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Carmichael Professor and Head of the Department of Ancient 
Indian History and Culture, University of Calcutta 


Bungalow Road, Jawahar Nagar, Delhi-7 
Bankipore, Patna-4 (Bihar) 
Nepali Khapra, Varanasi-i (U.P.) 

( I 10 

First Edition 1966 
Price Rs. 50-00 




Dedicated to the Memory of James Prinsep 

and Other Savants who deciphered our 

Forgotten Scripts and reconstructed 

the History of our Past. 


Subject Page 

Preface ... ... ... ... ix x 

Special Abbreviations ... ... ... xi xii 

General Abbreviations ... ... ... xm xiv 

System of Transliteration ... ... ... xv 

GLOSSARY ... ... ... ... 1387 

Appendix I 

Privileges attached to Free Holdings ... 388408 

Appendix II 

Tax Names in Dravidian Languages ... 409 427 

Appendix HI 

Names of Coins, Metal Weights, etc. ... 428 442 

INDEX ... ... 443555 

Addenda et Corrigenda ... 556 560 


It is with a sense of diffidence that I am placing my 
Indian Epigraphical Glossary in the hands of the students of 
Indian epigraphy and lexicography. Originally it was my 
intention to insert it in my Indian Epigraphy as an Appendix 
to the Chapter on 'Technical Expressions'. But, as my collec- 
tion of the material progressed, I felt that it would be rather too 
big for an Appendix. At the same time, I also realised that 
it was not possible for a single man to collect all interesting 
words and expressions from all published epigraphic records 
in the various Indian languages in a short period of time. 
But I was eager to do as much as it was possible for me in the 
limited time I could devote to the work, and the result of the 
attempt is this nucleus now placed in the hands of readers 
interested in inscriptions. I am fully conscious of my own 
limitations as well as of the possibility of errors of judgment 
and of omission and commission creeping into the work. 
There may be cases wherein I have been misled by earlier 
writers, or accepted their doubtful suggestion as correct, or 
misunderstood them. It is hoped, nevertheless, that the work 
may be of some help to the students and to the future compiler 
of a fuller Glossary of this type. 

The majority of words collected in this Glossary occur 
in inscriptions in Sanskrit or in the Sanskritic and Dravidian 
languages. My aim has primarily been to collect Sanskrit 
words, and generally the Prakrit and tadbhava words have been 
given in their Sanskrit forms, although some Dravidian or 
Desi words have also been included. Sanskrit words used 
in Tamil with n and m suffixed to them have been ususally 
quoted without the suffixes; e.g., vardhan and lingam have 
been recognised as vardha and linga. Likewise, the suffix mu 
in Sanskrit words used in Telugu has been generally omitted. 
Feminine words ending in a and i } as used in the Dravidian 
languages, have often been quoted with the vowels lengthened. 
In Tamil words, intervocalic k, c, /, t and p have sometimes 
been represented by , j, d, d and b respectivly. It is felt that, 
while weeding out words without special significance from my 
original collection, some were left over. There are also some 
words collected from sources other than epigraphic records. 

There are three Appendices at the end of the volume, 
the first of which contains passages indicating the privileges, 
etc., enjoyed by the donees of rent-free (or partially rent-free) 
holdings. Appendix II contains a list of various levies that 
are known from inscriptions in Dravidian languages, especially 
Tamil. These Appendices are expected to throw light on 
the rights and obligations of the tenants of ancient and 
medieval India and on the meanings of some of the Sanskritic 
words in the Glossary. The third Appendix contains words 
of numismatic interest. 

The words have been mostly taken from my Indian Epi- 
graphy and the Indices and Glossaries appended to various 
epigraphical publications, and references to these have been 
indicated in short. Full references with the indication of 
pages, etc., have, however, been provided in certain cases 
especially when the words occur in the epigraphic texts, but 
are not noticed in the Indices, etc., pertaining to the Volumes 
in question. A key to the shortened references is supplied 
below separately. The references cited under a word are of 
course not exhaustive in all cases. The Index has been 
prepared by Sri Dipak Ranjan Das, Lecturer, Sanskrit College, 
Calcutta, to whom my sincere thanks are due. 

While it is a matter of satisfaction that I have probably 
succeeded in explaining a number of expressions, which were 
previously unintelligible or misunderstood, and in grouping 
together connected items by cross-references in numerous cases, 
I am sorry to feel that it is difficult to compile a work of this 
type without errors, and even more difficult is to print it with- 
out technical blemishes including misprints. I therefore crave 
the indulgence of sympathic readers for all kind of mistakes 
that might have crept into the book and request them to be 
so kind as to draw my attention to the defects they may notice 
in it. 

Pramdna-siddhdnta-viruddham = atra 
yat=kincid=uktam mati-mdndya-do$dt I 
mdtsaryam = utsdrya tad = drya-cittdfi 
prasddam=ddhdya visodhqyantu 1 1 

645, New Alipore, Culcutta-53, D. C. SIRCAR 

November 15, 1965. 




ASLV = Administration and Social Life under Vijayanagara by 

T. V. Mahalingam, pp. 418-76 (Index). 

BL =Bhandarkar's List =A List of Inscriptions of Northern 

India in Brdhml and its Derivative Scripts from about 
200 A. C. by D. R. Bhandarkar, Appendix to the 
Epigraphia Indica, Volumes XIX-XXIII, pp. 297- 

365 (Index). 
Chamba^ Antiquities of Chamba State, Part II, by B. Ch. 

Chhabra, pp. 180-93 (Index). 
CII Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum-, e. g., CII 2-1 = 

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Volume II, Part i, 

pp. 181-85 (Index) ; CII 3, 4 = Indices to Corpus 

Inscriptionum Indicarum, Volumes III and IV. 
CITD =Corpus of Inscriptions in the Telingana Districts of 

H. E. H. the Nizam's Dominions by P. Sreenivasachar, 

Part II, pp. 201-12 (Glossary). 
El ^Epigraphia Indica; e. g., El \=Epigraphia Indica t 

Volume I, pp. 461-78 (Index) ; El 2, 6, 12 = 

Indices to Epigraphia Indica, Volumes II, VI and XII. 
HA Holy Abu by Muni Jayantavijaya, translated by 

U.P. Shah, pp. 198-204 (Glossary). 
HD History of Dharmasdstra by P. V. Kane, Volume 

III, pp. 975-1007 (Glossary styled 'Appendix 

Note 191'). 
HRS Hindu Revenue System by U. N. Ghoshal, pp. 289 ff. 

(Glossary and Index). 
IA Indian Antiquary ; e.g., IA 5 =Indian Antiquary, Volume 

V, pp. 363-71 (Index) ; IA 8, 15, 20= Indices to 

Indian Antiquary, Volumes VIII, XV and XX. 
IE Indian Epigraphy by D.C. Sircar; e.g., IE 8-2 = 

Indian Epigraphy, Chapter VIII, Section ii; IE 

7-l-2=Indian Epigraphy, Chapter VII, Section i, 

Subsection 2. 



LL =Luders' List A List of Brdhml Inscriptions by H. 
Liiders, Appendix to the Epigraphia Indica, Volume 
X, pp. 213-24 (Index). 

LP =Lekhapaddhati, G. O. S., No. XXI, pp. 97-128 


ML =Majumdar's List A List of Kharosthl Inscriptions 
by N. G. Majumdar in the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, New Series, Vol. XX, 1924, pp. 
35-39 (Index). 

PJS ^=Prdcina Jaina-lekha Sandoha by Muni Jayantavijaya, 
p. 61 (Glossary). 

SII South Indian Inscriptions', e.g., SII 1= South Indian 

Inscriptions, Volume I, pp. 171-83 (Index); SII 
\\-2=South Indian Inscriptions, Volume XI, Part ii, 
pp. 267-72 (Index) ; SII 1, 3, 12-2= Indices to 
South Indian Inscriptions, Volumes I, III, and XII, 
Part ii. 

SITI = South Indian Temple Inscriptions by T. N. Subra- 
manian, Volume III, Part ii, pp. i-civ (Glossary 
in an 'Annexure' at the end of the volume) . 


Ag. Syst. or Ag. Syst. 
Anc. Ind. 

Agrarian System of Ancient India by U. N. 

^Antiquities of Chamba State, Vol. I, by 
J. Ph. Vogel. 

= Indian Archaeology A Review published 
by the Archaeological Survey of India. 
^Annual Report on [Indian or South Indian] 

see EL under Special Abbreviations. 
Bharatiya Vidyd, Bombay. 
=Bombay Gazetteer. 
Bui. Dec. Col. Res. Inst. =Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate 
and Research Institute, Poona. 
The Carmichael Lecturers delivered by D. 
R. Bhandarkar in 1918, 1921 and 1923. 
see CII under Special Abbreviations. 
Dynastic History of Northern India by 
H. C. Ray. 

see El under Special Abbreviations. 
=Gaekwad Oriental Series. 
=Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of 
Bengal by B. G. Sen. 
see HD under Special Abbreviations. 
see HRS under Special Abbreviations. 
see IE under Special Abbreviations. 
Indian Historical Quarterly, Calcutta. 
= Important Inscriptions from the Baroda State 
edited by A. S. Gadre and others. 
see IA under Special Abbreviations. 
=Indian Culture. 

see IE under Special Abbreviations. 
=Journal of the Andhra Historical Research 
Society, Rajahmundry. 
= Journal of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

Ant. Ch. St. 
Arch. Rev. 
A. R. Ep. 

Bhandarkar's List 
Bhar. Vid. 
Bomb. Gaz. 

Carm. Lect. 


Dh. S. 
Ep. Ind. 
G. O. S. 

Hist. Asp. Ins. Beng. 

Hist. Dharm. 
H. Rev. Syst. 

Imp. Ins. Bar. St. 

Ind. Ant. 
Ind. Cult. 
Ind. Ep. 






Journ. As. Soc. 
Journ. As. Soc. Pak. 

Journ. Mad. Univ. 
Journ. Or. Inst. 
Mathura Ins. 

Nach. Akad. Wissen, 

= Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, Bombay. 
Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research 
Society, Patna. 

= Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 

= Journal of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Pakistan, 

= Journal of the Madras University, Madras. 
= Journal of the Oriental Institute, Baroda. 
= Mathura Inscriptions by H. Ltiders, edited 
by K. L. Janert. 

^Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften 

in Goettingen. 
Naik's List = Inscriptions of the Deccan by A. V. Naik, 

published in the Bulletin of the Deccan College 

Post-Graduate and Research Institute, Poona, 

Vol. IX, 1947-48. 
Pdli-Eng. Diet. Pali-English Dictionary published by the 

Pali Texts Society, London. 

Proc. IHC ^Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 

Proc. IHRC ^Proceedings of the Indian Historical Records 

Prog. Rep. ASI, WC =Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey 

of India, Western Circle. 

Select Inscriptions 
or Sel. Ins. 

Stud. Geog. Anc. 
Med. Ind. 

Sue. Sat. or 
Sue. Sat. L. Dec. 

Univ. Cey. Rev. 
Visnu Dh. S. 
Wilson's Glossary 

. D. M. G. 

see SI under Special Abbreviations. 
see SII under Special Abbreviations. 

= Studies in the Geography of Ancient and 
Medieval India by D. C. Sircar. 

The Successors of the Sdtavdhanas in the 

Lower Deccan by D. C. Sircar. 

=University of Ceylon Review. 

= Visnu Dharmasutra. 

=Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms by 

H. H. Wilson. 

=%eitschrift der Morgenlaendischen Geselschaft. 


<=!, ? (long)=e, 

iit (long ) =0, ??t (short) =o, 

(short) = 

Dravidian palatal alveolar w=n, 
Dravidian palatal alveolar r=r, 
Dravidian cerebral voiced fricative (i.e. voiced ^)=. 
anusvara =rh, visarga =h, 

upadhmamya =^h, 

jihvamuliya h 

abadha (CII 1), illness. 

dbddhd (El 15), same as bddhd or vddhd\ obstacle. 

abdtamdla, abdtamdla, Prakrit; meaning doubtful (cf. Ep. 
lnd. t Vol. XV, p. 272 ; gDMG, Vol. XL, pp. 345-46) ; explained 
as a kind of sculptured slab (LL). 

abdapa (IA 16), the entrance of the sun into the 
Aries (Mesa}. 

abda-piijd (El 32), a rite. 

dbddrkhdnah (IE 8-3; El 31), Persian; 'water-house'; 
cf. Pdnly-dgdrika. 

abdhi (IE 7-1-2), 'four'; see sagara. 

dbdika-srdddha (CII 4), an annual rite in honour of a 
dead person. 

dbhdvya (El 11, 16), income or proceeds; cf. rdja-rdja- 
purus ddibhih svarh svamdbhdvyam parihartavyam; see also rdja- 
bhdvya, etc. Cf. 'the income (dbhdvya} derived from the 
loads on bullocks going on their way or coming to Nadlai' 
(Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XI, p. 36). 

abhaya (El 24), pose of hand (mudrd) ; see abhaya-mudrd. 

(iSjTT/), place of security to persons in distress; called 
anjindnpugal-idam in Tamil. Cf. abhaya-sdsana. 

abhaya-hasta (SII 2), pose of hand known as abhaya-mudrd 
(q. V.). " 

abhaya-mudrd (HA), pose of hand offering protection, in 
which the palm of the right hand, facing the devotee, is held 
with fingers upwards. Cf. abhaya-hasta. 

abhaya-sdsana (El 12, 27; SITI), 'grant of shelter', 
'charter of security'; a deed offering protection; a grant 
recording the provision of shelter. 

dbhigdmika-guna (CII 3, 4), certain attractive qualities. 

abhighdta (LP), an injury. 

abhihdra (CII 1), a reward. 

abhijndna (LP), a token by which the identity of a 
person is recognised. 

abhikdra, cf. krt-dbhikdra(GII 1), probably, one who has 
committed an offence under the instigation of another. 

2 abhilekhitakadbhyantara 

abhilekhitaka (IE 8-8), probably, a written complaint. 

abhinava (El 5; I A 18), name of a tax; cf. abhinava-mdrga- 
naka-prabhrti-sarv-dddyair = upetah, epithet of the gift village. It 
may also mean 'new' and the reference may be to the new 
mdrganaka tax. See abhinava-mdrganaka. 

abhinava-mdrganaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill, p. 264, 
note 1), name of a tax. See mdrganaka, mdrg-dddya, etc. 

abhipreta (CII 1), intention. 

Abhlra (IE 8-3), member of the cowherd community. 

abhirakta (CII 1), beloved one. 

abhiseka (El 4), coronation; cf. abhiseka-kkdni, abhiseka- 
kkdnikkai (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; presents offered to the 
king at the time of his coronation. 

abhiseka-mandapa (SITI), a hall where ceremonial baths 
are taken; the coronation hall; also called tiru-manjana- 
sdlai and kulikkum-idam in Tamil. 

abhiseka-ndman (SITI), the name or title assumed by a 
king at the time of his coronation. 

abhisikta (CII 1), cf. dvddasa-vars-dbhisikta, 'when one has 
been anointed twelve years', 'when twelve years have elapsed 
from one's coronation'. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, pp. 333 if. 

abhlsta-devatd (IA 18), same as ista-devatd', the favourite 
deity; the tulelary deity. 

abhisthdna, correctly abhisthdna; used in the sense of 
adhisthdna, 'the residence', 'a city', or 'the headquarters'. 
Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 219. 

Abhitvaramdna, Abhitvaramdnaka (IE 8-3; El 31; HD), 
the letter-carrier or a special kind of messenger. Cf 
Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 321 (duta-praisanika-gamdgamik-dbhi- 
tvaramdnaka] ; Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., pp. 125-26. 

dbhoga (IE 8-4), a territorial unit; similar to bhoga; 
cf. G or ajj -dbhoga. 

abhra (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher'. 

abhyanga (IA 22), smearing the body with oil. 

Abhyantara (HD), an officer specially intimate or in close 
contact with the king. Cf. Antaranga. See Rdjatarangim, VIII. 
426. But cf. also Abhyantarika, Abhyantar-opasthdyaka. 

A bhyantara-bhdn ddr-ddhikdrin, cf . Bhltara - bhan ddr- ddhikdrin 
(IE 8-3; El 28). 

dbhyantar-dddya, cf, bdhy-dbhyantar-dddya (IE 8-5) ; internal 

abhyantara dear a 3 

revenue income of a village; probably, taxes payable to the 
village authorities as against those payable to the king. Cf. 
antar-dya, abhyantara-siddhi, antah-kara, etc. See bdhya. 

abhyantara-siddhi, abhyantara-siddhika (IE 8-5; El 20, 22), 
same as abhyantara-siddhi; internal income or revenue, or taxes 
payable to the village authorities as against those payable to the 
king; cf. tribhog-dbhyantara-siddhi, bdhy- abhyantara-siddhi, bdhy- 
dbhyantar-dddya; also sarv- abhyantara-siddhi (El 20), and antah- 
siddhika (CII 4), a privilege of the donee of rent-free land. 
According to some (CII 4), it refers to the privilege of the 
donee offering full power of adjudication in law-suits. 
But expressions like tribhog- abhyantara-siddhi (q. v.) render it 
doubtful. See bdhya, siddhi, siddh-dya. 

abhyantara-siddhi (CII 4), same as abhyantara-siddhi; 
explained by some as 'the powers of adjudication' ; probably, 
taxes payable to the village authorities as against those payable 
to the king. See abhyantara-siddhi, etc. 

Abhyantarika (IE 8-3), a guard of the inner apartments 
of the palace; cf. Abhyantarika. See Abhyantara^ Abhyantar- 

Abhyantarika, a female guard of the inner apartment of the 
palace; probably also a concubine (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV,p.3). 

Abhyantar-opasthdyaka (LL), a servant. 

Abhydsin (SI I 13), a student. 

abhyavahdra-mandapa (El 3), dining hall. 

abhyupdgama (IE 8-8), arrival. 

abhyusa (El 7), a cake. 

abhyutsarpita (CII 2-1), same as utsarpita; erected. 

abhyutthita, cf. abbhutthio khdmavo (HA), obeisance to 
one's teacher (i.e. a Jain monk) with formal query about the 
his health and confession of one's own weakness. 

abja (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

abja-dala (IE 7-1-2), 'one hundred'. 

Aboil (El 1 1 ), an inferior class of Brahmanas in Rajasthan. 

d-candr-drkkam (SITI), 'so long as the moon and the 
sun last'; 'in perpetuity'. 

acala-pravrtti (SII 11-1), cf. 'was administering Pandi- 
gola as acala-pravrtti'; a kind of tenure; probably, a 
permanent holding. See vrtti, the same as pravrtti. 

dcdra (IE 8-5; El 30), a custom or customary law. 

4 acara Accupanndyadadhisthdyaka 

(El 20), religious practice, being regarded as five in 

Cf. navanavaty-dcdrena (LP), '99 per cent', i.e. 'cer- 

dcdra-pdtra (El 30), same as sthiti-pdtra, dcdra-sthiti-pdtra, 
etc.; a document relating to customary laws. 

dcdra-sthiti-pdtra (IE 8-5), same as dcdra-pdtra, etc.; 
regulation regarding customary laws ; cf. sthiti-pdtra, a charter 
relating to customary laws (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 169). 

Acdrya (El 33; BL), title of a religious teacher; used 
commonly by the Buddhists and Jains (LL; SII 1). 

(CH 3 ; El 32 ; ML), a spiritual guide or teacher; a 

Same as Sthdn-dcdrya (El 17), a temple priest. 

(El 8; I A 14), an architect; used in the sense of 'a 
master', i.e. 'a master-mason'; cf. Acdri (El 17), an artisan. 
Pali Acariya is explained as c a master goldsmith' in the P.T.S. 
Pdli-Eng. Diet. 

(LL), title of a sculptor. 

(HA; IA 19), Jain; a Sddhu who has the right of both 
reading the sacred texts publicly and explaining them 

dcdryakula (LL), a Buddhist temple; cf. devakula. 

dcdrya-pitha (El 16), a holy site; a site sanctified by a 
religious teacher. 

dcdrya-pujand (SITI), honorarium payable to priests. 

dcchanna (El 30), a word of doubtful import. 

accu (IE 8-8; SITI), Tamil; name of a coin; cf. dnai- 
accu, nall-dnai-accu, palamudal-dnai-accu, palanjaldgai-accu,paducca- 
Idgai-accu, amudart-accu, undi-accu, etc. Cf. also pancdlav-accu 
(SITI), name of a coin probably struck by the body called 
pancdlattdr or pancakarmdra; undiy-accu (SITI); valudiy-accu- 
varggam (SITI), a group of taxes payable in Pandya coins; 
yakhi-accu (SITI), from Sanskrit Taksi\ name of a coin current 
in the Kongu country. 

(El 24), name of a tax. 

accu-panndya (El 16), department of taxation or coining. 

Accupanndyadadhisthdyaka (IE 8-3), Kannada; superinten- 
dent of the revenue from mints ; sometimes also called Mahd- 
sdmantddhipati, Mahdpradhdna, Bhanasavergade, etc., additionally. 

accuvari udhaka 5 

accuvari (SITI), Tamil; probably the same as ponvari; 
the duty payable for minting gold into coins. 

dchu (CII 4), same as dsu } the name of a coin; cf. Tamil 

acita (SITI), damage; injury. 

dda, adda (CITD), Telugu; a measure of capacity equal 
to 2 mdnikas or one-eighth of a turn ; half, especially half of a 
fanam or a certain measure called kuncamu; a weight represent- 
ing the eighteenth portion of a vardha (q. v.). 

dddna (IE 8-5; El 12; CII 4), a levy or impost; same 
as ddaya. 

dddnaka (LP), same as adddnaka; cf. dddnake muktd, 
mortgaged; valittiya dddnake muktam, Gujaratl valat dan mukyum, 
'something morgaged, the produce of which will pay off the 
debt in course of time'. 

ddatta (IE 8-5), adattd (El 33), ddattd (El 28), a tax of 
uncertain import; probably, interest or fine on arrears of tax. 

ddaya (El 33), income or impost; cf. bhuta-bhavisyad- 
vartamdna-nihses-dddya-sahita (IE 8-5); cf. also visenim-dddya 
(El 21), name of a tax. 

adbhuta (El 33), same as utpdta (q. v.). 

adbhuta-dharma, cf. abbhuta-dhamma (El 33), Buddhist. Cf. 
Childers, Pdli-Eng. Diet., s.v. 

adbhuta-sdnti (El 33), a ceremony to avert evil. 

adda-cinna (El 18), name of a coin. 

addaga, additga (CITD), Telugu; half a fanam. 

adddnaka (LP), a morgaged thing; cf. grh-ddddnaka-patra 
(LP), deed for mortgaging a house. 

Adesakdrin (El 10), an officer or agent, or a representative. 

Adesa-naibandhika (El 7; CII 4), official designation 
indicating the recorder of orders. 

ddeya (El 7, 12, 15; CII 3), 'what is to be taken or 
levied'; a fiscal term meaning the same thing as ddaya, i.e. 
income or impost; dues (Ep. hid., Vol. XXV, p. 237). 

ddha (IE 8-6), same as ddhika or ddhaka; a measure 
of capacity; a land measure also called ddhavdpa. 

ddhd (IE 8-6), Bengali form of ddhaka and ddhavdpa. 

adhah, cf. s-ddha-urdhva (IE 8-5); what is below the 
surface of the ground; root-crops. 

ddhaka (IE 8-6; El 27), a measure of capacity; often 

6 ddhdrta adhikarana 

regarded as equal to 264 handfuls and to one-fourth of a drona; 
16 to 20 seers according to Bengali authors; also used as a 
shortened form ofddhavdpa or ddhakavdpa. 

ddhdna, cf. ddn-ddhdna-vikraya (IE 8-5); mortgaging. Cf. 
n = ddheyarh na ca vikreyam (Ep. Lid., Vol. XXV, p. 218). 

ddhavdpa, also called ddhakavdpa (IE 8-6), 'an area of land 
requiring one ddhaka measure of seed grains for being sown' ; a 
land measure which was not the same in all ages and localities. 

Adhi (LP), contraction of Adhikdrin, regarded by some 
as 'a revenue officer like the Mamlatdar'. 

Adhi, Adhi (IE 8-1 ; 8-8), shortened forms of Adhikaranika 
or Adhikaranika. 

ddhi (SII 2; LP), a mortgage or deposit; ddhau krtam, 
'mortgaged'; cf. ddhau muktam, ddhau dattam. Cf. vinast-ddhi- 
sakta (LP), used in connection with a lost thing which had 
been given in mortgage. 

adhika (El 3), intercalary [month]. 

adhik-dksara (LP), 'with words in excess'. 

adhika-padi (CITD), Sanskrit-Telugu; an extra allowance 
in food (grain, salt, vegetables and all that is required to pre- 
pare a meal, including firewood), sometimes also in money, 
granted to servants, friends or poor people. 

Adhikdra, cf. Tamil Adigdram (El 25); same as Adhikdrin 
(SII 1), explained as 'a magistrate'. 

adhikdra-mel-eluttu (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; revisional 

adhikarana (IE 8-1, 8-8; El 28 j, an office; cf. rdjakule =' dhi- 
karanasya, apparently referring to an office. See adhikaran-dva- 
dhdrand, 'official investigation' (Ep.Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 267). 
(El 24), a court or department. 

(El 30), a law-court. 

(SITI), a class of law courts; probably, the chief court. 

(El 30, 31), an administrative office or a board of 

(El 31), a district. 

(SII 2), same as Adhikdrin, a magistrate. 

adhikarana-danda (SITI), fine imposed by the adhikarana 
or law-court. 

Adhikarana-lekhaka (El 30), a scribe pertaining to a law- 
court or office. 

Adhikaranika adhisthdna 1 

(ffl)),the official recorder or scribe [who drew up deeds of 
sale and the like after having measured the land to be sold]. 
Cf. Rdjatarangini, VL 38; Visnu Dh. S., VII, 3. 

Adhikaranika, Adhikaranika (IE 8-1; El 28), an officer 
belonging to or in charge of an adhikarana or office. 

adhikdra-varttand (SITI), customary payments made to 
an officer at stipulated periods; probably the same as Sanskrit- 
Tamil adhikdra-pperu, adhikdra-ppon, etc. 

Adhikdrika, Adhikdrika (IE 8-3; El 2, 23, 28; CII 4; 
BL; HD), 'an officer'; same as Adhikdrin, Niyogika, Adhyaksa, etc., 
regarded as meaning a minister, magistrate, superintendent, 
governor or director. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV, p. 184. 

Adhikdri-mukhya (El 33) , explained as 'the chief minister'. 

Adhikdrin (IE 8-3; El 28; BL), 'an officer'; same as 
Adhikdrika; cf. Kannada Vergade, etc., and Sanskrit Adhyaksa, 
meaning a superintendent, governor or director. 

(ASLV), explained as 'a special officer or royal agent'. 

(El 7), explained as 'a minister'. 

(SII 2), explained as 'a magistrate'. 

Cf. Vidaiy-adhikdri, Vidaiyil-adhikdri (SITI), an officer issu- 
ing royal orders. 

Adhikrta (El 23, 24), 'an officer'; cf. Adhikdrin. 

Adhimahdrdja (El 15), royal title. Cf. Adhirdja. 

Adhipati (LL), a king; cf. pati. 

ddhi-patra (LP), amortgage bond. 

Adhirdja (IE 8-2), sometimes used as an imperial title, 
but sometimes as the title of a feudatory. Cf. Adhimahdrdja. 

(BL), title of a subordinate ruler. 

(LL), designation of a supreme king. 

Adhirdjardja(El 9), royal title. Cf. Rdjardja, Rdjddhirdja, etc. 

adhirdjya (El 24), a realm or kingdom. 

ddhirdjya (CII 3), a derivative from the title Adhirdja; 
supreme sovereignty. 

adhisthdna, adhisthdna (CII 1), cf. dharm- adhisthdna, dharm- 
ddhisthdna, 'the establishment of morality'. 

adhisthdna (IE 8-3; El 24, 28, 31; LL), the capital or 
headquarters of an administrative unit; a city or town; the 
chief city. See abhisthdna. 

(El 9), probably, residence. 
(El 8), same as sthdna. 

8 adhisthdna dditya 

' & 

(El 24), cf. adhisthdnam, 'under the supervision of. 
(SITI}, the base of the vimdna in a temple; a seat. 

adhisthdn-ddhikarana (IE 8-3; El 23; BL), administrative 
office or board at the headquarters of a territorial unit; 
office of the administrators of a city; the city office. 

Adhisthdyaka (El 16), official designation; same as 
Adhyaksa (q.v.). 

adhivdsa, cf. adhivdsa-sakta-cdturvarnya-samaksam (LP), 'in 
the presence of the people of the four castes living in the 
vicinity'; cf. adhivdsa-saktiya (LP); neighbours. 

Adhvapa (El 20), official designation; same as Mdrgapati, 

Adhyaksa (El 24; CII 4), the head of a department; the 
superintendent of a department; a superintendent or director; 
sometimes mentioned in the list of officials (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXXI, p. 80). Cf. Mahddhyaksa. 

(IA 20), explained as the Dutaka or Ajnapti, i.e. 
executor of grants. 

Adhyaksa-pracdra (El 12, 15), a list of superintendents of 
departments; probably also a notice setting forth the dis- 
tribution of the Adhyaksas in various departments and stations. 

Adhydpaka (El 32), a teacher. 

a-dhydtarri) 'without any consideration or hesitation' 
(Select Inscriptions, p. 239). 

adhyayana (SII 1 ), study of the Vedas. 

Adhyayana-bhatla (IA 12), assistant officiating priest 
(also called Sddhdcdrya) at the temple at Ramesvaram. 

adhyayan-dnga (SITI), same as adhyayana-vrtti (q. v.). 

adhyayana-vrtti (SITI), tax-free land endowed for reciting 
the Vedas in temples. 

adhyetr (El 32), a student. 

adi (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

ddikdra (Gil 1 ), an initiator; one who starts a practice or 
to do a particular deed. 

Adikartr (Gil 3), 'an originator'; epithet of the Jain 
Tirthankaras . 

Adirdja (El 12), an ancient king, e.g., Bharata, Nala, 
Nahusa, etc.; founder of a royal family (Select Inscriptions, 
pp. 412, 415). 

dditya (IE 8-2; El 33), ending of royal titles like Vikrama- 

dditya agni 9 

ditya, Kramddilja, Makendraditya, etc., probably popularised 
by the Imperial Guptas in the fourth century A.D. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'twelve'. 

dditya-kdca (El 32), probably, the jewel called suryakdnta. 

ddivardha-dramma (El 30; CII 4), name of a coin (dramma] 
styled after Adivaraha, i.e. Pratihara Bhoja I (c. 836-85 A.D.). 

adri (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'seven'. 

ddvalisa (I A 17), or dvalisa; regarded as a word of 
doubtful meaning; but really, a geographical name. 

ddyamdsa, the original mdsa 5 rails in weight, later its 
weight being regarded as 6, 7 or 10 ratis (JNSI, Vol. XV, 
p. 139). See mdsa. 

aga (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

(67/3), earth or land. 

dgama (SII 1), a doctrine; cf. Ldkul-dgama (El 32), 
the doctrine of Lakula (Lakulisa). Gf. dgama-samaya. 

Cf. s-dgama-nirgama-pravesa (IE 8-5), 'together with 
approaches, ingress and egress'. 

dgama-nigama-ddna (LP), tax for importing and exporting. 

agamdrga (SITI), a variety of dance performed in the 
presence of the gods in temples. 

dgama-samaya, cf. Ldkul-dgama-samaya (El 32), the 
tenets of Lakula's doctrine. 

dgdmin (IE 8-5; El 19; SITI), future income, future bene- 
fits; one of the 8 kinds of rights in the property; cf. asta-bhoga. 

agara (El 19), a corrupt form of agrahdra, often noticed 
in Tamil inscriptions. 

agara-brahmadeya (SITI), village granted to Brahmanas; 
also called agara (agrahdra] and brahmadeya. See agara. 

agara-pparru (SITI), Tamil; same as agara or agrahdra; 
land granted to Brahmanas. 

Agasdli (El 28), a goldsmith; same as Aksasdlin. 

dghdta (El 16), boundary; cf. dghdtana, dghdtl. 

dghdtana (Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 264, text line 42), same 
as dghdla, boundary; see also dghdtl. 

dghdtl (El 23), same as dghdta ; boundary; see also 

aghosa (IE 7-1-2), 'thirteen' [being the number of surds 
in the Sanskrit alphabet]. 

agni (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

1 agni agrahdra 

agni-cayana (El 32; IA 19), a sacrificial rite. 

Agnicit (SII 2), title of a Brahmana. cf. agni-cayana. 

agnihotra (El 22; CII 3, 4), offerings to fire; a particular 
sacrifice, often mentioned as one of the five sacrificial rites 
(mahdyajna) which are the daily duties of a Brahmana. 

Agnihotrin (CII 4), epithet of a Brahmana performing 
the agnihotra sacrifice. 

agni-kdrya (El 33; SII 3), fire-oblation. 

Agni-kula, 'a family, the progenitor of which was born 
from the fire pit of a sage'. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 162, 
for a 12th century Tire family' in the Nanded District, 

agni-kunda (CII 4), fire-pit; an emblem of the worship 
of the Fire or Sun. 

agni-skandha (CII 1), masses of fire. 

agnistha (SITI), firewood. 

agni-sthitikd, fire-place (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 107). 

agnistoma (CII 3), a particular sacrifice. 

Agnydhita (El 15), same as Ahitagm, 'a Brahmana per- 
petually maintaining and consecrating the sacred fire in his 

agra (El 24), same as agra-bhdga; the king's share. 

(CII 1), cf. anyatra aprena pardkramena, 'without a great 

agra-bhdga (CII 2-1; ML), the principal share; same 
as agra, agra-pratydya, the king's share. 

agrabhdga-pratyarhsa (CII 2-1), same as agra-bhdga, agra- 

agra-bhrti (CII 1), a superior personage. 

agra-dharmardjikd (ML), the chief Dharmarajika (a 
stupa enshrining the relics of the Dharmaraja or Buddha). 

agahara, agdhara, dgahara (Chamba), corruptions of 

Agrahara (El 24), a collector of the king's share. See 

agrahdra (IE 8-4;EI30; CII4; SII 1 ; HRS; Chamba), rent- 
free land given to Brahmanas ; a rent-free village ; a Brahmana 
village; sometimes suffixed to names of localities especially 
in South India. It was primarily, 'a rent-free village in 
the possession of Brahmanas' ; but there are occasional references 

agrahdra -agrika 1 1 

to dev-agrahdra (rent-free holding in the possession of a deity), 
vaisy-dgrahdra (rent-free holding in the possession of the 
Vaisyas), etc.; sometimes spelt agrahdra (CII 3). See mah- 
dgrahdra, brahmapuri, caturvedi-mangala, etc.; also afiga-bhoga. 

agrahdra-pradey-drhsa (El 33), a small rent payable for 
land granted to Brahmanas and declared rent-free. 

Agrahdrika, Agrahdrika (IE 3-8; El 23; HD; CII 3; etc.), 
the owner of an agrahdra', sometimes probably, the superin- 
tendent of agrahdras'j same as Agrahdrin. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXIV, p. 127. 

Agrahdrin, Agrahdnna (El 23, 24), the holder of an 
agrahdra; headman or owner of an agrahdra village. Cf. 

Agrahdrina-mahattara (El 24), headman among the 
Agrahdrinas, i.e. owners of an agrahdra (rent-free village in the 
possession of Brahmanas). 

dgrahdyani (El 8), Margasirsa su-di 15. 

agraja (El 23), the elder brother (or cousin); rarely 
used wrongly in the sense of 'the eldest son' (El 9). 

agrajanman (El 9), same as agraja (q.v.) ; wrongly used to 
mean 'the eldest son' instead of 'the elder brother' (cf. 

(El 24), a Brahmana. 

Agra-mahddevi (SITI), chief queen of a king. 

Agra-mahdmahisi (IE 8-2), title of a chief queen; cf. Mahisi, 
Agra-mahisi, Mahdmahisl, Agra-mahddevi. 

Agra-mahisi (IE 8-2; El 22; LL; ML), designation of 
the chief queen; cf. Mahisl, Agra-mahddevi, etc. 

agra-mandapa (SITI), front hall of a temple. 

agra-pra>dda, same as tala-vrtti (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, 
p. 166, note 2). 

agra-pratyarhsa (El 23; CII 2-1; ML), principal share; 
same as agra-bhdga. 

agra-pratydya (El 23), principal share or income; same 
as agra-bhdga. 

agra-sdld (SII 3), a temple-kitchen. 

dgrayana (El 7), the first Soma libation at the agnistoma 
sacrifice; oblation consisting of first-fruits at the end of the 
rainy season. 

agrika (LP), 'the previous one'. 

1 2 agrika Aj na 

agrika-pdyd (LP), original foundation; cf. Gujarat! 
pdyd, foundation. 

Agronomoi (IE 8-3), Greek; probably the same as Rajjuka. 

dhdda (El 1), probably, a quarry. 

Ahammra, see Amira. Cf. Ep. 2nd., Vol. XXXIV, p. 178. 

ahan (CII 3), 'a day'; used to denote the solar, or more 
properly civil, day. 

ahara (IE 8-4; El 27; CII 1, 3, 4), a district; cf. aharanl. 

Cf. grdm-dhdra (IE 8-4), a group of villages. 

(I A 17), cf. s-dhdra in Buddhist literature explained as 
sa-janapada. Ahdra= [land for] food; cf. bhoga. 

dharam (IE 8-4; El 16), a district or its subdivision; cf. 
Hastakavapr-dharam (Ep. 2nd., Vol. XI, p. 109); also cf. dhdra. 

dhdra-visaya (IE 8-4), originally an dhdra, but later a 
visaya; cf. Khetak-dhdm-visaya. 

dhavanlya (El 32), the sacred fire. 

ahi (IE 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

ahi-danda (IE 8-5; El 12, 28, 33), professional tax levied 
from snake-charmers or levy for their maintenance. 

aiduka, same as eduka ( q.v.). 

airdvata (IE 7-1-2), 'one'; sometimes hastin, etc., are used 
in this sense though they really mean 'seven'. 

aisvary-dstaka (El 33), same as asta-bhoga (q. v.). 

aitada (El 28), derived from etad. 

djwaka-kdsu (SITI), same as Tamil dsuva-kkdsu, dsuvikal- 
kdsu, dsuva-kkadamai; tax payable by Ajlvakas or for the 
maintainance of Ajivaka monks. 

Ajnd (IE 8-3; El 27; BL; CII 3), an order or command; 
same as djnapti or djndpti supposed to be connected 
with giving the order for the drawing up of a charter; person 
receiving a king's order regarding the preparation of a charter ; 
usually translated as 'executor of a grant'; standing alone, 
the word is supposed to indicate the office of the Dutaka, 
though the latter seems to have been additionally responsible 
for giving the donee the possession of the gift land. Cf. Ep. Irid., 
Vol. XIV, p. 362 (of the Gaiiga year 149) where the words are 
djnd mahdmahatlara-Sivavarmd; also svayam=djnd (CII., Vol. 
Ill, p. 115; Ep. Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 19) taken to mean that 
the king employed 110 Dutaka to convey the details of his grant 
to the local officers, but that he gave the details in person. 

Ajnd akhanda 13 

The expression sva-mukh-ajna ('literally, the oral order of the 
king) is also explained in the same way. The suggestion that 
Ajndddpaka sometimes occurs as a synonym of Dutaka is wrong. 
See Ajnapti, Ajnd-saficdrin, etc. Cf. Ind. Ep., pp. 143-44-. 

Cf. Tamil ami (El 23), sign; the insignia. 

Ajnd-bhogika (El 21; BL) , Ajnd and Bhogika wrongly 
m^de into a single official designation. See Ajnd and Bhogika. 

Ajnd-ddpaka (BL; HD), wrongly taken as a compound 
expression meaning an officer (Ind. Ant., Vol. XIV, p. 161). 
See Ajftd and Ddpaka. 

Ajnddhdraka (ASLV), an executor of the royal order; 
cf . Aj fid-pa ripdlaka . 

Ajnd-paripdlaka (ASLV), an executor of the royal order; 
cf. Ajnd-dhdraka. 

Ajnapti, Ajnapti (IE 8-3; El 24, 27, 30; SII 1 ; HD), 'the 
agency that obtains the command'; the executor of a grant; one 
who communicates, at the order of the king,the details about a 
land grant to local officers; probably the same as Dutaka. Cf. 
Ajnd; also Tamil Vdy-kkelvi, Vdy-kkelviydr. See Ind.Ep., pp. 143-44; 
Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 184; Vol. VIII, p. 146. Cf. Ajnd-sancdrin. 

Ajfid-saiicdrin (El 23, 24, 27), same as Ajnapti, etc. 

Ajnd-sata-prdpayitr (El 12), official designation. 

djndla (IA 18), 'an order'; saiicaritam c=djndtam 9 'and the 
command has been communicated or carried into effect.' 

a-kdlika (CII 1), 'not restricted to time'. 

dkdra (CII 1 ), same as prakdra, a way or kind. 

dkarsaka (El 5), probably, the extent [of a piece of land]. 

dkdsa (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher'. 

Akdsamnkhin (ASLV), epithet of certain Saiva ascetics, 
also called Akdsavdsin. 

dkdsa-pdtdl-otpatti (El 30), fruits and roots produced in a 
piece of land. Cf. dkds-otpatti. 

dkdsa-vdm (IA 11), an unearthly voice. 

Akdsa-vdsin (ASLV), same as Akdsamukhin (q.v.). 

dkds-otpatti (HRS), 'produce of the sky'; fruits; wrongly 
regarded by some as the same as bhuta-vdta-pratydya (q.v.). 
See dkdsa-pdtdl-otpatti. 

akhanda-dlpa (El 30), a lamp to be perpetually burnt 
before a deity in a temple, the installation of which was regard- 
ed as a meritorious act; same as nandd-dlpa, etc. 

14 Akhasdli Aksapatalika 

Akhasdli (El 7), same as Aksasdlin. 

akincid-grdhya (HRS), same as akincit-kara, 'free from tax'. 

akincit-kara (HRS), same as akificit-grdhya, 'free from tax'. 

akkam (SII 3; SITI), Tamil; name of a coin; one-twelfth 
of a kdsu; a mint (cf. akka-sdld). 

akka-sdld (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; a mint; cf. akkasdlai-vari 
(SITI), charges payable to the mint for minting coins. 

akkasdlavaru (CITD), cf. Telugu agasali, akkasdla, akasdle', 
also Kannada agasdlavddu', a goldsmith or his workshop. 

Akkasdliga (El 7), a goldsmith; same as Aksasdlika. 

akrti (IE 7-1-2), 'twentytwo'. 

aksa, same as suvarna (q.v.). 

aksapatala (BL), the department of records and accounts. 
See Aksapatalika, etc. Cf. Mahdsdndhivigrah-dksapatal-ddhipati. 

aksapatal-dddya (IA 18), levy for the maintenance of the 
aksapatala department or the Patvdrl. Cf. aksapatala-prastha. 

Aksapatal-ddhikrta (CII 3; HD; BL), an officer of the 
aksapatala department or the officer in charge of it; same as 
Aksapatalika, etc. See CII, Vol. Ill, p. 257; Rdjataranginl, 
V. 301, 397-98. 

Aksapatal-ddhipati (BL), the head of the aksapatala 
department; same as Aksapatalin, etc.; also called Aksapdla 
(cf. karana). 

Aksapatal-ddhyaksa (HD), the superintendent of records 
and accounts. Cf. Arthasdstra, II. 7; Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, 
p. 143. 

aksapatala-prastha (I A 18; HRS), contributions paid by 
the villagers at the rate of a prastha of grain (probably, per 
standard measure) for the expenses of the aksapatala department 
(probably for the maintenance of the Patvdrl}. Cf. 

Aksapatalika (El 30; CII 4; HD; BL), same as 
Aksapatal-ddhipati, officer in charge of accounts and records. 
Aksapatala means 'accounts office' (Stein) or 'records office' 
(Biihler). There is Grdm-dksapatalika in the Harsacarita (VII,para. 
2) probably meaning the Patvdrl, and a section on the superin- 
tendent of the aksapatala in the Arthasdstra (II. 7). See Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XX, p. 128; Vol. IX, p. 305. Cf. Mahaksapatalika. 

Aksapatalika (HD), same as Aksapatalika', officer in charge of 
the accounts and records office. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. I, pp. 316, 318. 

A ksapa talin aksaya 1 5 

Aksapatalin (El 19; BL), same as Aksapatal-ddhipati, 

Aksapatalika, etc. 

aksara, cf. hast-dksardni (LP), a deed for borrowing money; 
also krsn-dksardni (LP), the record containing a censure; also 
ujjval-dksardni (LP), a certificate of good conduct; also visuddh- 
dksardni (LP), an acknowledgement. Cf. uttar-dksardni (LP), 
same as Marathi utardi ; probably, a deed by which land is given 
at a favourable rent to merchants, etc., who helped the govern- 
ment with money. 

Cf. gun-dksara, also called guna-patra; see also gupt-dksara. 

aksarapalli (IA 11), the system of writing numbers by 
syllables; name applied to the system of writing numbers as 
found in inscriptions before the popularisation of the decimal 
system, though the symbols employed in the Brahmi inscriptions 
do not appear to be aksaras in all cases. 

Aksasdlika (El 29), same as Aksasdlin, etc.; a goldsmith. 

(HD), explained as 'an officer in charge of the gambling- 

Aksasdlin (El 29; BL), same as Aksasdlika, etc.; a gold- 
smith; from Telugu-Kannada Akkasdle (El 3), Agasdli, etc. 
Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV, p! 173. 

(HD), explained as 'an officer in charge of the gambling 

aksatd (IA11), probably, rice grains mixed with red 

aksata-trtlya (El 24), same as aksaya-trtiyd. 

aksauhim (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

Aksdvdpa (HD), superintendent of gambling. Cf. Hist. 
Dharm., Vol. II, p. 1216; Vol. Ill, p. 112. 

aksayanl) aksayanl (El 32), modified forms of aksaya-nlvi. 

aksqyanidhi-dharma (El 12), same as aksayanwi-dharma 

aksayanlkd (El 30), corrupt form of aksaya-nlvikd, a 
perpetual endowment. 

aksaya-nwi, aksaya-nlvi (CII 3, 4; HRS), a permanent 

aksayanwi-dharma (El 29), the nature of a permanent 
endowment; also called aksayanidhi-dharma (El 12). 

aksaya-nwikd (El 24, 30), same as aksqya-nwi; a perpetual 

1 6 ah ay a a man ta 

aksaya-purnamdsl (El 23), probably, the same as Magha 
su-di 15. 

aksaya-irtlyd (El 4, 23; CII 4; IA 18; BL), same as Vai- 
sakha su-di 3; see aksata-irtlyd. 

aksi (IE 7-1-2), 'two'; cf. netra. 

akslnin (IE 8-5; El 19; SITI), actual or fixed income; 
regarded as one of the eight rights of ownership. Cf. asta-bhoga. 

aksota-bhahga (HRS), same as khota-bhanga and ukkota- 
bhanga (Abhidhdnardjendra, s.v. parihdra). Cf. utkota and bhanga. 

alag-accu (SITI), Tamil; name of a coin. 

alam (CII 1), 'capable'. 

dlambana (LL), the base stone. 

alavana (IA 19), probably a Sanskritised form of aruvana 
(q. V.). 

dlaya, cf. dial (SII 3), a temple; a contraction of dev-dlaya. 
Cf. dyatana, bhavana, pura, etc. 

dlepana (SITI), anointing; coating the image with unguent. 

dli (Chamba), wet land, irrigable land; also called kohli. 

alinl (El 26), 'a swarm of bees'; female Jain devotees. 

allpaka, also read as aliyaka (El 32), a fiscal expression of 
uncertain import; see nidhdn-dlrpaka. The word alipaka means 
'a bee'. Thus alipaka may refer to the right over wax, bee-hives, 
and honey. Aliyaka, from ali, 'a bee', would mean the samething. 

Aliya (El 15), an official title. Cf. alipaka. 

aliyaka^ cf. alipaka. 

allavdta (IE 8-8; El 30), meaning uncertain. 

alpa-bhdndatd (CII 1), moderation in the hoarding of 

alpam-irai (SITI) Sanskrit-Tamil; a minor tax payable 
in grains. 

amd (El 24), abbreviation of amdvdsyd. 

Amaca (HD), Prakrit Amacca = Sanskrit Amdtya (q.v.). 
Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol VIII, pp. 71, 73. 

amalasaraka (CII 4), the circular fluted disc on the spire 
of a temple. 

amaliman (El 12), purity. 

amdnta (CII 3), the technical name for the scheme of the 
lunar months in Southern India, according to which a month 
ends with the new-moon day, and the bright fortnight precedes 
the dark. According to Fleet, it is always this arrangement 

amara amhati 17 

that is taken for calculation in astronomical works, though, even 
in Southern India, the arrangement was not applied to the 
Saka years, for the civil reckoning, till between 804 and 866 
A.D.; on the other hand, according to him, even in Northern 
India, this arrangement was used in Nepal with the years of 
the Newar era, though it was abandoned there when the Newar 
era was followed by the Vikrama era in its northern 
variety. For its prevalence in Indonesia, see Set. Ins., p. 470. 

amara (IE 7-1-2), 'thirty three' [being the original 
number of the gods]. 

(SITI; ASLV), land or revenue granted by a ruler to his 
retainers for military service; land assigned to military officers 
who were entitled to collect only certain revenues with the 
obligation to raise a contingent of army ready for service when- 
ever called upon and also to pay tribute to the king; same as 
amara-mdgani. Cf. Amara-ndyaka. 

amara-mdgani (SITI; ASLV), same as amara; estate 
given to an Amara-ndyaka. 

Amara-ndyaka (El 16; SITI; ASLV), a retainer chief 
enjoying amara, i.e. land or its revenue, for military service 
to be rendered to his master. 

amdri-rudhi (El 11), Jain; an edict for the non- 
slaughter [of animals]. 

Amdtya (IE 8-3; El 28, 30; CII 3, 4; BL; HD; LL), a 
minister; sometimes, officer in charge of a district; explained 
as des-ddi-kdrya-nirvdhaka; in some cases, called Sarvddhikdrin, 
etc., additionally. Cf. Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, p. 114, note 150. 
See Mahdmdtya. 

amdtya-sabhd (EL 32), same as mantri-parisad. 

amdvdsyd, cf. sasthi amdvdsyd, caturthl-amdvdsyd, nava rdtri- 
amdvdsyd, mahdnav ami- amdvdsyd, etc. 

ambaka (IE 7-1-2), 'two'; cf. netra. 

ambd-kapllikd, same as dmra-pipllikd (q. v.) . 

ambara (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher'. 

ambhonidhi (IE 7-1-2), 'four'; cf. sdgara. 

ambikd-janika (CII 1), 'mothers and wives'; women in 

ambudhi (IE 7-1-2), 'four'; see sdgara. 

amburdsi (IE 7-1-2), 'four'; see sdgara. 

amhati, also spelt arhhiti (El 4), a gift. 

1 3 ami amukdka 

ami (El 28), same as Arabic amin; an officer of the 
revenue or judicial department. 

Amlra (IA 11), Indianised form of Arabic Amir; often 
found in the form Hammira in Indian records and rarely as 
Hambira, Hawmra and Aharhvira (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 1 78) . 

amma (El 24), literally 'the mother'; a village goddess. 

Ammanagandhavdrana (IE 8-2), Kannada-Sanskrit; 
'the musk-elephant of the father'; subordinate title; also found 
in the form Appanagandhavdrana. 

dmndta (El 12), cf. sri-Mdlava-gan-dmndte prasaste Krta- 
sarhjnite; explained as 'authoritatively laid down' or 'constantly 
used'; cf. sthiti. 

dmndya (CII 4), a Jain sub-sect. 

(IA 20), same as kula or kula-krama; generations, succes- 

dmra-pipilika, cf. amba-kapllika (El 2; CII 1), usually 
interpreted as 'the mother-ant' ; but really, big red ants generally 
living in large numbers on mango trees. See Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXXV, pp. 99-100. 

dmredana (El 12), repetition. 

amrta-gana (SII 12), same as Tamil amirta-ganattdr 
(SITI), members of the committee for the management 
of village affairs; members in charge of the cash-receipts of 
a temple. 

amrta-padi, cf. Tamil amuda-ppadi (SII 1 ; SITI), raw rice; 
food offering to a deity; (CITD), padi is an allowance in food 
(i.e. all the necessary commodities to prepare a meal) and some- 
times also in money and amuda-padi is an endowment often 
made in favour of a deity for daily offering of food as bhoga, etc. 

amrta-yoga (El 9), a particular time regarded as auspicious. 

amsa, a small territorial unit (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 297, 
text line 26). 

Amsa-brhadbhogika (IE 8-3; El 28). probably, the share- 
holder of a big jdglr. See Bhagika. 

arhsa-gana (El 33) ; a class of metres; cf. mdtrd-gana. 

Amsapati (El 30), co-sharer of a gift land. 

amsuka-bhdnddra-karana, cf. karana (LP); the department 
of clothes. 

amukdka-sakta (LP), 'belonging to a certain man', sakta 
being often used for satka. 

andcchedya -anga 19 

andcchedya (IE 8-5), 'uncurtailable'; e not to be resumed'; 
epithet of gift land. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 267, note 4. 

anddesya (El 12), 'not to be pointed out (or, ordered)'; 
epithet of gift land ; same as anirdesya. 

andhdrya (IE 8-5), 'unresumbale'; epithet of gift land. 

anaka, see anna. 

anaka, anikd (El 20), Prakrit suffixes to male and female 
names respectively, known from early South Indian inscrip- 
tions; same as annaka, annikd. 

anala (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 
dnanda-nidhi (El 24), a gift. 
dnandathu (El 12), joy. 
ananta (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher'. 

ananta-nidhi (El 24), mistake for dnanda-nidhi. 

dnantarya (CII 1), quickness. 

andsedhya (Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 267, note 4), free from 
legal restraints (e.g. kdl-dsedha, 'limitation of time'; sthdn- 
dsedha 'confinement to a place'; pravds-dsedha, 'prohibition of 
removal or departure'; and karm-dsedha 'restriction from 
employment'); epithet of gift land. 

andtha-sarhraksana (El 23), 'protection of the helpless', 
mentioned as the purpose of a donation. 

dnatti (SITI), Tamil; Sanskrit djnapti; an executor of 
order; royal order. 

andvdsa (CII 1), 'habitation which is quite unsuitable for 

andhdruvd, dndhdruvd (IE 8-5; El 12), variant readings 
of arthdruvd or drthdruvd (q.v.); Odiya name of a tax. 

Andhra-danda (IE 8-5), a tax; cf. Turuska-danda and 
Tigula-danda. There is also reference to 'an assembly of 
Andhra-danda', the meaning of which is doubtful unless danda 
is taken here in the sense of 'an army'. 

andikd, weight equal to J of a mdsa (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 
48); same as the copper pana (ibid., Vol. II, p. 7); also called 
dhdnaka and regarded as equal to 4 kdrsdpanas or to i^-th 
arna (ibid., p. 8). 

anekdnta-mata (SII 1), same as syddvddi-mata (q. v.). 

Anesdhini-vergada (A. R. Ep., 1958-59, p. 12), Kannada; 
official designation; same as Sanskrit Gaja-sddhanik-adhyaksa, 

anga (IE 7-1-2), 'six'. 

20 anga anga 

(El 15), an abbreviation of anga-bhoga -, cf. gdtra (IA 1 1 ). 

anga-bhoga (El 17; CITD), often associated with ranga- 
bhoga as anga-r anga-bhoga, usually explained as 'decora- 
tions and illuminations of a deity'. That anga-bhoga means 
decoration of the image of a deity is clear from the fact 
that a queen is known to have received a village as an agrahdra 
for her anga-bhoga, i.e. as her pin-money (Bomb. Gaz., Vol. I, 
Part ii, p. 448). Sometimes the land granted for the anga- 
bhoga of a deity came to be known as the deity's anga-bhoga 
(Ep. 2nd., Vol. XXXIII, p. 182); cf. anga, same as gdtra 
(IA 11). 

angada-siddhdya (CITD), Telugu-Sanskrit; fixed revenue 
from shops. 

anga-devatd (SITI), attendant deity of a superior god; 
same as parivdra-devatd. 

Angaja (El 16), same as the god Kama. 

anga-mani (SITI), property owned by a woman; cf. 
anga-mani-dravya (SITI), dowry. 

Anga-niguhaka (BL), an official designation of uncertain 
import; probably, a kind of spies. 

aiigdra, angdraka, cf. a-carm-dngdraka (IE 8-5; El 15); 
charcoal for cooking, which the villagers were obliged to supply 
to the king or landlord on occasions or to the touring officers. 

anga-racand (HA), adorning of the various limbs of an 
image of the Jina with marks of sandal paste or leaves of gold, 
silver, etc., and with additional ornaments^ 

Angaraka (SII 11-1), corruption of Angaraksa (q.v.J. 

angdrakl (IA 26), same as ba-di 4. 

Angaraksa, Angaraksaka (IE 8-3; El 15, 29; SITI), 
body-guard ; the king's body-guard, or the head of the body 

anga-r anga-bhoga (El 23; SII 1), decorations and illumi- 
nations of a deity; various kinds of enjoyment provided for a 
deity; sometimes explained as 'worship to include all kinds of 
enjoyments' (SITI). Cf. anga-bhoga-ranga-bhoga, rang-dnga- 
bhoga, etc. 

anga-ranga-bhoga-vaibhava (El 3; SII 1 ; SITI), enjoyments 
of all kinds provided for a deity; same as ahga-r anga-bhoga. 

anga-ranga-vaibhoga (El 3; SII 1; SITI), same as anga- 
ranga-bhoga, i.e. anga-bhoga and ranga-bhoga. 

a'hga anka 21 

ariga-sdld (SITI), same as anka- sold. 

Anga-vaidya (SITI), same as Tamil Ahga-vavicciyar \ a 

Angikaranika (IE 8-3), officer in charge of administering 
oaths in a court of law. 

angula, anguli (IE 8-6), a linear measure equal to the 
breadth of the middle finger. 

anguli (IE 7-1-2), 'ten'; sometimes used to indicate 

Aniketos (IE 8-2), Greek; royal title; 'unopposed'; 
translated into Prakrit as Apadihata (Sanskrit Apratihata). 

animes-dnokaha (El 4), same as sura-druma, i.e. kalpa-vrksa. 

Anivartaka-nivartayitr (CII 4), 'repellerof the unrepellable' ; 
title of a ruler. 

anivrtti (LP), anxiety. 

aniyata, cf. niyat-dniyata (IE 8-5); occasional taxes. 

aniyukta (IA 9), cf. niyukt-dniyukta-rdjapurusa; probably 
refers to officials of the king, who were not actually appointed 
by the government, but occupied posts by virtue of heredity 
or election. 

anjasta-sabhd, anjasta-sattu-sabhai (SITI), Tamil- Sanskrit; 
village committee of five or eight members. Cf. panca-kula 
and asta-kula. 

anjuvannam (SITI; El 35), Tamil; Sanskrit panca-varna; the 
five artisan classes; called hanjamdna in Kannada inscriptions; 
sometimes regarded as a form of Persian anjuman. 

anka (IA 19), a name, appelation or biruda. 

(IE 7-1-12; CII 4), 'nine'. 

Cf. anke, ankena, ankatah (IA 15), 'in figures'. 

Of. anka, abbreviation of Telugu-Kannada ankakdra; same 
as Sanskrit ganda (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 270), 'a hero, 
champion or warrior'. Sec ankakdra. 

anka-danda-khanc'ana, translated as 'faults, fines and 
divisions'; cf. panch-dnga-prasdda. 

ankakdra (El 3, 4), a champion; same as Telugu-Kannada 
ankakdra, sometimes explained as 'a soldier or warrior who took 
a vow to defend his master and fight in the latter's cause to 
death' (Hyderabad Archaeological Series, No. 18, p. 34). See anka. 

anka-sdld (SITI), probably, the place where duels were 
fought; cf. anga-sdld. 

2 2 anna A ntapdla 

anna, Anglicised form of dnaka; .roth of a rupee (JNS1, 
Vol. XV, p. 142). 

annaka, annikd, cf. anaka, anikd. 

Annanasimha (IE 8-2), Kannada; 'the lion of the brother'; 
a subordinate title. Cf. Ayyanasimha. 

anta (IE 8-4; CII 1), a state beyond the borders of one's 
territories, or a bordering district; also its people; cf. pratyanta. 

(CII 1), cf. Anta-mahdmdtra, officer employed in districts 
bordering on the frontiers of one's kingdom. 

(El 3), a neighbour. 

antah-kara (CII 4), explained as 'excise duty'; probably, 
'internal revenue' or revenue income; same as antar-dya, antar- 
dddya, abhyantar-dddya, etc.; cf. antah-kara-mstika (El 6), antara 
(El 15), etc. 

Antah-pratlhdra (IE 8-3), officer in charge of defending the 
back gate of the palace or of the palace-gates as distinguished 
from the gates of the capital city. 

antahpura, cf. karana (LP); the royal harem. 

(ML), the household; same as avarodhana in Asoka's 

Antahpur-adhyaksa (IE 8-3; El 13; SII 11-2), superinten- 
dent of the royal harem; same as Antahpurika, Stryadhyaksa, etc., 
and Sanskrit-Kannada Antahpura-vergade (IE 8-3); sometimes 
also called Mahdpradhdna, Mahdpasdyita, Heri-Ldla-Kannada- 
sandhivigrahin, Mane-vergade, etc., additionally. 

Antahpurika (El 13, 14, 18, 19, 23; HD), officer in charge 
of the royal harem; cf. Antahpur-adhyaksa, etc. Cf. Ep. Ind., 
Vol. IX, p. 305. 

Antahpura-mahdmdtra (HD), officer in charge of the royal 
harem, mentioned in the Masulipatam plates of Amma II 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV, p. 276). Cf. Stryadhyaksa-mahdmdtra 
of Rock Edict XII of A'oka (CII 1). 

antah-siddhika (CII 4), same as abhyantara-siddhika . 

Anta mahdmdtra (IE 8-3; CII 1), executive officers in 
charge of the bordering districts of an empire and probably not 
ambassadors at the courts of neighbouring kings. Cf. Antapdla. 

Antapdla (El 9), frontier guard; explained by some as 
'an officer in charge of the boundaries' (HD). Cf. Arthasdstra, 
I. 12 (one of the 18 tlrthas); II. 21; V, 1; Kamandaka, XII. 
5; Mdlavikdgnimitra, Act I. See Anta-mahdmdtra. 

totlara anubhavana 23 

antara (CII 1), a period of time. 

(El 15), name cf a tax; cf. antar-dddya, antah-kara, etc. 

antara (CII 1), 'in the interval'. 

antar-dddya (CII 4), explained as 'excise duty'; but same 
as antah-kara^ abhy antar-dddya, etc. 

antardla (El 1), part of a temple; cf. antardla-mandapa. 

antardla-mandapa (SITI ), portion of a temple connecting the 
garbha-grha and the mukha-mandapa\ also called ardha-mandapa. 

Antaranga (IE 8-3; BL), explained as 'a privy councillor 
or a physician', though the same person is known to be called 
Rdja-vaidya (i.e. the royal physician) and Antaranga; probably 
a private secretary; but mentioned along with Vaisvdsika 
(El 3); regarded by some as a class of royal servants very 
intimate with the king, probably the same as Abhy antara (HD). 
Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 286; Vol. XII, p. 99. 

dntardvaddi (IE 8-5; El 12; 33), a variant reading of 
dturdvaddi (q.v.); name of a tax; cf. rintakdbaidi. 

antara-viniyoga (SITI), individual share to make up the 
shortage in the total revenue occasioned by the grant of exemp- 
tion of antar-dya or ulvari. 

antar-dya (El 22, 23; SII 1, 2), explained as 'a tax', 
'revenue* or 'a kind of revenue'; same as antar-dddya; also 
explained as internal revenue or taxes levied by local bodies, 
called ulvari in Tamil (SITI). 

antardya-kkdsu, antaraya-ppditam (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; 
explained as 'internal taxes or minor taxes like the profession 
tax, etc., payable to the village assembly'. 

antarikd (CII 1), a period of time passed. 

antariksa (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher'. 

antanpa (El 12), an island. 

Antorvarhsika (HD), officer in charge of the inner apart- 
ments or harem. See Arthasdstra, I. 12 (mentioned among 
the 18 tirthas) ; Kddambari (para. 88); Dasakumdracarita, III; 
cf. Antarvesika in the Amarakosa, Ksatriya-varga, 8. 

Antevdsin (LL), a male pupil. 

Antevdsirii (El 25; LL), a female pupil. 

anubandha (CII 1), same as krama, order. 

(SITI), help. 

anubhavana (I A 18), 'the time or period of office [of a 

24 anubhoga Anusenapati 

anubhoga-ppavY-o\ugu (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; renewal 
of title deeds. 

anucita (SITI), evil; damage. 

anudhyai (IE 8-2), 'to meditate', etc.; 'to favour', etc.; 
cf. anudhydya (IE 8-2), 'having favoured' ; also Svdmi-Mahdsena- 
Mdtrgan-dnudhydt-dbhisikta (IE 8-2), 'favoured and anointed 
[as king] by the lord Mahasena and the Mothers'; also 
anudadhyuh (IE 8-2), same as anujagrhuh, '[they] favoured'. 
See anudhydna; also pdd-dnudhydta. 

anudhydna (IE 8-2), same as anugraha \ favour. 

anudhydna-rata (IE 8-2), see pdd-dnudhydna-rata, 'engaged 
in meditating on the feet of. 

anudhydta (IE 8-2), see pdd-dnudhydla. 

anudhyeya (IE 8-2), same as anugrdhya\ 'to be favoured'. 

anudivasam (CII 1), daily. 

anudris, cf. anudarsayanti (El 15), 'inform [as follows]'. 

anuga-jivita, spelt in Kannada as anuga-jlvila or anumga-jivita 
(SII 11-1), a fief held by a king's subordinate for his main- 
tenance; similar to bila-vrtti, bil-dnuvrtti. 

anugraha (IE 8-2), same as anudhydna ; favour. 

anugraha-sthiti-pdtra (IE 8-5), same as sthiti-pdtra or 
dcdra-sthiti-pdtra (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 169). 

anugrdhya (IE 8-2), same as anudhyeya, 'to be favoured'. 

anuja (Ep. Ind., Vol XXXIII, p. 271), a younger cousin. 

anuloma (CII 4), name of a kind of marriage, in which the 
bride belongs to a lower social order than the bridegroom. 

anunidhydpti, cf. anunijhapayati (CII 1 ) ; explanation or 
exhortation; cf. nidhydpti. 

anupratipatti, cf. dharm-dnupralipatti (CII 1), practice of 

anupurv', cf. samvatsarah dvitlyah hemanta-paksah caturthah 
tithir=dasami anay=dnupurvyd. Cf. purvd. 

anurupa (CII 1), adequate. 

anusamydna (CII 1), a tour. 

anusandhdna, recitation (A.R.Ep., 1959-60, No. B 33 .'). 

anusds (CII 1), 'to inculate'. 

anusdsana, anusdsand (CII 1), same as anusasti, inculcation. 

anusasti (CII 1), inculcation, instruction; same as anusdsana. 

Anusenapati (El 18), probably, a subordinate of the 
Sendpati (q.v.). 

anus tub h apohana 


anustubh (IE 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

anutdra (SITI), protection, guardianship. 

Anulpanna-ddna-samudgrdhaka, an official title (Ghoshal, 
H. Rev. Syst., pp. 221-22); officer engaged in the forcible 
collection of unrealised ddna (q. v.). 

anuttara (El 18), penance. 

anuvahj cf. anuvahamdnaka (El 15), literally , 'flowing on'; 
but actually, 'ever-prospering'. 

anuvarttand (SITI), a class of contingent dues which come 
under the head varttand (q.v.). 

anuvidhd (Gil 1), 'to conform to'. 

anuvrtti, same as vrtti; cf. bila-vrtti, bil-dnuvrtti (SII 11-1). 

anvaya (El 33; SII 1 ), a [spiritual] race; a Jain sect. 

anya-jdta (HRS), accidental revenue; one of the three 
kinds of revenue specified in the Arthasdstra. 

anyat, 'another thing' (Ind. Ep. 3 p. 133, note 2). 

anyathd (LP), 'quite changed'. 

anyatra (CII 1), 'excluding'. 

apabhdra (El 8), a burden. 

apacdra (IE 8-5), same as aparddha; cf. das-dpacdra (El 
15), same as das-dparddha. 

apaddna, cf. dharm-dpaddna (CII 1 ) ; a noble deed. 

apagratha (CII 1), same as upaghdta; injury. 

apakrsta (CII 1), distant. 

dpana (IE 8-5), a shop. 

(CII 4), a market. 

dpdna (El 2; CII 1), a watering station or shed. 

aparddha, see das-dparddha (IE 8-5). 

apara-paksa (IA 16), used to indicate 'the dark 

aparigodha (CII 1), same as aparibodha. 

aparipanthya (IE 8-5), 'not to be troubled'; an epithet of 
gift land. 

apasaraka (El 1), probably, a porch or portico. 

apatya (CII 1), descendants. 

apavdha (CII 1), the act of carrying away [as a prisoner], 

apavaraka, cf. Prakrit ovaraka (El 20; LL), a cell. 

apavinch, cf. apavinchya (El 15), 'having separated'. 

abohana (SITI), waste or uncultivated; cf. Tamil agovana, 
waste land. 

26 Apracardja aramika 

Apracardja (IE 8-2, 8-3), Prakrit; Sanskrit Apratyagrdja 

apradd (El 15) '[gift land] not to be alienated'; same as 
nwi ; sometimes used as an epithet of aksaya-nwi 

apradd-dharma (El 15), custom regarding inalienable 
gift land; same as nwl-dharma. 

aprahata (El 15), uncultivated; same as khila. 

aprahartr (CII 1), 'one who observes or maintains'. 

Apratihata, see Aniketos. 

apratikara (HRS), explained as 'without the right of 
alienation' ; 'without yield of revenue' ; but cf. pratikara. 

apratisthdpita ( ML ) , non-interred . 

Apratyagrdja, 'having no rival among kings'; feudatory title. 

dptakriya (LA 18), a trusty agent. 

abtoryama (CII 3), name of a sacrifice. 

apurva, cf. apurva-Brdhmana (IA 18), a new Brahmana who 
was not fed on a previous occasion and is not to be fed again. 

apurvin, apuri (SITI), a Brahmana well-versed in the 
Vedas on a visit to holy shrines. 

aputra-dhana (IE 8-5; El 25; CII 4), confiscation of the 
property of one dying without leaving a son or an heir. 

aputrikd-dhana (El 3; CII 4; HRS), same as aputra-dhana ; 
the property of persons who died sonless, which the king could 
confiscate; escheat of the property of females. 

aputrika-dravya (El 20), escheat property. 

drddh (CII 1), 'to attain'; cf. svargam=drddhayantu\ also 
drdddha (CII 1), 'obtained'. 

Arddhya (El 15), 'the worshipful one'; title of certain 
aivite Brahmanas of Karnataka. 

araghatta (El 10, 14, 22), a water-drawing machine; a 
well with a water-wheel. 

Araks-ddhikrta (IE 8-3) ; cf. Prakrit Arakh-ddhikata (El 2), a 
police officer ; a magistrate looking after the maintenance of law 
and order, or the chief of the king's body-guards; same as 

Araksika (El 10), cf. Prakrit Arakhiya (El 2), a police 
officer; same as Araks-ddhikrta^ and also Taldra (q. v.) and 
Dandapdsika (q.v.); cf. ///Q,, December 1960, p. 266. 

drama (LL), a park. 

(ML), a grove or monastery. 

dranya ardhodaya 27 

drdmika (LL), a gardener. 

aranya (IE 8-5), a jungle. 

Aranyaka (LL), a Buddhist hermit. 

drati, drti (El 1), a lamp; same as drdtrika. 

drdtrika (SII 1), same as nirdjaw, cf. mangal-drdtrika 
(El 4), 'a lamp used in waving before an idol' ; also the rite. 

area (El 24), the image of a god; cf. area, adoration. 

arcd-desa (El 24), an object of adoration. 

arcand-bhoga (El 23), offerings to be made to a deity 
at the time of worship. 

(SII 3, 12; SITI), land set apart for meeting the expenses 
of worship (arcana] in the temple; an endowment created for 
conducting worship; same as arcand-vrtti. 

arcand-vibhava-kdni (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; rent-free 
land granted to temple priests. 

arcand-vrtti (SII 3; SITI); see arcand-bhoga. 

ardha-candra (SITI), literally, 'half-moon'; a part of 
the tiruvdsi', a variety of ornament. 

(SII 2), the arch of an aureola. 

ardha-jd(yd)ma (SII 13), midnight; midnight service in a 
temple; cf. ardhajdma-ppuram (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; land set 
apart for conducting the midnight worship in temples. 

ardha-kdkini (CII 4), the half of a kdkinl\ name of a coin. 

ardha-namasya-vrtti (IE 8-5); see namasya-vrtti; a gift 
land, taxed at half of the normal rate; cf. panndsa. 

Ardhandrlsvara (CII 4), a form of Siva, in which 
the bodies of Siva and Parvati are combined into one. 

Ardha-nauvdtaka (El 28), official designation; mention- 
ed together with Nauvdtaka probably in the sense of an o'fficer 
in command of half of a fleet. 

ardhdngl (SITI), wife. 

ardha-purusdrika (CII 4), name of a tax. 

ardha-sirika (El 9), same as drdhika. 

ardha-srotikd (El 4), probably, a small stream or half 
of a river bed. 

ardha-titlya (CII Ij, two and a half. 

drdhika (El 9), a cultivator who tills other's lands and 
gets half the crop as his share. 

Cf. Prakrit addhika (El 1), a slave. 

ardhodaya (El 5), the new-moon tithi falling on a 

28 ardra Arthalekhin 

Sunday when, during day time, the naksatra is Sravana and 
iht yoga Vyatipata. 

drdrd (SITI), Tamil dtrai; probably, the expenses for 
the drdrd festival in the month of Margali. 

argala (I A 19), a check; used in certain dates and 
translated as 'checked by' ; cf. dvy-argala-catvdrirhsat-samadhika- 
vatsara-sahasra, 'one thousand years, increased by forty [which 
have run into and are] checked by two', i.e. the year 1042. 

argha-vancana (El 30), probably, fraud committed 
in respect of the price of articles. 

Arhad-dcdrya (El 29), a Buddhist or Jain teacher. 

Ardhad-dyatana (LL), a Jain temple. 

Arhad-ddsa, a Jain monk; cf. Arhad-ddsL 

Arhad-ddsl (El 10), a Jain nun. 

Arhat (IE 7-1-2;, 'twentyfour'. 

(CII 3; LL), Buddhist and Jain; a class of saints. 

ari (IE 7-1-2), 'six'; cf. ari-sad-varga. 

ari-sad-varga, also called ari-satka (CII 3), the group 
of six enemies, viz. kdma, krodha, lobha, etc. 

Arjuna-kara A (IE 7-1-2), 'one thousand'. 

Arka (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'twelve'. 

(El 7), explained as 'metal' in relation to Arkasdlika. 

Arkasdlika (El 7), same as Akkasdliga, Aksasdlika; a 

Arkasdlin (BL), same as Aksasdlin; a goldsmith. 

Arkasdlin (El 29), same as Aksasdlin; a goldsmith. 

arnava (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

arnikd, weight equal to 2 masas (JJVS7, Vol. VI, p. 46). 

drogya-daksind (ML), the gift of health. 

drogya-sdld (El 24; ASLV), hospital; cf. Rangddhip- 
drogyasdld (El 24), 'the hospital of [the god] Ranganatha 
[at Srirangam]'. 

Arohaka (El 27), official designation; possibly, same as 

artha (IE 7-1-2), 'five', 

(CII 1), a cause or matter. 

(CII 1 ), business. 

Arth-dbhiyukta (IE 8-8), an accused. 

artha-karman (CII 1), performance of duty. 

Arthalekhin (CII 4), a secretary. 

arthdruvd dsana 29 

arthdnwd (IE 8-5; El 28), a tax of uncertain import; 
probably, Sanskrit artha-riipyaka in the sense of a levy from the 
money-lenders on the amounts loaned out ; also read as andhd- 
ruvd; see praty arthdnwd. 

artiga, a lover (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 58). 

aruhana (El 27;, probably, the tax also called aruvana. 

aruvana (El 27} , same as Tamil aruvana (IA 19 J, 
the tax of six panas levied on mdnya lands. 

Arya (CII 1 j, same as Vaisya. 

drya, cf. Tamil ayyar (El 25), the father. 

Cf. bhadatasa aya-Isipdlitasa, 'of the Reverend Lord 

Rsipalita' (Lid. Ant., Vol. XI, p. 29). 

(SII 1), a [Jain] saint. 

dryd, cf. di (El 9), the mother. 

drya-guru, cf. ajja-gum (El 5), 'a grandfather preceptor'; 
preceptor's preceptor. 

aryaka, Prakrit ajjaka, ayyaka (El 20, 28; CII 3; I A 15), 
the grandfather; father's father. Cf. prdrya, dryikd. 

Cf. Prakrit ajjaka (El 24), an ascetic. 

dryakd, cf. Prakrit ajjaka (El 24), Sanskrit dryikd; 
a female ascetic of the Jain order. 

Arya-putra, Prakrit Aya-puta (IE 8-2; El 3; HD), 
probably, title of a son of the ruling king. Cf. CII, Vol. I, 
p. 175. 

arya-samgha (CII 3), 'the community of the faithful 
(i.e. the Buddhist monks)'. 

drya-satya, cf. Pali ariya-sacca (El 5), Buddhist; four 
in number. 

dryikd, cf. Prakrit dyikd (El 20, 28), the grandmother; 
'father's mother'; mentioned side by side with mahdmdtrkd, 
'mother's mother' (Select Inscriptions, p. 225). 

asa (IE 7-1-2), 'ten'. 

Asamiyd, see Assamese. 

asampratipatti (CII 1), unseemly behaviour. 

dsana (IE 8-8), a seat. 

Cf. a-cdr-dsana-carm-dngdra (IE 8-5; El 15), probably, 
camping [of the royal officers in a village]; dsana-carma is 
sometimes taken as one expression meaning 'a hide seat'. 

dsana-patta (El 23, 24), a seat; a slab used as a seat. 

dsana-plthikd (LL), a bench for sitting. 

30 a- sdnmdsika asta 

d-sdnmdsika (CII 1 ), 'less than six months in age'. 

Asdpdla (HD), 'the guardian of the quarters'; a chief 
ruling over 10,000 villages, according to the Sukramtisdra, I. 192. 

asdtand (HA), Jain; disrespect or disobedience. 

Asedhabhafig-ddhihrta (IE 8-3; EI31) r a police officer 
to check people's escape from prison or legal restraint. 

asesa-mahdsabda (IE 8-2), same as panca-mahdiabda. 

asesa-vidya (SII 1), belonging to all the branches of 
sacred studies. 

asi-danda-prahdra (LP), war. 

asidhdrd-vrata (El 16), name of a vow. 

dsihdra, cf. udak-dsihdra-kullaka; probably, a kind of 

asina (JAHRS, Vol. IX, Part i, p. 31, text line 12), 
literally 'seated'; downcast, dejected. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXXV, pp. 264-65. 

dsnava (CII 1), sin. 

dsphotana (SII 1), a challenge. 

dsrama (El 13) a stage of life; a religious establishment 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 67); cf. Candik-dsrama-guru (IA 11), 
'the Superior of the hermitage of Candika'. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

dsraya (IA 20), subdivision of a visaya. 

Cf. dsiriyam, dsiriya-kkal, dsiriya-ppramdnam (SITI), a 
document by which a person submits to another's protection. 

Assamese, same as Asamiyd', language and alphabet of 
Assam, the alphabet being sometimes called Bengali- Assamese. 

asta, cf. asta-bhoga, probably 'all kinds of enjoyment' 
(and not merely 'eight' kinds) ensuring tejah-svdmya or owner- 
ship endowed with complete authority. Cf. astddasa, etc. 

dsta-bhdgika (CII 1), '[a village] paying one-eighth 
of the produce [instead of the usual rate of one-sixth or so]'. 

asta-bhoga (IE 8-5; El 14, 17), privileges of the donee 
of a rent-free holding, believed to be grouped into eight 
classes which are sometimes enumerated as nidhi, niksepa, jala, 
pdsdna, akslnin, dgdmin, siddha and sddhya. Cf. aisvary-dstaka 
and asta-bhuti (El 33); also astabhoga-tejahsvdmya. 

(CITD), the eight privileges associated with the enjoy- 
ment of rent-free land, also enumerated as ( 1 ) nidhi (a 
treasure or a hoard, i.e. a natural hoard such as a mine), 

astabhoga as td 'das 'a 3 1 

(2) niksepa (a treasure hidden or stored up by some one), 

(3) aksina (permanent or lasting benefits), (4) dgdmin (future 
benefits); (5) sancita (benefits already stored up), (6) jala 
(waters); (7) taru (trees) and (8) pdsana (stones). See 

JAHRS, Vol. X, p. 124. Pdsdr.a seems to mean 'hilly area'. 

(SITI), eight kinds of rights in enjoying landed property; 
mentioned sometimes as vikraya, ddna, vinimaya, jala, taru, 
pdsana, nidhi and niksepa, and also as nidhi, niksepa, jaldmrta, 
pdsana, aksmin, dgdmin, siddha and sddhya. 

astabhoga-tejahsvdmya (IA 8), unbridled ownership 
endowed with all the rights associated with the enjoyment of 
property ; translated as 'with the eight rights of full possession' 
though asta probably means 'all' and not merely 'eight 5 (cf. 
astddasa, etc.); cf. astabhoga-tejahsvdmyam ca krayen=dddya (El 
23), 'having secured the aslabhoga-tejahsvdmya rights by pur- 
chase'; (IA 19), translated as 'the proprietorship of all the 
glory of the asta-bhoga? , and asta-bhoga explained as 'the 
deposits of buried treasure (nidhi-niksepa}, water, stones, the 
aksini, that which may accrue, that which has been made 
property, that which may be made property, and augmen- 
tation'. But there is probably no justification for taking 
nidhi-niksepa as a single unit. 

Cf. astabhoga-tejassvdmya-dandasulka-yukta (Ind. Ant., 
Vol. XIX, p. 247, text line 102), mentioned along with nidhi- 
niksepa-pdsdn-drdm-ddi-catus-prakdra-biravana-pdnkh-dya-sahita. The 
separate mention of these two groups shows that asta-bhoga 
vaguely indicated all kinds of proprietary rights. 

asta-bhuti (El 33), same as asta-bhoga. 

astddasa, cf. astddasa-jdti-parihdra (IE 8-5); literally, 
'eighteen*; actually, 'all' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 115). Cf. 
Odiya athara-gadajdta (El 26). See asta, sattrimsat, satpancdsat, 
bdhattara, etc. 

astddasa-dosa (SII 1 ), the eighteen or all sins. 

astddasa-jdti (CITD), same as astddasa-prajd', the 18 
castes. Kittel enumerates the 18 castes of the Kannada- 
speaking area as the Brahman a, Ksatriya, Vaisya, Liiigavanta, 
Banajige, Garigadikara-vokkaliga, Madivali, Kelasiga, Kuruba, 
Kumbara, Katuka, Badagi, Akkasale, Toreya, Uppara, Besta, 
Holeya and Madiga. But really the number 18 means 'all' 
in such cases. The number 36 has the same meaning in the 

32 astddasa astdnga 

Bengali expression chatris-jdti, '36 castes'. See Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXX, p. 115. 

astddasa-prajd (CITD), same as astddas'a-jdti, astddasa- 

astddasa-prakrti, cf. s-dstddasa-prakrty=opeta (El 2); 
all classes of tenants; tenants belonging to all cummunities. 
(I A 17), 'the eighteen (i.e. all) officials (i.e. classes of 
officials) 5 . 

asta-diggaja (El 33), eight poets at king Krsnadevaraya's 
court at Vijayanagara. 

asta-giri (IA 22), the mythical Sun-set mountain. 

dst-dhikd (El 8), Jain festival; same as ast-dhnika (q. v.). 

ast-dhnika, ast-dhnika (El 8, 33), Jain festival held in the 
months of Phalguna, Asadha and Karttika; also called ast- 
dhnika-parvan', same as atthdi-mahotsava. See the Halsi plates 
of Kadamba Ravivarman (c. 490-538 A.D.) in Ind. Ant., 
Vol. VI, pp. 25-26. Cf The Successors of the Sdtavdhanas, 
p. 271; Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 47 and note; cf. p. xvi. 

astaka (El 7), same as ba-di 8; worship of the manes 
with oblations to them. 

Cf. altagam (S1I 13), division of land, and attagattdr 
(SII 13), share-holders in a land. See dvddasaka. 

asta-kula, cf. Tamil ur-ettu (SITI); the committee of eight 
members of the village assembly (fir); taxes payable for the 
expenses of the committee (cf. en-per-dyam which may also refer 
to the eight major items of revenue). See anjasta-sabhd. 

Cf. astakul-ddhikarana (IE 8-3; El 31), an administrative 
board (like the Pancdyat] consisting of eight (or more) 
members representing various classes or communities of people; 
cf. grdm-dsta-kul-ddhikarana ; mahattar-ddy-astakul-ddhikarana. 

astami-paksa (CII 1), used to indicate paks-dstami, i.e. 
the eighth tithi of each fortnight. 

astamba, cf. samudaya-bdhy-ddy-astamba (El 23), 'land 
originally devoid of vegetation which does not yield any 
revenue to the State'. 

astamikd, same as satamdna (q. v.). 

astdnga (CITD), the eight constituents of yoga consisting 
of (1) niyama (restraint of the mind), (2) dsana (a parti- 
cular posture or mode of sitting), (3) pranqyama (restraining or 
suspending the breath during the mental recitation of the names 

astangaasti 33 

or attributes of a deity), (4) yama (self-control), (5) pratyd- 
hdra (restraining the organs), (6) dhdrana (the faculty of 
retaining in the mind, steady abstraction of mind), (7) 
dhydna (abstract contemplation, religious meditation), and 
(8) samddhi (perfect absorption of thought in the one object 
of meditation, i.e. the Supreme Spirit) ; mentioned in connec- 
tion with obeisance, it means the 8 parts of the body, viz., the 
two hands, chest, forehead, two knees and two feet (cf. astanga- 
namaskdra ) . 

astdnga-bhakti-krama (El 19), eight forms of worship; 
same as as fa- vidh- arcana, etc. 

astdnga-namaskdra (HA), obeisance with the eight 
limbs (viz. forehead, chest, two hands, two knees and two feet) 
done by lying straight on the ground, face downwards. See 

asta-paripdlana (SITI), deities of the eight cardinal 
points; same as asta-dikpdla. 

Astaprahdrika (IA 17), probably an official designation; 
may be derived from asfa-prahara; probably 'a watchman'. 
The correct form would, in that case, be dstaprdharika, etc. 

astaprdharikd, astapraharikyd (LP), 'within 24 hours'. 

asta-puspikd (El 15), 'eightfold offering of flowers'. 

Astdvadhdna (IA 11), one who has the power of 
listening and grasping eight things at a time; epithet of a poet. 

Astavargika (IE 8-3; El 7), probably, the superintendent 
of eight departments; mentioned as a Pdtra. 

asta-vidha-bhakti-kriyd (SITI), eight aspects of worship 
including arcana, vandana, smarana, pdda-sevana, stava, pradaksina, 
sakhya and dtma-nivedana or dtm-drpana. 

asta-vidh-drcana, asta-vidh-drcand (El 19), same as astd^ga- 
bhakti-krama , the eight forms of worship. 

(I A 14; SITI), explained as 'worship with eight 
materials, e. g., jala (water), gandha (scent), puspa (flower), 
aksatd (grains), dhupa (incense), dip a (lamps), naivedya (food) 
and tdmbula (betel)'. 

dsthdna-mandapa (El 4), an assembly hall. 

Asthdyika-purusa (I A 8j, official designation; probably 
the same as Sthdyin\ may be 'hereditary village officials'. 

asti (Ep. Ind., Vol XXVIII, p. 302, note 2), a mere 
particle used to introduce the narration of a grant. 

34 asti Asvapati 

asti (IE 7-1-2), 'sixteen'. 

dm (SII 2), probably, a hilt. 

dsu (CII 4), name of a coin; cf. dchu and accu. 

a-suddha-paksa (IA 16), used to indicate the dark fort- 

Asu-kavi (El 5), epithet of a poet; cf. Sukara-kavi, 

a-sukla (IA 15), also called a-sukla-paksa (IA 16), 
the dark fortnight. 

dsulopa (CII 1), hurry. 

dsura-kriyd (IA 23), the worship of spirits. 

Asura-vijayin (CII 4), 'a devilish conqueror'; epithet 
of a conqueror. 

asm (IE 7-1-2), c seven'. 

asv-ddddnaka-patra (LP), deed for mortgaging a horse. 

Asv-ddhyaksa (El 18), superintendent of stables or 
cavalry officer; cf. Asva-sddhanika, Asvapati. 

Asva-ghdsa-kdyastha (HD), a petty officer in charge 
of the fodder for horses. Cf. Rdjataraagim, III. 489. 

asvamedha (CII 3, 4), a sacrificial ceremony centering 
in a horse, generally performed by independent monarchs. 
Kings celebrating the sacrifice sometimes assumed suitable 
titles (cf. Asvamedha-pardkrama and Asvamedha- Mahendra claimed 
respectively by Samudragupta and Kumaragupta I on their 
coins) . Some kings performed two, four or more horse-sacri. 
fices. For a list of the performers of asvamedha known form 
epigraphic and numismatic records, see Sundaram Pillai Com. 
Vol., pp. 93 if. 

asvamedha (El 12), same as dsvamedhika. 

asvdmika (El 19), anarchy. 

Asvapati (IE 8-2; CII 4)j, cf. Asvapati-Gajapati-Nara- 
pati-rdja-tray-ddhipati; royal title; the king as 'the leader of the 
cavalry' ; title of the Vijayanagara kings on account of their 
strength in horses (ASLV) ; title assumed by the rulers of 
some royal families. 

(/9, 21 ; CII 3; HD), an official title meaning either the 
master of the stables or the commander of the cavalry; cavalry 
officer; cf. Asv-ddhyaksa (El 18). See C77, Vol. Ill, 
p. 259. 

Asvabati-Gajapati-Narapati-muvaru-rdyara-ganda (IE 8-2), 

Asvapati atipara 35 

title of the Vijayanagara kings; Kannada translation of 
the title Asvapati-Gajapati-Narapati-rdja-tray-ddhipati. 

Asvapati-Gajapati-Narapati-rdja-tray-ddhipati (IE 8-2; CII 
4), holder (or, lord of the holders) of the three royal titles, 
viz., leader of the cavalry, leader of the elephant corps and 
leader of infantry; title assumed by the rulers of certain 
dynasties. Cf. Asvapati-Gajapati-Narapati-muvaru-rdyara-ganda. 

Asvdroha (El 18 J, a trooper. 

Asva-sddhanika (El 21; CII 4), a cavalry officer. 

Asva-samstha (El 8), a horseman. 

asvasdld-karana, cf. karana (LP); the department of 

Asvati (El 9), Tamil; same as Asvirii. 

Asvavdra, cf. Asavdra (El 2), a horseman. 

Asvavdraka, Asvavdrika (LL), a trooper; same as 

Asvin (IE 7-1-2), 'two'; sometimes Asvina is also 
used in this sense. 

Asvina (IE 7-1-2), 'two'; cf. Asvin. See IHQ, Vol. 
XXXIII, p. 101. 

asvlya (El 12), a number of horses. 

Atapika (LL), a Jain monk. 

atavl (CII I), the forest-folk. 

(SITI), troops. 

dtavika (Ep. 2nd., Vol. XIV, p. 303, text line 50), a 
kind of grains. 

(El 20; HD), an officer in charge of forest tracts. See 
Arlhasdstra, I 12 (mentioned among the 18 tlrthas). 

atha-gdni, a coin equal to a tanka; there are do-gdni 
(J tanka), cau-gdnl (\ tanka], cha-gdnl (f tanka), bdrah- 
gdnl (\\ tankas), caubis-gdrii (3 tankas), adotdlis-gdrii 
(6 tonkas). See JJVS7, Vol. XXII, pp. 198-99. 

Atharva-veda (CII 3; etc.), one of the four Vedas. 
See Veda. 

Ati-brahmanya (CII 3), probably meaning 'extremely 
friendly to the Brahmanas' and not 'a devout worshipper 
of the god Brahman'. See Parama-brahmanya. 

atidhrti (IE 7-1-2), 'nineteen'. 

atijagatl (IE 7-1-2), 'thirteen'. 

atipara (El 24), an inveterate foe. 

3 6 atiprasa nga a tthdi 

atiprasanga (Ep. Irtd., Vol. IV, p. 347, note 5), a 
case in which a grammatical rule exceeds its sphere. 

atiratra (CII 3), name of a particular sacrifice. 

atireka (CII 1), excess; cf. mano-'tireka, 'enthusiasm'. 

atisattra (El 27), name of a sacrifice. 

atita (I A 17), 'expired'; cf. Saka-nrpa-kdl-dtita- 
sarhvatsaresu. The word gatesit, sometimes additionally used, 
refers to the expiry of the expired years. 

atila-rdjya (IA 19), indicates that so many years 
'since [the commencement of] the reign have [now] passed' ; 
used in connection with the regnal reckoning of Govindapala 
and Laksmanasena and rarely with the years of an era (e.g. 
the Vikrama-samvat associated with the reign of a legendary 
king named Vikramaditya ) . See also gata-rdjya and vinasta- 
rdjya. Cf. JAS, Letters, Vol. XX, 1954, pp. 43 ff. 

atithi (El 10; CII 3, 4), reception of guests; one 
of the five daily rites (mahdyajiias] of a Brahmana. 
See sattra. 

dtithya (HRS), land assigned to government officers for 
public charities, as indicated by the Arthasdstra. 

dtivdhika (HRS), escorting fee paid by the merchants, 
as indicated by the Arthasdstra. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., 
pp. 77. 

atiydtra (El 30), same as atiydtrika; exit tax. 

atiydtrika (IE 8-8), tax for crosssing the boundary; see 
sulk-dtiydtrika, 'the boundary-crossing fee' ; also atiydtra. 

dtmaka, cf. apanaga (ML), 'one's own'. 

dtman (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

dtma-patika (CII 1), independent. 

dtodya (El 23), music. 

Atri (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

Atrinayanaja (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

Attapati (HD), the market-master. Cf. Rdjataratigini,V.l67. 

attapati-bhdga (HRS), office entrusted with the collection 
of the share of the lord of the market, as indicated by the Rdja- 
tarangini; literally, 'share of the market-master'. 

atthdi-mahotsava (HA), an eight-day festival celebrated 
by the Jains especially in the months of Asvina and Caitra 
according to some but Phalguna, Asadha and Karttika 
according to others; same as astdhnika-parmn (q.v.).- 

atu aureus 37 

alu (Chamba), a land measure. Cf. jilo, etc. 

atura-sdla, cf. atula-salai (El 24; SITI), a hospital. 

dturdvaddi (IE 8-5; El 28), tax of uncertain import; 
probably, a levy related to the treatment of the king when 
sick; also read as dntardvaddi. 

atyagnistoma (El 26), name of a sacrifice, cf. agnistoma. 

Atyanta-bhagavad-bhakta (IE 8-2; CII 3), 'extremely 
devoted to the Bhagavat (Visnu)'; epithet of a pious 

Atyanta-mdhesvara (El 23; CII 3), epithet of a pious 

Atyanta-svdmi-mahdbhairava-bhakta (El 23; CII 3), epithet 
of a pious Saiva. 

atyasti (IE 7-1-2), 'seventeen'. 

atyaya (HRS), prescribed fine, as indicated in the Artha- 
sdstra. See Ghoshal, H.Rev. Syst., pp. 26, 108. Cf. dtyayika. 

dtyayika (CII 1; El 22), a matter for urgent disposal; 
derived from atyaya, emergency, distress. 

Audayantrika (LL), cf. Prakrit Odayantrika (El 8); the 
maker of hydraulic machines or the person owning or working 
on such a machine. 

Audrangika (IE 8-3; El 23), collector of the udranga 
tax meaning 'tax on permanent tenants or the principal tax'; 
sometimes mentioned side by side with the Hiranyasdmuddyika 
or the collector of tax in cash. See Saslh-ddhikrta, Dhruvasthdn- 
ddhikaranika, etc. 

aukapinda, cf. okapinda (CII 1), probably, household 

auiikara, cf. aulikara-ldiichana (El 26; CII 3), the Idnchana 
or crest of the kings of the Auiikara dynasty of Mandasor. 
The real meaning of auli is uncertain; sometimes auiikara 
is interpreted as himakara or the moon. 

Auparika (El 8-3), same as Uparika (q.v.). 

Aupasatiko, cf. Prakrit Opasati (El 16), name of a 

aupdyanika (HRS), earnings from presents, as indicated 
by the Arthasdstra. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., pp. 28, 38. 

aupdyika (El 25), probably, an adopted [son]. 

aureus (IE 8-8), name of the Roman gold coin, also 
called denarius (q.v.). 

38 A urnasthdnika avatagaka 

Aurnasthanika (IE 8-3; El 23), officer in charge of an 
urnd-sthdna (wool factory) or of all the urnd-sthdna^ . Cf. 

ausadha (El 24), medicine. 

Autkhetika (HRS), officer in charge of the collection of 
the impost called utkhetana (q. v.). 

Auttardha (El 8), a northerner. 

Autthitdsanika (IE 8-3), same as Utthitdsanin; probably, 
courtier of a special rank provided with a special seat; 
perhaps, the chief nobleman at the royal court. 

avabhrtha (El 9; CII 4), name of the ceremonial bath 
at the end of a sacrifice. 

avacatita (El 13), a crack; cf. khanda-sphutit-dvacatita- 
patita-sarhskdr-drtham, 'for the repairs of dilapidated, broken, 
cracked and fallen [parts]'. 

avacchinna, cf. sva-slm-dvacchinna (IE 8-5), demarcated. 

avaddna, also spelt dvaddna (El 28, 29, 33), Odiya; a 
present; a tax; tax in general; also called dvedana. 

(6777), same as Sanskrit avasdrta; termination, end. 

avaddra (El 13), cf. pasukul-dvaddra-karmdnta-konakalikd- 
gangdgrdme; meaning uncertain; possibly 'a pound' or 
'a pen'. 

Avadhdnin (El 16), title of Brahmanas; cf. Satdvadhdna. 

avadhdrand, cf. adhikaran-dvadhdrand, 'official investiga- 
tion' (Ep. //., Vol. XXXI, p. 267). 

avadhij cf. avadher=anantaram (LP), 'after the time limit 
is over'. 

Avadhl, language of Avadh (Oudh). 

dvdha (CII 1), marriage of a son; cf. vivdha, 'marriage 
of a daughter'. 

avakara (El 32), sweepings, a mound. Cf. avaskara; 
also niravakara, remainder after deduction (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXVIII, p. 188). 

avdkasa (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. IV, p. 347, note 5), 'opportunity 
for a grammatical rule taking effect'. 

avalagd (LP), same as Gujarat! olaga; cf. 
avalagd sad=aiv = dvalokyd (LP), 'care should be constantly 

avalagaka (El 2; HRS), same as avalagd (q.v.); some- 
times regarded as presents or supplies. 

avalagana Avasata 39 

avalagana (El 2; HRS), same as avalagaka and avalagd. 

avalambaka (El 30), probably, a rod from which loops 
are suspended for carrying bundles. 

avalokya (IE 8-8), detection. 

dvana (SITI), Tamil; a document; generally, a sale-deed; 
also called vilaiy-dvanam ; cf. dvana-kkalari (SITI), a place 
where documents like sale-deeds, etc., are registered; regis- 
tration office. 

avanl (El 7-1-2), 'one'. 

(El 3), a district. 

avani-mandala, cf. Kon-dvani-mandala (El 32), also called 
Kona-mandala, Kona-sima, etc. 

avani-randhra-nydya (CII 4), same as bhumi-cchidra-nydya 
(q.v.), 'the maxim of the fallow land.' 

avani-vetana (SITI), police duties of a village; contri- 
bution for such duties; the same as Tamil pdiikdual. 

dvara (CII 4), a stall. Cf. dvdra. 

dvdra ((IE 8-5), cf. dpanesu dvdmh, 'collections to be 
made from the shops in a market'. Cf. dvara. 

avar-ddhika (CII 1), 'more or less'. 

avaraja (ML), a younger brother or cousin. 

dvarana (El 17), a shield. 

(SITI), shelter, covering; same as prdkdraor wall around 
the temple. 

dvarjanlya (LP), 'to be received'. 

avarodhana (CII 1), household; cf. antahpura. 

avarodha-jana (El 23), inmates of the royal harem or the 
king's wives and concubines; wrongly interpreted as 'a 

dvarta, cf. sarv-dvarta-yutd, 'assigned as the date of pay- 
ment as it falls annually' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 310, 
note 1 ) . 

dvdsa, cf. a-kura-cullaka-vindsi-khatv-dvdsa (IE 8-5), 
shelter or accommodation [which the villagers were obliged 
to provide for the touring officers of the king] ; cf. samvdsa, etc. 

dvdsaka (IE 8-5; El 25), same as dvdsa or sarhvdsa, i.e. 
accommodation [which the villagers were obliged to provide 
to the royal officers on tour] . 

dvdsanikd (El 1), a house. 

Avasara (SITI), an officer of the royal household having 

40 avasaradvedana 

the duty of bringing to the notice of the king anything that 
demanded his immediate attention. Cf. KdrtdkrtV'a. 

avasara (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XVI, p. 347), one of the periods 
when the worship is performed and offerings are made to the 
deity in a temple. 

Avasara-varttarid(SYTI) 9 presents payable to an Avasara (q.v.). 
avasatha (IE 8-3), explained as 'a college or a dharma- 
sdld\ But see Avasathika. 

Avasathika (IE 8-3), variously explained as 'the superin- 
tendent of avasalhas, i.e. colleges or dhar ma- s aids' , 'the super- 
visor of the royal palace and other government buildings' 
(Hist. Beng., I, ed. Majumdar, p. 284); 'one who keeps the 
domestic fire (dvasathya) burning with daily offerings 5 
(D. Bhattacharya, Haldyudha's Brdhmanasarvasva, p. xx); etc. 

(El 9, 11, 24), title or family name of Brahmanas. Cf. 

Avasathin (El 23), explained as 'one who keeps the sacred 
fire called dvasathya'; cf. Avasathika. 

avaskara, sweepings, a mound; cf. s-osar-dvaskara-sthdha- 
nivlta-lavandkara (El 22); also sa-gart-dvaskara (Ep. 2nd., 
Vol. XXXV, p. 135, text line 21 ). See avakara. 
avastabdhi (LP), detention. 
avasthd (IA 16), a territorial unit. 

Avasthika (El 23), corruption of Avasathika', same as 

dvdta (IE 8-5), same as vdta, storm; cf. udvdta. 
(El 32; CII 3; etc.), a fiscal term referring to the 
income from lands as a result of changes caused by natural 
agencies; an income probably resulting from storms. See 
vdta., probably meaning 'a storm or tempest'; also dvdt-dya. 
avatdra (IE 7-1-2), 'ten'. 

avatarana, cf. grh-dvatarana (IE 8-5), probably the same 
as umbara-bheda (q.v.). 

avatdri-amdvdsyd (IA 18), Kannada name for the new- 
moon of Pausa. 

dvdt-dya (HRS), 'the income derived from storms'; 
cf. dvdta and bhuta-vdta-pratydya. 

avatrap (CII 1), e to be disinclined'. 
dvedana (El 28), same as avaddna or dvaddna of Odiya 
records; tax in general. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 1 15." 

avedanaka ay ana 41 

dvedanaka (IE 8-8), a written complaint or application. 

avand-dya (Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p. 96), Telugu; name 
of a tax. 

Avesanin, cf. Prakrit Avesani (El 2; LL), the chief artisan; 
the foreman of artisans. 

avimanas (CII 1), pleased. 

aviprahlna (CII 1 ;, used in the sense of ahina, 'not lost'; 

avirodha (SITI), not inimical; amicability. 

dvrti (CII 1), order; cf. sakala-des-dvrtika (CII 1), 'one 
whose order has reached all parts of the country'. 

Cf. andvrti (CII 1), 'want of practice'. 

dvrtti (IE 8-4; El 26), an administrative unit like a 
Pargana (JAS, Letters, Vol. XX, p. 205). 

aya (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

dya (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

(El 33; CII 3; SII 1, 2), a fiscal term meaning 'revenue', 

(SITI)y literally, income; a general term denoting 
'taxes'; cf. va\iy-dyam (SITI), tolls on the roadway. 

(HRS), revenue in general according to the Arthasdstra 
and other authorities; a special branch of revenue according to 
the inscriptions of the Uccakalpa kings and later epigraphs. 

(CITD), profit, income, receipt; tribute; corn given 
by the well-to-do villagers to the hereditary servants of the 
village as their established fees of office. 

dydga (El 1), an object of homage; cf. dydga-patta. 

dydga-pata, dydga-patta (El 24; LL), Jain; tablet for 

dydga-sabhd (LL), Jain; a hall of homage. 
(SITI}, administration of a village by a group 
of officers called dydgdr (village officers and servants). 

dyaka (El 21; LL), the entrance pavilion of a Buddhist 
monastery; a pavilion in front of the door of a Buddhist 

dya-mukha, 'sources of income'; cf. dya-sanra. See 
Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 26. 

ayana (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

ayan-dmsa (CII 3), the degree of procession of the 

42 aya bacaka 

dya-pada (LP), income; property (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 
p. 145). 

dya-sarlra, 'body of income' separated from aya-mukha, 
'source of income'. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., pp. 25-26. 

dya-sulka (El 33), taxes and tolls. 

dyata (CII 1), engaged or appointed. 

dyatana (El 30), a temple or shrine. Cf. bhavana, dlqya, 
pura, etc. 

Cf. sad-ay atana; an organ. 

Cf. tusty-dyatana (CII 1), same as tusti-pdtra. 

dyati (El 14), future prosperity. 

dyudhlya (HRS), land granted for supplying troops in 
lieu of tax, as indicated by the Arthasdstra. See amara. 

Ayukta (CII 4; HD), literally 'an officer'. Same as 
Ayuktaka. Panini (II, 3. 40) knows the word in the sense 
of a servant or office. Cf. Ayukta-purusa (C//, Vol. Ill, p. 8). 

Ayuktaka (IE 8-3; CII 3, 4; El 30; BL; HD), same as 
Ayukta', often the governor of a district or subdivision. See 
Kdmasutra, V. 5. 5; Kamandaka, V. 82. 

Ayukta-purusa (CII 3), the same as Ayukta. 

dyusa, used in the sense of dyus in the Junagadh inscrip- 
tion of Rudradaman, text line 10 (Sel. Ins., p. 171). 

dyusya (El 10), Jain; a variety of karman. 

Ayyanagandhavdrana (IE 8-2), Kannada-Sanskrit; 
'the musk-elephant of the grandfather'; a subordinate title. 

Ayyanasimha (IE 8-2), Kannada-Sanskrit; 'the lion of the 
grandfather'; a subordinate title. Cf. Annanasimha. 


ba (IE 8-1; CII 3, etc.); an abbreviation of bahula or 
of bahula-paksa, i.e. the dark fortnight; used in connection 
with di or ti (see ba-di 9 La-ti) and also, by itself. Cf. va. 

Bd (PJS), contraction of the honorific Bdi (q.v.) 
applied to ladies (especially in medieval Jain inscriptions of 
Western India). 

babu (Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 316), meaning uncertain. 

bacaka (LP), handful; cf. Gujarat! backo. 

bdcha bahya 43 

bdcha, bdchl (Chamba), a tax in cash. See vaksa. 

bdda (El 5), Kannada; a town or village. 

(IE 8-4), Kannada; a small territorial unit like a 

bddaba (SII 1), the submarine fire. 

badala (Chamba), return, exchange; same as parata. 

badara, same as tolaka (q. v.) or told. 

badhd (LP), obstacle; cf. Sanskrit bddhd. 

bddhd (El 15), obstacle; also spelt vddhd. 

bddhataram (CII 1), 'more excessively'. 

ba-di (IE 8-1 ; CII 3; etc.), contraction of bahula-paksa-dina 
or divasa ; also spelt va-di, cf. su-di; abbreviations of separate 
words (see ba, di, su and va) and not words in themselves, 
ba-di or va-di referring to the dark fortnight and su-di the 
bright fortnight; they denote the fortnight and the solar 
or civil day, with reference to the lunar tithi, in the fortnight. 

badi-mdduvulu (CITD) Telugu; a coin of unknown value. 
Badi means 'petty' or 'a tax' and mdfjuvu may be the same as 
mdda meaning half a dinar or the tenth of a pana. 

Bdguli, cf. Vdrgulika. 

bdhattara (IE 8-3), literally, 'seventytwo', but actually 
'all' (cf. astddasa, etc.) ; see Bdhatiaramyogddhipati, Bdhattara- 
niyogin, Senddibdhattaraniyogddhisthdyaka. 

Bdhattaraniyogddhipati (IE 8-3; El 23, 30), the highest 
executive officer under South Indian kings like the Yadavas of 
Devagiri; same as Bdhattaraniyogin, etc. 

Bdhattaraniyogin (El 19), official designation; same as 

bahir-grha, cf. vdra-grha. 

bdhirikd (El 20), a suburb. 

bahis, 'excluding'; same as Bengali ba'i (JAS, Letters, 
Vol. XX, p. 215). . 

bdhu (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'two'. 
bdhuleya (CII 3; IA 1), a bull. 

bahusruta (CII 1), well informed in various doctrines. 
bahusuvarna, bahusuvarnaka (El 4; I A 19; CII 4), name 
of a sacrifice. 

bahutdvatka (CII 1), 'many times that number'. 
bdhu-valaya, cf. pdku-valayam (SITI), an armlet. 
bdhya, cf. bdhy-dbhyantar-dddya (IE 8-5; Ep. Ind., Vol. 

44 bdhydlibaldnaka 

XVI, p. 276, text line 14); 'income from the sale of things 
imported in a village', same as Tamil purav-dyam (SITI), 
'revenue from external sources (collected mainly in cash)' or 
Tamil pura-kadamai (SITI), 'external taxes', explained as 
taxes and fees payable to the State. But pura-kadamai is the 
same as purav-dyam. Bdhya and dbhyantatra may thus mean 
respectively taxes payable to the king and those payable to 
the village authorities. See dbhyantara. Cf. samudaya-bdhy- 
ddya-stamba (El 23), 'land covered with original shrubs, 
i.e. waste which does not yield any revenue to the State'. 

(HD), a class of royal servants distinguished from 
Antaranga. See Rdjatarangini, VIII. 426, 680, 1542. 

bdhydli (CII 4), the outskirt of a town. 

Bdi, Bdl (El 8), honorific epithet or name-ending of 
ladies in Western India; cf. Bdyi, Bd. 

bala, an escort; cf. pancdnga-prasdda. 

Balddhi (LP), abbreviation of Balddhikrta. 

Balddhikrta (Gil 3, 4; BL; HD), 'the commander of 
an army'. See JBBRAS, Vol. XVI, p. 108 (Balddhikrta 
following Sendpati) ; Kddambari, para. 74. According to some 
(cf. Balddhi in LP), the Balddhikrta was probably the head 
of a territorial unit like the present Mdmlatddr. See 

Balddhipa (BL), a leader of the army; cf. Balddhikrta. 

Balddhlra (CII 4), official designation; probably, 
mistake for Balddhisa, same as Balddhipa. 

Balddhyaksa (IE 8-3), officer in charge of the army; 
mentioned along with the Sendpati who was probably a sub- 
ordinate officer. 

baladl, see valadl. 

balaharana, cf. balaharanena (LP), same as Gujarat! Idine. 

Bdlaka-rnahdrdjakumdra (El), a young prince. 

Balakausthika, cf. Valatkausan. 

bdl-dlaya (SITI) temporary shrine to lodge the images 
cf gods when repairing a temple; small shrine probably consist- 
ing of a single room wherein the images of all the gods 
are lodged; same as Tamil ilan-koyil. 

baldnaka (HA), a mandapa above the entrance of a Jain 
shrine or the courtyard of a shrine, later known as thdkorkhdnd. 
(BL}, a stone seat. 

bala -bappa 45 

(El 8], same as Marathi baldnl, 'a raised seat along the 
walls of the gdbhdra or sabhd-mandapa of a temple.' 

bala-yasti (El 33; CII 4), a stout memorial pillar. 

Balhard (IE 8-2), Arabic corruption of Vallabha-rdja 
through Prakrit Ballaha-rda. 

ball (IE 8-5; HRS), voluntary gift (afterwards, com- 
pulsory contribution) and tribute from the subjects as indicated 
by Vedic literature; later, tax in general as suggested by the 
standard lexicons; king's grain share, identical with bhdga 
but different from kara according to the Arthasdstra, but not 
the Junagadh inscription of Rudradaman (cf. bali-sulka- 
bhdga in line 14). The Rummindei inscription of Asoka also 
distinguishes between ball and bhdga and seems to identify 
ball with kara (or with pilgrims' tax). See Select Inscriptions, 
.pp. 71, 173. 

(710,23,32; CII 3, 4), an offering to creatures; one 
of the five mahdyajnas or sacrificial rites. Cf. bali-caru-vaisvadev- 
dgnihotra-kratu (El 26), the five rites of a Brahmana. 

(6*777), offering of flowers, fruits, uncooked rice, etc., 
to the gods; same as sribali. Cf Ndrdyana-baly-upahdra in the 
sense of Ndrayana-pujd (Ind. Ant.,, Vol. VI, p. 363). 

Cf. vardha-bali, 'pig sacrifice' (Ep Ind., Vol. XXXVI, 
p. 39). Cf. srl-bali, havir-bati. 

ballvarda , cf. a-parampard-balivarda, etc. (IE 8-5); a 
pair of bullocks (which the villagers were obliged to provide 
for the cart of the royal officers when they camped or toured 
in their villages). See also vara-balwarda. 

bdna (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'five'. 

Bdnasa-vergade (599-11-2), variant spelling of Kannada 
Bhdnasa-verga de (q . v. ) . 

bandha (El 31), a dam or highway. 

bandha-danda (IE 8-5; El 12, 33), probably, ransom or 
fine in lieu of imprisonment. 

bandhdna (Chamba), a settlement, an agreement. 

bandhdna-patta (Chamba), an agreement, a deed. 

bandhanlya (LP), 'to be fixed', i.e. to be served to one; 
cf. Gujaratl bdndhl dpavdrh. 

bandheja (Chamba), a settlement, an agreement. 

bandhu (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

bappa (El 29, 30; CII 3; etc.), a Prakrit word meaning 

46 bappaBentakdra 

'the father', often used in Sanskrit inscriptions. Cf. bappa- 
bhattdraka-pdda-parigrhlta (El 31), epithet of certain rulers. 

bappa-bhattdraka (El 4), 'the father, the lord'. Cf. bappa. 

bdra (El 13), Telugu; the distance between the ends of 
out-stretched arms. 

bdrdd, derived from Sanskrit vardta or vardtaka, 'a 
cowrie-shell (used as money)' (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 18). 
Cf. vardtikd. 

barata (CII 4), a plant grown for fencing. 

bdrhaspatya (LA 11), name of a reckoning. 

Barkanddz, Persian; same as Pdik (q.v.). 

bartand (IE 3-5), Rajasthani; a blunt stick for writing on 
a wooden slate; same as barthd. 

barthd (IE 3-5), same as bartand. 

Basileos Basileon Megalou (IE 8-2), Greek; 'of the great 
king of kings;' used in the legend on the coins of the Scy trio- 
Parthian kings; adapted from old Persian Khshydihiya Khshdya- 
thiydndm, 'the king of kings'; translated into Prakrit as Maha- 
rajasa Rajarajasa (or Rajadirajasa) mahatasa (Sanskrit Mahd- 
rdjasya Rdjardjasya mahatah or Rdjdtirdjasya mahatah). 

Basileos Mtgalou (IE 8-2), Greek; 'of the great king 5 , 
found in the legend on the coins of Indo-Greek kings at first 
translated in Prakrit as Rajasa mahatakasa (Sanskrit Rdjnah 
mahatah) and later as Maharajasa (Sanskrit Mahdrdjasya)', 
adapted from old Persian Kshdyathiya vazrka. 

ba-ti (IE 8-1), abbreviation of bahula-paksa-tithi . Seeba-di. 

bdva (CII 3, etc.), a Prakrit word denoting 'a relative 
of the same generation with the father'; generally, 'an uncle'; 
used in Sanskrit inscriptions. 

Bdyi (Hyderabad Archaeological Series, No. 18, p. 35), 
suffix to the name of respectable women; same as Bdi' } wrongly 
regarded as derived from the Kannada words abbe (Sanskrit 
ambd) and dyi (Sanskrit dryd). 

Behard-mahdpdtra (El 28), Odiya; official designation; 
probably, Sanskrit Vyavahdrika-mahdpdtra. See Vyavahdrika, etc. 

Bengali, Anglicised spelling of Vangdli; the name of the 
people, language and alphabet of Bengal. 

Bentakdra (CITD), same as Betakdra, beta (Telugu- 
Kannada) meaning 'the separation of lovers'. As an epithet of 
a ruler, Bentakdra means 'one who causes the separation of his 

bhabhaga 47 

enemies'wives from their husbands'; ci.npu-ndrl-vaidhavya-vidhd- 
yak-acdrya, 'one who renders the wives of his enemies widows'. 

bha (IE 7-1-2), 'twentyseven'. 

Bha (PJS), abbreviation of Bhagavdn (especially in 
medieval Jain inscriptions). 

bhd (PJS), abbreviation of bhdryd (especially in medieval 
Jain inscriptions). 

bhddaka (LP), same as Sanskrit bhdtaka. 

Bhadanta (IA 11; LL), a title of monks (Buddhist, Jain 
and Ajivika ) ; cf. Bhadatasa aya-Isipdlitasa, 'of the Reverend 
Lord Rsipalita'; also cf. Bhadanti. 

Bhadanti (LL), used as the title of a Buddhist nun; 
cf. Bhadanta. 

bhadra (SII 2), probably, an auspicious mark. 

bhadrd (IA 26), same as ba-di 7. 

Bhadra (IE 8-1), same as Bhddrapada. 

bhadra-bhoga, cf. According to bhadra-bhoga (Ghoshal, 
H.Rev. Syst., p. 215); principle of proper enjoyment. 

bhadra-ghata, cf. Tamil pattira-kadam (SITI), a pot 
filled with water and sanctified by rites. 

bhadra-mukha (El 16), an honorific used with personal 

bhadra-nigarna (LL), a righteous hamlet. 

bhadr-dsana (El 25), a throne. 

bhaga (IE 8-5; CII 3, 4; El 30; HRS), the king's share 
of the produce, distinguished from ball in the Rummindei 
inscription and the Junagadh inscription of Rudradaman and 
from kara in many other records; later, tax in general, 
identical with ball and kara (according to lexicons); cf. 
references in the Arthasdstra to (1) lavana-bhdga (king's share 
of salt sold by private merchants), (2) udaka-bhdga (king's 
grain share levied as water- tax upon irrigated fields), 
(3) king's share of the produce of mines leased out to private 
persons; (4) share paid to the king by merchants for selling 
the royal merchandise. 

(IE 8-5), dues (see kara}; generally, the king's share of 
grains, which was originally one-sixth. 

(IE 8-4), a subdivision of a district or a territory. 

(El 23, 33), an allotment; a share. 

bhaga-bhoga (CII 3; etc.), a fiscal expression in which 

48 bhagaBhagcvatpada 

bhdga means the king's share of the produce and bhoga the 
periodical supplies made by tenants to the king; cf. bhdga- 
bhog-ddika, bhdga-bhoga-kara-hirany-ddika (El 23), meaning 
'royal dues'; see bhdga, etc. 

bhdga-bhoga-kara (HRS), taken by some as a single levy 
and explained as the king's grain-share, identical with bhdga 
of the Arthasdstra and ball of the Smrtis, though distinguished 
from dhdnya in a Maitraka record, where it has been supposed 
to mean a fixed contribution in kind as distinguished from 
the contribution consisting of a share of the produce. If 
bhdgabhogakara was a single levy (and did not indicate 
bhdga, bhoga and kara), it may have really been a tax collected 
in lieu of bhdga (grain share) and bhoga (periodical offerings). 

Bhdgadugha (HD), an official title; probably the same 
as Bhdgahdra. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 9. 

Bhdgahara (El 24), same as Bhdgin; a collector of the 
king's grain share. Cf. Bhdgahdra. 

Bhdgahdra (HD), 'he who recovers the [king's] share 
[of the procuce of land] ' ; one of the six officers of each 
village, according to Sukra, II. 120. Cf. Bhdgahara. 

bhdgaldga, cf. bhdgaldg-ddika (LP), payments in kind or taxes. 

bhdga-karsana (LP), taking away the portion allotted to 
someone else. 

bhagana (I A 19), a bangle. 

Bhagavad-bhakta (CII 3, etc.), a Vaisnava sectarian 
title indicating 'a follower of the Bhagavat (Visnu)'. 

Bhagavat (ML; CII 3, 4), 'the lord' or 'the divine'; an 
epithet of divinities such as Visnu, Buddha, Jinendra, Narayana, 
Siva, the Sun-god, Karttikeya, etc; also applied to sages, etc. 
in the sense of 'venerable', e.g. to Vyasa, the arranger of the 
Vedas; rarely applied to kings apparently on account of their 
saintliness (cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p.' 19). 

Bhdgavata (LL), a votary of the Bhagavat (Visnu). 

(CII 3; etc.), a Vaisnava sect. 

Bhagavati (CII 3, 4; etc.), feminine form of Bhagavat 
(q.v.) ; often applied to goddesses, etc. 

Bhagavatpdd-dcdrya (El 6), epithet of a Vaisnava religious 

Bhagavatpdda-karmakara (CII 4), 'a servant of the feet 
of the Bhagavat' ; epithet of a temple official. 

Bhdgika -bhanda 49 

Bhdgiha (IE 8-3; HD), probably, the collector of the 
king's grain share; same as Bhdgahdra. See Vogel, Ant. Ch. 
St., p. 166. Cf. Bhdgin. 

(713), mentioned along with Bhogika; probably, one 
getting a share [in a free-holding]. See Amsa-brhadbhogika. 

Bhdgin (El 24), same as Bhdgika., a collector of the king's 
grain share. 

bhagna (CII 1), 'departed', 'lost', i.e. 'inferior'; cf. 
the Hindi verb bhdgnd, Bengali bhdgd. 

Cf. bhagna-visirna-samdracana, repairs to the rents in and 
the wornout parts of a building (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 

bhagna-kriyd (IA 7), same as bhagna-sarhskdra, repairs. 

bhdgya-rekhd (El 3), line of fortune on the palm. 

bhamdti (El 7), corruption of brahma-hatyd. 

bhaiksaka (El 21), land set apart for charity. 

bhaitra (IA 14), corruption of vahitra. 

bhaksana, Tamil pakkinam (SITI), confection. 

bhakt-dddya (SII 1), same as Tamil pakt-dtdyam (SITI), 
revenue in rice or paddy. Cf. bhakt-dya. 

bhakt-dya, cf. Kannada bhatt-dya (SII 11-1); same as 

bhakta-grdma, cf. bhatta-grdma, provision-village; village 
granted for maintenance (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, pp. 8, 92; cf. 
Vol. XVIII, pp. 191, 193). 

bhakti (CII 4), devotion to a god. 

bhaktl (El 8), name of a land measure. 

bhakt-oddesaka (LL), Buddhist; distributor of food. 

Bharh (PJS), abbreviation of Bhanddrin (especially in 
medieval Jain inscriptions). See Bhmdarin, etc. 

bhd-mandala (HA), halo, aureole; same as prabhd- 

bhamatl (HA}> same as jagatl (q.v.). 

bharhdi (CITD), same as Telugu bamdi, 'a cart'; really 
'a cart load'. 

Bhdnasa-vergade (IE 8-3), Kannada; same as Mahdnas- 
adhyaksa; superintendent of the royal kitchen. Cf. Supakdra- 
pati, Khddyatapdkika, Mahdnasika. 

Bhdnaka (LL), Buddhist; a preacher. 

bhanda, cf. bhanda (El 5), a bale of goods. 

50 bhdnda Bhdratl 

bhdnda-bhrta-vahitra (IE 8-8), 'a wagonfull of pots or jars'. 
Bhdnd-ddhyaksa (El 28), officer in charge of the store- 
house. Cf. Bhdnddgdr-ddhikrta, etc. 

bhdnd-dgdra (El 23, 30), a treasury or store-house. 
Bhdnddgdr-ddhikrta (El 1 2 ; BL ; HRS ) , an officer employed 
in the treasury or store-house or the officer in charge of it. 
Cf. Bhdnddgdrika. 

Bhdnddgdra-prathama (HD), the chief of the royal store- 
house or treasury. See JBBRAS, Vol. IX, p. 219. 

Bhdnddgdrika (IE 8-3; CII 4; HD; BL), officer in charge 
of the treasury or the royal store-house. See Ep. Ind., Vol. 
IX, p. 305. 

bhanddra, same as Sanskrit bhdnddra;'cf. Bhanddrin, etc. 
bhdnddra, cf. Tamil panddra-kkal (SITI), stone of standard 
weight used in the treasury; also cf. panddra-kkankdni, treasury 
officer, supervisor of the treasury. 

(IA 23), the five images used in the worship of Bhutas, 
e.g., Jarandaya, etc. 

Cf. panddram (SII 1), a treasury; a aiva mendicant. 
Bhdnddra-pustaka, cf. Tamil bandar a-ppottagam (El 25), 
literally, 'account book of the treasury'; a treasury accountant. 
Bhanddrin, Bhanddrin (El 9; SITI), officer in charge 
of the treasury; same as Bhdnddgdrika. Cf. Sejjeya-bhanddr'i 
(El 13), 'officer in charge of the stores in the king's bed- 

bhanga (Chamba), a land measure; a share or portion. 
(I A 23), hemp. 

Bhanu (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'twelve'. 
bhdra (El 10), a weight equal to 2000 palas. 
(LP), probably, a load or bundle. 

bharaka (CII 4), name of a measure or weight; one load 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 309). 

Cf. mahis-ostra- bharaka (IE 8-8), 'a load on a buffalo 
or a camel'; cf. bhdnda-bhrta-vahitra. 

bharana (CII 4), name of a measure. 
(El 1), probably, a load [of stones] . 
Bhdratavar (SITI), Tamil; fishermen. 
Bharata-kald (El 33), the art of dancing. 
Bhdratl-vrtti (SITI), land set apart for expounding the 

Bharga -Bhatta 5 1 

Bharga (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

bhdrikd (IE 8-5; El 25), cf. bhdrikdydrh vanik-putrasy 
dstottara-satam rupakdndm; a crime, the nature of which is 

bhdsd (IE 8-8; El 30 ), probably, a written declaration. 

bhdsd-bheda (LP), breach of words. 

Bhdsya-vrtti (SITI), land set apart for meeting the ex- 
penses of expounding the Sri-Bhdsya of Ramanuja. 

Bhata (IE 8-3; CII 3, 4; El 30; HD), same as Bhata- 
manusya ; probably derived from bhrta which is sometimes used 
in its place. Generally used along with cdta or chdtra; literally, 
'a soldier' ; but really a Pdik, Barkanddz or Pidda, i.e. a constable. 
It is spelt as bhatta in the medieval inscriptions of Eastern 
India, though rarely the two are distinguished. See Bhatta. 

(SITI), a personal servant or soldier. 

bhdtaka (El 30), same as prabhdtaka; rent or hiring 
charges; cf. naukd-bhdtaka (El 14). 

Bhata-manusya (IE 8-3; El 31; LL), explained as 'a 
soldier, policeman or warden' ; a Barkanddz, Pdik or Pidda. 

Bhatdra (IE 8-2), Kannada corruption of Bhattdraka; 
also spelt Bhaddra and Bhaldra. 

Bhatta (IE 8-3), cf a-catta-bhatta-pravesa (IE 8-5); 
same as Bhata of earlier records; but rarely distinguished 
from Bhata, Bhatta in that ease meaning 'a minstrel'. 

(CII 3, 4; etc.), a title of respect attached to the names 
of learned Brahmanas. 

(IE 8-3), a minstrel. 

Bhatta (PJS), abbreviation of Bhattdraka (in medieval 
Jain inscriptions); an epithet of Jain teachers. 

Bhatta-bhdga (El 15), same as bhatta-vrtti. 

Bhatta-grdma (El 15, 25), a village owned by learned 
Brahmanas as a rent-free holding; same as an agrahdra village. 

Bhattdmdkutika (El 7), an official designation of uncer- 
tain import. 

Bhatta-mahattara (El 30), a Bhatta who was a Mahattara, 
or a leading Bhatta. Bhatta may not be a corruption of 
patta (cf. Bhatta-ndyaka] . 

Bhatta-ndyaka (El 9), see Bhatta and Ndyaka (chief of a 
district) as well as Bhatta-mahattara. Cf. also Patta-ndyaka 
of medieval Orissan epigraphs. 

52 Bhattaputra bhavana 

Bhattaputra (El 4; LP; BL), title of Brahmanas ; epithet 
of a Brahmana whose father was famous for learning. 
(LP}, explained as 'sepoys or soldiers'. 
(El 11), explained as 'a panegyrist'. 

Bhattdraka (IE 8-2; CII 3; El 30), title used in Sanskrit 
but really Prakrit derived from Sanskrit bhartr through the 
plural form bhartdrah=Prakrit bhattdra (see Svdmin}; often 
suffixed to the personal names of paramount sovereigns as 
well as of feudatory Maharajas, or Tuvardjas (crown-princes); 
applied to gods and priests in the sense of 'worthy of worship 
or sacred'. Cf. bappa-bhattdraka-pdda-parigrhlta, bhattdraka- 
Mahdsena-parigrhita, etc. 

(El 33),' the king. 

(SH 1), title of Jain religious teachers. 

(CII 4), title of Saiva ascetics, etc. 

(LP), a respected man. 

(El 11), probably, epithet of the chief priest of a temple. 

(5777), a deity; a spiritual preceptor. 

Bhattdraka-pdd-dnudhydta (CII 4), 'meditating on (or, 
favoured by) the feet of the lord paramount'; epithet of the 
feudatories and officers of the Gupta emperors and later 
imperial rulers. See Paramabhattdraka-pdd-dnudhydta. 

Bhattdrakaprabha ( CII 4), a title. 

Bhatta-rdnaka (El 9) see Bhatta, Kanaka, Bhatta-mahattara. 

Bhatta-vrtti (El 25; SII 1), a grant for the maintenance 
of the Bhattas or learned Brahmanas. 

Bhattavrtti-mdnya (SITI), tax-free land (indm} given 
for the support of Brahmanas; same as bhatta-vrtti. 

Bhattdrikd (El 23; CII 3; etc.), feminine form of 
Bhattdraka (q.v.); a title of the wives of independent and 
feudatory rulers; often suffixed to personal names. 

Cf. Tamil pattdrikai (SITI), name of the goddess Durga. 

Bhatt-opddhydya (El 23), title of a Brahmana teacher. 

bhauli, bhaull (Chamba), a share, portion or allotment. 

bhauma-yantra (IA 14), a particular mystic diagram. 

Bhava (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

bhdva (El 26;, a brother-in-law. 

bhavana (LL), a temple. Cf. pura, dyatana, dlaya, etc. 

bhdvand (CII 4), sentiment, e.g., maitn, etc. 
j Jain; a method of kdy-otsarga. 

Bhavasrj Bhiksu 53 

Bhavasrj (CII 3), 'the creator of existence'; an epithet 
of the god Siva. 

bhdva-suddhi (CII 1), purity of mind. 
bhavat, cf. sa bhavdn (El 3), same as tatrabhavdn. 
Bhdvinl (IA 10), same as Devaddsi; a dancing girl 
attached to a temple. 

bhavisya-kkidai-ppuram (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; tax- 
free land set apart to enable a teacher to reside permanently 
in a village for teaching. 

bhavya (El 3, 8), the Jain community. 
bhdvya, cf. rdja-bhdvya-sarva-pratydya-sameta (El 23), 
income, levies; same as dbhdvya.* According to some, bhdvya 
and dbhdvya mean pdghdi. Cf. taldr-dbhdvya. 

(LP), probably the same as bhdvyapada-patta. 
bhen (SITI, ASLV), a musical instrument. 
bherunda (El 31 ), a shortened form of gandabherunda (c[.v.). 
bhet (IA 11), Panjabi; low lands inundated by rivers. 
bheta (IE 8-5; El 29), presents to be offered by a sub- 
ject or subordinate to a ruler on occasions; occasional offering 
of money or presents ; same as vanddpand. See bhetana. 
bhetana (LP), a present or gift; cf. bheta. 
bhidd (LP), 'straitened circumstances'; cf. Gujarat! bhld. 
bhiksd (IE 8-4), a grant or endowment; cf. ekddasa- 
Rudra-bhiksd (El 32), an endowment in the gods' name. 

Bhiksu (El 7, 21; CII 3; ML), Buddhist monk, also 
called Sdkya-bhiksu. 

Bhiksu-hala (LL) t 'the monks' land'; rent-free land in the 
possession of Buddhist monks. 

Bhiksuhala-parihdra, cf. Prakrit Bhikhuhala-parihdra (HRS), 
known from Satavahana records as a number of privileges 
relating to rent-free land belonging to the community of 
Buddhist monks. 

Bhiksunl (El 25; CII 3; LL), feminine form of Bhiksu; 
'a Buddhist nun'; also called Sdkya-bhiksunl. 

Bhiksuny-updsraya (LL), Buddhist; a nunnery. 
Bhiksuni-sangha, cf. bhikkhum-sarhgha (El 23), a community 
of nuns. 

Bhiksurdja (LL), title of a pious [Jain] king. 
Bhiksu-sangha (El 26; CII 4), community of Buddhist 

54 Bhimapnya bhoga 

Bhlmapriya (El 11), name of a coin (dramma}. 

bhlmaseni-karpura (SlI 13), a kind of camphor. 

Bhisak (HD), the king's medical advisor. See Ep. Ind., 
Vol. IX, p. 305. 

(El 24), a physician. 

Bhismdstaml (IA 17), Magha su-di 8 or amdnta Magha 
(i.e. purnimdnta Phalguna) va-di 8. 

bhlt (IA 15), see bhltl and bhrstl. 

Bhitara-bhanddra-adhikdrin (IE 8-3; El 28), Odiya; 
Sanskrit Abhyantara-bhdnddr-ddhikdrin, 'officer in charge of the 
inner store-house or treasury (i.e. one within the palace or 
the harem)'. 

bhltara-navara (El 28), Odiya = Sanskrit abhyantara- 
nagara; the palace. 

bhltha (El 31), probably, a mound. 

bhiti (IA 15), see bhrstl. 

bhitti-citra, wall-painting (Journ. Mad. Univ., Vol. XXXII, 
p. 141). 

Bhitvaramdnya (IA 17), probably, a mistake for Abhitva- 
ramdna (q.v.). 

bhoga (IE 8-4; CII 3; El 23, 33), literally, 'enjoyment' 
(cf. bhukti); a jdglr (cf. Mahdrdja-Sarvandtha-bhoga, Mahd- 
sdmantddhipati-Sridhara-bhoga, etc.); possession (cf. bhog- 
ddhlnd grhltd). Originally 'enjoyment'; then 'property', 
'a jdglr'; then also a territorial unit which was generally the 
subdivision of a district (IE 8-4; El 25; 28; CII 4). See 
bhukti, dhdra. 

Cf. Kaivarta-bhoga (IE 8-4; El 2; Gil 1), the fishermen's 

(IE 8-5; El 29, 30; HRS), periodical supplies of fruits, 
firewood, flowers and the like which the villagers had to 
supply to the king; sometimes explained as 'tax in kind' 
(CII 4). 

(El 1), [an object of] enjoyment. 

(S/77), tax-free land set apart for the enjoyment of a 
person for the performance of specified services; same as 
mdnya. See bhogottara, Bhogin, etc. 

Cf. bhoge (LP), 'for the right of enjoyment'. 

Cf. sa-bhoga (IA 9), privilege of the donee of rent-free 
land; probably refers to astabhoga-tejahsvdmya (q.v.). 

bhoga bhogina 55 

bhoga-bhdga (CII 3, etc.,), the same as bhdga-bhoga. Cf. 
bhoga-bhdga-kara-hirany-ddi (El 23), royal dues; see bhoga, etc. 

bhoga-janapada (El 12), probably, a free-holding in the 
country-side, or a rent-free area. 

bhoga-ldbha (El 33), usufruct in lieu of interest. 

Bhogapati (IE 8-3; El 25, 27; HD), an Indmddr or Jdgir- 
ddr, or an officer in charge of indm lands or jdglrs, or the 
officer in charge of a territorial unit called bhoga. The last 
alternative is more probable; cf. Bhogika, etc. See also 
Mitdksard on the Tdjnavalkyasmrti, I. 320; Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, 
p. 298. See Bhuktipati, Bhogikapdla, etc. 

Bhogapatika (IE 8-3; El 23), same as Bhogapati. 

bhoga-patra (ASLV, SITI), a deed recording conveyance 
of land; a lease deed; the deed of re-conveyance of land. 

bhoga-strl, a concubine (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 272). 

bhogatrd (IE 8-5), same as bhogottara. 

bhogdvanlya (LP), 'should be enjoyed'. 

bhog-dyaka (ASLV, SITI), land held as the result of a 

Bhogi-jana (El 33), explained as 'a village headman 5 . 
Cf. Bhogika, 

Bhogika (IE 8-3; CII 3; HD; BL), the owner of a 
bhoga or jdglr; a Jdgirddr or Indmddr; same as Bhogin. See 
Bhoktr. Explained by some as the head of a district, or the 
collector of the State's share of the produce of lands taken in 
kind (Bomb. Go?., Vol. I, Part i, p. 82). See CII, Vol. Ill, 
pp. 96, 104. 

(IE 8-3); El 18; 23), a groom or horse-keeper, accord- 
ing to lexicons; cf. its Telugu modification Bhoi, 'a palanquin- 
bearer'. But these meanings may have been derived from the 
first as the people appear to have enjoyed rent-free land for 
their services. 

(El 33), same as Bhojaka meaning a Jdgirddr or Indmddr. 

(CII 4), explained as 'the head of a bhoga 9 '. 

(El 5), explained as 'a village proprietor'. 

Bhogikapdla, Bhogikapdlaka (El 5; CII 4; BL), superin- 
tendent of the jagirs and cesscollector ; cf. Bhogapati. 

Bhogin (IE 8-3; El 12, 28, 29, 30; BL), one in possession 
of a bhoga or jdglr; a Jdgirddr; same as Bhogika (q.v.) . 

. bhogina (El 13), cf. dattiddyaka-sddhupratipddita-prdg- 

56 bhogmiBhoktr 

bhvjyamdn-dvicchinna-bhogina-bhuvdrn translated rather loosely as 
'of the pieces of land in all the places that have been obtained 
in good manner from liberal donors'; probably, '[land] under 

bhogini, cf. bogi (El 7), a concubine. 
bhogi-rupa (El 12, 28), one who enjoys a free-holding 
as a representative of the real free-holder, or a title-holder 
who is not in actual possession of the land. 

bhogiyar (SITI), Tamil; mistress, concubine; cf. bhogydr. 

Bhog-oddharanika (HD), explained as 'the collector of the 
king's share of the grains'; cf. bhoga, caur-oddharanika. 

bhogottara (IE 8-5; El 33), corrupt form of bhogatra; 
land granted to the family priest for his services; grant for the 
enjoyment of a Brahmana or deity. 

bhogya, cf. pokiydr (SITI), a concubine; see bhogiyar. 

bhogya-tithi (Gil 3), the portion of a tit hi that is still 
to run. 

Bhoi, Telugu modification of Sanskrit Bhogin (q.v.); 
palanquin-bearer (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, p. 308, note 8). 

Bhoja.Bhojaka (IE 8-2; Ell; 27; HD; LL), a Jaglrdar; 
title of a feudatory; cf. the feminine form Bhojikt; also Mahd- 
bhoja. See Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 5. 

(El 3; CII 3), a priest; title of a class of priests. 

Cf. Tamil posar (SITI), one who enjoys a thing; the 

bhojana-catuhsdla (LL), Buddhist; a dining hall. 

bhojana-dksayani, bhojan-dksayanl (El 32), a permanent 
endowment created for the maintenance of the donee; cf. 
aksayanwi, grdmagrdsa, etc. 

bhojana-mandapa (LL), Buddhist; a refectory. 

bhojana-sdld (El 23), an almshouse; a free-feeding house. 
Cf. sattra. 

Bhojikl (LL), wife of a Bhojaka (q.v.). cf. Mahdbhqjl. 

Bhojpuri, language and people of the Bhojpur Pargana 
of the Shahabad District of Bihar and the adjoining 

Bhoktr (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 193), same as Bhogin, 
Bhogika; an Indmddr or Jdgirdar; cf. Sammdnaka-bhoktd; also 
Bhoktdri (El 11), a free-holder. 

(BL}> a proprietor. 

bhottabhukti 57 

Bhotta-visti (HRS), known from Nepal records; forced 
labour for carrying loads for officers sent to Tibet. See H. 
Rev. Syst. 9 p. 233. 

bhrama-jala-gati (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XIV, p. 98), probably, 
a sluice. 

bhrstl (IA 15), 'raised ground [near a tank] for plant- 
ing piper betel'; cf. bhitl. 

bhrta (LP), loaded. 

(IE 8-8), cf. bhdnda-bhrta-vahitra, 'a wagonful of pots 
or jars'. See bharaka. 

Cf. a-bhrta-prdvesya for a-bhata-prdvesya, bhrta being 
used for bhata in the sense of a Pdik, Barkanddz or Pidda. 

bhu (IA 17), a land measure; equal to four bhu-mdsakas. 
See bhumi. 

(El 9), a land measure or a plot of land. 

(IE 7-1-2; El 15, 25), 'one'. 

bhubhrt (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

bhudhara (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

bhucchidra-nydya (El 22), same as bhumicchidra-nydya (q.v.). 

Bhujabalan-mddai (SITI), name of a coin of the mddai 
(mddha) type. See mad a, etc. 

Bhujabalapratdpacakravarlin (IE 8-2), see Cakravartin. 

Bhujabalapraudhapratdpacakravartin (IE 8-2), see Cakravartin. 

bhujanga (IA 20), an ogre. The word bhujanga was 
adopted in Javanese in the sense of a 'pupil, disciple, scholar; 
a philologist, poet, literary councillor; an officially appointed 
professional usually residing at or near the court'. It has been 
suggested on this basis that Bhavadeva-bhatta's title 
Bdlavalabhl-bhujanga may really mean 'the pupil of the 
Balavalabhi school'. See IHQ, Vol. XXVII, pp. 80-82. 

bhujisya-patra (El 24), a document granting maintenance. 

bhujyamdna (IA 18), also prabhujyamdna; 'being enjoyed'. 

bhukta-tithi (CII 3), the elapsed portion of a tithi. 

bhukti (IE 8-4; El 28, 33), a province including a group 
of districts called visaya or mandala; small territorial unit 
like a Pargana in South India; cf. bhoga. 

(IE 8-3; 8-4; CII 3), literally, 'enjoyment'; same as 
bhoga i a jdgir; originally meaning 'enjoyment'; then 'property' 
or 'a jdgir 9 , then 'a province'. See bhoga. 

(BL) 9 personal property. 

58 Bhuktipatibhusphota 

Cf. putti, pukti (SITI), the enjoyment of a property. 

bhukti-mandala (IE 8-4), originally a bhukti but later on 
a mandala; cf. Dandabhukti-mandala, dhdra-visaya. 

Bhuktipati (IE 8-3), a Jdgirddr; or, the officer in charge 
of a territorial unit called bhukti. See Bhogapati. 

bhumdsaka (IA 17), a land measure, four bhumdsakas 
making one bhu (q.v.) 

bhumbbuka (El 13), Kannada; cf. bhuvana-bhumbhuka, 
probably, 'an ornament of the world'. 

bhumiy bhuml (El 3; CII 3), a particular land measure; 
sometimes also called bhu and regarded as equal to four bhu- 
mdsakas (cf. bhu). 

(CII 4), a territorial divison. 

(El 7-1-2), 'one'. 

bhumicchidra (IE 8-5), sometimes explained as 'unculti- 
vable land'. See bhumicchidra-nydya. 

bhumicchidra-nydya (IE 8-5; El 30; CII 3, 4; HRS), 
literally, 'the maxim of the fallow land'; the principle of the 
rent-free enjoyment of land by one who brings it under cultiva- 
tion for the first time. See Ep. Ind., Vol XXIX, p. 86. The 
maxim is based on the old custom of allowing a person, who 
first brings a plot of fallow or jungle land under cultivation 
for the first time, to enjoy it without paying rent. Bhumi- 
cchidra gradually came to mean 'uiicultivable land'. See 
bhumicchidrapidhdna-nydya, avanirandhra-nydya. 

bhumicchidrapidhdna-nydya (IE 8-5; El 11), the same as 
bhumicchidra-nydya', but it means 'the maxim of covering up the 
hole in the land' referring probably to the reclamation of 
fallow land for the first time; cf. bhumicchidra understood 
in the sense of krsy-ayogyd bhu, 'land unfit for cultivation'. 
See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIX, p. 86. 

bhumicchidravidhdna-nydya (El 24); same as bhumicchidra' 
nydya, bhumicchidrapidhdna-nydya. Chidra-vidhdna= furrowing. 

bhumipende (ASLV), a mark of honour. 

bhumi-putra. cf. pumi-puttirar (SITI), husbandmen 
regarded as the sons of Mother Earth. 

bhupa (IA 7-1-2), 'sixteen'. 

bhurja (IE 3-2), really 'the birch'; but same as lekhana; 
a written document. 

bhusphota (El 9), a mushroom. 

bhuta birada 59 

bhuta (CII 1), a living being. 

(IE 8-5), the element or nature. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

(CII 3, etc.), a fiscal term; cf. sa-bhuta-pdta-pratydya, 
in which we have sometimes pdtta (mistake for updtta), updtta, 
dvdta or vdta. See bhuta-pdta, etc. 

bhiita-bali (El 11; SII 13), explained as 'offering of 
boiled rice to the ghosts'. 

bhuta-kotya (IA 23), the place of residence of the 
family ghost. 

bhuta-pdta, cf. sa-bhuta-pdta-pratydya (IE 8-5); often written 
as bhuta-vdta and bhut-opdtta; probably, an event relating to 
the elements, such as an earthquake. See bhuta-pdta-pratydya. 

bhuta-pdta-pratydya (CII 4), explained by some as 'excise 
and octroi duties'; but really, 'the income resulting from storms, 
earthquakes, changes in the course of a river, etc'. See bhuta- 
vdta-pratydya, etc. Pdta may be a mistake for updtta or vdta. 

bhuta-pratydya (Gil 3), an income derived from natural 
changes in the land. See bhuta-vdta-pratydya, etc. 

bhutapurva (CII 1), 'existing in the past'. 

bhuta-vdta-pratydya (El 23; CII 4; HRS), 'the income 
derived from the elements and the winds'; explained by some 
as 'excise and octori duties'; but really, 'the income resulting 
from storms, earthquakes, changes in the course of a river, 
etc.' See bhut-opdtta-pratydya, etc. 

bhut-opdtta-pratydya (El 32), income brought about by 
elemental or natural changes (e.g. storms, earthquakes, etc.). 

Bhuvara (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 98), 'a king'. 

bighd, bighd (IE 8-6), a land measure. 

bijaka, cf. bljak (El 9), an inscribed stone or an inscription. 

bija-sarhskdra (CII 4), an astronomical term. 

bil-dnuvrtti, also called blla-vrtti (599 11-1), Kannada- 
Sanskrit; fief held by a king's subordinate for his mainte- 
nance; cf. anuga-jwita. 

bilkode (El 28), Kannada; tolls. 

bim (PJS), abbreviation of bimba, 'an image' (especia- 
cially in medieval Jain inscriptions). 

bimba (IA 3; HA), same as pratimd; an image. 

binduka, same as suvarna (q.v.). 

birada (El 24), name of a tax. 

60 blravana brahmadaya 

biravana-pdrikhdya (IA 19), levy stated to have been of four 
kinds ; cf. nidhi-niksepa-jala-pdsdn-drdm-ddi-chatus-prakdra-bira- 
vana-pdrikhdya-sahitarii which is mentioned along with astabhoga- 
tejassvdmya-danda-sulka-yuktam ; Sanskrit vlra-pana (tax for the 
maintenance of constables) and pdrlks-dya (pdrlksika) . 

biruda (SII 1), also spelt viruda; 'a surname'. 

Bin (El 24 J, derived from Visayin (Visayapati) , the 
governor of a district. 

bisva (El 28), a land measure equal to ^ of a bighd\ 
derived from Sanskrit virhsopaka. 

bltaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 279), modern bldd (i.e. a 
betel btdd). 

bittuvatta (A.R.Ep., 1958-59, p. 10), Kannada; probably 
also called bittukatte ; explained as 'a portion of the produce 
derived from the lands irrigated by tanks, or wet land irriga- 
ted by a tank, granted to the person who built the tank or 
repaired it. J 

bodhi (LL), Buddhist; supreme knowledege attained by 
the Buddha; the tree of enlightenment; cf. mahdbodhi, sambodhi. 

bodhi-cakra (LL), Buddhist; the wheel of enlightenment. 

Bodhisattva (Gil 2-1; LL), Buddhist; a would-be Buddha 
in a previous birth. Cf. Chadmastha. 

bodhyanga, cf. bojjhanga (El 5), Buddhist; seven in number. 

