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Copyright, 1884, 1919, by Harper & Brothers 

Copyright, 1912, by Florence I. Bowker 

Printed in the United States of America 



T" HA YE thought that a plain narrative of some of the more striking 

events in our Indian history might not prove uninteresting to my 
young countrymen. 

It is the story of the heroic, but hopeless, struggle for self-preservation 
of a weaker against a stronger race ; and as we read it we cannot help 
sympathizing in some degree with the Indian in his patriotic effort to pre- 
serve his country and :to drive off the intruding white man. Though not 
inferior to him in bra very,, sagacity, and cunning, the Indian was no match 
for his cool j Gteady,. well-disciplined white opponent. Indeed, the great 
lesson of the struggle is that it shows conclusively the superiority of the 
civilized man over the savage, even in those warlike arts in which the 
latter most excelled. 

One other thing must not be forgotten. The deadly perils to which 
the early settlers were daily and hourly exposed from the incursions of a 
savage foe the ambush and the midnight surprise, their sufferings while 
undergoing the horrors of captivity or the agonies of torture ; when we 
think of these things they were common occurrences in those early days 
we are enabled to realize in some small degree the cost and the value of 
the peaceful, happy homes we now enjoy. 

With the exception of a few roving bands of Apaches and other wild 
tribes of the plains, the Indian pictured in these pages no longer exists. 
In ceasing to be a hunter and a warrior, he has lost much of his distinctive 
character. Civilization has taken hold of him, and one by one his old 
superstitions and savage customs will disappear. His children are being 


educated, he is turning his attention to farming, and, slowly it is true, but 
suivly. he is acquiring the arts and modes of life of his civili/cd brother, 
" learning," as lie expresses it, "to tread the white man's path." 

Indian wars of any magnitude are, happily, no longer possible; and at 
no distant day the native race will be absorbed in the great mass of our 
population, clothed with all the rights and privileges, as well as with the 
duties, of American citizenship. 

. August, 1884. 

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FOR more than three decades Indian History for Young Folks has been 
considered the standard narrative of the Indian troubles of our 
country from the very beginning of the first settlements down to the year 
1877, when the original edition of this book was concluded. Appearing 
first in 1885, this work was promptly accorded high rank by readers of 
Indian history, and in the intervening years its popularity has steadily 
increased. Its wealth of illustrations reproductions of drawings by the 
famous artists of the day, Howard Pyle, Frederic Remington, Zogbaum, 
and others, of portraits of peculiar distinction and of interesting prints, 
appealing especiaJ!> to younger readers and serving as they do as a historical 
and pictorial -30101 oentary to the narrative gives to this work an added 
value to be found bard'y anywhere else among books on the subject. 

Indian History for Young ?olks having been recognized as authority, 
and having for 30 many years held its unique place in the regard of our 
young readers as the favorite story of the Indian wars of our country, 
its very popularity naturally suggests the importance of perpetuating the 
work and giving to it a new life by the preparation of an enlarged and 
revised edition, bringing the story of the Indians down to date. 

This purpose, it is hoped, we have accomplished in the present 
volume. The narrative, in the original edition, extended only to the year 
1877 to the close of the Nez Perce war. In the new edition the story, 
taken up at this point and continued through the intervening years, is 
brought to a conclusion with an account of the present condition of the 
Indians, whose progress and development in every direction have been 
so great that we may now feel assured that the near future will see the 
final solution of the " Indian problem" in the merging of the race into the 
body politic of the nation. The new edition, taking up the story from the 
close of the Nez Perce war, recounts the series of wars which it unfortu- 
nately was necessary to wage against the Indians from that time until 
1890-91 when occurred the outbreak of the ghost-dancing Sioux, the quelling 
of which, happily, brought to an end for all time the Indian wars of our 

Following the Nez Perce campaign, in which occurred the wonderful 


retreat of ( 'hict' Joseph and his hand, who resisted the pursuit of the soldiers 
under General Howard, retreating from Idaho Territory to Montana, a 
distance of more than thirteen hundred miles, until at last reduced in 
number, they surrendered to the troops under General Nelson A. Miles, 
I here occurred in 1S7S an outbreak among the Bannocks, who, due to the 
failure of the ( iovernment to supply sufficient rations, left their reservation 
in Oregon and went on the war-path. In the same year the Cheyennes, 
who were forcibly removed to the reservation set apart for them in the 
Indian Territory, soon yearned for their native lands and suddenly, under 
their chiefs, "Dull Knife" and "Little Wolf," with their women and chil- 
dren, broke loose from the detested Indian Territory, and in the course of 
their journey across Kansas committed depredations on the settlements, 
pillaging, murdering, burning, and striking terror into the inhabitants of 
that country before they were subdued and returned. In 1879 the Utes of 
Colorado, objecting to the attempts of their agent to force them to take 
up agriculture or starve, broke out into rebellion, which resulted in the 
massacre of Major Thornburgh and his immediate command, the killing 
of the Indian agent, and the destruction x> /the Agency itself. 

These troubles were soon followed ky'.'ilie | ,'O'iltbra'.k of ^hc warlike 
Apaches of New Mexico and Arizona, who,, always, .considered as wild 
Indians, under Chiefs Victoria and Geronimo, f farrfevi jon/ a ^series of wars 
from 1S7S down to 1886, in which year they. were finally, conquered by 
General Miles. The climax to our Indian wars, however, cattie .in the winter 
of 1890-91 when the uprising of the Sioux tribes under the leadership of 
Kicking Rear, Big Foot, and Sitting Bull broke out. Threatening for a 
time to become the most stupendous of all Indian wars, this rebellion was 
fortunately "nipped in the bud" by the death of Sitting Bull and the sub- 
sequent terrible chastisement administered to the hostiles at the battle of 
Wounded Knee, where over three hundred Indians, including Big Foot 
himself, were killed. This battle and the subsequent campaign waged 
against the hostiles by General Miles put an end to hostilities, and it seems 
safe to say, ended for all time the Indian wars of our country. For most 
of the Indian wars recounted in this volume the whites, shame to say, were 
invariably to blame, the majority of our modern Indian wars being caused 
by the forced removal of Indian tribes from their native lands to locations 
on uncongenial and unhealthy reservations, and only too frequently these 
removals were dictated by the greod of the white men, who coveted the 
Indians' land. 

These wrongs and bad dealings, however, are now things of the past, 
a more enlightened policy having been adopted under which the red man 
is making rapid progress along the path of civilization. Carrying out this 
policy, a wonderful system of education has been developed, and in the 


various reservation and industrial schools the Indian boys and girls are 
fast being reclaimed from their former wild life and fitted to take their 
places in the community and to compete successfully with their white 
brethren in the ways of modern life. Safeguards of every kind are now 
thrown about these wards of the nation, by which they are protected 
against the old injustices; their health is being carefully conserved by the 
Indian Department; as a result the Indian is no longer a vanishing race, 
but is increasing in number. Provisions have also been made for the com- 
petent Indians to control their own lands and manage their own affairs, 
with the result that there is a decided tendency in most of the tribes to 
engage in settled pursuits and accept citizenship. Never before has the 
Indian problem been in a better way of solution than at the present time 
and the near future is very likely to see the gradual merging of the Indian 
race, as has already occurred in many instances, into the body of the nation. 

F. J. DOWD. 
October, 1918. 













IX. THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-1760) 207 







XV. WARS WITH THE WESTERN INDIANS (1789-1795) ... 337 





XX. INDIAN WARS (1862-1877) 426 




XXIV. THE Sioux WAR OF 1890-1891 494 


INDEX 513 




Geronimo, Chief of the Apaches 


Christopher Columbus 15 

Newark Earthwork 16 

A North American Indian 17 

Moccasins 20 

Zuni Dwellings 21 

Bowl of Indian Pipe 24 

Show-shoe 24 

Canoe and House of Southern Indians . 25 

Picture-writing 26 

Grave-post 27 

The Dighton Rock Inscription ... 28 

Indian Council 29 

Indian Cradle 30 

The Indians at Home 32 

A Scalp Dance Facing p. 32 

Scalp , 36 

In Ambush 37 

A Class-room 40 

Sebastian Cabot, by Holbein .... 48 

John Verrazzano 50 

Jacques Cartier 51 

Jacques Cartier erects a Cross . Facing p. 52 
View of Montreal and its Walls in 1760. 

(From an old French print) .... 55 

Ponce de Leon 56 

Fernando de Soto 58 

De Soto discovering the Mississippi . . 59 

Burial of De Soto 62 

Zuni Woman at a Window 64 

De Monts 65 

Champlain's Fortified Residence at 

Quebec 66 

Hendrik Hudson 69 

The Half-Moon at Yonkers 70 

Dutch and Indians Trading .... 71 
The Massacre of the Indians at Pavonia 72 
The Trading Post ....... 73 

New York in 1664 75 

Peter Stuyvesant 76 

Beginning of New York 77 

Sir Francis Drake 78 

William Penn . . . . 79 
Landing of William Penn at Philadel- 
phia 80 

Penn and the Indians 81 

Form of Raleigh's Ships 84 

Sir Walter Raleigh . . . 85 

Arrival at Jamestown, 1607 .... 89 

Ruins at Jamestown 91 

Powhatan 93 

Pocahontas shields Him from their 

Clubs 95 

A Medicine-man 96 

Captain Smith subduing the Chief . . 99 

Marriage of Pocahontas 101 

Pocahontas 102 

Captain John Smith, Admiral of New 

England 103 

Landing of the Pilgrims . Facing p. 106 
First Encounter with the Indians . . 109 

"Welcome, Englishmen!" 110 

Plymouth Wilderness Ill 

Interview with Massasoit 113 

The Palace of King Massasoit . . .114 

Edward Winslow 115 

Governor Endicott 117 

John Eliot 122 

John Eliot preaching to the Indians . 123 

Governor Winthrop 126 

Long House at Onondaga 128 

Going to Fight the Iroquois .... 130 
First Battle with the Iroquois . . .131 

Samuel de Champlain 133 

Lake Champlain 134 

Attack on the Iroquois Fort . . . .135 
Fortified Town of the Onondagas . . 137 
At an Iroquois Council Fire . Facing p. 140 

Governor Golden 143 

Mount Hope 146 

King Philip . 147 

Captain Benjamin Church . . . .150 

Fight at Tiverton 151 

The Great Swamp Fight in Rhode Island 154 
Lancaster Attacked 155 



Death of King Philip 158 

Ninigret . . 1(50 

Defence of the Garrison-house . . .161 

Oglethorpe's Landing 171 

General Oglethorpe 173 

Cherokees 174 

Francis Marion 17") 

John Ross 17(5 

Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle . .179 
Indians attacking the Settlers . . . 180 
Major Waldron's Terrible Fight . . 183 

Schenectady 185 

Scene of Operations French and In- 
dian Wars 187 

Peter Schuyler 188 

Pemaquid 190 

Old Fort Frederick, at Pemaquid . . 191 

Old Church in St. Regis 195 

Garrison-house at Oyster River suc- 
cessfully Defended 197 

Governor Shirley 204 

Washington as a Virginia Colonel . . 209 

Benjamin Franklin 211 

Horatio Gates 212 

Daniel Morgan 213 

Braddock's Defeat 214 

Sir William Johnson 216 

Johnson's House 216 

Hendrick 217 

Indian Raid on a Settlement .... 220 

Louis Joseph Mont calm 223 

Oswego in 1755 223 

Fort William Henry 224 

St. John (1776) 224 

Capture of Fort Duquesne (1758) . .226 

An Indian Ambush 229 

Major Robert Rogers 237 

Ruins of Ticonderoga 240 

Country around Ticonderoga . . .241 

John Stark 242 

Stark captured by Indians .... 243 
The Retreat of the Rangers .... 247 

Rogers's Rock 250 

Head of Lake George . . . . . . 251 

Site of Fort Anne 252 

The French Commander saving Putnam 253 
Major Israel Putnam in British Uni- 
form 256 

Putnam saving Fort Edward .... 257 

Crown Point 259 

Trading with the Indians 264 

Pontiac, and the Siege of Detroit . . 266 
The Ojibway Maiden disclosing Pon- 

tiac's Plot . . . Facing p. 266 

Detroit River and Vicinity .... 268 

Pontiac and Gladwvn . 269 

Pontiac's Attack on the Fort . . . 

Old Fort Michilimackinac . . . . 

Restored Captive recognizing its Moth- 
er by a Song of Childhood . . . . 

Fort Niagara 

Isaac Shelby 

General Burgoyne 

Burgoyne making a Speech to the In- 

Fort Stamvix (afterwards Fort Schuyler) 
and Vicinity 

Colonel Barry St. Leger 

Joseph Brant 

Colonel Peter Gansevoort 

General Herkimer directing the Battle 

Battle-field at Oriskany 

Marinus Willett 

Benedict Arnold 

George Rogers Clarke 

John Sullivan 

Newton Battle-field 

James Clinton 

General Wayne's Escape . Facing p. 

Andrew Pickens 

Red Jacket 

Daniel Boone 

Emigrants' Camp Attacked .... 

Capture of Elizabeth and Frances Col- 
loway and Jemima Boone . Facing p. 

Boone's Fort 

Graves of Daniel Boone and his Wife . 

Defence of the Station at Boones- 
borough Facing p. 

Boone at the Blue Licks 

Boone fighting over the Dead Body of 
his Son 

Burning the Prisoners 

Kenton and his Deliverer 

Simon Kenton 

Map of the North-western Territory . 

Fort Washington Site of Cincinnati . 

Fort Harmar 

Fort Wayne in 1812 

James Wilkinson 

Arthur St. Clair 

General Wayne 

Fort Defiance 

The Charge of the Dragoons . Facing p. 

The Maumee Ford Place of Harmar's 

Ruins of Fort Miami 

Little Turtle's Grave 


Elkswatawa, the Prophet 

Fort Harrison 

Tippecanoe Battle-ground in 1860 . . 












William Hull 36 

William Eustis 

Duncan MacArthur 362 

Lewis Cass, 1860 36i 

Colonel James Miller 36; 

Maguaga Battle-ground 36-; 

Fort Mackinac 365 

Fort Dearborn, 1812 366 

Zachary Taylor 368 

Monroe, from the Battle-field Site of 

Winchester's Defeat 36S 

Siege of Fort Meigs 371 

General Green Clay 371 

William Henry Harrison 373 

Appearance of the Thames Battle- 
ground in 1860 374 

Oshawahnah 375 

Battle of the Thames 376 

Colonel Richard M. Johnson .... 377 
Seat of War in Southern Alabama . . 380 

Tecumseh's Speech 383 

Fort Mims 385 

Andrew Jackson in 1814 388 

Battle of Talladega 389 

The Canoe Fight 391 

General John Coffee 394 

The Battle of the Horseshoe .... 395 

Samuel Houston 395 

James Monroe 399 

Black Hawk 400 

General Winfield Scott in 1860 . . . 403 
Scene of the Seminole War .... 405 

General D. L. Clinch 407 

Osceola 409 

Osceola's Grave 410 

Edmund Pendleton Gaines . . . .411 
Old Spanish Fort, St. Augustine . . 413 

Following a Trail 417 

Billy Bowlegs 421 

St. Augustine 424 

Little Crow 426 

General Sibley 427 

Lieutenant-colonel Marshall .... 428 

Capture of Indian Camp 429 

Little Paul . 429 


Sioux Village 430 

Medicine-chief 432 

Sioux Chief forbidding Passage through 

his Country 433 

An Apache Warrior . 435 

Fetterman's Massacre 437 

Philip Henry Sheridan 439 

Capture of Black Kettle's Camp . .441 
Little Raven, Chief of the Arapahoes . 444 
Major-general George Crook .... 445 

Sitting Bull 44(5 

Major-general George A. Custer . . 447 

Spotted Tail 44^ 

Satanta, Chief of the Kiowas . . . 449 
Captain Jack and his Companions . . 450 

On the War-path 451 

Lava Beds 453 

Captain Jack's Cave and Stronghold. 
Lake and Camps in the Distance . 454 

General E. R. S. Canby 455 

Modocs in their Stronghold .... 456 
Massacre of the Commissioners by the 

Modocs 457 

Joseph, the Nez Perce Warrior . . . 459 
Nez Perce Boy and Papoose .... 460 

Battle of Canon Creek 461 

General O. O. Howard 463 

Advance of the Skirmish Line . . . 465 

General Nelson A. Miles 468 

Kit Carson 459 

Major T. T. Thornburgh 478 

Colorado ' . 479 

hief Ouray 4l 

Southern Utes . 483 

An Ambuscade .... Facing p. 476 
The Relief of Captain Payne's Com- 
mandThe Trumpet Signal . Fac. p. 482 
The Indian's Story of the Killing of 

Victoria's Band . . . Facing p. 486 
hatching the Dust of the Hostiles 

Facing p. 498 
United States Cavalry in Winter Rig 

Facing p. 500 
United States Infantry in Winter Rig 

Facing p. 504 

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FEW young people who live east of the Mississippi River have ever 
seen an Indian. Nearly all are familiar with pictures of him, or have 
read stories about him. Most of these stories are highly colored, and rep- 
resent him as more or less than human, and not at all as he really is. 
Even those who have made a study of the Indian differ widely in their 
estimate of him. 

Perhaps you will ask how it happens that the Indians are now aliens 
and paupers in a land of which they were once the undisputed possessors ? 
It is easy to see how it all came about, but it is a story by no means cred- 
itable to the win i -3 man. In the first place, the European sovereigns 
claimed their lands by right of discovery. Precisely as though you should 
claim another boy's sled because it was the first time you had seen it, and 
then should wrest it from him because you were the stronger. This is 
just what the white man did to the Indian : in plain language, robbed 

It is true that in some cases lands were bought of the natives, but the 
Indian had no idea of exclusive ownership in land, and supposed he was 
giving the white man only an equal privilege in it with himself. The 
price paid was often insignificant enough. For the territory now covered 
by the great city of New York the Indians received twenty-four pounds 
about one hundred and twenty dollars a sum which would now buy 
little more than a square foot of it. 

One way to cheat the Indian out of his land was this : a tract of ter- 
ritory granted by the Delawares to William Penn fifty years before was 
to extend in a given direction as far as a man could walk in a day and a 
half, and from this point eastwardly to the Delaware River. The Indians 
justly complained that, instead of walking, the men appointed by the 


prietors ran. Not only did they run, but they had previously cut a path 
through the forest and removed whatever could hinder their swift passage. 
This was not all. Instead of running the northern line direct to the Dela- 
ware, the plain meaning of the deed, the proprietors inclined it so far to 
the north as to form an acute angle with the river. 

By these fraudulent methods they gained possession of many hundred 
thousand acres of valuable land which the Indians had no intention of 
surrendering, and from which they were compelled immediately to re- 
move. This and other injuries and aggressions ended in a terrible border 
war, in which the French joined the Delawares against the English. 

When the Indian turned upon his white oppressor, the effort was 
made to crush and exterminate him. By alternate wars and treaties he 
was pushed back from his ancient seats, until at length, cooped up in reser- 
vations under the eye of the military, lie is fed and clothed by the gov- 
ernment, having no rights as a citizen. 

To this state of things there are some notable exceptions. In the In- 
dian Territory the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Semi- 
noles, known as the Five Civilized Tribes, live under a government of 
their own ; in New York the remaining Iroquois, having become civilized, 
are citizens ; in New Mexico the Pueblo Indians are semi-civilized ; and 
in Michigan and North Carolina there are a few Indians not on reserva- 
tions. All these are self-supporting. 

Is it to be wondered at that the Indian has made no greater progress 
in civilization ? If white men had been treated as he has been, and placed 
beyond the necessity of labor, they would quickly become worthless vaga- 
bonds. It will not do to assume the inherent inferiority of the red men. 
We must remember that, like them, our British ancestors were savages, 
who painted their bodies, clothed themselves in the skins of wild beasts, 
and lived in rude huts in a country covered with forests and swamps. 

The folly and wickedness of most of our Indian wars is only too ap 
parent when we reflect that the injury the Indian could inflict upon the 
innocent settlers on our border was many times greater than we could 
possibly inflict upon him, and that simple justice and honesty in our deal- 
ings with him would have prevented them altogether. 

It was a blunder the first of a long series in our dealings with them 
to call the natives "Indians." On discovering America, Columbus sup- 
posed he had reached India, the object of his voyage. Indeed, the great 
navigator died in ignorance of the fact that he had discovered a new con- 
tinent. To this day the lands he first saw are known as the West Indies. 

It is supposed that this country was inhabited by an earlier race of 




men called Mound Builders from the earthworks of various forms and 
sizes found in the valley of the Mississippi and elsewhere. 

In Wisconsin many of these mounds are in the form of gigantic 
animals. The builders must have been familiar with the mastodon, or 
elephant, judging from the "Big Elephant" mound found a few miles 
below the mouth of the Wisconsin River. It is 135 feet long, and well 
proportioned. One in Adams County, Ohio, represents a serpent 1000 



feet long, its body gracefully curved, and its open jaws about to swallow 
a figure shaped like an egg. 

The great mound of Cahokia, opposite St. Louis, is 90 feet in height 
and 700 feet in length. Unity of design and mathematical precision of 
construction appear in all those works, most of which arc of a defensive 
character, and in which arc represented the square, the circle, the octagon, 
and the rhomb. They have gate-ways, parallel lines, and outlooks; and it- 
is evident that they are the results of the labors of a vast number of men 
directed by a Dingle governing mind having a definite object in view. At 
Newark, Ohio, a fortification exists which covers an area of several miles, 
and has over two miles of embankment from two to twenty feet 


The present native race has neither knowledge nor tradition respecting 
these singular remains. Their builders have left us no other record than 
the mounds themselves, and the tools and ornaments, some of them of 
copper, and the tastefully moulded pottery found in them. 

A probable conjecture about this mysterious people is that they were 
-illage Indians of New Mexico, and that some of these earthworks were 
the foundations of their long houses, in which great numbers of them 
lived, and that they were finally driven off by fierce savage hordes from 
the West and North. Their houses, being of wood, long since disap- 

Let me now tell you what the Indian is like. Picture to yourselves 

v i/ 

a man with straight black hair, a scanty beard, small black eyes, high 
cheek-bones, large thick lips, a narrow forehead, and a reddish-brown or 

* A valuable paper in vol. i. of the Smithsonian "Contributions to Knowledge," 
by Squier and Davis, contains much information relative to the aboriginal monuments 
in the Mississippi valley. 



cinnamon complexion, and you have a tolerably correct idea of how the 
North American Indian appears. Though divided into seven or eight 
stocks or families, each speaking a different language, the Indians through- 
out the United States have a common physical likeness and similar 
manners and institutions. 

The principal of these great di- 
visions or families are : 

Algonkins ; found throughout 
the eastern portion of the country, 
from Nova Scotia to North Caro- 
lina, and west to the Mississippi. 
They covered sixty degrees of lon- 
gitude and twenty degrees of lati- 
tude, and numbered 90,000 more 
than one-third of the entire Indian 

Iroquois, or Five Nations ; in 
western and central New York, and, 
farther north, the Hurons, or Wyan- 

DakotctS) or Sioux; west of the 
Algonkins, and extending from the 
Saskatchewan River to southern Ar- 
kansas, and from the Mississippi to 
the Rocky Mountains. 

Jhtskokis, or Appalachians all the south-eastern part of the United 
States, extending west to the Mississippi. They embraced the Cherokees, 
Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, Uchees, and several other small 

Shoshonis, or Snakes; this division forms six groups, extending over 
parts of Idaho, Utah, "Wyoming, Oregon, Nevada, Montana, Arizona, 
Texas, California, and New Mexico. 

Besides these are the Athabascas, Yumas, and New Mexican Pueblos. 
The first are, perhaps, the most numerous, inhabiting Alaska, Canada, and 
a part of Oregon. The Yumas inhabit Arizona and California. The 
Pueblos (village Indians) speak six different languages. The wide di- 
versity of tongues in these twenty-six towns in New Mexico, of similar 
habits and social life, is a most singular circumstance. 

All these great families were divided into numerous tribes and clans, 
and these again into smaller tribes, bands, and villages. They are now 




distributed among one hundred reservations, and more than half of them 
wear citizen's dress. Some of these reservations are very extensive ; that 
of the Sioux, in Dakota, is larger than the State of New York. The In- 
dian Territory, witli a population of 76,585, of whom more than one-fourth 
are yet uncivilized, contains some thirty-five tribes or parts of tribes. 

Having shown you how the Indian appears, I will now tell you what 
he is. 

The characteristic traits of the Indian are such as are common to all 
barbarous races. Ambitious, vindictive, cruel, envious, and suspicious, 
he is also sagacious, warlike, and courageous, and, at the same time, ex- 
cessively cautious. Revenge is with him a sacred duty. Treacherous and 
deceitful to his foes, he prefers to slay his enemy by a secret rather than 
an open blow. 

On the other hand, he loves liberty passionately ; will brave famine, 
torture, and even death in the pursuit of glory ; is strongly affectionate 
to his family; hospitable to the extent of sharing his last morsel with a 
stranger, though famine stares him in the face ; faithful in friendship, he 
will lay down his life for his comrade, and never forgets a kindness. lie 
is grave, dignified, and patient, and possesses a stoicism that enables him 
to control his emotions under the most trying circumstances. His out- 
door life and habitual self-control keep him from all effeminate vices. 
He uses tobacco for smoking only, and, before the white man came, was 
happily ignorant even of the existence of intoxicating drinks. 

The superiority of Indian hospitality to that of the white man was, no 
doubt, truly stated by Canassatego, a chief of the Six Nations, in a con- 
versation with an English friend : 

" If," said he, " a white man enters one of our cabins, we all treat him 
as I do you ; we dry him if he is wet, we warm him if he is cold, and give 
him meat and drink that he may allay his thirst and hunger, and we spread 
soft furs for him to rest and sleep on. We demand nothing in return. 
But if I go into a white man's house in Albany and ask for victuals and 
drink, they say, ' Where is your money ?' and, if I have none, they say, 
4 Get out, you Indian dog !' ' 

Out of many instances of Indian humanity I select that of Petalashara, 
a distinguished Pawnee brave. The son of a chief, he had, at the age 
of twenty-one, earned from his tribe the title accorded to the celebrated 
French soldier, Marshal Ney, " the bravest of the brave." 

A female captive was about to suffer torture at the stake in accordance 
with Indian custom. A large crowd had, as usual, gathered to witness the 
horrible scene. 


The brave, unobserved, had stationed two fleet horses near at hand, and 
silently waited the moment for action. The flames were about to envelop 
the victim, when, to the astonishment of all, Petalashara was seen severing 
the cords that bound her, and, with the swiftness of thought, bearing her 
off in his arms ; and then, placing her upon one horse, and himself mount- 
ing the other, he bore her safely away to her friends and country. Such 
an act would have endangered the life of any ordinary warrior ; but 
such was his sway over the tribe that no one presumed to censure the 
daring act. 

Though not the equal of the white man in bodily strength, the Indian 
was his superior in endurance and fleetness of foot. Some of their best 
runners could make seventy or eighty miles in a day through the unbroken 
wilderness. A close observer of natural phenomena, in the densest forest 
the Indian could travel for miles in a straight line, and could note signs 
and sounds the white man could not perceive. His temperament is poetic 
and imaginative, and his simple eloquence possesses great dignity and 

A little anecdote will give an idea of his native wit and shrewdness. 
A half-naked Indian was looking on at some workmen in the employ of 
Governor Dudley, of Massachusetts. 

"Why don't you work and get yourself some clothes?" asked the 

" Why don't you work ?" retorted the son of the forest. 

" I work head-work," said Dudley, pointing to his head. 

The Indian said he was willing to work, and agreed to kill a calf for 
the governor. Having done so, he came for his pay. 

" But," said the governor, " you have not dressed the calf." 

" No, no," said the Indian ; " 1 was to have a shilling for killing him. 
Am he no dead, governor?" Finding himself out-witted, the governor 
gave him another shilling for dressing it. It was not long before the 
Indian came back demanding a good shilling in place of a bad one which 
he claimed that the governor had paid him. The governor gave him 
another. Returning a second time with still another brass piece to be 
exchanged, the governor, convinced of his knavery, offered him half a 
crown if he would deliver a letter for him. The letter was directed to 
the keeper of the prison, and ordered him to give the bearer a certain 
number of lashes. 

The Indian suspected that all was not right, and, meeting a servant of 
the governor, induced him to take the letter to its address. The result 
of the Indian's stratagem was that a severe whipping was administered to 



the unfortunate servant. The governor was givatly chagrined at being a 
>ccoiid time ont-witted by the Indian. On falling in with him some time 
after, he accosted him with some severity, asking him how he had dared 
' cheat and deceive him so many times. 

" Head-work, governor ; head-work," was the reply. I'leased at the 
fellow's wit and audacity, the governor freely forgave him. 

Perhaps some of my younger readers may wonder how people could 
exist in a wilderness where there were no houses to live in, no markets 
where they could buy food, and no stores in which clothing and other 
necessary articles could be procured. If they look into the matter, they 
will find that the Creator had provided whatever was required by their 
simple mode of life, and that they had no artificial wants. For these they 
were indebted to the white man. 

Formerly the Indians were clad in the skins of animals ; a robe and 
breech cloth for the man, and a short petticoat for the women. On great 
occasions, as councils or war-dances, they daubed themselves with paint, 
the color being varied for joy or grief, peace or war. They also decorated 

themselves with beads, feathers, por- 
cupine quills, and parts of birds and 
animals. The women wore their 
hair long, the men shaved theirs off, 
except the scalp-lock, which was left 
as a point of honor. 

For food the Indian relied upon 
the chase, the fisheries, and agricult- 
ure. Maize, or Indian corn, was his 
principal food. It grew luxuriantly 
without cultivation, was gathered by 
hand and roasted before the fire ; 
a small supply of it parched and 
pounded sufficed for a long journey 
He also raised beans and pumpkins, 
and a little tobacco. If all other 
supplies failed, he had nuts, roots, 

berries, and acorns, which grew wild. His cooking was simple and with- 
out seasoning, usually by roasting over a fire. Baking was done in 
holes in the ground, and water was boiled by throwing heated stones 
into it. 

Most of the natives lived in cabins or wigwams. These were made by 






fixing long poles in the ground, bending them towards each other at the 
top, and covering them outside with bark or skins, and inside with mats. 
A bear-skin served for the door ; an opening in the roof was the chimney. 
There were no windows. It could be quickly set up and easily removed. 
Its size was proportioned to the number it was to hold. In these dirty, 
smoky habitations men, women, and children huddled together. Some of 
the tribes built permanent villages, with streets and rows of houses ; these 
were generally surrounded with palisades of logs and brushwood. Nearly 
all the tribes changed their abode at different seasons in pursuit of the 
various kinds of game. 

A remarkable exception to the usual form of the Indian dwelling is 
found among the Pueblo, or village, Indians of New Mexico. 

In the face of a line of cliffs extending over sixty miles on the west- 
ern side of the Rio Grande, between Cochiti and Santa Clara, are seen 
numerous excavations which had once been human habitations, but which 
are now in ruins. At a distance they look like a long line of dark spots. 
They were approached by foot-paths and stairways cut in the rock, which 
was soft and easily worked, and were in tiers of two, three, four, and 
occasionally five, rows, one above the other and not far apart. The only 
entrance was by an arch-shaped door-way, widening until there was room 
enough within for a single family. Wooden structures in front served 
as out-door habitations for the women and children. 

So numerous are these caves that one hundred thousand persons might 
have lived at once where only a few hundred of their descendants now 
dwell. It is wonderful how r this region, which is exceedingly desolate, 
volcanic, and sterile, and in which there are few watercourses, could have 
sustained such a dense population. 

The fort-like community houses of the Zufii Indians outwardly present 
one unbroken wall of hard mud. Their inner faces consist of a series of 
terraces or houses, piled one above the other, from two to five stories in 
height. Each tier above is less than the one beneath by the width of one 
story, and is entered over the roof of the tier below. Formerly the only 
house-doors were hatchways in the roof ; and to enter their habitation the 
family babies, dogs, and all went up an outside ladder to the roof, and 
down an inside ladder to the floor. Narrow door-ways cut in the rock are 
now made use of. 

The Indian's implements of husbandry were of the rudest kind, yet 
he had learned many useful arts. He knew the art of striking fire ; ol 
making the bow with the string of sinew, and the arrow-head both of 
flint and bone ; of making vessels of pottery; of curing and tanning skins: 


of making moccasins, snow-shoes, and wearing apparel, together with va- 
rious implements and utensils of stone, wood, and hone; of rope and nrt 
making fmm fibres of bark; of finger-weaving with warp and woof the 

same materials into sashes, burden- 
straps, and other useful fabrics; of 
weaving rush-mats; of making pipes 
of clay or stone, often artistically 
carved ; of basket-making with osier, 
cane, and splints; of canoe-making 
the skin, birch-bark, and that hol- 
lowed from the trunk of a tree; of 
constructing timber -framed lodges 
and skin tents ; of shaping stone 
mauls, hammers, axes, and chisels ; of 
making fish spears, nets, and bone 
hooks ; implements for athletic 
games ; musical instruments, such as 
the flute and the drum; weapons and 
ornaments of shell, bone, and stone. 

His most ingenious inventions were the snow-shoe, the birch canoe, 
the method of dressing the skins of animals with the brains, and the 
Dakota tent, or tepee, the model of the SJbley army tent. With the 
snow-shoe he could travel forty miles a day over the surface of the snow, 
and easily overtake the deer and the moose, whose hoofs penetrated the 
crust and prevented their escape. The bark canoe, sometimes thirty feet 
long and carrying twelve persons, was very light and easily propelled. 



The bark of the tree was stripped off whole and stretched over a light, 
white cedar frame. The edges were sewed with thongs, and then covered 
with gum. They varied in pattern, drew little water, and were often 
graceful in shape. The Iroquois used elm -bark, the Algonkins birch. 
The Pacific tribes made baskets, some of which were so skilfully woven 
as to hold water. 



In bunting, the bow and arrow, and sometimes the dart or spear, were 
used. The smaller animals were trapped. When game was plenty it was 
sometimes driven into an enclosure and killed. The southern tribes used 
the lasso and stone balls attached to hide ropes. Fish were taken in nets, 
and with bone hooks, or speared. 

Though the Indian believed his own way of life superior to all others, 
and in accordance with the design of the Great Spirit, and detested civil- 
ization, he has been unable to resist its progress. The gun has taken the 



place of the bow and arrow, and his rude arts and implements have grad- 
ually been replaced by those of greater utility and simplicity. The print- 
ing-press is already employed by the Cherokees, who publish a newspaper 
in their own language at Tahlequah ; another is issued at Caddo, in the 
Creek nation, in the Creek or Choctaw tongue. The plough is in very 
general use among the tribes. 

Having no alphabet, the aborigines conveyed their ideas to the eye by 
means of rude pictures of visible objects engraved upon smooth stones or 



the bark of trees, and sometimes drawn on the skins of animals. Their 
records of treaties were kept by strings or belts of wampum made of shells 
and beads, which was also in use as money. These beads were commonly 
used for ornament. Ten thousand of them have been known to be 
wrouglir into a single war-belt four inches wide. 

The accompanying sketch was copied from a tree on the banks of the 
Muskingum River, Ohio. The characters were drawn with charcoal and 


bear's oil. It describes the part borne in Pontiac's war by the Delawares 
of the Muskingum, under the noted chief, Wingemund. 

No. 1 represents the oldest and main branch of the Delaware tribe by 
its ancient symbol, the tortoise. No. 2 is the totem, or armorial badge, 
of Wingemund, denoting him to be the actor. No. 3 is the sun ; the 
ten horizontal strokes beneath it denote the number of war-parties in 
which this chief had participated. No. -i represents men's scalps. No. 5, 
women's scalps. No. 6, male prisoners. No. 7, female prisoners. No. 8, 
a small fort situated on the banks of Lake Erie, which was taken by the 
Indians in 1762, by surprise. No. 9 represents the fort at Detroit, under 
the command of Major Gladwyn, which, in 1763, resisted a siege of three 


months. No. 10 is Fort Pitt, denoted by its striking position on the ex- 
treme point of land at the confluence of the Alleghany and the Monon- 
gahela rivers. No. 11 signifies the incipient town near it. The eleven 
crosses or figures arranged below the tortoise denote the number of per- 
sons who were either killed or taken prisoners by this chief ; the prison- 
ers are distinguished from the slain by the figure of a ball or circle above 
the cross-figure denoting a head. Those devices without the circle are 
symbols of the slain ; but four out of the eleven appear to have been 
women, and of these two were retained as prisoners. It appears that but 
two of the six men were led into captivity. The twenty-three nearly 
vertical strokes at the foot of the inscription indicate the strength of the 
chieftain's party. The inclination denotes the course of their march to 
the scene of conflict. This course, in the actual position of the tribe, 
and of the side of the tree chosen to depict it, was northward. As an 
evidence of the order and exactitude of these rude memorials in record- 
ing facts, it is to be observed that the number of persons captured or 
killed in each expedition of the chief is set on the left of the picture, 
exactly opposite the symbolical mark of the expedition. 

Similar devices upon Indian grave-posts commemorate the family and 
the deeds of the deceased. The one here repre- 
sented is that of "VVabojeeg, a celebrated Chippewa 
war-chief. He was of the family of the Addik, or 
American Reindeer. This fact is represented by 
the figure of a deer. The reversed position de- 
notes death. The seven transverse marks on the 
left denote that he had led seven war-parties. The 
three perpendicular lines below the totem repre- 
sent three wounds received in battle. The figure 
of a moose's head denotes a desperate conflict with 
an enraged animal of that kind. The symbols of 
the arrow and pipe indicate his influence in war 
and peace. The Indians mourned their dead sin- 
cerely and preserved their remains with affection- 
ate veneration. 

The famous Dighton Rock inscription, once 
ascribed to the Northmen, is now known to be 
merely the record of a battle between two Indian 
tribes. The amazement of the vanquished at the 

sudden assault of the victors is shown by their being deprived of both 
hands and arms, or the power of resistance. Nothing in the inscription 




denotes a foreigner, nor is there any figure or sign for any weapon or 
implement brought by white men from beyond the sea. This interesting 
object is situated on the border of the Tannton River. 


Each tribe had its sachem or civil chief, and regarded itself as a sover- 
eign and independent nation. The form of government was patriarchal. 
The sachem had no power except through the influence of his wisdom and 
ability. Any one could be a war-chief whose tried bravery and prudence 
on the war-path enabled him to raise volunteers. The sachem was some- 
times a woman. The succession of chiefs was through the female line, 
a brother or nephew succeeding instead of a son. 

As there were no written laws, their government rested on opinion and 
custom, and these were all-powerful. Each man was his own protector 
and avenger. Murder was retaliated by the next of kin, and family and 
tribal strifes thus caused often continued from generation to generation. 
Each village had its independent government, one long building in each 



being devoted to festivals, dances, and public councils. The affairs of the 
nation were transacted only in a general council. 

In these assemblies, in which the Indian took great delight, strict order 
was kept. Seated in a semicircle on the ground, painted and tattooed, the 
chiefs adorned with feathers, with the beak of the red-bird or the claws 
of the bear, they smoked in silence, and listened attentively to the speaker. 
There was no war of words, no discord. They used tobacco in all their 
important assemblies, and the pipe was the symbol of peace. 

A common emblem, called the totem, consisting of the figure of some 
beast, bird, or reptile, formed the distinguishing mark of the tribes or 
smaller clans, serving the same purpose with them as the family name 
does with us. The tortoise, the bear, the beaver, the turtle, and the wolf 
were the totems of the "first families." The figure representing the 
totem of his tribe was tattooed upon the Indian's breast. The spirit of the 
animal was supposed es- 
pecially to favor the clan 
thus represented. 

Marriage could not 
be contracted between 
kindred of near degree, 
or families having the 
same totem. Husband 
and wife in the same 
family must be of dif- 
ferent clans If the 
presents of the lover to 
the father of his intend- 
ed were accepted, she 
became his wife, though 
neither may have spo- 
ken to the other, and for 
a while the husband had 
a home in her father's 
lodge. The presents 

have been known to be returned and the match broken oft' because there 
was no powder-horn sent. 

A peculiar method of match-making prevails among the Moquis of 
New Mexico a simple, happy, and most hospitable people. There the 
fair one selects the youth who pleases her, and her father proposes the 
match to the sire of the fortunate swain. Such is the arallantrv of the 


Ml I 



sterner sox in this region tliat the proposition is never refused. The pre- 
liminaries being arranged, the young man on his part furnishes two pairs 
of moccasins, two fine blankets, two mattresses, and two of the sashes used 
at the feast, while the maiden for her share provide an abundance of 

eatable-, and the mar- 
riage is celebrated by 
feasting and dancing. 

The love of the In- 
dian mother for her off- 
spring is strong and con- 
stant, yet her treatment 
of her child during in- 


fancy seems to us cruel 
and unfeeling. To the 
cradle made of thin 
pieces of light wood, 
and ornamented with 
porcupine's quills, beads, 
and rattles, the infant, 
carefully wrapped in 

furs, is securely tied. Thus bandaged, it is carried by the mother, its 
back to hers, or, while she works in the field, is suspended from the limb 
of a tree. In this way the future warrior takes his first lesson in endur- 
ance. The patience and quiet of the Indian child in this close confinement 
are quite wonderful. Children are left pretty much to themselves; their 
assistance in household labor is voluntary, and they are seldom scolded or 

The strength of the paternal tie among the Indians is seen in the act 
of Bianswah, a Chippewa chief, as related by Schoolcraft. In his absence 
from home his son was captured by a hostile band. On reaching his wig- 
wam the old man heard the terrible news, and, knowing what the fate of 
his son would be, he followed on the trail of the enemy alone, and reached 
their village while they were preparing to roast their captive alive. Step- 
ping boldly into the arena, he offered to take his son's place. 

"My son," said he, "has seen but a few winters; his feet have never 
trod the war-path; but the hairs of my head are white; I have hung 
many scalps over the graves of my relatives which I have taken from the 
heads of your warriors; kindle the fire about me, and send my son home 
to my lodge." The offer was accepted, and the old chief suffered torture 
to save his son. 


Filial devotion is finely illustrated in the story of Nadowaqua, the 
daughter of a chief who lived in the vicinity of Michilimackinac. This 
chief, known as Le Grand Sable, was able, politic, and brave. He had 
been a warm friend of the French, and was one of the prominent actors 
in the memorable capture of old Fort Michilimackinac in 1703, related 
farther on. 

Many years afterwards, when he had become quite aged, he accompa- 
nied his relatives, in the month of March, on their annual journey to the 
forests which yield the sugar-maple. After this season, which is one of 
enjoyment with the Indians, was over, and they had packed their effects 
to return, it was found that the old chief was unable to sustain the 

His daughter Nadowaqua determined to carry him on her shoulders 
to his wigwam. For this purpose she took her long stout deer-skin ape- 
kun, or head-strap, and, fastening it around his body, bent herself strongly 
forward under the load, then rose under the pious burden, and took the 
path to Lake Michigan. It is usual to put down the burdens at fixed 
points or resting-places on the way. In this manner she brought her 
father safely to the shore of the lake, a distance of ten miles ! 

The feat of ./Eneas in carrying Anchises on his shoulders through the 
flames of Troy is rivalled here by that of a simple Algonkin woman. 

Most of the hard work is done by the women, in order that the bodies 
of the men may be kept supple and active for the purposes of war and the 
chase. The Indian had no cow or domestic beast of burden, and regarded 
all labor as degrading and fit only for w r omen. His w r ife was his slave. 
"With rude implements she cultivated the ground and reaped the harvest, 
while he amused himself playing, gambling, singing, eating, or sleeping. 
In their journeys the poles of the wigwam are borne upon her shoulders. 
Much of her time is occupied in making moccasins and in quill work. 

The Indian's amusements were running, leaping, w T restling, paddling, 
shooting at a mark, games of ball and with small stones, dances and 
feasts. His chief resource from inactivity was gambling. He would stake 
his arms, the furs that covered him, his stock of winter provisions, his 
cabin, his wife, even his own freedom, on the chances of play. Among 
their field-sports one of the commonest is the casting of stones, in which 
they attain astonishing skill and precision. Their dances were numerous, 
and formed part of their religious observances and warlike preparations, 
as well as merry-makings. The women generally danced apart. 

The fleeka, or arrow-dance, practised by the Pueblo Indians in Arizona, 
is a picturesque performance. One of the braves is led up in front of lii* 



friends, who are drawn up in two ranks. Here lie is placed upon one 
knee, his bow and arrow in his hand, when the Malinchi, a handsomely 
attired young girl, commences the dance. From her right wrist hangs the 
skin of a silver-gray fox, and bells that jingle with every motion are fixed 
at the end of her embroidered scarf. 

At first she dances along the line in front, and by her movements shows 
that she is describing the war-path. Slowly and steadily she pursues ; sud- 
denly her step quickens ; she has come in sight of the enemy. The brave 
follows her with his eye, and, by the motion of his head, implies that she 
is right. She dances faster and faster ; suddenly she seizes an arrow from 
him, and now by her frantic gestures it is plain that the fight has begun 
in earnest. She points with the arrow, shows how it wings its course, 

'"J I A f ^*=*12? ;-, 


how the scalp was taken and her tribe victorious. As she concludes the 
dance and returns the arrow to the brave, fire-arms are discharged, and the 
whole party wend thair way to the public square to make room for other 
parties, who keep up the dance until dark. 

Boys were trained from infancy to feats of dexterity and courage, gain- 
ing a name and a position only on returning from a warlike expedition. 
A feast was always given for a boy's first success in the chase. A spirit 
of emulation and a thirst for glory was awakened in him by stories of the 
exploits of his ancestors. As soon as he was old enough, he travelled the 
war-path that he might earn the feather of the war-eagle for his hair, and 
boast of his exploits in the great war-dance and feast of his band. 

War was the Indian's chief delight and glory, and between many of 
the tribes it was of constant occurrence. When a war was about to break 
out, some leading chief would paint himself black all over and retire to 
the forest. There he remained, fasting and praying, until he could dream 
of a great war-eagle hovering over him. This was the favorable omen ; 
and, returning to his band, he would call them to battle and certain vic- 
tory, assuring them that the Great Spirit was on their side. 

He would then give a feast to his warriors, at which he would appear 
in war-paint of bright and startling colors, setting before his guests wooden 
dishes containing dog-flesh, a great luxury. The chief himself sat smok- 
ing, his fast not yet ended. 

The war-dance followed. If at night, the scene was lighted up by the 
blaze of fires and burning pine-knots. A painted post would be driven into 
the ground, and the warriors, their faces painted in a frightful manner, 
formed a circle around it. The chief would then leap into the open space, 
brandishing his hatchet, chanting his exploits, and, striking at the post as if 
it were an enemy, he would go through all the motions of actual fight. 
Warrior after warrior would follow his example, till at last the whole band 
would be dancing, striking and stabbing at the air, and yelling like so 
many fiends. 

Next morning they would leave the camp in single file, discharging 
their guns one after another as they entered the forest. Halting near 
the village, they would strip off their ornaments, and hand them over to 
the women who had followed them for this purpose. They would then 
move silently on. These parties were generally small, as their warfare 
was one of patient watchfulness, stealthy approaches, stratagems, and sur- 
prises. Following an enemy's trail, they killed him as he slept, or lay in 
ambush near a village, watching for an opportunity to pounce upon an 
individual and take his scalp. The scalp-lock was an emblem of chivalry, 




and was left upon the head of the warrior as a sort of defiance a way of 
saying, "Take it if you can." This trophy the warrior hung in his cabin 
on his return. There was no dishonor in killing an unarmed ninny, or in 
private deceit and treachery, it was no disgrace to run away when there 

seemed no chance of success. Torture 
and the stake enabled the victim to dis- 
play what the Indian considered a he- 
roic virtue --power of endurance, the 
triumph of mind over matter. He 
thought the meaning and intent of war 
was to inflict all possible pain and injury 
on his foe. 

The war weapons of the Indian were 
the bow and arrow, the spear, and the 
club. Until the breech-loading rifle was 
invented the bow and arrow remained 
the most effective, as they were the most 

ancient, means of slaughter of animals in droves. The arrow-point is of 
chert, hornstone, or flint. Spears were pointed with similar material. 
The arrow, two and a half feet long, is feathered for about five inches 
beyond the place where it is held in drawing the bow. The feathers are 
placed in a form a little winding, thus keeping the tail of the shaft nearly 
in the rear of the head, and causing a rotary motion which insures ac- 
curacy in its course. The war-club, of heavy wood, is usually elaborately 
ornamented with war-eagle feathers and with painted devices. The prai- 
rie tribes use a shield made of raw buffalo hide contracted and hardened 
by an ingenious application of lire. It is oval or circular in form, is about 
two feet in diameter, and is worn on the left arm. It is elaborately 
painted, and decorated with eagle's feathers. It is effectual against ar- 
rows, but is not proof against a rifle ball that strikes it squarely. 

Their love of freedom and impatience of control made military 
discipline impossible, and no large body of Indians could be kept together 
for any length of time. Jealousy, discord, and old feuds were likely at 
any moment to break out, when the warriors would desert in crowds. 
They never provided themselves with supplies for a campaign, and could 
therefore carry out no extended operations. They never attacked unless 
they could take their enemy at a disadvantage. A campaign against them 
was no easy matter. They had to be sought in che recesses of the lorest 
with which they were familiar, and which afforded every advantage for 
their peculiar mode of fighting. 




Captives were compelled to run the gauntlet through a double line, 
composed of the women, children, and young warriors of the village, who, 
armed with sticks and clubs, struck the prisoners as they passed, and some- 
times inflicted severe injuries upon them. Generally they were put to 
death, sometimes by torture. Occasionally one would be adopted into a 
family in the place of a deceased brother, son, or husband. The Iroquois 
and the Creeks often incorporated the tribes they had conquered with 
their own. In their treatment of female captives, the Indians were more 
humane than the victorious soldiery of civilized nations. 

The religion of the Indian, like that of other primitive races, had 
neither temple nor ritual. It had its songs and dances, and its sacrifices, 
at which animals and human beings were offered, the former as substitutes 
for the latter. Sun-worship and fire-worship were formerly very prevalent 
among the aborigines. Their priests and physicians are called medicine- 
men, or powwows. They profess to heal diseases by jugglery and magic 
arts, to give good-fortune to the hunter, the warrior, and the lover, or to 
cause the death of an enemy. In cases of sickness the Indian uses medici- 
nal herbs, but the vapor-bath is his most general and effectual remedy for 

Rude and ignorant as he is, and believing in many gods, the Indian 
yet worships the Great Spirit after a fashion of his own, and believes 
almost universally in a future life. With the dead warrior is buried his 
pipe and his manitou, his tomahawk, bow and quiver, his best apparel, and 
food for his long journey to the abode of his ancestors. By the side of 
her infant the mother lays its cradle, its beads, and its rattles. 

The Indian has no idea of future rewards or punishments. He 
believes that conflicting powers of good and evil rule over the universe. 
A spirit dwells in every object in the beast, the bird, the river, the lake, 
and the mountain. Every Indian has a manitou, or household god, to con- 
secrate his house ; sometimes it is a bird or a bear, sometimes a buffalo, 
a feather, or a skin. To propitiate the deity he employs some kind of 
sacrifice or prayer. An Indian lamenting the loss of a child exclaims, 
" O manitou ! thou art angry with me ; turn thine anger from me, and 
spare the rest of my children !" Dreams are regarded by him as divine 
revelations, and they exert a powerful influence over him. 

Great pains have been taken to convert the Indian to Christianity. 
The Spaniard, the Frenchman, and the Englishman have all tried their 
hand upon him, but hitherto with small success. His own religion seemed 
to him best adapted to his condition and manner of life. It was necessary 
to lift him out of barbarism before he could either understand or appreci- 


ate the boon they sought to bestow 
upon him. " One season of hunt- 
ing," said the Apostle Eliot, " un- 
did all my missionary work." At 
present the establishment of schools and the general introduction of the 
arts and implements of civilization are helping the missionary in his self- 
sacrificing labors, and a more hopeful prospect seems at last to have 
dawned upon the race. 

But, while in the matter of education something has been done for the 
Indian, much } T et remains to be done. Carlisle, Hampton, and Forest 
Grove only demonstrate, on a limited scale, what our government ought 
to do, and what it has bound itself by treaty to do, in behalf of the 
60,000 Indian children now growing up in idleness, ignorance, and 

The schools above named supply their pupils with the training and 
discipline which on their return will serve as a leverage for the uplifting 
of their people. In aptness, docility, and progress, the red children are 
fully equal to the white. In these schools they acquire not only the Eng- 
lish language and the elementary branches of knowledge, but they also 
learn useful trades, and in most cases have found, on returning home, suit- 
able employment at the agencies as interpreters, teachers, or mechanics. 
Money could in no way be so well applied as in the education of our 
Indian youth, thus lifting them out of barbarism. 

Fabulous legends and stories are common among the Indians, and their 


relation over their camp-fires and in the long winter evenings forms one 
of their principal sources of amusement. Among them the story of Hia- 
watha, of Onondaga origin, is best known, as it forms the basis of Long- 
fellow's beautiful poem. A few specimens of their traditions and stories 
are here given. 

Owayneo (the creator), says Iroquois tradition, after making them from 
handf uls of red seeds, assembled his children together and said : " Ye are 
five nations, for ye sprang each from a different handful of the seed I 
sowed ; but ye are all brethren, and 1 am your father, for I made you all. 
Mohawks, I have made you bold and valiant ; and see, I give you corn for 
your food. Oneidas, I have made you patient of pain and hunger ; the 
nuts and fruits of the trees are yours. Senecas, I have made you indus- 
trious and active ; beans do I give you for your nourishment. Cayugas, I 
have made you strong, friendly, and generous ; ground-nuts and every 
generous fruit shall refresh you. Onondagas, I have made you wise, just, 
and eloquent ; squashes and grapes have I given you to eat, and tobacco 
to smoke in council. The beasts, birds, and fishes I have given to you all 
in common. Be just to all men, and kind to strangers that come among 

you." . . . - . 

" The missing link," connecting man with the lower animals, which 
Darwin failed to find, is supplied by the tradition of a California tribe 
of Indians, who refer their origin to the coyote, or \volf. This is the 
tradition : 

" The first Indians that lived were coyotes. After they began to 
burn the bodies of those who died, the Indians began to assume the shape 
of man, but at first very imperfectly. They walked on all fours, and 
were incomplete and imperfect in all their organs, in their limbs and 
joints, but progressed from period to period, until they became perfect 
men and women. 

" In the course of their transition from coyotes to human beings," said 
the old chief who related this tradition, " they acquired the habit of sit- 
ting upright and lost their tails. This is with many of them a source of 
regret to this day, as they consider the tail quite an ornament ; and, in 
decorating themselves for the dance or other festive occasions, a portion 
of them always complete their costume with tails." 

The tradition of the Mandans is that they dwelt together near an 
underground lake shut out from the light of heaven. The roots of a 
grape-vine penetrating this recess first revealed to them the light from 
the world above. By means of this vine one-half of the tribe climbed 
up to the surface ; the other half were left in their dark prison-house 


owing to the bulk and weight of an old woman, who by her ponder- 
osity tore down the vine, and prevented any more of the tribe from 

The Osages believe that the first man of their nation came out of a 
shell, and that this man, when walking on earth, met the Great Spirit, 
who gave him a bow and arrows and told him to go a-hunting. Having 
killed a deer, the Great Spirit gave him fire and told him to cook his 
meat and to eat. Tie also told him to take the skin and cover himself 
with it, and also the skins of other animals that he should kill. 

One day as the Osage was hunting he saw a beaver sitting on a 
beaver-hut, who asked him what he was looking for. The Osage answered 
that, being thirsty, he came there to drink. The beaver then asked him 
who he was and whence he came. The Osage replied that he had no 
place of residence. " "Well, then," said the beaver, " as you appear to be 
a reasonable man, I wish you to come and live with me. I have many 
daughters, and if any of them should be agreeable to you, you may 
marry." The Osage accepted his offer and married one of his daughters, 
by whom he had many children. The tribe give this as a reason for not 
killing the beaver, their offspring being, as they believe, the Osage nation. 


An Indian youth who had ever been obedient to his parents, on reach- 
ing the age of fifteen prepared to undergo the ceremony of fasting 
usual at that age. As soon as spring came, he found a retired spot and 
began his fast. He had often thought on the goodness of the Great 
Spirit in providing all kinds of fruits and herbs for the use of man, and 
he now earnestly prayed that he might dream of something to benefit 
his people, for he had often seen them suffering for want of food. 

On the third day he became too weak and faint to walk about, and 
kept his bed. He fancied, while thus lying in a dreamy state, that he 
saw a handsome young man dressed in green robes and with green plumes 
on his head advancing towards him. The visitor said, u I am sent to you, 
my friend, by the Great Spirit who made all things. He has observed 
you. He sees that you desire to procure a benefit for your people. Lis- 
ten to my words and follow my instructions." He then told the young 
man to rise and wrestle with him. Weak as he was, he tottered to his 
feet and began ; but, after a long trial, the handsome stranger said, " My 
friend, it is enough for once ; I will come again." He then vanished. 

On the next day the celestial visitor re-appeared and renewed the trial. 
The young man knew that his strength was even less than the day before, 


but as this declined he felt that his mind became stronger and clearer. 
Perceiving this, the plumed stranger again spoke to him. " To-morrow," 
he said, " will be your last trial. Be strong and courageous ; it is the only 
way to obtain the boon you seek." He again departed. 

On the sixth day, as the young faster lay on his pallet weak and ex- 
hausted, the pleasing visitor returned, and as he renewed the contest he 
looked more beautiful than ever. The young man grasped him and 
seemed to feel new strength imparted to his body, while that of his an- 
tagonist grew weaker. 

At length the stranger cried out, " It is enough ; I am beaten. You 
will win your desire from the Great Spirit. To-morrow will be the 
seventh day of your fast and the last of your trials. Your father will 
bring you food which will recruit you. I shall then visit you for the last 
time, and I foresee that you are destined to prevail. As soon as you have 
thrown me down, strip off my garments and bury me on the spot. Visit 
the place, and keep the earth clean and soft. Let no weeds grow there. 
I shall soon come to life, and re-appear with all the wrappings of my gar- 
ments and my waving plumes. Once a month cover my roots with fresh 
earth, and by following these directions your triumph will be complete." 
He then disappeared. 

Next morning the youth's father came with food, but he asked him to 
set it by for a particular reason till the sun went down. When the sky- 
visitor came for his final trial, although the young man had not partaken 
of food, he engaged in the combat with him with a feeling of supernatural 
strength. He threw him down. Stripping off his garments and plumes, 
he then buried him in the earth, carefully preparing the ground and 
removing every weed, and then returned to his father's lodge. 

Keeping everything to himself, the youth revealed nothing of his 
vision or trials. Partaking sparingly of food, he soon regained his strength. 
But he never for a moment forgot the burial-place of his friend. He fre- 
quently visited it, and would not let even a wild-flower grow there. Soon 
he saw the tops of the green plumes coming out of the ground, at first in 
spiral points, then expanding into broad leaves and rising in green stalks, 
and finally assuming their silken fringes and yellow tassels. 

Spring and summer had passed, when one day towards evening he 
requested his father to visit the lonely spot where he had fasted. The 
old man stood amazed. The lodge was gone, and in its place stood a tall, 
graceful, and majestic plant, waving its taper-leaves and displaying its 
bright-colored plumes and tassels. But what most excited his admiration 
was its cluster of golden ears. "It is the friend of my dreams and 


visions," said the youth. u It is Mondamin ; it is the spirit's grain," said 
the father. And this was the origin of Indian-corn. 


" There was once a poor man called Shingebiss, living alone in a soli- 
tary lodge on the shores of a deep bay, in a large- lake. Kow this man, as 
his name implies, was a duck when he chose to be, and a man the next 
moment : it was only necessary to will himself the one or the other. 1+ 
was cold winter weather, and this duck ought to have been off with the 
rest of his species towards the South, where the streams and lakes are 
open all winter, and where food is easily got ; but the power he had of 
changing himself into a man when he wished, made him linger till every 
stream was frozen over, and the snow lay deep over all the land. 

" The blasts of winter now howled fiercely around his poor wigwam, 
and he had only four logs of wood to keep his lire during the whole win- 
ter. But he was cheerful, manly, and trustful, relied on himself, and 
cared very little for anybody, beyond treating kindly all who called on 
him ; and as he always had something to offer them to eat, he was treated 
vvith much respect and consideration by his people. 

"How he managed to live nobody knew. It was a perfect mystery 
to every one. The ice was very thick on the streams and the weather was 
intensely cold ; yet, on the coldest day, when every one thought he must 
starve and freeze, he would go out to places where flags and reeds grew 
up through the ice, and changing himself to a duck, pluck them up 
with his bill, and, diving through the orifice, supply himself plentifully 
with fish. 

" The hardihood, independence, and resources of Shingebiss vexed 
Kabibonocca, the god who sends cold and storms, and he determined to 
freeze him out and kill him for his obstinacy. 'Why,' said he, 'he 
must be a wonderful man ; he does not mind the coldest days, but seems 
to be as happy and content as if it were strawberry time. I will give him 
cold blasts to his heart's content.' So saying, he poured forth tenfold 
colder winds and deeper snows, and made the air so sharp that it cut like 
a knife. Still the fire of Shingebiss, poorly supplied as it was, did not go 
out. He did not even put on more clothing for he had but a single strip 
of skins about his body while walking on the ice in the coldest days, 
carrying home loads of fish. 

" ' Shall he withstand me ?' said Kabibonocca one day ; ' I will go and 
visit him, and see wherein his great pow r er lies. If my presence does not 
freeze him, he must be made of rock.' Accordingly, that very night, when 


the wind blew furiously, lie came to his lodge door and listened. Shinge- 
biss had cooked his meal of fish and finished his supper, and was lying 
on his elbow, singing this song : 

" ' Windy God, I know your plan, 
You are but my fellow-man. 
Blow you may your coldest breeze, 
Shingebiss you cannot free/e. 
Sweep the strongest winds you can, 
Shingebiss is stHl your man. 
Heigh for life, and ho for bliss, 
Who so free as Shingebiss !' 

" The hunter knew that Kabibonocca was at his door, but affected utter 
indifference, and went on singing. At length Kabibonocca, not to be 
defeated in his object, entered the wigwam and took his seat, without 
saying a word, opposite to him. But Shingebiss put on an air of the 
most profound repose. Not a look or change of muscle indicated that 
he heard the storm or was sensible of the cold. Neither did he seem 
aware of the presence of his powerful guest. But taking his poker as if 
no one were present he stirred the embers to make them burn brighter, 
and then reclining as before again sang, 

" ' Windy God, I know your plan.' 

"Very soon the tears ran down Kabibonocca's face, and increased so 
fast that he presently said to himself, ' I cannot stand this ; the fellow 
will melt me if I do not go out.' He went, leaving the imperturbable 
Shingebiss to the enjoyment of his song, but resolving, at the same time, 
that he would put a stop to his music. He then poured forth his very 
fiercest blasts, and made the air so cold that it froze up every flag orifice, 
and increased the ice to such a thickness that it drove Shingebiss from all 
his fishing-grounds. Still, by going a greater distance and to deep water, 
he contrived to get the means of subsistence, and managed to live. His 
four logs of wood gave him plenty of fire, and the few fish he got satisfied 
him, for he ate them with cheerfulness and contentment. At last Ka- 
bibonocca was compelled to give up the contest, and exclaimed, 'He must 
be some monedo (spirit). I can neither freeze him nor starve him. I 
will let him alone.' " 


" Nundowaga Hill, which looks down upon the waters of Canandaigua 
Lake, was once completely encircled by an enormous snake. The people 


of the hill, alarmed for their safety, resolved one day, in solemn council, 
that the snake must die on the following morning. 

"Just as the day was breaking, the monstrous reptile was seen at the 
base of the hill, closing every avenue of escape, its huge jaws wide open 
just before the gate-way. Vigorously did the whole tribe assail it, but 
neither arrows, spears, nor knives could be made to penetrate its scaly 
sides. Some of the frightened people endeavored to escape by climbing 
over it, but were thrown violently back, rolled upon, and crushed. Others, 
in their mad efforts, rushing into its very jaws, were devoured. Terrified, 
the tribe recoiled, and did not renew the attack till hunger gave them 
courage for a last desperate assault, in which all perished and were swal- 
lowed, except a woman and her two children, who escaped into the forest, 
while the monster, gorged with its horrible feast, was sleeping. 

" In her hiding-place the woman, by a vision, was instructed to make 
arrows of a peculiar form, and taught how to use them effectually for the 
killing of the destroyer of her tribe. Believing that the Great Spirit was 
her teacher, she made the arrows, and carefully following the directions 
she had received, she confidently approached the yet sleeping monster, 
and successfully planted the arrows in its heart. The snake, in its agony, 
lashed the hill-side with its enormous tail, tore deep gullies in the earth, 
broke down forests, and rolling down the slope, plunged into the lake. 
Here, in the waters near the shore, it disgorged its many human victims, 
and then, with one great convulsive throe, sank slowly to the bottom. 
Rejoiced at the death of her enemy, the happy woman hastened with her 
children to the banks of the Canesedage Lake, and from them sprung the 
powerful Seneca nation." 

The Indians affirm that the rounded pebbles, of the size and shape of 
the human head, to this day so numerous on the shores of the Canandaigua 
Lake, are the petrified skulls of the people of the hill, disgorged by the 
great snake in its death agony. 



discovery of an unknown continent and of a new race of men 
was the exploit and wonder of the age. 

Princes dreamed of vast additions to their domains ; priests of the 
conversion of heathen nations and the enlargement of their spiritual pos- 
sessions ; merchants speculated upon the prospect of a profit- 
able trade with the natives ; while poets sung of the new El 
Dorado as of a heaven upon earth, a land of inexhaustible fertility and 
riches. But neither seer nor statesman, priest nor poet, was able to fore- 
see the future of this continent. No one dreamed that this remote and 
savage wilderness was soon to become the seat of flourishing and power- 
ful communities, or that it was the chosen arena for the full and un- 
checked development of human progress and freedom. 

Strange stories were told of this new world. Its northern shores were 
said to be infested by griffins, while two islands north of Newfoundland 
were known as the Isles of Demons, whose occupants were pictured with 
wings, horns, and tail. An early geographer wrote that he had heard 
from many who had voyaged that way that " they heard in the air, in the 
tops and about the masts, a great clamor of men's voices, confused and 
inarticulate, such as you may hear from the crowd at a fair or market- 
place, w r hereupon they well knew that the Isles of Demons was not far 

By the first voyagers the natives were found to be simple, hospitable, 
and friendly. Soon, however, they learned to fear and distrust the 
strangers, who took every advantage of their ignorance and kindness. 
The different tribes were found to be widely scattered, many of them in 
a state of hostility to their neighbors. 

Columbus and other early voyagers took some of the natives with 
them on their return to Europe. Three presented to Henry VTI. by 
Sebastian Cabot, in 1502, were the first Indians seen in England. Those 



tirst taken to France were brought thither by Captain Anbert six years 

From time to time others were kidnapped and sold into slavery, and 
conflicts between them and their European visitors became frequent. The 
frauds and injuries of which they were the victims were not forgotten 
by the natives, but were eventually returned by them with interest. 

One of these acts of barbarity is thus related by Captain John Smith, 
with whom my readers will soon become better acquainted. 

" One Thomas Hunt, the master of this ship, when I was gone, be- 
trayed four-and-twenty of these poor salvages aboard his ship, and most 

dishonestly and inhumanly, for 
their kind usage of me and all 
our men, carried them with him 
to Malaga, and there, for a little 
private gain, sold these silly 
salvages. But this vile act 
kept him ever after from any 
more employment in those 

AVhen we learn what the 
clergy of that day thought of 
the poor Indian, we can better 
understand the infamous con- 
duct of these cruel man-steal- 
ers. " We may guess," says 
that eminent divine of New 
England, Rev. Cotton Mather, 
" that probably the devil de- 
coyed these miserable salvages 
hither, in hopes that the gospel 
of the Lord Jesus Christ would never come here to destroy or disturb his 


absolute empire over them."' 

Columbus says of the natives of the "West Indies, " We found them 
timid, and full of fear, very simple and honest, and exceedingly liberal, 
none of them refusing anything he may possess when asked for it. Like 
idiots they bartered cotton and gold for fragments of glasses, bottles, and 
jars, which I forbade as being unjust, and myself gave them many beau- 
tiful and acceptable articles which I had brought with me, taking nothing 
from them in return." 

Upon his first arrival, Columbus took some of the natives by force, 



in order that they might learn the language of the Spaniards and com- 
municate what they knew respecting the country ; and they were soon 
able, either by gesture or by signs, to understand each other. They en- 
tertained the idea that the white men descended from heaven, and on 
their arrival at any new place, (tried out immediately, with a loud voice, 
to the other Indians, " Come ! come and look upon beings of a celestial 
race ;" upon which both women and men, children and adults, young and 
old, when they got rid of their first fear, would come out in throngs, 
crowding the roads to see them, some bringing food, others drink, " with 
astonishing affection and kindness." 

Gaspar Cortereal, a mariner in the service of the King of Portugal, 
ranged the newly - discovered coast for six hundred or seven hundred 
miles, as far as the fifteenth parallel, admiring the brilliant 
verdure and dense forests wherever he landed. lie repaid 
the hospitality with which he was everywhere received by the natives, by 
taking with him on his return fifty-seven of them, whom he had treach- 
erously enticed on board his ship, and selling them for slaves. From a 
second voyage he never returned, having been slain in a combat with some 
Indians whom he was trying to kidnap. 

The earliest description of the Atlantic coast of the United States is 
found in the narrative of John Yerrazzano, an Italian mariner, who had 
been sent on a voyage of discovery by Francis I. of France. 
He reached the coast in the latitude of Wilmington, N C., and 
is supposed to have visited the harbors of New York and Newport. He 
describes the natives as very courteous and gentle, and possessing prompt 
wit, but as mild and feeble, of mean stature, with delicate limbs and hand- 
some visages. 

Seeing many fires ashore, and the natives friendly, he sent his boat to 
them, but the surf was too violent to permit landing. One of the sailors 
offered to swim ashore with some presents ; but, when he came near, his 
fears prevailed, and throwing out his presents -he attempted to return to 
the ship, but the waves cast him on the sand half-dead and quite senseless. 
The Indians immediately ran to his assistance, carried him ashore, dried 
his clothes before a fire, and did everything to restore him. His alarm, 
however, was excessive. When they pulled off his clothes to dry them, he 
thought they meant to sacrifice him to the sun, which then shone bright- 
ly in the heavens. He trembled with fear. As soon as he was restored 
they gently led him to the shore, and then retired to a distance until the 
ship's boat had been sent for him and they saw him safely on board. 




In requital for this kindness, the visitors robbed a mother of her child, 
and attempted to kidnap a young woman " of tall stature and very beauti- 
ful.'' Her outcries and her vigorous resistance saved her. 

At one place, where lie remained fifteen days, Verrazzano found the 
natives "the gentlest people" he had yet seen. They were liberal and 
friendly, yet so ignorant that, though instruments of steel and iron were 
often exhibited, they neither understood their use nor coveted their pos- 
session. The things they esteemed 
most were bells, crystals of azure 
color, and other toys to hang at their 
ears or about the neck. "When 
they beheld themselves in our mir- 
rors they suddenly laughed and gave 
them us again." The women wore 
ornaments of wrought copper. Wood 
only was used in the construction of 
their wigwams, which were covered 
with coarse matting. 

The natives of the more north- 
erly regions visited, perhaps, those 
of the coast of Maine, having al- 
ready learned to fear the Euro- 
peans, were hostile and jealous. 
They knew the value of iron, and 

demanded in trade fish-hooks, knives, and weapons of steel. " When we 
went on shore," says the narrator, "they shot at us with their bows, 
making great outcries, and afterwards fled into the woods. When we 
departed from them they showed all signs of discourtesy and disdain as 
was possible for any creature to invent." 

They were clad in skins or furs, lived by hunting and fishing, and had 
no grain nor any kind of tillage. Their canoes were trunks of trees hol- 
lowed out by fire and with stone hatchets, and their arms were bows and 

Pleased with Verrazzano's report, King Francis said, referring to the 
edict of the Pope of Rome, giving all America to the Spaniards, " he did 
not think God had created these new countries for the Castilians alone." 
His great rival, Charles V. of Spain, had laid claim to all the new discov- 
eries on the ground of priority. " I should like," said the French king, 
"to see that article of Adam's will which gives him America!" Tht 
authenticity of Verrazzano's narrative is yet an unsettled question. 




Ten years after Verrazzano's voyage, Jacques Cartier, an experienced 
navigator of Saint Malo, sailed from France to the region of 
the St. Lawrence. Landing in the Bay of Gaspe, a lofty cross 
was raised, bearing a shield with the lilies of France and an 
appropriate inscription. The country was thus taken possession of for the 
French king. 

The natives, who were very friendly, gazed at this ceremony in won- 
der. They seemed to have guessed its meaning, for, by signs, they made 

known to Cartier that the 
country was theirs, and 
that no cross should be 
set up without their leave. 
Cartier did not scruple to 
deceive the natives, by 
telling them that it was 

only intended as a bea- 
con - light for mariners 
entering their port. He 
seized two of these In- 
dians and took them with 
him to France. 

Cartier describes the 
natives as being " of an 
indifferent good stature 
and bigness, but wild and 
unruly. They wore their 
hair tied on the top, like 
a wreath of hay, and put 
a wooden pin within it 
instead of a nail, and with 
them they bind certain 
birds' feathers. They 
were clothed with beasts' 

skins, as well the men as the women, but that the women go somewhat 
straighter and closer in their garments than the men do, with their waists 
girded. They paint themselves with certain roan colors; their boats are 
made of the bark of birch-trees ; in them they fish, and take great store of 

At their first interview the narrator tells us that " so soon as they saw 
us they began to flee, making signs that they came to traffic with us, show- 



ing us such skins as they clothed themselves withal, which are of small 
value. We likewise- made signs unto them that we wished them no evil, 
and in sign thereof two of our men ventured to go on land to them, and 
carry them knives, with other iron wares, and a red hat to give unto their 
captain, which, when they saw, they also came on land and brought some 
of their skins, and so began to deal with us, seeming to be very glad to 
have our iron wares, still dancing, with many other ceremonies, as with 
their hands to cast sea-water on their heads. They >ho\ved their friend- 
;-hip in this way, as also by rubbing their hands upon the arms of the 
European visitors, and lifting them up towards the heavens." From the 
intense heat here, Cartier named the inlet "Bale de Chaleur," a name it 
still bears. 

The Indians about Gaspe Bay differed from the others both in nature 
and language, and in being abjectly poor. They were only partly clothed 
in old ^kins, and had no structures to protect them from the weather. "I 
think," said the old narrator, "all they had together, besides their boats 
and nets, was not worth five sous." They shaved their heads, with the ex- 
ception of a tuft on the crown, sheltered themselves at night under their 
canvas, on the bare ground, and ate their food partially cooked. They were 
unacquainted with the use of salt, and ate nothing that had any taste of it. 
In a second voyage, made in the following year, Cartier named the 
gulf, in honor of the day in which he entered it, the St. Lawrence, a name 
since extended to the noble 'river beyond. Sailing up to the 
isle since called Orleans, he was hospitably received by the 
natives at their village of Stadacona, now Quebec ; the two 

natives Cartier had carried off, and who had been kindly 
treated, acting as interpreters. He next ascended the river to the chief 
Indian settlement of Hochelaga, the modern Montreal, which takes its 
name from the neighboring elevation which they christened Mount Royal. 

Kvery artifice had been made use of by the Indians to prevent their 
journey to this place. They were jealous lest some of the knives, look- 
ing-glasses, and other trinkets should fall into the hands of the rival chief- 
tain and his people. 

Three of them, dressed as devils, wrapped in huge skins, white and 
black, their faces besmeared and black as coals, an,d with horns on their 
heads more than a yard long, tried to frighten Cartier, and after holding 
a long powwow, declared to him that their god had spoken, and that there 
was so much ice and snow at Hochelaga that whoever went thither should 
die. The Frenchman only laughed at this trick, and told them that their 
god was a fool. 




The Indian capital they found encompassed by a triple row of high 
palisades of heavy timber, and having only a single gate of entrance. 
Over this, and elsewhere on the walls, were platforms for its defenders, 
provided with ladders and with stones for its defence. It contained some 

I Ife :' A ' ' ' i B 1 , , I 

^.^rx "- ;,---;! i^viv fc-^t; > - 

VIEW OF MONTREAL AND ITS WALLS IN 1700. (FlOIII ill! old Frrlldl print.) 

fifty houses, each about fifty paces long, and twelve or fifteen broad, built 
of wood, and covered with bark, and skilfully joined together. These 
houses had many rooms, and in the midst of each was a large court, with a 
place in the centre for a fire. In a room at the top of their houses they 
stored their corn. Fishing and agriculture furnished them with food. 
Their chief, an old man, was borne to Cartier's presence on the shoul- 
ders of his men ; around his forehead he wore a band of red - colored 
hedgehog skins, but in other respects was dressed no better than his 

Viewing the white men as heavenly visitors, the Indians crowded 
around them to touch them, paying them every mark of reverence and 
respect. They brought to Cartier their lame, blind, diseased, and im- 
potent, to be healod ; and he gratified their desires, praying to God to open 
the hearts of these poor people that they might be converted. The inter- 
view closed with his giving them knives, beads, and toys. Before return- 
ing to France, in the following spring, Cartier took possession of the 
country for the king in the usual manner. When he was about to sail, 
he enticed the chief, Donnaconna, with nine others, on board his ship, seized 




and confined and, regardless of the cries and entreaties of their people, 
carried them to France. Four years later all these, excepting one little 
girl, were dead. 

Although the country is so named on a Portuguese map of ten years 
earlier date than that of his vovaare, Juan Ponce de Leon, a Spanish iren- 

i/O IT o 

tleman, claimed to be the discoverer of Florida. IFe had dis- 
tinguished himself at home in the expulsion of the Moors 
from Granada, had accompanied Columbus in his second expedition, and 
had been governor of Porto Rico, where he had acquired wealth by 
oppressing the natives. One of the objects he had in view was the dis- 
covery of a fountain whose waters would, according to an ancient fable, 
impart perpetual youth to whosoever bathed in them. Landing near the 
point now called Fernandina, he claimed the territory for Spain. He 
found a delightful climate, charming scenery, and a fragrant atmosphere, 
but no gold or youth - restoring fountain. Everywhere the Indians dis- 
played determined hostility. 

Upon his return, De Leon was 
rewarded by the King of Spain 
with the government of Florida 
for his pretended discovery, but on 
the condition that he should col- 
onize the country. When he at- 
tempted some years later to do 
so, his men were at- 


tacked with great fury 
by the natives. Many Spaniards 
were killed, the remainder returned 
to their ships, and De Leon him- 
self was mortally wounded by an 
Indian arrow. 

Other Spanish voyagers ex- 
plored the North American coast 
and encountered the hostility of the 
natives. Lucas Vasquez D'Ayllon, 

after treacherously kidnapping a large number of natives of South Caro- 
lina, in a subsequent voyage attempted a settlement on the 
Combahee River. In retaliation for his treachery, his men 
were unexpectedly set upon by the Indians and nearly all killed. Vas- 
quez, mortally wounded, escaped to his vessel ; and thus ended the first 
attempt to plant a colony within the area of the United States. 




The expedition of Pampliilio de Narvaez was disastrous in the ex- 
treme. It was this officer who had been sent by the governor of Cuba 
to take Cortez, the conqueror of Mexico, prisoner, and who was himself 
easily defeated, and captured in the attempt. When brought before Cortez 
he said to him, with his usual arrogance, " Esteem it great good-fortune 
that you have taken me captive." Cortez replied, "It is the least of the 
things I have done in Mexico." 

Landing near Tampa Bay, Florida, Narvaez struck into the interior. 
By his cruelty and want of judgment he provoked the hostility of the na- 
tives, who, to rid themselves of these unwelcome intruders, told 

. , , , April 13, 1528. 

them of a rich country, only nine days march to the south. 
These Indians were of fine stature, great activity, and expert and accurate 
bowmen, who could hit their mark at the distance of two hundred yards. 
Instead of rich and populous towns, such as they had hoped to discover, 
the Spaniards found only clusters of wigwams, and were plundered and 
cut off whenever opportunity offered. 

After a fatiguing and fruitless six months' tramp, the wretched rem- 
nant of the party reached Pensacola Bay in a state of destitution. Nar- 
vaez was ill, his men were dispirited, and his horses were reduced to 
skeletons. Boats must be built, but how was this to be done without 
tools or materials ? 

In this exigency a soldier told Karvaez that he could make pipes of 
wood, and convert them into bellows by the aid of deerskins. The idea 
was instantly acted upon. A forge was constructed, and immediately 
stirrups, spurs, cross-bows, etc., were converted into nails, saws, and axes. 
The pines yielded pitch ; a kind of oakum was obtained from the pal- 
metto. Hair from the manes and tails of horses was twisted into ropes, 
and the shirts of the men supplied sails. The horses were killed and 
their flesh used for food. Oysters and maize completed their store of 
provisions. After sixteen days of hard work they had constructed five 
boats, each of which held fifty-six men. 

In these frail vessels the remnant of that once gallant army embarked, 
and nearly all perished in a storm near the mouth of the Mississippi. 
Four survivors reached Mexico by land, after eight years of wandering 
and almost incredible hardships. 

The story of these men, that Florida was the richest country in the 
world, was credited by many. Among them was Fernando de Soto, who 
had been the favorite companion of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, 
where he had acquired both military renown and wealth. He believed 


that another Peru existed at the north, and aspiring to rival Cortez and 
Pizarro in fame and wealth, asked and received permission of the king 
to conquer Florida at his own cost. It must be remembered that the 
term Florida was at that time a vague expression, covering an immense 
territory no less than the whole North American coast. 

This was by far the most magnificent and well appointed of the nu- 
merous expeditions to this continent. Men of noble birth and good estates 
sold their lands to join in it. Portuguese soldiers were to be seen in the 
glittering array of burnished armor, and the Castilians, brilliant with 
hope, were '* very gallant with silk upon silk.'' From the numerous 
aspirants De Soto selected six hundred men - - the flower of Spain ; 
many persons of good account who 
had sold their estates were obliged 
to remain behind. Everything 
was provided that experience in for- 
mer invasions could suggest, includ- 
ing chains for captives, and blood- 
hounds as auxiliaries against the 
wretched natives. As the latter were 
to be converted as well as plundered, 
twenty - four ecclesiastics accom- 


panied the expedition. The fleet 
landed at Tampa Bay, 

May 30, 1S39. 

on the western coast, 
the adventurers disembarked, and 
the memorable march began. 

Soon after landing, a party of 
Spaniards attacked and put to flight a few Indians who were advancing 
towards them, making friendly signals. One of them had been knocked 
down, and was about to receive a deadly blow, when he uttered in excel- 
lent Spanish these words, 

" Sir, I am a Christian ! I am a Christian ! Slay me not, nor these 
Indians, for they have saved my life." 

The blow was withheld ; and this man, whose name was Juan Ortiz, 
related his most extraordinary story. lie was one of the survivors of 
Narvaez's company, and in a subsequent expedition had fallen into the 
hands of the natives, and was doomed to suffer death by torture. 

Four stakes were set in the ground, to which four ropes were fastened. 
To these poles the captive, with his legs and arms extended, was bound, 
at such a distance from the ground that a lire made under him would be 




a long time in consuming him. Already had the fire been lighted, and 
the victim resigned himself to his terrible fate, when the daughter of 
Ucita, the chief, throwing herself at her father's feet, begged his life in 
these words : 

" My kind father, why kill this poor stranger ? he can do you nor 
none of us any injury, seeing he is but one and alone. It is better that 
you should keep him confined, for even in that condition he may some 
time be of great service to you.'" 


The chief was silent a short time, but finally ordered his release. His 
wounds were dressed, and he was made tolerably comfortable. Possibly, 
this incident suggested to Captain John Smith the story he long after- 
wards wrote of his rescue from death by Pocahontas, the daughter of 

At one end of Ucita's village stood a temple ; over the door was the 
figure of a bird carved in wood, and with gilded eyes. As soon as the 
wounds of Ortiz were healed, he was stationed to guard the entrance of 
this temple, more especially from the inroads of wild beasts. As human 
victims were sacrificed here, wolves were frequent visitors. Death was 
the penalty for allowing a body to be removed. 

One night he had a terrible scare. A young Indian had been killed, 


and his body was placed in the 1 temple. Spite of all his efforts, a pack 
of hungry wolves effected an entrance and seized upon the body. As 
soon as he recovered from the fright of their first onset, lie seized a heavv 
cudgel, drove them out, and pursued them some distance, dealing one of 
diem a mortal blow. 

When morning came, and it was seen that the body was gone, Ortiz 
was condemned to die; but before executing him Ucita sent a party in 
pursuit of the wolves, and, if possible, to recover the body. Contrary to 
all expectations, it was found, and near it the carcass of a huge wolf. 
The order for Ortiz's execution was revoked, and he was afterwards held 
in great esteem by the Indians. 

Some time afterwards he was again selected for sacrifice, but was a 
second time saved from a terrible death by the chiefs daughter, who aided 
him to escape to the country of Mocoso, a rival chief, by whom he was 
well treated, and with whom he remained three years. At the expiration 
of that time the fleet of De Soto arrived, and Mocoso, out of friendship 
for Ortiz, sent him to his countrymen, who, as we have seen, supposing 
him to be what he appeared an Indian came near killing him. Ortiz 
rendered important services to De Soto, as interpreter among the various 
Indian tribes. 

For three years the Spaniards wandered through the country in search 
of gold, De Soto obstinately refusing to turn back. No gold was discov- 
ered ; the only wealth of the natives was in their stores of corn ; they were 
poor, but independent, hardy and brave. Everywhere he was met by the 
most determined hostility on the part of the natives, with whom he had a 
bloody battle at Mauvilla, or Mobile. For nine hours the Indians fought 
with desperation, and but for the names, which consumed 
their light cabins, they would have repulsed the invaders. 
Thousands of them were slain. Though protected by their armor, many 
Spaniards were killed or wounded, and all their baggage was burned. 

Mauvilla was a strongly -fortified village on the Coosa. It was sur- 
rounded by stout palisades, with loop-holes for arrows. Early in the morn- 
ing the Indian war-cry was raised. De Soto led his men to storm the fort. 
The entrance was narrow and well defended, and some of his best cava- 
liers were fatally pierced between the joints of their armor, and numbers 
of horses were killed. The Spaniards were obliged to withdraw. The 
Indians then sallied from the gates and rushed upon the foe, charging and 
retiring over the plain ; but the advantage was finally with the Spaniards, 
and the Indians withdrew to their fort. 

In a second assault the gate was broken down, when the assailants 


rushed in, and a furious conflict ensued. The Indians thronged the 
square ; lance, club, and missile were wielded from every quarter. Even 
their young women snatched up the swords of the slaughtered Spaniards 
and mingled in the fray, being more reckless than the men. The struggle 
was so fierce and protracted, particularly from the roofs of the houses, that 
the soldiers set fire to their combustible dwellings, which were soon in 
flames. At length the Indians gave way and fled, pursued by the cavalry. 
They would neither give nor take quarter ; not a man surrendered. These 
Indians were of the Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribes ; among the 
slain was their famous chief, Tuscaloosa, the Black Warrior. 

During the first winter De Soto encamped at the deserted Indian town 
of Chicaza, where for two months his men enjoyed comparative repose. 
At length the Chickasaws resolved to burn the encampment, which was 
constructed of inflammable materials. 

A dark and windy night having been chosen, the camp was fired in 
several places, the savages at the same time uttering furious yells and 
making a desperate attack. A high wind fanned the flames into irresisti- 
ble fury, and for a time the confusion was such as rendered it impossible 
to resist the impetuosity of the assailants. Discipline and courage, how- 
ever, regained the ascendancy, and the enemy was repulsed. But the 
camp was totally destroyed, together with all the arms, accoutrements, and 
provisions of the army. All that had been saved at the conflagration of 
Mauvilla was here annihilated. The droves of hogs, which had formed 
their main dependence for provisions, were burned in their pens. The 
temper of their swords had been impaired by the action of the fire, and 
almost every valuable article of equipage consumed. 

De Soto more than once displayed great coolness and presence of mind. 
He had, at one time, pitched his camp near Costa, a town in Alabama, and, 
with a few of his followers, was conversing with the chief, when some of 
his troopers entered the town and plundered several of the houses. The 
justly-incensed Indians fell upon them with their clubs. Seeing himself 
surrounded by the natives, and in great personal danger, the general 
seized a cudgel and, with his usual presence of mind, commenced beating 
his own men. The savages, observing this, became pacified in a moment. 
In the mean time, taking the chief by the hand, he led him, with flattering 
words, towards his camp, where he was presently surrounded by a guard 
and held as a hostage. The Spaniards remained under arms all night. 
Fifteen hundred armed Indians surrounded them, frequently threatening 
rliein with attack, and uttering cries of insult and menace. Restraining 
his troops, De Soto, aided by a prominent Indian, who had followed him 



for some time, at length succeeded in restoring peace and in averting what 
seemed likely to prove a serious a if air. 

Upon one occasion De Soto tried to overawe the Natchez Indians, who 
worshipped the sun, by claiming a supernatural hirth and demanding 

"You say you are the child of the sun," replied the incredulous chief. 
"Drv up the river, and I will believe you. If you wi^h to see me, come 
to the town where I dwell. If you come in peace I will receive you with 
special good-will ; if in war, I will not shrink one foot back." 

The sole achievement of this costly and memorable expedition was the 

discovery of the Mississippi Iliver at the lowest Chickasaw Bluif. Boats 

were required to cross, and it took a month to build them. 

The Spaniards crossed, and extended their tedious journey as 

far as Kansas. They found the Indians an agricultural people, with h'xed 


places of abode, and subsisting chiefly on the product of the fields. They 
were neither turbulent nor quarrelsome. Their dress was in part mats ; 
in cold weather they wore deerskins, and mantles woven of feathers. 
Their villages were generally small, but close together. The natives were 
treated with the utmost cruelty by the Spaniards, who held their lives as 
of no account. They would cut off their hands on the slightest suspicion, 
and the guide who was unsuccessful, or who purposely misled them, was 
thrown to the hounds or condemned to the flames. 

Disappointed and dispirited, De Soto's health rapidly declined, and he 


was finally carried off by a malignant fever. His body was buried at 
night in the great river he had discovered. " He had crossed a large part 
of the continent in search of gold," savs the historian Bancroft, 

May ">1 154 

" and found nothing so remarkable as his burial-place." 

His followers wandered about for months afterwards, but at length 


abandoned their fruitless expedition and returned to the Mississippi. 
They then, with extraordinary patience and labor, ingeniously 

' r fi ' , . f Sept. 1543. 

constructed some vessels out ot their scanty materials, in which 

the survivors, three hundred and eleven in number, finally reached Mexico. 

While De Soto was vainly seeking wealth and fame in the American 
wilderness, Mendoza, the Viceroy of Mexico, organized an expedition un- 
der Francis Vasquez Coronado, to search for the " Seven 


Cities of Cibola," the fame of whose riches was fully credited 
by the gullible Spaniards. Three hundred men were enlisted for the ex- 
pedition, who were accompanied by eight hundred Indians. 

The tale of the famous seven cities originated in the report of a Span- 
ish missionary, w r ho pretended that he had discovered, north of Sonora, a 
populous and rich kingdom called Quivera, or the Seven Cities, abounding 
in gold, the capital of which was called Cibola. Tezon, an Indian, also 
told the Spanish viceroy, Nuno de Guzman, that his father, who was now 
dead, had been a trader in ornamental feathers, such as are used in head- 
dresses, to a people in the interior lying north of the Gila River, and that 
he brought back in exchange large quantities of precious metals. He had 
accompanied his father, he said, on one of these journeys, and saw seven 
cities as large as Mexico, built on a regular plan, with high houses, and 
that there were entire streets of gold and silver smiths. No story seems to 
have been too absurd for these credulous Spaniards, and this one was still 
further corroborated by the return of Cabeca de Vaca with three compan- 
ions from the ill-fated expedition of Narvaez, \vhose glowing accounts of 
the countries through which they had passed, inflamed still further the 
avarice of their countrymen. 

Crossing the Gila, Coronado led his men over a desert and through the 
valley of a small stream, until they arrived before the lofty, natural walls 
of Cibola (old Zufii). On the top of these stood the town. The Indians 
cultivated corn in the valleys below, as they do at this day, wore coarse 
stuffs for clothing, and manufactured a species of pottery, but possessed 
neither gold nor mines. 

Without waiting to make any inquiries, the Spaniards immediately as- 
saulted the town. The natives rolled down stones from above, one of 


which struck Coronado and knocked him down. The place being taken 
after an hour's struggle, the troops found provisions, but no gold nor sil- 
ver. Proceeding onward in his invasion of New Mexico, Coronado was 


everywhere resisted by the natives. The explorations were continued to 
the Colorado River on the west, and to the Rio 'Grande on the east. Real- 
izing at last that the country was barren and destitute of resources, the 
Spaniards, after two years of fruitless exploration, returned to Mexico, 
wiser, but no richer than when they departed. 

Nearly seventy years elapsed before France, desolated by civil strife 
and torn by religious dissensions, could renew her purpose of founding a 
French empire in America. In the mean time, however, voyages for traf- 
fic with the natives were regularly and successfully made, and there had 
been no less than one hundred and fifty French fishing-vessels at New- 
foundland in a single year. 



The father of the French settlements in Canada was Samuel de Cham- 
plain, a skilful seaman, cool, courageous, and persevering, and a man of 
science. Selecting Quebec as the site for a fort, he returned 
to France just before the issue to the Sieur De Monts of the 
patent of Acadia, a region claimed by France to extend from the Dela- 
ware River to beyond Montreal. Port Royal, called Annapolis after the 


conquest of Acadia, in honor of Queen Anne, was settled in the spring of 
1605, preceding by two years the first English settlement at Jamestown. 

With a view to future settlements, De Monts explored and claimed for 
France the rivers, coasts, and bays of New England as far south 
as Cape Cod. Jesuit missions were at once established among 
the natives. That at St. Mary's, the oldest European settlement in Michi- 



gau, was established in 1668. Though many of these heroic men suffered 
death by torture at the hands of the natives, others sprang forward to take 
their vacant places. Through their influence the Abenakis of Maine, al- 
ready hostile to the English, became the allies of France, and made a firm 
barrier to English encroachments. 

AVithin the present limits of the United States, a French colony was, 
in 1613, planted at Mount- Desert. Quebec was founded by Champlain in 
1608. Having formed an alliance with the Algonkin tribes around him, 
Champlain twice invaded the territory of the Iroquois, their hereditary 





enemies. Having to take sides, unfortunately for France lie took that of 
the weaker. The story of these Iroquois conflicts will be found in a sub- 
sequent chapter. 

AVhile residing among the ITurons, Cliamplain's influence over them 
was put to a severe test. A quarrel, ending in bloodshed, had occurred 
between two friendly tribes; the principal Algonkin chief had been mur- 
dered, and his band forced to pay a heavy tribute of wampum. 

Champlain was made umpire. The great council-house was filled wirii 
Huron and Algonkin chiefs, "smoking," says the historian Parkman, 
" with that immobility of feature beneath which their race often hides 


a more than tiger-like ferocity." Addressing the assembly, Chainplain 
enlarged on the folly of fighting among themselves, while the common 
enemy stood ready to devour both ; showed them the advantages of the 
French trade and alliance, and zealously urged them to shake hands and 
be friends. His good advice was taken, the peace-pipe was smoked, and 
a serious peril for New France averted. 

In 1624 Champlain built the castle of St. Louis so long the place of 
council against the Iroquois and the English and was governor of Quebec 
at the time of his death in 1635. 

The first attempt to found an English colony in ~New England was 
made by Captain Bartholomew Gosnokl, who crossed the ocean in a small 
bark called the Concord. He first landed on Cape Cod. Some 
of the natives came along-side in their birch canoes, others ran 
along the beaches, gazing in wonder at the strangers. It was observed that 
the pipes of those who came on board were " steeled with copper," and that 
one of the Indians wore a copper breastplate. 

Gosnold afterwards sailed into Buzzard's Bay, and began a settlement 
on Elizabeth Island, now known as Cuttylmnk. This, however, was soon 
abandoned, for want of provision for its support, when his vessel had com- 
pleted her lading. Here he traded with the Indians, who were frequent 
visitors, and who are described as " exceeding courteous, gentle of dispo- 
sition, and well conditioned, exceeding all others that we have seen in 
shape and looks. They are of stature much higher than we, of complexion 
much like a dark olive ; their eyebrows and hair black, which they wear 
long, tied up behind in knots, whereon they prick feathers of fowls in 
fashion of a coronet. They make beards of the hair of beasts, and one of 
them offered a beard of their making to one of the sailors for his that grew 
on his face, which, because it was of a red color, they judged to be none 
of his own. 

" They have great store of copper . . . none of them but what have 
chains, ear-rings, or collars of this metal. They head some of their arrows 
with it. Their chains, worn about their necks, contain four hundred hol- 
low pieces, very fine and nicely set together. So little did they esteem 
these that they offered the finest of them for a knife or some similar 

The settlement of Maine was largely owing to the vast fisheries on her 
coast. For more than a century before, these had been known and drawn 
from by English and French mariners. The territory, as we have seen, 
was claimed by the French, but the Abenaki and Micmac tribes were its 


aboriginal inhabitants. These Indians hud permanent villages, enclosed 
by palisades. They wore many ornaments in their dress, skilfully made 
from shells and stones. They were agriculturists, amiable and social, brave, 
faithful to eno-am'ments, and especially strong in their family utturhments. 

O O 1 v O */ 

They had been gained over by the French missionaries, captivated by the 
picturesque and striking ceremonies of the Catholic religion, which ap- 
pealed so strongly to the- eye and the imagination. 

In May, 1605, Captain George Weymouth landed on their coast, and 
seized some of the natives, whom he carried to England. There was 
great difficulty in getting the Indians into their boat. The narrator of 
the voyage tells us that it was as much as five of them could do, for they 
were strong and naked, so that " their best hold was by their long hair." 
In England they were objects of great wonder, and crowds of people fol- 
lowed them in the streets, as they had done, a century before, when those 
brought over by Cabot were exhibited. 

Landing with them at Plymouth, the commandant, Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, became greatly interested in them, and ultimately became largely 
concerned in the settlement of New England through the information 
derived from them. He kept them with him three years, finding in them 
" great civility of manners, far from the rudeness of our common people. 1 ' 
Two of these natives piloted Popham's colony to the Kennebeck River 
in 1007. 

This was the first colony that spent a winter in New England ; and a 
most severe winter it was. From the natives they found " civil enter- 
tainment and kind respect, far from brutish or savage nations," but from 
adverse circumstances gave up the settlement in the following year and 
returned to England. Gorges, who was far-sighted and energetic, con- 
tinued to exert himself earnestly and unselfishly to promote a permanent 
settlement of his countrymen upon the continent. 

An act of singular boldness was performed by an Indian named Pech- 

mo. Captain Ilarlow, while at Monhegan Island, detained him and two 

others on board his ship, but he leaped overboard and escaped. 

Not long afterwards he with others cut Harlow's boat from his 

ship's stern, got her on shore, and filling her with sand, with their bows 

and arrows prevented the English from recovering her. 

Another instance of successful daring and duplicity on the part of the 
Abenakis is seen in the escape of Epanow, an Indian who had promised 
Gorges, in a voyage undertaken in 1614, to point out a gold mine in his 
country. Of this Indian it was said that, "being a man of so great ;> 
stature, he was showed up and down London for money as a wonder He 


was of no less courage and authority than of wit, strength, and propor- 

" Every precaution was taken to prevent Epanow's escape. He was 
even obliged to wear long garments, that might easily be laid hold of if 
occasion should require. Notwithstanding all this, his friends being all 
come at the time appointed with twenty canoes, the captain called to them 
to come aboard ; but they did not stir. Then Epanow, who was standing 
between two gentlemen that had been on guard, started suddenly from 
them, called his friends in English to come aboard, and leaps overboard. 
And although he was laid hold of by one of the company, yet, being a 
strong and heavy man, he could not be stayed, and was no sooner in the 
water but the natives in the boats sent such a shower of arrows, and 
came withal desperately so near the ship, that they carried him away 
in despite of all the musketeers aboard. And thus," continues Gorges, 
" were my hopes of that particular voyage made void and frustrate." 

In September, 1609, Henry Hudson, an English navigator of experi- 
ence, in the employ of the Dutch East India Company, sailed in the Half 
Moon up the noble river that now bears his name. " This day," 
says the narrator, " the people of the country came aboard 
of us in canoes made of single, hollowed trees, seeming very glad of our 
coming, and brought green tobac- 
co, and gave us of it for knives 
and beads. They go in deerskins, 
loose, well dressed. They have 
yellow copper, desire clothes, and 
are very civil. . . . Next day 
many of the people came aboard 
in mantles of feathers. Some 
women also came to us with 
hemp ; they had red copper to- 
bacco-pipes, and other things of 
copper they did wear about their 
necks." One of Hudson's men, 
named Colman, was killed with an 
arrow on the following day in a 
conflict with some of the natives belonging to the fierce tribe of Manhattans. 

