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Lieutenant-Colonel K. R. KIRTIKAR, F.L.S., I.M.S., (Retired), 
Major B. D. BASU, I.M.8., (Retired), 


Las. (Retired). 

H>ubltsbeD bg 










Before the completion of Sir Joseph Hooker's great book 
'Flora of British India,' the only comprehensive work on Indian 
Botany was that of Dr. W. Roxburgh. But it was long 
out of print and the Revd. Dr. Carey's edition of that im- 
portant work sold in London for something like £5. The late 
Mr. C. B. Clarke of the Educational Department of Bengal, after- 
wards Inspector of Schools in Assam, conferred a great boon on 
students of Indian Botany by bringing out a reprint of that work 
in 1874 and pricing it so low as 5 rupees only. Unfortunately, 
it is now out of print. When more than 25 years ago, I com- 
menced the study of Indian Medicinal Plants, I had to work 
with this well known book. So the reference to Roxburgh 
throughout the present work is to the pages of that reprint. 

I also experienced great difficulty in identifying the plants 
for not possessing illustrations of most of them. It is almost 
impossible for a person of moderate resources to provide himself 
with all the illustrated works on Indian Botany, especially as a 
good many of them, having become out of print, are procurable 
only at fabulous prices. I found that for a proper study of the 
subject there was a great want of a work containing illustrations, 
botanical descriptions, vernacular names and uses of the medi- 
cinal plants of this country. It was to supply this want to some 
extent that the present work was undertaken. In this under- 
taking I was very fortunate to have secured the co-operation of 
the late lamented Lieutenant-Colonel Kanhoba Ranchoddas 
Kirtikar, F. L. S., I. M. S., a botanist of great repute, who pos- 
sessed a very rich library of Botany and other sciences allied to 
it. Himself a good draughtsman, he had also employed an able 
artist of Bombay to draw and paint from nature, plants of eco- 
nomic importance. The faithfulness of these drawings is 
admired by those who have seen them. Colonel Kirtikar very 
readily allowed me to publish them with this work. He also 
kindly undertook to prepare the botanical descriptions of the 


plants, and was helped in this portion of his task by an able 
member of the Indian Civil Service, who to his other accom- 
plishments adds a great taste for Botany. His notes have been 
incorporated by Colonel Kirtikar in the botanical descriptions. 

Before his lamented death, which took place on the 9th May, 
1917, Colonel Kirtikar had left in manuscript the botanical de- 
scriptions of almost all the plants mentioned in this work. It is 
to be greatly regretted that he did not live to give a finishing 
touch to his writings. He was, however, able to revise the 
proofs of about the first 500 pages of this book. 

When we undertook the preparation of this work, it was 
decided that it would not be a treatise on Materia Medica. A 
work of that nature should include — 

" (1) Characters and means of recognition of the crude drug 
including — 

(a) External appearance, feel, [taste], smell, weight, &c. 

(b) Microscopical characters and tests. 

(c) General adulterants and mode of detection. 

(2) To know whence and how the drug is obtained. 

(3) The general properties of the crude drug, and the source 
of its special properties, i.e., its active principle, treated 

(4) To know the method of development of the drug itself, 
so far as practicable ; and the nature, anatomical and develop- 
mental, of the structures whence it is obtained. 

(5) The preparations in which the drug forms a part, the 
processes of preparation and their rationale ; methods of mani- 
pulation, etc. 

(6) The doses of the drug and of its preparations. 

(7) The physiological action of the drug and its preparations." 

Pharmacographia Indica by Messrs. Dymock, Warden and 
Hooper still remains an authoritative work on Indian Materia 
Medica. The present work is a Botany of Indian Medicinal 
Plants and so no account of drugs procurable in Indian bazars 
is given in it. 

It is true that most of the illustrations in this publication are 
reproductions from those in various works on Indian Botany and 


other standard works on the subject. This, we submit, should 
not be considered in any way to lessen the importance of the 
work. It has been truly observed by an eminent writer : — 

"Exaggerated individual energy and independence have become conceit.... 

" The chief business with him (a young man) is not to work well, but to work 
in a different mode to others; originality is more to him than beauty. This idea 
which now-a-days has such a strong hold on all heads, even the most empty, re- 
minds us of that graceful epigram of Goethe's on originals. A certain person 
says, ' I do not belong to any School, there exists no living master from whom 
I would take lessons, and as to the dead, I have never learnt any thing from 
them,' which, if I am not mistaken, means, 'lama fool on my own account.' 
What else is this extravagant desire for originality, but, as we have said, an 
exaggeration of individual energy, a want of equilibrium, the sin, in fact, of 

Dr. Garnett writes : — 

" The truly artistic production, * * * may well outlast the inferior work * * 
as the diamond survives the glass which it engraves." | 

The illustrated works on Indian Botany of such well-known 
masters of the subject, as Rheede, Roxburgh, Royle, Barman, 
Brandis, Beddome, Griffith, Wallich, Wight and several others, 
are not easily accessible to those who are interested in the study 
of the subject. It is, therefore, that their illustrations have been 
copied and supplemented, where necessary, by further details. 

I was in charge of the Indigenous Drugs Court of the United 
Provinces Exhibition held at Allahabad in December 1910 and 
January and February 1911. One of the special features of 
the Indigenous Drugs Court was the exhibition of herbarium 
specimens and of drawings of almost all the known plants used 
in medicine in this country. I collected drawings from the 
illustrated works on Indian Botany and other standard works 
on that subject available in the United Provinces. The late 
Dr. E. G. Hill lent to the exhibition the illustrated works on 
Botany from the Allahabad Public Library of which he was 
the Secretary. The President and the Imperial Forest Botanist 
of the Forest Research Institute of Dehra Dun were kind 
enough to lend illustrated books on Botany which were not 
to be had at Allahabad. The late Lieutenant-Colonel Kirtikar, 

* " The Decadence of Modern Literature by Armando Palacio Valdes of 
Madrid in the International Library of Famous Literature, Vol. xx 

t " The use and value of Anthologies," in the International Library of 
Famous Literature, Vol. I. 


F.L.S., I.M.S., (Retd.) very kindly lent the paintings already 
referred to above to the exhibition. 

But still I was unable to secure illustrations of about 300 

Indian Medicinal Plants for the Exhibition. L wrote to the 

Superintendent, Royal Botanical Garden, Shibpur, Calcutta, 

if he would kindly lend the drawings of those plants from the 

Herbarium in his charge. In his letter dated 24th May, 1910, 

he wrote : — 

•' I regret that I cannot see my way to let you have a loan of the original 
drawings of any plants, as it is a strict rule in all botanical institutions that 
original drawings are not allowed to go out of the building for any purpose, 
as in the event of loss or damage they could not possibly be replaced. I 
should however be quite prepared to have exact copies made of such drawings 
as may be of interest to you at the expense of the Exhibition. For large 
full size drawings coloured, the rate for copying including paper would be 
Rs. 5-8-0 each." 

About this time, I made tbe acquaintance of Professor Bhim 
Chandra Chatter ji, B.A., B Sc, then of the Bengal Technical 
Institute, Calcutta. I was told that he had collected materials 
and illustrations of plants of Hindu Materia Medica, as he was 
preparing a work on that subject. So I wrote to him to 
exhibit his collection at the Exhibition. He came to Allahabad 
to see me. On showing him the letter of the Superintendent, 
Shibpur Garden, he said he would take photos of those plants 
and their drawings which would cost less than one-fifth of the 
estimate given in the letter referred to above. 

1 went to Calcutta and taking Professor Bhim Chandra 
Chatter ji introduced him to the Superintendent, who very kindly 
afforded him every facility to take photos of plants and of their 
drawings. But, unfortunately, Professor Bhim Chandra Chatterji 
was not successful with his photographs. He then arranged 
with the Shibpur artists to copy the drawings of plants pre- 
served in the Herbarium there at very favourable terms. 

The late lamented Mr. G. R. Murray, I.C.S., who was Secret- 
ary of the United Provinces Exhibition, took great interest in the 
Indigenous Drugs Court and did all that lay in his power to 
make it a success. He got his committee to sanction the sum 
necessary to procure copies of drawings of the plants. After 


closure of the Exhibition, while he was acting as Registrar of 
the High Court, Allahabad, he enquired several times about 
the progress in printing of the present work, more especially of 
the plates, thus showing his interest in this publication. 

Over 300 drawings were copied in about five months. 
Professor Bhim Chandra Chatterji had little time to compare 
the copies with the originals and was, therefore, unable to vouch 
for their accuracy. Details of several drawings, especially those 
made from type specimens, had to be completed. So in December 
1911 I went down to Calcutta and compared the copies of the 
drawings with the originals. Owing to pressure of work at 
Allahabad, 1 could not prolong my stay in Calcutta. So several 
plates were left at Shibpur for details to be filled in. Colonel 
Gage, I.M.S., obliged me by getting this done. In his letter 
dated 29th March 1912, in returning the drawings he wrote :--- 

" I return herewith the drawings you sent for filling in the details of the 
dissections. They have been gone over by Mr. Ramaswamy and checked in 
every case. It has not always been possible to get precise dissections 
from the Herbarium specimens, as in the case where there is one specimen 
we cannot afford to dissect it. 1 trust however what has been done will 
prove to your satisfaction." 

He has placed us under deep obligation by permitting us to 
copy and publish some or! the original drawings by Roxburgh 
preserved in the Herbarium in the Royal Botanical Garden 
Shibpur, and to reproduce some of the illustrations given in the 
Annals of it, and also to have drawings made from the type 
specimens in that Herbarium, of some of the plants not to be 
found in publications kept in the library of that institution. 

Our thanks are due to Mr. R. S. Hole, F.C.H., F.L.S., I.F.S., 
Forest Botanist of Dehra Dun, for his kind permission to copy 
and publish some of the original drawings of plants prepared 
by Mr. J. F. Duthie, B.A., F.L.S., late Director of Botanic 
Survey, Northern India. 

We are thankful to the publishers of Curtis's Botanical Maga- 
zine and of Bentley and Trimen's Medicinal Plants for permis- 
sion to copy some of the illustrations from their publications ; as 
also to the Government of the United Provinces of Agra and 
Oudh for allowing us to copy a few illustrations from the Field 


and Garden Crops of the North Western Provinces prepared by 
Mr. Duthie and Mr., now Sir Bampfylde, Fuller. 

The Government of India, the Missouri Botanical Garden, 
the Agricultural Bureau and the Smithsonian Institution of 
America, as well as the Board of Agriculture of England, have 
greatly helped us in the preparation of this work by their sup- 
plying us with some of their publications bearing on the subject. 

Some of those works on Botany which were not in the library 
of the late Colonel Kirtikar were very kindly lent to us by 
Colonel Gage from the Library of the Royal Botanic Garden, 
Shibpur; by the late Mr, Harinath De, M.A., I.E.S., from the 
Imperial Library, Calcutta, of which, he was the librarian ; and 
by Mr. Hole from the Library of the Imperial Forest Research 
Institute, Dehra Dun. To all these gentlemen, our best thanks 
are due. 

Colonel Gage also very kindly gave instructions to the mem- 
bers of the staff serving under him to assist us in every way in 
their power in the preparation of this work. The late Mr. M. S. 
Ramaswami M.A., and Babu Sashi Bhushan Banerji were of 
great help to us. 

Professor Bhim Chandra Chatterji, was advertised as one of 
the joint authors of this work. But his portion of the work not 
being ready, it is regretted it has not been published with this. 

My best thanks are due to Babu Chintamani Ghosh, the en- 
terprising proprietor of the well-known Indian Press, who has 
taken great interest in and trouble for this work. He deputed his 
talented artist, Mr. Sommer, to Europe to fetch large-sized litho- 
graphic stones and art-paper for its printing. Without his 
help and supervision, it would have been impossible to bring out 
the work in its present get-up, which has exceeded my expect- 

The enlightened Maharaja Bahadur of Cossimbazar, the 
Hon'ble Sir Manindra Chandra Nandy, K, 0. 1. E., with his accus- 
tomed munificence, has contributed ten thousand rupees to meet 
a portion of the expenses incurred in the production of this work. 
Our heartiest thanks are due to him for this handsome donation. 

Allahabad: B. D. BASU. 

1st January, 1918. 


Page. Plate 

Page. Plate 






Introduction ... 


34. squamosa, Linn. 

44 30,30A 

Bibliography ... 


35. reticulata, Linn. 



N. 0. Ranunculace^e 


36. Bocagea D a 1 z e 1 i i, 
H. f. &. T. 



37. Polyanthia longifolia, 

1. Nepalensis, D.C. 



Benth. and H. f. ... 



2. triloba, Heyne 

3. Gouriana, Roxb. 



N. O. Menispermace^t: 


4. Anemone obtusiloba, 


Don. ... 


38. tomentosa, Miers. ... 



5. Thalictram foliolosum, 

39. crispa, Miers. 



D.C, ... 



40. cordifolia, Miers. 



6. Ranunculus scleratus, 

41. Anamirta cocculus 




W. &A. 



7. Caltha palustris, Linn. 



42. Coscinium fenestra- 

8. Coptis teeta, Wall. 



tum, Colebr. 





9. denudatum, Wall. 



43. villosus, D.C. 



10. caeruleuiu, Jacq. 



44. Leaaba, D.C. 



11. Brunoinanum, Royle. 



45. Pericampylus incanus, 

Aconite ... 


Miers. ... 





12. lycotonum,Linn. 


46. hernandipholia, Walp. 



13. palmatum, Don. 



47. rotundifolia, Lour. ... 



14. ferox, Wall. 



48. Cissampelos Pareira, 

15. Napellus, Linn. 






16. heterophyllum, Wall. 





17. Soongaricum, Stapf.... 




18. Chasm an thum, Srapf. 



49. vulgaris, Linn. 



19. rotundifolium, Ver. 

50. aristata, D.C. 



and Kir. 



50. lycium, Royle 



20. deinorrhizum, Stapf, . . . 



51. asiatica, Roxb. 



21. Balfouri, Stapf. 



52. Podophyllum emodi, 

22. Falconeri, Stapf. 



Wall. ... 



23. spicatum,Stapf 

24. laciniatum, Stapf. 



N- O. NyMPFLECE.E ... 


25. lethale, Griff. 

26. Actaea Spicata, Linn. 

27. Cimicifuga foetida, 

Linn. ... 

28. Pseonia Emodi, Wall.... 





22 A 


53. alba, Linn. 

54. lotus, Linn. 

55. stellatta, Willd. 

56. Euryale ferox, Salisb. 

57. Nelumbium speciosum, 









29. Dillenia indica, Linn. 





N. 0. Magnoliace.e ... 


Pap aver 


58. Rhoeas, Linn. 

59. dubium, Linn. 




30. Champaca, Linn. 



60. somniferum, Linn. ... 



31. Nilagirica, Zenk. 



61. orientale, Linn. 


32. Illicium G r i ffi t h i i , 
H. f. & T. 



62. Argemone mexicana, 



N. 0. Anonace/e 



33. Uvaria narum, Wall.... 



63, aculeata, Royle 






Page. Plate 



nepalensis, D.C. 




Wallichi, Hook. 



N. 0. Fumariace^e ... 



Hypecouin procum- 

bens, Linn. 





Govaniana, Wall. 








Fumaria par v in or a, 




N.O. Crucifer^ 



Matthiola incana, R. 





Cheiranthus Chieri, 





Nasturtium officinale, 

R.Br. ... 




Cardamine pratensis, 






Jacquemontii, H.f. & T. 




Hamiltonii. Royle. ... 

l J0 



Aegyptiaca, Turr. 





Sophia, Linn. 




Irio, Linn. 




nigra, Koch. 




camprestris, Linn. ... 




juncea, H.f.cfc T. 




Eruca Sativa, Lam. 




Capsella Bursa pasto- 

ris, Mcench 




Lepidium sativum, 





Raphanus sativus, 




N. 0. Capparideje 



Cleome viscosa, Linn. 




Gynadropsis penta- 


phylla, D.C. 




Maerua arenaria, H.f. 

&T. ... 




Cratse vareligiosa, 

Forsk. ... 





indica, Lamk. 




farinosa, Forsk. 




spinosa, Linn. 




zeylanica, Linn. 




Heyneana, Wall. 




aphylla, Roth. 




sepiaria, Linn. 




horrida, Linn. 



N. O Yiolace.e. 



Reseda odorata, Linn. 



Page, Plate 



99. serpens, Wall. 



100. odorata, Linn. 



101. cinerea, Boiss. 



102. Ionidium suffrutico- 

sum, Ging. 



N. O. Bixine^e. 


103. Cochlospermum Gos- 

sypium, D.C. 



104. Bixa Orellana, Linn.... 




105. cataphracta, Roxb.,., 



106. Ramontchi,L'Herit 



107. sepiaria, Roxb. 



108. Gynocardia odorata, 

R. Br. ... 



109. Hydnocarpus ^Vightia- 

na, Blume 



110. Taraktogenos Kurzii, 

King. ... 



N. O. PlTTOSPOREJg. ... 


111. Pittosporum floribun- 

dum, W. & A. 






112. crotalarioides, Ham. 



113. chinensis, Linn. 



114. telephoides, Willd. ... 



N. O. Frankeniaceje. 


115. Frankenia pulverulen- 

ta, Linn. 



N. O. Caryophylle^. 


116. Saponaria Vaccaria, 




117. Polycarpoea corymbosa, 







118. oleracea, Linn. 



119. quadrifida, Linn.... 



120. tuberosa, Roxb. ... 



N. O. Tamariscine/E 



121. gallica, Linn. 



122. dioica, Roxb. 



123. articulata, Yahl. ... 



124. Myricaria elegans, 







125. Patulum, Thunb. ... 



126. perfortum, Linn. ... 



N. O. GUTTIFER<£ ... 



127. Mangostana, Linn.... 



128. indica, Chois 






age. Plate 





129. Morella, Desrouss.... 


166. Abelmoschus, Linn. 



130. xanthochymus, H.f. 



167. esculentus, Linn. ... 



131. Ochrocarpus longi- 

168. tiliaceus, Linn. 



folius, Benth. and 

169. rosa-sinensis, Linn. 



Hook. f. 





132. inophyllutn, Linn. ... 

133. Wightianum, Wall.... 




170. populnea, Corr. 

171. Lampas, Dalz. & Gib. 



134. Mesua f e r r e a, 


Linn. ... 



172. herbaceum, Linn. ... 






135. Schima W a 1 1 i c ii i, 

173. arboreum, Linn 






174. Kydia c a 1 y c i n a, 
Roxb. ... 








136. turbinates, Goertn.,.. 

137. tuberculatus, Roxb. 




175. Adansonia digitata, 
Linn ... 


138. alatus, Roxb. 



176. Bombax malabari- 

139. inc anus, Roxb. 



cum, D. C. 




177. Eriodendron anfrac- 

140. robusta, Goertn. f. ... 



tuosum, D. C. 



141. Tumbuggaia, Roxb. 



N. O. Sterculaceje... 


142. Vateria in die a, 

Linn. ... 




N. 0. Malvace^ ... 


178. foetida, Linn. 




179. urens, Roxb. 



143. officinalis, Linn. ... 


116 A 

180. scaphigera, Wall. ... 



144. rosea, Linn. 



181. Helicteres isora, 


Linn. ... 



145. sylvestris, Linn. ... 




146. rotundifolia, Linn. 



147. parviflora, Linn. ... 



182. suberifolium,Linn.... 



183. acerifolium, Willd.... 



148. humilis, Willd. 



184. Pentapetes phceni- 
cea, Linn. 



149. spinosa, Linn 



185. Eriolsena quinquelo- 

150. carpinifolia, Linn. 



cularis, Wight 



151. rhombifolia, Linn. ... 



186. Abronia au g u s t a, 
Linn. ... 

152. rhombifolia, var. re- 



tusa, Linn 


187. Guazuma torneutosa, 

153. var. rhomboidea, 






154. cordifolia, Linn. ... 


119 A 





155. indicum, G. Don. ... 



188. tilisefolia, Vahl. ... 



156. graveolens, W. & A. 


1 4 

189. asiatica, Linn. 



157. Avicennse, Gsertn.... 


190. scabrophylla, Roxb. 




191. villosa, Willd. ... 



158. lobata, Linn 




159. sinuata, Linn. 



192. polygaraa, Roxb. ... 



160. repanda, Roxb. 



193. Triumfetta rhombhoi- 

161. Pavonia odor at a, 

dea, Jacq. 








194. capsularis, Linn. ... 



162. furcatus, Roxb. ... 



195. olitorius, Linn. 



163. micranthus, Linn. ... 



196. trilocularis, Linn. ... 



1164. cannabinus, Linn. ... 



197. fascicularis, Lam. ... 


16 IB 

65. sabdariffa, Linn. ... 



198. antichorus, Rsensch, 





Page. Plate 
N. O. Line e. ... 223 

199. Linum usitatissimuro, 

Linn. ... ... 223 164A 

200. Reinwardtia trigyna, 

Planch ... ... 225 164B 

201. Hugonia M y s t a x, 

Linn. ... ' ... 226 165 

202. Erythroxylon mono- 

gynum, Roxb. ... 226 166 
N. O. Malpighiace.e. 228 

203. Hiptage madablota, 

Gasrtn. ... ... 228 167 

N. O. Zygophylle^:. 229 


204. terrestris, Linn. ... 229 168 

205. alatus, Delile ... 230 169 

206. Zygophyllum sim- 

plex, Linn. ... 231 170 A 

207. arabica, Linn. ... 231 171 

208. Bruguieri, D. C. ... 232 170B 

N. O. Geraniace^e.... 233 


209. Wallichianum, Sweet 233 172 

210. nepalense, Sweet ... 234 173 

211. Robertianum, Linn. 234 174 

212. Ocellatum, Camb. ... 235 175 


213. corniculata, Linn. ... 235 176B 

214. acetosella, Linn. ... 236 176A 

215. Biophytum s e n s i- 

tivum, D. C. ... 237 177 


216. Carambola, Linn, ... 238 178 

217. Bilimbi, Linn. ... 240 179 

218. Impatiens Balsamina, 

Linn. ... ... 241 180 

N. O. RUTAC&E. ... 242 

2 19. Ruta graveolens, 

Linn, var angusti- 

folia ... ... 242 181 

220. Peganum h a r in a la, 

Linn. ... ... 243 182 

221. Dictamus albus, Linn. 248 183 

222. alatum, Roxb. ... 249 184 

223. acanthopodium, D. C. 250 185B 

224. oxyphyllum, Edgew. 250 186 

225. Hamiltonianum, Y\ T all. 251 187 

226. Rhetsa, D. C. ... 251 185A 

227. budrunga, Wall. ... 252 188 

228. Toddalia ac uleata, 

Pers. ... ... 253 189 

229. Skimmia 1 a u re o la, 

Hook. f. ... 257 191 

230. Acronychia 1 a u r i- 

folia, Blumc ... 258 190 

Page. Plate 

231. MurraYa Kce n i g i i , 

Spreng. ... 259 192 

232. Limonia aciddisima, 

Linn. ... ... 260 193 

233. Luvunga scandens, 

Ham. ... ... 261 194 


234. monopliylla, Wight... 262 195 

235. longispina, Hook. f. 263 195 

236. Atlantia monophylla, 

Correa. ... 264 197 


2b7. medica, Linn. ... 264 198 

Var I. medica proper 265 198 A 

Var II. Limonum ... 265 198B 

Varlll.acida ... 265 

Var IV. Limmeta ... 265 

238. Aurantium, Linn. ... 268 199 
Yarl. Aurantium pro- 
per ... ... 269 199 

Var II. Bigardia, 

Brandis ... 270 

Var III. Bergamia ... 270 

239. decumana, Linn. ... 271 

240. Feronia elephantum, 

Correa... ... 272 200 

241. iEgle Marmelo s, 

Correa... ... 273 201 

N. O. SlMARUBE^E ... 279 


243. glandulosa, Desf. ... 279 

244. excelsa, Roxb. ... 280 202 

245. malabarica, D. C. ... 282 203 

246. indica, Gsertn ... 284 204 

247. lucida, Wall. ... 286 

248. Picrasma quassioides, 

Benn ... ... 286 205 

249. Brucea sumatrana, 

Roxb. ... ... 287 206 

250. Balanites Roxburghii, 

Planch... ... 289 207 

N. O. OCHNACE.E ... 290 

251. Gomphia angustifo- 

lia, Vahl. ... 290 208 

N. O. Burserace^: ... 291 

252. Boswellia serrata, 

Roxb. ... ... 291 209 

253. Garuga p inn at a, 

Roxb. ... ... 293 210 


254. Mukul, Hook. 

255. Roxburghii, Arn. 

256. pubscens, Stocks. . 

.. 294 
.. 295 
,. 296 




257. commune, Linn. 

258. strictum, Roxb. 

259. bengalense, Roxb. . 

.. 296 
. 297 
. 298 




Page. Plate 
N. O. Meliace^ ... 298 

260. Turrea villosa, Benn. 298 216 

261. Naregamia a 1 a t a, 

W. &A. ... 299 217 



Azadirachta, Linn. ... 




Azedeuach, Linn. ... 




dubia, Cav. 




Sandoricum indicum, 

Cav. ... 




Aglaia Roxburghiana, 

Miq. ... 





rohituka, W. and A. 




cucullata, Roxb. 




Walsura piscidia, 

Roxb. ... 




Heynea trijuga, Roxb. 




Carapa moluccensis, 





Soymida f e b r i fuga, 

Adr. Juss. 




Chikrassia tabularis, 

Adr. Juss. 




Cedrela Toona, Roxb. 




Chloroxylon Swiete- 

nia, D.C. 



N. O. Olacine^: ... 324 

276. scandens, Roxb, ... 324 

277. nana, Wall. ... 325 

278. Sarcostigma Kleinii, 

W. and A. ... 325 

N. O. Celastrine^;.... 326 

279. Euonymus tingens, 

Wall. ... 

280. Kokoona zeylanica, 


281. Celastrus paniculata, 

Willd. ... 

282. Gymnosporia m o n - 

tana, Roxb. 

283. Elseodendron g 1 a u - 

cum, Pers. 



284. madraspatana, Gsertn. 

285. calyculata, Tulasne. 

286. jujuba, Lamk. 

287. glabrata, Heyne 

288. nummularia, W. & A. 

289. vulgaris, Lamk. 

290. rugosa, Lamk. 

291. dahuricus, Pall. 

292. Wightii W & E ... 

293. purpureus, Edgew. ... 

294. Triqueter, Wall. ... 



326 234B 

326 234A 

327 235 

330 236 

330 237 

332 238A 

334 238B 

335 239 
337 240A 

337 240B 

338 241 

339 242 

339 243B 

340 244B 

341 243A 
341 244A 


age. Plate 



Govania leptostack- 

ya, D.C. 



N. O. Ampelide^e 




quadrangularis, Wall. 




adnata, Wall. 




latifolia, Roxb. 




vinifera, Linn. 




indica, Linn. 




setosa, Wall. 




trifolia, Linn. 




araneosus, Dalz. and 





pedata, Vahl. 





macrophylla, Roxb. 




crispa, Willd. 




sambucina, Willd. ... 




robusta, Roxb. 




hirta, Roxb. 



N. O. Sapindace^: ... 



310. Cardiospermum Hali- 

cacabum, Linn. ... 353 


311. Hippoeastanum, Linn. 

312. indica, Cobbr. 

313. Schleichera trijnga, 

Willd. ... 


314. trifoliatus, Linn. ... 

315. mukorossi, Goertn. ... 


316. Litchi, Camb. 

317. Longana, Camb. 

318. Acer pictum, Thunb. 

31 9. Dodoncea v i s c o s a , 

Linn, ... 

N. O. Anacakdiace^e 






320. parviflora, Roxb. 

321. semialata Murray ... 

322. Wallichii, Hook f. ... 

323. insignis, Hook f. ... 

324. succedanea, Linn ... 

325. Pistachia integer- 

rima, Stewart 

326. Mangifera indica, 

Linn. ... 

327. Anacardium occiden- 

tal, Linn. 

328. Buchanania latifolia, 

Roxb. ... 

329. Melanorrhoea usitata, 

Wall. ... 

330. Odina wodier, Roxb. 

331. Semecarpus anacar- 

dium, Linn. 








357 262 











384 279 



Page, Plate 

332. Arnottiana, Hook. f. 392 280 

333. longifolia, Roxb. ... 393 

334. Spondias mangifera, 

Willd. ... ... 393 




335. Coriaria nepalensis, 

Wall. ... ... 395 282- 


,. 396 


336. pterygosperma, Goertn. 396 283 

337. Concanensis, Nimmo 399 284 

N. O. CONNARACE^ ... 400 

338. Rourea santaloides, 

W. &. A. ... 400 285 

N. O. Leguminos,£ ... 401 

339. Burhia, Hamilt. ... 401 

340. prostrata, Roxb. ... 401 

341. albida, Heyne. ... 402 

342. verrucosa, Linn. ... 402 

343. juncea, Linn. ... 403 

344. medieaginea, Lamk... 404 


345. occulta, Delile. ... 404 

346. Foenurngrsecum, Linn. 404 


347. parviflora, Desf. ... 406 

348. officinalis, Willd. ... 406 

349. Oyamopsis psora- 

lioides, DC. ... 407 


350. linifolia, Retz. ... 408 

351. glandulosa, Willd. ... 408 

352. enneaphylla, Linn. ... 409 

353. aspalathoides, Vahl. 409 

354. trifoliata, Linn. ... 410 

355. pauciflora, Delile ... 410 

356. tinctoria, Linn. ... 410 

357. pulckella Roxb. ... 411 

358. Psoralea corylifolia, 

Linn. ... ... 413 

359. Colutea arborescens, 

Linn. var. nepalensis 414 

360. Mundulea suberosa, 

Benth. ... ... 415 








29 IB 









361. purpurea, Pers. ... 415 302B 

362. v i 1 losa, Pers. ... 416 302A 

363. segyptiaea Pers. ... 417 303 

364. aculeata, Pers. ... 418 304 

365. grandiflora, Pers. ... 418 305 


363. tribuloides, Delile. ... 419 306C 

364. hamosus, Linn. ... 420 306A 

365. raulticeps, Wall. .. 420 306B 

Page. Plate. 


366. Taverniera nummu- 

laria, D.C. 



367. Alhagi m a u r o r um, 

Deso. .., 




368. picta, Deso. 



369. lagopoides, D. C. ... 



370. Alysicarpus 1 o n gi- 

folius, W. & A. ... 


371. Arachis h y p o g sea, 

Linn. ... 



372. Oligemia d a 1 b e r - 

gioides, Benth. 




373. tilisefolium, G. Don. 



374. gangeticum, D.C. ... 



375. polycarpum, D.C. ... 



376. triflorum, D.C. 



377. Abrus precatorius, 

Linn. ... 



378. Cicer arientinum, Linn. 



379. Lathyrus s a t i v u s , 



3 14 A 

380. Glycine Soja, Sieb. 

and Zucc. 



381. Teramnus la bi al is, 





382. monosperma, D.C. te * 



383. gigantea, D.C. 


3 17 A 

384. pruriens, D.C. 



385. Erythrina indica, 





386. frondosa, Roxb. 



387. superba, Roxb. 



388. Pueraria tuberosa, 

D.C. ... 




389, trilobus,Ait. 



390. mungo, Linn. 



"Var. radiatus, Linn. 



391. Vigna Catiang, Endl. 



H92. Clitoria t e r n e a ta, 

Linn. ... 



•1-93. Dolichos bifiorus, 

Linn. ... 



394. Cajanus indicus, 




395. Cylista scariosa, Ait. 




396. strobilifera, R. Br.... 


331 A 

397. Cliappar,Hanj. 



398. Grahamiana, W. & A. 



399. congesta, Roxb. 




400. Sissoo, Roxb. 



401. sympathetica, Nimmo. 





Page. Plate 
JN t o. 

402. lanceolaria, Linn. ... 

403. volubilis,Roxb. 

404. spinosa, Roxb. 


405. santalinus, Linn. f. 

406. marsupium, Roxb. ... 

407. Pougamia glabra, 

Vent. ... 

408. Sophora tornentosa, 

Linn. ... 


409. Bonducella, Fleming. 

410. Bonduc, Roxb. 

411. Nuga, Ait. 

412. Sap pan, Linn. 

413. pulcherrima, Swartz. 

414. sepiaria, Roxb. 

415. digyna, Rottl. 

416. Wagatea s p i c a t a , 

Dalz. ... 


417. fitula, Linn. 

418. occidentalis, Linn. ... 

419. sophera, Linn. 

420. obtusifolia, Linn. ... 

421. auriculata, Linn. ... 

422. obovata, Linn. 

423. alata, Linn. 

424. glauca, Lam. 

425. absus, Linn. 

426. mimosoides, Linn. ... 

427. Cynometra ramiflora, 

Linn. ... 

428. Hardwickia pinnata, 

Roxb. ... 

429. Saraca indica, Linn.... 

430. Tamarindus indica, 



431. tomentosa, Linn. 
432 racemosa, Lam. 

433. retusa, Ham. 

434. Yahilli, W. and A. ... 

435. purpurea, Linn. 

436. variegata, Linn. 

437. Xeptunea oleracea, 

Lour. ... 

438. Entada scandens, 

Benth. ... 

439. Adenanthera pavoni- 

na, Linn. 

440. Prosopis spicigcra, 

Linn. ... 

441. Dichrostachys c i n e- 

rea, W. and A. 

442. pudica, Linn. 

443. rubicaulis, Lam. 

444. Farnesiana, Willd ... 



























468 349 


















479 358 


482 361 









445. arabica, Willd. 

446. leueophlsea, Willd. ... 

447. Catechu, Willd. 

448. ferruginea, D.C. 

449. Senegal, Willd. 

450. modesta, Wall. 

451. concinna,D.C. 

452. Intsia, Willd. 

453. pennata, Willd. 

454. Lebbeck, Benth. 
455 odoratissima, Benth. 

456. Julibrissin, Durazz. 

457. amara, Boiv. 

458. Pithecolobium b i g e- 

niinum, Benth. 
N.O. Rosacea 


459. amygdalus, Baill. ... 

460. persica, Benth. and 

Hook. ... 

461. armeniaca, Linn. 

462. Cerasus, Linn. 

463. Puddum, Roxb. 

464. communis, Huds. ... 

465. (1) Yar. domestica ... 
(2) Yar. institia 

465. Padus, Linn. 

466. Prinsepia u t i 1 i s, 

Royle ... 

467. Rubus moluccanus, 

Linn. ... 

Page. Plate 

.. 498 375 

.. 499 376 

.. 500 377 

.. 502 378 

.. 506 379 

.. 507 380 

.. 507 381A 

.. 508 381B 

.. 509 382 

... 509 383 

511 384 

511 385B 

512 385A 

513 386 

514 388A 

5.5 390B 

516 389B 

517 388B 

518 389A 

518 391A 

519 390A 

519 391B 

520 392B 

521 392A 
521 393 

497 374 


468. urbanum, Linn. 

469. elatum, Wall. 


470. nepalensis, Hook. ... 

471. supina, Linn. 

472. Agrimonia Eupatori- 

um, Linn. 


473. damascena, Mill. 

474. centifolia, Linn. 

475. Gallica, Linn. 

476. alba, Linn. 

477. Cydonia vulgaris, 

Pers. ... 

478. Ervobotrya japonica, 

Lindl, ... 

N O. Saxifrages ... 

Saxifraga ligulata, 

Wall. ... 
Dichroa f e b r i fuga, 

Lour. ... 

481. Ribes Orient ale, 

N.O. Grassulace.e ... 

482. Bryophyllum caly- 

cinum, Salisb. 








525 396 














531 404 





483. spathulata, D.C. 

484. adnata, D.C. 

N.O. Droserace^) ... 

485. Drosera peltata, Sin. 


486. Altinga e x c e 1 s a, 

N.O. Rhizophore^; ... 

487. Rhizophora mucro- 

nata, Lamk. 

488. Ceriops Candolleana, 


489. Kandelia Rheedii, 

W. and A. 



490. Catappa, Linn. 

491. belerica, Roxb. 

492. Chebula, Retz. 
49B. citrina Roxb. 

494. Arjuna, Bedd. 

495. tomentosa, Bedd. ... 

496. paniculata, Roth ... 

497. Calycopteris flori- 

bunda, Lam. 

498. Anogeissns latifolia, 

Wall. ... 

499. Quisqualis indica, 

Linn. ... 

N.O. Myrtace^; ... 

500. Myrtus Communnis, 

Linn. ... 

501. Melaleuca leuca- 

dendron, Linn. 

502. Psidium G- u y a v a, 

Linn. ... 


503. Jambos, Linn. 

504. operculata, Roxb. ... 

505. Jambolana, Lam. 


506. racemosa, Blume 

507. acutangula, Gaartn ... 

508. Careya a r b o r e a, 

Roxb. ... 

N.O. Melastomace^e 

509. Memecyclon e d u 1 e, 

Roxb. ... 

N.O. Lythrace/e ... 

510. baccifera, Linn. 

511. senegalensis, Lamk. 

512. Woodfordia 11 o r i- 

bunda, Salisb. 


















































Page. Plate 



562 432B 

513. Lawsonia alba, Lamk 

514. Lagerstroemia Flos — 

Reginse, Retz 

515. Sonneratia .acida, 

Linn. ... 
Punica g r a n a t um, 
Linn. ... 

N.O. Onagrace^e ... 

Jussisea suffruticosa, 
Linn. ... 

518. Trapa bispinosa, 

Roxb. ... 

N.O. Samydace^e ... 


519. graveolens, Dalz. ... 
esculenta, Roxb. ... 
tomentosa, Roxb. ... 

N.O. Passiflor^ ... 

Carica papaya, Linn. 
Modeea p a 1 m a t a , 
Lam. ... 

N.O. Cucurbit ace^: 

524. palmata, Roxb. 
cordata, Roxb. 
dioica, Roxb. 
nervifolia, Linn, 
eucumerina, Linn. ... 
anguina, Linn. 
Lagenaria vulgaris, 
Luff a 
531. segyptiaca, Mill. 

acutangula, Roxb. ... 
acutangula Var. Ama- 

eehinata, Roxb. 
Benicassa cerifera, 
Savi. ... 

536. Charantia, Linn. 
Balsamina, Linn, 
dioica, Roxb. 
cochinchin ensis 

Cyinbalaria, Fenzl. ... 

541. trigonus, Roxb. 
var. pubescens 
var. pseudo colocyn- 
this, Royle 
melo, Linn. 
Var. momordica, 

Var. utilissimas Roxb 
sa.tivus, Linn. 
544. colocynthis, 














570 436 















584 446 






588 451 













Schrad 598 460 



Page Plate 



vulgaris, Schrad. ... 




Cephalandra indica, 

Nand. ... 





maxima, Duchesne ... 




Pepo.D. C. 




Bryonia laciniosa, 

Linn. ... 




Mukia scabrella, Arn. 





Hookeriana, A rn. 




umbellata, Thwaites 




Rhynohocarpa f oe - 

tida, Schrad. 





epigsea, Hook. 




Zanonia indica, Linn. 



N.O. Datiscace^ ... 



Datisca Cannabina, 

Linn. ... 



N.O. Cacte^i 




Opuntia Dillenii, 








monogyna, Linn. 




pentandra, Linn. ... 




decandra, Lin a. 



Moll ago 


hirta, Thumb. 




Spergula, Linn. 




stricta, Linn. 




Cerviana, Seringe ... 




Gisekia pharnaceoi- 

des, Linn. 



N. 0. Umbelliferje... 



Hydrocotyle asiatica, 

Linn. ... 




Erynglum cseruleum, 

• Bieb. ... 




Bupleurum falcatum, 

Linn. ... 




Apium graveolens, 

Linn. ... 





Carui, Linn. 




Bui bocastanum, 

Koch. ... 




Roxb urghianum, 





copticum, Benth. ... 




PimpineDa Hcyneana, 

Wall. .. 




Seseli indicum, W. 

and A. ... 




Foeniculum vulgare, 

Gartn. ... 



Page. Plate 



Prangos pabularia, 

Lindl. ... 




Angelica g 1 a u c a, 






narthex, Boiss. 




Jaeschkeana, Vafcke 





graveolens, Benth- ... 




grande, G. B. Clarke 




Coriandrum sativum, 

Linn. ... 




Cuminum Cyminum, 

Linn. ... 




Daucus Carota, Linn. 



N. O Araliaceje 



Aralia pseudo-gin- 

seng, Benth. 




Hedera helix, Linn. 



N. O. Cornace^e 



Alangium Lamarckii, 



487 A 

N. O, Caprifoliace^: 



Sambucus e b u 1 u s , 

Linn. ... 




Viburnum fcetidum, 

Wall. ... 




Lonicera glauca. H. 

f. and T. 



N. O. Rubiace^ 




cadamba, Miq. 




A d i n a cordifolia, 

Hook f. and Benth. 




Nauclea ovalifolia, 

Roxb. ... 



Hy menodi c t y on 

excelsum, Wall. ... 





corymbosa, Linn. 




umbellata, Linn. 




Ophiorrhiza Mungos, 

Linn. ... 




Mussaenda frondosa, 

Linn. ... 





uliginosa, D. C 




dumetorum, Lamk. ... 





lucida, Roxb. 




gummifera, Linn ... 




turgida, Roxb. 




campanulata, Roxb. 




Diplospora sphaero- 

carpa, Dalz. 


501 B 



didymum, Roxb. 







Page. Plate. 



608. parviflorutn, Larak. ... 




Sphseranthus indicus, 

609. Vangueria spinosa, 
Roxb. ... 




Linn. ... 
Anaphalis n e el g er- 



riana D.C. 





Gnaphalium luteo- 

610. parviflora, Vahl. 



album, Linn. 



611. coccinea, Linn. 




Inula racemosa, 

612. Pavetta indica, „ ... 



Hook. f. 



613. Morinda citrifolia, 


Pulicaria c r i s p a, 

Linn. var. bracteata 



Bentb. ... 





Xanthium s t r u - 

614. tinctoria, Roxb. 



marium, Linn. 



615. umbellata, Linn. ... 




Siegesbeckia Orien- 

616. Pgederia foetida, 

tals, Linn. 



Linn. ... 




Enhydra fluctuans, 

617. Spermacoce hispida, 

Lour. ... 



Linn. ... 




Eclipta alba, Hassk. 



618. R u b i a cordifolia, 


Wedelia calendu- 

Linn. ... 



lacea, Lees. 



N.O. Valeriana ... 



619. Nardostachys Jata- 
mansi, D.O. 




Acmella, Linn, 
oleracea, Jacq. 
Guizotia abyssinica, 





Cass. ... 



620. officinalis, Linn. 




Glossocardia lineari- 

621. Wallichii, D.C. 



folia, Cass. 



622. Hardwickii, Wall. ... 




Glossogyne prinnati- 

623. Leschenaultii, D. C. 

fida, D.C. 



var. Brunoniana ... 




Achillea millefolium, 



Linn. ... 



624. Morina p e r s i c a, 


Linn. ... 




indicum Linn. 




coronarium, Linn. ... 



N.O. Composite ... 



Matricaria c h a m o - 

625. Lamprach&eniurn 

milla, Linn. 



micro-c e p h a 1 u m, 


Cotula anthemoides, 

Benth. ... 



Linn. ... 





Centipeda o r b i c u- 

626. cinrea, Less. 



laris, Lour. 



627. anthelmintica, Willd. 




628. Elephantopsus s ca- 
ber, Linn. 




seoparia, Waldst and 


539 B 

629. Ageratuni conyzoi- 


maratima, Linn. 


5 39 A 

des, Linn. 




vulgaris, Linn. 





sacrorum, Ledeb. ... 


54 IB 

630. cannabinum, Linn. ... 




persica, Boiss. 



631. ayapana, Vent. 




absinthium, Linn. ... 



632. Solidago virga-aurea, 


Sieversiana, Willd. ... 



Linn. ... 




Tussilago farfara, Linn 



633. Grangea m a d e r as- 


Doronicum Hookeri, 

patana, Poir. 



Clarke Mss. 


543 B 

634. Erigeron asteroides, 


Emilia sonchifolia, 

Roxb. ... 



D.C. var Sonchi- 



folia proper 
Notonia grandiflora, 



635. lacera, D.C. 


52 1 A 

D.C. ... 



636. eriantha, D.C. 



637. densiflora, D.C. 




638. balsamifera, D.C, ... 




tenuifolius, Burm. ... 



639. indica, Less. 




Jacquerao n t i a n u s , 

640. lanceolata, Oliv. 



Benth. ... 





Page. Plate 
675. quinquelobus, H. f. 

and T. 
667. densiflorus, Wall. ... 

677. Echinops echinatus, 

D.C. ... 

678. Carduus nutans, 

Linn. ... 

679. Silybum marianum, 

Gcertn. ... 


680. obvallata, Wall. 
681 candicans, Clarke ... 

682. hypoleuca, Spreng. ... 

683. Lappa, Clarke 

684. Jurinea m a c r o c e- 

phala, Benth. 


685. glaberrima, D.C. 

686. montana, Dalz. and 

Gibs. ... 

687. Volutarella d i v a ri- 

cata, Benth. 

688. Carthamus tinctorius, 

Linn. ... 

689. Dicoma t o m e n tosa, 

Cass. ... 


690. Intybns, Linn. 

691. Endivia, Linn. 

692. Taraxacum officinale, 

Wigg. ... 


693. Heyneana, D.C. 

694. remotiflora, D.C. ... 

695. Scariola, Linn. 


696. oleraceus, Linn. 

697. arvensis, Linn. 


698. asplenifolia, D.C. ... 

699. nudicaulis, Less. 

700. pinnatifida, Cass. ... 


701. Scfevola Koenigi i, 

Vahl. ... ... 727 566 

N. O. CampanulacExE 728 

702. Lobelia nicotinsefolia, 

Heyne. ... ... 728 567A 

703. Codonopsis o v a t a, 

Benth. ... 

N. O. Ericaceae 

704. Gaultheria fragran- 

tissima, Wall. 

705. P i e r i s ovalifolia, 

D. Don. 


706. arboreum, Sm, 








































729 567B 

729 568 

731 569 

732 570 


. Plate 




companulatum, Don. 
lepidotum, Wall, 
setosum, Don. 
anthopogon, D. Don. 
cinnabarinum, H. f.... 







N. O. Plumbagine^e... 



712. Zeylanica, Linn. 

713. rosea, Linn. 

714. Primula reticulata, 

Wall. ... 

715. Anagallis arvensis, 

Linn. ... 




574 B 



N. O. Myrsineje 



Myrsine a f r i c a n a, 
Linn. ... 




717. ribes, Burm. 

718. robusta, Roxb. 

719. A r d i s i a colorata, 

Roxb. ... 





N. O. Sapotace^e 



Achras sapota, Linn., 



721 latifolia, Roxb. 

722. longifolia, Linn. 

723. butyracea, Roxb. ... 





Elengi, Linn, 
hexandra, Roxb. 
Kauki, Linn. 





N. O. Ebenace^e 




montana, Roxb. 
embryopteris, Pers. 
melanoxylon, Roxb. 




N. O. StyracE/E 





cratsegoides, Ham. ... 
racemosa, Roxb. 



N. O. Oleace^e 




Sambac, Ait. 
pubeseens, Willd. ... 
arborescens, Roxb.... 
angustifolium, Vahl. 
humile, Linn, 
officinale, Linn, 
grandiflorum, Linn.... 











739. Nyctanthes Arbor 

tristis, Linn. 


740. noribunda, Wall. ... 

741. excelsior, Linn. 

766 594 

768 595 A 

769 595B 




742. cuspidafca, Wall. 

743. glandulif era, Wall. ... 

N. O. Salyodorace.e. 


744. persica, Linn. 

745. Oleoides, Dene. 

746. Azima tetracantha, 

Lamk. ... 

N. O. APOCYNACE.£ ... 

747. Carissa C a r a n d us, 


748. Rauwolfia serpentina, 

Benth. ... 

749. Cerbera O d o 1 1 a m, 

Gsertn. ... 

750. R h a z y a stricta, 



751. rosea, Linn. 

752. pusilla, Murr. 

753. Pluineria acutifolia, 

Poiret. ... 

754. Alstonia sclio laris, 

Brown. ,.. 

755. Holarrhena antidy- 

senterica, Wall. ... 


756. dichotoina,Roxb. ... 

757. Heyneana, Wall. 

758. coronaria, Br. 

759. Yallaris H e y n e i , 



760. tinctoria, Br. 

761. tomentosa, Roem. and 


762. Neiiam odoruin, 



763. caryophyllata, G. 

Don. ... 

764. calycina, A.DC. 

765. Trach elospermuin 

fragrans, Hook. ... 

766. Anodendron panicu- 

latuin, A. DC. 

767. Ichnoearpus frutes- 

cens, Br. 

ft. O. ASCELPIDE.E ... 

768. Hemidesmus indicus, 


769. Periploca a p h y 1 1 a, 

Dcsne. ... 

770. Secamone e m e t i ca, 


771. Oxystelma esculen- 

tum, Br. 

ge. Plate 

















602 B 






































Page. Plate 



772. gigantea, R. Br. 



773. procera, Br. 



774. Aselepias .curas sa- 

vica, Linn. 



775. Pentatropis spiralis, 

Dene. ... 



776. Daemia extensa, Br. 



777. Holostemma Rheedii, 

Wall. ... 



778. Sarcosteroma brevis- 

tigma, W. and A. ... 



779. Gymnema sylvestre, 




780. Marsdenia Royleii, 





781. fasciculata, Ham. ... 



782. asthmatica, W. and A 



783. Cosmostigroa raee- 

mosum, Wight. 



784, Dregea volubilis, 

Benth. ... 




785. bulbosa, Roxb. 



786. tuberosa, Roxb. 



787. Boueerosia Auche- 

riana, Dene. 



N.O. LOGANIACE.£. ... 



788. colubrina, Linn. 



789. Nuxvomica, Linn. ... 



790. potatorum, Linn. f. M 



N.O. Gentian ace.e. ... 



791. tetragonum, Roxb. ... 



792. bicolor, Roxb. 



793. pedunculatum, Linn. 



794. Enicostema littorale, 

Blume. ... 



795. ErythrEea Roxbur- 

ghii, G. Don. 




796. diffusa, Br. 


797. decussata, Roem. and 

Sch. ... 




798 tenella, Fries. 



799. Kurroo, Royle 



800. decumbens, Linn. ... 




801. purpurascens, Wall. 



802. paniculata, Wall. . : . 



803. chiata, Ham. 


641 B 

804. angustifolia, Ham. ... 



805. affinis, Clarke. 



806. decussata, Nimmo. ... 



807. Menyanthes trifolia- 

ta, Linn. 





Page. Plate 
N. O. Hydrophyllace.e 855 

Page. Plate 

808. Hydrolea Zeylanica, 

Vahl. ... 

N. O. BORAGINE-^ . . . 

809. Myxa, Linn. 

810. obliqua, Willd. 

811. Yar. Wallichii. 

812. Rothii, Roem. and 


813. vestita, H. i and T.... 

8 14. Macleodii, H. f. and T. 


815. obtusifolia, Hochst. .. 

816. buxifolia, Roxb. 

817. Coldenia proc u m - 

bens, Linn. 


818. Eichwaldi, Steud. ... 

819. undulatum, Vahl. ... 

820. strigosnai, Willd. ... 

821. brevifolium, Wall. ... 

822. indicum, Linn. 


823. indicum, Br. 

824. africanum, Br. 

825. Zeylanica m, Br. 


826. Benthami, D.C. 

827. perennis, Boiss. 


828. echiodes, Linn. 

829. bracteatum, Wall, ... 


830. Erycibe paniculata, 

Roxb. ... 

831. Rivea ornata, Chois. 

832. Argyreia s p e c i osa, 

Sweet. ... 


833. bona-nox, Linn. 

834. muricata, Jacq. 

835. Quamoclit, Linn. 

836. hcderacea, Jacq. 

837. uniflora, Roem. and 

Sch. ... 

838. digitata, Linn. 

839. batatas, Lnink. 

840. pes-tigridis, Linn. ... 

841. reniformis, Chois. ... 

842. obscura, Ker. 

843. separia, Koen. 

844. aqutica, orsk. 

845. campanulata, Linn. ... 

846. Turpethum, Br. 

847. biloba, Forsk. 

848. vitifolia, Sweet 

855 644 


856 645 

857 646 

858 647B 

859 648 

860 647A 

861 649 

861 650A 

862 650B 

862 651C 

863 652A 
S64 652C 

864 651B 

864 652 B 

865 651 A 

866 653A 

867 65 3 B 
867 655B 

867 655B 

868 655A 






871 651 








661 A 









665 B 





66 5 A 








849. Convolvulus arvensis, 

Linn. ... 

850. Evolvulus alsinoides, 

Linn. ... 

851. Cressa cretica, Linn. 

852. Cuscuta reflex a, 

Roxb. ... 


853. nigrum, Linn. 

854. dulcamara, Linn. 

855. spira le, Roxb. 

856. verbascifolium, Linn. 

857. ferox, Linn. 

858. indcum, Linn. 

859. Melongena, Linn. ... 

860. xanthocarpum,Schrad 

and Wendl. 

861. trilobatum, Linn. 

862. gracilipes Dene. 


863. minima, Linn. 

Yar. Indica 

864. frutescens, Linn. ... 

865. minimum, Roxb. 


866. somnifera, Dunal. ... 

867. coagulans, Dunal. ... 

868. Lycium europseum, 

Linn. ... 

869. Atropa Belladona, 

Linn. ... 


870. Stramonium, Linn. ... 

871. fastuosa, Linn, 
alba, Nees. 
Metel, Linn. 

Scopolia lurida, Dunal 
Physochlaina prselta, 
H. f. ... 

876. niger, Linn. 

877. muticus, Linn. 

878. reticulatus, Linn. .„ 


879. Tabacum, Linn. 

880. rustica, Linn. 


881. Yerbascum Thapsns, 

Linn. ... 

882. Celsia coromandeli- 

ana, Yahl. 

883. Linaria ramosissima, 

Wall. ... 

884. Schweinfurthia sph- 

rorocarpa, A Braun. 

885. Lindcnborgia urticic- 

folia, Lehm. 

885 668C 


7 2. 


















































Page. Plate 



v i s c o s a, 


... 928 695 



887. gratissiina, Blutne. ... 

888. gratioloides, Br. 

889. Herpestis Monniera, 

H. B. and K. 

890. Curanga amara, Juss. 

891. Torenia asiatica, Linn. 


892. erecta, Benth. 

893. pedunculata, Benth. 

894. Picrorhiza Furrooa, 

Benth. ... 


895. Anagallis, Linn. 

896. Beccabunga, Linn. ... 

897. Sopubia delphini- 

folia, G. Don. 

Pedicular is 

898. pectinata, Wall. 

899. siphonantha, Don. ... 


900. Oroxvlum indicum, 

Vent. ... 

901. Tecoma undulata, 



902. Rheedii, Seem. 

903. falcata, Seem. 

904. Heterophragma 

Roxburghii, D. C. ... 


905. clielonoides, D.C. ... 

906. suaveolens, DeC. 

907. xylocarpum, Wight. 

908. Amphicome e m o d i , 

Lindl. ... 

N. O. PedalinE-E ... 

909. Martynia d i a n d r a, 

Glox. ... 

910. Peclalinm 


911. Sesamum 

DeC. ... 


912. Cardanthera u li g i- 

nosa, Ham. 

913. Hygrophila spinosa 

T. Anders. 

914. prostrata, Lamk. 

915. suSruticosa, Roxb 

916. Dtedalacanthus 

roseus, T. Anders 


917. calosus, Nees. 

INI ii r e x, 



696 A 





933 699 











937 701A 

938 702 


939 704 
943 70 IB 

Page. Plate 

918. auriculatus, Nees. ... 959 718 

919. Blepharis edulis, 

Pers. ... ... 960 719B 

920. Acanthus Hicifolius, 

Linn. ... 

921. Prionitis, Linn. 
1)22. noctiflora, Linn. 

923. cristata, Linn. 

924. strigosa, Willd. 

925. Neuracanthus sphce- 

rostachyus Dalz. ... 


926. paniculata, Nees. ... 

927. echioides, Nees. 

928. verticillaris, Nees. ... 

929. tentaculatus, Nees.... 

930. Gymnostachyum 

febrifugum, Benth. 

931. Phlogacanthus thyr- 

siflorus, Nees. 

932. Lepidagathis cris- 

tata, Willd. 



945 706 













933. gendarussa, Linn. ... 

934. procumbens, Linn. ... 

935. Adhatoda V a si c a, 

Nees. ... 
j 936. Rhinacanthus c o m - 

munis, Nees. 
937. Ecbolium linneanura, 

Kurz. ... 
| 938. Graptophyllum hor- 

tense, Nees. 


. re pens, Nees. 
. parviflora, Nees. 
. Dicliptera Roxbur- 
ghiana, Nees. 

942. Peristrophe b i c a ly- 

culata, Nees. 


943. indica, Roxb. 

944. Camara, Linn. 

N. O. Vbrbenacr^ ... 

945. Lippia n o d i fL o r a. 

955 7 



958 716 





Call i carp a 

947. arborea, Roxb. 

948. lanata, Linn. 

949. mucrophylla, Vahl. 

950. Tectona grandis, 

Linn. ... 


951. integrifolia ; Linn. ... 

960 719A 

961 720B 

963 721 

963 721 


965 722 B 




971 723 

972 724 

973 725 

974 722A 
977 726B 

979 727 

980 728 

981 729 

982 726A 
982 730 



986 731 

987 732B 

988 732A 

988 733 

989 734 

990 735 
992 736 



Page. Plate 
9o2. tomentosa, Willd. ... 993 

953. latifolia, Roxb. ... 993 737B 

954. esculenta, Roxb. ... 994 737A 

955. herbacea, Roxb. ... 994 738A 

956. aborea, Linn. ... 996 739 

957. asiatica, Linn. ... 997 738B 

958. trifolia, Linn. ... 998 740B 

959. negundo, „ ... 999 740A 

960. peduncularis, Wall. 

Var. Roxburghiana 1001 741 

961. glabrata, Br. ... 1002 742 


962. inerme, Gserfcn. ... 1002 743 

963. phlomoides, Linn. ... 1004 744 

964. serratum, fepreng ... 1005 745 

965. infortunatum, Gsertn. 1007 746 

966. siphonanthns, Br. ... 1008 747 

967. Avicennia officinalis, 

Linn. ... ... 1009 748 

N. O. Labiatve ... 1010 


968. canurn,Siins. ... 1010 749A 

969. Basilicum, Linn. ... 1011 750 
970 gratissimnm, Linn. ... 1012 749B 

971. sanctum, Linn. ... 1014 751 

972. Geniosporuin prostra- 

turn, Benth. ... 1015 752A 

973. Orthosiphon stami- 

neus, Benth. ... 1016 752B 

974. Coleus aromaticus, 

Benth. ... ... 1017 753B 

975. Anisochilus carnosus, 

mm r Wal1 - .« ... 1018 753A 

J7o. Lavandula Burmanii, 

Benth. ... ... 1018 


977. plectranthoides, Deef. 1020 754 

978. purpurascens, Dalz. ' 1020 755B 

979. parviflorus, Benth. ... 1021 755 A 

980. patchouli, Pellet. ... 1022 

981. Mycrotcena cyinosa, 

Prain. ... ... 1022 779 

982. Colebrookia oppositi- 

folia, Smith. ... 1023 756A 

983. viridis, Linn. ... 1024 756B 

984. piperita, Linn. ... 1024 757A 

985. sylvestris, Linn. ... 1024 757B 

986. arvensis, Linn. ... 1025 758B 

987. Lycopus europajus, 

Lin n. ... ... 1026 758A 


988. Marjorana, Linn. ... 1026 759B 

989. vulgare, Linn. ... 1026 759A 

990. Thymus serpyllum, 

Linn. ... ... 1027 760B 


991. Hyssopus officinalis, 

Linn. ... ... 1028 

992. Micromaria capitel- 

lata, Benth. ... 1029 

993. Calamintha Clinopo- 

dium, Benth. ... 1029 

994. Melissa parviflora, 

Benth. ... ... 1030 

995. Perowskia abrotan- 

oides, Kiril ... 1031 


3. strobilifera, Benth.... 
r. bengalensis, Benth.... 






moorcroftiana, Wall., 
lanata, Roxb. 

plebeia, Br. 

iEgyptiaca, Benth. 

var. pumila, Benth. 