Bodiyd, local name of the Gujarat! alphabet (Ind. Ep. } 
p. 55). 

bommaldta (ASLV), a puppet show. 

boppa (CII3), a Prakrit word meaning 'the father'; see 

bota, also spelt vota (CII 3), a termination of geographical 
names; meaning uncertain. 

botkata (IA 19), a goat; cf. Desi bokkada\ also varkara 
(IA 19). 

Bra, abbreviation ofBrdhmana (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 55). 

brahmacdrin (SII 2; LL), a Brahmana student; an 
unmarried student of the Vedas. 

(.6L), epithet of one who takes a vow of celebacy. 

(SII 2), a temple servant. 

brahma-ddna, cf. pirama-ddnam (SITI), gift to Brahman as; 
same as brahmaddya, etc. 

brahmaddya (El 23; CII 4), gift to a Brahmana; the rent- 

brahmadeya brahmapura 


free holding of Brahman as; same as brahmadeya. See brahmatrd, 

brahmadeya (El 30; ASLV; HRS; SITI), land or village 
given as gift (generally tax-free) to Brahmaras; land to be 
granted to or in the possession of Brahman as. 

brahmadeya-kkilavar (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil ; sole owner of 
a Brahmadeya village ; sometimes supposed to be the headman 
or chief of a Brahmadeya village. 

Brahm-ddhirdja (SITI), title of distinguished Brahmana 
military commanders; also spelt Brahmddardya in Tamil. See 
Brahma-mahdrdja, Brahma-rdja. 

brahma-hatyd (CITD), killing a Brahmana, considered to 
be a great sin. 

brahma-kalpa (CITD), the kalpa or age of the god 
Brahman, extending to many thousands of years. 

Brahma-ksatra, Brahma-ksatriya (El 5, 12, 24), a Ksatriya 
family claiming descent from a Brahmana parent; a family in 
which the blood of the Brahman as and Ksatriyas has been 
mixed. See Vishveshvaranand Ind. Journ., Vol. I, pp. 87 ff., etc. 
In one record (Journ. Karnatak Univ., Vol. II, No 2, January 
1959, p. 47), the Nagavamsa, to which a Kadamba king's 
minister Mayideva belonged, is called Brahma-ksatra because it 
originated from the intercouse of its progenitor Nagaraja with 
a Brahmana girl. Brahma-vaisya should be likewise explained. 

Brahma-mahdrdja, cf. pirama-mdrdyan (SITI), title of Brah- 
mana ministers. See Brahm-ddhirdja, Brahmardja. 

brahma-mantra (IA 12), five in number. 

brahma-medha, cf. pirama-metam (SITI), special funeral rite 
for a saintly person. 

Brahman (IE 7-1-2), 'nine'. 

brdhmana-rdsa(raja)-kkdrjam (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; tax 
payable by the Brahmana (Purohita] to the king. 

brdhmana-vimsati (HRS), tithe upon villagers for the main- 
tenance of the Brahmanas. 

brahmdnda (El 16, 21), name of a mahdddna. 

brahmanya (El 22) 'hospitable to the Brahmanas'; see 
Paramabrahmanya, Atibrahmanya. 

brahmanya (SII 1), the community of Brahmanas. 

brahmapura (El 2), same as brahmapun; a rent-free village 
in the possession of Brahmanas; same as agrahdra, etc. 

62 brahmapurl Brhaduparika 

brahmapun (El 4, 28; SITI), also called agara-brahmadeya 
(Sanskrit agrahdra-brahmadeya] ; a Brahmana settlement. See 

Brahmardja (SITI), title of a Brahmana minister. 

Brahmardksasa (El 3, 16), a Brahmana defeated in dis- 

Brahmardya (SITI), same as Brahmardja. Cf. Brahm-ddhirdja. 

Brahmarsi (El 22), a Brahma na sage. 

brahma-stamba (CII 4), a settlement of Brahmaras. 

brahma-sthdna (SI I 13; SITI), explained as 'an assembly 
hall'; the Brahmana quarters of a village; cf. Tamil pirumma- 
stdnam (SITI), the quarters of the Brahmanas where the village 
assembly (sabhd) used to meet. 

Brahmdsya (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

brahmatrd (IE 8-5), same as brahmaddya, etc. 

Brahma-vaisya (A. R. Ep., 1919, No. 208) ; cf. Brahma-ksatra. 

brahma-yajna (El 22; CII 4), study of the Vedas; name 
of a mahdyajna. 

Brdhml, name of an early Indian alphabet, from which a 
large number of alphabets of India and some other countries 
have derived. 

brahmottara (IE 8-5), Bengali; corrupt form of brahmatrd. 

(I A 15), explained as 'the sanctuary of a temple'. 

Brha, abbreviation of Brhatpurusa (q. v.). See Ep. 2nd., 
Vol. XXXIV, p. 143. 

brhac-chulka, cf. Kannada perjutka, perujunka, pejjunka, 

Brhad-bhogika (IE 8-3), same as Brhad-bhogin; see Bhogika 
and Amsa-brhadbhogika. 

Brhad-bhogin (IE 8-3; El 28, 29; BL), same as Brhad- 
bhogika \ a chief jdglrddr; see Bhogin. 

Brhaddeva, cf. Tamil Periya-devar (SITI), literally, 'the 
great king' ; the predecessor or predecessors of the ruling mon- 
arch; also called Periya-perumdl sometimes indicating the para- 
mount sovereign or emperor. Cf. Brhan-nrpati. 

brhaddhala (El 7), 'the big plough'; name of a land 
measure (Ep. Ind., Vol. II, p. 125); cf. hala. 

Brhad-rdjnl (El 4), same as Patta-rdjm (q.v.). 

Brhad-uparika (El 15, 26; HD), 'the great governor of a 
province'; a viceroy. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 9. Cf. Uparika. 

Brhad-vdcaka busi 


Brhad-vdchaka (LL), a Jain preacher. 
Brhad-vdjika (LP), probably, a police officer. 
brhan-mana (El 23; CII 4), a measure larger than the 
standard one; cf. visaya-mdna. 

Brhan-nrpati (IE 8-2), predecessor of the ruling monarch; 
called Periya-devar in Tamil; cf. Odiya Ba&a-Narasirhha and 
Telugu Pedda-Narasirhha. See Brhaddeva. Cf. />. /</., Vol. 
XXXII, p. 231 and note 2; J4S, Letters, Vol. XX, p. 212. 
brhaspatisava (El 22; CII 3), name of a sacrifice. 
brhatl (IE 7-1-2), 'nine'. 

Brhat-kumdramahdpdtra (El 28), cf. Kumar a-mahdpdtra which 
is similar to Kumdrdmdtya. 

Brhat-purohita, cf. Badd-purohit (El 24), 'the high priest'. 
Brhatpurusa, probably the same as Mahdjana (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXXIV,' pp. 143-44). 

Brhat-sandhivigrahi-mahdpdtra (El 28), same as Mahd- 

Brhat-tantrapati (IE 8-3; El 33), explained by a Kashmirian 
commentator as the Dharmddhikdrin who was a judge also in 
charge of charities ; cf. the Muslim official designation Sadrus- 
Sudiir, etc., explained as 'the chief judge and grand almoner, 
or the custodian of the king's bequests and charities' (Journ. 
As. Soc. Pak.,Vo\. IV, pp. 53-54). 

brha-vdra, (El 31; cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 125 
and note), Saturday or Thurdsday (A. Venkatasubbiah, Some 
Saka Dates in Inscriptions, pp. 571T. ); same as Vadda-vdra (q. v.). 
brnddvana (El 12), a tomb. 

Buddha (LL), Buddhist; a class of saints. See Bodhisattva. 
buddha-caitya (El 28), a Buddhist shrine. 
buddh-ddhisthdna (El 22), a city or locality in the possession 
of a Buddhist monastery. 

Budhdlenkd (IE 8-3), Odiya; same as Mahdpddamulika, 
'chief attendant.' 

budh-dstami (IA 26), the eighth tithi on a Wednesday. 
bullaga-kara (HRS), tax relating to the supervision of 
meals according to the Abhidhdnardjendra, s.v. kara. 
buredu (CITD), Telugu; an unknown quantity. 
busa (IE 8-5), chaff. 

busi-bhamddlu (CITD), Telugu; probably, stores of un- 
husked grain. Cf. kola-bharhddlu. 

64 butiya cakra 

butiya (El 32), a mound. 


caba (Chamba), wet land, marshy land. 

cabutard (El 32), Hindi; a platform. 

Cdda (IE 8-3), same as Cdta (q. v.) and the modern 
Cad of Ghamba, the latter being the designation of the head of 
a Pargana. 

cad a (LP), a camp; an attacking party. 

caitra-pavitra, caitra-pavitraka (El 7, 18), name of a rite 
(Ind. Ant., Vol. XXXVIII, p. 52); caitra is the daman-dropana 
ceremony which takes place in the month of Caitra and pavitra 
is the pavitr-dropana ceremony which occurs in Sravana 
(Ind. Ant., Vol. XI, p. 274, notes 12-13); cf. Kannada caitra- 
pavitr-dbhydgat-ddi puje galgarh, translated as 'for the caitra and 
pavitra and the entertainment of guests and other rites' (IA 30). 

caitya (El 22, 33; BL), a prayer hall; usually, a place of 
worship in a Buddhist monastery; same as caitya-grha. 

(El 6, Gil 4), same as stupa. 

caity-dgdra (SII 1), a Jain temple; same as caity-dlaya. 

caitya-grha (El 8, 33, LL), Buddhist; cf. Prakrit cetiya-ghara. 
(El 24), the hall for worship or prayer; hall in a monastery. 

caityaka-saila, a stone pillar raised in memory of a 
dead person on his cremation ground (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXVIII, 
p. 133). See jw/f. 

caity-dlaya (El 7), same as caitya. 

(El 3; SII 1), a Jain temple; same as caity-dgdra. 

caitya-patta (LL), Buddhist; a slab bearing the represen- 
tation of a caitya. See cakra- pat ta. 

Caitya-saila (El 24), a Buddhist school. 

caitya-vandana (HA), obeissance to and worship of the 
Jina with recitation of hymns, etc., and meditating on the 
qualities of a Jina. 

Caityika (El 24), same as Caitya-saila. 

cakall, a small coin, smaller than the tarhka regarded as 
(Ta of a rupee. 

cdkdntara (El 3), a village institution of uncertain meaning. 

cakra, cf. Cakrin (El 4); a district; same as mandala. 

Cf. sakkaram (SITI), wheel of authority; the king's order; 
an officer entrusted with the execution of the king's order. 

cakra-patta calivamdili 65 

(CII 3), 'the discus'; an emblem on seals. 

Cf. sakkara-kdnikkai (SITI), Sanskrit -Tamil; tax paid by 
potters; also called tirigai-ayam. 

cakra-patta (LL), Buddhist; a slab bearing the represen- 
tation of a wheel. See caitya-patta. 

Cakravdla-giri (SITI), same as Tamil Sakkaravalam; a 
mythical mountain encircling the earth; the horizon. 

cakravarti-ksetra (IE 8-2; El 33), the sphere of influence 
of an Indian imperial ruler lying between the Himalayas and 
the three seas, viz. Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean and 
Arabian Sea; sometimes regarded as conterminous with 
Arydvarta or Ddksindtya. See Sircar, Stud. Geog. Anc. Med. Ind., 
pp. 1 ff. 

Cakravartin (IE 8-2; El 21, 28; Gil 3, 4), a title of para- 
mount sovereignty; the title of an emperor. See Saptama- 
cakravartin; also Cakresvara, Cakrin. 

(IE 8-2), often suffixed to expressions like Pratdpa, Prau- 
dhapratdpa, Bhujabalapratdpa, Nihsankapratdpa, etc., and some- 
times also to dynastic names like Tddava. 

(El 31 ), epithet of the Buddha. 

(IE 8-2), cf. cakravarti-ksetra.. 

Cakresvara (El '-3), same as Cakravartin. 

Cakrin (El 9), same as Cakravartin. 

(El 4, 19), 'the ruler of a cakra (circle) or district'; title 
of a provincial ruler. 

caksus (IE 7-1-2), 'two'; cf. netra. 

Cf. Pali cakkhu (El 5), Buddhist; vision, five in number. 

Cf. caksur-vadha, 'killing at sight', 'killing instantaneously'; 
or probably 'blinding of the eyes'. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, 
p. 307 and note 1. 

Calamartiganda (CITD), Telugu-Kannada; a title of the 
Kakatiya kings; from Kannada ganda meaning 'the husband, 
lord, master,' i.e. 'one who can control or punish', and Telugu 
calam meaning 'obstinacy, rudeness, overbearing'; transalated 
as 'one who is the controller or punisher of spiteful men or 
men of overbearing conduct'. 

call (IA 15), a system of land revenue. 

calivamdili, calivemdala, caliverhdra, caliparhdili (CITD), 
Telugu-Kannada; halting place for travellers, where they are 
supplied gratis with milk and whoey or with water. 

66 cdmara Cdra 

cdmara (IE 8-8), name of a coin; cf. cdmara-mdda. 

(SII 3), a fly-whisk. See cauri, cavardlu. 

Cdmara-kumdra, cf. Cavari-kumdra (El 10), probably, a 
prince in charge of the fly-whisk which was one of the royal 

cdmara-mdda (El 7), name of a coin; cf. cdmara. 

campd-sasthl (El 5), name of a tithi. 

Camundyaka (El 27), a general; cf. Senapati, etc. 

Camupa (IA 10), a general; same as Camupati, etc. 

Camupati (E/8-3); a general, same as Sendpati, etc. 

Canda-pracanda (SITI), divinities guarding the inner shrine 
of a Visnu temple. 

Candesvara (SITI), traditional executive of Siva temples; 
also called Adi-ddsa. 

Candesvara-pperuvilai (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil ; literally, the 
sale-price of Candesvara, the traditional executive of Siva 
temples; actually, sale-price of land purchased from a Siva 

candra (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'one'. 

candradityavat (SITI), same as Tamil candrddittaval, 
candrddittavar ; 'as long as the moon and the sun last 5 ; 'in 
perpetuity' . 

candra-grahana (SII 1), lunar eclipse. 

candrahdsa (El 25), name of Rama's sword. 

candraka (El 2), the young moon. 

candra-kdlikam (LP), permanently. 

candramas (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

candr-drka-yoga-parvan ( El 19), same as amdvdsyd. 

candra-visada (LP), 'as white as the moon', i.e. guiltless. 

candy (IA 26), Anglicised form of khandi, a weight of 
different value in different parts. See khandikd. 

canga, see changa. 

cankrama (LL), Prakrit carhkama (El 24); a promenade, 
a walk. 

capalarh (Gil 1), quickly. 

Cara (CII 4), a spy. 

Cdra (IE 8-3; El 26), a spy; same as Cara; sometimes used 
in place of Cdta. 

(El 15), cf. a-cdr-dsana-carm-dngdra (IE 8-5), probably, 
passage [of royal officers through a village] ; cf. also a-pdr- 

car a Cdta 67 

dsana-carm-dngdra with para (probably, ferrying) instead of 
car a. 

cara-ballvarda (IE 8-5), cf. vam-ballvarda. 

carana (CII 4; IA 18, 20), a Vedic school; a sect or school 
studying a particular sdkhd of the Vedas; e. g. Taittirlya-carana. 

(CII 1 ), same as dear ana \ cf. dharma-carana for dharm-dcarana. 

Cdrana (El 3), same as Vidyd-cdrana, a Jain monk endowed 
with magical powers. 

Cf. harita-pakva-sasy-eksn-cdrarja-lavan-Gpamardana (IE 8-5); 
grazing of cattle. 

carandi (El 31), Gujarat!; a narrow passage of water. 

carl (El 33), pasture land; same as can-ksetra. 

(El 21), grazing tax; grazing land. Gf. can. 

carl (LP), Gujaratl cdro, grass; probably, pasture land; 
cf. carl. 

(CII 4), grazing tax. 

Carmakdra (El 32), a shoe-maker. 

carman (El 15), cf. a-carm-dngdraka (IE 8-5); hide-seat 
which the villagers were obliged to supply to the touring 
officers of the king. 

cam (El 10, 22, 23; CII 3, 4), an offering to the manes; 
one of the five mahdyajnas. 

caruka (El 1), same as earn, one of the five mahdyajnas. 

caryd (CII 4), discipline in Saivite practices. 

cash (IE 8-8), Anglicised form of Tamil kasu\ name of a 
small copper coin. 

cat, cf. allkarh catdpitam (LP), 'circulated a false rumour'. 

Cf. catanti (LP) ; 'to accumulate'; also cf. Gujarat! cadhse. 

Cdta (HD), irregular soldiers according to Fleet and 
Biihler. Vogel (Ant. Ch. St., pp. 130-32) points out that 
Charnba is the only place where the ancient word Cdta is still 
extant in the modern form Cdd meaning 'the head of a Pargana'. 
An important privilege of a gift village was 'not to be entered 
by Cdtas and Bhatas' '. Inscriptions ( Ep. 2nd., Vol. XI, 
p. 221 ) often specify that the granted land was not to be entered 
by Cdtas and Bhatas except for seizing robbers and those guilty 
of harm or treason to the king (cf. a-cdta-bhata-pravesyam cora- 
drohaka-varjam in op. cit., Vol. VIII, p. 287). Sometimes we 
have bhata-cdta-sevak-ddin (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 211) and 
catta-bhatta-jdtlydn janapaddn (ibid., Vol. XIV, p. 160). 

68 catdpaka-caturaka 

(IE 8-3; CII 3, 4), generally mentioned along with 
bhata; sometimes replaced by cdra (spy) and chdtra (literally, 
'umbrella-bearer', but really, a constable, i.e. a Pdik or Pidda)\ 
probably indicates the leader of a group of Bhatas, i.e. Pdiks 
and Piddas ; a policeman leading a group of Pdiks. See catta. 
Yajnavalkya, I. 336, speaks of the duty of the king to 
protect people from the harassment caused by cdtas, robbers 
and Kdyasthas and the Mitdksard explains cdta as persons 
who deprive people of their wealth after creating false confi- 
dence in them. According to Brhaspati quoted by Apararka, 
'dangers common to all are those arising from the cdtas and 
thieves'. The word cdta in the passage tdrkika-cdta-bhata-rdj- 
dpravesya in Sarikara's Bhdsya on the Brhaddranyaka Upanisad 
is explained by Anandagiri by saying that the cdtas are those 
that transgress the rules of conduct for decent people and that 
bhatas are servants telling falsehood (Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 296). 
But cdta is used in inscriptions in the sense of a royal official. 

catdpaka (LP), 'increasing [the rent already fixed]'; cf. 
Gujarat! cadhdvo. 

catdpya (LP), 'to be entered fon the back of the bond]'; 
cf. Gujarati cddhdvavd. 

ca-ti abbreviation of an expression probably meaning 'a 
mound suitable for planting fruit trees'. See Ep. Ind.., Vol. 
XXX, p. 56. Cf. tl. 

catita (LP), one who makes an attack. 

(LP), accumulated . 

Cf. khanda-sphutita-catita-pratisarhskdra; a crack. 

Catta (El 25), Tamil corruption of Sanskrit Chdtra', 
a student. 

(IE 8-3), cf. a-catta-bhatta-pravesa (IE 8-5); same as Cdta 
of earlier records. 

cattand (LP), food; sauce; cf. Gujarati cdtvum, licking. 

cdtu (IA 15), probably, a spoon. 

(El 32), a eulogistic stanza. 

catuh-sdla, catuh-sdld (El 20; SITI), a cloister. 

(SITI), a meeting hall; see catus-sdld. 

(El 24), same as catur-dlaya. 

cdtu-padi (GITD), Telugu; an offering of food to the deity. 

catura, cf. catumka ; a square. 

caturaka (LP), same as Sanskrit catvara; Gujarati coro; 

caturalaya cdturmdsya 69 

a public place in a village, or a police station ; probably, a tax 
for the maintenance of a police station. 

(IE 8-4), a small territorial unit. 

catur-dlaya (El 24), known, especially from Tamil inscrip- 
tions, in the sense of 'a hall or pavilion attached to a temple' ; 
also called catuh-sdld. 

Caturdnana-vadana (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

caturariga (El 2), a complete army. 

caturasiti (IE 8-4), a territorial unit like a Pargana; see 

caturdanta-samara, caturdanta-samara, a war of elephants; 
cf. ghotaka-vigraha. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXVI, p. 8. 

caturdasa-vidyd-sthdna (CII 3), the fourteen sections of 

Caturdhara-pratlhdra, cf. Kannada Sodare-vadiyara (Hydera- 
bad Archaeological Series, No. 18, p. 34); explained as 'the chief 
of the royal guards'. Caturdhara is modern Caudhari, written 
in Kannada as Saudore, Saudare, Caudore, Cavudore and Cavudari 
and explained as c an officer of the royal guard'. 

cdturdisa (El 23; ML), 'belonging to all the quarters'; 
cf. cdturdis-drya-bhiksu-sangha, 'Buddhist monks of all places'; 
'all monks coming from different places'. 

catur-garbha (LL), a four-celled building. 

caturjdtaka (IE 8-3 ), same as cauthid, an administrative board 
of four members known from the Pancdyat system of Western 
India; cf. pancakula or pancdyat. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, 
p. 193. See caukadikd. 

(El 20), four fragrant articles, viz. tvak, eld, pair oka and 

Caturjdtaka (El 1), a member of the caturjdtaka or cauthid 
(q.v.)- Cf. Pancakulika. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 193. 

Caturjdlaklya, same as Caturjdtaka (El 1); a mem'ber of the 
caturjdtaka tq.v.); cf. Pancakulika. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, 
p. 193. 

cdturmdsl (El 2; CII 1), the full-moon tithis of Phalguna, 
Asadha and Karttika. 

cdturmdsl-paksa (IA 18), the fortnight ending in a cdtur- 
mdsl (i.e. the full-moon of Phalguna, Asadha and Karttika). 

cdturmdsya (SII 11-1, CITD), the season consisting of 4 
months, viz.grisma consisting of the p urnimdnta months of Caitra, 

?0 caturmasya catur-upaaya 

Vaisakha, Jyestha and Asadha, varsd consisting of Sravana, 
Bhadrapada, Asvina and Karttika; and hemanta consisting of 
Margasirsa, Pausa, Magha and Phalguna. This was the 
official division of the year which was popularly divided into six 
seasons, viz. grisrna (Jyestha-Asadha), varsd (Sravaria-Bhadra- 
pada), sarad (Asvina-Karttika), hemanta (Margasirsa-Pausa), 
stta (Magha-Phalguna) and vasanta (Caitra- Vaisakha). Some 
times, the word cdturmdsya specially means the four months of 
the year, containing the two seasons of varsd and sarad, i.e. 
from Sravara to Karttika. During this period, Visnu is 
supposed to sleep, so that religious celebrations are avoided. 
During the period, religious mendicants desisted from roving. 
(El 7 ; BL ) , related to the cdturmdsl or the full-moon day 
of Phalguna, Ashadha and Karttika; a rite; same as cdtur- 

cdturmdsya-vrata (El 32), a rite. See cdturmdsya. 
caturmukha-bimba (El 2), Jain; a four-sided slab with 
images on all the sides. 

caturtha (IE 8-8), one-fourth of the standard measure [of 
liquids like liqour] . 

caturtha-kula (El 29), the Sudra community. 
caturthi-amdvdsya, cf. cauti-amdvdse (El 5), the new-moon 
following the Garesa-caturthi. 

cdturvaidya-maryddd (El 27), custom relating to rent-free 
land granted to learned Brahmaras. 

caturvarnin (LL), Jain; 'consisting of four classes'; an 
epithet of the Jain community. 

caturvedi-bhatta-ttdna-pperumakkal ( SITI ) , Sanskrit-Tamil ; 
general assembly of the Vedic scholars in a Brahmana village. 

caturvedi-mangala (IE 8-4; SITI), same as agrahdra; a 
village owned by Brahmanas, generally tax-free; also called 
mangala; written as saruppeti-mangalam in Tamil; sometimes suffix- 
ed to names of localities especially in the Tamil-speaking area. 
Caturvedin (El 23, 24; CII 3, 4; SII 1), a Brahmana 
versed in the four Vedas; one who has studied the four Vedas- 
later stereotyped as a family name among Brahmanas. 

cdturvidya (El 23, 32), cf. Caturvedin; 'relating to the 
Caturvedin', a community of Brahmanas; cf. cdturvidya-grdma, 
cdturvidy-dgrahdra, cdturvidya-sdmdnya (El 22). 

catur-updya (SII 1), the four expedients. Cf. updya. 

caturvimsati caiird 71 

caturvimsali-tlrthankara-patta (El 2), a slab with the images 
o all the 24 Jain Tirthankaras. See covisi. 

catuskikd (El 19; CII 4), a hall; a hall resting on four 
pillars (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIX, p. 75). 

catuspatha (LP), a place where four roads meet. 

catus-sdld (SITI), a meeting hall; see catuh-sdld. 

catvdraka (IA 17), used in the sense of catustaya. 

Chau (PJS), contraction ofCaudharl (Caturdhara) especially 
in medieval Jain inscriptions. 

caukadikd (El 11), a variety of the Pancdyat system; cf. 
caturjdtaka or cauthid. 

(BL), explained as c a method of recovering stolen property'. 

caumukha (HA), Sanskrit caturmukha (cf. caturmukha-bimba) \ 
a quadruple image called pratimd sarvatobhadrikd (LL) in the 
Mathura inscriptions of the Kusar.a period, showing one Jina 
or several Jinas on each of the four faces ; also seen on the top 
or in the centre of representations of the samavasarana (q.v.). 

Caura-carata (LP), cf. Marathi Cor-cilatdmcd upadrav. 

caurdsl (IE 8-4; El 3, 4), literally, 'eightyfour'; same as 
caturasiti (q.v.); a group of eightyfour villages; a Pargana 
consisting of eightyfour villages; simetimes the name of a 
Pargana and often suffixed to its name. 

caura-varjam (CII 3; HRS), cf. cora-varjamj coradanda- 
varjam, cora-rdjdpathyakdri-varjam\ 'with immunity from the 
police tax' according to some; may really mean 'without any 
right to inflict punishment on thieves and persons committing 
the crime of treason or to levy fines from them' ; may also be 
connected with a-bhata-pravesa so as to indicate that the bhatas 
should not enter except for catching thieves and persons 
committing the crime of treason; cf. Cdta. 

cauri (ASLV), spelt chowrie in English; a fly whisk; some- 
times the right of its use was granted to persons as a mark 
of honour. See cdmara, cavardlu. 

Caurika (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIX, p. 71), official designation. 
Cf. Cdmara-kumdra, Caur-oddharanika . 

caurikd, cf. carma-caurikd (LP), 'theft of skin'. 

caur-oddharana (El 33; HRS), according to some, the 
right to punish or levy fines from thieves; probably, the right 
to recover stolen property; recovery of stolen property; cf. 
sa-chauroddharana (IE 8-5; El 23). 

72 Caur-oddharanika chandas 

Caur-oddharanika (IE 8-3; El 23; CII 3), an official desig- 
nation indicating an officer in charge of the recovery of stolen 
property; a police officer; same as Cor-oddharanika, Caur-oddhartr. 

(HD; CII, Vol. Ill, p. 216), explained as 'the thief-catcher 
or one who exterminates thieves'. But cf. Dand-odddharanika. 

Caur-oddhartr (HD), same as Caur-oddharanika (cf. Tdjna- 
valkyasmrti, II. 271; also Katyayana quoted by Apararka). 

cauthid (IE 8-3; El 33), an administrative board consis- 
ting of four members headed by the Nagarseth (Nagarasresthin] 
as known from the Pancdyat system of Western India; cf. 
caturjdtaka, cauka^ikd. 

cdvadi (IE 8-4; SITI; ASLV), same as sdvadi or 
usdvadi; an administrative unit or a territorial division. 

(El 16), same as rajya\ a district or subdivision. 

cavala (El 6), name of a coin, f of a pagoda; cf. cdmara, 
cave la. 

cavardlu (CITD), Telugu; also called savardlu, savara- 
mulu ; the hair of the camari-mrga, used by women as queue ; 
also cavara, camara or cdmara, the chowrie (cauri) or long brush 
or fan usually made of the tail of the yak, which was one of 
the insignia of royalty. 

cavaranga (El 28), a Saiva altar. 

cavathe, a levy of one-fourth ; see chavathd. 

cavela (El 6), same as cavala; name of a coin, J of a 
pagoda. Cf. cdmara. 

cetaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 78), an attendant; some- 
times mentioned in the list of officials. 

cha (PJS) written as a mark indicating the end of a section 
of a record or of the whole of it. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 218. 

cha-coki (HA), Sanskrit sat-catuskikd\ a hall adjacent to 
and in front of the gudha-mandapa, with its ceiling divided into 
six sections by the pillars supporting it. 

Chadmastha (HA), a would-be Jina [living a monk's life] 
before attainment of kevala-jndna. Cf. Bodhisattva. 

chddya, cf. trna-cchddya, thatch-covering (Ep. Ind., XXXIV, 
p. 145); same as Gujarat! chdj, thatch. 

chala (IE 8-8), meaning uncertain; probably, a pretext. 

(El 30), probably, a plea, or persecution, prosecution. 

chdll (LP), sheep. 

chandas (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

changa chidra 73 

chart ga (Ep. 2nd., Vol. XIV, p. 310), a measure of grain. 

chandovicita, the metrical science (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, 
p. 146). 

chappanna, cf. satpaiicdsat. 

chatra, an umbrella; cf. pancdnga-prasdda. 

(El 27), an attendant or Pidda\ cf. Chdtra. 

Cf. Vardha-ksetra = Bardh-chatra (Sircar, Studies in the 
Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, p. 221); corruption of 
Sanskrit ksetra. 

Chdtra (IE 8-3, 8-8; El 23, 30), cf. a-bhata-cchdtra- 
prdvesya (IE 8-5); literally, 'one bearing an umbrella' or 'the 
king's umbrella-bearer'; but probably the same as the Cdta 
or the leader of a group of Bhatas (Pdiks or Piddas] as in a-cdta- 
bhata-prdvesya; a peon of the law-court. See Chatracchdyika. 

(CII 3), used in composition with bhata and also singly; 
literally, 'an umbrella-bearer'; but actually, a constable like 
a Pdik or Pidda. 

(SITI), celebate (Brahmacdrin) in charge of a temple 
and the sdlai attached to it; also called Sattar, Sdttirar. 

chair a-bhanga (IA 8), 'the breaking of the umbrella [of 
sovereignty]'; sometimes interpreted as 'an interregnum'. 

chatr-dbhoga (IA 17), corrected from satr-dbhoga and 
explained as 'the expanse of the royal umbrella'; but really, 
'the dbhoga (a territorial unit) called Sa(Kha)tra'. 

Chatracchdyika (IE 8-3; HD), an umbrella- bearer; the 
king's umbrella-bearer. See Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., p. 128. Cf. 

chatra-yasti (LL), an umbrella on a post. 

chavathd (IA 18), cf. vimsati-chavathd, a levy of doubtful 
implication; may be a levy of 6 out of a unit of 20; cf. cavathe. 

chdyd (El 1), an image. 

chdyd-dlpa (El 33), a lamp held by an image, often 
arranged to burn continuously in front of a deity in a temple; 
cf. akhanda-dipa. 

chdyd-stambha (El 33, 35), memorial pillar bearing image 
of the deceased. 

cheda (El 13), a quarter, area or subdivision; cf. Brahma- 

chendikd (El 1), meaning doubtful. 

chidra (7-1-2), 'nine'; cf. randhra. 

74 Chimpaka cirikd 

Chimpaka (IE 8-8; El 30), a dyer of clothes; same as 
Prakrit Chimp ay a. 

choha, same as Gujarat! cho, mortar (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 
p. 144). 

chotyamdna, cf. chotyamdna-grhe (LP), 'when the house is 
being vacated'. 

choultry, Anglicised form of a Dravidian word; a 

churi-prabandha (BL), name of a grant made in favour of 
a Churikdra, 'a maker of churls'. The word churi may be the 
same as ksurikd, 'a knife', and a Churikdra may have been an 
officer in charge of the production of knives and swords. 

chut (LP), cf. chotaniya; Gujarat! choddvavum; also cf. 
granthi-baddhair=api drammaih ksetram chotayiturh dhdraniko na 
labhate, '[when the date is already over], the debtor will not 
get his farm liberated by the ready money tied in a piece of 

Cf. patra-grahdt chutanti(LP), 'will be free from the bond'; 
also Gujarat! chaise. 

cihna (El 33), flag; cf. Cihna-dhara (BL), standard-bearer. 

ci-khi, abbreviation of cira-khila, ' [land] never brought 
under cultivation' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 56). 

cikitsd (Gil 1), medical treatment. 

Clna-kkanakam (IE 8-8), Tamil; 'the Chinese gold coin'. 

Cina-pagoda (SII 12), 'Chinese shrine'; name of a Buddhist 
temple at Nagapattanam. 

cinna (El 3; SITI), name of a coin; sometimes regarded 
as a fanam (CITD); also spelt sinna in Telugu; a weight equal 
to -QQ of a tola and called a Canteroy fanam ; one-eighth part 
of a coin called pagoda; the weight of 4 guri-ginjas. 

cintrinl (El 33 J, the tamarind tree. 

cira-khila (El 30), land which was never cultivated. 

cira-khila-sunya (El 23), epithet of gift land; fallow land. 

ciranjiva (El 30), 'long-lived'; epithet of living (not 
dead) . persons. 

cirantana-loka (LP), old men. 

ciravida (CITD), Telugu; name of a coin; probably a 
special kind of gadydna. 

cirikd (El 26), a document; cf. kraya-cirikd, *a deed of 
purchase', i.e. a sale-deed. 

cirna cord 75 

arna-vral-opayanaka (LP), the gift (updyana) for the vows 
practised. Cf. Sel. Ins., p. 210, text line 14. 

citald (IE 8-5), a tax; cf. cotdla, citola. 

clthikd (LP), a chit; cf. Gujarat! citthl. 

citola (IE 8-5), a tax or obligation of uncertain import. 

citra (ASLV), a kind of poetry. 

citrajarta (LP), various kinds of armour. 

Citraka (IA 8), 'a painter'; epithet of the engraver of an 

Citrakdra, cf. Cittirakdrar (El 22), a painter. 

citrakdrya, cf. cittirakdri (El 22), painting. 

citra-bhdsa (ASLV), paintings on the walls and ceilings of 

citrameli (SITI), also spelt sittirameli, an organisation of 
the agriculturists; agricultural corporation of the Vellalas; 
the plough which was the emblem of this organisation; the 
boundary stone with the representation of the plough emblem 
planted to mark the limits of their land. 

clvara, cf. cwarika (El 8); garments of Buddhist monks. 

cwarika (El 8), expenses of dvara; Sanskrit caivarika. 

cwarika (El 20), a Buddhist monk's robe. 

cokhd (El llj, rice. 

co la (Chamba), rice. 

collika (El 3), collikd (El 10), a load [of leaves]; 
a quantity of betel leaves. 

cora (IE 8-5), same as caura and cora-danda ; probably, 
the power of punishing thieves and realising fines from them; 
cf. cora-varja; also Cdta. 

coradanda-varjam (HRS), same as caura-varjam (q. v. ). 

cora-danda-varjya (CII 3), a fiscal term which means either 
that no fines for theft should be collected from the gift village 
or, more probably, that the donee was not entitled to fines 
realisable on theives in the gift villages. But see also caura-varjam. 

cora-drohaka-varja (CII 3, etc.), a fiscal term which is 
similar to coradanda-varja. The word drohaka means one 
committing a crime against the king. See caura-varjam, Cdta. 

Cora-grdha (HD), a thief-catcher (cf. Narada, Parisista, 
verse 18; also Katyayana quoted by Apararka). 

cora-rdjdpathyakdri-varjam (HRS), 'with immunity from 
the police tax', according to some; seems to mean 'without any 

76 cor a curni 

right to inflict punishment on or levy fines from thieves and 
rebels'. But see caura-varjam; also Cdta. 

cora-rajju (HRS), 'the rope for binding thieves'; supposed 
to be the dues collected by the superintendent of the bound- 
aries of villages. 

Corarajjuka (HD), probably the same as Ddndapdsika, an 
officer whose duty it was to secure robbers with ropes (cf. 
Arthasdstra, IV. 13; II. 6 referring to cora-rajju as a constituent 
of the r astro}. 

cordsi (IE 8-4), same as caurdsi (q. v.). 

cora-varja, also spelt cora-varjya (CII 3; HRS); a fiscal 
term which is the same as coradanda-varjya (q. v.). See also 

cora-varjita (CII 3), same as coradanda- varjya (q.v.). 

cora-varjya, see cora-varja. 

Cor-oddharanika (El 28, 30), same as Caur-oddharanika', a 
police officer in charge of the recovery of stolen goods ; explained 
by some as 'the eradicator of thieves' (CII 4). But cf. 

coska (El 4), a horse. 

cotala (IE 8-5), a tax of uncertain import; cf. citola, citald. 

covlsl (HA); Sanskrit caturvimsati or caturvimsati-patta; 
a group of the 24 Jinas carved on one stone slab or cast in 
bronze together. 

cudd (I A 11), the top knot of hair; cf. culd. 

cuddmani (IA 26), an eclipse on certain days. 

cukka, error, fault (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 7, note 4). 

culd (IA 11), tresses; cf. cudd. 

cullaka, cf. a-kura-cullaka-vindsi-khatv-dvdsa (IE 8-5), ex- 
plained as 'a pot', i.e. cooking pot. The villagers were obliged 
to supply it to the touring officers of the king. 

cumd (El 1), meaning doubtful. 

cumbaka (El 13), the balance. 

cund, same as Sanskrit curna, lime (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 
p. 144). 

Cunakara, same as Sanskrit Curnakdra, a lime-burner or 
white-washer (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 145). 

Curakdra, cf. Curakdra (CITD), from Telugu-Kannada 
and Sanskrit kdra\ 'one who has plundered'. 

curni (El 3), an appended note. Cf. curm. 

curni daksindvarta 


curni, curni (El 29, 33), one hundred cowrie-shells; 
cowrie-shells of the value of a pur ana or kdrsdpana (kdhan). 


dabhra-sabhd (SII 3), the golden hall in the Chhidam- 
baram temple. 

dddhd(Gll^}, a canine tooth; derived from Sanskrit 

dadhi (IE 7-12)_, confused with udadhi and used to indi- 
cate 'four'. 

Cf. a-dugdha-dadhi-grahana ( IE 8-5 ) ; curds which the 
villagers (probably, the milkmen) were obliged to supply to 
the king or landlord on occasions and to the touring officers. 

dahana (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

dahara-bhiksu (LL), a young Buddhist monk. 

dairgh-dyusa (CII 1), 'conducive to long life'. 

Daivdgdrika (El 7), the priest in charge of a temple or an 
officer in charge of temples. 

(IE 8-3), probably, a priest of the shrine of the king's tute- 
lary deity; sometimes mentioned as a Pdtra. 

Daivajna (IE 8-3; El 7), an astrologer; sometimes men- 
tioned as a Pdtra. 

Daivaputra (IE 8-2; El 30), same as Devaputra; title of 
certain kings of the Kusana dynasty; derived from a Chinese 
title meaning 'the Son of Heaven'. 

daivya (SITI), an act of the gods. 

daksa, used in the late Tantra literature in the sense of 
daksina, 'the south' (cf. Sircar, Studies in the Georgraphy of Ancient 
and Medieval India, p. 76, note 19). 

daksina (El 32), the sacred fire. 

daksind (El 32), perquisite. 

(BL), a present or gift to a Brahmana for a service. 

(C/7 1), cf. prdna- daksind, same as prdna-ddna. 

Daksina-bhuja(SITI), 'the right hand'; a trusted lieutenant. 

Daksindmurti (SII 12), an aspect of Siva. 

Daksindpatha (CII 3), 'the region of the south'; a name 
for Southern India. 

Daksindpatha-sddhdra (CII 3), 'the Pillar of Daksiiiapatha'; 
title of a ruler. Sddhdra may be a mistake for sv-ddhdra. 

daksindvarta-safikha (SII 1), a conch-shell with convolutions 
from left to right. 

78 daksina ddndddya 

daksin-dyana (IA 19), the period during which the sun 
moves from south to north; cf. uttar-dyana (IA 17). 

daksini, ddksinya, cf. Prakrit dachini (ML) ; same as daksina. 

ddksinya, cf. daksinya (El 23); same as daksina. 

Dala-adhikdri (IE 8-3; SITI; ASLV), Dravidian-Sans- 
krit; same as Sainyddhikdrin or Sendpati, Dalada-adhikdri or 
Dalavdy, a commander of forces. 

Dalada-adhikdri (ASLV), same as Dala-adhikdri or Dalavdy, 
the commander of forces. 

Dalavdy (IE 8-3; ASLV; SITI), same as Dala-adhikdri, 
Dalada-adhikdri or Sendpati; the commander of forces; some- 
times also enjoying the title Dandandyaka. 

Dalavdy-agrahdra (ASLV), village granted for military 

Dalavdyi (CITD), Telugu-Kannada; a general, a chief- 
tain, or the minister of state; same as Dalavdy. 

Dala-vrtti (CITD), from Telugu-Kannada data, 'army', 
and Sanskrit vrtti; probably, a grant for the maintenance of 
the army. 

dama, cf. ddma (El 23); same as dramma (q. v.). 

ddma (El 27; CII 4), name of a coin; derived from dramma. 
(El 19), abbreviation of the name Ddmodara. 

damanaka (SITI), a fragrant plant. 

damanaka-caturdasi (El 23), same as Caitra su-di 14; 
also called damanaka-parvan. 

damanaka-parvan (El 23, 31), same as damanaka-caturdasl. 

ddmara (El 12), tumultuous, terrible; a landlord or 
wealthy cultivator possessing much land [in ancient Kashmir], 
according to the Rdjatarangim. 

damma (SITI), same as dramma; name of a coin; derived 
from Greek drachma. 

ddna, ddnd (ML), a gift. 

(HRS], known from Maitraka records to mean the so- 
called voluntary gifts of subjects. 

Cf. ddnd-sambandhe (LP), 'as regards the sale- tax'. 

ddna (IE 8-5; LP ), same as ddna, road-cess; customs 
duties; cf. the official designation Dam (Sanskrit Ddrtin). 
ddna-cori (El 32), smuggling. 

ddndddya-ddnlbhoga (LP), explained as 'local cess or road- 
cess'; ddya is explained as 'a gift to Brahmanas or temples', 

Ddnddhikdrin danda 


dam as 'land tax' and bhoga as 'right of enjoyment'; but probably, 
ddn-dddya means excise or customs duties and dani-bhoga a 
tax for the maintenance of the tax-collector. 

Ddn-ddhikdrin (El 12), officer in charge of gifts, mentioned 
along with the Sdsan-ddhikdrika, 'officer in charge of grants 
.(or their writing)'. See D harm- ddhik arm. It may also mean 
'a tolls-collector' (cf. ddna, Damn). 

Dandik (ASLV), corrupt form of Dandandyaka. 

ddna-mukha (El 7; ML), a gift; the principal gift; same 
as deya-dharma. 

ddna-palam (IA 11), actually d&na(ik*) palarh, i.e. 'the ddna 
(levy) is one paid' . 

Ddnapati (El 28, 30; HD), one who gives a gift; one who 
dedicates the image of a deity (especially as the result of a 
previous vow); probably, also an official designation; see 
Horamnrta (CII 2-1), Ddnddhikdrin. 

ddna-ppuYam (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; land set apart for 
the purpose of charity. 

ddna-praddnaka (CII 4), all kinds of gifts. 

ddna-sdld (IA 11), a hall for the distribution of gifts. 

ddna-voldpana (LP), ddna (road-cess) and voldpana (tax; 
cf. Gujarat! valdvanum). See Voldpika. 

Dandyaka (IA 20), corrupt from of Dandandyaka. 

danda (IE 8-5; El 12), fine or tax, mentioned along with 
sunka (sulka) ; a levy or free service (cf. praydna-danda) . 

(El 24), fines; authority. 

(HRS), fines; distinguished from atyaya in the Artha- 

(CII 1), punishment. 

(ASLV), judicial punishment; sometimes possibly also 
'administration' . 

(El 25), 'five'. 

(El 30; LP), contraction of Dandandyaka. 

(El 28), Odiya; a path (cf. danda). 

Cf. tandu (SITI), a palanquin; a pole for carrying the 
vehicle on which the image of a deity is set up. 

Cf. dandu, tandu (SITI), an army; going on a military 

Cf. iandam (SII 1; CITD); fine, penalty or punishment; 
a punitive tax; a fine or tax payable as penalty. 

80 dan da Dandandyaka 

danda (El 31), Odiya ; a boundary line or road. See 

Ddndabhogika (HD), same as Ddndapdsika (q.v.), or the 
police magistrate. See Ep. Ind., Vol XIII, p. 339. 

danda-das-dparddha (CII 4), fines including those imposed 
for the ten offences; same as das-dparddha. See dandadosa-das- 
dparddha, danda-sulka, etc. 

dand-dddya (El 20), fines; see Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., pp. 

Dandddhindtha (El 16; SI I 1; HD), same as Dandapdia, 
Dandandyaka, etc. See Ind. Ant., Vol. XIV, p. 55. 

Dandddhindyaka (SII 1), a general; same as Dandddhindtha. 

Dandddhipa (BL; HD), the commander of forces; same 
as Dandapdia, Dandddhipati, etc. See the commentary on the 
Tasastilaka, I, p. 91*; Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 151. 

Dandddhipati (El 26), cf. Dandandyaka, etc. 

(LP), explained as 'a governor'. 

Dandddhlsvara (El 5), same as Dandddhipati, etc. 

danda-dosa, cf. sa-dandadosa (El 23); fines. See danda. 

dandadosa-dasdparddha (HRS), same as danda-dasdpa- 
rddha; cf. sahy a- das-dparddha', sa-dasdparddha means 'with the 
privilege of remission for the ten offences', according to some; 
seems to mean 'with the right to enjoy fines for the ten offences' ; 
cf. das-dparddha. 

dandaka (El 30), probably, a regulation. 

(IE 8-8), meaning uncertain; probably, fines. 

Cf. dandaku (I A 16), a boundary mark or land-mark. 

danda-kkdnam (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; amount imposed 
as fine; cf. dandam kurram (El 30; SITI), a levy of fines; fine 
and penalty imposed. 

danda-mdrga (ASLV), military route. 
Dandandtha (El 16; CII 4; SII 1), commander of an 
army. See Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p. 31. Cf. Dandandyaka, etc. 

Dandandyaka (IE 8-3; El 30; CII 4; BL), probably a 
translation of Greek Strategos; a general; a leader of forces, 
an army officer; a military commander; also called Danda- 
ndtha, Dandanetr, etc.; sometimes also called Mahdsdmanta, 
Senddibdhattaraniyogddhisthdyaka, Mahdpradhdna, Sarvddhikdrin, 
Mahdpasdyita, etc., additionally; see Mahddandandyaka, Sarva- 
dandandyaka, Mahdsarvadandandyaka. 

Ddndandyaka Dandapati 8 1 

(LP), generally, the viceroy or governor of a province; 
representative of the king. 

(ASLV], the commander of forces and officer in charge 
of administration; title of the provincial governors; similar to 
the Mansabddr of the Mughal period. 

(HD}, a prefect of the police, according to Stein (Rdja- 
taranginl, VII. 951); 'a General or Magistrate', according to 
some (cf. Kielhorn's Southern List, Nos. 291, 292, 296). In 
the Brhatsarhhitd (7. 2-4), the queen, Tuvardja, Sendpati and 
Dandandyaka are placed on the same level in the matter of the 
staff (danda] to be prepared for them. 

Cf. Tadeya-dandandyaka, explained as 'the general in 
charge of reserves', from Kannada, tade, 'far, restraint'. 

Ddndandyaka (El 23; HD), same as Dandandyaka. See 
Ep. Ind., Vol. XIX, p. 269. 

Dandanetr (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXVIII, p. 233), designation of 
a leader of forces; cf. Dandandyaka, etc. 

Dandapdla (HD), an officer in charge of all branches of 
the army (Arthasdstra, I. 12); cf. Dandandyaka. 

(IE 8-3), cf. Ddndika. 

Dandapdnika (IE 8-3), same as Dandapdsika. 

Dandapanksd (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIX,*p. 101); Odiya; 
a governor; same as Sanskrit Dandapariksaka as well as Danda- 
ndyaka of other inscriptions; governor of a dandapdta or province. 

Dandapdsika (IE 8-3; CII 3, 4; BL; HD), a policeman; 
an official who was probably the leader of a group of Ddndikas ; 
officer in charge of punishment (i.e. criminal justice), accord- 
ing to some; a policeman (same as Odiya Dandudsi meaning 
*a village watchman'); called Taldra and Araksika (IHQ), 
December 1960, p. 266). See Tasastilaka, I, p. 50; Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XI, p. 83; Vol. XII, p. 9. Cf. Ddndabhogika. 

Dandapdsika (IE 8-3; El 23; CII 3,' 4; HD), same as 
Dandapdsika or Dandapdnika, 'an officer entrusted with the 
punishment of criminals'; see Pancatantra II, Katha 4 (spelt 
Dandapdsaka meaning 'a watchman'); Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 94. 
* dandapdta (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIX, p. 107); Odiya; the 
province of a kingdom ; an administrative unit under a Danda- 
panksd; cf. Danda or Dandandyaka called Dandapanksd in the 
Orissan records; also patta in the sense of 'a district'. 

Dandapati (BL; HD), a commander of forces, or a governor; 

82 Dandasakti dandudova 

same as Dandandtha, etc. See Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, pp. 148, 

Dandasakti (IE 8-3; HD), a police officer; possibly the 
same as Ddndika or Dandapdsika. See Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 250. 
danda-sulka, cf. danda-sulk-ddi-vividh-dya-samanvita (El 23); 
income from fines and tolls. 

dandavdni (SI I 2), standard gold. 

Dandavdsika (HD), Prakrit form of Dandapdsika. See 
Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., p. 129. 

Dandavdsika (El 23), same as Dandavdsika, Dandapdsika. 
dand-dya (IA 29; SII 11-1), income from fines; explain- 
ed as 'a tax'; cf. 'the whole of the levy called dand-dya as 
much as accrued in the village'. 

Dandesa (El 5; SII 1; HD), official designation; same as 
Dandandtha. See JBBRAS, Vol. XV, p. 386. 

Dandika (HD), same as Dandapdsika. See Vogel, Ant. 
Ch. St., p. 166. (CII 4), explained by some as a magistrate. 
Cf. Ddndika. 

Ddndika (CII 3; HD), a police officer. See Ind. Ant., 
Vol. XV, "p. 306; CII, Vol. Ill, p. 216; Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, 
p. 321. Generally Ddndika and Dandapdsika are mentioned side 
by side (Ep. Ind., Vol. "XVII, p. 23*1); probably the Ddndika 
was the head of a group or outpost of the Ddndapdsikas. Cf. 
Dandika, Dand-oddharanika (collector of fines). 

dandikd (SITI), also called dandu; a palanquin. 
dandikd-jlvita (SITI), tax-free land given to palanquin- 
bearers for enjoyment during their life-time. 

dandinaddri (ASLV), military route. See dandudova. 
Dand-oddharanika (El 9), literally, 'collector of fines'; 
mentioned along with Dandapdsika; may be the same as 
Ddndika. Cf. Caur-oddharanika. 

dand-opajdtaka (El 28), money exacted as fines. 
Dandoparika (El 13), probably Danda (i.e. Dandandyaka] 
and Uparika; otherwise Dandoparika may mean a judge. 

dandu (ASLV), a palanquin; its use was a privilege some- 
times specially granted to favourites or distinguished persons by 
the king. 

Dandudsi (IE 8-3), Odiya; village watchman; derived 
from Sanskrit Dandapdsika. 

dandudova (ASLV), a military route. See dandinaddri. 

dang ddradra naka 


dang (IA 26), also spelt ddtik, corrupt form of tarika. 

ddni (HRS), known from Caulukya records and explained 
by some as 'the king's dues' ; perquisite of the collector of the 
duties called ddna or ddna. 

Ddnl (IE 8-5; El 26), i.e. Damn, officer collecting 
tax or corn ; officer storing the corn collected as tax from the 

ddni-bhdga, same as ddni-bhoga (q.v.). See Ghoshal, 
H. Rev. Syst., p. 256. 

ddni-bhoga (HRS), periodical supplies of fruits, firewood 
and the like by the villagers, according to some; tax for main- 
taining the collectors of the tax called ddna', same as ddni- 
bhoga- bhdga. 

ddni-bhoga-bhdga (HRS), same as ddni-bhoga. 

Ddrii-voldpika (LP), explained as 'the collector of dam 
(land cess) and voldpand (tax, relating to Gujarat! valdvanu'm} .' 
See Voldpika. 

dank (IA 26), corrupt form of tanka. 

Danndik (ASLV), corrupt form of Dandandyaka ; some- 
times the designation of a judge at the capital of the Vijaya- 
nagara kings. 

Danndyaka (IE 8-3; ASLV), corrupt form of Dandandyaka; 
a designation sometimes enjoyed by the Dala-adhikdri or 
commander of forces. 

danta (El 7), a pin. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'thirtytwo'. 

Dantakdra (LL), a worker in ivory; here danta means 

dantin (IE 8-1-2), 'eight'. 

Ddpaka (El 3; BL; HD), usually regarded as the same as 
Dutaka-j but really 'one who causes another to give 5 , i.e. the 
creator of a rent-free holding which was ratified by the king. 
Ep. Ind., Vol. XIX, pp. 177, 243. 

(CII 1), a matter relating to giving gifts. 

ddpana, cf. ddpandya (LP), 'for making one pay'. See 

ddpita (LP), 'caused to be paid'. 

ddradranaka (CII 3), a fiscal term of uncertain implication; 
an agricultural cess or marriage tax, according to some. See 
Ghoshal, H. Rev, Syst., p. 242. 

84 Ddraka Dasamulin 

Ddraka (IA 18; CII 1), explained as 'the son of a king, 
whose mother's rank does not assure him an official title 5 . 

darsa (IA 17), the new-moon; cf. darsa-tithi. 

darsana (IE 8-5; El 32, 33), a levy; same as Persian 
nazrdna. Cf. Tamil tarisana-kdnikkai (SITI), presents offered to a 
king or a chief when one meets him. 

(CII 1), used in the sense of pradarsana, 'showing'. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'six'; cf. drsti, 'two'. 

(I A 14), used in the sense of 'a religious procession for the 
purpose of visiting a deity'. 

darsapurnamdsa (CII 4), name of a Vedic sacrifice. 

darsa-tithi (El 13), name of a tithi. Cf. darsa. 

Darmkarman (El 21), measurer of land. 

Dasabala-mahdbala (El 20), epithet of the Buddha. 

dasabandha (SITI), variously explained as (1) one-tenth 
of the revenue set apart for repairs to the tanks and wells for 
irrigation purposes; (2) land, the income from which would 
be equal to the amount thus set apart; (3) the right of collect- 
ing one-tenth of the produce of lands irrigated from the waters 
of a tank or well by the person who repairs the water source ; 
also explained as tax equal to one-tenth of the income of the 
subject (Ray, DHNI, Vol. II, p. 1113). See dasavandha. 

(SITI) tax or cess levied to keep the source of water 
supply like the tanks, etc., in good repair. 

(El 4), rent-free land or probably land paying only 
one- tenth of the actual rent. 

(El 20), one-tenth share. 

Cf. dasa-bandhe (LP), 'at 10 per cent'. 

Cf. dasavandha (SII 3), a tax. 

ddsabandha-visatia(virhsatika} ttriprastha (HRS), kinds of tax. 

ddsa-bhrtaka (CII 1), slaves and servants. 

Ddsagrdmika (IE 8-3; El 24), the headman of a group of ten 
villages or the chairman of the council of a group often villages. 
Dasahard-vrata (El 27), a religious ceremony. 
dasa-kriyd (SITI), work of the architects who were to 
look after the repairs of temples. 

Dasamulika (CII 4), official designation; same as 
Das am ulin ( q . v . ) . 

Dasamulin (El 21; CII 4; BL), an official designation; 
probably, a physician; same as Dasamulika. 

dasa Dauhsddhika 

das-dpacdra (IE 8-5; El 29), same as das-dparddha. 
das-dparddha (CII 3, 4), literally, 'the ten offences'; but 
really, the fines for the ten offences; cf. s a- das-dparddha (IE 8-5); 
power to punish and realise fines for the ten offences; also 
called das-dpacdra. According to the Buddhists, the ten sins 
were murder, theft, adultery, lying, calumny, insult, idle 
talk, hatred, covetousness and dogmatic error (A. Getty, The 
Gods of Northern Buddhism, p. xxv, note) . For a Brahmanical 
list, see Ddsdparddhika ; cf. panca-mahdpdtaka, panc-dparddha. 

Ddsdparddhika (IE 8-3; El 29; HD), a judge dealing 
with the ten offences (viz. theft, murder of women, adultery, use 
of abusive language, violation of order, mixing of castes, illegal 
pregnancy, obscenity, assault and abortion, according to some). 
It has been said that the ten offences or aparddhas are those 
of which the king could take cognisance suo moto. For the ten 
aparddhas, see Kane, Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, p. 264; cf. Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 321. 

Dasard (El 5), Asvina su-di 10. 

Dasaratha-stn (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

Ddsari (ASLV; SITI), a class of subordinates of the 
headman of particular communities in the Vijayanagara empire; 
same as Samaydcdra or Samaydcdrya. 

dasavandha, cf. dasavanna (IA 30), explained as 'land 
granted to a person for repairing or building a tank on condi- 
tion of paying in money or kind one-tenth or some small 
share of the produce' and as 'land granted at one- tenth of the 
usual rates to a person in consideration of his constructing or 
repairing a tank'. See dasabandha. 

ddsl (CITD), a handmaid, slave, concubine, dancing girl. 

dasra (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

ddsuri-pattu (CITD), Telugu; probably, silk of the 
Tusser variety; cf. Hobson-Jabson, s.v. tussah, tusser. 

datita (LP), well-founded. 

datti (El 23; CII 4; CITD), a gift; cf. Sarvasiddhi-datti 
(El 19). 

Dauhsddhasddhanika (El 30; HD), explained as 'those who 
catch dangerous robbers whom it is difficult to secure 5 . See 
Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 211. Cf. Duhsddhasddhanika (ibid., Vol. XI, 
p. 310), Dussddhyasddhaka, Dustasdhani, Mahddauhsddhanika, etc. 

Dauhsddhika (IE 8-3; HD), same as Dauhsddhasddhanika^ 

$6 dautya desa 

Duhsddhyasddhanika, Dussddhyasddhaka, Dustasdhani, etc. See Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XII, p. 9. Lexicons explain it as 'gate-keeper'. 
dautya, see dutya and Dutaka. 

Dauvdrika (El 28; SI I 1 ; ASLV; BL; HD), a door-keeper; 
a gate-keeper. See Arthasdstra, I. 12; Lalitavistara, p. 136; 
Visnudharmottara, II. 24. 30. 

ddvdpana, cf. ddvdpandya (LP), 'for making one pay'; cf. 

ddvdpita (LP), caused to be paid. 
<fig (El 23), a gift. 
ddydda (CII 4), an agnate. 
(LL), Buddhist; an heir of the faith. 
denarius (IE 8-3), name of the Roman silver coin and also 
of the Roman gold coin usually called aureus; cf. d'tndra. 

desa (IE 8-4; CII 3, 4), a territorial term meaning a 
small area or a group of villages in some cases but a kingdom, 
district, tract or country in others. 

(IE 8-4), a country of which there were seventytwo in 
Bharata or Bharatavarsa. 

(CII 1), a part of anything. 
(El 24), a synonym of dspada. 
(ASLV), a school of music. 

Cf. Kona-desa (El 32), also called a mandala, rdstra, sima, 
sthala, etc. 

Cf. desa-bhdsd (El 17), 'vernacular of a province'. 
Cf. tesa-kdlam (SITI), locality and time; also tesa-vdli, 
officer in charge of a village or district. 

Des-ddhikrta (IE 8-3; HD), same as Desddhipati; governor 
of a desa or a province, district or sub-division. See Ep. Ind., 
Vol. I, p. 5 (Prakrit Desddhikata) . See Sarva-des-ddhikrta. 
(LL), explained as 'a local prefect'. 
Des-ddhipati (El 26, 30), same as Desddhikrta; ruler of the 
territorial or administrative unit called desa. 

Des-dksapatalddhikrta (El 28), officer of the records and 
accounts office pertaining to a territorial unit. 

Desakuta (AI 7), official designation; cf. Rdstrakuta, 
Grdmakuta, Des-ddhipati. 

desa-maryddd, custom prevalent in a locality; cf. desa- 
marydd-druvana-dnvita (Ind. Ant., Vol. XIX, p. 247, text line 
1 03 ) , aruvana being a tax of six panas levied on rent-free lands. 

desana devd $? 

desana, Prakrit desana (El 21), exposition of the Buddhist 

desa-rlta (Chamba), customary taxes of a locality. 

Desa-taldra (LP), probably, a police superintendent. 
Cf. T alar a. 

Desa-thakkura (LP), probably, a small chieftain. 

Desavdli (El 18), official designation. Cf. desa. 

Desdyi (ASLV), same as Sanskrit Desddhipati or Desddhikrta. 

desi (El 11), a guild of local merchants. This is 
also the name of Prakrit words which are neither Sanskrit 
(tat-sama) nor derived from Sanskrit (tad-bhava}. 

Desika (SI I 1), a [Jain] teacher. 

Desilaka, official designation (Ep. Lid., Vol. XIX, p. 71); 
same as Desillaka. 

Desillaka (El 28), official designation as in rdstra-grdma- 
kuta-desillaka-mahattar-ddhikdrik-ddin;same as Desilaka, Desakuta; 
cf. Purillaka. 

Desi-mukhya (El 31), same as modern Desmukh. 

des-ottdra (LP), permission for allowing the cargo to go 
from one place to another. 

deva, a god; cf. te-adimai (SITI), a dancing woman as 
the servant of a god ; maid servant attached to a temple ; cf. 
teva-kudimai, tenancy under the control of a temple ; tevakulam 
(deva-kula), a tetarple. 

(El 7), the king. 

(El 3), a saint. 

(El 7-1-2), 'thirtythree'. 

deva-bhoga (El 23, 31; SITI), rent-free property of a 
temple; land given for the enjoyment of temples; same as 
deva-ddya, etc.. Cf. devabhoga-hala. 

devabhoga-hala (El 7, 8, 15, 24), rent-free land in the 
possession of temples. 

deva-cchanda (SII 2), name of a jewel. 

deva-ddna (El 5, 23, 25, 30; SITI; ASLV), gift made 
to a god ; rent-free land in the possession of a temple ; same as 
deva-bhoga, deva-deya, deva-ddya, dev-dgrahdra. 

Cf. devaddna-iraiyili (SITI), village or land granted to 
a temple. 

deva-ddsl (El 22, 33; LL), a dancing girl attached to a 
temple; a female temple-servant. See vildsinl, ganikd, mahdri. 

88 deva deva 

deva-daya (IE 8-5; El 23; CII 4; SITI), a rent-free 
holding in the possession of a temple; a gift made in honour 
of a god; same as deva-deya, etc. 

deva-deya (IE 8-5; HRS), grant made in favour of temples; 
same as deva-daya , etc. 

deva-dharma (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXVIII, p. 144), same as 
deya-dharma when the gift was the image of a god. 

Dev-adhyaksa, superintendent of religious foundations. 
See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 99. 

devadi (IA 19), 'the establishment of a temple'. 

deva-drom (IE 8-3; El 10), usually taken to mean 'a pro- 
cession of the images of gods', or 'procession or ablution of 
images'; but probably, 'rent-free property of a temple' (Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XXXIV pp. 143-44); cf. devo-drom-sambaddha (El 
23). A Prakrit inscription (A.R.Ep., 1959-60, No. B 173) 
has deva-doni data = Sanskrit deva-drom dattd. 

Devadroni-sambaddha (IE 8-3), same as Devadrony-adhikrta; 
officer in charge of temple property (devadronl, usually taken 
in the sense of 'a procession of the images of gods).' 

Devadrony-adhikrta (IE 8-3; BL), explained as 'the superin- 
tendent of the procession of idols' ; but probably, the superin- 
tendent of the property of a temple or of temple property in 
general; same as Devadroni-sambaddha; cf. deva-drom (El 13). 

dev-dgdra, cf. tevdram, devdram (SITI), a temple. 

dev-dgrahdra (IE 8-5; El 23, 25, 30; SITI), rent-free 
village granted to a temple; same as deva-bhoga, etc.; see agra- 

deva-grha (El 24), a temple. 

devagrha-jagati (IA 14), explained as 'a temple and its 
ground' or 'a temple with the buildings attached to it.' But 
cf. jagatl. 

devaka (IA 23), the guardian spirit or a god. 

deva-karana, cf. karana (LP); explained as the deva-sthdna 

devakarman (SI I 1), divine rites. 

Devakarmin (El 30; Sill, 3, 12); cf. tevar-kanmi, devar- 
kanmi (El 3; SITI); a Pujdri or temple priest, a temple 
servant; servant of a god; an officer in charge of the affairs 
of a temple. 

deva-kriyd (IA 23), worship of gods. 

devakula Devi 89 

devakula (El 9, 23), a temple; cf. dcdryakula (LL). 
(El 21), a gallery of portrait statues of deified or semi- 
deified ancestors. 

devakula-puskarim (IE 8-5), temples and tanks [the cons- 
truction of the former and the excavation of the latter requiring 
the permission of the king or landlord] . 
devakull (CII 4), a small shrine. 
devakulika (LL), a temple-servant. 

devakulikd (El 8; HA), a shrine; a cell; a supplementary 
or smaller shrine. 

devakuti-kdstha (El 7), a measuring rod. 
dev-dlaya (El 23), a temple; same as devakula. 
Devdndrhpriya (El 21; CII 1; LL), a royal title; title assu- 
med by the Maurya kings. 

Devdndaja (El 32), same as Garuda. 

deva-nikdya (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIII, p. 115), probably, temple 

Devaputra (IE 8-2; El 8, 21, 30), royal title of foreign 
origin; 'the Son of Heaven'; title of certain Kusara kings; 
same as Daivaputra. 

(LL), Buddhist; an angel. 

devaradiydl (ASLV), Tamil; a dancing girl attached to 
a temple. 

devdram (SITI), Tamil corruption of Sanskrit devdgdra', 
a temple. 

Devdtideva (El 1), epithet of the Buddha and gods. 
devatisalam (El 12 j, a ceremony indicative of royalty. 
devatrd (IE 8-5), same as deva-ddya. 

Deva-vdrika (El 33), superintendent of a temple; ^. 
Vdrika. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXVII, p. 142, text line 35. 

devavesma-karana, cf. karana (LP); the department of 

deva-vihdra) land in the possession of temples. See Ghoshal, 
H. Rev. Syst., p. 217. 

deva-vrtti (SITI), land set apart for the maintenance of 

deva-yajna (CII 4), offerings to gods; one of the five 

dev-dyatana (El 23), a temple; same as devakula. 

Devi (IE 8-ST; CII 1, 3; LL), a title originally of wives 

96 Devi dhanikaivd 

of independent monarchs and later also of feudatory rulers; 
often used as a termination of the names of wives of rulers of 
all classes; cf. Mahddevi; also means the Mother-goddess. 
Devi-karmdntika (El 16), a temple officer. 
Devl-kumdra (I A 18; CII 1), explained as 'the son of a 
king, who has the rank of a prince' ; the king's son born of a 
queen and not of a concubine. 

devottara (IE 8-5), Bengali corruption of devatrd; same as 
deva-ddya, etc. 

deya (IE 8-5), periodical offerings to be presented to the 
king or landlord; cf. ddeya, deya-meya. 

deya-dharma (El 1; CII 3; ML), a pious gift; an appro- 
priate religious gift; an expression used in numerous donative 
inscriptions. A deity installed for worship was also called 
deya-dharma (sometimes deva-dharma) in medieval records. Same 
as dharma-deya, dharma-ddya, dharma-ddna. 

deyadharma-paritydga (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 10, text 
line 2), donation of a religious gift. 

deya-meya (HRS), known from a atavahana record; 
king's share in kind and in cash ; same as dhdnya-hiranya of later 
records. See deya, meya. 

deyya-dharma (El 32), Pali-Prakrit form - of deya-dharma. 
dhadd y dhadi, a small measure of capacity (Ind. Ant., Vol. 
XLI, p. 20). 

dhakkd (Gil 3), a war drum; used in the Rdjatarangim 
in the sense of a watch-station (cf. Sircar, Geog. Anc. Med. Ind., 
p. 238). 

dhala-vddi, dhala-vali (CITD), Telugu-Kannada; a tax 
probably connected with dala-vrtti, or at least with dala or 
the army. 

dhdnaka, see hema-dhdnyaka\ also called andikd; equal to 
4 kdrsdpanas or to 4 suvarnas or dinar as (JNSI, Vol. II, p. 7). 

dhanika, dhanin (LP), the owner; cf. Gujarat! dhani; used 
in the sense of 'one who is spending or lending money' in the 
Maithili documents (Proc. IHRC, Vol. XVIII, p. 90). 

dhdnika, a coin equal to 4 kdrsdpanas or 64 panas according 
to the Krtyakalpataru (Vyavahara-kanda, ed. K.V. Ranga- 
swami Aiyanger, p. 125); cf. dhdnaka. 

dhanikatva, cf. dhanikatvam vidhdya (LP), 'having claimed 

dhanya dharmd 91 

dhdnya, cf. sa-hiranya-dhdnya-pranaya-pradeya (IE 8-5); pro- 
duce of the fields, a share of which was payable to the king or 
landlord; cf. dhdny-dddya. 

dhdny-dddya (SITI), tax payable in grains; cf. dhdny-dya. 

dhdny-ddhivdsa (El 32), a rite. 

dhdnya-hiranya (HRS), revenue in kind and in cash; same 
as dhdnya-hirany-ddeya. 

dhdnya-hirany-ddeya (El 32), tax in crops and cash. See 

dhdnya-mdsa, weight eaual to 1 yava or 2 tandulas (JNSI, 
Vol. XVI, p.' 48). 

dhdnya-varga (SITI), literally, 'the grain group'; actually, 
a class of taxes payable in grains. 

dhdny-dya (El 7), tax in- grains; cf. dhdny-dddya; called 
nell-dyam (SII 12) in Tamil. 

Dhdnyika (LL), a dealer in paddy. 

dhara, cf. Vinaya-dhara (El 33), 'one who has committed 
the [Buddhist] Vinaya texts by heart'. 

dhard (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

dhdrd-datta, cf. tdrd-tattam (SITI), a gift made with the 
ceremony of libation of water. 

dhard-mandala (SII 1), a country. 

dharana (CII 4), name of a coin. 

(IE 8-8), a silver coin weighing 24 rails (cf. JNSI, Vol. 
II, pp. 28-29) or the half of a gadydnaka according to the Llldvatr, 
silver coin of 32 rails according Manu, etc. 

(IE 8-8), same as kdrsdpana or purdna. 

(El 3), a gold coin or weight (320 rails). 

(JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 44), sometimes called sdna and tanka. 

dharam (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

dhdranl (IA 9; BL), a magic litany usually of the Bud- 
dhists; an occult Indian charm, especially Buddhistic; a short 
formula intended to represent a particular Tantra text, the 
recitation of the dhdranl being regarded as equally meritorious 
as that of the Tantra itself (Univ. Cey. Rev., January- April, 
1960, p. 62, note 42). 

dhdranika (LP), a debtor. 

dhdrd-purvakam, cf. udaka-purvam, etc. See dhdtrd-datta. 
dharma (SII 1), the sacred law; religious merit; a meri- 
torious gift, a pious work, a charity; moral precept. 

% dharma Dharmddhikdrin 

(El 24), law or law and order. 

(Ep. Itid., Vol. XXXV, p. 116) virtue or religious merit. 

(IE 8-2), sometimes prefixed to the titles of kings 
and crown-princes; cf. Dharma-maharaja, etc. 

dharma-baddha, cf. tarma-p attar (SITI), persons bound by the 
law; judicial officers. 

dharma-bdndhava, 'one whose only friend is his religious 
faith' or 'a person who has become the friend of another on an 
oath in the name of his religious faith' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 
p. 144). 

dharma-cakra (CII 3; LL), Buddhist; the wheel of Dharma 
which was ,the symbol representing the Buddha on early 
Buddhist sculptures, on stone inscriptions and on seals attached 
to copperplate grants. 

(HA} Jain; the wheel of law supposed to move in 
the sky in front of a Jina when he goes on his wanderings from 
place to place; one of the members of the parikara of a Jina 

dharmacakra-mudrd (El 29), seal bearing the emblem of 
the Buddhist wheel of law. 

dharma-ddna(M.'L; SITI), a religious gift; a gift for religious 
merit; grant of tax-free land; same as deya-dharma. 

dharma-deya (IA 9; HRS), same as deya-dharma, dharma- 
ddya, etc.; a religious grant in general. 

dharma-desand (SI I 1), a discourse on the sacred law. 

dharm-ddhikdra (El 15; I A 9), court of law; an office 
relating to the civil and criminal courts as well as to religious 
and charitable institutions. See Dharmddhikdrin. 

dharm-ddhikarana (El 18, 23, 25; CII 4; LP), a law- 
court; a court of justice. See Dharm-ddhikaranin. 

Cf. karana (LP) ; the department of justice. 

(HD} t a judge. See Visnudharmottara, II. 24. 24-25. 

Dharm-ddhikaranika (IE 8-3), a judge; mentioned as a 

Dharm-ddhikaranin (HD), a judge. See Matsya Purdna, 
215. 24. The reading is Dharm-ddhikarana in some 

Dharm-ddhikdrin (IE 8-3; El 33), cf. dharm-ddhikdra (IA 
9); an officer in charge of civil and criminal justice as well as 
charitable and religious institutions; same as Brhat-tantra- 

Dharma Dharma 93 

ij according to a Kashmirian commentator ; usually explained 
as 'a judge'; same as Dharmakarm-ddhikdrin and Dharm-ddhyaksa. 
Cf. the Muslim official designations Sadrus-sudur, Dddbak, 
etc., explained as 'the chief judge and grand almoner, or custo- 
dian of the king's bequests and charities' (Jottrn. As. Soc. Pak., 
Vol. IV, pp. 53-54). 

Dharm-ddhyaksa (El 15; HD), generally explained as 'a 
judge' ; but he was probably also the superintendent of charities, 
etc.; cf. Dharm-ddhikdriri. 

dharma-hala (El 7), a rent-free holding. See hala. 
dharma-jaya-stambha ( I A 19 ), 'a pillar of the victory of 

Dharmakarm-ddhikdrin (El 21; CII 4), officer in charge of 
charities and other religious works; probably the same as 
Dharm-ddhyaksa', cf. Dharm-ddhikdrin, Dharma-Pradhdna. 

Dharma-kartr (El 19; IA 12), a temple superintendent. 

Dharma-kathika (LL), cf. Prakrit dhamma-kadhika (El 

15), a [Buddhist] preacher; a preacher of the [Buddhist] 

religious system; same as Dharma-kathin; also spelt Dharma- 


Dharma-kathin (CII 2-3; ML), Buddhist; the preacher of 
the [Buddhist] religious system; same as Dharma-kathika. 

dharma-ldbha (LP), expression uttered by the Jain monks 
[of the Svetambara sect] when they bless a householder saluting 

Dharma- lekhin (El 4; CII 4; BL), a writer of charters or 
religious documents. 

dharma-lipi (El 2, 33; CII 1), an edict on the subject of 
dharma (religion or moral precepts). 

Dharma-mahddhirdja (El 12, 28), royal title; cf. Mahddhi- 
raja and Dharma-mahdrdja, etc. 

Dharma-jnahdmdtra (IE 8-3; El 26; CII 1; HD;, superin- 
tendent of morality; a Mahdmdtra (high executive officer) 
of the department of religion; an executive officer superin- 
tending matters relating to religious affairs. 

Dharma-mahdrdja (IE 8-2; El 15, 28), royal title; supposed 
to mean 'a Maharaja who, at the particular time of issuing a 
record, was engaged in an act of religious merit.' 

Dharma-mdhdrdjddhirdja (IE 8-2; El 5, 15, 28), imperial 
title; title assumed by certain rulers. Cf. Dharma-mahdrdja. 

94 dharma dharma 

dharma-nigama (LLj, probably, a pious hamlet or its 
administrative council. 

Dharma-pradhdna (El 21; CII 4), head of the religious 
department; cf. Dharm-ddhyaksa and Dharmakarm-ddhikdrin. 

dharma-pntra (El 32), 'one theoretically accepted as a 

Dharmardja (El 28), royal title; title of a pious king; cf. 
Dharma-mahdrdja, etc.; also dharmardjikd. 

Dharma-rdjaguru (El 11), designation of the king's pre- 

dharmardjikd (IA 14; ML), Buddhist; a stiipa built on 
the relics of the Buddha called Dharmardja', a Buddhist stupa. 

dharma-sdld (IE 8-3; I A 9), a house for accommodating 
pilgrims free of cost; cf. sri-Vdgmati-jal-dvatdra-sopdn-drdma-ghantd- 
dharmasdld-pratisthd-karma. See choultry. 

dharm-dsana (El 26; SII 3, 13; SITI), a court of justice; 
cf. Tamil danm-dsanam (El 22), the seat of justice; a law-court. 

Dharmdsana-bhatta (SITI) a Brahmana versed in law 
assisting in a dharm-dsana or law-court. 

dharma-sdsana (El 18, 22, 33; SII 1), an edict relating 
to dharma; a religious edict. 

(El 22; SITI), same as tdmra-sdsaria; a document 
recording a gift made for charitable purposes. 

dharmasdsana-patta (El 3), a slab containing a religious 

dharma-sdstra (BL), scriptures. 

dharma-sthdna (El 24, 26, 32), a temple; a holy place; 
a place of religious worship. Cf. a mijigiti or mosque referred 
to as a dharma-sthdna (Ep. Ind. } Vol. XXXIV, p. 144); see 
also dharmasthdna-gosthika. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 279, note 52), land or money assigned 
for a religious purpose. 

(El 23), the office of justice. 

dharmasthdna-gosthika (El 33), member of a committee 
managing the affairs of a temple. 

Dharma-sthita (IE 8-2), 'steadfast in religion'; epithet of 
a Kusana king who may have been a convert to Buddhism. 
See Satyadharma-sthita. 

dharma-vdriyam (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; committee look- 
ing after charitable endowments and institutions. 

dharma dhavala 95 

dharmavijaya-sdsana (El 33), same as dharma-sdsana ; a 
royal record relating to one of the king's meritorious acts; 
cf. vijaya-sdsana. 

Dharma-vijayin (CII 4), a righteous conqueror; epithet of 
certain rulers. 

dharma-vrtti-iraiyili (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; tax-free land 
for the mairitenance of some charity. 

dharma-ydtrd, cf. dharhma-ydtd (El 5; CII 1), pilgrimage; 
a tour of pilgrimage. 

Dharma-yuvamahdrdja (IE 8-2; El 24, 32), designation of 
a crown-prince engaged in a pious activity; cf. Dharma- 
mahdrdja and Tuvamahdrdja. 

dhdrmika (IE 8-8; El 30), probably, a cess collected in 
the name of a religious institution cr festival. 

(IE 8-2), royal title; same as Prakrit Dhramika, 
translated from Greek Dikaios. 

Dharmin, cf. dharmikal (SITI), a body or commission 
managing endowments. 

Dhdrtardstra (IE 7-1-2), 'one hundred'. 

dhdtl (LP), campaign; cf. para-rdstr-opari datta-dhdtydm, 
'in the course of an expedition led against a foreign country'. 

dhdtivdha (Ep. Ind. } Vol. I, p. 277, note 24), meaning 

dhdtrl (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

dhdtu (ML), Buddhist; corporeal relics [of the Buddha], 

(IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'seven'. 

Cf. Dhdtu-parigrhlta, an epithet of the Buddha ; probably, 
salvation (Select Inscriptions, p. 228). 

dhdtu-garbha, 'containing the corporeal relics of the 
Buddha' (Journ. Mad. Univ., Vol. XXXII, p. 136). 

dhdtu-vara (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXVII , p. 16, text line 13), 
a Buddhist stupa containing the Buddha's relics. 

Dhdtuvara-parigrhlta (El 20), 'one who has attained 
nirvana*', epithet of the Buddha. Cf. dhdtu. 

dhaukana-patra (LP), permission of divorce; cf. Gujarati 
chutdchedd melvavd. 

dhaura (LP), cattle. 

Dhdvaka (El 18), the fore-runner. 

dhavala-cchatra (SII 2), a white parasol which was one 
of the royal insignia. 

96 dhavala dhvqja 

dhaval-dgdra, cf. dhavaldra (IA 14), 'a 

dhenku (El 30), a machine for extracting juice. 

dhenku-kaddhaka (IE 8-8), probably, one whose profession 
was to draw water from a well by means of a machinery. 

dhl (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

fjhimka (El 13), a well. 

dhirmara (Gil 4), probably, 'a fish-basket', according 
to some. 

dhisni (El 5), a house. 

dhrti (LP), consolation or encouragement. 

(/ 7-1-2), 'eighteen'. 

Dhruva (El 16, 32; HD), [a collector of] the fixed royal 
share of grains; contraction of Dhruv-ddhikaranika; cf. the 
Gujarat! family name Dhruva; same as dhruva-sthdna. See Bomb. 
Gaz., Vol. I, Part i, p. 477. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

(C77 1), regular. 

dhruvd (CII 1), certainty. 

Dhruv-ddhikarana (El 30), office of [the collector of] the 
king's share of the produce of the fields from the farmers. Cf. 
Dhruva, Dhruvapati, Dhruv-ddhikaranika. 

Dhruv-ddhikaranika (IE 8-3; CII 3; HD; HRS), known 
from Maitraka records; according to some, the officer in charge 
of persons entrusted with the superintendence of the collection 
of the king's grain-share from the farmers; an official title of the 
Kathiawar region indicating an officer collecting the king's 
share of grains; sometimes called Dhruvasthdn-ddhikaranika; 
the same as Dhruva or an employee of the dhruva-sthdna or 
Dhruva' s office. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 339. 

Dhruvapati (El 32), cf. Dhruv-ddhikaranika, 

dhruva-sthdna (IE 8-3), a station for the collection of the 
king's fixed grain share; cf. Dhruva. 

Dhruvasthdn-ddhikarana (IE 8-3; El 30), the station for 
collecting the king's share or the office in its charge; cf. 
Dhruv-ddhikarana and Dhruv-ddhikaranika. 

dhvaja (CII 3), banner or standard as distinguished frcJm 
Idnchana or crest. Cf. cihna (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, pp. 135 ff.). 

dhvaj-drohana (El 31), a ceremony; cf. dhvaj-dvarohana 

dhvaja-stambha (CII 3, 4), a flag-staff. 

dhvaj-dvarohana (SITI), function at the conclusion of a festival. 

dhvarhsl dinari 97 

dhvamsi, same as vamsya; a theoretical unit of measure- 
ment (JJVSI, Vol. XVI, p. 48). 

di (IE 8-1; CII 3), abbreviation of dina, dine, divasa 
or divase] used in connection with su or su and ba in the case 
of lunar months and by itself in the case of solar months. 

Dibira, same as Divira (q.v. ). 

Digambara (IA 7), a Jain sect. 

diggaja (IE 7-1-2), 'eight'. Eight poets patronised by 
Krsnadevaraya were called the asta-diggaja. 

dig-vijaya, used in Kannada inscriptions in the sense of 
'going in state; going in a triumpal procession; making a state 
progress through one's dominions' (Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p. 223, 
note 5; Vol. VI, p. 51, note 5). See vijaya. 

Dikaios (IE 8-2) Greek; royal title; 'pious'; translated in 
Prakrit as Dhramika (Sanskrit Dharmika}. 

dikold (LP), same as ddsl. 

Dikpdla (HD), probably, officers in charge of the borders 
of a kingdom. See Narada, Jolly's ed., Parisista, verse 17; 
Mitdksard on Ydjnavalkyasmrti, II. 271; Katyayana (v. 813) 
quoted by Apararka. (IE 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

diksd (HA), initiation as a monk or recluse; initiation 
into any doctrine. 

diksd-guru (El 32, 33), preceptor. 

Diksita (El 22; CII 3, 4), same as Tajna-dlksita; epithet 
of Brahmanas; later stereotyped as a Brahmanical family name. 

dina (CII 3), a day; used to denote the solar, or more 
properly civil, day. See also di and divasa. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'fifteen'. 

dinar a (SITI), name "of a coin; same as dindra; derived 
from the Roman coin name denarius; a cowrie-shell according 
to the Rajatarangini (Stem's trans., Vol. II, pp. 308 if.). 

dindra (IE 8-8; El 9, 23, 30; CII 3; SITI), a gold coin, 
the name being derived from the Roman denarius; gold coin 
equal to 16 silver rupakas in the Gupta age (JNSI, Vol. II, 
p. 5); sometimes called kdsu in Tamil records; sometimes 
regarded as half of a satera or sateraka (Greek stater] ; men- 
tioned as a silver coin (K. V. Rangaswami Aiyanger, Krtya- 
kalpataru, Vyavahara-kaiida, p. 125) ; also spelt dinndra, etc. 

dinari (IE 8-8), name of a coin probably modified from 
the Roman denarius \ cf. dindra and dinar i-mdsaka. 

98 dindri ditya 

dindri-mdsaka (IE 8-8), name of a coin; cf. dinari. 

dipa-mdld, cf. tipa-malai (SITI), the string of lights hung 
in temples; same as sara-vilakku. 

dlpand (CII 1), glorification. 

dlpa-pujd (El 9), dlpa and pujd wrongly taken as a 
compound word of special significance. 

dlpa-skambha (LL), a lamp-post. 

dlpdvall (El 5; CII 4), name of a festival; the festival of 
lights; cf. dip-otsava. 

dlp-otsava (El 11, 32), same as dlpdvalt, the fesival of 

diramam (IE 8-8), Tamil form of dramma. 

dlrgha-mdnya (SITI ) , land set apart for the supply of water 
for the holy bath of idols. 

dirghd (CII 1), distance or the distant future. 

dlrghandsiky-drcd (El 24), the image of a deity with long 

dlrghikd (SITI), bath; a long or oval pond. 

dis, disd (IE 7-1-2), 'ten'; rarely used to indicate 
'four' also. 

disd (IA 7), precepts. 

disah (El 2), the nymphs of the quarters. 

Disdmpati (El 29), a provincial governor. A Cakravartin 
was sometimes conceived as a Dig-vijayin or a Disdmpati. 

Disdpata (El 16), Kannada; 'causing one's enemies to be 
scattered in all directions'; same as Disdpatta. 

Disdpatta (El 5, 16), Kannada; 'causing one's enemies 
to be scattered in all directions'; same as Disdpata. 

dista (LA 18), same as kdla, time. 

ditya (El 9, 12, 28; CII 4; HRS), known from Maitraka 
records; name of a tax, according to some; probably, the 
same as datti, i.e. a gift or occasional present to be -offered 
to the landlord; cf. sawa-ditya-visti-prdtibhedikd-parihlna or 
parihrta (Ep. Ind., Vol. VI, p. 298," text line 20); also cf. 
sa-ditya-ddna-karana (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p.301, text line 14), 
an epithet of the gift land. Ditya is probably derived from 
Prakrit dijja = Sanskrit deya, 'to be given', 'an object that has 
been given away' in the sense of 'customary presents'. For 
ditto, cf. Bhdr. Vid., Vol. XVII, Nos. 3-4 pp. 125-26. See 
Dity-odgrdhaka . 

Ditya don 99 

Dity-odgrdhaka (CII 4), probably, 'an officer in charge 
of collecting customary presents'; cf. ditya. 

diva (CII 3, etc.), abbreviation of divasa or divase; used 
to denote the solar or, more properly, civil day. 

<ft&ff(CII 3), 'by day'; an indeclinable used in some of the 
Nepal inscriptions in composition with words denoting tithis 
or lunar days. 

divdkara (IE 7-1-2), 'twelve'. \ 

Dwdn (BL), the chief administrator or finance minister; 
see Diwdn, Diwdnjl. 

divasa (CII 3, etc.), a day; sometimes used for the week- 
day, instead of the usual term vdra ; generally used to denote the 
solar or, more properly, civil day; sometimes used in connec- 
tion with words denoting tithis or lunar days. See also di, dina, 

Divira (HD), same as Persian Dablr, 'a clerk'. See 
Rdjatarangini, VIII. 131, mentioning Divira as distinct from 
Kdyastha; also CII, Vol. Ill, p. 122. Cf. Divirapati. 

Divirapati, Divirapati (IE 8-3; El 5, 28; BL; HD), 
chief secretary or the chief of the clerks; cf. Divira. See Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XI, p. 180 (Sandhivigrahddhikrta-Divirapati); Vol. 
XXII, p. 117 (Divirapati also called Sandhivigrahika, Mahd- 
pratlhdra and Sdmanta}. 

divya (IA 10; LP ), an ordeal; same as pariksd. 
divya-prabandha, see prabandha. 

Dlwdn, Diwdnjl (BL), the chief administrator or finance 
minister. See Dwdn. 

doddi (El 4), a yard. 

dohalikd (El 13), explained as 'a piece of land granted to 
Brahmanas, Svamins, Sadhus and others' (Prog. Rep. A. S. /., 
W. C., 1908-09, p. 53); cf. dohalikd dattd. See dohalikd-bhumi. 

dohalikd-bhumi (LP), explained as 'land, of which the 
ownership is doubted and hence taken by government' ; cf. 
Gujarat! duld, dulavum, dohalavwn; also lupta- dohalikd (LP), 
eplained as 'the dohalikd which is lost to the owner'. But 
see dohalikd. 

dokdrd (LP), an old man. 

dola-ydtrd (IA 9), the festival of the swinging of the image 
of Krsna on Phalguna su-di 15. 

don (IE 8-6), Bengali form of dronavdpa. 

100 do ngaka dra nga 

dongaka (El 24), a variety of resin or aloe. 

dosa (LP), doing anything wrongly. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

(El 9 ) , black or red spots on the tongue supposed to be a 
foreboding of death. 

Cf. danda-dosa', fines; see also pradhdn-dpradhdna-dosa- 
samanvita used as an epithet of the gift village (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
Ill, p. 274). Here dosa apparently means danda-dosa. 

dosya (IE 8-8; El 30), meaning uncertain. 

doyaraka (El 33), probably, 'the singer who repeats part 
of a song after it has been once sung'; cf. Hindi dohrdnd. 

dra (El 33; LP), abbreviation of dramma. 

drachma (IE 8-8; CII 4), name of an old Greek coin; 
Indian dramma. 

drahyitavya (CII 1), 'should be firm'. 

draksana, see dramksana. 

draksuna, see dramksana. 

drama (El 23), same as dramma. 

dramksana) same as tolaka (q.v. ) ; a weight of 8 mdsas, also 
spelt draksana, draksuna, etc.; cf. mamksuna, equal to 7 mdsas. 

dramma (El 25, 30; CII 4; SITI; BL), name of a coin; 
originally derived from Greek drachma. 

(IE 8-8), a silver coin, equal to one-sixteenth of a gold 
niska according to the Llldvati. 

Cf. panciyaka-dramma (El 30), Snmadddivardha-dramma, 
Vigraha-dramma, Vigrahapdla-dramma, Vigrahapdla-satka-dramma, 
Vigrahapdliya-dramma, Vigrahatungiy a- dramma (IE 8-8; El 1); 
Bhlmapriya-dramma (IE 8-8) ; ponittha- dramma (El 23). (IE 8-8), 
cf. gara-dramma, day a- dramma, belliy a- dramma (i.e. silver dramma), 
etc., of Kannada inscriptions; the name dramma was also applied 
to the silver coin called purdna, dharana or kdrsdpana, though it 
was often used as the name of copper coins; money. For gold 
and ordinary (copper) dramma, cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 111. 

Cf. vdsal-tiramam (SITI), door tax. 

dramm-drdha (CII 4), 'half of a dramma'; name of a coin. 

dramma-tribhdga (CII 4), 'three-fourths of a dramma'; 
name of a coin. 

dranga (El 32), used to indicate dramma; name of a coin. 

(El 10), cf. Navagrdma-dranga, 'the dranga of Nava- 
grama'; possibly 'a station for the collection of revenue'. 

Dra riga droni 1 1 

(El 8-3), a town or watch-station; possibly also a station 
for the collection of revenue; also called udranga which may 
thus indicate both revenue and the station for its collection. 

Drangapdla (El 28), same as Drdngika official design- 
ation. See drariga. 

Drdngesa (El 20; HD), supposed to be the designation of 
a guardian of the frontiers (cf. Stein, Rdjatarangim, Vol.11, 
pp. 291-92 for drariga or drafga) ; cf. Drangapdla and Drdngika. 

Drdngika (IE 8-3; El 10, 30; CII 3, 4;HD), probably, an 
officer in charge of a city-station or watch-tower for collection 
of customs duties. Dranga means either 'a town' (Bhandarkar's 
List, No. 810) or 'a watch-station' (Rdjatarangim, VIII. 2010). 
Drdngika was an officer in charge of a drariga probably mean- 
ing a watch station or a station for revenue collection; similar 
to Audrangika in the latter sense; mentioned along with the 
Dhruvasthdn-ddhikarana or 'the collector of the king's grain- 
share'. Cf. dranga, Drangapdla, etc. See CII, Vol. Ill, p. 169. 

drava (El 20), a kind of dancing. 

Drdvifi, name applied to the South Indian variety of the 
Brahmi alphabet. 

dravyabhdnndra-karana, cf. karana (LP); the department 
of stores. 

drona (IE 8-6; Chamba), a grain measure; often regarded 
as equal to four ddhakas ; between one maund fourteen seers 
and two maunds, according to Bengali authors. 

(IE 8-1; El 24, 29, 30), name of a land measure derived 
from that of a measure of capacity; shortened form of 

Drondgika (El 33), official disignation; possibly a mistake 
for Drondgraka. 

Drondgraka (El 27), official disignation; probably an 
officer in charge of a dronamukha or an important city,or one who 
collected the king's grain-share fixed per drona measure. 

Dronamdpaka, measurer of the king's grain-share 
(Ghoshal, Ag. Syst. Anc. Ind., pp. 26-27). 

dronavdpa (IE 8-6; El 30), 'an area of land requiring one 
drona measure of seed grains to be sown' ; a land measure which 
w>s not the same in different ages and localities. 

droni, dram (CII 4; IA 11), treasury; property (cf. Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 144 'the droni of Sri-Somanathadeva' to 

102 dron I dumphaka 

which a piece of land was attached) ; see devadronl probably 
meaning 'rent-free property of a temple'. 

drom-kara, cf. Tamil toni-kkadamai (SITI), tax on boats. 

drs, cf. petarh (Sanskrit udararh) darsayitum (El 11), lite- 
rally, 'to show one's belley'; but actually 'to ask for the means 
of livelihood'. 

Drsidhdrikd (El 32), a female torch-bearer. 

drsta (El 3, 23; Gil 3; etc.), Prakrit dittham, 'has been seen', 
i.e. 'found correct and approved', found on some copper- 
plate grants indicating the approval of the proper authorities 
endorsed on the original document later engraved on the plates. 
Cf. ni (an abbreviation of nibaddha or nirlksita) in certain 
medieval copper-plate grants of Eastern India. In drsta- 
pancdsat-paddti (LP), drsta-ghotaka (LP), etc., the word drsta 
indicates that money should be paid after actually seeing the 
foot-soldiers and horses in question. 

drst-ddrsta (LA 20), dimly seen. 

drsti (IE 7-1-2), 'two'; cf. netra; also darsana, 'six'. 

(I A 19), Buddhist; theory or doctrine; a peculiar or 
heretical doctrine. 

Du (IE 8-1; LP), abbreviation of Dutaka. 

dugdha, cf. a-dugdha-dadhi-grahana (IE 8-5); milk which 
the villagers (probably, the milkmen) were obliged to supply 
to the king or landlord on occasions and to the touring officers. 

duhkhana (Gil 1), causing pain. 

Duhsddka-sddhanika (IE 8-3; HD), the leader of police- 
men engaged in apprehending robbers, etc., or of expeditionery 
forces requisitioned on occasions of emergency; cf. Sddhanika, 
Dusta*sddhaka s Dauhsddhanika, Dussddhya-sddhaka, etc. 

Duhsadhya (El 2), abbreviation of Duhsddhya-sddhanika, 
etc., or a criminal; cf. dussddhya. 

duhsddhy-dddya (El 21 ), a tax probably levied from habitu- 
ally criminal people or for the maintenance of certain police 
or military officers called Duhsddhya, etc. See dustasddhy-dddya. 

Duhsddhya-sddhanika (IE 8-3), same as Dauhsddha-sddhanika, 
etc. Gf. Dussddhya-sddhaka, Dusta-sdhani, etc. 

duhsamya (ML), unpreventable. 

dulita (LP), '[land, etc.,] that has become dohalikd (q.v.)'. 

dumphaka (IE 8-8; El 30), probably the same as Sanskrit 
drmphaka, 'one who presses'; see nlla- dumphaka. 

dundubhiDutaka 1 03 

dundubhi (ASLV), a musical instrument. 

durga (ASLV), a fort. 

Durga-dandandyaka (ASLV), the ruler of a fort; cf. 

Durgapdla (HD), superintendent of a fort. 

Durgapati (El 27), governor of a fortress. 

Durgd-putra (El 33), epithet of one devoted to the goddess 
Durga; used along with such similar epithets as Rudra-putra 
and Purusottama-putra. 

durita (SITI), famine; disturbance. 

Durlabha (El 23), an official designation of uncertain 

dur-vdchaka, cf. tur-vdyakam (SITI), abusive language. 

duskrta (CII 1), a bad deed. 

dussddhya (CII 4), 'a criminal'; abbreviation of Duhsddhya- 
sddhaka, etc. 

Dussddhya-sddhamka, same as Dusta-sdhani (El 33), etc. 

Dusta-sddhaka (El 7; CII 4; HD), official designation; 
'the mentor of criminals' ; same as Duhsddhya-sddhanika, Dauhsd- 
dhanika, etc. See Ep. Inj., Vol. VII, p. 91. 

Dusta-sddhya (El 21; CII 4), same as dus-sddhya or a 
criminal ; abbreviation of the official designation Dusta-sddhya- 
sddhanika-, same as Dusta-sddhaka, etc. 

dustasddhy-dddya, probably, a tax levied for maintaining 
the police engaged in suppressing dacoits. Cf. Ghoshal, H. 
Rev. Syst., p. 254, note. See duhsddhy-dddya. 

Dustasddhya-sddhanika (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 132), 
same as Dusta-sddhaka, etc. 

Dusta-sdhani (El 33), same as Dusta-sddhaka, Dustasd- 
dhya-sddhanika , etc . 

dusya (CII 1), robe or clothes. 

Duta (IE 8-3; El 23, 30; CII 1; HD), a messenger or 
envoy. See Visnudharmottara, II. 24. 13-14, 28; CII, Vol. I, 
p. 67. 

(El 23; CII 3, 4), an occasional substitute for Diitaka, 
the executor of a grant. 

Dutaka (IE 8-3; HD), messenger; conveyor of a request 
or message; cf. the Khalimpur plate of Dharmapala (Ep. 
Ind., Vol. IV, p. 250), according to which the king was reques- 
ted to make a grant by a Mahdsdmantddhipati through prince 

104 DutaDvdr-ddhipa 

Tribhuvanapala as the Dutaka. His function is called dutya 
in the Nalanda plate of Devapala (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, 
318 ff., text line 51). 

(IES-3; El 23, 30; CII 3, 4), according to some, the 
technical title of an officer connected with royal charters, 
whose duty it was to carry the king's orders to the local officials 
by whom the charter was then drawn up and delivered. But 
the Dutaka seems to have been responsible for putting the 
document and also perhaps the gift land in the donee's possession. 
There are instances of more Dutakas than one (IA 19). See 
also Ajnd, Duta, and sva-mukh-djnd. Cf. Ind. Ep., pp. 143-44. 

D uta-praisanika ( HD ), officer in charge of sending 
envoys; same as D uta-presanika. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 
321; Ind. Ant., Vol. XV, p. 306. Cf. Presanika. 

D uta-presanika (CII 4), also called Duta-sarhpresanika 
and D uta-praisanika-, the officer who despatched Dutas. 

dutya, same as dautya; function of the Dutaka (q.v.). 

Duyaka (LP), Sanskrit Dutaka ; a messenger. 

dvddasa-bhdga (Rdjatarangim, VII. 203); name- of an 
additional levy which was -^ of the fixed tax. 

dvddasaka (SII 13), partnership in a land; cf. astaka. 

Dvddasasthdn-ddhipati, the head of twelve departments 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV, p. 276 j. 

dvandva (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

dvdra (CII Ij, a way or means. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'nine'. 

(El 4), the mouth of a river. 

(IE 8-3), cf. 'the lord of the dvdrd* which was the desig- 
nation of a commander of forces in Kashmir; possibly, a pass 
[leading into the Kashmir valley]. 

Cf. Tamil vdsal-panam, 'door-tax'; periodical payment 
due to the palace. Cf. dvdr-ddeya. 

Cf. dvdra-kosthaka. 

dvdr-ddeya (HRS), 'gate-dues'; explained as a surcharge 
over and above the tolls on goods imported into a city. See 
Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 60, note. But cf. Tamil vdsal-panam 
explained as 'door-tax', i.e. the periodical payment due to 
the palace.' 

Dvdr-ddhipa (IE 8-3; HD), same as Dvdrandtha, Dvdra- 
pati, etc.; 'the lord of the pass'; cf. dvdra. 

dvdra Dyutasabhapati 


135, text 

dvdra-kosthaka (Liiders, Mathurd Inscriptions, p. 
line 4), translated as 'gateway'; gate-chamber. 

dvdra-mandapa (HA), a hall or pavilion on the entrance 
or door of a shrine. 

Dvdrandtha (IE 8-3; HD), superintendent of the passes 
leading into the kingdom, according to Stein (Rdjatararigim, 
V. 214); same as Dvdr-ddhipa, Dvdrapati, etc. 

Dvdrapdla (El 22), a door-keeper. 

Dvdra-pariksd (IE 8-3; El 28), Odiya; Sanskrit Dvara- 
pariksaka\ same as Pratlhdra. Cf. Parlksd. 

Dvdrapati (IE 8-3; HD), 'lord of the gate'; a commander 
offerees under the Kampandpati [in Kashmir]; the guardian of 
a pass [leading into the Kashmir valley]; same as Dvdrandtha, 
Dvdr-ddhipa, etc. 

dvdrostha (El 1), meaning doubtful; probably a mistake 
for dvdra-kostha, a gate-chamber. 

doaya (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

Dveda (El 24, 29), contracted form of Dviveda. 

dvesa (CII 3), an epithet applied to land; a tertn of un- 
certain significance. 

Dvi (El 11), abbreviation of Dviveda. 

(IE 8-1), abbreviation of dvitlya. 

dvi-bhumika (LP), two-storied. 

dvi-garbha (LL), a two-celled building. 

dvijdti-ddya (El 22), same as brahma-ddya. 

dvikd, double measure (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXVI, p. 52, 
note 5). 

dvipa (El (7-1-2), 'eight'. 

dvlpa (IE 7-12), 'seven'. 

dvi-vallakya (LP), [coins] in which there is a mixture of 
two vdls (6 ratis) of a base metal. Cf. JNSI, Vol. XXII, 
p. 197. 

Dviveda (CII 4), also called Dvivedin', epithet of Brahma- 
nas; later stereotyped as a Brahmanical family name. 

dvyardha (CII 1), one and a half. 

dyu (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher' 

dyu-mani (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'twelve 5 . 

dyuta (HRS), gambling; the king's dues collected by the 
superintendent of gambling. 

Dyutasabhapati (BL), superintendent of the gambling hall. 

106 eduka Ekapatra 

eduka , cf. eduo (CII 2-1 ), supposed to be 'a wall into which 
bones (meaning planks and other hard substances) have been 
inserted in order to strengthen the structure', because it is 
explained in a commentary as asthy-ankita kudya\ but asthy- 
ankita-kudya seems to mean a Buddhist stilpa raised on cor- 
poreal relics which were an object of worship. Although 
the word kudya is reckoned in the lexicons in the sense of a wall, 
it seems to mean 'a mound' in this case. The word aiduka 
derived from eduka is used in Buddhist Sanskrit in the 
sense of a Buddhist stupa. See ///d, Vol. XXIX, pp. 

eka-bhoga (El 16; SITI; ASLV), a tenure indicating 
exclusive ownership of a property invested in a single indivi- 
dual ; sole possession and enjoyment of a village by a single 
person (without any joint owner) ; cf. ekabhoga-iraiyili, tax-free 
land or village in the sole enjoyment of a single owner. Same 
as eka-bhogya. Cf. gana-bhoga. 

(SITI), single crop; same as Tamil oru-pu. 
eka-bhogya (El 13, 14), a tenure; same as eka-bhoga. 
ekadd (CII 1), sometimes. 
ekddasa-pras uti (LP), probably, eleven births. 
ekddasa-Rudra-bhiksd (El 32), arrangement of free supply 
of food to Saiva ascetics in the name of the eleven Rudras; 
land granted for such an arrangement. 

ekddasa-sata (ML), same as ekddas-ottara-sata, one hudred 
and eleven. 

ekddasi-vrata (El 31; CII 4), name of a vrata rite. 
eka-dhana (LP), joint family. 

ekala-murti (HA) , a single Jina image without any orna- 
mental parikara. 

eka-musti, cf. eka-mustyd (LP), 'collectively'. 
Ekdnga (HD), probably, an officer belonging to a body 
organized in military fashion for collecting revenue or per- 
forming police duties. See Rdjatarangini, V. 249; VII. 1604. 

Ekdngin (SITI), a single person; one who has no family, 
especially the Vaisnava devotee in charge of temples. 

Ekapatra (El 27), probably, Tdvadeka-pdtra (q.v.); official 
designion; cf. Pdtra and Mahdpdtra. 

Ekasata gadydna 


Eka-sdta (El 29 ), same as Eka-cwara; epithet of a monk 
who has taken a vow to wear only one piece of cloth. 

eka-tlrthi (HA), a sculpture showing only one Jina 
(Tirtharikara) together with his parikara. 

ekatya (CII 1), 'of one kind'. 

ekdvall, ekdvalll (SITI), necklace of a single string. 

eradu-bilkode (IE 8-5), Kannada; name of a tax. 

Erjhuna (ML), a title of foreign origin; 'a prince'. 

etatka cf. etaka (CII 1 ) ; same as etat. 

evamparind (LP), 'in this way'; cf. Gujarat! evi-pere. 

fanam, English spelling of Tamil panam ; see pana. It was 
sometimes regarded as a gold coin equal to ^j,- of a partdb 
and -jfo of a vardha (SII, Vol. I, p. 161). 

farmdn, also spelt firman, Persian; cf. phuramdna. 

fil, Arabic-Persian; cf. pllu, Pllupati. 

firman, cf. farmdn. 

ga (IE 8-1), used for gd (in Kharosthi) as an abbrevia- 
tion of gdthd; also abbreviation of gadydna (q.v.). 

gabhdro (HA), Sanskrit gorbha-grha; the sanctum of a temple. 

gaccha (I A 11; BL), name of particular communities of 
Jain monks; cf. the eightyfour gacchas of the Jains. 

gaddl (El 8), a throne; cf. pancdnga-prasdda. 

gadhaiyd, also called gadhaiyd paisd\ same as gadhiyd, 
a copper coin modified from old Sasanian types. 

gadhiyd, same as gadhaiyd (q. v.). 

gadidnaka, cf. Kumdra-gadidnaka (El 8); same as 

(El 27), also called gadydna', name of a coin. 

gadiydna (El 27; CII 4), same as gadydna, gadydnaka', 
name of a coin called suvarna- gadiydna, 'gold gadiydna'. 

gadyd, abbreviation of gadydna (q.v.). 

gadydna (El 3), a gold coin or weight; also spelt gadydna. 
generally regarded as 48 ratis in weight (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 42 ) . 

gadydna (IE 8-8; El 27, 30), also called gadydnaka, often 
contracted as ga or gadyd', sometimes called pon-gadydna or 
gadydna-ponnu indicating that it was a gold coin; sometimes 

1 08 gadydna-Gaja 

called suvarna; cf. bhairava-gadydna, lokki-gadydna (SII 11-2), 
anka- gadydna, gdv a- gadydna, komarina-gadydna, priyasrdha-gaja- 
malla- gadydna, ambili-gadydna; jagadalarh-gadydna, etc. Cf. also 
aru-gadydno (IA 12) and kula-gadydna (El 17), names of coins. 
Cf. paramesthi-gadydna-ponnu (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXVI, p. 61). 
(SITI), name of a coin, probably equal to a vardha or 
pagoda', cf. brhad-bhairava-gadydna (El 30); also kathdri- 
ankusa-gadydna (El 8), name of a coin with the representation 
of a dagger and a goad; vardha- gadydna (El 8), name of the 
gold coin called both vardha and gadydna. 

gadydna (CITD), same as gadydna; a coin like a farthing 
equal to J or J of the paikamu; also a dindra or vardha; 
a weight used in weighing silver; equal in some places to 20 
vals, 8 mdsas, or half a 0/0. 

gadydnaka (El 28), gadydnaka (IE 8-8; El 27), same 
as gadydna or gadydna ; name of a coin ; a coin weighing 48 ratis 
according to the Lildvati. 

gagana (IE 7-1-2; El 52), 'cypher'. 
gdhna (Chamba), threshing floor; from Sanskrit gdhana. 
gairdta y cf. geldta (CII 1); probably, a hill bird. 
gaja'(lE 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

Gajadhara (El 4), same as Sutradhara or Sutradhdra, e mason'. 
Gajddhlsa(Gll 4), 'the lord of elephants' ; official designa- 
tion; title of certain rulers. Cf. Gajapati, etc. 

Gajalaksmi (El 32), representation of Laksmi receiving 
water on the head from a jar held in the trunk of an elephant 
on either side; found on the seals of certain rulers. 

gajamdla (HA), row of elephants in the plinth of shrines; 
also called gajathara. 

Gaja-mrgayd-vihdra (ASLV), 'sportful hunting of ele- 
phants'; a title of the Vijayanagara kings. 

Gajapati (IE 8-2; El 9, 30; CII 4; HD), 'the lord of 
elephants' ; officer in charge of the elephant arm in an army; 
title of certain rulers; dynastic name of the Suryavamsis of 
Orissa. Cf. Ind. Ant., Vol. XV, p. 7. See Mahdgajapati, etc. 
Gaja-sdham (El 32), a leader of the elephant force; same 
as Gaja-sdhini, Gaja-sddhanika. 

Gaja-sdhini (IE 8-3; El 27), same as Gaja-sdhani, Gaja- 
sddhanika; leader of the elephant corps; cf. Sdhini or Sdham, 
derived from Sddhanika. 

gay thara Ganadanda 


gajathara (HA), same as gajamdla. 

Gajavdha-rduta (El 31), title of a subordinate chief. 

gal-putti (CITD), Telugu; an unknown measure of land; 
a variation of putti. 

gdnthi (LP), a package; cf. Gujarat! gdnthdl. 

Gamdgamika (IE 8-3; El 4, 23; CII 4; HD), same as 
Gamdgamin', official designation; probably, an officer in charge 
of regulating the people's entrance and departure into cities; 
explained by some as 'a kind of messenger' (Ind. Ant., Vol. 
XV, p. 306). Utpala on the Brhatsamhitd, 85. 34, explains 
Duta as Gamdgamika, though some Pala inscriptions have duta- 
khola-gamdgamik-dbhitvaramdna (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, pp. 250, 
text line 45 ) . 

Gamdgamin (El 31), same as Gamdgamika. 

gampana (El 27), same as kampana-, an administrative and 
territorial unit. 

Gdmunda (El 15), Kannada; same as Gdvunda', a village 
headman; probably derived from Grdmakuta, 'headman of a 
village', through GamaUda *>Gdmurfa under the influence of 
munda, 'head'. Cf. Ndda-gdmunda Ndr-gdmunda, 'headman of 
a district (nadu)' . 

gana (LL), a section of the Jains. 

(SITI], a group of persons; a community or religious guild. 

(El 26; CII 4), a guild or corporation. 

(El 3), wrongly explained as a share. 

(SII 12), managing committee. 

(SII 2), the attendants of Siva; also the fourteen divi- 
sions of learning. 

gana-bhoga (SITI, ASLV), a tenure in which land is held 
in common by a group of persons; joint ownership of a village 
or villages by a number of persons; same as gana-bhogya, gana- 
bhojya. Cf. eka-bhoga, etc. 

gana-bhogya (El 13, 15), see gana-bhoga or gana-bhojya, 
Cf. eka-bhoga or eka-bhojya. 

gana-bhojya (El 16), same as gana-bhoga or gana-bhogya. 

Ganabhrt (El 3; SII I), the head of a [Jain] school; 
same as Ganin, Gana-dhara. 

Gan-dcdrya (LL), the teacher of a Buddhist community. 

Ganadanda (El 30), epithet of a hero; probably, an abbre- 
viation of Gana-dandandyaka. 

110 Gana ganda 

Gana-dan dandy aka, also called Gana-dandapdla (El 18); 
official designation; probably, a Dandanayaka serving under a 
gana or corporation or commanding several ganas or contingents. 

Gana-dandapdla , same as Gana-dandandyaka. 

Ganadhara (HA), chief disciple of a Jina. 

Ganaka (El 18), official designation; cf. Tamil kanakan 
(SITI),~ a village accountant; also vdsal-kanakkan (SITI), 
accountant at the vasal (palace or palace-gate) ; urkkanakkar- 
jivitam (SITI), land assigned in lieu of salary to the village 
accountant or perquisites of the office of the village accountant 
(i.e. the Patvdrl as he is called in many parts of India). 

ganand (El 20), accountancy. 

(Gil 1), 'taking into account'. 

Ganapaka (Gil 4), official designation ; probably the same 
as Sanskrit Ganaka. 

gana-pana (El 20), communal and professional guilds. 

Gana-pperumakkal (SII 12; SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; the 
elders of a gana managing its affairs. 

Gana-srestha (CII 3), probably, the head of a corporation. 

Ganastha (El 15), probably, the member of a corporation; 
same as Tamil Ganattdr; see Mahdganastha. 

gana-sthiti (IA 19), cf. Mdlavdndm gana-sthiiya, Mdlava- 
gana-sthiti-vasdt, explained as 'by, or according to, the rec- 
koning of the Malavas', gana being taken to mean ganand. But 
see sthiti. 

Ganattdr (SITI), Tamil; Sanskrit Ganastha; people be- 
longing to a gana. 

gana-vdriyam (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; committee mana- 
ging the affairs of a gana. 

Gana-vdriya-pperumakkal (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; elders 
of the committee called gana-vdriyam (q.v.). 

Ganda (El 12), cf. Tamil Gandan; a hero, probably from 
the meaning 'rhinoceros' ; cf. similar use of vydghra, simha, etc. ; 
also cf. Paragandabhairava (El 29). See Gandan and Ganda- 
penddra; also Calamar Uganda. 

ganda (IE 8-6; El 19; IA 27), in the monetary system 
of some areas of medieval and modern India, regarded as 
equal to four cowrie-shells and ^ of a pana\ also a small area 
*)f land, twenty of which make one kdnl. 

gandabherunda (El 3), a mythical double-headed eagle. 

Can da Ganin 


Gandagopdla (El 30), title. 

gandaka (El 21), name of a coin; cf. gandd. 
(El 27), an official designation. 

Gandakdndyaka (El 33), official designation. 

ganda-mdda (El 5), name of a coin; sometimes specified 
as 'small'; also called kdrsdpana, niska or ganda-niska; cf. 
mdda. See JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 43. 

Gandaia (SITI), Tamil; a warrior. 

gonda-penddra (ASLV), Tamil; 'the anklet of a hero' 
which was worn by men of distinction. 

ganda-saila (El 12), a boulder. 

gandhakutl (EIA9, 18; IA 14), originally, 'a chamber for 
the Buddha's use'; later 'the chamber enshrining the Buddha 
image in a monastery' ; a shrine where the image of the Buddha 
is worshipped; a Buddhist temple. 

gdndharva (El 28), dance and music. 

gandha-sdli (El 5), a kind of rice or paddy. 

Gdndhika (El 28; LL), a perfumer. 

Ganesa-caturthl (El 5; IA 17; CII 4), name of a tithi and 
festival; same as Bhadrapada su-di 4. 

Ganesa-homa (El 26), a rite; same as Vindyaka-homa. 

Gangaikonda (IE 8-2), title of a Cola king meaning 'the 
conqueror cf the Ganga'. 

gangd-mdrga (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

gangdpuputaka (IA 18; CII 1), probably gangd-pupputaka; 
a particular fish of the Ganges. 

Gangd-yamund (El 24, 29), royal insignia probably con- 
sisting of the representation of the Ganga and Yamuna on the 
flags or at the gate. 

gdngeya (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 38), gold. 

Gangd-sndna (LP), 'absence of sin'. 

ganginikd (El 18), a stream. 

(El 12], a dried up river bed. 

gam, cf. atha-gdnl, a coin equal to a tanka (JNSI, Vol. 
XII, p. 198); cf. jltal. 

ganikd (El 33), same as devaddsi. 

(El 7), a female elephant. 

ganikd-karana, cf. karana (LP); explained as 'the amuse- 
ment department . ' 

Ganin (SII 2), an astrologer. 

112 ga nja gdtra 

(El 3), head of a school. 

(I A 19; LL), Jain; a Jain eclesiastic; an dcdrya who has 
disciples but has not risen to be the head of his gaccha or sdkhd. 

ganja (El 30), Persian ganj; a treasury or store-house. 
Utpala on the Brhatsamhitd, 52. 13, explains ganja as kosa-bhavana, 
i.e. treasury. See Ganjavara. 

(IE 8-8), a store-house of liquor. 

Ganj-ddhikdrin (HRS), a treasury-officer according 
to the Rdjatarangim. See Ganjapati, etc. 

Ganjapati (El 13; HRS; HD), same as Persian Ganjwar, 
treasurer (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIII, p. 115). See ganja. 

Ganjavara (IE 8-3; El 9; HD), Persian Ganjwar', a treasurer 
or store-keeper (Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 247; Rdjatarangim, V. 
177). See Ganjapati, etc. 

Ganjwar, Persian; see Ganjavara. 

garbha (LL), a cell; cf. panca-garbha (LL), 'a five-celled 
building'; nava-garbha (LL), 'a nine-celled building'; sapta- 
garbha (LL), 'seven-celled building'. 

garbha-dvdra (LL), the hall-front. 

garbh-dgdra (CII 1), the inner apartment of a temple or 
palace; same as garbha-grha. 

garbha-grha (SITI), the innermost sanctuary of a temple; 
inner part of palace; same as garbh-dgdra. 

garcd (Ghamba), same as gocara. 

Garga-yavana (El 33), name applied to the Turkish Muslim 
invaders of North India, Garga probably being Ghaznl. 

Garjanak-ddhirdja } Garjanik-ddhirdja (LP), 'the emperor 
of Ghazm'. 

garta, gartd (El 3, 27; CII 3), a trench or pit; a boundary 
trench; a pit or valley; cf. sa-gart-osara (IE 8-5); also found 
as the termination of names of villages. 

garuda (IA 20), the royal eagle; the white kite (in areas 
like Bihar and Madras). 

Garudadhvaja (CII 4), title of a ruler. 

gata-rdjya, same as vinasta-rdjya or atita-rdjya (q.v.). 

gati (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'four'; also explained as five in 
number (El 19). 

gdtra (IA 14), same as anga-bhoga. 

(El 33), same as gotra or gotra-sailikd, i.e. a memorial 
pillar for the dead members of one's family. See yasti. 

gain gay ada 113 

gdtri (LP), cf. Gujarat! gdda, a cart. 

Gauda (El 5; ASLV), Kannada; same as Gdvunda', a 
village headman; the chief farmer of a village. See Gavuda. 

(El 1), a temple priest. 

(IE 8-5; El 28), Odiya; same as gokuta; a cowherd or 

Gaudo-mahdsdndhivigrahika (IE 8-3), 'the Mahdsdndhivi- 
grahika of the Gauda country'; cf. Mahdsdndhivigrahika. 

Gaudi, name applied to the East Indian alphabet, langu- 
age and style of composition. 

Gaudika (El 28), maker and seller cf sugar; see Gudika. 

Gauggulika (El 13), a dealer in guggulu. 

Gaulmika (IE 8-3; El 30; CII 3, 4; HD), same as Gulma- 
pati (q.v.)j 'chief of a troop'; officer in charge of a gulma or 
outpost or group of guards, soldiers or policemen; 'superin- 
tendent of woods and forests' according to Fleet (C//, Vol. 
Ill, p. 50). See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 246. 

gaurl, a virgin; cf. gaun-vardtikd. 

gaurl-patta, same as the yoni-patta of a Siva-linga. 

gaun-vardtikd, 'virgin-money'. Gaurl means 'a virgin' 
and vardtikd is used primarily in the sense of vardta or vardtaka, 
'a cowrie-shell', and secondarily in that of 'money'. In the 
records of Mithila, gaun-vardtikd means 'money to be paid 
to the master of a slave girl of marriageable age by the master 
of her bridegroom'. See JJVS7, Vol. XVI, pp. 264 ff. 

Gautaml-putra (IE 2-8), metronynic meaning 'the son of 
a laply born in a family belonging to the Gautama gotra'. Such 
metronymics refer to the absence of gotr-dntara (i.e. the change 
of the bride's paternal gotra to that of her husband at the time 
of marriage) in a popular form of ancient Indian marriage. 

Gavuda (El 5; ASLV), Kannada; same as Grdmakuta, 
Gauda, Gdvunda; village headman. 

Gdvunda, Gavundu (HD), same as Grdmakuta, Gavuda, 
Gauda. Cf.Ep. Ind.,Vol XVI, p. 74; JBBRAS, Vol. X, p. 208. 
" gavya (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

gavyuta (El 22), a distance of about 4 miles; same as 

gavyuti (El 27), a linear measure; same as gavyuta (q.v.). 

gaydda, cf, guydda (El 22), courtyard, Cf. the royal names 
Gay d da and Gayddatunga. 

114 Gaydghati 

Gayd-mukta (El 33), one whose srdddha ceremony has 
been performed at Gaya. 

gdyatri (IE 7-1-2), 'twentyfour'. 

geldta (I A 18; CII 1), probably Sanskrit gairdta, a 
hill bird'. 

genu (IE 8-6), Kannada; 'one span'; a unit of measurment. 

gevaka (Gil 1), inferior. 

ghddd (Chamba), a system by which the tiller receives one 
half of the produce. See ghddotd. 

ghddaka, also called ghddl (Ghamba) ; land cultivated on 
the ghddd system. 

gha da-mar uturu (GITD), Telugu; an unknown measure 
of land; a variation of maruturu (q.v.). Cf. kdl-mai *uturu. 

ghada-putti (GITD), Telugu; a variation of putti. Cf. 
gal-putt i. 

ghddl, cf. ghddaka. 

ghadiydramu (CITD), Telugu-Kannada; a gong, a watch, 
a clock, an hour glass; a cup with a hole at the bottom placed 
on water for measuring time, an hour being counted when 
it sinks. Cf. ghatikd-grha. 

ghddotd (Chamba), spoken of a land tilled on the condition 
that one half of the produce should go to the owner. See 
.ghddd, etc. 

ghale (IE 8-6), Kannada; measuring rod; cf. Gangana 
ghale, 'the rod [measured by the length of the forearm] of a 
person named Ganga'; cf. hasta in Sivacandra-hasta, etc. 

ghdnaka (El 2, 32), an oil-mill. 

gharahana (Chamba), same as gorathd, etc. 

ghora-ksetra (SITI), grha-ksetra; a building site. 

gharathd (Chamba), also called gharahana, gharathdi, 
gharthdi; a house site; homestead; from Sanskrit grha-sthdna. 

Ghdncika, maker of or dealer in oil (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 
pp. 145-46); same as Gujarat! Ghdrhci. 

ghasra (IE 7-1-2), 'fifteen'. 

ghdta (El 21), name of a tax. Cf. ghat fa. 

ghataka, a jar (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 309). 

Ghatasdsulu (CITD), Telugu; logicians. See Ghatikdsdhasa. 

ghati, ghati (CII 3), same as ghatikd, the sixtieth division 
of a day (i.e. day and night) ; equal to twentyfour English 
minutes. Cf. ghadiydramu. 

ghatl-Ghattapati 115 

ghatl (CII 4), name of a measure of capacity. 

ghatika (CII 2-1), used in the sense of ghatikd, an hour 
equal to twentyfour English minutes. 

ghatikd (CII 3; ML), an hour; time equal to twentyfour 
English minutes; same as ghati, ghatl. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 34, note 6), an establishment ol 
holy and learned men. Cf. Tamil ghatikai (SII 12). 

Cf. ghatige (SII 3), an assembly. 

(SITI), an educational institution for advanced studies; 
a university; probably the same as said and mahdsdld. Cf. 
Prakrit ghadia-ghadd (El 8), same as gosthl. 

ghatikdgrha-karana, cf. karana (LP) ; the deparment ol 
time-keeping. Cf. ghadiydramu. 

Ghatikaiydr (SII* 12; SITI), Tamil; members of a 
ghatikd managing its affairs; officials who declare to the public, 
by beat of tomtom, the orders of kings and other officers. 

ghatik-dlaya (El 1), a water-clock. 

Ghatikd-madhyastha (SITI), an intermediary officer having 
the authority of the ghatikd or recognised by the ghatikd. 

Ghatikdsdhasa (El 8), same as the Brahmanical family 
name Ghaisdsa, also called Ghatasdsin, etc. See Ghatasdsulu. 

ghatikd-sdld (El 25), same as ghdtikd-sthdna; an establish- 
ment of holy and learned men. 

ghatikd-sthdna (El 14, 16) 'a religious centre'; the official 
meeting place of learned and godly men; cf. ghatikd-sdld. 

ghatita (CII 1), 'put together'. 

(Ind. Ant., Vol. XII, p. 121, text line 55), engraved. 

ghatita-hlna-drammd (LP), drammas that are wanting'. 

ghati-yantra (El 14), a clock. Cf. ghadiydramu. 

ghat fa (BL), bathing or landing place on the bank of a 

(IE 8-5), a harbour or a mountain pass. 

(ASLV), a contingent of elephants, the number being ten 
according to some authorities. 

Ghattapdla (IE 8-3) ; El 31 ), the superintendent of landing 
places on the river banks or of passes. 

Ghattapati (El 7; CII 4; HD), same as Ghattapdla; gene- 
rally explained as 'an officer in charge of quays or landing 
places (ghats) 9 ; may also be an officer in charge of a pass 
(cf. the Orissan royal title Astddasa-ghatta-gondram-ddhipati); 

116 ghosa go 

see Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 91; JBORS, Vol. V, pp. 582, 

ghosa (Gil 4), a settlement of the milkmen. 

ghotaka-vigraha (CII 4; BL), 'a battle of horses 5 ; probably, 
an encounter of horsemen; cf. caturdanta- samara. 

ghotikd (El 31), a boundary post bearing the represen- 
tation of a mare. 

ghrni (El 12), a ray. 

ghrsta-murdhaka (LP), 'with hairs of one's head fallen off.' 

ghrta-pradipa (LL), a lamp to be burnt with ghee instead 
of oil. 

ghumara (El 23), used in Bastar in the sense of 'water- 

gi (IE 8-1), abbreviation of Prakrit gimha = Sanskrit 
grisma (q.v.). 

gidda (GITD), Telugu-Kannada ; a gill, or a liquid ounce; 
a quarter especially of a sola weighing 16 dubbus. 

gimha (Gil 4), Prakrit; same as Sanskrit grisma; name 
of a season consisting of eight fortnights or four months. 

girt (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

giri-durga (ASLV), hill fort. 

girindra (SII 2), 'a hill-chief. 

go (IE 7-1-2), 'one'; rarely used in the sense of 'nine' 
(cf. graha). 

Cf. a-parampard-go-balwarda (IE 8-5) ; a cow. See ball- 

gocara (El 15; Chamba), pasture land. 

(LP), a tax for allowing cattle to graze in the pasture 

gocaraka (Chamba), pasture land; same as gocara. 

gocarman (IE 8-6; El 28; CITD), an area of land often 
regarded as equal to ten nivartanas although the exact area 
varied in different ages and localities. 

Gocchakapati (El 28), official designation of uncertain 
import. Cf. the Bengali family name Guchdita <, Gochdyati 
< Gocchakapati. 

go-dvadasi (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, pp. 161, 163-64), name 
of a tithi; Asvina su-di 12; regarded doubtfully also as Marga- 
slrsa su-di 12. 

go-gauda (El 12, 28), name of a tax probably levied on the 

go GO ii? 

cowherds; gauda is the same as gokuta meaning a cowherd or 

go-grdsa, troughful of fodder for the cattle (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXXV, p. 108). 

gohara, gohdrd (Chamba), a path. 

gohari (El 31), Odiya; cattle track or pasture land; or 
probably, a road (cf. gohara, gohdrd). 

goja, the moon (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 58). 

gojha (Chamba), pocket; pocket money; personal pro- 

gokara (IE 8-5; El 4, 8, 13), probably, grazing tax. 

gokarna (El 9), gokarna-kusa-kusuma-karatal-odaka-purna 
(El 23), gokarna-kusalatd-puta-hast-odakena (Ind. Ant., Vol. XV, 
p. 10, note 57), referring to an elaborate form of the ritual 
relating to donation generally indicated by the expression 
udak-dtisargena; same as gandusa (in Bengali) ; palm hollowed to 
hold water and resembling a cow's ear. 

gokula ( El 9 ), cf. 'officer in charge of the gokulas'i 
cf. Gokul-ddhikdrin, Gokulika, Gomandalika. 

(SITI), a temple of Krsiia; also called dyappddi in Tamil. 

Gokul-ddhikdrin (El 24 ), superintendent of cattle; 
officer in charge of the royal cattle and cowpens (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XIV, p. 194). See Gokulika, Gomandalika. Cf. Vivlt- 
ddhyaksa, Vrajabhumika, Gomahisdj-ddhyaksa. 

Gokulika (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIX, p. 71), same as Gokul-ddhi- 
kdrin, Gomandalika. 

Gokuta (IE 8-5; El 28), same as Odiya Gauda; a milk- 
man or cowherd. 

gold (IA 21), a district. 

(El 31), a granary. 

golakd (SITI), also called gulikd, golakkai, kolakkai, kuligai; 
name of a coin, probably circular in shape. 

Golla (El 3), a cowherd. 

(IE 8-4), a small territorial unit. 

Golla-vdru (CITD), Telugu; a caste of watchmen [emplo- 
yed as treasure-guards], generally herdsmen. 

Go-mahis-dj-dvikd-vadav-ddhyaksa (IE 8-3), cf. Kisora- 
vadavd-go-mahis-dj-dvik-ddhyaksa, etc. 

Go-mahisy-aj-ddhyaksa (El 28), official designation; cf. Go- 
mahis-dj-dvikd-va dav-ddhyaksa . 

1 1 $ Gomandalika gosthi 

Gomandalika (El 18), officer in charge of the royal cattle. 
See Gokulika, Gokul-ddhikarin, etc. 

gomatha (El 12), name of a sattra-like institution built by 
a Musalman chief together with a step- well and a garden. 

Gomin (IA 13), epithet of a Buddhist priest hailing from 
Gauda-visaya; supposed to denote a learned lay brother who 
held some high office on the establishment of a monastery. 

gomutrikd-bandha (CITD), the style of composition of a 
stanza, the second half of which repeats nearly all the syllables 
of the first. 

gondrama (El 30), Odiya; probably, a hill fort or a state 
having its headquarters on a hill. 

goni (CII 4), name of a measure of capacity; cf. gom-prasrti. 

gom-prasrti (El 1), a measure of uncertain weight; pro- 
bably, a handful. 

Gopa (El 24), a watchman. 

(HD), officer in charge of the royal cattle; officer over 
five or ten villages according to the Arthasdstra, II. 35. 

(HRS), according to the Arlhasdstra, (1) officer in charge 
of five or ten villages with revenue and police functions; (2) 
officer in charge of ten, twenty or forty families in the city; 
similar to the Patel, or Patvdrl (H. Rev. Syst., pp. 146-47). 

Gopdla (IE 8-8), a milkman or cowherd. 

go-patha (El 31), a cattle-track. 

gopathasara (CII 3), perhaps 'a cattle-path'. 

gopicandana (IA 16), a kind of coloured earth. 

gopracdra (El 24, 31, 32; CII 4), pasture land. 

(El 30), right of grazing cattle. 

go-pracdra-bhumi (SITI), grazing-ground; same as Tamil 

gopura (El 3, 19, 24) a gateway; the gateway of a temple; 
a tower. 

gopura-vdsal (SII 1), Sanskrit-Tamil; the gate of a gopura. 

goracara (Chamba), same as Sanskrit gocara. 

goracarakd (Chamba), same as Sanskrit gocara. 

Gorava (El 7), a Saiva priest; same as Gurava, etc. 

go-sahasra (El 16, 24), name of a gift (mahdddna). 

go-stana (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

gosthi (El 24; SII 3; BL), an assembly; a corporate body; 
cf. Tamil gosthiseyddu, convener of a parisad. 

Gosthika grama 119 

(LL), Buddhist; a committee; cf. Bauddha-gosthi, Gosthl- 

Gosthika (El 4, 24, 33; Gil 4), member of a committee 
or assembly; member of a managing committee; mem- 
ber of a committee like that of the trustees. 

gotra (CII 3; IA 19; CITD), a family or clan, a tribe or 
lineage; a caste. No Hindu can marry a girl of his own gotra 
or stock, though some forms of ancient Indian marriages did 
not involve the gotr-dntara, i.e. the change of the wife's gotra 
to that of the husband at the time of marriage (Proc. IHC, 
Annamalainagar, 1945, pp. 48 ff.). Cf Gautami-putra, etc. 

(El 33), abbreviation of gotra-sailikd, a memorial pillar 
raised for the dead members of one's family. 

gotr-dntara (IE 8-2), the change of the wife's paternal gotra 
to that of her husband, which was absent in some popular forms 
of marriage in ancient India (Proc. IHC, Annamalainagar, 
1945, pp. 48 ff.). 

gotra-sailikd (El 33), a pillar raised in memory of the 
dead members of one's family. 

Goud (ASLV), Anglicised spelling of Gauda or Gavuda 

Go-vallabha, cf. Prakrit Go-vallava (El 24; II), a cow- 
herd; keeper of the royal cattle; see Mahdgovallabha (El 24). 

Go-vallava (IE 8-3), a cowherd; Sanskrit Go-vallabha. 

go-yuthl) cf. sva-sima-trnagoyuthi-gocara-paryania(^A. 8-5) ; yuthi 
is the same as yuti '(or puti) used in the same context in many 
other records in the compound trna-yuti (or trna-puti). Goyuthl- 
gocara may be 'the enclosure for cattle and pasture ground'. 

go-yuti, same as ga-yuthl\ cf. yuti. 

graha (IE 7-1-2), 'nine'. 
(I A 21), seizure; cf. go-graha, cattle-lifting. 

Cf. surya-graha (El 24), an eclipse of the sun. 

grahana (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

grahanaka (IE 8-8; El 30), probably, the custody or 
mortgage of an object. 

(LP) 9 an ornament; cf. Gujarat! gharenurh. 

grdhya (IE 8-8), 'to be apprehended or recruited'. 
Cf. a-kincid-grdhya; 'to be levied'. 

grama (IE 8-4), 'a village'; often suffixed to the names ol 

120 Gramabhartr Gramakuta 

(El 24), a village assembly. 

(IE 8-4), sometimes used to indicate the number of villages 
in a territory or geographical unit; but the number was often 
either exaggerated or traditional without relation to reality; 
sometimes wrongly interpreted as 'a unit of revenue assess- 
ment'. Cf. navanavati-sahasra-grdma-bhdj (IE 8-4), epithet of 
a territory. See Sircar, Stud. Geog. Am. Med. Ind., pp. 200 ff. 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, pp. 146-47), a villager; same as 

Gramabhartr (HD), same as Grdmapati (Taj nav alky asmrti, 
II. 271). 

Grdma-bhogika (El 24, 29; CII 4), probably the Jaglrdar 
of a village or one who enjoys a village as a free-holding. Cf. 
rdja-sdmanta-visayapati-grdmabhogika-purillaka-cdta- bhata-sevak - ddin 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIX, pp. 114-15). 

grdma-deva (IA 14), a village god; cf. grdma-devatd. 

grdma-devatd (El 3; SII 2), a village divinity; cf. grdma- 

grdm-ddhipati (IE 8-4), 'headquarters of a Pargana' (cf. 
trimsad-grdm-ddhipati-srl-Kukkunum}', also called modala-vdda or 
rdjadhdni in Kannada inscriptions. 

(HD), same as Grdmapati (Kdmasutra, V. 5. 5). 

Grdma-drohin(SITI), traitor to the village; cf.Grdmakantaka. 

Grdmdgrdma-bhojaka (IE 8-3; LL), free-holders or Jdglr- 
ddrs of various villages. 

grama- grdsa (El 5, 6,31), a village granted for the main- 
tenance of the donee; cf. grdm-opahdra (El 5). 

grdm-dhdra (IE 8-4; LL), 'a village-district'; a group of 
villages; a small territorial unit; cf. mahdgrdma and dhdra. 

grdmaka (El 8), a small village. 

Grdma-kantaka (El 24; SII 13; SITI), a traitor to the 
village; enemy of the security of a village; annoyance to a 
village. Cf. Grdma-drohin. 

grdma-kdrya (IA 8), explained as 'village rites'; probably, 
'the various functions of the village'; village business (SITI); 
administration; committee of administration (SII 13). 

Grdma-kdyastha (HD), a village scribe or Patvdrl. See 
Rdjatarangim, V. 175. 

Grdmakufa(El 8-3) ; El 30; CII 4; HD), cf. Grdmamahattara; 
the headman of a village (or probably, a member of the 

6 rdmaku taka Grdmika 1 2 1 

village council). Paithmasi and Kautilya (IV 5) use the 
word, and the commentary on the Kdmasutra (V. 55) explains 
Grdmakuta as halottha-vrtti. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 285; Ind. 
Ant., Vol. XVI, p. 24. See Rdstrakuta, Desakuta. 

Grdmakutaka (El 7, 12; HD), same as Grdmakuta. 
Grdma-mahattara (IE 8-3; El 12, 28), same as Grdmakuta 
and Mahattara-, the village headman and a member of the 
village council. 

Grdmamahattar-ddhikdrin (El 25), official designation; 
probably, Grdma-mahattara and Adhikdrin. 

grdma-maryddd (El 32), fixed local usage. 

Grdma-netr (HD), a village headman. See Sukra, II. 120. 

Grdmanl (El 27; LL; HD), a village headman; same as 
Grdmakuta. See Hist. Dharm., pp. 153-54; Pamni, V. 2. 78. 

grdma-parihdra (SITI), obligatory dues of a village. 

Grdmapati (El 24, 26, 29; IA 9; HD), cf. Grdmakuta \ the 
headman, owner or Jdglrddr of a village (Mitdksard on Tdjna- 
valkyasmrti, II. 281). See Grdma-svdmika, etc. 

Cf. Kudipati (El 18), the headman of a village. 

grdma-patra (El 9), a document indicating the revenue 
fixed for a village. 

Grdma-pradhdna (El 2), a village headman. 

grdma-samsthd (LP), a village institution. 

grdm-dstakul-ddhikarana (El 31), the administrative board 
(e.g. Pancdyat] of a village; see astakul-ddhikarana. 

Grdma-svdmika, cf. Gdma-sdmika (El 24); same as Grama- 

Grdmataka (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIX, p.71), official designation; 
probably a mistake for Grdmakutaka. 

Grdma-taldra (LP), probably, something like a Faujddr. 
See T alar a. 

grdmatikd (El 9, 19; SII 1), a hamlet; a small village. 

Grdmeyaka (El 31; LL), a villager; inhabitant of a village; 
probably also the village headman, the same as Grdmika (Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 327); cf. Vatta-grdmeyaka (El 27); also 

Grdmeyika (LL), a villager; same as Grdmeyaka. 

Grdmika (IE 8-5; El 15; CII 3; LL; HD), a village head- 
man (Manusmrti, VII. 116; Arthasdstra, III. 10; CII, Vol. 
Ill, _p. 112); same as Grdmanl, etc. 

122 grdmlyaguda 

Cf. grdmika-jana-samuha (El 24), 'an assembly of the 

grdmlya-kula (El 24), an assembly of the village. 

gram-op ahdra (El 5), same as grdma-grdsa. 

granthavdri (IA 24), household histories in Travancore. 

grdsa (El 11; LP), food; land granted for maintenance; 
cf. grdsa-lopana (LP), confiscation of the lands given for main- 
tenance; also cf. grdma-grdsa. 

grdsagraha, same as suvarna (q.v.). 

grdsa-vdsas (CITD), food and raiment. 

gr (IE 8-1), also spelt gri', wrong abbreviation of grlsma 
in Prakrit records. 

Of- gf-ftt abbreviation of grha. 

gr-ca-tl y abbreviation of an expression probably meaning 
'a mound on which houses can be (or, have been) built and 
fruit trees can be (or, have been) planted'. Cf. Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXX, p. 56. 

grha, cf. ghara (El 7), a caitya\ a cave. Cf. grha-mukha. 

grha-kara, cf. ilvari, marwi-irai, manai-ppanam (SITI), 

grha-krtya (HRS), an office concerned with domestic 
affairs of the kingdom as indicated by the Rdjatarangini. See 
Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 250. 

grha-mukha., cf. ghara-mugha (LL), the door of a cave. 

Grhapati(EI 25; CII 3;LL), a householder; same as Grhastha. 

Grhastha (LL), a householder; same as Grhapati. 

grha-sthdna (El 24), a house-site. 

grha-vdrtd (LP), household articles. 

Grha-vetaka (El 9), possibly a mistake for Grha-cetaka, 'a 

Grhlta-sdhasra (El 33), probably, 'one from whom one 
thousand coins have been realised'. 

grlsma (El 24; CII 4), one of the three seasons constituting 
the ancient Indian official year; the four months from Caitra 
ba-di 1 to Asadha su-di 15. 

gr-ti, abbreviation of grha-tikkara(tlkara] or grha-vdstu- 
tikara, 'a mound suitable for building houses'. Cf. Ep. Ind , 
Vol. XXX, p. 56. 

guda, cf. a-lavana-guda-ksobha (IE 8-5); sugar, the pro- 
duction of which was the monopoly of the king or landlord. 

gudanta Gunacarita 


gudanta-patra (Journal qf the Bihar Research Society, Vol. 
XL, Part 2, pp. 96-97), name of a type of document, the exact 
nature of which is doubtful; probably, a kind of lease deed. 
Cf. guna-patra. 

gudda, gudda-dhvaja (IA 10), Kannada; the meaning 
of gudda is doubtful; probably, a disciple. 

gudha-jdla-bandha (CITD), probably, the style of a verse 
with an artificial arrangement of the letters. 

gudha-mandapa (HA;, an adjacent hall; hall in front 
of the sanctum, where devotees carry on worship, etc. 

Gudha-purusa (HD), an officer of the secret service. See 
Ep. Ind.'VoL XXII, p. 156. 

Gudika (El 28, 31), maker or seller of sugar; see Gaudika. 

guggula (CII 4), bdellium. 

guhd (SITI), literally, 'a cave'; a monastery. 

guhd-vihdra (CII 2-1), a cave-monastery. 

Gujardtl, the people, language and alphabet of Gujarat. 
See Bodiyd. 

gulikd , cf. pudu-kkuligai (SITI), name of a coin; also 
senapaka-kkuligai (SITI), name of a coin probably struck by the 
&ambuvarayas; pulli-gulikai-vardhai\(SITI) 3 name of a gold coin; 
vtracampan-kuligai (SITI), a coin struck and issued by the 
Sambuvaraya king Viracampa; vdldl-valitirantdn gulikai 
(SITI), a Pandya coin supposed to have been issued by Jata- 
varman Sundara-pandya I who had the title Vdldl-vali-tirantdn. 

gulma (El 8, 12), a battalion, squadron or outpost. Cf. 
Gaulmika. (IE 8-5), a bush; cf. sa-gulma-latdka as an epithet of 
a gift village. 

gulma-deya (HRS), dues paid at the military or police 
station as indicated in the Arthasdstra. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. 
Syst., pp. 78, 227. 

Gulmapati (HD), officer in charge of a gulma which means 
a group or outpost of guards, soldiers or policemen; same as 
Gaulmika. Cf. JBORS, Vol. V, p. 588. 

gulpha (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

guna (IE 7-1-2; El 15, 17, 25), 'three'; rarely in late 
records, 'six'. 

(El 8), six in number. 

Gunacarita (BL), supposed to be an epithet of a Pratihara 

1 24 guna guvdka 

gun-dksara (LP) , a document for a lease of land by the pro- 
prietors to cultivators; see guna-patra. 

Cf. gun-dksardni (LP), a concession letter. 

guna-patra (LP), a lease of land granted by propriteors 
to tenants or cultivators for the purpose of cultivating or im- 
proving it; cf. Pancdladesiya-kuldndth guna-patra-vidhih, 'an order 
of royal favour concerning the farmers of the Pancala country* ; 
also cf. Gujarat! ganotndmurh. See gundksara, guddntapatra . 

gunda (El 8), probably, a niche. 

gunjd (IE 8-8; I A 26), same as raktikd or rati. 

(El 12), a kettle-drum. 

guntha (IE 8-6; 'El 28, 31), a land measure ofOrissa; 
equal to one-twentififth of a Man a. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p.62), Telugu; a pond; cf. sild-guntha. 

gupta, cf. gupt-dksardni (LP), same as gupta-pattaka, a deed 
of permanent lease. See Tamil guttagai^ Sanskrit guptakd. 

guptakd, see guttagai. 

gupta-pattaka (LP), a deed of permanent lease; called 
gupta probably because it reserved the right of use to a parti- 
cular man; cf. gupt-dksara (also gupta}. 

gupti (El 4), three in number. 

guracarakd (Chamba), same as gocara. 

Gurava, same as Gorava\ epithet of a aiva priest (Ind. Ant., 
Vol. XIV, p. 140, note 4); also supposed to be a Jain priest. 

(El 4), a teacher; cf. Gorava. 

Gurdva (IA 11), same as Gorava; a Saiva priest. 

guru (SII 1), a preceptor; also 'the head' as in Candik- 

guru-daksind (El 32), money paid to the preceptor for 

Gurumukkl, also spelt Gurmukhl; alphabet in which the 
Punjabi language is written by the Sikhs. 

gurv-dyatana (El 21, 28) a temple where one's deceased 
guru (preceptor) is worshipped. 

guttagai (ASLV), Sanskrit guptakd; a contract or lease. 

guttige (ASLV), a contract; cf. guttagai. 
guvdka, cf. sa-guvdka-ndrikela (IE 8-5); arecanut palms, 
the enjoyment of which was not allowed to the ordinary ten- 

hdda harhsapada 125 


hdda (IE 8-6), Kannada; same as Sanskrit pdda; a land 
measure equal to one-fourth of the standard measure which was 
the mattaru or nivartana. 

Hadapada (El 11), the bearer of the king's betel-bag (cf. 
Odiya Vdguli, etc.); also explained as 'a courtier'. 

hdga (IE 8-8, El 5), Kannada; same as pdga, or Sanskrit 
bhdga; name of a coin. 

Hairanyaka(LL], Hairanyika; a treasurer; also a goldsmith 
or mint-master. Cf. Hiranyakdra, Sauvarnika. 

hala (IE 8-6), literally 'a plough'; a free-holding (cf. 
bhiksu-hala] ; an area of land, which was not exactly the 
same in different ages and localities(EI 7,24,29,30,31; CII 4). 

(I A 18), a land measure equal to one-fourth of a sir a 
(cf. halavdhd) ; half of a kula; one plough-measure. 

(El 3), probably, 'arable land'; cf. sltd. 

hdla (El 19), a land measure; same as hala. 

haladagdnga (IA 19), explained as 'the portion having 
(go) water (da) and arable land (hala}'', meaning doubtful; 
probably the name of a locality. 

hala-danda (El 33), tax on ploughs. 

hala-kalita, 'cultivated [land]' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 
297, text line 25). 

Hdlakiya (LL), a ploughman. 

halavdhd (IA 18), a land measure; cf. hala. 

hali (El 24), a land measure: same as hala. 

Hdlika (LL), a ploughman (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 274 
and note). 

Hdlikd (El 15), feminine fortn of Hdlika, 'an agriculturist 
or ploughman'. 

halikd-kara, cf. halirdkara. 

halirdkara (CII 3), a fiscal term of uncertain implica- 
tion; probably a mistake for halikd-kara, 'plough-tax'. 

Hammlra (El 21, 33,34), derived from Arabic Amir, 
often adopted by Hindu princes as a personal name; 
sometimes written as Hambira and Ahamvira (El 34 ). 
Cf. Suratrdna. 

Harhsa (El 15), an ascetic; cf. Paramahamsa. 

harhsapada, same as suvarna ( q.v. ) ; same as kdkapada 
( q-v. ). 

1 26 hamyamana hasta 

hamyamana (El 32,35), same as hanjamana\ regarded by 

some as derived from Persian anjuman\ cf. hamyamana-paura, 

explained as 'the assembly of the Parsees'. But see anjuvannam. 

hana (IE 8-8; El 8), Kannada; same as Sanskrit pana\ 

name of a coin. 