Hudson then sailed up the river as far as Albany, the natives found 
above the Highlands being a " very loving people." They brought to- 
bacco, grapes, oysters, beans, pumpkins, and furs to the vessel, for which 





__ ._ _ S^vV.-* 5 



lie paid them in hatchets, beads, and knives. They invited him to visit 
them on shore, where they made him welcome, and a chief "made an 
oration and showed him all the country round about." 

One thievish Indian climbed up by the rudder and stole some articles, 
but was shot and killed by the master's mate. The others fled, some 
takino- to the water. A boat was sent out and the articles recovered. 


" Then," says the narrator, " one of them that swam got hold of our boat, 
thinking to overthrow it, but our cook took a sword and cut off his hands, 


and he was drowned." 

It was a sad day for the natives when they were, for the first time, 
brought under the influence of strong drink. Some of the chiefs were 
invited into Hudson's cabin, and were plied with wine and brandy till 
they were intoxicated. " That was strange to them," says the old chron- 
icler, " for they could not tell how to take it." One of them was so tipsy 
that his companions thought him bewitched, and brought charms (strips 
of beads) to save him from the strangers' arts. As Hudson and his men 
sailed down the river, the natives followed with friendly presents and 
hearty regrets at their departure. Hudson put to sea October 4th, and 
arrived at Dartmouth, England, on the 7th of November. 

A few years later the Dutch laid the foundation of Manhattan, now 
the great city of New York. The first European settlements in America 



were nearly all trading posts, established at points where they could barter 
with the Indians for the skins and furs of the animals they had trapped or 
shot. These were fitted out by trading companies in England, France, 
and Holland. The traders were constantly defrauding the Indians, and 
at the same time rendering them formidable by selling them arms. The 
attempt of Kieft, the Dutch governor, to exact tribute from them, followed 
by an attack on the Raritans for an alleged theft at Staten Island, brought 
on, finally, a desolating warfare, lasting for two years. 


In the winter of 1642-43 the dreaded Mohawks came swooping down 
upon the Algonkin settlements, driving great numbers of them into Man- 
hattan and other Dutch settlements near it. Though these Indians had 
committed hostile acts, policy and humanity alike suggested that they 
should be well treated. Instead of this their defenceless condition only 
suggested to Kieft the policy of exterminating them. 

Across the river, at Pavonia, a large number of them had collected, and 



Feb. 25, 1643. 

here, at midnight, the Dutch soldiers, joined by some privateersmen, fell 
upon them while asleep in their tents, and butchered nearly 
one hundred of them, including women and little children. 
This cruel and impolitic act was terribly avenged. The Indians every- 
where rose upon the white?, killing the men. capturing the women and 

VJ - - 


children, and destroying and laying waste the settlements. Trading boats 
on the Hudson were attacked and plundered and their crews murdered. 
The war extended into Connecticut, and at Pelham's Neck, near New 
Rochelle, Anne Hutchinson, a remarkable woman, exiled from Boston 
on account of her religious opinions, was murdered, together with her fam- 
ily, with the exception of a daughter, who was carried into captivity. 

The terror-stricken people crowded into Fort Amsterdam, where, dur- 
ing the following winter, they suffered from hunger and cold. Meantime 
they organized a force, fifty of whom were English, under Captain John 









Underbill, who had won renown in the Peqnot war. Early in 16i-i they 
undertook an expedition against the principal village of the Connecticut 
Indians, situated near Stamford. 

A night-march brought them to the Indian town. They had hoped to 
surprise the Indians, but it was a bright moonlight night and they found 
them prepared. The Dutch numbered one hundred and fifty ; 
the Indians, protected by their rude fortifications, were seven 
hundred strong. Advancing steadily, the Dutch repelled the sorties of 
the Indians, nearly two hundred of whom fell in the attempt to drive 
them back. Underbill at last succeeded in setting fire to the village. 
There was an end of the fighting ; it was only slaughter now. But eight 
of the Indians escaped. This victory put a period to the strife. 
In the following summer a treaty was concluded with all the 
hostile tribes on the beautiful spot in front of Fort Amsterdam, now 
known as the Battery, and the pipe of peace was duly smoked in pres- 
ence of the entire Dutch population. One week later a day of thanks- 
giving was kept by the Dutch for the conclusion of this terrible war, 
in the course of which nearly every one of their settlements had been 
attacked and destroyed. 

Feb., 1644. 

Aug. 30. 

NEW YORK IN 1664. 

Early one morning in September, 1655, during the absence of Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant, who was besieging the Swedes at Fort Christian, nearly 
two thousand Algonkin warriors swarmed through the streets of New 
Amsterdam, and after plundering the houses all day, were finally driven 
off in the evening after a desperate conflict. They then ravaged the 



adjacent country, killing the men and making prisoners of the women 
and children. Stuyvesant hastened back and took prompt measures to 
meet the emergency ; "but, instead of attacking the savages, by a prudent 
and conciliatory course he avoided further trouble, and procured a lasting 
peace and the return of all the captives. 


On the Pacific coast, Sir Francis Drake, the first Englishman who 

sailed round the world, discovered "a fair and good bay," which mav 

have been that of San Francisco, and remained there lon<r 

June IT, 1579. 

enough to rent his vessel and to build a fort upon the shore. 
He took possession of the country for Queen Elizabeth with the usual 
formalities, erecting a post upon which an engraved plate of brass was 
placed, bearing, besides the picture and arms of the Queen, and Drake's 
arms, the statement of the free resignation of the country by the king and 
people into her hands. 



With the Indians Drake maintained the most friendly relations. 
Soon after he landed he received a visit from the king of the country, 
a man of comely presence and stature, who with his train appeared in 
great pomp. In front of him marched a tall man, with the sceptre or 
mace of black wood a yard and a half long. Upon it hung two crowns, 
with three long chains of bone ; these had innumerable links and were 
marks of honor. The king was dressed in rabbit-skins. The common 
people were almost naked, but their hair was tied with many feathers. 
Their faces were painted, and they all brought with them some present. 



The sceptre bearer and another made long speeches, and then there was 
a dance and a song. They were then understood to ask Drake " to be- 
come their king and governor," the king singing with all the rest ; and 
more fully to declare their meaning, set the crown upon Drake's head 
and encircled his neck with their chains. They then saluted him by the 
title of Ifioh, or king, and sang and danced to show their joy not only 
at this visit of the gods, but that Drake, the great god, was become their 
king and patron. 

In the interior the natives were found living in villages. Their houses 
were round holes in the ground, surmounted by poles which met in the 



centre, the whole being covered with earth to keep out water. The door, 
"made sloping like the scuttle of a ship," was also the chimney. The 
people slept in these houses on rushes, on the ground around n fire in the 


middle. The country was fruitful. Deer and wild horses were plenty. 
The natives were loving and tractable, and expressed great sorrow at 
Drake's departure. In his narrative of this voyage, Drake sets forth 
fully the abundance of gold in California. 

The natives who met the founder of Pennsylvania were Lenni-Le- 
nape, who formerly had their seat beyond the Alleghanies, whence they 
emigrated to the Hudson and the Delaware. The Ilaritan, Xavesink, 
Mingo. and Assanpink creeks and rivers, preserve for us the names of 



the tribes commonly known as Delawares. They were of a warlike dis- 
position, and frequently fought with their Indian neighbors. At the 
time of Penn's visit they had been conquered by and were subjects of 
the fierce Iroquois. 

Penn has thus described them : " They are tall, straight, tread strong 
and clever, and walk with a lofty chin. Their custom of rubbing the 
body with bear's fat gives them a swarthy color. They have little black 
eyes. Their heads and countenances have nothing of the negro type, and 
I have seen as comely European-like faces among them as on the other 
side of the sea. Their language is lofty, yet narrow ; like short-hand in 
writing, one word serveth in the place of three, and the rest are supplied 
by the understanding of the hearers. I have made it my business to learn 
it that I might not w r ant an interpreter on any occasion. 


" In liberality they excel ; nothing is too good for their friend. Give 
them a fine gun, coat, or other thing, it may pass twenty hands before it 
sticks; light of heart, strong affections, but soon spent. The justice they 



have is pecuniary In ease they kill a woman, they pay double ; and the 
reason they render is that she breedeth children, which the man cannot 
do. It is rare that they fall out, if sober, and if drunk they forgive it, 
saying it was the drink and not the man that abased them." 


At Penn's first interview with the Delawares, Taminent, the chief 
sachem, sat in the middle of a semicircle composed of old men and coun- 
cillors. At a little distance back sat the young people. One of the 
sachems addressed Penn, during whose " talk " no one whispered or smiled. 
Penn and his friends were without arms ; he was easily distinguished by 
a blue silk net-work sash. The sachem wore a chaplet, with a small horn 
projecting from it, as a symbol of sovereignty. 

The name of the famous Delaware sachem with whom Penn made his 
treaty has been handed down to posterity in a very singular manner. Not- 






withstanding the discredit into which it W latterly fallen, the name of 
Tammany (Taminent) was an honored one, not only during iw u-PoHme of 
the warrior and sage who bore it, but long after his decease. 

A century ago it was adopted by a society in Philadelphia, who, on 
the first day of May in each year, walked in procession through the streets 
of that city, their hats decorated with buck's tails, to a place of meeting 
which they called the wigwam, where the day was passed in mirth and 
festivity. Since that period the honored name has been associated with a 
political faction in New York City, at whose meetings a semblance 01 
Indian customs is still preserved. 

Penn told the Indians that he desired to live in perfect amity with 
them, and that he and his friends came unarmed because they never used 
weapons. In addition to the price of the land he bought of them, he pre- 
sented them with various articles of merchandise. 

He tried in every way to conciliate them and gain their confidence. 
He walked with them at one of their earliest meetings, sat with them on 
the ground, and ate with them of their roasted acorns and hominy. They 
expressed their delight at this by hopping and jumping, in which the staid 
Quaker himself joined them, and, as the story goes, " beat them all." His 
open, straightforward, simple manner and kind treatment of them was 
repaid by friendly offices both to himself and his followers. 

His famous treaty with them took place at Shakamaxon, on the north- 
ern edge of Philadelphia. Every right of the Indians was to be respected, 
and every difference adjusted by a tribunal composed of an 
equal number of men from each race. Neither oaths, signa- 
tures, nor seals were made use of in this treaty, and no written record of 
it exists ; but it was sacredly kept for sixty years. Harmony also sub- 
sisted with the neighboring Indians, among whom were bands of the war- 
like Shawneefi. 

Oct. 4, 1682. 



IT was time for England to assert her rights, and to plant colonies in 
the vast and fertile regions Cabot had discovered almost a century 
before. So thought Sir "Walter Raleigh, one of the most brill- 

14!>7. ' ' 

iant Englishmen of an exceptionally brilliant period, when he 

,\ ] *n 1 LI. 1 |S 't . 

despatched two vessels, under Captains Amadas and Barlow, 
to the Xew World. 

Landing at Cape Hatteras in July, they received a friendly welcome, 
and trafficked with the natives, who came off to their ship in boats, and 
whom they described as "a handsome and goodly people, most gentle, lov- 
ing, and faithful, void of all guile and treason, and 
such as lived after the manner of the golden age." 
Among these visitors was Granganameo, the 
king's brother, who, taking a fancy to a pewter 
dish, made a hole through it and hung it about 
his neck for a breastplate. From him they learned 
that Wingina, the king of that country, was con- 
fined at home by a wound received in battle. The 
Christians drove excellent bargains with these sim- 
ple heathen, the price of the pewter dish being 
twenty deerskins, worth five pounds sterling, and fifty deerskins for a 
copper kettle. The simple natives "marvelled much" at the whiteness 
of the strangers. 

The chief's wife came to see them. She wore a long cloak of leather, 
with a piece of leather about her loins, around her forehead a band of 
white coral, and from her ears bracelets of large pearls " of the bigness of 

g 1 pease" hung down to her middle. The other women wore pendants 

of copper, as did the children, five or six in an ear. Their boats were 
hollowed trunks of trees. 

They kept their white visitors supplied with game and fruits, and did 
all they could for their comfort. Captain Barlow, with seven men, vis- 




ited the chiefs residence, 
and in his absence were 
most hospitably entertain- 
ed by his wife. Her house 
of five rooms she placed at 
their disposal ; she and her 
women provided bountiful- 
ly for their wants, washing 
and drying their clothing, 
and even bathing their feet 
in warm water, and placing 
a guard over their boat 
while they slept. They 
were feasted upon hominy, 
boiled venison, and roasted 
fish, with a dessert of mel- 
ons and other vegetables. 
After exploring the coast 
and acquiring information, 
the expedition, about the 
middle of September, re- 
turned to England. Two of 
the natives, Wanchese and Manteo, accompanied them on the return voyage. 

The glowing accounts they gave of the country made it easy to gather 
a company of emigrants to colonize Virginia, for so the country had been 
named by Queen Elizabeth. Under the lead of Ralph Lane, a soldier of 
some reputation, one hundred and eight colonists embarked at 
Plymouth in seven vessels, commanded by Sir Richard Green- 
ville, a kinsman of Raleigh, and one of the best known of the naval cap- 
tains of the age. 

Two years later, Greenville, in his single ship off the Azores, fought 
fifteen great Spanish galleons for fifteen hours, and when at last mortally 
wounded, exclaimed with his latest breath, " Here die I, Richard Green- 
ville, with a joyful and quiet mind, for that I have ended my life as a true 
soldier ought to do, fighting for his country, queen, religion, and honor." 
One of the ships that bore Lane's colony was commanded by Captain 
Amadas, another by a young captain named Thomas Cavendish, who a 
year afterwards made a famous voyage round the world. Thomas Hariot 
was the scientific man of this well-equipped expedition, and John White 
the artist. 


April 9, 1585. 


Landing in August, Lane established his colony at Wocokon, on Roan 
oke Island. Here they found tobacco, to the use of which they soon ac- 
customed themselves, maize, or Indian corn, which attracted their atten- 
tion from its extraordinary productiveness, and the potato, which, when 
boiled, they found very palatable. The country was explored as far south 
as the Indian village of Secotan, and northwardly to the territory of the 
Chesapeakes in the bay of that name. 

The inhabitants who were on the boundary of the Algonkin and South- 
em or Appalachian races were a mixture of both. Each clan obeyed its 
own chief, but all were associated in a general confederacy which was 
ruled by Powhatan, whose council-fire and residence were on the James 
River. They were described by one of the colonists as a very strong and 
lustv race, and swift warriors. He tells us, "Their skin is tawnv, not so 

V V ' 

born, but with dyeing and painting themselves, in which they delight 
greatly. The maids shave close the forepart and sides of their heads, and 
leave the hair long behind, where it is tied up and hangs down to the hips. 
The married women wear their hair all of a length, but tied behind as 
that of the maid's is. The women scratch on their bodies and limbs with 
a sharp iron, pictures of birds, fishes, and beasts, and rub into the draw- 
ings lively colors, which dry into the flesh and are permanent. The peo- 
ple are witty and ingenious, but steal anything they can lay hands on 
yea, are so practised in this art, that looking in our faces they would with 
their foot convey between their toes a chisel, knife, or any indifferent 
light thing, which, having once conveyed, they hold it an injury to take the 
same from them. They are naturally given to treachery, howbeit we 
could not find it in our travel up the river, but rather a most kind and 
loving people/' 

They were exceedingly fond of ornaments, some of which were very 
singular, not to say repulsive. An early traveller tells us, " Their ears 
they bore with holes, commonly two or three, and in the same they do 
hang heavy chains of stained pearl, bracelets of white bone, or shreds of 
copper beaten thin and bright, and wound up hollow, and with a great 
pride, certain fowles legs, eagles, hawks, turkeys, etc. The claws thrust 
through, they let hang upon the cheek to the full view, and some there be 
who will wear in these holes a small green and yellow live snake, near half 
a yard in length, which, crawling and lapping himself about his neck, 
oftentimes familiarly he suffereth to kiss his lips. Others wear a ded rat 
tyed by the tail, and such like conundrums." 

Their towns were small, the largest containing but thirty dwellings. 
Their greatest chief could not muster more than seven hundred or eight 


hundred warriors. Mathematical instruments, the burning-glass, guns, 
clocks, mirrors, and the use of letters, attracted their superstitious regard, 
and the English were reverenced as superior beings. Fire-arms were terri- 
ble to them, and every sickness was attributed to wounds from invisible 
bullets discharged by unseen beings inhabiting the air. 

" To make their children hardy," says an early writer, " they wash them 
in the river in the coldest mornings, and by paintings and ointments so tan 
their skins that after a year or two no weather will hurt them. To prac- 
tise their children in the use of their bows and arrows, the mothers do not 
give them their breakfast in a morning before they have hit a mark which 
she appoints them to shoot at, and commonly so cunning (skilful) they will 
have them as, throwing up in the air a piece of moss or some light thing, 
the boy must with his arrow meet it in its fall and hit it, or else he shall 
not have his breakfast." 

Gradually the friendly disposition of the Indians towards the colonists 
changed, owing to the greed and cruelty of the whites. They believed 
that the English were come to kill them and take their places. This 
belief led to a feeling of enmity. The English perceived it, and fearing 
a wide -spread conspiracy to destroy them, determined to anticipate it. 
Obtaining an interview with "Wingina, the principal chief, who was wholly 
unsuspicious of their design, at a preconcerted signal the English fell upon 
him and his followers and put them all to death. It is not strange that 
acts of cruelty like these were remembered by the natives, and that savage 
retribution followed. 

Very soon Lane's colony became dissatisfied ; provisions were scarce, 
the Indians were unfriendly, and the colonists were homesick and anxious 
to return to England. The fleet of Sir Francis Drake oppor- 

. . . June, 1586. 

timely arriving on the coast, he permitted them to embark, and 
thus ended the first attempt at English colonization. A few days after 
their departure a ship arrived, laden with all the stores needed by the 
colony. Greenville, with further supplies, also appeared a little too late. 
He left fifteen men on Roanoke Island to hold possession for England ; 
they were all killed by the Indians. 

Constant to his purpose of colonization, Raleigh now determined to 
plant a colony of emigrants, with their wives and families, who would make 
permanent homes in the New World. John "White was appointed its 
governor. In the month of July, 1587, it arrived on the coast of North 
Carolina, and laid the foundations of the city of Raleigh on Roanoke 

Here the first white child of English parents was born to Eleanor Dare, 


the daughter of Governor White, and named Virginia from the place of 
its l>irth. 

Captain Stafford, with twenty men, was sent to Croat an, to seek foi the 
lost colonists. lie heard that they had been set upon by the Indians, and 
after a sharp skirmish had taken boats and gone to a small island near 
llaterask, and afterwards had gone none knew whither. A party, under 
the guidance of Manteo, an Indian who had accompanied Amadas and 
Barlow to England, was sent to avenge their supposed murder. By mis- 
take they attacked and killed some members of a friendly tribe. Such 
mistakes have been only too common in our intercourse with the Indians. 

When the ship which had brought f hem was about to return, the 
emigrants prevailed on Governor White to go back and see to the prompt 
despatch of reinforcements and supplies. Xo seasonable relief, however, 
arrived, and the fate of the colony remains to this day a mystery. Owing 
to the threatened invasion of England by the Spanish armada, and to other 
untoward events, it was not until three years had elapsed that White could 
return to seek for his colony. It had disappeared, leaving no trace behind. 
He found the island of Roanoke a desert. Raleigh's efforts and sacrifice- 
to colonize America were all in vain ; but his faith was still unshaken, and 
to his friend Cecil he wrote the memorable words, "I shall yet Kre to see 
it an Inglishe nation." America owes a large debt of gratitude to the 
illustrious man who did so much to promote her colonization. 

A period of twenty years now elapsed before a permanent English 
settlement was made. St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest town in the 
United States, had been founded by the Spaniards in 1565, and in 1605 
the French had begun the settlement of Xova Scotia. On the 1-ith of 
May, 1607, Captain Christopher Newport's colony planted itself at James- 
town, Virginia. The colonists at once set manfully to work, felling trees 
and erecting a fort. 

Three weeks before, a party had explored the James River, visiting OR 
the way several Indian kings, or werowances, as they were called, " the 
people in all places kindly entertaining us," says Captain John Smith, 
one of the explorers, " dancing, and feasting us with strawberries, mv.l- 
berries, bread, fish, and other country provisions, whereof we had plenty, 
for which Captain Newport kindly requited them with bells, pins, needles, 
and glass beads, which so contented them that his liberality made them 
follow us from place to place, and ever kindly to respect us." 

A remarkable man has come upon the scene, the first to render illus- 
trious the otherwise prosaic name of John Smith. He was now twenty- 
eight years of age, and from his earliest youth had led a roving and 


adventurous life. His military career began in the service of the gallant 
Henry of Navarre, under whose banner we find at the same time Captain 
Thomas Dudley, afterwards governor of the Massachusetts colony. Smith's 
exploits in the wars with the Turks in Hungary, his capture and sale in 
the slave market at Adrianople, his cruel treatment by his master, and his 
escape, as told by himself, make a most entertaining and romantic, if not 
a strictly veracious, narrative.* 

"While a slave in the Crimea he was clothed in the skin of a wild beast, 
an iron collar was fastened about his neck, and he was cuffed and kicked 


about like a clog. One day he avenged himself by breaking his master's 
skull with a flail, and then mounting his horse fled in disguise to Poland, 
and thence made his way to Morocco. Here he joined an English man-of- 
war, and after a fierce sea-fight arrived in England just in time to embark 
in the colonization of Virginia. 

These experiences, taken in connection with his subsequent career in 
Virginia, make Captain John Smith by far the most picturesque character 
in our annals. Even if we give up the chivalric exploit of the slaying of 
the three Turks, one after the other, in single combat before the walls of 
Regall, for the pastime of the ladies, and the romantic story of his rescue 
from death by Pocahontas, enough remains to immortalize the name of 
Captain John Smith in all time to come. 

* For the incidents in the career of this remarkable man, read his "True Travels, 
Adventures, and Observations," and his "Generall Historic of Virginia, New England, 
and the Summer Isles." 


As soon as the natives became aware of the purpose of the whites to 
dispossess them of their territory, they began to be troublesome. They 
would skulk about at night, and hang around the fort by day, bringing 
sometimes presents of deer, but given to theft of small articles, and show- 
ing iealousv of the invasion of their soil. The day before 

M:iv 26. ' 

the return of a second exploring party, two hundred Indians 
attacked the fort. They fought bravely, but were driven oft' after an 
hour's fight by the guns of the ship. In this aft'air the colonists had 
eleven men wounded and a boy killed. For several days alarms and 
attacks continued, and it was unsafe for any to venture beyond the fort. 

Newport's colony consisted mainly of kk gentlemen." No more useless 
commodity could have been sent here. Among them were ruined spend- 
thrifts, broken tradesmen, fortune-hunters, rakes, and libertines. They 
expected to find gold ; they found instead danger, disappointment, toil, 
and sickness. 

" We did not come here to work," they said. 

" Then you shall not eat," said the redoubtable Captain Smith. " The 
labor of a few industrious men shall not be consumed to maintain idle 

In order to stop profanity Smith kept a daily account of every man's 
oaths, and at night a can of cold water poured down the offender's sleeve 
was the penalty for each transgression. To the company in England 
who had sent out the colony he wrote : " When you send again, I entreat 
you send thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths, 
or diggers up of roots, well provided, rather than a thousand of such as 
we have." After Smith's return to England they had things their own 
way ; they plundered the Indians, who in turn slew them, and were re- 
duced by famine to the greatest straits. When relieved by Sir Thomas 
Gates, from four hundred and ninety their number had dwindled to sixty. 

With so many drones in the hive there was soon a scarcity of food. 
But for the kindness of the natives, who brought them maize and other 


provisions, they must have starved. Smith made several excursions up 
the Chickahominy River to trade with the Indians for corn. When, as it 
sometimes happened, the savages were insolent, and refused to trade, he 
brought them to terms by force of arms. But for his energy in procuring 
supplies, and his success in dealing with the Indians, it is probable that 
the colony would have famished. With all his vanity and impatience of 
restraint, Smith possessed extraordinary executive ability. 

Not long after the settlement was begun, Smith, while engaged in 
exploring the sources of the Chickahominy, was set upon by the natives. 



Seizing the Indian guide who had accompanied him, he used him as a 
shield against their arrows, at the same time defending himself witli his 
pistol. He was soon surrounded by two hundred Indians, led by Opechan- 
ganough, chief of the Pamunkeys, the brother of Powhatan. Sure of 
making him prisoner they would not shoot, but laid down their bows and 
demanded his arms. Let the valiant captain tell the rest of the story in 
his own words : 

"In retiring," says Smith, "being in the midst of a low quagmire, and 
minding them more than my steps, I stept fast into the quagmire, and 
also the Indian in drawing me forth. Tims surprised, I resolved to try 
their mercies and cast my arms from me, till which none durst approach 


" Having seized on me they drew me out, diligently chafed my be- 
numbed limbs, and led me to the king. I presented him with a compass- 
dial, describing by my best means the use thereof ; whereat he so ainazed- 
ly admired, as he suffered me to proceed in a discourse of the roundness 
of the earth, the course of the sun, moon, stars, and planets. (Much of 
this learned discourse must have been thrown away upon an unlettered 


savage.) With kind speeches and bread be requited me. I expected tliev 
would execute me, yet they used me with what kindness they could. I 
was taken to their town, six miles off, only made as arbors and covered 
with mats, which they remove as occasion requires. For supper I had 
a quarter of venison and some ten pounds of bread ; what I left was 
reserved for me. Each morning three women presented me three great 
platters of fine bread, and more venison than ten men could eat. I had 
my gowne, points, and garters; my compass and tablets they gave me 
again. Though eight ordinarily guarded me, I wanted not what they 
could devise to content me, and still our longer acquaintance increased 
our better affection." 

Smith also greatly astonished the Indians by writing a letter to be 
sent to his friends, for they could not understand how a message could 
be put on paper. And when the articles for which lie had sent were 
delivered to them, they regarded him as a wonderful powwow or con- 

Some days later he was conducted to the residence of Powhatan, the 
principal chief of the country, near the historic field of Yorktown, but 
on the other side of the river. 

Powhatan was at this time about seventy years of age, and of ma jest it- 
appearance, lie was tall, well proportioned, and exceedingly vigorous. 
By his bravery, energy, and policy he had raised himself to kingly power. 
He swayed many nations upon the great rivers and bays, as far as the Pa- 
tuxent, most of whom he had conquered. There were thirty of these, 
with a population of twenty-four thousand. He wore an ornamented robe 
of raccoon-skins, and his head-dress was composed of many feathers wrought 
into a kind of crown. He usually kept a guard of forty or fifty of the 
most resolute and well formed of his warriors about him, especially when 
he slept; but after the English came into his country he increased it 
to about two hundred. Smith's interview with this great chief, who re- 
ceived him with much ceremony, is best given in his own words : 

" Arriving at Woramocomoco, on the Pamunkey [York] River," says 
Smith, " their emperor was proudly lying upon a bedstead a foot high, 
upon ten or twelve mats, richly hung with many chains of great pearls 
about his neck, and covered with a great covering of raccoon-skins. At 
his head sat a woman ; at his feet another. On each side, sitting on a mat 
upon the ground, were ranged his chief men, ten in a rank, and behind 
them as many young women, each having a great chain of white beads 
over their shoulders, their heads painted red. At my entrance before the 
king all the people gave a great shout. The Queen of Appomattuck was 



appointed to bring me water to wash my bands, and another brought a 
bunch of feathers instead of a towel to dry them. 

u With such a grave and majestical countenance as drew me into admi- 
ration to see such state in a naked savage, Powhatan kindly welcomed me 
with good words and great platters of sundry victuals, assuring me his 


tfiisjtate &-jS/?u'0n '-ivhen Copt: Smith * 
s-uras deliuered to 72im*pri/0 


friendship, and my liberty within four days. He much delighted in 
Opechanganough's relation of what I had described to him, and oft exam- 
ined me upon the same. He promised to give me corn, venison, or what I 
wanted to feed us. Hatchets and copper we should make him, and none 
should disturb us. This I promised to perform; and thus having, with 
all the kindness he could devise, sought to content me, he sent me home." 


When Powhatan inquired of Smith the cause of their coming, he was 
careful not to let him know that the English had come to settle in the 
country. lie told him that in a tight with the Spaniards they had been 
overpowered and compelled to retreat, and by stress of weather had to 
put to that shore. Perhaps Powhatan believed him. Smith had a de- 
cided knack for romancing. 

This account of his captivity was written by Smith at the time, and 
was soon afterwards published in London. In it nothing is said about 
Pocahontas saving his life. That romantic story, first published sixteen 
years later, and since everywhere repeated, has latterly been questioned. 
It is wholly inconsistent with what Smith had previously told of the kind 

v J. j 

treatment he received from Powhatan. It is as follows : 

" Having feasted him (Smith) after the best barbarous manner they 
could, a long consultation was held ; but the conclusion was, two great 
stones were brought before Powhatan ; then as many as could laid hands 
on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready 
M ith their clubs to beat out his brains, Pocahontas, the king's dearest 
daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms and 
laid her own upon his to save him from death, whereat the emperor 
contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and 
copper, for they thought him as well capable of all occupations as them- 
selves." There can be little doubt that Smith owed his escape from 
deatli to his own native wit and readiness. 

Smith thus describes some of the religious and other ceremonies per- 
formed by their medicine-men, or powwows : 

" Three or four days after my taking," he says, " seven of them came 
rushing in, painted half black, half red, in the house where I lay ; round 
about him these fiends danced a pretty while ; then each, with a rattle, be- 
gan, at ten o'clock in the morning, to sing about the fire, which they en- 
vironed witli a circle of meal, and afterwards, a foot or two from that, 
at the end of each song, laid down two or three grains of wheat, con- 
tinuing this order till they have included six hundred or seven hundred 
in a half-circle, and, after that, two or three more circles in like manner, 
a hand's-breadth from the others ; that done, at each song they put be- 
tween every three, two, or five grains a little stick, so continuing, as an 
old woman her paternoster. 

" One, disguised with a great skin, his head hung round with little 
skins of weasels and other vermin, with a coronet of feathers on his head, 
painted as ugly as possible, came skipping in with a fearful yell, and a rattle 
in his hand. At the end of each song he made many signs and demon 




strations, with strange and vehement actions ; great cakes of deer suet, 
deer, and tobacco he cast in the fire. Their howling would continue till 
six o'clock in the evening ere they would depart. Three days they used this 
ceremony, the meaning whereof was to show if I intended them well or no. 



' Each morning, in the coldest frosts, the principal, to the number of 
Twenty <>r thirty, assembled themselves in a circle a good distance from the 
town, where they told me they consulted where to hunt the next day. So 
fat they fed me that I much doubted they intended to have sacrificed me 
to the power they worship. To cure the sick, a man with a rattle, and 
extreme howling, shouting, singing, and such violent gestures and antic 
actions, labors over the patient. In passing over the water in foul weather 
they offer tobacco to their god to conciliate his favor. Death they lament 
with great sorrow and weeping; their kings they bury betwixt two mate, 

within their houses, with all his beads, 
jewels, hatchets, and copper ; the 
others in graves like ours. For the 
crown their heirs inherit not, but the 
first heirs of the sister."' 

The colonists were constantly in 
fear of the savages, who lurked in 
the neighboring forest. One of them 
brought in a glittering stone one day, 
and said he would show them where 
there was a great abundance of it. 
Smith went to see this mine, but was 
led hither and thither until he lost 
patience, and seeing that the Indian 
was fooling him, gave him twenty 
lashes with a rope. lie then handed 
him his bow and arrows, told him 
to shoot if he dared, and let him 



Smith was always prompt and 
''square" with the Indians, keeping his promises to them, and never 
hesitating to attack or punish them when necessary. They feared and 
respected him. Smith was a great boaster, but there was no nonsense 
about him. 

lie was a born explorer, and in one of his voyages discovered and sailed 
up the Potomac River, collecting from the natives a quantity of furs. 
Fish were so abundant that his men attempted, though without success, to 
catch them with frying-pans ; the fishes very properly declined this pre- 
mature introduction to the frying-pan, not being dressed for the occasion. 
In a subsequent journey he made acquaintance with the Susquehannocks, 
a tribe of large stature and of honest and simple disposition. " Their 


voices were proportioned to their size," says Smith, " sounding, as it were, 
a great, voice in a vault or cave, as an echo." 

Earlv in the following year Smith, with Newport and about twenty 
others, went to Powhatan's residence to trade. Three hundred savages 
conducted Smith to Powhatan, who received him in great 


state. Before his house were ranged forty or fifty great plat- 
ters of bread. Entering his house, " with loud tunes they made all signs 
of great joy." 

The emperor sat upon his bed of mats, his pillow of leather embroid- 
ered with pearls and white beads, and his attire " a fair robe of skins, as 
large as an Irish mantle." He welcomed Smith with kindness, caused him 
to sit beside him, and with pleasant converse renewed their old acquaint- 
ance. Smith presented him with a suit of red cloth, a white greyhound, 
and a hat, Powhatan professed a great desire to see Smith's "father," 
Captain Newport, upon whose greatness Smith had before freely enlarged. 
That night the English were feasted liberally, and entertained with sing- 
ing, dancing, and orations. 

Next day Newport came on shore, and presents were exchanged. New- 
port gave Powhatan a white boy, thirteen years old, named Thomas Sav- 
age. This boy remained a long time with the Indians, and was useful to 
the colonists as an interpreter. In return, Powhatan gave Newport a bag 
of beans, and an Indian, named Namontack, for his servant. The party 
stayed three or four days, feasting, dancing, and trading with the natives. 

In the matter of trade, Smith says of Powhatan, " he carried himself 
so proudly, yet discreetly (in his savage manner), as made us all to admire 
his natural gifts. 

" ' Captain Newport,' said he, ' it is not agreeable to my greatness in 
this peddling manner to trade for trifles ; therefore lay down all your com- 
modities together, what I like I will take, and in recompense give you 
what I think fitting their value.' 1 ' 

Smith saw through his craftiness and warned Newport ; but the lattei- 
.esented his interference and placed all his goods before Powhatan, who in 
return gave him only a few bushels of corn, whereas he expected to have 
obtained twenty hogsheads. Smith, who was as wily as the Indian, showed 
him, as if by accident, a few blue beads which he pretended he did not 
wish to part with, as they were of great price, being of the color of the 
skies, and worn only by great kings. He so stimulated Powhatan's eager- 
ness to possess such treasures that for a pound of blue beads he paid him 
two or three hundred bushels of corn. 

It had been decided by the company in England to crown Powhatan, 



and to present him with a basin and ewer, bed, bedding, and clothes. The 
ceremony of coronation, which took place at Worawocomoco, is thus hu- 
morously described by Smith : 

" The presents were brought him, his bed and furniture set up, his 
scarlet cloke and apparel with much adoe put on him. But a foule trouble 
there was to make him kneel to receive his crown ; he not knowing the 
majesty nor meaning of a crown, nor bending of the knee, endured so 
many persuasions, examples, and illustrations as tired them all. At last, 
by bearing hard on his shoulders, he a little stooped, and three having the 
crown in their hands put it on his head, when, by the warning of a pistol, 
the boats were prepared with such a volley of shot that made the king start 
up in a horrible fear, till he saw all was well. Then, remembering him- 
self to congratulate their kindness, he gave his old shoes and his mantle to 
Captain Newport." 

Of this absurd ceremonial Smith observes, " We had his favor and bet- 
ter for a plain piece of copper, till this stately kind of solicitation made 
him so much overvalue himself that he respected us as much as nothing 
at all/' 

Nothing could be more plausible or apparently more free from treach- 
erous intent than Powhatan's talk with Smith, when upon one occasion the 
latter, to extort food for the famished settlers which the Indians withheld, 
threatened to take it by force. 

" Why should you," said the chief, " take by force that from us which 
you can have by love ? Why should you destroy us who have provided 
you with food ? What can you get by war ? We can hide our provisions 
and fly into the woods, and then you must, consequently, perish by wrong- 
ing your friends. What is the cause of your jealousy ? You see us un- 
armed, and willing to supply your wants if you will come in a friendly 
manner, and not with guns and swords as to invade an enemy. I am not 
so simple as not to know it is better to eat good meat, lie well, and sleep 
quietly, to laugh and be merry with the English, and being their friend, to 
have copper, hatchets, and whatever else I want, than to fly from all, to 
lie cold in the woods, feed upon acorns, roots, and such trash, and to be so 
hunted that I cannot rest, eat, or sleep, unless in this miserable manner to 
end my miserable life ; and, Captain Smith, this might be your fate too, 
through your rashness and unadvisedness. I, therefore, entreat you to 
peaceable counsels, and, above all, I insist that the guns and swords, the 
cause of all our jealousy and uneasiness, be removed and sent away." 

Smith rightly interpreted this cunning speech exactly contrary to what 
it expressed, and it confirmed rather than lessened his former suspicions 






that the wily chief sought an opportunity to destroy them. At length, 
finding all artifices vain, Powhatan resolved to fall upon the English in 
their cabins in the night. From this peril they were saved by Pocahontas, 
who came alone to Jamestown, in a dismal night, through the woods, and 


informed Smith of her father's design. To show his gratitude, Smith says 
he would have given her "such things as she delighted in, but with the 
tears rolling down her cheeks she said she durst not be seen to have any, 
for if Powhatan should know it she were but dead ; and so she ran away 
by herself as she came/' 

Another of Smith's wonderful exploits must now be recorded. With 
fifteen of his men he visited Opechanganough's residence, where he soon 
found himself surrounded by seven hundred armed savages seeking his 
life. Boldly charging the king with intent to murder him. he challenged 
him to single combat, Smith to be as naked as the king. The latter still 
professed friendship, but Smith seizing him by his long hair, in the midst 
of his guard, with his pistol at his breast led him trembling and near dead 
with fear among all his people, The king gave up his arms, and the sav- 
ages, astonished at the daring of Smith, threw down their bows and loaded 
his men with corn and other commodities. A picture of this astonishing 
feat in Smith's " Generall Historic," represents the savage king as of gigan- 
tic stature, Smith appearing like a boy beside him. 

Smith once encountered the king of Paspahegh, " a most strong, stout 
savage," who, seeing that the Englishman had only his sword, attempted 
to shoot him. Smith grappled with him, and the savage bore him into 
the river to drown him. Finally Smith got him by the throat and nearly 
strangled him. Then drawing his sword he was about to cut off his head, 
when the king begged his life so earnestly that Smith led him a prisoner 
to the fort and put him in chains. The chief afterwards succeeded in 
making his escape. 

If the Indian was treacherous, so was the white man. Captain Argall. 
an English trader, with the gift of a copper kettle for himself, and a few 
toys for his squaw, induced a chief to entice Pocahontas on board his ves- 
sel. No wonder she had no suspicion of this base design, for she had 
proved her friendship for the English on more than one occasion, at a 
great sacrifice to herself. 

This Indian maiden, as we are told by Smith, "far excelled all others 
for feature, countenance, and proportion," and for wit and spirit was " the 
only nonpareil of this country." In the early days of the colony, when 
but about twelve years of age, she had been sent by her father to James- 
town, to procure the release of some Indians detained at the fort. She 
was accompanied by Rawhunt, her father's trusty messenger, who assured 
Smith of Powhatan's love and kindness, in that he had sent his chil 
whom he most esteenud to see him, and a deer and bread besides for a 
present. The pri.-.oners were given to Pocahontas "in regard to her fa- 



ther's kindness, and Pocahontas also we requited with such trifles as con- 
tented her.'' 

Pocahontas was taken by Argall to Jamestown, and a ransom was de- 
manded of her father. Angry and indignant, as he well might be, Pow- 
hatan prepared for war. 

One of the few romances that enliven the pages of onr early history 
prevented such a calamity, and was the beginning of a firm and lasting 
peace. It happened that this dusky Indian maiden was beloved by Jolm 
Rolfe, a worthy young Englishman who was the first to cultivate the to 


baceo plant in Virginia. Gaining her favor, he asked her in marriage. 
Her baptism was soon followed by her nuptials with Rolfo. In April, 
161-i, with the approbation of her father and friends, Opachisca, her un- 
cle, gave the bride away, and the marriage ceremony was performed ac- 
cording to the forms of the English Church. Two years later the pair 
visited England. She was taken to the court, where she was known as the 
Lady Rebecca, arid was received with great favor, everywhere attracting 
general attention as the daughter of the Virginia emperor, but died just 
as she was about to return to her native land, at the age of twenty-one. 
Amono- the distinguished Virginians who claim descent from this Indian 

o i" 1 " 

princess was the celebrated John Randolph, of Roanoke. 

While Pocahontas was in England, Smith went to see her. She had 
believed him dead, and was displeased at his neglect of her. Being a 



king's daughter, he would not permit her to call him father, at whicn s i 
was greatly offended. "I will call you father," so she told him, "and 
you shall call me child. They did tell me always you were dead, for your 
countrymen will lie much, and I knew no other till I came to Plymouth." 

The Lady Rebecca and her husband had been accompanied to England 
by an Indian named Tomoeomo, who was commissioned by Powhatan tc 
inquire into the state of the country, and to note the number of its inhab- 
itants. Arriving at Plymouth, he pro- 
cured a long stick and began the per- 
formance of his task by cutting a notch 
for each person he saw. This primitive 
manner of taking the census was soon 
abandoned. His report of the state of 
the country he visited, if he ever made 
one, would to-day be very interesting 

An unlucky accident, which nearly 
cost Smith his life, put an end to his con- 
nection with the colony, and compelled 
him to go to England for proper surgical 
aid. "While lying in his boat an explo- 
sion of gunpowder tore the flesh from his 
thigh and set fire to his clothing. lie 
threw himself out of the boat into the 

water, and was nearly drowned before he could be rescued. He left Vir- 
ginia in the autumn of 1609, and never returned. His efforts to pre- 
serve the colony, and to restrain the evil and turbulent spirits with which 
it abounded, had made him unpopular, and his life had been many times 
endangered by the machinations of his enemies. His later years were 

o i/ / 

employed in explorations of the New England coast, in the composition 
of his valuable and interesting memoirs and descriptions of the New 
World, and in efforts to interest London capitalists in its colonization. 

The only monument to the memory of this extraordinary man is a little 
marble shaft on the southerly summit of Star Island, one of the Isles of 
Shoals. His epitaph, given in Stow's " Survey of London,'' begins thus : 

"Here lies one conquered that hath conquered kings." 

A tablet, \vith three Turks' heads engraved upon it, in St. Sepulchre's 
Church, London, marks the place of his burial. 

Powhatan's successor, the famous Opechanganough. the gigantic chief 




are. -the LintS tha-tJJiew -tf 
Ticw thy GraCC, andffhr^ r , Irijhter lee, : /~X 
f~jliy Fairc-I>ifcoueries and ttwlc- Over throwes U 

Of Salvages,muc1i, CivittizJ, 

TScJlJJiew MX SfirfaantL to it Glory (\Vyn-. 

S0,t/iou. arfraf?c wit/wut,lut (jolae Within, * 

who liad captured Smith, for twenty-five years acted an important part in 
die history of Virginia. During his sway the most terrible of Indian 
massacres took place. Idle and vicious white men had stolen the Indians' 
corn, driven the game out of the country, and wronged them in many 
ways. Their lands had been taken from them, and scattered settlements 
had sprung up on the bay and the rivers running into it, in many cases 
remote from each other. The haughty Opechanganough had ever been 


intent on the destruction of the English, and by a course of craft and 

policy had lulled them into a fatal security. Having matured his plan.-. 

a general rising of the Indians took place, and three hundred 

March 22, 1622. . , ,. . 

and forty-seven persons, including six members of the coun- 
cil, were cut off. 

The secrecy and dissimulation of the Indians were perfect. Treachery 
and falsehood are the natural weapons of the weak and timorous. Only 
two days before the fatal blow fell they sent one of their youth to live 
with the English and learn their language. On the very morning of the 
massacre they came unarmed among them and traded as usual, and even 
sat down to breakfast with their victims in several instances. No respect 
was paid to age, sex, or condition. Their best friends were among their 
first victims. 

Those attacked were at a distance from Jamestown ; there, fortunately, 
the people had warning. The night before the massacre a converted In- 
dian was told by his brother of the proposed extermination of the English, 
and was urged to do his part by murdering his master. This seems to 
have been the only instance in which any obligation to the white man for 
benefits received was remembered. The Indian revealed the plot to his 

Before daylight the planter, who lived opposite to Jamestown, crossed 
the river and warned the inhabitants. The people assembled with their 
arms, word was sent to all the settlements Avithin reach, and the larger 
part of the colonists were by this means saved, the Indians making no 
attack where they seemed likely to encounter resistance. 

Virginia M'as well-nigh ruined. The settlements were reduced from 
eighty to less than eight. All the smaller settlements and plantations were 
abandoned. Industries of all kinds ceased, except in the vicinity of the 
large towns, and the colonists at once set about to take "a sharp revenge 
upon the bloody miscreants." They destroyed the towns, the crops, the 
fishing weirs of the natives, shot them down as they would wild beasts 
wherever found, tracked them with blood-hounds to their hiding-places in 
the forest, and trained their mastiffs to tear them in pieces. This state 
of things lasted for years, and it was long before the planters returned to 
their old occupations. 

A second massacre of the settlers, also planned by the now aged Ope- 
changanough, who, borne upon a litter, accompanied his warriors, lasted 
two days. Three hundred persons were murdered. Its prog- 
ress was finally checked by Sir William Berkeley, at the head 
of aii armed force. 


The old chief was taken prisoner not long afterwards, and carried to 
Jamestown. The soldier who guarded him barbarously shot him, inflicting 
a mortal wound. Just before he died, observing a curiors crowd about 
him, he roused himself from his lethargy, and in a tone of authority de- 
manded that the governor should be summoned. When he came, Ope- 
changanough indignantly said to him, 

" Had it been my fortune to have taken Sir William Berkeley prisoner, 
I would not meanly have exposed him as a show to my people." 

From this period the native population of Virginia gradually disap- 
peared, leaving as memorials only the names of their mountains and 




a few years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, the coast 
of New England had been visited by a pestilence which had swept 
off nearly all the natives. A few Indians were seen hovering 

Dec. 21 1620. 

about soon after their arrival, but they quickly disappeared 
when pursued. 

Their first encounter with the natives took place at "Wellfleet, while 
they were exploring the coast for a suitable place for a settle- 
ment. Edward Winslow, afterwards governor of Plymouth 
colony, has left this account of it : 

" All of a sudden," says Winslow, " we heard a great and strange cry. 
One of the company came running in, and said, ' They are men ! Indians, 
Indians!' and withal their arrows came flying amongst us. The cry of 
our enemies was dreadful, especially when our men ran to recover their 
anus, which lay on the shore at a little distance, as by the good provi- 
dence of God they did. 

" In the mean time Captain Miles Standish made a shot, and after him 
another. Other two of us were ready, and there were only four of us 
which had their arms ready, and stood before the open side of our barri- 
cade, which was first assaulted. We called to them in the shallop to know 
how it was with them, and they answered, 

" ' Well, well !' every one ; and ' Be of good courage.' 

" There was a lusty man, and no whit less valiant, who was thought 
to be their captain, stood behind a tree within half a musket-shot of us, 
and there let his arrows fly at us. He was seen to shoot three arrows, 
which were all avoided, for he at whom the first was aimed stooped down 
and it flew over him. He stood three shots of a musket. At length one 
took, as he said, full aim at him, after which he gave an extraordinary cry, 
and away they went, all. We followed them about a quarter of a mile. 
Then we shouted altogether several times, and shot off a couple of mus- 
kets, and so returned. This we did that they might see we were not 
afraid of them nor discouraged. 



" By the special providence of God none of these arrows Lit us, 
though many came close by us and on every side of us, and some coats 
that hung in our barricade were shot through and through.' 1 

Captain Miles Standish, who was so conspicuous in the military annals 
of Plymouth Colony, and who was the leader of a.l their warlike expe- 
ditions, had seen service, having fought the Spaniards in Holland. lie 
was a fiery, hot - tempered little man, and afraid of nothing. Finding 
himself upon one occasion in company with Pecksuot, an Indian of great 
strength and courage, and suspected of plotting against the English, 
Standish, exasperated by his taunts and boasts of what he would do to 


the English, snatched the warrior's knife from his belt, and after a long 
struggle killed him with it. Others of Pecksuot's party were killed at 
the same time by Standish's companions. It was with reference to this 
affair that the Rev. John Robinson, father of the Plymouth church, said, 
" Oh ! that they had converted some before they had killed any." 

Not long after the landing at Plymouth, Samoset, an Indian of the 




Wampanoag tribe, who had picked up a little of rlicir Language from the 
English fishermen at Pemaquid, l><>Mly entered tin- town, exclaiming, 
"Welcome, Englishmen!" This was the lirst Indian with whom the 
Pilgrims had spoken. In the name of his nation he invited them to 
possess the soil, the old occupants of which were no longer living. 

Samoset is described as "a tall, straight man, the hair of his head 
black, long behind, only short before, none on his face at all. He was 


"' ' : ~if&&- 


\ -' 'u -W 1 



, , y p^f^/^^^^^i 

r - %i^^.s^ : ^n.:^. ,'.. 

.V^-'-sr-r^te-, - v w , .- TBp:^? 1 -" -fr-^ 


free of speech and of a seemly carriage." Being naked, they gave him 
a hat, a pair of stockings and shoes, a shirt, and a piece of cloth to tie 
about his waist. They learned a great deal from him about the Indians 
of the country. He came again to them, bringing five others with him. 
They were dressed in skins, most of them having long hose up to their 
groins, close made, and above, to their waists^ another leather, " altogether 




like the Irish trousers. They are of complexion like our English gypsies. 
Some trussed up their hair before with a feather broadwise, like a fan. 
another (had) a fox-tail hanging out." They professed to be friendly, and 
sang and danced after their fashion. Some had thoir faces painted black, 
four or five fingers broad, others in a different manner. 

Soon afterwards another Indian named Squanto came to them. He 
was one of those who had been carried off by Captain Hunt, but es- 


to England, and came back to his native land with Captain Der- 
mer. He acted as interpreter to the colonists, taught them how to plant 
Indian-corn, where to take fish and procure other commodities, and, says 
Governor Bradford, " was a special instrument sent of God for their good, 
beyond their anticipation." After a while Squanto began to abuse his 
power and influence over the Indians, and received a sharp reprimand 
from Governor AVinslow, who, however, admits that he was "so necessary 
and profitable an instrument as at that time we could not spare him." 
Ilobbomuk was another of these natives who rendered invaluable aid to 
the pilgrims in the time of their early hardship and privation. 

About twenty different tribes of Indians were found in New England. 
They were generally independent of each other, but sometimes united for 
mutual protection or for the purpose of making war. The chiefs of tribes 
or clans had such power only as they were entitled to by mental or physical 
superiority. The Pequots, Xarragansets, Pokanokets, Massachusetts, and 
Pawtuekets were the principal tribes. There were also the Mohegans and 
Nipmucks, and the Abenakis of Maine. The Pequots, the most powerful, 
numbered about four thousand. Next came the Narragansets, in Rhode 
Island, with about one thousand. The Pokanokets, or Wampanoags, lo- 
cated in Plymouth colony, were much inferior to the Narragansets, whose 
sachem, Canonicus, was a chief of great ability. 

To test the mettle of the white intruders, Canonicus, soon after they 

landed, sent them a bundle of arrows wrapped in a. rattlesnake's skin. To 

this challenge the English replied by returning: the skin tilled 

Feb., 1622. . . 

with powder and ball, and with it a message from Governor 
Bradford, telling them that he desired peace, but if the Narragansets 
wanted war they might begin as soon as they had a mind to, and that he 
was prepared. This prompt defiance was enough, and no further hostile 
demonstrations were made by the Xarragansets for many years. 

The Massachusetts Indians, once a numerous people and often at war 
with the Xarragansets, lived about the bay of that name. They com- 
prised the Xausets, on Cape Cod ; Pokanokets, or AVampanoags, between 
Plymouth and Xarraganset Bay; Massachusetts; Pennacooks, on the 
northern frontier extending into Xew Hampshire ; and the Xipmucks, in 
central Massachusetts, extending into Connecticut and Rhode Island. The 
Pawtuckets, also nearly destroyed by the great pestilence, were north of 
the Massachusetts tribes, and included the Pennacooks and other smaller 
clans. The language of all these tribes was substantially the same. 

Massasoit, the Wampanoag sachem, paid an early visit to the Pilgrims, 
and was received with all the ceremony the condition of the colon v 



allowed. He and his men were conducted to a new house, a green rug 
was spread upon the floor, and several cushions for Massasoit and his men 
to sit down upon. Then came the English governor, followed by a drum- 
mer and a trumpeter and a few soldiers, and after kissing one another all 
sat down. 

The chief was described at this time as " a very lustie man, in his best 
years, an able body, grave of countenance, and spare of speech. His face 
was painted of a sad red, and both face and head were well oiled, so that he 
looked greasily. A great chain of w r hite bone beads was around his neck, 
on which hung a little bag of tobacco ; this he used himself and passed 
to the English. In his bosom he carried a great, long knife. He marvelled 
much at our trumpet, and some of his men would sound it as w r ell as they 
could. Some were naked, all were painted, and all were tall, strong men. 


The governor filled the king's kettle with peas, which pleased them well, 
and so they went their way." Massasoit's residence was at Mount Hope, 
which is now included in the town of Bristol, Rhode Island. 

A treaty of friendship was soon made, and it was sacredly kept for 
more than forty years. Massasoit gained an important ally, for the power- 





fill Narragansets were his enemies, and the English obtained security and 
the opportunity of a profitable trade. 

Sonic- time afterwards, Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins visited 
the sachem at his home. Their account of this visit gives us an amusing 
glimpse of Indian domestic life. He had no victuals for them, and night 
coming on they retired supperless to bed. This article of furniture con- 
sisted of planks, laid a foot from the ground, and a thin mat upon them. 
"'The chief and his wife occupied one end of the bed." says \A7inslow, "and 
we the other. Two of his men, for want of room, pressed by and upon us, 
so that we were worse weary of our lodging than our journey. What with 
bad lodging, the savages' barbarous singing (for they used to sing them- 
selves asleep), vermin within doors and mosquitoes without, we could hardly 
sleep, and feared if we stayed longer we should lack strength to get home. 


11 fi 

\Vhen we departed, Massasoit was both grieved and ashamed that he could 
no better entertain us." 

Massasoit, being at one time dangerously sick, sent word to his friends 
at Plymouth, who sent "Winslow to him with medicines and cordials. These 
he administered successfully, and Massasoit, believing that Winslow had 



saved his life, was very grateful. Just as Winslow was about to depart he 

informed him of a plot by some of his sub-sachems to cut off 

the English, which lie had refused to join and had used his 

efforts to prevent. Massasoit remained a fast friend to the colonists to the 

day of his death. 

The tribute of Ilobbomuk to the dead chief shows how strong was his 
attachment to his master. " My loving sachem, my loving sachem !" he 


3xclaimec1 with tender accent, "many have I known, "but never any like 
thee." Then turning to Winslow, lie said, "While you live you will never 
see his like. Hi- was no liar, nor bloody and cruel like other Indians; he 
was easilv reconciled towards such as had offended him, and he governed 
his people 1 n-tter with few blows than others did with many." 

Captain John Oldhain, while on a trading expedition at Block Island, 

was murdered by some Narraganset Indians. Oldham had been the first 

deputy from Watertown to the General Court, and was a 

prominent and highly -respected citizen. What led to the 

catastrophe, whether it was occasioned by a thirst for plunder or out of 

revenge for some injury from him, is not known. 

Immediately after the murder, Captain John Gallup, of Boston, who 
with two sons and a servant, "a stout, strong fellow," was in a larger ves- 
sel, also trading with the Indians near Block Island, discovered a vessel 
making off from the shore. He saw that she was awkwardly handled and 
appeared full of Indians. Believing her a piratical craft, Gallup deter- 
mined upon her capture. 

Having the advantage of a good breeze he made all sail towards her, 
and struck her on her quarter with such force as almost overset her. This 
frightened the Indians so much that six of them jumped into the sea and 
were drowned. Gallup repeated this manoeuvre successfully, and then 
with his fire-arms drove every remaining Indian below. Meanwhile four 
or five more of them leaped overboard, and Gallup then boarded and capt- 
ured her. Oldham's body was found still warm, the head split open and 
the feet and hands chopped off. Two boys taken with Oldham were res- 
cued uninjured. This is the first American sea-fight on record. 

In order to ascertain and punish the instigators of this murder, the 
English sent a deputation to Canonicus, the Xarraganset sachem, who 
was well known to be "a just man and a friend to the English." They 
observed in him "much state, great command over his men, and much 
wisdom in his answers, clearing himself and his neighbors of the murder, 
and offering assistance for revenge of it, yet upon very safe and wary con- 

An expedition under Governor Endicott was sent against the Block 

Island Indians and the Pequots, the perpetrators of Oldham's murder, 

which ravaged their villages and destroyed their crops, and on 

its return doing the same along the Narraganset shore. Forty 

of the natives were killed and wounded in a skirmish. 

At Saybrook, near the mouth of the Connecticut, a fort had been built. 




and Captain Lion Gardner placed in command. He condemned this un- 
wise action of Endicott in a letter to Governor Winthrop of Massachu- 
setts, in which he says, " You came hither to raise these wasps about my 
ears, and then you will take wing and flee away." He and his little gar- 
rison of less than one hundred had all they could do, he said, " to fight 
Captain Hunger." He was right; so far from being overawed, the Pe- 
quots sought the alliance of their neighbors the Narragansets and the 
Mohegans ; a state of constant hostility was produced, and the fort was for 
a long time beleaguered. The persevering energy and intrepidity of one 
man caused the dissolution of this formidable conspiracy. 

When Roger Williams, the famous apostle of civil and religious lib- 


erty in America, was in midwinter exiled from Massachusetts, he fled to 
Rhode Island, where he was kindly received by the Indians. lie was well 
acquainted with their language, and while a resident of Plymouth had 
often been the guest of the neighboring sachems. lie was welcomed to 
the cabin of Massasoit, and "the barbarous heart of Canonicus loved him 
as his son to the last gasp." u The ravens," said "Williams, "fed me in the 
wilderness." He requited the hospitality of the red men by being ever 
after their friend and counsellor; their "pacificator when their rude pas- 
sions were inflamed, and their advocate and protector" 1 whenever wrong 
was offered them. 

At the earnest request of the authorities of Massachusetts, who had 
just before driven him into exile, Williams endeavored to prevent the 
Pequots from obtaining the alliance of the Narragansets. At the hazard 
of his life he hastened to the home of the Xarraganset sachem. "Three 
days and three nights," lie says, "my business forced me to lodge and mix 
wirli the bloody Pequot ambassadors; whose hands and arms methought 
reeked with the blood of my countrymen, and from whom I could not 
but nightly look for their bloody knives at my own throat also. God won- 
derfully preserved me and helped me to break in pieces the Pequots' nego- 
tiations and designs." 

The Pequots kept on plundering and murdering the settlers until in 
May, 1637, a force of seventy-seven men, under Captains Mason and Un- 
derbill, accompanied by four hundred Narragansets and Mohegans, was 
sent against them. Mason was a veteran soldier who, with Miles Standish 
and Underbill, had learned the art of war in Belgium, under that re- 
nowned leader the Prince of Orange. 

Of the Indian tribes of Js"ew England the Pequots were the most for- 
midable. All the other tribes were afraid of them. They were settled 
near the Thames River in Connecticut, and could muster seven hundred 
warriors. In his prosperous days, Sassacus, their sachem, had no less than 
rwenty- six sachems under him, and reigned supreme from Xarraganset 
Bay to the Hudson River, and over Long Island. Seeing the English set- 
tlements multiplying around him, and fearing that sooner or later the 
English would be in possession of the hunting-grounds of his tribe, he re- 
solved to make war upon them. 

As the English vessels sailed by the mouth of the Thames, the Pequots, 
who had assembled in large numbers, supposed they had nothing further 
to fear. They had no suspicion that the English captain was executing a 
Hank movement, so as to attack them from an unexpected quarter. But 
so it was. "When Mason's Indians got near the hostile fort, though thc.y 


had boasted of what they would do, their fears of the terrible Sassaeus irot 

v C5 

the better of them, and they kept at a safe distance until the affair was 
over. "When Uncas was asked how many of his men would run awav 
when the battle begun, he answered, "Every one but myself." The result 
justified his prediction. 

Mason landed his men near the village of Canonicus, whose permission 
he obtained to march across his territory and attack the Pequots. The old 
^hief told Mason that his force was much too small for the big job he had 
undertaken. After a tedious march, Mason's men reached Pawcatuck 
Ford (now Stonington), weary, hungry, and footsore. Besting awhile, 
they continued their march, with Uncas and Weqna, a recreant Pequot, for 
guides, and one hour after midnight encamped on the head-waters of the 
Mystic Biver. 

Although Mason had resolved to attack both Peqnot forts, which were 
four or five miles apart, at the same time, yet the fatigue and privations 
of his men, who had been two days on the march without provisions, and 
suffering from the extreme heat of the weather, determined him to con- 
line his attack to the nearest fort. Beposing a few hours, his men took 
up the line of march and arrived before the fort, which was two miles dis- 
tant, about two hours before daybreak. The moon was shining brightly 
when they reached the foot of the eminence on which the fort was sit- 

Fort Mystic, the principal Pequot stronghold, was a palisade work that 
stood at the top of a hill in the present town of Groton. It covered an 
area of twenty acres, and was so crowded with wigwams that the English 
' k wanted foot-room to grapple with their adversaries." Its two entrances 
were at opposite points, and were blocked up with boughs or baskets. 
The wigwams were ranged in two rows, and were covered with matting 
or thatch. 

The Indians had spent the night in dancing, singing, and rejoicing at 
their supposed escape from invasion. Asleep in their wig- 
wams, the barking of a dog just at daybreak was their first 
intimation of danger. The cry, " Owaiiux ! Owanux !" (Englishmen) was 

Bemoving the obstacles. Mason, with sixteen followers, entered the fort 
at one end, while Underbill did the same at the other, and before the 
startled sleepers had time to oppose them, the work of destruction had 

Although surprised, the Indians defended themselves as well as they 
could with their bows and arrows, but they were quickly overpowered. 


Many of them sought shelter in the wigwams, covering themselves with 
the thiek mats, from which it was almost impossible to dislodge them. 
The sword and hnllet doing the work too slowly. Mason seized a firebrand, 
exclaiming, "AVe must burn them!" 1 A warrior drew his bow to send an 
arrow through his heart, but a soldier cut the bowstring with his sword. 
The combustible cabins were soon in a blaze, and five or six hundred of 
the miserable natives perished in the flames. Those who tried to escape 
by climbing over the palisades were shot down. Of the English, two only 
had fallen and twenty were wounded. Lieutenant I'ull had a narrow 
escape, an Indian arrow being stopped by a piece of hard cheese in his 

This victory was regarded by the Puritans as a signal evidence of the 
goodness of God. " The Lord was pleased," says Captain Mason in his 
narrative, quoting the Psalmist, " to smite our enemies in the hinder parts, 
and to give us their land for an inheritance." 

The rigor displayed by the settlers in this first great blow inflicted on 
the Indians struck terror into them and secured a long season of peace. 
It was indeed a terrible massacre, involving helpless women and children, 
as well as men. The early colonial laws had forbidden the sale of fire-arms 
to the Indians, and till they possessed them they were never formidable in 

The remainder of the tribe were soon hunted down. A portion of 
them fled for protection to the Mohawks, who treacherously beheaded 
Sassacus and five other sachems. "A nation had disappeared from the 
family of men." Their fate drew these lines from the poet Dwight : 

" Indulge, my native land, indulge the tear 

That steals impassioned o'er a nation's doom; 
To me each twig from Adam's stock is near, 
And sorrows fall upon an Indian's tomb." 

Rumors of a general conspiracy of the Indians caused the colonies of 
Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Hampshire 

1 fi-i 

to unite in a confederacy for mutual protection against them. 
Its affairs were managed by two commissioners from each colony. 

One of the ablest of the New England Indians was Miantonomo, a 
nephew of Canonchet and chief of the Narraganscts. Had he not been 
made the victim of the cruel policy of the English, his name would have 
been justly held by them in high estimation. Miantonomo was tall and 
well made, " subtle and cunning in his contrivements, as well as haughty 
in his designs." He was requested to come to Boston to clear himself of 


the charge of conspiracy against the colonists, and he did so. The court 
assembled, "and before his admission," says Governor "Winthrop, "we 
consulted how to treat with him, for we knew him to be a very subtle 
man, and agreed that none should propound anything but the governor " 
a striking tribute from one of the wisest and ablest of the colonists to 
the sagacity and wisdom of an unlettered Indian. 

Miantonomo would not proceed with any business but in the presence 
of some of his own counsellors, that they on their return might bear wit- 
ness to his people of all his words. He was very deliberate in his answers, 
and showed great ingenuity as well as a clear understanding of the princi- 
ples of justice and equity. He very properly called upon the English to 
produce his accusers. As they had proceeded wholly on vague rumors, 
this demand placed them in an awkward predicament. He told them that 
if the charges were proved against him, he came prepared to suffer the 
consequences, and now, if he had been acciised falsely, he expected the 
authors of the accusation to be subjected to the same penalty. Certainly 
this was but just. He also told the court that he believed Uncas, the Mo- 
hegan sachem, to be at the root of all the mischief, and that he was doing 
his best to embroil the Narragansets and the English. And so, in fact, it 
was. On taking leave of the governor, a coat was given to him and to 
each of his counsellors. 

It was the policy of the English to pit one tribe against another for 
their own protection, and so Uncas, the Mohegan chief, who was disposed 
to conform to their wishes, was used by them to balance the power of 
Miantonomo. This chief had suffered numerous indignities from the Eng- 
lish, which rankled in his breast, and hated Uncas as the cause of them, and 
also as a traitor to his race. 

Suddenly, and in disregard of a treaty, he collected one thousand war- 
riors and fell upon the Mohegans. His rashness and impetuosity caused 
his defeat, and he himself was made a prisoner. It seems that in this fight 
Miantonomo wore a suit of armor or coat of mail loaned him by an Eng- 
lish friend, Samuel Gorton, and that, when it became necessary to retreat, 
it so impeded his motions as to cause his capture. His life was forfeited 
by Indian law, but Uncas took him to Hartford and asked the advice of 
the Commissioners of the United Colonies as to what was to be done with 

The commissioners replied that they saw no reason for mercy. Five 
of " the most judicious " elders of the church were also consulted, and they 
agreed that he ought to suffer death, and he was accordingly put to death 
by Uncas. Thus was this remarkable man sacrificed to the envy of a rival 



chief and to the supposed political interest of the colonies. His execution 
took place at the spot, in the eastern part of the town of Norwich, Con- 
necticut, now called Sachem's Plain, where a monument has been erected 
To his memory, upon which is the simple inscription: 



John Eliot's missionary labors among the Indians of New England be- 
gan at Nonantum, and were continued at various places for more than 
thirty years. lie acquired the Indian language and with in- 
finite labor translated into it the Bible, the catechism, and 
other devotional works, distributing them among them. The natives were 













t to read and write, and soon there were fourteen places of Praying 

/ O 

Indians, as they were called. In 1673 six Indian churches had been gath- 
ered. A death-blow was given to these pious labors by Philip's war. 
Some of these Indians joined in it with their countrymen, and this so 
exasperated the English, that the remainder of those who were faithful 
to them were with difficulty rescued from destruction. The treatment 
they then received created a breach between them and the English that 
was never healed. Their number rapidly diminished, and they finally 

Eliot introduced among his converts industry, cleanliness, and good 
order. He drew up for them a simple code, punishing idleness, filthiness, 
licentiousness, and cruelty to women. A court was established at Nonan- 
tum, over which presided Waban, an Indian justice of the peace. There 
was no circumlocution in his office. Justice was speedily and impartially 
administered. Here is a specimen warrant : " You, you big constable, 
quick you catch um Jeremiah Offscow, strong you hold um, safe you bring 
urn. afore me, Waban, Justice Peace." His sagacious and sententious 
judgment in a case bet\veen some drunken Indians would do no discredit 
to a much higher civilization than that at Nonantum : " Tie um all up," 
said he, "and whip um plaintiff, and whip um -fendant, and whip um 

Uncas, the Mohegan sachem, was originally a Pequot, and one of the 
twenty-six war captains of that famous but ill-fated nation. Setting up 
for himself at the head of the Thames River, near the present city of 
Norwich, he was politic enough to court the favor of the English, and in 
1637 joined with them in their war upon the Pequots. In the pursuit 
that followed the Fort Mystic fight his men captured a Pequot chief of 
distinction. Cutting off the captive's head, Uncas placed it in a con- 
spicuous spot near the harbor, where it remained many years. This cir- 
cumstance gave to Guilford Harbor the well-known name of " Sachem's 

Summoned to Boston, upon the charge of shielding some of the con- 
quered Pequots, he appeared before Governor Winthrop, and laying his 
hand upon his heart said : 

" This heart is not mine, but yours. I have no men ; they are all 
yours. Command me any difficult thing, I will do it. I will not believe 
any Indian's word against the English. If one of my men should kill an 
Englishman I will put him to death, were he ever so dear to me." 

" So the governor gave him a fine red coat," says the chronicle, " and 


defrayed his and his men's diet, and ijave them corn to relieve them home- 
ward, also a letter of protection, and." continues the record, "he departed 
very joyful." Uneas was still living, at a ^reat a^e, in 1080. 




T^IIE Iroquois, or Six Nations, stand first among the native races of this 
-- continent for valor, policy, and eloquence. Their home was in western 
and central New York, and their geographical situation, on a broad summit 
of fertile table-land, favorable for raising maize and abounding in game, 
gave them great advantages. The leading rivers of this region, running 
hi all directions, and enabling them to descend rapidly into an enemy's 
country, contributed largely to the success of their warlike expeditions. 
Their attachment to the English alone saved Western New York from be- 
coming a French colony. 

They had attained their highest point about the year 1700. At that 
period, besides carrying terror by their war parties to the walls of Quebec, 
they had, by virtue of their combination, subdued and held in subjection, 
one after another, all the principal Indian nations occupying the territory 
now embraced in the States of New York, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, 
and Pennsylvania, and parts of Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Northern Ten- 
nessee, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New England, and Upper Canada. 

If any of these nations became involved in domestic differences, a 
delegation of chiefs went among them and restored tranquillity, prescrib- 
ing at the same time their future conduct. From the Delawares they took 
all civil power, declared them women, and bade them henceforth to confine 
themselves to the pursuits of the females. 

u How came you," said Canassatego, an Iroquois chief, addressing the 
Delawares upon occasion of a dispute about a sale of land to the English 
"how came you to take upon you to sell land at all? We conquered you, 
we made women of you ; you know you are women, and can no more sell 
land than women. For the land you claim you have been paid with clothes, 
meat, drink, and goods, and now you want it again, like children as you are. 
But what makes you sell land in the dark? Did you ever tell us that you 
had sold this land? . . . We charge you to remove instantly. We don't 
U'ivc you liberty to think about it. You are women! 1 ' The D<4a wares 
dared not disobey this command, and very soon left the country. 


In New England and Canada the Iroquois were the dread of the native 
Algonkin tribes. When, in the early days of the Massachusetts colony, 
they made war on the New England Indians, it was said that as soon as a 
single one of them was seen in their country, these Indians raised the cry 
from hill to hill, " A Mohawk ! a Mohawk !" upon which they all fled, like 
sheep before wolves, without attempting to make the least resistance. 

Independence and love of liberty was one of the most marked charac- 
teristics of the Iroquois. Their pride was so great that they called them 
selves Ongwe Ifongwe, '* the men surpassing all others," and yet in their 
most prosperous days they could hardly muster four thousand warriors. 
Their losses in battle were made up by their custom of adopting a part of 
their captives as members of their tribe. 

Their strongholds were surrounded by palisades pierced with loop-holes, 
having platforms within, supplied with stones to hurl upon the heads of 
the enemy, and with water to extinguish any fire that might be kindled 
from the outside. These defences sometimes included a large area, and 
dwellings more than one hundred feet in length. They were circular or 
oval in form. 

Their general assembly was at the Great Council held at the Long 
House in the Onondaga Valley. This was built of bark; on each side 

were six seats, each holding six 
persons. None but members of 
the council were admitted, except 
a few who were particularly hon- 
ored. If one rose to speak, all 
the rest sat silent, smoking their 
pipes. The speaker uttered his 
words in a singsong tone, always 
rising a few notes at the close 
of each sentence. Whatever was 
LONG HOUSE AT ONONDAGA. tlie pleasure of the council was 

confirmed by all with the word 

"Nee," or yes, and at the close of each speech the M'hole assembly ap- 
plauded the speaker by shouting " Hoho !" 

Originally the confederacy consisted of five tribes or nations: Mo- 
hawks, Onondagas, Cayugas, Oneidas, and Senecas. The Tuscaroras of 
North Carolina, after their defeat by the colonists in 1714, joined them, 
and thenceforth they were known as the Six Nations. These again were 
divided into three tribes, or families, who distinguished themselves by 
three different arms or ensigns, called totems. These were the tortoise, 


the bear, and the wolf, and the sachems, or old men of their families, put 
this family mark to every public paper when they signed it. Each of 
these six nations was an absolute republic by itself. Each had a castle of 
its own, and was governed in all public affairs by its own sachems, or old 

Their league was a defensive measure adopted long before the Euro- 
pean discovery. Their general council, composed of sachems equal in 
rank, was the supreme authority over all matters considered by it. Its 
sessions lasted five days. Discussion was open to all, but the council 
alone decided. It made peace and war, and concluded treaties and agree- 
ments. When the question of peace or war was decided, the councillors 
united in chanting hymns of praise or warlike choruses, which at the same 
time gave expression to public feeling and imparted a kind of sanctity to 
the act. The Onondagas, being the central tribe, were made " the keep- 
ers of the council brand," and their valley was the seat of government. 

A remarkable instance of Iroquois treachery is related by Parkman.* 
At their urgent solicitation a French colony and mission had been planted 
on the margin of Lake Onondaga. A plot for its destruction was revealed 
to one of the Jesuit fathers by a dying Indian convert. 

What was to be done? Immediate action was necessary, but the 
warriors camped around them watched them so closely that the case 
seemed hopeless. A plan of escape was at length suggested which seemed 
to promise success. Two light, large flat-boats were built in a loft over 
the mission-house. The grand difficulty was to get them to the lake un- 
observed. This is the wav it was done : 


One of the peculiar customs of the Indians is to hold a feast at which 
all must devour everything set before them, as long as the provider of the 
feast wishes to have them, or so long as they have the power to eat. One 
of the younger colonists who had been adopted by an Iroquois chief, pre- 
tending to have dreamed that he would soon die unless the spirits were 
appeased, gave one of these feasts. Obedience to the wishes of the spirits 
is a sacred obligation with the Indian. The day for the feast was fixed, 
and all was prepared for the occasion. 

Late in the evening of the appointed day, when the festivity was at 
its height, and the French musicians with drum and trumpet were making 
all the noise they possibly could, the boats were carried from the house to 
the lake. The French silently embarked and made good their escape. 

Next morning the amazed savages, on recovering from their stupor 

* "The Old Regime in Canada." 


for thev had completely gorged themselves on the previous evening 
found, on peering euriou.-lv into the deserted mission. Hint its sole occu- 
|.;mts were a hen and her hrood of elm-kens. The Indians were supersti- 
tions .enough to helieve that the hlackhirds the black-robed priests and 
their flock had actually flown away. 


The Iroqnois first came in contact with the Europeans when, in the 
summer of 1609, Samuel de Champlain, with two other Frenchmen, joined 
a party of Hurons and Algonkins in an expedition against the Iroquois. 
their hereditary enemies. Ascending the river Sorel they crossed the lake 
that now bears his name. At night they felled large trees, as a barricade 
to their camp, and sent out a party to reconnoitre, hut v>ostcd no sentinels. 











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July 29, 1609. 


When near their foes they would advance stealthily by night and retire 
by day into the picket fort, where they kept perfectly quiet, so as to avoid 
discovery. Champlain's account 
of the first conflict with the Iro- 
quois in which fire-arms were 
used, is as follows : 

"At nightfall we embarked 


in our canoes to continue our 
journey, and as we advanced 
very softly ' and noiselessly, we 
encountered a war party of Ir- 
oquois about ten 
o'clock at night, at 
the point of a cape which juts 
into the lake on the west side 
(near Crown Point). They and 
we began to shout, each seizing 
his arms. We withdrew towards 
the water, and the Iroquois re- 
paired on shore and arranged all 

their canoes, the one beside the other, and began to hew down trees with 
villanous axes and fortified themselves very securely. Our party likewise 
kept their canoes arranged, the one along-side the other, tied to poles so 
as not to run adrift, in order to fight altogether should need be. We 
were on the water, about an arrow-shot from their barricades. 

" The whole night was spent in dancing and singing, as well on one 
side as on the other, mingled with an infinitude of insults and taunts. 
After the one and the other had sung, danced, and parleyed enough, day 
broke. My companions and I were always concealed, for fear the enemy 
should see us preparing our arms. After being equipped with light armor 
we took each an arquebuse (a short musket) and went ashore. I saw the 
enemy leave their barricade. They were about two hundred men, of 
strong and robust appearance, who were coming slowly towards us, with a 
gravity and assurance which greatly pleased me, led on by three chiefs. 
Ours were marching in similar order, and told me that those who bore 
three lofty plumes were the chiefs, and that I must do all I could to kill 

" The moment we landed they began to run about two hundred paces 
towards their enemies, who stood firm and had not yet perceived my com- 
panions, who went into the lu>h with some savages. Ours commenced 



calling -me in a loud void-. and making way for me opened in two and 
placed :ne at their head, marching about twenty paces in advance, until I 
was wirhiu thirty paces of the enemy. Tin.- moment they saw me they 
halted, gazing at me, and T at them. AVlien I saw them preparing to 
shoot at us I raised my arquebuse, and aiming directly at one of the three 
chiefs, two of them fell to the ground by this shot and one of their com- 
panions received a wound of which he died afterwards. I had put four 
bal's in my arquebuse. Ours, on witnessing a shot so favorable for them, 
set up such tremendous shouts that thunder could not have been heard, 
and vet there was no lack of arrows on one side and the other. 


'* The Iroquois were greatly astonished, seeing two men killed so instan- 
taneously, notwithstanding they were provided with arrow-proof armor 
woven of cotton thread and wool ; this frightened them very much. Whilst 
I was reloading, one of n.y companions in the bush fired a shot which so 
astonished them anew, seeing their chiefs slain, that they lost courage, 
took to flight, and abandoned the field and their fort, hiding themselves 
in the depths of the forest, whither pursuing them I killed some others. 
Having feasted, danced, and sung, we returned three hours afterwards 
with ten or twelve prisoners. I named the place where this battle was 
fought. Lake Ohamplain." 


This was the first time the Iroquois had heard the sound of fire-arms, 
by the mysterious power of which they were then easily vanquished. 
The French having allied themselves with the Adirondacks and Hurons, 
and given them arms and assistance, a spirit of hatred for them WMS 
aroused among the Iroquois that never ceased to burn until Canada was 
wrested from them by the English. 

A year later another conflict took place near the mouth of the Riche- 
lieu, in which ( namplain again participated. One hundred Iroquois were 
at bay behind a palisade surrounded by a horde of Algonkin warrior.-, 



whose attack they had bloodily repulsed. When Cliampluin, with four of 
his men, approached, wild yells arose from the Algonkins in which were 
mingled the howl of the wolf, the whoop of the owl, and the scream of 
the cougar, to which a fierce response was made by the desperate Iroquois. 


A storm of arrows burst upon the French as they rushed on, wound- 
ing Champlain and one of his companions. When, however, the terrible 
weapons of their mysterious assailants were thrust through the crevices 
of their barricade, dealing death among its defenders, they could not con 
trol their fear, and threw themselves flat on the ground. The allied In- 
dians now rushed in and levelled the barricade, while at the same time a 
boat-load of French fur-traders who had heard the firing joined in the 
fray, and helped to secure a complete victory. " By the grace of God," 
writes Champlain, " behold the victory won !" 

While journeying to the country of the Ilurons at a later period, 
Champlain suddenly encountered three hundred Indians, whom, from their 
odd method of dressing their hair, he named the Cheveux 


Relevez. " Not one of our courtiers," he says, " takes so 

much pains in dressing his hair as these savages do." They were wholly 


naked, their bodies were tattooed, and they were armed with bows and 
arrows, and shields of bison-hide. 

They informed him that the great Lake of the Ilurons was close at 
hand. He explored its shores for more than one hundred miles, and 
visited many Huron Tillages, all of which were palisaded like that seen 
bv Carrier at Montreal. Cahiague, the Huron capital, the modern town- 
ship of Orillia, near the River Severn, contained two hundred 
lodges, and here gathered the warriors whom, after days and 
nights of feasts and war - dances, Champlain led in his last expedition 
against the Iroquois. 

Entering the hostile territory they encountered a fortified town of 

the Onondagas. Some of the Hurons rushed to attack it, and were 

driven back with loss. Four rows of palisades, thirty feet 

October 10. 

high, set aslant in the earth and meeting at the top, supported 
a shot-proof gallery provided with wooden gutters and amply supplied 
with water from an adjoining pond. They were also well provided with 
stones to hurl upon the assailants. 

Champlain reproved his allies for their rash conduct, and the next 
morning had a wooden tower made higher than the palisades, and large 
enough to contain four or five marksmen. Great wooden shields or para- 
pets were also constructed. Two hundred warriors dragged the tower 
close to the palisades. From it three arquebusiers opened a raking fire 
along the galleries upon the throng of its defenders. 

The ungovernable Hurons threw aside the shields designed for their 
protection and scattered over the open field, shouting and shooting off 
their arrows, to which the Iroquois replied in like manner. Champlain 
and his men, unable to control these wild and infuriated allies, at last 
abandoned the attempt, and occupied themselves with picking off the 
Iroquois on the ramparts. The French leader was at length disabled, 
being struck by an arrow in the knee and the leg, and after a three-hours' 
contest the assailants drew off discomfited. He was eager to renew the 
attack, but the Ilurons, crestfallen and disheartened, would not move with- 
out a reinforcement, for which they had sent. After waiting in vain five 
days they retreated, followed by the victorious Iroquois. The wounded 
leader was packed in a basket and borne upon the shoulders of a warrior. 

"Bundled in a heap," says Champlain, "doubled and strapped to- 
gether in such a fashion that one could move no more than an infant in 
swaddling-clothes ... I lost all patience, and as soon as I could bear my 
weight I got out of this prison, or, to speak plainly, ' out of hell.' ' He 
was obliged to remain with the Ilurons all that winter. 



In 1660 a daring enterprise was undertaken by a few young Canadians, 
led by Danlac, commandant of the garrison at Montreal. It was known 
that a large body of Iroquois had planned a descent upon Canada, and 
these brave fellows thought that by attacking the Indians in their own 
haunts this danger might be averted. Having bound themselves by oath 
to accept no quarter, made their wills, confessed, and received the sacra- 
ment for they were all good Catholics they set out upon their heroic 
but desperate adventure. 


The Thermopylae of this Spartan band was at the foot of the formida- 
ble rapid called the Long Sault, where the Iroquois were sure to pass. 
Here, in an old enclosure formed of trunks of small trees planted in a cir- 
cle, seventeen Frenchmen awaited the savage host. They were soon joined 
by some Hurons and Algonkins. 


In a few days they were attacked by a large war party of Iroquois. 
Again and again the Indians were driven back with loss. The fifth day 
found the defenders of the fortstill at bay, although they had been de- 
serted by their Indian allies. Five hundred fresh warriors now joined 
their assailants, and the attacks were fiercely renewed. In vain thev 
rushed upon the feeble barrier between them and their foe, yelling and 
tiring; the French stood firm, and many a warrior fell before the leaden 
greeting of the little garrison. 

Three days more passed in constant attack and repulse, the French, 
meanwhile, suffering from exhaustion, famine, and thirst. At length, 
stung to madness at the thought of the disgrace that would attend such a 
failure, the Iroijuois determined to make one more effort to take the fort. 

A chosen band of warriors, covering themselves with large heavy 
shields, led the advance and succeeded in reaching the fort. With their 
hatchets they endeavored to hew their way through the palisades. At this 
critical moment the premature explosion of a large musketoon, intended to 
be thrown over the barrier, and to explode among the throng of warriors 
without, killed and wounded several of the Frenchmen. In the confusion 
some of the Iroquois thrust their guns through the loop-holes, firing on 
those within, and others entered the enclosure through the breach made in 
the logs by their hatchets. The French fought desperately. Daulac, the 
Leonidas of this Spartan band, was slain, and one after another of his com- 
panions was struck down, until all had fallen. One only seemed likely to 
survive, and he was reserved for torture. By thus sacrificing themselves 
these heroes had saved the colony. 

Amazed and dispirited, the Iroquois gave up their intended enterprise, 
and returned to their villages to bewail their discomfiture and to howl 
with wrath over their losses. 

For many years the warfare between the French and Iroquois was al~ 
most constant. Expedition after expedition was launched against the In 
dian towns by the French governors with but little result. 
One of these, under M. de Courcelle, undertaken in the dead of 
winter, was a complete failure. They lost their way, and suffered from 
cold and hunger to such a degree that sixty of the French perished dur- 
ing their homeward march. 

A new expedition was undertaken soon after by De Tracy and Cour- 
celle. "With one thousand three hundred men they left Quebec, crossed 
Lakes Champlain and St. Sacrament, now Lake George, in 

Oct., 16C6. 

three hundred boats and canoes, and landing on the spot where 
Fort, William Ilenrv was afterwards built, traversed the hundred miles of 


wilderness that lay between them and the Mohawk towns. Arriving at 
the first Mohawk stronghold in the early morning, twenty drums beat the 
charge, and the Indians, panic-stricken by the noise, which seemed to them 
to be made by evil spirits in the service of the French, fled in terror to 
their next town. 

This was taken as easily as the first, and so were the third and fourth. 
The French pushed on, and at sundown reached Andaraque, the largest 
and strongest of their forts. Again the drums struck terror into the sav- 
ages and there was no opposition. Andaraque was a quadrangle, with a 
triple palisade twenty feet high, a bastion at each corner. Some of the 
houses in the enclosure were one hundred and twenty feet long, with firea 
for eight or nine families. Here the Iroquois had resolved to fight to the 
last, but at the sight and sound of the enemy lost courage and fled. Their 
dwellings, forts, and possessions were all destroyed. 

The blow told, and in the following spring they sent an embassy to 
Quebec begging for peace. It was at last granted ; hostages 
were given by them, and there was a respite from war for 
nearly twenty years. 

Causes for hostility, however, were frequently arising, and an expedition 
against the Senecas was at length undertaken by Governor La Barre. It 
failed ignominious] y. Fever and famine prostrated his men, 

. . July, 1684. 

and he was glad to make a truce with his enemies and to be 
permitted to withdraw without molestation. 

The Marquis de Denonville, his successor, "a pious Colonel of Dra- 
goons," resolved to inflict a severe chastisement upon the hostile nation. 
As he advanced he invited some peaceful Iroquois, living at a Jesuit Mis- 
sion on the north shore of Lake Ontario, to a feast at Fort Frontenac. 
They came, but no sooner were they inside the fort than all men, women, 
and children were captured. There were nearly two hundred of them. 
They were baptized, and the men, excepting those who were restored to 
their relatives, were sent as slaves to France to work in the galleys. Many 
of these captive women and children died from excitement and distress, 
and some from a pestilential and fatal disease. 

Denonville then summoned the Western Indians from lakes Huron 
and Michigan, and from Illinois, to come and be revenged on their ene 
mies. A few weeks later a great fleet of canoes came down 
from the lakes, filled with warriors. They landed one July 
morning at Irondequoit Bay, Lake Ontario, the boundary of the Seneca 
country, north-east of Rochester, New York. 

Here was to be seen upon this unusual occasion a motley and pictu 


resque assemblage : French soldiers in uniform, Jesuit priests, and Indians 
in war -paint and feathers, wearing skins of the buffalo, the horns orna- 
menting their heads, the tails trailing upon the ground, brandishing their 
tomahawks and scalping-knives among the camp-tires at night, boasting of 
their exploits, and telling how they would destroy their enemies. Includ- 
ing Indians, the army numbered fully three thousand men. 

The distance to the chief Seneca town was only fifteen miles. The 
day was hot and dusty, and as the army marched forward, scouts reported 
that only squaws were to be seen at the village. Several dangerous de- 
tiles had been passed, no enemy had appeared, and it looked as though 
the Indians had fled. Suddenly, as the troops entered a narrow pass, a 
yell was heard, the air was filled with flying arrows, guns flashed upon 
all sides at once, and the Iroquois were upon them. 

Denonville quickly rallied his troops, and the Canadians from behind 
the trees returned the fire. Soon the Senecas, who were a mere handful, 
retired, bearing off their dead and wounded. A heap of ashes was all 
that remained of the town as the French entered it next morning. The 
Senecas had burned it and vanished. After destroying their corn, Denon- 
ville built a fort at Niagara and returned to Monti eal. The enraged 
Senecas were soon back again, rebuilding their wigwams. Though in 
want of food and with their fields laid waste, their Iroquois brethren 
would not let them starve. Denonville was told when he went out that 
if he destroyed a wasp's nest he must crush the wasps or they would 
sting him. He left the wasps alive. 

Adario, also called Kondiaronk, or the Hat, w r as the leading chief and 
councillor of the Huron "Wyandot tribe. He was brave, politic, and sa- 
gacious, and possessed great energy and decision of character. His nation 
had been driven from its ancient seat by the Iroquois, and it was his 
policy to keep the latter embroiled with his friends the French. 

Learning that Denonville was about to conclude a peace with the Five 
Nations, and perceiving that such a step would leave the Iroquois free to 
push the war against his people, he waylaid the Iroquois dele- 
gates as they were proceeding to Montreal, and killed or capt- 
ured the whole party. 

Adario then adroitly shifted the blame of the act upon Governor De- 
nonville, telling his prisoners that it was by him that he had been informed 
of their intention to pass that way. Surprised at this act of apparent 
perfidy, they told Adario that they were truly on an errand of peace. 
Affecting great anger, the chief declared he would be revenged on De- 
nonville for making him a tool MI such a piece of treachery. Then look 


ing steadfastly on the prisoners, u Go," said he, " m y brothers, I untie your 
hands and send you home again, although our nations are at war. The 
French governor lias made me commit so black an action that I shall 
never be easy after it until the Five Nations have taken full revenge." 

So completely were the ambassadors deceived that they replied in 
the most friendly terms, and said the way was open to their concluding 
peace between their respective tribes at any time. Adario then dis- 
missed his prisoners with presents. lie thus rekindled the embers of 
discord between the French and their old enemies, at the moment they 
were about to expire, and laid the foundation of a peace with his own 
nation. Though Denonville sent a message to the Iroquois to disclaim 
the act of Adario, they put no faith in it, but burned for revenge. 

It was not long before the Iroquois found an opportunity to return 
the blow inflicted upon them by Denonville in 1687 with interest. 

Fifteen hundred of their warriors followed the well-known trail to 
Canada, paddling their canoes along Lake Champlain by night, and se- 
creting themselves in the forest by day. Early one morning, 
during a violent hail-storm, they crawled on their hands and 
knees into the village of La Chine, six miles from Montreal, and sounding 
their terrible warwhoop, began the most frightful massacre in Canadian 


In one hour two hundred men, women, and children were murdered. 
After a severe skirmish they captured the fort and the island. For miles 
around, all the houses were burned and the country pillaged. Next day 
they attacked and defeated a party of eighty French soldiers. After 
extending their ravages over the open country for more than twenty 
miles, occupying it for weeks, they at last withdrew, taking with them one 
hundred and twenty prisoners destined to be tortured for their diversion. 

Denonville's successor was one of the most striking and picturesque 
characters of a remarkable age that of Louis XIV., of France, the 
" Grande Monarque." 

Louis de Buade, Count de Frontenac, was a courtier of noble family, 
" a man of excellent parts," says St. Simon, a contemporary, " living much 
in society and completely ruined." Vanity was one of his especial weak- 
nesses ; and one who knew him well tells us that whenever he had new 
clothes " he paraded them like a child. He praised everything that be- 
longed to himself," says the same authority, "and acted as if everybody 
owed duty to him." Entering upon a military career, he became a colo- 
nel at twenty-three and a brigadier-general at twenty-six, and had seen 
service in Italy and in Holland under the Prince of Orange. 


At the age of fifty-two, to retrieve his fortunes, he accepted the post 
of Governor of New France, and at once set himself to work to promote 
the prosperity of the country. He was a man of strong vi- 
tality, "keen, fiery, and headstrong," and from the very first 
he exercised an extraordinary influence over the Indians with whom he 
had to deal. 

Frontenac knew just how to manage them, flattering them adroitly, 
conforming to their usages, and borrowing their modes of expression, while 
at the same time assuming towards them an air of haughtiness which com- 
pelled their respect. He would not call them " brothers " - the usual 
mode of addressing them but " children," and this indication of superi- 
ority even the proud Iroquois accepted from him. They admired the 
great " Onontio," as the French governors were called, who condescended 
to play with their children and gave small presents to their wives ; who 
smiled upon them when they did well, and who saw through their artifices, 
and who did not fear, when they transgressed, to punish them. 

Having quarrelled with the priests, who were all-powerful in Canada, 
he had been recalled in 1682 ; but when, a few years later, the 
condition of the colony had become desperate, he was re-ap- 
pointed as the only man who could revive and strengthen it. 

" I send you back to Canada," said King Louis, u where I am sure yon 
will serve me as well as you did before ; and I ask nothing more of you." 
Although seventy years of age, Frontenac accepted the arduous task. 

On his arrival at Quebec, Frontenac found Canadian affairs in a truly 
deplorable condition. The energetic governor at once sent out numerous 
war parties to strike the English settlements, inflicting a series of terrible 
blows upon them as will be seen in a subsequent chapter. Against the 
Iroquois he sent the skilful partisans De Mantet, Courtemanche, and La 
Noue, with a force of six hundred and twenty-five men. Sixteen days' 
journey brought them to the Iroquois country. They capt- 

Tp i 1 ft 1 f*QQ 

ured and destroyed three Mohawk villages, and returned with 
three hundred prisoners women and children. Under Frontenac's vigor- 
ous rule Canada speedily became prosperous, and a source of dread to the 

In 1694 an Iroquois deputy came to Quebec with overtures of peace. 
War and famine had greatly reduced the Confederacy, and they were 
almost entirely destitute of arms and ammunition, and even the necessaries 
of life. 

"Let each of your Five Nations send me two deputies," says Fron- 
tenac, " and I will listen to what they have to say." 



They would not go to him, but sent another deputation inviting him to 
come and treat with them at Onondaga. The haughty governor kicked 
away their wampum belts and told them they were rebels, bribed by the 
English ; that if they would send a deputation to Quebec, honestly de- 
siring to make peace, he would still listen ; but if they came to him 
with any more such propositions as they had just made they should be 
roasted alive. 

A final delegation, headed by the renowned orator, Decanisora, then 
came. He spoke eloquently and offered peace, but demanded that it 
should include the English. Frontenac declined this proposition, and the 
envoys departed, pledging themselves to 
return and deliver up all their prisoners, 
"leaving two hostages as security for the 
performance of their promise. Dissen- 
sions among the Iroquois and the efforts 
of the Governor of New York prevented 
the consummation of this treaty, and the 
war was renewed. 

Frontenac determined to thoroughly 
subdue this fierce and powerful enemy. 
Leaving Montreal, at the head 
of twenty -two hundred men, 
he reached Fort Frontenac on the 19th, 
and on the 1st of August had arrived at 

the border of Lake Onondaga. On the 5th they reached the Onondaga 
village, the governor, enfeebled by age, being carried in an arm-chair. 
Two bundles of reeds suspended from a tree, which they encountered on 
their way, denoted that fourteen hundred and thirty-four warriors (the 
number of reeds) defied them. They found the stronghold in ashes, the 
Indians having, upon the approach of so large an army, burned their 
town and retreated into the forest. 

For two days the army was employed in destroying the corn and 
other stores of the Onondagas. A messenger for peace from the Onei- 
das was told that they could have it on condition that they should all 
migrate and settle in Canada. Within three days Vaudreuil, with seven 
hundred men, had destroyed their town and seized a number of chiefs as 
hostages for the fulfilment of Frontenac's demands. The expedition then 
returned, achieving only a partial success. The Indians had saved them- 
selves by flight. The government of New York supplied them with corn 
to prevent a famine, and the Iroquois had not yet been subdued. Their 

July 4, 1690. 



power, however, was so far broken that they were never again very for- 
midable to the French. 

The peace of Utrecht (February, 1098) ended the struggle, and the 
death of the heroic old governor took place a few months later (Novem- 
ber 28). 

In 1750 the Iroquois had diminished one-half, from the introduction 
of ardent spirits among them and from emigration to the St. Lawrence 
under Jesuit influence. With the exception of the Oneidas, they espoused 
the British cause during the Revolution, and were severely punished by 
an expedition into their country under General Sullivan in 1779.* 

* The best account of the Five Nations is that of Governor Golden, published in 1727, 
Consult also Turkman's "Froutenac and New Fraace." 



A LITTLE more than two centuries ago, New England was the scene 
of one of the bloodiest of Indian wars. It contained at that time 
some thirty thousand red men ; of these less than eight thousand were in 
Massachusetts. The domain of the Pokanoket tribe, which began the war, 
extended over nearly all of south-eastern Massachusetts, from Cape Cod 
to Narraganset Bay. Under Philip, the son and successor of Massasoit, this 
tribe had been gradually crowded into the two small necks of land now 
known as Tiverton and Bristol. 

Philip's residence was at Mount Hope ; from it he could look on the 
south over the beautiful expanse of Narraganset Bay. The charming 
view from this eminence now includes also the city of Providence and the 
towns of Bristol and "Warren. On the west was the country of the power- 
ful Narraganset tribe. 

One by one the fields and hunting-grounds of the Pokanokets had 
been sold to the white man. Though the lands were of little value to 
then;, and though they were fully satisfied with the small price paid for 
them, yet, when the beads and trinkets for which they had been bartered 
were gone, the thriving farms of the settlers around them remained, and 
were in their eyes only so many evidences that they had been overreached 
and defrauded. 

Efforts to Christianize them had wholly failed, but the white man's 
laws had been extended over them, and they were frequently obliged to 
appear before the magistrates of Boston or Plymouth, to answer ground- 
less accusations, and to explain their acts and purposes. To an inde- 
pendent nation for as such they regarded themselves this was very 

Besides this, the white settlers despised the Indians, looking upon them 
as inferiors, and were haughty and overbearing in their demeanor towards 
them. Collisions and mutual injuries were the inevitable result. 

They said that " if twenty of their honest Indians Droved that an En 


lishman had wronged them, 'it was nothing,' while if one of their worst 
Indians testified against any of them, it was sufficient;" that the Eii"ii>h 

^J V 

made the Indians drunk and then cheated them; that tin- English cattle 
and horses had so increased that they could not keep their corn from in- 
jury, never being used to make fences. Such were some of the grievances 
of the Indians, and they were but too w r ell founded. 


On the other hand, the Plymouth settlers said that not a foot of lane 
had been taken from the Indians except by fair purchase. More than 
this. In order to protect the natives from covetous white men, a law was 
made "that none should purchase or receive gifts of any lands of the 
Indians without the knowledge and allowance of the court," under heavy 
penalty. Besides prohibiting the sale of intoxicating drinks to them, a 
law was made in 1073 that no person should take anything in pawn of 
an Indian for liquor. 

At one of the iirst courts held in Boston, on complaint of the Sachem 
Chickataubut and his men that Mr. Josias Plaistowe had stolen four 
baskets of corn from them, he was ordered to return them eight baskets. 
pay a fine of 5, and hereafter to be called Josias, and not Mr. Josias, as 
formerly, and thus to be degraded from the title of a gentleman. Two of 
his servants who were accessary were ordered to be whipped. 

After all, it is not strange that trouble arose. No two races, the one 



barbarous and the other civilized, can 
live harmoniously side by side for any 
length of time. That they did so for 
so many years, here and in Pennsyl- 
vania, is a fact highly creditable to 

The Pokanoket chief, from his am- 
bitious and- haughty spirit, was called 
King Philip. His Indian name was 
Pometacom. His pride was shown in 
his dress, which was rich and gaudy. 
One who saw him in Boston says that 
" his coat and buskins were thickset 
with beads in pleasant wild works, and 
a broad belt of the same. His ac- 
coutrements were valued at twenty 
pounds." His belts and other orna- 
ments are correctly shown in the pict- 
ure here given. 

The following letter, preserved among the Dorchester records, 
that at that date Philip dressed after the English fashion : 



" Philip, Sachem of Mount Hope, 

" To Captain Ilopestill Foster, of Dorchester, 
" Sendeth greeting : 

"Sin, You may please to remember that when I last saw you, at Wading River, 
you promised me six pounds in goods. Now my request is that you would send by 
this Indian five yards of white or light-colored serge to make mee a coat, and a good 
Holland shirt, ready made, and a pair of good Indian Breeches, all which I have 
present need of. Therefore I pray, Sir, fail not to send them, and the several prices 
of them, and silk and buttons, and seven yards of galloon for trimming. Not else at 
present to trouble you with, only the subscription of 

"KiNG PHILIP, his Majesty, P. P." 

