the shoulders of one in an erect posture. Several 
minor figures are in attendance upon the principal personages ; one of them, having his 
right knee bent to the ground, as in the act of addressing the chief, bears a crese like 
those now used by the Mahiys. The head-gear of the whole of the small figures bears a 
striking resemblance to the wigs worn by our modem judges. 

On either side of the groups last described, an opening from the recess leads to 
a small chamber unadorned bj' sculpture, and probably intended for the private use of 
the officiating Brahmins, when the triune worship of Brahma was daily ofl'ered in this 
mysterious temple. These dark and rarely visited cells <ire now the hiding-places of bats, 
spiders, and scorpions; uor are the venomous reptiles of the island strangers to the 
shelter they afford. 


Turning from these dismal holes and their dangerous occupants, a few paces to the 
left of the last- described group, approaching the side of the cave, brings the visitor opposite 
another cluster of figures, of a less repulsive character than the preceding. Here a male 
figure is observed in the act of leading a young female towards a majestic personage 
seated upon a sort of couch at the corner of the niche. Tlie decoration of his head is 
strikingly similar to that of an English judge. The countenance and attitude of 
the female is expressive of modesty and reluctance, and she is apparently urged forward 
by a male figure behind her. Several small figures, in various attitudes, and bearing 
symbols of the attributes of the Deity, fill up the sides and back of this recess. 

Crossing to the opposite side of the cave, and about fifty feet from the entrance, is 
another recess of larger dimensions, enclosing a gigantic half-length of a male figure 
with eight arms. Round one on the left side is a belt composed of human heads. One 
of the right-hands grasps a SAVord uplifted, as if to cut in twain a figure kneeling before a 
block, held in the correspondent left-haud. From under one arm protrudes the head of a 
cobra, and among the ornaments of the head is a skull. Many smaller figures surround 
this terrible conception, whose features are marked by unrelenting ferocity; and the 
countenances of all the subordinate figures are expressive of remorse and pain. Of this 
group, scarcely a single figure has been left unmutilated. 

Again, crossing to the opposite side of the temple, near one of the dark chambers 
already mentioned, is a recess containing a male figure, sitting in the exact and peculiar 
position still adopted by the native Hindoos. A female figure, in a similar posture, is on 
his left-hand, and each has an attendant on either side. At the feet of the male, a bull 
lies couchant, and a colossal male figure, armed, stands at each corner of the niche. 
Facing this is a correspondent niche; but the figures have been damaged beyond the 
possibility of description. 

A recess, or niche, of similar proportions to the preceding, appears on each side 
within the entrance to the cavern. In one is a male figure, much mutilated, and having 
only fragments of the eight arms it was originally formed with by the sculptor. Behind 
this, in very bold relief, is a figure having four heads, and another with four uplifted 
arms ; both of these figures are supported in the air by birds. In the corresponding 
recess, on the other side of the entrance, is a colossal figure of a male in a sitting 
posture, having behind him another figure on horseback. The animal is caparisoned 
precisely in the style of the country at the present time. 

Returning towards the recess of the triformed idol, at the extreme end of the temple, 
by the left side, we arrive at a chamber excavated from the rock, of vast height, and 
forming a parallelogram of about thirty feet : in the centre of this apartment, upon a 
square altar, is the Lingam, or symbol of the god Mahadeva, or Mahadeo, which 
consists, of a huge polished stone of cylindrical form, rounded and slightly convex at 
the top.* This emblem represents the god in his character of Regenerator; and it 
appears to be synonymous with the Phallus of the Greeks, and the Priapus of the 
Romans, although its origin, as an object of worship, preceded the existence of those 
nations by many ages. The chamber in which this representation of deity is enshrined, 
is detached on each side from the living rock, and has an entrance in the ceutre of each 
face. On either side of these doorways stands a male figure, seventeen feet in height, 
bearing various symbols in a state of utter dilapidation ; but the ornaments of 

* " Mahadeva, or Mahadeo (the Great God), is a name of Siva. Of the origin of the mystic worship of 
the Linga, Utile appears to be understood ; it may be presumed to have been Nature under the male and 
female forms, personiKed as Siva, the Sun or Fire, the genial heat of which pervades, generates, and vivifies 
all; and Bhawani, who, as the goddess of nature, is also the earth, the universal motlier. The two active 
principles of life liaving been thus personified, may have been subsequently converted, by the grossness of 
idolatry (which in its progress invariably seeks to gratify the sensual appetites, rather than to elevate the 
minds of its votaries), i'roni imaginary forms to gross realities ; from the personified symbols of nature, to 
typical representations of the procreative powers of the symbols themselves. The places of Linga worship, 
or idolatry, are still numerous throughout Hindoostan ; and the votaries of the idol are, beyond comparison, 
in excess of the worshippers of any other deity or symbol recognised by the sacred books of the tlindoos. 
Some of these emblems are of enormous size, and are usually of basalt; others are made, at morning and 
evening, of the clay of the Ganges, and, after worship, are cast into the sacred stream." — Coleman's 
Mytholiiyy of the Hindoos. In the cavern temple, under the fort of Allahabad, there is still an altar with 
the Linga of Mahadeo, looked upon with great reverence by those worshippers who can obtain access to 
it. See History of the Mutiny in India, vol. i., p. 249. 


dress sculptured on each are in tolerable preservation, and very mucli diversified in 

The whole of the excavations hitherto described comprise the area of the Great Cavern 
Temple ; but there are various chambers of minor dimensions branching off on each side of 
it. Most of these have been rendered inaccessil)le by the ravages of the Portuguese 
spoilers, who appear to have employed themselves more successfully in battering 
down the columns or other supports of the roofs of the secondary chambers, than 
they were in their destructive operations agaiust the principal temple ; and huge 
fragments of rock, and masses of earth, now block up the approaches to these mysterious 
caverns. From one point, however, a glimpse is obtained of an interior, of apparently 
vast dimensions, having the walls enriched with sculpture : a band surmounts the figures, 
covered with characters, that are represented by the attendant Brahmins as au inscrip- 
tion ; but they do not profess to decipher or explain it. Among the sculpture 
cut from the wall of this apartment is a large human figure, with the head of 
an elephant; and in the midst of the gloom in which this chamber is enveloped, a portion 
of an enclosure can be perceived, of like character and dimensions to that containing the 
Lingam, on the opposite side of the Great Temple. 

Various conjectures have been hazarded by the learned, as to the origin and purposes 
of these extram-dinary cavern temples, which, from the style of sculpture and peculiar 
symbols borne by the various figures, there can be little room to doubt were constructed, 
at a very early period, by the progenitors of the races that still occupy Hiudoostau. 
That they were appropriated to the worship of Mahadeva, or Mahadeo (a name of Siva, " the 
destroyer or changer"), appears probable, from the frequency of the representation of 
that deity, and the innumerable varieties of attributes and symbols by which his imper- 
sonation is accompanied ; and the following explanation of some of the extraordiniiry 
sculptures in the caverns at Elephanta, is from a paper preserved among the collec- 
tions of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. The triple-headed colossal bust, which 
forms the chief object of the large temple, is described iu this document as a personifica- 
tion of the three great attributes of that being for whom the ancients, as well as 
the Hindoos of the present day, have entertained the most profound veneration, and 
of whom they appear to have had most extravagant conceptions. The middle head 
of the group represents Brahma, or the creative power; that on the left is the same 
deity, in his character of Vishnu, or the preserver; and the head on the right 
is that of the god, in the form of Siva, the destructive, or changing, attribute of 
the triune god of the Hindoos, 

The figure represented as a female with one breast, symbolises the wife of Siva exer- 
cising the active powers of her lord, not only as Bhawani, a destroyer, but as Isani, 
the goddess of nature — combining the male and female sexes in one ; and also as 
Durga, the protector of the virtuous. The bull couchant at the feet of one of the 
deities, symbolises an attribute of Siva, under his name of Iswara; and the male figure 
near it bears the trisulc, or trident of that god. The beautiful youth on the elephant, 
already noticed, represents Cama, the Hindoo god of love; the figure with four heads, 
supported and surrounded by birds, is a form of Brahma; and that with four 
arms, mounted on the shoulders of another figure, is a representation of Vishnu. 

The two principal figures in the niche to the left, represent Siva, and his consort as 
Parvati ; with Brahma and Vishnu in the background: and the terrific figure with 
eight arms, represents the destroyer Siva in action. The distant scene, witli small figures 
expressive of pain and distress, denotes the sufferings of those sentenced by Brahma to 
the place of torment. 

The sitting male and female figures, with a bull couchant at the feet of the former, are 
also Siva and his consort Bhawani. The form with human body and an elephant's head, 
represents Ganesa, the Hindoo god of wisdom, and first-born son of Siva ; and the pre- 
sence of the Lingam is of itself considered an unquestionable proof that the whole of the 
cave temple of the island of Gare-poori, or Elephanta, was dedicated to the worship of the 
god Siva, and to the mysteries of his cruel and impure ritual. 



This extraordinary excavation occurs near the village of Ekverah, in the province of 
Auruugabad, and in the midst of a chain of hills of a very picturesque character. Many 
of the ridges are level; but others rise abruptly from the range, and towering above 
their fellows in lont\ly majesty, lift their forked and riven summits high into the 
heavens. Of the lower eminences, many have large platforms of table-land at the top ; 
and are, on that account, well adapted for the hill fortresses which, in the early days of 
Indian warfare, were the favourite strongholds of predatory chieftains of the various 
races. Two of such mountain fortresses have been at some remote period erected 
in the neighbourhood of Ekverah, or Karii, and are still in good repair. Merely 
separated by the valley in which the village is built, their scarped sides and bas- 
tioned heights give to the surrounding scenery a formidable, and by no means 
inviting, appearance. 

The subject of the accompanying plate Is the entrance to the Cave Temple of 
Karli, situated at a distance of about 300 feet from the base of one of the hills. It is 
approached from the valley by a difficult pathway, which has more the appearance of a 
guiley formed by the rains, than a regular road, being very steep, and exceedingly 
rugged. The track, however, when surmounted, ends in a terrace or platform, about 
a hundred feet in width, and partly artificial, being cut in the face of the hill, and 
constructed of rock hewn from the interior of it. In front, and on the left side of the 
entrance, is a column twenty-four feet high, and about eight in diameter, having the 
upper part dome-shaped, and surmounted by a flat slab, on which are the mutilated 
remains of three lions of considerable proportions. It is believed that a corresponding 
pillar, on the opposite side of the entrance, has at some very remote period been removed, 
to afford space for the erection of a small temple which now occupies the site, dedicated 
to the worship of Bhawani. The column is girdled with an inscription, iu characters 
similar to those iu the smaller cavern temple in Elephanta; and, like those, has baflled 
all attempts to decipher it. 

A screen has originally ran across the entrance; but this is partly broken down, 
and thus displays the grandeur of the arch cut over the doorway — an aperture not at 
all commensurate with the noble dimensions of the interior. Between the outer 
and inner screens there is a verandah or vestibule, extending the whole width 
of the cave, very finely sculptured, with figures of men and animals in alto-relievo. 
Three colossal elephants stand on each side, with driver, and riders iu their howdahs, 
executed in a very free and bold manner ; and other figures, both male and female, are 
finished in the same artistic style. The sculptured deities at Karli are, however, 
confined to the walls ; the only detached oliject of importance being a large circular altar 
of stone, surmounted by a wooden canopy. The length of the great cavern is 126 feet, 
and it is 46 feet wide. The roof, which is arched and ribbed with wood (a circumstance 
which adds to its singularity, while it somewhat injures its eflect), is supported by two 
rows of pillars, each surmounted by an elephant bearing a male and female figure 
on its back, encircling each other in their arms, and crouching beneath the weight 
above them. 

The whole aspect of the temple is grand and imposing; but it is, if possible, 
more gloomy than the cavern fanes of Elephanta or Ellora. That when resorted to 
by worshippers it was artificially illuminated, there can be little doubt; as, without the 
aid of torches or lamps, the sculptures in the side aisles are not distinguishable. The 
wood-work is conjectured to have been added at a period subsequent to the first formation 
of the temple : it is of teak ; and is traditionally reported to have existed 900 years. 
A portion of this ribbing is shown in the plate, on the roof of the arch iu front ; and it is 
still in a high state of preservation. 

Indian literati have decided Karli to be a Boodhist temple, the figure of Boodh, and 
the symbols of that deity, being the predominant ornaments ; while it is destitute of a 
single vestige of the twenty-four attributes of the J;dns — a distinguishing fcatm-c iu the 


temples belonging to that sect. Several otiier chambers are connected with the main 
temple, but they have all been left in an unfiulslied and rude state, and contain nothing 
to attract notice. Outside the cavern there are a few native huts, inhabited by the 
servants of the Brahmins, who, a few years since, mustered in greater strength at Karli 
than at any other of the cave temples. According to the doctrine of these infatuated 
idolaters, a state of complete abstraction from all outward influences is the suminum 
bonum of earthly felicity ; and among the priesthood of Boodh were to be found many 
who, from their total indifference to worldly and personal concerns, and total abandon- 
ment to an idiotic state of contemplation, might have been deemed worthy to represent 
the deity itself. One of snch individuals had for a long time sat, day and night, before 
a flame of fire, with a cloth over his mouth to prevent him from inhaling pollution, and 
subsisting solely upon parched grain and water, strained through a cloth. In vain did 
the Peishwa, who supported the bigot from his own treasury, endeavour to induce him 
to reside at his court. ■ Nothing could detach him from the post of mistaken duty ; and 
there, after a long period of self-denial and valueless existence, the Boodhist priest passed 
away from idiotic abstraction before the altar at Karli, to his perfect heaven of uncon- 
sciousness. What influence the recent disturbances in India may have upon the native 
resources from which the race of ascetics in that country have hitherto been supported, 
time must determine; but there is little doubt that the confiscations which have naturally 
followed the crimes of rebellion, will have deprived very many of those chiefs and 
zemindars most likely to uphold such fanatics, of the means of doing so; and thus, 
notwithstanding the partiality for a life of indolence, by which vacancies in the ranks of 
these idiots have hitherto been filled up, a total deprivation of support will doubtless 
have the effect of extinguishing the ambition of individuals who might otherwise succeed 
to the hermitages of so-called " holy men." 

The view from the terrace in front of the temple at Karli is very fine, stretching over 
a rich and beautiful country, and bounded l)y a chain of distant mountains. The village, 
from which the temple is named, is situated about two miles from the excavation, and 
forms a pretty object in the landscape — its rural habitations peeping out from the midst 
of mango groves, and embellished by a large tank and a pagoda of considerable architec- 
tural beauty. The chain of mountains, amid which the excavations are found, extend 
from Cape Comorin, at the southern extremity of the Indian peninsula, to the northern 
boundary of the province of Candeish, in a series unbroken except at one place, about 
twelve miles broad, in a portion of the Malabar territory. This hilly range in no instance 
recedes more than fifty miles from the sea, or approaches it within eight ; and but few 
of the passes through it are yet known to Europeans — the passage of the Western Ghauts 
being still a service of great difficulty, and no inconsiderable amount of danger. 


Among the numerous astonishing works of ancient art still spread over India to excite 
the surprise and admiration of posterity, the Cave Temples of Ellora are justly entitled 
to be deemed extraordinary, even in a land of wonders; and of these, the one designated 
" Keylas," or " the paradise of the gods," is eminently deserving of notice. The mountain 
range in which the excavations we are about to describe occur, takes its name from a 
village of the Deccan, near Dowlutabad — a singular hill fortress, and capital of a district 
of Central India; and is of an extremely picturesque character, independent of the 
interest associated with the partly subterranean and partly isolated temples and palaces 
it contains, and which are cut from the living rock, and enriched with a variety and 
redundance of sculptured ornament that defy any eft'orts fully to describe. 

According to tiie Brahminical account of the origin of these excavations, 7,894 years 
have elapsed since they were commenced, as a work of pious gratitude, by Eeloo Rajah, 



son of Peshpout of Ellichpore, whea 3,000 years of the Dwarpa Yoag were unaccom- 
plished ; which, added to the 4,894 years of the present, or " Kal Yoag," completes the 
full number, 7,894. Eeloo Rajah was, as they record, afflicted by a disease that resisted 
all efforts to cure or alleviate it. In quest of relief, the sufferer sought a then famous 
purifying water, named Sewa Lye, or Sewallee, which had been curtailed by Vishnu, at 
the instigation of Yemdhurhum, or Jum (the destroying spirit), from the dimensions of 
sixty bowshots' length and four in width, to the size of a cow's hoof. In this water 
Eeloo dipped a cloth, and cleansed with it his face and hands — an operation which cured 
him of the disease. He then built a khoond or cistern, and bathing therein his whole 
person, became purified ; and looking upon the site of such a miraculous recovery as 
holy, he first constructed the temple-palace called Keylas, aud then continued his pious 
work to the place of Biskurma, " the creator or maker of the world ; known among the 
gods as the ' Carpenter or Artificer of Ramchundur.'" The excavations, altogether, 
embrace a series of fifteen larger, and an unascertained number of smaller, temples and 
shrines, cut in the bed of the mountain, of various dimensions and elevations. Of these, 
" Keylas," the most remarkable for its extent and marvellous sculpture, is the subject of 
the accompanying engravings. 

The front entrance to the temple (as seen in the plate) is, for want of uniformity in 
design, less beautiful than many of the farades to be met with in the mountain series; 
but though deficient in exterior elegance, the Cave of Keylas — of which the portion 
represented is merely an outwork — is, upon the whole, the most elaborately designed 
and artistically enriched of the whole. In the plate, the summit of a pagoda — which 
stands insulated in the centre of a cleared area of considerable magnitude, and which is 
ornamented by colossal figures of the gods, with their various attributes — appears above 
the wall which connects the gateway, and the chamber over it, with the scarp of the rock. 
A part of one of the obelisks may likewise be seen a short distance to the left of the pagoda. 

The height of the outer gateway of Keylas is fourteen feet, opening to a passage with 
apartments ou either side. The "sculptures on the outside are partly Boodhist, and 
partly of the school of Brahma. Over the doorway is the Nogara Khana, or music 
gallery, the floor of which forms the roof of a passage leading from the entrance 
to the excavated area within. Euteiing upon the latter, which is a wide expanse of level 
ground, formed by cutting down through the solid rock of the hill, an immense 
temple of a complex pyramidal form presents itself, connected with the gateway by a 
bridge, constructed by' leaving a portion of the rock during the progress of the 
excavations. In front of the structure, aud between the gateway and the temple, are 
the obelisks of Keylas, placed one on each side a pagoda or shrine, dedicated to the 
sacred bull Nundee. These obelisks are of a quadrangular form, eleven feet square, 
sculptured in a great variety of devices, all of which are elaborately finished ; their 
height is about forty-one feet, and they are surmounted by the remains of some animal, 
supposed to have been a lion, which, though not an object of Brahmana veneration, occurs 
very frequently amongst the decorations of the Cave Temples. Approaching the 
entrance to the temple is a colossal figure of Bhawaui, supported by a lotus, having on 
each side an elephant, whose trunks form a canopy over the head of the goddess. On 
each side of the passage, from the inner entrance, are recesses of great depth and 
proportions, in one of which, resting upon a solid square mass, is the bull Nundee, 
superbly decorated with ornaments aud rich tracery ; beyond this, on the opposite side, 
is a similar recess, in which is a sitting figure representing Boodh, surrounded by 
attendants ; and near the end of the passage, where the body of the great temple 
commences, is a sittiug figure of Guttordhirj (one of the incarnations of Siva), with his 
ten hands variously occupied. Turning to the right, the walls of the structure are 
covered by sculptures representing the battles of Ram aud Rouou, in which the 
achievements of the monkey-god, Humayun, are conspicuously displayed. Pursuing 
the storey depicted by these sculptures to the end of the area, iuterrupted in some parts 
by fragments of the wall and broken columns, the extremity discloses the entrances into 
three distinct excavations, supposed to be also temples ; but as yet, for various causes, 
unexplored. Returning by the left side of the area, towards the entrance, the 
sculptured history of the war of the gods is continued, but in a pitiable state of dilapida- 
tion. It is worthy of remark, that the whole length of the substructure appears to be 


supported on the backs of animals, such as elephants, lions, horses, &c., which project 
from the base of the piers in the surrounding walls, and give to the vast superiucumbent 
mass an air of lightness and movability. 

Keylas is fiu'ther distinguished "by the extent and beauty of its upper storey, to which 
the ascent is by two flights of stairs, consisting of thirty-six steps, which wind iuwnrds, 
on each side of the entrance, and lead to the gallery over the porch of the temple : 
from hence, a small bridge conducts the visitor into a square chamber, in which is 
auother image of the bull Nundee. A second bridge from this chamber communi- 
cates with a handsome portico, supported by two curiously-formed columns, which are 
surmounted on the outer face by animals representing lions, and, on the inside, by 
figures bearing a resemblance to the Egyptian sphinx. Passing this, another bridge 
and an ascent of four steps, conduct to a passage guarded by colossal figures bearing 
maces, and opening to the grand apartment of the temple, which is divided by two rows 
of pillars, and enclosed by massive piers. On each side there is a vacant space for one 
column towards the end of the area ; and the accustomed recess — forming the shrine of 
the Lingam, and to which there is an ascent of five steps — occupies the extreme end. 

Of this extraordinary structure and its accessories, it may suffice to mention, 
that every portion of the exterior, as well as the interior, is carved into columns, 
pilasters, friezes, and pediments, embellished with the representation of men and 
animals, singly or in groups, and accompanied with all the attributes which have 
rendered the Hindoo pantheon a vast gathering of monstrous conceptions. The galleries 
contain sculptured histories of the Hindoo mythology, which are represented in recessed 
compartments of the stone scarping, and in which are forty-two gigantic figures 
of gods and goddesses. Part of the south side of the area is occupied by chambers richly 
and lavishly embellished, one of them containing groups of female figures so exquisitely 
proportioned and sculptured, that even Grecian art has scarcely surpassed the beauty of 
the workmanship. Pen and pencil, it has been observed, however accurate and vivid, 
can afford very iuefiectual aid in a field so vast and unparalleled as that of the Keylas of 
Ellora. The exceeding number and variety of the objects which present themselves to 
the eye, actually excite pain, until the tremulous sensations they arouse in the 
mind subside, and calm contemplation is enabled to succeed astonishment and awe. Of 
the Brahminical tradition of the origin of these stupendous works, mention has 
been made in the commencement of this article; but the popular belief among the 
natives ascribes it to supernatural agency. "Biskurma," say they, "the carpenter 
of Ramchundur, caused a night of six months ; in which, having perfected these excava- 
tions, he was to connect them with the hill-fort of Dowlatabad, or Deoghur, about four 
coss distant ; but the cock crowing before the completion of his task, the work was left 
unfinished, and the divine artificer passed into the outer (avatar) of Boodh." At any rate, 
conjecture is baffled in its endeavours to trace these mighty works to their founders. 

Though still frequented by some fakirs, they have not, for many years, been held in 
much reverence by Hindoos generally. Their sacred character has been lost in the 
obscurity of unknown ages; and it can only be said that, whoever may have been the 
projectors of undertakings so vast and difficult, they must have possessed intellectual and 
imaginative gifts of e.xtrnordiuary power, with vast resources for the supplj' of labour, 
and, moreover, must have existed in times of perfect security and peace. The rock from 
which the temples of Ellora are wrought, is a hard red granite ; and from every peak and 
pinnacle of the sacred mountain, the eye roams over scenes of romantic beauty and 
marvellous grandeur. The dimensions of the excavation for Keylas are as follow : — 


Height of the gateway 14 

Passage, with rooms on each side, 15 feet by 9 . . . .42 
Breadth of inner area or court ....... 150 

Length from gateway to the opposite scarp 247 

Height of rock excavated . 100 

Dimensions of the temple itself: — 

Door of the portico 12 feet by 6 ....... — 

Length from the door of temple to back wall .... 103 

Ditto from door to ])latform behind the temple . . • 142 

Extreme breadth of the interior .... ... 61 

Heiglit of the principal chamber ... ... 47 







The temple-cavern beariug this name occurs iu the centre of the mountain-range 
of EUora, and appears to have been devoted to the representation of the "ten 
incarnations, or avatars, of Vishnu," whose achievements are sculptured on the 
compartments by which the walls of the temple are adorned. The Dus Outar (ten 
avatars) — though it is evidently, from the multitude of its figures actively engaged 
iu terrestrial affairs, a Brahminical temple — is distinguished from other excavations in the 
range, by having cells opening into its principal hall, resembling those which are found 
iu caves purely Boodhist. Figures in the attitudes assumed by Boodh, surmount 
the capitals of the pillars in front, and various indications occur in every direction 
to render its positive character doubtful, particularly as the decorations of the cave are 
not peculiar to it, inasmuch as each of the adjacent temples is equally supplied with 
delineations of the achievements of the god during his sojourn in the nether world. 

The subject of the accompanying plate is taken from one of the most perfect remains 
of the numerous compartments of the temple ; and it is supposed to represent Siva 
in the act of crushing under his foot a demon who had offered insult to the goddess 
Parwutee, whom the former, in his avatar of Ehr Budr, had espoused. The mutilated 
condition of the group has totally obliterated any portion of grace that may formerly 
have characterised the female deity, who appears to be partly reclining on the ground, 
with outstretched arms, as if suddenly awakened in a state of alarm — a circumstance 
that might well be accounted for, had she possessed a mirror to reflect the charms of her 
countenance. The face of the recess in which this singular group appears, is in excellent 
preservation, as are the massive pillars that support the roof of the chamber, which is iu 
au upper storey of the temple, and is 102 feet long, by 98 broad. The apartment has a 
flat roof twelve feet in height, supported by forty-eight enormous pillars, and twenty-two 
pilasters along the walls, dividing the sculptured recesses from each other. The whole 
fat^ade of the temple is open, admitting more than the usual portion of light, and 
exhibiting the interior embellishments to much advantage. 


Rameswar, one of the Ellora group of excavations, is of comparatively small dimen- 
sions among the gigantic works of similar kind and date in its vicinity. The excavation 
consists of a hall ninety feet in length, beyond which is a temple thirty-one feet square — 
both supported by massive pillars. Opposite the entrance to the outer cave is a square 
pedestal, surmounted by the bull Nundee, and, on the left of it, a tank of very fine 
water, to which the access is by a low doorway and steps cut in the rock. On either 
side of the entrance to the temple (shown in the accompanying engraving) are female 
figures scidptured with great delicacy, and of considerable beauty ; and the entrance 
itself is supported by four pillars of extraordinary design, covered witli rich tracery, and 
surmounted by capitals perfectly unique in style even in this vast museum of ancient 
art. Directly opposite the entrance, at the extreme end of the first cave, is a recess 
with the accustomed Lingam of Mahadeo, an invariable accessory to the symbols with 
which Hindoo temples are always profusely adorned. The walls and roof of this apart- 
ment are covered with figures, chiefly relating to the amusements of the deities, who arc 
represented as enjoying themselves like common mortals, in dance and revelry. 

Like the otlier wonderful relics of an unknown age in the mountains of Ellora, the 
decorations of Rameswar have been subjected to the wanton ravages of the spoiler, ;vs 


well as to the slow but sure depredations of time ; and thus, of the innumerable figures 
that once ornamented the interior of the Raraeswar, there are few that preserve sufficient 
of their original features, or characteristics, to allow of identification with the heroes 
and deities of the Hindoo pantheon. Tlie subject of the design that occupies the 
greater portion of the wall, is, however, believed to refer to the uuptials of the gods, in 
which, among other incidents, dances and sacrifices were important features, as they 
afterwards became with the Greeks, and people of other nations, upon similar occasions. 


The singular collection of skeleton figures represented in the accompanying plate, 
occupies a recess of the temple on the right-hand side of the entrance, and forms a 
striking contrast to the joyous character of the groups in each of the other compart- 
ments or recesses. Of this design, it will be seen the principal figures are represented 
as skeletons, with two children of the same description clinging to their fleshless limbs. 
In the rear, and on both sides of the skeleton group, are human figures of various pro- 
portions, and the background is beautifully filled up with foliage and clusters of fruit, 
separated by a mound of earth from the chief figures, who appear to have been the 
victims of famine. Various theories have been from time to time advauced, as to the 
history supposed to be connected with this singular and repulsive group ; one of which 
suggests that it commemorates the guilt and punishment of a wicked family, who ])!uii- 
dered the temples, and having enriched themselves with the pillage of the gods, and the 
hardly-gathered earjiings wrung from the people, hoarded their ill-gotten wealth, and 
thus provoked the vengeance of heaven, which descended upon them in the deprivation 
of food and wasting of their bodies, by which they became a warning and terror to future 
evil-doers — besides the famine to which they were doomed in the midst of their abun- 
dance ; and while in a helpless state from long fasting and grief, they had further the 
ineffable misery of seeing their ill-gotten wealth carried away before their eyes, without 
power to prevent it. One of the plunderers is seen in the left coruer of the upper 
part of the recess, as in the act of running off with a bag of gold ; while others, on a 
level with the miserable family, are contemplating their sufferings. Such is one version 
of the traditionary history attached to the skeleton group of Rameswar. Another refers 
to the incident represented as being connected with a sacrifice at a festival, in which the 
Now Ratree, or Hindoo Fates — who are exhibited in the persons of seven females, 
sculptured in an adjoining compartment — are engaged ; and that the central figure, the 
father of a starving family, is selling his wife and children for the purpose. This version 
hardly appears reconcilable with the presence of Cama, the Hindoo god of love ; who, in 
his person and attributes, appears on the right of the group, and whose presence could 
hardly be compatible with such a disposition of a wife and children. However wide 
either of these traditions may fall from the intention of the artist by whom these 
singular sculptures were wrought from the living rock, there is nothing now by which light 
can be thrown upon their history ; and visitors to Ellora are generally more inclined to 
wonder at the skill of the workman, than to penetrate the mists that obscure the precise 
meaning of his design. Moreover, there is a degree of repulsiveness in the idea thus 
embodied (whatever may have been its origin, or the actual meaning of the sculptor), 
that combines, with the surrounding gloom, and the mysterious accessories of the cavern 
itself, to prevent individuals of mere ordinary nerve from dwelling upon a subject so 
hideous in conception and ghastly in efiect. 



At the southern extremity of the excavations of this wonderful mountain, the mighty 
works of EUora are terminated by a large cave temple, less richly ornamented than others 
of the series, but still very imposing from its extent, and the elegauce and number of the 
columns, by wliich on either side it is supported. 

The temple is said by the Brahmins to have been originally constructed for, and ap- 
propriated to, the religious observances of the Dhairs, or Sweepers — an impure caste, with 
whom it was contamination to hold intercourse. In consequence, the native prejudice is 
so great against the Dher Warra, that the Brahmin guides not only refuse to enter it 
themselves, but remonstrate with ]<]uropean visitants on tlie degradation which they also 
must incur in treading the polluted area. Portunateh', European prejudices do not in- 
cline in the same direction as those of Hindoo fanatics ; and thus have many of the finest 
remains of the architectural treasures of ancient India become familiarised to us, and to 
the civilised western world. 

The " Dher Warra," both as a name and in its supposed connection with tlie Dhairs, 
is a fable of comparatively modern origin, as, like many others of the cave temples of 
Ellora, it bears every indication of having been a temple of Boodh, whose statue and 
attributes appear here in precisely the same manner as in the Biskurma and other 
acknowledged Boodhist temples. The principal chamber or hall of the Dher Warra — in 
wliich are enshrined the images of the deity and his attendants, with their various sj'm- 
bols of power — is about 100 feet in length, from the entrance to the recesses at the oppo- 
site end; the width of the chamber, exclusive of recesses on either side for the Lingain, being 
about forty feet. The walls of this temple are not so abundantly enriched with sculpture 
as are those of others in the mountain series, and the pillars which support the roof are 
slighter, but more elegant, than those seen in the other caves : there is also a peculiarity 
in the arrangement of the area of the temple, that is not observable in any other ; 
namely, two platforms of stone slightly elevated from the gi'ouiul, and extending parallel 
to each other, from the entrance, to the steps of the shrine at the farther extremity of the 
cavern. Of the purpose for which these elevations were constructed, nothing is known 
beyond conjecture, which has pointed to them as intended for seats for the convenience 
of students, scribes, or the vendors of merchandise; the latter supposition being hardly 
tenable, from the fact of the rigid care with which the Hindoo and Boodhist temples 
were preserved from contamination — an evil that could not have been avoided if the 
place was resorted to for purposes of traffic. Moreover, there is no simihar construc- 
tion in the area of the other cave temples. A wide and level passage is formed by these 
platforms to the foot of the shrine, in which the idol still remains. 

The front of this cave is open for its whole breadth ; and, during the rainy season, a 
mountain torrent pours from above over the face of it like a small river, upon the plain 
below, forming in its descent a curtain before the temple, behind which it wonhl 
be hazardous to venture, even if the altitude could be reached in safety at such a period. 
Through the prejudices of the Ellora Brahmins and neighbouring villagers, this fine 
cavern has been abandoned to neglect, and its uninterrupted quiet has rendered it a 
favourite asylum for cattle and goats. The dirt occasioned by these animals, and the 
multitude of all sorts of insects and vermin attracted to the place by them, may perhaps 
partly have given occasion for the ill-repute into which the cave has fallen. 

With the Dher Warra, our descriptive views of the antiquities of Ellora terminate. 
The solemn loneliness of these caves, their wild seclusion on the mountain side, remote 
from the ])opulous resorts of man, and the beauty and grandeur which meet the eye on 
every side, and fill the mind with wonder, will amply compensate the pilgrim to Ellora 
for the fatigue and difficulties he has to encounter. Unfortunately the gratification can 
be but ))artial ; f()r the natural curiosity awakened can never be satisfied. There is no 
clue to guide us through the labyrinths of thought opened by these sul)lime relics of long- 
departed ages. If we turn from the numberless subjects of doubt and diiriculty, which 
the most accomplislicd of Oriental scholars have vainly endeavoured to elucidate, to the 


human hands which wrought the marvels we see around, the attempt is equally fruitless. 
Their history is not less obscure than are the traditions of the ages that immediately 
succeeded chaos. 

The absence at EUora of that religious veneration which the Hindoos are so prone to 
show to the objects of their idolatry, is also unaccounted for : nor can any one presume 
to guess why these mighty and mysterious shrines have been abandoned by the multi- 
tudes who still ofler adoration in other places to the same deities, whose effigies are here 
unreverenced in the most wonderful of their temples. 

It may be observed, in conclusion, that when the Mohammedan emperor, Aurung- 
zebe, visited these caves, shortly after his acquisition of the country, he daringly, and 
with a view to insult the people whom he had conquered, sought to destroy one of the 
mountain temples (Keylas) by breaking down some of the massive columns that support 
the roof, on pretence of trpug the power of the Hindoo god to protect his own temples. 
Finding, after this daring effoi't, that no part of the superincumbent rock gave way, the 
tempter desisted, but gave orders to deface the sculptures and painted roof of the 
temple, and its shrines, by filling the chambers with straw and setting fire to it. The 
blackness of the sculpture in various places, and the discolouration of the roofs of many 
of the chambers, are attributed to this cause ; and it is not impossible, that the aban- 
donment of the temples by the people, may have been occasioned by the desecration 
wantonly perpetrated by the followers of the conqueror. 


Nothing more strongly marks the state of society among nations than the condition of 
their females. Among all barbarous tribes they are absolute slaves ; but, as civilisation 
advances, they are gradually elevated to their proper rank as the fairest work of creation. 
Scarcely any state can be more degrading and dependent than that of women among the 
Hindoos. They have no choice in their own destmy, for they are entirely at the disposal 
of their father till three years after their nuptial age; and it is one of the sacred duties 
of a parent to place his daughter in a situation to become a mother. If he neglects this 
till the time aliove-mentioued, he forfeits all control over her, and she is then at liberty 
to choose a husband for herself. When married she is immured in her husband's 
dwelling, excluded from all education, from religious instruction, aud from the temples. 
Her dependence upon her husband is perpetual ; and, on this point, the laws are full and 
minute. "By a girl, or by a young woman, or by a woman advanced in years, nothing 
must be done even in her own dwelling-place, according to her mere pleasure; in child- 
hood, a female must be dependent on her father; in youth, on her husband; her lord 
being dead, or her sons, a woman must never seek independence." The deference which 
is exacted from a wife towards her husband is boundless : if ever so ill-treated she is 
commanded to revere him as a superior being ; and, notwithstanding so much is exacted 
from females, nothing can exceed the contempt with which they are treated in the sacred 
books, where they are scarcely ever mentioned but in connection with some degrading 
epithet. Polygamy is tolerated; but females are not allowed to marry a second time. 
A husband can dismiss a wife ou numerous pretexts ; but nothing can absolve a wife 
from her matrimonial engagement. The wife is not permitted to eat in the presence 
of her husband. Girls are generally married between the ages of seven and nine, but 
remain at their father's house for a few years, when they are taken to the house of 
their new master. 

Marriage is considered the most important event in the life of a Hindoo; and the 
ceremony is generally resorted to in the months of March, April, Maj', and June. 
Among the Brahmins it occupies five days, aud closes with a procession through the 
streets of the town or village, in which women hail tlie new-married couple with the 


Arati — a song of rejoicing. In the course of events this melody is changed for the 
wail of death ; for the husband is smitten, and the last trial of the wife is about to com- 
mence and find its consummation in the cruel rites of Suttee. 

As soon as the sick man has expired, ablutions and offerings are made by wav of 
purification, and the deceased is then dressed in his richest garments, frequently adorned 
with jewels and other ornaments, and laid on a kind of state-bed while the funeral pile 
is prepared, which generally consists of fragrant wood intermingled with spices and 
odoriferous flowers, and surrounded by a trench. Wlien ready, the body is stripped of 
the greater part of its ornaments, and carried, by four Brahmius, to the place set apart 
for the funeral ceremonies ; the Dharga, or chief of the funeral, bearing with him con- 
secrated fire in a vessel for the purpose. Meanwhile the toilet of the, it may be young, 
wife is prepared in the manner enjoined by the Bhagavata, or sacred books, from which 
the subjoined passages are translated. 

" Having first bathed, the widow, dressed in two clean garments, and holding some 
cusa grass, sips water from the palm of her hand ; bearing cusa and tita on her head, 
she looks towards the east or north, while the Brahmana utters the mystic word, ' Om !' 
Bowing to Narayana, she next declares the Sancalpa, thus : — ' On this month, so named, 
in such a parcha, on such a lit-hi, I, (namiug herself and her family), that I may meet 
Arundhati, and reside in Swarga; that the years of my stay may be numerous as the hairs 
on the human body ; that I may enjoy, with my husband, the felicity of heaven, and 
sanctify my paternal and maternal progenitors, and the ancestry of my husband's father; 
that, lauded by the Apsarases, I may be happy with my lord through the reign of the 
Indras ; that expiation be made for ray husband's offences, whether he have killed a 
Brahmana, broken the ties of gratitude, or murdered his friend — thus I ascend my hus- 
band's pile. I call on you, ye guardians of the eight regions of the world ! — Sun and moon ! 
— air, fire, ether, earth, and water ! — my own soul ! — Yama ! — day, night, and twilight ! 
and thou, conscience, bear witness — I follow my husband's corpse on the funeral pile !' 

" Having repeated the Sancalpa, she walks thrice round the pile, while the Brahmana 
utters the following Mantras : — ' Om ! Let these women, not to be widowed, good 
wives, adorned with collyrium, holding clarified butter, consign themselves to the fire ! 
Immortal ; not childless, nor husbaudloss — excellent ! Let them pass into fire, whose 
original element is water. Om ! Let these wives, pure, beautiful, commit themselves 
to the fire with their husbands' corpse.' 

" A Purannee Mantra is chanted. 

"With this benediction, and uttering the mystic 'nami-namah !' she ascends the pile. 

" While the prescribed ceremonies are performed by the widow, the sou, or other near 
kinsman of the deceased, applies the first torch, with the forms directed for the funeral 
rites in the Gry-Hya (sacred books), by which his tribe is governed. 

" The wife who commits herself to the flames with her husband's corpse, shall equal 
Arundhati, and reside in Swarga. Accompanying her husband, she shall reside so long 
in Swarga as are the thirty-five milHons of hairs on the human body. As the snake- 
catcher forcibly draws the serpent from his earth, so, bearing her husband from 
hell, with him she shall enjoy heavenly bliss. 

" Dying with her husband, she sanctifies her maternal and paternal ancestors, and the 
ancestry of him to whom she gave her virginity. Such a wife, adoring her husband, 
enters into celestial felicity with him — greatest and most admired ; hiuded by the choirs 
of heaven, with him shall enjoy the delights of heaven, while fourteen Indras reign. 

" Though her husband had killed a Brahmana, broken the ties of gratitude, or mur- 
dered his friend, she expiates the crime. 

" The Mantras are adopted on the authority of the Brahmana Purana. 

"While the pile is preparing, tell the faithful wife of the greatest duty of woman. 
She is alone loyal and pure who burns herself with her husband's corpse. Having thus 
fortified her resolution, and full of affection, she completes the Prayasliita, and ascends 
to Swarga. 

"A widow, on receiving news of her husband dying in a distant country, should expe- 
ditiously bum herself; so shall she attain perfection. Should the husband die on 
a journey, holding his sandals to her breast, let her pass into the flames."* 

• Asiatic Researches, vol. vi., ed. \~idb. 