Handikdpati (El 5), epithet of a Brahmara donee; mean- 
ing uncertain. Handikd means 'an earthern pot [for cookingV, 
and the expression may mean 'the head of a joint family (i.e 
one responsible for feeding the family)'. 

hanjamana, hanjamana ( El 25, 32 ), regarded by some 
as 'a Parsee colony', same as Persian anjumdn (cf. hamyamana), 
though really it is the same as Tamil anjuvannam= Sanskrit 

hara (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

hdraka, cf. 'one hdraka of barley corn' (cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XI, p. 30, text line 2); possibly bhdraka ) a load or measure. 

hara-nayana (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

harani, cf. Hastavapra-haranl (El 17), a district; probably 
a mistake for dharam. 

haribdhu (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

haricandana (GITD), a sort of yellow sandal- wood; one 
of the five trees of svarga ; a title of nobility in medieval Orissa 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 4); cf. Sricandana. 

hciri-dina (SITI), 'the day of Hari'; Saturday; the ekddasi 

hdrita (CII 1), 'caused to be imported'. 

haritaka, cf. a-harltaka-sdka-puspa-grahana (IE 8-5); myro- 
balan [which the villagers were obliged to supply to the king 
or landlord on occasions or to the touring officers]. 

Hariti-putra (IE 8-2), originally a metronymic (cf. Gautaml- 
putra), but later sometimes adopted by members of a royal 
family like a dynastic usage. 

harmikd (El 28), a pavilion. 

harmya (LL), a temple or pavilion. 

hasantikd (IA 15), a brazier or portable heater; also 
called kangdr in Kashmiri. 

hasta (IE 8-6), a cubit (24 arigulas); sometimes regarded 
as 36 angulas (27 inches), 20f inches, 34 inches, etc., in length; 
cf. Sivacandra-hasta, 'the cubit measured according to the length 
of the forearm of Sivacandra 1 (cf. ghale). 

hasta Hastyasva 127 

(El 23; SII 2), a square cubit; a land measure. 
(Ep. Ind., Vol XIV, p. 366 and note), probably the same 
as paksa, c a fortnight'. 

hasta-bham (LP), abbreviation of hastaka-bhdnddrin-, 'by 
the hand of (i.e. through) the Bhdnddriri . 
hastaka (El 31), same as hasta. 
hasta-praksepa (El 23), obstruction. 
hasti bandha (El 32), name of a tax; cf. hasti-danda. 
hasti-danda (IE 8-5; El 33), name of the tax for keep- 
ing elephants. Cf. hasti- bandha. 

hasti- danta (IE 8-5, El 1 ), 'ivory', referring to the 
right to keep elephants' tusks without surrendering them to 
the king. 

Hastikosa, official designation (cf. The Successors of the 
Sdtavdhanas, p. 110, note 2), mentioned along with Virakosa 
as an officer related to a district; probably, an officer in charge 
of elephants or the elephant corps. 
hastin (IE 7-1-2;, 'eight'. 

Hastipaka, cf. Hdthivaka (El 18), keeper of elephants. 
Hasti-sddhanika (El 30), leader of the elephant corps; cf. 
Gajasdhani, etc. 

hastisdld-karana, cf. karana (LP) ; the department of ele- 

Hasti-vaidya (El 38), the physician for elephants. 
hast-odafca, cf. hatha-pamni, etc. 

Hasty-adhyaksa (BL; El 18), keeper of elephants; officer 
in charge of the elephant corps. Cf. Hasti-sddhanika, etc. 

Hasty-droha (Sel. Ins., p. 54), elephant-rider or elephant- 
driver; cf. Hdthdroha (El 18). 

Hasty-asva-go-mahis-dj-dvik-ddhyaksa (IE 8-3 ) , officer or officers 
in charge of elephants, etc.; Nank-ddhyaksa, Bal-ddhyaksa ) etc., 
are often mentioned separately in the same context. 

Hasty-asva-jana-vydprta, Hasty- asva-jana-vydprtaka (El 33), 
leader or leaders of the elephant corps, cavalry and infantry. 
Cf. Hasty-asv-ostra-bala-vydprta, Kari-turagapattasdhani, etc. 

Hasty-asv-ostra-bala-vydprta (El 33 ), Hasty-asv-ostra- 
bala-vydprtaka ( El 23, HD ), military officer or officers in 
charge of the elephant, horse and camel corps. 

Hasty-asv-ostra-go-mahis-dj-dvik-ddhyaksa ( IE 8-3 ), cf. 
Kisorava davd-go-mahis-dj-dvik-ddhyaksa . 

1 28 Has tyasva hema 

Hasty-asv-ostra-nau-bala-vydprtaka (IE 8-3; El 24, 29; 
HD), military officer or officers in charge of the elephant force, 
cavalry, camel corps and navy. See Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., 
p. 166; Ep. Ind. Vol. XVII, p. 321. Cf. Hasty-asv-ostra-go- 
mahis-dj-dvik-ddhyaksa. It has to be noted that these two are 
never mentioned together while, on the other hand, one is used 
in place of the other. See Naubala-hasty-asva-go-mahis-djdvik-ddi- 
vydprtaka, etc. 

hatha-pamni, hatha-pdni, hatha-pdnl ( Chamba ), libation 
of water; from Sanskrit hasta-pdriiya. See hast-odaka. 

hatta (El 1, 30, LP), a market or market-place. 

hatta-ddna (El 3), name of a tax; tolls collected at the 
market place. Cf. attapati-bhdga. 

hatta-mdrga (El 19), the main bazar. 

hatta-rathyd (El 30), passage between rows of stalls in the 

hatta-vyavaharamdna (LP), probably, 'current in the mar- 
ket (hat fa) 9 . 

hattikd (LP), a market. 

(El 4) probably 'market- dues', mentioned along with 
talapdtaka or talaudtaka. 

havana (SII 3), a burnt oblation. 

havir-bali (SITI), same as sri-bali; bali offered with cooked 
food; same as Tamil ti-yerisoru; tax payable for meeting the 
expenses of the same in a temple. 

Hayapati (El 1, 24, 29; BL; CII 4), same as Asvapati; 
'the lord of horses'; keeper of horses or a leader of 

he (IE 8-1), abbreviation of hemanta (q. v.). 

he da, cf. heddu, hedavdld (LP), a man who wanders along 
with a herd of cattle (he da) for selling them. 

heddvika (El 12), also called heddvuka-, a horse-dealer. 
See he da. 

Heggade (IE 8-3; El 28; ASLV) Kannada; official desig- 
nation indicating a chief, superintendent or director; same as 
Vergade, Pergade, Adhyaksa, etc. 

hejjunka (El 21), Kannada; name of a tax; also called 
perjunka; Sanskrit mahdsulka or brhac-chulka. 

hema (IE 8-1), abbreviation of hemanta. See also hema- 

hemadhdnyaka -hiranya 129 

hemadhdnyaka, same as mdsa (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 45); 
sometimes hema or dhdnaka is used in the same sense (ibid., 
p. 44). 

hema-garbha (El 12, 16; SII 3), name of a mahdddna; 
same as hiranya-garbha. 

hem-dsva (El 16), name of a mahdddna. 

hemdsva-ratha (El 12), name of a mahdddna. 

hema-tanka, 'a gold tewfa (q.v.) J . See JJV.S7, Vol. 
XXII, p. 197. 

hemidrachma (IE 8-8), name of a Greek coin. 

Heri-Ldla-Kannada-sandhivigrahin (IE 8-3), same as Sanskrit 
Mahd-Ldta-Karndta-sandhivigrahin', the same officer is some- 
times also called Mahdpradhdna, Antahpur-ddhyaksa, Mane-vergaJe, 
etc., additionally. Cf. Sandhivigrahin. 

H8ri-Ldla-sandhivigrahin (IE 8-3), 'the great Sandhivigrahin 
of Lata'; cf. Sandhivigrahin. 

Heri-Ldta-Karndta-sandhivigrahin (IE 8-3), 'the great 
Sandhivigrahin of Lata and Karnata'; cf. Sandhivigrahin. 

Heri-sandhivigrahin (IE 8-3), Kannada-Sanskrit; same 
as Mahdsandhivigrahin. 

hevaka (IA 18), love or desire; same as Arabic hawwa. 

hi (IE 8-1), abbreviation of hiranya, 'cash' or 'revenue 
income in cash'. Cf. sdrh-hi. 

hln-dksara (LP), 'with some words wanting'. 

hlnavddin (LP), the defeated party. 

Hindipaka (LP), explained as 'a touring revenue officer'. 

hlndoll (LP), a swing. 

Hindurdja-suratrdna (IE 8-2), title assumed by some of the 
Vijayanagara kings, adopted from the Muslim royal title 
Sultan. See Suratrdna, Hindurdya-suratrdna. 

Hindurdya-suratrdna (Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 363), title of the 
Vijayanagara kings, Suratrdna being the same as Arabic Sultan. 
See Hindurdja-suratrdna. 

hlni (CII 1), same as Sanskrit hdni\ loss or diminution. 

hiranya (IE 8-5; El 12,28,29), same as hirany-dya, hiranya- 
deya\ tax payable to the king in cash; dues payable in coins ; 
cash; sometimes abbreviated as hi as in sdrh-hi=sdrhvatsarika- 
hiranya, annual revenue income in cash; cf. a-hiranya-dhdnya- 
pranaya-pradeya (IE 8-5); it may be in addition to the tax in 
grain or in lieu of the latter, i Cf. Tamil kds-dya t etc. 

130 hiranyagarbha idara 

(HRS), king's share of certain crops paid in cash. 
(CII 1), probably, 'money'. 

hiranyagarbha (El 16; IA 10; SII 3), name of a mahdddna. 

Hiranyakdra (LL), a treasurer; also a goldsmith or mint- 
master. Cf. Hairanyika. 

Hiranyasdmuddyika (IE 8-3), a collector of revenue in cash; 
sometimes mentioned along with the Audrangika or the collector 
of the udranga tax probably levied in grains. 

hiranydsva (El 24), name of a mahdddna. 

hiranydsvaratha (El 12), name of a mahdddna', same as 

hirany-dya (El 7), tax in cash; cf. hiranya-deya, kds-dya. 

Hiriya-bhdnddgdrin (IE 8-3), Kannada-Sanskrit; same as 
Mahdbhdn ddgdrin . 

hiranya-deya (El 17), tax in cash; cf. hirany-dya, kds-dya. 

hobali, also spelt hobli (IE 8-4; ASLV), Kannada; a 
small territorial unit like a Pargana. 

hobli, cf. hobali. 

holt (El 3, 5), the spring festival. 

homa (BL; SII 3), an oblation; name of a ceremony. 

hon, same as hurt. 

hora, horaka (El 9 ) , probably, a foreign word meaning { a lady' " 

Horamurta (CII 2-1), a foreign word explained as 
'donation-master [of someone else]'; cf. Ddnapati. 

hotr (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

hrada (LL), a tank. 

hrasita (IE 8-3), cf. svayarh hrasite karne\ partly cut off. 

Hrtapragrdh-dmdtya (El 31), officer in charge of the re- 
covery of stolen property. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 29. 

huhukdnta (IA 18), the moon. 

hun (IE 8-8), same as vardha\ name of a gold coin of 
about 50 grains, called pagoda or 'star pagoda' in English. 

hundikd (LP), a bill of exchange (Rajatarangini, V. 266). 

hutdsaw (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 


ibha (El 25), 'eight'. 

Ibhya (CII 1), same as Rdjanya or Ksatriya. 
idafiga\i (El 28), Tamil; a measure of capacity. 
idara-vdm, Idige-vddu (CITD), Telugu; a toddy-inan 
or arrack-drawer;- from Ida, f a date tree'. 

ilajagatl 131 

ild (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

Ilam (SII 1), Tamil name of Ceylon. 

I\aiya-ndyanar (SITI), the same as the god Subrahmanya. 

ila-kkasu, also called i\a-kkarun-kdsu and karun-kaiu 
(SITI); the Ceylonese coin. 

Immadi (IE 8-2), Kannada; literally, 'double' or 'twice'; 
prefixed to the names of certain kings in order to distinguish 
them from their predecessors bearing the same name; cf. 
Nurmadi, Mummudi. 

Mm (IE 7-1-2), 'fourteen'. 

(El 7), a Jain priest. 

indracchanda (SII 2), name of a jewel. 

indra-danda (CII 4), a pole raised in honour of Indra; 
also called iridra-dhvaja, sakra-dhvaja, etc. 

indra-drsti (IE 7-1-2), 'one thousand'. 

iindr-dsana (IA 23), hemp. 

indriya (IE 7-1-2; El 5), five in number; 'five'. 

indu (IE 7-12), 'one'. 

Isa (El 23), the god Siva; the king. 
(IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

isa-drs (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

istdpurtta (El 4; SII 3), a charitable deed; performance 
of charitable deeds. 

isti, used in the sense of visti; cf. sarv-esti-parihdra-parihrta. 

isu (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

isvara (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'; name-ending of iva-lirigas. 

isvar-alaya (SII 11-1), a temple; a Siva temple. 

itihasa (El 13), legendary lore. 


jadidksetra (IA 16), explained as 'a kind of land', but 
may be 'land of a person named Jadia'. 

jagat (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

jagati, jagatl (El 11), explained variously as 'ground'; 
(El 3), 'lower ground or compound'; (El 1), 'a kind of build- 
ing'; also as 'railed parapet' (R. Narsimhachar, The Kesava 
Temple at Somandthapura, p. 2). Cf. devagrha-jagatl (IA 14); 
also jagati-ppadai (SII 2), the upper tier of the basement. 
See jagati below. 

jagati (HA), same as bhamati; the corridor of .a shrine 

1 3 2 jagat'ipwajamalikdm ball 

on the four sides of its open court, used for circumambulation 
of the main shrine. 

(IE 7 -l-2), 'twelve'; sometimes also 'fortyeight' ; rarely 
used in the sense of 'the earth' to indicate 'one'. 

jagatlpura (El 3), supposed to be the same as brahma- 
purl or Kannada jagati-katte which is 'the raised square seat 
around a tree before a village'. 

jdglr ( El 33; BL ), Persian; a fief; a tenure under 
Muhammadan rule, in which the public revenues of a given 
tract of land were made over, either conditionally or uncondi- 
tionally, to persons like a servant of the State together with 
the powers required to enable them to collect and appropriate 
such revenues and administer the general government of the 
tract. Cf. Wilson's Glossary. See Jdglrddr. 

Jdglrddr (El 33), Persian; a fief-holder. Cf. jdglr. 

jdgr (CII 1), cf. \_yuyarii\ jdgrta sampratipddayitum, 'you 
would succeed in accomplishing [your duty]'. 

jdhnavi-vaktra (IE 7-1-2), 'one thousand'. 

jala, cf. sa-jala-sthala (IE 8-5); the waters [in a village]. 
(IE 7-1-2), used in the sense of jaladhi to indicate 'four'. 

jdla (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 309), cf. Sanskrit jdlaka, 
'a bunch of buds'; a load. 

jaladhi (IE 7-1-2), 'four'; see sdgara. 

jala-durga (ASLV), a fort surrounded by water. 

jalajakaranda (CITD), probably, some sort of drum which 
was either made of conch or shell or was shaped like a lotus. 

jala-kara (IE 8-5; El 4 ), 'water-tax' paid for fishing 
rights, etc., in tanks, lakes and rivers; sometimes wrongly read 
as jdta-kara (Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 157, note 1). 

jala-karana, cf. karana (LP); explained as 'navy'. 

jala-krldd (ASLV), water sports. 

jalanidhi (IE 7-1-2), 'four'; see sdgara. 

jala-pavitra (SII 3), a ceremony. 

jdi-asaya (IE 7-1-2), 'four'; see sdgara. 

jala-yantra (SII 2, 3), a water-lever. 

jala-ydtrd (IA 13), Jain; the festival of bathing a Tirthan- 
kara on the occasion of the consecration of an image or of the 
erection of a dhvaja-stambha or of the prevalence of a plague. 

jail (El 5), a trellis window. 

jAmaHkSrnbali (IA 18), also spelt yamalikdmtali fa. v.}. 

jamdtkajataka 133 

jamdtha (IA 11), Indianised form of Arabic jama' at; the 
congregation of a community. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 
p. 144. 

jambu-dmpa, jambu-dvipa (CII 1), used in the sense of 
'the earth' or the dominions of the Maurya emperor Asoka; 
cf. prthivl. 

jana (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

janapada, jdnapada (IE 8-3; El 23, 33), people of the 
countryside; regarded by some as an official designation (El 
26), and by others as a corporate body (El 21). 

Jana-pradhdnin (SITI), probably, a minister governing 
a district. 

Janendra (CII 3; I A 15), wrongly interpreted as 'the 
lord of a people or tribe, a tribal ruler'; really, the same as 
Nanndra, 'a king'. 

jdngala (I A 18), cf. s-dnupa-jdngala, an epithet of the gift 
land; either 'arid' or 'covered with jungle'. 

jatigama, cf. sa-sthdvara jangama (IE 8-5); the movcable 
belongings of a village. 

(SITI), a priest of the Lirigayat or Virasaiva sect. 
janghd (HRS), forced service as messenger, as indicated by 
the Jatakas; also same as Janghdkarika. 

Janghdkarika (HRS), 'one who pays the royal dues by 
means of his legs' ; 'one who is liable to compulsory service as a 
messenger', according to the Amarakosa. Same as Janghd (q.v.). 
janghdla, an embankment (JAS 3 Letters, Vol. XX, p. 204). 
Jdnghika (HRS), same as Janghd or Janghdkarika. 
Jam (El 22), a corruption of Tdjnika. 
janma (IA 17), 'kind to people'. 

janitha (El 13), cf. sudhd-janitha-nihsyandad-vapuh, 'its 
body welling forth from nectarous sources'. 

janma-bhumi, called janma-kkdni in Tamil (SITI), gift 
of land, probably made for the lifetime of a person. 

janma-patra (El 1), a document recording the birth of 
a child prepared by an astrologer on payment. 
jam (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 
jdta (El 2; CII 1), a living being. 

jdtaka (LL), Buddhist; birth-story [of one who is to be 
a Buddha in a future life] ; story of a previous birth of Gautama 

1 34 jatakajayd 

jdtaka-kkudi (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; persons who have 
undertaken to serve for their lifetime in a temple, etc. 

jdta-kara (IA 15), explained as 'a tax on things grown 5 ; 
a mistake for or misreading of jala-kara (q.v.). 

jata-karman (El 4), a ceremony performed at the birth of 
a child. 

jdti (IE 7-1-2), 'twentytwo'. 

jdti-siddh-dya (SITI), communal tax payable in coin; 
cf. inavari or inavari-kkdsu of Tamil inscriptions. 

Jatila (LL), an ascetic. 

jdti-smarana-jndna (HA), knowledge of previous births. 

jdtiya, cf. jndtiya. 

jatuka (El 2), a bat. 

jauhar (IA 29), javhar (IA 6), Rajasthani; funeral pile; 
commitment of suicide en masse', same as sdkd or sdkd. 

jayd (I A 23), hemp. 
(El 12), name of a tithi. 

Jayadhara ( IE8-2 ) , royal title ; translated from Greek Nikephoros, 

jaya-ghantd (El 15; I A 12), a gong. 

jdydmya (IA 19), a kind of charm. 

Jayanapati (El 13), probably, an officer in charge of 
armour or the armoury. Cf. jayanasdld-karana. 

jayanasdld-karana, cf. karana (LP), explained as 'the armour 
department'. Cf. Jayanapati. 

jayantapura (El 4), probably, the same as brahmapun. 

jayanti (El 9, IA 26), the twelfth tithi; the 12th tithi of 
a lunar month joined with the Punarvasu naksatra. 

jayantl-vrata (IA 6), a festival in which mandapanirmdna- 
jdgarana-pratimdddn-ddi (erection of a shed, watching through 
the night, distribution of images, etc.) take place. 

Jayapdla (SITI), a class of merchants. 

Jdydpara (LL), probably, a householder. 

jqya-patra, jayarekha-patra (SITI), a certificate of victory 
in a dispute; a copy of the judgement. See jayarekha-patrikd. 
(El 5), a cetificate of success. 

jayarekha-patrikd (ASLV), a certificate of victory. See 
jayapatra, jqyarekha-patra. 

jaya-skandhdvdra (El 30, 33; CII 3; BL) 'camp of victory' ; 
the royal camp or capital ; epithet of royal camps or residences ; 
same as skandhdvdra. 

jayajirna 135 

jaya-stambha (El 23, 30, 33; CII 4; SIX 1, 11-1), a pillar 
of victory; cf. dharma- jaya-stambha (IA 19). 

jayika (IE 8-8), the party that comes off victorious in a 

jemaka (IE 8-5; El 25, 28), meals or food which the 
villagers were obliged to provide to the royal officers on tour; 
the obligation of the villagers to provide food to such officers ; 
wrongly explained by some as 'a tax for the boarding of touring 
royal officers' (CII 4). Cf. Marathi jevd, 'a feed, a meal; sub- 
sistence which the villagers were bound to provide for the 
subordinate servants or Peons when sent to receive the collec- 
tions' (Wilson's Glossary, s.v.). 

jena (CITD), Telugu; a span (about 7 inches). 
Jena (Ep. 2nd., Vol. XXVIII, p. 304), Odiya; 'a prince'; 
a title of nobility; later stereotyped as a family name in Orissa. 
jhampin (El 12 j, 'excelling'. 

jhdta (Ep. Ind.j Vol. V, p. 183), a shrub, wood or thicket; 
Bengali jhdd; a bush; used in sa-jhdta-vitapa (El 27). 
jhdta-vitapa (El 8-5), bushes and shrubs. 
jilt), jiloj jilo (Chamba), a land measure. Cf. atu. 
Jim, same as Tlrthankara. 
(IE 7-1-2), 'twentyfour'. 
(LL), an epithet of the Buddha. 
jina-bhavana (El 24), a Jain temple. 
Jina-kalpin (HA), a Jain monk practising rigorous 
austerities like those practised by the Jinas before their attain- 
ment of kevala-jndna. 

Jina-mdtr (HA), the mother of a Jina. 
jina-nagara, cf. Tamil sinakaram (SITI), a Jaina temple. 
jina-nigama (El 24), a township in the possession of a 
Jain temple or, more probably, a Jain temple (cf. jina- 
nagara ) . 

Jina-yugma (HA), an image showing two Tirthankaras; 
a pair of Jina images. 

jlrna-sresthi-snmalla-priya (LP), name of a coin struck by 
the old Srqthin named Srimalla. Cf. sresthijlrna-visvamalla- 

jlrna-visvamalla-priya (LP), literally, 'the favourite (coin) 
of old Visvamalla'; name of a coin. Cf. jlrna-sresthi-srmalla- 
priya and sresthi-jirna-visvamalla-priya', also cf. vlsalapriya-dramma. 

136 jirnajoti 

jlrn-oddhdra (El 23, 26; HA), repairs or renovation and 

jita, jita (El 28, 29), income or wages; revenue income; 
derived from Sanskrit jiuita in the same sense. 

jital (SII 1), a copper coin; Indianised as jithala\ ^th 
of a silver to nka of the Delhi Sultans (JJVS7, Vol. XVI, p. 44); 
sometimes regarded as a copper coin equal to \ of a silver 
tar which was itself equal to \ of a gold fanam (SH, Vol. I, 
p. 161); also called dehllwdl (Mum. SupL, No. 38, p. 33). 

jitarh bhagavatd, also quoted asjitam Visnund (CTI 3, etc.); 
'victory has been achieved by the Divine One, i. e. Visnu 5 ; 
an invocation used at the commencement of certain ins- 

jithala, same as jital. See JJV67, Vol. XXII, p. 197. 

jwa-loka (El 3), a village institution of uncertain mean- 

jivana (SITI), maintenance; cf. jivana-sisa. See also 
bhrtyebhyo jlvanam karturh (Ep. Lid., Vol. XXXV, pp. 109-10). 

jivana-sesa (SITI), maintenance. Gf. jivana. 

Jiva-putrd, Prakrit Jiva-putd (El 24), a lady whose son is 
(or, sons are) still living. 

jivita (El 28; SII 13; ASLV; SITI), maintenance; in- 
come or wages; also called jivita-pparru, jita and jita. 

Jivita-kkdrar (SITI), persons in enjoyment of lands in the 
jivita (maintenance) tenure; a class of officials enjoying jivita. 

Jiyar (El 25; SITI), an ascetic (sannyasin) looking after 
the affairs of a te'mple; same as Math-ddhipati. 

jndna-diksd (El 32), a kind of initiation. 

jndpaka (SITI; ASLV), remembrancer; memorandum 
of events and happenings. 

jndtiya (Ep. 2nd. , Vol. VIII, pp. 208, 229) , used in the sense 
of jdtiya', e.g. Prdgvdta-jndtiya=Prdgvdta-jdtiya (i.e. 'belonging 
to the Pragvata community). 

Jo (El 30), an abbreviation of Josi, same as fyotisin, an 
astrologer or astronomer. 

joda (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 19), used in some East 
Indian records in the sense of 'a canal'. Cf. joti, jolaka. 

jolaka (El 4), a canal; same as Bengali jold; cf. joda. 

Josi (El 30), modification of Sanskrit Jyotisin. 

joti, same as jotikd (El 28), a stream. 

jo tM kadi 137 

jotikd (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 253, text line 37), a canal; 
same as jo da and jotl or jodi. 

jiihaka (El 3), a village institution of uncertain meaning. 

jvalana (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

Jyesth-adhikaranika (El 18, 31), explained as 'the chief 
judge 5 ; senior officer, chief officer of a class, or officer in charge. 

Jyestha-devara (LP), elder brother of the husband. 

Jyestha-kdyastha (IE 8-3; El 4, 24), the chief scribe, or the 
foreman of the Kayastha class, or the scribe-member of the 
board of administration; explained as 'the senior registrar' 
(El 31). Cf. Prathama-kdyastha, Patvdrl. 

Jyestha-pitd, elder brother of one's father. 

jyesthikd-grdma (CII 4), 'the chief village'. 

jyoti-skandha (CII 1), masses of light; cf. agni-skandha. 

jyotistoma (El 4), name of a sacrifice. 


ka (IE 8-1), for kd (in Kharosthi), abbreviation of kdla. 

kd (PJS), abbreviation of kdrita and kdritd (especially in 
medieval Jain inscriptions); also of Kayastha \ also of kdnda, 
'a cluster' (JAS, Letters, Vol. XX, p. 204). 

kacakadd (LP), Gujarat!; tortoise-shell. 

kaccha (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 177), a field bordering on a 
stream; land near a well (Ep.Ind., Vol XXXIV, p. 175, line 15). 

(El 22), a resolution. 

kacchaka (El 19), a low hill. 

(I A 18), wrongly read also as kasthaka; cf. khalaka- 
kacchaka-bhuml-sahitd as an epithet of the gift land; probably, 
'land around a well'. See kuparh khalakarh kacchakarh (Ind. Ant., 
Vol. XVIII, p. 114, text line 55, cf. line 43); also kupa-kaccha 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 175, text line 15). 

kacchapa, cf. sa-matsya-kacchapa (IE 8-5); tortoise; see jala- 

kadd (IE 8-6; El 19), Bengali; the cowrie-shell regarded 
as a coin; a small area of land; one-fourth of a gandd and one- 
eightieth of a pana* 

kadaru (CII 4), same as krdara; a granary. 

kaddhaka (IE 8-8; El 30), probably the same as Sanskrit 
karsaka; see dhenku-kaddhaka. 

kadi (El 28), a grain measure. 

138 Kaditakdla 

Kadit-dmdtya (El 23), Kannada-Sanskrit; official desig- 
nation; same as Kadita-vergade (q.v.). 

Kadita-vergade (IE 8-3), Kannada; superintendent of 
accounts and records; same as Aksapatalika; sometimes also 
called Mahdpradhdna, Herisandhivigrahin, Senddhipati, etc., addi- 
tionally. See Kadit-dmdtya. 

Kadlya (LP), a bricklayer or mason; cf. Gujarat! Kadlyd. 
kdhala, kdhald (El 24; I A 15), a musical instrument; 
a trumpet. See kdkala. 

kdhana, kdhdna (IE 8-8; El 29), Bengali-Odiya; modified 
forms of kdrsdpana. 

kai (IE 8-6), Dravidian; same as hasta, { cubit'; a unit 
of measurement. 

Kaisara (El 26), title of a Kusana king; derived from 
Roman Caesar. 

kaitdla (IA 12), a Castanet. 
kaivarta-bhoga (IE 8-5), fishermens' preserve. 
kdka (IE 8-6), same as kdkirii. 
(El 14), name of a land measure. 
kdka-bindu (SII 2), name of a flaw in diamonds. 
(SITI), a black dot. 

kdkala (IA 12), a trumpet. See kdhala, kdhald. 
kakali (IE 3-4), paper; same as kakari. 
kdkam, kdkanikd (El 15), same as kdkini. 
kdkapada, kdkapdda (SII 2), name of a flaw in diamonds; 
a mark indicating omission of letters written outside the line. 
kakari (IE 3-4), paper; same as kakali. 
kdka-vrnta (SII 2), a variety of diamond. 
kdkirii (IE 8-6), also called kdka. 
(IJL 8-6), a small land measure; cf. kdnl. 
(IE 8-8; El 1 ; CII 4), name of a small coin; equal to 20 
cowrie-shells according to the Llldvatl\ J of a pana according 
to the Krtyakalpataru (Vyavahara-kanda, ed. K. V. Ranga- 
swami Aiyangar, p. 125). 

kakubha (IE 7-1-2), 'ten'. 
kald (IE 7-1-2), 'sixteen'. 
kala (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

(CII 3, etc.), time, a period of time; used in the sense of 
'an era'; cf. kdl-dnuvartamdna-sarhvatsara (Select Inscriptions, p. 
270, text lines 3-4), etc. See prakdla. 

kalabhasdld-kdli 139 

kalabhasdld-karana, cf. karana (LP) ; explained as 'the camel 

kdla-cakra, a mechanical weapon placed at the gate of 
forts according to the Vasudevahindl (Journ. Or. Inst., Vol. X, No. 
1, p. 15). See sataghnl. 

kdl-dksarita (LP), probably, 'a word of censure passed'. 

kalam (El 28), a grain measure. 

kalamba (El 12), an arrow; 'five'. 

kalana, a betelnut plantation (JAS, Letters, Vol. XX, 
p. 205). 

kalanju (IE 8-8; El 28, 30; SITI), Tamil; name of a 
gold coin; also of the equivalent weight; about 32 ratis (JNSI, 
Vol. XV, p. 141). 

Cf. ur-ka\anju (El 28), name of a coin. 

(SH 13), same as suvarna. 

kaldpacchanda (SI I 2), name of an ornament. 

kalasa (GITD), a vase, flagon or water-pot; an orna- 
mental piece of painted wood, stone, brass, etc., fixed on the 
spires of temples, carts, etc. ; a rounded pinnacle or ball on the 
top of a temple; a dome. 

(El 5), the pinnacle of a temple; same as kumbha. 

(El 11, 33), a measure; cf. drona. 

(SH 3), a pot. 

(733), also called kalasikd; probably, the same as drona:, 
a measure of capacity. 

kdla-sandhi (SI I 1), same as trikdla. 

kalasi (LP), a measure of capacity equal to sixteen maunds; 
. cf. kalasikd, kalasikdvdpa. 

kalasikd (El 33), same as kalasi or kalasa', probably the 
same as drona ; cf. kalasikdvdpa. 

kalasikdvdpa (El 33), a land measure; originally, a plot 
of land on which one kalasi measure of seed could be sown; 
cf. dronavdpa. 

kalatra (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

Kalavdda, Kalavddd, Kdlavdda, Kdlavddd (El 24), 
same as Kdlavdla, Kdlavdld. 

Kdlavdla, Kdlavdld (El 24), designation of uncertain 
meaning if it is not the same as Sanskrit Kalyapdla, a vintner. 

kdli-ganattdr (SITI), Tamil; a committee for the temple 
of Kali (Kali). 

140 kalikd kalydnika 

kalikd (LP), quarrel; cf. Gujarat! kali, 
kalikdvalika (LP), a quarrel; cf. kalikd. 
kalinga-vdriyam (SITI), Tamil; committee looking after 
the sluice; derived from kalingu, 'a sluice'. 

kdl-maruturu (CITD), Telugu; an unknown measure of 
land. Cf. maruturu, gha da-mar uturu, etc. 

kal-nddu (SITI), Tamil; a hero-stone; setting up of a 

kalpa (CII 1), same as samvarta-kalpa, the aeon of des- 

(CII 3, etc.), name of a fabulous tree in Indra's paradise, 
supposed to grant all desires. 

kalpddi (El 5; I A 18), name applied to certain tithis. 
Kalpdla (El 30), also called Kalvapdla, Kalyapdla, Kalyd- 
pdla', a distiller of liquor. 

kdlu (IE 8-6), Kannada; 'one foot'; a unit of measure- 

Kalvapdla (El 30), same as Kalpdla, etc.; a vintner. 
Kalvapdla-vdrika (IE 8-8), official designation indica- 
ting a spirit-distiller. 

kalydna (Gil 1), a good deed which is beneficial to the 
people; a ceremony to bring health and prosperity to a person 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 147); cf. mangala in the satme 

(El 19), a festival (especially, marriage); cf. kalydna- 

kalydn-dgama (CII 1), 'having pure knowledge'. 
kalydna-dhana (HRS), tax levied for the expenses of festi- 
vals or for the performance of rites to avert evil. Cf. prathama- 
kalydna (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 147). 

kalydnaka (HA), a chief auspicious event in the life of a 
Tirthankara, there being five such events, viz. cyavana or des- 
cent from heaven, janma or birth, d'iksd or initiation as monk, 
jndna or attainment of kevala-jndna, and moksa or nirvana, i.e. 
death which means freedom from the last bondage in the life 
of a Jina. See kalydnikd. 

Kalydnasundara, Siva represented as marrying Uma 

kalydm (El 8), a square pond. 
kalydnikd (El 8), a festival. 

Kalyapdla Kampana 1 41 

(El 11), certain auspicious days with the Jains. Cf. 


Kalyapdla, Kalyapdla (El 30), same as Kalpdla, etc.; a 

Kalya-sresthin (IA 18), a dealer in liquors, Kalya being 
an abbreviation of Kalyapdla, or a word meaning 'distillery'. 

kdrrta (IE 7-1-2), 'thirteen'. 

kdma-dhenu (El 16), name of a mahdddna. 

kdma-kostha, cf. kdma-kkottam (SITI), a shrine of the goddess 
Parvati as an adjunct of the iva temple in the same co'mpound. 

kamala-pujd (BL), probably, worship of a deity with 
lotuses or flowers of gold or silver. 

kdmali (El 24), often written as kambalin, which 
means 'a bull'; a levy probably on prize bullocks (cf. 
vara-balwarda] . Cf. yamali-kambali. 

kdmata (El 21; CII 4), name of a tax. 

kdm-dvacara (IA 10), Buddhist; belonging to the domain 
of sensual pleasure. 

kamba, kambha (IE 8-6), Kannada; name of a land 
measure; see kamma and stambha. 

kambala (IA 23), an agricultural ceremony. 

kambalin (El 24), 'a bull'; a levy probably on prize 
bullocks (cf. vara-balwarda] ; see kdmali and yamali-kambali. 

kamddsaghuta (El 1), meaning doubtful. 

Kdmgdr (BL), an official designation meaning a servant, 
a manager, a public officer; a person employed on public works. 
Cf. Wilson's Glossary. 

kamma (IE 8-6; El 12, 19), Kannada; same as stambha= 
skambha; a land measure equal to one-hundredth of a mattaru 
or nivartana. 

kammdlar (SITI), Tamil; the five artisan classes; also 
called anju pancdlattdr. 

kampala (ASLV), same as kampana; name of an adminis- 
trative division. 

kampana, kampand (IE 8-3), the army [in ancient 
Kashmir] ; cf. Kampanapati, etc. 

kampana (IE 8-4), a small territorial unit like a Pargana. 
Kampan-ddhipati (HD), commander-in-chief [in ancient 
Kashmir]; same as Kampanapati, etc. See Rdjatararigim, V. 447; 
VII. 1362, 1366. 

1 42 Kampanapati kandala 

Kampanapati (IE 8-3), same as Kampan-ddhipati, etc.; 
commander-in-chief [in ancient Kashmir]. 

Kampanapati (HD), same as Kampan-ddhipati, etc. 
Kampanesa (HD), same as Kampan-ddhipati, etc. 
Kampan-odgrdhaka (HD), probably, collector of levies 
for the army. Cf. Rdjatarangim, VIII. 1430. 

Kamsakdra (El 1, 19, 23), also called Kamsdra, Kdmsdra; 
same as Kdmsyakdra, 'a brazier'. 

Kamsdra, Kdmsdra (El 23), same as Kdmsyakdra. See 

Kdmsdraka (BL), a worker in bell metal; a brazier. See 
Kamsdra, etc. 

Kdmsyakdra (El 19, 32), a worker in bell-metal; a brazier. 
See Kamsdra, etc. 

Aam (El 12), to glitter. 
kana-bhaktaka (LP), undressed provisions. 
kanaka (LP), grains. 

kanaka-key* (El 24), same as hirany-dsva; name of a mahdddna- 
kanakamani-tuldpurusa (El 16), name of a mahdddna. 
Kanakasabhdpati (El 3), 'the god worshipped in the 
Kanakasabha', i.e. Nataraja Siva in the Chidambaram temple. 
kanaka-tuldpurusa (El 16; BL), name of a mahdddna. 
kanakka-kkdni (SITI), Tamil; cf. kanakka-pperu; land 
set apart for the village accountant, Kanakka being the 
same as Sanskrit Ganaka. 

kanakka-pperu (SITI), Tamil; cf. kanakka-kkdni', tax, 
payable in grains, for the maintenance of the village 

kdnam (El 21, 28; SII 3; SITI), Tamil; name of a coin; 
a gold coin; a weight; a share. 
Kanarese, see Kannada. 

kdncana-medinl (El 24), name of a mahdddna. 
kdncana-tuld (El 23), name of a mahdddna. 
kancola (IA 15), same as kancula\ a bodice or waistcoat. 
kancula, same as kancola (IA 15), a bodice or waist-coat. 
kanda (CITI), name of a metre common in Telugu 
and Kannada. 

kanddcdra (ASLV), the military department. 
kandala (LP), controversy; beating (from Sanskrit kand, 
to strike). 

Kan dapati Kannada 1 43 

Kdndapati (IE 8-3); El 31), an official designation of 
uncertain import; probably 'the custodian of the arrows or the 

kdndapatika (El 9), probably, a quiver. 

kanddra, Prakrit; cf. utkr, 'to engrave'. See kanddnna. 

kanddrana, Kannada; carving or engraving; see Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XVI, p. 36. 

kdndisika (El 13; LP), frightened; eager to flee. 

kanduka (El 1), probably, a sugar-boiler. 

kandula (El 14), 'itching'. 

kdnl (IE 8-6), Bengali; a land measure equal to one- 
sixteenth of a Don; cf. kdkinl. 

kdni (IE 8-6; El 24, 28, 30; SII 3) Tamil; a land measure 
equal to one-eightieth of a veil. 

(SITI), Tamil; a weight. 

kdnika (IE 8-5), Tamil; also spelt kdnuka; same as 
kdnika. (ET 33), also called kdnike or kdnike-kappa in Kannada; 

kdnika (IE ?'-5), same as Kannada kdnika-kdne, kdnike- 
ka t h pa or kappa-kdnike, 'presents from an inferior to a 
superior', etc. 

kdnike, kdnike-kappa (El 33), Kannada; same as 
kdnika; tolls. 

kdnike, kdniki (GITD), Telugu-Kannada; a land measure 
of 57000 square feet; sixty-fourth part [especially of any coin] ; 
also J or 3 1 4 part; a visit; a present or gift. See 

kanikkd ( IE 8-8 ), same as Sanskrit kanikd, commin 

kanikkai (El 17), kdnikkai (El 21; SITI), a voluntary 
offering; a present offered like nazardna; presents or customary 
payments to the king and other high officials. 

Kankdni (El 25; SII 2), Tamil; overseer; cf. Mahe- 

kankata (El 9; I A 18), boundary. 

Kannada, written in English as Kanarese; language and 
alphabet of the Kannadigas, i.e. the people of Karnata (Sans- 
krit form of Kannada}. 

Kannada-sandhivigrahin (IE 8-3), 'the Sandhivigrahin of 
the Kannada (Kaniata) country'; cf. Sandhivigrahin. 

144 Kannadiga kara 

Kannadiga, see Kannada. 

kantaka, cf. catus-kantaka-visuddha (El 23), same as 
catur-dghdta-visuddha ; probably, 'the boundary demarcated by 
planting thorny shrubs'. 

kantaka-sodhand (SITI), criminal justice; cf. the Madras 
Museum plates of Jatilavarman Parantaka-pandya and the 
Arthasdstra of Kautilya. 

kanthikd (El 4, 25, 31; SII 1), a necklace; the emblem of 

kanthikd-patta-bandha (IA 11), the ceremony of anointing 
the Tuvardja with a necklace which was his sign. 

kdnuka (CITD), Telugu; an offering or courtesy made in 
homage to a superior or a god. See kdnike, etc. 

(El 33), same as kdnika, tolls. 

kanyd-ddna (SII 1), giving a daughter in marriage. 

(El 29; ASLV), a form of marriage in which bride- 
price was not demanded or paid; offering one's daughter in 
marriage without demanding bride-price. 

. kanyd-dharma (El 25), same as kanyd-ddna-dharma, the 
gift of a girl in marriage without demanding bride-price. 

kapahadi (Ghamba), field meant for growing cotton only. 
Cf. kaphddl. 

kapdla-sandhi (CII 4), a peace treaty. 

kdpdlikd (El 3), a cloud [of dust]. 

kaparda (CII 4), also called kapardi, kapardaka. etc.; 
cowrie-shell used as coin. 

kapardaka (El 1), a cowrie-shell used as coin. 

kapardaka-purdna (IE 8-8; El 14, 21), c a purdna [of silver] 
counted in cowrie-shells'. Cf. pana-purdna. 

kapardaka-vodi (El 23), a cowrie-shell used as coin. 

kapardi , kapardikd (El 9; CII 4), a cowrie-shell used as 

kaphddl (Chamba), same as kapahadl. 

kapild (BL), a kind of cow. 

Kapila-sasthl (El 25), cf. Kapila-catti (El 5), name of a 

kappa (El 33), Kannada; same as Sanskrit sulka or- kara. 

(SITI), Tamil-Telugu-Kannada ; periodical -and custo- 
mary payments by persons engaged in . some professions. 

kara (IE 8-5 ) . explained. by a . eorrirnentator. as -thje, dues 

karaghatikd karana 145 

(bhdga) to be realised by the king for the enjoyment of royal 
land by using it for cultivation and for grazing cattle'; tax in 

(IE 8-5) rent or tax to be paid in grains when mentioned 
side by side with hiranya. 

(HRS), tax in general, according to the lexicons; accord- 
ing to the Arthasdstra, ( 1 ) periodical tax over and above the 
king's customary grain-share; (2) emergecy tax levied upon 
the villagers over and above the normal grain-share; (3) 
tax upon merchants' profits. 

(El 29; Chamba; CITD) , a tax or impost; royal revenue; 
rent, dues; toll, tribute. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

karaghatikd (El 2), meaning uncertain. 

kara-grdma (ASLV; SITI), a revenue-paying or ryotwari 

karaiyldu (ASLV), system of periodical redistribution 
of lands. 

kdraka (IE 7-1-2), 'six'. 

Cf. Prakrit Karavaka (El 12), same as Prakrit Kardpaka\ 
superintendent of the construction of a building. 

karakaca (LP), 'talk that may annoy the hearer'; cf. 
Gujaratl kackac. 

kardkara-karana, cf. karana (LP) ; the department of revenue. 

Karana (El 4), an accountant. 

(El 28; HD), a clerk; a scribe. Gf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXII, 
p. 155. 

(El 19), same as Marathi Kulkarm. 

(SITI), a type of law-court lower in rank than an 

(IE 8-1, 8-8; El 28, 30), same as or a shortened form of 
adhikarana ; a court of law. 

(IE 8-3), an office or department. 

(CII 4), a committee. 

(LP), a department, according to the editors of the 
Lekhapaddhati, the thirty two karanas or departments being the 
following : srl-karana, vy ay a- karana, dharm-ddhikarana, mandapikd- 
karana, veldkula-karana, jala-karana, \sthala~\patha-karana, ghati- 
kdgrha-karana, tankasdld-kamna, dravya-bhdnddra-karana, arhsuka- 
bhdnddra-karana, vdrigrha-karana^ devavesma-karana, ganikd-karana, 

1 46 karana karanka 

karana, hastisdld-karana, asvasdld-karana, kalabhasdld-karana, sreni- 
karana, vydpdra-karana, tantra-karana, kosthdgdra-karana, upakrama- 
karana, kardkara-karana, sthdna-karana, deva-karana, sandhi\vigrahd\- 
karana, mahdksapdla-karana, mahdrasa-karana, jayanasdld-karana., 
sattrdgdra-karana, antahpura- [karana] and kosthikd- [karana] . 

(CH 3, 4), a document. 

Cf. Karanam (SII 1; SITI), Tamil; also spelt Karnam', 
a document; an accountant, also called Kanakkan or Karanikka. 

(I A 17), name of the half of a tithi. 

kdrana, cf. aharh kdranam karomi (LP), 'I shall prove'. 

karana-danda (SITI), fine imposed by the karana (court). 

Kdranaka (El 32), a scribe. 

karana-karman (El 30), the profession of the scribe. 

Karana-kayastha (El 7; HD; BL), official designation of a 
scribe; a writer of legal documents. Cf. Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., 
p. 133. 

(IE 8-3), mentioned as a Pdtra. 

kdrana-pujd (IA 9), translated as 'occasional worship'. 

Karanattdr (SII 12), same as Kdranavan. 

Kdranavan (SITI), Tamil; an accountant; also called 
Kdranika and Karanattdr. 

Karanika (Gil 4; BL), official designation of a scribe; the 
writer of legal documents; explained by some as 'an officer 
in charge of a State department or office' (HD) ; but really, 
a scribe. Cf. Karanika-thakkura (i.e. a Karanika who enjoyed the 
dignity of a Thakkura) in Ep. Ind., Vol. XX, p. 44; Vol. VIII, 
p. 158; and Karanika-Brdhmana (i.e. a Karanika who belonged 
to the Brahmana community) in Bhandarkar's List, No. 350. 
See Mahdkaranika. 

(El 6; ASLV), same as Karnam or Senabova\ a village 

Cf. Vdsal-karanikam (SITI), same as Vdsal-kanakkam 

Kdranika (El 31), same as Karanika. 

Karanikka-jodi (SII 2; SITI), the quit-rent of the Karanam 
or Karnam. 

Karanika-thakkura (El 33), see Karanika and Thakkura. 

Karanin (HD), same as Karanika. Cf. karani-parikara 
(Harsacarita, VII, para. 2). 

karanka (El 30), a cup made of coconut shell, used in 

Karankika karmdnta 147 

measuring liquids; a karanka measure; also the same as tdmbula- 
karanka (the king's betel-box). Cf. Karankika. 

Karankika (El 13), officer in charge of the karanka (i.e. 
tdmbula-karanka or the king's betel-box). 

Kdrdpaka (El 19; IA 19), Prakrit; same as Sanskrit 
Kdraka'., an agent. 

kara-sdsana (El 29, 33), charter recording a grant of land 
for which the donee had to pay rent; a grant for which 
revenue (either in full or at a concessional rate) was fixed; land 
granted in the said way. 

karatikd, cf. karadigai (SI I 13), a musical instrument. 

karavrnda (SITI), a variety of diamond. 

Karika (Ep. Ind., Vol XIII, p. 119, text line 8), official 
designation; probably a mistake for Tarika. 

karinl-bhramana (El 24, 25), 'taking the she-elephant 
around'; a cerdmony in fixing the boundaries; cf. pidi-sulndu 
(SITI), walking around by a female elephant to mark the 
boundary of the gift land, etc. 

karinl-paribhramana (El 15), same as karinl-bhramana. 

karisa (IA 9), name of a land measure. 

Kari-turaga-pattan-dkarasthdna-gokul-ddhikdrin (El 18, 24, 33), 
designation of an officer (or designations of several officers) 
in charge of elephants, horses, townships, mines and cowpens. 

Kari-turaga-pattasdhaai (El 5), military officer (or 
officers) in charge of the elephant force and cavalry. Sdhani is 
the same as Sddhanika (q.v.). 

Kari-turag-ostra-nau-sddhanika (El 23), military officer 
(or officers) in charge of the elephant force, cavalry, navy and 
camel corps. See Hasty-asv-ostra-bala-vydprta, etc. 

Karivdhinisa (El 30), leader of the elephant force. Cf. 
Hasty-adhyaksa, etc. 

Karivrndandtha (El 30), leader of the elephant corps, 
cf. Hasty-adhyaksa, etc. 

kdrkhdnd (HA), office of the managing body of a Jain 
shrine or of a group of Jain shrines. 

karman (IE 7-1-2), 'ten'. 

(El 3), eigfrt in kind. 

karmdnta (El 13), cf. pasukul-dvaddra-karmdnta-konakalika- 
gangd-grdme . The reference seems to the karmdnta , etc., at 
Gariga-graina., Cf. Karmdntika, Kdrmdntika, etc. 

1 48 karmantaka karp ura 

(El 31), also called karmdnta-sthalikd, a barn. 
karmantaka (El 15), cf. Khalisa-karmdntaka-prabhu-Bhatta- 
Jayasomasvdmin in the description of a donee Brahman a who was 
the master of a karmdnta at Khali sa. 

Karmdntika (I A 14; LL), 'the superintendent of a work'. 
Cf. Karmdntika. 

Karmdntika (HD), superintendent of the mines and 
state manufactories. See Arthasdstra, I. 12 (mentioned among 
the 18 tlrthas); II. 12 (section called dkara-karmdnta-pravartanam, 
'the working of mining operations and manufactories'). Cf. 

Karmdra (LL), a blacksmith. 

Karma-saciva (IE 8-3; HD), an administrative officer; 
an executive minister; cf. Mati-saciva, a counsellor or minister. 
See Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 36. 

karma-sthdna (IA 18), a public building. 

karma-sthdya (LP), building operation. 

Karmika (LL), a labourer. 

Karmin, cf. Tamil Kanmi (SITI), an official; 'an officer' 
as distinct from 'a servant'. 

karna (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

Karnam, also spelt Karanam. See Karana. 

Karnaprdvrta (SI I 2), same as Karnaprdvarana, 'a people 
whose ears are so large that they use them as a cloak'. Cf. 
Sircar,, -Stud. Geog. Am. Med. Ind., pp. 36, 67. 

karnapura (El 17), an ear-ornament. 

karna-trodanikd, see karna-trotana (El 30). 

karna-trotana (IE 8-8), cutting off a bit from some- 
body's ears. 

karpata, cf. karpata-pade (LP), supposed to be 
something like na^ardna ; literally, ' [payment] on account of 
clothes' (same as karpata-bhavena] . 

karpata-bhdva (LP), explained as Pdghdl, i.e. a present, 
bribe or indm; but cf. also asana-karpatd(ta}-bhdvena (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXVIII, p. 50 , text lines 16-17 and note 4). 

Kdrpatika (BL), probably, a hermit or mendicant; 
cf. karpati-vrata. 

(El 11), explained as 'a pilgrim'. 

karpall(ti}-vrata (El 3 1 ), observance of the life of a hermit. 
karpura-mulya, c kappur-a-vilai (SITI), the sale-price 

karsa kdrukara 149 

paid for temple lands; the price paid for cultivation rights of 
temple lands and in commutation of the taxes thereon. 

karsa (IE 8-8; CII 4), name of a weight equal to 80 
ratis ; same as tola; sometimes regarded as 100 or 120 ratis 
in weight (JNSI, Vol. II, p. 3). 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 309), a measure of capacity for 

(CII 4), name of a coin; cf. kdrsdpana. 

kdrsdpana (IE 8-8; El 29; CII 4), naine of a gold, silver 
or copper coin one karsa (80 ratis) in weight; name of a 
silver coin of 32 ratis 9 same as purdna or dharana ; name applied 
to the gold ganda-mdda also called niska or ganrfa-niska ( JNSI } 
Vol. XVI, p. 43). The weight of a copper or gold kdrsdpana 
was 80 or 100 ratis (JNSI, Vol XV, p. 143) ; copper kdrsdpana 
was also called pana. Cf. kdhdpana (El 8), Prakrit for 
Sanskrit kdrsdpana; see kdhdna, kdhana. 

kars-drdha, 'half karsa (q.v.)'. 

kartavya (LP), derived from krtj 'to be cut'. 

Kdrtdkrtika (IE 8-3), probably, an officer who reported 
to the king about the progress of important undertakings; 
cf. krt-dkrta-jno bhrtydndm (Matsya Purdna, CCXV, 17). 
See Mahdkdrtdkrtika. 

Kartr (CII 3, etc.), the maker; a technical term for the 
composer of a record, as opposed to the person who reduced it to 

Cf. Karttdr (El 33), Tamil; an officer. 

kdrttika (CITD), crops reaped in the month of Karttika. 

kdrttikeya-mukha, cf. kumdr-dsya (IE 7-1-2), 'six'. 

kdrttik-odydpana (IA 18), also called kdrttik-odydpana- 
parvan (BL), a festival in honour of Visnu, connected with 
Karttika su-di 11. 

kdru-deya, cf. sarva-parihdra-kdru-deya (El 24); tax realised 
from the artisans; same as kdruka. 

Kdruka (LB), an artisan. The five classes of artisans may 
be the carpenter, the blacksmith, the potter, the barber and 
the washerman. 

(IE 8-5; El 25, 32), tax on artisans and craftsmen; same 
as kdru-deya. 

kdrukara (HRS), traced by some in the Prakrit passage 
sa-karukara in a Satavahana record and indentified with 

150 karuna kdsu 

udranga and uparikara; but may be Sanskrit kar-otkara, i.e. 
kara and utkara (probably the same as upakara or uparikara), 
or kdru-kara=kdru-deya (q.v.). 

karuna (CII 4), one of the bhdvands. 

kdru-silpi-gana, various types of artisans. Cf. Ghoshal, 
H. Rev. Syst., p. 98. 

karvataka (El 13), a market town; cf. Sanskrit kharvata. 

karyaj cf. Tamil kdriyavdrdycci (El 24), na'me of a tax. 

Cf. Vdsal-kdriyam (SITI), the officer in charge of the 
palace gate; also known as Vdsal-mudali or Vdsal-nirvdham. 

Kdryz-cintaka (Gil 4), a member of the executive commi- 
ttee of a corporation. 

Kdrya-darsin (El 22), a secretary or manager. 

Kdrya-kartr (SITI), an agent; also called Kdriyattukku- 
kkadavar, a designation sometimes enjoyed by the Pradhdni 
or the provincial governor (ASLV). 

kdrya-vdrdycci (SITI), Tamil; also spelt draycci; cess 
paid for the superintendence of transactions. 

Kdsdra (El 4), a brazier; same as Kdrhsyakdra. 

kasdya (Gil 4), a spirituous liquor. 

kds-dya (SITI), same as kdsu-dyam; taxes and dues payable 
in coin; also called kds-qya-vargam, kdsu-vargam and kdsu- 
kadamai. Cf. hirany-dya^ dhdnya-varga. 

kdstha, cf. a-trna-kdstha-grahana (IE 8-5), fuel or wood which 
the villagers were obliged to supply to the king or landlord 
on occasions or to the touring officers. See also devakutl-kdstha. 

kdsth-dgdra, cf. kattdgara (SII 3), a wooden house. 

Kdsthakdra (SII 3), a carpenter. 

kdstha-yuti, cf. yuti', c a wood for preserving fuel'. 

kdsu (SII 1), Tamil; money; a coin; 'a tax'; cf. kdsu- 
kadamai, tax payable in cash. 

(IE 8-8), name of a coin; sometimes called dlndra (q.v.); 
cf. ur-kdm (El 28), vlrapancdlan-kdsu (SITI), sambiranippalan- 
gdsu\ also l\a-kkdsu (El 28), 'the Ceylonese coin'; soliya-kkdsu 
(SITI), name of a copper coin believed to have been intro- 
duced by the Cojas; palan-kdsu, nat-kdsa, nal-kdsu (SII 12); 
generally regarded as T Jo ofapanam; cf. trisula-kdsu (SII 3). 

Cf. dsuva-kkdsu (SITI), or djivaka-kdsu, tax payable by the 

Cf. adimai-kkdsu (SITI), fees collected from the temple 

kataka kauberacchan da 1 5 1 

servants; also adi-kkdm, tax collected from stall-keepers in the 

Cf. uppu-kkdsu (SITI), salt-tax. 

Cf. vagainda-kdsu (SITI), tax payable in cash for marking 
details of land, etc.; fees for the division of land; also the fee 
for settlement of a dispute, etc. 

Cf. veli-kkdsu, veli-ppayaru (SITI), Tamil; tax payable in 
cash, the exact nature of which is not clear. Cf veli-kku\>- 

Cf. inavari-kkdsu (SITI), communal tax payable in coin; 
cf. jdti-siddh-dya of Telugu inscriptions. 

(SITI), Tamil; a measure of weight equal to 4 palam. 
kataka (El 8, 17), the camp or capital. 
(6777), a fortified place; a cantonment; a military camp. 
Cf. katakarh kartavyam (LP), 'an army should be sent 
[against one]'. 

Katak-ddhirdja (El 4), same as Katakardja, etc.; a military 
officer in charge of the royal camp. 

Katakddhisa (HD), same as Katakardja, etc. 
Kataka-ndyaka (El 23), same as Katakardja, etc. 
Katakardja (El 9; HD), officer in charge of the royal camp; 
same as Katakddhisa, etc. Cf. Ep. Irtd., Vol. IV, p. 309, note 1. 
Kataka-vdrika (El 30), probably, officials serving under the 
superintendent of the royal camp (Katakardja, etc.). 

Katakesa (El 29; HD), superintendent of the royal 
camp; same as Katakardja, etc. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 185. 

ka-ta-pa-y-ddi (IE 7-1-3; El 33; IA 19, 24), a system of 
recording numbers. 

kathdri (ASLV), same as Sanskrit kartan, a sword. 
katha (LP), cf. Gujarat! kdtmdl. 

kathita, drawn up or dictated (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 
p. 179). Cf. cintita, 'composed' (ibid., Vol. XXXV, p. 58). 
katl-sutra (El 16), an ornament. 

kattana (SITI), periodical presents made to superiors 
by their subordinates. 

kattu-guttagai (ASLV), Tamil; a contract. 
Katuka (El 13; HD), an official designation of uncertain 
import; cf. Mahdkatuka. See Ep. Ind., Vol XIII, p. 117. 
katumukha (El 5), name given to a musical instrument. 
kauberacchanda (CII 3), a particular kind of pearl-necklace. 

1 52 kaulika kedara 

kaulika-nikdya (LL), the weaver's guild. 

kaumdra-saudha (El 34), a prince's palace. 

Kauptika (El 1, 23), official designation of uncertain 
import; pobably, a collector of tolls. 

kd-usaggiyd (HA), Sanskrit kqyotsargikd', the image of a 
Tirthankara standing in the kdy-otsarga posture. See kd-ussagga. 

kd-ussagga (HA), Sanskrit kdy-otsarga (q.v.); a posture 
of meditation in which one stands erect with arms hanging 
and the soles of the feet kept four inches apart. 

kaustheyaka (HRS), occurring in the Arthasdstra and 
understood by some in the sense of earnings from the king's 

kaustubha (CII 3, etc.), a jewel worn on the breast of Visnu. 

Kautumbika, cf. Prakrit Kotubika (El 24), a householder. 

kavaca (SITI), same as Tamil tiru-kko\gai, the metallic 
cover exactly fitting the image of a deity ; same as kholl, kholikd. 

kavale, also called kavaledu, kavalige (CITD), Telugu- 
Kannada; a pack of written leaves; palm leaves prepared for 
writing accounts. 

kaveluka, kdveluka (LP), tile; cf. kivelu, Marathl kaul, 
etc. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, pp. 144-45. 

Kavirdja (IA 26), title; sometimes found also among the 

kdya (IE 7-1-2), 'six'. 

Kdyastha (El 24; ASLV; HD), a clerk; explained by some 
as 'a registrar' (El 31); a scribe or writer in the king's revenue 
department according to some. See Taj navalkyasmrti, I. 322; 
Visnu Dharma Sutra, VII. 3; etc. Gf. Asvaghdsa-kdyastha and 
Grdma-kdyastha (Rdjatarangini, V. 175; ///Q,, Vol. IX, 
p. 12). See also Hist. Dharm., Vol. II, pp. 75-77. For 
derivation, cf. Bhdr. Vid., Vol. X, pp. 280 ff. 

kdya-vrata (El 11), self-immolation. 

kdy-otsarga (El 3), a kind of obeisance. 

Cf. Prakrit kd-ussagga (HA), a posture of meditation in 
which one stands erect with arms hanging and the soles of 
feet kept four inches apart. Cf. kdusaggiyd. 

kedara (El 28), a corn-field. 

(El 32), low land. 

Cf. bhu-keddra (El 19); a land measure; cf. the land 
measure called keydr in the Sylhet region of East Pakistan. 

keddrikd Khddya 


keddrikd (IA 15), a small field; cf.keddra. 

held (IE 8-8; El 30), meaning uncertain; probably, a doll 
or toy. 

keli (El 9), the earth. 

kendra (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

(CII 3), anomaly of the moon, taken to be her distance 
from apogee, from which point it is always reckoned by Hindu 
astronomers; the annual variation in the moon's kendra is 3 
signs 2 degrees and 6.2 minutes, or 7 tithis 9 ghatis and 42 
palas. See also mcocca-mdsa, tithi-kendra, tithi-madhyama- kendra 
and tithi-spasta-kendra. 

ketu (El 24), the shape or form. 

kevala-jndna (HA), Jain; omniscience; a technical term 
for the highest knowledge; the Jain doctrine of unity (IA 18). 

kha (IE 7.1-2), 'cypher'. 

khada (LP), grass. 

Khadgadhara, cf. Mahdkhadgadhara, Khadagrdhin, etc. 

Khadgagrdha (IE 8-3 ; El 30), probably the same as Khddgika', 
swordsman; sometimes distinguished from Khandapdla. 

Khadgagrdhi-mahdpdtra (El 28, 31), official designation 
in which Khadgagrdhin seems to indicate an officer in charge of 
swordsmen (as opposed to the clubmen) ; see Mahdpdtra. 

Khadga-grdhin (El 28), same as the Khanddita (originally, 
swordsmen of the kings of Orissa) ; cf. Khadgagrdha. 

Khadga-raksa (El 30), same as Khadga-graha; used in 
place of Angaraksa and Khandaraksa of some records (Ind. 
Ant., Vol. XVII, p. 11, text line 14); probably, the king's 

Khddgika (IE 8-3), 'swordsman'; probably 'a palace- 
guard'; mentioned separately from Khandaraksa which is also 
spelt Khadgaraksa. 

Khddgin (El 23), same as Khddgika. 

khddl (El 31), a canal. 

khddurikd (El 9), a military exercise ground. 

Khddyakutapdkika, see Khddyatapdkika. 

Khddyatapdkika (IE 8-3), propbably a mistake for 
Khddyakuta-pdkika (cf. anna-kuta, 'a heap of food'); same 
as Mahdnas-ddhycksa; called Sandhivigrahika, Kumdrdmdtya, Mahd- 
dandandyaka, etc., additionally. See Bhdnasa-vergade, Mahdnas- 
ddhyaksa, S upakdrapati, Mahdnasika. 

154 khajan khanda 

khdjan (IE 8-8 j, Marathi, etc.; see khajjana > etc. 

khajjana, khajjana, khajjdna, khajjanaka (IE 8-8; El 33), 
same as Marathi and Kohkani khdjan; an area near the 
sea shore, on which a thin layer of sand accumulates after 
the ebbtide coming through inlets; a rice field created out of 
such an area near a hillock by erecting embankments on the 
three other sides; a field created by reclaiming a river bed; 
cultivable land created from the bed of a river which carries 
the flood-water from the sea; a salty marsh or meadow; a 
rice field created near the bed of a nullah on the sea shore 
by putting embankments. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, pp. 
53-54. It is sometimes called pukkoli-khajjana, pukkoli probably 
meaning a similar kind of land. 

khala (Chamba, etc.), threshing floor. 

khala-bhiksd (El 3, 25; HRS), a levy; cess payable at the 
threshing floor; portion of crop over and above the usual 
grainshare, collected from grains heaped upon the threshing 

khalaka (IA 18), a threshing floor [probably situated 
near a well] ; cf. khala. 

Cf. khalak-dnte (LP), 'at the end of the threshing 

khalaklya (LP), tax payable at or for using the threshing 
floor; cf. khala-bhiksd. 

Khala-raksaka, cf. Mahd-khalaraksaka. 

khalla (IE 8-5), same as Odiya khal\ low land; cf. sa- 
khall-onnata (El 12), 'with low land and high land'. 

(IE 8-8), a hide. 

(El 30), leather vessel for carrying wine. 

khallara (IA 13), probably, a pond. 

kharh, abbreviation of khanda, 'a piece' (JAS> Letters, 
Vol. XX, p. 204). 

khampana (El 23), a territorial division; same as kampana. 

khampanaka (IE 8-4), a small territorial unit; same as 
khampana or kampana. 

khdnaka (El 15), same as khdtaka in the sense of 

khanda (IE 8-4; El 23), a territorial division; the sub- 
division of a desa. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'nine'. 

khandd khandi 155 

Cf. nava-khanda (IE 8-4), 'having nine divisions' ; an 
epithet of Bharata or Bharata- varsa. 

(El 30), a habitation. 

(El 3, 24), also called khandi; a land measure. See 

Cf. Tamil kandam (SITI), a portion of the mukha- 
mandapa of a temple. 

khanda, khandd (IA 15), a sword. 

Khanddit (IE 8-3), a community in Orissa; probably the 
swordsmen maintained by kings as opposed to their 
Pdiks or clubmen; cf. Khandaraksa and Khandapdla. 

khandaka (SITI), cf. Tamil kandakam, a land measure. 
See khanda. 

khanda-ksetra (El 3, 16, 23), a plot of land. 

khandala (IE 8-4; El 12, 18), a territorial unit; a district 
or its subdivision. 

khandala, khandalaka, same as khanda', cf. ksetra-khandala 
or khandalaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV,* p. 135, text time 22; 
p. 139, text line 22). 

Khandapdla (IE 8-3; El 28), official designation; same 
as Khandapati or Khandaraksa (q.v. ). See Khandavdla. 

khandapdla, also called khandapdllya (IE 8-3; El 24, 28), 
tax for the maintenance of swordsmen; tax for the main- 
tenance of the Khandapdla or Khandapdlas. 

Khandapati (El 12, 28), official designation; same as 

Khandaraksa (IE 8-3; HD), sometimes spelt as Khadga- 
raksa, 'swordsman'; probably the king's bodyguard; mentioned 
separately from Khddgika; cf. Khandapdla; also Khanddit; some- 
times regarded as the same as Khandapdla meaning the ruler 
of a small territorial unit. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 321. 
Cf. Khadgaraksa (Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., pp. 127-28). 

khanda-sphutita-jlrn-oddhdra (El 23), also called khanda- 
sphutita-navakarman, khanda-sphutita-prakarana; repairs. 

Khandavdla (El 7; HD), modification of Khandapdla. 
Sec Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 91; JBORS, Vol. V, p. 588.' " 

khandi (El 3), also called khanda, a land measure. Cf. 
khandi spelt in English as candy. 

khandi (CII 4j, a measure of capacity; cf. khandikd. See 

1 56 khandikaKhatiba 

(I A 15), a land-measure. 

khandika, khandika (El 22; Gil 4; I A 20), measure of 
capacity; same as khandl or candy; often regarded as equal 
to between 800 and 1000 seers. See putti. 

Cf. Rgveda-khandikd, a school for teaching the Rgveda 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 37 and notes). 

khanduga (IE 8-6; El 4; GITD), Telugu-Kannada ; a 
weight of 192,000 tolas for silk, sugar, drugs and cotton; a land 
measure ;\a land measure of 64,000 square yards of dry and 
10,000 square yards of wet land [in Mysore] ; a dry measure 
of 409,6000 or 134,400 or 128,000 tolas in different places. 
Cf. khanduka. 

khanduka (IE 8-6), a measure of capacity; cf. khandukavdpa. 

khandukavdpa (IE 8-6), an area of land requiring one 
khanduka measure of seed grains for sowing. 

* khanika, cf. Prakrit khaniya (El 20), a pillar. Cf. khdnu. 

khdnu (El 24), a pillar; cf. khanika. 

khdri (El 17), a land measure; cf. khdrl 9 khdrlvdpa. 

khan (IE 8-6; CII 4), a measure of capacity equal to 
sixteen dronas. 

(IE 8-6), shortened form of khdrlvdpa or khdrikdvdpa. 

khdrikd ( IE 8-6 ) , shortened form of khdrikdvdpa or khdrl- 
vdpa ; also same as khdrl. 

khdrikdvdpa (IE 8-6), same as khdrlvdpa. 

khdrlvdpa (IE 8-6), an area of land requiring a khdrl 
measure of seed grains for sowing; a land measure equal to 
sixteen dronavdpas or two kulyavdpas. 

Kharosthl, an early Indian alphabet which was an Indian 
modification of the Aramaic alphabet; called Kharostrl by some. 

kharvada (El 5), Sanskrit kharvala\ a market town. 

kharvata (ASLVj, an administrative unit. See also 

khascd (LP), also spelt sascd\ teasing; cf. khdrhc-khurhc 
in Gujarat!. See khasrd. 

khasrd (El 1), loss or injury. Cf. khascd. 

khdta (El 19), a well. 

khdtaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 253, text line 33, note 4), 
probably, a canal; same as Bengali khdt. 

Khatiba, same as Arabic Khatlb, preacher (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXXIV, p. 145). 

khdtikdKhshayathiya 1 57 

khatikd (Ep. Ltd., Vol. IV, p. 253); the mouth of a river; 
same as Bengali khddL 

khattaka (El 8), Kannada; a pedestal or seat. 

(El 11; HA), a niche; a term found in Jain inscriptions 
in the said sense. 

khatvd, cf. a-kura-chullaka-vindsi-khaiv-dvdsa (IE 8-5); a 
cot which the villagers were obliged to provide for a touring 
officer of the king. 

khatvdnga (El 5; SII 2), a club with a skull fixed at the 
top; a Saiva emblem. 

khatvdpdda (El 7-1-2), 'four'. 

khedariiya (LPj, same as pdtaniya. 

khela (IE 8-5), a village or hamlet. 

khila (El 15; Ghambaj, uncultivated land; fallow land; 
cf. sa-khila-ndla (IE 8-5). 

khila-ksetra (El 23), fallow land. 

Khoja (El 6), a merchant. Cf. Khwdja, the Muslim title 
of distinction. 

Khola (IE 8-3); HD), an official designation of uncertain 
meaning (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, pp. 250, 253); probably a kind 
of messenger. Utpala on the Brhatsarhhitd, 85. 34, explains 
Diita as Gamdgamika while some Pala inscriptions place Khola 
between the two; probably the same as Presanika or Duta- 
presanika, a dispatcher of messengers. 

Khoti, kholikd, same as kavaca (q.v.). 

khota (HRS), what is payable to the king in the shape of 
hiranya, etc., and of compulsory labour and the provision 
of food for the Galas and Bhatas, according to the Abhidhdna- 
rdjendra, s.v. parihdra. See khota-bhanga, ukkota-bhafiga. 

khota-bhanga (HRS), applies to a person residing for 
one, two or three years, or as long as the king's favour extends, 
without contributing the hiranya, etc., and without providing 
food for the Cdtas and Bhatas, according to the Abhidhdnard- 
jendra, s.v. parihdra; also called ukkota-bhanga, aksota-bhanga. 

khovd (IE 8-8), cf. khovdddna\ meaning uncertain. 

Khshathmpdvan (IE 8-2, 8-3), Old Persian; 'a provincial 
governor.' SeeKsatrapa. 

Khshdyathiya Khshdyathiydndm (IE 8-2), Old Persian; 
'king of kings'; same as Modern Persian Shdhdn Shah. See 
Basileos Basileon, Sdhdnusdhi. 

1 58 Khshayathiya Kisoravadavd 

Khshayathiya va&ka (IE 8-2), Old Persian; 'the great 
king'; royal title. It was translated by the Indo-Greek kings 
in Greek and Prakrit in the legend of their coins and was the 
original of the Indian royal title Maharaja. See Basileos 

kila, cf. Pattakila, Vetakila. 

kllaka (El 23), a peg [for marking boundaries]. 

klla-mudrd, letter written on wedge-shaped wooden tablets 
(Select Inscriptions, pp. 236-37). 

kirh-chandah (CII 1), cf. kirh-chandah svit rdjd asmdsu, 
'of what attitude is the king towards ourselves ?' 

kinva-kreni (El 15), mistake for klinva-kreni meaning such 
articles as sugar, liquor, etc. 

klrtana (El 24, 28, 33; SII 1; CII 4), same as klrti\ 
a temple or any other thing that renders famous the name of 
the person responsible for it; often interpreted as 'a building 
or temple'; but really, 'any fame-producing work'; 'a monu- 
ment of fame'; a pious work like a temple. See klrtana. 

klrtana (El 33), same as klrtana and klrti; cf. klrtita. 

klrti (El 20, 24; Gil 3, 4), literally, 'the thing that 
speaks of or glorifies one'; used in the special meaning of 'any 
work which renders the constructor of it famous'; a merit- 
orious work; a pious deed; same as klrtana, klrtana', often inter- 
preted as 'a building or temple'; but actually, 'any fame- 
producing work'. See klrti-sthdna. 

(CII 1), fame of a dead person; cf. yaso vd klrtirvd. 
See yarns. 

klrti-mukha (CII 4), a decorative motif. 

klrti-stambha, cf. mahdmeru-srl-klrtistambha (BL); 'the pillar 
of fame'. 

klrti-sthdna (El 1), same as klrti or klrtana', a temple or 
some such object calculated to render famous the name of the 
person responsible for it. 

klrtita (El 24), 'built'; cf. praklrtita. 

Kisoravadavd-go-mahis-dj-dvik-ddhyaksa (IE 8-3), cf. Go- 
mahis-dj-dvikd-vadav-ddhyaksa, Hasty-asv-ostra-go-mahis-dj-dvik- 

ddhyaksa, Kari-turaga-pattan-dkarasthdna-gokul-ddhikdrin, etc. 

Kisoravadavd-go-mahisy-adhikrta (IE 8-3; El 17, 23), cf. 
Go-mahisy-aj-ddhyaksa, Kisorava davd-go-mahis-dj-dvik-ddhyaksa, etc, 

Kisoravadavd-go-mahisy-aj-dvik-ddhyaksa (El 29), cf. Go- 

kitikdkolla 159 

mahisy-aj-ddhyaksa, Kisora-vadavd-go-mahis-dj-dvik-ddhyaksa, etc. 

kitikd (El 14), Sanskritised form of kidi or hi da, 'a matting 

kivelu (LP), 'tile'; cf. Marathi kauL See kaveluka. 

klinva, cf. a-lavana-klinva-khdtaka (IE 8-5); probably, such 
things as sugar and liquor; same as klinva-kreni; cf. also 
a-lavana-guda-ksobha (IE 8-5), etc. 

klinva-kreni, cf. a-lavana-klinva-kreni-khanaka (IE 8-5); 
same as klinva meaning articles like sugar, liquor, etc. 

klpta (CII 3, 4; HRS), cf. sa-klpt-opaklpta (IE 8-5); pro- 
bably, the tax on permanent tenants or the fixed revenue; 
fixed tax which is one of the seven sources of revenue specified 
in the Arthasdstra; cf. upaklpta, klpta-kara, udranga, klpta-sluka, 

klpta-kara (IE 8-5), fixed tax; same as klpta-sulka; cf. 

klpta-sulka (IE 8-5), fixed duty; same as klpta, klpta-kara; 
cf. sa-klpt-opaklpta. 

kode (GITD), Telugu; an unknown measure of capacity. 
Cf. Kannada ko da-visa, an allowance of a visa of grain, etc., 
for every bullock-load that comes into a town, paid to a person 
employed to check the demands of the toll-collector. 

kodevana (El 27), name of a tax. 

kodrava (El 5, 12), name of a grain. 

kohll (Chamba), wet land, irrigable land; same as all', 
opposed to ota da. 

kol (IE 8-6 j, Tamil; a measuring rod; cf. srlpdda-kkol, 
c rod measured according to the length of the king's foot'; 
mdliga-kkol, f the measuring rod of the palace'; etc. 

("7,25), a land measure. 

kola, same as tolaka (q.v.). 

kolaga (IE 8-6), Kannada; a land measure. 

kolaga (CITD), Telugu-Kannada; measure of capacity 
equal to 4 balas; a dry measure of 768 or 384 or 72 tolas in 
different places. w 

kola-bhanddlu, also called kolla-bandi (CITD), Telugu; 
a bullock-cart load. Cf. busi-bandi or busi-bhanddlu. 

Kolika (IE 8-8; El 30), same as Sanskrit Kaulika, a weaver. 

kolika-nikaya (CII 4), a guild of the Kaulikas or weavers. 

kolla-bandi, see kola-bhanddlu. 

1 60 koluKo tapdla 

kolu (IE 8-6), a measuring rod. 

Komati (CITD), Telugu-Kannada ; a Vaisya shop-keeper; 
a member of the mercantile caste. 

kommu-marturu (CITD), Telugu; see maruturu. 

konjalla, cf. a-kara-visti-konjalla (IE 8-5); a fiscal term 
of doubtful import. 

korata (Gil 3), a fiscal term of uncertain import. 

kosa, treasure, see Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., pp. 15-16. 

Kos-ddhipa ( El 32, 33 ), a treasurer; same as Kos- 

kosa-grha (HRS), treasury. 

Kosajd (El 9), a cocoon-producer. 

kosavdha (El 14), name of a land measure; as much land 
as can be irrigated by one kosa or leather bucket. 

kostha (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. Cf. kosthaka. 

kosth-dgdra (HRS), the royal granary. 

(El 29), cf. Tamil kottagdram, kottdram (El 22; SITI), 
treasury or store-house. 

Cf. Tamil kottagaram, etc. (SII 2j, stables. 

kosthdgdra-karana, cf. karana (LP) ; department of the 
collection of the king's share of grains. 

Kosthdgdrin, officer in charge of the treasury or store- 
house; cf. Mahdkosthdgdrin. 

kosthaka (BL; LP), a granary or store-house. 

Kostha-karana (El 29), a treasury accountant; also the 
revenue department (cf. kostha-vydpdra ) . 

kosthz-vyapdra (El 29), the revenue department (cf. 
kostha-karana] . 

kosthi, cf. Prakrit kodhi (LL), a hall. 
kosthikd (El 15 j, same as kostha. 
kosthikd-karana (LP), the royal treasury. 
kota (LP), also called kotadi; 'wall of the compound'. 
Kot-ddhikaranika (BL), officer in charge of or related to the 
government of a kota or kotta i^fort). 

kotadi, kotadl; cf. kotadi-sahita (LP), 'together with walls of 
the compound'. 

kotaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 313;, 'a district'; same as 
kottaka\ cf. kotta-visaya. 

Ko tapdla (El 17), same as Kot tapdla. 

ko tha Kramavid 1 6 1 

kotha-vydpdra (El 23), same as kostha-vydpdra; the revenue 

koti-homa (El 12, 33), name of a rite. 

kotikd, a load [of cloth] (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 309). 

(El 14), a measure. 

kotta (El 24), a fort. See kottai and kottam of the South 
Indian inscriptions. 

kottai (ASLV), a fort. 

kottaka, see kotaka. 

kottam (IE 8-4; El 27), Tamil; a district; a district 
within a mandala or province. 

(ASXF), a division of the ra/}>0; sometimes subdivided 
into nddus. 

Kotta-nigraha (El 8; IA 30; BL), commander of a fort; 
same as Kottapdla. Cf. Kottanigrahin. 

Kottanigrahin (IA 30), probably, the commander of a 
fort; same as Kottanigraha. 

Kottapdla (IE 8-3; El 12, 18, 25, 30; BL), officer in 
charge of a fort; governor of a fort. Cf. the Bhagalpur plate of 
Narayanapala (Ind. A?it. } Vol. XV, p. 306); sometimes 
spelt Kotapdla (cf. the Nalanda plate of Devapala in Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XVII, p. 321). Same as Kottapati. 

(El 25), the city prefect; same as Kotwdl. 

Kottapati (IE 8-3), same as Kottapdla. 

kotta-visaya (IE 8-4; CII 1), a visaya or district around 
a fortress; a district with its headquarters in a fort. 
See kotaka. 

Kotwdl (IE 8-2, 8-3), same as Taldra or the prefect 
of the city police; the chief police officer of a city or town. 

kovai (SITI), Tamil; name of a gold coin. 

kovera (IE 8-5), cf. karane koveram; probably, some levy at 
the court of law. 

Koyil-ndyakam (El 25), Tamil; temple officer. 

Koyil-srikdryam (El 25), Tamil; a temple officer. 

Kramdditya (IE 8-2), see dditya. The word krama here 
seems to mean vikrama. 

Kramaka (El 5), also called Kramavid, Kramqyuta; epithet 
of Brahmanas. Cf. Krama-vitta. 

Kramavid (El 5), epithet of Brahmanas; same as 
Kramayuta. Cf. Krama-vitta. 

162 Kramakni 

Krama-vitta (SITTI), a Brahmana well- versed in the method 
of reciting the Vedas according to the krama order. CLKramaka, etc. 

Kramayuta (El 5), epithet of Brahmanas; same as Kramaka, 
Kramavid. Cf. Krama-vitta. 

kraya-clrikd (El 26), a deed of purchase or sale-deed. 

krdara (Gil 4), a granary. 

knddyita (El 12), sporting. 

krs-dnna, 'minor food'; cf. krsdnna-mulya which is the 
money to meet expenses of light food (Select Inscriptions, 
p. 159). See mukh-dhdra. 

kriyd (Gil 4), Saiva ceremonies. 

kriyanakd (LP), cf. Gujarat! kariydnurh. 

kroda, same as suvarna (q.v.). 

krosa (Gil 1), a distance of about two miles and a quarter. 

krpana (Gil 1), poor. 

krsdnu (IE 7-1-2), 'three 5 . 

rjraflfo(IA26),same as rati or gunjd. One krsnala is regarded 
by the Krtyakalpataru (Vyavahara-kanda, ed. K. V. Ranga- 
swami Aiyangar, p. 125) as equal to three gunjds or raktikds 
apparently through confusion. 

krsnardja-rupaka (El 30), name of a silver coin issues by 
the Kalacuri king Krsnaraja. 

krta (El 12, 14, 23; BL; Gil 3), literally 'accomplished', 
i.e. 'completed'; used in earlier records in connection with the 
era later associated with Vikramaditya. Often spelt 
krita, possibly standing for knta meaning 'purschased', which 
was a name sometimes applied to certain foreign rulers of 
North- Western Bharatavarsa (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XXXIII, p. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

(CII 1;, 'arranged for', 'made arrangements for'. 

(El 23), fruit, booty, reward. 

(Sel. Ins., p. 202), 'engraved'. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 41, verse 13), written, drafted or 

krtdnta (El 3;, same as siddhdnta. 

krta-prdnta, cf. sa-krta-prdnta (IE 8-5), Prakrit sa-kuta- 
ppanta; probably, demarcated boundaries. 

krti (IE 7-1-2), 'twenty'; cf. krtin, 'twentytwo'. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p,98) ? a. composition or performance. 

krtin ksudra 


krtin (El 7-1-2,, 'twenty two'; cf. krti, 'twenty'. 

krt-opasanna (El 30), an expression of doubtful import; 
epithet of a house. 

krttiddra (I A 15), an ornament. 

krura-dris (El 12), designation of Mars and Saturn. 

ksdnti (CII 1), forgiveness. 

ksapesvara (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

ksdra (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

ksata (El 23), engraved; cf. utklrna, udghdtita, etc. 

Cf. Prakrit chata (El 7), 'written' (&/#* Inscriptions, p. 

Ksatrapa (IE 8-2, 8-3; ML; HD), feudatory title of 
foreign origin; Old Persian Khshathrapdvan, 'a provincial 
governor'; a Satrap. See CII, Vol. II, pp. xxxiv, 23, 28; 
Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., p. 166. See Mahdksatrapa. 

Ksattr (HD), a chamberlain. See Hist. Dharm., Vol. 
Ill, p. 111. According to Manu (X. 16) and Yajnavalkya 
(I. 94), the offspring of a Ksatriya woman from a udra male 
was called Ksattr. This apparently refers to a tribe or community. 

ksaum (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

Ksemardja (LL), title of a pious king. 

ksetra (El 24), a department or committee. 

(SI I 1), a sacred place. Cf. Vardha-ksetra. 

Ksetrakara (El 12, 15), a cultivator. 

Ksetrapa (IE 8-3; HD), same as Ksetrapdla; supreintendent 
of the king's Khas Mahal. See Ind. Ant., Vol. XV, p. 306. 

Ksetrapdla (IE 8-3; El 17; HD), same as Ksetrapa. Cf. 
Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 321. 

ksetra-slman (SII 1), explained as e a hamlet'. 

ksira, cf. a-puspa-ksira-grahaniya (IE 8-5) ; milk which the 
villagers (probably, the milkmen) were obliged to supply 
to the king or landlord on occasions and to the touring officials. 

ksiti (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

ksiti-ddna (El 23), same as bhumi-ddna; name of a gift. 

ksmd (I 7-1-2; E 25), 'one'. 

ksobha, cf. a-lavana-guda-ksobha (IE 8-5; El 1); obligation 
or trouble. 

ksom (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

ksudra, cf. Prakrit cula=culla 'small'; prefixed to the names 
pf persons, localities, etc., in order to distinguish them from. 

1 6 4 ksudraka kulaputra 

others; e.g., Ksudra-Mula, Mahd-Mula; Ksudra-Dharmagiri, 

Ksudraka (CII 1), a person of a low position; a poor man. 

(JJV67, Vol. XVI, p. 44), same as tolaka or drarhksana-, 
also spelt ksudrama. 

ksudrama, see ksudraka', same as tolaka. 

ksuna (CII 2-1), corruption of ksana. 

ksuna (El 3), fault or defect. 

Cf. ksunani (LP), probably, Expenses'; ksun-ddika, Ex- 
penses, etc.' 

Cf. mdnak-aikarh ydvat ksunarh na hi (LP), 'it matters not 
if there is a loss of one maund only', i.e. such a case should 
not be considered a loss. 

ku (IE 7-1-2), { one'. 

(CITD), a contraction of Telugu kutitalu or kuccelu, a 
certain measure of land. 

kuca (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

kucata (LP), disturbance of the peace of mind; cf. Guja- 
rat! kacvdt. 

kudya, probably, 'a mound'; see eduka. 

kula (LL), Jain; a particular section of the Jains. 

Cf. udhadtyd-jhumpadiya-kula (LP), 'farmers on whom 
revenue is fixed in a lump sum and who live in huts'. 

Cf. kulam (El 25), a land measure; equal to 2 halas. 

kula (SITI), tax on grains and pulses; cf. Tamil kiru- 

Cf. Tamil kulam (SII 1), a market. 

Kula-brdhmana (SII 1), a family priest. 

Kulacdrika (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIII, p. lly, text line 8), 
wrong reading of Kulavdrika= Kulavdra (q.v.). 

Kulakarani (El 15; SII 11-1), a hereditary clerk or officer; 
a clerk; cf. the modern family name Kulkarm. The word 
occurs in the Sudi inscription of aka 981 (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, 
p. 91). 

kul-dkhyd (CII 3j, a family appellation. 

Kula-kutumbika (LP), farmers who are permanently settled. 

kula-panjikd, cf. varhsdvall (IA 30). 

Kulapati(EI9), probably, the head of a school or institution. 

Kulaputra (El 22; CII 8), literally, 'high-born'; epithet 
of a nobleman. See Kulaputraka. 

Kulaputraka Kumdra 


(Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XVIII, p. 156); explained as the chief 

Kulaputraka (El 22, 23 j, a nobleman. See Kulaputra. 

Kularika (Gil 4), a potter. 

Kulavdra (El 23), arbitrator; also called Kulavdrika. 

Kulvdrika, see Kulacdrika. 

kulavdy (IE 8-6), Bengali form of kulyavdpa. 

kuli (IE 8-6; El 28), Tamil; a small land measure equal 
to 240 f a pddagam. 

kuli (SII *1), Tamil; hire. 

Kulika (El 15, 35), 'the head of a guild'; but 
cf. Prathama-kulika, 'the foremost among the Kulikas', who 
was the member of a board of administration like the Pancdyat 
Board. Some inscriptions of the Gupta age mention a board 
of administration consisting of the Nagara-sresthin Sdrthavdha, 
Prathama-Kulika and Prathama-Kdyastha (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, 
p. 130), where Kulika seems to mean 'an artisan 5 . Kulika 
is also mentioned as a people probably meaning mercenary 
soldiers of the Kullu valley (ibid., Vol. XVII, p. 321); cf. 
Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., pp. 126-27. 

(HD], an officer in charge of ten villages who was granted 
a kula of land for his salary (Manu, VII. 119, and Kulluka 
thereon) ; also 'an arbitrator as a tribunal' (IHQ,, Vol. XIX, p. 14). 

kullaka, cf. udak-dslhdra-kullaka', probably, a kind of channel. 

kulya (IE 8-6), a measure of capacity equal to 8 dronas. 
(IE 8-6; El 29), a land measure; shortened form of 

kulyavdpa (IE 8-6; El 28 J, 'an area of land requiring one 
kulya measure of seed grains to be sown'; a land measure 
which was not the same in different ages and localities. 

kulya (El 13), a channel for irrigation. 

Kumdra (IE 8-2; El 28, 30; BL; HD), designation of a 
prince or the king's heir-apparent; usually a prince younger 
than the Tuvardja (heir-apparent). See C77, Vol. I, pp. 93, 
97; Vol. II, pp. 40, 48. 

Cf. Devi-kumdra (IA 18; Gil 1). 

Kumdrddhirdja (El 12, 28), title of a ruler. 

Kumdra-Divdna (BL), possibly, a Divdna or minister enjoying 
the status of a Kumdra or a Kumdra who was the Divdna. Cf. 
Kumdr-dmdtya, Kumdra-mahdpdtra. 

166 kumdra kumdra 

kumdra-gadidnaka (CII 4), taken to be the name of a coin 
by Some scholars; but probably, a tax. Same as kumdra-gadydna. 

kumdra-gadydna (IE 8-5; El 4; HRS), probably, a tax 
of one gadydna (i.e. the coin of that name ) payable on the 
occasion of a prince's birth. See kumdra-gadidnaka, komarina- 
gadydna, etc. Cf. Tamil kumara-kaccdnam (El 21), supposed to 
be a tax payable in coin for the maintenance of the temple of 
Kumara or Subrahmanya (SITI). But kumdra-gadydna is found in 
the records of the Gahadavalas of Varan asi, in whose dominions 
the god in question was not as popular as in the South. 

Kumdra-guru (BL), probably, the royal preceptor enjoying 
the status of a Kumdra. 

kumara-kaccdnam (El 21), a tax; cf. kumdra-gadydna. 

Kumdra-mahdpdtra (IE 8-3; El 28), a Mahdpdtra enjoying 
the status of a Kumdra or a Kumdra who was the Mahdpdtra; 
cf. Kumdr-dmdtya. 

Kumdr-dmdtya (IE 8-3; CII 3, 4; BL; HD), probably 
'an Amdtya enjoying the status of a Kumara'. Cf. Tamil 
pillaigal-tanam (SITI), 'the status of a Pillai (prince)', an 
officers' cadre mainly composed of the junior members of 
the royal family. See Proc. 6th AIOC, pp. 211 ff.; Vogel, 
Ant. Ch. St., p. 123. 

(IE 8-3), in one case, a Kumdr-dmdtya was at first a 
Mantrin, but later became a Mahdbalddhikrta; in another case, 
a Kumdrdmdtya was also a Mantrin. Cf. Kumdra-mahdpdtra, etc. 

Cf. Kumdra-varga pillaigal-tanam (SITI), literally, 'the 
status of the Pillai or prince' ; supposed to be an officers' cadre 
composed mainly of the junior members of the royal family. 

(IE 8-3), also called Khddya(ku*}tapdkika, Sdndhivigrahika, 
Mahddandandyaka, etc., additionally. 

Kumdrdmdty-ddhikarana (BL), office of the Kumdr-dmdtya 

Kumdrapddlya-dmdtya (BL), an Amdtya serving a Kumdra 
or enjoying the status of a Kumdra. Cf. Kumdr-dmdtya. 

kumdr-dsya (IE 7-1-2), 'six'. 

Kumdra-varga (SITI), subordinate chieftains who consi- 
dered themselves as sons of the king or members of the royal 

kumara-vrtti, cf. Tamil pillai-vari (SITI), tax for the upkeep 
of the order of Pillais or Kumdras( princes). Kumdra-vrtti occury 
in the inscriptions of the Western Calukyas of Kalyana. 

kumdrl kurmd 


kumdn-sdhasa (IE 8-5; El 3, 25; CII 4), 'offence against 
an unmarried girl'; fine for abducting an unmarried girl; 
same as kumdrlsdhasa-dosa. 

humdrlsdhasa-dosa (El 32), fine for abducting an 
unmarried girl. 

kumbha (El 5), the pinnacle of a temple; same as kalasa. 
See also kumbhaka. 

kumb-dbhiseka (SII 3), same as Tamil tiru-kkalasa-mudittal 
(SITI), the consecration ceremony of a temple. 

kumbhaka (LL), the base of a pillar. 

kumosa (Cha'mbaJ, forced labour. 

Kumvara (BL), regional modification of Kumdra. 

kdnam (El 16), name of a gold coin. 

kunci (IE 8-6), a measure of capacity usually regarded 
as equal to eight handfuls. 

kunda (El 23), a spring. 

(731), a pond. 

kundi (El 23), a land measure. 

kundikd (LP), a reservoir of water. 

kunjara (IE 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

kunkuma-vastra (ASLV), 'saffron-coloured cloth'; some- 
times the privilege to wear it was granted to particular persons. 

kunnu (Ghamba), also called kunu; a land meausre. 

kunta (Ghamba), name of a tax. 

kunta (El 21), a land measure; cf. guntha. 

kuntala (El 24), 'one who wields the spear'. 

kunu (Chamba), also called kunnu; a land measure. 

kupa (\&p. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 46, note 8), an ordinary well; 
cf. vdpi which is a well with a flight of stairs. 

Kupadarsaka (El 24), a water-diviner; an inspector of 

kupya-grha (HRS), a store-house for forest produce as 
indicated by the Arthasdstra. 

kura, cf. a-kura-chullaka-vindsi-khatvd-vdsa (IE 8-5); ex- 
plained as 'boiled rice'; but probably 'unboiled rice'. The 
villagers were obliged to supply it to the touring officers of 
the king. See vodd, siddh-dnna. 

kuranga-mada ^IA 18), musk. 

kurma (El 14), see madhya-kurma, 'a plot of land elevated 
in the middle.' 

168 kuTsam ku tumba 

kurram (IE 8-4), Tamil; a district or its subdivision; 
sometimes the same as nddu, but sometimes only the part of a 

kuruvinda, cf. kuruvindam (SII 2), an inferior ruby. 

kusa, cf. kusa-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil, tax on the potters. 

kusala (IA 17), used in the sense of punya, religious merit; 
cf. kusala-mula. 

kusala-mula (CII 2-1; ML), 'the root of merit 5 ; used 
to indicate 'a pious deed'. 

Kusalin (CII 3; SII 3; IA 9), 'being in good health', 
used in the preamble of charters to indicate the genuineness 
and validity of the grant made by the donors when they were 
in a healthy state of body and mind; epithet of a donor of 
copper-plate grants to indicate that the charters were issued when 
the donor was not subject to any disease like madness. 

kusutra, (LP), wrong. 

Kuta (IA 7), cf. Rdstrakuta, Desakuta, Grdmakuta. 

Kutaka (El 5j, probably, headman of the cultivators; 
same as Grdmakutaka. 

(IE 8-5; El 4, 26), tax for the maintenance of the Kutaka; 
see pravanikara-kutaka-prabhrti-samast-dddya (Ep.Ind., Vol. IV, p. 

(CII 4), a measure of capacity. 

(El 2), a load or measure of salt. 

Kutakolasa (IE 8-3; El 29), known from the Bhauma- 
Kara records of Orissa; official designation of uncertain import; 
cf. Kuta or Kutaka. 

ku-tdmra (IA 30), a fraudulent charter. 

kuta-sdsana (El 7; IA 30; BL), a forged charter. 

Kutdyukta (El 22), official designation; probably Kuta 
(Kutaka} and Ayukta. 

kutl (IE 8-8), a factory; cf. nila-kuti. 

(LL) } a Buddhist temple; an abbreviation of gandhakuti. 
Kutila, cf. Siddhamdtrkd. 

Kutum (El 33; LP), abbreviation of Kutumbika. 

kutumba (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

kutumba-ksetra (CII 4), an ancestral field. 

kutumba-vrtti, cf. Kannada kuttumbitti (El 18), gift of 
land for the maintenance of the donee's family. 

kutumba-ydtrd (El 12; BL), name of a religious ceremony; 

Kutumbin lakata 169 

a procession of the royal family to the temple of the family 
deity on the occasion of the king's coronation or a marriage 
in the palace. 

Kutumbin (El 12, 17, 23; SII 1), a cultivator; an agri- 
culturist householder; a householder or ryot. 

kutumbinl (El 19; CII 2-1; ML), originally, 'the wife 
of a householder'; later, 'wife' in general (cf. Set. Ins., p. 164). 

kuttumbitti, Kannada; cf. grant of certain towns and kuttum- 
bittis as anuga-jlvita or fief ( Ep. Ind., Vol. XVI, pp. 
81-83); mentioned along with bhatta-grdma (Sanskrit bhakta- 
grdma], 'provision village' (ibid., Vol. XVIII, p. 193); pro- 
bably, Sanskrit kutumba-vrtti, grant made for the maintenance 
of the donee's family. 

Kuvara (BL), regional modification of Kumdra. Cf. 
Kurhvar (Kunar], Kunwar, etc. 

labdhi, 'nine 5 (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 345). 

Idbha (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

Idbhdrikd, Idbhdlikd (Ghamba), Sanskritised form of the 
land measure called Idhadi. 

lag, cf. lagitvd (El 9), 'commencing from, beginning 

Idga (El 11), a cess. 

lagadd (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 309), a load; a bar of 

lagana ( Chamba ) , fines . 

laga-sambandha, Idga-bhdga (LP), 'any connection.' 

laggdvqyitvd(IE 8-5), 'having planted'; cf. Bengali Idgdiyd. 
See JAS, Letters, Vol. XX, p. 202. 

Idgi-drammdh (LP), 'expenses incurred'. 

lagna (I A 17; SII 1), an astronomical term; the rising 
of a sign of the zodiac or its passing the meridian. See Ind. 
Ant., Vol. XVIII, pp. 16 ff. 

lagna-devl (IA 30), Jain; a stone-cow. 

Idhadi, Idhadi (Chamba), a land measure. See Idbhd- 
rikd, Idbhdlikd. 

lakdra (IE 7-1-2), 'ten'. 

lakata (IE 8-8), meaning uncertain. Cf. drdraka-lakatd, 
probably, dried ginger stick or undried fire-wood. 

1 70 laksa lavafta 

laksa-ddna (El 12), name of a gift. 
laksa-homa (SI I 11-1), name of a rite. 
laksana (IA 18), the sexual parts; the male organ; cf. 
nirlaksitavya, to be castrated. 
' (CII 1), branding. 

(SII 3; SITI), a document or deed; an inscription. 
Laksan-ddhyaksa (HRS), according to the Arthasdstra, 
the superintendent of the mint, or royal dues received by the 
superintendent of the mint. 

Ldkula, also called Ldkulesvara(EI 15), a aiva sect follow- 
ing Lakulisa. 

Lakulesvar-dgama (CITD), a form of Saivism associated 
with Lakulisa. 

Ldla-khandeya-kdvar-adhisthdyaka (IE 8-3), Kannada-Sans- 
krit; 'superintendent of the revenue from Lata'. 
lambd-pataha (El 12), a kind of drum. 
Idnchana (El 28), an emblem. Cf. cihna. 
(El 9), the [royal] emblem; cf. Tamil Idnjanai-pperu, 
Idnjinai-pperuy ildnjai-pperu (SITI), the royal seal. 

(CII 3, etc.), a crest as distinguished from dhvaja or a 
banner. Cf. cihna. 

(HA} 9 the distinguishing mark or symbol of a Jina 
image, which helps one to identify the diffrerent Jinas. 
Idnchita (El 29), 'registered with a seal (ldnchana)\ 
Idngadi (LP), a cart or carriage; cf. uchdlaka-bhrta-ldngadi, 
'a cartful of household furniture'. 

Lanka (El 19), a carpenter; cf. Lenka, Lerikd, Budhdlenkd. 
lapita (CII 1), used in the sense of ukta. 
la-sarh (IA 18), abbreviation of laksmanasena-samvatsara, 
'the era of Laksmanasena'. 

lasti (CII 4), same as Sanskrit yasti\ a memorial pillar. 

Lattalurapura-paramesvara (IE 8-2), a typical title of the 

Rastrakutas claiming the city of Lattalura to have been their 

original home. Similar titles are quite common in the early 

medieval records especially of the Kannada-speaking area. 

lauki , laukika (IA 18), abbreviation of laukika-ganawyd. 
Laukika-samvatsara is a year of the Laukika era. 

lavalikd (LP), loquacity; cf. Gujarat! lavlav or lavdro. 
lavana, cf. a-lavana-khdtaka (IE 8-5); salt [the produc- 
tion of which was the monopoly of the king or landlord] . 

lavana Lipikrt 1 ? 1 

(IE 7-1-2), 'five'; also 'cutting [of plants]'. 

lavan-dkara (El 24, El 30), a salt pit or mine. 

lay ana (LL, El 22), Prakrit lew\ an excavated cave; a 
cave; the residence of monks. 

lekha (LP), official letter; cf. likhita, a private letter. 

Lekh-ddhikdrin (HD), secretary. See Rdjatarangim, III. 206. 

Lekhahdra, Lekhahdraka (El 21; HD), the carrier of letters 
(see Rdjatarangim, VI. 319). 

Lekhaka (CII 3, etc.), a writer; a technical term for one 
who wrote a record [on copper plates, stone slabs, etc., in 
order to facilitate its correct engraving by an artisan], as 
opposed to the composer of the document (see also likhita). 

(IE 8-3; El 28, 30; LL; HD), a writer, scribe or clerk 
(see Bomb. Gaz., Vol. XVI, pp. 582 and 605; Visnudharmottara, 
II. 24. 26-28; Sukranltisdra, II. 120). 

(LP), a record or document; mistake for lekhana. 

Lekhan-ddhyaksa (CII 3), the superintendent of the 
writing of documents. 

Lekhayitr (El 12), one who is responsible for getting a 
grant recorded; mentioned together with Sdsayitr', cf. Ajnapti. 

Lekhita, Lekhitr (El 24), same as Lekhaka', a writer. 

Lenka (El 3; SII 11-1), Lenkd (El 28), a servant; a 
Sudra servant; a writer, according to some. 

Lepyakdra, model^maker (Journ. Or. Inst., Vol. X, No. 1, 
p. 13). 

likhita (CII 3, 4, etc.), 'written'; a technical term indi- 
cating the manual drafting or writing of a record, as opposed 
to the composition and engraving of it; see also lekhaka. 

(LP), a private letter; cf. lekha, an official letter. 

linga (BL; SII 1; CII 3, etc.), same as siva-linga', the 
phallic emlem of Siva; the emblem connected with the worship 
of Siva; generally named after the founder with the suffix 

lingorana (IA 11), conjecturally translated as 'the festival 
of rams [to be sacrificed] to the lingas\ 

lipi (SII 3), a letter. 

Lipikara (IE 8-3; El 3; HD), a scribe or writer. See 
CII, Vol. I, p. 176; Panini, III. 2. 21. 

Lipikrt-kula (El 33), the community of scribes; the 
Kayastha community. 

1 72 lobha mada 

Lobha-vijayin (CII 4), 'an avaricious conqueror*. 

locana (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

loha, cf. so-loha-lavan-dkara (IE 8-5), together with mines 
of metals and salt pits [the right of which normally belonged 
to the king] '. 

Loha-carma-kdra (El 24), workers in metal and leather. 

lohadiyd, name of a coin equal to 20 pdvisds and 100 
cowrie-shells; cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 238. 

Lohdra (El 4; BL), modification of Lohakdra; a black- 

Loha-vdnija (LL) an iron-monger. 

Lohika-kdruka (LL), a worker in metal. 

Lohita (ML), a blood relation. 

lohitaka, weight equal to 3 mdsas (JJVS7, Vol. XVI, p. 

loka (IE 7-1-2), 'fourteen'; sometimes also 'three'; 
rarely used to indicate 'seven'. 

Lokapdla (Gil 3, etc.), a guardian of one of the quarters 
of the world, originally conceived as four in number and later 
as eight. 

(El 15), cf. the king called 'the fifth Lokapdla\ the four 
Lokapdlas (guardians of the four quarters) being originally 
Yama of the south, Varuna of the west, Kubera of the north 
and Vasava of the east. In the same sense, the king was 
also called madhyama-loka-pdla, though madhyama-loka may 
also mean 'the earth' standing midway between the heavens 
and the netherworld. See Sue. Sat., pp. 196, 202; Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXXII, p. 93. Gf. Pancama-lokapdla. 


Ma (IE 8-1), abbreviation of Mangala-vdra, Tuesday. 

(PJS), abbreviation of Mahattama, Mantrin, Mahetd 
(meaning 'a clerk' or 'a teacher' in Gujarat!), etc. (especially 
in medieval Jain inscriptions). 

ma (IE 8-6; SII 12; SITI), Tamil; a land measure equal 
to one- twentieth of a veli; also the name of a weight. 

mada (IE 8-8; El 7), Telugu; same as Odiya mddha or 
mddhd and Tamil mddai; a coin of gold or silver; 40 ratis in 
weight; cf. biruda-mdda, malla-mdda y mallanandi-mdda, surabhi- 

mdda madhyama 


mdda, ganda-mdda, kulottunga-mdda (El 29), gandhavdranamdda (or 
gandhahasti-mdda] , cdmara-mdda, uttama-gandamdda, padmanidhi- 
malla-mdda, rdjardja-mdda, rdjendracola-mdda, etc. The ganda-mdda 
is sometimes called kdrsdpana, niska and gandaniska and is also 
characterised in a few cases with the epithet 'small'. See 
mddai, mddha. Note names like kulottunga-mdda, a coin issued by 
the Go.Ja king Kulottunga. See JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 43. 

(CITD), Telugu; half a pagoda; half of a dinar or the 
tenth of a pana ( cf. badi-mdduvulu ) ; half or 50 per cent of 
revenue, etc.; a weight of gold; money in general. Four 
mddas are equal to one carsam (karsa ?). 

(IE 8-5), probably, payment of 50 per cent; see mddalu. 

mdda-badi-pdtuka (CITD), Telugu; an unknown coin 
with a fraction of the value of a mdda. Badi means 'petty' and 
pdtika 'a quarter'. 

Madahastipddaraksd-pdlaka (IA 30), explained as 'the captain 
of the guards of elephants'. 

mddai (IE 8-8; El 7), Tamil; same as mdtjha, mddhd 
and mdda; cf. rdjardjan-mddai, madhurdntakan-mddai, bhujabala- 
mddai (El 7), etc.; often a gold coin ( SII 12 ). Tamil mddai 
is the same as mdsd derived from Sanskrit mdsaka. 

(,$777), name of a gold coin; a half pagoda; cf. nellur- 
mddai (SITI), a coin current in olden days and issued from 
Nellore; also known as nellur-ppudu-mddai; also cf. gandagopdlari- 

mddalu (IE 8-5; El 33), same as mdda, a levy; probably, 
'payment of 50 per cent'; cf. Kannada pannasa or panndsa. 

madamba (El 24), a territorial division. 

Madana-tithi (IA 17), Caitra ba-di 13. 

mdddsydta (CII 3), usually taken to be a word of uncertain 
import, but may really be the name of a locality. 

maddala (SII 3), a musical instrument. 

mddha, mddhd (IE 8-8; El 28, 29, 30, 33), Odiya; a silver 
coin; also a gold coin; 40 ratis in weight; same as mdda or 

madhya (CII 1), middle course. 

madhya-divasa (ML), mid-day. 

madhya-kurma (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV p. 98), probably, a 
plot of land elevated in the middle. 

madhyama (CII 1 ), a class between the upper and the lower. 

1 74 Madhyamalokapdla Mahdbhogika 

Madhyamalokapdla, epithet of kings; cf. Lokapdla. 

madhyastha (El 8, 25; SII2; ASLV; SITI), a neutral 
person, generally the village headman ; a mediator or arbitrator ; 
secretary of the village assembly (SII 13). 

madya-pdna (SII 3), intoxicating drinks. 

madya-vahanaka (IE 8-8), a carrier of wine. 

Maga (El 9; BL), the same as Sdkadviplya; a community 
of Brahmanas; name of the members of the Persian priestly 
community (Magi) settled in India and absorbed in the Brah- 
mana class. 

mdgdni (ASLV), an administrative unit. 

mdgdni-sthdna (El 13), epithet of a locality. 

Mahd (PJS), abbreviation of Mahdjana (especially in 
medieval Jain inscriptions). 

Cf. Mahd-Mula (i.e. the elder Mula) distinguished from 
Ksudra-Mula (i.e. the younger Mula) ; also Mahd-Dharmagiri 
and Ksudra-Dharmagiri, etc. 

Mahdbalddhikaranika (IE 8-3), superintendent of the 
office of the Mahdbalddhikrta. 

Mahdbalddhikrta (HD), 'the great commander'; desig- 
nation of a military officer who was, in one case, originally a 
Mantrin (IE 8-3); see Balddhikrta and Mahdbalddhyaksa. 

Mahdbalddhyaksa (CII 3), military title. See Balddhyaksa 
and Mahdbalddhikrta. 

Mahdbalakosthika (IE 8-3), treasurer of the military 
department. Cf. ranabhanddgar-adhikarana (Raychaudhuri, PHAI, 
1950, p. 563). 

mahdbhdnddgdra (El 12), treasury; cf. bhdnddgdra. 

Mahdbhdnddgdrika (IE 8-2; HD) treasurer; one of the 
designations often included in the panca-mahdsabda as indicated 
by the Rajatarangim. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. II, p. 39; Rdjatarangim, 
IV. 142. Cf. Bhdnddgdrika. 

(CII 4), explained as 'the Chancellor of the Exchequer'. 

Mahdbhdnddgdrin(lE 8-3), KannadaHiriyabhanddgdrin; some- 
times also called Mahdpradhdna, Sarvddhikdrin, etc., additionally. 

Mahdbhdrata-vrtti (SITI), land endowed to persons for 
expounding the Mahdbhdrata. 

Mahdbhogapati (El 26), official designation; probably, the 
superintendent of rent-free holdings ; cf. Mahdbhogika, Bhogapati. 
(EJ 26; HD), a big Jdgirddr; cf. Ep. Ind., 

Mahdbhoja mahddeva 1 75 

Vol. XII, p. 9; also cf. Bhogika and Mahdbhogapati. 

Mahdbhoja (IE 8-2; El 7, 22, 28; LL) 3 a big Jdglrddr-, 
title of a feudatory ruler; see Bhojaka. 

Mahdbhoji (LL), wife of a Mahdbhoja. 

mahdbhuta (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

mahdbhutaghata-ddna (SITI), name of a mahdddna. 

mahdbhutaka (El 14), name of a mahdddna', same as 
mahdbh utaghata-ddna. 

mahdcaturdasl-parvan (El 9), 14th frV/h* of the bright half 
of a month. 

mahdcaitya (LL), a great caitya (q. v.). 

mahdddha (SITI), name of a hell which one is supposed to 
pass through after death on the way to the other world. 

mahdddna (El 7, 16; Gil 4), a great gift, 16 of which are 
enumerated in the Puranas (see Hist. Dharm., Vol. II, pp. 
869-70; Sue. Sat. L. Dec., pp. 50f.). 

Mahdddn-dksapatal-ddhikrta (El 31), officer in charge of 
the accounts section of the gift department. 

Mahdddnapati (El 23; ML; HD), 'the great gift-lord 5 , 
designation of one who gives a gift. Gf. CII, Vol. II, Pt. i., p. 
28. Cf. Ddnapati (El 28), dedicator of an image of a god on 
the fulfilment of a desire. 

Mahdddnapatnl (El 20), feminine form of Mahdddnapati ; 
a female bestower of gifts. 

Mahddandandyaka (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 30; CII 3,4; BL.; HD); 
commander of forces; also called Khddya(ku*) tapdkika, San- 
dhivigrahika, Kumdrdmdtya, etc., additionally; one of the desig- 
nations sometimes included in the panca-mahdsabda; cf. the case 
of Maitraka Dhruvasena I (Ep. Ind., Vol. XX, p. 7; Ind. 
Ant., Vol. IV, p. 105). The five mahdsabdas applied to Dhruva- 
sena are Mahddandandyaka, Mahdsdmanta, Mahdpratlhdra, Mahd- 
kdrtdkrtika and Maharaja. See Dandandyaka, Sarvadanda- 
ndyaka, Mahdsarvadandandyaka, Dandapati. 

Mahdddnika (CII 4), head of the department of charity; 
officer in charge of donations; som times explained as c the officer 
superintending the performance of the mahdddna ceremonies' 
(HD). See Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 91. Cf. Dharmddhyaksa. 

Mahddauhsddhasddhanika (HD), cf. Dauhsddhasddhanika. 
See Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 321. 

mahddeva (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

1 76 Mahddevi mahdgrdma 

Mahddevl (IE 8-2; El 7; CII 3, 4; HD), a queen; 
often wrongly taken as the first wife of a king or his chief 
queen (SITI); a title of the wives originally of paramount 
sovereigns and later also of feudatory rulers; cf. Devi, Agra- 
mahddevi, Mahdmahddevl. 

Mahddharmddhikaranika (CII 4), explained as the chief 
justice (HD). Gf. Ep. 2nd., Vol. II, p. 309. See Dharmddhikara- 
nika and Mahddharmddhyaksa, head of the department of 
religious; affairs. 

Mahddharm-ddhyaksa (IE 8-3; El 12, 21, 26, 33; HD), 
explained as 'the chief judge'; but really f officer' in charge of 
charities, etc.'; cf. Dharmddhyaksa and Mahddharmddhikaranika. 

Mahddhirdja (IE 8-2; El 12), royal title; cf. Adhirdja\ 
also cf. Dharmamahddhirdja (El 12). 

(CII 3), a feudatory title. 

Mahddhyaksa (El 12; CII 4), 'the chief superintendent 5 ; 
cf. Adhyaksa. 

Mahddlksita (El 4), cf. Diksita. 

mahd-dosa, cf. mahddosa-vivarjita (El 23) as an epithet of 
the gift village; probably, fines for great crimes. 

mahd-dvddasaka (IE 8-4), 'the great twelve'; suffixed 
to the name of a district probably consisting of twelve 
Parganas or sub-districts. 

mahd-dvddasl (El 9; IA 26), also called pdpandsinl; name 
of a tithi; eight kinds of the twelfth tithi. 

Mahddvdr-ddhipati (BL), possibly the same as 'the lord 
(i.e. the guard) of the Dvdra (a pass)' of the Rdjatarangim ; 
mentioned along with the Mahdsainyapati and Mahdpratihdra. 

Mahdgajapati (El 30), 'the great lord of elephants'; cf. 
Gajapati, etc. 

Mahdganastha (IE 8-3; El 26; HD), probably, the 
chairman of a guild or superintendent of guilds ; cf. Ganastha 
and Ganattdr. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 160. 

maha-gandhakutl (LL), a Buddhist temple; cf. gandhakutl 
and kutl. 

Mahdgovallabha (El 24), the superintendent of cattle; 
see Govallabha. 

mahdgrahdra (Sill 1-1), see agrahdra. 

mahdgrdma (IE 8-4), a small territorial unit; a group 
of villages; cf.gram-dhdra. 

Mahdgrdmika Mahdkottapdla 1 77 

Mahdgrdmika (IE 8-3), ruler of a mahdgrdma (subdivision 
of a district or a group of villages). 

Mahdjana (SITI; ASLV), Brahman a residents of the 
entire village; all the members of the village assembly; 
general body of the sabhd or village assembly. 
(/E8-3), a member of village council. 
(78), a merchant. 
(LP), generally, the merchants, magnates, grandees. 

mahdj ana- sabhd (IE-3), village council. 

mahdjaya, mahdjayd (El 7; I A 26), name of a tithi; same 
as su-di 7. 

mahdkarana, cf. sa-manca-mahdkarana (IE 8-5), an expression 
of doubtful import; probably, Official records'. 

Mahdkaranddhyaksa (IE 8-3), head of the department of 

Mahdkaranika (CII 4; HD), the chief secretary ; the chief 
scribe. Gf. Ep. Ind.,Vol. II, p. 309. Cf.Karanika. 

Mahdkartaka (LL), epithet of an artisan. 

Mahdkdrtdkrtika (IE 8-2; El 29, 30; Gil 3; HD), official 
designation of uncertain import; probably, a reporter who 
informed the king about the progress of big undertakings ; some- 
times explained as 'the royal agent or judge'; one of the desig- 
nations sometimes included in the panca-mahdsabda; cf. the case 
of Maitraka Dhruvasena I. Cf. Ind. Ant., Vol. XV, p. 306. 
See Kdrtdkrtika. 

Mahdkdrttikl (El 11; CII 4), full-moon day of the month 
of Karttika. 

Mahdkatuka (IE 8-3), official designation of uncertain 

Mahdkavi (CII 4), 'great poet'; title. 

Mahdkavicakravartin (El 30; BL), title of a poet. 

Mahdkhadgadhara (El 30), official designation. See 
Khadgadhara, Khadgagrdha, etc. 

Mahdkhalaraksaka ( LP ), superintendent of the king's 
threshing floors. 

mah-dkheta (El 5), a great hunting expedition. 

Mahdkosthdgdrin ( SI I 2 ), 'great treasurer'; cf. 

Mahdkottapdla (CII 4), chief guardian of a frot or the 
fprts; cf. Kottapdla. 

1 78 Mahaksa Mahallaka 

Mahdksa (El 33), abbreviation of Mahaksapatalika. 
mahdksa-ni (IE 8-1), abbreviation of mahdksapatalika- 
ninksita, 'examined by the Mahaksapatalika^ ; ni may not be 
an abbreviation of nibaddha (registered) in this case since 
mahdksa-ni is often used along with serveral other expressions 
of the kind. See ni. 

mahdksapdla-karana, cf. karana (LP); explained as 'the 
depository of legal documents'. 

Mahdksapatal-ddhikaran-ddhikrta (BL) superintendent of the 
office of the aksapatala or mahdksapatala department; some- 
times regarded as the same as Mahaksapatalika (HD). Cf. 
Mahdksapatal-ddhikrta, etc. 

Mahdksapatal-ddhikrta (BL), same as Mahdksapatalddhi- 
karan-ddhikrta or Mahdksapatalddhyaksa; also called Mahd- 
ksapdla (cf. karana}. 

Mahdksapatal-ddhyaksa (BL), see Aksapatal-ddhyaksa. 
Mahaksapatalika (IE 8-3; CII 3; El 30; BL; HD),' record- 
keeper and accountant; same as Mahdksapatal-ddhyaksa; see 
Aksapatalika, sometimes explained as 'the chief keeper of records' 
(Gil 4). Cf. CII, Vol. Ill, p. 120. 
(IE 8-3), mentioned as a Pdtra. 
Mahdksapatalin (El 33), same as Mahaksapatalika. 
Mahdksatrapa (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 16, 27; CII 4; BL; ML; 
HD), the great Satrap or provincial governor; feudatory title 
of foreign origin; originally, title of a provincial governor; 
later the Sakas of Western India continued to use it even when 
they were practically independent. Cf. CII, Vol. II, p. 48. See 

Mahdkulapati (El 29), epithet of a priest. 
Mahdkumdra (CII 4), title of a prince or the crown- 

(IE 8-2; El 28; BL), title of certain rulers; title of some 
semi-independent Paramara rulers. 

Mahdkumdrdmdtya (El 29; CII 3; HD), see Kumdrdmdtya. 
Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 321. 

mahdlayd (EI33 ) , name of a tithi;p urnimdnta Asvina-badi 15. 
Mahale, Mahaleka (I A 9), Ceylonese; official designation. 
Mahallaka (IE 8-5; El 25), probably, a member of the 

Pancdyat; explained as 'city elders'; cf. yat nagara-mahallakd 

vicdrya vadante, etc. 

Maham Mahdmandalesvara 1 79 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 20) ; also called Mahalldka, 

(CII 4), same as Mahattara. 

(El 2; CII 1), an old man. In Odiya, it means a guard 
of the royal harem. 

(CII 1), big, vast. 
(El 23), a landlord. 

Maham (BL), abbreviation of Mahattama. 
(LP), abbreviation of Mahantaka. 

Maha, Maham (IA 18), abbreviations of Mahattara or 

Mahdmahddevl (BL), designation of a queen or the chief 
queen ; cf. Mahddevl. 

Mahdmahantaka (El 7; CII 4; HD), same as Mahd- 
mahattaka. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 91. 

Mahdmahattaka (El 25, 33; CII 4; HD; BL), head of 
a group of villages or of the village council ; chief among the 
village headmen; same as Mahdmahattara, Mahdmahattama. 
Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 362. See Mahattaka. 

Mahdmahattama ( BL ), same as Mahdmahattaka, Mahd- 

Mahdmahattara (IE 8-3; El 26, 29; BL), mentioned along 
with the Mahattara; probably, the chairman of the council 
of Mahattaras; same as Mahdmahattaka, Mahdmahattama; see 

mahdmahavdrum (El 4j, name of a tithi; same as vdrum 
andmahd-vdrum; amdnta Caitra-badi 13 with Satabhisa-naksatra. 

Mahdmahisi (IE 8-2), cf. Piriya-arasi (IE 8-2), Kannada; 
title of a chief queen; see Mahisi. 

Mahdmahopddhyaya, title of certain scholars like Jivadeva 
of Orissa. 

mahamai (El 17), Tamil magamai; name of a tax. 

mahdmakha (El 25), a festival. 

Mahdmandala-cakravartin (El 9), royal title. 

Mahdmandal-dcdrya (El 26), title of a Buddhist teacher. 

Mahdmandal-ddhipati (El 29), same as Mahdmandalesvara. 

Mahdmandala-ndtha (HD), same as Mahdmandalesvara. Cf. 
Ep. Ind., Vol. II, p. 227. 

Mahdmandalesvara (IE 8-2; El 30; CII 4; HD; BL; 
CITD), according to the lexicons, a sovereign ruler 

180 Mahdmandalesvara Mahdmdtra 

who is the lord of 40 yojanas of land and a lakh of villages; but, 
in insciriptions, generally, the governor of a district or pro- 
vince; title of a feudatory ruler or governor (see Bomb. Gaz., 
Vol. XXI, p. 354); see Mandalesvara essentially meaning 'the 
ruler of a mandala or district'; also called Mahdmandalika, etc.,, 
cf. Mahdmandalesvar-ddhipati. The status of a Mahdmandal- 
esvara seems to have been superior to that of a Mandalesvara, 
while Mahdmandalesvarddhipati apparently enjoyed a still higher 

Mahdmandalesvar-ddhipati (IE 8-2; El 23), title of a 
feudatory higher in rank than a Mahdmandalesvara (cf. Mahd- 
sdmantddhipati) ; a feudatory who had some subordinate chiefs 
under him; cf. Mahdmandalesvara, Mandalesvara. 

Mahdmandalika (IE 8-3), feudatory title; see Mahd- 

Mahdmandalika (HD), same as Mahdmandalesvara. Cf. 
Ind. Ant., Vol. IX, p. 35. See Mahdmandalika, Mahdmandale- 
svar-ddhipati, Mdndalika etc. 

mahdmandapa (SITI), a large pillared hall next to the 
ardha-mandapa in a temple; also called mukha-mandapa. 

Mahdmantrin (El 12, 30; CII 4; IA 19; BL*; HD), 'the 
chief minister or counsellor'. See Mantrin. Gf. Ep. Ind., Vol. 
II, p. 309. 

Mahdmanusya (IE 8-3), probably, a landlord; mentioned 
in the list of a king's subordinates, cf. Mahdjana. 

Mahdmdtra (IE 8-3), cf. Prakrit Mahdmdta (El 3); a high 
executive officer employed in various capacities ; cf. Nagara- 
vyavahdrika-mahdmdtra, Stryadhyaksa-mahdmdtra, Dharma-mahdmdtra, 
etc.; adopted in Greek as Mamdtrai. See CII, Vol. I, p. 92, 
etc.; Arthasdstra, I. 12, V. 1; etc.; Kdmasutra, V. 5. 17. 33 and 
35. The word Mahdmdtra in Manu, IX. 259, is explained by 
Medhatithi as 'the Mantrin, Purohita and others' and by Kulluka 
as meaning 'the professional tamers of elephants'. (SITI) 
explained as 'a senior minister.' See Mdtra in a similar sense. 

Cf. Antahpura-mahdmdtra in the Masulipatnam plates of 
Amma II (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV, p. 276). 
(El 28; CII 4), 'an elephant-driver'. 
Mahdmdtra-gana (Gil 4), corporation of elephant-drivers. 
Mahdmdtra-nagaravyavahdrika (CII 1), an executive officer 
who is the judge or administrator of a city. 

mahdmdtrkd mahd 1 8 1 

mahdmdtrkd, 'mother's mother'; used side by side with 
dryikd, 'father's mother' (Select Inscriptions, p. 225). 

Mahdmdtya (IE 8-3; El 25; Gil 4; BL), the chief minister 
or executive officer; the prime minister or a viceroy (HD); 
see Amdtya; sometimes also called a Mahdpradhdna additionally. 
Gf. Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., p. 122; Ind. Ant., Vol. XI, p. 242. 

Mahdmdtya-vara (El 30), chief minister; cf. Amdtya and 

mahdmeru-sri-kirtistambha (BL), name of Mahdrdnd 
Kumbha's tower at Chitor. 

Mahdmudr-ddhikna (IE 8-3; El 12, 14, 15; HD), the 
keeper of the royal seal; officer in charge of the royal seal; cf. 
Mahdmudr-dmdtya. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 9. 

Mahdmudr-dmdtya (IA 11), same as Mahdmudr-ddhikrta; 
cf. Mudr-ddhikdrin, etc. 

mahd-muraja (ASLV), a musical instrument. 
Mahdna (Chamba), a writer; possibly from Sanskrit 

Mahdndd-prabhu (ASLV), the Pattanasvdmin (q.v.) of 
the rural areas. 

mahd-nddu (SITI), general assembly of the mercantile 
community of a district. 

mahd-nagara (SITI), merchants' guild of a city; cf. 

mahanaloka, possibly the same as Sanskrit mahalloka 
mahdjana (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 143). 

Mahdnas-ddhyaksa (IE 8-3), Kannada Bhdnasa-ve'rgade' 

(El 5); superintendent of the royal kitchen; sometimes also 

called Mahdsdmantddhipati, Mahdpradhdna, Accupanndyadadhisthd- 

yaka, etc., additionally; cf. Mahdnasika, Supakdrapati, Khddya- 

(ku*}tapdkika, etc. 

Mahdnasika, 'the kitchen-officer' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, 
p. 156J; cf. Mahanas-ddhyakasa. 

mahdnavami-amdvdsyd (El 5; IA 18), Kannada name for 
the new-moon of Bhadrapada; new-moon preceding the 

Mahdndvika (El 27), the captain of a ship. 
Mahdndyaka (El 4; BL), official designation probably 
indicating a class of feudatories; a subordinate title. 

mahd-ni (IE 8-1), abbreviation of some such expression 

1 82 mahd Mahapasayita 

as Mahdsdndhivigrahika-nmksita, 'approved by the Mahdsdndhwi- 
grahika*. See ni. 

mahd-niyoga (SITIj, king's order; royal command; an 
officer bearing the same. 

Mahant (El 4), variant spelling of Mahanta\ the same 
as Mahantaka. 

Mahanta (El 8; BL), head of a monastery; title of a pontiff. 

(ML), Prakrit form of Sanskrit mahat\ 'the great'; a 

Mahantaka (LPj, an accountant; a clerk. It is a term 
of respect among the Baniyas of Gujarat. 

Mahdpddamulika (IE 8-3), the king's chief personal 

Mahdpalupati (Ep. Ind., Vol. II, p. 22), same as Mahd- 

mahdpana, cf . mdppanam (SITI), name of a coin. 

Mahdpancakulika (Gil 4; HD), 'head of the department 
of Pancdyats' or 'the chairman of a Pdncdyat board'; see panca- 
kula. Gi. JBORS, Vol. V, p. 588. 

Mahdpdndhdkulika (Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 87), a mistake 
for or wrong reading of Mahdpancakulika. 

mahd-pdpa (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

Mahdpandita (El 9; BL), title of a learned man, generally 
a learned Brahmana. 

Mahdparamavisvdsin (IE 8-3; El 5), probably, a private 
secretary or privy councillor; same as Rahasyddhikrta, etc.; 
sometimes called Mahdpradhdria, Sarvddhikdriri, etc., additionally. 
See Paramavisvdsiri, Vaisvdsika, etc. 

mahdparinirvdna (Gil 4), the passing away of the Buddha. 

mahdparsad (El 32), an assembly or committee. 

mahdpdrsika (El 32), used in the sense of 'a member of the 
mahdparsad 3 . 

mahd-parvan (El 12), auspicious time. 

Mahdpdtra (IE 8-3; El 19, 30), a minister; a minister 
higher in rank than the Pdtra; cf. Pair a and Ekapdtra. 

Mahapasayita (IE 8-3; El 5, 27), probably from Sanskrit 
Prasddita, 'favoured', meaning a Jdgirddr of a particular type; 
sbme times also called Mahdpradhdna, Antahpuravfrgade, Danda- 
ndyaka, Sarvddhikdrin y Mahdsdmanta, Senddibdh attar aniyogddhisthd- 
yaka > etc., additionally; cf. Pasdita, Pasdyita. 

Mahdpfoiyapradhdna Mahdpramdtdra 1 o3 

Alahdperiyapradhdna (El 24), Sanskrit Mahdbrhatpradhdna; 
see Mahdpradhdna. 

Mahdpllupati (IE 8-3; El 28), 'the great superintendent 
of elephants' ; chief of the elephant corps ; the master of ele- 
phants; sometimes also called Maharaja, Mahdsdmanta, Pancd- 
dhikaran-oparika, Mahdpratlhdra, Pdty-uparika, Purapdl-oparika, 
etc., additionally. Cf. Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. IX, p. 298. The word 
pllu is the same as Perso-Arabic/z/. SeeMahdpalupati andPllupati. 
Mahdprabhu (El 21, 32), sometimes used in respect of 
subordinate rulers; (HD), a governor; cf. Ep. Irtd., Vol. XII, 
p. 335. (SITI) 'the great banker'; the senior merchant; the 
title by which the leader of the ndnddesi merchant community 
was designated. 

(IA 30), a village official; see Prabhu. 
(El 19), explained as 'the high sheriff '. 
Mahdpracanda (El 12), either a separate official desig- 
nation or an epithet prefixed to the designation Ndyaka or 

Mahdpracanda-dandandyaka (El 20), official designation; 
cf. Mahdpracanda and Dandandyaka. 

Mahdpracanda-ndyaka (El 29), official designation; cf. 
Mahdpracan da-dan dandy aka . 

Mahdpradhdna (IE 8-3; El 30; Gil 4; BL; HD), 'the 
great minister '; c the chief minister or administrator'; sometimes 
also called Mahdsdmant-ddhipati\ Antahpura-vergade (ddhyaksa} 9 
Mahdpasdyita t Sendpati, Heri(Mahd}sandhivigrahika, Man&- 
vfrgade, Kaditavergade, Senddhipati, Antahpur-ddhyaksa, H$ri-Ld{a- 
Kannada-sandhivigrahin, Bhdnasa-vergad8, Accupandyadadhisthdyaka, 
Sarvddhikdrin, Heri (Mahd] bhdnddgdrin, Bdhattaraniyogddhipati, 
Pattasdhan-ddhisthdyaka, Sendpati, Dandandyaka^ Mahdsdmanta, 
Senddibhdhattaraniyog-ddhisthdyaka, Mahdmdtya, Paramavisvdsin, 
Mahdparamavisvdsin, etc., additionally. Cf. Ep.Irtd.,Vol.V, p. 28. 
(777), senior councillor of the king, usually a military 
officer; same as Mahdpradhdni. See Pradhdna. 

Mahdpradhdna-ndyaka (IA 12), regarded as a single official 
designation; but probably Mahdpradhdna and Nay aka. 

Mahdpradhdni (GITD; ASLV), often, the chief minister 
or administrator; same as Mahdradhdna; a high executive officer. 
Mahdpramdtdra (BL; MD), same as Mahdpramdtr, Mahd- 
pramdtra or Mahdpramattavdra. Cf. Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. IV, p. 280, 

184 Mahdpramatr Maharaja 

Mahdpramatr (CII 4), explained as 'the chief surveyor*; 
same as Mahdpramdtdra, etc. 

Mahdpramdtra (El 12), same as Mahdpramdtr, Mahd- 
pramdtdra, etc. 

Mahdpramattavdra (HD), probably, the same as Mahd- 
pramdtdra, etc.; explained wrongly as 'the chief of the elephant 
corps' (CII 4) ; cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 141 . 

Mahd-prati ( IA 18 ), abbreviation of Mahdmdtya- 

Mahdpratihdra, Mahdpratihdra (IE 8-2; El 30; CII 3; 
BL), head of the door-keepers of the palace or the king's 
chamber, or of the capital city; sometimes explained as 'the 
chief usher' (CII 4). See Pratihdra. 

(HD)i the superior officer above all door-keepers, the 
great chamberlain. See Kddambarl, para. 97; Rdjatarangim, IV. 
142; Ep. Ind., Vol. X, p. 75; etc. 

(IE 8-2), one of the designations often included in the 
panca-mahdsabda, as indicated by the Rdjataranginl. 

(IE 8-3), sometimes also called Maharaja, Mahdsdmanta, 
Mahdpilupati, Pancakaran-oparika, Pdty-uparika, Purapdl-oparika, 
etc., additionally. 

mahdpratihdra-pidd (El 12), occurs in the Rdjatarangim; 
explained as 'the office of the high chamberlain'. 

mahd-pratoli (BL), main gateway; cf. pr atoll. 

Mahdpurohita (IE 8-3; CII 4), chief priest. 

Mahdpurohita-thakkura (IE 8-3), 'the head of the chief 
priests'; mentioned as a Pdtra along with Mahdpurohita, 
Dharmddhikaranika, Daivdgdrika, Sankhadhdriri, Pandita, Upd- 
dhydya, Daivqjfta, Mahdrthasdsanika, etc. 

Mahdpurusa (BL), same as the god Visnu. 

(El 7), official designation; probably, the same as Mahd- 

Mahara (El 1), probably a mistake for Mahattara, 'a 
village-headman' or 'a member of the village Pancayat*. 

Maharaja (IE 8-2; El 30; CII 3, 4; HDj, royal title 
first assumed by the foreign rulers of India and later adopted by 
indigenous rulers; originally, an imperial title; later (when the 
emperors assumed more dignified titles), a title of feudatories 
and smaller rulers; cf. Greek Basileos Megalou and Old Persian 
Kshayathiya vazrka. Cf. Ep. Irid., Vol. IV, p. 211. 

htahardja Mahdrdnd 1 & 5 

(IE 8-2), one of the designations sometimes included in 
the panca-mahdsabda; cf. the case of Maitraka Dhruvasena I. 

(IE 8-3 ) , sometimes also called Mahdsdmanta,Mahdpratlhdra , 
Mahdpllupati, Pancddhikaran-oparika, Pdty-uparika, Purapdl-oparika, 
etc., additionally. 

(IE 8-2), often used in the South even when Maharaja- 
dhirdja became the popular imperial title in the North. 

(ASLV), designation of a priest of the members of the 
Vallabhacarya sect. Cf. Mahanta-mahdrdja, title of pontiffs. 

Mahdrdja-bappa-svdmin (IE 8-2), designation by which 
the father and predecessor of a ruling king is sometimes 
referred to. 

Mahdrdjddhi (Gil 3), abbreviation of Mahdrdjddhirdja. 

Mahdrdjddhirdja (IE 8-2; El 3; CII 3, 4), one of the 
technical titles of paramount sovereignty closely connected 
with Paramabhattdraka and Paramesvara; later sometimes also 
assumed by subordinate rulers. 

Mahdrdjddhirdja-paramesvari (IE 8-2), title of certain 
ruling queens of Orissa. 

Mahdrdjddhirdja-pati (Ep. Ind. t Vol. XIX, p. 242), title. 

Mahdrdjakula (IE 4; BL), officiald esignation of a feuda- 
tory; same as Mahdrdval of the Rajasthan region; cf. Rdjakula. 

Mahdrdjakumdra, cf. Bdlaka-mahdrdjakumdra. 

Mahdrdja-mdtd (IE 8-2), epithet of the mother of a king. 

Mahdrdjanaka (El 21), feudatory title; cf. Rdjanaka. 

Mahdrdjapandita (EI9), official designation; sceRdjapandita. 

Mahdrdja-pitdmahl (IE 8-2), epithet of the grandmother 
of a king. 

Mahdrdja-prayojana (SITI), probably, fees collected for the 
performance of police duties; same as Tamil arasu-pperu (SITI) . 

Mahdrdjaputra (El 26; CII 4; HD), 'son of the Maharaja' '; 
designation of a prince. See Ep. Ind. t Vol. II, p. 309. 

Mahdrdjd-sdheb (BL), the same as Maharaja with the 
Arabic honorific expression sahib suffixed to it. 

Mahdrdjdtirdja (LL), imperial title; cf. Rdjdtirdja. 

Mahdrdjm (IE 8-2; El 4,21; CII 4; BL; HD), designation 
of queens; see Rdjm. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 91. 

mahdrdjya(Ep.Ind., Vol.XIV, p.313), c a province' ;cf. rdjya. 

Mahdrdnd (El 21, 24; BL), derived from Mahdrdnaka; 
feudatory title; later, also a royal title. See Rand and Rdnaka. 

186 Mahdrdnaka mahd 

Mahdrdnaka (El 27; CII 4; BL; HD), title of feudatory 
rulers; see Kanaka. Cf. 2nd. Ant., Vol. XVII, p. 214. 

mahdrasa-karana , cf. karana (LP) ; the liquor department. 
Mahdrdstrin (IE 8-3; LL), Prakrit Mahdrathi; 'ruler 
of a raj/ra (a district or subdivision or a group of villages)'; 
see Rdstrin. 

Mahdrdstrinl (LL), cf. Prakrit Mahdrathini (El 7), wife 
of a Mahdrdstrin. 

Mahdratha (El 7), explained as 'a race' (El 17;; official 
designation; cf. Mahdrathin. 

Mahdrathin (IE 8-3; El 7;, wrong Sanskritization of 
Prakrit Mahdrathi (sometimes read as Mahdrathi) which really 
stands for Mahdrdstrin. 

Mahdrdula (El 24; BL), same as Mahdrdvala; derived 
from Mahdrdjakula; designation of a feudatory; title of 

Mahdrduta (BL), designation of a feudatory; from Sans- 
krit Mahdrdjaputra. See Rduta, Rdvata. 

Mahdrdva (BL), designation of a feudatory; from Sanskrit 

Mahdrdval, Mahdrdvala (BL), same as Mahdrdula ; desig- 
nation of a fendatory; from Sanskrit Mahdrdjakula. 

Mahdrdya (El 4, 24; BL), from Sanskrit Maharaja. 
Mahari, Mahdn,Mdhdrl(EI 33), same asMehari, a dancing 
girl or Devaddsl. 

Mahdrundd, a name of the Mother-goddess (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXXIII*, p. 36). 

Mahdrtha-mahdmahattaka (Gil 4), official designation; 
see Mahdmahattaka. Mahdrtha may also be a separate official 
designation or an abbreviation of Mahdrthasdsanika (q. v.). 

Mahdrthasdsanika (El 8-3; El 7), probably, an officer 
in charge of gifts; sometimes mentioned as a Pdtra. Gf. Mahd- 

mah-dryaka (El 8), probably, the great-grandfather; 
tentatively explained as 'mother's grandfather' (Select Inscrip- 
tions, p. 202). 

mahd-sabda (IE 8-2), cf. asesa-mahdsabda (El 22), same 
as panca-mahdsabda (q. v.). Cf. pataha-dhakkd-mahdsabda (Ep. 
Ind. t Vol. XXVI, p. 325). 

mahd-sabhd (SII 1; ASLV; SITI), 'the great assembly'; 

Mahdsddhanabhdga Mahdsdmantddhipati 1 87 

meeting of the general body of the sabhd; meeting of the Mahd- 
janas in session; body of the Mahdjanas. 

mahdsddhanabhdga (IE 12; I A 14; HD), occurring in 
the Rdjatarangmi; explained as 'the office of the chief executive 
minister'; but cf. Mahasadhanika\ one of the five offices insti- 
tuted by Lalitaditya of Kashmir (Rdjatarangim, IV. 142-43). 

Mahdsddhanika (IE 8-2, 8-3; Gil 4; BL; HD), official 
designation indicating a commander of forces; the chief mili- 
tary officer; one of the designations often included in thepanca- 
mahdsabda as indicated by the Rdjatarangim. See Sddhanika 
derived from sddhana or army. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 91. 
(IE 8-3 J, sometimes mentioned as a Pdlra. 
Mahdsdhanl (BL), cf. Masdhanl (El 5;, a military officer; 
the same as Sanskrit Mahdsddhanika. 

Mahdsdhasika (IE 25), official designation; cf. Duh- 

Mahdsainyapati (El 29; HL), commander of forces; cf. 
Sainyapati and Mahdsendpati. 

mahdsdii (El 5), a kind of rice or paddy. 
mahdsdrh-karana-ni (IE 8-1), abbreviation of mahdsdndhi- 
vigrahika-karana-nirtksita, 'examined by the clerk of the 
Mahdsdndhivigrahika'. Karana here may also be an abbreviation 
of Adhikarana or office. 

Mahdsdmanta (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 30; CII 3, 4; BL), 'the 
great chieftain' ; title of a feudatory of a higher rank than the 
Sdmantaj sometimes called Mahdrdja y Mahdpratlhdra, Panca- 
karan-oparika, Pdty-uparika, Purapdl-oparika, Senddibdhattara- 
niyogddhisthdyaka, Mahdpradhdna, Sarvddhikdrin, Mahdpasdyita, 
Dandandyaka, etc., additionally. Cf. Ep, Ind.,Vol. II, p. 217; 
Vol.' IX, p. 107. 

(SITI), a vassal chief, sometimes holding the position of 
a minister or governor. 

(IE 8-2 ) , one of the designations sometimes included in 
the panca-mahdsabda ; cf. the case of Maitraka Dhruvasena I. 

(IE 8-3), sometimes a feudatory of a lower grade than 
Rdjan and Rdjanaka. 

Mahdsdmantddhipati (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 29, 30; CII 4; BL; 
HD), a feudatory title; cf. Sdmantddhipati (El 16;; title of 
feudatories who had some subordinate chiefs under them; 
title of a feudatory of a higher rank than the Mahdsdmanta j 

1&8 Mahdsdmantardja mahdsaptaml 

cf. Mahdmandalesvara, Samasta-mahdsdmant-ddhipati; sometimes 
also called Mahdpradhdna, Ehdnasavergad^ Accupanndyadadhisthd- 
yaka, etc., additionally. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 259. See 
Mahdsdmanta, Mahdmandalesvarddhipati, etc. 

Mahdsdmantardja (El 33), feudatory title; cf. Mahdsdmant- 
ddhipati. It may also indicate one enjoying the titles Mahd- 
sdmanta and Rdjan. 

mahdsd-ni (IE 8-1), abbreviation of mahdsandhwigrahikanul- 

ksita, 'examined by the Mahdsdndhivigrahikd* ' . See m", mahdksa-ni. 

mahdsandhivigrah-ddhikarana (El 12; Gil 4), the office or 

department of the Mahdsandhivigrahika:, the department of 

peace and war. 

Mahdsandhivigrah-ddhikarana-ddhikrta (BL), superintendent 
of the office of war and peace or foreign affairs. See Sandhi- 

Mahdsandhivigrah-ddhikrta (Gil 4; HD), same as Mahd- 
sandhivigrahika; minister of peace and war. Gf. Ep. Ind. y Vol. 
XI, p. 80; Harsacarita, Parab's ed., p. 194. 

Mahdsandhivigrah-ddhipati (El 21> CII 4), same as Mahd- 
sdndhivigrahika; cf. Sandhivigrah-ddhipati, etc. 

Mahdsandhivigrah-dksapatal-ddhikrta (El 31), officer in 
charge of the accounts section of the foreign affairs department; 
same as Mahdsandhivigrah-dksapatal-ddhipati. 

Mahdsdndhivigrah-dksapatal-ddhipati (Ep. Ind.,Vol. XXXV, 
p. 274), same as Mahdsandhivigrah-aksapatal-ddhikrta. 

Mahdsandhivigrahika (BL; HD), same as Mahdsdndhivigra- 
hika ; designation of the minister for war and peace or of foreign 
affairs. Gf. Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. II, p. 309. See Sandhivigrahika, etc. 

Mahdsandhivigrahika (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 30; Gil 3, 4; BL; 
HD), same as Mahdsandhivigrahika ; minister for peace and war 
or of foreign affairs ; a civil or military title ; one of the designa- 
tions often included in the panca-mahdsabda as indicated by 
the Rdjatarangini. See Sandhivigrahika. 

(IE 8-3), cf. Gauda-mahdsdndhivigrahika, etc. 
Mahdsandhivigrahin (BL), designation of the minister for 
war and peace or of foreign affairs. See Sandhivigrahin, Mahd- 
sdndhivigrahika, etc. 

(IE 8-3), sometimes also called Mahdpradhdna, Mani- 
virgadS y Senddhipati, Kadita-v&rgadS, etc., additionally. 

mahdsaptaml (El 4), a tithi; Magha-sudi 7; AsVina-sudi 7. 

Mahdsarvadandandyaka Mahdsvasdld 


Mahdsarvadandandyaka (Gil 3), the commander-in-chief. 
See Sarvadandndyaka and Dandandyaka. 

Mahdsarvddhikrta (El 12,28), the chief minister or adminis- 
trator. Cf. Sarvddhikrta and Sarvddhikdrin. 

mahd-sati (El 31), spelt md-sati in Tamil, etc.; a lady who 
has committeed sati; cf. sail. 

Cf. md-sati-kal, a stone raised in memory of a sail (Journ. 
Mad. Univ., Vol. XXXII, p. 136). 

Mahdsattrapati (El 13), superintendent of the sattras 
(houses for free distribution of food). 

Mahdsenddhipati (El 19), commander of forces. Gf. 
Mahdsendpati, Senddhipati, Samastasenddhipati, etc. 

Mahdsendni, commander of forces (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, 
p. 156). 

Mahdsendpati (El 30; Gil 3, 4; BL; HD), 'the great 
commander of armies 5 . See Sendpati, Mahdsenddhipati. Cf. 
Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 94. 

Mahdsendpatnl (IE 8-2; El 20; LL), wife of a Mahdsend- 

Mahdsirah-Pradhdni (ASLV), a high officer who had a 
seat in the Imperial Council of the Vijayanagara kings. 

Mahdsramana (El 32), the Buddha. 

Mahdsresthin (El 7; Gil 4; HD), 'the great banker'; 
the chief banker; see Sresthin. Gf. Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 91. 

mahdsthdna (El 7), a holy place. 
(El 24), a great temple. 

Mahdsthavira (LL), Buddhist; cf. Sthavira, an Elder. 

Mahdsvdmika (Select Inscriptions, p. 202), probably, 'the 

Mahdsvapati (BL), designation of the leader of horsemen. 
See Asvapati. 

Mahdsvasddhanika (El 12; HD), commander of a cavalry 
force. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. II, p. 309. 
(CII 4), the great equerry. 

mahasvasald (El 12; HD), explained as 'the office of the 
chief master of the horses'; one of the five high offices 
instituted by Lalitaditya of Kashmir (Rdjatarangim, IV. 142). 

Mahdsvasdl-ddhikrta (IE 8-2), superintendent of the 
stables; one of the designations often included in the panca- 
mahdsabda (cf. Rdjatarangim^ IV. 142). 

190 Mahatd Mahattama 

Mahatd (El 32), the same as Mahattaka, Mahattara or 
Mahattama. Cf. Mahato. 

Mahatalavara (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 25; HD), explained by some 
authorities as a subordinate ruler and by others as the police 
magistrate of a city or the prefect of the city police. Cf. Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XX, pp. 6, 16. See Talavara, Taldra, etc. 

Mahatalavarl (IE 8-2; El 20, 25), wife of a Mahatalavara. 

mahdtantra (SITI; ASLV), often mentioned in South 
Indian records in the sense of 'the army'; the army council; 
the great assembly of the army. 

Mahdtantrddhikrta (IE 8-3), explained by some authori- 
ties as 'an officer in charge of judicial and charitable affairs'; 
but the word tantra also means 'administration' or 'the army' ; 
probably 'the chief administrator'. The designation may have 
also indicated different functions in different localities and ages. 
See Tantrapdla, Tantrapati and Mahdtantrddhyaksa. 

Mahdtantrddhyaksa (El 28;, official designation; same as 
Mahdtantrddhikrta . 