''Mount Hope, the 15th of May, 1672." 

Only a little while before the war of 1675 began, the Massachusetts 
authorities sent to Philip to know why he would make war upon the 
English, and at the same time requested him to enter into a treaty. This 
was his haughty reply : 

" Your governor is but a subject of King Charles of England. I shall 
not treat with a subject. I shall treat of peace only with the King, my 
brother. When he comes, I am ready." 

General Daniel Gookin, who knew Philip well, spoke of him as "a 


person of good understanding and knowledge in the best things." He 
was humane, and was known to exercise his authority on several occasions 
to prevent harm being done to English families who had been friendly to 
him or to his father. 

He was nevertheless looked upon with suspicion by the English, and 
some warlike demonstrations made by him in 1671 caused him to be sum- 
moned by them to a conference to be held on Taunton Green. Owing to 
the threats of the Plymouth people, Philip and his men came armed. 
Perceiving that the English party was large, and also armed, they paused 
on the ridge of a hill outside the town. A parley was held, and it was 
agreed that the conference should take place in the meeting-house, the 
English to occupy one side of the house and the Indians the other. 

What a singular and impressive spectacle the interior of that plain old 
meeting-house must have presented that morning ! Upon its rude benches 
sat representatives of two races, each distrusting the other ; the weaker 
smarting under its injuries, sullen and angry ; the stronger looking down 
on his dusky neighbor as a heathen, and at the same time feeling the ne- 
cessity for pursuing a politic course towards him, and determined to pre- 
vent an outbreak. Under such circumstances this was a scene in our early 
history not to be forgotten. 

Both parties were in fighting trim. The Indians had their faces and 
bodies painted as for battle, with their long-bows and quivers of arrows at 
their backs. Here and there a gun was seen among them, in the hands of 
those best skilled in its use. The English were in the dress of that day, 
protected by cuirasses, wearing slouched hats with broad brims, and 
equipped with bandoleers, long swords, and unwieldy guns. 

Philip soon saw that he was in the power of the English, and had to 
yield to their terms. He was compelled to give up his guns, and to agree 
to pay 100 and five wolves' heads yearly, or as many as he could procure. 
This humiliation greatly increased his hatred of the whites. 

Tradition says that Philip was averse to the war, and that, on hearing 
that blood had been shed, he wept at the news. However this may be, 
there can be no doubt of his desire to rid his country of the white in- 
truders, and at the close of the year 1674 he began his preparations in 
good earnest. Notwithstanding the severity of the laws against the sale 
of fire-arms to the Indians, they had generally supplied themselves with 
them, and had become skilful in their use. 

This is the way the war began. In January, 1675, John "Wussaussa- 
mon, a Christian Indian, who had informed the English that Philip was 
plotting against them, was murdered. This man could read and write 


He had been a missionary among his countrymen, and at one time was 
Philip's scribe or secretary. 

The Indians who committed this act were seized, tried by a jury, hah 
of whom were their own countrymen, found guilty, and hanged. In their 
justification they said they had a right to execute justice in accordance 
with their own customs on a traitor, and that the English had nothing to 
do with it. 

No sooner were they executed than hostilities began, the Indians hav- 
ing killed or wounded several Englishmen at Swansey. The Indian priests 
or medicine-men having prophesied defeat to the party that 

., IIP Jllne 24. 1675 - 

should shed the nrst blood, they had lor some days previously 

confined their hostile acts to burning the houses and killing the cattle of 

the white men, one of whom in retaliation shot and wounded an Indian. 

At once Philip and his warriors spread themselves over the country, 
devastating, burning, and plundering. For a whole year they kept New 
England in a state of constant alarm and excitement. They roved from 
place to place with secrecy and celerity, retiring, when pursued, into 
swamps and thickets, never meeting the English in the open field. They 
were skilful marksmen, were familiar with the forest, and any small par- 
ties of the English were sure to be tracked and waylaid by these crafty 
and vigilant foemen. The burning of Swansey was soon followed by that 
of portions of Taunton, Middleboro', Dartmouth, and other neighboring 
towns and villages. 

Troops from Boston and Plymouth were hurried to the scene of action, 
which was at first in Plymouth Colony only, and in less than a month 
Philip and his warriors had fled and taken refuge among the Indians in 
the interior. But though the scene was shifted, the terrible conflict had 
only just begun. 

Of the white population of New England about eight thousand were 
capable of bearing arms. Massachusetts had ready for service twelve 
troops of horse, each composed of sixty men, besides officers. They were 
well mounted, and armed with swords, carbines, and pistols, each troop 
being distinguished by its coat. The men wore buff coats, and were pro- 
tected by back, breast, and head pieces. 

The trainbands, numbering from sixty-four to two hundred men, in- 
cluded all the males capable of bearing arms between the ages of sixteen 
and sixty, and who were required to provide themselves with arms and 
ammunition. Their arms were muskets, pikes, and swords. There were 
two musketeers to each pikeman, the latter being selected for their supe- 
rior stature. The muskets had matchlocks or firelocks, and to each one 



there was a pair of bandoleers or pouches for powder and ball, and a stick 
called a rest, for use in taking aim. The pikes were ten feet in length, 
besides the spear at the end. Corslets and coats quilted with cotton were 
a sufficient protection against arrows. The captain, lieutenant, and ensign 
carried swords, partisans, or leading-staves, and sometimes pistols. The 
sergeants bore halberds. Their only field-music was the drum. The train- 
ings were always begun and ended with prayer. 

Captain Benjamin Church was the most skilful and successful Indian 
lighter of that day. lie was as sagacious and resolute as he was physically 


powerful and active, and he was greatly feared and respected by the In- 
dians. His residence was in the vicinity of the Pokanokets. Captain Sam- 
uel Moseley was another energetic and successful officer. 

On one occasion Church was at Pocasset, now Tiverton, Rhode Island, 
with thirty-six men, when he was unexpectedly attacked by 
three hundred Indians. He retreated to the water-side, piled 
a quantity of flat stones one upon another as a barricade, and fought until 

July, 1675. 




July, 1C75. 

Captain Gcmkling came to his relief in a sloop. The water was shallow, 
and the canoe that plied between the vessel and the shore could take but 
two persons at a time. Church was the last to go. A bullet grazed his 
hair, and another struck a stake in front of him, but he got oil without 
losing a man. 

The courageous act of a young woman is deserving of notice. One 
Sunday morning " in sermon time," an Indian straggler from one of Phil- 
ip's bands came to John Minot's house, in Dorchester, in 
which, at the time, there were only a servant-maid and two 
young children. Secreting the children under two brass kettles, and per- 
ceiving that the Indian was trying to get in at the window, the door being 
fast, the brave girl ran up-stairs and charged a musket with which she 
shot the Indian in the shoulder. Before this he had fired at and missed 

Dropping his gun, the Indian was just in the act of coming in at the 
window which he had forced open, when the girl seized a shovel, and fill- 
ing it with live coals from the fireplace, thrust it in his face and sent him 
yelling to the woods, where he was found dead soon afterwards. The Mi- 
not house, where this affair happened, is still standing on Chickataubut 

After Philip's flight the first blood was shed at Mendon. Brookfield 


was next attacked, and a party under Captains Ilutchinson and Wheeler 
waylaid, and thirteen men killed or mortally wounded. All 
the houses were burned but one that in which the inhabitants 
had taken refuge. This was saved by the timely arrival of a force under 
Major Simon Willard, after withstanding for two days and nights inces- 
sant and furious attacks. The roof and walls of their place of refuge 
were pierced with arrows, around which were wound burning rags filled 
with sulphur. Finally, a cart filled with combustibles was fired and 
pushed towards it, but the exertions of the garrison, aided by a sudden 
shower of rain, speedily extinguished the flames. So successful had been 
the defence that eighty of the Indians had been killed or wounded. 

Philip now made a distribution of wampum, as a present to the princi- 
pal chiefs, and congratulated them upon their success. His emissaries 
worked upon the Indians of Connecticut, and he even succeeded in bring- 
ing the baptized Indians to his aid. On the other hand, ITncas, the M< >- 
hegan sachem, sent to the aid of the English his three sons and about 
sixty warriors, who were distributed among the different commands and 
who rendered efficient service. During the whole war the Mohegans 
were the faithful allies of the English. 

Lancaster, Northampton, Deerfield, and Northfield suffered during the 

summer, and near the latter place Captain Beers was surprised 

and slain with most of his company. A fortnight later Cap- 

tain Lathrop, with about ninety men, " the flower of Essex 

County," was waylaid while marching to Deerfield, and he and nearly all 

his men were killed. The place where this sad affair occurred is now 

known as the village of Bloody Brook. 

Captain Moseley, who with seventy men was scouting in the neighbor- 
hood, hearing the guns, hastened to the scene of action. On his approach 
the Indians dared him to begin the fight, saying : " Come, Moseley, come ! 
you want Indians, here are Indians enough for you." 

Moseley charged them repeatedly with great resolution, but their supe- 
riority of numbers was such that he was obliged to withdraw. Soon, how- 
ever, a party under Major Treat arrived, and the Indians were in turn 
iriven back. When the English reached the battle-ground they were 
amazed at seeing an Englishman coming towards them. This man 
proved to be Robert Dutch, of Ipswich, who had been shot and scalped 
and left for dead. Strange to say, he recovered, and lived many years 

At Springfield thirty houses were burned and several people killed. 
\n attack on Hatfield by a large body of Indians was bravely repulsed. 


This success, occurring on the same day that a vote for reformation of 
evils and abuses was passed at Boston, was attributed by many 

_, . . Octobers. 

devout persons to that cause. To the ruritan every victory 

October 19. 

was a providential interference on his behalf, while every defeat 
was an equally direct manifestation of God's displeasure at his sins and 
shortcomings. Of one of the actions of this war Rev. Increase Mather 
wrote thus : " This Providence is observable, that the nine men which 
were killed at that time belonged to nine several towns ; as if the Lord 
should say that he hath a controversy with every plantation, and therefore 
that all had need to repent and reform their way." 

When Philip's warriors dispersed, some of them fled to their friends 
the Narragansets. The English demanded that they should be given up. 
The Narragansets refused, and the English, fearing that they would join 
with Philip against them, determined to prevent it. 

The Narraganset fort was situated on an island in an extensive swamp 
in the present town of South Kingstown, Rhode Island. It was strongly 
defended with palisades (sharp-pointed upright stakes), and around it was 
a ditch. Felled trees, their branches pointing outward, made a chevaux- 
de-frise a rod in thickness another formidable obstacle to an attacking 

Here Philip and his warriors intended to pass the winter, and here all 
their women and children were gathered. Five hundred wigwams con- 
tained a population of about three thousand persons, besides their grain 
and provision for the winter. Baskets and tubs of corn, piled one upon 
another, rendered the wigwams bullet-proof. 

The blow must be struck while the warriors were gathered here, and 
before the return of spring should enable them to renew their depreda- 
tions. The colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Connecticut 
sent fifteen hundred men, under General Josiah Winslow, for the reduction 
of this stronghold. During the march the troops suffered severely from 
the cold. They were without tents, and camped at night in the open air 
with no covering but their blankets. 

Snow was falling, and a piercing wind assailed them, when, on a cold 
December day, they reached their destination. They had the good-fortune 
to capture an Indian, who treacherously pointed out to them 
the concealed entrance to the fort, which was defended by a 
block-house. It could be approached by only one person at a time, over 
the felled tree which bridged the ditch. 

Along this narrow causeway the English rushed to the attack. They 
were swept off by the fire of the Indians, but as fast as they fell their 



places wore supplied l>y others equally intrepid, until six captains and 
many soldiers had fallen. But in the mean time a handful of men, under 


Captains Moseley and Church, forcing their way over the l>ivast \vork of 
fallen timber, had gained an entrance at another point. Fighting hand to 
hand against fearful odds, these men raised the cry, "They run! they 
run!" This inspiring shout brought a number of their fello \v-.-oldiers to 
their assistance. 

The attention of the defenders of the block-house was distracted by 
this diversion, which enabled the English to cross the fatal ditch where so 
many brave men had fallen, and to enter the fort. Philip and Canonchet, 


the Narraganset leader, were everywhere seen encouraging their warriors 
by their presence and example, but the superior weapons and lighting 
qualities of the English were too much for them. Then began a terrible 
slaughter, which included women and children as well as men. No mer- 
cy was shown, no quarter asked. The warriors fought with the energy 
of despair. Here again, as at the destruction of the Pequot fort, fire was 
applied to the combustible cabins, and all who could not escape perished 
in the flames. 

This barbarous and ill-advised act was contrary to the urgent entreaties 
of Captain Church. " We can live on their corn and make our wounded 
comfortable," said he ; but the fury of the soldiers could not be controlled. 



^y^^^-^^L ^s 

x f ' 




Terrible were the sufferings of the troops during that night-march home- 
ward, and many of their wounded died in consequence of it. 

Philip, with many of his followers, escaped from the fort and rejoined 
the Nipmucks, as the Indians of the interior were called. The Narragan- 
sets were almost exterminated. In this terrible struggle seven hundred 
of them had fallen. Of the English, over eighty were killed and a large 
number wounded. 

Early in the following year (February 10, 167(3) Lancaster was laid in 
ashes, and fifty persons killed or carried into captivity. 

The wife of the village minister, Rev. Joseph Rowlandson, one of 
these unfortunate captives, has left a thrilling narrative of this calamity. 
She tells us that " about sunrising, hearing the noise of guns, we looked 
out ; several houses were burning, and the smoke ascending to heaven. 
. . . The murderous wretches (the Indians) were burning and destroying 
all before them. ... At length they came and beset our house, and 
quickly it was the dolefullest day that ever mine eyes beheld. The bullets 
seemed to fly like hail, and quickly they wounded three men among us. 
The Indians then set fire to the house. Now the dreadful hour came that 
I have often heard of in time of war as the case of others, but now mine 
eyes see it. Some in our house were fighting for their lives, others wal- 
lowing in blood, the house on fire over our heads, and the bloody heathen 
ready to knock us on the head if we stirred out. Now might we hear 


mothers and children crying out for themselves and one another, 'Lord! 
what shall we do?' 

"Then I took my children, and one of my sisters hers, to go forth and 
leave the house; bur as soon as we appeared at the door the Indians shot 
so thick that the bullets rattled against the house as if a handful of stones 
had been thrown against it, so that we were forced to give back. 

"We had six stout dogs belonging to our garrison, but none of them 
would stir, though at another time, if an Indian had come to the door, they 
were ready to fly upon him and tear him. . . . But out we must go the 
fire increasing and coming along behind us, roaring, and the Indians gaping 
before us with their guns, spears, and hatchets to devour us. . . . The 
bullets flying thick, one went through my side and through the poor 
child in my arms. The Indians laid hold of us, pulling us one way and 
the children another, and said, ' Come, go along with us.' I told them 
they would kill me. They answered, if I were willing to go along with 
them they would not hurt me. 

" Oh, the doleful sight that was now to behold at this house ! Of thirty- 
seven persons who were in it, none escaped either present death or a bit- 
ter captivity, save only one. There were twelve killed, some shot, some 
stabbed with their spears, and some knocked down with their hatchets ; yet 
the Lord, by' his almighty power, preserved a number of us from death, 
for there were twenty-four of us taken alive and carried captive." 

After a detention of nearly three months, during which her wounded 
child died, and she herself experienced all the miseries and privations inci- 
dent to a life among a band of savages who were being hunted and pur- 
sued from place to place, Mrs. Rowlandson was ransomed, and joined her 
husband, who had been absent at the time of the attack. A son and 
daughter survived, who were also restored to her. Of her immediate 
family, seventeen suffered death or captivity in this war. 

Immediately following the destruction of Lancaster, fifty houses were 
burned at Medfleld, and twenty of its inhabitants slain. Groton, North- 
ampton, Springfield, Marlborough, Sudbury, Warwick, Ileho- 
both, and Providence were, in succession, partially destroyed, 
and many persons killed. 

At Pawtucket, Captain Michael Peirce, of Scituate, was ambushed, and 
with almost all his party of seventy was slain. These repeated 

March 26. , . 

disasters were in part owing to the carelessness of the whites, 
and their contempt for the Indians. After this they were more cautious. 
A single ludicrous incident relieves this dark and tragic story. Cap 
tain Moseley, an active and successful officer, having on one occasion en- 


countered a large body of Indians, " all being ready on both sides to fight," 
says the old Indian chronicle, " Captain Moseley plucked off his periwig 
and put it into his breeches, because it should not hinder him in fightin-. 
As soon as the Indians saw that they fell a howling and yelling most lu 1- 
eous ; and wholly ignorant of its meaning, but suspecting sorcery, the aston- 
ished natives, unwilling to contend with a magician who, when one head 
was taken off, could so easily replace it with another, all fled in terror, 
and could not be overtaken nor seen any more afterwards." 

Numerous parties of English were now in the tield, but Philip eluded 
them, and concentrating some four hundred warriors near Sudbury, way- 
laid Captains Wadsworth and Brocklebank, who, with seventy 

April 21 

men, were marching to the relief of Marlborough. A desper- 
ate fight ensued. Both captains fell, and above half their men. The 
Indians gained this victory by superior strategy. Setting the dry grass 
and woods on fire to the windward of the English, they drove them from 
an advantageous position, and then overpowered them by their overwhelm- 
ing numbers. 

Flushed with success, the Indians now boastingly said, " We will fight 
you twenty years if you will. There are many Indians yet. You must 
consider the Indians lose nothing but their lives ; you must lose your fine 
houses and your cattle." 

But the end was near. The last important conflict of the war was the 
" Fall Fight," so called from its having taken place near the great falls of 
the Connecticut at Deerfield, now known as Turner's Falls. Here the 
Indians had collected in large numbers, making the most of the fishing 
season. From this place they also sent out their war parties. 

Captain Turner, with one hundred and eighty men, by a night ride 
across the country, surprised and routed them at this place with great loss, 
but was in turn taken at a disadvantage, and he, with thirty of his men, 
was slain. This haunt of the enemy was, however, completely broken 
up, and all their ammunition and provisions destroyed. This serious re- 
verse caused Philip's allies to fall off from him and to scatter in every 
direction, and Philip himself, having lost many of his best warriors, with 
his remaining followers returned to Pokanoket. 

Here, hunted from place to place like a wild beast, hiding in swamps, 
Ins numbers steadily diminishing, Philip still prolonged the hopeless con- 
test. Twice within a few weeks he had barely escaped capture or death. 
At length his able and energetic antagonist, Church, surprised his camp, 
and made prisoners of his wife and child, Philip, having cut off his hair 
to disguise himself, narrowly escaping capture. "Now I am ready to die !' 


DEATH OF KIMi mil. II'. 

exclaimed the heart-broken chief. His son, a boy of nine the last of 
the race of Massasoit was sold into slavery. 

A few days later his last place of refuge at Mount Hope was sur 
rounded by Church's men, and King Philip, the great and 

J August 12. 

dreaded foe of the white man, was shot by an Indian 01 

Church's party, whose brother Philip had killed for counselling submission 


to tlie English. In accordance with the barbarous usage of that day, the 
dead sachem was beheaded and quartered. His head was set upon a gib- 
bet at Plymouth, where it was to be seen for twenty years. Such was the 
joy caused by the news of his death that it was the occasion of a public 

Meanwhile Nanuntenoo, known to the English as Canonchet, son and 
successor of Miantonomo, the great sachem of the Narragansets, after 
leading his men in the bloody raids on Lancaster and Medtield, 

April 11 

and at the defeat of Captain Peirce, had been captured by 
the Connecticut troops under Colonel George Denisbn. While seeking 
safety in flight he was recognized and hotly pursued. To expedite his 
movements he threw off his laced coat and wampum belt, and would have 
escaped had he not made a misstep and fallen into the w r ater, wetting his 
gun. A swift -footed Pequot, who was in the English army, seized and 
held him until some soldiers came up. 

" The said Nanuntenoo's carriage," says the old chronicle, " was 
strangely proud and lofty. He refused the offer of his life if he would 
procure a treaty of peace. Being examined why he would foment that 
war, he would make no other reply to any question but this ' that he 
was born a prince, and if princes came to speak with him he would an- 
swer, but none present being such he thought himself obliged in honor to 
hold his tongue, and not hold discourse with persons below his birth and 
quality.' : A young man asked the chief some questions. 

"Child," replied he, "you no understand matters of war. Let your 
brother or chief come, him I will answer." He was executed by Colonel 
Denisou's Indian allies near Stonington, Connecticut. When told that he 
must die, and that his last hour had arrived, the proud warrior, with the 
spirit of an ancient Roman, replied, 

"I like it well. I shall die before my heart is soft, or I have said any- 
thing unworthy of myself." 

After the death of Xanuntenoo the remnant of his tribe united with 
the Niantics under Ninigret, a famous warrior who, at the head of his 
tribe, had preserved neutrality with the English during the war. It was 
this sachem who, on being asked to allow the preaching of Christianity 
among his people, replied that " it would be better to preach it among 
the English till they became good." Roger Williams calls him " a proud 
and fierce sachem." His portrait, painted at Boston in 1647, is owned 
by the Winthrop family. 

The cost of this Indian war was as great in proportion as was that of 
the Revolutionary War a century later. Twelve or thirteen towns were 


destroyed, one in twenty of the able-bodied men had fallen, and one 

family in twenty had been burned out. In addition to this the colonies 

had incurred a debt of half a million 

dollars an enormous sum for those 

days. J>ut the power of the Indians 

in southern New England was broken 

forever. Many of the Indians tied 

westward, and those captured were 

sold into slavery. 

As soon as the news of the rising 
of the Pokanokets reached the Indi- 
ans at the eastward, they too began 
hostilities, the French on the Penob- 
scot supplying them with arms. One 
of the causes of this outbreak was 
said to be the cruel conduct of some 
English seamen, who overset a canoe 
containing the wife and child of 
Sijiiando, a chief of the Saco tribe, 
in order to see if young Indians could 

swim naturally, like animals of the brute creation, for so they had heard. 
The child was saved from drowning by the mother, who dived down and 
brought it up from the bottom ; but it died soon afterwards, and Squando 
became the tierce foe of the English. Many of the eastern Indians had 
been kidnapped and sold into slavery. These wrongs and injuries called 
for vengeance. 

No general rising took place, but a relentless border warfare, extending 
over a space of three hundred miles, was carried on. In the two years of 
its duration nearly half the English settlements were destroyed, and their 
inhabitants either driven off, killed, or carried into captivity. Peace M T as 
finally established in 1678. 

Saco was burned by the Indians, led by Squando, who besieged the 
garrison-house of Major Philips. Early in the following morning a cart, 
filled with combustibles and protected by a sort of plank 
breastwork in front, was pushed towards the house. Some of 
the garrison were dismayed on the sight of this seemingly formidable 
engine of destruction, but were encouraged by their officers. Orders were 
given not to tire until it came within pistol-shot. AVhen it had a!>out 
reached that point one of the wheels stuck fast, which those who were 


Sept 18, 1675. 











- v '' 


pushing did not observe. The other wheels moving forward brought 
them into a position to be effectually raked by the garrison. This ac- 
cident was quickly improved by them a sudden volley killed six and 
wounded fifteen more. The Indians immediately retreated, and aban- 
doned the attack. 

The escape of Anne Brackett, whose family had been taken captives at 
the sack of Falmouth (now Portland, Maine), was remarkable. Loitering 
behind her captors, she spied the wreck of a birch canoe. She patched 
and repaired it with a needle and thread found in a deserted house. Em- 
barking with her husband, a negro servant, and her infant in this frail 
vessel, she crossed Casco Bay with infinite peril. Arriving at Black Point, 
where she feared to find Indians, and could only expect to find a solitude, 
to her great joy she found a vessel from Piscataqua that had just entered 
the harbor. 

The pioneer women of America were in no respect inferior in heroism 
and devotion to their husbands, their fathers, or their brothers. In what 
is now the town of Berwick, Maine, the house of a settler was attacked by 
Hopehood, a Ivennebec chief, notorious for his savage prowess. This same 
chief was afterwards engaged in the massacre at Salmon Falls, New Hamp- 
shire. He, with a companion, attempted to surprise the family of the 
settler, but was discovered by one of the inmates of the house a young 
woman in season to prevent his effecting his purpose. Quickly fasten- 
ing the door, she held it while all the other persons in the house escaped 
by a rear w r indow. The Indians finally effected an entrance, and having 
wreaked their fury on the brave girl who had frustrated their plan, left 
her for dead. Though severely wounded, she recovered, and lived many 
years afterwards. 



A CENTURY and a half had elapsed since the invasion of De Soto. 
-^"^- when the French began to explore the fertile regions watered by the 
Mississippi. Joliet, Marquette, and La Salle led the way in this adventu- 
rous exploit, the latter taking possession of its mouth for France. He 
named the country Louisiana, in compliment to the French monarch, 
Louis XIV. 

The Spaniards had already planted themselves at St. Augustine and 
Pensacola, when Iberville, a French naval officer, one of seven distin- 
guished brothers, landed the first French colony at Biloxi. A 

(Tan 31 1099 

fort was erected, Sanvolle, his elder brother, was appointed 
Governor, and Bienville, a younger brother, Lieutenant-governor, of Loui- 
siana. The site of New Orleans was selected for the principal settlement. 
After twenty years' service in the colony, Bienville became governor, in 

The Southern Indians inhabited the region now embraced in the States 
of Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi, most of Georgia, and portions of 
South Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky. These Indians, sometimes 
called Appalachians or Mobilians, were divided into three distinct con- 
federacies : the Creeks or Muskokis, including also the Seminoles and the 
Vamassees ; the Choctaws, whose country, bordering upon the Gulf of 
Mexico, was west of the Creeks and extended to the Mississippi ; and the 
Cherokees, the mountaineers of the South, whose land extended from the 
Cherokee Broad River, on the east, to the Alabama, on the west, one of the 
most delightful regions in the United States. The Chickasaws, who were 
united with the Choctaws, were seated upon the western branches of the 
Mobile, in Mississippi, Kentucky, and Tennessee. 

On the banks of the Mississippi, chiefly on the bluffs where stands the 
beautiful city that bears their name, the Natchez Indians once dwelt. It 
was a region of great fertility, and lay between the territories of the Choc- 


taws and Cliickasaws. They had originally inhabited the south-western 
portion of Mexico, and had brought thence many of their religious rites 
and customs. Their form of government was more despotic than that of 
the other Southern tribes. 

The great chief of the Natchez bore the name of the Sun, and pre- 
tended to claim his origin from that luminary. Every morning as it rose 
above the horizon he stood at the door of his cabin, turned his face to- 
wards the east, and howled thrice, at the same time prostrating himself on 
the ground. A pipe, used only upon these occasions, was then handed him, 
from which he puffed smoke, first towards the east, then towards the other 
cardinal points. 

" The Sun has eaten," proclaimed an officer of his household, before 
the ruling chief of the Sun, after each morning's repast, " and the rest of 
the earth may now eat." The death of the Great Sun was sometimes fol- 
lowed by that of one hundred persons, who considered it a great honor to 
be sacrificed at the same time. 

The Temple of the Natchez was oblong in form. In it were kept the 
bones of deceased chiefs, and in the middle of the floor a fire was kept 
constantly burning. One of their traditions is, that the keeper of this 
sacred flame having on one occasion fallen asleep, the fire went out, and in 
consequence a horrible malady raged for years, during which many of the 
Suns and an infinite number of people died. When Iberville first visited 
them, in the spring of 1700, their population did not exceed one thousand 
two hundred. 

Bienville, in April, 1716, led a small party into the territory of the 
Natchez, to revenge the murder of some Frenchmen. He intended, after 
making an example of some of their chiefs and intimidating the tribe, to 
proceed to their towns, and build a fort in obedience to the orders of his 
king. He halted on an island in the river, at some distance from Natchez. 
Here three of the tribe came to see him with the pipe of peace, but Bien- 
ville sent them back, telling them he would smoke with the Great Sun 
chiefs only, for he was the great chief of the French, and that their 
chiefs had shown a want of friendship and respect in not coming them- 
selves to greet him. The Frenchmen thoroughly understood the Indian 

One morning not long afterwards, Bienville saw four magnificent 
canoes descending the river and approaching his island camp. Eight war- 
riors stood erect and sung the pipe-song, while two chiefs in each canoe 
sat under an immense umbrella. They were the Natchez chiefs, drawn 

thither by the snare of the wily Frenchman. Concealing one-half of his 



soldiers, and advancing in a friendly way, he led them into his camp. 
They entered, singing the song of peace and holding the pipe over his 

Bienville refused the pipe offered him by the chiefs with contempt, 
and inquired the cause of their visit. Then the high-priest, after address- 
ing the sun, and invoking its aid to soften the stern Bienville, also offered 
him the peace-pipe, which was again scornfully rejected. At the same 
moment the chiefs were seized, ironed, and put in prison. 

At night Bienville informed the Grand Sun that nothing would satisfy 
him but the heads of those who had advised or executed the murder of 
his countrymen. They were sent for, and the heads of two of them were 
brought him. Bienville then made a treaty with them, sparing their lives 
on certain conditions, and no longer refusing to smoke with them the pipe 
of peace. 

A fort was then built on an eminence advantageously situated near 
the Mississippi ; when it was finished, six hundred Natchez warriors ap- 
peared unarmed before the gate, and joined three hundred women in a 
dance in honor of Bienville. Afterwards the chiefs crossed the threshold, 
and again smoked the peace-pipe with him. 

Some years later Fort Rosalie, as it was called, and the post of Natchez 
was under the command of M. de Chopart, a man wholly unfit for the 
position. This officer, for purposes of his own, selected the village of one 
of the JLflns, or great chiefs, and ordered him to go elsewhere. Justly in- 
dignant at this outrage, preparations were quietly made by the tribe to 
cut off the French by a sudden attack here and at other settlements lower 
down the river. The neighboring tribes were also enlisted in the plot. 
Chopart was warned of the danger, but instead of ''aking precautions 
against it, had those who gave him the information put in irons. 

The massacre began about nine o'clock in the morning. The arrival 
of a number of richly-laden boats for the garrison and the colonists deter- 
mined the Indians to strike their blow sooner than they had 

Oct. 23, 1T29. T-V. . -i. 

intended. Dividing themselves into parties, they gave out 
that they were going on a grand hunt, and began to traffic with the 
French, giving them poultry and corn, and in return obtaining arms 
and ammunition. 

Being now intermingled with the French, and provided with arms, 
they attacked at the same time each his man, and in less than two hours 
they had massacred more than two hundred of them, among them Cho- 
part, the commander of the fort the cause of this terrible slaughter. To 
show their contempt for L>?J- man, the Indians would not permit a 


to kill him, but for that purpose sent a " mean " person, who pursued the 
wretch from his house into his garden, and there despatched him with a 
wooden tomahawk. Two men only were spared a tailor and a carpenter, 
whose services the Indians required. Some of the women were killed, 
others were made slaves, and treated with great indignity. The post at 
Yazoo was soon afterwards surprised and its garrison massacred. 

When this terrible massacre became known the consternation was great 
throughout the colony. Governor Perier, at New Orleans, immediately 
sent the Chevalier De Loubois against the Natchez. At the 

Jan. 27, 1730. 

same time seven hundred (Jhoctaws, under JM. Le bueur, 
marched to their village, surprised them at break of day, and set free a 
large number of prisoners, besides taking sixty scalps and a number of the 
Natchez. The victory would have been more complete if they had been 
less intent on freeing the slaves, or if they had waited for the arrival 
of De Loubois with his troops. The great body of the Natchez escaped by 
flight. Shutting themselves up in two of their forts, the Natchez proposed 
to surrender more than two hundred prisoners if the French commander 
"would remove his artillery and withdraw his forces, or else all the pris- 
oners should be burned. De Loubois consented ; but the Indians, suspect- 
ing treachery, withdrew in the night and gained the opposite shore of the 
Mississippi, with all their women and children. The prisoners, however, 
were found in the fort and released. 

A large part of the tribe, conducted by the Great Sun, then established 
themselves upon the Washita River, others sought an asylum among the 
Chickasaws, and some settled in Alabama. But the French had not done 
with them yet. In November, 1731, Governor Perier organized an expe- 
dition, which in January following he led to the mouth of Black River, 
the site of the last stronghold of the devoted tribe. 


Investing the fort, the French encountered a spirited resistance. Mor- 
tars were used by them in this siege, and a bomb, falling in the centre 
of the court, caused great havoc, and still greater consternation among the 
Indians. At length they agreed to surrender the Great Sun and one war- 
chief, which Perier refused. They then consented to surrender sixty-five 
men and two hundred women and children, upon condition that their lives 
should be spared. 

That night, in the midst of a tempest of wind and rain, the miserable, 
hunted-down remnant of this unfortunate tribe abandoned their fort and 
endeavored to escape up the river. Perier's Indian allies pursued, and 
brought in one hundred of them. Next day the governor demolished the 
fort, and returned to New Orleans with four hundred and twenty-seven 


prisoners. At their head was the Great Sun and several principal chiefs. 
They were all sent to St. Domingo and sold for slaves. 

Such of the Indians as escaped the terrors of that tempestuous night 
attacked the French post and settlements on Red River. They were re- 
pulsed by St. Denys, the commandant, with the loss of ninety-two war- 
riors, including all their chiefs. A remnant escaped by flight, but, as a 
nation, the Natchez no longer existed. 

The Chickasaws were the fiercest, most insolent, haughty, and cruel of 
the Southern Indians. They were constantly at war, and though, in com- 
parison with the nations around them, a mere handful, they had seldom 
been defeated. It was natural, therefore, that they should despise the 
cultivation of the soil, as they could live on the proceeds of the chase and 
the plunder of their neighbors. 

The Chickasaws were the most expert of the American Indians in fol- 
lowing the trail, and were also exceedingly skilful in the chase. Although 
their country abounded in beaver, they did not disturb them, saying, 
" anybody can kill a beaver." Their ambition was to capture the swift- ' 
footed deer or elk. They were all excellent swimmers, an art early taught 
to their children. They were very overbearing towards their females, and 
extremely jealous of their wives. They were athletic, well formed, and 

Chickasaw tradition says they came from the west, and on starting 
eastward were provided with a large dog, as a guard, and a pole, as a guide. 
The dog would give them notice of the approach of an enemy, and the 
pole, which they planted in the ground every night, would lean next morn- 
ing in the direction they were to go. In this w r ay they kept on until they 
crossed the great Mississippi River. 

Arriving at the Alabama River, near what is now Huntsville, the pole was 
for some days undecided which way to lean, but finally made up its mind 
nnd pointed to the south-west. They then resumed their journey, fighting 
their way through enemies on all sides, until, at a place now 'known as 
Chickasaw Old Fields, the pole stood perfectly erect. All then came to 
the conclusion that this was the Promised Land, and here they accordingly 
remained until, in 1837, the tribe emigrated to the Indian Territory. 

A small portion of the Natchez Indians had united with the Chick- 
asaws, who were friends of the English, and of course enemies of the 
French. In order to establish French supremacy in that region, and to 
keep the communication open between New Orleans in the south and 
Kaskaskia in the north, Bienville prepared to invade the Chickasaw ter- 


ritory and subdue them. By a free distribution of presents he gained 
over the Choctaws, who consented to assist him in his enterprise. 

He embarked at Mobile, in a fleet comprising more than sixty large 
pirogues and batteaux. Never before had so large and imposing a fleet 
disturbed the deep, smooth waters of Mobile. He disembarked 

. -r, ., April 4,1736. 

his forces at what is now Cotton Gin l j ort, twenty-seven miles 
east of the Chickasaw towns. Taking with him provisions for twelve 
days, he -began his march, and encamped near the enemy. On the after- 
noon of May 26th the Chevalier Noyau advanced to the attack at the 
head of three hundred French troops. 

With the help of some Englishmen the Chickasaws had fortified them- 
selves with much skill, and the French were not a little astonished on 
beholding the English flag waving over their adversaries. Their houses 
had been fortified by large stakes driven into the ground around them, 
and were loop-holed for musketry. Within the palisades were breast- 
works, from which, through the loop-holes, the Indians fired. Their 
houses stood in such positions as to admit of cross-firing. 

The attacking column was protected by movable breastworks, called 
mantelets, carried by negroes, and which served as shields. No sooner 
had these come within gunshot than one of the negroes was killed 
and another wounded ; the rest fled precipitately. The French then 
rapidly advanced under a severe fire, and carried three fortified cabins, 
setting fire to and destroying others. Many of them had by this time 
fallen ; but the officers, placing themselves at the head of a few brave 
men, attempted to storm the principal fort, but were nearly all shot down 
before they could reach it. 

At a safe distance from this scene of slaughter Bienville's six hundred 
Choctaw allies, painted and plumed and dressed in the most fantastic and 
horrible manner, yelled and shouted, but, beyond occasionally firing in 
the air, rendered no assistance. After the conflict had lasted three hours, 
De Noyau and the brave remnant of his men were compelled to retreat. 

Bienville's plan of operations had included a junction with D'Artagn- 
ette, a brave and experienced officer, who was to have assembled the 
tribes of the Illinois and, together with one hundred and thirty French- 
men, united his force with that of Bienville at the Chickasaw towns. The 
unavoidable delays experienced by the latter caused the failure of the plan 
and disaster to both. 

D'Artagnette was the first to arrive. He sought in vain for intelligence 
of Bienville. The impatience of his red allies, who, after eleven days of 
inaction, could no longer be controlled, led him to attack the Chickasaws 


without further delay. His force consisted of one hundred and thirty 
French and three hundred and sixty Indians. At the lirst onset five hun- 
dred of the enemy, who had been concealed, rose from their 

May 20, 1736. . i jr 11 " ,1 -i <., i . 

ambush and tell upon the invaders, with such impetuosity 
that nearly all D'Artagnette's Indians took to their heels, leaving the un- 
fortunate Frenchmen surrounded by their foes. 


After maintaining for some time a heroic but unavailing struggle, in 
which a large number of brave men had fallen, D'Artagnette, Yincennes, 
and a few others surrendered ; a small number escaped. The fruits of 
this important victory were all the provisions and baggage of the French, 
eleven horses, four hundred and fifty pounds of powder, and one thousand 
two hundred bullets. The powder and ball were used to shoot down the 
troops of Bienville, as we have already seen. The prisoners were at first 
kindly treated, but after the defeat of Bienville all were burned at the 
stake excepting one, who was sent to Bienville with the intelligence of 
the defeat and fate of D'Artagnette. The Chickasaws remained masters 
of the situation. 

Little was known of the Cherokees who inhabited northern Georgia and 
north-western Carolina, one of the most beautiful and healthful regions on 
this continent, until the period of English settlement. In their appearance, 
their habits, and their customs, they bore a great resemblance to the Creeks. 
Owing to their delightful climate, with its mountain air and delicious 
springs of pure water, they attained a greater age than the other tribes. 

These Indians were of middle stature and of an olive color, but were 
generally painted. Their skins were stained with indelible ink, repre- 
senting a variety of subjects. The women were tall, and symmetrically 
formed ; their feet and hands were small and exquisitely shaped, and they 
moved with grace and dignity. The ears of the males were slit, and 
stretched to an enormous size an exceedingly painful operation. They 
were very fond of dancing, spending almost every night in this amuse- 
ment, and were skilled in getting up and preparing pantomimes, being ex- 
cellent mimics. 

In January, 1733, General James Oglethorpe led a colony to Georgia, 
pitching his tent where the city of Savannah now stands. Though he had 
a royal title to the land, he took care to pay the Indians for it, and they 
were always friendly to him. The purchase w r as made of Tomo Chichi, 
one of their principal chiefs, who afterwards accompanied Oglethorpe to 
England. The Cherokees gave Oglethorpe a buffalo-skin, with the head 
and feathers of an eagle painted on the inner side. They said : " The feath- 







ers of the eagle are soft, signifying love ; the skin is warm, and is the em- 
blem of protection, therefore love and protect our little families." He was 
ever their true friend and they reciprocated his kindness. When, in 1740, 
he attacked the Spaniards at St. Augustine, 
he was accompanied on his expedition by 
one thousand Cherokee warriors. 

Mutual injuries had, at the beginning of 
the year 1760, brought about a state of hos- 
tility between the settlers on the frontier of 
South Carolina and their Cherokee neigh- 
bors. Governor Littleton, in violation of 
good faith and sound policy, had seized thir- 
ty-two of their chiefs, who had visited him 
for the purpose of preventing a war, and 
imprisoned them in Fort Prince George. GKNKUAI. OIU.KTHORPE. 

His intention was to hold them until twen- 
ty-four Indians implicated in the murder of white men should be deli /- 
ered up to him. This it was impossible for them to do, as the Cherokee 
chiefs had no power to coerce their countrymen, and the governor was so 
informed by Atakullakulla, their venerable head chief, the staunch friend 
of the white man. One of the imprisoned chiefs was Otacite, a renowned 

Their rescue was soon attempted. Oconostata, one of their leading 
chiefs and warriors, approached Fort Prince George with a band of his 
countrymen, and requested Lieutenant Coytmore, the com- 

Feb 18 1760 

mander, to come out and have a talk with him. That officer 
assented, and while they were conversing the chief swung a bridle which 
he held three times around his head. This was the preconcerted signal, 
and a volley from the concealed Indians mortally wounded Coytmore, and 
severelv \vounded two others who were with him. 


The garrison seeing the fate of their officer, at once proceeded to put 
irons upon the Indians in their custody, but meeting with a furious resist- 
ance, the exasperated soldiers put them all to death. Those without at- 
tacked the fort, shouting to their countrymen within, ignorant of their 
fate, " Fight strong, and you shall be aided." But the fort was too strong 
for them, and they finally withdrew. The vengeance of the tribe fell 
heavily on the defenceless frontier, which became a scene of blood and 
rapine, and the war-belt was sent to the Catawbas and other tribes, asking 
their aid in exterminating the English. 

Meantime General Amherst, the English Commander-in-chief in Amer- 



ica, had despatched one thousand two hundred men, under Colonel Mont- 
gomery, from New York to the scene of action. This officer arrived in 
Charleston late in April, and moved rapidly towards the Cherokee vil- 
lages. Coining after a night-march upon the town of Little Keowa, lie 
surrounded it, and ordered his troops to bayonet every man. This was 
done, and the women and children were captured. In Estatoe, a town of 
two hundred houses, he found but ten or twelve men, all of whom were 
killed. Determining to make the Indians feel the power of the English, 
he visited, and in succession destroyed, all the villages in the lower nation. 



Montgomery then returned to Fort Prince George, where he awaited 
proposals for peace. None came, and he again advanced, this time on the 
middle settlements. In three days he reached the town of 
Etchowee. Here the Cherokees had determined to make a 
stand. A smart fire was opened upon the advancing troops from a thicket. 
Montgomery immediately pushed forward through an ambuscade of five 
hundred Indians, rousing them from their coverts. As soon as they 
reached clearer and more elevated ground, the troops drove the enemy be- 



August 7. 

fore them at the point of the bayonet, and a severe chastisement was in- 
flicted upon the Indians. Etchowee was found to be abandoned, but the 
warriors had generally escaped to the mountains, and the only result of 
the expedition was to increase the wrath of the tribe. Unable to effect 
anything further, Montgomery returned to New York. 

A band of Creek Indians, under Chlucco, better known as the Long 
Warrior, Micco, or King of the Seminoles, accompanied Montgomery in 
his expedition and rendered essential service. By their aid the army es- 
caped ambush after ambush, discovered the Cherokee villages, and finally 
covered his retreat out of one of the most dangerous countries through 
which an army could pass. 

Fort Loudoun was garrisoned by two hundred men. Oconostata in- 
vested it with a large number of warriors, cutting it oif from all communi- 
cation. When the garrison was nearly famished, seeing no hope of escape 
the fort was surrendered, on condition that the men should retain their 
arms and march home unmolested. Their first night-encamp- 
ment was fifteen miles from the fort. Next morning they 
were attacked, and nearly all slain or 
captured. This was done in retalia- 
tion for the massacre of the Cherokee 

In the following year Carolina 
raised twelve hundred men, under 
Colonel Henry Middleton. Among 
his officers were Henry Laurens, 
afterwards President of 
Congress, Francis Ma- 
rion, William Moultrie, Andrew 
Pickens, and Isaac Huger, all of 
whom became distinguished as sol- 
diers and patriots in the Revolution- 
ary War. Lieutenant-colonel James 
Grant joined them with two British 
regiments, and some Chickasaw and 

Catawba Indians as allies, making a total force of two thousand six hun- 
dred men. 

They reached Fort Prince George May 29, 1761. On the 10th of 
June, at Etchowee, the scene of Montgomery's battle the year before, the 
Cherokees were gathered, well equipped and prepared for action. They 
had an advantageous position, and for three hours the contest was severe 





and bloody. They were finally driven at the point of the bayonet, falling 

v v v J. v O 

back inch by inch until at length, completely overpowered, they fled, hotly 
pursued by the victors ; many were slain. 

Following up his victory, Grant laid Etchowee and fourteen other towns, 
together with their corn-fields and granaries, in ashes, and the people, in a 
state of complete destitution, were driven to the barren mountains. The 
spirit of the nation was broken, and through the venerable Atakullakulla, 
the chiefs humbly sued for peace. A treaty kept the nation peaceful un- 
til the breaking out of the American Revolution. 

During that struggle the Cherokees fought against the colonists, and 
were severely punished and greatly reduced in numbers. Their first 
treaty with the United States dates from 1785. Its guaranties were disre- 
garded by the Federal Government, and contrary to their wishes, and in 
spite of their resistance, they were forced from their country at the point 
of the bayonet in 1838. 

John Ross, their principal chief, strenuously opposed the removal of 
his people. He was a half-breed, and at an early age had acquired a good 

English education, becoming head chief in 
1828. A portion of the Cherokees, under 
the lead of Major Ridge, Boudinot, and 
other influential chiefs, in December, 1835, 
concluded a treaty with the United States 


Government for the removal of the tribe 
to the Indian Territory, which was repu- 
diated by Ross and the larger part of the 
nation. Under this treaty the Ridge party 
-one-third of the tribe emigrated in 
183T. Ross and the remainder of his peo- 
ple held out against removal as long as 
possible, but, notwithstanding a decision 
of the United States Supreme Court in 

their favor, were finally compelled to go. The removal of the tribe was 
disastrous to them in many ways, but they are at present in a prosperous 
condition in their new home in the Indian Territory. 

The Cherokees had a singular method of relieving the poor. Their 
head men issued orders for a war-dance, at which all the fighting men of 
the town assembled. Contrary to the usual custom, only one man danced 
at a time, who. with a tomahawk in his hand, hopped and capered for a 
moment, and then gave a whoop. The music then stopped while he re- 
lated the manner of his taking his first scalp. He then cast a string of 



wampum, wire, paint, lead, or anything he could spare, upon a large bear 
skin spread for the purpose. Then the music again begun, and he con- 
tinued in the same manner through all his warlike actions. Another suc- 
ceeded him, and the ceremony lasted until all the warriors had related 
their exploits and thrown presents upon the skin. The stock thus raised, 
after paying the musicians, was divided among the poor. The same cere- 
mony was used to recompense any extraordinary merit. 

The Choctaws and the Chickasaws had a common origin, and are to-day 
substantially one people. Their traditions, like those of the Natchez, 
point to a Mexican origin. The Creeks were their great enemies. In 
1765 a war began between them which raged fiercely for six years. Skil- 
ful in deceiving their enemies, they attached the paws of various animals 
to their own feet and hands, and roamed the woods., imitating their move- 
ments. Sometimes a large bush was carried by the warrior in front, con- 
cealing himself and those behind him, while the one in the extreme rear 
obliterated all the tracks with grass. Excellent themselves in following 
the trail, they could also deceive an enemy by their astonishing skill in 
imitating every fowl and quadruped. 

They were inveterate gamblers. Besides ball play, they had an excit- 
ing game called Chunke, the players and lookers-on staking their orna- 
ments, wearing apparel, pipes, and arms upon the result. Sometimes 
after losing all, the ruined gambler borrowed a gun and shot himself. In- 
dians are very like white men, after all. The women have a game, with 
sticks and balls, something like our game of battledoor. 

Some of their funeral customs were peculiar. The assembled relatives 
wept and howled, and asked strange questions of the deceased, such as, 
" Why did you leave us ? Did your wife not serve you well ? Were you 
not contented with your children ? Did you not have corn enough ? Were 
you afraid of your enemies?" To increase the solemnity and importance 
of the occasion mourners were hired to cry. 

Among other odd customs of the Southern Indians was this being 
sun-worshippers, whenever the head chief sneezed, his subjects bowed their 
heads, opened and closed their arms, and saluted him with these words : 
"May the Sun guard you,' 1 "May the Sun be with you," "May the Sun 
shine upon you," or " May the Sun prosper and defend you." 

If their knowledge of geography had been equal to their enterprise, a 
serious catastrophe that befell one of the Carolina tribes would have been 
prevented. The Sewees, a tribe living on the bay of that name, under 


the mistaken idea that England was nut far from their eoast, fitted out a 
large fleet of canoes, laden with skins and furs, for the purpose of traffic. 
All their able-bodied men embarked, leaving only the women and children 
and the aged and inlirm at home. A storm destroyed a part of their fleet, 
and the remainder falling into the hands of the English, the Indians were 
sold as slaves in the West India Islands. Small-pox and intemperance 
still further reduced this once populous tribe. 

The Creeks and the Scminoles are the subjects of future chapters. 

NOTE. For the best account of the Southern tribes, see Pickett's "History of Ala 



VTTITH the reign of King William III. began a series of wars between 
the English and French on this continent which, with 

IT. rm 1089-1759. 

only one long interval, lasted seventy years. They grew out 
of the rivalry of the two nations for territorial power and the advan- 
tages of the Indian trade. 

The genius and heroism of Champlain, Cartier, Marquette, Joliet, and 
La Salle, and the zeal and devotion of her missionaries, had given to the 

French not only Canada, 
then known as New France, 
Acadia, Hudson's Bay, and 
Newfoundland, but had also 
furnished her with a claim 
to the whole valley of the 
Mississippi, and to Texas as 
far as the Rio Bravo del 

A line drawn from Fal- 
mouth, now Portland, on 
Casco Bay, by the towns of 
Scarborough, Saco, Wells, 
York, Amesbnry, Haver- 
hill, Andover, Dunstable, 
Chelmsford, Groton, Lan- 
caster, and Worcester consti- 
tuted the frontier of Mas- 
sachusetts, which then in- 
cluded Maine. Upon these 
settlements the stress of 
those cruel wars fell. The 
English colonists largely outnumbered the French, but the latter had FUC- 





ceeded in arraying the numerous tribes of the Algonkins against the Eng- 
lish, and these savage allies made the warfare terrible to the settlers who 
were exposed to their incursions all along the extensive frontier. The 
only allies of the English were the Iroquois. 

By the French the war was carried on in a most barbarous manner. 
They fitted out parties of savages to attack the English settlers, shooting 
them down while tilling their fields, seizing their wives and children, load- 
ing them with heavy packs of plunder from their own houses, and driving 
them before them into the wilderness. These, when faint with hunger 
and unable to stagger under their burdens, were murdered, and their scalps 
torn off and exhibited by the savages to their civilized masters on their 
arrival at the French head-quarters. Only those who have read the story 
of these barbarities can realize the perils and sacrifices, the heroism and 
sufferings of the early English settlers. 

The greater part of the early settlers were engaged in agriculture. 
Those on the sea-coast pursued the fisheries with success. Their every-day 
dress was plain, strong, and comfortable, and was the product of their own 
looms and knitting-needles. A cocked-up hat, a short frock of strongest. 


warp, a pair of old leather breeches, and leggings confined above the knee 
and tied over the shoe with a string round the middle of the foot, was the 
costume of the man. 

The farm work obliged them to be up before daylight. The early 
breakfast consisted of pea or bean porridge, boiled with salted beef or 
pork, served in wooden bowls, together with bread and beer. The bread 
was generally some preparation of Indian-corn mixed with rye. Dinner 
at noon began with Indian pudding and ended with boiled salt pork, fried 
eggs, brown bread, cabbage, and cider. Sometimes they had succotash, a 
native dish of corn and beans boiled together in the milk. Hasty pudding, 
consisting of the boiled meal of maize or rye, and eaten with molasses or 
milk, was a common dish. The spoons were pewter, the plates " wooden 
trenchers." Their sofa was the settle, their carpets clean white sand, their 
ceilings rough boards and rafters, and their parlor was at once kitchen, 
bedroom, and hall. Besides other household labor, the women did all the 
sewing, knitting, mending, spinning, cooking, and washing. Their toil 
was unremitting. Religious exercises, morning and evening, were never 
omitted. By eight o'clock the entire family were in bed. 

What a contrast does this simple, healthful, and laborious life of our 
ancestors present to that of most of their descendants ! 

To the Indians every part of the New England border was familiar 
ground. Many of them, before withdrawing to Canada, had lived in its 
vicinity, and had frequently visited the settlements to trade, and were thus 
well qualified to guide the French in their expeditions. Their motive was 
plunder, but it is doubtless true that some were governed by the remem- 
brance of injuries, and it is proverbial that "an Indian never forgets an 

The first blow was struck by the Indians at Cocheco, now Dover, New 
Hampshire, which, from its exposed situation at the lowest ford of the 
Piscataqua, had been in constant dread of attack. The inhabitants had 
become alarmed at the attitude of the Indians, but were quieted by Major 
Waldron, the officer in command, who laughed at their fears. There were 
here live garrison -houses strongly built, to which the people retired at 
night, but the watch had become careless. These were strongly fortified 
dwellings calculated to repel Indian attacks. 

At midnight the doors of four of these houses, including that of Major 
Waldron, were opened by some squaws, who had been permitted to lodge 
within them, and a large number of Indians rushed in, slaugh- 
tering all who resisted. Thirteen years before, Waldron had, 
by a stratagem, made prisoners of some four hundred Indians, more than 


half of whom were sold into slavery or executed at Boston. It was pro 
posed to these Indians to join the English in a training and have a sham 
tight. The evolutions were so arranged by the English that the Indians 
were surrounded and secured. This piece of treachery was not forgotten 
by the Indians. 

"Waklron, now eighty years old, shouting, " What now ? what now f 
seized his sword and defended himself with great resolution, but was at 
length struck down by a blow from a hatchet. lie was then dragged into 
his hall and placed in an arm-chair upon a table. He was a magistrate, 
and they mockingly cried out to him, "Judge Indians now! judge Indi- 
ans now !" 

Pie had the reputation of having taken advantage of the natives in 
trade, and in buying beaver of them, his list, placed in the opposite scale, 
was accounted as weighing only a pound. After eating supper they began 
to torture him. Some who were in debt to him gashed him with their 
knives, saying, "I cross out my account,"' while others cut off the joints 
of his fingers, and said to him, kk Xow will your fist weigh a pound?" 
Finally, to end his misery, as he was sinking from loss of blood, they placed 
his sword so that he fell upon it. After burning the house, with the oth- 
ers near it, and having killed twenty-three persons, the Indians withdrew, 
taking with them to Canada twenty-nine captives. Some of these prison- 
ers were sold to the French the first instance, it is believed, of English 
captives being thus disposed of. Two months later another part of Dover, 
called Oyster Bay, now Durham, was attacked, and eighteen men killed 
while at work in the fields. 

Count Frontenac, then in his seventieth year, had been recalled to the 

government of Canada. One of his first acts was to fit out and send three 

expeditions against the English settlements. One, from Mont- 

October, 1 680. 

real, was to strike Albany ; another, from Iliree Rivers, was 
to assail the Xew Hampshire border; and the third, from Quebec, was 
directed to the frontier of Maine. 

The expedition designed for Albany consisted of two hundred French 
and Indians, under De Mantet and De St. Helene. They began their 
march in midwinter upon snow-shoes, carrying their packs upon their 
shoulders, and dragging their blankets and provisions over the snow on 
Indian sledges. Fearing that Albany was too strong for them, the Indi- 
ans could not be persuaded to attack it, and Schenectady, a fortified town 
twenty miles from Albany, was selected instead. The weather was severe 
and the snow was deep, and the invaders suffered severely during the 
march, which took twenty-two days, So exhausted were they with cold, 

\ N^aay^T"^^ /(_r 

'' -"- ' '' 'xt 



fatigue, and hunger before reaching the place, that some of them after- 
wards declared that they would have surrendered had they encountered 
serious opposition. 

A scout having ascertained that the town was in a profound slumber 
and without a guard, the spirits of the party were greatly raised. The 
town was left thus unguarded because the severity of the weather was 
supposed to be a sufficient security. As if in derision of possible danger, 
two snow images, it is said, stood as mock sentinels at the gate. 
At midnight the assailants entered the open and undefended 
gate, divided into parties of six or seven, waylaid the doors of each house, 
and then raised the terrible warwhoop. 

Feb. 8, 1690. 


Massacre and pillage now held high carnival. Barbarities too shocking 
to relate were perpetrated. In two hours upward of eighty well-built 
and well-furnished houses were burned, two only escaping the flames, and 
sixty persons were put to death. Forty of the inhabitants were carried 
into captivity. About sixty women, children, and old men were spared, 
out of regard for Glen, the chief magistrate, whose former kindness to 


French prisoners was now reciprocated. On their return to Montreal the 
party was pursued, and a number killed or raptured. 

Intelligence of this shocking event was borne to Albany by some of 
tin- poor fugitives who, \virh no other covering than their night-clothes, 
and during a fall of sno\v. made their way to that place, some of them 
badly frost-bitten. 

The second party, under Ilertel de Rouville, an experienced officer, at- 
tacked at daylight the village of Salmon Falls, on the Piscataqua. Here 
was a fortified house, with two stockade forts, for the protection 
' of the inhabitants. The three parties into which Ilertel had 
divided his command made a sudden and simultaneous attack. No watch 
had been kept, and the surprise was complete and the resistance brief. 
Soon the scattered dwellings and barns were in ashes. Thirty persons, of 
all ages and sexes, were tomahawked or shot, and fifty-four, mostly women 
and children, were carried into captivity. Ilertel was pursued and over- 
taken by a large party of English at Wooster River, but succeeded in hold- 
ing the narrow bridge that crossed it until dark, when he continued his 

On the way, Ilertel met the third party under Portneuf, who had also 
been joined by the Baron de St. Castin and some Kennebec Indians, swell- 
ing his forces to the number of four or five hundred. Together they at- 
tacked the fort and settlement at Casco Bay. Fort Loyal, a palisade work 
having eight cannon, stood at what is now the foot of India Street, Port- 
land. The fort having been undermined, it was surrendered 

May 28. < -vr 

on the fourth day upon the promise of protection. JNo sooner, 
however, had the garrison laid down their arms, than the women and chil- 
dren and wounded were all murdered in cold blood. The commander and 
four others only were spared. Scarcely had they surrendered when four 
vessels, sent to their relief from Boston, appeared in the offing just too 
late. This successful raid greatly elated the French, who had not yet re- 
covered from the effects of the blow struck at Montreal by the Iroquois in 
the previous year. 

When Davis, the commander at Fort Loyal, reached Quebec, he told 
Frontenac of the pledge given by his captor, and of the violation of it. 
" We were promised good quarter," said he, " and a guard to conduct us 
to our English. I thought I had to do with Christians who would have 
been careful of their engagements, and not to violate and break their 
oaths. Whereupon," continues Davis, "the Governor shaked his head, 
and, as I was told, was very angry with Burniffe" (Portneuf). 

After these exploits a grand council was held at Quebec by the West- 



ern Indians who came to trade. Frontenac himself took part in this, and 
brandishing a hatchet, sung the war-song and led the dance, whooping and 
yelling with the rest. The other Frenchmen present followed his exam- 
ple. This excited the enthusiasm of the Indians, who snatched the prof- 
fered hatchet and promised to make war on the English and Iroquois 
to the death. 

iiivrco , fivaMautfL, . 

f^[T STANW/X / \ f\-&- \ 

f' SC/IUYLCH i ^^,^4M^ A 


Aug. 10, 1091. 

Major Peter Schuyler, with a force of two hundred and sixty-seven 
men, of whom the larger part were Iroquois, marching from Albany, had 
surprised a French camp at La Prairie, opposite Montreal, 
driving them into their fort with considerable loss. Informed 
of Sclmyler's approach, Yalrenne, a Canadian officer, was sent to intercept 
him on his retreat. Placing himself upon the path by which Schuyler 
was retreating, the advanced parties of each met, and their warwhoops 
sounded the alarm. 

Yalrenne had posted his men to great advantage behind some fallen 
trees and thickets, on a ridge, barring the way of the English. The Eng- 
lish made repeated charges, and the combatants on either side became in 



termingled. The fight was long and stubborn, but the English at length 
broke through their foes, and forming again, attacked and finally drove 
them back. After the French had retreated, Schuyler and his men con- 
tinued their march, carrying away 
their wounded, but losing their 

York, one of the most important 
towns in the eastern country, was 
laid in ashes by a party of Abena- 
kis from the Penobscot 

Feb. 6, 1692. 

and the Kennebec. Hie 
village was a collection of scattered 
houses, along the banks of the river 
Agamenticus and the adjacent sea- 
shore. Some of them were built 
for defence. Snow fell as the par- 
ty moved forward. Coming upon a 
boy chopping wood, they took him, 
and after getting what information 
they could from him tomahawked 
him. At the edge of the village 
they divided into two parties. The 
warwhoop was sounded at a given 
signal, and the savages burst into 
the houses and slaughtered or captured all their inmates. Rev. Samuel 
Dummer, the minister, was shot as he was mounting his horse at his own 
door. His wife died in captivity. The few who escaped made for the 
fortified houses, which were not attacked by the Indians. The women 
and children were allowed to go free, in return, it is said, for the release 
some time before of some captive Indian children. One of the Indians 
arrayed himself in the gown of the slain minister, and preached a mock 
sermon to his captured parishioners. Two fortified houses of this period 
are yet standing at York. The Indian leader on this occasion was Madok- 
awando, chief of the Penobscots. 

This same chief soon afterwards attacked the garrison at Wells, Maine. 
With him were some Frenchmen, under Portneuf, St. Castin, and La 
Brognerie. So confident were the leaders of success, that before the at- 
tack they arranged the details of the division of the provisions and proper- 
ty of the garrison. Convers, the English commander, occupying the 
larger of the five fortified houses in the place, had but fifteen men with 



whom to defend it. Fortunately, two sloops, with supplies and a few men, 
arrived on the day before the attack. Forewarned of the enemy's ap- 
proach, the inhabitants had fled to the forts. 

The attack began fiercely, before daylight. The enemy, five hundred 
strong, fired from behind breastworks of timber filled with hay. Convers, 
however, had two or three twelve-pound cannon, which were 

IT . . -Tniie 22, 1692. 

well served, the men loading and pointing them, and the 
women, who brought ammunition, lighting the fuse. Many stratagems 
were tried, and the sloops were several times set on fire by burning arrows ; 
but b} the coolness and bravery of the crews the flames were easily sub- 
dued. A fire -raft was then floated down upon them, and destruction 
seemed inevitable. Providentially, when close upon them, the wind drove 
it on shore. 

Next the besiegers made a huge shield of planks, which they fastened 
to the back of a cart. La Brognerie, with twenty-six men, got behind it, 
and shoved the cart towards the stranded sloops. It was within fifty feet 
of them when a wheel sunk in the mud and it stuck fast. La Brognerie 
tried to extricate it and was shot dead. The rest ran, and some of them 
dropped under the fire of the sailors. 

Becoming discouraged, the assailants thei. tried persuasion upon the 
English commander. Instead of boldly attacking and overwhelming the 
small force opposed to them, the Indians leaped, yelled, and fired, and 
called on the English to yield. Failing to convince Convers of the neces- 
sity for surrender, a flag was sent as a last resource, with a summons for 
him to capitulate. To this Convers replied, " I want nothing but men to 
come and fio;lit me." 


"As you are so stout," said the bearer of the flag, "why don't you 
come and fight in the open field like a man, and not in a garrison like a 
squaw?" The taunt was followed by a threat: "We will cut you as 
small as tobacco before to-morrow morning." " Come on," said Convers, 
not at all frightened, " I want work." 

After a two days' siege, and the expenditure of their ammunition, the 
enemv withdrew. A handful of determined men had rendered abortive 


one of the most formidable expeditions that had yet been undertaken. 

A war party of Abenakis, headed by Villieu, a French officer, and the 
priest Thury, struck the settlement at Oyster River, now Durham, about 
twelve miles from Portsmouth. New Hampshire. The people 

July, 1C94. 

had been assured that the war was over, and no watch was 

kept. Approaching by moonlight in numerous small bands, the slaughter 

was frightful. One hundred and four persons, principally women and 



children, were victims. Some escaped to the fortified houses or to the, 
woods. The devastation extended six or seven miles. The church, 
strangely enough, was spared, while the other houses were de>troved. One 
of the evil results of this shocking affair was that it helped the French 
by putting an end to the negotiations for peace with their Indian allies, 
which the English had nearly concluded. 

Seven of the twelve fortified houses at Oyster Iliver were successfully 
defended. One of these was saved by an ingenious stratagem of its owner, 
Thomas Bickford. Sending his wife and children down the river in a 
boat, he went back alone to defend his dwelling. "When the Indians ap- 
proached, he fired on them, sometimes from one loop-hole and sometimes 
from another, shouting the word of command to an imaginary garrison, 
and showing himself at different places, each time with a different hat, cap, 
or coat. Thus he saved both his family and home. 

Aug. 14, 1C9C. 


The new fort at Pemaquid was attacked by a strong force of French 
and Indians, under Iberville and the Baron de St. Castin. The fort, though 
well manned and supplied, had no casemates to protect its de- 
fenders from the explosion of bombs. Chubb, its commander, 
when summoned to surrender, replied that he would not give up the fort 
k 'if the sea were covered with French ships and the land with Indians." 
A few bomb-shells, and a notification that if the fort had to be carried by 
assault the garrison would get no quarter from the Indians, caused Chubb 
to sound a parley, and he surrendered on condition that he and his men 
should be protected from the Indians, and sent to Boston to be exchanged. 
Meanwhile, Iberville sent them to an island in the bay, out of reach of the 
Indians. Chubb was arrested for cowardice, and kept awhile in Boston 

This officer had been guilty of a foul piece of treachery towards the 




Indians. While holding a conference with some of the Penobscots respect- 
ing an exchange of prisoners, he plied them with strong drink, and while 
they were intoxicated ordered his soldiers to fall upon them. Several 
were slain, including two chiefs. After his release from prison he returned 
to his home in Andover, but Indian vengeance followed him, and the next 
year he was killed by a party of savages. 

A personage of considerable importance among the Abenakis at this 
time was the Baron Jean Vincent de St. Castin, a French nobleman who 
had resided twenty years among them, and who had married a daughter 
of the chief Madokawando. He had been an officer of the regiment of 
Carignan, in Canada, and when disbanded remained in the country. He 
established a trading-house and residence on the Penobscot, at a place 
now bearing his name. Living among the Indians, acquiring their lan- 
guage, and adopting their customs, lie was highly regarded by them, and 
was made their great chief. His influence over them made him an object 
of dread to the people of Xew England. 

Castin led two hundred Indians at the capture of Pemaquid, and was 
wounded at Port Royal in 1707. Having acquired a fortune by trade 
with the natives, he finally returned to France, and there ended his days. 

An incident of this war, exhibiting the wonderful heroism of a w r oman, 
is too remarkable to be passed over in silence. 

Early in the morning of March 15, 1697, when the war which had 
lasted ten years was nearly over, a party of Indians swooped suddenly 
down upon Haverhill, a little village on the Merrimac, about thirty-two 
miles from Boston. As the number of the band was small, its attack was 
swift, and its disappearance was equally rapid. 

Upon the outskirts of the town stood the house of Thomas Duston, 
one of eight that were singled out for attack. Mr. Duston was at work 


at the time at some distance from his house, but on discovering the ap 
proach of the Indians at once regained it, having only time to direct the 
flight of his children, seven in number, the youngest being two years old, 
when the Indians were upon them. 

" Run for your lives!" shouted the father; and the little flock hastily 
left their home and ran towards the nearest fortified house. 

Mrs. Duston was ill in bed, and the husband was compelled to leave 
her to her fate. Mounting his horse, he soon overtook the children about 
forty rods from the house, and urged them forward. 

His first thought had been to take up one of them and escape with it. 
Feeling it impossible to choose one from among them, he put himself 
between them and the pursuing Indians, faced about, and aiming his gun 
at the savages, succeeded in keeping them at bay until the fugitives 
reached a place of safety, when the Indians gave up the chase. 

Meantime, some of the band had entered the house and driven the 
sick woman from her bed. They then pillaged the dwelling and set it 
on fire. Ill as she was, Mrs. Duston was compelled to march. Mrs. Neff, 
her nurse, attempted to escape with the infant child of Mrs. Duston, but 
was taken, and the infant's brains dashed out against an apple-tree. In 
this raid twenty-seven persons were killed and thirteen carried into cap- 

After travelling one hundred and fifty miles the band separated, di- 
viding the captives. Mrs. Duston, Mrs. J^eff, and Samuel Leonardson, 
a boy, fell to the lot of an Indian family consisting of twelve persons. 
The prisoners were kindly treated, but were told that on arriving at their 
village they would, according to Indian custom, be stripped and com- 
pelled to run the gauntlet. This news inspired Mrs. Duston with a des- 
perate resolution. She determined, if possible, to escape, and consulted 
with her companions as to how it could be done. 

They were now on an island at the mouth of the Contoocook River, 
about six miles above Concord, New Hampshire. 

" Show me how you scalp an enemy," said the boy, who in a former 
captivity had gained some knowledge of their language, to one of his 
captors. Without mistrusting the motive of the inquiry, the Indian ex- 
plained to him the manner in which it was done. 

That night, when the Indians were sound asleep, the three captives 
noiselessly arose, grasped the tomahawks of the warriors, assigned to one 
another the work each was to do, and so effectively did they deal their 
blows that but one of those they designed to kill escaped, and that one 
was a woman. A boy whom they did not wish to harm was also allowed 


his liberty. Mrs. Duston killed her captor, and the boy slew the Indian 
who had taught him how to scalp and where to deal the deadly blow. 

Filling a boat with provisions and arms, they proceeded down the 
Merrimac to their home, where the ten scalps and the arms they had 
secured afforded ample evidence of the truth of their wonderful story. 
The country was filled with amazement at the exploit of these women. 
The General Court gave them a reward of 50, and other gratuities were 
showered upon them. A monument at the mouth of the Contoocook 
River perpetuates the fame of this achievement, one of the most remark- 
able in Indian history. 

Exeter, New Hampshire, owed its preservation from destruction to an 
accident, A party of concealed Indians were intending to fall upon it at 
daybreak on the following; morning. Some women and chil- 

J June 10, 1697. 

dren, in the afternoon, went into the adjacent fields to gather 
strawberries. They had been warned of the danger from Indians, but 
could not be prevented. Some one in the town fired alarm-guns to scare 
them back. This caused a muster of the men, and the Indians, supposing 
themselves discovered, hastily decamped. 

Although a treaty of peace had been made at Ryswick between France 
and England, there was no cessation of murder and devastation in New 
England. At Lancaster twenty or thirty of the inhabitants, ^ ^ 
with their minister, were massacred. Several houses were 

January, 1699. 

burned, and a number of persons were put to death in An- 
dover. A treaty was at length concluded with the Indians at Pejepscot, 
on the Kennebec, and the war of ten years was closed for a brief period. 
During its continuance the north-eastern tribes had taken and destroyed 
all the settlements in Maine, with three exceptions, killed more than seven 
hundred persons, and carried off two hundred and fifty captives, many of 
whom never returned. 

Very soon another war broke out between England and France Queen 
Anne's War, as it was commonly called. In America it involved South 
Carolina,, bordering on Spanish Florida, and New England, ^ ^ ^ 
which had Canada on its northern frontier. It was closed by 
the peace of Utrecht in 1713. At the south it resulted in the extension 
of the English boundary ; at the north its history is a chapter of horrors, 
with no other result than to add largely to the sum of human misery. 

Governor Dudley, of Massachusetts, held a conference at Casco with 
the Abenakis, who made strong professions of friendliness. 
One of the chiefs said: "The clouds fly and darken, but we 
still sing with love the songs of peace. Believe my words : so far as the 


sun is above the earth are our thoughts from war 01 the least rupture 
between us." 

Notwithstanding all their assurances, within six weeks the whole coun- 
try from Casco to Wells was in a flame, and another terrible ten years 5 
war begun. Parties of French and Indians spread havoc through the 
feeble settlements, sparing neither old nor young. Wells, "Winter Harbor, 
and Spurwink were among the towns destroyed. The whole of the ex- 
posed northern border of Massachusetts, from Casco Bay to the Connecti- 
cut River, was watched from hiding-places offering every facility for sud- 
den invasion and safe retreat. For this reason little impression could be 
made upon the Indians, as they could rarely be found. De Yaudreuil, 
Governor of Canada, succeeded in keeping the Iroquois neutral. Between 
the Abenakis and the French a close friendship already existed. 

Deerfield, a palisaded village on the Connecticut, enclosing twenty 
acres, had a garrison of twenty soldiers quartered in different houses. The 
town was still suffering from the ravages of the previous war. A party 
of two hundred French and one hundred and forty-two Indians, on snow- 
shoes, under the lead of Hertel de Rouville, made their way from Canada, 
reaching its vicinity on the last night of February, 1704. The drifted 
snow enabled them to enter the town over the pickets early next morning, 
and the sentinels having deserted their posts, the terrible warwhoop was 
the first notice the doomed villagers received of their approach. The torch 
was applied, and only the church and one dwelling-house escaped. Death or 
captivity was the lot of the inhabitants, one hundred and twelve of whom, 
including Rev. John Williams, the minister, and his family, were carried 
to Canada. 

Mr. Williams, who, after his return home, published a narrative of this 
tragedy, tells us that he was roused from sleep by the sound of axes and 
hatchets plied against his doors and windows. Leaping from his bed, he 
seized his arms, and put a pistol to the breast of the first Indian who came 
up; but it missed fire, and he was seized and bound. He and his family 
were allowed to put on some clothing, and, " the sun about an hour high," 
they began their march, the snow being knee-deep. His wife, having re- 
cently become a mother, was feeble, and on the second day she fell from 
weariness, and was tomahawked. 

During the march his life was often threatened. Nineteen of his fel- 
low-prisoners were murdered and two starved to death by the way. " And 
yet," says the narrator, " God made the Indians so to pity our children 
that, though they had several of their own wounded to carry upon thrir 
shoulders for thirty miles before they came to the river, yet they carried 



our children, incapable of travelling, in their arms and upon their shoul- 

"Williams' s feet were "so full of pain" he could scarce stand upon 
them, but was forced to travel in snow-shoes twenty-five miles a day and 
sometimes more. The party were eight weeks reaching Montreal, where 
the governor took him from the Indians and treated him kindly. After a 
captivity of two years and a half he was exchanged, and with fifty-seven 
other prisoners, two of whom were his children, he returned home. 

Eunice, his youngest daughter, was adopted by the Indians, who re- 
fused to ransom her, and she became the wife of a Caughnawaga chief. 
Long afterwards she visited her friends in Deerfield in her Indian dress, 
and, notwithstanding a day of fasting and prayer by the whole village for 
her deliverance, she returned to her Indian home and her Mohawk chil- 


On Lake St. Louis, near Montreal, the Indian village of Caughnawaga 
(St. Regis), with its wretched log-houses, clusters round a fine stone church 
with a glittering tin roof. The early Jesuits induced the Indians to collect 
furs, which they sent to France in exchange for a church-bell. The return 
ship was captured by the English, and the bell was sent to Deerfield, Mas- 

"When the Caughnawagas heard where their bell had gone, they deter- 


mined to obtain possession of it. They took part in llertel's expedition 
on condition that Deerfield should be the first place attacked. When in 
the midst of the massacre the tones of the bell sounded, they knelt in 
superstitions awe. Then, with shouts of victory, they bore it on poles 
through the forests, while it tolled with doleful sound. Exhausted with 
the terrible march in midwinter, they buried it at Burlington, Vermont. 
Next summer they dug it up, and it was borne into their village in tri- 
umph between two white oxen. 

One house in Deerfield escaped destruction and stood until within 
a few years, the marks of the Indian bullets being still visible. It was 
courageously defended by seven men, who fired from the windows upon 
the enemy, the women with them running bullets and loading their guns. 
Several times the enemy tried to set fire to the house, but failed. Cap- 
tain Stoddard, watching his opportunity, sprang from a window and made 
his way to Hatfield, giving the alarm. Soon the settlers were in pursuit, 
and gave De Rouville battle, but were forced to retreat. 

Massachusetts and New Hampshire now offered a reward of 20 for 

every Indian captured, and 40 for each scalp. Evidently they thought 

one dead Indian worth two living ones. The old Indian 

fighter Church, prominent thirty years before in Philip's war, 

at the head of five hundred and fifty men, carried destruction through 

all the French settlements east of the Penobscot, but effected nothing of 


An attack on a garrison-house at Oyster River was repelled in a sin- 
milar manner. It happened at the moment to be occupied 

Aug. 27, 1T06. , i -i -I . -I 

only by women. k I hey put on hats, letting their hair hang 
down, and fired so briskly that they struck a terror into the enemy, and 
they withdrew." 

A formidable inroad upon the English settlements was planned by the 
French at Montreal in 1TOS, who fixed upon Lake Winnipiseogee as the 
place of rendezvous for their Indian allies. A few only came at the 
appointed time. The expedition was led by Des Chaillons, 
who attacked llaverhill, Massachusetts, in the night, burned 
the fort and many dwellings, and killed or captured about one hundred 
persons, including Rev. Benjamin Rolfe, the minister, his wife and child. 
A few brave men, led by Samuel Ayer, rallied a short distance from the 
town, formed an ambush, and by a vigorous attack succeeded in rescuing 
a number of the prisoners and inilicted some loss on the enemy. Ayer 
lost his life in this daring attempt. 

Haverhill was at this time a cluster of thirty cottages and log cabins 


near the Merrimac. In its centre stood the new meeting-house. On ttie 
north the unbroken wilderness stretched far away to the White Moun- 

The Indian leader on this occasion was Assacambuit. He had visited 
France in 1706, and having been knighted by Lonis XIV., on his return 
wore the insignia of his rank upon his breast. He was also presented 
with a sword for his services. A famous club which he always carried 
had on it at this time ninety-eight notches, denoting the number of Eng- 
lish he had slain. 

It was estimated that one-third of the English population of Maine 
had fallen in this disastrous war. Some families had become extinct, 
others mourned the loss or captivity of parents, children, or husbands. 
The country was reduced to poverty, trade was ruined, houses burned, 
and fields devastated. A hundred miles of sea-coast, lately the scene of 
prosperity, was now a complete desert. There was one year of this war 
when one-fifth part of all capable of bearing arms were in active service. 
No wonder if the cruelties of the savage enemy inspired our fathers with 
a deep hatred of the French missionaries who instigated them, and even 
made them desire the extermination of the natives. 

The treaty of Utrecht surrendered to England Acadia (New Bruns- 
wick and Nova Scotia). New England fishermen and traders at once 
pushed their enterprises over the ceded territory, revived the 

.,, , i . i April 11, 1713. 

villages that had been desolated by the war, and laid on the 
east bank of the Kennebec the foundations of new settlements, and pro- 
tected them by forts. 

But the tribe of Abenakis inhabiting this region had prior claims 
of ownership, which they resolved not to abandon. "I have my land," 
said their chief, " where the Great Spirit placed me, and while one of 
my tribe remains I shall fight to preserve it." Several chiefs had been 
treacherously seized by the New England government and kept as host- 
ages. Though their ransom had been paid, they had not been set free. 
The Abenakis demanded that their territory should be evacuated and their 
chiefs liberated, or war would follow. This tribe formed the barrier of 
Canada against New England, as did the Iroquois chat of New York 
against Canada. 

The answer to this demand was the seizure of the young Baron St. 
Castin, who, besides holding a French commission, was an Indian chief, 
and an expedition against Norridgewock, a village of the Abenakis, on 
the banks of the Kennebec, and the head-quarters of hostile Indiana 


Here dwelt Sebastian Rasle, a French priest, who was thought by the 
English to be the instigator of the depreciations of these Indians whose 
war parties prowled ceaselessly along the frontier, murdering and captur- 
ing the defenceless settlers and destroying their homes. 

Rasle had erected a church in Norridgewock, and had adorned its 
walls with paintings from his own hand. Forty young savages had been 
trained by him, who, in cassock and surplice, assisted in the service and 
chanted the hymns of the church, and their public processions attracted 
great numbers of the red men. lie was kind to them, and they revered 

A reward was offered for the head of Basle by the Massachusetts 
government, and two unsuccessful expeditions were sent to capture him. 
No peace could be had until " this incendiary of mischief," for so he was 
regarded by the New England people, was " wiped out." 

This was at length accomplished by a party led by Colonel Moult on, 
who succeeded in reaching Norridgewock without being discovered. Di- 
viding his force, one party proceeded directly to the village, 
while the other intercepted such as attempted flight. His men 
were already among the wigwams, when an Indian came out of one of 

t/ d? d? 

them and gave the alarm. The old men, women, and children fled. The 
warriors, sixty in number, tried to make a stand. The English held their 
fire until the Indians had discharged their guns in a hurried and ineffective 
volley, and then fired with fatal effect. After their second discharge the 
Indians fled to the river, which was about sixty feet wide. Some were 
shot while endeavoring to swim across. 

Rasle tried to shield his flock, and succeeded in drawing the fury of the 
assailants upon himself. Pierced with bullets, he fell dead near the cross 
in the centre of the village where he had labored thirty-seven years. His 
church was plundered and burned to the ground, and a violent end was thus 
put to Jesuit missions and French influence in New England. Among the 
dead were Mogg and Bomazeen, two prominent chiefs of the Abenakis. 

"Of worthy Captain Lovewell I now propose to sing, 

How valiantly he served his country and his kin-;-." 

Old &iff. 

At this time the bounty for Indian scalps was 100. One of the most 

successful scalp - hunters of the day was John Lovewell, of Dunstabie. 

His father, who was one of Cromwell's soldiers, emigrated to 

IT ''5 

that place, and died there, it is said, at the great age of one 
hundred and twenty years. In March, 1725, Lovewell brought in ten 


scalps to the treasurer in Boston, received liis money, and was highly ap- 
plauded for his success. 

The business was profitable, and Lovewell easily enlisted a party for 
an expedition against the tribe of Pequawkets. Their village lay at the 
southern base of the White Mountains, on the Saco River, near what is 
now Frveburg, Maine. Their chief, Paugus, was well known in the white 
settlements, but the tribe had joined with the hostile Abenakis, and was 
supplied with powder and ball by the French at Montreal. 

It was a lovely morning in spring when Lovewell found himself in 
close proximity to the Indian village. Leaving their packs, his men moved 
cautiously forward. Suddenly they came upon an Indian, who 
fired, mortally wounding Lovewell, and was himself shot by 
Ensign "\Vyman. Had the English been prudent, they would now have 
made a hasty retreat, since their attempted surprise had failed, and they 
themselves had been discovered by a much more numerous enemy, but 
they were brave men, and no doubt hoped to win the large reward prom- 
ised them, so they kept on. 

On seeking for their packs, they found that the Indians had secured 
them. This was an important advantage to the red men, as it told them 
'ust how many, or rather how few, white men there were, and inspired 
them with confidence. Lovewell had passed their village, and they had 
followed, intercepting his retreat, and had placed themselves in ambush. 
When discovered, they had nearly surrounded his small party. All at 
once eighty Indians, yelling and whooping like demons, confronted them. 

The Indians advanced without firing, as if unwilling to begin the fight, 
and hoping, by their great superiority of numbers, that the English would 
yield without a battle. They thus threw away their chance for the first 
fire. They then held up ropes, which they had provided for securing 

" You shall have quarter," said the Indians. 

u At the muzzles of our guns, 1 ' was the reply of the English, as they 
rushed upon the enemy, firing as they advanced, and, killing several, drove 
them some rods. But the warriors soon rallied, and obliged the English 
in their turn to give ground, leaving nine dead and three wounded when 
the fight began twelve men out of the thirty - four with which they 

" Retreat to the pond !" shouted Wyman, who had succeeded Lovewell 

in command, to his men. They did so, and thus were protected on that 

side. Sheltering themselves as well as they could behind trees, the little 

>and resolved to fight to the last. The contest was long; and obstinate- 


The Indians kept up all kinds of hideous noises, sometimes howling like 
wolves, at others barking like dogs the English frequently shouting and 

The medicine-man of the tribe held a powwow, calling on the spirits 
for aid, but AVyman put an end to his mummery somewhat abruptly by 
sending a bullet through him. Finally, Paugus, their chief, fell ; they lost 
heart, and when .night came they stole away. The English had lost their 
captain, Lieutenant Robbins, and Chaplain Frye, and four were so badly 
wounded that they could not be removed. The survivors, sixteen in num- 
ber, only nine of whom were unwounded, faint and weary, marched twenty 
miles that night to Ossipee, only to find the place abandoned by the men 
left there in charge of the supplies they so greatly needed. They were 
three clays reaching home, which they at length succeeded in doing after 
severe toil and privation. 

Tradition says that one of the rangers, while at the pond, cleaning his 
gun, which had become foul, discovered Paugus at a little distance sim- 
ilarly engaged. Both loaded their pieces, and dropped their ramrods upon 
the ground at the same moment, Paugus exclaiming, 

" Me kill you quick !" 

"Maybe not," was the ranger's cool reply. Those were the days of 
flintlocks, and while the Indian was priming his gun from his powder- 
horn, a precious moment was gained by the ranger, who primed his by a 
smart blow of the butt on the ground. Just as the chief raised his gun to 
take aim, he received his adversary's bullet, and fell dead. 

One of the old ballads on " Lovewell's Fight," familiar to the past gen- 
eration, refers to "Wyman as the slayer of Paugus. Another, from which 
I quote, awards the honor to a different man. Here is a stanza 

"Twas Paugus led the Pequawket tribe; 

As runs the fox, would Paugus run ; 
As howls the wild wolf would he howL 

A huge bear-skin had Paugus on, 
But Chamberlain of Dunstable, 

ODC whom a savage ne'er shall slay, 
Met Paugus by the water-side 

And shot him dead upon that day." 

Of the slain chaplain, Jonathan Frye of Andover, the old song says 

"A man was he of comely form, 

Polished and brave, well learned and kind; 
Old Harvard's classic halls he left, 
Far in the wild a grave to find." 


The escape of one of the men wounded in this fight was almost miracu- 
ious. Solomon Keyes, having been three times wounded, hid himself so 
that he might die where the Indians could not find him. As he crawled 
along the shore of the pond, some distance from the scene of action, he 
found a canoe into which he rolled himself, and was drifted away by the 
wind. To his great astonishment he was cast ashore at no great distance 
from the fort at Ossipee, which he succeeded in reaching. There he 
found several of his companions, and, gaining strength, returned home 
with them. The little lake which was the scene of the action is now 
called Lovewell's Pond. 

"We turn once more to the old ballad 

"With footsteps slow shall travellers go 

Where Lovewell's Pond shines clear and bright, 
And mark the place where those were laid 
Who fell iu Lovewell's bloody fight." 

In November following this occurrence four Abenaki chiefs made a 
treaty at Boston, promising to maintain peace and to deliver up their 
prisoners. The treaty was faithfully kept, and the eastern colonies had a 
season of rest from the horrors of Indian warfare. The remainder of the 
Pequawkets, together with the Androscoggins, soon afterwards withdrew 
to the sources of the Connecticut River, and finally settled in Canada. 

The war of the Austrian Succession not only set all Europe aflame, 
but it also again put in motion the Indian tomahawk and scalping-knife to 
do their terrible work upon the outlying settlements of New 
England. The news reached Canada much sooner than New 
England, where the arrival at Boston of prisoners captured by the French 
at Casco was the first intimation that war had begun. Hostilities in the 
East, the commencement of a long catalogue of horrors, began 

, , -*r . + June IT, 1145. 

m the summer near I 1 ort George, now Thomaston, Maine. In 

America the principal event of the war was the capture by New England 

troops of the strong fortress of Louisburg. 

Number Four, now Charlestown, New Hampshire, was the most promi- 
nent and the most exposed of the posts in northern New England, as 

it stood directly in the way of Indian inroads to the settle- 
June 19, 1746. 

ments below. It had been several times attacked, but always 
without success. On one occasion Captain Stevens, its commander, with 
fifty men armed as usual, was in the field at work. He sent his dogs into 
the woods as scouts. They soon came back growling, and with their hair 



on end. The woods were full of Indians. One of his men catching sight 
of one fired on him, and the battle begun. Stevens's men took to the 
trees. They drove the Indians into a swamp, after killing twelve of them, 
and put the others to flight. Hatchets and blankets were left behind in 
their haste. Stevens had seven men wounded. 

Another and more determined effort was made for its capture in the 
following year by a force of more than four hundred French and Indians. 

Every effort that Indian subtlety and French skill could de- 
April 4, 1747. . . . 

vise proved fruitless against its brave defenders, and after a 
three days' siege they withdrew discomfited. In the following letter to 
Governor Shirley, Stevens in his own way describes the affair. He says: 

t> / 

" Our dogs being very much dis- 
turbed, which gave us reason to think 
the enemy was about, we did not open 
the gate at the usual time ; but one of 
our men ventured out privately to set 
on the dogs about nine o'clock in the 
morning, and when about twenty rods 
from the fort fired off his gun, where- 
upon the enemy, being within a few 
rods, rose from their cover and fired ; 
but through the goodness of God the 
man got into the fort with only a slight 

" They then attacked us on all sides. 
The wind being high, and everything exceedingly dry, they set fire to the 
fences, and also to a log-house about forty rods distant, so that within a 
few minutes we were entirely surrounded with fire all which was per- 
formed with the most hideous shouting and firing from all quarters, 
which they continued in a very terrible manner until the next day, at 
ten o'clock at night, without intermission, during which time we had no 
opportunity either to eat or sleep. I had trenches dug from under the 
fort, about a yard outward in several places, at so near a distance to each 
other as by throwing water we might put out the fire. 

" But notwithstanding all their shoutings and threatenings our men 
seemed not in the least daunted, but fought with great resolution, which 
doubtless gave the enemy reason to think we had determined to stand it 
out to the last. The enemy had provided themselves with a sort of forti- 
fication which they had determined to push before them, and bring fuel 
to the side of the fort in order to burn it ; but instead of performing what 



they had threatened, they called to us, and asked a cessation of arms until 
sunrise next morning, at which time they would come to a parley. Ac- 
cordingly, the French general, Debeline, came, with about sixty of his 
men, with a flag of truce, and stuck it down within about twenty rods 
of the fort. 

a Upon our men going to meet the monsieur, he proposed that in case 
we would immediately resign up the fort we should have all our lives, and 
liberty to put on all the clothes we had ; and also a sufficient quantity of 
provisions to carry us to Montreal; and we might bind up our provisions 
and blankets, lay down our arms, and march out of the fort. He desired 
that the captain of the fort would meet him half-way, and give an answer 
to the above proposal, which I did ; but without waiting to hear it, he 
went on to say that what had been promised he was ready to perform, 
but upon refusal he would immediately set the fort on fire, and run over 
the top, for he had seven hundred men with him ; and if we made any 
further resistance, or should happen to kill one Indian, we might all ex- 
pect to be put to the sword. 

'"The fort,' said Debeline, 'I am resolved to have or die; now do 
what you please, for I am as ready to have you tight as give it up.' 

" 1 told the general that in case of extremity his proposal would do, 
but, inasmuch as I was sent here by the captain-general tc defend this 
fort, it would not be consistent with my orders to give it up unless I was 
better satisfied that he was able to perform what he had threatened ; and, 
furthermore, I told him that it was poor encouragement to resign into the 
hands of an enemy, that upon one of their number being killed they 
would put all to the sword, when it was probable that we had killed some 
of them already. 

" ' Well,' said he, ' go into the fort and see whether your men dare 
fight any more or not, and give me an answer quick, for my men want 
to be fighting.' 

" Whereupon I came into the fort and called the men together, and 
informed them what the French officer said, and then put it to vote which 
they chose, either to fight or resign, and they voted to a man to stand it 
out as long as they had life. I returned this answer, upon which the 
enemy gave a shout, and then fired, and so continued firing and shouting 
until daylight next morning. 

" About noon they called to us and said, ' Good-morning,' and desired 
another parley. Two Indians came within about two rods of the fort 
and stuck down their flag, proposing that if I would send them provi- 
sions they would leave and not fight any more. I answered that if they 


would send in a captive for every five bushels of corn 1 would supply 
them. After this they withdrew, and we heard no more of them. In 
all this time we had scarce opportunity to eat or sleep. There were but 
thirty men in the fort, but two of whom were wounded, and those 

This letter exhibits the modesty of Stevens, which is in striking con- 
trast with the braggadocio of the French commander. 

Phineas Stevens, the hero of Number Four, was a native of Sudbury, 
Massachusetts. At the age of sixteen he, with three younger brothers, was 
taken by the Indians, who slew two of them, and were about to kill the 
youngest, then but four years of age. Phineas succeeded, however, in 
making the savages understand that if they would spare the life of his 
little brother he would carry him on his back. He conveyed him in this 
manner all the way to Canada, whence they were eventually returned. 
In 17:16, when Number Four w T as abandoned by its inhabitants, he was 
ordered to occupy the fort, a small structure of timber with a garrison of 
thirty men. For his gallant defence of the fort he was presented with an 
elegant silver -hilted sword by Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, for whom 
Number Four was afterwards named Charlestown. 

In January, 1747, Colonel Arthur Noble, with seven hundred men, 
undertook to drive the French and Indians out of Nova Scotia. While 
on ths way he was surprised in his camp by a superior force, and him- 
self, four of his principal officers, and seventy men were killed, and the 
remainder made prisoners. 

A severe conflict occurred in the following year, near Number Four, 

between a party of forty men, under Captain Hobbs, and a much larger 

body of Indians who had wavlaid them. Notwithstanding the 

June 26, 1748. . TT " . 

smallness of his force, Hobbs stood his ground, giving the en- 
emy a warm reception. For four hours the conflict continued, when, fort- 
unately, the English captain got a shot at their leader, whom he either 
killed or badly wounded, as the Indians immediately afterwards drew off. 
In .this well-fought contest the Indian loss exceeded that of the whites. 

Although the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed in October. 1748, 
it was not formally proclaimed in Boston until six months after, so slow 

was the means of communication between distant points at 

Oct. 14, 1749. . 

that time. \V ar parties from Canada continued to hover on 
the border as before, committing depredations, but early in 1749 the In- 
dians met in council and agreed to make peaceful overtures, and a treaty 
was finally concluded at Falmouth. 


THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-1760). 

THE treaties of Utrecht and of Aix-la-Chapelle had left the boundaries 
of the English and French possessions in North America wholly un- 
defined. Vast regions were claimed by both countries, but France, both 
by exploration and occupation, had been beforehand with her rival. The 
French claimed the immense territory west of the Alleghanies by the right 
of discovery ; the English also claimed it by virtue of a treaty with the 
Iroquois. As the latter never owned it, and as all the consideration paid 
was a little bad whiskey, their claim was of even less consequence than 
that of the French. 

Between these rival claimants for his lands, the Indian, their real 
owner, was entirely overlooked. " You and the French," said one of them 
to an Englishman, " are like the two edges of a pair of shears, and we are 
the cloth which is cut to pieces between them." Another of the puzzled 
natives, seeing that the French claimed all on one side of the Ohio, and 
the English all on the other side, in his amazement inquired, " Where 
then are the lands of the Indian ?" Between their " fathers," the French, 
and their "brothers," the English, the poor savages were unceremoniously 
"shared" out of the whole country. 

As yet there was not a single English settlement in all this region. 
Delawares, Shawnees, Mingoes, and a few Iroquois were found about the 
Ohio and its branches. With these a lucrative traffic was carried on by 
Pennsylvania traders, who exchanged blankets, gaudy-colored cloth, trin- 
kets, powder, shot, and rum for valuable furs and peltry. To participate in 
this trade, and to gain a foothold in this desirable region, the Ohio Com- 
pany was formed in 1749, and surveys and settlements begun. 

A skilfully distributed series of posts upon the lakes and streams be- 
tween her settlements in the valley of the St. Lawrence and the mouth of 
the Mississippi, secured the ascendency of France in the inte- 
rior of the country, and barred the way to English settlement. 
Missions and trading-houses were scattered at points favorable to trade and 


navigation, and Fort Frontenac, at the head of the St. Lawrence, Fort 
Frederick, at Crown Point, and a fort at Niagara covered the Canadian 
and menaced the English frontier. 

At Detroit the passage from Lake Erie to the north was guarded, and 
at St. Mary's hostile access to Lake Superior was barred. Michilimackinac 
secured the mouth of Lake Michigan, forts at Green Hay and St. Joseph 
protected the two routes to the Mississippi by the rivers Wisconsin and 
Illinois, while those on the Wabash and the Maumee gave France the con- 
trol of trade from Lake Erie to Ohio. French settlements were found at 
Kaskaskia and Cahokia, in Illinois, and a few small stockades were seen on 
the Mississippi. 

France had labored long and diligently to conciliate the Indians. Her 
agents had lived among them, studying their language, adopting their cus- 
toms, flattering their prejudices, and warning them against the English. 
When a party of chiefs visited a French, fort, they were received with the 
tiring of cannon and rolling of drums, were entertained at the tables of the 
officers, and presented with decorations, medals, and uniforms. Many of 
the French took to themselves Indian wives. From these unions sprung 
a race of half-breeds, who were of great service to the French. 

Perceiving; that their Indian trade was about to be wrested from 


them, and their communication between Canada and Louisiana broken, 
the French, in the spring of 1753, crossed Lake Erie and fortified Presque 
Isle (now Erie, Pennsylvania). Governor Dlnwiddie, of Virginia, at once 
sent a message to the intruders, requiring them to remove from British 

Dinwiddie's messenger was George Washington, then only twenty-one 
years of age, but already adjutant-general of the Virginia militia. As a 
surveyor he had learned something of frontier life and of the ways of the 

Among the many difficulties that the young envoy had to contend 
with while in the performance of his mission, there was one, he tells us, 
that caused him more anxiety than all the rest. Tanacharison, or the half- 
king, chief sachem of the Mingo-Iroquois, was friendly to the English, and 
with two other chiefs voluntarily accompanied Washington to the French 
commandant's quarters at Fort Le Bceuf, on French Creek (now Waterford, 


Here every blandishment and every artifice was practised upon these 
chiefs by the French officers to gain them over. Hum was not the least of 
these, and, the business of the mission accomplished, delay after delay took 
place in spite of Washington's frequent remonstrances. Gifts were also 

THE ''OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-1760). 


made to the chiefs, and at the last moment a present of guns was offered 
as an inducement for them to remain. Another precious day was lost, but 
next morning, when they had received their guns and were being plied 
with liquor, Washington reminded the half-king that his royal word was 
pledged to depart, and pressed him so closely that, exerting unwonted reso- 
lution and self-control, the chief turned his back upon the seductive fluid 
and embarked. 


While returning from this delicate and difficult mission, Washington 
had several narrow escapes. Once his treacherous Indian guide suddenly 
turned round, when about fifteen paces ahead, levelled his gun, and fireu 
at, but missed him. Pursuing and overtaking the savage, Gist, his com 
panion, would have put him to death, but Washington humanely prevented 
him. They then let him go, taking the precaution, however, to travel all 
that night to remove from so dangerous a locality. 


When they reached the Alleghany River, they constructed a raft^ and 
endeavored to cross the stream by propelling it with setting-poles. Soon 
the raft became jammed between cakes of floating ice, and tlicv were in 
imminent peril. Washington, bearing his whole force against the pole, 
endeavored to stay the raft, but the rapid current jerked him into deep 
water, and he only saved himself from being swept away and drowned by 
catching hold of the raft. This they w r ere obliged to abandon, and passed 
the night on an island, exposed to extreme cold. The hands and feet 
of Mr. Gist were frozen, but next morning they succeeded in passing 
over the ice, and before night were in comfortable quarters. 

Before reaching Williamsburg, where he delivered to Governor Din- 
widdie the reply of the French commandant declining to evacuate his 
post, Washington found an opportunity for the exercise of his talent for 

At the mouth of the Youghiogheny River dwelt a female sachem, 
Queen Aliquippa, whose sovereign dignity had been aggrieved because 
the party, while on their way to the Ohio, had neglected to pay their re- 
spects to her. Aware of the importance of conciliating the Indians at 
this critical period, Washington resolved to pay a ceremonious visit to this 
native princess. Her anger was readily appeased by the present of his old 
watch-coat, and her good graces were completely secured by a bottle of 
rum, which, he intimates, "appeared to be peculiarly acceptable to her 

Early in the following year Fort Duquesne was erected by the French, 
at the confluence of the Monongahela and the Alleghany, where Pitts- 
burg now stands. After a brief campaign for its recovery, 
the Virginia troops under Washington were obliged to with- 
draw from the disputed territory, and leave the French in full possession. 
At the close of the year, in the whole Mississippi valley no other standard 
floated but that of France. 

At the Congress held at Albany during this year, memorable for the 
plan of Benjamin Franklin for the union of the colonies, deputies from 
the Six Nations were present. There was much dissatisfaction among them, 
and the Indians boldly reproached the English with their inaction and the 
slowness of their preparations. "Look at the French," said a Mohawk 
chief. " They are men, they are fortifying everywhere ; it is but one step 
from Canada hither, and they may easily come and turn you out-of-doors." 