All the ceremonies essential to this rite are prescribed in the sacred books, and 
especially in the Bhagavata and Purana ; but many practices were introduced in Suttee, 
not sanctioned by the ritual. Among these innovations, a woman who declared her 
intention of burning, was required to give a token of her fortitude ; and it was 
ordained, that any one who should seek to recede after the ceremony commenced, 
might be compelled by her relatives to complete the sacrifice : in the original rules, an 
alternative barely short of death was offered to the widow. For instance, the following 
passages from the text of Menu, the great Hindoo lawgiver, clearly leave it open to the 
wife to perform Suttee, or live in a state of perpetual widowhood: — "A faithful wife, 
who wishes to attain in heaven the mansion of her husband, must do nothing unkind to 
him be he living or dead. Let her emaciate her body by living voluntarily on pure 
flowers, roots, and fruits ; but let her not, when her husband is deceased, even pronounce 
the name of another man. Let her continue until death, forgiving all injuries, perform- 
ing harsh duties, avoiding every sensual pleasure, and cheerfully practising the incom- 
parable rules of virtue which have been followed by such women as have been devoted to 
one only husband."* 

The torch having been applied to the four corners of the pile, the crowd of attend- 
ants accompanying the procession retire to a distance, leaving only the four Brah- 
mins who have carried the bier. As the materials are dry and combustible, the fire 
rages ; and the covering of rushes, which forms a canopy over the corpse and the victim, 
speedily envelop both in a sheet of flame. When all is consumed, a series of purifica- 
tions follow, and the family of the deceased are permitted to eat ; food being forbidden 
till the whole ceremony is completed. 

In another portion of the sacred books referred to, as quoted in the Transactions 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,! the formula of Suttee is thus also described : — 

"Adorned with jewels, decked with minium and other customary ornaments, 
with the box of minium iu her hand, having made piijd, or adoration to the Devatas — 
thus reflecting, that 'this life is naught, my lord and master to me was all' — she walks 
round the burning pile. She bestows jewels on the Brahmins, and comforts her 
relations, and shows her frieuds the attentions of civility. While calling the sun 
and elements to witness, she distributes minium at pleasure; and having repeated 
the Sancalpa, proceeds into the flames. There embracing the corpse, she abandons 
herself to the fire, calling, ' Satya ! Satya ! Satya !' 

" The by-standers throw on butter and wood ; for this, they are taught that they 
acquire merit exceeding ten million fold the merits of an aswamadha, or other great 
sacrifice; but those who join iu the procession from the house of the deceased to 
the funeral pile, for every step are rewarded as for an aswamadha." 

The abolition of the dreadful rite of Suttee throughout the territories subject 
to British rule in India, has, for some years past, prevented at least the open perpetra- 
tion of the diabolical act in those parts, although the hideous practice is still common in 
the independent states. The sacrifice might be performed in any convenient place; but 
the bank of a river was always selected if possible, as bathing is one of the preparatory 
observances enjoined to the victim. 

The Suttee commemorated in the accompanying engraving, took place in the neigh- 
bourhood of Baroda, in the dominions of the Guicowar, about seventy-eight miles north- 
east of Surat, during the period in which Sir James Carnac was political resident at the 
court of Dowlah Rao Sindia. The circumstances connected with the immolation 
were described by Captain Grindlay, of the East India Company's service (who was 
present throughout the scene), as of a somewhat romantic nature, investing the sacrifice 
with a more than usual degree of interest. The Suttee was a young Brahminee woman 
from the Deccan, married to a person of her own caste, holding an appointment under 
one of the chiefs of the court, and absent at the time from his home. One night 
the death of her husband was communicated to her in a dream ; and, being strongly 
impressed with the truth of the revelation, she became a prey to anxiety and grief. 
Shortly afterwards, while returning to her cottage with a pot of water upon her head (an 
occupation always performed by females of her class), a circumstance happened which 
confirmed her worst apprehensions. She had placed her necklace, the symbol of lier 
* Martin's India (Note), p. 514. t Asiatic Researches, vol. vi., ed. 1796. 


married state, ou the top of the jar, and a crow alighting, flew away with it. This 
dreadful omea produced a conviction amounting to perfect faith that the fatal event had 
taken place. Throwing down the vessel, and loosing her hair, she returned to her 
desolate home, declaring lier intention to join her husband in the grave. 

The circumstance being reported to the British resident, he immediately repaired 
to the house of the presumed widow, with the humane intention of dissuading her from 
her rash intent. Finding his efforts unavailing, he engaged the assistance of the ruling 
prince, who readily undertook the benevolent mission, appearing with a lai-ge retinue 
at the door ; and when his representations failed to produce the desired effect, he 
surrounded the avenue with his attendants, in order to prevent the unhappy woman from 
flying to persons who would encourage her in her desperate resolve. Aware that the 
abject state of poverty to which a Hindoo widow, who can inherit nothing, is reduced 
upon the death of her husband, was often the real cause of Suttee, the prince gene- 
rously offered the woman the means of future subsistence, urging at the same time 
the duties which she owed to her family, whom she would leave unprotected, and 
the uncertainty of the loss which she deplored. The widow remained unmoved, and 
unconvinced ; and on being assured that she would not be permitted to ascend the fatal 
pile, drew a dagger from the folds of her dress, and with all the vehemence which 
passion could lend to fanaticism, declared that her blood — the blood of a Brahmin 
woman — should be upon the soul of him who offered to prevent her performing her duty 
to her husband. Few Indians are proof against fear of the consequences of driving an 
enthusiast to this act of desperation. The curse is believed to be immitigable by any 
effort to expiate the crime that produced it; and thus, perceiving her determiuation 
could not be shaken, the Guicowar, with liis retinue, withdrew. 

" Self-sacrifice is considered so honourable among every class of Hindoos, that the 
widow, although rushing almost companiouless to the Ghaut, was soon surrounded by 
thronging multitudes of kindred, friends, and spectators. She formed a small image of 
rice to represent the body of her husband ; the pile was prepared ; and, having gone 
through the prescribed ceremonies and ablutions, she repaired to the fatal spot (imme- 
diately behind the domed arch ou the left of the engraving), and threw herself into the 
midst of the flames. 

"The most astonishing part of the tale remains to be told. In the course of three 
weeks after this event, tidings arrived at Baroda of the death of the husband, which, 
upon inquiry, was found to have occurred at a period correspondent to the date of the 
wife's dream." 

This was evidently an instance of determined and voluntary self-sacrifice; but there 
are numberless instances upon record, in which the cruel and inexorable rites of Suttee 
have been performed, when young and unwilling victims have been immolated on the 
funeral pile of an aged husband, despite their tears, their shrieks, and their resistance. 
Perhaps our wonder may be diminished at the infliction of such barbarity, when we 
reflect that, according to the sacred writings of the Brahmins, the crimes of the husband, 
however enormous, are expiated by the sacrifice of the wife ; and that a natural desire 
on the part of his relations that he should obtain admission to paradise, would stimulate 
them, irrespective of all other considerations, to urge the voluntary, or, if need be, the 
enforced act that would open the gates to him. 

Self-murder, which of course included the practice of Suttee, was suppressed by a 
prohibitory edict of the supreme government of India, dated the 4th of December, 1829, 
during the administration of Lord William Beutinck. By this ordinance, all persons 
aiding and abetting Suttee, were declared liable to the penalty inflicted by the law for 
culpable homicide. The Brahmins, who had originated Suttee to prevent their widows 
remarrying, declared that it was purely a religious rite, and objected to its forcible sup- 
pression ; but, with this exception, no opposition was manifested by the people under 
British authority. Widow-burning, however, still continues in several provinces which 
are not yet under the immediate control of the government of this country. 



The place is supposed to occupy the site of an ancient city of the Prasii, named 
Palibothra, which flourished prior to the invasion of India by Alexander the Great. It 
is called by the Brahmins Bhat Prayag (most holy), on account of its position at the 
most venerated of all the confluences of rivers in Hindoostan (such confluences being 
declared sacred by the Fedas); and so great has been the repute of its sanctity, that 
more than 200,000 pilgrims and devotees have visited it from distant parts of India in 
the course of a single year, merely for the gratification of bathing in the waters that lave 
its walls; while, in time gone past, numbers of pilgrims have drowned themselves at the 
precise point of junction of the two mighty streams, in full assurance that, by so doing, 
they secured for themselves an eternity of happiness. The modern city was built about 
the middle of the sixteenth century, by the emperor Akber, and became one of his most 
favoured residences, being enriched by him with a number of magnificent edifices, and a 
fort of great extent and strength, intended as well for the imperial residence as for the 
protection of the surrounding territory. The city is built on the western bank of the 
Jumna, and on the west of the fort ; but the greater portion of the now remaining 
edifices are of mud, and are erected on ancient foundations of substantial brick struc- 
tures. Much of the soil in the immediate neighbourhood consists of materials that 
have been used for building purposes at some remote period, and of fragments of pottery 
and household vessels; at once attesting the antiquity and original magnitude of 
the city of Akber. Among other improvements upon its recently neglected condition, 
the city contains a number of new and commodious buildings, for the official purposes of 
the provincial government, and the residence of its chief officers and of the wealthy 
native and European inhabitants. It has also a government school or college, which, 
prior to the disturbances, was attended by 103 pupils, of whom eighty-one were Hindoos. 
The cantonments for the military are situated about four miles from the fort, and were 
generally occupied by two or more regiments of native infantry, some cavalry, and 
a company of artillery; but the officer in command of the whole usually resided 
in the fort. 

Among its other institutions of importance, as the capital of a province, Allahabad 
possesses a permanent judicial establishment, whence periodical circuits are made 
through the province; and during the greater portion of the year 1858, the city 
was chosen by the governor-general of India, Viscount Canning, for the temporary seat 
of the supreme government. Some few years since, a railway had been projected from 
Allahabad to Cawnpoor, in continuation of the Great Trunk line from Calcutta to 
Lahore ; and a portion of this line, from Allahabad to Futtehpoor, was opened with the 
usual formalities, by the governor-general, in 1858, under circumstances of unusual 
interest ; the greater part of the distance traversed lying through an enemy's country, 
overrun with their movable columns, and the safety of the party rendering it expedient 
to burn down the native villages on each side of the line; while the termini, and 
stations between them, were protected by troops and artillery, to resist any attempt by 
the rebels to carry ofi' the governor-general and his suite, while engaged in the ceremony 
of inaugurating the line. 

The fort at Allahabad is still an imposing structure, having been preserved in excel- 
lent condition since it came into the exclusive possession of the East India Company in 
1801. The walls, which are of great elevation, enclose an extent of 3,500 yards; and, 
with the numerous bastions and towers, are pierced for artillery. A part of the fortress 
is built over a cavern, or subterranean temple of the Hindoos, dedicated to the worship 
of Siva (the destroyer), the roof of which is supported by pillars of singular form and 
colossal dimensions ; and within this gloomy vault, sank deep into the bosom of the earth, 
a portion of the mysterious rites enjoined to the pilgrims who visit the city of Allah 


must be performed, before the deity of the Hindoos can be propitiated. The cavern is 
vast, and profoundly dark. Its actual extent is not known to the present generation of 
man ; but it is asserted, and believed by the devotees who seek its gloomy recesses, 
to extend as far as Delhi — a distance of more than 400 miles; and to be infested, 
for the greater part of the distance, by enormous serpents and noxious reptiles. 
The author of the Hand-Book for India and Egypt, who, some few years since, ventured 
into the depths of this extraordinary temple of a fauatical creed (called by the natives 
Peebulpooree), says — "A fakir is constantly in attendance at the entrance to the cavern, 
who, for a small gratuity, is ready to descend with the pious devotee or inquiring 
traveller, and exhibit a portion of its gloomy wonders by the aid of torches; as it is only 
at the entrance, and one other distant locality, that the light of day penetrates the utter 
darkness that fills the undefined space. The passage to the great vault is, for a consider- 
able length, not more than four feet broad by eight in height, and has been cut through 
an argillaceous limestone rock of ehunam. As it descends, the walls and roof are seen 
covered with inscriptions, and grotesque and monstrous figures, with niclies at intervals, 
containing mutilated fragments of idols, and other objects of Hindoo veneration. After 
gradually descending for about a hundred feet from the level of the entrance, the cavern 
widens out to gigantic proportions, the limits of which are obscured by the profound 
darkness, which the light of a few torches is unable to penetrate ; but in the apparent 
centre of the space, the Lingam, or symbol of Mahadeo (a name of Siva), is presented 
to the view of his worshippers. From this hall of gloom and mystery, paths branch off 
in various directions, forming, in their number and intersections, a perfect labyrinth ; 
having in their course a number of recesses piled up with the fragments of idols — silent 
but memorable records of the hatred and vengeance of the Moslem troops of Akber, by 
whom the cavern-temple and its altars were first profaned. The immense and awful 
vault, and its passages, are now tenanted by insects and reptiles without number; and 
among them are millions of cockroaches, which, attracted by the unusual light, fly 
around it, and settle upon the unwelcome intruders on their repose. Toads and snakes 
crawl and glide across the slimy paths, and appear ready to dispute the invasion of their 
dismal territory ; while a host of bats flit about so close to the torch of the guide, that its 
non-extinction is surprising. All here is damp, dreary, and noisome." 

The fort at Allahabad was the scene of important events connected with the sepoy 
mutiny of 1857. On the 5th of June, in that memorable year for India, a telegram from 
Sir H. Wheeler, the brigadier in command at Cawnpoor, directed the officer in charge at 
Allahabad to "man the fort with every serviceable European, and to make a good stand." 
This message, in the existing posture of affairs, was ominous of impending mischief, and 
was instantly attended to. The civilians at Allahabad were at once ordered into the fort, 
and such as were capable of service were formed into a volunteer corps, numbering, with 
some few invalided soldiers and staff sergeants, about a hundred men ; the charge of the 
main gate of the fort being left to eighty men of the Gth native regiment, which, that 
very morning, had made a demonstration of its loyalty by waiting, unarmed, in a body 
upon their European officers, and, " with tears in their eyes, beseeching them to rely iipon 
their honour and good faith." Several European merchants, and some half-castes in 
government employ, still, however, remained outside the fort, being unwilling to believe 
the possibility of danger to themselves personally. Some of the European officers, also, 
whose families were resident between the fort and the cantonments, were still without 
the walls of the fortress, as were others on duty at outposts. All necessary caution was 
used, and the usual appearance of order and subordination was presented through the 
day ; but, as night approached, it became evident that a mutinous spirit was at work 
among the native troops in cantonment; and at half-past nine in the evening, while the 
officers were yet together iu the mess-room, a bugler of the Gth regiment sounded the 
" assembly." The officers, imagining that some disturbance had occurred in the bazaar 
or neighbourhood, rushed out to learn the cause, and the foremost of them were instantly 
shot down. One or two others contrived to escape to the fort ; but five English officers 
of the 6th regiment, and several young ensigns doing duty with that corps, were at once 
massacred by the men who, on the same morning, had besought them to rely on their 
fidelity ! One officer of the 6th was actually pinned to the ground by bayonets, and, 
while yet writhing in agony, a fire was kindled on his body. The vengeance of the 


infuriated sepoys did not confine itself to their officers alone : women and children, the 
old and the young, perished alike in their reckless thirst for blood. More than fifty 
Europeans fell in the first outburst of this demoniacal treachery ; and to many of the 
females, a merciless death was the least of the fearful wrongs to which they were subjected. 

One of the civilians who had taken refuge in the fort, afterwards writing of the 
events of that night, says — " On the alarm being sounded, we ran up to the ramparts in 
breathless silence. The firing without grew heavier, and we all thought the insurgents 
from Benares had entered the station, and were being beaten off by the regiment. 
' Oh,' we said, ' those gallant sepoys are beating off the rebels !' for the firing grew 
fainter in the distance, as if a force was retiring; but before long the sad truth was 
known. Harwood* rode into the fort, bringing tidings that the 6th had risen, and had 
seized the guns. He had just escaped, and ran up to poor Alexander's camp.f who 
jumped on his horse, and rode up towai'ds the lines with as many of his men as could be 
got ready ; he was caught in an ambush by a party of sepoys lying in wait for prey, .and was 
killed by a musket being placed to his side and blowing out his heart. His poor bodv 
was brought in late in the night ; and I gave his hand a last shake, and shed tears over 
his last bed." 

It is not the purpose here to enter upon a detail of occurrences connected with the 
mutiny of the 6th native regiment at Allahabad ; but the following incident, as related 
by one of the officers who happily survived the murderous onslaught, may be recorded, 
as exhibiting in the conduct of a mere lad, a glorious example of heroic fortitude and 
Christian faith. The narrator, whose words we transciibe, says — " When the wretched 
6th regiment mutinied at Allahabad, and murdered their officers, an ensign only sixteen 
years of age, who was left for dead among the rest, escaped in the darkness to a 
neighbouring ravine. Here he found a stream, the water of which sustained his life for 
four days and nights. Although desperately wounded, he contrived to raise himself into 
a tree during the night, for protection from wild beasts. Poor boy ! he had a high 
commission to fulfil before death released him from his sufierings. On the fifth day he 
was discovered, and dragged by the brutal sepoys before one of their leaders, to have the 
little life left in him extinguished. There he found another prisoner — a Christian 
catechist, formerly a Mohammedan — whom the sepoys were endeavouring to torment 
and terrify into a recantation. The firmness of the native was giving way as he knelt 
amid his persecutors, with no human sympathy to support him. The boy-officer, after 
anxiously watching him for a short time, cried out — ' Oh, my friend ! come what may, 
do not deny the Lord Jesus !' " 

Just at this moment, the alarm of a sudden attack by Colonel Neill, with his 
Madras fusiliers, caused the precipitate flight of the murderous fanatics. The catechist's 
life was saved. He turned to bless the boy whose faith had strengthened his faltering 
spirit ; but the young martyr had passed beyond the reach of human sympathy — he had 
entered into rest. J 


LucKNow, the capital of the now British province of Oude, is situated on the river 
Goomtee, between 26° and 27° N. lat., 95 miles north-west from Allahabad, and 
280 south-by-east from Delhi. The river is navigable for boats at all seasons ; and the 
appearance of the city from its northern bank is one of considerable magnificence, from 
the number and variety of splendid structures that line its river-front. Palaces, 
mosques, and mausolea, with their gilt roofs and rich and graceful architecture, meet the 
eye along a wide range of beautifully diversified ground ; and the tapering pinnacles and 
swelling domes that rise amidst and above the masses of buildings in the interior, are apt 

* Comm.inding a detachment of artillery in cantonments, 
t This officer commanded a detachment of irregular cavalry, 
j Vide Mistory of the Indian Mutiny, vol. i., p. 206. 


to excite expectations which, on nearer approach, are not realised — the greater portion 
of the (hvellin<;s of the iuhabitauts being of a very inferior description, and the streets in 
many parts of the town sinking from ten to twelve feet below the level of the gronnd 
through which they are constructed, being consequently both narrow and dirty. 
Lucknow, as a capital city, attained the meridian of its prosperity about the commence- 
ment of tlie preseut century, when its population was estimated at 300,000 persons ; but 
its greatness had even then greatly decreased witli the waning power of its rulers. The 
palace built by Asoph-ud-Dowlah — known as the Kaiserbagli — was reputed to be one of 
the most magnificent structures in India, with the exception of those built by the 
emperors of Delhi. 

The important part taken by the city of Lucknow in the great drama of the sepoy 
rebellion, and tlie subsequent insurrection of the people of Oude, is amply chronicled in 
the History of the Indian Mutiny * to which we refer for details of the occurrences 
connected with it; the immediate object of the preseut work being to describe such of 
the most important of the public buildings of the city, as the artist has contrived to 
group in the accompanying engraving. 

The city of Lucknow, as already observed, lies on the south bank of the Goomtee, 
which runs nearly from north-west to south-east, all the buildings on the opposite or left 
bank of the river being merely suburban. After winding round buildings designated La 
Martiniere and Dilkoosha, the river changes its course to direct south. Access to the city 
from the opposite bank was formerly by three bridges — namely, one of boats, another of 
iron, and the third of stone. The south-eastern extremity of the city is bounded by a 
canal, whicli enters the Goomtee near the INIartiniere ; but there is no defined boundary 
on the south-west, west, or north-west. Previous to Uie revolt, between the crowded 
or trading part of the towu and the river, a long range of palaces and gardens 
extended some five miles along the bank of the Goomtee, and formed a belt between it 
and the poorer or more dense part of the city. These structures were known to 
Europeans by the several names of the Secunderbagh, the Shah Nujeef, Shah Munzil, 
the Motee ]\Iahal, the Kaiserbagh, the Ciiuttnr Munzil, Furreed Buksh, the Residency 
iuclosure, Muchce Bowun, the Great Emaumbarra, and the ]\Ioosabagh. Of these 
various edifices, the Kaiserbagh, or Palace of the King; the Motee Mahal, or Pearl 
Palace (the residence of the begums of Oude) ; the cupolas and minarets of the Furreed 
Ruksh ; a portion of the Residency iuclosure, and of the Muchee Bowun and Emaum- 
barra, are represented in tlie accompanying engraving. 

Tlie Shah Nujeef, or Emaumbarra of Asoph-ud-Dowlah, is a model of fantastic but 
elegant Mohammedan architecture, and has elicited the encomiums of all who have 
beheld it. Lord Yalentia, in the record of his travels in Ilindoostan, says — " From the 
brilliant white of the composition, and the minute delicacy of the workmanship, an 
enthusiast might believe that genii had been the artificers :" and Bishop Heber expressed 
his admiration of the whole design, in the following unequivocal language: — ''I have 
never seen an architectural view which pleased mc more, from its richness and variety, as 
well as the proportions and general good taste of its principal features." The design 
consists of many large buildings surrounding two open courts, whicli are connected by 
three archways of lofty proportions and exquisite workmanship: in the centre of these is 
the tomb of the founder, guarded by soldiers of the royal household, and attended by 
moollahs jjcrjietually reciting passages of the Koran. The central hall is of vast size, and 
magnificent in all^its details, presenting a brilliant focus, from whence the wondrous 
beauties of the mausoleum radiate in every direction. This structure is called the 
King's Emaumbarra, or Imaumbarra — the name given by the sect of Moslems called 
Shealis, to buildings raised by them for the celebration of the religious festival of the 
]\Iohurrum. Every family of distinction has its own Emaumbarra — large or small, gorgeous 
or simjile, as the wealth and piety of the owner may dictate; and it is generally selected 
as his own burial-place, and that of the most favoured of his family. It must lie confessed 
that the beauty of the design and workmanship employed u])on the Shah Nujeef is 
materially diminished, upon close examination, by the ])ovcrty of the materials used, 
which are ciiiefly brick, coated with chunam, or clay cement. The Ronnice Durwaza, 
or Gale of the Sultan — a beautiful structure, with an elaborately-decorated arch in 
* Vol. i., pp. 51 i 181 : vol. ii., pp. 1 ; 78 ; 285. 


the Saracenic style of architecture — is in close proximity to the Shah Nujeef, and shares 
the admiration which that building, with its accessories and combinations of Moslem 
minarets and Hindoo cupolas and domes, never fails to elicit. 

Another building in Lucknow, well entitled to notice (previous to the revolt), was the 
Mosque of Saadut Ali, one of the former rulers of Oude — the lofty dome of which was a 
remarkable object from all parts of the city. Of the Kaiserbagh, or King's Palace, 
we have elsewhere spoken ; but the following passage from a recent work on Oude 
will not he inappropriate here. The author, who is represented to be an Englishman in 
the service of the king of Oude in 1834, in speaking of the royal residence, says — 
" The great extent of the buildings generally called ' the King's Palace,' surprised me in 
the first instance. It is not properly a palace, but a continuation of palaces, stretching 
all along the bank of the Goomtee, the river on which Lucknow is built. In this, how- 
ever, the royal residence in Oude only resembles what one reads of the seraglio at 
Coustantinople, the khan's residence at Teheran, and the imperial buildings of Pekin. 
In all Oriental states the palaces are not so much the abode of the sovereign only, as the 
centre of his government — little towns, in fact, containing extensive ranges of buildings, 
occupied by the harem and its vast number of attendants, and containing courts, gardens, 
tanks, fountains, and squares, as well as the offices of the chief ministers of state."* 

South-east of the city, and at a short distance from the banks of the Goomtee, is the 
mansion erected by Claude ]\Iartine — a Frenchman of extraordinary abilities and tact, 
who, from the position of a mere adventurer, advanced himself to the possession of vast 
wealth and power at the court of Oude. Eccentric in his tastes, and left to the unbridled 
indulgence of his own fancy, he designed and completed the building which has ever 
since claimed notoriety for its grotesque and extravagant appearance, in which all tlie 
rules of European and Asiatic architecture are set at defiance. The ornaments with 
which the structure is loaded, both within and without, give it the appearance of a 
museum of curiosities. Among the details of minutely-finished fretwork tliat surmounted 
the building, were placed enormous lions of stucco, with glaring lamps in heu of eyes ; 
Chinese mandarins, and female figures, with undulating heads, thronged the parapets of 
the terraced roof; and the whole Pantheon of the mythology of Greece and Rome, were 
scattered over the mansion and grounds in the most incongruous proximity to 

" Fabled monsters, which the world ne'er saw." 

This singular residence was solidly built of stone, and is of large dimensions : the tomb 
of the owner occupies the centre of the topmost story, surrounded by the extraordinary 
specimens of bad taste we have mentioned ; but the sarcophagus containing his corpse is 
deposited in a lower apartment. During the hfetime of the owner he gave it the name 
of Constantiaj but, since his death, the property came into the hands of the East India 
Company, who established a school or college in the builrling ; and in memory of the 
extraordinary man to whom it had belonged, called it "La Martiniere." During the 
advance of Sir Colin Campbell to the relief of the residency in November, 1857, this 
place was the scene of fearful conflict ; and afterwards, for a short time, became the 
head-quarters of the army of Oude. 

The Kaiserbagh was not only the most splendid of the palaces of Lucknow, but, as 
the residence of the king, was also the strongest as a place of defence ; and it was 
next to the Emaumbarra, or Mosque of the Seven Emaums, the most beautiful in an 
architectural point of view. Both of these superb edifices were doomed to sustain the 
heaviest weight of the terrific assaults which, continuing from the 2nd to the 16th of 
March, at length ended in the complete reduction of all the fortifications of the place, and 
the flight and dispersion of the rebel forces. An extract from one of Mr. Russell's 
graphic sketches of events during and after the assault by the troops under Sir Colin 
Campbell, will suffice to give an idea of the terrible revulsion to which the palace of the 
sovereigns of Oude was subjected, in the desperate struggle for its possession. He had 
ascended to the roof of the Emaumbarra, and says — " From this position a good view 
could be obtained of portions of the Kaiserbagh, the road to which was thronged with men 
bearing litters with the wounded. Artillerymen, sailors, and oxen, were busily employed 
in dragging up heavy guns and mortars to secure the new position; while troops 
• Knighton's Private Life of an Eastern King. 


were marching rapidly towards the Kaiserbagh, or were already in the courts and streets 
around it. Descending from the roof, as we struggled over the masses of fallen brick- 
work, the traces of our sap, choked up here and there with fallen earth, were close on 
our left, till the sap reached a long corridor by the side of a court, which served 
as an excellent covered-way for our sappers. The enemy's cooking places, lotas, clothing, 
belts, broken muskets, swords, and pistols were scattered over the ground on every side ; 
but there were not many dead visible till we reached some of the courts. The large hall 
of the Emaumbarra, which appeared to have been used as a sort of museum, and had con- 
tained many curious models of mosques, and fine mirrors and chandeliers, was a heap of 
ruin. Working our way through, we approached the Kaiserbagh, and managed to get 
into one of the courts through a breach in the parapet of the outer works. This court 
was surrounded by rooms with latticed windows, to which access was gained by means of 
stairs opening into the court, the strong doors of which were barred on the inside. The 
walls were decorated with indifferent frescoes, representing feats of arms and female 
dancers. On one side, the trees of. a garden could be seen through Venetian blinds; and 
there was evidence that we were near to the king's zenana, and that the buildings around 
us belonged to his eunuchs. We proceeded forward to the entrance of the main building. 
Our men were just crashing through the rooms of the palace, which were, as yet, filled 
with the evidence of barbaric magnificence and splendour. The Kaiserbagh cannot be 
described; the whole place is a series of palaces, kiosks, and mosques, all of fanciful 
Oriental architecture — some light and graceful, others merely fantastic and curious, con- 
nected, generally, by long corridors arched and open in the front, or by extensive wings, 
which enclose the courts and gardens contained within the outer walls. In every room 
throughout the endless series there was a profusion of mirrors in ponderous gilt frames. 
From every ceiling hung glass chandeliers, of every age, form, colour, and design. As to 
the furniture, it looked, in many cases, like collections from the lumber-rooms of all the 
old palaces in Europe, relieved by rich carpets and sumptuous divans, by cushions 
covered with golden embroidery, by rich screens of Cashmere shawls, and by table-covers 
l)onderous with pearls and gold. In some of the rooms were a few pictures in gorgeous 
frames ; but the hand of the spoiler had been heavy among all. Those which hung 
out of the reach of the musket-stock and bayonet-thrust, were not safe from a bullet or the 
leg of a table, converted into an impromptu missile for the operation. Down came chan- 
deliers, in a tinkHng clattering rain of glass : crash followed crash, as door and window, 
mirror and pendule, were battered down by the excited and thoughtless victors." 

The important events connected with the city and the rebellion of 1857, may be thus 
enumerated in order of date. The siege of the British position in Lucknow, which then 
consisted of the residency and the Muchee Bowun only, commenced on the 1st of July. 
On the 2nd of the same month, Sir Henry Lawrence, the chief commissioner of Oude, 
received the wound which, on the 4th, eventuated in his death. From that time until 
the 25th of September, when the occupants of the residency were relieved by the force 
under General Havelock, they had been subject to all the perils and privations of a close 
siege by the rebel army, under various leaders. Exposed to the calamities of war, and at 
times almost without the hope of rescue, the gallant band under Inglis resisted every 
attempt of the insurgents to force them from their position, and heroically held out 
until the arrival of succour. The relieving force was, however, unequal to the great 
task of withdrawing the wounded, and the women and children, from the shelter of 
their defences at the residency ; and they were, in turn, also besieged from the 25th of 
September until the arrival of Sir Colin Campbell on the 17th of November. On the 
22nd of that month, the whole European garrison, with the women, the wounded, and 
state prisoners, the king's treasure, and other property, were safely removed from the 
residency in the presence of the whole force of Oude, and conveyed on the way to Cawu- 
poor, en route for Allahabad and Calcutta. The rebel army, commanded by the begum 
of Oude and the moulvic of Fyzabad, still held possession of Lucknow ; Sir James Oulram, 
with a considerable force, bei-ug stationed at the Alumbagh, a short distance from the 
city, to watch their movements, and serve as a nucleus on which to base future operations. 
On the 2nd of March, 1858, Sir Colin CamjibcU again appeared before the city, which, 
by the IGth, was entirely in the possession of the British troops. 

But Lucknow was by this time a chaos — a place of terror and desolation. The 


license inevitable after the assault of a large town, had here been indulged in to a 
lamentable extent, and had perfected the work which the ravages of war and the consuming 
brand commenced. Thousands of the native inhabitants who had fled from the city on 
the approach of the British troops, would fain have returned to their homes, or to the 
ruins of them. But there were tens of thousands who were destined never again to enter 
the gates of the once proud city ; for their king had fallen from his throne, and the 
palaces of their chiefs and nobles were heaps of smouldering ruins. 

Simultaneously with the restoration of order in the city, arrangements were made by 
its conquerors for its future occupancy and necessary defence. Tlie Muchee Bowun was 
selected as the key of the British military position ; diverging from which, a number of 
wide avenues or streets were cleared through the winding lanes and masses of liuildings 
that intervened between it and the various strategic points ; such streets or avenues 
forming, in effect, military roads, connecting each point with the others and with the 
Muchee Bowun. The civil power also resumed authority, and proceeded to establish law 
and order. A police force was enrolled, and gradually the city subsided into a state of 
quietude ; though it was long before confidence could be restored among the native popula- 
tion and their no longer indulgent masters. 



The engraving which accompanies this article, represents the river-front of the celebrated 
palace of the emperor Shah Jelian, at Delhi, as it is seen from the opposite bank of the 
Jumna. The palace, with its numberless courts, its various edifices and magnificent gar- 
dens, occupies an area of one square mile, and, on the land side, is protected by a lofty 
wall, embattled and flanked by numerous towers and bastions, and, towards the river, by a 
fort called Selimgurh, with which it is connected by a lofty bridge. Of the erection of the 
palace and its gorgeous accessories, by the emperor Shah Jelian, in 1C31, mention has 
already been made in this work.* Of the vicissitudes of Oriental rule — under which 
the palace of Delhi became the abode of successive monurchs whose path to em- 
pire was traced through perfidy and blood, in the course of the comparatively short 
period of little more than two centuries, before it came into the hands of the British 
rulers of India as a spoil of war — it is unnecessary here to expatiate ; but it may be 
observed, that it was in this palace, on the 10th of .September, 1803, that Shah 
Alum, the last actual possessor of the once mighty throne of the Moguls, after being 
the sport of fortune for years, thankfully placed himself and his empire under the 
protection of the British commander, General Lord Lake, then engaged in a fierce 
war against the Mahrattas — the remorseless and inveterate enemies of the aged 
and afflicted monarch, whom the general, upon his entry to the palace, found seated 
under a small tattered canopy ; "his person emaciated by indigence and infirraitj-, liis 
countenance disfigui-ed by the loss of his eyes, and bearing marks of extreme old age and 
settled melancholy." The incidents connected with the loss of sight by Shah Alum, are 
both interesting and extraordinary. This prince, from the time of the death of his 
general, Nujeef Khan, in 1782, had been compelled to submit to the will of his neighbours 
— the Maliratta and lloliilla chiefs, as the)' respectively gained the ascendency, and 
assumed the post of vicegerent of the Mogul empire. In 1785, Sindia, the Mahratta, 
became paramount; but having engaged in war with Pertab Sing, of Jeypoor, advantage 
was taken of his absence by Gholam Kadir Khan (the son of Zabila Khan, the llohilia), to 
obtain possession of Delhi. This he accomplished in 1788, through the treachery of the 
nazir, or chief eunuch, to whom the management of the imperial establishment was 
entrusted. The inmates of the palace were treated by the usui-per with a degree of 

• Seep. 58. 


inalicious barbarity which it is hardly possible to conceive any human being could evince 
towards his unoffending fellow-creatures, uidess actually possessed by an evil spirit. After 
cruelties of all descriptions had been practised, to extort from the members and retainers 
of the imperial family every article of value which still remained in their possession, 
Gliolam Kadir resolved to withhold from them even the bare necessaries of life, so that 
several ladies perished of hunger; and others, maddened by suffering, committed 
suicide. The royal children were compelled to perform the most humiliating offices ; and 
when Shah Alum indignantly remonstrated against the atrocities he was compelled 
to witness, the Rohilla sprang upon him with the fury of a wild beast, flung the venerable 
monarch to tlie ground, knelt ou his breast, and, with his dagger, pierced his eyeballs 
through and through. The return of Sindia put a stop to these terrible excesses. Gholam 
Kadir tied, but was pursued and captured by the Mahratta chief, who cut off his nose, ears, 
hands and feet, and sent him in an iron cage to Shah Alum — a fearful example of retribu- 
tive barbarity. The mutilated wretch perished on the road back to Delhi ; and his 
accomplice, the treacherous iiazir, was trodden to death by an elephant.* The annual 
stipend settled upon Shah Alum and his descendants, in return for the surrender of 
his empire, amounted to thirteen and a-half lacs of rupees (£135,000 sterling). 

Tlie palace erected by Shah Jehan, with its mosques and minarets, cupolas and 
towers, presented a magnificent appearance; and, iu the estimation of Bishop Heber, was, 
except in the durability of the material of which it was constructed — namely, red granite 
and white marble-^only inferior to Windsor Castle as an imperial residence. In order to 
supply water to the royal gardens, the aqueduct of Ali Merdan Khan was constructed, 
by which the waters of the Jumna, while pure and uncontamiuated as they left the 
mountains from which they spring, were conducted for 120 miles to Delhi. During the 
troubles that followed the decline of the ilogul power, the canal was neglected; and 
when the English took possession of the city, it was found partly choked up with ruobish. 
It has, however, since been restored, and is now the sole source of vegetation to the 
gardens of Delhi, and of drinkable water to its inhabitants. When, in 1820, this impor- 
tant object was attained, the inhabitants of the city went out in procession to meet the 
stream as it flowed slowly towards them, throwing flowers, ghee, sweetmeats, and other 
ofl'eriugs into the water, and invoking blessings upon the Company's government for the 
boon conferred upon them. 

Shah Alum expired in this palace in the year 1806, since which time the Mogul 
emi)ire has been a tiling of the past, and its throne a shadow. A son of the unfortunate 
prince succeeded, and, like his father, became, in spirit and in fact, a mere pensioner of 
the East India Company, by whom he was suffered to retain the nominal rank of king, 
and to exercise absolute power within the walls of his ancestral palace. Upon his death, 
in 1836, his eldest son, Mirza Aboo Zuffur (the late king), ascended the titular throne, 
which he was permitted to occupy until a mad and hopeless infatuation led him to defy 
the power of the actual rulers of his empire, and precipitated him from the height to 
which his ambition had for a few weeks soared, into the depths of ignominious and 
unpitied exile. 

A faint idea of the pristine magnificence of the favourite palace of the Moguls, may be 
obtained from the picture of it traced by Mr. Russell, who, iu the spring of 1858, visited 
Dellii, and has descrii)ed some of th.e most striking features of the architecture and 
decorations of the place. Referring to the Dewan Khass, or Imperial Hall of Audience, 
of which it was written in the hyperbolical language of the East — 

" If there be Eden on earth, 

It is here ! it is here ! it is here !" 

the writer proceeds thus : — " On emerging into the square, we saw facing us a long, low- 
roofed building, white and clean-looking, flat-roofed, and raised above the level of the 
court on an esplanade or terrace of the same material as the building itself, which we 
discovered to be marble. This is the Dcwan Khass. It is 150 feet long and 40 in 
breadth; at each angle there is a graceful cupola, which, iu some degree, relieves the 
impression of meanness suggested Ijy the flatness of the building. There was a babbling 
of voices, in the English tongue, resounding from the inside. Ou ascending by a flight of 

* Martin's India, vol. i., pp. 373, 374. 
III. s 


steps four or five feet in height, to the terrace on which the Dewan Khass is built, and 
looking in through the wide arched doorways, or rather between the rows of pillars on 
which the roof rests, we saw anything but the dazzling magnificence for which our 
reading had prepared us. In fact, the Hall of the Moguls was filled, not with turbaned 
and jewelled rajahs, Mogul guards, and Oriental splendour; but with British infantry in 
its least prepossessing aspect — namely, in its undress, and in its washing and purely 
domestic hours. From pillar to pillar, and column to column, extended the ungraceful 
curves of the clothes-line ; and shirts, and socks, and drawers flaunted in the air in lieu of 
silken banners and gorgeous shawls and draperies. The hall was so obscure, that the 
richness of the decorations and the great beauty of the interior were not visible until the 
eye became accustomed to the darkness. The magnificent pavement had been taken up 
aud destroyed, and the hand of the spoiler had been busied on the columns and walls of 
the buildiug; but still, above and around one could see the solid marble worked as 
though it had been wax, and its surface inlaid with the richest, most profuse and fanciful, 
and exquisite designs in foliage and arabesque; the fruits and flowers being represented 
by sections of gems — such as amethysts, cornelian, bloodstone, garnet, topaz, and various- 
coloured crystals set in the brasswork of the tracery with which the entire place is 
covered. Every one of the columns are thus decorated and covered with inscriptions 
from the Koran, and the walls have the appearance of some rich work from the loom, in 
which a brilliant pattern is woven on a pure white ground, the tracery of rare and 
cuuuing artists. When the hall was cleaned and lighted up, and when its greatest 
ornament, the Takt Taous, or Peacock Throne (constructed for the emperor Shah Jehan, at 
a cost of thirty millions sterling), and the great crystal chair of state, were in the midst, the 
coup d'ceil must have been exceedingly rich and beautiful." The soldiers were expert at 
picking out the stones from the decorations of the Dewan Khass, with their bayonets, 
until forbidden to do so. The crystal chair is still in existence, and was forwarded to 
England as a trophy of conquest ; but the peacock throne had been carried oflf by Nadir 
Shah, after his invasion of Hindoostan in 1739. This costly work of art, which was 
framed so as to be easily taken to pieces aud reconstructed, was ascended by steps of 
silver, at the summit of Avhich rose a massive seat of pure gold, with a canopy of the same 
metal inlaid with jewels. The chief feature of the design was a peacock with its tail 
spread, the natural colours being represented by pure gems ; a vine also was introduced 
in the design, the leaves and fruit of which were of precious stones, whose rays were 
reflected from mirrors set in large pearls. From the spoil taken off' by the conqueror, a 
portable tent was constructed for his use, the outside covered with scarlet broadcloth, and 
the inside with violet-coloured satin, on which birds and beasts, trees and flowers, were 
depicted in precious stones. On either side the peacock throne a screen extended, 
adorned with the figures of two angels, also represented in various- coloured gems. Even 
the tent-poles were adorned with jewels, and the pins were of massive gold. The whole 
formed a load for seven elephants. This gorgeous trophy was broken up by Adil Shah, 
the nephew and successor of the captor. In its entirety the value must have been 


The chowk, or principal street of the capital of the province of Agra,* is an exception to 
the general rule of street architecture in the cities of the East, inasmuch as it is of 
suflicient width to admit the passage of carriages and other vehicles; a convenience rarely 
met with in other large towns of India. The accompanying view represents this avenue 
as it appears during the business hours of the day, when the chowk is teeming 
with life and activity, and the merchants and shopkeepers of the city display their 
wares to the best advantage. The style of shop architecture is in no way distinguished 

* See page 50. 



from that adopted in other Oriental cities, being simply stalls, open in front, and screened 
from the sun by blinds and awnings of every diversity of colour and pattern ; which, 
combined with the variety of merchandise displayed, and the picturesque costumes of the 
people, present a brilliant and interesting coup d'ceil, that can hardly be described without 
the aid of colours. The houses in Agra are, as will be seen by the engraving, generally of 
lofty proportions, and, for the most part, are built of stone. With the exception of the 
principal street, the thoroughfares are gloomy and dirty, and are also so narrow, that per- 
sons riding in the native carriages, may easily touch the walls on either side with their 
hands as they pass. It has already been observed,* that the city contains several palaces, 
besides public baths, caravanserais, and mosques ; but most of the principal edifices of the 
Mohammedan era have long been in a state of progressive decay. Since, however, the 
city has been in the possession of the English, much has been done to repair the injuries 
inflicted by the ravages of time and conquest, and large sums have been expended by the 
government on public works — including courts for the administration of justice ; deposi- 
tories for the records of the province; revenue offices; a palace for the residency; a 
European cemetery ; several bridges, and some excellent roads : on one of the latter of 
which, leadiug from Agra to Bombay, a sum of thirteen lacs of rupees, or j£l 30,000 ster- 
ling, had been expended up to November, 1847. The city having been selected for the 
seat of government for the North-West Provinces, a large European community has set- 
tled there and in its vicinity, between the fort and the cantonments ; and at one period, 
it was in contemplation to make Agra the seat of the supreme government for the whole 
of India. 