1002. elliptica, Royle ... 
ciliaris, Benth. 
ruderalis, Hamilt, ... 
Draccepha lum 
moldavicum, Linn. 
Lallemantia Roy- 
leana, Benth. 

1007. Brunella vulgaris, 

Linn. ... 

1008. Marrubium vulgare, 

Linn. ... 


1009. ovata, Br. 

1010. malabarica, Br. 

1011. Stachys parviflora, 

1012,. Galeopsis 
Linn. ... 

1013. Leonurus 

Linn. ... 

1014. R o y 1 e a 

Wall. ... 

1015. Otostegia 

Benth. Mss. 


1016. cephalotes, Spreng. 
Zeylanica, Br. 
asp era, Spreng. 
linifolia, Spreng. ... 

Leonotis nepetoe- 

folia, Br. 

Vicaryi, Benth. .,, 
A j u g a bracteosa, 

Wall. ... 

N. O. Plantagine.e 













76 IB 













1041 766A 










major, Linn, 
lanceolata, Linn. 









781 A 








1025. brae hyphylla, 
Edgew. ... 1050 

1026. amplexicaulis, Cav, 1051 

1027. ovata, Forsk. ... 105 L 

1028. Psyllium, Linn. ... 1052 

N. O. Nyctagine^: ... 1052 

1029. Bcerhaavia diffusa, 

Linn. ... ... 1052 783 


1030. aculeata, Linn. ... 1055 

1031. alba, Spanoghe ... 1055 



1032. argentea, Linn. ... 1056 

1033. cristata, Linn. ... 1057 


1034. spinosus, Linn. ... 1057 

1035. paniculatus, Linn. ... 1059 

1036. gangeticus, Linn. ... 1060 


1037. javanica, Juss. ... 1060 

1038. lanata, Juss ... 1060 

1039. Ackyranthes aspera, 

Linn. ... ... 1061 793 

1040. Alternanthera 

sessilis, Br. ... 1063 794 

N.O. Chenopodiace/e 1064 


1041. album, Moq. ... 1064 

1042. botrys, Linn. ... 1065 

1043. ambrosioides, Linn. 1065 

1044. Beta vulgaris, 

Linn. ... ... 1066 

1045. Spinacia oleracea, 

Linn. ... ... 1067 

1046. Kochia indica, 

wight... ... 1068 

1047. Salicornia brachiata, 

Roxb. ... ... 1068 

1048. S u C3 d a fruticosa, 






79 L 








80 1 A 


1049. monoica, Forsk. 

1050. Kali, Linn. 




1051. rubra, Linn. 

1052. alba, Linn. 





1053. Phytolacca acinosa, 
Roxb. ... 





1054. Calligonum poligo- 

noides, Linn. 

1055. aviculare, Linn. 

1056. plebejum, Br. v a r . 






Page, Plate 


1057. viviparum, Linn. ... 1074 805C 

1058. glabrum, Willd. ... 1075 807 

1059. persicaria, Linn. ... 1075 

1060. barbatum, Linn. ... 1076 808 

1061. Hydropiper, Linn.,.. 1077 805B 

1062. alatum, Ham. ... 1078 809 

1063. molle, Don. ... 1078 810 


1064. spiciforme,Royle ... 1079 811A 

1065. Moorcrof tianu m, 

Royle ... ... 1079 812 

1066. emodi, Wall. ... 1079 813B 

1067. acuminatum, H. f. 

and T. ... ... 1080 813A 

1068. Webbianum,Royle .. 1080 811B 

1069. Oxyria digyna, Hill 1082 814 

1070. maritimus, Linn. ... 1082 815B 

1071. dentatus, Linn. ... 1083 816 

1072. nepalensis, Spreng. 1083 817 

1073. vesicarius, Linn. ... 1084 815A 

N. O. Aristolochia- 
ce^} ... ... 1085 


1074. Wallichii, Br. 

1075. tomentosa, Blume ... 


1076. bracteata, Retz. ... 

1077. indica, Linn. 

N. 0. Piper ace^; ... 

1078. longum, Linn. 
Chaba, Hunter 
sylvaticum, Roxb. 
Betle, Linn. 
nigrum, Linn. 


Myristica malabari- 
ca, Lamk. 



1084. Tamala, Fr. Nees. ... 

1085. obtusifolium, Nees. 

1086. iners, Reinw. 





zeylanicum, Breyn. 
macrocarpum, H. f, 



109 1. Actinodaphne Hook- 

eri, Meissn. 


1092. s e b i f e r a, Pers. 
Var. Sebifera pro- 

1093. polyantha, Juss. ... 







821 A 
































836 A 






1094. Stocksii, Hook. f. ... 

1095. Lindera Neesiana, 

Benth. ... 

1096. Cassytha filiformis, 

Linn. ... 


1097. Daphne oleoides, 


1098. Wikstrcetnia indiea, 

C. A. Mey. 

1099. Lasiosiplion erioce- 

IDhalns, Dene. 

1100. Aquilaria Agalloeha, 

Roxb. ... 

N. O. El^gnace.e ... 

1101. hortensis, M. Bieb. 

1102. umbellata, Thumb... 

1103. latifolia, Linn. 

1104. rhamnoides, Linn.... 

1105. salicifolia, Don. 

N. O. Loranthace^ 

1106. album, Linn. 

1107. monoicum, Roxb. ... 

1108. orientale, Willd. ... 

1109. articulatum, Burm. 


1110. Santalum album, 

Linn. ... 

1111. Osyris arborea, 

Wall. ... 



1112. hyperieifolia, Linn. 

1113. pilulifera, Linn. 

1114. thymifolia, Burm. ... 

1115. microphylla, Heyne 

1116. Tirucalli, Linn. ... 

1117. neriifolia, Linn. 

1118. nivulia, Ham. 

1119. anti quorum, Linn. ... 

1120. Royleana, Boiss. ... 

1121. Tho mpsoniana, 
Boiss. ... 

1122. helioscopia, Linn 

1123. dracun culoides, 

1124. Buxus Semper- 

virens, Linn. 

1125. retusa, Spreng. 

1126. montana, Willd. ... 

1127. Cleistanthus col- 

linus, Benth. ... 1136 856 
















Andrachne e o r d i 
folia, Muell. 




841 A 












852 B 







Page. Plate 


1137 855B 

1129. reticulatus, Poir. ... 1138 857 

1130. emblica, Linn. ... 1139 858 

1131. Madrasp a t e n s i s, 

Linn. ... ... 1141 859A 

urinaria, Linn. ... 1142 859B 

simplex, Retz ... 1142 860 
simplex var. oblongi- 

folia. ... ... 1143 

Niruri, Linn. ... 1143 861 

distichus, Muell. ... 1145 862A 

Flneggia micro- 

carpa, Blume. ... 1146 862B 
Breynia rhamnoides, 

Muell. ... ... 1147 863 

1138. Putracjiva Roxbur- 

ghii,WaIl. ... 1148 864 


1139. Bunias, Spreng. ...1149 865 

1140. alexiteria, Linn. ... 1149 866B 


1141. glandnlifera, Roxb. 1150 866 A 
nana Dalz. ... 1151 867 A 
multiflda, Linn. ... 1151 868 
curcas, Linn. ... 1152 867B 

Aleurites molucca- 
na, Willd. ... 1154 869 


1146. reticulatus, Heyne. 1156 87 J 

Roxb. ... ... 1156 871 

caudatus, Geisel. ... 1157 872 A 

Tiglium, Linn. ... 1158 872B 


1150. tinctoria, A. Juss.... 1158 873C 

1151. plicata, Muell. ... 1159 873A 

1152. fruticosa, Forsk. ... 1160 873B 

1153. indiea, Linn. ... 1160 874 

1154. hispida, Burm. ... 1164 875A 

1155. Trewia nudiflora, 

Linn. ... ... 1165 876 

1156. Mallotus philippin- 

ensis, Muell. ... 1165 875B 

1157. Macaranga Roxbur- 

ghii, Wight. ... 1169 877 

1158. Ricinus communis, 

Linn. ... ... 1170 878 

1159. Baliospermum axil- 

lare, Blume. ... 1172 879 

1160. Tragia involucrata, 

Linn. ... ... 1173 880 


1161. indicum, Willd. ... 1174 881 

1162. insigne, Benth. ... 1175 882 


1163. Agalloeha, Linn. ... 1176 883 










1164. acerifolia, F. Did- 
ricbs. ... 

1165. Sebastiania Cham- 

selea, Muell. 
N. O. TJrticace^: ... 

1166. Holoptela integri — 

folia, Planch. 

1167. Celt is australis, 

Linn. ... 

1168. Gironniera reticu- 

lata, Thwaites ... 

1169. Humulus lupulus, 

Linn. ... 

1170. Cannabis sativa, 

Linn. .. 

1171. Strebulus a sp e r , 

Lour. ... 


1172. indica, Linn. 

1173. alba, Linn. 

1174. nigra, Linn. 

Fie us 

1175. gibbossa, Blume. ... 

1176. bengalensis, Linn.... 

1177. Benjamina,Linn. ... 

1178. retusa, Linn., 

1179. Rumphii, Blume 

1180. religiosa, Linn. 

1181. infectoria, Roxb. ... 

1182. heterophylla, Linn. 
1183 asperrima, Roxb. ... 
1184. hispida, Linn. 





































1185. Cunia Ham. 

1186. Ribes, Reinwdt. 

1187. palmatta Forsk. 

1188. glomerata, Roxb. 

1189. Antiaris toxicaria, 

Leschen. ... 1203 905 


1190. hirsuta, Lamk. ... 1203 

1191. integrifolia, Linn. ... 1204 906 

1192. lakoocha, Roxb. ... 1206 907 

1193. Laportea crenulata, 

Gand. ... ... 1207 908 

N. O. Platanace^e ... 1207 

1194. Platanus orientalis, 

Linn. ... ... 1207 911A 

N. O. JUGLANDE.E ... 1208 

1195. Juglans regia, Linn. 1208 909A 

N. O. Myrioace^e ... 1210 

1196. Myrica nagi, 

Thunb. ... 1210 909B 

N. O. Casuarine^e ... 1212 

1197. Casuarina equiseti- 

folia, Forst. ... 1212 910 

Page Plate 


N. O. CUPULTFER^E ... 1213 

1198. Betula utilis, Don. ... 1213 9UB 


1199. incana, Roxb: ...1214 912 

1200. lamellosa, Smith ... 1215 912A 

1201. pachyphylla, Kurz. 1215 913 

1202. Corrylus colurna, 

Linn. ... ... 1216 914 

N. O. Salicine^: ... 1216 

1203. tetrasperma, Roxb, 1216 915 

1204. acmophylla, Boiss.... 1217 916 

1205. Caprea, Linn ... 12 18 917 

1206. alba, Linn. ...1220 918A 

1207. babylonica, Linn. ... 1220 918B 

1208. nigra, Linn. ... 1221 919A 

1209. ciliata, Wall. ... 1222 920 

1210. euphratica, olid. ... 1222 921 

1211. alba, Linn. ... 1223 919B 
N. O, GNETACEiE ... 1224 


1212. vulgaris,Rich, ... 1224 

1213. pachyclada, Boiss ... 1225 

N. O. Conifers ... 1225 

1214. Cupressus sempervi- 

rens, Linn. ... 1225 922A 


1215. communis, Linn. ... 1226 922B 

1216. recurva, Ham. ... 1227 923 

1217. macropoda, Boiss. ... 1228 924 

1218. Taxus baccata, Linn. 1228 925A 

1219. longifolia, Roxb. 


1220. khasya, Royle ... 1234 

1221. Gerardiana, Wall. ... 1234 

1222. Cedrus L i b a n i, 

Barrel Var. Deoda- 

ra, Hook. ... 1235 

1223. Abies Webbiana, 

Lindley... .., 1238 

N. O. ORCHIDE.E ... 1240 


1224. Macraci, Lindl. ... 1240 

1225. chlorops, Lindl. ... 1241 


1226. campestris, Wall ,.. 1241 

1227. nuda, Lindl. ... 1242 

1228. spathulata, Spreng. 1243 

1229. Roxburghii, Br. ... 1244 931 

1230. Saccolabium papil- 

losum, Lind. ... 1245 932 

N. O. SCITAMIN 'M ... 1245 


1231. angustifolia, Roxb. 1245 934A 


and B 









1232. aromatica, Salisb. ... 1246 935 

1233. Zedoaria, Rose. ... 1247 934B 

1234. csesia, Roxb. ... 1248 936 

1235. Amada, Roxb. ... 1249 937A 

1236. longa, Linn. ... 1250 937B 


1237. Galanga, Linn. ... 1251 938 

1238. angustifolia, Rose. 1252 939 

1239. rotunda, Linn. ... 1253 940 

1240. Hedychium s p i c a- 

tum, Hamilt. ... 1254 941 A 


1241. xanthioides, Wall.... 1255 941B 

1242. subulatum, Roxb. ... 1256 942 

1243. aromaticum, Roxb. 1257 943 


1244. officinale, Roxb. ... 1257 944 

1245. Zerumbet, Smith ... 1258 945 
1248. Casumunar, Roxb.... 1259 946 

1247. Costus speciosus, 

Smith ... ... 1260 947 

1248. Elettaria eardamo- 

mum, Maton ... 1261 948 


1249. Galanga, Sw. 

1250. Allughas, Roxb. ... 

1251. calcarata, Roxb. ... 

1252. Canna indica, Linn. 

1253. Musa sapientum, 

Linn. ... 


1254. Sansevieria R o x - 

burghiana, Schult .. 
N. O. Iride^: 


1255. ensata, Thumb. 

1256. nepalensis, Don ... 

1257. Kumaonensis, Wall. 

1258. Crocus s a t i v u s, 

Linn. ... 

1259. Belamcanda chinen- 

sis, Leman. 


1260. Agave Americana, 

Linn. ... 

1261. Curculigo orchi- 

oides, Gsertn. 

1262. asiaticum, Linn. ... 

1263. latifolium, Linn. ... 

1264. Sp. ? ... 

N. O. TACCACE.E ... 

1265. Tacca pinnatifida, 

Forst. ... 



1266. pentaphylla, Linn. 1282 960 






























1267. oppositifolia, Linn. 

1268. sativa, Linn. 

1269. bulbifera, Linn. ... 


1270. g 1 a b r a,Roxb. ... 

1271. lancesefolia, Roxb.... 

1272. macrophylla, Roxb. 


1273. filicinus,Ham. 
racemosus, Willd. ... 
adscendens, Roxb. 
gonoclados, Baker. 

Polygonatum multi- 

florum, All. 
Asphodelus tenui- 

folius, Cavan. 

1279. Chlorophytum 

arundina ceum, 
Baker. ... 

1280. ascalonicum,Linn.... 

1281. cepa, Linn. 

1282. sativum, Linn. 

1283. Urginea indica, 

Kunth. ... 

1284. Scilla indica, Baker. 

1285. giganteum, 

1286. Wallichianum, 
Schultes f. 

1287. Colchicum luteum, 

Baker. ... 

1288. Gloriosa superba, 

Linn. ... 


1289. Monochoria vagi- 

nalis, Presl. 

N. O. Xyride^e 

1290. Xyris indica, Linn. 



1291. obliqua, Ham. 

1292. suffruticosa, Blume 

1293. Aneilema s c a p i- 

florum, Wight. 


1294. tuberosa, Schultes... 

1295. axillaris, Roem and 


1296. Flagellaria indica, 

Linn. ... 

N. O. Palmes 

1297. Areca Catechu, 

Linn. ... 







. 1290 



































. 1307 983 


1310 986 





1298. Caryota u r e n s, 

Linn. ... 

1299. dacfcylif era, Linn. ... 

1300. sylvestris, Roxb. ... 

1301. Nannorhops Ritchi- 

eana, H. "Wendl. ... 

1302. Borassus flabellifer, 

Linn. ... 

1303. C o c o s nucifera, 

Linn. ... 

N. O. Pandane^ ... 

1304. Pandanus fascicu- 

laris, Lam. 

N. O. Typhace^i ... 

1313 986A 













1305. Typha elephantana, 

Roxb. ... 

N. O. Aroide^e 

1306. Cryptocoryne 

spiralis, Fisch. ... 1329 

1307. P i s t i a stratiotes, 

Linn. ... ... 1330 993 


1308. speciosum, Mart. ... 1332 994 

1309. tortuosum, Schott.... 1332 995 

1310. Leschenaultii, Blume 1333 996 

1311. Sauromatum gutta- 

tum, Schott. ... 1334 997 

1312. Typhonium triloba- 

tum, Schoot. ... 1335 998 

1313. Amo r p ho phallus 


Blume. ... 1336 999 

1314. Synantherias 

sylvatica, Schott. 1340 1000 

1315. Plesmomum marga- 

ritiferum, Schott. 1341 1001 

1316. Remusatia vivipara, 

Schott. ... 1342 

1317. Colocasia Antiquo- 

rum, Schott. ... 1342 1002 

1318. Alocasia i n d i c a , 

Schott. ... 1344 1003 

1319. Homalomena aroma- 

tica, Schott. ... 1346 1004 

1320. Scindapsus offici- 

nalis, Schott. ... 1347 1005 

1321. Rhaphidophora per- 

tusa, Schott. ... 1348 1006 

1322. Lasia heterophylla, 

Schott. ... 1349 1007 

1323. Acorus Calamus, 

Linn. ... ... 1349 1008 

N. O. Cypbrace^j ... 1353 

1324. triceps, Rottb. ... 1353 

1325. monocephala, Rottb. 1353 1009B 

1326. Juncellus inundatus, 

Clarke ... 1354 1009 A 


Page. Plate 



1327. scariosus, Br. 

1355 1010 

1328. rotundus, Linn. 

1356 1011 

1329. esculentus, Linn. ... 

1357 1012 

1330. Scirpus gross us 

Linn. ... 

1358 1013 

N. O. Gramine^: 


1331. Oryza sativa, 

Linn. ... ... 1359 

1332. Coix Lachryma-Jobi, 

Linn. ... ... 1363 

1333. Zea Mays, Linn. ... 1364 


1334. officinarum, Linn. ... 

1335. arundinaceum, Retz. 

1336. Manisuris g r a n u - 

laris, Linn. 

1336 1014B 

1337 1014A 


1369 1015B 

1371 1016 

1372 1015A 
1374 1017 

1374 1018 

1375 1019 

1376 1020 


1337. squarrosus, Linn. f. 

1338. Iwarancusa, Jones... 

1339. schcenanthus, Linn. 

1340. Nardus, Linn. 

1341. citratus, P.C. 

1342. Avena fatua, Linn ... 

1343. Cynodon dactylon, 

Pers. ... 


1344. coracana, Gsertn. ... 1378 1021 

1345. segyptiaca, Desf. ... 1379 1022 

1346. Hordeum vulgare, 

Linn. ... ... 1380 1023 

1347. Bambusa a r u n d i- 

nacea, Retz, ... 1381 1024 

1348. Dendroealamiis 
strictus, Nees ... 1384 1025 
Filices ... ... 1385 


1385 1031 

1386 1029 


1349. lunalutum, Burm. ... 

1350. caudatum, Linn. ... 

1351. Capillus— Vene r i s, 
Linn. ... 

1352. venustum, Don. 

1353. flabellulatum, Linn. 

1354. tennuifolia, Lw. ... 

1355. dicholoma, Forsk. ... 

1356. quercifolia, Linn. ... 

1357. Pleopeltis lanceola- 

ta, Linn. 

1358. Adiantum iEthiopi- 

cum, Linn. 

1359. „ pedatum, Linn. ... 

1360. Asplenium adiantum 

nigrum, Linn. 

1361. „ Ruta-muraria, Linn. 

1362. „ Trichomanes, Linn. 

1363. Athyrium F i 1 i x- 

femina, Beruh. 

1386 1028 

1388 1030 

1388 1026 

1389 1027 

1390 1032 








Page. Plate 

1364. Botrychium Lunaria, 

Sw. ... ... 1392 

1365. Cibotium Baronetz, 

Sw. ... ... 1392 

1366. „ glancum, Hook et 

Arn. ... ... 1393 

1367. Davallia tenuifolia, 

Sw. ... ... 1393 

1368. Helminthos tachys 

Dulcis, Kaulf ... 1393 

1369. Ophioglossum vul- 

gatum, Linn. ... 1393 

1370. Osrnunda re gal is, 

Linn. ... ... 1393 

1371. P t e r i s aquilina, 

Linn. ... ... 1393 

Fungi ... ... 1394 

1372. Agaricus cainpes- 

tris, Linn. ... 1394 1033 

Page. Plate 

1373. Boletus Nitus Arto- 

carpalis, K. R. Kir- 
tikar ... ... 1394 

1374. Mylitta lapidescens, 

Horan ... ... 1395 

Algje ... ... 1396 

1375. Ulva latissima, Linn. 1396 

1376. Porphyra vulgaris, 

Ag. ... ... 1396 


1377. vesiculosus, Linn. 1397 

1378. distichus, Linn. ... 1397 

1379. Laminaria Sacchari- 

na, Lam. ... 1397 

Lichenes ... 1398 


1380. Kamtschadalis, Esch. 1398 

1381. Perlata, Esch. ... 1398 
Index ... ... 1401 


Since disease, decay and death have always co-existed with 
life, the study of diseases and their treatment must also have 
been contemporaneous with the dawn of the human intellect. 
The primitive man must have used as therapeutical agents and 
remedial measures those things which he was able to procure 
most easily. There is no authentic record of medicines used by 
the primitive man. But the Big Veda which is the oldest book in 
the library of man supplies curious information on the subject. 
From it, we learn that the Indo-Aryans used the Soma as a medi- 
cinal agent. It is not quite certain what the Soma * plant was. 

*Dr. Aitchison has lately stated that Soma must be the Ephedra pachyclade, 
which in the Harirud valley is said to bear the name of hum, huma, and Ydhma. 
This supposition is confirmed by Dr. Joseph Barurniiller, a botanist long re- 
sident in Kerman, who identifies the Soma plant with some kind of Ephedra, 
probably Ephedra distachya, but who remarks that different varieties of 
Ephepra are to be found from Siberia to the Iberian peninsula, so that one 
must give up the hope of determining the original home of the Aryas by means 
of the habitat of the Soma plant, (Quarterly Review, No. 384, Octr. 1894, p. 

The Soma plant possessed intoxicating properties and the Vedic Aryans 
recognised it as a quickener of the intellect. 'Soma, like the sea, has poured 
forth songs, and hymns, and thoughts.' * * 

* The beverage (i.e., Soma juice) is divine ; it purifies, it inspires joy, it is a 
water of life ; it gives health and immortality.' , 

"We've quaffed the Soma bright, 

And are immortal grown ; 
We've entered into light, 

And all the gods have known. 
What mortal now can harm, 

Or foeman vex us more ? 
Through thee, beyond alarm, 

Immortal god, we soar." 
Address to Soma. 

"Thou Soma, fond of praise, the lord of plants, art life to us." 
''Be unto us, Soma the bestower of wealth, the remover of disease, 
Exulting Soma ! increase with all twining plants." 
" I invoke the divine waters, in which our cattle drink : 
Ambrosia is in the waters ; in the waters are medicinal herbs." 

Soma is supposed to preside over medicinal herbs, and therefore the Rishi 
Medhatithi continues his hymn, as :— 

" Soma has declared to me, ' all medicaments as well as Agni, the benefac- 
tor of the Universe, are in the waters ; ' the waters contain all healing herbs. 


This plant has not yet been satisfactorily identified. The Indo- 
Aryans used the plant for sacrificial purposes and its juice is 
described in the ancient Aryan literature as ( a stimulating 
beverage. The word 3TT^fa (oshaclhi) literally means heat-pro- 
ducer. When the Indo-Aryans came to use the Soma plant 
for therapeutical purposes, they came to possess a knowledge 
of the medicinal properties and uses of herbs and plants. 
Hence, Oshadhi (^rrefa) applied to all herbs and medicinal 

The knowledge of medicinal plants must have been accumu- 
lated in the course of many centuries. In bis work on Plants and 
Animals under Domestication, Darwin says ; — " From innumer- 
able experiments made through dire necessity by the savages of 
every land, with the result handed down by tradition, the 
nutritious, stimulating and medicinal properties of the most 
unpromising plants were probably first discovered."* 

The " doctrine of signatures " would also account for the use 
of several plants as medicinal agents. This doctrine is based 
on the resemblance in shape or color of some product of the 
vegetable kingdom with some organ in the animal economy. 
In the ignorance of anatomical or physiological data to work 
upon the primitive man thinks that these articles possess some 
action on those organs which they resemble in shape, size or 
color. Again, another reason for the extensive use of vegetable 
drugs may be the fact that plants are everywhere at hand, their 
number is very great and their forms are distinct and peculiar 
and thus are procured without trouble. 

It is greatly to the credit of the people of India that they 
were acquainted with a far larger number of medicinal plants 

" Waters bring to perfection all disease,— dispelling medicaments for (the 
good of) my body, that I may long behold the sun. 

" Waters take away whatever sin has been (found) in me, whether I have 
(knowingly) done wrong or have pronounced imprecations (against holy men) 
or (have spoken) untruth. 

"I have this day entered into the waters: we have mingled with their 
essence." (Wilson's translation of the Rig. Veda. Vol. I. p. 57). 

"Thou, Soma, fond of praise, the lord of plants, art life to us." 

"Be unto us, Soma, the bestower of wealth, the remover of disease, 
Exulting Soma ! increase with all twining plants." (Ibid p : £34). 

* Vol. I, p. 325. 


than the natives of any other country on the face of the earth. 
The vegetable Materia Medica of the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, 
Jews, Babylonians, Persians, Chinese and Arabs does not 
display such an extensive knowledge of medicinal plants and 
drugs as does any of the authoritative medical works of the 
Hindus. The knowledge of herbs possessed by the aborigines 
of America, Australia or Africa, is also not very great. Regard- 
ing the medicinal agents of the American Indians, Mr. B.F. 
Stacey says : — - 

" From a thorough investigation I am convinced that the 
list is not lengthy, and that there is but little to be learned from 
their school of practice or repertoire of medicinal agents."* 

Mr. J. N. Rose, in his " Notes on Useful Plants of Mexico." 
says : — 

" The country people and Indians seem to have but little 
knowledge of medicine, generally using teas made of bitter and 
strong-smelling herbs." 

Mr. J- H. Maiden writes in his " Useful native plants of 
Australia. " (Pp. 140-147) :— 

" In fairness to ourselves we must confess ourselves very 
little indebted to the Australian aboriginal for information as 
to the medical (or in fact any other) properties of our plants. 
The poor aboriginal chiefly takes interest in the vegetation as 
supplying him with his scanty food, or as affording him fibre 
useful in securing fish and other animal substance. As far as 
we know, the Materia Medica of the blacks is of a very meagre 
description, yet the acquisition of even such little knowledge 
as they are supposed to possess has been slow and difficult, in- 
asmuch as persons who have lived in a state of nature with 
them have not been distinguished for either their medical or 
botanical knowledge." 

He has very truly observed : — 

" With the native Materia Medica of India, for instance, the 
case is very different. While some remedies are evidently used 
fancifully, and others for every disease to which the human 

* The Pb. J. of May, 30, 1874, p. 958, 


frame is liable, inuch of the knowledge in regard to it is exact, 
the outcome of intelligent observation and enquiry. * ® " 

It may be that much of the knowledge of plants, once 
possessed by the ancestors of the present aborigines, has become 
lost to the world owing to their ignorance of the art of writing.® 

But we should not treat with contempt the knowledge of 
herbs possessed by aborigines. There can be little doubt that 
their " medicine men " possess a remarkably accurate knowledge 
of the medical uses of the plants around them. We should 
remember that they have taught us the uses of some of our 
most important drugs. It is to them that we are indebted 
for our knowledge of Cinchona in malaria, Digitalis, Strophan- 
thus and Physiostigma in heart diseases, and of Quassia as 
a bitter tonic. We cannot, therefore, sufficiently admire the 
practical wisdom of the ancient Hindus when they enjoined on 
the votaries of the healing art the penetration forests and the 
climbing of mountains to examine the qualities and properties of 
the medicines in their natural situations, and gather information 
regarding them from hunters and shepherds who may have had 
opportunities of witnessing their effects. | 

* Writing of America one botanist says that "when onr forefathers came to 
this country they found the natives in possession of much medical knowledge 
of plants. Having no remedies prepared by scientific skill, the Indians were 
led, by necessity, to the use of those which nature afforded them ; and, by 
experience and observation, they had arrived at many valuable conclusions 
as to the qualities of plants. Their mode of life, leading them to penetrate 
the shades of the forest, and to climb the mountain precipices, naturally 
associated them much with the vegetable world. The Indian woman, the 
patient sharer in these excursions, was led to look for such plants as she 
might use for the diseases of her family. Each new and curious plant, though 
not viewed by her with the eye of a botanist, was regarded with scrutinizing 
attention : the colour, taste, and smell were carefully remarked, as indications 
of its properties. But the discoveries and observations of the Indians have 
perished with themselves ; having had no system for the classification or 
description of plants, nor any written language by which such a system 
might have been conveyed to others, no other vestige remains than uncertain 
tradition of their knowledge of the medicinal qualities of plants." 

■j That much of the knowledge of medicinal plants by the primitive man was 
obtained from hunters and shepherds is evident from what Dr. Raymond 
Crawford, M. A., M D., (Oxon), Physician to King's College Hospital, London 
said in his presidential address delivered before the section of the History 
of Medicine, reported in the Lancet from which it has been reproduced in 
in the Scientific American Supplement of April 14 and 21, 1917. 

" Man, doubtless, will have acquired much of his knowledge of the 
nutritive and medicinal value of plants by the same methed as the lower 
animals, by experience. Like them, too, he will have profited by imitation, 
and imitation embracing his observation of the habits of the lower animals. 
It must have been of immense importance to man, when he depended largely 


About a generation ago, the use of plants and herbs as 
remedial agents was greatly discredited. The late Sir Thomas 
Lauder Brunton drew an analogy between the weapons and tools 
employed in art or warfare, and the implements used by man in 
the treatment of disease in different ages. It is customary to 
divide the progress of civilization into four stages, charact- 
erized by the nature of the weapons employed. " In the first or 
Paleolithic age, man employed weapons or tools of flint roughly 
chipped into shape and unpolished. In the next or Neolithic age, 
the implements consisted of stone, bat they were polished. The 
next age is characterized by the employment of bronze as a 
material, and the fourth and highest stage by the employment of 
iron. * * * * In the same way, we may recognise four stages in 
the development of the implements in the treatment of disease. 
In the first stage crude drugs were employed, prepared in the 
roughest manner, such as powdered Cinchona or metallic 
antimony. In the next stage, these were converted into more 
active and more manageable forms, such as extracts or solutions, 
watery or alcoholic. In the third stage, the pure active principles, 
separated from the crude drugs, were employed, e.g., morphine 
and quinine. In the fourth stage, instead of attempting to 

for food on wild animals captured in the chase, to watch them closely so as 
to know their habits. * * 

'« That a good deal of man's medicinal knowledge arose accidentally in his 
efforts to extend the range of his food supply is suggested by the prominent 
place occupied by food — stuffs in primitive pharmacy 08 . 

The ancient Hindus should be given the credit for cultivating what is now 
called " Ethno-botany". In Bulletin 55 of the Bureau of American Ethnologj*, 
it is said : — 

" Ethnobotany is virtually a new field of research, a field which, if investi- 
gated thoroughly and systematically will yield results of great value to the 
ethnologist and incidentally also to the botanist. * * * 

Ethnobotanical research is concerned with several important questions :— 
(a) What are primitive ideas and conceptions of plant life ? (b) "What are the 
effects of a given plant environment on the lives, customs, religion, thoughts 
and everyday practical affairs of the people studied ? (c) What use do they 
make of the plants about them for food, for medicine, for material culture, 
for ceremonial purposes ? (d) What is the extent of their knowledge of the 
parts, functions, and activities of plants ? (e) Into what categories are plant 
names and words that deal with plants grouped in the language of the people 
studied, and what can be learned concerning the working of the folkmind by 
the study of these names ? 

Ethnobotany will become a more important subject when its study has 
progressed to a point where results can be studied comparatively. 

A prime necessity is a good native informant ; indeed it is better to have 
several informants, preferably older men or women. " 

What a pity that hardly any attention is paid to this subject in modern 


extract our medicines from the natural products in which they 
are contained, we seek to make for ourselves such substances as 
shall possess the particular action we desire."* 

This method had been pursued since the time when 
Professors Crum Brown and Fraser were able to demonstrate 
the connection between chemical constitution and physiological 
action. "With the help of the advanced chemistry of modern 
times, an attempt to establish rational therapeutics was being 
made by the leading pharmacologists of the world. Thus 
the employment of inorganic salts and chemical principles 
obtained from the vegetable kingdom, which had been much 
in vogue about half a century ago, was being gradually 
abandoned in favor of derivatives obtained from coal-tar and 
various alcohols. As was once pointed out by the authors of 
the Extra Pharmacopoeia, " the place in medical treatment, of 
quinine and morphine, the two mainstays of the medical 
practitioners of twenty years ago, is in a great measure filled 
by antipyrin, antifebrin, phenacetin, exalgine, and salicylate 
of sodium on the one hand, and by sulphonal, tetronal, chloral, 
&c, on the other. "y The day was eagerly looked forward to 
when the articles of our organic materia medica were to be 
supplanted by the creations of the chemist. 

Analogy however is no safe guide in science. So Brun ton's 
comparison of the different articles of Materia Medica to the 
weapons of the different geologic periods, is, to say the least, 
very fallacious. There is something like what may be called 
" Fashion in medicine." It is due to this "fashion," that some 
of the good old remedies are labelled "out of fashion." For 
long it was not considered fashionable to use crude herbs. 
Synthetic remedies were the fashion of the day. It is not only 
the great war which is now raging in Europe that has made 
the pendulum of fashion swing from one extreme to the other, 
but the oscillation was visible even a considerable time before 
the outbreak of the War. 

* The British Medical Journal for August 14th, 1886, p. 326. 
| Extra Pharmacopeia by Martiudale an:l Westcott. Preface to the sixth 
edition, p. III. 


Thus a reaction seemed to have set in, in favor of plants 
being used as medicines. Referring to the use of the Bilberry 
(Vaccinium Myrtillus) as a remedy in Typhoid fever and other 
infectious diseases of the intestine— a paper read by Dr. Max M. 
Bernstein, M.B., before the Hunterian Society of London and 
published in the British Medical Journal for 7th February, 1903, 
— Sir James Sawyer, M. D., London, F.R.C.P., Senior Consult- 
ing Physician to the Queen's Hospital ; and Ex-Professor of 
Medicine in the Queen's College, Birmingham, wrote in the 
British Medical Journal for February, 4 28th, 1903 : — "Long 
have some of us dwelt with affection, and with hope of finding 
modern uses for some old drugs which were being lost to sight 
and to memory in the limbus of the past, and perhaps not 
without some practical success, upon the archaeology of our 
Medicinal " Simples," upon the histories and lore, upon the forms, 
virtues, and renown of many old-time Medicinal plants, upon 
plants called simples because each of them has been held to 
enshrine its particular curative virtue, and so to furnish a simple 
remedy for some symptom of disease, or for some individual 
morbid manifestation. Perhaps we have loved to walk, as Evelyn 
did, " into a large garden, esteemed for its furniture one of the 
fairest, especially for simples ;" or perhaps we have followed 
our own Garth, " when simpling on the flowery hills he strayed." 
# * # 

" True is it to-day as when Sir Thomas Watson so declared 
a third of a century ago that ' the greatest gap in the science 
of Medicine is to be found in its final and supreme stage— the 
stage of therapeutics.' Therapeutics advances by our increas- 
ing knowledge of the nature of morbid processes and of the 
physiological effects of remedies, and also by studying again 
many a good old drug by the light of later scientific methods 
and also by judicious selection from the traditions of popular 
medicine. Such selection gave us Digitalis." 

Dr. Ischirch, Professor of Practical Chemistry in the Univer- 
sity of Berne, is reported in the Lancet of 2nd October, 1909, 
to have said : — 

'We may assuredly hope that medicine, when it has 
thoroughly ruined its digestion with synthetical remedies and 


tested all the organs of the animal body, will return to the 
most ancient remedies of mankind, to the medicinal plants and 
drugs, for the utility of which the experience of the thousands 
of years vouches." 

There were other medical men also who were comiDg 
to look upon drugs of synthetical origin acting upon the 
system as foreign bodies, depressing and paralysing its func- 
tions. Bat according to them such was not the case with 
the drugs of vegetable origin which in their natural combina- 
tion meet nutritional conditions of the system. The possibilities 
and potentialities of medicinal plants and vegetable drugs have 
not been as yet properly and fully studied. In an article on 
" the teaching of chemical medicine," in the British Medical 
Jurnal of 3rd January, 1914, Dr. Mackenzie wrote that : — 

" Not one single drug has been carefully studied so as to 
understand its full effects on the human system, effects that 
could be easily recognised had a systematic examination been 
carried out when it was administered in the hospital wards. " 

The above observation of Dr, Mackenzie is fully borne out by 
what Dr. Charles J. Macalister, M.D., F.R.C.P. has discovered, 
as reported in the British MedicalJournal of January 6, 1912, in 
Symphytum officinale, a plant known as " comfrey " in England. 
He considers it as a "potent cell proliferant." It was a long 
forgotten remedy which was used in olden times to heal ulcers. 
On analysis, the root of the plant was found to contain allantione 
to which Dr. Macalister attributed its action as a potent cell 

Dr. William Bramwell, M.A., M.D., B. Ch., of Liverpool, 
concluded a note on the above-named plant published in the same 
issue of the British Medical Jurnal in the following significant 

" It is indeed refreshing and gratifying, in these days of 
serums and vaccines and highly complicated preparations, the 
administration of which, in some cases, is fraught with the 
gravest possible danger and soul-harrowing anxiety on the part 
of the administrator, to find a physician of Dr. Macalister's stan- 
ding setting on foot the investigation of so simple and natural 
a remedy as common comfrey." 



The present war has shown the necessity of using herbs and 
plants in preference to Synthetics. The President of the Bo- 
tanical section of the British Association held at New Castle in 
1916, very truly observed, regarding the medicinal plant 
industry, " Experience would indicate that here is opportunity for 
investigation, and, unless due care is taken, also danger of 
waste of time, money and effort. A careful systematic study of 
species, varieties and races is in some cases desirable in order to 
ensure the growth of the most productive or valuable plant ; 
and such a study might also reveal useful substitutes or addi- 
tions. Here the co-operation between the scientific worker and 
the commercial man is imperative." 

The study of medicinal plants is neglected by medical men 
all over the world, but more so in India. These are con- 
temptuously referred to as " old women's" remedies. * It is our 
misfortune that the chemistry and pharmacology of most of these 
plants have not been properly investigated. 

The late Right Hon'ble Mr. Gladstone was a man of extra- 
ordinary genius. As a scholar, politician, and statesman he will 
ever shine in the pages of English history as long as England is 
not effaced from the map of the World. In the course of a 
speech, delivered on the 26th March, 1890, on the occasion of 
the opening of Guy's Hospital Residential College, referring to 
the importance of the study of Botany with a view to learn 
the " qualities of plants which are so remarkable and power 
ful in their healing capacities," he said : — 

" I am not aware whether Botany now forms a recognised branch of the 
medical education, but I cannot help wishing that it did, and hoping that it 
may in the future, first of all, not ODly because it is in itself a most beautiful 

*Dr. John Foote, Associate Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, 
Georgetown University, Washington, writes of the importance of Trees in 
Medicine as folloms : — 

" And yet, in spite of the pharmaceutical image breakers and the thera- 
peutic nihilists, some of the most valuable remedies used in medicine come 
from trees. * * * 

"And if, as has been asserted, the decadence of Rome was really due to 
malaria, and if her glory was obscured by a cloud of mosquitoes rather than 
by the dust of battles, then it may be that the possession of some cinchona 
and the planting of the eucalyptus in the Roman marshes might have pre- 
vented a great civilization from withering and fluttering away and changed 
the countenance of historv." [Scientific American Supplement, January 13, 
1917 p. 26]. 



and interesting study exercising the mind without fatiguing it, and stimulat- 
ing the imagination without leading it astray, but also, because I cannot 
help wishing, although I know it is too much to expect of our actual medical 
men, that they should be careful observers of nature, yet in their younger 
years, before they have entered on their great career, I cannot help wishing 
that they had the habit of noticing all the qualities of plants which are so re- 
markable and powerful in their healing capacities." Then Mr. Gladstone 
narrated an anecdote, how the leaves of a plant healed the cut on his finger 
caused by an axe in wood-cutting. 

" You will think it ludicrous, if I were to tell you a little anecdote of my 
own, which is of the very simplest character, and it is so small and so slight 
as almost to be contemptible, but still it illustrates what I mean. I have 
been given, as is pretty well-known, or at least, I have been given to the 
pursuit of wood-cutting. From a pure accident, I drew my fingers the other 
day along the edge of the axe which was lying close by, and which was 
tolerably sharp, and cut my finger. Upon searching about me I found I had 
no handkerchief available. I wanted to staunch my little wound. Not 
having a handkerchief, I got a leaf and put it on the wound. I am bound to 
say that this was not the result of botanical knowledge, but it was a purely 
empirical proceeding on the chance of the quality of the leaf. But there 
was a curious result. I knew the time nature occupied in healing a little 
breach of continuity, and when I put on the leaf, I assure you it is the fact, 
that it healed in exactly half the time. It is hardly worth mentioning such 
a thing as I say but I cannot help having the belief that there are good 
treasures in nature more than have heretofore been explored in every 
branch. To make medical students, before they have come to their great 
responsibilities, observers of the great qualities and capabilities of plants, 
I cannot help thinking that some good will be done."* 

The importance of studying the subject of Indian medicinal 
plants has been again and again insisted on by several writers. 
It is too late in the day to discuss the necessity of such a study. 
The ease and cheapness with which these are procurable, the 
marvellous powers that are attributed to them in the cure of 
different maladies by natives of India, should induce us to 
investigate their properties and settle once for all their claims 
on our attention. 

Dr. John Lindley was a renowned botanist. His views on 
the subject of vegetable drugs deserve careful consideration. 
In the preface to his work on Flora Medica, he wrote : — 

" No one will be bold enough to assert that the physicians already possess 
the most powerful agents produced by the vegetable kingdom ; for every year 
is bringing some new plants into notice for its energy, while others are 

* Guy's Hospital Gazette for 29th March 1890, p. 72. 


excluded because of their inertness. In tropical countries, where a fervid 
sun, a humid air, and a teeming soil give extraordinary energy to vegetable 
life, the natives of those regions often recognise the existence of potent 
herbs unknown to the European practitioner. No doubt such virtues are 
often as fabulous and imaginary as those of indigenous plants long since 
rejected by the sagacity of European practice. But we are not altogether 
to despise the experience of nations less advanced in knowledge than our- 
selves, or to suppose, because they may ascribe imaginary virtues to some 
of their officinal substances, as has been abundantly done by ourselves in 
former days, that therefore the remedial properbies of the plants are not 
worthy of serious investigation or that their medical knowledge is beneath 
our notice because they are unacquainted with the terms of modern science. 
It is not much above 20 years since an English officer in India was cured of 
gonorrhoea by his native servant, after the skill of regular European practi- 
tioners had been exhausted. The remedy employed was Cubebs, the import- 
ance of which was previously unknown, and the rationale of whose action is 
to this day beyond the discovery of physiologists. It is of undoubted value 
in urethral catarrh : and who shall say that there are not hundreds of equally 
powerful remedies still remaining to be discovered. * * * and it 

must be sufficiently apparent to all unprejudiced minds, that the resources 
of the vegetable kingdom, far from being exhausted, have hardly yet been 
called into existence. It is presumptuous for the theorist to assert that he 
already possesses a remedy for all the maladies that flesh is heir to ; it is 
mere idleness in the routine practitioner, carried away by the attraction of 
spacious generalities, to fancy that one tonic is as good as another tonic, or 
one purgative as another purgative. In reality the true cause of the differ- 
ent actions of medicines upon the human body is admitted by the highest 
authorities to be wholly unknown ; and surely this is in itself the best of all 
reasons why we should not assume that we already possess against disease 
all the remedies which nature affords ; on the contrary it should stimulate us 
to reiterated enquiries into the peculiar action of new remedial agents. * * 
* "And they {i.e., European practitioners) find the medicines which are 
powerful in Europe, comparatively inactive in other climates. The heat of a 
country, its humidity, particular localities, food, and the social habits of a 
people will predispose them to varieties of disease for which the drugs of 
Europe offer no sufficient remedy, and will render that which is relied upon 
in one country unworthy of dependence in another. Thus the Cinchona bark 
of Peru, important as it is in Europe, is, we are told, rejected by the people 
among whom it grows, because it is found too stimulating and heating for 
their excitable constitutions. And speaking of Ipecacuanha, Dr. Von Maritus, 
who so carefully examined practically the Materia Medica of Brazil, asserts 
" nullumest dubium quin Emetica in terris zonne fervidae subjects effectus 
producent multo magis salutares quam in regionibus frigidioribus." 

" This last observation seems to indicate, that if emetic plants are so 

much more common in hot than cold countries, it is because there is so much 

greater a necessity for them. The late Mr. Burnett, and many other persons, 

have asserted that every country spontaneously furnishes remedies for those 

maladies which the people of the soil are naturally subject to, and that the 


foreign drugs imported into the markets of Europe would soon be superseded 
to a great extent, if the properties of European plants were carefully 
examined. It is contended, in illustration of this opinion, that Salicine, 
obtained from our native Willows is equal in energy to Quinine, and that it is 
formed by Providence in low marshy places exactly where remittent and 
intermittent fevers are experienced most frequently, and with the greatest 
severity ******** 

"Such a subject of investigation is by no means unimportant when it is 
considered * * * that exotic drugs are not only costly, but 

often so much adulterated as to be unfit for use * * * * 

"It by no means follows that plants are inert because medical men have 
reported unfavourably of their action. The most powerful species have had 
their energy destroyed by unskilful preparation, or by not knowing at what 
season to collect them. ****** 

the very nature of the climate of tropical countries generally causes the 
properties of plants to be more concentrated and completely elaborated than 
in Northern latitude." 


So far the indigenous drugs have not been carefully and sys- 
tematically studied. The Executive Committee of the Calcutta 
International Exhibition for 1883-84, reported that "it 
must be admitted that our ignorance of the properties and 
uses of indigenous drugs is scarcely pardonable. It seems 
highly desirable that the whole subject should be gone 
into with greater care than has yet been done, both with the view 
of weeding out the worthless from the good, and of preparing 
the way for a number of the better class native drugs taking 
the place of some of the more expensive and imported medicines 
of Europe. It seems remarkable that so large an amount of 
aconite should be collected in Nepal and exported to Europe, 
in order to be re-imported into India before it can find its way to 
the poor people who crowd around our dispensaries. Illustrations 
of a similar nature can be multiplied indefinitely. Atropa 
Belladonna, the deadly nightshade, for example, is a common 
weed on the Himalayas from Simla to Kashmir, yet every ounce 
of the drug used in India is imported from Europe, the Indian 
plant having apparently been entirely overlooked."* 

* Official Report of the Calcutta International Exhibition, 1S83-84, Vol. I, 
pp. 316-317. 


But for the proper study of the subject, a work exclusively 
devoted to Indian medicinal plants has been a great desideratum 
in the medical literature of India. Messrs. Hooker and Thomp- 
son writing as far back as 1855, said : — 

" We have had a considerable experience both in medical 
and economic botany, and we announce boldly our conviction 
that so far as India is concerned these departments are at a 
standstill for want of an accurate scientific guide to the flora of 
that country. "• 

The flora of British India commenced by Sir Joseph Hooker 
in 1872 is now completed. The great value of this work as a 
scientific guide to the plants of this country can hardly be 
doubted. The foundation of a medical botany of India should 
be grounded on this work. In this medical botany should be 
included all the plants that are used medicinally by the natives 
of this country. A very large number, perhaps the vast majority 
of these plants, will be found perfectly useless, but in the present 
state of our knowledge we are not justified in excluding any 
from the list. The great aim of this work being to collect and 
identify the medicinal plants of the country, it should, after 
giving the plants its modern scientific name, insert the synonyms 
under which it was known in former times. 

The value of Sanskrit and vernacular names of plants has 
been much questioned by botanists for purposes of identification. 
But, I think, these synonyms help a great deal towards identi- 
fication, f 

* Introductory Essay to the Flora Indica, p. 3, London, 1855. 

| The importance of Sanskrit names of plants was fully understood by 
Sir William Jones, the President Pounder of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
More than a century ago he suggested that " the first step in compiling a trea- 
tise on the plants of India should be to write their true names in Roman 
letters, according to the most accurate orthography, and in Sanskrit preferably 
to any vulgar dialect ; because a learned language is fixed in books, while 
popular idioms are in constant fluctuation, and will not perhaps be understood 
a century hence by the inhabitants of these Indian territories, whom future 
botanists may consult on the common appellations of trees and flowers." 
(Sir Wm. Jones' Works, Vol. II, London, 1799, p. 2.) 

On another occasion Sir Wm. Jones said : — 

"I am very solicitous to give Indian plants their true Indian appellation ; 
because I am fully persuaded, that Linnreus himself would have adopted them, 
had he known the learned and ancient language of this country. * * * Far 
am I from doubting the great importance of perfect botanical descriptions; 
for languages expire as nations decay, and the true sense of many appellatives 
in every dead language must be lost in the course of ages ; but as long as those 


Much trouble will be saved to the experimenting physician 
by the help of the country names of plants. Modern India 

appellatives remain understood, a travelling physician who should wish to 
procure an Arabian or Indian plant, and without asking for it by its learned 
or vulgar name, should hunt for it in the woods by its botanical character, 
would resemble a geographer, who, desiring to inquire by name for a street or 
a town, but waits with his tables and instruments for a proper occasion to 
determine its longitude and latitude." ( " Botanical Observations on select 
Indian Plants." Sir Wm. Jones' Works, Vol. II P. 47, London, 1799.) 

In Sanskrit every plant bears several synonyms which may facilitate in 
tracing the history and identification of the plant. 

"Every single word in Sanskrit," writes Professor Sir Monier Williams, 
"is referred to dhatu or root which is also a name for any constituent element- 
ary substance, whether of rocks or living organisms. In short, when we follow 
out their grammatical system in all the details of its curious subtleties and 
technicalities, we seem to be engaged, like a geologist, in splitting solid 
substances, or like a chemist, in some elaborate process of analysis." (Preface 
to Sanskrit Dictionary p. vi.) 

These Sanskrit synonyms to be of any use, should be accompanied with a 
literal translation into English. 

Mr. C. B. Clarke does not think that the vernacular names of plants help 
much in identifying them. For he says : 

" I have observed that the eagerness to get native or vulgar names for 
plants is directly proportioned to the ignorance of the enquirer, those who 
know nothing about the plants and who are unable to discriminate them under 
any names being always loud in their call for native or local names." 

Again, " as to the grand Sanskrit names, they are of still less value than 
the vulgar ones, being founded on less actual observation, with the object of 
enriching the language." (Preface by Mr. Clarke to his Edition of Roxburgh's 
Flora Indica, p. ii, Calcutta, 1874.) 

I think these remarks of Mr. Clarke are not quite justifiable, and they are 
not shared in by other eminent botanists. For instance, Sir David Brandis, 
who has been called the " Father of Indian Forestry," says regarding the 
vernacular names of plants, : — 

" The critical examination of the vernacular names of the different Indian 
languages, and their derivation from the Sanskrit or other roots, will be found 
a most interesting and important study. * * * * The forester should 
not despise vernacular names, for in many instances they have a fixity which 
systematic names do not yet possess. We all know the ever green Khirni, 
and there can be no mistake about it ; but botanists are not yet agreed whe- 
ther the tree shall be called Mimusops indica, Jiexandra or Kauki. Kamela 
or Kamila is a well-known small tree, its systematic name among Indian 
botanists, however, which for more than half a century was Rottleria tinctoria 
has now and properly been changed into Mallotus philippinensis. Again, 
there can be no doubt as to the tree designated by kao, lean. Although some 
botanists call it olea europea, others olea cuspidatu, and others olea fermginea. 
* * * These changes of systematic names are not arbitrary— as a rule, 
they are dictated by the progress of scientific research ; but they are apt 
to discourage the student, and on that account, also, vernacular names merit 
attention." (Forest Flora of N. W. India, Preface: pp. xi and xii, London, 

When the Pharmacopoeia of India was issued, it was considered a great 
defect in the work that it had not given the vernacular names of the plants. 
In reviewing the work, a writer said : — 

" Many of the non-officinal remedies, the introduction of which to regular 
practice is avowedly one of the objects of the publication of this Pharmaco- 
poeia, are dismissed without a single vernacular name for the in being given. 
The recommendation, for example, of the committee, that Hymenodictijon 



abounds with professional herbalists. There are the Mnsheras 
in Central and Upper India, whose principal livelihood consists 
in the collection and sale of medicinal roots and herbs.* 

In Bengal there are the Malis, Bagdis, Kaibartas, 
Pods, Chandals, Kaoras and Karangas, who principally carry 
on the trade in jungle products.! In Bombay, the Chadras, 
Bhils, and Gamtas are the herbalists. Now, these communities 
can prove of immense service to our medical practitioners in 
supplying medicinal plants. But as they are not trained in 
any university so as to be able to understand the Latin or scien- 
tific names of plants, the only way to secure their services 
lies with the medical practitioners in mastering the native 
names of plants. A great deal of time and trouble will be 
saved by thus giving the vernacular names of plants the impor- 
tance they deserve. 

It is, however, proper to add that too much confidence can not 
be placed in the vernacular nomenclature. In India, in the same 
district, one and the same name is applied to two or more 
different plants. And in some instances, names without any 

excelsum should be looked to as likely to prove a valuable specific for malari- 
ous fevers, is pretty certain to be quite thrown away on a medical officer, 
who is not an expert in botany, for not a single native name for this tree is 
given either in the book itself or in the index ; and though it might happen 
to grow in forests round his station, the committee put him in possession of 
no means of recognising it. * * * This very grave defect in the 
Pharmacopoeia, cannot be removed by the publication of a separate catalogue 
of native names, as proposed. In a second edition we hope to see not only a 
full vernacular index, but to find, following the botanical name of each 
substance, as complete a list as possible of the vernacular synonyms for it 
which are current in the three presidencies." (Calcutta Review for 1869, 
p. 201.) 

All the above extracts will show that the importance of vernacular names 
of plants is fully recognised by those whose opinion is entitled to respect on 
this subject. 

* An excellent account of this tribe is given by Mr. J. C. Nesfield, 
M. A., Inspector of Oudh Division, Lucknow, in the Calcutta Review for 
January, 1888. Mr. Nesfield writes : — " Indian physicans (Vaidya) and Indian 
druggists (Pansari) are almost dependent as far as medicines are concerned, 
on what Musheras supply to them. * * It is much to the credit of 
Musheras that they have given a marked preference to the study of nature, 
and opened the door to the discovering of natural remedies. In fact, their 
knowledge of medicine is one of the chief characteristics of this tribe. * * 
They collect medicinal herbs for sale and receive grain or money for 
what they supply. * * * I know of no parallel to such knowledge as 
that possessed by Musheras within India itself." (Calcutta Review, pp. 40-41, 
for January, 1888.) 

t Hunter's Statistical Account of Bengal, Vol. I, p. 27. 


significance are invented by villagers to satisfy the curiosity of 
enquiring botanists. These names are of no use. Such being 
the case, a knowledge of botany to critically examine a plant is 
absolutely necessary. 

Besides botanical description and vernacular nomenclature, 
illustrations of plants prove a great help in identifying them. 
Though illustrations of several thousands of Indian plants 
are scattered in the works of Rheede, Roxburgh, Royle, Wight, 
Wallich, Beddome, Brandis, and Griffith and in the journals of 
the Linnan and other learned societies, yet a very large number 
of medicinal plants of this country remains to be illustrated.* 
The sooner illustrations of these plants are made the better for 
the cause of the study of indigenous drugs. 

After proper means have been taken to identify the medicin- 
al plants, so that we are quite sure that we all mean the same 
thing by the same name, we should turn our attention to the 
study of their properties and uses. We may commence such 
study with advantage, and it will be, moreover, of historical 
importance, if we first of all take into consideration the uses to 
which these plants were put in ancient 'times by the Hindus. 
With this view, we should consult the medical works of the 
Hindus, e. g., Charaka, Sushruta, Nighantu, &c. 

Nor should we despise the experience and observation of the 
Greco-Arabic School ol practitioners regarding the uses of the 
indigenous drugs. Thus the Taleef Sheriff (which has been 
translated into English), is an excellent work on therapeutics, 
and gives within a narrow compass the uses of some of the most 
important medicinal plants of this country. 

We should also take into consideration those drugs which 
are in much use amongst rustics and villagers, and of which 
no account is to be met with in the works of either the Hindu 
or Greco-Arabic school of practitioners. It is a pity that no 
attempt has yet been made to collect information from the villa- 
gers regarding the medicinal virtues of plants that grow around 

* Most of the above mentioned works, however, are out of print, and being 
rare, are hardly w r ithin the reach of the most of the members of medical pro- 


them and the uses to which they are put. * If we turn to the 
past history of our art, we find that our knowledge regarding 
the properties of some of the most useful medicines has been 
obtained in this empirical way. 

Lastly, we should not neglect to bestow our attention on those 
indigenous plants which have not been used medicinally by the 
natives of this country, but are in much use in other countries. 

After recording the medicinal uses, we have to commence 
the more important subject, viz., that of " weeding out the 
worthless from the good " amongst these medicinal plants. For 
this purpose, we have to seek the aid of chemistry. It is well- 
known that plants generally owe their virtues as medicinal agents 
to certain characteristic alkaloids and principles present in them. 
Because a complete and full chemical analysis of the medicinal 
plants of this country has not yet been performed, it is therefore 
that there exists so much uncertainty regarding their actions. 
This isolation of principles will constitute a great improvement 
in pharmacy. For, then, instead of using preparations made 
from plants which differ in constitution from time to time, and 
vary in the strength of their active principles and physiological 
characteristics, depending on the climate, season, and amount of 
sunshine under which, and the soil in which, they have grown, we 
should use the active principles in which the same variability is 
unlikely to occur. Moreover, they would possess the advantages 
of being always alike, easily assimilable and capable of ready 
solubility, ease in administration and rapidity as well as certainty 
of action. Then a practitioner also could carry his whole 
dispensary in a portable form.t 

This chemical analysis would also help us in determining 
the actions of medicines in health and disease. It should, 
however, be borne in mind, that chemical analysis but imperfectly 
reveals the real nature of many drugs. The presence of dissociated 

* Vanausadi Pmkds, by Mr. Vasudev Chintainan Bapat, in Mahrathi, is 
as far as I -know, the only work which gives the uses to which some of the 
medicinal plants are put by the natives of Concan. 

| The alkaloids have all been discovered within the last 100 years. For 
want of chemical investigation indigenous drugs are used in their crude forms, 
instead of their alkaloids or active principles. Brunton's " Iron Age of 
Therapeutics," is one of remote and uncertain future, but I believe a great 
deal of iron, if not steel, can be extracted, very useful for all practical 
purposes from the stones in the shape of our indigenous drugs. 



ions, of colloidal metals, with an action analogous to that of 
ferments, and of known and unknown physical properties, such 
as radio-activity, probably enter into the action of many 
drugs. All the phenomena of plant life are not explicable in 
terms of chemistry and physics ; there are certain residual 
phenomena which point to the existence of what may be called 
in the present state of our knowledge, " vital force. "• 

It is hence, that many medical practitioners have been 
disappointed with tinctures and other preparations of medicinal 
plants, because such preparations did not give any satisfactory 
results when prescribed to patients. Speaking of Oolut-Kumbal, 
(Abroma augusta) Dr. Bhoobun Mohun Sirkar wrote in the 
Indian Medical Gazette for May, 1900 : — 

" Attempts have been made to administer the drug in the 
more acceptable forms of tincture, pill or powder, but none prove 
so efficacious as the fresh viscid sap in substance in which form 
I have used it with wonderful results." 