War having been determined upon, the French were to be attacked on 
all sides at once. Three armies raised in the provinces were to advance 
upon Acadia, Crown Point, and Niagara, while General Braddock, com- 

THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-17f>0). 



mander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, with two British 
regiments and a provincial force, was to dislodge the French from Fort 
Duquesne. The expedition intended for Niagara never reached its desti 
nation ; that for the expulsion of the French Neutrals from Acadia was 
successful. This event is the subject of Longfellow's beautiful poem, 



Braddock, who was to lead the expedition against Fort Duquesne, was 
not a fortunate selection. Though brave, he was arrogant, obstinate, and 
a bigot to military rules, and knew nothing of Indian warfare. He de- 
spised the colonial troops, because they had to some extent adopted the 
Indian mode of lighting. Worse than all, he could learn nothing. 

At Fredericktown, where he halted for carriages, Benjamin Franklin, 
who was a daily guest at the general's table, mentioned that the Indian.- 
were dexterous in planning and executing ambuscades, and that during his 
inarch his long, slender line would be exposed to flank attacks and be cut 
like a thread, the pieces of which would be too far apart to support each 
other. "He smiled at my ignorance," says Franklin, "and replied, 
' The savages may be formidable to your raw American militia ; upon the 
king's regular and disciplined troops it is impossible they should make 
any impression. After taking Fort Duquesne I am to proceed to Niagara, 
and, having taken that, to Frontenac. Duquesne can hardly detain me 
above three or four clays, and then I see nothing that can obstruct my 
march to Niagara.' : "With such blind confidence and fatal prejudice did 
Braddock delude himself throughout this eventful expedition. 

Braddock's forces numbered about two thousand, one-half of whom 
were provincials. Two companies of these from New York were under 

Captain Horatio Gates, after- 
wards the conqueror of Bur- 
goyne at Saratoga. Here also 
was the gallant Hugh Mercer, 
who afterwards fell gloriously 
at Princeton, and one of the 
wagons was owned and driven 
by Daniel Morgan, the famous 
leader of the rifle regiment dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War, and 
the victor at the Cowpens. 

Hewing their way through 
the wilderness with great diffi- 
culty, the advanced division of 
one thousand two hundred men 
were within seven 
miles of Fort Du- 
quesne at noon on the 9th of 
July. Washington, who was serving as an aide-de-camp to Braddock, 
often afterwards said, that " the finest spectacle he had ever beheld was 


THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-1760). 



the display of the British troops on 
this eventful morning." They were 
in full uniform and marched with 
bayonets fixed, colors flying, and 
drums and fifes beating and playing, 
in the most perfect order, not dream- 
ing of any obstacle to an easy con- 

A detachment of three hundred 
and fifty men, under Lieutenant-col- 
onel Thomas Gage, afterwards con- 
spicuous as the British Commander- 
in-chief at Boston, at the beginning 
of the Revolution, attended by a 
working party of two hundred and 
fifty, advanced cautiously towards 

the fort. There were no scouts or rangers in the advance, or on the 
flanks, to beat up the woods and ravines, but the army marched "as if 
in review in St. James's Park." 

Contrecceur, the French commandant, informed of the approach of 
Braddock with an overwhelming force, was about to abandon the fort, 
when Captain de Beaujeu proposed to head a party of French and Indi- 
ans, and waylay the English while on the march. The plan was adopted, 
and Beaujeirs party posted themselves in the woods and ravines in Brad 
dock's line of march towards the fort. 

It was one o'clock when Gage, with his advance guard, reached this 
locality. Suddenly a heavy volley was poured into his ranks from the 
dense woods in his front. No enemy was to be seen, but the soldiers 
were more dismayed by the yells than by the rifles of the concealed sav- 
ages. They fired in return, but at random, while the enemy, from behind 
trees and rocks and thickets, kept up their rapid and destructive volleys. 
Beaujeu, the French leader, was killed at the first return fire. 

Braddock hastened to the relief of Gage, but his panic-stricken soldiers 
fell back in confusion upon the artillery, huddling together in the road, 
like a flock of sheep, and communicated their fright to the whole army. 
They fled in terror across the river, throwing away their arms, and did not 
stop till they reached Philadelphia. The general tried in vain to rally his 
troops. Himself and officers were in the thickest of the fight, and exhibited 
indomitable courage. Washington ventured to suggest the Indian mode 
of warfare, each man firing for himself without orders, but Braddock would 


not listen to him. For three hours he tried to form his men in regular 
columns and platoons, while his concealed enemy, with snre aim, was slav- 
ing his brave soldiers by scores. At length he received a wound which 
disabled him, and terminated his life three days afterwards. 


"Who would have thought it?" was the dying general's ejaculation 
that night. Just before he expired he again broke the silence he had 
kept, with the remark, ""We shall better know how to deal with them 
another time." 

THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-1760). 215 

Tlie slaughter of officers was terrible. Out of eighty-six, sixty-three 
\vere killed and wounded. Secretary Shirley and Sir Peter Halket were 
killed Colonels Burton, St. Clair, and Orne, Lieutenant-colonel Gage, 
Major Sparks, and Brigade - major Ilalket wounded. Of the privates, 
seven hundred and fourteen were killed and wounded. The loss of the 
enemy was trifling. 

Every mounted officer except Washington was slain before Braddock 
fell, and the whole duty of distributing orders devolved upon the youth- 
ful colonel. Contrary to orders, his Virginians fought in their own way, 
and thus saved the remnant of the army. 

This is a memorable event in our history. It has been characterized 
" as the most extraordinary victory ever gained, and the farthest flight ever 
made." " It gave the Americans," says Franklin, " the first suspicion 
that their exalted ideas of the prowess of British regular troops had not 
been well founded." That opinion, once received as gospel throughout 
the provinces, had received a fatal blow. 

This defeat was the signal for the Western Indians to assail the exposed 
settlements ; and the frontier of Pennsylvania and Virginia was soon a 
scene of bloody devastation. Most of the Indians engaged in these ravages 
were Delawares and Shawnees, whom the French had at last gained over. 
The old half-king refused to listen to them ; " the defeat," said he, " was 
due to the pride and ignorance of that great general that came from Eng- 
land. He is now dead, but he was a bad man when he was alive. He 
looked upon us as dogs, and would never hear anything that we said to 
him. We often tried to advise him, and tell him of the danger he was in 
with his soldiers, but he never appeared pleased with us, and that was the 
reason a great many of our warriors left him." 

Braddock's defeat alarmed the whole country and paralyzed the ex- 
pedition against Niagara. General Johnson, however, was sent against 
Crown Point with three thousand four hundred men, mostly New Eng- 

William Johnson was a young Irishman, who came to America ir. 
1734, to take charge of a large tract of land in the Mohawh Valley, be- 
longing to his uncle, Sir Peter Warren. Embarking in the fur trade, he 
learned the Indian language, and acquired so much influence over them 
by his native talent that, in 1T54-, the British Government made him its 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the colonies. Appreciating the In- 
dian character, he paid the utmost deference to them, received their del- 
egations with great ceremony, listened to them patiently, answered them 
carefully, and Piade them liberal and judicious presents. His influence 



over the Iroqnois enabled him to hold 
them to the English interest in spite 
of the efforts of the French and the 
other Indian nations. The Mohawks 
even adopted him into their tribe and 
made him a sachem. Johnson Hall, 
his residence, a well-constructed build- 
ing of wood and stone, is still stand- 
ing at Johnstown, New York. 

Soon after Johnson entered upon 
his duties as superintendent, he re- 
ceived from England some richly-em- 
broidered suits of clothes. The Mo- 
hawk chief, Hendrick, was present 
when they were received, and took 
such a fancy to them that he told 
Johnson, not long afterwards, that he 
had dreamed that Johnson had given 

him one of his new suits. Johnson could not refuse, and Hendrick took 
the embroidered scarlet uniform to show to his countrymen. 

Johnson's turn came next. He was too shrewd to neglect a good 
opportunity, and meeting the sachem one day he told him that he, too, had 
dreamed a dream. Hendrick desired to know what it was. The English- 



THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-1760). 


man then told him that he had dreamed that Hendrick presented him 

with a certain tract of land, which he described a tract containing: five 


hundred acres of the most valuable land in the Mohawk valley. " It is 
yours," said the chief, shaking his head, " but I will never dream with you 

After building Fort Edward, and opening a road from the Hudson to 
Lake George, Johnson remained a long time inactive on its southern shore, 
fancying himself in perfect security, and neglecting to fortify his camp. 
From this state of torpor he was suddenly and rudely aroused by the 
tidings that a French army had landed 
at South Bay, and, rapidly advancing in 
his rear, threatened Fort Edward. The 
French were commanded by Baron Dies- 
kau, an old veteran, a pupil of the cele- 
brated soldier, Marshal Saxe. He had 
with him two hundred French regulars, 
six hundred Canadians, and six hundred 

" Boldness wins " was Dieskau's mot- 
to. His plan was to capture Fort Ed- 
ward and then to fall upon Albany. 
There was only one obstacle to the suc- 
cess of this excellent plan, but that was 
sufficient for its defeat. The Indians 
were afraid of cannon, and did not like 
to attack forts, so they urged the French 

leader to march against Johnson instead, and he was reluctantly per- 
suaded to change his plan. 

Johnson saw that something must be done without delay. One thou- 
sand men were immediately sent, under Colonel Ephraim Williams, to 
relieve Fort Edward. Two hundred warriors of the Six Nations 
went also, led by the gray -haired sachem Hendrick. Before 
leaving Albany, "Williams made a will, by which he left the bequest to 
found the free-school that is now "Williams College. 

It was at first proposed to send a smaller force, but Ilendrick's opinion 
being asked, he shrewdly replied, " If they are to fight, they are too few, 
if they are to be killed, they are too many." To the plan of separating 
them into three parties his reply was equally convincing. Taking three 
sticks, he said, u Put them together and you cannot break them ; take 
them one by one and you can break them easily." 


Sept. S, 1755. 


Ilendrick was then sixty-five years old ; his hair was white, and he wa>. 
regarded by his warriors with the deepest veneration. Before inarching, 
he mounted a gnu-carriage and harangued his warriors in a strain of pow- 
erful and effective eloquence. One who heard it said, that although he 
did not understand a word of the language, such was the animation of the 
speaker, the fire of his eye, the force of his gestures, the strength of his 
expressions, the apparent propriety of the inflections of his voice, and 
the naturalness of his whole manner, that he himself was more deeply 
affected by this speech than with any other he had ever heard. 

Advised by his scouts of the march of this detachment, Dieskau placed 
his men in ambush at Rocky Brook, four miles from Johnson's camp. 
There was a swamp on one side of the road, and a low ridge on the other; 
in addition to these advantages, tall trees and thick underbrush made it an 
excellent place for an ambush. 

Straight into the trap between the lines of the concealed enemy marched 
the Mohawks, their chief, Hendrick, on horseback at their head. An Indian 
suddenly sprang in front of him. " Whence come you ?" he asked. " From 
the Mohawks," answered Ilendrick ; " whence come you ?" " From Mont- 
real," was the reply, and instantly a shot was fired, contrary to the orders 
of Dieskau, who told his men to keep quiet until the English were com- 
pletely within the French lines. A heavy fire in front and on both flanks 
was then poured upon the advancing troops with fatal effect. Ilendrick 
and Colonel Williams fell, and the Mohawks fled. Under the skilful 
leadership of Lieutenant-colonel Whiting, the New England militia fought 
bravely and retreated in good order. 

Meantime the noise of the battle was heard at Johnson's camp, and the 
skilful woodsmen of Xew England rapidly felled trees which, with the 
wagons and heavy baggage, formed a hasty breastwork. A few cannon 
were hauled from the shore of the lake and quickly put in position. A 
reinforcement of three hundred men was sent to help the retreating troops, 
and a stand \vas made at a little sheet of water since called Bloody Brook. 
Among the French who fell here was the Chevalier Legardeur de St. Pierre, 
who commanded the Indians. lie was the officer to whom Washington 
delivered his letters from Governor Diiiwiddie, at Fort Le Boeuf. 

Dieskau pursued the retreating English vigorously, hoping to enter 
their cainp at the same time with them. When within one hundred rods 
of it he halted, and placed the Indians and Canadians upon his flanks, 
advancing to the attack of the English centre with his regular troops. 
lie kept up a fire by platoons, but at too great a distance to do much 
mischief, the Canadians and Indians who had scattered to cover at the 

THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-1760). 219 

sight of Johnson's cannon firing from their shelter. Johnson's artillery 
playtd on them in return, and the musketry from the camp cut up the 
French, who stood their ground manfully. 

After maintaining the attack bravely for four hours, the baron, who 
had been three times wounded, attempted to retreat. The French fled 
in all directions, and were hotly pursued. The fugitives were met by 
Captain McGinnis, with two hundred New Hampshire men from Fort 
Edward, who had heard the firing and hastened to the scene of action. 
The Fiench were severely handled, but the brave McGinnis w r as killed. 

Dieskau, wounded and helpless, was found leaning against the stump 
of a tiw. As the soldier who discovered him approached, he put his 
hand in his pocket to draw out his watch, as a bribe to the soldier to 
allow him to escape. Supposing that he was drawing a pistol, the latter 
gave him a severe wound in the hip with a musket-ball. The baron was 
afterwards exchanged and returned to France. 

Johnson was slightly wounded in the early part of the fight, which 
was successfully conducted by General Lyman, his second in command. 
Johnson, however, reaped all the rewards. He w r as made a baronet, re- 
ceived the thanks of Parliament, and a gratuity of 5000. His military 
incapacity was evident from his not following up his victory. 

Walpole, New Hampshire, on the banks of the Connecticut, was set- 
tled in 1740. Colonel Benjamin Bellows and John Kilburn were among 
its earliest inhabitants. Though far beyond any other white settlement 
in that region, it escaped Indian attack until the beginning of the Old 
French War, in 1755. 

Captain Philip, a Pequawket sachem, pretending to trade, had lately 
visited as a spy ail the principal settlements on the river. The inhabi- 
tants hearing rumors of coming war prepared to meet it. They carried 
their arms with them into the fields where they toiled, and took with 
them also their faithful dogs, w r hose growling gave them early notice of 
the presence of Indians. 

About noon one day in August, Colonel Bellows, with thirty men, 
while returning from the mill, each man with a bag of meal upon his 
back, was made aware by his dogs that there were Indians about. He 
ordered his men to throw down their sacks, and move cautiously forward 
to a slight eminence in front over which their path lay, and there to con- 
ceal themselves by crouching among the tall ferns, of which there w r as at 
that place a thick growth. 

Crawling to the top of this eminence, Bellows discovered a large num- 
ber of Indians lying on the ground or hiding behind trees, waiting for 



him to enter the trap. Returning to his men he gave them his orders 
in a whisper, and then, still concealed by the ferns, they all moved noise- 
lessly forward. AVhen close to the enemy, at a given signal each man 
sprang to his feet, and giving a tremendous yell, dropped again as sud- 
denly into his place. In an instant every Indian started up, yelling and 
firing, but hitting nobody. The stratagem had succeeded. Bellows and 


his men had a fair shot, and such was its effect that Philip and his war- 
riors fled with precipitation. The victors regained their garrison, not a 
man having been hit. 

Hoping this time for better success, Philip next appeared with two 
hundred warriors before John Kilburn's house. Kilburn and his son, 
a Mr. Peck and his son, who were in the field reaping, had just time to 
reach and enter the house as they approached. In the house were the 
four men and Kilburn's wife and daughter. Philip was an old acquaint- 
ance here, and, coming as near the house as he could find a tree for shelter, 
called out to the Kilburns, 

"Old John! young John ! come out here! we give you good quarter!'" 
Philip is said to have been large in stature, and was a redoubtable war- 
ri'>r. but Kilburn, who well understood Indian warfare, was not in the least 
frightened. In a voice of thunder he shouted back the defiance, 

THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-17riM. 221 

" Begone, yon black rascals ! begone, or we'll quarter yon !" 

Philip then returned to his warriors, who, with fierce yells and whoops 5 
began a furious onset, and in a few minutes the roof of the house was per- 
forated with bullet-holes. There were loop-holes, as in all garrison-houses, 
through, which the inmates could fire, and they had a number of extra guns 
in the house. These Kilbnrn's wife and daughter helped to load, and also 
busied themselves in casting bullets. When one gun became tor much 
heated it was replaced by another, so that there was no cessation in the 
firing. When their lead grew scarce blankets were suspended from the 
roof to catch the balls of the enemy, and these were soon returned to their 
owners. Thus some of the Indians fell by their own bullets. 

So incessant was the fire kept up by these few stout defenders of the 
garrison, that the Indians supposed they had been deceived as to their 
number. After keeping up the attack until night, and losing many of 
their warriors, they finally drew off, greatly crestfallen at their discom- 
fiture. One of the garrison Mr. Peck was wounded by a bullet that 
came into one of the loop-holes and struck him in the hip. The Indian 
loss was never known. Before retiring they wreaked their vengeance on 
the settlement by killing all the cattle and destroying all the grain and 
hay belonging to it. 

A signal act of retaliation on the perfidious tribes of the Ohio took 
place in the following year. Shingis and Captain Jacobs were the lead- 
ers of the hostile bands of Delawares that had desolated the 
Pennsylvania border. With their booty and their prisoners 
they had returned to their village at Kittanning, an Indian town forty miles 
from Fort Duquesne. Jacobs was a daring fellow, and scoffed at palisaded 
forts. " I can take any fort," said he, " that will catch fire." 

A party of two hundred and eighty Pennsyl^anians, under Colonel 
John Armstrong, undertook to destroy this savage nest. The brave Dr, 
Hugh Mercer, who at twenty-three had shared in the defeat of the Pre- 
tender at Culloden, and who had been a witness of savage atrocity at the 
defeat of Braddock, and who afterwards fell gloriously at Princeton, com- 
manded one of the companies. 

After a long march, conducted with great rapidity and secrecy, over 
mountains and through forests, they reached the Alleghany, arriving at 
Kittannino; one moonlight ni^-lit. AVhoops and yells and the 

T T MI mi October 8. 

noise ot a drum guided them to the Indian village. Hie 
warriors were celebrating their exploits with the triumphant scalp-dance. 
Armstrong and his men lay quiet until the din ceased and the moon 
went down. When all was still he roused his men. One party attacked 


some Indians who slept in a corn-field, while another advanced upon tin- 

Though taken l>y surprise, the Indians fought bravely, inspired by the 
warwhoop of their leader, Jacobs. The women and children fled to the 
woods. Several of the assailants were killed and wounded. Mercer re- 
ceived a wound in the arm, and was taken to the rear. From his hoii>e. 
which had loop-holes, Jacobs and his warriors made havoc anion^ the 
whites. At length the wigwams were set on tire. Jacobs, who could 
speak English, was called upon to surrender. 

"I and inv warriors are men,"' he answered, "and we will all %hv 

v O 

while life remains." 

"When told that he should be well used if lie would surrender, but if 
not he would be burned, he replied, 

" I can eat fire. I will kill four or five before I die." 
As the smoke and flames approached, some of the warriors sung the? 
death-song. Finally they were driven out by the flames. Some escaped 
and some were shot. Among the latter was Captain Jacobs, the fire-eater, 
and his gigantic son, who is said to have been seven feet in height. Thin \ 
or forty warriors were slain, and their stronghold was a smoking ruin. 
Eleven white prisoners were recaptured. Mercer, severely wounded and 
separated from his companions, tracked his long, painful, and solitary way 
through the wilderness to Fort Cumberland by the stars, arriving there 
sick, weary, and half-famished. He lived for fourteen days on two dried 
clams and a rattlesnake, with a few 1 jerries. For this important service 
Armstrong was rewarded by the corporation of Philadelphia with a vote 
of thanks, a medal, and a piece of plate. 

One of the ablest of the soldiers of France Louis Joseph, Marquis dc 

Montcalm now took the direction of Canadian affairs. He was quick to 

perceive the situation and prompt to act. The works at Ti- 

August 14. . 

conderoga and JNiagara were immediately strengthened, tort 
Oswego was captured, with its garrison of one thousand six hundred men, 
and an immense quantity of stores and war material was taken or destroyed. 
France had now entire control of Lake Ontario. 

Montcalm made every effort to induce the Indians to join him in an 
attack on the English at Lake George. A grand council was held at Ni- 
agara, at which the Iroquois gave belts to the Ilnrons, Ottawas, and other 
allies of the French, as a token of their intention to join the enemies oi 
the English, and a belt was given in return, which was covered with ver 
milion an invitation to war. 

THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-17(50). 


At another congress held 
at Montreal, thirty-three na- 
tions were represented, in- 
cluding chiefs from Acadia 
to Lake Superior. "We 
will try our father's hatch- 
et on the English, to see if 
it cuts well," said a Seneca 
chief. Montcalm sang the 
war-song with them every 
day of the council, and as 
a successful leader was high- 
ly popular with them. The 
tribes assembled at Fort 
St. John, on the River Sor- 
el. Their missionaries came 
with them, and the masses 
and hymns of the church 
alternated with the fantas- 
tic dances and the unearth- 
ly yells of the savage horde. 

During the following summer Montcalm advanced upon Fort Will- 
iam Henry, a work erected by Sir William Johnson after 
the battle of Lake George, upon its southern shore. It com- 
"iianded the lake, and was an important protection to the British frontier. 


OSWEGO IN 1755. 

In it was Colonel Monro, a brave old soldier, with a garrison of five 
hundred men. Two thousand provincial militia were encamped 
outside. At the head of eight thousand French, Canadians, 
and Indians, Montcalm crossed Lake George in a fleet of bateaux, preceded 

August 1. 


by swarms of Indian canoes. The lake covered with boats, the banners 
und the music, the brilliant uniforms of the French and the picturesque 

costume of the Indians, moving over 
its placid surface under a brilliant July 
sun. altogether made a striking and 
brilliant, as well as unusual, spectacle 
in this solitary haunt of nature. 

It was not altogether a pleasant 
sight to the defenders of the fort, who 
"T were taken completely by surprise. 
Those encamped outside hastily burned 
their tents and hurried within the 
walls. A summons to sur- 
render was answered by a 
brave defiance. Montcalm then invest- 
ed the fort, and battered it with his 
artillerv. The Indians were hio-hlv delighted with the cannon firing, and 

/ o / o 

were nearly beside themselves at the noise made by the big guns. 

For five days the veteran Monro maintained a stout defence, expect- 
ing reinforcements from General AVebb, who was at Fort Edward, only 

August 4. 


ST. JOHN (1776). 

THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-1760). 225 

fifteen miles distant, with live thousand men. Instead of marching to his 
assistance, the cowardly Webb sent him a letter advising him to yield. 
Unluckily, this letter was intercepted by Montcalm, who at once for- 
warded it to Monro. That obstinate old soldier, however, persisted in 
the defence until most of his cannon had burst and his am- 

August 9. 

munition was spent. He then surrendered upon honorable 
terms. Montcalm demolished the fort, carried off the artillery and muni- 
tions of war, and returned to Canada in triumph. 

In spite of the exertions of the French officers, some of the prisoners 
were killed, and many of them were stripped and plundered by the sav- 
ages. The latter could never understand the humanity shown to pris- 
oners by civilized nations, and as they were drawn to the h'ght by the 
hope of plunder, their rage and cupidity were excited on seeing the pris- 
oners taking away their arms and baggage under the escort of French 

While the expedition under General Forbes was on its way to capture 
Fort Duquesne, Major Grant, with eight hundred picked men, some of 
1hem Highlanders, others Virginians in Indian garb, under Major Lew r is, 
were sent forward without the knowledge of Forbes by Colonel Bouquet, 
who was in the advance. This officer attempted a most brilliant achieve- 
ment no less than the capture of the fort with his own men before the 
arrival of the main force. 

This ambitious but poorly - managed affair came to grief. Grant's 
object seems to have been to provoke an action by bravado. He was 
closely watched by the enemy, who permitted him to advance unmolested. 
On the morning after his arrival he marshalled his regulars in battle- 
array, and sent an engineer with a covering party to take a plan of the 
works, in full view of the garrison. 

Not a gun was fired from the fort; and the British commander mis- 
taking this for fear neglected all precaution. Suddenly the garrison 
sallied forth, and at the same moment Grant's flanks were at- 
tacked by Indians hidden in ambush. After delivering a 
destructive fire, they rushed upon the confused Highlanders with toma- 
hawk and scalping-knife, increasing their panic by frightful yells. The 
contest was kept up for a while, but the panic was irretrievable. It was 
almost a Braddock affair over again. 

At the first sound of the conflict, Major Lewis, who with his Virginians 
was in the rear guarding the baggage, hastened with most of his men to 
the scene of action. He fought hand to hand with an Indian brave, whom 



he laid dead at his feet, but was surrounded by others, and saved his life 
only by surrendering to a French officer. Grant also was captured, and 
the entire detachment was routed with dreadful carnage. 

Captain Hullitt, with tifty Virginians, had been left to guard the bag- 
gage. Rallying a few of the fugitives, he made a stand behind a barricade 
of baggage-wagons. It was the work of a moment, for the pursuing sav- 
ages having plundered the fallen were close upon them. Ilullitt opened 
a destructive tire upon them, which checked them for a time. Thev were 
again pressing forward in still greater force, when l>ullitt deceived the 
Indians by a clever stratagem. Advancing towards them with his men, lie 


held out a signal of surrender. When within eight yards of the foe, they 
suddenly levelled their guns, poured in a most effective volley, and then 
charged with the bayonet. The Indians fled in dismay, and Bullitt took 
advantage of their flight to retreat with all speed, collecting the wounded 
and the fugitives as he proceeded. Three hundred of Grant's party wen- 
killed or taken in this bloody battle. For his skill and bravery in sav- 
ing the remnant of the detachment, I>ullitt was rewarded with a major's 

An ingenious stratagem was hit upon by Allan Macpherson, one of 
the Highlanders captured in this battle. He Lad witnessed the horrible. 

THE "OLD FRENCH WAR" (1755-1760). 227 

tortures inflicted upon some of his comrades by the savages, and thought 
of a plan by which to escape so terrible a fate. He told the Indians 
through an interpreter that he could make a medicine that would render 
the skin proof against all kinds of weapons, and offered to prove its efficacy 
upon himself. 

The Indians eagerly consented, and gathering a quantity of herbs he 
made a mixture which he applied to m's neck ; then laying his head on ; 
block he challenged them to strike. One of the strongest warriors came 
forward and dealt him a tremendous blow. Not until they saw the High- 
lander's head roll from the block did the savages suspect the trick he had 
played them ; and it is said that they were so pleased at his ( aiming that 
they gave up their design of torturing the rest of his companions. 

The recent successes of the English forces in Canada, particularly the 
capture and destruction of Fort Frontenac by Colonel Bradstreet, left the 
garrison of Fort Dunuesne without hope of succor, and on 

1 Nov. 25, 1T5S. 

the near approach ot I 1 orbes s army the place was set on nre 
and abandoned. It was rebuilt by the English, who changed its name to 
Fort Pitt. The name of Pittsburg, which it now bears, designates one of 
the busiest and most populous cities of the interior. 

The reduction of this fortress ended the troubles and dangers of the 
western frontier, and terminated the French control of the Ohio. The 
Indians, as usual, yielded to the strongest, and treaties of peace were con- 
cluded with all the tribes between the Ohio and the lakes. 

The Hurons, the Abenakis, and other Canada Indians who had fought 
for the French, were, at the close of the war, regarded as a conquered peo- 
ple. The hostility of the remote western tribes who had also been allies 
of the French ceased, but for a short time only. 

For four years (1755-58) the English had met with almost constant 
defeat. Their generals had displayed neither vigor nor ability. The 
campaign of 1759 was glorious and decisive. Pitt, afterwards Earl of 
Chatham, succeeded in infusing some of his own heroic spirit and efficiency 
into the military and naval service of Great Britain. Prideaux was sent 
against Niagara ; Amherst at the same time advanced upon Ticondercga and 
Crown Point ; and "Wolfe attacked Quebec, the vital point. All 
these important objects were successfully accomplished, and 
with the fall of Montreal, Canada, with all its dependencies, was surrendered 
to the British Crown. 



INDIAN" domestic life and manners are well described in the interesting 
narrative of Colonel James Smith, a native of Pennsylvania, who in 
his youth was for nearly five years a captive among the Caughnawagas. 
Late in life he settled near Paris, Kentucky, and was a member of the con- 
vention that framed the Constitution of the State, and afterwards had a 
seat in its legislature.* 

At the age of eighteen, young Smith, while engaged with a party in 
opening a wagon road for the army of General Braddock, then on its 
march to Fort Duquesne, was captured by the Indians and taken to that 
place. The circumstances attending his capture and his experiences among 
them he thus relates : 

"About four or five miles above Bedford, three Indians had made a 
blind of bushes stuck in the ground, as though they grew naturally. Here 
they concealed themselves, about fifteen yards from the road. I had been 
sent back, in company with one Arnold Yigores, to hurry up some pro- 
vision wagons. When we came opposite the ambush they fired, and killed 
my companion. My horse started instantly and threw me, and the Indians 
immediately ran up and took me prisoner. 

" On approaching the fort, through large numbers of naked, painted 
savages who were formed into two long ranks, I was obliged to run the 
gauntlet. I was told that if I ran quick it would be so much the better, 
as they would quit when I got to the end of the ranks. I started in the 
race with all the vigor and resolution I was capable of exerting. "When I 
had got near the end of the lines I was struck to the ground with a stick 
or the handle of a tomahawk. 

" On recovering my senses I endeavored to renew the race, but as I 
rose some one threw sand in my eyes, which blinded me so that I could 

* The story of Smith's captivity, arid of his services in the Revolutionary War, in which 
he held the rank of colonel, is told in his "Remarkable Occurrences in the Life of Colonel 
James Smith," Lexington, Kentucky, 1799. Smith died in Kentucky about the year 1812 




not see where to run. They continued beating me until I was insensible ; 
but before I lost consciousness I remember wishing they would strike the 
final blow, for I thought they intended killing me, and that they were too 
long about it. I was sent to the hospital, and carefully tended by a French 
doctor, and recovered quicker than I expected. 

" I asked a Delaware Indian who could speak some English, if I had 
done anything to offend them which caused them to beat me so unmerci- 
fully ? ' No,' he replied, ' it was only an old custom the Indians had, and 
was like "how do you do?" After this,' said he, 'you will be well used." 
Smith must have thought this " a pretty how do you do" to greet strangers 
with. The humor of it was certainly very striking. " This Indian also 
told me," continues Smith, " that as soon as I recovered, I must go with 
the party and be made an Indian myself. This is their mode of adoption : 

" The day after my arrival at Tullihas, an Indian town on the Mus- 
kingum, a number of Indians collected about me, and one of them began 
to pull the hair out of my head. He went on as if he had been plucking 
a turkey, until he had all the hair out except a small tuft three or four 
inches square on my crown ; this they cut off with a pair of scissors, ex- 
cepting three locks which they dressed in their own mode. 

" After this they bored my nose and ears, and fixed me off with ear- 
rings and nose jewels. Then they ordered me to strip off my clothes and 
put on a breech-clout, which I d? r1 They then painted me in various col 


ors. They put a large belt of wampum on my neck, silver bands on my 
hands and right arm, and so an old chief led me into the street and gave 
the alarm halloo, which was several times quickly repeated. On this, all 
came running out and stood around us. 

Holding me by the hand, the old chief then made a long speech, and 
when he had done he handed me over to three young squaws, who led me 
by the hand down the bank into the river, until the water was up to my 
middle. The squaws then made signs to me to plunge myself into the 
water, but I did not understand them ; I thought I was to be drowned, and 
that these young women were to be my executioners. 

"All three then laid violent hands on me, but I for sonic time opposed 
them with all my might, which occasioned loud laughter by the multitude 
on the bank of the river. At length one of the squaws made out to speak 
a little English, and said, ' Ko hurt you ;' on this I gave myself up to their 
ladyships, who were as good as their word, for though they plunged me 
under the water, and washed and rubbed me severely, yet I could not say 
that they hurt me much. 

" These young women then led me up to the council-house, where I 
was new clothed. They gave me a new ruffled shirt, which I put on, also 
a pair of leggings ornamented with ribbons and beads, a pair of moccasins 
and garters dressed with beads, porcupine quills, and hair. They again 
painted my head and face with various colors, and tied a bunch of red 
feathers to one of the locks they had left on the crown of my head, which 
stood up five or six inches. 

" Seating me on a buckskin they gave me a pipe, a tomahawk, and a 
pouch containing tobacco, also spunk, flint, and steel. The Indians then 
came in dressed and painted, seated themselves, and for a long time 
smoked in profound silence. At length one of the chiefs spoke as follows : 

" ' My son, you are now flesh of our flesh, and bone of our bone. By 
the ceremony just performed every drop of white blood was washed out 
of your veins ; you are taken into the Caughnawaga nation and initiated 
into a warlike tribe. You are adopted into a great family, and now re- 
ceived with great seriousness and solemnity in the room and place of a 
great man. My son, you have now nothing to fear; we are now under the 
same obligation to love, support, and defend you, that we are to love and 
defend one another, therefore you are to consider yourself as one of our 
people.' From that day I never knew them to make any distinction be- 
tween me and themselves, in any respect whatever, until I left them. 

" That evening, after being introduced to my new kin, I was bid to a 
feast As their custom was. they gave me a bowl and a wooden spoon- 


Eacli one advanced to the place where stood a number of large brass ket- 
tles, full of boiled venison and green corn, and had his share given him. 
One of the chiefs made a short speech, and then we began to eat. 

" Next day a war party started for Virginia, and they had their usual 
war-dance and songs. At the former they had both vocal and instrumental 
music. They had a short, hollow gum, closed at one end, with water in it, 
and parchment stretched over the open end, which they beat with a stick, 
making a sound nearly like a muffled drum, to collect those who were go- 
ing on the expedition. 

"An old Indian then began to sing, and timed the music by beating on 
this drum. On this the warriors began to advance, or move forward in 
concert, as well-disciplined troops would march to the fife and drum. Each 
warrior had a tomahawk, spear, or war-club in his hand, and they all moved 
regularly towards the east, the way they intended going to war. At length 
they all stretched their tomahawks towards the Potomac, and giving a 
hideous shout or yell, wheeled quick about, and in the same manner 
danced back. 

"In performing the war -song only one sung at a time, in a moving 
posture, with a tomahawk in his hand, while all the other warriors were 
calling aloud, i lle-uh! he-ukf which they constantly repeated. When 
his song was ended the warrior struck a war-post with his tomahawk, and 
with a loud voice told what warlike exploits he had performed and in- 
tended to perform, and was answered by the others witli loud shouts of 

" Some who had not intended to join were so excited by this perform- 
ance that they, too, took up the tomahawk and sung the war-song, calling 
forth shouts of joy as they were received into the war party. Next morn- 
ing they all assembled, with their heads and faces painted with various col- 
ors, and packs on their backs, marching off silently, excepting the leader, 
who in front sung the travelling song. Just as the rear passed the end of 
the town they began to tire slowly from front to rear, shouting and yelling 
at the same time. 

" At another dance which I attended, the young men stood in one rank 
and the young women in another, about a rod apart, facing each other. 
The one that started the tune held a small gourd or dry shell of a squash, 
which contained beads or small stones which rattled. lie timed his song 
to this rattle ; the men and women danced and sung together, advancing 
towards each other, stooping until their heads would touch each other, and 
then stopping, with loud shouts retreated and formed again, repeating this 
over and over four or five times without intermission. 


" In tliis song, which J at lirst thought insipid, I found they could in- 
termix sentences with their notes, and say what they pleased to each other, 
carrying on their tune in concert. It was a kind of wooing or courting 
dance, and as they approached, stooping their heads towards each other 
until they met, they could talk together without disturbing the rude music, 
and yet so that those near could not hear what they said. 

"Some time afterwards a gun was given me, and I went to hunt with 
a Mohawk named Solomon. As we were following some fresh buffalo 
tracks, Solomon, who had told me that there had been war between the 
Delawares and the southern nations, went forward very cautiously, fre- 
imently pausing to listen. 'Surely,' said I, 'these are buffalo tracks.' 

" ' Hush,' said he, ' you know nothing. Maybe buffalo, maybe Ca- 
tawba.' He then related some striking instances of the subtlety of this 
tribe. He told me that formerly the Catawbas placed an ambush near one 
of our camps, and, in order to decoy us out, two or three of them in the 
night passed by with buffalo hoofs fixed on their feet, so as to make arti- 
ficial tracks. In the morning our people followed these tracks, thinking 
they were buffalo, until they were fired on by the Catawbas and several of 
them killed. The others fled, collected a party, and pursued the Catawbas. 

" The latter, however, had with them some rattlesnake poison, also 
sharp canes or reeds about the size of a rye-straw, which they sharpened at 
the end, dipped them in the poison, and stuck them in the ground in the 
grass along their track. By this means a number of the pursuers were so 
lamed that they turned back, and being pursued in turn by the Catawbas 
were all killed. Solomon ended by saying, 'You don't know Catawba; 
velly bad Indian ; Catawba all one devil.' 

" The next winter I went bear-hunting with Tontileango, my adopted 
brother. Starting early one morning, we found a tree which seemed to be 
the winter-quarters of one of these animals. A small sapling was usually 
felled against or near the bear's hole, so as to climb up and drive the bear 
out. This was my business. In this instance there was no tree suitable to 
lodge against the hole, which was forty feet from the ground. 

" Tontileango got a long pole and some dry, rotten wood, climbed a 
neighboring tree, and with the pole thrust some of the dry wood, which he 
had lighted, into the hole. Soon he heard the bear snuff. He then de- 
scended, and waited for the bear to come out. He had to wait some time. 
"When bruin did appear, as it was too dark to take a sight with his rifle, 
he shot an arrow into him just behind the shoulder, bringing him to the 

" In February we began to make maple-sugar. The squaws cut down 


a dry tree, and with a crooked stick, broad and sharp at the end, took off 
the bark, and made of it, in a skilful manner, more than a hundred vessels 
that would hold about two gallons each. 

" In the sugar-tree they cut a notch sloping down, and at the end of 
the notch, into which they made an aperture, they drove a long chip to 
carry the sap from the tree, and under this they set their vessel to receive 
it. They made vessels of bark for carrying the water that held about four 
gallons each. They had two brass kettles that held about fifteen gallons 
each, and other smaller ones in which the sap was boiled. 

" The way we commonly used our sugar while in camp was by putting 
it in bear's fat until the fat was nearly as sweet as the sugar itself, and in 
this we dipped our roasted venison. About this time some of the Indian 
lads and myself were employed in making and tending traps for raccoons, 
foxes, wild-cats, etc. 

" As the raccoon is a kind of water animal, we made our traps on the 
runs or small watercourses 5 by laying one small sapling on another, and 
driving in posts to keep them from rolling. The under-sapling we raised 
about eighteen inches, and set so that on a raccoon's touching a string, or 
a small piece of bark, the sapling would fall and kill it, and lest he should 
pass by we laid brush on both sides of the run, leaving only the channel 

" The fox-traps we made in nearly the same manner. At the end of a 
hollow log, or opposite a hole at the root of a hollow tree, we put venison 
on a stick for bait, so set that when the fox took hold of the meat the trap 
fell. While the squaws were occupied in making sugar, the boys and men 
were engaged in hunting and trapping. 

" While we were encamped at the mouth of a small creek, in the ab- 
sence of Tontileango, a Wyandot came to the camp. I gave him a shoulder 
of venison which I had by the fire well roasted, which he received gladly, 
telling me he was hungry, and thanked me for my kindness. When Ton- 
tileango came home I told him of the visit, and what I had done. He said 
that was very well. 

"'I suppose,' said he, 'you also gave him sugar and bear's fat to eat 
with his venison 'C 

" ' No,' said I, ' I did not ; as the sugar and fat were down in the canoe, 
I did not go for it.' 

" ' You have behaved just like a Dutchman,' was his reply. ' Do you 
not know that when strangers come to our camp we ought always to give 
them the best 'that we have ?' 

" I acknowledged that I was wrong. He said he could excuse this. 


as I was young, Imt I must learn to behave like a warrior, and do great 
tilings, and never be found in any such little actions. 

" ( )ur furs and skins we disposed of to some French traders at Sunyou- 
deaud, a AVyandot town, and here we supplied ourselves with new chillies, 
paint, tobacco, etc. 

"After I had got my new clothes on, and my head done off like a red- 
headed woodpecker, I, in company with a number of young Indians, went 
down to the corn-fields to see the squaws at work. The squaws asked me 
to take a hoe, which I did, and hoed for some time. They applauded me, 
hut when I returned to the town, the old men, hearing what I had done, 
chid me, telling me that I was adopted in the place of a great man, and 
must not hoe corn like a squaw. They never again had occasion to reprove 
me on this score, as I was not over-fond of work. 

" All the hunters and warriors remained in the town some weeks, 
spending their time in eating and drinking, visiting, painting, smoking, 
and playing a game resembling dice. This game is played with plum- 
stones, painted white on one side and black on the other. Placing these 
in a small bowl they shake it, calling the color they desire to have turn up. 
The bowl is then turned, and the count of the color determines the result. 

" Some were beating their kind of drum and singing, others played on 
a kind of flute made of a hollow cane, and others on the Jews-harp. Part 
of the time was spent in attending at the council-house, where the chiefs, 
and as many others as chose, were present, and at night there was singing 
and dancing. At the end of this sojourn (June, 1756) they were all pre- 
paring to go to war against the frontiers of Virginia. When they finally 
marched, none were left in the town but squaws and children, except my- 
self and the very old men, one of whom was lame. 


"The Indians had great hopes that they would drive all the Virginians 
over the lake, as they called the ocean. The two old Indians asked me if 
I did not think that the Indians and French would subdue all America 
except New England, which they had tried in old times. I told them I 
thought not, for, said I, though unsuccessful at present, they will soon 
learn your mode of war, and overcome you by the superiority of their 
arms and numbers. I found that they themselves did not believe they 
could conquer America, yet they were willing to propagate the idea in 
order to encourage the young men to go to war. 

"At the close of that winter's hunt the party visited the "Wyandot 
town, opposite Detroit. Here they found a trader with some French 
brandy, and kept up a drunken carouse until the trader, having got all 
their beaver, moved off to another town. 


" A council was held, which determined who were to get drunk and 
who were to remain sober. As I refused to drink, I had to assist in taking 
care of the others. Our duty was to conceal the arms and other weapons, 
and prevent their killing each other a very difficult matter. Several times 
our own lives were in danger, and we received some severe injuries in the 
performance of our task. When the liquor was gone, and the drunkards 
sobered, they were greatly dejected ; some were crippled, others badly 
wounded, and their clothes were torn or burned. In the Ottawa village, 
close by, the carouse ended much worse five were killed and many in- 

" As cold weather was approaching, we began to feel the baleful effects 
of our folly and extravagance in dissipating the proceeds of the large 
quantity of beaver we had taken. Nearly all were in the same destitute 
condition. Scarcely one had a shirt to his back, but each had an old 
blanket, which we belted around us during the day and slept in at night, 
with a deerskin or bearskin under us for a bed. 

k> Though slovenly in their habits, the Indians have the essentials of 
good manners, and are polite in their way. They have few compliments, 
and use few titles of honor, their usual mode of address being, ' my 
friend,' ' brother,' ' cousin,' ' mother,' ' sister,' etc. They pay great respect 
to age. All who come to their house or carnp are invited to eat while 
there is any food left, and it is bad manners to refuse such an invitation, 

" Instead of ' How do you do ?' the common Indian salutation is, ' You 
are my friend.' The reply is, ' Truly, my friend, I am your friend ;' or, 
' Cousin, you yet exist ?' ' Certainly I do,' is the reply. As their chil- 
dren are disciplined by ducking them in cold water, it necessarily follows 
that they are much more obedient in winter than in summer. 

" In the spring of 1759 I went with my adopted brother to an Indian 
town near Montreal. Hearing in that town of a ship in which were some 
English prisoners who were to be exchanged, I left the Indians and went 
on board, but on the approach of General Wolfe we were all put in 
prison. I was exchanged in the tollowing November, and early in the 
year 1760 returned home, much to the surprise of my people, who did 
not know whether I was living or dead. They were also astonished to see 
me looking so much like an Indian, and resembling them both in my gait 
and gestures. 

" Joyful as was this reunion," says Smith, in closing his interesting 
narrative, " its happiness was marred by one disagreeable circumstance 
I found that my sweetheart had been married only a few days before I 



"Frosts were falling 
When the ranger's horn was calling, 
Through the woods to Canada. 

" Straggling rangers, worn with dangers, 
Homeward faring, weary strangers, 
Pass the farm-gate on their way. 
Tidings of the dead and living, 
Forest march and ambush giving, 
Till the maidens leave their weaving, 
And the lads forget their play." 


Tl I E Indian's style of fighting was suited to the forests in which he 
roamed. The thicket provided him with an ambush, the tree or 
rock served him as a shield. Each warrior fought "on his own hook," 
singling out some individual opponent, and using every stratagem to 
outwit and overpower him. 

Upon one occasion an Oneida Indian, who had placed a rock between 
himself and two of his Indian pursuers, putting his hat on the end of his 
gun-barrel, raised it slowly, as if to obtain a sight of his enemies. The 
ruse succeeded ; both Indians fired, the hat dropped, and rushing forward 
with exulting yells, expecting to secure a scalp, one was instantly shot 
down, and the other took to his heels for safety. 

This kind of warfare made it necessary for the white man to adopt 

similar methods, and in this way a hardy, active, and self-reliant body of 

frontiersmen were trained up, who were of the greatest service 

in the wars waged by the two races. An organized body of 

these men was employed in the "Old French War." They were known 

as " Rogers 1 s Rangers," from their commander, Major Robert Rogers. 

This celebrated partisan, a native of Dunbarton, New Hampshire, was at 

this time under thirty years of age. Rough in feature, he was tall and 

well-proportioned, and was one of the most athletic men of his time, beinu; 




prominent in all the trials of strength or activity in his neighborhood for 
miles around. 

Rogers possessed great presence of mind, intrepidity, and perseverance, 
and a plausible address, and had in early life acquired great decision and 
boldness of character. He was versed in all the arts of woodcraft, was 
sagacious, prompt, and resolute, yet so cautious as to incur at times the 
unjust charge of cowardice. 


These qualities lie displayed on many occasions. Once, when in Eng- 
land, a mail-coach in which he was a passenger was stopped by a high- 
wayman on Hounslow Heath. The robber, thrusting a pistol through the 
coach window, demanded the purses and watches of the occupants. While 
the others were delivering up theirs, the bold ranger suddenly seized the 
robber by the collar, drew him by main strength through the carriage 
window, and bade the coachman drive on. The highwayman proved to 
be an old offender, for whose apprehension a reward had been offered by 
the government. 

At a social party of British officers at which he was present, it was 
agreed by the company that whoever of them should tell the most improb- 
able story should have his bill paid by the others. When his turn came, 
Rogers stated that his father was shot in the woods by a hunter, who mis- 
took him for a bear ; that his mother was followed by a hunter, who mis- 
took her tracks in the snow on a stormy day for those of a wolf ; and that 
he, when a boy, had carried birch-brooms on his back to Rumford, ten 
miles distant from his father's house, to be sold, following a path through 
the woods only marked by spotted trees. The company paid for his din- 
ner, admitting that he had told the " toughest " story. Rogers had only 
stated the exact truth. 

The Rangers were a body of hardy and resolute young men, principally 
from the vicinity of Amoskeag Falls, Xew Hampshire, where Rogers had 
been accustomed to meet them at the annual fishing season, and on whose 
skill, courage, and fidelity he could implicitly rely. Especially renowned 
as marksmen, every one of these rugged foresters could hit an object of 
the size of a silver dollar at a hundred yards. He could follow the trail 
of man or beast, and endure the extremes of fatigue, hunger, and cold. 

They were constantly employed in watching the motions of the enemy, 
in pursuing their marauding parties, or in cutting off their convoys of sup- 
plies, frequently making prisoners of their sentinels at Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point. Limited in their expeditions to no season, they made, in 
winter, long and fatiguing journeys on snow-shoes into the enemy's coun- 
try, often encamping in the forest without a fire, to avoid discovery, when 
the ground was covered with snow, and with no other food than the game 
they could kill during their march. They were the most formidable body 
of men ever employed in Indian warfare, and in regular engagements 
proved themselves not inferior to British troops. From frequent contact 
with the natives, they were familiar with their language and customs, and 
their French and Indian foes dreaded them with good reason. 

Theirs was a hard life, but the excitement and danger attendant upon 


it gave it a zest that reconciled these hardy foresters to its toils and priva- 
tions. There was something singularly attractive to the young frontiers- 
man in the free forest life of the Ranger. To him it was a source of no 
ordinary enjoyment to scour the forest in search of the Indian foe, but to 
be able to steal upon him unawares, and to return victorious from an ex- 
pedition against him, was in the highest degree exhilarating and inspiring. 

No hero of romance ever displayed more daring. Danger and death 
were his constant companions. He defied wounds, capture, torture, muti- 
lation, and never counted the number of his foes until after he had routed 
them. "Where to strike first and most effectively was his only study. Se- 
curing his retreat was no part of his strategy ; he never measured the dis- 
tance from his base of operations, for he was his own commissary and quar- 
termaster, carrying his rations on his back, having for his bed the bosom 
of mother earth, and for his tent the canopy of heaven. His tactics were 
the maxims of Indian warfare, and he knew his duty so well, and was so 
self-reliant, that obedience and subordination seemed to him wholly un- 
necessary. The corps of Rangers always marched silently and with great 
rapidity, and by the shortest line. Neither forest nor stream presented 
any obstacle to their progress. 

It was in this school that Putnam, Rogers, Stark, Brewer, and others 
were trained for future usefulness in the struggle for American indepen- 
dence. Several British officers, attracted by this exciting and hazardous, as 
well as novel, method of campaigning, joined as volunteers in some of their 
expeditions. Among them was the young Lord Howe, who, during this 
tour of duty, formed a strong friendship for Putnam and Stark, both of 
whom were with him when he fell at Ticonderoga shortly afterwards. 

So useful was the corps of Rangers found to be in its very first cam- 
paign, that from a single company of sixty men it was at once increased to 
four, and afterwards to nine companies of one hundred men each, Rogers 
being promoted to the rank of major. The men were subject to army dis- 
cipline and the articles of war. Their dress was that of the frontiersman 
of that day, and uniform in each company. One of these was composed 
wholly of Indians in their native costume. The weapons of the Ranger 
were a firelock or fusee, a hatchet, and a long knife. A powder-horn was 
slung under the right arm. The pack, to which was strapped a blanket, 
held his provisions, and flint and steel with which to strike fire. Each 
officer carried a pocket-compass. 

The arena of their exploits was the vicinity of Fort Ticonderoga, at 
the northern extremity of Lake George, forty miles from Fort William 
Henry, a British work at the south end of the lake. The waters of Lake 





George and Lake Cliainplain formed the 
main avenue of communication between 
Canada and the English colonies. Crown 
Point, on Lake Champlain, and Ticonde- 
roga, both in the hands of the French, were the keys to this 
important thoroughfare, over which, at all seasons of the year, the hostile 
parties of French and Indians passed. Snow-shoes rendered their prog- 
ress easy in winter ; at all other times they glided over its placid waters 
with ease and celerity in their light birch canoes. Fort Edward, on the 
Hudson, and Fort "William Henry, fifteen miles farther inland, were the 
two most northerly of the British frontier posts. 

This picturesque region, with its mountains, lakes, and forests, yet re- 
tains much of its original character, and it is not easy for the tourist who 
to-day rambles amid its peaceful solitudes to realize that this lovely and 
romantic region could ever have been the scene of such fierce strife as was 
waged here little more than a century ago. 

Rogers's lieutenant was John Stark, afterwards the hero of Bennington. 
When in his twenty-fourth year, while out with a hunting party, he, with 
a companion named Amos Eastman, was captured by some St. Francis In- 
dians and taken to their village. The others of the party, David Stinson 



and William Stark, his brother, were in a boat at the time of the capture, 
and John was ordered by the Indians to decoy them to the shore. Instead 
of doing so, he shouted to them to save themselves by pulling to the op- 
posite shore. They did so, and the Indians fired upon them, but John 
knocked np the muzzles of their guns, and by this piece of audacity saved 
the life of his brother, who escaped. John was severely beaten by his 
captors for this performance, but was afterwards kindly treated by them. 

At the Indian village the prisoners had to run the gauntlet. For this 
cruel sport the young warriors of the tribe were ranged in two lines, each 
armed with a rod or club to strike the captive as he passed them, singing 
some provoking words taught him for the occasion, and intended to stim- 
ulate their wrath against the unfortunate victim. The latter carried a pole 
six or eight feet long, with the skin of some bird or animal attached to it. 

j-T^ r ft X* 

a t (_ 

, < 

5 _ s*. j sy^iuX / - 



Eastman, who was the first to undergo the ordeal, was terribly mauled. 
Stark, whose pole was ornamented with a loon's skin, making a sudden 
rush, knocked down the nearest Indian, and wresting his club from him, 
struck out right and left, dealing such vigorous blows at each turn that lie 




made it lively for the Indians without much injury to himself. This feat 

/ V V 

greatly pleased the old Indians, who enjoyed the discomfiture of their 
young men. "When the Indians directed him to hoe corn. Stark cut up 
the young corn, and filing his hoe into the river, declaring that it was the 


business of squaws, and not of warriors, to hoe corn. Pleased with his 
boldness, the Indians released him from his task. lie was adopted into 
the tribe by the sachem, and treated with genuine kindness as long as lit 
remained with them. lie was subsequently ransomed on payment of 100, 
and returned home. 

During the Revolutionary "War, Stark's services were rendered at the 
most critical moments, and were of the highest value to his country. At 



Bunker Hill he commanded at the rail fence on the left of the redoubt, 
holding the post long enough to insure the safety of his overpowered and 
retreating countrymen. At Trenton, where the capture of the Hessian 
garrison revived the sinking spirits of the Americans, he led the van of 
Sullivan's division ; and at Bennington he struck the decisive blow that 
paralyzed iiurgoyne and made his surrender inevitable. 

" When on that field his band the Hessians fought, 

Briefly he spoke before the fight began ; 
' Soldiei's ! these German gentlemen were bought 

For four pounds eight and seven pence per man, 
By England's king ; a bargain it is thought. 

Are we worth more ? Let's prove it while we can, 
For we must beat them, boys, ere set of sun, 
Or my wife sleeps a widow' it was done." 


While stationed at Fort William Henry, in March, 1757, Stark's vigil- 
ance saved the fort from surprise and capture. It was then garrisoned by 
an Irish regiment and one hundred and fifty Rangers, many of whom 
were of the Scotch-Irish race. Overhearing his men planning a celebra- 
tion in honor of St. Patrick, he ordered that no grog should be served to 
them on the evening of the 17th without his written order. Feigning a 
lame wrist, he refused all entreaties for such an order. Meantime the 
Irish soldiers, having received an extra supply of rum, held a carouse last- 
ing through that night and the following day. Being totally unfit for 
duty, the Rangers, who were sober, supplied their places as sentinels. At 
two o'clock on the morning of the 18th a French army of two thousand 
five hundred men, under De Vaudreuil, with a large Indian following; 
knowing the Irish custom, and expecting to find the garrison intoxicated, 
approached within thirty rods of the fort. Five hundred picked men 
then advanced w r ith scaling ladders to the attack. The Rangers were on 
the alert, and poured a destructive volley into their ranks, while the guns 
of the fort opened with grape and canister upon the column in the rear. 
Confused and mortified, the French fell back greatly demoralized. On 
the following day a general attack was made, which was gallantly repulsed, 
and after a five days' siege the enemy withdrew. The fort was soon af- 
terwards captured by Montcalm, by whom it was entirely destroyed. The 
Rangers \vere engaged for the first time in the action at Lake George, be 
tween General Johnson, and the French and Indians, under Baron Dieskau. 
Kogers and a part of his command were absent at the time on a scouting 
expedition up the Hudson. 


Ill January, 1757, a detachment of Hangers inarched from Fort "\Vill 
iam Henry to intercept supplies passing between Crown Point and Ticon- 
deroga, Half-way between these posts they captured several sleds and de- 
stroyed their loading. One sled escaped, and was driven swiftly hack to 
Ticonderoga, Knowing that the garrison would be immediately notified 
of their presence, the Rangers at once began their retreat. As it was rain- 
ing, they paused at their last night's camping-ground, where their tires 
were still burning, long enough to dry their guns and put in fresh priming. 
They marched in single file, Rogers in front, Stark in the rear, and Cap- 
tain Spekeman in the centre. At two in the afternoon, when only three 
miles from Ticonderoga, they were suddenly attacked by a force of French 
and Indians of three times their own number, concealed in their front. 
A desperate and sanguinary encounter now took place. The enemy, who 
were drawn up in the form of a crescent upon the summit of a hill, sa- 
inted the Rangers with a volley that proved fatal to several, and wounded 
Rogers in the head. He ordered his men to retire to an opposite emi- 
nence, where Stark and Brewer had made a stand with forty men to eovei 
the retreat. Stark repulsed the enemy by a brisk fire from his position. 
thus affording the retreating Rangers an opportunity to post themselves to 
advantage. He himself took post in the centre, and placed reserves tc 
protect the flanks and watch the movements of the enemy. 

Attempts to outflank them were repeatedly made, and were gallantly 
repulsed. The Rangers were also hard pressed in front, but having the 
advantage of the ground, and being sheltered by large trees, they main- 
tained a constant and effective fire until darkness put an end to the con- 
flict, when the enemy retired. Rogers having been wounded, and Speke- 
man killed, the command devolved upon Stark. 

While the fight was fiercest, a ball pierced Rogers 1 * wrist. A stream 
of blood gushed out. It had to be stopped or he would bleed to death. 
Rogers's hair was braided in a queue behind. One of the Rangers cut it 
off with his hunting-knife, and Rogers thrusting it into the wound stopped 
the flow of blood. 

After receiving this second wound, Rogers advised a retreat, but Stark 
declared that he had a good position and would fight until dark, and then 
retreat; that in such a course lay their only safety, and that he would 
shoot the first man who fled. While he was speaking, a bullet struck the 
lock of his gun, rendering it useless. Seeing a Frenchman fall at the same 
moment he sprang forward, seized his gun, and returning to his tree con- 
tinued the action. 

While the Rangers were defending their position on the crest of the 



hill, Stark observed that several balls struck near him from a particular 
direction. A moment afterwards he discovered an Indian stretched at full 
length upon a rock, behind a large tree. Getting his gun in readiness, as 
the Indian rose for another shot at him, it was instantly levelled and dis- 
charged, and the savage rolled from the rock into the snow, pierced 
through the head by the bullet. 

At nightfall Stark drew off his men in good order, and by marching 
all night reached Lake George early next morning. As the wounded were 
unable to proceed farther, Stark volunteered to procure assistance from 
Fort William Henry. He reached it that evening, performing the journey 
of forty miles upon snow-shoes, the snow being four feet deep upon a 
level. Sleds were immediately despatched, and the wounded safely trans- 
ported to the fort. 

Stark' s decision, prudence, and courage saved the Rangers from de- 
feat in this instance, and contributed greatly to the subsequent success and 
celebrity of the corps. He was promoted to the captaincy made vacant 
by the loss of Captain Spekeman. 

This was a costly victory for the Rangers, who lost, in killed, wounded, 
and prisoners, more than one-third of their number. The number of the 
enemy was two hundred and fifty, of whom one hundred and sixteen were 
killed and wounded. 

Skilful and brave as were the Rangers, they were not always success- 
ful. The French partisans, under good leaders, with their wily and for- 
midable Indian allies w T ell versed in forest warfare, on one occasion in- 
flicted dire disaster upon them. 

Near Fort Ticonderoga, Rogers, with one hundred and eighty men, 
attacked and put to flight a party of Indians, inflicting upon them a 

severe blow. This, however, proved to be only a small part 

.. , ,., -,-rk i-Tk-r T.I March 13 > 1T58 - 

ot a force winch, under Durantaye and De Langry, French 

officers of reputation, was fully prepared to meet the Rangers, of whose 
movements they had been thoroughly informed beforehand. 

The Rangers had thrown down their packs, and were scattered in pur- 
suit of the flying savages, when they were suddenly confronted by the 
main body of the enemy, of whose presence they were wholly unsuspi- 
cious. Nearly fifty of the Rangers fell at the first onslaught, the remain- 
der retreating to a position in which they could make a stand. Here they 
fought with their accustomed valor, and more than once drove back their 
more numerous foes. Repeated attacks were made upon them both in 
front and on either flank, the enemy rallying after each repulse, and 
manifesting a tenacity and determination equal to that of the Rangers. 


The fight had lasted some time, when a body of two hundred Indians 
was discovered ascending a hill on the right, in order to gain the real 1 of 
the Rangers. Lieutenant Phillips, with eighteen men, reached it before 
them and drove them hack. Lieutenant Crufton, with fifteen men, was 
ordered to anticipate a similar movement in another quarter. The enemy 
now pressed so closely on their front that the opposing parties were often 
intermingled, and in general not more than twenty yards asunder. 

This unequal contest had continued an hour and a half, and the 

Rangers had lost more than half their number. After doing all that 

brave men could do, the remainder retreated in the best manner possible 

each for himself. A singular circumstance connected with this battle 

was, that it was fought by both sides upon snow-shoes. 

In the pursuit that followed, Rogers made his escape by outwitting 
tlie Indians who pressed closely upon him such, at least, is the tradition. 

The precipitous cliff near the 
northerly end of Lake George, 
since called Rogers's Rock, has on 
one side a sharp and steep descent 
hundreds of feet to the lake. 
Gaining this point, Rogers threw 
his rifle and other incumbrances 
down the rocks. Then unbuck- 
ling the straps of his snow-shoes, 
and, turning round, he refastened 
them, the toes still pointing to- 
wards the lake. This was t he- 
work of a moment. He then walked back from the edge of the cliff into 
the woods, and disappeared just as the Indians, sure of their prey, reached 
the spot. To their amazement, they saw two tracks towards the cliff, none 
from it, and supposed that two Englishmen had thrown themselves down 
the precipice, preferring to be dashed to pieces rather than be captured. 
Soon a rapidly receding form on the ice below attracted their notice, and 
the baffled savages, seeing that the redoubtable Ranger had safely effected 
the perilous descent, gave up the chase, fully persuaded that Rogers was 
under the protection of the Great Spirit. 

The retreating Rangers reached Lake George that evening, and an 
express was despatched to the fort for assistance. The men, having lo^t 
their, knapsacks, passed an extremely cold night, without fire or blankets. 
Proceeding up the lake in the morning, they were met by Stark, who was 
not in the engagement, bringing to their relief provisions, blankets, and 



This timely assist- 
ance enabled them to reach 
Fort Edward in safety. 
One fine morning in 


the following August, Rog- 
ers and Israel Putnam, 
a provincial officer from 
Connecticut, with five hun- 
dred men, were in the vicinity of Fort Anne a post 
about midway between Ticonderoga and Fort Edward 
watching the motions of the enemy. The French, under 
the celebrated partisan Marin, were also on the lookout 
for them, and only a mile and a half distant. 

In a spirit of false emulation, and in disregard of that prime virtue of 
the Ranger caution in the presence of an enemy Rogers, before march- 
ing, practised firing at a mark with a British officer. The sound reached 
the ears of the vigilant Marin, who hastily formed an ambuscade at the 
point where the Rangers soon afterwards emerged from a dense thicket 
into the open woods. Putnam was in front, Captain Dalzell, with some 
British regulars, was in the centre, while Rogers brought up the rear. 

Just as Putnam entered the forest the enemy rose, and with discordant 
yells and whoops began the attack. He halted and returned the fire, his 
men scattering, sometimes fighting aggressively in open view, and some- 
times individually under cover, taking aim from behind each tree. Dalzell 
came promptly to his support, Rogers contenting himself with protecting 
the flanks and rear. After a hard struggle the enemy were driven from 
the field, leaving about ninety dead. 

Early in the fight a rush was made upon the Rangers, and Putnam's 
fusee unfortunately missed fire, just as he was confronted by a large and 
powerful savage. "With uplifted hatchet and exultant yell the warrior 
sprang forward, compelled him to surrender, and then disarming him and 
binding him to a tree returned to the conflict. 

A turn in the tide of battle soon brought this tree directly between the 



two parties, and it was pierced by many of tlie balls which flew incessantly 
from either side. Putnam's clothes were riddled with shot-holes, but not 
a bullet touched his person. In this uncomfortable situation, unable to 
stir hand or foot, or even to incline his head, he remained more than an 
hour, when, on the retreat of the enemy, he was unbound and carried off 
by his captor. 

At one time, when the Indians had gained ground, a young brave 
amused himself by throwing his tomahawk as near Putnam's head as pos- 
sible without hitting it. "While engaged in this pleasant occupation, the 
weapon several times struck the tree within a hair's-breadth of the mark. 


lie tired at length of this cruel sport, and a more savage Frenchman ap- 
proached and levelled his musket within a foot of Putnam's breast. Fortu- 
nately it missed fire. In vain Putnam claimed the consideration due to a 
prisoner of war; the dastardly wretch gave him a cruel blow on the jaw 
with the butt end of his piece, and then left him to his fate. 

At some distance from the scene of action he was stripped of his coat, 
vest, stockings, and shoes, loaded with as many of the packs of the wounded 
as could be piled upon him, strongly pinioned, and his wrists tied as 
tightly together as they could be pulled with a cord. "When, after a 
long and toilsome march, the party halted, his naked feet were torn and 

/~~- >3^ Itirir ii' i rf*s- ' 
r ' C^fig^l 1 

u ,W.^- 



bleeding, and his hands were immoderately swollen from the tightness of 
the ligature. 

Exhausted with bearing a burden beyond his strength, and frantic with 
pain, he entreated the savages either to kill him at once or loose his 
hands. A French officer interposed ; his hands were unbound, and his 
load lightened. Just then his captor, who had been absent, returned, gave 
him a pair of moccasins, and expressed great indignation at the cruel treat- 
ment of the prisoner. He also gave him some hard biscuit, which, as he 
could not chew, on account of the blow inflicted by the Frenchman, the 
more humane savage soaked in water. This and some bear's meat he 
managed to suck through his teeth, and allay his extreme hunger. 

On encamping for the night, the savages, besides other outrages, had 
the barbarity to inflict upon him a deep wound with a tomahawk in his 
left cheek. They had determined to roast him alive, in accordance with 
their savage custom with captives taken in battle. 

Leading him into the forest, he was stripped, bound fast with green 
withes to a sapling, and dry brush, with other fuel, was piled at a short 
distance in a circle around him. Fierce yells and savage screams accom- 
panied this labor and added to the horror of the scene. The flames were 
kindled, but were almost extinguished by a sudden shower. Soon the 
blaze increased, and Putnam began to feel the scorching heat. He could 
just move his body, and often shifted sides as the flre approached a sight 
which afforded the greatest diversion to his inhuman tormentors, as he 
could perceive by their yelling, gesticulating, and dancing. 

Only a short time before he had been nearly roasted in a successful 
and heroic effort to save the powder-magazine at Fort Edward, after its 
outer planking had been burned through; and it had taken him a month 
to recover from the effects of that fierce battle with the flames. This 
time he had given up all hope of escape from the fiery fate that enveloped 
him, when a French officer, rushing through the savage throng, scattered 
the burning brands and unbound the victim. It was Marin himself, to 
whom a humane Indian had hastened with the tidings, just in time to save 
him, and who remained with him and protected him until the return of his 
captor, who it seems had not been present at his attempted torture. 

This savage, while treating his captive with humanity, took every 
precaution to prevent his escape. His mode of securing him at night 
was most ingenious. Lying on his back upon the ground, Putnam's 
anus and legs were stretched apart, and each fastened to a sapling. Then 
a number of tall but slender poles were cut, which with some long bushes 
were laid across his body from head to foot. On these, at each side, ay 



as many Indians as could conveniently bestow themselves. In this dis 
agreeable and painful posture Putnam passed the long and dreary night; 
but, as he afterwards related, he could not, in spite of his discomfort and 
suffering, help smiling at the thought of what a ludicrous group for a 
painter this scene presented. At Ticonderoga he was placed under a 
French guard and properly treated. Transferred to Montreal, he was 

finally exchanged through the 
exertions of Colonel Peter 
Schuyler, a fellow-prisoner. 

Israel Putnam, who rose 
to be the senior major-general 
in the Revolutionary army, 
and next in rank to Washing- 
ton, was born at Salem, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1718. He had 
t he slight education of a farm- 
er's son at that day, but pos- 
sessed a vigorous frame, great 
bodily strength, hardiness, and 
activity, together with no or- 
dinary share of courage, enter- 
prise, and perseverance. He 
was u hero, not only by consti- 
tution and temperament, but 
by the nobler impulses of love 
of country, and an invincible 
devotion to duty. As a cap- 
tain in Lyman's provincial 
regiment, in 1755, he became 

connected with Captain Rogers, of the Rangers, and having himself a 
similar command, they were frequently associated together in scouting and 
other service. 

On the first occasion of the kind it was Putnam's good-fortune to save 
the life of Rogers, who, with himself their men being concealed at a 
little distance was engaged in the hazardous operation of reconnoitring 
the works at Crown Point, in the midst of a forest filled with hostile 
Indians. While thus engaged, in the early morning, Rogers accidentally 
encountered a stout Frenchman, who instantly seized his fusee with one 
hand and with the other attempted to stab him, while he called to the 
guard for assistance. Putnam, perceiving the imminent danger of his 





friend, hastened to the spot, and with the butt end of his piece laid the 
Frenchman dead at his feet. Speedily rejoining their party, they made 
good their retreat. 

Putnam was present at the siege of Montreal, in 1760, at the capture 
of Havana, in 1762, and in 176-i was a colonel in Bradstreet's expedition 
against the western Indians. His military reputation was of great service 
to the patriot cause at the outset of the Revolution, inspiring his country- 
men with the confidence they so much needed to enable them to confront 
the great military power they were then defying. 


He was a conspicuous figure at the siege of Boston, and at Bunkei 
Hill seems to have exercised, at the redoubt, the breastwork, the rail-fence, 
and in the retreat, all the functions of a commanding officer. While com- 
manding at the Highlands of New York he made the judicious selection 
of West Point as the site of a fortress. "While posted at Reading, Con- 
necticut, in 1778, with only a picket-guard, he was suddenly attacked by 
the British troops, and escaped by plunging down a precipice where the 
dragoons in pursuit of him dared not follow. One of their bullets having 
pierced his hat, Tryon, their commander, by way of compensation, sent 
him soon afterwards a complete suit of clothes. He had an attack of 
paralysis in the fall of 1779, and died at Brooklyn, Connecticut, May 29, 
1790. Putnam was a good executive officer, but was more brave than 


prudent. Though wanting in dignity, lie possessed a large share of those 
nobler attributes, humanity and generosity. 

Few nidi ever encountered sueh a variety of dangers, or faced deatli 
in so many different forms. From the tierce she-wolf in her den a storv 
with which all boys arc familiar; the burning powder-magazine at Fort 
Edward; the fiery torture at the stake; the tomahawk and the bullet of 
the concealed savage whose forest haunts he invaded; close and bloody 
contests with Indians and Frenchmen in the Old French War ; at the 
Havana, lighting at the same time the Spaniard and the pestilence, which 
proved fatal to so many of his companions; and lastly at Bunker Hill and 
on other Revolutionary fields a conspicuous target for British bullets. 
With the exception of the singeing he got at Fort Edward, and the cruel- 
ties inflicted upon him while a prisoner, he escaped, as by a miracle, from 
all these manifold perils without a wound. 

We come now to the last exploit of this famous corps of Rangers. 
The village of the St. Francis Indians was situated in the heart of Canada, 
midway between Montreal and Quebec. This tribe was wholly in the in- 
terest of the French, and had for a century past harassed the New England 
frontier even in times of peace. During the past six years they had killed 
find carried away more than six hundred persons, and it was determined 
by Amherst, the British commander -in -chief, that a signal chastisement 
should be inflicted upon them. To this arduous service the Rangers were 

The march through two hundred miles of unbroken wilderness was 
one of great difficulty and no slight peril. The boats of the Rangers, in 
which were the provisions for their home journey, had been left at 3Iissis- 
qui Bay, and they soon learned that these had fallen into the hands of the 
enemy, who were following in their track. This was a serious blow, and 
threatened the ruin of their enterprise, but they determined to push on, 
and accomplish their object by outmarching their pursuers. 

For nine days their route lay through a spruce-bog, a portion of which 
was covered with water a foot deep. When they encamped at night. 
bouirhs were cut from the trees, and a kind of rude hammock constructed 


to keep them from the water. Their daily march began a little before 
daybreak, and continued until after dark at night. The tenth day after 
leaving the bay found them at a river fifteen miles north of St. Franci-. 
which they were compelled to ford against a swift current. To accom- 
plish this the tallest men were put up stream, and holding by each other 
the party crossed in safety. 

Twenty-two clays after leaving Crown Point, Rogers's party, number- 


one hundred and fifty-two, men and officers, came in si^ht of the In- 

/ o 

dian town. Upon climbing a tree it was revealed to them at a distance 
of three miles. On reconnoitring the village, the Indians were 

, . T . n <.*" ,. ,, n n . . Oct. 5,1759. 

seen to be engaged in a u high frolic a wedding celebration, 

as it proved and were dancing and enjoying themselves as was customary 

upon such occasions. 

Half an hour before sunrise the Rangers rushed upon the sleeping vil- 
lage. The surprise was complete. The Indians had no time to arm them- 
selves, and in a few minutes the work was done. Two hundred of them 
were killed, some women and children were captured, five English prison- 
ers released, and the village was wholly consumed. Six hundred human 
scalps were found hanging upon poles over the doors of the wigwams. 

For their subsistence on the march home, the Rangers loaded them- 
selves with corn, the only provision to be found. From the prisoners they 
learned that three hundred French and Indians were close at hand, in addi- 
tion to the party already known to be in pursuit. It was at once deter- 
mined to return by a different route from that by which they came, and 
that by the Connecticut River to Xumber Four (Charlestown, X. H.) was 
selected. The annals of the wilderness contain no more thrilling chapter 
than that which records their sufferings during this terrible journey. 
Hunger and privation of every kind these they were familiar with ; a 
vengeful foe following upon their track even this inspired no especial 
dread ; but starvation ! that was an enemy before whom the stoutest and 
bravest quailed. Some of the details of their sufferings are too shocking 
for repetition. 

After repulsing repeated attacks, Rogers at length turned upon his 
pursuers, and dealt them a punishment so severe as to stop further assaults, 
though the Indians continued to follow him with the tenacity of blood- 

For eight days the Rangers kept together, but at Lake Memphrema- 
gog the scarcity of food compelled them to separate into companies, with 
guides to each. The place where they were to meet was at the mouth of 
the Ammonoosuck River, to which point supplies had been directed to be 
sent. On arriving at the Coos Intervales, worn down with hunger and 
fatigue, they found, to their dismay, that the officer who had been de- 
spatched with provisions to their rescue had returned, after waiting but 
two days, carrying the supplies with him, and that ho had been gone 
hardly two hours ! 

This \vas a terrible disappointment. Says Rogers : " We found a fresh 
fire burning in his camp, and fired guns to bring; him back, which he 


heard, but would not return, supposing \ve were an enemy. In this emer- 
gency I resolved to make the best of my way to Number Four, leaving 
the remainder of the party now unable to proceed farther to obtain such 
wretched subsistence as the wilderness afforded until I could relieve them, 
which I promised to do in ten days." 

With great difficulty Rogers reached his destination, and on the tenth 
day after his departure relief reached his men at Coos, as he had promised. 
Upon the arrival of the survivors at Crown Point, it was ascertained that 
the Rangers had lost in this retreat three officers and forty-six men. Two 
of the parties had been overtaken, and most of the men composing them 
killed or captured by the enemy. 

Great as were the sufferings of the other parties, they were as nothing 
compared with those of Lieutenant George Campbell and his companions. 
For four days they were without subsistence of any kind whatever. Their 
misery was so aggravated, by their not knowing whither the route they 
were following would lead them, that some lost their reason. What 
leather they had in their cartridge-boxes they had reduced to a cinder and 
greedily devoured, when relief finally reached them. 

The Rangers took part in the final campaign of 1760, which ended in 
the conquest of Canada, and, in a skirmish with the rear-guard of the re- 
treating French, fired the last hostile guns of the war. By order of Gen 
eral Amherst they were sent to take possession of Detroit, and the other 
western posts ceded by the French. 

Rogers's subsequent career was not particularly creditable to him. 
While Governor of Michilimackinac, in 1766, he was arrested for plotting 
to give it up to the Spaniards, and sent in irons to Montreal for trial. He 
managed to be acquitted of the charge, and on visiting England, in 1769, 
was presented to the King. Returning to America on the breaking out 
of the Revolution, in 1775, he was suspected by Washington of being a 
spy, and prohibited from entering the American camp. Arrested in June, 
1776, lie was soon released by order of Congress, and at once openly joined 
the British in violation of his parole of honor. Obtaining a commission 
as colonel in the British service, he raised a corps known as the Queen's 
Rangers, afterwards commanded by Colonel Simcoe, and famous for its 
exploits. Rogers, however, gained no laurels while at its head, and came 
near being captured in an attack upon an American outpost near Ma- 
maronock, in Xew York. lie soon afterwards returned to England, where 
he died near the close of the century. 



seven years' war was over. The long contest for supremacy in 
America between England and France had ended in the surrender by 
the latter of Canada and all her western posts. The undefined 

1 7A1 

territory of Louisiana, in the South, alone remained to her of all 
her former extensive possessions in North America. The first act of the 
great drama of American Independence had been played a fact of which 
the chief actors themselves were profoundly ignorant. 

But while the conquest of Canada paved the way for the independence 
of the British colonies, it boded no good to the Indian. He saw his dan- 
ger, and sought to avert it. The firm hold the French had taken on the 
affections of the western Indians had not been shaken by defeat. They 
still clung to them, and refused to believe that the hated English had con- 
quered and that their old friends had taken final leave. 

This feeling was strengthened by the contrast between the courteous 
and attentive behavior of the French, and the insolent and brutal treat- 
ment received from the English soldiers who replaced them at the frontier 
posts. The former had supplied them regularly with guns, ammunition, 
and clothing ; the withholding of these by the latter had brought upon 
them, as a consequence, want, suffering, and death. These evils had been 
largely increased by their introduction of the hitherto prohibited traffic in 
rum "fire-water," as the Indians expressively called it. 

Glancing at the condition of the country beyond the settlements at 
this time, we find it with the exception of an occasional Indian village 
one vast forest. In it a human being, white or red, was rarely to 
be seen. 

Contact with the whites had changed, without improving the condition 
of the red man. The warlike Iroquois had declined in importance. Some 
of the Delawares and other smaller tribes dwelt upon the head-waters of 
the Susquehanna and the Alleghany, but the larger part of them lived 
upon tke Beaver creeks and the Muskingum. The Shawnees were found 


along the Scioto : the Miamis, on the AVabash and tin- Maumee. The Illi- 
nois, once numerous and powerful, had, through intemperance, become 
scattered and degraded. Along the Detroit and near Sandusky were the 
AVyandots, whose industry and good husbandry had placed them foremost 
among the western tribes in civilization and progress. 

Albany, Xew York, was the largest town on the frontier. Traders 
and others, journeying to the region of the lakes, made this their starting- 
point. Ascending the Mohawk to Fort Stanwix, they would pass overland 
to AVood Creek, follow the windings of this stream to Oneida Lake, and 
crossing its western extremity, descend the river Oswego to the town of 
that name on the banks of Lake Ontario. 


From Philadelphia the route to the Indian country was over the 
Alleghanies, then descending their western slope to the valley of the Ohio. 
At the close of the war adventurous traders, transporting their goods on 
the 1 tacks of horses, regardless of the perils that beset them, pushed on 
over the mountains. They were a bold, rough set. and went well armed. 


Their wares consisted of blankets and red cloth, guns and hatchets, liquor, 
tobacco, paint, beads, hawksbills, etc. 

In Southern Illinois were to be seen the old French outposts, Kaskaskia, 
Cahokia, and Vincennes. Farther up the Wabash was Fort Ouantenon, 


whence a trail through the forest led to Fort Miami on the Maumee. De- 
scending the Maumee to Lake Erie, one would have Sandusky on the 
right, or, farther north, through the Strait of Detroit, would pass Fort 
Detroit to the northern lakes. Farther east, beyond the Alleghanies, were 
Forts Presque Isle, Le Bceuf, and Yenango. 

The conquered French inhabitants did all they could to influence the 
resentment of the Indians, and as they were being constantly pushed from 
their lands by an increased tide of English immigration, little was wanting 
to bring on another bloody Indian war. That little was soon supplied. 

Early in 1763 the red men were told that the King of France had 
given all their country to the King of England. Furious at this outrage, 
a plot of vast proportions was at once matured. The destruction of all 
the English forts and garrisons was to take place on a given day ; the 
defenceless frontier settlements were to be swept away, and finally, as they 
hoped and believed, the English would all be driven into the sea, This 
has been, by a misuse of words, called a conspiracy ; in reality it was a 
patriotic, though hopeless, effort on the part of the natives to free their 
country from a hated invader, and to avert the impending doom of 
the race. 

The leader in this great uprising was Pontiac, head chief of the Ot 
tawas, then in his fiftieth year. With the Ottawas were confederated the 
kindred tribes of Ojibwas and Potawatomies. Pontiac possessed great 
courage, eloquence, and energy, more than ordinary mental powers, and 
was unmatched for craft and subtlety. He was of middle height, with a 
figure of remarkable symmetry. His complexion was unusually dark, and 
his features, though void of regularity, were expressive of boldness and 
vigor, which, united with an habitually imperious and peremptory manner., 
were sufficiently indicative of unusual strength of will. To these qualities, 
combined with the passions, the fierceness, and treachery of his race, w T as 
added a powerful ambition, and he had acquired great influence over the 
western tribes. He had fought on the French side during the war, and 
was said to have led the Ottawas at Braddock's defeat. 

In 1760 Major Rogers, with his Rangers, was sent to Detroit to replace 
the French with an English garrison. On nearing that post 

November 7. 

he was met by an embassy from Pontiac " lord and ruler of 

all that country " and directed to proceed no farther until the arrival of 

the chief himself. Pontiae soon appeared. 

"What is your business in my country, and how dare you enter it 
without my permission?" was the haughty demand with which he greeted 
the Ranger. 




: '' '-^vP 

,--. -: IS 

Kogers told him his errand. 
Pontiac listened with attention, 
and with savage dignity ex- 

" I stand in the path !" 
On the following day, how- 
ever, the chief re-appeared, and 
made a conciliatory speech ; the 
pipe of peace was smoked, and 
harmony was apparently estab- 
lished. "I had several confer- 
ences with him," says Rogers, 
"in which he discovered great 
strength of judgment and a 
thirst after knowledge. He puts 

on an air of majesty and princely grandeur, and is greatly honored and 
revered by his subject-." 

Pontiac was too sagacious to believe that the English could be driven 
into the sea. His plan was to bring back the French, as a check to British 
encroachments. This idea had been held up to him by the Canadians, 
who told him that the armies of the French king, destined for the recovery 
of Canada, were already on the way. Acting upon this idea, he sent am- 
bassadors, bearing the war-belt of wampum and the reddened tomahawk, 














t- 1 



in token of war, to the different tribes. Those of the west accepted his 
message and pledged themselves to take part in the war. With the ex- 
ception of the Senecas, the Iroquois confederacy was kept neutral by the 
strenuous exertions of Sir William Johnson. Up to the very moment of 
the outbreak the Indians succeeded in concealing their design. They con- 
tinued, meanwhile, to hang around the posts, " begging, as usual, for tobacco, 
gunpowder, and whiskey." 

Detroit, near which were the villages of the Wyandots, Potawatomies, 
and Ottawas, was founded by the French as an Indian trading -post in 
1701, and had at this time two thousand five hundred French inhabitants, 
dwelling on productive farms on both sides of the river. The fort was in 
the centre of the settlement, on the western margin of the river, and con- 
tained about one hundred houses, surrounded by a palisade twenty -five 
feet high and about one thousand two hundred yards in circumference ; a 
wooden bastion stood at each corner, and each gate-way was protected by 
a block-house. It was garrisoned by about one hundred and twenty soldiers, 
and about forty fur-traders and employes. Some small pieces of cannon 
were mounted on the bastions, and two small armed schooners lay anchored 
opposite the town. 

On the night of May 6, 1763, Major Gladwyn, the commander of the 
fort, received secret intelligence that an attempt would be made the next 
day to capture the fort by treachery. The guard was weak, the defences 
feeble and extensive. Fearing an immediate attack, Gladwyn doubled his 
sentinels, and kept an anxious watch all that night. 

Next morning Pontiac, with sixty chosen warriors, each of whom was 
armed with a gun cut short so that it was hidden under his blanket, enter- 
ed the fort. His plan was to demand a council, and, after delivering his 
speech, to offer a peace-belt of wampum. This belt was worked on one 
side with white and on the other with green beads. The reversal of the 
belt from the white to the green side was to be the signal of attack. Ev- 
ery Englishman was to be killed, but not a Frenchman was to be touched. 
The plan was well laid, and might have succeeded had it not been revealed 
to Gladwyn. 

The savage throng, plumed and feathered, and besmeared with paint, 
had no sooner entered the fort than they saw that their plot had failed. 
Soldiers and employes w r ere armed and ready for action. Pontiac and his 
warriors, however, moved on, betraying no sign of surprise, and entered the 
council-room, where Gladwyn and his officers, all well armed, awaited them. 

* Parkman, " Conspiracy of Pontiac," i. 188. 




brave, Lui chis decisive proof that his plot was 

"Why," asked 
tiac, " do I see so many of 
my father's young mer 
standing in the street witl 
their guns ?" 

a To keep the young 
men from idleness," was 
the reply of the sagacious 
E n gl ish co m m an d e r. 

The business of the 
council then began. Pon- 
tiac's speech was bold and 
menacing, and his gesticu- 
lation vehement. As the 
critical moment approach- 
ed, and just as lie was on 
the point of presenting 
the belt, and all wa> 
treathless expectation, 
Gladwyn gave a signal. 
The drums at the dour 
of the council suddenly 
rolled the charge, the 
clash of arms was heard, 
and the officers drew their 
swords. Pontiac was 
discovered completely dis- 



concerted him. He delivered the belt in the usual manner, and the 
council then broke up. The gates were again opened, and the battled 
savages withdrew. 

Failing to capture the fort by stratagem, Pontiac next tried an open 
attack. A large war party of Ojibwas had joined him from Saginaw. Ot- 
tawas, Ojibwas, Potawatomies, and "\Vyandots, all had united, 
and came like an avalanche, yelling the warwhoop, naked, and 
painted for the tight. Sheltering themselves behind adjacent buildings, 
the Indians kept up an incessant tire for several hours. Some buildings 

May 9. 




within the fort were set on fire by their blazing arrows, but the flames 
were soon extinguished. Day after day they continued their attacks. N<> 
man of the beleaguered garrison lay down to sleep except in his clothes 
and with his weapons by his side. The two vessels in the river helped 
the defence, protecting by their fire the northern and southern faces of 
the works. The smaller one was despatched to Niagara for aid. Pontiac 
was determined to capture the fort, and omitted no means in his power to 
accomplish his purpose. 

Under the pretence of pacific negotiations he decoyed Captain Camp- 
bell into his camp. This ofiicer, who had formerly commanded the fort, 
was favorably known to the Indians. Unfortunately for him, in a sortie 
from the fort, an Ottawa of distinction had been killed. The nephew of 


this Indian avenged his death by killing Campbell an act disavowed and 
regretted by Poutiac. 

In order to compensate the French inhabitants of Detroit for the pro- 
visions he was forced to exact from them, Pontiac had recourse to a strange 


and novel, but successful expedient one which reveals the native ability 
of the man. lie issued promissory notes drawn on birch-bark, on which 
was a figure representing the article wanted, and signed with the figure of 
an otter, the totem or otter-graph of his family. These he is said to' have 
faithfully redeemed. He kept two secretaries one to write for him, the 
other to read the letters he received, and he managed to keep each in igno- 
rance of what was done by the other. 

A supply of provisions and ammunition despatched from Fort Niagara 
for the relief of the garrison of Detroit was waylaid and captured near the 
mouth of the Detroit River. As the long line of bateaux came 
in sight, it was welcomed by a gun from the fort. It was soon 
painfully evident, however, that the convoy was in the hands of the enemy. 
The boats were rowed by English prisoners. The foremost had arrived 
opposite the larger of the two vessels anchored in the stream, when the 
soldier who steered her conceived a daring plan of escape. He knew that 
death, perhaps by torture, was to be his fate, and he saw one chance 
for life. 

Seizing the principal Indian, he endeavored to throw him overboard. 
A desperate struggle ensued ; both were precipitated into the water, and 
went down together ; the remaining Indians leaped out of the boat. The 
prisoners pulled for the vessel, shouting for aid, and were at once fired 
upon and hotly pursued. The light birch canoes of the savages gained 
rapidly upon them. One of the soldiers was hit by a bullet. Escape 
seemed hopeless, when a cannon-shot from the schooner skimmed along 
the surface of the water, narrowly missing the leading canoe. A second 
followed. This stopped the chase, and the fugitives reached the vessel in 
safety. The tortured and mangled corpses that floated past Detroit on the 
following day revealed the horrible fate which had befallen their fellow- 
soldiers. This surprise and capture was effected by the Wyandots. 

A month later the vessel which had been despatched to Niagara reached 
Detroit after a perilous passage, bringing a reinforcement of sixty men, 
and the supplies, of which they were greatly in need. While 
lying becalmed in the narrowest part of the river, a few miles 
above the fort, the Indians had attempted her capture. The captain, ex- 
pecting an attack, had kept all but twelve of his men concealed below, 
keeping a strict watch from the time the sun went down. 


Hours passed, and tlie sentinels at length perceived dark objects mov- 
ing upon the water. The men were quietly summoned from below, and 
noiselessly took their posts. The stroke of a liammer upon the mast was 
to be their signal to fire. AVhen the Indians had approached sufficiently 
near, they were greeted with a sudden discharge of cannon and musketry, 
scattering death and destruction among them. Some of the canoes were 


sunk, and a number of the Indians were killed and wounded ; the re- 
mainder fied in consternation to the shore. Some days later, with a favor- 
ing breeze, the vessel left her exposed position, sending a volley of grape 
into the AVyandot village as she passed, and finally anchored along-side of 
her companion at the fort. 

Pcntiac made a determined effort to destroy these vessels by means of 
burning rafts filled with combustibles. Three times it was tried, without 
success, and the attempt was then abandoned. Some of the Indians, weary 
of the siege, now came to the fort and begged for peace. Treaties were 
made with the AVyandots and the Potawatomies, the latter restoring all 
their captives. The Ottawas and Ojibwas obstinately continued the siege. 

At the end of July, Captain Dalzell arrived, with a reinforcement of 
two hundred and eighty men, and having obtained the reluctant assent of 
Gladwyn, marched that night with a strong party to surprise Pontiac's 
camp. The plan was revealed by some Canadians, and the Indians pre- 
pared to receive him. A mile and a half from the fort, a creek, ever since 
called Bloody Run, descended through a wild and rough hollow, and was 
crossed at the road by a narrow wooden bridge. Beyond the bridge, in- 
trenched and protected by strong picket-fences and wood-piles, the Indians 
lay in wait. 

While crossing the bridge, the advanced guard of the English were met 
with a sudden and murderous discharge, which shot down one-half their 
number. Cheered on by Dalzell, the troops charged over the bridge and 
up the heights beyond, finding no foe but seeing the flashes of their guns, 
and losing men at every discharge. Some lost their way in the darkness. 
Captain Grant, with his company, recrossed the bridge, and made a stand 
in the road. They soon discovered that the Indians had gained their rear, 
and that instant retreat was necessary. This, after much hard fighting, 
was at length effected, mainly by the skill and valor of Dalzell and Grant, 
the second in command, who was severely wounded. 

They had retreated half a mile when, reaching a point opposite an 
orchard and picket-fence, the Indians, who had gained their rear, rose from 
their hiding-places and poured a hot firs into their ranks. The troops 
were again tin-own into confusion, but by the heroic efforts of Dalzell 


order was restored. Charging upon the Indians lie dislodged them, put- 
ting them to flight, and then resumed his retreat. 

At the same time Major Rogers, with a party of Rangers, drove the 
Indians from a Canadian house, and, occupying it with his men, covered 
the retreat. Some of the regulars followed him in. Furniture was placed 
against the windows, and through the openings they kept up an effectual 
fire upon their enemies, which was sharply returned. Rogers's party was 
now completely surrounded, the other troops having reached the fort. 
Two armed bateaux were despatched up the river from the fort, and, 
opening fire upon the savages, Rogers and his companions were enabled 
to effect their retreat. 

In this action the English lost fifty-nine in killed and wounded. Cap- 
tain Dalzell, who had been Putnam's companion in his campaign with the 
Rangers, and more recently aide-de-camp to General Amherst, was among 
the slain. He had displayed great bravery, but was shot down while he- 
roically attempting to rescue a wounded soldier. The Indians were 
greatly elated at their success ; Pontiac's force was soon largely augment- 
ed, and the siege was pressed with renewed vigor. 

Nothing of importance occurred, however, until the night of Septem- 
ber 4th, when a gallant feat was performed by the master and crew of the 
schooner Gladwyn . 

She had been to Niagara with despatches, and was returning, having 
on board, besides the master and mate, a crew of ten men. That night, 
the wind failing, she anchored about nine miles below the fort. A vigi- 
lant watch was kept, but it was so dark that at a distance of a few rods 
nothing could be seen. 

Three hundred and fifty Indians, in their birch canoes, gliding silently 
and swiftly down with the current, were close upon them when discovered. 
The bow gun was fired, but the Indians were soon clambering up the 
vessel's side, holding their knives between their teeth. The crew used 
their small-arms with effect, and then seizing the spears and hatchets with 
which they were provided, met the savages with such determined courage 
that in a minute or two they had killed and wounded more than twice 
their own number. 

In this brief period, however, the master had been killed and several 
of the men wounded. The Indians were swarming over the bulwarks 
when Jacobs, the mate, called out, 

" Blow up the schooner !" 

Some of the Indians understood the words, gave the alarm to their 
companions, and instantly leaped overboard in a panic, all the others fol- 


lowing their example, diving and swimming for the shore to escape the 
threatened explosion. They did not dare to renew the attack, and on the 
following morning the schooner reached the fort without molestation 
bringing a much needed supply of provisions. The survivors of the civ\v 
were each presented with a medal for their bravery. 

This was the last important event of a siege whose long duration was 
n novelty in Indian warfare. On the approach of the hunting season the 
Indians dispersed, and although small parties hovered around, preventing 
the free egress of the garrison, yet the siege was virtually ended. Pontiac 
withdrew to the Maumee, intending to renew the war in the following 

A few insignificant log-forts, widely scattered and feebly garrisoned, 
upheld the claims of England to the vast domain beyond the Alleghanies. 
The smaller garrisons consisted of an ensign and perhaps a dozen men. 
The weakness of this military cordon shows how slight was the fear of an 
Indian uprising. Yet no sooner was it known that Detroit was besieged, 
than these posts were, one after another, assaulted by the Indians, and nine 
out of the twelve were captured. 

Hostile Indians were discovered in the vicinity of Presque Isle in the 
middle of June. This fort stood near the site of the present city of Erie, 
on the southern shore of Lake Erie, and was commanded by Ensign 
Christie, a brave and gallant officer. At one of its angles was a large 
block-house, substantially built of massive timber, its upper story project- 
ing several feet beyond the lower one. 

Into this block-house the garrison retired early on the morning of June 
15th, abandoning the main body of the fort. To protect the roof from 
fire, a partial opening at its summit permitted water to be poured down 
upon it. Unfortunately there was a high steep ridge within forty yards 
of it, affording a cover for assailants. 

From this favorable point the Indians repeatedly succeeded in setting 
fire to the roof of the block-house, but the flames were as often extin- 
guished by the heroic little garrison. Soon, however, their supply of 
water gave out, and with desperate energy they set to work digging a well 
within the block-house. Before a sign of water appeared the block-house 
was again on fire, when a soldier, at the risk of his life, ascended the roof 
and tore away the burning shingles, thus extinguishing it. 

During the night the well was finished. It was just in time. An 
adjacent building was discovered to be in flames, and they were communi- 
cated to the block-house, a corner of which at length burst into a sheet of 


flame. Water was passed up from the well, and the fire was once more 

By midnight of the second day the men were completely exhausted by 
the long and desperate struggle. One of the enemy called out. in French 
that further resistance was useless, as the fort had been undermined. En- 
sign Christie was assured that, if he would surrender, the garrison should 
be spared ; if not, they would all be burned alive. 

Hostilities were suspended till morning, when Christie delivered up 
the post he had so gallantly defended, on condition that he and his garri- 
son should be allowed to depart unmolested. Notwithstanding this stipu- 
lation they were seized, and sent to an Ottawa village near Detroit. Chris- 
tie soon afterwards made his escape to the fort. 

The unfortunate officer who commanded at Sandusky was taken pris- 
oner when that place was captured, and carried to the Ottawa village. 
He was beaten, and compelled to sing and dance all the way from the 
landing-place to the camp. The worst was to come. To cap the climax 
of his misery, he was compelled to take to wife an old squaw who had lost 
her husband. 

One of these outlying posts was taken in so ingenious a way, and one 
which so well displays the Indian's talent for strategy and deception, that 
it merits particular notice. 

On the margin of Lake Huron, at the northern extremity of Michigan, 
stood Fort Michilimackinac, a large square area with wooden bastions, 
surrounded by high palisades. As it was susceptible of successful defence, 
stratagem was necessarily resorted to for its capture. 

A Jesuit mission had been established here in 1071. It soon became 
an important centre of the fur-trade with the distant regions of the Mis- 
sissippi and the north-west. Beyond the fort was a group of white Cana- 
dian houses, with strong picket-fences around them. The fort was garri- 
soned by thirty-five men. Within the palisades some thirty families re- 
sided, and without there were as many more. 

The Indians in the vicinity were the Ojibwas and Ottawas. Many of 
the latter lived in log-houses, and cultivated corn and vegetables. The 
Ojibwas were still in their original barbarous state. All these Indians 
were extremely hostile to the English, and had fought against them in the 
recent war. Their feelings towards them are clearly shown in the speech 
of the Ojibwa chief, Minnevana, to an English trader, Alexander Henry. 
Said he : 

" Englishman, we are informed that our father, the King of France, is 


old and infirm, and that being fatigued with making war upon your nation 
he is fallen asleep. During his sleep YOU have taken advantage of him 
and possessed yourselves of Canada. But his nap is about at an end. I 
think I hear him Already stirring, and inquiring for his children, the 
Indians; and when he does awake, what must become of you ( lie will 
destroy you utterly. 

"Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not 
yet conquered us. We are not your slaves. These lakes, these woods and 
mountains were left to us by our ancestors; they are our inheritance, and 
we will part with them to none. 

"Englishman, our father, the King of France, employed our young 
men to make war upon your nation. In this warfare many of them have 
been killed, and it is our custom to retaliate until such time as the spirit > 
of the slain are satisfied. This is done either by spilling the blood of the 
nation by which they fell, or by making presents. 

" Englishman, your king has never sent us any presents, nor entered 
into any treaty with us, wherefore he and we are still at war; but for you. 
who came in peace to trade with us and supply our wants, we shall regard 
yon as a brother, and you may sleep tranquilly, without fear of the 

This tribe, on hearing the news that Pontiac had begun the war, were 
wrought up to a high pitch of excitement, and determined to attack the 
fort without letting their neighbors, the Ottawas, know their design. 
Captain Etherington, the commander of the fort, received repeated warn- 
ings of his danger, but disregarded them all. 

On the morning of June 4th, the king's birthday, the discipline of the 
garrison was somewhat relaxed, and many of the soldiers, without their 
arms, were outside the fort, watching a game of ball between the Ojibwas 
and the Sacs. The gates of the fort were open, and the officers themselves 
were witnessing the sport. A number of Canadian residents, traders, and 
fishermen, and many Indian squaws wrapped in blankets, were among the 
lookers-on. Indian chiefs and warriors were also apparently watching the 
game in reality their thoughts were very differently occupied. Several 
bands of Ojibwas and Sacs who had recently arrived were encamped in 
the woods near by. 

In front, the field was filled with the players. The game, called bag- 
gat t a way by the Ojibwas, and lacrosse by the Canadians, is an exciting one, 
and is a favorite with the tribes. A tall post at cither extremity of the 
ground was the goal, or station, of the rival parties. The object of each 

PONTIArs WAR. 279 

was to drive the ball to the post of the opposing players. Each player 
had a bat about five feet long, with a hoop-net at the end large enough to 
hold the ball. All were nearly naked. 

The game was opened, as usual, by the ball being thrown into the air 
by some disinterested person in the centre of the field, when the contest 
for its possession began. Sometimes, while struggling for the ball, the 
players would close together in a dense mass, then they would scatter over 
the field in pursuit of it, all the while yelling and shouting at the top of 
their voices. Pushing and tripping their antagonists, or throwing them 
down, they kept up the contest, the spectators applauding and enjoying it 
almost as much as the players. 