Mahdthakkura (IE 3 2 ;IA1 7 ), a title indicating office or rank. 

Mahdtlriha (BL), epithet of a holy place or shrine. Cf. 

mahdtithi (El 13), an auspicious tithi. 

Mahdtman (CII 1), a person of high rank; a rich man; 
explained in some cases as 'a magistrate' (cf. Select Inscriptions, 
p. 248, note 6). 

mdhdtmya (IA 30), a eulogistic work on deities or holy 
places, rivers, etc.; cf. sthala-purdna. 

Mahato (El 8-3), same as Alahattaka, Mahattara or Maha- 
ttama. Cf. Mahatd; also Mahto in Wilson's Glossary. 

mahdtorana (SITI), a variety of temple lamps ; pro- 
bably the same as makaratorana. 

Mahattaka (El 8; BL; HDj, probably, a village head- 
man or a member of the Pancdyat board; same as Mahattara. 
Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 30 (Mahdmahattaka] . 

Mahattama (IE 8-3; El 29; CII 4; BL; HD), probably 
the village headman or a member of the Pancdyat board; cf. 
Mahattara. See Ind. Ant., Vol. XV, p. 306; Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill, 
p. 266 (Mahattara and Mahattama occur one after another, 
Mahattama being senior or superior to Mahattara} ; RdjataranginL 
VII. 438. 

Mahattara Mahdvy uhapati 


(El 26), same as Gujarat! Mahetd or Mehtd. 
Mahattara (IE 8-3; El 23, 29, 30; CII 4; BL; HD), 
literally, 'an elder [of a town or village] ' ; according to Stein 
(Rajatarangini, VII. 659;; a chamberlain, a village headman 
or head of a family or community and a member of the village 
council; cf. Hindi Mahato; Gujarat! Mahetd. Cf. Ind. Ant., 
Vol. VI, p. 114 (rdstra-grdma-mahattara) ; Dasakumdracarita, III, 
p. 77 (janapada-mahattara] . 

Cf. mahattar-ddy-astakul-ddhikarana (El 31), 'office of the 
administrative board of the astakula headed by the Mahattara'' ; 
see Mahattara and astakul-ddhikarana. 

(IE 3-3), official guide (Beal, Li/* of Hiuen Tsiang,p. 190). 

Mahattaraka (El 23; LL), explained as 'a chamberlain'; 
same as Mahattara. 

mahdtrdna (IE 8-5), Bengali; a rent-free holding in 
the possession of non-Brahmanical communities, e. g. the 

Mahdvaddavyavahdrin (El 13; SII 11-?, ), see Vaddavya- 
vahdrin and Mahdvandavyavahdrirt', Sanskrit Mahdvrddhavyavahdrin. 

Mahdvaldkosthika (IE 8-3), probably a mistake for Mahd- 
balakosthika (q. v.). 

Mahdvandavyavahdrin (El 19; SITI), the great banker 
or chief merchant; head of a mercantile guild; same as 
Mahdva ddavyavahdrin. 

mahdvdruni (El 4), name of a tithi. See mahdmahdvdrum. 

mahdvihdra (BL), Buddhist convent or monastery. 

Mahdvihdra-svdmin (El 8; Gil 3; BL), designation of the 
builder of a Buddhist monastery and his heirs who were res- 
ponsible for its maintenance; the builder or owner of a big 
monastery; cf. Vihdra-svdmin. 

mahdvihdr-dyatana (El 22), a monastic establishment. 
Cf. dyatana. 

Mahdvinayadhara (LL), Buddhist; cf. Vinayadhara ) one 
who has committed the Vinaya texts to memory'. 

Mahdvratin (El 27; SITI), name of a Saiva sect ; followers 
of the said sect of Saivism; an ascetic of the Kalamukha sect. 

mahd-vyavasthd (SITI), probably, the regulations framed 
by the mahd-sabhd. 

Mahdvy uhapati (El 19, 28, 30; HD), the chief master of 
battle arrays. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 40. 

192 mahdyajna makara 

mahdyajfla (IE 7- 1 -2 ) , 'five 5 . See pa fica-mahdyajfia. 

Mahdyuvardja (El 32), title of a crown prince; see Tuva- 
raja and Tuvamahdrdja. 

Mahendrdditya (IE 8-2), see dditya. 

Mahesvara (SITI), Mdhesvara, followers of the Saiva reli- 
gion; a congregation of Saiva devotees having a voice in the 
management of the affairs of a Siva temple. 

(ASLV), trustee of a Saiva temple. 

(IE 8-2), 'devotee of Mahesvara (Siva),' epithet of a 
Kusana king. 

mahesvara (El 28), the Pasupta faith. 

Mahesvara-putra (El 33), sometimes used as an epithet of 
one devoted to the god Siva. 

mahl (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

mahidhara (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

Mahimada (El 32), Indianised form of the Muhammadan 
name Muhammad or Mahmud. 

Mahlmandalesvara (BL), rare modification of the feuda- 
tory title Mahdmandalesvara. 

mahisa-kara, cf. Tamil erumai-ppon (SITI), tax on buffa- 

Mahisi, cf. Agaramahisi Agramahdmahisi, Mahdmahisi, etc. 

Mahodaya (IA 18), used in the sense ofSvdminor possessor. 

mah-odranga, cf. udranga. 

Mahopddhydya (El 6, 15), a title of teachers. 

Mdhut (Gil 4), derived from Mahdmdtra, an elephant- 

mahya (El 28), same as namasya. See Ep. Irtd., Vol. 
XXVIII, pp. 77 ff. 

maird (Gil 4), boundary of a field. 

Maithili, language and alphabet of Mithila or the Tirhut 
region of North Bihar. 

maithuna (SITI), wife's brother; elder sister's husband. 

maitn (Gil 4), benevolence; one of the bhdvands. 

makara-sankramana (SITI), entrance of the sun into Cap- 
ricorn; commencement of the Tamil month Tai; same as 

makara-sankrdnti (SITIj, same as makara-sankramana. 

makara-torana (El 29), one of the royal insignia. 

(El 3; SI I 1, 3), an ornamental arch; an arch in the 

makarikd mdmul 193 

shape of a makara (crocodile); gateway with figures of 
crocodiles. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol XXXV p. 107. 

makarikd (GITD), figures oi crocodiles drawn in gold 
dust on the cheeks and breasts of women; same as makarikd' 

(El 14) 3 cf. mukuta-makarikd-marakata. 

makarikd-patra (GITD), same as makarikd. 

makuti (Gil 4), an edict addressed to the Sudras. Gf. 
Mdkutika, official designation. 

mala (El 22), an elevated ground. 

Maladhdri (BL), epithet of a Jain religious teacher. 

Mdldkdra (LL), a florist. See Mdlin. 

malamdrgana (LL), cf. Gujarat! malavero; a tax to be utilised 
when the whole village wants to honour a particular man. 

Mdlava-gan-dmndta, Malava- gana-sthiti, Mdlava-purvd (El 
23) $ expressions used in early records in connection with the 
Vi krama-sarhvat . 

Mdlavi, dialect of Hindi prevalent in Malava (Malwa). 

Mdlavlya (El 22), 'the king of Malava'. 

malaya (IA 14), derived from Dravidian malai, 'a hill'. 

Malaydlam, name of a language and alphabet. 

Maleya-sdhani (Naik's List, No. 264) ; mentioned along- 
with Peyiya-sdhani; official designation. See Sdhani. 

Mdlima, same as Arabic Mualim, 'an instructor' (Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 144). 

Malta (CII 4), a wrestler, a match. 

mallaka (El 21) a measure. 

malla-kara (HRS), found in Nepal inscriptions; tax levied 
as tribute to the Mallas or for defence against their attack. 
Cf. turuska-danda, etc. It may also be a professional tax on 

mallaka-vundhaka, cf. talabhedya-ghdnaka-mallaka-vundhaka 
(IA 18); probably, a professional tax on wrestlers. 

Malik, Malika (El 4; BL), Muslim title of nobility; same 
as Arabic Malik; also spelt in Indian languages as Mallika. 

Mdlin (El 9), a florist. See Mdldkdra. 

Mamdtrai (IE 8-3), Greek modification of Mahdmatra; 
explained as 'commanders or rulers among Indians'. 

mamksuna, see drarhksana. 

mdmul-dddya (SITI), customary payment. 

194 man mandala 

man, cf. mdnayitvd (LP) 'having accepted'; cf. GujaratI 

mdna (CITD), Telugu-Kannada; ^th part of the 
measure called tumu\ that which can hold rice of the weight 
of 4 tankalamulu (varying in different localities) ; a particular 
measure or weight often regarded as half of a seru ; a measur- 
ing rod. 

(El 16), also called mdnaka ; name of a measure ; a liquid 
measure (SII 11-1). 

mdna, mdna (IE 8-6; El 30, 31), used in medieval Orissan 
records in the sense of a land measure; a land measure regarded 
as equal to an English acre in Orissa. 

mdna-bhoga (SITI), enjoyment of tax-free lands. 

mdna-danda (SITI), measuring rod. 

mdnaka (El 14, 16), name of a measure; also called mdna. 

mdna-pautava (El 30), probably, a store-house where 
grains were measured and stored. Gf. many a (alldya-mdnya) . 

(IE 8-8), scales and measures. 

mdna-stambha(El 5, 8), a pillar; an elegant tall pillar with 
a small pinnacled mantapa at the top erected in front of Jain 

manavarti, manavartika (El 32), grant for maintenance; 
also spelt as manovarti, manuvrtti, etc., probably derived from 
Sanskrit mdnya-vrtti. 

Mdnavya (El 16), name of a gotra that was claimed by 
royal families which had originally no real Brahmanical gotra. 

manca, cf. sa-manca-mahdkarana (IE 8-5 ) ; probably, elevated 
platforms for official use. 

manda, weight equal to 5 mdsas (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 46 ; ; 
cf. mdda. 

mandal (El 23), derived from mandapikd, same as mandl, 

mandaka (SITI), same as mandapa. 

mandala (IE 8-4; El 29,30; Gil 4), an administrative 
unit; a district or province. 

(SITI), a province consisting of several kot tarns or 

(IE 8-4), sometimes mentioned as bigger than a visaya and 
sometimes smaller than it; sometimes a visaya was included in a 
mandala, but sometimes a mandala was included in a visaya', some- 

Mandala mandapa 


times mandala and visaya are identical; sometimes a mandala 
was smaller than the vlthi or subdivision. 

(IE 8-4; SII 3; ASLV), sometimes used in a wider sense 
to indicate a country. 

Cf. Kona-mandala (El 22), also called an avani-mandala 
or </<#. Here mandala means a kingdom or territory. 
(ASLV), an assembled body. Cf. mdtr-mandala. 
Mandal-dcdrya (El 33, I A 14), same as Patt-dcdrya; desig- 
nation of a high priest. 

(BL), epithet of a [Jain] religious teacher. 
Mandal-ddhipati (El 25), the ruler of a mandala'., cf. 
Mandalesvara Mandalapati. 

Mandala-ganin (El 33), title; cf. Ganin. 
mandala-karana (LP), department dealing with the ad- 
ministration of districts. 

Mandala-mudaliydr, official designation; cf. mandala-mudan- 

mandala-mudanmai (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; leadership or 
governorship of a province, its governor or chief being known as 

'Mandalapati (IE 8-3; El 26, 33), ruler or officer-in-charge 
of a mandala', the governor of a district or a feudatory ruler (Ep. 
Ind. 9 Vol. XIX, p. 78, text line 9) ; same as Mandalesa. 

Mandalesa (BL; HD), 'lord of a mandala''; a provincial 
governor; same as Mandalesvara. See Rajatarangini, VI. 73; VII. 
996; VIII. 1228, 1814, 2029. 

Mandalesvara (IE 8-2; BL; HD), title of a feudatory or 
governor lower in rank than a Mahamandalesvara; same as Man- 
dalesa. Gf. Bomb. Gaz. 9 Vol. XXI, p. *354. Cf. Mahdmanda- 
lesvara, 'governor of the provinces' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, 
p. 110). 

Mandalika (El 26), ruler of a mandala or district; same 
as Mandalika. 

Mandalika (IE 8-2-; BL; CII 4), ruler of a mandala or 
district; title of a feudatory chief; cf. Mandalika, Mandalika. 

Mandalika (IE 8-2; SII 1; SITI; B*L), feudatory title; 
ruler of a mandala; same as Mandalika and Mandalika, also called 

mandapa (IE 8-3), customs house; Marathi mdndavi, from 
Sanskrit mandapikd; explained by some as 'a market place' 

196 mandapikd mangala 

(Hindi mandi); but Hindi mandi seems to be derived from the 
same word because the toll-stations were often situated in market- 

(BjL), name of a structure in front of a temple. 
(LiL) } a porch or hall. 
(CII 4), the hall in a temple. 
(CII 4), a temple. 

(El 31), a temple or public building. 
Cf. vaiccamudu-mandapa (SITI), kitchen; same as madaip- 

Cf. vakkdnikku-mandapa (SITI), hall where disputations 
in the sdstras are held. Cf. sanivdra-mandapa. 

mandapikd (El 1, 3, 33), customs house; same as sulka- 
mandapikd (In&Ant., Vol. XI, p. 339 and note 31). See 
Ghoshal, H.Rev. Syst., pp. 238-39. 

(El 3; Gil 4); market; a market pavilion. 
(C//4), a small temple. 

Mdndapika (IE 8-2), cf. Prakrit Mafhdavika (El 1), officer 
in charge of a mandapikd or customs house; a collector of tolls. 
mandapik-dddya (El 23), explained as 'the market tax'; 
customs duties. 

mandapikd-karana, cf. karana (LP), the customs depart 

mindapikd-pattaka (LP), a contract for market- tax. 
Mdndavl (LP), one who gets the market- tax; same as 

(LP), a tax levied on articles that are to be sold in a 

(IE 8-3), Marathi; same as mandapikd^ 'customs house'. 
mandavo (El 22), market place; regarded as the same as 

* Mani-vgrga-dg (IE 8-3; El 16 ; SII 11-2), Kannada; 
superintendent or steward of the royal household (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XV, p. 77;; sometimes also called Mahdpradhdna, Htri- 
sandhivigrahin, Antahpurddhyaksa, Heri-Ldla-fCanrtada-sandhivi- 
grahin, etc., additionally. 

Maneyasamastasainyddhipati (IE 8-3), leader of all the 
troops in the royal household. Gf. Samastasenddhipati, etc. 

mangala (CII 1 ), a ceremony for one's good or for averting 
evil; cf. kalydna. 

ma nga la Manneya 197 

(SITI), a Brahmana village; shortened form of caturvedi- 

(ASLV), a small administrative unit. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

mangala-kalasa (Gil 4), an auspicious vase. Cf.rtidrd-kalasa. 

mangdlihd (LA 15), probably, an upper garment. 

mdngalikya (LP), some present (tnade in lieu of the benefit 
one is going to get). 

mdngallyaka (LP), probably, a tax collected on the occa- 
sion of auspicious events in the royal family, such as the birth 
of a son to the king. 

mdngalya (SITI), Tamil mangiliyam; the ornament called 
tali worn round the neck as the marriage badge by a married 
woman with her husband living. 

mangani^, mananl (Chamba), a tax in kind. 

mani (IA 20), a burning glass. 

mdni (LP), a measure of capacity equal to about 6 maunds. 

(SH 11-1), Kannada; also spelt Mdni; a bachelor; 

mdni (El 14; Chamba), name of a measure. 

mzni-bhandahi (GITD), Sanskrit-Telugu; probably, from 
Sanskrit mani-bhdnda or the receptacle of jewels. 

mani-grdma (SITI), a mercantile guild. 

mdnika (CITD), Telugu; a measure; i of a kuficamu 
and j c of a tumu. 

Manikdra (LP), a jeweller. 

mdnikya-bhdnddra, cf. manikka-panddram-kdppdr (SITI) , 'keeper 
of the treasury [of precious stones] in the temple or palace.' 

Mdnin, cf. Mdni (IA 18), an Elder. 

mdnita (LP), accepted. 

manjddi (IE 8-8; El 21, 33; SII 2, 12; SITI), Tamil; name 
of a weight for measuring gold and silver; about 2 or 3 ratts or 
4 or 5 grains; a weight equal to two kunri-mmi used in weighing 
gold; ^o of a kalanju and ^Q of a satamdna (JNSI, Vol. 
XV, p. 141). 

Manjura (LP), day-labourer; cf. Majur. 

ma\njusd (LL), casket. 

Manneya (GITD), Telugu; same as Sanskrit Mdnya; a 
respectable man; a chieftain; a commander; a chief. Cf. 
Manmdu, Manniya. 

1 9$ rrianmdu manya 

(SI1 11 -1), ruler of a group of villages; cf. manneya- 
svdmya, tenure held by a Manneya. 

Mannldu (GITD), same as Manneya (Sanskrit Mdnya}. 

Manniya (CITD}, same as Manneya (Sanskrit Mdnya}. 

manohdrl (LP), cf. nija-manohdryd, 'at one's own will'. 

mano-'tireka (Gil 1), eagerness; cf. atireka. 

manovarti (El 32), same as manavarti or manuvrtti in the 
sense of namasya-vritti or mdnya; probably derived from Sanskrit 

manthana-yantraka (IA 20), a fire-producing instrument. 

mantra-deva-manuja-bhuta-pitrgana (IA 15), refers to the 
pa nca-mahdyaj na . 

Mantrapdla (El 22), official designation; probably, a 
private secretary or privy councillor. 

Mantrapuspa (IA 12), designation of a priest who repeats 
the mantra when the chief priest asks forgiveness at the conclusion 
of each pujd at the Ramesvaram temple. 

mantra-sakti (Gil 4), the power of good counsel. 

mantra-sndna (El 4), repetition of prayers used at ablution 
without the actual bath. 

Mantrin (El 12, 25; Gil 4; BL; HD), a minister or coun- 
cillor; a counsellor; an executive officer. See Arthasdstra, I. 80; 
Tdjnavalkyasmrti, I. 312; Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 305. 

(IE 8-3), explained as vyavahdra-drastr. Cf. Mahdmantrin. 
(IE 8-3), in one case, the Mantrin later became a Mahd- 
balddhikrta; in another case, also a Kumdrdmdtya. 

mantri-parisad (Gil 4; ASLV), the council of ministers; 
same as parisad. 

Manu (IE 7-1-2), 'fourteen 1 . 

Manusya, cf. Mdnisi (El 24), a servant. 

manusya-yajna (CII 4), reception of guests; one of the 
five mahdyajnas. 

manuvrtti (El 32), a grant made for the maintenance of 
the donee; same as manavarti, etc.; probably derived from 
Sanskrit mdnya-vrtti. 

manvddi (IA 18), name applied to certain tithis. 

mdnya (IE 8-5; El 20, 23; ASLV), a rent-free holding, 
tax-free land; same as sarva-mdnya; cf. mdnya-sthiti, manuvrtti^ 

Cf. sthdna-mdnya (CITD), an honour or glebe-land 

mdnya Mdrgapdta 

granted by the ruler on quit-rent or on various favourable 

(El 13), land either liable to a trifling quit-rent or alto- 
gether exempt from tax. 

Cf. alldya-mdnyam (SITI), right to receive a handful of 
grain or the prescribed quantity of an article brought for sale 
in the market as charges for measuring; cf. mdna-pautava. 

Cf. gudde-mdnya ( ( IA 19), a particular kind of rent-free 

mdnya-kanike (El 25), a small amount of tax levied from 
land declared rent-free. Gf. nikara, trnodaka, etc. 

mdnyaka-patta, a rent-free village (Ep. Ind. } Vol. XIX, 
p. 71). 

mdnya-sthiti, cf. mdnya. 

manyavdntara-rdstra (SII 1), same as nddu or district. 

mdnya-vrtti, cf. manuvrtti, etc. 

mdppanam (SITI), Tamil; same as Sanskrit mahd-pana; 
name of a coin. 

mar (IA 15), a land measure. 

mara (El 14), name of a measure. 

maramakkatayam (El 9), system of inheritance prevalent 
in the Malayalam-speaking area, according to which property 
is owned by females and passes from female to female. 

Mardfhi, language and people of Maharashtra. 

maravadai (El 17), name of a tax. 

Mdrga (IE 8-1), abbreviation of Mdrgaslrsa, Mdrgasira, etc. 

mdrg-dddya (El 23; SITI), same as vartma-danda; levy for 
passage of articles of merchandise through the gift village by the 
village road; tolls; tolls on the articles on transit. See mdrgaka. 

mdrgaka (El 26), name of a levy; same as mdrg-dddya. 

mdrgana (El 24), a begger. 

mdrganaka (El 3; IA 18; Gil 4; HRS), known from re- 
cords like those of the Gaulukyas; a levy; a kind of cess or tax; 
explained as 'benevolences of a general character, as distin- 
guished from the special types called prasthaka and skandhaka\ 
See mdrganika. 

mdrganika (IE 8-5), same as mdrganaka. 

Mdrgapa ^EI 20), same as Mdrgapdla, etc. 

Mdrgapdla (HD), same as Mdrgapati, etc. See Narada 
quoted in the Mitdksard on Ydjnavalkyasmrti, II. 71. Cf. Dikpdla. 

200 Mdrgapati -mata 

Mdrgapati (BL; HE), explained as 'the guardian of the 
frontiers or passes' (cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XX, pp. 37, 41 ) ; probably, 
a collector of customs duties on the roads. See mdrg-dddya, etc. 

Mdrgesa (El 20), same as Mdrgapati. 

marlchi, a theoretical unit of measurement (JNSI, Vol. 
XVI, p. 48). 

Marjhaka (ML), title of foreign origin. 

mdrtanda (IE 7-1-2), 'twelve.' 

marutu (CITD), same is maruturu. 

maruturu (IE 8-6; GITD); also called marutu, mattaru, 
etc.; Telugu; Kannada mattar or mattaru; a certain land measure 
of uncertain area generally used as an equvalent of nivartana, 
different kinds being mentioned as kdl-maruturu, gha da-mar uturu, 
kommu-marutu, etc. 

Marvddl, spelt Marwari in English; name of the Rajastham 
dialect prevalent in Marwar. 

maryddd (SITI), Tamil mariyddi; customary dues; manners; 
ways; extent; limit; also spelt in Tamil as marjddi, marisddi, 
marusddi, etc. 

Mary add- dhurya (BL), explained as 'the Warden of Marches.' 

maryddd-parihdra (El 22), customary exemptions of taxes. 
See parihdra. 

mdsa (IE 7-1-2), 'twelve.' 

mdsa (El 21, 25, 30, 33; CII 4), according to the Krtya- 
kalpataru (Vyavahara-kanda, ed. K.V. Rangaswami Aiyangar, p. 
125), a gold coin as opposed to silver mdsaka; name of a weight; 
name of a coin; 5 rails in weight; sometimes regarded as 10 
ratis in weight and as equal to \ of a saw. See JNSI, Vol. 
XVI, p. 41. It was sometimes regarded as ^ of a paw of 
100 ratis (ibid., Vol. XV, p. 143). Gf. mdsaka, ddya-mdsa. 

mdsaka (IE 8-8), name of a coin; cf. mdsa and dindri- 
mdsaka; mentioned as a silver coin (K. V. Rangaswami 
Aiyangar, Krtyakalpatam, Vyavahara-kanda, p. 125). 

mdsdrdha (IE 7-1-2), used to indicate 'six 5 ; cf. mdsa, 
'twelve 1 ; also paksa, 'two'. 

Mdsu (Chamba), one enjoying land, who does not pay 
rent or tax but renders service; e.g., a carpenter, etc. 

masura (ML), small-pox. 

mata, cf. guru-mata (CII I), 'a matter considered to be 

mdtanga mdtsyu 201 

(LP) 9 a signature; cf. the use of the word with the 
signature as in matam mama amukasya found copied in many 
copper-plate grants. 

mdtanga (IE 7-1-2), eight'. 

mdtd-pitr-pdd-dnudhydta (IE 8-2), 'meditating on or 
favoured by the feet of one's parents'; epithet of rulers; cf. 

Mdtarah (Gil 3), the Divine Mothers, sometimes indicat- 
ed as seven in number; cf. Mdtr and Mdtr-gana. 

matha (El 17, 19, 23, 31, 32; CII 3,' 4; SII 1; BL; ASLV; 
GITD), a school or religious college; a temple; a monastery; 
hermitage or convent; a monastery which was a religious and 
educational institution. See mathikd. In Telugu records, it 
also means 'a bullock cart' and 'a cart load' (cf. Kannada 
mattt, 'a load'). 

(.5777), place where pilgrims and religious mendicants 
(tapasvins) are fed. 

Mathddhipati (El 25), same as Jlyar and Mudaliydrj cf. 

Mathapati [El 33), superintendent of a monastery; the 
chief priest of a temple. 

mdthdpatya (SITI), the office or position of a Mathapati; 
management of the affairs of a matha or temple. 

matha-sthdna (El 26), a monastery. 

mathikd (El 31), a hut, cottage or cell. 

(El 26, 32), a shrine or temple; cf. matha. 

Matisaciva (IE 8-3; HD), counsellor or minister; cf. Karma- 
saciva, administrative officer. See Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 44. 

Mdtr (El 9), the Divine Mothers, often described as seven 
in number; cf. mdtr-mandala, various forms of the Mother- 
goddess installed around a iva temple. 

Mdtra, designation of a class of officers; cf. Mahdmdtra 
in a similar sense. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, p. 117 
(mentioned along with Mulaprakrti', cf. Prakrti}. 

Mdtr-gana (IA 7), the Divine Mothers, often described 
as seven in number. Cf. mdtr-mandala. 

matsy-dkara, cf. sa-matey-dkara (IE 8-5), 'together with the 
sources of fish', the fishing right belonging to the king or land- 
lord; cf. jala-kara. 

mdtsya-nydya (El 4), 'the law of the fish'; anarchy. 

202 rriaita merti 

matta (LP), a signature; corrupt form of mata, 'approved*, 
written along with the signature as in matarh mama amukasya. 
See mata. 

mattal (El 16; IA 11), land measure; same as mattar. 
mattar (El 16, 20), Kannada; land measure; same as 
maruturu or nivartana; cf. ganti-mattar (IA 9). 

mattaru (IE 8-6; GITD), same as mattar or nivartana. 
matta-skandha (LP), a layer of mud; cf. matta-skandha- 
rahita (LP), free from the layers of mud. 
Mattivd (IA 10), Hindi; an exorcist. 
mattu (GITD), Telugu; an unknown measure of land. 
maukha (El 13), same as mukhya; 'chief disciple'. 
maulika (IE 8-5; El 32), a tax; the principal or main tax 
or the perquisites of hereditary officers. 

mavdda (GH 4), name of a tax; cf. mdvadai. 
mdvadai (El 17), name of a tax. cf. mavdda. 
mayura (Gil 1), a peacock; a bird in general. 
mayuta (HRS), probably, the contributions of fruits, fire- 
wood, etc., paid by villagers. 

Me (Ghamba), abbreviation for Mehtd (Mahattaka}. 
medhi (LP), a barn-yard, a threshing floor. 
medhi-hdraka (LP), a special tavx on the threshing-floor. 
medhya, cf. a-pasu-medhya (IE 8-5), 'free from the obligation 
of supplying animals for sacrifices'. 

medi (El 9), also called meli, a kidnapper of victims for 

meghddambara (SII 3),; a covered howdd. 
Meha (IA 18), abbreviation of Mehara. 
Mehara (El 33), village headman. 
Me hart (El 33), same as Devdddsl. 
meldpaka (LP), a group. 
meli (El 9), same as medi. (q.v.). 

Mel-sdnti (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; chief priest in a temple. 
melvittiya-vadddravula (IE 8-5), Kannada; name of a tax; 
see vadddravula. 

mera (El 6), Telugu; a fee. 

Meridarkha (IE 8-3; ML), an official designation of foreign 
origin; same as Greek Meridarkhes y 'a district officer'. 
Meridarkhes (IE 8-3), Greek; see Meridarkha. 
meru (SII 3), name of a gift. 

thesa mrtyuka 

(El 2; Gil 4), a kind of temple. 

mesa-sankrdnti (Gil 3, etc.), the entrance of the sun into 
the sign Aries, regarded as the starting point of the Saka year; 
see also abdapa. 

meya (IE 8-5; El 31 ; HRS), the share of grains to be paid 
to the king or landlord; revenue from agricultural land paid in 
kind; same as bhdga. Cf. tulya-meya, tax on commodities 
brought to market for sale. 

Meykdval (ASLV), watchman in a temple. 

majigiti (Ind. Ant., Vol. XI, p. 242), also spelt mijigiti; 
Indianised form of Arabic masjid, a mosque. 

mijigiti (A.R.Ep., 1958-59, p. 12); see majigiti. 

milivalita, same as Sanskrit sammilita, 'taken collectively' 
(JAS, Latters, Vol. XX, p. 204). 

misra (IA 18), an honorific title; cf. Mahdmisrapandita. 

Mithika (LL), a polisher. 

miti (IA 20), cf. Safhvat 1384 miti Bhddm-vadi 3 Guru-dine', 
probably a corruption of Sanskrit mita, 'counted', 'calculated*. 

Mleccha (El 22), name applied to the Muhamtnadans 
and other foreigners; cf. Mlecchesvara (El 32). 

mod, mod (El 2; CII 4), a shoe-maker. 

modala-vdda (IE 8-4), Kannada; the chief village in a 
Pargana consisting of a number of villages, i.e. headquarters; 
sometimes called rdjadhdnl. 

modati, cf. svarge modati bhumidah ; parasmaipada in place of 
the expected dtmanepada. 

Modina, same as Arabic Muazzin, 'a public crier to prayers' 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 144). 

Mohini (IA 19), female devils who possess men. 

mokiraka (LP), a den in a mountain forest; Gujarat! 

mrda, also called prda or pruda (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 40); 
unit of metal weight like the manjddi. 

mrga (Gil 1), a deer; an animal in general. 

mrgdnka (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

mrtyuka-vrtti (BL; HRS), land granted by the king as 
military pension to the heir of a person killed in a battle against 
the king's enemies; compensatory grant made in favour of the 
heir of a person who died fighting on behalf of his master. 
See rakta-mdnya, etc. Cf. vira-sesd. 

204 muddMududa 

mudd (LP), same as mudaka or mutaka; a measure of 
capacity equal to a hundred maunds or to 24 maunds in the 
Surat District. 

mudaka (LP), same as mutaka or mudd. 

Mudal, cf. Evi-mudal (El 25), an official designation. 

mudal (SII 3), Tamil; cost. 

mudala (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 18), used in some Orissan 
inscriptions in the sense of a royal order [regarding the grant 
of land or its execution]. Cf. ibid., Vol. XXVIII, p. 305. 

Mudali, Mudaliydr (SII 12; SITI), Tamil; a chief. 

(El 25), same as Mathddhipati. 

Mudiratha (El 33), Odiya; same as Mudrdhasta. 

muditd (Gil 4), cheerfulness; one of the Buddhist bhdvands. 

mudrd (CII 4), the position of fingers in worship. 

(LP), the government seal. 

murdh-ddhikdra, cf. Tamil mutt-ddikdram (SITI), supreme 

Mudrddhikdrin (El 30), officer in charge of the royal seal; 
also called Mudr-ddhyaksa, etc. Mudrddhikdri-saciva, may be 
Mudrddhikdrin and Saciva. 

Mudr-ddhikrta (El 14, 15), same as Mudr-ddhikdrin, etc. 

Mudr-ddhyaksa, same as Mudr-ddhikdrin, etc.; cf. Rajamudrd- 
dhikdrin. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 96. 

Mudrdhasta (El 33), official designation; same as Odiya 
Mudiratha, designation of a class of servants in the temple of 
Jagannatha at Purl. 

mudr-apacdra (IE 8-8; El 30), the crime of using coun- 
terfeit coins or the misuse of official seals. 

mudrd-sankha, cf. Tamil muttwai-ccangu (SITI), a variety 
of conch-shell; conch-shell marked with a seal. 

mudr-dvatdra, cf. Tamil muttir- avatar am (SITI), an ear- 

mudrd-vydpdra (IE 8-2); 8-3; BL), 'the affairs associated 
with the royal seal' ; often used in connection with the function 
of the viceroy described as conducting the said business; cf. 
samasta-mudrd-vydpdrdn paripanthoyati, sri-srikaran-ddi-samasta-mu- 
drdvydpdrdn paripanthyati. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 154. 
See also vydpdra. 

Mududa (El 27), same as Mutuda; probably, a village 

muha mula 205 

muha-patti (HA), a piece of cloth held in front of the mouth 
by Jain monks and nuns, while they are talking, in order to avoid 
small living bsings being destroyed by breath. 

muhurta (Gil 3; IA 17), the thirtieth part of a mean day 
and night; equal to fortyeight minutes. 

mukha (El 22; LL), the face, the gate; a door. 
Cf. ddna-mukha (ML), the principal gift. 
(El 16), used at the end of compounds in the sense 
ofmukhyz; 'head' 'heading' or 'sum'. Gf. panca-mukha-nagara. 
Cf. muha-patti. 

mukha-kattana (SITI), porch; also called darsana-kdnikkai ; 
front side of a building (SI I 12). 

mukha-mandapa, Tamil muga-mandaka (SITI), the front hall 
in a temple; cf. mahdmandapa. 

mukha-mudrd (El 5), sa'me as mauna. 

muktd (BL), epithet of a grant; a grant; possibly Arabic 

mukti-bhumi (El 27, 30), a holy place where salvation is 
attainable on death. 

mukh-dhdra, 'principal food or meals' ; same as mukhy-dhdra. 
See Sel. Ins., p. 162, text line 5. 

Mukhya (El 32), city elder; member of the city council. 
Gf. Hindi Mukhiyd, a village elder. 
(CU 1), chief officer. 

(EJ 16), see mukha meaning 'head', 'heading' or 'sum*. 
mukhy-dhdra, cf. mukh-dhdra. 

mukkutti (ASLV), an ornament; the nose-screw. 
mula (SITI), original; a document regarding a title to 
the property or right. 

(H'RS), investment of capital which is one of the seven 
sources of revenue specified in the Arthasdstra. See Ghoshal, 
H.Rev. Syst., p. 26. 

(Sel. Ins., p. 163), seedling. Cf. sa-mula (El 13), a tree. 
Mula-bhrtya (SITI), the chief servant; also called Cande- 
svara who was the chief servant of iva. 

mula-gabhdro (HA), Jain; same as garbha-grha ; the sanctum 
where the Mula-ndyaka is installed. 

mtilditana (El 1), meaning doubtful. 

Mula-ndyaka^KLt), epithet of a Jain Tirthankara; Mahavlra 
called 'the Mula-ndyaka of the Sanderaka-gaccha', 

206 m ula muni 

(HA) 9 the main deity in the sanctum of a shrine or in a 
devakulikd; also the central Jina in a sculpture representing a 
group of Jinas. 

mula-parisad, cf. Tamil mula-parisai (SITI), chief assembly 
[of a iva temple]; variously written in Tamil as mula-paradai, 
mula-parudai, mula-paridai, mula-parusai, etc. 

Mulaprakrti (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

(Ef 18), probably 'the prominent subjects ' or 'landlords' 
or the six important officers styled Prakrti (q.v.). 

Mularatnabhandarattdr (SI I 2), Sanskrit Mularatnabhdn- 
darastha' 9 treasures of the chief jewels. 

Mula-sangha (El 16, 25), name of a Jain sect. 

mula-sthana, cf. Tamil mula-ttdnam (SII 3; SITI; CITD), 
a place; the origin, base or foundation; the supreme spirit; the 
central shrine in a temple (SII 13); the place where the main 
image stands. 

(El 18), an important seat of monks. 

mula-visa (El 6; ASLV), cf. Telugu-Kannada visa, g of 
a hana (pana) ; name of a tax or levy. 

Mulid (El 31), Odiya; a day-labourer; from Sanskrit 
Mulika, possibly an abbreviation of Pddamulika. 

Muluda (LL), same as Mutuda or Mududaj probably, a 
village headman. Gf. Sirs oka. 

mulya (Gil 3), an endowment; equivalent to aksaya-riivi, 
a perpetual endowment. 

(HRS), proceeds of sale of metal-ware manufactured in 
the government workshops, as suggested by the Arthasdstra. 

Mummudi, cf. Mummudi-cola, 'three times a Cola king'; 
cf. Nurmadi and Immadi. 

mummuri-danda (ASLV), name of an organisation. 

mnmoda (El 13), parasmaipada form instead of the expected 

Mu-rtd (PJS), contraction of Mula-ndyaka, 'the principal 
deity in a Jain temple' ; often found in medieval Jain inscrip- 

mundamola (IE 8-5), cf. khandapdla-mundamola (El 24); 
name of a tax. 

mundiri (El), a land measure. 

muni (SII 1; IA 30; LL), a Jain monk. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

murd nadi 207 

murd (El 33), a measure of capacity; cf. muraka. 

muraka (El 9), a measure; cf. murd. 

murti (IE 7-1-2), 'three'; rarely used to indicate 'eight'; 
but cf. rupa used in the sense of 'one'. 

Murunda (El 14, 19), Saka title of a chief; a title or tribal 
name; supposed to be derived from a Scythian word meaning 
'a king'. 

Musara-vdru (GITD), Telugu; probably, goldsmiths or 
manufacturers of metallic objects. 

musti (IE 8-6), a handful. 

Cf. eka-mustyd (LP), 'at the same time'. 

mutaka, mutaka (IE 8-5; El 25), a measure or head-load; 
cf. cand-satka-mutaka, 'one mutaka of peas' (LP). See Ep. Ind. 9 
Vol. XV, p. 303, text line 50; cf. mot (a load) in Hindi and 
other dialects. 

mutaka (LP), same as mudd, a measure of capacity equal 
to a hundred or twentyfour maunds; a bullock's load (Ep. Ind. y 
Vol. XIV, p. 309; cf. Marathi muth, 'a bullock's pack-saddle'). 

mu-tt, abbreviation of an expression probably meaning 
'a riiound covered with jungle* (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 56). 

mutirigai (IE 8-6), Tamil; a small land measure equal to 
1-$ of a veli. 

mutkalanlya (LP), 'may be sent'; cf. Gujarat! mokalavurh. 

muttdvarana (El 21), name of a tax. 

Mutuda (El 27), also spelt as Mududa, Muluda; probably, 
the headman of a village. 


nabhas (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher'. 

nd, cf. nd-bhu. 

nd-bhu (IE 1), abbreviation of ndla-bhumi, 'cultivated 

ndd (ASLV), same as nddu; a district; the assembly of a 
district; the professional association and guild of a district. 

nada (IE 8-6), same as nala, a measuring rod. 

Ndda-gauda, same as Nddu-gauda, Ndr-gdvunda, etc. 

nddaka, same as ndduka (IE 8-4); same as ndd, nddu. 

Ndda-senabova (ASLV), officer in charge of the accounts 
of a nddu or district. 

ndfi (IA 7-1-2), 'three'. 

208 nadi Ndgaraka 

nadi-kula (IE 7-1-2), e two'. 

nadlpdla (HRS), fixed tax on villages situated upon the 
banks of rivers and lakes as suggested by the Arthasdstra. 

nadltara-sthdria (IE 8-5), ferry. 

nddlyaka (LP), same as anddiyaka] a place where the carts 
stand to dispose of goods. 

nddu (IE 8-4; SII 1; SITI), a country; a territorial divi- 
sion; a district or a subdivision; the local assembly to govern 
the civic affairs of the division called nddu. 

(El 3 1 ) , a chamber. 

Nddu-gauda (ASLV), the head of an organisation relating 
to a district. 

ndduka (El 12; ASLV), same as nddu. 

naga (IE 8-1-2), 'seven'; rarely used to indicate 'eight'. 

naga (IE 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

ndgadala (BL), meaning uncertain; cf. c a race subsisting 
onndgadala*. lv *% 

ndg-dmdvdsyd, cf. ndgara-amdvdsyd (El 5), name of a tithi. 

Nagakdra (BL), wrong reading for Tatthakdra, 'a 

nagara (IE 8-4), city; palace; cf. navara. 

(El 21; SITI), a commercial guild; guild of merchants; 
a mercantile town; often spelt in Kannada inscriptions as nakara 
or nakhara; cf. panca-nagara. 

(CITD), in Telugu inscriptions, a territorial assembly 
like the sabhd and ur; the merchant community in general or 
the organization of the merchant community of a town. In 
some places, the nagara and ur carried on their functions side 
by side. The word is sometimes used to indicate occupational 
groups like sdleyanagarattom. Cf. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, 
The Co\as, Vol. II, 1st ed., p. 294. 

(El 4), same as Kalinga-nagara. Cf. srl-J\fagara-bhukti-= 
Pdtaliputra-bhukti (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XVII, p. 311). 

(IA 17), represented in Prakrit by nera further corrupted 
to ner or nar. See nagarl. 

Nagar-ddhikrta (HD), the city prefect. See Rdjataranginl, 
IV. 81; VI. 70; VIII. 3334. 

Nagar-ddhipa (HD), same as Nagar-ddhikrta. 

Ndgaraka (HD), same as Ndgarika; chief officer of the 
cityj the city prefect of police. See Arthasdstra, II. 36; Kama- 

Nagara ndga 209 

sutra, V. 5. 9 (the commentator explaining Ndgaraka as Danda- 
pdsika). Cf.Talavara. 

Magar-dksadarsa (LL), the city-judge. 

Nagara-mahallaka (El 25), the City Elder. 

nagara-parivdra (ASLV), an organisation relating to a town. 

Nagarapati (El 12, 32; HD), the city prefect; ruler of a 
city. See Ind. Ant., Vol. IV, p. 35. 

Nagara-raksaka (IE 8-2), same as Taldra, Nagararaksin, 
Ndgarika, etc. 

Nagara-raksin, same as Nagara-raksaka, etc; prefect of the 
city police (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, pp. 156-57). 

Nagara-sresthin (IE 8-3; El 15, 21; BL; HD), according 
to some, the city banker or guild president of the town; but 
actually, the chairman of a board of administration like the 
Pancdyat; same as the Nagarseth who was the chairman of the 
board called Cauthiyd'm late medieval Rajasthan. See Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XV, p. 115; Proc. IHC, Ahmadabad, 1954, pp. 52 ff. See 
Pura-sresthin, Pura-pradhdna, Setti, etc. 

Nagara-svdmin (SITI), headman of the merchants. 

Nagarattdr (El 30), Sanskrit Nagarastha', leading men of 
the city. 

(ASLV; SITI), members of a guild of a town; members 
of a mercantile guild. 

Nagara-vyavahdrika (IE 8-3; CII 1; HD), Prakrit Nagala- 
viyohdlaka; judicial officer of a city; superintendent of the 
judicial affairs of a city; the city magistrate; also styled a Mahd- 
mdtra. See Paura-vyavahdrika (Arthasdstra, I. 12). 

nagari (IA 17), represented in Prakrit by nen\ further 
corrup ted into nar. Seejtagara. 

Ndgarika (HD), chief of the police. See Vikramorvaslya, 
V (after verse 4) ; Dasakumdracarita, II, pp. 58-59. The 
Vaijayantl explains the word as Kdrdpati, the superintendent of 

(ASLV), the chief bailiff or prefect at Vijayanagara. 
See also Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., pp. 95-96. Cf. Nagara-raksin, 

Nagar^seth (IE 8-3), Sanskrit Nagara-sresthin (q. v.); desig- 
nation of the chairman of an administrative board called Cauthiyd 
in Western India. See Setti. 

ndga-vana (IE 8-4), an elephant-forest. 

210 naharana nald 

naharana, a thief's weapon to dig a hole in the walls (Journ. 
Or. Inst., Vol. X, No. 1, p. 13). 

naidhdni-sild (El 32), a boundary pillar. 

Naigama, cf. Negama (iEI 24; LL), the inhabitant of a 
nigcuna (township) ; a merchant. See Nigama-putra. 

naijdyamdna (LP), from nija; c when they are going to get 
themselves separated'. 

Naimittika (El 19, 26; HD), a soothsayer or astrologer. 
See Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. IX, p. 305. 

nairgamika (IE 8-8; El 30), exit tax. 

naivedya (El 30), daily offerings to gods. 

Naiydmika, Naiyamika (El 24), also called Naiydvika', a 
law officer or judge. 

Naiyogika (IE 8-3; El 12, 24), cf. Niyogika (El 8), 'an 
officer'; officer-in-charge of an administrative unit; same as 

Naiyyoka (El 2), a mistake for Naiyogika. 

nakara, Kannada; same as Sanskrit nagara (q.v.); also 
spelt nakhara. 

nakha (IE 7-1-2), 'twenty 5 . 

nakhara, Kannada; same as Sanskrit nagara (q.v.); also 
spelt nakara. 

Ndkhudd Arabic; captain or commander of a ship (Ep. 
Ind. Vol. XXXIV, p. 143}. 

naksatra (CII 3), a lunar mansion. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'twentyseven'. 

nala (IE 8-6), measuring rod; same as danda; sometimes 
regarded as 12 cubits, 22 cubits, 56 cubits, etc., in length; cf. 
Samatatlya-nala, 'the rod as vised in the Samatata country'; 
Vrsabhasankara-nala, 'the rod introduced by king Vrsabha- 
sa'nkara', 'the rod of the village of Pattiyamattavura', etc. 
See kol, kolu, ghale, etc. 

(IE 8-6), cf. astaka-navaka-nala, satka-nala, etc., the first 
probably referring to the custom of measuring the length and 
breadth of a plot of land by rods of different length. 

(El 28), used in some Orissan inscriptions in the sense of 
measurement of the area [of the gift land] (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXXI, p. 20). 

(721), a measure. 

nald, same as satamdna (q. v.). 

ndla nandd 2 1 1 

ndla, cf. sa-khila-ndla (IE 8-5; El 14); cultivated land; 
same as ndla-bhumi. 

ndla-bhumi (IE 8-1), cultivated land; see ndla. 

ndli, nd\i (El 9, 28), a grain measure; same as ndlikd. 

ndlikd (IE 8-6), same as Pali nail or ndli', regarded as the 
same as prastha, i.e. one-sixteenth of a drona. 

ndlikdvdpa (IE 8-6; El 31), a land measure; an area of 
land requiring one ndlikd measure of seed grains for sowing. 

nalu, ndluka (El 7; CII 4), a measure of land; same as 
nalva; 400 (or 100 or 120) square cubits. 

ndma-grha, cf. ndmghar (IA 25), Assamese; a place of 
worship of the Vaisnavas, where plays, etc., are performed. 

namaka (IA 18), name applied to the first section of the 

ndmakarana (BL), naming ceremony. 

ndma-linga (El 15), a deity bearing the name of a person. 

namas (CII 3), 'reverence'; an invocation, generally con- 
nected with the names of gods, at the commencement of ins- 

namasya (IE 8-5; El 5, 13, 28), same as mdnya, sarva-na- 
masya, namasya-vrtti, etc. ; a rent-free tenure. 

namasya-vrtti (IE 8-5; El 32), same as sarva-namasya, etc.; 
a tax-free holding. 

ndnd (El 30), name of a coin; same as ndnaka. 

ndnddesi (El 31; SITI; ASLV), guild of merchants 
coming from outside. 

ndnai (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 197, text line 18), same 
as Sanskrit ndnaka; c a coin.' 

ndnaka, see ndnai. 

nanga (IE 8-5; El 25), cf. nange grhitasya yacc^dstau 
so dasa vd nagara^mahallakd vicar y a vadante tad*=eva prandnam; a 
word of uncertain meaning; but a fine is prescribed for a 
merchant's son described as nange grhlta. 

Ndnl (Gil 4), an engraver; probably a corrution of 

nanda (IE 7-1-2), 'nine'. 

nandd-dipa, also called nandd-dwige (CITD); used in 
Telugu and Kannada inscriptions in the sense of a lamp that 
is always kept burning before a deity in a temple; same as 

2 1 2 nandavaw ndttava 

nandavana, nanddvana, cf. tiru-nandavanam, etc. (SII 1); 
a sacred flower-garden. 

nandd-vilakku (SII 1, 2), also spelt as nondd , nundd Q ; a 
perpetual lamp; same as nandd-dlpa, akhanda-dlpa. 

nandlmukha (Gil 1), a species of water-birds. 

ndndl-samdrohana (El 32), a ceremony. 

nandisvar-dstami (SII 11-1), same as Phalguna-sudi 8. 

naptr (Gil 1), a grandson. 

(El 4, 9), a great-grandson. 

naptrka, cf. natika (El 22), a grandson. 

Narddhipati (IA 15), royal title; same as Narapati. 

Narapati (IE 8-2; El 12, 19; HD; SITI), 'lord of men', 
'leader of the infantry'; title borne by the GoJ.a monarchs; 
Vijayanagara rulers, etc., in view of the large infantry they 
possessed ; cf. the titles Asvapati and Gajapati, and also Asvapati- 
gajapati-narapati-rdja-tray-ddhipati which was the title of sOme 
kings. See Ind. Ant., Vol. XV, p. 7; JBORS, Vol. V, p. 588. 

Narasvamin, probably 'a Jdglrddr'; cf. grdme mahattama- 
narasvdminah (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXV, p. 51). 

Ndr-gdvunda (El 23, 27), village headman; also called 
Nada-gauia'y cf. Ndr-gdvunda-svdmya-bhuta, 'being in the posse- 
ssion of the Ndr-gdvundas\ 

ndrikela, cf. sa-guvdka-ndrikela (El 8-5); coconut palms 
[which the ordinary tenants had no right to enjoy]. 

Narma-saciva (El 13), minister of amusement. 

Nasatya (IE 7-1-2), 'two 5 . 

nasta (LP), disappeared. 

nastabharata (HRS),name of a levy; same as nastibharata; 
(see Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill, note 4) ; may be 'compensation for losses'. 

nasta-rdjya (IA 22), former rule of a dead king. Cf. also 
vinos ta-rdjya. 

nastibharata (HRS), same 2&ttastabhdrafa' s nameof a levy 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill, p. 264, note 4). 

Nata (El 31), a dancer; sometimes mentioned in the list 
of officials probably indicating 'the chief dancer'. 

ndtaka-sdld (SII 3; 11-1), a theatre hall. 

Ndtha (Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 313), same as Ndyaka. 

Nattakdra (BL), mistake for Tatthakdra, a brazier. 

Ndttavar (ASLV), Tamil; members of an organisation 
relating to a nadu or district, 

ndtya Navakarmin 213 

ndtya-sdld (El 4), dance hall. 

Naubala-hasty-asva-go-mahis-dj-dvik-ddi-vydprta (IE 8-3; El 
12), an officer in charge of the royal navy and cattle; looks like 
a combination of Hasty-asv-ostra-naubala^vydprtaka and Hasty- 

naudanda, same as naupatha ( IHQ^, Vol. XXIII, pp. 

naukd-bandha (El 32), a levy from the boatmen at landing 

Nauk-ddhyaksa (IE 8-3), officer in charge of the navy. 

naukd-bhdtaka (El 14), charges for hiring a boat. 

nau-krama (El 19), a bridge of boats or a ferry station. 

Nauvdha (Ind. Ant., Vol. XI, p. 244), a ship-owner, mari- 
ner or captain/ 

Nauvdtaka (El 24), a naval officer. Gf. Ardha-nauvdtaka. 

(EJ 15), probably, a wall (so to say) made of a large 
number of boats. 

Nauvittaka, leader or owner of ships (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 
p. 144). 

nava-catuskikd, cf. nava-cokl. 

nava-cokl (HA), Sanskrit nava-catuskikd; a hall (open on 
three sides) adjacent to and in front of the gudha-mandapa, so 
called because it is divided into nine sections by means of the 
pillars supporting its ceiling. 

ndvah (HRS), charges for hiring royal boats; same as 

navakdra (HA), Sanskrit namaskdra ; the chief Jain formula 
for worship or an obeissance to the arhats, siddhas, dcdryas, upa- 
dhydyas and sddhus. 

nava-karman, cf. Tamil nava-karumam (SITI); renovation; 
repairs. Cf. Prakrit nava-kama (El 20), foundation, extension 
or repairs to buildings. 

Navakarmapati (El 22), an architect or the supervisor of 
building operations; same as Navakarmika and Navakarmin. 

Navakarmika (El 16, 23; LL), superintendent of a work 
(possibly of repairs); cf. Navakamika (El 4, 20), an overseer 
of work (building or repairing operations) ; superintendent of 
building operations. Cf. Navakarmapati. 

Navakarmin (ML), same as Navakarmika, the superinten- 
dent of a work. Cf. Navakarmapati. 

214 ndva nay a nkara 

nava-khanda (IE 8-4), epithet of Bharata or Bharatavarsa ; 
see khanda. 

navamikd (JEI 9), meaning uncertain. 
navdnga, cf. Pali navamga (El 33); cf. navdnga-Sdstr-sdsana. 
nava-nidhdna, cf. nava-nidhdna-sahita (IA 11), epithet of gift 
land; see Ind. Ant., Vol. VI, pp. 180 ff. (Inscriptions Nos. 4-11); 
explained as 'new taxes imposed for the first time'; probably 
'a fresh assessment of tax 5 (Ep.Jnd., Vol. XXXIV, p. 143). 

navara, Odiya; same as Sanskrit nagara; capital city, palace. 
nava-ratna (BL), the nine gems at Vikramaditya's court. 
navardtra, navardtri (El 11, 25; CII 4), the festival of 
Durga; Asvina-sudi 1 to 9. 

navardtri-amdvdsyd (El 5), new-moon preceding the nava- 
rdtri; also called mahdlayd. 

navatara-bhiiml (LP), land as yet uncultivated. 
navlna-panjikd-karana (LP), probably, 'to have new fences', 
i.e. 'to have additional land in one's possession.' 
naya (El 3), argumentation. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, pp. 318 ff, text lines 26-27), a 
territorial division like a Pargana. 

Ndyaka (El 33; Gil 4), a royal officer or ruling chief. 
Gf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXVII, p. 142, text line 35. 

(HD}> explained as 'the head often villages.' See Artha- 
sdstra, I. 12; Sukra, I. 192. 

(El 32; BL), title of a subordinate rujer. 
(ASLV}> one who held lands from the Vijayanagara 
kings on the condition of offering military service (cf. 
Amara-ndyaka ) . 

(El 7), a general. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 313), head of a nddu or district. 
(IJE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

ndyaka-naraka (CITD), Telugu-Kannada; the principal 

Ndyakavddi (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; watchmen stationed 
by the State or landlord to keep watch over the crops before or 
during harvest time; the indm granted to such persons was 
known as kdkku-ndyaka-vildgam. 

nayana (IE 8-1-2), 'two'; cf. netra. 

ndyankara, ndyankdra (El 16; ASLV), the feudal system 
prevalent in the Vijayanagara kingdom, in which the Ndyakas 

ay mar mcocca 


enjoyed royal land on condition of offering military service; see 
Nayaka, Amara-ndyaka. 

Nayindr (IA 12), Tamil; the chief temple-servant. 

nazrdna (El 26), Persian; customary presents. 

nell-dyam (SII 1), Tamil, revenue in paddy. 

nemaka (El 1), probably, salt. 

netra (IE 7-1-2), 'two'; in some areas of Eastern India, it 
was used in the sense of Hara-netra, 'three'. The word drk 
seems to bear the sense of three in the Pamulavaka plates of 
Eastern Calukya Vijayaditya VII (JAHRS, Vol. II, p. 287, 
text line 67). 

nettara-godaga (ASLV), a kind of compensation. 

ni (IE 8-1; El 33), abbreviation of nibaddha or nniksita, 
i.e. registered or approved. 

(Select Inscriptions, pp. 238-39, 247-48), explained as an 
abbreviation of nija and as a sort of genitive suffix often with a 
word indicating relationship understood. 

nl (LP), used for the verb am. 

(LP), to make. 

nibaddha (IE 8-1 ; El 29), explained as 'registered 5 . 

(I A 13), used in respect of a copper-plate grant and trans- 
lated as 'prepared'. 

(I A 15), interpreted as 'assigned'. 

nibandh (Select Inscriptions, p. 202), to register. 

nibandha (El 7), an endowment. 

(Ghoshal, H-Rev. Syst., p. 49), a register. 

(SII 2), also spelt nivanda or nimanda in Tamil; the fixed 
requirements of a temple; cf. NivandakkSrar, temple servants 
who attend to the nibandha. 

(SI/ 3; SITI), expenses or arrangements; arrangement 
for the conduct of affairs in a te'mple. 

nibarava (CITD), Telugu; an unknown weight used in 
the case of salt and paddy (unhusked rice). 

nlca (Gil 1), mean or low. 

(CIj 1), southern. 

riicocca-mdsa (Gil 3), the anomalistic month, the 
period in which the moon comes from perigee or apogee to 
the same point again; its duration is 27 days, 33 ghatis 
and 16.65 palas, or 27 tithis 59 ghatis and 33.36 palas; sec 
also kendra. 

216 niddna nifrsara 

niddna (CITD), Telugu; same as Sanskrit nidhdna; a 
treasure; a hoard or fund; store, wealth or property. 

nidhdna (HRS) , explained as c cess imposed upon agricultural 
land' ;but 'freshly assessed tax';cf. nava-nidhana. cf. sa-nidhi-nidhdna 
(Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XXXV, p. 139, text line 20), in which it is the 
same as jtiksepa; also sa-vana-svabhra-nidhdna; probably, a mine. 

nidhdn-dlipaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill, p. 274, text line 61), 
probably the same as nidhi-niksepa or nidhy-upanidhi. But dlipaka, 
also read as dliyaka and often spelt as dlipaka, may refer to the 
right on beehives and honey (see allpaka}. 
nidhi (IE 7-1-2), 'nine'. 

Cf. nidhi-niksepa (IE 8-5; HRS; SITI); treasure trove; 
a treasure-hoard ; hidden treasure under the ground ; one of the 
eight kinds of enjoyments allowed to the donees of rent-free land. 
Cf. nidhdna. 

(CITD), a treasure; a reposistory; store; a place where 
anything is placed. 

Cf. nidhi-niksepa-jala-pdsdn-drdm-ddi-catus-prakdra-btravana~ 
pdrikh-dya-sahita (Ind. Ant., Vol. XJX, p. 247; text lines 101-02), 
privilege mentioned along with astabhoga-tejassvdmya-dandasulka- 

nidhydpti, cf. Prakrit nijhati (El 2; CII 1), explanation, ex- 
hortation or argumentation; to cause understanding; cf. anu- 

nidhydyana, cf. nijhati (Gil 1); the act of explaining; argu- 
mentation [in favour of a particular view]; consolation. See 

nidrd-kalasa, a purna-ghata kept near the head of the bed 
(Matsya Purdna, 265.14; Harsacarita, IV). 

Nigama-putra (LL), inhabitant of a nigama (township); a 
merchant; cf. Naigama. 

nigama-sabhd (El 7, 8), a public hall or the assembly of the 
town Pancdyat; the city council. 

nigraha (El 27), 'reducer'. Cf. also kotta-nigraha. 

Nihelapati (IE 8-3; HD), official designation of uncertain 
import; probably, the governor of a territorial unit; also spelt 
Mhilapati. See Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., p. 124 ; CH, Vol. Ill, p. 289. 

Nihilapati (IE 8-3; CH 3; HD), an official title of uncertain 
import. See Mhelapati. Cf. CII, Vol. Ill, p. 289. 

nihsdra, cf. nissarena (LP), 'in an excellent manner.' 

nikara nirajan 217 

nlkara (El 12, 33), cf. yathadlyamdna-bhoga-bhaga-kara- 
nikara-ddikam; a small tax or cess; small amount of rent fixed 
for a gift land; practically the same as kara or tax (IHQ, Vol. 
XXXIV, p. 279). Cf. upakara, trnodaka, mdnya-kanike, etc. 

nikdya (El 7), a religious corporation. 

(El 18; LL), a Buddhist school or community ; a frater- 
nity of Buddhist monks. 

Cf. Kaulika-nikdya (LL), a guild of the Kaulikas or weavers. 

(CH 1), a class or group. 

Nikephoros (IE 8-2), Greek; royal title; Victorious 5 ; trans- 
lated into Prakrit-Sanskrit as Jayadhara. 

niksepa, cf. nidhi-niksepa (IE 8-5; HRS), deposits and finds 
on the soil (probably including beehives, cf. alipaka, nidhdna]\ 
deposits; same as upanidhi; one of the eight kinds of enjoyment 
of the property allowed to the donees of rent-free land; 
sometimes wrongly explained as a treasure-trove (SITI). 
See nidki. 

mla-dumphaka (IE 8-8), probably, one whose profession 
was to press indigo plants for getting blue dye; dumphaka may 
be Sanskrit drmphaka. 

nlla-kutl (IE 8-8; El 30), probably, an indigo manufactory. 

nilaya (El 9), cf. grdma-nilqya-ndda-sarva-bddhd-parihdrena; 
probably a territorial unit like a Pargana; the inhabited area 
of a district. 

nimantrana (IA 20), explained as 'an invitation which 
admits of no refusal'. 

nimitta (SII 1), a sign. 

nimn-onnata (IA 16), explained as 'what is above and 
below'; but really, 'low and high lands'; cf. khalla-unnata. 

nindana (LP), weeding out grass growing along with the 
crops; cf. Gujaratl nindavum. 

nmrairai (El 30), Tamil; permanent tax. 

nipdna, same as p ana, cf. grdma-nipdna-kupaka (El 4); 'the 
drinking well of a village' ; may also be the same as dp ana. 

nipratisthdpita (Ep. 2nd., Vol. XXXIII, p. 248), same as 
pratisthdpita', established, installed. 

nlra-grha (El 31), 'a water-house'; same as Persian abddr- 

nudjana (SII 1 ), the waving of a lamp before an idol; same 
as ardtrika. 

2 1 8 nirasta nirvana 

nirasta, nirasti, cf. sarvajdta-bhoga-nirastyd (IE 8-5), 'with 
all kinds of the [king's] rights renunciated'. 

niravakara (El 31), used in some Orissan inscriptions in 
the sense of 'the nett total after deductions'. 

nirayana (Gil 3), destitute of precession of the equinoxes, 

Nirgrantha (CII 1), a follower of the Jain religion. 

Nirgranthandtha (BL), epithet of a Jain poet of the Digam- 
bara sect. 

niriksita (IE 8-1), same as drsta, 'examined [and approv- 
ed]'. See ni. 

nirlaksana (CII 1), castration. 

niroga, the science of medicine (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, 
p. 146). 

nirudhya (LP), 'up to'. 

niru-nela, nir-nela (GITD), Telugu; low lying land irri- 
gated by water from a tank, canal, well, etc.; usually called 
'wet land' and considered the most valuable. Cf. veli-volamu 
or veli-cenu, i.e. land on a comparatively higher level, which 
depends solely on rain and is called 'dry land'. 

nirupa (SITI), written order; communication from 
the king or other superiors. 

Nirupa (ASLVj, the carrier of a royal order. 

nirupana (LP), order for transfer of service; appointment. 

nirupita (LP), appointed. 

nirupita-danda (IA 18), wrongly regarded as a doubtful 
technical expression; actually, 'appointed as Danda (i.e. Danda- 
ndyakay . Cf. niyukta- Danda. 

nirvacariiya, cf. bhoga-sambandha-nirvacamya (El 12), 'the 
relations [of the gift land] with the district [to which it belong- 
ed] should not be reckoned'. 

nirvah, cf. nirvahanlya (LP), 'should be observed'. 

nirvdha, cf. vdsal-nirvdham (SITI), same as vdsal-kdriyam 

Nirvdha (ASLV), probably, a manager. 

nirvdha-sabhd (SITI), a managing or executive committee. 

nirvana (CII 3), annihilation of human passion; a stage 
in the Buddhist practices, anterior to parinirvdna or complete 
annihilation of personal existence by absorption into the all- 
pervading spirit. 

(HA), same as moksa; liberation from all bondage includ- 

nirvana nislistaka 

ing that of this earthly body; the death of the Jinas or monks 
who have obtained kevala-jndna. 

nirvdna-caitya (BL), name of the Buddhist me'morial built 
at Kasia (ancient Kusinagara) in the Deoria District, where 
the Buddha obtained mahdparinirvdna (death). 

nirvdpa (El 11), dole. 

nirvrtti fASLV), same as visaya or kottam', an administrative 

Nirydmaka (LP), probably, an officer who allowed licenced 
articles to pass. 

nirydtita (CII 2-1; ML), given. 

niryoga-ksema (LP), denouncing all claims'. 

nisadam, also called nisadi (SII 1 ), supposed to be the same 
as nityam. 

nisadhi (El 28), also spelt nisidhi, nisidhi, nisedhika, etc.; 
the tomb of Jain monks. Gf. nisidikd, " tie. (Sanskrit nisadyd}. 

nisadi, cf. nisadam. 

nisadyd, cf. Prakrit nisidiyd (LL), a dwelling. Gf. nislistaka. 

nisedha (LP), same as vydsedha (q. v.). 

nisedhika (BL), me'morial on the burial ground of Jain 
religious teachers; cf. nisidhi, etc.; also nisidikd. 

nisidhi, nisidhi, nisidhi (IA 12), Jain; the tomb of Jain monks. 

nisldl (El 20), a Jain tomb; cf. nisidhi, etc. 

nisidikd, also spelt nisldigai (SITI), the death of a Jain 
by fasting; the memorial set up for such a person. 

nisima (ML), Prakrit ;'supposed to be the same as stiipa; 
cf. nisslma. 

niska (IE 8-8; El 15, 27, 30), name of a gold coin; name 
sometimes applied to satamdna, sdna, tanka, ganda-mdda, etc.; 
cf. ganda-niska, also called ganda-mdda. See JNSI, Vol. XVI, 
pp. 41*rT. 

(IE 8-8), a gold coin equal to sixteen silver drammas. 

(El 5), a coin equal to a half-pagoda. 

(JNSJ, Vol. XV, p. 139), a silver coin equal to one sata- 

niskdvala (LP), a thing on which no one has any right; cf. 
Sanskrit kavala. 

nislistaka, Prakrit nisidhayd (CII 1), explained as c a rest- 
house'. But the correct reading is nisidiyd Sanskrit nisadyd 
(q.v.). See Nach. Akad. Wissen. Goetting., 1959, No. 4, pp. 47ff. 

220 nisraniyata 

nisrd-niksepa-hatta (El 11), probably, a place in the market 
for storing goods to be exported. 

nissima (Gil 2-1), Explained as 'a piece of land outside a 
monastery'. See nisima. 

nisthdpita, 'caused to be completed' (Sel. Ins., p. 224). 
Cf. nipratisthdpita, nisthita. 
(LP), finished. 

nisthita (Select Inscriptions, p. 203), completed. Of. anus- 
thita, nisthdpita. 

nitya (El 19), compulsory. 

nivanda (SITI), allocated duties of servants in temples; 
temple expenses; same as Sanskrit nibandha. 

nwa-pdta (LP), the falling of rain-water from the eaves; 
cf. Gujarat! nev or nevdrh. 

nivartana (IE 8-6; El 21, 26, 28; CII 4), an area of land, 
which was not the same in different ages and localties. See 
Ind. Ep. t pp. 409-10; also Matsya Purdna, 283. 14-15, represent- 
ing a gocarmanas 3 of a nivartana (210x210 sq. cubits). 

(CITD), same as miruturu, the identification of the two 
being established by bilingual Sanskrit-Telugu inscriptions. 

nivartanin (Gil 4), name of a land measure, same as 

nivedanaka (El 13), cf. Vdmanasvdmi-pdddnarh nivedanaka- 
nimittam, 'in order to be presented at the feet of Vamana- 
svamin. 3 

nivedya (El 15), same as naivedya; the food offering to a 

nivesa (El 28), a house-site. 
nivesana (LL), a house. 
nivesita (Gil 1), written [on stone]. 

Cf. prdsddo^=yarh nivesitah (Select Inscriptions, p. 295, text 
line 19); erected. 

nivi (El 17), a permanent endowment; same as aksaya-nlvi. 
nivi-dharma (El 15, 17; HRS), the custom regarding per- 
manent endowments; the condition that the donee should not 
destroy the principal but should only enjoy the income arising 
from it. 

nivita, cf. s-osar-dvaskara-sthdna-nivlta-lavandkara (El 22). 

nivrt (El 8), a district. 

niyata-bhoga (El 30), regular offerings to gods. 

niyata nydya 


niyat-dniyata (IE 8-5), regular and fixed taxes and those 
which were occasional. 

Niydyattdr (ASLV), Tamil; Sanskrit Nydyastha', a judge. 
Gf. Mydyattdr. 

niyoga (El 24; SITI), an appointment; authority; the 
officer bearing the same. Cf. Niyogin, etc. 

Niyoga-niyukta (El 23), cf. Niyogin, etc. 

Niyogastha (Ind. Ant., Vol. XVII, p. 11, text line 13), 'an 
officer'; same as Niyog-niyukta, etc. 

Niyogi (ASLV), a class of Brahmanas in the Telugu- 
speaking land. 

Niyogika (IE 8-3; El 8, 25, 32), same as Niyogin or 
Naiyogika, 'an officer'. 

Niyogin (El 5, 24, 30), same as Niyogika', c one having a 
niyoga 1 . Cf. Paramesvara-niyogin. 

Niyukta (IE 8-3; El 12, 21, 24), official designation; same 
as Niyuktaka, Tanniyukta, etc. 

niyukta-danda (IA 18), wrongly regarded as a doubtful 
technical expression; actually, 'appointed as Danda (i.e. Danda- 
ndyaka?}. Cf. nirupita-danda. 

Niyuktaka (HD), probably, a subordinate officer under 
the Ayuktaka; same as Myukta. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV, p. 84. 

Niyuktak-ddhikdrika (El 33), better Niyuktaka and Adhi- 

nrtya-bhoga (SITI), same as Tamil sdkkai-kkdni. 

nrpa (IE 7-1-2), 'sixteen 5 . 

Nurmadi (IE 8-2; SII 3), Kannada, 'hundred times'; word 
prefixed to the names of certain kings in order to distinguish 
them from their predecessors bearing the same name; e.g. 
Nurmadi Taila, 'one who is a hundredfold Taila'; cf. Savai 
Jayasijhha, 'one and one-fourth of Jayasirhha'. See Immadi 
and Mummudi. 

nydya, cf. niydyam (SII 2), an appointment or pledge. 

(SITI), body or association of persons having the same 
duties or interests. 

Cf. gardabha-cdnddla-nydyena (LP), 'like a donkey or a 

Cf. khanda-badariphala-nydyew (LP), 'like sugar and the 
badarl fruit'. 

Cf. sdka-phalaka-nydyena (LP), 'like vegetables and fruits'. 

222 Nydya otada 

Cf. vrddhi-phala-bhoga-nydya (LP), principle of enjoying the 
interest of a deposit; also cf. grhasya bhddakam na hi; drammdndrh 
vydjarh na hi; esa vrddhi-phala-bhoga-nydyah. 

Nyaya-karanika (El 12), one responsible for settling disputes 
regarding the gift land. 

(BL\ official designation of the writer of complaints or 
the scribe of the law-court. 

Nydyattdr (SII 12; SITI), Sanskrit Nydyastha\ judges; 
members of the court of justice; a committee of judges. Gf. 

nydya-vdda (LP), a judgment. 

Odaya (CITD), Telugu-Kannada ; a king, ruler, master 
or leader. 

Odayantrika (CII 4), correctly Audayantrika ; a manufacturer 
of hydraulic machines or, more probably, a person in charge 
of such a machine. 

Odiyd, spelt as Oriya in English; people, language and 
alphabet of Orissa. 

ogho (HA), same as rajo-harana; usually made of twisted 
woollen threads tied to a wooden handle, used by Jain monks 
and nuns, for removing dust particles and insects and for 
protecting the latter. 

ohoru (IE 8-5), Odiya; cf. dandodsi-ohoru, e tax for the 
maintenance of watchmen'. 

Oja (SII 11-1), same as Ojhd; designation derived from 
Sanskrit Upddhydya', cf. Bengali Ojhd, Maithili Jhd. 

okapinda (IA 18; CII 1), explained as 'a fox'; probably, 
Household vermin'. 

ollpdta (El 1), meaning doubtful. 

om, the pranava sometimes found at the commencement of 
inscriptions ; often represented by a sign which should not be con- 
fused with the symbol standing for the auspicious word siddham. 

om (El 27), a territorial division. 

Ontuddru (El 27), Telugu; a revenue officer. 

Oriya, same as 0$iyd. 

ostha (IE 7-l-2)," < twoV 

otada, otadd, otadl (Ghasmba), dry land, unirrigable land; 
opposed to kohll or dli. 

Pa~pdda 223 


Pa (CITD ) , abbreviation of the Telugu name of a certain 
measure of grain. 

Pa (El 32), contraction of the surname Pdthin. 

pa (IE 8-1), abbreviation of pdda. 

pabdsana (HA), the seat (dsana) on which the figure of a 
Jina is placed. 

pacana (LL), a cooking place. 

pada (El 33), share; quarter of the standard land measure. 

(E74,9;IA17), a share. 

(721), a land-measure; cf. pada (pata) in Sel. Ins. 
p. 408. 

Cf. sv-dngabhoga-pada (LP), 'under the head of personal 

(LL\ ML), foot-print. 

pdda (IE 8-6), same as Kannada hada, 'one-fourth'; a 
measure equal to one-fourth of the standard land measure. 

Cf. pod (El 19), literally, 'one-fourth'; name of a land 

Cf. sa-pddika (LP), 'with one-fourth in addition'. 

(Ep.Ind.,Vol. XXXIII, p. 248), foot-print, foot-mark. 

'paddy pdda (IE 8-4), corrupt forms of pdtaka, 'part of a 
village'; often suffixed to the names of localities. 

Pdda-bhakta (IE 8-2), 'devoted to the feet of; cf. Pad-arm- 
dhydta and Pdd-dnudhydna-rata. 

Pddacdrin (CII 3), 'moving on feet'; 'personified'. 

padaga (SITI), Tamil; name of a measure of land; cf. 

padaga (IE 8-6), Tamil; same as Sanskrit pdtaka', a land 
measure which was equal to 240 ku\is 9 and 6J of which made 
one veli. 

pada-ghata (IE 8-8), meaning uncertain. 

Padaikkdnvar (ASLV), a military class. 

paddiparTU (ASLV), a military station or cantonment. 

padakd (Chamba), same as paduka; foot-print. 

padakdra (IE 8-8), probably, a shoe-maker or a hawker 
(Hindi pdukdr) . 

padakka (ASLV), Tamil; a chest ornament. 

pdda-kula (El 12; I A 15)', probably, 'a tribe of attendants', 

224 padapaddti 

Pdda being the same as Pddamula or Pddamulika, 'an attendant'. 

pada-lekhyaka (LP), the ledger in which items of income 
are written. 

padalikai (SITI), Sanskrit patalikd; name of a measure of 

Pddamula (El 12), an attendant. 

(El 25), foot-prints. 

(721), a sanctuary (p. 156; Set. Ins., 2nd ed. 3 p. 512). 

(SII 13), cf.pddamulattdr, temple servants. 

Pddamulika (El 4; LL), a servant. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, p. 156), a temple attendant. 

Pdd-dnudhydna-rata (IE 8-2), 'engaged in meditating on 
the feet of. '; cf. Pdd-dnudhydta. 

Pdd-dnudhydta (IE 8-2; El 2; CII 3), 'meditating on the 

feet or favoured by the feet of. ', a technical expression for 

the relations of a feudatory to his paramount sovereign, of a 
subordinate to a chief, of a successor to his predecessor, of a son 
to his parents, of a nephew to his uncle, of a grandson to his 
grandfather, and of a younger to his elder brother; used also in 
respect of gods. In rare cases, the word pdda is omitted. Cf 
Pdda-bhakta and Pdd-dnudhydna-rata. 

Pada-padm-opajwin (CII 3; IA 18), 'subsisting [like a bee] 

on the lotuses that are the feet of. '; a technical expression 

(often occurring in medieval South Indian inscriptions) for the 
relations of a feudatory or officer to his master; cf. Pdda-pind- 
opajivin, Pdd-opojlvin. 

pdda-pdsa (SITI) , name of a foot-ornament. 

Pdda-pind-opffjlvin (CII 3, etc.), 'subsisting on the food 

supplied by the feet of. '; a technical expression to denote 

the relationship of officials or subordinates to their master; 
same as Pdd-opajwin and Pdda-padm-opajlvin. 

pdda-pltha (SII 2), a foot-stool. 

pdda-puspa (SITI), same as Sanskrit-Tamil pdda-kdnaikkai. 

pdda-raksd, cf. Tamil pdda-ratcai (SITI), shoes; sandals. 

Pddasaiva (IA 12), designation of a conch-blower at the 
Ramesvaram temple. 

pdda-sanghdfa, a pair of feet (i.e. foot-prints). Cf. Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 248. 

paddti-jlyya (IE 8-5; El 12, 29), also spelt paddti-jlva; tax 
for the maintenance of Pdiks; same as Odiya pdikdli; cf. khanda- 

padatika^padra 225 

pala or khandapdllya. 

Paddtika (IE 8-3), modern Pdik (q. v.).. 

pddava-kkdm (SITI), Tamil; land given as wage for temple 

padavdra (SITI), also called paduudra; fee payable for 
exchanging landed property; transfer fee. 

pdddvarta (IE 8-6; El 4, 21, 24; Gil 3), a land measure, 
an area of 100 pdddvartas being 100 feet each way, i.e. 10,000 
square feet; also spelt paddvarta. 

padavl (El 24), 'an office'. 

pdda-viriisopaka (vimSaka) , see pdvisd, paisd, vimsopaka. 

padi (El 21), a measure. 

Padihdra (BL), same as Sanskrit Pratihdra. 

pddika, cf. Telugu-Kannada pdtika (CITD); one-fourth of 
anything; -g^th part of the coin termed pagoda (q.v) . 

pddikdval (ASLV), the right of policing, which was seme- 
times leased to psople. 

Padird, cf. Odiya Sdmanta-padird (El 32); Sanskrit Prati- 
rdja\ title of a feudatory or governor; cf. PratirajyaPratirdja. 

Padishah (IA 20), Persian; spelt Pddisdha, Pdtisdha, etc., 
in Indian records; a [Muhammadan] emperor. 

Padiydri (El 27), Sanskrit Pratlharl. 

padma-bandha i^CITD), a kind of artificial composition of 
verses, in which the syllables are arranged in the form of a lotus. 
Gf. padma-vrtta. 

padma-nidhi (IE 8-8), a sacred deposit made in the temple 
treasury. Cf. the coin called padmanidhi-malla-mdda which was 
probably issued by the temples. 

padma-pltha (SII 2), a lotus-pedestal. 

padm-dsana (IA 18), used to indicate e the sun'; cf. padma- 

padma-sadman (IA 18), used to indicate e the sun 5 ; cf.padm- 

padma-vrtta (CITD), probably, the same as padma-bandha. 

Pddonalaksa (IE 8-4), name of a territory with reference 
to the number of villages in it; cf. Sapddalaksa, Caurdsi. 

Pad-op ojlvin (I A 18), same as' Pdda-padm-opajivin and 

padra (IE 8-4; El 24; CII 4), 'a village'; often suffixed 
to the names of villages ^SCQ padraka\. C'f. pddrlyaka (LP), those 

226 padraka paikamu 

living in the confines of a village. 

(IE 8-5), probably, 'inhabited area*; may also be 'com- 
mon land' (cf. padraka}; cf. sa-padr-dranyaka as an epithet of 
a gift village. 

padraka (IE 8-4; CII 3; etc.); c a village'; generally used 
as the termination of the name of a village; interpreted as 'com- 
mon-land' in expressions like Bhwnbhusa-padraka and Sivaka- 
padraka. Wilson's Glossary explains pddar (i.e. padra) as 
'common-land, land adjacent to a village left uncultivated'. 

paduka (Ghamba, etc.), sacred foot-prints; from Sanskrit 

paduka (El 22; LL; HA), foot-prints. Seepddukd, etc. 

pdduka (A.R.Ep., 1958-59, p. 1 1), foot-prints. 

pdduka-patta, pddukd-patta (LL), cf. Prakrit paduka-pata 
(El 20), a foot-print slab. 

pddukd-patti, cf. Prakrit pdjugd-patl (El 24), a slab with 

paduvdra (SITI), same aspadavdra (q.v.). 

pdga (bhdga ?), cf. Kannada hdga (El 9), name of a coin. 
(I A 11), same as Kannada hdga] one-fourth[of the revenue 
collected] ; may be Sanskrit bhdga. 

pdghdl, cf. taldr-dbhdvya. 

pagod, pagoda (El 8-8), also called 'star pagoda'; English 
name of the gold coin called hurt (hon) or vardha; probably so 
called because the coins often bore the representation of a 
temple called pagod or pagoda by the early European travellers. 
The word seems to have been derived from Sanskrit bhagavat or 
bhagavatl meaning the deities worshipped in the temples and 
also often figuring on the coins. Cf. 'tankakas stamped with the 
figure of the Bhagavat' (Bhandarkar's List, No. 2033). 

Cf. Cina-pagoda (SII 12), 'the Chinese temple'; name of 
a Buddhist shrine at Nagapattanam. 

pdhuda, Sanskrit prdbhrta; cf. pdhuda-pramdnena (LP), 'in 
proportion to the gift given by him'. 

Pdik (IE 7-3; El 33), Sanskrit Paddtika; same as Bhata or 
Bhata-manusya; a footman; cf. Pidda. 

pdikd (IE 8-5; El 29), Odiya; also called paikdli; same as 
paddti-jlvya . 

pdikdli, see pdikd. 

paikamu (El 6), Telugu; name of a coin, 



pdild (Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 42), a measure of capacity. 

Paindapdtika (LL), a Buddhist mendicant; cf. pindapdta. 

paisd, used in Hindi, Bengali, etc., for pdvlsdorpdda-virhs'aka- 
( vimsopaka ) ; 'a copper coin' ; 'money' ; also a land measure. 

Paitakin (LL), Buddhist; a teacher of the pifakas. 

pdka-danda (El 14), cf. Kannada kiru-kula. 

pdkhl (IE 8-6), Bengali; a land measure in parts of 
Bengal, which is smaller than the blghd. 

pakhila (IA 17), apparently a mistake for upakhila (q.v.); 
cLsa-khilampakhilam wrongly read or written for sa-khil-opakhilam ; 
semi-waste land. 

paksa (IE 7-1-2), 'two'; sometimes also 'fifteen'. 

paksa-pdta, 'one who works on behalf of someone else' (Ep. 
Irtd., VoL XXXIV, p. 250). 

pakva, cf. pakva-pura, 'a brick-built house', same as Bengali 
pdkd-bddi. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 184. 

pala (El 9, 21, 30; CII 3), name of a weight. 

(IA 26), a weight equal to 320 rails', sometimes spelt phala 
in Pali. 

(C/7TD), in Telugu-Kannada records, a weight equal to 
that of 10 pagodas^ four karsas or T ^ of a tula', the 8th part of 
a ser, or 3 tolas or rupees; 4 fo/aj or 320 gunjds. 

(CII 3), the sixtieth division of a ghati; equal to twenty- 
four English seconds. 

paid (LP), sheds. 

(LP), afoot-soldier; cf. Gujarati/>a/0. 

pdlaka (El 3), cf. grdmasya pdlakah, 'the headman of a 

(Select Inscriptions, p. 236), escort. 

pala-kaya (SITI), sundry spices as pepper, etc., used 
in preparing curry. 

palampulli-mddai (SITI), Tamil; name of an ancient 
coin; see mddai. 

Palaniydyam (El 21), official designation. 

pdldpana (LP), cf. Gujarat! paldvavum, 'to compel to obey'. 

paldrdha, weight equal to half of z. pala (JNSI, Vol. XVI, 
p. 48). 

Pali, name of a language. 

pall (El 3), embankment. 
(Gil 3), a bridge. 

228 pall p ana 

pdli-dhvaja (El 30, 32; Gil 4), name of the banner of cer- 
tain kings or dynasties, which was their royal insignia; same 
as pdli-ketana; sometimes explained as 'flags in rows' (SII 1). 

palikd, pdlikd (El 1, 11), same aspdli; a measure of capa- 
city; measure of capacity for liquids (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 

pdli-ketana (El 29; IA 7), name of the banner of certain 
kings or dynasties, which was their royal insignia; also called 
pdli-dhvaja, explained as 'flags in rows' (SII 1). 

pdliyd (Gil 4), Gujarat!; a memorial stone. 

palladikd (IA 11, 18), cf. grhdndrh palladikd-sametd, an 
epithet of the gift land; probably, a cluster; sometimes referred 
to as property belonging to a deity (Ind. Ant., Vol. VI, pp. 180 
ff., Inscriptions Nos. 5-11). Gf. 'the entire palla dikd belonging 
to the god Vakulesvaradeva and consisting of houses facing 
different directions' and 'another [palladikd] which lay close 
to a two-storied temple' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, pp. 144-45). 

pallava (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

palll (IE 8-4; El 23), 'a hamlet'; 'a village or its part'; 
often suffixed to the names of localities. 

palli (SII 1, 2; SITI), Tamil; often, a Jain temple; the 
shrine of non-Hindu communities like the Jains, Buddhists, 
Christians, Muhammadans, etc.; cf. palli-ccandam, temple land; 
palli-grdma, a village belonging to a temple. 

palli-cchanda, cf. palli-ccanda (El 23, 24), 'temple land'; 
'land granted to a Jain or Buddhist temple' ; mentioned along 
with devaddna and brahmadeya ; see palli. 

palli-deva (El 29), a village deity. 

pallikd (El 4), a village. 

(El 31), a habitation. 

palola (IA 22), marshes or swamps. 

Pam (IE 8-1; PJS), abbreviation of Pandita. 

(PJS), abbreviation of Pamnydsa. 

pana (IE 8-8; El 23, 24, 30; SII 11-1), same as Tamil 
panam,, spelt in English asfanam; cf. Tddavardyan-panam (SITI), 
name of a coin issued by the Yadavarayas; name of a coin 
80 ratis in weight; same as the copper kdrsdpana; equal to 80 
cowrie-shells according to the Llldvatl; copper coin ^ of a 
silver kdrsdpana according to the Krtyakalpatam (Vyavahara- 
kanda, ed. K.V. Rangaswami Aiyangar, p, 125%- and 55 of a 

panaka Pahcakarana 229 

suvarna ( JNSI, Vol. II, p. 7); also used to indicate 'money*. 
In Tamil, panam means a particular coin (usually, a small gold 
coin), or money in general, or taxes; cf. pana-vargam (SITI), a 
class of taxes payable in cash, same as kdsdya-vargam', also pana- 
vdsi, 'discount payable for the exchange of coins; amount pay- 
able to make up the wear in the coin'. Cf. vil-panam (SITI), 
sale- tax; also understood as a tax on bows or archery; vasal- 
panam (SITI), door- tax or periodical payment due to the 

(ASLV) , a sect or caste, eighteen in number theoretically. 
(El 19), a land measure. 

panaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 309), small quantity of 
a liquid; name of a measure. 

pana-purdna (IE 8-8), apurdna [of silver] counted inpanas 
[of copper]. Cf. kapardaka-purdna. 

panava (El 24), a musical instrument. 
Pdnavika, one who plays on the panava (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXXIII, p. 241). 

panca (El 22, 23), abbreviation of pancakula\ same as 
Mahdjana', a Pancdyat Board. 

Panc-dcdrya (SITI), a temple priest. 

pancadhdra (CITD), the five paces of a horse called dhorita, 
valgita, pluta, uttejita and utterita. 

Panc-ddhikaran-oparika (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 29; BL), official 
designation; cf. Panca-karan-oparika and Panca-karan-ddhikrta; 
the head of five departments; sometimes also called Maharaja, 
Mahdsdmanta, Mahdpratlhdra, Mahdpllupati, Pdty-uparika and 
Purapdl-oparika, additionally. See Sapt-dmdtya. 

panca-dravya (SITI), five articles used in bathing an idol. 
panca-gavya (SITI), same as Tamil dn-dnju; the five pro- 
ducts of the cow, viz., milk, butter, curds, urine and dung. 
Pdncdhana, Pdncdhanamvdru (ASLV), same as Pdncdla. 
pdncaka (Gil 3), a committee. See panca-mandali and 

pancaka (CII 4), same as Pancdyat. 

Pancakalpin (El 9), same as Pamoli\ title and family name. 
Pancakaran-ddhikrta (El 30), head of five departments; cf. 
Pancakaran-oparika, etc. See Saptd-mdtya. 

Paficakaran-oparika (El 29), same as Pancddhikaran-oparika, 
etc.; head of five departments. See Sapt-dmdtya. 

230 pancapanca 

panca-karmdra^ also called panca-kammdlar (SITI), the five 
castes of artisans, viz., goldsmith, blacksmith, brassmith, car- 
penter and stone-mason. 

pancaka-sdld-pratyd (LP), 'at five per cent'. 

pancakula (IE 8-3; El 5, 25; Gil 4; LP; HRS), the Pan- 
cdyat Board; an assembly of administrators and arbitrators, 
usually consisting of five mernbers; a board of administration 
charged with control of the customs house, with the deposit of 
property of persons dying without heirs into the royal treasury, 
etc.; also called pancapa (El 4); members of such a board; ac- 
cording to some, an officer over a certain number of villages 
(HD). Gf. Ind. Ant., Vol. XI, p. 242. Cf. Pancavira, Pdnca- 
kulika, anjasta-sabhd, etc. 

Pdncakulika (CII 4), the head or a member of a pancakula 
or Pancdyat board; cf. Caturjdtaklya. 

Pancdla (El 3; ASLV), an artisan; members of the artisan 
classes also called Pdncdlamvdru. 

Panca-lagudika (BL), title of a warrior who could pro- 
bably fight with five clubs at a time. 

pancaldngala (IA 18), name of a mahdddna. 

Pancdlattdr (ASLV), an organisation of the artisans. 

Pancdll (IA 10), same as Pancdlikd; a Pancdyat board or 
its members. 

pancdll (El 27; IA 16), territorial division. 

Pancdlikd (IA 9), same as Pancdll\ a Pancdyat board or its 

panca-mahdpdtaka (El 26; Gil 3; GITD), the five great 
sins or heinous crimes, viz., killing a Brahmana, drinking intoxi- 
cating liquors, stealing gold, committing adultery with th^ 
wife of a guru and associating with any one guilty of these 
crimes. Cf. das-dparddha^ panc-dnantarya. 

panca-mahdsabda (IE 8-2; El 30; CII 3, 4; SITI; CITD; 
BL), refers to the privilege of enjoying the sounds of five 
musical instruments, or five titles beginning with mahat\ five 
official designations or musical instruments mentioned in con- 
nection with feudatories; five official designations beginning 
with the word mahd in the North and five kinds of musical 
instruments in the South; in South India, it was the same as 
panca-mahdnindda, i.e. the sounds of the five great musical ins- 
truments called the panca-mahdvddya enumerated by some as a 

panca panca 


horn, a tabor, a conch-shell, a kettle-drum and a gong; in 
some parts of North India, the expression indicated five 
official designations with the prefix maha. 

(CLI 3), sounds of five musical instruments, the use of 
which was allowed to persons of high rank and authority; 
usually a title of feudatories; cf. tat-pradatta-paiicamahdsabda (IE 
8-2), used in respect of feudatory rulers who received the right 
of enjoying the panca-mahdsabda from their overlords; rarely 
used in the South by independent monarchs. Cf. panca-vddya (El 
4) and panca-mahdvddya. See Samadhigata-pancamahdSabda, etc. 

Cf. panca-mdsattam (SITI), the five musical instruments, 
to the use of which a nobleman was entitled; sometimes enu- 
merated as cendai, timilai, segandi, cymbals and kdhalam or as 
tattali, maddali, karalikai, cymbals and kdhalam. 

(SII 11-1), cf. grant of 40 mattars of land to a piper for 
arranging to play the five musical instruments. 

panca-mahdvddya (El 12), enumerated as the horn, conch- 
shell, tambourine, trumpet and gong. See panca-mahdsabda. 

pailca-mahdyajna (El 29; CII 3, 4), 'the five great sacri- 
fices'; the five daily duties of a Brahmana enumerated as bali, 
cam, vaisvadeva, agnihotra and atithi. 

Pancama-lokapdla (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXII, p. 93), epithet 
of certain kings; cf. Lokapdla. 

panca-mandall (CII 3, 4; HD), an assembly of five persons; 
equivalent to the modern Pancdit, Pancdyat or Pane, i.e., a village 
jury. See pdncaka. 

panca-mdtrkd, cf. Prakrit pamca-mdtuka (El 20), five princi- 
pal texts of the Buddhists, also called panca-nikdya, viz., the 
Dlgha-nikdya, Majjhima-nikdya, Anguttara-nikdya, Khuddaka-nikdya 
and Samyutta-nikdya . 

panca-maustika-loca (HA), plucking out five handfuls of 
hair by a would-be Jina at the time of dlksd. 

pancaml-bali (El 1 1 ), a particular tithi of the year. 

panc-dmrta (SITI), mixture of five objects for anointing 
idols, viz. banana, honey, sugar, ghee and grape. 

panca-mukha-nagara (LP), explained as a city in which 
there are five leading men'; cf. panca-mukha-nagara-viditam (LP), 
'having informed the five leading men of the city'; explained 
as 'the five-fold people of the town' (Ind. Ant., Vol. XLI, p. 20) ; 
really f the citizens headed by the members of the Pancdyat 9 , 

232 pancapancdsat 

panca-nagdra, a mercantile guild (cf. nagara, also panca] ; 
see A.R, Ep., 1956-57, No. B 190. 

Pancanaikdyika (LL), Buddhist; a teacher of the five nikdyas 
(e.g. Dlgha-nikdya, Majjhima-nikaya, Khuddaka-nikdya, Sarhyutta- 
nikaya arid Anguttara-nikdya] . 

panc-dnantarya (CII 3), the five sins that entail immediate 
retribution. See panca-mahdpdtaka, das-dparddha, panc-dparddha. 

pancdnga (CII 3), the Hindu almanac; in the Deccan 
and in some other parts, the pancdngas are now prepared from 
the Grahaldghava and the Tithicintdmani of Ganesa-daivajna. The 
right of reading the pancdnga was sometimes granted by the 
rulers to individuals (ASLV). 

pancdnga-namaskdra (HA), bowing down in such a way 
that five limbs of the body (viz., two hands, two knees and the 
head) touch the ground. Gf. ast-dnga-namaskdra. 

pancdnga-prasdda, cf. pancdnga-pasdya (\Ind. Ant., Vol. IX, 
p. 95), translated as 'five manners of gifts'; cf. pancdnga-pasdya 
chatra sukhdsana bbala gaddi anka-danda-khandane, translated as 
*gave [to that Maro-setti] five manners of gifts an umbrella, 
a palanquin, an escort, a throne and with the faults, fines and 
divisions (really f with fines and the grain share' ).' 

pancapa (El 4), same as pancakula (q.v.). 

panc-dparddha (HRS), known from the Gupta and other 
records; donee's privilege relating to the enjoyment of fines 
payable by persons committing five offences. Gf. das-dparddha, 
panc-dnantarya^ panca-mahdpdtaka. 

pancaparamesthi-pada (El 2), also called Q patta\ a slab for 
worship containing the onkdra. 

Pancapdthin (El 32), epithet or family name of Brahmanas. 

pafica-pdtra (^SITI), literally, 'a vessel made of five 
[metals]'; offerings of food made to a deity along with cooked 
rice; probably the same as panca-bhaksya. 

Pancdrtha (CII 4), the Pasupata sect of the Saivas. 
Pancdrthika, Pdncdrthika (Gil 4; IA 18), same as Pancdrtha^ 
the Pasupata sect of the Saivas; a follower of the Pasupata sect. 

panca-ratna (El 19), a group of five stanzas. 

panca-sabda (CII 4; BL), five [musical] sounds or five 
official designations [beginning with the word mahd] ; same as 
panca-mahdsabda (q.v.). 

ti see pannasa^panndsa, etc. 

pancasfa-panga 233 

panc-dsta-kula, see anjasta-sabhai (SITI). 
Pancastupanikdyika (BL), epithet of a Jain religious teacher. 
See Pancanaikdyika. 

panca-vddya (El 4), cf. panca-mahdsabda, panca-mahdvddya. 

panca^vdra (El 23), a tax; cf. paftcavdri, pancuplli, etc.; 
also panca-vdram (SITI), one-fifth of the produce due to the 
government as land-revenue. 

(SITI), five branches in the administration of big villages, 
each looked after by a committee called paiicavdra-vdriyam. 

pancavhhsati, see pannavlsa, 

panca-vira (El 24), also called pancavlra-gosihr, an adminis- 
trative board of five members; cf. pancakula. Also 5 deified 
heroes of the Vrsni clan. 

pancdyat (El 26), a board of administration usually con- 
sisting of five members; cf. pancakula, pancavlra, pancdyati, etc. 

pancdyati (IE 8-3), an administrative board consisting of 
five members; same as pancdyat, pancakula, etc. 

panc-dyatana (El 28; Gil 4), a type of temple 'consisting 
of five rooms'; a five-shrine temple. 

Pancika (El 1), a member of the pancakula or Pancdyat 

pa,nciyaka-dramma (El 1; Gil 4), name of a coin. It is 
uncertain whether it was so called owing to its issue by some 
Pancdyat board or because it was equal to five copper coins. 

pancoli (HD), same as pancakula. Gf. Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXIV, p. 89. 

pancuplli (El 24), name of a ta*. 

Pdndd (El 32), a temple superintendent; same as Vdrika. 

panddravddai (ASLV), crown lands. 

pdndava (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

Pandita (HD), same as Dharmatattvavit according to 
Sukra, II. 85; head of the ecclesiastical department (Hist. 
Dharm.,Vol. III, p. 115). 

(C/Z4), epithet of Brahmanas. 

(IE 8-3), the court Pandit, mentioned as Pdtra. 

pdndu-lekha, pdndu-lekhya (IE 3-5), chalk. 

pdndu-suta, cf. pdndava (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

panga, pdnga (IE 8-5; El 30, 33), Telugu-Kannada; one- 
fourth of the produce sometimes collected from rent-free hold- 
ings in the possession of gods and Brahmanas ; a kind of tax; 

!>34 panga Pannaya 

sometimes used to indicate 'taxes in general'; cf. panga-sulka, 
panga-tappu, pariga-tappu-sulka, panga-parihrta, panga-parihrta- 
parihdra, sarva-panga-parihrta, etc. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, 
pp. 54 ff. 

panga-tappu (IE 8-5), probably, interest or fine on arrears 
of panga. 

pang-otkota (El 33), see panga and utkota, names of levies. 

pangu (El 33), a share. 

pani, same as suvarna (q.v.J. 

Pdnigrdhin (El 26), Odiya; Sanskrit Pdnlya-grdhin, 'one 
who receives water'; the principal donee who received the water 
on behalf of all the other donees of a gift village; stereotyped as 
a family name in Orissa. 

pariiya-bhdjana (LL), a water-cistern. 

pdriiya-chayd-mandapa (El 28), probably, a shaded hall 
cooled by water. 

Pdriiydgdrika (IE 8-3 ) , superintendent of the water-chamber. 
See Pdnlyagrh ika . 

Pdnlya-grdhin (El 31 ), 'one who receives ceremonial water 
as the donee of a gift'; recipient of a grant. See Pdnigrdhin. 

Pdniyagrhika (LL), superintendent of a water-house. 
Cf. Pdnlydgdrika. 

pdmyaka (LL), a cistern. 

Punjabi, name of the language of the Panjab. 

panka (El 33), a share; cf. panga. 

pankti (IE 7-1-2), 'ten'. 

pannasa, also spelt panndsa, panndsu (IE 8-6; El 5, 12; Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XV, p. 336, note 3 ), Kannada; probably derived from 
Sanskrit panchdsat in the sense of a tenure in which the donee 
enjoyed fifty per cent of the revenue of the donated land. Cf. 
pannavisa. ("720), explained as 'a gift*. 

panndsa (El 30; IA 11), Kannada; same as pannasa (q.v. ). 

panndsu (IA 10), Kannada; same as pannasa (q.v.). 

pannavisa (A. R. Ep., 1958-59, No. B. 17), Kannada; Sans- 
krit pancavimsati; probably a tenure in which the donee enjoyed 
twenty five per cent of the revenue of the donated land. Cf. 
panndsa, etc. 

panndya (IE 8-5; El 27 ), Kannada, name of a tax ;cf. panndsa. 
Panndyadasunkavergade (SII 11-2), Kannada; official desig- 

pantha Parama 235 

pantha-sala (CII 4), a sardi. 

panya-sarhsthd (HRS ), various dues collected for the king 
by the superintendent of the market and the superintendent of 
merchandise, as suggested by the Arthasdstra. See Ghoshal, 
H. Rev. Syst., p.76. 

pdpandsini (I A 26 ), the twelfth tithi. 

Para., abbreviation of a modified form ofPurohita (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXXIV, p. 143). 

para ((LL), possibly, the chief. 

para, cf. a-pdr-dsana-carm-dngdra (IE 8-5); probably, [free] 
ferrying of rivers [by the royal officers] , which the villagers were 
obliged to provide. 

parabrahman (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

paradatti (SII 2), Tamil; an assembly; cf. Tamil paradai= 
Sanskrit parisad. 

Para-desin (SITI; CITD), an outsider; an emigrant; used 
along with Sva-desin (i. e. native ), while mentioning two classes 
of merchants or their respective guilds. 

paragand (Chamba, etc. ), pargand; a territorial division; 
subdivision of a district, same as pratijdgaranaka of the Paramara 

Parakesari-kdl (El 30 ), Tamil ; name of a land measure. 

Parakesari-kkal (El 30), Tamil; name of a weight. 

Parakesari-ndli (El 30), Tamil; name of a land measure. 

Parakesari-ulakku (El 30), Tamil; name of a land measure. 

pardkhya (Gil 3), a correction in time, to be applied to 
the mean tithi. 

parakond (El 31 ), probably, the same as pargand. 

pardkram (Gil 1 ), c to make an effort 5 . 

pardkrama (Gil 1 ), an effort; zealous activity. 

Parama-bhdgavata (IE 8-2; El 29, 30; CII 3), 'highly de- 
voted to the Bhagavat (Visnu)', epithet of the followers of the 
Bhagavata form of Vaisnavism; cf. Paramavaisnava (highly 
devoted to Visnu), etc. See Atyanta-bhagavad-bhaktd. 

Parama-bhagavati-bhakta (IE 8-2 ), 'a devout worshipper 
of the goddess BhagavatI (Siva's consort)'. 

Paramabhattdraka (IE 8-2; El 30; CII 3, 4), one of the 
technical titles of paramount sovereignty, closely connected 
with Mahdrdjddhirdja and Paramesvara; sometimes applied to a 
priest (generally of the aiva order); cf. Paramabhattdrak-ety- 

236 Paramo Par ama 

adi-rajdvali (I A 19); also Paramabhattdrak-etyddi-rd Java li-trqy-opeta 
(IE 8-2 ), 'endowed with the three royal titles beginning with 

Paramabhattdrika (IE 8-2; El 6, 7; CII 3), a title of the 
wives of paramount sovereigns and of ruling queens. 

Parama-brahmanya (IE 8-2; El 29), probably not 'highly 
devoted to the god Brahman 5 , but 'highly devoted to the Brah- 
manas 5 ; epithet of certain Brahmanical rulers. See Atibrahmanya. 

Parama-daivata (IE 8-2; El 28, 30; BL), 'highly devoted 
to the god (i. e. Visnu) 5 ; epithet of Vaisnava rulers; epithet of 
a devotee of the Brahmanical gods. Cf. Parama-de(dai}vat- 
ddhidaivata, Parama-guru-de(dai]vat-ddhidawata-vie$a (El 28), 
epithets of pious rulers. 

Parama-dawat-ddhidaivata (El 23), same as Parama-de(dai}- 
vatddhidaivata (q. v. ); epithet of pious kings. 

Parama-de(dai}vat-ddhidaivata (IE 8-2; El 23), c one who 
is a great devotee of the various gods and of the supreme 
god'; see Paramadaivata. 

Paramadevi (IE 8-2; CII 3 ), designation of the chief queen; 
cf. Devi, Mahddevi, etc. 

Paramadiksita (El 26), see Dikfita. 

Param-dditya-bhakta (IE 8-2; CII 3), 'a devout worshipper 
of the Sun-god 5 ; cf. Parama-saura. 

Parama-gum (El 31, 33), 'the supreme teacher [of the 
subjects] 5 ; royal title. 

Parama-guru-de( dai) vat-ddhidaivata-vise$a (IE 8-2 ), 'one 
who is a great teacher to his subjects and is devoted to the 
various gods and of the supreme deity 5 ; see Parama-daivata and 
Paramade (dai )vat-ddhidaivata. 

Paramahamsa (El 5; BL), an ascetic; epithet of an ascetic. 
See Harhsa. 

Parama-mdhesvara (IE 8-2; El 29, 30; CII 3, 4), a devout 
worshipper of Mahesvara (Siva) 5 ; epithet of Saiva rulers; see 

Parama-ndrasimha (IE 8-2; El 26), 'highly devoted to the 
man-lion incarnation of Visnu 5 ; epithet of a devotee of the man- 
lion form of Visnu. 

Parama-pdsupat-dcdrya (BL), epithet of a Saiva religious 

Paramaraja (El 31, 33), royal title. See Paramarajadhirdja. 

Parama parampard 


Paramardjddhirdja, royal title. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 
p. 219; cf. Paramardja. 

Parama-saugata (IE 8-2; El 29; CII 3; BL), 'a devout 
worshipper of the Sugata (Buddha)'; cf. Parama-tdthdgata. 

Parama-saura (IE 8-2 ), c a devout worshipper of the Sun- 
god'; cf. Param-dditya-bhakta. 

Parama-svdmin (El 28; SII 3), epithet of deities. 
(El 3), title of an imperial ruler; an overlord. 

Parama-tdthdgata (IE 8-2 ; El 29 ; BL ), 'a devout worshipper 
of the Tathagata (Buddha)'; usually spelt Parama-tathagata; 
cf. Parama-saugata. 

Parama-vaisnava (IE 8-2; El 30; CII 3, 4), 'highly devoted 
to Visnu'; epithet ofVaisnava rulers; cf. Parama-bhdgavata, etc. 

Parama-visvdsin (IE 8-3), probably, a private secretary; 
same as Rahasy-ddhikrta, etc.; sometimes called Mahdpradhdna, 
Sarvddhikdrin, etc., additionally. See Vaisvdsika. 

paramesthi-gadydna (SII, Vol. IX, Part i, No. 68 ), cf. gadydna. 

ParameSvara (IE 8-2; El 29, 30; CII 3, 4), an imperial 
title ; one of the technical titles of paramount sovereignty closely 
connected with Mdhdrdjddhirdja and Paramabhattdraka. 

paramesvara-hasta (SII 2), the royal cubit; cubit measured 
according to the length of the king's forearm. Cf. snpdda-kol. 

Parame$vara-mahdko$thakdrin (El 27), officer in charge of 
the royal treasury or store-house. 

Paramesvara-niyogin (A.R. Ep., 1958-59, p. 9), a special 
officer attached to the king. Cf. Niyogin. 

Paramesvar-ety-ddi (IE 8-2 ), shortened form of Paramesvar- 

Paramesvari (El 6 ), title of a queen,especially a ruling queen. 

Param-opdsaka (BL; LL), epithet of a male member of the 
Buddhist laity; cf. updsaka. 

Param-opdsikd (El 22, 32; LL; BL), epithet of a female 
member of the Buddhist laity; cf. updsikd. 

pdrampara (El 15), same as parampard-balwarda-grahana; 
refers to the obligation of the villagers to supply bullocks in suc- 
cession for the cart of a royal agent on tour in their villages. 

parampard, cf. a-parampard-balwarda (IE 8-5); 'succession'; 
refers to the obligation of the villagers to supply bullocks for 
the cart of the touring officers visiting different villages in suc- 
cession. . . 

238 Pdrasava parihdra 

Pdrasava (BL ), name of a community. 

Pdrasika (El 12), originally, a Persian; but used to indi- 
cate any foreigner; a Dutch in the present case. 

Pdrasi, Pdrasi, Pdrasika (El 5; SII 1 ), a Persian. 

Pdrasiva (SITI ), probably Pdrasava; explained as 'one 
who wields a weapon; a soldier'. 

parasvat (CII 1 ), a rhinoceros. 

parata (Chamba), return, exchange, substitute, compen- 
sation; derived from Sanskrit parivarta\ same as badald. 

pdratrika (CII 1 ), 'benefit in the other world'; merit. 

para-samaya (El 24), explained as a particular Jain 
doctrine; doctrines other than one's own. 

pargand (El 9, 32), a group of villages; same as pratijd- 
garanaka (q. v.) . 

Pdri (El 31 ; LP; PJS), abbreviation of GujaratI Pdrikha, 
Pdrekha (Sanskrit Pdriksaka), originally meaning 'an examiner 
of coins'; a surname among the Banias of Gujarat. 

paribhuta-ndman (CII 3 ), a nickname. 

paribodha (CII 1 ), obstacle, fetters; being in fetters. 

paricakra (LL ), a circular panel. 

Paricdraka (El 31 ), a servant; sometimes mentioned in the 
list of officials. 

paricchanda (Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill, p. 16), a vessel. 

pariccheda (CII 3 ), a territorial term meaning a group of 

Parichd (IE 8-3 ; El 31 ), Odiya; same as Sanskrit Pariksaka. 

paridarsand (IE 8-5; El 29), a supervision tax probably 
related to division of property ; may also be the same as Persian 

parigha (HRS), 'door-bolt'; one of the seven sources of 
revenue specified in the Arthasdstra. 

parigraha (ML), acceptance. 

parigrhita (IE 8-2; El 31 ), 'accepted', sometimes used in 
place of anudhydta ('meditating' or 'favoured' ) in passages like 
tatpdda-parighrhita; cf. bappa-bhattdraka-pdda-parigrhita y bhattdraka~ 
Mahdsena-parigrhita, etc. ; refers to selection or acceptance of a 
succession or appointment or receipt in one's favour. 

Cf. catuhsdla-parigrhUam saila-mandapam and Samyaksam- 
buddhasya dhdtu-parigrhitasya (Select Inscriptions, p. 228). 

parihdra (IE 8-5; El 6; SITI), same as maryddd-parihdra\ 

pdrihdrika Panksd 


exemptions from taxes and obligations granted to the donees of 
rent-free land ; privileges of the donee of rent-free holdings ; for 
many such privileges, see Appendix I. Cf. certain privileges 
in respect of a number of taxes and obligations enumerated in 
Tamil records as follows : vatti-ndli (payment of one ndli per 
vatti),pudd-ndli (orpidd , cess on each door or tax for the main- 
tenance of sluices), matirupddu (fine imposed by a court of law), 
uratci (tax for running the village administration ), taragu (tax 
on brokers), kulam (tax on grains), ilam-puti (tax on toddy- 
drawers), nddu-kdval (tax for the policing of a district), udupokku 
(meaning uncertain ), uppu-kocceygai (tax for the manufacture of 
salt ), nall-d (tax for maintaining specimen cows ), nallerudu (tax 
for maintaining specimen buffaloes ), nerv-dypuvum (meaning un- 
certain) and others. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, p. 124. 
(I A 17), a ring. 

pdrihdrika (HRS ), land exempted from revenue, as sug- 
gested by the Arthasdstra; privileges enjoyed by the donee 
of a rent-free holding. 

Cf. sarva-jdta-pdrihdrika ; same as parihdra or the parihdras 
collectively. See Select Inscriptions, pp. 192, 194. 

pdrihmika (HRS ), damage-fee which was a branch of 
accidental revenue, according to the Arthasdstra. See Ghoshal, 
H. Rev. Syst., p. 28. 

parikara (IE 8-5; Gil 4), same as uparikara, occasional or 
minor taxes; cf. sa-parikara (El 23 ) which is the same as s-opari- 

(5777), requisites of a village. 

(HA ), accessory decoration round the figure of a Jina, 
the motifs being taken from the Jain conception of the eight 
chief objects attendant upon a Jina (asta-mahdprdtihdrydni, viz. 
the wheel of law, the caitya-tree, the lion-seat, the aureole behind 
the head, two attendant flywhisk-bearers, drum-beaters and 
pipe-players, and garland-bearers). 

Parikara (SITI ), a servant. 

Pdrikh (El 31 ), Gujarat!; Sanskrit Pdrlksa ; an examiner of 
coins; a family name amongst the Banias. See Rupa-darsaka. 

pdrikh-dya (I A 19), a levy; cf. Pdrikh, pdrikfika. 

parikraya (SII 1 ), an exchange. 

parikreya (Sel. Ins., p. 236), remuneration. 

Panksd (IE 8-3 ; El 28, 3 1 ),same as Sanskrit Parikfaka ; Sans* 

240 pariksapdrivrddhd 

kritised from Odiya Parichd; superintendent of a department 
or a governor; cf. Dvdra-pariksd. 

pariksd (LA 10), same as diyya, an ordeal. 
(CH 1 ), self-examination. 

Pariksaka (IE 8-3), see Parik$a = Odiya Parichd. 

pdriksika (HRS), testing-charge for private minting of 
coins, according to the Arthasdstra. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., 
p. 43. Cf. pdrikhdya. 

panksi-patta (IE I ), meaning doubtful. 

parimotana (El 12), cracking. 

parinirvdna (El 8 ), the death of the Buddha. 

paripanth, cf. paripanthayati (IE 8-2 ), same as vyavaharati; 
cf. samasta-mudrd-vydpdrdn paripanthayati. 

paripanthand, 'creation of obstacles'; same as vidhdrana 
(El). See vddhdoY bddhd. 

paripara (El 3 ), a fight. 

Pdripdrsvika (IA 1 1 ), a servant. 

pariprcchd (CII 1 ), questioning. 

paripurna (LP), probably, c in full youth'. 

parisad (LL ), four classes of the Buddhist order. 

(El 32 ), used in the sense ofpdrisada, c a councillor'. 

Cf. Tamil paradai, etc. (SII 3), an assembly. 

(CII 1), cf. Prakrit parisd (El 8), a council; the council 
[of ministers] ; cf. mantri-parisad, 'council of ministers.' 

parisara (El 11), an area. 

parisadd (HD ), same as sabhd\ an assembly or audience. 

parisrava (CII 1 ), sin. 

parisu (SII 1 ), probably, a contract. 

parts utra (Hyderabad Archaeological Series, No. 18, p. 34), 
explained as c an establishment.' 

paritydga (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 10, text line 2), do- 
nation; cf. deyadharma-paritydga. 

Parivdra (SII 3 ), a servant. 

Cf. hor oka-par war a (ML), explained as c the following of 

parivdr-dlaya (SII 3), surrounding verandah of a temple. 

parivastra, cf. Tamil pativattam, parisaftam, pariyattam (SITI ), 
literally, garment ; honour done, to a nobleman in a temple by 
tying a piece of cloth (generally, silk cloth) round his head. 
'- : Parivrdd&a (1^12'), same as Prqbhu. 

parna -pdsdna 24 1 

parn-dkara, cf. sa-parn-akara (IE 8-5), 'together with the 
fields producing leaves (i.e. betel-leaves).' 

parna-sasan (CII 1), an animal; probably, a rabbit 
living on leaves. 

paroksam (IA 1 8 ), c in the absence of ; 'behind the back of '. 

pairu (IE 8-4), Tamil; a small territorial unit. 

parsad (LL ), a congregation. 

pdrsada, cf. Prakrit pdsamda (CII 1 ), a religious community; 
one belonging to a parsad or religious group. 

pdrsva (HRS ), extra charge upon land over and above 
the king's grain-share, which was a branch of 'accidental re- 
venue' according to the Arthasdstra. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. 
Syst., pp. 28, 38. 

(IE 8-4), explained by some as a small territorial unit; 
but may be 'side' ; cf. prdvesya. 

Pdrsvika (El 9; CII 4), an aide-de-camp; also used to in- 
dicate a neighbour or one having land in the neighbourhood 
of the gift land (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 197, text line 13). 

partdb (SII 1), Sanskrit pratdpa\ a half pagoda, 

parva-mds-otsava (El 15), a festival. 

pdruttha, a silver coin equal to 8 drammas of copper or billon 
(JNSI, Vol. XXII, p. 196). 

parvan (IA 18), used in relation to eclipses. 

Cf. Konkana-vijaya-parvan (El 33 ), festival celebrating the 
conquest of the Konkan; an anniversary of the said conquest. 
(/E7-1-2), 'five'. 

parvata (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

parydya (IA 18), used in relation to an allotment. 

(CII 1 ), cf. dharma-parydya, 'exposition of the doctrine'; a 
religious text. 

Cf. Palldnakdra (El 23 ), Sanskrit Parydyakdra, a saddler, 
a saddle-maker. 

paryusita (HRS), 'outstanding revenue' which was one 
of the three kinds of revenue specified in the Arthasdstra. 

pdsa (CII 4), fetters of worldly existence. 
(I A 18), a land measure. 
(E/26), a girdle. 

Pasaita (El 29, 33 ), also spelt Pasayita; official designation; 
probably Sanskrit Prasadita in the sense of 'a fief-holder'. 

pd$dna. (IE 8-5 ; SITI )> one of the eight kinds of enjoyment 

242 pasdnam pdtala 

of landed property; rocky soil and its products; mineral pro- 
ducts; probably, stony and hilly land referring to the right of 
quarrying, etc. 

patenam (El 23 ), a tax. 

Pasdpdlaka (El 33), official designation; cf. Pasdyita, etc. 

Pasdyati (El 33 ), same as Pasqyita (q.v. ), etc. 

Pasdyita (IE 8-3 ;EI 33), probably Sanskrit Prasddita used 
to indicate a Jdgirddr. See Pasdita pancdnga-prasdda. 

pdscdtya-likhita (LP), written on the back of the bond. 

pasu (El 8 ), animal sacrifice. 

Cf. a-pa$u-medhya (IE 8-5 ), 'free from the obligation of 
supplying animals for sacrifices.' 

(CII 4), the individual soul. 

Pasupdla (IA 22 ), nomads. 

(El 1 ), also called Pasupalaka\ a person in charge of cattle. 

paiupata (SII 2), same as pdsupat-astra\ name of a 

Pdsupata (El 32 ), name of a Saiva sect. 

PdSupat-dcdrya (BL ), epithet of a aiva religiou teachers. 

PdSupata-rdjni (BL ), epithet of a Saiva queen. 

pata y paid, pdta (El 28; Chamba), charter, deed; same 
as Sanskrit patta or pattaka. 

pdta, cf. dandapdta. 

pdtaka (IE 8-1-2), 'five'. Cf. panca-mahdpdtaka. 

pdtaka (IE 8-4; El 4, 24; IA 18), 'part of a village', a 
quarter; the outlying part of a village; a hamlet; often prefixed 
to the name of localities ; often modified to vdtaka. 

(El 15, 17, 28), a land measure. 

(IE 8-6 ), a land measure equal to forty dronavdpas or to 
five kulyavdpas; part of a village. 

(723, 24), a territorial division. 

(SITI), portion of a field. 

(5*777), anklet worn by women. 

(LP), same as Gujarat! pddo, a street or the division of a 

Patakdra (Ep. fad., Vol. XIII, p. 186), a weaver. 

Pdtakdra (El 28), a splitter of wood. 

Patakila (El 23), village headman; same as Pattakila, 
modern Patel or Pa fit; cf. Vetakila. 

'pdtala (IE 7-1-2), sometimes used to indicare ' 

Pdtalapdtikci 243 

Pdtala-karanin (IA 12), official designation. 

patalikd, cf. Tamil padaligai. 

patanga (IA 1 1 ), a paper kite. 

pdtaniya (LP), 'should be left aside', i. e. 'should not be 
taken into account'. 

(LP), to be kept uncultivated; see khedaniya. 

Pdtasdha (El 11, 30; BL), Muslim imperial title; same 
as Persian Padshah. Cf. Pdtasdhi, Pdtisdha, Pdtusdha. 

Pdtasdhi (BI ), Indian modification of an imperial title of 
the Muhammadans; same as Persian Padshah; cf. Pdtasdha, 
Pdtisdhi, etc. 

pdtayisydmi (LP), 'I shall deduct and thus take less.' 

Patel, Pdtel (IE 8-3; El 7), also called Pdtil; village 
headman; a member of the administrative board called Cauthiyd 
in Western India; cf. Pattakila, Patakila, Vetakila. 

pdtha (IE 8-6; IA 11 ), a land measure regarded as equal 
to 240 square feet. 

pathaka (IE 8-4; El 4, 23, 27; CII 3, 4; LP), a group of 
villages; a territorial division like a Pargana of later days. 

Pathakiyaka (LP ), explained as one who collects the road- 
tax [for the maintenance of the road] or the transit tax. But 
cf. pathaka also. 

pathi (IA 15), a territorial unit; same as pathaka. 

Pa thin (El 3 1 ), epithet or family name of 

pdti (IE 8-3); 'arithmetic'; cf. the designation Pdty- 

pati (LL), a king; cf. adhipati. 

(El 18), same as Kudipati= Sanskrit Grdmapati. 

Cf. grdma-patyd (probably the same as grdma-jana-patitvdt ) 
and ndnd-patyd (probably ndnd- grdma-jana-patitvdt). See J^S, 
Letters, Vol. XX, pp. 203-04. 

pati(lA 18), same as Sanskrit prati, but sometimes substi- 
tuted for Sanskrit pari in Prakrit; cf. patibhoga, 'consumption 
[of food].' 

pati-bhdga (CII 4), a share of the produce payable to the 

Patihdri (El 27 ), Sanskrit Pratihdrin. 

pdtikd (CII 4),~a share. 

pdtikd, cf, rdja-pdtikd. 

244 Pdtll patta 

PdtU, see Patel, Pate I. 

Pdtisdha, also spelt Pddisdha(El 30; BL); same as Persian 
Padshah; * Muslim imperial ruler'. See Padishah. 

Pdtisdhi (BL ), Indian modification of an imperial title of 
the Muslim rulers ; same as Persian Padshah. See Pdtisdha, etc. 

patita (LP), uncultivated. 

pdtita (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XXXV, p. 14), 'killed in a battle 5 . 

pair a (CITD), a letter or document; a note; a written 
paper or deed. 

(LP), a bond. 

Cf. tdmra-patra. 

Pdtra (IE 8-3; El 28, 29; BL), a minister; cf. Mahdpuro- 
hita-thakkura, Pandita, Upddhydya, Karana-kdyastha, etc., men- 
tioned as Pdtra probably meaning *a courtier.' See Ekapdtra and 

pdtra, probably, a document (patra). See Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXX, p. 169. 

(El 9), a donee. 

Cf. Pdtrapati. 

Pdtrapati, probably, the driver or owner of a horse-cart 
(tangd). See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 145. 

patra-samaya (LP), the conditions laid down in a bond. 

Patta, abbreviation of Pattakila (A.R. Ep., 1958-59, No. 
B 296). 

patta (IE 8-4; Gil 3, 4), a territorial term meaning a 
group of villages; cf. apara-patta (El 22) 'the western district'. 

(El 7, 9, 11; SII 1; BL), a school or spiritual line; a 
pontificate; a pontifical seat; the dignity of the head of a Jain 
school; cf. reference to a Jain religious teacher as belonging to 
the patta of another teacher and the santdna of a third teacher; 
cf., e. g., 'in the patta of Dharma-suri' ; also cf. 'pafcdvali of 
the Kha.ra.tara gaccha*. 

Cf. rdja-patta, patta-bandha, patt-dbhiseka, etc. 

(El 18), a piece of land. 

(LL), a slab; cf. Prakrit pata (El 20), a stone slab. Cf. 
yoni-patta; Gaun-patta. 

(Chamba), also called patha; a grain measure, derived 
from Sanskrit prastha. 

Same as paffaka (q.v.);cf. Patta-tekhin, etc, 
(ASLV), an account book. 

patta-pdttam 245 

(LP), abbreviation of Pattadhara; probably one who has 
the charter for collecting government revenues; cf. Pattakila. 

Cf. Pattardjm, Pattandyaka, etc. 

pdtta, same as or a mistake for patta, a district. See Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 235. 

patta-bandha (El 5, 22, 26), coronation; crowning cere- 

Patt-dcdrya (IA 14), a religious title; same as Mandal- 

pattaka (El 30; IA 17), a passport; a charter; a copper- 
plate grant. Cf. pattak-drtha-samasta-karandya (LP), 'for fulfill- 
ing all the conditions in the charter'; also Tamil pat toy am 
(SITI ), grant inscribed on copper-plates. 

pattaka-dhdrmika (IEZ 8-8; El 30); probably, an authorised 
cess to be collected for performing a religious function; cf. 

Pattak-dpacdrika (IE 8-3; El 31 ), officer in charge of deal- 
ing with pattak-dpacdra (crime relating to the misuse or fraud 
concerning grants). 

Pattakdra (El 24), also called Pattalekhin; writer of docu- 

Pattakila (El 25; Gil 4; HD), village headman; same 
as modern Patel, Patel or Pdtil. See Ind. Ant., Vol. VI, 
pp. 51,53. Gf. Vetakila. 

pattakil-dddya (El 21; CII 4), tax for the maintenance 
of the Pattakila or village headman. 

pattakkdrai (ASLV), neck-ring; an ornament. 

patta-kula (LP), silk cloth; cf. pdtolum in Gujarat!. 

pattald (El 8-3; El 19, 24; 26; CII 4), a territorial divi- 
sion; a district. 

(I A 18; LP), same as patta, a royal charter; cf. prasdda- 
pattald (LP), a deed recording the grant of rent-free land; (IA 
18), cf. prabhoh prasad-dvapta-pattalayd, explained as '[area 
enjoyed] under a patent obtained through the favour of the lord'. 

Pattalaka (IE 8-3; El 3, 9, 23), official designation; pro- 
bably, not an officer in charge of a territorial unit called pattald. 

Patta-lekhin, cf. Pattakdra. 

Pattalikd (El 9), official designation; feminine form of 

pdttam (El 21), a tax. 

246 Pat ta patti 

Pattamahddevi (IE 8-2; El 4, 20, 22; BL), designation of 
the chief queen; cf. Mahddevi. 

Pattamahisi (El 28), a crowned queen; chief queen. 

pattana (HRS ), duties levied upon merchants at the ports, 
as suggested by the Arthasdstra. 

(El 19), same as pattana, a township. 

pattana (IE 8-4; IP), a township; suffixed to the names of 
cities like Anahillapura-pattana (modern Patan in the Kadi Dis- 
trict of the former Baroda State ). 

Pattan-dkarasthdna-gokul-ddhikdri-purusa (IA 15), official 
designation or designations. 

Pattana-svdmin (ASLV), head of an organisation or a 
guild in a city; sometimes regarded as the same as Mahdndd- 
prabhu. See Setti-Pattanasvdmi. 

(SITI), chief or leader of the mercantile community of a 

Pattandyaka (IE 8-3; El 29), the chief officer or a ruling 
chief; same as Purondyaka (cf. Tamil Porru ). It is a family name 
in Orissa. 

Pattardjni (IE 8-2; El 23, 30; BL), designation of the 
chief queen; cf. Rdjni. 

Pattardni (BL), title of a chief queen; cf. Rani. Same as 

Pattasdhanddhipati (IE 8-3; El 15), same as Mahdsddha- 
nika, etc.; see Pattasdhani. 

Pattasdhani (El 15), same as Pattasdhanddhipati; see Sdhani 
Sanskrit Sddhanika', cf. Kari-turaga-pattasdhani (El 5). 

patta-sdla (GITD), Sanskrit Q Sala\ a reading hall; probably, 
*the main hall'; in Kannada, c a silk-shop'. 

(El 3 ), name applied to the abode of certain Brahmanas. 

(LP), cf. Gujarat! Padasdla', the first room in a house. 

patt-dvali (IA 19; SITI; BL), a list of Jain pontiffs; suc- 
cession list of spiritual heads among the Jains; cf. 'patt-dvali 
of the Brihat-Kharatara gaccha [of the Jains] .' 

Pattavdrika, same as modern Patvdri; cf. Vdrika. 

Pattela (El 7 ), same as Pattakila, Patel or Pdttl. 

patti (IE 8-6; El 8), a measure of land; same as nivart- 

patti (El 9), a plot of land. 

Same aspatta, cf. rdja-pajti (El 4). 

patti pauka 247 

patti (SI 1 2 ), same as nivartana. 
(SH 1 ), a sheep-fold; a square measure. 
(CII 4 ), share of the produce. 
(IE 8-3 ), the smallest division of the army. 
patti (IA 15), an extra land cess. 

patti-bhdga (CII 4), same aspati-bhdga, a share of produce 
payable to the landlord. 

Pattika (IE 8-3 ), leader of the patti, the smallest division 
of the army. 

pattikd (CII 4), a share; same as patti. 
pattikd (El 8, 17), same as tdmra-patta or tdmra-pattikd\ a 
copper plate or copper-plate grant. 
(El 3 ), a document. 

Pattikd-pdlaka, same as Pustapdla (Select Inscriptions, p. 202 ). 
pattf-pada (El 24), footprints on a slab. 
Pattiydnaka (IA 132), official designation of doubtful im- 
port; probably, an administrator or document-writer. 
pattold, cf. Tamil pattolai. 

pattolai (SI I 1 ), Tamil = Sanskrit pat told ; a document. 
Pattolai (El 21, 22), Tamil; official designation; cf. pat- 
tolai, 'a document'. 

pattoli, c a deed of purchase* also 'land purchased by means 
ofapajtoli 9 (Jour. As. Soc., Letters, Vol. XX, p. 205). See 
Tamil pattolai pattold^ f a document 5 . 

Patt-opddhydya (HD ), a writer or keeper of official docu- 
ments. See Rdjatarangini, V. 397. 

Pdtusdha (BL), Indian modification of# Muslim imperial 
title ; same as Persian Padshah. 

Patudri (IE 8-3), probably Sanskrit Pattavdrika; the 
accountant-clerk; a member of the administrative board called 
Cauthiyd in Western India. 

Pdty-uparika (IE 8-2; 8-3; BL), official designation of 
uncertain implication; possibly indicating 'the head of the de- 
partment of accounts'; sometimes also called Maharaja, Maha- 
sdmanta, Mahdpratihdra, Mahdpilupati, Panc-ddhikaran-oparika 
and Purapdl-oparika, additionally. 

pdukd (IE 8-5; El 29), same as Odiya pduseri', tax on the 
money realised by creditors from debtors. 

pauka (El 31 ), misprint for Pali pattha = Sanskrit prastha; 
a land measure. 

248 aundarika pedd 

paundarika (El 4; IA 19), name of a sacrifice. 

Paurdnika (El 30; BL), a reciter of the Puranas; also pro- 
bably, an astrologer. Cf. Vyasa. 

paura (CII 4), name of a coin. 

Paura-vithillaka, probably officers in charge of a city and 
a subdivision; cf. Paura-vi(vi)thillaka-grdmakuta-niyuktdniyukta- 
pradhdn-dpradhdna (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XXV, p. 169, where the 
reading is given as visvillaka ). 

Paura-vyavahdrika, cf. Nagara-vyavahdrika. See Hist. Dharm., 
Vol. Ill, pp. 112, 147. 

pausadha (HA), Sanskrit uposatha, living like a Jain monk 
for 12 or 24 hours; the observance of fast on the eighth and 
fourteenth of the fortnight, the full-moon day and the day 
before the new moon and abstention from wicked acts, chastity, 
abandoment of bathing, etc., i.e. living temporarily like a monk. 
See posadha. 

pduseri, cf. pdukd. 

pautava (HRS ), various dues collected by the superinten- 
dent of weights and measures, as suggested by the Arthafdstra. 

( El 30) , measurement. 

pauti (El 29, 32), same as Sanskrit pravarti, a measure 
of capacity. 

pdvddai (SITI ), Tamil; cloth spread on the ground for 
persons of distinction to walk on ; also food-offering on a large 
scale spread over a cloth in front of the deity. 

pdvai (IE 8-5 ), same as darsana or nazrdna. 

pdvaka (IE 7-1-2), 'three 5 . 

pavana (IE 7-1-2), 'nine 5 . 

pdvisd(Eil. 33 ), probably, Sanskrit pdda-vimsaka r virh$opaka) ; 
name of a coin ; regarded as equal to five cowrie-shells; same 
as modern paisd. See lohadiyd and dramma. 

pavitra (El 9 ), the argha vessel. 

(Ind. Ant., Vol. IX, p. 187 ), thread, 360 of which are tied 
round the neck of the image of Krsna on Sravana su-di 12. 
Cf. Caitra-pavitra. 

pavitraka (El 1 ), meaning uncertain. 

pdyald (El 11), also called payali\ name of a measure. 

pedd (Chamba), a grain measure; also spelt pitha, pidd, 

Peddrphaindwaya 249 

Peddrpdla (BL ), mistake for Peddpdla, 'keeper of the record- 
boxes'. See Petapdla. 

pedda-gadyamu (CITD), Telugu; an unknown unit of 

pejjunka (IE 8-5), Kannada; name of a tax; same as 

Pergade (IE 8-3; El 4), Kannada; a chamberlain; a 
superintendent or director (Sanskrit Adhyaksa); see Vergade, 
Heggade, etc. 

Perggdvunda (El 26), Kannada, official designation. Cf. 

perjunka (IE 8-5), Kannada; same as pejjunka; name of 
a tax or toll. 

Perjunkadapergade (El 16), official designation. 

perujurika (El 28), same as perjunka. 

Perumdn-adigal (SITI ), Tamil; a term of reverence used 
to indicate a god or a king. Cf. personal names like Pramddi. 

perumbadaiy)m (ASLV ), military classes. 

Petakapdla (El 28, 29 ), keeper of the boxes containing 
records; record-keeper; same as Petapdla, etc. 

Petapdla (El 30; BL), keeper of boxes containing 
official records; the record-keeper. 

Petapdla (El 29), also called Petakapdla', record-keeper; 
same as Petapdla. 

Petavika (El 30 ), a class of officials ; Petavika-vdrika (IE 8-8 ). 

petha (IE 8-4; Gil 3), a small territorial unit; a group of 

Pettapdla (El 15, 28), keeper of the record-boxes; same 
as Petapdla, Petakapdla, Peddpdla, etc. 

Peyiya-sdhani (Naik's List, No. 264), mentioned along 
with Maleya-sdhani ; official designation. Cf. Sdhani. 

Phd (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of Phdlguna. 

phadiyd, see phadyaka. 

phadyaka (El 23), same as phadiyd', name of a coin; J 
of a rupee and equal to 5 dukrds and 2 dukdnis (JNSI,Vol. XXII, 
p. 295). 

phaindi-dydyi (CITD ), Telugu ; same asphaindivdya-maruturu. 

phaindivdya-maruturu (CITD)> Telugu; a maruturu measure 
of land which brought an income in coin and not kind; in 
Telugu, paidi means gold and ay am income. 

250 phala pinda 

phala (IA27), a Pali form of Sanskrit pala. 

phdla-divya (IA17), the ordeal of taking a heated plough- 
share in hand. 

phalahika, cf. sa-phalahikarh (LP), with an open space 
round about the house; same as Gujarat! phaliyurh. 

phalaka (IE 3-5 ), a wooden slab used as a slate. 

phala-samskdra (CII 3), equation of the centre. 

phalita, cf. phalita-pade (LP), also Gujarat! hurhdi pake 
tydre, when the bill of exchange becomes due'. 

phika (LP), a bull which is not castrated. 

phuramdna (El 2 ), Persian farmdn\ a royal order or grant. 

phutta (CII3), a Prakrit word meaning a break or damage 
in a construction, sometimes Sanskritised as sphutita (Ep. Ind. 9 
Vol. XV, p. 144, note 3). 

Pidda (IE 8-3 ), same as Bhata or Bhata-manusya\ cf. Pdik. 

picu, same as suvarna (q.v. ). 

picula, weight equal to 6 md$as (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 46 ). 

pidd (Chamba ), a grain measure ; also spelt pitha, pedd, pyodd. 

piddgai (ASLV),a hamlet. 

Pidd-ndli (El 28), name of a tax. 

pidha (LL), probably, a chair; cf. Sanskrit pltha. 

pillaigal-tanam (SITI), Tamil; status of the prince, sup- 
posed to be an officers' cadre composed of the junior members 
of the royal family. Cf. Kumdr-dmdtya. 

pilu (IE 8-3 ), Indian form of Arabic-Persian fil, an ele- 

Pilupati (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 13, 28; CII 4), leader of the 
elephant force or keeper of the elephants; cf. Mahdpilupati, pilu. 

pincha (IA18 ), bunch of feathers carried by a Jain ascetic. 

pind-dddna (El 12), quit rent. Cf. also pinda-kara. 

pindaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 254, text line 55), same as 
pind-dddna or bhdga-bhoga', cf. samucita-kara-pindak-ddi-samasta- 
pratydya; taxes assessed in a lump; cf. pinda-kard. 

(I A 2 ), same as grdsa; probably, a part of the produce of 
the fields for the maintenance of certain persons. 

(HRS), known from Pala records; same as hiranya, 
according to some. 

(LL ), probably, a slab. 

pinda-kara (HRS), lump assessment upon villages, as 
suggested by the Arthafdslra. Cf. also pind-dddna. 

pin da pocila 251 

pinda-pdta (El 25 ), food [for the Buddhist monks] . 

pisdca-caturdasi (El 1 ), name of a tithi. 

Pisdradi (IA 24), Malayalam; the manager of a temple. 

Pisunavetrika (El 33; HD), probably, an officer who drives 
away undesirable persons with a cane; or, one engaged in a 
court for caning culprits. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 94. See 
Vetrika, Ydstika, Vetakila. 

pitaka (CII 4), a measure of capacity. 

Cf. Traipitaka. 

Pitalahdra (El 20, 32 ), a brazier. 

Pitdmaha (El 24, 33 ), epithet of the Buddha. 

(IE 7-1-2 ), 'one'; but cf. Brahman used to indicate 'nine*. 

pitha (Chamba), a grain measure; also spelt pidd, pedd, 

pitha (CII 4; IA 12), receptacle of a Siva-linga ; the 
ablution trough of a Siva-linga; also called Toni-patta. 
(SITI), pedestal for the image of a deity. 

pithi (Ep. Ind.y Vol. Ill, p. 16), a pedestal or seat; same 
as pitha and pithikd. 

pithika(ASL,V), Sanskrit pithikd - 3 a throne; same as rdjya. 

pithikd (El 2 ), a platform. 

Pithikdvitta (IE 8-3; El 12;HD), probably, 'those who 
have acquired [special] seats'; same as Utthitdsanika. The 
word occurs in such records as the Belava plate of Bhojavarma- 
deva (Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 40). Cf. Veldvitta. Pithikdvitta 
is sometimes explained as the collector of state dues from pil- 
grims or religious institutions (Sen, Hist. Asp. Ins. Beng., p. 552 ). 

Pithipati (BL), explained as 'the lord of Magadha' in the 
commentary of Sandhyakaranandin's^amflCflnVa; title of the head 
of the Buddhist religious institution at Bodhgaya, who was 
the precursor of the later Mahant Maharajas of Bodhgaya. 
The wordpithim this title is the same as pitha or pithikd meaning 
the vajrdsana at Bodhgaya. 

pitr-parvan (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 37), probably, 
srdddha or ddna on each amdvdsyd day. 

pilr-yajfia (CII 4), offerings to the manes; one of the 
pa nca-mahdyajna . 

pla (IE 8-1 ), contraction ofpala; often found in the re- 
cords of the Orissa region. 

pocila-bhumi (LP), soft land. 

252 podhlpottalikd 

podhi (LL), a cistern; cf. Sanskrit prahi. 

Poduvdl (El 18), Tamil-Malayalam; an officer super- 
vising charitable endowments. 

poldcya, cf. sa-khila-polacya (IE 8-5); cultivated land; same 
as nala\ Hindi polach, 'land constantly under cultivation.' 

pomda (Chamba), name of a tax. 

pomdi (Chamba), bottom; foot of a hill. 

pon (SITI ), also spelt />0n; name of a gold coin also called 
mddai. Cf. pon-bhanddram, 'gold-treasury'; pon-panddra-vdfal, 
'the gate of the gold-treasury; royal gold-treasury'; pon-vargam 
(SITI), 'a class of taxes payable in gold or coin; ponvari, 
'tax payable in gold (cash) ' ; also 'the fee for minting gold into 
coins' ; probably, the same asponvari-mddai. 

Cf. turai-minnar-pon (SITI ), name of a coin. 
(IE 8-8; El 16), name of a coin; same as gadydna, hurt 
or vardha. 

pon (El 24), a coin. 

Pon-bhanddram (ASLV), a treasurer; treasury. 

Pora-Pdnjidhara-pariksd (El 28), chief astrologer; cf. 
puro prefixed to certain official designations in Orissa. See 
Pattandyaka, etc. 

Pora-Srikarana (El 28), chief secretary; cf. puro prefixed 
to certain official designations in Orissa. See POTTU. 

PoT-Bhanddri (El 25), Tamil; temple officer mentioned 
along with Sdsana-bhanddri (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXV, p. 132); 
cf.pora prefixed to Odiya official designations like Pora-Srikarana^ 
also Tamil POTTU. ' 

Porru (El 25), Tamil; official designation. 

posadha, derived from Sanskrit uposatha; also called posa- 
dha-vrata\ cf. pau$adha. 

pota (El 9 ), a sacrificial victim. 

potaka (LP ), the government's money-bag. 
(LP), cf. Gujarat! poturh', the amount of revenue of a village 
sent to the Government treasury. Cf. pottaka. 

potra (El 26 ), name of a tax. Cf. potta. 

potta, cf. milita-potta-drammd (LP ), collected government 
money. Cf. potra. 

pottaka (LP), same as Gujaratlpotum; the amount of the 
revenue of a village sent to the government treasury. Cf. potaka. 

pottalikd (IE 8-8), a bundle. 

praPradeftf 253 

pra (PJS ), abbreviation ofpratimd (especially in medieval 
Jain inscriptions). 

(IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of prathama. 

prabandha, name of hymnical compositions in Tamil by 
ancient Vaisnava devotees. The contributions of hymns and 
prayers by the twelve alvars in praise of Visnu make up the 
Ndldyiradivyaprabandham. Ndldyira (four thousand ) indicates the 
rough total number of items andprabandham is regarded as mean- 
ing a compilation. The first thousand is known as Tirumo\i and 
comprises hymns of Periyalvar, Andal, Kulasekhara, etc.; the 
second thousand contains the hymns of Tirumangai ; the third 
comprises the compositions of the first three d\vdrs called 
fyarpd, viz. Tirumalisai, Nammalvar and Tirumangai, and the 
fourth called Tirnvdymoli is entirely the work of Namma 1 var. 
Nathamunigal is stated to be the compiler of this anthology. 
See M. S. Purnalingam Pillai, Tamil Literature, pp. 181 ff. 

prabarha (El 13), a worthy. 

prdbda (El 16), same as abda, 'the year. 3 

prabhd (SII 2 ), an aureole or nimbus. Cf. prabhd-valaya. 

prabhdtaka (El 24 ), same as bhdtaka ; rent. 

prabhd-valaya (Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill, p. 16), aureole or nimbus. 

prdbhrtikrta (El 14), 'presented '. 

Prabhu (IA 30 ; BL ), a village official ; cf. Mahdprabhu. 

prabhujyamdna (IA 18), cf. bhujyamdna. 

prabhu-sakti (CII 4 ),power derived from the royal position. 

prabhu-svdmya (SII 11.1 ), a tenure held by ^Prabhu (q.v. ). 

prabodharii ( El 8) , prabodh-otsava (El 32 ), same as utthdna- 

pradaksina (CITD ), circumambulation from left to right; 
paying homage to a temple, etc., by solemnly walking round 
it with the right hand towards it, so that the right side is always 
turned towards the person or object circumambulated; a rever- 
ential salutation made by walking in this manner. 

pradesa (IE 8-4), a province or district. 

Prddesika (IE 8-3; HD), cf. Prakrit Pddesika (El 3), pro- 
vincial governor; governor of a. pradesa or province. Cf. C/7, 
Vol. I, pp. 4-5. 

Pradestr (HD), a class of magistrates; the police magis- 
trate. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 147; Ep. Ind., Vol. XXII, 
p. 156; Arthasdstra, I. 12; TV. I and ; 10 (last verse'). 

254 pradeya prakrdnta 

pradeya (El 12 ), same as deya; dues. 

Pradhdna (SII 1; HD; BL ), an official designation some- 
times indicating the chief minister or administrator also called 
Pradhdna-saciva (El 23); cf. panca-Pradhdndh (El 5) 'the five 
ministers'. See Ind. Ant., Vol. IX, p. 35 where Mantrin, Amdtya 
and Pradhdna a^e separately mentioned. 

pradhdna-mandapa (LL), Buddhist; the hall for practising 
religious exercises. 

Pradhdnin (CITD ), according to lexicons, a governor, 
minister or president; noble or courtier; etc. 

("731 ;ASLV ),a high executive officer; same as Pradhdna. 

(El 30), a village headman. 

Cf. Mahdpradhdni. 

pradhdni-jodi (SII 2; SITI ), Sanskrit-Tamil; an indm 
held on a fixed quit-rent by a minister; the chief minister's quit- 

prddhirdjya (El 4), name of a sacrifice. 

pradvdra (IA 7 ), a place in front of the gate; explained as 
'a suburb' (El 21); same as Gujarat! para. Cf. Valabhi-prad- 
vdra-Homba-vdsakdt (IA 9). 

Prddvivdka (HD ), the chief justice; a judge. See Manusmrti, 
IX. 234. 

praghattaka (El 15), probably, a conflict. 

prdghurnaka (LP), a present or gift. 

pragrdhya (El 12), cf. a-kincit-pragrdhya; same as grdhya. 

prahanika (LL), a class of Buddhist monks. 

prahara (SII 2; SITI), flaw in rubies. 

prdharikya (LP), cf. Gujarat! pahero; a guard or custo- 

prahitaka (IA 6), doubtfully explained as c a messenger' or 
*a committee man.' 

Praisanika (IE 8-3 ), same as Presanika. 

prakdla (Select Inscriptions, p. 305, text line 15); an era; 
cf. Gupta-prakdle ganandrh vidhdya. See kdla in kdl-dnuvarlta- 
mdna-samvatsare (ibid., p. 270, text lines 3-4), etc. 

prakarana (Gil 1 ), proper occasion. 

prakirtita (El 24), built; same as kirtita. 

prakrama (CII 1), an effort; zealous activity; same as 

prakranta (Gil 1 )j active or zealous, . . 

prakraya Pramdtr 


prakraya (HRS ), income from mines and salt-works, as 
suggested by the Arthasdstra. 

prakrta, cf. sangha-prakrta. 

Prakrit, Anglicised spelling of Prakrta, the name of a 

Prakrta, see Prakrit. 

prakrti (HD); cf. Mahdbhdrata, II. v. 23, speaking of 
the seven prakrtis which Nilakantha explains as referring to 
Durg-ddhyaksa (commandant of the citadel ), Bal-ddhyaksa (con- 
troller general of the army ), Dharma-ddhyaksa (chief of the 
departments of charity and justice), Camupati (commander of 
the army in the field ), chaplain, physician and astrologer. The 
Milindapanha (IV. i. 36 ) mentions six officers, e.g., the com- 
mander-in-chief, prime minister, chief judge, chief treasurer, 
bearer of the sun-shade and bearer of the sword of state (cf. Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XV, p. 77, note 6). Cf. Mdtra. 

(El 16), a temple official. 

(/ 7-1-2), 'twentyone. 5 

(El 9), the Ksatriya community. 

Cf. sa-tantuvdya-gokuta-sc.undik-ddi-prakrtika (IE 8-5); 
subjects of a king. 

(CII 1 ), usage. 

prakriyd (IA 1 8 ), cf. samasta-rdja-prakriy-opeta ; prerogative. 
prak$epa (El 13), cf. amisdm prak$epa-prati$edhau na karan- 
lyau, 'they should not be ousted [from the possession] or 
hindered [from their enjoyment of the gift land].' 
pramadd-kula (El 1 1 ), a host of courtesans. 
pramdna (El 6; SII 1; SITI), a document; a title deed. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXVIII, p. 109), authority; witness. 

(SII 12), cf. mula-pramdna, original order. 
pramdna-yasti (LL), measuring rod. 

Pramdtdra (HD ), an officer concerned with the administra- 
tion of justice, according to some (Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., pp. 122- 
23). See Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 211. Cf. Pramdtr, Pramattavdra. 

Pramattavdra (El 21 ), official designation; same as Pramdtr 
or Pramdtdra (q.v. ); the commander of the elephant corps 
according to some (CII 4). 

Pramdtr (BL), same as Pramdtdra, Pramattavdra (q.v.); a 
civil judge, according to some (HD); cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, 
p. 321; literally, 'measurer [of the king's grain share]'. 

256 PramukhaPrapta 

Pramukha (CII 4), a member of the executive committee of 
a corporation. 

(El 28 ), probably the same as Pradhdnin. 

prdna (CII 1), living being; same as prdnin. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

Prdn-dcdrya (El 8), title of a physician; explained as the 
medical adviser of the king (HD), Cf. Visnudharmottara, II. 
24. 33-34 (for his qualifications). 

prdna-ddksinya (CII 1 ), gift of life. 

prandli (CII 3 ), a conduit, a channel, an irrigation canal. 

prdndntika (SITI ), 'till the close of one's life'. 

pranaptrika (Gil 1 ), cf. panatika (El 22 ), the great- 
grandson; but cf. naptr. 

prdna-sameta, cf. Prakrit prana-sameda (El 24), 'endowed 
with life'. 

pranasya (LP), 'going out of sight'; cf. Gujaratl ndsine. 

pranaya (IE 8-5; HRS), known from the Arthasdstra, the 
Junagadh inscription of Rudradaman, etc. ; emergency tax or 
benevolence; also called pranaya-kriyd (IE 8-5); cf. a-hiranya- 
dhdnya-pranaya-pradeya, an epithet of rent-free land. 

pranaya-kriyd (El 8), benevolence or emergency impost; 
same as pranaya. 