It is well-known that the people of India use the juice of fresh 
vegetables for medicinal purposes. But on chemical analysis, 
these vegetables do not yield any peculiar chemical substances to 
which their curative virtues could be justly attributed. It has 
been the tendency of late, therefore, to disapprove the use of 
such vegetable remedies. A well-known medical man writes in 
Allbutt's System of Medicine : — 

" The chemical composition of a drug is not unfrequently 

the key to its pharmacological action If a drug have 

no active properties, it is surely devoid of medicinal effect unless 
it be a food ; for medicinal action is the outcome of the effects of 
active principles on tissues. It is always possible that in any 
particular drug the active medicinal agent may have escaped 
notice ; but in the present state of chemical science it is not 
likely that undiscovered principles reside in such substances 
as sarsaparilla and hemidesmus : yet these drugs are given on 

•Biochemistry of plants and animals has not yet been fully investigated. 
We do not know even much about the function of enzymes, regarding which 
two views are held one that they are a property and the other that they 
are a substance. Chemistry cannot produce them. They are found only as 
the products of protoplasm of living cells. It may be that many processes 
taking place in living cells are the results of Enzyme activity. 


the testimony of experience, — a testimony no stronger than that 
which has supported scores of other agents eventually discarded. 
If the indications, given by the pharmacological examination of 
a drug, are opposed to experience in its favour, the latter must 
almost certainly be at fault."* 

But clinical experiences and observations of eminent physi- 
cians on the actions of a drug are as much entitled to respect and 
consideration as its pharmacological examination. So the view of 
the writer quoted above does not seem to us to be sound. 

The modern method of therapeutical investigation is, first, 
to observe the action of a drug on a healthy animal, and then to 
make the results applicable to pathological states. The ancients 
recognised only one mode of studying the effects of a remedy, 
and that was by the simple observation of effects produced by 
drugs when administered in disease. This clinical observation 
of the action of remedies has been productive of some good, but 
it is questionable if much progress was effected so long as this 
method alone was employed. Towards the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, the necessity for ascertaining the actions of 
remedies by experiments on animals, was recognised by Bichat, 
Majendie, and others. This modern method of therapeutical 
research promises a great success. Working on this line, Lauder 
Brunton was able to use with success nitrite of amyl in angina 
pectoris. Here a correct application of a known action in a drug 
was made serviceable in the very first trial. The pharmacological 
experiments and clinical observations will thus settle the claims 
of Indian drugs on our attention. 


The Vedic Aryans were acquainted with about a hundred 
medicinal plants. When a king appoints a Purohita, he repeats 
a prayer in which he entreats that all the herbs of a hundred 
kinds over which King Soma rules will grant him uninterrupted 

From the works of Oharaka and Sushruta we learn that the 

Indo-Aryans were acquainted with a large number of medicinal 

* Dr. D. J, Leech in Vol. I of Allbutt's System of Medicine. London, 1896. 


plants. In Sushruta are recorded the properties and uses of some 
700 of them ; but all of these were not indigenous to India. 
Some foreign drugs were imported into this country. In ancient 
times there was a trade in drugs between the Hindoos and other 
nations. Liquorice, which does not grow in this country, was ex- 
tensively used in Hindoo Medicine. It grows in Asia Minor 
and Central Asia, and was brought to this country by the no- 
madic tribes of Central Asia. We find mention of it in Charaka 
and Sushruta. The majority, however, of the medicinal plants 
in these works were indigenous to this country. Their pro- 
perties were known by empirical means. Information regarding 
them was gathered from hunters and shepherds. For this purpose, 
physicians were enjoined to penetrate forests and climb moun- 

The works of Charaka and Sushruta appear to have been 
composed in the pre-Buddhist period. The rise of Buddhism 
gave an impetus to the study of medicine in ancient India. 
The edicts of Asoka provided the establishment of hospitals at 
all principal towns and cities of India for the sick and the 
wounded. The Buddhist missionaries penetrating the dreary 
wilderness of Siberia and Central Asia preaching the tenets 
of benevolence and humanity to the savage tribes, also attended 
to treating the sick and the wounded. They were in one 
sense medical missionaries. The teachings of the Hindoo system 
of medicine were also spread to the countries which adopted 
Buddhism. The Buddhist missionaries brought with them 
drugs of other nations to India, and thus enriched the materia 
medica of Hindoo physicians. 

The Greek invasion was not without influence on the medical 
practice of ancient India. The savants who accompanied the 
army of Alexander learnt much of the metaphysical, philosophi- 
cal, and medical systems from the Hindoos. The successors 
of Alexander brought Greece and India into closer contact. 
Commerce was established between the two countries. It was 
thus that a large number of drugs of Central Asia and Asia 
Minor found their way to India. Greek physicians also came 
to know several medicinal plants of this country. As the Greeks 


learnt much of the healing art from the Hindoos, so the latter 
were indebted for their knowledge concerning several foreign 
drugs to the Greeks. 

The rise of Muhammadanism brought about a new era in the 
history of civilization. The Arabs paid great attention to the 
cultivation of science and art. Although they did not discover 
or invent anything new, yet they preserved most of the known 
sciences of the ancient world- Without them, it is doubtful if 
the modern world would have been in possession of the philoso- 
phical and scientific lore of the Greeks or the Hindoos. Hindoo 
physicians adorned the court of the rulers of Bagdad. Medical 
works of the Hindoos such as Charaka, Sushruta, Nidana, &c, 
were translated into Arabic. The teachings of Hippocrates, 
Democritus, and other Greek physicians were made known to 
the world by the countrymen of Muhammad. When India came 
to be under the Islamic power, Muhammmadan physicians known 
as Yunani Hakims were patronized by the court. They were 
versed in the medical lore of the Greeks. They brought with 
them the teachings and doctrines of the Greek masters of the 
healing art, and also made known the properties and uses of 
several drugs of Central Asia. The Hindoo system of medicine, 
on the rise of the Muhammadan power, came to a stand-still ; 
but the Hindoos were not slow in making use of those drugs 
which their Muhammadan conquerors had made known to them. 
Of all the drugs perhaps the most important one imported into 
India by the Muhammadans was opium. Before the Muham- 
madan supremacy in India, there is hardly any mention of 
opium to be met with in Hindoo works of Materia Medica. The 
principal works of Hindoo Materia Medica composed during 
the Muhammadan period of Indian history are :— 

(1) Raja Nighantu, by Narahari Pandita. Regarding this 
work, Professor H. H. Wilson writes that " from the frequent 
occurrence of the Dakhini terms in explanation of his Sanskrit 
text it is inferred that he was an inhabitant of the south of 
India." The date of composition of this work has been fixed by 
the same authority at some time between the 12th and 13th cen- 
turies. [Vide H. H. Wilson's Works, Vol. V., p. 237.) 


(2) Madana Pclla ISJighantu, by Madana Pala._ a king of 
Kanauj. The late Raja Rajendra Lala Mitra placed the date of ■ 
composition of this work somewhere in the twelfth century (vide 
R. L. Mitra's Notices of Sanskrit MSS. II, p. 264). 

(3) Bhava Prakdsa, by Bhava Misra. It treats of Anatomy, 
Physiology, Medicine, Surgery, Materia Medica, and Therapeu- 
tics. Its date has been fixed at about the sixteenth century.* 
This work gives a very concise and clear account of all the 
medicinal plants and animal and mineral substances used medi- 
cinally by Hindoo physicians. 

Yunani Hakims, that is the Muhammadan physicians of India, 
also have written a great deal concerning the indigenous drugs 
of this country. The encouragement accorded to Muhammadan 
physicians by their rulers led them to produce many meritorious 
works on medicine. Under the patronage of the court of Dehli, 
the Yunani Hakims vied with one another in paying attention 
to the study of indigenous drugs. Their works are however 
not of any antiquity. The Taleef Sheriff is a monograph, 
clearly setting forth the views of Yunani Hakims on indigenous 
drugs. The Makhzan-ul-Adiuiya, which has been made much 
use of by Dr. Dymock in his Vegetable Materia Medica of 
Western India, is also another important work on the subject. 
There are several other works by Muhammadan physicians, some 
in Persian, and others in Urdu, treating of indigenous drugs. 

It is during the Christian period of Indian history, that our 
knowledge regarding indigenous drugs has been much increased 
by the investigations and labors of botanists and physicians. The 
three myrobalans of the East were eagerly sought after by the 
early Portuguese discoverers of the sea-route to India. Indian 
spices were also made known to Europe by them. Informations 
concerning the drugs of this country are scattered in the works 
of European travellers and navigators to this country during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.f At the same time several 

• The late Dr. U. C. Dutt has given strong reasons for the work being 
a production of the sixteenth century, see introduction to his Materia Medica 
of the Hindoos. 

| A very important work was that of Garcia D'orta, named Colloquios does 
simples e droges da India. This has been lately translated into English. 


foreign medicinal plants, especially of America, were brought to 
and naturalized in India by the Portuguese, Dutch, and other 
maritime nations. Agave Americana, Ananasa sativa, Anona 
squamosa, and several other native plants of America are now to 
be met with throughout the peninsula of Hindustan. Von Rheede 
tried to gather all the informations about the medicinal uses of 
the plants of this country in his Rovtus Malabarica, which should 
be looked upon as the first systematic work by a European, giv- 
ing the medicinal uses of the plants of India. But little attention 
was paid to the medicinal plants of this country till the founda- 
tion of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. The Society was estab- 
lished mainly through the exertions of Sir Willam Jones, who 
was its first president. He was as great a botanist as a classical 
scholar. He looked upon the Society as corresponding in its 
aims and objects to the Royal Society of England. The Asiatic 
Society has fulfilled the expectations of its gifted founder. Sir 
William Jones himself pointed out the importance and necessity 
of studying the Indian medicinal plants. In a paper on the 
design of a treatise on the plants of India, read by him before 
the Bengal Asiatic Society, he said that " Some hundreds of 
plants which are yet imperfectly known to European botanists 
and with the virtues of which they are wholly unacquainted, 
grow wild on the plains and in the forests of India. The 
Amarakosha^ an excellent vocabulary of the Sanskrit language, 
contains in one chapter the names of about 300 medicinal 
vegetables ; the Medini may comprise many more ; and the 
Dravy&bhidhana or Dictionary of natural productions includes, 
I believe, a far greater number, the properties of which are 
distinctly related in medical tracts of approved authority."* 

The example set by Sir William Jones was not lost upon his 
successors. Roxburgh, the Linnaeus of Indian Botany, collected 
all the informations about the medicinal plants of this country 
in his Flora Indica. Professor Lindley in his work on Flora 
Medica is indebted for his information regarding the medicinal 
plants of India to Roxburgh's magnum opus. Roxburgh's 
Flora Indica was an authority on the medicinal plants of this 

* Sir Wm. Jones' Works, London, 1799, vol. II, p. 2. 


country till the publication of the Pharmacopoeia of India. 
Mr. Clarke in his edition of Roxburgh's Flora Indica writing 
in 1874, truly observed that " Roxburgh contains all the 
Economic Indian Botany known to him, and we have added 
very few economic facts since. * * * We have had plenty 
of Government and other reports, some very large and expensive 
ones it is true, but we have very little economic work by persons 
competent as botanists. * * * Roxburgh is most trust- 
worthy in his Economic botany, and contains virtually all that 
is known on the subject."* 

In the beginning of the nineteenth century, John Flemming 
contributed a valuable paper on the medicinal plants of this 
country. It was a monograph of no inconsiderable value and 
was published in the Asiatic Researches, Vol. XI, for 1810 under 
the title " A Catalogue of Indian Medicinal Plants and Drugs 
with their names in Hindustani and Sanskrit." For the first 
time, the scattered information on the subject was collected and 
placed before the medical profession. 

The most important work, a work which is referred to by all 
writers on indigenous drugs composed during the early part of 
the last century, was the Materia Indica of Ainslie. He spent 
the period of his Indian exile in Madras, and has given a very 
satisfactory account of the drags in common use in that Presi- 

The formation of the Medico-physical Society of Calcutta, 
contributed not a little to the study of indigenous drugs. In 
the Transactions of that Society were described for the first 
time some of the vegetable drugs of this country. Wallich, 
Horace Hayman Wilson, Dewan Ram Comal Sen, and several 
others brought to the notice of the profession many native 

The labors of Dr. J. F. Royle deserve special mention ; for 
he paid especial attention to the economical plants of this coun- 
try. The Botanical Gardens of Saharanpore owe a great deal 
to his labors. In his works on the Antiquity of Hindoo Medi- 
cine, Materia Medica, and Botany of the Himalayan mountains, 

* Clarke's edition of Roxburgh's Flora Indica, Calcutta, 1874, Preface, p. iii. 


lie brought to the notice of the medical profession several medi- 
cinal plants in common use amongst the inhabitants of India. 
The advantages which Saharanpore possesses for the naturali- 
zation of plants of the colder regions induced him to try and 
cultivate the medicinal plants of other countries. He also contri- 
buted an excellent paper on the Bazar medicines to the Journal 
of the Bengal Asiatic Society.* 

Mention should also be made to the labors of the Agri- 
Horticultural Society. The Society with its branches in different 
parts of India has rendered some help to the cause of indigenous 
drugs, as is evident by the Transactions of the Society. 

Sir William O'Shaughuessy, who was the first Director of 
Telegraphs in India and occupied the chair of Chemistry at the 
Medical College, Calcutta, spent many years in investigating 
the subject of indigenous drugs. Several drugs were for the 
first time chemically analysed by him. Dr. Wallich, who was 
at that time in charge of the Calcutta Botanical Garden, 
rendered him much help in identifying the medicinal plants of 
India. The combined labors of O'Shaughnessy and Wallich 
have produced the valuable pharmacopoeia of Bengal, published 
under the authority of the Government of Bengal in 1844. No 
pains were spared by O'Shaughnessy to make use of the labors 
of his predecessors. The publication of this work gave a fresh 
stimulus to the study of in ligenous drugs. The subject even 
engaged the attention of chemists and pharmaceutists of Europe, 
and several drugs were admitted as officinal in the pharmaco- 
poeias of other countries. 

The holding of exhibitions has been the most important 
means in increasing our knowledge of indigenous drugs. I 
doubt if the amount of information which we possess at present 
about indigenous drugs could have been derived from any other 
source. The idea of exhibitions originated with the late Prince 
Albert, under whose auspices the first one was held in London 
in 1851. Dr. Royle was placed in charge of indigenous drugs, but 
I do not think the first exhibition, which was rather a trial, made 

* This paper was published under the title " Articles of Materia Medica 
obtained in the Bazars of India," in the first volume of the Bengal Asiatic 
Society's Journal. 


any material addition to our knowledge of the subject. In the 
second International Exhibition in London of 1862, Dr. J. F. 
Watson was placed in charge of the indigenous drugs. For 
the first time, several indigenous drugs were brought to light. 

In the interval between the first exhibition of 1851 and the 
second one of 1862, several exhibitions were held in different 
parts of this country. But I do not think they added anything 
to our knowledge of indigenous drugs. 

The publication of the Pharmacopoeia of India in 1867 
under the authority of Her Majesty's Secretary of State for 
India marked an epoch in the history of the subject. To this 
day, that stands out as the authoritative work on the native 
remedies of this country. " With the view, firstly, of bringing 
to the notice of the profession in India those indigenous drugs 
which European experience has proved to possess value as 
medicinal agents, and which may be employed as efficient sub- 
stitutes for imported articles ; and, secondly, of remodelling 
the Bengal Pharmacopoeia of 1844, Her Majesty's Secretary of 
State for India in Council was pleased to sanction the publica- 
tion of a Pharmacopoeia for India based upon the British 
Pharmacopoeia, which, while affording all the information 
contained in that work of practical use in India, would embody 
and combine with it such supplementary matter of special 
value in that country as should adapt it to meet the require- 
ments of the Indian Medical Department." * 

The information that lay scattered among a large number 
of periodicals was brought together in this work and made 
accessible for reference to the medical officers serving in this 
country. Between the publication in Calcutta of the Bengal 
Pharmacopoeia in 1814, and the issue of the Indian Pharma 
copoeia in 1868, that is during the period of twenty-four years, 
great advances were made in our knowledge regarding the me- 
dicinal properties and therapeutic uses of the indigenous drugs. 

The establishment of Medical Colleges and schools in this 
country also advanced our knowledge of indigenous drugs. The 
graduates whom the colleges turned out directed their attention 

* Preface to the Indian Pharmacopoeia, 


to the subject. They were not slow in recognising the import- 
ance of the study of indigenous drugs. There were other 
laborers also in the field. Dr. Waring, who edited the Indian 
Pharmacopoeia so creditably, was one of the most painstaking 
and careful observers of the properties and uses of indigenous 
drugs. His attention was drawn to the subject when serving 
out in Burma. The stock of his European medicines having 
been exhausted, he was in great perplexity and hardly knew 
what to do. In such a crisis, he turned to the medicinal plants 
of the country. His extensive knowledge of Botany stood him 
in good stead greatly. He found indigenous drugs to answer 
his purposes as satisfactorily as the costly imported medicines 
of Europe. The series of papers under the title, " Notes on 
some of the principal Indigenous Tonics, Anthelmintics, &c, of 
India," published in the early volumes of the " Indian Annals 
of Medical Science," now defunct, shows the careful and pains- 
taking manner in which he had studied the subject. 

The use of the Pharmacopoeia as a text book in the colleges 
and schools of this country, has also been productive of some 
good. The Pharmacopoeia Committee was not wrong in impart- 
ing an educational character to their publication. The native 
remedies having been rendered familiar during the period of 
studentship, have been often made use of by Indian Medical 

Mention should also be made of the establishment of the Forest 
Department and the School of Forestry in this country as helping 
in increasing our knowledge of indigenous drugs. The forest 
officers have brought to light several plants used medicinally 
by the natives of this country. The late Dr. Stewart in his Pun- 
jab Plants, mentioned a large number of medicinal plants used 
by the rustics and villagers of the Panjab. Mr. Gamble and other 
forest officers have also noticed the medicinal plants of other 
parts of India. The increase in our knowledge of the proper- 
ties and uses of the indigenous drugs by these means has not 
been inconsiderable. 

The Calcutta International Exhibition of 1883-84 has done 
much towards the study of indigenous drugs. Credit is due to 


Mr. T. N. Mukerjee and Sir George Watt, who spared no pains 
to make the Exhibition of indigenous drugs as complete as 
possible. The Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, 
originally projected by Mr. Mukherji, but subsequently complet- 
ed by Dr. G. Watt, contains informations from all possible sour- 
ces, as to the uses and properties of indigenous drugs. 


" The only way to illumine the whole field 01 native thera- 
peutics," wrote an intelligent foreigner, "is to survey it in 
small tracts and sift the value of those drugs peculiar to each 
province There is a wide feeling that there is a bene- 
ficence in the scheme of nature which provides in every country 
suitable remedies on the spot for the ill to which humanity is 
locally most prone. Very little has been done so far to in- 
corporate in the practice of physicians in the country the 
medicines which in India nature scatters broadcast from her 

It is necessary to pass in review the principal works which 
have advanced our knowledge of the subject. In order to do 
this, we should take into consideration those works which treat 
of the drugs of the different provinces of this country. In fact, 
excluding the " Pharmacopoeia of India," the " Pharmacogra- 
phica Indica" and Watt's " Dictionary of the Economic Products 
of India," all the works which have made their appearance deal 
with drugs and medicinal plants of certain provinces only. For 
obvious reasons this arrangement is a good one.* 

I have already stated the great stimulus that was given to 
the study of the subject by the establishment of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal. Calcutta as till recently the Capital of India 
possessing one of the finest Botanical gardens in the world afforded 
great facilities for the study of the subject. Roxburgh, Fleming 
and Royle were the first to write about the medicinal plants and 
their uses in the Asiatic Researches and the Journal of the Bengal 
Asiatic Society. But there was no systematic treatise on the 

* Of the drugs used by the ancient Hindus, the best account in English 
is the work on Hindu Materia Medica by the late Dr. Udoy Chand Dufct. This 
work requires re-editing. 


indigenous drugs of Bengal till the publication of O'Shaugh- 
nessy's Bengal Dispensatory in 1842. Before the publication of 
this work, information concerning indigenous drugs was scat- 
tered in the journals and transactions of several learned societies, 
which were not easily accessible to all members of the medical 
profession. Mr. Louis DaCosta wrote in the Journal of the Ben- 
gal Asiatic Society for May, 1837, " it is a desideratum to know 
how the natives have treated the subject of medicaments — what 
of good their books contain— what of error. Our medical prac- 
tice pays, perhaps, too little attention to vegetable remedies, of 
which the orientals possess an infinite variety, many inert but 
many active, and many also quite unknown to Europeans." The 
Bengal Dispensatory supplied a long-felt want on the subject. 
This was followed in 1844 by the Bengal Pharmacopoeia. These 
two works form important landmarks in the literature of indi- 
genous drugs. They were not free from errors. Even the 
author acknowledged that his multifarious duties prevented him 
from bestowing that amount of attention on the subject which 
its importance demanded. But considering the difficulties he 
had to contend with, the scanty materials which existed on the 
literature at his time, I think great credit is due to him for his 
works. He was one of the pioneers in this field of research. And 
it should not be forgotten that his Pharmacopoeia of Bengal 
subsequently formed the groundwork of the Pharmacopoeia of 

The next work on the " Indigenous drugs of Bengal" is that 
of Kanay Lai Dey. That gentleman is a well-known authority 
on the subject. In 1862, for the International Exhibition held 
in London, he forwarded indigenous drugs chiefly of Bengal. 
The catalogue of drugs exhibited by him was subsequently pub- 
lished in book-form at the request of the Inspector-General of 
Civil Hospitals of Bengal. This work was a decided improve- 
ment on O'Shaughnessy's Pharmacopoeia and Dispensatory. 

No other work on the indigenous drugs of Bengal deserves 
any notice. Mr. T. N. Mukerji's " Catalogue of Amsterdam 
Exhibition" is a useful one, but it is principally compiled from 
the above sources. 


There is no work treating of the indigenous drugs of Assam, 
Orissa, or of Behar (excepting Irvine's short account of the 
Materia Medica of Patna, published in 1848).. Notices of some 
of the medicinal plants and indigenous drugs of Assam 
and Orissa are to be found in the Gazetteer volumes of those 

There have been a host of medical men to work out the 
medicinal plants and indigenous drugs of Madras. In the early 
days of the East India Company, Madras, the so-called benighted 
Presidency of to-day, attracted more scientific and medical men 
than any other part of India. It was on the Madras side that 
most of the illustrated works on Indian Botany were prepared. 
Rheede's " Hortus Malabarica," Roxburgh's " Coromandel 
Plants," Wight's " Icones," Beddome's " Flora Sylvatica" were 
all prepared by men who labored in that Presidency. Ainslie's 
" Materia Medica of Hindustan " published in 1813, and " Materia 
Indica " published in 1826, are still works of reference on the 
indigenous drugs of Madras. Waring was another authority on 
the Madras indigenous drugs. His labors have been embodied 
in the Pharmacopoeia of India. 

Bidie's "Paris Exhibition Catalogue of Raw Products of 
Southern India " is a useful publication on the indigenous 
drugs of Madras. In the Madras Quarterly and Monthly 
Journal of Medical Science, there are several papers from his 
pen on the subject of indigenous drugs. 

Moodeen Sheriff will always occupy a prominent place 
amongst the workers on the subject of indigenous drugs. His 
Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia of India established his repu- 
tation as a pharmaceutist of no mean order. His posthumous 
work on the " Materia Medica of Madras," has brought our in- 
formation on some of the indigenous drugs of that Presidency 
up to date. It is unfortunate, however, that this work did not 
receive the last finishing touch of the author. 

The indigenous drugs of Bombay, though neglected for a 
long time, have recently received proper attention. Dalzell and 
Gibson's " Bombay Flora," published in 1861, paved the way 
to the better study of the subject. Bird wood's " Vegetable 


Products of Bombay,'' published in 1862, was the first work that 
gave a systematic account of the Bombay drugs. In the 
Pharmacopoeia of India published in 1867, the Bombay drugs 
were not adequately represented. But since then, due princi- 
pally to the labors of Sakharam Arjun and Dymock, the 
Bombay drugs have been far better worked out than those of 
any other part of India. Sakharam Arjun's " Bombay Drugs " 
was published in 1879. He was a skilled botanist, being the 
occupant of the Chair of Botany in the Grant Medical College. 
This publication was intended to serve as a catalogue of the 
Indian drugs in the Museum of the Royal Victoria Hospital at 
Netley. Dr. Sakharam Arjun succeeded in correctly identifying 
some of the bazar drugs and brought to the notice of the 
profession a good many medicinal plants used by the natives 
of Bombay. 

Dymock 's " Vegetable Materia Medica of Western India" 
is by far the best work on the indigenous drugs, not only of 
Bombay, but of India generally. It bears strong testimony to 
his having patiently worked at the subject for a large number 
of years. The Pharmacographica Indim will remain, for many 
years to come, the standard work of reference on indigenous 

The medicinal plants and drugs of Sind have not yet been 
properly studied. The only work on the subject is that of 
Murray on " Plants and Drugs of Sind." Murray, neither being 
a medical man nor a skilled botanist, compiled his work from 
other sources and, as such, the work is of doubtful value as a 
guide to the plants and drugs of that province. 

Our knowledge of the medicinal plants and drugs of the 
Punjab is also scant and meagre. Honnigberger's work named 
" Thirty-five years in the East " was the first one mentioning 
the Punjab medicinal plants and drugs. Honnigberger was a 
homoeopathic practitioner and was physician to Ran jit Singh. 
The work is hardly of any value, and is very seldom referred 
to now-a-days. 

The Punjab Exhibition of 1864 brought for the first time 
to light the drugs of that province. Mr. Baden Powell described 


the raw products in his well-known work on the Punjab 
products. Dr. Burton Brown, the late Principal of the Lahore 
Medical College, was the reporter on the drugs of the Punjab. 
Asa chemist and a botanist Dr. Brown was well qualified to 
properly discharge his duties as a reporter. And up to this 
date, his report is the sole authentic guide to the drugs of that 

Dr. Stewart, as Forest Officer, in his work on " Punjab 
Plants," noticed some of the medicinal plants of that province. 
He freely acknowledged the great help he derived from Dr. 
Brown in identifying many medicinal plants. Dr. Stewart's 
work is very valuable and, together with Dr. Brown's Report 
above referred to, is the only work mentioning some of the 
medicinal plants of the Punjab. 

Of the medicinal plants and drugs of the United Provinces 
of: Agra and Oudh we know very little. Mr. Atkinson's work 
on the " Economic Products of the North- West Provinces " 
is the only work treating of the drugs of those provinces. 

The medicinal plants and drugs of the Central Provinces 
and Rajputana have not been properly worked out. It is 
highly desirable that these provinces should receive, at the 
hands of botanists and medical men, that amount of attention 
which they deserve. 

Thus it will be seen that, although there are many works 
on the medicinal plants and drugs of different provinces of 
India, yet a great deal remains to be done for the drugs and 
medicinal plants of Cashmere, Beluchistan, Sind, Punjab, 
United Provinces of Agra andOudh, Behar, Orissa, Assam, 
Central Provinces and Rajputana. Owing to the publication 
of the Pharmacographiea Indiea and Watt's " Dictionary of 
the Economic Products of India, " there is not the same diffi- 
culty now to work out the subject which the early laborers 
in this field of research experienced For, not only the 
Flora of British India projected by Hooker has been com- 
pleted, but Floras of most of the provinces of India have 
been in recent years prepared by some of the noted Indian 
botanists. Thus the Bengal Plants by Sir David Prain, the 


Gangetic Flora describing plants of the United Provinces of 
Agra & Oudh by Mr. J. F. Duthie, Flora of Bombay by 
Dr. Theodore Cooke, Flora of the Central Provinces by 
Mr. Haines, Flora of Madras by Mr. Gamble, Pan jab Plants by 
Colonel Bamber, Flora Simlensis by the late General Collett, 
Plants of Baluchistan by Mr. Burkill, and Flora of Assam under 
preparation by Rai Bahadur Upendra Nath Kanjilal, will be of 
great help to those who are interested in the study of the medi- 
cinal plants of this country. Of the Indian States of India, the 
plants of Kashmir were worked out principally by Jacquemont 
and Royle; of Nepal by Wallich and recently byMr. J. EL Burkill ; 
of Bhotan and Sikkim recently by Messrs. Burkill and Smith ; 
of Catch by Revd. Father Blatter ; of Mysore in the Gazetteer 
Volume of that principality ; and of Baroda and Kathiawad 
States by Mr. Jayakrishna Indrajit in Guzerati. 


The outlook is not so gloomy now as it was more than 
twenty-five years ago, when I commenced the study of the sub- 
ject. The Petit Laboratory established in Bombay was almost the 
first institution intended to work out the pharmacology of Indian 
drugs. For this purpose, the late Dr. K. N. Bahadur ji was 
appointed to its charge. 

The Indian Medical Congress held in Calcutta in 1894 record- 
ed the following resolution : — 

" That it be recommended to the consideration of the Government of India 
that an extended use of indigenous drugs is most desirable." 

It was on this resolution that the Government of India 
appointed the Indigenous Drugs Committee which held their 
first meeting in Calcutta on January 3rd, 1896. In appointing 
this Committee, it was stated, 

The points to which the Government of India desire more particularly 
to invite the attention of the Committee, with a view to their careful consi- 
deration, are the practicability, as well as the utility, of — 

(a) encouraging the systematic cultivation of medicinal plants indige 

nous to India ; 

(b) encouraging the increased use in Medical Depots of drugs of known 

therapeutic value ; and 

(c) sanctioning the manufacture of stable preparations of certain drugs 

at the Depots. 
Regarding the above the Government of India desire that the Committee 


should further consider, and report their opinion as to the action which 
would be best calculated to give the suggested encouragement. The Com- 
mittee should further consider, from a practical point of view, the question 
of initiating, as a Government measure, experiments to test the reputed 
therapeutic value of indigenous drugs. The Government of India, as at 
present advised, are inclined to the opinion that such investigations can 
more profitably be left to the enterprise of private individuals. 

This Committee has so far published two useful reports. 
The Ayurvedic practitioners are holding conferences every 
year in different cities of this country, in which medi- 
cinal plants and drugs are exhibited. This will greatly 
advance the cause of the more extensive use of indigenous 
drugs. The chemistry of Indian medicinal plants is being 
investigated by several chemists in different laboratories of 
India, as is evident from their reports published from time to 
time in journals of Chemical Societies and of other learned 
institutions. The quarterly journal, named " Food and Drugs," 
of Calcutta, now defunct, published several interesting papers 
on indigenous drugs. There are also a few workers in Tata's 
Research Institute, Bangalore, investigating this subject. Fifty 
thousand rupees have been donated to the Tropical School of 
Medicine recently established in Calcutta, by His Highness the 
Maharaja of Durbhanga, and ear-marked for the investigation 
of the properties and uses of indigenous drugs. 

But at present there is no Pharmaceutical Society or School 
of Pharmacy in this country to carefully study and investigate 
the subject of indigenous drugs. The establishment of such 
an institution is highly desirable ; so also of farms of medicinal 
plants. Regarding the growing of medicinal plants, Mr. F. 
A. Miller writes in the Journal " American Pharmaceutical 
Association III, pp. 34-38 " that the time has arrived to reduce 
the work of drug cultivation to an exact science and to 
determine the commercial possibilities of the most promising 
forms, in the same manner as has been done in agricultural and 
other economic farms."* 

The present war, as mentioned before, emphasises the 

* [Chemical Abstracts for February 20th, 1914, p. 786.] 

Mr. R. P. Craford writing in Scientific American Supplement, September 
8, 1917 on " Reducing drug plant cultivation to a science," says, " that drug 
plant cultivation is far from easy and the institution that works out these 


necessity of extensively growing medicinal plants especially in 
India where, with, little difficulty, economic plants of all lands 
can be cultivated.* 

The establishment of medicinal farms in well selected locali- 
ties* will exercise scientific control over the cultivation of medici- 
nal herbs and plants. Regarding the advantages of conducting 
a farm of this nature Messrs. Burroughs Wellcome and Co., who 
have established such a one, write : — 

" 1. A drug may be treated or worked up immediately it 
has been collected. 

" 2. Herbs may be dried, if necessary, directly they are cut, 
before fermentation and other deteriorative changes have set in. 

" 3. Freedom is ensured from caprice on the part of collec- 
tors, who, in gathering wild herbs, are very difficult to control 
in the matter of adulteration, both accidental and intentional. 

" 4. Opportunity is provided to select and cultivate that 
particular strain of a plant which has been found by chemical 
and physiological tests to be the most active, and which gives 
the most satisfactory preparations." 

We know there are many plants mentioned by Hindu 
medical authors which are not procurable now. We have to 
refer to such names as those of Kakoli, Ksira kakoli, 
Medha, Maha Medha, Jivaka, Risabha &c. Perhaps this 
extinction of valuable medicinal plants of ancient India is 
well explained by what Mr. J. L. Stingel writes in the 
American Journal of Pharmacy for 1912 (pp. 299 et seq) 
regarding Hydrastis that with the progress of civilisation 
the plant has diminished. He says that " the scarcity of 
this valuable drug cannot be entirely attributed to lack of plants 

problems in connection with several score different plants has a difficult 
task ahead, but one which may pave the way toward American independence 
in drug science." 

Scientific cultivation of drug plants in this country will make India 
independent in drug science. 

* Lieuteuant-Colonel Sir Leonard Rogers, M. D., F. R. C. P., K. C. I. E. 
I. M. S., the founder of the Calcutta Tropical School of Medicine is reported 
to have said before the Indian Industry Commission, that " most of the drugs 
imported into India were absolute refuse, and considering that one-half of the 
drugs in the British pharmacopoeia are indigenous to India and that most of the 
rest could be cultivated there is clearly an opportunity of developing an 
industry that has been almost neglected, and if India is to grow its own drugs 
it must take care that it gets them unadulterated." 


or to extinction, but to other conditions, which tend to prevent 
identification at the time of collection." This shows also the 
necessity of rational cultivation, and hence of medicinal farms.* 

Many have been disappointed from the use of indigenous 
drugs for which the cause is not far to seek. A writer in the 
Calcutta Review for 1869 (p : 199) said : — 

" The distrust of bazar medicines is, we are convinced, well 
warranted by facts. In many cases bazar medicines are simple 
trash. Let any one only look at the system of storage followed 
in a paiisaris shop, and one very evident reason of this will be 
apparent. His wares are of all degrees of staleness, the stock 
of many of them inherited from his father or grandfather and 
long ago inert. Stoppered bottles are things unknown, and all 
substances are alike stowed in bags or earthen vessels, exposed 
to every variation of the atmosphere in respect of heat and moist- 
ure, and to the attack of every kind of insect. * * * Many are 
adulterated, and as a matter of course, none are labelled." 

The above also shows the necessity of medicinal farms and 
the establishment of depots for the supply of reliable prepa- 
rations of indigenous drugs. 

It is the bounden duty of educated Indians to do all that lies 
in their power for the proper study of Indian medicinal plants 
and drugs. In 1879, the Calcutta Review wrote : — 

1 The resuscitation of Indian medical science is a noble and 
useful work which ought to be performed by educated Hin- 
doos. * * It is perfectly true that Indian drugs ought to 
be largely studied and used by medical practitioners in this 
country. European medical men fully admit this truth and some 
of them have labored earnestly and assiduously to accomplish 
this object. But it is easy to understand that the efforts of 
foreigners must be necessarily imperfect and unproductive of 
adequate results. Upon educated Indian members of the pro- 
fession, therefore, devolves this great and solemn duty, for it is 
they alone who can discharge it adequately and well. * * In 
India the foreign and the indigenous systems ought to be read 
together if full benefit is to be derived from either." 

* A few enterprising Ayurvedic practitioners of Calcutta have established 
such farms in the neighbourhood of that city. But these are on small scale. 




In his interesting report on Punjab Drugs [in Baden Powell's Handbook of 
the Economic Products of the Punjab], the late Dr. Burton Brown wrote : — 

" At the present day the native physicians have adopted, with some modi- 
fications, the idea of Galen respecting the method of operation of medicines ; 
this was, that the uses of all medicines were derived from their elementary or 
cardinal properties, —namely, heat, cold, moisture and dryness ; and that all 
diseases could also be classed under the above heads, but that in the treatment 
of disease a medicine should always be employed which was of a contrary 
nature to the disease treated ; thus a cold disease requires a hot remedy, and 
the converse. 

The following is a list of some of the drugs employed, showing their 
nature according to native ideas, and also the real use in European 

Cold Medicines. 

Scientific name. 

Native name. 


Phyllanthus emblica 


Astringent and acid pur- 


Gul surkh ... 




Astringent and purgative. 

Citrus aurantium 


Astringent, tonic. 

Tamarindus indie a 



Terminalia chebula 



Rhus coriaria 


Hot Medicines. 


Semecarpus anacardium 



Corylus avellana 



Dracocephalum Roylea- 




Zingiber officinale 






Aquillaria agallocha 



Caryophyllus aromatica 



Amber ... 



Narcissus tazetta 


Dry Medicines. 


Prunella sp— , 



Raw Silk 

Abresham ,.. 


Centaurea Behmen 



Polypodium ... 



Dracocephalum Roylea- 




Psoralea corallifolia 



Laurus cinnamomum 



Laurus cassia 






Crocus sativus 



Mentha sativa 



Myristica moschata 





Scientific name. 


Moist Remedies. 


Phyllanthus emblica 



Tamarindus indica 




Tabashir ... 


Vitis vinifera 






Onosma sp , 

Gauzaban ... 


Coriandrum sativum ... 




Gul surkh ... 


Nymphoea ... 



Citrus aurantium 



From the above list it will be seen that many of the cold remedies, are 
what are used in European therapeutics astringent medicines, while the hot 
remedies are principally aromatics ; but that very various remedies are 
classed under the terms moist and dry." 


In the preparation of this work, names of some of the most important 
publications consulted, are given below : — 
Ainslie's Materia Indica. 
Baden Powell's Punjab Products. 
Balfour's Cyclopedia of British India. 
Bapat's Vanausadi Prakasa (in Marathi). 
Beddome's Ferns of British India. 
Bentley and Trimen's Medicinal Plants. 
Birdwood's Bombay Products, 
Bonavia's Oranges and Lemons of India. 
Brandis' Indian Trees. 
Collett's Flora Simlensis. 
Cooke's Bombay Flora. 
Dalzell and Gibson's Bombay Flora. 
Dey's (Kanailal) Indigenous Drugs of India. 
D'orta's (Garcia) Colloquiosdos simplese drogas, da India. 
Drury's Useful Plants of India. 
Duthie's Flora of the Upper Gaugetic plain. 

„ Fodder Grasses of Northern India. 
Dutt's Materia Medica of the Hindus. 
Dymock's Vegetable Materia Medica of Bombay. 

„ Pharmacographia Indica. 

Fluckiger and Hanbury's Pharmacographia. 
Gamble's Indian Timbers. 
Honnigberger's Thirty-five years in the East. 
Hooker's Flora of British India. 

Jaya Krishna Indraji's Vanaspati Sastra (in Guzerati). 
Kanjilal's Forest Flora. 
Kirtikar's Poisonous Plants of Bombay. 
Kurz's Forest Flora of Burma. 
Khory's Materia Medica of Bombay. 
Lindley's Flora Medica. 
Maiden's useful native plants of Australia. 
Moodeen Sheriff's Materia Medica of Madras. 

,, Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia of India. 

Mukerji's Amsterdam Catalogue. 
Murray's Plants and Drugs of Sind. 
Nairne's Flowering Plants of Bombay. 
O'Shanghuessy's Bengal Dispensatory. 

„ „ Pharmacopoeia. 

Pfleider's Five hundred Native plants. 
Prain's Bengal Plants. 


Roxburgh's Flora Indica. 

Sakharani Arjun's Bombay Drugs. 

Stewart's Punjab Plants. 

Talbot's Forest Flora of Bombay Presidency. 

Trimen's Hand-book of the Flora of Ceylon, 

Waring's Bazar Medicines. 

„ Pharmacopoeia of India. 

Watt's Commercial Products of India. 
„ Dictionary of Economic Products of India. 

Journals etc. 

Agricultural Journal of India. 
„ Ledger. 

„ Bulletins and Memoirs. 

Annals of Indian Medicine. 
Asiatic Researches. 
British Medical Journal. 
Chemical Abstracts. 
Indian Forester. 

„ Forest Records and Bulletins. 
„ Medical Gazette. 
„ Lancet. 
Gazeteer Volumes of the different provinces of India. 
Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society. 

Board of Agriculture of England. 
Bombay Natural History Society. 
Chemical Society. 
Society of Chemical Industry. 
Linnean Society. 
Pharmaceutical Journal. 
Records of the Botanical Survey of India. 
Reports of the Indigenous Drugs Committee. 
Year-book of Pharmacy. 

Etc., Etc., Etc. 



1. Clematis Nepaulensis, D.C. h.f.brj., i. 2. 

Syn. : — C. montana, Don. 

Vem. : — Pawanne, birri, wandak. (Pb.) Ghantiali (Kumaon). 

Habitat: — Temperate Himalaya, from Garhwal to Bhotan. 

A slender, nearly glabrous climber. Leaves ternately 
divided, common petiole 1-1 J in. Leaflets 1-2 in. elliptic — lanceo- 
late, sometimes very narrow, entire, toothed or 3-lobed, 
3-nerved ; lateral oblique, half as long as, or shorter than, the 
terminal leaflet or lobe which is 2-3 by -§--| in. Flowers many, 
pedicels 1-2 in. long with 2 hyaline bracts joined into a cup, 
pubescent above the cup. Bud sessile in the cup. Sepals 4, 
erect, cream-coloured, oblong, silky outside. Filaments gla- 
brous, tapering from a broad flat base ; anthers short. Achenes 
flat, margined, hairy; style 1J in. long, long in fruit. 

Parts used : — The leaves. 

Medicinal Properties and Uses : — In Kanawar, the leaves 
are said to act deleteriously on the skin. (Stewart). 

The leaves and stems, since they contain an acrid prin- 
ciple which acts deleteriously on the skin, may be used for 
purposes of vesication. 


N.B.— It is not improbable that C. Napanlensis, D.G. and C. barbellata, 
Edgeir, and some other species of clematis are used for the same purpose as 
C. Nepaulensis, D.C. There is very little difference in the appearance of 
these species, and so they are very easily mistaken one for the other. 

2. G. triloba, Heyne., i. 3. 
Sansk. : — Laglm karni. 

Vern: — Mora vela, Morvel, Moriel, ranjai (Bomb.). 
Habitat: — Mawal district mountains of the Deccan, and 
W. Concan. 

An extensive climber. Leaves 1-2 in., silky small simple 
or one- termite, entire or 1-3-toothed or lobed, elliptic-ovate or 
cordate, 3-ii erved. Panicle many-flowered. Lower bracts leafy. 
Flowers l§-2 in. diam., white. Sepals spreading from the base, 
4-6, membranous, oblong, silky outside. Filaments glabrous, 
narrow-linear, connective of anthers not produced. Petals 0. 
Stamens many. Qarpels many, with a pendulous ovule. Fruit— 
a head of achenes, with a long feathery style. 

Parts used : — The leaves. 

Medicinal Properties and Uses : — The juice of the leaves, 
combined with that of the leaves of Holarrhena antidysenterica, 
is dropped into the eye for the relief of pain in staphyloma; 
about 2 drops being used. Vaidya Rugnathji of Junagad says 
the whole plant is a purgative. 

It is said to be used as a remedy in leprosy, blood di- 
seases and fever by Sanskrit authors. (S. Arjun). 

3. G. Gouriana, Roxh., i. 4. Boxb, 457. 

Vern. :— Morvel, ranjai (Bomb.), Marathi ; Belkun, Bel- 
kangau (N. W.). 

Habitat: — In the hilly districts, from the Western Himalaya 
to the Eastern Peninsula, Ceylon, and the Western Peninsula. 

An extensive woody climber. Stem thick, striate. Branches 
widespread, purple, pubescent when young. Leaves pinnate 
or bi pinnate or biternate. Petiole and rachis elongated. 
Leaflets stalked, unequal, 2-3 $ in. long, ovate, or oblong-lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, shining above, entirely or distantly toothed, 
cordate or rounded at base, rather coriaceous shining, wholly 


glabrous above, slightly pubescent beneath. Flowers yellowish 
or greenish white, f in. diain., small in dense axillary panicles. 
Sepals ovate or oblong, revolute, pubernlous, \-\. in., margins 
tomentose. Filaments narrow-linear. Achenes hairy, lanceo- 
late, Style l|-2 in. long, narrow oblong, in fruit very slender, 

Medicinal Properties and Uses : — The leaves of the fresh 
stems, if bruised and applied to the skin, cause vesication. 
They abound in an acrid poisonous principle. Watt. ii. 369. 

4. Anemone obbusiloba, Don., I. 8. 

Syn. Anemone discolor, Royle. 

Vera. : — Rattanjog, Padar (Pb.). Kakriya (Kumaon). 

Habitat : — Temperate and Alpine Himalaya, from Kashmir 
to Sikkim ; altitude 9-15,000 ft. 

A perennial herb, densely tufted, glabrate, or softly hairy. 

Rootstock woody, fibrous, clothed with old root-sheaths. 
Radical leaves, many stalked, suborbicular, deeply cordate ; 
Segments broad, cuneate, variously cut and lobed, rarely shortly 
petiolate. Scapes 6-12 in., 1-3 — flowered ; invol. leaves 3-fid. 
Flowers white purplish or golden ; pedicels long, slender. 
Sepals silky outside, generally lead-coloured near the claw. 
Achenes strigose, rarely glabrous. Very variable in size, hairi- 
ness and colour of flower. 

Parts used : — The root and seeds. 

Medicinal Properties and Uses : — In Hazara the pounded root, 
which is acrid, is mixed with milk and given internally for 
contusions. In Bessahir it is said to be used as a blister, but 
to be apt to produce sores and scars (Stewart). The seeds, if 
given internally, produce vomiting and purging. The oil ex- 
tracted from them is used in rheumatism. (Watt). 

Anemonui is found in this plant. — It occurs in many of the Ranunciilacece ; 
ifc is a toxic substance, and produces paralysis of the central nervous system. 
The compound lias the formula C 15 H 12 O -, and is deposited in rhombic 
crystals melting at 152°. Io is volatile with steam, and, on exposure to air at 
ordinary temperatures, is slowly.converted into aneiLonic acid ; the oxidation 


proceeds more quickly if platinum black, hydrogen peroxide, or barium 
peroxide is employed. J. Oh. S. 1893 AT. 727. 

(2) But in J. Oh. S. 1896 AT. 623, the formula given for Anemonin is C 10 H 8 
4 . It is also stated there that it yields methyl and ethyl derivatives, 
which are apparent^ ethereal salts, showing that it is the anhydride of a 
dicarboxylic acid. Dimethyl anemonin , C 3 H d (C00Me) 2 , melts at 109-110°, me- 
thylanemonin at 174-176°, diethyl anemonin at 47°, and ethylanemonin at 
168-170°. (3) The said dicarboxylic acid is a ketonic acid. (4) By oxidation, 
anemonin yields succinic and oxalic acids. (5) By hydrolysis of the dialkylic 
salts before mentioned with alkali and amorphous acid, C 10 H 8 4 -f 2H 2 is 
formed, but hydrolysis of them with HC1 yields a crystalline acid, C 10 H 8 
4 4-H 2 0. The amorphous acid gives coloured, the crystalline acid colourless, 
salts. (6) Anemonin is a saturated compound, for by reduction it yields a 
saturated hydroxy-acid, and absorbs neither chlorine (Hubl's solution) nor 

5. Thalictrum foliolosum, D.C., i. 14. 

Vern. : — Pinjari ; Shuprak (root-pili-jari) (H.) ; Pila-jari, 
pengla jari, barmat (roo£-mainira) (Kumaon) ; Gurbiani, pash- 
maran, phalijori, Chitra-mul, Keraita, Mamira (Pb.) ; Chaitra 
(Kashmir); Mamiran (Bombay). 

Habitat : — Temperate Himalaya ; Khasia bills. 

A tall perennial rigid herb. Stem 4-8 ft. glabrous. Leaves 
exstipulate, pinnately- decompound ; petiole sheaths auricled. 
Leaflets \-% in. rarely 1 in., orbicular. Panicles much branched, 
bracts small. Floicers polygamous, white, pale green, dingy 
purple. Sepals 4-5. Petals 0. Stamens many, filaments filiform ; 
anthers beaked. Ovule 1, pendulous. Aehenes usually 2-5, small, 
oblong, acute at both ends, sharply ribbed. 

Parts used : — The root. 

Uses: — Tt has been found useful as a tonic. "I adminis- 
tered it in the form of a tincture to some extent when at the 
European General Hospital, Bomba}^ and found it a good bitter 
tonic, comparable with gentian." (Dymock.). 

The root is largely used as an anjan, or application for 
ophthalmia in Afghanistan and throughout India. 

In the Punjab, the root is used as a purgative and diuretic. 
(Baden Powell). 


The bruised root having been given to large dogs in the 
quantity of 10 grs. to 2 ounces, no particular effects were 
observed , 

"It has been used in the Hospital of the Medical College 
in several cases of ague, and as a tonic in the convalescence from 
acute diseases. 

" 5 grs. of the powder, or 2 grs. of the watery extract, 
given thrice daily, have in some cases prevented, and in several 
moderated, the accession of fever, and at the same time acted 
gently on the bowels. The only sensation experienced was 
warmth at the epigastrium, and a general comfortable feeling. 

" Another species of Thalictrum (flavum) is common in 
France, where it is termed ' the poor man's rhubarb,' as a sub- 
stitute for which medicine it is generally employed. The Indian 
species is easily procurable from the hills, though not known 
in the bazars of the lower provinces. 

" It deserves extensive trial, and promises to succeed well 
as a febrifuge of some power, and a tonic aperient of peculiar 

" Dose of the powder. — 5 to 10 grs. as a tonic and ape- 
rient, in the interval of intermittent fevers, and in convalescence 
from acute diseases." (O'Shaughnessy). 

"It lessens the intensity of fever, and acts gently on the 
bowels ; thus it is a good substitute for rhubarb. As collyrium, 
it clears the sight. The snuff prepared from it clears the brain. 
It relieves toothache." (R. N. Khory). 

6. Ranunculus scleratus, Linn,, I. 19. 
Syn. ' — R. Indicus, Eoxb. 458. 

Vern.: — Kaf-es-saba(Arab.) ; Kabikaj (Pers.). Polica (Tirhut) ; 
Shim (Kumaon). 

Habitat : — River banks in Bengal and Northern India ; 
marshes of Peshawar ; warm valleys of the Himalaya ; unknown 
south of the Nerbudda. 

An annual glabrous, erect yellow-green herb. 


Stem usually 6-12 in., sometimes 1-3 ft., succulent, hollow. 
Radical leaves J-lf in. across, long- stalked, deeply 3-lobed, 
segments lobed, obtusely toothed, near the top. Stem leaves 
shortly stalked, 3-parted, segments narrow, lobed and toothed. 
Flowers J-J in. diam., numerous, petals pale-yellow. Sepals re- 
flexed. Receptacle oblong, hairy. Achenes glabrous, in oblong 
heads, ultimately becoming cylindrical and longer. 

Parts used : — The whole plant. 

Uses : — It was formerly used in Europe by professional 
beggars to produce or maintain blisters or open sores intended 
to excite sympathy. Roxburgh remarks that it has no native 
name, and that its properties are apparently unknown. It cer- 
tainly possesses a very powerful principle, and one would expect 
to find it taking a place in the practice of herbalism. Water 
distilled from a decoction retains its acrid character, and, if this 
be allowed to slowly evaporate, it leaves behind a quantity of 
highly insoluble crystals of a very inflammable character. 

The fresh plant is poisonous, and produces violent effect 
if taken internally. The bruised leaves form an application to 
raise blisters, and may also be used to keep open sores caused 
by vesication, or by other means (Murray). 

7. Caltlia palustris, Linn,, i. 21. 

Vera. : — Mamiri, baringu (Tb.\ 

Eng. : — The marsh marigold. 

Habitat: — Marshes of the Western temperate Himalaya, 
from Kashmir to Nepal, altitude 8-10,000 feet Simla, common 
on marshy grounds of Chor. 

A glabrous perennial herb. Rootstock thick, creeping. Steins 
6-18 in. often tufted, erect, robust. Leaves shining, chiefly 
radical, 2-5 in. across, long-stalked, orbicular or kidney-shaped, 
deeply serrate; teeth small, close, regular. Stem-leaves alter- 
nate, smaller, the upper sessile, embracing the stem like 
an involucre. Flowers regular, i'exv, 1-2 in. diam., terminal. 
Sepals 5-6, petal-like, bright yellow, oval or oblong-obtuse, 


imbricate. Petals none. Stamens many. Carpels many, sessile, 
many ovuled, Style short, carved. 

Fruit a head of narrow, flattened, many-seeded follicles, 
beaked with the persistent styles. 

Use : — In Hazara, the root is considered poisonous. 

8. Coptis leeta, Wall,, i. 23. 

Vern. : — Tita(Ass); Mahmira (Sind, ; Mamira (EL). 
Habitat : — Met with in Mishmi mountains, east of Assam, 
in temperate regions. 

Small stemless herbs. 

Rootstoch horizontal, perennial, golden yellow, woody, 
densely fibrous, very bitter. Leaves ternatisect, glabrous, 
petioles 6-12 in. ; leaflets 2-3 in., ovate-lanceolate, pinnatifid, 
lobes incised, terminal largest. Scape equalling the leaves. 
Flowers 1-3 — pedicelled, regular, small, white on slender leafless 
scapes. Bracts leafy. Sepals 5-6, J in. oblong— lanceolate, acute. 
Petals 5-6, narrow, ligulate, obtuse, f shorter than the sepals. 
Garpels pedicelled, spreading. Ocules many. Follicles many- 
seeded. Seeds with a black crustaceous testa. Mishmi nuts, 

Part used : — The root. 

Use: — It is a bitter tonic, useful in fevers and atonic dys- 

9. Delphinium denudatiim , Wall. h.f. br. l, i. 25. 

Vern. :— Nirbisi, judwar (EL); Nilobikh (Nepal); Munila 

Habitat : — West temperate Himalaya, from Kashmir to 
Knmaon, in grassy places. 

Glabrous or slightly downy herbs. Stems 2-3 ft. branched. 
Radical — leaves 2-6 in. across, orbicular, long-stalked, divided 


nearly to the base, segments 5-9, narrow, pinnately lobed, often 
toothed ; stem-leaves few, shortly stalked, upper sessile, more 
or less deeply 3-lobed, lobes narrow, mostly entire. Flowers 
few, scattered, 1-1 \ in. long, spur cylindric, nearly straight. 
Sepals spreading, varying from deep-blue to faded grey. Petals 
blue, the lateral ones 2-lobed, hairy (CollettJ. Anterior petals 
deeply 2-fid, hairy on both surfaces. Follicles 3, inflated, glab- 
rous or sparsely hairy. (Hr. f. and Thorns.). 

Use : — The root is used in Basbahr for toothache and also 
as an adulterant for aconite (Stewart). 

An alkaloid, introduced into commerce under the name of delpliocurarine 
(Merck) has been extracted from the roots of a number of Delphiniums by 
means of an 80 per cent, solution of alcohol containing tartaric acid. Delplio- 
curarine consists, in reality, of a mixture of bases, and behaves physiologi- 
cally like curare (compare Lob maim, Pfluger's Archiv 1902, XCII, 398). It 
forms a white, amorphous powder which has a very bitter taste and an alkaline 
reaction, and is readily soluble in dilute acids. A small quantity of crystal- 
line compound, C23H33 7 N, has been isolated from delphocurarine by means of 
ether and a mixture of light petroleum ; it crystallises in needles, melts at 
184 c -185°, is rather readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, or benzene, 
but only sparingly so in light petroleum, and contains 18 per cent, of 
methoxyl. The platinum and gold salts form pale reddish yellow powders, 
the former containing Pt. 13*69 percent, and the latter Au 23*29. 

J. Cb. S. 1903, AT. 650. 

10. D. cceruleum, Jacq., 1. 25. 

Vern. : — Dakhanga (Pb.). 

Habitat :— Alpine Himalaya, from Kumaon to Sikkim. 

An erect herb. Stem 3-12 in., much-branched from the base, 
leafy, spreading. Lear^suborbicular, 1J-1J in. diam., 5-7 lobed, 
lobes cuncate — oblong, incised or pinnatifid, segments linear. 
Radical leaves divided to the base. Flowers solitary in long 
branches or few in a loose raceme, pale blue, hairy. Sepals 
shorter than the nearly straight spur. Spur subulate. Anterior 
petals obovate or obcordate, a little hairy. Follicles 5, hairy. 

Use : — The root is applied to kill the maggots in the wounds 
of goats. (Stewart.) 

11. D. Brunoinanam, Royle., i. 27. 

Vern.: — Nepari (Knmaon) ; Kasturi (Garhwal) ; Sapfulu 


(Ravi) ; laskar, spet, panni supalu, ruskar, liokpa (Sntlej) ; La- 
dara (Ladakh) ; Mundwal (Pangij. 

Habitat :— Alpine, West Tibet. 

An erect herb. Stem glabrous or downy below, glandular 
pubescent above, 6-12 in., simple below, leafy. Leaves 5-fid to 
the middle, lobes sharply cut or toothed, 3-4 in, diam. lobes 
cuneate-ovate, petioles very long. Inflorescence corymbose ; 
corymbs sometimes compound. Flowers large, pale blue, hairy; 
tracts 3-5 — partite, upper simple, oblong or linear, Sepals conni- 
vent, 1 in., membranous, orbicular, veined ; longer than the conic 
and inflated spur. Follicles 5-6, f in., viscidly pubescent. 

Uses: — The juice of the leaves of this plant is used in 
Kurram to destroy ticks in animals, but chiefly when they affect 
sheep. In Leh it is considered so poisonous that the dew from 
the leaves falling on grass is said to poison cattle and horses. 

" It is remarkable for the very powerful odour of musk, 
which is not peculiar to this species of the genus, but exists 
in other high alpine species, which form a peculiar group, 
with large half-closed membranaceous flowers, whence the 
mountaineers erroneously suppose that the musk-deer feed upon 
them, and thereby communicate the peculiar odour to their 
glandular secretions. The D. Moschatum, Munro is now, by 
Hooker and Thomson, rightly referred to the present plant," 

Some other species of Delphinium are also used me- 
dicinally, or their roots are employed to adulterate Aconites. 
Thus Delphinium, Gashmirianum, Royle, (h., j. 26), 
Fig:— Royle 111. t. 12, found in West Tibet and Tibetan 
Himalaya, from Kumaon to Kashmir, and called in Punjabi 
Amlin, is used to adulterate Aconites ; since, according to 
Atkinson, the cylindrical tuberous roots of this plant are abso- 
lutely identical with the ordinary nirbisi roots. 


There are about 24 Indian species of Aconite which may be 
classified as (a) non-poisonous and ib) poisonous. The poisonous 


properties are due to the roots containing bikhaconitine, pseudo- 
aconitine, or indaconitine. 