Suddenly the ball was thrown towards the fort and fell near it. This 
was no accident, but a part of a prearranged plan for the surprise and 
capture of the fort. Rushing on as if for the ball, the noisy throng 
crowded through the gate-way, and were masters of the fort before the 
astonished garrison could realize the fact, or interfere to prevent them. 

The terrible warwhoop was sounded. The warriors grasped the 
hatchets their squaws had hidden beneath their blankets. Some assailed 
the spectators without, others attacked those within, and massacred them 
without mercy. Etherington and Leslie, his lieutenant, were seized and 
borne off ; a few escaped the carnage, but in a few minutes all was over. 

Alexander Henry,* who was an eye-witness, has left us an interesting 
account of this tragedy, and of his personal experiences during and after 
its occurrence. 

An Indian named Wawaton had formed a strong friendship for him, 
and regarded him as a brother. A day or two before the capture of the 
fort, Wawaton paid him a visit, and urged him to accompany him on a 
journey. He came a second time, using every argument to persuade him, 
but without avail, and finally left him with a dejected countenance, even 
shedding tears. His urgency and the hints he dropped would have been 
more effectual if Henry had understood the Indian language better. Here 
is Henry's narrative of what followed : 

" The morning of the 4th of June was sultry. A Chippewa came to 
tell me that his nation was going to play at baggattaway with the Sacs, 
another Indian nation, for a high wager. He invited me to witness the 
sport, adding that the commandant was to be there, and would bet on the 
side of the Chippewas. I did not go myself to see the match, because, 
there being a canoe prepared to depart on the following day for Montreal, 

* "Travels in Canada and the Indian Territories." 8vo. New York, 1809. 


I employed myself in writing letters to my friends. Suddenly I heard an 
Indian war-cry and a noise of general confusion. 

''Going instantly to my window, I saw a crowd of Indians within the 
fort furiously cutting down and scalping every Englishman they found. 
In particular I noticed the fate of Lieutenant Jouette. 

"I had in the room a fowling-piece loaded with swan shot. This I 
immediately seized, and waited to hear the drum beat to arms. In this 
dreadful interval I saw several of my countrymen fall, and more than one 
struggling between the knees of an Indian, who, holding him in this man- 
ner, scalped him while yet living. 

"At length, disappointed in the hope of seeing resistance made to 
the enemy, and sensible that no effort of mine could avail against four 
hundred Indians, I thought only of seeking shelter. Amid the slaughter 
that was raging I observed many of the Canadian inhabitants of the 
fort calmly looking on, neither opposing the Indians nor suffering injury, 
and from this circumstance I conceived a hope of finding security in their 

" Between the yard of my own house and that of Mr. Langlade, my 
neighbor, there was only a IOW T fence, over which I easily climbed. I 
found the whole family at the windows, gazing at the scene of blood be- 
fore them. I begged Mr. Langlade to put me in some place of safety 
until the heat of the affair should be over ; but he, after looking a mo- 
ment at me, turned again to the window, shrugging his shoulders, and 
intimating that he could do nothing for me. ' What,' said he, ' would 
you have me do ?' 

" This was a moment for despair ; but the next, a Pani woman, a slave 
of Langlade's, beckoned to me to follow her. She took me to a door, 
which she opened, desiring me to enter, and told me that it led to the 
garret, where I could conceal myself. I joyfully followed her directions ; 
she locked the garret door after me, and with great presence of mind took 
away the key. 

"No long time elapsed before I heard some of the Indians enter the 
house in which I w r as. Through the flooring of single boards I could 
hear all that passed, and the Indians at once inquired if there were any 
Englishmen in the house. Langlade. replied that 'he could not say, he 
did not know of any.' The Pani woman had kept my secret. Langlade. 
however, told them they might examine for themselves. Saying this, he 
brought them to the garret door. 

"The state of my mind at this moment may readily be imagined. 
Some delay was occasioned by the absence of the key, and a few precious 


moments were thus allowed me in which to secrete myself. In one corner 
lay a heap of birch-bark vessels used in maple-sugar making. 

" The door was unlocked and opened, and the Indians ascended the 
stairs before I had completely crept into a small opening which presented 
itself at one end of the heap. An instant after four Indians entered the 
room, all armed with tomahawks, and all besmeared with blood. 

" I could scarcely breathe, and I thought the throbbing of my heart 
occasioned a noise loud enough to betray me. The Indians walked in 
every direction about the garret, and one of them approached me so near- 
ly that, had he at a particular moment put forth his hand, he must have 
touched me. Still I remained undiscovered, a circumstance to which the 
dark color of my clothes and the want of light there was no window- 
must have contributed. After taking several turns in the room, and in- 
forming Langlade how many they had killed and how many scalps they 
had taken, they returned down-stairs, and I, with sensations not to be 
described, heard the door, which was the barrier between me and my fate, 
locked for the second time. 

" This respite, however, was not of long duration. Next day Langlade, 
having ascertained my presence, and fearing for the safety of his family, 
delivered me into their hands. One of them, named Wenniway, whom 
I had previously known, and who was upward of six feet in height, had 
his entire face and body covered with grease and charcoal, with the ex- 
ception of a white spot encircling either eye. 

" This man, walking up to me, seized me with one hand by the collar 
of the coat, while with the other he held a large carving-knife, as if about 
to plunge it into my heart, his eyes meanwhile fixed steadfastly on mine. 
After some seconds of most anxious suspense he dropped his arm, saying, 
' I won't kill you.' To this he added that he had been frequently en- 
gaged in wars against the English, and had brought away many scalps ; 
that on one occasion he had lost a brother whose name was Musinigon, 
and that I should be called after him. At my request, as the Indians 
were all mad with liquor, Wenniway consented that I should for the 
present remain where I was. 

" I had not been in my garret more than an hour when an Indian, 
whom I had seen before and who was in my debt, came to the house and 
ordered me to follow him to the Ojibwa camp, saying that Wenniway had 
sent him for me. I went, but instead of proceeding to the camp, the 
Indian turned in the direction of the woods. Suspecting treachery I 
refused to follow, and told him that I believed he meant to murder me, 
and that if so he might as well strike where he was as at any greater 


distance. He replied that he did intend to kill me, and to pay me in 
that manner for my goods. 

"Then drawing his knife, he held me in a position to receive the in- 
tended blow. By a sudden effort I arrested his arm, and gave him a push 
by which I turned him from me, and released myself from his grasp. I 
then ran for the fort with all speed, the Indian following me, I expecting 
every moment to feel his knife. < )n entering the fort I saw Wenniway, 
and hastened to him for protection. He interfered, but the other still 
pursued. At last I succeeded in reaching Langlade's house, and he aban- 
doned the chase." 

Yet another freak of fortune was in store for our hero. He and 
other prisoners were being taken in canoes to Beaver Island, in Lake 
Michigan, when, a thick fog coming on, they were compelled to keep 
close to the shore. At Fore Point, when within a few yards of the 
land and in shallow water, one hundred Ottawas suddenly rushed upon 
them from among the bushes and dragged them to the shore with ter- 
rific shouts. 

" No sooner, however, were we fairly on our legs," says Henry, " than 
the chiefs of the party advanced, and, giving us their hands, told us they 
were Ottawas, and friends whom the Ojibwas had insulted by destroying 
the English without consulting them. The truth was they felt aggrieved 
at losing such a glorious opportunity for plunder. Soon we M r ere em- 
barked again in the canoes of the Ottawas, who relanded us at Michili- 
mackinac and took possession of the fort. 

" Though we had changed masters, we were still prisoners and were 
strictly guarded. A council was held, the Ottawas were conciliated by 
presents, and we were once more in the hands of the Ojibwas, who de- 
clared that they intended ' to make broth of us.' ' 

Henry's suspense, however, was soon to end. His friend and brother 
Wawaton now appeared, claimed him as a brother, and enforced his claim 
by a quantity of goods with which to satisfy his captors. It appeared that 
Wawaton, before leaving the fort, had received the promise of Minne- 
vana, the great war -chief, to protect Henry, and that the chief, at the 
moment of the assault, had sent his son to find him and bring him to his 
lodge. The son went, but did not succeed in finding him. After numer- 
ous other adventures Henry reached Montreal in safety, and resided there 
until his death, in 182-1. 

The fury of the Indians was not limited to the attack of stockades; 
they devastated the borders of Pennsylvania, New York, and Virginia, 


killing and carrying into captivity two thousand persons. A thrifty and 
independent population was suddenly reduced to beggary and despair. 

In July, Colonel Henry Bouquet, with five hundred men, marched to 
the relief of Fort Pitt, which had been beleaguered since May. It had 
been attacked with great spirit by the savages, who endeavored 


to set it on fire with lighted combustibles attached to arrows, 

and who, with their rifles, kept up a constant discharge at the troops from 

under cover of the bank of the Alleghany Kiver. 

Captain Ecuyer, the commander of the fort, when summoned by the 
savages to surrender, was assured that if he w r ould retreat to Carlisle they 
would protect him from some bad Indians in the neighborhood who thirsted 
for his blood ; but if he stayed they would not be responsible for the conse- 
quences. Ecuyer, who fully comprehended Indian duplicity, thanked them 
for their " truly disinterested advice," but told them that t% he did not care 
a straw for bad Indians, and meant to stay where he was ; but," he added, 
" an army of six thousand pale-faces is now on the way hither, and another 
of three thousand has just gone up the lakes to annihilate Pontiac, so you 
had better be off. I have told you this in acknowledgment of your friend- 
ly counsels to me, but don't whisper it to those bad Indians, for fear that 
they should run away from our deadly vengeance." Though there was no 
truth in this story, it had its effect upon the Indians. 

A Swiss by birth, Henry Bouquet began his military career when a 
boy. He was active, courageous, and faithful, and had acquired a practi 
cal knowledge of Indian warfare. His present undertaking a march of 
two hundred miles, through a wilderness filled with hostile savages was 
one of great difficulty and danger, and his force seemed hardly sufficient 
for the purpose. Only a few years before, Braddock, in a similar attempt, 
with four times as many men, had met with an overwhelming disaster. 

Bouquet's order of march was as follows : In the advance were the 
Provincial rangers, closely followed by pioneers, who, with their axes, 
cleared the way. The wagons and cattle were in the centre, guarded in 
front, flank, and rear by the regulars. Another body of rangers guarded 
the rear. The riflemen, acting as scouts, ranged through the woods far 
in front and on either flank. In this order, through the heats of July, 
they toiled up the Alleghanies, and relieved the besieged posts at Bedford 
and Ligonier. 

When Bouquet arrived within twenty-five miles of Fort Pitt, he was 
attacked at a place called Bushy Eun by a large body of In- 

' August 5. 

dians, and a severe battle was fought, lasting tw r o days. On 

the second day, when the troops, exhausted, dispirited, and distressed to 


the last degree by the total want of water, were about to give way, and the 
Indians, confident of success, were pressing them more closely, redoubling 
their yells and war-cries at this moment, when all seemed lost, their com 
mander, a cool and experienced veteran, by a successful stratagem, changec 
the fortune of the day. 

Withdrawing a part of his force from the front, he gave the Indian* 
the impression that he was about to retreat. Leaping from their hiding- 
places, they rushed with fierce yells upon the thin line of English, and 
were on the point of ^breaking into the camp, when suddenly the troops 
that had been removed appeared upon their flank, and, after pouring in a 
well-directed fire-, fell upon them with the bayonet. A similar movement, 
performed at the same moment by two companies upon the other flank, 
put the savages to flight. They were closely pursued by the troops, who 
gave them no time to rally or reload their rifles, and many of them slain. 
The loss of the English in this severe conflict was eight officers and one 
hundred and fifteen men. 

On this occasion the Indians displayed great firmness and intrepidity, 
but these qualities were more than counterbalanced by the steadiness and 
courage of the English. A few days later Fort Pitt was relieved. 

In the following campaign two armies were marched from different 

points into the heart of the Indian country. Bouquet advanced from 

Fort Pitt into the Delaware and Shawnee settlements of the 


Ohio valley, while Colonel Bradstreet passed up the lakes and 
penetrated the region beyond Detroit. The latter failed to accomplish 
anything of consequence, the former succeeded in overawing the hostile 
tribes, and compelled them to sue for peace and restore all their captives. 

In conducting this expedition to a successful termination, Bouquet 
showed himself well acquainted with the Indian character, and fully equal 
to the task of impressing them strongly with his ability to chastise them 
in case they attempted to cajole or deceive him, as they several times at- 
tempted to do. Seeing the kind of man with whom they had to deal, they 
had no alternative but to submit. He told them plainly that their excuses 
were frivolous, and their conduct indefensible, that they were all in his 
power, and that he could exterminate them, but that the English were a 
merciful and generous people, and that if they sincerely repented of their 
past perfidy and behaved well in future they might hope for mercy and 
peace. As a reward for his important services, Bouquet received the 
thanks of the Assembly of Pennsylvania, and the rank of brigadieivgeneral 
from the King. 

The return of the English captives and the meeting of husbands and 


wives, parents and children, brothers and sisters, who had long been sep- 
arated, and many of whom were supposed to be dead, presented a scene of 
thrilling interest. Even the Indians, taught from infancy to repress all 
outward signs of emotion, could not wholly conceal their sorrow at parting 
with their adopted relatives and friends. They shed tears over them, and 
earnestly besought for them the care and protection of the commanding 
officer. They offered them furs and choice articles of food, and even 


asked leave to follow the army home, that they might hunt for the cap- 
tives and supply them with better food than that provided for the soldiers. 
The Indian women filled the camp with their lamentations and wailing 
both night and day. 

A tinge of romance is thrown around this remarkable scene. One 
young warrior had become so much attached to a Virginia maiden among 
the captives that he called her his wife, and persisted in following her to 
the frontier at the risk of his life. 

There was a darker side to this impressive picture. Among the Vir- 
ginians and Pennsylvanians in Bouquet's army were many who had joined 
in the hope of recovering their lost loved ones. While some were filled 
with joy and rapture, others with anxious and troubled looks were flying 
from place to place, with eager inquiries after relatives and friends, trem- 
bling to receive the answer to their questions, distracted with doubts, 
hopes, and fears, on obtaining no news of those they sought for, or stiffened 
into living monuments of horror and woe on learning their unhappy fate. 

At the delivery of the captives a Shawnee chief addressed Bouquet as 
follows : 

" Father," said the chief, " we have brought your flesh and blood to 
you. They have all been united to us by adoption, and although we now 
deliver them, w T e will always look upon them as our relatives whenever 
the Great Spirit is pleased that we may visit them. We have taken as 
much care of them as if they were our own flesh and blood. They are 
now become unacquainted with your customs and manners, and we there- 
fore request you to use them tenderly and kindly, which w r ill induce them 
to live contentedly with you." 

What a pang must have invaded that mother's breast who recognized 
her child, only to find it clinging more closely to its Indian mother, her 
own claims wholly forgotten ? Some of the children had lost all remem- 
brance of their former home, and resisted when handed over to their 
relatives. Some of the young women had married Indian husbands, and 
with their children were unwilling to return to the settlements. Indeed 
several of them had become so strongly attached to their Indian lords and 


to their mode of life that tlioy made tlieir escape and returned to the wig- 
wams of tlieir husbands. 

( >nr old woman sought her daughter, who had been carried oil' nine 
years before. She discovered her, but the girl, who had almost forgotten 
her native tongue, did not recognize her, and she bitterly complained that 
the child she had so often sung to sleep on her knee had forgotten her in 
her old age. Bouquet, whose humane heart had been deeply touched by 
this scene, suggested an expedient : 

u Sing the song you used to sing to her when a child." 
The mother sung, the child's attention was instantly fixed, a Hood of 
tears proclaimed the awakened memories, and the long lost child was re- 
stored to the mother's arms. 

Pontiac endeavored, but in vain, to secure the assistance of the French 
in his efforts to continue the war. In the spring of 1766 he made a treaty 
with Sir William Johnson at Oswego, and submitted to the English, re- 
nouncing forever the great scheme he had so long meditated. His death 
occurred at Cahokia, where he was murdered by an Illinois 

April, 1769. .. ., IMT i i e i i 

Indian, who, it is said, was bribed with a keg of whiskey by 
an English trader to commit, the deed. This murder, which aroused the 


vengeance of all the tribes friendly to Pontiac, brought about the succcs- 

^5 ** 

sive wars and almost total annihilation of the Illinois nation. The dead 
chieftain was buried with the honors of Avar by his friend, St. Ange, the 
French commandant of St. Louis.* 

* Parkman's "Conspiracy of Pontiac" gives a graphic account of the events of this 
war. Consult also Bouquet's "Narrative." 











/ V 





IN the fifteen years that had elapsed since the fall of Canada, England 
had succeeded in transferring to herself the attachment that the tribes 
formerly had for France. They were therefore quite ready to lift the 
hatchet at her bidding against her rebellious colonies, understanding noth- 
ing of the nature of the controversy between them, and looking upon the 
contest as only a family quarrel between father and son, in which the fa- 
ther was undoubtedly in the right, and that, being the stronger, he would 
surely prevail. 

It mattered little to the Indian whether king or congress governed 
the colonies, but his aid was required by the mother country, and in spite 
of the indignant protest of the great Earl Chatham in the House of Lords, 
the cruel and barbarous policy of employing him was adopted. Once 
more the tomahawk and scalping-knife were let loose upon the defenceless 
frontier settlements. 

Congress made every effort to conciliate the tribes and secure their 
neutrality. They were visited by active and influential agents, who made 
use of every possible means for this object. They could effect but little. 
The Oneidas, the Tuscaroras, and the Mohicans, were the only tribes 
\diose friendship they succeeded in retaining. 

Fort Niagara, where Sir John Johnson, the son and successor of Sir 
William, had established the head-quarters of the Indian department, was, 
from its central location, the most eligible point from which the western 
tribes, the Chippewas, Ottawas, and others, could be effectively employed 
against the Americans. This fortress, erected by Denonville where La 
Salle had originally built a palisade, stood on the narrow promontory round 
which the Niagara pours its waters into the lower lake. It commanded 
the portago between Ontario and Erie, and controlled the fur-trade of the 
West. It at once became the seat of the royal influence, where marauding, 
plundering, and scalping parties were organized, supplied, and equipped. 





Hither also were brought the prisoners to pass the terrible ordeal of the 
gauntlet, and here also was paid the reward for the scalps of the victims. 

Thong] i in 'io way connected with the American Revolution, the bat- 
tle of Point Pleasant, occurring just before its commencement, demands 
attention as one of the most severe and closely contested engagements ever 
fought between the red and white races. 

The beautiful Ohio valley had just been explored, the axe of the pio- 
neer was beginning to be heard, and emigration was rapidly pouring into 
the inviting region west of the Alleghanies. But the tierce Shawnees 
maintained a deadly hostility to this advanced guard of civilization. Be- 
tween this tribe and the Delawares and Mingoes there was an ancient anc 1 
a close affinity. These tribes, unwilling to give up their best lands with 
out a struggle, were still further alienated from the M'hite settlers by min- 
ders and other outrages perpetrated upon them by lawless white men 
Twelve Indians had been killed and a number wounded, about forty miles 
above Wheeling, by a party of these led by Daniel Greathousc. 

In the summer of 1774, Logan, whom these murders had turned from 
a fast friend to a deadly foe of the whites, came suddenly upon the Mo- 
nongahela settlements, and retaliated upon them the slaughter of his fam- 
ily and friends. 

This celebrated chief, though allied by marriage to the Shawnees, was 
by birth an Iroquois. Shikellimo, his father, was a Cayupra chief, residing 


at Shamokin, on the banks of the Susquehanna. Here Logan, whose In- 
dian name was Tah-ga-yu-ta, was born about the year 1725. Physically 
and mentally he was a noble specimen of his race. He was brave, manly, 
generous, and high-minded. The white men began war upon him with- 
out provocation. Maddened by the barbarity of which lie was the victim, 
he added scalp to scalp from the treacherous pale faces, until the number 
was thirteen, equalling that of the Indian victims. " Now," said the chief, 
" I am satisfied for the loss of my relations, and will sit still." 

From June to September the most sanguinary scenes were enacted 
along the border. To put a stop to them, General Andrew Lewis, with one 
thousand one hundred Virginians, marched to the mouth of the 

tJ . "*r t 

Kenawha, where he was to join another division of the army 
under Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia. Here he found himself 
opposed by a large body of Delawares, Iroquois, Shawnees, and Wyandots, 
under their most noted chiefs (among whom was Logan), and led by the 
able and brave Shawnee chief, Cornstalk. 

The presence of the Indians was discovered soon after sunrise, and 
Colonel Charles Lewis and Colonel Fleming were ordered to reconnoitre 
the ground where they were seen. This at once brought on an 

mi TT-- October 10. 

engagement. Ihe Virginia riflemen occupied a triangular 
point of land bet\veen the right bank of the Kenawha and the left bank 
of the Ohio, accessible only from the rear. Like their opponents, the 
reconnoitring force sheltered itself behind trees, but the Indians were 
more than a match for them. The struggle w r as severe. Soon Colonel 
Lewis was mortally wounded, and his troops were broken and gave way. 
Colonel Fleming, w y ho advanced along the shore of the Ohio, was severely 
wounded, but his men held their position until the reserve under Colonel 
Field reached the ground. 

The Indians then slowly fell back, disputing the ground with the 
obstinacy of veterans till one o'clock, when they reached a strong position. 
They had taken the precaution to erect a rough breastwork of logs and 
brush, extending from river to river, behind which they took refuge, the 
Virginians being enclosed in the apex of the triangle in their front. Here 
both parties rested, keeping up a desultory fire along a front of a mile and 
a quarter. The Indian plan of attack was well conceived, for if they had 
been victorious not a Virginian could have escaped. "Warriors had been 
stationed on both sides of the river to prevent any from escape by 

Finally a flank attack by three companies under Isaac Shelby, after- 
wards the hero of King's Mountain, George Mathews, and John Stewart, 




who had succeeded in reaching unobserved a point in their rear, com- 
pelled the enemy to withdraw, and ended a contest which had lasted till 

Neither party could justly claim the 
victory in this sanguinary battle. During 
its continuance the gigantic Cornstalk en- 
couraged his warriors with the cry, " Be 
strong! be strong!" The Virginians had 
half their commissioned officers and fifty- 
two men killed. The Indian loss was said 
to have been two hundred and thirty-three, 
killed and wounded. 

After the battle all the prominent In- 
dian actors in the war except Logan pre- 
sented themselves at Lord Dunmore's camp 
at the Chillicothe towns, on the Scioto, to 

treat for peace. Logan, from his retirement, sent to Dunmore by an in- 
terpreter the following well-known address, unsurpassed for its eloquence 
and pathos: 

" I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's cabin 
hungry, and he gave him not meat ; if ever he came cold and naked, and 
he clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war 
Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my 
love for the whites that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said, 
' Logan is the friend of white men.' I had even thought to have lived 
with you but for the injuries of one man. Colonel Cresap, the last spring, 
in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not 
even sparing my women and children. 

" There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. 
This called on me for revenge. I have sought it. I have killed many ; I 
have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country I rejoice at the beams 
of peace. But do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan 
never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is 
there to mourn for Logan ? Not one !" 

Logan was wrong in attributing the massacre to Cresap ; it was the 
wretched work of men of a very different stamp. 

Among the many anecdotes of Logan's kindness of heart and honorable 
dealing we select the following : 

On one occasion he laid a wager for a trial of skill in marksmanship 
with a frontiersman, at a dollar a shot. Logan lost four or five shots witli 


entire composure and suavity of manners. When the contest was over he 
brought from his lodge as many deerskins then valued at a dollar each 
as he had lost shots. The victor declined taking- them, saying he was 
Logan's guest, and that the match had been merely a trial of skill and 
nerve, and not designed for gain. " No," said Logan, with dignity, " I 
wagered to make you do your best in shooting. My word is true. Had 
you lost, I should have taken your dollars ; but as I have lost, you shall 
take my skins." 

On another occasion he overheard a mother regretting the want of a 
pair of shoes for her little daughter, who was just beginning to walk. 
When he was ready to return to his wigwam, which was not far distant, 
Logan came and asked the mother to let him take the child with him. 
Confiding in his known character she consented, though with mingled 
feelings of trust and anxiety. This was in the morning, and the day wore 
away with many yearnings in the mother's heart at the long absence of her 
child. Just before sunset Logan re-appeared, leading the little girl, who 
exhibited on her tiny feet a pair of beautifully wrought moccasins the 
work of Logan's hands. 

For two years the Revolutionary War had been going on without much 
active participation on the part of the Indians. The campaign of 1777, 
which had for its object the cutting off New England from the other col- 
onies, brought them to the front. At the beginning of August General 
Burgoyne had penetrated from Canada to the Hudson. His junction 
with Sir Henry Clinton, who held New York and the Hudson as far up 
as Peekskill, would have given to Great Britain the key to the military 

Burgoyne was proud of his management of the Indians, of whom he 
had detachments from seventeen tribes. On the 3d of August they 
lirought in twenty scalps and as many captives, and Burgoyne praised 
their activity. The Ottawas wished to return home, but on the 5th of 
August he took a pledge from all the warriors to stay through the cam- 
paign. After the lost battle of September 19th they melted away from 
him like snow beneath the summer sun. The murder of the beautiful 
Miss McCrea, the affianced bride of a British officer, by a party of Bur- 
goyne's Indians, about this time, sent a thrill of horror throughout the 
civilized world. 

Fort Stanwix, a frontier post at the head of the Mohawk River, the 
site of the flourishing village of Rome, New York, was the sole remaining 
barrier to the invader. It had been built to oppose the French in 1 758, 



and was being repaired when a picked body of British, Canadians, and In- 
dians, commanded by Colonel Barry St. Leger, a skilful and intelligent 
British officer, appeared before it. Its garrison consisted of seven hundred 
and fifty men, commanded by Colonel Gansevoort, a brave soldier who had 



accompanied Montgomery to Quebec. His lieutenant-colonel was Mari- 
nus "Willett, who had earned a reputation in the French war twenty years 
before. St. Leger, too, had served in Canada, and had learned the habits 
of the Indians and their mode of warfare. He entertained no doubt that 
the garrison would surrender at discretion. 

"With St. Leger was Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea), chief of the Mo- 
hawks. He had been active in arraying the Six Nations on the side of 
King George, and only the Oneidas and Tuscaroras had refused to follow 
his lead. 

Brant was now thirty-five years of age, tall, spare, and active an ideal 
Indian with the added advantages of a good English education and a 
training in the family of Sir William Johnson. He had recently been in 
London, where he WHS lionized, and while there had offered the services of 


the Six Nations to the King to help subdue his rebellious colonies. Brant's 
abilities were of a high order. He had been constantly rising in the es- 
teem of his people, until he had attained the position of their ruler, and 
his influence over them was almost unlimited. 

The Canadians and Loyalists were commanded by Sir John, the son of 
the distinguished Sir William Johnson, who had inherited his father's v;ist 
landed estates, but not his abilities. He held a commission as colonel in 
the British army, and one of his objects was to reclaim his confiscated es- 
tate and to resume his almost baronial sway. 


" It was a calm and beautiful morning," says Schoolcraft, " when the 
enemy took up their line of march from Wood Creek. The intervening 
ground was an open plain of wide extent, most elevated to- 
wards its central and southern edge. Gansevoort's men were 
paraded on the ramparts, watching for the approach of the foe. Music was 
Boon heard ; the scarlet color of the British uniforms next showed itself. 
Their standards, taken from their cases that morning, were waving in the 
breeze. To many of Gansevoort's men who were newly enlisted the scene 
was novel. A few were veterans of the Old French War, some were mere 
lads. The Indians, spreading out on the flanks, gave the scene an air of 



. A > p^-$* 3=9 


not unmixed 
with terror, for 
their loud yells 
were heard 
above the Brit- 
ish drum and 

St. Leger's 
force, one thou- 
sand seven hun- 
dred strong, 
completely in- 
vested the fort, but his artillery 
could make no impression upon 
the sod-work of its walls. The 
garrison had little ammunition, 
but were determined to hold 

out to the last. The striped flag which had been hastily made, partly out 
of a camlet cloak, was duly dis- 
played, and not a man quailed be- 
fore the enemy. 

Meantime the settlers in the 
Mohawk Valley, perceiving their 
danger, gathered at Fort Dayton, 
and under the lead of General 
Nicholas Herkimer, a brave old 
German, marched against the en- 
em v. At Oriskany, ten 

August 6. J 

miles from Jbort otan- 
wix, this brave but, undisciplined 
body of militia, neglecting to take 
proper precautions in the presence 
of a wily enemy, fell into a trap 
which Brant had skilfully laid for 
them. One thousand two hundred 
picked men, including all the In- 
dians and most of Johnson's Tories, 
lay in and arovnd the ravines at 
Oriskany in the early morning. COLONEL HARRY ST. LK<;KU. 


Herkimer, who counselled a little delay in order that reinforcements 
might reach him, as he was to attack a force much larger than his own, 
was called a coward and a Tory. These taunts determined him to go for- 
ward. At ten o'clock his men were passing a deep ravine, through thick 
woods, when suddenly the forest became alive. Rifles flashed from be- 
hind every tree. Hatchet in hand, and bedecked with war paint, the In- 
dians rushed upon the 
brave band, and, sepa- 
rating the rear -guard 
from the main body, cut 
it in pieces, and seized 
the supply train destined 
for the fort. 

In the next ravine 
Herkimer rallied his 
men. Back to back, 
shoulder to shoulder, 
they faced the foe. 
Where two could stand 
together, one loaded 
while the other fired. 
Often the fight grew 
closer ; patriot and Tory 
grappled with each other 
in deadly conflict, and 
the knife ended the des- 
perate personal encoun- 
ter. Herkimer, early 
\vounded and his horse 
shot under him, sat on 
his saddle beneath a 
beech-tree, calmly smok- 
ing a pipe while order- 
ing the battle. When urged to retire from a place of such danger, he 


" I will face the enemy." His calm heroism in this crisis of danger 
and disaster was of the utmost importance in keeping his men steady. 

Against these German farmers, in their homespun garments, were 
pitted Johnson's " Greens," well equipped and uniformed in their gay 
color, the Hessian chasseurs, ranking among the best soldiers in Europe, 



with picked men of British and Canadian regiments, and the fierce war- 
riors of the Iroquois. The brave farmers fought so well that an Indian 
chief afterwards said, in speaking of the battle: 

"Me no want to fight Dutch 
Yankees any more." 

After a five hours' conflict the 
Indians raised their cry of retreat, 
" Oonah ! Oonah !" Johnson heard 
the firing of a sortie from the fort, 
and the British fell back. Herki- 
mer and his brave men held the 


In this sanguinary action 

O / 


the Americans lost two hundred 
killed one -fourth of their whole 
force. A much larger number were 
either wounded or made prisoners. 
The Indians lost one hundred of 
their bravest warriors, and the Tory 
loss was considerable. 

The wounded Americans were all 
brought off by their comrades. On 

O / 

a litter of boughs they bore the shattered form of the sturdy old general 
to his home, where he died (August 6th), after suffering the amputation 
of his leg. 

During the engagement a successful sortie was made from the fort 
by Colonel AVillett, who captured two of the besiegers' camps, in which 
he found five British flags. Twenty-one wagon-loads of clothing, pro- 
visions, and ammunition were also captured. Sixteen days later the ru- 
mored advance of General Arnold caused St. Leger to precipitately aban- 
don the siege. 

Arnold had spread in advance the rumor of his approach. He also 
sent to St. Leger's camp a half-witted royalist, lion Yost Schuyler, to 
exaggerate his numbers and his speed. lion Yost told St. Leger that 
he had been hotly pursued and had narrowly escaped, exhibiting, in proof 
of his assertion, his coat, which he had perforated with bullet-holes. Some 
Oneidas friendly to the Americans also came to St. Leger's camp in hot 
haste, telling him that Burgoyne was cut to pieces, and that Arnold, with 
three thousand men, \vas close by. Speaking the Mohawk language flu- 
ently, II on Yost advised the Indians to fly instantly. A panic and a 
perfect stampede among them was the result. 