Prantapala(IE 8-3; El 18, 29, 31 ), warden of the marches; 
also explained as the governor of a province or guardian of the 
frontiers (HD). Cf. Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., p. 124. 

prapd (El 3; IA 18; LL), watering trough; a cistern or 

(Ep. Lid., Vol. VII, p. 46, note 8), a place of distributing 
water gratis to travellers; a cistern. 

prdpa (El 1 7 ), 'sub-division of a district'; but see prdplya, 

Prapd-puraka (IE 8-8; El 30), a person responsible for 
filling the cisterns with water in a place for watering cattle or 
supplying water to travellers. 

praparnaka, royal order; same as Persian parwdna (Select 
Inscriptions, p. 248). 

prapautra, cf. pautra-prapautrika(CII 1 ); the great-grandson. 

prdpiya (El 17), same as pro vesya ; cf. Aksasaraka-prdvetya 
and Aksasaraka-prdplya (Ep. Lid., Vol. XI, p. 109); cf. prapa. 

Prdpta-puncamaMsabda. (IE 8-2 ), same as Samadhigata- 

prapti Prathama 257 

pancama l (dsabda] subordinate title or epithet; sometimes applied 
to a crown prince. See panca-mahdsabda. 

prapti (SII2), benefit. 
(El 7 ), revenue. 
(SITI), enjoyment; what is obtained from someone. 

prdrabdhi (El 2 ), meaning uncertain. 

prdrya (El 15), father's father or father-in-law's father. 
Cf. dryaka. 

prasdda(EI3), gift '(Ep. Ind., Vol. XIII, p. 162, note 2). 

prdsdda (Gil 4; LL), a palace or temple. 

prasddaka, cf. Pali and Prakrit pasddaka (El 20 ), one who 
converts some one to the Buddhist faith. 

prasdda-mukta (LP), cf. Gujarat! prasdd chodvd khat, 'for 
allowing this favour'. 

prasanna (Gil 1 ), devoted or attached. 

prasasti (El 15, 23, 24; Gil 3, 4), a eulogy; a eulogistic 
inscription generally on stone; a copper-plate charter (with 
reference to the introductory section of medieval charters); 
rarely prasastd (Ep. Ind., Vol. 36, p. 52), subhd (Vol. 35, p. 59). 

prdstarika-sreni (El 23), a guild of stone-masons. 

Prasdstr (El 31 ), probably, a judge; the chief magistrate, 
according to some (HD); cf. Arthasdstra, I. 12. 

Prasisya (ML; SITI), the disciple's disciple. 

prasrmara (El 13), explained as 'spreading out in some 

prasrti (El 30), a measure; a handful. 

prastha (IE 8-6; Gil 4; Chamba), a measure of capacity, 
often regarded as one-sixteenth of a drona\ cf. Palipattha, a land 

prastha, cf. prastham (Sel. Ins., p. 236), 'immediately'. 

prasthaka (HRS ), known from the Gurjara-Pratihara re- 
cords ; cess at the rate of a prastha of grain over and above the 
usual grain-share. Cf. aksapatala-prastha, pratihdra-prastha, etc. 

pratdpa, seepartdb. 

Pratdpa-cakravartin (IE 8-2 ), see Cakravartin. 

Prathama (El 21 ), prefixed to Kdyastha and Kulika to indi- 
cate representatives of certain classes as members of an adminis- 
trative board of the Pancdyat type. 

prathama-dvdddsi (El 12; SII 2 ), Asadha su-di 12. 

Prathama-kdyastha (IE 8-3; El 27; BL), representative 

258 Prathama pratidis 

of the scribal class on the local council of administrators ; the 
clerk-member of the Pancdyat board (see Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 
130); the chief scribe, according to some (HD). 

Prathama-kulika(IE 8-3; BL), literally, 'the chief artisan'; 
designation of a member of the artisan class represented on an 
administrative board like \hzPanc ay at (Ep.Ind., Vol. XV, p. 130). 

Prathama-pustapdla (El 15 ), wrongly regarded as occurr- 
ing in some epigraphs; see Pustapdla. 

prathama-skandha (LP ), the first instalment. See skaridha, 

prathamataram, 'at first' (Select Inscriptions, p. 240). 

prathama-trtiyd (El 7 ), name of a tithi. 

Prati (LP ), abbreviation ofPratihdri. 

prati, cf. Sata-pratyd (LP), 'per hundred'. 

pratibaddha (IA 15), generally used in the sense of 'attached 
to' or 'belonging to' in respect of a village pertaining to a terri- 
torial unit; sometimes used in the sense of 'hailing from' or 'one 
whose family hails from' (cf. vinirgata generally used in the same 

pratibhdga (HRS), offerings of fruits, firewood, roots and 
the like payable by villagers to the king as indicated in the 

Cf. pati-bhdga. 

(C//1), one's lot. 

prdtibhedikd (IE 8-5; El 9, 12), an obligation or impost 
of uncertain meaning; maybe the same as prativedharika. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. VI, p. 298, text line 20), explained by 
some as 'a special right' (Gil 4); but cf. visti-prdtibhedikd (El 
14); supposed to be related to umbara-bheda(q.v. ) and meaning 
a special levy on defaulters in the payment of taxes. 

pratibhoga, prdtibhoga (HRS), same as pratibhdga, 

pratibodha (HA), teaching in the Jain doctrine; conversion 
to the Jain faith. 

.pratibodhita (Ind. Ant., Vol. XVI, p. 132, note 3), same 
as vijndpita. 

pratibhu (El 30), a security. 

praticchanda, a model for artists (Journ. Or. Inst., Vol. X, 
No. 1, p. 12). See lepyakdra. 

pratidis,cf. bhunjato bhojayatah krsatah karsayatah pratidisato 

prati dhakkd pra tikara n a 


vdna ken=dpi paripanthandkdryd (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 280, 
text lines 65-66); probably, 'to dispose of. 

prati dhakkd (El 4, 29), a kind of drum; one of the royal 
insignia of certain kings of South India. 

pratiganaka (El 26), subdivision of a district; same as 

pratigraha (SITI), acceptance of gifts. 

Pratihdra, Pratihdra (El 23; BL), also called Pratihdrin 
(El 3, 23), c a door-keeper'; but cf. Mahdpratihdra who was a 
high officer; officer in charge of the defence of the royal palace 
or bed-chamber or the head of the guards of the city gate; a 
chamberlain or inditer of grants, according to some (HD ) ; 
personal attendant of a king, according to others (Gil; 4). See 
Ep. Lid., Vol.VIII, p. 73; Vol. IX, p. 192; Brhaspati quoted by 
Visvarupa on the Tdjnavalkyasmrti, I. 307 (for his qualifications ) ; 
Mahdbhdrata, Adiparvan, 85. 28-29; Vifnudharmottara, II. 24. 
12; Sukra, I. 121. Cf. Antah-pratihdra (IE 8-3 ), Raj ju- pratihdra. 

pratihdra (IE 8-5 ), levy for the maintenance of the door- 
keepers of the city gates ; cf. pratihdra-prastha. 

pratihdra-prastha (HRS ), tax paid by the villagers at the 
rate of one prastha of grain for payment to the Pratihdra', see 

Pratihdra-rakfi (IE 8-3; LL), c a female door-keeper' ; a 
female officer in charge of the gates of the royal harem or the 
personal attendant of a queen. 

Pratihdrin (El 23, 30), official designation; same as Prati- 

Pratihasta, cf. Odiya Padihasta (El 28 ), a representative. 

pratijdgaranaka (IE 8-4; El 9, 32; Gil 4), a territorial 
unit often found in Paramara inscriptions ; same as pargand. 

pratika, cf. Prakrit padika (El 8 ), see pratikam satam, 'one 
coin per cent'. 

pratikara, cf. kara; also a-kinchit-pratikara (El 23), 
'land without any yield of revenue'. 

(HRS), compensatory allowance paid by thegovernment 
to dispossessed owners of rent-fee land, as indicated by the Raja- 
tar angim. 

pratikarana, repairs; cf. khanda-sphutita-pratikarana, same 
as khanda-sphutita-jirnoddhdra (q.v. ). 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 114, note 2), meeting the expenses. 

260 pratikramana pratifraya 

pratikramana (LP), morning and evening prayers. 

pratimd, cf. pratimam (SII2), image of a human being; 
usually, the image of a deity. 

Pratinartaka (CII 3; BL; HD), an official title; perhaps 
meaning 'a herald' ; cf. CII, Vol. Ill, p. 190 (a person described 
as tanniyukta-pratinartaka-kulaputr-dmdtya ). 

Pratinidhi, a representative (Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, p. 150). 

Pratinivdsin (El 20 ), same as Nivdsin, a resident. 

pratipad (CII 1), 'to follow'; same as anuvrt, anupratipad. 

(Select Inscriptions, p. 281, text line 10); cf. pratipddya, 
'having decided'. 

pratipadd (El 24), a slab with foot-prints. Cf. Ep. Ind. 9 
Vol. XXXIII, p. 247. 

pratipdditaka (El 13), given or granted. 

pratipanna, 'decided' ; cf. pratipad. 

pratipatti, cf. pratipattau (LP), explained as 'convincing 5 ; 
but actually 'during the administration of...'. 

Prdtirdjya (El 3, 6 ), same as Pratirdja, 'a hostile king.' 

Prdtirdjyika (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIX, p. 71), probably, an 
envoy at the court of a hostile king; but cf. Padird. 

pratisamdsana (IE 8-8), refutation. 

pratisdmvatsarika-Srdddha (CII 4), the annual srdddha cere- 
mony; same as sdrhvatsarika-srdddha. 

Pratisaraka (IA 7), cf. Vartmapdla-Pratisaraka-Rdjasthdmya', 
official designation; same as Pratisaraka. 

Pratisaraka (EI31; HD), explained as an officer who 
collects tax and allows carts to go out of the nail or a strip of 
low ground (LP ) ; see Pratisdrin ; same as Pratisaraka. 

Pratisaraka (LP), explained as 'a gate-keeper'. See Prati- 
sdraka, Pratisdrin. 

Pratisaraka (HD), same as Pratisaraka. See Ind. Ant., 
Vol. XV, p. 187. 

Pratisdrin (LP ) explained as 'one who allows the merchants 
to go through strips of low ground'. See Pratisaraka. 

Pratisarira (BI ), a representative. 

pratisdsana (SII 11-1), a renewed charter. 

pratisedha, cf. praksepa. 

pratisiddh-dya (IA 19 ), same as siddh-dya. 

pratiSraya (Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 46, note 8), a shelter- 
house for travellers. See ucchraya. 

pratifthd pratyarthdruvd 26 1 

pratisthd (El 11; SIX 1; BL; HA), installation, consecra- 
tion ; ceremony of installation or consecration (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XII, p. 20). 

pratisthdna, cf.yasti-pratisthdna (CII 2-1 ), used in the sense 
of pratisthdpana. 

pratisthdpita, cf. a-pratisthdpita (ML); interred. 

Pratis uraka (El 31), probably, the superintendent of 
wrestling; cf. Pratis urika. 

Pratisurika (IE 8-3), probably, the superintendent of 
gladitorial combats; cf. Pratis uraka. 

pratitippanaka (LP), a receipt. 

Prati-vdsudeva (HA ), an enemy of Vasudeva in Jain my- 

Prativedaka (IE 8-3; CII 1 ), a reporter or spy. 

prativedand (CII 1 ), reporting of news. 

prdtivedhanika (HRS), punching-fee collected from mer- 
chants at the time of the inspection of weights and measures, as 
indicated by the Arthasdstra. 

prativesya, prat'.vesika (CII 1 ), a neighbour. 

pratividhdna (CII 1 ), supporting [with money] ; gift [of 
money] . 

prativyanjana, Tamil padi-vinjanam (SITI), articles other 
than rice for the preparation of food-offerings in a temple, etc. 

pratoli (El 9; CII 3; BL), agate-way; a gate-way with a 
flight of steps; a gate-way strongly built and considerably high. 
(731), probably, a street. 

pratolikd (El 1 ), same as pratoli. 

pratyabda-kdla (El 3 ), an anniversary [of death] . 

pratydddya (Ep. Ind. , Vol. XI, p. 21; Vol. XIV, p. 196; 
Vol. XXXV, p. 127 ), income or tax 'cf.pratyqya in the same sense. 

pratyamsa, see agra-pratyamsa (ML); a share. 

pratyandhdruvd (IE 8-5; El 12, 33), Odiya; probably 
pratyarthdruvd (Sanskrit pratyartha-rupyaka), name of a tax or 
levy of uncertain import ; probably, a levy on the money rea- 
lised by money-lenders from debtors. See arthdruvd, pdukd. 

pratyanta (IE 8-4; CII 1 ), a state beyond the borders of 
one's territories; a land outside one's dominions; also its people; 
cf. ant a. 

Pratyanta-nrpati (El 15), ruler of a bordering state. 

pratyarthdruvd (IE8-5 ), a tax of uncertain import; pro- 

262 Pratyaya Prdvdrancara 

bably Sanskrit pratyartha-rupyaka in the sense of a levy on 
amounts realised by the money lenders from debtors; also read 
as pratyandhdruvd; see arthdruvd and pdukd. 

Pratyaya, probably, a lessee (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, pp. 

pratyaya (El 11, 15), a holding; sometimes also written 
as pratyaya (cf. CII, Vol. Ill, p. 170, note 5). 

Cf. Prakrit avija-pracaga samkara(Cll 2-1 ) = Sanskrit avidyd- 
pratyaydh samskdrdh, 'in inter-connection with delusion are the 
samkdras', i.e. the sarhkdras spring from avidyd. 

Cf. etat-pratyaye, in this matter (Select Inscriptions, p. 237). 

pratyaya (IE 8-5; El 29; HRS), revenue; income or tax; 
dues payable to the king including bhdga-bhoga-kara and hiranya; 
cf. bhuta-vdta-pratydya (El 10). See pratyaya. 

pratyaya, pratyaya (CII 3), primarily 'income' and secon- 
darily 'a holding, the income of which is enjoyed.' Cf. amuka- 

Pratyeka-Buddha, cf. Prakrit Pracega-Budha (CII 2-1), 
Buddhist; name of certain Buddhas. 

pratyupagamana (CII 1 ), meeting personally. 

Praudha-pratdpa (IE 8-2 ), cf. Pratdpa and Virapratdpa. 

Praudha-pratdpa-cakravartin (IE 8-2 ), see Cakravartin. 

pravacana, exposition of texts (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 

pravahana (LP), same as vdhana', a boat. 

pravahana-ghotaka, (LP), a carriage horse. 

pravana (El 1 ), 'excellent*. 

Pravani (CII 4), a banker. 

pravanikara (El 18, 24, 26; HRS), cf. yathddiyamdna-bhdga- 
bhoga-kara-pravanikara-kutaka-prabhrti-samast-ddaya (IE 8-5 ), 
known from the Gahadavala records; a minor tax other than 
what was bhdga-bhoga-kara, according to some ; explained by 
some as a tax levied from a class of merchants. See pravanivdda. 
(I A 15), explained as hiranya or tax in cash. 

pravanivdda (El 21), name of a tax; cf. pravanikara. 

pravara (IA 19), an invocation of ancestors at the perfor- 
mance of certain rites. 

(C//4), a member of the executive committee of a corpo- 

Prdvdrancara (El 24), supposed to be 'a licensed spy'. 

pravarha prayojana 263 

pravarha (El 13), see prabarha. 

pravartavdpa(EI 32), also called pravarta ; a land measure; 
cf. pravarti and pravartikd. 

pravartamdna (I A 1 8, 1 9 ), current [year] ; cf. atita or expired. 

pravartana (CII 1 ), establishment. 

pravarti, pravartikd (El 32), a measure of capacity; cf. 
pauli, pravarta and pravartavdpa. 

pravesa, pravesa (El 17), explained as 'a small territorial 
unit'; but probably refers to the assessment of the rent of a loca- 
lity along with another ',o.LSividi-pravesa-Kandalivdda-grdma inter- 
preted as 'Kandalivada-grama having its rent assessed along 
with Sividi' (Ep. Ind., Vol XXXI, p. 59, note 1 ). See prdvesya, 

Pravesa-bhdgika (HD ), a subordinate officer of the treasury 
who received cash payments, according to Stein (Rdjatarangim, 
VIII, 278). 

pravesaka (SITI), admission, entry. 

prdvesya (El 31 ), also spelt pravesya; explained by some 
as a small territorial unit; sometimes translated as 'situated in' 
(CII 4); but may refer to the revenure assessment of a village 
along with another; cf. Ardhati-prdvesya-Lavangasikdydm (Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XV, p. 143); same as pravesa. Cf. Hastisirsa-prdves'ya- 
Tdpasapottake with Sividi-pravesa-Kandalivdda-grdma interpreted 
as 'Kandalivada-grama having its rent assessed along with 
Sividi.' Same as prdpiya (Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 109); cf. Aksa- 
saraka-prdvesya used in the sense as Aksasaraka-prdplya. 

Cf. pravesa, prdvesa, prdpiya (LP ), also patra-prsthato pravefyo 
ddtavyah, 'should get [the sum] entered at the back of the docu- 
ment' (ddtavya from da 'to cut' ). 

Cf. a-prdvesya, etc. (IE 8-5); entrance. 
(IE 8-8; El 30), an entry tax or levies relating to the 
entry of royal agents. 

pravrajita (CII 1;LL), a Buddhist monk; an ascetic. 

pravrajitd (LL), a Buddhist nun. 

praydna-danda (IE 8-5; El 25, 26), cf. rdjasevakdndm vasati- 
danda-praydna-dandau na stah; refers to the obligation of the 
villagers to provide free conveyance and carriage of loads, etc., 
when royal officers passed through their village. Praydna thus 
seems to mean 'passage, transit', anddanda 'levy';cf. rudhabhdrofi. 

prayojana (LP ), need ; cf. drammaih hasta-prdptaih prayojanam 

264 PrdyopavefaPujd 

jdyale (LP ), 'when there is a necessity of having the money 
back [before the stated time] .' 

Prdyopaves-ddhikrta (HD), officer who watched those that 
had resolved to fast unto death at the palace gate. See Rdjata- 
rangini, VI. 14. 

prayukta (IA 15), 'drawn up 5 . 

Pregadd (El 9), Kannada; a minister. Cf. Pergade, etc. 

presana(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p.9, text lines 13-14), service. 

prek?anaka (El 22 ), a show. 

Presanika (IE 8-3 ), officer in charge of the despatch of 
messengers; the dispatcher of messengers; cf. Praisanika, Vaik- 

Presya-kula (El 33 ), a batch of workers. 

preta-daksind, cf. peta-dakkhind (El 24 ), a gift to one's dead 

Priyadarsin (Gil 1 ), cf. Priyadasi (El 5 ), secondary name 
of the Maurya king Asoka. 

Pro, abbreviation of Prohita = Sanskrit Purohita (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXX, p. 192). 

Prohata, Prohita (Chamba, etc.) a priest; from Sanskrit 

Cf. Para. 

prda, see mrda. 

prstha, cf. pr$\he haslah (LP), C hand on someone's back'; 
a sign of warning. 

prthivi, cf. Prakrit sava-puthaviyam (C/7, Vol. I, p. 87, text 
line 7 ) ; used to indicate the dominions of the Maurya emperor 
Asoka, versions other than Dhauli (Rock Edict V) having 
sarvatra vijite (i.e. 'everywhere within the dominions' ) in its 
place. Cf. Jambudvipa. 

prthvi (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

prthvi-linga (SII 2) , a Sivaliriga made of earth. 

prud, see mrda. 

pu (PJS), abbreviation of putra, 'a son' (especially in 
medieval Jain inscriptions ). 

pujd (CII 1 ; ML), an honour; the act of honouring. 

Pujdhdri (El 33 ), same asPiijfri (Sanskrit/? ujddhdrin) ; priest. 

Pujaka(STTI ), one who performs worship ; a temple priest. 
Puj-dmdtya (IA 1 1 ), official designation; ef. 'the Puj-dmdtya 
of the province of Timbanaka*. 

Pujdri Purapdla 


Pujdri (El 5, 15), a priest; a temple priest; called Pujdri 
or Pujdhdri (Sanskrit Pujddhdrln) in the early medieval records 
of Orissa. 

pujd-sild (El 16, 22), same as sdlagrdma-sild (the stone 
emblem of Visnu ). 

pujd-vrtti (SITI), tax-free land endowed to a temple for 
conducting worship. Cf. tala-vrtti, etc. 

pukkoli, pukkolli, pukkuli(lE 8-8 ), cf. pukkoli-ksetra, explain- 
ed as 'an arecanut palm plantation'. An inscription of Kadamba 
Mrgesvarman seems to suggest that it really means 'land in- 
undated by floods' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 152). See khajjana. 

pukkoli-khajjana (El 33), a type of land; see khajjana and 

pukkoli-ksetra (El 33), a type of land like khajjana', see 
pukkoli or pukkoli-khajjana. 

pulaka (CII 4 ), a small bundle (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 309 ). 

Punarjanman (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XIII, p. 290, text line 3), 
used in the sense of Dvijanman (i.e. a Brahmana). 

pundarika (CII 3; BL), name of a sacrifice. 

punydha-vdcaka (El 1 1 ), a priest who officiates in a cere- 
mony and proclaims by means of mantras a happy day to the 
ceremony and its performer. 

punydha-vdcana (I A 14), a ceremony; cf. punydha-vdcaka. 

punya-vdcana (IA 21 ), a purificatory rite [in Madras] ; cf. 

pura, a temple (Ep. Ind.,Vol. XXXV, p. 184). See bhavana. 

puraka (CII 3; etc.), used as a termination of the names 
of villages. 

purdna (IE 8-8; El 12, 21, 29), name of a coin; a silver 
coin also called dharana and kdrsdpana (32 or 24 ratis); cf. kapar- 
daka-purdna (El 26), meaning purdna calculated in cowrie- 
shells; also pana-purdna (i.e. purdna counted in copper panas). 

(Ep.Ind., Vol. XXVIII, p. 246), the Purana texts, e.g. 
the Aditya Purdna. 

purdna-laksana (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

Purapdl-oparika (IE 8-2, 8-3; BL), official designation pro- 
bably indicating the governor of a city or chief amongst the 
governors of cities ; called Maharaja, Mahdsdmanta, Mahdprati- 
hdra, Mahdpilupati, Pancakaranoparika and Pdtyuparika addition- 
ally (IE 8-3). The expression may also mean two different 

266 PurapatiPuro 

designations, viz. Purapdla and Uparika. With Purapdla, cf. Pura- 
pati, etc. 

Purapati (El 25), mayor of a town; cf. Pura-pradhdna, 
Purasrethin, Nagara-sresthin, Purillaka, etc. 

Pura-pradhdna (CII 4), mayor of a city; cf. Purapati, 
Purasresthin, Nagara-sresthin, Purillaka, etc. 

Pura-sresthin (El 25), official designation; same as Nagara- 
Sresthin, Pura-pradhdna, Purapati, etc. 

puratobhadra (El 9), probably, a building with only one 
gate in the front side. 

Purillaka (El 29 ; CII 4 ), explained as c the mayor of a town.' 
Cf. rdja-sdmanta-visayapati-grdmabhogika-purillaka-cdta-bhata-sevak' 
ddin (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIX, pp. 114-15); also Desillak* and 
Pura-pati, Pura-pradhdna, Pura-sresthin, Vithillaka, etc. 

puma (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher'. 

purnaghataka-patta (LL), slab bearing the representa- 
tion of a flower- vase. 

purnimdnta (CII 3, etc. ), the technical name for the scheme 
of the lunar months in Northern India, according to which 
the months end with the full-moon day, and the dark fortnights 
precede the bright; Fleet states that in astronomical works, it 
is always the amdnta arrangement that is actually taken for 
calculations though, even in Southern India, the purnimdnta 
arrangement was used with the aka years,for the civil reckoning, 
up to between 804 and 866 A. D. ; on the other hand, according 
to him, even in Northern India, it was not used with the Newar 
era in Nepal, though it was adopted there when the Newar 
era was followed by the Vikrama era in its northern variety. 

Puroga (El 23), prominent among a particular class of 
people ; sometimes wrongly taken to be the same as Purohita. 

Purohita (CII 4; SII 1; BL; ASLV; HD), a priest; a 
family priest; the royal priest; occurs in the list of functionaries 
in records like those of the Gahadavalas (Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 
305 ) and Senas (ibid., Vol. XII, p. 9 ). See Hist. Dharm., Vol. 
Ill, pp. 111-12, 117. 

Puro-ndyaka (IE 8-3; El 28), the chief Nay oka; probably 
the same as Patta-ndyaka or Puro-Panksaka; cf. Nayaka. Puro 
may really be the modification of a Dravidian word (cf. 
Tamil Porru). 

Puro-panksa (El 28, 31), probably, the same as Pat [a- 

Puro Puspa 


parikfaka, 'the chief superintendent'; the chief superintendent 
of a department. Puro may really be the modification of a 
Dravidian word (cf. Tamil Porru ). 

Puro-pratihasta (El 31), probably, 'the chief representa- 
tive'. Puro may really be the modification of a Dravidian word 
(cf. Tamil Porru). 

Puro-srikarana (El 31), probably, 'the chief secretary'. 
Puro may really be the modification of a Dravidian word (cf. 
Tamil Porru). 

Purusa (IE 8-3 ), same as Raja-pur us a, 'royal officer or agent.' 

(HD) an inferior servant (Arthasdstra, 1 1. 5) or a bailiff 
attached to a court of justice (as in Brhaspati). See Hist. 
Dharm., Vol. Ill, p. 278. 

purusa-cchaya (El 14), name of a measure. 

pums-dkdra ( SITI ), human form. 

purusdrika, cf. ardha-purusdrika. 

purus-drtha (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

Purusottama-putra (El 33 ), epithet of one devoted to the god 
Purusottama-Jagannatha of Pun. See Rudra-putra, Durgd putra. 

purusa-yuga, cf. Prakrit purisa-yuga (El 20); a generation. 

purus-dyus (IE 7-1-2), 'one hundred'. 

purva (IE 7-1-2), sometimes used to indicate 'fourteen'. 

purvd (IE 8-8; CII 4; ML), 'the above'; 'the aforesaid 
(tithi or prasasti y i used with reference to a tithi and a prasasti; 
sometimes wrongly used as a synonym of a tithi or prasasti. 

Cf. anup urvi used with refrence to a tithi. 

purv-dcdra (SII 3; SITI), an old usage or ancient 
custom. Cf. puna-nil. 

P urv'dgrahdrika (El 23 ), the former holder of an agrahdra. 

purva-maryddd (ASLV), ancient constitutional usage. 

purva-rdja (El 17), a king of eastern countries or of early 

purva-riti (LP), old custom. Cf. purv-dcdra. 

purva-siddh-dyatana (El 33), epithet of a Buddhist temple; 
see siddh-dyatana. 

puskala (IE 8-6 ), a measure of capacity usually regarded 
as equal to sixtyfour handfuls. 

puskara (ML ), a tank. 

pufpa (IE 8-8), a coin having the shape or sign of flower. 
Cf. a-haritaka-Saka-puspa-grahana (IE 8-5), flowers which 

268 pufpaka putti 

the villagers (probably, the florists ) were obliged to supply to 
the king or landlord on occasions or to the touring officials. 

puspaka (CII 4), a temple. 

pusta (CII 4), painting. 

pustaka, cf. Tamil pottagam (SITI ); register, as of land and 

Pustaka-bhdnddra (El 25), a library. 

Pustakapdla (IE 8-3; El 6, 29), record-keeper; same as 
Pustapdla; cf. Petapdla, etc. 

Pustapdla (IE 8-3; El 28; CII 4; HD), record-keeper; 
occurs in epigraphs like the Damodarpur plates of the Gupta 
age (Ep. 2nd., Vol. XV, p. 13; cf. Vol. XX, p. 61 ). 

pusya-rdga (SITI), same as puspa-rdga ; a kind of gem. 

pusya-ratha (El 3 ), a car. Cf. puspa-ratha or puspaka-ratha, 
the celestial car. 

puti (El 33 ), same as putti or puttidosillu. 

puti (El 12, 14), also read as yuti\ cf. trna-puti(or yuti)~ 
go-cara-paryanta, epithet of a gift village. The expression trna- 
puti or trna-yuti may mean 'grass-land 5 . The word is some- 
times written as yuti andyuthf also. 

putra, cf. Nigama-putra (LL ), 'the inhabitant of a nigama 

Cf. Durgd-putra, Puruwttama-putra, etc. 
(IE 7-1-2), probably confused with pdndu-putra and used 
to indicate 'five'. 

putra-sunu (SI I 2 ), used in the sense ofpautra, 'son's son'. 

putti (CITD), Telugu; a measure equal to twenty tumus; 
also called khandi (spelt candy in English and found as khandikd 
in Sanskrit inscriptions ) and regarded as equal to between 800 
and 1000 seers. Khandi at Masulipatam has 3 weights, viz. 
488 pounds for tobacco, 500 pounds for metals, hardware, etc., 
and 560 pounds for sugar, dates and other soft articles. The 
putti and its fractions also denote the area of the land that is 
supposed by some to produce the particular quantities of 
grain. According to some, it is a land measure equal to 8 
acres being presumably the area which can be sown with a 
putti of grain. There were different kinds of puttis, e.g. gdl- 
putti. Cf. also pelle-putti regarded as equal to 80 kuiicas and 
Malaca-putti or Malacca ton as equal to 300 to 240 kuficas. 
(El 4, 27), a land and grain measure. 

puttiRdja 269 

(IE 8-5 ), same as Tcluguputti-dosillu, 'a fee of two hand- 
fuls from each put ti of grain paid to the village-servants'. 

putli'dosillu (El 33), a levy; see putti. 

pyodd (Chamba), a grain measure; also spelt pitha, pidd, 


Rd (LP ), abbreviation ofRdjaputra, Rduta, etc. 

rdbhasya (CII 1 ), a crime. 

rdccha-poccha (LP), Gujarat! ; household furniture. 

racita (Gil 3; etc. ), composed ; a technical term used in 
connection with the composition of a record, as opposed to the 
writing on the plate or slab for facilitating the work of engrav- 
ing and also to engraving. Cf. cintita in Ep.Ind.,Vol. XXXV,p.59. 

rada (IE 7-1-2), 'thirtytwo'. 

rddhd (El 8 ), a posture of standing with the feet a span 

rddhdnta (El 3), same as siddhdnta. 

rdga (IE 7-1-2), 'six'. 

rahdpayati (LP), 'he keeps'. 

Rdhasika (IE 8-3 ; El 27, 30 ), same as Rahasy-ddhikrta, etc. ; 
a privy councillor; a private secretary or advis:r. 

Rahasi-niyukta (IE 8-3), a private secretary; same as 
Rahasy-ddhikrta, etc. 

Rahasya (IE 8-3; El 3-6, 23, 27, 30), a private secre- 
tary; same as Rdhasika, Rahasy-ddhikrta, etc. 

Rahasy-ddhikrta (IE 8-3; El 6, 27, 30; SITI; HD), a 
privy councillor or private secretary ; same as Rahasya, Rdhasika, 
Rahasi-niyuka, etc. ; cf. also Vaisvdsika, Paramavisvdsin Mahdpara- 
mavisvdsm, etc. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 7; Vol. VI, p. 13; 
Vol. XXII, p. 298. 

Rdhuta, Rdhutta (IE 8-2), same as Rdvata^ Sanskrit Rdja- 
putra\ a title of nobility. 

(I A 20), also called Rduta; explained as 'a horseman.' 

Rdhutta-rdyan (SITI), Sanskrit Rdjaputra-rdjan; title of 
nobility; explained as 'a cavalry officer'. 

Raikvdla (Chamba ), the king's personal servant. 

Raja (LP), abbreviation of Rdjaputra (Rajput}; explained 
as a cavalry-soldier or a Rajput. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, pp. 

270 raja rajakdrya 

143-44, where it is probably an abbreviation of Rajakula (Rdval). 

rdja-bhdga (LP ), government revenue. 

rdja-bhanddra (SITI, ASLV), Sanskrit rdja-bhdnddra\ 
royal treasury or store-house. 

rdja-bhoga (El 12), also rdja-sambhoga; dues enjoyed by 
the king or land belonging to the king's Khds Mahals. 

rdja-danda (SII 1 ), punishment imposed by the king. 

rdja-datti (El 23), a royal gift. 

Rdja-dauvdrika (El 2; BL), door-keeper of the royal 
palace (Ep. hid., Vol. XIII, p. 1 15 ). See Dauvdrika. 

rdjadhdni (El 23 ), the capital; sometimes used to indicate 
the headquarters of a chief or governor. 

Rdjddhirdja (IE 8-2; El 21, 22, 30; CII 3, 4), title of 
paramount sovereignty ; an imperial title meaning 'the king of 
kings'; used in the Gupta period in some metrical passages, 
both alone and along with Rdjardjddhirdja. Cf. Adhirdjardja 
(El 9). 

Rdjddhyaksa (IA 12; SII 11-2), official designation; 
probably the same as Rdjasthdniya, literally, 'an officer acting 
for the king.' 

rdja-droha (SITI ), treason against the king. 

rdja-dvdra (El 32), king's court. 

rdja-graha (IE 8-8); apprehension or recruitment in the 
king's name. 

rdja-grha t cf. Tamil rdja-karam (SITI); palace (cf. Ep. 
Ind.,\o\. XXXV, p. 107) or government; officers or autho- 
rities; also the taxes due to the same. Cf. rdjakaran-kdnikkai, 
'customary presents to be made to the palace'; rdjakara-upddi, 
'tax payable to the palace or to the government officers'. 

Rdjaguru (El 21, 27, 30; CII 4; BL; ASLV; HD), 
king's preceptor. Cf. Bomb. Gaz., Vol. XXI, p. 354; Ind. Ant., 
Vol. XII, p. 120. 

rdja-hundikd (LP ), the royal bill of exchange. 

Rdjdjndprada (El 27 ), probably, the same as Ajnapti, etc. 

rdjaka-daivaka (LP ), calamities owing to the king or the 
gods; cf. rdjaka-daivaka-vasdt (LP). 

rdja-kara, cf. rdja-garam (ASLV), taxes in general. 

rdja-kdrya (SITI), duties of the state; official work. 

rdjakdrya-bhdnddra (SITI; ASLV), a treasury related to 
state business ; an official committee of management. 

rdjakiya Rajdnaka 271 

rdjaklya (LP), government tax. 

Cf. samasta-rdjakiydndm=apraveya (IE 8-5); same as 
Rdja-purusa or Rdja-sevaka ; also Rdja-satka ; an officer of the king. 

rdjakiya-mdna (El 23 ), same as rdja-mdna. 

Rdjakula (IE 8-5; CII3; IA20;BL;HD), royal house- 
hold; the king, royal officers and members of the royal family. 
Originally, 'the royal family'; then c a member of the royal 
family' ; and then c a royal officer' ; later, a title of nobility, same 
as modern Rdval or Raul. See Bhandarkar's List, No. 324. 

Cf. rdjakulan-kdni-pparru (SITI ), c land or village in the 
enjoyment of the members of the royal family'. The expres- 
sion occurs along with devaddna, brahmadeya, palliccandam, etc. 

Rdjakumdra (IE 8-3; LL; HD), same as Rdjaputra; desig- 
nation of a prince. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 5. 

Rdja-lipikara (IE 8-3; El 2; LL), king's scribe. 

rdja-mdna (IE 8-6; El 12, 23, 28; SII 11-1), royal 
measure; the standard measure fixed or accepted by the king 
or government; same as rdjakiya-mdna. 

rdja-mdngaliyaka (LP), auspicious occasions for the royal 

Rdj-dmdtya (El 26; Gil 3; HD), Prakrit Rdy-dmaca', the 
king's minister. See Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 91; CII, Vol. 
Ill, pp. 213, 216. 

(IE 8-3 ), sometimes used to indicate the ministers of the 
feudatory rulers; see Amdtya. 

Rdjamudr-ddhikdrin (BL), official designation indicating 
the keeper of the royal seal or a governor. Cf. Mudr-ddhikdrin, etc. 

Rdjan (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 30; CII 3, 4; HD), royal title; 
originally used by imperial rulers ; later, when emperors assumed 
more dignified titles, a title of feudatories and smaller rulers. 
Cf. Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., p. \2\;Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 297. 

Rdjanaka (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 23, 29), same as Rajdnaka, 
Rdjanyaka, Rdjdnika; a feudatory; in some cases, smaller than 
the feudatory called Rdjan. 

Rajdnaka (IE 8-2, 8-3; El 30; BL; HD ), same as Rdjanaka, 
Rdjanyaka, Rdjdnika or Kanaka ; title of feudatory rulers or of 
the nobility; often a feudatory smaller than a Rdjan. Cf. Raja- 
tarangini, VI. 117, 261 (title given for services to the king and 
surviving in the form Rdzddn as a family name of Kashmir Brah- 
manas); Ind. Ant., Vol. XV, pp. 304, 306. 

272 Rdjdnika raja 

Rdjdnika (El 1 ), same as Rdja?iaka, Rdjdnaka, etc. 

rdj-dnka (El 22), brand of royal animals. 

Rdjanya (ASLV; SITI ), officers of the king. 

(I A 22 ), same as Ksatriya. 

Rdjanyaka (IE 8-2; El 15, 23, 29; HD), same as Rdjanaka, 
Rdjdnaka, Rdjdnika or Rdnaka, title of subordinate rulers. Cf. 
Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 9. 

Rdja-pam (BL ), abbreviation of Raja-pandit a. 

Rdja-pandita (El 32), a court Pandit; a scholar patronised 
by the king. 

Rdja-parame$vara (El 4, 20 ), imperial title. Cf. Raja- 
raj aparamesvar a. 

rdja-pdtikd (El 1 ), royal procession. 

rdja-patta, cf. rdja-patti. 

rdja-patti (El 4; BL), royal fillet or tiara; status of a 
ruler or a feudatory indicated by turban. Same as rdja-patta. 

Rdjapurusa (IE 8-5), a royal agent or officer; same as 
Rdja-sevaka or Rdjakiya ; cf. also Rdja-satka. 

Rdja-putra (El 30; CII 3; 4; HD), originally c a prince'; 
title of princes and subordinate rulers; but later a title of nobi- 
lity especially in the modified forms Rdvata, Rduta, etc.; some- 
times also used in the sense of 'a Rajput 5 often explained as 'a 
horse-man 5 . Cf. Ep. Lid., Vol. XVII, p. 321. See Raja- 

Rdja-putraka (El 17), same as Rdja-putra', mentioned in 
the list of subordinates and officials addressed by the king in 
respect of a grant. 

rdja-pradeya (SII 3 ), taxes. 

rdjaprdsdda-caityaka (LL ), a small caitya in the royal palace. 

Rdjardja (IE 8-2; LL), imperial title; cf. Greek Basileos 

Rdjardja-paramesvara (El 4), imperial title. Cf. Rdjapara- 

rdj-drghikd (IE 8-8; El 30), name of a levy; probably, 
periodical offerings to the king or the king's share of a'ticles 
sold in the markets. 

Rajarfi (El 22), a sage-like king. 

Rzjasdmanta (El 25 ), a Raj an and a Samanta, or one feuda- 
tory enjoying both the designations. 

rdja-sambhoga (EL 12^, same as rdja-bhoga (q.v.); land 

Raja raj dvali 273 

belonging to the king's Khds Mahals (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 
46). Cf. ratnatraya-sambhoga. 

Raja-satka (IE 8-3; El 29), literally, 'one belonging to 
the king', i.e. 'a servant of the king'; same as Rdja-purusa or 

Rdja-sevaka (IE 8-5), same as Rdja-purusa, Rdjakiya or 

rdja-siddhdnta (El 24), science of polity; same as rdjanlti. 

rdja-srdvita (El 6; IA 19 ), a royal decree or proclamation. 

rdj-dsraya (IA 8), the capital; same as rdjadhdni. 

Rdja-sresthin (HD ), king's banker or the chief of the 
bankers. See Commentary on the Tasastilaka, I, p. 91. 

Rdjasthdna, same as Rdjasthdniya and Rdjasthdn-ddhikdra 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 292). 

Rdjasthdn-ddhikdra (IE 8-3), probably, the chief justice; 
cf. Rdjasthdniya (a viceroy), etc. 

Rdjasthdni, dialect of Hindi prevalent in Rajasthan. 

Rdjasthdniya (IE 8-3; El 24, 26, 30; CII 3, 4; BL; HD), 
'an officer acting for the king'; generally a viceroy; probably 
also a subordinate ruler; but cf. Rdjasthdn-ddhikdra who was 
also a judge; an official title indicating a viceroy in some areas 
and a judge in others; an officer who carried out the object 
of protecting subjects, according to some (Ind. Ant., Vol. V, 
p. 207). Cf. C//,Vol. Ill, p. 157; Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., p. 
112; Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 176 (probably, a chief justice ), 
explained wrongly as 'an officer connected with other kings, 
i.e. a foreign secretary' (Ind. Ant., Vol. XII, p. 122, note 76). 

Rdjasthdn-oparika (El 29), probably a viceroy; cf. Rdjas- 
thdniya and Uparika. See Rdjasthdn-ddhikdra and Rdjas- 

rdjasuya (El 4), name of a sacrifice. 

rdjasva (SITI ), property belonging to the king or state 
[by confiscation, etc.]. 

Rdjdtirdja (IE 8-2; El 21, 26, 30; ML), imperial title of 
certain foreign rulers; cf. Basileos Basileon Megalou. 

Rdja-vaidya (IE 8-3; LL), physician to the king; the royal 

rdj-dvali (El 9; IA 30), genealogy of rulers; a list of 
lineal succession of kings. 

(El 10), royal titles; cf. rdjdvali purvavat (IE 8-2), 'the 

274 Raja rajya 

royal titles as above', often used when a repetition of the string 
of royal titles was avoided. Cf. Paramabhattdrak-ety-ddi-rdj-dvali' 
tray-opeta referring to the imperial titles Paramabhattdraka, 
Mahdrdjddhirdja and Paramesvara. 

Rdja-vallabha (El 6, 9, 24; CII 4), explained as 'a court- 
favourite'; a courtier. 

rdjdvarta (SII 2; SITI), a kind of gem; lapis lazuli; same 
as vaidurya. 

rdja-vartman (El 22 ), a public road. 

Rdja-vesyd-bhujanga (SITI ), 'the lover of the courtesans 
of the [enemy] kings'; a title assumed by some kings after cap- 
turing the enemies' countries, probably describing rdjya-sri as 
a prostitute. 

rdja-vilasini, king's courtesan (Ep . Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 107 ). 

rdja-visqya(CII 1 ),a king's dominions. Cf. Rdjavisayddhyaksa. 

Rdjavisay-ddhyaksa, explained as c the royal superintendent 
of a district' (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XVIII, p. 234); but rdja-visqya 
in this case may be the king's Khds Mahals so that the designa- 
tion means 'the superintendent of the king's Khds Mahals.' 

raja-yoga (El 12), a particular auspicious moment. 

rajju (HRS ), used in the Arthasdstra probably in the sense 
of the cost realised by the government in connection with the 
expenses of land-measurement or survey. 

Rajjugrdhak-dmdtya (IE 8-3 ), same as Rajjuka (q.v. ). 

Rajjuka (IE 8-3; HD), Prakrit Rajuka or Lajuka (El 2); 
an officer of the land survey and revenue department, accord- 
ing to some; but seems to be the governor of a district, one of 
whose functions was probably the survey of land with a measur- 
ing rope for the fixation of the amount of the king's share of 
the produce; probably the same as Greek Agronomoi mentioned 
by Megasthenes. 

Rajju-pratihdra (El 24), 'rope-jugglers or dancers'; cf. 
rajju-pratihdr-dpana, 'booths of rope-jugglers and dancers'; but 
rajju-pratihdr-dpandjivika may be a tax for maintaining surveyors 
and gate-keepers (toll-collectors) and from shop-keepers. 

Rdjni (IE 8-2 ; El 26 ; CII 3 ; HD ), a queen ; a title of the 
wives of paramount sovereigns and subordinate rulers; cf. Mahd- 
rdjni, etc. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 305. 

rajo-harana (HA), same as ogho (q.v.). j 
*-'^" xdjya (IE 8-4; El J9), .: district : or: iprpvi_ce. of a kingdom; 

rajya Rand 275 

(SITI; ASLV), the biggest administrative unit of the Vijaya- 
nagara empire; same as pithika; also means Sovereignty'. 

rdjy-dbhiseka (IA 10), coronation. 

Rdjya-cintaka (El 1 1 ; BL ), a minister or the chief admi- 
nistrator; same as Rdjyacintdkdrin. 

Rdjyacintdkdrin (El 1 ), a minister or the chief adminis- 
trator; same as Rdjya-cintaka. 

Rdjy-ddhikrta (El 22, 23), chief minister; cf. Rdjyddhikdrin\ 
also cf. rdjya. 

rdkd-sasdnka (SII I ), same as rdkd-vita; the full-moon. 

rakata-patd (JBORS, Vol. XVIII, pp. 219-20), Odiya; 
Sanskrit rakta-pattaka, same as rakta-mdnya; also called sira- 
katd tambd-patd in Odiya. 

rdkd-vita (SII 1 ), same as rdkd-sasdnka; the full moon. 

raksd (El 17), confirmation of a former grant. 

raksd-bhoga (El 9 ), same as rdja-bhoga, the king's share. 

(6*777), a fee or a share in the produce given to the village 

raksd-mani (El 15), protecting jewel. 

raksana, cf. dosa-vinds-dvastabdhi-raksandya (LP), 'for keeping 
it safe from the three faults, viz. dosa, vindsa and avastabdhi'. 

raksamya (LP), 'to be [prepared and] maintained.' 

rakta-bindu (SII 2 ), a flaw in diamonds. 

rakta-mdnya, cf. Tamil iratta-mdnya, iratta-kkdnikkai (SITI); 
'blood-present' ; endowment of rent-free land for the support 
of the descendants of warriors killed in battle ; same as 
mrtyuka-vrtti. See rudhira, rakatapatd, vira-sesd, etc. See Lid. Arch. 
Rev., 1960-61, Section III, No. 42. 

rakta-pattaka, see rakata-patd. 

raktikd (IA 27), same as rail or gunjd (q.v. ); a unit of 
measurment; about 1'825 gr;,ins or -119 grammes in weight. 

rama (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'three'. 

rdma-nandana (El 7-1-2), 'two'. 

rdmdnuja-kuta (SITI), a rest house for Vaisnava tra- 

rangh (Gil 1 ), 'to be eager'. 

Rdna (El 16, 23), same as Rdnaka; see Rdna-putra y rdna-kula. 
Rand (IE 8-2; El 23, 30), derived from Rdnaka; title of 
ruling chiefs; same as Rdna^ Rdnaka, 
Cf. Ranna. 

276 Kanaka Rani 

Kanaka (IE 8-2; El 23, 30; CII 4; BL; HD), derived 
from Rdjanaka, Rdjanaka or Rdjanyaka', a feudatory title; title 
of feudatory rulers and, later, of the nobility. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XVII, p. 321. 

(El 9), explained as 'the chief counsellor 5 . 
(El 1 ), title of the great artist Sulapani described as 

Rdnaka-cakravartin (El 33), feudatory title; cf. Mahd- 

rdna-kula (LP ), same as rdja-kula (q.v. ). 
ranaranaka (LP), anxiety. 

rana-stambha (CII 3, 4), a victory-pillar; a column in 
memory of the victory in a battle; same as jaya-stambha. 

(BL), a memorial pillar raised for a person who died 
fighting for his master on the battle-field ; same as vira-kkal (q.v. ). 
Rdna-putra (BL), also called Rdna-utra; literally, 'the son 
of a subordinate king' ; a title of nobility. See Rdja-putra. 
Rdna-utra (BL), set Rdna-putra. 

randhra (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'nine'; used in the sense of 
'cypher' in a few late works. 

Randhrapiiraka (CITD), probably, a musician who played 
on some kind of wind instrument. 

ranga (E 1 15), abbreviation of ranga-bhoga. 
ranga-bhoga (El 17), amusement to be arranged for a 
deity and land granted for it; also called srngdra-bhoga (El 5). 
(CITD), enjoyment of splendour other than anga-bhoga 
or personal decoration; gift land received for ranga-bhoga. See 

ranga-lekha (LP), 'coloured letter'; probably refers to the 
custom of sprinkling saffron water on the letters addressed to a 

ranga-mandapa (SITI), inner hall of a temple; same as 
Tamil tiruv-arangu. 

(HA), same as sabhd-mandapa; main hall in a shrine. 
(El 9 ), hall in front of a shrine. 

rang-dnga-bhoga (El 3), same as anga-r anga-bhoga (i. e. 
ranga-bhoga and anga-bhoga), etc. 
rangat (El 12), 'rolling'. 

Rani (El 23, 33 ), feminine from of Rana or Rand (i. e. 
Kanaka)-, designation of a queen. 

RanndRdstrapdla 277 

Raima, name of the Sun-god's wife in West Indian my- 
thology; probably a modification of Rdjm. See Ep. Ind. } Vol. 
XXXII, p. 343. The name is also spelt Rama or Rand. 

Rannesa, a name of the Sun-god; cf. Rannd. See Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXXII, p. 343. The name of the Sun-god worshipped at 
Thanwala near Pushkar was Rannaditya (also spelt Rannaditya 
and Rdndditya). 

rdsi (LA 17), a sign of the zodiac. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'twelve'. 

Cf. rdsi-ppon (SITI), also called rdsi-panam', explained as 
'pure gold'; probably, 'current good coin.' 

Rdsi-mitra (El 32 ), a friend of one, because of the birth 
of both under the same rdsi. 

rdsi-pana, also called rdsi-ppon (SITI); probably 'current 
good coins'. 

rasmi (IE 7-1-2), probably confused with sita-rafmi and 
used to indicate 'one'. 

rdstra (IE 8-3, 8-4; El 9, 23; CII 4; LL), a district or 
its subdivision; often the subdivision of a district; cf. Sdtavdha- 
niya-rdstraialso Kona-rds tra (El 32 ), variously called desa, mandala, 
sima, sthala, etc. 

Rdstra-grdma-kuta (El 28), i.e. Rdstrakuta and Grdmakuta; 
cf. Rdstra-grdma-mahattara. 

Rdstra-grdma-mahattara (IE 8-3 ; El 6, 28 ), i.e. Rdstra- 
mahattara and Grdma-mahattara\ cf. Rdstra-grdma-kuta. 

Rdstrakuta (El 8-3 ), same as Rdstra-mahattara; either the 
officer in charge of a territorial unit called rdstra or, more pro- 
bably, a member of the administrative council of a rdstra:, cf. 
Grdma-kuta-, also DeSakuta (IA 7 ). 

(El 9 ), interpreted as 'the headman of a village'. 

(El 24 ), according to some, a land-holder. 

(C//4; HD ), interpreted as 'the head of a district or sub- 
division'; cf. JBBRAS, Vol. XVI, p. 117. 

Rdstra-mahattara (IE 8-3), same as Rdstrakuta; either the 
head of a territorial unit called rdstra or, more probably, a 
member of the administrative council of a rdstra. 

Rdstramahattar-ddhikdrin (El 25), official designation; 
probably, Rdstramahattara and Adhikdrin. 

Rdstrapdla (HD ), head of a district, province or subdivi- 
sion; same as Rdffrapati. See Arthasdstra, V. 1. 

278 Rastrapalaka ratna 

Rastrapalaka (El 28), ruler of an administrative unit called 
rdstra', same as Rdstrapati. 

Rdstrapati (El 12, 25; HD), ruler of a province, district 
or subdivision called rdstra; same as Rdstrapdla. Cf. Ep. Ind., 
Vol. IV, pp. 278, 285; Vol. VII, p. 39. 

rdstra-visaya (IE 8-4), originally, a rdstra, but later a 
visqya; cf. Karma-rdstra-visaya. 

Rdstrika (IE 8-3; CII 1 ; HD; LL), Prakrit Rathika (El 2 ), 
Ratthika (El 7); same asRastrin; ruler of a rdstra, i.e. a district 
or its subdivision; also the name of a people called 'hereditary 
Rdstrikas\ Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 5; Bhandarkar, Asoka, p. 30. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 78), mentioned in the list of 
officials addressed by the king in respect of a grant. 

Rdstrin (El 7), ruler of a rdstra; same as Rdstrika. Cf. 
Rdstrapati, Mahdrdstrin, etc. 

Rdstriya (IE 8-3; LL; HD), same as Rdstrika, ruler of a 
district or province; a provincial governor. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. 
VIII, p. 43; Panini, IV. 2. 93; Mahdbhdrata, Santi-parvan, 85.12. 

Rdstriya (IE 8-3), same as Rdstriya', a provincial governor. 

Rdta (BL ), modification of or mistake for Rdvata or Rduta. 

ratha, rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram (Journ. Mad. 
Univ., Vol. XXXII, p. 140). 

Rath-ddhyaksa (El 18), superintendent of chariots. 

Rathakdra (SITI ), artisan classes; also their association. 

ratha-saptami (El 22; CII 4; IA 17), an auspicious tithi; 
same as Magha su-di 7. 

rath-dstamiEI29; CII 4; IA 17), same as Magha su-di 8. 

ratha-ydtrd (El 11), a festival. 

Rathika, superintendent of chariots (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XVIII, p. 156). 

rath-otsava (El 16), car-festival. 

rathyd (El 19), a street. 

rail, rail (IE 8-8; IA 19), also spelt ratti; a small weight; 
see Sanskrit raktikd. 

rati (LP), 'a cry'; cf. Gujarat! rad. 

ratna (IE 7-1-2), 'five'; sometimes also used to indicate 
'nine', and rarely even 'fourteen'. 

(El 22; CII 4), same as the Buddhist tri-ratna, i.e. the 
Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. 

(ML), a relic [of the Buddha] . 

ratna Rdva 279 

ralna-dhenu (El 13, 16, 24), name of a mahdddna. 
ratna-grha (CII 3), 'the jewel-house'; the house enshrining 
the three ratrias, regarded by some as denoting a great Buddhist 

(El 19; LL), Buddhist; a sanctuary; the sanctuary of 
a Buddha image. 

ratn-dsva (El 24), name of a mahdddna. 
ratna-traya (El 8), Jain; samyag-darsana, samyag-jndna and 

(El 27, 30, 31), Buddhist; the tri-ratna or trinity; a 
Buddhist religious establishment enshrining the three ratnas\ 
rent-free land in its possession (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 46 ). 
Cf. ratnatraya-sambhoga. 

ratnatraya-sambhoga^ (HRS), traced in Bengal records; rent- 
free holding in the possession of Buddhist religious establishments 
where the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha were worshipped; 
same as ratna-traya. Cf. rdja-sambhoga. 

Rattagudi (El 30), same as Rattodi; official designation; 
probably the same asR dstrakuta. 

Rattagullu (El 27), probably, the same as Rdstrakuta. 
ratti, see rail. 

Ratio di (El 30), official designation; same as Rattagudi. 
Rdu (IA 18), same as Rdva (Sanskrit Rdjan) or abbrevia- 
tion of Rduta (q.v. ). 

raukya-dra (LP), abbreviation of raukya-dramma; 'drammas 
in cash'; cf. raukya with Gujarat! rokadd. 

Rdula (El 24, 28), derived from* Sanskrit Rdjakula; title of 
nobility; same as Rdvata, etc. 

raupya-tanka, 'silver tanka (q.v.)'. See JNSI, Vol. XXII, 
p. 197. According to Narada, a silver kdr^apana was called 
raupya in South India. 

Rduta (IE 8-2; El 4, 28, 30, 31; CII 4; BL), same as 
Rdvata = Sanskrit Rdjaputra; a title of feudatory rulers and 

(I A 20 ), also called Rdhutta; explained as c a horseman'. 
Rdutta (IE 8-2; El 5, 30, 32), same as Rduta or Rdvata = 
Sanskrit Rdjaputr a', a title of feudatories and noblemen. See Rduta. 
Rdva (IE 8-2; BL), spelt in English as Rao; title of subor- 
dinate rulers and noblemen; derived from Sanskrit Rdjan; cf. 

2&0 rava rekha 

rdva (LP), a complaint. 

Rdval (BL), title of subordinate rulers and noblemen; 
derived from Sanskrit Rdjakula. 

Rdvala (El 24; BL), same as Rdval', derived from Sanskrit 
Rdjakula; title of subordinate rulers and noblemen. 

rdvana-bhuja (IE 7-1-2), 'twenty'. 

rdvana-hasta (ASLV ), a musical instrument; may also indi- 
cate 'twenty' (cf. rdvana-bhuja). 

rdvana-siras (IE 7-1-2), 'ten'. 

Rdvat (El 32 ), a title of subordinate rulers and noblemen; 
same as Rdjaputra, Rduta, etc. See Rdvata. 

Rdvata (IE 8-2; BL), same as Rdvat; derived from Sanskrit 
Rdjaputra; a title of feudatories and noblemen. 

ravi (IE 7-1-2), 'twelve'. 

ravi-bdna (IE 7-1-2), 'one thousand'. 

ravi-candra (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

Rdvutu (El 21), same as Rduta, Rdvata, etc. ; derived 
from Sanskrit Rdjaputra; a title of feudatories and 

Rdwa (El 30), variant spelling of Rdva; derived from 
Sanskrit Rdjan; title of nobility, 

Raya (IE 8-2; BL), title of nobility; derived from Sans- 
krit Rdjan ; cf. Rdva. 

Rdya-rduta (El 31 ), title of nobility; derived from Sanskrit 

Ray ar ay a (El 21 ), title of nobility; derived from Sanskrit 

rdya-rekha (IA 15 ), a system of land measurement. 

Rdyasa (El 3, 17; ASLV), Kannada; a secretary; an 
officer in the Vijayanagara administration. 

rayasa (ASLV), royal order. 

(SITI), office of a writer; clerkship; order of the king; 
written orders. Cf. Rdyasa-svdmin, head of the rayasa. 

Rdyasa-svdmin (ASLV), 'the head of the rayasa' (SITI); 
the chief secretary. 

rddhi (El 3 ), supernatural power. 

rddhi-pdda, cf. iddhi-pdda (El 5 ), Buddhist; four in number. 

Reddi (ASLV ), a village official. 

rekha (El 19), a land measure. 

Cf. rekai, rekai-ppon (SITI), irekai; regarded as the name 

rekhaRudra 281 

of a gold coin (probably bearing signs in straight lines ) ; used 
in Vijayanagara inscriptions; probably, revenue income in cash. 

rekhd-danda (El 14), name of a linear measure. 

resa (IE 8-8), meaning uncertain. 

rintakdvaddi (El 33), name of a levy; cf. antardbaddi or 

ripu (IE 7- 1-2),' six'. 

rsi-pancami (El 23), same as Bhadrapada su-di 5. 

'Ritikdra (El 32 ), a brazier. 

rocayitavya (CII 1 ), 'should be liked 5 . 

rocika (IE 8-5 ), a tax or obligation of uncertain 

rohana (SITI ), function performed at the commence- 
ment of a festival. 

rohi (IA 11), Panjabi; uplands. 

roka (Chamba), cash. See ruka under ru. 

rsi (IE 7- 1-2), 'seven'. 

rt* (El 7-1-2), 'six'. 

ru (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation ofriipaka or rupyaka. 

(C/77)), abbreviation of Telugu ruka meaning 'cash' 
and probably derived from Sanskrit rupaka. 

rudhabhdrodi (HRS), system of forced carriage of loads as 
indicated by the Rdjaiararigini. Cf. pray ana- dan da. 

rudhira, cf. Tamil udira-patti (SITI ), literally, 'blood-land ;' 
land given to the descendants of a person who fell fighting 
on the king's behalf; see also rakta-mdnya, mrtyuka-vrtti, rakta- 
pattaka and vira-sefd. 

Rudra (SITI ), a Saiva devotee. 

rudra (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

rudraddmaka, 'silver coin (kdrsdpana) issued by Rudra- 
daman' ; name of the silver coins issued by the aka rulers of 
Western India (JNSI, Vol. XIII, pp. 1 7 ff. ). 

Rudra-gana (SITI ), devotees of Siva, their managing com- 
mittee looking after the affairs of a Siva temple and being 
known as Rudragana-pperumakkal. 

Rudra-ganikd (SITI ), a dancing woman attached to a Siva 
temple; a devaddsl serving in a Siva temple. 

Rudra-mdhesvara (SITI ; ASLV ), the two classes of Saiva 
devotees, known as the Rudras and Mdhesvaras; designation of 
the authorities of a Saiva temple. 

282 RudraSa 

Rudra-putra (El 33 ), epithet of one devoted to the god 
iva. See Durgd-putra, Purusottama-putra. 

rudr-asya (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

Run da, cf. Mahdrundd. 

rundra (IA 6, 10), cf. guna-rundra, an epithet of Jinendra; 
also cf. Himavad-girindra-rundra-sikhara. 

rupa (HRS ), according to the Arthasdstra, (1 ) a subsidiary 
charge in excess of the prescribed fines; (2) a charge upon 
mines and upon imported salt. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., pp. 
94, 106. 

(/E8-8; El 20, 21), currency or coins; name of a 
silver coin; same as rupya 0? rupaka. 

(El 1 ), an animal. 

(CH 1 ), a representation. 

Rupa-daksa, cf. Prakrit lupa-dakha (El 22), a painter or 
sculptor. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXII, p. 30. 

(LL), explained by some as 'a copyist 5 . 

Rupa-darsaka (El 20, 21 ; HD ), an examiner of coins. See 
Arthasdstra, II. 5. Cf. Parikh. 

rupaka (IE 8-8; El 30; CI I 4), name of a coin of silver; cf. 
krsnardja-rupaka (El 25; CII 4), a silver coin issued by the 
Kalacuri king Krsnaraja; silver coin * of the value of a gold 
dindra in the Gupta age (JNSI, Vol. II, p. 5); same as dramrna. 

Rupakdra (El 8; BL), a sculptor; epithet of a sculptor. 
See R upakdraka, R upakdrin. 

Rupakdraka (LL), a sculptor; same as Rupakdra, R upakdrin. 

R upakdrin (El 5 ), a sculptor ; same as R upakdra, R upakdraka. 

rupa-karman (LL), carving. 

rupee, Anglicised form of rupia (q.v. ); derived from Sans- 
krit rupydka. See JNSI, Vol. XV, p. 142. 

rupia (IE 8-8), same as rupya or rupyaka. 

rupika (HRS), tax on the sale of salt; one of the sources 
of revenue specified in the Arthasdstra. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. 
Syst., pp. 25, 92, 106. 

rupyaka (IE 8-8), same as rupaka, rupia, rupee. 


sa (IE 8-1 ), also written as sarh', abbreviation of samvatsara. 
Sd (El 32 ), abbreviation of Sddhanika ( q. v.) . 

sabda sadhana 


(PJS), abbreviation of Sdhu or Sddkti, designation of a 
member of the mercantile community often used in medieval 

Sabda, same as mahd-sabda', cf. panca-sabda (BL). 

sdbdika (BL), a grammarian. 

sabhd (SII2;SITI; ASLV), sameasmahasabha; the body 
of the Mahajanas; the assembly of a Brahmana village of the 
Tamil-speaking area, such an assembly of a non-Brahmana 
village being called ur; local assembly of a Brahmana village; 
same as Tamil kuri. 

(El 22 ), the Buddhist sangha. 

sabhd-madhyama (SITI), the village common or waste 
land in the village belonging to the sabhd] also called sabhai- 
ppodu, ur-ppodu, ur-manjikkam, sabhd-manjikkam, etc., in Tamil. 

sabhd-mandapa (HA), same as ranga-mandapa. 

sabhd-viniyoga (SITI ), individual share payable to make 
up the expenses of the sabhd. 

Sabrahmacdrin (CII 3 ), a religious student of a group that 
follows the same Sakha. 

sdcitta (LP), probably, 'land attached to government ser- 
vants as long as they serve'. 

Saciva (El 33; BL; HD), minister or counsellor. See 
Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, p. 105, note 150. 

sdda (El 28), name of a tax. 

sadaka, cf. upari-sadaka, explained as 'the upper region' 
(Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XXXI. p. 234). 

sadd-sevd, cf. Tamil sadd-servai, sadd-sevai (SII 1; SITI); 
constant service; permanent service. 

sadasiti (IA 19), same as mithuna-rdsi (Gemini). 

sad-dyatana, cf. Prakrit sad-ayadana (Gil 2-1 ), the six organs, 

sad-bhdga, cf. dharma-sad-bhdga (Set. Ins., p. 348, text line 
16), one-sixth of the merit for a pious work done by the subjects, 
which goes to the king. See ibid., p. 344, text line 3. 

Sddhdcdrya (IA 12), assistant to the officiating priest at 
the Ramesvaram temple; also called Adhyayana-bhatta. 

sadhana (IE 8-3; El 24; LP), an army, cf. sadhana- sahasra- 
aikam, an army consisting of one thousand men. 
(El 15 ), an army, or money. 

(SII 12), cf. mula-sddhana, the original deed; also called 
mula-olai'm Tamil. 

284 Sddhanika Saham 

Sddhanika (CII 4), a general; same as Sdhani, etc. 
Sddhanin (El 23 ), explained as a 'a councillor'; but really, 
the same as Sddhanika (q.v.) . 

sddhdra (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 177), either a mistake 
for sddhdrana, 'common', or means 'together with the adjacent 

sddhdrana (IA 20), used in the sense of laukika. 
sadharmi-vdtsalya (HA ), attachment to or service of the 
followers of one's own faith. 

sadhryagvihdrin (LL ), doubtful Sanskritisation of Pali 
saddhi-vihdrin (Sanskrit sdrdhamvihdrin under the influence of 
sddhya), companion of a Buddhist monk. Cf. Jain 
Sdrdhamcara, Sdrdhamcarl ( LL) . 

Sadhu (El 9 ), a priest. 

(HA ), a Jain monk. 

(LP; HA) , same as Sdhu, a merchant. 

(CII 1 ), an adjective meaning 'good'. 

Sddhvi (JHA ), a Jain nun. 

sddhya(lE 8-5 ;EI 15;SITI),a type of income; income from 
land that may be brought under cultivation in future; one of 
the eight kinds of enjoyment of property. See asta-bhoga, siddha. 

Sddhyapdla (HD), a bailiff who summoned parties and 
witnesses. See Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, p. 278. 

sddyaskra (El 22; CII 3; etc.), name of a sacrifice. 

sagara (IE 7-1-2), confused with sdgara and rarely used 
to indicate 'seven'. 

sdgara (IE 7-1-2), 'four'; used in the sense of 'seven' by 
some late writers (IA 19). 

Sagotra (CII 3, etc. ), belonging to the lineage of the person 
from whom the gotra name is derived. 

Sahadesa (IA 17), also called Sahadefin, 'belonging to the 
same country*. 

sahagamana (ASLV), self-immolation of a widow on the 
funeral pyre of her husband ; same as sail. 

Sahaja-kavi (Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p. 231, note 1), epithet 
of a poet. 

Sdhani (IE 8-3), also called Sdhini, etc. ; derived from 
Sanskrit Sddhanika ; cf. Gaja-sdhini, etc. 

(El 15), see Patta-sdhani, Peyiya-sdhani, Maleya-sdhani. 

Sdhdni (El 33 ), same as Sddhanika^ Sdhani, etc. 

Sdhania saibara 285 

Sdhania (IE 8-3 ), Prakrit form of Sddhanika from sddhana 
or army; cf. the modern family name Sdhni. Same as 
Sdhaniya, etc. 

sdhanikdti (SI I 11-1), supposed to be the name of a coin. 

Sdhaniya (El 11), Prakrit form of Sddhanika', same as 
Sdhania ', etc. 

Sdhdnusdhi (IE 8-2; El 19, 22, 30), title of the Kusana 
kings, derived from Old Persian Kshdyathiydndm Kshdyathiya', 
same as modern PersianShdhan Shdh. 

sahar, Persian shahr, a town (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, pp. 

sdhasa (CII 4), a violent crime. 

Sdhasddhipati (HD), a judicial or police officer. See !ukra, 
I. 120. 

sdhasamalldnka (BL ), epithet of a year of the Kalacuri 
era probably through confusion, as normally the expression 
would mean the Vikrama era. 

sahasr-dmsu (IE 7-1-2), 'twelve'. 

sahasr-dyatana (El 29 ), epithet of a temple; literally, 'having 
one thousand rooms or shrines'. 

Sdhi, Sdhi (IE 8-2; El 30; LL), same as Persian Shdh, 
Old Persian Kshdyathiya ; royal title used by some Indian rulers 
of foreign origin. 

Sdhijddd (BL ), title of a prince; same as Persian Shdhzddah. 
See Sdhiyddd. 

sahi-kari (Chamba), 'having approved; having got ap- 
proved; having put the signature on'. 

sdhilya (IA 23 ), same as bhdnddra. 

Sdhini (IE 8-3; El 32 ), same as Sanskrit Sddhanika (q.v. ), 
interpreted as 'the master of the royal stables' (BL ). 

sdhiti-vidyd (El 13), same as sdhitya, literature. 

sdhitya, cf. sdhiti-vidyd. 

Sdhiyddd (BL), title of a prince; same as Persian Shdhzddah. 
See Sdhijddd. 

Sdhni (IE 8-3 ), modern family name derived from Sans- 
krit Sddhanika = Prakrit Sdhania, Sdhani. 

sahodara (IE 7-1-2 ), 'three' possibly referring to Kunti's sons. 

Sdhu (LP), same as Sanskrit Sddhu; a merchant. 

saibara, cf. sa-saibaram (El 17); a levy in kind according 
to some; but see saivara. 

286 saikd sakarukara 

sa'ikd (El 28), Sanskrit satikd; a levy per one hundred 
articles; one payable in a hundred articles. 
saila (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'seven'. 
saila-devagrha (El 24 ), a stone temple. 
saila-grha (LL), a cave. 
Saila-karman (LL), stone-work. 
Saildlaka (El 1 ; LL ), same as Sildlin, an actor. 
Saila-rupakarman (LL), stone-carving. 
Saila-vardhakin (LL), cf. Prakrit Sela-vadhdki (El 20); a 
stone mason. 

Sainika-satigha-mukhya (El 22), official designation; pro- 
bably, a general. 

sainya (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 71 ), probably, an adminis- 
trative unit. 

Sainy-ddhikdrin (IE 8-3 ), same as Sendpati, etc. 
Sainyapati (IE 8-3 ), same as Sendpati, etc. 
Saiv-dcdrya (CII 4), an ascetic of the Saiva sect. 
saivdcdrya-k$etra (SITI ), tax-free land endowed to a Saw- 
deary a. 

saiva-diksd (El 32), initiation into the Saiva faith. 
saivafa, a revenue term ; cf. saibara ; a levy in kind accord- 
ing to Ghoshal (H.Rev. Syst., p. 220); but probably the same as 
Marat hi Sen, * arable land originally excluded from the village 
assessment' (Wilson's Glossary ) ; may also be a tax on farm- 
houses (cf. sibara). 

Saka(A 24), originally, the Scythians; later any foreigners 
including Muhammadans; used to indicate the Musalmans 
(Ep. hid., Vol. XII, p. 44; Bhandarkar's List, No. 926). 

saka, sdka (IA 9, 19), used in the sense of 'a year' or 'an 
era'; cf. Vikrama-saka (I A 18). 

Sdka, cf. a-haritaka-sdka-puspa-grahana (El 8-5 ) ; vegetables 
which the villagers were obliged to supply to the king or land- 
lord on occasions or to the touring officers. Cf. sdka- s oka 

sdkd(lA 29), Rajasthani; same as jauhar or javhar. 
sdkambhari-vidyd (El 29; CII 4), name of a science, the 
nature of which is uncertain. 

Sakdnikd (CII 4), a aka woman. Cf. anikd. 
sdka-panikd, cf. sdka-panikd-nydyena (LP ), 'like vegetables in 
a market'. 

inscription probably for 

sdkhdSdlaxl 287 

Sanskrit sa-kar-otkara meaning the same thing as s-odranga- 
s-oparikara, 'with the udranga (kara ) and uparikara (utkara ) 
taxes'; may also be sa-kdrukara. See kdru-kara. 

Sakha (CII 3, 4; IA 18, 19), literally, <a branch'; a Vcdic 
school following any particular recension of the Vcdas. 

(LL ), a section of the Jain community. 

Sakra (IE 7- 1-2), 'fourteen'. 

sakra-dhvaja, cf. indra-danda. 

Sakra-yajna (IE 7-1-2), 'one hundred'. 
, sakr-otthdna (El 32 ), a festival, same as sakradhvaj- 
otthdna. Cf. sakra-dhvaja, indra-danda. 

Sdkfin (El 3, 23; SITI), a witness; an eye-witness. 

sa-ksm-drambha (CII 1 ), gentle in action. 

sakta (LP), written for satka, 'belonging to'. 

Sakti (El 1 7 ), name of the wife of Kamadeva. 

sakli (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'three'; three in number (El 6). 

sakti-mukha, (SITI ), cf. satti-mugam; king's order; probably 
the same as srimukha. 

sakti-traya (SII 1 ), the three [regal] powers. 

Sdkya (CII 1 ), a Buddhist; see Sdkya-bhiksu. 

Sdkya-bhiksu (BL; LL ), epithet of a Buddhist monk; same 
as Sdkya. 

Sdky-opdsikd (LL), a female member of the Buddhist laity. 

said (El 4; SI I 1), a hall. 

(74; SITI), a school; same as pdtha-sdld. 

(67/3), cf. falai (El 7; SITI), an alms-house; a feeding 
house; cf. sdld-bhoga. 

Cf. sdlai (El 24), a hospital; cf. drogya-sdld, dtura-sdld. 

sdld-bhoga (SII 2; SII), same as Tamil arac-cdld-bhogam; 
land granted in favour of a feeding house (sattra-sdld). (El 23 ), 
mentioned along with devaddna and brahmadeya; a rent-free hold- 
ing in the possession of a said meaning an almshouse or a school. 

saldkd, cf. saldgai (SITI ), name of a coin also called palan- 
saldgai (cccu ) and sriyakki-palansaldgai. 

Sdldsthdna-mukhya (El 32 ), probably, officer in charge of 
the stables. 

Saldta (PJS), Gujarat!; also called Saldvata\ a stone- 
cutter or mason. 

Sdlavi (LP), Gujarat! ; a weaver. 
) Gujarat!; a carpenter. 

288 Sal ma samaja 

Sdlma (Gil 4), a kind of householder. 

salila-purvaka (IA 9} , same as udaka-purvam, etc. 

sallekhana (El 3, 6; SITI ), Jain; a religious practice of 
the Jains; starving oneself to death; starving oneself to death 
in fulfilment of a vow ; same as samddhi. 

Sa-lohita (Ep. Lid., Vol. XIV, p. 295), 'one having the 
same blood' ; a relation. 

salya-traya (SII 1 ), the three thorns. 

sam (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of sambaddha, 'attached to', 
'belonging to,' etc.; possibly also samsakta, 'relating to' (JAS, 
Letters, Vol. XX, p. 204). 

(CII 3, 4 ), abbreviation of the word samvatsara, a year, 
or of its declensional cases that can be used in expressing a date. 

Sam (PJS), also written Samgha; contraction of Sarhghavl 
or Samgha fati in medieval Jain inscriptions; same as the modern 
Jain family name Singhi. 

sam (IE 8-1; LP), abbreviation of sdmvatsarika, annual. 
See sdm-hi. 

sam (ML ) ' to prevent'. 

sama, cf. sam-dlindakam (LP), 'with a terrace in front 
of the door.' 

samdcarya (CII 1 ), impartiality. 

samddhi (Gil 4), poetic quality of a composition. 

("733 ), explained as a 'granary'; probably 'an agreement'. 

Cf. sallekh.ind. 

Samadhigata-panca-mahdsabda (IE 8-2; Gil 3), a customary 
epithet of feudatory rulers, indicating that they were entitled 
to the privilege of the panca-mahdsabda (five kinds of musical 
instruments ), or of using five official titles beginning with the 
word mahd. There are a few instances in which the epithet 
is applied to paramount sovereigns in South India. The title 
is sometimes stated to have been conferred on a feudatory by 
his overlord. See mahdsabda, etc. 

Samahartr (El 27; HD; HRS), official designation; ex- 
plained as 'the collector-general'; officer in charge of the collec- 
tion of various branches of revenue ; compared by Ghoshal with 
the Qanungo of Mughal times (H. Rev. Syst., p. 52). See Artha- 
Sdstra, I. 12; II. 6; Sahara on Jaimini, XII. 1. 28; Ep. Ind., 
Vol. VIII, p. 141; Vol. XI, p. 94. 

samdja (El 20; CII 1 ), a fair; a festival; a festive gather- 

Samdjnapti samardpaniya 


ing on a particular occasion or for the celebration of an event. 

Samdjnapti (El 27 ), same as Ajnapti (q.v. ). 

sdmaka (LP), 'collectively'; cf. Gujarat! sdmturh 

samakara-grdma (LP ), a village for which a permanent 
revenue is fixed at a particular rate, not to be increased in future. 

samakara-kula (LP), family on which rent is fixed once 
for all; farmers that have to pay revenue at a particular rate. 

samdkrdnta (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 20), used in some 
Orissan records probably in the sense of 'endowed with boun- 

samam (LP), 'in the same way as'. 

samanjasa (SITI ), conformity; resemblance. 

Samanjita (SITI ), accountant of a village or a village 

samanta (IE 8-1 ), corrupt form of sarhvat. 

Sdmanta (IE 8-2; 8-3; El 30; CII 3, 4; BL; HD), title 
of feudatory rulers ; a feudatory smaller than the Rdjan ; a sub- 
ordinate chief; also explained as 'a minister' (SITI). See 
Bomb. Gaz., Vol. XXI, p. 354; Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 297. Gf. 

Sdmanta (CII 1), a neighbour; 'one who is in possession 
of a piece of land in the neighbourhood of the gift land' (Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 220). 

samantabhadra (Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill, p. 199), prosperous 
on all sides. 

Sdmant-ddhikdrin (ASLV), see Sdmanta and Adhikdrin. 

Sdmant-ddhipati (El 16), cf. Mahdsdmant-ddhipati. 

Sdmanta-padird (El 32), Odiya; Sanskrit Sdmanta-pratirdja; 
title of a feudatory or nobleman. 

sdmantika, derived from Sdmanta', chiefship (A.R.Ep., 
1958-59, p. 12). 

samanthu (IE 8-1 ), corrupt form of sarhvat. 

sdmdnya, cf. traividya-sdmdnya (El 23), cdturvedya-sdmdnya', 
'belonging to' ; Valabhi-cdturvidya-sdmdnya, 'one of the Catur- 
vedins of Valabhi' ; used also in the sense of vdstavya, 'resident 
of...' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, pp. 172, 176). 

samdracana, repairs (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 144). 

samdrana Prakrit used in Sanskrit for samdracana ( Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXXV, p. 59) . 

samardpaniya (LP ), to be got repaired ; cf. Gujarat! samra* 

290 samarapya samaye 

vavum\ see samarcdpamya, samaracana. 

samarapya (LP), 'should be repaired'; cf. Gujarat! samrd- 
vatrurhj also samaracana. 

samarcdpana (LP), repairing; cf. samarcdpaniya (LP), 'to be 
got repaired' ; cf. samardpantya; also samaracana. 

samasta (IE 8-1), corrupt form of samvat especially in 
medieval Orissan records. 

Samasta-mahdsdmant-ddhipati (BL ), title of a feudatory ruler 
of the highest rank. See Mahdsdmant-ddhipati. 

Samasta-sen-ddhipati (El 29, 30), 'leader of all the forces'; 
commander-in-chief. See Sen-ddhipati, Sendpati, Maneya- 
samasta-sainy-ddhipati, etc. 

samasta-suprasasty-upeta (IE 8-2 ), a royal epithet. 

samasty-ety-ddi (IE 8-2 ), shortened form of samasta-supra- 

samasyd-purana (CII 4), completion of incomplete verses. 

samat (IE 8-1 ), corrupt form of samvat. 

samata (IE 8-1 ), corrupt form of samvat. 

samatd (CII 1 ), impartiality. 

samatta (IE 8-1 ), corrupt form of samvat. 

sdma-vdda, cf. Prakrit sama-vdyo (CII 1 ), found in a rock 
edict of Asoka; 'restrained speech'; same as samyama (i.e. 
vdk-samyama) found in one version; generally sama-vdyo is 
taken as samavdya or concord. 

Sdmavdjika (Ep. Ind., Vol. VI, p. 135, note 6), probably, 
an officer ; cf. Sdmavdyika, Sdmavdjin, Sdmmavdjin. 

Sdmavdjin (El 6 ),probably,an officer ;cf. Sdmmavdjin,Sdmavdjika. 

samavasarana (HA), congregation-hall believed to be 
built by celestials when a Tirthankara delivered his sermon. 

Sdmavdyika (Ep. Ind. t Vol. VI, p. 135, note 6), probably, 
an officer; cf. Sdmavdjika. 

samaveta (IE 8-3), 'associated'; generally explained as 
'assembled'; but see samupdgata, upeta, upaydta, etc. 

samaya (El 10), a religious system. 

(CITD), Telugu-Kannada; a sect; an assemblage, a 
company or congregation; established moral or ceremonial 
custom; cf. samaiyam (El 24), a creed. 

Cf. samaye (El 19), used instead ofvarse in the dates after 

(6777), a religious mendicant ^Samay-mudali, religious head, 

samaya sammukha 


samay-dcdra (SITI ), religious usage ;established custom; super- 
vision of the religious and social life of the people; censoring of 
public morals; also a class of officials called Samaydcdrya or Ddsari' 

Samaydcdrya (ASLV). also called Samayacdra\ same as 
Ddsari; a censor of morals; a class of officials. 

samaya-dharma (SITI ), law of the samaya or agreement. 
The expression is generally used in relation to the organisation 
of merchants and agriculturists known respectively as Ndnadesin 
and Citrameli. 

samaya-patra (SII 1; SITI; LP), an agreement; a docu- 
ment containing an agreement ; a deed of agreement; 

sdmdyika (HA), remaining steadfast in worship or medi- 
tation (at least for 48 minutes), with the mind drawn away 
from attachments or ill will and abstaining from committ- 
ing sins, which is the daily duty of a Jain 

sambaddha (IA 15), 'belonging to' or 'connected with'. 

Cf. Devadro^i-sambaddha (IE 8-3), probably, superin- 
tendent of a temple property. 

sambadhand (LP), strong opposition. 

sambala (LP), provisions. 

sarhbhdla (LP), care, protection; cf. Gujarat! sarhbal. 

sambhdra (ML), provision. 

sambhoga y cf. rdja-sambhoga, ratnatraya-sambhogaisame as bhoga. 

Sambhoga (LL ), a section of the Jain community. 

sambodhita (LP), advised. 

sambuddha (LP ), one who is no longer a minor. 

samgrahana, adultery (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXV, p. 237). 

samhaldtamaka, cf. samhaldtamaka-samanvita (El 9 ), mean- 
ing uncertain; may be a name. 

sdm-hij abbreviation of sdmvatsarika-hiranya y 'annual re- 
venue income in cash' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 55). 

samipa (CII 1 ), a neighbour. 

samiti (El 4), five in number. 

saihkdcitaka (El 30 ), cf. pottalikd-samkdcitak-addna, 'tax on 
bundles suspended from loops at both ends of a pole 5 . 

sarnmat (IE 8-1 ), corrupt form of sarhvat. 

sammat (ASLV), same as samuta; an administrative unit. 

Sdmmavdjin (El 33), same as Sdmavdjin, Sdmivdjika. 

sammukha-vdra> probably, Sunday (Ep.Ind., Vol. XXXV, 
p. 115). 

292 sarhvat samuta 

sarhmvat (El 8-1), corrupt form of sarhvat. 
samprdpti, cf. sampirdtti (SITI ) 'that which has been ob- 
tained'; 'an acquisition'. 

Samprati (SITI), senior accountant; the manager 
of a temple. 

sampratipatti (CII 1 ), proper behaviour. 
Samrdt (El 19, 22; CII 3,4), imperial title; a paramount 

samsarana (CII 1 ), a house or road. 
sdmsayika (CII 1 ), 'of doubtful value'. 
Samskrta, see Sanskrit. 

samstava (CII1 ), cf. dharm a- samstava, 'acquaintance 
through Dharma 9 . 

samsthd (HRS ), king's dues derived from the market- 
place, as suggested by the Arthasdstra. 

samstuta (CII 1 ), cf. mitra-samstuta-jndti, 'friends, acquin- 
tances and relatives'. 

samta (IE 8-1 ), corrupt form of sarhvat. Mta=mat. 
Samuddya (El 25 ), official designation. 
samuddya (ASLV), same as gana-bhoga; a tenure in which 
land is enjoyed by a group of people. 

(SITI), a village under the gana-bhoga tenure. 
(SITI), village common; managing committee of 
a temple. 

samudaya-bdhya (HRS), occurs in the Damodarpur ins- 
criptions; 'revenue-free' or 'yielding no income'. 

samuddya-prdpti, cf. samuddya-ppirdtti (SITI ), any acquisi- 
tion from the village to be enjoyed in common by the villagers. 
Samudra (El 10), an epithet of Siva. 
samudra (El 16), same as sapt-dmbhodhi', name of a mahd- 
ddna', also means 4 (rarely 7). 

samudra-ghosa (El 5 ), name given to a musical instrument. 
samuha (El 28; CII 4), an assembly; the assembly of a 

samupagata (El 12), explained as 'assembled at'; really, 
'having connection with', 'associated with'; cf. samupagama, 
'contact'; also samaveta, upeta, upaydta, etc. 

samupagata (IE 8-3), 'associated'; often explained as 
'assembled'; but cf. samaveta, samupagata, upaydta, upeta, etc. 

samuta (ASLV), same as sammat\ an administrative unit. 

samutkridd Sdmvatsarika 


samutkridd (El 15), same as kridd or sport. 
samva (IE 8-1 ), mistake for samva which is an abbreviation 
of samvatsara. 

samva (IE 8-1 ) same as samvat; contraction of samvatsara. 
samvadana (IE 8-8), submission of information. 
samvarta-kalpa (CII 1 ), the aeon of destruction. 
samvdsa, cf. a-kura-cullaka-vindsi-khatvd-samvdsa (IE 8-5); 
same as dvdsa; shelter or accommodation [which the villagers 
were obliged to supply to the touring officers of the king] . 

samvat (IE 8-1 ), originally an abbreviation of samvatsara 
(a year ) or any of its declensional cases that can be used in ex- 
pressing a date; later stereotyped in the sense of 'a year' or 
'an era'. It was generally regarded as indeclinable; but we 
have some cases of the use of forms with case-endings, e. g., 
samvatah, samvatd, samvati and samvatdm. See alsosamvate (IE 
8-1 ), the seventh case-ending of samvata, a corrupt form of 
samvat. Since the late medieval age, the word specially indi- 
cates the Vikrama era, although originally it was used with the 
name of any reckoning in quoting the dates of records, especially 
the regnal reckoning. The word is used in inscriptions in a 
large number of corrupt forms, e.g., samvata, samvatta, samata, 
samanta, samatta, sammat, samasta, smat, samvatu, samvatu, etc., etc. 
samvat (IE 8-1 ), mistake for samvat, originally an abbre- 
viation of samvatsara. 

samvatsara (CII 3; 4; IA 17), ' a year'; 'an era', the 
earlier years of the Indian eras being quoted by this term (or 
by its abbreviations sam, samvat, etc. ), without any dynastic or 
other appellation just as in the case of the year of a regnal 

Samvatsara (HD ), an astrologer. See Visnu Dh. S., III. 
75; Brhatasamhitd, 2. 9; cf. Sdmvatsarika (El 5). 
samvatsara-pratipadd, name of a tithi. 

samvatsara-srdddha (CII 4), srdddha performed on the first 
anniversary of a person's death. 

samvatsara-vdriya (SITI ), annual committee appointed 
by the sabhd', annual committee for supervising the management 
of village affairs; also called dtti-vdriyam (SITI) in Tamil. 

samvatsara-vimoksa-srdddha (CII 4), same as samvatsara- 

Sraddha performed on the first anniversary of a person's death. 

Sdmvatsarika (HD ), an astrologer. See Paithmasi quoted 

294 sarhvatsarika sancarita 

in Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, p. 193. 

sdrhvatsarika-hiratiya (IE 8-1), annual revenue in cash; 
often abbreviated as sdrh-hi. 

samvatta (IE 8-1 ), corrupt form of sarhvat. 

samvatu, samvatu (IE 8-1 ), corrupt forms of sarhvat. 

sarhvaturh (IE 8-1 ), corrupt form of sarhvat. 

sarhvibhdga (CII 1 ), separation of one thing from another. 

sarhvid (El 32 ), an agreement. 

sdmvinayika, cf. a-rattha-sdrhvinqyika (El 1 ), a-rdstra-sdm- 
vinayika (IE 8-5); administration or control, i.e. administrative 

Sarhvyavahdrin (El 23), an administrator; same as Vyava- 
hdnn\ cf. Sarhvyavahdry-ddi-kutumbinah (El 24), the agricul- 
turist householders led by the village-headman or the collector 
of royal dues. 

sdmya (El 23), often written for svdmya; cf. teja-sdmya 
standing for tejah-svdmya. 

samyak-pradhdna, cf. sammappadhdna (El 5), Buddhist; 
four in number. 

san (IA 18), Arabic; a year; an era; sometimes used in 
Sanskrit records; in some cases, corrupted to sna. 

sana (LP), linen. 

sdna, name of a weight or coin ; a silver coin which was I 
of a satamdna in weight and value; generally regarded as 40 
ratis in weight, but sometimes also as 32 or 24 or 20 ratis; also 
called niska, tatika or dharana or sdnaka. See JNSI, Vol. XVI, 
pp. 42, 44-45. See sdna-pdda. 

Sdnabhoga (IE 8-3), village-accountant; same as Senabova, 

sdnaka, see Sana. 

sdna-pdda, same as mdsa (JNSI, Vol. p. 47 ). 

Sandtha (IA 7), wrongly supposed to mean 'one whose 
father is alive' or 'a worthy'; actually, a personal name. 

sancakdra (IA 19), same as satyakdra; an agreement. 

Sancarantaka (HD), Prakrit; 'a spy'. See Ep. Ind., Vol. 
I, p. 5. Kautilya (Arthasdstra, I. 12) speaks of Samara (wander- 
ing spies like Tiksna, Rasada, etc. ). Cf. Sancdrin. 

Sancaratka (IE 8-3), a spy; cf. Sancarantaka. 

Sancdrin (El 24), cf. Sdsana-sancdrin and Ajnd-sancdrin. 

sancarita, cf. djndta (IA 18). 

nda Sandhivigrahin 


sanda (IA 18), a bull living or wandering at liberty. 

sanda-gula (LP), same as Gujarat! khamd-gol, i.e. sugar 
and molasses. 

sandhi (El 4; SITI), literally, 'twilight 5 ; but actually, 
'service in the temple in the morning and evening' ; daily wor- 
ship in temples ; special worship offered in the names of persons 
who arrange for it by creating endowments, etc. 

sandhi-pdta, emergency (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 213). 

Sandhivigrah-ddhikarana (CII 4), department of peace 
and war. 

Sandhivigrah-ddhikaran-ddhikrta (El 30; BL), official desig- 
nation indicating a person in charge of the office of war and 
peace (i.e. foreign affairs ); an officer of the ministry or the 
minister of foreign affairs. 

Sandhivigrah-ddhikarana-kdyastha, official designation of a 
scribe of the office of war and peace (i.e. foreign affairs). 

Sandhivigrah-ddhikrta (CII 4; BL), an officer in charge of 
the department or the minister of war and peace; same as 

sandhi- [vigraha] -karana, cf. karana (LP); department of 
foreign affairs. 

Sandhivigrahakdrin (El 2 1 ), 
Mitdk$ard on Ydjnavalkyasmrti, I, 

sandhivigraha-pperu (El 24; SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; a fee 
payable to the village Madhyastha ; also a fee payable to document- 
writers; cf. sandhivigrahi-pannu. 

Sandhivigrahika (HD ), minister for peace and war. See 
Visnudharmottara, II. 24. 17; Mahdbhdrata, anti-parvan, 85. 
30. See Sandhivigrahika. 

Sandhivigrahika (IE 8-3; El 30; CII 3, 4; BL; HD; LP), 
minister for peace and war, i.e. of foreign affairs; sometimes 
also called Khddya[ kii] tapdkika, Kumdrdmdtya, Mahddandanayaka, 
etc., additionally; same as Sandhivigrahika, etc. See Vimudhar- 
mottara, II. 24. 17; Mitdk$ard on Ydjnavalkyasmrti, I. 320; C/7, 
Vol. Ill, p. 15. 

Sandhivigrahin (IE 8-3, SITI ), minister in charge of peace 
and war ; officer in charge of the foreign relations department, 
who was often the writer of important documents; same as 
Sandhivigrahika, etc. Cf. K anna da- Sandhivigrahin (El 16), Heri- 
Ldla-sandhivigrahin (El 12), Heri-sandhivigrahin (El 12), Ldla- 

same as Sandhivigrahika. 


296 Sandhwigrahin sangha 

sandhivigrahin (El 12), Heri-Ldta-Karndta-sandhivigrahin, Heri- 
Ldta-sandhivigrahin, etc. 

Sandhivigrahi-pannu (El 30), name of a levy; same as 
sandhivigraha-pperu . 

sandhi-vilakku (SII 1), a sacred lamp; cf. nandd-vilakku, 

sandhyd (CITD ), the morning, noon and evening prayers 
of a Brahmana. 

(CII 3 ; IA 17), a period at the commencement of each 
of the four Hindu ages; the sandhyd of the Kali-yuga lasts for 
36, 000 years of men, and is still running ; cf. sandhydmsa. 

sandhi-dipa, cf. sandi-vilakku (SITI ), a twilight lamp; 
generally lighted in the temples in the evening, but sometimes 
in the morning; same as sandhyd-dipa. 

sandhy-dmsa (AI 1 7 ), a period at the end of each of the 
four yugas, the sandhy-dmsa of the Kali-yuga to last for 36,000 
human years. 

sandoha, cf. a-puspa-ksira-sandoha (IE 8-5), realisation or 
levy (cf. a-puspa-ksira-grahamya) . 

Saftgadi-raksd-pdlaka (El 6), an officer; the meaning of 
sangadi is uncertain. 

sangam, Tamil; same as Sanskrit sangha; an assembly of 
ancient Tamil poets; the name given to an assembly of poets 
reported in tradition to have functioned in three different pe- 
riods. The poets are believed to have been both literary critics 
and composers. Literary compositions of the age were later 
collected and compiled into anthologies known as Ettuttokai, 
Pattuppdttu and Padinenkilkanakku according to their contents 
and size. The sangam is stated to have flourished at Kudal 
(also called Madurai in later literature) in the first and last 
period and at Kavatapuram in the middle period. The latest 
limit for the first two anthologies may be placed round about 
700 A.D. See M. S. Purnalingam Pillai, Tamil Literature, 
pp. 14-18; S. Vaiyapuri Pillai, History of Tamil Language and 
Literature, p. 38. 

sangha (ASLV), a social organisation. 

(jBl/ ),a community of Buddhist monks; the BuddhistChurch. 

(HA), a Jain congregation; the Jain Church (made up 
of four constituents, viz. sddhu, sddhvi, srdvaka and srdvikd ) 
also called Jaina-sangha; a group of pilgrims going together on 

Sangha sankara 


pilgrimage under the leadership of a Sanghapali (q.v. ). 

(El 22), a tribe. 

Cf. Tamil sangam (q.v. ). 

Sangha-pati (El 8; BL), title of the leader of a group of 
Jain pilgrims to a holy place, who bears all the expenses of the 
whole group; same as Sanghaprabhu, Sanghavt, etc. Cf. the 
modern Jain family name Singhi. 

Sangha-prabhu (El 8), Jain; same as Sanghapati, etc. 

Sangha-prakrta (LL ), Buddhist; probably, a supporter of 
the sangha; translated as 'commissioners of the community' 
(Liiders, Mathurd Inscriptions., pp. 84 ff. ). 

Sanghardja (El 8), Buddhist; title of the principal ec- 
clesiastical functionary in Burma. 

sanghdrdma (El 4; ML; LL), a Buddhist monastery. 

Sangha-sthavira (LL ), an Elder of the Buddhist congrega- 
tion. Cf. Sthavira. 

sanghdta, sanghdta (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 248), cf. 
pdda-sanghdta or pdda-satighdtd, 'a pair of feet (i. e. foot-marks)'. 

sanghdtl (El 25 ), robe of a Buddhist monk. 

Sanghavi (BL; HA; PJS), derived from Sanskrit Sangha- 
pati (q.v.); designation of the leader of a sangha or group of 
Jains ; the leader of a group of Jain pilgrims, who bears expenses 
of all the pilgrims going with him (cf. the Jain family name 

sangrahana (IE 8-5 ), adultery. 

Sangrahitr (HD ), explained by some as 'a treasurer or 
charioteer' (Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, p. Ill); probably, col- 
lector of the king's grain share. Cf. Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 9. 

sdni (SITI), Dravidian; wife; a term by which a 
Brahmana woman was referred to. 

sanivdra-mandapa(A.R. Ep., 1958-59, p. 13 ), name of a build- 
ing attached to a temple apparently meant for some function 
held there on Saturdays ; cf. vaikkdnikku-mandapa under mandapa. 

sanjdti (LP ), cf. rdja-sanjdtydm kartavyah, 'may be made a 
government property.' 

Sanjwa-rdja, cf. Sanjivardyar (SITI ), name of Hanuman. 

sankdcitaka (IE 8-8), a loop; same as Sanskrit kdca. 

sankalpa (Chamba), also called sankalpa-hast-odaka; liba- 
tion of water; donation. 

sankara (El 9), also called sankuru\ a double sack. 

298 Sankara santaka 

sahkar-akn (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

sanketa, cf. sva-sanketa (LP), 'one's own special arrange- 

sankha (CII3, etc.), conch-shell as ane mblem on seals; 
cf. sanghu (ASLV ), the use of which was sometimes granted 
by kings to their favourites as a privilege. 

sankhadhdrd, cf. samkudhdra (CITD); Telugu; continuous 
blowing of the conch-shell. See Sankhadhdrin. 

Sankhadharin (IE 8-3), blower of the conch-shell; 
sometimes mentioned as a Pdtra. 

Sankhakdra (El 28), also called Sdnkhika (q.v. ); maker 
of conch-shell bangles. 

Sankhika, Sdnkhika (El 24, 28 ), same as Sankhakdra (q.v. ), 
worker on conch-shells. 

sankramana (CII 3; IA 17), also called sankrdnti\ the 
entrance of the sun into a sign of the zodiac; regarded as an 
auspicious time for performing religiousduties. 

sankrdnti (CII 3; IA 17), same as sankramana (q.v.). 

(IE 7-1-2), 'twelve'. 

sanmukha-bdhu (IE 7-1-2), 'twelve'. 

sanndha (LP), armour. 

Sannidhdtr (El 27), official in charge of the receipt of 
various articles into the king's treasury, according to some 
(HRS); superintendent of the construction of the royal 
treasury, store houses, etc., according to others. See Artha- 
Sdstra, II. 5; cf. 1. 10 and 12; Ep. 2nd., Vol. VIII, pp. 138, 
141 ; Vol. XI, pp. 93-94. 

sannidhi, cf. sannadi (SI I 1 ), presence of a deity; the 
front of a temple. 

Sanniyuktaka (Ind. Ant., Vol. XVII, p. 11, text line 14), 
same as Tanniyuktaka or a mistake for it. 

Sanskrit, Anglicised form of Samskrta, the name of the 
sacred language of the Indians. 

santa (CITD), Telugu-Kannada; a fair or market day. 

(El 14), name of a measure or a coin; probably, a small 
coin (Ep.Ind., Vol. XV, p. 309). 

santai (ASLV), a weekly fair. 

santaka (El 27; CII 3), Prakrit; 'belonging to'; some- 
times Sanskritised as satka. Sometimes santaka (also santika 
apparently used in the same sense) has been regarded as 

SdntakikaSaptama 299 

meaning 'a territorial unit'; supposed similarly to mean 'a ser- 
vant' (El 23 ) or c an officer' (El 24). 

Sdntakika (IE 8-3 ), official designation of uncertain import. 

santdna (SITI ), lineage. 

(BL), cf. a Jain religious teacher described as belonging to 
the pat fa of another teacher and the santdna of a third teacher. 

(IA 20), used in the sense of dmndya or kula-krama. 

(El 6), same as santdnaka, santati; seven in number. 

santdna-sdpa (SITI ), curse that prevents progeny. 

Santdnika-saiva (SITI), Saivas who belong to the line 
of dcdryas of the santdna-kuravar. 

santati (SITI), lineage. Cf. also sapta-santati (El 14) and 
santdnaka ( under santdna) . 

santati-pravesam (SITI ), 'from generation to generation*. 

Sdnti) a priest in a temple; cf. Tamil-Sanskrit Md-sdnti\ 
also cf. fidntikdra, of which Sdnti seems to be an abbreviation. 

sdnti (El 33), a propitiatory rite; cf. sdnty-dgdra. 

santika (El 25 ), proximity, presence. 

Sdntikdra (SITI), a temple priest; also known as Sdntiy- 
adigal and Sdnti-seyydn. 

santirand, cf. artha-santirand (CII 1 ), despatch of business. 

Sdnti-vdrika (El 12, 30, 33), priest in charge of the 
performance of propitiatory rites or the priest who provides for 
sdnti-vdri, 'propitiatory water'. 

sdnty-dgdra (El 12, 30), room wherein a bath is taken 
with the propitiatory water after a sacrifice; the room for 
performing propitiatory rites. See Sdntydgdrika, Sdntydgdr-ddhikrta. 

Sdntydgdr-ddhikrta (El 30 ), priest in charge of the room 
for the performance of propitiatory rites. Cf. sdnty-dgdra^ Sdnty- 

Sdntydgdrika (El 30 ), same as Sdntydgdr-ddhikrta. 

Shaonano Shao (El 30 ), known from the legend of Kusana 
coins; same as Sdhdnusdhi ( q.v. ), Persian Shdhdn Shah. 

Sapddalaksa (IE 8-4), name of two territories so called with 
reference to the theoretical number of villages in each of them. 
Cf. Pddonalaksa. 

sapindikarana-srdddha (CII 4), a ceremony. 

sapta-ksetra (IA 19), Jain; seven spheres of action. 

Saptama-cakravartin (LP), 'the seventh emperor', i. e. the 
ruling monarch; according to the Abhidhdnacintdmani, the six 

300 Sapta Sarabhanga 

older Cakravartins are: Mdndhdtd Dhundhumdras^ca Hariscan- 
drah Pururavdh \ Bharatah Kdrtaviryas=ca sadete cakravartinah II 

Sapta-mdtr (El 23 ), the seven Divine Mothers. 

Sapt-dmdtya (El 2 7), an officer in charge of seven depart- 
ments. Cf. Panca-karan-ddhikrta t etc. 

sapt-dmbhodhi (El 16), name of a mahdddna ; same as sapta- 

sapt-dnga (CII CITD), the seven constitutent parts of 
a kingdom, viz., king, ministers, allies, treasury, territory, forts 
and forces. 

sapta-sdgara (El 24), name of a mahdddna:, same as sapt- 

sapta-santdna (SITI), also called sap ta-santati; merit equal 
to that obtainable through progeny from their performance of 
seven kinds of great deeds, viz. digging of tanks, hoarding of 
treasure, founding of agrahdras, erection of temples, creation 
of flower gardens, getting literary works written by poets, and 
the establishment of Choultries. An inscription (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. Ill, pp. 88 ff. ) mentions the following seven meritorious 
acts a man ought to perform during his lifetime; viz. procrea- 
tion of sons, accumulation of wealth, planting of groves, help- 
ing people (Brahmanas) to marry, getting poems composed, 
erection of temples and excavation of tanks. 

sapta-santati (SITI ), same as sapta-santdna. 

sapta-vidhi (LP ), probably, seven kinds of defects. 

sara (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

sard (El 9; LP), care; cf. etair=astabhirgosthikaih...sdrd 
karaniyd, ' [this place of worship] has to be taken care of by the 
following eight trustees'. Cf. also Gujarat! sdravdr. 

(El 8, 11), supervision. 

Sarabhanga (IE 8-3; 8-8; El 23), a leader of forces; an 
officer o f the military department ; possibly, a military governor ; 
same as Persian Sarhang and Hindi Serdng; also spelt Sarabhanga 
and Sarobhanga-, Wilson's Glossary explains Sarhang as 'a com- 
mander' and says, "but [it is] generally applied in India to 
the headman of a native crew, whether on board a ship or a 
boat; also to the headman of a gang of natives attached to artill- 
ery, dragging guns, or to the a* my in general, as tent-pitchers, 
and the like, or to the head of gangs of a superior order of labour- 
ers employed in public or private works, in docks, buildings, 

Sdradd Sdrdharhviharin 301 

etc.' Cf. Voge\,Ant.Ch.St., pp.123, 166 (spelt Sarobhanga), 
Ind. Cult., Vol. VII, p. 309. Kane (Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, 
p. 1005 ) is certainly wrong when he thinks that it may be con- 
nected with sarayantra and Sarayantrin (a title bestowed in Mithila 
upon a very learned man who faced the ordeal of answering 
satisfactorily all questions on any sdstra put to him by learned 
Acdryas and also the questions put by common people ). See Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XXXV, pp. 95 ff. See Sardngha, Sarahang, etc. 

Sdradd, name of the alphabet which developed out of late 
Brahmi and was prevalent in the Kashmir region. 

Sarahang (IA 20), also called Sarang, Sarhang, etc. See 
Sardngha, Sarabhanga. 

Sarandgata-vajrapanjara (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 317), 
'the impregnable shelter for one who seeks for it'; a subordinate 
title of the Kannada-speaking area ; used by the Sena kings of 
Bengal because they hailed from the same region. 

Sarang (IA 20), also called Sarhang, Sarahang^ etc. ; see 
Sardngha, Sarabhanga, etc. 

Sardngha (IE 8-3), Persian Sarhang and Indian Sarabhanga, 
Serdng, etc. cf. Giligittd-sardngha, 'the chief of the army at Gilgit', 
in the Hatun inscription of Patoladeva (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, 
p. 228). 

Sarasvati-bhdnddra (El 25; SITI ), a library. Cf. Saras- 

Sarasvati-bhdnddrika (El 25), librarian. Cf. Sarasvati- 

sarayantra, Maithili; test [prevalent in Mithila] of the 
scholarship of one who is prepared to answer any question on 
any sdstra put to him by any other scholar or by the common 
people. See Proc. AIOC, Benares, 1943; Kane, Hist. Dharm., 
Vol. Ill, p. 1005. 

sarayantraka (IE 3-1), same assutra', the string passing 
through the hole in the leaves of manuscripts for holding them 
together (Vdsavadatta, Hall's ed., p. 250). 

Sarayanlrin (El 35 ), one who has been successful in the 
sarayantra test of Mithila. See sarayantra. 

sdrayitvd (LP), 'having finished'; cf. Gujarat! sdrvurh, 
'to accomplish'. 

Sdrdhancara, Sdrdhaiicarl (LL), companion of a Jain monk. 

Sdrdharhviharin, cf, ' 'Sddhyavihdri (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 

302 Sarhang Sarva 

p. 10), Pali saddhivihdri ; one's fellow-priest living at the same 
monastery; a fellow-student. Cf. F. Edgerton, Bud. Plyb. 
Sans. Gram. Diet., Vol. II, p. 593. See Sadhryagvihdrin. 

Sarhang (IE 8-3; IA 20), Persian; see Sarabhanga, etc. 

sarira (SITI), person; individual. 

(724; ML), corporeal relics of the Buddha. 

Sarobhanga (IE 8-3 ), same as Sarabhariga or Sarabhanga 

sarpa (IE 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

sarpa-bali (IA 19), an offering in snake-worship. 

sarsapa, a small unit of measurement; sometimes specified 
as 'red' (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 48). 

Sdrthavaha (IE 8-3; El 24, 31 ; BL; LL), a trader, a mer- 
chant; designation of a member of the mercantile community 
represented on an administrative board like the Pancayat. 

Sdrthavdhinl (El 1, 24), wife of a merchant (Sdrthavaha) or 
a female merchant. 

sdrtha-vahitra (IE 8-3 ), probably, a cart-load of articles 
for sale. 

sdrupya (CITD), assimilation in the deity, one of the four 
states of mukti. 

Sdrvabhauma (El 7, 27, 30, 32 ), title of imperial rulers. 

sarv-dbhyantara-siddhi (IA 19; SII 1 1-1 ), a fiscal term denot- 
ing full and complete right of enjoyment of agricultural income 
or internal revenue or taxes to be paid to the village authorities ; 
cf. sarv-dbhyantara-siddhyd (IA 18), also abhyantara-siddhi. 

Sarva-danda-ndyaka (CII 3; IA 9; IA BL), official desig- 
nation; 'lord of all the forces'; cf. Samasla-samy-ddhipati. See 
Danda-ndyaka, Mahddandandyaka, Sarva-mahd-dandandyaka. Cf. 
hid.' Ant., Vol. VIII, p. 19; Vol. IX, p. 167. ' 

Sarva-des-ddhikdrin (AI 7), chief minister; see Desddhikrta, 
Sarv-ddhikdrin, etc. 

Sarv-ddhikdr-ddhikrta (El 31 ), chief minister or adminis- 
trator; same as Sarv-ddhikdrin, Sarv-ddhyaksa, etc. 

Sarv-ddhikdra-karana (El 30 ), probably , the office of the 
chief secretary, administrator or minister. 

Sarv-ddhikdra-niyukta (El 32), official designation; same 
as Sarv-ddhikdrin, Sarv-ddhyaksa, etc. 

Sarv-ddhikdrin (IE 8-3; El 19; CII 4; HD), prime 
minister (cf. Rdjatarangini, VII. 568); minister plenipoten- 

Sana sarvatobhadra 303 

tiary or viceroy ; sometimes also called Sendpati, Mahdpradhdna, 
Hiriya-bhanddgdrin, Mahdsdmanta, Sen-ddi-bdhattara-niyog- 

adhipatt, Dandandyaka, Mahdpasdyita, Amdtya, Paramavisvdsin or 
Aiahdparamavisvdsin, etc., additionally. 

(IE 8-3), a governor or chief administrator (cf. ' the Saw- 
ddhikdrin of Hagaratage-300' ). 

Sarv~adhyaksa(EI 24,27 ;CII 3), literally,a general superin- 
tendent; probably, the chief minister or administrator; same 
as Sarv-ddhikdrin. 

Sarv-ddhikrta (HD), same as Sarv-ddhikdrin, etc. Cf. Ep. 
Lid., Vol. XIV, pp. 360, 362. See Mahdsarvddhikrta. 

sarv-dgrahdra (El 21 ), same as sarva-mdnya. 

sarva-jdta, cf. sarva-jdtaa-bhoga-nirastyd (El 8-5 ), 'with all 
kinds of the [king's] rights renounced'. 

sarva-mdnya (IE 8-5, SITI; CITD), a free tenure; a 
rent-free holding; land exempted from taxes; lands and villages 
fully exempt from all taxes. This corresponds to the 
iraiyili class of land mentioned in the Cola inscriptions. Often 
this is associated with asta-bhoga, i.e. the eight forms of enjoy- 
ing the land. For a discussion of this form of land tenure, see 
JAHRS, Vol. X, pp. 123-32. It is noteworthy that even the 
so-called tax-free (iraiyili) lands paid to the king certain dues 
of the nature of taxes. See K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The 
Colas, 2nd ed., pp. 534-35. See sarva-namasya, etc. 

sarva-medha (El 4), name of a sacrifice. 

sarva-namaskrta (I A 8 ), same as sarva-namasya. 

sarva-namasya (IE 8-5; El 23; CITD), a rent-free holding ; 
same as sarva-mdnya, sarva-namaskrta, namasya-vrtti. 

sarva-niyoga (El 7), exclusive property. 

Sarva-sainy-ddhikdrin (IE 8-3), commander-in-chief; cf. 
Maneya-samasta-sainy-ddhipati, commander of all the soldiers in 
the royal household ; also cf. Sarva-danda-ndyaka. 

sarvasva-harana (SITI ), forfeiture of one's entire property. 

Sarva-tantr-ddhikrta (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV pp. 144-45), 
a superintendent of all departments; but tantra is used in South 
Indian records in the sense of 'the army'. See tantra, Tantr- 
ddhikdrin, etc. 

sarvatobhadra (El 9), a building having doors on all the 
four sides. 

304 sarvatobhadrika Sdsana 

sarvatobhadrikd (LL; HA), quadruple image showing a 
Jina (or several Jinas ) on each of the four faces; same as 

Sarvavddindyaka (El 10), explained as 'superintendent of 
the intelligence department'; probably, 'the chief court Pandit.' 

sarv-qya (El 15), all the usual dues. 

sarviya (El 13), 'good to all'. 

sdsana (El 19; IA 20), order, a royal edict; any royal 
record (cf. vij ay a- sdsana). 

(78-4; El 13, 23; CII 3; BL), a charter; land or 
village granted by a charter; rent-free land or village; some- 
times suffixed to the names of localities which were once rent- 
free holdings. See also tdmra-sdsana, a technical term for a deed 
of conveyance on copper-plates. 

(El 9, 10), a doctrine; religion or religious faith. 

Sdsana-baddha (SITI ), people bound by a royal charter; 
original grantees of a charter. 

Sdsana-bhdnddrin (El 25), official designation; cf. Sdsan- 
ddhikdrin, etc. 

Sdsanadevi (IA 18), divine female messenger of a Jain 
Arhat; same as Sdsana-sundari. 

Sdsan-ddhikdrika (Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 155, text line 85), 
same as Sdsan-ddhikdrin, etc.; officer in charge of grants (or their 
writing or issue), mentioned along with Ddn-ddhikdrin, 'officer 
in charge of gifts'. 

Sdsan-ddhikdrin (El 28, 31 ), officer in charge of royal grants 
or their issue, who was often the writer of documents ; same as 
Sdsan-ddhikdrika, etc. 

sdsana-patd (Chamba, etc.), charter; same as Sanskrit 
sdsana-pa ttaka. 

sasana-maryada (El 15), specification of privileges by a 

sdsan-drdhika (IE 8-5; 12, 28), name of a levy; probably, 
the half of the cultivator's share of the produce of the land in 
the gift village. 

Sdsayitr (El 12; BL), one who is responsible for getting 
a royal grant executed; cf. Dutaka, Lekhayitr, Ajndpti. 

Sdsana-sancdrin (El 8, 24), same as Ajnd-sancarin; an official 

Sasana-sundari (IA 30), Jain; same as Sdsanadevi. 

Sdsanika sa-tila 305 

Sdsanika-kdyastha (El 1 1 ), writer of a grant. 

sasdnka (IE 7-71-2), 'one'. 

sasghdni, coins issued by the Tughlaq Sultans, 4 jitals in 
weight (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 44); same as chagdni, equal to | of 
a tanka (ibid., Vol. XXII, p. 198 ). See sasukdni. 

sasin (El 25 ), 'one'. 

Sasth-adhikrta (IE 8-3; HD ), a collector of the king's grain 
share which was originally one-sixth of the produce according 
to many authorities; cf. Dhruvasthdn-ddhikaranika. See Gho- 
shal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 246. 

sasthatapa (IA 19 ), Jain; a kind of penance. 

sasthi-amdvdsyd, cf. catti-amavdse (El 5 ), new-moon follow- 
ing the campd-sasthi. 

Sastirdtra (BL ), name of a sacrifice. 

sdstra (IE 7-1-2), 'six'. 

sdsukdni, Indianised form of MSghdni', also called Msukdni- 
tanka. See JNSI, Vol. XVI, 'The Sana', p. 5. 

sdsvatiya (SITI ), perpetuity, eternity. 

sata, cf.ekddasa-sata (ML), 'one hundred and eleven'. 

Sdta (El 32 ), abbreviation of the name Sdtavdhana or 

sataghni (IA 7, 12 ), a gun or canon according to late works; 
a mechanical weapon placed at the gate of forts according to the 
Vasudevahindi(Journ. Or. Inst.,Vo\. X,No. l,p.;15). Seekdlacakra. 

satamdna, name of a coin ; a silver coin weighing 320 rails 
(rarely also 160 ratis] ; also called pala, niska, sukti, astamikd and 
nald; wrongly regarded as 100 ratis in weight. See JNSI, 
Vol. XVI, pp. 41, 46-47. For satamdna as a gold coin, see ibid., 
Vol. XV, p. 140. 

satdnga (El 3 ), a car. 

sat-catuskikd, cf. cha-coki. 

satera, saleraka, same as Greek stater; regarded as equal to 
two dinaras (JNSI, Vol. XV, p. 153). 

sati (El 6, 30; CII 3, 4; BL; CITD), literally, 'a chaste 
woman'; really 'a woman burning herself with her husband'. 
(El 6, 30 ), self-immolation of a widow usually on the 
funeral pyre of her husband ; usually spelt suttee in English. 

satikd (El 28), cf. sa'ikd. 

sa-til-odaka (I A 19), cf. sa-til-odakena vidhind; same as 
udaka-purvam, etc. . ...... 

306 satka Satyadharma 

satka (El 1, 13; I A 17), Sanskritised from Prakrit santaka\ 
'the holding of... 5 , 'belonging to...'. 

fat-karman (SII 1 ), the six duties of a Brahmana. 

fatpancdsat, 'all'; cf. $atpancdsad-desa=chappanna-desa (Ep. 
Ind.,Vo\. V, p. 217, note 7), literally, 'fiftysix countries'; but 
really, 'all the world'. 

sat-pana, cf. aruvana. 

Satpurufa (LL ), a Buddhist saint. 

satra (El 10, 19, 23, 26), same as sattra. 

sattra (SII 1; CII 3, 4), 'a charitable feeding house'; an 
alms-house; sometimes used to indicate one of the five mahd- 
yajnas, usually called atithi. See Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 46, 
note 8. 

(El 10, 19, 23), also spelt satra; hospitality to guests; one 
of the five mahdyajnas. 

(I A 15), a hall for the charitable distribution of food, 
etc. Gf. satra-sdld (SII 11-1), etc. 

satr-dgdra (LP ), a house where alms are distributed. Cf. 

satr-dgdra-karana, cf.karana (LP);departmentofDharmasdlds. 

Satrap (IA20), Greek; same as Khshathrapdvan, Ksatrapa, 

Sattrapati (BL ), priest in charge of a sacrificial session. 

satrimsat, literally, 'thirtysix', but actually 'all' (Ep. Ind. t 
Vol. XXX, p. 115). See astddasa, satpancdsat, etc. 

fattrimsad-dand-dyudha (LP), thirtysix (really, all), 
kinds of weapons ; sometimes enumerated as : 
Cakra pdsa mogaru gadd ghana tomara tiraha I 
sakati sula trisula vajra kdtara karadarhdha II 
Patukatdn kamta sarasi ghadu avdji I 
kaniu churl khadga ndli gold ndrdjl II 
sarhdum fapnu murhsala hala simgani pharasi gupati gani\ 
nifamga sdmgi arhkusa guruja kuhaka bdna batrisa bhani |i 
Cf. Prdcinagurjarakdvyasarhgraha, G.O.S., pp. 106-07. 

dttvika-ddna (SITI ), gift without the pouring of water 
and therefore not expecting any merit in return for the donation. 
Satyadharma-sthita (IE 8-2), 'adherent of the true religion'; 
same as Dharma-sthita; epithet of a Kusana king probably point- 
ing to his Buddhist faith. 
Satya-jndna-darisanigal (SITI), followers of a sect of Saivism; 

Sau Sayydpdla 


evidently those belonging to the lineage of Meykandar. 

Sau, abbreviation of Saulkika or Saundika (A. R. Ep., 1953- 
54, No. B 117). 

saudha (IA 15), used in the sense of brahmapuri, 'a 
Brahmana settlement'. 

Saugandhika, cf. Prakrit Sagandhaka (El 18); a dealer in 
scents or superintendent of the perfumery. 

Saugata-parivrdjaka (BL), a Buddhist medicant. 

Saulkika (IE 8-3; Gil 3, 4; El 30; HD), toll-collector 
or customs officer; officer in charge of collecting customs 
duties; superintendent of tolls or customs duties. See 
Tdjnavalkyasmrti, II. 173; CII, Vol. Ill, pp. 50, 52; Ghoshal, 
H. Rev. Syst., p. 246. 

saumya (El 27 ), lunar or auspicious. 

Saunika (IE 8-3 ), superintendent of slaughter-houses and 
the sale of meat. 

Saundika (IE 8-5 ), vintner. 

Sautrika (LL), weaver. 

sauvarna (El 19), name of a coin; cf. suvarna. 

Sauvarnika (HD), cf. Prakrit Sovanika (El 10), a gold- 
smith; the State goldsmith. See Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, pp. 
144-45. See Hairanyika, etc. 

sauvarnika (HRS ), profits of the royal monopoly of manu- 
facture of gold and silver articles, as indicated by the Arthasdstra. 

sava (IE 8-1), contraction of Prakrit savachara= Sanskrit 

sdvadi (IE 8-4), a subdivision; same as usdvadi or cdvadi. 

savarna-vrtti (SITI ), profession of writing documents. 

Sdvu (El 9; CII 4), a title; same as Sahu (Sanskrit Sddhu). 

soya (IE 3-4), derived from a Chinese word; paper. 

sdyaka (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

sayana (CII 3), 'inclusive of precission of the equinoxes'. 

sayana-pujd (IE 8-8), a rite. 

Sayaniya, a cot; cf. Sayaniy-asana-siddannam na ddpayet (Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 171). 

sdyara (PJS), Arabic shdher', a tax on palm- tree juice. 

Sayydgrdhaka (HD ), explained as 'the guardian of the bed- 
chamber.' See A.S. Gadre, Imp. Ins. Bar. St., p. 72. Cf. 
fiqyydpala, Vdsdgdrika, Vitdn-ddhipa. 

Sayydpdla (El 25; HD ), officer in charge of the king's bed 

308 seidSenai 

(i. e. bed-chamber); guardian of the bed-chamber. See 
Sayydgrdhaka, Vdsdgdrika, Vitdn-ddhipa. 

seid (IE 8-8), Prakrit; same as Sanskrit setikd (q.v. ); cf. 

seigd (IE 8-8), Prakrit; same as Sanskrit setikd (q.v.); cf. 

Segdna (BL), official designation of uncertain import, 
found in the Chamba inscriptions. 

eka (El 11), same as Sanskrit sikya, a loop or swing made 
of rope and suspended from the ends of a pole placed on one's 
shoulder for carrying loads, or the load itself. Cf. samkacitaka. 

Sekyakdra (El 12; BL), a brazier; secondarily, an engraver; 
cf. Bengali serikrd, a goldsmith. 

Selahasta (El 1 1 ), probably, the collector of the king's 
grain share. 

send-bhakta (HRS ), contribution of oil, rice, etc., which 
the villagers had to pay to the royal army on march, as suggest- 
ed by the Arthasdstra. 

Sena-bhoga, cf. Senai-bhogam (SITI ), an accountant. See 
Sdna-bhoga, Senabova. 

Senabhogika (El 18;HD), same as Senabova, etc.; a clerk 
or an accountant-clerk. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. VI, p. 285. 

Senabova (El 5, 10; IA 18; SII 1 1-1 ), a clerk; an account- 
ant; a village accountant; modern Sdnabhoga or Kulkarni. 

Sen-ddhikdrika (El 23 ), same as Sendpati, Sen-ddhipati, etc. ; 
a general. 

Sen-ddhipa (BL), 'leader offerees'. See Sendpati, etc. 

Sen-ddhipati (IE 8-3; El 23 ; SII 11-1), same as Sen- 
ddhikdrika, etc.; sometimes also called Mahdpradhdna, Heri- 
sandhivigrahin, Kadita-vergade, etc., additionally. Cf. Mahd- 
senddhipati, Sendpati, etc. 

Sen-ddi-bdhattara-niyog-ddhisthdyaka (IE 8-2; El 5), sup- 
perintendent of all appointments including those in the army. 

Sena-gana (SITI), a division of the Jain community; also 
known as Sen-dnvaya. 

Sendgopa (LL), a general; same as Sendpati, etc. 

sen-anga (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

Senai-mudalydr (SITI ), Tamil; same as Sanskrit-Tamil 
Senapatiy-a\vdr; name of the god Visvaksenai. 

$endiy-a\hgadikq (SITI), a class of merchants who follow 

SenmlSetti 309 

the army with their merchandise ; a class of cloth merchants. 

sendni-nelra (IE 7-1-2), 'twelve'. 

Sendpati (IE 8-3), leader of forces; mentioned separately 
along with Bal-adliyaksa', probably, a subordinate of the latter; 
the military governor of a district, according to some 
(HD); commander-in-chief (ASLV), also called Sarva-sainy- 
adhikdrin and Dalavaya, i.e. the chief officer in charge of the 
military department. See Brhaspati quoted by Visvarupa on 
Ydjnavalkyasmrti , I. 307; Ind. Ant., Vol. XV, p. 187. Pusya- 
mitra, the founder of the Suiiga dynasty, was called Sendpati 
even after his accession to the Maurya throne. See Sen-ddhipa, 
etc.; cf. also Anusendpati (El 18). 

(IE 8-3 ), sometimes called Alahdpradhdna, Bdhattara- 
niyogddhisthayaka, Patta-sdhan-ddhipati, etc., additionally. 

sendpati-pperuvilai (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; the sale of 
lands of a Visnu temple executed in the name of Senai- 
mudaliyar, i. e. the god Visvaksenai. 

Sendpatiy-dlvdr (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; same as Senai- 
mudaliydr, i. e. the god Visvaksenai. 

ser (Chamba ), also called seri; crown land; state demesne. 

(Chamba, etc. ), a weight equal to 80 tolas. 

Serdng (IE), see Sarabhanga, etc. 

seri (Chamba), same as ser; crown-land. 

Sertip (IA 20), Persian; same as Old Persian Khshthrapd- 
van and Indian Ksatrapa. 

servai (ASLV), Tamil; derived from Sanskrit sevd (q.v. ); a 
service mam. 

sesa-sirsa (IE 7-1-2), 'one thousand'. 

sesi-biyyamu (CITD), Telugu-Kannada; sesi means the 
remains of flowers, raw rice and other offerings made to an idol 
or used in a subha-kdrya and afterwards distributed among the 
worshippers and attendants. The expression probably means 
raw rice over which incantations have been pronounced and 
which is thrown on the heads of the bride and bridegroom dur- 
ing the marriage ceremony and in connection with similar other 

setikd (IE 8-5; El 25), Prakrit seid, seigd; a measure of 
weight equal to two handfuls. 

Setti (ASLV), Sanskrit Sresthin; the leading member of 
a guild. Cf. Nagar-seth, Nagara-Sretfhin. 

310 ^etti siddha 

Setti-Pattanasvamin (ASLV ), designation of the president 
of a merchants' guild. Cf. Nagar-seth, Nagara-sresthin. 

setu, embankment; income or taxes resulting from it 
(Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst. 9 pp. 108-09). 

sevd,cf. Tamil sevai,servai (SITI ); service; indm for services; 
tax-free land given to servants for enjoyment in lieu of salary. 

Sevaka (SITI), a soldier ;cf. sevaka-ttevai (SITI), expenses 
in connection with the supply and maintenance of retainers of 
chiefs and officers during their visit to a place. 

fevidu (SITI), Tamil; a small grain measure; ^ of an 

Shah (IE 8-2; El 30), Persian; royal title; same as Old 
Persian Khshdyathiya. See Sdhi. 

sibara, sib ar a (Gil 4), a farm-house. Butcf. faibara, saivara. 

Siddha (Gil 4), a person possessing miraculous powers; 
an emancipated person. 

(CII 3 ), 'a perfect one' ; the epithet of a class of Jain 
saints who are invoked in the plural. 

(LL) 9 a Jain saint. 

(C//4), cf. siddham (q.v. ), used at the beginning of ins- 
criptions to ensure the success of the undertaking and meaning 
siddhir=astu, 'let there be success'. Cf. siddhi. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'twenty-four'. 

siddha, (IE 8-5 ), income from land under cultivation. See 
siddh-dya, etc. 

(SITI), also called siddhi; the right of cultivating land; 
one of the eight kinds of enjoying landed property; may be the 
same as abbyantara-siddhi. See siddha, siddh-dy a, urdhv-ddhah-siddhi. 

siddha-cakra (El 2), ayantra for worship. 

siddham (EI30;CII 3 ), literally, 'success has been attained'; 
an invocation found in early inscriptions at the commencement 
of the text; used in the sense of siddhir=astu, 'let there be success'; 
sometimes confused with the pranava; generally indicated in 
later records by a symbol having several varieties; sometimes 
indicated by the letter cha. Cf. siddhi 

Siddhamdtrkd, name of the Indian alphabet which is deri- 
ved from Late Brahmi and from which are derived North Indian 
alphabets like Nagari; wrongly called Kutila, etc. 

siddh-dnna (IE 8-8), cooked rice or uncooked food (cf. 
Hindi sidhd). 

siddhantaSild 31 1 

siddhanta (CII 4), 'an established doctrine'; sometimes 
used to indicate the aiva doctrine or religion (SITI ), 

Cf. Ldkula-siddhdnta (El 32), doctrine of the Saiva 
teacher Lakula (Lakulisa). 

siddhdnta-darsana (El 32), philosophy. 

siddha-pitha, see yoga-pi tha. 

siddha-sddhya (El 13), present income and the income that 
may accrue in future. 

siddha-sthana (El 22 ), the place sanctified by a holy man. 

siddh-dya (El 23; SII 11-2; ASLV), fixed income; 
regular income; same as Tamil sidd-dyam, sometimes explained 
as 'a tax 5 (El 27); probably, agricultural income. 

(SITI), a fixed assessment; minor taxes; minor taxes 
payable in cash in the days of the Vijayanagara kings; also 
written in Tamil as sidd-dyam^ sitt-dyam. See pratisiddh-dya. 

siddh-dyatana (El 33), cf. purva-siddh-dyatana (Buddhist); 
temple associated with a Siddha. 

siddhi (CII 4), emancipation; sometimes used at the 
beginning of documents to ensure the success of the undertaking, 
as siddham in early inscriptions, and meaning siddhir=astu. 

(SITI), same as siddham, the right of cultivating land. 

Cf. urdhv-ddhah-siddhi-yutd (IA 18), together with income 
from horticulture and agriculture; cf. sa-bdhy-dbhyantara-siddhi, 
siddhi meaning 'income'. (IE 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

sighra-likhita, a document written in a quick hand or 
cursive characters (SII, Vol. XI, Part i, p. 29, No. 42). 

siglos (IE 8-8 ), name of the old silver coin of the Persians 
(86.45 grains or 5.6 grammes). 

sikdvana (El 27), name of a tax. 

Sikhara (SITI; CITD), top portion of the turret built 
over the main shrine and the gateway of a temple ; the top of 
the gopura or vimdna of a temple. 

sikhin (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

sild (IA 23), [an inscription on] stone. 

sild-grha (El 22 ), a stone mansion. 

ila-guntha (El 12), Sanskrit-Telugu ; a pond with a 
demarcation stone. 

sild-karmdnta (LL ), stone-work. 

Sild-kuta (El 1 ), a stone-cutter; cf. Sild-kutta. 

Sild-kutta (IA 15), a stone-cutter; cf. Sild-kuta. 

312 Sildsimhanika 

sild-lasll (CII 4), Sanskrit sild-yasti', memorial pillar 
of stone. 

sild-lekha (IA 30; SITI ), writing on a stone; an ins- 
cription on stone. 

silana (CII 1 ), same as anusilana', practice. 

stla-patra(LP), certificate of good character. 

sild-prdvesa (IA 9), laying the corner-stone of a building. 

sild-sdsana (IA30), a stone-charter; a document engraved 
on stone. 

Silpin (El 4, 8; BL), epithet of an artist or artisan; 
generally, applied to engravers of inscriptions. 

Silpakdra (El 32 ), same as Silpin. 

silotara (El 32), also called silotari, silotra, silotrl, silot- 
tara; name of a tax or income; cf. srotaka. 

silotari (El 32 ), see silotara, etc. 

Silotra (El 32), see silotara, etc. 

Silotri (El 32 ), see silotara, etc. 

tilottara (El 32), see Silotara, etc. 

silvari (El 23), Tamil; name of a tax. 

sima (IA 18 ), used for 'country' in the areas on the banks 
of the Krsna and the Godavari. 

Cf.Kona-sima(EI 32), also called a desa,mandala,sthala, etc. 

simd (El 11), five types enumerated by Narada: Dhvajini 
matsyini c~aiva naidhdni bhaya-varjitd\ rdjasdsana-nitd ca simd pane a- 
vidhd smrld (i.e. big trees or hills, rivers or tanks, under- 
ground signs and artificial marks made by men and by the king's 

Cf. Tamil sirmai, simai (SITI), a territorial division; also 
called siman. 

Simakarmakara (HD ), officer in charge of boundaries or 
of boundary disputes. See CII, Vol. Ill, pp. 213, 216. 

siman (IE 8-4; ASLV), Kannada sime; a small terri- 
torial unit like a Pargana; the sub-division of a district; some- 
times used to indicate 'a province'. 

simd-vivdda, cf. Tamil simai-vivddam (SITI ), a boundary 

Simehabbaruva (ASLV), an officer associated with the ad- 
ministrative unit called simai. 

simhanikd, service rendered in lieu of taxes (Ghoshal, H. 
Rev. Syst., p.28) . 

siriiha Sltdri 3 1 3 

simha-pada, cf. Tamil singa-pddam (SITI ), legs of a vessel 
or vessel-stand in the shape of lion's feet. 

simh-asana (El 29), literally, 'the lion-seat'; the throne 
which was one of the royal insignia. Cf. simha-sthdna. 

Simhdsan-ddhipati (El 25 ), officer in charge of the king's 

simha-stambha (LL), lion-pillar. 

simha-sthdna (LL), a lion-seat; same as simh-dsana. 

sindhu (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

sindura (IA 19), corruption of sindhura, an elephant. 

sird (IA 18 ), a land measure equal to four halas. See hala. 

Sirah-pradhdnin (ASLV), cf. Tamil Sirappraddni (SITI), 
a senior minister; cf. Pradhdni, Mahdpradhdni, etc. 

sirah-sthdyin (IA 17), used in the de cription of a trial by 
ordeal with reference to the bearing of some sacred symbol or 
image on the head of the accused while undergoing it. 

sira-katd, cf. sira-katd tambd-patd (JBORS, Vol. XVIII, 
pp. 219-20), Odiya; same as rakata-patd, Sanskrit rakta-pattaka. 
See also rakta-mdnya. 

siridika, siridikd (El 32 ), name of a tax. 

Siro-raksika (IE 8-3), body-guard of the king. 

siro-varttand (SII 2), top part of a Siva-liriga. 

Sirsaka (El 28), village headman; same as Mutuda or 
Muluda of South Indian inscriptions. 

sirupddu (El 30), Tamil; an endowment. 

sissinti (IA 18), modification of sisya-pankti. 

Sisya (SII 1 ), a pupil. 

sftd (El 31), cultivated land. Cf. hala. 

(HRS), produce of the royal farms, as suggested by the 

sita-cdmara (El 29 ), 'white chowrie' ; one of the royal 

Sit-ddhayaksa (CII 4), officer in charge of the king's Khds 

sitdlekhya (IA 12), chilly-powder. 

SitdihSu (IE 7- 1-2), 'one'. 

sitapincha (SII 2 ), a swan. 

sitarasmi (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

Sitdri (SITI), Tamil; burning of incenses. 

314 &thilasmrti 

Sithil-dcdrya (IA 19), Jain; an Acdrya permitting laxity 
of observances. 

sitka (El 1 1 ), a well. 

Siva (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

(SITI), title applied to a Saiva devotee; often siva, fambhu 
etc., are used as the ending of the names of Saiva ascetics. 

siva, cf. jnwj^fl-Myfl-Mrgesavarman; used as an honorific. 
Cf. sri, vijqya, vijayasiva. 

Siva-bhdnddrin (SITI ), treasury officer of a Siva temple. 

Siva-Brdhmana (El 25; SITI), a Saiva Brahmana; the 
priest of a Siva temple; also called Adi-saiva. 

Siva-diksd (El 32 ), same as saiva-diksd, siva-mandala-diksd. 

Swa-drohin (ASLV ), a sinner against the god Siva. 

Siva-mana (El 33 ), a measure approved by a Siva temple. 

sivamandala-diksd (El 32), same as saiva-diksd, siva-dfksd. 

Siva-pancdyatana (El 27 ), a Siva temple consisting of five 

siva-sthala (CII 2-1 ), probably , the same as dharma-sthdna, 
or a Siva shrine. 

Siva-tithi (El 5 ), same as Siva-rdtri or Siva-caturdasi. 

Siva-yogin (SITI), a Saiva ascetic. 

skambha (LL), a post or pillar; cf. dipa-skambha (LL), a 
lamp post. Same as Kannada kamba, kamma. Cf. stambha. 

Skandaka (HD), a petty officer; probably the head of the 
village administration. See Rdjaiarangity.^ V. 175. 

skandaka (Ind. Ant., Vol. XIII, p. 69), an instalment; 
cf. skandha. 

skandha (LP), an instalment; cf. skandaka. 

skandhaka (El 3; HRS), known from Gujara-Pratihara 
records; name of a tax; probably, a cess at a certain rate per 

skandhdvdra (El 29; CII 3; BL), camp; usually called 
jaya-skandhdvdra (i. e. the victorious camp ) which indicates the 
capital of a king in some cases. Cf. Kannada nelevidu= Sans- 
krit sthira-sibira. 

slo (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of sloka. 

ttotra (El 32 ), same as silotara, etc. ; cf. srotaka. 

smat (IE 8-1 ), corrupt form ofsamvat. 

smrty-upasthdna, cf. satipatthdna (El 5), Buddhist; four 
in number. 

Snana srahe 


sndna-ydtrd (IA 9), festival of bathing the image of 
Krsna on Jyaistha su-di 15. 

sndna-mahotsava (HA), bathing ceremony (i. e. birth- 
bath ) of a Jina performed by Indra and other gods. 

So (IE 8-1), abbreviation of Soma-vdra, Monday. 

sodasi, sodasikd (SI I 4), name of a coin which may have 
been T 1 ^ of the standard coin in weight or value; cf. pa^a. 

sodasin (EI4, 22; CII3), name of a sacrifice. 

sodrangikritya (IE 8-3), same as udrahglkritya\ used in res- 
pect of a gift land. 

solaga (IE 8-6), Kannada; name of a land measure. 

soma (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

soma-grahana (SII 1 ), lunar eclipse; same as soma-parvan. 

soma-parvan (LP), lunar eclipse; same as soma-grahana. 

Somaskanda, South Indian representation of Siva along 
with Uma and Skanda. 

somavati (IA 26), same as ba-di 15 falling on a Monday. 

soma-ydga (CII 4), name of a Vedic sacrifice. 

Somaydjin (SITI ), one who has performed the soma-ydga. 

sopdna (SITI), steps; stairs; a sloping roof; the base of 
the garbha-grha of a temple. 

Soter (IE 8-2), Greek; 'saviour'; royal title; translated 
into Prakrit as Tratara=Trdtara (Sanskrit Trdtr). 

soil (IE 8-8; El 30), probably, pot for measuring liquids 
like wine; a ladleful; name of a measure. 

spdrha-vihdratd, cf. Prakrit phdsu-vihdlatd (CII 1 ), comfort. 

spasta (CII 3), an astronomical term meaning 'apparent'; 
cf. spasta-tithi, 'an apparent tithi', from which the mean tit hi 
has to be determined. 

sphotana (IE 8-5 ),cf.tira-sphotana, 'breaking somebody's head.' 

sphuram, quickly (Select Inscriptions, p. 240). 

Srd (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of Srdvana. 

srdddha (CII 4), funeral rite. 

sraddhd-ddna (ML), a pious gift. 

rdddh-dnga (El 28 ), gift for the merit of a deceased person. 

$rdddha-kara, tax for performing srdddha at Gaya (Rdjatar., 
VI. 254; VII. IOCS). 

srdddha-tithi (CII 4), date on which the Srdddha is to be 

frdhe, also spelt hdhi, srdhi } Srdhi, srdhi, 'the year* (pro- 

316 srahi sresthi 

bably derived from Prakrit sarahi, Sanskrit saradi, 'in the year' ) ; 
the period of 12 months. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 80, note 
2; Vol. XXIX, p. 106; Vol. XXX, p. 161, note 12; XXXII, 
p. 233 and note 8. 

Srahi, srdhi (IE 8-1; El 6, 23), probably, derived from 
Sanskrit saradi- Prakrit sarahi; 'in the year'; 'the year'; used 
sometimes in place of samvat, but sometimes side by side with 
it. See srdhe, etc. 

srdhi, srdhi, same as srdhe, etc. 

Sramana (El 8; CII 3; LL; BL), a Buddhist or Jain monk; 
an ascetic. 

Sramana-srdvikd (LL ), female disciple of Jain ascetics. 
Cf. Sraman-opdsaka. 

Srdmanera (El 25), cf. Sdmanera (El 2); Buddhist; a 
novice monk ; cf. the feminine form Srdmanerl. 

Sramanikd (LL), cf. Samanikd (El 25), a Buddhist nun. 

Sramanoddesa (LL), Buddhist; a novice. 

Sraman-opdsaka (LL), lay follower of Buddhist Sramanas. 
Cf. Sramana-srdvikd. 

Srdvaka (El 7, 8, 24; ML; LL; HA), a lay follower of 
Jainism or Buddhism; cf. the feminine form Srdvikd, sometimes 
called Srdvikd bhaginl in Jain records. 

srdvaka (CII 1 ), 'a matter relating to a declaration'. 

srdvana (SITI ), also called srdvana-patra (q.v. ), sale deed; 
a document; cf. sdldvanam (SITI ), a sale deed (dvana-sdldvanam ). 

srdvana-patra (El 30), a deed of declaration; a sale-deed. 
Cf. srdvana. 

Srdvikd (HA), cf. Sdvikd (El 7), Jain; a female lay wor- 

srdvita, cf. rdja-srdvita (El 6; IA 19), decree; a procla- 

(El 28 ), religious instruction. 

sre (PJS; LP), contraction of Sresthin, 'a banker' or 
sreyase, 'for the merit of...' (especially in medieval Jain ins- 

Sreni, sreni (CII 3, 4; LL), Prakrit seni (El 25); a cor- 
poration or guild; cf. sreni-bala, the army maintained by a 

sreni-karana, cf. karana (LP); the department of guilds. 

re$thi-jirna-visvamalla-priya , wrongly read as srestha (LP), 

Sretfhin Srighana 


probably a mistake for jirna-sresthi-visvamalla-priya; name of a 
coin struck by Sresthin Visvamalla. See jirna-sresthi-visvamalla 
(or srimalla)-priya. 

Sresthin (IE 8-3; CII 4; LL), a banker or merchant or 
the foreman of a guild ; sometimes mentioned in the list of the 
king's officials and subordinates addressed by him while making 
a grant (Ep. Lid., Vol. XXIV, p. 276). 

(BL), representative of the banker class in the council of 
the local administrators of a town. Cf. Setti, Nagara-sresthin. 

sri (CII 3,etc. ), honorific prefix to names often rendered 
variously in English; e.g., in the case of paramount sovereigns 
and their wives by 'glorious'; of feudatories and other ordinary 
persons by 'illustrious'; of priests, teachers, etc., by 'saintly'; 
of gods by 'holy' ; sometimes sri is used before consonants and 
srimat before vowels. The honorific sri is sometimes used in 
South Indian records along with the words vijaya or vijaya-siva 
(q.v. ). Cf. sri-ni, Sricarana, etc. 

(I A 17), cf. sri-purva used for sri-yuta; sri is sometimes 
repeated for emphasis, e.g., ( sri 108' is written to indicate the 
repetition of the word for 108 times. 

sri-bali (SITI ), daily offering of the ball service in temples; 
also havir-bati. Cf. Tamil sri-bali-kottuvdr, a musical troupe 
playing on the instruments at the time of the sri-bali in temples. 

(SITI), image of the deity taken round the temple 
when the bali is offered ; the procession circumambulating the 
temple at the time of the bali service. 

sri-bali-bhoga (SITI ), land set apart to meet the expenses 
of the sri-bali service in a temple; also called sri-bali-ppatti. 

sri-bhdnddra (El 33; SITI ), the treasury of a temple. 

(ASLV), collective name for the trustees of a temple; same 
as sribhanddra-vdriyam. 

Sribhanddra-vdriyam (El 33 ), executive body in charge of 
the administration of a temple. Cf. sri-bhdnddra. 

Sr ic and ana, a title of nobility in medieval Orissa (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXVIII, p. 310, text lines 8-9 ). Cf. Haricandana. 

Sri-carana (IE 8-1, 8-8; El 28), literally, 'the honourable 
feet [of the king] '; the king; cf. Sri-hasta, Sri-pdda, sri-ni. 

sri-dvdra (El 6), a special type of gateway like the makara- 

righana (SIX 1 ), glorious. 

318 Sri Sri 

sri-gosdld, cf. Tamil tiru-kkosdlai (SITI), cow-stall of 
a temple. 

Sri-hasta (IE 8-1, 8-8; El 28), literally, 'the honourable 
hands [of the king] '; the king; see Sri-car ana, Sri-pdda, srl-ni. 

sri-jnana, cf. Tamil tiru-ndnam (SITI ), sacred hymns sung 
to the deity in a temple during worship. 

ri-kanthamani, cf. tiru-kkantamani (SITI), a kind of 

snkdra (LP), recognition by writing. 

Srikarana (IE 8-3; El 1 1, 21, 31 ; HD ), the drafting of docu- 
ments; a scribe or scribe-accountant or secretary; the minister 
Hemadri was styled Sarva-srikarana-prabhu (Hist. Dharm., Vol. I, 
p. 356, note 849). Cf. Karana, Sri-karan-ddhipa, Srisrikarana. 

(El 23, 29, 30), record office; the record department; 
the department responsible for drawing up documents. 

(730; CII 4), record officer; the officer in charge of 
drawing documents. 

Cf. Puravuvari-srikarana-ndyaka (El 21 ), official designation. 

Cf. karana (LP); explained as 'the income department.' 

Srikaran-ddhipa (IE 8-3; HD), superintendent of the 
department of records ; head of all the scribes or of all the depart- 
ments. See Ep. I?id., Vol. XIII, p. 17. Hemadri was styled 
Samasta-karan-ddhisvara or Samasta-karan-ddhipati (Hist. Dharm., 
Vol. I, pp. 356-57, notes 850-51 ). See Srikarana. 

Srikaran-dgrani (HD), same as Srikaran-adhipa, etc. 

srikdra-mudr-dnkita (LP ), sealed with the syllable Sn. 

Srlkarana-prabhu (IE 8-3 ), same as Srikaran-ddhipa, etc. 

Srikarana-viditam (LP ), 'having informed the records office 
or officer'. 

Snkaranin (El 26 ), same as Srikaran-ddhipa, etc. 

sri-kdrya (SI I 2 ), management of a temple. 

sri-kataka (LP), royal camp. 

srikhanda (LP), also spelt frifanda; sandal wood. 

srikhanda-ghodu (LP ), a kind of horse. 

srimdda (El 10), palace. 

srimad-ddivardha-dramma (El 1 ), name of a coin, issued 
by king Adivaraha (Bhoja I Pratihara, c. 835-85 A.D. ). 

Sri-maheSvara (ASLV), a aiva ascetic who is one among 
the authorities of a iva temple. 

$rl-malaya, cf. Tamil tiru-malai (SITI), literally, 'the 

Sri Sn 319 

sacred hill;' but really, the central shrine, generally of a !iva 

sri-mdlikd, cf. Tamil tiru-mdligai-ppatti (SITI ), small shrines 
or niches in the prdkdra of a temple on the inner side of the com- 
pound wall. Cf. tiru-mdligai-ppillaij the temple executive. 

sri-mandira, cf. Tamil tim-mandiram (SITI), a temple; 
also tiru-mandira-kkodi, cloth threaded round the flag-staff of a 
temple during festivals. See also Tiru-mandirav-olai, a secre- 
tary of the government ; an officer entrusted with the duty of 
communicating the decisions of the king in writing; also Tim- 
mandirav-olai-ndyakam, the chief secretary to the government; 
chief of the tiru-mandirav-olai department. 

Srimat (CII 3; IA 13), prefixed, like M, to names of per- 
sons and also of places; often used before names beginning with 
a vowel. 

sri-mukha (SII 12; SITI), royal order or charter; a 
letter from the king or a chief. Cf. Tamil tim-muga-kkdnam, 
expenses as wages, etc., paid to the person who brings the 
tiru-mugam (royal order) to the village. 

sri-naksatra, cf. Tamil tim-naksatra (SITI), natal star; 
annual birthday; a year. 

sri-ndman, cf. Tamil tiru-ndma-kkdni, tim-ndmattu-kkdni 
(SITI), literally, 'the hereditary right of enjoyment in the 
sacred name'; actually, land or village, generally tax-free, 
endowed to a Siva temple. 

sri-nayana, cf. Tamil tiru-nayanam (SITI ), an ornament 
made of gold or silver resembling the eye and put on the eyes 
of the idol ; same as Tamil kan-malar. 

sn-ni (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of Srihasta-niriksita, 'examined 
by the king'. See ni and Sri-hasta, etc. 

Sripdda (IE 8-8), used to indicate 'the king'; cf. ri-carana> 
etc. ; also Tamil Sripddangal (SITI ), an exalted personage; used 
as an expression of respect. 

Cf. Tamil sripadatdngikal (SITI ), vehicle-bearers attached 
to a temple, as supporting the feet of the god. 

sri-pascima-mandira, cf. Tamil tiru-mer-koyil (SITI ), sacred 
temple in the west; a Visnu temple which is situated to the 
west of a village. 