The non-poisonous Aconites, the active principles .of which 
are either Atisine or Palmatisine, are d) A. heterophyllum, Wall.; 
(ii) A. palmatum ; (Hi) A. rotundifolium ; (iv) A. violaceum. 

The poisonous aconites are (i) A. falconeri, (ii) A. laciniatum ; 
(Hi) A. lethale ; (if>) A. spicatum ; it?) A. deinorrhizuni ; (vi) A. 
Balfourii ; (mi) A. Chasmanthum ; (mii) A. soongaricum. 

12. Aconitum lycotonum, Linn. h. f. be. i., i. 28. 

Vern. :— Bika (H) ; Khanik-El-Zeb (Arab.). 

Habitat : — Himalaya, from Chitral to Kumaon, mostly in 
forests, locally abundant, from 5,000 — 12,000 ft. Kashmir. 

Root perennial, elongate, more or less cylindric, ultimately 
breaking up into separate or anastomosing strands. Stem erect, 
simple, 3-6ft., glabrous or pubescent, much branched. Leaves 
palmately deeply 5-9-lobed, 6-10 in. diam., lobes cuneate-ovate ; 
lower leaves long-petioled, upper sessile. Racemes branched, 
long, tomentose, bracts minute. Flowers pale yellow or dull 
purple, variable in size ; helmet with a short beak and long 
cylindrical dorsal prominence. Follicles 3, spreading ; testa 

Uses : — This species also yields much of the aconite of Euro- 
pean commerce. 

Dr. Stapf writes: — The root does not appear to be used 
medicinally, and its chemistry is unknown. Dr. Jowett's notes 
quoted by Dr. Watt, in Agric. Ledger 1932, No. 3, p. 89, refer 
to the chemistry of the European A. Lycotonum. 

13. A. palmatum, Don. D. Prodr. h. f. br. 
e, i. 28. 

Vern. : — Bikhma, Vakhama (Bomb.) ; Vakhamo (Guzr). Bis- 
hawa (E. s 

Habitat: — Alpine Himalaya of Nepal, Sikkim and the 
adjoining part of South Tibet, from 10,000-16,000 feet. 


Roots biennial, paired, tuberous ; daughter-tuber shortly 
conic to long-cylindric, often irregularly shaped, 4 to more than 
10 cm. long, 0*75-3 cm. thick, simple or branched, sometimes 
flexuous or twisted, bearing root-fibres, some of which are 
thread-like from the base and break off easily, while others are 
much thickened at the base or thick-cylindric, light-brown, 
smooth, fracture more or less horny and brownish in the thick- 
est part of full-grown samples, almost farinaceous and white 
towards the tips and in the root-branches, cambium discon- 
tinuous, forming isolated strands of very varying shape and size, 
cylindric or tangentially flattened or crescent-shaped in cross- 
section, taste purely and persistently bitter ; mother-tubers 
similar, but smaller, shrunk more or less hollow, and brown 
internally. Innovation -bud, short, conic from broad base 
Stem erect, sometimes shortly flexuous in the upper part, simple 
or nearly so, inclusive of the inflorescence, 2-4ft. high, stout, 
hollow, shining, glabrous. Leaves scattered, rather distant, 
up to 10, rarely more, the lowest usually withered at the time 
of flowering, quite glabrous, or the uppermost finely pubescent 
on the nerves below ; petioles slender, 4-10 cm. long ; blade 
orbicular-cordate to reniform with a very wide sinus (1-2 cm. 
deep), 6-10 cm. high from the sinus to the tip, 7-15 cm. across 
5-or the uppermost 3-palmati-partite to f or f , rarely more (to § 
in the inner incisions), divisions obovatecuneate to broadly 
lanceolate-cuneate or the outermost trapezoid, 3-lobed to about 
the middle or the outermost 2-lobed, intermediate lobe often 
elongated like others, acutely inciso-dentate or apiculately cre- 
nate. Inflorescence : — A very loose leafy panicle or raceme, 10-20 
cm. long, glabrous, or pubescent in the upper part ; rhachis 
rather slender ; floral leaves, like the preceding canline leaves, 
passing into the ovate or deltoid, dentate, shortly petioled 
bracts ; bracteoles similar to bracts, but smaller, and sparingly 
dentate or entire, above the middle of the pedicels or even close 
to the flower ; pedicels slender, curved, ascending, ultimately 
more erect, the lower up to 10 cm. long. Sepals bluish, or 
variegated white and blue, glabrous at least outside ; upper- 
most helmet-shaped, helmet obliquely semi-orbicular (from the 
side) or more depressed and gaping very shortly or obscurely 


beaked, 20-24 mm. high, 18-24 mm. long from tip to the base, 
10-12 mm. wide (seen from the side', lateral margin very slightly 
concave or almost straight, Lateral sepals contiguous with the 
helmet, obliquely orbicular-quadrate, not clawed, 18-20 mm. 
long ; lower sepals oblique!} 7 oblong or elliptic — obtuse to 
acute, 12-15 mm. long. Nectaries glabrous, extinguisher — 
shaped ; claw erect, or the upper-end more or less leaning- 
forward, 16-18 mm. long ; hood sub-cylindric, 4-8 mm. long, 
oblique to almost horizontal, top gibbous posteriorly, honey- 
gland occupying the gibbosity or the whole top, lip extremely 
short, crenulate, very broad. Filaments glabrous, 8 mm. long, 
narrowly winged to or beyond the middle, wings gradually 
alternated. Carpels 5, subcontiguous in the flower, but soon 
diverging, narrowly oblong, gradually passing into the short 
style, quite glabrous. Follicles subcontiguous or somewhat 
diverging in the upper part, oblong, obliquely truncate, 2*5-3 
cm. long, 5-6 mm. broad, loosely reticulate. Seeds blackish, 
obovoid, about 3 mm. long, round in cross-section, obscurely 
winged along the rhaphe, transversely lamellate, lamella? dark, 

Uses : — Nothing definite is as yet known of the medicinal 
properties of this root. It is believed to be non-poisonous as 
well as tonic and antiperiodic. 

It has also earned some repute in the treatment of cholera 
(Sakharam Arjun). 

From the roots of this, an alkaloid, named Palmatisine has been isolated 
at the Imperial Institute, which crystallises well, and in some respects 
resembles atisine. J. Ch. S. 1905T, 1655. 

14. A.ferox, Wall, H. F. br. i., i. 28. 

Habitat : — Temperate, sub-Alpine Himalaya, from Sikkim to 

Sanskrit : — Visha (Poison; ; Vatsanabha (resembling the navel 
of children). 

Vern. : — Bish, bachnak, mitha zahar ; Singyabish ; telya- 
bish (PL); Kat bish, Mitha bish, Sringibish, (Beng.) ; Bachnag 
(Mar.); Vashanavi (Tarn.); Vasanabhi, nabhi (Teh); Vatsanabhi 
(Mai.) ; Vasanabhi (KanA Shingadio-Vachnng (Gruz.j. 


Roots: — biennial, . paired, tuberous; daughter- tuber ovoid- 
oblong to ellipsoid, 2'5-4 cm. long, about 1-15 cm. thick, with 
a few filiform root-fibres, dark-brown externally, fracture scarcely 
farinaceous, yellowish, taste rattier indifferent, followed by a 
strong tingling sensation, cambium continuous, forming in 
cross-section a slightly sinuous ring ; mother-tuber much shrunk 
and wrinkled, with numerous root-fibres, outer sieve-strands, sur- 
rounded by a mantle of selerenchymatic cells. Innovation bud 
conic, 4-5 mm. long ; scales ovate, prominently finely nerved, 
persistent. Stem erect, with or without a slender hypogasous 
base (up to 3 cm. long) which emits numerous fine roots near 
the upper end, simple erect, 40-90 cm. high, rather slender, 
covered with short spreading yellow hairs in the upper part, 
glabrous below, hollow. Leaves scattered, distant, excepting 
the lowest 2 or 3 which are usually delayed at the time of the 
flowering, up to 7, glabrous, or the uppermost very sparingly 
hairy ; petioles slender, the lower up to 25 cm. long and much 
dilated' at the base, uppermost very short ; blade orbicular- 
cordate to reniform in outline with a rather wide sinus (up to 8 
cm. deep) up to 11 cm. high from the sinus to the tip, up to 20 cm. 
across, 5-pedati-partite to the very base or almost so in the 
inner, and to ^-f 6 in the outer incisions, divisions deltoid from 
a cuneate base on the outermost trapezoid, intermediate division 
3-lobed to the middle, middle lobe elongate, pinnate-laciniate 
to inciso-dentate, ultimate segments or teeth acute or very acute, 
inner lateral divisions similar, but less symmetric, outermost 
2-lobed or 2-partite, all lacinia?, more or less linear-lanceolate and 
divaricate, the outermost overlapping and thus closing the sinus ; 
uppermost blades, sessile or hubsessile, much smaller or dis- 
sected. Inflorescence a loose raceme 10-25 cm. long, often 
with slender, erect, few-flowered additional branches from the 
leafy base ; rhachis slender, densely yellow-pubescent to sub- 
tomentose ; floral leaves like the preceding leaves, but much 
reduced, passing upwards into trifid or entire and linear-lanceo- 
late bracts ; bracteoles at or below the middle, resembling reduced 
biacts, very often suppressed ; pedicels slender, erect, the lowest 
at length up to 7 cm. long. Sepals blue, hairy ; uppermost 
helmet-shaped, helmet serai-orbicular in profile, shortly beaked 


20 — 24 ram. high, 17 — 20 ram. from tip to base, 7 —9 mm. wide ; 
lateral sepals slightly contiguous with the helmet, oblique, 
orbicular-obovate, broadly clawed, 16 mm. long, 14 mm. broad ; 
lower sepals deflexed, oblong" subacute, 10 mm. long. Nectaries 
glabrous ; claw erect ; hood oblique to subhorizontal, oblong, 
gibbous on the back ; lip deflexed, lanceolate, acute, entire. 
Filaments glabrous, about 7 mm. long, narrowly winged, wings 
gradually alternate. Carpels 5, conniving and contiguous, tomen- 
tose, gradually passing into the style. Follicles oblong, obli- 
quely subtruncate, 15—20 mm. long, 4-5 mm. broad, dorsally 
sub-convex, loosely tomentose or at length almost glabrous, 
conspicuously reticulate. Seeds obovoid or obpyramidal, 2*6 — 3 
ram. long, winged along the raphe, transversely lamellate on the 
faces, lamellae undulate. 

Habitat : — Alpine Himalaya of Nepal. 

Part used : — The root. 

Uses : — This drug is officinal in both the British and Indian 

Extremely poisonous as the name indicates, It is very 
probably, says Stapf, the source or one of the sources of the 
"Bish Bikh" or "Hodoya Bish" of Hamilton. 

" A few years ago I took the white variety, Bachndg, myself 
in small quantities, and found that its internal use is not 
attended with more danger than that of the European aconite 
root '{Aeonitum Napellus^. Since that period, I have employed 
it very extensively in my practice, and do not hesitate in saying 
that it is one of tiie most useful medicines in India. Its bene- 
ficial influence over diabetes is very remarkable, the immoderate 
flow of urine beginning to diminish from the very day of its 
use, with a proportionate decrease in the saccharine matter. Its 
control over spermatorrhoea and incontinence of urine is equally 
great. It has lately been found useful in some cases of paralysis 
and leprosy. The advantages of this drug over all other 
varieties of the Indian aconite root are that it is not only much 
milder, but also more certain and uniform in its actions." 
fiYloiiiDEEN Sheriff). 

N. 0. RANtlNCULACE/E. 15 

15. A. Napellus, Linn,, i. 28. 

Vern. : — Dudhiabish ; Katbish ; Mitha-Zahar; Tilia cachang ; 
Moliri (Kashmir and Panjab Himalayan names). The root in 
Kashmir is called Ban-bal-ndg, Vasa nabhi (Tel.); Dudhio 
Vachanag (GuzA 

Habitat: — Temperate, Alpine Himalaya, from 10,000 feet to 
the highest limit of vegetation in the N.-W. Provinces. 

An annual erect herb, starting from an elongated tuberous 
conical rootstock. Root 2 — 4 in. long, and sometimes as much as 
an inch in thickness. This root tapers off in a long tail, while 
numerous branching rootlets spring from its side. If dug 
up in the summer, it will be found that a second and a younger 
root (occasionally a third) is attached to it, near its summit, by 
a very short branch and is growing out of it on one side. This 
second root has a bud at the top which is destined to 
produce the stem of the next season. Tt attains its maximum 
development at the latter part of the year, the parent root, 
meanwhile, becoming shrivelled and decayed. The dried root 
is more or less conical or tapering, enlarged, knotty at the 
summit, which is crowned with the base of the stem. It is from 
2 — 3 or 4 inches long, and at the top from \ — 1 in. thick. A 
transverse section of a sound root shows a pure white central 
portion (pith) which is many-sided and has at each of its 
projecting angles a thin fibro-vascular bundle. (Fliickiger and 
Hanbury). Stem : — Stiff upright herbaceous, simple, 3-4ft. high, 
clothed at its upper half with spreading dark-green leaves, which 
are paler on their underside; glabrous or slightly pubescent, 
often decumbent. Leaves 3 — 5 or more inches long, nearly 
half consisting of the channelled petiole, palmati-partite ; 
very variable in size. The blade which has a roundish 
outline, is divided down to the petiole into three principal 
segments, of which the lateral are sub-divided into two or 
even three, the lowest being smaller and less regular than 
the others. The segments, which are trifid, are finally cut 
into 2 or 5 strap-shaped pointed lobes. The leaves are usually 
glabrous and are deeply impressed on their upper side by veins 
which run with but few branchings to the tip of every lobe. 


The uppermost leaves are more simple than the lower, and 
gradually pass into the bracts of the beautiful raceme of dull blue 
helmet-shaped flowers which crown the stem. The taste of the 
leaves is at first mawkish, but afterwards persistently burning. 
The taste of the fresh root has a sharp odour of radish whicli 
disappears in drying. Its taste which is at first sweetish soon 
becomes alarmingly acrid, accompanied with a sensation of 
tingling and numbness. (Fluck. and Hanb.). Flowers f-lin., 
long. " Bright or dull greenish blue" (Hk. f., and Thorns.)- 
Sepals 5, petaloid, posterior (helmet) vaulted, the rest flat. 
Petals 2-5, two posterior clawed ; limb hooded and enclosed in 
the helmet. Helmet shallow, tapering to a slender beak, 3 times 
as long as In gh. Racem es : — Simple, few— or many-flowered, or 
sparingly compound. Bracts entire or trifid. Stamens many. 
Follicles 3-5 in. in Indian forms ; hairy, sessile. Seeds many. 
Testa smooth. This is a very variable plant. 

" Recent investigations into the Chemistry of the Indian 
Aconites, and my own examination of a great mass of herbarium 
material, many times richer than that whicli was at the disposal 
of the authors of the Flora Indiea, as well as histological studies 
concerning the root- tubers of the Indian Aconites, have con- 
vinced me that the European Aconitum Napellus does not occur 
in India, either in its typical form or what we might be justified 
in calling varieties of it." (Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, 
Calcutta, Vol X, p. 121. ' The Aconites of India ' by L)r Otto 

Part used :— The root. 

Use ; — Its febrifuge and tonic properties are mentioned in all 
works on Materia Medica. 

16. A. heterophyllum. Wall., i. 29. 

8yn. : — A. cordatum, Royle. 

Sanskrit : — Sanskrit writers describe two varieties of this 
root . — (i) white and (2) black. The synonyms of the white 
variety are : — Ativisha (very poisonous) ; Sukla Kanda (white 
root) ; Visha (poisonous) ; Prativisha (Counter-poison or anti- 
dote). The Synonyms of the second variety are : — Shyama 


Karida (black root) ; Sitashringi (white-horned; ; Bhangura 
(frail) ; Upavishanika (the horns or rootlets turned upwards;. 

Vern : — Atis (H.) ; Ati-vadayam (Tarn.) ; Ati-vasa (Tel.) ; 
Mohand-i-gujsafed ; hong-i-Safed (Kashmir) A 'is (Bhotie) Sukhi- 
hari, Chitijari ; Patris or Patis ; bonga (Pb.) ; Atavishni-Kali ; 
Ativish or Ativakh (Guz.) ; Ativish (Mar.). 

Habitat :--- Common in the Subalpine and Alpine Zone of the 
Himalaya, from the Indus to Kumaon, from 6,000 to 15,000 ft. 

Stem : — Erect, leafy, 1-3 ft., simple or branched from the 
base, glabrous below, puberulous above. Leaves 2-4 in. broad 
ovate or orbicular. Cordate, acute or obtuse ; canline sharply 
toothed, the lowest long-petioled and not amplexicaul. Racemes 
often panicled, many-flowered. Bracts sharply toothed, upper 
3-fid or entire. Flowers more than 1 in. long, bright blue, 
greenish blue, with purple veins. Helmet half as high as long, 
shortly beaked. Follicles 5, downy. Testa smooth. 

The roots contain an alkaloid, atisine, C 22 H 3 i N 2 , {Alder 
Wright) or C 4G H 74 N 3 5 (Bronghton). (See Sohn., p. 4,) and 
Aconitic acid, C 6 H G 6 . 

In Dymock's Mat. Medica. of W. I, (2nd edition, p. 7), it 
is said: — "The English notices of this are to be found in 
Hindu works on Materia Medica, Sharangdhar and Chakradatt, 
where it is recommended as a remedy in fevers, diarrhoea, dys- 
pepsia and cough, also as an alexipharmic." *' The author of 
the Makhzan-ul-Adwiya says it is aphrodisiacal and tonic, checks 
diarrhoea and removes corrupt bile." Up to very recently, English 
physicians in India administered it as an antiperiodic in doses 
of about 30 grains, every 6 or 4 hours. Dr. M. Sheriff considers 
that the ordinary doses are only useful as a tonic, and that 2 
dram's or more should be given as an antiperiodic. Probably, 
says Dr. Dymock, the native estimate of the drug, as given 
above from the Makhzan, is not far from truth, viz., that it is 
tonic and digestive and often useful in dyspepsia with diarrhoea 
(Pharmacographia Indica, Vol. T., p. 16, 1890, Bombay). Dr. 
Tribhuvandas. M. Shah of Junagadh says it is anthelmintic and 
antifebrile, in doses of 10-30 grains. It can be given to children 
in fevers. 



The alkaloid Atisine of Broughton, from experiments made 
on rabbits, appears to be non-poisonous. (Dymock). Dr. Dymock 
says that Atis is an ingredient in Bdl-Goli, a pill given to infants 
to keep them quiet, which contains thirty-one drugs, of which 
three are narcotics, viz., Bhang, opium and Datura, and the 
remainder bitters, aromatics. (Ph. Indica, p. 15, Vol. I.) 

Part used : — The root. 

Use : — The root is officinal in the Indian Pharmacopoeia. 
Tonic and antiperiodic properties are attributed to it, 

17. A. Soongaricum, Stapf. 

Stapf writes : — "Of all the Indian species of Acouitum which I have seen, 
this comes nearest to the A. Napellus of Europe ; and if that species is taken 
in a broad sense, A. Soongaricum might perhaps be included in it as a variety, 
the principal differences being in the small size and shape of the tubers and 
the peculiar long-beaked helmet. The long, linear, usually entire lacinise of 
the leaves also are unusual in A. JSapellus ; still they occur occasionally. 
The fruits and seeds may possibly, when known, add other distinctive 
characters." (1. c. p., 142.) 

Vernacular name — unknown, 

Habitat :— Alpine region of the mountain ranges of Gilgit 
and Turkestan. 

Boots : — Biennial, paired ; tuberous : daughter-tuber conic, 
slender, 2-2'5 cm. long 0'7 cm. thick, with very few root-fibres, 
brown externally, fracture horny, brown, taste faintly sweetish 
bitter, followed by a very slight tingling sensation, cambium 
continuous, forming a scarcely sinuous ring in cross-section ; 
mother-tuber similar, more or less shrunk. Innovation-bud 
conic, about 5 mm. long; scales scarious, soon decaying or 
sprouting. Stem erect, simple, moderately robust, quite glabrous, 
rarely slightly pubescent in the upper part, up to 7 dm. high. 
Leaves scattered, lowest usually decayed at the time of flowering, 
intermediate remote, upper more approximate, glabrous ; petioles 
more or less widened at the base ; lower up to 12 cm. long, 
upper 1-2 cm. long ; blades more or less cordate-orbicular or reni- 
form in outline, with a wide or narrow sinus, 2 — 3 cm. deep ; 
5 — 9 cm. from the sinus to the tip, 8 — 12 cm. across, 5-partite to 
the very base or in the outer incisions almost to the base ; inner 
3 divisions similar, rhomboid in outline from a narrow cuneate 


base, 2*5 — 35 cm. wide, 3-lobed to or beyond the middle or 
pinnate-laciniate, lobes or lacinias broad-linear, obtuse to shortly 
acute 1*5-3 cm. long, 3-5 mm. broad, entire or the larger with 
1-2 coarse teeth or linear lobules, outer divisions 2-fid beyond 
the middle, inner segment 2-3-lobed, outer often entire, linear. 
Inflorescence an erect dense or somewhat loose, terminal raceme 
6-18 cm. long, or with additional branches from the upper leaves, 
glabrous or sparingly softly pubescent ; lower bracts foliaceous, 
3-partite, with mostly entire long linear segments, considerably 
exceeding the pedicels, intermediate linear, entire, up to 2-5 cm. 
long, upper filiform, short ; pedicels slender, erect or often 
adpressed to the rhachis, lower 1'5 — 2*5 cm. long ; bracteoles 
linear, above the middle of the pedicel, sometimes close to the 
flower. Sepals blue, pubescent, ciliate ; uppermost helmet- 
shaped ; helmet clawed, equally curved on the back and in front 
(seen in profile), descending into a long slender beak, lateral 
margin deeply concave, 16-18 mm. high, 12-15 mm. from the 
tip to the base, 5-6 mm. wide at the top ; lateral sepals oblique, 
obovate-orbicular, shortly clawed 13-17 mm. long, not conti- 
guous with the helmet ; lower deflexed, sub-horizontal, elliptic to 
oblong, obtuse or sub-obtuse, 10-15 mm. long. Nectaries 
glabrous ; claw slender up to 12 mm. long ; hood erect, 5 mm. 
long, top gibbous at the back ; lip oblong-ovate, crenulate, 
as long as the hood. Filaments glabrous or sparingly hairy in 
the upper part, 7-8 mm. long, winged below, wings gradually 
or abruptly contracted. Carpels 3 lanceolate-oblong, gradually 
passing into the style, somewhat diverging, glabrous or almost 
so. Mature Follicles and seeds unknown. Young follicle 
distinctly diverging, inserted on the enlarging torus. 

Use. — "The root does not appear to find its way to the 
bazars of India. This species has not as yet been chemicall} 7 
investigated, and it is just possible that it may be found to 
contain aconitine." — (Watt). 

18. A. Ghasmanthum, Stapf. Annals Royal Bot. 
Gard. Calcutta, Vol. X. pt. IT., p. 142. 

Vern. — Mohri (Jhelum Basin) ; Run (Jhelum Basin); Ban- 
bal-nag (Kashmir.) 


Habitat : — Subalpine and Alpine zone of the Western Hima- 
laya from Chitral and Hazara to Kashmir, between 7,000 and 

12,000 ft. 

Roots: — ■Biennial, paired, tuberous ; daughter-tuber conic to 
conio-cylindric from a broad base, 2'5-3"7 (rarely 5) cm., 12-18 
mm. thick, bearing more or less numerous root-fibres, leaving 
behind the indurated bases when breaking off, bark brown to 
blackish brown, smooth or wrinkled when dry, fracture cartila- 
ginous, hard, white within the cambium ring, br.ownish without ; 
taste slightly bitter, followed by a very persistent strong tingling 
sensation, cambium continuous, forming a wide central strand, 
sinuous in cross-section ; mother-tuber shrunk, deeply grooved 
and wrinkled, black outside, brown right through. Innovation- 
bud conic, short from a very broad base. Stem erect, simple, 
inclusive of the inflorescence, 60-120 cm. high, rather stout, 
crispo-pubescent above, glabrous below, or almost glabrous 
all along. Leaves numerous, usually more distant in the lower 
part and crowded in the upper, or more equally distributed, 
the lowest on petioles up to 7*5 cm. long, the upper shortly 
petioled or subsessile, passing into the floral leaves, quite 
glabrous, somewhat fleshy, lower and intermediate blades 
orbicular, reniform in outline, 4-6 cm. high, 5-9 cm. across, 
3-palmati-partite almost to the very base, intermediate segment 
obovate-cuneate, long attenuated at the base, 3-lobed to the 
middle or beyond, lobes liciniate, or the middle lobe pinnati- 
partite, ultimate liciniae linear, acute to very acute, lateral 
segments deeply 2-partite and liciniate with the inner division, 
similar to the intermediate segment and the outer 2-lobed 
and smaller, uppermost lobes similar to the preceding, but 
smaller, relatively longer and more sparingly divided In- 
florescence a long, narrow, stiff, dense or loose raceme, often 
over 30 cm. long, often leafy below, and sometimes with slender, 
erect additional branches from the base, crispo-pubescent ; 
rhach is stout ; floral leaves like the preceding leaves, but still 
less divided or entire, passing into the linear to filiform bracts ; 
bracteoles, if any, small ; pedicels slender, the lowest at length 
2*5-3 5 cm. long and adpressed to the rhachis when mature. 
Sepals blue or whitish and variegated with blue, crispo-pubescent 


or almost glabrous ; uppermost helmet-shaped, helmet more or 
less depressed into a distinct and often long and slender beak. 
15-10 mm. high, 12-18 mm. long, from the tip to the base, 5-7 
mm. wide (seen from the side), lateral margin conspicuously 
concave, lateral sepals not contiguous with the helmet, except 
near the base, obliquely suborbicular or almost square, shortly 
or obscurely clawed, 12-15 mm.long and broad, lower sepals 
oblong, obtuse, 9-12 mm.long. Nectaries extinguisher-shaped 
glabrous, claw 5-6 mm. long, leaning forward in the upper part ; 
hood short, wide, very obtuse, top slightly gibbous on the back, 
honey-gland occupying the whole top or the gibbosity. Fila- 
ments glabrous or very sparingly hairy, winged ; wings gradually 
or abruptly attenuated. Carpels 5, glabrous, rarely or sparingly 
hairy on the back, conniving abruptly, contracted into the short 
style, back convex. Follides oblong, truncate, 10-16 mm. long, 
contiguous or with slightly divergent tips, glabrous. Seeds 
brown obovoid to obpyramidal, 3 5 mm. long, equally 3-winged, 
wings thin, faces smooth. 

Properties aval uses. — The root contains, according to Profes- 
sor Dunstan, aconitine, but in very small proportions. It seems 
that it is sometimes used in Northern India as a substitute for 
the imported tuber of Aconitum Napellus (Wall). 

Aconitum Chasmanthum, Stapf. — This was for sometime supposed to be the 
European Aconitum Napellus, but is now known to be a distinct species. 
The plant is known as ' Mohri.' 

The alkaloid which has been obtained from the plant proves to be excep- 
tionally interesting, since it represents a compound intermediate between the 
aconitine of the European Aconitum Napellus and the pseudo-aconitine of the 
Indian Aconitum ferox. This alkaloid is named indaconitine. 

Properties. — Indaconitine is soluble in acetone, chloroform, alcohol, or 
ether, but practically insoluble in light petroleum or water. 

By the addition of light petroleum to a solution of the base in alcohol, 
chloroform, or ether, well denned crystals may be readily obtained. 

A peculiar property of indaconitine which sharply distinguishes it from 
aconitine is its capability of crystallising in several forms from the same 
solvent. The crystalline form appears to depend on the purit^y of the 
substance and on the strength of the solution. By rapid crystallisation, the 
base is deposited from ether in rosettes of needles, but if allowed to crystallise 
slowly, or if the substance is not quite pure, it is obtained as transparent, 
hexagonal prisms or large, irregular masses. If a somewhat concentrated 


solution is decanted from a flask, the indaconitine crystallises on the sides, 
either in a characteristic fern-like form or in thin, circular layers of silky 

Indaconitine crystallises uncombined with its solvent, 

The melting point of indaconitine, if immersed in the bath at 150° and the 
temperature slowly raised, is 202-203°. Crystallographically, indaconitine very 
closely resembles aconitine, and on further investigation may prove to be 

Composition.— C 34 H 47 O 10 N, requires C=64'86 ; 11=7-47, and N=2"22 
per cent. 

Physiological action. — This differs in degree only, and not in kind, from that 
of aconitine and pseudo-aconitine. As in the case of other " aconitines,'' the 
toxic action of indaconitine is virtually abolished by the removal of the 
acetyl group, which occul-s in the formation of indbenzaconine, an alkaloid 
which is scarcely poisonous. 

19. A rotundi folium,, Ver. and Kir. 

Syn : — A. napellus, var. rnultifidum, Duthie. 

A. napellus, var. rotundifolium. Hk. /. and Th. 

Habitat : — Alpine zone of Tnrkistan to the North- Western 
Himalaya, and the Safed Koh of Indo- Afghan frontier. 

Roots : — Biennial, paired, tuberous ; daughter-tuber short, or 
long, conic or subcylindric, 1 — 2.5 cm. long. 6-8 mm. thick, bear- 
ing long fine root — fibres breaking off easily ; bark very thin, 
whitish to brown, smooth, fracture pure white, farinaceous ; taste 
slightly bitter, almost indifferent ; cambium discontinuous, form- 
ing 4-5 isolated, very slender cylindric strands arranged in a 
ring ; mother-tuber more or less shrunk, wrinkled, dark brown to 
almost black, brownish internally. Stem erect or ascending 
from a short (1*5 cm.) hypogaeous base, simple, L5-40 cm. high, 
terete, slender, crispo-pubescent in upper part, glabrous below. 
Leaves mostly basal, 4-5 rarely 8, gathered in a loose rosette 
above the hypogaeous part of the stem, coetanous with the 
flowers, somewhat fleshy, glabrous or scantily pubescent on long 
(4-13 cm.) petioles which are dilated and more or less sheathing 
at the base ; 1-2 or rarely more, higher up on the stem or very short 
petioles ; lower blade, orbicular-cordate or almost reniform in 
outline, with a narrow sinus (07-2 cm. deep), 1-35 cm. high 


from the sinus to the tip. 2-6 cm. across, 5-7-palmati-partite 

to f-g- in the inner, to f or less in the outer incisions, divisions 

broadly ovate-cuneate, 3- or (the outermost) 2-lobed to or 

beyond the middle, lobes narrow, sparingly crenate or inciso- 

crenate, crenae subobtuse, calloso-apiculate ; cauline blades 

similar to the lower, but smaller, less divided, with narrower 

and longer lobes and more pubescent. Inflorescence a shor' 

(up to 8-9 cm.), few-flowered, usually loose raceme, or with a few 

slender, few-flowered, additional branches from the uppermost 

of: the much reduced leaves, crispo-pubescent to tomentose ; 

lowest bracts 5«3-partite, very narrow divisions, or like the 

upper entire, linear, as long as or longer than the pedicels, 

uppermost much reduced or suppressed ; " bracteoles, if present, 

minute ; pedicels slender, lowest up to 2 cm. long, upper much 

shorter, erect in the mature state, more or less adpressed to the 

rhachis. Sepals pale or purplish blue or white or variegated, 

with saturated veins, more or less pubescent, overlapping at the 

base only in the fully open flowers ; uppermost navicular, more 

or less beaked, obliquely erect, 12-20 mm. high, 15-25 mm. long 

(from the beak to the base), 4-7 mm. broad, obliquely clawed; 

lateral sepals oblique, broadly obovate or suborbicular, about 

15 mm. long, 10-13 mm. broad ; not or obscurely clawed, lower 

sepals deflexed, elliptic-oblong, or elliptic-obtuse, about 8 mm. 

long. Nectaries glabrous, extinguisher-shaped ; claw very 

slender, 12-15 mm. long, leaning forward in the upper part, 

hood horizontal, or more or less deflexed, saccate, very obscure, 

top often widened and gibbous in front, lip 2-lobed, lobes often 

narrow and rather long. Filaments glabrous, very rarely with 

a few minute hairs, winged to the middle, wings gradually 

alternated or running into minute teeth. Carpels usually 5 

(4 or 6), contiguous, oblong, abruptly contracted into the style, 

softly villous. Follicles contiguous or almost so, oblong, truncate 

at the top, 9-13 mm. long, softly hairy. Seeds brown, obpy- 

ramidal, 3-angled, obliquely truncate at the top, 25-3 mm. 

long, angles unequally winged, wings hollow, faces smooth. 

General Properties :— On the authority of Col. Monro, the roots 
of the Alpine form, it appears, are eaten by the hillmen of 
Kanawar as a pleasant tonic, under the name of Atees (Stapf). 


20. A. deinorrhizum, Stapf. sp. nov. 

Fig. : — Stapf. Annals Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta, Vol. X, pt. v. 
t 103. 

Habitat: — Alpine Himalaya of Bashahr. 

Vernacular name — mohra, maura bikh. 

Roots : —Biennial, tuberous, paired ; daughter-tuber conical, 
rather elongated, up to 6'5 cm. long, and at the upper end 
up to 18 mm. thick, with very few filiform root-fibres, brown 
externally, fracture scarcely farinaceous, whitish, taste indifferent, 
followed by a strong tingling sensation, cambium discontinuous, 
broken into strands, arranged in a ring, the smaller circular in 
cross-section, the larger tangentially flattened ; mother-tuber 
similar, more or less shrunk, wrinkled, with long filiform root- 
fibres. Innovation-bud a very low, broad, obtuse cone ; scales 
very broad with a clasping base, decaying after sprouting. 
Stem several feet high, erect, straight, simple, terete, sparingly 
and finely crispo-pubescent in the upper part, otherwise 
glabrous, shining, or in young plants sparingly pubescent all 
along. Leaves up to 10 or 12, scattered, lower usually decayed 
at the time of flowering, the upper 6-8 rather distant, sparingly 
hairy when young, especially towards the margins and on the 
nerves below, soon glabrescent ; petioles slender, mostly 5-7 cm. 
long, dilated at the base ; blade reniform or ovate-reniform in 
outline, with a very wide sinus or an almost truncate base, 
5-pedati-partite almost to the base (to xf4§ m the inner, to f-| 
in the outer, incisions), inner divisions subequal or intermediate, 
distinctly longer, rhombic from a cuneate base, up to 8 cm. (or 
the intermediate to 10 cm. long), 5-Q'5 cm. broad, 3-lobed to 
the middle, intermediate lobe much longer than the lateral, 
lobes deeply laciniate, laciniaB linear or broad-lanceolate, entire 
or sparingly inciso-dentate, shortly acute or subobtuse, outer 
divisions asymmetric, usually to or beyond the middle, otherwise 
similar to the inner, but smaller. Inflorescence straight, racemose, 
simple or sometimes with an additional branchlet from near its 
base, 30-40 cm. long, narrow, not very dense, greyish, crispo- 
pubescent ; lowest bracts similar to the preceding leaves, or like 


the rest much reduced, coarsely and sparingly dentate, the upper- 
most very small ; pedicels erect, slender, lower up to 6'5 cm. long, 
upper much shorter ; bracteoles linear, up to 4 mm. long, or on 
the lower pedicels broader and sparingly dentate. Sepals blue, 
crispo-puberulous ; uppermost helmet-shaped, helmet more or 
less oblique, depressed, 15-20 mm, high, 17-22 mm. from the tip 
to the base, about 7 mm. wide (in profile'', slightly concave 
towards the base in front and produced into a short beak and 
broadly clawed ; lateral oblique, sub-orbicular, scarcely ungui- 
cnlate, ciliate, 14-18 mm. long; lower oblong, 10 mm. long, 
obtuse, deflexed. Sectaries hispiclulous all over ; claw almost 
straight, 12-13 mm. long ; hood leaning forward, gibbous near 
the top on the back, 5 mm. long, lip short, broad, emarginate. 
reflexed. Filaments hairy in the upper part, 8-10 mm. long, 
winged beyond the middle, wings abruptly contracted. Carpel* 
3, oblong, conniving in the flower, then sub-divaricate, acl- 
pressedly greyish-pubescent, contracted into the rather long- 
style, Follicles unknown. Seeds obconic, 3 mm. long, terete 
with numerous small, short transverse lamellae. 

Properties and uses. — Watt quotes in Agric. Leclg., G. G\ 
Minniken as saying that in Bashahr the poisonous aconites 
are collectively called Mohra. The poisonous principle of this 
aconite is pseudo-aconite. 

21. A. Balfourii, Stapf, sp. nov. 

Vernacular names .—-Gobriya (Darma) ; Go/xm (West Nepal); 
BanwfX (British Garhwal). 

Habitat: — Subalpine and Alpine Himalaya, from British 
Garhwal to Nepal 

Roots biennial, paired or ternate, tuberous ; daughter-tubers 
sometimes paired or divided from the base, conic or elongate, 
conico-cylindric, 3-7 cm. long, 1-2 cm. thick with a few root-fibres 
which are either slender-filiform or conspicuously thickened (up 
too mm. diam.) at the base, externally greyish-brown, fracture 
white, almost horny, taste rather indifferent, followed by a ting- 
ling sensation ; cambium discontinuous, broken up into strands 
arranged in a ring, the smaller circular in transverse section, 



the larger tangentially flattened to horse-shoe-shaped ; mother- 
tubers, with often numerous root-fibres much shrunk, grooved 
and wrinkled with conical stumps (root-fibre bases), collapsed. 
Innovation-bud a much depressed, broad, obtuse cone or hemi- 
sphere, scales broad with a clasping base usually decaying after 
sprouting. Stem erect, several feet high, straight, robust, simple, 
terete, delicately pubescent in the upper part, otherwise usually 
quite glabrous. Leaves scattered, 6-10, the lowest decayed at the 
time of flowering, intermediate and upper leaves rather distant, 
pubescent when young, at length glabrous, with the exception of 
the nerves below, lower petioles up to 7'5 cm. long, intermediate 
and upper much shorter, somewhat dilated at the base ; blades 
dark-green above, paler below, orbicular or ovate-cordate or sub- 
reniform, with narrow or wide sinus, 1-2 cm. deep, 7-9 cm. from 
the sinus to the tip, 10-12 cm. across, 3-partite to |-, intermediate 
division rhomboid-ovate from abroad cuneatebase, 3-lobed to the 
middle, middle lobe much larger than the lateral, lateral 
divisions trapezoid, very unequally 2-lobed to the middle, all the 
lobes coarsely inciso-crenate or dentate, crense, spiculate or acute. 
Inflorescence straight, racemose narrow, up to 30 cm. long, many- 
flowered, rather dense, yellowish-tomentellous, and slightly 
viscous ; lowest bracts resembling the preceding leaves, follow- 
ing ovate or lanceolate, inciso-dentate, or dentate, uppermost 
often entire ; pedicels erect or the lower ascending, lowest up to 
5 cm., upper 2*5 cm. long ; bracteoles, if any, inciso-dentate, or 
dentate, small. Sepals blue, pubescent ; uppermost helmet- 
shaped, helmet oblique, sub-semi-orbicular in profile, slightly 
concave in front and shortly beaked, about 20 mm. high and 20 
mm. from tip to base, 10-13 mm. wide, very shortly and broadly 
clawed, lateral sepals sub-oblique or orbicular or slightly 
broader than long, up to 16 mm. long, obscuiely clawed ; lower 
sepals elliptic or broad-oblong, obtuse, 12-14 mm. long. Nectaries 
glabrous, claw erect, or slightly curved, 12-13 mm. long ; hood 
leaning forward, rather crenulate. Filaments hispidulous in 
the upper part or almost glabrous, 6 mm. long, broadly winged 
to beyond the middle, wings gradually or abruptly running out. 
Carpels 5, oblong, yellowish-tomentose, conniving in the flower, 
then slightly divergent. Follicles oblong, slightly divergent 


above, otherwise contiguous, loosely hairy, or glabrate, 12 mm. 
long, 4-5 mm. broad. Seeds obpyramidal, trigonous, 3-3'5 mm. 
long, dark-brown, broadly winged along the rhaphe, faces with 
narrow transverse lamellae giving out towards the back. 

Properties and uses : — Gobriya is quoted by Duthie as the 
name of one of the nine poisonous aconites of theRalam Valley. 
A sample of tubers from Dudatoli was examined by Prof. 
Dunstan, with the result that the daughter-tubers contained 
nearly 1 per cent and the mother-tubers 0'5 per cent of pseudo- 

22. A Faleoneri, Stapf., sp. nov. 

Vernacular names: — Bis, Bikh, Meetha-tellia, (Royle) in an 
incomplete manuscript catalogue (of Himalayan plants) at Kew. 

Habitat :— Subalpine and Alpine Zone of the Himalaya of 

Roots biennial, paired, tuberous, daughter-tuber conic to 
cylindric from a broad, truncate base, up to 8 cm. long, to 2 cm. 
thick, entire or divided, bearing more or less numerous filiform 
fibrous root-fibres, externally brown, fracture white, slightly 
farinaceous or horny, taste somewhat bitter, followed by 
a strong burning and tingling sensation, cambium continuous, 
forming in transverse section a slightly sinuous ring ; mother- 
tuber similar, much shrunk and wrinkled. Innovation-bud very 
short and broad, conic, bud-scales very short, broad and 
clasping, soon decaying after sprouting. Stem erect, simple, 
up to 1 m. high, moderately stout, finely pubescent or sub- 
glabrous in the upper part, quite glabrous below. Leaves 
scattered, 10 or more, if many, the upper sometimes rather 
crowded, the intermediate usually very distant, the lowest 
decayed at the time of flowering ; petioles slender, lowest up to 
12cm. long, upper much shorter, uppermost very short ; blades 
rather thin, very sparingly and finely pubescent or glabrous, 
with the exception of the nerves at the base below, lower and 
intermediate rotundate-cordate to reniform in outline, with 
a very wide and open sinus, 1-3 cm. deep, 6-10 cm. high, from 
the sinus to the tip, 12-15 cm, across, 5 — sub-pedati-partite to 


" or more in the inner, to f or more in the outer incisions, 
inner divisions rhomboid-cuneate, 3-lobed to the middle, with 
the inner lobe elongated and pinnati-laciniate, outer divisions 
much smaller, trapezoid, 2-lobed, all the lobes and laciniae 
broadly inciso-dentate, teeth usually triangular, upper blades 
very similar, but smaller and less deeply divided or 3-partite, 
with intermediate division much longer than lateral. Inflores- 
cence an erect stiff, usually dense raceme, about 15-20 cm. 
long, rarely lax and with slender few-flowered ascending 
additional branches from below, finely adpressedly pubescent or 
rarely with short spreading hairs ; axis rather slender, lowest 
bracts 3-partite, upper ovate to deltoid, all acutely and coarsely 
dentate ; braeteoles usually present, resembling the upper 
bracts, but much smaller : pedicels slender, erect, often almost 
Lid pressed to the axis, lowest up to 4 cm. long, the upper 
much shorter. Sepals blue, with very dark tips (in the dry 
state , pubescent ; uppermost helmet-shaped, helmet obliquely 
semi-orbicular in profile, very shortly beaked, 16-22 mm. 
high, 18-22 mm. long, from the tip to the base, 8-9 mm. 
wide ; lateral sepals oblique, suborbicular or ovate-orbicular, 
14-18 mm. long, lower sepals oblong-elliptic, obtuse 8-10 mm. 
long. "Nectaries extinguisher-shaped, claw erect, 13-15 mm. 
long, minutely hispid, hood leaning forwards or almost 
horizontal, slightly constricted or obscurely gibbous on 
the back, close to the top, lip spathulate, broad, crenulate. 
C ' irpels 5, obliquely oblong, conniving in the flower, soon 
slightly divergent, gradually passing into rather long style, 
quite glabrous and black when dry, or sometimes more or less 
very minutely silky-pubescent. Follicles erect and contiguous 
or slightly diverging upwards, oblong rounded at the top, 
14-1<S mm. long, 4-5 mm. broad, glabrous, faintly reticulate. 
Seeds brown, obconic. 3-4 mm. long, winged (often broadly) 
along the rhaphe, with undulate, hyaline, rather wide and 
distant transverse lamellae. 

Variety, Latilobium, Stapf. 

Roots up to 12 cm. long, and 2'5 cm. thick, with few fibres. 
Upper leaf-Wades 3-partite to § ; up to 6'5 cm. high, 10 cm. 


across, divisions broadly deltoid or the outer trapezoid up to 
4 5 cm. broad, shortly 3-or (the outer) 2-lobed, lobes coarsely 
crenate or dentate. Inflorescence tomentose, with spreading 
hairs. Carpels quite glabrous. 

Properties and uses : — Evidently poisonous. 
23. A. spicatum, Stapf., sp. nov. 
Ann. Roy. Bot, Gard. Calc, Vol. X., pp. 165-166. 

Vernacular names : — BV*h, Kalo Bikhoma Donghi ; Quiong 
Mot and Shodduk Mot. 

Habitat: — Alpine zone of the Himalaya of Sikkim and 

Roots biennial, paired, tuberous, daughter- tuber conic or 
conic-oblong, often rather elongated, 10-20 cm. long, ] '8-3 cm. 
thick, simple or sometimes deeply divided, with filiform root- 
fibres, the bases of which are sometimes abruptly thickened 
and persist as conical ovoid stumps, brown or blackish ex- 
ternally, fracture horny, yellowish or brown in the dry state, 
taste slightly sweetish bitter, followed by a tingling sensation ; 
cambium continuous, forming in cross-section a more or less 
sinuous ring; mother-tuber similar, shrunk and wrinkled. 
Innovation-bud a very broad, much depressed cone, with broad 
clasping scales, decaying soon after sprouting. Stem erect, 
up to 1*5 m. high, straight or slightly flexnous above, simple 
terete or sometimes slightly angular, robust, sometimes as 
much as 3 cm. in diam., adpressedly greyish-pubescent, with 
deflexed hairs, glabrescent or quite glabrous in the lower part, 
brown or almost black when dry. Lowest leaves 5-8, decayed 
at the time of flowering, their scars rather distant ; intermediate 
and upper leaves as many as 12, approximate or congested, 
petioled ; petioles 2'5-7"5 cm. long, dilated at the base, blades 
somewhat fleshy, more or less finely pubescent, or at length 
glabrous above orbicular-cordate or reniform or broadly ovate 
(particularly the upper), with a usually shallow sinus, 3-partite 
to |-y or the upper to f, intermediate division rhomboid or 
ovate from a linear cuneate base, sometimes acuminate, 5-10 


cm. long, 3-7'5 cm. broad, lateral divisions separated by a 
narrow sinus from the intermediate, broad-trapezoid, 2'5-7*5 cm. 
long, very unequally 2-3-partite to f-f, all the divisions much 
inciso-dentate or laciniate, with acute dentate iaciniae. 'Inflo- 
rescence stiff, racemose or often panicled, narrow, many-flowered, 
dense, rarely loose and subflexuous, more or less tomentose, 
with spreading or deflexed hairs ; lower bracts like the preced- 
ing leaves, but smaller, more elongate and less dissected, 
longer than the pedicels, intermediate and upper lanceolate or 
oblong, sparingly dentate or entire, often over 2 cm. long, 
pedicels erect, rather stout, lower over 2-5 cm. long, upper 
much shorter ; bracteoles, if any, herbaceous, rather broad and 
dentate, or narrow and entire to very narrow. Sepals of a 
saturated blue, more rarely pale or purplish blue, more or less 
pubescent to almost tomentose; uppermost helmet-shaped, 
helmet erect or slightly oblique, depressed, semi-orbicular in 
profile, almost equally curved in front and on the back, 
20-24 mm. high, 20-24 mm. from the tip to the base, 12-15 mm. 
wide, produced into a very short beak, claw very short and 
broad; lateral sepals oblique, suborbicular, 12-18 mm. long, 
obscurely clawed ; lower horizontal or deflexed, oblong, obtuse, 
8-12 mm. long. Nectaries glabrous or scantily hispidulous, 
claw slightly curved or straight, 10-12, rarely 14 mm. long, 
hood much leaning forward or sub-horizontal, dorsally gibbous 
or almost spurred on the top, 6-8 mm. long, lip usually short, 
broad emarginate. Filaments glabrous or sparingly hispidulous 
in upper part, 7-8 mm. long, winged to or beyond the middle, 
wings gradually running out or suddenly contracted into 
small teeth. Carpels 5, oblong or ovoid, contracted into the 
slightly shorter style, densely tomentose. Follicles 5, oblong, 
somewhat turgid, contiguous, about 10 mm. long., 4-45 mm. 
broad, hairy. Seeds obpyramidal> about 4 mm. long, winged 
along the rhaphe, with undulate hyaline transverse lamellae on 
on the faces. 

Properties and uses ' — This species is the principal source of 
the Bikh or Bish of the Calcutta market. An account of the mode 
of collecting the root in Sikkim may be found in Kanny Lai 
Dey's work on the ' Indigenous Drugs of India, (1896), where it 


is, however, introduced erroneously as A. Napellus. The poison- 
ous principle is pseudoaconitine. The amount of pseudoaconitine 
found in the tubers of this species may, according to Prof. 
Dunstan, reach as much as 0*50 per cent (Stapf). 

24. A. laciniatum, Stapf. sp. nov. 

Vernacular name : — Kalo Bikhmo. 

Habitat: — Subalpine and Alpine Himalaya of Sikkim and 
adjoining Tibet. 

Roots biennial, tuberous, paired ; daughter-tuber conic- 
oblong, often rather drawn out into a slender point, 3*5-6 cm. 
long, about 15-2 cm. thick, simple or divided, with filiform 
root-fibres, which are generally not much thickened at the base, 
brown externally, fracture whitish or pale brownish, almost 
horny, taste indifferent or very slightly bitterish, followed by 
a tingling sensation ; cambium continuous, forming a sinuous 
ring in cross-section ; mother-tuber similar, usually much 
shrunk and thinner. Innovation-bud an acute cone, up to 1 cm. 
high, outermost scales are very short, clasping, soon decaying 
after sprouting. Stem erect, stiff or flexuous, 6 to 9 dm. high, 
simple terete, slender to rather robust, finely pubescent in the up- 
per part, with adpressed reversed hairs, otherwise glabrascent or 
quite glabrous and shining, drying usually chestnut-brown. 
Leaves scattered ; basal 5-6, rarely 8, decayed at the time of 
flowering, rather distant ; intermediate and upper leaves up to 
10, approximate or congested, petioled, petioles rather slender, 
25-7'5 cm. long ; blades somewhat fleshy, finely pubescent or 
almost glabrous, reniform, rarely cordate-orbicular in outline, 
with an usually wide and shallow sinus, 4-7, rarely to 10 cm., 
from the sinus to the tip, 7-12 cm. across, 5-pedati-partite 
almost to the base in the inner, to f-| in the outer incisions, 
inner divisions sub-equal, rhomboid from a narrow cuneate 
base up to 5 cm. wide, 3-lobed to the middle, lobes narrow, 
inciso-dentate or laciniate, lacinias lanceolate or linear, acute 
or acuminate, outermost divisions asymmetric, mostly unequally 
2-lobed, otherwise similar to the inner, but smaller. Inflores- 
cence racemose or usually loosely paniculate, few to many- 


flowered, finely greyish pubescent, with adpressed curved hairs ; 
lower bracts similar to the preceding leaves, but smaller and 
less dissected, intermediate and upper lanceolate, sparingly 
laciniate or the uppermost entire and very narrow ; pedicels 
ascending, slender, lowest o'5-o 'rarely 7*5) cm. long, upper 
much shorter ; bracteoles herbaceous, resembling the upper 
bracts. Sepals saturated red-purple or dark-red, finely pubes- 
cent ; uppermost helmet-shaped, helmet erect or sub-erect, 
equally curved in front and on the back, or slightly concave 
in front, produced into a short lip or beak, about 20 mm. high 
and 20 mm. from the tip to the base, 9-13 mm. wide, claw broad, 
snort; lateral sepals oblique, sub-orbicular, ciliate, 14-10 mm. 
long, broadly and obscurely clawed ; lower cleflexed or sub-hori- 
zontal, oblong, obtuse, 12-14 mm. long. Nectaries hispidulous, 
at least below ; claw slightly curved, about 12 mm. long ; hood 
sub-erect or slightly leaning forward, 6 mm. long, gibbous or 
almost spurred on the back, close to the apex, lip short or 
elongate, rather broad, 2-lobed. Filaments hispidulous in the 
upper part, 7 mm. long, winged up to or beyond the middle, 
wings gradually or abruptly running out. Carpels 3, rarely 
4: or 5, conniving in the flower, oblong, attenuate into a slender, 
finely curved style, densely and adpressedly pubescent. 
Follicles at first divergent, then conniving, contiguous, linear- 
oblong, more or less convex on the back, 18-25 mm. long, o-6 
mm. wide, finely pubescent. Seeds obpyfamidal, 3-gonous, 3 mm. 
long, brown, broadly winged along the rhaphe, with transverse. 
undulate, hyaline lamellae. 

Properties and uses : — According to Rogers, it forms, together 
with Bihh A. spicatum) the article known as " Nepal Aconite.*' 

25. ^4. lethale, Griff, 

Sijn. :— A. palmatum, Don. H. F.BR.I-,1. 2&. 

Vernacular name : — Unknown. 

Habitat: —-Higher parts of Mishmi Mountains. 

Hoots (according to Griffith) fusiform, whitish or brown, 
bearing root-fibres. Stem branched, (lexuous, slender, terete, 


glabrous on the uppermost part, pubescent from minute 
adpressed reversed hairs. Basal leaves unknown ; intermediate 
and upper leaves scattered, petioled ; petioles slender, up to 
5 cm. long ; blades shining, bright green above, pale below, 
glabrous or scantily pubescent in the nerves below, cordate, 
rotundate in outline, with a wide sinus or reniform, 3-partite 
to | (or the small leaves of the branches 5-lobed to the middle), 
intermediate divisions narrow, obovate-cuneate, almost 5 cm. 
long, up to 1'8 cm. broad, lateral divisions trapezoid, up to 
3*5 cm. long, unequally divaricate- 2-lobed to the middle, all 
coarsely dentate, teeth apiculate. Inflorescence slightly pubes- 
cent ; panicle few-flowered, says Hooker. Flowers large, greenish- 
blue (Hooker) ; bracts foliaceous 3-lobed, lobes sparingly 
dentate; pedicels long, more or less red need, near the flower. 
Sepals slightly pubescent, uppermost helmet-shaped, helmet 
semi-orbicular elliptic in profile, 18-20 mm. high, 18-20 mm. 
from tip to base, 12 mm. broad, lateral oblique, orbicular-ovate, 
shortly and broadly clawed up to 16 mm. long, 10-12 mm. broad ; 
lower deflexed, broad elliptic sub-obtuse, up to 16 mm. long. 
Nectaries glabrous, claw erect, obloug, shortly spurred from the 
top, 6 mm. long, lip broad, 2-lobed. Filaments glabrous, 8-9 
mm. long, winged to or beyond the middle, wings gradually 
or suddenly contracted. Carpels 5, obliquely oblong, sparingly 
pubescent (Stapf), Follicles 1-1 \ in. long, glabrous (Hooker). 
Testa plaited (Hooker). 

Properties and uses : — This is, according to Griffith, the 
source of the celebrated Bhi or Bis poison of the Mishmis. 

The pharmacology of Indaconitine and Bikhaconitine. 

Indaconitine, an alkaloid obtained from Aconitum Ghasman- 
thum, yields, on partial hydrolysis, acetic acid and benzoyl- 
pseudoaconine ; the latter substance splits up on further hydro- 
lysis into benzoic acid and pseudoaconine. 

Bikhaconitine, from A. Spicatum (A. ferox, var. Spicatum), 
yields, under the same conditions, acetic acid, veratric acid, 
and a pseudoaconine, identical with that obtained from inda- 



As regards physiological action, these two alkaloids show 
a qualitative agreement with aconitine, japaconitine, and 

Bikhaconitine has a more powerful toxic action on cats and 
rabbits than indaconitine ; of the alkaloids so far examined, 
aconitine and indaconitine are about equally poisonous, 
japaconitine is rather more active than these, but not quite so 
toxic as bikhaconitine, whilst pseudoaconitine is the most active 
of the series. Bikhaconitine and indaconitine are equally toxic 
towards frogs. The greater toxic action of: bikhaconitine 
towards warm-blooded animals is due to its more powerful 
depressing effect on the respiration ; the respiratory activity 
of frogs is also diminished to a greater extent by the former 
alkaloid. The relative activity of the two alkaloids in abolish- 
ing the power possessed by nerve-muscle preparations of res- 
ponding to stimuli, was investigated by immersing the tissues 
in dilute solutions of the hydrobromides, and it was found 
that in this respect indaconitine is slightly more active than 

The pseud oaconines obtained from the two alkaloids appear 
to be identical in physiological action, and behave in all respects 
like the aconine and aconitine. 

J. Theodore Cash and Wydnham R. Dunstan, Proceedings 
Roy. Soc , 1905). J. Ch. S., Vol X C, pt . II., p. 41. 

26. Actcea spicata. h. I., I. 29. 

Habitat:— Temperate Himalaya 6,000—10,0 >0 ft. Simla, in 
Narkunda forest ; from Bhutan to Qazara. Sha ly ravines of 

Jaunsar and Tehri-Garhwal. 

Part used • — The root. 

A perennial, more or less pubescent herb, Stems 2-3 ft., 
erect, usually branched. Leace* 6 12 in., alternate pinnatel} T 
compound, the pinnules often with 3 leaflets; leaflets ovate- 
lanceolate, pointed, often lobed, deeply and sharply toothed. 
Flowers regular, scarcely J in. diam.. white, crowded in short 
terminal racemes lengthening in fruit. Sepals 4, petal-like, 


concave, soon falling r.ff. Petals 4, shorter than the sepals, 
clawed. Stamens numerous, longer than the sepals, anthers 
small. Ovary solitary, many-ovuled, stigma sessile, flat. Fruit 
a black ovoid, glabrous berry containing numerous small seeds. 
(Collett). The Baneberry of Britain. Hooker, f. and Thomson 
say that the berry is black in the European and Himalayan 
forms, white and red in the American. 

U*es: — Stewart remarks regarding this plant: — "1 have 
found no trace of its being used or dreaded " by the hill people 
on the Panjab Himalaya. It would be interesting to know 
whether this is correct ; for it is curious that so useful a plant 
should have escaped the notice of the natives of India. 
Canadian doctors administer the root in snake-bite; and it is 
said to be attended with much success in the treatment of 
nervous diseases, rheumatic fever, chorea and lumbago. The 
berries were formerly used internally for asthma and scrofula, 
and externally for skin complaints. Baneberry Root is largely 
exported into Europe and used to adulterate the root of 
Helleborus niger. Mr. Frederick Stearns describes the root 
as violently purgative. (Watt). 

27. Cimicifuga foetida, Linn, h.f.bk.i., i. 30. 

From Latin cimex, a bug ; fugare to drive away. 

Vera: — Jiunti (Pb.). 

Habitat: — Temperate Himalaya, from Bhotan to Gores and 
Kashmir ; altitude 7-12, 00U ft. Patarnala forest, Simla. 

A perennial, more or less pubescent herb. Stems 3-6 ft., erect, 
leafy, branched. Leaves 6-18 in., pinnately compound ; leaflets 
1-3 in., rarely more, ovate or lanceolate, deeply and sharply 
toothed, terminal leaflet 3-lobed. Flowers nearly regular, 
hardly J in. diam., white, crowded in short or long racemes, 
solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, and combined in a 
terminal, sometimes large and spreading panicle. Sepals and 
petals 5-7 (no clear distinction between them), imbricate, ovate, 
concave; one or two of the inner ones deeply 2-lobed, the tips 
white, broad, notched. Stamens numerous, ultimately longer 


than the sepals. Ovaries 2-5, rarely more, many-ovuled, style 
short, stigma pointed. Follicles \ in. long, flat, tipped with 
the persistent style. Seeds 6-8 (Collett). 