The terrible events of 1857 did not leave the favourite city of Akber unscathed 
by their desolating influences. Startled from its tranquillity by the sullen indications of 
an impending storm, the European inhabitants, so early as the 24th of May, were first 
awakened to the dangers that were gathering round them, by a succession of incendiary 
fires, of which the men belonging to a native regiment in cantonment were believed to be the 
cause ; the object being to occupy the attention of the few European troops at the station 
in extinguishing the flames, while they (the native soldiers) would fall upon and massacre 
the defenceless inhabitants, and, after plundering and destroying their dwellings, march 
off and join their brethren in revolt at Delhi. This plan was happily frustrated by the 
timely arrival of a detachment of English troops, by whom the two native regiments (44th 
and 67th) were deprived of their arms ; a proceeding they resented by immediately de- 
serting in a body, but without, at the time, attempting to perpetrate further mischief 
than the fires alluded to. 

The quiet that followed the desertion of the mutinous regiments was not of very long 
duration. On the 23rd of June, the native guard at the gaol, in which about 4,000 
offenders, of various degrees of criminality, were then confined, also deserted its post ; and 
two nights subsequently the gaol was discovered to be on fire. Every measure that could 
be resorted to for securing the safety of the place was at once adopted, and the whole of 
the women and children were collected in the fort for protection ; but the anxiety of the 
European residents became indescribable. 

At length, on the 5th of July, a rebel band, estimated altogether to amount to about 
9,000 men of all arms, was reported to be approaching the city ; and a force, consisting of 
a few soldiers of the 3rd European regiment, the civil militia, and some volunteers, num- 
bering altogether about 500 men, marched out, under the command of Brigadier Poluhele, 
to oppose their progress. They were met near the village of Shahgungc, about four 
miles from Agra, and a conflict ensued ; but owing to a deficiency of ammunition, and 
other causes, the British force was compelled to retire from the field, closely followed by 
the rebels to the very gate of the fort ; which was scarcely closed, before the cavalry of 
the enemy swept past on their way to the town and cantonments, Avhich they entered and 
took possession of. Their first act was to liberate the prisoners in the gaol ; who, being 
in turn joined by the budmashcs and rabble of the place, the work of pillage and wanton 
destruction commenced. The bungalows of the European families, and of natives iu gov- 
ernment employ, were speedily in flames ; the houses of the merchants, as well native as 
European, were pillaged and set on fire; the very doors and windows of several of them 
were torn out and shattered into splinters, leaving nothing but the bare brick walls. 

• See pages 00, 51. 


Property was strewn about the streets in all directions, and the chowk was rendered im- 
passable by the heaps of plunder wantonly ravaged from the inhabitants, and destroyed. 
The total loss upon this occasion was afterwards estimated at ten lacs of rupees, or 
£100,000 sterling. While this havoc was raging in the city, thirty-four native Christians, 
who had neglected in time to seek shelter in the fort, were savagely murdered. A letter 
from one of the European officers in the fort on the 19th of the month, says — " Here we 
are, shut up in this wretched place since the 5tli. There are about 4,o00 men, women, 
and children in here now, and they are well packed. As soon as we get help we will gn 
out. The rebels have burnt and plundered all the cantonments and civil line*, and you 
never saw such a blaze as it was. They killed a great many trying to come into the fort, 
stripped them naked, and cut their heads off"; and women and children are lying about 
the roads."* 

In this fort the Europeans of Agra continued closely invested by the rebels, until 
relieved by an English force, under Brigadier-general Greathed, on the 10th of October, 
1857, when a decisive battle was fought, and the enemy, whose force consisted altogether 
of about 7,000 men, with from fifteen to eighteen guns, was, after an obstinate engage- 
ment, completely defeated, and fled, being pursued and cut down for more than ten miles 
on their route. Their loss upon this occasion was calculated at 1,000 men, as no 
prisoners were taken, and none were merely wounded. 


The subject of the accompanying engraving presents one of the most beautiful, as it is 
also, from its incidents, one of the most interesting, specimens of Mohammedan architec- 
ture to be met with even in a city so replete with artistic triumphs as was the once 
imperial Agra — the creation of the renowned Akber, and the favourite resort of himself 
and the nobles of liis court. 

The history of this celebrated tomb, which stands in the midst of a dense forest near 
the Jahara Bang — once a garden-seat of the emperor Akber, and since a place of recrea- 
tion for the population of the town — is so closely connected with that of the famous 
Nour Jehan (the favourite wife of Jehangeer), that a reference to the latter will not 
be out of place in a description of the work of her own filial devotion. The tomb itself 
has already been briefly noticed in a former part of this work, as one of the most 
chaste and beautiful specimens of architecture that the Moguls liave left as testimonials 
of their rule. The building, rising from a broad platform, is of marble, of a quadrangular 
shape, flanked by octagonal towers, which are surmounted by cupolas, on a series of 
open columns. From the centre of the roof of the main building springs a small tomb- 
like structure, elaborately carved and decorated, the corners of the roof terminating in 
golden spires. Immediately below this, on the floor of the hall, is the tomb enclosing 
the body of Elmad-ud-Dowlah, father of Nour Jehan, by whose orders the fairy pile 
was raised. Interiorly and exteriorly, the building is covered, as with beautiful lace, 
by lattice-work, delicately wrought in marble, covered with foliage and flowers, and 
intermingled with scrolls bearing passages from the Koran. Every inch of the surface 
of the mausoleum is thus enriched ; and all that Oriental art could suggest, or genius 
execute, in the completion of the structure, was devoted to its adornment. The original 
idea of the pious daughter by whom it was raised, was to construct the shrine of her 
father of solid silver; and she was only diverted from her purpose by the assurance 
that, if marble was not equally costly, it was certain to be more durable, and less likely 
to attract the cupidity of after-ages. 

The life of Nour Jehan was an extraordinary one. Gheias, a Persian of good 
ancestry, but of reduced means, was driven, at the latter end of the sixteenth century, to 
* Histury of the Indian Mutiny, vol. i., pp. 051— 5oD. 


seek subsistence by emigrating from his native country to India, with his wife and 
children. Directly after reaching Candahar, on his way, a daughter was born to the 
afflicted family ; and being worn down with fatigue and privation, the miserable parents 
exposed the infant on a spot by which an approaching cai-avan would pass. The 
expedient succeeded. A rich merchant saw and took compassion on the child ; relieved 
the distress of its parents; and, perceiving the father and eldest son to be persons of 
education and ability, he took them under his protection, and procured for them suitable 
employment. Gheias in a short time attracted the notice of Akber, with whom he found 
favour, and was advanced to a position of trust and honour. His wife, herself of noble 
lineage, frequently visited the royal harem with her young daughter, whose beauty 
captivated Prince Selim, the heir-apparent. Akber being informed of the attachment, 
commanded that the girl should be at once given in marriage to Sheer Afghan — a young 
Persian distinguished for his bravery, to whom the emperor gave a jaghire in Bengal, 
whither he was commanded to proceed with his young bride. Shortly after the 
accession of Selira, who had assumed the name of Jehangeer, he took occasion to 
intimate to the viceroy of Bengal his desire to obtain possession of the beautiful 
creature who, by his father's command, had been given to the arms of another. 
Endeavours were used to announce the emperor's wish to Sheer Afghan without 
arousing his resentment ; but the latter, upon the first intimation of the design against 
his honour, threw up the command with which he was entrusted, and laid aside his 
arms, as a sign that he was no longer in the king's service. Repeated attempts were 
then made to .assassinate him ; and at length, at a compulsory interview with the 
viceroy (where he found himself betrayed), he was murdered ; but not until he had sold 
his life dearly — having killed the viceroy and several of his attendants before he fell 
covered with wounds. His young wife was then seized and conveyed to the harem of 
the royal lover ; but, either from some feeling of compunction on his part, or from the 
aversion she naturally felt to the murderer of her husband, she was allowed, during four 
years, to remain unnoticed in the seraglio. The passion of the emperor at length 
revived — he sought his captive, and, in the ardour of his affection, made her his wife, 
bestowing upon her, by special edict, the title of empress, and styling her first 
Now Mahal (the Light of the Harem), and afterwards Nour Jehan (the Light 
of the World). Her influence thenceforth became unbounded. Honours never 
before enjoyed by the consort of an Indian potentate were lavished upon her, even to 
the conjunction of her name on the coin with that of Jehangeer ; her father, Mirza 
Gheias, was made prime minister, and assumed the name of Elmad-ud-Dowlah ; her 
brother, Asuf Khan, was appointed to a station of high dignity; and in every affair 
in which she took an interest, the will of Nour Jehan was law, which no one dared 
dispute. The legislative ability of Elmad-ud-Dowlah soon produced beneficial results 
in public affairs ; his modest yet manly bearing conciliated the nobility, who learned 
to appreciate the value of the control which he exercised over the ill-regulated mind of 
the em])eror. The empress Nour Jehan found delight in superintending the construction 
of public edifices and gardens ; and, by her skilful management, increased the magnifi- 
cence of the court, while she reduced its expenditure. As an instance of her practical 
mind, it may be observed, that the mode of preparing the famous atta of roses is 
generally attributed in India to this empress. 

The life of Nour Jehan was chequered by vicissitudes, although she died surrounded 
with honours; and her fidelity to him who had raised her to a throne was most 
devoted. Upon an occasion of revolt the emperor had fallen into the liaTids of his 
enemies, and was conveyed a prisoner to the camp of the insurgents. Upon Nour Jehan 
learning the fact, she put on a disguise, repaired to the adherents of the emperor in the 
field, and set on foot vigorous measures for his rescue. To effect this, it was necessary 
to cross the river by a ford, the bridge having been destroyed. Rockets, balls, and 
arrows were discharged upon the royal troops as tliey strove to make good their passage 
over a dangerous shoal, full of pools, with (Iccp water on either side ; and on setting foot 
on the beach, they were fiercely opposed by the enemy, who drove them back into the 
water, sword in hand. The furd became choked with drowning horses and elephants, 
and a frightful sacrifice of life ensued. The empress was among those who succeeded in 
eff'ecting a landing, and at once became the special object of attack. The elephant ou 


which she rode was speedily surrounded ; the guards were cut to pieces ; and among the 
balls and arrows which fell thick round her howdah, one wounded the infant daughter of 
Prince Shehriar (youngest son of Jehangeer ; who had married her daughter), and another 
killed her driver. The elephant, receiving a severe cut across the proboscis, dashed into 
the river, and for a time was carried along by the current ; but, after several plunges, 
swam out, and safely reached the shore, where the empress was quickly surrounded by 
her terrified attendants, who found her engaged in extracting the arrow, and binding up 
the wound of the bleeding infant. 

Nour Jehan, perceiving the hopelessness of attempting the forcible rescue of the 
emperor, determined to obtain by stratagem what was denied to valour; and she suc- 
ceeded in restoring her husband to liberty and his throne : but shortly after his return 
to power, an attack of asthma carried him off while on his way to Cashmere, and he 
expired in the year 1627, in the sixty-sixth year of his age.* 

With Jehangeer the star of Nour Jehan faded ; the throne was occupied by a prince 
hostile to his father's memory, adverse to her power, and jealous of her influence j and, 
shortly after the accession of Shah Jehan, she was placed in a state of honourable 
captivity, which, however, was not of long continuance. Upon her release she was 
treated with the reverence due to her exalted rank, and allowed a yearly stipend of 
a quarter of a million sterling. Throughout her widowhood she lived quietly; abstained 
from all public entertainments; wore no colour but white, as a symbol of perpetual 
mourning; and at her death, in 1646, was buried in a tomb she had herself erected close 
to that of the emperor, her husband. 


The palace of the chief commissioner of Oude, at Lucknow, may be considered as the 
centre of an extensive area, separated from the buildings of the city by an irregular wall, 
and enclosing a great number of edifices attached to the civil purposes of government, 
occupied by various official servants of the Company. Of this extensive enclosure, the 
dwelling of the chief commissioner formed the principal feature, and gave the name of 
"the Residency" to the entire locality. 

The residency itself — i.e., the official dwelling of the commissioner — was, in the spring 
of 1857, a very extensive and even elegant brick edifice, containing a vast number of 
lofty and magnificently-decorated rooms : extensive verandahs, and noble porticos were 
among its exterior embellishments; and, besides the accommodation aiforded by a 
ground-floor and two upper storeys, it possessed a Tyekhana, or excavated suite of hand- 
some apartments, which ran under the whole superstructure, and were designed to shelter 
the residents at the court of Lucknow from the intense heat of the day. These apart- 
ments were well lighted and ventilated by shafts and basement windows; and the extent 
of ground occupied by the state residence may be imagined from the fact, that in a time 
of emergency, from eight hundred to a thousand persons could find accommodation 
within the building. 

At one of the angles of the structure, an octagonal, dome-crowned tower led by a 
spiral staircase of noble proportions to the terraced roof, from whence an extensive aud 
richly-diversified view of the whole city might be obtained — the residency itself being 
erected upon a slightly-elevated portion of the enclosure, and overtopping the buildings 
by which it was surrounded. On the summit of the tower mentioned, a flagstafl" and 
signal-post was raised, by which, during the events of the subsequent siege, communica- 
tion was kept up with distant posts without the city. 

At the time of the breaking out of the sepoy rebellion of 1857, the residency was 
occupied by Sir Henry Lawrence, then chief commissioner of Oude. The painful 

• Martin's India, vol. i., p. 121. 



circumstances under which that great man, and most valuable public servant, met 
his death at the post of duty, are fully detailed in the History of the Indian Mutiny,* 
to which we refer the reader. 

The most interesting and descriptive account of the residency at Lucknow, now 
extant, is presented in the following extract from A Personal Narrative of the Siege of 
Luchioiv, by E. L. R. Rees, a gentleman who happened to be staying in the city at the 
time of the outbreak, and who subsequently shared the dangers and privations of the 
European garrison shut up within the suddenly arranged fortifications. The graphic 
pen of this author thus traces the features of the residency enclosure : — 

" Our intrenchments were in the form of an irregular pentagon. To the corner of 
the south and east side was the house of Captain Anderson, surrounded by a compound. 
To the south, the house faced the Cawnpoor road ; to the east, a road leading to it in one 
direction, and to the Bailey Guard gate in another. Within the compound was a trench 
towards the two tolerably deep roads, with palisades within them. The house itself was 
defended by barricades, and, like every other place within the garrison, loopholed in all 
directions. It was two-storied, and had two large verandahs facing the east and west. 
Next to Captain Anderson's house, and communicating by a hole in a wall, was the 
Cawnpoor battery, with three guns ; before the platform on which the largest gun was 
placed, protected without by a stockade, and within by sand-bags, was a trench leading 
past Anderson's compound wall. 

" The next building, called Deprat's house, had a verandah overlooking the exterior wall 
towards the street : this was walled up with mud about six feet high, and two and a-half 
thick. A sloping roof covered it, which, besides the two feet of clear space between it 
and the mud wall, had a number of loopholes, and other means of sight to fire from. The 
mud wall was continued outside of the house, leading in a straight line to the wall of 
the next house. This continuation of a wall was about nine feet high, and a very ciitcha 
affair it was.f Time had not been given to complete it as designed, before attention was 
called to other defences. As it was, it protected very imperfectly a little yard with a well 
almost in the centre. No stockade was in front of it ; and we all felt this to be a con- 
siderably weak point. Deprat's house itself was a lower storied one, with three large 
rooms in it. Below it was a Tyekhana, or cellar range, having the same number of rooms 
as above, besides the one under the verandah. These latter apartments were, at the 
begiuning of the siege, well stocked with stores, of all kinds, and with the furniture of 
various persoils. 

" Next to us was one of the houses of the mahajuns. Shah Beharee Loll and Rugbar 
Dial, but now occupied as a school-house by the Martiniere. The massive brick wall of 
the house itself needed no other protection, but it yet had a stockade of high beams 
before it, and was loopholed of course. The house was a corner house, being separated 
from the King's Hospital, opposite its north side, by a fine road leading to the residency, 
past its own entrance and those leading to the Sikcha gaol and post-office on the right. 
Facing it was the gate of the Begum's Kothee, leading past the left to a little road 
abutting on the financial commissioner's house ; on its left was the judicial commissioner's 
house; and on its right the Residency Jailkhana, where formerly a guard of Captain 
Weston's police were over the prisoners within. The former road was then blocked up 
by a stockade consisting of huge beams, and extending past the school-houses to near the 
wall of Deprat's courtyard. Down this road, and between the two walls forming it, 
before arriving at the post-office, was a barricade formed of a mud wall, and a trench iu 
front of it. 

" Continuing our line in a southerly direction, the Daroo Shuffa (or King's Hospital) 
came next. It was a very high and convenient building, now converted into the mess of 
the officers of the Oude force and native infantry regiments ; and from its lofty and well- 
protected terrace, overtopping both Johannes' house and the buildings on the Golagunge 
road, commanded capital positions for rifle-shooting and musketry. It was then known 
as the Brigade Mess, and had in its rear a parallelogram, bounded by tolerably convenient 
outhouses, occupied by officers and other families, and divided by another range of low 
puklia buildings into two large and commodious squares. 

"Next in order, and almost in a direct line with the Brigade Mess, were low pukha 
• Vol. ii., pp. 6, 7. t Cutchtt signifies earthen, or imperfect work of building. 


buildings, then known as the Seik Square. A sort of scaffolding was made within to 
enable the Seik guard and native Christians that garrisoned the place to fire from a more 
elevated position. Behind it, in another square, or rather parallelogram, were the 
artillery bullocks; and further in, a third square contained the horses of the 7th light, 
and of the Seik cavalry. 

" A narrow lane separated the latter outpost from Gubbins' batter)% for it was not 
then barricaded at its entrance. The only defence to the approach of the enemy up the 
lane was a barricade of earth, hastily thrown up, and strewed with a few brambles. The 
garden, in the centre of which was the house of Mr. Gubbins, the financial commissioner, 
was bounded to the south by the Golagunge roivd, and by the walls of a house known as 
Young Johannes. These were commanded by outhouses belonging to Mr. Gubbins' 
yard, those to the left being guarded by our Seiks, from whose roofs a low earth wall, 
covered with sand-bags, enabled them to fire. Those to the right, and separated by a 
high wall from the former, which they otherwise resembled, had in them a passage 
leading to a half-moon battery erected by Mv. Gubbins at his own expense, but for the 
cost of which he was about to be remunerated. 

" This battery had at first only a 9-pouuder, which, however, could play on three 
different points : one commanding the road between Johannes' house to that leading 
down to Hill's shop in the direction of the iron bridge ; another, the Golagunge Bazaar; 
and a third, numerous little buildings to the west. Gubbins' outpost advanced out of a 
straight line towards the west, projecting considerably in that direction. Another battery 
of one gun, also a 9-pounder, faced a low garden, originally belonging to Mr. Gubbins' 
liouse, and suiTounded by a low wall, behind which the enemy was afterwards wont to 
fire at us. The gun was nest to a range of outhouses, the roofs and interior of which 
were occupied by our sentries. Another verj' narrow lane, to the west, used to lead to a 
thickly-peopled part of the town, which had then been mostly knocked down, but not 
suflnciently to prevent the enemy's occupying the ruins, and peppering at us thence, and 
erecting batteries against us in front. Gubbins' garrison was commanded by Major 

" Next to Gubbins' west side were what were called the Bhoosa intrenchments, 
commanding a musketry fire through the loopholes all along the outhouses and walls 
surrounding them. In front of them were the ruins of a number of houses occupied by 
the enemy, in several of which they subsequently erected batteries of guns. Included iu 
the Bhoosa intrenchments were the bullock-sheds, the butcher-yard, the slaughter-house, 
and a guard-house of Europeans. Behind these was the Bhoosa store (cut chaff), in 
what was formerly the Ball-alley (or racket-court), facing a low terrace, which also 
commanded the west side. Still further to the rear was Ommaney's house, protected 
towards the Bhoosa intrenchments, in the event of their being taken by the enemy, by a 
deep ditch and a hedge of cactus, and fortified, should Gubbins' outpost be carried by 
the rebels, by a couple of guns, intended to sweep the road leading to it and to the 
Seik Square. 

" Between the Bhoosa intrenchments and the Bherj'khana (or sheep-pen), which 
adjoins the former, there was an uncompleted battery, since finished, and then supplied 
with mortars. There was only a very weak native guard there, as the ground facing it 
had been in a great measure levelled, and consisted of only low ruins, and was, besides, 
commanded by the Bhoosa intrenchments and Gubbins' battery on one side, and the 
Church garrison and Lines' outpost on the other. Captain Boileau commanded these 

"The churchyard was contiguous to the sheep-pen. In its centre was the church — a 
Gothic building, with twenty low pinnacles, then converted into a store-room for grain, 
and guarded by a dozen Europeans. At the gate to the east was a mortar battery, 
destined to shell the whole of the western and northern buildings as far as the iron and 
stone bridges. The victims of the former insurrection at cantonments were the first who 
were buried here. It had not before been used as a place of interment, but it was soon 
destined to be filled with heaps of the corpses of the gallant defenders of the Lucknow 

'•■ Innes' outpost — so called from liaving been, previously to the siege, the residence of 
Lieutenant il'Leod Innes, of the engineers — was separated from the churchyard by a low 


mud wall, and faced to the west several very large houses, subsequently strongly fortified 
and filled with insurgent riflemen and matchlockmen. The house, a long, commodious 
lower-roomed building, had a verandah to the east, covered by a sloping puklia roof, and 
another to the north. 

" It consisted of four large and several small rooms fronting the verandahs, and as 
many opposite them ; in a centre room of which was a little staircase leading to the roof, 
and commanding through a hole in the wall a position to the west. Next there was a 
sort of courtyard leading to a bath-room, which projected considerjrbly beyond the walls 
of the main building, in this respect resembling Gubbins' battery. From the outside, 
the bath-room buildings looked considerably steep. To the left or south of them were 
several large houses, in front of which was a pond of stagnant water, surrounded by 
reeds and long grass. To the right was a Mohammedan cemetery, on a very considerable 
elevation of natural formation, and commanding the outpost from the enemy's side. In 
front of the house, and in rear of the buildings already alluded to as possessed by the 
enemy, was au extensive low garden, then even covered with high long grass, plantain 
trees, and prickly brambles. A stockade protected a portion of the west side of our 
ground from that which we tacitly allowed to be that of the enemy. To the north an 
earthen wall separated the compound of Innes' house from the enemy's, positions, which 
consisted of the mound already mentioned, a number of mud huts, and two or three 
pukha buildings scarcely six yards off", and overtopped by a mosque opposite, but further 
commanded by several high buildings across the river. 

" Still further on were a garden and the ruins of what had formerly been Sliirf-ood- 
Dowlah (Jaggernath's) house and the office of the Central India Horse Company's posts, 
both which buildings had very wisely been levelled by our engineers. The whole of the 
north side of these positions was situated on the road leading along the river from the 
residency water-gate to the iron bridge, in a direction from east to west. Where our 
mud wall was broken through, two stockades of beams stopped the gaps. At the end of 
one of these stockades was a mud shed, with a flight of stairs leading to an upper room, 
known as the cock-loft, and commanding a capital position of the iron bridge, which was 
scarcely five hundred yards ofi^. A little mosque, which I afterwards made my residence, 
was in the centre of the compound of this outpost and two or three low sheds or out- 
oflfices J a continuation of our earth wall, with stockaded gaps at intervals, formed the 
only separations from what the enemy could easily have traversed. It was considered a 
sort of neutral ground. 

" Fortunately, this part was completely commanded by the Redan, the best, most 
strongly fortified, and most complete battery of the whole garrison, erected by Captain 
Fulton, one of our very best engineer ofiicers, who deserved the greatest praise for the 
scientific manner in which he constructed it. The whole of the river side, and the 
buildings on the opposite banks, could be played on with our cannon from here ; and in 
the event of au attack, both the north and east as well as the west sides could be 
swept with our grape from the two 18-pounders and 9-pounder on it. It was in the 
form of more than three-quarters of a circle, and was elevated considerably above the 
street below. 

" Along the Redan to the north, in an irregular line, extending as far as the hospital, 
was a wall of fascines, and of earthwork, above which, and through whose loopholes 
formed by sand-bags, our men were able to fire with certain effect. A low trench ran 
within the residency compound so as to give greater shelter to the men. From witiiout, 
the wall had, however, a much more formidable appearance. This line of earthwork 
having a battery of two guns — 9-pounders — at the entrance called the Water Gate, but 
now blocked up by a stockade, was known as No. 1 Battery. Along the Redan, past the. 
residency and the hospital, and as far as the Bailey Guard, was a clear space, formerly 
used as a garden, and bounded by a brick wall to tlie east, and the buildiup;s known as 
the Captain's Bazaar to the north, a fine road leading past these bouiularies from the 
Bailey Guard gate towards the iron bridge. This sjiace, at least a thousand yards long 
by four hundred wide, lieing exceedingly low, and gradually becomirig lower at the 
entrance opposite the upper Water Gate, formcil a glacis for the intrciuduncnts above* 

" The hospital was another extensive building, resembling the residency par excellence, 
* The residency itself has already been described. See page 134, ante. 



but having besides the ground-floor only one upper story, and no tyekhana below. The 
front rooms of the ground-floor were made use of for the officers, the interior for the 
men, and the back part for a dispensary. It was formerly the banqueting hall of the 
residents, the lower apartments having been made >ise of for an office. A battery of 
three guns, an 18-pounder, a 13-incii howitzer, and a 9-pounder, were placed between 
the Water Gate and hospital. The right wing of the hospital served as a laboratory for 
making fusees and cartridges, and fronting it was placed a battery of three mortars. 

" The Badey Guard was a continuation of the hospital, but built on ground to which 
one had to descend considerably. A portion of it was used as a store-room, another as 
the treasury, a part as an office, and the remainder as the barracks of the native soldiers 
who guarded this place, commanded by Lieutenant Aitkins. Having on its left only the 
brick wall surrounding the neutral space of the residency garden, already spoken of, it 
was by no means a strong position. To the right of these buildings was the Bailey 
Guard, par malheur, the guard-room of the sepoys formerly guarding the residency, but, 
being without our boundaries, unapproachable by either ourselves or the enemy. The 
gateway to the right was lofty, and a fine piece of architecture. The gate was, however, 
to be blocked up with earth, and in the event of an entrance being forced, two 9-pounders, 
and an 8-inch howitzer between them, could shower grape and canister into the 

" Dr. Fayrer's house, like the Bailey Guard, facing the east, was also commanded by 
the clock-tower of the Furreed Buksh palace, and the out-offices of the Tehree Kotliee and 
Nakaikhana. It was a fine and commodious lower-roomed house, raised on a con- 
siderable elevation, with a terrace, whence there was excellent rifle-shooting. It was 
commanded by Captain Weston and Dr. Fayrer, who is a first-rate shot, and has sent 
many a sepoy to answer for his sins in another world. A 9- pounder, loaded with grape, 
was placed in a north-eastern direction, to command the Bailey Guard gateway, if 

"Coming out of Dr. Fayrer's house, and down the road to the left, was the civil dis- 
pensary, which, being situated between Dr. Fayrer's, the post-office, the Begum Kothee, 
and the gaol, was one of the safest places in the whole garrison. It had previously been 
a portion of the post-office. 

"The post-office, during the siege, was one of the most important positions we had — 
commanding, as well as being commanded by, the Havilath gaol and a mosque to the 
right, and the clock-tower and out-offices of tlie Tehree Kothee to the left. It was made 
the barrack-roum of a great portion of our soldiers, and contained two 18's and a 
9-pouiider pointed in different directions, and protecting in some measure the Financial 
Office and Sago's garrisons below. Besides these, there were three mortars playing into 
the Cawnpoor road, the Motee Mahal palaces, and the buildings round abuu.t; the new 
palace and the old gaol. There was also a workshop attached to it, fur the manufacture 
of tools and the preparation of shells and fusees. It was the head-quarters of the 
engineers, whose office and residence it was made, and besides offered accommodation 
to several families. 

"The wall bounding the south side communicated, by breaches made in it, with the 
gaol, native hospital, school-houses, and the Cawnpoor battery, as well as with the Judicial 
and Andeison's garrisons. 

" The Financial Office outpost, a large two-storied house, was, like Sago's garrison, at 
first not intended to be within the line of our defences, and was only retained on account 
of the positions bein-r most probably untenable by the enemy, since they did not command 
any part of the residency houses, which overtop them, at the same time that they were 
useful in repelling advances made from the positions of the rebels on a level with it. It 
■was barricaded on all sides with furniture and boxes within, but the ont-offices and gate- 
way were apparently very weak. The house itself was large and extensive, and had two 
verandahs, both well barricaded. It communicated with the residency through the post- 
office, and was directly below Dr. Fayrer's house. Captain Sanders, of the 13th, com- 
manded this outpost with great ability and courage. 

" Sago's outpost, a lower-roomed and comparatively rather small building, was 
contiguous, being only separated by a wall from it. Both these outposts, during the siege 
up to the arrival of the first reinforcements, were particularly dangerous; and their 


giillant garrisons deserved particular praise for the brave defence they made. Previous to 
the siege it was the residence of Mrs. Sago, the mistress of a charity-school. Both this 
and the Financial Office garrison were commanded, not only by those opposite the 
post-office and Fayrer's battery, but also by a large building known as Azinioollah's 
Kotliee, and a small brick building formerly used as a gambling-house by the Lucknow 

"A narrow passage, which during the siege proved fatal to many a poor fellow, led 
up to the judicial office, an extensive upper-roomed house, commanded by Captain 
Germon, 13th native infantry, situated between Anderson's and the post-office g.arrisons, 
and also a very important position, greatly exposed to the enemy's fire from the east, and 
from a high turret of Johannes' house to the south. It had, in the king's time, been the 
residence (if the late well-known Mr. George Beechey. A wall of fascines and earth pro- 
tected it from the road-side. 

"The gaol, a very fine, airy, and lofty quadrangular building, divided into four equal- 
sized compartments, witii barred doors and four openings, was surrounded by a fine 
square of comfortable out-offices, and situated between the Cawnpoor battery to the 
south, the post-office to the nortii, the judicial office to the i-ight or east, and the school- 
houses and native hospital to the west. It was used as a barrack-room. 

"The native hospital, a square of low out-offices, was situated between the school- 
houses, the brigade mess, the post-office and civil dispensary, and the gaol. It was 
a tolerably safe place. 

" The Begum's Kotheef — so called from having previously been the dwelling-place of 
the grand-daughter of Buksh Ally, and whose mother had been Miss Walters — was one of 
the most extensive buildings within the whole line of our intrenchments. A lofty gateway 
nearly fronting the road leading to Johannes' house served as an entrance. A double 
range of out-offices formed a square within a square, one side of which consisted of a fine 
Emanmbarra, or place of Mohammedan worship. Some of these buildings contained fine 
and loftv apartments, afterwards made use of by officers' families; others were lower- 
roomed couk-houses, but having very deep foundations, and appearing from the road 
leading past the post-off.ce to Dr. Fayrer's, to be considerably high. A fine upper- 
roomed house, painted green and yellow, served as the commissariat store-rooms. 
A mosque which, at the desire of the begum, was not made use of, was within this Kothee. 
The male inhabitants of the place were required, as the Begum Kothee was supposed to be 
pretty safe, to garrison the Blioosa intrenchmeuts, being iu the very centre of our 

" Mr. Sequera's house, and the stabling next to it, then used as a canteen and liquor 
stoi'e-room, were, together with tlie main guard-house behind, considered as forming 
part of the Begum Kothee, and were connected with it by a breach in a wall and several 
narrow passages." 

The foregoing description of the residency by Mr. Eees, will be much better under- 
stood bv a reference to the ground plan which accompanies his Narrative, as also by the 
coloured plan published with the Calcutta Gazettes Extraordinary, of December 3rd 
and 11th, 1857. The report of the defence of the residency of Lucknow, transmitted by 
Colonel Inglis to the governor-general in September, 1857, and the details of the siege 
and sncce>sive battles previous to the final captuic of the city by the British foi'ces under 
Sir Colin Campbell, in March, 1858, related in the Ilisturij of the Indian Mulini/,l will 
supply much interesting detail in connection with the past and present state of the 
capital of Oude. 

* Bad characters. t Lady's house. 

i Vol. i., pp. 40; ol ; 181 : vol. ii., pp. 1 ; 4; 16; 40—57; 78—100; 235—275. 



The city or town of Gwalior, capital of the Mahratta state of that name, is situated at the 
base of a precipitous, isolated rock, about 80 miles S. from the city of Agra, and 772 
N.W. of Calcutta, in 26° 18' N. lat., and 78° 30' E. long. The celebrated hill-fortress, 
from -which its cliief importance is derived, is built upon tlie rock mentioned, -ffliich is one 
mile and a-half iu length, by about 300 yards wide; the elevation from the plain, at tlie 
northern extremity of the plateau, being 342 feet. The sides of the rock are precipitous 
and rugged, and are impossible of ascent but by ladders, or by a single approach on the 
north-eastern side, where it gradually dips toward the plain. Around the brink of the 
precipice a stone parapet is erected, within which rises the fort of the Maharajah Sindia, 
one of the most tried and faithful of the native princes of India. 

The entrance to the enclosure within the rampart is near the north end of the 
east side; in the lower pa.rt by a steep road, and iu the upper part by steps cut in 
the rock, wide enough to permit elephants to make the ascent. A high and massive wall 
protects the outer side of this huge staircase : seven gateways are placed at intervals along 
its ascent; and guns at the summit command the whole of it. AVithin the enclosure of 
an inner rampart is the citadel — an antique palace surmounted by kiosks, with six lofty 
round towers or bastions, connected by walls of immense thickness and extent. It has 
been calculated that at least 15,000 men would be requisite to garrison this fortress com- 
pletely ; and it has always been considered of great importance among the native 
chiefs. Tradition reports it to have been used as a stronghold during more than a thou- 
sand years. 

Gwalior has, undoubtedly, in all ages been a military post of great importance, as 
well from its local peculiarity of position, as from its centrical situation in llindoostan. 
Under the imperial domination of Akber and Aurungzebe, it was occupied as a state 
prison, in which obnoxious branches of the reigning family, or subjugated princes of other 
states, were confined until death relieved them from the thraldom of captivity. Within 
the limits of the fortress the royal prisoners were not debarred enjoyment, so far as it was 
compatible with their safe keeping; and among other expedients provided for their 
amusement, a numerous menagerie of lions, tigers, and other wild animals, was 
kept within the fort. On account of its presumed security when it first came into the 
possession of the Mahrattas (who also retained its use as a state prison), it was made a 
principal depot for ai'tillery, ammunition, and military stores. 

Upon the dismemberment of the Mogul empire, after the death of Aurungzebe, 
Gwalior fell into the hands of a Jat chief, known as the rana of Gohud. From him, or 
his descendants, it was acquired by stratagem by Sindia, the ruling chief of the 
Mahrattas, iu 1779. From the latter it was, however, wrested in the follovTing year by 
a British force under Major Popham ; who, despite its repute for impregnability, escaladed 
the scarped rock on which it stood, at daybreak on the 3rd of August, 1780, and planted 
the Eritish colours on the summit of its towers. The storming party on this dangerous 
exploit was led by Captain Bruce, brother of the great Abyssinian traveller. Three years 
afterwards the fortress was restored to the rana of Gohud by Mr. Hastings, the governor- 
general, who soon found occasion to regret the cession ; and, changing his policy, 
sanctioned aggressive measures on the part of Sindia, wliich eventually again placed the 
important fortress in the hands of the Mahratta chief. Thus aflairs continued until 
shortly after the commencement of the present century ; when, offence liaviug been given 
to the Company's government by the Smdia family, hostilities again broke out, and the 
power of the Mahratta received a severe check. At this time, and from the year 1794, 
■when Madhajee Sindia died, the dominions of this imi)ortant branch of the great robber 
tribes of India, extended from beyond Delhi on the north, to near Bombay on the south, 
and from the Gauges to Giijerat; a vast region, acquired and held by means as atrocious 
as any recorded in the history of India. War having been found inevitable to curb the 
arrogance and rapacity of the Mahrattas, Sir Arthur Wellesley, on the 21st of August, 
1803, inflicted a severe chastisement upon them at the battle of Assaye (a fortified village 


near the junction of the Kailna and Juah rivers, 261 miles north-west of Hyderabad). 
On tliis occasion, the force of Sindia and his confederates numbered 50,000 men, 
supported by above a hundred pieces of artillery. The British numbered but 4,500 men ; 
and their victory, though complete, was dearly purchased, for one-third of the con- 
querors lay dead or wounded upon the field at the close of the sanguinary action. Of 
the Mahrattas, 1,200 were slain. The bodies of the fallen were scattered around in dense 
masses, and ninety-eight pieces of cannon remained as trophies of British valour. 

After a series of engagements, the result of each being disastrous to the arms of 
Sindia, he sued for peace, which was granted in December, 1804, upon consideration of 
an immense cession of territory to the English ; and shortly afterwards Bajerut Rao 
Sindia, the ruling chief, entered the general alliance, of whicii the British government 
formed the dominant portion, and agreed to receive into his capital a subsidiary British 
force, whose expenses were to be defrayed by the revenues of the territories wrested from 
him. The fortress of Gwalior remained in the possession of Sindia, and the city was 
then adopted by him as the capital of his states, and the head-quarters of the contingent 
force, which was commanded by British officers only. 

The town of Gwalior is of considerable extent and well populated, running along the 
base of tlie eastern and northern sides of the rock on which the fortress is built. It 
contains a number of handsome edifices, both public and private, chiefly built of stone, 
which is obtained in abundance from the neighbouring hills, that form an amphitheatre 
roimd the town and rock at distances varying from one to four miles. Within the walls 
of the fort are large natural caverns, descending into the bowels of the hill on which it 
is built, by which a perpetual supply of excellent water is preserved to the inhabitants of 
the elevated region. 

Besides this famous stronghold, there has always existed at Gwalior a stationary 
camp of the maharajah, called the Luskur — a poor collection of rude buildings extending 
to a great distance from the south-west face of the rock, and of secondary importance as 
regards situation or strength. It was here the greater portion of the contingent troops 
were stationed ; and these, though in the service of a Mahratta state, consisted chiefly 
of Hindoostanees, like the sepoys of the Bengal army, the Mahrattas forming a very 
inconsiderable minority of the number. The contingent embraced all three arms of the 
service— infantry, cavalry, and artillery ; and formed of itself a compact army. 

We now turn to events connected with the sepoy mutiny of 1857, in which the Gwalior 
contingent took no inconsiderable part, and the result of which was highly honourable 
to the good faith and loyalty of the maharajah. 

The disasters at Gwalior began on Sunday, the 14th of June; previously to which, 
however, the resident at the court of Sindia had received information which led him to 
believe tiiat the contingent, which consisted of seven regiments of infantry, twoof cavalry, 
and four batteries of artillery, were thoroughly disaffected, both in the main body at 
Gwalior and the detachments on out-service. As a precautionary measure, all the 
ladies and children of the European civil and military officers were sent in from the 
cantonment to the residency, on the 28th of May, for protection. Some of the superior 
military officers, including" Dr. Kirk, the superintending surgeon of the contingent, 
doubted the existence of danger, and declared their entire confidence in the loyalty 
of the troops; and, through their influence, the ladies, on the 29th and SOtii, returned 
to their homes at the station, much to the apparent delight of the sepoys, who loudly 
expressed their gratification at the generous reliance thus placed on their fidelity. 