L^.,, ^^s^v 

~~~ - ?r "i m' ' * 


St. Leger quarrelled with Johnson, and the Indians had to make peace 
between them. Finding that the Indians were plundering his camp and 
leaving for home, St. Leger quitted it, leaving his tents, with most of his 
artillery and stores, spoils to the garrison. His men threw away their 
packs in their fright, and the flight became a disgraceful rout. 

Serious as was the blow inflicted upon the patriotic farmers of the 
valley, their heroism was fruitful 
of good to the patriot cause. St. 
Leger's failure was a grievous 
disappointment to Burgoyne. 
Stark's success at Bennington oc- 
curred at the same time, and the 
combined effect of these two 
misfortunes rendered Burgoyne's 
grand scheme abortive, and paved 
the wav for his ultimate defeat 


and capture. 

Early in the summer of 1778, 


the inhabitants of the beautiful 
Wyoming Valley became alarmed 
at the movements of the Indians 




;ind Tories upon tin- upper waters of tlie Susquehanna. Atrocities had 
been perpetrated in the neighborhood of Tioga, and the Tories who had 
left the valley were in constant communication with those who remained. 

Six stockades or forts were being 
erected by the people. Aged men, 
exempt by law from duty, were 
formed into companies to garrison 
them, while the whole of the militia 
were in constant requisition as scouts 
and guards. The attention of Con- 
gress had been frequently called to 
the danger menacing this exposed 
frontier. Xearly all its able-bodied 
men were away serving in the Con- 
tinental army. Such was the con- 
dition of Wyoming when the Tory 
and Indian expedition was being pre- 
pared for its destruction. 

Towards the last of June, Colonel 
John Butler, the commanding officer 
at Fort Niagara, organized an ex- 
pedition to the Susquehanna, com- 
posed of three hundred Tories and about five hundred Indians, of various 

tribes. Entering the valley from the west, through a notch 

not far from the famous Dial Rock, they killed three men 
near Fort Jenkins. The inhabitants had made such preparation as they 
rould to withstand the foe. A company of forty or fifty soldiers and 
a few militia composed the military force with which to oppose the 
enemy. Old men, boys, and even women seized such weapons as were 
at hand. Colonel Zebulon Butler, an officer of the Continental army, who 
happened to be at, home, was made commander-in-chief. Forty Fort, so 
called from the first forty Yankee pioneers of Wyoming, was made the 
place of rendezvous, and thither the women and children fled for safety. 
A council of war was held in the fort, the surrender of which was 
demanded. The alternative presented was either to fight or to submit to 

the tender mercies of the Indians and the more savage Tories. 

Colonel Zebulon Butler and the other leaders counselled delay, 
hoping for the arrival of reinforcements. To the majority prompt action 
seemed necessary, and they bravely, but rashly, decided to march out and 
give battle to the invaders. 

HK.N Kincr A UNO:. i). 

July 1. 

July 3. 


The plucky little American force, three or four hundred strong, ap- 
proached and attacked the enemy's lines about four o'clock, the afternoon 
being extremely hot, advancing a step at each fire. Soon the enemy's 
left began to give way, but it was supported by the Indians, who kept up 
a galling fire. For half an hour this contest with greatly superior num- 
bers was gallantly maintained, when the Indians succeeded in flanking 
Colonel Denison. Plis order to fall back was mistaken for an order to 
retreat, and the whole body fled in confusion. 

Riding along the line, exposed to the fire of the contending parties, 
regardless of danger, the American leader besought his troops to remain 

"Don't leave me, my children," he exclaimed, "and the victory is 
ours !" All that brave and devoted officers could do was done by Butler 
and Deuison, but it was too late ; some fled to the fort, and some to Mon- 
ocacy Island, nearly a mile distant. 

A scene of horror ensued. The poet Campbell has faintly outlined 
its savage terrors in his " Gertrude of Wyoming," but no pen however 
gifted, no imagination however vivid, could adequately portray such a 
scene. Only sixty escaped the rifle, the tomahawk, and the scalping-knife. 
The prisoners were either tortured, or butchered in cold blood. Colonel 
Butler escaped to AVilkesbarre. Forty Fort was surrendered next day by 
Colonel Denison, there being no hope of a successful defence ; but the 
terms of the capitulation were soon violated, the Indians having before 
night plundered the few remaining inhabitants and burned the abandoned 
dwellings. The village of Wilkesbarre was also burned, and the terrified 
villagers fled to the mountains. Except the few who gathered about the 
fort at Wilkesbarre, the ruined settlement was wholly abandoned by its 
former inhabitants and long remained deserted. Terribly as the valley 
had suffered, it continued to l)e harassed and devastated by the savage foe 
until peace was finally proclaimed. 

Tryon County, New York, was also made a scene of desolation and 
misery. In June, Brant and his warriors burned the settlement of Spring- 
field. In July, Wyoming, as we have seen, was desolated, and 
the valley of the Cobleskill laid waste. A little later the Scho- 
harie Valley was ravaged by the Indians and Tories, and early in Septem- 
ber the extensive and populous settlement of the German Flats was burned 
by Brant. 


To the Indian, each foot of the surrounding country was familiar 
ground. Behind him stretched the illimitable forest into which he coukl 
retreat when he had struck his blow. He fought for his home and his 


hunting-ground, while the Tory, the bloodier of the two, had no motive 
but revenge. What the patriotic people of this devoted county suffered 
can never be known. Of her population, one-third were Tories, who M'ent 
over to the enemy. Of those remaining, one-half were either driven from 
the country or died by violence. At the close of the war it contained 
three hundred widows and two thousand orphans. 

Cherry Valley, near the head-waters of the Susquehanna, its most im- 
portant settlement, was an object of hatred to both Indian and Tory. Tl it- 
people of the surrounding country had early flocked hither for safety. A 
small fortification had been thrown up around the wails of Colonel Camp- 
bell's residence, on a side hill commanding a full view of the valley. A 
fort was constructed in the town a little later. 

Once already it had narrowly escaped. Early in May, Brant had 
planned a descent upon the settlement, having been informed that it 
was then unguarded. Stealthily approaching through the forest with his 
hostile band, he gained undiscovered the summit of a neighboring hill. 
Looking down, he beheld, to his utter consternation, a company of soldiers 
parading on the Green in front of Colonel Campbell's house. Satisfied 
that he had been deceived, he abandoned the attack. He learned the truth 
at a later day. The doughty warriors, whose appearance had so surprised 
him, proved to be a company of boys the children of the settlement- 
decked out in paper hats and armed with wooden swords and guns. 
Though trivial in itself, this little incident yet serves to light up the 
dark background of the tragedy to come. 

Walter Butler, son of the Tory colonel, John Butler, had been sen- 
tenced to be shot as a spy, but, unfortunately, through' the intercession of 
friends, his life was spared and lie was imprisoned at Albany. Escaping 
thence in the summer of 1TTS, he joined his father at Niagara. Thirsting 
for revenge, he planned an expedition against the settlement at Cherry 
Valley, and obtained the command of two hundred of his father's Tory 
rangers and the aid of five hundred Indians under Brant. 

The fort was garrisoned by two hundred and fifty Massachusetts troops 

under Colonel Ichabod Alden. This officer received a despatch from Fort 

Schuvler informing him of the intended attack, but he treated 

November 8. ." . . . . 

the information with unconcern, and even refused to permit 
the alarmed inhabitants to remove within the fort. He did send out 
scouting parties on the 9th of November. 

Alden's quarters were outside the fort, Early on the following morn- 
ing the Indians were upon him. The advance consisted mainly of Sene- 
cas, the most untamed and blood-thirsty of the Six Nations. Realizing 


the danger at last, Alden fled towards the fort. Behind him followed a 
fleet-footed savage with uplifted tomahawk. Several times 

November 10. 

Alden turned and snapped a pistol at his pursuer, but the 
treacherous weapon failed him. At length the fort was nearly gained, 
and its doors stood open for his reception, when the Indian's tomahawk, 
hurled with unerring aim, cleft his skull. 

As the assailants had no cannon the fort was not taken, the several 
attacks made upon it being repulsed. Outside the fort, however, the 
country was laid waste. The victims of the massacre numbered forty- 
eight ; sixteen of them were Continental soldiers, the rest were mostly 
women and children. The Indians relieved themselves of their prisoners 
by humanely sending them back on the following morning. 

The bravery of one man at Cherrv Vallev excited the admiration even 

*/ *J ./ 

of the savages. Captain Cannon, an old sea-captain from the north of 
Ireland, and a member of the Committee of Safety, was visiting his daugh- 
ter whose husband was absent. As he was the only man present, except 
some negro slaves, he knew that a defence of the house would be useless, 
and would only endanger the lives of those intrusted to his care. But 
resolving to sell his life as dearly as possible, lie sallied forth with a stock 
of muskets and a negro boy to load, and took post behind a tree which 
stood below the house. 

As the Indians approached, he poured into them a rapid fire, until a 
bullet in the leg brought him to the ground. When the Indians rushed 
up they found the force which had opposed their progress consisted of 
one old man. Happily he was recognized, and his rank, together with 
admiration for his gallantry, saved his life. The house was then sur- 
rounded and the women and children taken prisoners. 

A righteous retribution overtook the Tory leader, " the infamous Wal- 
ter Butler." He lost his life in the rout which followed the battle of 
Johnstown. Swimming his horse across a creek, he turned to bid defiance 
to his pursuers. An Oneida Indian who, like a sluthhound, had followed 
his track, with a rifle-ball brought him wounded to the ground. Casting 
aside gun and blanket, the Indian plunged into the stream and swam 
across. Butler begged piteously for mercy. The Oneida brandishing his 
tomahawk, replied in broken English, " Sherry Valley ! Remember Sherry 
Valley !" and then cleft the wretch's skull. 

Meantime a brilliant blow had been struck in the north-west. Colonel 
George Rogers Clarke, with a small force of Virginians, had surprised and 
captured the British posts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes. lie 



had long seen that the possession of Detroit and other Western posts gave 
the British easy access to the Indian tribes of the north-west, 

July, 1T7S. 

and that their capture would neutralize the power of those sa\ 
ages and render our frontier vastly more secure. 

Clarke found great difficulty in raising men for the expedition, the 
Kentuckians having their own settlements to protect from Indian attack. 
The march was a long and difficult one, much of it through a wilderness. 
Fortunately for the success of his enterprise, the news of the alliance of 
France with the colonies had just been received, insuring for him the co- 
operation of the French and Indians of Illinois and the lakes. Tin? vic- 
tory was complete. Xot a drop of blood was spilled. 

The pacification of the Indians next occupied Clarke's attention. In 
this difficult task he displayed great tact and ability. lie never loaded 
them with presents, nor manifested the slightest fear of them. He always 
waited for them to make the first advances, and after they had concluded 
their speeches and thrown away the bloody wampum sent them by the 
English, would coldly tell them that he would i^ive them an answer on the 

o / o 

following day, at the same time cautioning them against shaking hands 
with the Americans, as peace was not yet concluded. Next day the In- 
dians would come to hear the answer of the '' Big Knife," as they called 
Clarke, which they always found firm and decided. 

An instance of his sagacity in dealing with the red men is seen in his 

o / o 

treatment of a party of Meadow Indians who, while attending a council, 
tried to surprise and murder Clarke and his officers in their quarters. 
Their plot was discovered, and some of their chiefs were put in irons and 
daily brought to the council-house, where he whom they proposed to kill 
was constantly engaged in forming friendly relations with their red 

At length when they had been sufficiently impressed by this scene, 
their irons were taken off, and the American commander, with quiet scorn, 
siid to them, 

"Your lives are justly forfeited, but you are not warriors, only old 
women, and too mean to be killed bv the 'Bio; Knife.' Provisions shall 

/ O 

be given you for your journey home, as women don't know how to hunt, 
and during the remainder of your stay you shall be treated in every re- 
spect as squaws." 

The astonished red men, who were prepared for anger but not for con- 
tempt, felt keenly the degradation thus inflicted upon them. They con- 
sulted together, and presently a chief came forward with a belt and pipe 
of peace, which, with suitable words, he laid upon the table. Lifting a 



sword which lay before him, the American shattered the offered pipe 
with the cutting expression that he "did not treat with women." 

Two of their young men then 
came forward and, covering their 
heads with their blankets, offered 
their lives as an atonement for the 
misdeeds of their relatives. For a 
time deep silence prevailed, broken 
only by the deep breathing of those 
whose lives thus hung by a thread. 
Presently Clarke arose and bade the 


young men to be uncovered and 

stand up. " I am glad to find," said 

he, " that there are men among all 

nations. "With yon, who alone are 

fit to be chiefs, I am willing to treat ; 

through you I am ready to grant 

peace to your brothers. I take you 

by the hands as chiefs, worthy of 

being such." The ccJnt of this occurrence made the name of the white 

chief famous far and wide through the north-west. 

Yincennes having been retaken by a British force under Lieutenant- 
colonel Hamilton, Clarke at once organized an expedition which resulted 
in its recapture. Hamilton was intending to retake Kaskaskia 
also early the next spring. In a letter to Patrick Henry, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, Clarke wrote: "I knew that if I did not take him he 
would take me." 

This was a memorable exploit one that tested the ability of the com- 
mander and the endurance of the men to the very utmost. The winter 
was exceedingly wet, and all the streams and lowlands of that region were 

After inexpressible hardships the small army of one hundred and sev- 
enty men reached the AV abash, the low bottoms of which were covered 
with water three or four feet deep. Rain had fallen nearly 
every day. Here they were to have found a boat with sup- 
plies, but there were no signs of it, and the troops were in an exhausted, 
destitute, and starving condition. Up to this point they had borne their 
hardships with great fortitude, but now the spirits of many began to flag. 

There was a little relief to this sombre picture. One of the party was 
an Irishman who could sing many comic songs, and as the men waded 

Dec. 15, 177S. 

Feb. 18, 1779. 


with the water up to their waists, the Irishman sitting upon his big drum, 
which easily floated him, entertained the half -perishing troops with his 
comical musical performances. 

At the beginning of the last day's inarch, the colonel reconnoitring in 
advance found the water up to his neck. His men read disappointment 
in his looks and were themselves greatly disturbed. " Seeing their con- 
fusion,'' he says, " I whispered to those near me to do as I did. Imme- 
diately I put some water on my head, poured on powder, blackened my 
face, gave the warwhoop, and marched into the water without saying a 
word. The party gazed, and fell in one after another, like a flock of sheep. 
I ordered those near me to sing a favorite song of theirs ; it soon passed 
through the line, and the whole party went on cheerfully. 

'" I now intended to have them transported across the deepest part of 
the water, but when about M'aist deep one of the men informed me that 
he thougl it he felt a path. We examined and found it so, and that it kept 
on the highest ground, and by following it we got to where there was 
half an acre of dry ground where we took up our lodgings. 

"That night was the coldest we had, and in the morning the ice was 
more than half an inch thick. I told my men that passing the plain that 
was then in full view and gaining the opposite woods would put an end to 
their fatigues, and immediately stepped into the water without waiting for 
any reply. A huzza was given and on we went. 

" This was the most trying of all the difficulties we experienced. I 
generally kept fifteen or twenty of the strongest men next myself, and 
judged from my own feelings what those of the others must be. Getting 
about to the middle of the plain, the water mid-deep, I found myself sen- 
sibly failing, and as there were no trees or bushes for the men to support 
themselves by, I feared that the weaker ones would be drowned. 

" To encourage the party I sent some of the strongest forward, with 
orders, when they got to a certain distance, to pass the word back that the 
water was getting shallower, and when getting near the woods to cry out, 
' Land !' This stratagem had the desired effect. Encouraged by it the 
men exerted themselves almost beyond their strength, the weak holding 
on to the strong. The water, instead of growing shallower, deepened. 

" Reaching the woods at last, where the men 'expected to land, the 
water was up to my shoulders ; but gaining the woods was of great conse- 
quence. All the short and weakly men clung to the trees or floated on the 
old logs until taken off by the canoes. The strong and tall men got on shore 
and built fires. Many would reach the shore and fall, witli their bodies 
half submerged in the water, not beinj; able to lift themselves out of it. 


"Fortunately an Indian canoe came along filled with squaws 
children, and in which there were some provisions. This was a grand 
prize. Broth was immediately made, and served out with great care to the 
most weakly. Most of them got a little, many giving up their portion to 
them, and at the same time saying something to cheer them up. Crossing 
a narrow, deep lake in the canoes and marching some distance, we came in 
full view of the fort and town about two miles off. Every man now 
feasted his eyes and forgot his sufferings." 

Notwithstanding Clarke had surmounted so many grave difficulties, 
his situation was still critical. The town contained six hundred men, in- 
cluding Indians and inhabitants, and no retreat was possible for him in 
case of defeat. The French inhabitants, however, wished him 
well, and on the day following his arrival the fort was sur- 
rendered. The whole country along the Mississippi and the Wabash has 
ever since remained in the possession of the Americans. 

On July 19, 1779, a night attack was made on Minisink, a town situ- 
ated on an island in the Delaware River, by Brant, with a strong party 
of warriors and twenty-seven Tories disguised as Indians. Houses were 
burned, some of the inhabitants were killed, others were captured, the 
neighboring farms were ravaged, and cattle and horses driven off. The 
Orange County militia hastily assembled and started in pursuit. 

At Half-way Brook they came upon the Indian camp of the previous 
night, its numerous watch-fires still smoking, indicating a large force. 
The leaders were for discontinuing the pursuit, but a large majority op- 
posed this course and all pressed eagerly forward. At nine o'clock on the 
morning of the 22d the enemy were in sight, moving towards a fording 
place. Hathorne, the American commander, so disposed his men as to 
intercept them ; but Brant, perceiving his design, wheeled his forces, and 
gaining a deep ravine which the whites had crossed, took up an advanta- 
geous position in their rear and formed an ambuscade. 

Not finding the enemy as they expected, the Americans were march- 
ing back when they were fired upon, and a desperate and bloody conflict 
ensued, lasting until sunset, when the ammunition of the Americans failed. 
They fought in a disadvantageous position and the Indians were greatly 
superior in numbers. One-third of Hathorne's troops became separated 
from the rest at the commencement of the action. A final attack broke 
the hollow square of the Americans at one corner, and they retreated, 
only about thirty of them succeeding in reaching their homes. One 
hundred and two had fallen, and seventeen who were wounded were 



placed in Dr. Tusten's cure behind a rocky point. The Indians toma- 
hawked them all, notwithstanding their appeals for mercy. Brant himself 
sunk his tomahawk in the head of Colonel "Wisner, one of the wounded, 
and his savage cruelty on this occasion remains one of the darkest stains 
upon his memory. 

For the protection of the western frontier, it was proposed, early in 
1779, to take the I British fort at Niagara, and also to carry the war into 

Central New York and \Yesterr. 
Pennsylvania, so as to break the 
power of the savages. The ta>k 
was committed to General John 
Sullivan, who wisely, perhaps 
considering the means at his dis- 
posal confined his efforts to the 
punishment of the Six Nations. 

Much time was consumed in 
the necessary preparations, but on 
the 26th of August the army 
moved on Tioga Point, 
now the village of 
Athens, Pennsylvania. Sullivan's 


force numbered live thousand 
men, led by able and experienced 
officers. One of its two divisions, 
under General James Clinton, had 
marched across the country from 

Canajoharie to Otsego Lake. From this point he followed the outlet of 
the lake to the Snsquehanna, when he joined Sullivan and the other 
division, composed of Pennsylvania troops, at Tioga Point. 

At the Indian village of Newtown, now Elmira, on the Chemung 
River, Sullivan found the enemy in force, numbering about one thousand 
two hundred men, made up of British regulars, Tories, and Indians, led 
by Captain Macdonald of the British army, Colonel John Butler, and the 
Mohawk chief, Joseph Brant. This force occupied a steep ridge between 
a creek and the river, a bend in which protected two of its sides, while a 
breastwork partly hidden by trees strengthened its front. 

This naturally strong position was skilfully taken advantage of for an 
ambush. It was supposed that the advancing Americans would march 
along the base of the ridge, by an open path parallel with the breastwork. 




and the intention was that when their flank was completely exposed, a 
deadly fire should be opened upon them from the heights above. A rifle- 
:nan belonging to the American advanced guard discovered their entire 
line from the top of a tall tree, and thus rendered their skilfully laid 
plans abortive. 

The battle was opened by General Hand's brigade, which occupied the 
enemy in front, repulsing the repeated and desperate sallies of Brant, 
while Generals Poor and Clinton made their way through 
woods and swamps to strike the enemy's rear and flank. 
Proctor's artillery opened upon the breastwork at the same moment that 
Poor and Clinton with their men marched up the hill, shouting, " Re- 
member Wyoming !" 

August 29. 



T'rged on by Brant, the Indians, though outgeneralled and outnumbered, 
fought with great (bstinacy, yielding the ground inch by inch, and being 
frequently driven from their hiding-places at the point of the bayonet. 

Finding themselves at length in dan- 
ger of being surrounded, the yell of 
retreat was sounded by their leader. 
and they fled precipitately across the 
Chemung River, having lost heavily 
in the engagement. They scattered 
to their respective villages and did 
not afterwards rally to oppose Sulli- 
van's progress. But a small portion 
of Sullivan's force could be brought 
into this action. Contrary to their 
usual custom, some of the slain war- 
riors were left on the battle-field. 

Sullivan's troops now pushed 
on, burning and destroying villages, 
corn-fields, and orchards, through the 

Genesee country. Kanadaseagea, now Geneva, the beautiful Seneca capi- 
tal, containing sixty houses and many beautiful gardens, was ruthlessly de- 
stroyed. Canandaigua was obliterated. In this devastating raid not less 
than forty Indian towns were burned, and our countrymen showed them- 
selves no less savage than were the people they attacked. 

This blow, from which the Iroqnois confederacy never recovered, 
strengthened their hatred of the white man, and extended it through 
the tribes upon the lakes and in the valley of the Ohio. Thenceforth 
Washington was named by them An-na-ta-kaw-les, " taker of towns," or 
'" Town Destroyer." 

In the following spring the Indians wreaked their vengeance on the 
inhabitants of the Mohawk Valley. Sir John Johnson, with a large 
Indian and Tory force, entered the doomed district at mid- 
night, murdering, plundering, and destroying. Among the 
slain were four old men over eighty years of age, one of whom was the 
patriot Fonda, Johnson recovered the plate that he had buried at Johns- 
town at the beginning of the war, and then retraced his steps to Canada, 
after leaving a lasting mark of his vengeance on the home and familial 1 
scenes of his childhood. The Schoharie Valley was the next to suffer, 
Brant and Johnson devastating it with fire and sword. One hundred per 
sons were killed and many were carried into captivity. 

May, 1780. 



June 24, 1782. 

We now come to the last Indian fight of the war. A short time before 
the British forces evacuated Savannah, General Anthony Wayne, who 
commanded the American force in its vicinity, was surprised in his camp 
by the Creek chieftain, Guristersigo. This warrior, intending to join the 
British with his followers, had marched through Georgia unobserved, and 
fell upon the rear of Wayne's camp at three o'clock in the 
morning. Wayne was not expecting an attack, especially 
from Indians, but his men, as usual, slept on their arms that night and 
were ready for action. 

Guristersigo intended to strike Wayne's picket - guard, stationed at a 
little distance from the main body ; as the two had that day exchanged 
places, he ignorantly attacked the stronger instead of the weaker party. 
The onset was furious ; but, aroused by the Indian warwhoop, the infantry 
quickly seized their arms, and the artillerymen hastened to their guns. 
Two of the pieces were captured ; but while the Indians were endeavoring 
to turn them upon the Americans, the latter had time to rally. Colonel 
Posey led his infantry to the charge, while Wayne headed the cavalry, 
who cut down the naked warriors with their broadswords, and, turning 
their flank, quickly put them to 

Wayne's horse was shot un- 
ier him at the same moment that 
the cannon were captured. A se- 
vere struggle for their recapture 
ensued, in which the rifle and 
the tomahawk were no match for 
the bayonet and the broadsword. 
Guristersigo fought valiantly to 
retain his trophies, and only re- 
linquished them with his life. lie 
fell, encouraging his warriors to 
the last. Seventeen of them, be- 
sides his white guides, fell at his 
side. This renowned warrior was 
six feet three inches in height 
and well proportioned ; his countenance was manly and expressive. 

The Indians fled when they saw their leader fall, and were pursued far 
into the forest ; many of them were killed by the bayonet. Wayne's loss 
was slight. One hundred and seventeen pack-horses, laden with peltry, 
fell to the victors. 


:'.! \ 


In September, Colonels Pickens and Clarke completed the subjugation 

of the Creeks. Weary of the conflict, the Indians ceded all their lands 

south of the Savannah and east of the Chattahoochee rivers to the State of 

Georgia, as the price of peace. Treaties were made with the 

Oct. 22, 17S4. T , , . -11 T T T- 

Iroquois at tort Stanwix ; with the western Indians at tort 

Jan. 21, 1785. -. r , i i i i r T IT mi 

Mclntosh: and with the southern Indians at Hopewell. The 

Nov. 28, 1785. . . - 1 

Shawnees were the last, peace being made with them at the 
mouth of the Great Miami, on the 31st of January, 1780. 

One of the most celebrated of the Indian orators was the Seneca chief, 
Red Jacket. Meeting General Lafayette at Buffalo, in the year 1825, he 

asked the latter if he remembered 
being present at the Great Coun- 
cil of the Indian nations, held at 
Fort Stanwix in 1784. The gen- 
eral replied that he had not for- 
gotten that event, and asked lied 
Jacket if he knew what had be- 
come of the young chief who in 
that council opposed with such 
eloquence the " burying of the 

"lie is before yon," was tin- 
reply of Red Jacket. His speech 
mi that occasion was a master- 
piece of fiery eloquence. lied 
Jacket possessed talents of the 
highest order, and was a thor- 
ough Indian in his costume as 
well as in his contempt for the 
language, manners, and every- 
thing else belonging to the English. He fought for the United States 

O t_^ ^j dJ 

in the war of 1812, and died near Buffalo, New York, on January 20, 




KENTUCKY began to be settled about the beginning of the Revolu- 
tionary War. It was called " the dark and bloody ground," because, 
being the common hunting-ground lying between the Creeks, Cherokees, 
and Choctaws of the south, and the Shawnees, Delaware*, and Wyandots 
of the north, it was the scene of frequent bloody encounters between these 
hostile and warlike tribes. It had been explored by Boone, who had passed 
entire seasons alone in its solitudes, and also by other enterprising pioneers. 
Reports of the inexhaustible fertility of its soil spread like wildfire, and 
soon parties of emigrants were flocking in from the older settlements. 

James Harrod, "tall, erect, and resolute," a skilful hunter and woods- 
man, built, in 1Y74, the first log-cabin in Kentucky on the site of Harrods- 
huro*. and early in the following spring the stockade fort of 


Boouesborough was built. The habitations of the early settlers 
had to serve for forts as well. Nowhere on the American continent did 
the Indians display fiercer hostility to the white settlers than in Kentucky. 
They made frequent and bloody raids upon them, and more than once 
seemed about to accomplish their destruction. 

Foremost among their active assailants were the Shawnees, who, after 
having been driven south by the Iroquois, had returned north, and spread 
themselves over the fertile Miami Valley. Kentucky was their especial 
hunting-ground, and they made desperate efforts to keep intruding white 
men out. They had large villages at Logstown, Chillicothe, and Piqua, 
from whence they could easily swoop down upon the settlements or attack 
rue emigrants descending the Ohio. They were regarded as a courageous, 
powerful, and faithless race, and have been involved in numerous bloody 
wars with other tribes. In all our wars with France and England, the 
Shawnees were found fighting against us. In one respect this tribe is 
peculiar. Its tradition is that their ancestors came from a foreign land, 
whereas the general belief of the Indians is that their ancestors came out 
of the ground. 


No name is better known in the pioneer annals of America than that 
of Daniel Boone. He was of medium height, with a bright eye and a 
robust and athletic frame, fitted by habit and temperament for endurance. 
lie was now forty years of age just in the prime of life and his repu- 
tation as a hunter and explorer, his sagacity, judgment, and intrepidity, 
as well as his calm determination of manner, were widely known, and 
inspired confidence in those who embarked with him in his perilous en- 
terprises. Gentleness of manner and a humane disposition were also 
noticeable features of his character. 

Boone was the type and precursor of the American backwoodsmen a 
remarkable class of men, singular and unique in character, and who found 
their greatest happiness only when they were in a boundless forest filled 
with game, with a pack of dogs behind them and a rifle on their shoul- 
ders. Though frequently reckless, they were generally as remarkable for 
high notions of honor and generosity as for hardihood, endurance, and 

The outer garment of these forest rangers was a hunting-shirt a loose, 
open frock made of dressed deerskin. Leggings or drawers of the same 
material covered the lower extremitiss, to which were appended a pair of 
moccasins for the feet. The cape or collar of the hunting-shirt and the 
seams of the leo-o-inirs were adorned with fringes and tassels. The colors 

oo o o 

employed resembled the hues of the wood, with a view to concealment. 
The undergarments were of coarse cotton. A leather belt encircled the 


body ; on the right side was suspended the hatchet ; on the left side were 
the hunting-knife, powder-horn, bullet-pouch, and other appendages indis- 
pensable to a hunter. Each bore his trusty rifle. 

"It was on the 1st of May," says Boone,* "in the year 1769, that I 
resigned my domestic happiness for a time, and left my family and peace- 
ful habitation on the Yadkin, in North Carolina, to wander through the 
wilderness of America in quest of the country of Kentucky, in company 
with John Finley, John Stewart, Joseph Holden, James Money, and Will- 
iam CooL After a long and fatiguing journey through a mountain wil- 
derness, in a westward direction, on the Tth day of June following we 
found ourselves on Red River, where Finley had formerly traded with the 
Indians, and from the top of an eminence saw with pleasure the beauti- 
ful land of Kentucky. 

"At this place we camped, and begun to hunt and reconnoitre the 
country. We found abundance of game of all sorts. The buffalo were 

* Sec Boone's narrative ot his own adventures, by Filson 



more plenty than the cattle in the settlements ; the numbers about the 
salt springs were amazing. 

" We hunted with great success until the '2*2d day of December. This 
day John Stewart and 1 had a pleasing ramble, but fortune changed the 
scene in the close of it. Near the 
Kentucky River, as we ascended the 
brow of a small hill, a number of 
Indians rushed out of a thick cane- 
brake upon us and made us prison- 
ers. They plundered us of what 
we had, and kept us in confinement 
seven days, treating us with com- 


mon savage usage. 

" During this time we discov- 
ered no uneasiness or desire to es- 
cape, which made them less suspi- 
cious of us, but in the dead of night, 
when they were asleep, I awoke my 
companion and we departed. At 
this time my brother, Squire Boone, 
who had come to find me, acciden- 
tally came upon our camp. This fortunate meeting gave us the utmost 
satisfaction. Finding a needle in a hay-mow would seem an easier task. 
Stewart was soon afterwards killed by the savages. 

"On the 1st day of May, 1770, my brother returned home for a new 
recruit of horses and ammunition, leaving me by myself without bread, 
salt, or sugar, without company of my fellow-creatures, or even a horse or 

In this lonely situation Boone was constantly exposed to danger and 
death. To dispel its gloom and melancholy he made frequent explorations 
of 'the country. He did not confine his lodging to his camp, but often 
reposed in thick canebrakes to avoid the savages who, as he believed, often 
visited his camp, but, fortunately for him, always in his absence. At the 
end of three months his brother returned, and in the following spring 
both set out for Korth Carolina to bring their families to Kentucky. 

In the fall of 1773 the emigrants left their homes for the wilderness, 
and at Powell's Valley were joined by five other families. The encamp- 
ment of these parties of emigrants at night was near some spring or water- 
course, where temporary shelters were made by placing poles in a sloping 
position, with one end resting on the ground, the other elevated in forks. 



On tlicse tent-cloth, prepared I'm- tin- purpose, or articles of bed-covering, 
was stretched. The liiv was kindled in front against a fallen tree or log. 
towards which the feet were placed while sleeping. The clothing worn 
during the day was seldom removed at night. 

Near the Cumberland Gap an Indian attack cut off six young men ot 


Boone's party, among them his eldest son. Tin's calamity caused the re- 
turn of the remainder and the abandonment of the enterprise. 

It seems surprising to us, looking back from our peaceful homes upon 
these pioneer settlers, men, women, and children, to think that they could 
thus take their lives in their hands, and journey M far away from their 
native country and home, to encounter the horror- of Indian warfare. In 
their cabins, and while cultivating their tields, they were constantly ex 



posed to this peril. Yet the population continued to increase by immigra- 
lion, and man}' small settlements were begun. The more solitary of these, 
however, could not withstand the attacks of the Indians, and were all de- 
serted during the first year of Indian hostilities. 

How near and how real these perils were, an incident of this early 
period will serve to show. 

One warm July afternoon, three young girls, one a daughter of Boone, 
the others daughters of Colonel Galloway, carelessly crossed the river op- 
posite to Boonesborough in a canoe, and were playing and splashing the 
water with their paddles, the canoe meanwhile drifting near the shore. 
Five Indians were lying here concealed, one of whom, reaching the rope 
that hung from the bow of the boat, turned its course up the stream and 
in a direction to be hidden from the view of those in the fort. The loud 
shrieks of the captured girls were heard, but too late for their rescue. 
Both Boone and Galloway were absent, and night set in before they re- 
turned and arrangements could be made for pursuit. 

Next morning at daylight, Boone, with eight others, were on the track, 
but found it obscure, the Indians having walked some distance apart 
through the thickest canes they could find. Observing their general 
course by signs known only to experienced woodsmen, they travelled in 
the direction thus indicated upward of thirty miles ; then crossing then 
trace they soon found their tracks in a buffalo path, and ten miles farthei 
on overtook them, just as they were kindling a fire to cook their evening 

Each party discovered the other at the same moment. Four of 
Boone's party fired, killing two of the Indians, and all immediately rushed 
in, in order to give them no time to murder the captives. The Indians 
fled, leaving guns, knives, prisoners, and everything in their hasty flight. 
Boone and his friends were too much elated at recovering their broken- 
hearted little girls to think of further pursuit. The joy of the parents on 
thus recovering their lost darlings may be imagined, it cannot be de 

The repulse of the savages from Boonesborough and Ilarrod's Statiorr 
was followed by an attack on Logan's fort, which contained fifteen persons 
The forts of Boone and Harrod were about equidistant from ^ ^ ^ 
Logan's, but as they were also menaced, no aid could be ex- 
pected from them. The little garrison suffered greatly, but was sustained 
by the dauntless bravery of Logan. The savages, disappointed in their 
attacks upon the other two forts, seemed all the more determined t<< 
wreak their vengeance upon this, 


At the moment of attack, the women were without the fort, milking 


the cows, the men guarding them. From the cover of a thick canebreak 
the approaching Indians fired upon them, killing two and wounding a 
third; the remainder reached the fort unhurt. 

A thrilling incident now occurred. Harrison, one of the men who had 
fallen, was still alive, and was seen to he making ineffectual struggles to 
dra<>' himself to the fort, from which his distressed family witnessed the 

O */ 

harrowing struggle. The sight moved the intrepid Logan to make an 
effort for his rescue. So perilous seemed the attempt, that one man only 
could he induced to accompany him, and he, a tried soldier, recoiled at 
the gate. Left alone, Logan saw the poor fellow, after crawling a short 
distance, sink to the earth exhausted. Taking his life in his hand he 
darted forth, raised the wounded man in his arms, and bore him amidst a 
shower of balls safely to the fort. 

Logan's courage, sagacity, and endurance were now to be put to a severer 
test. The ammunition of the little garrison was well-nigh exhausted. 
None could be had nearer than Holston. Through the forest and over 
the Cumberland Mountains, by an untrodden route, he led a little party of 
volunteers to this remote settlement, and in ten days returned with the 
necessary means of repelling the besiegers, who were finally driven off 
by a relieving force under Colonel Bowman. 

Benjamin Logan, who built this fort near the present site of Stanford, 
about the time Boone's fort was erected, was by birth a Virginian. By 
the death of his father he was left, at the age of fourteen, with the care 
of a large family. The nobleness of his nature was shown at this early 
period. Though entitled by law to the whole landed estate of his father, 
he shared it equally with his brothers and sisters. In 1775, as we have 
seen, he settled in Kentucky. Booue's, Harrod's, and Logan's stations 
were for a long time the grand rallying points for the solitary settlers dis- 
persed over the country ; thenceforward Logan was identified with the 
military and civil history of Kentucky. In 1788 he conducted a success- 
ful expedition against the north-western tribes, and four years later was a 
member of the convention that framed the constitution of the State. 

Early in 1778, Boone, while making salt at the Lower Blue Licks, was 
captured by the Indians and taken to Detroit. Colonel Hamilton, the 
British commandant, offered his captors a ransom of 100, which was re- 
fused. They knew the value of their prisoner, and compelled him to 
return with them to Chillicothe. He was soon afterwards adopted into 
the family of Black Fish, one of the principal chiefs of the Shawnee tribe, 
and wisely appeared to be reconciled to his situation, and to accommodate 


himself to his new mode of life ; he thus succeeded in winning their 
confidence and affection. 

In his narrative he says : 

" I often went hunting with them, and frequently gained their applause 
for my shooting. I was careful not to excel many of them at this sport, 
for no people are more envious than they. I could observe in their coun- 
tenances and gestures the greatest expression of joy when they excelled 
me, and, when the reverse happened, of envy. The Shawnee king took 
great notice of me, and treated me with profound respect and entire 
friendship, often trusting me to hunt at my liberty. I made him fre- 
quent presents from the game I had secured." 

Although Boone was allowed to hunt, the Indians did not wholly trust 
him. They counted his bullets, and' he was obliged to show what game 
he had shot, and thus prove that he had not concealed any ammunition to 
be used in effecting an escape. But Boone had an artfulness beyond that 
of the Indian, for he divided the balls into halves and used light charges 
of powder. 

Learning one day that an expedition against Boonesborough was pre- 
paring, and that its defences were in a dilapidated state, he determined to 
escape. ]STo opposition was made to his taking his usual hunt on the IGth 
of June. He rose very early, took his gun, and secreted some venison, so 
as not to be entirely destitute of food. 

He had one hundred and sixty miles to travel, through forests and 
swamps, and across numerous rivers. All his skill and tact as a woodsman 
were required to throw the Indians off the trail. He was not an expert 
swimmer, and he anticipated serious difficulty in crossing the Ohio, swollen 
at this time by continuous rains, and running with a strong current. Fort- 
unately he found an old canoe, which he repaired, and which bore him 
safely to the Kentucky shore. He was less than five days on the journey, 
eating but one regular meal on the way, which was a turkey he shot after 
crossing the Ohio. His re-appearance at Boonesborough was hailed with 
delight, and he was looked upon as one risen from the dead. The fort 
was at once repaired and strengthened, and in ten days was ready for a 

This work was a parallelogram, enclosing nearly an acre. In a trench 
four or five feet deep, large pickets were planted so as to form a compact 
wall from ten to twelve feet above the level of the ground. These pickets 
were of hard timber and about a foot in diameter. At the angles of the 
fort there were small, projecting squares of still stronger material and 
planting, technically called flankers, with oblique port-holes, so that the 



, .-.. 


sentinel could rake tin- external front 
of the work without heim; himself 
exposed. Two immense folding gate- 
were the means of communication 
from without. 

As Boonesborough was tin- first 
fort built in that region, it at mice 
excited the jealous fears of the In- 
dians, and became the special ob- 
ject of their hatred. The settlement 
around it was incessantly harassed 
by marauding parties. I-Vw dared 
venture beyond the immediate vi- 

cinity of the fort. A first attack had been easily repelled; another, and 
much fiercer one, a few weeks later, had a similar result. 

Boone himself had, on one occasion, a narrow escape. Two men at 
work in the fields were fired upon, and one of them was tomahawked and 
scalped within sight of the fort. Simon Kenton, who was on the lookout, 
shot this savage dead and gave chase to the others. Boone, hearing the 
alarm, rushed out with ten men and engaged the enemy, but soon found 
himself intercepted by a large body of them. He and his men charged 
the Indians at once, but were received with a volley that wounded him 
and six of his companions. Boone's leg was broken, and an Indian 
was in the act of tomahawking him when Kenton' s rifle brought him 

o o 

down. The party, including all the wounded, succeeded in gaining the 

Boonesborough had now to encounter the most formidable force ever 
sent asrainst it. Four hundred and fit' tv Indians under Black Fish, the chief 

O */ 

who had adopted Boone, together with a few Canadians, the whole com- 
manded by a French officer, Captain Du Quesne, appeared be- 
fore the fort and demanded its surrender. The garrixui con- 
sisted of sixty-five men. Boone demanded two days in which to con>ider 
the proposition. During the time thus gained the garrison collected their 
horses and cattle and brought them into the fort, the women also being 
actively employed in bringing water from the >pring. 

At the end of the two days, Boone, standing upon one of the bastions, 
returned to Du Quesne the final answer of the garrison. The latter 
portion of it must have sounded a little ironical to the French officer, 
who listened attentively to this uncommonly long speech from the taciturn 



" We are determined," said Boone, u to defend our fort while a man is 
living. We laugh at all your formidable preparations, but thank you for 
giving us notice and time to provide for our defence." 

Du Quesne, who seems not to have been very sanguine as to his success, 
then proposed that the garrison should send out nine of its chosen men 
to make a treaty, which, if concluded, would terminate the siege and end 
in the peaceable return of the besiegers to their homes. Boone says, 
k This sounded grateful in our ears, and we agreed to the proposal." We 
can only wonder that men so familiar with Indian treachery should have 
seriously entertained such a proposition. They seem to have believed in 
the sincerity of Du Quesne, but fortunately did not omit to take certain 
wise precautions. 


The conference took place within sixty yards of the fort, under the 
cover of the trusty rifles of the garrison. Liberal terms were offered and 
accepted, the articles were drawn up and signed in due form, and the 
commissioners prepared to withdraw. But the farce had been played out 
and it was time for business. Under pretence of a friendly hand-shake at 
parting, two stout Indians grasped each of Boone's party. They had mis- 
taken their men, however. The stalwart pioneers easily shook them off, 
and succeeded in regaining the fort in safety amid a general discharge from 
the savages, but protected by the rifles of their friends in the fort. 

For nine days and nights the savages persisted in the attack, employing 


all means kn<\vn to them to effect their purpose setting the fort on tire, 
and even attempting, though unsuccessfully, to undermine it. They de- 
camped on the tenth day. having lost thirty killed and a much larger num- 
ber wounded. After their departure one hundred and twenty-live pounds 
of bullets were picked up, besides what stuck in the logs of the fort; "cer- 
tainly a great proof of their industry," as Boone humorously remarks. 

Of the defenders of the fort, one was killed and one wounded bv a 
negro deserter, a good marksman, who fired from the top of a neighboring 
tree. Boone perceiving this watched him, and, when he saw his head. 
tired. The man was found after the battle with a ball in his head, the 
shot being made at the distance of one hundred and seventy-five yards. 
This was a feat worthy of the renowned Leatherstocking. 

A desperate encounter at Ricket's Fort, in Western Virginia, between 
an elderly man, named Morgan, and two Indians is worth recording. 
Pursued by them, and losing ground in the race, he stepped 
behind a tree to get a shot. The Indians did the same. One 
of them, not being sufficiently covered, was shot by Morgan, who then 
resumed his flight, his gun being now unloaded. The remaining Indian 
followed, and, gaining rapidly upon him, fired, but missed him. Then 
came a hand-to-hand struggle for life. Morgan struck with his gun. 
The Indian threw his tomahawk, which cut off one finger and otherwise 
wounded Morgan's hand, at the same time striking his gun from his 
grasp. They closed, and Morgan, who was an expert wrestler, threw the 
Indian, but was soon overturned and beneath his more powerful foe, 
who uttered the fearful Indian yell of assured victory. A woman's 
apron, which, with savage fondness for adornment, the Indian had tied 
around his waist, hindered him while feeling for his knife. His adversary 
in the mean time had not been idle, and had succeeded in seizing the 
fingers of one of the Indian's hands between his teeth. The latter at 
length got hold of his knife, hut so near the blade that Morgan was able 
to grasp the handle. Closing his teeth still more firmly upon the im- 
prisoned hand, causing the other to relax a little of its force, Morgan by a 
desperate effort succeeded in drawing the knife through the hand of the 
savage. Its possession enabled him speedily and victoriously to end the 
desperate contest. 

"Truth is often stranger than fiction;" the following is a well-authen- 
ticated instance in proof of this saying : 

In the autumn of 1779, a party, under Major Kodgers, while ascending 
the Ohio River in flat-boats, were decoyed on shore near the mouth of 
the Licking River, and totally defeated, a few only escaping. 



Among the wounded was Captain Robert Benliam, who had been shot 
through both hips. Fortunately, a large fallen tree lay near the spot 
where he fell. Painfully dragging himself into its concealing foliage, he 
escaped the notice of the Indians. On the evening of the second dav he 
shot a raccoon, hoping to devise some way of reaching it, so that he could 
kindle a fire and make a meal. 

Scarcely had his gun cracked, however, when he heard a human cry. 
Supposing it to be an Indian, he hastily reloaded his gun and remained 
silent, expecting the approach of an enemy. Again he heard the voice, 
but this time it was much nearer. A third halloo was quickly heard, fol- 
lowed by the exclamation, 

" Whoever you are, for God's sake answer me C ' 

Benham, w r ho, as we have seen, had been shot through both legs, re- 
plied, and the man who now appeared had escaped from the same conflict 
with both arms broken. Each was thus enabled to supply what the other 
wanted. Benham, having the free use of his arms, could load his gun 
and kill game with great readiness, while his companion, having the use 
of his legs, could kick the game to the spot where Benham sat, who was 
able to cook it. He also fed his comrade and dressed his wounds, as well 
as his own, tearing up both of their shirts for this purpose. To obtain 
water, Benham placed the rim of his hat between the teeth of his com- 
panion, who would then wade into the river up to his neck, and by lower- 
ing his head would fill it with water. 

In a few days they had killed and eaten all the birds and squirrels 
within reach, and the man with the broken arms was sent out to drive 
game within gunshot of Benham. Fortunately, wild turkeys were abun- 
dant, and Benham seldom failed to kill two or three of each flock. In 
this manner they supported themselves until they were able to travel, when 
they camped at the mouth of the Licking, where they anxiously awaited the 
approach of some boat which might take them to the Falls of the Ohio. 

One day, late in November, they espied a flat-boat moving leisurely 
down the river. Benham hoisted his hat upon a stick and hallooed loudly 
for help. The crew, supposing that they were Indians endeavoring to 
decoy them ashore, passed on as rapidly as possible. Benham beheld them 
receding, with a sensation of utter despair, for the place was one that was 
much frequented by the Indians, and the approach of winter threatened 
them with death unless they could speedily be relieved. 

The boat had passed him nearly half a mile, when he saw a canoe put 
off from it and cautiously approach the Kentucky shore. He called loud- 
ly to them for assistance, mentioned his name, and made known his con- 


clition. After a long parley, and with great reluctance on the part of the 
crew, the canoe at length touched the shore, and l>enh; 4 ;n and his friend 
were taken on board. 

Their appearance was certainly suspicious. They were almost naked, 
and their faces were garnished with six weeks' growth of heard. The one 
was barely able to hobble on crutches, and the other had a partial use of 
but one hand. They were taken to the Falls of the Ohio, now Louisville, 
Kentucky, where their wounds were properly attended to, and after a few 
weeks were entirely healed. Benhani afterwards served through the cam- 
paigns of Ilannar, Wilkinson, St. Clair, and Wayne. 

Elizabeth Zane's heroism during the attack on Wheeling, near the 

Kentucky border, deserves especial praise. The house of her brother, 

Colonel Ebenezer Zane, at a little distance from the fort, <-<n- 


tained a supply of ammunition, and was garrisoned by seven 
or eight persons, male and female, besides his own family. Before firing 
upon the fort, the Indians demanded the surrender of the house. A well- 
directed fire was the reply. The women moulded bullets, charged the 
guns, and handed them to the men, enabling them to keep up so constant 
a discharge as to cause the assailants to recoil in dismay. 

At night they attempted to fire the house. A savage crawled to the 
kitchen, and while endeavoring to set it on fire with a burning brand, re- 
ceived a shot from a black man which sent him away yelling. 

Fortunately, as it turned out, for the garrison in the fort, the Indians 
had captured a boat laden with cannon-balls. All they wanted now was 
a cannon with which to batter down the palisades of the fort. Indian 
ingenuity soon supplied the want. A hollow log was found ; to render 
this new kind of ordnance safe, they procured chains from a neighboring 
blacksmith's shop, and twisted them strongly around the improvised can- 
non. It was then heavily charged, pointed towards the palisade, and fired. 
It burst into a thousand fragments, killed some, wounded other-, and con- 
vinced the survivors of their folly in meddling with the white man's 

Exasperated by this failure, they returned to the assault of the house. 
A deadly fire again compelled them to retire. Meanwhile, the long con- 
tinuance of the siege had used up the ammunition in the fort. Powder 
must be brought from Zane's house, in which there was a good supply. 
It was a forlorn hope, but plenty of volunteers oiVcred. Zane's young 
sister, just from a boarding-school in Philadelphia, was of th-j number. 
When reminded of the advantage which a man would have over her in 
fleetness and force, the heroine replied : 


" Should lie fall, bis loss will be more severely felt. You have not a 
man to spare ; a woman will not be missed in the defence of the fort." 
Fler services were accepted. Arranging her dress for the purpose, she 
bounded from the fort. The Indians gazed in amazement at her daring, 
only exclaiming, " a squaw ! a squaw !" and making no attempt to stop 
her. "With a table-cloth filled with powder bound round her waist, she 
returned safely to the fort, escaping untouched amid a volley of balls, 
several of which passed through her clothes. The fort was soon after 
wards relieved and the siege raised. 

About six hundred Indians, led by Simon Girty, appeared at daybreak 
one summer morning before Bryant's Station. The previous night had 
been spent by the little garrison in preparations to march to 

,1 ., f ,, . ?,, TIT v l, Ji Aug. 15, 1TS2. 

the assistance of their neighbors, who had applied to them tor 
aid. They were on the point of opening their gates to march, when the 
crack of rifles and discordant yells told them how narrowly they had es- 

Rushing to the loop-holes, they saw about one hundred red men firing 
and gesticulating in full view of the fort. The younger men of the gar- 
rison wished to sally out and attack them ; the older heads suspected a trick, 
and believed that the main body of the enemy was concealed on the op- 
posite side of the fort. Girty intended, by an attack on one side with a 
small force, to draw out the garrison, and then with the main body to fall 
upon the other side and gain the fort. The overacting of Girty's savage 
allies, and the sagacity of his opponents, defeated his well-conceived plan. 

A serious difficulty with the garrison was the want of water. The 
spring was at some distance, near a thicket in which the enemy lay con- 
cealed. A bold and sagacious expedient was hit upon. Supposing that 
the Indians would not show T themselves until they had reason to believe 
their trick had succeeded, and the garrison had left the fort on the other 
side, all the females went in a body to the spring, directly under five 
hundred rifles, filled their buckets, and returned in such a manner as not 
to suggest to the quick-sighted Indians that their presence in the thicket 
was suspected. 

This done, a small number of the garrison was sent out against the 
party in front, while the main body placed themselves so as to repel the 
anticipated rush of those in concealment. The plan succeeded perfectly. 
The Indians rushed from their ambush on hearing the firing from the op- 
posite side of the fort, and were received with a well-directed discharge 
from all the rifles left within the station. Chagrined and panic-stricken 
the assailants fled, leaving a number of their slain behind them. Discon 



certed by their failing', and discouraged by the arrival of reinforcements 

for the garrison, the Indians abandoned the siege and withdrew. 

The disastrous battle of the Blue Licks which now occurred spread 

mourning throughout Kentucky. Girty and his Indians, after having been 
repulsed from Bryant's Station, were pursued across the Lick- 
ing River by a body of one hundred and eighty Kentnckians } 

ivho had gathered in haste to relieve the fort, under Colonels Todd, Trigg. 

ind Boune. 

August 19. 



A council of the leaders was held. Boone advised waiting for Colonel 
Logan, who was on the way to join them. Had his advice been taken, the 
result would have been very different. The enemy whom they had over- 
taken was before them, and a rapid retreat, or a battle against fearful odds, 
was inevitable. 


Kasli councils unhappily prevailed. The hot-headed Major McGary 
spurred his horse forward into the stream, and waving his hat, shouted, 

u Let all who are not cowards follow me ! I will show you where the 
Indians are !" 

Dashing into the deep ford, the gallant but ill-fated band crossed the 
stream, and pressed forward through ravines in which lay hundreds of 
concealed Indians. Suddenly a murderous fire was poured into their ranks 
by an unseen foe, by which their right wing was broken, the enemy rush- 
ing up with great intrepidity and gaining their rear. 

Fierce as was the onset it was met with heroic courage. Colonel 


Todd remained on his horse, with the blood flowing from mortal wounds. 
Boone defended his position the left with desperate energy, while Major 
Harlan could find but three of his men spared by the rifle. The horsemen 
generally escaped, but the foot, particularly those who had advanced far- 
thest into the trap, were almost wholly destroyed. 

When at length the Kentuckians gave way, the Indians pursued them 
with relentless energy, spreading destruction and death among the fugi- 
tives. The river was difficult to cross, and many were killed on entering 
it or while crossing and ascending the opposite bank. A stand made here 
by a few brave men arrested the slaughter and enabled others to cross in 

Boone, after witnessing the fall of a son and of many of his dearest 
friends, finding himself almost surrounded, plunged into the ravine be- 
tween him and the ford, and escaped by swimming. lie made an effort 
to bear away the body of his son, but was compelled to leave him by the 
stronger instinct of self-preservation. While attempting to carry off the 
body a large savage sprang towards him with uplifted tomahawk. Re- 
linquishing his burden he shot the Indian dead. Boone's last days were 
passed in Missouri, where he died, in 1820, at the advanced age of eighty- 

This was the last terrible blow struck by the Indian for the recovery 
of his Kentucky hunting-grounds. It brought upon his head speedy retri- 
bution. The expedition of Colonel George Rogers Clarke was extermi- 
nating in its character. The Chillicothe towns on the Scioto were re- 
duced to ashes, their plantations were laid waste, and peace was secured 
for Kentucky, no formidable war party ever after crossing her border. 

With all these fearful perils there was a blending of romance. The 
night after the battle, twelve prisoners were stripped by the Indians and 
painted black --the signal for torture. With one exception they were 
slaughtered, the twelfth having been, after a long powwow, spared why, 



* -'-^~ ' ij '< : J r *"' 

^P^ : ^^*^ 

i^& V/ 


he never knew. His faltliful wife was the only person who did not l>e- 
lieve him dead. So strong was this belief that, when wooed by another, 
she postponed the nuptials frofh time to time until, moved by the expost- 
ulations of friends, she at length h'xed the day. Just before it dawned, 
the crack of a rifle was heard near her solitary home. At the familiar 
sound she leaped out like a liberated fawn, exclaiming, as she sprang. 
"That's John's gun!" Sure enough, it was John's gun, and in another 
moment she was once more in her husband's arms. 


There is still another phase to this romance. Nine years later that 
husband fell at St. Glair s defeat, and the same disappointed but persever- 
ing lover renewed his suit, and at last the widow became his wife. 

With the name of Daniel Boone, that of Simon Kenton, one of his 
companions, will ever be associated in the pioneer annals of Kentucky. 
At the age of sixteen, Kenton had a rough-and-tumble fight with a rival 
suitor for the affections of a girl. Thinking he had killed his rival. Ken- 
ton fled from civilization, changed his name, and, plunging into the forest, 
led thenceforth a life of bold and adventurous daring, constantly surround- 
ed by danger. lie was unequalled as a spy and ranger, and the early 
history of the State is filled with his exploits. Reckless in bravery, and 
perfectly familiar with Indian strategy, he was present in most of the 
encounters with the western Indians, everywhere inspiring confidence, 
and always in the fore-front of the battle. 

He had experienced a full measure of Indian cruelty. Eight times 
he was compelled to run the gauntlet one of their most dreaded forms of 
vengeance three times he was tied to the stake, and once nearly killed by 
a blow from an axe. 

On one occasion he had taken an Indian's horse, and soon afterwards 
had the ill-luck to fall into their hands. After beating him till their arms 
were too tired to indulge in that gratifying recreation any longer, they 
secured him for the night. Placing him on his back upon the ground, 
they drew his legs apart and lashed each foot firmly to stakes or saplings 
driven into the earth. A pole was then laid across his breast, and his 
hands tied to each end, his arms lashed around it with thongs, which were 
passed under his body, so as to keep the pole stationary. After all this, 
another thong was passed around his neck, and the end of it secured to a 
stake in the ground, his head being stretched back, so as not entirely to 
choke him. 

Next morning they amused themselves by fastening Kenton to the 
wildest horse in the camp, tying him hand and foot, all the while yelp- 
ing and screeching around him, and asking him if he wanted to steal more 
Indian horses. 

Turning the horse loose, he reared and plunged, and then dashed through 
the woods with his burden, to the infinite amusement of his Indian tor- 
mentors. After the horse had run, plunged, reared, and kicked until he 
was tired, to rid himself of his burden, he quieted down and peaceably fol- 
lowed the party to Chillicothe. 

Here Kenton had to run the gauntlet. He had not gone far before he 
discovered an Indian with his knife drawn ready to plunge it into him. 


Breaking through the line, lie made with all speed for the council-house, 
where, in accordance with Indian usage, he would be safe. Just as he 
entered the town he was met by an Indian coming from it, who seized 
him, and in his exhausted condition easily threw him down. 

In another moment his pursuers were upon him. They kicked and 
beat him, and tore off his clothes, leaving him naked and exhausted. As 
sunn as lie recovered they took him to the council to determine his fate. 
Death was the decree, and the execution was to take place in a distant 
village. While he was on the way to this place he made a bold push for 
freedom, and was soon out of sight of his pursuers. His usual ill-luck 
again attended him. When about two miles from the town, he encoun- 
tered some Indians on horseback, who recaptured him. He now, for the 
first time in his life, gave up, believing his case hopeless. 

There was a general rejoicing when he was returned to the village. 
He was pinioned, and given over to the young Indians, who dragged him 
into the creek, tumbled him into the water, and rolled him in the sand 
until he was nearly suffocated. In this way they amused themselves with 
him until he was nearly drowned. He now thought God had forsaken him. 
Xo wonder he thought so, for it did not seem possible for him to avoid 
the doom which, according to Indian ideas, he most richly deserved. 

In the crowd that gathered about him at the stake was the notorious 
Tory renegade, Simon Girty. Girty and Kenton had been bosom com- 
panions in youth. On hearing his name, Girty, who, though a hardened 
wretch, had a spark of human feeling remaining, threw himself into 
Kenton's arms, embraced, and wept aloud over him, calling him his dear 
and esteemed friend. With much difficulty he succeeded in prevailing 
upon the Indians to leave him in his charge, thus affording him a timely 
reprieve. Kenton was finally rescued from their hands through the in- 
strumentality of the great and good chief, Logan, and was taken as a pris- 
oner to Detroit. 

At this point in his career a tinge of romance touched and sweetened 
this wild and reckless life. Kenton was now twenty-four years of age. 
He was six feet in height, M r ell formed, handsome, and graceful, with a 
fair complexion and laughing gray eyes. He owed his freedom on this 
occasion as many a handsome young fellow has done before and since, 
and will do in future to a woman, the wife of an Indian trader, whose 
sympathies had been enlisted in behalf of this bold, manly, and good- 
looking backwoodsman. 

Seizing a favorable opportunity, when the Indians, whose guns were 
stacked near her house, were having a drunken spree, she stole out after 




dark, selected three of their best rifles, and then notified Kenton and his 
two companions. She had previously prepared food, ammunition, and 
clothing for them, which she had secreted in a hollow tree well known to 
Kenton. At the appointed hour they climbed into the garden, received 
the guns from their benefactress, and, heaping thanks and blessings upon 
her, hastened away. Kenton never saw her afterwards, but to his latest 
hour he never forgot her, and delighted in recalling and expatiating upon 
the courage and goodness of the trader's wife. 

In 1824 the old pioneer appeared at Frankfort in tattered garments, to 


petition the legislature of Kentucky to ivlra>e the claim of the State upon 
some land owned by him. His appearance at tir-t excited ridicule, but. on 
being recognized, he was treated with distinction and the lands released. 


The cut on the following page is from a painting of the old veteran made 
at this time. Congress subsequently gave him a pension, which he enjoyed 
until his death in 18o(>. Kenton was a pleasant companion and honest 
in his dealings, but so credulous that the same man might cheat him 
twenty times, and if he professed friendship he might cheat him still. 

Out of manv interesting narratives of single combat between the In- 

' O O 

dian and the white man we select the following : 

Two brothers named Poe, both remarkable for size, strength, and cour- 
age, joined, in the summer of 17S2. a party in pursuit of some Indian 
marauders, between "Wheeling and Fort Pitt. Andrew Poe, fearing an 
ambuscade, left the others, crossed the Ohio, and cautiously crept along 
the bank. He soon espied, within a few >teps of him. a "Wyandot chief, a 
large and powerful man, and a smaller Indian, both so intent upon the 
movements of his party as not to have noticed him. 



Poe took aim at the large chief, but his gun missed fire, and the click 
of the lock betrayed him. Too near to retreat, he sprang upon them, 
grasped the chief with one arm, and the smaller Indian round the neck 
with the other, and threw them down upon the shelving bank. The latter 
freed himself from Poe's grasp, and aimed his tomahawk at his head. A 
kick, opportunely applied, staggered him, and shook the tomahawk from 
his hand. This failure upon his part brought out an exclamation of con- 
tempt from the larger Indian. Recovering his weapon, the exulting In- 
dian approached more cautiously, flourishing it over Poe's head as a 
prelude to the impending blow. By 
throwing up his arm, Poe saved his 
head, but received a blow on the wrist. 
Freeing himself at the same moment 
by a powerful effort from the grasp 
of the chief, who was meanwhile at- 
tempting to throw him, he snatched 
up one of the Indian's guns, and shot 
the small Indian dead, as he for the 
third time ran up to tomahawk him. 

By this time the chief was erect, 
and seizing Poe by the leg and shoul- 
der at the same moment prostrated 
him. Poe bounded to his feet in an 
instant, and closed in a struggle, which, 
owing to the slippery state of the 

bank, plunged both into the Ohio. The object now of these powerful 
and well-matched combatants was to drown each other. First one, and 
then the other, was thrust under the water by alternate successful efforts. 

At length Poe seized the chief by the long black scalp-lock on the 
crown of his head, and held him so long submerged that he believed him 
to be, beyond a doubt, food for. fishes. This was only an Indian trick. 
His foe was once more erect, and grappling again, they were carried by 
the current beyond their depth and obliged to swim. Both aimed for 
the shore, each straining every nerve to reach it first and obtain one of 
the guns lying there. 

Soon perceiving that the Indian was the better swimmer, Poe made 
for the middle of the stream, hoping to avoid the shot of his foe by div- 
ing. Fortunately the gun that the Indian took up w r as empty, and Poe 
gained a little precious time. At this moment two of his party came up, 
and mistaking Poe for an Indian, fired, and wounded him in the shoulder. 



He turned, and swain bleeding towards the shore, and recognizing his 

o o o 

brother Adam, called out to him : 

" Shoot the big Indian on the shore." 

But his brother's gun was also empty. The contest now was as to 
who could load first. Very fortunately for Adam, the Indian in loading 

v v O 

drew the ramrod from the gun with such violence that it slipped from his 
hand and fell a little way off. Quickly recovering it, however, he rammed 
down his bullet. This slight delay gave Adam the advantage. He shot 
the Indian as he was raising his gun to take aim at him, and then assisted 
his brother to the shore. Meantime the wounded Indian, to save his 
scalp, plunged into the deep water, and sunk to rise no more. 

( hie other incident, illustrating the perils of the border, also shows that 
even the children imbibed fearlessness with their mother's milk. 

Two boys named Johnson, one aged eleven, the other thirteen, living on 
the west bank of the Ohio, while at play were captured by two Indians. 
Their captors lay down for the night, each holding one of the boys in 
his arms. When all was still the elder boy, who felt no desire to sleep, 
arose, and by stirring the fire and other movements, satisfied himself that 
the Indians were in a profound sleep. Gently awaking his brother, he 
whispered in his ear, 

" We had better go home now." 

"They will follow and catch us," said the younger. 

" Never fear," replied the other ; " we will take care of that." With 
some difficulty he persuaded the younger to aid him in killing their captors. 
The Indians had but one gun between them, and near it lay their toma- 
hawks. The elder placed the gun, levelled on a log, with the muzzle close 
to the ear of one of the Indians, cocked it, and stationed his brother, with 
his finger on the trigger, telling him to pull it at his signal. He then 
stood over the other Indian, tomahawk in hand. 

Brandishing the weapon, as the signal for pulling the trigger, the gun 
was discharged, and the tomahawk fell at the same moment, The first 
blow was not fatal, and the savage attempted to rise, but fresh blows, vig- 
orously plied by the young hero, soon brought him down again. 

Leaving their captors dead, the boys joyfully set off for home, where 
they arrived at early dawn. As they entered they heard the plaintive 
voice of their mother bewailing their fate, and exclaiming : 

" Poor little fellows, they are killed or taken prisoners !" 

" No !" they shouted, as they rushed into her arms ; '" here we are, 
mother, safe and sound !" 



war of the Revolution was no sooner ended than the attention of 
great numbers of enterprising men was again turned to the settle- 
ment of the fertile regions west of the Alleghanies. 

The vast domain out of which the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, and Wisconsin have since been formed was organized as the 
North-western Territory, by virtue of an ordinance of Congress in 1787. 

C A . 


In the following year, Marietta, Ohio, was settled by emigrants from New 
England, and a stockade fort was erected as a protection against the Indi- 
ans. Settlements were soon afterwards beun at Columbia and at Cincin- 


nati, where Fort Washington \vas built in 170<>, and within two years 
twenty thousand people had established themselves in Ohio. 

This territory, it must be borne in mind, had, by the ordinance of 
1787, been continued to the Indians ''forever, 11 and its establishment 


i aft* 


and settlement naturally aroused the jealousy and hostility of the lake 
tribes. Under the lead of the celebrated Brant, these tribes formed a 
confederacy, and repudiated the treaties ceding their lands made by some 
of them, on the ground that they were made without proper authority 
''by a few of their young men," and insisted on the Ohio River being 
made the boundary between the Indians and the United States. The 
British authorities in Canada easily persuaded them to take this attitude, 
as they were determined to prevent the United States from gaining contr< >1 
of the upper lakes, and the valuable fur-trade of the country around them, 
then wholly in Canadian hands. 

The tribes on the AVabash, numbering two thousand warriors, had taken 
part in none of the treaties, and were decidedly hostile. They were con- 
stantly engaged in waylaying the boats in which emigrants were descend- 
ing the Ohio, and in raids upon the Kentucky settlers, and were in their 
turn invaded and scourged by them. 

General Arthur St. Clair, a brave revolutionary veteran, had been ap- 
pointed governor of the North-western Territory. Early in 17*1) he held 
a council at Fort Ilarmar, at the mouth of the Muskingum River, with 


the Six Nations, and also with representatives of the Wyandots, Potawat 
omies, Delawares, Ottawas, Ojibwas, and Sacs. 

Treaties were then made fixing boundaries, and payments for ceded 
knds. But the great bulk of the tribes above-named refused to acknowl- 
edge their validity, and within a few weeks after they had been made 
were out on the war-path. "Within four years one thousand five hundred 
persons had been killed or captured, and a large amount of property 

The simple log -cabin of the pioneer settlers, who bore the brunt of 
Indian hostilities upon our western frontier, contained such furniture only 


as was wholly indispensable and of domestic manufacture. Its roof was 
composed of strips of bark. Articles of clothing, hung on wooden pegs 
around its walls, served in some degree the purpose of paper-hangings or 
tapestry, and were also an indication of the wealth or poverty of the fam- 
ily. The usual dress of the pioneer was the hunting-shirt of linsey or deer- 
skin, fastened by a belt, leggings and moccasins, also of deerskin, and a fur 
hat. Wooden bowls, trenchers, and noggins, or, in the absence of these, 
gourds and hard-shelled squashes, together with a few pewter plates and 
spoons, constituted the table furniture. The iron pots, knives, and forks 
were brought from the East, along with the salt or iron, on pack-horses. 
These articles of furniture corresponded very well with the kind of 


diet on which they were employed. Hog and hominy were common dish- 
es. Johnny-cake and pone were at first the only forms of bread fur break- 
fast and dinner; fur supper, mush-and-milk was the standard dish. When 
milk was wanting, the substantial dish of hominy had to supply its place. 
Every family had, besides a small vegetable garden, an enclosure called 
a "truck patch," in which were raised pumpkins, corn, squashes, beans, 
and potatoes. These were cooked with pork, venison, or bear-meat for 

A remarkable instance of female heroism occurred at this time in Nel- 
son County, Kentucky. The barking of his dogs led John Morrell to 
open his door to ascertain the cause of their uneasiness. lie was fired 
upon, and fell back into the house wounded. The savages attempted to 
rush in after him, but Mrs. Morrell, and a daughter about fifteen years of 
age, barred the door. The assailants soon made a breach in the door with 
their tomahawks, and one of them attempted to squeeze himself through 
into the room. The courageous wife seized an axe, gave him a fatal blow, 
and then dragged him through the opening into the house. This was re- 
peated until four were slain. 

By this time the Indians had discovered the fate of their companions, 
and, alter a consultation, two of them mounted to the roof and began to 
descend the broad, wooden chimney. Aware of the impending danger, 
the wounded man ordered his little sou to cut open a feather bed and 
throw the contents upon the fire. This was done. 

Down came the two intruders, scorched, suffocated, and nearly insensi- 
ble. Mi 1 . Morrell had strength enough remaining to aid his heroic wife in 
despatching them, while she also continued to guard the door with uplifted 
axe. Another savage who attempted to enter was saluted with such a 
blow as drove him away howling. One of the surviving Indians, on re- 
turning to his town, was asked what was the news. 

" Bad news ; bad news !" he exclaimed ; " the squaws fight worse than 
the Long Knives." The swords worn by the Virginians caused them to 
be nicknamed "Long Knives" by the Indians. 

The story of Captain William HubbeFs descent of the Ohio River in 
a flat-boat, affords a striking illustration of the dangers attending emigra- 
tion in the West at this time. The party were on their way to Limestone, 
Kentucky, and before reaching the mouth of the Great Kenawha num- 
bered twenty persons nine men, three women, and eight children. As 
Indian attacks were expected, the men were divided into three watches, 
each to be on the lookout two hours at a time. The arms were put in the 
best possible condition for service, and it was arranged that in case of an 


attack, the women and children should lie down on the cabin floor, and be 
protected as much as possible by the trunks and other baggage. 

Just at daylight one morning a plaintive voice from the shore in- 
formed them that some white persons wished to obtain a pas- 

. ,1-1 rp, T r .. -i March 21, 1791. 

sage in their boat. 11ns was a common Indian artifice, and 

its only effect was to place the party more completely on their guard. 

Soon the Indian canoes were seen, through the mist of the morning, 
rapidly advancing. Preparations to receive them were promptly made. 
The chairs, tables, and other encumbrances were thrown into the river, in 
order to clear the deck for action. Each man took his station, and was 
ordered not to fire till the savages had approached so near that, in Cap- 
tain Hubbers words, " the flash from his gun might singe their eyebrows." 
Especial caution was given that the men should fire successively, so that 
there might be no interval. 

Each of the canoes contained twenty-five or thirty Indians. As soon 
as they were within musket -shot, they began a general discharge, by 
which two of the whites were dangerously wounded. Taking their posi- 
tions at the bow, the stern, and on the right side of the boat, they raked 
her in every direction. A regular and constant fire was kept up on both 
sides. Just as the captain was raising his gun for the third shot, a ball 
passed through his right arm and for a moment disabled him. 

Scarcely had he recovered from this shock when the Indians at the 
bow attempted to board the boat, some of them having already taken hold 
of its side. Severely wounded as he was, Hubbel caught up a pair of 
pistols and rushed forward to repel them the boat had no accommoda- 
tions for that class of boarders. On his approach the Indians fell back, 
the foremost one receiving the contents of Hubbel's pistol. After dis- 
charging the second pistol, he wielded a stick from a pile of firewood so 
energetically and effectively as to drive the Indians from the boat, wound- 
ing one of them severely, and with a yell they suddenly gave way and 
temporarily discontinued the contest. 

There were now but four men left unwounded in the boat, the captain 
himself having two severe wounds. A second attack was nevertheless 
resisted with vigor and success. Whenever the Indians would rise to 
fire, their opponents would generally give them the first shot, which 
was in almost every instance effective. Notwithstanding the disparity of 
numbers and the exhausted condition of the defenders of the boat, the 
Indians at length appeared to despair of success, and the canoes succes- 
sively returned to the shore. 

Just as the last canoe was departing, Captain Ilubbel called to the 


Indian in its stern, and as lie turned around fired on him. "When the 
smoke had dissipated, the Indian was seen lying on his back, and appeared 
to be severely, perhaps mortally, wounded. 

Unfortunately, the boat now drifted to within twenty yards of the 
shore, and the Indians came running down the bank. Two men, the 
only ones unhurt, took the oars; they were hidden from view, and pro- 
tected by the side of the boat and by blankets in her stern. The others 
lay down, to avoid the enemy's bullets. For twenty minutes they were 
exposed to a heavy fire. Suddenly, and providentially, the boat was car- 
ried by the current to the middle of the stream, out of the reach of the 
enemy's fire. The little band of men, women, and children, now out of 
danger, forgot their fatigue and wounds, and gave three hearty cheers for 
their deliverance. 

Out of nine men, three were killed and four severely wounded. The 
women and children were all uninjured, except one little boy who, after 
the battle, came to the captain, and with great coolness requested him to 
take a ball out of his head. A bullet had gone through the side of the 
boat and lodged under the skin of his forehead. When this was removed 
the brave little fellow said, " That is not all, captain ;" and raising his 
arm, exhibited a piece of bone at the point of his elbow, which had been 
shot off and hung only by the skin. His mother, who had known noth- 
ing of all this, now exclaimed, "Why did you not tell us of this?" "Be- 
cause," replied the little hero, " the captain ordered us to be silent during 
the fight, and I thought you would make a noise if I told you of it." 

The boat reached Limestone that night. Crowds of people came to 
see her, and her little band of resolute and heroic defenders. On exami- 
nation, it was found that the sides of the boat were literally filled with 
bullets and bullet-holes. In the blankets, which served as curtains in the 
stern, there were one hundred and twenty -two holes, in a space five 
feet square. Out of five horses that were in the boat, four were killed. 
This formidable resistance had a good effect, as it is believed that no boat 
was ever afterwards assailed by Indians on the Ohio. 


As the Indian would not submit to having his best hunting-grounds 
taken from him without his consent, it was necessary to resort to force 
and to chastise him into submission. 

One thousand four hundred men, under General Josiah Ilarmar, were 
despatched to the heart of the hostile Indian country, around the head- 
waters of the Maumee. They gained the Indian encampment at the 
Maumee Ford unobserved, on the morning of October 21st, but were 



discovered by the Indians in time to frustrate Harmar's plan of surprise, 
and were themselves defeated in two separate engagements, 
and driven back witli loss, mainly through the superior abili- 
ties of the Miami chief. Little Turtle. The flourishing city of Fort- 
Wayne, at the confluence of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph's, is near the 
scene of Harmar's defeat. Blue Jacket, an influential Seneca chief, was 
associated with Little Turtle in the command of the Indians eno-aijed. 

O ~ 

*?, Jb .- 
--.V*_j^ ->. 


In these conflicts many of the Indians fought on horseback. A bunch 
of bells, hanging down the left side, and two narrow strips of red and 
white cloth as pendants, decorated their horses' heads. The Indians them- 
selves were painted red and black, in the most hideous manner. Their 
repulsive appearance, the noise of the bells, and the flapping of the pen- 
dent strips of cloth so frightened the horses of the militia that it was 
with the greatest difficulty that they could be brought to the charge. The 
regulars, who stood firm, were nearly all killed. 

The Indians remained on the field during the night, and held a dance 
of victory, exulting, with frantic shouts and gestures, over their dead and 
dying enemies. Captain Armstrong of the regulars was a wretched and 
unwilling witness of this orgie, being sunk to his neck in mud and water 
within one hundred yards of the scene. 

To punish the Indians and repress their hostile incursions, General 
Charles Scott, of Kentucky, with eight hundred men, crossed the Ohio in 
May, 1791. 7 and penetrated the "Wabash country to the large village of 
Outanon, eight miles below the present town of Lafayette, Indiana. A 



strong party of Indians was routed with loss, the town, together with sev- 
eral villages in the vicinity, was destroyed, and the country desolated. 

Another expedition led by 
General James Wilkinson, in the 
following August, to the vicinity 
of what is now Logansport, In- 
diana, had similar results. These 
raids had little other effect than 
to irritate the Indians, who, un- 
der such able leaders as Little 
Turtle, Blue Jacket, and Buck- 
on-gahelas, redoubled their efforts 
to drive the whites south of the 

The attempt was now made 

to establish a strong military post 

in the heart of the 


Miami country, on the 
site of the present city of Fort 

Wayne. Governor St. Clair, with General Richard Butler as second in 
command, moved forward at the head of two thousand men to effect this 
object and bring the Indians to terms. 

On the morning of November 4th the army was encamped on the 
borders of one of the tributaries of the Wabash, on a piece of rising 
ground with a fordable stream forty feet wide in its front. The en- 
campment was surrounded by woods, dense thickets, and the trunks of 

fallen trees, with here and there a ra- 
vine the best kind of ground for Indian 

St. Glair's army, somewhat reduced 
by desertion, lay in two lines, seventy 
yards apart, with artillery in the centre 
of each line. The men slept on their 
arms, Indians being known to lie near. 
There were two thousand of them, under 
the famous chief. Little Turtle, close at 
hand, lying in wait. For days they had 
been watching for a favorable opportu- 
nity to attack the troops. That opportu- 
nity had now come. 



Half an hour before sunrise, while the troops were preparing breakfast, 
the Indians, with terrific yells, dashed upon the militia who were posted in 
front across the stream. Stricken with panic, the militia rushed wildly 
across the creek into the lines of the regulars, producing alarm and confu- 
sion among them. The Indians pressed them closely, and then attacked 
the regulars. Not an Indian was to be seen, except as he darted from 
cover to cover. More than once the foe were driven back with the bay- 
onet, but they at length succeeded in shooting down all the artillerists 
and silencing the cannon. General Butler had received a wound, which 
was being dressed, when a daring savage darting into the camp toma- 
hawked and scalped him. He failed, however, to carry off his trophy, 
being instantly slain. 

For nearly three hours, and until one -half of them had fallen, the 
Americans continued the contest. Then, under cover of a desperate 
charge, they began a retreat which soon became a flight the Indians in 
close pursuit, and greatly elated by their victory. In this battle a larger 
number of Americans fell than in any of the battles of the Revolutionary 
War. It was lost by the want of discipline among the men, who had 
been but a short time in the service. Many gallant officers were slain. 

St. Clair, who behaved gallantly, had three horses shot under him. 
Eight balls passed through his coat and hat. "Winthrop Sargent, his 
adjutant -general, was severely wounded, and carried two bullets in his 
body received in this battle to his grave. The news of St. Glair's defeat 
produced consternation along the border, checked for a time the tide of 
emigration to the Ohio, and cast a gloom over the whole country. An 
investigation into the conduct of that officer resulted in his honorable 

Washington, whose parting injunction to St. Clair had been, " Beware 
of a surprise," was extremely agitated on hearing of his defeat, and gave 
way to an outburst most unusual to him of passionate invective. Soon 
recovering himself, however, he said, " General St. Clair shall have jus- 
tice. I will receive him without displeasure ; I will hear him without 
prejudice ; he shall have full justice." It is certain that St. Clair con- 
tinued to retain his undiminished esteem and confidence. 

Washington earnestly desired to civilize the Indians, but did not believe 
it could be done by sending their young men to our colleges ; he thought 
the true method was to introduce the arts and habits of husbandry among 
them. Xo better method has been proposed for their improvement in the 
century that has since elapsed. In a speech to the Seneca chiefs, Half 
Town, Cornplanter, and Great Tree, he observed, 


" When you return to your country, tell your people that it is my desire 
to promote their prosperity l>y teaching them the use of domestic animals, 
and the manmT in which the white people plough and raise so much corn; 
and if, upon consideration, it would be agreeable to the nation at large to 
learn those arts, I will rind some means of teaching them at such places 
within their country as shall be agreed upon." 

Anxious for peace, commissioners on the part of the United States met 
the tribes in a general council, in the spring of 1703, and proposed that in 
consideration of the ceded lands, some of which had already been sold, the 
United States should pay the Indians a large sum of money, or goods, be- 
sides a full yearly supply of such articles as they needed. 

In reply the Indians said that money was of no value to them, and they 
pointed out the following simple mode by which the settlers might be 
removed and peace be restored. From the Indian point of view, the wis- 
dom and justice of their proposal cannot be questioned. 

" We know that these settlers are poor," said they, " or they would 
never have ventured to live in a country which has been in continual 
trouble ever since they crossed the Ohio. Divide, therefore, this large 
sum of money you offer us among these people. Give to each, also, a pro- 
portion of what you say you will give to us annually, over and above this 
very large sum of money, and we are persuaded they will most readily 
accept it in lieu of the land you sold them. If you add, also, the great 
sums you must expend in raising and paying armies, with a view to force 
us to yield yon our country, you will certainly have more than sufficient 
for the purpose of repaying these settlers for all their labor and improve- 

" You talk to us about concessions. It appears strange that you should 
expect any from us, who have only been defending our just rights against 
your invasions. We want peace. Restore to us our country and we shall 
be enemies no longer." 

A final expedition against the North-western Indians was intrusted to 
General Anthony Wayne, whose impetuosity and daring at Stony Point 
and on other Revolutionary fields had procured for him the title of 
"Mad Anthony." Profiting by its dear-bought experience, the Govern- 
ment gave him a force adequate to the performance of the grave task be- 
fore him. William Henry Harrison, afterwards a successful soldier of 
the war of 1812, and ninth President of the United States, joined him as 

Wayne took ample time for preparation. Late in October, with a 
force of three thousand six hundred and thirty men, he reached the site of 




Greenville, and went into winter-quarters. In the following summer he 
was joined by General Charles Scott, with one thousand six hun- 
dred mounted volunteers from Kentucky. He then moved for- 
ward, skirmishing with bands of lurking savages as he advanced, 
but so slowly and stealthily that the Indians nicknamed him "The Black 
Snake. 1 ' He marched with open files, to. insure rapidity in forming a line 
or in prolonging the flanks, and drilled his men to load while marching. 


He kept his forces well together, always halting in the middle of the 
afternoon, and encamping in a hollow square. A rampart of logs sur- 
rounded his camp. 

On arriving at the site of the present village of Defiance, at the con- 




flnence of the Aiiglaize and Maumee rivers, where were several important 
Indian villages, Wayne erected a strong work which lie named Fort De- 
fiance, and renewed peaceful proposals to the Indians. These they re- 
jected, contrary to the advice of Little Turtle. Blue Jacket, the principal 
Indian leader in the coining battle, threw all his influence in favor of war. 

" We have beaten the enemy twice," said Little Turtle, " under sepa- 
rate commanders. We cannot expect the same good-fortune always to 
attend us. The Americans are now led by a chief who never sleeps. The 
night and the day are alike to him, and during all the time that he has 
been marching upon our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our 
young men, we have never been able to surprise him. Think well of it. 
There is something whispers me it would be prudent to listen to his offers 
of peace." Taunted with cowardice for this sagacious counsel, he answered 
the false charge by bging foremost in the battle that ensued. 

On the morning of August 20th, Wayne inarched forward, and had 
proceeded about five miles when heavy volleys from a concealed foe com- 
pelled his advanced guard to fall back. He formed his men in two lines, 
in a dense wood, where a tornado had prostrated a large number of trees, 
making the operations of cavalry very difficult. This circumstance gave 
to the action that followed the name of the ''Battle of the Fallen Tim- 
bers." These obstacles afforded admirable shelter for the enemy, who, to 
the number of two thousand Indians and Canadians, were posted among 
them in two lines- 









Wayne ordered his men to charge with the bayonet and rouse the In- 
dians from their lair, and when up, to deliver a close and well-directed fire 
on their backs, followed by a brisk charge, so as not to give them time to 
reload, (n-neral Scott, with his mounted volunteers, was directed to turn 
the right flank of the enemy by a circuitous movement, while Colonel 
Campbell, with the legionary cavalry, effected the same object on their 
left flank. Such was the impetuosity of the troops, as they leaped and 
scrambled over the Indian breastworks, that the enemy fled precipitately 
and was driven with severe loss more than two miles through the forest. 
Wayne's second line was unable to come up in season to take part in the 
action. In this battle all the Wyandot chiefs, nine in number, were 


The influence of this decisive victory was felt throughout the West, 
and especially by the hostile tribes. They were now thoroughly convinced 
of the superiority of the white man and the necessity for peace. For fif- 
teen years they remained quiet, and the North-western Territory was rap- 
idly filled with an enterprising and hardy population. Another important 
result of Wayne's success was the surrender to the United States of Niag- 
ara, Detroit, Mackinac, Miami, and other posts within its territory hitherto 
held by the British. 

Moving his army to the Maumee, Wayne built, just below the conflu- 
ence of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph's rivers, a strong work, afterwards 
called Fort Wayne. 


Foremost among the tribes who now turned their steps towards his 
camp, was the proud and influential Wyandots. The Delawares followed 
-bitter enemies of the whites since they had been driven from Pennsyl- 
vania. Then came the Shawnees, the most subtle and revengeful of all the 


tribes. Each day witnessed the arrival of these forest delegates, decked 
with all their peculiar ornaments of feathers, paint, silver gorgets, trin- 
kets, and medals. The Miamis, Ojibwas, Ottawas, Potawatomies, Weeas, 
Kickapoos, Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskias were also present. Each delegation 
bore the pipe of peace, and expressed pacific desires. The camp presented 
a picturesque appearance, and an unusual number and variety of Indian 

The important treaty of Greenville was now concluded by Wayne with 
the North-western Indians, by which they ceded twenty-five thousand square 
miles of territory to the United States, besides sixteen separate 
tracts, including lands and forts. "While here the American 
commander earned yet another nickname from the Indians. His promises 
of goods and provisions were so tardily executed by the Government, that 
they called him '" General Wabaug," by which they meant "General To- 

Mishikinakwa, or Little Turtle, the leader of the Indians in these cam- 
paigns, was of mixed blood, being the son of a Miami chief by a Mohican 
mother. He was sagacious, humane, and brave. One who saw him soon 

July 30,1705. 



after the war described him as about six feet in height, of a sour and 
morose expression of countenance, with an appearance also of craft and 
subtlety. He wore a blue petticoat that came half-way down his thighs, a 
European waistcoat, surtout, and moccasins. On his head was a cap that 
hung half-way down his back, bespangled with about two hundred silver 
brooches. In each ear were two rings, the upper part of each bearing 
three silver medals about the size of a dollar, and the lower parts quarters 
of a dollar. They fell more than twelve inches below his ears. One from 
each ear fell over his breast, the other over his back. He had also three 
large nose jewels cunningly painted. 

Kosciusko, the Polish hero, when in Philadelphia in 1797, on taking 
leave of Little Turtle, gave him an elegant pair of pistols and a valuable 
robe made of the fur of the sea-otter. 
Little Turtle kept the Miamis faith- 
ful to the Americans from the time 
of the treaty. After his death at 
Fort Wayne, in the summer of 1812, 
the great body of them again be- 
came hostile. Colonel Johnston, who 
knew Little Turtle well, called him 
" the gentleman of his race." 

A bolder or better planned escape 
from captivity and the stake than 
that of Samuel Davis, an Indian spy, 
has nowhere been recorded. 

Knowing that he was to be burned 
or tortured to death, Davis deter- 
mined to seize the first opportunity 
of escape that offered, or to die in 

the attempt. At night he was tied tightly around the waist with a 
strong strip of raw -hide. Each end was fastened around an Indian's 
waist, so that he could not turn over without drawing an Indian with 
him. He had to lie on his back until morning, and if he made the least 
stir he was quieted witli blows. 

One morning, just as it was growing light, lie jogged one of the Indi- 
ans to whom he was fastened, and requested to be untied. Seeing that it 
was growing light, and that a number of the party were about the fires, the 
Indian untied him. Davis rose to his feet. Looking about him, to deter- 
mine the best direction to take for escape, he saw that to plunge through 
the group before him would give him an advantage, as their guns were in 



the other direction, and they would therefore have to run back for them, 
and in the dim twilight would be unable to draw a "bead" on him. 

Screwing his courage up, he felt that all depended on the swiftness of 
his heels. A large, active Indian was standing between Davis and the lire. 
Striking him with all his force he knocked him into the fire, and, with the 
agility of a deer, he sprang over his body, and took to the woods at full 
speed. The Indians followed, yelling and screeching like demons, but, as 
Davis anticipated, not a gun was fired. Several Indians pursued him some 
distance, and for a time it was a doubtful race. The foremost Indian was 
so near him that at times he fancied he felt his clutch. 

At length, however, he began to gain ground upon his pursuers. On 
reaching the top of a long, sloping ridge, he for the first time looked back, 
and to his infinite delight saw no one in pursuit. He now slackened his 
pace and went a mile or two farther, when he found his feet were so 
gashed and bruised that he was obliged to tear his waistcoat in two pieces 
and wrap them around his feet instead of moccasins. 

Pushing his Wc'iy to the Ohio, he reached it about the 1st of January, 
having been for three days and two nights without food, fire, or covering, 
exposed to the winter storms. Here, to his great joy, he saw a boat com- 
ing down the stream. The boatmen heard his story, but refused to land, 
''caring deception. Keeping pace with the boat, as it slowly glided along, 
the more pitiably he described his forlorn condition the more determined 
were the boat's crew not to land for him. He at length requested them 
to come a little nearer the shore, and he would swim to them. To this 
they consented, and, plunging into the freezing water, Davis swam for the 
boat. The boatmen pulled vigorously towards him, and at length lifted 
him into the boat almost exhausted. He soon recovered his usual health 
and activity. 

One of the early pioneers of the North-west, speaking of the perils that 
surrounded them, and how they were met, says : 

" The manner in which I used to work was as follows : On all occasions 
I carried my rifle, tomahawk, and knife, with a loaded pistol in my licit. 
When I went to plough, I laid my gun on the ploughed land, and stuck 
up a stick by it for a mark, so that I could get it quick in case it was 
wanted. I had two good dogs. I took one into the house, leaving the 
s )ther out. The one outside was expected to give the alarm, which would 
<3ause the one inside to bark, by which I would be awakened, having my 
arms always loaded and at hand. 

I kept my horses in a stable close to the house, having a port-hole, so 
that 1 could shoot to the stable door. During two years I never went 


from home with a certainty of returning, not knowing the moment I might 
receive a ball from an unknown hand ; but in the midst of all these dan- 
gers, that God who never sleeps nor slumbers has kept me." 

" During one of the Indian raids on a frontier settlement," says an 
eye-witness, k 'the inhabitants fled in the darkness to the central block- 
house. One of them, a Mr. Moulton, came with his leather apron full of 
smith's tools and tobacco ; his daughter, Anna, brought the china ; Lydia, 
another daughter, brought the great Bible. But when all were in the 
mother was missing. 'Where was mother?' was the anxious inquiry; 
'she must be killed by the Indians/ 'No,' says Lydia, 'mother said she 
would not leave the house looking so, she would put things a little to 
rights.' After a while the old lady came, bringing the knives, forks, look- 
ing-glass, etc., and having the immense satisfaction of knowing that the 
deserted dwelling had been made presentable in case the savages looked 




IN the year isoo the Indiana Territory was established, and General 
William Henry Harrison appointed governor. Out of this territory the 
States of Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin have since been formed. Har- 
rison was popular, particularly with the Indians, but the latter were ill- 
treated by the settlers, and by speculators who defrauded them, encroached 
upon their reserved domain, and demoralized them with whiskey. 

" You call us your children," 1 said an old chief, bitterly, to Harrison, 
one day ; " why do you -not make us happy as our fathers the French did ? 
They never took from us our lands; indeed they were common between 
us. They planted where they pleased, and they cut wood where they 
pleased, and so did we. But now if a poor Indian attempts to take a little 
bark from a tree to cover him from rain, up comes a white man and 
threatens to shoot him, claiming the tree as his own." 

The flames of discontent were fanned by British emissaries. The price 
of furs was so low, owing to commercial restrictions abroad, that Indian 
hunters found it difficult to procure their necessary supplies from the 
traders. At the beginning of 1811, the excellent provisions of Wayne's 
treaty in their behalf having been substantially obliterated, and vast bodies 
of their land assured by it having been transferred to the white man and 
the original proprietors dispossessed, the Indians were ripe for mischief, 

Just at this time a great Indian orator and warrior came forward, who 
had for years earnestly and successfully advocated among the tribes the 
policy of leagueing themselves together, with the common object of driving 
back the white man from the fair land of their fathers. He told them that 
the treaties giving up the lands north of the Ohio were fraudulent, and 
therefore void, and assured his auditors that he and his brother the Prophet 
would resist any further attempts at settlement in that direction by the 
white people. He also told them that the Indian's land belonged to all in 
common, and that no part of it could be sold without the consent of all 

Tecumseh, though a Shawnee. was born of a Creek mother, near the 




banks of Mad River, a few miles 
from Springfield, Ohio. His name 
in the Shawnee dialect signifies "a 
flying tiger," or " a wild-cat spring- 
ing upon its prey." lie was well 
formed and symmetrical, five feet 
ten inches in height, and of noble 


a>pect. His carriage was erect and 
lofty, his motions quick, his eyes 
penetrating, his visage stern, and he 
wore an air of hauteur which arose 
from an elevated pride of soul. lie 
had earned a high reputation by 
his exploits as a hunter and a war- 

His brother, Elkswatawa (" the 
loud voice"), who, up to the year 
1806, had been remarkable only for 

his dissipated habits, assumed at that time to be a prophet. He was a 
cunning, unprincipled man, and was disfigured by the loss of an eye. 

Assuming to have had a vision, the " Prophet " everywhere harangued 
against drunkenness and witchcraft, 
and warned his people to have noth- 
ing to do with the pale-faces, their 
religion, their customs, their arms, 
or their arts, for every imitation of 
the intruders was offensive to the 
great Master of Life. The credu- 
lous, whose number was legion, and 
who came long distances to see him, 
believed that he worked wonders. 

In declaiming against drunken- 
ness he met with great succe. . 
He told the Indians that since he 
became a prophet he had gone up 
into the clouds ; that the first place 
lie came to was the abode of the 
devil, and that all who had died 
drunkards were there, with flames 
issuing out of their mouths. Many ELKSWATAWA, THE PROPHET. 


of his followers were alarmed, and ceased to drink the ''fire-water" of 
the white man. 

The great eclipse of the sun in the summer of 1800 enabled him tc con 
s'ince many that lie possessed miraculous powers. Having learned when 
it was to oceiii 1 , lie boldly announced that on a certain day lie would prove 
his miraculous powers by bringing darkness over the sun. At the appoint- 
ed time the eclipse occurred as predicted. Pointing to the heavens, as he 
stood in the midst of his followers, he exclaimed, " Behold ! darkness has 
shrouded the sun. Did 1 not prophesy truly?" Of course this striking 
phenomenon, thus adroitly used, produced a powerful effect on the Indians. 

If not himself the author of this imposture, Tecumseh made great use 
of it to promote his grand scheme of uniting the North-western tribes, and 
he went from one to another of them, proclaiming the wonders of his 
brother's divine mission. 

The white settlers were alarmed. As early as in 1807, Governor Ilai- 
rison, in a speech to the chiefs and headmen of the Shawnees, denounced 
the Prophet as an impostor. He said to them : 

"My children, this business must be stopped. Your conduct has much 
alarmed the white settlers near you. I will no longer suffer it. You have 
called a number of men from the most distant tribes to listen to a fool 
who speaks not the words of the Great Spirit, but those of the evil spirit 
and of the British agents. Let him go to the lakes ; he can then hear the 
British more distinctly." 

The tribe listened to the governor, and, in the spring of 1808, the 
Prophet and his followers took up their abode on the banks of the Wabash, 
near the mouth of the Tippecanoe River. Here the brothers continued 
their hostile intrigues, and succeeded in securing the warlike "Wyandots 
as allies. Tecumseh fiercely denounced those who had taken part in the 
treaty made with Harrison at Fort Wayne, ceding nearly eight million 
acres on the Wabash, declared the treaty void, and threatened to kill every 

/ / 

chief concerned in it. " Return those lands," he said to Harrison, " and 
Tecumseh will be the friend of the Americans." 

As the influence of the Prophet increased, he used it for the gratifi- 
cation of his personal resentments, and caused the execution of several 
hostile Delaware chiefs, on a charge of witchcraft. One of these was 
Tarhe, the wise and venerable sachem of the Wyandots. Perceiving the 
approach of danger, Governor Harrison, who well knew the great ability 
and influence of Tecumseh. tried hard to conciliate him. 

He told the chief that his principles and claims could not. be allowed 
hy the President, and advised him to relinquish them. " Well," said 



Tecumseh, " as the Great Chief is to determine the matter, I hope the 
Great Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce him to direct 
you to give up this land. It is true lie is so far off he will not be injured 
by the war. He may sit still in his town, and drink his wine, while you 
and I will have to tight it out." This prophecy, as will be seen, was lit- 
erally fulfilled. 

After a speech from Tecumseh, of great boldness, dignity, and elo- 
quence, at Vincennes, Governor Harrison, through an interpreter, invited 
the orator to take a seat by the side of his white father. The chief drew 
his robe more closely about him, and standing erect said, with scornful tone: 

"My father? The sun is my father, and the earth is my mother, on 
her bosom I will repose ;" and then seated himself upon the ground in 
the Indian fashion. 


The teachings and the active efforts of this great leader, the authority 
of the Prophet, and the open encouragement of the British in Canada, all 
had their effect. Early in 1811, the Indians in the Wabash region began 
stealing and plundering, and the signs of impending hostilities became 
more and more evident. 

Harrison sent word to the brothers that if they did not put a stop to 
these outrages, and cease their warlike preparations, he would attack them. 
lie at once began a fort on the site of the present city of Terre Ilaut, 
called Fort Harrison, and moved promptly forward with a force of 
hundred and ten men, mostly Indiana volunteers. 


On arriving iii'iir tin* Prophet's town, tlic alarmed savages asked for 
a parley. It was granted. They assured Harrison that a friendly mes- 
sage had been sent him by the Prophet, which had missed him 

November 6. . J 

on the way, pointed out a suitable spot for his encampment, 
and exchanged promises that no hostilities should take place until an in- 
terview could be held on the following day. 

Harrison's position afforded to the savages great facilities for approach, 
and for their peculiar mode of warfare. Knowing well the foe with whom 
lie had to deal, the governor made such a disposition of his forces that, 
in the event of an attempt to surprise his camp, every man would be in 
his proper place to repel it with the least possible delay. The troops 
slept in their clothes, with their accoutrements on and their arms by their 
sides. The night was intensely dark, with a slight rain. Soon the whole 
camp, except the sentinels and guards, were sleeping soundly. 

In the Indian camp, on the contrary, all was stir and activity. The 
Prophet, with his incantations and mystical movements, had wrought his 
followers up to a high pitch of excitement. ki The time to attack the 
white man," 1 said he, "has come. They are in your power. They sleep 
now and will never awake. The omens are all favorable. The Great 
Spirit will give light to ns and darkness to the white man. Their bullets 
shall not harm us; your weapons shall be always fatal." By their war- 
songs and dances they worked thenix-l ves into a. frenzy, and then rushed 
forth to the attack. Stealthily they crept through the tall grass, intend- 
ing to surround the camp, kill the sentinels, and then rush in to massacre 
every soul. 

At four o'clock on the following morning, just as Harrison was pulling 
on his boots, a single gun, fired by a watchful sentinel, followed immediate- 
ly by the horrid yells of the savages, announced that the at- 
tack had begun. A heavy fire was opened upon the troops 
while they were forming in front, and some of the Indians, in their first 
fierce onslaught, even penetrated Harrison's lines. The horses of the 
officers, which had been fastened to stakes in the square, broke loose, and 
for a few moments all was confusion. 

Most of the troops were in position before they were fired upon, but 
some were compelled to defend themselves at the doors of their tents. 
The camp-fires were immediately extinguished, as their light was an ad- 
vantage to the Indian marksmen. Nineteen-twentieths of the troops had 
never before been in battle, but, notwithstanding the alarming situation 
in which they were placed, their conduct was cool and gallant, and after 
the first momentary .surprise there was little noise or confusion. 





Harrison, with his aid, Colonel Owen, hastened to the point first 
attacked, where the troops had bravely held their ground, though suffering 
severely, and at once ordered up a reinforcement. Called immediately to 
another quarter, he observed heavy firing from some trees in front, and 
ordered Major Daviess, with some dragoons, to dislodge the enemy. This 
was gallantly attempted, but with too small a force. The gallant Daviess 
fell, and his men were driven back. Captain Snelling, with his compapy 
of regulars, then drove the savages from their advantageous position, Snail- 
ing himself making prisoner of a chief. 

The battle then became general, the camp being assailed on all sides. 
The Indians advanced and retreated by the aid of a rattling noise made 
with deer hoofs, and fought with the utmost fury and determination. It 
was important to maintain the lines of the encampment unbroken till day- 
light, when the assailed would be able to make a general charge upon a 
visible foe. To do this Harrison was compelled to be constantly in motion, 
riding from point to point, and keeping the assailed positions reinforced. 

When day dawned, a charge was gallantly and effectively executed. 
The Indians were driven at the point of the bayonet, and were pursued 
by the horsemen until the wet prairie stopped their further progress, and 
enabled the fugitives, who scattered in all directions, to escape. The 
Prophet's town was reduced to ashes. 


While the fight was going on, the Prophet, who kept out of harm'.* 
way, sung a war-song and performed some religious exercises. When 
told that his followers were falling under the fire of the white men, he 
said, "Fight on ; it will soon be as I told you/' When at last the beaten 
warriors assailed him bitterly for the failure, he cunningly told them that 
it was because, during his incantations, his wife had touched the snored 
vessels and broke the charm. This was too much even for Indian credu- 
lity. u You are a liar!" said one of the warriors to him after the action, 
"for you told us that the white people were dead or crazy, when they 
were all in their senses and fought like devils." His followers deserted 
him, and he sought a refuge with a small band of Wyandots on Wildcat 

In this severe and well-fought battle the victor acquired the title of 
" Old Tippeeanoe." We shall again hear from Harrison in the war of 

Tecumseh was absent among the Southern Indians when the battle of 
Tippeeanoe was fought. He returned soon afterwards, only to learn that 
his great scheme had been totally ruined by his brother's precipitate folly. 
In his anger he seized the Prophet by the hair, shook him violently, and 
threatened to take his life. His zealous and patriotic labors, to which so 
much of his life had been devoted, had been thrown away, and his hopes 
for the future of his race had in a moment been destroyed. Failing to 
receive permission to visit the President with a deputation of chiefs, morti- 
fied and exasperated, he became thenceforward a firm ally of the British. 

In July, 1812, a deputation from those Indians who were inclined to 
neutrality was sent to Maiden to invite Tecumseh to attend their council 
at Brownstown. 

"Ko!" said he, indignantly, "I have taken sides with the king, my 
father, and I \vill suffer my bones to bleach upon this shore before I will 
recross that stream to join in any council of neutrality." 

Immediately after the battle of Tippeeanoe, the inhabitants of De- 
troit, alarmed at the threatening aspect of our relations with England, 
petitioned Congress to strengthen their defences. The im- 

Jau. 18,1812. . 

pressment of American seamen, and the depredations ot .Brit- 
ish cruisers upon American commerce, caused war to be soon afterwards 
declared by the United States against England. 

Michigan Territory was at this time sparsely populated, and greatly 
exposed to savage inroads. Preparations for war were going on, the in 



vasion of Canada was talked of, and General William Hull, governor of 
the territory, while opposing this project, urged the President to increase 
the military force in the territory, and to place a small tleet on Lake Erie. 

Hull knew that the British authorities in Canada had sent messengers 
to all the principal Indian tribes in the North-west with anus and pres- 
ents, exhorting them to become the allies of Great Britain in the event of 
war. He knew that the savage's could desolate the territory, and that the 
British had control of the lake, and that, with the small force at his dis- 
posal, the idea of a successful invasion of Canada was preposterous. It 
was ordered, nevertheless. 

Detroit at that time stretched along the bank of the river. The pres- 
ent Jefferson Avenue was its principal street. It contained one hundred 
and sixty houses and about eight hundred inhabitants, principally of 
French origin. On a hill in the 
rear, about two hundred and fifty 
yards from the river, stood Fort 
Detroit, built by the English af- 
ter the conquest of Canada. It 
was quadrangular in form, with 
bastions and barracks, and cov- 
ered about two acres of ground. 
The embankments were nearly 
twenty feet in height, with a 
deep, dry ditch, and were sur- 
rounded by a double row of 
[tickets. The town was sur- 
rounded by strong pickets, four- 
teen feet high, with loop-holes 
to shoot through. These pick- 
ets, which had been erected as 
defences against Indian incur- 
sions, were still in good condition. The fortifications which the British 
were erecting on the opposite side of the river would, if completed, not 
only command the town, but seriously menace the fort, and Hull prepared 
to cross, and drive the enemy towards Maiden. 

With about two thousand two hundred effective men he crossed the 
river at Detroit (July 12, 1812), and landed unopposed, just above the 
present town of Windsor. 

By the unpardonable remissness of Eustis, Secretary of War, our offi- 
cers on this exposed frontier were not notified of the declaration of war 





until after the- intelligence had reached the enemy. One of the immediate 
consequences of this strange blunder was the capture by the British and 

Indians of the post and garrison of 
Maekinac, by which they gained the 
key to the fur-trade of a vast region, 
and the command of the upper lakes, 
and, above all, removed the bar that 
kept back the savages of that region, 
and secured their neutrality. To this 


cause may in part be attributed the 
disasters of the Canada campaign of 

Opposed to the cautious and un- 
enterprising Hull was a brave, saga- 
cious, and energetic officer, General 
Isaac Brock, the same who soon after- 
wards fell gloriously at Queenstown 
Heights. Orders to move upon the 
British post at Maiden had at last 
been issued by Hull, through the ur- 
gency of Me Arthur. Cass, and other officers, and the troops were prepar- 
ing to execute them with alacrity, when the intelligence came 
that Brock, with a large force of regulars, Canadians, and In- 
dians, was approaching. The order to recross the river to Detroit and 
abandon Canada was o-iven bv the 

O / 

general, and most reluctantly obeved. 

t/ / 

A small party, under Major Van 

Home, had been defeated and driven 

back by Tecumseh in an attempt 

to bring supplies to the army from 
Brownstown, twenty-five 
miles below. Lieuten- 
ant-colonel Miller was 

sent on the same errand, and at Ma- 

guaga defeated a large body of the 

enemy, with whom was Tecumseh. 

The Indians .bore the brunt of this 

engagement, and fought with great 

obstinacy until finally routed, when 

they fled, leaving forty of their dead 

August 7. 

August 4. 
August 9. 

I'l M AN MACAllTIint. 




on tlie field. Brock, on reach- 
ing Sand \vicli, op- 
August 15. 

posite Detroit, sum- 
moned Hull to surrender, in- 
timating that in the event oi 
a refusal, the blood-thirsty sav- 
ages who accompanied him 
would be let loose upon the 
town and garrison. 

Hull refused to surrender, 
but at the same time neglected 
to erect batteries or take other 
necessary steps to prevent the 
lauding of the enemy, who 
at once opened a cannonade, 
which the Americans returned 
with spirit. 

Next morning the enemy 

landed without molestation, the Indians, under Tecumseh, taking a posi- 
tion in the woods. The British column, seven hundred and seventy 
strong, moved towards the fort, their left flank covered by the Indians; 
their right rested on the river, and was covered by the guns of the 
Queen Cha/rlotte. The Amer- 
ican force was numerically 
larger than the British, and its 
position gave it decided superi- 
ority. It had plenty of ammu- 
nition, and was provisioned for 
eighteen days. 

Just as the American artil- 
lerists were preparing to pour 
a deadly fire into the ranks of 
the advancing foe, a white flag 
was displayed from 
the walls of the 
fort, and Detroit, with its gar- 
rison of two thousand men, 
was surrendered without a shot 
being fired in its defence. This 
unfortunate event gave the 

August 10. 




British a large supply of arms, which Canada greatly needed, and also gave 
them time to secure the alliance of savage tribes ever ready to join the 
victorious party. 

Hull was tried by a court-martial and condemned to be shot, but was 
pardoned by the President in consideration of his age and Revolutionary 
services. He was no coward, but, swayed too much by considerations of 
'm inanity, committed a grave error of judgment. He was wholly incom- 
petent to meet and overcome obstacles which a younger and more energetic 
man would have successfully encountered. 

After the surrender, Brock, who had a high opinion of the sagacity and 
gallantry of Tecumseh, took off his own rich crimson silk sash, and publicly 
placed it round the waist of the chief, who was much pleased at such a 
mark of respect, but who received it with dignity. "With rare modesty he 
at once placed it upon Round Head, a celebrated "Wyandot warrior, saying. 
" I do not wish to wear such a mark of distinction when an older and abler 
warrior than myself is present." For his services at the battle of Ma 
guaga he had been rewarded by the British Government with -he com 
mission of brigadier-general. 



Tecnmseli's appearance nt tliis time was very prepossessing. His ago 
was about forty, his complexion light copper, and his countenance oval, 
with bright hazel eyes, indicating cheerfulness, energy, and decision. 
Three small silver crosses or coronets were suspended from the lower cur- 
tilage of his aquiline nose, and a large silver medallion of George III., 
which an ancestor had received, was attached to a mixed-colored wampum 
string and hung round his neck. His dress consisted of a plain, neat uni- 
form tanned deerskin jacket, with long trousers of the same material, the 
seams of both being covered with neatly cut fringe. His moccasins were 
much ornamented with work made from the dyed quills of the porcupine. 
The cap was red, the band ornamented with colored porcupine quills. 
When in full dress, on gala occasions, he wore a cocked hat and plume. 


The success of the British in this campaign was largely owing to the 
efficient co-operation of Tecumseh and his Indians, and to the fears with 
which they inspired the American commander. 

In ISO-i the United States had erected upon the site of a French trading- 
post, at the mouth of the Chicago River, where the city of Chicago now 
stands, a small work called Fort Dearborn. It was garrisoned 

August 1812 

at this time by seventy-five men, under Captain Ileald. While 
manifesting friendship for the garrison, the Potawatomies in its vicinity were 
in alliance with Great Britain, and were annually receiving a large supply 
of presents at Fort Maiden, on the Canada side. 



In obedience to orders, but contrary to the advice of his officers and of 
Winnemeg, a friendly chief, the provisions and goods in the fort were 
distributed among the Indians in the vicinity, and on the morning of 
August 15th the garrison evacuated the fort, and took up the line of 
march for Fort "Wayne. They were accompanied by about five hundred 
Potawatomies, who had pledged their word to escort them in safety to 
that post. 


They had proceeded but a mile and a half when these treacherous 
savages attacked and surrounded them. After a short conflict, in which 
half his men were killed or wounded, Ileald surrendered. A portion of 
the prisoners were taken to Detroit, the remainder were distributed among 
the Potawatomie villages. The wounded prisoners were not included in 
the stipulation, and many of them were put to death with savage bar- 

The wife of Lieutenant Helm, one of Ileald's officers, in describing this 
scene, says : " I felt that my hour was come, and endeavored to forget 
those that I loved, and prepare myself for my approaching fate. At this 
moment a young Indian raised his tomahawk at me. By springing aside 
I avoided the blow which was aimed at my head, but which alighted on 
my shoulder. I seized him around the neck, and while exerting my 
utmost efforts to get possession of his scalping - knife, which hung in a 
scabbard over his breast, I was dragged from his grasp by another and 
older Indian. 

" The latter bore me, struggling and resisting, towards the lake. I was 


immediately plunged into tlie water, and held there with a forcible hand, 
notwithstanding my resistance. I soon perceived, however, that the object 
of my captor was not to drown me, as he held me in a position to place 
my head above the water. Looking at him attentively, I soon recognized, 
in spite of the paint with which he was disguised, ' The Black Partridge.' 
" This was a chief of some distinction, who entertained a strung per- 
sonal regard for many of the white families in the fort. The evening be- 
fore the massacre he had entered Heald's room, and said, 'Father, I come 
to deliver up to you the medal I wear. It was given me by the Amer- 
icans, and I have long worn it in token of mutual friendship. But our 
vounsr men are resolved to imbrue their hands in the blood of the whites. 

v O 

I cannot restrain them, and I will not wear a token of peace while I am 
compelled to act as an enemy.' 

" When the firing had somewhat subsided, my preserver bore me from 
the water and conducted me up the sand-banks. It was a burning Au- 
gust morning, and walking through the sand in my drenched condition was 
inexpressibly painful and fatiguing. I stopped, and took off my shoes to 
free them from the sand with which they were nearly filled, when a squaw 
seized and carried them off. . . . Supported partly by my kind conductor, 
and partly by another Indian, I dragged my fainting steps to one of the 


Seeing my exhausted condition, the wife of a chief standing near 
dipped up some water from a stream close at hand, threw into it some 
maple-sugar, and, stirring it, gave it to me to drink. This act of kindness, 
in the midst of so many atrocities of which I was witness, touched me 
most sensibly." 

After passing through the scenes above described, Mrs. Helm was taken 
to Detroit ; her husband, who had also been taken prisoner, was after- 
wards liberated. Fifteen years later the town, now the fourth city in 
population in the United States, was laid out near the scene of this mas- 

Zachary Taylor, a young captain in the army, afterwards President of 
the United States, commanded at Fort Harrison on the AV abash, a short 
distance above the site of the present city of Terre Haute. 


Friendly Miamis had warned him of the hostile disposition of 
the neighboring tribes, and he was on his guard. The garrison consisted 
of about fifty men, not more than a dozen of whom were, owing to a pro- 
filing fever, fit for duty. Taylor himself was just recovering from an 
attack of bilious fever. 

At midnight on September <th he was aroused by the guns of his sen- 


tinels. Every man was ordered to his post, and some of the sick volun- 
teered for the emergency. The lower block-house, containing all the sup- 
plies for the garrison, had been set on fire by the savages. It was soon 
consumed, thus making an opening for the foe, and for a time the destruc- 
tion of the whole fortification seemed imminent. A smart fire was all the 


time kept up by the savages. The garrison, weakened by sickness and 
exhaustion, were dismayed, and for a moment regarded all as lost and gave 
way to despair. Two of the stoutest and most trusted of the soldiers leaped 
the p:disades and attempted to escape. Everything depended upon the 
presence of mind, courage, and energy of the commander. The flames 
bad reached the barracks when he shouted, 

"Pull oif the roofs nearest the block-house, pour on water, and all will 
be well!" 

ilis voice reanimated the men ; they put forth a degree of strength 


surprising to themselves, and that could only be supplied by the excite- 
ment and danger of the situation. Water was brought in buckets, while 
some, climbing the roof, tore oft the boards, and in the face of bullets and 
arrows extinguished the flames and saved the endangered buildings. Be- 
fore daybreak the open space made by the fire was protected by a breast- 
work as high as a man's head, only a single man in the fort having been 
killed, in spite of the incessant tiring of the foe. 

Daylight enabled the garrison to return the flre of the enemy, with 
such effect that after a conflict of eight hours they withdrew. One of 
the two men who fled from the fort was killed, the other, though badly 
wounded, regained its walls. 

Fortunately for the garrison, whose provisions had all been consumed 
in the block-house, the Indians had left the standing corn around the fort 
untouched, and upon this they subsisted several days. 


The year 1813 opened with a sad disaster to the American arms, known 
as the massacre at the river Kaisin. Frenchtown, now Monroe, Michigan, 
was then a flourishing settlement on this river. Since the surrender of 
Detroit it had been occupied by the British. On January 18th they had 
been driven out by the Americans, but immediately organized a large force 
for its recapture at Maiden, eighteen miles distant. It was commanded 
by Colonel Proctor, who, with some large pieces of cannon and a numer- 


ous body of Indians, advanced to the attack early in the morning of the 
22d. The weather was intensely cold. 

The Americans under General Winchester, who had neglected to send 
out pickets upon the roads leading to the town, were surprised, and after 
a brave defence were compelled to surrender. This they did upon the 
solemn promise of the British commander that private property should 
be respected, and that the sick and wounded, protected by a proper guard, 
should be removed to Amherstburg. 

These conditions were shamefully violated, and, after the British and 


their prisoners had gone, the helpless sick and wounded prisoners were 
stripped of everything by the savages, who had just held a drunken revel, 
and then tomahawked and scalped. The loss of the Americans in this 
shocking affair, which threw Kentucky into mourning, was nine hundred 
and thirty-four. Of these, one hundred and ninety-seven were killed and 
missing; the remainder were made prisoners. The Indians were led by 
Round Head and Walk-in-the-Water. 

Almost all the disasters to the American arms in this war were inflicted 
by the Indians, or through their active co-operation. The government of 
the United States, from motives of humanity, refused to employ them, and 
endeavored to secure their neutrality. By bribes and promises of plunder 
the British succeeded in inducing large numbers of them to take up the 
hatchet against the Americans. The capture of Detroit and of Chicago, 
the defeats of Van Home and of Winchester, and that of Colonel Dudley, 
now to be related, were mostly or wholly their work. 

In May, General Harrison was besieged by Proctor and his savage 
allies, fifteen hundred strong, under Tecumseh, in Fort Meigs, a post just 

established at the foot of the Maumee Rapids. After can- 
May 4, 1813. Tier- 11 -r 

nonading the fort for several days without result, Proctor 
.-rut Major Chambers with a demand for its surrender. 

" Tell General Proctor," replied Harrison, " that if the fort should 
fall into his hands, it will be in a manner calculated to do him more honor 
than a thousand surrenders." 

On the most active day of the investment as many as five hundred 
shots and bombs were aimed at the fort. For safety against the latter, each 
man had a hole dug underground, in the rear of the grand traverse, which, 
being covered over with plank and earth, fully protected them. The 
grand traverse was a wall of earth twelve feet in height, running length- 
wise of the fort, and designed as a protection against the batteries on the 
opposite side of the river. 

When the cry of " bomb " was heard, the soldiers either threw 




themselves upon the 
ground or ran to the 
holes for safety. A 
bomb is most de- 
structive when it 
bursts in the air, but 
it rarely explodes in 
that way ; it usually 
falls with such force 
as to penetrate the 
earth, and when it 
explodes, the pieces 
11 y upward and in 
an angular direction, 
consequently a per- 
son Ivino- on the 


May 5. 

ground is comparatively safe. Forts are usually built with bomb-proofs. 

General Green Clay had marched promptly to Harrison's relief with 
twelve hundred Kentuckians. Eight hundred of them, under Colonel 
Dudley, landed near the fort and captured the British batteries 
at that point, but disobeying Harrison's orders to spike the 
camion and withdraw at once, they pursued the enemy into the forest. 
There they were drawn into an 
ambuscade, and attacked on all 
sides by Indians, and most of 
them killed or captured, one 
hundred and seventy only es- 
caping to the fort. The re- 
mainder of Clay's command 
fought their way through the 
Indians, then joined the gar- 
rison in a sally upon them, 
drove them half a mile at the 
point of the bayonet, and ut- 
terly routed them. The siegv 
was raised very soon after- 
wards. The prisoners from 
Colonel Dudlev's command 


were murdered in cold blood. 
The butchery was finally end- 



eu by TeciimseL, who proved himself to lie more humane than Proctor. 
Hastening to the scone of nmnler, and seeing that officer near, Tecuinseli 
sternly inquired, 

"Why did yon not jmt a stop to this inhuman massacre?" 

"Your Indians could not be controlled," replied Proctor, who trem- 
bled with fear. 

"Begone!" retorted Tecnmseh, in a manner that indicated his supreme 
contempt. "You are unfit to command ; go and put on petticoats." This 
was the grossest insult an Indian could offer. 

Another incident shows the low estimate of the chief for the British 
general, and his complete ascendency over him. 

Captain Lecroix, an American for whom Tecumseh had a peculiar 
regard, had fallen into Proctor's hands, and was secreted on board a vessel 
until he could be sent to Montreal. Tecumseh peremptorily demanded of 
Proctor whether he knew anything of his friend, and threatened to aban- 
don him with his Indians if he uttered a falsehood. Proctor was obliged 
to admit that Lecroix was in confinement. Tecumseh demanded his im- 
mediate release, and Proctor submissively wrote an order stating that " The 
King of the Woods" desired the release of Captain Lecroix, and that he 
must be set at li-'erty without delay. 