Part used ' — The root. 

Uses: — The root is said to be poisonous. In Siberia, it is 
used to drive away bugs and fleas. " Under the name of a 
nearly allied plant (Actaea spicata\ I have already referred to 
this plant, and I have done so chiefly with the view of attracting 
attention to these useful, but apparently neglected plants." 

Garrod in his Materia Medica, calls Cimicifuga racemosa, 
Linn., the Black Snake Root, and remarks that it is a remedy 
much used in America. He gives the dose of the tincture as 
30 to 40 minims. He remarks : — " Its use is said to have been 
attended with much success in rheumatic fever, in chorea, and 
in lumbago, and in some forms of puerperal hypochondriasis. 

There seems every reason to expect that the Indian species, 
which differs from C. racemosa only very slightly, will be 
found to possess all its medicinal virtues. C. racemosa is 
chiefly prescribed in the form of tincture and employed in 
rheumatic affections, dropsy, the early stage of phthisis, and 
chronic bronchial diseases. Externally, a strong tincture has 
recentlv been u^ed to reduce inflammations. See (Year-Book 
of Pharmacy, 1872). The root contains a resinous active prin- 
ciple which has been termed Cimicifugin or Macrotin. In its 
action this drug resembles hellibore on the one hand, and 
colchicum on the other. It is most useful in acute rheumatism, 
and a powder of the root is perhaps the best mode in which to 
give the drug, in doses of 20 to 30 grains. (Royles Mat. Med. 
by Rarley.) 

A poultice prepared from the fresh leaves is used here, and 
said to be very useful in rheumatic affection of joints (Surgn. 
Meadows, Bar i sal). 

28. Pceonia Ernodi, Wall,, I. 30. 
Syn : — Pseonia officinalis, Hf. and T. 


Vern. : — Ud-salap (H.) ; Bbuma-madiya, yet ghas (Bhut.) ; 
Mamekh (Pb.) ; Chandra, (the plant); Sujumiya (the young 
edible shoot) N -W. P. 

Habitat : — West Temperate Himalaya, from Kuraaon to 
Hazara. 5,000 to 10,000. In the upper Tons valley. 

A glabrous perennial herb. Stems 1-2 ft., leafy, erect. 
Leaves alternate, 6-12 in. long; leaflets 3, usually 3-parted, 
segments lanceolate, pointed, entire. Flowers few, showy 3-4 in. 
across, long-stalked, usually solitary in the axils of the upper 
leaves. Buds globose. Sepals 5, orbicular, concave, green, 
persistent the outer ones ending in a leaf-like point. Petals 
5 10, broadly ovate, concave, red or white. Stamens many. 
Ovaries 1-3, densely hairy, many-ovuled, seated on a fleshy disk ; 
style short, broad, recurved. Follicles ovoid, 1 in. Seeds few, 
large, (Collett). 

Dr. Dymock observes : — <£ The tubers are of the female Pseony 
of Dioscorides". It seems therefore that the male plant is 
distinct, and is called P. Corallina ; the female is called P. 
Officinalis. (Vide Pharmaco. Ind. Vol. I., P. 17). The flowers 
are often pinkish. 

In the Botanical Maganize for July 1st, 1868 Dr. Hooker writes : — 

" In the " Flora Indica " Dr. Thomson and I referred the Himalayan 
Peonies to forms of P. Officinalis, — a conclusion little acceptable to some 
botanists, and not at all to gardeners. On reviewing the subject a propos of 
the present plant, I see no reason to alter my opinion that, as compared with 
the species of many other genera, the Himalayan ones may well be referred 
to forms or varieties of the European ; but as they differ greatly in habit, 
colour, and those qualities that render them worthy of cultivation, as well as 
in some other points of a little more moment. I here keep one at any rate 
distinct. This is the P. Emodi of Wallich, a common temperate Himalayan 
plant from Kumaon to Kashmir which is easily recognised by its slender 
habit, white, subpanicled flowers, and solitary tomentose carpel ; in this 
respect alone, of a solitary tomentose carpel, it differs from P. Albiflom, Willd. 
of Siberia ; and in the tomentose carpel alone from a Kashmir one-carpelled 
plant, hitherto not distinguished from this, and which, therefore, differs 
from P. albiflom in the solitary carpel alone." 

H * * f) r> More P.L.S. says of it that it is the most distinct of all the 
herbaceous Peonies, several of the flowers expanding together on the same 
stem, and being always monogynous. It is more tender than any other 
herbaceous species, and appears above ground a month earlier than these 


Parts used : — The tubers ; flowers ; seeds and root. 

Uses : —The tubers of this plant are highly esteemed as a 
medicine for uterine diseases, colic, bilious obstructions, dropsy, 
epilepsy, convulsions and hysteria. Udsdhip is generally given 
to children as a blood-purifier. It was a common belief in 
ancient times, and it is so even now among the peasantry of 
Europe, tbat paeony root, if worn by children round their necks, 
has the power of preventing epileptic attacks. If taken in full 
doses (f)0 grains), the drug produces headache, noise in the ears, 
confused vision and vomiting. (Dymock.) The infusion of the 
dried flowers is highly valued as a remedy for diarrhoea. Seeds 
are emetic and cathartic. (Watt), 

According to Dr. Bellew, the root is in Booner, given to 

cattle to render them- prolific ; and in combination with other 
drugs, as the bruised leaves of Melia. is a favourite remedy for 
bruises, sprains, etc. 


29. Dillenia indiea, Linn,, i. 36 ; Roxb. 

Sanskrit : — Bhavya. 

Vevn. :— Chalta, (Hind.); Chalta, hargesa (Beng.i ; Korkot 
(Santal) ; Chilta (Monghyr); Panpui (G-aro ) ; Chalita otengah, 
(Assam); Rai, oao (Uriya) ; Ramphal (Nepal); Phamsikol 
(Lepcha) ; Thapru, chauralesia (Mag.) ; Mothe karamala, moth a 
karmel, karambel (Bomb.); Mota karmal, karmbel (Mar.); 
Uva (Tarn.); LJva, pedda, kalinga (kalinga, Elliot) (Teh); 
Bettakanagala, kaddkanagula (Kan.) ; Syalita (Malay.); Honda- 
para, Wampara (Sinhalese). 

Habitat : —Tropical forests in the Western Peninsula, Behar 
and Ceylon, and the Himalaya, from Nepal to Assam. Commonly 
cultivated at Dehra and Saharanpur. Eastern Peninsula, from 
Sylhet to Singapore. Malay Peninsula and the Islands. 

A very handsome tree with fine foliage ; moderate-sized, 
round-headed. Bark cinnamon — brown. Leaves closely placed, 


very large, 10-12 in long, oblong-lanceolate, acute, sharply 
serrate, glabrous above, finely pubescent on veins beneath ; 
lateral veins numerous, strong ; petioles If in, long, stout, deeply 
channelled above, pnlvinate at base. Flowers very large, 6-7 
in. diam, on stout subterminal pedicels. Sepals very fleshy. 
Petals white, sometimes pale-azure orbicular with a broad 
base. Stamens persistent, yellow. Carpels 15-20, coherent at 
the axis. Styles spreading like a star, white; ripe carpels 
enclosed in the greatly enlarged and thickened sepals which 
are 1 in. thick and strongly imbricate the whole forming a large 
green globose pomiform fruit, 5-6 in. diam. Actual fruit 2|- 
in. diam. Pericarp thin, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, com- 
pressed with a hairy margin. 

Uses : — The juice of the fruit, mixed with sugar and water, is 
used as a cooling beverage in fevers, and as a cough mixture. 
The bark and the leaves are astringent, and are used medicin- 
ally. The fruit is slightly laxative, but is apt to induce diarrhoea, 
if too freely indulged in. {Roxburgh, Royle, Drqry). 

The fruit gives a lather with water, says Triinen, and is used 
as a soap. 

Mr. T. P. Ghose of Dehra Dun writes in the Indian Forester 
for August 1914 : — 

The fresh ripe fruits were taken and the upper layers of calyces were 
separated from the inner kernels which consisted mostly of pectous matter 
of a jelly-like consistence. The kernels being rejected, the calyces were 
crushed and steeped in 90 per cent, alcohol for six months in a drum with 
occasional shaking. The alcohol was then filtered off and the residue was 
pressed almost dry, and this alcohol was added to the first and the whole 
evaporated off under reduced pressure. The alcoholic extract was finally 
dried at 100° O, for further examin. tion. 

The composition of the calyces of the fresh ripe fruits as was follows :— 
Moisture ... ... ... ... ... 86 40 per cent. 

Alcoholic extract ... ... ... ... 3'<>0 „ 

Water extract ... ... ... ... 0'87 „ 

Insolubles ... ... ••• ... ... 1023 „ 


The aqueous extract was made after having extracted the calyces with 
alcohol, which thus represents only pectous matters, etc., left in the insoluble 
tissues after alcoholic extraction. The alcoholic ext act examined qualitatively 
showed the presence of tannin glucose, malic acid and pectous bodies. Malic 


acid was also identified by means of its lead salt. The composition of the 
alcoholic extract obtained as given above was as follows : — 

Moisture ... ... ... ... ... 8*20 

Tannin ... ... ... ... ... 1*40 

Glucose ... ... ... ... ... 12*15 

Malic acid ... ... ... ... ... 2*21 

Petroleum ether solubles (fats, etc.) ... ... 0*72 

Albuminoids ... ... ... ... ... 0'85 

Ash ... ... ... ... ... 1263 

Pectous matters, etc. ... ... ... ... 6D84 


The 6D84 per cent, of pectous matters coming in the alcoholic extract is 
due to the dilution of alcohol caused by about 86 per cent, of moisture in the 
fresh fruit. Though originally soluble in dilute alcohol, these bodies became 
wholly insoluble both in water and in alcohol on anhydration. They were 
examined and found to be pectous bodies. 

The chief ingredients of the calyces of the fresh ripe fruits are tannin, 
glucose and malic acid. The percentage of these three ingredients calculated 
on fresh and dry calyces stand as below : — 

On fresh calyces. On dry calyces. 

(1) Tannin ... 0'05% 0*37% 

(2) Glucose ... 0-40% 2-92% 

(3) Malic acid ... 0"07% 0*51% 


30. Miehelia Champaca, Linn,, i. 42. 
Roxb. 453. 

Syn. : — M. aurantiaca. Wall ; M. Rheede, Wight, 
Sanskrit : — Champaka, Kachar ; Ramyal (Beautiful); Cham- 
peya Surabhi (Fragrant) ; Cbala ; (Moving). 

Vern. : — Champa, champaka (H. and B.) ; Kancha-namn, 
champa (Uriya) ; Tita-sapps (Assam) ; Oulia champ (Nepal) ; 
Chamuti, champa, chamba (fruit) (Chamakhri, Chamoti), (Pb.) ; 
Pivala-chapha, sona-chapha, kud champa (Mar.); Ras champo, 
cliampo, pilo champo (Guz.) ; Shampang, shembugha, shimbu, 
sempangam (Tarn.) ; Shampangi-puvon, champa kamu champe- 
yamn, kanclianama, gandhapliali, hemangarau (Tel.) ; Sampage- 
huvon, sumpaghy, kola sampige, sampige (Kan.) ; Bongas 
jampacca, champakam (Mai.). Sapu, Hapu (Singhalese;. 

K. 0. MAGNOLIA0EJ3. 41 

Habitat ; — Common ly cultivated, but wild in the forests of 
the Temperate Himalaya, from Nepal Eastward, 

A small evergreen tree. Bark grey, smooth, f in. thick. 
Wood soft even-grained ; sapwood white, heartwood light olive- 
brown. Young shoots silky ; branclilets pubescent. Stipules 
convolute. Leaves 8-10 by 2^-4 in. shining above, pale and 
glabrous or puberlous beneath. Petioles slender, f-lf in. 
Flowers 2 in. diam., pale yellow or orange, fragrant ; some 
consider the flowers strongly scented. Peduncles short. Buds 
silky. Perianth-leaves 15, deciduous, imbricate, in whorls of 3 ; 
the outer oblong, acute ; the inner linear. Fruiting spike 
compact, 3-6 in. long. Carpels sub-sessile, ovoid, blunt, lenticil- 
late, coriaceous, dorsally dehiscing. Stamens numerous, many- 
seriate ; filaments flat ; anthers linear, adnate, introrse, bursting 
longitudinally. Gynophore stalked ; styles short. Capsules 
f in ; bark brown. Seeds 1-2, brown when old, bright scarlet 
or rosy when just mature, polished, variously angled, rounded 
on the back, pendulous by a white thread-like funicle, after 
dehiscence of the capslue, embryo minute in an abundant oily 

Parts used : — The flowers, fruit, leaves, roots, root-bark, 
oil, bark. 

Uses : —According to Sanskrit writers, the flowers are bitter 
and are useful in leprosy, boils and itch. 

The flowers and fruits are considered bitter and cool remedies, 
and are used in dyspepsia, nausea and fever. The leaves, 
anointed with Ghi, and sprinkled over with powder of Cumin 
seeds, are said in the Baroda Darbar Catalogue Col. and Ind. 
Exhib., to be put round the head in cases of puerperal mania, 
delirium, and maniacal excitement. 

Taylor states {Topography of Dacca) that the flowers mixed 
with Sesamum oil form an external application, which is often 
prescribed in vertigo. The flowers beaten up with oil are also 
applied to foetid discharges from the nostrils. According to 
Rumphius, the flowers are useful as a diuretic in renal diseases 
and in gonorrhoea. Rheede states that the dried root and 
root-bark, mixed with curdled milk, are useful as an application 



to abscesses, clearing away or maturing the inflammation,/: and 
that, prepared as an infusion, it is a valuable emenagogue. 

He also states that the perfumed oil prepared from the 
flowers is a useful application in cephalalgia, ophthalmia^ and 
gout, and that the oil of the seeds is rubbed over the abdomen 
to relieve flatulence. In Dacca, the juice of the leaves is given 
with honey in cases of Colic (Taylor). 

In the Pharmacopoeia of India, the bark is described as 
having febrifuge properties. Dr. Kanay Lal Dey considers 
it to be an excellent substitute for guaiacum. 

In the Gazetteer of Orissa, the bark is described as stimu- 
lant, expectorant and astringent ; the seeds and fruit are said 
to be useful for healing cracks in the feet, and the root is des- 
cribed as purgative. 

Dr. aIoodeen Sheriff considers the flowers to be stimu- 
lant, antispasmodic, tonic, stomachic and carminative; and 
describes an infusion, decoction and tincture ; particularly 
recommending the last. 

Chemistry — " The essential oil from yellow champaca flowers {Miclielia 
chfimpaca L.) has the specific gravity 0*904— 0*9107 at 30730° C., nD= 1*4640 
— 1-4688 at 30°C, ester value 124—146, and ester value after acetylating 
199. When distilled in a vacuum it polymerises. It contains isoeugenol, 
benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, cineol and p-cresol methyl 
ether. The white flowers (Michelia longifolia Bl.) yield an oil with the 
following characters :— specific gravity 0-897, ester value 180*0, tiDi=T4470 
at 30 C C. It contains linalool, methyleugnol, methylethylactic acid probably 
in the form of the methyl or ethyl ester, and a phenolic substance possessing 
an odour closely resembling that of thymol. The yellow flowers contain a 
ketone inciting at 165°—-166 C M and yielding ahydrazonc C16, H20 04 : N. N.H 
C6. H5, m. pt. 16rC."-J. Ch, I. Jan. 31st, 1912, p. 90. 

31. M. Nilagirica, Zferik. H.F;BR.r., 1:44. 

. Vern. ;--Pola champa (H.) ; Shempangan, sempagura, stiem- 

bugha (Tarn.).' Walu sapu (Sinhalese/. ■•■...... 

..Habitat:- -Higher mountains of the VVestern Peninsula, 

A hand^uJiib moderate-sized tree or shrub at [high, eleva- 
tions.. Young parts silky, particularly buds. Bark brown, i 
in. thick, cleft but not deeply, into small rectangular, plates. 


Wood moderately hard, smooth. Leaves 2-4 in,, oblong- 
elliptic or obovate-lanceolate, . acute at both ends or tip, 
mucronate, glabrous, or puberulous only on the nerves beneath, 
Flowers, white, 3-4 in, diam, Buds J- 1| in.,' ovoid. Peri- 
anth— segments 9-12 obovate, inner acute and narrower than 
the outer. Stamens shorter than the gynoeciumr Ovaries silky, 
with 2-4 ovules. Fruiting spike interrupted,. 2-3 in. long ■ 
carpels warty, spieulate, mixed with many abortive carpels. 
Seeds bright and scarlet (Brand is'). 

Part used :— The bark. 

Use :— The bark is made into decoction .and infusion, and 
used as a febrifuge. 

32. Illicium GriffitMi, H, f. and Thorns, h.f.b.i., 
i. 40. 

Vern :--Badayan (Marathi). 
. „ Habitat :— Bhotan ; Khasia hills. 

. A shrub.. Branches angular, glabrous. Leaves elliptic- 
lanceolate, 2-4 by 1-2 in., acute at both ends, coriaceous, 
shining. Flowers 1|- in. diam. Perianth — segments about 21. 
Sepals 6, orbicular. Petals 18, outer oval, inner smaller, narrow. 
Carpels with a thin fleshy pericarp, woody endocarp, and short 
subulate incurved beak (Hooker). 

Copses in Bhutan and the Khasia Hills, 4-5,000 ft 

Use : — The authors of Pharmaeographid Indica, (Vol. 1. p. 40) 

write that it occasionally finds its way into the market. It is 

used as a substitute for Illieium verum which is a native of 

Cochin-China. Star-anise is aromatic, stimulant and carminative. 

"The fruit of 7. Griffithii would appear to contain some 
bitter principle as well as tannin." (Pharmacographia Tndica, 
Vol. T. p. 41). 



33, Uvaria narum, Wall,, i. 50, 

Vern. : — Narum-panel (Malay), Rheede, 

Habitat : — Forests of the Western Peninsula ; and in the 
Central Provinces of India ; Ceylon ascending to 4000 ft.— 
Widely diffused in Southern India. 

A woody climber ; twigs glabrous, Leaves 4—6 in., oblong, 
acuminate, very shortly stalked, glabrous. Flowers solitary, 
I-1J in. diam. Buds globose, stellate-tomentose, Sepals 
distinct, or nearly so, rounded, apiculate. Petals connate at 
base, broadly ovate, acute, incurved, densely pubescent. Ripe 
carpels very numerous, pendulous on slender stalks, 1 in. long, 
oblong— ovoid, 1-1 J in., smooth, bright scarlet-crimson. Colour 
of flowers yellowish — green. 

Part used :— The root. 

Uses:— The oil obtained from the roots by distillation, as 
well as the root, are used medicinally in various diseases. The 
root is fragrant and aromatic, and the bruised leaves smell like 
cinnamon. (Rheede). 

34. Anona squamosa, Linn,, i. 78, 
Roxb. 453. 

Vern. :-^-Atd, katal (Ass.); Maudar gom (Santalj; Sirpha 
(Mai). ; Sita-palam or Sita-pazham (Tarn.) ; Sitapandn (Tel.) . 
Sharifah, at or ata, Sitaphal, (H. Deck. Guj. Mar.) ; Ata, lema (B.). 

Habitat :— Introduced from the West Indies, and natural- 
ized throughout India, 

A small tree wholly glabrous. Bark thin, grey. Wood soft, 
close-grained, greyish-white. Leaves 2-3 by -f-l§ in., mem- 
branous, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acuminate, 
glaucous and pubescent when young; base acute, pellucid- 
dotted, with a peculiar smell. Flowers solitary or in pair, 

N. 0. ANONACEA. 45 

1 in. long, pubescent on pedicels as long as the flowers. 
Exterior Petals 3, narrow-oblong, lanceolate, triquetrous, thick 
and fleshy, 3 ; interior minute or wanting. Sepals small. 
Stamens indefinite, crowded round a hemispherical torus. Con- 
nective overlapping the anthers. Carpels many, subconnate 5 
style oblong, Ovule, 1, erect. Ripe carpels confluent into a many- 
celled ovoid or globose many-seeded fruit. Fruit fleshy, areolate, 
2-4 in. diam, juicy with the pleasant and agreeable odour of 
the English Heliotrope. Seeds oblong, brownish-black, 

This is the genuine Custard Apple of India. 

A native of the West Indies, naturalized in India, especially 
the Western Peninsula, and the Dekkan, Bijapur ; in the Madras 
Presidency in the Krishna district. Wild in the old Forts of 
the Dekkan, cultivated as far as G-urdaspur in the Punjab. 

Parts used:— The fruit (both ripe and unripe) ; leaves, seeds. 

Uses : -The ripe fruit is medicinally considered a maturant, 
and when bruised and mixed with salt, is applied to malignant 
tumours to hasten suppuration, The seeds contain an acrid 
principle fatal to insects, and the dried unripe fruit, powdered 
and mixed with gram flour, is used to destroy vermin . An 
infusion of the leaves is considered efficacious in prolapsus ani 
of children, The root is considered a drastic purgative ; natives 
administer it in acute dysentery. It is also employed inter- 
nally in depression of spirits and spinal diseases. (T. N. 
Mukerji.) The seeds are a powerful irritant of the conjunctiva. 
Lt. Col. Kirtikar, while in charge of the Thana Central Prison, 
came across a case in which a Life-Convict used the seed 
powder in destroying the cornea of both eyes to produce blind- 
ness for the purpose of avoiding being sent to the Andamans 
to undergo his sentence there. 

The bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce 
suppuration (Atkinson). 

35. A. reticulata, Linn,, i. 78 ; Roxb. 

Vern : — Louna, Ram-phal (H.) ; Nona (Beng\) ; Com (Santa!) ; 


Ram-phal (Bomb. Deck., Mar., Guj., Kan.) ; Ramsita or ram- 
situ-plam (Tarn.); Rama-pandu, ramaphalam or rama-chandar 

■English Barnes : —The Bullock's Heart, or true Custard Apple 
of the West Indies. 

Habitat:— A small tree, naturalised in India, occurring. in 
Bengal, Burma and South India, 

A large tree joften growing- 20-40 ft* Leaves oblong or 
oblong-lanceolate, quite glabrous, smooth or roughish beneath ; 
5-8 by 1J-2 in., base acute; petiole \ in. Flowers 2-3 together 
on lateral peduncles. Sepals 3, small, valvate. Petals 3, narrow, 
oblong, thick, Fruit subglobose, roughish outside with penta- 
gonal areoles ; tawny-coloured when ripe. 

Much cultivated in the Bombay gardens. A native of the 
West Indies quite naturalized. 

Parts used '— Bark and fruit. 

Uses ":— The bark is said to be a powerful astringent, and 
to be much used as a tonic by the Malays and Chinese. 
The fruit is reported to be used in the West Indies and by 
the natives of America, as an anti-dysenteric and vermifuge. 
(Watt's Dictionary, Vol : I. p. 259). 

36. Boeagea Dalzelii, Hk. f. andThoms,, i. 

Syn. — Sageraea laurina, Dalz. 

I 7 <?>-7?.— Sajeri. Kochrik. Harkinjal (Marathi). Audi (Bombay). 

Habitat. — Forests of the Konkan and Travancore. 

A middle-sized, evergreen, glabrescent tree. Leaves 
shining, coriaceous, thick, 5-9 by K-2 in., narrow, oblong, acute 
or obtuse ; base rounded or acute. Petiole i in. Flowers white, 
2-sexual, \-\ in. diam ; crowded in fascicles of 1-15 on woody 
tubercles. Pedicels |-| in. Bracteoles several, scaly basal. 
ticpals orbicular, distinct, slightly imbricate ; outer petals \ in. 
broad, ovate, larger but not twice the size of the inner. 

N. 0. AN0NACE/E. 47 

Stamens 12-18 ; anther-cells contiguous, outer stamens sometimes 
without anthers. Ripe Carpels nearly sessile, 1 in. diam., 
globose, glabrous usually containing about 2 matured seeds. 

Uses. — In the Konkan the leaves are used for fomentation 
by the natives. They have a pungent, astringent and bitter 
taste. (Dym. Pharm. Ind. Vol. I. P. 46). 

37. Polyalthia lo?igifolia, Benth and HK f. i., i. 62. Roxb 455. 

Syn. — Gualteria longifolia, Wall. 

Vern. — Asok ; Debdari, Devadaru, Deodar (H). Devdaruy 
Devada V B). Devdaru (Uriya). Asok, Asoka, Asopular, Asiipal 
(Bomb) ; Ashopulo (Guj) ; Devadaru, Asoka, Asokam (Tel) 
Assothi (Tain) ; Asoka, putrajiva (Kam) ; in Ceylon Tamil it is 

Habitat. — Cultivated throughout India, as an avenue tree in 
Tan j ore and the Western Peninsula. Common in Ceylon 
and in Bombay Gardens. It is also found as a roadside tree 
in Bombay, much used in decorations of houses on festive 

A large erect tree, very handsome with shining wavy- 
margined leaves on slender long branchlets. Bark thick, rather 
smooth, young parts glabrous. Wood yellowish-white, rather 
soft, medullary rays conspicuous. Lea vcs long, 6-9 in. shortly 
stalked, oblong or ovate-oblong, very gradually tapering into 
long attenuate apex, acute or rounded base, finely undulate, 
glabrous, thin, pellucid-dotted. Flowers greenish-yellow in 
axillary umbels on very short racemes mostly from the old 
wood, 3-10 or more together. Pedicels I in. or more long, slender, 
pubescent, with a hairy bractlet half way up. Sepals ovate- 
triangular, obtuse, tomentose. Petals ^ in. or more, lanceolate-, 
linear, tapering, undulate, pubescent, the inner rather broader. 
Carpels about 8, ovoid, 1 in. long, glabrous, on stalks \ m. lung.. 

Use. — It is used as a febrifuge in the Balasore District of 
Orissa (vSir W. W.. Hunter). 



38, Tinospora tomentosa, Miers. h.f.b.l. l 96. 

Vern. : — Padma-guluncha (B), 

Habitat :— Tropical thickets in Bengal ; always rare. 

A climbing shrub. Bark pustular. Shoots tomentose. 
Leaves orbicular-cordate, more or less 3-lobed, pubescent above, 
tomentose beneath, 3-6 in. diam. Petioles as long. Racemes 
usually simple, solitary or fascicled. Flowers fascicled in the 
axils or deciduous bracts. Sepals 6. 2-seriate, inner longer, 
membranous. Petals 6, smaller. Male-flowers : Stamens 6, 
filaments free, tips thickened. Anther cells obliquely adnate, 
bursting obliquely. Female- flowers : Staminodes 6, clavate ; 
Ovaries 3. Stigmas forked. Drupes 1-3, dorsal ly convex, 
ventrally flat ; fusiform, orange-yellow, Endocarp tubercled, 
dorsally keeled, ventrally concave. Seed grooved ventrally or 
curved round the intruded sub-2-lobed endocorp. Albumen 
ventrally ruminate. Cotyledons foiiaceous, ovate, spreading, 

Use : — It possesses the tonic properties of the common 
Guluncha. T. cordifolia (Prain's Flora of the Sunderbans, 
Page 286). 

39. T. crispa, Miers. H. f.b.i., i. 96. 

Syn: — Menispermum verrucosum. Hm. Rox. Fl. Ind. 

Vern. : — Titha-Kinda (Sinhalese). 

Habitat : — From Sylhet and Assam to the Eastern Peninsula. 

Stem widely climbing and twining, strongly warted 
Leaves 4-5 in., broadly orbicular-cordate, suddenly acuminate, 
7-veined, glabrous on both sides, thin. Petioles 3 4 in., 
thickened and twisted at base, smooth. Flowers I in. long, 
green, campanulate, 1-3 together, on very" slender pedicels, in 
the axils of fleshy, small persistent bracts, rather distantly arrang- 
ed in slender pendent spicate racemes or panicles 4-6 in. long 
from axils of old leaves. Male-flowers : — stamens adnate to base 
of petals. Female-flowers :— Anthers, square, stamens adnate 


to the base of the petals. Drupe elliptic, oblong, 1 in. long, 
size of an olive, pale-yellow. 

Properties and Uses :— Possesses the bitterness and probably 
the tonic properties of gulanehd (Ph Jnd.) 

40. T. cordifolia, Miers. h.f.b.l, l 97. 

Syn.: — Menispermum cordifolium, Eoxb., Cocculus cordi- 
folius, DC. 

Habitat : — Throughout tropical India, from Kumaon to Assam 
and from Behar and the Concan to the Carnatic. In the Dun and 
Shaharanpur forests, fairly common. 

Sans. : — Guduchi (bitter plant), Kundali (coiled \ Chhina(cut) 
Vayastha (old), Amrila-Vallari (immortal Creeper), chhinnodh- 
hana (growing after being cut), Chhinnaruha, Amrita (nectar), 
Jwara-nishini (febrifuge) Vatsadani (eating its own offspring), 
Chandrapasa deriding the moon), Jivanti (living^ Chakra-Lak- 
shana (wheel-shaped.) 

Vern. : — Gurach, gurcha, giloe, gulancha, gul-bet, (extracts 
palo, sut-gilo, satte-gilo (root)-ghiancha-ki-jar, (Hind.) ; gulancha, 
gurach, giloe, nim-gilo, gadancha (Beng.) ; zakhmi haiyat, gilo. 
garum, garham, batindu, (Pb.) (Extract)-palo, sut-gilo (Sind); 
Gulwel, (CP.) ; Gulvel, guloe, gharol, giroli, ambarvel; (Bomb.) ; 
Gulaveli, gulavela, gulwail, guloe, gharol, (Mar.) ; Gado, gulvel, 
galo, (Guz.); gul-wail, gul-bel, gulo, (extract)-polo, sat-gilo, gulbel 
ka-sat, (Dec); Shindil-kodi, (extract)-shindil-shakkarai (root)- 
shindil, kodi-ver, (Tarn.) ; Tippa-lige guluchi, guduchi, guricha, 
manapala, tippatingai, (extract) Tippa-tige-sattu, (root)-tippa- 
tege veru (Tel.) ; Amrita-Calli, amruta-Calli, (Kan.) ; Amruta 
valli, citamerdu, amruta, chitramruta (Malay) ; Amritvel, amrit- 
wel (Goa). 

A glabrous, succulent, climbing shrub, often reaching a 
great height and sending down long thread-like aerial roots, 
closely warted. Bark grey or creamy-white, deeply cleft in spiral 
longitudinal clefts, the space between the clefts usually dotted 
with large rosette-like corky lenticels. Wood white, soft, porous. 
Pores small to large, rather scanty, irregularly arranged between 
the few broad medullary rays (Gamble), Leaves 2-4 in., broadly 


cordate, glabrous, thin, acute or acuminate. Petiole l-J-3 in., 
slender, thickened and curved at base. Flowers greenish-yellow, 
or yellow, large for the order, f in. diam. Males in clusters 
of 1-6 on slender branches of a drooping panicle exceeding the 
leaves. Females in shorter racemes, solitary. Male-flower: — 
stamens, free, but wrapped in the petals. Female flower : — 
Stigma dilated, laciniate, Ovaries 3. Drupe of 1-3, ripe carpels 
size of pea, somewhat ovoid, apicnlate, smooth, red, succulent-. 
Endocarp smooth. Seed generally curved round the intruded 

Uses : — The following pharmaceutical preparations can be 
made of the plant : — 

1. Tincture of Gulwel. — Take 4 ounces of the stem, not 
very young and thin, nor very old and thick, but of medium age 
and size, together with the aerial roots (Kanjilal) ; cut into 
thin slices, and steep them in a pint of proof-spirit for seven 
days and press out of a Tincture-press. Dose 1-2 drachms. 

2. Gold Infusion. — Take one ounce of the stem, as directed 
above, cut into thin slices, steep them in ten ounces of cold 
water for four hours, and strain. Dose 1-3 ounces. 

3. Extract of Gulwel. — Tbe well-grown stem is sliced 
finely and bruised in cold water, well steeped in it for four hours 
and then kept on a slow fire, until it thickens into a semi-solid or 
almost pliable mass. Dose 5-15 grains. 

4. Gulwel " Satwa" which means the separation of the 
solid parts, principally the Starch. Slices of a well-formed stem 
are finely pounded into a pulp with water and strained. The 
water so strained is allowed to remain in a pan, undisturbed. 
Much white powdery matter will, after a time, deposit at the 
bottom of the pan. The supernatant water is removed and the 
deposit allowed to dry in the air or in the sun, but never heated 
on fire. Pandit Jay a Krishna Indraji says that, as soon as the 
•deposit settles, the sooner it is dried the better, The quantity 
thus obtained is small, but clear white. If the mashed product, 
together with the water, be left over-night, the deposit, after 
settling down, turns blackish, although a larger quantity of the 
starch and other solids is obtained from the sediment. Dose 


10-30 grains. The starchy matter is administered in ghee, or with 
molasses, or in sugar and water, or in milk. This information is 
collected from the works of Dr, Tribhuvandas Motichand Shah 
of Junagadh and Pandit Jaya Krishna Indrajt of Porebtindar. 
(1909-1910) : 

In a paper, entitled " A note on some Indian Drugs/ 5 with 
exhibits of medicinal preparations, read before the section of 
Pharmacology of the 2nd Session of the International Medical 
Congress of Australasia, held at Melbourne (Victoria) in January 
1889, Surgeon K. R. Kirtikar made the following observations 
on T. cordifolia (Gnlwel or garola). The preparation exhibited 
was a powder of the dried stem of the plant prepared by the 
late Mr. M. C. Pariera of Bandra, who was for a long time con- 
nected with the Government Medical Stores of Bombay, under 
the late Brigade-Surgeon W. Dymock. Surgeon Kirtikar said 
as follows :—" The powder of the stem is used in making an 
infusion in the proportion of one ounce of the powder to ten 
fluid ounces of cold water. The medicinal value of the plant 
is due to a small quantity of Berherine. It is used as an 
alterative and tonic, and has enjoyed the reputation among 
ancient Hindu writers of being an aphrodisiac ; but as a 
drug it being never prescribed alone as an aphrodisiac, its 
reputation as such is of a doubtful nature. The dose of the 
infusion is one to three ounces. There is a starch obtained from 
the roots and stems of the plant which goes under the name 
Gulweliche-satwa (the starch of Gulwel), which is similar to 
Arrow-root in appearance and effect. It answers not only as 
i remedial medicinal agent in chronic diarrhoea and some forms 
of obstinate chronic dysentery, but it is also a valuable nutrient, 
when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any 
kind of food. I have myself had experience of the usefulness 
of this starch. Dr. Dymock says ' through not having been 
washed, the starch has been found to retain some of the 
bitterness of the plant.' I have several times tasted the starch 
myself and have not found it bitter to any appreciable degree, 
probably from the fact that my specimens were different from 
those of Dr. Dymock (and perhaps fresh and better-washed) ; 
but I have no doubt that the starch has some medicinal property 


in it from the minute traces of herberhie which the plant is 
supposed to contain. I think also that this drug is useful where 
there is an acid diarrhoea, due to an acidity of the intestinal canal 
or acid dyspepsia. It is useful in relieving the symptoms of 
rheumastism. There is another preparation of this plant — the 
sueeus (juice), fresh prepared from the fresh plant. It acts as 
a powerful diuretic. It is prescribed by ancient Hindu physi- 
cians in gonorrhoea with advantage. Considering that . in the 
earlier stages of gonorrhoea we now try to reduce the acidity 
of urine by alkaline mixtures, it is probable this drug acts by 
reducing the acidity of urine in gonorrhoea. Dose of the succvs 
2-3 drams in water, milk or honey, thrice daily." (See Congress 
Proceedings, Melbourne p. 947. 1889,). 

In the Bombay Druggists' shops the starch of Gulwel is 
found not unof ten adulterated. "I was supplied not once, but 
several times, with the English-made powder of Zea Mays — our 
common Maka (corn-flour) for the Satwa of G-ulwel. Sometimes 
I was given masses of the common Attah (wheat flour)." (See 
K. R. Kirtikar's Presidential Address 5th All-India Ayurvedic 
Conference. Muttra, 1914, p. 14). 

Speaking of its employment as an antiperiodic, Waring states, 
that he employed it in twenty cases of ordinary quotidian fever 
in Burma ; and iti each case it prevented the accession of the 
cold stage, but it did not appear to diminish the severity, or 
prevent the regular return of the hot stage, a peculiarity, he acids, 
not observed by him in the use of any other remedy of the same 
class. Oulancha is also regarded by the natives in certain parts 
of India as a specific for the bites of poisonous insects and veno- 
mous snakes. 

41. Anamirta Cocculus, W. and A. h. f.b.i., i. 98. 

Syn. A. Panioulata, Golebr. Menispermum cocculus, Linn. 
Habitat :— Eastern Bengal ; Khasia hills ; Assam ; and from 
Concan and Orissa to Ceylon, up to 2,000 ft, 
Sansh. : — Kakamari. 
Vern. :— Kakamari (H. and B.) ; Kakaphala ; Vatoli (Bomb.) ; 


Kakkay-Kolli-Virai (Tarn.); Kaki-Champa ; Kaka-Mari ; Vittu 
(Tel.) ; Kakamari-bija (Kan.) ; Karanta-Kattin-Kaya ; Polluk- 
Kaya (Mai.) ; Titta-wel (Sinhalese). 

A large woody twiner, bark thick, vertically furrowed or 
corrugated, young shoots glabrous. Leaves 3-6 in., broadly ovate, 
acute or obtuse, rounded or subcordate at base, sub-coriaceous, 
glabrous above, paler and with very small tufts of hair in the 
axils of the veins beneath. Petioles 2-4 in., thickened and 
prehensile at lower ends. Flowers -p&le, greenish-yellow, sweet- 
scented, \ in. diam , with 2 or 3 small bracts at base, on short, 
thick, divaricate pedicels, arranged on the horizontal branches 
of large glabrous panicles, 8-12 in. long, springing from the 
old leaves, buds globular. Sepals equal ultimately reflexed. 
Petals ; Male Fl. : — Anthers forming a globose head on the 
short, stout column of coherent filaments; Female Fl. : — 
Carpels usually 5, on short, globose gynophore, surrounded at 
base by a ring of ten very small bifid, fleshy staminodes, smooth, 
stigmas reflexed. Ripe carpels 1-3 (usually 3) on thickened 
branches of enlarged gynophore, nearly globose, ■§■ in., smooth, 

Parts used: — The berries, and leaves. 

Uses : — The bitter berries are sometimes used in the form of 
an ointment. This ointment is employed as an insecticide, to 
destroy pediculi, and in some obstinate forms of chronic skin 
diseases. (Bentley and Trimen). 

The fresh leaves are used in Bengal as a snuff in the 

treatment of quotidian ague. 

Chemistry : — Pikrotoxin is an astringent principle of the fruit. The commer 
cial product usually melts between 192° and 200°, but after recrystallisation 
from water invariably yields a product melting at 199-200°; it is extremely bitter 
and very poisonous, producing similar effects to those obtained with strych- 
nine. Pateruo and Oglialoro, Schmidt, and others regard it as a definite 
compound which is readily decomposed into pikrotoxinin and pikrotin, but, 
according to the authors (Richard Joseph Meyer and P. Bruger), it is merely 
a mixture of these two indefinite, but not molecular, proportions, namely, 
54-55 per cent, of pikrotoxinin and 45-4G of pikrotin. It may be partially 
separated into the two constituents by boiling with benzene or chloroform, 
or by treatment with barium hydroxide ; the only method which gives 
anything like quantitative results is that with bromine water. 


Pikrotoxinin, 15 H 16 O 6 , is best obtained from pikrotoxm by bromiiiating 
the latter, when- in hot aqueous solution, with a slight excess of bromine 
water, and then, by means of zinc dust and acetic acid, removing the bromine 
from the monobromopikrotoxinin, which crystallises out ; it crystallises from 
hot water in colourless, anhydrous needles, but from cold aqueous solutions in 
rhombic, plates containing lff 2 0, melts at 200-201°, is readily soluble in all 
the usual solvents on warming, and also in cold alcohol or chloroform ; it is 
also soluble in alkalies, but is not reprecipitated on the addition of acids. 
Sulphuric acid develops an intense orange red coloration, and when hydro- 
gen chloride is led into an ethereal solution of the compound, polymerisa- 
tion occurs, and pikrotoxide, melting ,at 308-310°, is formed. Aqueous 
solutions reduce ammoniaeal silver nitrate in the cold, but it contains neither 
an aldehydic nor a ketonic group. It has an extremely bitter taste, and is 
the active principle of pikrotoxm ; its specific rotatory power [a]D— — 5*85°, 

BromopikrotoxiniD, C 15 H 15 BrO ff . which is most readily obtained by adding 
bromine water to a hot, nearly saturated;, aqueous solution of pikrotoxinin 
until the solution remains permanently yellow, may be purified by recrystal- 
lisation from absolute alcohol ; it separates in glistening needles, melts at 
259-260° (Schmidt gives 250-255° ; Paterno and Oglialoro give 240-250°), and 
has[a]17/D= -132'5°. 

Chloropikrotoxinin crystallises from alcohol in a mixture of needles and 
plates, melting at 272°. 

Iodopikrotoxiniu, obtained by the action of iodic acid and a solution of 
iodine in potassium iodide C 15 H 14: O -Ac 2 , as it can readily be obtained by the 
action of acetic chloride on pikrotoxinin ; it sublimes in slender needles 
melting at 254° — 255,° and forms an unstable compound with bromine. 

Pikrotin, C 15 H 13 7 , is best obtained from the filtrate from bromopikrotox- 
inin, part separating out on cooling, whilst the remainder may be obtained 
by evaporation ; it can be purified by several extractions with small 
quantities of hot chloroform, followed by recrystallisationfrom water ; it forms 
small, felted needles, or thick, rhombic prisms, melting at 248-250°, is readily 
soluble in absolute alcohol or acetic acid, but only sparingly in ether, 
chloroform, or benzene. Its specific rotatory power [o]D=— 64'7°, and it 
reduces Fehling's solution, etc., but only on warming. Its molecular formula 
has been determined by molecular weight determinations and by the analyses 
of its benzoyl and acetyl derivatives. 

lienzoylpikrotin, C 1& H 17 7 BZ, crystallises from absolute alcohol in colour- 
less needles, melts at 236°, and is readily soluble in chloroform, sparingly in 
ether or alcohol. 

Libenzoylpikrotin, obtained when pikrotin (1 mol.) is heated with benzoic 
chloride (3 mols.) at 190°, crystallises from alcohol in needles melting on a 
hot aqueous solution of pikrotoxinin, crystallises from alcohol in colourless 
needles and melts at 198-199°. 

L romopikrotoxic acid, C 14 H 10 -BrO 5 *COOH-fH 2 O, is obtained when 10 percent, 
potassium hydroxide solution is slowly added to finely divided bromopikro- 
toxinin suspended in 10 times its weight of boiling water, until all has dis- 
solved ; on the addition of hydrochloric acid, the acid crystallises out in 
colourless needles, melting at 245-246° ; it has no bitter taste, and is optically 

.N. 0. .MENISPERMACEJfc.. . ; 00. 

active [a]v — — Q'2Q\ The calcium salt, (C 15 H 16 Br0 7 ) 2 Ca-f 5F 2 0, potassium salt, 
with 2H 2 0, ammonium salt, and mercurous salt have been prepared. 

Picrotoxia acid, C 1S H 18 7 , obtained in small amount by the removal of 
bromine from the bromo-acid by the aid of sodium amalgam in alkaline 
solution, crystallises from water in needles melting* at 229-230°, and has no 
bitter taste ; its aqueous solution has strong reducing properties, and it 
readily undergoes decomposition in both aqueous and ethereal solution. 

The substance obtained by Paterno and Oglialoro by the action of sodium 
acetate and acetic anhydride on pikrotoxin, and described as an unsaturated 
acid, is shown to be diacetylpih'otoxinin, at 247-248°. When a large excess 
of benzoic chloride is employed, no definite product is obtained. 

Acetylpikrotin, C IS H 17 7 Ac, crystallises from benzene, alcohol, or acetic 
acid in glistening plates melting at 244-245°, and is probably identical with 
the compound described by Paterno and Oglialoro as diacetylpikrotoxinin and 
melting at 227°. When pikrotin is allowed to remain in contact with acetic 
chloride for 24 hours at the ordinary temperature, and then heated until 
complete solution ensues, two compounds are obtained. Anhydrodiacetyl- 
pikrotin, C 15 H 14 6 Ac 2 , which is precipitated, on the addition of alcohol, 
in crystalline masses melting above 300°, and diacetyl pikrotin, Cj S H l6 7 Ac^ 
which is obtained as an oil from the alcoholic mother liquor ; when it is hot, 
aqueous solution is allowed to cool, drops of oil separate, which solidify to 
crystalline needles melting at 207-210° ; these contain 2 H 2 0. 

Attempts to convert pikrotin into pikrotoxinin by removal of the elements 
of water have not proved successful. 

When warmed with fuming nitric acid, pikrotin yields a nitro-derivative. 
C 15 H 15 O -. No 2 , anhydi'onitropikrotin, melting at 260°. 

/. Ch.S. 1899 A I. 226-227. 

42. Coscinium fenestratum, Colebr. h.f.b.i., 

Syn. : — Menisperum fenestratum, Gaertn. 

Vem. i— Jhar-ki-haldi, or Jhadi haladi (Dec.j ; Haldi-gach 
(B.)\ Mara-Manjal (Tarn.) ; Maim pasupu (Tel.) ; Marada-ariskina 
(Kan.) Veniwel. (Mar. ; and Sinkalese). 

Hobitat: — Western Peninsula, Central and South India. 
Malacca, Singapore, Ceylon « 

A woody climber, bark smooth, young shoots densely but 
finely yellow-tomentose. Leaves large, 4-8 in,, broadly ovate or 
rounded, suddenly acute, truncate, rounded, subcordate or 
slightly peltate at base, entire, glabrous above, densely felted, 
with fine yellow tomentum beneath, strongly 5-7-nerved ; 


nerves and reticulated veinlets very prominent beneath. Petioles 
3-4 in. Flowers sessile in small dense rounded heads, which 
are long-stalked and umbellately or racemosely arranged in the 
axils of the leaves. Pedicels yellow-tomentose ; bracts beneath 
the flowers numerous, small, imbricated. Sepals rounded, 
persistent. Petals ovate, spreading. Female fl. :— Carpels hairy, 
styles filiform, reflexed. Ripe carpels (Drupes) l-3 5 globose, 
f in., densely tomentose, brown. 
Part used :— ~ The root. 

Use : — The root is extensively used in the hospitals of the 
Madras Presidency as an efficient bitter tonic. A writer, quoted 
by Christie, says of Ceylon that this root is viewed " as a very 
good substitute for Calumba. 1 have used it with good results 
in the form of tincture and infusion. It has also antiseptic pro- 
perties to a great extent, and can be used for dressing wounds 
and ulcers." The wood is of a bright yellow colour, and is 
valued as a bitter tonic by the Sinhalese. 

Dr. Moodeen Sheriff considered the action of the drug to be 
"antipyretic, antiperiodic, tonic and stomachic," and useful 
" in slight cases of continued and intermittent fevers, debility, 
and certain forms of dyspepsia. It may be used in place of 
Cinchona, Gentian or Calumba, called " False Calumba." A 
yellow dye is also obtained from it. — Trimen. "Used in 
diabetes, and also in cases of suppression of lochia." (Watt). 

43. Cocculus villosus, DC. h.f.b.i., i. 10L 

Syn. ' — Menispeimum hirsutum, Linn; Holopeira villosa, 
leviscula and auriculata, Miers. 

In the Concan the Voids give this plant the Sanskrit name 
of Vana-tiktika. Pdtdlgarudi, Vatsadani (Sansk.). 

Vern. : — Jamti-ki-bel, hier. dier, (H.) ; Kursan, Zamir iSind) ; 
Vasana-vela Hundir, Tdnvel (Mar.) ; Wassan-wel, parwell, 
(Bomb.); Vevdi (Guj) Vadhino vel (Porebunder) Kattukkodi 
(Tarn.) ; Dusari-tige, Chipura-tige, Katletige /Pel.). 

Habitat: — Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, from 


the base of the Himalaya to Malabar and Pegu. (Absent in the 
Eastern Peninsula), Ceylon. 

A small, much-branched, straggling climber. Branches 
long, slender, twining, striate, hairy-pubescent, Leaves 1-1 J in., 
deltoid-ovate, very obtuse, apiculate or mucronate, tapering or 
truncate at base, "almost entirely glabrous above (save when 
young), slightly hairy on veins beneath, ciliate at margin, 3-5- 
veined at base, Petiole \ in., hairy; Male fl. :— in small cymose 
panicles on very slender, axillary peduncles shorter than the 
leaves, bracts subulate, hairy. Female fl. —2 or 3 together in 
axillary clusters ; Sepals villous, outside petals, bifid, lobed 
at sides, Male fl. :— Stamens with filaments hairy at base. 
Female fl. :— -Carpels smooth. Drupes (Ripe carpels; small, 
black-purple, J in., endocarp bony, horse-shoe-shaped or rather 
annular, with the centre perforated, sharply keeled along the 
back, the sides with strong transverse ridges. 

Parts used : — The root and leaves. . 

Uses: — -" The juice of the leaves, mixed with water, has the 
property of coagulating into a green jelly-like substance, which 
is taken internally, sweetened with sugar, as cure for gonorrhoea. 
Roxburgh says — " A decoction of the fresh roots, with a few 
heads of pepper, in goats' milk, is administered for rheumatic 
and old venereal pains; half a pint every morning is the dose< 
Tt is reckoned heating, laxative, and sudorific." 

"Jn the Concan, the roots rubbed with Bonduc nuts are 
administered as a cure for belly-ache in children ; and in bilious 
dyspepsia, they are given in 6 massa doses, with ginger and 
sugar." (Dymock.) 

In Sind, the root and leaves are used in headache and neural- 
gic pains. (Murray.) 

The root is said to be alterative and a good substitute for 

According to the Pharmacopoeia of India, this possesses the 
bitterness, and probably the tonic properties, olgulancha. (Tinos- 
pora cord i folia), 

"This is a common hedge-plant in the Konkan, where it is 


generally used as a refrigerant, and also as a gentle Laxative. 
It has been extensively used as an alterative in chronic rheuma- 
tic and venereal diseases. I exhibit two preparations : —(1) A 
liquid extract obtained from the root. Dose one dram iri water, 
or goat's milk, thrice daily. (2) A syrup of the leaves. Dose 
one to two drams. Both the preparations were made lor me 
by Mr. M. C. Pareira of Bandra, for exhibition at this Congress." 
(Surgeon Kirtikar at the Pharmacological Section, Melbourne 
Medical Congress, Australasia. See Proceedings, p. 947-1889 , 

44. C. Leaeba, B.C. h.f.b.l, i. 102. 

Vern. : — Vallur, illar-billar ; parwatti (Guj.) ; vehri (Pb. and 
Sindhi) ; Ullar-billar iSindh). 

Habitat: — Drier parts of Western India, the Punjab, Sindh, 
and the Carnatic valleys, ; below Simla, plains of India ascending 

to 3,000 ft. 

Part used : — The whole plant. 

A climbing shrub. Branchlets puberulous, long, slender ; 
leaves very variable, linear-oblong, oblong or trapezoid, entire 
or 3-5-lobed, glabrate, usually obtuse and mucronate ; base 
cuneate, rounded, young, hoary, old, often glaucous on botlr 
surfaces. Pedicels |-£ in. Male flowers fascicled in small 
sessile clusters in the axils, and on . woody tubercles. 
Females solitary, 1-3, sessile, at the end of short axillary stalks. 
Drupes dark purple, ^—\ in. 

Uses: — It is used in Sindh and Afghanistan in the treatment 
of intermittent fevers and as a substitute for Gocaalus Indicus, 

45. Pericampylus ineaaus, Miers. h.f.b.l, 
i. 102. 

Vern. :— Baiak Kanta (B). 

Habitat : — Sikkim, Assam, the Khasia hills, Chittagong, 
throughout the Eastern Peninsula, Malay Peninsula and Archi- 

A tomentose climbing shrub. Stem cylindrical and grooved. 
Wood in wedges, separated by broad medullary rays. Branchlets 


tomentose, then glabrous. Leaves membranous from a straight or 
cordate, sometimes slightly peltate base, suborbicular, obtuse, 
acute or ret use ; pale beneath ; 5 basal nerves ^Brandis). 
Petiole 1-2 in. Inflorescence. Cymes 2-3-cbotomous, often 
many and superposed. Peduncles 1-2 in., axillary. Sepals villous, 
6, with three bracts, outer smaller, inner spathulate. Petals 6 
cuneate-acute, says Hooker, margins incurved. Male flowers: — 
6 stamens ; filaments cylindrie, anthers adnate, bursting trans- 
versely. Female flowers-. — Staminodes 6, clavate, ovaries 3; 
styles bifid, segments subulate. Drupes red, subglobose, the size 
of a pea. Endocarp horse-shoe-sbaped, dorsally crested and 
echinate ; sides excavated, seed curved. Cotyledons elongate, 
flat, scarcely broader than the radicle. 
Part used : — The root. 

Use : — The roots have long been held in great repute among 
snake-charmers in India as an antidote to the bites of 
poisonous snakes. Surgeon-Colonel D D. Cunningham has 
proved that a fluid extract of the roots, when injected into the 
bitten place, possesses decided remedial power, though it has no 
general action. It acts by precipitating the poison, and thus 
rendering it inert when brought into direct relation with it, 
prior to the absorption of the venom into the system generally. 

46. Stephania hernandifolia, Walp. H.F.B.I., 
I. 103. 

Syn.: — Cissempelos hexandra, Roxb, G. hernandifolia, Willd., 
Clypea hernandifolia, W. and A. Wight Ic. t. 939. 

Sans. : — Ambastha ; patba, 

Vern, '• — A'kna.di ; Nemuka ; agnad (B.) Lupuketiya-wel 

Habitat: — From Nepal to C.hittagong. Singapore, Ceylon, 

A slender twiner, shoots glabrous. . Leaves 2-4 in., round- 
ovate, acute or obtuse, peltate, cordate or truncate at base, 
glabrous, glaucous beneath. Petiole 1-2 in., slender, divaricate. 
Flowers greenish- white, very small, nearly sessile in small umbels 


at ends of branches of long-stalked, axillary umbels ; bracts 
subulate. Male flowers : — Sepals nearly equal, obovate, obtuse ; 
petals much shorter, staminal column short, summit expanded. 
Female flowers :— Sepals acute ; petals shorter, styles subulate. 
Fruit scarlet, solitary, sessile, small, ■§- in., compressed, 
glabrous. Endocarp strongly tubercled on back and sides. 
Seed curved almost into a ring. 

The head of fruit looks as if it were the produce of a single 
flower, instead of an umbel of several sessile ones (Trimen). 

Use :— The root is regarded as light, bitter, astringent and 
useful in fever, diarrhoea, urinary diseases, dyspepsia, etc. 
Sir W. O'Shaughnessy speaks highly of this plant. 

47. S. rotundi folia, Lour, h.f.b.l, i. 103. 

Vern. : — Purha (Dehra Dun). 

Habitat :— Tropical and temperate Himalaya, from Sindh east- 
ward to the Khasia Hills and Pegu. Valleys below Simla ; in 
the ravines of Dun and the Lower Hills. Southern Hills of the 
Western Peninsula. Siam, Cochin-China. 

A tuberous-rooted, large, climbing shrub. Roots subglobose. 
" Wood soft, spongy, with large, loose pith arranged in wedges, 
separated by broad medullary rays, and concentrically by a belt 
of soft similar tissue. The bark gives fibre, sometimes used for 
fishing lines." (Gamble), Branchlels glabrous. Leaves peltate, 
with 9-10 radiating nerves, ovato-rotundate, broad-ovate or sub- 
orbicular, often repand or sinuate-lobed, glabrous, 3-7 in. diam., 
obtuse, acute or acuminate, pale beneath. Petiole 3-9 in. 
Peduncle variable, usually slender ; of the females, stout. 
Umbels axillary, compound, in lax cymes ; rays of umbels long 
or stout ; bracts subulate. Flowers,, yellow or yellowish-green, 
!-£ in. dram. Sepals narrow, cuneate, puberulous Petals 
shorter. Drupes red, pisiform, Endocarp horse-shoe-shaped- 
sides excavated. Cotyledons elongate, flat, scarcely broader than" 
the radicle. 

Part used : — The root. 

Use : — Roxburgh states that the acrid root is used medicinally 
m Sylhet, presumably for the same purpose as S. hernandifolia, 


48. Cissampelos Pareira, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 103. 

Sansk. : — Laghu Patha ; Ambashtha, Brihattikta (very 
pungent), Prachinambastika (Eastern Ambastika), Rasa (juicy), 
Varatikta (very pungent), Papanelil (creeper of sin), Sreysi 
(auspicious), Vridhakarnika (long-eared). 

Vern. : — Kardhiyun-bang (Poreb) Akanadi ; dakb, nirbisi, 
pari harjeuri (EL); Akanadi, nemuka (Pi. ; Tejo mulla (Santal); 
Batulpoti (Nepal); Katori, tikri, parbik, pataki, bat bel, Zakhmi 
baiyat, batindu path (leaves) pilijari, pilajur (root) <Pb.); Nirbisi 
(root) (Dek.) ; Venivel (Guj and Bomb.) ; Pa ray el (Goa) ; 
Po-musbtie, pun-musbtie; Pahadvel, pabadmul (Bomb.); Vata 
tirupie (Tarn.) ; Pata (Tel.). Padavali (Kan.). (Pari kuman)Pabre 
(Dun). Diya-mitta (Sinhalese). 

Habitat:— Tropical and sub-tropical India, from Sindh and 
the Pan jab to Ceylon, up to 4,000 ft. In India ascending up to 
6,000 ft. Cosmopolitan, common in the valleys of Simla and 

A climbing, softly pubescent shrub. A lofty climber (Hk. 
and Th.J, with herbaceous or slender woody branches, on a very 
short stout stem. Trimen says it is a woody twiner, usually of 
small size, with straggling branches, long shoots pubescent or 
tomentose. Wood brown, divided by very broad medullary rays 
and regular concentric bands of similar texture into small 
rectangular divisions, each with two to eight small to very large 
pores. The stem yields strong fibres, which are made into ropes. 
Leaves orbicular or broadly ovate, 1-4 in. across, peltate or 
cordate, obtuse and mucronate, rarely acute ; base sometimes 
truncate. Petiole equalling the leaf, or longer. Flowers greenish- 
yellow, small. Male-flowers:— on stalked branched cymes, 
clustered in leaf-axils, or borne on long axillary raceme-like 
shoots, each cyme in the axil of a small leaf-like bract. 
Sepals 4, hairy, ovate, spreading. Petals united into a 
shallow 4-lobed cup. Stamens 4, filaments united into a very 
short column, top dilated, peltate ; anthers sessile round the 
margin. Female flowers : — clustered in axils of orbicular bracts 
crowded on long solitary racemes. Sepal one, pubescent, broadly 
ovate. Petal one, opposite the sepal, similar, but smaller and 


deeply lobed ; ovary 1, hairy, style shortly 3-fid. Drupe hairy, 
globose scarlet, J inch diara. Endocarp transversely ridged 
and tuberculate. Seed horse-shoe-shaped. 

Parts used :— The root, bark and leaves. 

Uses: — Sanskrit writers consider the root to be light, bitter, 
astringent and useful in fever, diarrhoea, urinary diseases, dys- 
pepsia, etc. 

Ainslie writes : — " The leaves of this plant are considered by 
the Vytians as of a peculiarly cooling quality, but the root is the 
part most esteemed ; it has an agreeable, bitterish taste, and is 
considered as a valuable stomachic. It is frequently prescribed 
in the later stages of the bowel complaints, in conjunction with 
aromatics." It is reported to be antilithic (Dymock;. 