$ri-patta (El 15), royal charter or seal. 

(El 2 ), diadem bestowed [upon a favourite] by the king. 

320 fri 

(Ep. /</., Vol.11, p. 344), same as raja-pat fa or patti (El 4). 

sri-pattikd, cf. Tamil tiru-ppattigai (SITI ), girdle worn 
by the image of a deity. 

sriphala (El 9), the bilva fruit. 

Sri-pnhivi-vallabha (IE 8-2), literally, 'the husband of 
[the goddesses] Sri and Prthivl (i.e. the god Visnu)'; title 
assumed by some kings of the Deccan probably claiming to be 
incarnations of the god Visnu ;often abbreviated as Srlvallabha 
or Vallabha. 

Sri-Rama (ASLV), sign manual of some kings of Vijaya- 
nagara who often wrote Sri-Virupdksa f jr the purpose. 

sri-ranga, cf. Tamil tiruj-ararigu (SITI ), same as rariga- 

Sri-rudra (SITI; ASLV), also caled firi-rudra-mahesvara', 
a aiva devotee; same as ri-mdhesvara. 

Srisdmanta (El 21, 26), sometimes a personal name (e.g. 
Sandhivigrahin rlsamanta who was the writer of a royal 
charter) and sometimes a designation (as in Kamsdra-kulapu- 
traka-sres thin Snsdmanta-Svayambhu who was the engraver of the 
same charter). See Ep. IncL, Vol. XXV, p. 240. 

srisrikaran-cdi~samasta-mudrd-vydpdra, cf. mudrd-vydpdra. 

Srivallabha (IE 8-2 ), cf. Sri-prthivi-vallabha. 

srivatsa (SII 2), mole on Visnu's chest; sometimes 
represented in the shape of a crown as found in the Hathingumpha 
inscription of Kharavela. 

Sri-vijaya, cf. sn-vijaya-Nandivarman, sri-vijaya-Vengipura, 
etc. See The Successors of the Sdtavdhanas, p. 63. Cf. sri. 

sri-vijaya-siva, honorific prefixed to the names of a few 
South Indian kings; cf. Ep. 2nd., Vol. XXXV, p. 152, text 
line 4; The Successors of the Sdtavdhanas, p. 63. Cf. sri, vijqya- 
siva, siva. 

sri-vimdna (SII 2, 13), same as vimdna; central shrine 
in the temple. 

Sri-Virupdksa (ASLV), sign manual of the Vijayanagara 
kings, Virupaksa being their tutelary deity. Cf. Srl-Rdma. 

Sri-vithi-ndyaka, cf. Tamil Tiru-vidi-ndyakar (SITI ), a metal- 
lic image of the deity for being taken in procession along the 
streets round the temple. 

&rnga (El 14), mentioned in relation to a tank, 


frngdra Sthala 321 

srfigdra-bhoga (El 5 ), same as ranga-bhoga (q.v. ). 

srotaka (IE 8-5; El 32 ), a kind of rent; cf. Srotra, etc. 

srotra (IE 8-5; El 32 ), probably, a tax in kind collected 
from farmers by a lessee of State lands; same as Marathi 
tilotara, silotarl or silotrij cf. srotaka. 

srotriya (SITI ), land or a village granted to a Srotriya or 
Brahmana learned in the Vedas. 

bruta-devatd (El 2 ), the goddess of eloquence. 

sruti (SII 1 ), a Vedic text. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

Srutiman (SITI), elders of a community looking after 
its affairs; perhaps adapted from Tamil Kelvi. 

sry-djnd, cf. Tamil sny-djnai (SITI ), royal order. 

sry-amrta, cf. Tamil tiruv-amudu (SITI), food offering 
(mainly, rice ) to a deity in a temple. 

stambha (BL), a tower. 

(LL ), a pillar. Cf. skambha. 

(IE 8-6; El 3), same as Kannada kamrna, kamba, kambha; 
a land measure equal to one-hundredth of a maUaru or nivartana. 

(SITI), lamp-stand or lamp-post. 

sthd, cf. paratra sthdpayitvd (LP), 'by laying it out at in- 
terest'; yasti-pratisthdpanarh sthdpayitvd, 'besides raising the 
pillar' (Select Inscriptions, p. 136). See sthdpayitvd. 

sthal (IA 15), a standard for measuring gardens. 

sthala (IE 8-4), shortened form of deva-sthala\ sometimes 
suffixed to names of localities ; also the subdivision of a district. 

(IE 8-4; El 12, 18, 24; ASLV), a small territorial unit 
like a Pargana; a district or its subdivision. Gf. Kona-sthala 
(El 32 ), also called a desa, mandala, rdstra, sima, etc. 

(CITD), a place, habitation; a holy place; a district. 

Cf. sa-jala-sthala (IE 8-5); the land [of a village]. 

Cf. Tamil sthala-kkdval (SITI ), village watch. 

sthala-durga (ASLV ), fort built on the plains. 

Sthala-gauda (ASLV), officer associated with the admi- 
nistration of the unit called sthala', cf. Sthala-karnam, Gauda. 

sthdlaka (El 19), explained as 'a back-bone.' 

Sthala-karana, cf. Sthala-karnam (q.v. )., a village official 
(Ep.Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 261). 

Sthala-karnam (ASLV), an accountant-clerk associated 
with the administration of -the- unit called sthala. CLSthala-karana. 

322 sthalaSthdna 

[sthala] -patha-karana, cf. karana (LP ) ; the department of 

sthala-purdna (IA 30 ), a eulogistic work on a holy place, 
river, etc. Cf. mdhdtmya. 

sthala-vrtti (EI 13), explained as e a tenure in which pay- 
ment of tax was made in kind from the produce' ; cf. tala-vrlti 
(Ep.Ind., Vol. XII, p. 273). 

sthali (IE 8-4), shortened form of deva-sthali; sometimes 
suffixed to names of localities; also the subdivision of a district 
(EI 11). 

Sthdmya (EI 24), wrong reading of Sthdyin (q.v. ). 

sthdna (EI 8), residence. 

(/E8-4; SITI ), literally, 'a place 5 ; abbreviation ofdeva- 
sthdna or a temple; sometimes suffixed to names of localities. 

Cf. bhagavato sthdne (Liiders, Mathurd Ins., p. 62, text lines 


(LL)> also sthdnaka, a temple; cf. Sthdnika, Sthdnattdr. 

(SII 1 ), a shrine; cf. mahdsthdna, a great temple. 

(L43), aBhuta temple. 

Cf. tdna-mdnam (SITI), dignity or honour attached to 
a status or office. 

Cf. sirhha-sthdna (LL), same as sirhh-dsana. 

(SII 11-1), cf. Kannada thdna\ name of a geographical 

Sthdna (CII 4), a superintendent cf. Sthdnapala, etc. 

(79 ), cf. 'officer in charge of the sthdnas.' 

sthdna-bhumi (EI 24), land belonging to a temple. 

Sthdn-dcdrya (EI 5,6, 16, 28), priest of a temple; the 
chief priest. 

sthdna-ddna (LP), allowing one to stand somewhere, i.e. 
allotting some land to one. 

sthdn-ddhikdra (IA 18), office of the superintendent of 
a shrine. 

Sthdn-ddhikaranika (EI 3, 6, 24 ), officer in the administra- 
tion of an outpost; see Sthdn-ddhikrta. 

Sthdn-ddhikrta (IE 8-3; EI 24), modern Thanddar; officer 
in charge of a police or military outpost; cf. Gaulmika. See 
Sthdn-ddhipati, Sthanapdla, etc. 

Sthdn-ddhipati (CITD ), same as Sthdn-ddhyaksa, Sthdnapati, 
etc.; a local governor; superintendent of a place; a watch- 

sthanakaSthapati 323 

man; a police officer; often also called Sthdnika-dharma-kartr. 
(El 24 ), officer in charge of an outpost. 

sthdnaka (LL ), same as sthdna, a temple. 

sthdna-karana, cf. karana (LP); explained as 'the public 
works department'. 

Sthdnalaka (Gil 4), a local officer. 

Sthdna-mahdja?ia(El 31 ), same as Tamil Sthdnattar (Sanskrit 

sthdna-mdnya (CITD), probably, land granted by the 
ruler to his officers for their maintenance in lieu of salary. 

Sthdndntarika (IE 8-3; El 23, 28, 29), probably, superin- 
tendent of encampment or transfer of the king's residence from 
one camp to another. 

Sthdnapdla (El 15; HD), officer in charge of a police out- 
post. See Hist. Dharm., Vol.111, p. 149. 

Sthdnapati (IE 1 8 ), a civil agent kept by the Nqyakaszt the 
imperial court at Vijayanagara. 

(El 18, 28 ), officer in charge of an outpost. 

(IA 18), designation associated with a religious office; 
cf. Sthdn-dcdrya. 

Sthdnattar (SITI; ASLV), Sanskrit Sthdnastha; managers 
of a temple; the temple executive. 

Sthdnika (IA 12; ASLV), superintendent or manager 
of a temple; cf. Tamil Tdnigar (SITI), temple executive; also 
Tdnika-rqyar, director of the temple ceremonies. 

(El 8 ), title of priests in Jain temples. 

(El 28 ), an officer belonging to an outpost probably serving 
under the Sthdnapati, or the same as the Sthdnapati. 

(HD), an officer in charge of a ward of a city or a district. 
See Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, pp. 143 and 149. 

(HRS ), according to the Arthasdstra, ( 1 ) officer in charge 
of one-fourth of the kingdom; (2) officer in charge of one- 
fourth of a city. 

Sthdpan-dcdrya (HA ), same as Thavani (q.v. ). Cf. Sthdn- 

Sthapati (El 4; BL; HD), a mason or architect. See 
Visnudharmottara, II. 24. 39. 

Sthapati-samrdj (CII 3; HD), 'the chief of architects'; 
the chief architect. See C/7, Vol. Ill, p. 119. 

324 sthapayitvd sthiti 

sthapayitvd, cf. Prakrit thapdicharh (CII 2-1 ), literally, 
'having kept'; really, 'besides', 'in addition to...'; cf. yasti- 
pratithanarh thapalcham (Sanskrit yasti-pratisthdpanarh sthdpayit- 
vd), 'in addition to the erection of the memorial pillar 3 . 

sthdvara, cf. sa-sthdvara-jangama (IE 8-5); the immovable 
belongings of a village. 

Sthavira (CII 3, etc.), a Buddhist priestly title; same as 
Pali Thera; an Elder in the community of Buddhist monks; a 
senior monk. Cf. Thaira (El 3), an Elder among Buddhist 
monks; also Sangha-sthavira (Liiders, Mathurd Ins., p. 190), 
'the senior of the order'. 

Sthavira-kalpin (HA ), a Jain Sddhu whose practices are not 
so rigorous as that of a Jina-kalpin and are easier to practise. 

Sthaviri (LL), Buddhist; a senior nun; Pali Then. 

Sthaviriya, cf. Prakrit Theriya (El 33 ), community of the 
Buddhist monks called Sthaviravddin. 

Sthdyin (wrongly read as Sthdmin in Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV, 
p. 145, text line 2), possibly, the permanent tenants of a village. 
See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 234. Cf. Asthdyika-purusa. 

sthird (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 181), a permanent 

sthira-sibira (I A 12), same as Kannada nele-vidu; 'a stand- 
ing camp'; capital; cf. jaya-skandhdvdra of the Pala inscriptions. 

sthita (CII 1 ), same as upasthita, present. 

(BEFEO, Vol. XLIII, p. 6, text line 15 ), same as pratifthita, 

sthitaka (El 1 1 ), perpetual grant. 

sthiti (El 32 ), decree. 

(IE 8-5), regulation; see dcdra-sthiti. 

(El 12), usage; practice [in respect of calculation of 
dates]; Mdlava-gana-sthiti-vdsdtkdla-jndndya likhitesu, '[in the 

years ] written for the knowledge of time (i.e. the 

date of some event ) according to the practice [of calculation] 
of the Malava republic' ; Mdlavdndrh gana-sthityd ydte sata-catu- 

taye, 'four hundred years having elapsed according to 

the practice [of calculation] of the Malavas." 

sthiti-pdtra (IE 8-5), same as dcdra-sthiti-pdtra (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXX, p. 169); a document containing regulations; see 
sthiti-vyavasthd, etc. Pdtra seems to be used for patra. 

sthiti-palraka (El 32 ), a record of decision. 

sthitipatra sudhd 


sthilipdtra-vyavasthd (IE 8-5), same as sthili-palra or dear a- 
sthithi-pdtra (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 169). 

sthiti-vyavasthd (IE 8-5), same as sthiti-pdtra or dcdra-sthiti- 
pdtra (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 169). 

sthund (ML), a pilaster. 

Stratega (IE 8-2, 8-3), Greek Strategos (q.v.), com- 
mander of forces. 

Strategos (IE 8-2, 8-3), Greek; commander of forces, 
transliterated as Stratega (q.v.) in Indian records; a feudatory 
or gubernatorial title. 

stri-dhana (SITI; ASLV), dowry. 

Stry-adhyaksa (IE 8-3; CII 1), superintendent of matters 
concerning the ladies of the royal household; cf. Antahpur- 
ddhyaksa, Stryadhyaksa-mahdmdtra, etc. 

Stryadhyaksa-mahdmdtra (HD), Prakrit Ithijhakha-mahd- 
mdta, etc.; superintendent of the harem. See CII, Vol. I, p. 20. 

Cf. Antahpura-mahdmdtra in the Masulipatam plates of 
Amma II (Ep'. Ind., Vol. XXIV, p. 276). 

stupa (CII 3; BL; LL), technical name of a type of 
Buddhist monument; a Buddhist structure enshrining relics. 
Sometimes the term ratna-grha (i.e. the house enshrining the 
three ratnas or the best amongst the three ) seems to be used to 
denote a stupa. 

(El 2 ), a Jain religious establishment. 

(SITI), pinnacle of a temple. 

stupi, same as vimdna (IA 9), q.v. 

su (IE 8-1; CII 3; LP), abbreviation of sukla-paksa or 
Suddha-paksa or the bright fortnight ; a day of the bright half of 
the month; used in connection with di (e.g. su-di), but some- 
times by itself; often written as su. Cf. ba-di. 

su, cf. su. 

subhdsita (CII 4), a pithy saying in a stanza. 

subhra (IA 17), used to indicate the bright fortnight. 

suci (LL), suci (El 15), a rail bar. 

su-di (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of sukla (or suddha)-paksa-dina 
(or divasa ), often written as su-di. See su-ti. 

su-di (IE 8-1 ), mistake for su-di. 

Suddh-dvdsa (I A 10), Buddhist; 'pure abode' being five 
in number. 

sudhd-karman (El 23), white- washing. 

326 sudhafnSu Sulitdna 

sudharhsu (IE 7-1-2), e one 5 . 
su-divasd (IA 18; CII 1 ), an auspicious day. 
suka-ndsa, cf. sukandsi (Arch. Rev., 1960-61, Section III) 
literally, 'a parrot's nose' explained as 'a gargoyle or 
the waterspout in a building' (Acharya, Ind. Arch., p. 169) 
and 'a vestibule' (R. Narasirhhachar, The Kesava Temple of 
Somandthapur, p. 3); but also as 'the projection of the main 
body of the sikhara of a temple originally at the front- 
side' (Kramrisch, Hindu Temple, p. 241); also called M> 
dnghri. The Dipdrnava (ed. Prabhasankar O. Sompura, p. 116) 
has the following stanzas on the subject : 

agre kolikapolas=tu Suka-ndsas=tu ndsikd I 

sdndhdre stambha-rekhd ca kartavyd madhya-ko$thake \\ 

prdsddasya puro-bhdge nirvdna-mula-srngakam \ 

tad-agre suka-ndsam ca ek-ddi saptam=udgamam II 

tasy=opari simhah sthdpyo mandapa-kalasa-samah I 

dvi-stambhah Suka-nds-dgre vijneyah pdda-mandapah II 

Sukara-kavi (Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p. 231, note 1 ), epithet of 
a poet; cf. Asu-kavi. 

sukhd (IA 26), same as su-di 4. 

sukhadi, sukhadl (LP), Gujarat!; also spelt susadi', a kind 
of sweetmeat; a reward. 

sukhana, sukhand (CII 1 ), 'causing happiness'. 

sukh-dsana (Ind. Ant., Vol. IX, p. 95), translated as 'a 
palanquin' ; enumerated as one of the five prasddas granted by 
a king to a subordinate. Cf. pancdnga-prasdda. 

sukha-sankathd-vinoda (IA 8), 'the delight of pleasing 
conversation'; cf. 'while he was ruling, with the delight of 
pleasing conversation, at the capital of Kalyana'. 

Sukra-netra (IE 7-1-2), 'one 5 . 

sukrta (CII 1 ), a good deed. 

Sukti, same as Satamdna (q.v. ). 

sula (IE 7-1-2), 'three'; cf. trisula, a trident. 

Sulapdla (El 1 1 ), probably, an associate of the courtesans. 

Sulatdna (BL), Indian modification of a title of the 
Muhammadan kings; same as Arabic Sultan. Cf. Sulitdna, etc. 

sulavari (El 25), Tamil; name of a tax. 

sulin (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

Sulitdna (BL), Indian modification of a title of the 
Muhammadan kings; same as Arabic Sultan. Cf. Sulatdna, etc. 

sulka Sunka 


Mka (IE 8-5; El 12, 23, 25, 30; Gil 4; GITD), tolls; 
customs duties ; octroi duties ; taxes particularly levied at ferries 
and passes and on roads, etc. ; cf. kridara-sulka (El 5 ), name of 
a tax; also sungam, sunkam (SITI), customs, tolls. 

(HRS), tax, probably identical with ball according to 
early authorities ; ferry dues, tolls and transit duties according 
to the Smrtis and lexicons ; according to the Arthasdstra, ( 1 ) 
duties levied upon articles imported into a city, (2 ) port-dues, 
(3 ) duty upon the sale of liquors, (4 ) customs collected by 
the ferrymen and boundary-officers, (5) duty upon mining 
products, (6) duty upon imported salt, and (7) duty upon 
animals intended for slaughter; according to Sukra, tolls and 
duties upon building-sites, etc. The Amarakosa explains sulka 
as ghatt-ddi-deya and Ksirasvamin enumerates the dues as ferry 
duties, tolls paid at military stations or police outposts and 
transit duties paid by merchants. 

sulk-ddhikdra, cf. sunk-ddhikdra (El 5 ), 'office for the collec- 
tion of tolls [of the Banavasi District]'. Same as $ulk-d-dhyaksa. 

Sulkagrdha (HD ), an official who collected tolls or cus- 
toms duties. See Sukra, II. 128. 

sulka-mandapikd (El 3, 9), customs house. See sulka-sdld. 

(CH 4 ), explained by some as 'a market-pavilion'. 

(Ind. Ant.,Vol. XI, p. 329 and note 3 1 ), translated as c the 
rent office'. 

fulka-fdld, cf. sunga-fdlai (SITI), place where tolls are 
collected; a customs house. See sulka-mandapikd. 

sulk-dtiydtrika (IE 8-8; El 30), boundary-crossing fee; 
exit tax; cf. atiydtrika. 

Sumantra (HD), king's counsellor on matters relating 
to income and expenditure. See Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, p. 114, 
note 150. 

sund (HRS ), royal dues collected by the superintendent of 
the slaughter-house, as suggested by the Arthasastra. 

sundaka (IA 19), meaning doubtful; probably, a bundle. 

sunka (El 12), a corrupt form of sulka often found in 
South Indian inscriptions. 

Sunkapanndyadadhisthdyaka (IE 8-3), Kannada-Sanskrit; 
superintendent of the income from tolls. See Sunka-vergade '. 

Sunka-vergade (El 19), Kannada; official designation; 
Sanskrit Sulk-ddhyak$a. See Sunkapanndyadadhi^hdyaka. 

328 Siinya suta 

sunya (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher'. 

s iiiiya-grama, cf. 'she made a further grant of five sunya- 
grdmas* (Arch.Rev., 1960-61, Section III, No. 44). 

Sunydrd, Sunydrd (Ghamba), a goldsmith; from Sanskrit 

Supakdrapati (El 13; HD), the chief cook. See Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XIII, pp. 109, 115. Cf. Bhdnasa-vergade, Mahdnas-ddhyaksa, 
Ma (Md) hdnasika, Khddya (k u * ) tapdkika. 

Suparna (El 2 ), a class of demi-gods. 

suprabhdta (IA 12), name of the morning worship at the 
Ramesvara temple. 

supraddrya (CII 1 ), 'easy to enter', 'easy to do'. 

sura (IE 7-1-2), 'thirty three'. 

surabhi, see surahi. 

surahi (HA), Sanskrit surabhi', inscribed stone with the 
representation of a cow with her calf and the sun and the moon 
in the upper part, the inscriptions usually recording gifts or 
donations or exemptions from obligations or taxes declared 
by kings. This indicated permanence and inviobability. 

surd-karana (El 30), distillation of liquor. 

Suratdna (IE 8-2; El 12), same as Arabic Sultan; see 
Suratrdna, Sulatdna, etc. 

Suratrdna (IE 8-2; El 4, 1, 13, 32; BL), variously spelt 
as Suritrdna, Suratdna, etc.; Hindu adaptation of the Muslim 
royal title Sultan', often adopted as a personal name. Cf. 
Hammira. See Sulatdna, etc. 

Suravdla (El 33), one who sets songs or musical instru- 
ments to tune. 

Suri (El 9), title of Jain religious teachers; often used as 
their name-ending. 

Suritrdna (BL), same as Suratrdna, etc. 

surya (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'twelve'. 

surya-bha (JAHRS, Vol. II, p. 287, text line 64), literally, 
'the sun's asterism', the Hasta-naksatra. 

surya-graha (El 24), solar eclipse. 

surya-parvan (IA 19; LP), solar eclipse. 

fusrusd (CII 1 ), obedience; cf. dharma-s'us'rusdih fusrusatu, 
*one should practise obedience to morality.' 

suta (IE 7-1-2), confused with Pdndu-suta and used to 
indicate 'five'. 

Suta Suvarnavlthy 329 

Suta, one of the king's high functionaries (ratna or ratniri) ; 
cf. Hist. Dharm., Vol. Ill, p. 111. 

Suta-celd (BL), a pupil or disciple. 

su-ti (IE 8-1), contraction of sukla(or suddha)-paksa-tithi. 

sutra (IA 20), a manual of religious rituals, etc. 

(HRS), royal receipts collected by the superintendent of 
weaving, as suggested by the Arthasdstra. 

(IE 3-1 ), same as sarayantraka^ the string holding the 
leaves of a manuscript together (Vdsavadatta, Hall's ed., p. 250). 

Sutra (PJS), abbreviation of Sutradhdra, a mason. 

Sutrabhrt (El 33 ), same as Sutradhdra. 

Sutradhdra (El 24; CII 4; BL), a mason; an artisan; an 
epithet generally applied to the engravers of stone inscriptions 
of the medieval period. See Sutrabhrt, Sutradhrt, Sutradhdrin. 

Sutradhdra-pitdmaha, cf. pitdmaha (IA 19); 'the very 
Brahman among the masons' ; title of a mason. 

Sutradhdrin (El 15), same as Sutradhdra. 

Sutradhrt (El 31), same as Sutradhdra. 

Sutrdntika (LL), a Buddhist monk versed in the sutra 
works. See Sutrcmtikini. 

Sutrdntikini (LL ), a Buddhist nun versed in the sutra works. 
See Sutrdntika. 

suttee (GllSJetc.), seesati. 

suvarna (IE 8-IS; El 28; Gil 3), name of a gold coin and 
also of a weight of^old; equal to 16 mdsas or 80 ratis; also 
called aksa, picu, ptyii, kroda, binduka, viddlapadaka, harhsapada, 
grdsagraha and tola\ See JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 46. 

(SH 1 3 ), samd as Tamil kalanju. 

suvarna-danda (IE 8-5; El 12, 28), tax on goldsmiths; 
same as Tamil tattar\pdttam, etc., noticed in Appendix II. 

suvarn-dddya (pITD), same as suvarn-dya. Cf. hiranya, 

Suvarn-ddhyaksa\(EI 24), official designation; probably 
the same as Suvarnavmy-adhikrta (q.v. ). 

Suvarnakdra (Elp4, BL), a goldsmith; often the epithet 
of the engravers of cobper-plate grants. 

Suvarnavithy-adhima (El 18), superintendent of the gold- 
smith's business. Suvcrna-vlthi literally means 'the quarters of 
the goldsmiths'. 

330 suvarnasvara 

suvarn-dya (also called suvarn-dddya ) ; land revenue paid in 
cash. Cf. hiranya, etc. 

Suvastiyam (SITI), Tamil; right of hereditary enjoyment. 

svabhra, cf. sa-vana-svabhra-nidhana; a pit. 

Svadesin (CITD ), often used with the word Para-desin or 
Ndnddesin with reference to the two main communities of 
traders and merchants. 

sva-hasta (El 23; Gil 3; IA 8), signature or sign-manual. 

Cf. sva-hast-dksardni (LP), a receipt. 

(Ind. Ep., p. 187, verse 77), used to indicate a grant of 
land because the donor's signature was required to be put on a 
deed of grant. 

svah-svah (CII 1 ), daily; same as ahar-ahah. 

svalpa (El 24), small; sometimes prefixed to the name of 
a locality (e.g. Svalpa-Vallura ), etc., to distinguish it from 
others of the same name but styled 'big' or 'medium'. Gf. 
Ksudra-Dharmagiri and Mahd-Dharmagiri; Vada-Hosaand Mamjhi- 
Hosa (El 35). 

Svamin (IE 8-3; El 24; CII 3; LL), royal title probably 
of foreign origin, assumed by the kings of aka-Kusana ex- 
traction; adopted by indigenous rulers like the Satavahanas. 

Cf. Sdmi (SITI), the king. 

Cf. Vihdra-svdmin ( founder or misrer of a monastery), etc. 

(El 7 ), same as Svami-Mahasena, i.e. Karttikeya. 

(El 23), designation of the member of a guild. 

(El 5 ), cf. 'the 500 Svdmins of Aihole' ; probably meaning 
the Mdhesvaras. 

Cf. svdmi-vdram (SITI), land-lord's share; same as 
Tamil mel-vdram. 

svdmi-bhoga (El 8; SII 3), 'the master's share'; the land- 
lord's share. 

Svdmini (CII 3), a noble lady 01 mistress. Cf. also 

sva-mukh-djnd (CII 3 ), 'the order or command from one's 
own mouth' ; used with reference to the king's verbal order for 
the preparation and issue of charters. 

svdmya (SITI), ownership; right t> property; cf. ubhaya- 
svdmya (El 5), tejah-svamya\ also mameya-svdmya (SII 11-1), 
tenure held by a Manneya. 

svara (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

Svaratrana Syaramllika 331 

Svaratrdna (BL ), same as Suralrdna, etc. 

svarga (IE 7-1-2), 'twentyone'. 

svarna, cf. sona-vari (SITI ), svarna-vari, explained as 'tax 
payable in gold'; same as Tamil pon-vari; but cf. also suvarna- 
danda, profession-tax payable by the goldsmiths. 

Svarna-bhdnddrin, cf. Pon-panddrigal (El 33), members of 
the administrative council of a temple. 

svarn-dddya (SII 1; SITI), 'revenue in gold'; taxes pay- 
able in coin. Cf. hiranya, suvarn-ddaya, etc. 

svarna-danda, see suvarna-danda. 

Svarnakdra (El 24), a goldsmith. 

svarna-ksmd (El 16), name of a mahdddna. 

svarna-meru (El 24), name of a mahdddna. 

svarupa (SITI ), an estate of the Nambudris, royal per- 
sonages, etc., of Malai-nadu. 

sva-samaya (El 24), explained as a Jain doctrine; the doc- 
trines of one's own religion. 

svasti (CII 3, 4), welfare; auspicious word used at the 
beginning of some inscriptions to ensure success of the under- 
taking ; an exclamation used at the commencement of inscrip- 
tions. Sometimes used as a neuter noun, with astu in the 
mangala at the end of documents. 

svastika-patta (LL), slab with the representation of a 
svastika symbol. 

svastyayana (El 31 ), rite for averting evil. 

sva-tala (El 1 1 ), surface of the ground [of the gift land] . 

svatantra (SITI), a share; a customary fee; emoluments. 

svqyamvara (El 8), the bride's selection of her husband. 

sveta-cchatra (El 29), 'the white umbrella 5 ; one of the 
royal insignia; same as svet-dtapatra. 

sveta-gamt (SII 2 ), swan. 

svetdmbara (IA7), a Jain sect; same as Svetapata. 

Svetapata (IA 7 ), same as Svetdmbara. 

svet-dtapatra (El 29 ), 'the white umbrella', one of the 
royal insignia; same as sveta-cchatra. 

svolikd-pdta, svoli-pdta (El 1), meaning doubtful. Svokho? 

syddvdda (El 3; SII 1 ), Jain; also called syddvdda-mata, 
syddvdda-vidyd ; scepticism. 

Sydramallika (El 33), probably Persian Sair Malik (i.e. 
Malik-us- Sai ), collector or taxes, Sair meaning 'tax'. 

332 tabu iota 

tabu (IA 20, 29 ), a taboo. 

Tad-dniyuktaka (IE 8-3; El 23), official designation; same as 

taddtva (CII 1 ), the present time; the time being. 

Tad-dyuktaka (IE 8-3; El 6, 23), an officer who was a 
subordinate to the Ayuktaka\ mentioned along with Viniyuktaka; 
cf. Tad-dniyuktaka, Tan-?iiyuktaka, Tad-viniyuktaka, etc. 

Tdddyuktaka (El 15), same as Tad-dyuktaka. 

tad-bhava (I A 7 ), a word in Prakrit or the regional languages, 
which is modified from a Sanskrit word. 

Tad-viniyuktaka (IE 8-3), same as Tad-dyuktaka or Tan- 

Tagarapati (El 13), mistake for Nagarapati. 

taila, oils; a branch of revenue according to the Artha- 
Sdstra. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 90. 

tail-dbhyanga (IA 22 ), cf. abhyanga. 

taila-ghdnaka (El 19), oil mill. 

taila-parnikd (El 24), explained as 'leaves producing oil'. 

Tailika-rdja (El 23 ), 'chief of a guild of oilmen' ; desig- 
nation of the chairman of the oilmen's guild. 

Tairthika (El 32 ), same as Tfrthika, a priest [of the non- 
Buddhists] . 

(IE 8-3 ), cf. Tuthika (El 1 ; LL ), ferry-officer or officer 
in charge of the places of pilgrimage. 

Tdjika Tajjika (El 23, 32), Tdjiya y Tdyika; an Arab. 

tdkd, Bengali form of tanka, meaning a silver coin (rupee ) 
and also money. 

thdkorkhdnd (HA), same as baldnaka. 

taks-dcdrya, cf. Tamil tacc-dcdriyam (SITI), the status of 
the master carpenter; chief of the carpenters. Cf. tacc-dcdriya- 
kkdni. the right of officiating as the chief carpenter, as also the 
stone-mason of a temple; the land set apart for the enjoyment 
of the holder of that office. 

taksan (IE 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

tala, cf. sa-tala (IE 8-5); surface of the ground. 

tdla (IE 8-5), a palmyra palm; cf. sa-tdlakaas an epithet 
of a gift village referring to the right of enjoying the trees by 
privileged tenants in some areas. 

tdlaTaldra 333 

tala (SII 2), Tamil; a dish. 

(El 21; SITI), Tamil; the treasury 

tala-bhedyd (LA 18), word of uncertain implication; men- 
tioned with ghdnaka, mallaka, vundhaka etc. (IA 18); cf. talabhedyd- 
ghdnaka-mallaka-vundhaka-dandadosa-prdpt-dddya (Ind. Ant., Vol. 
XVIII, p. 83, text lines 19-20), epithet of gift village. See 

tala-bhoga (IA 7; SII 11-1), explained as 'the enjoyment 
of sites of land' ; really, 'land granted for the maintenance of a 
temple at the time of its consecration'; same as tala-vdtaka, 
tala-vrtti, and probably also tala-bhedyd. 

Tdladhvqja (BL ), official designation of the governor of a 
territory; same as Gujarat! Tdldjd. 

Talaivan (SII 1 ), Tamil; a chief. 

Talaiydri (SII 1 ), Tamil; same as Kannada Talari; a 
watchman. See Talavara. 

talaka (LP), 'on the spot'. 

(El 23), a territorial division. 

talaka (El 14), same as tajaka, tadaga; a tank. 

tala-pada (HRS ), known from Caulukya records; lands 
fully assessed for revenue, as distinguished from estates which 
were held on condition of service or for a reduced lump assess- 
ment; explained as Gujarat! talpat, 'land paying rent to the 
government' (IA 11). 

tala-pdta (SITI), Tamil; an army; armaments. 

tdla-patra> Tamil olai (SITI); literally, 'palmyra-leaf; 
an order from the king or a person in authority. Cf. olai-ccdda- 
nam, 'a document written on palm-leaf; olai-ccampadam, 'wages 
paid to the messenger who brings the olai to meet his expenses 
on the way' ; also written as olai-ccambalam, olai-ccammddam, etc. ; 
same as nirupa-ccambadarn; cf. olai-ndyaka, 'the chief secretary 
or the senior officer looking after correspondence.' 

tdla-patta (IA 15), probably the same as tdla-patra, mean- 
ing 'an ear-ornament'. 

Talaprahdrin (El 6), official designation; probably the 
same as Talari or Kotwdl. 

Taldra (IE 8-2; El 22; LP; BL; HD), administrator of 
a city or prefect of the city police ; same as Talavara, Talari or 
Kotwdl. Talavara of early South Indian inscriptions means 
a Rdjasthdniya (a Duke or a viceroy) according to some 

334 taldrTalavataka 

commentators and the Kotwdl or a city magistrate according to 
others. A subdivision of high class Khatris of the Punjab is 
called Tdlwdr. Cf. Tala-raksa or Tal-draksa', also called Araksika 
and Dandapdsika. See Bhandarkar's List, No. 579; IHQ, I960, 
p. 266. 

taldr-dbhdvya (El 11 ), tax for payment to the Taldra', ac- 
cording to some, Taldra is the Kotwdl and bhdvya or dbhdvya is 
what is called sarhbhdvand, i. e. pdghdi, and taldr-dbhdvya is the 
pdghdi money given to the Kotwdl (LP ). 

Talari (IE 8-2), Telugu-Kannada ; 'a village watchman 3 ; 
same as Taldra. 

taldrika (ASLV ), the office of the Taldra. 

Tal-draksa (El 22 ), same as Talavara. 

Taldti (Ind. Ant., Vol. XII, p. 165, noted 38), a 
stipendiary (i.e. not hereditary) village accountant in the 
Kannada- and Marathi-speaking areas. 

Talavara (IE 8-2; El 20, 28), a title of the nobility or of 
subordinate rulers in some cases (a Rdjasthdniya according 
to Vinayavijaya's Subodhikd commentary on the Jain Kalpa- 
sutra)', but the designation of the administrator of a city or of 
the police officer in charge of a city, according to some sour- 
ces (Hemacandra explaining Taldra as Nagara-raksaka); cf. 
Taldra, Taldn, etc.; also Mahdtalavara. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 78), cf. Talavara mentioned in 
the list of royal officials. 

Talavargika (El 3 ), official designation. 

talavdrikd, cf. Kannada talavdrikd (El 1 ), the village- 
watchman's quit-rent; cf. Talavara or Talari (Tamil Talaiydri), 
a village-watchman'. 

Tdldvdrika (IA 12), official designation; same as either 
Talari or Taldti (a stipendiary village-accountant in the 
Marathi- and Kannada-speaking areas). 

tala-vdtaka (El 31 ), same as tala-pdtaka or tala-vrtti. But 
cf. tala-vdtaka in tala-vdtaka-vdstund saha ksetram, c a piece of 
land together with suburbs, gardens and homestead land' 
(Select Inscriptions, p. 349, text line 18). The meaning here 
may also be 'adjoining land' which was probably the original 
implication of the expression. 

Taldvdtaka (C/7, Vol. Ill, p. 216; also p. 217 and note), 
possibly the superintendent of temple property (cf. tala-vdtaka)', 

talatdndava 335 

same as Gujarat! Taldti (a petty revenue officer), accord- 
ing to some ( HD ). 

tala-vrtti (El 13, 15,21, 33; IA 7; SII 11-1; SITI), 
'endowment of the adjoining land'; land granted for the main- 
tenance of a temple or deity at the time of its consecration; 
same as tala-bhoga, tala-vdtaka, tala-pdtaka. 

tali, tali (El 1 ), a measure of liquor. 
(6*77 3), the marriage badge; cf. mdngalya. 

tallaja (SII 1 ), excellent. 

tarn (Chamba, etc. ), abbreviation of tarhkd. 

Tdmbuladdn-ddhikrta (El 19), officer supplying betel 
bidds to the king. Cf. Vdrgulika, etc. 

Tdmb ulaka-vdhaka (El 28), bearer of the king's betel- 
box; same as Odiya Vdguli. See Tdmb u laddn-ddhikrta, etc. 

Tdmbulika (El 28 ), producer and seller of betel leaves. 

tamburu (ASLV), a musical instrument. 

Tamil, name of an alphabet and language. 

Tammadi (CITD), Telugu; also called Tammala, Tdmbali, 
Tambala-vddu and Tambiga', a Saiva priest. 

tdmra (IE; El 8, 23), same as tamra-sasana\ a copper-plate 
grant ; also land granted by means of such charters. 

Tdmrahdra, cf. Tdmerd (El 1 6 ), a coppersmith. 

tdmraka (IE; El 1, 4), same as tdmra-patta', a copper-plate 
grant; also gift land. 

tdmra-patra (El 23 ), also called tdmra-patta, tdmra- 
pattaka', same as tdmra-sdsana. 

tdmra-patta (El 19, 23, 24; CII 4; Chamba), a copper- 
plate charter; gift land. Cf. tdmra-patra, tdmra-pattaka. 

tdmra-pattaka (El 4, 23), same as tdmra-patta. 

tdmra-phall (El 22), a copper plate. Cf. triphali-tdmra- 

tdmra-prasasti (CII 4), eulogy written on copper plates; 
a copper-plate charter. 

tdmra-sdsana (\^\ El 23; CII 3 ), a copper-charter; a techni- 
cal term for a deed of conveyance written on copper plates ; also 
gift land. See sdsana. 

tana (IE 7-1-2), 'fortynine'; but sometimes used to 
indicate 'thirtyfour'. 

tanaya-prdpta (CII 3), 'an adopted son'. 

tandava (CII -4 ), name of the dance of Siva. 

336 tavdulaTantra 

tandula, unit of measurement; half of a dhdnya-mdsa (JNSI, 
Vol. XVI, p. 48). 

tandula-parvata (IA 9 ), name of a gift. 

tank (IA 26), also called tdnki, etc.; same as tanka. 

tanka (El 9,20; CII 4; ML), name of a coin; cf. Vijayaraja- 
tanka, tanka issued by Vijayaraja; spelt often as tanka and in old 
Bengali as tanka \ same as Sana also called dharana\ a coin in 
general; regarded as equal to 4 silver fanams; name applied to 
both gold and silver issues 80 rails in weight (JNSI, Vol. 
XXII, pp. 197-98); silver coins of the Delhi Sultans 96 or 100 
ratis in weight. See JJVS7, Vol. XVI, pp. 42-49. Cf. sdsukdni- 
tanka, hema-tanka, raupya-tahka\ also tanka (LP), a copper coin 
equal to half of a pice. 

(Chamba ), a copper coin equal to $ of a Rupee. 

tankaka (El 19; CII 4; BL), name of a coin; a silver 
coin. Cf. 'tankakas stamped with the figure of the Bhagavat 3 
(Bhandarkar's List, No. 2033). 

tanka-sdld, cf. Tamil itanka-sdlai (SITI ), a mint. 
tanka-sdld-karana, cf. karana (LP ) ; the department of minting 

tanmdtra (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

Tan-niyuktaka (IE 8-3 ); an officer probably under theAyukta; 
same as Tad-dyuktaka or Tad-viniyuktaka. 

tantali (IE 8-5), a tamarind tree; cf. sa-tantalika, 
epithet of a gift village referring to the right to enjoy such 
trees by privileged tenants in some areas. 

tantra (ASLV), army, government; cf. Tantrin in South 
Indian inscriptions. 

(SITI), army, mainly the infantry; cf. Tantrin in 
South Indian inscriptions. 

(C//4), explained as 'Home Affairs'. 

(LP), cf. tantre nirupita, 'officially sent'. 

(IHQ, Vol. XXXIV, p. 277), cf. Tantr-adhikdrin, 'officer 
in charge of administration', in the Bhaturiya inscription of 
Rajyapala. In this case, a person was at first a Mantrin, then 
a Saciva and finally a Tantr-ddhikdrin. 

Cf. Sarva-tantr-ddhikrta (El 24), superintendent of all 

Tantr-ddhikdrin (El 33), also called Tantr-ddhyaksa, Tan- 
trapdla> etc. ; probably, officer in charge of administration. See 

Sarvatantr tapana 



Tantr-ddhipa (El 25, 29 ;CII 4 ), same as Tantr-ddhikdrin, etc. ; 
minister for home affairs, according to some. See Sarvatantr-ddhikrta. 

Tantr-ddhyaksa (El 33 ), same as Tantr-ddhikdrin, etc. 
See Sarvatantr-ddhikrta, Tantrapati, etc. 

tantra-karana, cf. karana (LP); explained as 'the political 

Tantra-ndyaka (ASLV), official designation associated 
with tantra meaning the army or government. See Tantr-ddhi- 
kdrin, etc. 

Tantrapdla (SITI ), chief of the army. 

(IE 8-3 ; El 33 ), probably, officer in charge of adminis- 
tration; cf. Mahdtantr-ddhyaksa, Sarva-tantr-ddhikrta, Tantra- 
pati and Mahdtantr-ddhikrta, etc. 

(HD ), an officer like the Charge-d' Affaires, according to 
some; cf. Tantrapdla-Adahdsdmanta-Mahddandandyaka (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XIV, p. 185; cf. Vol. V, p. 77). 

(Hyderabad Archaeological Series, No. 18, p. 34), explained 
as 'an officer of the king's bodyguard or royal retinue. 5 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 77), explained as c a councillor.' 

(SH 11-2), cf. Tantrapdlaradhisthdyaka', also Tantra- 
pdladadhisthdyaka (A. R. Ep., 1958-59, p. 12). 

Tantrapati (IE 8-3); HD), occurs in the Rdjatarangim, 
VIII. 2322; explained as Dharm-ddhikdrin, 'officer in charge of 
the department of justice and charity' ; see Brhattantrapati. Cf. 
the Muslim official designations Sadrus-Sudur, etc., explained as 
'the chief judge and officer in charge of the king's charities' 
(Journ.As. Soc. Pak.,Vo\. IV, pp. 53-54). 

Tantravdya (El 24), a weaver. Cf. tumiavdyaa tailor. 

Tantrin (SITI; ASLV), a soldier; a trooper; a leader 
of the army; a temple priest; a weaver. It has been sup- 
posed that the Tamil words Kaikkolar and Atavi came to signify 
both a soldier and a weaver on the analogy of the word Tanthn 
used in both the senses. Cf. Tantrimdr, members of thg army 
corps ; a class of persons who perform worship in temples ; a priest. 

tanu (IE 7- 1-2), 'one'; rarely us^d to indicate 'eight'. 

(Select Inscriptions, pp. 241, 245); one's own; see tanuvaka. 

tanuvaka (CII 2-1 ), Prakrit; used in the sense of svakiya; 
see tanu. 

tapana (IE 7-1-2), -'three' with reference to Agni; but 

338 tapasvintataka 

'twelve' with reference to 'the sun'. 

tapasvin (SITI ),an ascetic; a recluse; a religious mendicant. 

tdpa-traya (SII 1 ), the three kinds of pain. 

tdpita (El 23, 24), 'heated' [for affixing the seal to a cop- 
per-plate grant] . 

Tapodhana (CITD), in Telugu-Kannada records, often 
used to indicate Jain monks ; in Orissan records, a aiva ascetic. 

tar (SII 1 ), name of a silver coin, equal to 1^ of a gold 

tara (El 9 ), same as nilqya ; the family aggregate of dwel- 
lings with some of them meant for servants and artisans ; also a 
street or a hamlet. 

(HRS), same as tara-deya, ferry dues, as indicated by the 
Arthasdstra. See tdrya. 

Cf. taram (El 7), revenue. 

tara-deya, ferry dues. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., pp. 78, 227. 

tarapani (HA), a wooden water-vessel used by Jain 

Tarapati (IE 8-3; CII 4; HD), officer in charge of the 
ferries ; superintendent of the ferries ; cf. Tarika and Tairthika ; 
but see Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 321, where Tarika and Tara- 
patika are separately mentioned, and Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, p. 
306, text line 35 where Tarapati is likewise mentioned sepa- 
rately from Tarika. 

Taravara (El 20, 25), same as Talavara (q.v. ); official 

Taravu-sdttu (SITI ), an officer of the Cola kings, possibly 
associated with taravu. 

Tarika (IE 8-3; HD), a ferry officer or one in charge of 
a ferry service. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 321. 

tarika (HRS), same as tara; ferry dues. 

tarka (IE 7-1-2; El 25), 'six'. 

(CII 4), logic. 

firkuka (Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 34, note 7), a supplicant; 
a beggar. 

tdrya (HRS), same as tara; ferry dues. 
tata (IE 7-1-2), -probably confused with tattva and used 
to indicate 'five'. 

tatdka-mdtrka (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 98), 'tank-nourished 

tata^thakamana 339 

tdt-dmbd (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XXXIII, p. 261 ), the mother, 
step-mother or aunt of one's father. 

tdtanka (El 16), an ear-ornament. 

tathd-jfidtiya (El 8), used for taj-jndtiya (taj-jdtiya; cf. 
jndtlya ). 

tat-pdda-parigrhita (IE 8-2), see parigrhita. 

tatsama (IA 7), a Sanskrit word used in the regional 
languages without change or with slight change. 

Tattdr (SI I 1 ), goldsmith; cf. Tatthakdra. 

Tatthakdra(El 15, 28; BL), a brazier, cf. Thathara, Thatherd. 

tattva (IE 7-1-2; El 8), 'twentyfive'; rarely also used 
to indicate 'five.' 

taundika (IE 8-8), 'biting of crops with the mouth'; cf. 
gavdrh taundike. 

tejah (El 12), abbreviation of tejah-svdmya. 

tejah-svdmya (IE 8-5; El 16), cf. astabhoga-tejahsvdmya\ 
tejahsvdmya is tejo-yukta-svdmya, 'ownership endowed with full 
authority', which resulted from the eight (i.e. all or various ) 
kinds of enjoyment. See tejo-mdnya. 

tejaskara (El 24), polisher. 

teji (LP), fine. 

tejo-linga (SI I 2 ), the &ivalinga of light. 

tejo-mdnya, cf. teja-mdnyam (SITI ), the ownership of 
landed property with the asta-bhoga or eight (various or all) 
kinds of enjoyment; also called tejah-svdmyam. 

TelugUj also spelt Tenugu, name of a language and al- 

Telugu-Kannada, also called Kannada-Telugu ; name of 
the medieval alphabet prevalent in the Telugu- and Kannada- 
speaking areas. 

Tha (IE 8-1; LP; PJS), abbreviation of Thakkura. 

Thd (PJS), contraction of Thdkura, a modification of 

thada (LP), stem or trunk of a tree; a tree. 

thaka, cf. thakka (I A 6 ) ; thaka-purisa is explained as 'a 
trader', and associated with thag, 'a cheat'. 

thdkamdna(LP), remainder; what remains to be paid up; cf. 
thakaleli bdkl in Marathl. See also ap uryamdna-thdkamdna-drammdh> 
i.e. drammas (coins ) which are not completely paid off and are 
still to be paid. 

340 Thakkura tilamaka 

Thakkura (IE 8-3; El 23,30; CII 4; HD), supposed 
to be a title derived from a Turkish word (Tegin); occurs as a 
title in the Rdjatarangini, VII. 290, 706, 738; probably, a 
fief-holder; sometimes mentioned in the list of subordinates; 
generally used as a title of particular persons indicating their 
rank or office. The significance of the word possibly varied 
in different localities and ages. Its foreign origin is sup- 
ported by its unpopularity in the South. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XIII, p. 297; Vol. XIX, p. 243. 

(IE 8-3), probably a fief-holder; mentioned as Pair a. 

(El 9 ), explained as 'the lord-in-waiting'. 

Thakkurdjni (El 8; CII 4; IA 16), title of the wife of 
a Thakkura ; same as Thdkurdni in some dialects. 

Thdkri (CII 4), same as Thdkur. 

Thakura, Thdkura (El 23, 33; CII 4), same as Thakkura. 

Thdkura (LP), GujaratI ; ofte . a member of the Koli 
caste of Gujarat, who generally tries to detect thieves, etc. 

(LP), GujaratI Thdkor, the chief among certain tribes 
of Rajputs; a small chieftain. 

thdmi (LP), a kind of earthern pot. 

Thdndpati (El 30), same as Sthdnapati', officer in charge 
of an outpost. 

Thathara, Thathdra (Chamba), a brazier or copper- 
smith; same as Tatthakdra. 

thavani (HA ), a wooden stand used as a symbol for the 
teacher or the Tirtharikara, a religious text or certain pres- 
cribed small objects being placed on it and worshipped by 
Jain monks; same as sthdpan-dcdrya. 

theka (LP), special restraint. 

ti (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of tithi. 

ti (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of tikar or tikkara, 'a mound'. 

tigula-danda (IE 8-5), name of a tax; see turu$ka-danda 
and dndhra-danda. Tigula is the same as Tamil. Tigula-danda 
may also be 'the Tamilian measuring rod'. 

tikara (IE 8-1 ), same as tikkara; a mound. 

tikhard (El 1 ), meaning doubtful. 

tikkara (El 28), same as tikara; a mound. 

tilamaka (CII 3; IA 9), a water-course; probably, a 
channel leading the waters from the hillside over the terraced 

Tila tithi 


Tila-pisaka (CII 4; LL) 3 an oil-miller. 

timmira (El 1 1 ), a land measure ; cf. timpira, etc. 

timpira (IE 8-6; El 23, 24, 29), also spelt frm/ura, tim- 
pira, etc. ; a land measure mentioned in Orissan records. 

tippanaka (LP), a certificate. 

tirama (El 24 ), Tamil form of drarnma. 

Tirna-danda (CII 1 ), 'one who has been convicted 5 . 

tirtha (IE 8-3, 8-4; El 3; SII 1; CII 4; LL), a place 
of pilgrimage ; a holy place or holy waters ; a bathing place ; a 
flight of steps for descent into a river ; a ferry ; sometimes 
suffixed to the names of localities. 

Tirthakara (BL ), epithet of the Jinas ; same as Tirthan- 
kara (q.v. ). 

Tirthankara (CII 3; El 9); epithet of the 24 great leaders 
of the Jain faith; propagator of the Jain faith or tirtha', 
creator of the four sections, viz. monk, nun, layman and 
lay woman (sddhu, sddhvi, srdvaka and srdvikd)', same asjina; 
sometimes spelt Tirthakara', also called Adikartr. 

Tirthika (El 9), Buddhist; teacher of a religion other 
than one's own; a non-Buddhist (especially, aiva) teacher. 

(El 32 ), same as Tairthika, 'a priest'. 

Tirth-opddhydya (BL ), title of a family priest at Jagan- 
natha-k setra ( Purl ) . 

Tirumeni-kdval (ASLV), watchman in a temple. 

tiruvidaiydttam (El 30), Tamil; a gift. 

tithi (CII 3; I A 17), a lunar day; one mean tithi is equal 
to 0.9843529572 of a mean solar day and night; the mean 
tithis in a solar year are 371, and 3 ghatis and 53.4 palas; gener- 
ally the term tithi means the end of a tithi, not its beginning 
or duration, and the week-day of a tithi is the week-day on 
which that tithi ends; the tithis given in the Pancdngas are 
apparent, not mean, and they are intended to be given from 
apparent sunrise. 

Cf. Tamil tiyadi, tedi (SITI ), a date. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'fifteen'. 

(El 16), same as mahd-tithi, an auspicious tithi; cf. saptami 
called the tithi of the sun-god and astami that of the god iva 
(Ep.Ind., Vol. V, p. 168, note 4). 

tithi-bhoga (CII 3; IA 16), duration of a tithi. 

tithi-dhruva (CII 3; IA 16), constant of a tithi; a term 

342 tithi trasa 

denoting the number of complete tithis that elapse from the 
commencement of Caitra upto the tithi during which the Mesa- 
samkrdnti occurs. See tithi-sudhi. 

tithi-kendra (GII3), anomaly of a tithi, expressed in 
tithis; an annual variation in the tithi-kendra is 7 tithis, 9 ghatis 
and 42 palas. See kendra. 

tithi-spasta-kendra (IA 16), the apparent anomaly of a 

tithi-suddhi (CII 3), the subtraction of tithis; a term de- 
noting the number of tithis that elapse from the commence- 
ment of Caitra up to the time of the Mesa-sarhkranti. See 

tola, told, cf. Telugu-Kannada tula (CITD), weight of 
a rupee, taken as the unit of the system of weights ; fixed at 
180 grains troy by the British; also called suvarna (JNSI, 
Vol. XVI, p. 46). 

tolaka, same as tola; equal to 2 sdnas or 80 ratis; also 
called kola, dranksana, badara, ksudraka, vataka, etc. (JNSI, 
Vol. XVI, pp. 41, 44). 

torai (SITI), Tamil; a standard linear measure of four 
fingers' breadth. 

torana (CII 4; LL; CITD), an arch; a gateway; an 
arched doorway; a portal; a temporary ornamental arch; 
also a garland in Telugu-Kannada. 

Cf. torana-kkdnikkai (SITI), tax on gates or presents 
for decorating the village with arches. 

Traipitaka, cf. Trepitaka (El 9 ), one versed in the three 
pitakas, i. e. the three classes of Buddhist religious literature. 

Traipitak-opddhydya (LL), Buddhist; teacher of the three 

Traipurusa (Hyderabad Archaeological Series, No. 18, pp. 
34-35 ), same as the composite god Tripurusa. 

trairdjya (El 19), a group of three realms. 

trairqjya-sthiti (El 27 ), cf. trairdjya-sthitim=dtmasdt=krtavatah, 
c of one who has obtained steadiness in the three realms.' 

Traividya (LL), Buddhist; teacher of the three pitakas. 

(El 16), cf. Trivedin. 

Traividya-sdmdnya (EIZ23), same as Trivedin; cf. Cdturvidya- 
sdmdnya = Caturvedin. 

trdsa (SII 2 ), flaw in a ruby. 

Tratr trikuta 343 

Trdtr (IE 8-2 ; LL ), same as Prakrit Trdtara, 'the savi- 
our'; royal title of foreign origin ; Greek Soter. 

trayl (SII 1 ), the three Vedas. 

trayodasama (El 15), same as trayodasa. 

Tri (El 32 ), abbreviation of Trivedin. 

tri (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

tribhdg-dbhyantara-siddhi (IE 8-5), generally spelt tribhog- 
dbhyantara-siddhi; the right to enjoy one-third of the revenue, 
the other two parts going in equal shares to gods and Brah- 
manas. Cf. abhyantara-siddhi, bdhy-dbhyantara-siddhi, Iribhoga. 

tri-bhanga (El 1 7 ), pose in standing images with bends 
in three limbs, viz. the neck, the wrists and the knees. 

tri-bhangi, cf. tri-bhanga; seej&. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 65. 

tri-bhoga (El 16; IA 19), a joint tenure enjoyed by a 
private person, a god (or gods) and the Brahmanas (cf. 
Ind. Ant., Vol. XIX, p. 271). See tribhdg-dbhyantara- 
siddhi, etc. 

tribhog-dbhyantara (El 1 5 ), same as tribhog- dbhyantara-siddhi, 
tribhdg-dbhyantara-siddhi, tribhoga. 

tribhogya (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 313), cf. gana-bhogya. 

tribhuvana-vijaya-stambha (SII 1 ), a pillar commemo- 
rating the conquest of 'the three worlds', the conventional claim 
of a hero. 

tri-civara (El 25), complete robe of a Buddhist monk. 

tri-danda, cf. Tridandin (IA 10); tree staves tied to- 
gether as borne by Brahmana mendicants. 

tridasa (IE 7-1-2), 'thirty three'. 

tridindrikya (El 15), same as traidindrikya, 'priced at three 
dinar as* 

tri-gata (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

tri-guna (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

tri-jagat (IE 7-1-2), 'three'; but jagat sometimes also 
means 'fourteen'. 

trika (HA ), a group of three figures of the Tirthankaras. 

tri-kdla (SII 1; SITI), the three parts of the day, viz. 
morning, noon and evening [when worship is offered in temples]. 

(IE 7-1-2, 'three'. 

trikuta (El 3), a junction of three villages (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XIII, p. 34, note 3); same as trikuta or trikutta. Gf. tri-sandhi; 
also Telugu muggada, 'a junction of three or more villages'. 

344 triTrividha 

tri-lak$ana (El 3), three qualities. 

trna, cf. a-trna-kdstha-grahana (IE 8-5); grass which the 
villagers were obliged to supply to the king or landlord on 
occasions or to the touring officers. 

trna-yuti, cf. yuti. 

trna-yuti (or puti )-gocara (El 1 7 ),grass-fields andpasturelands. 

trn-odaka (IE 8-5; El 12, 28), name of a tax or cess; 
the grazing tax. 

trinetra (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

tripada (LP), the three chief account books, viz. rojmol, 
khdtd-vahi and pdvti-vahi. 

tripada-lekhyaka (LP), accounts book and receipt book. 

Tripdthin (El 4, 31 ), same as Trivedin', epithet or family- 
name of Brahmanas. 

triphali-tdmrasdsana (El 3), a grant engraved on three 
copper plates. 

tri-pidi-ddna (Ind. Ant., Vol. XIX, p. 271), a grant to be 
enjoyed by three generations. 

Tripurusa (El 33), a composite deity (tri-murti); a com- 
bined image of Brahman, Visnu (represented as Suryanarayana 
in Gujarat) and Siva. 

trisahasra (El 31), also called trisahasra-vidyd ; certain 

tri-sandhi (Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 34, note 3 ), a junction 
of three villages ; cf. trikuta or trikutta, also Telugu muggada, 
'the junction of three or more villages'. 

trisara (SII 2 ), name of an ornament. 

trisparSd (I A 26 ), the twelfth tithi. 

tri-sthali (El 21), the three holy places, viz. Gaya, Pra- 
yaga and Kasi. 

tristubh (IE 7-1-2), 'eleven'. 

trisula, cf. tirisulam (SITI), trident; same as ula. 

tri-tirthi (HA ), an image showing figures of three Jinas, 
usually one Jina standing or sitting in the centre as the main 
deity of the group and two others sitting or standing on the 
two sides. 

tri-varga (SII 1 ), the three objects of human life. 
Trivedin (El 4), same as Tripdthin; epithet of Brahmanas 
later stereotyped as family name. 

Trividha-ksitisa-cuddmani (IE 8-2), epithet of a king pro- 

trodanikdTuraka 345 

bably referring to the Asvapati, Gajapati and Narapati types of 
rulers, i. e, those who were strong in elephants, cavalry and 
infantry respectively. 

trodanikd (IE 8-5), same as trotana\ cf. karna-trodanikd, 
'cutting somebody's ears.' 

trotana (IE 8-5), cf. karna-trotana, same as karna-trodanikd. 

tryaksa-mukha (IE 7-1-2), 'five'. 

tudavu (SITI), Tamil; a liquid measure. 

tukkhdra (CII 4), a Tokharian horse; cf. Tuhkhdra people 
of the Puranas. 

tula (I A 26 ), a weight [of silver] 

(CITD), Telugu-Kannada ; same as Sanskrit tola or 
tolaka; the weight of one rupee or 30 canteroy fanams; ^ of 
a navatdku; a measure or weight of gold and silver, being 100 
palas or about 145 ounces troy. The luld varied a great deal 
according to the age and locality. 

tuld-bhdra (El 4, 17, 26; SITI), name of a mahaddna, 
same as tuldpurusa; weighing a king or an exalted personage 
against gold or other precious metals and stones and distributing 
the same to temples, etc. 

tul-ddhiroha (El 3 ), same as tuld-purusa. 

tuld-purusa (El 29; CII 4), name of a mahdddna', same 
as tuld-bhdra. 

tulasi-vivdha (El 32 ), name of a ceremony. 

Tulu, name of a language which is written in Malayalam 

tulya (SITI), literally, 'equal'; a true copy. 

tulya-meya (El 7, 10; HRS), 'what is to be weighed and 
measured'; same as meya in deya-meya; known from records 
like those of Harsavardhana, in which it may be epithet ofbhdga- 
bhvga or a separate item (Ind. Ep., p. 394) . 

tilmbu (SITI), Tamil, a measure of capacity; cf. tumu. 

tumu (El 27), a grain measure; cf. tumbu. 

tunk (HA), Jain; top of a mountain or hill on which 
there is a shrine or several shrines. 
turaga (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

Turaga-sddhanika (El 25), the leader of cavalry. Cf. 
Sddhanika, etc. 

Turaka (El 32), same as Turuka and Turuska; a Turk or 
Turkish Mv>hammadan; a Muhammadan. 

346 turahgamd uccd 

turangama (IE 7-1-2), 'seven.' 

Turiya-janman (El 24; Gil 4), same as Sudra. 

Turuka (El 32 ), cf. Turaka and Turuska. 

Turuska (El 5, 17, 32), originally, a Turk or a Turkish 
Muhammadan; later, Muhammadans in general. 

tumska-danda (HRS; Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XIV, p. 196, Vol. 
XI, p. 21 ), name of a tax collected by the Gahadavala kings 
from their Muhammadan subjects or for defending their king- 
dom from Muhammadan attacks; cf. the danegeld in early 
English history. See andhra-danda, tigula-danda, bhotta-visti. 

turya (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

Tydgi-dcdrya (IA 19), Jain; an Acdrya who does not permit 
laxity of observances. 


u (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of the land measure called 
uddna (q. v. ). 

ubhqya, cf. ubhaiyam (SII 1 ), an offering. 

Cf. ubhaya-palisai (SITI ), interest in two ways, i.e. 
in money and in kind. 

(6777), a tax payable in gold; probably the same as 
ubhaya-mdrga or the tolls collected on the highways in both the 
directions, i. e. inward and outward. 

(SII, Vol. Ill, p. 209 ), a gift to a temple or monastery 
in Tamil records. 

ubhaya-mukhi (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIII, p. 15, note 4), 
a cow in the act of giving birth to a calf; sometimes explained 
as 'a pregnant cow' (El 6 ). 

ubhayamukhi-daksind (CITD), some special kind of re- 
ligious present or fee ; the gift of a cow at the point of giving 
birth to a calf (cf. ubhayamukhi). 

Ubhaya-ndnd-desi (SITI ), the two divisions of the Ndnd- 
desi oiganisation, e. g., the Ndnddesi and the Citrameli. 

(CITD), explained as the entire merchant commu- 
nity, i. e. including both the Sva-desi and Para-desi. 

ubhaya-svdmya, cf. ubhaya-sdmya (El 5 ), probably, two kinds 
of ownership. 

ucata (LP), impatience, anxiety; cf. Gujarati uchdt. 

ucc-dvaca (CII 1 ), 'more or less', 'of various kinds'. 

ucchanna udaram 


ucchanna (CII 3), corruption of utsanna ; found in Sanskrit 
inscriptions. See JA S, Letters, Vol. XX, 1954, p. 204. 

ucchlrna (IA 19), a loan. 

ucchraya (Ep. Ltd., Vol. VIII, p. 46, note 3), a shelter; 
same as pratisraya. 

ucchrnkhala (LP ), free from a burden. 

uchdlaka-bhta (LP ), loaded with uchdlaka (Gujarat! ucdlo), 
i. e. household furniture that can be easily moved about. 

uda (IE 7-1-2), 'twentyseven'. 

udag-ayana (EI2 3), the winter solstice; same as uttardyana. 

udagayana-parvan (El 20), cf. udag-ayana. 

Udaiydr (SITI ), Tamil; literally, a possessor; a king or 
lord; the chief deity of a temple. Cf. udaiydr-sdlai, the feeding 
house attached to a temple. 

udaka-bandha (El 3 ), a sluice. 

udaka-dhdrd, cf. udaka-ddrai (SITI ), [a gift given] with 
the libation of water ; also referred to in Tamil as udakanseydu 
and udakarh panni. See udaka-purvam, etc. 

. udaka-purvam (IA 7), also expressed as udak-dtisargena, 
'with libations of water' ; refers to the custom of pouring water 
in the hand of the donee while making the ceremonial gift of an 
object which cannot be placed in the latter's hands. Gf. Dra- 
vyasya ndma grhniydd=daddntti tathd vadet \ toy am dadydt=tato 
haste dam vidhir^ayam smrtah II (Agni Purdna, Ch. 209, 
verses 49-50). 

udaka-sarga (IA 8), same as udak-dtisarga (cf. udaka- 

udak-dsihdra-kullaka, cf. sa-uanaspaty-udak-dsihdra-kullaka- 
pdniya-sametd (IE 8-5 ), translated as 'together with the fruit- 
trees and with the water-courses and channels' (with the 
omission of the doubtful words ). 

udamdna (IE 8-6; El 29), a small land measure; pro- 
bably the same as unmdna and uddna. 

uddna, see udamdna. 

udapdna (CII 1; LL), a well or reservoir. 
uddra (CII 1 ), a person of high rank; a rich man. 
udara-bandhana (SII) 2 ), a waist-band; name of an or- 

udaram-bharina (IA 17), same as udaram-bharin, 'filling 
the belly.' 

348 udarcis udgrdh 

udarcis (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

uddsina, cf. uddsma-vdriyam (SITI ), a committee which 
is neutral to both the parties; same as madhyastha or the arbi- 
tration committee. 

udaya (El 24), 'the produce [of a field] '. 

Udaya-giri (IA 22 ), the mythical Sun-rise mountain. 

udbali, cf. umbali (El 13), umbalam, umbalikkai, umbalika 
(SITI ), rent-free gift of land ; land granted rent-free for the 
performance of service; same as mdnya. See udbalika. 

udbalika (IE 8-5; CII 1), free from taxes; free from the 
obligation of paying ball probably meaning land tax payable in 
addition to the king's share of grains. 

udddman (El 9), same as udddma. 

udddtavya, Ho be repaid' (Select Inscriptions, p. 239); { to be 
handed over' (ibid., p. 246). 

uddesa (CII 4), a territorial division. 

(El 14), cf. s-oddesa (IE 8-5); space above the ground; 
same as urdhva. 

uddha (IA 19), explained as 'deserted'. Cf. uddha- grama. 

uddha-grdma (LP), the village of which the revenue is 
fixed in a lump sum. 

uddha-khila-bhumi (LP), table land which is uncultivated 
(khila). But cf. uddha-grdma. 

uddhdra (LP), borrowed on trust or credit; cf. udhdr. 

(IE 8-5), same as udranga; cf. Tamil uttdra* 

uddhdra-proddhdra (LP), taking on credit ; cf. Marathi 

uddhdrya (LP), 'may be debited'; cf. Gujarat! udhdra- 

uddhdrya-vyavahdra (LP), the business of lending money. 

uddyotita (El 13), literally, 'caused to shine'; actually 
'with repairs effected.' 

udganaka (LP), a revenue chart. 

udgananiya (LP), cf. Gujarat! gam dpavum, 'the charge 
should be handed over.' 

udghdtita (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 20), same as 

udgrdh, cf. udgrdhayisydmi (LP), 'I shall get the revenue 
collected [from the country in this way]'; also udgrdhita 
(LP), 'taxed'; udgrdhyamdna (LP), cf. Gujarat! ughrdvqyum. 

udgrantha ullekha 349 

udgrantha (IE 8-5), same as udranga. 

ndharita (IA 18), meaning uncertain. 

Udicipati (BL), literally, 'the ruler of the north (i.e. 
the northern province of an empire)'; title of a viceroy. 

udranga (IE 8-3; 8-5; El 22; CII 3, 4; HRS), explained 
as 'the fixed tax', 'the land tax', 'the principal tax' or 'the 
tax on the permanent tenants'; generally mentioned along 
with uparikara, i. e. minor taxes or the tax on temporary 
tenants ; same as klpta. Udranga may have been paid in grains 
at least in some regions since the Audrangika (collector of ud- 
ranga) is sometimes separately mentioned together with the 
Hiranyasdmuddyika (collector of revenue in cash). In one 
case, the land is said to have been granted after making it 
udranga, i.e. s-odranga. See s-odranga (IA 10), dranga, uttdra. 
Cf. mah-odranga in pravartita-mahodrang-ddi-ddna-vyasan-dnupajdta~ 
santosa (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXII, p. 118, text line 40). 

udrangikrtya (IE 8-3), same as s-odrangikrtya] used in 
respect of a gift land. Cf. udranga. 

udrava (El 27), name of a tax. 

udumbara (LP), 'threshold'; cf. grh-odumbara-madhye, 
'into the house'; cf. umbara-bheda. 

udvasa, cf. udvasa-kutumbika (LP), cultivators who have 
come from outside and settled. 

udvdta (El 13), tempest; cf. bhuta-vdta-pratydya. 

udydma (CII 1 ), used in the sense of udyama or exertion. 

udydna (CII 1 ), march; a garden. 

ukka, ukkd (Chamba), the total sum; a lump sum. 

ukkoda, a kind of levy; probably, periodical presents; same 
as utkota. *See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 56. 

ukkota-bhanga, same as khota-bhanga (q.v. ) according to the 
Abhidhdnardjendra, s.v. parihdra; cf. utkota and ukkoda, periodi- 
cal presents (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 56). 

ukkutthi (IE 8-8), Prakrit; see utkrsti. 

ukta-niyoga (El 33), doubtful expression probably indi- 
cating an official designation. Cf. uttara-niyoga. 

ukthya, (El 22; CII 3), name of a sacrifice. 

ullanbana (IE 8-8 ), a crime, the real nature of which is 

ullekha, 'high-flashing' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 36). 

350 UllekhakaUpadhyaya 

LSllekhaka, engraver (Ep. Lid., Vol. XXXIV, p. 203 and 
note 11). See Vilekhaka. 

ulluncana (LP), cleaning. 

Umardva (El 26; BL), title of a feudatory ruler; same 
as the Muhammad an title Umrah. 

umbali (ASLV), Tamil; same as Sanskrit udbali (q.v. ). 

umbara (IE 8-8), same as Prakrit ummara; threshold or 
door; cf. umbara-bheda, also udwnbara and unmara. 

umbara-bheda (IE 8-5; El 25), 'violation of the closed 
door' ; the right of royal officers to enter into a house with doors 
closed for realising taxes. This probably related to the houses 
of merchants who were away from their home-towns in the 
course of their business ; cf. unmara or umbara', also prdtibhedikd. 

umura-bheda (Gil 4), mistake for umbara-bheda (q.v.); 
forcible entry into a house. Cf. unmara. 

undbdika-srdddha (Gil 4), a rite. 

uilcha, cf. uncha-kara-bhar-ddi-vivarjita', tolls (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXXIII, p. 89 ) ; may be collection of small quantities of crops 
(cf. prastha). 

unbali (SII 11-1), same as Sanskrit udbali. 

unchamanna (El 26), used along with marumanna;a privi- 
lege of the donee of rent-free land; see uncha. 

uiicha-vrtti (El 24 ), a gleaner of corn. 

unmdna (IE 8-6; El 15, 21, 29), name of a small land 
measure; same as uddna or udamdna (q.v.). 

unmara (El 30 ), Sanskritised form of Prakrit ummara (cf. 
umbara)', threshold. Merchants, who were often absent from 
home for a long time, were sometimes made free from unmara- 
bheda (entry into their house) by royal officers probably be- 
cause they paid their dues on their return from business tours. 
Cf. prdtibhedikd. 

unnata (IE 8-5 ), high land. 

unniti, 'adopted daughter' (Select Inscriptions, p. 237 ). 

upa-dhd (CII 1 ), cf. hita-sukham=upadadhyuh; to bring 
[welfare and happiness to the people]. 

upddhi (SII 1 ), probably, a condition. 

Cf. opddi (SII 2), dues. 

Upadhydya (CII 4), a teacher; epithet of Brahmanas. 

(I A 19), Jain; an Acdrya who has the right of reading the 
sacred text, but not of explaining it. 

Upddhydyini Uparahin diva 35 1 

(IE 8-3; El 7), epithet of teachers; mentioned as a Pdtra. 

(CII 3 ), a sub-teacher who is the instructor in only a part 
of the Veda, or in grammar and the other Veddngas. 

Upadhydyini (LL), a female teacher; the wife of an 

upaga (CII 1 ), suitable; cf. manusy-opaga, 'beneficial 
to men'. 

upagata (CII 1 ), same as sangata, intimately associated; 
see upeta, etc. See Ind. Ep., pp. 161 ff. 

upagata (LP ), ' a receipt. 

upa-han (CII 1 ), to harm; cf. upaghdta, injury. 

upakara (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 106, note 5), 
cf. nikara and upaskara. 

upakdrikd, probably, a territorial unit around the 
headquarters of an administrative unit (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XV, p. 286). 

upakhila, cf. sa-khil-opakhila (Chamba), 'together 
with fallow (khila) and partially fallow (upakhila) land'. 
See pakhila. 

upaklpta (El 15; CII 3, 4), a levy; probably, the 
tax on temporary tenants or the unfixed taxes or minor in- 
come; cf. sa-klpt-opaklpta (IE 8-5), also klpta, klpta-kara, 
udranga and uparikara. 

upakrama-karana, cf. karana (LP); the department of 
new undertakings. 

upaksaya (LP), expense; 'other expenses'; cf. s-opak- 
saya, sanjdt-opaksaya, 'expenses incurred'. 

upaksiti (IE 8-5; El 33), probably, tax on inferior land; 
may also be the same as upaksaya. 

upalaksita (Select Inscriptions., p. 202 ), 'examined'. 

updna (SITI), the first moulding above the plinth, in 
the construction of temples. 

upanidhi (IE 8-5; El 12), same as niksepa; cf. nidhi. 

upanipdtaka (CII 3 ), same as upapdtaka. 

upapdtaka (CII 3 ), sins of the second degree. 

upapitha (SII 2 ), a lower pedestal; cf. pftha; also upa- 
pithattukandappadai, the lower tier of the basement of a temple. 

Upapradhdnin (ASLV ), an executive officer lower in rank 
than the Pradhdnin. 

Uparahindiya (LP), a tax-inspector. 

352 uparaksito upasthdna 

uparaksita (LL), explained as 'kept in custody'. 

Uparika (IE 8-3; CII 3; BL; HD), a viceroy; the 
governor of a province. An Uparika was appointed by the 
emperor and he himself appointed the governor of the district 
(cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 130). He is sometimes styled 
Maharaja and Rdjaputra. VisvarCipa on the Yajnavalkyasmrti, 
I. 307, quotes a prose passage from Brhaspati where the re- 
quisite qualities of an Uparika are set out. See Vogel, Ant. Ch. 
St., p. 123. The word literally means 'one placed at the top'. 

(IE 8-3 ), cf. Auparika, a viceroy. 

Cf. Brhad-uparika (IE 8-3). 

Uparika-mahdrdja (IE 8-3 ), an Uparika enjoying the 
title Maharaja. 

uparikara (IE 8-5; CII 3, 4; HRS), explained as 'ad- 
ditional taxes', 'unfixed taxes', 'minor taxes', or 'tax paid 
by the temporary tenants'; cf. s-oparikara (IA 10), sometimes 
called parikara (cf. sa-parikara in place of s-opakriara). See 

upa-rinkh (El 12), to spread. 

Updsaka (El 3, 8, 27; CII 3), a Buddhist lay worshipper; 
a lay follower of the Buddha; cf. Updsikd. 

(SH 13), a temple servant. 

upasampadd (El 9; IA 22), the initiation of a Buddhist 

upasandhi (SITI ), intermediary service of worship in 
a temple, between the morning and the midday service. 

Updsanin (El 32 ), title or family name of Brahmanas. 

upasanna, cf. krt-opasannd (El 30); word of doubtful 

Updsikd (CII 3, 4), feminine form of Updsaka (q.v. ); 
a female lay-follower of the Buddha. 

upaskara (HRS ), known from the Kamauli plate of 
Vaidyadeva; probably meaning upakara (q.v.) or the appur- 
tenance to a tax (kara). 

Cf. nikara. 

updsraya (LL ), a shelter. 

upasthdna (LL), reception room. 

(HRS), a group of royal receipts arising from underhand 
methods of collection of the contributions in kind, as suggested 
by the Arthasdstra. 

upasthdna urdhva 353 

upasthdna-sdld (LL), hall of reception. 

upatalpa (El 8 ), the upper story [of a house] . 

updti (SITI), Tamil; also spelt opddi; Sanskrit upddhi; 
literally, obstruction; dues; anything payable as a debt or 

updtta, cf. sa-bhut-opdtta-pratydya (El 23), 'together with 
the income derived on account of changes in the natural 

updya (El 6, 25), four in number; 'four'. Gf. catur-updya 
(SII 1)." 

(SITI), probably, minor taxes. 

upaydta (El 33), same as opeta, upagata, 'closely asso- 
ciated'. See samupagata, samaveta, etc. 

Upayukta (HD), same as Upayuktaka, 'a subordinate 
officer'. See Arthasdstra, II. 5; Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 285. 

Upayuktaka (IE 8-3 ; HD ), probably the same as Niyuk- 
taka, Viniyuktaka, Tad-viniyuktaka, etc. See Upayukta; cf. 
Tuktak-Opayukta (Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 40). 

Upayuktika (El 23), official designation; probably the 
same as Upayuktaka. 

upeksd (CII 4), Buddhist; indifference; one of the bhd- 

upeta (CII 1 ), same as sangata; 'intimately associated'; cf. 
upagata, upaydta, samupagata^ samaveta, etc. 

upoda (Chamba ), name of a tax. 

uposalh-dgdra (El 23), 'the uposatha hall'. See posadha, 

upri (IE 8-5), MarathI; same as uparikara (q.v. ), tax 
on temporary tenants, according to some. 

ur (ASLV ), the assembly of a non-Brahmana village, that 
of a Brahmana village being called sabhd or mahdsabhd. 

urandara (LP ), delay. 

urdhva, cf. s-ddha-urdkva (IE 8-5), '[what is] above the 
surface of the ground' ; same as uddesa. 

Cf. urdhva-dina-pdtikdydm (LP), 'for the series of days 

urdhv-ddhah (I A 16), explained as 'what is above and 
below [in the gift land]'; cf. urdhv-ddhah-siddhi-yutd (IA 18), 
'with income from the produce above and below the surface of 
the ground'; same as s-ddha- urdhva, epithet of the gift land! ' 

354 urdhva utkirna 

urdhva-patta (LL ), an upright slab. 

urdhvayita, cf. Prakrit ubhayita (El 20), raised. See 

urdhvita, Prakrit ubhayita (Sel. Ins., p. 222), raised, 
contributed. See urdhvayita. 

Ur-gdmunda (IA 12), Kannada; official designation; cf. 

urna (El 8 ), a mark between the brows of the Buddha. 

urna-sthdna (IE 8-3 ), a wool factory. Cf. Aurnasthdnika, 
officer in charge of the urnd-sthdnas (Select Inscriptions, p. 360, 
text line 4) . 

Urode (I A 8), Kannada; the village headman; cf. Urodeya. 

Urodeya (I A 12), Kannada; official designation; cf. Urode. 

ur-paddinkddi (El 28 ), name of a rural tax. 

urvard (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

usara, cf sa-gartt-osara (IE 8-5 ) ;a saline spot or barren land. 

usdvadi (IE 8-4; SITI), a subdivision of the district; same 
as favadi or cdvadi. 

usmala (El 12), glowing. 

usnisa, cf. Prakrit urhnisa (El 20; LL), a coping stone. 

(El 8 ), protuberance of the Buddha's skull. 

utkalita, cf. katakam^utkalitam (IA 14, 30), c the camp was 

utkara (IE 8-5), probably, minor taxes; but see kdru-kara. 
Cf. upakara, nikara, etc. But see also Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 47. 

utkarnita (LP), frightened. 

utkar$a (CII 1 ), used in the sense of utkrsta. 

Utkhdtakdrmana (El 15), epithet of a donee. 

utkhetana (El 32; HRS), known from certain records 
from Assam ; explained as an impost levied upon the villagers 
on specified occasions; probably, the trouble of free labour. 
Cf. Utkhetayitd, Autkhetika. 

Utkhetayitd (El 12; BL; HRS), known from certain 
Assam records; explained as a tax-collector; officer in charge 
of utkhetana (q.v. ); same as Autkhetika. 

utkirna (CII 3), 'engraved'; a technical expression for 
the actual engraving of an inscription on copper or stone ; some- 
times indicated by the word udghdtita (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 
2Q) said ghafita (Ind. Ant., Vol. XII, p. 121). See Ullekhaka, 

utkrta uttdnd 355 

utkota (IE 8-5, 8-8; El 33), Prakrit ukkoda\ a levy; cus- 
tomary presents to be made on occasions to the king or land- 
lord and others. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 56. 

ut-kr, 'to engrave'; cf. Prakrit kanddra, used in some 
Kannada inscriptions (Bui. Dec. Col. Res. Inst., Vol. XI, 1950, 
pp. 170-71). Cf. utkirna, udghdtita, Ullekhaka, Vilekhaka. 

utkrsti (IE 8-8; El 30), same as Prakrit ukkutthi (q.v. ), 
Sanskrit utkrosa', wailing. 

utkrosa (IE 8-8), see utkrsti. 

utkrti (IE 7-1-2), 'twentysix'; rarely 'twentyone'. 
;,:-f utpadyamdna-vistika (CII 4), 'with the right to unpaid 
labour as occasion may arise 5 ; a privilege attached to gift 

vtpanna, decided or acertained (Select Inscriptions, pp. 
284, 286); same as pratipanna; cf. pratipad. 

ut-pdt (LPj, Gujarat! upddavum; cf. Vaidyandtha-patram= 
utpdtayati, 'takes a bilva-patra of the god Vaidyanatha (Siva)', 
i. e. swears. 

utpdta (El 33), unusual phenomenon. 

utpatta, cf. upatta (El 13), abundance; exuberance or 
overflowing [expecially of rich dishes at a feast] . 

utpatti (El 12), cf. samast-otpatti-sahita, 'together with all 
the produce (or income)'. 

utsdha (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 189), generous gift, bounty. 

utsdha-sakti (CII 4), personal energy. 

utsanga (HRS), extra cess levied upon villagers and 
citizens on occasions of festival events, such as the birth of a 
prince, as suggested by the Arthasdstra. 

utsarpana, cf. panca-mahdyajna-kriy-otsarpan-drtham (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXXV, p. 279, text lines 64-65). 

utsarpita (CII 1 ), erected. 

utsrta (CII 1 ) = ucchrita, man of a high position; a rich man. 

utta (LP ), modification of Sanskrit putra. 

ultama-ddni (SITI ), a gift made without expecting any 
merit for the same ; a superior kind of gift. 

uttama-gosdsa (I A 11), meaning uncertain. 

uttam-ottama (El 25), a type of temple. 

uUdna-dvddasi (SITI), twelfth day of the bright fortnight 
in the month of Karttigai when the god Visnu is believed to 
wake up from his sleep; see utthdna-dvadasi. 

356 uttara vacana 

uttara, cf. uttardni (LP ), same as uttar-dksardni. See aksara. 

uttara (SITI ), a regular fixed payment; same as uddhdra. 

Ultarakuliha (El 30 ), a class of officials. 

Uttarakulika-vdrika (IE 8-8), an official designation of 
uncertain import. See Vdrika. 

Uttara-mantrin (El 8; SITI), the chief minister. 

uttara-niyoga (El 32 ), 'subsequent assignment' : cf. ukta- 

uttam-sabhd (El 19), the supreme assembly. 

uttara-vdda (SITI), a guarantee; responsibility. 

uttar-dyana (IA 17; SII 1), the winter solstice; the 
period during which the sun gradually moves from south to 
north; cf. daksin-dyana. 

utthdna (CII 1 ), exerting oneself. 

utthdna-dvddasi (Ep. Ind. 9 Vol. XVIII, pp. 163, 167, 
169), name of a tithi (El 9); twelfth day of the bright fort- 
night in the month of Karttigai when the god Visnu is believ- 
ed to wake up from his sleep (SITI ). 

utthdya, 'of one's own accord' (Select Inscriptions, p. 248). 

Utthit-dsanin (IE 8-3); see Autthitdsanika. 

uttiram (SII 2) , the projecting part of a wall. 

uvataka (El 1 ), probably, a verandah, porch or vesti- 
bule; cf. Marathi oti. 

va (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of vaddavdra (Saturday or 

va (CII 3; IA 8-1 ), an abbreviation ofvadya or 'the dark 
fortnight' or else a substitute for ba (abbreviation of bahula) 
used in connection with di; see ba-di, va-di. 

va, vd (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of Prakrit vassa or vdsa- 
Sanskrit varsd, the rainy season. 

vd (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of vdra. 

Cf. vd-bhu, vd-ti. 

(LP), abbreviation of Vdnija, a merchant. 

vd-bhu (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of vdstu-bhiimi, 'home- 
stead land.' 

Vdcaka (LL), a Jain preacher., 

vacana (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

Vacanakdra vddi 35? 

Vacanakdra (El 23), an author of vacanas or sayings; cf. 

vdcanika, cf. rdja-vdchanika (CII 1 ), a royal order. 

vaco-gupti (CII 1 ), restraint in the matter of speech. 

vdda(CITD), Telugu-Kannada; a street, a range of houses. 

(El 1 1 ), a ward. 

(I A 7), also vddi; often suffixed to geographical names. 

(CII 4 ), name of a tax. 

vdda, vddd (IE 8-4), corrupt forms of pdtaka, 'part 
of a village'; in some dialects, also 'a village'; often suffixed 
to the names of localities. 

Vadaharaka (El 1 1 ), same as Marvadi (Marwari ) 
Badew, an old man. 

Vadd-dcdrya (SI I 11-1), Sanskrit Vrddh-acdrya or 
Brhad-dcdrya ; designation of a Jain teacher. 

vadda-vdra (El 13; CITD), Telugu-Kannada; Satur- 
day or Thursday (A. Venkatasubbiah, Some Saka Dates in 
Inscriptions, pp. 57. ff. ); same as brha-vdra. The word in the 
Telugu part of an inscription is explained as sanaiscara-vdra in 
the Sanskrit portion of the said record; sometimes wrongly 
supposed to stand for some other day, e.g. Friday (IA 23 ) 
or Sunday (Venkatasubbiah, op. cit., p. 58). Cf. Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XII, p. 147; XIII, p. 16; Vol. XXXI, p. 100, note 1 ; Vol. 
XXXIII, p. I,note2;/^. Ant., Vol. XXII, pp. 111,251-52; 
XXIII, p. 168. Vadda = vrddha or brhat. 

Vadda-vyavahdri (SITI ; ASLV ), the leader of a merchant 
guild; a banker; the principal money-changer; chief of the 
Ndnddesi (non-local) merchants. Cf. Mahdvaddavyavahdri. 

Vadavd (El 22, 27), Marathi; record-keeper. 

vddha (El 16), land measure. 

vddhd, cf. bddhd. 

vddhadhd (IA 15 ), a doubtful word probably meaning 4 a 

vadhri-kukkuta (IA 18, CII 1), Prakrit vadhi-kukuta; a 
capon; also Sanskritised as vrddhi-kukkuta. 

vadhu, one's own wife; one's son's wife, (putra-vadhu) 

va-di (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of vadya-paksa-dina or a 
mistake for ba-di (q.v. ). 

vddi (I A 7), same as vdda; often suffixed to geographical 

358 vadya vahitra 

vddya (SITI ), a musical instrument. 

Vddya-mahdraja, cf. Tamil Vdcciya-mdrdyaii (SITI ), the 
head musician or the chief Melakdran of a temple or palace ; title 
conferred by the king on an expert in instrumental music. 

vagaira (IA 20), Persian; 'and so forth 5 . 

Vdguli (El 28), Odiya ; also written Bdguli; the king's 
betel-bearer; same as Vdrgulika, etc. 

Vdgulika, Vdgulika (CII 4; BL), explained by some as 'a 
seller of betel-leaves' ; the bearer of the betel-box of an Orissan 
ruler; same as Vdrgulika, etc. 

Vdguni (El 24), mistake for Vdguli. 

vaha, cf. a-vaha (IE 8-5); [free] carrying of loads [which 
the villagers had to provide for the touring officers of the 
king or land-lord] ; may also be a horse for the use of the officers. 

(El 31; IA 18; CII 4), a streamlet; a water-channel. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 177), a common highway. 

vdha, cf. Vdha-ndyaka. 

Vdhaka (El 3 ), probably, a driver or attendant of cattle. 

vdhald (El 3), a water course. 

Vdhali (BL), official designation explained as 'the lord of 

vahamdna (LP), cf. vahamdna-hala-ballvarda, 'bullocks used 
in ploughing land'; vahamdna-samakara-bhumi in which vahamdna 
means ' [the land that is] being ploughed'. 

(LP), travelling. 

vdhana (LP), a load-carrier; a cart, ship, etc. See 

Vdha-nayaka (El 23), official designation; probably, 'the 
officer in charge of the king's Khds Mahals'" (from vdha, a 
plough ) ; may also be the superintendent of transport. See 

vahikd (LP), an account book. 

Vdhinipati (El 28; I A 10), leader offerees; a general; cf. 
Sendpati, etc. 

vahani (I A 18), meaning uncertain. 

vahitra (IE 8-5, 8-8; El 30), boat or any large carrier 
like a cart; see vdhana. Cf. sdrtha-vahitresu pravese nirgame ca 
pratyekarh rupakah devasya ydtr-otsave ddtavyah (Ep. Ind., Vol. 
XXV, p. 232 ). 

(IE 8-8 ),cf. bhdnda-bhrta-vahitra^a wagon full of pots or jars'. 

vahni vaisvadeva 


vahni (IE 7-1-2, 'three'. 

vdhotaka (LP), either Gujarat! vighoti, an assessment 
of land collected per vighd (big/id), or the plough tax (i.e. land 
tax) from vdha, a plough. 

vdhydli (BL), explained as 'stables'; cf. bdhy-dli. 

(El 6), explained as a camp'. 

vahni (El 33), 'three'. 

vaibhoga, cf. anga-ranga-vaibhoga (El 3; SII 1; SITI); 
same as bhoga. 

vaidarveyaka, cf. vedaveyaka (IA 18; CII 1), an eel. * 

vaidharana (HRS), a compensation fee levied upon 
the sale of liquors, royal merchandise, mining products and 
imported salt, as suggested by the Arthasdstra. 

vaidila (CII 3 ), a word of uncertain import. 

Vaidya (El 9, 30 ; BL ), a physician ; member of the physician 

vaidya-bhdga (SII 2), same as vaidya-bhiga, vaidya-vrtti. 

vaidya-bhoga (SITI ), also called vaidya-bhdga, vaidya- 
vrtti', land set apart for the maintenance of the physician. 

Vaidya-paricdraka, cf. Tamil Vaijya-paricdrakar (El 24), 
medical attendants. 

vaidya-vrtti (SII 1 ), land enjoyed by the Vaidyas for 
their maintenance ; cf. vaidya-bhdga, vaidya-bhoga. 

Vaijaka (El 26), official designation; probably Vaidyaka. 

vaijayika, carrying victory; cf. Ep. Ind., XXXII, p. 88. 
See vijaya-vaijayika. 

vaijayika-dharmasthdna (El 22 ), 'the victorious office 
of justice'. 

Vaiksepika (El 8-3; El 26), probably, the dispatcher of 
messengers; same as Pre$anika. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXVI, 
p. 206. See also vik$epa. 

Vailabdhika (El 8-3; El 30), officer in charge of vilabdhi 
(q.v. ); probably, the custodian of recovered stolen property. 

Vaiddntika (BL ), an exponent of the Veddnta. 

vaira (I A 18), blood-money. 

Vairdgi (SITI ), an ascetic serving in a temple. 

vaisdradya cf. vesdrajja (El 5), Buddhist; four in number. 

Vaisayika (El 7 ), probably, the ruler of a visaya or district. 

vaisvadeva (El 10, 14, 23; CII 3, 4), offerings to gods; 
one of the five mahdyajnas; sometimes called vaiSvdnara. 

360 vaisvdnara vata 


vaisvdnara (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

Cf. vaisvadeva. 

Vaisvdsika (IE 8-3; El 9, 28, 29), probably the same as 
Rahasyddhikrta, etc.; cf. Paramavisvdsin, Visvdsa, Visvdsika', the 
privy councillor or private secretary. 

(El 3 ), mentioned a'ong with Antarariga. 

vaisy-dgrahdra (IE 8-5; El 30, 33), a privileged holding 
created in favour of members of the mercantile community ; 
see agrahdra. 

vaisya-vdniya-nagarattdr (SITI), ASLV), Sanskrit vaisya- 
vdnija-nagarastha; a corporation of the merchants; the guild of 
a class of merchants. 

vdjapeya (El 22; CII 4; BL), name of a Vedic sacrifice. 

vdjin (IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

Vdji-vaidya (BL), explained as a veterinary physician'; 
literally, 'a physician for horses'. 

vajra (HA), thunderbolt. 

Cf. vaccira-ppadai (SITI ), the lower or foundation tier 
of the wall of a temple. 

vajrdsana (LL ), name of the seat on which the Buddha 
sat for meditation for the attainment of supreme knowledge 

vdk-pdrusya (El 30 ), use of abusive language. 

vdk$a (Ghamba), tax in cash; same as bdcha. 

valadi (Ind. Ant., Vol. XVIII, p. 17, text line 21 ), correctly 
baladi derived from balwarda; same as vara-balwarda, etc. 

vdla-giri (SITI ), abbreviation of the name of the mythical 
mountain called cakravdla-giri. 

valanddu (IE 8-4; El 25), Tamil ; a province; a district 
consisting of sub-divisions called kurram or nddu. 

valaksa (IA 17), used to indicate the bright fortnight. 

vdlamya (LP), see valisyati. 

Valatkausan (CII 3), official designation of uncertain 
import ; probably, a mistake for Bala-kausthika, officer-in-charge 
of the treasury of the military department. Cf. Mahavaldkosthika. 

Valdkosthika, probably, a mistake for Balakosthika\ cf. Valat- 
kausan, Mahavaldkosthika. 

valaya (CITD), a ring; a bracelet; in Telugu-Kannada, 
also an enclosure, a boundary. 

vala-yasti (CII 4), mistake for bala-ya$ti, memorial pillar. 

vataya vanadh i 361 

valaya-yasli (El 33; CII 3), wrong emendation of bala- 
yasti and supposed to mean 'a boundary-pillar'. See bala-yasti. 

vdlayitvd (LP), Gujarat! vdline. 

valhodiya (LP), rams. 

vdli (SII 2), ear-ring. 

valisyati (LP), cf. Gujarat! vdli levdmdrh dvase; see vdlaniya. 

valita, valita (E 12; SITI ), same as vanita\ a small terri- 
torial unit; a district or its subdivision. 

valita-patra-vidhi (LP), cf. Gujarat! valat-ddn-khat. 

valivarda, variant spelling of baliuarda (q.v. ) ; cf. a-param- 
pard-valivarda, etc. (IE 8-5); a pair of bullocks [which the 
villagers were obliged to provide for the cart of the royal officers 
when they were camping or touring in the village] . 

valla (IE 8-8), name of a weight equal to 3 ratis', see dvi- 

Vallabha (IE 8-3; El 12, 26), the king's favourite or a 
courtier; same as Rdjavallabha. 

(IE 8-2), same as Vallabhardja; a shortened form of the 
title Sri-prthivi-vallabha assumed by certain imperial rulers of the 
Kannada-speaking area. 

vallakya> cf. dvi-vallakya. 

Vallava (IE 8-3; 27; LL), official designation; officer in 
charge of the king's cattle ; same as Sanskrit Vallabha, a herdsman. 
vdmana-mudrd (SITI ), figures of sankha and cakra marked 
on the boundary stones set up to demarcate the lands of a Visnu 
temple. Cf. Vdmana-kkal, boundary stone of land granted for 
religious purposes. 

vdmphaya, cf. niddhi-vdrhphaya-sahila (El 12), wrong reading 
of nidhi-niksepa-sahita. 

vamsadhara (El 24), a palanquin-bearer. 

VamSakara (LL ), a bamboo-worker. 

Vams-dvali (IA 30), a genealogical list; called kida-pafiji or 
kula-panjikd in Bengal. 

Vdmsika (El 33 ), a flute-player. 

vamsya, same as dhvamsi (q.v. ). 

vana, a source of income. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., pp. 
109-10. Cf. ndga-vana (IE 8-4), an elephant-forest. 
vanacara (El 12), an animal. 

vanadhi (IE 7-1-2), used in the sense of vdridhi to indicate 

362 vand vapyaka 

vana-durga (ASLV ), fort built in the midst of forests. 

Vanajdraka, also spelt Vanijdraka (El 11), same as the 
Vanjdn ofRajasthan, whose hereditary calling is to carry grains 
on pack-bullocks; cf. Vanijjdraka. 

vanddpand (IE 8-5; El 12, 33), Odiya; presents to be made 
on meeting the king or landlord; same as Persian nazyana\ cf. 

Vangdli, see Bengali which is its Anglicised spelling. 

Vdnija, Vdnijaka (El 15; LL), a merchant. 

Vanijjdraka (BL), probably, merchants or traders of cara- 
vans ; cf. Vanajdraka. 

Vanik (IE 8-3; BL), merchant or a member of the 
merchantile community. 

vanik-patha, 'trade-route' ; a revenue term. See Ghoshal, H. 
Rev. Syst., pp. 79-80. 

vanik-sthdna (El 23 ), an association of merchants, 

Vanik-suvarnakdra (BL), probably, 'one who is a banker 
and a goldsmith' ; cf. the Suvarna-vanik community of Bengal. 

vanin-kotta (CII 4), 'the traders' fortress'. 

Vanin-nagara (CII 4), 'a town of merchants'. 

vanita (IE 8-4; SITI ), Kannada; same as valita; a small 
territorial unit like a Pargana. 

vanjuli (IA 26 ), the twelfth tithi. 

vannid (IE 8-8 ), Prakrit; same as Sanskrit varnikd (q.v. ). 

vantaka (El 9, 13), a share. 

vantya (El 12), a district; cf. venthe, ventheya. 

vdpa (Ep. Lid., Vol. XV, p. 310, note 4), explained as a 
handcast or handful; bat really, the same as vapa, sowing [seed 
grains appa ently by handcast]. 

(El 15), cf. kulyavdpa (area requiring one kulya measure 
of seeds to be sown by handcast) ; see vdpa-gatyd, etc. 

(El 3 ), a land measure. 

vdpa-gatyd, cf. vauge (El 10), grain sown broadcast. 

vdpi (El 13 ), step-well; an irrigation well; same as vdpikd. 

(Ep. 2nd., Vol. VII, p. 46, note 8), a well with a flight of 
stairs; cf. kupa which is an ordinary well. 

(El 22 ), a reservoir of water. 

vdpikd (CGI 3 ), a step-well, an irrigation well; same as vdpi. 

vappaka (El 23 ), a land measure. Same as vapyaka, vdpa. 

vapyaka (El 3), a land measure; same as vappaka, vdpa. 

vara Vdra 363 

vdra (BL), a board of administrators [formed by the 
res thins, sdrlhavdhas arid others] . 

(IA 16), the solar day. 

(SITI), method of reciting the Vedas. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill, p. 17, note 1 ), probably, a week. 

(El 30; SITI), a share of the produce. 

(El 24), a multitude. Cf. also vdra-Ndka-Lokta-Gdnik- 
ddindm, 'belonging to Naka, Lokta and Ganlka collectively' 
(JAS, Letters, Vol. XX, pp. 202, 204). 

(ClI 1 ), cf. vdratahy 'in consequence of an occasion.' 

("723), same as vdra-gosthi; a committee; cf. vdra-pra- 
mukha. Vdra is the same as Tamil vdriyam. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'seven'. 

Cf. bare (Chamba), 'during or in the time of. 

vara-balivarda (El 12, 33), tax on choice bullocks for 
bull -fights; cf. valadi, yamalikambali, etc. 

varada-mitdrd (HA), the gift-bestowing attitude of the 
right hand with palm outwards and fingers pointing downwards. 

vdra-gosthi (El 5, 23), a committee's assembly. 

vara-grdma (SITI ), village given as a gift to a temple 
or matha or a Brahmana. 

vdra-grha (El 19), outside houses ; cf. Sanskrit bahir-grha. 

vardha (IE 8-8; El 25; SITI; SI I 1), also called him or 
hon; name of a gold coin called pagoda or 'star pagoda' in English; 
Cf. dodda-vardha (El 20), vardha-panam (SITI), vardhanpulli- 
kuligai (SITI), parumulai-vardhan (SITI); etc. 

vardha-gadydna (El 8, 27), same as vardha or gadjdna', i.e. 
a pagoda. 

vardhakiya-vimsopaka (El 1 ), name of a coin which was one- 
twentieth of a vardha in value. 

vardha-mudrd, cf. vardha-muddirai (SITI), the seal or 
emblem bearing the figure of a boar, being the crest of certain 
kings like those of Vijayanagara. 

vardka (CII 1 ), distressed. 

Vdrakrta (El 23), official designation. 

varana (SITI ), the selection or election of a person to a 

varandikd-vrta (LP ), 'surrounded by a verandah'. 

Vdra-pramukha (El 5 ), the head of a committee. 

364 vdra vdrinidhi 

vdra-siddhi, cf. a-vdra-siddhika (El 8-5); probably refers 
to the supply of unpaid labour by the villagers in turn. 

varatakd (El 1), 'cowrie-shell used as a coin'; same as 

vardtikd, 'a cowrie-shell used as a coin'; money. See 
Gauri-vardtikd, varatakd, bar ad. 

varavajhe (Ind. Ant., Vol. XIV, p. 103, text line 12), 
doubtful name of a tax; same as vara-balivarda, baladi, etc. 

vara-ydtrd (IE 8-8; El 30 ), probably, the procession of a 
bride-groom to the bride's place for marriage. 

Vardhaki (LL), a carpenter; cf. Saila-vardhaki, a mason 
or sculptor. 

vardhamdna (LP), 'when cut down.' 

vdrdhi (El 25), 'seven'. 

varga (CII 1 ), a group or cadre of officers. 

Vdrgulika (IE 8-3; El 28; BL), same as Odiya Bdguli, 
Vdguli', the bearer of the king's betel-box. Cf. Vetakila. 

vari (SITI ), Tamil; tax; revenue register; order of 
the king and his officers fixing the revenue. Cf. vari-ppotta- 
gam, tax register; an officer maintaining the same; also Van- 
ppottaga-ndyakam, the head office of the revenue accounts; 
the chief officer of the same office. 

vdridhi (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

Vdriga (El 33), corruption of Vdrika. 

vdri-grha-karana, cf. karana (LP); explained as 'the 
department of water works'. 

Vdrika (IE 8-8; El 30, 32), a class of officials; the priest 
or superintendent of a temple like a Panda of modern times; 
cf. Deva-vdrika (El 2 7), superintendent of a temple; also cf. 
Tamil Vdriyan (SITI ), a supervisor. 

Cf. Mahdgandhakuti-vdrika (LL ), 'superintendent of the 
great gandhakuti (q.v. ).' The official designation Pdtvdri seems 
to be derived from Pattavdrika. 

Cf. Tamil vdriyarh (SITI), an executive committee; 
appointment as a member of that body ; an office of superivision ; 
cf. sribhanddra-vdriyam (El 33). See SII, Vol. Ill, p. 151, note. 

Cf. bdrika (El 5, 19), a village official; one entrusted 
with putting an official seal or stamp to a document; cf. 

vdrinidhi (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

varkara variant 365 

varkara (I A 19), a goat; cf. botkata, etc. 

varna (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

(Select Inscriptions, p. 187, text line 6), same as varnand, a 
description or list. 

varnana (Select Inscriptions, p. 202 ), a written order. 

varnikd (IE 8-8; El 30), same a Prakrit vannid, a sample; 
sometimes, a small measure of capacity (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 
302, verse 69). 

varsa (CII 3, 4; IA 17), a year; used for sarhvatsara or its 

(El 23), the rainy season. 

Cf. varse (IA 19), used in the dates after the quotation 
of samvat; sometimes abbreviated to va. Cf. samaye used in the 
same sense. 

Cf. Tamil vamsa-kdnikkai (SITI ), annual presents. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'nine'; cf. the nine divisions of Jambu-dvipa. 

varsa-granthi (El 8), an anniversary. 

varsa-paryusita (IE 8-8; El 30), probably, 'camping for 
the rainy season only' ; used in connection with merchants. 

varsa-vartamdm, the annual Durbar (Journ. Or. hist., Vol. 
X, p. 15). 

varsa-vrddhi, probably 'birthday anniversary '(JAS, Letters, 
Vol. XX, p. 206). 

Vdrta, Vartta(Cll 4; I A 14), same as Vrtti-bhuj, 'one who 
enjoys a grant or the share of a grant' ; a person in possession of 
a vrtti. 

vartamdna (HRS), 'running revenue', as suggested by 
the Arthasdstra. 

varlamdna-bhavisyat (IE 8-3), 'of the present and future'; 
used with reference to the officers associated with a gift land. 

vartand (SITI), perquisites due to an office; periodical 
presents to be offered to an officer of rank by his subordinates 
and the people. Cf. vartani. 

vartani (HRS ), transit duties collected by the ferrymen, the 
superintendent of tolls and the boundary officer, as suggested 
by the Arthasdstra. Cf. vartand. 

(IA 18), a district; often found suffixed to the names of 
districts in the Kaliriga region. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 174), a road. 

366 VdrtdVdsdpaka 

Vdrt-dnukarsaka (IA 6), official designation of doubtful 
meaning; probably, a spy; mentioned in the Mahdbhdrata. 

vartma-danda (IE 8-5 ), tolls collected on the roads for 
the passage of articles of merchandise through a village. Cf. 
Tamil valiy-dyam (SITI ), 'tolls on the roadway'. 

Vartmapdla (IE 8-3), superintendent of roads or the 
collector of the vartma-danda. 

vdru-ghotaka (LP), a riding horse; cf. Marathi vdru. 

vdrunl, cf. mahdmahdvdrum, mahdvdrum (El 25 ) ; name of a 

Va-sd (PJS), probably, an abbreviation ofVanik-sddhu, 'a 

vasad-bhoga-maryddd (IA 5), explained as 'the condition 
that the gift villages should be enjoyed only by those residing 
therein' ; the custom relating to the enjoyment of the gift land 
yb the donee by residing therein; but see vasad-bhogya-maryddd. 

vasad-bhogya-maryddd (El 24), interpreted as 'with the 
tenants' occupancy rights assured' ; same as vasad-bhoga-maryddd. 

vasadi (El 10), Sanskrit vasati; a Jain temple; cf. vasahi. 

Vdsdgdrika (IE 8-3; El 30), officer in charge of the king's 
bed-chamber. See Vitdn-ddhipa, Sayydpdla, Sayydgrdhaka. 

vasahi (HA), Sanskrit vasati; a Jain temple; cf. vasadi. 

vdsaka(El 3, 14, 23, 30; IA 13 ), royal residence whence the 
copper-plate grants were often issued; the camp or capital of 
a king. 

vdsa-ksepa (HA ), scattering of powder ; also the powder itself. 

Vasal (ASLV), same as Vdsal-kdriyam; chief guard of the 

Vdsal-kdriyam (ASLV), also called Vasal; chief guard of 
the palace. 

vdsal-panam (SI I 1 ), the door-money. 

vdsanikd (El 23), a dwelling. 

vasantagaruvu (ASLV), a rest house. 

vasanta-mandapa (SITI ), mandapa in the midst of a plea- 
sure garden where the spring-festival of a deity is celebrated. 
vasant-otsava (BL), spring festival. 

Vdsdpaka (El 6, 12; CII 4; IA 12, 13), explained as 
'officials whose duty was to assign places of residence to strang- 
ers'; also spelt Vdsdvaka; cf. also the tax called vdsdvaki (El 33). 
Cf. Ind. Ant., Vol. XIII, p. 69, note 11. 

Vdsdvaka vat a 367 

Vdsdvaka (CII 4), same as Vdsdpaka. 

vasdvaki (El 33 ), name of a tax; cf. the official designation 
Vdsdpaka or Vdsdvaka. 

vasati, modified to basadi (El 10), basahi (HA), pasti, 
basti (SITI ), etc. ; a Jain temple. 

vasati-danda (El 25 ), obligation of the villagers to supply 
food to the royal officers camping in their village ; explained by 
some as 'the tax for the lodging of touring royal officers' (Gil 
4); but probably refers to an obligation and not a tax. 

Vdsela-kuturhbika (LP), resident farmers; cf. Gujarat! 

Vdstavya (El 16), a community of the Kdyasthas. 

(Ep.Ind.,Vo\. XXXIV, p. 172, note 3), rarely also 
called sdmdnya\ 'resident'. 

vdstu (El 15, 32), homestead land. 

vdstu-bhumi (IE 8-1 ), homestead land. 

vdstuka, a building site. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst. y 
pp. 97-98. 

vdstu-krtya (SITI ), building work. 

vdstu-parivdra (SITI ), vacant site attached to a house. 

vastu-prdbhrtaka, cf. vastu-prdbhrtakena (LP), 'in exchange 
for a present'. 

vasu (IE 7-1-2; El 15), 'eight'. 

vdsu (Ep 1 1 ), a ward. 

vasudhd (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

vasundhard (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

vasu-patra-padma (IA 9 ), eight-petalled lotus. 

vdta (IE 8-5; El 15; CII 3), cf. sa-bhuta-vdta-pratydya, 
etc.; probably, storms (cf. udvdta); also called dvdta. 

vdt-ddeya (El 32), 'income resulting from storms'; same 
as vdta-pratydya. 

vdtaka (LL), a garden. 

(IE 8-4; El 15; IA 7), corrupt form of pdtaka; 'part 
of a village' ; often suffixed to names of localities. 

Cf. the second component in Talla-vdtaka, meaning modern 
vdda, spelt in English as wara. 

vataka, same as tolaka (q.v. ). 

vdta-pratydya (El 32; Gil 4), explained by some as 'octroi 
duty', but actually, 'income resulting from storms'; same as 
vdt-ddeya. See bhiita-vdta-pratydya, etc. 

368 va vedi 

va-ti (IE 8-1 ), contraction of Vadya-pakfa-titki, though va 
may be a mistake for ba (bahula ). 

vdti, van (IE 8-6; El 28, 30), also called vatikd (q. v.) ; 
land measure equal to twenty mams in Orissa. 

vd-ti, abbreviation of vastu-tikara, 'a mound containing 
land suitable for building houses.' See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, 
p. 56. 

vatikd (El 15; SITI ), same as nilam or veil, defined in 
the Mayamata as 5120 square dandas, the length of the danda 
being 4 cubits; 4.48 acres. 

(El 30), a land measure equal to twenty mams in 
Orissa; same as vdti, vdtt; equal to 20 acres. v 

(727), a 'hamlet. 

vdt-ottara (IE 8-5), 'resulting from storms' ; cf. vdt-ddeya, etc. 

vatta-grdma (El 24 ), subsidiary village. 

vattam( SITI ),money-changer's commission; trade discount. 

Vatteliuttu, name of an alphabet prevalent in medieval 
times in the southern part of the Tamil-speaking area and the 
land to its west. 

vdva (IE 8-2 ), one's uncle or a relation of one's father's 
generation; cf. vdva-pdd-dnudhydta, 'meditating on (or, 
favoured by ) the feet of the uncle (or a relation of one's father's 

Vdy-kkelvi, Vdy-kkelviydr (SITI), an officer who received 
the king's oral orders; an officer in attendance on the king, 
acting as the intermediary between the king and his subjects; 
the king's order. Cf. Ajnapti. 

vdyu (IE 7-1-2), 'fortynine'. 

veda (IE 7-1-2), 'four' (the four Vedas being Rk, Tajus, 
Sdman and Atharvan ) ; rarely used to indicate 'three' (cf. trayi) 
in late records (IE 7-1-2; IA9). 

veda-matha (ASLV ), school for teaching the Vedas. There 
was such a school at Kancipuram. Cf. said, khandikd, Rgveda- 

Veda-pdrdyana (IA 12), priest who repeats the Veda at 
the Ramesvaram temple. 

vedaveyaka (CII 1 ), Prakrit; see vaidarveyaka. 

veda-vrtli (SITI ), tax-free land set apart for meeting the 
expenses of reciting the Vedas. 

vedi (El 32), a seat; also a raised platform (cf. vedikd). 

vedikavetana 369 

See JBRS, Vol. XXXIX, Parts 1-2, pp. 43-44, 47; Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXXV, p. 192. 

vedikd (LL), a rail; also, a raised platform (cf. zwft). 
See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 192. 

Veggade (IE 8-3), same as Vergade, Peggade, Pergade, 
Heggade, etc. (q.v. ). 

Vela-durga-pala (SITI), a port officer. 

Velai-kkdrar (SITI), Tamil; trusted warriors even pre- 
pared to lay down their lives in the service of their master. 

veldkula, veldkula (IE 8-4; El 31; LP), a harbour. 

veldkula-karana, cf. karana (LP ) ; the harbour department. 

veldpura, cf. veldura (I A 10, 14), a harbour; same as 

Veldvitta (HD), meaning uncertain. See Rdjatarangim, 
V. 226; VI. 73, 106, 126. Cf. Pithikdvitta. 

veil (IE 8-6; El 25), Tamil; a big land measure. See 

veli-cenu (CITD), Telugu; usually, a field on a high level 
depending on rain water, 

veli-polamu (CITD), Telugu; see veli-volamu. 

veli-volamu (CITD), Telugu; also called veli-polamu ', 
similar to veli-cenu. 

velli (El 15), name of a coin. 

vend (El 31 ), a kind of grass. 

vent (IA 17), a stream or river. 

venkata-vildsa-mantapa (ASLV), hall in which the royal 
council met at Vijayanagara. 

venthe (El 16; ASLV), same as visqya, nirvrtti, kottam, 
etc.; an administrative division; also called ventheya, vantya, 
vetha, veta. 

ventheya (El 16), a sub-division or district; same as venthe. 

Vergade (IE 8-3), Kannada; same as Veggade, Pergade, 
Heggade, etc.; also Sanskrit Adhyakfa, Adhikdrin (a superin- 
tendent or governor). 

vesya (CII 4), explained as 'situated in...'. Cf. prdvesya. 

veta (IE 8-4), same as venthe, etc. 

Vetakila (IE8-3);HD), probably 'the bearer of vitikd 
(beteUfda)'. See Vogel. Ant. Ch. St., p. 128. Cf. Vdrgulika; 
also Pattakila. 

vetana } vetand (SITJ), wages (used, along with pa/#, i.e. 

370 vet ha vidyddhara 

Sanskrit visti or unpaid labour); probably wages for the 
labourers in the public works of the village. 

vetha (IE 8-4), Kannada; same as venthe, veta, etc.; a 
small territorial unit. 

Vetrika (El 9; CII4), explained by some as 'the chamber- 
lain'; cf. Ydstika, Pisuna-vetrika. 

vi (CITD), abbreviation of Telugu vinnapamulu, represen- 
tation or saying. It may stand for visdlu (visa or visa ) also. 

vibhdga (HRS), king's share of the output of mines; as 
suggested by the Arthasdstra, rent from mines and from the 
private manufacturers of salt. 

vibhava (IA 14), used in the sense of nirvana (q.v. ). 

vibheda (IE 8-4 ), subdivision of a khanda of Bharata or 
Bharata- varsa. 

vibhoga (El 16), holy ashes; same as vibhuti (q.v.). 

vibhuti (I A 12), holy ashes; same as vibhoga. 

(6777), also called vibhuti-kdnikkai in Tamil inscriptions; 
originally, voluntary contribution to a temple by the devotees 
while receiving the sacred ashes; later, it was collected as a 

Vicdrakartr, (El 8), a supervisor. 

vicitra-kavitva (CITD ), probably, a class of poetry like 
citra-kavitva, abounding in all kinds of highly artificial verses 
displaying the pedantry and verbal jugglery of the composer. 

viddlapadaka, same as vivarna (q.v. ). 

vidha (SITI ), variety, kind. 

vidhdrand (El 1 ), same as paripanthand, 'creating obs- 

vidhi-patra (LP), a judgement. 

vidhu (IE 7-1-2), 'one'. 

vidura-sdra (El 3 ), same as vaidurya. 

vidvaj-jana (SITI ), a body of learned men. 

vidyd (Gil 4), the right knowledge. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'fourteen'. 

vidyd-bhoga (El 18), same as vidy-dnubhoga and vidyd-dhana. 

vidyd-cdrana, see car ana (El 3 ). 

vidyd-dhana (HRS), explained as land assigned as a re- 
ward for learning; same as vidyd-bhoga and vidy-dnubhoga. 

vidyddhara-torana (SII 2), an ornamental arch probably 
depicting Vidyadharas; cf. makara-torana. 

Vidyavihita 371 : 

.Vidy-ddhikdrin (El 11, 25; HD), officer in charge of 
a school or of schools; the director of education. Cf. Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XI, p. 314. 

vidy-dnubhoga (SITI ), an endowment of land to a school 
for the encouragement of learning. 
Vidydrthin (SITI ), a student. 

vidyd-sthdna (El 2 ; SII 2 ; SITI ), an educational insti- 
tution for higher studies; a college. 

vigrahadramma-visovaka (El 1 ), name of a coin; the tatter 
part of the name (i.e. visovaka=vim$opaka) suggests that it was 
one-twentieth of the vigraha-dramma in value. 

vigrahapdla-dramma (El 1), name of a coin; same as 
vigrahapdla-satka-dramma, vigrahapdliya-dramma. 

vigrahapdla-satka-dramma (El 1 ), see vigrahapdliya-dramma, etc. 
vigrahapdliya-dramma (El 1; Gil 4), name of a coin 
apparently so called after a king named Vigrahapala. 

vigrahatnngiya-dramma (El 1; CII 4), name of a coin 
apparently so called after a king named Vigrahaturiga. 

vihdra (El 22, 25; CII 3, 4; BL), a Buddhist or Jain 
monastery or temple or convent (El 35). 

(HA), wandering of a Jain monk; also a Jain 

Vihdrakdraka, cf. Prakrit Viharakarahvaa (CII 2-1 ), 'one 
who builds a monastery' ; same as Vihdrasvdmin', explained by 
some as 'the superintendent of monastery 5 (ML). 

Viharamdna-Jina (HA), a Jina at present living in other 

Vihdrapdla, 'the manager of a monastery' (Select Inscrip- 
tions, p. 345). 

Vihdrasvdmin (El 8, 33; CII 3; BL; LL), 'the master of a 
monastery' ; the builder or owner of a monastery. Cf. Vihdra- 

Vihdrasvdmini (CII 3; IA 11), the feminine form of 
Vihdrasvdmin', wife of a Vihdrasvdmin or the female owner 
- of a vihdra. 

vihdra-ydtrd (CII 1 ), a pleasure- tour. 
vihdrikd (El 23, 27), derived from vihdra, vihdraka; a 
small vihdra or monastery. 

vihimsd (CII 1 ), hurting, injuring. 
vihita (CII 1), established; settled. 

372 vihrtayati vijaya 

vihrtayati, f [he] wastes 5 (Select Inscriptions, p. 245 ). 

vijdlayitavya, to be untied (Select Inscriptions, p. 238 ). 

Vijdtin (IA 1 1 ), cf. Vijdti-vidyddhara, 'a Vidyddhara unwind- 
ing his head-dress'. 

vijaya, used in Kannada inscriptions in the sense of 
'going in state, going in a triumpal procession, making a state 
procession, making a state progress through one's dominions' 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p. 223, note 6; Vol. VI, p. 51, note 5). 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 18), Odiya, etc.; used in 
Odiya inscriptions in the sense of 'stay'. 

(IA 7 ), cf. vijaya-rdjya-sarhvatsara, vijaya-samvatsara, 
vijaya-kataka, vijaya-skandhdvdra, etc. Gf. sri-vijaya and 

vijaya, (IA 26 ), same as su-di 1 1 or the eleventh tithi. 

vijay-dbhiseka (SITI), being crowned as a victor; same as 

vijaya-candra (SI I 2 ), name of an ornament. 

vijayd-dasami (El 31), Asvina-sudi 10. 

vijayaka (LP), same as vijaya, victory. 

vijaya-kataka (El 2; LP), 'the victorious camp' ; the royal 
camp or capital. 

vijaya-lekha (El 9 ), a royal record. 

vijayardja-tanka (Gil 4), name of a coin apparently 
so called after a ruler named Vijayaraja who was its issuer. 

vijaya-saptami (El 3 ), name of a tithi. 

vijaya-sdsana (El 33), any royal record (cf. sdsana); 
sometimes the same as dharma-vijaya-sdsana (q.v. ). 

vijaya-siva, cf. m-vijaya-siva-Mrgesavarman, etc. (The 
Successors of the Sdtavdhanas, pp. 261 ff. ); an honorific prefixed 
to royal names. See sn, vijaya, siva. 

vijaya-stambha (SITI), pillar of victory. 

vijaya-vaijayika, victory; sometimes used as an adjective 
qualifying the regnal date (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 152, text 
line 5; cf. ibid., Vol. XXXII, p. 88). 

vijaya-vanddpand (IE 8-5; El 12), Odiya; a levy; pre- 
sents to be offered to the king or landlord on the occasion of 
his victorious return from a campaign or for the preparation of 
a campaign; cf. vanddpand. 

vijaya-viksepa (IA 13), epithet of a place where a king 
was staying. See viksepa. 

vijita vimdna 

vijita (Gil 1 ), dominions. 

Vijndnin (El 20, 32), an artisan; same as Silpin; epithet of 
an artisan who is usually the engraver of an inscription. 

vijndpand (I A 10), also called vijnapti; an application; a 
request; cf. Kannada binna-vattale= Sanskrit vij nap ana-pair a 
(SII 11-1). 

Vijnapti (El 29), official designation. Gf. Ajiiapti, etc. 

vijnapti (SITI), sometimes also spelt vijnapti; peti- 
tioning to the king (cf. vijndpand); an officer who brings the 
petition of the subjects to the king's notice. 

(El 23; SII 2), also called vijndpya, an application or 

vi-jndpi (CII 3, etc. ), verb used in connection with the 
making of a grant .by the king at the request, or on the advice, 
of someone who was the real donor. 

vijndpya (El 23 ), cf. Tamil vinnappam (SII 1 ), a peti- 
tion; also called vijnapti. 

vikara, cf. vikara-paddni (LP), a small present, a bonus; 
cf. Gujarat! pdn-sopdri. 

(LP), cf. vikara-pada explained as 'miscellaneous expenses'. 

vikarana-pattaka (LP), a merket-tax contract. 

Vikramdditya (IE 8-2), see dditya. 

vikrti (IE 7-1-2), 'twenty three'. 

viksepa (I A 7, 13), cf. vijaya-viksepa used as an epithet of the 
place whence a royal charter was issued; cf. vijaya-viksepdt Bha- 
rukaccha-vdsakdt; wrongly interpreted as 'a camp or cantonment' 
(IA 17). See also Vaiksepika, 

vilabdhi (IE 8-3; El 30), used in the Rdjatarangini, 
probably in the sense of presents offered to the king or the stolen 
property recovered; explained as 'an assignment'. See 

vilahand (LP), probably, an escort; suite. 

Vildsini (El 33 ), same as Devaddsi; also called Ganikd, etc. 

Vilekhaka (El 22 ), an engraver. Cf. Ullekhaka, utkr. 

vi-lok, cf. vilokyante (LP ), 'are being searched for', used 
in respect of one who is in search of money in times of difficulty. 

vimdna (SITI ), the pinnacle or upper structure over the 
sanctum of a temple; the central shrine of a temple (SII 3); 
also called $ri-vimdna (SII 13); same as garbha-grha. 

(El 3, 23 ), a shrine. 

374 vims' atika vinirgata 

(I A 9), the steeple tower over a shrine; also called slupi. 

virhsatika, regarded as equal to 20 mdfas (JNSI, Vol. XVI, 
p. 52); cf. virhsopaka. 

vimsatima (CII 3 ), used for vimsatitama, twentieth. 

virhsopaka (El 1 ), corrupt form of virhsopaka, a copper coin 
which was -$ of the standard silver coin in value. 

virhsopaka (IE 8-6, 8-8; El 29, 30; Gil 4), a copper coin 
which was one- twentieth of the standard silver coin in value ; cf. 
Visdlapriya-virhsopaka (IE 8-8); Vardhakiya-vimsopaka (El 1 ); Vrsa- 
virhsopaka (q.v. ); a land measure equal to one twentieth of the 
standard land measure. See visa, virhsopaka, visovd, visovaka. 

Cf. visopaka (LP), supposed to be the same as vighd, a 
measure of land equal to 20 vasas [in Gujarat]. 

vind (ASLV ), a musical instrument. Cf. vinai-kkdni (SITI ), 
right of playing on the vind before the god in a temple during 

vinamu (CITD), Telugu; an unknown weight greater 
than a cinna or cinnamu, otherwise called sinna. 

vindsa (LP), 'not doing anything at all'. 

vindsin, cf. a-kura-chullaka-vinds'i-khatvd-vdsa (IE 8-5), an 
attendant, or fuel. The villagers were obliged to supply it to the 
touring officers of the king. 

vinasta-rdjya ( IE) , same as gata-rdjya or atita-rdjya, someone's 
sovereignty that was a thing of the past. 

vinqya (IE 8-8; El 30), fines. 

(El 13), same as indriya-jaya. 

Vinayadhara (LL), Buddhist; one who has learnt the 
Vinqya texts by heart. 

Vindyaka (LL ), a teacher of the vinaya texts ; a name of 
the god Ganesa. 

Vindyaka-homa (El 26), a rite; same as Gane^a-homa. 

vindu (El 7-1-2), also spelt bindu', 'cypher'. 

(SII 2 ), a flaw in diamonds. 

Vinibaddhakdra, see Vinibandhakdra. 

Vinibandhakdra (El 8), same as Vinibaddhakdraj explained 
as 'one who registers [a document]'; really, 'one who cancels 
the registration [of a document]' (Select Inscriptions,^. 202). 

vinirgata (El 7 ), cf. Pdtaliputra-bhattdgrahdra-vinirgata 
(Ep. 2nd., Vol. XXXII, p. 122, text line 16); 'hailing from', 
or more suitably 'one whose family hails from'. When a 

viniyoga Virakta 375 

locality called At tamula is described as vinirgata from Brhad- 
dhatta, it seems to mean that the former was originally a part 
of the latter (ibid., Vol. XXXIII, p. 151). 

viniyoga (SITI), an employment; use; expenditure. 

("724), a tax; cf. Tamil vdsal-viniyogam (SITI), same 
as vdsal-panam; also sabhd-viniyoga (SII 13). 

Viniyukta (HD), an officer probably under the Ayuktaka; 
same as Viniyuktaka (q.v. ), etc. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, 
p. 256. 

Viniyuktaka (CII 3, 4), an official title meaning a smaller 
administrative officer serving under a higher officer; an official 
probably under the Ayuktaka; same as Viniyukta. Cf. Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XI, pp. 80, 83. 

(IE 8-3), mentioned along with Taddyuktaka. Cf. Tad- 

Vipra-vinodin (SITI ), a class of Brahmanas who were 
adepts in jugglery and magical practices. 

vira (IE 8-2 ), sometimes prefixed to the names of kings 
and even treated as almost an integral part of the name; cf. 
pratdpa, vira-pratdpa, etc. 

(El 3 ), Jain ; same as Mahdvira. 

Cf. vira-kal (SITI), also written vira-kkal, vira-gal; a hero- 
stone ; an inscribed or uninscribed stone pillar raised in honour 
of a person who died in fighting for a good cause. 

Virabhadra (SITI ), also called Viramusti; member of 
a militant class of temple servants who diligently protected 
the properties and rights of the temples. Cf. Virakofa. 

vir-dbhiseka (El 18; SITI), 'anointment as a hero'. 

vira-bhoga (SITI ), land assigned for the maintenance of 
a warrior. 

vira-gal (CII 4), also written vira-kkal. See vira. 

vira-kkal (CII 4), also written vira-gal, a stone pillar raised 
in memory of heroes. See vira. 

Virakosa, official designation (The Successor of the Sdta- 
vdhanas, p. 110, note 2); mentioned along with Hastikosa as an 
officer related to a district; probably, an officer in charge of 
the local soldiers or infantry men. Cf. Virabhadra, etc. 

Virakta (SITI), an ascetic; a man free from worldly 
attachment ; a recluse of the Saiva order. 

376 viral visala 

viral-arisi (ASLV), rice provided for goldsmiths for am- 
putating the last two fingers of the wives of farmers. 

vira-mdld, cf. vlra-mdlai (SITI), a poem in praise of a 

Viramusti (SITI), same as Virabhadra. 
vira-patta (SII 2; SITI ), an ornament ; a front plate, pro- 
bably a plate worn on the forehead by distinguished warriors. 

vira-pattana (SITI), also called eri-vira-pattanam; a mer- 
cantile town inhabited by the eri-virar. 

Vira-pratdpa (IE 8-2 ), cf. Vira and Pratdpa. 
vira-sdsana (SITI ), CITD ) explained by some as the same 
as virakal, 'a hero stone', established for commemorating the 
death of soldiers on the battle-field ; a grant made by the king 
in recognition of the heroic activity of a person; a charter 
recording the grant of land or other property to a warrior. 

vira-sesa, cf. vira-sesai (SITI); probably, the provision 
made for the descendants of dead warriors ; sometimes explained 
as a tax (El 22 ). Cf. mrtyuka-vrtti, rakta-mdnya, etc. 
vira-simhdsana (SII 1 ), the throne of heroes. 
Vira-ydtrika (IA 17; HD ), an official designation; probably, 
the leader of an expedition ; a person taking part in a military 
expedition. See Vogel, Ant.Ch.St., p. 129. 

Virupdksa-pati, cf. Prakrit Virupakha-pati (El 20), epithet 
of the god Mahasena or Karttikeya, Virupaksa probably being 
the name of a host of which the god was conceived as the leader. 
visa (IE 8-8; El 5 ), name of a coin (JJVSI, .Vol. XXVI, 
pp. 127ff.) ; cf. lokkiya-visa, probably meaning 'a visa minted 
at Lokkigundi' ; Sanskrit vimsa, virhsaka, vimsatika, or vimsopaka. 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. VI, p. 232, note 6), Telugu-Kannada; 
T ^ of a hana (pana ) ; but J^ of the standard coin in value 

(CITD ), also called visa, visya, visdmu ; Telugu-Kannada ; 
the fraction T \; gold equal in weight to one grain of rice; 
g-Je of a Hun or Pagoda; 40 palas; a measure of land 
equal nearly to 2 acres. 

visa, also spelt visdmu (GITD), see visa, 
visahara-bhoga (SITI), also called visa-vrtti; land set apart 
for the support of a poison-doctor. 

visala-priya-dramma, also called visala-pri-dramma; cf. jirna- 
vifvamalla-priya, etc. (A.R.Ep., 1957-58, Nos. B 490-92). 

visathslhula Visaya 


visamsthula (LP), agitated, unsteady. 

visatiathu-prastha (I A 18), a levy; probably vimsalisatka- 
prastha, c one out of 20 prasthasS 

visa-vrtti (SITI ), same as visahara-bhoga. 

visaya (El 8-4), a district; often a kingdom or terri- 
tory; sometimes a visaya was included in a mandala:, but, in 
some cases, a mandala was included in a visaya'., at times mandala 
and visaya were synonymous. 

(/ 8-5; El 30; CII 3, 4; BL; SITI), a district; cf. 
visaya-sunka (El 24), the tax of a district; Visaya-vyavahdrin, 
officer in the service of a district. 

(ASLV), same as nirvrtti or kottam\ an administrative 

(/" 8-4; Gil 4), sometimes used in a wider sense to indi- 
cate 'a country'. 

(77-l-2), 'five'. 

visaya (CITD) , same as Telugu visa, visdmu. 

Visaya-bhogika (El 28 ), probably, the indmddr or indmddrs 
of a district. 

Visaya-bhubhuj (IA 15), explained as 'a native ruler' as 
opposed to a 'foreign conqueror.' 

visaya-ddna (HRS), name of a tax (Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, 
p. 21; Vol. XIV, p. 196), probably, a regional tax or 
taxes realisable from a particular district ; known from Gaha- 
davala records; cf. visaydll. 

Visaya-ddnika (El 7; CII 4), collector of the levy called 
visqya-ddna; or a district officer in charge of gifts or an officer in 
charge of gift lands in a district ; or the collector of the revenue 
of a district. 

Visay-ddhikarana (El 23, 31 ), administrative officer 
of a district; the district administrator's office. 

Visay-ddhipati, same as Visayapati (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, 
p. 219). 

Visaya-karana (El 32 ), probably, the chief scribe at the 
office of the administrators of a district. 

visaydli (El 33), name of a tax; probably the same as 

Visay-dmdtya (El 27, 30), governor of a district; an 
Amdtya in charge of a visaya or an Amdtya under the Visayapati. 
See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 64. 

378 visayana vistarana 

visayana (El 1 ), meaning doubtful. 

Visayapdla (El 28 ), same as Visayapali. 

Visayapati (IE 8-3; CII 3, 4; BL; HD), governor of a 
district called visqya; distinguished from Visaya-vydprtaka; same 
as Visay-ddhipati. Cf. Ind. Ant., Vol. V, p. 114. See Visa- 
yesa, Visayesvara, etc. 

Visaya-vydprlaka (IE 8-3), sometimes distinguished from 
the Visayapati; an officer associated with the administration 
of a district (cf. Visaya-vyavahdrin). 

Visaya-vyavahdrin (IE 8-3 ), an administrative officer in 
a district or a member of the district council. Cf. Visaya-vya- 
vahdrin, Visayika, Visayin. 

Visayesa (HD ), same as Visqyapati, etc. 

Visayesvara (El 26 ), same as Visqyapati, etc. 

Visayika (El 24), same as Visaya-vyavahdrin', cf. Visayin. 

Visqyik-ddhikdrika (El 32 ), taken to be a single official 
designation; probably Visayika and Adhikdrika. 

Visayin (El 24, 32 ), possibly, the same as Visaya-vyava- 
hdrin', cf. Visayika. 

visenima, visenima (CII 4), a tax, also called visenim- 
dddya (El 21). 

vises-dddya (SITI), also called vises-dya', a special group 
of taxes. 

vises-dya (SITI), same as vises-dddya (q.v. ). 

visikha (BL ), name of a kind of building. 

visirna, wearing out, worn out part of a building ; cf. bhagna- 
visirna-samdracana (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 144). 

Visisa (IE 8-3; El 1, 30), probably, the governor or 
commander of a fort; a word of uncertain derivation. 

visnu-bdhu, see hari-bdhu (IE 7-1-2), 'four'. 

visnu-grha (SITI ), a Visnu temple. 

visnu-pada (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher'. 

visnu-tithi (IA 19), same as Jyaistha-sudi 11. 

visnu-srddha (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 37), an expres- 
sion of doubtful meaning. 

visovd (CII 4), name of a coin; a land measure; same as 

visovaka (El 1), corrupt form of virhsopaka (q.v.). 

vistapa (IE 7-1-2), 'three'. 

vistarana (El 1 ), meaning doubtful. 

visti vithi 379 

viyti (IE 8-5; CII 4; HRS), labour which the villa- 
gers were obliged to provide to the king or landlord on occa- 
sions; unpaid labour; forced labour. 

Cf. z^//(SITI), unpaid labour for public works in the vil- 
lage without time or other limits; usually mentioned along with 
vetana as vetti-vetanai. Cf. vetti-ccoru, the obligation of feed- 
ing vetti labourers free of cost; also cf. Tamil vetti-pdttam (El 
24), explained as 'a kind of tax'; tax in lieu of visti. 

visuddhi, cf. visuddhim ydvat (LP), 'till the account 
is clear'. 

visuva (CII 4; SI I 1 ), the autumnal or vernal equinox; 
also called visuvat ( q.v. ). 

visuvat (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

Cf. visuva. 

visva (IE 7-1-2), same as visvedevdh, 'thirteen. 5 

visvacakra (El 24 ), name of a mahdddna. 

visvedevdh (IE 7-1-2), 'thirteen'; same as visva. 

visvag-devd (LL ), Jain ; a quardruple image. 

Visvakarman (LL), an architect. 

Visvdla (El 31 ), Odiya; a village watchman. 

ViSvdsa (El 24), official designation; same as Vaisvdsika\ 
cf. the titles Visvdsa-Khdna, Visvdsa-rdya, etc., conferred by the 
Muslim rulers especially in the Bengal region. 

visvdsana (CII 1 ), 'being inspired with faith'. 

viSva-sattd (I A 14), wrong Sanskritisation of Prakrit vasa- 
sata (Sanskrit varsa-sata); translated as 'universal rule'. See 
Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 241, note 1. 

Visvdsika (El 24), same as Vaisvdsika (q.v.), etc. 

Visvavisvopaka (IA 19), Jain; explained as 'one whose 
body and soul exhibit marks of an dcdrya\ 

vitdna (SII 13), probably, a canopy. 

Vitdn-ddhipa (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIII, p. 325, note 3), 
supposed to be 'an officer in charge of the king's bed-chamber'. 
Cf. Vdsdgdrika> Sayydpdla, etc. 

vitapa (IE 8-5), a bush; used in sa-jhdta-vitapa; a branch. 
Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p. 183. 

vitha-vigdra (Chamba), unpaid labour; from Sanskrit 
vifti and Persian begdr. 

vithi, vithi (SII 1 ), a street. 

, 30; CII 4), a shop; a stall or shop in a market. 

380 Vithi Vrajabh umika 

(El 21, 23, 29, 30), a territorial unit; the subdivision 
of a district. 

.(IE 8-4), sometimes a subdivision forming part of a 
mandala, but sometimes a district forming part of a bhukti or 

Vithl-mahattara (HD ), headman of the territorial unit 
called vithi. Cf. ///a, Vol. XIX, pp. 16, 21. 

vithy-adhikarana (El 31), administrative office of a sub- 
division called vithi. 

vitta-bandha (CII4), mortage. 

vittolla-kara (HRS), known from Maitraka records; ex- 
plained as the contribution in forced labour. 

Vivdha (El 12 ), 'one whose vehicle is the bird'; i.e. Visnu. 

vivdha (CII 1), marriage of a daughter; cf. dvdha which 
means the marriage of a son. 

vivdha-kara, cf. Tamil kanndla-kkdnan (El 28 ), the marriage 
fee; cf. vivdha-ppanam. 

vivdha-pana, cf. vivdha-ppanam (SITI ), same as kanndla- 
kkdnam; a tax on marriage. 

vivita (HRS ), royal dues collected by the superintendent 
of pastures, as suggested by the Arthasdstra. 

Vivit-ddhyaksa (El 28), known from the Arthasdstra ; officer 
in charge of the pasture land. Cf. Vrajabhumika. 

viyat (IE 7-1-2), 'cypher'. 

vodd (IE 8-5; El 29), a kind of levy in Odiya records; 
sameasOdiya vaddi, 'the obligation of offering uncooked food.' 

vodi, vodri (El 23 ), J panaj 20 cowrie-shells; cf. kapardaka- 
vodi, 'vodi counted in cowrie-shells'. 

voldpana, see voldpika, vuldvi. 

Voldpika (LP ), an officer in charge of collecting the tax 
called voldpana or vuldvi. It is supposed that a Voldpaka or the 
men under him accompanied the merchants in their journey 
for the safety of their goods and the voldpana tax was collected 
from the merchants for safeguarding their goods. 

vota, cf. bo fa. 

vraja, see Vraja-bh umika. Cf. Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 1 10. 

vraja-bhumi (IE 8-4), grazing land. 

Vrajabhumika (CII 1; El 2; HD), Prakrit Vacabhumika; 
superintendent of cowpens; officer in charge of the royal cattle 
and pasture lands. Cf. Vivit-ddhyak$a. 

vrata vya 


vrata (CITD), religious vow; a self-imposed task; a 
religious act of devotion or austerity; vowed observance; a vow in 
general. There are many vratas mentioned in the different Pur anas. 
But new vratas crop up in different parts of the country. 

(El 4), five in number. 

vn'hi-kara, cf. Tamil arisi-kkdnam (SITI), a levy for 
husking paddy into rice. 

vrddha (LP), participle of vrdh, ' to cut'. 

Cf. Vrddha-Ganesa (IA 19), 'the senior Ganesa'. 

Vrddha-dhanuska (IE 8-3 ), senior archer; the chief archer. 

Vrddharaja (El 3; LL), 'prosperous king'; title of a pious 

vrddhi (El 28 ), a super tax or the interest on arrears of 
taxes; also interest. 

vrddhi-kukkuta (CII 1 ), Prakrit vadhi-kukuta; a cock that 
has been caponed; also Sanskritised as vadhri-kukkuta. 

vrsatdpa-sdsana (El 13), same as tdmra-sdsana. 

vrsa-vimsopaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 39), name of a 
coin (probably bearing the figure of a bull ) ; cf. vimsopaka. 

vrtti (SITI), means; livelihood, occupation; grant of 
land for one's livelihood. 

(SH 3 ), land granted for service. 

(717, 31; CITD), share; share in a village granted to a 
Brahmana as a free gift. 

Vudhd-lenkd(EI 28), Odiya; official designation; cf. Lenka. 

vuldpikd (LP), tax for the maintenance of the camp- 
followers; cf. Gujarat! valdman vulqyiyd', also voldpika, vuld- 
viyd (q.v. ). 

vuldvi (LP), same as voldpana; a tax. 

Vuldviyd (LP), a camp-follower; cf. Gujarat! Vuldviyd. 
See vuldpikd and Voldpika. 

vumvaka (El 14), name of a measure. 

Cf. 'rupakas to be levied on each vumvaka of the distillers' 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 309). 

Vya (PJS), abbreviation of Vyavahdrin, especially in 
medieval Jain inscriptions. 

Vya (PJS), abbreviation of Vydpdrin (merchant) or Vydsa 
(exponent or reciter of epic and Puranic texts) especially in 
medieval Jain inscriptions. Cf. vyd-bhu. 
- vyd-bhu (IE 8-1 ), abbreviation of vydmisra-bhumi', 'mixed 

382 vydcaraw Vydsa 

land 5 ; land containing different categories such as cultivable, 
fallow, homestead, etc. 

vydcarana (El 15), meaning uncertain; probably, com- 

vydghra-carman (IE 8-5; El 12, 28), tiger's skin [which 
was the king's monopoly] ; tax probably payable by hunters 
in tiger's skin; refers to the right to keep tiger's skins without 
surrendering them to the king. 

vydja, vydjaka (LP), interest; cf. dvika-sata-vydjena, 'at 
2 per cent interest'. See vydji. 

vydji (HRS ), as suggested by the Arthasdstra^ ( 1 ) com- 
pensation fee levied upon the sale of liquors, royal merchan- 
dise, mining products, salt and sugar ; (2 ) charge paid for 
minting coins; (3 ) subsidiary charge over and above the regular 
fines. See vydja. 

vydkarana-ddna-mandapa (SITI ), hall in the Siva temple 
at Tiruvorriyur, where Sanskrit grammar is taught with 
the belief that the Mdhesvara-sutras, on which Sanskrit grammar 
is founded, were composed by the god Siva. 

vydkhyd-vrtti (SITI ), land set apart to meet the expenses 
of expounding the Puranas and other Sdstras. 

vyakta (CII 1 ), experienced. 

vydmisra-bhumi (IE 8-1 ), an area consisting of different 
kinds of land such as cultivated land, homestead land, fallow 
land, etc. See vyd-bhu. 

vyanjana, cf. venjanam, vinjanam (SITI), condiment; 
vegetable relish; condiments and curry in food offerings; cf. 

(CII 1 ), a letter or an implication. 

vydpddita (LP), 'much harassed'. 

vydpdra (SII 1 ), a trade. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXVI, p. 20), administration. Cf. 
mudrd-vydpdra . 

vydpdra-karana, cf. karana (LP ), the department of com- 

Vydpdrin (El 22; SII 1 ), a merchant. 
Vydprta (IE 8-3; El 6), cf. Vdpata (El 9), a governor; a 
superintendent; cf. also official designations like Hasty-asva- 
naubala-vydprta or vyaprtaka> etc. 

Vydsa (El 11; PJS), a reciter or exponent; a Brahmana 

vyasana vyoman 383 

who recites or expounds the epics and Puranas in public. Cf. 

vyasana (CII 1 ), misfortune. 

vydsedha (LP ), vydsedhah kdritah or nisedhah kdritah, 'prov- 
ed the countrary [in the court that it was his own land and not 
dohalikd land'] ; vahamdna-bhumi-vydsedha, 'no one should stop him 
when he is ploughing his own piece of land'. 

(LP), seizure; confiscation as government property. 

vyatikara (LP), 'in connection with'. 

vyatipdta (I A 19), used in relation to eclipses. 

Vyava (LP ), abbreviation of Vyavahdrika in the sense of a 
dealer, a money-lender, a merchant. 

vyavacchinna, fixed (Select Inscriptions, p. 237); demarcated. 

vyavahdra, cf. vyavahdra-pade (LP), 'as a tax from mer- 

Vyavahdr-dbhilekhitaka (El 30 ), the clerk who writes down 
the statements of cases in a court of law. 

vyavaharamdna (LP), current. 

vyavaharana (El 1 1 ), administration. 

vyavahdra-patra (LP ), a deed relating to a loan or debt. 

vyavahdra-samatd (CII 1 ), impartiality in judicial proceed- 

Vyavahdrika (El 7, 32), an administrator; same as Vyava- 
hdrin (q.v. ) or Vyavahartr\ see also Vyava. 

Vyavahdrin (El 19, 24, 28, 29; BL; LL; HD), an ad- 
ministrator; sometimes explained as 'a controlling officer'; 
same as Vyavahdrika. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, pp. 60, 63. 

(LL), a merchant. See also Vyava. 

vyavasthd, cf. vyavasthai (El 24; SITI ), regulations; 
rules of proper conduct; a settlement or arrangement; a deed 
of agreement. 

(El 22; SII 2), a resolution; a declaration. 

(El 32 ), an agreement. 

(SII 3 ), conditions. 

vyaya (HRS), government expenditure; cf. Tamil viyd- 
yam (SITI ), expenditure, as opposed to dyam or income. 

(IE 7-1-2), 'twelve'. 

vyaya-karana, cf. karana (LP), the department of expen- 

vyoman (IE 7-1-2; El 33), 'cypher'. 

384 vyuha -yantra 

vyuha (IE 7-1-2), Tour'. 

Vyufila (Prakrit Vivutha) , sometimes taken to be Vyusfa 
(CII 1 ); 'one who is away from his residence'. See IHQ, 1962, 
pp. 222 ff. 

ydga (El 31 ), a ceremony. 

Taksa (CII 4; HA), a semi-divine being; a demi-god 
belonging to the class of vyantara-devatds according to Jain 

yajna-vidyd (El 8), knowledge regarding the perfor- 
mance of sacrifice. 

yadd tad^dpi (LP), 'only'. 

Tddava-cakravartin (IE 8-2 ), title assumed by kings of the 
Yadava dynasty; see Cakravartin. 

ydga-mandapa (SITI), sacrificial hall in a temple; same 
as ydga-dld. 

ydga-sdld (SITI ), same as ydga-mandapa (q.v. ). 

yaksa-dvdra, gateway adorned with Yaksa figures (Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 107). 

jama (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

ydma (El 7-1-2), 'eight'. 

yamala (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

yamala-patra (LP), treaty of alliance. 

yamalikdmali (El 24 ), a tax probably on a pair of prize 
bullocks (yamala-kambalin', cf. varabalivarda)', also spelt 
yamalikambali, yamalikdmbali. See valadi. 

yamalikambali (IE 8-5), name of a tax; also spelt yama- 
likdmbali, yamalikdmali (q.v. ). 

yamalikdmbali (HRS ), a tax known from the Gahadavala 
records; also spelt yamalikamabali, yamalikdmali (q.v.). 

ydnaka (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 253, note 4), probably a 

ydnikd, same as ydnaka, probably, a cart road (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. IV. p. 253, note 4). 

yantra (SITI ), a mechanical contrivance, as for diverting 

(HA ), a mystic diagram. 

yantra-kuti (IE 8-8; El 30), an oil mill or manufactory. 

yatasyoga 385 

yasas (CII 1 ), glory in this life; cf. yaso vd kzrtir=va. See 

yasti (El 33; CII 4; ML), a memorial pillar; a relic 
pillar raised in memory of the dead. 
Cf.jasti (El 19), a land measure. 
Cf. lasti (El 16), a memorial pillar. 
Cf. sild-yasti (LL), a stone pillar. 

Tdf(ika(HD) ) staff bearer; an attendant on the king. See 
Rajatarangint, VI 203; Panini, IV. 4. 59. See Vetrika, Pisuna- 

Tasti-prdtisthdnaka (ML), the erection of a pillar; same 
as Sanskrit yasti-pratisthdpana. 

yathdkdla-bhdvin (IE 8-3), same as vartamdna-bhavisyat, 
yathdsambadhyamdnaka; also written as yathd-kdl-ddhydsin (q.v. ). 
yathdkdl-ddhydsin (El 4, 23 ), 'one who may be employed 
[in the area including the gift land] from time to time 5 ; one 
who may be associated with the area about the gift land in differ- 
ent periods of time ; same as yathdkdla-bhdvin, vartamdna-bhavisyat, 

yathd-sambadhyamdnaka (IA 9), same as yathdkdla-bhdvin, 
vartamdna-bhavisyat, yathdkdl-ddhydsin. 

yathi (CII 4), Prakrit; same as Sanskrit yasti (q.v.); a 
memorial pillar. 