Just fourteen days after this exhibition of attachment the mask fell. At nine o'clock 
- on the evening of Sunday, the 14th of June, an alarm was given at the cautonnicnt that 
the troops were in revolt ! Shots were heard, and all was immediately in confusion at 
the bungalows of the ]<]uropean families ; but no one at first could give any dctads ot the 
outbreak. Startled by the first cry of revolt, people rushed from their housc^s, and each 
family found others in a similar sta'te of consternation. The alarm became general as the 
night wore on, and, in the darkness, families were separated; ladies and children, 
abandoning their homes, sought hiding-places in the gardens, among the tall grass, or on 
liouse-tops and in huts. Then arose the flames from burning bungalows, and then also 
came gangs of sepoys, their weapons recking witli blood, and yet hunting for their prey, 
which could not long be concealed from their sight. Among others who fell into the 


hands of the murderers were two officers, Majors Blake and Hawkins, who had been 
conspicuously trustful of their men ; and by those men they were slain, with others, on 
the night of" the outbreak. Dr. Kirk, with his wife and child, concealed themselves in 
a garden during the night; but, in the mnrning, they were discovered. Mrs. Kirk was 
robi)ed, but was not at the time further ill-treated: her husband was shot dead before 
her eves. At tliis miserable sight the poor woman begged the murderers to put an end 
to her also; but, pointing to the corpse of her husband, they replied with some feeling— 
"No, we liave killed you already 1" Such of the Europeans as could get away escaped 
to Agra; and it is some mitigation of the guilt of the mutinous troops that they allowed 
the ladies and children to depart without ill-using them, beyond the mere act of 
plundering such as had any property abcmt them. 

Tlie position of Sindia was now a very trying one. As soon as the troops of his 
contingent had murdered or driven away tiieir European officers, they went to him, placed 
their services at his disposal, and demanded that he would lead them against the British 
at A^-ra : but he not only refused to sanction their previous outrages, but endeavoured to 
prevent them marching towards Agra; and in this he succeeded until an advanced 
period of the autumn. In September, however, they could no longer be restrained; 
and, on the 7th of that month, the native officers of the different corps waited upon 
Sindia, and demanded to be led either to Agra or Cawnpoor. As the answer to their 
request was not conformable to their wishes, they seized the means of conveyance, and 
the main body of them left Gwalior, but without offering violence to their chief. 

At leuo-th', the disasters that had followed every effort of the rebelli(uis troops when 
opposed to^British valour, compelled them to seek some position in which, at a moment 
of imminent peril, they might be able to maintain themselves with some prospect of 
success ; and Gwalior being the most important stronghold in Central India likely to be 
accessible to them, they turned their eyes toward it as a place of refuge in case of 
extremity. This view being adopted by the chiefs in revolt, the Mahratta and Rajpoot 
insurgents resolved that, if Sindia would not join them against the British, they would 
attack and dethrone him, and instal another maharajah in his place. To effect this 
object, the rebel forces, towards the end of May, 1858, drew near Gwalior, and were 
met in the field by Sindia, whose whole force then consisted of about 9,000 men and 
eio-ht guns. The strength of the enemy was somewhere about 11,000 men, with twelve 
guns. ° The rebel swere led by the ranee of Jhansi, the nawab of Banda, Tantia Topee, 
Rao Sahib (nephew of the Nana), and other chiefs of eminence, both Mohammedan and 
Hindoo; and at 7 a.m. on the 1st of June, they made their appearance before the capital 
in order of battle. Sindia divided his army into three columns or divisions, the centre 
of which he commanded in person. The engagement had scarcely commenced, when 
the whole of the troops of Sindia, with the exception of his body-guard, went over in a 
body to the enemy. The contest was, however, continued till half the number of the 
faithful guard liad 'fallen, when the rest tied with their master to seek safety at Agra. 
Dnectly the maharajah had thus abandoned his capital, the rebels entered it, and 
endeavoured to form a government of their own. They chose Nana Sahib as Peishwa 
or head of all the Mahratta confederacy, and appointed his nephew, Rao Sahib, chief 
of Gwalior, which arrangement was assented to by the disloyal troops of Sindia, as well 
as bv those belonging to other chiefs in enmity with him. Durmg the rebel occupation 
of Gwalior, the bulk of the army under the ranee of Jhansi, remained encamped in a 
garden called the Phoolbagh, outside the city, and all due precautions were taken to 
guard the approaches : the property of the principal inhabitants was sequestered ; the 
treasures of the maharajah were seized by the connivance of a treacherous servant, 
named Ameerchaud Batya, who had been his father's treasurer ; and a formal confisca- 
tion of all the roval property was declared. 

The possession of Gwalior by the rebels was not of long duration, for it was 
considered bv the supreme government to be of the greatest importance that the daring 
act of its seizure should be promptly and effectually chastised. A force, under the com- 
mand of Sir Hugh Rose, was therefore dispatched for its recovery ; and so rapid were the j 
movements of the British troops, that by the morning of the 16th of June they had | 
reached the cantonments. A series of engagements occupied the next three days, j 
which all ended in the discomfiture of the rebels. By the evening of the 18th they had i 


completely lost heart ; and on finding the heights surrounding a portion of the town ia 
the hands of the British, they threw away their arms and fled, pursued by the cavalry, 
which cut them down in great numbers ; and, by four o'clock in the afternoon of the 
19th, Sir Hugh Rose was master of Gwalior, to the utter dismay of the whole rebel 
confederacy. On the 20th, Sindia — who had been sent for from Agra for the purpose — 
was restored to his throne with as much of Oriental pomp as could be made available under 
the circumstances — tlie general and his staff accompanying him in procession through 
the streets from the camp to the palace; and it was deemed a good augury that such of 
the inhabitants as lined the streets seemed delighted to welcome Sindia back to his 


This celebrated city, built on the western bank of the river Jumna, is situated in 
lat. 28° 43' N., long. 11° 9' E., and is distant from Allahabad 429 miles ; from Calcutta 
976; 880 from Bombay; and 1,295 from Madras; the three last-named being the 
European capitals of British India. Tlie origin of the city is carried back by tradition 
to a period long anterior to the commencement of the Christian era; its existence being 
recorded in the Maha Bliarat, a Hindoo poem of remote antiquity. In this epic, it is 
mentioned as being then under the rule of a Rajpoot line of princes, of whom the last was 
driven from his capital a.d. 1050. In the year 1206, the emperor Mahmood of Ghuznee, 
whose predecessor, Shaliab-oo-deen, had carefully trained several Turki slaves for the 
government of kingdoms subdued by him, invested one of them, named Kootb-oo-deen, 
with the insignia of royalty at Delhi, and thus inaugurated the line named from the seat 
of their goveinraent "the Slave Kings of Delhi."* In 1299, a Mogul invasion wrought 
great calamities upon the people, which were increased by the tyranny of IMohamraed 
Toghlak (a descendant of the first shne king), who havingtaken umbrage at the complaints 
of the inhabitants, determined, in 1309, to transfer the seat of his government from 
Delhi to Deogiri, 749 miles distant; and commanded the inlial)itants of the former to 
remove at once to the latter place, to which he gave the name of Dowlatabad, and there 
built the massive fort still existing.f After this, the people were twice permitted to 
return to Delhi, and again twice were compelled, on pain of death, to abandon it — all 
these removals being more or less attended with the horrors of famine, occasioning the 
death of thousands. In 1398, Timur the lame, or Tamerlane — designated the "Fire- 
brand of the Universe," and the "Apostle of Desolation" — invaded India, and, beating 
down all opposition, ravaged the country on his way to Delhi, which lie took possession 
of, and put every male inhabitant over fifteen years of age to death, lest they should take 
part with their countrymen yet in arms against the invaders. The number of tlie slain 
upon this occasion, amounted, according to the Mohammedan writers, to more than 
100,000. The city, which had been surrendered under a solemn assurance of protection, 
was then entered by the victor, who was there proclaimed emperor of India. While 
Tamerlane was engaged in celebrating a feast in commemoration of his conquest, his 
ferocious soldiery, regardless of the dearly purchased promise of their diief, commenced 
their accustomed course of rapine and plunder; upon which, the Hindoos, driven to 
desperation by witnessing the disgrace of their wives and daughters, shut the gates, 
sacrificed the women and children, and rushed out to slay and be slain. The whole 
Mogul army now rushed into the town, and a general massacre followed, until several 
streets Avere rendered impassable by heaps of the dead. At length the wretched inhabi- 
tants, stupefied by the overjiowcring number and b;irbarily of the foe, flung down their 
arms, and submitted, without further resistance, to the slaughter which awaited them. 

• It was in the reign of Altemsh (the second of the race of the slave kings of Delhi), who succeeded 
to the throne in 1211, that the extraordinary column known as the Cootub Minur, near Delhi, was began 
to be erected. — Vide description, p. 59. -f See p. 8G. 


Delhi yielded an enormous booty in gold, silver, and jewels, especially rubies and 
diamonds. Ferishta, the historian, declares that the amount stated by his authority so 
far exceeds belief, that he refrains from meutioning it. Neither does he give the number 
of persons of all ranks dragged into slavery; among whom were many masons and other 
artificers competent to the erection of a mOsqne, in which the sanguinary Timur, previous 
to his departure from the city he had desolated, offered up thanks for the punishment 
he had been enabled to inflict upon the inhabitants. For many weeks Delhi remained 
ungoverued, and nearly uninhabited; and the territory belonging to it became in a short 
time so reduced by the ravages and aggressions of neighbouring chiefs, that it extended 
in one direction but twelve miles, and, in another, scarcely a mile from the city. 

By the vicissitudes common to Eastern history, Delhi after some time gradually 
recovered its importance, and became again the capital of an extensive dominion, 
unaffected by the convulsions around it, until the early part of the sixteenth century, 
when, after a sanguinary conflict at Paniput, continued to the very walls of the city, it 
was surrendered to the emperor Baber, sixth in descent from Timur. From this period 
until tlie reign of Shah Jehan, which commenced in 1627, little of moment appears on 
record as regards Delhi; but during the lifetime of that monarch, the city was rebuilt on 
a magnificent plan, far surpassing the original design; and the imperial establishments 
being now removed thither, sumptuous edifices were built for the nobles and public 
offices, and Delhi became in appearance, as it had long been in rank, an imperial city. 

During the reign of ]\Iohammed Shah, Delhi was subject to continual alarms from • 
the struggles for power that raged among the nobles of the court, and an attempt to 
subvert the authority of the emperor by setting up Abdullah Khan as a rival to thj 
throne, in whose behalf a force was collected. The armies of Mohammed and of the pre- 
tender met between Agra and Delhi, and the latter was signally defeated and made pri- 
soner. Mohammed Shah entered Delhi in triumph — the empress-mother receiving him at 
the entrance of the harem, bearing a basin filled with gems and new coins, which she 
poured over his head as a "wave-offering" of joy and thanksgiving. The reign of 
Mohammed was marked by weakness, and by tlie open extravagance and corruption 
that prevailed among all classes, from the emperor downwards; while the intrigues of the 
Mahrattas surrounded him with a net from which, ultimatelj', he found it impossible to 
escape with life. The kingdom, weakened by incapacity and neglect, at length attracted 
the notice of Nadir the Persian, an adventurer who had mounted the throne of that 
kingdom in 1736, under the title of Nadir Shah, the "wonderful king;" and who now, 
at the head of a formidable army, advanced towards Delhi. After an action with the ill- 
commanded troops of Mohammed, who were signally defeated, and the king made 
prisoner, the conqueror marched into Delhi, and established himself in the royal palace, 
distributing his troops throughout the city, and stationing detachments in various places 
for the protection of the inhai)itants. During the first day strict discipline was main- 
tained, and all was quiet; but, on the second, a rumour spread of the death of Nadir 
Shah; and the populace immediately rising, slew all the Persians within reach, to the 
number of 700, including some of those who had been stationed for the protection 
of private dwellings. The tumult continued during the whole night ; and at daybreak 
Nadir Shah mounted his horse and sallied forth, believing that his presence would at once 
restore order by proving the error of the current report. Flights of stones, arrows, and 
bullets from the houses soon undeceived him; and one of his chiefs being killed at his 
side by a shot aimed at himself, he ordered his troops to retaliate, and not leave a 
soul alive where they should discover the corpse of a Persian. This command involving 
license for a general massacre, was eagerly obeyed: the soldiery rushed into the houses, 
and gave free loose to their revenge, and lust, and covetousness. The streets of Delhi 
streamed with blood ; many thoroughfares were blocked up with carcasses ; flames burst 
forth in all parts of the town, where the wretched inhabitants, distracted by the thought 
of beholding their wives and children in the hands of the enemy, had preferred sharing 
with them a fiery death. The shrieks and groans of the dying and the dishonoured 
pierced the air, overpowering at times the fearful imprecations, or yet more fiendish 
scoffings of their persecutors; and, from sunrise to broad noon, these horrid sights and 
sounds continued unabated. Nadir Shah, after issuing the terrible mandate, went to a 
little mosque in the great bazaar near the centre of the city, and there remained in 


tjlootny silence until he was aroused by the entrance of his royal prisoner, Mohanamed 
Shah, whose deep distress for the sufferings of the people at length prevailed upon tlie 
conqueror to command that the massacre should cease. In this terrible punishment, 
according to \he lowest trustworthy statement, 30,000 human beings were put to the 
sword; while the native authors compute the number as reaching 120,000; adding, that 
about 10,000 women threw themselves into wells, to escape outrage; some of whom were 
taken out alive, after being there two or three days. The wretched survivors of this 
calamity were so prostrated by tlie blow, that they appear to have wanted energy 
even to perform the obsequies of the dead. It is recorded, that "in several of the 
Hindoo houses, where one of a family survived, he would pile thirty or forty carcasses one 
on the top of the other, and burn them ; and so they did in the streets : notwithstanding 
which, there still remained so many, that for a considerable time there was no such 
thing as passing any of those ways. After some days, the stench arising from the mul- 
titudes of unburied dead becoming intolerable, the bodies were dragged into the river, 
thrown into pits, or else collected together in heaps, without distinction of Mussulman or 
Hindoo, and burnt with the rubbish of the ruineil houses, until all were disposed of."* 

The sufferings of tlie people of Delhi were not yet sufficient to expiate their offence. 
A gift was demanded by the conqueror, which absorbed from twenty-five to thirty 
millions sterling, exclusive of the plunder already grasped. The exaction of this enor- 
mous penalty was accompanied with excessive severity, which grew more intense as the 
difficulty of compliance became more apparent. Numbers of the nobility, merchants, 
and traders resorted to suicide, to avoid the disgrace and torture that followed the 
inability to furnish the amount required of them; while others perished under the 
cruelties inflicted. In Scott's History of the Decccin, the following description by an 
eye-witness, is quoted from a journal kept by an inhabitant of Delhi during this ter- 
rible epoch in its history : — " It was, before, a general massacre, but now a system 
of individual murders. In every chamber and house was heard the cry of affliction. 
Sleep and rest forsook the city. The pangs of hunger and sickness were not long 
absent; and no morning passed that whole crowds in every street and lane were not 
found dead. The citizens vainly strove to escape these multiplied calamities by flight. 
Tlie roads were blocked up ; and all attempts to leave the city were punished by mutila- 
tion of the ears or nose: until at length — the dignity of human nature being subdued 
by terror — the wretched sufferers slunk away into holes and corners, and cowered down 
before their oppressors like the frightened animals of the desert." 

On the 1-tth of April, 1739, the Persian invader quitted Delhi after a residence 
of fifty-eight days, bearing with him plunder in coin, bullion, gold and silver plate, 
brocades and jewels, to an incalculable extent. The money alone was computed to 
exceed thirty millions sterling. Numerous elephants and camels were also taken away, 
with many hundreds of the most skilled workmen and artificers. The desolation of Delhi 
was for a time complete. 

But Delhi, in its ruin, was simply a type of the universal wretchedness tliat prevailed 
in India under the sceptre of the Mogul dynasties. So late as the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, it is recorded in a history of Hindoostan, by a native writer 
(Golaum Hossein Khan), that " all prisoners of war were murdered, all suspected persons 
were put to the torture, and the usual punishments were impalement, flaying, and 
scourging. The people in certain provinces were hunted witli dogs like wild beasts, and 
were shot for sport; the property of such as possessed anything was confiscated, 
and themselves strangled; no one was allowed to invite another to his house without a 
written permission from the vizer, or rajah of the place where he lived, and the 
people were constantly exposed to the most dreadful plunderings and outrages." Such, 
by native testimony, was tlie condition of Hindoostan during the latter part of the 
domination of the (jreat Moguls: it became still worse when Nadir Shah, like a torrent 
of fire, spread over the country; and it was yet more intensely miserable when, alter the 
departure of that prince, India was left in the power of the j\Ldirattas, whose only object 
was plunder and devastation. Hundreds of examples may be found in the history of those 
times, of the \Vhole populations of conquered cities and towns being massacred by 
the victors — Delhi being one only of the instances recorded ; and that, as we have seen, 

• Fiaser's History of Kadir Shah, p. 105. 
HI. u 



became depopulated through the savage ferocity of its Persian invader in 1739. Fifteen 
years after tliis terrible visitation, the city was again given over to pillage and slaughter 
"by the troops of Ahmed Shah, the second in succession from Nadir the destroyer. 
In 1759, the Mogul power succumbed to the energy aud superior tactics of the Mahrattas, 
who became masters of the territory of India from the Indus and Himalaya on the north, 
to nearly tlie extremity of the peninsula on the south; but the pomp aud circumstance 
that had adorned the capital of the Moguls was now transferred to Poonah. Its fading 
glory did not, however, exempt it from further misfortune ; and in a fearful struggle whicli 
ensued between the Mahrattas and the Rajpoots in 1767, Delhi was again entered by a 
hostile force of the former, under Sewdasiieo Rao Bhow. The victors, on taking pos- 
session of the citv, consummated their success by defacing its palaces, toinbs, and shrines, 
for the sake of the rich ornaments which had been spared by the Persians and Afghans. 
Tliey also tore down the silver ceiling of the Hall of Audience, which was coined 
into seventeen lacs of rupees (£170,000); seized the throne and all other royal 
ornaments, and destroyed the male inhabitants without distinction of rank or age. The 
empeior Shah Alum, who succeeded Alumgeer II. upon the despoiled throne of the 
Moguls, had been constrained to abandon the capital aud take up his residence 
at Allahabad, under the protection of the English ; when, by a sudden revulsion of policy 
on the part of the Mahrattas in 1770, he was informed, that if he did not choose 
to accept the invitation given to him to return to his capital, his sou would be placed on 
the tlirone. Acceding to this necessity, Shah Alum reached Delhi in December, 1771, 
and entered its ancient gates amid the acclamations of tlie populace. From this time 
until his death (some thirty-six years subsequently), his life was a career of uninterrupted 
misery, through the tyranny of his Mahratta allies and the bad faith of the East India 
Company and their servants, who were alternately his protectors and his oppressors. At 
length, on the 10th of September, 1803, he formally surrendered himself and his empire 
into the hands of the Company, in return for their protection and an annual stipend 
of thirteen and a-half lacs of rupees,* reserving to himself the nominal title of Emperor 
of Delhi ; and from this time until the outbreak of the revolt in May, ISo", the city of 
Delhi remained in the uninterrupted possession of its English masters. 

The successive invasions by the Persians, the Afghans, and the ^Mahrattas, and the 
destruction that invariably followed their conquests, will account for the extensive belt of 
ruins which, for a distance of some twenty miles, environ the city built by Shah Jehan. 
i'or the devastation within its walls, consequent upon its storm and recapture by the 
British troops under General Sir Archdale Wilson, in September, 1857, we must refer to 
the following extracts, from details furnished by the actors in the terrible drama of re- 
tribution :t — " Without the walls the devastation was widely spread ; but ruin had concen- 
trated its fury upon the ill-starred city. From the Lahore gate to the village of Subzee 
Mundee, on the Kurnaul road, there was an almost continuous line of carcasses of camels, 
horses, and bullocks, with their skins dried into parchment over the sapless bones. 
Here and there were remains of intreuchments where battles had been fought on 
the road. From Badulee Serai, a short distance from the Lahore gate, every tree 
was either levelled with the ground, or the branches were lopped off by round shot: 
the garden-houses of the wealthy citizens were, in almost every instance, masses of ruius, 
with the remains of men and beasts bleaching around them. Here and there might be 
seen the perfectly white skeleton of one who had shared in tiie terrible struggle 
of the siege, and had fallen unnoticed and unremembered by his fellows ; while on 
all sides lay scattered fragments of clotinng, cartouch boxes, and exploded shells. 
Around the Subzee Mundee all foliage was destroyed ; the gaily ornamented residences 
in the vicinity of the Serai were now mere masses of blackened ruins, with broken sand- 
bags and shattered loopholed walls, that proclaimed the fieiy ordeal through which the 
combatants on either side had passed. With the exception of the Moree bastion and the 
Cashmere gate (both on the north-east side of the city), the line of defences did not ex- 
hibit much traces of injury ; but within the walls, the appearance of the city was fearfully 
desolate. Entering by the Cashmere gate, the first oljject seen was the Mainguard, now 
a mass of ruius. St. James's church next appeared, battered with shot even up to the 

* See a?ite, p. 129. 

t Vide also History of the Indian Mutiny, vol. i., pp. 498 ; 520 : voi. il., pp. 160 ; 170. 


ball and cross that surmounted tlie edifice. Most of the houses from this point to near 
the palace were mere ruins blackened by fire. A large structure, occupied as the Delhi 
bank at the time of the outbreak, and formerly the residence of the Begum Sumroo, had 
nothinsr but the outer walls and portions of a verandah remaining. In a narrow street, 
leading thence to the Chanduee Chouk, every house bore visil)le proof of tlie showers of 
musket-balls that were poured upon the defenders of the place, as they retreated, 
street by street and house by house, towards the palace. In many of the avenues 
were still to be seen the debris of arches which had been built up by the rebels, but were 
broken into by the advancing troops. The streets liad been cut up into furrows by the 
action of shot and shell, that ploughed iip their surface. House-doors and huge 
gates lay about in all directions, some of which had been strongly backed up by 
massive stone-work and heavy beams of wood ; while the remains of sand-bag defences 
were passed at every corner. But three of the seven gates of the city were as yet 
permitted to be opened; namely, the Cashmere gate at the north-east angle, towards the 
old cantonments; the Lahore gate on tlie west side, opposite the principal entrance 
to the palace ; and the Calcutta gate on the east, communicating with tlie bridge of boats 
over the Jumna, and the road to jMeerut— the otlier four entrances to the place having 
been blocked up with solid masonry during the siege." 

The assault upon the city, on the morning of the 14th of September, has been thus 
described : — " The signal for the rush of the two columns upon the breaches right and left 
of the Cashmere gate, was to be the explosion at the gate itself, by which it would be 
blown open. Tins was effected by two officers of engineers. Lieutenants Salkeld and 
Home, accompanied by Sergeants Smith, Carmichael, and Grierson, and Bugler 
Hawthorne, with ten Piinjabee sappers and miners. In the performance of this hazard- 
ous duty, nearly the whole party were more or les's wounded or killed. They succeeded, 
however, in affixing the bags of powder to the gate and blowing it open, upon which the 
assault was given at the breaches. The ladder parties at the head of the assaulting 
columns suffered greatly ; but the principal loss took place after the entrance liad l)een 
effected. A lodgment being thus obtained, the troops made steady progress on the 14th 
and two following days, occupying the open space near the church, capturing all the 
northern wall and gates of the city, and pushing on to and seizing the magazine, until 
the evening of the IGth, when a line of posts was established across tne city, from the 
Cabool gate to the magazine; and some mortars placed in the magazine compound com- 
menced plaving upon Selimghur and the palace. The principal events on the 17th and 
18th was the shelling of those edifices. Early on the morning of the 17th, the left wing 
of the British force was pushed forward from 'the magazine to the house formerly used as 
the Delhi bank, which commanded the great gateway of the palace opposite the Chandnee 
Chouk ; and shortly afterwards, the posts along the whole line were advanced as far as 
the canal. The fire of the enemy at Selimghur was kept down by that of the British, 
and the resistance in front began to be less vigorous. Throughout the night, and during 
the whole of the 18th, the fire upon the palace and Sebmghur was maintained ; the 
fortress, in return, only firing a few shots, which did no harm. On the left, the position 
at the bank was strengthened ; and, during the night, the sappers penetrated through 
the houses in their front towards the Burn bastion, which commanded the Lahore gate. 
During the night between the 18th ami 19th, the mortar batteries played upon the 
portion of the city south of the palace, and bordering on the river ; and with the dawn of 
the 19th, they were turned to the right, upon the Jumma Musjid and its vicinity. The 
line of posts had then been advanced almost to the Chanduee Chouk. Selimghur was 
silent, and parties of men, armed and disarmed, were observed crossing from it to the other 
side of the Jumna bv the bridge of boats. The palace was said to be deserted by its 
inmates, and the whole of the rest of the city to be in process of evacuation. Shortly 
before dark, the labours of the sappers on the right being completed, the Burn bastion, 
mounting six guns and one mortar, was carried witiiont loss. On the left, a field-piece, 
behind a" breastwork in front of the ereat gate of the palace, still maintained a fire on the 
bank, but without much effect. Throughout the night that followed, a continuous 
mortar (ire was kept up on the southern districts of the city. Witli daybreak on the 
20th came the certainty that the protracted struggle was drawing to a close Tlie 
Lahore first, and then the Ajmere gate, with their works, being found deserted, were 



occupied and secured. By noon, possession was obtained of the Jumma Musjid. The 
cavalry that on the previous day liad been sent round to the southern face of tlie city to 
observe the enemy's canjp outside the Delhi gate, returned to report that it appeared to 
be abandoned; and the explosion of a magazine in that direction, which had been heard 
early in the morning, seemed confirmatory of the report. The resistance of the mutineers 
in our front became less and less decided. On the left, by ten o'clock, the gun or guns 
in front of tlie palace had been taken and spiked. Then a column was formed for the 
palace itself. It advanced, blew open the great gates, and occupied the vast piles of 
building, which were found all deserted. Two hours more, and Selimghur and the 
bridge were taken. Nothing now remained but the south-western quarter of the town, 
with its wall and gates beyond the Jumma ilusjid; and by five in the afternoon, this also 
was in the possession of the troops : nor this ouiy, but also the abandoned camp beyond 
the walls. And thus, by the close of the seventh day of this arduous struggle, the 
labours of the gallant force were crowned with complete success. The appearance of the 
ouce rich and populous city, when the storm of fire and iron that so long had raged over 

its every street, at last cleared oft', bore witness to the vigour with which that storm had 
been directed and maintained. Under one vast pile of ruins lay festering carcasses of 
slaughtered rebels. Perhaps no such scene had been witnessed in the city of Shah 
Jehau since the day when Nadir Shah, seated in the little mosque of the Chandnee 
Chouk, directed and superintended the massjicre of its inhabitants. And if the slaughter 
that thus attended the righteous vengeance of the British general was less extensive and 
promiscuous than that which followed upon the sanguinary caprice of the Persian tyrant, 
yet the ruin of the imperial city was more certain and complete in 1857 than it was in 
1739. The excesses of Nadir were to the Mogul sovereignty as a violent but passing 
attack of illness to an individual, which permanently weakens his constitution, indeed, 
but from which, though shaken, he yet recovers. The triumph of the English struck 
the debilitated patient dead. He who had borne the titles of Great Mogul and King of 
Delhi still lived, it is true; but his sovereignty, long virtually, was now actually at an 
end. His palace was in the hands of his conquerors. His most inner and sacred apart- 
ments became the head-quarters of the English army. In his white marble pavilion — 
the Dewan Khass, or private council-chamber — was heard, on the evening of the 21st of 
September, 1857, a souud such as had never before broken the stillness of its early 
splendour or of the squalid solitude of its later days. It was the cheering with which 
the head-quarter stafi" received from the general the name of the Queen of England. 
Never, surely, was there a more fitting place in which to give the health of that royal 
lady than in the heart of the palace of the enemy who had defied her power ; never a 
time more fitting than when the majesty of the empire had been so signally vindicated, 
and the massacre of so many of those who were her sisters as well as her subjects, had 
been in part, at least, avenged. No wonder that the cheers rang out through the marble 
arches into the courts and gardens of the palace ; no wonder that the escort of Goorkas, 
loyal as gallant, caught and returued them." 

The city of the Moguls was now indeed but little better than one vast and blackened 
ruin! — its houses and streets deserted, and its defences unmanned; while the sentence 
of utter demolition hovered over its shattered gates aud once defiant towers. The 
imperial city had now not one hand uplifted in its defence. 

But the terrible yet just work of retribution was carried on by British soldiers in a 
spirit of humanity that contrasted strongly with the practices of native warfare. The 
women aud children found concealed or straggling in the city, were spared all harsh 
treatment, and were even protected from personal indignity by men fierce with the 
excitement of war, aud burning to avenge tlie murders and outrages perpetrated upon 
their own countrywomen : but they were generous as well as brave. Nor were the male 
inhabitants afterwards molested who had remained passive during the struggle, and had 
not aided the rebellion by their resources or their sympathy. All such were peaceably 
allowed to quit the city upon applying for permission to do so ; and even those who were 
suspected of treason, had the advantage of a fair trial; and when death subsequently 
ensued, it was because previous guilt was clearly established. 

An officer, writing from the city a few days after its reduction, says — " The Cashmere 
gate presented a horrible sight : thirty or forty sepoys, some blown up, aud otliers 


Ijayoueted and shot down, were lying all about. It was the same all along the walls. 
No quarter was given ; but they made very little defence, and retired into the city, 
where they again made a stand. I went into the bastions. Such a scene of ruin you 
never saw. Almost every gun was dismounted, or had a great piece of iron knocked out 
of it, and dead sepoys all around. The troops took up their quarters in the college and 
church ; but the enemy fired ou us all nigiit. We tlien made a battery by the college, 
and commenced shelling the town and palace. We lost most of our men in the town, as 
they advanced too far without support, and were fired at from the walls and houses." 
Another officer, writing from the palace on the 28tli of September, sa3's — " It is a 
frightful drive from the palace to the Cashmere gate — every house rent, riven, and 
tottering; the church battered, and piles of rubbish on every side. Alas! the burnt 
European houses and deserted shops. Desolate Delhi ! And yet we are told it is cleariug, 
and much improved since the storming of the place. It has only as yet a handful of 
inhabitants in its great street, the Chandnee Chouk. Many miserable wretches prowl 
through the camp outside of the city, begging for admission at the various gates; but 
none are admitted whose respectability cannot be vouched for. Cartloads of balls are 
daily being dug out from the Moree bastion, now a shapeless battered mass. Every wall 
or bastion that faced our camp is in almost shapeless ruin ; while the white marble 
pavilions of the palace stand uninjured along the Jumna's bank." 

The first idea that appears to have been entertained by the government, in connection 
with the future state of Delhi, was that of dismantling its walls and fortifications, and 
leaving it without any means of again becoming a focus of rebellion. With this view, 
the secretary to the government of India, on the 10th of October, forwarded a despatch 
to General Wilson, from which the following passages are extracted: — "The governor- 
general in council desires that you will at once proceed to demolish the defences of 
Delhi. You will spare places of worship, toml)s, and all ancient biiiidings of interest. 
You will blow up, or otherwise destroy, all fortifications ; and you will so far destroy the 
walls and gates of the city as to make them useless for defence. As you will not be able 
to do this completely with the force at present available at Delhi, you will select the 
points at which the work may be commenced with the best effect, and operate there." 
Before the above instructions had reached the British camp at Delhi, Major-general 
Wilson, its captor, had been compelled by ill-health and fatigue to relinquish the 
command of the gallant army he had led to victory; and was succeeded in his distin- 
guished post by Major-general Penny, upon whom of course the task of demolition now 
devolved ; but from the execution of which he was spared through the interposition of 
Sir John Lawrence, chief commissioner of the Punjab ; who, in a letter to the governor- 
general of the 21st of October, wrote as follows: — "As regards the fortifications of the 
town, I should be glad if General Penny would delay their destruction until government 
can receive and give orders on my despatches of the 9th and 15th of October; I do not 
think that any danger by delay could arise. If the fortifications be dismantled, I would 
suggest that it be done as was the case at Lahore. We fillcd-in the ditches by cutting 
down the glacis, and lowered the walls, and dismantled the covering works in front of the 
gates and bastions. A wall of ten or twelve feet high could do no harm, and would be 
very useful for police purposes. Delhi, without any walls, would be exposed to constant 
depredations from the INIeeras and Goojurs, and other predatory races. Even such a 
partial demolition will cost several lacs of rupees, and take a very long time. The works 
at Lahore cost two lacs, and occupied upwards of two years." On the 22ud of the 
month. General Penny, writing to the secretary to the government, says — " In comnui- 
nication with the engineers, I will get everything in readiness for the destruction of the 
fortifications; but as the chief commissioner of the Punjal) has requested the work to be 
stopped for a purjiose, and as the delay will involve no detriment to the contemplated 
work, I have consented to his proposition. I solicit early instructions." The result of 
Sir John Lawrence's interposition was, that the fortifications of Delhi were spared.* 

In some graphic sketches by the special corrcNpondent of the Tiiiief! newspaper, the 

following picture of Delhi is presented, as it appe:ired some months after the triumphant 

occupation of it by the avenging army. Mr. Russell, on his way from the camp of the 

commander-in-chief towards Simla, ap[)roached Delhi by the Cawnpoor road, and thus 

• See History nf the IiulUm MiUiiuj, vol. i., pp. 526, 527 : vol. ii., pp. 182, 183. 


describes the incidents of his visit to the ruins of the prostrate capital ; — " After a time 
there rose dimly along the horizon a dark ridge, not distant, but hazy and indistinct, 
so that the eye could not at first distinguish the difference between the trees and cupolas, 
minarets and battlements, with which they were blended. Then came in sight, beneath 
this ridge, a wide river, on the other side of which I could now make out the castellated 
walls of imperial Delhi, crowned with bastion and turret, and the lofty domes of mosques 
and palaces just reflecting the raj's of the sun. The city thus seen has a noble aspect, 
which becomes more impressive on a nearer approach, till the rifts, the dilapidations, and 
the decay along the water-face of the works are visible. The river itself protects this 
side of the city, and therefore the weakness of the wall towards the east is of smaller 
consequence ; but it so happens that the part of the city defences we attacked were 
the strongest of the whole. However, our ground had good command of portions of 
the place, and we could not pick and choose. Had we attacked from the south we 
should have found the walls and bastions inferior in strength, aud fewer advantages 
of position in other respects; but it was impossible to move round the city from the 
north, even had it been desirable to remove from the ridge, where our left flank was 
defended by the Jumna, and our right rested on a defensible cliff above a ravine. 
The river at this period of the year is rather low, and is spread in several channels 
over a wide expanse of sandy bed, which it forms into islands. The road conducts us 
to a bridge of boats, moored by bark ropes to anchors up stream, fastened to stakes in 
the river, and provided with apparatus to suit the rise of the waters. Tiiere are actually 
shaky posts for oil lamps stuck at intervals along the line of boats, and sheds of reeds 
are erected in the stern of each boat to give shelter from the sun. There is a sentry on 
each end of the bridge, and no native is allowed to pass without inquiry. The Jumna 
flows at the rate of two miles an hour or so, in turbid aud shallow streams ; but higher 
up it becomes deeper. Notwithstanding large offers of rewards, we never could get tiiis 
bridge destroyed during the siege, and we could scarce touch it with our gnus; so that 
we had the mortification of seeing the rebels and their convoys and supplies crossing it 
whenever they chose. They did not often go that way if they found it as unpleasant as 
I did, for the gharry shook tremendously. The bridge leads to the Calcutta gate; but 
before one reaches it he sees the grand feudal-looking keep of Selimghur rising on his 
left out of the waters of the river by which it is surrounded. Althongli it has seen 
better days, this fort, built of solid stone-work, with massive walls, deep-set, small-eyed 
■windows, possesses an appearance of real strength, which was honestly refreshing after a 
long course of stucco and compo. It is only accessible by a very lofty bridge, thrown on 
high arches from the city wall across the branch of the river which insulates the castle, 
and it is now occupied by a detachment of English troops. At this point the wall of 
Delhi sweeps round by the curve of the river, and in front of us is the Calcutta gate. 
The masonry here dates from the time of Shah Jehan, the Great Mogul, to whom Delhi 
owes its grandest monuments and works. It bears marks of time here and there; but 
very little outlay and labour would renovate the fine face, which rises to the height of 
thirty-five or forty feet before us, pierced with loopholes, and bastioned at intervals for 
its defenders. Passing by the drawbridge and through the Calcutta gate, which offers 
nothing remarkable, we enter at once into the streets of an Eastern town, rather cleaner 
and wider than usual. Our course lay for a short time by the city wall ; then through a 
siient street — the houses closed, but pitted all over with bullet-marks; then through a 
wider street, with public buildings shattered and half ruinous — English guards and 
English children looking from the doorless halls. Here the magazines were open, aud 
the native shopkeepers sat in their open stalls; but the marks of bullet and cannon-shot 
became thicker and thicker at every pace ; the trees by the side of the waj' were split aud 
rent; doors aud windows were splintered; the gables were torn out of houses ; and walls 
let in the light at jagged holes, through which shot and shell had heralded its advent long 
ago. At last all is ruin — house and wall and gate alike crumbled under a tremendous 
bombardment. Then comes a spot over which the storm has passed more lightly ; and 
in an open space there stands, clean, fresh, and radiant in the morning sun, the restored 
church of Delhi, not destitute of architect>iral attraction, surmounted by a cupola aud 
ball and cross; and in those particulars aud in the general design, aflbrding some likeli- 
hood that the architect had not quite forgotten St. Paul's cathedral when he drew his 


plan. It was pleasant to see tliis Christian type amid the desolation and destruction 
around, the intensity of which increased as we approached the Cashmere gate. Through 
this immortal portal we passed, and were once more outside the city walls. A few 
minutes' drive on a good road took the gharry up to a large house, in a castellated style, 
which once had been held by the enemy's pickets, and which is now the official 
residence of the commissioner, Mr. Saunders. It bore many marks of shot. In one of 
the few trees left standing in the avenue there is stuck a cannon-ball, half buried in the 
split trunk. The house next the commissioner's is a heap of ruins. Close at hand are 
traces of our advanced trenches and batteries, and on the left there is the quiet cemetery 
where lie the remains of the glorious soldiers who fell in the assault, and of him who 
was foremost among them all — who was confessedly, according to the testimony of every 
Indian tongue, the first soldier in India — ' Nicholson.' His grave is marked by a 
modest slab, and he rests close to the walls of the rebellious city." ****** 
"When the sun gave up burning the outer world for the day, and was about setting in a 
fiery fog, we drove out to visit the city. I followed with intense interest the course taken 
by the storming columns against the Cashmere gate. The battered face of the Cashmere 
bastion, where Nicholson, at the head of the 1st Bengal fusiliers, entered by escalade, 
still shows the force of our fire; but I am certain that the first feeling of every stranger 
must be surprise at the strength of the defences, at the height and solidity of the 
curtains, the formidable nature of the bastions, the depth and width of the dry ditch, 
the completeness of the glacis, and the security of the gates — in a word, he will be 
astonished to find that Delhi is not only a strong place, but that its fortifications are of 
very considerable strength. The glacis protects at least four-fifths of the wall, and 
covers the arch of the gateways. We did our best to enable Delhi to resist a siege or au 
assault, stored up au arsenal and magazines inside its walls, and then left it without a 
garrison. And so here is the Cashifiere gate, flanked by guns, and with a double wa}', 
both e.xposed to fire; to which advanced, along a few crazy planks left by the enemy to 
bridge across the ditch, the storming party of her majesty's 52nd, the Kumaon battalion, 
and the 1st Punjabees, covered by the skirmishers of her majesty's 60th, and preceded 
by that small band whose deeds and whose fate are never to be forgotten — armed with 
unromautic powder-bags, and exposed to twofold danger of unresisting death. No 
vestige of the gate now remains; but the ditch is there, the cold high wall of blue stone, 
the shattered arch, the bastions, the long line of loopholed defences — all proclaiming 
how desperate the courage of the men who faced and o\'ercame such obstacles. There, 
pacing to-and-fro with shouldered musket, lumpy and large-footed, and rather slovenly 
in gait, without any air of military smartness, according to either the French or the 
Prussian model — with ill-made coat, preposterous pantaloons, unseemly ankle-jacks, is 
the stuff out of which sncli men are made ; and you may bet ten to one that yonder red- 
coated countryman of her majesty's 61st regiment, who is doing duty as sentry on the 
Cashmere gate, would, if occasion were, emulate the deeds of those who fell before it 
without one shadow of variableness or turning. Inside the gateway we pass the bullet- 
marked Mainguard, and houses and walls split and pierced with shot, and enter upon a 
wide street, lined with trees, in the centre of which there is a stone aqueduct, leadmg to 
a noble open reservoir — the work, I believe, of Lord Ellcnljorough, who forgot in its 
greatness that the Jumna was not quite dry. This is the Cliandnee Cliouk, the main 
street of the city, which reminds us — oddly enough — of the Boulevards, notwithstanding 
the meanness of the two-storied Oriental houses, the absence of soldiers, serffciis de ville, 
and of cafis, the presence of a turbaned crowd, and of camels and palainiuins, and the 
open stores of odd merchandise, and shops filled with Oriental fruits and grain. Half 
of the houses ar^ shut up; and judging by some of the people who looked out from the 
screens of the first-floors and from the verandahs, some of the present inhabitants might 
be dispensed with. The shops are poor enough ; they are windovvless and open in front, 
like the stalls in a Turkish bazaar. At the sight of the Biirra Sahib's outriders (native 
troopers), the bnnncahs, or shopkeepers — a sleek fat race, with shaven faces, yellow and 
white caste-marks on the forcliead and over the eyes, dressed cleanly and amjily in 
snow-white turbans and robes — rise from their haunches, and salaam respectfully, standing 
till the carriage has passed by. Diverging to the left from this street we sec before u.s 
the noblest battlemeuted wall on which my eyes ever rested. It is the wall of the palace 


of the Mogul. A grand face of rich red sandstone, darkened by time, crenellated in two 
rows, rises to a height of fifty or sixty feet above us, and sweeps to the right and left in 
melancholy grandeur, slightly broken in outline by turrets and flanking towers. The 
gems of which the casket is so grand ought, indeed, to be rich and precious. The portal 
is worthy of the enclosure. Except the Victoria gate of our new palace of Westminster, 
I have seen no gateway so fine in proportion aiid of such lofty elevation. The massive 
iron and brass-embossed doors open into a magnificent vestibule in a great tower, which 
rises high above the level of the walls, and is surmounted by turrets and four cupolas of 
elegant design. On passing the gates we find ourselves in a sort of arcade, vaulted and 
running for the length of the tower, in the midst of which there is a very small court, 
richly ornamented with sculptured stone-work. The entrance is guarded by a soldier, 
who might be mistaken for a very sunburnt and savage-looking English rifleman. He 
is dressed in dark green, nearly black, and supposed by the military authorities to be 
very like foliage in hue, and therefore suitable to riflemen — like one of our brigade ; but 
he wears a dreadful compromise between a Glengarry bonnet and a turban, made of 
green cloth with a red tartan border, on his head ; his eyes are wide apart, his cheek- 
bones are high, his lips thick, his face round, like liis head, and his jaws square. I don't 
think I ever saw Saxon or Celt or Scottish, or Irish mixture of the two, exactly the same 
as that man. He is, in fact, one of our Goorkas. The arcade conducts us to an open 
courtyard, surrounded by houses of excessively poor aspect. At one side there, in the 
turreted gateway, Mr. Saunders points out to us the room, below a cupola, where two of 
our countrywomen were brutally murdered. But in the courtyard before us a more terrible 
scene was enacted. There is a dry stone tank, in which there once played a fountain, in 
the centre of tlie court. Above it a venerable and decaying tree casts an imperfect 
shadow over the stone seats on which, in former times, those who came hither to enjoy 
the play of the waters and their refreshing music*were wont to repose. It was at this 
spot, beneath this tree, and round the fountain, that the Christian captives, women and 
children, after several days of painful respite and anxiety, worse than the fate they 
dreaded, were hacked to pieces by the swords of the ferocious and cowardly miscreants, 
who in their mad excitement forgot that Mohammed had ordered women and children 
to be saved from death. There is as yet no other memorial of the tragedy ; but lo ! 'ex 
ossibus Alitor!' the dungeon of the captive monarch who permitted the defilement of his 
palace by such deeds is close at hand — the house of Timour, the descendants of Baber, 
Shah Jehau, and Aurungzebe, have fallen never to rise ; smitten in the very palace of tiieir 
power, which has become their dungeon. Around the very place where that innocent 
blood ran like water, are ranged, as grim monuments of retribution, row after row of 
guns taken from the enemy ; our guards are in the gates ; aTid of the many who took 
part in the murders it is probable few live to dread the punishment which, sooner or 
later, will strike them. The mouldering walls of the palace buildings, broken lattices, 
crumbling stone-work, and doors and wood-work split, decayed, and paintless, the silence 
only broken by the tread of the sentry, or our own voices, rendered the whole place 
inexpressibly sad and desolate. But sadder still when one thought of the voices, of the 
cries which resounded within these walls one short year ago. It was with a sense of 
relief — a deep long-drawn breath — that we proceeded towards another grand gateway, 
leadiug by a long vaulted arcade into a courtyard paved like the former, but kept in 
trimmer order, and surrounded by continuous edifices, some of white marble, all of rich 
decorations in arabesque, the most conspicuous of which, notwithstanding the attractions 
of a beautiful mosque, is the Hall of Audience — the ' Dewan Khass !' "* 