" Used locally in cases of unhealthy sores and sinuses. Root 
given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia, diarrhoea, 
dropsy and cough ; also for prolapsus uteri. — and applied exter- 
nally in snake bite and scorpion sting." (Watt.) 

It is officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India, where its medi- 
cinal properties are described as " mild tonic and diuretic exercis- 
ing apparently an astringent and sedative action on the mucous 
membranes of the genito-urinary organs. 

49. Berberis vulgaris, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 109. 

Vern. : — Zirishk ; Kashmal ; Chachar or Chochar (Pb!) ; 
Bedana ; Cutch (Pers-\ Chatrod (Jaunsar), 

Habitat : — Himalaya from Nepal westward, in shady forests, 
above 8,000 ft., Jaunsar and Tehri-Garhwal 12,000 ft., Simla, 
Narkunda, 8,000—12,000 ft, Tibet, Afghanistan. 

A small, deciduous, thorny shrub. Bark brown or grey, 
£ in. thick. Wood lemon-yellow, moderately hard, even-grained. 
Annual rings marked by an irregular belt of small pores, which 
are larger than those in the rest of the wood. Leaves 1-3 in. long, 
broadly ovate, or spathulate, membranous or thinly-coriaceous, 


glaucous beneath, finely serrate, with equal spinulose teeth, 
crowded on arrested branchlets in the axils of the 3-fid, rarely 
5-fid, or rarely simple spines. Petiole slender, £ -l in. long, 
Racemes pedunculate. Flowers pale-yellow, stigmas broad, 
sessile. Berry ovoid, or cylindric, as long as, or shorter than 
the pedicel, usually red when ripe ; edible. 

Hooker and Thomson observe that this is an extremely variable 
plant. Ho less than five varieties are known, 

Use : — In the Punjab, the drug is used as diuretic, and for 
relief of heat, thirst and nausea. It is astringent, refrigerant 
and antibilious. In small doses it is tonic, in larger cathartic. 
In the form of decoction, it is useful in scarlet fever and brain 
affections. (Watt). 

50. B. aristata, D.C. h.f.b.l, i. 110. 

Sansk. : — Darvi, Daru haridra, Pitadaru (yellow wood , Kata 
(The hip), Kateri (Having the bile), of bile, Suvarnavarna (Gold- 
coloured \ Katankati (Growing on the hips . 

Vern. : — Chitra ; Chotra (Kumaon); dar-hald ; rasvat ; Kash- 
mal (H.) ;■ Sumlu ; Simlu ; Kasmal ; Chitra (Pb.) ; Chitra 
(Nepal); Tsema (Bhutia). ' Rasout ' in India is the root- 
extract— Trimen. 

Habitat: — Temperate Himalaya, from Bhotan to Kunawer, 
Nilghiri Mts , Ceylon, Jaunsar and Tehri-Garhwal, Simla. 
6,000-9,000 ft. 

Parts used : — The stem, root-bark, and fruit. 

An erect spinous shrub, evergreen, 10-12 ft. high. 
Bark soft, light-brown, corky. Annual rings distinctly marked 
by a narrow belt of numerous pores. Pores small, in short, narrow 
wavy tails of light-coloured tissue. Branches shining, reddish- 
brown, slightly drooping. Leaves sessile, broadly lanceolate, 
more or less persistent, 2-3 in. long, obovate or oblanceolate, 
rather coriaceous, entire or with a few remote teeth, in the axil of 
5-fid, trifid or a simple spine. The spine is here but a reduced leaf. 
Flowers bright, golden-yellow, in cymosely-branched racemes, 
drooping, much longer than the leaves. Peduncle 1-] J in., 
long, red. Style short, but distinct. Stigma small, sub-globose. 


Branches few-flowered. Pedicels \-\ in. long, also red. 
Berries tapering into a very short style ; oblong, ovoid, spindle- 
shaped, red. Young fruit cylindric. 

Uses:— The medicinal extract from the root, known as Rasout 
is highly esteemed as a febrifuge and as a local application in 
eye diseases, 

" Rusot is best given as a febrifuge in half drachm doses 
diffused through water, and repeated thrice, . or still more 
frequently, daily. It occasions a feeling of agreeable warmth 
at the epigastrium, increases appetite, promotes digestion, and 
acts as a very gentle, but certain aperient, The skin is invari- 
ably moist during its operation, 

" In over thirty cases of tertian ague (several complicated 
with spleen), we have succeeded in checking the fever, on an 
average, within three days, after commencing the rusot. In 
eight cases of quartan, six were cured. The cases of common 
quotidian, thus successfully treated, were so numerous that they 
were not recorded. In no instance was headache or constipation 
produced ; but we have seen rusot exasperate the symptoms of 
chronic dysentery and hepatitis, when complicated with ague. 

"Is taken internally in 5 to 15 grain doses, with butter in 
bleeding piles. Its solution, 1 drachm to 4 ozs. of water, is 
used as a wash for piles. Its ointment, made with camphor 
and butter, is applied to pimples and boils, being supposed 
to suppress them." (Dr. Penny, in " Watt's Dictionary of Econo- 
mic Products." Vol. II., p. 446.) 

1 The wood, root-bark and extract of Indian Barberry 
have been used in Hindoo Medicine from a very remote 
period. Its properties are said to be analogous to those of 
turmeric. * * Indian Barberry and its extract, rasot, are regard- 
ed as alterative and deobstruent, and are used in skin diseases, 
menorrhagia, diarrhoea, jaundice, and above all in affections of 
the eyes. :: * Sarangdhara recommends a simple decoction 
of Indian barberry to be given, with the addition of honey in 
jaundice. In painful micturition from bilious or acrid urine, 
a decoction of Indian barberry and emblic myrobalan is given 

N. 0. BERBERIDE^. 65 

with honey. A decoction of the root-bark is used as a wash for 
unhealthy ulcers, and is said to improve their appearance and 
promote cicatrization. * * Rasot, mixed with honey, is said to 
be an useful application to aphthous sores." (Dutt's Materia 
Medica of the Hindus). 

50. B. Lycium, Boyle, h.f.b.i., i. 10. 

Vera. : — The same as those for B. aristata. 

Habitat : — Western Himalaj^a, in dry, hot places, from G-arh- 
wal to Hazara, Jaunsar, Tehri and Garhwal, outer Himalayas 
3-7,000 ft. Simla, 9,000 ft. 

An erect rigid shrub. Bark white or pale grey. Branches 
angular. Leaves sessile or subsessile, tough, coriaceous, narrowly- 
lanceolate, obovate, oblong, sub-persistent, not lacunose, 1J-2J 
by i~i in., inner ovate, very spinulose, or the teeth few and 
small or entire iCollett.) ; upper surface bright green, lower 
paler ; venation lax. Racemes shortly stalked, simple or com- 
pound, longer than the leaves, often corymbose, drooping, 
barely longer than the leaves. Flowers pale yellow, stalks 
slender, \ in., style short, but distinct. Berry ovoid, violet, 
covered with bloom. 

Part used : — The extract, known as Rasout. 

Rasot or Rasavanti, used as an antidote against opium- 
habit, by Bhagwanlal Indraji (Pandit J. Indraji.) 

Dr. Royle says : — " I have myself occasionally prescribed 
it, and the native mode of application makes it peculiarly eligi- 
ble in cases succeeding acute inflammation, when the eye 
remains much swollen. The extract is, by native practitioners, 
in such cases rubbed into a proper consistence with a little 
water, sometimes with the addition of opium and alum, and 
applied in a thick layer over the swollen eyelids ; the addition 
of a little oil I have found preferable, as preventing the too 
rapid desiccation. Patients generally express themselves as 
experiencing considerable relief from the application." 

It is mentioned by the author of the Periplus, who lived 
about the first century, as an export from the Indies, and that 


in the second century a duty was levied on it at the Roman 
custom-house of Alexandria ; also that it was preserved in singular 
little jars which are now to be found in collections of Greek 

The fruit, which is of a beautiful purple colour and 
covered with a delicate bloom, is eatable, and is exported in a 
dried state. 

Use : — The mode of preparation of the extract Rasot, Rasvanti 
or Ras&njan is as follows : — Take 4 tolas of the Root cut into 
thin slices, boil it in half a seer of water, until reduced to a mass 
weighing 8 tolas ; add to it eight tolas of goat's milk, and 
boil again into a solid mass. This mass is Rasot— (Dr. T. M. 
Shah of Junagadh). The following powder is given as an 
effective remedy in dysenteric diarrhoea, in one dram doses. 
Take equal parts of Rasot, the bark and seeds. Holorrhena 
antidysenterica, (kuda) the flowers of Woodfordia floribunda 
(Dhaiti), and the root-tube of Aconitum heterophyllum (Atis) 
and ginger, and reduce them to an impalpable powder (Dr. 

Dr. Shah recommends Rasot, opium, alum and Bal-Hirda 
(immature fruit of chebulic Myrobalan), rubbed on a stone, 
in equal parts, as an external application round inflamed eyes. 

Mr. W. H. Lovegrove, Conservator of Forests, Jammu and 
Kashmir State, contributes an article on " Rasaunt " to The Indian 
Forester for May 1914 (pages 229-232), from which the following 
extracts are made :— 

" Rasaunt is a brown extract prepared from the root and lower stem wood 
of Berberies aristata, Berberies Lycium and probably Berberies asiatica or 
voriaria. The Berberis is locally called Kemlu. 

" In boiling out the product large quantities of green fuel are burnt. The 
common species used are banj (Quercus, keint (Pijms Pashia), kakoa 
(Flucourtia Ramontchi), kembla (Mallotus philippinensis) and other broad 
leaves. Dry fuel is objected to as being more difficult to control in the kind 
of furnace used. 

The roots of the berberies are dug up and after cutting off, say, the upper 
| of the stem branches are well washed to remove all earth and foreign 
matter. They are then cut up into small pieces, the smaller the better. In 
the Basantgarh Range the sizes of the chips are about 1J" or 2" X |" or f", 
but in : theBasohli Tabsil (which prides itself on producing a better quality 
Rasaunt) the pieees are much smaller. 


The chips are then put into earthen pots, in the proportion of 3 seers of 
chips to 5 seers of water, the pots being roughly V high 7" diameter. 

These pots are then placed in two parallel rows on the top of a long fur- 
nace, the pots being sealed with clay into the small holes left on the top of 
the furnace for their reception, thus closing all cracks to the draught and 
distributing the heat from the fire evenly throughout the flume of the furnace. 

The boiling goes on for about six hours. As water evaporates fresh water 
is poured in so as to keep the chips aiwavs well covered. At the end of this 
period the contents of pot 2 are poured into the practically empty pot 1, the 
contents of pot 3 into pot 2 and so on. This is not done quickly but leisurely 
and water added to rinse the chips. Where the iron pan is used, the extract 
is poured into that instead of into pot 1, 

In this way the liquid contents of all the pots eventually finds its way to 
pot 1 on each row, or into the iron pan where it is still farther evaporated 
until sufficiently concentrated. It is not known how long this takes, but 
apparently there is no hurry about it, and it may stand for some days or for 
a few hours. When ready it is of the consistency of a thick treacle, and is 
poured out into small receptacles made of the leaves of belangor (Bauhinia 
Vahlii) where it cools and thickens ; eventually being packed into baskets 
for transport to Amritsar. 

The larger part of the * resaunt ' extract appears to be exported from 
Amritsar to Multan, whence it probably extends to Sindh and other desert 
tracts. Its use is largely in mixing with drinking water. What its effect on 
the water is, is not known to the writer at present, but its presence probably 
neutralises a salt, as it is said to make the water ° cooler." 

51. B. asiatica, Roxb. h.f.b.l, i. 110. Roxb. 300. 

Habitat : —Dry valleys of the Himalaya, from Bhutan to 
Garhwal, Behar, on Parasnath, Lower hills Dehra. 

Vern. : — Kilmora (Kumaon); Kingora (Dehra Dun and 
Garhwal); Mate-Kissi ; Chitra (Nepal), Kishornoi (Jaunsar). 

Uses : — The medicinal uses of this are the same as those 
of B. aristata. 

An erect thorny shrub, 3-6 ft. Bark soft, pale, light brown, 
yellow in bast layers, corky outside, and deeply cleft vertically. 
Wood yellow, hard Easily recognized by its net-veined leaves. 
The arrested leaf-bearing shoots often on the top of stout woody 
tuberculate branchlets of previous years. Leaves 1-3 in., rarely 
acute, rigidly coriaceous, white beneath, obovate, sometimes 
nearly orbicular, nerves and veins strongly reticulate, laciniose 


between the veins. Seedlings have broadly-ovate leave's, petiole 
slender, more than twice the length of the blade (Brandis). 
Usually the leaves, says Kanjilal, are with large distant spinous 
teeth. Racemes corymbose, dense-flowered, shorter than the 
leaves. Flowers peduncled or sessile, 2 in. diam., pale-yellow, at 
times only T ^-| in. diam. Stigma capitate on a distinct style. 
Berries large, \ in. long, ovoid, often nearly globose, glaucous 
red or black : edible. 

52. Podophyllum Emodi, Wall, h.f.b.i. i. 112. 

Sanskrit — Laghu Pattra. 

Vevn. : — Papra, papri, bliavan-bakra, bakra-chimyaka, Nir- 
bishi, Pilijadi (H.) ; Papri, ban-kakri ; banbakri, Kakra, ban- 
kakra, Chimyaka, Chijakri, gul-kakri, wan-wangan (Pb.). Veni- 
wel (Guj.) ; Padwel (Mar.). 

Habitat: — Interior ranges of the Himalaya, from Sikkim to 
Hazara ; Kashmir. Simla, Jaunsar and Tehri Garhwal, 
7,000, ft. 

A scapigerous herb. Stem or scape 6-12 in., erect, stout, 
herbaceous. Leaves 2, vernal, alternate, long-petioled, plaited 
and deflexed in venation, 6-10 in. diam., orbicular, 3-5-lobed 
to the middle or base ; lobes cuneate, laciniate or acutely 
serrate. Peduncle terminal in bud, then apparently supra- 
axillary or inserted on the petiole of the upper leaf. Flowers 
white or light rose, 1-1J in. diam., cup-shaped. Sepals very 
deciduous. Petals 6, sometimes 4 (Royle), ovate-oblong. Stamens 
usually six. Anther-cells opening by slits. Ovary simple. Stigma 
large, sessile, peltate. Berry 1-12 in., ellipsoid, red, edible. 
Seeds many, obovoid, imbedded in pulp, on a broad ventral 

In the Indian Forester for October 1915, Mr. R. S. Troup, 
I. F S., has contributed a note on the cultivation of Podophyllum 
Emodi. According to him the plant can be cultivated easily 
from seed or from pieces of rhizome, but owing to the very 
slow growth of the rhizomes it is by no means certain to what 

N. 0. BERBERIDE^. 69 

extent the plant can be cultivated j with profit. He has sum= 

marized the following facts from his experiments :— 

(1) that Podophyllum can be grown successfully either from seed or from 
sections of rhizomes of any size down to under £ in. in length, 
though perhaps this length should be taken as a minimum ; 

(21 that in either case transplanting can be carried out without danger, 
though in the case of planting rhizome cuttings it is preferable to 
plant direct in the forest and not to transplant from nursery 
beds ; 

(3) that the development of rhizomes is extremely slow : in the case of 
plants raised from rhizome cuttings it may possibly take at least 
12 years to produce fair sized marketable rhizomes, while in the 
case of seedling plants the period is likely to be longer. 

Mr. Puran Singh, F.C.S., Chemist at the Forest Research 
Institute, Dehra Dun, in a note on the Resin-value of Podophyl- 
lum Emorfi and the best season for collecting it, writes : — 

"The rhizome should apparently be collected in May about the time 
when the plant is in flower and not in the autumn as has been suggested. 

The Comparative Value of the Indian and the American Drugs. 

"It has been admitted that the Indian plant is richer in resin as well as 
in Podophyllotoxin than the American. From the results of the assay of 
American Podophyllum given by Dunstan and Henry it is calculated that the 
percentage of the active principle in the resin of the American plant ranges 
from 1529 to 23*74. According to the analysis of a sample of the American 
drug by Umney, the active principle amounts to 22'9 per cent, of the resin. 
In a sample of the Indian drug examined by him, in 1892, he found 25 per cent., 
while in another sample collected after fruiting in 1910, he found 50*3 per 
cent. The percentage of Podophyllotoxin in the Indian resin varies according 
to the season of collection from 25 to 50 per cent., and it is safe to assert 
that an average quality of the Indian plant will contain as a rule twice as 
much of the active principle as the American." 

Part used : — The root. 

Use : — " Half a grain of the resin, mixed with a little sugar, 
produced unmistakable cathartic effects in the course of a few 
hours. ** * As there is such a great resemblance between the 
Indian and the American species of Podophyllum in their 
botanical and technical characters, and as the former yields 
such a large quantity as 10 to 12 per cent of an active prin- 
ciple, it is desirable that attention be drawn to such a promis- 
ing and useful medicinal agent." (Dymock and Hooper in 
the Ph J. for Jan. 26th, 1889, p. 585.) 



The constituents of P. Emodi are identical with those of P. Peltatum, 
Crystalline podophyilotoxin C 15 H 14 5 2H 2 0, when acted on by aqueous alkalis, 
is converted into the isomeric picropodophyllin. The formula of podophyllic 
acid is C 15 H 16 7 c There is also a yellow coloring matter C l5 H 10 O 7J which is 
identical with the quercetin. 

Podophylio-resin has the formula C 12 H 12 4 . 

Podophyllin is as valuable a purgative as the podophyllin obtained from 
P. peltatim. The action of this resinous mixture is due partly to the 
podophyilotoxin it contains, and partly to the active podophyllo-resin. Owing 
to its intensely irritating action internally, even when given in small doses, 
podophyilotoxin is unsuitable as a medicinal substitute for podophyllin, whilst 
podophyllo-resin would seem to present no therapeutic advantage as compared 
with the podophyllin now employed. Picropodophyllin, picropodophyllic acid, 
and the quercetin are very slightly, if at ail, active as purgatives. Since 
P. Emodi furnishes more podophyllin than P. peltatum, the Indian plant is of 
greater value as the source of this resin.— J. Ch. S. T. 1898, p. 209. 

N. 0. NYMPHjEOE^l. 
53. Nymphcea alba,, Linn, h.f.b.i. i. 114. 

Vern> :— Brimposh, nilofar ; Kamud ; (Kashmir). Pandba- 
ren Kamal (Bombay). 

Habitat:— Kashmir lake, alt. 5,300 ft. Bombay tanks and 
wayside still water-courses. 

An aquatic creeper. Root-stock creeping under water. 
Leaves floating on water-surface, cordate, quite entire, 5-10 in. 
diam., suborbiculate, lobes contiguous. Flowers a foot or 6 in. 
above water, white on a green peduncle, expanding at sunrise 
and closing at sunset. Sepals 4 linear or ovate-oblong ; nerves 
reticulate. Petals 10, outer linear-oblong, equalling the sepals. 
Anthers without appendages. Stigmatic rays about 16, with 
cylindric appendages. Pollen echinate. Seeds minute, numer- 
ous, buried in a mucilaginous pulp, edible. Fruit, a spongy 
berry, opening under water. 

Parts used :—The Root-stock, flowers and fruit. 

Uses: — The mucilaginous and somewhat acrid root and 
stock are administered in some countries for dysentery. Ac- 
cording to O'Shaughnessy it is astringent and slightly nar- 
cotic. Its flowers are reputed to be anti-aphrodisiac. An 
infusion of the flower and fruit is given in diarrhoea and as a 
diaphoretic. (Stewart). 

N. O. NYMPH.ECE^. 71 

54. N. Lotus, Linn. h. f.b.i. i. 114. 
Syn. :— N. rubra, Roxb. N. edulis, DC. 

Habitat : — Common throughout the warmer parts of India, 
abundant in Bombay, Thana district, Ceylon streams, tanks, 
ponds, up to 1,000 ft. 

Sansk. :— Raktotpala fRed lotus), Kokonada (Lotus), Hallaka 
(Red lotus), Raktasandhika (Red joints), Nilotpala (Blue lotus), 
Kunalaya (Lotus), Bhadra (Auspicious^, Indivara (Good lotus). 

Vern :-~Kanval ; Chota Kanval (H.) ; Shaluk ; Saluk ; nal ; 
Koi (parched seeds) ; rakta kamal (red variety ; Chota sundi 
(B.); Dhaala-Lain ; rangkahi (Orissa) ; Kuni ; puni ; lorhi 
(mot); napo (seeds) (Sind) ; Alli-phul (Dec.) ; Kanval ; Kanval ; 
nilophal (Guz.) ; La] a Kamal. Rakta Kamal (Marathi) ; Alli- 
tamarai, Ambal (Tarn.); Alli-tamara; tella-kaluva ; koteka ; 
Erra-kaluva (red var.) ; Kalha-ramu(TeL) ; Nyadale-huvu (Kan.) ; 
Ampala (Malay) ; Otu-Et-Olu (Sinhalese;—. 

Parts used: — The flowers, root and seeds. 

N.B. : — Trimen observes thus : — The colour of the flowers 
varies from pale pink or nearly white to a deep rich rose-colour. 
Their size is also very variable ; but these differences are not 
united with any structural ones of sufficient importance to 
distinguish separate species, 

An aquatic creeping herb. Rootstock short, erect, roundish, 
tuberous. Leaves on very long, erect, cylindrical, submerged 
petioles. Blade horizontal, floating, peltate 6-8 in. diam., sagit- 
tate-rotundate, very obtuse, with a narrow or wide sinus 3 in. 
deep at base, coarsely and sharply sinuate-dentate, smooth above, 
more or less densely and finely velvet-tomentose beneath, 
with veins very prominent. Flowers solitary, very large, 5-7 in. 
diam., on very long, usually pubescent, peduncles* Sepals 
oblong, obtuse, ribbed, glabrous or pilose externally, Petals 
about 12, oblong or oval-oblong, obtuse, spreading. Stamens 
about 40, anthers without cippendages, filaments dilated at base 
Rays of stigma terminating in fleshy, club-shaped, incurved 
appendages. Fruit H in. diam., globular, fleshy, green, 
crowned with erect connivent, stiff, persistent sepals. Cells 


about 15, closely crowded with seeds. Seeds ovoid-globular, 
ribbed with vertical lines of little tubercles, and very minutely 
transversely striate ; aril white, transparent. Seeds edible. 

The flowers are sweet-scented. They sink under* water 
to mature and ripen. 

Uses : — The rootstock of this plant, says my old friend, Pandit 
Jaya Krishna Indraji, at page 16 of his Vanaspati-Varnana 
(Gujrati), is used on fast days by Hindus as a nourishing article 
of food, after boiling and mixing it with milk and sugar. The 
powdered rootstock is also given in dyspepsia, diarrhoea and 
piles. A decoction of flowers is also given in palpitation of 
heart, it is not stated in what quantity or of what strength. 

55. N. stellatta, Willd. h. f. br. l, i. 114. 

Sanskrit : — Nilotpal, Indiwar. 

Vern. : — (Sinhalese) Monch; (Porebunder) Tvamal,Kala Kamal, 
Kumdu ; (Guj.) Nilkamal ; (Mar.) Poyani, Krishna-Kamal. 
(Hindi) Nil-pad ma, Lilophal, Nil-kamal. 

Habitat: — Common throughout the warmer parts of India 
and Ceylon, in shallow streams, tanks and ponds. Open all day, 
says Trimen. But some of the pale blue and drab-coloured 
varieties in Ratnagiri and Thana (Konkan) open at sunset and 
close at sunrise. They are found in tropical and Northern Africa. 
Trimen notes a violet-coloured variety from Ceylon, also 

Rootstock ovoid, short, erect ; leaves on long, rather slender, 
submerged petioles ; blade floating ; about 5-8 in. diam., sagittate- 
rotund, very obtuse, with a usually narrow sinus, 2-3 in. deep 
at base, entire or coarsely sinuate, glabrous on both sides. 
Flowers solitary on long peduncles, 3-6 in. diam., sepals narrowly 
oblong -lanceolate, acute or subacute. Petals linear-lanceolate, 
acute or subobtuse. Stamens 40-50, with a tongue-shaped ap- 
pendage beyond the anthers. Stigmatic rays ' acute, 10-30, 
curved upwards at the ends, without appendages, in short horns. 
Fruit globular. Seeds longitudinally striate. Flowers through- 
out the year. 

Uses :— Its uses are those of N. Lotus. Roots and seeds 
edible, especially in famines. 

N. 0. NYMPH^CE^J. 73 

56. Euryale ferox, Salisb. h.f.b.l, i. 115. 

Habitat : — Sweet water lakes and ponds of East Bengal, 
Assam, Manipur, Oudli and Kashmir. 

Sansk. Mukhauna ; padma. 

Vern. : — Makhana (H & B) ; Kunta padma vUriya) ; Jewar 
(Pb.) ; Melluni pacinian (Tel). 

A densely prickly aquatic. Rootstock short. Leaves peltate, 
corrugate, 1-4 ft. diam., elliptic or orbicular, green above, downy, 
deep bluish-purple beneath (Curtis PI. 1447), with strong 
spiny ribs. Spines sharp-curved on the under and upper 
surfaces. Ribs dichotomously branched over the whole leaf. 
The leaf, while in bud, is curiously folded up and enclosed in an 
involucre, which bursts as the leaf expands. Petiole long, wavy, 
spiny. Flowers 1-2 in. long, bright-red inside, green and 
shining outside. Sepals 4, erect, inserted on the edge of the 
torus above the carpels. Petals numerous, violet, 3-5 seriate, 
shorter than the sepals Stamens many, many-seriate, fas- 
cicled in eights ; filaments linear, pollen spherical, 3-nncleate. 
Ovary 8-celled, sunk in the dilated top of the torus. Stigma 
sessile; discoid, concave. Berry spongy, 2-4 in. diam., crowned 
with persistent sepals. Seeds 8-20, from a pea to a cherry in 
size, much eaten roasted. Aril pulpy. Testa thick, black. 
Albumen mealy ; embryo small. 

Use : — The seed is considered as possessed of powerful medi- 
cinal virtues, such as restraining seminal gleet, invigorating 
the system, &c. (Roxburgh). 

A light and invigorating food, suited for the sick (U. C, 

57. Nelumbium speeiosum, Willd. H. F. B. I., 
i. 116. Roxb. 450. 

Sansk. : — Kamala (A lotus), sweta (white), Ambhoja (born 
from water), saraja (born from a lake), sarsiruha (growing in 
a lake), sahasrapatra (Thousand-leaved), srigeha ( Abode of 
beauty), satapatra (Hundred-leaved), Pankeruha (growing 
in mud), Tamarasai (copper colour), Rajina (Lotus), Push- 


karavah (Pushkara-named), Abja (born from water), Ambhoruha 
(born from water), Padma (A lotus), Pundarika (A lotus), 
Pankaja (born from mud), Nala (Lotus), Nalina (Lotus), Arvinda 
(Lotus), Mahotpala (great lotus\ 

Verii.: — Kanwal (H.) (Kumaon), Padma (B.) ; Padam 
(Uriya) ; Besenda, Pabbin (N.-W. P.) ; Pamposh ; Kanwal Kakri 
and bhe or phe (root), gatte (Seed) (Pb.) ; Pabban (plant), bhe 
root, Paduro (Seeds), Nilofar (drug) (Sind) ; Kungwelka-gudda 
(Dec.); Kamala-Kankadi (Bomb.); Tavarigadde ; tavaribija 
(Kan.) ; Paud-Kanda (Poona) ; Shivapdutamara-ver, ambal 
(Tarn.); Erra-tamara veru (Tel.); Tamara (Malay.;. Tamarai 
(Tarn.) Ceylon ; Nelun (Sinhalese). 

Habitat: — Throughout India, extending as far to the N. W.P. 
as Cashmir. Abundant in Bombay, Thana district, Ceylon, 
Persia, China, Japan, Malay Islands, Tropical Australia. 

An erect, large herb of still waters, extensively creeping. Root- 
stock stout, creeping. Leaves raised several feet high above 
water ; peltate, 2-3 ft. diam., membranous glaucous, cupped. 
Flowers magnificent, rose-red or white, sweet-scented, 4-10 
in. diam. Peduncles and petioles 3-6 ft. high, full of spiral 
vessels, with stumpy, scattered prickles. Sepals 4-5, inserted 
on the top of the scape, caducous. Petals and stamens 
many, hypogynous, many-seriate, caducous, elliptic, con- 
cave, veined. Anthers adnate, w T ith a clubbed appendage, 
produced beyond the anther-cells. Ovaries many, 1 -celled, 
loose, sunk in a flat top of an obconic, spongy torus (not 
fleshy torus). The torus or receptacle 3-4 in. high, flat 
at top, 2-4 in. wide. Style short, exserted ; stigma capi- 
tate. Ripe carpel, seed-like, \ in. long, ovoid, glabrous. This 
is fruit and seed at one and the same time ; edible. Pericarp 
black, bony, smooth. Albumen absent, cotyledons fleshy, thick, 
enclosing the large green folded plumule. Testa spongy 

Hermann gives Nelumbo as the Singhalese name (Trimen). 

In Sanskrit, the white variety is called Pundarik ; the pink is 
called Kokonad, and the blue variety is called Indivara. 1 have 
never come across this third blue variety in the Konkan or the 

N. 0. NYMPHiECE^, 75 

Dekkan, but it has been mentioned by Pandit Jaya Krishna 
Indraji and Dr. Tribhuvandas M. Shah, in their respective works. 
The flowers of Nelumbium speciosum open at sunrise and 
close at sunset. Hence, they are called Surya-vikashi or 
Surya-Kamal ; whereas Nymphcea stellata opens at sunset 
and closes at sunrise, and is hence called Ohandra-vikashi 
(K. R. K.) 

N.B.— It is the i Lotus ' of the Europeans in the East ; the Cyainus or 
i Sacred Bean ' of ancient Egypt, where it does not grow now (Triinen). 

Farts used :— The filaments, seeds, leaves, and root. 

Uses: — By Sanskrit authors, the filaments are considered 
astringent and cooling, useful in burning sensation of the body, 
bleeding piles and monorrhagia. In bleeding piles, the fila- 
ments of the lotus are given, with honey and fresh butter, or 
with sugar. 

The large leaves are used as cool bedsheets, in high fever, 
with much heat and burning of the skin (Dutt's Materia 
Medica of the Hindus). The seeds are used to check vomiting, 
and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. The milky 
viscid juice of the leaf and flower stalks is used in diarrhoea. 
The petals are said to be slightly astringent. 

The large root stalks are cut into 1 foot pieces, and sold under 
the name of Bliishi ; they afford a cooling, refreshing dish, when 
cooked in milk or cocoanut juice, with salt or sugar. 

A sherbet of this plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox, 
and is" said to stop eruption ; used also in all eruptive fevers, 
The root is used as a paste in ringworm and other cutaneous 
affections. (Dr. Emerson.) 

The flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhoea, also 
cholera, in fever and diseases of the liver ; and are also recom- 
mended as a cardiac tonic. 

The powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent ; 
also for dysentery and dyspepsia. 

The seeds form a cooling medicine for cutaneous diseases 
and leprosy, and are considered an antidote for poisons. 



58. Palaver Rhoeas, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 117/ 

Vem< : — Lala, lal-posta (H.) ; Lai poshta, Lal-poshter- 
gachh (B.) ; jungli-Mudrika (Bomb.) ; Tambadya-Khasa-Khesa- 
cbe jhada (M.) ; Lala ; lal-khas-khas-nu-jhada (Guz.) ; Lai Khas- 
Khas-ka-jhar (Dec); Shivappu-gasha-gasha-ehedi ; Shigappu- 
postaka-chedi (Tain.); Erra-gassa-gasala cbetbe; Erra posta- 
Kaya cbetbe (TelJ ; Kempu-Khasa Kbasa Gida (Kan J ; 
Cbovanna Kasha-Kashach-cheti (Malay.). 

Habitat : — Kashmir. 

An annual herb, with a milky juice ; branched, hispid, 1-2 ft. 
high. Leaves 1-2-pinatifid ; leaf-lobes more or less cut, 
ascending, awned. Scapes with spreading and adpressed hairs. 
Flowers scarlet, 3-4 in. diam. Sepals hairly above. Pairs of 
petal unequal ; filaments filiform. Stigmatic rays overlapping, 
i. e , reaching or exceeding the edge of the disk. Capsule stalked, 
subglobose glabrous. 

Parts as"d : — The capsules. 

Use : —The milk from the capsules is narcotic and lias slight- 
ly sedative properties. (Watt). 

59. P. dubium Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 117. 

Habitat : — Western Himalaya, from Garhwal to Hazara, in 
cornfields. Simla 4,000-7,000 ft., W. Asia, Europe. 

It resembles P. rhceas, but often glabrous, and leaf segments 
usually narrower ; hairs of scape appressed. Petals scarlet, in 
unequal pairs. Capsule sessile. 

An alkaloid has been extracted from it. 

By extraction of the seed capsules of Papaver dubium with light petro- 
leum, a previously unknown alkaloid, aporeine, is obtained. The thick, 
yellow, amorphous extractive product amounting to 0'0L5 p. c„ yields with 
10 p. c. hydrochloric acid, the hydrochloride, which forms glistening scales, 
melting at about 230°, and gives precipitates with silver nitrate and 
phosphomolybdic acid. The base forms microscopic leaflets after crystallisation 
from ether, light petroleum, or chloroform. When a solution of the trace 
of the alkaloid or its hydrochloride in a drop of nitric acid of 1*3 is 
dropped into concentrated sulphuric acid, a violet, brown, and finally yellow 


coloration is produced, a similar result being given by the base with strong 
sulphuric acid in which a crystal of potassium chlorate has been dissolved. 
The hydrochloride gives a greyish-blue, green, brown, and finally black 
coloration, with a solution of 2 or 3 drops of 40 per cent, formalin in 3 C C. of 
concentrated sulphuric acid ; with strong sulphuric acid, especially in the 
presence of potassium nitrate, or with fuming nitric and sulphuric acids in the 
presence of potassium dichromate, a brown coloration. 

The hydrochloride produces on the tongue at first a burning and then a 
numbing sensation. The alkaloid is a tetanus poison, similar to thebaine— 
(J. Ch. S. LXXXVIII, part I., p. 368). 

60. P. somniferum, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 117. Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. II. 571. 

Sans. : — Apoka (Apiura), Ahiphena (foam of a serpent) ; 
Saphenaka (foamy). 

Vern. : — Nabatul-khash-khash (Arab) ; Koknar (Pers.); Post, 
khaskbas-ka per (Hind.); Khash-kbash-ka-jhar (Dec.); Gash a 
gasha-chedi, postaka chedi (Tam.) ; Gasagasala-chettu, posta- 
kaya-chettu (Teh); Kasha-kashach-cheti (Mai.) ; Khasa-khasi- 
gida (Kan); Poshta, poshtar-gochh, afima (Beng.) ; Khasa- 
khasa-chen jhada (Mar/, ; Khas kbasnu-jhada (Guz.) ; Bhin- 
bin, bh-airi-bin (Barm) : Khasakhasi-chenjhada (Bom.). 

An annual herb, with a milky juice ; rarely branched, 2-4 ft., 
glaucous, simple, usually quite glabrous. Leaves oblong, 
amplexicaul, lobed, toothed and serrate, sometimes ovate-oblong 
or linear-oblong Flowers large white, on long peduncles, 
purple or scarlet. Sepals glabrous. Filaments slightly dilated. 
Ovary one-celled. Stigma discoid, with radiating lobes opposite 
the placentas which project into the cell Capsule 1 in. diam., 
stalked, globose, glabrous, stigmatic rays 5-12, persistent, 
have each a small valve under the lobes, through which the 
innumerable, fine, white, delicious, oily seeds escape. There are 
black seeds also, say Hooker f. and Thorn., but I have never seen 
them on this side of India. 

Cultivated throughout India. The largest quantity comes to 
Bombay from Malwa. 

Use : — The medicinal properties and therapeutic uses of 
opium and its preparations are too well-known to be described 


Chemistry. — 

i. The seeds are alkaloid-free. 

2. The alkaloids may be detected in minute quantity in seedlings, after 
about 14 days' growth. 

3. From this point until tlie seeds begin to store albumin, an increase in 
alkaloidal content takes places. 

4. This increase is not constant, bat varies with the intensity of illumina- 
tion, under which the plant develops, long periods of overcast sky sufficing to 
reduce the alkaloid content to a minimum. 

5. As the seeds ripen, the alkaloid content decreases. 

6. Daring the ripening of the seeds, the alkaloids are gradually consumed 
by the plant in effecting albumin synthesis and cannot, therefore, be regarded 
as products of excretion. 

7. It is probable that the decrease in alkaloid content, during cloudy 
weather noted under (4), is due to similar causes, namely, alkaloid consumption 
by the plant for albumin synthesis during failing light. 

(Chemical Abstracts, Jan. 10, 1915, p. 94.) 

Formation and distribution of certain alkaloids in it. 

The alkaloids appear in the following order, narcotine, codeine, morphine, 
papaverine, thebaine, the first four being found when the plant is only 5-7 
cm. high. The flowering plant, up till the time of ripening, contains narco= 
tine, papaverine, codeine, and morphine in all its organs, with the exception 
of the hairs. The latex varies in composition in different parts of the plant. 
Narcotine, codeine and morphine are found in all the organs of the ripe plant. 
Narcotine is produced— from the albumin of the seeds, and is found in seeds 
which have germinated in nitrogen-free soil. This alkaloid is present in 
moderate amount in very young plants ; the quantity is much greater in the 
flower-heads than in the unripe seed-capsules. J. Oh. I. 31. 12, 1910, p. 147 1. 

It is known that opium is more active therapeutically than 
its morphine content would indicate- Experiments are now 
described, indicating that this is due to the narcotine contained 
in the opium. The effect is not of an additive character, but 
apparently the narcotine strengthens the narcotic and tonic 
action of the morphine and lessens the injurious action of the 
latter on the respiratory centre. The most effective mixture 
appears to be one of equimolecular quantities of the two alka- 
loids. J. Ch. I. 31. 7. 1912, p. 700. 

61. P. Orientale, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 117, 
Cultivated in Gardens. 

Two alkaloids, thebaine and isothebaine, have been isolated. During 
May and June, the period of most rapid growth, thebaine is largely produced, 
while isothebaine is found mainly in the root during late fall, and after ripen- 
ing and drying of the aerial plant. 


The Secondary Alkaloids. 

The amorphous basic mixture, obtained after the separation of thebaine and 
isothebaine, contains 2 alkaloids without, and at least 3 with phenolic 

(Chemical Abstracts for February 10, 1915, pp. 298-300.) 

The non-phenolic alkaloids consist of protopine, m. pt. 204°-205°C. and 
an amorphous alkaloid very soluble in organic solvents, whilst the phenolic 
alkaloids consist of a new alkaloid, glucidine, m. pt. about 238°-239°C., (a) D 
about -f 47 to -f- 54°, giving color reactions similar to, and apparently closely 
related to, glaucine, and a mixture of amorphous alkaloids too small in amount 
to separate and characterise— J. Ch. I. for October 31, 1914, p. 1026. 

62. Argemone mexicana, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 117. 
Roxb. 426. 

Engl : — The Mexican or Prickly Poppy. 

Sanskrit : — Srigala-Kanta ; brahmadandi. 

Vern.: — Bharbhand, piladhutura, farangi-dhutura, ujar-Kanta 
Shial-kantn, sial-kanta (H.) ; Baro-Sliial kanta (B.); Gokuhla 
janum (Santal) ; Bharbhurwa, ETarwah kantela (N.-W. P.) ; 
Kandiari, Snlkanta bhatmil, Satyanasa, bherband, Katci, bhat- 
kateya (Pb.) ; Farangi dhatura, bharamdandi, daruri, pila- 
dhatura (Dack.') ; Darudi (Guj.); Firangidhotra, daruri, pinvala- 
dhotra, kante-dhotra (Mar.) ; Biratna-dandu, Kurukkum-Chedi, 
(Tarn.) ; Brahma daudi-chettu (Tel.) ; Datturi, datturi-gidda 
(Kan.) ; Brahma-danti (Mai J ; Kanta-kusham (Uriya). 

Habitat : — By roadside and Simla 5,000 ft., in fields through- 
out India. 

An erect, prickly, robust annual herb, with copious yellow 
juice and rigid prickles, growing wild in rich roadside places 
and rice-fields, after the crops of rice-plants are cut down ; stem 
sometimes half-woody below, 2-4 ft., with spreading branches. 
Leaves 3-7 in., amplexicaul, glaucous-green, blotched with white, 
deeply repand, sinuate, pinnatifid, with thorny teeth. Peduncles 
erect, both before and after flowering. Flowers yellow, scentless 
1-3 in. diam. Calyx glabrous and prickly ; sepals horned at the 
top. Petals 4-6; stamens numerous. Stigmas 4-5, radiating 
free, red. Capsules f-lj in. long, terete, prickly, 4-5-valved ; 
obovate, or elliptic-oblong, 1-celled ; opening by valves at the 
apex. Seeds spherical, shining, black, pitted. 


Parts used : — The seeds, and roots. 

Uses : — The yellow juice of this plant is used as a medicine 
for dropsy, jaundice, and cutaneous affections. It is also 
diuretic, relieves blisters, and heals excoriations and indolent 
ulcers. (Watt). The seeds yield on expression a fixed oil, 
which has long been in use amongst West India practitioners 
as an aperient. The unfavorable report of Sir W. O'Shaugh- 
nessy [Bengal Oisp., p. 183; led to its being neglected ; but 
more recent trials of its properties by several medical officers 
in Bengal serve to prove that in half drachm doses it acts as a 
gentle aperient, and at the same time allays, apparently by a 
sedative action, the pain in colic. The smallness of the doses, 
and the mildness of its operation are recommendations to its 
employment. Age apparently affects its activity, the freshly 
prepared oil proving more energetic and uniform in operation 
than that which has been long on hand. Applied to herpetic 
and other forms of skin disease, it is reported to exercise a well- 
marked soothing influence, according to Dr. Bonavia and 
others {Indian Med. Gaz. 18C6, vol. i., p. 206). As a local 
application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers, the expressed 
yellow glutinous juice of the plant is held in much esteem by 
the natives. Dr. W. Dymock, of Bombay reports having used 
it thus with good effect. The native practice of applying this 
juice to the eye in ophthalmia is dangerous. Both in a chemical 
and therapeutical point of view, this plant appears worthy of 
investigation. (Ph. Ind.). 

" The seeds are laxative, emetic, nauseant, expectorant and 
demulcent ; the oil, a drastic purgative, nauseant and expecto- 
ant ; and the root, an alterative tonic. The seeds and oil have 
also a beneficial effect over asthma. 

" The seeds are useful in cough and catarrhal affections of 
the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane, and in pertussis 
and asthma. Though they do not appear to possess any anti- 
spasmodic property, they have a distinct control over asthma, 
apparently, from their combined actions of nauseant, emetic, 
expectorant and demulcent. As their use is often accompanied 
by more or less vomiting and nausea, they are more suited 


as a laxative medicine to some pulmonary affections than other 
diseases. The oil is serviceable in some cases in which jalap, 
rhubarb and castor-oil are indicated, and also in some bronchial 
and catarrhal affections. The use of the root is attended with 
benefit in some chronic cases of skin diseases. 

"There is a great difference in opinion as to the action 
and dose of the oil of Argemone Mexieana. Some say that 
thirty minims of it act as an efficient cathartic, while others 
consider it to be quite inert and incapable of producing any- 
purgative effect in " ounce doses." I have got this oil prepared 
three or four times in my own presence, and tried it in many 
cases. The former opinion is quite correct, and with regard to 
the latter, it is necessary to say that the oil, so far from being 
inert in " ounce doses," is unsafe in more than forty minim 
doses, and produces a dangerous hypercatharsis when the dose 
is increased to one drachm. If the oil is fresh, its average dose 
is twenty-five minims ; and, if old, thirty-five. It is a good 
drastic or hydragogue cathartic in such doses, and generally 
produces from 5 to 12 motions. Ics advantage over jalap, 
rhubarb, castor-oil, &c, is the smallness of its doses ; and over 
the croton oil, its freeness from unpleasant, nauseous and acrid 
taste. Its disadvantages as a purgative are, firstly, that its 
action is not uniform even in its average dose which produces 
more than fifteen or sixteen motions at one time, and only 
three or four at another ; and, secondly, that it is generally 
accompanied by vomiting at tlie commencement of its operation. 
Though the latter is not severe, yet it has a very unpleasant 
effect in a purgative medicine. Hypercatharsis from the use 
of this oil is not generally attended with great debility and 
other dangerous symptoms, frequently observed under a similar 
condition from croton oil and some other purgatives." (Moodeen 
Sheriff's Materia Medica of Madras). 

In the Concan, the juice with milk is given in leprosy. * * ® 
An extract made from the whole plant has been found to have 
an aperient action, and the milky juice to promote the healing 
of indolent ulcers. I have not noticed any bad effects from 
its application to the eyes. Its use as an external application 
to the eyelids in conjunctivitis was probably introduced into 


this country by the Portugese, who appear to have adopted it in 
Brazil as a substitute for the Argemone of the Greeks and 
Romans which was used for a similar purpose (Dymock). 

" The yellow juice mixed with Ghi is given internally in 
gonorrhoea (D. R. Thompson, M.D., CLE.)" 

"I found the juice very useful in scabies. Asst.-Surgeon 
Qowry Coomar Mukerji found the powdered root in drachm 
doses useful in tapeworm (R. L. Dutt, M.D.)" — Watt's Dictionary. 

The smoke of the seeds is used in Delhi to relieve tooth-ache. 
It is also said to be useful in caries of the teeth. 

The seeds are used as a purgative in syphilis. 

In leprosy it is used as follows : — 

One tola of the juice, early in the morning, taken on empty 

It is said to cure leprosy in 40 days. 

" The juice is useful in malarious fevers of a low chronic 
type. How it acts I am not sure, bat I believe it has some specific 
effect (germicidal) on the malarial parasites and, secondly, it acts 
probably as a purgative. 

"I have only tried this juice in a few cases— about six or seven 
cases — and it only acted well in one or two cases ; so I cannot 
speak with confidence. 

cc I believe the oil is abetter preparation than the juice, which 
is an unstable compound. 

"lam certain also the oil is a powerful alterative in syphilis 
and leprosy, the same as Neem oil, but I have not used it yet 
for this purpose. 

" This drug has only lately come to my notice, and I believe 
there is a great future before it (Major D. B. Spencer, I. M. S.) 

Chemistry. — 

Charbonnier claimed to have isolated morphine, and his statement was 
confirmed by Ortega. Peckolt, however, concluded that the plant contained 
a new alkaloid, argemonine, and not morphine. 

To determine this question, Mr. J. O. Schlotterbeck exhausted a large 
quantity of the dried plant, with chloroform, and obtained a large yield of 
berberine, whilst a second alkaloid, identified as protopine, was extracted 
with ether from the filtrate. 

In Schlotterbeck's opinion, protopine was the substance regarded as 
morphine by Charbonnier. and as a new alkaloid by Peckolt. 


Potassium nitrate was identified among the salts naturally existing in 
the plant. J. S. Ch. I. April 31, 1902, p. 560. 

Some crushed seeds were steam-distilled by K. Bhaduri of Calcutta. The 
distillate had a slight opalescence and a very pungent odour, but no oil came 
over. Extraction of the crushed seeds with petroleum-ether gave 22*3% 
of a pale greenish yellow oil with a green fluorescence. The oil obtained by 
pressing the crushed seeds was deep brown, mild odour, tasteless, d 2S 0*9117, 


d 100 0-9007, n D . 43°34, sapon. no. 185*5, acetyl no. t 27'9, acid no. 146, 
I. no. 1067, R.-M. no. 0*61, Hehner no. 91*02, glycerol 15*48%, Maumene test 65°. 
The oil, very thin at first, gradually thickens on keeping. AcOH and valeric 
acid are present. The mixed fatty acids, pale in color and thin, showed : 
d 23 09065, d 100 0*8889, sapone. no. 194, 1 no. 147*4 ; temp, of turbidity 22° ; con- 
tains 8* 14% of lauric acid. No stearic acid is present.— Chemical Abstracts 
for March 20, 1914, pp. 1186-7. 

63. Meconopsis aculeata, Royle. h.f.b.l, i. 118. 

Vevn. : — Guddi kum (Jhelum) ; Gudi (Ravi) ; Kanada (Sutlej) 
Kanta (Simla) ; (Pbj ; Kaoda (Kumaon). 

Habitat :— Western. Himalaya, from Kashmir to Kumaori. 
11-1,5000 ft. 

A prickly herb, stem leafy, 1-2 ft., smooth, except the short 
scattered prickles, leaves irregularly pinnatifid, 4-8 in. oblong or 
lanceolate, long petioled, cauline, sessile. Flowers blue-purple, 
2-3 in. diam. Pedicels slender, prickly in fruit. Capsules short 
and densely bristly and prickly, J-f in., obconic-obovate or oblong, 
style half as long. 

Part used : — The root. 

Use : — In Kashmir, the root is considered as a narcotic, and 
in Chumba regarded as poisonous. (Stewart). 

64. M. Nipalensis, D.C. h.f.b.l, i. 118. 

Habitat : — Temperate Himalaya, Nepal, and Sikkim. 

A perennial herb, with yellow juice, stellately pubescent and 
laxly hairy, stem 3-5 ft , stout, erect, nearly simple ; young- 
parts clothed with soft gold villous hairs. Leaves sinuate-lobed 
or pinnatifid. Flowers golden yellow, 2-3y in. diam., in 
elongated, nearly simple, racemes. Sepals densely tomentose 
and bristly. Petals 4. Ovary 1-celled, style J in., persistent. 
Stigmatic lobes, radiating on its clubbed extremity. Capsule 
ovate-oblong, 8-10-valved ; clothed with ad pressed hairs and 
stellate down. Seeds small, many, rugose. 


According to Hooker, " a more stately and beautiful plant 
can hardly be imagined, except the Hollyhock, which it some- 
what resembles in miniature." 

Part used : — The root. 

Use : — The root is regarded as a narcotic in Kashmir. 

65. M. Wallichii, Hook.; h.f.b.l, i. 119. 

Habitat : — Temperate Himalaya, Nepal and Sikkim. 
Welsh Poppy. 

A prickly perennial herb ; slender, stellately pubescent and 
softly hairy in tender parts. Stem 4-6 ft., leafy, branched. 
Leaves 8-12 in., pinnatifid, oblong or obovate. Lanceolate, 
glaucous beneath, long-petioled. Flowers much panicled, purple 
1-1 J in. diam., many, pedicels short. Sepals densely pubescent, 
not setose. Petals 4. Stamens numerous ; filaments slender ; 
anthers erect. Style distinct, persistent, stigmatic lobes clubbed. 
Capsule 1 in., elliptic-oblong, 5-valved, densely bristly, seeds 
many, small, rugose. 

Part used : — The root. 

Use : — The root is used as a narcotic in Kashmir. 


66. Hypecoum procambens, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 120. 

Habitat: — Drier parts of the Punjab, Peshawar, Multan and 
the Salt Range. 

A low, annual glaucous herb. Stems procumbent, many, 
3-12 in., slender. Leaves 2-3-pinnatisect, 2-4 in.. Segments 
linear or oblong, upper sessile, whorled. Flowers few, 1 in. 
diam., yellow, pedicelled. Outer petals 3-lobed. Inner petals 
with the lateral segments iinear-oblong, obtuse, midlobe entire, 
retuse or 2-fid, toothed or fimbriate (H. /. and Th. . Fruit 
1-2-2 J in., i in. broad, curved, sub-compressed, at length break- 
ing up into 1-seeded joints. 

Parts used : — The leaves, 

Uses ; — The juice has the same effect as opium. The leaves 
act as diaphoretic (Murray). 


67. Corydalis Govaniana, Weill. h.f,b.i,, i. 124. 

Sans. ' — Bhutakesi. 

Vern. : — Bhutkis, bhutkesi (H. and B. I 

Hahitat : — Western Himalayas, 8-120,00 feet, from Kinnaon 
to Kashmir. 

Herbs witli a presistent woody rootstock. which latter is often 
branched, crowded with red leaf-sheaths. Stem stont, 1-2 ft., as 
thick as the thumb, almost naked, or with 1-2 leaves near the 
top. Radical leaves nearly equalling the stem, many oblong, 
2-pinnatisect, long-petioled, cuneate, lanceolate, cut into linear 
segments, 2 near the base. Cauline leaves 1-2 or 0. Racemes 2-4 
in.long, terminal, dense, many-flowered. Bracts broadly 
cuneate, exceeding the pedicels cut about the middle. Flowers 
1 in. long, bright yellow, posticous petal convex, back wing very 
broad, limb shorter than the curved slender spur. Capsule J-f 
in. Style persistent, half its length. 

Part used : — The root. 

Uses : — The root is supposed to be tonic, diuretic and altera- 
tive, and is prescribed in syphilitic, scrofulous and cutaneous 
affections, in the dose of from 10 to 30 grains. The drug is 
also often used in the form of a decoction or tincture. (Watt). 

68. C. ramosa, Wall, h.f.b.i., i. 125. 

Habitat: — Alpine Himalaya, from Sikkim to Kashmir. 

A glaucous herb. Stem procumbent, weak-branched, 1-2 
ft. ^clwarf at high elevations), often leafy, flexuous. Radical 
leaves few or many, long-petioled, 2-3-times divided ; alternate 
segments small, narrow-oblong or linear. Leaves finally decom- 
pound. Racemes terminal, many, lax, many-flowered. Bracts 
cut into linear lobes, 1-5 in., flowers \ in. long, yellow ; posticous 
petal dorsal ly winged, hooded or shorter than the obtuse spur. 
Style persistent, pedicels deflexed. Capsules ovate-oblong, 
obtuse. Seeds shining, numerous. 

Hooker mentions 3 varieties. 

Use : — Dr. Aitchison, in his Flora of the Kurram Volley, 
says that in Kurram this is employed b\^ the natives in the 
treatment of eye diseases, like all other plants, with yellow sap. 
It is there called Mamiran. 


69. Fumaria parviflora, Lamk. h.f.b.i., i. 128. 

Syn. : — F. officinalis, Bedd. 

'Sanskrit) Parpat. 

Vern. : — Pitpapada, (Hind. Dec.) ; Ban-sulpha (Beng.) ; 
Pittapapado (Guj.); Khasudlio (Dr. Shah); Kshetra Parputi 
(Hindi); Shahatara, Shatra (Pers., Sind.) ; Tura (Tarn.); Cha- 
tarashi (Tel.) Khairuwa (Kumaon.) 

Habitat : — Tndo-Gangetic plain, lower Himalaya and Nilghiri 
Mts. : a weed of cultivation. Guj rat and the Konkan. 

An annual glabrous herb, pale green, much-branched. 
Stem diffuse, 4-24 in. Root-stock usually perennial. Leaves 
pinnately divided ; leaflets deeply-lobed ; segments very narrow, 
flat, lobed or entire. Flower pale pink or white, tips purple, J-§- 
in. long, in numerous, short racemes, 1-2 in.; bracts lanceolate, 
outer petals dissimilar, upper one broad, concave, produced at the 
base, in a short rounded spur, less than |- the length of the petal ; 
lower one flat, narrow. Inner petals narrow, clawed, keeled 
(Collett). Sepals lanceolate, much smaller than the coronal-tube. 
Pedicels exceeding the bracts. Lower set of stamens spurred at 
the base, the spur projecting inside the petal-spur. Fruit, a very 
small globose, 1-seeded nutlet, rugose, when dry, rounded at the 
top, with two pits. 

Pittapapada is found as a weed, usually cultivated in fields 
in the Dekkan, the Konkan and Sindh. Described by Dalzell 
and by Woodrow. It has been found by Jay a Krishna Indraji 
at Porebunder. 

Part used : — The entire plant, except the root. 

Uses: — The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low 
fever, and is also used as an anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic 
and aperient, and to purify the blood in skin diseases. (Baden- 

Along with black pepper, it is used in the treatment of ague. 
(Hoyle). Mahomedan writers describe the plant, as diuretic and 
alterative, aperient and expectorant. (Dymock.) 

It has been prescribed by Dr. T. M. Shah of Jnnagadh 
usefully as a tonic in Dyspepsia and in mild fever. 

N. o. ckucifer^:. 87 

Dr. Thornton is of opinion that the drug is useful in leprous 

The authors of the Pharmaeographia Indiea describe the 
drug as beneficial in dyspepsia due to torpidity of the intestines 
and as a valuable remedy in scrofulous skin diseases, 


70. " Matthiola incana R. Br. h.f.b.l, i. 131. 

Habitat : — Cultivated in the gardens of N. India. 

Vern. :~Todri safed (Pb. Sind). 

A shrubby, erect, hoary herb. Stem 1-2 ft. ; branched. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire ; rarely obscurely toothed 
Raceme 1-2 in. Flowers in May- June. 1-2 in. diam., purple 
to violet. Siliqua glandular, 2-4 in., \ in. broad. Seed orbicular, 

Hooker says that it is the " Queen-Stock " of English 
gardens where it is treated as an annual or biennial. 
Parts used : — The seeds. 

Uses : — The seeds are said to be aphrodisiac (Stewart). 
The seeds are of three kinds, yellow, red and white ; used in 
infusion in cancer, are expectorant, mixed with wine given 
as an antidote to poisonous bites (Dr. Emerson \ 

71. Cheiranthus Ghieri, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 132. 

The English wild " Wall-flower ". 

Habitat: — Not indigenous, but cultivated in gardens 
in North India. 

Vern. : — Todri Surkh, Lahoori shuboo (H) ; Khueri IB). 

Stem shrubby, erect, bushy, branched in a determinate 
manner ; branches angular, leafy, hoary, with close bristly 
silvery hairs, chiefly directed downwards, like those on both 
sides of the leaves ; though some point the contrary way, on 
the leaves as well as the siliqua, being perfectly distinct from 
others. Leaves crowded, stalked, lanceolate, acute, almost 


invariably entire ; the lower-most, if any, more or less of a minute 
silvery lioariness especially at the back. Flowers corymbose, 
sweet-scented. Petals always of a uniform bright golden 
yellow, not stained with brown or blood-red as in the Garden 
Ch. Oheiri of England, though the calyx is purplish. Siliqua 
racemose, erect l|-2 in. long, covered with close hairs chiefly, 
if not altogether, pointing upwards. Style prominent, crowned 
with a cloven stigma. Seeds flat, with a narrow membranous, 
deciduous border at one side as well as the summit of each. 

Parts used :.— The flowers and seeds. 

Uses:— The flowers, said to be cardiac and emmenago- 
gue, are used in paralysis and impotence. The seed is also 
used as an aphrodisiac (TrvineK 

The dried petals are much used in Upper India as an 
aromatic stimulant (O'Shaughnessy). 

The flowers are employed to make a medicated oil ; for 

this purpose they are boiled in olive oil ; this prepared oil 

is much used for enemata (Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1874, p, 


By extracting the flowers with low-boiling solvents, a dark-coloured 
pasty extract is obtained which (after evaporation of the solvent and separa- 
tion from fatty and waxy matters by strong alcohol) yields, on distillation 
with steam, a yellowish oil of unpleasant odour having a specific gravity 
of l'OOl, and distilling under 3 mm. pressure between 40° and 150°C. the 
yield is about 0*06 per cent- The alcoholic solution shows a feeble bluish 
fluorescence. A highly diluted alcoholic solution possesses the characteristic 
odour of the flowers. The oil is found to contain : — Compounds resembling 
mustard oil, ketones and aldehydes (having the odors of Violets and Haw- 
thorn), nerol, geraniol, benzyl, linalool, indole, methyl antheranilate, acetic 
acid (probably in combination with benzyl alcohol and linalool), salicylic acid 
(probably as methyl salicylate) and traces of phenols and lactones. (J. Ch. I. 
July 15,1911, p. 829). 