Tati (BL), a monk. 

ydtrd (El 1 1 ; CII 4), festival; the festival of a deity; same 
as ydtr-otsava. 

ydtrd-ddna (El 27 ), gift or levy for running a festival. 
(SITI), -propitiatory gift made before starting on an 
expedition of conquest by the king. 

ydtr-otsava (IE 8-5; El 3, 9), same as ydtrd (q.v.); the 
festival of a deity; festival in honour of a deity. 
.yauta (CII 1 ), a respite; cf. yautaka. 

yava, one-fifteenth of a mdsa (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 45); 
equal to 2 dhdnyamdsas (ibid., p. 48); J of a rati. 

Tdvadeka-pdtra (Ep. 2nd., Vol. XXVII, p. 122, text lines 
4-5), official designation. See Pdtra. 

Tavatia (El 26; CII 1 ), originally, an Ionian Greek; then, 
people of Greek nationality ; ultimately, any foreigner. 
Tavuga (El 14), royal title of foreign origin. 
yoga (CII 4), meditation; a philosophical system. 

386 yogaTukta 

("718), a council or corporation. 

(C/7 3 ; IA 17), addition of the longitudes of the sun and 
moon; an astrological element. 

Cf. yogarh yunjantdm, 'let them obtain the association [of 
the gods] 5 . See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 208. Cf. yuj. 

yoga-k$ema (IA 7; LP), death; cf. jdta-yoga-ksema, dead. 

yoga-patta(EI 14), band used by the ascetics to keep their 
limbs in a position of rigidity. 

yoga-pa ttaka, cf. joga-vattige (IA 14), explained as 'a 
garment worn during contemplation' ; same asyoga-patta (q .v. ). 

yoga-pitha (IA 10 ), a holy place where an ascetic obtained 
perfection (siddhi) by his austerities; also called siddha-pitha. 

yogin, cf. yogindra (SI I 1 ) a [Jain] ascetic. 

yojana (CII 1, 4), name of a measure of distance; a dis- 
tance of about nine miles. 

yoni-patta, same as gauri-patta', see pitha. 

yuddhita,'onewho died fighting' (Ep. Ind., XXXI, p. 324). 

yudhya (El 4 ), name of a sacrifice. 

yuga (IE 7-1-2), 'four'; rarely, 2 or 12. 

yuga,yugd (El 1 ), meaning doubtful; cf.yugd in the sense 
of 'a voucher'. 

yuga (CII 4), a voucher. 

yug-ddi (CII 4; IA 18), name applied to certain tithis; day 
of the commencement of a yuga; e.g. Vaisakha-sudi 3, regarded 
as the commencement of the Krta-yuga. 

yugddi-tithi (El 13), see yug-ddi. 

Tugddi-parvan (El 14), name of an auspicious time; same 
as yugddi-tithi. 

yugafa (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

yugandhari (El 11), same as javdr (jawdr ), millet. 

yugma (IE 7-1-2), 'two'. 

Tugyacarya (CII 1 ), a charioteer. 

yuj (CII 1 ), cf. vrddhir=yujyatdm, 'should devote them- 
selves for an increase'; sdsvatarh samayam \etad\ = yunjyuh, 'they 
may strive for this at all times'. Cf. yoga. 

Yukta (El 8-3; HD), an officer in general; also an offi- 
cial designation (CII, Vol. 1, p. 4); the word used in Rock 
Edict III of Asoka is explained by some scholars as the designa- 
tion of a class of officers, although there also the word may be 
understood in the sense of 'an officer' ; but it is an official desig- 

Tuklaka Tuvardja 387 

nation in passages like yukta-niyukta-vdsdvak-ddhikdrika (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXI, p. 144) where it may be the same as Ayuktaka. 

Cf. Tuktaka, Ayukta, etc. 

Tuktaka (IE 8-3 ; HD ), same as Tukta, Ayukta or Ayuktaka. 
See Ep. hid., Vol. VII, pp. 26, 39-40. 

yupa (El 2, 24, 33), sacrificial pillar; it was sometimes 
made of stone and inscribed. 

yuthi, also spelt yuti (IA 17), generally written as yuti 
or puti; cf. trna-yuti(or puti}-gocara-paryanta, 'as far as grass 
land and pasture land 5 . 

yuti, cf. sva-simd-trna-yuti-gocara-paryanta (IE 8-5); also 
written as puti; a word of uncertain import; probably, ' [land] 
reserved [for growing grass, etc.]' Cf. go-yuti, trna-yiiti, kdstha 

Tuvamahdrdja (IE 8-2; El 3, 20, 24), modification of 
Tuvardja; designation of the heir-apparent or crown-prince; 
same as Mahdyuvardja. 

Tuvardja (IE 8-2, CII 3, 4; HD; ASLV), designation of 
the heir-apparent or crown-prince. See Arthasdstra, I. 12 (men- 
tioned among the 18 tirthas); cf. CII, Vol. II, Part i. p. 40. 

Cf. Tamil Tuvardsan (El 4 ), also Duvardja. 

Cf. Mahdyuvardja (El 32 ), same as Tuvamahdrdja (q.v. ). 


a-bhata-cchdtra-prdveya (El 26, 27; CII 3), same asa-cdta- 
bhata-prdvesya, Chair a (literally, 'the umbrella-bearer' ) being used 
for Cdta probably meaning 'the leader of a group of Bhatas (i. e. 
Pdiks or PiddasY; same as a-prdvesya, etc. 

a-bhata-prdvesya, same as a-prdvesya, etc. Gf. Prakrit a-bhada- 
papesa (Select Inscriptions, p. 435). 

a-bhrita-pravesya (El 24), same as a-bhata-prdvesya', cf. a- 
prdvesya, etc. 

abhyantara-siddhi (El 22 ), same as abhyantara-siddhyd, abhyan- 
tara-siddhika', refers to internal revenue income or taxes to be 
paid to local authorities; cf. sa-bdhy-dbhyantar-dddya. 

abhyantara-siddhika, (El 20) same as abhyantara-siddhi. 

abhyantara-siddhi-sahita(EA 27), same as abhyantara-siddhi, etc. 

abhyantara-siddhyd, 'together with the internal income or 
taxes to be paid to the local authorities'; cf. abhyantara-siddhika 
and sa-bdhy-dbhyantar-dddya. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 398. 

d-candr-dditya-kdliya( IE) ,'to be enjoyed as long as the moon 
and sun endure' (i.e. permanently); epithet of the gift land. 

d-candr-drka-ksiti-sama-kdlam, 'as long as the moon, the sun 
and the earth exist' (i.e. permanently). 

d-candr-drka (IE; SITI), 'in perpetuity.' 

d-candr-drk-drnava-ksiti-sthiti-sama-kdlina (El), 'to last as 
long as the moon, the sun, the seas and the earth endure' 
(i.e. permanently); cf Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXII, p. 134. 

d-candr-drk-drnava-ksiti-sarit-paruata-sama-kdlina, 'to be en- 
joyed as long as the moon, the sun, the seas, the earth, the rivers 
and hills exist (i.e. permanently)'; cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, 
p. 134. 

d-candra-tdrakam, 'as long as the moon and stars endure' 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 149, text line 12), i.e. permanently. 

a-cdr-dsana-carm-dngdra (IE;EI 27), refers to the freedom of 
the gift village from the obligation to supply conveyance, accom- 
modation, hide (i.e. hide-seats) and charcoal free of charges 
to the touring officers on their visit. The word cdra meaning 

a-cara a-hiranya 

'passage or conveyance' is sometimes substituted by para meaning 

a-cdra-siddhika (El 26), explained by some as 'without 
grazing right for the royal cattle'. Cf. a-vdra-siddhika. 

a-carm-drigdraka, refers to the freedom of the gift village 
from the obligation to supply hide-seats and charcoal to the king 
or landlord on occasions or to the touring royal officers on their 
visit. Cf. Prakrit a-camm-angdlaka (Select Inscriptions, p. 409). 

a-cdta-bhata-gocara(EI 22), same as a-cdta-bhata-pravesa, etc. 

a-cdta-bhata-pravesa (El 27, 29; Gil 3), refers to the free- 
dom of the gift village from the entry of the Cdtas (leaders of 
groups of Pdiks and Piddas) and the Bhatas (Pdiks and Piddas); 
cf. a-bhata-pravesa, a-bhata-chdtra-prdvesya, a-bhrta-pravesa, etc. 

a-cdta-bhata-prdvesya (CII 3, 4), same as a-cdta-bhata-pra- 
vefa; refers to the freedom of the gift land from being entered 
by the Bhatas (the king's Pdiks and Piddas) and the Cdta (the 
leader of a group of Pdiks and Piddas ) ; cf. Chdtra in place of Cdta 
in a-bhata-cchdtra-prdvesya; also Bhrta for Bhata in a-bhrta-pravesya. 

a-catta-bhatta-pravesa (El 27), same as a-cdta-bhata-pravesa. 

a-cullaka-kura-khatvd-grahana, similar to a-kura-chullaka- 
vindsi-khatv-dvdsa, etc. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 5. 

a-dugdha-dadhi-grahana, refers to the freedom of the gift 
village from the obligation of supplying milk and curds to the 
king or landlord on occasions or to the touring officials on their 
visit. Cf. Prakrit a-dudha-dadhi-gahana (Select Inscriptions, p. 439 ). 

a-hantaka-sdka-puspa-grahana, refers to the freedom of the 
gift land from the supply of myrobalan, vegetables and flowers 
to the king or landlord on occasions or to the touring officers 
on their visit. Cf. Prakrit a-haritaka-sdka-pupha-gahana (Select 
Inscriptions, p. 439 ). 

similar to a-hantaka-sdka-puspa-grahana and a-dngdha-dadhi- 
grahana, etc. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 5. 

a-hasta-praksepaniya (El 11, 23), same as a a-bhata-pravesa, 
etc. Cf. samasta-rdjakiydndm=a-hasta-praksepaniya. 

a-hiranya-dhdnya-pranaya-pradeya (El 26), refers to the 
freedom of the gift land from the payment of revenue in cash, 
the king's grain share and the benevolence or emergency 
imposts. Cf. Prakrit a-hiranna-dhanna-ppanaya-ppadeya (Select- 
Inscriptions, pp. 408-09). 

$90 a-karada a-lavana 

a-karada (El 26 ), refers to the freedom of the donee of 
the gift land from paying taxes in general. 

a-karaddyin (El 26, 27 ), same as a-karada. 

a-kara-vdt-ottara (IE ; El 32 ), sometimes with dvdta, vdt-ddeya, 
bhut-opdtta-pratydya, etc., in place of vdt-ottara; cf. sa-bhuta-vdta- 
(or pdta )-pratyaya, etc;, 'free from the collections resulting from 
storms (e.g. uprooted trees, fruits, etc.).' 

a-kara-visti-konjalla ( IE ), refers to the freedom of the donee 
of the gift land from the payment of taxes and the obligation to 
supply free labour and konjalla (kdnji) to the king's labourers. 
Cf. Select Inscriptions, p. 439. 

a-khatvd-cullaka-vaindsika, cf. Prakrit a-khatta-collaka-vene- 
sika (El 26 ), refers to the freedom of the gift village from the 
obligation to supply cots, food and attendant or fuel to the 
touring royal officers on their visit or to the king or landlord 
on occasions. Cf. a-kura-cullaka-vindsi-khatv-dvdsa, etc. 

a-kincit-kara, 'not to pay even a small amount as rent or 
tax'; epithet of gift land ; same as a-kindt-pragrdhya. It has to 
be noted that sometimes a small amount of tax was fixed for 
the gift lands. Cf. kara-sdsana. 

a-kincit-kara-grdhya (El 27), same as a-kincit-kara, etc. 

a-kindt-pragrdhya (El 29 ), refers to the freedom of the gift 
land from the payment of taxes and the obligation of supplying 
articles to the king or landlord on occasions and to the touring 
officers on their visit; same as a-kincit-kara t etc. 

a-kincit-pratikara (El 23 ), ' [land] free from any yield 
of revenue'; cf. utpratikara. But pratikara also means 
'compensation' . 

a-kura-cullaka-vaindsi-khatv-dvdsa (or samvdsa), cf. a-kura- 
yollaka-venesi-khatt-dvdsa (El 26); refers to the freedom of the 
gift village from the obligation of supplying boiled or unboiled 
rice, pots or fire-places for cooking, attendant or fuel, cot and 
shelter to the king or landlord on occasions or to the touring 
officers on their visit; same as a-kura-cullaka-vindsi-khatvd-sarhvdsa, 
etc. See sdmant-dmdtya-dutdndm=anyesdm c=dbhyupdgame sayaniy- 
dsana-siddh-dnnam na ddpayet (Ep. Ind. } Vol. XXX, p. 171). 

a-lavana-guda-ksobha (El 26), same as a-lavana-khdtaka, 
guda or sugar being added to lavana or salt; cf. a-lavana-klinna- 

a-lavana-khdtaka, cf. Prakrit a-lona-khddaka (El 7), refers 

a-lavana a-pdrampara 391 

to the freedom of the gift land from being dug out or its trees 
being pierced for salt. 

a-lavana-klinna-khanaka (El 26), same as a-lavana-klinna- 

a-lavana-klinna-khdtaka, same as a-lavana-khdtaka, klinna, 
sometimes wrongly spelt klinva, probably, 'toddy, sugar, etc.' 
being added to lavana or salt. Cf. a-lavana-guda-ksobha, a-lavana- 
klinna-kreni-khanaka, etc. Cf. Select Inscriptions, p. 408. 

a-lavana-klinva(nna)-kreni-khanaka (El 26, 27), same as a- 

a-lavana-kreni-khanaka (El 23), same as a-lavana-klinna- 

a-lekhani-praveSatayd (El 29 ), probably refers to the absence 
of the right to re-grant the gift land to any other party on the 
part of the king and to alienate the gift land on the part of the 
donee; lekhani-pravesa may mean that the gift land should not 
be made the subject of another document. 

andcchedya (Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 267, note), 'unresum- 
able'; but since andhdra, 'unresumable', is sometimes used in the 
same context, probably, 'uncurtailable' ; epithet of gift land. 

anddesya (El 12 ), same as anirdesya. 

andhdra, 'unresumable' (Ind. Ep., p. 395 ), cf. andcchedya. 

ananguli-praksepaniya (El 23 ), also called ananguli-preksaniya 
same as a-bhata-pravesa, etc. 

ananguli-preksaniya (El 23), same as ananguli-praksepaniya, 
a-bhala-pravesa, etc. 

andsedhya (Ep. Ind., Vol. II, p. 267, note 4), refers to 
the freedom of the people associated with the gift land from 
legal restraints. 

anavamarsya, refers to the freedom of the gift land from 
troubles associated with the visit of royal agents. Cf. Prakrit 
anomasa (Select Inscriptions, pp. 192, 194). 

a-pdrampara, same as a-parampard-balivarda or a-param- 
pard-balivarda-grahana, a privilege of the donee of rent-free land 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 42). 

a-parampard-balivarda (SITI ), refers to the freedom of the 
gift village from the supply of bullocks primarily for the con- 
veyance of royal officers on tour. 

a-parampard-balivarda-grahana (El 26), same as a-pdram- 


a-parampard-go-balivarda (El 22, 26, 27), same as a-pdram- 
para, etc., in which go (cow) has been added to balivarda (bullock ). 

a-paripanthya, 'without opposition'; cf. Ind. Ep., p. 394. 

a-pasu-medhya (Select Inscriptions, p. 414), refers to the 
freedom from the supply of animals for sacrifice. 

a-prdvesya, refers to the freedom of the gift land from the 
entry of royal agents; same as a-bhata-pravesa, etc. Cf. Prakrit 
a-pdvesa (Select Inscriptions, pp. 192, 194). 

a-puspa-ksira-grahana (El 26), same as a-puspa-ksira-san- 
doha, etc. 

a-puspa-ksira-grahaniya, refers to the freedom of the gift 
land from the supply of flowers and milk to the king or land- 
lord on occasions or to the touring officers on their visit; same 
as a-puspa-ksira-sandoha, etc. Gf. Prakrit a-puppha-kkhira-gahani 
(Select Inscriptions, p. 409). 

a-puspa-ksira-sandoha (El 26, 27), same as a-puspa-ksira- 
grahaniya, etc. 

aputra-dhanam ndsti, c there is no confiscation, by the king, 
of the property of persons dying without a son' ; cf. aputrd-sahita, 
etc. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXV, p. 237 

aputrd-sahita (IE ), 'together with the right to confiscate 
the property of persons dying without leaving any son' ; epithet 
of gift village. Cf. aputra-dhanam ndsti. 

a-rdstra-sdrhvinayika (El 26 ), refers to the freedom of the 
gift land from the administrative control to which the district 
in which it was situated was subject. Cf. Prakrit a-ratha-sam- 
vinayika (Select Inscriptions, pp. 92, 94). See bhoga-sambandha- 
nirvacaniya, grdma-nilaya-ndda-sarva-bddhd-parihdrena, etc. 

asan-nara-pravrtti-vinivrtt-dcdra (Ind. Ant., Vol. XI p. 113, 
text lines 36-37) , translated as 'the established customs [of the 
gift land] are withheld from [injury by] the enterprise of 
wicked men.' 

asta-bhdgika, 'paying one-eighth of the produce [in place 
of the usual one-sixth]'. Cf. Prakrit atha-bhdgiya (Select Ins- 
criptions, p. 70). 

atabhoga-tejahsvdmya-dandasulka-yukta (Ind. Ant., Vol XIX, 
p. 247, text line 102), mentioned along with nidhi-niksepa 
pdsdn-drdm-ddi-catusprakdra-biravana-pdrikh-dya-sahita. See asta- 
bhoga, tejah-svdmya, etc. 

astddaSa-jdti-parihdra, the eighteen (i.e. all or various) kinds 

a-trmacatuh 393 

of exemptions [usually enjoyed by rent-free holdings]. Cf. 
Prakrit althdrasa-jdti-parihdra (Select Inscriptions., pp. 439-40). 

a-trina-kdstha-grahana (El 26 ), refers to the freedom of 
the donee of the gift village from the supply of grass and fuel 
to the king or landlord on occasions or to the touring officers 
on their visit. 

a-vaha (El 26), refers to the freedom of the gift village 
from the obligation of carrying loads of the touring officers, 
etc., or of supplying a horse to them free of charges. 

a-vdra-siddhika (IE), refers to the freedom of the gift 
village from the obligation to supply unpaid labour in turn. 
Cf. a-cdra-siddhika. 

bhdga-bhoga-pasu-hiranya-kara-sulka (El 20 ), 'together with 
[the right to] the share of the produce, periodical offerings, 
cattle or animals [for sacrificial purposes], tax in cash, tax in 
kind and tolls'. 

bhdvisyat-kara-rahita (El 24 ), 'without all the taxes to be 
levied in future.' 

bhogasambandha-nirvacamya (El 12), 'the relations [of 
the gift land] with the administrative unit (i.e. bhoga, to 
which it belonged) should not be reckoned [since the land is 
granted after separating it from the district] (bhogdd=uddhrtyay. 
Cf. a-rdstra-sdmvinqyika, grdma-nilaya-nd da-sarva-bddhd-parihdrena. 

bhumi-cchidra-ndyena or ^cchidra-pidhdna-vydyena, 'in accor- 
dance with the principle of cultivating the land for the first 
time and enjoying it free of taxes as a result'. The word chidra 
in the first means 'cultivation' and chidra-pidhdna in the second 
'reclamation of uncultivable land for the first time.' Some- 
times vidhdna is wrongly used for pidhdna. See Ind.Ep., pp. 397-98. 

bh uta-bhavisyad-vartamdna-nihses-dddtya-sahita, 'together with 
the arrears of taxes and with the present and future taxes in 
their entirety'; epithet of gift village. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 395. 

candr-drka-kdlikam mlkam^ddeyam samasta-rdjye n=dsti, 
c there is no collection of tolls in the whole kingdom as long as the 
moon and the sun exist'. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXV, p. 237. 

candr-drka-sthiti-kdlamydvat, 'as long as the moon and sun 
endure(/>. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 135, text lines 21-22); some- 
times candr-drka-ksiti, candr-drk-drndva-ksiti-sarit-parvata , etc. 

catuh-sim-dvacchinna, same as sva-sfm-dvachinna, catur-aghdta- 
visuddha, etc. Cf. Majumdar, Ins. Beng., Vol. Ill, p. 125. 

394 catuh grha 

catuh-simdydvat, same as catuh-simd-paryanta, etc. Cf. hid. 
Ep., p. 402. 

catur-dghdta-visuddha, 'with the boundaries well demarca- 
ted'; same as catuh-sim-dvacchina, etc. Cf Ind. Ep., p 396. 

catur-dghdt-dntarvarti-jala-pdsdna-nidhi-niksepa - sulk - ddi- sarva- 
tejahsvdmya-sahita (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 40, text lines 
37-38). See tejah-svdmya, etc. 

catus-kantaka-visuddha (El 23), cf. catur-dghdta-visuddha; 
probably refers to the custom of demarcating a plot of land by 
planting thorny shrubs on the borders. 

caura-varjam, also quoted as cora-varjam, cora-danda-varjam, 
cora-rdjdpathyakdri-varjam, etc. ; according to some 'with immu- 
nity from the police tax', while others take it to be related to 
a-cdta-bhata-pravesa and think that the policemen were prohi- 
bited from entering a gift village except in connection with the 
apprehension of criminals; may also mean 'without any right 
to inflict punishment of thieves, etc., or to levy fines from 
thieves, etc.' See C/7, Vol. Ill, p. 109. 

cora-danda-varja (El 27), same as caura-varja, etc. 

cora-varja (IE ), 'without the right to punish the thieves and to 
realise stolen articles' ; cf. sa-caur-oddharana. But see also cauravarjam. 

desa-marydd-druvan-dnvita (Ind. Ant. Vol. XIX, p. 247, text 
line 103), refers to the right to levy the tax called druvana 
(Sanskrit sat-pana) according to the local custom. 

deva-Brdhmana-bhukti-varja (El 23, 30), 'excluding the 
property of the gods (i.e. temples ) and Brahmanas'. 

devakula-puskariny-ddhikam kdrqyitvd, refers to the right of 
the donee to build temples and excavate tanks in the gift land 
without the permission of the king or landlord as was necessary 
in the case of ordinary tenants. Gf. Majumdar, Ins. Beng., 
Vol. Ill, p. 125. 

go-gauda-sameta, 'together with the cattle and herdsmen 
[of state farms] or with the grazing tax' ; epithet of gift village. 
Go-gauda may be the same as go-kara. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 402. 

grdma-nilaya-ndda-sarva-bddhd-parihdrena (El 9), 'with the 
exemption of all troubles connected with [the administration 
of] the village, subdivision (literally, habitation) and d strict [in 
which the gift land is situated]'. Cf. a-rdstra-sdmvinqyika, etc. 

grh-dvatarana - harita-pakva-sasy-eksu-cdrana-lavan-opamardana- 
rocikd-citold-grahana-pithaka-pithikd-khatv-dpaharana - kdsth-endhana* 

tocikdndnd 395 

ghdsa-bus-ddikam na kenacit [kartavyarii] pragrdhyam \ca\, 
'no one should enter into the donee's house, should graze one's 
cattle on the green crops in his fields, should harvest the ripe 
crops in his fields, should crush his sugar-cane, should accept 
rocikd and citold from him, should take stools, seats and cots 
from him and should take wood, fuel, grass, chaff, etc., from 
him'. For grh-dvatarana, see umbara-bheda. Words like rocikd, 
citold, etc., are not intelligible, although they certainly refer 
to certain obligations or levies. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 394. 

guvdka-ndrikel-ddikam laggdvayitvd, refers to the right of 
planting arecanut and coconut palms in the gift land without 
the permission of the king or landlord as was necessary in the 
case of ordinary tenants; cf. sa-giwdka-ndrikela. Cf. Majum- 
dar, Ins. Beng., Vol. Ill, p. 125. 

hastidanda-varabalivarda-cotdla-andhd (rthd ? )mvd-pratyandhd- 
(rthd ? )ruvd-adattd-paddtijiva-ahidanda-dnta (tu ? )rdvaddi-bandha- 
danda-vijayavanddpand-mdrganika-prabhrti-bhavisyat-kara-sahita, refers 
to the donee's right to enjoy various taxes the nature of some of 
which is doubtful. These include the tax for keeping elephants 
and prize bullocks, tax for the maintenance of the king's Paddtis 
(footmen or Pdiks), tax on the professional snake-charmers, 
ransom in lieu of imprisonment, presents to be made to the 
king on his return from a victorious campaign and tax to be paid 
for using the road in the gift village for the transit of articles of 
merchandise. See the expressions separately as noticed above. 
See also suvarna-danda-ahidanda below. Gf. Ind. Ep., p. 401. 

jana-dhana-sahita (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 135), 'to- 
gether with the tenants and revenue income [of the village] ' ; 
some as sa-jana-dhana. 

kusa-latd-puta-hast-odakena, cf. udaka-purvam, etc. See Ind. 
Ep., p. 395 

mahddosa-vivarjita (El 23), 'excluding fines for great 
crimes'; cf. dosa and danda-dosa (fines) noticed above. 

mukt-oparikara (El 29), free from minor taxes or without 
freedom from them. Gf. s-oparikara. 

ndnd-vrksa-sameta, 'together with the various trees' ; epithet 
of gift village. Some of the trees not to be enjoyed by unpri- 
vileged tenants were mango, madhuka, jack, coconut, arecanut, 
palmyra palm, sisu, tamarind tree, etc. But the group was 
different in different parts of the country. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 402. 

396 nava purva 

nava-nidhdna-sahita (IA 11), probably,'with the taxes fixed 
afresh', though nidhdna is often the same as niksepa (q.v. ). 

nidhi-niksepa-pdsdn-drdm-ddi-catusprakdra - b iravana-pdrikh-dya- 
sahita (Ind. Int., Vol. XIX, p. 247), mentioned along with 
astabhoga-tejassvdmy-dandasulka-yukta. See the expressions as sepa- 
rately noticed above. 

mdhi-mksep-dputrakadhana-dand-opajdtaka-sahita, 'together 
with the right to enjoy treasure-trove and the occasional finds 
and accumulations on the land and to confiscate the property 
of persons dying without leaving any son, and to enjoy the right 
to appropriate the income derived from fines' ; epithet of gift 
village. Gf. Ind. Ep., 406. 

nidhi-niksepa-sahita, see sa-vrksamdld-nidhi-niksepa-sahita. 

nidhy-upanidhi-hastidanta - vydghracarma - ndndvanacara-sameta, 
refers to the right of the donee to treasure-troves, occasional 
finds or accumulations on the ground, elephants' tusks, tiger's 
skin and certain prized animals without surrendering them 
to the king as ordinary tenants had to do; epithet of the gift 
village. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 402. 

nisiddha-cdta-bhata-pravesa (El 22 ), same as a-pravesa, etc. 

parihrta-pang-otkota (El 33), 'exempted from the levies 
called panga and utkota\ See the words as saparately noticed. 

parihrta-sarva-pida (El 27, 29), 'free from all troubles'; 
same as sarva-pidd-varjita, sarva-bddhd-vivarjita, etc. 

phalaratika (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 135), refers pro- 
bably to the right to enjoy all kinds of fruits in the gift land with- 
out special permission that was necessary for ordinary tenants. 

prasiddha-catuh-sim-dvacchinna, 'demarcated by the well- 
known boundaries on all the sides'; epithet of the gift land. 
Cf. catur-dghdta-visuddha, etc. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 402. 

pratifiddha-cdta-bhata-pravesa (El 23, 27), same as a- 
pravesa, etc. 

pratisiddha-cdt-ddi-pravesa (I.E., p. 395) , same as a-pravesa, etc. 

p urva-bhujyamdna-deva-brdhmana-ksetra-khandalakam varjayitvd 
(or : vihdya), see Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 135; same as deva- 
brdhmana-bhukti-varja, etc. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 398. 

purva-bhuktaka-bhujyamdna-deva-brahma-ddya-varjita (El 23), 
same as deva-brdhmana-bhukti-varja, etc. 

purva-pratta-deva-brahma-deya-rahita, sometimes with ddya in 
place of deya; refers to the absence of the donee's right to have 

putrasa-bhuta 397 

any control over that land in the gift village which was already 
a rent-free holding in the possession of gods or Brahmanas; 
same as deva-brahmana-bhukti-varja, etc. Gf. Ind, Ep., p. 398. 

putra-pautrddi-santati-kramena, same as putra-pautr-dnvaya-kram- 
opabhogya, etc. Gf. Ind. Ep., p. 399. 

putra-paulr-ddy-anvay-opabhogd, anugamim, etc.; same as 
putra-pautr-dnugamaka. Cf. Ind. Ep., pp. 394-95. 

putra-pautr-dnugamaka, 'the donee's right of enjoying the gift 
land should pass on to his sons and grandsons' ; epithet of gift land ; 
same as putra-pautr-dnvaya-kram-opabhogya, etc. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 392. 

putra-pautr-dnvaya-kram-opabhogya, refers to the permanent 
nature of a gift of land to be enjoyed by the donee as well as 
his descendants; same as putra-putr-dnugamaka (I.E., p. 398). 

rdja-bhdvya-sarva-pratydya-sameta (El 23), bhdvya being 
often changed to dbhdvya ; same as a-kincit-pragrdhya, etc. 

rdja-grdhya-samasta-pratydya-samanvita (El 22 ), same as 
a-kincit-pragrdhya, etc. 

rdja-rdjapurusair=apy=ananguli-nirdesyam, same as srava- 
rdja-kiydndm=a-hasta-praksepaniyah, etc. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 400. 

rdjasevakdndm vasatidanda-praydnadandau na stah, refers to 
the freedom of the gift village from the obligation to provide 
accommodation and conveyance, etc., to the royal officers on 
tour; cf. a-kura-chullaka-vindsi-khatv-dvdsa, a-parampard-balivarda, 
etc. See CII, Vol. Ill, p. 98, note 2. 

rdjndrdjapurusair=apy=ananguli-praksepaniya(Ind. Ant., Vol. 
XIX, p. 247, text lines 103-04), same as sarva-rdjakiydndm = 
a-hasta-praksepaniyah, etc. 

ramya (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 135), refers to the fact 
that the gift land had nothing unpleasant about it. 

rn-dddy-ddi-sambandha-varjita (El 23 ), refers to the free- 
dom of the gift land from confiscation for the realisation of debts 
incurred by the donee. 

sa-bdhy-dbhyantar-dddya, 'together with the external and 
internal income or taxes to be paid to the state and to the 
village authorities'; epithet of the gift village; cf. abhyantara- 
siddhyd, etc. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 395. 

sa-bhoga (El 27; IA 9), 'together with the asta-bhoga\ 

sa-bhiita-pdta-pratydya (CII 3), refers to the income from 
the gift land as a result of some action of nature's agencies. 
Sometimes vdta and dvdta are -found for pdta probably in the 

398 sa-bhuta sa-gulma 

sense of 'a storm' (cf. udvdta) and also updtta, 'realised'. 

sa-bhuta-vdta-pratydya (El 23), with pdta sometimes in 
place of vdla\ 'together with the income arising out of a change 
of the natural phenomena (such as due to earthquakes, storms, 
etc.)'; epithet of gift land. 

sa-bhut-opdtta-pratydya (El 23), same as sa-bhuta-vdta-pra- 
tydya, etc. The word updtta means 'realised'. 

sa-caur-oddharana (El 12, 23, 29), 'together with the right 
to punish thieves and recover stolen property or fines'; epithet 
of gift villages. Cf. caura-varja, etc. 

sa-dpnda-dosa (El 23), 'together with [the right to] levy fines 
for crimes'; the meaning ofdosa is really doubtful in the context. 

sa-danda-nigraha (El 24), refers to the king's power to 
punish [culprits] by fines or corporal punishment. 

sa-das-dpacdra, same as sa-das-dparddha\ cf. Ind. Ep., 
p. 397. 

sa-das-dparddha (El 27), also quoted as sa-das-dpacdra; 
'together with the right to punish and realise fines for the ten 
offences (murder, trieft, etc.)'; epithet of gift village; cf. 
sahya-das-dparddha probably meaning that the crimes committed 
in the gift village should not be punished by the king. 

sa-deya-meya (El 7 ), same as sa-dhdnya-hirany-ddeya, etc. 

sa-dhdnya-hirany-ddeya (El 11, 12, 23; I A 9), 'together 
with the king's grain share and taxes in cash'. 

s-ddha-urdhva, 'together with what is [produced or found] 
below and above the ground'; epithet of gift land. Gf. Ind. 
Ep., p. 335. 

s-agama-nirama-pravefa, 'together with approaches, ingress 
and egress'; epithet of gift land. Gf. Ind. Ep., p. 394. 

sa-garl-dvaskara (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 135), mentioned 
along with s-osara. The word avaskara (also avakara) probably 
means 'a mound'. 

sa-gart-osara (El 27, 29), 'together with pits and saline 
spots or barren lands' ; epithet of gift village. 

sa-giri-gahana-nidhdna (El 24), 'together with hills, forests 
and deposits'. See also nidhdna noticed above. 

sa-gokula, 'together with the cowpens'; epithet of gift 
village. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 395. 

sa-gopracdra (El 12), 'together with the pasture lands'. 

sa-gulma-latd (El 12), same as sa-gulma-latd ka } etc. 

sa-gulma sa-kheta 399 

sa-gulma-latdka, 'together with shrubs and creepers'; epithet 
of the gift land. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 402. 

sa-giwdka-ndrikera (El 12), sometimes with ndlikela in 
place of narikera; 'together with the arecanut and coconut 
palms'; epithet of gift land; see guvdka-ndrikel-ddikarh laggdvayitvd. 

sa-hatta-ghatta-sa-tara (El 22), 'together with market- 
places and ferries (or passes) and with ferry-dues'. 

sa-hiranya-bhdga-bhoga (El 23), same as sa-deya-meya, etc. 
See the words as separately noticed. 

sa-hiranya-bhdga-bhog-oparikara-sarv-dddya-sameta (El 23 ), 
'together with all levies such as hiranya, bhdga, bhoga and upa- 
rikara*. See the various words as noticed separately. 

sa-hirany-dddna (El 26), 'together with levies in cash'; 
privilege of the donee of rent-free and. 

sahya-das-dparddha (IE), see sa-da$-dparddha. 

sa-jala-sthala (El 12, 27, 29), 'together with land and 
waters [of the gift village] '. 

sa-jala-sthal-dranya (El 23 ), 'together with the land, 
waters and jungles [of the gift village]'. 

sa-jala-sthala-sahita (El 23 ), same as sa-jala-sthala. 

sa-jana-dhana (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 139), same as 
jana-dhana-sahita. Cf. sa-jana (ibid., Vol. V, p. 185). 

sa-jdngal-dnupa (El 12), 'together with arid and marshy 

sa-jhdta-vitapa, 'together with bushes and shrubs (or 

sa-kar-otkara= Prakrit sa-kar-ukara (El 7); refers to a piece 
of land granted with the donee's right to enjoy major and minor 
taxes; cf. s-odranga-s-oparikara and sa-klpt-opaklpta, etc. See 
kar-otkara as noticed separately above ; also cf. kdru-kara. 

sa-khalla-unnata=sa-khall-onnata (El 12), 'together with 
low and high lands'; epithet of gift land. Khalla is Odiya 
khdl 'low land'. Cf. sa-nimn-onnata. 

sa-khandapdliya, 'together with the tax for the maintenance 
of the swordsmen'; epithet of gift village; cf. paddti-jivya, 
tax for the maintenance of Pdiks or footmen. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 402. 

sa-khata-vitapa (El 12), mistake for sa-jhdta-vitapa or sa- 

. sa-kheta-ghatta-naditara-sthdn-ddi-gulmaka (El 29), 'to- 
gether with the military, police or customs -outposts in the ham- 

400 sa-kheta sa-mandira 

lets, landing places on the banks of rivers (or passes in the 
hilly tracts) and ferrying stations'; epithet of gift village. 

sa-kheta-vitapa, 'together with outposts and bushes'; 
epithet of gift village. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 402. 

sa-khila-ndla, 'together with the fallow and cultivated 
lands'; epithet of gift village; same as sa-khila-poldcya. See 
Majumdar, Ins. Beng., Vol. Ill, p. 125. 

sa-khila-poldcya, 'together with fallow and cultivated land' ; 
same as sa-khila-ndla. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 394. 

sa-khil-opakhila, 'together with land which is fallow and 
partially fallow'. Pakhila in the same context is a mistake for 

sa-klpta (El 24), 'together with the tax on permanent 
tenants or the fixed revenue' ; same as s-odranga. 

sa-klpt-opaklptaka (El 24, 27 ), refers to the freedom of the 
gift land from the payment of fixed taxes on permanent 
tenants as well as occassional taxes or taxes on temporary tenants ; 
same as s-odranga-s-oparikara. 

sa-krta-prdnta, cf. Prakrit sa-kutu-ppanta (El 26 ), 'together 
with the demarcated boundaries'; epithet of the gift land. 

sa-lavana (El 12), 'together with salt (i.e. the right to 
enjoy salt produced in the land). Cf. a-lavana-khdtaka, etc. 

sa-lavan-dkara (El 12), 'together with the salt pits'. Cf. 
a-lavana-khdtaka, etc. 

sa-loh-ddy-dkara, together with the mines of metals, etc.'; 
epithet of gift village. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 395. 

sa-loha-lavan-dkara (El 23, 26), 'together with the mines 
and salt-pits', epithet of gift land. Cf. sa-loh-ddy-dkara, a- 
lavana-khdtaka, etc. 

sa-madh uka-c uta-vana-vdtikd-vitapa-trna-y uti-gocara-paryanta, 
'together with the madhuka and mango trees, forests, gardens, 
bushes (or, branches), grass yuti (grass land) and including the 
pasture land'; cf. Ind. Ep., p. 396. It is better to take sa-madhuka- 
cuta-vana-vdtikd-vitapa and trnqy uti-gocara-paryanta separately. 

sa-madhuk-dmra-vana-vdtikd-vitapa-tma -yuti - gocara - paryanta 
(El 24), 'together with the madhuka and mango trees, forests, 
gardens, shrubs and as far as and the grass yuti (grass land ) and 
pasture lands'. See sa-madh uka-c uta , above. 

sa-mandira-prdkdra, 'together with temples and walls'; 
epithet of gift village. Cf. Ind. Ep. t p. 395. 

sa-manca s-dmra 401 

trees and areas covered by jungles (or areas covered with mango 
and madhuka plantations)'; see Ind. Ep., p. 402 

sa-manca-mahdkarana (El 26), 'together with mama (pro- 
bably, platforms for the collection of tolls) and mahdkarana 
(official documents)'; epithet of the gift land. 

sdmant-dmdtya-dutdndm=anyesdm=c=dbhyupdgame sayaniy- 
dsana-siddhdnnam naddpayet, refers to the obligation of the people 
to supply beds, seats and boiled or unboiled rice to feudatory 
rulers, ministers, messengers and others encamped in a 
village; see a-kura-cullaka-vindsi-khatv-dvdsa, etc. See Ep. Ind., 
Vol. XXX, p. 171. 

samasta-bhdga-bhoga-kara-hirany-ddi-pratydya-sameta, 'together 
with all incomes including the king's grain share, the periodical 
offerings to be made to the king or landlord and to the touring 
officers, taxes in grains, taxes in cash, etc. 5 ; epithet of gift 
land; same as sa-hiranya-bhdga-bhoga, etc. See Ind. Ep., p. 397. 

samasta-bhdga-bhoga-kara-hirany-dddya-sameta (El 23), same 
as sa-hiranya-bhdga-bhoga, etc. 

samasta-rdjakiydndm=apravesya, same as a-bhata-pravesa, a- 
cdta-bhata-pravesya, a-bhata-cchdtra-prdvesya, etc. (Ind. Ep., p. 398). 

samasta-rdjakiydnam=ahasta-praksepaniya (CII 3), same as 
d-bhata-pravesa, etc. 

samasta-rdjapratydddya-sameta (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, 
p. 129), same as sa-hiranya-bhdga-bhoga, etc. 

samast-otpatti-sahita (El 12), 'together with all the pro- 
duce or income'. 

samast-otpatti-sulk-otpatti-sahita (El 23), 'together with 
all the produce of the land and the income arising from tolls'. 

sa-malsya-kacchapa (El 12), 'together with the right to 
catch fish and tortoises'; epithet of gift village. 

sa-matsy-dkara (El 24)^26), 'together with the sources of 
fish (e.g., rivers, tanks, etc)'; epithet of gift village. 

samhaldtamaka-samanvita (El 9 ), the reading is apparently 
wrong; meaning uncertain. 

sa-mina-toya (El 24 ), 'together with fish and the waters' 
or 'together with the waters containing fish.' 

s-dmra-madhuka (IE; El 12, 27, 29), 'together with the 
mango and madhuka trees'. 

s-dmra-madhu-vana (El 12), same as s-dmra-madhu^van-dkirna. 

s-amra-madhu-van-dkirna, see Ind.JZp., p., 402. . . . 


s-amra sarva 

s-dmra-panasa (El 12 ), 'together with mango and jack trees'. 
samuchita-deya-bhdga-bhoga-kara-hirany-ddi (El 23), same 
as sa-hiranya-bhdga-bhoga, etc. 

samudayabdhy-ddyastamba (El 23), '[land] covered with 
original shrubs (i.e. never cultivated) and not yielding any 
revenue [to the State] .' 

sa-mula (El 13), 'together with the root crops'. 
samanvita (Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill, p. 274), see the words as noticed 
separately above. The word dosa here means 'fines 5 . 

sa-nidhi (El 27), refers to the freedom of the donee of the 
gift land from the obligation of surrendering to the king under- 
ground treasures in the land on their discovery. 

sa-nidhi-nidhdna (Ep. Ind.,Vo\. XXXV, p. 139), same as 
sa-nidhi-niksepa, etc. 

- sa-nidhi-niksepa, see nidhi, niksepa, nidhdna, dlipaka, etc., 
as noticed separately. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 396. 

sa-nidhy-upanidhi (El 26), same as sa-nidhi-niksepa, etc. 
sa-nimn-onnata (IA 16), same as sa-khall-onnata. 
sa-nirgama-pravesa(EI 12 ), 'together with ingress and egress'. 
s-dnupa-jdngala (Ind. Ant., Vol. XVIII, p. 34, text line 
5), same as sa-jdngal-dnupa. 

sa-padr-dranya (El 23, 24), same as sa-padr-dranyaka. 
sa-padr-dranyaka (El 12), 'together with habitations and 
jungles'; epithet of gift land. 

sa-pallika (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 135), '-together 
with its hamlets'. 

sa-parikara (El 23 ), same as or a mistake for s-oparikara. 
sa-parn-dkara (El 26), 'together with the fields growing 
betel leaves' ; epithet of gift village. 

sa-pratthdra, 'together with the tax for the maintenance 
of the watchmen of the city gates'; cf. Ind. Ep., p. 401. 

sarva-bddhd-parihdra (El 23, 24), same as parihrta-sarva- 
pida, etc. 

sarva-bddhd-vivarjita (El 24 ), same as parihrta-sarva-pida, etc. 
sarv-dbhyantara-siddhi (El 20; IA 19), 'together with 
the entire internal revenue income or all the taxes to be paid 
to local authorities'. 

sarv-dbhyantara-siddhyd(IA 18 ),same as sarv-dbhyantara-siddhi. 
sarv-dddna-ditya~vi$ti*prdtibhedika-parihina, (Gil' 4), 'free 

sarva sarva 


from all levies, ditya, forced labour and prdtibhedikd* . See 
dilya and prdtibhedikd as noticed above. 

sarv-dddna-sangrdhya (611 4), 'with the right to levy all 
the dues'; same as sarv-dddya-sameta. 

sarv-dddna-visti-prdtibhedikd-parihina (CII 4), 'free from 
the payment of all imposts and the obligation regarding unpaid 
labour and prdtibhedikd'', epithet of gift village. See prdti- 
bhedikd as noticed above. 

sarv-dddya-sameta (El 23 ), same as sarv-dddna-sangrdhya, etc. 

sarv-ddeya-visuddha (CII 4), 'with all kinds of taxes 
fixed'; same as sarv-dddya-sameta (cf. sarv-dya-visuddha). 

sarva-ditya-visti-jemaka-kara-bhara-parihina (CII 4), 'free 
from the burden of all the ditya, forced labour, jemaka and 
taxes'. See ditya and jemaka as noticed above. 

sarva-ditya-visti-prdtibhedikd-parihma (El 9; CII 4), 'free 
from all kinds of ditya, forced labour and prdtibhedikd'. See the 
words as noticed separately. 

sarva-ditya-visti-prdtibhedikd-parihrta (Ep. Ind., Vol. VI, 
p. 298, text lines 201-21 ), same as sarva-ditya-visti-prdtibhedikd- 
parihina. See the words as noticed above. 

sarva-jdta-bhoga-nirasta, refers to a grant of land with all 
kinds of royal rights abrogated. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 390. 

sarva-jdta-bhoga (El 24), 'together with all kinds of 
privileges to be enjoyed.' 

sarva-jdia-pdrihdrika, cf. Prakrit sava-jdta-pdrihdrika (Select 
Inscriptions, pp.92, 94), 'endowed with all kinds of exemptions. 3 

sarva-kara-parihdra (El 23, 27), 'exemption from all 

sarva-kara-sameta (El El 23, 27), 'together with all 

sarva-panga-parihrta (El 33), 'free from all levies falling 
in the category of pangcf. See panga noticed above. 

sarva-parihdra-kdrudeya (El 24 ), refers to all kinds of 
exemptions including the dues from artisans. 

sarva-pi da-par ihrta (El 23 ), same as sarva-pldd-varjita, 
sarva-pidd-vivarjita, etc. 

sarva-pidd-varjita (El 23 ), same as parihrta-sarva-pida, 
sorva-bddhd-vivarjita, etc. 

sarva-pidd-vivarjita (El 27 ), same as parihrta-sarva-pida, etc. 

sarva-rdjakiydndm~a-hasta-praksepaniyah (CII 3), same- as 

404 sarva sa-tdlaka 

a-bhata-pravesa, a-cdta-bhata-prdvesya, a-bhata-cchdtra-prdvcsya, etc. 

sarva-vddhd-vivarjita, with vddhd in the place of bddhd; same 
as parihrta-sarva-pida, sarva-pidd-varjita, etc. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 401. 

sarva-vifti-parihdra-parihrta (El 23, 24, 26 ), 'endowed with 
the exemptions from all kinds of unpaid labour'; epithet of 
the gift village. 

sarv-dya-sahita (Ind.Ant., Vol. XIX, p. 247, text line 203 ), 
'together with the entire income.' 

sarv-dya-visuddha(El 23 ), 'having fixed and regular income.' 

sarv-opadrava-varjita (El 24 ), same as parihrta-sarva-pida, etc. 

sarv-oparikar-dddna-sahita, 'together with the right to levy 
all minor taxes or taxes on temporary tenants'; epithet of gift 
village. Cf. Ind. />., p. <01. 

sarv-oparikara-kar-dddna-sameta (El 23), 'together with 
all the levies falling in the categories of uparikara and kara\ 
See kara and uparikara as noticed above. 

sarv-otpatti-sahita (El 23), 'together with whatever is 
produced (i.e. crops or income).' 

sarv-esti-parihdra-parihrta (El 27), sarv-efti may be a 
mistake for sarva-visti. 

sa-saibara (El 17), also written sa-saivara ; 'together with 
unassessed arable lands or the tax on farm-houses'; cf. saivara 
and saibara noticed above. 

sa-sarva-pallika (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 129) , 'together 
with all the hamlets'. 

sa-sarv-dsan-eksu-karpdsa-san-dmra-madh uk-ddi-bh uruha, 'to- 
gether with asana (pitasdld) , sugarcane, cotton-plants, hemp- 
plants, mango, madhuka and other trees'; epithet of gift land. 
Cf. Ind. Ep. t p. 395. 

sa-sdta-vitapa (El 12), mistake or wrong reading of sa- 
jhdta-vitapa (q.v. ). 

s-dstddasa-pmkrty=opeta (El 2), 'together with the 
eighteen (i.e. all) kinds of tenants (i.e. tenants belonging 
to all the communities)'. 

sa-sthdvara-jangama, 'together with the immovable and 
movable belongings [of the gift village] '. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 395. 

sa-tala (El 12, 29), 'together with the surface of the 

sa-tdlaka (El 12), 'together with palmyra palms'; epi- 
thet of gift village. 

sa-tantalika s-opanidhi 405 

sa-tanlalika (El 12), 'together with tamarind trees'. 
sa-tantuvdya-gokula-saundik-ddi-prakrtika, 'together with such 
tenants as the weavers, cowherds or milkmen and vintners'; 
epithet of gift village. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 393. 

sa-tara (El 22 ), see sa-hatta-ghatta-sa-tara. 
s-dtavi-vitapa-samanvita (El 23 ), 'together with forests 
and shrubs'. 

sa-trna-kdsth-odak-opeta (El 24), 'together with the grass, 
fuel and waters [of the gift village]'. 

sa-vanaspaty-udak-dsihdra-kullaka-pdniya-sameta 'together with 
the fruit-trees and various kinds of water courses' ; epithet of 
gift land. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 394. 

sa-vana-svabhra-nidhdna, 'together with forests, pits and 
mines'; epithet of gift village. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 395. 

sa-vdta-bhuta-pratydya (El 11 ; IA 9), same as sa-bhuta-vdta- 
pralydya, etc. 

sa-vitapa-latd (El 24), 'together with shrubs and creep- 

sa-vitap-dranya, 'together with bushes and jungles'; 
epithet of gift village. 

sa-vrksamdld-kula (El 23; IA 11), 'together with vari- 
ous gardens or plantations'. See ndnd-vrksa-sameta. 

sa-vrksamdld-nidhi-niksepa-sahita (El 23 ), see sa-vrksamdld- 
kula and sa-nidhi-niksepa. 

sim-dntargata-vastu-sahita, 'together with [all] things with- 
in ,the boundaries'; cf. Lid. Ep., p. 395. 

sisu-madhuka-tdla-prabhrti-ndnd-vrksa-sameta, refers to the 
right to use various trees in the gift village without the king's 
permission which was necessary for the ordinary tenants. See 
ndnd-vrksa-sameta, etc. Cf. Ind. Ep. p. 401. 

s-oddesa (El 12, 29), 'together with the space above the 
surface of the ground' ; epithet of gift land. 

s-odranga (El 12, 27, 29), 'together with the tax called 
udranga*. Udranga is=uddhdra, Tamil uttdra, fixed taxes. 

s-opajdt-dnya-vastuka (El 26), 'together with all the 
articles that may be produced [in the gift land] other than 
those ment'oned.' 

s-opanidhi (El 12, 27), refers to the freedom of the donee 
of the gift land from the obligation of surrendering to the king 
any valuables found on it; cf. nisepa in sa-nidhi-niksepa. 

406 s-oparikara svacchanda 

s-oparikara (El 12, 27, 29), sometimes quoted as sa-pari- 
kara; 'together with minor taxes or taxes realisable from tem- 
porary tenants' ; epithet of gift village. 

s-oparikara-danda (El 27), 'together with minor taxes 
(or the tax on temporary tenants) and fines.' 

s-ordhv-ddhah (El 23), same as s-ddha-urdhva (q.v. ). 

s-ordhv-ddhas=catur-dghdta visuddha (El 24), see s-ordhv- 
ddhah and catur-dghdta-visuddha. Aghdta is often writtten dghdtana. 

s-osara (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 135) , 'together with 
barren lands (or saline spots) '. 

s-osar-dvaskara-sthdna-nivdta-lavan-dkara(EI 22), see the 
various words as noticed above. Nivdta=dvdta. 

s-otpadhyamdna-visti (El 1 1 ), same as s-otpadyamdna- 
vistika (q.v. ). 

s-otpadhyamdna-vistika (El 23, IA 11), 'together with the 
right to get unpaid labour whenever that may be due from the 
tenants'; epithet of gift land. 

su-krsta (Ep. 2nd., Vol. XXXV, p. 135), 'well-cultivated', 

sulka - danda - ddna - kdruka - maulika-srotra-nidhi-niksepa-jala- 
pasdna-tejah-svdmyam=ity-ddy-asta-bhoga-sahitam, 'together with 
right to the enjoyment of the gift land in eight ways such as 
the rights to tolls, fines (or obligations ), customs duties, taxes 
on artisans, fixed revenue, rent of public buildings, treasure- 
trove, occasional finds or deposits, fishing, quarrying and tejah- 
svdmya (full authority arising out of ownership).' See the various 
words as noticed above. Gf. Ind. Ep., Vol. XXXII, p. 42. 

su-pallik-dpeta (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 139), same as 

trnodaka-sdsandrdhika-cara (vara ? )balivarad-drthdruvd-pratyarthdruvd- 
paddtijwya-ddattd-dturdvaddi-bhavisyat-kar-ddi-sahita, refers to the 
right of the donee to levy various taxes, the nature of some of 
which is uncertain (see the different expressions as noticed above ). 
These include tax on the goldsmiths and snake-charmers, tolls to 
be collected for using the road passing through the gift village for 
the transit of articles of merchandise, presents to be made to 
the king or landlord on occasions, especially on his return from 

a victorious campaign, etc. See hastidanda-varabalivarda 

above. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 402. 

. svacchand-opabhogen = opab hoktum, refers to the right of the 

sva umbara 407 

donee to enjoy the gift land aceording to his own free will. 
Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 399. 

sva-simd-paryanta (El 23), 'as far as its boundaries'; epi- 
thet of gift land. 

sva-simd-trna-gocara-goyuti-paryanta (El 23), 'as far as the 
grass land on the boundaries as well as the pasture lands and 
goyuti\ Goyuti may be an enclosure for cattle. 

sva-simd-trna-kdstha-yuti-gocara-paryanta (El 23), 'as far as 
the yuti (preserve) of grass and wood as well as the pasture 
lands on the boundaries'. 

sva-simd-trnayuti-gocara-paryanta (El 23), 'as far as the 
preserve of grass as well as the pasture lands on the boun- 

sva-simd-trna-goyuthi-gocara-paryanta, same as sva-simd-trna- 
yuti-gocara-paryanta, yuthi being a synonym of yuti (also spelt 
puti), probably meaning 'a preserve'. See sva-simd-trna-gocara- 
goyuti-paryanta, etc. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 394. 

sva-simd-trna-yuti-gocara-paryanta, 'as far as its boundaries, 
the yuti of grass and pasture land'; cf. Ind. Ep., p. 397. 

sva-sim-dvacchinna, 'with its boundaries demarcated'; epi- 
thet of gift village. Cf. Ind. Ep., p. 395. 

talabhedyd-ghdnaka-mallaka-vundaka-dandadosa-prdpt-dddya (Ind. 
Ant., Vol. XVIII, p. 83, text lines 19-20), see the words as 
noticed separately above. 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXII, p. 155). 

tila-darbh-odaka-pavitra-pdnind (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 
135, text line 23), cf. udaka-purvam, etc. 

trna-kdsth-odak-opeta (El 23), 'together with grass and 
fuel and the waters'. 

trna-puti(or yuti)-gocara-paryanta (El 12), epithet of 
gift land ; see sva-simd-trna-y uti(or p uti )-gocara-paryanta, etc. 

udaka-purvam^ cf. udak-dtisargena, udakena, tila-darbh-odaka- 
pavitra-pdnind, kusa-lald-puta-hast-odakena, etc. 

udakena, cf. udaka-purvam, etc. Cf. Ind. Ep., pp. 136-37. 

udbalika, 'free from land tax'; cf. utpratikara. Cf. Prakrit 
ubalika (Select Inscriptions, p. 70). 

umbara-bhedah rdjapurufdndmdvdsako jemakas~ca n 
dsti, 'there is no entry of royal officers into a house with its door 

408 unchayath 

closed (referring especially to the houses of merchants away 
from home on business tours abroad) nor should there be 
any provision for their accommodation and meals'. See Ep. 
Ind., Vol. XXV, p. 232-33. 

uncha-kara-bhar-ddi-vivarjita (Ep. JW., Vol. XXXIII, p. 89); 
see uncha, etc., as noticed separately above. 

urdhv-ddhah-siddhi-yuta (IA J8), 'together with the income 
from fruits and roots.' 

utpratikara (El 23), same as a-kincit-pratikara ; cf. udbalika. 
vana-vatikd-trna-jantu-gocara-paryanta (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIII 
p. 229 ), 'including forests, gardens, grass fields and pasture 
lands for cattle and animals.' 

vdstu-kfetra-jalddhdra-gartd-mdrga-samanvita (El 22), 'to- 
gether with homestead lands, tanks, pits, pathways and roads'. 
vdtodariya (El 22), epithet of gift land; probably a cor- 
ruption of vdt-ottariya ; cf. sa-bhuta-vdt-ddeya, etc. 

mast-dddya, sometimes with turuska-danda and kumdra-gady- 
dnaka in place of kutaka, and hiranya, jalakara, gokara, nidhi- 
niksepa, yamali-kambali, etc., added to the list. Bhdga-bhoga- 
kara means 'taxes in general together with the king's share 
of grains and the periodical offerings payable to him.' For pravani- 
kara, kutaka and yamalikambali, see the words as noticed above. 
Tumskadanda was a tax levied from the Muhammadan sub- 
jects or for the defence of the kingdom from Muhammadan 
attacks and Kumdra-gadydna maybe a tax of one gadydna levied 
on the occasion of a prince's birth. Hiranya is 'tax in cash 5 , 
jala-kara fishing tax, go-kara grazing tax, nidhi treasure-trove 
and nikfepa valuables found or accumulated on the land. Cf. 
Ind. Ep., p. 397. 

yathd-pradiyamdna-bhdga-bhoga-hirany-ddika (El 23 ), 'what- 
ever is payable as bhdga-bhoga, hiranya, etc.' See the w r ords 
as noticed separately; also yathd-samucita-bhdga-bhoga-kara- 
hirany-ddi-sarva-rdja-bhdvya-pratydya (Ind. Ep., p. 394). 

yath-otpadyamdna-bhdga-bhog-ddika (El 23 ), 'with the power 
to realise bhdga, bhoga, etc., whenever they become due.' See 
the words as noticed separately above. 


abhiseka-kkdnikkai (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; presents offered 
to a king at the time of his coronation. 

dcdrya-p ujanai (SITI), honorarium payable to priests. 

accu-tari, accu-ttari (SITI), Tamil; a variety of loom; tax 
payable on looms. 

accu-vari (SITI ), Tamil ;probably, the same as pon-vari ; duty 
payable for minting gold or metal into coins; cf. akkasdlai-vari. 

adhikdra-pperu (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil ; probably, presents 
offered to an officer. 

adhikdra-varttanai (SITI), customary payments made to 
an officer at stipulated periods. 

adimai-kkdsu (SITI), Tamil; fee collected from temple 

adi-kkdsu (SITI), Tamil; tax collected from stall-keepers 
in markets. 

ddi-ppaccai (SITI), Tamil; probably, perquisities payable 
in grain in the month of Adi after the harvest. 

ddirai-ppdttam (SITI), Tamil; tax on cattle; cf. attirai- 

ddukkalai-ppuram (SITI), Tamil; an enowment for the 
kitchen expenses of a temple. 

akkasdlai-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax payable to the mint 
for minting coins; cf. accu-vari. 

dl-amanji (SII 12 ), a levy; explained as 'workmen pressed 
into service without wages' (SITI ) ; Sanskrit visti. 

alldya-mdnyam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; probably, the 
right to receive a handful of grain or a prescribed quantity of 
an article sold in the market as wages for measuring. 

dl-nel, ami (SITI), Tamil; a tax payable in paddy. 

alpamirai (SITI), Tamil; a minor tax payable in grains. 

alu (SITI ), Tamil; a variety of market dues; probably, the 
same as allu and alldya-mdnyam. 

alugal-sarakku (SITI), Tamil; the right of collecting the 
refuse and waste thrown in the village. 

410 dl ana nkarai 

al-vari (SII 12; SITI), Tamil; poll-tax. See pcr-kkadamai, 

dnai-ccdlai (SITI), Tamil; 'an elephant stable'; tax 
payable for the maintenance of the elephant stable. 

dnd-eluttu-ltevai (SITI), Tamil, a tax of uncertain im- 

angddi-kkiili, angddi-ppdttam (SITI), Tamil; tax on 
bazars, shops, etc. 

anniydya-vdva-danda-irai (SITI ), Tamil-Sanskrit; penal tax 
imposed on some unauthorised item of occupation or enjoy- 

antara-viniyogam (SITI), Sanskrit; individual share to 
make up the shortage in the total revenue occasioned by the 
grant of exemptions of antar-dyam or ul-vari. 

antar-dyam (SITI), Sanskrit; internal revenue; taxes 
levied by a local body ; also called ul-vari. 

antardya-kkdsu; antardya-ppdttam (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; 
internal taxes; minor taxes like the profession tax, etc., payable 
to the village assembly. 

anuvarttanai (SITI ), a class of contingent dues which come 
under the head varttanai. 

arakkal (SITI), Tamil; an instalment of land-tax. 

arandai (El 18), name of a tax. 

arasu-pperu (SITI), Tamil; same as mahdrdja-prayojana\ 
probably, fees collected for payment for the performance of 
police duties in the rural areas. 

draycci, kdriyav-drdycci (SITI ), Tamil ; cess paid for 
the superintendence of transactions. 

arcand-bhoga , arcana-vrtti (SITI ), Sanskrit ; land set apart 
for meeting the expenses of worship (arcana) in the village 

arikoli, arisi-ttundam (SITI); taxes of uncertain import. 

arikuli (SITI), Tamil; dues payable in handfuls of the 
stalks harvested. 

arimukkai (SII 12), a levy. 

arippadikkdval (SII 12), a levy. 

arisi-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil; tax for husking paddy into 

drrankarai-ttevai (SITI), Tamil; tax for keeping the river- 
bund in repair. 

arru bittu 


arru-kkulai (SITI ), Tamil; 'river-bund'; tax to repair 
breaches in the river-bund. 

drrukkdl-amanji (SITI), Tamil; unpaid labour to keep the 
channel from the river in good repair. 

aruntodu (SITI), Tamil; 'eating-plate'; a tax payable 
according to the number of eating plates in feeding houses. 

dsuvikal-kdsu, dsuva-kkdsu, dsuva-kkadamai (SITI), Tamil; 
tax payable by the Ajlvakas or for maintaing Ajivaka monks. 

dtci-ppdttam (SITI), Tamil; probably, a succession tax. 

dtlrai (SITI), Tamil; probably, the expenses for the drdrd 
festival in the month of Margali. 

atiyurai (SITI), Tamil; offerings made at the feet of a 
high personage; written differently as adiyirai, adiyarai, etc. 

dttai-kkdnikkai (SITI), Tamil; annual contribution or 

attirai-ppdttam (SITI), Tamil; tax on cattle; cf. 

attanaikkdl (SITI), Tamil; a kind of stand or pedestal 
(probably of eight legs). 

dttukk-irai, dttirai (SITI) Tamil; tax on sheep; also 
called dttu-vari. 

attukkirai (SITI ), Tamil ; tax on charities. 

dvanam (SITI), Tamil; a document; generally, a sale- 
deed; also called villaiy-dvanam; cf. dvana-kkalari (SITI), 
place where documents like the sale-deeds, etc., are registered ; a 
registration office. 

avasara-varttanai (SITI), presents payable to an Avasara, 
an officer of the royal household having the duty of bringing to 
the notice of the king anything that demanded his immediate 

ayam (SITI); 'income'; tax in general. 

bannigitere, Kannada; a kind of levy (A. R. Ep., 1958-59, 


bilkode (El 28), Kannada; tolls. 

birdda (El 24 ), name of a tax. 

bannige (El 28 ), name of a tax. 

bhatt-dya (SII 11-1), same as Sanskrit bhakt-aya. 

bitti (SII 11-1), same as Sanskrit visti. 

bittu-katte, Kannada; same as bittu-vatta. 

bittu-vatta, a portion of the produce from the land irriga- 

412 brdhmana - icta ngai 

ted by a tank, granted to a person who excavated or repaired 
the tank (A. R. Ep., 1958-59, p. 10). 

brdhmana-rdsa(rdja)-kkdnam (SITI ), Sanskrit-Tamil; tax 
payable by the Brahmana (purohila) to the king. 

cakra-kdnikkai (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; profession-tax 
paid by the potters; also called tirigai-ayam. 
danda-kdnam (SII 13), fines. 

dasabandha (SITI), Sanskrit; tax or cess levied to keep 
the sources of water supply, like the tank, etc., in good repair. 
dhdny-dddya (SITI), Sanskrit; tax payable in grains. 
dhdnya-varga, cf. tdniya-varakkam. 
eradu dogardca-ppannu (El 30), name of a tax. 
eccoru (SII 13), a tax or the obligation of free feeding. 
edai-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax on weights. 
eduttu-kkottai (SITI), Tamil; a tax of uncertain import. 
eduttukkotti (SII 12), a levy. 

elavai (SITI), also spelt elavai, Tamil; death-duty; fee for 

eluttu-viniyogam (SITI ), Tamil-Sanskrit ; dues payable as 
eluttu for the village-accountant to be apportioned among the 

eni-kkdnam (SITI ), Tamil ; ladder tax evidently levied 
on toddy-drawers. 

enney(SITI ), Tamil; tax levied on the oil-trade; obligation 
for the supply of oil. 

eradu-bilkode (IE 8-5), Kannada; name of a tax. 
eri-dyam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; income from fishing in 
the tank, etc. ; amount payable by the owners of the fields 
irrigated by the tank for its upkeep. 

eri-wu (SITI), Tamil; share in the expenses of the main- 
tenance of the tank. 

er-kkadamai (SITI), Tamil; tax on ploughs. 
er-ppon (SITI), Tamil; tax to be paid in cash for each 
plough; also called er-kkanikkai, etc. 

erumai-ppon (SITI), Tamil; tax payable on buffaloes. 
erikkddi (SII 12 ), tank cess of one kadi of paddy per field. 
eri-min -pat tarn (SII 12 ), a tax; income from fish in the tank. 
hejjunka, same as perjunka, Kannada; name of tax. 
idangai-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax paid by the members of 
the idangai community or the left-hand classes. 

idai kodai 413 

idai-ppdttam, also called idai-pputci (SITI), Tanmil; tax 
on herdsmen or cattle-breeders. 

idaitturai, also spelt idatorai (SITI), Tamil; a tax of un- 
certain import. 

idaiyar-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax on shepherds. 

ilaivdniya-ppdttam (SITI ), tax on the sellers of betel-leaves. 
idatorai, see idaitturai. 
ilakkulam (SII, 13), a tax. 

ilam-punjai, ilam-putci (SITI), Tamil; tax for toddy- 

ildnjanai-pperu, also called Idnjinai-pperu, Idnjanai-pperu 
(SITI ), Tamil; fee for affixing the royal seal; ildnjanai=Sa.ns- 
krit Idnchana. 

ilvari (SITI ), Tamil; house-tax; cf. manai-ppanam,manav-irai. 

inavari(SII 12 ), inavari-kkdsu (SITI ), Tamil; communal tax. 

irai (SII 13; SITI), Tamil; a general term denoting 
revenue income and the taxes to be paid to government ; land tax. 

irai-dravyam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; explained as a 
lump sum paid in lieu of land tax ; amount payable in com- 
mutation of the taxes payable on landed property. 

irai-kdval (SITI), Tamil; amount of deposit which yielded 
interest per annum equal to the tax due on the land ; sometimes 
regarded as a tax for police duties. 

iraiyili-mudal (SII 13), same as irai-dravyam. 

iraiyili-kkdsu (SITI), Tamil; amount paid for compound- 
ing taxes in order to make the land tax-free; also regarded as 
the amount payable to meet the shortage in the revenue occa- 
sioned by the grant of exemption from tax on certain lands. 

irankolli, irankolli (SITI), Tamil; 'a washerman'; tax 
payable by washermen. 

iravu (El 30), Tamil; royal dues. 

iruppu-kkatti (SITI), Tamil; probably, the cake of the 
Mahua seeds after the extraction of oil, largely used as soap ; 
tax for the manufacture and sale of such cakes. 

isai-kkiddy (SITI), Tamil; 'beautiful ram'; dues to be 
paid for the ram kept for show; cf. alag-erudu-kkdsu. 

jodi, also spelt sodi (SITI), Tamil; name of a small quit- 

kodai-vadaikkdy (SITI ), Tamil; tax on arecanuts brought 
for sale. 

414 ka damai kdu 

kadamai (SITI), Tamil; revenue, tax to be paid to the 
government in kind. 

kadir-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil; tax paid in sheaves of corn. 

kadu-kdval (SITI), Tamil; tax for the preservation and 
maintenance of forests. 

kanakka-mikudi (SII 12), a tax. 

kallavalika (El 28 ), name of a tax. 

kdnika, Kannada; also called kdnika-kane. 

kanike-kappa, kappa-kdnike, etc.; customary presents; 
presents from inferior to superior (El 33 ). 

kdnikkai (El 17, 21; SITI), Tamil; presents or customary 
payment as offerings to the king and other high officials. 

kanndla-kkdnam (SII 13; El 28), marriage fee; collected 
by the village assembly; same as vwdha-ppanam\ cf. ugappdr-pon. 

kanndr-irai (SITI), Tamil; profession tax payable by a 

kdnuka (CITD ), same as kdnika, etc. 

kappa (El 33), Kannada; tolls; 

karanikka-jodi (SII 2; SITI), quit-rent of the Karanam 
or Karnam (village-accountant or Patvdrl). 

kdrdnmai (SITI), Tamil; a tenure with the hereditary 
right of enjoyment; cultivation right; tax for the same; also 
known as kdrdnkilamai. 

kdriya-pperu (SITI), Tamil; probably, the same as 
kdriya-vdrdycci^ draycci. 

kdriya-vdrdycci (SITI), Tamil; cess paid for the superin- 
tendence of transactions ; same as draycci. 

kdr-kadamai (SII 12), a tax. 

karppura-vilai (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; sale-price paid 
for temple lands; price paid for cultivation rights of temple 
lands and in commutation of the taxes thereon. 

karttigai-kkdfu, kdrttigai-kkdni, kdrttigai-ppaccai, kdrttigaiy- 
arisi (SITI ), Tamil; payments in kind in the month of Kartti- 
gai, i.e. during the harvest; cf. ddi-ppaccai. 

karuvi-panam, karivi-ppanam (SITI), Tamil; tax on the 
implements in cash, probably paid by the barbers. 

karuv ula-vari (SITI), Tamil; fee for the safe-custody of 
precious articles in the treasury; or fee for the watch of 
the treasury. 

kds-dyam (SITI), kdsu-dyam', Tamil-Sanskrit; tax and 

kahikvlyari 415 

Tamil; tax probably on bulls 

tax of uncertain import, 
periodical presents made to 

416 ko-murai mddu 

ko-murai (SITI), Tamil; revenue due to the king. 

ko-pada-vdram (SITI ), Tamil-Sanskrit ; tax due to the king. 

kottai-kkuli (SITI); 'wages on nuts'; probably, charges 
for the upkeep of forts; cf. kottai-magamai. 

kottai-magamai (SITI), Tamil; tax for the maintenance of 

koyil-vdsi (SITI), Tamil; minor taxes payable to the 

kudi-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil; fee paid by the tenants; pro- 
bably, the same as kudi-kkdsu and kudi-ppanam. 

kudimai (SII 12; SITI), Tamil; taxes in general (with the 
exception of land revenue ) payable to the state for the protec- 
tion of the civil rights it offers; tenancy tax. 

kudirai-mdrru (SITI), Tamil; tax on horses. 

kudirai-ppandi (SITI, Tamil; c a stable 5 ; tax for the same. 

kudirai-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax on horses; also known 
as kudirai-mdrru, kudiraiv-ilddam', probably the same as kudirai- 

kudiraiv-ilddam (SITI), Tamil; 'horse-shoe' ; fee for 
shoeing horses; probably connected with kudirai-ppandi. 

kulavadai (El 17), tax for the enjoyment of the tank 
and its income. 

kulam (SITI), Tamil; tax on grains and pulses; cf. 

kumara-kaccdnam (SITI), Tamil; explained as a tax pay- 
able in coin for the maintenance of the temple of Kumara or 
Subrahamanya ; but same as kumdra-gadydna ( q. v. ). 

kurrarisi (SITI), Tamil; obligation of husking paddy be- 
longing to the temple into rice and the charges to be met for the 

kurru-nel, kurru-nellu (SITI), Tamil; tax for husking 
paddy payable to king. 

kusa-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil; tax on potters; also known 
as tirigaiayam, sakkara-kkdnikkai. 

lanjanai-pperu, lafijinai-pperu, see ilanjanai-pperu. 

mddai-kkulifilTI), Tamil; tax for minting gold into coins. 

mddd-ppadi (SITI), Tamil; allowances payable monthly; 
also called mdddrikka, mddan and mdddrikkai. 

mddu-kdnikkai (SITI), Tamil; obligation of supplying 
draught cattle to the visting nobles by the tenants. 

magamai mdttukkarai 417 

magamai, maganmai, maganamai (SITI ), Tamil; small 
portion of the income or of the value of articles of merchandise 
collected as voluntary contribution by the merchants from among 
themselves for the maintenance of temples, etc. 

maganmai (SITI), Tamil; poll-tax. 

makkal-peru (SITI ), Tamil; one's obligations as a citizen; 
probably, dues payable to a temple, or poll-tax. 

malldyi-maghamai (SITI), Tamil; probably a customary 
collection in the market. 

mdmagam (SITI), Tamil; tax payable in cash probably 
for the great Magha (Mahamagha) festival; or, a mistake for 
mar gam. 

manai-meyppdn-kollum-irai, tax for the supervisor of houses 
or the building-supervisor; cf. meyppdn (SITI), Tamil; 'shep- 
herd; grazier;' a supervisor; probably related to kankdni. 

manai-ppanam (SITI), Tamil ; house tax ; also called manai- 
vari. Cf. ilvari. 

manaiy-irai (SITI), Tamil; house-tax. 

mandai-ppanam (SITI), Tamil; tax on cattle grazing in 
the village common. 

mandala-mudanmai-pperu (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; fee for 
presents offered to the rulers of the mandala or district. 

man-madil (SITI),. Tamil; 'high wall or rampart made 
of mud'; tax for the erection and upkeep of such a wall. 

mdppadakku (SITI), Tamil; payment at the rate of one 
padakku or two kuruni for every md. 

mdppanam (SITI), Tamil; a tax payable at the rate of 
one panam for every md. 

mdppattadai (SITI), Tamil; tax probably for the penning 
of cattle; may also be mara-ppattadai, 'a timber depot'; tax 
payable for the same. 

mara-kkadamai (SITI), Tamil; tax payable for trees. 

mara-manjddi (SITI ), Tamil; tax of one manjddi for every 

mdrg-dddyam (SITI ), Sanskrit; tolls on the articles in transit. 

mariyddi (SITI ), Tamil; customary dues; also spelt mar- 
jddi, marisddi, marusddi, etc., and used in the sense of manner, 
way, extent, limit. 

mdttukkarai (SITI), Tamil; probably, a tax on cattle 
(cows and buffaloes). 

418 mdvinda nd fa 

mdvinda-kkadamai (SITI ), Tamil, tax payable to the king. 

meladi (SITI ), Tamil; taxes paid in kind. 

melvittiya-vadddravula, cf. vadddravula. 

mel-vetta-pperu (SITI ), land set apart for meeting expenses 
of public works ( vetti) . 

meni-ppon (SITI), Tamil; poll-tax; tax on individuals. 

merai (SITI), Tamil; portion of the crop given at the 
threshing floor to certain village officers and servants as per- 

mer-pddi-kdval (SITI), Tamil; policing duty over the nddu. 
See nddu-kdval. 

mettu-nilam (SITI), Tamil; 'high land'; tax payable for 
the cultivation of such land. 

milagu-taragu (SITI), Tamil; brokerage on pepper trade. 

monampdttam (SITI), Tamil; a tax of uncertain import. 

mudarriraman, mudal-tiramam (SITI), Tamil; tax (payable 
in cash ) of uncertain import ; tiramam is the coin called dramma 
(from Greek drachma). 

mulladisinnam (SII 12; SITI), Tamil; a tax of uncertain 
import; probably, payment for clue in detection. 

mungil-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax on bamboos. 

muttdvanam (SITI), Tamil; a tax probably on the sale 
of pearls. 

nddu-kdval (SITI ), Tamil; 'policing duty of the nddu'', 
tax payable by the residents in the division for the same* 

nddu-talaiyarikkam (SITI), Tamil; police-tax of the nddu\ 
same as nddu-kdval. 

nal-kidd, nar-kidd (SITI), Tamil; cess for the upkeep of 
the show-ram; or, tax for show-rams. 

nall-trudu (SII 12 ; SITI ), Tamil; cess for the maintenance 
of a model bull, which was probably also used for breeding pur- 
poses; cf. alagerudu-kkdsu, kdtci-erudu-kkdsu, etc. 

nall-erumai ( SITI) , tax for the maintenance of specimen 

nar-kidd (SII 12), a tax. 

ndttu-kkanakku-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax payable for the 
maintenance of the revenue accounts of the nddu or the country 
as a whole. 

ndtu-kkdnikkai (SITI), Tamil; presents payable to or by 
the assembly of the nddu. -, RV/O- 

nattupdti -pana 


ndttupdli (SITI), Tamil, nddu-upddi; the obligations to 
be met and taxes payable to the local assembly of the nddu. 

ndttu-viniyogam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; individual share 
payable to make up the shortage in the total revenue by the 
grant of exemptions by the assembly of the nddu. 

nell-dyam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; tax payable in paddy; 
also known as ner-kadamai. 

my (SITI), Tamil; tax on the traders in ghee; same as 
ney-vilai; cf. also enney. 

nilattirappu-kadamai (SII 12), a tax. 

nirdnikka-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax for the supervision of 
the regulation of water supply in a village. 

nlr-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil; water-cess; also known as 

nir-nilai-kkasu (SITI), Tamil; tank-cess. 

niruni-sunka (SII 11-1), water tax. 

nir-vilai (SITI), Tamil; water-cess. 

nul-dyam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; tax on cotton thread 
for weaving cloth. 

oli-vanndr-pdrai (SITI), Tamil; tax payable by the washer- 
man calculated on the number of washing stones. 

paccai-ppanam (SITI), Tamil; payment in cash towards 
the obligation of paccai payable in kind; also referred to as 
paccai-ppdttam. Gf. Kdrttigai-paccai, etc. 

padai-ppanam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; tax for the main- 
tenance of an army unit or fee from the army; also known as 
pa dai-kkdnikkai. 

padan-ka\i (SITI), Tamil; an obligation of uncertain 

pddavari (SITI), Tamil; tax probably on metallic mir- 

padavdram, also spelt paduvdram (SITI), Tamil; fee pay- 
able for exchanging landed property; transfer fee. 

pddikkdval (SITI), Tamil; 'watch or the police duties 
of the village' ; contribution for the same. 

paduvdram, cf. padavdram. 

pa\anel (SII 13), a tax. 

pdlikka-ppdttam (SII 12), a tax. 

pana-vargam (SITI), Sanskrit; class of taxes payable in 
cash; same as kdsdya-vargam; cf. panam, coin, money. . 

420 panapatti 

pana-vdsi (SITI ), Sanskrit-Tamil ; discount payable for 
the exchange of coins; amount payable to make up the wear 
in the coin. 

panca-vdrav-ur-idu-vari (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; levied by 
the panca-vdriyam (the five committees ) of the local assembly ( ur ). 

pancu-ppili (SITI; El 24), Tamil; tax on cotton; also 
referred to as pdnjupili. 

panda-vetti (SITI), Tamil; a variety of vetti, probably 
for the temple lands. 

pdndivari (SITI), Tamil; probably tax on carts drawn 
by bulls. 

pani-kkottu (SITI ), Tamil ; Village servants' ; cess collec- 
ted for their maintenance. 

pan-kuruni (SITI ), Tamil ; cess payable at the rate of one 
kuruni of the produce for each field. 

panndya (IE 8-5; El 27), Kannada; name of a tax. 

pdrai-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil; tax on washing stone pay- 
able by washermen ; sometimes explained as the tax on quarries. 

parai-ttari (SII 12; SITI), Tamil; a variety of hand- 
loom; the tax for the same. 

paraiy-irai (SITI), Tamil; a tax [payable in cash] pro- 
bably for tomtoms. 

pasdnam (El 23 ), name of a tax. 

pdsi-ppdttam (SITI), Tamil; tax on fishing; same as 

pattddai-dyam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; tax on silk cloth. 

pattddai-nul-dyam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit ; tax on silk 
thread used for weaving cloth. 

pattadai-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax probably for the use 
of the threshing floor. 

pdttam (SITI, El 21), Tamil; tax or rent; payable pro- 
bably for an industry or a profession. 

pdtta-nel (SITI), Tamil; paddy to be paid by the tenant 
to the landlord as per terms of lease. 

pattaya-kkdnikkai (SITI ), Tamil; fee for the issue of royal 

patti-kkddi (SITI), Tamil; tax payable in grain at the 
rate of one kadi for each patti of land. 

patti-kkdl (SITI), Tamil; tax payable in cash at the 
rate of one fourth (probably of panam) for each patti of land. 

pattlgai puravetti 


pattigai-kkdnam (SITI ), Tamil; obligation to pay at the 
rate of one kdnam for each patli of land; probably, the same as 
pa t taya-kkdnikkai. 

patti-ppon (SITI), Tamil; tax payable in coin. 

patti-ttandam (SITI); Tamil; probably, punitive tax of a 

pdvai (El 8-5), similar to Persian nazardna. 

pejjurika (El 8-5), Kannada; name of tax; also spelt 
perjunka, perujunka, hejjunka\ probably derived from piriya- 
sutika= Sanskrit brhac-chulka. 

perjunka, cf. pejjuhka. 

per-kkadamai (SII 12; SITI), Tamil; explained as 
poll tax, the same as dlvari; ( also called pervdsi ); but may be a 
payment to be made on the occasion of the naming ceremony 
of a child. 

perujunka, cf. pejjunka. 

perum-pddi-kdval (SII 12; SITI), Tamil; police duties of 
a larger area, as distinct from the siru-pddi-kdval for the village. 

pidd-nd\i (El 28), Tamil; same as pudd-ndli. 

pon-vari (SII 12), a tax. 

pracanda-kdnikkai (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; a variety of 
military cess ; this is found mentioned along with other military 
cessess like padai-ppanam, etc. 

pradhdni-jodi (SII 2; SITI), the chief minister's quit-rent. 

pudd-nali (SITI), Tamil; probably, a local cess on each 
door or gate or house ; also, mentioned as pidd-nd\i. 

pulavari (SITI), Tamil; 'tax on apulam (piece of land)'; 
probably to be corrected as puluari meaning f tax on grass.' 

pullavari (SITI ), tax payable for grazing cattle. 

pullandi (SITI), Tamil; an obligation probably con- 
nected with the pasture land in the form of fine on stray cattle. 

pulugu-kadamai (SITI), Tamil; fee for meeting the ex- 
penses of coating the image of gods with civet; also known as 

pura-kkadamai (SITI), Tamil; external taxes, i.e., taxes 
and fees payable to the state. 

purav-ayam (SITI), Tamil; revenue from external sour- 
ces, collected mainly in cash. 

puravetti (SITI), Tamil; a variety of vetti for public 
work, probably outside the area in question. 

422 puravu fadi 

puravu (SITI ), Tamil; land revenue. 

puravu-nel (SITI), Tamil; revenue paid in paddy. 

puravu-pon (SITI ), Tamil; revenue paid in gold. 

fakkara-kkdnikkai (SITI), Tamil; tax on potters; also 
known as tirigai-ayam; cf. kusa-kkdnam. 

Sandala-pperu (SITI), Tamil; a local cess or tax collec- 
ted from or for the Canddlas. 

sandhivigraha-pperu (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; fee payable 
to the village madhyastha; also a fee payable to the document 

Sattu-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax for the grazing ground in 
the village. 

Savai-kkadamai (SITI), Tamil; taxes payable to the 

sekk-dyam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; tax on oil-presses; 
also called Sekk-irai and Sekku-kkadamai (SII 12). 

Sekku-kadamai (SII 12), same as Sekk-dyam. 

Sekku-marirddi (SITI), -Tamil; a tax or cess; probably, 
related to Sekku. 

senkodi-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil; explained as 'the tax on 
the cultivation of the medicinal plant known variously as 
feng&di, kodiveli and citramulam' ; see also kodi-kkdnam. 

Settiydr-magamai (SITI), Tamil; voluntary contribution 
(magamai ) of the merchants. 

settiy-irai (SITI), Tamil; tax on merchants; also known 
as sett-irai. 

tevaka-kkdsu (SITI), Tamil; fee for the maintenance of 
the soldiers; or, tax levied on the soldier. 

til-kudimai (SITI), minor taxes and cesses payable to 
the local authority. 

till-antar-dyam (SITI ), Tamil-Sanskrit; minor taxes which 
fall in the group of antar-dyam or ul-vari. 

$il-dyam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; same as {ill-irai, Sil-vari. 

Sill-irai (SITI), Tamil; same as sil-ayam^ sil-vari. 

til-vari (SITI; El 27), Tamil; minor taxes; same as 
til-ayam, til-irai. 

sirr-ayam (SITI), Tamil; minor taxes. 

Siru-ppddi-kdval (SII 12), a levy. 

tiru-Sungam (SITI), Tamil; minor tolls. 

fodi, see jodi. 

&natrai 423 

soua-vari (SITI ), Tamil; same as pon-vari; explained as 
'tax payable in gold'; but may be professional tax payable by 
the goldsmiths; cf. suvarna-danda. 

sudu-kdttu-ppdttam (SITI), Tamil; fee payable by a 
prostitute, especiallly those accompanying the army. 

sula-vari (El 25; SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; a tax payable 
for the unkeep probably of a Siva temple. 

sunka (El 12), same as Sanskrit Sulka, tolls. 

surr-dya-kkd$u (SII 12), a tax. 

suarn-dddyam (SITI), Sanskrit; revenue in gold; taxes 
payable in coin; or, prefession tax payable by the goldsmiths. 

sada-kkadamai (SITI), Tamil; tax on shepherds. 

talai-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil; fee or tax on the talai or 
foot-binding used by toddy-tappers. 

talaiydrikkam (SITI), Tamil; tax payable for the main- 
tenance of the village watchman ; same as talaiydn-kkdni. 

tandalir-kadamai, tandar-kadamai (SITI), Tamil; fee pay- 
able for the maintenance of tax-collectors; or, tax on bill- 

tanda-kkanam, tanda-kkuram, etc. ( SITI) , in which tanda 
is punitive tax and kurram fines for crimes committed. 

taniydl (SII 12), a tax. 

tdniya-varakkam, dhdnya-varga (SITI), Sanskrit; e the grain 
group'; class of taxes payable in grains. 

tanmr-kkdnam (SITI ), Tamil; water-cess. 

tar agi-pdt tarn (SII 12), brokerage fee. 

tarav-idu-nel (SITI ), Tamil; paddy given in lieu of wages. 

taravu (SITI ), Tamil; 'that which has been given'; collec- 
tion of debt or tax on pressure; also a dun; also used in the 
.sense of 'order or instruction'. 

taravu-kolludal (SITI ), Tamil; 'to obtain a receipt for 
anything given' ; collection, of tax exercising pressure. 

tari-akkave (SII 13), same as tari-ppudavai. 

tari-irai (SII 12, 13), same as tari-ppudavaL 

tari-kkadamai (SII 12), same as tari-ppudavai. 

tari-kkurai (SITI), same as tari-ppudavai. 

tari-ppudavai (SITI), Tamil; tax on looms payable in the 
shape of cloth. 

tan-talai (SITI), Tamil; tax on looms; probably, the 
same as tari-kkadamai. 

424 t ai tar ul-van 

tattdr-pattam, tattdra-ppdttam (SII 12; SITI), Tamil; tax 
on goldsmiths. Cf. suvarna-danda noticed above. 

tatt-oli (SITI), Tamil; mentioned along with tat tar- 
pat tarn ; probably, tax on the smiths or the workshop of the 
artisans like the blacksmiths. 

tattu-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil; same as tattdr-pdttam; 'fee 
for hammering'; probably also the same as tattukk-dyam. 

tevai (SII 12), a levy. 

tingal-kdsu (SITI ), Tamil ; tax payable every month ; cf. 
tingat-corUj tingal-ney, tingal-mogam, etc. Cf. also mdda-ppadi. 

tirigai-dyam (SITI ), tax payable by the potter for his trade; 
cf. tirigai, a potter's wheel. 

tiru-muga-kkdnam (SITI ), Tamil; expenses as wages, etc., 
payable to the person who brings the tiru-mugam (royal order ) 
to a village. 

tivul-desa (El 30), Tamil; name of a tax. 

tiyeri-soru (SII 13), Tamil; literally, 'offering in fire'; 
supposed to be the name of a tax. 

tol-ottu (SITI), Tamil; a fee probably connected with 
hides and skins. 

toni-kkadamai (SITI), Tamil; tax on boats. 

torana-kkdnikkai (SITI), Tamil; presents for decorating 
the village with arches, etc. ; or tax on gates. 

totta-ppuravu (SITI), Tamil; tax on garden lands. 

tuld-kkuli (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; fee for weighing in 

tufaka-ttari (SITI), Tamil; tax probably on looms 
weaving tent-materials. 

ugappdr-pon (SITI ), Tamil ; tax payable in gold on joyous 
occasions like marriage; probably the same as kanndla-kkdnam. 

ulavu-kdtci (SITI), Tamil; probably, presents offered to 
the king or other exalted persons when going in procession 
round the village. 

ulgu (SITI), Tamil; customs duties; tolls. 

ulliya-kkuli (SITI), Tamil; probably, water-fee for irri- 
gation from wells ; tax or wages for well-digging. 

uluppai (SITI), Tamil ; presents of fruits, articles of food, 
etc., offered to great personages; free supplies made by the 
people or subordinates to officials on tour. 

ul-vari (SITI), Tamil; internal revenued; taxes levie 

uppu van 425 

by the local body; same as antar-dyam\ orders issued by the 
government fixing the amount of such taxes. 

uppu-kkdsu (SITI ), Tamil; salt-tax. 

ural-vari (SITI), Tamil; tax or fee for the maintenance 
of the mortar for husking paddy. 

ur-eltu (SITI), Tamil; 'committee of eight members of 
the village assembly (ur)' ; taxes payable for the expenses of 
the committee. 

ur-idu-varippddu (SII 13; SITI), Tamil; tax levied by 
the village assembly (ur). 

ur-kkadamai (SITI ), Tamil ; obligations and taxes pay- 
able to the village assembly (ur). 

ur-ttanim (SII 13), a tax. 

usi-vdsi (SITI), Tamil; tax probably connected with 

uvacca-vari (SITI ), Tamil ; tax payable by or for the main- 
tenance of the uvaccar ( drummers in temple service) . 

uvacca-kkdni (SITI ), Tamil ; rent-free land given to the 
uvaccan for serving as drummer in a temple. 

vaddardvula, vadddravula (El 19, 28; IE 8-8), Kannada; 
name of a tax. 

vagainda-kdsu (SITI), Tamil; tax payable in cash for 
marking the details, as of land; fees for subdivision of land; 
also the fee for settlement, as of a dispute. 

vdla-manjddi (SITI), Tamil; probably the same as vdla- 
vari and vdla-kkdnam ; tax of a manjddi on the units of measure- 
ment in the length of a house-site. 

valangai-idangai-maganmai (SITI ), Tamil; tax on the right- 
hand and left-hand castes, to be paid by all able-bodied men 
capable of bearing arms. 

valinadaikk-idum-panam (SITI), Tamil; road cess. 

va\iy-dyam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; tolls on the roadways. 

valudiy-accu-vargam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; group of 
taxes payable in Pandya coins. 

vanndr-vari, vanndra-ppdrai (SITI), Tamil; tax on washer- 

van-pdttam (SITI), Tamil; fixed rent in kind due under 
a lease-deed which does not provide for any relief against loss 
due to drought. 

vari (SITI ), Tamil ; tax, revenue register, order of the 

426 varivibh&ti 

king and his officer fixing the revenue; cf. v&ri-pp&ttagam, tax 
register; officer maintaining the same; also Vari-kkuru-seyvdr, 
Varrikkukkuru-seyvdr (SITI ),; officers grading the culti- 
vable land and fixing the tax payable thereon. 

varisai (SITI), Tamil; village dues; cess payable by or 
to the local authority. 

vdsalil-ponda-kudimai (SITI), Tamil; 'burden of -citizen- 
ship dues at the gate'; taxes, probably other than the land 
revenue, payable to the state. 

vdsal-kdnikkai, (SITI ) Tamil; presents offered to the palace, 
probably annually. 

vdsal-kuli-ppanam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; probably, door- 
tax, i.e., house-tax based on the main doorways. 

vdsal-panam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; periodical payment 
due to the palace; door-tax. 

vdal-tiramam (SITI), Tamil; door-tax; tiramam is the 
same as dramma. 

vdsal-viniyogam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; same as vafal- 
panam, etc. 

vattam (SITI), money-changers' commission; trade dis- 

vatti-ndli (SITI), Tamil; probably, a tax payable at the 
rate of one ndli for each vatti. 

vdykkdl-pdttam (SITI), Tamil; channel cess; fee for keep- 
ing the channels in good repairs. 

veli-kkdsu (SITI), Tamil; tax (payable in cash) of 
uncertain import; cf. veli-kku\i-ppanam. 

veli-ppayaru (SI I 12; SITI), same as veli-kkd$u 

velldn-irai (SITI ), Tamil ; cultivation tax. 

vendugol, vendukol (SII 12; SITI), Tamil; supplication; 
petition ; fee for the same ; also known as vendukol-vari. 

vetti (SII 12, 13), same as Sanskrit visti, c unpaid 

vetti-vedinai (SII 13), explained as a tax. 

veyadi-kdnam (SITI), Tamil; tax payable in grains, pro- 
bably on thatched sheds ; or, may be related to veynel (collection 
of bamboo-grain from forests ). 

vibhuti-kdnikkai (SITI ), Sanskrit-Tamil; contribution paid 
voluntarily to a temple by its devotees while receiving the 
sacred ashes, later collected as compulsory dues. 

vidai vwdha 427 

vidai-pper, vidai-ppcm (SITI), Tamil; perquisites payable 
on the receipt of a reply to a petition to the king. 

vil-panam (SITI), Tamil-Sanskrit; sale-tax; also explain- 
ed as a tax on bows or on archery. 

vipravinodi-vari (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; tax from or for the 
maintenance of the Vipravinodins (Brahmana magicians). 

vtra-sesai (SITI); El 22), sometimes supposed to be the 
name of a tax; but see vira-sesa. 

vir-panam (SITI), vil-panam:, Tamil-Sanskrit; tax on bows 
and arrows; may also be a tax on sales. 

viruttu-ppattigai (SITI), Tamil; tax probably on profits 
and the income from interest. 

visa-kkdnam (SITI), Tamil; tax or share in the produce 
as remuneration due to a Viyavan or village headman. 

vises-ayam, vises-dddyam (SITI ), Sanskrit ; a special group 
of taxes. 

vivdha-ppanam (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; marriage fee; cf. 
kanndla-kkdnam . 


accu, Tamil; name of a coin; money; tax or income. 

dchu, same as dsu; cf. accu. 

dda, also spelt adda\ name of a coin; half of a fanam; cf. 
addaga and adduga. 

adatdlisa-gdni, 6 atha-gdms or tankas. 

adda, same as ada (q.v. ). 

adda-cinna, cf. dda or #(/(/ and cinna or slnna. 

addaga, also spelt adduga; same as acto, #(/(/#. 

adduga, same as addaga. 

adi-kkdsu, 'tax collected from the stall-keepers in the 
market'; see kdsu. 

adimai-kkdsu, 'fee collected from the temple servants (or 
for their maintenance) ' ; see kdsu. 

ddivardha-dramma, 'a dramma issued by Adivaraha (PatThara 
Bhoja I, c. 836-85 A.D. )'; same as srimad-ddivardha-dramma; 
see dramma. 

ddya-mdsa, the original mdsa of 5 ratis as opposed to the 
later mdsa of various weights upto 1 ratis . Cf. mdsa. 

djivaka-kdsu, same as Tamil dsuva-kkdsu ; 'tax collected from 
the Ajivakas (or for the maintenance of the Ajlvaka monks )' ; see 

akkam, one-twelfth of a kdsu (q.v. ). 

aksa, same as suvarna (q.v. ). 

alag-accu, see accu. 

ambili-gadydna, see gadydna. 

amudan-accu, see accu. 

anai-accu, see accu. 

dnaka, Sanskritized form of Muhammadan dna=English anna. 

andika, andikd, | of a mdsa ; also regarded as the same as 
pana which was ^ or -^ of a dinar a or suvarna in value. 

anka-gadydna, see gadydna. 

anna, Anglicised form of Muhammadan dna; -*$ of rupee, 
property, etc. 

ardha-kakim, half of a kdkini (q.v. ), 

arnikd cinna 429 

arnikd, equal to 2 mdsas. 

astamikd, same as satamdna. 

dsu, cf. accu. 

dsuva-kkdsu, same as djivaka-kdsu (q.v. ) ; see kdsu. 

atha-gdni, same as tanka. 

aureus, Roman gold coin ( 1 24 grains ) ; same as the gold 
denareus (q.v. ). 

badara, same as tola or tolaka. 

badi-mdduvulu, see mdda. 

balotra, name applied to an Indian silver coin by the 
Muslim chroniclers of the early medieval period. 

bardd, modified form of vardlaka (q.v. ). 

bdrah-gdni, 1J atha-gdnis or tankas. 

belliya-dramma, Kannada; 'silver dramma' ; see dramma. 

bhdga, see hdga, pdga. 

bhairava-gadydna 'a gadydna minted by a goldsmith 
named Bhairava'; cf. brhat-bhairava-gadydna; see gadydna. 

bhimapriya-dramma, 'a dramma minted by a goldsmith named 
Bhima'; see dramma. 

bhujabala-mddai, c a mddai issued by a ruler named or enti- 
tled Bhujabala'; see mdda) mddai. 

binduka, same as suvarna (q.v. ). 

brihat-bhairava-gadydna, c the bigger bhairava-gadydna (q.v.)'; 
see gadydna. 

budi, Bengali name for a unit equal to 5 gandds\ cf. vodi, 
vodri, kapardaka-vodf; also kdkini. 

cdmara, also called cdmara-mdda ; probably c a mdda bearing 
the figure of a fly-whisk' ; see mdda. 

cdmara-mdda, see cdmara and mdda. 

carsam (karsa ?) , equal to 4 mddas; see mflfifo. 

c^/z, Anglicised spelling of kdsu. 

l cast\ see 'die-struck 9 and ^punch-marked^. 

caubJsa-gdnt, 3 atha-gdnis or tankas. 

cau-gdm, | of an atha-gdni or tanka. 

cavala, also spelt cavela', J- of a pagoda (q.v.). 

cavela, same as cavala. 

cha-gdni, f of an atha-gdni or lari&a. 

cina-kkanakkam, Tamil; 'Chinese gold coin'. 

emwfl, also spelt .; same as fan am (q.v.); | of a 
pagoda (q.v. ) 

430 ciravida dindra 

ciravida, Telugu; supposed to be a kind of gadyana (q.v. ). 

dam, derivative of dramma (q.v. ) ; copper coin, ? \, of a 
Mughal rupee (q.v. ). 

dama, same as ddma or dramma (q.v. ). 

ddma, same as dam or dramma (q.v. ). 

damma, same as dramma (q.v. ). 

dang, corrupt form of tanka (q.v. ) ; cf. dank. 

dank, corrupt form of tanka (q.v.); cf. dang. 

daric, gold coin of ancient Iran (about 133 grains) ; double 
daric Greek stater or tetradrachma, four times the drachma in weight. 

ddya-dramma, 'tax or money to be paid'; see dramma. 

dehliwdl, see jital. 

denarius, name of the Roman silver (also gold) coin; equal 
to Greek drachma ; origin of the Indian coin name dindra, etc. 

dhdnaka, same as mdsa', cf. hemadhdnyaka', same as dhdnika 
(q.v. ); also called andika and regarded as equal to 4 kdrsdpanas 
or-^-of suvarna (JNSI, Vol. II, p. 8). 

dhdnika, equal to 4 kdrsdpanas or 64 /xzn&r according to the 

dhdnya-mdsa, | of jvwa. 

dharana, old silver coin of 32 raJw (about 58 grains ) ; also 
called kdrsdpana and purdna; 24 (actually about 20) ratis in 
weight and half of gadydna in value according to medieval autho- 
rities ; otherwise called dramma, sdna or fahka\ sometimes regarded 
as a gold coin or weight equal totenpalas or 40 suvarnas or niskas 
(3200 ratis); cf. satamdna (silver)^ 10 dharanas (320 nrfw). 

dhvamsi, same as vamsya; a minute unit of measurement. 

didrachma, 'two-drachma', 'double drachma'; see drachma. 

'die-struck', coins on which the symbols and legends were 
impressed by means of an anvil and a single punch, both bear- 
ing negative representations, by placing a blank on the socket 
in the anvil and striking the punch placed on it by a hammer; 
see punch-marked. 

dindra, also spelt dinndra ; generally spelt dindra (q.v. ) ; 
a cowrie-shell according to the Kashmir chronicle. 

dindra, derived from Roman denarius ( 1 24 grains ) ; name of 
a gold coin equal to 16 silver coins called rflpaka, etc. (about 20 
ratis) ; a silver coin according to the Krtyakalpataru ; sometimes 
called kdsu in Tamil, etc.; sometimes regarded as half of satera 
or sateraka (Greek stater ) ; see dindra. 

dindri gadhiya 431 

dindri, generally spelt as dinar a\ local modification of 
the Roman denarius prevalent in the Iksvaku kingdom in the 
Krishna-Guntur region. 

dindri-mdsaka, same as dindri, or one-sixteenth of a dindri 
or dinar a in weight or value. 

dinndra, see dinar a. 

diramam, Tamil form of dramma. 

dodda-vardha, see vardha. 

do-gdni, i of an atha-gdm or tanka. 

dra, abbreviation of dramma. 

drachma, Greek silver coin; equal to 6 obols; Attic standard 
67 grains, but the Indo-Greek standard was soon modified, their 
coins of 37 or 38 grains being called drachma or hemi-drachma by 
different scholars; origin of the Indian coin name dramma (q.v. ). 

draksana, same as dramksana or tola', equal to 8 mdsas (80 
ratis); cf. draksuna. 

draksuna, same as draksana or tola. 

dramksana, same as tola. 

drama, same as dramma. 

dramma, Indian form of Greek drachma', a silver coin ^Y of 
a gold niska according to the Lildvati; name applied to the 
Saka-type silver pur ana, dharana or karsapana (about 20 rails, 
also called rupaka) ; copper coin (dam) regarded as 4^ of a 
Mughal rupee; money in general; the name first occurs on the 
Yaudheya coins. 

dramm-drdha, half of dramma (q.v. ). 

dramma- tribhdga, one-third of dramma (q.v. ). 

dranga, variant of dramma (q.v. ). 

du-ganl, same as do-gdni. 

dukra, I of a phadiyd. 

dukdni, | of a phadiyd. 

fadiyd, see phadiyd. 

fanam, Anglicised form of Tamil panam (q.v. ) ; Sanskrit 
pana (q.v. ) ; a gold coin equal to -% Q of a vardha. 

ga, abbreviation of gadydna. 

gadhaiyd, same as gadhiya. 

gadhaiyd-paisd, same as ghadhiyd. 

gadidnaka, cf. kumdra-gadidnaka, name of a tax ; same as gadydna. 

gadhiya, also spelt gadhaiyd; copper coin imitated from old 
Sasanian issues. . 

432 gadhiyd hamsapada 

gadhiyd-paisd, same as gadhiyd (q.v. ). 

gadiydna, same as gadydna. 

gadyd, abbreviation of gadydna. 

gadydna, same as gadydna. 

gadydna, a gold coin or weight; generally regarded as 48 
ratis (about 88 grains) in weight; sometimes called 'the gold 
gadydna' ; sometimes regarded as a coin like a farthing, equal 
to | or ^ of the paikamu (q.v.); regarded in some places as 
equal to 20 vals, 8 mdsas or \ tola. 

gadydnaka, same as gadydnaka or gadydna (q.v. ). 

gadydnaka, same as gadydna. 

gadydna-ponnu, 'gadydna of gold' ; same as pon-gadydna ; see 

gandd, equal to 4 cowrie-shells; -$ of a, pana; cf. gandaka. 

gandagopdlan-mddai, 'mdda issued or minted by 
Gandagopala' ; see mddai. 

gandaka, same as gandd. Cf. kdkini. 

ganda-mdda, probably 'mdda bearing the figure of a rhi- 
noceros' or an abbreviation of Gandagopdlan-mddai (q.v. ) ; 
sometimes characterised by the epithet 'small'; sometimes 
also called kdrsdpana, niska and ganda-niska; see mdda. 

ganda-niska, same as ganda; see mdda and niska. 

gandhashasti-mdda, same as gandhavdrana-mdda; probably, 
'mdda bearing the figure of an elephant in rut' ; see mdda. 

gdni, cf. atha-gdni, equal to a tanka and weighing a tola. 

gara-dramma, see dramma. 

gdva-gadydna, see gadydna. 

ghatita-hina-drammdh, 'drammas (money) that are want- 
ing'; see dramma. 

golakd, same as gulikd, etc. 

golakkai, Tamil ; same as golakd (gulikd) . 

grdsagraha, same as suvarna (q.v. ). 

gulikd, same as golakd, etc.; a small coin apparently 
globular or circular in shape; supposed to be a coin issued by 
the Sambhuvaraya chiefs and also by the Pandyas; cf. vira- 
champan-kuligai and valldl-va\i-tirantdn-gulikai. 

gunjd, same as rail or raktikd (1*83 or about If grains). 

hdga, Kannada; same as Sanskrit bhdga; probably J of 
the standard coin ; see pdga. 

hamsapada, same as suvarna (q.v. ). 

hema kdniki 433 

hema, same as mdsa; cf. hema-dhdnyaka. 

hema-dhdnyaka, same as mdsa; see hema and dhdnaka. 

hema-tanka, 'a gold tanka (q.v. ).' 

hemi-drachma, Greek; same as Sanskrit dramm-drdha (q.v.); 
see drachma, dramma, etc. 

hoti, variant spelling of h un ; same as vardha, gadydna (gold 
gadydna) and pagoda (star pagoda); cf. suvarna. 

hun, same as Aon or vardha (q.v.), etc. 

ila-kkarun-kdsu, 'Ceylonese coin'; see kdsu. 

ila-kkdsu, 'Ceylonese coin'; see kdsu. 

inavari-kkdsu, 'communual tax in cash'; see kdsu 

jagadalam-gadydna, see gadydna. 

jaithala, same as jital (q.v. ). 

jirna-sresthi-srimalla-priya, possibly, 'an old coin of the mint 
of Sresthin rimalla'. 

jirna-sresthi-visvamalla-priya, same as jirna-visvamalla-priya; 
possibly, 'an old coin of the mint of Sresthifti Visvamalla'. 

jttal, a copper coin, g of a silver tanka of the Delhi 
Sul/ans; also called delhfwdl; | of a silver tar which was 
itself ^ of a fanam. 

jtrna-visvamalla-priya, same as jirna-sresthi-visvamalla-priya, 
possibly, 'an old coin of the mint of Visvamalla' ; cf. visala- 

kadd, Bengali, etc; cowrie-shell regarded as coin; ^ 
of gandd and -^- of pana in some areas. Cf. kapardaka, etc. 

kdhana, Bengali, etc; also spelt kahdna and kdhdna; same 
as kdhdpana=kdrsdpana. 

kahdna, same as kdhana kdrs dp ana. 

kdhdna, same as kdhqna=kdrsdpana. 

kdhdpana, same as Sanskrit kdrsdpana and modern kdhan, 

kdka, same as kdkini. 

kdkanikd, same as kakani, kakini (q.v. ). 

kakim, equal to 20 cowrie-shells according to the Ltldvati; 
J of a pana; same as budi. Cf. gandd 

kalanju, Tamil; name of a weight or coin weighing 10 
manjddis (32 rails theoretically ) ; sometimes called suvarna (q.v. ). 

kdnam, Tamil ; name of a coin ; a gold coin or weight. 

kdnike, also spelt kdniki; -^ 4 part of a coin; money or tolls. 

kdniki, same as kdnike (q.v.). 

434 kaparda ksudrama 

kaparda, same as kapardaka, etc.; cowrie-shell used as 

kapardaka, also called kaparda, kapardikd, kapardl, etc. ; cowrie- 
shell used as coin. Cf. kadd. 

kapardaka-purdna, 'a pur ana (q.v. ) counted in kapardakas\ 

kapardaka-vodi, 'a vodl counted in kapardakos* ; cf. budi and 

kapardi, same as kapardikd, kapardaka, etc. 

kapardikd, same as kapardi, kapardaka, etc. 

karsa, name of a weight equal to 80 rails or about 146 
grains; sometimes regarded 100 rails or about 183 grains; 
sometimes also regarded as 120 rails in weight; a coin (cf. 

kdrsdpana, silver coin weighing 32 rails (about 58 grains), 
also called purdnaor dharana; copper coin of 80 rails or about 
146 grains (sometimes 100 rails or about 183 grains), also 
called pana; Saka-type silver coin of about 20 ratis, also called 
rupaka, dramma, etc. ; gold coin of 80 ratis (cf. suvarna ) ; name 
applied to ganda mdda (probably J tola in weight), also called 
niska (q.v.); same as kdhana, etc.; cf karsa of 120 ratis. 

kar$-drdha, 'half of a karsa (q.v. ).' 

karuri-kdsu, 'Ceylonese coin'; see kdsu, ila-kkdsu, etc. 

kdsu, Tamil; spelt in English as cash', name of a copper 
coin, J i u ofa fanam; sometimes called dinara ; money; tax; cf. 
kdsu-kadamai, 'tax in coins'; also Sanskrit karsa. 

kathdri-ankusa-gadydna, probably, 'a gadydna bearing the 
representation of a dagger and a goad' ; see gadydna. 

kola, same as tola; equal to 2 sdnas. 

kolakkai, Tamil; same as golakd, etc. 

komarina- gadydna, same as kumdr a- gadydna ; name of a tax; 
see gadydna. 

kovai, Tamil ; name of a gold coin. 

kroda, same as suvarna (q.v. ). 

krsnala, same as rail or gunjd (about If grains); re- 
garded as equal to 3 ratis by the Krtyalalpataru which seems to 
confuse rail with yava. 

krsnardja-rupaka, 'rupaka issued by Krsnaraja (Kalacuri 
Krsna, sixth century A.D. )'; see rupaka. 

ksudraka, same as dramksana or tola (q.v. ) ; cf. ksudrama. 

ksudrama, variant of ksudraka; same as tola (q.v ). . 

kumdra uirda 


kumdra-gadydnaka, name of a tax; see gadydna; cf. koma- 
rina-gadydna and kumara-kaccdnam. 

kumara-kaccdnam, Tamil; same as kumdra-gadydnaka. 

kuligai, same as gulikd, etc. 

kulottunga-mdda, 'mdda issued by Kulottunga (i.e. Cola- 
Calukya Kulottunga I, 1070-1120 A.D. )'; see ma da. 

lagi-drammdh, 'expenses incurred'; see dramma. 

lohadiyd, equal to 20 pdvisds or 100 cowrie-shells. 

lohitaka, equal to 3 mdsas (30 ratis). 

lokki-gadydna, 'gadydna minted at Lokki (modern Lak- 
kundi in the Dharwar District, Mysore State )' ; see gadydna. 

mdda, Telugu; gold or silver coin, 40 ratis (about 73 
grains ) in weight ; half of a dindra ; half of a pagoda, or tenth 
of a pana (fanam) in value; same as mddha, mddhd, mddai; 
50 per cent; cf. ganda-mdda also called kdrsdpana and ganda- 
niska; Tamil modification of Sanskrit md$a. 

mdda-badipdtukd, fraction of a mdda; see mdda. 

mddai, Tamil; same as mdda, etc. 

mddha, Odiya; also spelt mddhd; same as mdda, etc. 

mahdpana, cf. mdppanam. 

malla-na?idi-mdda, probably, 'mdda bearing the figure of 
a wrestler and a bull 5 , or 'mdda minted by Mallanandin' ; see 

malla-mdda, possibly, 'mdda bearing the figure of a wrest- 
ler', or an abbreviation of malla-nandi-mdda; see mdda. 

mamksuna, equal to 7 mdsas (70 ratis). 

manda, equal to 5 mdsas (50 ratis ) ; cf. mdda. 

manjddi, ^ of a kalanju, ^J^ of a satamdna; sometimes 
regarded as 5| grains in weight, but may be about 4 grains also. 

mdppanam, same as Sanskrit mahdpana; may be also 'tax of 
one pana per md measure of grains'. 

manci, a minute unit of measurement. 

mdsa, name of a weight or a coin weighing 5 ratis originally; 
later regarded as 1 ratis in weight ; \ of a sdna and ^ of a 
satamdna; sometimes regarded as ^ of a pana of 100 ratis 
(i.e. 5 ratis); a gold coin (as opposed to the silver mdsaka) 
according to the Krtyakalpatam; cf. ddya-mdsa, mdda. 

mdsaka, same as mdsa; according to the Krtyakalpataru, 
a silver coin as opposed to the gold mdsa 

mrda, name of a weight like manjddi (q.v. ). Cf. prda, prud. 

436 mudalpalam 

mudal-tiramaniy mudarriramam, Tamil; 'tax payable in 
cash'; cf. tiramam=dramma (q.v. ). 

nald, same as satamdna (q.v.). 

nal-kdsu, see kdsu. 

nall-dnai-accu, see accu. 

ndnd, same as ndnaka; cf. Kusana coins bearing the repre- 
sentation of the West Asian mother-goddess Nana. 

ndnai, same as ndnaka, ndnd. 

ndnaka, a coin; see ndnai, ndnd. 

nat-kdsu, see kdsu. 

nellur-mddai, 'the Nellore mddai 9 ; see mdda, mddai. 

niska, gold coin or weight equal to one karsa (80 ratis or 
about 146 grains) of 16 mdsas or to 4 or 108 or 150 suvarnas 
(q.v.); silver coin equal to one satamdna (320 ratis); some- 
times identified with mdda (q.v.). 

obol, Greek coin; 1 of drachma (q.v.). 

pdda-vimsopaka, 'one-fourth of a vimsopaka (q.v. )' ; cf. pdvisd 
which is the same as paisd. 

padmanidhi-malla-mdda, probably, 'ma da bearing the 
figure of a wrestler meant for depositing in a temple treasury 5 ; 
but cf. malla-mdda, etc.; see mdda. 

paduccaldgai-accu, see accu. 

pdga, same as Kannada hdga; J of the standard coin; 
probably the same as Sanskrit bhdga. 

pagoda, also called 'star pagoda' ; Anglicised form of the name 
of the gold coin called gadydna, hun (hon) or vardha; since the 
word pagoda also meant 'a temple', the coin seems to have been 
so named owing to the representation of a temple or a deity on 
it; pagoda may be a corruption ofbhagavati meaning 'the mother- 

paikamu, Telugu; supposed to be a small coin equal to 
or of a gadydna (q.v. ). 

paisd, -- or yj^- of a rupee; same as pdvisd Sanskrit 
pada-vimfaka ( vimsatika or vimsopaka) . 

pala, weight of 320 ratis (cf. satamdna ) ; equal to 4 or 5 
suvarnas according to the Tdjnavalkyasmrti. 

palamudal-dnai-accu, same as palansaldgai' } see accu. 

palam-pulli-mddai, see mdda, mddai, etc. 

palanjaldgai-accu, same as palansaldgai; see accu. 

palan-kdsu, see kdsu. 

palam pon 


palan-saldgai, Tamil ; a kind of coin (accu ) probably of the 
shape of a saldkd. Cf. sri-yakki-palan-saldgai. 

pal-drdha, -J of a pala (q.v. ). 

jtotf, same as the copper kdrsdpana, 80 rails in weight 
according to Manu, etc.; equal to 80 cowrie-shells according 
to the Lildvati; regarded in East India during the late medieval 
period as equal to 80 cowrie-shells and -V of a kdhan = 
kdrsdpana (q.v.); ^ of a suvarna according to some; -^L of a 
kdrsdpana according to the Krtyakalpataru', same as Tamil panam 


panam, Tamil; spelt fanam in English; same as Sans- 
krit pana (q.v.); but in Tamil, a small gold coin or money 
in general; cf. pana-vargam, 'taxes in cash', also called kds- 
dya-vargam (literally, 'taxes payable in kdsu, i.e. cash or money' ). 

pana-purdna, 'purdna (q.v.) counted in panas (q.v.)'; cf. 
kapardaka-purdna and kapardaka-vodi. 

pana-vdsi, Tamil; 'discount for the exchange of coins'; 
see panam. 

pancdlav-accu, see accu. 

panciyaka-drama, probably, 'dramma minted by the panca or 
pancakula i.e. the Pancdyat Board'; or 'dramma equal to five 
copper coins'; see dramma. 

pdni, same as suvarna (q.v.). 

parameslhi-gadydna, see gadydna. 

partdb, name of a gold coin; a half pagoda (q.v.). 

pammulai-vardhan, see vardha. 

pdruttha, a silver coin equal to 8 drammas of copper or 
billon; cf. poruttha-dramma. 

paura, cf. purdna. 

pdvisd, : 2 \- of a lohadiyd; same as Sanskrit pdda-vimsaka 
(vimsatika or vimsopaka) and modern paisd (q.v.). 

phadiyd, same as phadyaka ; a copper coin about two annas 
in value. 

phadyaka, same as phadiyd (q.v. ). 

picu, same as suvarna (q.v. ). 

picula, equal to 6 masas (60 ratis). 

pon, also spelt pon in Tamil; same as hon (i.e. hun or 
vardha)', same as 'gold' mddai, gadydna, etc.; money. Cf. 
Tamil pon-bhanddram, pon-panddra-vdsal', also pon-vargam, pon- 
vari, etc., meaning 'taxes payable in gold or coins'. 

438 pon rupaka 

pen, Tamil; sec pan. 

pon-gadydna, 'gold gadydna' ; same as gadydna-ponnu ; see gadydna. 

poruttha-dramma, see dramma; cf. pdruttha. 

pratdpa, same as par tab. 

prda, a variant of mrda (q.v. ). Cf. prud. 

priyasrdha-gajamalla-gadydna, probably, gadydna minted by 
Priyasraha and Gajamalla (or Gajamalla of Priyasraha); see 

prud, a variant of mrda (q.v. ). Cf. prda. 

pulli-gulikai-vardhan, see gulikd and vardha. 

'punch-marked', name applied to old Indian coins of 
copper and silver, on which the symbols were punched by 
different punches as was not the case with the die-struck and 
cast coins. Similar coins were sometimes cast from dies also. 

purdna, a silver coin also called dharana and kdrsdpana, 32 
ratis (about 58 grains) in weight; name applied to the silver 
punch-marked coins and also to the aka-type silver coins 
weighing about 20 ratis. 

rdjardja-mdda, Telugu; 'mdda or mddai issued by king 
Rajaraja (Coja Rajaraja I, 985-1016 A.D.)'; see mdda. 

rdjardjan-mddai, Tamil; same as rdjardja-mdda. 

rajendracola-mdda, 'mdda issued by king Rajendra-cola 
(Rajendra I, 1*016-43 A.D.)'; see mdda. 

raktikd, modern rati; a little above If grains. 

rdsi-panam, 'current good coins'; also called rdsi-ppon. 

rdsi-ppon, same as rdsi-panam (q.v. ). 

rati, same as raktikd; a little above If grains. 

raupya-tanka, c a silver tanka (q.v.)'; a silver kdrsdpana so 
called in South India according to Narada. 

rekai-ppon, regarded as the name of a gold coin of the 
Vijayanagara times so called probably for bearing linear marks 
(rekhd); may be 'revenue income in cash'. 

rekhd, cf. rekai-ppon. 

rudraddmaka, 'kdrsdpana issued by Rudradaman'; name 
applied to the silver coins issued by the aka rulers of Western 
India; its later imitations were called rupaka, dramma, etc. 

rupa, same as rupaka or rupyaka (q.v. ). 

rupaka, silver coin; silver coin yV (about 20 ratis) of a 
gold dmdra, etc.; also called dramma, purdna, kdrsdpana, etc.; 
same as modern rupee; cf. krsnardja-rupaka. 

rupee Sresthi 439 

rupee, English form of ruplya (q.v. ); silver coin equal to 
16 annas and 64 paisas. 

ruplya (rupiah), Muhammadan name of rupya, rupaka or 
rupyaka (q.v.); same as modern rupee. 

rupya, same as rupaka or rupyaka (q.v.); same as modern 
rupee . 

sdhanikdti, supposed to be the name of a coin. 

saldgai, Tamil; name of a coin also called palansaldgai 
(accu); probably had the shape of a saldkd. 

saldkd, same as Tamil saldgai. 

sambiranippalan-gdsu, see kdsu. 

sdna, name of a weight or a coin 40 rails in weight; equal 
to 4 mdsas; sometimes regarded as 32 ratis and called niska and 
tanka; rarely also regarded as equal to 24 or 20 ratis. 

sdna-pdda, same as mdsa (q.v.). 

sdnaka, same as sdna (q.v.). 

sarsapa, sometimes called 'red sarsapa*; a small unit of 

sdsukdni, also called sdsukdni- tanka', same as sasghdni. 

sdsukdni- tanka, same as sdsukdni or sasghdm. 

sasghdm, Tughluk coin, 4 jitals in weight and value. 

satamdna, the weight of 320 ratis; literally, 'a hundred 
units of measurement', the unit probably being the manjddi (q.v. ) ; 
also called pala and niska (320 ratis of gold or silver); 
during the medieval period, sometimes regarded as 160 ratis; 
name sometimes applied to an ancient gold coin. 

satera, also spelt sateraka; probably the same as Greek 
stater; regarded as equal to 2 dinar as. 

sateraka, same as satera (q.v.). 

sauvarna, same as suvarna (q.v. ). 

senapaka-kkuligai, see kuligai, gulikd, etc. 

siglos, name of the silver coin (86.45 grains ) of ancient 

sinna, same as cinna (q.v. ). 

sodasi, also called sodasikd; probably, one-sixteenth of 
the standard silver coin in weight or value; cf. pana. 

sodasikd, same as sodasi (q.v. ). 

soliya-kkdsu, 'the Cola kdsu (copper coin)'; see kdsu. 

sresthi-jirna-visvamalla-priya, ' probably a mistake for jirna- 
srejthi-ivisvamalla-priya, 'old coin minted by Sresthin Visvamalla*. 

440 Srimad turai 

frimad-ddivardha-dramma, 'dramma issued by srimad- Adivaraha* ; 
cf. ddivardha-dramma-, see dramma. 

sri-yakki-palan-saldgai, cf. yakki-accu, palan-saldgai, saldkd. 

stater, Greek silver and gold coin; silver stater was 
also called tetradrachma ; gold stater had the same weight as Persian 
double daric (265 grains). 

Sukti, same as satamdna (q.v. ). 

surabhi-mdda, probably, 'mdda bearing the figure of a 
cow'; see mdda. 

suvarna, weight of 1 6 mdsas or 80 ratis (about 1 46 grains ) ; 
16 kdrsdpanas or rupakas or 48 panas according to different 
authorities; called picu, pdni, kroda, binduka, viddlapadaka, 
hamsapada, grdsagraha and tola; also called niska; f of pala; gold 
coin weighing 80 ratis; name applied to Tamil kalanju (about 
32 ratis or 58 grains theoretically). 

suvarna-gadydna, 'gold gadydna' '; see gadydna. 

tdkd, modern Bengali form of tankd (from tankaka ) ; silver 
coin; money; written in old Bengali as tankd; see tanka. 

tarn, abbreviation of tanka. 

tandula, J of a dhanya-masa. 

tank, also called tdnki; same as tanka. 

tanka, a coin in general; a silver coin (often one tola in 
weight ) ; same as sdna ; equal to 4 silver fanams, silver coin 
of the Delhi Sultans, 96 or 100 ratis in weight; same as atha- 
gdnl (q.v.); a small copper coin; | of a rupee. There were 
gold and copper tankas; see hema-tanka and raupya-tanka. Cf. 
tank, etc. 

tankaka, same as tanka (q.v. ); name of a silver coin; some- 
times mentioned as bearing the figure of the Bhagavat. 

tdnki, same as tanka. 

tar, name of a silver coin, equal to J of a gold fanam. 

tetradrachma,' four-drachma' ;quadruple drachma; see drachma. 

tirama, Tamil form of dramma. 

tola, also spelt tolaka; 80 ratis in weight; same as suvarna. 

tolaka, same as kola or tola; 80 ratis in weight. 

trisula-kdsu, probably, 'kdsu bearing the representation 
of a trident' ; possibly issued by the authorities of a iva temple ; 
see kdsu. 

tulai-ppon, Tamil; 'correct weight' or 'good current coin'. 

turai~minr\ar-pon, a kind of pon (i.e. hon, gadydna or vardha). 

un di vigrahapdliya 44 1 

undi-accu, see accu. 

uppu-kkdsu, 'salt money'; name of a tax; see kdsu. 

ur-kalanju, see kalanju. 

ur-kdsu, see kdsu. 

uttama-ganda-mdda, probably 'good (i.e. new) gandamddcf 
or 'ganda-mdda issued by king Uttama (i.e. Uttama-coja, 
980-85 A.D.); see ma da. 

vagainda-kdsu, name of a tax; see kdsu. 

val, sometimes regarded as -f$ of a gadydna. 

valla, equal to 3 ratis. 

valdl-vali-tirantdn-gulikai, Pandya coin supposed to be 
issued by Jatavarman Sundara-pandya I ; see gulikd, etc. 

valudiy-accu-vargam, see accu. 

vardha, a gold coin; same as hun or hon (q.v. ); also called 
pagoda (q.v. ) or 'star pagoda 1 . 

vardha-gadydna, same as vardha (q.v. ), gadydna or pagoda 


vardha-panam, probably 'money calculated in vardha (q.v. ).' 

vardha-vimsopaka, ^ of a vardha', see vardha and vimsopaka. 

vardhan-pulli-kuligai, see vardha and gulikd, etc. 

vardtakd, same as vardtaka or vardtikd. 

vardtikd, cowrie-shell used as a coin; money. 

vdsal-panam, 'door-tax'; periodical payment due to the 
palace ; same as vdsal-tiramam ; see pana. 

vdsal-tiramam, 'door-tax'; same as vdsal-panam; see dramma. 

vataka, same as dramksana or tola. 

velli, name of a coin. 

veli-kkdsu, same as veli-ppayaru; name of a tax; see kdsu. 

veli'ppqyam, same as veli-kkdsu (q.v.). 

viddlapadaka, same as suvarna (q.v.). 

vigraha-dramma, 'dramma issued or minted by Vigraha'; 
same as vigrahapdla-dramma, etc. ; see dramma. 

vigraha-dramma-visvovaka, '- 2 V of the vigraha-dramma'; see 
dramma and vimsopaka. 

vigrahapdla-dramma, 'dramma issued or minted by Vigraha- 
pala' ; same as vigraha-dramma (q.v. ), etc. ; see dramma. 

vigrahapdla-satka-dramma, same as vigrahapdla-dramma (q.v. ), 

etc. ; see dramma. 

vigrahapdliya-dramma, 'dramma issued or minted by Vigra- 
hapala' ; same as vigraha-dramma (q.v. ), etc. 