The following extracts from letters of individuals personally engaged in the 
hazardous struggle which resulted in the conquest of the city, will appropriately close 
this brief sketch of its history. The first are from the correspondence of an officer 
attached to the staff, dated " Delhi, September 26th, 1857," five days subsequent to its 
reoccupation by British troops. The writer, after referring to some incidents of 
the assault, already noticed, proceeds to say — " I think those who called the fortifications 
of Delhi a gardeu-wall, have only to walk round them to be satisfied of their mistake. 
The defences are exceedingly strong; and though the heights, a mile distant, facilitate 
a siege, they by no means, for practical purposes, give any real command of the 

* See anTe, p. 128. 


place. I am told, on very competent authority, that, from a mere artillery point of view, 
the place is stronger than Bhurtpoor ever was; and yet it proves that our main difficulty 
was inside, not outside Delhi. The sepoys permitted our heavy batteries to be 
approached with comparatively little opposition — breaches were speedily and well 
effected, and our troops got over them with loss, but without serious check. But there 
their task was by no means accomplished ; and, street by street, the enemy contested 
every foot of ground, and occupied position after position with a courage and determina- 
tion worthy of a better cause. In fact, we may well congratulate oui'selves that we did 
not attempt the storm with an inferior force. There is no doubt, that on our occupation 
of a part of the city, our array became disorganised to a degree whicli was highly 
dangerous when the battle was but half won. Whether the collection in the part of tlie 
town which we first assaulted, of vast quantities of wine and spirits (the produce of the 
plunder of a long line of road on which those articles are the main staple of European 
commerce), was really the result of deep strategy on the part of the mutineers, I cannot 
say ; but it does seem as if the only common bond whicii unites the various races 
fighting under our standard is a common love of liquor ; and Europeans, Seiks, Goorkas, 
and Afghans are said to have all indulged to an extent which might have been disastrous. 
In truth, the days which followed the fir^t assault were a time of great anxiety. Our 
progress was slow; the number of men whom we could bring into action cm-iously small; 
and the abandonment of the positions held by the enemy was, I believe, a relief to the 
generals, even though we did not exterminate the mutineers. In fact, I believe that the 
bridge of boats was purposely left intact by our batteries ; we were well content to leave 
a bridge to a flying enemy. I do not think that the enemy were actually forced out by 
our shells. I was surprised to find how little damage was done by them. Tlie walls of 
the palace are almost intact ; so are by far the greater portion of the buildings inside ; 
and it is quite clear that the chances were yet very much in favour of such as chose 
quietly to sit in them. In short, I fancy that our mortar batteries were by no means 
very strong, and not sufficient to do effectually such extensive work ; but the sepoys and 
the king's party had both had enough of it. The fire was, no doubt, hot, and was becom- 
ing more so ; so they reti'eated, carrying with them most of their valuables, but leaving 
all the heavy guns and other bulky articles. As to pursuit, the infantry was simply 
completely knocked up, and unfit to pursue for a single mile ; and the general would not 
risk the mounted branch alone; so he has contented himself with securing his conquest, 
and the city of Delhi is completely ours. For the rest, a small party of irregular cavalry 
appearing at a place a few miles off, where the king's family had taken refuge, obtaiued 
possession of the persons of the king and the more important princes — making prisoner 
the former, killing the latter. Our position is quite secure, but we have yet taken 
no possession for a single mile south of the city." 

The following extract is from the letter of a sergeant of the 61st regiment, whose 
statement was published in the Times, under the initials "M. B." The writer says— 
"On the 13tli of June, an order came to Ferozepoor, where our division had been 
for more than a month, for the right wing of the 61st to proceed immediately to Delhi. 
Tlie order reached the colonel at ten a.m., and we had to march at four in the afternoon : 
everybody was in confusion, trying to fiinl out wiiat companies would have to go. At 
last it was found that grenadiers Nos. 2, 3, and 7, and the light company, were to 
march under Colonel Jones that evening. Fancy how fatiguing it must have been to 
be keeping up forced marches, sometimes as much as twenty-five miles, in the middle 
of tlie summer ! It was very distressing, I assure you. At all events, we arrived at 
Delhi on the 1st of July, and then our troubles commenced. In the first place the 
cholera broke out; and frightful it was to see our poor fellows dying like dogs, sometimes 
as many as five and six a-day. During all this time the duty was getting heavier every 
day. We very often went on picket without l)eing relieved for six or seven days, 
and keeping up a constant firing all the time. The brutes used to come out every day, 
and we had to drive them up to the walls of Delhi back again. We used to lose a great 
many of our men that way ; for as soon as we retired back to camp, tiic sejjoys opened 
fire with their .artillery. " We were too close to them altogether; they ]>layed liavoe 
with our i)Oor men : but as regards fair fighting, they are the greatest cowards you 
ever eame across. They won't stand at all ; but hide behind brick walls, or get into 
HI. X 



houses ; and will never show a front. As soon as they hear a cheer from the Europeans 
they run away like mice. We remained till the night of the 24th of August without pro- 
gressing, when an order was given out for the 61st and 1st Europeans, and some Seiks, 
to march at four the next morning to a place called RufRnjar. It was giver; out by our 
spies the day before, that a large body of the sepoys had left Delhi, and proceeded to this 
place for the purpose of cutting off our supplies. We marched in the morning, and over- 
took them about four, and a good hard fight took place ; but, as usual, we made the 
scoundrels run. Lieutenant Gabbett, of No. 2, got killed. We lost five or six men, and 
had several wounded. We captured thirteen guns and all their camp equipage. I forgot 
to mention that we were losing so many men with cholera, that we had to send to Feroze- 
poor for the left wing. They also came by double marches, and had to encounter a great 
deal of trouble on the road. They arrived at Delhi on the 14th of August. The weather 
was getting a little cooler, but still it was very disagreeable in tents. After they arrived, 
I am sorry to say, the cholera broke out as fresh as ever. We buried, in one dav, nine 
men; you can't guess how we were situated. We hardly had men enough to relieve the 
pickets. Things remained that way till the siege-train arrived from Ferozepoor. We 
were anxiously looking for it every day. At last the artillery and big guns arrived, and 
then we had harder work. Then we were night after night building batteries and lying 
in the trenches, and the artillery were bombarding the walls of Delhi and the city day 
and night. We had a great many men wounded in the trenches. On the night of the 
13th, when all our advanced batteries were ready for action, part of the army left camp, 
and advanced within a hundred yards of the walls, under cover, ready to storm the place, 
which we did at about daylight the next morning ; the remainder of the regiments enter- 
ing at other parts of the city all about the same time. We managed it beautifully, 
although there were a great many killed and wounded; I dare say over 1,000. The 
scoundrels flew in all directions. We entered the city, and halted at the church 
that night, sending out pickets. We remained in the church until the night of 
the 16th, when the 61st got the order to fall-in at three the next morning, nobody know- 
ing what for; the colonel telling us at the same time, we had some hot work to do 
before we dined. We fell-in, and were told-off to four divisions, twenty-two file each — 
in all, 176. That was all we could muster, we had so many sick and wounded. We 
marched towards the magazine, stormed the breach without any noise, and got the word 
'Charge!' and no doubt our boys did charge with a vengeance, shoutiug like madmen, 
and killing every one that came within our reach. I think we took the rascals by surprise, 
or they would not have given up the place so easily. We had two men killed, and about 
six wounded. After getting into the magazine, they came down by hundreds; but they 
could do us very little harm. We being inside and they out, the fools commenced pelt- 
ing stones at us, and trying to burn down a lot of sheds that were in the place. We 
captured 148 guns, besides a lot of shot, shell, and ammunition. Our work was now 
done for that day. I am only writing about our own regiment. Other regiments were 
doing equally as much good as ourselves. There were the 8th, 52nd, 60th rifles, 75th, 
1st and 2nd Europeans, all fighting as hard iu other parts of the city; and out of 
all these regiments they could not form 3,000 men, the army was suffering so much 
from sickness. We were relieved from the magazine by the 52nd regiment, and then 
our regiment was divided ; some went to the bank, and others to different pickets in the 
city. On the morning of the 20th, part of our regiment and the rifles took the palace, 
with very little opposition on the part of the enemy ; and that finished the taking of Delhi. 
A royal salute was fired on the morning of the 21st of September on the walls of Delhi, 
in honour of the capture of the city, palace, &c. We expected to have taken the king in 
the palace, but he was too wide-awake for us at that time : he escaped, but he was taken 
by our people about thirty miles from Delhi, with his sons. They were all brought back. 
Two of his sons were shot the other day, and the king is now a prisoner, awaiting 
his trial. A European sergeant-major of the 28th native infantry was taken prisoner, 
trying to make his escape from Delhi. He is also awaiting his trial. He had given 
assistance to the sepoys after the mutiny broke out ." 




Six Mogul conquerors in succession sat upon the imperial throne of Delhi, each rivaling 
the magnificence and the power of the mighty Alexander, before whom nations were 
bowed as reeds before the tempest. Then came a long period of prostration and decay: the 
haughty lords of Asia yielded to the arms and arts of a power from the West, and gradually, 
during two centuries, their glories faded in the spreading lustre of its ascendancy. At 
length the heir of Timur and of Akber — blind, helpless, and persecuted — delivered 
himself a pensionary into the hands of a few Englishmen, that, under their protection, 
the remaining years of his existence might be spent in peace. Yet was he treated right 
royally by his commercial patrons; and, in a sort of mimic state, was permitted to enjoy 
a nominal sovereignty in his ancestral palace at the imperial city. There, surrounded 
by six miles of lofty and bastioned wall, a cluster of gorgeous edifices contained, while it 
also concealed, his sufferings and his pomp. To the last of the visionary scene. Shah 
Alum and his descendants were treated with considerate deference, and were saluted by 
British officers as the sovereigns, de jure, of Hindoostan. Coin was yet struck iu their 
names ; and the last of the race, although worthless — and it was thought imbecile, from 
age — enjoyed a royal revenue, and seemed, of all men living, the last to whom suspicion 
of treachery should attach. Such, in brief, was the state of the three last living 
descendants of the Mogul emperors, until a wild and reckless desire to exterminate the 
whole European race found upon tlie soil of India, smote with sudden madness a 
number of the hereditary chiefs and princes of the laud who ; without administrative 
or military genius, fancied a possibility of enthroning themselves upon ruin, and of once 
more rioting in the pillage and devastation of India. And so it was that the king 
of Delhi^instigated by a ravenous horde of dependent relatives, hounded on to his ruin 
by the acclaims of an excited and rebellious soldiery, and dazzled by those visions of 
ambition which, dimmed not by fading sight and whitened hairs, are attractive even to 
the brink of the grave — broke from his sworn allegiance, assumed a larid and transient 
show of independence, encouraged the native levies of his protectors and ally iu a 
ferocious rebellion to the hand that fed them, and closed the gates of Delhi against a 
British army. Such, in a few words, were the incidents of the first scene of the wild 
drama enacted before the people of India in 1857; and the enemies of the British flag 
in all quarters of the world, pointed to the new Mogul empire, and rejoiced at the down- 
fall of British supremacy. But the end was yet to come ; and before we refer to the 
consummation of that end, it will be necessary, for the elucidation of the subject, to 
revert to some phases of the past history of the family whose last representative is now a 
convict and an exile from the country in which he had enjoyed kingly honours. 

On the 11th of September, 1803, the result of a battle between the Anglo-Indian 
forces, under the command of General Lake, and the confederated troops of the 
Mahratta and Rohilcund chiefs, opened the gates of Delhi to a British army, and 
restored to the enjoyments of sovereignty the blind and feeble representative of a once 
mighty dynasty, in the person of the emperor Shah Alum, who had long been the sport 
of fortune, and, as it were, the foot-ball of his powerful and merciless enemies the 
Mahrattas. From this thrall the unhappy monarch was relieved by the valour of 
British arms ; but from that moment his independent rule became a fiction, and his 
empire but a name. From the 16th of Octol)er, 1803, when the final arrangement was 
concluded, by which the sightless descendant of the magnificent Tinuir placed himself 
and his dominions under the protection of the East India Company, until the 11th of 
May, 1857, Delhi became merely the capital of a territory nominally governed by a 
Mogul prince, but practically, and in fact, under the supreme control of a British 
resident, appointed by the governor-general in council. In 180G, Shah Alum escaped, 
by a peaceful death, from the cares of existence and the mockery of state, and was 
succeeded by his sou Shah Akber in the kingly title, and iu the enjoyment of royal 
honours, but still a pensioner of the Company for the means to support his dignity — au 


annual grant of £100,000 being paid to him as an equivalent for liis independence ; out 
of which he was required to support the vast retinue of relations and dependents 
collected within the walls of the imperial residence, who altogether numbered some 
12,000 persons. Notwithstanding the degraded position to which this prince had sank 
as a mere pensioner on a commercial company, both Hindoos and Mussulmans 
throughout the vast empire that had bowed to the undisputed sway of his predecessors, 
still looked up to him as the only representative of the ancient glories of India. 
Princes still sought from his hands the solemn and legal investiture of their states ; he 
bestowed robes of honour on the native chiefs upon their accession to the musnud, as 
tokens of his suzerainty ; and more than once attempted a similar assumption of 
superiority upon the appointment of a governor-general of the East India Company. 
lUntil the year 1827, it is alleged, that the Company acquired no new province without 
formally applying to the king of Delhi for his nominal sanction and royal firman to 
confirm their title. At length, during the administration of Lord Amherst, in 1827, 
this false position on both sides was corrected, by taking from the powerless occupant of 
a shadowy throue this last vestige he possessed of independent sovereignty, in exchange 
for an increased pension of £150,000. The implied vassalage of the Company to the 
great padishah or ruler of India, was thrown aside as a troublesome fiction; and from 
that time Shah Akber became utterly powerless beyond the walls of his palace, except 
in regard to the traditional and historic influences of a race of which he was still the 
living representative, and, as such, continued to be looked up to by the descendants of 
:the millions who had borne allegiance to the house of Tiraur. 

Shah Akber reigned absolute within the walls of his domestic kingdom until his 
death in the year 1849, having for some time previous endeavoured to procure the 
sanction of the governor-general to his choice of a successor to the titular throne 
of Delhi, which he desired should be occupied by' one of his younger sous, thereby 
setting aside the claims of the eldest-born. This airangenient was not permitted by the 
Company ; and, consequently, upon the death of the Shah, his eldest son, Mirza Aboo 
Zuffur, became king, assuming the title of Mahomed Suraj-oo-deen Shah Ghazee. This 
prince must have been between sixty and seventy years of age upon his accession to the 
throne, which he occupied until it was shattered into fragments by his connection with 
the sepoy revolt of 1857. 

From the accession of Suraj-oo-deen in 1849, until the month of May, 1857, when the 
incidents occurred of which he ultimately became the victim, the king resided in Oriental 
seclusion and barbaric pomp within the boundaries of his palace, without exciting the 
notice or awakening the jealousies of the stranger race into whose hands the staff of his 
rimperial power had passed. On the morning of Monday, the 11th of May, 1857, a party 
of mounted horsemen, soiled with dust and blood, and reeking with the foam of hasty 
flight from the massacre at Meerut, appeared beneath the walls of the palace, proclaiming 
that the rule of the Feringhee was at an end, and that Hindoostan was again under the 
independent sovereignty of its native princes, of whom the king of Delhi was chief. 
After a short parley, the troopers were, by the king's order, admitted within the palace, 
and announced to him that the whole of Hindoostan had risen to shake off the yoke of 
the English; that Calcutta, their capital, and other chief towns, were already in posses- 
sion of the native army, which had risen against their officers ; and that it only required 
that his majesty would unfurl the sacred standard of the Mohammedan empire, and 
the whole of tlie warlike millions of India would rally round it, and re-establish the 
independent throne of Timur by driving the English intruders into the sea, or feeding 
the vultures with their carcasses. During the conference, some troops of artillery, which 
had also deserted from Meerut the previous night, reached the city, and, entering by the 
Calcutta gate near the palace, fired a royal salute in front of it. This incident decided the 
wavering inclinations of the aged king ; and he consented to the demand of the troopers, 
whose numbers were increased by the accession of the native regiments in cantonment 
near Delhi. From that moment "the sword of destruction was suspended over the head 
of the king, and but a short time elapsed ere it fell. Meanwhile, the soldiers exulting 
in their triumph over his scruples, and feeling they had now a rallying-point under any 
emergency, rushed from the presence of the infatuated monarch, to satiate their thirst 
for blood by the massacre of such Europeans as fell into their hands. 


On Monday, the 11th of November, the Mogul standard was raised over the entrance 
to tlie palace, and Mahomed Suraj-oo-deen was proclaimed emperor of Hindoostini and 
king of Delhi. A throne of silver, which had been preserved in the royal treasury from 
the year 1843, was placed in the Dewau Khass, or Grand Hall of Audience; and there 
the phantom monarch took his seat, to receive the homage of his court and people. This 
ceremony over, the king, surrounded by the paraphernalia of Oriental pomp, amidst the 
salutes of artillery, the clangour of martial music, and the frantic acclamations of a 
tumultuous multitude, issued from the gates of his palace in royal procession through the 
streets of Delhi, to announce by his presence the assumption of imperial power and the 
restoration of Mogul independence. The cavalcade npon this occasion was led by 
the Prince Mirza Mogul, one of his sons, whom he had appointed to the chief command 
of the army. Another son, the Prince Abu Bekr, rode at the head of the Ijody-guard af 
the aged simulator of imperial power, who presented himself to the gaze of the excited 
populace in an open chariot ; his advanced years incapacitating him from any other mode 
of exhibiting himself. Surrounded by the members of his household, and thus attended, 
the king slowly proceeded through the principal streets of the city to the Jumma Musjid, 
where the standard of the prophet was unfurled, and the empire of Hindoostan proclaimed. 
His majesty's commands were thereupon issued, that the shopkeepers and inhabitants 
should immediately resume their ordinary avocations; and the king returned to that 
palace whicli he was destined shortly after to leave as a fugitive, and to reoccupy as a 
dethroned captive, whose very existence depended upon the forbearance of his rashly 
provoked and justly incensed enemies. 

Upon the assumption of the actual sovereignty by Suraj-oo-deen, his first act was to 
appoint the necessary authorities for the government of the city, within which military 
guards were posted. The walls were strengthened and the gates secured; a number 
of guns were brought from the magazine and i)laced upon the ramparts and bastious; 
and native gunners were appointed to the park of artillery in Selimghur, the fort attached 
to the palace. The mutinous troops of the Bengal army chiefly bent their steps in the 
direction of Delhi; and the native force in and round the city soon became formidable. 
A camp of 7,000 men was collected, and stationed for the protection of the palace ; the 
pay of the troops was augmented ; and rewards were offered for the discovery of any 
Europeans, or of natives connected with them, that they might be put to death. The 
treasury belonging to the Company, which contained at the time many lacs of rupees, 
was removed to the palace, to enable the king to reward the troops. 

A native eye-witness of the occurrences at Delhi on the 11th and 12tli of May, in a 
narrative addressed to the vakeel of a Rajpoot chief, says — " Yesterday morning (the 11th 
of May), some regular cavalry arriving from Meerut, seized the bridge on the Jumna, 
killed the toll-keeper, and robbed the till. Leaving a guard at the bridge, they proceeded 
to the Salempoor Chowkee, where they found an English gentleman, whom they killed, 
and set fire to his house. Then going under the Delhi king's palace, outside the city wall, 
they made proposals to the king, who told them that was no place for them, but to go 
into the city. Having entered the Calcutta gate, it was closed. They were preceded, on 
their first arrival, by ten or twelve troopers, who, on entering the Rajghat gate of 
the city, assured everybody that they had come, not to trouble or injure the city people 
in any way, but only to kill the European gentlemen, of whom they liad resolved to leave 
none alive. About ten at night, two pultuns (troops of artillery) arrived from Meerut, 
and fired a royal salute of twenty-one guns. The next day, about three in the 
afternoon, the empire was proclaimed under the king of Delhi, and the imjjerial flag 
hoisted at the Khoiwallee (chief police-station). The king's chief police oflicir arrived, 
and with him all the mutineers, horse and foot, and killed all the Europeans they met or 
could find. The old chief of police fled ; the inace-bearcrs stood aloof" * * * * 
" The king's sons are made officers to the royal army : thousands of pity for the poor 
luxurious princes, who are sometimes compelled to go out of the door of the city in the 
heat of the siui, with their hearts palpitating from the firing of muskets and guns. Un- 
fortunately they do not know how to command an army ; and the forces laugh at their 
imperfections, and abuse them for their bad arrangements. The king sends sweetmeats 
for the troops in the field, and the guards at the door of the city plunder it like the 
property of an enemy." 


At length, on the 8th of June, 1857, an Enghsh force, numbering altogether about 
3,000 men, under the command of Major-general Sir Henry W. Barnard, after a sharp 
conflict with a portion of the rebel army, which vainly attempted to arrest its progress, 
succeeded in taking up a position upon an elevated ridge about a mile from the city, 
which it commanded. From that moment the doom of the rebel capital, though for a 
time deferred, was felt to be inevitable. 

The royal troops of Delhi had now other occupation found for them besides eating 
the kiug^s sweetmeats; but, according to a native account, however valiantly they 
acquitted themselves behind walls and loopholed buildings, they had little stomach for 
fighting in the open field. The native writer of a diary kept the first few weeks of the 
siege, says — " The bravery of the royal troops deserves every praise : they are very clever 
indeed. When they ^vish to leave the field of battle, after shooting down many Feringhees, 
they tie a piece of rag on their leg, and pretend to have been wounded, and so come into 
the city lame and groaning, accompanied by many of their friends to assist them along." 
The same writer also says — " The shells have destroyed lots of houses in the city ; and in 
tlie fort, the marble of the king's private hall is broken to pieces. His majesty is very 
much alarmed when a shell bursts in the fort, and the princes show him the pieces. 
Many of the royal family have left the palace through fear." Again, on the 22ud of 
July, the same writer says — " The other day the king sent for the Subahdar Bahadoor, 
who commands the troops in the fort, and desired him either to remove him out of the 
fort, or do something to stop the British shelling, which was very destructive. The 
subahdar begged his majesty to remain in the fort another day, and during that time he 
assured him he would devise means to put a stop to the annoyance." It is needless to 
say the subahdar did not keep his word. 

At length, on the 18th of September, it was reported to Major-general Wilson, by 
spies from the city, that the king, with his sons, the three royal regiments, and some 
other corps of native infantry, and troopers of the light cavalry, had secured themselves 
in the palace, and were determined to resist to the last man : but almost immediately 
upon this announcement, indications of a design to evacuate the palace were apparent; 
and, during the night of the 19th, the king and princes, with their women aud 
attendants, accompanied by a considerable number of the troops, retired from the royal 
residence to seek a temporary refuge near the palace of the Cootub Minar, about nine 
miles from the city, whither, on the following day, they were pursued and captured by 
Captain Hodson and a party of fifty of his irregular horse. The incidents of the 
occurrence are thus described in a letter to the brother of Captain Hodson, by an officer 
intimately acquainted with the operations of that distinguislied commander, and who had 
the details at the time from the lips of himself and other eye-witnesses of the facts 
related. This officer, after some preliminary remarks as to former meritorious services 
of Captain Hodson, says — " On our taking possession of the city gate, reports came in that 
thousands of the enemy were evacuating the city by the other gates, and that the king, 
also, had left his palace. We fought our way inch by inch to the palace walls, aud then 
found truly enough that its vast arena was void. The very day after we took possession 
of the palace (the 20th), Captain Hodson received information that the king and his 
family had gone, with a large force, out of the Ajmere gate to the Cootub. He imme- 
diately reported this to the general commanding, and asked whether he did not intend to 
send a detacliment in pursuit, as, with the king at liberty and heading so large a force, our 
victory was nest to useless, and we might be the besieged instead of besiegers. General 
Wilson replied that he could not spare a single European. He then volunteered to lead 
a party of the irregulars ; but this off'er was also refused, though backed up by Neville 

"During this time messengers were coming in constantly; and, among the rest, one 
from Zeenat Mahal (the favourite begum), with an off'er to use her influence with the 
king to surrender on certain conditions. These conditions at first were ludicrous 
enough — viz., that the king and the whole of the males of his family should be restored 
to his palace and honours; that not only should his pension be continued, but the 
arrears since May be paid up, with several other equally modest demands. I need not 
say these were treated with contemptuous denial. Negotiations, however, were vigorously 
carried on ; and care was taken to spread reports of an advance in force to the Cootub. 


Every report as it came in was taken to General Wilson, who at last gave orders to 
Captain Hodson to promise the king's life and freedom from personal indignity, and 
make what other terms he could. Captain Hodson then started with only fifty of his 
own men for Humayun's tomb, three miles from the Cootub, where the king liad come 
during the day. The risk was such as no one can judge of who has not seen the road, 
amid the old ruins scattered about of what was ouce the real city of Delhi. He 
concealed himself and men m some old buildings close l)y tlie gateway of the tomb, and 
sent in his two emissaries to Zeenat Mahal with the ullimatum — the king's life and that 
oi her son and father (the latter has since died). After two hours passed by Captain 
Hodson in most trying suspense, such as (he says) he never spent before, while waiting 
the decision, his emissaries (one an old favourite of poor Sir Henry Lawrence) came out 
with the last offer — namely, that the king would deliver himself up to Captain Hodson only, 
and on condition that he repeated with his own lips the promise of the government for 
his safety. Captain Hodson tiien went out into the middle of the road in front of the 
gateway, and said that he was ready to receive his captives and renew the promise. 
You may picture to yourself the scene before that magnificent gateway, with the milk- 
white domes of the tomb towering up from within — one white man among a host of 
natives, yet determined to secure his prisoner or perish in the attempt. 

" Soon a procession began to come slowly out ; first Zeenat Mahal, in one of the close 
native conveyances used for women. Her name was announced as she passed, by the 
Moulvie. Then came the king in a palkee, ou which Captain Hodson rode forward and 
demanded his arms. Before giving them up, the king asked whether he was ' Hodson 
Bahadoor,' and if he would repeat the promise made by the herald ? Captain Hodson 
answered that he would, and repeated that the government had been graciously pleased 
to promise him his life, and that of Zeenat Mahal's son, on condition of his yielding 
himself prisoner quietly ; adding very emphatically, that if any attempt was made at a 
rescue, he would shoot the king down on the spot like a dog. The old man then gave 
up his arms, which Captain Hodson handed to his orderly, still keeping his own sword 
drawn in his hand. The same ceremony was then gone through with the boy (Jumma 
Bukht), and the march towards the city began — the longest five miles, as Captain Hodson 
said, that he ever rode; for, of course, the palkees only went at a foot pace, with his 
liandful of men around them, followed by thousands, any one of whom could have shot 
him down in a moment. His orderly told me that it was wonderful to see the influence 
which his calm and undaunted look had on the crowd. They seemed perfectly paralysed 
at the fact of one white man (for they thought nothing of his fifty black sowars) 
carrying ofl:' their king alone. Gradually, as they approached the city, the crowd slunk 
away, and very few followed up to the Lahore gate. Then Captain H. rode on a few 
paces, and ordered the gate to be opened. The officer on duty asked simply, as he passed, 
what he had got in liis palkees. ' Ouly the king of Delhi,' was the answer ; on which the 
officer's enthusiastic exclamation was more emphatic than becomes ears polite. The 
guard were for turning out to greet him with a cheer, and could only be repressed ou 
being told that the king would take the honour to himself. They passed up that mag- 
nificent deserted street to the palace gate, where Captain Hodson met the civil officer 
(Mr. Saunders), and formally delivered over his royal prisoners to him. His remark 
was amusing : ' By Jove ! Hodson, tliey ought to make you commander-in-chief for this.' 

" On proceeding to the general's quarters to report his successful return, and hand 
over the royal arms, he was received witii the characteristic speech, ' \Vcll, I'm glad you 
have got him; but I never expected to sec either him or you again!' while the other offi- 
cers in the room were loud in their congratulations and applause. He was requested to 
select for himself from the royal arms what he chose; and has, therefore, two magnificent 
swords, one with the name of 'Nadir Shah,' and the other the seal of Jehaugeer 
engraved upon it, which he intends to present to the Queen. 

"On the following day he captured three of the princes. I am anxious you should 
fully understand that your brother was bound by orders from the general to spare the 
king's life, much against his own will ; and that the capture was ou his own risk and 
responsibility, but not the pledge." 

Upon the arrival of the cavalcade at the palace, the king, with liis favourite begum, 
Zeenat Mahal, and her son, a youth of seventeen, were conducted by Mr. Saunders 


to a small building in one of the courts of the imperial residence, where, under a proper 
guard, they remained, with about half-a-dozen attendants, until their final destiny was 
decided upon. 

A letter from the palace, dated the 24th of September, describes a visit to the 
dethroned and captive majesty of Delhi in the following terras : — " The day after the 
king was caught, I went to see him with two or three officers. He was in a house in a 
street called the Lall Kooa-street — i.e., the Red Wall-street. He was lying on a bed 
with cushions, &c., a man fanning him, and two or three servants about. He is, and 
looks very old, being very much wasted ; has a very hooked nose, and short white beard, 
and is by no means regal looking. He seemed in a great fright, and apparently thought 
we had come to insult him ; so we merely looked at him and came away." Another 
correspondent writes — "We have seen the king and royal family; they are in ruinous 
Kttle rooms in one of the gates of the palace. The old king looks very frail, and has a 
blank, fixed eye, as of one on whom life is fast closing. He certainly is too old to be 
responsible for anything that has been done." 

An officer who, in his tour of duty, had charge of the royal prisoner, writes thus : — 
" I was on guard over the king and his wives and concubines on the 24th and 25th, 
and was obliged to be much on the alert to prevent rescue or attempts at escape. I was 
ordered to shoot him if things came to the last extremity. Yesterday I handed him 
over to a guard of the 60th rifles, and was exceedingly glad to be relieved of so respon- 
sible a position." 

The requirements of justice had now to be satisfied by the punishment of the royal 
traitor and his rebellious sons ; the latter having also taken an active part in the early 
massacres at the palace and the Khotwallee. The king himself was reserved, on the 
ground of his advanced age (eighty-five), for the more formal and deliberate procedure of 
a military commission ; but for his principal agents in the dire work of rebellion and 
murder, no unnecessary delay was allowed to interpose, and their fate was as promptly 
decided as the severity of it was merited. Two of his sons and a grandson had already 
paid the penalty of their crimes by death, at the hands of Captain Hodson ; and shortly 
afterwards, two others of the princes were captured, and, after being tried by a military 
tribunal, were also shot. 

On the 10th of October, a message was transmitted from the governor -general in 
council to General Wilson, from which the following is an extract: — "If, as has been 
reported to the governor-general in council, the king of Delhi has received from any 
British officer a promise that his life will be spared, you are desired to send him to 
Allahabad, under an escort, as soon as that can be safely done. The escort must be 
strong enough to resist all attempts at a rescue, and must consist, in part, of some 
European infantry and cavalry, with field guns. Any member of the king's family who 
is included in the promise, is to be sent with the king. You will appoint one or two 
officers specially to take charge of the king, who is to be exposed to no indignity or 
needless liardship. If no promise of his life has been given to the king, he is to be 
brought to trial under Act 14, of 1857. The special commissioners appointed for this 
purpose are, Mr. Montgomery, judicial commissioner of the Punjab ; ]\Ir. C. G. Barnes, 
commissioner of the Cis-Sutlej states; and Major Lake, commissioner of the Trans- 
Sutlej states. You will summon these officers at once to Delhi, in the event of a trial of 
the king taking place. Mr. C. B. Saunders will act as prosecutor, will collect the 
evidence, and frame the charges. Should the king be found guilty, the sentence is to 
be carried out without further reference to the governor-general in council." 

Shortly before the arrival of these instructions at Delhi, Major-general Wilson had 
resigned the command of the army on account of failing health, and was succeeded by 
Major-general Penny, who, on the 22nd of the mouth, wrote thus to the secretary of 
the government: — "Your message to Major-general Wilson, now sick at Mussoorie, has 
been sent to him to explain under what conditions the king's life was promised him.* 
The king, agreeably to instructions, ynll be sent to the fort at Allahabad as soon as the 
road shall be freely opened ; but that cannot be immediately." 

Some time elapsed before any active measures were adopted with regard to the 
• The condition was simply that he should surrender without resistance. See preceding page. Vide 
also History of the Indian Mutiny, vol. i., p. 610. 



future destiny of the royal captive ; but at length, after a number of the chief actors in 
the tragedy at Delhi had expiated their crimes by an ignominious death upon the 
scaffold, the period arrived when it became expedient to determine the course to be 
pursued with Mahomed Suraj-oo-deen, who still retained his kingly style, tliough a 
prisoner in an out-building of his own palace. The capture of the king was effected on 
the 21st of September; but it was not until the month of January, 1858, that the com- 
mission under which he was put upon his trial was made public : at the same time, 
the charges preferred against him were declared to be as follows : — • 

" 1st. For that he, being a pensioner of the British government in India, did, at 
Delhi, at various times between the 10th of May and the 1st of October, 1857, 
encourage, aid, and abet Mahomed Bukht Khan, subahdar of the regiment of artillery, 
and divers others non-commissioned officers unknown, of the East India Company's 
army, in the crimes of mutiny and rebellion against the state. 

" 2nd. For having, at Delhi, at various times between the 10th of May and the 1st 
of October, 1857, encouraged, aided, and abetted Mirza Mogul, his own son, a subject 
of the British government in India, and divers other unknown inhabitants of Delhi and 
of the North- Western Provinces of India, also subjects of the said British government, 
to rebel and wage war against the state. 

" 3rd. For tiiat he, being a subject of the British government in India, and not regard- 
ing the duty of his allegiance, did, at Delhi, on the 11th of May, 1857, or thereabouts, 
as a false traitor against the state, proclaim and declare himself the reigning king and 
sovereign of India, and did then aud there traitorously seize and take ur.lawful possession 
of the city of Delhi; and did, moreover, at various times between the 10th of May and 
the 1st of October, 1857, as such false traitor aforesaid, treasonably conspire, consult, 
and agree with Mirza Mogul his son, and with Mahomed Bukht Khan, subahdar of the 
regiment of artillery, and divers other false traitors unknown, to raise, levy, and make 
insurrection, rebeUiou, and war against tlie state; and further to fulfil and perfect his 
treasonable design of overthrowing and destroying the British government in India, did 
assemble armed forces at Delhi, and send them forth to fight and wage war against the 
said British government. 

" 4th. For that he, at Delhi, on the 16th of May, 1857, or thereabouts, did within the 
precincts of the palace at Delhi, feloniously cause and become accessory to the murder 
of forty-nine persons, chiefly women and children, of European and mixed European 
descent: and did, moreover, between the 10th of May aud the 1st of October, 1857, 
encourage and abet divers soldiers and others in murdering European officers and other 
English subjects, including women and children, both by giving and promising such 
murderers service, advancement, and distinction; and further, that he issued orders to 
different native rulers having local authority in India, to slay and murder Christians and 
English people whenever and wherever found in their territories — the whole or any part 
of such conduct being a heinous offence under the provisions of Act IG, of 1857, of the 
legislative council of India. — Frederick I. Harriott, Major, 

"Jan. 5th, 1858. Deputy Judge-Advocate-geueral, Government Prosecutor." 

The trial of the ex-king of Delhi at length commenced on Wednesday, the 27th of 
January, in the Dewan Khass of the palace; the court being composed of the following 
officers'. — Colonel Dawes, horse artillery, president (in room of Brigadier Showers, about to 
leave the station) : members — Major Palmer, H.M.'s 60th rifles ; Major Redmond, H.M.'s 
61st regiment; Major Sawyers, lI.jM.'s 6th caral)ineers, and Captain Rothney, 4th Scik 
infantry. Major Harriott, deputy judge-advocatc-general, government prosecutor ; and 
Mr. James Murphy, interpreter to the court. The trial was to have commenced at 11 
o'clock A.M.; but owing to delays, caused by the sudden change in the constitution of the 
court, in consequence of Brigadier Showers' approaching departure, it was half-past twelve 
before the prisoner was brought in, although ho was in attcnilance, sitting on a p;danquin 
outside, under a guard of rifles, at the up|)oiuted hour. He appeared very infirm, and 
tottered into court, supported on one side by J\inima Bukht (his youngest son), and on 
the other by a confidential servant, and coiled himself up on a cushion on the left of the 
president, and to the right of the government prosecutor; Jumma Bukht standing a 
few yards to his left, and a guard of ritles being drawn up beyond nil. 

The proceedings commenced by the members of the court, the prosecutor^ and inter- 
III. If 



preter taking the customary oaths. The prosecutor then read the charges against the 
prisoner, and proceeded to address the court in a clear, concise, explanatory manner, 
observing, that altliough the prisoner might be fully convicted by the court, no capital 
sentence could be passed upon him, in consequence of his life having been guaranteed 
by General Wilson, in a promise conveyed through Captain Hodson. 

The prosecutor then put the question, through the interpreter, " guilty or not 
guilty?" which the prisoner either did not, or affected not to understand; and there was 
some difficulty in explaining it to him. He then declared himself profound!}' ignorant 
of the nature of the charges against him, although a translated copy of them was 
furnished and read to him, in the presence of witnesses, some twenty days previous. 
After some more delay, the prisoner pleaded " not guilty," and the business of the court 
proceeded. A number of documents, of various descriptions, and of greater or lesser 
importance, were then read by the prosecutor; these had been translated into English, 
and consisted chiefly of petitions from all classes of natives to the " Shelter of the 
World :" they were very curious, some complaining of outrages committed by the 
sowars and sepoys in the city and suburbs, others bringing forward the delinquen- 
cies of his ex-majesty's offspring, who were accused of extorting money and 
property of all descriptions from the people. Others referred to the appointment of 
officers to the rebel army, and the disposal of liquor found in the magazine, but not 
whispered in ^Mohammedan circles ; while some related to more important matters 
connected with the " new reign" — one and all concluding with a prayer that such reign 
should be as long as the world lasted. Most of these " state papers" bore the autograph 
orders and signature of the prisoner, written in pencil at the top, and were sworn to by 
competent witnesses, thereby affording conclusive proof of the active part taken by him 
in the rebellion. 