Cheiranthin is obtained by evaporating the alcoholic or aqueous ex- 
tract of the leaves or seeds of the wall-flower, removing the inactive oils by 
light petroleum, treating with lead acetate, and finally salting out the gluco- 
side with magnesium, Sodium or ammonium sulphate, when it separates in 
small yellow flakes, from which the salts may be removed by means of alcohol 
and ether. It may also be precipitated by tannin, and in either case still 
contains an active alkaloid which may be removed by shaking with ether or 
ethylic acetate. Cheiranthin brings about the characteristic rest is frogs. 
J. Ch. S. LXXVL, pt. I (1899), p. 378. 

N. 0. CRUCIFERiE. 89 

The physiological action of Cbeiranthin resembles that 

of the digitalis compounds, 

Cheirinine, C l3 H 35 17 N 3 , obtained from the alcoholic extract of the 
seeds of the wall-flower, crystallises in small, colourless needles, melts 
at 73—74°, and is soluble in warm water, alcohol, ether, chloroform, or ethy- 
lacetate. The aqueous solution is neutral and gives precipitates with 
the ordinary alkaloidal reagents. The physiological action of cheirinine 
resembles that of quinine. 

The seeds also contain choline. J. Ch. S. LXXVIII. pt. I. (1900) p. 186, 

72. Nasturtium officinale, R, Br, h.f.b.i., 
i. 133. 

Eng. : — The Water-cress, 

Ver. : — Piriya halim (Kumaon). 

Habitat : — Rohilkhand, Punjab (N. India). Found near all 
hill-stations, but probably introduced. Simla in ditches, Ceylon, 
found naturalized at Kandy (Trimen). 

An aquatic. Stem creeping and floating, much branched. 
Leaves pinnate, the upper with 3-7 pinules and a terminal one, 
the lower cut into. 3 repand segments. Flowers white, in short 
racemes. Petals longer than the sepals. Pods } — 1 in., stalked, - 
spreading or bent upward ; seeds small, 2-seriate. 

Use: — Used as a salad, on account of its appetizing and 

anti-scorbutic properties. 

The essential oil consists chiefly of phenylethylenethiocarbimide, C 6 H Se 
CH 2 .CH 2 .N: CS, which was identified by converting it into the thiocarbamide. 
The glucoside from which these are derived, is named ' gluconasturtiin,' and 
is regarded as having the constitution— 

CH 2 Ph.CH 2 .N.C(S.C 6 H 11 5 ).O.S0 3 K+^H 2 0, but could only be obtained as 
a syrup ; by decomposition with silver nitrate, it gives 'silver nasturtiate,' 

CH 2 Ph.CH 2 .N:C(SA g ).O.S0 3 A ff -}-2H 2 0, which also forms a crystalline 
compound with 2NH 3 , but loses this at ordinary temperatures. 

When acted on by sodium thiosuljDhate, silver nasturtiate gives a clear 
solution which probably contains the sodium salt, but soon decomposes into 
sodium sulphate and the thiocarbamide, which can then be extracted with 
ether. J. Ch. S. 1899 A I. 930. 

From this plant phenyletl^lthiocarbirnide, CH 2 Ph.CH.NCS is obtained. 

Silver nasturtiate is soluble in ammonia in the presence of ammonium 
nitrate, but is precipitated by nitric acid, and is decomposed by sodium 


thiosulphate into phenylethylthioearbamide and sodium sulphate. When 
an attempt was made to prepare an additive compound of the silver salt with 
ammonia, it was found that some of the silver was replaced at the same time 
by ammonium. It is noteworthy that the seeds do not contain an appreciable 
quantity of any enzyme capable of hydrolysing the glucoside. J. Ch. S. 1900, 
A I. 49. 

73. Gardamine pratensis, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 138, 

Habitat:— Hassora in western Tibet. 

A perennial glabrous herb. Stem 1 ft. Rootstock some- 
times bearing small fleshy tubers. Leaves pinnate; leaflets 
of the radical leaves orbicular or ovate, terminal longer: those 
of the cauline leaves linear-oblong entire, in equi-distant pairs, 
angled, shortly petioled. Flowers large white or lilac, corym- 
bose when young. Petals spreading three times as long as 
sepals. Pods Lin., linear, erect. Style short. 

Use : — Used as a salad for the same purpose as Nasturtium 

74. Farsetia Jacquemontii, H.f. and T, 

H.F.B.L, I. 140. 

Vern : — Mnlei, farid buti, lathia, farid muli (Pb. ) 
Habitat : — Sandy places in the Punjab and Sindh. 

An erect, rather rigid, hoary perennial herb, covered 
with closely adpressed hairs attached at their middle. Steins 
12-18 in., branches virgate. Leaves ^-1 in., linear-oblong 
or linear. Flowers large ; buds elliptic ; Sepals acute, strigose ; 
Petals half as long as the sepals. Stigma short, suberect. 
Pods narrow linear or linear-oblong, 1^-2 by |-|- in., com- 
pressed ; valves flat, nerveless or faintly one-nerved ; seeds 

75. F. Hamiltonii, Boyle, h.f.b.l, i. 140. 

Habitat : — Upper Gangetic plain and the Punjab, from 
Agra westwards. 

A rigid, hoary undershrub, with forked virgate branches 
in the Salt Range of the Punjab. Leaves linear, Flowers 

N. 0. CRUCIFER^. 91 

spicate, distant, large ; buds cylindric, sepals obtuse |-|- in., 
hoary. Petals linear, obtuse, twice as long as the sepals. Pod 
elliptic-oblong J-f by \-\ in., erect, broad ; valves flat, mid-rib 
indistinct, or sometimes prominent ; style very short. Seeds 
usually 2-seriate. 

76. F. Aegyptiaca Turr. h.f.b.l, i. 140. 

Vern. : — Mulei, farid buti, lathia, farid muli (Pb.). 

Habitat : — Punjab, in the Salt Range. 

An erect rigid perennial, covered with dense and fine, 
closeW-adpressed pubescence ; branches long, erect, virgate. 
Leaves linear, very narrow. Flowers small, in long spicate 
racemes. Buds small, subglobose ; sepals, obtuse, strigose, 
margins scarious. Petals obovate, a little longer than the sepals, 
pink. Pods |-1 by % a in., linear ; valves almost nerveless ; septum 
transparent ; style slender. Seeds 1-seriate. 

Medicinal Properties and Uses: — All the above three 
species are considered specific for rheumatism in the Punjab. 
They are pounded and taken as a cooling medicine (Stewart). 

77. Sisysmbrium Sophia, Linn, h.f.b.l, I. 150. 

Habitat : — Punjab, in the Salt Range and near Peshawar ; 
Temperate Himalaya, from Kumaon to Kashmir, Simla, Western 

An annual, erect, glabrous or finely pubescent herb. 
Stems 1-2 ft. Leaves numerous 1J-2 in., sessile, twice or 
thrice pinnatisect ; segments short, thread-like. Flowers pale 
yellow ; pedicels slender, ebracteate. Pods glabrous, slender, 
1 in., slightly flattened, curved, erect, or spreading, cylindric ; 
mid-rib prominent ; stigma subsessile. 

Use : — The Seeds are used medicinally as a substitute or 
adulterant for those of S. Trio. (Stewart). 

78. 8. Irio, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 150. 

Vern.: — (Seeds) Khub kalan (Hind).; Naktrasa, Jangli 
sarson, Khub Kalan, Khaksi, (Pb.) Parjan ; (Merwara) ; Jangli- 


Sursbn, (Sindh) ;~ Khakshi (Bomb.); Rantikhi (Mar.) ; Khakshir 

Habitat: — Northern India, from Rajputana to the Punjab. 

An annual or biennial, tall, glabrous herb. Stem 1-3 ft., 
quite glabrous or slightly pubescent at base. Leaves petioled, 
runcinate, pinnatifkl, segments remote, spreading, toothed not 
auricled ; terminal large* sometimes hastate. Pedicels slender. 
Flowers yellow, minute. Fruiting pedicels slender, young pods 
overtopping the raceme. Old 3-nerved. Pods 1J-2 in., slen- 
der, erect, glabrous, subtorulose. 

Parts used : — The seeds. 

Use : — The seed is expectorant and restorative, and used 
externally as a stimulating poultice (Dymock.) 

It is also said to be a febrifuge (Stewart.^ 

79. Brassica nigra, Koch, h.f.b.i., i. 156. 

Syn. : — Sinapis erysimoides, Roxb. 499. 

Sans. : — Sarshap. 

Vern. : — Rai, Kali rai, tira, taramira, lahi, banarsirai, 
jag-rai, asl-rai, ghor-rai, makra-rai (H) ; Rai-Saron, (Bom).; 
Kadagho (Tarn); Avalo (Tel.); Bile Sasive, Karisasive, sasive, 
'Kan). ; Ahor, Suraj, Kali-surson (Sindh) ; Kali Sarson (Kumaon). 

Habitat : — Cultivated in various parts of India. 

An annual, 2-3 ft. high, rigid, branched, more or less 
hispid. Leaves 4-8 in., petioled ; lower lyrate, upper entire. 
Racemes naked. Flowers \-\ in. diarn., bright yellow. 
Sepals spreading. Pods \-\ in., subulate ; valves keeled, 
torulose ; cells 3-5-seeded. Seeds oblong. 

Parts used : — The seeds. 

Uses : — The seeds of this plant are used in medicine as 
poultice, being a useful and simple rubefacient and vesicant. 
Mustard poultices prove highly serviceable in cases of febrile 
and inflammatory diseases, internal congestions, spasmodic, 
neuralgic, and rheumatic affections. Mustard flour in water is 
highly recommended as a speedy and safe emetic. 

N. 0. CRUCIFERiE. 93 

The seeds act as a digestive condiment, if taken moderately. 

If swallowed whole they operate as a laxative, and for this 
purpose are sometimes prescribed in dyspepsia and other com- 
plaints attended with torpid bowels * Watt). 

The pure fresh oil is a stimulant and mild counter-irritant 
when applied externally. As such, it is very useful in mild 
attacks of sore-throat, internal congestion, and chronic muscular 
rheumatism (Surg. D. Basu, Faridpur). 

The oil rubbed on the feet and the bridge of the nose cut 
short a head cold in one night. I have never seen it fail. In 
slight bronchitic affections of children, it makes a very useful 
mild counter-irritant application to the chest. It is also a very 
useful application in ordinary sore-throat (Surg. K, D. Ghose). 

80. B. camprestris, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 156. 

Syn. :•— -Sinapis dichotoma and S. Glauca. Roxb. 497, 498, 

Vern. : — Sarson, Sarson-zard, bara-lai, Sheta-Shirsa, banga- 
sarson, pila-sarson, rara-sarson, pili rai (H.) ; shwet-rai (B.) ; 
Sarashire, raira (Guj.); Hile-rayan (Deck.). 

Habitat : — Cultivated throughout India. 

(Variety Sarson, Prain F. B. Ind. I 156 under B. 

campestris, sub-species Napus). Stem 4-5 ft., unbranched 
or branching only near the top. Leaves glaucous, all (except 
the lowest 2 or 3), with stem clasping basal lobes ; lower leaves 
pinhati-partite, 6-8 by 2-3 in., terminal lobe much the largest ; 
upper leaves oblong or lanceolate, 2J-3 in., more or less pinnati- 
fid. Flowers nearly \ in. diam. Pods various, erect or pendent, 
sometimes 3 or 4-valved ; erect pods 2 in., pendent pods 3-3J in. 
long, including the beak ; beak conical, up to 1 in. Seeds 30-80 
in a pod. A cold weather crop in the plains and hills, up to 
6,000 ft. Indian Colza. Native name Sarson. 

Parts used : — The seeds. 

Uses: — The oil, combined with camphor, forms an effica- 
cious embrocation in muscular rheumatism, stiff neck, &c. The 
seeds mixed with hot water form an efficient counter-irritant 


poultice. The oil used in dengue fever with great benefit, 
Used for rubbing on the chest in bronchitis. Action similar to 
mustard, but less effective. 

81. B. Juneea, II. /. and T. h.f.b.i., i. 157. 

Syn. : — Sinapis ramosa, Eoxb; S. euneifolia, Roxb, S. 
rugosa, Eoxb. 49S and 499. 

Sans. : — Rajika (Kumaon.) 

Vern. :— Rai, Sarson, Sarson-lahi, gohna-sarson, bari-rai, 
barlai, badshai-rai, Khas-rai (H); Rai sarisha, (B) ; Asur 
'Kashmir; ; Rai (Guz.); Mohari ; rayi (Mar.). 

Habitat : — Cultivated in India. 

A tall, erect, branching annual, rarely glaucous, or hispid 
at the base only, Stem 3-6 ft., much-branched. Lower leaves 
petioled, sometimes pinnatifid, upper large, lanceolate, toothed, 
subsessile. Terminal lobe much the largest. Blade of the 
basal leaves G-S by 2-4 in., toothed ; upper leaves 2-2| in., 
entire. Flowers bright yellow ; sepals spreading J in : diara. 
Pods 2|-2i in. including the beak, linear-lanceolate ; beak 
narrowly-conical, J in. ; valves with a prominent mid-rib, Seeds 
small, dark rugose, globose, about 40 in a pod. 

Parts used : — The seeds, 

Uses : — " The seeds commonly met with in the bazaars of 
India, which, from their colour, may be denominated Brown 
Mustard Seed, possess properties similar to those of the black 
and white mustard seed, for which they may be employed as 
an efficient substitute, especially in the preparation of mustard 
poultices." (Pharm. of Ind.) 

11 Externally used in internal congestions, in spasmodic, 
neuralgic, and rheumatic affections, and in morbid states of 
the cerebro-spinal system, as an emetic. Taken internally, it 
acts as a digestive." (Bombay Pharmacopoeia Committee). 

82. Eruca sativa, Lam. h.f.b.i., l 158. 

Eng. : — The rocket. 

Vern. : — Safed-sarsu (Bombay). 

N. 0. CRUCIFER^. 95 

An annual or biennial herb, glabrous or slightly hairy, 
glaucous. Stem 6-18 in., erect, branching. Leaves sessile, 1-4 
in., pinnatifid ; segments coarsely toothed, terminal, one broad ; 
upper leaves smaller, sometimes very entire. Flowers pale 
yellow or white, f in. across in racemes ; veins dark. Sepals 
erect, lateral, slightly saccate. Petals clawed. Stigma capitate. 
Pods erect, pressed against stem, oblong-ovoid, J-l in., nearly 
terete, pro-onged in a flat-pointed, seedless beak half the length 
of the valves. Seeds in two rows. Cotyledons folded longi- 
tudinally over the radicle (Collett.) 

Cultivated as a field-crop in N. W. Provinces, for the 
oil expressed from the seed. Simla. An escape ; cultivated in 
Central India, Western Himalaya, Upper Gangetic valley. 

Use : — It has properties similar to those of the water-cress 
and the cuckoo flower. It is acrid and used for purposes similar 
to those of Mustard. 

The seeds are dark brown or dark grey and yield 30'8 per cent, of clear 
yellow oil with a slight mustardlike odor and taste. Sp. gr. at 15° C, 0*915 
Saponification value, 175°7 ; iodine value, 101*6. The oil could probably be 
used as a substitute for rape or colza oil. 100 seeds weigh only - 25 grm. 

Bulletin Imperial Institute 1913. 

83. Capsella Barsa-Pastovis, Moench, h.f.b.i., 
i. 159. 

Habitat : — A cosmopolitan weed in the vicinity of cultiva- 
tion throughout temperate India, 

An annual herb, more or less covered with forked hairs ; 
root long, tapering. Stems erect, 6-18 in., branched. Radical 
leaves variable, usually pinnatifid, sometimes lanceolate, ter- 
minal lobe broadly triangular ; segments nearly entire ; upper 
leaves pinnatifid, lobed at the base, stem-clasping; uppermost 
lanceolate. Flowers small, T l in. diam. ; white, racemed. Sepals 
spreading, equal at the base. Pods nearly flat, triangular or 
obcordate, about i in. broad. Seeds many, in two rows, oblong, 
punctate; radicle incumbent, 

Use : — " This very common weed is bitter and pungent, 
yields a volatile oil on distillation identical with the oil of mus- 
tard, and has been used as an antiscorbutic, also in hematuria 


and other haemorrhages, as well as in dropsy," (U. S. Dispen- 

84. Lepidium sativum, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 159, 
Sa7is. : — Chandrasura. 

Vern. ; — Halim (Kumaon; chausaur (H.) ; Assalia, Ahliva, 

Bomb.) ; AM verai (Tarn) ; Adit-yalu (Tel.; ; Halim, aleverie (B.) ; 

tezak (Pb.) ; Ahero (Sind.) ; Asalio halim (Guz.) ; Allibija. (Kan.;, 

Habitat : — Cultivated throughout India, 

An annual, erect, glabrous herb. Stems erect, 6-18 in., 
branched. Radical leaves twice-pinnatisect, long-petioled. 
Cauline sessile and usually entire, say Hooker. /. and T, 
Anderson ; pinnatifid or lanceolate, says Sir Henry Collett, 
Flowers small, white, in long racemes. Sepals erect, equal at 
the base, Pods ovate, I in,, notched at the tip; margins 
winged, wings narrow. Pods orbicular-ovate (H. /. and T). 
Pedicels adpressed. Seeds one in each cell. Radicle in- 
cumbent, cotyledons divided. 

Tn Simla fields ; flowers in April and May. 

It is the garden cress of Europe and Asia, 

Parts used : — The seed and leaves. 

Use: — According to the Sanskrit writers, the seeds are 
described as tonic and alterative, efficacious in hiccup, diarrhoea 
and skin diseases (U. C. Dutt). 

The Mahomedan writers consider the seeds to have aph- 
rodisiac and diuretic properties ; they recommend them for the 
dispersion of certain chronic enlargements of the spleen, &c, 
and as an alterative in various diseased conditions supposed to 
be produced by cold humors (Dymock). 

According to Honigberger. the plant in the Punjab was 
administered in cases of asthma, cough with expectoration and 
bleeding piles. The root is used in secondary syphilis and 

According to Bellew, the seeds are also considered to be 
galactagogue in the Punjab, and are administered after being 
boiled with milk, to cause abortion. O'Shaughnessy found the 
drug answer as a gentle and warm aperient. 

tf. Oo CRUCIFERiE, 97 

Moodeen Sheriff writes of the seeds thus : — " Externally, 
it is of great service in all the diseases in which the mustard is 
resorted to. The thick and very gummy mucilage of the seeds 
acts as a mechanical antidote in cases of poisoning by irritant 
substances, enveloping the poisonous particles and sheathing 
the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestine." He 
regards the seed as a more satisfactory rubefacient than that 
of mustard prepared in India. According to him, the 
mucilage obtainable from the seeds may be used as a substitute 
for imported tragacanth and gum Arabic. " The best medicinal 
property of this drug, is its usefulness in dysentery and dysen- 
teric diarrhoea. The coarse powder and the thick and very 
gummy mucilage of the seeds appear well-suited to allay the 
irritation of the mucous coat of the intestines in those 
diseases, and they thus relieve or check their symptoms to a 
considerable extent. 

The leaves are gently stimulant and diuretic, as a salad, 
serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfour). The oil extracted 
from the seeds is also used medicinally. 

When prepared by steam distillation from the finely cut plants, the 
essential oils of L. sativum consist principally of benzylthiocarbimide ; this 
is always mixed with benzylic cyanide, especially if the plants are only 
coarsely cut before the distillation. Both compounds are produced by the 
decomposition of a glucoside, the former by the action of the ferment myrosin, 
and the latter by the action of boiling water and acids. The glucoside could 
not be obtained in crystals, but when decomposed by silver nitrate gave an 
insoluble silver derivative, which dissolved at once in ammonia, separating 
again in a crystalline form with two molecules of ammonia ; to this compound 
the formula CH 2 Ph° N : C (SAg). O. S0 3 Ag-f-2NH 3 is assigned, and the acid 
from which it is derived is named ' tropaeolic acid ;' the glucoside, to which 
the name of ' glucotropceolin ' is given, is regarded as having the constitution—- 

CH 2 Ph.N : C (S.C 6 H u O s ). O.S0 3 K2H 2 0. 

When acted on by sodium thiosulphate, silver tropseolate gives a clear 
solution which probably contains the sodium salt, but soon decomposes into 
sodium sulphate and the thiocarbimide, which can then be extracted with 
ether. J. Ch. S. 1899A I. 930. 

85. Raphanus sativus, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 166. 

Vem. :— Muli (H.) ; Mula (B.) ; Mulli (Dec); Mullangi, 
(Tarn., Tel. and Kan.) ; Moore (Sind.). Tara mira, mnri mungra, 


A coarse rough annual, edible., cultivated throughout 
India in gardens. Root fleshy, pungent, variable in size and 
form. Leaves roughly pilose ; lower ones lyrate. Flowers 
variable, usually white or lilac, with purple veins. Pods in- 
dehiscent, terete, 1 in, to 2ft. (R, caudatus), more or less 
constricted between the seeds, prolonged beyond the valves in a 
pointed beak, about half the length of the pod. Seeds 
separated by pith. 

Parts used : — The seeds, and root. 

Uses:— The seeds are diuretic, laxative, and lithontriptic, 
and the roots used for urinary and syphilitic diseases. Stewart 
says the seeds are considered to be emmenagogue in the 

The seeds, in doses of one drachm, are useful in gonorrhoea. 
The root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pain 

The juice of the fresh leaves is also used as a diuretic and 

In full and repeated doses, the seeds sometimes produce 
vomiting, but this is so rare that they cannot be regarded as 
an emetic (Moodeen Sheriff). 


86. Cleome viscosa, Linn. H.F.B.I., I. 170. 
Roxb. 501. 

Syn, : — Polanisia icosandra, TI\ & A. 

Sans. : — Barbara, Karnasphota, Tilparni, Adityabhakta. 

Vern. : — Kanphuti, Hulhul, Purhur (H.) ; Boogra (Pb.) ; 
Hoor-hooria (B.) ; Kathoree (Sind.), Kanphuti, Pivala tilavana, 
(Bomb.); Nayavayhe, Nahikuddaghoo (Tamil); Kukaworainta, 
(Teling.) ; Kat-kuddagho (Mai.) ; Jangli-hulvul, Choorai-ajwani, 
(Dec.) : Tinmani, Tilwan (GuzA Wal-aba, Ran-manissa (Sin- 

Habitat : — Throughout tropical and warm India; Bombay, 
Thana, Gujerat, Ceylon, 

N. 0. CAPPARIDE-E. 99 

Aii annual herb, I -3ft., erect, sparingly branched, softly 
sessile, ovate, entire, terminal the largest, lateral often unequal 
at base ; petioles J-l in., becoming shorter above and uppermost 
(bracts) often sessile ; flowers lemon-yellow, f in. diam., on 
axillary pedicels h in. long ; sepals ovate, acute ; petals twice 
the length of sepals, obtuse long-clawed, 2 approximate, 2 
divaricate; Stamens 12-24, anthers curled, blue-black; pod 
2-4 in. without a gynophore, erect, linear, cylindrical tipped by 
glabrous blunt style, very viscous ; seeds black, finely ridged 
on back. 

A common weed in cultivated ground. Throughout the 
tropical regions of the world. 

Parts used \ — The seeds, leaves and roots. 

Uses : — The seeds used as anthelmintic and carminative by 
the Vytians (Ainslie) ; the juice of the leaves poured into the 
ear to relieve ear-ache, and the bruised leaves are applied to the 
skin as a counter-irritant. 

In Cochin China, the whole plant, bruised, is used for 
counter-irritation and blistering. (O'Shaughnessy). 

According to Moodeen Sheriff, the seeds are anthelmin- 
tic, rubefacient and vesicant. The seeds are valuable in expelling 
round worms, and also as a rubefacient and vesicant in all the 
complaints in which mustard is used. The leaves are also 
useful in the same way as a local stimulant, and the juice 
possesses a curative influence over some cases of otalgia and 
otorrhoea. The seeds are used internally in powder with 
sugar, aud externally in the form of a poultice or paste by 
bruising with vinegar, lime-juice or hot-water, and their juice 
for the use of the ear is pressed out by bruising them without 
water. As a rubefacient and vesicant, the seeds under examina- 
tion are much superior to the mustard seeds in this country, 
and quite equal to the mustard imported from Europe' 

Used by the aboriginals of Australia to relieve headache. 
In the United States, the roots are said to be used as a vermifuge. 
Ph. J. Sep. i. 1888, p. 179. 

The seeds are given occasionally in fevers and diarrhoea 


At the 2nd Australasian Medical Congress, held at 
Melbourne, in January 1889, Surgeon-Major K. R. Kirtikar 
exhibited a specimen of oil obtained from the seeds of Cleome 
viscosa, Linn, (prepared by the late Mr. Periera of the Bombay 
Medical Stores), and made the following observations ou the 
occasion. " The plant has a great reputation as a remedy for 
chronic Otorrhoea. The action is chiefly antiseptic, as it contains 
a powerful volatile principle, not unlike in smell to that of 
mustard. This active principle has, besides, stimulating 

87. Gynandropsis pentaphylla, DC. h.f.b.i., 

Syn. : — Cleome pentaphyla, Linn. ; Roxb. 500, 501. 

Sci72S. : — Surjavarta; Arkapushpika. 

Vern. : — Hurfmr, hulhul, karaila, churota (H.) ; Harhuriya 
Kanala, bansarisha, arkahuli, Sadahurhidia (B.) ; Setakata arak, 
Guma (Santal.) ; kathal parhar (U. P.); Halhal (Dec); kinro, 
(SindJ, Tilavana, mabli (Mar.) : velai, neivaylla, kadughu (Tarn.) ; 
Vaminta, vela-kura, (Tel.); tai-vela, kara-vela, vela (Malay.) 

Habitat : — A common weed throughout the warm parts of 
India. Very common in Ceylon in waste and cultivated ground. 

An erect, branched annual 2-4 ft. Stem shaggy with 
long, white, spreading hair. Leaves 5-foliate, leaflets sessile, 
broadly ovate, acute, entire, pubescent on both sides and 
ciliate, pale beneath, terminal largest, 1J-2 in. ; petiole 2 in., 
stout, hairy and rough with prickles ; flowers at first distinctly 
corymbose, afterwards in long erect racemes, bracts of 3 sessile 
leaflets, many empty. Pedicels over \ in., viscoid, pubescent ; 
sepals narrowly lanceolate, acute gladular-pubescent ; petals 
rotund ate, with a long narrow claw thrice the length of sepals, 
all curved upward ; stamens inserted about half-way up ; ovary 
on summit of a gynophore, linear-oblong, very glandular ; style 
0, stigma capitate, flat ; ovules numerous ; pods 2-3 in., linear, 
slightly curved, somewhat compressed, viscid, pubescent. Seeds 
helicoid-reniform, rough, dark brown (Trimen). 

N. 0. CAPPARIDEiE. 101 

Petals white or very pale pink, with pink claws, gynophore 
and stamens purplish. 

The inter nodes of the floral axis (gynophore) between the 
whorl of petals, stamens and ovary are remarkably developed 
in this plant (Trimen). 

Parts used : — The seeds, leaves and root. 

Uses : —Sir W. Jones observes that its sensible qualities 
seem to promise great antispasmodic virtues, it having a smell 
much resembling assafoetida, but comparatively delicate. 
According to Dr. Wight (Illust. L, p. 34), the bruised leaves 
are rubefacient and vesicant, producing a very copious exuda- 
tion, affording in many cases the relief obtained from a blister 
without its inconveniences. The expressed juice is a popular 
remedy, in high repute as a local application in otalgia, both 
amongst the natives of India and the settlers in the West Indies, 
where the plant is also indigenous. Dr. J. Shortt states that 
the seeds are used as a substitute for mustard, and yield a good 
(fixed?) oil. (Ph.Ind.). 

The seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient,and are employ- 
ed internally for the expulsion of round worms, and, externally as 
a counter-irritant. The juice of the leaves is used in otalgia. 
The leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the form- 
ation of pus. A decoction of the root is said to be a mild 

The seeds yield to ether about 25 per cent, of a thick greenish, drying 
oil, having an acid value of 6'4 ; saponification value, 194"6, and iodine 
value, 119. 5. [D. Hooper, Ann. Rept. Indian Museum, Industrial section 

88. Mcerua arenavia^ H. /. and T. h.f.b.i. 
i. 171. 

Vern. : — Pumichakarei (Tarn.) ; Puta-tiga (Tel.) ; Vika 

Habitat: — Western Himalaya. Dryer parts of the N. W. 
Provinces. Southern and Central India ; Ceylon. 

A large woody climber, or straggling shrub, with divari- 
cate branches ; bark smooth, pale. Leaves 1-2 in. oval or 


oblong-oval , very obtuse or retuse, entire, glabrous, glaucous, 
somewhat fleshy ; petiole J in. Flowers few, rather large, in 
terminal corymbose racemes, without bracts ; pedicels, § in., 
smooth ; Calyx-lobes J in , lanceolate, acute or obtuse, reilexed. 
Petals distant, J in., ovate, acute, erect, veined, green. Stamens 
much exceeding petals, spreading ; filaments white, anthers 
green ; gyiiophore % in., ovary short, truncate. Fruit yellow, 
1-3 in. iBrandis) ; a berry 1-2 in. long, fleshy, irregularly, and 
interrupted by moiiiliform, smooth, many-seeded ; each seed 
portion forming almost a separate berry. Cotyledons fleshy, 
involute. Flowers green, sweet-scented. 

Part used :— The root. 

Use : — The root slightly resembles liquorice root in ap- 
pearance and taste. It is said to be used as an alterative, tonic 
and stimulant. 

This plant has two varieties :-— Var. 1. glabra. Hooker's Ic. 
PL t. 127. 

Var. 2. scabra, Cauib in Jacq. Voy. Bot. 22, t-23, 24. 
Niebuhria oblongifolia, Royle 111. 73. 

89. Cratceva religiosa, Forsk. h.f.b.l, i. 172. 

Syn. :— Capparis trifoliata, Roxb. 426. 

Sans. : — Var una ; asmarighna. 

Vern. : — Barua, barun, bilasi, bila, biliana(Hind.) ; Barun, 
tikto-shak (Beng.) ; Tailadu, bun boronda (Mechi ) ; Purbong, 
(Lepcha) ; Barua, barnahi, (Pb.) ; Raj Bela, bel (C.P.) ; Vaya- 
varna, Chatavarna, hadavarna, kunla, warnna, karvan (Bomb.) ; 
kumla, karwan (Mar.) ; maralingam, marvilinga, narvala, (Tam.) ; 
(Nirvala vituse) iKau,, Mai. J ; uskia, usiki, asiki maun, ulimidi, 
Lirimidi, urimitfi, tella ulimidi, tella vule (Tel.). 

Habitat: — Near streams in Malabar and Canara; culti- 
vated elsewhere in India. 

A moderate-sized, spreading, unarmed, deciduous, tree. 
Bark grey, | in. thick, with long horizontal wrinkles. Wood 
yellowish-white, when old turning light brown, moderately 

N. 0, CAPPARIDEiE. 103 

hard, even-grained. Pores moderate-sized, numerous and uni- 
formly distributed, often sub-divided, each pore surrounded 
by a whitish ring. Medullary rays very wavy, fine and moder- 
ately broad, the distance between the rays slightly greater than 
the transverse diameter of the pores (Gamble). Branches with 
large white lenticels. Leaves clustered at the ends of branch- 
lets, common petiole 2-4 in, long; leaflets 3-6 by H-2% in., 
abruptly or gradually acuminate, pale beneath, ovate-lanceolate 
or ovate, the lateral form an oblique basis ; petiolules articulate. 
Flowers 2 in. diam. ; "cream coloured" (Brandis) ; "large 
greenish yellow at length purplish " (Hooker, f. and Thorns.) ; 
appearing with the leaves, in terminal corymbs. Petals ovate or 
oblong, obtuse or acute ; claw J as long as the limb. Berry 
ovid or globose, 2-3 in. diam ; rind hard, rough, with numer- 
ous white specks ; very variable. Seeds i in, long ; numerous, 
reinform, in a yellow pulp. 

Parts used : — The bark, leaves, and root-bark. 

Uses: — The bark is demulcent, antipyretic, sedative, alter- 
ative, and tonic ; and the fresh leaves and root-bark are 

The bark is useful in some cases of urinary complaints 
and fever, and in some mild forms of skin diseases in which 
sarsaparilla is generally resorted to. It also relieves vomiting 
and other symptoms of gastric irritation. The fresh leaves 
and root-bark, particularly the former, are very efficacious in 
all the affections in which mustard poultice is indicated. 

" Bruised well with a little vinegar, lime-juice or hot 
water and applied to the skin in the form of a poultice or paste, 
the fresh leaves of G. religiosa act as a rubefacient and vesicant 
so efficiently that I do not hesitate in saying that they are not 
only much superior to the mustard seeds in this country, but 
also quite equal, if not superior, to the flour of that drug- 
imported from Europe. From 5 to 10 or 15 minutes is the 
time required for them to produce their full effect as a 
rubefacient, and if kept longer than this in contact with the 
skin, they begin to act as a vesicant. The existence of one or 
two plants of C. religiosa in each Hospital and Dispensary will 


certainly save them from the cost of the supply of Europe 
mustard for external use. The plant grows well with ordinary 

" The fresli root-bark of this plant is also a very good 
rubefacient and vesicant, but it is rather too dear and not 
procurable in large quantities. The bark of the stem is very 
thick (from 1 to 2 inches when fresh, and from | to 1 inch 
when dry), greenish brown on the outer side, and grey or 
pale-white internally and on the inner side, and almost tasteless 
and odourless. It is one of those barks which can be easily 
reduced to a coarse powder, immediately after its removal from 
the stem." ^Moodeen Sheriff). 

The bark of the stem and root of this plant constitute 
the principal medicine of the Hindoo Pharmacopoeia for ealcu- 
lus affections. It is said to promote the appetite, decrease the 
secretion of the bile, act as laxative and remove disorders of 
the urinary organs. (U. C. Dutt). 

In Bombay, the leaves are used as a remedy for swelling 
of the feet, and a burning sensation in the soles of the feet * * 
The leaf-juice is given in rheumatism in the Concan, in doses of 
\ to 3 tolas, mixed with cocoanut juice and Ghi. In caries of 
the bones of the nose, the leaf is smoked and the smoke 
exhaled through the nose. The bark and the leaf pounded 
and tied in a cloth are used as a fomentation in rheumatism 

90. Cadaba indica, Lamk. h.f.b.i. l, 172. 

Syn. : — Stroemeria tetrandra Vahi Roxb. 267. 
Vern. :— Kodhab (Sindh, and Hindi) ; Habab (Bomb.) Che- 
moodda (Tel.). 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, Sind, Concan, Deccan and 
Coromandal Coast, on old walls and in waste dry places. 

A shrub often straggling or half-climbing, much-branch- 
ed, glabrous or pubescent. " Bark brown, sometimes rough, 


with horizontal lenticels. Wood white, moderately hard, close- 
grained. Pores small, numerous, in long radical strings bet- 
ween the fine, wavy medullary-rays, usually one or two rays 
without pores between the string. Faint, rather distant, con- 
centric lines which may be annual rings" (Gamble). Leaves 
simple, 1-l-J- in., ovate or oblong, acute, obtuse or mucronate. 
Flowers yellowish white or greenish white, 1 in. diam. ; corymbs 
few-flowered, terminal ; bracts small, subulate. Sepals 
ovate ; claw of petals narrow. Petals 4, limb oblong, ovate ; 
Stamens 4. Disk process | in. curved pink, smooth, fimbriate. 
Fruit cylindric, dehiscent, 1-li in. long, irregularly torulose ; 
pulp orange. Flowers October-March. 

Uses : — The leaves and root are considered deobstruent 
and anthelmintic, and are prescribed in decoction in uterine 
obstructions (Murray. 55.) 

91. C. farinosa. Forsk. h.f.b.l, i. 173. 

Habitat \ -Dry places in the Punjab, at Multan and 
in Sindh. 

A straggling, much-branched shrub. Wood white, soft, 
even-grained ; Pores small, single or few or many in radial 
strings between the rays, there being usually a few rays without 
pores between each pair that contains them. Medullary rays 
very fine, regular, numerous. Leaves £-J in. rarely 1 in., hoary, 
ovate or oblong, obtuse. Flowers as in C. indica, but petals 
very narrow, 4, spathulate. Stamens 5. Fruit ^-1£ in. cylind- 
ric (Hooker, f. and Thorns. : — "Delessert's Icones represent 6 
stamens, we find 5 only. Fl. B. I. Vol. I, p. 173. 

Uses : — It is used medicinally in Sindh. 

92. Capparis spinosa, Linn. H.F.B.L, I. 173. 

Syn. : — C. Murray ana, Graham, 

Vern. : — Kabra, ber (H.) ; ulra Kanta (Kumaon) ; Kaur, 
Kiari, bauri, ber, bandar, bassar, Kakri, Kander, taker, borar, 
Keri, Kaba, barari (PbJ. ; Kalvari (Sind.) ; Kabar (Bom). 


Habitat: — Hot Western Himalayan Valleys eastward to 
Nepal, Sindh, the Punjab, and Western Peninsula in the Maha= 
baleswar hills. 

A diffuse, prostrate or trailing shrub. Buds long ; green 
branches and young shoots pubescent or covered with soft 
caducous white, green or yellowish totnentura. Stipulary thorns 
yellow, hooked or nearly straight. Leaves orbicular or broadly 
ovate, entire, rnucronate, 1-2 in. diam ; petioles i in. long. 
Flowers 1-3 in. across, white, large showy, axillary solitary ; 
pedicels 1-2 in. long, thickened in fruit ; filaments long, slender, 
purple. Ovary on a slender, filiform gynophore. Fruit 1-3 in. 
long, many-seeded, oblong, ribbed on a stout gynophore, bent 
downwards when ripe, irregularly dehiscent, crimson inside ; 
seeds numerous, uniform. 

Parts used : — The root and root- bark. 

Uses :— The author of the Makkzan-ul-Advia considers the 
root-bark to be hot and dry and to act as a detergent and as- 
tringent, expelling cold humours ; it is therefore recommended 
in palsy, dropsy, and gouty and rheumatic affections ; the juice 
of the fresh plant is directed to be dropped into the ear to kill 
worms, just as Gleome juice is used in India; all parts of the 
plants are said to have a stimulating and astringent effect when 
applied locally (Dymocki. In Kangra, the macerated roots are 
applied to sores (Stewart). Ainslie notices its use as an external 
application to malignant ulcers. 

" The dried bark of the root is considered diuretic, and 
was formerly employed in obstructions of the liver and spleen, 
amenorrhoea, and chronic rheumatism." (United States Dis- 

The flower buds contain caper-quercitrin, having the formula C 27 H 30 
O l6 . On hydrolysis, this yields caper-quercetin C 13 F 12 7 , in addition to 
glucose and isodulcitol. The amount of sugar formed on hydrolysis is as 
follows :— 

Sugar as isodulcite, Quercetin, 

per cent. per cent. 

Caper-quercitrin ... ... 56*73 ... 49*61 

J. Ch. 8. LXVI, pt. I. (1894), p. 299, 

N. 0. CAPPARIDE.E. 107 

93. G. Zeylanica, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 174. 
Syn. :— C. acuminata, Roxb. 424, Clarke's Ed, 

Vern. : — Wageti or Govindphai (Concan). Kalokera (B.) 
Autlioondy kai (Tarn.). 

Habitat : — Common in the Carnatic and Malabar ; occa- 
sional in the Western Deccan. 

A rigid wiry, much-branched shrub, glabrous, armed ; 
shoots sometimes puberulous. Leaves broad, ovate to lanceo- 
late, usually acute and mucronate, reticulate beneath; J-1J in. 
coriaceous, shining above, sometimes pubescent beneath (H.f. 
and Th.). Brandis says : — " Leaves ovate-lanceolate, pale be- 
neath, 1^-4 in. ; secondary and reticulate tertiary nerves promi- 
nent." Flowers 2 in. diam., solitary, axillary or 2-3 on a short 
shoot ; sepals 4, free, mostly imbricate in bud. Petals 4 ; 2 
lower petals yellowish, changing to red-brown ; pedicels 1-2 in., 
slender. Brandis says the petals are white, with a basal blotch 
of yellow which turns purple. Trimen says the flowers are 
white; the 2 upper petals, usually with a basal blotch of yellow, 
afterwards purple ; anthers pale blue. Stamens numerous, in- 
serted on a small disc. Filaments longer than the petals. Ovary 
oblong, pubescent, on a slender gynophore. Fruit 2 in., ovoid, 
smooth ; bright scarlet when ripe, fleshy ; orange-pink when 
ripe, says Trimen. Seeds many, embedded in pulp, colytedons 

. Uses : — The root is reported to be a cooling medicine in 
the Concan (Dymock). The green fruit is sliced, dried, cooked 
and eaten in Ceylon, says Trimen. The people of Bombay do 
the same. 

94. C. H'eyneana, Wall, h.f.b.i., i. 174, 

Vern. :— Chayrukha (H.). 

Habitat : — From South Concan and Canara to Travancore, 

An erect, much-branched evergreen shrub, with minute 
straight stipulary thorns. Young parts red, floccose. Leaves 
ovate, lanceolate, acute coriaceous dark green, shining above, 
reddish, strongly ribbed and veined beneath. Blade 3-6 in. by 


J- T 3 a in. ; petiole about § in. long, stout. Flowers large, 3 in, 
across, solitary or in terminal bracteate, short racemes ; bracts 
linear, red-tomentose, pedicels H in. long. Petals paleblue or 
white, the lower two each with a yellow spot at the base. Fila- 
ments as long as the petals. Gynophore 1-1 J in. long; ovary 
tomentose. Fruit ovoid, beaked, size of a large olive. 

Uses: — The leaves are used for rheumatic pains in the 
joints, and its flowers as a laxative drink. (Voigt. 74.) 

95. 0. aphylla, Roth, h.f.b.l, i. 174. 

Sans. : — -Karira. 

Vevn. : — Karil, Karer Kurrel, lete, Kara (H.) ; Kari (Behar, 
Bom.); Kirra Kerin, Karil, Karia, Karis, teuti, delha pinju 
(Pb.), Kiral, Kirrur, dora Kiram, Kiram, Kirad (Sind.) ; Ker 
(Guz.) ; Kera, Karil (Mar.) ; Karyal (Deck). 

Habitat:— In the arid desert tracts of the Punjab, Rajputana, 
Guzerat, the Deccan and S. Carnatic. 

Shrubs dense, much-branched, glabrous, with thorns in 
pairs, straight; leaves (only on young shoots) glabrous, linear, 
pungent, buds pubescent. Branches slender, glabrous. Flowers 
1 in. diam., red-brown, in many-flowered corymbs, on short 
shoots. Outer sepals subvalvate, ciliate, inner saccate. Stamens 
18-20. Fruit J ^ in., glabrous, long beaked. 

Parts used : — The shoots, fruit and bark. 

Uses : — The bark is described by the Hindoo writers as 
bitter and laxative, and is said to be useful in inflammatory 
swellings (U. C. Dutt.) The fruit is eaten pickled in Bombay by 
Hindus, Bhatias especially. 

In the Punjab, the top shoots and young leaves are made 
into a powder and used as a blister (Stewart) ; it is also used 
in boils, eruptions and swellings, and as an antidote to poison ; 
also in affections of the joints (B. Powell). 

According to Surg.-Major Calthrop, the fruit when eaten 
causes obstinate constipation. It is used largely in the Harriana 
and Karnal Districts as an astringent. 

The top shoots and young leaves are very efficacious in 
relieving toothache when chewed. (Murray, Plants and Drugs 

N. 0. CAPPARIDE^. 109 

ofSivdh, p. 154) The fruit is pickled by Banyas of Bombay, 
i.e., natives of Surat. 

Dr. Dymock says that the plant possesses somewhat simi- 
lar properties to 0. spinosa, 

96. 0. sepiaria, Linn., H.F.B.I., I. 177. Roxb, 

Sanskrit— Klkadani, Gridhranakhi. 

Vern. :— Uiun, garua bins (Pb j ; Kanta-gur-Kamai, Kalia 
Kara (B.) ; Kanti Kapali lUriya) ; Kanthar (Guz.) ; Nella-uppi 
(Tell.); Kantharrel (Marathi). 

Habitat: — Dry places throughout India, from the Punjab 
and Sindh to Burma and Carnatic. 

A straggling large, wiry-branched shrub or small tree. 
Branchlets pubescent, hoary or tomentose. Dark-brown, \ in. 
thick, often studded with thorns in pairs. Wood white, hard, 
sometimes with occasional rings of dark liber-like tissue. Pores 
moderate-sized, scanty, in white rings. Medullary rings short, 
fine to moderately broad. Faint white concentric bands across 
the rays (Gamble). Thorns recurved, being modified stipules. 
Leaves ovate-oblong, obovate or oblong lanceolate, subacute or 
retuse, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, penni-nerved, downy 
(rarely glabrous) beneath ; |-L J by J-f in. ; petiole T \ in. Flowers 
white |-£ in. diam., in many flowered sessile or shortly pedun- 
cled umbels ; pedicels slender or filiform, J-f in. ; sepals oblong 
or ovate ; petals narrow, oblong. Ovary ovoid, pointed ; gyno- 
phore J-J in. Fruit pisiform, black when ripe. Flowering 
time — February -May ; "'Rainy season ' ? — says Kanjilal, in Upper 

Uses : — Said by the Sanskrit writers to be useful in 
fevers caused by deranged bile and wind. Also considered 
alterative and tonic and useful in skin diseases U. 0. Dutt.) 

The plant possesses febrifugal properties. 

97. C. horrida, Linn. /, h.b.f.l, i. 178. 

Syri. : — C. zeylanica, Eoxb. 425, 
Sans. ;— Hunkaru, 


Vern. : — Ardanda (H. Sindh. and Deck.), Ulta-Kanta, 
bipuwa-Kanta (Kumaonj ; His, Karvila, hiungarna (Pb.) ; 
Karralurra (Oudh) ; Katerni (Gond.) ; gitoran (Ajmere). # Burn 
asaria, Bagni, Bagnei Baguchi (Santal.:-; Bagrani (Monghyr) ; 
Oseriva (Uriya) ; Wagatti, wag, Tarti, . Taranti (Bomb); 
gowindi (Mar;) ; Atanday, attandax, Katalli Kai {Tarn.) ; Adonda, 
arudonda (Tel.). 

Habitat : — Gangetic Valley, as far north as Saharunpore ; 
Western Peninsula and Chittagong, Ceylon, Malaya and the 

A climbing shrub, with long divaricate branches, young 
shoots, with rufous scurfy tomentum. Leaves oval-lanceolate 
or oblong, obtuse, strongly apiculate, tomentose when young, 
afterwards glabrous and shining ; petioles short, stipular spines 
recurved. Flowers rather large, \\ in. diam. ; supra- axillary, 
solitary or 2 or 3 together, above one another, in a vertical line ; 
peduncle J-f in., tomentose. Sepals rufous-tomentose outside. 
Petals twice as long, hairy. Stamens much longer than petals, 
Gynophore 1 in. ; Ovary ovoid, apiculate, with 4 placentas. 
Fruit subglobose, \\ in. diam., on a greatly thickened stalk, 
many-seeded. Petals white, stamens crimson. 

Parts used : — The leaves, root, and root-bark. 

Uses : — In Northern India, the leaves are used as a 
counter-irritant and as a cataplasm in boils, swellings and piles 

In Chutia Nagpur, the bark, along with native spirit, is 
given in cholera (Rev. A. Campbell.) 

In Madras, a decoction of the leaves is used in syphilis, 
(Surg-Major Thompson). Watt n. 132. 

The root-bark is sedative, stomachic and anti-idriotic ; 
the leaves also slightly stomachic. The root-bark is useful in 
relieving some of the symptoms of gastric irritation, as vomit- 
ing and pain, and in improving appetite. It has also proved 
itself useful in a few cases of excessive perspiration, which it 
checked to a great extent. The leaves also possess the pro- 
perty of improving the appetite (Moodeen Sheriff). 


98. Reseda odor ata, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 181. 

Habitat : — An English annual herb, cultiv T ated in Indian 
gardens in the cold weather. 

(Sweet-mignonette). Annual or perennial. Stems diffuse, 
of varying height, 1-2 ft., generally, clothed with bluntish 
lance-shaped leaves, entire or three-lobed. Flowers in long, 
loose, terminal racemes. Calyx 6-parted ; petals creamy, finely 
cut into numerous divisions. Anthers red. Seeds numerous, 
in an ever open capsule. 

(Favourite Flowers of Garden and Greenhouse by Edward 
Step, F. L. S., London, 1896. Vol. I, p. 65). 

Use :— It is put to the same uses as violets. 

Chemistry : — The root yields an oil, on distillation, which 
smells of radishes, has a light brown color, a sp. gr. of 1*067 
at 15°, and a rotation of +1° 30' in a 100 mm. tube. This oil is 
phenylethylthiocarbamide, for, when heated with strong hydro- 
chloric acid, it yields phenylethylamine hydroclorids, carbon 
oxysulphide and hydrogen sulphide being evolved ; phenyl- 
ethylthiocarbamide is produced when it is heated with alcoholic 
ammonia. Diphenylethyloxamide melts at 186° and phenyl- 
ethylthiocarbamide at 137°. (J. Ch. S. 1895, p. 218), 

99. Viola serpens, Wall, h.f.b.l, i. 184, 

Vern, : — Banafsha (H.) ; thungtu (Kumaon). 

Habitat ; — Moist woods, etc., throughout the temperate 
Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Pulney and Nilgiri Mountains, Ceylon, 

A perennial herb, with a slender ascending root-stock, 
usually giving off long prostrate, glabrous, rooting branches. 
Hooker says : "Stolons and stems usually long, leafy and 
flowering." Leaves 1-1J in,, broadly cordate-ovate, acute or 
obtuse, crenate-serrate, more or less hairy on both surfaces ; 
petioles usually longer than leaves, hairy, especially at the 
upper part ; stipules free, fimbriate. Flowers \-l in., nodding ; 


peduncle longer than leaf, slightly hairy ; bracts setaceous. 
Sepals lanceolate, very acute. Petals oblong spreading ; spur 
not inflated (Trimen) ; saccate, say Hooker f, and Th. Stigma 
oblique. Capsule \ in. long, globose or subglobose, pubescent, 
valve dehiscing irregularly. Seeds few. 

Use: — This species also yields Banafsha of the Bazaars, 
and is considered to have medicinal properties similar to those 
of V. odorata. In the Punjab, a medicinal oil is prepared from 
it, called raughan-i-banafsha. 

100. V. odorata, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 184. 

Vem. : — Banafsha(H.; Dec; Bom.; Guz.) ; Banosa (Beng.); 
Vayilethe (Tarn.) 

Habitat : — Kashmir. 

A glabrato or pubescent herb. Root-stock stout. Stem 
very short or 0. Stolons slender. Leaves tufted, in the 
Kashmir plant, J-l in. diam., broadly ovate-cordate, obtuse, 
crenate, tip rounded, nearly glabrous. Stipules entire or tooth- 
ed, subulate, lanceolate. Sepals rounded at tip, very obtuse, 
spur nearly straight, short, cyiindric, style inflated above ; 
stigma decurved. 

Parts used: — The flowers used dry. 

Uses : — By the Mahomedan hakims, it is generally consi- 
dered cold and moist, and is especially valued as a diuretic and 
expectorant, and as a purgative in bilious affections. 

O'Shaughnessy experimented with the dry plant as a 
substitute for Ipecacuanha, but without success. 

Moodeen Sheriff considers it antipyretic and diaphoretic, 
and very useful in relieving febrile symptoms and excitement 
in all forms of fever, particularly in combination with other 
drugs of the same class. 

A certain amount of interest is attached to the leaves of 
the violet on account of an apparent improvement following the 
employment of the fresh infusion of the leaves in a case (L. '05, 
i. 713) in which it was alleged that a patient might have been 
suffering from malignant disease. A handful of the leaves was 



soaked in a pint of boiling water for 24 hours and the liquid 
poured off, divided into 2 parts, 1 part being taken internally 
during the 24 hours, and the other used as a fomentation. An 
apparent recovery from a presumably malignant growth of the 
mouth resulted. 

An examination of the leaves of the common violet (viola 
odorata) in the Lancet laboratory (L. '05, i, 1085) showed 
the presence of two crystalline bodies, one glucosidal and 
the other alkaloidal in character, and also a dark green oil. 
Alcohol was found a much more effective solvent than an aqueous 
menstruum ; in view of the employment of an aqueous infusion, 
the latter point is of interest. 

The alkaloid isolated behaved, chemically, much in the 
same way as Emetine, the principal alkaloid of Ipecacuanha. It 
has been stated (Y. B P. '05, 467 ; C. D. '05, ii. 977 ; P. 
J. '05, ii. 869) that any activity which violet leaves possess 
is due either to the glucoside, the product of its decomposition, 
or a natural ferment associated with it. Reckoned as viola= 
quercitrin, the glucoside from Princess of Wales violet leaves 
amounted to 5 p. c. of the weight of the fresh leaves. A fresh 
infusion was found to extract nine-tenths of the glucoside 
present in the leaves. No volatile constituent was isolated, 
no alkaloid could be detected, no salicylic acid was found. The 
presence of a glucoside was proved, but the glucoside was not 
isolated. Objection has been taken to the evidence of the uses 
of violet leaves having been unfortunately collected chiefly by 
unskilled persons, and that it has therefore been lacking in 
definiteness, and consequently in value. After the definite 
expression of the opinions mentioned in the above reference, 
it is disappointing to find in a paper read before the Therapeu- 
tical Society, October 30th, 1906, and reported in the Lancet, 
'06, ii. 1318, that all attempts to isolate and identify a glu- 
coside from violet leaves have failed ; similarly, there was no 
evidence of a ferment being present ; the only positive facts 
resulting from the experiments being that the leaves and their 
preparations yield under certain conditions glucose. 

It has been pointed out that the reputation of Violets for 


the treatment of malignant growths was founded on the use 
of wild Violets, at least as far back as James I, and that it is 
therefore desirable that in any inquiry into the subject wild 
Violets should be used, such as have been used for centuries, 
and not a recent cultivated Violet, as employed at the present 
time. In the light of the above remarks, the varieties officinal 
in the Continental Pharmacopoeias will be of interest. It will 
be noted that wild violets are officinal in the German and 
Swiss Pharmacopoeias, and cultivated Violets in the Austrian. 
(Peter Squire's Companion to the British Pharmacopoeia, 
18th edition (1908), pp. 1235-1236). 

A syrup is made from the petals which is a favourite 
remedy for infantile disorders. 

The root is a powerful emetic, and is frequently used to 
adulterate ipecac. A dose of from forty to fifty grains of the 
powdered root acts powerfully. 

A principle called violine is present in all parts of the 
plant, analogous in external characteristics to the emetine of 
ipecacuanha, and possessing the same emetic properties. It 
is an alkaline substance, and forms salts by its union with 
acids ; it is soluble in alcohol, but hardly so in water. 

The flowers were used in olden times as remedies in many 
disorders, and were supposed to be especially serviceable to the 
eyes and in ague. 

The seeds were formerly believed to counteract the effect 
of a scorpion's sting. 

Syrup of violets is a favorite medicine for cough and 
hoarseness. The French make great use of violets in their 
confitures and household remedies ; and we have seen and 
partaken of a delicate sweetmeat composed simply of the violet 
flower prepared with sugar, yet retaining its delicious perfume. 
(Sowerby's English Botany). 

101. V. cinerea, Boiss, h.f.b.l, i. 185. 

Vevn. : — Banafsha (Sind. and Pb.) 

Habitat ' — Dry hilly region of the Punjab and Sindh. 

N. 0. VI0LACE.E. 115 

A small herb. Stem short, glabrous 1-6 in., slightly 
powdery; diffuse-branched. Leaves elliptic-ovate or lanceolate, 
acute, obscurely crenate, -£-■§• in., apiculate ; petioles as long ; 
spitules leafy fimbriate, Peduncles slender, bracts subulate. 
Flowers small, axillary, \ in. diam. Sepals lanceolate, 
aristate. Spur very short, secreting honey within it. Style 
clavate, compressed ; stigma lateral of two oblong parallel 
discs. Fruit \~\ in., elliptic, acute. 

Use : — This plant is used medicinally in Sind, in the same 
wajvas V. oclorata. 

102. lonidium saffriiticosum, Ging, h.f.b.l, 

i. 185. 

Syn. : — Viola suffruticosa and V. enneasperma, Roxb. 218. 

Sans. :-~ Charati (Ainslie). 

Vern. :— Ratanpuras (H. and Bomb.) ; Noonbora (B.) ; 
Suryakaiti ; nilakobari ; Pooroosharatanum (Tel.) ; Orilaihamaray, 
(Tarn.) ; Oorelatamara (Malayal.) ; Tandi, Sol ; bir Surajmukhi 

Habitat : — From Bundelkhund and Agra to Bengal and 

A glabrous or pubescent, very variable perennial herb, 
6-12 in., branches diffuse, woody. Leaves linear or lanceolate, 
serrate-toothed, sub-sessile, J-2 by ^-J in., lower leaves 
broader. Stipules subulate, gland-tipped. Flowers solitary 
axillary, red. Pedicels shorter than the leaves. Sepals 
5, subequal, not produced at the base. Petals variable, 4, 
oblong, acute or mucronate, the 5th with a claw and large 
oval or orbicular limb. Filaments distinct, bearing the 
anthers low down. Anthers free, 2 or 4 of them gibbous or 
spurred at the back, the two interior ones usually having a nec- 
tarial gland at the base. Ovary ovoid. Style clavate, incurved. 
Stigma oblique. Capsule 3-valved, sub-globose, few-seeded, 
valves, not elastic. Seeds globose, striate, testa crustaceous. 

Parts used : — The leaves, stalks and root. 


Use : — The leaves and tender stalks are demulcent, and 
are used by the natives in decoction and electuary ; they are 
also employed in conjunction with some mild oil in preparing 
a cooling liniment for the head (Ainslie). The Santals employ 
the root in bowel complaints of children (A. Campbell). Dr. 
Moodeen Sheriff considers the drug to be demulcent and refri- 
gerant and useful in some cases of gonorrhoea and of scalding 
of urine. 

In the United States Dispensatory, it is stated that the 
root of a species of Ionidium has attracted some attention in 
the treatment of elephantiasis. 


103. Coehlospermum, Gossypium, D. G. h.f.b.i., 
I. 190. 

Syn. : — Bombax gossypium, Linn. Roxb. 515. 

Vern. :— Kumbi, gabdi, ganiar, galgal, gangal (H.) ; Hopo 
(Santal.) ; Gulgal (Kol.) ; Gangam (Gond.) ; Kantapalas (Uriya) ; 
Kumbi (Pb.); Gajra, Kumbi (U. P.) ; Gungu, kong, gondugogu 
(Tel); Tanku, Kongillam (Tarn.); Bettatovare, arisina burga 
(Kan.) ; Chimapunji (Mai.) ; Ganeri (Bhil) ; Kadachogund (Guj.); 
Kalir-gond, kathalya gonda (Alar) ; Sisibaha, Udal (Chutia Nag- 
pur). Katire, (Hindi). 

For the gum : — Nat-Ka-Katera, Nat-Ka-Katera-gond, 
(Deck.); Katera (EL); Tanaku-pishin (Tarn.) ; Kondagogu-banka, 
Konda-gogu-pisunu (Tel.) ; Shima-pangi-pasha (Mai.) 

For the cotton: — Pili-Kapas-Ki-rul, Katere-Ki-jhar, Kiriu 
(Deck.) ; Tanaku-paruthi (Tarn.) ; Konda-gogu-pathi (TeL) ; 
Shima-pangi-paruthi (Mai.). 

Habitat : — Dry hills, Garwal, Bundelkhund, Behar, Orissa 
and the Deccan ; also commonly planted near temples. 