442 vigrahalungiyayava 

vigrahalungiya-dramma, 'dramma issued or minted by 
Vigrahatuhga' ; cf. vigraha-dramma, etc.; see dramma. 

vijayardja-tanka, 'tanka issued by Vijayaraja'; see tanka. 

vil-panam, 'sales tax', or 'tax on bows or archery'; see 

vimsatika, regarded as equal to 20 mdsas', cf. vimsopaka. 

vimsopaka, corruption of vimsopaka. 

vimsopaka, -$ of the standard silver coin of about 20 rails', 
same as visvovaka, visopaka, visovd, etc. 

viracampan-guligai, gulikd of the ambhuvaraya king 
Viracampa; see gulikd, etc. 

virapancdlan-kdsu, see kdsu. 

vlsala-priy a- dramma, also called visala-pri-dramma; cf.jirna- 
visvamalla-priya, Visala being the same as Visvamalla. 

visopaka, corruption of vimsopaka. 

visovd, corruption of vimsopaka. 

visvovaka, corruption of vimsopaka. 

vodi, also called vodikd and vodri; sometimes regarded as a 
cowrie-shell used as coin; but really, the unit equal to 5 gandds 
=20 cowries. Cf. budi 3 kapardaka-vodi (q.v. ). 

vodikd, same as vodi. Cf. budt and kapardaka-vodi (q.v. ). 

vodri, same as vodi. 

vrisa-vimsopaka, 'a vimsopaka bearing the figure of a bull' ; 
see vimsopaka. 

yddavardyan-panam, 'coin issued by the Yadavarayas' ; see 

yakki-accu, 'accu bearing the figure of a Takfi (a village 
goddess )' ; see accu. 

yava, T ^ of mdsa\ \ of rail. 


abadha 1 

abadha 1 

abatamala, abatamala 1 

abbe 46 

abbhuta-dhamma 5 

abbhutthio khamavo 3 

abda 253 

abdapa 1, 203 

abda-puja 1 

abdar-khana, abdar-khanah 1. 


abdhi 1 

abdika-sraddha 1 
a-bhada-papesa 388 

a-bhata-chatra-pravesya 73, 

388-89, 401, 404 
a-bhata-pravesa 71, 389, 391- 

92, 401, 404 

a-bhata-pravesya 57, 388 
abhavya 1, 53, 334, 397 
abhaya 1 
abhaya-hasta 1 
abhaya-mudra 1 
abhaya-sasana 1 
abhigamika-guna 1 
abhighata 1 
abhihara 1 
abhijnana 1 
abhikara 1 
abhilekhitaka 2 
abhinava 2 

abhinava-marganaka 2 

sarv-adayair=upetah 2 
abhipreta 2 
Abhira 2 
abhirakta 2 
abhiseka 2 
abhiseka-kkani 2 
abhiseka-kkariikkai 2, 409 . 

abhiseka-mandapa 2 

abhiseka-naman 2 

abhisikta 2 

abhlsta-devata 2 

abhisthana 2, 7 

abhisthana 2 

Abhitvaramana 2, 54 

Abhitvarmanaka 2 

abhoga 2, 73 

abhra 2 

a-bhrta-pravesa 389 

a-bhrta-pravesya, a-bhrta- 
pravesya 57, 388-89 

abhyaiiga 2, 332 

Abhyantara 2-3, 23 

abhyantara 44 

rin 2, 54 

abhyantar-adaya 2, 22-23 

abhyantara-nagara 54 

abhyantara-siddhi, abhyantara- 
siddhi 3, 302, 310, 343, 388 

abhyantara-siddhika 3, 22, 388 

abhyantara-siddhi-sahita 388 
abhyantara-siddhya 388, 397 
Abhyantarika, Abhyanta- 

rika 2-3 

Abhyantar-opasthayaka 2-3 
Abhyasin 3 

abhyavahara-mandapa 3 
abhyupagama 3 
abhyusa 3 
abhyutsarpita 3 
abhyutthita 3 
abja 3 
abja-dala 3 
Aboti 3 

acala-pravrtti 3 
a-camm-arigalaka 389 
a-candr-aditya-kaliya 388 
a-candr-arka 3, 388 



sama-kalina 388 

a-candra-tarakam 388 
acara 3 
acarana 67 
acara-patra 4 
a-car-asana-carm-angara 29, 

66, 388 

a-cara-siddhika 389, 393 
acara-sthiti 324 
acara-sthiti-patra 4, 324-25 
Acari 4 
Acariya 4 

a-carm-arigaraka 20, 67, 389 
Acarya 4, 112, 213, 299, 301, 

314, 332, 346, 350, 379 
acaryakula 4, 89 
acarya-pitha 4 
acarya-pujana, acarya-pujanai 

4, 409 

a-cata-bhata-gocara 389 
a-cata-bhata-pravesa 389, 394 
a-cata-bhata-pravesya 67, 73, 

388-89, 401, 404 
a-cata-bhata-pravesyarh cora- 

drohaka-varjam 67 
a-catta-bhatta-pravesa 51, 68, 

acchanna 4 

accu 4-5, 16, 34, 428-29, 436- 

37, 439, 441-42 
accu-pannaya 4 
Accupannayadadhisthayaka 4, 

181, 183, 188 
accu-tari, accu-ttari 409 
accuvari 5, 409 
achu 5, 34, 428 
acita 5 


ada 5, 428 

adana 5 

adanaka 5 

adanake mukta 5 

adatalisa-gani, adatalls- 

gani 35,, 42.8 

adatta, adatta, adatta 5 ^ 

adaya 2, 5, 14, 22-23, 31 

adbhuta 5 

adbhutadharma 5 

adbhuta-santi 5 

adda 5, 428 

adda-cinna 5, 428 

addaga 5, 428 

addanaka 5 

addhi'ka 27 

adduga 5, 428 

Adesakarin 5 

Adesa-naibandhika 5 

adeya 5, 90 

adha, adha 5 

adhah 5 

adhaka 5-6, 101 

adhakavapa 6 

adhana 6 

adhau dattam 6 

adhau krtam 6 

adhau muktam 6 

adhavapa 5-6 

Adhi 6 


adhika 6 

adhika 5 

adhik-aksara 6 

adhika-padi 6 

Adhikara 6 

adhikara-mel-eluttu 6 

adhikarana 6-8*; 145, 187 

adhikarana-danda 6 

Adhikarana-lekhaka 6 

adhikaran-avadharana 6, 38 

Adhikaranika, Adhikaranika 


adhikara-pperu 7, 409 
adhikara-ppon 7 
adhikara-varttana, adhikara- 

vartanai 7, 409 
Adhikarika, Adhikarika 7, 221, 

308, 378 
Adhikari-mukhya 7 

Adhikarin 6, 121, 277, 289, 


Adhikrta 7, 14 ,, _ _ . 
Adhimaharaj^ J 



Adhipati 7, 14-15, 243 
adhi-patra 7 
Adhiraja 7, 176 
Adhirajaraja 7, 270 
adhirajya 7 
adhirajya 7 

adhisthana, adhisthana 7 
adhisthan-adhikarana 8 
adhisthanarn 8 
Adhisthayaka 8 
adhivasa 8 

samaksam 8 
adhivasa-saktiya 8 
Adhvapa 8 
Adhyaksa 7-8, 14, 19, 22, 128, 

176,249, 369 
Adhyaksa-pracara 8 
Adhyapaka 8 
a-dhyatam 8 
adhyayana 8 

Adhyayana-bhatta 8, 283 
adhyayan-anga 8 
adhyayana-vrtti 8 
Adhyetr 8 
adi 8 
Adi 409 
Adi-dasa 66 
Adigaram 6 
Adikara 8 
Adikartr 8, 341 
adi-kka^u 151, 409, 428 

adimai-kkasu 150, 409, 428 

adi-ppaccai 409, 424 


_ 409, 411 

Adiraja 8 

Adi-saiva 314 

aditya 8, 161, 192, 373 

aditya-kaca 9 

adivaraha-dramma 9, 428, 440 

adiyarai, adiyirai 411 

adri 9 

a-dudha-dadhi-gahana 389 

a-dugdha-dadhi-grahana 77, 

102, 389 

adukkalai-ppuram 409 
advalisa 9 

adya-masa 9, 200, 428, 435 

aga 9 

agahara, agahara, agahara 10 

agama 9 

agama-nigama-dana 9 

agamarga 9 

agama-samaya 9 

agamin 9, 30-31 

agara 9 

agara-brahmadeya 9, 62 

agara-pparru 9 

agasalavadu 14 

Agasali 9,' 14-15 

aghata 9, 406 

aghatana 9, 406 

aghati 9 

aghosa 9 

agni 9, 337 

agni-cayana 10 

Agnicit 10 

agnihotra 10, 231 

Agnihotrin 10 

agni-karya 10 

agni-kula 10 

agni-kunda 10 

agni-skandha 10, 137 

agni-sthitika 10 

agnistha 10 

agnistoma 11, 37 

Agnyahita 10 

agovana 25 

agra 1 

agra-bhaga 10-11 

agrabhaga-pratyarhsa 10 

agra-bhrti 1 

agra-dharmarajika 10 

Agrahara 10 

agrahara 9-11, 20, 51, 61, 70, 

88, 176, 300, 360 
agrahara 1 1 

agrahara-brahmadeya 62 
agrahara-pradey-arhsa 1 1 
Agraharika, Agraharika 11 
Agraharin 1 1 
Agraharma 11 
Agraharma-mahattara 1 1 
agrahayam 11 
agraja 11 



agrajanman 1 1 
Agra-mahadevi 11, 176 
Agra-mahamahisi 11, 192 
Agra-mahisi 11, 192 
agra-mandapa 1 1 
agra-prasada 11 
agra-pratyamsa 10-11, 261 
agra-pratyaya 10-11 
agra-sala 1 1 
agrayana 1 1 

agre koli kapolas=tu suka- 
nasas = tu nasika, etc. 326 
agrika 1 1 
agrika-paya 12 
Agronomoi 12, 274 
ahada 12 

aharh karanarh karomi 146 
Ahamvira 12, 18, 125 
ahan 12 

ahara 12, 54, 120 
ahar-ahah 330 
aharam 12, 126 
ahara-visaya 12, 58 



126, 267, 286, 389 


takra-grahana 389 
a-hasta-praksepamya 389 
ahavaniya 12 
ahi 12 

ahi-danda 12 
ahma 41 

ppadeya 389" 


_ pradeya 129, 256, 389 

Ahitagni 10 

aiduka 12, 106 

airavata 12 

aisvary-astaka 12, 30 

aitada 12 

Ajivaka 12, 150, 411, 428 

ajivaka-kasu 12, 150, 428-29 

ajja-guru 29 

ajjaka 29 

Ajna 12-13, 104 

ajna 13 

Ajna-bhogika 13 

Ajna-dapaka 13 

Ajna-dharaka 1 3 

Ajna mahamahattara-Siva- 

varma 12 
Ajnapti, Ajnapti 8, 12-13, 19, 

171, 270, 289, 304, 368, 373 
Ajfia-sancarin 13, 294, 304 
Ajna-sata-prapayitr 13 
ajnata 13, 294 
a-kalika 13 
akara 13 
a-karada 390 


a-kara-vat-ottara 390 
a-kara-visti-konjalla 160, 390 
akarsaka 1 3 
akasa 13 
Akasale 14 
Akasamukhin 13 
akasa-patal-otpatti 1 3 
akasa-vani 1 3 
Akasa- vasin 13 
akas-otpatti 13 
akhanda-dipa 13, 73, 211-12 
Akhasali 14 
a-khatta-collaka-venesika 390 

a-khatva-cullaka-vainasika 390 
akificid-grahya 14, 119 
akincit-kara 14, 390 
a-kincit-kara-grahya 390 
a-kincit-pragrahya 254, 390, 

a-kifichit-pratikara 259, 390, 


akkam 14, 428 
akkasala 14 
akka-sala 14 

akkasalai-vari 14, 409 
akkasalavaru 14 
Akkasale 15 
Akkasaliga 14, 28 
akrti 14 
aksa 14, 329, 428 



fAksapala 14 
aksapatala 14, 178 
aksapatal-adaya 14 
Aksapatal-adhikrta 14 
Aksapatal-adhipati 14-15 
Aksapatal-adhyaksa 14, 178 
aksapatala-prastha 14, 257 
Aksapatalika, Aksapatalika 

14, 138, 178 
Aksapatalin 14-15 
aksara 6, 15, 356 
aksarapalli 15 
Aksasalika 14-15, 28 
Aksasalin 9, 14-15, 28 
Aksasaraka-prapiya 258, 263 
Aksasaraka-pravesya 256, 263 
aksata 15, 33 
aksata-trtiya 15-16 
aksauhim 15 

Aksavapa 15 

aksayam, aksayam 15 

aksayanidhi-dharma 15 

aksayamka 15 

aksaya-mvi, aksaya-mvi 15, 

26, 56, 206, 220 
aksayamvi-dharma 15 
aksaya-mvika 15 
aksaya-purnamasi 16 
aksi 16 
aksma 31 
aksinin 16, 30-31 
aksota-bhaiiga 16, 157 

avasa, a-kura-chullaka- 

vinasi-khatva-vasa 39, 76, 

157, 167, 374, 389-90, 397, 


samvasa 293, 390 

avasa 390 

alag-accu 16, 428 
alag-erudu-kkasu 413, 418 
alai 1 6 
alakku 310 
alam 16 
al-amanji 409 

alanibana 16 
alavana 16 
a-lavana-guda-ksobha 122, 

159,' 163, 390-91 
a-lavana-khataka 170, 390-91, 


a-lavana-klinna-khanaka 391 
a-lavana-klinna-khataka, a- 

lavana-klinva-khataka 1 59, 



ka 159, 391 

a-lavana-kreni-khanaka 391 
alaya 16, 42, 52 
a-lekhani-pravesataya 391 
alepana 16 
all 16, 159, 222 
alikam catapitam 67 
alim 16 
alipaka, alipaka, alipaka, ali- 

paka 16-17, 216, 402 
Aliya 16 

aliyaka, aliyaka 16, 216 
allavata 16 

allaya-manya 194, 199, 409 
allu 409 
al-nel 409 
a-lona-khadaka 390 
alpa-bhandata 16 
alpara-irai 16, 409 
alu 409 

alugal-sarakku 409 
Alvar 253 
al-vari 410 
ama 16 

Amaca, Amacca 16 
amalasaraka 16 

amaliman 16 

amanta 16, 54, 179, 266 

amara 17, 42 

amara-magani 17 

Amara-nayaka 17, 214-15 

amari-rudhi 1 7 

Amatya 16-17, 166, 181, 254, 

271, 303, 377 
amatya-sabha 17 
amavasya 16-17, 66,251 



amba 46 

ambaka 17 

amba-kapilika 17-18 

ambara 17 

ambhonidhi 17 

ambika-janika 1 7 

ambili-gadyana 108, 428 

ambudhi 1 7 

amburasi 17 

arhhati, amhiti 17 

ami 18 

amin 1 8 

Amir 18, 125 

Amira 1 8 

amirta-ganattar 18 

amisarh praksepa-pratisedhau 

na karaniyau 255 
amkusa 306 
amma 18 

Ammanagandhavarana 1 8 
amnata 18 
amnaya 18, 299 
amra-pipilika 17-18 
amredana 18 
amrta-gana 18 
amrta-padi 18 
amrta-yoga 18 
arhsa 18 

Amsa-brhadbhogika 18, 49, 62 
amsa-gana 18 
Amsapati 18 
amsuka-bhandara-karana 18, 


amudan-accu 4, 428 
amudapadi amuda-ppadi 18 
amukaka-sakta 18 
ana 428 

anacchedya 19, 391 
anadesya 19, 391 

anadiyaka 207 
anahara 391 
anaharya 19 

Anahillapura-pattana 246 
anai 1 3 

anai-accu 4, 428 
anai-ccalai 410 
anaka 19, 22 
anaka 19, 22, 428 

anala 19 
ananda-nidhi 19 
anandathu 19 
ananguli-praksepaniya 391 
anariguli-preksamya 391 
an-ai\ju 229 
ananta 1 9 
ananta-nidhi 19 
anantarya 19 
anasedhya 19, 391 
anatha-sarhraksana 19 
anatti 19 
anavamarsya 391 
anavasa 19 
anavrti 41 

and-eluttu-ttevai 410 
andharuva, andharuva 19, 29 
andhra-danda andhra-danda 

19, 340,' 346 

andika, andika 19, 90, 428, 430 
anekanta-mata 19 
anal 409 

Anesahini-vergada 19 
anga 8, ' 19-20 

anga-bhoga 11, 20, 112, 276 
anga-bhoga-rariga-bhoga 20, 


ahgada-siddhaya 20 
ariga-devata 20 
angadi-kkuli 410 
angadi-ppattam 410 
Angaja 20 
ariga-mani 20 
ahga-mani-dravya 20 
Ahga-niguhaka 20 
angara 20, 66-67 
anga-racana 20 
Ahgaraka 20 

angaraka 20 
arigarakl 20 
Ahgaraksa, Arigaraksaka 20, 


ariga-ranga-bhoga 20, 276 
ariga-ranga-bhoga-vaibhava 20 
ahga-rahga-vaibhoga 20, 359 
ahga-sala 21 
Anga-vaidya 21 
Anga-vavicciyar 2 1 


Arigikaranika 21 

angula 21, 126 

anguli 21 

am 215 

anika 19, 22, 286 

Aniketos 21, 26 

animes-anokaha 21 

anirde'sya 19, 391 

Anivartaka-nivartayitr 2 1 

anivrtti 21 

aniyata 21 

aniyukta 21 

anjasta-sabha, afijasta-sabhai 

21',' 32, 233 
anjasta-sattu-sabhai 21 
anjinanpugal-idam 1 
anjuman 21, 126 
afiju-pancalattar 141 

anjuvannam 21, 126 

arika 21 

anka-danda-khandana 21 

anka-gadyana 108, 428 

Ankakara 21 

Ankakara 21 

ahka-sala 21 

ahkatah 21 

anke 21 

arikena 21 

anna 19, 22, 428, 439 

annaka 19, 22 

anna-kuta 153 

Annanasimha 22, 42 

ann'ika 19, 22 

anniyaya-vavadanda-irai 410 

anomasa 391 

anta 22, 261 

antah-kara 3, 22 
antah-kara-vistika 22 
Antah-pratihara 22, 259 
antahpura 22, 39 
Antahpur-adhyaksa 22, 129, 

183, 196, 325 
antahpura-karana 146 
Antahpura-mahamatra 22, 180 
Antahpura-vergade 22, 182-83 
Antahpurika 22 
antah-siddhika 3, 22 

Anta-mahamatra 22 
Antapala 22 
antara 22-23 
antara 23 

antarabaddi 23, 37, 281 
antar-adaya 22-23 
antarala 23 
antarala-mandapa 23 
Antarariga 2/23, 44, 360 
antaravaddi 23, 37, 281 

antara-viniyoga 23, 410 
antar-aya 3, ^22-23 
antaraya-kkasu 23, 410 
antar-ayam 410, 422, 425 
antaraya-ppattam 23, 410 
antarika 23 
antariksa 23 
antaripa 23 
Antarvamsika 23 
Antarvesika 23 
Antevasin 23 
Antevasim 23 
anubandha 23 
anubhavana 23 
anubhoga-pparr-olugu 24 
anucita 24 
anudadhyuh 24 
anudarsayanti 24 
anu-dhyai 24 
anudhyana 24 
anudhyana-rata 24 
anudhyapti 216 
anudhyata 24, 238 
anudhyaya 24 
anudhyeya 24 
anudivasam 24 
anudris 24 
anuga-jivita 24, 169 
anuga-jivita 24, 59 
anugamim 397 
anugraha 24 
anugraha-sthiti-patra 24 
anugrahya 24 
anuja 24 
anujagrhu 24 
anuloma 24 
anumga-jivita 24 




anunidhyapti 24 
anunijhapayati 24 
anupratipad 260 
anupratipatti 24 
anupurvl 24, 267 
anupurvya 24 
anurupa 24 
anusamyana 24 
anusandhana 24 
anu-sas 24 

anusasana, anusasana 24 
anusasti 24 
Anusenapati 24, 309 
anusilana 312 
anusthita 220 
anustubh 25 
anutara 25 

haka 25 
anuttara 25 
anu-vah 25 
anuvahamanaka 25 
anuvarttana, anuvarttanai 25, 


anuvidha 25 
anu-vrt 260 
anuvrtti 25 
anvaya 25 

anya-jata 25 

anyat 25 

anyatha 25 

anyatra 25 

apabhara 25 

apacara 25 

apadana 25 

Apadihata 21 

apagratha 25 

apakrsta 25 

apana 25 

apana 25, 217 

apanaga 36 

apanesu avarah 39 

aparadha 25, 85 

a-parampara 391-92 

a-parampara-balivarda 45, 

237, 361, 391, 397 

hana 391 

a-parmpara-go-balivarda 116, 


a-parampara-valivarda 361 
apara-paksa 25 
apara-patta 244 
a-par-asana-carm-angara 66-67, 


aparibodha 25 
aparigodha 25 
aparipanthya 25, 392 
apasaraka 25 

a-pasu-medhya 202, 242, 392 
apatya 25 
apavaha 25 
apavaraka 25 
a-pavesa 392 
apa-vifich 25 
apavinchya 25 
apohana 25 

Appanagandhavarana 18 
Apracaraja 26 
aprada 26 
aprada-dharma 26 
aprahata 26 
Aprahartr 26 
Apratihata 21, 26 
apratikara 26 
apratisthapita 26, 261 
Apratyagraja 26 
a-pravesa 396 
a-pravesya 263, 388, 392 
aptakriya 26 
aptoryama 26 
apuri 26 
apurva 26 

Apurva-Brahmana 26 
apurvin 26 

mah 339 

a-puppha-kkhira-gahani 392 
a-puspa-ksira-grahana 392 
a-puspa-ksira-grahamya 163, 

a-puspa-ksira-sandoha 296, 


aputra-dhana 26 
aputra-dhanarh nasti 392 
aputra-sahita 392 



apulrika-dhana 26 
aputrika-dravya 26 

araocala-bhogam 287 
araddha 26 
a-radh 26 
Aradhya 26 
araghatta 26 
Arakh-adhikata 26 
Arakhiya 26 
arakkal 410 
Araks-adhikrta 26 
Araksika 26', 81, 334 
arama 26 
aramika 27 
arandai 410 
aranya 27 
Aranyaka 27 
a-rastra-sarhvinayika 294, 392- 


arasu-pperu 185, 410 
a-ratha-sarhvinayika 392 
arati 27 

aratrika 27, 217 
a-rattha-sarhvinayika 294 

araycci 150, 410, 414 
area 27 
area 27 
arca-desa 27 

arcana, arcana 27, 33, 410 
arcana-bhoga 27, 410 
arcana-vibhava-kani 27 
arcana- vrtti 27, 410 
ardha-candra 27 
ardha-jama-ppuram 27 
ardha-ja(ya)ma 27 
ardha-kakim, ardha-kakini 27, 


ardha-mandapa 23, 180 
ardha-namasya-vrtti 27 
Ardhanarisvara 27 
Ardha-nauvataka 27, 213 
ardhangi 27 

ardha-purusarika 27, 267 
ardha-sarika 27 
ardha-srotika 27 

kayam 263 
ardha-trtiya 27 

Ardhika 27 
ardhodaya 27 
ardra 28, 411 
ardraka-lakata 1 69 
argala 28 
argha 248 
argha-vancana 28 
Arhad-acarya 28 
Arhad-ayatana 28 
Arhad-dasa 28 
Arhad-dasI 28 
Arhat 28, 213 
ari 28 
arikoli 410 
arikuli 410 
arirnukkai 410,415 
arippadi-kkaval 410 
ari-sad-varga 28 
ari-satka 28 
arisi-kkanam 381, 410 
arisi-ttundam 410 
ariya-sacca 29 
Arjuna-kara 28 
Arka 3, 28 
arkasalika 28 
Arkasalika 28 
arnava 28 
arnika 28, 429 
arogya-daksina 28 
arogya-sala' 28, 287 
Arohaka 28 
arrankarai-ttevai 4 1 
arrukkal-amanji 411 

arjru-kkulai 411 
artha 28 

Arth-abhiyukta 28 
artha-karman 28 
Arthalekhin 28 
artha-rupyaka 29 
artharuva 19, 29, 261-62 
artha-santirana 299 
arti 27 
artiga 29 
arugadyana 108 
aruhana 29 
aruntodu 411 

aruvana, axuvana 16, 29, 86, 
306,' 394 



Arya 29 
arya 29 
arya 29, 46 
arya-guru 29 
aryaka 29, 257 
Arya-putra 29 
arya-sarhgha 29 
arya-satya 29 
Aryavarta 65 
aryika 29, 181 
asa 29 
Asadha 257 
Asamiya 29, 30 
asampratipatti 29 
asana 29, 32, 66-67, 223 
asana (pitasala) 404 
asana-carma 29 
asana-karpata-bhavena 148 
asana-patta 29 
asana-pithika 29 
a-sanmasika 30 

_ acara 392 

Asapala 30 

asatana 30 

Asavara 35 

Asedhabhang-adhikrta 30 

asesa-mahasabda 30, 186 

asesa-vidya 30 

asi-danda-prahara 30 

asidhara-vrata 30 

aslhara 30 

asma 30 

asnava 30 

aspada 86 

asphotana 30 

asrama 30 

asraya 30 

asriya-kkal 30 

asriyam 30 

asriya-ppramanam 30 

Assamese 29-30 

asta 21, 30-31 

asta-bhagika 30, 392 

asta-bhoga 9, 12, 16, 30-31, 

' 284, 303, 339, 397 
astabhoga-tejahsvamya 30-31, 

"54, 339 

sulka-yukta 31, 60, 216, 392, 

astabhoga-tejahsvayam ca 

krayen=adaya 31 
asta-bhuti 30-31 
astadasa 30-31, 43, 306 
astadasa-dosa 31 

pati 115 
astadasa-jati 31 
astadasa-jati-parihara 31, 392 
astadasa-praja 31-32 
astadasa-prakrti 32 
asta-diggaja 32, 97 
asta-dikpala 33 
asta-giri 32 

ast-ahika, ast-ahnika 32 
ast-ahnika-parvan 32, 36 
astaka 32, 104 
astaka-navaka-nala 210 
asta-kula 21, 32, 191 
astakul-adhikarana 32, 121, 


asta-mahapratiharyani 239 
astamba 32 
astarni 341 

astamika 32, 305, 429 
astami-paksa 32 
astahga 32 
astanga-bhakti-krama 33 

astanga-namaskara 33, 232 
asta-paripalana 33 
asta-prahara 33 
Astapraharika 33 
astapraharika 33 
Astapraharika 33 
astapraharikya 33 
asta-puspika 33 
Astavadhana 33 
Astavargika 33 
asta-vidha-bhakti-kriya 33 
asta-vidh-arcana, asta-vidh- 

arcana 33 

asthana-rnandapa 33 
Asthayika-purusa 33, 324 
asthy-ahikta-kudya 106 
asti 33 



asti 34 

astottara-satarh rupakanam 51 

astu 331 

asu 5, 34, 428-29 

asu 34 

a-suddha-paksa 34 

Asu-kavi 34, 326 

a-sukla 34 

a-sukla-paksa 34 

asulopa 34 

asura-kriya 34 

Asura-vijayin 34 

asuva-kkadamai 12, 411 

asuva-kkaiu 12, 150, 411, 428- 


asuvikal-kasu 12, 411 
asva 34 

asv-addanaka-patra 34 
Asv-adhyaksa 34 
Asva-ghasa-kayastha 34, 152 
asvamedha 34 
asvamedha 34 
Asvamedha-Mahendra 34 
Asvamedha-parakrama 34 
asvamedhika 34 
asvamika 34 

Asvapati 34, 128, 189, 212, 345 

muvaru-rayara-ganda 34-35 
A svapati-Gaj apati-Narapa ti- 

raja-tray-adhipati 34-35, 212 
Asvaroha 28, 35 
Asva-sadhanika 35 
asvasala-karana 35, 145 
Asva-samstha 35 
Asvati 35 
Asvavara, Asvavaraka, Asva- 

varika 35 
Asvin 35 

Asvina 35, 188, 214, 372 
Asvim 35 
asviya 35 
Atapika 35 
Atavi 337 
Atavi 35 
Atavika 35 
atavika 35 
atci-ppattam 411 

atha-bhagiya 392 

atha-gam 35, 111, 428-29, 431- 

32, 440 

athara-gadajata 31 
Atharva-veda 35 
Ati-brahmanya 35, 61, 236 
atidhrti 35 
atijagati 35 
atipara 35 
atiprasanga 36 
atirai 411 
atiratra 36 
atireka 36, 198 
atisattra 36 
atita 36, 263 

atita-rajya 36, 112, 374 

atithi 36, 231 

atithya 36 

ativahika 36 

atiyatra 36 

atiyatrika 36, 327 

atiyurai 411 

atmaka 36 

atman 36 

atma-nivedana 33 

atmanepada 203, 206 

atma-patika 36 

atm-arpana 33 

atodya 36 

atrai 28 

Atri 36 

Atrinayanaja 36 

a-trna-kastha-grahana 1 50, 

344, 393 
attagam 32 
attagattar 32 
attai-kkanikkai 411 
Attapati 36 
attapati-bhaga 36, 128 
atthai-mahotsava 32, 36 
attharasa-jati-parihara 393 
attirai 411 

attirai-ppattam, attirai-pattam 

atti-variyam 293 

attukkirai 411 

attuk-kijrai 411 ' 



attu-vari 411 
atu 37, 135 
atula-salai 37 
aturabaddi 23, 37, 281 
atura-sala 37, 287 
aturavaddi 23, 37, 281 
atyagnistoma 37 


37, 235 

Atyanta-mahesvara 37 

bhakta 37 
atyasti 37 
atyaya 37, 79 
atyayika 37 
Audayantrika 37, 222 
Audrahgika 37, 101, 130, 349 
aukapinda 37 
aulikara 37 
aulikara-laiichana 37 
Auparika 37, 352 
Aupasatika 37 
aupayanika 37 
aupayika 37 
aureus 37, 86, 429 

Aurnasthanika 38, 254 
ausadha 38 
Autkhetika 38, 354 
Auttaraha 38 
Autthitasanika 38, 356 
avabhrtha 38 
avacatita 38 
avacchinna 38 
avadana 38, 40 
avadana 38, 40 
avadara 38 
Avadhanin 38 
avadharana 38 
avadher=anantaram 38 
avadhi 38 
AvadhI 38 
a-vaha 358, 393 
avaha 38, 380 
avaji 306 

avakara 38, 40, 398 
avakasa 38 
avalaga 38, 39 

avalagaka 38-39 

avalagana 39 

avalaga sad=aiv=avalokya 38 

avalambaka 38 

avalokya 39 

avana, avanam 39, 41 1 

avana-kkalari 411 

avana-salavanam 316 

avand-aya 41 

avanl 39 

avam-mandala 39, 195 

avam-randhra-nyaya 39, 58 

avani-vetana 39 

avara 39 

avara 39 

avar-adhika 39 

avaraja 39 

avarana 39 

a-vara'-siddhika 364, 389, 393 

avarjaniya 39 

avarodha-jana 39 

avarodhana 22, 39 

avarta 39 

avasa 39, 293 

avasaka 39 

avasanika 39 

Avasara 40, 411, 439 

Avasara-varttana, Avasara- 

varttanai 40, 411 
avasatha 40 
Avasathika 40 
Avasathin 40 
avasathya 40 

avaskara 38, 40, 398 

avastabdhi 40, 275 

avastha 40 

Avasthika 40 

avata 40, 59, 367, 390, 397, 


avatara 40 
avatarana 40 
avatari-amavasya 40 
avat-aya 40 
ava-trap 40 
avedana 38, 40 
avedanaka 41 
Avesani 41 
Avesanin 41 



avidya 262 
avidya-pratyayah samskarah 


avija-pracaga-samkara 262 
avimanas 41 
aviprahma 41 
avirodha 41 
avrti 41 
avrtti 41 
aya 41 

aya 3, 22-23, 41 
ayaga 41 
ayaga-pata 41 
ayaga-patta 41 
ayagar 41 
ayaga-sabha 41 
ayaka 41 

ayam 42, 249, 383, 411 
aya-mukha 41-42 
ayan-amsa 41 
aya-pada 42 
Aya-puta 29 
aya-saiira 41-42 
aya-sulka 42 
ayata 42 

ayatana 16, 42, 52, 191 
ayati 42 
ayi 46 
ayika 29 
ayudhiya 42 

Ayukta 42, 168 336, 375, 387 
Ayuktaka 42, 221, 332, 387 
Ayukta-purusa 42 
ayusa 42 
ayusya 42 
ayyaka 29 

Ayyanagandhavarana 42 
Ayyanasirhha 22, 42 
ayyar 29 


ba 42-43, 9 4 5 97, 356, 368 
Ba 42, 44 
babu 42 
bacaka 42 
bacha 43, 360 

bachi 43 

backo 42 

bada 43 

badaba 43 

badala 43, 238 

Bada-Narasimha 63 

Bada-purohit 63 

badara 43, 342, 429 

badari 221 

Badero 357 

badha 43 

badha 1, 43, 240, 357, 404 

badhataram 43 

badi 43, 173 

ba-di 20, 32, 42-43, 46-47, 315, 

325, 356-57 

badi-maduvulu, 43, 173, 429 
Baguli, Baguli 43, 358, 364 
bahattara 31, 43 
Bahattara-niyog-adhipati 43, 




Bahattara-niyogin 43 
bahir-grha 43, 363 
bahirika 43 
bahis 43 
bahu 43 

bahula 42, 356, 368 
bahula-paksa 42 
bahula-paksa-dina 43 
bahula-paksa-tithi 46 
bahuleya 43 
bahusruta 43 
bahusuvarna, bahusuvarnaka 


bahutavatka 43 
bahu-valaya 43 
Bahya 44 
bahya 3, 43-44 

bahy-abhyantar-adaya 2-3, 43 
bahy-adhyantara-siddhi 3, 343 
bahyali 44, 359 
bai 43 

bai, bai 44, 46 
bala 44 
bala 159 
Baladhi 44 



Baladhikrta 44, 174 
Baladhipa 44 
Baladhira 44 
Baladhlsa 44 

Baladhyaksa 44, 127, 174, 255, 


baladi 44, 364 
balaharana 44 
balaharanena 44 
Balaka-maharajakumara 44, 


Balakausthika, 360 44, 360 
bal-alaya 44 
balanaka 44, 322 
balam 45 

Balavalabhi-bhujanga 57 
bala-yasti 45, 360-61 
Balhara 45 

ball 45, 47-48, 128, 231, 317, 

327, 348 

kratu 45 

ballvarda 45, 116, 360-61, 


Ballaha-raa 45 
balotra 429 
barhdi 49 
bana 45, 306 
Banasa-vergade 45 
bandha 45 
bandha-danda 45 
bandhana 45 
bandhana-patta 45 
bandhaniya 45 
bandheja 45 
bandhi apavam 45 
bandhu 45 
Bania 238-39 
bannige 411 
bannigitere 411 
bappa, 45-46, 60 
bappa-bhattaraka 46 

grhita 46, 52, 238 
bara 46 

barad 46, 364, 429 
barah-gam 35, 429 ';. 

barata 46 

bare '363 

barika 364 

barika-jana-hasta 364 

Barkandaz 46, 51, 57 

barhaspatya 46 

bartana 46 

bartha 46 

Basilgos Basilgon 157, 272 

Basilgos Basilgon Megalou 46, 


Basilgos Mggalou 46, 158, 184 
basti 367 
ba-ti 42, 46 
batrisa 306 
batt-aya 411 
Bauddha-gosthi 119 
bava 46 
begar 379 
Bayi 44, 46 
Behara-mahapatra 46 
belliya-dramma 100, 429 
Bengali 46, 362 
Bentakara 46 
beta 46 
Betakara 46 
Bha 47 
bha 47 
bhadaka 47 

Bhadanta 47 

Bhadanti 47 

Bhadara 51 

bhadatasa aya-Isipalitasa 29, 47 

bhadra 47 

Bhadra 47 

bhadra 47 

bhadra-bhoga 47 

bhadra-ghata 47 

bhadra-mukha 47 

bhadra-nigama 47 

Bhadrapada 47, 281 

bhadr-asana 47 

bhaga 10-11, 45, 47-48, 125, 

145,203,226,399,403, 429, 

432, 436 
bhaga 49 
bhaga-bhoga 47, 55, 250, 345, 




bhaga-bhog-adika 48 
bhaga-bhoga-kara 48, 262, 403 


kara-sulka 393 
Bhagadugha 48 
Bhagahara 48 
Bhagahara 48-49 
bhagalaga 48 
bhagalag-adika 48 
bhagana 48 
Bhagavan 47 
Bhagavad-bhakta 48 
Bhagavat 48, 226, 336, 440 
Bhagavata 48 
Bhagavati 48, 226, 436 
bhagvato...sthane 322 
Bhagavatpad-acarya 48 
Bhagavatpada-karmakara 48 
Bhagika 18, 49 
Bhagin 48-49 
bhagna 49 
bhagna 49 
bhagna-kriya 49 
bhagna-sarhskara 49 
bhagna-visirna-samaracana 48, 


bhagya-rekha 49 
bhaiksaka 49 

bhairava-gadyana 108, 429 
bhaitra 49 

bhaksana 49 
bhakt-adaya 49 
bhakta-grama 49, 169 
bhakt-aya 49, 411 
bhakti 49 
bhakti 49 
Bhakt-oddesaka 49 
Bhalara 51 
Bham 49 
bha-mandala 49 
bhamatl 49, 131 
bhamati 49 
bhamdi 49 
Bhariaka 49 

Bhanasavgrgadg 4, 45, 49, 181, 
183, 188, 

bhanda 49 
bhancla 49 
bhanda-bhrta-vahitra 50, 57, 


Bhand-adhyaksa 50 
bhandagara 174 
Bhandagar-adhikrta 50 
Bhandagara-prathama 50 
Bhandagarika 50, 174 

bhandara 50 
bhandara 50, 285 
Bhandar-adhikarin 2 

bhandara-ppottagam 50 
Bhandara-pustaka 50 
Bhandarin 49-50 
Bhandarin 49-50, 127 
bhandata 16 
bhaAga 16, 50 
bhani 306 

Bhanu 50 
bhara 50 
bharaka 50, 57 
bharaka 126 
bharana 50 
Bharata-kala 50 
Bharatavar 50 
Bharati-vrtti 50 
Bharga 51 
bharika 51 

bharikayam vanik-putrasya 51 

Bhartarah 52 

Bhartr 52 

bhasa 51 

bhasa-vrtti 51 

Bhata 51, 57, 67-68, 71, 73, 

157, 226, 250, 388-89 
Bhata-cata-sevak-adm 67 
bhataka 47, 51, 253 
Bhata-manusya 51, 226, 250 
Bhatara 51 
Bhatta 8, 51-52, 57 
Bhatta 51 
Bhatta-bhaga 51 
Bhatta-grama 51 

bhatta-grama 49, 169 
Bhatta-mahattara 51-52 



Bhattamakutika 51 
Bhatta-nayaka 51 
Bhattaputra 52 
bhattara 52 
Bhattaraka 51-52 

hita 52, 238 

Bhattaraka-pad-anudhyata 52 
Bhattarakaprabha 52 
Bhatta-ranaka 52 
Bhattarika 52 
Bhatta-vrtti 52 
Bhattavrtti-manya 52 
bhatt-aya 49, 41 1 
Bhatt-opadhyaya 52 
bhauli, bhauli 52 
bhauma-yantra 52 
bhava 52 

bhavana 16, 42, 52, 265 
bhavana 52, 150, 192, 204, 


Bhavasrj 53 
bhava-suddhi 53 
bhavat 53 
Bhavim 35 

bhavisya-kkidai-ppuram 53 
bhavisyat-kara-rahita 393 
bhavya 53 
bhavya 53, 334, 397 
bhavyapada-patta 53 
bheri 53 
bherunda 53 
bhet 53 
bheta 53 
bhetana 53 
bhida 53 

bhikhuhala-parihara 53 
bhikkhum-sarhgha 53 
bhiksa 53 
Bhiksu 53 

bhiksu-hala 53, 125 
bhiksuhala-parihara 53 
Bhiksum 53 
Bhiksum-sangha 53 
Bhiksuny-upasraya 53 
Bhiksuraja 53 
Bhiksu-saiigha 53 

Bhimapriya 54 
Bhimapriya-dramma 100, 429 
bhimaseni-karpura 54 
Bhisak 54 
Bhism-astami 54 
bhit 54 " 


2, 54 

bhltara-navara 54 
bhitha 54 
bhiti 54, 57 
bhitti-citra 54 

Bhitvaramanya 54 

bhoga 2, 11-12, 16, 18, 20, 

48, 54-57, 79, 291, 359, 393, 

399, 408 
bhoga-bhaga 55 


bhog-adhma grhita 54 
bhogad=:uddhrtya 393 

bhoga-janapada 55 
bhoga-labha 55 
Bhogapati 55, 58, 174 
Bhogapatika 55 
bhoga-patra 55 

218, 392-93 
bhoga-stri 55 
bhogatra 55-56 
bhogavaniya 55 
bhog-ayaka 55 
bhoge 54 

Bhogi-jana 55 

Bhogika 49, 55-56, 62, 175 
Bhogikapala 55 
Bhogikapalaka 55 
Bhogin 54-56, 62 
bhogina 55 
Bhogim 56 
bhogi-rupa 56 
Bhogiyar 56 
Bhog-oddharanika 56 
bhogottara 54, 56 9 
bhogya 56 
bhogyar 56 



bhogya-tithi 56 
Bhoi 55-56 
Bhojaka 55-56, 175 
bhojana-catuhsala 56 
bhojan-aksayam, bhojan- 

aksayam 56 
bhojana-mandapa 56 
bhojana-sala 56 
Bhojiki 56 
Bhojpuri 56 
bhokarum 203 
Bhoktari 56 
Bhoktr 55, 56 
Bhotta-visti 57, 346 
bhrama-jala-gati 57 
bhrstl 54, 57 
Bhrta 57, 389 
bhrta 57 
bhrti 10 
bhrtyebhyo jivanam kartum 


bhu 57-58 
bhubhrt 57 
bhucchidra-nyaya 57 
bhudhara 57 

bhujabala-madai 173, 429 
Bhujabalapratapa 65 
Bhujabalapratapacakravartin 57 

cakravartin 57 
bhujahga 57 
bhujisya-patra 57 
bhujyamana 57, 253 
bhu-kedara 152 
bhukti 54, 57-58, 380 
bhukti-mandala 58 
Bhuktipati'55, 58 
bhu-masaka 57-58 
bhumbhuka 58 
Bhurnbhusa-padraka 226 
bhumi 57-58 
bhumi 58 
bhumicchidra 58 
bhumi-cchidra-nyaya 39, 57-58 
bhumi-cchidra-nayena 393 
bhumicchidra-pidhana-nyaya 58 

yena 393 

bhumicchidra-vidhana-nyaya 58 
bhumi-dana 163 
bhumipende 58 
Bhumi-putra 58 
bhunjato bhojayatah krsatah 

karsayatah pratidisato va 

bhupa 58 
bhurja 58 
bhusphota 58 
Bhuta 50, 322 
bhuta 59 
bhuta-bali 59 

nihses-adaya-sahita 5, 393 
bhuta-kotya 59 
bhuta-pata 59 
bhuta-pratyaya 59 
bhutapurva 59 
bhuta-vata 59 
bhuta-vata-pratyaya 13, 40, 59, 

262, 349, 367 
bhut-opatta 59 

bhut-opatta-pratyaya 59, 390 
bhuvana-bhumbhuka 58 
Bhuvara 59 
bida 60, 335, 369 
bigha, bigha 59-60, 227, 359 
bijak, bijaka 59 
bija-sarhskara 59 
bil-anuvrtti 24-25, 59 
blla-vrtti 24-25, 59 
bilkode 59, 411 
bilva 320 
bim 59 
bimba 59 
bindu 374 

binduka 59, 329, 429, 440 
binna-vattale 373 
birada 59, 411 
biravana-parikhaya 60 
biruda*21, 60 
biruda-mada 1 72 
Bisi 60 
bisva 60 
bitti 411 

bittu-katte 60, 411 
bittuvatta 60, 411 



bodhi 60, 360 
bodhi-cakra 60 
Bodhisattva 60, 63, 72 
bodhyanga 60 
Bodiya 60 
bogi 56 
bojjhanga 60 
bokkada 60 
bommalata 60 
boppa 60 
bota 60, 380 
botkata 365 
Bra 60 

brahmacari-ccheda 73 
Brahmacarin 60, 73, 197 
brahma-dana 60 
Brahmadaraya 61 
brahmadaya 60, 62, 105 
brahmadeya 9, 61, 228, 271, 287 
brahmadeya-kkilavar 61 
Brahm-adhiraja '61-62 
brahma-hatya 49, 61 
brahma-kalpa 61 
Brahma-ksatra 61-62 
Brahma-ksatriya 61 
Brahma-maharaja 61 
brahma-mantra 61 
brahma-medha 61 
Brahman 61, 251 
Brahmana 60, 99 
brahmana-rasa (raja )-kkanam 

61, 412 

brahrnana-virhsati 61 
brahmancla 61 
brahmanya 61 
brahmanya 61 
brahmapura 61-62 
brahmapuri 11, 61-62, 134, 


Brahma-raja 61-62 
Brahmaraksasa 62 
Brahmaraya 62 
Brahmarsi 62 
brahma-stamba 62 
brahma-sthana 62 
Brahmasya 62' 
brahmatra 62 
Brahma-vaisya 61-6?. . 

brahma-yajna 62 

Brahml 62 

brahmottara 62 

Brha 62 

brhac-chulka 62, 128, 421 

Brhad-acarya 357 

brhad-bhairava-gadyana 108, 


Brhad-bhogika 62 
Brhad-bhogin 62 
Brhaddeva 62-63 
bfhaddhala 62 
Brhad-rajfii 62 
Brhad-uparika 62, 352 
Brhad-vachaka 63 
Brhad-vajika 63 
brhan-mana 63 
Brhan-nrpati 62-63 
brhaspatisava 63 
brhat 357 
brhati 63 

Brhat-kumaramahapatra 63 
Brhat-purohita 63 
Brhatpurusa 62-63 
Brhatsarhhita 109 


Brhat-tantrapati 63, 92-93, 337 
bfha-vara 63, 357 
brndavana 63 
Buddha 63 
Buddha-caitya 63 
buddh-adhisthana 63 
Budha-lenka' 63, 170 
budh-astami 63 
budl 429, 433-34, 442 
buliaga-kara 63 
buredu 63 
busa 63 

busi-bharhdalu 63 
butiya 64 

caba '64 
Cad 64 
Cacia 64 




cada 64 

cadhavava 68 

cadhse 67 

Caesar 138 

Caitra 13-14, 64, 173 

Caitra-pavitra 64, 248 


puje galgam 64 
Caitra-pavitraka 64 
Caitya 64, 122, 175, 272 
caitya-agara 64 
caitya-grha 64 
caity-alaya 64 
caitya-patta 64-65 
Caitya-saila 64 
Caityika 64 
caivarika 75 
cakali 64 
cakantara 64 
cakkhu 65 

cakra 64-65, 306, 361 
cakra-kanikkai 412 
cakra-patta 65 
Cakravala-giri 65, 360 
Cakravarti-ksetra 65 
Cakravartin 57, 65, 98, 257, 

262, 300, 384 
Cakresvara 65 
Cakrin 64-65 
caksur-vadha 65 
caksus 65 

Calamartiganda 65, 110 
call 65 

calipamdili 65 
calivarhdili 89 
calivemdala 63 
caliverhdra 65 
camara 72 

camara 66, 71-72 429 
Camara- kumara 66, 71 
camara-mada 66, 173, 429 
camari-mrga 72 
camkama 66 
campa-sasthi 66, 305 
Camunayaka 66 
Camupa 66 
Camupati 66, 255 
cana-satka-mutaka 207 

Candala 221, 422 
Canda-pracanda 66 
Candesvara 66, 205 
Candesvara-pperuvilai 66 
Candika 30 

Candik-asrama-guru 30, 124 
Candra 3, 66 
candradittaval 66 
candradittavar 66 
candradityavat 66 
candra-grahana 66 
candrahasa 66 
candraka 66 
candra-kalikam 66 
candramas 66 

candr-arka-kalikarii sulkam = 
adeyarh samasta-rajye n=asti 


candr-arka-ksiti, etc. 393 

paravata, etc. 393 
candr-arka-sthiti-kalarh yavat 


candr-arka-yoga-parvan 66 
candra-visada 66 
candy 66, 155, 268 
carikrama 66 
cariga 66 

Canteroy fanam 74 
capalam 66 
Cara 66 
Cara 66 
cara 67-68, 388 
cara-balivarda 67 
carana 67 
Carana 67 
carana 370 
carandi 67 
Corarajjuka 76 
carl 67 
carl 67 
can-ksetra 67 
carma-caurika 71 
Carmakara 67 
carman 66-67 
carsam 173, 429 
caru 67, 231 
caruka 67 



carya 67 

cash 67,429,443 

'cast' 429 

cat 67 

Cata 51,64,66-68, 71, 75-76, 

157, 388-89 
catanti 67 
catapaka 68 
catapya 68 
ca-tl 68 
catita 68 
catta 68 
catta-bhatta-jatiyan janapadan 


cattana 68 
catti-amavase 305 
catu 68 
catuh-sala, catuh-sala 68-69, 

catuhsala-parigrhitam saila- 

mandapam 238 
catuh-sima-paryanta 394 
catuh-sim-avacchinna 393 
catuh-sima yavat 394 
catu-padi 68 
catura 68 

sahita 394 

catur-aghata-visuddha 144, 
393-94, 396, 406 
caturaka 68 
catur-alaya 68-69 
caturanana-vadana 68 
caturanga 69 
caturaslti 69, 71 

samara, 69, 116 
caturdasa-vidya-sthana 69 
Caturdhara 69, 71 
Caturdhara-pratihara 69 
caturdisa 69 

caturdis-arya-bhiksu-sangha 69 
catur-garbha 69 
caturjataka 69, 71-72 
Caturjataka 69 
Caturjatakiya 69, 230 

caturmasi 69-70 
caturmasl-paksa 69 
caturmasya 69-70 
caturmasya-vrata 70 
caturmukha 71 
caturmukha-bimba 70-7 1 
caturtha 70 
caturtha-kula 70 
caturthi-amavasya 17, 70 
catur-upaya 70, 353 
caturvaidya-maryada 70 
caturvarnin 70 
caturvarnya 8 

makkal 70 

caturvedi-mangala 1 1, 70, 197 
Caturvedin 70 
caturvedya-samanya 289 
caturvidya 70 
caturvidy-agrahara 70 
caturvidya-grama 70 
caturvidya-samanya 70, 342 
caturvimsati 76 
caturvirhsati-patta 76 


catuskika 71 
catus-kantaka-visuddha 144, 


catuspatha 71 
catu^-sala 68, 71 
catustaya 71 
catvara 68 
catvaraka 71 
Cau 71 
caubisa-gam, caubis-gam 35, 

429, add. et corr. 
Caudhari, Caudharl 69, 71 
Caudore 69 

cau-gam 35, 429, add. et corr. 
caukadika 69, 71-72 
caumukha 71, 304 
caura 75 
Caura-carata 71 
caurasi 69, 71, 76, 225 
caura-varja, caura-varjam 71, 

75, 394, 398 
cauri 71, 72 


Caurika 71 
caurika 71 
caur-oddharana 71 
Caur-oddhara'nika 56, 71-72, 

76, 82 

Caur-oddhartr 72 
cauthia, cauthiya 69, 71-72, 

209, 243, 247 
cauti-amavase 70 
cavadi, cavadi 72, 307, 354 
cavala 72, 429 
cavara 72 
cavaralu 71-72 
cavarariga 72 
Cavari-kumara 66 
cavathe 72-73 
Cavudari 69 
Cavudore 69 
cendai 231 
Cetaka 72 
cha 72, 310 
cha-coki 72, 305 
Chadmastha 60, 72 
chadya 72 
cha-gam 35, 305, 429, add. et 

chaj 72 
chala 72 
chali 72 
chandas 72 
chandovicita 73 
chariga 66, 73 
chappanna 73 
chappanna-desa 306 
Charge-d' Affaires 337 
chata 163 
chatra 73 

Chatra 51, 68, 73, 388-89 
chatra-bhariga 73 
Chatr-abhoga 73 
Chatracchayika 73 
chatra-yasti 73 
chattris-jati 32 
chatse 74 
chavatha 72-73 
chaya 73 
chaya-dipa 73 
chaya-stambha 73 

cheda 73 

I'licndika 73 

chidra 73, 393 

chidra-pidhana 58, 393 

chidra-vidhana 58, 393 

Chimpaka 74 

Chimpaya 74 

cho 74 

chodavavum 74 

choha 74 

chotaniya 74 

chotyamana 74 

chotyamana-grhe 74 

choultry 74, 94 

chowrie 71 

churi, churl 74, 306 

Churikara 74 

churi-prabandha 74 

chut 74 

chutacheda melvava 95 

cihna 74, 170 " 

Cihna-dhara 74 

ci-khi 74 

cikitsa 74 

Cina-kkanakkam 429 

Cina-pagoda 74, 226 

cinna, cinnamu 74, 374, 428- 

29, 439 

cintita 151, 269 
cintrim 74 
cira-khila 74 
cira-khila-sunya 74 
ciranjlva 74 
cirantana-loka 74 
ciravida 74, 430 
cirika 74 

cirna-vrat-opayanaka 75 
citala 75-76 
cithika 75 

citola, citola 75-76, 395 
citra 75 
citra-bhasa 75 
citrajarta 75 
Citraka 75 
Citrakara 75 
citrakarya 75 
citra-kavitva 370 
Citrameli 75, 291, 346 



citra-mulam 415, 422 

citthi 75 

Cittirakarar 75 

cittirakari 75 

civara 75 

civarika 75 

civarika 75 

cokha 75 

cola 75 

collika, collika 75 

cora 75 

cora-danda 75 

cora-danda-varja, cora-danda- 

varjam 71, 75, 394 
cora-danda-varjya 75-76 
cora-drohaka-varja 75 
cora-graha 75 

71, 75, 394 
cora-rajju 76 
corasi 76 
cora-varja, cora-varjam 71,75- 

76, 394 
cora-varjita 76 
cora-varjya 76 
Cor-cilatarhca upadrav 71 
coro 68 

Cor-oddharanika 72, 76 
coska 76 
cotala 75 
cotala 76 
covisi 71, 76 
cuda 76 
cudamani 76 
cukka 76 
cula 163 
cula 76 
culla 163 
cullaka 76 
cuma 76 
cumbaka 76 
Cunakara 76 
cura 76 
Curakara 76 
Curakara 76 
curna 76 
Curnakara 76 
curni, curm 76-77 

cyavana 140 


da 125 
da 263 

dabhra-sabha 77 
Dabir 99 
dachini 78 
Dadbak 93 
dadha 77 
dadhi 77 
dahana 77 
Dahara-bhiksu 77 
dairgh-ayusa 77 
Daivagarika 77, 184 
Daivajna 77, 184 
Daivaputra 77, 89 
daivya 77 
daksa 77 
daksina 77 
daksina 77, 78 
Daksina-bhuja 77 
Daksinamurti 77 
Daksinapatha 77 
Daksinapatha-sadhara 77 
Daksinatya 65 
daksinavarta-sahkha 77 
daksin-ayana 78, 356 
daksim 78 
daksinya 78 
dala 78 

Dala-adhikari 78, 83 
Dalavay, Dalavaya 78, 309 
dalavay-agrahara 78 
Dalavayi 78 
dala-vrtti 78 
dam 430-31 
dama 78, 430 
dama 78, 430 
damanaka 78 
damanaka-caturdasi 78 
damanaka-parvan 78 
daman-aropana 64 
damara 78 
damma 78, 430 
Damodara 78 
dams^ra 77 



dana 25, 31, 78-79, 83, 251 
dana 78, 83 
dana 78 
dana-cori 78 
dan-adaya 79 
danadaya-danibhoga 78 
dan-adhana-vikraya 6 
Dan-adhikarin 78-79, 304 
Danaik 79 
danaiii palam 79 
dana-mukha 79, 205 
dana-palarh 79 
Danapali 79, 175, 130 
dana-ppuram 79 
dana-pradanaka 79 
dana-sala 79 
dana-sambandhe 78 
dana-volapana 79 
Danayaka 79 
danda 6, 19, 21, 79, 82, 210, 

263, 368 

Danda 79, 218, 221 
danda 79-80 
Dandabhogika 80-81 
Dandabhukti-mandala 58 
danda-das-aparadha 80 
dand-adaya 80 
Dandadhinatha 80 
Dandadhinayaka 80 
Dandadhipa 80 
Dandadhipati 80 
Dandadhisvara 80 
danda-dosa 80, 100, 395 
dandadosa-dasaparadha 80 
danda-kanam, danda-kkanam 

80, 412 
dandaku 80 
danda-marga 80 
d and am kurram 80 
Dandanatha"80, 82 
Dandanayaka 78-83, 103,110, 

175, 182-83, 187, 189, 211, 

218, 302-03 
Dandanayaka 81 
Dandanetr 80-81 
Dandapala 80-81 
Dandapanika 81 

Dandapaiiksa 81 
Dandapasaka 81 
Dandapasika 80-82 
dandapata 81, 242 
Dandapati 81, 175 
Dandasakli 82 
dancla-sulka 80, 82 

anvita 82 
dandavani 82 

Dandavasika, Dandavasika 82 
dand-aya 82 
Dandesa 82 
Dandika 82 
Dandika 81-82 
dandika 82 
dandika-jivita 82 
dandinadari 82 
dandoasi-ohoru 222 
Dand-oddharanika 72, 76, 82 
dand-opajataka 82 
Dandoparika 82 
dandu 79, 82 
Danduasi 81-82 
dandudova 82 
danegeld 346 
dang 83, 430 
Dam, Dam 78, 83 
dam 79 

dani-bhoga 79, 83 
dani-bhoga-bhaga 83 
Damn 78-79, 83 
Dam-volapika 83 
dank 83, 430 
danm-asanam 94 
Dannaik 83 
Dannayaka 83 
danta 83 
Dantakara 83 
dantin 83 
Dapaka 13, 83 
dapana 83, 86 
dapita 83 
daradranaka 83 
Daraka 84 
daric 430, 440 
darsa 84 



darsana 84, 102, 248 
darsana-kanikkai 205 
darsa-purnamasa 84 
darsa-tithi 84 
Darvikarman 84 
Dasabala-mahabala 84 
dasabandha 84-85, 412 
dasabandha-visatia (vimsatika )- 

ttriprastha 84 
Dasa-bhrtaka 84 
Dasagramika 84 
dasahara-vrata 84 
dasa-kriya 84 
Dasamulika 84 
Dasamulin 84 
das-apacara 25, 85 
das-aparadha 25, 80, 85, 230, 


Dasaparadhika 85 
dasara 85 
Dasaratha-stri 85 
Dasari, Dasari 85, 291 
dasuri-pattu 65 
dasavandha 84-85 
dasavanna 85 
dasl 85, 97 
dasra 85 
datavya 263 
datita 85 
datti 85 


bhogma-bhuvam 55-56 
Dauhsadhanika 102-03 
Dauhsadhasadhanika 85, 102, 


Dauhsadhika 85 
dautya 86, 104 
Dauvarika 86, 270 
davapana 83, 86 
daya 78, 86, 396 
dayada 86 

daya-dramma 100, 430 
dchliwal 136, 430 
denarius 37,86, 97,429-31 
desa 86-87, 154, 195, 277, 

312, 321 
desa-bhasa 86 

Desadhikata 86 
Des-adhikrta 86-87, 302 
Desadhipati 86-87 
Des-adi-karya-nirvahaka 1 7 
Des-aksapatal-adhikrta 86 
Desakuta 86-87, 121*, 168, 277 
desa-maryada 86 

86, 394 
desana 87 
desa-rita 87 
Desa-talara 87 
Desa-thakkura 87 
Desavali 87 
Desayi 87 
desl 87 
Desika 87 
Desilaka 87 
Desillaka 87, 266 
Desi-mukhya 87 
Desmukh 87 
des-ottara 87 
deva 87 

deva-bhoga 87-88 
devabhoga-hala 87 

394, 396-97* 
deva-cchanda 87 
deva-dana 87, 228, 271, 287 
devadana-iraiyili 87 
Devadasi 53, 87, 111, 186, 

202, 273, 281 
deva-daya 87-90 
deva-deya 87-88 
deva-dharma 88, 90 
Dev-adhyaksa 88 
devadi 88 
deva-doni 88 
deva-droni 88, 102 
Devadrom-sambaddha 88, 291 
Devadrony-adhikrta 88 
dev-agara 88-89 " 
dev-agrahara 11, 87-88 
deva-grha 88 
devagrha-jagati 88, 131 
devaka 88 " 
deva-karana 88, 146 
deva-karman 88 



Devakarmin {}> 
devakula 87, W) 
devakula-puskarim 89 

karayitva 394 ' 
devakuli 89 
Devakulika 89 
devakulika 89, 206 
devakuti-kastha 89, 150 
deva-kriya 88 
dev-alaya 16, 89 
Devanampriya 89 
Devandaja 89 
deva-nikaya 89 
Devaputra 77, 89 
devaradiyal 89 
devaram 88-89 
devar-kanmi 88 
deva-sthala 321 
deva-sthali 322 
deva-sthana 88, 322 
devata 2, 20 
Devatideva 89 
devatisalam 89 
devatra 89, 90 
Deva-varika 89, 364 
devavesma-karana 89, 145 
deva-vihara 89 
deva-vrtti 89 
deva-yajfia 89 
Dev-ayatana 89 
Devi 89, 176, 236 
Devi-karmantika ^/O 
Devi-kumara 90, 165 
devottara 90 
deya 90, 98, 254, 396 
deya-dharma 79, 88, 90, 92 
deyadharma-parityaga 90, 


deya-meya 90, 345 
deyya-dharma 90 
dhada 90 
dhadi 90 
dhakka 90 
dhala-vadi 90 
dhalavali 90 
dhamma 5 
Dhamma-kadhika 93 

dhamma-yata 95 
dhanaka 19, 90, 129, 430, 433 
clham 90 
dhanika 90 
dhanika 90, 430 
dhanikatva 90 
dhanikatvam vidhaya 90 
dhanin 90 
dhanya 91 

dhany-adaya 91, 412 
dhany-adhivasa 91 
dhanya-hiranya 90, 91 
dhanya-hirany-adeya 91 
dhanya-masa 91, 336, 385, 
430, 440' 

dhanya-varga 91, 150, 412, 

dhany-aya 91 

Dhanyika 91 

dhara 91 

dhara 91 

dhara-datta 91 

dhara-mandala 91, 93 

dharana 33, 91, 100, 149, 265, 
294,' 336, 430-31,434,438 

dharani 91 

dharam 91 

dharanika 91 

dhara-purvakam 91 

dhanna 5, 15, 91, 93, 292 

Dharma-baddha 92 

Dharma-bandhava 92 

dharma-cakra 92 

dharmacakra-mudra 92 

dharma-carana 67 

dharm-acarana 67 

dharma-dana 90, 92 

dharma-daya 90, 92 

dharma-desana 92 

dharma-deya 90, 92 

dharm-adhikara 92 

dharm-adhikarana 92, 145 

Dharm-adhikaranika 92, 176, 

Dharmadhikarin 63, 79, 92- 
93, 337 

dharm-adhisthana, dharm- 
adhisthana 7 



Dharm-adhyaksa 93-94, 175- 

76, 255 

dharma-hala 93 
dharma-jaya-stambha 93, 135 
Dharmakarm-adhikarin 93-94 
Dharma-kathaka 93 
Dharma-kathika 93 
Dharma-kathin 93 
Dharma-kartr 93 
dharma-labha 93 
Dharma-lekhin 93 
dharma-lipi 93 
Dharma-mahadhiraja 93, 176 
Dharma-mahamatra 93, 180 
Dharma-maharaja 92-93, 95 
Dharma-maharajadhiraja 93 
dharma-nigama 94 
dharm-anupratipatti 24 
dharm-apadana 25 
dharma-paryaya 241 
Dharma-pradhana 93-94 
dharma-putra 94 
Dharmaraja 94 
Dharmarajaguru 94 
dharmarajika 94 
dharma-sad-bhaga 283 
dharma-iala 40, 74, 94, 306 
dharma-samstava 292 
dharm-asana 94 
Dharmasana-bhatta 94 
dharmasana-patta 94 
dharma-sasana 94-95 
dharma-sastra 94 
dharma-sthana 94, 314 
dharmasthana-gosthika 94 
Dharma-sthita 94J 306 
dharma-susrusarh susrusatu 328 
Dharmatattvavit 233 
dharma-variyam 94 
dharmavijaya-sasana 95, 372 
Dharma-vijayin 94 
dharma-.vrtti-iraiyili 95 
dharma-yatra 95 
Dharma-yuvamaharaja 95 
Dharmika 97 
dharmika 95 
dharmikal 95 
Dharmin 95 

Dhartarastra 95 

clhati 95 ' 

clhativaha 95 

dhatri 95 

dhatu 95 

dhatu-garbha 95 

Dhatu-parigrhlta 95 

dhatu- vara 95 

dhaukana-patra 95 

dhaura 95 

Dhavaka 95 

dhavala-cchatra 95 

dhaval-agara 96 

dhavalara 96 

dhehku 96 

dhehku-kaddhaka 96, 137 

dhl 96 

dhirhka 96 

dhirmara 96 

dhisni 96 

dhorita 229 

Dhramika 95, 97 

dhrti 96 

Dhruva 96 

dhruva 96 

dhruv-adhikarana 96 

Dhruv-adhikaranika 96 

Dhruvapati 96 

dhruva-sthana 96 

Dhruvsthan-adhikarana 96, 1 1 

Dhruvasthan-adhikaranika 37, 

96, 305 
dhupa 33 
dhvaja 96, 170 
dhvaj-arohana 96 
dhvaja-stambha 96, 132 
dhvaj-avarohana 96 
dhvamsi 97, 361, 430 
dhyana 33 

di 42-43, 97, 99, 325, 356 
Dibira 97 
didrachma 430 
'die-struck' 429-30 
Digambara 97 
dig-gaja 97 

dig-vijaya 97, add. et corr. 
Dig-vijayin 98 
dijja 98 



Dikaios 95, 97 

dikola 97 

Dikpala 97, 199 

diksa 97, 140, 231 

Dlksa-guru 97 

Diksita 97, 176, 236 

dina 97, 99 

dinar 43, 86, 97, 173 

dinara 97, 108, 430-31 

dinara 86, 90, 97, 150, 282, 

205, 343, 428, 430, 434-35, 


dinar! 97-98, 431 
dinari-masaka 97-98, 200, 431 
dinnara 430-31 
dinnara 97 
dlpa 13, 33, 98 
dipa-mala 98 
dipana 98 
dipa-puja 98 
dlpa-skambha 98, 314 
dipavali 98 
divana 165 
dip-otsava 98 
diramam 98, 431 
dlrgha 98 
dirgha-manya 98 
dirghanasiky-arca 98 
dirghika 98 
dis 98 
disa 98 
disah 98 
Disampati 98 
Disapata 98 
Disapatta 98 
dista 98 
ditta 98 
dittham 102 
ditya 98-99, 403 
Dity-odgrahaka 98-99 
diva 99 
diva 99 
divakara 99 
divan 99 
divasa 97, 99 
Divira 97, 99 
Divirapati, Divirapati 99 
divya 99 . 

divya-prabandha 99 

Diwan 99 

Diwanji 99 

dodda-varaha 363, 431 

doddi 99 

do-gam 35, 431, add. et corr. 

dohalavurh 99 

dohalika 99, 102 

dohalika-bhumi 99, 383 

dohrana 100 

dokara 99 

dola-yatra 99 

don 99, 143 

doiigaka 99 

dosa 100, 275, 395, 398, 402 


naya 275 
dosya 100 
doyaraka 100 
dra 100, 431 
drachma 78, 100, 418, 430-31, 

433, 436, 440 
drahyitavya 100 
draksana 100 
draksuna 100, 431 
drama 100, 431 
drarhksana 164, 434, 441 
dramma 9, 54, 78, 98, 100, 1 15, 

219, 241, 248, 279, 282, 339, 

drammaih hastapraptaih pra- 

yojanarh jay ate 263-64 
drammanarh vyajarh na hi 222 
dramm-a'rdha 100, 431, 433 
dramma-tribhaga 100, 431 
dranga 100, 101, 349, 431 
Drarigapala 101 
Drarigesa 101 
Drangika 101 
dranksana 342 
Dravidi 101 
dravya 20 
dravya-bhandara-karana 101, 

Dravyasya nama grhniyat, etc. 

drk 215 



drmphaka 102, 217 

drohaka 75 

drona 6, 101, 139, 156, 165, 


Dronagika 101 
Dronagraka 101 
Drona-mapaka 101 
dronamukha 101 
dronavapa 99, 101, 139, 156, 


drom, droni 101 
droni-kara 102 

Drsidharika 102 
drsta 102, 218 
drst-adrsta 102 
drsta-ghotaka 102 
drsta-pancasat-padati 102 
drsti 84, 102 
druma 21 
Du 102 
dubbu 116 

du-gani 431, add. et corr. 
dugha 102 
duhkhana 102 
Duhsadha-sadhanika 85, 102, 


Duhsadhya 102 
duhsadhy-adaya 102-03 
Duhsadhya-sadhanika 86, 

duhsamya 102 

du-kam 249, add. et corr. 

dukra 249, 431 

dula 99 

dulavurh 99 

dulita 102 

dumphaka 102, 217 

dundubhi 103 

durga 103 

durga 103 

Durga-dandanayaka 103 

Durg-adhyaksa 255 

Durgapala 103 

Durgapati 103 

Durga-putra 103, 267-68, 282 

durita 103 

Durlabha 103 

dur-vachaka 103 
duskrta 103 
dussadhya 102-03 
Dussadhya-sadhaka 85-86, 102 
Dussadhya-sadhanika 103 
Dusta-sadhaka 102-03 
Dusta-sadhya 103 
dustasadhy-adaya 102-03 
Dusta-sadhya-sadhanika 103 
Du^ta-sahani, Dustasaham 85- 
86, 102-03 

dusya 103 

Duta 103-04, 109, 157 

Dutaka 8, 12-13,86,102-04,304 

varamana 109 

Duta-praisanika 104 

adhitvaramanaka 2 

Duta-presanika 104, 157 

dutya 86^ 104 

Duvaraja 387 

Duyaka 104 

dvadasaka 32, 104 

dvadasa-bhaga 104 

Dvadasasthan-adhipati 104 

dvadasa-vars-abhisikta 2 

dvalisa 9 

dvandva 1 04 

dvara 104 

dvar-adeya 104 

Dvar-adhipa 104-05 

dvara-kostha 105 

dvara-kosthaka 104-05 

dvara-mandapa 105 

Dvaranatlia 104-05 

Dvarapala 105 

Dvara-pariksa, Dvara-pariksaka 
105, 240' 

Dvarapati 104-05 

dvarostha 105 

dvaya 105 

Dveda 105 

dvesa 105 

Dvi 105 

dvi-bhumika 105 

dvi-garbha 105 

Dvijanman 265 



dvijati-daya 105 

dvika 105 

dvika-sata-vyajena 382 

dvipa 105 

dvipa 105 

dvitiya 105 

dvi-vallakya 105, 361 

Dviveda 105 

Dvivedin 105 

dvyardha 105 


dhika-vatsara-sahasra 28 
dyu 105 
dyu-mani 105 
dyuta 105 
Dyutasabhapati 105 

eccoru 412 

edai-vari 412 

eduka, eduka 12, 106, 164 

eduo 106 

eduttu-kkottai 412 

eduttukkotti 412 

eka-bhoga"l06, 109 

ekabhoga-iraiyili 1 06 

eka-bhogya" 106, 109 

eka-bhojya 109 

Eka-civara 107 

ekada 106 

ekadasa-Rudra-bhiksa 53, 106 

ekadasa-sata 106, 305 

ekadasi 126 

ekadasi-vrata 106 

ekadas-ottara-sata 106 

eka-dhana 106 

ekala-murti 106 

eka-musti 1 06 

eka-mustya 106, 207 

Ekaiiga 106 

Ekangin 106 

Ekapatra 106, 182, 244 

Eka-sata 107 

eka-tirthi 107 

ekatya 107 

ekavall 107 

ekavalll 107 

ela 69 
elavai 412 
eluttu 412 

el'uttu-viniyogam 412 
eni-kkanam 412 
enney 412, 419 
en-per-ayam 32 
eradu-bilkode 107, 412 
eradu-dogaraca-ppannu 412 
eri-ayam 412 
eri-ivu 412 
erikkadi 412 
eri-mm-pattam 412 
eri-vira-pattanam 376 
Erjhuna 107 
er-kkadamai 412 
er-kkanikkai 412 
er-ppon 412 
erumai-ppon 192, 412 
esa vrddhi-phalabhoga-nyayah 


etaka 107 
etad 12, 107 
etair = astabhir = gosthikaih . . . 

sara karaniya 300 
etatka 107 
etat-pratyaye 262 
Ettuttokai 296 
evamparina 107 
Evi-muda'l 204 
evi-pere 107 

fadiya 431 

fanam 5, 74, 107, 136, 228, 

336, 338, 345, 428-29, 431, 

434-35, 437, 440 
farman 107, 250 
Faujdar 121 
fil 250 
firman 107 

ga 107, 125, 431 
ga 107 
gabhara 45 



gabhara 107 

gaccha 107, 112, 244 

gada 306 

gada 113 

gada-putti 114 

gaddl 107 

gadhaiya 107, 431 

gadhaiya-paisa 107 

gadhiya 107, 431-32 

gadhiya-paisa 432 

gadianaka, 107, 431 

gadiyana 107, 432 

gadya 107, 432 

gadyana 107-08 

gadyana 107-08, 166, 237, 252, 

363, 428-30, 440-41 
gadyana 74, 408, 433 
gadyanaka 108, 432 
gadyanaka 91, 107-08, 432 
gadyana-ponnu 107, 431,432 
gagana 108 
gahana 108 
gahna 108 
gairkta 108, 114 
gaja 108 
Gajadhara 108 
Gajadhisa 108 
Gajalaksmi 108 
gajamala 108-09 
Gaja-mrgaya-vihara 108 
Gajapati 108, 176, 212, 354 
Gaja-sadhanika 108 
Gaja-sadhanik-adhyaksa 19 
Gaja-saham 108 
Gaja-sahini 108, 284 
Gajathara 108-09 
Gaj avaha-rauta 1 09 
gal-putti 109, 114, 268 
Gamagamika 2, 109, 157 
Gamagamin 109 
Gama-samika 121 
Gamunda 109, 354 
gampana 109 
Gamuda 109 
Gamaiida 109 
gana 109-10 

gana-bhoga 106, 109, 292 
gana-bhogya 109, 343 

gana-bhojya 109 
Ganabhrt 109 
Gan-acarya 109 
Ganadanda 109 
Gana-dandanayaka 109-10 
Gana-dandapala 110 
Gana-dhara 109-10 
Ganaka 110, 142 
ganana 110 
Ganapaka 110 
gana-pana 110 
Gana-pperumakkal 110 
Gana-srestha 110 
Ganastha 110, 176 
Ganattar 110, 176 
gana-variyam 110 
Gana-variya-pperumakkal 110 
Ganda 110 
ganda 21, 65, 432 
ganda 110-11,137,429,432-33, 


gandabherunda 53, 110 
Gandagopala 111 
gandagopalan-madai 1 73, 


gandaka 111, 432 
Gandakanayaka 111 
ganda-mada 111, 149, 173, 

219, 432, 434-35, 441 
Gandan 110-11 
ganda-niska 111, 149, 219, 

432, 435 

Gandapendara 110-11 
ganda-saila 111 
gandha 33 

gandhahasti-mada 173 
gandhakuti ill, 176, 364 
gandharva 111 
gandha-sali 111 
gandhashasti-mada 432 
gandhavarana-mada 1 73, 


Gandhika 111 
gandusa 117 
Ganesa-caturthi 111 
Ganesa-daivajna 232 
Ganesa-homa 111, 374 
Ganga 111 



Gangaikonda 111 
gariga-marga 111 
gangapuputaka, ganga-puppu- 

taka 111 

Gahga-snana 111 
Gaiiga-yamuna 111 
gangeya 111 
gariginika 111 
gam 306 

gam 35, 111, 432, add. et corr. 
gani-apavurh 348 
Ganika 87, 111, 373 
ganika-karana 111, 145 
Ganin 109, 'ill, 195 
gafij, gafija 112 
Ganj-adhikarin 112 
Ganjapati 112 
Ganjavara 112 
Ganjvar 112 
ganotnamum 124 
ganthdl 109 
ganthi 109 
ganti-mattar 202 
gara-dramma 100, 432 
garbha 112 
garbha-dvara 112 112 
garbha-grha 23,112,205,315,373 
garca 112 

gardabha-candala-nyayena 22 1 
Garga 112 
Garga-yavana 112 
Garjanak-adhiraja 112 
Garj anik-adhiraj a 112 
garta, garta, 112 
Garuda 89 
garuda 112 
Garuda-dhvaja 112 
gata-rajya 36, 112, 374 
gatesu 36 
gathk 107 
gati 112 
gatra 20, 112 
gatri 113 

Gauda 113, 119, 321 
Gauda 117-18 

113, 188 

Gaudi 113 

Gaudika 113, 123 

Gauggulika 113 

Gaulmika 123, 113, 322 

gauri 113 

gauri-patta 113, 244, 386 

gauri-varatika 113, 364 

Gautaml-putra 113, 118, 126 

gava-gadyana 108, 432 

gavarh taundike 339 

Gavuda 113, 119 

Gavunda 109, 113,249 

Gavundu 113 

gavya 113 

gavyuta, gavyuti 113 

gayada 113 

Gayadaturiga 113 

Gaya-rnukta 114 

gayatri 114 

gelata 108, 114 

Gemini 283 

germ 114 

gevaka 114 

ghada 114 

ghadaka 114 

ghada-maruturu 114, 140, 


ghadl 114 
ghadia-ghada 115 
ghadiyaramu 114-15 
ghadota 114 
gha^u 306 
Ghaisasa 115 
ghale 114, 126, 210 
Gharhci 114 
ghana 306 
ghanaka 114, 333 
Ghancika 114 
ghara 122 
gharahana 114 
ghara-mugha 122 
gharatha 114 
gharathai 114 
gharthai 114 
ghasra 114 
ghat 115 
ghata 114 
ghataka 114-15 , ; ..'. 



Ghatasasin 115 

Ghatasasulu 114-15 

ghati 114-15, 341-42 

ghatl 114-15, 153, 215, 227 

ghatige 115 

ghatika 114-15 

ghatika-grha 114 

ghatikagrha-karana 115, 145 

ghatikai 115 

ghatikaiyar 115 

ghatik-alaya 115 

Ghatika-madhyastha 115 

Ghatikasahasa 114-15 

ghatika-sala 115 

ghatika-sthana 115 

ghatita 115, 354 

ghatita-hma-dramma 15, 432 

ghati-yantra 115 

ghatta 114-15 

ghatt-adi-deya 327 

Ghattapala 115 

Ghattapati 115 

Ghazm 112 

ghosa 116 

ghotaka-vigraha 69, 116 

ghotika 116 

ghrni 116 

ghrsta-murdhaka 116 

ghrta-pradlpa 116 

ghumara 116 

gi 116 

giri-durga 116 

gidda 116 

Giligitta-sarahgha 301 

gimha 116 

giri 116 

girmdra 116 

go 116 

gocara, gocaraka 112, 116, 

118, 124 

gocarman 116, 220 
Gocchakapati 116 
Gochayati 116 
go-dvadasi 116 
go-gauda 116, 394 
go-gaud a-sameta 394 
go-graha 119 
go-grasa 117 

gohara 117 

gohara 117 

gohari 117 

goja 117 

gojha 117 

gokara 117, 394, 408 

gokarna 117 


odaka-purna 117 

odakena 1 1 7 
gokula 117 

Gokul-adhikarin 117-18 
Gokulika 117-18 
Gokuta 113, 117 
gola 117 
gola 306 

golaka, golakkai 117, 432-34 
Golla 117 
Golla-varu 117 
Gomahisaj-adhyaksa 117 
Go-mahis - aj - avika-vadav- 

adhyaksa 117 
Go-mahisy-aj-adhyaksa 1 1 7, 



Gomandalika 117-18 
gomatha 118 
Gomin 118 

gomutrika-bandha 118 
gondrama 118 
Gahgana-ghale 114 
gom 118 
gom-prasrti 118 
Gopa 118 
Gopala 118 
go-patha 118 
gopathasara 118 

gopicandana 118 
gopracara 118 
go-pracara-bhumi 118 
gopura 118, 311 
gopura-vasal 118 
goracara, goracaraka 118 
Gorajj-abhoga 2 
goratha U4 



Gorava 118, 124 

go-sahasra 118 

go-stana 1 1 8 

gosthl 115, 118 

Gosthika 119 

gosthiseydan 118 

Gosthi-sramana 119 

gotra 37, 112-13, 119, 194, 


gotra-ksetra 114 
gotr-antara 113, 119 
gotra-sailika 112, 119 
Go-vallabha 119, 176 
go-yuthi 119 
Goyuthi-gocara 119 

go-yuti 119, 387, 407 
gr 122 

graha 116, 119 
Grahalaghava 232 
grahana 119 
grahanaka 119 
grahya 14, 119, 354 
grama 119 
Gramabhartr 120 
Grama-bhogika 120 

grama-deva 120 
grama-devata 120 
Grama-drohin 120 
Gramagrama-bhojaka 120 
gramagrasa 56, 120, 122 
gram-ahara 12, 120, 176 
gramaka 120 
Grama-kantaka 120 
grama-karya 120 
Grama-kayastha 120, 152 
Gram-aksapatalika 14 
Gramakuta 86, 109, 113, 120- 

21, 168, 277 
Gramakutaka 121, 168 
Grama-mahattara 121, 277 
Gramamahattar-adhikarin 1 2 1 
grama-maryada 121 
Grama-netr 121 
Gramam 121 

badha-pariharena 2 1 7, 

grama-nipana-kupaka 217 
grama-parihara 121 
Gramapati 120-21, 243 
grama-patra 121 
grama-patya 243 
Grama-pradhana 121 
grama-samstha 121 
gram-asta-kul-adhikarana32, 121 
Grama-svamika 121 
gramasya palakah 227 
Gramataka 121 
Grama- talara 121 
grama tika 121 

nah 212 

Grarrieyaka 120-21 
Gramika 121 
gramika-j ana-samuha 122 
gramlya-kula 122 
gram-opahara 120, 122 

granthi-baddhair = api dram- 
maih, etc. 74 

granthavari 122 

grasa 122 

grasagraha 122, 329, 430, 432 

grasa-lopana 122 

grasa- vasas 122 

gr-ca-ti 122 

grha 23, 122 

Grha-cetaka 122 

grh-addanaka-patra 5 

grha-kara 122 

gi-ha-krtya 122 

grha-ksetra 144 

grha-mukha 122 

grhanarh palladika-sameta 228 

Grhapati 122 

Grhastha 122 

grha-sthana 114, 122 

grhasya bhadakarh 222 

grha-tikara, grha-tikkara 122 

grha-varta 122 

grha-vastu-tlkara 122 

grh-avatarana 40, 395 

mardaria, etc. 394-95 



Grha-vetaka 122 

Grhita-sahasra 122 

grh-odumbara-madhye 349 

gri 122 

grisma 69-70, 116, 122 

gr-ti 122 

Guchaita 116 

guda 122, 390 

gudanta-patra 123-24 

gudda 123 

Gudda-dhvaja 123 

gudde-manya 199 

gudha-jala-bandha 123 

gudha-mandapa 72, 123, 213 

Gudha-purusa 123 

Gudika 113,' 123 

guggula 113, 123 

guha 123 

guha-vihara 123 

Gujaratl 123 

gulika 117, 123,432, 435,438- 

39, 441 

gulma 113, 123 
gulma-deya 123 
Gulmapati 113, 123 
gulpha 123 
guna 123 
Gunacarita 123 
gun-aksara 15, 124 
guna-patra 15, 123-24 
guna-rundra 282 
gunda 124 
gunja 124, 162, 227, 275, 432, 


guntha 124 
gupati 306 
gupta 124 
guptaka 124 
gupt-aksara 15, 124 
gupta-pattaka 124 
Gupta-prakala 254 
gupti 124 
guracaraka 124 
Gurava, Gurava 118, 124 
guri-ginja 74 
Gurmukhi 124 
guru 124 
guru-daksina 124 

guruja 306 
guru-mata 200 
Gurumukhl 124 
gurv-ayatana 124 
guttagai 124 
guttige 124 
guvaka 124 
guvaka-narikel-adikaih lag- 

gavayitva 395, 399 
guyada 113 


hada 125, 223 

Hadapada 125 

haga 125, 226, 429, 432, 436 

Hairanyaka 125 

Hairanyakara 125 

Hairanyika 125, 130, 307 

hala 62, 93, 125, 164, 306, 313 

hala 125 

haladagahga 125 

hala-danda 125 

hala-kalita 125 

Halakiya 125 

halavaha 125 

hali 125 

Halika 125 

Halika 125 

halika-kara 125 

halirakara 125 

halottha-vrtti 121 

Hamblra 18, 125 

Hammira 18, 125, 328 

Harhsa 125, 236 

harhsapada, harhsapada 125, 

329, 432, 440 
Hamvira 18 
harhyamana 126 
harhyamana-paura 126 
hana 126, 206, 376 
handika 126 
Handikapati 126 
hani 129 
hanjamana, hanjamana, hafija- 

mana 21, 126 
hara 126 
haraka 126 



hara-nayana 126 

hara-netra 215 

haram 126 

haribahu 126, 378 

Haricandana 3 1 7 

haricandra 126 

hari-dina 126 

harita 126 

harltaka 126 

lavan-opamardana 67 

Hariti-putra 126 

harmika 126 

harmya 126 

hasantika 126 

hasta 114, 126, 138 

hasta-bham 127 

hastaka-bhan^arin 127 

Hastakavapr-aharam 12, 126 

hast-aksarani 15 

Hasta-naksatra 328 

hasta-pamya 128 

hasta-praksepa 127 

hasti-bandha 127 

hasti-danda 127 

hasti-danta 127 

hastidanda-varabalivarda 406 

cotala-andha (rtha? )ruva- 
pratyandha(rtha? )ruva- 
anta (tu? )ravaddi-bandha- 
ganika-prabhrti-bhavi syat- 
kara-sahita 395 

hasti-danta 83 

Hastikosa 127, 375 

hastin 12, 127 

Hastipaka 127 

Hasti-sadhanika 127 

hastisala-karana 127, 146 

taka 263 

Hasti-vaidya 1 2 7 

hast-odaka 127-28 

Hasty-adhyaksa 127, 147 

Hasty-aroha 127 

Hasty-asva-go-mahi s-aj -avik- 

adhyaksa 127 



Hasty-asv-o stra-bala-vyaprta 


taka 147 

avik-adhyaksa 127-28, 158 
avik-adi-vyaprtaka 213 

prtaka 128, 213 
hatha-pamni, hatha-parhni 


hatha-pani, hatha-pam 128 
Hatharoh'a 127 
Hathivaka 127 
hatta 128 
hatta-dana 128 
hatta-marga 128 
hatta-rathya 128 
hatta-vyavaharamana 128 
hattika 128 
Havana 128 
havir-bali 45, 128, 317 
hawwa 129 
Hayapati 128 
he 128 
heda 128 
hedau 128 
hedavala 128 
hedavika 128 
hedavuka 128 
Heggade 128, 249, 369 
hejjurika 62, 128, 412, 421 
hema 128-29, 433 
hema-dhanyaka 90, 128-29, 

430, 433 

hema-garbha 129 
hemanta 70, 128 
hem-asva 129 
hemasva-ratha 129-30 
hema-tahka 129, 336, 433, 440 



hemidrachma 129, 431, 433 
Heri-bhandagarin 1 83 

grahin 22, 129, 183, 196 
Heri-Lala-sandhivigrahin 129, 


rahin 129, 296 
Heri-sandhivigrahika 193 
Heri-sandhivigrahin 129, 138, 

196, 295, 308 
hevaka 129 
hi 129 
himakara 37 

sikhara 282 
hm-aksara 129 
hmavadin 129 
Hindipaka 129 
hmdoll 129 

Hinduraja-Suratrana 129 
hmi 129 
hiranya 129, 145, 157, 250, 

262, 329-31, 399, 408 
hiranya-deya 129-30 
hiranya-garbha 129-30 
Hiranyakara 130 
Hiranyasamudayika 37, 130, 


hiranyasva 142 
hiranyasvaratha 130 
hirany-aya 129-30, 150 
Hiriy a-bhandagarin 174,303 
hita-sukham = upadadhyuh 

hobali, hobli 130 

holl 130 

homa 130 

hon 130, 226, 363, 433, 436- 
37, 440-41 

hora 130 

horaka 130, 240 

horaka-parivara 240 

Horamurta 79, 130 

hotr 130 

howda 202 

hrada 130 

hrasita 130 

Hrtapragrah-amatya 1 30 
huhukanta 130 
humdi pake tyare 250 
hun '130, 226, 252, 363, 376, 

433, 436-37, 441 
hundika 130 
hutasana 130 

ibha 130 

Ibhya 130 

Ida 130 

idai-ppattam 413 

idai-pputci 413 

idaitturai 413 

idaiyar-vari 413 

idangai 412 

idahgai-vari 412 

idarigali 130 

idara-varu 130 

idatorai 413 

iddhi-pada 280 

iciige-vadu 130 

ila 131 ' 

ilaivaniya-ppattam 413 

I laiy a-nay anar 1 3 1 

ila-kkarun-kasu 131, 433 

Ila-kkasu 131, 150, 433-34 

ilakkulam 413 

IJam 131 

ilam-punjai 413 

ilam-putci 413 

ijam-puti 239 

ijah-koyil 44 

ilanjai-pperu 170 

ilanjanai 413 

ilafij 413 

ilvari 122,413,417 

Immadi 131, 206, 221 

inam 52, 55, 148, 254, 309-10 

Inamdar 55-56, 377 

inavari 134, 413 

inavari-kkasu 134, 151, 413, 


indra 131 
indracchanda 131 
indra-danda 131, 287 



indra-dhvaja 131 
indra-drsti 131 
indr-asana 131 
indriya 131 
indriya-jaya 374 
indu 131 
irai 413 

irai-dravyam 413 
irai-kaval 413 
iraiyili 303 
iraiyili-kkasu 413 
iraiyili-mudal 413 
irankoli 413 
iratta-kkanikkai 275 
iratta-manya 275 
iravu 413 
irekai 280 
iruppu-kkatti 413 
Isa 131 
Isa-drs 131 
isai-kkiday 413 
ista-devata 2 
istapurtta 131 
isti 131 
isu 131 

Isvara 131, 171 
Isvaralaya 131 
itarika-salai 336 
Ithijhakha-mahamata 325 
itihasa 131, add. et corr. 
lyarpa 253 

jadiaksetra 131 

jahnavi-vaktra 132 

jagadalam-gadyana 108, 433 

jagat 131, 343 

jagati 131 

jagati 49, 88, 131 

jagati-katte 132 

jagati-ppadai 131 

jagatiputra 132 

jaglr 18, 54-55, 57, 132 

Jaglrdar 55-56, 58, 62, 120-21, 

132, 174-75, 182, 212,242 
jagr 132 
Jaina-sangha 296 

jaithala 433 

Jala 30-31, 33, 132 

Jala 132 

jaladhi 132 

jala-durga 132 

jalajakaranda 132 

jalaka 132 ' 

jala-kara 132, 134, 137, 201, 


jala-karana 132, 145 
jala-krlda 132 
jalanidhi 132 
jala-pavitra 132 
jal-asaya 132 
jala-yantra 132 
jala-yatra 132 
jail 132 
jama'at 133 
jamalikambali 132 
jamatha 133 
Jambu-dvipa 133, 264 
jana 133 

jana-dhana-sahita 395, 399 
janapada 12, 133 
janapada 133 
Janapada-mahattara 191 
Jana-pradhanin 133 
Janendra 133 
jahgala 133 
Jarigha 133 
jangha 133 
Janghakarika 133 
janghala 133 
Jahghika 133 
Jam 133 
janma 133 
janitha 133 
janma 140 
janma-bhumi 133 
janma-kkani 133 
janma-patra 133 
janu 133 
jasti 385 
jata 133 
jataka 133 
jata-kara 132, 134 
jata-karman 134 
jataka-kkudi 134 



jati 134 

Jatila 134 

jati-siddh-aya 134, 151 

jati-smarana-jnana 134 

jatiya 134-35 

jatuka 134 

jauhar 134, 286 

javar 386 

javhar 134, 286 

jawar 386 

jaya 134 

Jayadhara 134, 217 

jaya-ghanta 134 

jayamya 134 

Jayanapati 134 

jay anas ala-karana 134, 146 

jayantapura 134 

jayanti 134 

jayanti-vrata 134 

Jayapala 134 

Jayapara 134 

jaya-patra 134 

jayarekha-patra 134 

jayarekha-patrika 134 

jaya-skandhavara 134, 314, 324 

jaya-stambha 135, 276 

jayika 135 

jemaka 135, 402 

jena 135 

Jena 135 

jeva 135 

Jha 222 

jhad 135 

jhampin 135 

jhata 135 

jhata-vitapa 135 

jilo, jilo, jilo 37, 135 

Jina 135 

Jina-kalpin 135, 324 

Jina-matr 135 

jina-nagara 135 

jina-nigama 35 

Jina-yugma 135 

Jinendra 282 


J35, 317 

317,433, 439 

jirna-visvamalla-priya 135, 

376, 433, 442 
jirn-oddhara 136 
jita, jlta 136 
jital 11, 136, 305, 430, 433, 

.. 439 

jitarh bhagavata 136 

jitam Visnuna 136 

jithala, jithala 136 

jiva-loka 136 

jivana 136 

jivana-sesa 136 

Jiva-puta, Jiva-putra 1 36 

jivita 136 

Jivita-kkarar 136 

jivita-pparru 136 

Jiyar, Jiyar 136, 201 

jnana 140 

jnana-diksa 136 

jfiapaka 136 

jnatlya 134, 136, 339 

Jo 136 

joda 136-37 

jodi 413, 422 

jodi 137 

joga-vattige 336 

jolaka 136 

Josi 136 

jotl 136 

jotika 136-37 

juhaka 137 

jvalana 137 

Jyaistha 315, 378 

Jyestha-devara 137 

Jyesth-adhikaranika 137 

Jyestha-kayastha 137 

Jyestha-pita 137 

jesthika-grama 137 

Jyotisin 135 

j yoti-skanda 137 

jyotistoma 337 

ka 137 
ka 137 
kaca 9, 297 



kacakada 137 

kaccha 137 

kacchaka 137 

kacchapa 137 

kackac 145 

kacvat 164 

kada 137, 433-34 

kadamai 414 

kadaru 137 

kaddhaka 137 

kadi 137 

kadi 412, 420 

kadir-kkanam 414 

Kadit-amatya 138 

Kadita-vergade 138, 183, 188, 


Kadlya 138 
Kadiya 138 
kadu-kaval 414 
kahala 138 
kahala 138 
kahalam 231 
kahan 77, 433, 437 
kahana 138, 149, 433-34 
kahana 138, 149, 433 
kahapana 149, 433 
kai 138 
Kaikkolar 337 
Kaisara 138 
kaitala 138 

Kaivarta-bhoga 54, 138 
kaka 138, 433 
kaka-bindu 138 
kakala 138 
kakali 138 

kakani, kakani 138, 433 
kakanika, kakanika 138, 433 
kakapada, kakapada 125, 138 
kakari 138 
kaka-vrnta 138 
kakim, kakim 27, 138, 143, 

428-29, 432-33 
kakku-nayaka-vilagam 2 1 4 
kakubha 138 
kala 138 

kala 98, 137-38, 254 
kalabhasala-karana 139, 146 
kala-cakra 139, 305 

kal-aksarita 139 


kalamba 139 

kalana 139 

kalanju 139, 197, 329, 433, 

435, 440 

138, 254 

kalapacchanda 139 
kalasa 139 
kalasi 139 
kalasika 139 
kalasikavapa 139 
kalatra 139 
Kalavada, Kalavada, Kala- 

vada, Kalavada 'l39 
Kalavala 139 
Kalavala 139 
kali 140 

kali-ganattar 139 
kalika 140 
kalikavalika 140 
kalinga-variyam 140 
kalingu 140 
kallavalika 414 
kal-maruturu 114, 140, 200 
kal-nadu 140 
kalpa 61, 140 
kalpadi 140 
Kalpala 140 
kalpa- vrksa 21 
kalu 140 ' 
Kalvapala 140 
Kalvapala-varika 140 
Kalya 141 
kalyana 140, 196 
kalyana-dhana 140 
kalyan-agama 140 
kalyanaka 140, 141 
kalyana-mandapa 140 
Kalyanasundara 140 
kalyam 140 
kalyanika 140 
Kalya'pala 139-41 
Kalyapala 140-41 
Kalya-sresthin 141 
kama 28, 141 
kama-dhenu 141 



kama-kostha 141 
kama-kottam 141 
kamala-puja 141 
kamali 141 
Kamandaka 22 
karnata 141 
kam-avacara 141 
kamba 141, 314, 321 
kambala 141 
kambalin 141 
kambha 141, 321 
karhdasaghuta 141 
Kamgar 141 
kamma 141, 314, 321 
kammalar 141 
kampala 141 
kampana 141 
kampana 109, 141, 154 
kampana 141 
Kampan-adhipati 141-42 
Kampanapati 141, 142 
Kampanapati 105, 142 
Kampan-odgrahaka 142 
Karhsakara 142 
Kamsara 142 
Kamsara 142 
Karhsaraka 142 

Srisamanta-Svayambhu 320 
Kamsyakara 142, 150 
kamta 306 
kan 142 

kana-bhaktaka 142 
kanaka 142 
kanaka-haya 142 

kanakamani-tulapurusa 142 
Kanakan llO 
Kanakasabhapati 142 
kanaka- tulapurusa 142 
Kanakka 142 
kanakka-kkani 142 
kanakka-mikudi 414 
Kanakkan 146 
kanakka-pparu 142 
kanam 142, "l 6 7, 421, 433 
Kanarese 142-43 

kancana-tula 142 
kancola 142 
kancula 142 
kand 142 
kanda 142 
kanda 137 
kandacara 142 
kandakam 155 
kandala 142 
kandam 155 
Kandapati 143 
kandapatika 143 
kandara'l43, 355 
kandarana 143 
kand-ayam 415 
kandisika 143 
kanduka 143 
kandula 143 
karigar 126 
kam 110, 138, 143 
kani 143 
kanika 143 
kanika 143-44, 414 
kanika 143 
kanika-kane 143, 414 
kanike 143-44, 433 
kanika-kappa 143, 414 
kaniki 143, 433 
kanikka 143 
kanikkai 143 
kaAikkai 143, 414 
kaniu 306 
kaftji 390 
Kankani 143,417 
kahkata 143 
kan-malar 319 
Kanmi 148 
Kaiinada 142-43 

Kannada-sandhivigrahin 143, 

Kannadiga 143-44 

kannala-kkanam 380, 414, 

424, 427 ' 
kannar-irai 414 
kantaka 144 

kantaka-sodhana 144 
kanthika 144 


kanthika-patta-bandha 144 

kanuka 143-44, 414 

kanya-dana 1 44 

kanyadana-dharma 144 

kanya-dharma 144 

kapahadi 144 

kapala-sandhi 144 

kapalika 144 

kaparda 144, 434 

kapardaka 144, 433-34 

kapardaka-purana 144, 229, 
265, 434, 437* 

kapardaka-vodi 144, 380, 
429, 436-37^ 442 

kapardi 144,434 

kapardika 144, 434 

kaphadi 144 

kapila 144 

Kapila-catti 144 

Kapila- sasthi 144 

kappa 144, 414 

kappa-kanike 143, 414 

kappura-vilai 148 

kara 3, 14, 22, 45, 47-48, 63, 
144, 150, 259, 287, 352, 

kara 76 

karadarhdha 306 

karadigai 147 

karaghatika 145 

kara-grama 145 

karaiyidu 145 

Karaka 145, 147 

karaka 145 

karakaca 145 

karakara-karana 145-46 

karalikai 231 ' 

Karana 148, 187, 318 

karana 14, 18, 22, 35, 88-89, 
92," 101, 111, 115, 127, 132, 
134, 145-46, 160, 178, 186, 
196, 295, 306, 316, 318, 
322-23, 336, 351, 364, 369, 

karana 146 

karana-dancla 1 46 

Karanaka 146 

karana-karman 146 

Karana-kayastha 146, 244 
Karanam 146, 148, 414 
karana-puja 146 
Karanattar 146 
Karanavan 146 
karane koveram 161 
Karanika 146 
Karanika 146 
Karanika-thakkura 146 
Karanika-Brahmana 146 
Karanikka 146, 177 
karanikka-jodi 146, 414 
Karanin 1 46 
karani-parikara 146 
karaAka 146-47 
Karankika 147 
karankilamai 414 
karanmai 414 
Karapaka 145, 147 
Karapati 209 
kara-sasana 147, 390 
karatika 147 
Karavaka 145 
karavrnda 147 
karika 147 
karim-bhramana 147 
karim-paribhramana 147 
karisa 147 
karita 137 
karita 137 

sthana-gokul-adhikarin 147, 

Kari-turag-pattasahani 127, 

147, 246 

ka 147 

Karivahinlsa 147 
karivi-ppanam 414 
Karivrndanatha 147 
kariyanurn 162 
kariya-pperu 414 
Kariyattukku-kkadavar 1 50 
kariyavaraycci 150, 410, 414 
kar-kadarnai 414 
karkhana 147 
karman 42, 147 
karmanta 147 



karmanta-sthalika 148 
Karmantika 147-48 
Karmantika 147-48 
Karmara 148 
Karma-rastra-visaya 278 
Karma-saciva 148 
karm-asedha 19 
karma-sthana 148 
karma-sthaya 148 
Karmika 148 
Karmin 148 
karna 148 
Karnam 146, 148 
Karnapravarana 148 
Karnapravrta 148 
karnapura 148 
Karnata 143 

karna- trodanika 148, 345 
karna- trotana 148, 345 
kar-otkara 150 
karpata 148 
karpata-bhava 148 
karpata-pada 148 
Karpatika 148 
karpati-vrata 148 
karpura-mulya 148 
karpura-vilai 414 
karsa 149, 173, 227, 429, 434, 


karsaka 137 
karsapana 19, 77, 90-91, 100, 

111, 138, 149, 173, 228, 

279, 281, 430-32, 434-35, 

437-38, 440 
kars-ardha 149, 434 
Kartakrtika 40, 149, 177 
kartarl 151 
kartavya 149 
Kartr 149 
Karttar 149 
karttigaiy-arisi 414 
karttigai-kkani 414 414-15 
karttigai-paccai, karttigai- 

ppaccai 414, 419 
karttika 149 
Karttika 149 
Karttikeya 330 

karttikeya-mukha 149 

karttik-odyapana 149 

karttik-odyapana-parvan 149 

karu-deya 149-50 

Karuka 149 

karuka 149 

karukara 149-50, 287, 354, 


karuna 150 
karuA-kasu 131, 434 
karu-silpi-gana 150 
karuvi-panarn 414 
karuvula-vari 414 
karvataka 150 
karya 150 
Karya-cintaka 150 
Karya-darsin 150 
Karya-kartr 150 
karya- varaycci 150 
Kasara 150 
kasaya 150 

ka^-aya 129-30, 150, 414 
kas-aya-vargam 150, 229, 415, 

419, 437 
kastha 150 
kasth-agara 150 
kasthaka 137 
Kasthakara 150 
kastha-yuti 150, 387 
kasu 12, 14, 67, 97, 150, 428- 

30, 433-34, 436-37, 439-40, 


kasu-ayam 150, 414 
kasu-kadamai 150, 414-15, 


kasu-vargam 415 
kataka 151 
Katak-adhiraja 151 
Katakadhisa 151 
katakam=utkalitam 354 
Kataka-nayaka 151 
Katakaraja 151 
Kataka-varika 151 
katakarh kartavyam 151 
Katakesa 151 
ka-ta-pa-y-adi 151 
katara 306 
ka^ci 415 



katci-erudu-kkasu, 415, 418 
katha 151 
kathari 151 

kathari-arikusa-gadyana 108,434 
kathita 151 
kati-sutra 151 
katmal 151 
kattagara 150 
kattal-kasu 415 
kattana 151, 415 
katt-ayam 415 
kattigai-paccai 415 
katti-kkanam 415 
kattu-guttagai, kattu-kkutta- 

gai 151, 415 
kattumukkai 415 
Katuka 151 
katumukha 151 
kauberacchanda 151 
kaul 152, 159 
Kaulika 159, 217 
kaulika-nikaya 152, 217 
kaumara-sadhu 152 
Kauptika 152 
ka-usaggiya 152 
ka-ussagga 152 
kaustheyaka 152 
kaustubha 152 
Kautumbika 152 
kavaca 152, 157 
kavala 219 
kavale 152 
kavaledu 152 
kavalige 152 
kaval-kani 415 
kaval-peru 415 
kaveluka, kaveluka 152, 159 
Kaviraja 152 
kaya 152 

Kayastha 68,99,137,152,257,367 
kaya-vrata 1 52 
kay-otsarga 52, 152 
kayotsargika 152 
kedara 152-153 
kedarika 153 
kela 153 
keli 153 
Kelvi 321 

kendra 153, 215, 342 

ketu 153 

kevala-jnana 72,135,140,153,219 

keyar 152 

kha 153 

khada 153 

khadga 306 

Khadgadhara 153, 177 

Khadgagraha 153, 177 

Khadgagrahi-mahapatra 153 

Khadagrahin 153 

Khadga-raksa 153, 155 

Khadgika 153, 155 

Khadgin 153 

khadi 153, 157 

khadurika 153 

Khadyakutapakika, Khadya- 

(ku* )tapakika 153, 166, 

175, 181, 295, 328 
Khadyatapakika 49, 153 
khajan 154 
khajjana, khajjana, khajjana, 

khajjanaka 154, 265 
khal 15< 399 
khala 154 
khala-bhiksa 154 
khalaka 154 

hita 137 
khalak-ante 154 
khalakiya 154 
Khala-raksaka 154 

Bhatta-Jayasomasvamin 148 
khalla"l54, 399 
khallara 154 
khalla-unnata, khall-onnata 

154, 217 
kharh 154 
khamavo 3 
khamd-gol 295 
khamc-khumc 156 
khampana 154 
khampanaka 154 
khanaka 154 
khanana 154 
khanda 154-55, 214, 370 
khanda 155 




Khandait, Khandaita 153, 


khandaka 155 
khanda-ksetra 155 
khandalaka 155 
Khandapala 153, 155 
khandapala 206, 224 
khandapala-mundamola 206 
khandapallya 155, 225 
Khandapati 155 
Khandaraksa 153, 155 

sarhskara 68 

155, 259 


khanda-sphutita-prakarana 1 55 


saihskar-artha 38 
Khandavala 155 
khandi 155 

khandi 66, 155-56, 268 
khandika 156 

khandika 66, 155-56, 268, 368 
khanduga 156 
khanduka 156 
khandukavapa 1 56 
khanika 156 
khaniya 156 
khanu 156 
khari 156 
khari 156 
kharika 1 56 
kharikavapa 156 
kharivapa 156 
Kharosthi 156 
Kharostri 156 
kharvada 156 
kharvata 150, 156 
khasca 156 
Khas Mahal 163, 270, 273-74, 

313, 358 

khasra 156 

khat 156 

khata 156 

khataka 154, 156 

khata-vahi 344 


Khatiba 156 

khatika 157 

khattaka 157 

khatva 157 

khatvariga 157 

khatvapada 157 

khedaniya 157, 243 

kheta 157 

khetak-ahara-visaya 1 2 

khila 26, 157, 351 

khila-ksetra 157 

Khoja '157 

khola 157 

kholi 152, 157 

kholika 152, 157 

khota 157 

khota-bhanga 16, 157, 349 

khova 157 

khova-dana 157 

Khshathrapavan 157, 163, 285, 

306, 309 
Khshayathiya 157-58, 285, 

Khshyathiya Khshayathi- 

yanam 46, 285 
Khshayathiya vazrka 46, 158, 


Khwaja 157 
kida 159 
kidi 159 
kila 158 
kilaka 158 
kila-mudra 158 
kil-irai 415 
kil-irai-ppattam 415 
kirh-chandah 158 
kinva-kreni 158 
kirru-vari 415 
kirtana, kirtana 158 
kirti 158, 385 
klrti-mukha 158 
kirti-stambha 158 



kirti-sthana 158 
klrtita 158, 254 
kiru-kula 227, 415-16 
kiru-kulam 164 
kirukula-visesam 415 
Kis oravadava-go-mahi s-aj- 

avik-adhyaksa 117,' 127, 


hikrta 158 

avik-adhyaksa 158 
kitika 159 
kivelu 152, 159 
klinna 391 
klinva 159, 391 
klinva-kreni 1 59 
klpta 159,' 349, 351 
klpta-kara 159, 351 
klpta-sulka 159 
kodai-vadaikkay 4 1 3 
koda-visa 1 59 
koda 159 
kodevana 159 
kodhi 160 
kodi-kkadamai 4 1 5 
kodi-kkanam 422 
kodi-veli415, 422 
kodrava 159 
kohli, kohli 159, 222 
kol 159, 210 
kola 159, 342, 434, 440 
kola-bhandalu 63, 159 
kolaga 159 
kolaga 159 
Kolika 159 
kolakkai 117, 434 
Kolika-nikaya 159 
kol-kuli 415 
Kolla-bandi 159 
kolmurai-ppadu 415 
kol-nirai-kuli 415 
kolu 160, 210 
kolvari 415 
komarina-gadyana 108, 166, 

Komati 160 

kommu-marturu 160, 200 
ko-murai 416 
Kona-iiesa 86 
Kona-mandala 39 
Kona-rastra 277 
Kona-sima 39, 312 
Kona-sthala 321 
Kon-avani-mandala 39 
kofijalla 160, *390 
Konkana-vijaya-parvan 241 
ko-pada-varam 416 
korata 160 
kosa 160 

kosa-bhavana 112 
Kos-adhipa 160 
Kos-adhyaksa 160 
kosa-grha 160 
Kosaja 160 
kosavaha 160 
kostha 160 
kosth-agara 160 
kosthagara-karana 146, 160 
Kosthagarin 160, 171 
kosthaka 160 
kostha-karana 160 
kostha-vyapara 160-61 
kosthi 160 
kosthika 160 

kosthika-karana 146, 160 
kota 160 

Kot-adhikaranika 160 
kotadi, kotadi 160 
kotadi-sahita 160 
kotaka 160-61 
Kotapala 160-61 
kotha-vyapara 161 
koti-homa 161 
kotika 161 
kotta 161 
kottagaram 160 
kottai 161 
kottai-kkuli 416 
kottai-magamai 416 
kottaka 161 

kottam 161, 194, 219, 369 
Kotta-nigraha 161, 216 
Kotta-nigrahin 161 



Kottapala 160-61, 177 

Kottapati 161 

kottaram 160 

kotta-visaya 160-61 

Kotubika 152 

Kotwal 161, 333-34 

kovai 161, 434 

kovera 161 

Koyil-nayakam 161 

Koyil-srikaryam 161 

koyil-vasi 416 

krama 23,161-62 

Kramaditya 161 

Kramaka 161-62 

Kramavid 161 

Krama-vitta 161-62 

Kramayuta 161-62 

kraya-cirika 74, 162 

krdara 137, 162 

krlda 293 

kridara-sulka 327 

kridayita 162 

kriya 162 

kriyanaka 162 

kroda 168, 329, 434, 440 

krodha 28 

krosa 162 

krpana 162 

krs-anna 162 

krsanna-mulya 162 

krsanu 162 

krsn-aksarani 15 

krsnala 162* 434 

krsnaraja-rupaka 162, 282, 

434, 438 

krsy-ayogya bhu 58 
krta 162 
krt-abhikara 1 
krt-akrta-jno bhrtyanam 


krtanta 162 
krta-pranta 162 
krti 162-63 
krtin 162-163 
krt-opasanna 163, 352 
krttidara 163 
Krtyakalpataru 97, 162 
krura-dris 163 

ksana 164 
ksanti 163 
ksapesvara 163 
ksara 163 
ksata 163 

Ksatrapa 157, 163, 178, 306, 

Ksatriya 130, 372 

Ksattr 163 

ksauni 163 

Ksemaraja 163 

ksetra 73,163, 371 

Ksetrakara 163 

ksetra-khandala 155 

Ksetrapa 163 

Ksetrapala 163 

ksetra-siman 163 

ksira 163 

ksiti 163 

ksiti-dana 163 

ksma 163 

ksobha 163 

ksom 163 

ksudra 163 

Ksudra-Dharmadri 1 64, 1 74 


Ksudraka 342 
ksudraka 164, 434 
ksudrama 164, 434 
Ksudra-Mula 164, 174 
ksuna 164 
ksun-adika 164 
ksunani 164 
ksurika 74 
ku 164 
kuca 164 

kucata 164 
Kuccelu 164 
kudi-kkanam 416 
kudi-kkas'u 416 
kudimai 416 
Kuclipati 121, 243 
kudi-ppanam 416 
kudirai-marru 416 
kudirai-ppandi 416 
kudirai-vari 416 
kudiraiv-iladam 416 



kudya 106, 164 

kuhaka 306 

kula 10, 18, 21, 125, 164 

kula 164 

Kula-brahmana 164 

Kulacarika 164-65 

kula-gadyana 108 

Kulakarani 164 

kul-akhya' 164 

kula-krama 18, 299 

Kula-kutumbika 166 

kulam 164 

kulam 164, 239, 415-16 

kula-panji 361 

kula-pafijika 164, 361 

Kulapati 164 

Kulaputra 164 

Kulaputraka 164-65 

Kularika 165 

kulavadai 416 

Kulavara 164-65 

Kulavarika 164-65 

kulavay 165 

kuli 165 

kuli 165 

kuligai 117, 435, 439 

Kulika 165, 257 

kulikkum-idam 2 

Kulkarni, Kulkarni, Kulkarni 

145, 164, 308 
kullaka 165 

kulottunga-mada 173, 435 
kulya 165, 362 
kulya 165 

kulyavapa 156, 165, 242, 362 
Kumara 66, 165-67, 169 
Kumaradhiraja 165 
Kumara-Divana 165 
kumara-gadianaka 107, 166, 

kumara-gadyana 166, 408, 

416, 434 

kumara-gadyanaka 408, 435 
Kumara-guru 166 
kumara-kaccanam 166, 416, 


Kumara-mahapatra 63, 165-66 
Kumaramatya 63 , 1 53, 1 65-66, 

175, 178, 198, 250, 295 
Kumaramaty-adhikarana 1 66 
Kumarapadlya-amatya 1 66 
kumar-asya 149, 166 
Kumara-varga 166 
kumara-vrtti 1 66 
kumari-sahasa 167 
kumarisahasa-dosa 167 
kumbha 139, 167 
kumbhaka 167 
kumbh-abhiseka 168 
kumosa 167 

Kurhvar, Kurhvara 167, 169 

Kunar 169 

kunca 268 

kuficamu 5, 197 

kufici 167 

kunda 167 

kundi 167 

kundika 167 

kunjara 167 

kuhkuma-vastra 167 

kunnu 167 

kunri-mani 197 

kunru-meypal. 118 

kunta 167 

kuntala 167 

kuntalu 164 

kunu 167 

Kunwar 169 

kupa 167, 362 

Kupadarsaka 167 

kupa-kaccha 137 

kupa-khalaka-kacchaka 1 3 7 

kupya-grha 167 

kura 167 

kuranga-mada 167 

kuri 283 

kurma 167 

kurram 168, 360, 423 

kurrarisi 416 

kufuni 417, 420 

ku.rru-nel, kurru-nellu 415 

kuruvida kuruvidam 168 
kusa 168 

kusa-kkanam 168, 416, 422 
kusala 168 



kusala-mula 168 
kusa-lata-puta-hast-odaka 395, 


Kusalin 168 
kusutra 168 
Kuta 168 
Kutaka 168 
kutaka 168, 408 
Kutakolasa 168 
ku-tamra 168 
kuta-sasana 168 
kuti 168, 176 
Kutila 168, 310 
kuttumbitti 168-69 
Kutum 168 
kutumba 168 
kutumba-ksetra 168 
kutumba-vrtti 168-69 
kutumba-yatra 168 
Kiitumbika 168 
Kutumbin 169 
Kutumbim 169 
Kuvara 169 

labha 169 
labhalika 169 
labharika, labharika 169 
labdhi 169 
lag 169 
laga 169 
laga-bhaga 169 
laga^a 169 
lagaiya 169 
lagana 169 
laga-sambandha 169 
laggavayitva 169 
lagi-dramma 169, 435 
lagitva 169 
lagna 169 
lagna-dev! 169 
lahadi, lahadl 169 
laine 4 
Lajuka 274 
lakara 169 
lakata 169 
laksa-dana 170 

laksa-homa 170 
laksana 170 
Laksan-adhyaksa 170 
laksmanasena-samvatsara 1 70 
laksml '108 
lakula 170 
lakul-agama 9 
lakul-agama-samaya 9 
lakula-sidhanta 311 
Lakulesvara 170 
Lakulesvar-agama 170 
Lala-khandey a-karar-adhi stha- 

yaka 170 

Lala-sandhivigrahin 295-96 
lamba-pataha 170 
lanchana 37, 96, 170, 413 
lafichita 170 
langadi 170 

lafijanai-pperu 170, 413, 416 
lanjinai-pperu 170, 413, 


Lanka 170 
lapita 170 
la-sarh 170 
lasti 170, 385 

Lattalurapura-paramesvara 1 70 
lauki 170 
laukika 170, 284 
laukika-ganana 170 
laukika-sarhvatsara 170 
lavalika 170 
lavana 170, 390-91 
lavana-bhaga 47 
lavan-akara 171 
lavaro 170 
lavlav 170 
layana 171 
lekha 171 

Lekh-adhikarin 171 
Lekhahara, Lekhaharaka 171 
Lekhaka 6, 171 
lekhana 58, 171 
Lekhan-adhyaksa 171 
lekham-pravesa 391 
Lekhapaddhati 145 
Lekhayitr 171, 304 
Lekhita 171 



lena 171 

Lenka 170-71 

Lerika 170-71, 381 

Lepyakara 171, 258 

likhita 171, 354 

linga 171 

liiigorana 171 

lipi 171 

Lipikara 171 

Lipikrt-kula 171 

lobha 28 

Lobha-vijayin 172 

locana 172 

loha 172 

Loha-carmakara 172 

lohadiya 172, 248, 435, 437 

Lohakara 172 

Lohara 172 

Loha-vanija 172 

Lohika-karuka 172 

Lohita 172 

lohitaka 172, 435 

loka 172 

Lokapala 172, 174, 231 

lokki-gadyana 108, 435 

lokkiya-visa 376 

lupa-dakha 282 

lupta-dohalika 99 


Ma 172 

ma 172, 417, 435 

mada43, 57, 111, 172-73, 194, 

429,432,435-36, 438,440-41 
mada-badi-patuka 173, 435 

madai 57, 172-73, 227, 252, 

429, 432, 435-38 
madai-kkuli 416 
madalu 173 
rnadamba 173 
madan 416 
Madana-tithi 173 
mada-ppadi 416, 424 
madarikka 416 
madarikkai 41^ 

madasyata 173 
maddala 173 
maddali 231 
madha 57, 173, 435 
madha 172 
madha 173, 435 
madha 172 

madhuka395, 401, 404 
madhurantakan-madai 1 73 

madhya 173 
madhya-divasa 173 
madhya-kurma 167, 173 
madhyama 173 
madhyama-loka 172 
Madhyamalokapala 1 72, 


Madhyastha 295, 348 
madhyastha 174, 422 
madu-kanikkai 416 
maduvu 43 
madya-pana 174 
madya-vahanaka 174 
Maga 174 
magamai 179, 417 
magani 1 74 
magani-sthana 174 
maganmai, maganmai 417 
Magha 16, 188, 278 
Magi 174 
Maha 179 
Maha 174 
maha 288, 230-32 
Mahabaladhikaranika 1 74 
Mahabaladhikrta ' 1 74, 1 98 
Mahabaladhyaksa 174 
Mahabalakosthika 174, 191, 


mahabhandagara 174 
Mahabhandagarika 174 
Mahabhandagarin 174 

mahabharata-vrtti 174 
Mahabhogapati 174-75 
Mahabhogika 174 
Mahabhoja 56, 175 
Mahabhojl 56, 175 
Mahabrhatpradhana 183 
mahabhuta 1 75 



mahabhutaghata-dana 1 75 
mahabhutaka 175 
mahabodhi 60 
mahacaitya 1 75 
mahacaturdasi-parvan 1 75 
mahadaha 175 
mahadana 61, 118, 129-30, 

141-42, 175, 230, 279, 292, 

300, 331, 345, 379 


Mahadanapati 175 
Mahadandanayaka 80, 166, 

175, 295, 302 
Mahadanika 175 
Mahadauhsadhanika 85 


mahadeva 175 
Mahadevi 11, 90, 176, 179, 

236, 246 

Mahadharmadhikaranika 1 76 
Mahadharmadhyaksa 1 76 
Maha-Dharmagiri 164, 174, 


Mahadhiraja 93, 176 
Mahadhyaksa 8, 176 
Mahadiksita 1 76 
maha-dosa 176 
mahadosa-vivarjita 176, 395 
maha-dvadasaka 176 
maha-dvadasi 176 
Mahadvar-adhipati 176 
Mahagajapati 108, 176 
Mahaganastha 176 
maha-gandhakuti 1 76 
Mahagandhakuti-varika 364 
Mahagovallabha 119, 176 
mah-agrahara 11, 176 
mahagrama 120, 176-77 
Mahagramika 177 
Mahajana 63, 174, 176, 180- 

81, 187, 229, 283 
mahajana-sabha 177 
mahajaya, mahajaya 177 
mahajayana 306 
mahakarana 177, 401 
Mahakaranadhyaksa 177 

Mahakaranika 146, 177 
Mahakartaka 177 
Mahakartakrtika 149,175,177 
Mahakarttikl 177 
Mahakatuka 151, 177 
Mahakavi 177 
Mahakavicakravartin 177 
Mahakhadgadhara 153, 177 
Mahakhalaraksaka 154, 177 
mah-akheta 177 
Mahakosthagarin 160, 177 
Mahakottapala 177 
Mahaksa 178 
mahaksa-ni 178, 188 
Mahaksapala 178 
mahaksapala-karana 146, 178 
mahaksapatala 178 

krta 178 ' 

Mahaksapatal-adhikrta 1 78 
Mahaksapatal-adhyaksa 1 78 
Mahaksapatalika 14, 178 
Mahaksapatalika-nirlksita 1 78 
Mahaksapatalin 178 
Mahaksatrapa 163, 178 
Mahakulapati 1 78 
Mahakumara 178 
Mahakumaramatya 178 
mahalaya 178, 214 
Mahale 178 
Mahaleka 178 
Mahallaka 178 
Mahallaka 178 
Mahallika 179 
mahalloka 181 
Maham 179 

Mahamahadevi 176, 179 
Mahamahantaka 1 79 
Mahamahattaka 179, 186, 190 
Mahamahattama 179 
Mahamahattara 12, 179 
mahamahavaruni 179, 191, 


Mahamahisi 11, 179, 192 
Mahamahopadhaya 179 
mahamakha 179 
mahamai 1 79 
MahamandaJa-cakravartin 1 79 



Mahamanclal-adhipati 1 79 
Mahamandala-natha 1 79 
Mahamandalesvara 1 79-80, 

188, 192, 195 
Mahamandalesvar-adhipati 1 80, 


Mahamandalika 180 
mahamandapa 180, 205 
Mahamantrin 180, 198 
Mahamanusya 180, 184 
Mahamata 180 
Mahamatra 22, 93, 180, 192- 

93, 201, 209 
Mahamatragana 1 80 

rika 180 

mahamatrka 29, 181 
Mahamatya 17, 181, 183 
Mahamatya-Pratihara 1 84 
Mahamatya-vara 181 

158, 181 

Mahamisra-pandita 203 
Mahamudr-adhikrta 181 
Mahamudr-amatya 181 
Maha-Mula 164, 174 
maha-muraja 181 
Mahana 181 

Mahanad-prabhu 181, 246 
maha-nadu 181 
maha-nagara 181 
mahanaloka 181 
Mahanas-adhyaksa 49, 153, 

181, 328 

Mahanasika 49, 153, 181, 328 
mahanavami 181 
mahanavami-ainavasya 17, 181 
Mahanavika 181 
Mahanayaka 181 
maha-ni 181 
maha-niyoga 182 
Mahant 182 

Mahantaka 179, 181, 182 
Mahanta-maharaja 185,251 
Mahapadamulika 63, 182 
Mahapalupati 182, 183 
mahapana 182, 435 
Mahapancakulika, Mahapan- 

cakulika 182 
Mahapandhakulika 132 
Mahapandita 182 
maha-papa 182 
Mahaparamavisvasin 182-83, 

269, 303 

mahaparinirvana 182, 219 
mahaparsad 182 
mahaparsika 182 
maha-parvan 182 
Mahapasayita 22, 80, 182-83, 

187, 303 
Mahapatra 106, 153, 166, 182, 


Mahaperiyapradhana 1 82 
Mahapilupati 182-84, 229, 

247, 250, 265 
Mahaprabhu 183, 253 
Mahapracanda 183 


Mahapracanda-nayaka 1 83 
Mahapradhana 4, 22, 80, 129, 

138, 181-83, 187-88, 196, 

237, 303, 308-09 
Mahapradhana-nayaka 1 83 
Mahapradhani 183, 254, 313 
Mahapramatara 183-84 
Mahapramatr 183-84 
Mahapramatra 183-84 
Mahapramattavara 183-84 
Maha-prati 184 
Mahapratihara, Mahaprati- 

hara 175-76, 183-84, 187, 

247, 259, 265 
maha-pratoli 1 84 
Mahapurohita 1 84 
Mahapurohita-thakkura 184,244 
Mahapurusa 184 
Mahara 184 

Maharaja 52, 93, 153, 182, 
184-87, 229, 247, 265, 352 
Maharaja-bappa-svamin 185 
Maharajadhi 185 
Maharajadhiraja 185, 235, 

237, 274 ^ 




Maharajadhirajapati 185 
Maharajakula 185-86 
Maharajakumara 185 
Maharaja-mata 185 
Maharajanaka 185 
Maharajapandita 185 
Maharaja-pitamahi 1 85 
Maharaja-prayojana 185,410 
Maharaja-putra 185-86 
Maharajasa 46 
Maharajasa Rajadirajasa maha- 

tasa 46 
Maharajasa Rajarajasa maha- 

tasa 46 


Maharajasya 46 
Maharajm 185, 274 
Maharajatiraja 185 
maharajya 185 
Maharana 181, 185 
maharana 210 
Maharanaka 185-86 
maharasa-karana 146, 186 
Maharastrin 186, 278 
Maharastrim 1 86 
Maharathi 186 
Maharathi 186 
Maharathin 186 
Maharathim 186 
Maharaula 1 86 
Maharauta 186 
Maharava 186 
Maharaval 185, 186 
Maharaya 1 86 
Mahari, Maharl, Mahari 84, 


Mahartha 186 


Maharthasasanika 184, 186 
Maharunda 186, 282 
Mah-aryaka 186 
maha-sabda 175, 186,283, 288 
maha-sabha 186, 191, 283,353 
mahasadhanabhaga 187 
Mahasadhanika 187, 246 

Mahasaham 187 
Mahasahasika 187 
Mahasainyapati 176, 187 
mahasala 115 
mahasali 187 

Mahasamanta 80, 175, 182-85, 
187-88, 229, 247, 265, 289, 

Mahasamantadhipati 4, 103, 
180-81, 183, 187-88, 276, 
289, 290 

bhoga 54 

Mahasamantaraja 188 
mahasam-karana-ni 187 


adhikrta 188 



adhikrta 188 

adhipati 14, 188 
Mahasandhivigrahika 1 88 
Mahasandhivigrahika 113, 

182, 187-88 

nirlksita 187 

182, 188 
Mahasandhivigrahin 63, 129, 


mahasa-ni 188 
mahasaptami 188 
Mahasarvadandanayaka 80, 

175, 189 

Mahasarvadhikrta 189, 303 
maha-sati 1 89 
Mahasattrapati 189 
Mahasenadhipati 189, 308 
Mahasenam 189 
Mahasenapati 187, 189 
Mahasenapatm 189 
Mahasirah-Pradham 1 89 



Mahasramana 1 89 
Mahasresthin 189 
mahasthana 189, 322 
Mahasthavira 189 
mahasulka 128 
Mahasvamika 189 
Mahasvapati 189 
Mahasvasadhanika 189 
mahasvasala 189 
Mahasvasal-adhikrta 189 
mahat 230 
Mahata 190 
Mahatalavara 190, 334 
Mahatalavari 1 90 
mahatantra 190 
Mahatantradhikrta 190, 337 
Mahatantradhyaksa 190, 337 
Mahathakkura 190 
mahatirtha 190 
mahatithi 190, 341 
Mahatman 190 
mahatmya 190, 322 
Mahato 190-91 
mahatorana 190 
mahatrana 191 
Mahattaka 179, 190, 202 
Mahattama 172, 179, 190 
Mahattara 11, 51, 121, 179, 

184, 190-91 

rana 32, 191 
Mahattaraka 191 
Mahavaddavyavahari, Maha- 

vaddavyavaharin 191, 357 
Mahavalakosthika 191, 360 
Mahavalakosthika 191, 360 
maha-varunl 179, 191, 366 
mahavihara 191 
Mahavihara-svarnin 191 
mahavihar-ayatana 191 
Mahavinayadhara 191 
Mahavira 375 
Mahavratin 191 
Mahavrddhavyavaharin 191 
maha-vyavastha 191 
Mahavyuhapati 191 
mahayajfia 10, 36, 45, 62, 67, 

192, 198, 359 

Mahayuvaraja 192, 387 
Mahendraditya 192 
Mahesvara 192, 236, 281 
mahesvara 192 
Mahesvara 192, 236, 330 
Mahesvara-Kankani 143 
Mahesvara-putra 192 
Maheta 172, 191 
mahi 192 
mahidhara 192 
Mahimada 192 
Mahimandalesvara 192 

aksa 158 
mahisa-kara 192 
Mahisi 11, 179, 192 
mahis-ostra-bharaka 50 
Mahmud 192 
Mahodaya 192 
mah-odratiga 192, 349 
Mahopadhyaya 192 
Mahto 190 
Mahut 192 
mahya 192 
maira 192 
Maithili 192 
maithuna 192 
maitri 52, 192 
majigiti 203 
Majur 197 
makara 193 

makara-sahkramana 192 
Makara-sarikranti 192 
makaratorana 190, 192, 


makarika 193 
makarikapatra 193 
makkal-peru 417 
makuti 193 
Makutika 193 
mala 193 
Malaca-putti 268 
Maladhari 193 
malai 193 
Malakara 193 
malamargana 193 
Malava-gan-amnata 193 
Malava-gana-sthiti 193 



Malava-gana-sthiti-vasat = 

kalajnanaya likhitesu 

Malavanam gana-sthitya yate 

sata-catustaye 324 
Malava-purva 193 
malavero 193 
Malavl 193 
Malavlya 193 
malaya 193 
Malayalam 193 
Maleya-sahani 193, 249, 


maliga-kkol 159 
Malik 193 
Malik-us-Sair 331 
Malima 183 
Malm 193 
Malla 193 
mallaka 193, 333 
malla-kara 1 93 
mallaka- vundhaka 193 
malla-mada 172, 435-36 
mallanandi-mada 172, 435 
mallayi-maghamai 417 
Mallika 193 
mamagam 417 
Mamatrai 180, 193 
Mamdavika 196 
mamksuna, mamksuna 100, 

193,' 435 

Mamjhi-Hosa 330 
Mamlatdar 44 
mamul-adaya 193 
man 194 

mana, mana 124, 194, 368 
mana-bhoga 194 
mana-danda 194 
manai-irai 122 


manai-ppanam 122, 413, 417 
manai-vari 417 
manaiy-irai 417 
manaka 194 
manak-aikam yavat ksunam 

nahi 164 
maham 197 

mana-pautava 194, 199 

mana-stambha 194 

manavarti 194, 198 

manavarlika 194 

manav-irai 413 

Manavya 194 

manayitva 194 

mafica 194, 401 

manda 194, 435 

mandai 194 

mandai-ppanam 417 

mandaka 194 

mandala 49, 57-58, 64, 86, 

161, 180, 194-95, 277, 312, 

327, 377,380, 417 
Mandal-acarya 195, 245 
Mandal-adhipati 195 
Mandala-ganin 195 
mandala-karana 195 
Mandala-mudaliyar 195 
mandala-mudanmai 195 
mandala-mudanmai-pperu 417 
Mandalapati 195 
Mandalesa 195 
Mandalesvara 180, 195 
Mandalika 180, 195 
Mandalika 195 
Mandalika 195 
mandapa 2-3, 11, 23, 44-45, 

72, 194-95, 292, 366 

pratimadana 134 
Mandapika 196 
mandapika 194-96 
mandapik-adaya 196 
mandapika-karana 145, 196 
mandapika-pattaka 196 
Mandavi 196 
mandavi 195-96 
mandavo 196 
Mandhata Dhundhumara$ = 

ca, etc. 300 
mandl 194, 196 
Mane-vergade 22, 129, 183, 

188, 196 ' 

pati 196, 290, 303 
mangala 70, 140, 196, 331 



maiigala-kalasa 197 
marigal-aratrika 27 
Marigala-vara 172 
mangalika 197 
mangalikya 197 
mangaliyaka 197 
marigalya 197, 335 
mangani, marigam 197 
mafigiliyam 197 
mani 20, 197 
mani 197 
mani 197 
mani 197 
mani-bhanda 197 
mani-bhandalu 197 
mani-grama 197 
manika 197 
Manikara 5, 197 


manikya-bhandara 197 
Manin 197 
manine 194 
Manisi 198 
manita 197 
manjadi 197, 203, 417, 425, 

433, 435, 439 
Manjura 197 
manjusa 197 
man-madil 417 
Manneya 197-98, 330 
manneya-svamya 198, 330 
Manmdu 197-98 
Manniya 197-98 
manohari 198 
mano-'tireka 36, 198 
manovarti 194, 198 
marrupadu 239 
Mansabdar 81 
mantapa 194 
manthana-yantraka 198 
mantra 198, 265 
mantra-deva-manuj a-bhuta- 

pitrgana 198 
Mantrapala 198 
Mantrapuspa 198 
mantra-sakti 198 
mantra-snana 198 

Mantrin 166, 172, 174, 180, 

198, 254, 336 

mantri-parisad 17, 198, 240 
Manu 198 
Manusya 198 
manusya-yajna 198 
manusy-opaga 351 
manuvrtti 194, 198-99 
manvadi 198 
Manya 197-98 
manya 29, 54, 198-99, 211 
manya 194 

manya-kanike 199, 217 
manyaka-pattu 199 
manya-sthiti"l 98-99 
manyavantara-rastra 199 
manya-vrtti 194, 'l 98-99 
mappadakku 417 
mappanam 182, 199, 417, 

435 ' 

mappattadai 417 
mar 199 
mara 199 

mara-kkadamai 417 
maramakkatayam 199 
mara-manjadi 417 
mara-ppattadai 417 
Marathi 199 
maravadai 199 
Marga 199 

marg-adaya 2, 199-200, 417 
margaka 199 
Margali 411 
margam 417 
margana 199 
marganaka 2, 199 
marganika 199 
Margapa 199 
Margapala 199 
Margapati 8, 199-200 
Margasiras 199 
Margaslrsa 11, 199 
Margesa 200 
marici 200, 435 
marisadi 200, 417 
mariyadi 200, 417 
marjadi 200, 417 
Marjhaka 200 



martanda 200 

marturu 1 50 

marumanna 350 

marusadi 200 

marutu 200 

maruturu 114, 140, 200, 202, 


Marvadi 200 
Marwari 200 
maryada 200 
Maryada-dhurya 200 
maryada-parihara 200, 238 
masa 200 
masa 9, 19, 28, 100, 108, 129, 

179, 194,200,250,294,329, 

385, 428-30, 432-33, 435-37, 

439-40, 442 
masa 173 
Masaham 187 
masaka 173, 200, 435 
masardha 200 
ma-sati 189 
Masu 200 
masura 200 
mat 292 
mata 200-01 

matarh mama amukasya 201-02 
matariga 201 


mata-pitr-pad-anudhyata 201 
Matarah 201 
matha 201, 363 
Math-adhipati 136, 201, 204 
Mathapati 201 
mathapatya 201 
matha-sthana 201 
mathika 201 
Mati-saciva 148, 201 
Matr 201 

Matra 180, 201, 255 
matra-gana 18 
Matr-gana 201 
matr-mandala 195, 201 
matsy-akara 201 
matsya-nyaya 201 
matsyini c=aiva naidhani, etc. 


matta 202 

mattal 202 

mattar 200, 202, 231 

mattaru 125, 141, 202, 321 

matta-skandha 202 

matta-skandha-rahita 202 

matti 201 

Mattiva 202 

mattu 202 

mattukkarai 417 

maiikha 202 

maulika 202 

mauna 205 

mavada 202 

mavadai 202 

mavinda-kkadamai 418 

Mayamata 368 

mayura 202 

mayuta 202 

Me 202 

medi 202 

medhi 202 

medhi-haraka 202 

medhya 202 

meghadambara 202 

Meha 202 

Mehara 202 

Meharl 186, 202 

Mehta 191, 202 

meladi 418 

Melakaran 358 

melapaka 202 

meli 202 

Mel-santi 202, 299 

mel-varam 330 

mel-vetta-pperu 418 

melvittiya-vad^aravula 202, 


meni-ppon 418 
mera 202 
merai 418 
Meridarkha 202 
Meridarkhes 202 
mer-padi-kaval 418 
meru 202 

mesa-sankranti 203, 342 
mettu-nilam 418 
meya 203, 345 



meykaval 203 
meyppan 417 
mijigiti 94 
milagu-taragu 418 
milita-potta-dramma 252 
milivalita 203 
mm-pattam 415, 420 
misra 203 
mita 203 
Mithika 203 
miti 203 

mithuna-rasi 283 
mitra-samstuta-jnati 292 
Mleccha 203 
Mlecchesvara 203 
moci, moci 203 
modala-vada 120, 203 
modati 203 
modina 203 
mogaru 306 
Mohini 203 
mokalavum 207 
mokiraka 203 
moksa 140, 218 
monampattam 418 
mrda 203, 264, 435, 438 
mrga 203 
mrgarika 203 
mrtyuka-vrtti 203, 275, 281, 


mta 292 
Mualim 193 
Muazzin 203 
muda 204, 207 
mudaka 204 
Mudal 204 
mudal 204 
mudala 204 
Mudali 204 
Mudaliyar 201, 204 
mudal-tiramam 418, 436 
mudarriramam 418, 436 
Mudiratha 204 
mudita 204 
mudra 1, 92, 204 
Mudr-adhikarin 181, 204, 271 
Mudr-adhyaksa 204 
Mudrahasta 204 

mudr-apacara 204 
mudra-sankha 204 
mudra-vyapara 204, 302, 382 
Mududa 204, 206-07 
muga-mandaka 205 
muggada '343, 344 
Muhammad 192 
muha-patti 205 
muhurta 205 
mukha 205 
mukh-ahara 162, 205 
mukha-kattana 205 
mukha-mandapa 23, 155, 180, 


mukha-mudra 205 
Mukhiya 205 
mukhta 205 
Mukhya 205 
mukhya 7, 202, 205 
mukkutti 205 
mukta 5, 205 
mukti-bhumi 205 
mukt-oparikara 395 


Mula 174 
mula 205 
Mula-bhrtya 205 
mula-gabharo 205 
mulaitana 205 
Mula-nayaka 205, 206 
mula-olai 283 

mula-paraqlai, mula-paridai 206 
mula-parisad 206 
mula-parisai 206 
mula-parudai 206 
Mula-prakrti 206 
mula-pramana 255 
Mularatnabhandarastha 206 
Mularatnabhandarattar 206 
mula-sadhana 283 
Mula-saiigha 206 
mula-sthana 206 
mula-ttanam 206 
mula-visa 206 
Mulia 206 
Mulika 206 
mulladisinnam 418 



Muluda Muluda, 207, 313 

mulya 206 

Mummudi 131, 206, 221 

Mummudi-cola 206 

mummuri-darida 206 

mumoda 206 

murhsala 306 

Mu-na 206 

munda 109 

mundamola 206 

mundiri 206 

mungil-vari 418 

muni 206 

mura 207 

muraka 207 

murti 207 

Murunda 207 

Musara-varu 207 

musti 207 

mutaka 207 

mutaka 204, 207 

muth 207 

mu-ti 207 

mutirigai 207 

mutkalamya 207 

mutt-adhikaram 204 

muttavanam 418 

muttavarana 207 

muttirai-ccarigu 204 

Mutuda 204, 206-07, 313 


na 207 

nabhas 207 

na-bhii 207 

nad 207 

nada 207 

Nada-gamunda 109 

Nada-gauda 207-08, 212 

nadaka 207 

Nada-Senabova 207 

n=adheyam na ca vikreyam 6 

nadl 207 

nadi-kula 208 

nadlpala 208 

naditara-sthana 208 

nadlyaka 207 

nadu 109, 161, 199, 207-08, 
212, 214, 360, 418-19 

Nadu-gauda 207 

naduka 207-08 

nadu-kaval 239, 418 

nadu-talaiyarikkam 418 

nadu-upadi 419 

naga 208 

naga 208 

nagadala 208 

Nagakara 208 

nagakesara 69 

Nagala-viyohalaka 209 

nagamavasya 208 

nagara 181, 208, 210, 214, 232 

Nagar-adhikrta 208 

Nagar-adhipa 208 

Nagaraka 208-09 

Nagar-aksadarsa 209 

Nagara-mahallaka 209 

nagar-amavasya. 208 

nagara-parivara 209 

Nagarapati 209, 332 

Nagara-raksaka 209, 334 

Nagararaksin 209 

Nagarasresthin 72, 165, 209, 
266,309-10, 317 

Nagarastha 209 

Nagara-svamin 209 

Nagarattar 209 

Nagara-vyavaharika 209, 248 

tra 180 

nagarl 208-09 

Nagarika 208-09 

Nagarseth 72, 209, 309-10 

naga-vana 209, 361 

naibandhika 5 

naidham-sila 210 

Naigama 210, 216 

naijayamana 210 

Naimittika 210 

nairgamika 210 

naivedya 33, 210, 220 

Naiyamika, Naiyamika 210 

Naiyavika 210 

Naiyogika 210, 221 

Naiyyoka 210 



nakara 208, 210 

nakha 210 

nakhara 208, 210 

Nakhuda 210 

naksatra 28, 134, 210 

nala 207, 210 

nala 210,305,436 

nala 211, 252 

nala-bhumi 207, 211 

Nalayira 253 

Nalayiradivyaprabandham 253 

nali 306 

nali 211, 239 

nali 2 11, 426 

nali 211, 260 

nalika 211 

nalikavapa 211 

nal-kasu 150, 418 

nal-kida 418 

nalla 239 

nall-anai-accu 4, 436 

nall-erudu 239, 418 

nall-erumai 418 

nalu 211 

naluka 211 

nalva 211 

nama-grha 211 

namaka 211 

namakarana 211 

nama-liriga 211 

namas 211 

namaskara 213 

namasya 192, 211 

namasya-vrtti 27, 198, 211, 


namghar 211 
nama 436 
nana 211 
Nanadesi, Nanadesin, 183, 

211, 2_91, 330, 346,356 
nana-grama-jana-patitvat 243 
nanai, nanai 211, 436 
nanaka 211, 436 
nana-vrksa-sameta 395, 405 
nanda 211 

nanda-dipa 13, 211-12 
nanda-divige 211 
nandavana, nandavana 212 

nanda-vilakku 212, 296 
nandimukha 212 
nandi-samarohana 212 
nandesvar-astami 212 
nahga 211 

nahge grhita 211-12 
Nam 211 
naptr 212, 256 
naptrka 212 
nar 208-09 
Naradhipati 212 
narajl 306 
Narapati212, 345 
Narasvamin 212 
Narayana-baly-upahara 45 
Narayana-puja 45 
Narendra 133 
Nar-gamunda 1 09 
Nar-gavunda 207, 212 


narikela 212, 399 
narikera 399 
nar-kida 418 
Narma-saciva 212 
Nasatya 212 
nasme 256 
nasta 212 
nastabharata 212 
nasta-rajya 212 
nastibharata 212 
Nata 212 

nataka-sala 212, 213 
Na'tha 212 
natika 212 
nat-kasu 150, 436 
Nattakara 212 
Nattavar 212 
nattu-kkanakkuvari 418 
nattupati 419 
nattu-viniyogam 419 
natu-kkanikkai 418 

aj-avik-adi-vyaprta 213 

ajavik-adi-vyaprtaka 128 
naudanda 213 
nauka-bhataka 31, "2I3/ " 



nauka-bandha 213 
Nauk-adhyaksa 127, 213 
nau-krama 213 
naupatha 213 
Nauvaha 213 
Nauvataka 27, 213 
Nauvittaka 213 
nava-catuskika 213 
nava-coki 213 
nava-garbha 112 
Navagrama-dranga 100 
navah 213 
nava-kama 213 
Navakamika 213 
navakara 213 
nava-karman 213 
Navakarmapati 213 
Navakarmika 213 
Navakarmin 213 
nava-karuman 213 
nava-khanda 155, 214 
navamga 214 
navamika 214 

bhaj 120 

navanavaty-acarena 4 
navanga 214 

navanga-Sastr-sasana 214 
nava-nidhana 214, 216 
nava-nidhana-sahita 214, 396 
navara 214 
nava-ratna 214 
navaratra, navaratri 214 
navaratri-amavasya 17, 214 
navataku 345 
navatara-bhumi 214 
navina-pafij ika-karana 214 
naya 214 
Nayaka 51, 183, 212, 214-15, 

266, 323 

nayaka-naraka 214 
Nayakavadi 214 
nayana 214 
nayahkara 214 
nayahkara 214 
Nayinar 215 
nazrana84, 143, 148, 215, 238, 

248, 362, 421 

Negama 210 

nelevldu 314, 324 

nell-ayam 91, 215, 419 

nellur-madai 173, 436 

nellur-ppudu-madai 173 

nemaka 215 

ner 208 

neri 209 

ner-kadamai 419 

nerv-aypuvum 239 

netra 16-17, 65, 102, 214- 


nettara-godaga 215 
nev 220 
nevam 220 
ney 419 
ni 102, 178, 182, 188,215, 218, 


nibaddha 102, 178 
ni-bandh 215 
nibandha 215, 220 
nibarava 215 
mca 215 

mcocca-masa 153, 215 
nidana 216, 402 
nidhana 396, 398 
nidhan-alipaka, nidhan-alipaka 

16, 216 


dhana-dosa-samanvita 402 
nidhi 30, '216-17, 351, 402, 


nidhi-niksepa 31, 216-17, 408 

catu s-prakara-biravana- 

parikh-aya-sahita 3 1 , 60, 

216, 392, 396 

dand-opajataka-sahita 396 
nidhi-niksepa-sahita 361, 396 
nidhi-vamphaya-sahita 361 
nidhyapti 24, 216 
nidhyayana 216 
nidhy-upanidhi 216 


sairieta 396- < - - 



nidra-kalasa 197, 216 

nigama 9, 216, 268 

Nigama-putra 210, 216, 268 

nigama-sabha 216 

nigraha 216 

Nihelapati 216 

Nihilapati 216 

Nihsarikapratapa 65 

nihsara 216 

nija 210, 215 

nija-manoharya 198 

nijhati 216 

nikara 199, 217, 351-52, 354 

nikaya 217 

Nikephoros 217 

niksepa 30-31, 216-17, 351, 

396, 400, 402, 405 
mla-dumphaka 102, 217 
nila-kutl 168, 217 
nilam 368 

nilattirappu-kadamai 419 
nilaya'217, 338 
nimanda 215 
nimantrana 217 
nimitta 217 
nimn-onnata 217 
nindana 217 
nindavum 217 
ninrairai 217 
nipana 217 

nipratisthapita 217, 220 
nlra-grha 217 
nirajana 27, 217 
niranikka-vari 419 
nirasta 218 
nirasti 218 
niravakara 38, 218 
nirayana 218 
nirgama 9 

Nirgranthanatha 218 
niriksita 102, 215, 218 
mr-kkanam 419 
nirlaksana 218 
nirlaksitavya 170 
nir-neia 218 
mr-nilai-kkasu 419 
mroga 218 
mrudhya 218 ' , 

niru-nela 218 

niruni-sunka 419 

Nirupa 218 

nirupa 218 

nirupa-ccambadam 333 

nirupana 218 

nirupita 218 

nirupita-danda 218, 221 

nirvacamya 218 

nir-vah 218 

Nirvaha 218 

nirvaha 218 

nirvahamya 218 

nirvaha-sabha 218 

nirvana 95, 140, 218, 370 

nirvapa 219 

mr-vilai 419 

nirvrtti 219, 369 

Niryamaka 219 

niryatita 219 

niryoga-ksema 219 

nisadam 219 

nisadi 219 

nisadya 219 

nisarhga 306 

nisedha 219 

nisedhah karitah 383 

nisedhika 219 



nisidhaya 219 
nisidhi, nisidhi, nisidhi, nisidhi, 

nisidhi, nisidi 219 
nisidigai 219 
nisidika 219 
nisidiya 219 
nisima 219-20 
niska 100, 111, 149, 219, 294, 

305, 430-32, 434, 436, 439-40 
niskavala 219 
nislistaka 219 
nisra-niksepa-hatta 220 
nissarena 216 
nissima 219-20 
nisthapita 220 
nisthita 220 
nitya 220 
nivanda 215, 220 



Nivandakkarar 215 
mva-pata 220 

nivartana 116, 125, 145, 200, 
202, 220, 246-47, 321 

nivartanin 220 
Nivasin 260 
nivata 406 
nivedanika 220 
nivedya 220 
nivesa 220 
nivesana 220 
nivesita 220 
mvi, nlvi 15, 26, 220 
mvi-dharma 26, 220 
mvika 15 
nivita 220 
nivrt 220 
niyama 32 
niyata-bhoga 220 
niyat-aniyata 21, 221 
niyayam 221 
Niyayattar 221-22 
niyoga 221 
Niyoganiyukta 221 
Niyogastha 221 
Niyogi 221 
Niyogika 7, 210, 221 
Niyogin 210, 221, 237 
Niyukta 221 21, 237 
niyukta-Danda218, 221 
niyukta-danda 218, 221 
Niyuktaka 221, 353 
Niyuktak-adhikarika 221 

niyukt-aniyukta-rajapurusa 21 

nonda 212 

nrpa 221 

nrtya-bhoga 221 

nul-ayam 419 

nunda 212 

Nurmadi 131, 206, 221 

Nurmadi-Taila 221 

nyaya 221 

Nyaya-karanika 222 

Nyayastha 221-22 

Nyayattar 221-22 

nyaya-vada 222 

obo!431, 436 
Odaya 222 
Odayantrika 37, 222 
Odiya 80, 222 
ogho 222, 274 
ohoru 222 
Oja 222 
Ojha 222 
okapinda 37, 222 
olaga 38 
olai 333 

olai-ccadanam 333 
olai-ccambalam 333 
olai-ccammadam 333 
olai-ccampadam 333 
olai-nayaka 333 
Ollpata 222 
Oli-vannar-parai 419 
om 222* 
om 222 
Ontudaru 222 

opadi 350, 353 

Opasati 37 

opeta 353 

Oriya 222 

oru-pu 106 

ostha 222 

otada, otada 159, 222 

otadi 222 

ovaraka 25 

Pa 223 
Pa 223 
pa 223 
pabasana 223 
pacana 223 
paccai 419 

paccai-ppanam 419 
paccai-ppattam 419 
pada 223 
pa^a 223 
pada 223 



pada 224 

pada 125, 223-24 

pada 223 

Pada-bhakta 223-24 

Padacarin 223 

padaga 223 

padaga, padagam 165, 223 

pada-ghata 223 

padai-kkanikkai 419 

Padaikkanvar 223 

padaiparru 223 

padai-ppanam 419, 421 

padaka 223 

pada-kanikkai 224 

Padakara 223 

padakka 223 

pada-kula 223 

pada-lekhyaka 224 

padaligai, padalikai 224, 243 

padmanidhi-mallamada 1 73 

Padamula 224 

padamulattar 224 

Padamulika 206, 244 

padan-kali 419 

Pad-anudhyana-rata 24, 223-24 

Pad-anudhyata 24, 223-24 

Pada-padm-opajivin 224-25 

Pada-pasa 224 

Pada-pind-opajivin 224-25 

pada-pitha 224 

pada-puspa 224 

padar 226 

pada-raksa 224 

pada-ratcai 224 

Padasaiva 224 

Padasala 246 

pada-sanghata, pada-sanghata 

224, 297 
pada-sevana 33 
Padati 395 
padati-jlva 224 
padati-jivya 224, 226, 399 
Padatika 225-26 
padava-kkani 225 
padavara, paduvara 225-26, 


pa<Javari 419 
padavarta, padavarta 225 

padavi 225 

pada-vimsaka, pada-vimsatika, 

pada-vimsopaka 227, 248, 


pada-vimsopaka, pada-vim- 
saka 225, 436 
Padesika 253 
padi 18, 225 
Padihasta 259 
Padihara 225 
padika 259 
padika 225 

padikaval, padikkaval 225,419 
Padinenkilkanakku 296 
Padira'225, 260 
Padisaha 225, 244 
Padishah 225,244 
padi-vinjanam 261 
Padiyari 225 
padma-bandha 225 
padma-nidhi 225 
padmanidhi-mallamada 225, 


padma-pltha 225 
padma-sadman 225 
padm-asana 225 
padma-vrtta 225 
pado 242 

Padonalaksa 225, 299 
Pad-opajlvin 224-25 
padra 225-26 
padraka 225-26 
padriyaka 225 
Padshah 243-44, 247 
paduccalagai-accu 4, 436 
paduka 223, 226 
paduka, paduka 226 
paduka-pata 226 
paduka-patta, paduka-patta226 
paduka-patti 226 
paduvara, paduvaram 225-26, 


paga 125, 226, 429, 432, 436 
paghdi 53, 148, 226, 334 
pagod 226 
pagoda 72, 74, 108, 130, 173, 

225-27, 241, 363, 376, 429, 

433, 435-37, 441 



pahuda 226 
pahuda-pramanena 226 
paidi 249 
Paik 46, 51, 57, 68, 73, 155, 

224-26, 250, 388-89, 395, 


paika 226 
paikali 224, 226 
paikamu 108, 228, 432, 436 
paila 227 
Pain<Japatika 227 
paisa 225, 227, 248, 436-37, 


Paitakin 227 
pajuga-patl 226 
paka-badi 227 
paka-danda 227 
pakhi 227 

pakhila 227, 351, 400 
pakkinam 49 
paksa'l_27, 200, 227 
paksa-pata 227 
paks-astami 32 
pakt-atayam 49 
paku-valayam 43 
pakva 227 
pakva-pura 227 
pala 50, 79, 153, 215, 227, 

250-51, 305, 341-42, 376, 

430, 436-37, 439-40 
pala 225 
pala 227 
Palaka 227 
pala-kaya 227 
palam 151 

palampulli-macjai 227, 436 
palamudal-anai-accu 4, 436 
pajanel 419 
Palaniyayam 227 
palanjalagai-accu 4, 436 
palan-kasu 150, 436 
palan-salagai-accu 287, 436-37, 


palapana 227 
palardha 227, 437 
pajtavavum 227 
Pali 227 
pali 227-28 

pali-dhvaja 228 

palika 228 

palika 228 

pali-ketana 228 

palikka-ppattam 419 

paliya 228 

palla(Jika 228 

Pallanakara 241 

pallava 228 

paffi 228 

paJH 228 

pajli-ccanda, palli-ccandam 
228, 271 

palli-cchanda 228 

palli-deva 228 

palli-grama 228 

pallika 228 

pajo 227 

palola 228 

Pam 228 

pamca-nikaya 231 

Parhnyasa 228 

pana 29, 43, 86, 90, 107, 110, 
126, 137-38, 149, 173, 200, 
206, 228-29, 315, 376, 380, 
428, 430-35, 437, 439-42 

pana 217 

panaka 229 

panam 107, 150, 228-29, 417, 
419-20, 431, 437 

pana-purana 144, 229, 265, 437 

panatika 256 

panava 229 

pana-vargam 229, 419, 437 

pana-vasi 229, 420, 437 

Panavika 229 

Pafic 231 

panca 21, 229, 232, 437 

panca-bhaksya 232 

Panc-acarya 229 

paficadhara 229 

Panc-adhikaran-oparika 1 83, 
185, 229, 247 

panca-dravya 229 

panca-garbha 112 

panca-gavya 229 

Pancahana 229 

Paficahanamvaru 229 



Paficait 231 
paficaka 229 
pancaka 229, 231 
Pancakalpin 229 
panca-kammalar 230 
Panca-karan-adhikrta 229, 300 
Pafica-karan-oparika 184, 187, 


pancakarmara 4, 230 
pancaka-sala-pratya 230 
pancakula 69, 182, 229-30, 

232-33, 437 
Paficakulika 69, 230 
Pancala 230 
Pancala 229 
Pancaladesiya-kulanarh guna- 

patra-vidhih 124 
Panca-lagudik'a 230 
Pancalamvaru 230 
pancalangala 230 
Pancalattar 4, 230 
pancalav-accu 4, 437 
Pancali 230 
pancali 230 
Pancalika 230 
panca-mahaninada 230 
panca-mahapataka 230, 232, 

panca-mahasabda 30, 174-75, 

177, 184-89, 230-33, 257, 

panca-mahavady a 230-31, 

pafica-mahayajna 192, 198, 

231, 351 
panca-mahayaj fia-kriy-otsar- 

pan-artham 355 
Pancama-lokapala 172, 231 
panca-mandali 229, 231 
panca-masattam 231 
panca-matrka 231 
pafica-mau stika-loca 231 
paficami-bali 231 
panoamrta 231 
panca-mukhanagara 205, 231 

panca-nagara 208, 232 

Paficanaikayika 232-33 
panc-anantarya 230, 232 
Pancanga 341 
paficahga 232 

panc-anga-namaskara 33, 232 
pancanga-pasaya 232 
paficanga-pasaya-chatra-su kha- 


danda-khandane 232 
pancahga-prasada 21, 44, 73, 

107, 232, 326 
pancapa 230, 232 
panc-aparadha 232 
paficaparamesthi-pada 232 
Pancapathin 332 
panca-patra 232 
panca-Pradhanah 254 
panca-ratna 232 
Pancartha 232 

Pancarthika, Pancarthika 232 
panca-sabda 232, 283 
paficasat 232, 234 
panc-asta-kula 233 
Pancastupanikayika 233 
panca-vadya 231, 233 
panca-varam 233 
pafica-varav-ur-idu-vari 420 
pancavara-variyam 233 
pafica-variyam 420 
panca-varna 21, 126 
pancavimsati 233-34 
Pancavlra 230, 233 
paficavira-gosthl 233 
Pancayat 32,"69, 71-72, 121, 

165, 178, 182, 184, 190,209, 

216, 229-31, 233, 257-58, 


panc-ayatana 233 
pancayati 233 
Paficika 233 
paficiyaka-dramma 100,233, 


paficoli 229, 233 
paficupili, pancu-ppili 233, 


Pan^a 233, 364 
pancjara-kkal 50 
pan^ara-kkankani 50 



pandaram 50 

pandaravadai 233 

pandava 233 

panda-vetti 420 

Pandita 184, 228, 233, 244 

pandivari 420 

pandu-lekha 233 

pandu-lekhya 233 

pandu-putra 268 

pandu-suta 233, 328 

panga 233-34, 396, 403 

panga 233 

panga-parihrta 234 

pariga-parihrta-parihara 234 

panga-sulka* 234 

panga-tappu 234 

panga- tappu-sulka 234 

pahg-otkota 234 

pahgu 234 

pani 234, 329, 437, 440 

Panigrahin 234 

pani-kkottu 420 

pamya-bhajana 234 

paniya-chaya-mandapa 234 

Pamy-agarika 1, 234 

Pamya-grahin 234 

Pamyagrhika 234 

pamyaka 234 

Panjabi 234 

panjupili 420 

panka 234 

pankti 234 

pan-kuruni 420 

pannasa, pannasa 27, 173, 232, 


pannasu 234 
pannavisa 233-34 
pannaya 4, 234, 420 
Pannayadasuhkavergade 234 
pan-sopari 373 
pantha-sala 235 
panya-sarhstha 235 
papanasim 176, 235 
Para 235, 264 
para 66-67, 235, 389 
para 254 
parabrahman 235 
paradai 235, 240 

paradatti 235 

Para-desi, Para-desin 235, 346, 


paragana 235 
Paragandabhairava 110 
parai-kkanam 420 
parai-ttari 420 
paraiy-irai 420 
Parakesari-kal 235 
Parakesari-kkal 235 
Parakesari-nali 235 
Parakesari-ulakku 235 
parakhya 235 
parakona 235 
para-kram 235 
parakrama 235 

Parama-bhagavata 235, 237 
Parama-bhagavati-bhakta 235 
Paramabhattaraka 185, 235- 

37, 274 
Paramabhattarak- ety-adi- 

rajavali 235-36 

vali-tray-opeta 236, 276 


dhyata 52 

Paramabhattarika 236 
Parama-brahmanya 35, 61, 


Parama-daivata 236 


Parama-devat-adhidaivata 236 
Paramadevi 236 
Paramadiksita 236 
Param-aditya-bhakta 236-37 
Parama-guru 236 

vata-visesa 236 
Paramahamsa 125, 236 
Parama-mahesvara 236 
Parama-narasirhha 236 

Parama-pasupat-acarya 236 
Paramaraja 236-37 
Paramarajadhiraja 236-37 
Parama-saugata 237 
Parama-saura 236-37 '7 



Parama-svamin 237 
Parama-tathagata 237 
Paramavaisnava 235, 237 
Paramavisvasin 182-83, 237, 

269, 303, 360 

paramesthi-gadyana 237, 437 


Paramesvara 185, 235, 237, 274 
paramesvara-hasta 237 


Paramesvara-niyogin 221,237 
Paramesvar-ety-adi 237 

tray-opeta 237 
Paramesvari 237 
Param-opasaka 237 
Param-opasika 237 
parampara 237 
parampara 237 


para-rastr-opari datta-dhatyam 

para-samaya 238 

Parasava 238 

Parasi, Parasi 238 

Parasika 238 

Parasiva 238 

parasmaipada 203, 206 

parasvat 238 

parata 43, 238 

paratra sthapayitva 321 

paratrika 238 

Parekha 238 

pargana 235, 238, 243, 259, 

Pari 238 

pari 243 

paribodha 238 

paribhuta-naman 238 

paricakra 238 

Paricaraka 238 

paricchanda 238 

pariccheda 238 

Paricha 238, 240, 241 

paridarsana 238 

parigha 238 

parigraha 238 

parigrhlta 238, 339 

parihara 16, 157, 200, 238-39, 

pariharika 239 

parihmaka 239 

parihrta 98 

parihrta-pang-otkota 396 

parihrta-sarva-pida 396, 402-04 

parikara 92, 106, 239, 352 

Parikara 239 

Parikh 239, 282 

Parikha 238 

parikh-aya 239-40 

parikraya 239 

parikreya 239 

Pariksa 105, 239-40 

parlksa 99, 240 

Pariksa 239 

Pariksaka 238 

Pariksaka 238-40 

pariks-aya 60 

parlksika 60, 239-40 

pariksi-patta 240 

parimota 240 

parinirvana 218, 240 

Paripalaka 13 
pari-panth 240 
paripanthana 240, 370 
paripanthayati 240 
paripara 240 
Pariparsvika 240 
pariprccha 240 
paripurna 240 
parisa 240 

parisad 118, 198,235, 240 
Parisada 240 
parisada 240 
parisara 240 
parisattam 240 
parisrava 240 
parisu 240 
parisutra 240 
parityaga 240 
Parivara 240 
parivara 20, 240 
parivara-devata 20 



parivar-alaya 240 

parivarta 238 

parivastra 240 

parivattam 240 

Parivrddha 240 

pariyattam 240 

parn-akara 241 

parna-sasan 241 

paroksam 241 

parru 241 

par sad 241 

parsada 241 

parSva 241 

Parsvika 241 

partab 107, 241, 257, 437-38 

parumulai-varahan 363, 437 

paruttha 241, 437-38 

parva-mas-otsava 241 

parvan 241 

parvata 241 

parwana 256 

paryaya 241 

Paryayakara 241 

paryusita 241 

pasa 306 

pasa 241 

pasadaka 257 

Pasaita 182, 241-42 

pasamda 241 

pasana 30-31, 241 

pasanam 242, 420 

Pasapalaka 242 

Pasayita 182, 241-42 

pa^catya-likhita 242 

pasi-ppattam 420 

pasti 367 

pasu 242 


konakalika-ganga-grama 38, 


Pasupala 242 
Pasupalaka 242 
Pasupata 232, 242 
pasupata 242 
Pasupat-acarya 242 
Pasupata-rajni 242 
pa^upat-astra 242 
pata 223, 242, 244 

pata 242 

pata 59, 397-98 

pata 242 

pataha-dhakka-mahasabda 1 86 

pataka 242 

pataka 223, 242, 357, 367 

Patakara 242 
Patakila 242-43 
patala 242 
Patala-karanin 243 
patalika 224, 243 

vinirgata 374 
patanga 243 
patamya 157, 243 
Patasaha 243 
Patasahi 243 
patayisyami 243 

Patel, Patel 118, 242-46 

patha 244 

patha 243 

pathaka 243 

Pathakiyaka 243 

patha-sala 287 

pathi 243 

Pathin 223, 243 

pati 7, 243 

pati 243 

pati 243 

paii-bhaga 243, 258 

patibhoga 243 

Patihari 243 
patika 173, 225 
patika 243 
patika 243 
patikaval 39 
Patil 242-46 
Patisaha 225, 243-44 
Patisahi 243-44 
patita 244 
patita 244 
patra 244, 324 

Patra 33,77,92,106,146, 178, 
182, 184, 186-87, 233, 244, 
298, 324, 340, 351, 375 

patra 244 

patra-graha chu^anti 74 



patraka 69 
Patrapati 244 

patra-prsthato praveso data- 
vyah 263 

patra-samaya 244 
Patta 244-45 
patta, patta 51, 81, 232, 242, 

244-46, 299 
patta 59 

Patt-acariya 245 
Patt-acarya 195 
pattadai-nul-ayam 420 

pattadai-vari 420 


'attadhara 245 
pattaka 242, 244-45 

pattaka-dharmika 245 
pattak-apacara 244-45 
Pattak-apacarika 245 

Pattakara 245 


Pattakila 158, 242-43, 245-46, 


pattakil-adaya 245 
pattakkarai 245 
patta-kula 245 
pattala 245 
Pattalaka 245 

Patta-lekhin 244, 245 
Pattalika 245 
pattam 245, 420 
Pattamahadevi 246 
Pattamahisi 246 
pattana 246 
pattana 246 

kari-purusa 246 

Pattana-svamin 181, 246 
Pattanayaka, 51, 245-46, 352, 


patta-nel 420 
Paita-pariksaka 266-67 

Pattarajm 62, 245-46 
Pattaram 246 

pattarikai 52 

Pattasahan-adhipati 246, 309 
Pattasahan-adhisthayaka 183 
Pattasahani 246, 284 

patta-sala, pa^ta-^ala 246 
patt-avali 144, 246 
Pattavarika 246-47, 364 
pattaya-kkanikkai 420-21 
Pattela 246 
pattha 247, 257 
patti 247 

patti 247 

patti 246, 420-21 

pafti 246 

patti-bhaga 247 
pattigai-kkanam 421 
Pattika 247 
pattika 247 
pattika 247 
Pattika-palaka 247 

patti-kkadi 420 
patti-kkal 420 
pattf-pada 247 

patti-ppen 421 
patti-ttandam 421 
Pattiyanaka 247 
pattola '247 
pattolai 247 

Pattolai 247 

pattoll 247 

Patt-opadhyaya 247 

Pattuppattu 296 

Patukatarl 306 

Patusaha 243, 247 

Patvari, Patvarl 14, 110, 118, 

120, 137,246-47,364,414 
Patyuparika 184-85, 187, 229, 
243, 247, 265, 383, Add. et 

pauka 247 

pauka 247-48, 261-62 
Paukar 223 
paundarika 248 
paura 248, 437 
Pauranika 248, 383 



Paura-vlthillaka 248 


apradhana 248 
Paura-vyavaharika 209, 248 
pausadha 248, 252, 353 
paused 247-48 
pautava 248 
pauti 248, 263 
pautra-prapautrika 256 
pavadai 248 
pavai 421,248 
pavaka 248 
pavana 248 
pavisa 172, 225, 227, 248, 


pavitra 64, 248 
pavitraka 248 
pavitr-aropana 64 
pavti-vahi 344 
paya 12 

payala, payali 248 
payoda 248 
peda 248, 250-51, 269 
Pedapala 249 
Pedarpala 249 
pedda-gadyamu 249 
Pedda-Narasimha 63 
Peggade 369 
pejjunka 62, 249, 421 
pelle-putti 268 
Pergade 128, 249, 264, 369 
Perggavunda 249 
Periya-devar 62-63 
Periya-perumaJ 62 
perjunka 62, 128, 249, 412, 421 
Perjunkadapergade 249 
per-kkadamai 410, 421 
perujunka 62, 249 
Peruman-adigal 249 
perurnbadaiyom 249 
perum-padi-kaval 421 
per-vasi 410, 421 
peta-dakkhina 264 
Petakapala 249 
petam darsayitum 102 
Petapala 249, 268 
Petapala 249 

Petavika 249 

Petavika-varika 249 

petha 249 

Pettapala 249 

Peyiya-sahani 193, 249, 284 

Pha 249 

phadiya 249, 431, 437 

phadyaka 249, 437 

phaindi-ayayi 249 

phaindivaya-maruturu 249 

phala 227, 250 . 

phala-divya 250 

phalahika 250 

phalaka 250 

phalaratika 396 

phala-sarhskara 250 

Phalguna212, 249 

phalita 250 

phalita-pade 250 

phaliyurh 250 

pharasi 306 

phasu-vihalata 315 

phika 250 

phuramana 107, 250 

phutta 250 

Piada, Piada 51, 57, 68, 73, 

226, 250, 388-89 
picu 250, 329, 437, 440 
picula 250, 437 
pida 239, 248, 250-51, 269 
pidagai 250 
pida-najti 250, 421 
pidha 250 
pidhana 393 
pidi-sulndu 147 
Pillai 166 

pillaigal-tanam 166, 250 
pillai-vari 166 
pilu, pilu 107, 183, 250 
Pllupati 107, 183, 250 
pincha 250 
pind-adana 250 
pindaka 250 
pinda-kara 250 
pindapata 227, 251 
pirama-danam 60 
pirama-metam 61 
Pirama-marayan 61 



Piriya-arasi 179 

piriya-sunka 421 

pirumma-stanam 62 

pisaca-caturdasi 251 

Pisaradi 251 

Pisunavetrika 251, 370, 385 

pitaka227, 231, 342