The record of Proctor, whose ""services" at the river Raisin were 
iv \varded with the rank of brigadier-general, is unsurpassed for meanness, 
cowardice, and cruelty. We shall meet with him once more. 

Another attack was soon afterwards made on Fort Meigs. On this 
occasion the enemy practised a well-devised stratagem, for the purpose of 
drawing the troops from their post. 

On the Sandusky road, in the afternoon of July 26th, a heavy discharge 
of rifles and muskets was heard. ' The Indian yell at the same time broke 
upon the ear, and the savages were seen attacking with great impetuosity 
a column of men, who were soon tin-own into confusion. They, however, 
rallied, and the Indians in turn gave way. Supposing that this was a re- 
inforcement for them, the garrison flew to arms, and were urgent in de- 
manding to be led to the support of their friends. General Clay, the 
commander of the fort, who had just received intelligence from General 
Harrison, reasonably doubted the probability of so speedy a reinforce- 
ment, and prudently and firmly resisted the earnest importunities of the 
officers and men. A heavy shower of rain soon terminated the sham 
battle, and two days later the siege was abandoned. 

It was subsequently ascertained that this stratagem was planned by 
Tecumseh, for the purpose of decoying out a part of the garrison, which 



Sept. 10, 1813. 

was to have been attacked and cut off by the Indians, while the British 
were to carry the fort by storm. But for the cool judgment of the com- 
mander this cunningly devised manoeuvre would probably have succeeded. 

Commodore Perry's victory on Lake Erie had important consequences. 
Proctor's army, five thousand strong, including two thousand h've hundred 
Indians under Tecumseh, was compelled to abandon its design 
of laying waste the entire northern frontier, through which 
the glad tidings sent a thrill of joy. 

It also put a finishing blow to TecumseLvs Indian confederacy, and 
opened the way for Harrison's army to repossess the territory lost by the 
surrender of Detroit. The stigma of that disaster was wiped out, and the 
exposed frontier was henceforth to 
be absolutely secure from British in- 
vasion and Indian depredations. 

At Harrison's request, Governor 
Shelby, the hero of King's Mountain, 
issued a call for mounted volunteers. 

"I will lead you to the field of 
battle, and share with you the dan- 
gers and honors of the campaign," 
said the brave old veteran. There 
was a hearty response to his appeal. 

" Come," said the gallant Ken- 
tuckians, " let us rally round the 
eagle of our country, for " Old King's 
Mountain ' will certainly lead us to 
victory and conquest." In a short 
time, at the head of three thousand 
five hundred mounted men, he was 

on the march to Lake Erie, but before reaching it received the news of 
Perry's victory. 

At Seneca, Harrison was joined by some friendly Wyandots, Shaw- 
nees, and Senecas, under chiefs Lewis, Blackhoof, and Blacksnake. Black- 
hoof, a famous Shawnee chief, had fougnt against Braddock, and in all the 
wars with the Americans. Since the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, he had 
been their friend, resisting the influence of Tecumseh, and preventing 
many of the Shawnees from joining the British. Sagacious, energetic, 
and brave, he was also the orator of his tribe; graceful, natural, and with 
a happy faculty of expression. lie died in 1831, at the great age of one 
hundred and ten years. 




The defeat and capture of the British squadron had been concealed 
from Tecumseh. "When he heard of it he addressed Proctor with great 
vehemence of manner, in these words : 

" Father, listen to your children ! 

"The war before this our British father gave the hatchet to his red 
children, when our old chiefs were alive. They are now dead. In that 


war our father was thrown on his back by the Americans, and our father 
took them by the hand without our knowledge, and we are afraid that 
our father will do so again at this time. 

" Father, listen ! Our fleet has gone out. We know they have fought. 
we have heard the great guns ; but we know nothing of what has happened 
to our father with one arm (Captain Barclay, commander of the British 
fleet in the battle of Lake Erie). Our ships have gone one way, and we 
are much astonished to see our father tying up everything and preparing 
to run the other way, without letting his red children know what his in- 
tentions arc. You always told us you would never draw your foot off 
British ground, but now, father, we see you are drawing back, and we are 
sorry to see our father doing so without seeing the enemy. We must com- 
pare our father's conduct to a fat dog that carries its tail upon its back, 
but when affrighted, drops it between its legs and runs off. 

" Father, listen ! If you have an idea of going away, give us the arms 



and ammunition which our great father the king sent for his red children, 
and yon may go and welcome for us. Our lives are in the hands of the 

t/ */ O 

Great Spirit. We are determined to defend our lands, and if it he his 
will, we wish to leave onr bones upon them." 

The effect of this speech was powerful. It brought all the Indians 
assembled in council with Proctor to their feet, and they brandished their 
tomahawks in a menacing manner. Proctor had resolved to flee to the 
Niagara frontier, but finally quieted Tecumseh and his followers by prom- 
ising to make a stand at the Moravian towns on the Thames. 


Before taking his flight northward he destroyed Maiden, with its pub- 
lic buildings and stores. Harrison immediately pursued and overtook 
Proctor at the Moravian 
Town, a village on the right 
bank of the Thames River. 

Here the American gen- 
eral gained the brilliant vic- 
tory of the Thames. Proc- 
tor's ground was well chosen. 
The river was on 
his left, a marsh 
on his right, a small swamp 
was in the centre, to the 
right of which were Tecum- 
seh and the Indians, while 
Proctor and his regulars were 
on the left. The British ar- 
tillery was placed in the road 
along the margin of the riv- 
er, near the left of their line. 

The Indians were posted 
between the two swamps 
where the undergrowth was 

Oct. 5,1813. 


thickest. Their right was 
commanded by the brave Oshawahnah, a Chippewa chief. It extended 
some distance along, and just within the borders of the larger marsh, and 
was so disposed as to easily flank Harrison's left. Their left, commanded 
by Tecumseh, occupied the isthmus, or narrowest point between the two 
swamps. The chief, on taking his place in the line, laid aside his British 
uniform, and fought in his ordinary deerskin hunting-suit. 

Harrison, whose army numbered two thousand five hundred men, 


^ , . "' *"",. P P 

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J a/ mall Jwa??ip 



Oct. 5, 1S13. 

formed Iris troops for the attack in three lines, concentrating them upon 
the British front. His mounted troops were to endeavor, by 
taking ground to the left, to turn the right flank of the 

Just as the order was about to be given for the front line to advance, 
Harrison was informed by Colonel Wood, his chief - engineer, that the 
British lines, instead of their usual close order, were drawn up in open 
order. This information at once determined him to adopt the novel ex- 
pedient of charging their line of infantry with Johnson's mounted regi- 
ment. Its colonel was directed to form it in close column, with its right 
fifty yards from the road, its left upon the swamp, and to charge at fuL 
speed upon the enemy. 

At the sound of the bugle, Colonel James Johnson, with the mounter 
riflemen, dashed upon the first British line among huge trees and over 
fallen timber. It broke, and scattered in all directions. The second line, 
thirty paces in its rear, was also broken and dispersed in the same manner. 
The horsemen now wheeled right and left upon the rear of the broken 
troops. In less than five minutes after the first shot was fired, the whole 
British force, eight hundred strong, was vanquished, and most of it made 


prisoners ; only about fifty, Proctor among them, escaped. On the right 
the battle was over. 

On the left a simultaneous attack was made by Johnson's second bat- 
talion of mounted' men upon the Indians, who, under the immediate com- 


maud of Tecumseh, reserved their fire until the Americans were within a 
few paces of them, when they poured in a destructive volley that emptied 
the saddles of the leading files and wounded Colonel liichard M. Johnson 


severely. The trees and bushes preventing the mounted men from acting 
with efficiency, they dismounted, and fought on foot at close quarters. It 
was now a hand-to-hand encounter. 

" Remember the river Raisin !" was the cry of the Kentuckians. 

For a while the result was doubtful. The veteran Shelby ordered up 
Colonel John Donaldson's regiment to the support of Johnson. Tecum- 
seh, the great Indian leader, had fallen early in the fight, while animating 
his warriors by word and deed, and the Indians at length recoiled and fled. 
They scattered through the forest and were hotly pursued. 

In this battle Colonel Richard M. Johnson, afterwards Vice-President 
of the United States, behaved with great gallantry. lie was mounted on 
a white pony, which made him a conspicuous mark for the enemy. At 
the sound of the bugle he dashed forward at the head of the forlorn hope 
and attacked the Indian left, where Tecuniseh was stationed. Their first 
volley wounded him in the hip and thigh. Another bullet penetrated his 
hand and traversed his arm, completely disabling him. Faint from loss 
of blood, he was taken from his horse and conveyed to a vessel a few 
miles below. 

Among the spoils taken in this battle were six brass cannon, three of 
which, taken from the British in the war of the Revolution, had been re- 
taken from Hull at Detroit. Six hundred prisoners and more than five 
thousand small-arms were taken in the battle and pursuit. 

The loss in this short but severe battle was not great on either side. 
The Indians left thirty-three of their dead on the field. The disheartened 
warriors forsook their British allies, and sued humbly for peace and par- 
don at the feet of the Americans. Their prayers were heard, and they 
and their families were fed and clothed by the kind-hearted Harrison. 

An armistice was concluded with the chiefs of several of the hostile 
tribes, among whom was Maipock, the fierce Potawatomie, and hostages 
were received for their keeping faith. 

Harrison's victory, and the death of their great foe Tecumseh, produced 
great rejoicing throughout the country. It annihilated the allied forces 
west of the Ontario, recovered all that Hull had lost, and gave peace to 
the Xorth-west. 



LET ns turn our attention once more to the Southern Indians. 
The Creek nation, which was originally settled on the Ohio River, 
derives its name from the many beautiful streams which flowed through 
their extensive domain in Georgia, The Muskoki was their mother-tongue, 
though in some of their towns the Uchee, Alabama, Natchez, and Shawnee 
tongues prevailed. 

The general council of the nation was always held in the great public 
square of the principal town. In each angle of this square were three 
cabins of different sizes, twelve in all. Four avenues led into the square. 
One of the cabins that of the Grand Chief fronted the rising sun, to 
remind him that he should guard the interests of his people. Near it was 
the Grand Cabin where the councils were held. All the cabins \vere painted 
red, except those of the old men, facing to the west, which were white, 
symbolizing virtue and old age. 

Annually, in the month of May, the chiefs and principal men assembled 
here to deliberate upon all subjects of general interest. During the session 
none but the principal chiefs could approach nearer to the Grand Cabin 
than within twenty feet. In the centre of the square a fire was kept con- 
stantly burning. At sunset the council adjourned for the day, and then 
the young people of both sexes danced awhile round the fire. At sunrise 
the chiefs were called by beat of drum to the duties of the day. 

The presiding chief of each town was called the " Micco," and bore 
tiie name of his town, as Cassetta Micco, Tookabatcha Micco, etc. lie was 
always of the best family, held his station for life, and at death was suc- 
ceeded by a nephew. The Micco had the appointment of the Great 
Warrior, as the leading military chieftain was called. 

One of their most interesting ceremonies is the Boos-ke-tan, or Green 
Corn Dance. It is celebrated in the months of July and August, and laste 

* The story of the Creek War is well told in Pickett's "History of Alabama." 




from four to eight days. The ceremonies consist principally of dancing, 
ablutions, and medicinal applications, and is their manner of celebrating 


the harvest-time. It is also tlie occasion of a general pardon for all crimes 
except murder. 

The policy of the Creeks, like that of the Iroquois, was to encourage 
the smaller tribes to join them. In this way they greatly increased their 
strength and importance. At the time of their greatest prosperity they 
prohibited the importation of all kinds of ardent spirits into their country. 
Another peculiarity of this Indian nation was, that before setting out on 
warlike or other expeditions, the men assisted the women in their planting. 

While the American Revolution was in progress, the Creek Indians 
were employed by the British authorities to harass the Whig inhabitants 
of Georgia and the Carolinas. Their leader, Alexander McGillivray, was 
a remarkable man. lie was the son of a Scotch Indian trader by the 
half-breed daughter of a French officer. Receiving a good education, he 
was placed in a counting-house in Savannah, but preferred to live with his 
mother's tribe, in which he soon took a high position, and with his father 
warmly espoused the royal cause. He led several expeditions against the 
Whigs, but his genius was for diplomacy rather than war. Leclerc Mil- 
fort, an able French officer, his brother-in-law, and an English adventurer, 
named William Augustus Bowles, were the principal military leaders of 
the Creeks during this period. 

After the war had ended, McGillivray, in behalf of the Creek confed- 
eracy, became the ally of Spain, and had the rank and pay of a colonel. 
In 1790 he transferred his influence to the United States Government, 
ceded territory to it by treaty, and promised to divert to it from the 
Spanish at Pensacola the trade of his nation. He was, at the same time, 
appointed agent of the United States and a brigadier-general in its army. 
This transaction affected his popularity with the Creeks, but it did not 
prevent his obtaining an increase of salary and authority from the Span- 
ish Government. McGillivray died in 1793, greatly mourned by the 
Creeks. His ability and sagacity had given them a degree of importance 
to which they had never before attained. 

For many years these Indians had been managed by their agent, Colo- 
nel Hawkins, with prudence and sagacity. The location of a public road 
through the heart of their country, in 1811, created much dissatisfaction. 
Through this " Federal Road," as it was called, a continuous stream of 
emigration flowed in, and the Indians foresaw that they should soon be 
hemmed in on all sides. To increase their dissatisfaction, Brit- 


ish emissaries were busy among them, endeavoring to stir them 
np to war with the Americans, who were at this time engaged iu tlie in- 
vasion of Canada. 


But tin 1 most formidable enemy of the Americans was Tecumseli, who, 
during the latter part of the year 1811, labored among the Southern In 
dians as he had for years been laboring among the tribes of the west 
and north-west upon his great and patriotic plan of confederating all the 
tribes against the United States. On his return north he found that his 
brother, the Prophet, had rashly brought on the battle of Tippecanoe, and 
that his grand enterprise was totally ruined. Thirty mounted warriors 
accompanied him to the Gulf regions. Passing through the Chickasaw 
and Choctaw country, he was unsuccessful in his efforts to array these 
tribes against the Americans. With the Seminoles he was completely 

At Tookabatcha, Colonel Hawkins, the agent, had assembled five thou- 
sand Creeks at a great council. This ancient capital never before looked 
so gay and populous. Tecumseh, with his followers, was present. All 
flocked to see the famous orator and warrior of whom they had so often 

After the agent had concluded his first day's address, Tecumseh and 
his followers marched into the square, all of them naked except their 
flaps and ornaments. Their faces were painted black, and their heads 
\vere adorned with eagles' plumes, while buffalo-tails dragged behind, sus- 
pended by bands around their waists. Like appendages were also attached 
to their arms, and their whole appearance was as hideous as possible. 
Their bearing was exceedingly pompous and ceremonious. They marched 
round and round in the square, and then approaching the Creek chiefs, 
they cordially gave them the Indian salutation of a hand-shake at arm's- 
length, and exchanged tobacco in token of friendship. One chief, Cap- 
tain Isaac, refused to greet Tecumseli. He wore on his head a pair of 
buffalo horns, and these he shook at the Shawnee visitor with contempt. 

"Tecumseh," said he, "is a bad man, and no greater than I am." 

After Hawkins had finished his business and departed, Tecumseh, who 
had hitherto kept silent, made a speech in the grand council-house, full 
of fire and eloquence. He exhorted his hearers to abandon the customs 
of the pale-faces and return to those of their fathers. He warned them 
that servitude or extinction awaited them at the hands of the white race, 
and desired them to dress only in the skins of beasts, which the Great 
Spirit had given to his red children for food and raiment, and to resume 
the use of their old weapons. He concluded by telling them that the 
powerful King of England was ready to reward them handsomely if they 
would fight under his banner against the Americans. 

The next speaker, who, though not the brother of Tecumseli, seems, 


like Elkswatawa, to have assumed the role of prophet, had learned in Can- 
ada that a comet would soon appear, and told the excited warriors that 
they should see the arm of Tecumseh, like pale tire, stivtched out on the 
vault of heaven at a 
certain time, and that 
by this sign they 
would know when to 
strike. He declared 
that those who joined 
the war party should 
be shielded from all 
harm, none of them 
would be killed in 
battle, and that thev 


would finally expel 
the Georgians from 
the soil as far as the 
Savannah. It was al- 
most morning when 
the council adjourn- 
ed, and more than 
half the braves pres- 
ent had resolved on 
war against the Amer- 



The most distin- 
guished of the chiefs 
whom Tecumseh gain- 
ed over was Weath- 
erford, a half-blood, 
powerful, sagacious, 
brave, eloquent, and 
handsome. Of those 
who withstood his 
persuasions, the most 
noted was Tustenug- 

gee-Thlucco, the Big Warrior. Tecumseh tried hard to win him over, 
but without avail. Angry at last, he said, as he pointed his finger in the 
Big Warrior's face, 

" Tustenuggee-Thlucco, your blood is white. You have taken my red 



sticks and my talk, but you do not mean to tight. I know the reason 
You do not believe the Great Spirit has sent me. You shall believe it. 
I will leave directly, and go straight to Detroit. When I get there I will 
stamp my foot upon the ground and shake down every house in Tooka- 

The event gave tremendous effect to Tecumseh's words. The comet 
the blaxing " arm of Tecumseh " appeared, and at about the time when 
Tecumseh was supposed to have arrived at Detroit there was heard a deep 
rumbling in the ground, and there was a heaving of the earth that made 
the houses of Tookabatcha reel and totter as if about to fall. The startled 
savages ran out of their huts, exclaiming, " Tecumseh is at Detroit ! Te- 
cumseh is at Detroit ! We feel the stamp of his foot !'' It was the shock 
of the earthquake that destroyed New Madrid, and that was felt over the 
Gulf region in December, 1811. 

The effect was electrical. The message Tecumseh had delivered to the 
Big Warrior was believed, and many of the Indians took their rifles and 
prepared for war. 

The Creek nation at this time numbered about thirty thousand souls, 
seven thousand of whom were warriors. They were divided in opinion 
on the question of war with the Americans, but the war party, consisting 
mainly of the young warriors, prevailed, and early in the year IS 13 acts 
of hostility began. 

The Young Creek party, of which Weatherford was the soul, both 
feared and resented the rapid encroachments of the settlers upon the 
tribe's ancient seat. As Tecumseh said, u The white men are turning 
our beautiful forests into large fields, and staining our clear rivers with 
the washings of the soil." When they heard of the disasters to the Amer- 
ican arms in the campaign of 1812, and saw British cruisers in the Gulf 
of Mexico, then Weatherford became chief of the war party in southern 

Soon the whole nation was in agitation, and civil war was upon them. 

Those who were friendly to the United States were murdered or driven 

off, their houses and towns were burned, and their stock de- 

1 Q1 Q 

stroyed. In July, a body of militia, while endeavoring to in- 
tercept a war party of Creeks, who were returning from Pensacola with 
British arms and supplies, were defeated and dispersed at a place called 

Burnt Corn. 

Thoroughly alarmed at last, the white population of southern Alabama 
took refuge in stockade forts hastily erected. These were commonly spa- 
cious wooden buildings, one story in height, around which strong pickets 



Aug. 30, 1813. 

were driven into the ground ; port-holes were made in the pickets fur 
musketry. Such was Fort Mims, on the shore of Lake Tmsaw, in south- 
ern Alabama, whose stockades enclosed an acre of ground, entered by two 
ponderous gates, one on the east, the other on the west, Within the enclos- 
ure there were a number of cabins and small buildings, also an unh'nisht'd 

Into this work a sufficient defence if properly guarded, but only a 
slaughter-pen if not five hundred men, women, and children had collected 
for safety, when Weatherford, with one thousand warriors, who 
had lain in ambush in a ravine within four hundred yards of 
the stockade, surprised arid captured it at noonday. 

So many rumors of approaching savages had been heard from day to 
day that the inmates had become indifferent, believing all were false. 
Two slaves, who, on the preceding 
day, had reported having seen 
twenty-four painted savages lurk- 
ing near, were disbelieved and se- 
verely flogged. 

Precisely as the clock struck 
twelve, the drum in the fort beat 
to dinner. Officers and men laid 
aside their arms, and gathered to 
the meal in various parts of the 
stockade. This was the moment 
Weatherford had chosen for the 
attack. At the first tap his na- 
ked, painted warriors, thirsting for 
blood, sprang from the ravine and 
rushed in a tumultuous mass for 
the gate of the fort. The fore- 
most of them had reached a field 
only one hundred and fifty yards 
distant, and were streaming across 
it with hideous whoops, before a 

sentinel saw or heard them. The terrible cry, " Indians! Indians!" arose; 
the women and children fled to the houses, and the men rushed to the 

Sword in hand, Major Beasley, the commander, rushed to the gate 
and endeavored to shut it, but was prevented by the drifted sand, and was 
struck down before he could accomplish it. The savage horde, resembling 



demons rather than men, poured in. Five of their prophets, who were in 
(lie advance, were immediately shot down. They had boasted that the 
bullets of the Americans would not harm them. Their fall dispelled this 
illusion, and many of the Indians for a time retreated. The eastern part 
of the picketing was, however, soon filled by them, and they began a 
general and effective fire on the garrison. 

Captain Middleton, who was in charge of the eastern section, was soon 
slain, with all his command. Captain Jack, in the south wing, with a rifie 
company, long maintained the desperate conflict. Lieutenant Kandon 
held the guard-house on the west, and Captain Dixon Bailey, a gallant 
half-blood, on whom, after the fall of Beasley, the command devolved, was 
seen in every part of the fort, directing and encouraging its defenders. 
For three long hours the battle raged. It was finally terminated by the 
setting on fire of the wooden buildings in the enclosure by means of burn- 
ing arrows shot into their roofs. They were soon consumed. 

For the helpless women and children the terrible moment had arrived. 
The hatchet, the scalping-knife, and the bullet did their bloody work. None 
were spared save a few half-bloods and the negroes, who were made their 
slaves. The garrison had sold their lives dearly, not less than four hun- 
dred Creek warriors having been slain or wounded. Of the garrison, 
twelve only escaped. 

A little before noon on this fatal day, Zachariah McGirth left the fort 
to go to his plantation. Soon he heard the firing, and believing it to be 
an attack on the fort, hastened to the spot as soon as the Indians had left, 
to ascertain the fate of his wife and children who had remained. What a 
horrible spectacle met his eye ! In vain he sought among the charred and 
mutilated remains for any trace of his loved ones, a.nd he quitted the 
appalling scene, believing himself alone in the world. 

Rendered desperate by this misfortune, his only thought was vengeance, 
and no enterprise in the enemy's country was too daring for him to under- 
take. After a long service amid such dangers, a friend accosted him one 
day in Mobile, and told him that some people desired to see him at the 
wharf. There he saw a common sight in those days some wretched 
Indians who had been captured. He was asked if he knew them. While 
he hesitated, his wife and seven children advanced and embraced him. 
Overwhelmed with joy and astonishment he trembled like a leaf, and 
remained some moments speechless. 

Their escape from the massacre was owing to an act of kindness, many 
years before, to a little hungry Indian boy whom they fed and clothed 
and brought up. Grown to manhood, Sanota, as he was named, joined 


the expedition against Fort Minis, and accidentally coining upon Mrs. 
McGirtli and his foster-sisters, he protected them from the ferocious 
savages around them, and, under the pretence of making them his slaves, 
took care of them. Sanota was afterwards killed at the battle of the 
Horseshoe, and Mrs. McGirtli and her children made their way on foot 
to Mobile, where, as we have seen, they were restored to the husband 
and father. 

William Weatherford, the Creek leader, was the son of a white trader 
by the beautiful Sehoya, a half-sister of General McGillivray. He was 
one of nature's noblemen honorable and humane. He vehemently re- 
proved his followers for their cruelty at Fort Minis, and begged them to 
spare the women and children at least. His interference nearly cost him 
his life. Clubs were lifted against him, and he was compelled to retire. 
" My warriors," he afterwards said, " were like famished wolves, and the 
f}jst taste of blood made their appetites insatiable." 

At about the time of the massacre at Fort Minis, a burial party just 
outside of Fort Sinquefield was suddenly set upon by one hundred Creek 
warriors, who rushed down a hill towards them. AH reached the fort in 
safety. Failing to cut off the burial party, the Indians next endeavored 
to capture some women who w r ere engaged in washing at a spring not 
far from the fort, thinking to make them an easy prey. 

Just at that moment Isaac Heaton, who had been cow-hunting, rode 
up with a large pack of dogs. Giving a tremendous crack with his long 
whip, and encouraging his canine army, Ileaton charged upon the Indians. 
Such was the fury of the dogs that the Creeks were forced to halt and 
fight them. This flank movement covered the retreat of the women, who 
arrived in safety at the fort. Heaton's horse fell wounded under him, 
but rose again, and followed his heroic master, whose clothing was rid- 
dled with rifle-balls, into the fort. One poor woman, too feeble to move 
rapidly, was overtaken and scalped. Heaton received just praise for his 
bravery and presence of mind. 

Intense excitement and alarm throughout the south-west followed upon 
the news of the massacre. General Andrew Jackson, with a large force 
of Tennesseeans, proceeded to the scene of action, and at Tallasahatchee, 
Talladega, Hillabee, Autosse, Econachaca, and the Horseshoe, such se- 
vere chastisement was inflicted upon the Creeks as to completely humble 
them, after a campaign of five months, and compel them to sue for peace 
and pardon. 

The Indian's side of the story is rarely told. Several chiefs and leading 
warriors, who were in the battles of Emuckfau and Enotochopco, afte** 


Jan. -.'4. 1S14. 

Jan. 27, 1814. 

wards asserted that they "whipped Captain Jackson, and ran him to the 
Coosa River." 1 Certain it is that, though he outnumbered 
them in these well-contested actions, Jackson had to retreat. 

A.t the battle of Calabee, fought by Georgia troops, under General Floyd, 

though the latter gallantly 
maintained their 
ground during 
the action, the Indians 
impeded their further prog- 
ress into their country, and 
in a few days caused them 
to withdraw. 

Some of the incidents of 
the Creek War are too re- 
markable to be passed over 
in silence. Just at sunset, 
one November 
day, a swift-foot- 
ed Indian chief, who by 
stratagem had made his way 
from the beleaguered fort, 
informed Jackson that one 
hundred and sixty friendly 
Creek warriors, with their 
families, were hemmed in at 
Lashley's Fort in Talladega, 
thirty miles distant, with a 
scanty supply of food and 
no hope of escape. The be- 

Nov. 7, 1S13. 

siegers were one thousand 


strong, and they so com- 
pletely surrounded the little 
stockade that no one could 
leave it unobserved. The 
foe, feeling sure of their 

prey by famine, if in no other way, were dancing around the doomed 

people with demoniac joy, and conducting themselves as would a cat sure 

of a mouse. 

The messenger had made his escape by enveloping himself in the skin 

of a hog, with the head and legs attached, and in the darkness of night. 


while imitating its gait and grunt, and apparently rooting, was allowed to 
make his way unmolested through the hostile camp. When out of their 
reach he cast off his disguise, and with desperate speed made for Jack- 
son's camp on the Coosa, which he reached on the following morning. 
By a rapid march Jackson succeeded in enveloping the besieging force, 
and at the battle of Talladega inflicted upon them a severe defeat, and 
rescued the friendly Indians, who were in a famished condition. 

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Humbled by defeat, the Creeks at the Hillabee Towns sent a messsigr 
to Jackson asking for peace. While awaiting the return of their mes- 
senger, they were attacked by a detachment under General Novembei . 18 
White, who was acting independently of Jackson, and who 
was unacquainted with this overture, and a large number of unresisting 
Indians were massacred in cold blood. Naturally supposing this to be 
Jackson's answer to their prayer for peace, they thenceforth fought with 
desperation, neither asking nor accepting quarter. 


The true story of Captain Sam Dale's canoe fight with the Indians is 

as thrilling as any incident of fiction. It would be thought fabulous had 

it not been witnessed by his men on the shore, who, having 

November 12. 

no canoe, could render him no assistance. In the fall of 1813, 
Dale was engaged with a few followers in driving the small bands of 
marauding savages from the frontiers. At Randon's Landing they espied 
a large canoe, made from the trunk of an immense cypress-tree, bearing 
eleven naked and hideously painted savages, about to land at an adjacent 
canebrake. Dale, telling his men to follow, dashed forward to contest 
their landing. Seeing this, the Indians backed their canoe into deep 
water, three of them swimming and pushing it on the side not exposed 
to the bullets, and the others lying flat in its bottom. 

The Indians in the water were soon picked off. The canoe, deprived 
of their guidance, floated sluggishly down with the current. Dale then 
ordered Csesar, a free negro of his party, to bring a canoe which he had 
secreted close by, and jumped into it, followed by Jeremiah Anstill and 
James Smith. Csesar paddled it to within twenty yards of the savages, 
when Dale and his companions aimed a volley into their canoe ; but their 
priming being wet, their guns missed fire. Csesar was then ordered to 
place his boat side by side with that of the warriors. Approaching within 
ten feet, the chief, whose head was encircled with a panther's skin which 
extended down his back, rose to his feet, and, recognizing Dale, exclaimed, 

" Xow for it, Big Sam !" 

At the same instant he presented his gun at Austin's breast. The 
brave youth struck at him with an oar, which he dodged, and in return 
brought down his rifle upon Anstill's head just as the canoes came to- 
gether. At that moment the long rifles of Smith and Dale came down 
with deadly force, and felled the chief to the bottom of the canoe. Such 
was the force of the blow inflicted by Dale, that his gun was broken near 
the lock. Seizing the heavy barrel still left, he did execution with it to 
the end of the combat. 

Anstill in a moment became engaged with the second warrior, and 
then with the third, both of whom he despatched with his clubbed rifle. 
Smith, too, was equally active, having also knocked down two of the In 
dians. Csesar had by this time got the canoes together, and held them 
firmly, thus enabling Dale, who was in the advance, and the others to 
maintain a firm footing by keeping one foot in each canoe. 

In the midst of this unparalleled strife a lusty Indian struck Anstill 
with his war-club, felling him across the sides of the two boats, and, while 
prostrate, another had raised his club to dash out his brains, when Dale, 





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by a timely blow, buried his rifle-barrel deep in tlie warrior's skull. In 
the mean time Anstill had recovered his feet, and, in a desperate struggle 
with another savage, knocked him into the river with the Indian's club 
which he had wrested from him. 

The last warrior was Tar-cha-chee, a noted wrestler of powerful frame. 
He and Dale were old acquaintances. As the Indian's fierce look met that 
of Dale, he shook himself, gave the horrid war-whoop, and cried out, 

" Big Sam, I am a man I am coming !" 

A moment before, Csesar had asked Dale to use his musket and bay- 
onet, which he handed him. Bounding forward over his dead companions 
with a terrific yell, the savage aimed a tremendous blow at Dale's head 
with his clubbed rifle. Dale dodged, but the blow fell upon and dislocated 
his shoulder. At the same instant Dale darted his bayonet into the body 
of the Indian, who exclaimed, as he tried to escape, 

" Tar-cha-chee is a man ! he is not afraid to die !" 

Dale then turned to a wounded warrior, who had been snapping his 
piece at him during the whole conflict, and who was now defiantly exclaim- 
ing, " I am a warrior ! I am not afraid to die !" and pinned him to the 
canoe with his bayonet. 

" He followed his ten comrades to the land of spirits," said the re- 
doubtable Indian fighter. 

Dale at this time was in the prime of life. lie- weighed over one hun- 
dred and ninety pounds and was six feet in height, with a large, muscular 
frame. lie had a high reputation as a borderer and scout, and had passed 
much of his life as a trader among the Creeks and Cherokees. He was 
in after-life a brigadier-general by brevet, and served several terms in the 
Alabama legislature. His life was full of stirring incidents and "hair- 
breadth 'scapes." 

On one occasion, as he was kneeling down to drink at a spring, two 
Indians rushed upon him with their tomahawks, uttering the savage yell 
of assured victory lie knifed them both, and, though bleeding from five 
wounds, retraced their track nine miles, crept stealthily to their camp, 
brained three sleeping warriors, and cut the thongs of a female prisoner 
who lay by their side. While in this act, however, a fourth sprang upon 
him from behind. Taken at a disadvantage, and exhausted with loss of 
blood, he was soon overpowered, and the knife of the savage was at his 
breast, when the blow of a tomahawk in the hands of the woman he had 
saved preserved the life of her deliverer. 

Like Boone, Kenton, Carson, and many other bordermen of high at- 
tributes, Dale entertained a strong attachment for the Indians, extolled 



March 2T, 1S14. 

their courage, their love of country, and many of their domestic qualities. 
In peace he treated them with great kindness, relieved their wants, and 
was held by them in high regard. In war, "Big Sam," as they called 
him, was an object of their dread and terror. 

The final and decisive conflict which ended the Creek "War was fou<rhl 


by Jackson. The Indians concentrated all their warriors from the differ- 
ent towns at the bend of the Tallapoosa called Tohopeka, or 
the Horseshoe, from its shape and had strongly fortified it 
with logs and brush, and by erecting breastworks. They numbered one 
thousand two hundred, one-fourth of them being women and children. 
Jackson's army numbered two thousand effective men. 

The fire from his small cannon proved harmless, and the Indians 
whooped in derision as the balls buried themselves in the logs. He then 
stormed the breastwork under a deadly fire from the Indians, and with 

the bayonet soon put them to 
flight. General Coffee held the 
opposite bank of the river and 
prevented all escape on that 
side, so that the Indians were 
penned up in the peninsula, 
Jackson being in their front 
and Coffee in their rear. Kot an 
Indian would suffer himself to 
be taken, or asked for quarter. 

That evening, when the 
contest ended, five hundred 
and fifty-seven Creek warriors 


lay dead on the field ; many 
more had been shot attempt- 
ing to escape by swimming 
the river. One noted chief 
escaped by taking to the water 
in the evening, lying beneath 
the surface, and drawing his 

breath through a hollow cane, until it was dark enough for him to swin. 
across. General Sam Houston, then an ensign, displayed great bravery and 
was severely wounded in this battle. Afterwards, when a senator of the 
United States, he was the champion and defender of the Indians, boldly 
and repeatedly asserting that in our Indian difficulties, from the beginning, 
the Indian had never been the aggressor, but always the party injured. 





This blow was fatal to the power and dignity of the Creek nation. 
They had contended like heroes, but against the superior numbers and 
weapons of the white men they fought in vain. When the chiefs appeared 
before Jackson to sue for pardon, he sternly told them that one condition 
of their pardon was, that they must first bring in Weatherford, the cruel 
leader of the attack on Fort Minis, who 
could on no account be forgiven. 

To hold them harmless, and seeing 
clearly the hopelessness of prolonging the 
contest, Weatherford resolved voluntarily 
to surrender himself to the conqueror. 
This was, perhaps, the most striking inci- 
dent of the war. 

Mounting his splendid gray, with 
whom, when hotly pressed, he had made 
the daring leap from the bluff at the Holy 
Ground into the waters of the Alabama, 
he rode to Jackson's camp. He arrived 



just at sunset. The general advanced towards him from his marquee, 
when the chief, sitting erect on his noble steed and with folded arms, said, 

" I am "Weatherford, the chief who commanded at Fort Mims. I desire 
peace for my people, and have come to ask it." 

Jackson, greatly surprised at his boldness, said to him, " How dare you 
ride up to my tent after having murdered the women and children at 
Fort Mims?" 

Weatlierford's memorable reply was as follows : 

" General Jackson, I am not afraid of you. I fear no man, for I am a 
Creek warrior. I have nothing to ask in behalf of myself. You can kill 
me if you desire. But I come to beg you to send for the women and chil- 
dren of the war party, who are now starving in the woods. Their fields 
and cribs have been destroyed by your people, who have driven them to 
the woods without an ear of corn. I hope that you will send out parties 
who will conduct them safely here, in order that they may be fed. I ex- 
erted myself in vain to prevent the massacre of the women and children 
at Fort Mims. I am now done fighting. The Red Sticks are nearly all 
killed. If I could fight you any longer I would most heartily do so. Send 
for the women and children. They never did you any harm ; but kill me 
if the white people want it done." 

A crowd of soldiers had gathered around the general's tent. Some of 
them, on learning who the chief was, cried out, 

"Kill him! kill him!" 

"Silence!" exclaimed Jackson, adding, with great energy, "Any man 
who would kill as brave a man as this would rob the dead !" 

He then invited the chief to alight and enter his tent, where they held 
a frank and friendly talk. " The terms upon which your nation can be 
saved," said Jackson, " have already been disclosed. If you wish to con- 
tinue the war, you are at liberty to depart unharmed ; but if you desire 
peace you may remain, and you shall be protected." 

" There was a time," said Weatherford, " when I had a choice and 
could have answered you. I have none now, even hope is ended. Once 
I could animate my warriors to battle, but I cannot animate the dead. Mv 
warriors can no longer hear my voice ; their bones are at Talladega, Em- 
uckfau, and Tohopeka. I have not surrendered myself thoughtlessly. 
Your people have destroyed my nation. You are a brave man. I rely 
upon your generosity. You will exact no terms of a conquered people 
but such as they should accede to. You have told our nation where they 
might go and be safe. This is good talk, and they ought to listen to it 
They shall listen to it." 


"Weatherford is described as being " tall, straight, and well proportioned; 
his eyes black, lively, and penetrating-, his nose prominent, thin, and finely 
chiselled, while all the features of his face spoke an active and disciplined 
mind." Silent and reserved, except upon some great occasion, he seldom 
spoke in council, and when he did so he was listened to with delight and 
approbation. He owned a fine farm in Monroe County, Alabama, which 
he improved and embellished, and to which he frequently withdrew from 
public cares and anxieties, for the enjoyment of peaceful rural pleasures. 
Here Weatherford died in 1820. 

The Red Sticks as the Creek warriors were called, from the fact of 
their war-clubs being always painted red exhibited in this severe contest 
qualities of the highest order. Their bravery, endurance, self -sacrifice, and 
patriotism have never been excelled. In their first engagement, at Burnt 
Corn, they defeated the Americans and compelled them to make a precipi- 
tate retreat. They captured Fort Minis and exterminated its numerous 
garrison. At Tallasahatchee, disdaining to beg for quarter, they fought 
till not a warrior was left alive. At Talladega, Autosse, and the Holy 
Ground they fought obstinately, frequently rallied, and finally made good 
their retreat. At Emuckfau and at Enotochopco they claimed the victory. 
At Calabee they threw the Georgians into confusion, and were only driven 
from the field by overwhelming superiority of numbers. At the Horse- 
shoe, where they were nearly exterminated, not an Indian asked for 

At last, wounded, starved, and beaten, hundreds of them fled to the 
swamps of Florida. They had contended not only against the armies of 
Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee, together with the regular troops of 
the United States, but also against numerous bands of Chickasaws and 
Choctaws, then friendly to the latter. In every engagement these brave 
warriors were inferior in number to their adversaries, excepting at Burnt 
Corn and Fort Minis. The capture of Pensacola by Jackson's 
army convinced the Creeks that they could no longer rely 
upon the British, and that henceforth they must live in friendship with 
the United States. In the year 1815 peace was made with all the princi- 
pal Indian tribes. 



WE now come upon a series of wars growing out of the policy of 
removing the Indian from his old home to the region west of the 
Mississippi. The preservation of peace on the frontier, and the transfer 
of the tribes from State to national jurisdiction were the principal reasons 
for this policy, which was adopted in 1830. There were at this time one 
hundred and twenty-nine thousand Indians within the limits of the old 
States, and the step seemed both wise and humane. Its authors did not 
imagine the rapidity with which settlements and population were to spread 

It was not until the war of 1812-15 with England had ended that the 
Mississippi Valley was thoroughly explored and emigration to it began. 
By the cession of their lands to the United States, the Indians were 
enabled to procure the means necessary to their advancement in the social 
scale. They bought cattle, and implements of husbandry, and founded 
schools, and a life of industry commenced. A new era had dawned upon 
the race. 

The Choctaws were the first to exchange their lands for a tract west 
of the Mississippi. A new and striking feature in the treaty they made 
was the appropriation of the proceeds of fifty-four sections of the ceded 
lands, each one mile square, for a school fund. Provision was also made 
for the support of the deaf, dumb, and blind of the tribe. The Indian 
Bureau the department of the government in which Indian affairs are 
transacted was established in 1824:, and in the following year the plan of 
removal was presented to Congress by President Monroe. The first effect- 
ual steps towards removal were taken by the treaty of January 24-, 1826, 
by which extensive cessions of territory were made by the various tribes. 
To some of these, especially the Creeks and Cherokees, who had made a 
considerable advance towards civilization, removal was extremely dis- 
tasteful and was long resisted. Between the years 1S20 and 134-0 most 
of ihe tribes had removed. 



For seventy years the Sac and Fox tribes had dwelt in the Rock River 
Valley, Wisconsin. This and the adjacent territory these tribes had 
ceded to the United States in ISO-i, upon the condition that they might 
continue to reside and hunt on 
the lands until they were need- 
ed for settlement. These tribes 
at this time numbered about 
three thousand, one -fifth of 
whom w r ere warriors. 

In 1829 the period of set- 
tlement had arrived, and the 
Indians were notified to remove 
to the west side of the Missis- 
sippi River. Many of them, 
among others the Sac chief 
Keokuk, did so, establishing 
themselves on the Iowa River. 
A party, under the old chief 
Black Hawk, refused to re- 
move. They were strength- 
ened in their determination by 
the advice of the Prophet Wa- 
bokeshiek, or White Cloud, who had great influence over them, and who 
told them that their British father at Maiden stood ready to help them. 

Black Hawk, the Sac chieftain, was born at the Sac village on Rock 
Riven', in the year 1767. Distinguishing himself as a warrior, he rose by 
merit alone to the station of chief. He had gained many victories over 
the Osage tribe, and had fought by the side of Tecumseh, when that great 
leader fell. The ancient allies of Great Britain, his band annually vis- 
ited their British father at Maiden, and received many presents. To 
the chief himself a medal had been awarded for his fidelity to the British. 
The features of Black Hawk denoted great firmness of purpose, and his 
wisdom had gained him the respect of his own and the surrounding tribes. 

Frequent illtreatment from the Americans, who in violation of the 
treaty had settled upon the Indian lands before they were sold, and the 
introduction of the whiskey traffic and its attendant evils, had made 
Black Hawk and his band still more unfriendly and unwilling to give up 
their old homes. They were, however, compelled by force to abandon 
them in June, 1831. 

An insufficient supply of corn had been provided for the Indians, and 


|i Mt 



before the autumn had passed, Black Hawk and his band were suffering 
for want of food. They had been obliged to abandon their own growing 
crops, and had reached their new location too late in the season for plant- 
ing. In the following April they recrossed the Mississippi, 
and ascended the Rock River to the territory of their friends, 
rhe Winnebagoes, having been invited thither to raise corn. 

Regarding this as a hostile act, General Atkinson, then at Fort Ana 
strong, at once ordered llack Hawk and his followers to return. The 
chief, jealous of the superiority of his rival, Keokuk, and feeling that his 
nation had been wronged, had made up his mind to defy the power of the 
government, and with his small band to make war upon the United States. 

A sense of personal 
injury also impelled 
him to this unwise 
determination. Un- 
der the pretence that 
he had done them a 
wrong, some white 
men had fallen upon 
and severely beaten 
him a little time be- 

Black Hawk now 
sought the help of 
the Chippewas, Ot- 
tawas, Winnebagoes, 
and Potawatomies, 
and, expecting their 
aid, refused to obey 
General Atkinson's 
order. Soon find- 
ing, however, that the 
assistance of those 
tribes could not be 

depended upon, he resolved, if overtaken, to return peaceably. Receiving 
intelligence of the approach of a body of mounted volunteers, he sent 
three of his young men with a flag to meet them and conduct them to 
iiis camp near Sycamore Creek. 

The difficulty might have ended here but for the senseless conduct 
of the militia, who seized and detained Black Hawk's messengers, and 



who pursued and killed two of a small party of five Indians, whom lit 
had also sent out on a peaceful errand. These troops, two hundred and 
seventy in number, were Illinois volunteers, commanded by Major Still- 
man, The disaster that overtook this detachment is best told in Black 
Hawk's own words : 

" When the news came of what had happened," said Black Hawk, 
referring to the capture of his messengers and the killing of the two In- 
dians, " nearly all my young men were absent about ten miles 
off. I started with what I had left about forty and had pro- 
ceeded but a short distance before we saw a body of the enemy approach- 
ing. I raised ^a yell, and said to my braves, 'Some of our people have 
been killed wantonly and cruelly murdered. We must avenge their 
death!' In a little while we discovered the whole army coming towards 
us at full gallop. We were now confident that our first party had been 
killed. I immediately placed my men in front of some bushes, that we 
might have the first fire when they were near enough. They halted at 
some distance from us. I gave another yell, and ordered my brave war- 
riors to charge upon them, expecting that we would all be killed. They 
did charge. Every man rushed and fired, and the enemy retreated in the 
utmost confusion and consternation before my small but brave band of 
warriors. After pursuing them some distance, I found it useless to fol- 
low them, they rode so fast, and returned to my camp." 

In this disgraceful and unfortunate affair, all the baggage, camp equi- 
page, and provisions of the troops, fell into the hands of the Indians. 
Black Hawk finding that his peace flag had been fired upon, and intoxi- 
cated with his success, was now more than ever determined on war, and, 
in consequence of this success, was joined by a band of Winnebagoes. 
Consternation spread throughout the State of Illinois. The Governor 
called for more mounted volunteers, and the Secretary of War at Wash- 
ington sent one thousand troops from the East, who were to be under 
the command of General Winfield Scott. While on their journey, these 
troops were attacked by an enemy far more terrible than Indians --the 
Asiatic cholera. Many of them died, and the remainder never reached 
the scene of action. A characteristic feature of this disease was the ra- 
pidity with which it terminated in a fatal result a few hours only inter- 
vening between the appearance of the first symptoms and death. 

Besides the Sacs and Foxes, a few of the Winnebagoes, Menomonees, 
and Potawatomies, took part in the conflicts that ensued. The Winne- 
bagoes inhabited ten villages upon the Wisconsin River, and could mus- 
ter some five hundred warriors. They had fought against the Americans 


at the Miami, at Tippecanoe, and in the War of 1812. The Menomonees, 

a small tribe on the river of that name, could muster but one hundred 
warriors. A few of these joined the Americans against their old foes, 
the Sacs and Foxes. The Potawatomies occupied the territory adjoining 
the south end of Lake Michigan, and numbered between three and four 

After the affair with Stillman, the Indians separated into small bands, 

and for a brief season the usual horrors of border warfare were enacted. 

A fierce attack was made on the fort at Buffalo Grove, near 

Dixon's Ferry, but the Indians were driven off with some 

loss. In an engagement on the banks of the Wisconsin, with 

a large body of troops, under General Dodge, the Indians were routed, 

and while attempting to descend the Wisconsin upon rafts and in canoes, 

many, mcludincr women and children, were killed or taken. Black Hawk 

/ 7 

and his followers fled across the country, hoping to put the Mississippi 
between them and their pursuers. 

After a harassing march, his starving and worn-down band was over- 
taken by General Atkinson's forces at the junction of the Bad Axe River 
with the Mississippi, where the steamer Warrior opened fire 
upon them. Next morning, while the Indians were endeavor- 
ing to cross the river, they were attacked by the troops, and one hundred 
and fifty of them were killed. Black Hawk himself, with a few others 
and most of the women and children, escaped; thirty-nine women and 
children were taken prisoners. The war was over. It had been of brief 
duration, and the excitement it had caused was out of all proportion to 
its slight importance. 

Black Hawk, speaking of this catastrophe, said, that when the whites 
came upon his people they tried to give themselves up, and made no show 
of resistance until the soldiers began to slaughter them, and then his 
braves determined to fight until they were all killed. What renders this 
probable is the fact that when Atkinson's troops charged upon the In- 
dians, men, women, and children were seen mixed together in such a man- 
ner as to render it difficult to kill one and spare the other. 

Black Hawk and some other chiefs soon afterwards gave themselves 
up, and were confined for a time at Fortress Monroe. When released 
May and June, they were taken to the principal eastern cities. At New York 
they witnessed a balloon ascension from Castle Garden. 

"Is the air-ship going to see the Great Spirit?" asked one of them. 

"He is a great brave," said another, referring to the aeronaut; "he 
must be a Sac." 


They visited many public places of interest, and were greatly pleased 
with what they saw. 

( )n presenting himself to the United States agent at Prairie du Chien, 
the old chief said : 

"Black Hawk has done nothing for which an Indian ouc;ht to he. 

O o 

ashamed. He lias fought for his country against white men, who came 
year after year to cheat the Indians and take away their lands. The cause 
of our making war is known 


to all white men. They ought 
to be ashamed of it. The 
white men despise the In- 
dians, and drive them from 
their homes. They speak bad 
of the Indian, and look at him 
spitefully. But the Indian 
does not tell lies ; Indians do 
not steal. 

"An Indian who is as bad 
as the white man could not 
live in our nation ; he would 
be put to death and eaten up 
by the wolves. The white 
men carry false looks, and deal 
in false actions ; they shake 
the poor Indian by the hand 
to gain his confidence, to make 

him drunk, to deceive and ruin him. They poisoned us by their touch. 
We were not safe. We were becoming, like them, hypocrites and liars. 

"Things grew worse. We looked up to the Great Spirit. Our squaws 
and papooses were without food to keep them from starving. We called 
a Great Council and built a large fire. The spirit of our fathers came and 
spoke to us, to avenge our wrongs or die. We set up the warwhoop, and 
the heart of Black Hawk swelled high in his bosom when he led his war- 
riors to battle. I fought hard, but your guns were well aimed. 

" Farewell, my nation ! Black Hawk tried to save you and avenge 
your wrongs. He has been taken prisoner and his plans arc stopped. He 
is satisfied. lie has done his duty; he can do no more. lie is near his 
end. His sun is setting and will rise no more. lie will go to the world 
of spirits contented. Farewell to Black Hawk !" 

A few years later he died at his camp on the River Des Moines. He 



was buried on an elevated spot, in his war divss, in a sitting posture, and 
with distinguished honors from his tribe. In the arrave were 

Oct. 3, 1S38. . 

]>laced many ot the old warriors trophies, together with Ins 
favorite weapons, and the cane given him by Henry Clay. 

Washington Irving describes Black Hawk as having " a fine head, a 
Roman style of face, and a prepossessing countenance." Wabokeshiek, 
the prophet, who had been more influential perhaps than any other per- 
son in rousing the war spirit of the tnbe, was coarser in figure, with less 
of intellect, but with the marks of decision and firmness. 



1T)Y far the most costly, protracted, and troublesome of all our Indian 
-L* wars, was that with the Seminoles of Florida. That it was so was 
owing to their warlike character, as well as to the fact that they were 
contending for their homes and all that was dear to them. It was also 
largely owing to the unhealthiness of the climate, and especially to the 
inaccessible nature of the country, with its dense and almost impenetra- 
ble swamps, hommocks, and everglades, which provided the Indians with 
hiding-places and fastnesses innumerable. Probably no region better 
adapted than this to the peculiar warfare of the 
Indian can be found on the face of the globe. 

It was an unjust and unwise war : unjust, 
because the rights and the wishes of the Indians 
were disregarded ; and unwise, because the terri- 
tory they occupied, some of which they still con- 
tinue to occupy, was not required for settle- 
ment. It afforded, however, a shelter for runa- 
way negroes, and this must, at all events, be put 
a stop to. The Government of the United States 
w r as at that time controlled by the slave-holding 
minority at the South. The people of Georgia 

thought that the first duty of the Federal Government was to catch their 
runaway negroes. The Florida War was in reality nothing more than a 
slave-hunt on a large scale, at the national expense. 

The Seminoles and Micasaukies at this time occupied all the extensive 
range of country lying between the Cape of Florida on the south, the St. 
Mary's River on the north, and the Perdido on the west a territory some 
eight hundred miles in extent. The estimated number of these Indians, 
live or six hundred of whom were fighting men, was four thousand, in- 
cluding women, children, and negroes an underestimate, as events proved. 
It was subsequently ascertained that the number of warriors brought into 



tlic field was one thousand six hundred and sixty, besides two hundred and 
fifty negroes capable of bearing arms. 

The MicasauMes were the original occupants of the country, and the 
Seminoles were, as their name indicates, runaways from the Creek tribe. 
They had little land under cultivation, their main dependence being upon 
hunting and fishing. 

From the time of its cession by Spain, in l^iM. the white settlers in 
Florida had constantly urged upon the Government the removal of these 
Indians. A large number of negroes, mostly fugitives from slavery whom 
their masters wished to reclaim, were living with the Seminoles. Some of 
them had been for a long time among them, and by intermarriage with 
tin-in had acquired a powerful influence over them. Their number was, 
in 1836, estimated at one thousand four hundred. The demands of the 
settlers were consequently resisted by the Indians, and were an additional 
source of trouble. The removal of the Southern and Eastern Indians to 
the west of the Mississippi was now the settled policy of the Govern- 

Soon after the cession of Florida to the United States, a treaty was 
made by which the Seminoles agreed to relinquish the better part of their 
lands and retire to the centre of the peninsula. But Nea-Mathla, the head 
chief, thinking that this treaty savored too much of the cunning and the 
whiskey of the white man, commanded his warriors to resist it. Duval, 
the governor of the territory, broke in upon his council, dispersed the war 
leaders, and put the advocates of peace in their places. Nea-Mathla then 
withdrew and joined the Creeks, who made him a chief of their nation. 

A treaty was at length effected by which some of the chiefs were 
brought to acquiesce in the removal, but so strenuous still was the oppo- 
sition of the tribe that the idea was abandoned. The fugitives 


from slavery saw clearly that they were to be returned to their 
old masters, and they preferred death to such a fate. The Seminoles hav- 
ing decreed in council that the first Indian who made preparations to re- 
move should be put to death, Charley-E-Mathla, an influential chief who 
was about to emigrate, was waylaid and murdered by Osceola. It was 
now evident that the removal must be effected by force, if at all, the allot- 
ted time for the Indians to prepare for it having expired, and troops were 
sent to General Clinch, who commanded in Florida, to enable him to carry 
out the policy of the Government. 

Hostilities soon began. On the afternoon of December 28, General 
Thompson, the Indian agent, while walking witli Lieutenant 
Smith near Fort King, was, with his companion, shot and in- 



stantly killed by a band of Indians led by Osceola. The sutler's store was 
then attacked, and the inmates killed and scalped. 

On the afternoon of the same day a detachment of one hundred United 
States troops, on the march to Fort King, were waylaid near the P>ig Wa- 
lioo Swamp by one hundred and 
eighty Indians under Micanopy, 
Jumper, and Alligator, and the 
entire force was annihilated, three 
men only escaping. 

The troops were marching in 
open order along a path skirted by 
the low palmetto, which afforded a 
cover for the Indians, who were sta- 
tioned on the west side of the road. 
A moment before the soldiers were 
attacked, Major Bade, the com- 
manding officer, said to his men, 
" We are now out of danger ; keep 
up a good heart, men, and when 
we get to Fort King I'll give yon 
three days for Christmas." When 
they had approached within thirty 
yards, the Indians, at a given sig- 
nal from Micanopy, their head chief, poured a destructive volley into 
their ranks. The troops received at least fifteen rounds before an Indian 
was seen. 

Major Dade and nearly half the command had now fallen ; those who 
survived took shelter behind trees. Lieutenant Basinger with a six-pound- 
er checked the Indians for a time, and they retired behind a small ridge. 
Captain Gardiner then began the erection of a breastwork of pine-trees, 
but it proved wholly ineffectual to protect the men. 

Very soon the Indians returned, and opened a cross-fire on the defend- 
ers of the breastwork with deadly execution. Lieutenant I>asinger contin- 
ued to discharge the six-pounder until every man who served the piece was 
shot. About two o'clock, the conflict having lasted five hours, the last 
man fell, and the Indians rushed into the undefended barricade. Every 
man who exhibited signs of life was butchered by the negroes after the 
Indians, who had secured the arms and accoutrements of the soldiers, 
had left. Many watches and other valuables belonging to the officers re- 
mained untouched. 



That such an overwhelming defeat could befall a body of trained 
soldiers, well officered, in broad day, and with a field-piece at their com- 
mand, by a not very numerous body of half-naked savages, caused through- 
out the country a painful shock of surprise. And yet similar occurrences 
had been frequent in former Indian wars, and were certain to happen 
when, as in the present instance, the rules of forest warfare w r ere disre- 

Three days later, General Clinch, while crossing the Withlacoochee 

River, was attacked by a superior force of Indians and negroes, led by 

Osceola and Alligator. The Indians, who were protected by a 

heavy hommock and scrub, poured a galling fire upon the 

troops, who, after being twice repulsed, in a final charge succeeded in 

routing them. In this engagement the Indians, urged on by the shrill 

voice and frantic gestures of Osceola, fought with great pertinacity and 


By this time the settlements in the interior had been broken up, and 

the inhabitants had gathered in stockades or fled to the coasts. In the 

following January, sixteen sugar plantations near New Smyrna, 

with all their buildings and improvements, were destroyed, 

the country was devastated in every direction, and many of the inhabitants 


Undeniably, the master-spirit of this w T ar was As-se-se-ha-ho-lar, com- 
monly called Osceola. He was a half-breed, the son of a trader named 
Powell, and, when a child, was taken by his mother, who was a Creek, to 
Florida, and lived near Fort King. He was now thirty-two years of age, 
with a slender figure, of medium size, manly and resolute in his bearing, 
and had a clear, frank, and engaging countenance. From boyhood he 
was noted for his independence and self-possession, and for his hatred of 
the whites, whom he treated with a dignity amounting almost to inso- 
lence. He was distinguished for his skill in dances, ball-plays, and other 
games. By his boldness and audacity he forced the nation into the war 
whieh a large majority of them were averse to engaging in, and either 
broke up every attempt at negotiation or prevented its fulfilment. He 
was to have been one of the leaders at Dade's massacre, but was delayed 
by his desire to avenge himself upon General Thompson at Fort King. 
At a council previously held to determine the question of removal, Osceola 
drew his knife and drove it into the table, saying, 

" The only treaty I will execute is this !" 

Osceola's hatred for Thompson is said to have been caused by that 
officer's seizure of his wife, whose mother was a slave, while he was on 



a trading visit to Fort King. Osceola, made frantic by this terrible out- 
rage, was seized for using violent language to Agent Thompson, and was 
kept in irons for six days. If this story be true, Osceola's vindictiveness 
towards that officer is sufficiently accounted for. 


He was in the battle of the Withlacoochee, and led the attack upon 
Micanopy, where, in an open field within sight of the fort, he attacked 
upward of one hundred regular troops, supported by a field- 
piece. His subsequent capture gave rise to the imputation of 

Oct. 22, 1837. 

bad faith upon the part of General Jesup, Osceola having 

come in under a white flag to negotiate ; but that officer contended that 



Jan. 30, 183S. 

Osceola had broken faith in reference to the Fort Dado capitulation, and 
was to be treated as an escaped prisoner. In fact, Osceola, in accordance 
with Indian rules of warfare, had improved every opportunity to mislead 
tin 1 commander of tin- army, and had disregarded the most solemn prom- 
ises to abstain from hostile acts and prepare for emigration. His pro- 
fessions of friendship and assurances of peace were only made to give his 
warriors time to plant and gather crops, and to harass and break down 
the troops by exposure to the climate and fatiguing marches. 

Dignified and courteous in his manners, Osceola showed himself a 
brave and cautious leader in the field, and possessed nobler traits of 
character than are commonly found in his race. He instructed his war- 
riors, in their predatory incursions, to spare the women and children. "It 
is not upon them,''' said he, " that we make war and draw the scalping- 
knife, it is upon men ; let us act like men." Upon his removal to the 
prison at Charleston, South Carolina, he became dejected, re- 
fused sustenance, pined away, and in a few weeks died of a 
broken heart. lie was buried just outside the principal gate-way of Fort 

Moultrie, where a monument has been erect- 
^ ed to his memory. 

Of the other Indian leaders, Micanopy, 
head chief of the Seminoles, was fifty years 
of age, very fat, given to drink, excessively 
lazy, and consequently an advocate of peace. 
It was necessary to force him into hostile 
acts, and in two instances he had to be car- 
ried to the scene of action. 

Otee-Emathla, or Jumper, his lawyer and 
"sense-bearer," was cunning, intelligent, and 
deceitful, but active and brave. His fluent 

speech and attractive voice made him the most important man in council. 
Halpatter - Tustenuggee, or Alligator, was the most shrewd, crafty, 
polite, and intelligent of the Seminole chiefs. He spoke English, and was 
an active and successful hunter, but was artful and treacherous. He was 
a -kilful warrior and a dangerous foe. 


Holartoochee was in all respects superior to his associates. Good judg- 
ment, prudence, and integrity marked all the acts of this brave warrior 
and great hunter. After three years of resistance he surrendered for 
emigration, and became useful in influencing others to follow his ex- 

Coacoochee, or Wild-cat, the son of King Philip, was by far the most 





dangerous of the Seminole warriors in the field. War to him was pastime. 
When pursued through deep swamps he M'ould stand at a distance and 
laugh at and ridicule the soldiers, as they floundered about through mud 
and water with their arms and accoutrements. With a few followers he 
ranged throughout the country with a fleetness defying pursuit, lie dis- 
regarded councils, and acted upon his own judgment wholly. His age 
was twenty-eight ; he was slight and active as a deer, and had a bright, 
playful, and attractive countenance. 

Arpeika, or Sam Jones, chief of the Micasaukies, was upward of sev- 
enty years of age. He declared himself a prophet and a great medicine- 
man, his age giving him an ascendency far above his merits. AVith him, 
and of the same tribe, was Halleck-Tustenuggee, who afterwards became 
the master-spirit of the war. 

Thlocklo-Tustenuggee, or Tiger-tail, was the chief of the Tallahassees. 
For many years he was a common lounger about the streets of Tallahassee, 
begging for whiskey and food. Plausible and attractive in his manners, 
and professing great wisdom and sagacity, he deluded his own people as 
well as the whites, and was always ready to accept the proffer of peace. 
After enjoying for weeks the hospi- 
tality of a military camp or post, with 
the promise of emigrating, he would 
return to the woods well supplied 
with ammunition, provisions, and 


The Creeks in Florida numbered 
about seventy warriors, under Octi- 
arche, a young sub -chief, who con- 
tended with skill and resolution, and 
was among the last of the leaders 
captured. Large numbers of the 
Creeks from Georgia joined the Sem- 
inoles from time to time in small 
parties, and were active in commit- 
ting depredations on the frontier. 

Abraham, the principal slave of 
Mi canopy, was the most noted and 
influential of the negroes. He dictated to those of his own color, who, to 
a great degree, controlled their masters. They were a most cruel and 
malignant enemy. 

Successive commanders Generals Clinch, Games, Scott, and Call- 



having failed to subdue the Indians, the task was, early in January, 1837, 
assigned to General Thomas S. Jesup, who, with eight thousand men, 
began a most vigorous campaign. He moved with rapidity, with mounted 
troops, bntli officers and men carrying their rations in their haversacks. 
The Indians were soon driven from their fastnesses in the Withlacoochee 
region, and moved south-west in the direction of the Everglades. As soon 
as this fact was ascertained, several detachments were organized to make 
a vigorous pursuit. 

A succession of defeats soon convinced the Indians that they could not 

withstand the power of the Government, and a conference between the 

general and some of their chiefs at Fort Dade, resulted in the 

March 6, 1S3T. ' .... 

agreement to cease hostilities and at once prepare to emigrate 
to the West. On the strength of this agreement the troops were with- 
drawn, and the settlers prepared to reoccupy their abandoned homes. 

When the troops were leaving Fort Mellon, Colonel Ilarney said to 
Coacoochee that unless the Indians complied with the treaty, the United 
States Government would exterminate them. 

" The Great Spirit may exterminate us," replied the young chief, " but 
the pale-faces cannot, else why have they not done it before ?" 

By the 23d of June, upward of seven hundred Indians, including Mi- 
canopy, their head chief, had come in prepared to emigrate, and had en- 
camped near Tampa, where twenty-five transports had been stationed to 
take them to Kew Orleans. Everything was in readiness for their embar- 
kation, when suddenly Osceola and Coacoochee, at the head of two hun- 
dred Micasaukies, appeared upon the scene, and either forced or persuaded 
the entire number to leave the camp and take refuge in the Everglades. 
Various causes contributed to bring about this result. The fugitive ne- 
groes had good reason to fear that they would be returned to their owners. 
Oscedla and the younger chiefs were anxious to defeat the emigration 
project, and the influence and address of that chief caused the Indians to 
credit such absurd stories as, that once they were embarked their throats 
would all be cut. 

Volunteers from the neighboring States were now called out, and ac- 
tive hostilities were resumed. Osceola and Coa Hajo, who had come to 
Fort Peyton for an interview with General Hernandez, were 
seized by order of General Jesup, upon the ground of their 
having capitulated at Fort Dade in March, and were imprisoned at St. 

Many prisoners were now daily brought in, owing to the great activity 
of the army in breaking up the haunts of the Indians. Again negotiations 


were set on foot, a council was held, the chiefs once more promised to col- 
lect their people and bring them to the camp, when the escape of Wild- 
cat, with seventeen of his followers, from their prison at St. Augustine, 
put an immediate stop to what appeared to be a gratifying prospect of 
ending the war. 

This chief, with a considerable number of other Indians, had been con- 
fined in the old Spanish fort for security. A narrow embrasure gave light 
and air to the room they occupied. This embrasure was some fifty feet 
above the ditch, or moat, which was dry at all times. Coacoochee conceived 
the idea of squeezing himself through this narrow aperture and dropping 
into the moat. 


In order to reach the opening, which was eighteen feet above the floor, 
he and his companion cut up the forage bags allowed them to sleep on, 
and made them into ropes. Standing upon the shoulders of his com- 
panion, Coacoochee worked a knife into a crevice of the stonework, as 
high up as lie could reach, and raising himself upon this, found that by a 
reduction of his flesh he could get through the embrasure. To effect this 
object they took medicine for five days. 

One dark night, at the end of that time, Coacoochee took the rope, 
which they had secreted under the bed, and climbing up as before to the 
embrasure, made it fast that his friend might follow, passing enough of 
it through the opening to extend to the ditch below. 


Putting his head through first, the sharp stones taking the skin off 
his breast and hack, he was obliged to go dosvn head-foremost until his 
feet were through, each moment fearing that the rope would break. Two 
men passed near him after he readied the ground, but owing to the dark- 
ness did not see him. His companion found great difficulty in getting 
through the hole, but finally came tumbling the whole distance into the 
ditch. As he was lamed by the fall, Coacoochee took him upon his shoul- 
der, and after carrying him some distance, caught a mule, upon which he 
mounted him. They then started for the St. .John's River, making good 
their escape. Exasperated at the treatment lie had received, the chief used 
all his influence against submission, and put a stop to the movements of 
Arpeika and others, who were on the way to the American camp. 

The next important military event of the war was the severe battle of 

the Okechobee. The troops about one thousand in number were led by 

Colonel Zachary Taylor, against about four hundred Indians 

Dec 20 1837 

under Alligator, Arpeika, Ilalleck-Tustenuggee, and Coacoo- 
chee. The latter were protected by a dense hommock, with a miry saw- 
grass pond in front. Through these obstacles the troops charged the en- 
emy with groat gallantry, and after a hard-fought battle routed them, but 
at a heavy cost. One hundred and thirty-nine were killed or wounded, 
among whom were many valuable officers. The loss of the Indians was 

In this fight Arpeika fled at the first fire, when Ilalleck-Tustenuggee 
rallied those who were inclined to follow his example. The prophet Otol- 
ke-Thlocko was engaged in preparing his medicines, and singing and dan- 
cing to inspire the combatants. The trees were notched, behind which 
the most expert marksmen were posted, and in which they rested their 
rifles, and thus obtained a steady aim. 

Coacoochee says the Indians stood firm until the soldiers rushed upon 
them, whooping and yelling, when they retreated in small parties. lie, to- 
gether with Alligator, finding the troops pursuing them so closely as to 
prevent their loading, and that large numbers had retired, thought it pru- 
dent to do the same, and they scattered in small bodies throughout the 

Jesup was succeeded in the command by Taylor, who, after two years 

of harassing service, was relieved by Colonel Armistead. This officer was 

in turn relieved bv Colonel William .1. Worth, making the 

May 15, 1838. J 

eiffJith commander sent out to close the war. Creneral Jesup 

May, 1841. 

is entitled to great credit for his energy and perseverance. 
Within a year and a half two thousand four hundred Indians and negroes, 


seven hundred of whom were warriors, had surrendered or been killed, 
and most of their villages and stock had been destroyed or captured. But 
the end of this troublesome war seemed as distant as ever. 

Before tendering his resignation, General Jesup recommended to the 
War Department the assignment of the southern part of Florida to the 
Indians, instead of removing them to the West. His salutary advice was 
not heeded, and five years more of harassing and destructive warfare en- 
sued. During General Taylor's term of service, blood-hounds were im- 
ported for the purpose of hunting down the Indians. These savage brutes 
more humane than their masters refused to follow an Indian's trail, so 
that this proved a useless barbarity. 

The Everglades, situated in the southern part of Florida, constituted 
the principal stronghold of the Indians. They were expanses of shoal 
water, varying in depth from one to five feet, dotted with innumerable 
low and flat islands, generally covered with trees and shrubs. Much of 
this area is covered with almost impenetrable saw-grass as high as a man's 
head, but the little channels in every direction are free from it. Colonel 
Ilarney, with one hundred men in canoes, penetrated this region in Decem- 
ber, 1840, killed Chai-ki-ka, a Spanish Indian chief, and executed six of his 
followers on the spot. 

Okechobee was the last general fight in which the Indians were en- 
gaged. Thenceforth their policy was to avoid a battle, but, moving rap- 
idly by night, to seize every opportunity to wreak their vengeance on the 
unarmed inhabitants of the country. Murders were committed by them 
within a few miles of Tallahassee and St. Augustine. This state of things 
continued with brief intervals until the spring of 1841, when General 
Worth took command. No officer ever entered upon a more unpromising 
field in which to acquire distinction. All the best officers of the army, 
many of them experienced in Indian warfare, had signally failed to conquer 
the Indians, who were effectually concealed in the Everglades and swamps, 
where their families and crops were secure, and whence they could sally 
forth upon long expeditions for murder and rapine. 

At this time the Indians were en joying the cool shades of their dense 
hommocks, luxuriating in an abundant supply of green corn, melons, 
pumpkins, pease, beans, sweet-potatoes, and other vegetables. 
They were too cautious to subject themselves to a hot sun or 
to the liability of pursuit. Desirous of remaining undisturbed, they mo- 
lested no one, postponing their hostile excursions until after harvest. 

Fully comprehending the task before him, the new commander, instead 
of going into summer quarters as was usual at this period of the year, at 


once organized his force in the most effective manner, and prepared for a 
continuous campaign, irrespective of the season, establishing his head-quar- 
ters at. Fort King. Simultaneous movements against the Indians took 
place during the months of June and July in every district, breaking up 
their camps and destroying their crops and stores. Every swamp and 
hommock between the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts was visited, and the band 
of Ilalleck-Tustenuggee routed out of the "Wahoo Swamp. The detach- 
ments continued scouting the country for twenty-five days. Six hundred 
men were engaged, about twenty-five per cent, of whom were sent to the 
hospitals. The mercury averaged 8G. 

An officer describes one of these scouting parties of thirty or forty 
men as " resembling banditti rather than a body of regular troops. Its 
commander, without shoes or stockings, his pantaloons sustained by a belt, 
in which were thrust a brace of pistols, without vest or coat, his cap with 
a leathern flap behind to divert the rain from coursing down his back, in 
this costume led his detachment through bog and water day after day, de- 
pendent for food upon the contents of his haversack strapped to his back. 
The pride and satisfaction of the soldier in doing his duty could alone sus- 
tain him through this arduous and health-destroying service." 

O v O 

Coacoochee was again a prisoner, and Worth resolved to make use of 

him to induce his followers to submit. An interview took place at Tampa, 

on board the transport in which the chief was confined. The 

June 15, 1841. . . L 

impressiveness 01 the scene was enhanced by the fine martial 
figure of the general he was six feet high and finely propor- 
tioned and by the presence of his brilliant staff in full uniform. Coa- 
coochee received them with a dignity and calmness in marked contrast 
with his usual bold and dashing demeanor. Taking the young chief, who 
was heavily ironed, by the hand, the general said : 

" Coacoochee, I take you by the hand as a warrior, a brave man. You 
have fought long, and with a true and strong heart, for your country. You 
are a great warrior ; the Indians look upon you as a leader. This war has 
lasted five years, it must now end. . . . You are the man to do it. I wish 
you to state how many days it will require to effect an interview with the 
Indians in the woods. You can select three or five of these men to carry 
your talk. Kame the time, it shall be granted ; but I tell you, as 1 wish 
your relatives and friends told, that unless they fulfil your demands, your- 
self and these warriors now seated before us shall be hung to the yards of 
tliis vessel when the sun "sets on the day appointed, with th irons on your 
hands and feet. 1 tell you this that we may well understand each oth T; 
I do not wish to frighten you you are too brave a man for that but 1 



i*i. 7> \-feei-SaIii_ A^A 


^feH S 


T] f 

- :/ s : ' ' ?/ v^ 
; > 



say what I mean, and I will do it. This war must end, and you must 
end it." 

After a brief silence, the chief, with repressed feeling and in a subdued 
voice, replied : 

" I was once a boy. I hunted in these woods. I saw the white man, 
and was told he was my enemy. I could not shoot him as I would a wolf 
or bear, yet like these he came upon me. Horses, cattle, and fields he took 
from me. He said he was my friend ; he abused our women and children, 
and told us to go from the land ; still he gave his hand in friendship. "We 
took it ; while taking it he had a snake in the other, his tongue was forked, 
he lied and stung us. I asked but for a small piece of these lands enough 
to plant and live upon, far South a spot where I could place the ashes of 
my kindred a spot only sufficient upon which I could lay my wife and 
child. This was not granted me. I was put in prison ; I escaped. I have 
been taken again ; I feel the irons in my heart. 

'' I have listened to your talk. You and your officers have taken us 
by the hand in friendship. The heart of the poor Indian thanks you. We 
know but little, we have no books which tell all things, but we have 
the Great Spirit, moon, and stars. These told me last night you would be 
our friend. I give you my word the word of Coacoochee. It is true I 
have fought like a man, so have my warriors, but the whites are too strong 
for us. I wish now to have my band around me and go to Arkansas. 

" You say ' I must end the war !' Look at these irons ! Can I go to 
my warriors ''. Coacoochee chained ! No, do not ask me to see them. I 
never wish to tread upon my land unless I am free. If I can go to them 
unchained they will follow me in, but I fear they will not obey me when 
I talk to them in irons. They will say my heart is weak, I am afraid. 
Could I go free they will surrender and emigrate." 

General Worth, in reply, told him that he could not go, and the chiet 
selected five of his companions to bear his message. 

" Take these sticks," said he. " Here are thirty-nine one for each day ; 
this, much larger than the rest, with blood upon it, is the fortieth. When 
the others are thrown away, and this only remains, say to my people that 
with the setting sun Coacoochee hangs like a dog, with none but white 
men to hear his last words. Come, then ; come by the stars, as I have led 
you to battle ; come, for the voice of Coacoochee speaks to you." 

The chosen messengers were relieved of their irons and departed, and 
by the last of the month all had come in one hundred and eighty-nine, 
men, women, and children. General Worth had succeeded in this plan by 
working upon the weak point of Coacoochee his vanity. lie was vain. 


hold, and cuiiniiiii 1 . but was ly no means tlie great warrior lie supposed 
himself. Worth made still further use of him, employing his services in 
bringing in other bands, succeeding better by negotiation than by hostile 

In November and December a combined land and naval expedition was 
made through the Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp, the Indian 
stronghold, where Arpeika and the Prophet held supreme command. The 
troops marched through swamps deep in mud and water, their boats pene- 
trated every creek and landed upon every island. The country in every 
direction was explored, but not an Indian was seen. Their huts were 
burned, their fields devastated, and they fled in every direction. 

It was a peculiar service upon which these various corps were employed. 
There was to be seen, at the same time, in the Everglades, the dragoon in 
water from three to four feet deep, the sailor and marine wading in the 
mud in the midst of cypress stumps, and the soldiers, infantry and artillery, 
alternately on the land, in the water, and in boats. 

Comforts and conveniences were wholly absent, even subsistence was 
reduced to the lowest point. Night after night officers and men were com- 
pelled to sleep in their canoes, others in damp bogs, and in the morning 
to cook their breakfasts over a fire built on a pile of sand in the prow of 
their boat, or kindled around a cypress stump. Officers carried their own 
provision and packs upon their backs. Before the expedition was ended, 
many of the men were compelled to resort to the cabbage-tree for sub- 

An officer who took part in this expedition, at the close of his journal 
says: "Thus ended the Big Cypress campaign like all others; drove the 
Indians out, broke them up, taught them we could go where they could ; 
men and officers worn down ; two months in water, packs on our backs ; 
hard times ; trust they are soon to end. The only reward we ask is the 
ending of the Florida War." 1 

Worth's sagacity enabled him to see that fighting these Indians under 
every disadvantage was not the best way, nor the only way to effect their 
removal. He therefore used every means in his power to influence them 
by conciliatory "talks," sent to them by leading chiefs who were prisoners 
or who had voluntarily surrendered. This course was effectual. He de- 
clared to a brother officer " that there was more true patriotism, sense, and 
decency in ridding our country of this incubus in a quiet way, than in cut- 
ting down a solitary Indian who may have been guilty of the crime of 
defending his own country in his own way." While not inferior to Jack- 



son as a soldier, "Worth was far superior to him in comprehension and 
statesmanship. Of him it can be truly said, " He deserved well of his 

Finding that no hiding-place was secure, and that with a vigilant and 
energetic commander like Worth to deal with they had no further hope, 
parties of the Indians sued for peace, came in, and were from time to time 
forwarded to Arkansas. 

Early in 18tt2 General Worth made a final effort to capture Ilalleck- 
Tustenuggee and his band. This cunning and vindictive chief had hitherto 
baffled every detachment sent after him. By birth a Micasaukie, and at 
this time about thirty-five years of age, this savage, apart from his in- 
tense love of country, seems not to have possessed a single redeeming 
trait. Adroit in his movements, bold and intrepid in action, he had made 
the pioneer as well as the army feel that he was no ordinary foe. He was 
six feet two inches in height, with a slight, sinewy frame, well formed, 
and erect, lie was at length brought to bay and surrounded in the 
Pilaklikaha Swamp, and the last considerable action of the war was here 

At daybreak the column was in motion. The negro interpreters, among 
whom the tall figure of Gopher John was conspicuous, and the friendly 
Indians quietly rode in advance of the troops. They reloaded 

Ai)ril 19 1842 

their rifles, carefully examined their priming, and gazed intent- 
ly around, inspecting every twig and blade of grass and soft spot in the 
soil to discover traces of a footstep. From time to time they dismounted 
to run over the high grass, in the hope of finding a track to guide them to 
the camp of the enemy. 

" An Indian has just passed here," said the old chief Ilolartoochee, 
much excited. 

" How do you know ?" was the eager inquiry. 

"This blade of grass," he replied, holding it up, "was trod upon this 
morning. You see it is crushed. The sun nor the light of day has not 
shone upon it ; had either, it would have wilted. Yon see it is green, but 
crushed. Here are more ; there is the print of a foot !" 

The column halted, when tracks were found at a considerable distance 

from each other. 

" He is running," said the chief, " to make known the approach of the 

troops. 1 ' 

This footprint was followed three miles, when the hommock in which 
it was thought the enemy had made a stand was seen in the distance. A 
trail led to it direct, through mud and water from one to three feet deep. 


The hommock in full view, surrounded by mud and water, looked ^ike a 
mass of dark green foliage almost impenetrable. 

The troops, in extended order, charged the liommoek with great gal- 
lantry and received the fire of the Indians, who, with shrill whoops and 
yell after yell, discharged their rifles rapidly. For a while they stood 
firmly, relying upon a partial breastwork of fallen timber and the thick 
undergrowth ; but the troops steadily advancing, they broke into small 
parties and escaped. The band was soon after captured by Colonel 
Garland, while attending a feast to which that officer had invited them, 
and the chief was subsequently secured by General Worth. 

This was one of the most important steps yet taken towards bringing 
the war to a close. The surrender of Tiger -tail, Octiarche, and Tuste- 
nuggee, with their bands, had removed nearly all the Indians from the 
central and northern parts of East Florida, when the capture of Pascoffer, 
with his entire band, on the Ocklockonnee, by Colonel Hitchcock, entirely 
relieved middle and western Florida. 


No Indians now remained in the territory except those under Arpeika, 
an aged sub-chief, and O-lac-to-ni-co (Billy Bowlegs), who were within the 
limits assigned them south of Pease Creek, and the credit of finally closing 
the Florida War was fairly earned by the gallant Worth. In a little more 
than a year, and with a great saving of life and treasure, he had solved a 
problem which had baffied the ablest, of his predecessors. 

The war which had lasted seven years closed by official proclamation 
August 14, 1842. It had cost the United States upward of forty million 


dollars and an unknown number of lives. Of the regular troops, one thou- 
sand four hundred and sixty-six, of whom the very large number of two 
hundred and fifteen were officers, had died during the contest. A monu- 
ment has been erected in their memory at St. Francis's barracks, St. Au- 
gustine. As a compensation for this terrible expenditure of life and prop- 
erty, over five hundred persons of color had been reduced from freedom 
to bondage, and Florida was no longer an asylum for fugitive slaves. 

O O v O 

A small number of Indians yet remain in the southerly portion of the 
State, supporting themselves by hunting and fishing. Those who emi- 
grated form one of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory, and 
are in a prosperous and progressive condition. 

NOTE. " Th History of Florida," by Fairbanks, and " Sprague's History of the Flor- 
ida War," are the best sources of information relative to the subject ot urns chapter. 


INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 

THE immediate cause of the Sioux outbreak in Minnesota in 1862 was 
the failure on the part of our Government to keep its promises to 
rhe Indians, who were depending upon it for the payment of money due 
them for their land. They were urged on, moreover, by actual want, and 
after waiting as long as they could, and seeing no prospect of relief, they 
broke out into open hostility. They knew that the great Civil War was 

raging, draining the country of its 
fighting men, and they seized the 
opportunity to right their wrongs 
in their own savage way. They 
had other and older grievances, but 
this was sufficient. 

The Lower or Redwood Agency 
was fourteen miles above Fort 
Ridsreley, on the Minnesota River. 

c? */ t 

The excitement here was intense for 
a month before the outbreak. A 
" Soldiers 1 Lodge," a secret organiza- 
tion, designed to stir up the tribe to 
hostile action, was formed, and suc- 
ceeded at length in ex- 
citing the passions of 
the Indians to the required pitch. 
Early on the morning of August 
18th a party of one hundred and 
fifty Sioux under Little Crow began 

an indiscriminate massacre of the whites on both sides of the river. All 

the buildings at the Agency were burned.* 



* See "History of the Sioux War," by I. V. D. Heard. 

INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 


News of the massacre reached Fort Bidgeley before noon, and Captain 
Marsh, of the Fifth Minnesota Volunteers, started at once tor the Agency 
with forty-eight men. This small force was sun-on nded by the Sioux at 
the ferry opposite the Agency, and one-half of them killed, the rest escap- 
ing by flight, Messengers were now sent by Little Crow to other Indian 
bands, many of whom at once joined him. 


That night a converted Indian notified the people at ITazlewood, the 
mission station six miles above the Upper Agency, of their danger, and 
forty-two persons, including the missionaries Riggs and Williamson, with 
their families, made their escape. Their safe passage through the numer- 
ous scattered bands of hostiles on their route seems almost miraculous. 
On the very day of the outbreak just a day too late seventy-two thou- 
sand dollars for the payment of the Indians reached Fort Ridgeley. 

For nearly three weeks the Indians had it all their own way, meeting 
with no effectual resistance, so many of the men being absent in the Union 



armv. Their depredations extended throughout the whole western portion 
of Minnesota, and into Iowa and Dakota, They were repulsed from Forts 
Ridgeley and Al>ereroml>ie, and from the settlements at New Ulm and 
ilutchinson. In two weeks fifteen or twenty of the frontier counties were 
almost depopulated. When a stop was finally put to their devastations, 
more than six hundred victims had fallen, and two hundred persons, mostly 
women and children, had been made captive. 

By the last of August a small force had been collected at Fort Ridge- 
ley, and one hundred and fifty men, under Colonel Joseph R. P.rown, were, 
as soon as possible, sent to the Lower Agency as a burial party. After 
performing this sad service, no signs of Indians being visible, they en- 
camped for the night at a place called "Birch Coolie." At dawn next 
day the camp was suddenly attacked, and, as it was in a most exposed 
situation, the men fought at a great disadvantage. In three hours nearly 
one-half the force had been killed or disabled. When relieved by 
Colonel Sibley they had been thirty-one hours without food or water. 

Late in September, Sibley's troops 
moved up the valley, and fought the 
battle of Wood Lake, which termi- 
nated the contest. Sibley's camp 

was attacked by eight 

hundred Indians early 
in the morning. After a sharp ac- 
tion of an hour and a half a charge 
was made, led by Lieutenant-colonel 
"Marshall, of the Seventh Minnesota 
Volunteers, and the Indians fled in 
all directions ; the chiefs Little Crow, 
Little Six, and their followers es- 
caped to the British Possessions. 
The Indian camp, left in charge of 
the converted Indians, with all the 
plunder, fell into the hands of the 
victors, and the white prisoners, two 
hundred in number, regained their 


That the lives of these prisoners had been spared was owing in great 
measure to the heroic exertions of Paul, a friendly Indian, head deacon 
of Mr. Riggs's Indian church. The Upper band, to which he belonged, 
had withheld their support from Little Crow's followers, and condemned 

September 23. 

L1ETTI N \M i (ll.UM.I. MAK.-HA'.I,. 

INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 

i^- v^}^ J / 


September 3. 

their action as hasty and ill-advised. But for the fend hot ween the Upper 
and Lower Agency Indians, the contest would have- been much more seri- 
ous, and would have lasted much longer. A number of the captured Sioux 
were hung during the following winter. 

Next year a combined force of Sioux and Blackfeet, numbering some 
twelve or fifteen hundred warriors, were committing depreda- 
tions and outrages on the Minnesota settlers. An expedition 
was sent against them under General Alfred Sully. The Indi- 
an camp was discovered, and on Sully's approach the Indi;ms scattered, 
taking with them whatever they could 
carry. The troops charged at full 
speed, endeavoring to surround and 
drive them back to their camp, in the 
hope of capturing the entire band. 
Soon the whole force was actively en- 
gaged, each mau fighting "on his own 
hook." The battle raged in every di- 
rection, and lasted far into the night. 

General Sully at length recalled 
his scattered command, and building 
large fires remained under arms all 
night. At daylight next morning it 
was discovered that the Indians had 
gone, leaving their dead and wounded, 
their plunder, and all their property of 
every description. LITTLE PAUL. 


INDIAN lll>T(>i;V Foi; Voi'Mi KOLKS. 

This battle of AVhite Stone Hill 
was the severest blow the Sioux had 
ever received. They lost about IIMI 
killed and wounded, 156 prisoners. .".no 
lodges, 1000 ponies, and all their sup- 
ply of meat for the winter, besides other property of value to them. Gen- 
eral Sully 's loss was 20 killed and ">S wounded. 

The policy of removing the eastern tribes to the far West brought on. 
as we have seen, the Black Hawk and Seminole wars. Our recent trou- 
bles with the wild tribes of the plains have been occasioned by the policy 
of restricting them to fixed places of residence, or reservations, and by the 
non-fulfilment of our treaty obligations. The rush to tlu- mining region>. 
and the building of the Pacific Railroad through the Indian country, let 
in a constant stream of emigration, drove away the buffalo, and was felt to 

INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 431 

be a serious injury by the Indians. It is not to be wondered at that they 
stubbornly resisted. Their right to the country as their permanent home 
had been solemnly guaranteed to them by the treaty at Fort Laramie in 

These wild tribes have a mode of government apparently patriarchal, 
but in reality almost republican. Each member of a band does as lie 
pleases, and obeys his chief when he likes. The authority of the chief is 
based solely upon his prowess in war. 

The family is the basis of their organization. The members of a fam- 
ily generally travel, hunt, and fight together, in time constituting with its 
marriage connections a band varying from two to twenty or thirty lodges. 
These bands, connected more remotely by blood with other bands, consti- 
tute a tribe which may number from two to thirty or forty bands. These 
tribes again have a still more remote blood connection with other tribes, 
constituting a nation such as that of the Sioux, which comprises the 
Yankton, Brule, Teton, Ogalalla, and other tribes. 

Like the rest of his race, the wild Indian of the plains believes in two 
gods, equal in wisdom and power. The good god who favors and protects 
him, and the bad god who does all he can to harm him. If an Indian 
means to steal a horse, or the wife of his friend, it is to the good god that 
he looks for success. Death, sickness, and every disaster are in the hands 
of the bad god, and to him the Indian constantly prays for mercy and in- 
dulgence. 'No prayer is necessary to the good deity ; he will do his best 
without being asked. In only two ways can the soul be prevented from 
entering paradise, by scalping or by strangulation. The first is annihila- 
tion, the second closes the only avenue by which the soul can leave the 

The Indian has no code of morals, no conception of right and wrong ; 
bad and good are the words nearest in meaning to those. He will tell you 
it is bad to steal from a man of his own band, because he will be beaten and 
kicked out of the band if detected ; but it is good and praiseworthy to 
steal from all others. The expert thief is held in high honor, and is al- 
most the equal of the brave and skilful warrior. The Indian is a great 
boaster, and is very fond of " blowing his own trumpet.' 

For a wife, a certain number of ponies, saddles, buffalo-robes, etc., are 
paid. These the lover places near the door of his mistress's lodge over- 
night, If, when morning comes, they have not been removed, his suit has 
been rejected. But if the ponies have been sent to the herd ;md the other 
articles taken, the lover's offer is accepted. There is no marriage-cere- 
mony, or formality of any kind. 




"Medicine" is a great word with the Indian. Tie applies it to every- 
thing mysterious and unaccountable. It has a specially religious meaning. 
whatever he can refer to the good god being "good medicine," while 

everything the opposite of that is 
"bad medicine." When things go 
wrong with him. his medicine is 
bad; that is, he is for the time in 
the power of the bad god. Every 
Indian carries about with him a 
medicine - pouch, in which is kept 
some charm that will insure him 
success in whatever he is about to 
undertake. In each tribe there is 
a "medicine chief." who is the au- 
thority in spiritual affairs. In bat- 
tle he must prove the efficacy of 
his medicine by risking his life 
where the danger is greatest, to 
show the perfect safety it insures. 

The variety of dialects among 
the Plains Indians led long ago to 
the adoption of a sign language, 
an almost perfect means of com- 
munication in constant use to this 

Of the Comanches a recent writ- 
er says : " These fierce, untamed 
savages roam over an immense 
region, eating the raw flesh of the 

buffalo, drinking its warm blood, and plundering "Mexicans, Indians, and 
whites with judicial impartiality. Arabs and Tartars of the desert, they 
remove their villages (pitching their lodges in regular streets and squares) 
hundreds of miles at the shortest notice. The men are short and stout, 
with bright, copper faces and long hair, which they ornament with glass 
beads and silver gewgaws." 

Catlin says of them : " In their movements they are heavy and ungrace- 
ful, and on their feet one of the most unattractive and slovenly races I 
have ever seen; but the moment they mount their horses they seem at 
once metamorphosed, and surprise the spectator with the ease ana grace 
of tiieir movements. A Comanche on his feet is out of his element, and 








INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 

comparatively almost as awkward as a monkey on the ground, without a 
limb or a branch to cling to; but the moment he lays his hand upon his 
horse his face even becomes handsome, and he gracefully tiles away an 
altogether different being." 

In 18G6 the military department 
of the Missouri, comprising the vast 
region between the Mississippi and 
the Rocky Mountains, was the home 
of the warlike Sioux, Arapahoes, 
Kiowas, Cheyennes, Comanches, 
Apaches, Navajos, and Utahs. Em- 
igration to the gold regions of Mon- 
tana, then recently discovered, fol- 
lowed the Powder River route. For 
its protection, the military posts of 
Phil Kearney and C. F. Smith were 
established in the Sioux territory. 
Government was at once warned 
that this measure would be resisted. 
A treaty was tried. It was signed 
by some of the Indians, but Red 
Cloud, their great chief, refused his 
assent, withdrew from the council, 
and, placing his hand upon his rifle, 
said, "In this and the Great Spirit 
I trust for the right." 

This celebrated chief, born at the 
Forks of the Platte in 1830, is six 
feet and six inches in height, and 
possesses wonderful sagacity and el- 
oquence. His numerous warriors, 
in their red blankets and paint, are 

said to have covered the hills like a red cloud, hence his name. lie 
was made a chief for his bravery, and claims to have fought in eighty- 
seven battles, having been several times wounded. lie had risen to 
be head chief at the age of thirty, and when he declared war to the 
knife against the white men who should invade his country, the de- 
lighted warriors all flocked eagerly to his standard. After a long and 
harassing war he gained his point. The United States garrisons were 
withdrawn, the road through the region was abandoned, and the reputa- 



tion of Ked Cloud was established among the Indians as the greate>t 
warrior in the world. 

Before this was brought about, the forts had been close! v be>i<'vd 

V? 1 

emigrant travel had ceased, and the country was overrun with hostile In- 
dians. A wood party from Fort Phil Kearney wa> attacked; 

LfQC. I l!"*uO. 

1S6 . Colonel Fetterman with half the garrison went to its relief, 
and, in the light that followed, every man of the force wa< 
killed. By the end of .Inly following, Red Cloud had gathered three thou- 
sand warriors, and had resolved on the destruction of the fort. 

Kear it a working party was early one morning engaged in cutting 
fuel, protected by Brevet-major Powell's company of fifty-one men. Ex- 
pecting an attack, fourteen wagon-bodies made of boiler inm 

August 2. ' 

were lifted from the wheels and arranged in a compact circle. 
This the frontiersman calls a corral; this was the stronghold. Here a 
watchful guard was kept, and to this shelter all were to fly in case of 

Suddenly, a rush upon the herders in charge of the cattle, the guard, 
and the workmen, separated them from the escort, and forced them to fly 
to the fort. The Indians at once turned their attention to the corral. 
Here were two officers, twenty-six private soldiers, and four eitixen- dis- 
tributed around in the wagons, which, in order to confuse the enemy, were 
so covered with blankets as to entirely conceal the defenders. The odds 
were terrific. Eight hundred splendidly mounted warriors dashed head- 
long upon their apparently insignificant foe, but Major Powell and his 
handful of brave men had made up their minds to sell their lives dearly. 

On they came. A steady and effective fire thinned their ranks. ( )thers 
took the places of the fallen, and rode close up to the corral, but could see 
no enemy. Nothing was visible but the covered wagon-beds; but before 
the constant and accurate fire from these the assailants steadily diminished, 
until, routed and disheartened, they turned and rapidly retreated. Thou- 
sands of Indian spectators swarmed over the elevated plateaux which ro-e 
on all sides from the corral. 

After consulting the principal chiefs, Red Cloud decided to make an- 
other attack, this time on foot, and with his entire force. "Warriors armed 
with Spencer or Winchester carbines, taken in the Fetterman massacre. 
were sent forward as sharp-shooters. Crouching on the ground, covering 
themselves with shields or bunches of grass, they approached and opened 
fire upon the wagon-beds. The soldiers returned their fire so rapidly that 
their gun-barrels became overheated. Spare guns had been placed in each 
wagon, to be used by selected marksmen. 






INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 


Red Cloud's nephew, anxious to win renown and to, become his uncle's 
successor, now gathered two thousand warriors in the plains. When within 
live hundred yards they rushed forward, and had nearly reached the corral 
when they were obliged to turn and fly, so deadly was the fire. Again 
and again they charged, only to repeat their failure, and it was not until 
after three hours of energetic but futile effort that the attack was finally 

The Indians could not understand their ill success, but concluded that 
the white men had made some " medicine guns " which " would fire all 
the time." They were not far wrong. Among the supplies recently 
received by the garrison were some breech-loading rifle-muskets, combining 
extremely long range and accuracy with the utmost rapidity in tiring. 
The Indian loss was not far from three hundred. Powell had one officer 
and two privates killed, and two privates wounded. 

After waiting a year for the Government to fulfil the treaty made by 
the Peace Commissioners in 1867, for the settlement of all Indian diffi- 
culties, starvation staring them in 
the face, some dissatisfied Chey- 
ennes, in the fall of 1868, went 
upon the war-path, committing out- 
rages against the whites on the Sa- 
line River. This was the oppor- 
tunity that General Sheridan, who 
then commanded in that quarter, 
desired, and he at once prepared 
for a vigorous winter campaign. 
" Experience," said he, "has taught 
us the lesson, that the Indian, 
mounted on his hardy pony and 
familiar with the country, is al- 
most as hard to find while the grass 

lasts as the Alabama on the ocean." The Indians were supposed to be 
on the head- waters of the Red River, immediately south of the Antelope 

On the morning of November 23d, Lieutenant - colonel George A. 
Custer, with the Seventh Cavalry, moved in this direction, through the 
falling snow, from his camp on the North Canadian River, ^ ^ 
and on the evening of the 26th struck the trail of a war-party, 
which proved to be Black Kettle's band of Cheyennes. Corralling his 



wagons, and leaving a small escort with them. Ouster followed the trail, 
and before daylight came upon Black Kettle's village. 

It was this chief who. at a council held at Fort Ellsworth, Kansas, in 
the winter of 1866-67, had with great eloquence entreated the Great 
Father for such is the title by which they know the President to stop 
the building of the iron road, which would soon drive away the buffalo 
and leave his red children without food. 

Mo-ka-ta-va-ta, or Black Kettle, was described at this time as a fine- 
looking man, of middle age, with heavy features and frame. lie possessed 
great influence with his tribe, and by his wise counsels had more than once 
averted war. His dress was simple, with the exception of a massive neck- 
lace of crescent-shaped silver plates, from the front of which depended a 
heavy silver medal bearing the profile in relief of Washington. It had 
been presented long ago to one of Black Kettle's ancestors, and was worn 
with evident pride. This friendly chief for such he was known to be 
narrowly escaped with his life at the Chivington massacre in 1864, and 
was a victim in that we are about to describe. 

Ouster divided his command into four parties, one of which remained 
with him ; the others were stationed on three sides of the village, com- 
pletely surrounding the Indians. At dawn the bugle sounded the charge, 
and the entire command dashed rapidly into the village. The Indians 
were completely surprised, but realizing their clanger they quickly seized 
their rifles, bows, and arrows, and springing behind the nearest trees, or 
leaping into the stream and using the bank as a rifle-pit, began a vigor- 
ous and determined resistance. Mingled with the exultant cheers of the 
whites could be heard the defiant warwhoop of the warriors, who, from the 
first, fought with a desperation and courage which no race of men could 

At the first onset a number of the Indians rushed through the liius. 
Many had sought shelter behind logs and trees, and under the banks of the 
stream which flowed through the centre of the village, and to dislodge 
them it was necessary for the cavalry to fight on foot in the Indian style. 
Slowly but surely the Indians were driven out of these defences, and were 
either shot down or pushed beyond the scene of action. The women and 
children remained within the lodges and became prisoners. The village 
was burned and eight hundred horses slaughtered. One hundred and 
three warriors, including the chief, Black Kettle, were killed, and fifty- 
three women and children captured. 

For fifteen miles along the Washita, the lodges of the Arapahoes, under 
Little Raven, the Kiowas, under Satanta and Lone Wolf, and numerous 







INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 443 

bands of Cheyennes, Coinanelies, and Apaclies extended. At the news of 
Ouster's onslaught they collected and attacked him in turn, but were re- 
pulsed, and at nightfall Custer withdrew. His loss was twenty-one killed, 
including Major Elliot and Captain Hamilton, and eleven wounded. 

This was a hard blow, and, according to General Sheridan, it fell upon 
the guiltiest of all the bands, that of Black Kettle. " It was this hand,'' 
says he, u that without provocation had massacred the settlers on the 
Saline and Solomon, and perpetrated cruelties too fiendish for recital." 
( )n the other hand, Indian Agent AVynkoop says : " I know that Black 
Kettle had proceeded to the point at which he was killed, with the under- 
standing that it was the locality where those Indians that were friendly 
disposed should assemble. In regard to the charge that Black Kettle was 
engaged in the depredations committed on the Saline and Solomon during 
the summer of ls;s, I know the same to be utterly false, as he was at that 
time camped near my agency on the Pawnee Fork." In the language of 
Superintendent Murphy, of the Osage Agency, "Bla'k Kettle was one 
of the best and truest friends the whites ever had amonc; the Indians of 


the plains." 

One of the actions of this war furnishes a remarkable instance of 
heroism and endurance. Brevet - colonel George A. Forsyth, with fifty 
men, while on a scouting expedition, had camped, on the night 
of September 16th, on the Arickaree Ford of the Republican 
River. There were a few inches of running water only in this stream. 
A small island directly behind the bivouac was fringed with willows, and 
bore a few stunted trees. 

At daybreak a party of Indians rushed upon the camp, but were driven 
back. Forsyth, seeing their overwhelming numbers, and realizing at once 
the advantage of the cover, slight as it was, afforded by the island, and the 
disadvantage to the Indians of having to charge over the sandy bed of the 
stream, decided to take position on the sand island, which was separated 
from the mainland by a mere thread of water. The movement was 
effected, and the men, distributed in a circle, were ordered to lie down, and 
as soon as possible to dig rifle-pits for themselves in the sand. While this 
was being done, an annoying fire was kept up by the Indians, by which 
Forsyth was twice wounded, three men killed, and a number of others 
hit. Under their leader's direction the best shots were keeping the Indians 
at bay, while the others were digging for life, using the bodies of their slain 
horses as a parapet. 

About nine o'clock a charge was made, with unearthly yells, by three 
hundred mounted warriors. A heavy skirmish line pressed closer and 



closer, with so galling a fire that not a man could expose a hand or an arm 
to return it. Everything was, however, put in readiness, the guns of the 
dead and wounded were loaded and placed near the best shots on the 

threatened side. "When the 
Indians were within thirty 
\;irds of the rifle-pits, and 
their skirmish fire had 
ceased, for fear of hitting 
their friends, the intrench- 
11 KM it so silent hitherto sud- 
denly became alive. 

"JSTow!" shouted For- 
syth, and a rapid and ef- 
fective fire tumbled the 
leaders from their ponies. 
Still they pressed on, yelling 
and whooping, and down 
they went under the dead- 
ly fire of the brave defend- 
ers of the island. Roman 


chief, and Medicine Chief, 

another of their leaders, both fell close to the intrenchment. The assail- 
ants wavered ; a ringing cheer and another well-directed volley from the 
soldiers and they turned and fled, vanquished and demoralized. Two other 
charges were made and repelled during the day, and at nightfall a heavy 
rain set in. Every horse and mule had been killed by the enemy's fire. 
Lieutenant Beecher and five others had been killed or mortally wounded, 
and seventeen were wounded severely. 

Fort Wallace, the nearest point from which succor could arrive, was 
one hundred miles away. Forsyth's men were without provisions, and 
surrounded by nine hundred well-armed warriors. A well was dug, the 
dead animals' flesh was cut into strips for food, the line was strengthened 
with saddles and dead animals, and two men were despatched at nightfall 
through the enemy's lines to Fort Wallace. Day after day the heroic 
band sustained the steady fire of the Indians, but by the fifth day the 
suffering from hunger, as the meat could no longer be eaten, was intense. 
By this time the Indians began to disappear, and by the seventh day all 
had left, but the beleaguered force was too weak to move. At last, on the 
morning of the ninth day, succor arrived. 

INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 


The Indians encountered were Northern Cheyennes, Brule and Oga- 
lalla Sioux, and "Dog Soldiers," the banditti of the plains. Their loss 
is said to have been thirty-five killed and one hundred wounded. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of the treaty 'made with the Sioux and 
the Northern Cheyennes by the Peace Commissioners in 1868, securing to 
them the right of hunting on their old territory, these Indians were ordered 
by General Sheridan to give up their hunting-grounds and to go upon a 





reservation. They stood upon their rights and resisted, and another Sioux 
war was the result. 

Three columns <>i troops, under Generals CrookjTerry, and 
Ouster, were sent again>t them in May, 1876. Crook, after an indecisive 
action with the Sioux, fell hack to the Tongue River. Sitting Bull, their 

leader, was at this time be- 
tween the head-waters of the 
Kosehnd and the Big Horn, 
the main tributary of the 


latter being known as the 
Little Big Horn. It was at 
tli is place that the gallant 
Ouster fought his last battle. 
Sitting Bull and Crazy 
Horse were chiefs of bands 
who were implacably hostile, 
and to their villages drifted 
all the discontented Indians 

from various quarters. They 
occupied a singularly advan- 
tageous -position near the 
head of the Yellowstone, sur- 
rounded by the "bad lands," 
which prevented the whites 
from near approach, and cen- 
trally situated with regard to 
the Indian agencies, from 
which they were annually 
supplied with the best of 

arms and ammunition by the United States Government, in accordance 
with treaty stipulations. 

Sitting Bull is described as a heavily built Indian, with a massive head 
and brown hair a most unusual color for an Indian. His totem is a buf- 
falo bull sitting on his haunches. He possesses much force of mind, with 
a geiiiu- for war. and a stubborn heroism, admirable in the champion of a 
race. He was born in 1837, near old Fort George, on Willow Creek, be- 
low the mouth of the Cheyenne River, and was the son of Chief Jumping 
Bull. The order requiring him to go on a reservation was in violation of 
his treaty rights, and the attempt to enforce it was a national disgrace. 
"I want peace," said the chief to General Miles, in an interview' with 


INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 


that officer soon after the battle with General Crook, " but if the troops 
come out to me I will fight them. I want to hunt buffalo and to trade. 
I don't want rations nor annuities. I want to live as an Indian." 


A village of the Northern Cheyennes was surprised by General Mac- 
kenzie, and their entire stock of provisions for winter, their buffalo robes, 
and all their property burned. It was winter, and those who escaped were 
utterly destitute. In the following spring their chief, Hump, with sonu 



of his followers, surrendered to General Miles. Handing his belt and gun 
to the general, he said, " Take these ; I am no longer chief or warrior." 

When asked why lie had put himself in opposition to the Government, 
he replied, "I never went to war with the whites. The soldiers began 

INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 


June 17, 1STG. 

chasing me about, for what cause I do not know to this clay. I dodged as 
long as I could, and hid my village away, but at last they found it, and I 
had no alternative but to light or perish." 

The battle of the Rosebud is a good illustration of Indian warfare on 
the plains. When a charge is made upon them, those in front of the 
charging force break and give way, while those on the sides close in to 
attack and harass the flanks and rear of the attacking force. If the latter 


should unfortunately be carried too far by the excitement of the chase, its 
destruction is almost certain. The Indian is a superb horseman, his pony 
quick and wiry, anol, avoiding a direct attack, the retreating warriors wheel, 
collect again, fall upon the flank and rear of their assailants, overwhelm 
them, and then withdraw with lightning rapidity to repeat the manoeuvre 
with others. 

General Crook advanced upon the enemy's position, with his cavalry 
on the left, his infantry and his Indian allies on the right. The cavalry 
charged, only to find the enemy already withdrawn, and taking 
another strong position beyond. A second and a third charge, 
with a similar result, left the cavalry far in advance and in danger of being 
overwhelmed. Gen- 
eral Crook sent an 
aid to recall it. In 
the attempt to fall 
back it found itself 
completely surround- 
ed. The Indians had 
poured in upon them 
from all quarters - 
front, flank, and rear. 
With perfect steadi- 
ness the troops moved 
on, and after a brief 
but fierce hand - to - 
hand encounter the 
environing mass was 
rent asunder, and the 
troops regained their 
position. Their cour- 
age and discipline had 
saved them from de- 




On tlie 23d of June, General Caster, with the Seventh Cav;ilrv. was 
ordered up tlie Rosebud to follow the Indian trail. After a night-march 
the command found itself, on the morning of the 25th, in the valley of one 
of the branches of the Little Big Horn, and in the vicinity of the Indians. 
The command was divided into three detachments one led by Caster, 
one by Major Reno, and a third by Captain Benteen. Reno was to take 
the village at the upper end, Caster at the lower extremity. Reno at- 
tacked, but so feebly that he was easily driven back. Botli 


f ,>-*'dS "9V-VV 



INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 


failed to support Ouster, and he, with only live companies, was compelled, 
single-handed, to sustain the encounter with the entire Indian force. His 
orders were, " not to let the Indians escape," and in obedience to these he 
fliing himself upon them in full confidence that, with the co-operation of 
the other detachments of his force, he should inflict a severe punishment 
upon them. 

Moving rapidly down the river to the ford, Ouster was met by the 
Sioux about six hundred yards east of the river. They were surprised and 
in confusion, but seeing the small force in front of them, surrounded and 
attacked it, with confidence in their overwhelming numbers. Hundreds of 
Indians on foot and on ponies poured over the river, and filled the ravine 
on each side of Ouster's men. They drove the troops back up the hill, 
Ouster all the while making successive stands on the higher ground. They 


then made a circuit to the right around the hill, and drove off and capt- 
ured most of the horses, the cavalry being dismounted and fighting on 
foot. The troops made a final stand at the lower end of the hill, and 
there they were all killed, the fight lasting from two o'clock till sunset. 


Not a man of the five companies was left alive. The Indian force was 
estimated at from two thousand five hundred to three thousand warriors. 

A Hile<|iient examination of the ground revealed the fact that, about 
three-quarters of a mile from the river. Captain Calhoun's company were 


all slain. A mile beyond, on the ridge parallel to the stream, fell Keogh's 
company, his right resting on the hill where Ouster fell, held also by 
Vates's company. On the most prominent point of this ridge Ouster made 
his last desperate stand, and here he went clown, fighting heroically to the 
last. < hi the line of a ravine nearer the river were found the bodies 
of Captains Smith's and Ouster's companies, their situation indicating that 
they had made a desperate effort to make a stand or to gain the woods. 
Sitting Bull and his warriors are now (1883) prisoners at Fort Randall, 
Dakota, having voluntarily surrendered to the United States authorities. 

Some time before this battle, a council had been held with a number 
of chiefs at Fort Dodge. Kansas. Kxtravagant promises of future good 
conduct were made by all, but especially by the "peculiarly savage and 
in-olent Satanta." So effective and convincing was the oratorical effo-t 
of Satanta, that at the close of his address he was presented with the uni- 

INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 


form coat and hat of a major-generate Within a few weeks, Satanta re- 
turned the compliment by attacking the post w r here this council was held, 
arrayed in his new uniform. 

The great rival of Red Cloud was Spotted Tail, who had long been 
head chief of the Brule band of Sioux. lie was the earnest friend ant' 
coadjutor of the white man in the work of pacification. lie was large and 
commanding in figure, and possessed great oratorical and executive abili- 
ties. A feud existed between him and a chief named Crow Dog. They 
met near the Rosebud Agency, August 6, 1881, and the latter shot Spotted 
Tail dead. 

Northern California was the home of the Modoc tribe of Indians. The 
remains of their ancient villages, found along the shores of the lakes, the 
streams, and the forest springs, attest the fact of the former greatness of 
this now almost extinct tribe. 

They had ever been an obstinate, treacherous, and unconquerable race, 
and their decline is explained by their frequent wars with the fierce tribes 
around them, as well as w T ith the early white settlers of Northern Cali- 
fornia and Oregon. Emigrant trains were obliged to pass through dark 

O O O A O 

canons and under precipitous cliffs, whence these warriors would sudden- 
ly rush upon them, slaughter the emigrants, and capture their supplies. 

On October 14, 1864, when the old 
chief Schonchin buried the hatchet, 
and agreed to war with the pale-faces 
no more, he said, mournfully, 

" Once my people were like the 
sands along yon shore. Now 1 call to 
them, and only the wind answers. 
Four hundred strong young men went 
with me to the war with the whites; 
only eighty are left. We will be good, 
if the white man w r ill let us, and be 
his friends forever." The old chief 
kept his word. 

By the treaty made at this time, 
the Modocs, Snakes, and Klamaths 

agreed to repair to a reservation set apart for them in Southern Oregon, 
They all went, except a strong band of Modocs, under Captain Jack, who 
remained at their old home near Clear Lake, about sixty miles from Kla- 
Giath, without being seriously disturbed until 1869. 




Nov., 1872. 

TH that year this band was induced to go to the reservation, but the 
llamaths, their hereditary enemies, picked a quarrel with them, and they 
soon returned to their old home. As they positively refused 
to go back to the reservation, the military were called upon. 
Puisnrd by the soldiers, they took refuge in the remarkable natural for- 
mation known as the Lava Beds, from whence they bade defiance to the 














INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 459 

This lava valley is bounded by walls of more than one thousand feet 
in height. At numerous points are seen miniature volcanic rents, formed 
by the bursting out of steam or gases from below, and in some places there 


are subterranean galleries or caverns, having a diameter of fifteen or twenty 
feet, extending indefinitely in either direction. These rents or chimneys 
probably communicate with subterranean passages. They were wholly 



inaccessible to the troops. The Indians knew perfectly the paths leading 
through these fearful chasms. 

After the troops had done all they could to drive out the Indians, 
without attaining their object, the job was turned over to the Peace Com- 
missioners, who were instructed to effect their removal to the Coast Reser 
ration in Oregon. Several u talks" were held with Captain Jack and his 
leading men, but without result, the Indians assuming a defiant attitude. 


On the morning of April 11, 1ST3, the commissioners. General 
E. R S. Canby, A. B. Meacham, Eev. Dr. E. Thomas, Mr. Dyer, and Rid- 
dle, the interpreter, and his squaw, went by agreement to a spot about 
three-fourths of a mile from their camp, where they met Captain Jack, 
Schonchin (son of the old chief), Boston Charley, and five other leading 
ATodocs. They had no guns, but each was provided with pistols. 

The party sat down in a circle. Mr. Meacham opened the "talk," and 



INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 


was followed by General Canby and Doctor Thomas. What they said was 
intended to pacify the Indians. When the last speaker had ended, John 
Schonchin began a reply, but had said but a few words when, as if they 
were the signal for an attack, the work of massacre begun. 

In less than a minute a dozen shots had been fired, and the affair was 
over. The first shot was fired by Captain Jack himself, who shot and 
killed General Canby. Mr. Meacham was shot by Schonchin, and Doctor 
Thomas by Boston Charley. Mr. Dyer barely escaped, being fired at 
twice. Riddle, the interpreter, and his squaw also escaped. 

The troops immediately rushed to the spot, when they found the dead 
bodies of General Canby and Doctor Thomas. Meacham, who was badly 
wounded over the left eye by a pistol-shot, was taken to the camp, and 
afterwards recovered. The murderers escaped in safety to the Lava 

In the following May, Boston Charley gave himself up, and volunteered 
to guide the troops to Captain Jack's stronghold. This led to the capture 
of the entire band, a number of whom, while being transported in wagons 
to head-quarters, were murdered by Oregon volunteers. In July the trial 
of the prisoners took place, and Captain Jack, Schonchin, Boston Charley, 
and Hooker Jim were executed at Fort Klamath. They richly deserved 
their fate for their treacherous deed. 
The small remainder of the Modoc 
tribe are now on a reservation in the 
Indian Territory. 

Troubles between the Indians 
and their white neighbors caused the 
Government, early in 1877, to order 
the removal of Chief Joseph and his 
band of Kez Perces from their home 
in the Wallowa Valley, Oregon, to 
the Lapwai Reservation in Idaho, 
where, since 1863, the larger part of 
the tribe had resided. Joseph, with 
about five hundred Indians, right- 
fully claimed the Wallowa Valley 
under the treaty of 1855, and it had 
also been conceded to them by Pres- 
ident Grant in 1873. Two years later this concession was revoked, and, 
"in the interests of peace," General Howard was directed to "induce" 
Joseph to remove. 



"When the commissioners, appointed in 1876 to effect this object, asked 
Joseph to abandon the valley, the chief replied, 

" I was made of its earth and grew np upon its bosom. As my mother 
and nurse, it is too sacred in my affections to be valued by or sold for sil- 
ver and gold. ... I ask nothing of the President. I am able to take care 
of myself and disposed to live peaceably. I and my band have suffered 
wrong, rather than do wrong. One of our number was wickedly slain by 
a white man last summer, but I would not avenge his death. But, un- 
avenged by me, the voice of that brother's blood would call the dust of 

O / 

their fathers back, to purple the land, in protest of this great wrong." 

Both physically and mentally the Nez Perces are a fine race. Their 
agent says of them, "Of all the Indians I have ever seen, they are by far 
the most intelligent, truthful, and truly religious. Their chief, Joseph, is 
a man of courage, intelligence, quick perception, and other qualities suf- 
ficient to rank him much above the average man, white or red." 

The attempt to remove these Indians was resisted, and some of the 
whites who had settled on their lands were killed. General Howard at 
once sent two companies of United States cavalry, under Cap- 
tain Perry, to the scene of disturbance. This officer was am- 
bushed and defeated at White Bird Cation, n osing a lieutenant 
and thirty-three men one-third of his force. . Finding the Indians posted 
in a deep ravine on the Clearwater Elver, near the mouth of 
Cotton wood Creek, General Howard attacked and defeated 
them, capturing their camp and much of their provisions. Twenty-three 
warriors were killed, a larger number wounded, and some prisoners were 
taken. His loss was thirteen killed, and two officers and twenty men 

Joseph now began his famous retreat eastward, towards the buffalo 
country, with Howard in close pursuit, taking what is called the Lolo trail, 

through a pass of the Bitter Root Mountains, into Idaho. The 
July IT. ..... j i 

long pursuit continued across plains, over mountains, and 

through forests, much of the way being a desolate and exceedingly diffi- 
cult country for one thousand three hundred miles, and it lasted seventy- 
five days. The Indians were accompanied by their women and children. 
They took with them a large herd of ponies, which supplied them with 
remounts whenever they were hard pressed. 

Colonel Gibbons, who, with one hundred and fifty men, attacked the 

Indians on Wisdom River, Montana, was greatly outmatched, 

and was placed upon the defensive, losing twenty-nine officers 

and men killed and wounded. His entire force would have been killed 

INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 467 

or captured but for Howard's approach. At Camas Prairie, the Indians 
turned upon Howard, and succeeded in stampeding and run- 

1 ' . August 20. 

ning off his pack-train. Colonel Sturgis had a fight with 

September 13. 

them on the Yellowstone, below the mouth of Clark's Fork. 

The Indians had reached the Missouri River, near Cow Island, on Sep- 
tember 22. They would, perhaps, have accomplished their purpose of 
joining Sitting Bull in the British Dominions had not Colonel Miles, with 
his comparatively fresh troops, been so situated that by moving promptly 
he could easily pursue and intercept them. That officer, marching across 
the country from Tongue River, crossed the Missouri, and on September 
30th overtook the Nez Perces at Bear Paw Mountain, near the mouth of 
Eagle Creek, when a severe engagement took place, in which the Indians 
lost six of their leading chiefs and twenty-five warriors, besides forty-six 
wounded. Miles lost two officers and twenty men killed ; four 

n- TT October 5. 

omcers and thirty-eight men wounded. General Howard came 
up during the contest, but took no part in it. The band soon afterwards 
surrendered, and is now in the Indian Territory. Thus ended one of the 
most remarkable Indian wars on record. 

" Throughout this extraordinary campaign," says General Sherman, 
"the Indians displayed a courage and skill that elicited universal praise. 
They abstained from scalping, let captive women go free, did not murder 
indiscriminately as usual, and fought with scientific skill, using advance 
and rear guards, skirmish lines, and field fortifications." 

In closing this chapter we must not omit some mention of the man 
who, after Daniel Boone, takes the highest rank in our border annals 
as a pioneer, guide, and Indian fighter. Like Boone, Kit Carson had, in 
addition to the skill, sagacity, courage, and self-reliance common to his 
class, the still rarer qualities of modesty, sobriety, disinterestedness, and 
perfect self-control. 

Christopher commonly called "Kit" Carson was a native of Ken- 
tucky. His early life was occupied in hunting and trapping, and he be- 
came famous for his skill in these pursuits, and as 'a reliable guide and 
leader. Later he accompanied Fremont in this capacity in his explora- 
tions of the Rocky Mountains, and in his narrative the latter speaks in the 
highest terms of Carson. Though small in stature, Carson was broad- 
chested, compact in form, and remarkably quick and active, and what 
he lacked in strength he made up in agility. During the Civil War, in 
which he attained the rank of brevet brigadier-general, he rendered great 
service to the Union in New Mexico, Colorado, and the Indian Territory. 



We must content ourselves with a single example of Carson's heroism 
uiul disinterestedness a feat worthy the best days of chivalry performed 
while accompanying Fremont's second expedition. 


One day a man and a boy, Mexicans all who had escaped from an 
Indian onslaught on a party of six arrived in cam}). The wife of the 
man and the parents of the boy were of this party, and they were full of 
anxiety to learn the fate of their relatives. Thirty horses belonging to 
the party had fallen into the hands of the Indians. 

INDIAN WARS (1862-1877). 


Touched by the grief of the survivors, Carson and a companion named 
Godey resolved to pursue these robbers of the desert, and deliver the cap- 
tives if alive, or avenge them if dead. They followed the trail all day, 
and at night by the light of the moon, until it entered a defile and became 
difficult to trace. Afraid of losing it, at midnight they tied their horses 
and lay down to sleep in silence and darkness. At daylight they resumed 
the pursuit, and about sunrise discovered the Indians. Dismounting, and 
tying their horses, they crept cautiously to a rising ground, from the crest 
of which they perceived an encampment of four lodges close by. 

Proceeding quietly, they had got within thirty or forty yards when a 