The court was occupied the remainder of the day with these documents, during the 
reading of which the prisoner appeared to be dozing, or contemplating his son, who 
presented much the appearance of a iSIassalchee, as he stood by, occasionally laughing 
and conversing with the attendant. Neither one nor the other appeared to be much 
affected by their position, but, on the contrary, seemed to look upon the affair as one of 
the necessities of their destiny. 

On the second day, the military commission resumed its sitting at 11 o'clock a.m. 
The court was mainly occupied in listening to petitions relating to occurrences of small 
importance, during the prisoner's brief reign ; of most of which he pleaded entire 
ignorance, denied the signatures, and endeavoured, by voice and gesture, to impress 
the court with an idea of his innocence. Each paper, as it was read, was shown to 
the prisoner's vakeel ; and thus the business of the court proceeded up to about 
1 o'clock P.M., when a document, translated into English, was read — apparently a 
remonstrance from one Nubhee Bux Khan to the prisoner, urging him to reject the 
request of the army for permission to massacre the European women and children 
confined in the palace. The writer submitted that such massacre would be contrary to 
the ^lohammedan religion and law ; and stated, that unless the army could procure 
nfutwa, it should not be put into execution. This document the government prosecutor 
informed the court, was the only one among the heap before him in which the spirit of 
mercy and kindness to Europeans could be traced ; and it was remarkable, that it was one 
of the very few upon which the prisoner had not entered some remarks. Soon after the 
above-mentioned paper had been read, the prisoner, who had been for some time 
reclining in a lethargic state, commenced to groan and to complain of feeling unwell; 
aud it soon became evident that the court must close its sitting. The prisoner was 
remonstrated with, through the interpreter, but lie begged to be allowed to leave; 
and, at half-past one o'clock, the president adjourned the court until 11 a.m. on the 
29th instant. 

The trial of the ex-king commenced, on the third day, at the appointed 
hour. The prisoner was brought into court iu a palanquin, attended by his vakeel, 
Abbas, and two servants; Jumma Bukht having received a liint to remain in confine- 
ment, owing to the manner assumed by him during the first day's trial. Up to half-past 
twelve the court was occupied in having read to the prisoner the vernacular of the 
translations read to the court the day previous; a process not very interesting to tlie 


court, and apparently of little moment to the prisoner, who, coiled up easily upon his 
cushion, appeared lost in the land of dreams; and except when anything particular 
struck him, continued unmindful of what was passing around. Occasionally, however, 
when a particular passage was read from any of the documents, the dull eye might 
be seen to light up, and the bowed head would be raised to catch every word. 

The examination of the king's vakeel, Gholara Abbas, then commenced. The 
evidence he gave principally related to the events which occurred on the 11th of May, as 
he himself was in company witli the king, and witness to all that occurred on that date. 
He described the first appearance of the mutineers of the 3rd cavalry under the windows 
of the king's private apartments. He stated that these men clamoured loudly for au 
audience with the king, exclaiming that they wished him to put himself at their head. 
The king then went to the Dewaii Khass, and, on arriving there, he heard the firing of 
musketrv, and inquired the cause, which afterwards proved to be two companies of 
sepoys firing a sort of feu dejoie into tlie air. The king hearing this, sent for the native 
officers to inquire the origin of the disturbance ; when he was informed that, consequent 
ou the outrage committed by the government on their caste, by the issue of cartridges 
greased with the fat of pigs and cows, they had slaughtered all Europeans at Meerut, and 
came to him for the protection of their lives. The king used all his endeavours to 
prevent their entry into the palace, and dispatched some attendants to tell Captain 
Douglas to seek protection in his own private apartments, and take whatever pre- 
cautions he chose; also giving instructions for all the gates of the palace to be closed. 
Captain Douglas, however, obstinately persisted in going to speak to the cavalry 
mutineers in spite of all the entreaties of the king, who even went so far as to hold his 
hand. The captain then, being tiireatened, returned to his apartments. The commis- 
sioner was seen coming down the steps, accompanied by Azeem Abdoolah (believed 
to have been the king's doctor), with an undrawn sword in his hand. The king, 
seeing thiugs assume a desperate aspect, became alarmed for the safety of all the 
Europeans in the palace, and forthwith, therefore, dispatched servants to inform them of 
their danger, with two palkees for the conveyance of the ladies, viz.. Miss Jennings and 
Miss Clifford (no other lady being known to be in the palace), to convey them by a 
circuitous route, via the palace gardens, to the king's zenana, with a view to their being 
secreted; but, unfortunately, the gentlemen persisting m bearing them company, the 
party became so conspicuous, that, as before stated, the mutineers who entered the 
palace became cognizant of their presence, and forthwith pursuing them for some little 
distance, put au end to their existence. The king at that time was sufficiently well to 
walk without assistance, further than that of a stick, and this accounted for his having 
proceeded alone as far as he did. The sepoys were evidently annoyed at the king's 
willingness to adliere to the British dominion, and expressed great disgust at his 
partisanship with the English. They threatened his life should he not accede to all 
their requests; as he being the principal descendant of the house of Timur, and king of 
all India, was bound to protect and cherish his faithful subjects. A letter was then 
handed to iSIajor Harriott, from Brigadier Longfield, in which he stated that, having been 
appointed president of the commission for the trial of the king, he requested to know at 
what time the court assembled. The court then adjourned. A request was made 
during the proceedings, by Bahadoor Shah, to be allowed to smoke his hookah; and 
permission was granted. 

The trial opened at the usual hour on the fourth day, and proceedings commenced 
with a continuation of the examination of Gholam Abbas, the prisoner's vakeel. The 
■witness being one of the non mi recordo class, dctermineii to know nothing that could, 
by recital, criminate the prisoner, his family, himself, or any one connected with the 
palace; and this soon became so ajiparent, that ho was twice or thrice reminded, through 
the interpreter, that he was giving ids evidence upon oath. Nothing, however, was 
elicited from him, and he was permitted to resume his office of vakeel to the prisoner, 
after being subjected to a rigid cross-examination by the government prosecutor, 
who then proposed that the petitions of the late rajah of BuUidignrh, which were 
translated and read at the trial of that rebel, should be accepted as evidence; which 
being agreed to, he proceeded to read to the court the English translations ; and, on 
these being concluded, the interpreter read the originals for the benefit of the 



prisoner, who up to this time liad been sleeping. He was awoke for the purpose, and 
appeared to listen attentively, making some remark at the conclusion of each, and 
indicating by signs during the reading, that he knew nothing whatever about them. He 
appeared in much better health and humour than ou any of the previous days, and 
laughed in great spirits as eacli successive paper was taken up to be read, as if quite 
amused at there being so many. 

Up to nearly half-past one o'clock on the fifth day, the court was occupied in reading 
documents in the vernacular; but when these had been disposed of, the translations of 
the military papers were read, and afforded considerable amusement to the court. These 
consisted chiefly of petitions, upon various subjects, from " The Lord Sahib, Mirza Mogul, 
commander-in-chief of the royal army," Bukht Khan Bahadoor, and other traitors. 
In some, the helpless state of the " infidels" was set forth in the most glowing terms, 
pointing out how, with very slight assistance and delay, they would be sent to a place 
even Mohammedan murderers are never to see; others pointing out how certain districts 
had been brought under the " royal rule," and treasure obtained by the revolt of those 
whose duty it was to guard its safety ; while all were full of hatred to the " infidels," 
and unbounded love for the king. To most of these documents the prisoner's autograph 
orders and signature in pencil had been attached. i 

The sixth day's trial commenced at 11 a.m. of the 2nd of February. The early part ', 
of the day was occupied in reading original documents relating to military matters, the 
English versions of which were read the day previous -. at the conclusion of which, the 
translation of a letter, dated the 24th of March, addressed to the late Mr. Colvin, lieute- 
nant-governor, North-West Provinces, was read, disclosing the fact, that as far back as a 
year and a-half previous, secret emissaries were sent by the king of Delhi to Persia, 
through the agency of one Mahomed Hussun Uskeeree, the object of which was evidently 
to obtain assistance to complete the overthrow of British power in India. The perusal 
of the letter, which bore both the Delhi and Agra post-mark, excited considerable seusa- i 
tion in court, and led to a severe cross-examination, by tlie judge-advocate, of Ehsain- ! 
ooUa Khan, the prisoner's hakeem, whose evidence partly corroborated the fact of the 
emissaries having been sent. The witness further stated, that Hussun Uskeeree was not 
unknown to him ; that he was supposed to possess the art of foretelling events, interpret- 
ing dreams, &c. ; and that one of the prisoner's daughters, named Nawaub Baigam, had 
become a disciple of his, and was supposed to be his mistress. There was, however, 
a decided disinclination, on the part of the hakeem, to implicate the prisoner, the witness 
always endeavouring to absolve him from all knowledge of, or participation in, the 
acts deposed to. In one or two instances this was so apparent as to create a smile. 
When questioned as to the feeling displayed hj the native inhabitants of Delhi regarding 
the war between England and Persia, the witness replied that the feeling was scarcely 
perceptible, but that it was in favour of the British; the Persians being Sheeahs, and 
the Mohammedans of Persia Soonnees. He further stated, that the Persian proclamation 
posted at the Jumma Musjid created little or no sensation, and that its genuineness was 
doubted. He said that the war between England and Persia was not the subject of con- 
versation among the Mohammedans of Delhi, and that the prisoner had never mentioned 
it. The whole of his evidence tended to implicate, to a considerable extent, the Shah of 
Persia ; and to lead the court to believe that the prisoner was entirely innocent of 
any complicity in the intrigues that were going on. 

On the seventh day, the court commenced proceedings by the examination, through 
the interpreter, of a person named Jutmull, formerly news-writer to the lieutenant-gov- 
ernor at Agra. His evidence was most important ; aud, notwithstanding an apparent 
desire to criminate the prisoner as little as possible, was most damaging to the royal 
cause. The witness corroborated the statement regarding the emissaries from the 
prisoner to Persia, about the time the Persians advanced upon Herat; the time corres- 
ponding with that given by the hakeem the day previous. He also mentioned the 
firm belief of many in the powers possessed by Hussun Uskeeree, and related a remark- 
able dream of the prophet shortly before the mission left Delhi for Persia. It was thus 
related. Hussun Uskeeree saw a mighty black storm coming from the west, accompanied 
by a great rush of water, which increased to such an extent, that the whole country was 
overwhelmed. In the midst of this storm was the prisoner (the ex-king of Delhi), seated 


on a charpoy, borne up by the waters, and supported safely til! the flood subsided ! This 
vision was, as a matter of course, turned to account, and interpreted accordingly. The 
storm from the westward was Persia. The overwhelming waves swept away all traces of 
Britisli rule, and the " infidels" with them ; and the mighty monarch, the ex-kiug of Delhi, 
having weathered the storm, was permitted to return to all his former state and dignity 
as the Great Mogul ! During the recital of this dream, and of the powers possessed 
by Hiissun Uskeeree, the prisoner, as though affected by some galvanic agency, suddenly 
started up, and declared that he firmly believed in all that had been stated respecting the 
wonderful powers of Hussun Uskeei-ee. It further appeared from the evidence of Jutmull, 
that the gifted slave, Hussun Uskeeree, had, with the most unparalleled devotion, cut 
off no less than twenty years from his own valuable life, for the purpose of prolonging, 
by that period, the life of his master. 

The witness JutnuiU then entered into particulars concerning the murders committed 
in the palace, describing the manner in which Mr. Eraser, Captain Douglas, and other 
Europeans, were butchered — atrocities in which, if the prisoner took no active part, 
he was perfectly cognizant of, notwithstanding the manifest exertions on the part of 
the native witnesses to prove the contrary. 

On the eightli day, the evidence of Jutmull, the news-writer, was continued. What 
was elicited from him related cbietly to the massacre of the European prisoners of all 
classes and ages, on the 16th of May; and confirmed all before reported concerning 
the cold-blooded atrocities committed absolutely under the prisoner's own apartments in 
the palace. The canal water, which ran through the place of execution, was, it appears, 
used for the purpose of washing away all traces of the bloody deed. Captain Forrest, 
commissary of ordnance, was then called in, and examined until 4 p.m., when the court 

On resuming proceedings upon the ninth day, Captain Forrest's examination was 
continued, and the court was occupied in recording an account of the incidents of the 
11th of May, up to the hour when the magazine was explodt-<l. 

Mukhuu Lull, a chobdar, who formerly attended upon the late Captain Douglas, was 
then called, having been named by Jutmull as one of those who were present when 
Mr. Fraser, Captain Douglas, Mr. Jennings, Miss Jennings, and Miss Clifford, were 

The witnesses, Mukhuu Lall and Jutmull, were both cross-examined by the 
prisoner's vakeel, but to no purpose. The evidence recorded was confirmatory of tlie 
worst features of these horrible scenes, and implicated the palace people most completely. 
The court adjourned at 4 p.ji. 

The tenth day's proceedings commenced at 11 a.m. on Monday, the 8th of February. 
Sir Theophilus Metcalfe, C.S., was sworn by the government prosecutor, and gave 
important evidence relative to the state of feeling amongst the natives before the out- 
break of the 11th of May. In reply to a question by the prosecutor, he also stated his 
opinion regarding the object of circulating the chupatties, about which so many aiul 
various opinions had been recorded. Sir Thomas further stated, that the proclamation 
purporting to be from the king of Persia, which was found posted on the walls of the 
Jumma iMusjid a short time before the outbreak at Delhi, could not have been exposed to 
the public for more than three hours, as, early in the morning succeeding the niglit it 
was placed there, he heard that a crowd of natives had gathered round the spot; and, 
finding such to be the case, he sent his people to remove the paper. He further men- 
tioned the rumour, said to be current, to the effect, that the Cashmere gate of the city 
would shortly be attacked and taken from the British ; which was conveyed to tlie 
magistrates' court about six weeks before the outbreak, by au anonymous writer. Tiie 
witness declared bis opinion, that the chupatties so extensively circulated first emanated 
from Lucknow, and that they were distributed for the purpose of congregating together, 
when necessary, persons of one class, who partook of one description of food. He does 
not think they were circulated throughout India, but oidy in govcrnnunit villages; a 
significant fact, when taken into account with what followed their circidatiou. In Boo- 
lundshuliur, the witness continued, tlie inhabitants gave as a reason for circulating them, 
thattliey thought it was by order of government, and consequently they passed them on. 
The witness was of opinion that the war with Persia created great excitement in Delhi, 



and was the subject of much conversation during the time it lasted; and he conchided by 
stating some facts confided to him by John Everet, a Christian rissaldar of the 14th 
irregular cavalry, from whicli it appeared, that the attempt to overthrow the Britisli 
government was known to be in contemplation before the outrage commenced. 

At the conclusion of Sir T. Metcalfe's evidence, the prisoner was asked if he would 
like to put any questions. He replied in the negative, but wished to kucw if the 
Persians and Russians were the same people ! 

The court adjourned about 1 p.m., to allow time for the "wise man," Hussun 
Uskeeree, who had been sent for, to appear. On the court reassembling after an 
absence of about half-an-hour, the soothsayer appeared iu court. He did not strike the 
beholder as a very fascinating sort of fellow; and it was, therefore, probably the efl'ect of 
enchantment that led the king's daughter to become his " disciple." 

Hussun Uskeeree having been sworn and examined, denied all that had been said of 
the wonderful powers attributed to him. He said that, whatever others might be 
pleased to think of him, it was merely a matter of opinion, and that he was not at all 
answerable for it. That he was an humble individual, content to live in peace without 
troubling himself about dreams, whether of kings or peasants. He denied that he ever 
bad a dream of a great form from the west; iu fact, he denied everything. 

The prisoner was then referred to, and, notwithstanding his recorded statement of 
his firm belief iu the powers attributed to the witness, lie denied all knowledge of him or 
his powers. He was reminded of his statement made but a few days previous; but all 
to no purpose: he completely ignored him; and Hussun Uskeeree was returned to his 
place of confinement, much to tlie disgust of those who expected some interesting revela- 
tions from him. 

The next witness called was Bnkhtawur, a peon iu the service of the late Captain 
Douglas. His evidence chiefly related to the occurrences of the lltli of May, from the 
first appearance of the mutinous troopers to the murder of Mr. Eraser, C.S., Captain 
Douglas, Mr. Hutchinson, C.S., Mr. Jennings, and the ill-fated ladies of his family. 
It appeared — and all the evidence on this point tended to confirm the sad tale — tiiat 
Captain Douglas, JNlr. Hutchinson, and IMr. Nixon, were near the Calcutta gate, leading 
to the bridge of boats, when four or five of the mutineers came up, and that the troopers 
all fired upon the paity, but that only Mr. Nixon was killed and Mr. Hutchinson 
wounded. The Europeans jumped down from the road into the dry ditch surrounding 
the palace, Captaiu Douglas being much hurt iu his descent : they ran along the ditch, 
and gained the gates of the palace, which they entered and closed. Mr. Eraser came 
soon after, and was admitted; and, at one period of the attack, he appears to have seized 
a musket from one of the sepoys at the gate, and shot one of the troopers, upon which 
the others galloped off^; but being reinforced by numbers, they soou became bolder. At 
the suggestion of Mr. Jennings, Captain Douglas was taken up to his own apartments 
above the gateway ; and soon after tliis, a party of people from the palace came rushing 
forward, shouting, " Deeu ! Deen !" (the Faith! the Faith!) and a crowd gathering, 
they, iieaded by the native officer of the guard at the palace (a company of the 88th 
light infantry), surrounded and murdered, in the most brutal manner, the whole party. 
One mob went up one way to the hiding-place of the victims ; another proceeded in 
a diff'erent direction ; so that none escaped. Meantime the work of destruction was going 
on outside, other troopers having arrived ; and it became necessary for every one to look 
to his own safety: the witnesses (Hindoos) consequently left, and were unable to relate 
anything further. Another witness was called, named Kishen, his statement being 
much the same as that of tlie prisoner's witness, Bukhtawur. The evidence, so far as it 
had gone, was conclusive on oue point — viz., that the inmates of the palace assisted at the 
murder of Messrs. Fraser, Jennings, Hutchinson, Captaiu Douglas, and the ladies; and, 
while several witnesses affirmed that the prisoner tried to persuade Captain Douglas from 
his intention of going among the mutineers, not one attempted to show that he exerted 
his influence to check the disturbance at its commencement, or to save the Europeans at 
his gate. 

On the eleventh day, the court resumed, and was occupied the whole day with 
the examination of a person named Chunee, formerly editor of a native paper, entitled 
the Delhi News. The witness gave some important evidence, and confirmed the 

i i 


statements of JutmuU and Bukhtawur, regnidinp; the manner in wliicli Mr. Eraser and 
Captain Douglas met their death ; adding, tliat Mr. Eraser attempted to make a stand 
near the Grape garden (Ungoorie Bagh) with his personal sowars (supplied by 
the Jhujjur nawab) and a few of tlie police who were collected near. As soon, 
however, as the mutinous troopers fired upon Mr. Eraser and his friends, the Jhujjur 
sowars and police decamped, having, according to the witness's idea, been scattered by the 
crv, " Deen, Deen I" raised by the mutineers on their approach. He then .stated, in 
reply to questions by the government prosecutor, that the Mohammedans of the city 
were in the liabit of boasting that the Persians, aided by the Russians, were coming to 
drive the English out of the country ; and gave it as his firm belief, that the Moham- 
medans were very much excited about the Persian war. The chupatties which were 
circulated, were, he said, for the purpose of bringing together a large body of men for 
some business to be explained to them hereafter; and he said they originated at or near 
Kurnaul — precisely the opposite direction from which Sir T. Metcalfe traced their 
origin. The witness, in reply to a question by the prosecutor, said, that about five or 
six days after the city had been in possession of the mutineers, he heard that there was 
a great disturbance in the palace ; and, on going to see the cause, found a number of 
sepoys and some of the prisoner's armed servants killing Europeans — men, women, and 
children. There was a great crowd collected, and he could not see distinctly through 
it ; but after the slaughter was completed, he enqnired of the sweepers, who were 
removing the bodies, and heard that, in all, fifty-two persons had been killed ; of these 
only five or six were males, the rest females and children. The bodies were removed in 
carts, and thrown into the river: when he saw them lying dead, they were in a circle. 
A number of Mohammedans were on the top of Mirza Mogul's house, spectators of the 
scene ; and the witness heard that Mirza Mogul himself was one of those looking on. 
These unfortunate people were confined, previous to their massacre, from the 11th to 
the Ifith of May, in a sort of receptacle for rubbish, in which it would have been deemed 
an insult to confine a person with any pretensions to respectability. There were many 
better and more suitable buildings, but they were not allotted to the Europeans. 

The court resumed its sitting on the twelfth day. There was some delay in 
obtaining the witness ; but, about half-past eleven, " Chunee" came into court, and his 
examination was continued : it was not, however, of much importance, and he was 

permitted to retire, one Earn, a pedlar, taking his place. Having been swoin and 

examined, the witness deposed that he was in Delhi on the 11th of May last, but left 
three or four days after the outbreak. He confirmed all that the previous witness had 
stated ; adding, that the prisoner was proclaimed king by beat of drum, and that a royal 
salute was fired before the palace at midnight of the 1 1th of May. He said that when the 
prisoner went out, a royal salute was fired, and the same on his return ; but as this was 
customary on all occasions of the ex-king going out in procession, it is not of much impor- 
tance either way. A witness named Gholam was then swoin and examined, and gave some 
particulars of the massacre of the Europeans inside the palace, of which he was an eye- 
witness. He said that it was known, two days i)rior to the fearful deed, that the Euro- 
pean prisoners were to be slaughtered on that particular day ; and a great crowd had, in 
consequence, collected. They, the prisoners, were all ranged in a line, on the edge of a 
tank or watercourse, and, at a given signal (unseen by the witness), the mutineers and 
palace servants, by whom they were completely surrounded, rushed in and hackecl them 
to pieces with swords. Shots were fired at them at the commencement (according to 
another witness) ; but one of the bullets happening to strike a sepoy, the swoid was 
resorted to, and the fatal work was soon completed. The confusion was too great for 
the witness to frame an accurate idea of the number murdered; but it was large, and 
the majority of them were women and children. Their murderers must have nnnihercd 
150 to 200. \Mien the massacre was over, the spectators were turned out of the 
palace, and the bodies carried away. No one attempted to interfere to prevent this 
frightful slaughter; no messenger from the king came to stop it; and the witness said he 
heard nothing which could lead him to believe that the deed was not gloried in by the 
Mohammedans. He then, in reply to a question by the prosecutor, said he was present 
t,t the murder of the licrcsford family. Mr. H(M-esford was, it seems, badly wounded at 
the onset, one arm being broken by a shot ; but, armed with a sword, and his brave 


wife Mith a spear, they contrived to keep the ruffians at bay for some time, Mrs. Beree- 
ford killing one and wounding another. They were at length overpowered, and the 
whole party murdered. With them were, it was supposed, tlie Rev. Mr. Hubbard, and 
another missionary, who had gone to the Bank for safety. The house where they were 
all slaughtered still bore marks of the struggle. 

The prisoner's hakeem, Ehsain-oolla Khan, was then called in, and examined on 
oath. His evidence always broke down when verging to a certain point — namely, 
crirainatino- the prisoner. He denied that he was in the prisoner's confidence, and said, 
that many important matters connected with the household were never mentioned to 
him, instancing, among other things^ the prisoner's repudiation of his wife Taj Mahal, 
after having been regularly married to her. He admitted that the king's armed 
"servants" numbered about twelve hundred men; and, in reply to a question by the 
prosecutor, said that they had not been dismissed in consequence of the part taken by 
them in the death of Mr. Eraser, Captain Douglas, and the other Europeans murdered 
in the palace. Notwithstanding a severe cross-examination, it was plain to be seen that, 
beyond mere generalities, nothing could be gained from the witness; and the court 

adjourned. . . 

The prisoner was more lively than usual on this day; he declared his innocence of 
everything several times ; and amused himself by twisting and untwisting a scarf round 
his head, and occasionally asking for a stimulant. 

On the thirteenth day (Feb. Ilth), the prisoner's hakeem was again examined; but 
his evidence was not of much moment, inasmuch as, notwithstanding the severe 
cross-examination to which he was subjected, his leaning to the prisoner was strikingly 
apparent. At the conclusion of the witness's evidence, Mrs. Aldwell was called, sworn, 
and examined by the judge-advocate. Her evidence consisted mainly of a narrative of 
hairbreadth escapes in Delhi, extending over a period of near five months' residence in 
the city — viz., from the day of the mutiny until the reoccupation of the city by the 
British troops. The main points were as follows :— The witness resided at Duryagunge ; 
and on the arrival of the mutineers, the house where she lived was defended for some 
time by a few Europeans there assembled ; who, failing at last in defending themselves, 
were captured; the witness, and some children only, escaping in the disguise of 
Mohammedans to the house of Mirza Abdoolah, a shahzadali, with whom she was pre- 
viously acquainted. They were well received by the females of the shahzadah's family, 
and promised protection'; but during the night of the 11th of May, they were sent 
to the house of the Mirza's mother-in-law, for greater security, and considered them- 
selves safe. On I\Irs. Aldwell, however, sending to the Mirza's house for some money 
and valuables left behind, Mirza Abdoolah sent word to say, that if any more messengers 
were sent to the house, the whole party should be murdered. They were subsequently 
brought before Mirza Mogul, and ordered for execution ; but some sepoys took charge 
of them, and kept them in confinement. A tailor in Mrs. Aldwell's employ appears to 
have befriended the family throughout; and, through his influence with a sowar, she and 
her children appear to have been preserved. Herself and children were taught the 
kulmah ; and, notwithstanding strong suspicions of their being Christians, they were all 
wonderfully preserved until the 9th of September, just before the assault, and proceeded 
in a bylee to Meerut. The witness gave some evidence upon interesting points 
connected with her sojourn in the city; among other things stating, that when in 
confinement, together with some twenty or thirty other women and children, the sepoys 
were in the habit of paying them visits ; telling them they should all be cut into little 
pieces to feed the kites and crows ! When their fellow-prisoners were sent for to be 
slaughtered, the order was given to " bring out the Christians," and leave the Moham- 
medans (meaning Sirs. Aldwell and her children) to be dealt with afterwards. The 
witness described this scene as heartrending : the unfortunate creatures declared that 
they were about to be murdered; but the Mohammedan mutineers swore on the Koran, 
and" the Hindoos on the Gunga, that no harm should happen to them. They were then 
" massed together," and a rope passed round them (after the fashion at present in vogue 
when conducting rebels to their prison), and thus they were marched ofl' to the place of 
execution. The witness said, iu reply to a question put by the judge-advocate, that 
there were no disturbances between the Hindoos and Mohammedans during the siege; 


that the latter gave in to the former ou every occasion ; and that not even at the Buckra 
Eed festival was an ox slaughtered. In reply to a question hy the court, the witness 
said, that the prisoners were, during their confiuemeut, subjected to indignity and insult 
from the mutineers and rabble of Delhi. 

There was a larger uumljer of listeners than usual iu court on this day; and the 
prisoner appeared the least interested person present. 

Ou the fourteenth day (Feb. 12th), Mr. C. B. Saunders, C.S., commissioner of 
Delhi, having been duly sworn, gave souie interesting particulars regarding the circum- 
stances under which the prisoner, Bahadoor Shah, became a pensioner of the British 
government ; stating the amount of peusion, &c., allowed, and other facts connected with 
the ex-kiug's former position. 

Major Patersoii, of the (late) 54th native infantry, was then called in, and examined. 
The evidence of this witness was merely a repetition of facts, already well kuown, con- 
cerning the outbreak on the 11th of j\Iay last. jMajor Patersoii deposed to the murder 
of his brother officers of the 54th native infantry, and his own escape to Kuruaul, wlitu 
he found that he had no control over the men of his regiment. 

The prisoner's secretary, Mukhuu Lall, was called in, sworn, and examined. He was 
admonished by the judge-advocate fur displaying a want of respect to the court, in 
first neglectiug to make his obeisance on entering, and then took his place ni the usual 
position for witnesses, He is a short and rather stout Hindoo. Ou recovering his 
equanimity, he assumed a very humble attitude, and stood with clasped hands while his 
statement was read and translated to the court, the president inquiring, at every dozen 
words or so, whether he adhered to it on oath ; to which he generally replied in the 

The statement was to the effect, that for at least two years before the outbreak the 
prisoner had been disafl'ected towards the British government. This he ascribed partly 
to the discontinuance of the pomp and ceremony to which the inmates of the palace had 
been accustomed, and partly to the disinclination, on the part of government, to appoint 
whoever the prisoner pleased as heir-apparent to the throne. The latter circumstance 
was known to have caused great dissatisfaction and disquiet in the palace. The arrival 
of some of the royal family (relations of the prisoner) from Lucknow, about this time, 
the witness believed to be connected with the prisoner's messengers to Persia ; for 
which purpose the late prime minister, Maiblioob Ali, disbursed funds to a. certain 
Abyssinian, named Seedee Kumber, who was entrusted with the mission. For some 
time previous to the outbreak at Delhi and Meerut, the disaffection of the native army 
had been the common subject of conversation in the prisoner's private apartments ; and 
even outside, those connected with the palace talked openly of the circumstance. It 
was also generally believed that the native officers, who went from Delhi to Meerut to 
form part of the court-martial upon the mutineers of the 3rd cavalry, arranged the whole 
business of the outbreak ; and the witness strengthened this belief by stating that the 
guards of the palace, clianged weekh', from the three regiments cantoned at Delhi, liad 
become adherents of the prisoner. On the arrival of the mutineers at tlie palace, they 
came under the windows of the prisoner's private apartments, declaring loudly that all the 
Europeans at Meerut had been murdered, and that if the prisoner would protect them (tiic 
sepoys), and become their king, they would soon make an end of all the Europeans at 
Delhi. The prisoner is stated to have asked if they would be faithful, and whether they 
were prepared to encounter the consequences; and on their reply iu the athrmative, 
sweetmeats were distributed to the men, and jjresents of money, iu addition, to the 
native officers. The prisoner's own armed retainers then went and slew Mr. Fraser and 
Captain Douglas, the troopers and sepoys killing all ICtu'oiieans, wherever they coidd he 
found, in the city. On their return to the palace the prisoner was proclaimed liing; a 
royal salute was fired; and the next day (the 12th of May), the silver throne, which had 
been laid by since 1843, was brought out, and placed in the hall of special audience, the 
prisoner taking his seat upon it as king of Delhi ! With regard to tiie massacre of 
European prisoners, tiie witness said, that when the mutineers became clamorous for the 
slaughter, Mirza Mogul and another villain went to obtain the consent of the prisoner. 
He was in his private apartments, and they were admitted to an audience, the niutineei'^f 
remaining outside. After the lapse of about twenty niiuiites tlicy returned, declaring, 
III. z 


with a loud voice, that the prisoner had given his consent, and the slaughter accordingly 
commenced. The ex-king, at this stage of the proceedings, looked up at the court, and 
putting his forefinger into his mcuth, made an Asiatic sign, which is interpreted as 
" plucking his tongue out" if he gave any such consent ! The prisoner appeared perfectly 
iudiftereut to the presence of his private secretary, and to what he said ; and, except 
on the occasion above noticed, made no remark or sign whatever. 

The prisoner was brought into court as usual, on the fifteenth day, and took his 
position upon the charpoy assigned to him. With the exception of another shawl 
twisted round his head, his appearance was unaltered. Mukhun Lall was called into 
court, and his examination continued. He stated, in reply to a question put by 
the judge-advocate, that the late prime minister, Maibhoob Ali Khan, was the only 
person he knew of in the prisoner's entire confidence, and that he himself was never 
admitted to the royal secrets. That at the private conferences, Maibhoob AH, Hussun 
Uskeeree, the begum (Zeenat Mahal), and two of the prisoner's daughters, were 
generally present, and that by their counsel he was generally guided. He said that 
after the mutiueers from Meerut, together with those cantoned at Delhi, had taken 
possession of the city, he did not remember any attempt being made to induce other 
regiments at distant' stations to join them. And, in reply to a question by the judge- 
advocate, stated, that two days after the British troops had entered the city, or on the 
16th of September, the prisoner went out with the mutineers as far as Khan Ali Khan's 
house (about 300 or 400 yards from the palace gates) in an open litter, for the purpose 
of encouraging them in' driving the English out again ; but that he very soon halted, 
and his brave army dispersed ; or, in other words, came back faster than they went. 
The court and the' prisoner's counsel declining to ask any questious, the witness was 
allowed to Avithdraw. 

Captain Tytler (late 38th light infantry) was then called into court, and examined. 
After deposing to the fact of the arrival in cantonments of a dawk carriage, full of 
natives, the night previous to the mutiny, and to the occurrences on the morning of the 
11th of May, Captain Tytler was questioned by the judge-advocate as to whether he 
had, prior to the mutiny, remarked anything which induced him to believe that his 
regiment was unfaithful. He replied iu the negative, but said that he had since heard 
certain rumours, from which he inferred that there must have been some secret meetings 
among the men in cantonments ; and a servant, a bearer of his, on taking leave to go to 
his home, a short time before the outbreak, remarked that he would return to the service 
if Captain Tytler's choola* still burnt bright ! The prisoner was asked by the inter- 
preter, what was the meaning of the above remark by the bearer? and he laughingly 
replied, that it meant nothing in particular ; that the man who made it must have been 
some hungry fellow, who was always thiukiug of eating. 

Sergeant Fleming, late Bazaar'sergeant of Delhi, was then called into court, and, in 
reply to the judge-advocate (government prosecutor), said that he was Bazaar sergeant at 
the time of the outbreak. His son, a youth about nineteen years of age, was 
employed as a writer in the commissioner's office, and had been in the habit, for five or 
six years, of exercising the horses belonging to the prisoner's son, Jewan Bukht ; for 
which service he received a monthly stipend. That some time in the latter end of April, 
his son went one morning to the house of Maibhoob Ali Khan, the prime minister, and 
there met Jewan Bukht; the latter commenced abusing him, declaring that the sight of 
a Kaffir Feringhee disturbed his serenity — spat iu the youth's face, and desired him t) 
leave. Young Fleming obeyed the order, and reported the couduct of Jewan Bukht to 
the late Mr. Eraser, who told him he was a fool, and should not notice such nonsense ! 
On another occasion, early in May last, the witness's son went to Maibhoob's house to 
receive his pay; there he'again met Jewan Bukht, who abused him in worse language 
than on the former occasion, and concluded by declaring that he would have his, young 
Fleming's, head off before many days passed over. "And," added the poor father, 
" he kept his word, for my son was killed on the 11th of May !" 

The witness being allowed to withdraw, the judge-advocate informed the court that 
it would be necessary to adjourn for a few days, to allow papers to be translated, from 
which he expected important disclosures. The court was therefore adjourned sine die. 

meaning litemlly, " If you and your house continue in existence." 


On the sixteenth day the court resumed its sittings at 11 a.m. of tlie 23rd of Peb- 
ruary. The prisoner came, as usual, in a palanquin, under a guard of H.M.'s 61st regi- 
ment. On alighting from his conveyance at the Dewan Khass, he declined the offer of 
support from his attendants, and walked to the couch assigned to him, evidently in better 
health than he was on his last appearance. 

There was about an hour's delay, owing to the absence of one of the members of the 
court J and it was twelve o'clock when the first witness, Captain Martineau, of the 
commissariat, was called into court. This gentleman was instructor at the Umballah 
school of musketry ; and having left on the conclusion of the practice, was travelling 
down the Grand Trunk road, when he met Brigadier Graves' party of fugitives from 
Delhi, and turned back with them towards Kurnaul, after having assisted some ladies who 
preceded them. In reply to a question by the judge-advocate-general. Captain Mar- 
tineau stated, that he had heard the " chupatty question" discussed by the sepoys at the 
musketry depot; that it was their belief (afifected or real) that the cakes were circulated 
by government ; and that the distribution implied, that those who took them were to 
be of the same faith and purpose. He had heard the sepoys speak openly of the 
greased cartridges, and frequently heard them declare that something would happen 
in connection with them ; and the very day the first Enfield cartridge was fired, the first 
incendiary fire in Umballah occurred. The authorities offered a reward for the discovery 
of the incendiaries, but without effect; a fact also mentioned by the sepoys to witness. 
A report was made to government on the subject. The witness further stated, that while 
at Kurnaul as commissariat 'officer, some of the troopers of the 3rd cavalry, who came 
with despatches from Mcerut, told him that the government had interfered with their 
rights and prejudices to such an extent, that they had nothing but their religion left, and 
that, too, was in danger of being interfered with. In short, that there was a wide-spread 
disaffection in the native army. The witness, in reply to the court, said that the 
cartridges served out at Umballah were not greased, but that the men used a composition 
of ghee and bees-wax for the purpose, the ingredients being purchased and supplied 
by him. 

An original diary of events and occurrences at Delhi, from the commencement of the 
outbreak, was then read to the prisoner by the interpreter. This occupied the court till 
2 p.ji., when it adjourned. 

Upon reassembling at a quarter past 2 p.m., Mrs. Fleming, wife of the late Bazaar 
sergeant of Delhi, was called in and examined. The witness stated, that about the 
middle of April she was at the Begum Zeenat Mahal's apartments, with a daughter, 
Mrs. Scully. That the prisoner's son, Jewau Bukht, was present, and was talking to her 
daughter. ' The latter turned round, and said, " Do you iiear what this haramzadah is 
saying?" and on her replying in the negative, her daughter told her that he said all the 
Kaffirs (Europeans) would soon be murdered. She said, in that case, his (Jewan Bukht's) 
head would first come off; and asked what he meant. He replied that the Persians were 
coming to kill all the Europeans; but that if she and her family came to him, he would 
protect them. He said this laugliingly, and went away. The witness was cross-examined 
by the judge-advoeate upon the above points, but was positive that such was her daugh- 
ter's statement. The prisoner appeared slightly aflected when the above was translated 
to him by the interpreter, and muttered something unintelligible, gesticulating all the 
time he was speaking. 

A translation of the before-mentioned diary was then read to the court by the judge- 
advocate, commencing thus : — 

"May 11///, 1857. — At night, Mr. S. Eraser, the commissioner, received a letter from 
Meerut, containing the news of the rebellion there; but no (irecautiouary measures were 
taken at that time. In the morning, information was brought in that the 3rd light eav- 
alrv and two regiments of native infantry, at Meernt, had mutinied on account of the 
introduction of new cartridges; and that after having a fight with the Euro])ean troops 
there, were on their way to Delhi. Mr. Eraser immediately ordered the vakeel of the 
nawab of Jhujjur to send for his master, the nawab, as soon as possible; and Sir T. 
Metcalfe instantly came into the city, ordered the khotwal to close all the gates of the 
town, and to post the burkandazcs of the Khotwallec over (hem for protection. The 
khotwal executed these orders without delay. Mr. Eraser, with his orderly sowars, also 



came into the city, and was givea to understand that some sowars were on the bi-idge, 
and had murdered the sergeant at that place, and set his buujjalow on fire. 

"The rebel sowars, after murdering the sergeant at the bridge, came below the lattice 
of the palace, and represented to his majesty that they had come to fight for the sake of 
' Deeu,' and that they required the gate to be opened for their entrance. The king sent 
information of this to the officer commanding the palace guard, who instantly went to the 
spot, and said to the sowars that they were scoundrels, and ordered them to go away. 
In reply, the sowars uttered their revenge on him. 

" Mr. Eraser, on hearing of the massacre of the sergeant at the bridge, went to the 
Cashmere gate, and told the sepoys on the main-guard that some troops, who had acted 
disloyally at Meerut, had arrived; and that as they (the sepoys) were old servants of the 
government, he required tiieir assistance to put down the mutineers. The sepoys replied, 
that they would have no objection to go against a foreign enemy; but, in the present in- 
stance, they would not act. At this time, Jewala Sing, jemadar of the commissioner, 
informed Mr. Eraser that all the Mussulmans of the city were inclined to rebellion, and 
requested him to go out of the city immediately ; but he replied that he would never 
do so. The shops of the city were all closed. The Rev. jMr. Jennings, and another 
European, went on the palace guard tower, to inspect the mutineers by the help of a 

"The officer commanding the palace guard, after speaking to the mutineers under 
the lattice of the palace, went in a buggy to Mr. Eraser, who was at the Calcutta gate — 
took a letter out of his pocket, and handed it over to hita for perusal. The orderly 
sowars of the commissioner were ordered to be very cautious. 

" The Mussulmans of the Khanumka Bazaar went to the llajghat gate, made some con- 
ditions with the rebel sowars, and opened the gate for them. The sowars having thus 
found their entrance into the city, commenced murdering the Europeans; and after they 
had murdered some of them at Duryagunge, and burnt their houses, they came to 
the hospital, and killed the sub-assistant surgeon, Chummun Lall. The Mussulmans of 
the city informed them that the Commissioner Sahib was on the Calcutta gate. They 
accordingly galloped there, and fired a number of pistols and muskets at him, but with- 
out efl'ect : however, two other European gentlemen were shot on this occasion. The 
orderly sowars of the commissioner, who were all Mussulmans, made no attempt to 
oppose the mutineers; but the commissioner himself, taking the musket of a sowar, 
wounded one of them, and instantly getting in his buggy along with the officer com- 
manding the palace guard, fled towards the palace gate : the latter reached his residence 
at the top of the palace guard, but Mr. Eraser was attacked and killed on the stairs. 
The mutinous sowars, after that, went to the residence of the killadar — massacred him, the 
Rev. Mr. Jennings and daughter, and another European. The Mussulmans of the city 
plundered all the property found in the houses of the ofiicer commanding the palace 
guard, and other European residents in the city. 

" Sir T. Metcalfe left the city by the Aimere gate on horseback, with a drawn 
sword in his hand : some rebel sowars pursued him as far as Bazaar Chaoree, but 
were unable to catch him. The nioochees, saddlers, and shoemakers at the Ajmere gate i 
also took their cudgels, and wished to catch and kill him, but were not successful. 

"The three regiments of native infantry, stationed at Delhi, joined the mutineers; and 
after killing a few of their European officers, entered the city, and murdered all the 
Christians — men, women, and children — they could find in the houses and bungalows at 
Duryagunge, Cashmere gate, and Colonel Skinner's kothee. 

" The Mussulmans of the city, and even some of the Hindoos, joined the mutineers, 
and destroyed all the Thadnas and the Khotwallee. They then attacked the Bank, and 
tried to murder the two gentlemen, three ladies, and two children, who vvere sitting there ; 
but as the Europeans had their pistols loaded, the mutineers did not venture to come near 
them. A Mussulman got on a tree, but was shot by them. The mutineers then set the 
Bank house on fire; and the Europeans, having no means of escape, were overpowered 
and killed by the rebel sowars and INIussulmans with cudgels. 

" The JIussulmans followed the mutineers everywhere with shouts ot'hyderee J' (usually 
exclaimed on a victory). All the money in the government treasury was shared by the 
sepoys of the three regiments of native infantry stationed at Delhi. The JNIagistrate's, 


Commissioner's, Judge's, and all other public offices were plundered and set on fire ; and 
all the buug;ilows iu the cnntouraent were also burnt at uight. The whole of the troops 
from Meerut aud Delhi weut into the palace and stood before the king, requesting 
him to take them under his protection, and saying that they would make him the 
master of the whole country. The king said he desired, with all his soul and heart, to 
patronise aud support them, aud ordered them to stop at Selimghur. 

" The mutineers got iiiformatiou that some Europeans — men, women, and children — 
were in the magazine. They instantly brought two guns from Duryagunge, aud tilling 
them with pieces of stoue, fired on the magazine. The Europeans inside blew up the 
magazine (by which several houses around it were thrown down, and several hundreds of 
the inhabitauts killed aud wounded), and fled towards the river; but the rebel sowars 
pursued and massacred them. They also brought alive, before the king, three sergeants 
and two ladies, who implored his majesty to keep them with him, otherwise the sepoys 
would kill them : they were accordingly ordered to stop in the mosque. 

''In the evening, Rajah Nahur Sing, of Bullnbgurh, accompanied by his wife and 
brothers-in-law, weut to Bullubgurh ; he alao took along with him, secretly, Mr. Muuro, 
his steward (afterwards killed by the mutinous sowars). 

"The mutineers attacked the house of Salug Ram, treasurer; but being unable to 
break the door, they went away. About midnight they returned, broke open the door, 
and plundered the house. 

" A sergeant weut away from the cantonment with two guns ; but the mutineers pur- 
sued him, aud brought back the guns. At uight, twenty -one guns were fired below the 
lattice of the palace. The inhabitants were greatly terrified; and all the houses of 
the Europeans, in the city as well as in the cantonment, were seen in flames all uight. 
Many shops were broken open by the sepoys, and plundered by the Mussulmans. 

" 12th Mat), 1857. — His majesty atteuded the Hall of Audience, aud the chiefs paid 
their respects. The subahdars of the five rebel regiments presented themselves, and 
applied to the king to appoint a man who would provide them with supplies. Hursaha 
Mull and Dilvalee Mull, stewards of the kiug, were accordingly ordered to provide them 
daily with 500 rupees' worth of dal, ata, gram, &c. 

" The rebel sowars got iuformatiou that Mohumed Ibrahem, son of the late Wallee 
Mohumed, merchant, had concealed four Europeans in his house, and they instantly 
%vent there ; murdered the four gentlemeu, aud plundered the house of the said 
Mohumed Ibrahem. 

" A European woman, who had disguised herself in a native dress, was recognised 
aud murdered by the sowars of the 3rd light cavalry, at the tauk near the palace. The 
shops of all tiie confectioners, druggists, braziers, and buuyas, were broken open aud 
plundered by the mutiueers. 

" The kiug, after prayers, appointed Mirza Moeen-ood-dceu Ilasuu Khan, late 
thanadar of i'ahurguuge, to the olhcc of khotwal of the city — placed under his orders 
a regiment of the rebel sepoys, aud directed him to make the Kiiotwallee his place of 
residence, aud stop the plunder. The said khotwal, finding himself unable to stop the 
plunder, attended on the kiug, and represented the case to him ; on which his majesty 
sent for all the subahdars of tlie rebel troops, aud ordered them to place for service 
one regiment of infautiy at the Delhi gate and at the lattice of the palace, aud one com- 
pauy at each of the Ajmere, Lahore, Cashmere, aud Eur:ish Kliana gates. 'I'he king 
further said to them, that he did not wish to see the inhabitants plundered, and there- 
fore ordered them to station one com])auy of sepoys at Durrcebah, lor the protection of 
shops there. The mutiueers attacked the Nugur Sayth ka Koocha, with the intention 
of plundering it; but the inhabitants so pelted them, tiiat they were obliged to flee. 

" Some Christian clerks had concealed themselves, with their wives, in the house of the 
rajah Kullyan Sing, of Kishenghur; but the rebel sowars hearing it, went there, aud 
fired their pistols and muskets at them. Eluding that the clerks were also armed with 
muskets and pistols, tlu-y obtained two guns, and again attacked the iiouse ; but the 
clerks by this time had concealed themselves in a tyekhana, so the rebels could not 
find them. 

" His majesty ordered ]\Iirza ^logul Beg to take a company of infantry aud stop tlic 
plunder; accordingly he vcut to the Kiiotwallee on an elephant, and hati it notified by 


tom-tom in the city, that should any sepoy be caught plundering any inhabitant, 
his nose and ears should be cut off; and that if any shopkeeper would not open his shop, 
or declined to provide the sepoys with food, he Mould be imprisoned and fined. Taj 
Mahal Begum, who was in confinement, was released. Two Europeans, disguised in 
native dress, were arrested and killed by the rebel sowars near the Khotwallee. 

"The king, attended by two regiments of infantry and a few guns, went out on an 
elrphant, with Mirza Jewan Bukht behind him, into the city, for the purpose of having the 
bazaar opened. He went as far as Ciiandnee Chouk, and requested the shopkeepers to 
open their shops and provide the troops with supplies. Hasun Alee Khan was introduced 
by Hakeem Ahsunoollah Khan. He presented a gold mohur as nuzzur to the king, who 
ordered him to wait, as he had to consult with him. 

" A shawl, for the office of khotwal of the city, was conferred on Mirza Moeen-ood- 
deen Hasun Khan, who returned thanks witli a nuzzur of four rupees. 

" \3f.h Maij, 1857. — Nawab Maibhoob Ali Khan and otlier chiefs attended the durbar, 
and paid their respects. Nazir Hasun Mirza was ordered to bring Mirza Ameen-ood- 
deen Khan ; accordingly he went out for that purpose. On his return, he informed the 
king that the Mirza was indisposed, and therefore could not present himself in the 
durbar. Ordered that Khotwal Moeen-ood-deen Khan be informed, that the troops were 
unable to get supplies, therefore he must provide for them. Hasun Alee Klian, attend- 
ing the king, told him that the troops were already assembled in the palace, and he 
wanted his advice ou the subject. The said Khan remarked that the troops were bloody 
ones ; they had murdered their own officers, and it was not prudent to repose any confi- 
dence in them. Shah Nizam-ood-deen, tlie son of the king's spiritual guide, and" Bood- 
hun Sahib, son of the late Nawab Mohumed Meer Khan, were taken into the council. 
Mirza Mogul Beg, Mirza Khedur Sooltan, and Mirza Abdoolah, were made colonels of 
the regiments of infantry, and ordered to take with each of them two guns, and adopt 
measures to protect the Cashmere, Lahore, and Delhi gates. Shah Nizam-ood-deen 
represented, that some Toork sowars having ai-rested Nawab Hamad Alee Khan, upon 
an accusation of his concealing some Englishmen in his house, had brought him on foot 
to the jewel office, before Nawab Maibhoob Ali Khan, and that the said nawab declared 
he had no Europeans in his house. The king requested him (Shah Nizam-ood-deen) to 
go with the sowars and sepoys, and let them search the house of the nawab. Accordingly, 
he and Mirza Aboo Bekr went out for that purpose ; but finding no Europeans in tlie 
house, they obliged the troops to give back the property they had plundered him of, 
and set him at liberty. Mirza Aboo Bekr was made colonel in tlie light cavalry. 

" Information was received by the sowars, that twenty-nine Europeans — men, women, 
and children — were concealed in the house of Rajah Kullyan Sing, of Kishenghur. 
Accordingly they went there; and having caught the Ciiristiaus, shot them all by a 
volley of their muskets. After that they went to the house of the late Colonel Skinner; 
and having arrested the son of the late Mr. Joseph Skinner, brouglit him before the 
Khotwallee, and murdered him there. They also, at the instigation of some person, 
plundered the houses of Narain Dass (banker) and Ramsurn Dass (deputy-collector), 
under the pretence of their concealing some Europeans in their houses. Kazee Nubboo 
and his son were killed by the rebel sepoys and sowars. Two Europeans, disguised 
in native dress, were massacred by the mutineers near the Budur Row gate. The king 
gave 400 rupees to each of the regiments, for their support. It was notified in the city 
by Moeen-ood-deen Hasun Khan, khotwal, that all persons wishing to serve his majesty 
should present themselves with their arms; and that if any person should be found to 
have concealed in his house any Europeans, he would be' punished as guilty. Nawab 
Hamud Alee Khan and Walleedad Khan, of Mahighur, attended the durbar', and made 
their obeisance. His majesty ordered them to present themselves daily in the durbar. 
The head bunyas were sent for, and ordered to settle the rate of corn, and have the 
granaries opened, that it might be sold for the sepoys. Mirza Moeen-ood-deen Hasun 
Khan, khotwal, having engaged 200 burkandazes, stationed them at Cureeba and 
Chandnee Chouk, for the protection of those places. Two watermen were arrested at 
Lall Kooa for robbing. Kahey Khan, Surfuraz Khan, and many other vagabonds of the 
city, were also apprehended. Several men were arrested for plundering Subzee Mundee 
anil Taleewarah. 


"14,tk May, 1857. — Nazir Hasun Mirza, Captain Deldar Alee Khan, and Hasuii 
Alee Khan, attended the durbar, and paid their respects. ]\Iirza Amceu-ood-deen Khan, 
Mirza Zea-ood-deen (government jagheerdars of Loharoo), and Moulvie Sudr-ood-deen 
Alee Khan, principal siidder ameen, also, according to orders, prcseiited themselves. 
The latter presented a gold mohur in nuzzur, and the king directed him to take tlie 
charge of the civil and criminal conrts, but he declined to do so. Salngram, treasurer, 
according to direction, attended tlie durbar, and presented a gold mohur. His majesty 
said to him that there must be some lacs of rupees in the government treasury. He 
replied that he did not know. The king ordered him to send one of his agents to 
the treasury, and he pi'omised obedience to the order. Rujub Alee Khan presented, 
through Hasun Alee Khan, a gold mohur. His m.ijesty asked .about him, and was 
informed by Hasun Alee Khan that he was the son of the late Nawab Fyze Mohumed 
Khan, and also his own nephew. Mohumed Alee Khan, son of Shere Jung Klian, also 
presented a gold mohur. The king inquired who he was ; and, in reply, was told that he 
was the nephew of Bahadoor Jung Khan, dadreewallah. The agent of Rawul Sheo Sing, 
of Sawant, Jeypoor minister, attended, and represented to the king, that on account 
of indisposition, his master was unable to present himself before the king; and that he 
(the Rawul Sahib) had resolved to go to Jeypoor. Accordingly, a letter for iMaharajah 
Ram Sing, of Jeypoor, directing him to present himself and his troops without delay, 
was drawn up, and handed over to the said agent of Rawul Sahib. Several shookkas, 
for Nawab Abdool Rehman Khan, of Jujjus ; Bahadoor Jung Khan, of Dadree ; Akbur 
Alee Khan, of Patoodee; Rajah Nahur Sing, of BuUubgurh; Hasun Alee Khan, of 
Doojana; and Nawab Ahmud Alee Khan, of Furrucknnggur, directing them to present 
themselves before his majesty without delay, were drawu up and issued. Mirza Ameen- 
ood-deen Khan, and Mirza Zea-ood-deen Khan, were ordered to take charge of the 
district of Jhurka Ferozepoor. Information was received that the Goojurs of Chandrawul 
had plundered at night all the shops of the inhabitants of Subzee Mundee and Talee- 
warah, as well as at the cantonments of Rajpoora and Mundursa. Mirza Aboo Bekr was 
accordingly ordered to look after the said Goojurs. He immediately attended with a regi- 
ment of cavaby, went to their village, and plundered and burnt it. Bahadoor Sing, darogah 
to the ex-king of Lucknow at Delhi, .ittended, and presented a gold mohur to the king. 
A European soldier, who was on his way from Umballah to Delhi to get some news, was 
caught and brought before his majesty, who ordered him to be sent into the armour 
room. A lady was also arrested and brought before the king. He sent her, too, into the 
armour room. His majesty was highly exasperated against the sepoys and his own 
chobdars, for standing before him with shoes ou their feet. Mirza Moeen-ood-deen Hasun 
Khan, khotwal, was ordered to go with a volunteer regiment to the cantonment, and 
punish the plunderers of that place, and of Subzee Mundee and Dheerujkee Paharee. 
Four persons came from Meerut, and announced that European troops were coming to 
destroy the rebels. The sepoys were displeased at this information, and confined the 
persons who gave it. The thanadar of Neegumbode was ordered to have the coipses of 
the late commissioner and palace guard officer interred in the burying-ground, and all 
the other dead bodies of the Europeans to be thrown into the river. This order was 
executed by the thanadar. The Goojurs plundered all the property in the late com- 
missioner's house, and reduced to ashes the ofhce of the agency and of the Dcllii 
Gazette press. 

" \i>th May, 1857. — Moulvie Abdool Kadur prepared a list for the distribution of the 
pay of the troops. His majesty conferred a shawl upon Nawab Maibhoob Ali Klian, for 
the office of a deputyship. The agent of Rawul Sosiug (sawutwallah) attended, and 
presented, ou the part of his master, a vessel of the spirit of kavceuh, and a bottle 
of attar. Ghoolamnubce Khan, darogali of Kaley Mold, and Meer Akbur Alee, sowar, 
late orderly of Mr. Eraser, came and informed the king that fifty sowars, sent by the 
nawab of Jhujjur, had arrived, and that their master was unable to present himself in the 
presence of his majesty on account of disturbances and disordcis in his district. IMoulvie 
Ahmed Alee, agent to Rajah Nahur Sing, of ISullubgurli, attended the durbar, presented 
a rupee as nuzzur, and gave a jjetition on tlie jiart of the rajah, stating that, on account of 
plunder and devastation made by the (ioojurs in his district, he was unable to present 
himself before his majesty; but, as soon as all was settled, he would do so. Orders 



were sent to present himself soon. Information was received that the collector of 
Rohtuck had left his post; that the treastire of that place was being plundered; and 
that at Goorgaon it was already carried off. The king ordered one regiment of 
infantry and some sowars to lie sent to Rolituck to fetch the treasure. Abdool 
Hakeem was ordered to entertain 400 Khasburdars at five rupees a-month each, and a 
regiment of sowars at twenty rupees a-month. Accordingly, 200 men were employed. 
Abdool Kadur, chatawallah, showed some papers to his majesty, and said that he would 
be able to make all arrangements they referred to. A letter was issued to the rissaldar 
of the cavalry, stating that Mirza Aboo Bekr was discharged from the office of coramandant 
of cavalry, and that therefore they (the cavalry men) should act according to the orders 
of the king. Kazee Fyzoolah presented a rupee in nuzzur, and applied for the office 
of the Kliotwallee of the city, and was accordingly appointed to that situation. A gold- 
smith, who had killed another goldsmith, was arrested and brought before the king. 
The Mewattees of Jaysingpoorah having plundered 4,000 rupees in cash, and all the 
property in the house of a European of the railway company, the sepoys hearing of it, 
resolved to plunder and blow up Jaysingpoorah, and to apprehend all the Mewattees 
there; but Lalla Boodh Sing, vakeel of the rajah of Jaysingpoorah, applied for the pro- 
tection of the inhabitants of that place; and the king ordered that no sepoy be allowed 
to go there without his majesty's permission. 

" It being reported that the sepoys and sowars were in the habit of haunting the city 
with drawn swords, and that the shopkeepers were afraid to open their shops, the 
king sent orders to the gates of the palace not to allow any sepoy to go about in the city 
with a drawn sword. The rissaldar of the nawab of Jhujjur's troops was ordered to 
pitch his tent at the Mahtab Bagh. Information was received that fourteen boats, laden 
with wheat, &c., were in the ghaut of Ramjee Dass's, goorwallah. Orders were sent to 
Dilvalee Mull, to take away the wheat for the use of the troops. Two sepoys, who had 
plundered 2,000 rupees from the Delhi bank, and deposited the same with Ramjee Dass, 
goorwallah, to be paid back at Lucknow, quarrelled between themselves; and the fact of 
their depositing the money being known to other sepoys, a company of an infantry regi- 
ment went to the house of the said Ramjee Dass, and obliged him to deliver the money 
to them. A letter was addressed to the bankers of the city, requiring their presence iu 
the durbar. Rebel sowars and sepoys attended on the king, and complained that they 
had not as yet been allowed their clothing expenses, and that it appeared to them, that 
Hakeem Ahsunoollah Khan and Nawab Maibhoob Ali Khan were in collusion with the 
British. After that they went to the house of Lall Khan, and accused Shah Nizam- 
ood-deen Peerzadah of concealing two European ladies in his house. Peerzadah required 
them to bring forward their informant; and they produced a man, who said he had only 
heard so. Peerzadah represented that he had not concealed any European ladies in his 
house; but if they wished to plunder and kill him on that pretence, they had the power 
to do so. Nawab Maibhoob Ali Khan took his oath on the holy Koran that he had 
no confederacy with the English. The mutineers plundered all the property iu the house 
of Aga Mahomed Hasunjan Khan, the Cabool name of Mohun Lall. 

" \6th May, 1857. — Hakeem Ahsunoollah Khan, Bukshce, Aga Sooltan, Captain 
Dildar Alee Khan, Rujub Alee Khan, and other chiefs, attended on the king, and made 
their obeisance. Rebel sepoys and sowars, with their officers, attended the durbar, and 
produced a letter, which they said they had intercepted at the Delhi gate. It had on it 
the seals of Hakeem Ahsunoollah Khan and Nawab Maibhoob Ali Khan. In this letter 
they said that the hakeem and nawab had requested the English to come immediately, 
take possession of the city, and nominate Mirza Jewan Bukht (son of the king by Zeenat 
Malial Begum) as heir-apparent, and that they, the hakeem and nawab, would arrest and 
deliver to them all the mutineers in the city and palace. Nawab Maibhoob Ali Khan and 
Hakeem Ahsunoollah Khan inspected the letter, denied their writing it, and asserted 
that it was a trick of some person, and that the seals were forged by means of 'sayt 
khurree' (a kind of stone) ; they took out their own seals, and threw them before the 
rebel troops; pointed out the difference between them and those on the letter; and 
took their oaths on the holy Koran, that the letter was not written by them ; but still 
the mutineers did not believe them. A person came and reported that some Europeans 
were concealed iu the drain of the canal : accordingly, Mirza Aboo Bekr, attended by 


the rebel sowars and sepoys, went to the spot, and fired their pistols into it ; but no 
European came out of it. After that tlie rautiueers again beset Nawab Maibhoob Ali 
Khan and Ahsunoollah Khan, Tvith drawn swords, and said that there was no doubt that 
they were in collusion with the English, and that it was on this account that they had 
spared the European captives, with tlie intention of restoring them to the British as 
soon as they could come to destroy them (the mutineers) ; consequently they took 
out of the armour room all the Christian prisoners (fifty-two in number, including 
men, women, and children), and brought them on the reservoir at the Nukar Khands 
(the porch of the palace, where drums are beaten at stated intervals), with the intention 
of massacring them. Mirza Mujhlay Kheezur Sooltan asserted, that in conformity to 
the precepts of Mohammed, they ought not to murder the women ; but the mutineers 
were displeased, and wished to kill the Mirza first; however, he ran away to his house. 
The mutineers having made all the Christians sit down, fired their muskets ; accidentally 
an attendant of the king was wounded, on which two brothers, attending, massacred witii 
their swords all the Christians — men, women, aud children. About 200 Mussulmans, 
who were standing on the reservoir, continued all this time to vent their invectives on 
the Christians. The sword of one of the two attendants who killed the Christians was 
broken. The corpses of the Christians were laden on two carts, and thrown into the 
river. The Hindoos of the city, on hearing this act of treachery towards the English, 
were very uneasy and afflicted, and were fully convinced that the mutineers would 
never be victorious, for having acted so very cruelly towards the Christians ; and that the 
anger of God would fall on them. The guards at the gates of the city were relieved. 
Some person informed the rebel sowars, that some Ciiristians were concealed in the 
house of Muthra Dass, treasurer, in the street of Chodree; accordingly they went and 
searched the house and the street, but were not able to get any Christians ; neither did 
they molest or plunder any inhabitant there. Walleedad Khan, the chief of Malaghur, 
was informed that the Goojurs on the bank of the Jumna had caused great disorders, 
and that he must adopt measures to punish them. 

" Two weavers, who had disguised themselves in sepoys' dress, and were plundering the 
inhabitants, were caught. The bunyas of the Lahore gate brought a complaint against 
the thanadarof that place, and represented that he required from them 1,000 rupees in 
bribery, otherwise he said he would send them as prisoners to the Khotwallee. Hakeem ' 
Ahsunoollah Khan sent an order to the khotwal to arrest and confine the said 

"May \7th, 1857. — All the chief rebels attended on the king, represented. that they 
had prepared a battery at Selimghur, and required his majesty to inspect the same. 
The king accordingly went there, and was highly satisfied. 6u their return to the Hall 
of Audience, the king mentioned to the rebel troops that he would support and assist 
them, and recommended them to trust, without fear. Hakeem Ahsunoollah Khan, and 
Zeenat Mahal Begum ; and that whenever they, the sepoys, should catch and bring 
any Christian before him, he would kill him with his own liand. On hearing this speech 
of the king, all the rebel sepoys were satisfied, and acquitted Hakeem Ahsunoollah Khan 
and Maibhoob Ali Khan of all the charges they had brought against them. 

" A man. who had on hiai a letter from some Euroj)caii at Mecrut, was caught and tied 
to a gun by the sepoys. All the sepoys stationed at the Hall of Audience were turned 
out of it, and the Hall of Audience was furnished with floor and purdhas, &c. As ordered, 
Mii'za Araeen-ood-dcen Khan and Mirza Zea-ood-deen Khan presented themselves in 
the durbar. The king ordered them to attend on him every day, but they represented 
that they were indisposed. They were ordered to enlist troops, and they promised to 
obey the orders. 

"IrtzaKhan and Mcer Khan, brothers of Nawab Moostfa Khan ; Jehangeerabadee 
Akbur Khan, son of Bungush; Fukr-ood-deen Khan, and others, attended on the king, 
and presented two rupees each in nuzzur. Consultation regarding the ajjpointnient of 
colonels for the troops, was held for some time. 

"A sowar came in from the Hursurookee Ghurree, and gave information that some 

lacs of rupees, collected on account of the revenue of the southern district, were on 

their way to Delhi, under the escort of a few sowars and sepoys ; but that about 300 

Goojurs and Mewattees of the district had made an attack on them, and were fighting to 

1". 2 .\ 



obtain the money. Moliumed Bekr (editor of the Oordoo Akbar), with two companies of 
infantry and cavalry, was seat to oppose the Goojurs and Mewattees, and hrintj the 
treasnre imder their protection. The sepoys apprehended a fiirrash, servant of Mirza 
Mogul Beg, upon a charge of his giving information to the English ; but he was 
released by the orders of INIirza Mogul Beg. A man came and reported that the 
Mewattees at Jaysingpoorali were wounded in plundering the property of a European at 
the railway ; and it was found out that these Mewattees were lately in the service of the 
British zemindars of Undhoolee : they attended on the king, presented a rupee each, and 
said that they were followers of his majesty. The king ordered them to keep peace ia 
their district, otherwise their village would be burnt. Two kossids, who were sent to 
Meerut for news, returned and said, that about 1,000 European soldiers, and some 
gentlemen, ladies, and children, had assembled at the cantonment Siiddur Bazaar, 
prepared a dum-dumah on the Sooriij Koond, and mounted an Elephant battery over it, 
and that the roads from Meerut to Sahajanpoor had been infested by Goojurs, who 
plundered every one within their grasp, and that they (the kossids) were well beaten 
and plundered by the Goojurs. His majesty ordered two companies of sepoys to be 
posted at the bridge for the protection of the passengers. 

" Hakeem Abdool Huq attended on the king, and presented five rupees. Five 
companies of the sappers and miners, who liad arrived at Meerut from Roorkee, were 
requested by the English to stop there and discharge their duties; but the sepoys refused 
to do so, and therefore had a fight with the European soldiers at Meerut : many were 
killed, and those who escaped came to Delhi. Shookkas, addressed to Maharajah 
Nurrundur Sing, rajali of Putteeala, Rajah Rain Sing, of Jeypoor, and rajahs of Ulwur, 
Joudpoor, and Kotali Booudee, ordering them to present themselves immediately before 
his majesty, were dispatched to them by sowars. The verandah of Deewan" Kishen 
Lall's house fell down, and two boys were killed under it. Information was received that 
the troops at Umballah had mutinied, and were on their way to Delhi. 

" 18//( May, 1857. — The bauds of the five infantry regiments attended on Ins majesty, 
and played. Kheluts, each consisting of a garment of kinkhawb, sliawls, goshwara, turban, 
nosegay of silver and gold threads, sword and shield, were conferred on Mirza Mogul, 
for the office of general of the army ; and on Mirza Kockuck, Mirza Khedur Sooltan, and 
Mirza Mayndhoo, for that of the colonel of the infantry regiments. A like khelut was 
granted to Mirza Aboo Bekr, for the colonelship of the light cavalry. Nuzzurs were 
presented — viz., by Mirza Mogul Beg, two gold mohurs; and other princes, one gold 
mohur and five rupees each. Hasun Alee Khan attended the durbar, and paid his 
respects to the king. He was ordered to attend daily and enlist troops ; and a large 
portion of the country, the king said, should be granted to him. The khan replied that 
he should not be able to enlist troops ; but he would wait on his majesty daily. Two 
sowars, who were sent with a shookka to Ulwur, returned, and said that several thousand 
Goojurs had infested the roads to rob and plunder the passengers ; and that they (the 
sowars) had been plundered of everything they had, and were allowed to return 
only by fawning on these Goojurs; the letter they had was torn, and the pieces 
returned. A camel sowar, who was sent to the nawab of Eurrucknuggur with a shookka, 
returned, and said that the Goojurs on the roads would not allow him to proceed. 
The officers of the five companies of, the sappers and miners attended the durbar, and 
represented, that on their .arrival at Meerut, from Roorkee, they were quartered near the 
Dum-Dumah, in which all the European soldiers, gentlemen, women, and children, had 
collected, and by promises of great rewards and higher pay, tried to coa.x them to 
remain in their service , but when three-quarters of the night had passed, they fired grape 
on them, and killed about two hundred men; the remainder of the sepoys then ran away, 
and they now presented themselves for the service of his majesty. They were ordered 
to pitch their tents at Selimghur. Nawab Maibhoob Ali Khan prepared a list of the 
bankers of Delhi, and sent it by his own agent to Ramjee Dass, goorvvallah, Ramjee 
Mull, soorwallah, and Salugram, treasurer, with orders to collect from the bankers five 
lacs of rupees for the expenses of the troops, which he said amounted to 3,500 rupees 
a-day. The said bankers waited on Nawab Maibhoob Ali Khan, and pointed out their 
inability to pay the amount : they said that they had been plundered of all their cash 
and property by the mutineers. Ramjee Dass requested the nawab to levy the money 


I himself, ilirza Aboo Bekr was sent with a regiment of sowars to punish and destroy 

j the Goojurs at Chundrawul, but they had run away. 

I " 19/A May, 1857. — Two sowars came from Meerut, and represented that all the 

regiments of infantry, cavalry, and artillery at Moradabad and Bareilly, liad arrived at 
?»Ieerut with a few lacs of rupees ; that the British complained of the" treachery of the 
native troops at Meerut; and the troops replied that they had already revenged it by killing 
about 300 men of the sappers and miners, and that tl'iey themselves expected tjie same 
treatment at their hands. On hearing this reply, the English went into the Dum-Dumah 
and fired on the troops, who immediately erected a battery, and played their guns on the 

j Dum-Dumah; by the will of Providence a shell fell on the spot where the English had 
prepared a mine, and blew up the Dum-Dumah, and along with it all tlie Europeans. 
The king and all the troops were very glad to hear this news, and fired shots of victory 
from Selimghur. Information was received that the collector of Goorgaon had left his 
post, leaving 17,000 rupees at Hursurookee Ghurree ; a hundred sowars and two companies 
of infantry went there, and brought the money, depositing the same in the king's 

" A sowar of Bayja Bye came and mentioned that the Bye had heard of the massacre 
of all the Europeans at Delhi, but would not believe it; "therefore she had sent to the 
court to inquire into the truth. The king replied that all the Europeans at Delhi had 
been annihilated, and ordered the sowar to go back to Gwalior, with two sowars and a 
shookka fiom himself, commanding the Bye to present herself immediately, with all her 
troops, before liis majesty, and display her loyalty. 

" The title of Wuzeerool Moolk Moomalic Mohroosee (prime miuister of the protected 
country), and a khelut, consisting of a garment of kinkliawb, shawl, goshwara, turban, 
nosegay of silver and gold threads, ten pieces of jewellery, sword, shield", and a silver pen 
and inkstand vase, were conferred on Mirza Jewan .Bukht, who presented ten gold 
mohurs to his majesty, in acknowledgment of the favour bestowed on him. Mirza 
Bukhtawnr Shall was made a colonel in the regiment Alexander, and a khelut, consisting 
of a garment of kinkhawb, shawl, goshwara, turban, and three pieces of jewellery, was 
conferred on him. The Mirza, on his part, presented the king with two gold mohurs and 
five rupees. A pair of kettle-drums was granted to each of the princes who were made 
colonels to the troops. Nazir Mirza Hasun was ordered to present Koowur Ajeet Sing, 
of Putteeala, before his majesty. Accordingly the Koowur attended, and presented a 
gold mohur. A khelut was conferred on the Koowur, who gave another nuzzur of five 
rupees to the king. Mirza Ahmud, and the son of Hakeem Abdool Huq, attended the 
durbar, and presented the king with five rupees each. A rissaldar, sent by Mohumed 
Akbur Alee, attended, and presented the king with two rupees ; he also gave an urzee 
from his master, representing that as soon as peace was restored in his district, he would 
present himself before his majesty. A Hindoo tailor had concealed in his liouse two 
European gentlemen, three ladies, and one child; but the rebel sowars were informed of 
it, and they went to the house of the said tailor, and, setting the house on fire, arrested 
the Europeans, and brougiit them before the king, who placed them under the custody 
of the sepoys. His majesty went to Selimghur; the troops there saluted him. The 
officers of the Bailly regiment stated that they did not believe the two sowars who had 
brought the news of the blowing up of the Dum-Dumah at Meerut, and therefore they 
wished to march on Meerut for the purpose of blowing lip the Dum-Dumah, and 
murdering the English. The king answered that he did not think it proper to do so ; 
however, they must be directed by the counsel of their general, Mirza Mogul. Two 
boats of the l)ridge on the Jumna having been damaged, Khotwal Kazee Fazoolali was 
ordered to send a hundred coolies for the repair of the same. Information was received 
that some moulvies and Mussulmans of the city had raised a Mohumdcc standard at the 
Jumma Musjid, for the purpose of making a jahad on the British, who, they said, were 
infidels, and it was a virtuous action to murder them. Many thousands of Mussulmans 
had already collected there. The king remarked, that all the Europeans had been 
already murdered, and asked against whom had they raised the Mohumdcc standard? 
Moulvie Sudrood-decn Khan went to the Jumma Musjid, and persuaded the moulvies 
to take off the standard they had raised. Some hackeries, laden with salt and corn, 
were brought in." 


iBy the time these documents were read, it was 4 p.m., and the court adjourned until 
11 A.M. of the 24th of February. 

Ou the seventeenth day (Feb. 24th), the court assembled at 11 a.m., when the 
proclamation of the Bareilly traitor, Khan Bahadoor Khau, was read in the original, for 
the benefit of the prisoner; after which the translation was read by the judge-advocate, 
for the benefit of the court. The following is the literal translation : — 

" Proclamation. — Now, all nijahs, bestowers of favours and protectors of religion, 
be prepared to defend your faith and that of those under you. For the hope of your 
success I appeal to you. The great God has given you all mortal bodies for the defence 
of your religion, as is well known to all. For the destruction of the destroyers of 
religion he has given birth and power to all princes. It is needful, therefore, that all who 
have the power should slay the destroyers of religion, and that those who have not 
that power should reflect and devise means to defend their religion. It being written 
in the Shasters, that it is better to die for one's religion than to adopt another. This is 
the saying of God. 

" It is manifest to all that these English are the enemies of all religions ; and it should 
be well considered, that for a long time they have caused the preparation and distribution, 
by their priests, of books for the overthrow of religion in Hindoostan, and have introduced 
many persons for that purpose. This has been clearly ascertained from their own people. 
See, then, what measures they have devised for the overthrow of religion. 

"1st. That women becoming widows shall be allowed to marry again. 2nd. They 
have abolished the ancient and sacred rite of Suttee. 3rd. They have proclaimed that 
all men shall adopt their religion, going to their churches to join in prayer, for which 
they are promised honours and dignities from the British government. They liave 
further forbidden that no adopted children shall succeed to the titles of the rajahs of the 
land ; while in our Shasters it is so written, that ten kinds of successors are allowed. lu 
this manner will they eventually deprive you of all your possessions, as they have done 
those of Nagpoor and Oude. To destroy the religion of prisoners even, they have caused 
them to be fed with food prepared after their own fashion. ]\Iany have died rather tliau 
eat of this food ; but many have eaten, and thus lost their religion. 

" Having discovered that this did not succeed, the English caused bones to be 
ground and mixed with the flour and with flesh, to be secretly mixed with the rice sold 
in the bazaars, besides many other devices for destroying religion. These, they were told 
t)y a Bengalee, would certainly succeed with their army ; and, after that, all men would 
believe. The English rejoiced greatlj' at this, not seeing in it their own destruction. 
They then ordered the Brahmin sepoys of their army to bite cartridges prepared with 
animal grease. This would have only hurt the religion of the Brahmins; but the 
Mussulman sepoys, hearing of it, refused to use such cartridges. The English then 
prepared to force all men to use them, and the men of the regiments who refused were 
blown away from guns. 

" Seeing this tyranny and oppression, the sepoys, in defence of their lives and religion, 
commenced to slay the English, and killed them wherever they could find them. They 
are even now contemplating the extermination of the few who remain. From all this, it 
must be known to you, that if the English are allowed to remain iu Hindoostan, they will 
kill every one, destroying all religions. However, certain people of this country are 
fighting on the side of the English, and assisting them. I ask of these — how can you 
preserve your religion? Is it not better that you should slay the English and be with 
us, by which our religions and this country wiU be saved ? For the protection of the 
religions of Hindoos and Mussulmans, this is printed. Let the Hindoos swear on the 
Ganges, and on Toolsie Saligram, aud the Mohammedans on the holy Koran, that all 
shall unite and destroy the English, who are the enemies of their religion. 

" As it is of importance to the Hindoo religion, that the slaughter of cows should not 
be permitted, all the Mohammedan princes of India have made a solemn promise, that if 
the Hmdoos will join with them iu the destruction of the English, the slaying of cows 
shall at once be stopped, and the eating of the flesh of the cow shall, to Mohammedans, 
be forbidden as that'ibf theipig. If, however, the Hindoos do not assist in destroying 
the English, they shall themselves be made to eat the flesh of the cow. It may be, 
pcrhhps, that the English, iu order to prevail on the Hindoos to assist them, will make a 


similar promise to the foregoing, regarding the slaughter of cows; but no wise mau will 
believe them ; for it is kuown that their promises are full of deceit, and made only to 
suit their own purposes. They are lying and deceitful, and have always imposed on the 
people of Hindoostau. We shall never again have such an opportunity as this. Think 
well on it, and remember that a letter is half as good as a visit. I am hopeful that, 
having agreed to all above written, you will reply. — Printed for the information of the 
Pundits and Mussulmans, at the press of the Moulvie Kootub Shah, at Bareilly." 

When the above document had been read, the judge-advocate informed the court, 
that with the exception of the evidence of two more witnesses, Mrs. Leeson and 
Rissaldar Everett, of the 14th irregular cavalry, the case for the prosecution was closed ; 
the president, therefore, requested the prisoner to prepare his defence, and inquired how 
long it would take to do so. A week was asked for the purpose; but a member of the 
court thought this too long a time, as more than a week had already been allowed him — 
if he had only taken advantage of it — during the recent adjournment. It was finally 
arranged that the court should meet on Saturday, the 27th, for the purpose of receiving 
the evidence of the above-mentioned witnesses, who were expected in Delhi by that date; 
and that the prisoner's vakeel should then inform the court the precise day on which he 
would be prepared with the defence. The court accordingly adjourned until Saturday, 
the 27th of February. 

On the eighteenth day (Feb. 27th), the court resumed its sitting. The prisoner was 
brought into court as usual, supported on either side by a servant, and was understood 
to be suflering from indisposition. The proceedings commenced by John Everett, 
rissaldar of the (late) 14th iri'egular cavalry, being called into court, sworn, and 
examined. The witness (a Christian) deposed to the outbreak on the 11th of May in 
Delhi. He was in the city at the time, and had been for some twelve or fifteen days 
previous. As soon as the firing in the direction of the magazine commenced, he, 
fearing for his own safety, betook himself to the premises of the late Colonel Skinner, 
his old employer, and remained there all the night of the 11th witli Mr. George Skinner 
(son of the late Mr. Joseph Skinner). The next day, having considerable doubts of 
their safety, they went to the house of Mirza Azeem Beg, and claimed his protection. 
(The Mirza was an old soldier who had served under Colonel Skinner). ]\Iirza Azeem 
Beg promised them protection, and gave them as much as lay in his power; but fearing 
that the fact of his having sheltered them would become known, he applied to the palace 
for a guard to protect his house. This was refused ; and soon after a party of rebels 
came, seized Mr. Skinner and witness, and took them in the direction of the Khotwallee. 
A party of the ti'oopers (3rd cavalry) coming up, asked what was the use of taking the 
prisoners to the Khotwallee, and why they should not be at once murdered? Saying this^ 
they seized Mr. Skinner by the hair, dragged him to the aqueduct running up the centre 
of the Chandnee Chouk, and placing him with his back against the masonry, shut liim 
to death with their pistols. The witness, fearing that his own fate would soon be decided 
in a similar way, remained quiet, and, to his great relief, saw the murderers ride off in 
the direction of the palace. He was then taken to the Khotwallee, where he remained a 
close prisoner, with between twenty and thirty others, for some twenty-five days, 
when he was released, with his fellow-sufterers, in consequence of one Moulvie Isniael 
liaviug interfered on their behalf, and stated that most of them were Mohammedans ; 
and those that were not, were willing to become such. From this time the witness 
remained in the city, harboured and protected by one Majood, an African, formerly in 
the service of Colonel Skinner, and, at the time of the mutiny, in the service of the king; 
and when the British troops entered Delhi, he was able to seek their protection. 

In reply to the judge-advocate, the witness stated that, on the 'Jth of May, 1857, two 
days before the outbreak at Delhi, about 11 a.m., the African above relerreil to met himj 
and endeavoured to persuade him to leave the government service, giving as his reason 
for so doing, that the Persians were coming to Delhi, and would soon murder all 
Christians, and overrun the city. The witness asked how he knew this; and Mnjood 
replied, that Seedee Knmber, another African (mentioned in former evidence), had been 
sent by the king of Delhi to Constantinople, for the purpose of obtaining assistance to 
exterminate the English, and that the messenger went with others su[)posed to be on a 
pilgrimage to Mecca, but iu reality for the purpose above mentioned. The witness 



replied to a question put by the judge-advocate, that he had heard the men of his 
regiment converse among themselves about the chnpatties which were circulated, 
but they did not appear to understand why they were distributed. After the first fight 
(at the Hinduii, or Ghazee-oo-deen-nuggur), the prisoner gave out that he thought 
his troops (the mutineers) were disheartened, and reminded them that if the British once 
more set foot in Delhi, they would not leave one of the house of Timur alive. With the 
exception of what tlie witness had stated to the court, he does not remember anything 
occurring in the regiment indicative of a spirit of disaffection. The witness was then 
allowed to withdraw, and his statement was read by the interpreter, for the benefit of the 
prisoner and his counsel. Some documentary evidence was then produced, and the court 
adjourned till Wednesday, the 3rd of March, to allow the interpreter time to translate 
other documents necessary to the proceedings. 