movement among the horses discovered them to the Indians. Raising a 
war-shout, the two avengers instantly charged into their camp, regardless 

of the number of enemies 
that four lodges would imply. 
The Indians received them 
with a volley of arrows, shot 
from their long-bows, one of 
which pierced through Go- 
dey's shirt-collar, barely miss- 
ing his neck ; the two men 
discharged their rifles with 
steady aim, and rushed in. 
Two Indians were stretched 
on the ground ; the rest fled, 
except a lad who was capt- 

Masters of the camp, they 
found that preparations had 
been made to feast a large 
party. Several of the best 
of the captured horses had 
been killed, skinned, and cut 
up, for these Indians made no 
other use of their surplus 
horses than to eat them. Re- 
leasing the boy, they gathered up the surviving horses, fifteen in number, 
and returned to camp, which they reached in the afternoon of the same 
day. They had travelled a hundred miles in the pursuit and retreat, and 
all in thirty hours. The remainder of the unfortunate Mexican party had 
all been massacred. 



This was a most remarkable instance of successful dariiii; and disinter- 


ested achievement. Two men, in a savage desert, pursue day and night an 
unknown body of Indians into the detiles of an unknown mountain, attack 
them at sight, without counting their numbers, putting them to flight - 
and for what? To punish a hand of savage marauders, and to avenge the 
wrongs of Mexicans whom thev did not know. 

NOTE. For valuable and interesting dctaiis ol recent Indian wars, refer to " Our Wild 
Indians," by General K. I. Dodge. 



A 5 we have seen in the preceding chapter, Chief Joseph surrendered to 
General Miles on October 5, 1877. Upon this memorable occasion 
he gave up his gun and said, "From where the sun now stands I will fight 
no more against the white man." 

His people needed rest they wanted peace. With Chief Joseph there 
surrendered four hundred of his people. It was General Miles's desire and 
Chief Joseph's fondest hope that, in accordance with the terms of the sur- 
render, the Nez Perces would be sent back to Idaho to the Wallowa 
Valley in North-eastern Oregon, their ancestral home. Instead, however, 
the terms of this surrender were shamefully violated. Joseph and his band 
men, women, and children were first taken to Fort Leavenworth and 
finally to the far-off Indian Territory, where, under the warmer climate, 
they speedily succumbed to disease. Here they regarded themselves as 
exiles, and in the first two years of their residence nearly one-third of the 
tribe died. There was a tinge of melancholy in their bearing and conversa- 
tion that was pathetic. When they had surrendered, over one thousand 
of their horses had been taken from them and never returned, and of which 
Joseph said, only, "Somebody has got our horses." Joseph would never 
have surrendered if General Miles had not promised to send him back to 
Idaho. What a pity that these fine men and women were not allowed to 
return to their native Wallowa Valley, for which their hearts yearned 
and where they would have lived happy and contented! Joseph and his 
band, like all brave people, had great love of country and home, and they 
longed "for the mountains, the valleys, the streams, and the clear springs 
of water of their old home." Indeed, no people that ever lived had love of 
country more deeply rooted in their hearts than these Nez Perec's. 

Finally, in 1883, the work of undoing this great wrong was begun and 
the remnant of the tribe was removed to the Lapwai Reservation in Idaho ; 
there they joined those Nez Perces who had not resisted the removal ordered 
in 1875. The exiles were received with great rejoicing. Indians from every 
part of the Lapwai Reservation gathered to welcome the wanderers; the 
leaders of the tribe made addresses of welcome and offered up thanks to 


the Great Spirit for answering their prayer to have their brothers back 
once more in the home of th;ur fathers. Chief Joseph himself, however, 
was not to share in this general rejoicing. The authorities feared that 
his presence might be a danger, and so, with about one hundred and fifty 
of his followers, he was sent to the Colville Reservation, in Washington 
Territory. Here Chief Joseph continued to live until his death, Septemhct 
21. 1004. Shortly before his death this noble Indian, in 1903, visited 
Washington, where he was the guest of President Roosevelt and General 
Miles. In his later years he had become reconciled to the changed condi- 
tions, and realized that his people must also change in order to have any 
chance of holding their own with the white man. He became a strong 
;idvocate for the education of the Indian, aiding personally in the education 
of his own children, and urging day in and day out that parents should send 
their sons and daughters to the reservation schools. Only thus, he saw, 
could the Indians hope to succeed in solving their problem. As an appreci- 
ation of his worth and to preserve his memory to future generations the 
State of Washington erected a monument on the site of his grave at Nespelin 
and dedicated it to this prince among Indians, June 30, 1905. 

Before we discuss the Indian wars which raged in the North-west and 
South-west for varying intervals from 1877 down to 1891, when occurred 
the uprising of the ghost-dancing Sioux, and which, happily, was destined 
to be the last of the Indian wars, let us relate the story of the wrongs done 
the peaceful Poncas, whose removal from their homes in the spring of 1877 
every one now admits was an outrage. 

"In 1875 it was desired to push the Sioux Reservation eastward in 
order to wrest from them the gold-yielding Black Hills of Dakota; but the 
way was blocked by the small reservation of ninety-six thousand acres oc- 
cupied by the peaceful Poncas, which lay directly east of the Sioux in the 
south-east corner of Dakota. Here they dwelt under a treaty of 1855, 
raised their crops, built their houses, opened schools, constructed a church, 
and prospered as much as the frequent raids of their neighbors, the Sioux, 
would allow. They represented probably the best results of the application 
of the peace policy to the savages, and it was once officially said of them 
that no Ponca had ever killed a white man. Yet on the chessboard of in- 
land diplomacy they must be shifted hundreds of miles to the Indian 
Territory in order to allow the Sioux to occupy their position, and to make 
\\ay for the miners and capitalists in the Black Hills. At the same time 
the Sioux, coming into possession of the tilled land, one hundred houses, 
and other property of the Poncas, would receive an impulse towards civili- 
zation. Congress at first made the consent of the Poncas a condition of 
their removal; but when this could not be secured from the intelligent 


Indians by the usual promises, Congress ordered their unconditional re- 
moval and permanent location in the Indian Territory. 

" Yielding to the inevitable, these Indian fanners, with their families, 
about six hundred persons in all, journeyed for fifty-two days through 
the spring rains and over muddy trails to the Territory, where they found 
a precarious lodging in tents on lands belonging to the Quapaws. During 
the first year eighty-five deaths were recorded officially, the Indian count 
being one hundred and fifty-seven. The survivors were now shifted to 
a new location on the Kaw River, where they must begin new improve- 
ments. Without tools or implements, devastated by death, and sick in 
spirit, small bands of the Poncas began stealthily to return northward to 
their old home in Dakota. They carried the bones of their dead to be in- 
terred in the land of their fathers. As the story of their wrongs spread 
through the public prints, a great storm of popular indignation broke upon 
the head of Secretary Schurz, the vicarious sacrifice of Congress in the 
removal of the Poncas. Newspapers teemed with editorials and articles 
demanding the return of the expatriated Indians to their Dakota homes 
and the restoration of their lands. 

"Among the Ponca chiefs was Standing Bear, who, with twenty-five 
followers, disobediently left the Indian Territory and migrated to their 
friends, the Omahas, in Nebraska. They declared their intention of aban- 
doning their tribal relations and becoming self-supporting. Nevertheless, 
they were arrested by Brigadier-general Crook on orders from Washington 
for having left their reservation without permission. Here was a new 
point in law. The prisoners were released on a writ of habeas corpus by 
Judge Dundy, of the United States district court of Nebraska, May 12, 
1878, on the ground that an Indian was a 'person' within the meaning of 
the laws of the United States, possessed of the inherent right of removing 
from place to place, and entitled to the privilege of habeas corpus. Evi- 
dently the Indian was rapidly passing, as the negro had done, from being 
a ward of the Republic to a citizen thereof. Whether the new status in 
which the Indian was placed by the decision would have been upheld by 
the Supreme Court was unfortunately never determined, because Standing 
Bear gave no bond for his appearance in a higher court after the case had 
been appealed by a representative of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the 
whole controversy was dropped. 

"Standing Bear immediately toured the country with an educated 
Ponca girl named Bright Eyes, both addressing large audiences, organiz- 
ing Ponca relief associations and arousing public indignation with the story 
of their wrongs. President Hayes freely acknowledged that enough re- 
sponsibility for the wrong consummated on the Poncas attached to him 
to make it his particular duty and earnest desire to do all that he could to 


give them the redress which was required alike by justice and humanity. 
He created a Ponca Commission, composed of two army officers and two 
civilians, who visited the scattered Poncas and reported, February, 1881, 
that five hundred and twenty-one were living contentedly in the Indian 
Territory and had no wish to return; and that about one hundred and fifty 
were dwelling in Dakota and Nebraska, and desired to remain there. This 
disposition was eventually made, and the excitement subsided." * 

Standing Bear made his home among the hills of his ancestors, and lived 
on the old reservation in peace and prosperity until September, 1908, when 
he died at the ripe age of seventy-nine. 

* Sparks, National Development (Ainer. Nation, XXIII), chap. xvi. 



TURNING from the peaceful Poncas, our history leads us to the more 
warlike tribes, whom we shall find did not tamely submit, like the Poncas, 
to removal from their lands. Broken treaties, dishonest Indian agents, 
failure of rations due the different tribes, malcontents among the Indians, 
lawbreaking white men all these have been the causes of many of our 
Indian troubles, but by far the most disturbing force, and the cause of 
most of the Indian wars which disturbed the West, has been directly due 
to the concentration or consolidation policy adopted in 1873 as a part of 
the so-called "peace policy" inaugurated during President Grant's ad- 
ministration. The execution of this policy required that the different 
tribes should be gathered together as rapidly as possible on certain reser- 
vations. Resistance meant that they were to be removed by force to be 
driven from their native homes and placed on undesirable lands, often 
far removed from the place of their birth and the graves of their fathers. 
This injustice was to be enacted in order to satisfy the white man's greed 
for their lands, although sacred treaties had been made which had provided 
that the Indians were to retain certain lands set apart for them on the 
various reservations. The Indians saw these sacred promises broken; 
and only too often were they on the verge of starvation by failure of the 
Government to grant them sufficient rations. Under such circumstances, 
it is not to be wondered at that they frequently evinced their dissatisfac- 
tion by leaving the hateful reservations and going on the war-path, in the 
course of which they committed all sorts of atrocities on the isolated settle- 
ments before they -could be quelled and forced to return to the different 

"These wars might have been regarded as inevitable, and therefore 
a sufficient number of soldiers should have been provided to meet them; 
but it was not done, and hence the fatal results which followed. No other 
nation in the world would have attempted the reduction of these wild 
tribes and occupation of their country with less than sixty thousand or 
seventy thousand men, while the whole force employed and scattered 

* See Dunn, The A/*.SW/T.S- of I hi- Mountains. 


over the enormous region described never numbered fourteen thousand 
men, and nearly one-third of this force had been confined to the line of the 
Kio Grande to protect the Mexican frontier. The consequence was that 
every engagement was a forlorn hope and was attended with a loss of life 
unparalleled in warfare. No quarter was given by the savages, and the 
officers and men had to enter upon their duties with the most barbarous 
cruelties staring them in the face in case of defeat. ... It would have been 
less expensive' if an army of sixty thousand or seventy thousand men had 
been maintained; and, moreover, the blood of gallant officers, soldiers, 
and citizens would not have rested on our hands." * 

In 1879 there was a serious outbreak among the Utes of the White River 
Agency in Colorado, caused by the attempt of their agent to force the 
Indians under his charge to become agriculturists and calling in the mili- 
tary to back him up in his policy. The Utes were a warlike people, strong 
in numbers and inclined to set authority at defiance. They had no desire 
to adopt the civilization of the white man, whose constant pressure at the 
barriers of their lands they strongly resented. 

The Utes were made up of four principal tribes, as follows: the Unitahs, 
who occupied a reservation in north-eastern Utah, and at this time number- 
ing four hundred and thirty souls; the Los Pinos, whose abode was in the 
Uncompahgre Valley, Colorado, and whose people numbered two thousand; 
the Southern Utes living in the south-western part of Colorado, whose tribe 
represented about nine hundred and thirty individuals; and the White 
River Utes, dwelling on the reservation in north-western Colorado, in 
number above eight hundred souls. 

These Indian tribes in 1879 were well able to defend themselves, being 
strong in numbers, well supplied with arms and ammunition, possessing 
large numbers of horses, and w r arriors who were brave and skilful fighters. 
They were fully conscious of their strength, and when the white sett let's 
and miners began to encroach on their lands, which were rich in minerals 
and included the best farming and grazing lands in the State, the Indians 
assumed a hostile attitude and had no disposition to yield up their native 
land. Their ways were not the white man's ways; they were still in the 
hunter stage of development, and much preferred to gain their subsistence 
from the products of the chase, which they could exchange at the various 
trading-posts off the reservations for the things they needed guns, am- 
munition, and, we regret to say, whiskey. 

During the year 1879 and 1880 there was a great "rush" of white set- 
tlers to the State of Colorado, where rich mineral deposits had been dis- 
covered on the reservation lands of the Indians. To these fortune-hunt;- 

* From a report made by General Sheridan in ls7s. 






J, $, 



from the East the sacred promises of an Indian treaty did not matter, 
and the Indians soon saw the new-comers establishing themselves on their 
lands, contrary to the treaty provisions which had reserved these lands to 
them forever. The Indians, however, would not cultivate the soil nor 
develop the mines, and, therefore, they must be removed from the path of 

In 1863 a treaty had been made with the Utes by the provisions of 
which a part of their native lands in western Colorado was secured to them 
as a reservation. Five years later, in 1868, another treaty was drawn up, 
which set aside a larger reservation on which all the Eastern Utes were to 
live this territory to be theirs forever, with a further stipulation accord- 
ing them the privilege of hunting outside the reservation limits. But 
despite these treaties considered mere " scraps of paper" by the white 
invaders the reservation lands were occupied by the whites in 1879, 
and the trouble that was inevitable followed. The Indians made protests 
to the authorities, and in response to their appeal troops were ordered to 
drive the intruders out. The miners, however, would not give up their 
camps, neither would the settlers leave their farms, on which crops had 
already been planted. A conflict appeared unavoidable, but this time the 
Indians, fortunately, wished for peace, and consented to cede a strip of 
their land in the San Juan country in which the mines were located. By 
the terms of the agreement, which was ratified by Act of Congress, April 
29, 1874, it was expressly stipulated that the cession was not to include 
any part of the farming lands of the Uncompahgre Park. The terms of 
the igreement were, however, shamefully disregarded. The land was 
surve^ ed, and the Indians were deprived of their best farming lands, for 
whic no equivalent lands were given them. President Grant, realizing 
that injustice had been done the red men, issued orders, August 17, 1876, 
that a certain portion of the land in dispute, to include the strip of the 
Uncompahgre Park, should be restored to the Ute Reservation. Troops 
were also ordered to remove the intruders, but the whites threatened to 
attack the Indians if the troops disturbed them in their possessions, and 
the authorities, fearing an Indian war, did not enforce the order. The 
white man needed this land and the Indians must be removed to some 
other location. The trouble was finally settled whon the Indians, under 
the influence of Chief Ouray, who maintained an unvarying friendship 
for the whites, consented to sell the territory in dispute to the United 
States Government for the sum of ten thousand dollars. The Indians 
did not receive this money until several years later. 

A few months after these disturbing causes, which threatened to lead 
to war, had been removed, a fresh cause of trouble arose among the In- 
dians of the White River Reservation when the agent, N. C. Meeker, 



in tho summer of 1879 attempted to force the Indians under his charge 
to become agriculturists or starve; and when the agent asked for troops 
to hack him up in this policy, the Indians became hostile and warned 
Meeker the presence of troops on the reservation would be regarded 


by them as an act of war. At this time, as was their regular custom, a 
hand of a hundred Indians had left the reservation to go on a hunting 
expedition, which took them into Wyoming. There happened, in the sum- 
mer of 1879, to be great and destructive forest fires, most of which were 
caused by the carelessness of railway tiemen, but for which the Indians 
were blamed. Mr. Meeker joined in these complaints, and even accused 
some of the Utes of supplying ammunition to certain Sioux who were said 



to be preparing to go on the war-path, and urged that troops be employed 
to send the Indians back to the reservation. 

In the mean time the bad feeling of the Indians on the reservation grew, 
and in September of that year a petty chief named Johnson assaulted 
Meeker in his own house, as a result of Meeker's attempt to force the 
Indians to plough a strip of Johnson's land. The Indians resolved that 
they would not plough their land; they had no taste for farming, and the 
feeling rapidly grew among them that Meeker was their enemy. When 
they learned that soldiers were 
coming to have the land ploughed 
and to arrest Johnson, they de- 
livered an ultimatum to Meeker 
that the soldiers must not come 
unless Meeker wanted war. 
Meeker however, was determined 
that the business and industries of 
the Agency were not to be dic- 
tated by the Indians, and in order 
to force them to carry out his 
orders, as well as to protect him- 
self and family and the employees 
of the Agency, he called upon the 
military stationed at Fort Russell, 
Wyoming Territory. 

In response to Meeker's appeal 
for protection, Major T. T. Thorn- 
burgh, with a force of one hundred 
and ninety men, consisting of 
cavalry and infantry troops, pro- 
ceeded to march to the White River Agency, over one hundred and 
seventy miles distant. When Thornburgh reached Bear River on his 
march to the Agency he was met by several prominent Utes, among 
whom was the notorious Colorado, who wanted to know why he 
was coming. When he told them that the agent had sent for troops 
because the Indians had been acting badly, they denied everything and 
begged him not to lead the soldiers to the reservation. Major Thornburgh 
proposed that he himself with only a few of his men would proceed to the 
Agency, leaving the main body of troops in camp outside of the reserva- 
tion. Upon this the Indians departed, apparently in a most friendly mood. 

This conference took place at a distance of more than one hundred miles 
from the Agency. Major Thornburgh intended to discontinue his march, 
and so sent word to Meeker, saying that he would come on to the Agency 



with five men. It was on September 26 that Colorado and the other Utc 
chiefs had held the parley with Major Thornburgh, folio wing which the troops 
proceeded on their inarch in the direction of the Agency. On the morning 
of September 29 the advance guard discovered a strong force of Utes am- 
bushed along a mountain pass, which was about twenty-five miles from 
the Agency and within the reservation limits. Major Thornburgh still 
hoped to avoid hostilities, but his attempt to hold a parley with the In- 
dians was met by a volley from the guns of the ambushed savages. The 
Indians were well armed and greatly outnumbered the force under Thorn- 
burgh, whose command was soon entirely surrounded by the hostiles. 
The well-disciplined troops immediately replied to the fire of the Indians, 
at the same time retreating in good order to the line of the wagon-train. 
While this movement was taking place Major Thornburgh was shot and 
instantly killed. Desperate fighting followed and the troops suffered a 
loss of thirteen men killed and forty-three wounded, including two officers 
and the surgeon of the command. 

Captain Payne, who had been only slightly wounded, now assumed 
command, and at once prepared to fortify his position by throwing up 
hasty intrenchmentSj using the horses killed in the action as a temporary 
shelter while the soldiers plied the picks and shovels to make the protection 
more secure. The Indians, balked of their prey, now fired the dry grass 
and brush, the flames from which the rising wind soon carried close to 
the wagon-train behind which the desperate troops had taken their stand. 
No water was within reach, but the troops succeeded in smothering the 
flames with blankets and canvas obtained from the supply - wagons. 
The soldiers had soon dug themselves in, and thus protected, the bullets 
which the Indians poured in upon them did no material damage. 

Couriers were despatched to Fort Russell with news of the disaster, 
and reinforcements under Colonel Merrit were soon on the way to relieve 
the beleaguered troops, who had succeeded in holding off the Indians dur- 
ing five long days and nights, Colonel Merrit, with a force of two hundred 
cavalry and one hundred and fifty infantry, reaching the besieged men 
on the morning of October 5. They found the little force in good con- 
dition, no further loss having been suffered by the troops since the fir>t 
day's fighting. The Indians, who were in strong force and occupied 
a commanding position, began preparations to attack Colonel Merrit. No 
doubt a serious Indian war would have developed had not Chief Ouray, 
who was noted for his unwavering friendship for the whites, taken a firm 
stand and imposed restraint upon his people. Hearing of the outbreak 
while on a hunting expedition with his band, he immediately returned to 
Los Pinos, reporting there to the agent. The agent prepared a letter ad- 
dressed to the White River chiefs and signed by Ouray, ordering them to 



otop fighting. Upon the receipt of this letter the Indians agreed to obey 
Chief Ouray's directions and Colonel Merrit was informed that the White 
River Utes would fight no more and that the Southern Utes, who had been 
preparing to join in the hostilities, would keep the peace. - 

Leaving a sufficient force to watch the hostile camp, Colonel Merrit, 
on October 11, advanced to the White River Agency. All along the road 
to the Agency he found bloody evidences of the atrocities that the Indians 
had been guilty of. At the Agency, 
the bodies of seven of the employees, 
badly mutilated, were found, while 
the Agency itself was a scene of 
desolation, all but one of its build- 
ings having been rifled and burned. 
No sign of life was to be seen. The 
body of Agent Meeker was found, 
entirely naked, a short distance 
from the ruins of his house. He 
had been shot through the brain 
and his skull had been crushed with 
a club. All these indignities visited 
on the murdered agent's body clearly 
indicated the hatred the Indians had 
felt towards him. Having mur- 
dered all the male inhabitants of the 
Agency, the Indians carried off as 
captives the women inmates, includ- 
ing Mrs. Meeker and her daughter. 

After the outbreak had been checked by Chief Ouray a special agent 
of the Indian Department, under an escort of friendly Utes, proceeded from 
Los Pinos to the camp of the hostiles to demand the release of the women. 
For a time some of the malcontents of the tribe were against giving up 
the captives and ready to go on with the war, but again the influence of 
Chief Ouray prevailed and the captives were given up and brought to 
Colonel Merrit 's camp, whence they were conveyed to Los Pinos. Chief 
Ouray's good offices in maintaining peace were rewarded by the grant of an 
annuity of one thousand dollars, which he was to receive as long as he re- 
mained chief of the Utes. He did not, however, long enjoy his annuity, 
as he died on August 24, 1880, at which time he was living in comfort on 
a farm which he owned. 

Two Indian Commissions were now appointed by President Hayes to 
adjust the difficulties between the Indians and the white inhabitants of 
Colorado. Although certain Indians were surrendered to the authorities, 



no direct evidence could l>e obtained 1o implicate tlieni as the leaders in 
the attack on Major Thornburgh and the Agency. The ringleaders, in- 
cluding the several Ute chiefs, all took oath that they did not instigate 
the uprising. Some swore that they were not present, and those who ad- 
mitted their presence with the hostiles declared that they did everything 
to preserve peace. The upshot of the matter was that none of the Indians 
received the punishment they so richly deserved. Tire whites coveted the 
reservation lands and the Indians realized that they would have to bow 
to the authority of the white man. The work of the Commission, now that 
Chief Ouray was dead, encountered many difficulties in their negotiation 
with the Indians, but a final adjustment was made, satisfactory to both 
parties, in March, 1880, when the Utes voluntarily surrendered their large 
reservation in Colorado and agreed to hold the land in individual titles. 
This was the first time in the history of the United States that an Indian 
nation had given up its tribal existence and agreed to live as individuals 
under the laws of the United States. The White River Utes were sent to 
the Unit ah Reservation; the Southern Utes received land allotments in 
severalty in southern Colorado, while the Los Pinos Indians took up their 
abode on a new reservation east of the position occupied by the White 
River Indians on the Unitah Reservation. 

It is the opinion of many authorities that a serious mistake was made in 
allowing these Indians to escape punishment for the crimes they commit- 
ted in 1879. A proper respect for law and order was not instilled into their 
minds, and they have continued to be a cause of frequent trouble to the 
Government, and even to this day they remain shiftless and unruly. 

In the summer of 1906 a band of some four hundred of the White River 
Utes, becoming tired of living as civilized men, suddenly left their homes 
on the Unitah Reservation in Utah. Their objective was the Pine Ri^ge 
Reservation in South Dakota, where they intended to once again return 
to their former communal life. Their journey took them through Wyoming. 
Although they did not commit any depredations, still, their presence 
struck terror into the settlers, who, fearing attacks and outrages, called 
upon the Government to have them returned to the reservation. Only 
a few, however, could be persuaded to return to Utah, and the rest of the 
band continued on their roaming expedition. Soon, complaints poured in 
from the settlers that the Indians were driving off cattle from the Wyoming 
ranches. The local authorities were in doubt as to their legal right to inter- 
fere with these Indians, who had been enfranchised when the lands had been 
allotted to them in severalty in 1879. The Indians themselves, however, 
had no feeling of the responsibility of citizenship; indeed, they had no dis- 
position to live the life of the white man. 

Something had to be done, however, to avoid an outbreak and a renewal 





















of Indian atrocities, and despite the doubt of the Federal Government as 
to its legal right to interfere with these Indian citizens, it was finally de- 
cided to send troops to Wyoming, whose duty it should be to return the 
Indians to their homes in Utah. 

Accordingly, troops were ordered to find the Indians and, if necessary, 
to force them to return to civilized life. The Indians were located encamped 


on the Powder River in Montana just across the Wyoming border. Per- 
suasion was successful and the Indians went peacefully to Fort Meade, 
South Dakota, where they remained for the winter. Before consenting; 
to give up their nomadic habits they insisted that a delegation of their- 
chiefs should visit Washington, where their grievances should be consid- 
ered. Such a delegation did visit Washington in January, 1907, but the 
Indians remained obdurate and refused to consider their return to the 


Unitah Reservation. Finally, the Government assigned them in the spring 
of 1907 to certain locations on the Cheyenne River Reservation in ?ouih 
Dakota, and thus solved the difficulty. The land for this purpose was 
acquired by lease and the funds were obtained from the Ute annuities, the 
payments to be made for a period of five years. The Indians began their 
occupancy of the leased lands in June, 1907. But they soon became rest- 
less and discontented, and before a year had passed they wanted a change. 
They felt that they would be better off on their own lands which had been 
allotted to them in severally, and the Government was only too glad to 
arrange for their return to the land of their fathers in Utah. Here they 
arrived in October, 1908; they are still there, but remain restless and dis- 
contented and as much averse as ever to live the life of the white man. 



WE now come to a series of wars with the Apaches of the South-west. 
These Indians, belonging to the Athapascan family, are made up 
of several groups, among which are, the Yumas, Mojaves, White Mountains, 
Mescaleros, and Chiricahuas, the last named being the dominant and the 
most warlike. The region over which they roamed included portions of 
Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, as well as several of the northern prov- 
inces of Mexico. For many years war had been their chief pursuit, and 
within their theatre of operations conflicts between the many Apache 
tribes and the troops had been innumerable. The settlers entertained a 
perfect dread of these marauding bands, who were accustomed to swoop 
down upon them without the least warning, attack their camps and vil- 
lages, and run off the herds of cattle, shooting down in cold blood all those 
who came within their reach. So sudden were their onslaughts that they 
were never seen; when they struck, all that would be seen was the flash 
of the rifle, resting with secure aim over a pile of stones or a bowlder, be- 
hind which was the red-handed murderer. They had an almost miraculous 
power of endurance; they could ride for days at a time without food or 
rest ; whether through the inhospitable desert or climbing the steepest moun- 
tain, their strength appeared inexhaustible. It is said that their warriors 
could run a hundred miles a day and not feel fatigue, climb, without stop- 
ping, the summit of the highest mountain and not be out of breath. They 
could subsist on roots and herbs, and satisfy their thirst by chewing on 
a piece of bark or moss, by which was started the flow of saliva. Graceful, 
well formed, with legs of wonderful suppleness, light and nimble as a wild- 
cat, these Indians on the rocky, precipitous mountain-sides were unap- 
proachable. When driven into the mountains, the horses which they 
had stolen served them as rations. To attack them successfully the greatest 
skill and caution had to be employed.** 

The Apache tribes were known to the early Spanish colonizers of Ari- 
zona and New Mexico, and they resisted all attempts by the Spaniards to 
civilize and Christianize them. They have always been known as wild 

* See Miles, Herring the Republic. 

** Merritt, Three Indian Campaigns, Harper's Mag. Vol. LXXX. 


Indians. They constantly attacked the Spaniards and devastated the 
Spanish settlements. As early as 1762 it was estimated that the Apaches 
had desolated and depopulated one hundred and seventy-four mining-towns, 
stations, and missions in the province of Sonora alone. For fifty years a 
bold chief (Mangas-Coloradas) led powerful bands to war; and since the 
annexation of their territory to the United States, in 1850, they have 
given the Government more trouble than any of the Western Indians. 
Mangas-Coloradas was killed in 1863. He was succeeded by Cochise, who 
led them in their warfare against the whites till 1874. Upon his death his 
son Natchez became the hereditary chief of the tribe, and with Geronimo 
continued to keep the whole South-west in a state of terror until these 
hostile chiefs and their bands were finally subdued and captured by Gen- 
eral Nelson A. Miles in 1886. 

During the period of the Civil War the military garrisons on the south- 
ern and western frontier had to be abandoned, the troops being needed to 
take part in the w r ar between the States, but with the conclusion of that 
conflict the garrisons again resumed their posts on the frontier and im- 
mediately proceeded to wage a war of extermination against the Apaches, 
who, under Cochise, had grown confident in their strength and had com- 
mitted innumerable depredations on the isolated towns and ranches of 
Arizona and New Mexico, determined to drive the whites out of their 

Were we to analyze the causes of the numerous wars with the Apache 
tribes we would find that the whites were often in the wrong. After the 
completion, in 1879, of the transcontinental railroad, settlers, miners, and 
prospectors constantly encroached on the lands which had belonged to 
the Indians for ages. Then came the attempt to confine them on reser- 
vations, taking away their hunting-grounds, because the land was coveted 
by the white man; with the reservations came dishonest Indian agents 
and broken Government promises. Poor rations and near-by herds of 
cattle tempted the Indians to leave the reservations and to drive off the 
cattle, in the course of which depredations were committed, frequently 
resulting in the murder of the whites. Blocking the path of progress, the 
Indians were removed by force to distant and undesirable lands; and so 
there were constant outbreaks of the different Apache tribes for which the 
causes just enumerated were responsible. 

Beginning in 1870, almost constant warfare was waged against the 
different Apache tribes in Arizona and New Mexico, these bands refusing 
to be confined on the reservations. In the innumerable outbreaks hun- 
dreds of settlers were murdered and thousands of heads of cattle run off 
by the marauding Indians, who held the whole country in a state of terror. 
The mines could not be operated; the ranchmen and settlers did not dare 













to travel, except by night or with a military escort, fearing attacks by the 
fierce, murderous Apache bands. 

It would bore the reader were we to recount all of the harrowing out- 
rages occurring in this period. Most of the wars were of short duration 
and always ended in the return of the Indians to the reservation, where 
they remained until, again dissatisfied with their treatment, they would 
break loose and commit depredations. There were minor outbreaks in 
1870, 1871, 1872, and 1873. The outbreak of 1872 was put down by Gen- 
eral George Crook, who, with a large body of cavalry, assisted by friendly 
Apache scouts, pursued the hostiles into their mountain retreats and nearly 
exterminated one of the bands in a pitched battle in the Tonto Basin, one 
of the principal strongholds of the Apaches in Arizona. After this defeat 
the different bands gradually came in to the Agency, and for a period, 
under the direction of General Crook, took up the pursuit of agriculture. 

In 1879 the Apaches under Chief Victoria left the reservations, and 
this outbreak \vas the beginning of a most disastrous Apache war which 
was not finally quelled until September, 1886. This war was caused by 
not keeping faith with the Indians. In 1878 Victoria and his band, who 
had been in Mexico, surrendered at Ojo Caliente, with the understanding 
that he and his people would be allowed to occupy their old reservation, 
but the authoiities decided, owing to the proximity of the reservation to 
the Mexican boundary, that it would be safer to confine the Indians on 
the San Carlos Reservation. The Indians, however, hated San Carlos. 
As a result an outbreak occurred, and when the band was corralled and 
again back at the reservation indictments for murder and robbery were 
brought against Victoria and many of his followers, to escape which Vic- 
toria and his band fled from the reservation and immediately began raid- 
ing the settlements of south-western New Mexico and south-eastern Arizona. 
During these raids more than seventy settlers were murdered, and the 
depredations continued for several weeks, until the Indians were driven 
into Mexico by the soldiers. By April, 1880, Victoria was joined by three 
hundred and fifty Mescaleros and other refugees from Mexico, and raid 
upon raid occurred, striking terror into the inhabitants of New Mexico, 
Arizona, and the northern provinces of Mexico. Victoria and his band, 
who were well armed and had an abundance of ammunition, held out against 
the troops, on whom for a time they inflicted severe punishment. Several 
hundred citizens were killed in the course of these raids. Colonel Hatch, 
fresh from his experience with the Colorado Utes, now took up the chase 
and finally caused the savages to separate into small bands, but only to 
unite again in Mexico. Victoria continued his depredations in Mexico, 
where he fought the Mexican troops for several months, until finally a 
force of Mexicans encountered the marauders at Tres Castillo? ; and, in 


a battle lasting through the afternoon and night, the Indians were defeated 
and Victoria himself was killed. His death, however, did not subdue 
the Indians, who again, uniting their forces under Nana, made bloody 
raids across the border into southern New Mexico, attacking the unsus- 
pecting herders and prospectors, whom they murdered without mercy, 
until they were driven back into Mexico in April, 1882. 

Meanwhile the Apaches of the San Carlos Reservation were also on the 
war-path, busily engaged, under Chiefs Juh and Geronimo, in raiding 
the settlements of Arizona. They were captured, however, in 1880, and 
one hundred and eight of the hostiles were returned to San Carlos. In 
1881 there was also an outbreak of the White Mountain Apaches in south- 
eastern Arizona. This trouble was caused by the arrest of a medicine-man 
named Nokaidoklini, who claimed that he could bring dead warriors to 
life, thus re-people the country with Indians and drive out the whites. 
The resurrection failed to materialize because the prophet said his in- 
cantations would not work in the presence of the whites. The authorities 
ordered the arrest of the prophet. To the Indians this was an admis- 
sion that the whites feared the power of the medicine-man. The prophet, 
however, surrendered peaceably enough, but while he was being taken 
to the fort some Indian scouts, who were with the soldiers, attempted 
to rescue him. In the fight that ensued the prophet and several soldiers 
were killed. The White Mountain band then attacked Camp Apache, 
killing ten soldiers and eight citizens. Reinforcements arriving, the In- 
dians fled, but were soon cornered and returned to the reservation. The 
Indian scouts who took part in the rescue of the prophet were tried by court 
martial, and three of them were hung. Some of the White Mountains who 
had been paroled became alarmed when an attempt was made to bring 
them back to the Agency, and under their chiefs, George and Bonito, 
left the reservation, fleeing into Mexico, where they joined the Indians 
under Nana, who had assumed the leadership of the late Victoria's band. 
In April, 1882, a number of Chiricahuas, under Geronimo and Natchez, 
broke away from the San Carlos Reservation, and with Loco's band of 
Ojo Caliente Indians also joined the hostiles who had taken refuge in Mexico. 
A campaign was waged against these fugitives by detachments of both 
American and Mexican troops, who pursued them in New Mexico and 
old Mexico, inflicting severe punishment upon them. 

It now became absolutely necessary to put an end to the murdering 
and plundering of these savage Apache bands. With this end in view a 
treaty was made with Mexico on July 29, 1882, by the provisions of which 
troops of either country were permitted to cross the international boundary- 
line in pursuit of fleeing hostile bands; previous to this time our troops 
were not allowed to campaign beyond the Mexican line. Also in this same 


year General Crook was re-assigned to the command of the Department 
of Arizona, where he had so successfully put down the Apache outbreak 
of 1872. 

In that year General Crook had waged an unceasing war against the 
hostiles who would not live on the reservation. He conquered these tribes 
by employing friendly Apaches as scouts. These friendly Indians, knowing 
thoroughly every bit of the country, and being able to follow the trail 
of the hunted bands into their almost impregnable strongholds in the moun- 
tains, served the troops as guides and trailers, and it was not long until 
most of the hostiles were tamed and back on the reservation. Then, too, 
the Indians trusted General Crook, who did not believe in the old policy 
of extermination. He meted out justice to the Apache tribes, placing them 
on reservations that satisfied them. The result of this policy was that the 
Indians, many of whom had been among the worst in Arizona, were engaged 
in peaceful pursuits on the reservation, farming extensively and becoming 
self-supporting. They were contented because they were under the con- 
trol of a man whom they could trust. And to emphasize this point let us 
quote General Crook himself, who said, in 1879: 

"During the twenty-seven years of my experience with the Indian 
question I have never known a band of Indians to make peace with our 
Government and then break it, or leave their reservation, without some 
ground of complaint; but until their complaints are examined and adjusted 
they will give annoyance and trouble." 

In 1874, however, when the reservations of Arizona came under the 
control of the Indian Bureau, there was inaugurated the policy of concen- 
tration, resulting in the undoing of all of General Crook's good work. 
The removal of the Indians was ordered, and many tribes were forced to 
leave the lands on which they were living in peace and which General 
Crook had promised them were to be theirs forever so long as they kept 
the peace and remained self-supporting. Upon the adoption of this new 
policy General Crook, March 22, 1875, was relieved of the command of 
the department. The resulting forced removal of the various tribes from 
reservations that suited them to reservations that did not suit them soon 
reaped its harvest of several years of savage retaliation, causing the loss 
of the lives of many innocent whites and Indians, the destruction of much 
property, and the expenditure of vast sums by the Treasury. 

Soon after General Crook's re-assumption of the command of the 
Department of Arizona, in 1882, conditions among the Indians on the 
reservation improved. The Indians co-operating, General Crook adopted 
the policy he had pursued in 1872, and soon peace prevailed on and about 
the reservation. 

In the mean time, however, there were the hostiles who still remained 


in Mexico and by whom many atrocities were being committed, under the 
leadership of Geronimo, Natchez, Chato, and Bonito. The civil authori- 
ties at the Agency had refused to aid the Indians in irrigating; their lands, 
and, becoming dissatisfied, a number of Chiricahuas, under Geronimo and 
Natchez, left the reservation and fled into Mexico, where they took refuge 
with the other hostiles in the Sierra Madre Mountains. From this strong- 
hold frequent raids were made in Mexico and Arizona, which continued 
till June, 1883, when they once more surrendered to General Crook. Over 
fifteen hundred of the hostiles, persuaded by General Crook, returned to 
the reservation and resumed their peaceful pursuits. There were, however, 
a number of malcontents among them who could not be persuaded to re- 
main on the reservation; this portion of the tribe made peace only for the 
purpose of returning to the agency for supplies and to gather recruits. 
They soon broke their promises, left the reservation, and again began 
depredations on the settlements. In accordance with the arrangements 
that had been made with the Mexican Government, allowing our troops 
to pursue the raiding bands when necessary into Mexican territory, General 
Crook now took up an active campaign to subdue the hostiles still at large. 
In May, 1883, a detachment of our troops, accompanied by a body of 
Apache scouts, crossed the boundary-line as far as the head-waters of the 
Rio Yaqui, and soon discovered Chato's and Bonito's bands. Their camp 
was attacked, resulting in the capture of several hundred Indians, who 
were immediately returned to the reservation. 

In September, 1883, it seemed again wise to entrust the management 
of the Indians to the War Department, and General Crook was given full 
control of the tribes on the San Carlos Reservation. The Indians knew 
that Crook had often in the past defended them in their just demands 
against the encroachment of the white settlers, and so it was not difficult 
for him to direct the Indians in peaceful pursuits. Within a year in 
1884 these Indians under his guidance had harvested over four thousand 
tons of grain, vegetables, and fruits of various varieties; but affairs were 
not to move smoothly for very long. There were always some white men 
to whom the sacred promises made to red men \vere as mere "scraps of 
paper," and soon in February, 1885 the civil authorities interfered with 
General Crook, preventing him from carrying out his policy. The Indians, 
released from his guiding hand, immediately broke loose, and before the 
civil and military authorities could adjust their differences, over half of 
the Indians left the reservation in May, 1885, taking refuge in their old 
strongholds in the mountains. 

Again the troops under General Crook, reinforced by a body of Apache 
scouts, took up the pursuit, but the Indians under Geronimo and Natchez 
held out and made many raids across the American border, destroying 


much property and murdering a number of whites and friendly Apaches. 
This bloody warfare continued nearly a year, at the expense of hundreds 
of lives and the death of Captain Crawford, of the Tenth Cavalry, who was 
killed by Mexican irregular troops in January, 1886, the Apache scouts 
with the Americans having been mistaken by the Mexicans for the hostile 
Indians whom they had been pursuing. The campaign against the Indians 
continued until March, 1886, when Geronimo sent word that he was ready 
to discuss terms of peace with General Crook. 

A parley, accordingly, was arranged for, and Geronimo and General 
Crook met on March 25, 1886, at El Canon, Mexico. At this time the 
Indians were encamped in a strong and almost inaccessible position in 
the mountains. They were well armed and well supplied with ammunition 
and stores; they were fierce and independent, and sought to surrender on 
their own terms to return to the reservation under the old conditions, 
taking with them such of their families as they desired; otherwise to con- 
tinue to fight until exterminated. 

Geronimo and Natchez, with, their people men, women, and children 
with an escort of Apache scouts and a detachment of troops under 
Lieutenant Maus, now proceeded towards Fort Bowie, but before the 
actual surrender of the entire force could take place Geronimo and 
Natchez changed their minds and escaped during the night of March 
29 from Lieutenant Maus's camp, fleeing again to the Sierra Madre 
Mountains, their route marked by the usual atrocities. Once more 
they were beyond reach. General Crook was censured for allowing 
them to escape, and at his own request he was relieved of the com- 
mand, and General Nelson A. Miles was appointed in his place April 1, 
1886, by President Cleveland. 

General Miles* at once undertook a vigorous campaign, determined to 
capture Geronimo and his band. He immediately divided the country up 
into districts of observation; placed signal detachments on the high moun- 
tain peaks by means of which all movements of the Indians would be dis- 
covered and reported to the different camps. A body of reliable friendly 
Apache scouts, to serve as trailers, were employed for the purpose of track- 
ing down the Indians. The best riders among the troops were chosen for 
this campaign, and a relay of horses was to be provided so that the Indians 
would lose the advantage they had enjoyed in previous campaigns, of 
shaking off the pursuing troops. They were now to be pursued relentlessly 
until exhausted. 

Captain H. W. Lawton, of the Fourth Cavalry, who later won fame 
in Cuba and the Philippines, where he was killed in battle, was placed in 

* Miles, Serving the Republic. 


command of the expedition that was to exterminate this band of hostile 
Apaches. His force consisted of one hundred picked soldiers and a number 
of scouts, guides, and friendly Indian trailers. Assistant-surgeon Leonard 
Wood, now a lieutenant-general and considered one of the greatest soldiers 
of the world's armies, was to care for the injured. 

Captain Lawton soon located the Indians south of the Mexican border, 
the bands making their presence quite evident by raiding from Mexico 
into the south-western part of Arizona. A relentless pursuit was taken 
up by this fearless trooper, in whom at last the doggedness and amazing 
vitality of the Apache had met its match. The wily Geronimo again crossed 
the Rio Grande, with Captain Lawton close upon his heels. Pursuing the 
Indians for over four months through a most mountainous country, Cap- 
tain Lawton followed the chase for over two hundred miles, never allow- 
ing the Indians to throw the troops off the trail, which, when lost, was 
always picked up by the sharp-eyed Indian scouts. There were many 
skirmishes, but each time the Indians were defeated and escaped with 
fewer warriors. 

The trail of the fleeing Indians led far into Mexico. The indomitable 
troops led by Captain Lawton had followed the Indians over eight hundred 
miles through canons and mountain ravines, along trails that repeatedly 
crossed one another. The camps of the Indians were broken up; their 
horses, equipments, and supplies taken, the relentless pursuit by the troops 
allowing the Indians but little rest. On July 20 Geronimo's camp was sur- 
prised, and, realizing that in Captain Lawton he had met his match, he 
sent word that he was willing to surrender to the highest authority to 
General Miles. As an earnest of good faith Geronimo sent his brother to 
Fort Bowie to hold a parley with General Miles. In the mean time Geronimo 
himself moved his camp north, somewhat nearer that of Captain Lawton's. 
Shortly after the parley General Miles came to Skeleton Canon and met 
Geronimo, who agreed to surrender, provided he and his people would not 
be killed. Natchez also soon came in from the mountains. The Indians, 
worn down and greatly depleted in numbers as a result of the five months 
of constant pursuit, realized the folly of further resistance, and made an 
unconditional surrender. Geronimo and Natchez were taken to Fort 
Bowie by General Miles with a cavalry escort, and three days later Captain 
Lawton followed with the balance of the hostiles. 

The final surrender took place September 4, 1886. Geronimo and his 
band, with many friendly Apaches, were sent to Florida as prisoners; 
later they were transferred to Mount Vernon, Alabama, thence to Fort 
Sill, Oklahoma. Some of the hostile Apaches were never captured, remain- 
ing in the mountains. As recently as 1900 these Indians showed their 
hostile disposition by making an attack on Mormon settlers in northern 


Mexico. Apache raids, however, in Arizona and New Mexico have entirely 
ceased as a result of General Miles's campaign of 1886. 

Geronimo, the medicine-man of the Chiricahua Apaches, died at Fort 
Sill, Oklahoma, February 17, 1909, hating the whites to the very last. 
* General Miles described him as the most ruthless of Indian marauders, 
with the most determined face and sharp, piercing eyes of any Indian that 
he had ever seen. As medicine-man he was the adviser of Natchez, who 
was the hereditary chief of the Apaches. Natchez was the second son of 
former Chief Cochise, who had been a terror to the whites for over fifty 
years. The mother of Natchez was a daughter of the notorious Mangas- 
Coloradas. Natchez was, to quote General Miles again, "a tall, slender 
young warrior, whose dignity and grace of movement would become any 
prince." He was the actual leader in the numerous raids that desolated 
the settlements of Arizona, New Mexico, and the northern part of old 
Mexico during the years 1881 to 1886. For many of these raids credit 
was given to Geronimo. Natchez now resides at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, 
where he has remained a peaceful prisoner, still holding his leadership over 
the Chiricahua Apaches.** 

* Miles, Serving (he Republic, page 228. 

** Hodge, Hand Book of American Indians. 


THE SIOUX WAR OF 1890-1891. 

THE next and happily the last Indian war for us to discuss is the 
outbreak of the Sioux of the Standing Rock and Cheyenne River 
Agencies, which occurred in the winter of 1890-91, involving upwards of 
one hundred thousand Indians and representing the sixteen great tribes of 
the North-west, chief among which were the Brules, Ogallalas, and Uncapa- 
pas. Led by Big Foot and Sitting Bull, this uprising threatened to be the 
most stupendous in the history of Indian warfare; but, fortunately, the 
killing of Sitting Bull and the speedy and masterful concentration of troops 
under the direction of General Nelson A. Miles demoralized the conspira- 
tors, who were awed by the terrible slaughter inflicted on the Indians by 
the Seventh Cavalry at Wounded Knee, December 29, 1890. 

For many years the younger element among the Indians on the Standing 
Rock Reservation had been making great advancement in learning the ways 
of the white man; and a large number of them, having become Christians, 
exerted a great progressive influence among the other Indians. This group 
was in great disfavor with the pagan and unreconstructed element under 
Sitting Bull, Red Cloud, and Kicking Bear, who eagerly waited for some 
pretext to bring the question of civilization or non-civilization to a decisive 
issue. In 1890 the Government had failed to meet promptly many of its 
treaty obligations, and had been especially lax in the payment of annuities 
long overdue. Besides, in this year the crops had failed. Congress had 
cut down the supplies to the Indians, consequently there was a feeling 
of dissatisfaction among the different tribes and everything was favorable 
for the irreconcilables under Sitting Bull and his followers to form a con- 
spiracy for a general uprising. 

Sitting Bull had retreated to Canada, following the Custer massacre, 
and after passing five years in the Canadian North-west, where he suffered 
many hardships, surrendered to the authorities at Fort Buford in 1881. 
He was held as a prisoner of war at Fort Randall, Dakota Territory, and, 
when released in 1883, he returned to the Indian reservation of the Standing 
Rock Agency. 

In the fall of 1890 the Messiah doctrine began to be preached among 
the Sioux in Dakota. As soon as he heard of it Sitting Bull, although 

THE SIOUX WAH OF 1890-1891. 495 

himself too intelligent to give it credence, resolved to make use of it to 
assert himself, and immediately set to work to spread the new religion 
among the Indians of the entire North-west, becoming the self-appointed 
high priest of the cult, in the hope that he would by this means re-establish 
his former power over the Indians, and, again becoming their leader, incite 
them to an uprising against the whites, whom he so fiercely hated. 

This prediction of the second coming of Christ was founded on the 
philosophy of the Christian religion and originated about 1888 among the 
Paviotso in Nevada. Its prophet was a young Paiute Indian, by name 
Jack Wilson, who announced that he had received a direct revelation from 
the God of the Indians. He proclaimed that a new dispensation was to 
occur; that the Indians were to be restored to their inheritance and to be 
reunited with their departed friends, whom, at the appointed time, the 
prophet w r as to restore to life. The plains were again to teem with vast 
herds of wild horses; the buffalo was again to return and roam the country 
as in the days of old indeed, the earth was to become an Indian paradise 
in which the red man was to reign supreme. These deluded people, were 
told that they must prepare for the coming of the Messiah by practising 
songs and dance ceremonies, which consisted of a ceremonial religious 
dance, commonly known as the spirit, or ghost, dance, in which "the 
dancers, men and women together, held hands and moved slowly around 
in a circle, facing towards the centre, keeping time to songs that were sung 
without any instrumental accompaniment. Hypnotic trances were a com- 
mon feature of the dance." * 

This fanatical doctrine** predicting the inauguration of the Indian mil- 
lennium rapidly spread to the Indian tribes east ol the Rockies, the prophet 
in far-off Nevada having sent trusted medicine -men among the different 
tribes, who informed the Indians in each tribe of the coming of the Messiah. 
The prophecy had been circulated among the Indians in Dakota with the 
utmost secrecy; no knowledge of it had been discovered by any of the 
Government agents during the period from 1888 to 1890, while the 
teaching had been spreading among the tribes. Learning of the doc- 
trine from Kicking Bear, a fierce fighting member of the Minneconjoux 
tribe who had returned to the reservation after having made the journey 
to the tribes in Utah and Nevada, where he and other Dakota Indians had 
been received by the prophet, Sitting Bull immediately had Kicking Bear 
initiate him into the mysteries of the new religion, and soon established 
himself as high priest among the Indians on the reservation. All those 
desiring to take part in the ghost-dancing must first purify themselves by 
taking a steam bath every morning. These baths were taken in specially 

' Sec Hodgo, Handbook of American Indians; Mooney, The Ghost-dance Religion. 
** Miles, Serving the Republic, chap, xii. 


prepared tents in which there was room for not more than three or four 
persons; stones were heated and inserted into the tents, and when sprinkled 
with water a hot steam arose, which, confined within so small a space, 
soon started a vigorous sweat. After the bath the Indians to be initiated 
were annointed by the medicine-man, and then began the dance, which 
continued for hours at a time, accompanied with the chanting of weird 
melodies, till the devotees dropped from sheer exhaustion. 

Under the spell of this religious craze the Indians soon began to show 
dangerous symptoms of disorder, and the authorities immediately decided 
that the best way to stop the ghost-dancing was to arrest Sitting Bull, 
who was teaching the Indians this madness at his camp on Grand River. 
He sent Indian runners to every tribe in the great North-west, even as 
far as Canada, begging them to leave their reservations and in a body go 
forth to meet the Messiah. He saw that the ghost-dance religion with the 
expected Indian millennium was taking strong hold of the minds of the 
Indians and that it gave him the means of exciting the deluded savages into a 
mad frenzy, and that while they were in that state of mind his chance of 
1 (ringing about the outbreak of rebellion which he had been planning ever 
since his return to the reservation in 1883 would more than likely meet 
with success. His arrest, therefore, must be accomplished. It was known 
that he was sending Indian runners to the Sioux of the Cheyenne River 
Reservation and that he was making preparations to depart from his own 
camp on Grand River. He was defiant of all authority. Up to this time 
he had gone regularly to the Agency for his rations, but now, fearing ar- 
rest, and resolved to keep the officers from laying hands on him, he sent 
in his stead Bull Ghost, his chief lieutenant. 

During this excitement a large body of troops under General Brook 
had arrived at Pine Ridge; this caused terror to spread among the In- 
dians on the reservation, and, becoming frightened and desperate, about 
eighteen hundred of them left their homes and fled to the Bad Lands. 
It was Sitting Bull's intention to join this body of disaffected Indians. 
Big Foot's band of Minneconjoux Sioux had already fled from their Agency 
on the Missouri River and were making for the camp of hostiles in the 
Bad Lands. It Avas, therefore, of the greatest importance to prevent Sit- 
ting Bull from escaping and putting himself at the head of these desperate 
and frightened red men, for his presence in the camp of the hostiles would 
inevitably result in a most disastrous war the most stupendous of all 
Indian wars in history. 

Accordingly, General Miles, on December 15, 1890, ordered Colonel 
Dunn, the post commander at Fort Yates, North Dakota, to detail a troop 
of cavalry and a few trusted Indian police to arrest Sitting Bull at his camp 
on Grand River. It was considered advisable, in order to avoid bloodshed, 

THE SIOUX WAR OF 1890-1891. 497 

to have the arrest made by the Indian police; consequently the troop 
of cavalry under the command of Major E. G. Fechet, and the Indian police 
under Lieutenant Bull Head, left Fort Yates at midnight in order to reach 
Sitting Bull's camp at daybreak, when conditions would be most favorable 
for making the arrest. The arrival of the Indian police was timely, for 
Sitting Bull had made all his arrangements to decamp that very morning 
to join the great hostile camp that had already congregated in the Bad 
Lands of South Dakota, whence they were to move west to join the other 
tribes at the base of the Rocky Mountains. 

The Indian police found Sitting Bull at his camp, surrounded by his 
family. Sitting Bull, protesting, but offering no resistance to the unex- 
pected arrest, prepared to accompany the Indian police outside his lodge, 
first requesting to be allowed to saddle his best horse and to wear his Sunday 
clothes. Outside, however, were congregated a large body of ghost-dancers, 
most of whom were armed, and among them Crow Foot, his son, who re- 
viled his father as a coward for yielding so peacefully to arrest. Sitting Bull 
was stung by this taunt from his son, and, seeing the throng of ghost- 
dancers in a wild frenzy of rage at the interruption of their ceremonies 
and wrought to the highest pitch of excitement at the capture of their 
leader, regarded by them as more than human, he immediately raised the 
war-cry and his followers rushed to rescue him. 

There then ensued a desperate combat, which resulted in the killing of 
Sitting Bull with a number of his immediate followers, and several of the 
friendly Indian police, among whom was Lieutenant Bull Head and Shave 
Head. Catch-the-Bear and Strikes-the-Kettle at once aimed their rifles and 
fired point-blank at the Indian police. "Catch-the-Bear's shot struck Bull 
Head in the side, and he, wheeling, turned on Sitting Bull and shot him in 
theleft side; andasStrikes-the-Kettle'sshot had passed through Shave Head's 
abdomen, all three fell together. Catch-the-Bear, who fired the first shot, 
was immediately shot down by Private Lone Man, and the fight became 
general." The remaining police, however, holding their ground, gained 
possession of Sitting Bull's lodge and its contents, and were soon joined 
by the troops under Major Fechet, who had been kept in reserve at a short 
distance in case of trouble. The troops soon drove the ghost-dancers off 
the scene. Thus ended the career of Sitting Bull, the mighty medicine- 
man of the Sioux, shot to death by members of his own race, who was, in the 
opinion of General Miles, "the strongest type of the hostile Indian that this 
country has produced." 

The death of Sitting Bull did not, however, put an immediate end to 
the Indian trouble. There still was a large camp of the hostiles in the 
Bad Lands; these were now joined by the remnant of Sitting Bull's band 
which the troops had dispersed after the attempt to rescue the great medicine- 


man had failed. Congregated in the Bad Lands, in anticipation of the 
general uprising that was to take place, the fierce, warlike spirit of these 
savages was whipped into a veritable fury to avenge the death of their 
great leader. Encamped in this inaccessible country of barren hills, deep 
canons, and ravines, plentifully supplied with horses, which they had ob- 
tained by raiding neighboring ranches, well equipped with arms and 
with ample stores of ammunition, the Indians felt confident of being 
able to defy the Government. Here they kept up their mad ghost- 
dancing, proclaimed the coming of the Messiah, and made every effort 
to arouse the Indians that still remained peaceful at the different agencies. 
Their threatening attitude spread a feeling ot terror among the whites 
living at the agencies and in isolated settlements, who were aware of the 
comparatively weak force of troops immediately available for their pro- 
tection. It became necessary, therefore, at once to send for reinforcements. 

A large force was soon brought up and the troops began their march 
on the camp of the hostiles. It was the plan not to bring on a general 
engagement, but to drive them back towards their Agency at Pine Ridge. 
To capture and disarm Big Foot's band, which had left the Cheyenne River 
Reservation after the killing of Sitting Bull, was the chief objective of the 
troops. Before leaving home this band, numbering about three hundred 
men, women, and children, had destroyed their wagons and other immov- 
able supplies, which clearly showed their intention of going to war. They 
were now on their way to join the other hostiles in the Bad Lands. For 
the purpose of intercepting this dangerous band, the first battalion of the 
Seventh Cavalry, in command of Major S. M. Whitside and consisting 
of tw r o hundred and thirty-two men and ten officers, left their camp at 
Pine Ridge December 26. The command reached Wounded Knee Creek 
that same night, and the following day scouting parties were sent out to 
scour the surrounding country, for some sign of the Indians. 

Finally, on the 28th,* one of the Indian scouts discovered Big Foot's 
band marching in the direction of the Pine Ridge Agency and entirely 
unconscious of the near presence of troops. The camp at Wounded Knee 
being informed of the approach of the Indians, mounted troops at once 
set out, and soon encountered the Indians, the warriors on horseback and 
the women and children in wagons or travois in the rear. A demand was 
made for their surrender, and Big Foot, encumbered as he was with the 
women and children, could offer no resistance. The band, consisting of 
one hundred and twenty warriors well armed and supplied with ammuni- 

* Adapted from " The Story of Wounded Knee," by John C. Gresham, First Lieutenant, 
Seventh Cavalry, Harper's Weekly, February 7, 1891. See also "The Indian Troubles 
and the Battle of Wounded Knee," by W. F. Kelley, Neb. Stale Hist. Soc. Transactions 
and Reports, vol. iv, 1892. 














THE SIOUX WAR OF 1890-1891. 499 

tion, and upwards of two hundred and fifty women and children, surrendered, 
and the command started for the camp at Wounded Knee Creek. There 
ground was assigned for their village and rations served them. 

At nightfall the camp was closely guarded; the sentinels were ordered 
to permit neither exit nor entrance, for it was recalled that only 
a few days previous this band had surrendered to the Eighth Cavalry under 
Major E. V. Sumner, but had escaped the first night because the commander, 
relying upon their promise to return to the Agency, did not disarm them 
and guard their camp. In the present case the troops only very slightly 
exceeded the male Indians in number, and it was, therefore, considered un- 
wise to attempt to disarm them until reinforcements could be brought up. 
Accordingly, General Brooke was advised of the situation, and he at 
once despatched the remaining battalion of the Seventh Cavalry, in 
command of General Forsyth, which arrived at Wounded Knee at 8.30 
P.M. The presence of this large body of troops, it was felt, would be a guar- 
antee against any disturbance when the attempt to disarm the Indians 
should be made the next day. 

The next morning, December 29, a council with the Indian leaders was 
held, General Forsyth informing them that they must give up all their arms 
and ammunition. The Indians insisted that they had no arms. Upon this 
refusal troops were massed around the camp of the hostiles; the warriors 
were lined up and commanded to give up their guns. The braves at once 
assumed a sullen, defiant attitude. They were clad in the hideous ghost- 
shirt which they superstitiously believed would protect them from bullets, 
and they assuredly intended trouble, although at the time the soldiers 
had no expectation of the bloody battle about to take place. Each Indian 
wore a blanket folded over his shoulder, underneath which was concealed 
a rifle; this, of course, was not known to the soldiers. As the military 
force numbered four hundred men, no expectation of an attack was con- 
sidered probable. Twenty of the Indians taken out of the line were ordered 
to go to the village and bring in their guns, but the result of their search 
only yielded a few old, valueless weapons. It was known that the Indians 
were well armed with Winchesters only the day before, and General Forsyth 
realized that a search of their persons must be made in spite of the danger 
involved in doing so. Accordingly, a detachment of troops consisting of 
one hundred men, fully armed, were disposed at right angles on two sides 
of the semicircle of warriors. Before the order for personal search could 
be executed the Indians, believing that they were about to be killed, com- 
menced the ghost-dance upon a signal from the medicine-man, who took 
a handful of earth from the ground and tossed it over his shoulders. At 
this signal the whole body of painted, bedizened fanatics sprang as one man. 
flung off their blankets, and with nothing but breech-clouts and light ghost- 


shirts to impede them, began firing into the ranks of the soldiers; so rapidly 
was this done that the whole line of Indians had fired before the soldiers 
realized the situation. 

This treacherous attack resulted in the loss of twenty-five troopers 
killed and fifty-five wounded, many of the wounded dying soon after. 
The soldiers, however, kept perfect discipline and returned the fire with 
great effect. After a desperate struggle, in which there were many single- 
handed combats, the surviving warriors made a headlong rush for their 
tepees and thence into the adjoining village. Here death was dealt out 
to them by the men of A and I troops, dismounted and disposed on that 
side. The retreating Indians were pursued by the troops of the second 
battalion who with their Hotehkiss guns poured destruction among them. 
Many of the shots directed at the warriors found victims among the women 
and children; everything was done to prevent injury to these people, 
but in tin 1 excitement it was unavoidable. Also the troops themselves 
were so placed that the soldiers at the beginning of the attack having 
formed a parallelogram about the Indians, and in the confusion that 
followed the first volley many of the troopers fell from the fire of their 

The result of this battle was disastrous to both sides. Of the Indians, 
including Big Foot himself, eighty-nine are known to have been killed and 
ten to have been badly wounded; and of the remaining twenty-one, fourteen 
were killed, six wounded, only one escaping unhurt. As for the women, 
sixty or seventy were killed and an equal number wounded, among them 
a sister of Sitting Bull. Considering the numbers engaged, the loss was 
appalling, making this engagement one of the most disastrous of any 
Indian battle since the Custer fight on the Little Big Horn. This tragedy, 
occurring but a short distance from the hostile camp in the Bad Lands, 
greatly excited the Indians there encamped, and it was feared that nothing 
could prevent a serious and devastating war. 

The Seventh Cavalry arrived at Pine Ridge late in the night of that 
dreadful and bloody day, carrying their wounded. They found the people 
at the Agency in a state of terror, for only a few troopers had been left there, 
and the Indians threatened to attack the Agency from the surrounding 
hills, which they occupied with a strong force. 

At this juncture of affairs General Miles arrived at the Pine Ridge 
Agency and at once undertook energetic measures to stamp out the re- 
bellion, assembling a force of nearly three thousand troops, which slowly 
drew a ring of iron about the hostile camp. The Indians were prevented 
from scattering into small bands, and eventually the troops occupied posi- 
tions between the Indians and their stronghold in the Bad Lands. The 
steady advance in force of the troops overawed the Indians, and, although 





I I 


THE SIOUX WAR OF 1890-1891. 501 

the fierce Brules were still in a hostile mood, the main body of the Indians 
drew nearer and nearer to the Agency, until finally some of the chiefs of 
the Ogallalas came in for a conference with General Miles. Young-Man- 
Afraid-of-His-Horses, one of the most powerful of the Sioux chiefs, and 
friendly to the whites, influenced the Ogallalas to desert the hostile camp, 
with the result that this band was shortly encamped with their friends 
of the same tribe who were on the south side of the Agency. The Brules 
still maintained their defiance, moving, however, still closer to the Agency. 
The troops meanwhile continued their show of force without making any 
actual attack, intending merely to overawe this fierce band. General 
Miles had sent word among them, assuring them of a strict compliance 
with the terms of their treaty and that their grievances would be redressed 
if they would quietly surrender. 

The efforts of General Miles finally met with success, and the large 
camp of hostiles returned to the Agency and promised to keep the peace 
for the future, realizing that they could no longer contend against the 
organized military power of the United States. At Wounded Knee they 
had learned that treachery was swiftly punished and that the repre- 
sentatives of the governmental authority must be obeyed. At this time 
there w r ere about ten thousand Indians camped about and around Pine 
Ridge. A demand was made for the Brules to surrender their arms, but 
only a few of them volunteered to give up their weapons, and considering 
the large number of Indians and the possible outcome if they resisted, it 
was considered best not to enforce this order. 

The Indians were soon sent back to their different agencies. The Brules 
returned to their own reservation at Rosebud. As a guarantee of their 
future good behavior and to prevent the possibility of any further conspir- 
acies, thirty of the leaders responsible for the uprising were gathered 
together and sent to Fort Sheridan, near Chicago, and included in this body 
were Kicking Bear and Short Bull, the two men who had the year before 
crossed the mountains to meet the Messiah in Nevada. Some time later 
it was thought desirable to remove others of the malcontents among the 
Brules, so a number of the most dangerous members of the tribe were 
turned over to Colonel Cody, who employed them in exhibitions in his 
Wild West show. 

Before their return to their several military posts, General Miles 
held a grand review of all the troops that had been engaged in this 
campaign. Occurring in midwinter and in view of the thousands of 
Indians who were present, it was a most impressive sight and a great 
object - lesson to the Indians. A period of twenty - eight years has 
passed since that time, during which no hostilities have occurred be- 
tween the Government forces and th:> Indians. In concluding this 


account of the last Indian war let us give from a contemporary source 
a description of this "final review": 

"There were many stirring and grandly picturesque scenes at Pine 
Ridge during the closing days of the late campaign against the ghost-dancing 
Sioux, but the one of most absorbing interest was the final review by General 
Miles of the thirty-five' hundred soldiers, who had marched through 
sand-storms and blizzards in order to complete the cordon of bayonets 
that was to slowly drive the savages to unconditional surrender. The 
night before the review, haranguers, with little medicine-bags tied about 
th?ir strange garments, went through the villages of the hostile and sullen 
Brules and the peaceable Ogallalas, telling their people of the military 
demonstration which was to take place in the morning. 

"When the sun came up the ridges skirting the Agency to the east 
and west were fringed with Indians, who looked like Arab sheiks in their 
white sheets and hooded heads. Not a squaw was to be seen among all 
those ghostly figures, so distinctly outlined against the horizon. Statuesque 
and haughty, the warriors stood watching the flying columns of cavalrymen 
and the explosive efforts of the cannoneers as they urged their animals 
into line. Down in the same valley, where the troops were hurriedly pre- 
paring for their manoeuvres, but nearly a mile away to the north, were the 
great Indian villages, with the squaws corralling their thousands of ponies, 
as a precautionary measure against any possible hostile demonstration on 
the part of the army. 

"General Miles was not in uniform as he sat astride a big coal-black 
horse, which stood on the crest of a knoll on the right flank of the advancing 
column of soldiers. Even his three-starred epaulets, the only evidences of 
his rank, were beneath a great overcoat which was buttoned almost to 
his ears. Just as the column, with screaming trumpets, began to pass 
General Miles, a furious sand-storm swept through the valley. It cloaked 
the silent Indian villages in a yellow, swirling shroud, and then tearing 
along as though blown from a funnel, pierced the most compact lines of 
infantrymen, who were marching with a swinging stride behind Colonel 
Shatter. From their perches on the summits of the snow-flecked buttes, 
the hooded warriors must have thought that the long line of men and 
horses below had stampeded, for that terrible torrent of sand completely 
cloaked the army to the vision of those who were above the phenomenal 
current of air. 

"There was no cheering during all the time the great column passed in 
review. Now and then General Miles's black hat went off to the flash of a 
saluting sabre held by a muffled figure that was crouching before the chok- 
ing blast, but it was not until the Sixth Cavalry, with grim old General 
Carr at its head, passed in review that the idol of the Indian-fighters showed 


the keen interest he was taking in the demonstration. Again and again 
his black sombrero fell as Carr's sword gleamed from his fur cap to his spurs. 
And when the black, scowling faces of the Ninth Cavalry pressed in close 
lines behind glittering carbines held at a salute, General Miles waved his 
gloved hand to Colonel Henry, whose gaunt figure was almost lost in the 
folds of his buffalo overcoat. Three weeks before, these black troopers 
rode one hundred miles without food or sleep to save the Seventh Cavalry- 
men, who were slowly being crushed by the Sioux in the valley at the Catholic 
Mission. Then they dashed through the flanks of the savages, and, after 
sweeping the ridges with carbine and pistol, lifted the white troopers out 
of the pocket with such grace that, after the battle was over, the men of 
both regiments hugged one another on the field. 

"When the trumpeters of the Seventh Cavalry got in front of General 
Miles they blew a shrill blast and passed on into the blinding storm. Then 
the musicians from Angel Island played 'Garryowen.' This was Custer's 
charging music, and as the famous regiment came over the yellow knolls 
in company front and carbines at a salute, the horses began to dance to 
the irresistible melody. Major Whitside was in command. He had no 
sword, but he waved his hand. General Miles's emotion was now so intense 
that he hung his hat on the pommel of his saddle and let the storm toss his 
gray hair as far as it pleased. The capes of the troopers were flung back, 
exposing the lemon-colored linings, and the fur caps were tied in such a 
way under the chin that they gave the wind-tanned faces a peculiarly grim 
expression. The scars of three days' fighting were plainly visible in this 
grand regiment. 

' There were men missing in every troop, and poor Captain Wallace and 
brave Lieutenants Mann and Garlington were also gone. A second lieu- 
tenant, with a bandaged head, was the only officer of little K Troop; 
and bringing up the rear was B Troop, with one-third of its men either in 
graves or on hospital-cots. 

"The column was almost pathetically grand, with its bullet-pierced 
gun-carriages, its tattered guidons, and its long lines of troopers and foot- 
soldiers facing a storm that was almost unbearable. It was the grandest 
demonstration by the army ever seen in the West; and when the soldiers 
had gone to their tents the sullen and suspicious Brules were still standing 
like statues on the crests of the hills."* 

* Harper's Weekly, February 7, 1891. 



THE surrender of the frenzied ghost-dancing Sioux on that winter 
day in January, 1891, brought to a close for all time the Indian wais 
in our country. Since the disbanding of that formidable, magnificent force 
which received their unconditional submission it has not again been nec- 
essary to carry on hostilities against the Indian tribes. Nearly three decades 
have passed since that time without the firing of a hostile shot between the 
Government forces and the Indians, so that we are justified in calling the 
Sioux outbreak of 1890-91 the last Indian war. Most of the fierce warriors of 
that day have now passed on to the land of the Great Spirit, their latter days 
having been passed in peaceful pursuits on their reservations. Their sons 
and daughters, like their white brothers and sisters, are brought up in 
the environment of peace, passing their early, formative years in the reser- 
vation schools instead of the hostile camp, and taught to appreciate the 
benefits of a life of civilization. 

Our country, however, is still burdened with the unsolved Indian 
problem, although to-day it is in a better way of being solved than ever 
before. The expensive and complicated machinery for the management of 
Indian affairs has in the past been much in the way of the elevation of 
the Indians in the scale of civilization. Due to the lack of permanency in 
the policy of the administration of Indian affairs, the solution of the Indian 
problem has been greatly retarded. The Indians were filled with a feeling 
of distrust in the white race, and it was difficult in the past to get the 
tribes to accept the protection and fostering care of the Government. 
After the completion of the great railway systems to the Pacific a great 
pressure of population set in westward, until, about 1885, it became the 
problem of the Government to adopt some method which would prevent 
the Indians living in the Indian Territory from being pushed back into the 
wilderness. The Indian Territory had once been remote from civilization, 
but now the country to the west was being rapidly filled up with whites, 
and the Indians had to make a final stand for existence. To continue the 
Government system of rations meant for the Indians a life of dependence 
and little or no progress in solving their problem. 

In 1887, therefore, by the enactment of the Daw r es bill, a new solution 










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was proposed, to be effected by breaking up the tribal relation and sub- 
stituting in its stead individual ownership of land. Lands were to be 
allotted to the Indians in severalty; each head of a family was to receive 
a quarter-section and smaller allotments were to be provided for others. 
The allotted Indians were also to be protected against land-sharks by a 
provision which prohibited the Indians from conveying their land for a 
period of twenty-five years. To the Indians receiving allotments was also 
to be given the rights of citizenship. It was hoped that this policy would 
soon solve the Indian problem by gradually merging the race into the body 
politic of the nation.* 

Allotment of land in severalty, with patents conferring fee-simple 
title and inalienable for a certain period, had been proposed as a policy as 
far back as 1815. In later years homestead rights also were opened to 
Indians in several of the Western States in Michigan in 1875 and in other 
States later, but very few Indians availed themselves of these opportunities 
to secure farms. The tribal ties and the easy reservation life still kept too 
strong a hold upon them. But the Government continued to persist in 
its policy to induce the Indians to accept land in severalty, expecting that 
by becoming an owner of his own farm the Indian would gradually over- 
come his natural antipathy to systematic labor and become a self-sup- 
porting and independent citizen. The Indian's natural reluctance against 
breaking away from his tribal relation has, however, been gradually over- 
come in recent years, due to the more liberal policy adopted by the Govern- 
ment, and the various tribes are now accepting these conditions in larger 
numbers each year, engaging in settled pursuits and becoming citizens. 
For example, in 1907, the Five Civilized Tribes in Oklahoma, who now 
number 101,506 enrolled members, accepted their lands in severalty and 
were merged into the body politic of their State.** 

Great progress, especially at the present time, is being made in the 
education of the Indian, upon the success of which, probably more than 
all other things combined, depends the solution of the Indian problem. 
About 1873 the educational idea was inaugurated by Congress, with an 
appropriation of twenty thousand dollars, and the sums appropriated for 
this purpose have grown annually until, in 1917, they passed the five- 
million-dollar mark. "The schools provided for in this manner were located 
for the most part on the different Indian reservations, but in 1878 seventeen 
Indians, who were prisoners in Florida, were sent as an experiment to a 
normal and industrial school for negroes which had been opened a decade 
before in the abandoned war barracks at Hampton, Virginia. The hope that 
the young Indians, when removed from the enervating influence of thereser- 

* Dcwey, National Problems, (Am. Nation, XXIV), chap. i. 

** Sparks, National Development, (Am. Xatxm, XXIIIj, chap. xvi. 


vat ion. would progress more rapidly in the arts of civilization were well 
founded. Consequently, Captain R. H. Pratt was authorized to bring 
fifty more Indians from Dakota, and in 1879 an abandoned army post at 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, was made into the United States Training and 
Industrial School for Indians."* Located off the reservation, in an environ- 
ment of civilization, where the students came in contact with the civiliza- 
tion of the whites and were influenced by their habits and customs, this 
experiment met with great success, and Carlisle now offers to Indian youths 
advantages unexcelled by any school in the land. That many Indian boys 
have taken advantage of the well-balanced industrial education to be 
obtained there is evident from the fact that over eight hundred studentswere 
in attendance in 1917. The graduates of this institution represent upwards 
of seventy different tribes. Unfortunately, in 1918, on account of the 
tremendous cost of carrying on the Great War, the Government found 
it necessary to close this school, transferring the students to the Haskell 
Industrial School in Kansas and other Western schools. It is expected 
that the closing of Carlisle is only temporary, and that when the war is 
over its doors will be opened again and the work which has accomplished 
so much in reclaiming the Indian boys and girls and fitting them to take 
their places in civilized society will be resumed. 

The system of Indian education thus established has growni and de- 
veloped until to-day there are approximately thirty-four non-reservation 
boarding-schools, similar to the white college; seventy-three reservation 
boarding-schools, similar to the white high school; and about two hundred 
and fifty day schools. In 1917 there were enrolled in schools a total of 
34,595 pupils. Provisions have also been made for the enrolment of In- 
dian children in the public schools of the Western States, and at the present 
time there are upwards of thirty thousand Indian children attending public 
schools. No serious objection to their attendance has been offered by the 
white patrons, and as time goes on the number of Indians in the public 
schools will rapidly increase, which fact will greatly help in the solution 
of the Indian problem. 

In 1917 a uniform course of study was introduced in these schools the 
aim of which is "to fit thoroughly the student to become an efficient wage- 
earner and citizen qualified to make his way successfully and with credit 
to himself and his race." This course of study will give the Indians the best 
vocational training offered by any school system in the United States and 
will develop "a body of young men and women who will become the leaders 
and transformers of their people as the generations come and go." To all 
students upon reaching the age of twenty-one years, who have completed 

* Sparks, National Do-ilo/nurnl (Am. Nation, XXIII). chap. xvi. 


the full course of instruction and given evidence that they possess the 
qualities of character and scholarship that fit them for responsibility and 
competition, there is given a certificate of competency or a patent in fee, 
as an attestation of the faith of the United States in their ability and de- 
termination to prove worthy of this recognition which declares them to be 
capable of managing their own affairs.*. 

In connection with this development of policy, Mr. Cato Sells, the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in April, 1917, announced a new declara- 
tion of policy which grants every Indian whose competency has been 
determined the right to transact his own business and the full control of 
his property and all his lands and money, with the intent of thereafter 
freeing him from all departmental restraints; in other words, he is to be 
no longer a ward of the Government. In carrying out this policy patents in 
fee are to be issued only to adult Indians of less than one-half Indian blood, 
but Indians of one-half or more Indian blood may also have patents in fee 
issued to them when, after careful examination, they are found to be com- 
petent. The adoption of this policy means that the Government feels the 
time has come to discontinue guardianship of all competent Indians, while 
even closer attention is to be given to the incompetent class, to the end 
that they may more speedily achieve competency. As Commissioner Sells 
says: "This means the dawn of a new era in Indian administration. It 
means that the competent Indian will no longer be treated as half ward 
and half citizen. It means reduced appropriations by the Government 
and more self-respect and independence for the Indian. It means the ulti- 
mate absorption of the Indian race into the body politic of the nation. It 
means, in short, the beginning of the end of the Indian problem." 

The Indian has not failed to profit by the opportunities offered him, 
and in recent years has made remarkable progress in material advancement, 
being ambitious to cast off the ties of paternalism by which he has been 
bound for so many years. Nor can it be any longer said that he is a van- 
ishing race, since the number of Indians has increased from 300,930 in 
1913 to 335,998 in 1917. As an example of their great advancement in 
material wealth the Indians in 1911 cultivated 388,025 acres, while in 
1916 they had 678,529 acres under cultivation. In 1911 their crops were 
valued at SI, 951,000 and increased in 1917 to the value of $5,293,719. 
The value of all live stock owned by Indians has risen from $17,971,209 
in 1911 to $28,824,439 in 1916. From reports received in 1918 every reser- 
vation shows a large increase in the number of acres of land under culti- 
vation, some showing an increase of one hundred per cent. The acreage 
of Indian land cultivated this season (1918) is from twenty-five to fifty 

* For this and other statements on the condition of the Indians given in this chapter 
see report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1917. 


per cent, greater than ever before, so that the Indian is proving a sub- 
stantial factor in increasing the country's food-supply during these press- 
ing war-times. They are rapidly achieving self-support and becoming 
independent. They are displaying evidence indicative of their ability and 
capacity for the responsibilities of modern civilization; they are no longer 
a liability, but rather an asset to the nation. As stock-raisers the Indians 
have reached the highest success and have shown that they are fully equal 
to their white neighbors in this respect. They not only can raise cattle, 
but also know how 7 to obtain the best market price for their product. 

The Indians are rapidly becoming business men and the possessors of 
great wealth. They put money in the bank for themselves as well as having 
the Government put it in for them. The value of the Indians' individual 
property rose from a total of $380,934,110 in 1911 to $432,225,913 in 1917; 
and of this sum there was a total in 1917 of over $21,000,000 in the banks 
belonging to individual Indians. 

That the Indian is appreciative of what is being done to advance his 
material, social, and mental welfare is shown in his attitude towards the 
World War in the loyal response that these original, unhyphenated Americans 
are making to serve the Government that is trying to do so much for them. 
After years of shabby treatment they realize that they are at last receiving 
a square deal under the present administration. They now feel that this 
country is their own; they appreciate the fact that they are at last entering 
upon the possession of their birthright; of being allowed to work out their 
own destiny and occupy their own place in the country's political and 
economic life. The measures that are now being taken to make their 
isolation unnecessary and to merge them in the body politic of the nation 
is already bearing rich fruit. The Indian, especially the younger generation, 
largely the product of our Indian schools, has been quick to catch the 
spirit of the new era which is enabling him to participate in the democracy 
of his land and to exercise equally with the white man the privileges of 
citizenship. It has been brought home to him in the present hour of national 
peril that the Indian and the white man alike must take up the cross and 
bear it patiently together until the fight "to make the world safe for de- 
mocracy" has been won. 

The American Indian is now showing his loyalty and patriotism on 
the battle-fields of France, where he is fighting shoulder to shoulder with 
his white brother "as the equal and comrade of every man who assails 
autocracy and ancient might," commanded in many instances by white 
officers who took part in many campaigns against the warlike Apaches and 
Sioux in the days that are now past and gone forever. 

As a conclusion to our subject let us reproduce the answer of Com- 
missioner Sells to an inquirer, in which are given facts and figures regarding 


the activities of the Indians in connection with the World War and which 
are most enlightening as a demonstration of the loyalty and willing service 
of the red man: 



WASHINGTON, February 19, 1918. 


927 Madison Avenue, New York City. 


I am pleased to acknowledge the receipt of your recent letter requesting 
information relative to the present war service of the Indians, their purchase 
of Liberty Bonds, and their interest in Red Cross and other war-relief 
activities, and am glad to give you such data as can be furnished at this 
time with approximate definiteness. 

The official records of all matters connected with our part in the prose- 
cution of the war are, of course, properly archives of departments having 
charge of military and naval affairs. However, I have gathered considerable 
general information and am now preparing a record of the Indians' active 
part in the war, which I expect will be dependable when completed, but 
can now give you only close estimates. 

The Indians took an early interest in our war preparation as to the men, 
money, and production required. Their subscriptions to the first issue 
of Liberty Bonds amounted to $4,607,850. Subscriptions to the second 
issue totaled $4,392,750. The total of subscriptions thus far actually re- 
ported is $9,000,600, almost evenly divided between adults and minors, 
$4,919,550 standing to the credit of the former and $4, 081, 050 to the latter. 
There is good reason to believe, however, that many subscriptions were made 
through' banking channels in localities where Indians quite generally have 
acquired citizenship, report of which did not reach this bureau, and such 
additions with known applications too late for acceptance would almost 
certainly raise the grand total to more than $10,000,000, or a per capita 
subscription of $30 or $40 for all Indians in the United States.* 

Upon any fair basis of comparison such an expression of patriotic al- 
legiance for every man, woman, and child of the Indian race must be as 
surprising as it is gratifying. In all these transactions I have been almost 
amazed by the wonderful and spontaneous fidelity of the Indian to the 

* Since this was written the result of the third Liberty Bond issue shows that the 
amount purchased by the Indians exceeds $13,000,000, or more than $50 per capitn. 


highest welfare of the Nation, as well as his ready appreciation of a 
desirable investment. The promise of thrift and the saving habit as a co- 
ordinate feature of his response to our present colossal needs is a most en- 
couraging evidence of growth toward the principle of self-support, so essen- 
(ial to his stability and progress as a citizen. I have had occasion to say 
that man has no stronger clement, when properly developed, than the dis- 
position to acquire property, own a home, and be a substantial factor in 
society, and I hail this growing manifestation in Indian life as a sure basis 
for the strong and trustworthy citizenship to which our efforts are directed. 

Our emergency campaign to develop more extensive and intensive farm- 
ing has resulted in a tremendous increase in the production of meat and 
agricultural products on Indian reservations. As producers of food In- 
dians have demonstrated their sympathetic spirit with the war movement 
in a manner altogether harmonious with their attitude and action in the 
purchase of bonds and their enlistment as soldiers. 

Official information is not assembled respecting the number of women 
engaged as nurses or the Indians' participation in Red Cross work. A 
complete vocational course of four years in nursing is of comparative recent 
introduction in our larger Indian schools, so that only limited relief service 
from this source is practicable. However, quite a number have applied 
and been accepted, among them six young ladies from one of the large 
schools who have had excellent training and have been assigned to hospital 
work in this country and abroad. 

Red Cross activities have been carried forward usually in co-operation 
with local and State organizations. The Indian Bureau, having approved 
this plan, has not instituted official connection therewith further than to 
urge and encourage membership and assistance on the part of Indians on 
the reservations and at the schools. As you are no doubt aware, there are 
in the Indian service some 25 non-reservation schools enrolling more than 
10,000 pupils, 10 tribal and 73 reservation boarding-schools, with more than 
12,000 pupils, besides 210 day schools and 77 mission and other schools 
furnishing over 12,000 additional pupils. In all, some 20,000 Indian pupils, 
most of whom are adding their mite and doing their bit in this great humane 
movement. There are about 30 school publications, with most of the 
mechanical and considerable of the literary work done by Indian students. 
These periodicals, all of them creditable and some of them showing highly 
artistic work and excellent editing, now usually carry Red Cross depart- 
ments that disclose a systematic and active interest among the schools 
carefully directed by equally interested employees. 

As a typical instance, one of our far-Western schools recently reported 
having placed a Christmas Red Cross banner in every Indian home on the 
reservation, and stated that the larger girls of the school and the lady em- 


ployees were devoting Saturday afternoons to Red Cross work in the sewing- 
room, while for the same period the larger boys under male employees 
gathered the finer grade of sphagnum moss in the marshes and bogs for 
use in making surgical pads, bed pads, and ambulance pillows, this branch 
of the work being done in co-operation with the State university and the 
Junior Red Cross of a near-by high school. I doubt if there is anywhere 
in our great country a more responsive and tender desire, when properly 
awakened, than is found among the Indians, both children and adults, to 
lend a helping hand in alleviating present world-wide suffering. The un- 
spoiled Indian heart is beautifully sensitive to all the finer humanities of 
the most advanced enlightenment. 

The record in course of preparation upon the number, location, etc., of 
Indians in the military service enables me to quite safely estimate the whole 
number at 5,000. At present 2,200 of them are reported and properly in- 
dexed. Of this number, 1,800 are in the army, 300 in the navy, and 100 
in other military work; 1,600 entered by enlistment and 600 by conscrip- 
tion. The number and rank of officers cannot yet be stated. I am receiv- 
ing assurance of aid and co-operation from various social organizations 
which will cover different phases of Indian welfare in camp and battle- 
field life and will contribute helpfully to an understanding of actual con- 
ditions and such needs as may require attention. 

It is my purpose to complete this work as rapidly as possible so as to 
keep in personal and even intimate touch with our Indian soldiers, by far 
the larger number of whom are volunteers who have willingly accepted 
the strictest discipline and severest possible danger and all of whom are 
bearing themselves with credit and courage. I expect to be proud of their 
part in this war. They have placed themselves in a concrete and vital 
relation to the Government under whose protection they live and in the 
administration of which they arc destined to participate, and have entered 
a school of rugged experience that cannot fail to fit them more thoroughly 
for the service and competition of civil life. The day is not beyond my 
vision when something from the brain and soul of him whose ancestors 
dwelt in this land before the white man dreamed of its existence shall 
find expression in the order and liberty and power of our national greatness. 
It seems t-9 me especially fortunate and right that the Indian's military 
status should be on a level with the white man's. To repeat from one of 
my published statements: 

I am strongly opposed to independent Indian units, large or small, and am 
firm in the opinion that they should enter the army upon the same basis as other 
citizens; that they should be mixed indiscriminately among the whites, elbow to 
elbow, so they may absorb the English language, habits, and civilization of their 
white brothers. In this way only can they advance. I want no discrimination 


either for or against them, but believe they should be promoted on their merits 
and always advanced when they are deserving. 

Our Indian military enrolments being largely from the student class, 
have had military drills and movements, besides systematic athletics, in 
connection with their school work, and from the resulting discipline of 
such exercises they arc in a measure prepared for the more rigid tests of 
the training-camp and, as a rule, are in fine physique and good health. 

There is something both epochal and eloquent in the patriotic fervor 
and martial spirit of the Indians everywhere during the recent months that 
has brought a clarion call to every loyal heart. Before me, as the frontis- 
piece of one of our leading school magazines, is a brilliant service flag of 
that school with 150 stars, all but 15 of which represent volunteer enlist- 
ments. Another school reports 175 stars in its flag. Many pages of our 
school papers are filled each issue with short letters from Indian boys in 
camp who in their unpretentious language sound a note of steadfast courage 
and cheerful optimism. History in the making shines from many quarters. 
Families of old warriors of hostile leadership against the Government vie 
with others in the purchase of Liberty Bonds. Grizzly chieftains wearing 
the scars of battle with the whites are preaching patriotism to their tribal 
descendants in native oratory as ardent as Patrick Henry's, while the sons 
and grandsons of Chiefs Joseph, John Gall, John Grass, and their followers 
throng the enlistment office. 

I have not the least misgivings about the Indian's part in this war. He 
will step to the drum-beat of democracy, and, whether on the reservation, 
in the training-camp, or "over there," he will gather knowledge and under- 
standing of the great principles he helps to defend and come out of the con- 
flict an element of real and progressive strength in our national life. 

Sincerely yours, 

[Signed] CATO SELLS, 



ABENAKIS, 66, 68; destroy settlement at 
Oyster River, 189; again make war on t lie 
English, 194, 199, 203-206. 

Abraham, negro leader in Florida, 411. 

Adario, Huron chief, duplicity of, 140. 

Alden, Colonel Ichabod, killed at Cherry 
Valley, 304, 305. 

Algonkins, 17; wars with the Iroquois, 132- 

Aiiquippa, the Indian Queen, and Washing- 
ton, 210. 

Alligator, Seminole chief, 410; at Okecho- 
bee, 414. 

Ainadas and Barlow, voyage of, 84. 

Apache Indians, wars (1879-1886), 485-493; 
description of and method of warfare, 
485, 486; Crook's campaigns against, 487, 
489, 490; Miles's campaigns against, 491- 

Apache warrior, 435. 

Arapahoes attack Custer. 440. 

Argall, Captain Samuel, kidnaps Pocahon- 
tas, 100. 

Armstrong, Colonel John, destroys Kittan- 
ning, 221, 222. 

Arnold, General Benedict, raises siege of 
Fort Stanwix, 298. 

Arpeika (Sam Jones), chief of the Micasau- 
kies, 411, 414, 424. 

Arrow-dance of Pueblo Indians, 31-35. 

Assacambuit, Abenaki chief, 199. 

Athabascas. 17. 

Atkinson, General Henry, in Black Hawk's 
war, 400-402. 

BACKWOODSMEN of Kentucky, 315, 316. 

Bad Axe, battle of, 402. 

Bad Lands, the, Hostile Indian camp in, 

Baggattaway, game of, at Michilimackinac, 

276, 277. 

Bailey, Captain Dixon, at Fort Mims, 386. 
Battle of Arickaree Ford, 443, 444; Bad Axe, 

402; Bear Paw Mountain, 467; Big Wahoo 

Swamp, 407; Birch Coolie, 428; Bloody 
Brook, 152; Bloody Run, 272; Blue Licks, 
329; Bushy Run, 283; Clearwater, 466; 
Etchowee, 174, 175; Fallen Timbers, 349; 
Fort Anne (near), 252; Fort Meigs (near), 
371: Fort Mystic, 119, 120; Fort Narra- 
ganset, 153, 154; Frenchtown (River Rai- 
sin), 369, 370; Half-way Brook, 309; Lake 
Champlain, 134; Lake George, 218, 219; 
Little Big Horn, 450-454; Lovewell's 
Pond, 202; Maguaga, 362; Maumee Ford, 
343; Mauvilla, 60; Miami, the, 338-345; 
Monongahela, the, 213, 214 (Braddock's 
defeat); Newtown, 310-312; Okechobee, 
414; Oriskany, 296-298; Pawtucket, 150; 
Point Pleasant, 290; Rosebud, the, 44'. 1 ; 
Savannah (near), 313; Stamford, 75; Sud- 
bury, 157; Sycamore Creek, 401; Talla- 
dega, 389; Thames, the, 375-378; Ticon- 
deroga (near), 246-249; Tippecanoe, 358- 
360; Tiverton, 150; Tohopeka (the Horse- 
shoe), 394, 395; Turner's Falls (the Fall 
Fight), 157; White Bird Canon, 466; 
White Stone Hill, 429, 430; Withlacoo- 
chee, 408; Wood Lake, 428; of Wounded 
Knee, 408-501. 

Bear Paw Mountain, battle of, 467. 

Beasley, Major, commander of Fort Minis, 
385, 386. 

Beaujeu, Captain de, at Braddock's defeat . 

Beers, Captain, surprised and slain, 152. 

Bellows, Colonel Benjamin, stratagem of, 

Benham, Captain, singular adventure of, 
325, 326. 

Bianswah, a Chippcwa chief, dies in his son's 
place, 30. 

Bickford, Thomas, successful ruse of, 190. 

Bienville, M. de, attacks the Natchez tribe, 
165; defeated by the Chickasaws, 169, 170. 

Big Foot, and his band go on warpath, 496; 
his capture, 498; killed at Battle of 
Wounded Knee, 500. 



Billy Bowlegs, Seminole chief, 421, 424. 

Birch Coolie, battle at, 428. 

Black Hawk's war, 398-404; speech at 

Prairie du Chien, 403. 
Black Hoof, Shawnee chief, joins Harrison, 

Black Kettle, Cheyenne chief, 440; massacre 

of his band, 440, 443; vindication of, 443. 
Black Partridge rescues Mrs. Helm, 367. 
Bloody Run, battle of, 283. 
Blue Jacket, Seneca chief, 348, 349. 
Blue Licks, battle of, 329. 
Boone, Daniel, 316-324; at the Blue Licks, 


Boonesborough attacked, 321, 322. 
Boston Charley, Modoc chief, executed, 463. 
Bouquet, Colonel Henry, expedition of, 283- 


Brackett, Anne, escape of, 162. 
Braddock, General Edward, defeat of, 212- 


Bradford, Governor William, 112. 
Bradstreet, Colonel John, expedition of, 

against Northern Indians, 284. 
Brant, Joseph, at Fort Stanwix, 294; at 

Cherry Valley, 304; defeats Colonel Ha- 

thorne, 309, 310; defeated by General 

Sullivan, 310-312; forms confederacy of 

Northwest tribes, 338. 
Brock, General Isaac, captures Detroit, 360- 

Brocklebank, Captain, defeated and slain, 

Brook, General, his arrival with troops at 

Pine Ridge Agency, 496; despatches 

troops to Wounded Knee, 499. 
Brookfield destroyed, 152. 
Brown's, Colonel Joseph R., fight at Birch 

Coolie, 428. 

Bryant's Station attacked, 327. 
Bull Head, Lieut., commands Indian police 

at arrest of Sitting Bull, 497; his death, 


Bullitt, Captain, gallant conduct of, 226. 
Burgoyne, John, General, employs In- 
dians, 293. 

Burnt Corn, action at, 384. 
Bushy Run, battle of, 283, 284. 
Butler, Colonel John, Tory commander, at 

Wyoming, 302; at Newtown, 310. 
Butler, General Richard, killed at St. Glair's 

defeat, 345. 
Butler, Colonel Walter, at Cherry Valley, 

304, 305. 
Butler, Colonel Zebulon, defends Wyoming, 

302, 303. 

CABOT, Sebastian, carries Indians to Eng- 
land, 47. 

California Indians, 77, 78. 

Canada Indians described by Cartier, 51-55. 

Canassatcgo, an Iroquois chief, 18, 127. 

( !anby, General E. R. S., 455; killed by the 
Modocs, 463. 

Cannon, Captain, bravery of, at Cherry Val- 
ley, 305. 

Canoe fight, 390-394. 

Canonchct, 154; execution of, 159. 

Canonicus challenges the English, 112, 116, 

Captain Jack, Modoc chief, 455-463. 

Captain Jacobs, Delaware chief, killed at 
Kittanning, 222. 

Captives released by Colonel Bouquet, 284- 

Captivity of Colonel James Smith, 228-235; 
Mrs. Rowlandson, 155, 156; Rev. John 
Williams, 94, 95; Daniel Boone, 317, 320, 

Capture of Bateaux near Detroit, 271; of 
girls at Boonesborough, 319; of Johnson 
boys, 336; of Mrs. Helm, 366. 

Carson, "Kit," exploit of, 467-470. 

Cartier, Jacques, visits Canada, 51-55. 

Cass, Colonel Lewis, at surrender of De- 
troit, 362. 

Caughnawagas, 195. 

Cavendish, Captain Thomas, 85. 

Champlain, Samuel de, founds Quebec, 65; 
pacifies the Hurons, 66; fights the Iro- 
quois, 66, 130-136. 

Cherokees, 164, 170; war of 1760, 173, 174; 
remove; west, 176, 398. 

Cherry Valley, massacre of, 304-305. 

Cheyennes on the war-path, 439. 

Chickasaws bum De Soto's camp, 61; terri- 
tory of, 164; tradition of, 168; defeat 
Bienville, 169, 170; customs, 177. 

Chlucco, the Long Warrior, a Scminole 
chief, 175. 

Choctaws, territory of, 164; join Bienville 
against the Chickasaws, 169; customs, 
177; make provision for education, etc., 

Chopart, M. de, causes war with the Nat- 
chez, 166. 

Chubb, Captain, surrenders Pemaquid, 

Church's, Captain Benjamin, fight at Tiver- 
ton, 150; at Fort Narraganset, 154; expe- 
dition to the Penobscot, 196. 

Clarke, Colonel George Rogers, captures 
Vincennes, 305-309. 



Clay, General Green, relieves Fort Meigs, 

Clearwater, battle of the, 466. 

Clinch's, General Duncan L., battle of the 
Withlacoochee, 408. 

Clinton, General James, in Sullivan's expe- 
dition, 310, 311. 

Coacoochee (Wild-cat), Seminole chief, 410; 
escape of, 413, 414; interview with Worth, 
416-419; surrenders his band, 419. 

Cocheco attacked, 181. 

Cochise, chief of Apache Indians, 486. 

Coffee, General John, at Tohopeka, 394, 

Golden, Cadwallader, 144. 

Columbus, mistake of, 14; describes the 
natives, 48. 

Comanche Indians described, 432, 433. 

Concentration Policy, cause of most Indian 
wars, 475; opposed by Gen. Crook, 489. 

Connecticut Indians' wars with the Dutch, 
74, 75. 

Contrecoeur, M. de, commands at Fort Du- 
quesne, 213. 

Convers, Captain, successful defence of 
Wells, Maine, 189. 

Cornstalk, Shawnee leader, at Point Pleas- 
ant, 292. 

Coronado searches for the "Seven Cities," 

Cortereal, Gaspar, kidnaps the natives, 49. 

Courcelle, M. de, attacks the Iroquois, 138. 

Crawford, Captain of the Tenth Cavalry, 
killed in battle, 491. 

Creek nation, war with, 379-397; customs 
of, 379-381. 

Crook, General George, fight with the 
Sioux, 446-449 ; his campaigns against the 
Apaches, 487, 489, 490; resigns his. com- 
mand, 491. 

Custer, General George A., destroys Black 
Kettle's village, 439, 440; defeat and death 
at the Little Big Horn, 450-454. 

DADE, Major F. L., defeated and killed by 

the Seminoles, 407. 
Dakotas or Sioux, 17. See Sioux. 
Dale's, Captain Sam, canoe fight, 390-393. 
Dalzell's defeat, 272, 273. 
D'Artagnette defeated by the Chickasaws, 

169, 170. 

Daulac, heroism of, 137. 
Daviess, Major, killed at Tippecanoe, 359. 
Davis, Samuel, Indian spy, escape of, 351, 

Dawes Bill, enactment of, 505, 

D'Ayllon, Lucas Vasquez de, expedition of, 

Debeline, General, attacks Number Four, 


Decanisora offers peace to the French, 143. 
Deerfield destroyed, 194. 
Delaware Indians, 78-83; subjugated by the 

Iroquois, 127. 
De Mantet and La Noue destroy Mohawk 

villages, 142. 
De Mantet and St. Helene destroy Schenec- 

tady, 182, 183. 
De Monts explores the New England coast , 


Denison, Colonel, at Wyoming, 303. 
Denison, Colonel George, captures Canon- 

chet, 159. 

Denonville attacks the Iroquois, 139, 140. 
Des Chaillons destroys Haverhill, 196. 
De Tracy attacks the Iroquois, 138, 139. 
Detroit attacked by Pontiac, 267-274; sur- 
rendered by Hull, 361-364. 
De Vaudreuil repulsed from Fort William 

Henry, 245. 
Dieskau, Baron, defeated at Lake George, 


Dighton Rock inscriptions, 27, 28. 
Dodge, General Henry, defeats Black Hawk, 


Dog soldiers, 445. 
Drake, Sir Francis, in California, 76, 78; in 

Virginia, 87. 
Dudley, Colonel, defeated near Fort Meigs, 

Dundy, Judge, decision on personal stains 

of Indians, 473. 
Du Quesne, Captain, attacks Boone's Fort, 

322, 323. 

Duquesne, Fort, destroyed, 227. 
Durantaye and De Langry, French parti- 
sans, defeat Rogers's Rangers, 249, 250. 
Duston, Hannah, exploit of, 191-193. 

EASTERN Indians attack the English, 160. 
Ecuyer, Captain, defends Fort Pitt, 283. 
Education, Indian, 505-508. 
Eliot, Rev. John, apostle to the Indians, 

Elkswatawa, the Prophet, 355; defeated at 

Tippecanoe, 358-360. 
Endicott's, Governor John, expedition 

against the Pequots, 116. 
Epanow, escape of, 68, 69. 
Etchowce, battle of, 174. 
Etherington, Captain, surrenders Michili- 

mackinac, 376, 377. 


Kustis, William, Secretary of War, blunder 

of, 362. 
Everglades of Florida, 415-420. 

FALL Fight, the, 157. 

Fallen Timbers, battle of the, 348-350. 

Fechet, Major E. G., directs the arrest of 
Sitting Bull, 497. 

Fetterman massacre, 436. 

First encounter with Massachusetts Indians, 

Five Civilized Tribes, 505. 

Florida explored by Ponce de Leon, 56; Nar- 
vaez, 57; De Soto, 57; Florida war, 405- 

Forbes, General John, captures Fort Du- 
quesne, 227. 

Forsyth's fight at the Arickaree Ford, 443, 

Fort Anne, battle near, 252. 

Fort Dade, treaty of, 412. 

Fort Dearborn surrendered, 366. 

Fort Defiance built, 348. 

Fort Duquesne erected, 210; captured, 

Fort Harmar, treaty at, 339. 

Fort Harrison built, 357; defence of, 367- 

Fort Laramie, treaty of, 431. 

Fort Loudoun captured by Cherokees, 175. 

Fort Loyal captured, 186. 

Fort Mackinac surrendered, 362. 

Fort Meigs attacked, 370-372. 

Fort Michilimackinac captured, 275-279. 

Fort Mims, massacre at, 385, 386. 

Fort Mystic destroyed, 119, 120. 

Fort Narraganset destroyed, 153, 154. 

Fort Niagara, Indian and Tory headquar- 
ters, 289. 

Fort Pitt besieged, 283. 

Fort Presque Isle built, 208; captured, 274, 

Fort Prince George attacked by the Chero- 
kees, 173. 

Fort Stamvix defended, 293-298. 

Fort Wayne built, 349. 

Fort William Henry attacked, 245; capt- 
ured, 223-225. 

France, Indian policy of, 207, 208, 263. 

Franklin, Dr., counsels Braddock, 212. 

French and Indian wars, 179-287. 

Frontenac, Count de, attacks the Iroquois, 

141, 142; strikes the English settlements, 

142, 182, 187. 

Frye, Chaplain, killed at LovewelFs fight, 

GAGE, Colonel Thomas, at Braddock's de- 
feat, 213. 

Gaines, General E. P., in Seminole War, 411. 

Gallup's, Captain John, sea-fight with In- 
dians, 116. 

Gansevoort, Colonel Peter, defends Fort 
Stanwix, 294. 

Gardner, Captain Lion, at Saybrook, 117. 

Gates, Captain Horatio, at Braddock's de- 
feat, 212. 

Geronimo, chief, and Natchez Cave San 
Carlos Reservation, 488; makes raids on 
settlements, 490; surrenders to General 
Cronk but escapes, 491; defeated by Cap- 
tain H. W. Lawton and finally surrenders 
to General Miles, 492; his death, 493. 

Ghost dance religion, cause of Sioux rebel- 
lion (1890-91), 494-497. 

Gibbons, Colonel John, attacks the Nez Per- 
ces, 466. 

Girty, Simon, at Bryant's Station, 327; at 
Blue Licks, 328-334; rescues Kenton, 3312. 

Gladwyn, Major Henry, defends Detroit, 

"Gladwyn," the, schooner, heroic defence 
of, 273, 274. 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, 68. 

Gosnold, Captain, lands at Cape Cod, 67. 

Granganameo, a Virginia sachem, 84. 

Grant, Colonel James, subdues the Chero- 
kees, 175, 176. 

Grant, Major, defeated at Fort Duquesne, 

Great Sun, chief of the Natchez tribe, 165. 

Green-corn dance, 379, 381. 

Greenville, Sir Richard, 85. 

Greenville, treaty of, 350. 

Guristersigo defeated by General Wayne, 

HALLECK-TUSTENUGGEE at the battle of 
Okechobee, 414, 423; captured, 424. 

Harmar, General Josiah, defeated, 342, 343. 

Harney, Colonel William S., penetrates the 
Everglades, 415. 

Harrison, General William II., 354, 356; at 
Tippecanoe, 358-360; at Fort Meigs, 370, 
371; victory of the Thames, 375-378. 

llarrod, Colonel James, pioneer of Ken- 
tucky, 315. 

Hathorne, Colonel, defeated by Brant, 309, 

Haverhill destroyed, 196. 

Hazelwood missionaries, escape of, 427. 

Heald, Captain, surrenders Fort Dearborn, 



Heat on, Isaac, bravery of, 387. 

Helm, Mrs., capture of, 366. 

Hendrick, Mohawk sachem, 216; killed at 

Bloody Brook, 218. 

Henry, Alexander, narrative of, 279-282. 
Herkimer, General Nicholas, at Oriskany, 

Hertel de Rouville, burns Salmon Falls, 

186; captures Fort Loyal, 186; destroys 

Deerfield, 194. 
Hobbomuk, Massachusetts sachem, 112- 

Hobbs's, Captain, fight near Number Four, 


Hochelaga (Montreal) described, 55. 
Holartoochee, Seminole chief, 410, 423. 
Hon Yost, stratagem of, 298. 
Hooker, Jim, Modoc chief, executed, 463. 
Hopehood, Kennebec chief, 163. 
Houston, General Samuel, at the battle of 

Tohopeka, 394. 
Howard, General O. O., campaign against 

the Nez Perces, 463-467. 
Hubbel, Captain William, repels attack on 

his boat, 340-342. 
Hudson, Henry, explores New York harbor, 

Hull, General William, surrenders Detroit, 


Hump, Cheyenne chief, surrenders, 448. 
Hunt, Captain Thomas, kidnaps Indians, 48. 
Hurons attack the Iroquois, 136. 

IBERVILLE lands a French colony in Louisi- 
ana, 160, 190. 

Indian confederacy of the Northwest, 338. 

Indian Territory, 14, 18. 

Indian tribes: Abenakis, 160-194; Algon- 
kins, 17, 132-142; Athabascas, 17; Cali- 
fornia, 77, 78; Caughnawagas, 195; Chero- 
kees, 164, 173-176, 398; Cheyennes, 439; 
Chickasaws, 61, 164, 168-170; Choctaws, 
164, 169, 177; Comanches, 432; Connec- 
ticut, 74, 75; Dakotas, 17; Delawares, 
78-83; Massachusetts, 106-125; New 
England, 106-125; New York, 69-76; 
Seminoles, 405; Shawnees, 315; Sho- 
shonis, 17. 

Indians, Adoption, ceremony of, 229, 230; 
anecdotes of, 18, 19, 30, 31, 125; charac- 
teristics, mental and physical, of, 16-18; 
civil polity of, 28; cruelly treated by the 
Spaniards, 62; defrauded by whites, 13, 
14, 71; domestic life of, 228-235; dress 
and food of, 20; dwellings of, 20-23; first 
impressions of the white men, 47; hunt- 

ing and trapping, 232, 233; industries and 
inventions of, 23-26, 30; justice of, 125; 
kidnapped and sold into slavery, 48, 49, 
68; legends and stories of, 41-46; man- 
ners and customs of, 28-40, 66, 77, 94, 
128, 165, 176, 228-235, 379-381, 431-433; 
newspapers of, 25; picture-writing of, 
26-28; religion of, 39, 431; reservations 
of, 18; stocks or families of, 17; strata- 
gems of, 52, 236; trade of, 71, 97, 264; 
weapons of, 36; Nez Perce surrender and 
removal to Indian Territory, 471, 472; re- 
moval of Poncas, 472, 473; Judge Dundy's 
decision on personal status of, 473; wars, 
causes, 475, 486; Ute outbreak (1879), 
475-484; Grant's Peace Policy, 475; 
Apache outbreaks (1879-1886), 485-493; 
Sioux war (1890-91), 494-503; problem, 
504; allotment in severalty of reservation 
land, 505; education and progress, 505- 
512; population (1917), 507; their part 
in the World War, 508-512. 
Iroquois, or Six Nations, attacked by Cham- 
plain, 66; tradition of origin, 41; treach- 
ery of, 129, 130; wars with the French, 
127-144; at Albany congress, 210; sub- 
dued by General Sullivan, 310-312. 

JACKSON, General Andrew, subdues the 
Creeks, 387-389, 394; interview with 
Weatherford, 395, 396. 

Jacobs, Captain, Delaware chief, killed at 
Kittanning, 221, 222. 

Jesup, General Thomas L., seizes Osceola, 
409; campaign against the Seminoles, 

Johnson boys, capture of, 336. 

Johnson, Colonel James, at the battle of the 
Thames, 376, 377. 

Johnson, Sir John, at Niagara, 289; at Fort 
Stanwix, 295; raid on the Mohawk and 
Schoharie valleys, 312. 

Johnson, Colonel Richard M., at the battle 
of the Thames, 377, 378. 

Johnson, Sir William, 215; defeats Dieskau 
at Lake George, 218, 219. 

Joseph, chief of the Nez Perces, 459, 463- 
467; surrender to General Miles and re- 
moval to Indian Territory, 471, 472; vis- 
its Washington, 472; his death, 472. 

Jumper, Seminole chief, 410. 

KENTON, Simon, rescues Boone, 322; ad- 
ventures of, 331-334. 

Kentucky, settlement and Indian wars of, 


Keyes, Solomon, escape of, 203. 

Kicking Bear, spreads the Messiah doctrine 
among Indians (1890-91), 495; made 
prisoner, 591. 

Kieft, Dutch Governor of Manhattan, mas- 
sacres the Indians, 71. 

Killmrn, John, defends his house, 220, 221. 

King William's War, 179-193. 

Kit tanning, a Delaware village, destroyed, 
221, 222. 

LA BARRE attacks the Senecas and is re- 
pulsed, 139. 

La Brognerie, French officer, killed at Wells, 

La Chine, massacre of, 141. 

Lafayette and Red Jacket, 314. 

Lake George, battle of, 218, 219. 

Lancaster destroyed, 155. 

Lane, Ralph, leads a colony to Virginia, 85. 

La Salle, 164, 179. 

Lathrop, Captain Thomas, defeated at 
Deerfield, 152. 

Lava beds, 459. 

Lawton, Captain H. W., expedition against 
the Apache Indians, 492. 

Lenni-Lenape Indians, 78-83. 

Le Sueur, M., attacks the Natchez, 167. 

Lewis, General Andrew, commands at Point 
Pleasant, 291. 

Little Big Horn, battle of, 450-454. 

Little Crow, Sioux chief, attacks Minnesota 
settlers, 426; defeated at Wood Lake, 

Little Paul saves Sioux prisoners, 428. 

Little Raven, Arapahoe chief, attacks Cus- 
ter, 440, 444. 

Little Turtle, Miami chief, at Harmar's and 
St. Glair's defeats, at battle of Fallen Tim- 
bers, speech of, sketch of, 343-351. 

Littleton, Governor William H., seizes Cher- 
okee chiefs, 173. 

Logan, Colonel Benjamin, 320; Logan's 
fort attacked, 319, 320. 

Logan, Shawnce chief, his family slaugh- 
tered, 290; speech to Lord Dunmore, 292. 

Loubois, Chevalier de, attacks the Natchez, 

Lovewell's, Captain John, fight at Pcquaw- 
ket, 200-203. 

MCARTHUR, Colonel Duncan, at Detroit, 


McGillivray, Alexander, Creek chief, 381 
McGirth, Zachariah, recovers his wife and 

children, 386, 387. 

Mackinac surrendered, 362. 

Madokawando destrovs York, 1SS; attacks 
Wells, 188. 

Maguaga, battle of, 362. 

Maine, attempts at colonization of, 68. 

Mandans, tradition of origin, 41. 

Mangas-Coloradas, chief of Apaches, ls(i. 

Marin M., French partisan, at tucks Hang- 
ers near Fort Anne, 281; rescues Putnam, 

Marsh, Captain, defeated at Keduood 
Ferry, 427. 

Marshall, Lieutenant-colonel, at battle of 
W T ood Lake, 428. 

Mason, Captain John, destroys Pequot fort, 

Massachusetts Indians, 106-125. 

Massasoit, Sachem of Wampanoags, 112- 

Maumee Ford, battle at, 343. 

Mauvilla, battle of, 60-61. 

Medfield burned, 156. 

"Medicine," Indian meaning of the word, 

Meeker, N. C., Indian Agent at W'hite 
River Agency, 477 ; his policy causes out- 
break, 478, 479; calls for military protec- 
tion, 479; murdered by the Indians, 481. 

Menomonees join Black Hawk, 402. 

Mercer, Hugh, at Braddock's defeat, 212; at 
Kittanning, 221, 222. 

M en-it t, Colonel, comes to relief of Captain 
Payne after massacre of Major Thorn- 
burgh, 480; proceeds to White River 
Agency, 481. 

Messiah doctrine, cause of Sioux uprising 
(1890-1891), 494-497. 

Mexico makes treaty with United States, 

Miantonomo, Narraganset chief, 120-122. 

Micanopy, head chief of the Seminoles, 410, 

Micasaukie tribe, 405, 406. 

Michilimackinac captured, 275-279. 

Micmac tribe, 68. 

Middleton, Colonel Henry, attacks Chero- 
kees, 175, 176. 

Miles, General N. A., defeats Nez Perces, 
467, 471; campaign against the Apaches, 
491-493; Geronimo's surrender to, W'2; 
campaign against the Sioux, 494-503; 
holds grand review of troops engaged in 
Sioux campaign (1890-1891), 501-503. 

Miller, Lieutenant-colonel James, at Magua- 
ga, 362. 

Minis, Fort, massacre at, 385, 386. 


Minisink destroyed, 309. 

Minnevana, Ojibwa chief, speech of, 27.5, 

Minot's, John, house, Dorchester, success- 
fully defended, 151. 

Mississippi River discovered by De Soto, 62. 

Alocoso saves the life of Ortiz, 60. 

Modoc war, 455-463. 

Mohegans attacked by Miantonomo, 121; 
join the Enghsh, 152. 

Monongahela, battle of the, 213, 214. 

Monro, Colonel, defends Fort William Hen- 
ry, 223-225. . 

Montcalm, Marquis dc, commands in 
Canada, 222-225. 

Montgomery, Colonel, destroys Cherokee 
towns, 174, 17o. 

Moquis tribe of New Mexico, marriage cus- 
toms of, 29. 

Morgan, Daniel, at Braddock's defeat, 212. 

Morgan's fight with two Indians, 324. 

Morrell, Mrs. John, heroism of, 340. 

Moseley, Captain Samuel, 152, 154; anec- 
dote of, 156. 

Moult on, Colonel, destroys Norridgewock, 

Mounds and mound-builders, 15, 16. 

Mount Desert colonized by the French, 66. 

Mount Hope, seat of King Philip, 145. 

Muskokis, or Appalachians, 17. 

NADOWAQTJA'S exploit, 31. 

Narraganset, Fort, stormed and destroyed, 
153, 154. 

Narraganset tribe, 112. 

Narvaez, Pamphilio de, lands in Florida, 57. 

Natchez tribe, 62, 164-168. 

Natchez, hereditary chief of Apaches, 486; 
and Geronimo go on warpath, 488; with 
Geronimo in Mexico, 490; surrenders to 
General Crook but escapes, 491; finally 
surrenders to General Miles, 492; de- 
scription of, 493. 

Nea-Mathla, Seminole chief, repudiates a 
treaty, 406. 

New England Indians, 67, 108-126. 

New Mexico explored by Coronado, 64. 

New York Indians described by Hudson, 69, 
70; massacre of, by Kieft, 72. 

New York settled, 70. 

Newport, Captain Christopher, colonizes 
Virginia, 88-97. 

Newtown, battle of, 310-312. 

Nez Perce Chief, Joseph, 459; famous re- 
treat of, 466, 467. 

Perce Indians, war with, 463-467; sur- 

render to General Miles, and removal to 
Indian Territory, 471; restored to Lapwai 
Reservation, 472. 

Ninigret, sachem of the Niantics, 159. 

Noble, Colonel Arthur, defeated and slain, 

Nokaidoklini, Apache medicine-man, his 
arrest and death, 488. 

Norridgewock attacked, 200. 

Noyau, Chevalier de, attacks the Chicka- 
saws, 169. 

Number Four (Charlestown, N. H.) at- 
tacked, 203-205. 

OCONOSTATA, Cherokee chief, 173. 
Octiarche, Creek chief in Florida War, 411. 
Oglethorpe, General James, settles Georgia, 


Ojibwas (Chippewas), 275. 
Okechobee, battle of, 414. 
Oldham, Captain John, murdered, 116. 
Onondaga village destroyed by Frontenac, 

Opechanganough, chief of the Pamunkeys, 

91, 100, 162-165. 
Oriskany, battle of, 296-298. 
Ortiz, Juan, captivity of, 58. 
Osage, tradition of origin, 42. 
Osceola, 408-410; kills General Thompson, 

406; captured, 412. 
Oshawahna at the battle of the Thames, 

Ouray, chief of Ute Indians, friendship for 

whites, 477; makes peace with whites, 

481; granted an annuity and dies, 4X1 . 
Oyster Bay settlement destroyed, 182. 
Oyster River settlement destroyed, 189. 

PASPAHEGH, encounter of, with Captain 

Smith, 100. 

Paugus, Pequawket chief, killed, 202. 
Pavonia, massacre at, 71, 72. 
Payne, Captain, makes stand against I'tes 

after massacre of Major Thornburgh until 

relieved by Colonel Merritt, 480. 
Peace Commissioners massacred by Modocs, 

462, 463. 

Pechmo, exploit of, 68. 
Peirce, Captain Michael, defeated at Pau- 

tucket, 156. 

Pemaquid captured, 190. 
Penn, William, treats with the Delawares 

79, 83. 

Pequawkets attacked 201, 202. 
Pcquot tribe, 112; destroyed by the English. 




Pi TUT, Governor, conquers the Natchez, 

Perry, Captain, defeated by Nez, 

Perry, Commodore O. H., victory on Lake 

Eric, 373, 374. 

Petalashara, daring act of, 18, 19. 
Pliiiip, a Pequawket sachem, attacks Wai- 
pole, New Hampshire, 219-221. 
Philip's, King, War, 145-1613; death of 

Philip, 158. 
Philip's, Major, garrison - house attacked, 

Pickens, Colonel Andrew, defeats Chero- 

kees, 314. 

Pilaklikaha Swamp, action at, 423, 424. 
Pine Ridge Agency, General Miles holds 

grand review of troops engaged in Sioux 

campaign, 501-503. 

Plaistowe, Josias, punished for stealing, 146. 
Pocahontas, 94, 100-102. 
Poe brothers' desperate fight with Indians, 

334, 335. 

Point Pleasant, battle of, 291, 292. 
Pokanoket tribe, 145. 

Poncas, the, their removal to Indian Terri- 
tory, 472, 474. 

Ponce de Leon explores Florida, 56. 
Pontiac's W T ar, 263-286; treachery of, 267- 


Popham's colony in Maine in 1607, 68. 
Portneuf captures Fort Loyal, 186. 
Potawatomies join Black Hawk, 402. 
Powell's, Major, fight with Sioux, 436, 437. 
Powhatan, 91-100; crowning of, 98. 
Presque Isle Fort captured, 274, 275. 
Proctor, Colonel Henry, at Frenchtown, 370; 

defeat at the Thames, 375-378. 
Pueblo tribes, 17, 23. 
Putnam, Israel, 251-260. 

QUEBEC settled, 65. 

Queen Anne's War, 193-199. 

RALEIGH, Sir Walter, 84, 87, 88 

Rasle, Sebastian, death of, 200. 

Red Cloud, Sioux chief, 435-439. 

Red Jacket, Seneca chief and orator, 314. 

Red Sticks, name given Creek warriors, 397. 

Redwood Agency, Minnesota, attacked, 426. 

Removal policy, 398. 

River Raisin massacre, 369, 370. 

Rogers, Major Robert, corps of Rangers, 

236-262; Pontiac and Rogers, 265, 266; 

at DalzelTs defeat, 273. 
Rolfe, John, marries Pocahontas, 101. 

Rosebud, battle of the, 449. 
Ross, John, Cherokee chief, 176. 
Rowlandson, Mary, captivity of, 155, 156. 

SAC and Fox tribes, war of the, on the 

United States, 398-404. 
Saco burned, 160. 
St. Castin, Baron de, 191; seized by the 

English, 199. 

St. Clair, General Arthur, defeated, 338-345. 
St. Francis Indians, village of the, destroyed, 

St. Leger, Colonel Barry, attacks Fort Stan- 

wix, 294. 

Salmon Falls village burned, 186. 
Samoset welcomes the English, 109-111. 
Sassacus, Pequot chief, 118, 120. 
Sat ant a, Kiowa chief, 449, 454. 
Scalp-dance, 33-35. 
Schenectady destroyed, 182, 183. 
Schonchin, Modoc chief, 455; executed, 463. 
Schuyler, Major Peter, fight with Valrenne, 

187, 188. 
Scott, General Charles, 343; joins General 

Wayne, 347. 
Sells, Cato, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 

quoted, 506, 507; 509-512. 
Seminoles, war of the, with the United 

States, 405-425. 
"Seven Cities of Cibola," 63. 
Sewee tribe, catastrophe of, 177, 178. 
Shawnec tribe, 315. 
Shelby, General Isaac, 291, 373, 378. 
Sheridan, General Phil, commands Depart- 
ment of the Missouri, 439; quoted, 475. 
Shoshonis, or Snakes, 17. 
Sibley, General H. H., victory at Wood 

Lake, 428. 
Siege of Fort Stanwix, 293-298; Fort Meigs, 

Sioux Indians, wars with United States, 

426-4.54. 494-503; in Minnesota, 426-430; 

and the Messiah doctrine, 494-497; final 

surrender of, 501. 
Sitting Bull, 446; defeats Custer, 450-454; 

returns to Standing Rock Agency, 494; 

spreads Messiah doctrine and incites the 

Sioux to war, 495; his arrest and death, 


Six Nations. See Iroquois. 
Smith, Colonel James, adventures of, 228- 

Smith, Captain John, 88-103; captured by 

the Indians, 91; Smith and Pocahontas, 

"Soldier's Lodge, "426. 



Soto, Fernando de, expedition of, 57, 63. 

South Carolina, attempts at settlement, 56. 

Southern Indians, 164-178. 

Spotted Tail, Sioux chief, 448, 455. 

Squando, .a Saco chief, 160. 

Squanto, a Massachusetts Indian, 111, 112. 

Stafford's, Captain, skirmish with Indians, 

Standing Bear and removal of Poncas, 472- 

Standing Rock Reservation, Sioux Indians, 

outbreak at, 494 et foil. 
Standish, Captain Miles, 108, 109. 
Stark, John, exploits of, 240-249. 
Stevens, Captain Phineas, defends Number 

Four, 203-205. 

Stratagem of a Highlander, 226, 227. 
Stuyvesant, Governor, makes peace with 

New York Indians, 75. 
Sudbury, battle at, 157. 
Sullivan's, General John, expedition against 

the Six Nations, 310-312. 
Sully, General Alfred, defeats the Sioux at 

White Stone Hill, 429. 
Swamp fight, 153, 154. 
Sycamore Creek, rout at, 401. 

TALLADEGA, battle of, 388, 389. 

Taminent, a Delaware sachem, 80-83. 

Tanacharison, the Half-king, 208. 

Taylor, Captain Zachary, defends Fort Har- 
rison, 367-369; at the battle of Okecho- 
bee, 414. 

Tecumseh, 354-358; at Detroit, 364; at 
River Raisin, 372; at Fort, Meigs, 372; 
speech to Proctor, 374, 375; at the battle 
of the Thames, 378; incites the Creeks to 
hostilities, 382. 

Thames, battle of the, 375-378. 

Thomas, Dr. E., killed by the Modocs, 463. 

Thompson, General, Indian Agent at Fort 
King, killed, 406. 

Thornburgh, Major T. T., goes to aid of 
Agent Meeker of White River Agency, 
479; holds parley with Utes, ibid.; am- 
bushed and slain by Utes, 480. 

Ticonderoga, scene of the Rangers' exploits, 

Tiger Tail, Seminole chief, 411. 

Tippecanoe, battle of, 358, 359. 

Tiverton, battle of, 150. 

Tohopeka, or the Horseshoe, battle of, 394, 

Tomocomo takes the English census, 102. 

Treaty at Fort Dade, 412; Greenville, 350; 
Fort Harmar, 339; Shakamaxon, 83; with 

Massasoit, 113; Utrecht, 199; Aix-la- 

Chapelle, 206; Fort Laramie, 431. 
Turner, Captain, killed at the "Falls Fight ," 

Tuscaloosa, the Black Warrior, at Mauvilla, 

Tuscaroras, 128. 

UCITA, the chief's daughter, saves Ortiz, 59. 

Uncas, Mohegan sachem, 119, 121, 125, 126, 

Underbill, Captain John, defeats the Con- 
necticut Indians near Stamford, 75; capt- 
ures and destroys Pequot fort, 118. 

Ute Indians, wars (1879), 475-484; treaty 
of 1863, 477; and Agent Meeker of White 
River Agency, 477-481; massacre Major 
T. T. Thornburgh and his command, 480; 
murder Agent Meeker and destroy 
Agency, 481; surrender Reservation, 482; 
later troubles with (1906-1908). 482-484. 

VAN HORNE, Major, defeated at Browns- 
town, 362. 

Vaudreuil subdues the Oneidas, 143. 

Verrazzano's intercourse with the natives, 
49, 50. 

Victoria, chief, war with, 487; killed in bat- 
tle at Tres Castillos, 488. 

Villieu and Thury destroy Oyster River 
settlement, 189. 

Vincennes captured by Colonel G. R. Clarke, 

Virginia Indians described, 86. 

WABAN, Indian justice, anecdote of, 125. 
Wabojeeg, a Chippewa war-chief, 27. 
Wabokeshiek, Sac and Fox prophet, 399- 


Wadsworth, Captain Samuel, killed at Sud- 
bury, 157. 
Waldron, Major Richard, surprised and 

slain, 181, 182. 
Washington, George, mission to the French 

posts, 208; at Braddock's defeat, 215; on 

St. Glair's defeat, 345; Indian policy of, 

Wawaton befriends Alexander Henry, 279, 


Waymouth, Captain George, voyage of, 68. 
Wayne, General Anthony, defeats Gurister- 

sigo, 313; subdues the Northwestern 

tribes, 346-350. 
Weatherford, Creek chief, 383; at Fort 

Mims, 385-387; interview with Jackson, 




Wells attacked, 1SS. 

White Bird Canon, battle of, 466. 

White, John, attempts to colonize Virginia, 

S7, 88. 
White River Agency, Utc Indian outbreak 

; it. 475-484. 
White River Agency, the Ute outbreak at 

(1879), 476-482. 

White Stone Hill, battle of, 429, 430. 
Whiteside, Major S. M., in command of 

First battalion of Seventh Cavalry at 

Wounded Knee, 498. 
AVild tribes of the plains, 430-470. 
Wilkinson's, General James, expedition 

against Western Indians, 344. 
Willard, Major Simon, relieves Brookfield, 

Willett's, Colonel Marinus, sortie from Fort 

Stanwix, 298. 
Williams, Colonel Ephraim, defeated and 

killed, 217, 218. 
Williams, Rev. John, captured at Deerfield, 

194, 195. 
W'lliams, Roger, prevents Indian war, 117, 


Winchester, General James, defeated at 

Kiver Raisin, 370. 

Wingina, a \'irginia sacliem, murdered, S7. 
Winnebagoes join Black Hawk, 401. 
Winslow, Governor Edward, 108; visits 

Mussasoit , 1 14. 
Winslow, General Josiah, destroys Fort 

Narraganset, 153. 
Winthrop, Governor John, 126. 
Withlacoochee, the, battle of, 407. 
Wood Lake, battle of, 428. 
Worth's, Colonel William J., campaign 

against the Seminoles, 414-424. 
Wounded Knee Creek, battle of, 499-500. 
Wussaussamon murdered, 148. 
Wyandots, 264. 

Wyman, Ensign, at LovewelPs fight, 201, 202 
Wyoming, massacre at, 301-303. 

YORK, Maine, destroyed, 188. 
Yumas Indians, 17. 

ZANE, Elizabeth, heroism of, 326, 327. 
Zunis of New Mexico, 23; attacked by Cc 
ronado, 63.