The following is the translation of a proclamation issued by the king of Delhi, on 
the 26th of August, 1857, and produced during the trial : — 

" Seal of Bahadur Shah Badsham Ghazee, Mahammad Dara Bukht, Walt Niamut Khalaf, 
Mirza Karim Ul Siijah Bahadur. — It is well known to all, that in this age the people of 
Hindoostan, both Hindoos and Mohammedans, are being ruined under the tyranny and op- 
pression of the infidel and treacherous English. It is, therefore, the bounden duty of all 
the wealthy people of India, especially of those who have any sort of connection with' any of 
the Mohammedan royal families, and are considered the pastors and masters of their peoiple, 
to stake their lives and property for the well-being of the public. With the view of 
effecting this general good, several princes belonging to the royal family of Delhi, have 
dispersed themselves in the different parts of India, Iran, Turan, and Afghanistan, and 
have been long since taking measures to compass their favourite end; and it is to 
accomplish this charitable object, that one of the aforesaid princes has, at the head of an 
army of Afghanistan, &c., made his appearance in India; and I, who am the grandson of 
Abel Muzuffer Sarajuddin Bahadur Shah Ghazee, king of India, having in the course of 
circuit come liere, to extirpate the infidels residing in the eastern part of the country, 
and to liberate and protect the poor helpless people now groaning under their iron rule, 
have, by the aid of the Majahdeen or religious fanatics, erected the standard of Mohammed, 
and persuaded the orthodox Hindoos, who had been subject to my ancestors, and have 
been, and are still, accessories in the destruction of the English, to raise the standard of 

" Several of the Hindoo and Mussulman chiefs, who have loug smce quitted their 
homes for the preservation of their religion, and have been trying their best to root out 
the English in India, have presented themselves to me, and taken part in the reigning 
Indian crusade ; and it is more than probable that I shall very shortly receive succours 
from the west. Therefore, for the informatiou of the public, the present Ishtahar, con- 
sisting of several sections, is put in circulation ; and it is the imperative duty of all to take 
it into their careful consideration, and .abide by it. Parties anxious to participate in the 
common cause, but having no means to provide for themselves, shall receive their daily 
subsistence from me; and be it known to all, that the ancient works, both of the Hindoos 
and jMohammedans, the writings of the miracle-workers, and the calculations of the 
astrologers, pundits, and ramraals, all agree in asserting that the English will no longer 
have any footing in India or elsewhere. Therefore it is incumbent on all to give up the 
hope of the continuation of the British sw.ay, side with me, and deserve the consideration 
of the Badshahi or imperial government, by their individual exertion in promoting the 
common good, and thus attain their respective ends ; otherwise, if this golden opportunity 
slips aw.ay, they will have to repent of their folly : as is very aptly said by a poet in two 
fine couplets, the drift whereof is — 'Never let a favourable" opportunity slip; for, in the 
field of opportunity, you are to meet with the ball of fortune ; but if you do not avail 
yourself of the opportunity that offers itself, you will have to bite your finger through 

"No person, at the misrepresentation of the well-wishers of the British government, 
ought to conclude, froni the present slight inconveniences usually attendant on revolu- 
tions, that similar inconveniences and troubles should continue when the Badshahi 
government is established on a firm basis ; and parties badly de.alt with by any sepoy or 
plunderer, should come up and represent their grievances to me, and receive redress at 


my bands; and for whatever property they may lose in the reigning disorder, they will 
be recompensed from the public treasury when the Badshahi government is well fixed. 

" Section 1. — Regarding Zemindars. — It is evident, that the British government, in 
making zemindary settlements, have imposed exorbitant jummas, and have disgraced and 
ruined several zemindars, by putting up their estates to public auction for arrears of 
rent, insomuch that, on the iustitiitiou of a suit by a common ryot, a maid-servant, or a 
slave, the respectable zemindars are summoned in court, arrested, put in gaol, and 
disgraced. In litigations regarding zemindaries, the immense value of stamps and other 
unnecessary expenses of the civil courts, which are pregnant witli all sorts of crooked 
dealings, and the practice of allowing a case to hang on for years, are all calculated to 
impoverish the litigants. Besides this, the coffers of the zemindars are annually taxed 
with subscriptions for schools, hospitals, roads, &c. Such extortions will have no 
manner of existence in the Badshahi government; but, on the contrary, the jummas will 
be light, the dignity and honour of the zemindars safe, and every zemindar will have 
absolute rule in his own zemindary. The zemindary disputes will be summarily decided 
according to the Shurrah and the Shasters, without any expense : and zemindars who will 
assist in the present war with their men and money, shall be excused forever from paying 
half the revenue. Zemindars aiding only vvitii money, shall be exempted in perpetuity 
from paying one-fourth of the revenue; and should any zemindar who has been unjustly 
deprived of his lands during the English government, personally join the war, he will be 
restored to his zemindary, and excused one-fourth of the revenue. 

"Section 2. — Regarding Merchants. — It is plain that the infidel and treacherous 
British government have monopolised the trade of all the fine and valuable merchandise, 
such as indigo, cloth, and other articles of shipping, leaving only the trade of trifles to 
the people; and, even in this, they are not without their share of the profits, which they 
secure by means of customs and stamp fees, &c., in money suits, so that the people have 
merely a trade iu name. Besides this, the profits of the traders are taxed with postages, 
tolls, and subscriptions for schools, &c. Notwithstanding all these concessions, the mer- 
chants are liable to imprisonment and disgrace .at the instance or complaint of a worthless 
man. When the Badshahi government is established, all these aforesaid fraudulent 
practices shall be dispensed with, and the trade of every article, without exception, both 
by land and water, shall be opened to the native merchants of India, who will have the 
benefit of the government steam vessels and steam carriages for the conveyance of their 
merchandise gratis ; and merchants having no capital of their own, shall be assisted from 
the public treasury. It is therefore the duty of every merchant to take part in the war', 
and aid the Badshahi government with his men and money, either secretly or openly, as 
may be consistent with his position or interest, and forswear his allegiance to the British 

" Section 3. — Regarding Pichlic Servants. — It is not a secret thing that, under the 
British government, natives employed in the civil and military services have little respect, 
low pay, and no manner of influence, and all the posts of dignity and emolument iu both 
the departments are exclusively bestowed on Englishmen: for natives iu the military 
service, after having devoted the greater part of their lives, attain to the post of subahdar 
(the very height of their hopes), with a salary of sixty or seventy rupees per mensem ; and 
those in the civil service obtain the post of Sudder Ala, with a salary of 500 rupees 
a-month, but no influence, jagheer, or present. But under the Badshahi government, like 
the posts of colonel, general, and commander-in-chief, which the English enjoy at 
present, the corresponding posts of pansadi, punj-hazari, haft-hazari, and sippali-salari, 
will be given to the natives in the military service; and, like the posts of collector, 
magistrate, judge, sudder judge, secretary, and governor, which the European civil 
servants now hold, the corresponding posts of wezeer, quasi, safir, suba, nizam, and 
dewan, &c., with salaries of lacs of rupees, will be given to the natives of tlie civil 
service, together with jagheers, kheluts, inanis, and influence. Natives, whether Hindoos 
or Mohammedans, who will fall fighting against the English, are sure to go to heaven; 
and those killed fighting for the English, will undoubtedly go to hell. Therefore all the 
natives in the British service ought to be alive to their religion and interest, and, abjur- 
ing their loyalty to the Englisii, side with the Badshaiii government, and obtain salaries 
of 2,000 or 3,000 ru';c:es per month for the present, and be entitled to high posts in future. 



If they, for any reasons, cannot at present declare openly against the English, they can 
heartily wish ill to t heir cause, and remain passive spectators of the passing events, 
without taking any active share therein. But, at the same time, they should indirectly 
assist the Badshahi government, and try their best to drive the English out of the 
country. All the sepoys and sowars who have, for the sake of ^'heir religion, joined in 
the destruction of the English, and are at present, on any consideration, in a state 
of coucealraent either at home or elsewhere, should present themselves to me without the 
least delay or hesitation. Foot soldiers will be paid at the rate of three annas, and 
sowars at eight or twelve annas per diem for the present, and afterwards they will be paid 
double of what they get in the British service. Soldiers not in the English service, and 
taking part in the war against the English, will receive their daily subsistence money, 
according to the rates specified below, for the present ; and, in future, the foot soldiers will 
be paid at the rate of eight or ten rupees, and sowars at the rate of twenty or thirty 
rupees per mouth ; and on the permanent establishment of the Badshahi government, will 
stand entitled to the highest posts in the state, to jagheers, and presents : — " Matchlocks 
men, per day, two annas; riflemen, two-and-a-half; swordsmen, one-and-a-half; horse- 
men, with large horses, eight ; horsemen, with small horses, six — annas a-day. 

"Section 4. — Regarding Artisami. — It is evident that the Europeans, by the introduc- 
tion of the English articles into India, have thrown the weavers, the cotton dressers, the 
carpenters, the blacksmiths, and the shoemakers, &c., out of employ, and have engrossed 
their occupations, so that every description of native artisans has been reduced to 
beggary. But under the Badshahi government, the native artisans will exclusively be 
employed in the services of the kings, the rajahs, and the rich ; and this will no doubt 
ensure their prosperity. Therefore those artisans ought to renounce the English services, 
and assist the Majahdeens or religious fanatics engaged in the war, and thus be entitled 
both to secular and eternal happiness. 

" Section 5. — Regarding Pundits, Fakirs, and other Learned Persons. — The punditg 
and fakirs, being the guardians of the Hindoo and Mohammedan religions respectively, 
and the Europeans being the enemies of both the religions, and, as at present a war is 
raging against the English on account of religion, the pundits and fakirs are bound to 
present themselves to me, and take their share in the holy war; otherwise they will 
stand condemned, according to the tenor of the Shurrah and the Shasters ; but if they 
come, they will, when the Badshahi government is well established, receive rent-free 

" Lastly, be it known to all, that whoever, out of the above-named classes, shall, after 
the circulation of this Ishtahar, still cling to the British government, all his estates shall 
be confiscated and property plundered, and he himself, with his whole family, shall be 
imprisoned, and ultimately "put to death. — Interior of the Azimghur district. The 16th 
Mohurrum 1275 Hirji, corresponding with Bhadobady Tij 1265 Fusly." 

On the 3rd of March, the court assembled for the nineteenth time, for further 
evidence, and again adjourned until the 9th of that month ; when the vakeel of the 
prisoner declared, in the name of his royal master, that he did not recognise the 
authority of the tribunal before which lie had been brought, and therefore declined 
to make answer to any charges brought against him. The public prosecutor then 
summed up the whole of the evidence adduced ; by which it was proved, that, in defiance 
of existing treaties, the prisoner had assumed the powers of independent sovereignty, and 
levied war against the British government; and, moreover, that the murders of the 
Europeans in Delhi were perpetrated with the sanction, if not by the positive orders of 
the king, in the presence of his sons the princes, and other individuals connected with 
the royal house, and by the instrumentality of the Khassburdars of his own special body- 
guard. The court, after a short deliberation, adjudged the prisoner, Mirza Aboo 
Zuffur, alias Mahomed Suraj-oo-deeu Shah Ghazee, guilty of all the charges alleged 
against him ; whereby he became liable to the penalty of death, as a traitor and 
murderer: but, in consequence of the assurance given to him by Captain Kodson, 
previous to his capitulation on the 21 st of September, 1857, the court, by virtue of the 
authority vested in it by Act XIV., of 1857, sentenced him to be transported for life to 
the Andaman Isl.-^nds, or to such other place as should be selected by the govemor-r 
general in council for his place of banishment. 



A very considerable delay occurred iu carrying the sentence ot the court into effect ; 
and in the meantime, the ex-king, with the females of his family and some native attend- 
ants, remained in close confinement within the precincts of the palace ; in which seclusion 
he might, probably, owing to his advanced age, have been permitted to linger out 
the very few remaining years of his existence, but for the injudicious interference of 
individuals, who availed themselves of his miserable position to create political capital, for 
the purpose of impugning the policy of the government at Calcutta. Among these 
busybodies was a late member of tiie English parliament; who, while itinerating through 
India, stumbled upon Delhi, and, as a matter of course, among the other lions of the 
place, was permitted to visit the ex-king in his state of durance; and of which visit he 
subsequently gave the following detail at a public meeting held at St. James's Hall, 
LondoTi, on the 11th of May, 1858. Upon this occasion, the ex-M.P. for Aylesbury, iu 
the course of a very animated speech on the Indian revolt, expressed himself, in reference 
to the late king, in the following' terms : — "Many persons regret that the king of Delhi 
has not fallen in just punishment for his offences. I saw the king of Delhi; and I will 
leave the meeting to judge, when it has heard me, whether or not he is punished. I saw 
that broken-down old man, not in a room, but iu a miserable hole of his palace, lying ou 
a bedstead, with nothing to cover him but a miserable tattered coverlet ! As I beheld 
him, some remembrance of his former greatness seemed to arise in his mind. He rose 
with difficulty from his couch; showed me his arms, which were eateu into by disease 
and by flies, and partly from want of water; and he said in a lamentable voice, that he 
had not enough to eat ! I will not give any opinion as to whether the manner in which 
we are treating him is worthy of a great nation ; but is this a way in which, as Christians, 
we ought to treat a king? I saw his women, too, all huddled up iu a corner with their 
children ; and I was told that all that was allowed for their support was lGi\ a-day. Is 
not that punishment enough for one that has occupied a throne?" 

This statement excited, as it was intended to do, a large amount of sympathy among 
those to whom it was addressed, and, for some time, opinion ran strongly against the 

alleged treatment to which the royal octogenarian captive was subjected; but at length 
the echo of the speech at St. James's Hall became audible even iu the palace at Delhi, 
whence it promptly evoked a distinct and positive refutation from the individual to whose 
medical supervision the health of the prisoner and his family had been entrusted by the 
resident authorities. This gentleman, writing from Delhi on the 25th of June, 1858, 
quoted the allegations of the ex-member, and proceeded thus: — "I hope that the report 
of this speech is incorrect; for the words as they stand are likely to mislead. For a man 
of his years, the cx-kiug of Delhi is particularly active and intelligent ; and I have seldom 
seen so old a man in England with equal mental iind bodily energy. He resides, not in a 
hole, but in (for a native) a large room, square, with windows looking inwards and out- 
wards. This room is divided about equally by curtains from one side to the other, 
separating the females from the males. On either side, the centre room opens on to a 
square court — one reserved for the females of the family, and containing one or two 
small buildings (or godowns), used for sleeping; the other, or entrance court, provided 
with temporary dwellings for the male attendants, of whom there are several, besides 
eunuchs and women for the service uf the concealed ones. The whole suite of buildings 
is elevated some twelve or fourteen feet; and, on the ex-king's side, overlook a garden, 
iu the centre of which reside the officers in charge of the prisoners 

"At the season of the year Mr. Layard visited Delhi, no covering further than a 
sheet is, as far as my experience goes, ever used by the natives of Central India; and the 
old man has no deficiency either of clothes, pillows, or cushions. There is no limit what- 
ever but the individual's own desire, to the amount of water used for bathing or other 
pin'poses. At one time the ex-king was suffering from a disease not uncounnon in India, 
but rarely mentioned in polite English ears; the skin was abraded slightly in one or 
two small patches about the fingers, arms, &c., from scratching only. Although he has 
been months under my care, he has not once complained of a deficiency of food, though, 
as has been his custom for thirty-five years, he usually vomits alter every meal. I have, 
on more than one occasion, seen him superintending the preparation of sherbet by Ids 
own attendants. 

"The ordinary pay of an inferior workman at Delhi is seven rupees per month — that 
in. 2 B 



is a sufficiency to feed and clothe man, wife, and children. Very few adults consume 
more than three penny-worth of the common food in twenty-four hours, and that amount 
covers the charge for flour, rice, dhal, sugar, curry, ingredients, vegetables, butter, and 
firewood for cooking. I speak advisedly, as the accounts for the lunatic asylums pass 
through my hands; and, in that institution, the dietary for patients of different social 
conditions is without stint — speaking of necessaries, of course. Paupers have an allowance 
of less than one penny a-day for adults.— The Officiating Civil Sukgeon, Delhi." 

After this official explanation, the personal grievances of the ex-king ceased to be 
a stock subject from whence to suggest charges against the authorities, either at Delhi or 

For a considerable time, the destination of the ex-king remained undecided. By the 
sentence of the military commission by which he was tried, the Andaman Isles were 
indicated as the penal settlement to which he was to be transported, subject to the 
approval of the governor-general in council; but, as these islands had been chosen 
for the deportation of the rebellious sepoys and others taken in arms, it was probablv not 
judged advisable to place the ex-king in close proximity to them ; and some other, and 
more distant, locality had to be chosen for his residence. At length, it would seem that 
British Kaffraria was selected for the purpose, subject, of course, to the approval of the 
free settlers in that colony ; as, on the 10th of March, 1858, Sir George Grey, the gov- 
ernor of the Cape and its dependencies, in an address to the local parliament, said " A 

correspondence will be laid before you, detailing the reasons for which it is intended to 
detain the king of Delhi in confinement in British Kaffraria. You will find, from those 
papers, that this is an isolated case, and that no intention exists of transporting prisoners 
from India to her majesty's South African possessions." 

In October, 1858, it was notified that the supreme government had determined 
upon the removal of the ex-king from Delhi to Calcutta; upon his arrival at which place, 
his final destination was to be declared : and accordingly, on the 7th of the month, 
the aged prisoner and his family commenced the journey, of which the termination was 
yet to them a mystery. The removal of the unfortunate group was thus described in the 
Delhi Gazette of October 13th:— "The ex-king, his family, and attendants, were brought 
from their place of confinement at an early hour on Thursday ; and, after being placed in 
their several conveyances, were drawn up in line on the piece of road leading from the 
Lahore gate of the palace to the Grand Trunk road, where the former guard, of the 2nd 
Bengal fusiliers, made them over to a troop of H.M.'s 9th lancers, told-off for the duty. 
This was done in the presence of Mr. C. B. Saunders, commissioner of Delhi, Lieutenant 
Ommanney, the officer in charge of state prisoners, and some other officers who were 
present. A squadron or two of the lancers then trotted off as an advance guard, and the 
cortege commenced moving. The first palanquin carriage contained the deposed 
monarch and his two sons, Jewan Bukht and Shah Abbas (the latter a youth, the son of 
a concubine), the carriage being surrounded by lancers on all sides. Next followed a 
close carriage, containing the begum, Zeenat Mahal, with whom were Jewan Bukht's wife, 
her mother and sister, and an infant. The mother and sister of Jewan Bukht's wife 
were allowed their choice of either going or remaining at Delhi. They preferred the 
former. The third carriage contained the Taj Mahal begum, another of the ex-king's 
wedded wives, and her female attendants. Next followed five magazine store carts, with 
tilted tops, drawn by bullocks. These contained the male and female attendants, four in 
each cart, a party of lancers accompanying each. In this order the cavalcade progressed 
very well, until more than half the distance across the bridge of boats had been accom- 
plished ; when, all of a sudden, one of the bullocks in a magazine cart, probably discover- 
ing the nature of the load he was assisting across the Jumna, and finding it 'infra dig' 
to do so, displayed his sagacity by a violent attempt to deposit his worthless burden in 
the river. As the companion bullock's understanding was not of the same calibre, he 
pulled in tlie opposite direction, and only one wheel of the cart, along with the refractory 
bullock, descended into the boat, a lamp-post luckily placed preventing a complete 
capsize. This little event delayed the line some twenty minutes or half-an-hour ; when, 
the cart and bullock having been replacejf], the cavalcade recommenced its move onwards, 
and reached the eneamping-ground at Ghazee-oo-deen-nuggur, without further accident 
or delay of any kind. The band of the 2ud fusiliers played the lancers out of Delhi, and 



by half-past 3 a.m. they were clear of the city. In camp, the principal prisoner and his 
two sons occupy a hill tent. A soldier's tent, with kuiiuant enclosure, is provided for 
the ladies of the zenana, and two others for the servants ; the whole surrounded by a high 
kunnant enclosure. The prisoners are securely guarded by dismounted lancers, armed 
with swords and pistols, both inside and outside the enclosure; while pickets from the 
police battalion are thrown out beyond. The horses of the lancers — a whole troop, 
actually on duty over the state prisoners — are kept ready saddled ; and the enclosed camp 
is very judiciously pitched between the lancers and Kaye's troop of horse artillery. 
Lieutenant Oramanney's tent is pitched just outside the enclosure. By all accounts the 
prisoners are cheerful ; and the females may be heard talking and laughing behind their 
screens, as if they did not much regret their departure from Delhi." 

On the 14th of October, the escort had reached AUyghur with its charge in safety; 
on the 16th, it arrived at Secundra Kao ; and, on the 2nd of November, it entered Cawu- 
poor, without any effort whatever, on the part of the I'cbels yet in arms, to disturb the 
progress of the march, which, after a short halt, was continued to Allahabad, where the 
ex-king, with his family and attendants, were transferred to a river flat, for conveyance to 

Upon the arrival of the flat at Diamond Harbour, Calcutta, on the 4th of 
December, her majesty's steam-ship Megcrra, which had recently arrived from the Cape 
with troops, was found in readiness to receive the royal prisoner, for the purpose of con- 
veying him to his final destination. The whole of the party who had accompanied the 
fallen majesty of Delhi were now embarked with him, to share his e.xile, and, by their 
sympathy, alleviate his punishment; but little feeling was manifested by any of them at 
the terrible calamity that had fallen upon their house. With true Moslem submission to 
the fate ordained fur them, they even appeared cheerful ; and, in the words of an ofllcer 
of the escort, " were in as good spirits as if they were going on a pleasure excursiou." 
Their actual destination still remained a state secret; but it was believed the governor of 
the Cape would be charged with the custody of the aged prisoner. The embarkation was 
conducted without the slightest display of feeling or demonstration of public curiosity : and 
thus the descendant of the victorious and magnificent Timur, was expatriated from the soil 
on which the throne of his mighty ancestors had stood, until torrents of English blood, wan- 
tonly poured out by their degenerate descendant, washed it from its foundations. A 
letter from Calcutta, of the 4th of December, gives the following detail of incidents con- 
nected with the final removal of the ex-king: — " On the 4th of December, at ten in the 
morning, the ex-king of Delhi, conveyed in the Soorma flat, in tow of the Koyle steamer,, 
was taken on board her majesty's good ship of war, the Megmra, which, for a vessel of 
the royal navy, presented a curious spectacle at the time, crowded as her main deck was 
with household furniture, live and lifeless stock in the shape of cattle, goats, rabbits, 
poultry, rice, peas, cliattus innumerable, &c., &c., brought by the royal prisoner and his 
attendants, for their consumption and comfort. The flat was lugged alongside tiie gang- 
way of the ship, so that the Delhi gentleman could step on board. Lieutenant 
Ommanney, of the 59th, who has had charge of him ever since he was taken, conducted 
liim to this, probably the last, conveyance that will ever again serve him in his peregrina- 
tions. He had two wives with him, so impenetrably veiled that they were led below by 
guides. He looked utterly broken up, and in his dotage ; but not a bad type of Eastern 
face and manner — something king-like about his deeply furrowed countenance, and lots of 
robes and Cashmeres. He was quite self-possessed, and was heard to ask some of 
the officers what their respective positions were on board, &c. A son and a grandson are 
with him : anil their very first care on touching the deck with their feet, was to ask for 
cheroots — took things easily, in short. The ex-king, meanwhile, went below, and was 
said to have stretched himself forthwith upon a couch of pillows and cushions, which his 
folk had arranged for him in a twinkling. The whole operation of transferring him and 
his from the flat was cpiickly cfl'ccted ; and then the guard of the 8 tth regiment re- 
turned to Calcutta, while the Megmra steamed away down the llooghly for its 

The next intelligence that reached the Mnglish public, in reference to the royal 
prisoner, was by an announcement from Bombay, dated the 1 lib of January, 185U, which 
stated— "The ex-king of Delhi has been sent to Rangoon, in British Burmah, instead of 



tlie Cape of Good Hope, the colonists of South Africa having refused to receive him. 
His majesty arrived at Rangoon on the 9th of December, and was to be sent inland to 
Tonghoo, a station on the Setang river, 120 miles north of Pegu, and 300 miles from 
Rangoon, in the vicinity of the Karen territory — a locality declared to be the most 
desolate and forlorn in British Burmah." Shortly after this announcement, the Calcutta 
Englishman stated^ that the ex-king liad sent iu a petition to the government, to be 
forwarded to the home autliorities, in which his pitiable condition and failing health was 
represented as a ground for the reconsideration of his case, and for his restoration to 
liberty, if not to his former state — a request not very likely to be acceded to. 

In closing this melancholy detail of the career of a descendant of the Mogul 
conquerors, it will not be out of place to advert to the following singular occurrence, 
which took place at Cawnpoor, shortly after the deportation of the unfortunate Suraj- 
oo-deen. Two of the princes of the royal house of Delhi had, it seemed, been living at 
Cawnpoor from the earliest period of the mutinous outbreak, in strict privac}', under the 
disguise of fakirs, subsisting upon the alms of the charitable, without exciting any sus- 
picion as to their lineage. Upon the publication of the amuesty, the two shahzadahs 
emerged from their concealment, and declared their rank and identity to the government 
rejjresentative at Cawnpoor, at the same time claiming the benefit of the amuesty. This 
functionary was surprised at the appearance of two princes of whose existence he had not 
the slightest suspicion, and he immediately referred to the governor-general in council 
for instructious. As it was clearly shown that neither of these individuals had taken any 
part in the disturbances, and had in no manner forfeited their right to the provision they 
had theretofore enjoyed from the annual revenue allowed to the king. Lord Canning at 
once acceded to their application, guaranteed their safety, and granted a suitable pen- 
sion to each ; thus showing, even in its last transaction with the family of the justly 
deposed king, that British justice was still accessible to the appeal of misfortune, where 
guilt was not actually established. 


The materials for tracing the personal liistory of a princess, reared, from birth to 
womanhood, within the jealously guarded seclusion of an Oriental palace, are, it may 
readily be imagined, but scanty. Eortunately, however, in the present instance, the 
impediments to a brief consecutive memoir of the begum, Zeenat Mahal (ex-queen of 
Delhi ; for some years the sharer of the fading splendours of the throne of the last of the 
Mogul emperors, and now the companion of his exile, and mitigator of his regrets), are 
less difficult to be surmounted, owing to the comparatively familiar intercourse that, 
for nearly the last quarter of a century, had existed between the British resident at 
the court of Delhi, and the unfortunate representative of a once mighty dynasty, 
whose dominion was now bounded by the walls that encircled his palace, and whose 
subjects were limited to the members of his own family, and their immediate personal 
dependents. The Princess Zeenat (whose portrait, from a miniature in the imperial 
palace at Delhi, accompanies this memoir) was a daughter of the rajah of Bhatneer — a 
territory in the north-eastern division of Ajmere, whose capital of the same name is 
situated 185 miles W.N.Vv"". of Delhi. The father of the princess had for some years 
enjoyed the friendship of the Mirza Aboo Zuff'ur, eldest sou of the emperor. Shah Akber, 
who dying in 1887, was succeeded on the musnud by the Mirza, who theieupon 
assumed the names and title of Mahomed Suraj-oo-deen Shah Ghazee, being tlieu 
between sixty and seventy years of age. The father of Zeeuat had long, previous to the 
accession of his royal frieud, held an important position at the court of Delhi, and was 
known to possess great influence among the princes of Hindoostan ; and it is possible 
that some vague idea of a future struggle for the re-establishment of the independence 


of the empiie of his ancestors, may have suggested to the prince, Aboo Zuffur, the 
experlienej' of strengthening his hands for the possible contingency, by an ailiiiuce with 
a noble whose aid would, in sncli case, be of the first importance, tlirough the exercise 
of his influence throughout the Mohammedan states of India. The Princess Zeeuat, 
then in her sixteenth year, was therefore demanded in marriage of the rajah, her father, 
and was shortly afterwards conveyed, with great pomp, from the fort-palace of the 
Bhatneer cnpital to the imperial residence at Delhi. At this juncture the heir-apparent 
was in his sixtieth year ; but the disparity of years appears to have been at all times a 
question of small significance when the selection of an inmate for a royal zenana was 
concerned ; and the honour of an alliance with the imperial house of Timur was of 
itself suflficient to counterbalance any objection that miglit be supposed likely to arise on 
the part of the young lady or her sire, both of whom were flattered by the prospect thus 
opened to the ambition of the one, and the girlish aspirations of the other. In due 
accordance with Oriental ceremony, the youthful princess was speedily introduced to the 
sexagenarian ruler of her destiny, who at once expressed his admiration of her beauty 
and vivacity, and designated her Mahal (the Pearl), which name she has thenceforth 
borne. The royal nuptials were celebrated in 1833; and Zeenat Mahal, the youngest, 
became also the most beloved of the wives of the future king of Delhi. 

A short time after the celebration of the marriage, the father of Zeenat ^lahal 
became an inmate of the palace of the Cootub, the residence of the heir-apparent ; and 
the influence from which so much was expected by his son-in-law, was actively but 
imperceptilily employed on his behalf The emperor, Shah Akber, in 1837, was 
gathered to his fathers ; and Mirza Aboo Zuffur, then in his sixty-fourth year, ascended 
the crystal throne of Delhi. 

The tact and assiduities of Zeenat Mahal had by this time riveted the affection 
which her youth and beauty had first inspired: she had also added the claims of a 
mother to the attractions of a wile ; and the sovereign of Ilindoostau, in his old age, 
became the progenitor of a line of princes, of whom Jurama Bukht, the youngest (boru 
in 1840), is now the only survivor and participator in the misfortunes of his house. 

Superior to the petty intrigues and female dissensions of the zeuaua, the begum, 
Zeeuat jNIahal, still maintained a firm hold upon the affections of her aged husband ; and, 
by her prudence, became at last a necessary assistant at his councils, and the confidant 
of his ambitious but well-concealed designs against the supremacy of the infidel govern- 
ment by which he was lield in tlirall, and whose domination was a source of uudis- 
guised hatred and impatience to all the Mohammedan races of India. With such 
feelings, it may be supposed, there was no lack of grievances, real or imaginary, to keep a 
dissatisfied spirit in restless activity within the royal precincts. Among other incentives 
to discontent was a difficulty that arose respecting the succession to the musnud, which, 
considering the advanced age of Suraj-oo-deen, became a question of importance, and 
eventually of much annoyance to the king and his still young and favourite wife. The 
royal succession had furnished a topic for discussion within the palace, and intrigue 
without it, from the year 1853; the king having then, as it is alleged, at the instigation 
of his wife, expressed his desire to name the child of his old age, ilirza Jurama Uukht, 
heir to the throne; while the government of the Company insisted on recognising the 
superior, because prior, claim of an elder son, Mirza Furruk-oo-deeu. Tiie contention 
to which this rivalry of interests gave birth, raged with great virulence until 1850, when 
the elder son suddenly died of cholera, or poison ; the latter being a prevalent idea at 
the time. This opportune removal had not, however, the eft'ect of settling the question, 
as there were still elder brothers of Jumma Bukht in existence, whose prior right to the 
succession was recognised by the Anglo-Indian government; while the mother of the 
latter still persisted in her efforts to obtain the reversion to the musnud for her own son, 
and declared she would not rest until her object was accomplished. When at length it 
was formally announced, by the resident at the court of Delhi, tiiat his government had 
determined that the sou of the deceased Prince Furruk-oo-deen, and grandson of the 
king, should inherit all that yet remained of imperial ])ower at Delhi, as the heir in a 
direct line of the existing sovereign, the hostility of the bcgnm to British influence 
became intense; and it thenceforward was a question among her partisans and the 
personal attendants of the king, whether, by oxcrturning the English ruj, she might not 



obtain for her son the throne she so much desired he should occupy. Such, at least, were 
amoug the allegations urged against the begum : but whether correct or not, it would 
seem there was no proof of her complicity, or, it is natural to suppose, it would have 
been produced during the trial of her husband. 

Of the interior life of the imperial palace at Delhi, little is known; and of the occur- 
rences that are allowed to vary the monotony of the zenana, still less is permitted to 
transpire beyond the walls that surround the miniature world. Of the begum, therefore, 
except as above stated, even tradition is silent, until the outburst of the storm which, in 
its wild fury, levelled the gilded pinnacles of her house in the dust, aud drove her forth 
to share the doom of her dethroned and exiled lord. 

The first intimation afforded by the various details which have appeared in connection 
with the occurrences at Delhi, in which the begum is personally referred to, is supplied in 
a communication from Mr. Greathed, the political agent of the lieutenant-governor of 
the North- West Provinces, in attendance at the head-quarters before Delhi; who 
says — "On the 21st of August, an emissary came into camp from the begum, proffering 
her assistance to bring about an accommodation. The messenger was desired to inform 
her majesty that we were anxious for her personal safety, and for that of all women and 
children ; but that no communication could be received from inmates of the palace." 

There is no doubt, from the revelations made by jMukhuu Lall, the private secretary 
of the king, in the progress of the trial of his fallen master, that, during the siege, Zeenat 
]\Iahal took an active part in the deliberations of the royal council, and that, upon several 
occasions, her advice animated and encouraged the princes in their efl'orts to avert 
the catastrophe that, nevertheless, was inevitable. At the private conferences of the 
king, Maibhoob Ali Khan, the prime minister; Hussun Uskeeree, the astrologer; the 
begum, Zeenat IMahal ; and, generally, two of the king's daughters, were present, and 
by their councils he was understood to be guided. 

From this time until it was i-esolved to provide for the king's safety by flight, we 
have no trace of the i)eguin's iuterference in affairs of state. The circumstances attend- 
ing the departure of the royal party from the palace to the village of Cootub, about nine 
miles from Delhi, on the 19th of September, and their subsequent capture, have already 
been related in the memoir of Suraj-oo-deen, the ex-king; and need not be repeated.* 
We must now follow the unfortunate begum in her captivity and distress; which we are 
enabled to do, by a communication of Mrs. Hodson, the wife of the gallant officer by 
whom the royal party was brought back to their prison-palace ; and which lady, probably 
from that circumstance, enjoyed the privilege (if such it may be termed) of gratifying 
her curiosity by a spectacle which woman, except as a comforter, might have been 
expected to turn from with emotions of deep regret. This lady, accompanied by Mr. 
Saunders (the civil commissioner at Delhi) and his wife, appears to have visited the apart- 
ment occupied by the captive monarch and his family, in much the same spirit as she might 
have gone to an exhibition of wild beasts. But her sensations when in the presence of 
the aged prisoner, are thus noted :— "I am almost ashamed to say, that a feeling of pity 
mingled with my disgust." Surely apology was not necessary, because the instinct of a 
kindlier nature asserted its power for a moment in behalf of one so fallen aud so wretched. 
But she proceeds — " Mrs. Saunders then took possession of me, aud we went ou into a 
smaller, darker, dirtier room than the first, iu which were some eight or ten women 
crowding round a common charpoij (bedstead), ou which was a dark, fat, shrewd, but 
sensual-\odkmg woman, to whom my attention was particularly drawn. She took hold of 
my hand — I shuddered a little — aud told me that my husband was a great warrior; but 
that if the king's life and that of her son had not been promised them by the govern- 
ment, the king was preparing a great army, which would hnve annihilated us. The 
other women stood in silence till her speech was finished, and then crowding round, asked 
how m.any children I had, and if they were all boys? — examined my dress, and seemed 
particularly amused by my bonnet and parasol. They were, with one exception, coarse, 
low-caste women, as devoid of ornament as of beauty. The begum, Zeenat Mahal, asked 
me to sit down on her bed (a great honour, as I afterwards found, but which I did not 
appreciate) ; but I declined, as it looked so dirty ."f 

After some mouths of delay, during which the fallen monarch and his family were 

• See ante, p. 159. t f''<''' History of the Indian Mutiny, vol. ii., p. 169. 



kept in close confinement in his desecrated palace, he was put upon his trial, as before 
stated, and, on the nineteenth day of the proceedings, was declared guilty of the offences 
charged against him, and sentenced to be transported for life. 

The youngest son of the prisoner, Jumma Bnkht, whose boyish levity on the first 
day of his father's trial had excited the displeasure of the court, and deprived liira of the 
miseralile comfort of attending to his father's convenience during the remainder of the 
proceedings, appears to have been the only one of the princes of the royal house who 
was not, in a greater or less degree, implicated in the sanguinary occurrences of the 
rebellion. This prince, the youngest and most favoured son of the king, by Zceiiat 
Mahal, was consequently looked upon with some degree of commiseration by the govern- 
ment authorities, and, for some time, was treated with indulgent consideration, as well on 
account of his youth as of his innocence from blame. This conduct at length awakened a 
soit of jealous feeling among the Europeans in Delhi; who, in their eagerness for retri- 
butive justice, fancied, in the attentions shown to the innocent son, they could discover 
an undue leaning towards the guilty father. At first, the youth had been allowed to 
accompany British officers in their evening rides, and to visit them at their quarters ; but 
the current of indignation and hatred had set in against the house of Delhi, and it was 
not endured that any member of it should be exempt from the penalty which the offences 
of its head had brought down upon his race. Jumma Bukht, therefore, was subjected to 
a species of captivity within the walls of the palace enclosure; but, as no charge could be 
alleged or proved against him, of any complicity in the outbreak of May, or in any of the 
proceedings that followed, it was conceded to his earnest appeal th;'.t, on account of the 
king's great age and increasing infirmity, the prince should be permitted, under certain 
restrictions, to accompany his father into exile. 

In a case of such importance as that which involved the future destiny of one who 
had inherited a royal name, and was yet, even in his fallen state, the acknowledged 
representative of an illustrious line of Eastern sovereigns, it became requisite that mature 
deliberation should be exercised, and that the highest authority should be afforded an 
opportunity to reverse or ratify the sentence passed upon the fallen occupant of a throne, 
by a court composed of three or four British officers. It was also necessary to determine 
the course to be adopted with regard to the female members of the royal establishment, 
whose destiny was interwoveu with that of the prisoner, to whom the brightest days of 
their existence had been devoted, and who were now crushed by the blow that had pros- 
trated him. The zenana of the aged king contained a number of females of rank; who, 
by the result of the insurrection, were now wholly dependent upon the liberality of the 
British government for the means of even daily subsistence. They were all without re- 
sources, and had been spoiled of their jewels and valuable ornaments by the rude grasp 
of unsympathisiog victors, or by the treachei-y of their servants, who had fled from them 
in the hour of peril. The condition of these ladies was alike pitiable and embarrassing, 
until the generosity of the government afforded them relief from the distress by which 
they were surrounded. 

The ex-king was himself permitted to choose such of his wives as he preferred, to 
accompauy him in tlie desolate path that lay between him and the grave; and, having 
made his selection, the ladies were next consulted as to their willingness to share the 
rigours of his exile. Of those named by the prisoner, several at once recoiled from the 
cheerless future to which his partiality had invited them ; but Zeenat Mahal, whose 
girlish attachment had long settled into a calm and enduring friendship for one who, a 
quarter of a century previous, had placed her by his side on the throue of the Moguls, 
determined for one to share his fate, and to consummate, in a far-off land, the singular 
vicissitudes that had accompanied her existence. One other of the wives of tiie ex-king 
emulated the example and the fidelity of Zeenat Mahal; and by those only of the royal 
zenana was the ofl'er of the government to accompany the prisoner accepted. 

For these ladies, suitable provision had to be made. They were not crimiTials ; and it 
was not by their act that the palacc-honie and royal state of tlie king of Dellii had become 
changed to a prison-tent and a convict's fare. 'Fo have treated them with harshness or 
parsimoniously in the alternative tiu-y had adopted, would, it was felt, have been uuworthy 
of the government wliii h had established itself upon the ruins of their state. A sufficient 
allowance was, therefore, promptly granted for their maintenance; and, with a delicacy 



that should ever characterise an English gentleman, strict orders were issued by the 
governor-general, that, as regarded these ladies and their female attendants, the most 
rigid deference to their habits and customs should be observed by the guard placed over 
the prison-tents of the exiles, that, as much as possible, every unnecessary wound to their 
feelings and remembrance might be spared. 

The time at length arrived for carrying the sentence of the court into effect; and the 
ex-king, accompanied by Zeenat Mahal, her son, and one other of the wives of the 
prisoner, were removed from Delhi to Allahabad, from whence they were conveyed by 
steamer to Calcutta, and there placed on board H. M.'s ship Megasra, for transportation 
to their future home. 

Availing herself of the permission granted by government, Zeenat Mahal had, 
as we have seen, with true woman's fidelity, determined to share the destiny of her 
husband. Her father had already paid the debt of nature; but the youngest of her 
sons, Jumma Bukht, remained to her, and, like herself, was free to choose a path through 
the future intricacies of life ; and each made a noble choice, that might atone for many 
faults. Tlie wife and the sou descended from the steps of a throne to the deck of a 
convict ship, that the few remaining years of him to whom they owed affection and 
obedience, might not be utterly without solace amidst the desolation that had over- 
whelmed him. 






Martin, Robert Montgomery 
The Indian empire