A small deciduous tree, with a few short thick spreading 
branches. "Bark 1 in. thick, fibrous, deeply furrowed ; inner 
substance red. Wood extremely soft, greyish-brown ; no heart- 
wood. Pores large, scanty, often subdivided into compart- 
ments. Medullary rays broad, visible on a radial section as 

N. 0. BIXISE.E. 117 

long rough plates" (Gamble). Branchlets tomentose. Leaves 
near the ends of the branchlets, palmately 5-lobed, 4-9 in. diam., 
lobes shortly acuminate entire, grey-tomentose beneath, old 
leaves glabrous. Petioles slender, 4-6 in. Flowers 4-5 in. 
diam.; golden yellow in few-flowered terminal panicles. Sepals 
silky. Petals obovate, notched. Capsules pear-shaped, 3-4 in. 
long, 5-lobed. Flowers— February- April. Seeds covered with 
a kind of silk-cotton, called the "Kapok" fibres of India. 

Parts used : — The gum and cotton. 

Uses : — The gum has been proposed as a substitute for 
tragacanth. It is used in coughs, also in gonorrhoea (Indian 
Medical Gazette, 1875, p. 39). 

In Patna, the dried leaves and flowers are used as sti- 
mulants. (Irvine, p. 78). 

104. Bixa Orellana, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 190. 

Vern. : — Latkan, Watkana (H. and B.) ; Kong, Kuombi 
(Santal.) ; Jarat, Jolandhar (Ass.); Gulbas (Uriya) ; Powasi 
^Chittagong) ; Reipom (Manipur) Shal-ke-pandi-ka-jhar (Deck.) ; 
Kisri, Kesari, Kesuri, Shendri (Mar. Bom.) ; Jupharachettu, Jafra 
vittulu-chettu, Kurungu-menjivittulu-chettu (Tel.) ; Japhra- 
maram, Jafra-virai-maram (Tam.) ; Kuppamankala, Rangamali 
(Kan.) Korungoomunga (Mai.) Gowpurgee (H.). 

Habitat : — Cultivated throughout India for the dye. 

A large evergreen shrub or small tree. Bark brown, -§• in. 
thick. Wood pinkish-white, soft, even-grained. Annual rings 
marked by a line without pores. Pores moderate-sized, in 
radial strings of 3 to 6, prominent on a vertical section. Medul- 
lary rays fine, closely packed, bent round the pores, or groups 
of pores, so that the distance between the rays is less than 
the transverse diameter of the pores (Gamble). Leaves simple, 
4-8 by 2^-5 in., cordate, acuminate, glabrous. Stipules minute. 
Petioles slender, 2-3 in. Flowers in terminal panicles, bisexual, 
large, 1-2 in. diam. ; pink or white ; purple say H. /. and Th. ; 
sepals 5, imbricate deciduous. Petals 5, contorted in bud. 
Anthers numerous, opening by two terminal pores. Ovary 
1-celled ; style slender, curved ; stigma notched ; ovules many, 


on 2-parietal placentas. Capsule reddish brown, clothed with 
soft prickles, 1 J in., ovoid or sub-globose, base intruded ; 
dehiscence loculicidally 2-valved ; placentas on the valve. Seeds 
many, covered with a red pulp (originally fleshy papillae on 
the testa) which yields the well-known dye. Albumen 
farinaceous ; Embryo large ; cotyledons flat. 

Parts used : —The seeds, seed-pulp and root-bark. 

Uses :— Astringent and slightly purgative, also a good 
remedy for dysentery and kidney diseases. The pulp (a well- 
known colouring matter) surrounding the seeds is astringent 
(Roxburgh.). The seeds are cordial, astringent, and febrifuge 

The root-bark is antiperioclic and antipyretic, and the 
seeds slightly astringent and a very good remedy for gonorrhoea. 
The seeds also possess the antiperiodic and antipyretic properties, 
but to a less extent. 

The root-bark is of great use in uncomplicated inter- 
mittent, remittent, and continued fevers. The seeds are very 
useful, particularly in the form of decoction. They are also use- 
ful in the above varieties of fever, but inferior to the root-bark 
in this respect. 

The root-bark is one of those antiperiodic medicines, 
which can be used during the absence as well as the presence 
of pyrexia in the intermittent fever ; and this remark is also 
applicable to the seeds as an antiperiodic (Moodeen Sheriff). 
The seed pulp is used by the American Indians to paint their 
body all over for full dress, and this use of it is said also to pre- 
vent mosquito bites 

105. Flaeourtia Cataphracta, Roxb. H.F.B.I., 
i. 193. Roxb. 739. 

Sans. : — Prachin-amalaka. 

Vern. :— Paniyala rB.); Talispatri (H.; Tel; Tam.). Jag- 
gam, Jan-Gama, Tnmbat (Bom.) Tdmbat (Mar.). 

Habitat :— Nepal eastward, Bengal, Assam, Chitagong. 
The Konkan. S. India. Burma. Occasionally in Saharanpur. 

N. 0, BIXINE^, 119 

Brandis describes this as a middle-sized deciduous tree. 
Whereas Kanjilal, writing about the same tree as found in 
the Sal Forests of Dun, says it is a small evergreen tree. Bark 
smooth. Wood hard, close-grained, reddish or orange-red, 
brittle. Stem armed with compound spines " up to middle age," 
says Kanjilal. Young shoots slightly pubescent. Leaves 3-5 in. 
long, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, crenate, thin but 
tough, quite rounded. Petiole ^ a -^ in. long. Flowers de- 
ciduous, very small, in irregular glabrous racemes. Sepals hairy 
within, edges ciliate. Stigmas 4-6, capitate. Ovary flask-shaped, 
narrowed into a short cylindric or conical style. Fruit globose, 
|-J in. diam., purple when ripe, crowned by the persistent 
stigmas on peduncles, |-J in. long, very acid, dark purple when 
ripe. Stones 10-14, flat. 

Parts used : — The leaves, shoots, bark and fruit. 

Use : — The fruit is recommended as useful in bilious 
conditions and, like most acid fruits, it no doubt relieves the 
nausea and checks the purging (Dymock). The fruit is most 

The leaves and young shoots taste like rhubarb, and are 
supposed to possess astringent and stomachic properties, and 
are prescribed in diarrhoea and weakness (Watt.) 

The leaves are said to have diaphoretic properties. 

106. P. Ramontchi, L'Herit. h.f.b.i., i. 193. 
var. Sapida, Roxb.739. 

Sans. : —Swadu-kantaka. 

Vern. : — Bilangra ; bhanber ; Kanju, handi ; kattar ; katti ; 
bowchi (H.); Binclia ; Katai ; Tambat (B.) ; Katail (Palamow) ; 
Serali; Mehlo Sarlarka (Kol.) ; Merlec (Santal.); Bonicha ; 
Baili ; Baincho (Uriya) ; Arma-Suri ; Katien (Gond.) Kank ; 
Kanki ; Bilati (CL P.) Swadu-kantaka; Tambat; Kaikun ; 
Pahr Bhekal Kakad (Bombay) ; Kanregu (Tel.). Gupra (Coorg). 

Habitat : — In Southern India and Ceylon. Throughout 
the forests of the Sewalik Division, Mussoorie, and Malkot Hills, 
and the valleys of Jaunsar, from the Punjab Eastward, 


Rajputana, Bihar, Central India, Dekkan and the Konkan and 
South Peninsula. In Manipur. 

There are many varieties of this in India, north and 
south. The description given by Trimen of variety Sapid a is 
about the best suited for the plant known in the Konkan. 

The leaves of the Indian plant are deciduous. Gamble 
says they fall in January-February, and the new foliage appears 
in April and May. Flowers from March-November. In Ceylon, 
the flowering time is January and February. The trees 
growing in the forests of the Sewalik Division, Mussoorie, and 
Malkot Hills and in Jaunsar are deciduous ; the bark whitish- 
grey, says Kanjilal. Trimen says it is a small tree, with long 
simple spinous twigs on the young branches and often large, 
compound, branched spines on the trunk. Bark rather smooth, 
grey ; young shoots pubescent. Leaves 2-3 in., broadly ovate, 
acuminate, obtuse, acute at base, more or less crenate-serrate, 
glabrous or pubescent on the veins beneath, thin. Petioles J in., 
often pubescent. Flowers small, in little few-flowered axillary 
raceme clusters ; male flower sepals reflexed, ciliate ; female 
flower sepals very small, ciliate ; disk annular. Ovary globular; 
stigmas 5-6, nearly sessile, recurved. Berry globular, \ in., 
diam., pulpy, smooth, marked with scars of fallen stigmas. 
Fruit red or brown, dark inky, when ripe. Seeds 4-6, strongly 

Parts used : — The seeds, gum, bark and fruit. 

Uses : — According to Sanskrit writers, the fruits are 
sweet, appetising and digestive. They are given in jaundice 
and enlarged spleen (U. C. DuttJ 

After child-birth among natives in the Deccan, the seeds 
are ground to powder with turmeric, and rubbed all over the 
body to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. 

The gum is given along with other ingredients for cholera. 

The bark is applied to the body along with that of 
Albizzia, at intervals of a day or so during intermittent fever, in 
Chutia Nagpur (Revd. A. Campbell). The Species of Albizzia is 
not mentioned (K. R. K.). 

N. O. BIXINEJ2. 121 

107. F. hepiaria, Roxb. h.f.b.i., i. 194. Roxb. 739. 

Vern. : — Kondai (H.) ; Sherawane, hargal, dajkar, jidkar 
khatai, kingaro (Pb.) ; Atruna ; tambat (Bombay); Conrew, 
kana regu (Tel.); Sottacla (Tamil) ; Couron moeli (Malay.); 
Jootay Karoonday (Dec.) ; Bainch (C. P.) 

Habitat :— Throughout Bengal, the Western Peninsula, 
notably in the north of Thana district, Ceylon. 

A small, thorny shrub or tree. Bark yellowish-red, thin. 
Wood light red, hard, close and even-grained. Stem much 
branched, with the branchlets ending in sharp pointed rigid 
spines. Leaves 1-2 in., in fascicles, cuncate-ovate, or oblong, 
tapering to a petiole, very obtuse, more or less crenate-serrate, 
glabrous, stiff. Flowers yellowish dioecious, solitary or few, very 
small, in axillary racemose clusters shorter than the leaves. 
Sepals acute ; pilose. Disk lobular, stigmas 3-4, very short, 
recurved, usually separate, on very short styles. Berry like a 
pea, globular, \ in., smooth, purple, acid-sweet when ripe, much 
appreciated, as it makes a refreshing drink with sugar and 
water. Thorns usually bearing flowers and fruit 

Use : — This tree yields an antidote to snake-bite from 
an infusion of the leaves and roots. The bark triturated in 
Sesamnm oil, is used as a liniment in rheumatism (Wight ; 
Ainslie ; Rheecle. ) The ripe fruit, pea-shaped, is very 

108. Gynocardia odorata, R. Br. h.f.b.i., i. 195. 

Syn. : — Chaulmoogra odorata, Roxb. 740. 

Vern. :— Chaulmoogra, Chhalmugra, Choulmungri (Hind.); 
Chaulmugri, petarkura (Beng.); Kadu (Nepal); Tuk-kung, 
(Lepcha) ; Chaulmugra (Bomb.) ; Tungpung (Magh.).; Taliennce, 
(Sing.'! ; Brinjmogra (Pers.) ; Ta fung-tsze (Chinese^. 

Habitat : — From Sikkim and the Khasia hills eastwards to 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree, perfectly glabrous, 
readily recognized by the hard round fruits which grow on the 


stem and main branches. Branches slender and flexuous. Bark 
j in., thick, grey, smooth. Wood hard, close-grained, yellow or 
light-brown. Pores very small, in radial lines. Medullary 
rays white, very numerous and prominent ''Gamble). Leaves 
bifarious, coriaceous, oblong or linear-oblong, abruptly acumi- 
nate, quite entire, shining above ; largest 640 by 3-4 in., 
strongly reticulate beneath ; petiole £-1 in. long. Flowers 
sweet-scented, yellowish, in large fascicles on the trunk, solitary 
or a few together in the leaf-axils, dioeous, very variable in 
size, -§--2 in. diam. ; the females largest. Peduncles 1-3 in. 
Bracts basal, minute. Calyx coriaceous, cup-shaped, 5-toothed. 
Petals 5, with a ciliate scale at the base of each male flower. 
Stamens numerous, filaments woolly, anthers basifixed, linear. 
Female flowers: staminodes 10-15, villous. Ovary 1-celled, 
styles 5, stigma large, cordate ; ovules numerous, on 5 parietal 
placentas. Fruit globose, 3-5 in. diam. ; rind thick, hard, rough. 
Seeds 1 in. long, obovoid, immersed in pulp. Cotyledons flat, 
in oily albumen. 

Uses : — It is officinal in the Indian Pharmacopoeia. The 
oil has been very successfully used in leprosy. 

" It has been very favorably reported on in many medical 
publications, especially as a remedy for leprosy, psoriasis, 
eczema, scrofula, phthisis, lupus, marasmus, chronic rheu- 
matism, and gout. The preparations most in repute in Europe 
are the pure oil, gynocardic acid, and an ointment prepared 
from the oil." 35 • * Perhaps the most satisfactory and trustworthy 
results have been those obtained in the treatment of chronic 
and acut eczema, and other forms of skin disease" (Watt.) 

Prior to 1900 it was believed that the " chaultnoogra oil " was obtained 
from its seeds. But now it is known that, that oil is obtained from the seeds 
of Taruktogenos Kurzii. Chaultnoogra oil, at the ordinary temperature, is a 
solid (m. p. 22-23°) the oil from the seeds of Gynocurdia odorata is a liquid. 
Furthermore, Chaultnoogra oil is optically active and consists chiefly of the 
glycevylesters of members of the Chaulmoogric acid series, whereas the oil from 
gynocardia seeds is opticially inactive, and contains neither Chaulmoogric 
acid nor its homologues. 

Gynocardia oil consists of the glycerylesters of the following acids :— 
(I) linolic acid, or isomerides of the same series, consisturing the largest 
proportion of the oil ; (2) palmitic acid, in considerable amount ; (3) linolenic 

N. 0. BlXINE^l. 123 

and isolinolenic acids, the lattter preponderating ; and (4) oleic acid, in 
relatively small amount. 

In addition to the fatty oil, gynocardia seeds contain 5 per cent, of a 
crystalline glucoside, gynocardia, C 12 H 19 9 N, l£H 2 0, and a hydrolytic enzyme, 

(Power and Barroncliff, Trans., Oh. S. LXXXVII, p. 896, et seq.) 

Gynocardin, a new cyanogenetie glucoside. Power and Gornall have 
(shown Ohem. Soc. Proc, 1904) that when the seeds of Gynocardia odorata 
are crushed and brought into contact with water, hydrogen cyanide is 
formed, owing to the presence in the seeds of a cyanogenetie glucoside, 
which was isolated and designated gynocardin. They have determined its 
constitution. Four Kilos of the powdered gynocardin seeds were first extracted 
with cold petroleum, for the complete removal of the fatty oil, and then with 
25 per cent, alcohol. On expelling the alcohol from the extract, a dark syrupy 
residue was obtained, which soon formed a paste consisting chiefly of a 
crystalline substance ; this was separated from the mother-liquor, digested 
for several minutes with warm ethylacetate, and again separated. A further 
quantity of the crude glucoside was obtained from the syrupy alcoholic 
mother-liquor, by first mixing it with " prepared saw dust," drying the mass 
and extracting it with ethylacetate, which slowly removes the glucoside. 
The crude glucoside was purified by dissolving it in water, treating the solu- 
tion with animal charcoal, and evaporating under diminished pressure to a 
syrup, which set to a hard cake of colourless crystals which were dried on 
porous earthenware. The yield was 200 grams. Gynocardia forms colourless, 
glistening, prismatic needles of thecompositien C 13 H 10 O 9 N-f HH 2 ; the water 
is expelled at 115°0. The anhydrous compound melts at 162°-163°C, and has 
the optical rotation (a) D2l°=+72 , 5° in aqueous solution. It is readily 
hydrolysed at the ordinary temperature by gynocardase ; an enzyme 
contained in the seeds, but only with difficulty by boiling with 5 per cent, 
hydrochloric or sulphuric acid. Dextrose and hydrogen cyanide were isolated 
from the products of the reaction, but the third substance, C 6 H 3 4 , which 
should be produced, according to the equation : — 

C ;3 H 19 O 9 N+H 2 O=C -H 12 O -+C 6 H 8 O 4 +HON, is decomposed by secondary 
reactions. Gynocardin differs from other known cyanogenetie glucosides in 
its relatively great stability towards acid hydrolysing agents. It is hydro- 
lysed by treatment with barium hydroxide solution, ammonia and the barium 
salt of gynocardic acid C 12 H, 9 9 C0 2 H, being formed, according to the 
equation : C 13 H 19 9 N+2H 2 0=C 12 H 19 9 .Co 2 H4-HN 3 . This acid forms dextrose 
and an acid, C 7 H 10 O o -, on hydrolysis with acids. The results obtained indicate 
that gvnocardia is the dextrose either of the cyanohydrin of a trihydroxj— 
aldehde or ketone, in accordance with one of the following formulae : 

C,H 4 (OH 3 .CH(CN)O.C 6 H n 5 , or 

C 5 H a (OH) 3 C(CN), O.C -H u O^ 

The enzyme gynocardase was isolated by treating the finely-ground seeds 

with light petroleum to remove the fatty oil, and then digesting them with 

water, at the ordinary temperature, for 24 hours. The filtered liquid was 

treated with twice its volume of alcohol, and after standing for some hours, 


the precipitate was filtered off, washed with alcohol and dried in vacuo over 
sulphuric acid. The yield was two per cent, of the weight of the seeds. 
(J. S. Ch. I 31-5-1905, pp. 55—8). 

109. Hydnocarpus Wightiana, Blume. h.f.b.l, 

Vern. :— Kowti (called %\€t in Rajapur, Ratanagiri District, 
whence the purest oil of seed, can be procured, Kadu-Kavata 

(Bomb.) ; Kosto (Goaj ; Maravettie (Tarn.) ; Xlorotti, (Mai.) ; 
Jangli badam (seeds) ; Jangli badam ka tel (oil) <Dec.j : Niradi- 
vittalu (seeds- ; niradi-vittulu-nane (oil) (Tel.) 

Habitat: — Western Peninsula, from the S. Concan along 
the Coast range. 

A tall tree. Wood whitish. Twigs usually brown, pubes- 
cent (rarely glabrate,, as are the recemes. Leaves 4-9 by 1J-4 in., 
coriaceous or membranous, sometimes deeply obtusely serrate 
or toothed, elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, long, acuminate, base 
round, acute or subcordate. Petiole J-| in. Flowers 1 in. 
diain., solitary or racemed : white, pentandrous. Sepals green, 
pubescent, 3 inner ones longer. Petals ciliate, twice as long 
as the ovate, fimbriate scales. Stamens villous at base, equalling 
the petals. Female flowers with imperfect stamens. Ovary 
densely pubescent. Fruit a berry, 2-4 in., of the size of a small 
orange, with a hard rind, many-seeded, tomentose. Seeds 
obtusely angular, embedded in pulp, testa crustaceous, striate. 
Albumen oily ; colyledons very broad, flat. 

Parts used : — The seeds. 

Use : — The seeds have long been used as a domestic 
remedy upou the Western Coast, in certain obstinate skin dis- 
eases, ophthalmia, and a dressing for wounds and ulcers. The 
oil expressed from them is used in scabby eruptions mixed with 
an equal portion of Jatropha curcas oil, sulphur, camphor and 
lime-juice. For scald head, equal parts of the oil and lime 
water are used as a liniment. The oil has been recommended 
as a substitute for Ghaulmogra. and is being used in the 
Bombay Presidency, with satisfactory results. In the Konkan 
also, the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barsati in horses. 

N. o. bixine^:, 125 

The fatty oil from its seeds very closely resembles Chaulmoogra oil, 
both in physical characters and in chemical composition. The acids obtained 
from the oil consist chiefly of Chaulmoogric acid and a lower homologue of 
the same series. This new acid has the formula : C 10 -H 2 2 and is designated 
hydnocarpic acid. 

Hydnocarpic acid crystallises from alcohol in glistening leaflets, melts at 
60° and has [c<]d+68° in chloroform solution. Like Chaulmoogric acid, it 
contains only one ethylenic linking, and, therefore, in consideration of its 
formula, C 10 -H 23 O 2 (C w H 2?l — 40 2 ) must possess an alicyclic grouping. 

(Power and Barrowcliff, Transactions, Ch. S. Vol. LXXXVII, p. 884 et seq. 

110. Taraktogenos Kurzii, King. 

Syn. : — Hydnocarpus heterophillus, Kurz. 
Vernacular : — Kalanzo. (Barm.) (Gamble). Kalawaso 
(Burm.) (Brandis). 

Habitat : — Estern and Southern slopes of the Pegu Yoma, 
very frequent in Martabon ; forests of Sylhet ; Chittagong ; 
Minbu district, Upper Burma. 

An evergreen tree 40-50 ft. Shoots, young leaves and 
inflorescence tawny, pubescent. Leaves thinly coriaceous, entire, 
7-10 in., lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate. Secondary nerves 
very prominent beneath, tertiary, numerous, transverse and 
parallel. Sepals 4. Petals 8, broadly ovate, ciliate, each with 
a flat, fleshy pubescent gland at the base. Stamens 24, free, 
filaments hairy. Fruit size of an orange, tawny, velvety. 
Seeds numerous, embedded in a pulp. 

Use : — This is the tree which yields the Chaulmoogra 

seeds and oils of commerce, and not gynocardia odorata, R. Br. 

The seeds of Taraktogenos kurzii (King) and not of Gyhocardia odorata 
yield the oil. The seeds contain a hydrolytic enzyme and also an unstable 
cyanogen compound, which reacts with the enzyme, when the seeds are 
crushed, giving rise to hydrogen cyanide. On expression, the seeds yielded 
30'9 p.c. of a fatty oil, which had the following constants : m. pt., 22°-23° C ; 
sp. gr., 0-951 at 25° and 0*940 at 45° C ; [ap° D =+52° ; acid value, 23*9 ; saponi- 
fication value, 213 ; iodine value, 103*2. On hydrolysis, the fatty oil yielded 
glycerol, a very small amount of phytosterol, C 25 H 43 'OH (m. pt. 132 C C.) and 
a mixture of fatty acids (m. pt. 44°-45°) [a]D=+52*6° in chloroform ; acid value, 
215 ; iodine value, 103*2), which consisted chiefly of several homologous acids 
belonging to a series C°H 2 ° 4 2 containing a closed ring and one ethylenic 
linking, no member of which has hitherto been insolated from a fatty oil. 
The highest of these homologues present, which was isolated in a pure con- 


dition, separates from most of the usual organic solvents in glistening leaflets 
(m. pt. 68°C, b. pt. 247 c -248 c ) 20 mm., [a] D = + 56° has the formula C l8 H 32 2 , 
and is designated chau Imoogric acid. It combines with only two atomic pro- 
portions of bromine or iodine. Palmitic acid also was identified,, and there 
is reason for assuming the presence of a near homologue or homologues of 
chaulmoogric acid, but belonging to the series having the general formula 
CnH 2 n-±0 2 < with two ethylemic linkings. Undecylic acid and hydroxy acids 
were proved to be absent, and an individual acid corresponding to hypogseic 
acid, could not be isolated. The " gynocardic acid " of all previous investi- 
gators is believed to be a mixture of several substances. T he " presscake " 
yielded, besides formic and acetic acids and a very small amount of volatile 
esters having the characteristic odor of the seeds, an appreciable amount of 
a neutral oily substance, C ia B 32 2 (b. pt. 214°— 215° 18 mm. ; sp. gr., 0-9066 at 
16716° C., [«]d= -f 42-4°) which is isomeric with chaulmoogric acid. 

Mr. P. C. Chattopaddhyaya has analysed the seed and pub- 
lished his results in the American Journal of Pharmacy for 
1915 pp. 473-483 of which the following is the Summary. 

A sample of cold drawn oil from genuine seeds of Taraktagenos Kurzii 
(true chaulmoogra seeds) and an oil derived from supposedly genuine, but 
probably mixed seeds, by hot expression, were examined. The former was 
a pale yellow oil and remained liquid at 15°C, whilst the latter was a 
brownish yellow buttery substance which was separated by filtration into 
about equal parts of a clear oil and a solid fat (chaulmoogra fat) before 
analysis. The following values were obtained : — 

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These results indicate that the genuine oil consists almost wholly of 
triglycerides of lauric, chaulmoogric, and linolic acids, whilst the doubtful oil 
is a mixture of tri- and diglycerides. 

On neutralising the oil with alcoholic potash and adding a dilute solution 
of calcium, magnesium, or zinc chloride, the corresponding metallic salt of 
"gynocardic acid " is precipitated. Calcium and magnesium " gynocardates " 
are white crystalline substances slightly soluble in boiling water and most 
soluble in bailing alcohol, whilst zinc "gynocardate " is white and 
crystalline, insoluble in water and only very sparingly soluble in 
boiling alcohol, 10 drops of the genuine oil stirred with 1 drop of 
sulphuric acid gave a yellow coloration, changing rapidly to reddish-brown 
and finally to dirty brown, whilst the doubtful oil gave similar colour 
changes, but the final coloration was olive-green, this reaction being also 
given by the fatty acids from both oils and bj chaulmoogra fat.— 
J. Oh. I. Nov. 15, 1915. 

But in the American Journal of Pharmacy, for 1915 (pp. 

4.93 — 500), Mr. Frederick B. Power severely criticises the above 


He emphasizes the statement that chaulmoogra (Taraktogenos) oil and 
gynocardia oil are totally unlike, both in their physical characters and 
chem. compn. Along with data establishing the authenticity of his oils, 
Mr. Power gives the following : Physical characters : (1) chaulmoogra oil : 
soft solid at ordinary temp., m. 22-3°, d 2S 0.951 and d iS 0*940, [a]J5 -f 52-0°, 
acid value 23.9, sapon. value 213*0, I value 103-2. (2) Gynocardia oil : pale 
yellow liquid at ordinary temps., odor resembling that of linseed oil, d 25 
0*925, acid value 4-90, sapon. value 197*0. I value 152.8. Chemical composi- 
tion : (1) chaulmoogra oil : (from the seeds of Taraktogenos Kurzii, King), 
optically active, consists, to a large extent, of the glyceryl esters of 
optically active acids of an entirety new type, represented by the general 
formula CnH 2n — 4 2 , having a cyclic structure. The acid present in the 
largest proportion possesses the formula C 18 H S2 2 , m. 68°, [a] D -f56 c , and 
has been designated chaulmoogric acid, while a lower homolog, C 16 H 28 2 , 
m. 60°, [a] D +68°, has been termed hydnocarpic acid, on account of having first 
been isolated from a hydnocarpus oil {J. Chem. Soc. 87, 888 (1905)). Both of 
these acids are beautifully cryst. substances, from which a number of derivs. 
have been prepd., and their constitution has also been definitely established 
(O. A. 1, 1561, 2114). Inasmuch as acids of the above described type had 
hitherto not been known to occur in a fatty oil, they have been classified by 
Lewkowitsch (" Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats and Waxes") 
under the heading of "the chaulmoogric acid series." Chaulmoogra oil 
contains, furthermore, a relatively small proportion of palmitic acid and a 
phytosterol. (2) Gynocardia oil (from the seeds of Gynocardia odorata, 
R. Br.) is completely devoid of optical activity, contains none of the members 
of the chaulmoogric acid series, and has been shown to consist of the glyceryl 
esters of the following acids : (c/. J. Chem. Soc. 87, 896-900 (1905 >) ; (1) linolic 
acid, or isomerides of the same series, constituting the largest proportion 


of the oil, (2) palmitic acid, in considerable amt. (3) linolenic and isolinolenic 
acids, the latter preponderating, and (4) oleic acid, in relatively small amount. 
A phystosterol, m. 133°, was also isolated. Both the physical properties and 
chein. compn. of the above mentioned oil render it evident that the chaul- 
moogra oil of European commerce could never have been obtained from 
Gynocardia seeds. On the other hand, representative samples of commercial 
chaulmoogra oil have been found to agree closely in character with the oil 
expressed from genuine Taraktogenos seed, thus completely confirming, from 
the chetn. side, the botanical observations of Prain (Pharm. J. 64, 522 (1903) ; 
66, 596 (1901)) with respect to the source of chaulmoogra oil. Gynocardia 
seeds contain, besides the fatty oil, the cryst. cyanogenetic glucoside, gyno- 
cardin, C 13 H ld 9 N, which has, likewise, been made the subject of a complete 
chem. investigation {J, Ohem. Sloe, 87, 349-57 (1905); 97, 1285-9 (1910)). 
Mr. Power also notes that the total compn. of chaulmoogra oil, as given by 
Chattopadhyaya, is equal to 110/'", which is obviously an error. Chemical 
Abstracts, Jan. 10, 1916 p, 89. 

111. Pittosporurn floribundum, W. and A. 

H.F.B.I., I. 199. 

Syn. : — Celastrus verticillata, Eoxb. 209. 

Vern. :— Tibilti (Nepal) ; Bongzam (Lepcha) ; Yekdi ; 
Yekadi (Bomb.) ; Vehkali ; Vikhari ; Vehyenti ; yekadi (Mar.). 

Habitat: — Subtropical Himalaya, from Sikkim to Garwhal. 
Khasia hills and Mishmi ; Western Peninsula, Concan to the 

A small evergreen tree, very handsome. "Bark very thin, 
light greenish-grey, with very prominent horizontal lenticels, 
up to nearly * in, long. Wood white, moderately hard, close- 
grained. Pores small, often sub-divided or in strings, scanty 
or irregularly distributed. Medullary rays fine to moderately 
broad" (Gamble). Branches often nrnbelled, glabrous. Leaves 
pale beneath, margin waved, 4-6 in. (Brandis). 2-8 by J -3 
in. (H. /. and Th.), glabrous, shining, coriaceous, acute or 
acuminate, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate. Flowers yellow, 
numerous, small, pubescent, in much-branched, terminal, 
compound, dense corymbs, sometimes leafy below; branches 
1-3 in., spreading, glabrous or pubescent ; sepals ovate, obtuse 
or acute, subciliate. Petals erect, claws connivent. Stamens 


5, erect ; anthers 2-celled, introrse, bursting by slits. Style 
glabrous. Ovary pubescent, sessile, incompletely 2-3-celled. 
Ovules 2 or more on each placenta. Capsule glabrous, | in. 
diam.; pisiform, woody 2-rarely 3-valved ; valves coriaceous, 
placentiform in the middle. Seeds 1-4, occasionally numerous, 
smooth, embedded in a pulp. 

Uses: — The bark is bitter and aromatic, and is said by 
natives of the Western Ghats to possess narcotic properties. It 
is used in doses of 5 to 10 grs. as a febrifuge, and in doses of 
50 grs., is believed to be a specific for snake poisoning ; 5 to 
10 grain doses of the dried bark given with benefit in chronic 
bronchitis. It is a good expectorant, but in one or two cases 
in which it was tried in Bombay, it gave rise to dysenteric 
diarrhoea (Pharmaco. Indica). 

The late M. 0. Periera of Bandra, an Assistant in the 
Bombay Medical Stores, used to prepare a tincture of the bitter 
bark. In exhibiting a specimen of the Tincture at the Thera- 
peutical Section of the International Medical Congress of 
Australasia, held in Melbourne in January 1889, Surgeon Major 
K. R. Kirtikar said thus :— " The tincture contains a volatile 
oil which is said to act as an antiseptic and stimulant to the 
mucous membrane of the bronchi. The dose of the tincture 
is a drachm and a half, thrice daily in water or honey." 
(Seep. 948, Proceedings of the Second Session of the x^ustrala- 
sia CongressJ 

In Travancore, half-a-teaspoonful doses are given internally 
in leprous affections, and the oil beaten up with the kernels 
and shells of castor oil seeds, is used as a remedy for itch, 

In physiological action, the oil is alterative, tonic, and a 
local stimulant, and appears also to have a specific effect on certain 
skin diseases. It has been recommended for trial as a local 
application in rheumatism, leprosy, sprains and bruises, scia- 
tica, chest affections and phthisis, ophthalmia, and the various 
forms of skin diseases. Internally it may be prescribed in 
doses of from 15 minims to 2 drachms in cases of leprosy, 
various forms of cutaneous disease, secondary syphilis and 


chronic rheumatism. It must, however, be employed with 
caution, as in certain cases it is said to act as a gastro-intestinal 
irritant, producing vomiting and purging (Watt.) 


112. Polygala erotalarioides, Ham. H.F.B.I., 
i. 201. 

Vern. : — Lil Kathi (San tali). 

Habitat : — Common in Simla, in rock-crevices. Temperate 
Himalaya, from Chamba Hill to Siklnm, Khasia Mts. 

A perennial, densely hairy herb. Rootstock woody, often 
tuberous. Stems thick, short, decumbent. Branches long, 
spreading. Leaves nearly sessile, ovate or oblong-ovate, 
\-2 in. Bracts sessile. Flowers purple, crowded in axillary 
racemes. Calyx persistent. Keel-petal crested. Capsule 
heart-shaped, fringed. Seeds hairy. Strophiole, with 2 small 
ovate appendages. 

Parts used : — The entire plant and the root. 

Use :— Used medicinally by the natives in catarrhal 
affections ; deserving of further attention. (Ph. Ind., p. 29.) 

Royle states that the plant was sent to him with the infor- 
mation that the root was employed as a cure for snake-bite 
by the hill people of the Himalaya. This fact is of interest, 
since P. Senega is similarly used in South America (Watt.) 

113. P. chinensis, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 204. 

Syn. : — P. arvensis, Willd ; Roxb. 531. 

Vern. : — Meradu or Miragu (H.) ; Gaighura (Santal.) ; Negli 
(Mar.) Pili Bhoysana (Guj. and Porebunder). 

Habitat : — Throughout India, from the Punjab to Pegu, 
and in the Western Peninsula. In Porebundar State (Barda. 

An annual herb, most variable, usually procumbent, 
leafy, rather stout, 3-10 in. high, glabrous or pubescent. 


Leaves excessively variable, |-2 in. long, sometimes quite 
obcordate, at others almost orbicular, at times narrow, linear, 
rather thick and coriaceous, glabrous, ciliate, hoary or pubes- 
cent, margins usually flat, opaque. Racemes axillary and extra- 
axillary, much shorter than the leaves, truncate, almost 
capitate. Bracts persistent, at least till the flower expands. 
Flower i-| in. long. Wings longer than the sub-orbicular, 
notched, ciliate, narrowly winged, capsule green, falcate, 
obovate, acute ; margins membranous ; crest of corolla very 
small. Seeds silky, strophiole with 3 short appendages. 

Part used : — The root. 

Use : — In Chutia Nagpur, the root is given medicinally in 

cases of fever and dizziness .Campbell). 

114. P. telephioides, Willd. h.f.b.l, i. 205. 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, Carnatic and Travancore, 

An annual herb ; stems very many from an annual 
woody root, prostrate, not exceeding 2-4 in. in height, pubes- 
cent. Leaves sessile, §-§ in., margins usually recurved, 
glabrous, often imbricate, very thick, obovate or oblong, obtuse 
or acute. Bracts caducous before flowering. Flowers ^ in. 
long, fascicled on very short, extra-axillary peduncles ; outer 
sepals acute, wings herbaceous, oblique, acuminate. Capsule 
glabrous ; not ciliate, xs in - broad and long, deeply notched ; 
valves margined. Seeds minute, silky, strophiole minutely 

Use : — Used in catarrhal affections by the natives of 
Madras. (Ph. Ind., p. 29.) 


115. Frankenia pulverulata, Linn, h.f.b.l, 
i. 212. 

Vern. : — Khareeya (Sindh.) 

Habitat : — On the Sea Coast of Sind ; also on the salt 
plains of the Punjab, and probably also in Cutcb. 

tf. 0. CARYOPHYLLE^. 133 

An annual herb, slender, prostrate, diffuse, exceedingly 
branched. Leaves obovate, retuse or hoary beneath, i-J in. } 
very shortly petioled. Branches wiry, leafy, 6-18 in. long. 
Flowers pink, shorter than the leaves. Calyx cylindric, glab- 
rous, strongly ribbed. Petals small. 

Use : — Valued by native practitioners in the fresh state 
for its mucilaginous and aromatic properties ; exhibited in the 
form of decoction in empyreuma (Murray.) 


116. Saponaria Vaccaria., Linn, h.f.b.1., 
i. 217. 

Syn. :— ■ S. perfoliata, Roxb. 385. 

Vern. :— Musna (Santal. ; H.) ; Sabuni (B.). 

Habitat ; — In wheat fields throughout India. 

An annual herb, tall robust, simple or sparingly branched, 
perfectly glabrous, 12-24 in. high. Leaves 1-3 by -J-f in., acute, 
cauline, linear-oblong. Radical leaves oblong, cauline sessile, 
base rounded or cordate. Flowers erect in dichotomous cymes. 
Pedicels slender, more or less tubular, ^ in., with 5 broad green 
nerves, ventricose in fruit. Calyx-teeth triangular, margins 
scarious. Petals short, oborate, rosy. Stamens 10. Styles two. 
Capsule included, broadly ovoid. Seeds large, globose, black, 

Part used : — The sap. 

Use : — The mucilaginous sap of the plant is used by the 
natives in the cure for itch (Murray.) 

It is considered by natives to have febrifuge and tonic- 
properties in long continued fevers of a low type (S. Arjun.) 

The decoction of an allied species, Saponaria officinalis, 

has been employed both in France and Germany as an external 

application to the itch. It has also been given internally in 

gout, rheumatism, and some other disorders. 

Saponaria officinalis contains a principle, called Saponine, which is 
white, amorphous, and has a taste first sweet, then styptic, and finally acrid. 


It is a powerful sternutatory, and is soluble in water. The solution froths 
when agitated, like soap. When acted on by alkalies, saponine is converted 
into saponic acid. The detergent properties of the plant appear to depend 
on this substance (S'owerby's English Botany). 

The Indian species does not seem to have been as yet chemically 

117. Poly car pcea corymbose, Lam. h.f.b.l, 
i. 245. 

Vern, : — In Porebunder, it is called the small-leaved 

Habitat: — Throughout India, Ceylon, Burma. Found on 
Burda Mt, in Porebunder State (J. Indraji). 

An erect or decumbent annual or perennial herb. Stems 
6-12 in., erect or ascending, much dichotonously branched ; 
branches very numerous, wings diffuse, 4-10 in. long, spreading 
from the centre, hoary, tomentose or glabrescent. Leaves 
numerous, narrow, linear or subulate, pseudo-verticillate (\i\ 
opposite clusters), i-1 in., acuminate, acute or obtuse, much 
exceeding the stipules. Stipules lanceolate or subulate, 
scarious. Flowers crowded in conspicuous terminal dichotomous 
silvery cymes, | in. Sepals somewhat unequal, 5, free with 
scarious white margins, shining white or coloured, narrowly 
lanceolate, j G in , very acute, keeled on the back, glabrous or 
pilose, much exceeding the petals and capsule. Petals 5, 
truncate, white, much, shorter than the sepals. Style 1, tip 
3-toothed. Capsule much shorter than the calyx opening by 3 
valves. Seeds numerous, rough, pale-brown, small. 

Use : — In Pudukota, used both externally and internally 
as a remedy for the bites of venomous reptiles (Pharmaco- 
graphia Indica, Vol. 1, 158). In Porebunder it is similarly 
used as pounded leaves for bites from animals. Its pounded 
leaves are also used with molasses in the form of a pill in 
jaundice by the villagers of Porb under. 

The pounded leaves are also used over boils and in- 
flammatory swellings, as poultice, warmed or cold (J. Indraji.). 

K. o, portulaoe^;. 135 


118. Portulaca oleraeea, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 246, 
Roxb. 391. 

Sans. : — Loni, 

Vern. : — Khursa, khurfa, kurfe-ka-sag, Ionia, ranncha, 
lunia, kurfa, munya, kulfa lunuk, nonkha, chhota-lunia, bara- 
lunia, luniya-kulfah; Seeds — kliurfe-ke-bij (Hind.); Baraloniya, 
munya, chhotalunia, kulfi ; Seed = tukhm-kulpha, baraloniya-bij 
(Beng.) ; Puruni-sag (Uriya) ; Mota uric alang (Santal.) ; Luniya, 
nunia lunak, desi-kulfali (U. P.) ; Luniya-kulfah, lunak 
(Kumaon) ; Lonak, kulfa, luniya, kundar ; Seeds— dhamni (Pb.) ; 
Murlai, tursbuk, warkharai (Pushtu) ; Lonak (Sind.) ; Ghol, 
gholu, (C. P.) ; Kurfah, gol, raoti ghol (Bom.) ; Bhuigholi (Mar.) ; 
Loni (Guz.) ; Khulfe-ki-bhaji ; Seeds =khulfe-ke-binj (Dec); 
Parpu-kire, passelie kiray, caril-kiray, parupu, puropu-kiray, 
caric-kiray : Seeds = parpu-kire virai, pedda-pail-kuru, boddu- 
pavili kura, ganja-pavili-kura, batchali aku : Seeds = pappukura- 
vittula, pedda-pavila-kura vittulu, boddu-pavili kura-vittulu, 
(Tarn.) ; Pappu-kura, pedcla-pavili-kura, boddu-pavili-kura, 
ganga-pavili-kura (Tel.) ; Duda gorai (Kan.) ; Korie chira 
(Malay.) ; Kourfa kara-or, baqlatul humqa, buklut-ul-kukema, 
khurfa. Seeds — bazrul-baqlatul humqa (Arab.) ; Cholza, khur- 
fah, turuk, kurfah, kherefeh, turk : Seeds = tukhme-khurfa 

Habitat : — Throughout India, in all warm climates. Found 
in the Himalaya. An abundant weed, in cultivated grounds, 
throughout Ceylon. 

A short annual herb, with stout, glabrous, numerous, 
prostrate or ascending subsucculent branches, |-1 ft. Leaves 
alternate, J-1J in., rounded-truncate, crowded beneath the 
branches, oblong spathulate, very obtuse, thick pale and 
glistening beneath. Petiole very short. No stipular append- 
ages. Infloresence of few-flowered terminal heads, either solitary 
or in dichotomous cymes. Flowers sessile, inconspicuous, with 
a few ovate, pointed, scarious scales. Petals 4-5, yellow, about 


equalling the sepals, very delicate or soon falling off or 0« 
Stamens 8-12. Style 3-8-iid. Capsule dehiscent transversely, 
inclosed in sepals, the free portions of which also separate by 
transverse division and come away with the lid. Seeds 
numerous, muricate, dark brown. The flowers are yellow and 
open only for a few hours in the morning. Flowers all the year 

Parts used :— The plant, leaves, and seeds, 

Uses : — The plant has long been used as a domestic 
remedy by the Hindus, and was early noticed by European 
writers. Ainslie writes thus of P. quadrifida which posesses 
the same properties: — "The bruised fresh leaves of this acid 
and pleasant-tasted purslane are prescribed by the Tamool 
practitioners as an external application in akki, erysipelas ; an 
infusion of them is also ordered as a diuretic in dysuria, to the 
extent of half-a-tea-cupful twice daily." He further mentions 
that in Jamaica, P. oleracea is employed as a cooling and 
moistening herb in " burning fevers." Bruised, it is applied 
to the temples to allay " excessive heat " and pain, and that 
the juice is " of use in spitting of blood." Dymock says that 
both species are supposed by Arabian and Persian writers 
to be cold and moist, and to have detergent and astringent 
properties. The plant and seeds are recommended by them 
in a great many diseases of the kidneys, bladder, and lungs, 
which are supposed to be caused by hot or bilious humours. 
They are also praised as an external application in burns, 
scalds, and various forms of skin disease (Mat. Med., W. Ind.). 
Moodeen Sheriff describes the seeds as demulcent, slightly 
astringent, and diuretic ; the leaves as refrigerant, astringent, 
diuretic, and emollient. He believes, both to be " very useful" 
in some cases of strangury, dysuria, irritation of the bladder, 
hgematuria, hsematemesis, haemoptysis, and gonorrhoea. " In 
addition to this," he writes, " the seeds seem to have some 
beneficial influences over the mucous membrane of the intestinal 
canal, and therefore relieve tormina, tenesmus, and other dis- 
tressing symptoms in many cases of dysentery and mucous 
diarrhoea. This is particularly the case when they are combined 



with some other drugs of similar nature." He recommends 
the -fresh succulent leaves as a cooling external application in 
the place of ice or cold lotion. The seeds and juice of the 
fresh leaves may be best administered in the form of a draught, 
from thirty grains to one drachm of the former, and from one 
to two fluid ounces of the latter (obtained by pressing the 
leaves) being the dose. He recommends either of these as 
substitutes for spirits of nitrous ether, Pareira-brava, tragacantb, 
elm-bark, rhatany, copaiba, and ice. 

By Natives generally at the present day, the herb is chiefly 
valued as a refrigerant and alterative pot herb, particularly 
useful as an article of diet in scurvy and liver disease. In 
addition to the properties above detailed, the seeds are believed 
in the Punjab to be vermifuge. 

The juice of the stems may be applied with advantage to 
prickly heat, as well as to the hands and feet when a burning 
sensation is felt. 

119. P. quadrifida, Linn., h.f.b.i., i. 247. 

Syn. : — P. meridiana, Roxb. 391. 

Sans : — Laghu Lonika 

Vern. : — Chounlayi, loniya, khate chaw r al (Hind.) ; Nuniya, 
chhota lunia (Beng.) ; Lunak, haksha, lunki-buti (Pb.) ; Kota, 
chaval-ke-bhaji, barika, ghola (Bomb.); Luni(Guz.j; Ran Ghol 
(Mar); Choulayi-ki-bhaji, ghol-ki-bhaji, chowli (Dec); Soin- 
parpu-kirai, pasarai-kirai, siru-pasarai-kirai, passeli-kirai(Tam.) ; 
Sanna-pappu, sanna-pavili, goddu pavili, pedda pavili, sunpail 
kura, pavili, kura, payalaku, sanna payala (Tel.) ; Hali bachcheli 
(Kan.) ; Hin-gende-kola (Sing.) ; Baqlatul-yamaniah, baqlatul- 
aarabbiyah budelut-ul-mobarik (Arab.) 

Habitat : — Throughout the warmer parts of India. 

A diffuse, annual, succulent herb. Stem filiform. Rooting 
at the nodes ; nodal appendages pilose, more or less copious. 
Leaves flat J-J in., opposite, very shortly petioled, ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate. Flowers terminal, solitary. Calyx-tube J-itn- 
mersed in the extremity of the axis, surrounded by a four- 
leaved involucre, and long silky hairs. Petals 4, yellow; 


stamens 8-12 (Hooker); anthers two-celled. Style filiform, 
4-fil to the middle. Ovary half-ad nate. Fruit a capsule 
dehiscing transversely. Seeds minutely tubercled, compressed. 

Parts used : — The leaves and seeds. 

Uses : — The leaves are similar to those of P. oleracea. 
The seeds also possess identical qualities to those of the former 

120. P. tuberosa, Boxb. H.F.B.I., i. 247. Roxb. 

Vern. : — Loonuk (SincL) ; Dhamnee— the seed ; Bodda kura 

Habitat: — Behar, Sind, the Punjab, and the Western 

A diffuse, succulent, perennial herb. Root tuberous, 2-3 
in., slightly fusiform. Stem short, 2-3 in., spreading from 
the root, with a few branches towards the extremity, villous. 
Leaves |-| in., alternate, fleshy, linear ; nodal appendages 
* in., of sparingly tufted brown hairs. Flowers yellow, in 
small terminal clusters, surrounded by about 8 leaves and tufted 
hairs. Stamens 20. Style filiform, 5-cleft. Seeds black, 

Use:— The fresh acid leaves are used medicinally ; an 
external application is prescribed by native practitioners in ery- 
sipelas and an infusion in dysuria (Murray, 96 ) 


121. Tamarix galliea, Linn., h.f.b.l, i. 248. 

Syn. : -T. Indica, Willd. 

Sans. : — Jhavooka, Shavaka. 

Vern. :— Jhau (H. & B.V Jhav-nu-jhada (Gnz.) ; Pilchi, 
Koa; rukh ; lainya ; jhau; lai (Ph.); Atru-shavnkhu-maram 
(Jain) ; Eru-saru-manu (Tel.) ; Ler, lai, jhau (Sind.). 

The galls : — Baramai ; barri main (H.) ; Magiya main. 



The manna : — Gazangabin and Gazanjabin (Arab., Pers., 
and Bomb.) 

Habitat: — Throughout India, near rivers, and along the 

A glaucous, gregarious, small tree or shrub. Bark rough 
greenish-brown, that of young branches reddish-brown, 
smooth, with small whitish specks. Wood whitish, occasionally 
with a red tinge, open and coarse-grained, fairly hard and 
tough, but not strong. Pores small and moderate-sized, numer- 
ous, more so in spring wood. Medullary rays numerous, broad, 
but short (Gamble). Annual rings distinct (Brandis). Leaves 
minute, not sheathing, apex acute, patent or loosely appressed. 
Flowers mostly bisexual, pentamerous, white or pink, crowded 
in long slender spikes, collected in dense panicles at the ends 
of branches and forming a large irregular mass of flowers. 
Bracts shorter than flowers. Disk slightly 5-or 10-crenate ; 
filaments not dilated at base ; styles short, stigma often almost 
sessile. Capsule -ps in. long, more than twice the length 
of the withered sepals supporting it. Flowering time, August 
to February (Brandis). 

Parts used : — The galls and manna. 

Uses : — The galls are employed medicinally by the natives 
as an astringent. Dr. Stocks speaks highly of the astringent 
properties of the galls, and from personal experience recommends 
a strong infusion of them as a local application to foul, sloughing 
ulcers and phagedenic buboes. By the natives they are also 
administered internally in dysentery and diarrhoea (Ph. Ind., 
p. 29.) 

The Hakims consider the manna to be detergent, aperient 
and expectorant (Dymock.) 

122. T. dioica, Roxb., h.f.b.i., i. 249, Roxb. 274, 

Sans. : — Pichoola. 

Vern. :— Lei; pilchi (PI).); Gaz., lao <Sindh.) ; Lal-jhau 
'B. & H.) 

Habitat :— From Sindh and the Punjab to Assam and the 
Western Peninsula, near and in the bed of rivers, and on the 


A gregarious glaucous shrub or small tree. Bark, with 
reticulate cracks showing the red inner bark. Wood moder- 
ately hard, outer portion white. Pores small to moderate-sized 
in groups or short radial lines, more abundant and larger 
in the spring wood. Medullary rays very prominent, short, 
fine to very broad, very prominent on radial section. The 
distance between the rays is generally three or four times 
the transverse diameter of the pores. The tree gives a 
gum of bitter sweet flavour (Gamble), Leaves sheathing, 
sheath tubular, apex acuminate, closely appressed, with a broad 
white margin. Flowers dioecious, pentamerous, purple or light 
pink, in stiff compact cylindrical pedunculate spikes often 
forming loose panicles at the ends of branches. Bracts as long 
as or nearly as long as the flowers. Male flowers : stamens alter- 
nating with the 5 lobes of the flesh} 7 disk, anthers distinctly api- 
culate. Female flowers: 5 thin linear staminodia ; styles 
filiform, thickened at the end, longer than the ovary. Capsule 
T 3 5 in. long, about twice the length of the withered sepals and 
petals at the base. 

Use: — The twigs and galls are used in medicine as an 
astringent (Stewart). 

123. T. articulata, Vahl., h.f.b.i., i. 249. 

Syn. :.— T. orientalis, Fovsk. 

Vern. :— Faras, farwa, marlei (Pb.>; Asrelei (Sind;. The 
galls : — Choti-main (IT.); Magiya-main (Bomb-); Lal-jhau (B. & H.) 

Habitat : — Sind and the Punjab. 

A moderate-sized tree, with an erect trunk, frequently 
6-7 ft, in growth. Bark grey, rough ; wood white moderately 
hard. Annual rings indistinct. Pores moderate-sized, often in 
groups or sub-divided, or singly between the medullary rays, 
scanty. Medullary rays short, fine to very broad, the distance 
between the rays somewhat greater than the transverse diameter 
of the groups of pores ; prominent on a radical section as. irregu- 
larly-shaped plates, giving the wood a handsome silver grain 
'Gamble). Branchlets articulate at base of sheath, often grey 
with saline efflorescence. Leaves sheathing, sheath to in. long, 

N. 0. TAMARlSCINEiE. 141 

obliquely truncate, apex triangular, acute, adpressed. Sheath 
and apex with impressed glands. Flowers bisexual or monoe- 
cious, loosely scattered on long slender spikes which are 
generally collected at the ends of branches in loose panicles. 
Bracts shorter than flowers; stamens 5. Disk entire or indis- 
tinctly 5-lobed. Capsules i in. long. Flowering time, May to 
September. The extremities of branchlets and the leaves 
on older branchlets are shed during the cold season ; new shoots 
and leaves come out about May. 

Parts used : — The bark and galls. 

Uses : -The galls are employed as an astringent (Royle). 
The bark is bitter, astringent and probably tonic. (Ph. Ind.. 
p. 20.) 

The bark powdered and, in combination with oil and 
Kamala, is used as an aphrodisiac by the natives. It is also 
employed as an application in eczema capitis, and other diseases 

124. Myricavia elegans, Boyle., h.f.b.l, i. 250. 

Vern. ;-Humbu? Umbu (Pb.) 

Habitat : — Western Himalaya from Garwhal to Ladak. 

A bush, with smooth, striate slender stem. Leaves oblong- 
ovate or oblanceolate, narrowed at the base, often crowded. 
Bracts, ovate, about twice as long as the pedicels, but short 
acuminate, with narrowly membranous margins. Flowers 3 in., 
lateral lax ; white (Brand is.) Sepals connate below, much short- 
er than petals, obtusely triangular at apex. Stamens connate 
for one- fourth of their length, 10, alternately long and short, 
monadelphous. Ovary tapering, with 3 sessile stigmas; placentas 
basal, very short, adnate to the middle of the valves ; ovules many. 
Seeds exalbuminous, with a usually stalked plume. Embryo 

Use : — The leaves form an application to bruises, &c, in 
Lahoul (Aitchison). 


125. Hypericum patulum, Thunb., h.f.b.l, i. 254. 

Vern. : — Tumbhul (Behari). 

Habitat: — Throughout the Temperate Himalaya (Sikkim 
excepted), from Bhotan to Simla and Chamba ; also in the 
Khasia Mountains and Yunnan. 

A shrub. Leaves distichous, i-l% in. long, narrowed 
rhomboid or elliptical, very shortly petioled, black-dotted and 
rusty beneath ; margins reflexed. Flowers 1 in. diam. Sepals 
i in. Petals yellow, orbicular or elliptical, longer than the 
stamens. Styles equalling the ovary, but exceeding the stamens. 
Capsules obtusely conical, i-^ in. long. 

Dr. Hooker writes in the Botanical Magazine, for Febru- 
ary 1st, 1868:- 

"It is a native of Japan, where it was discovered by 
Thunberg ninety years ago, * * As a species, it is very nearly 
allied to the H. uralum, Hamilton, of Nepal, and will probably 
prove to be a large- flowered variety of that plant. It is very 
variable in the foliage, which is flat or has recurved margins, 
and is green or rust-coloured beneath." 

Part used :— The seed. 

Use : — The scented seeds are employed as an aromatic sti- 
mulant in Patna, where they are imported from Nepal (Irvine). 

126. H. perforatum., Linn., h.f.b.i., i. 255. 

Vern. : — Balsant, dendlu (H. & Pb.) 

Habitat : — Temperate Western Himalaya, from Kumaon to 

A perennial herb. Stems erect, 2-edged, 18 in., with 
slender stolons branched above Leaves oblong or ovate, pel- 
lucid-punctate, § in., obtuse, with radiating veins, paler beneath, 
with black dots. Cymes corymbose, 3-chotomously branched ; 
flowers 1 in., sepals J in., 5, linear, acute connate ; 3-delphous 
at the base ; margins of the sepals eglandular. Petals persistent 
with black glandular edges. Ovary 3-celled ; styles twice the 


length of the ovary, equalling the stamens. Capsule J in., 

Parts used :— The leaves and the whole plant. 

Use :-— It is recommended in Arabian medicine as a vermi- 
fuge, also used to cure piles, prolapsus uteri et ani (Honning- 
berger, Vol. TL, p. 289,. The herb is bitter and astringent, 
and was recommended by Arabic writers as a detersive, reso- 
lutive, anthelmintic, diuretic and emmenagogue and, externally, 
as excitant, but it does not appear to be used in modern 
medicine (Watt). 

The plant is certainly astringent and aromatic ; taken 
internally, it occasionally acts as a purgative, but not powerfully. 
In country districts, it is sometimes used still as a medicine, and 
oil, in which the shoots or flowering tops have been steeped, is 
sold by herbalists as " oleum hyperial." The leaves have been 
used as a vermifuge (Sowerby's English Botany). 

Gareinia Mangostana, Linn., h.f.b.i., i. 260, 
Roxb. 441. 

Vern. :— Mangustan (Bomb.); Mengkop (Burm.). 

Eng. : —The Mangosteen. 

Habitat : — Cultivated in some parts of the Madras Presi- 
dency, as at Barliyar in the Nilghiri Hills ; Tenasserim. Malay 
Peninsula (doubtfully Avild) Gamble says it has never been 
successfully grown in Northern India as it requires, a very hot, 
moist and uniform climate. " Home unknown ; cultivated in 
moist regions of tropical Asia" (Brandis). Found in Cochin- 
China, Java, Singapore. 

An evergreen, small, conical tree, 20-30 ft, glabrous. 
Branches many and decussate. Under favourable circumstances, 
says Brandis, the tree attains 60ft. and more. " Bark dark 
brown or almost charcoal-black, inner bark yellowish. Wood 
brick-red, hard. Pores moderate-sized, scanty, single or in small 
groups surrounded by loose tissue, the groups very irregularly 



rnn together into more or less concentric patches, sometimes 
long and continuous, more often subdivided. Medullary rays 
moderately broad, not very numerous, of the same colour as the 
patches'' (Gamble). Leaves thickly coriaceous, 6-10 in. by 
2j-4| in.; nerves regular, close inarching, with an intramarginal 
one ; numerous, parallel li alternating with shorter intermediate 
nerves (Brandis). Petiole short, thick. Flowers tetramerous, 
" bisexual, solitary or in pairs at the ends of branchiets, 2 in. 
diara." (Brandis) Male flower in 3-9-flowered terminal fas- 
cicles ; pedicels short. Sepals orbicular, concave, persistent. 
Petals broad, ovate, fleshy ; yellow, red or purple. Stamens sur- 
rounding the rudimentary ovary in four masses ; indefinite ; 
filaments slender, flat at the base and sometimes connate, anthers 
ovate-oblong, 2-eelled. Hermaphrodite flowers, 2 in. diam., 
solitary or germinating at the tips of young branches; pedicels 
J in., thick, woody. Sepals and petals as in the Male. Stamens 
many, filaments slender, connate below. Female flower : — 
Ovary, 4-8-celled, stigma sessile, thick o-8-lobed, ovate, solitary. 
Fruit, a berry as large as an orange, globose, smooth, dark 
purple ; pericarp or rind firm, spongy, thick, full of yellow 
resinous juice. Seeds large, flattened, embedded in snowy-white, 
or pinkish delicious pulp, which is botanically called the aril. 
This pulp it is that gives the fruit its value as one of the finest 
fruits of the Eastern Tropics, and one of the most highly appre- 
ciated, delicious products of the Eastern and Western Hemis- 
pheres. Flowers from November to February. Fruit ready in 
May and June. Pierre has examined more than 1,500 Mangos- 
teen trees, without finding a single male flower. But he adds 
that several species produce male flowers when young, and female 
flowers at a later age. f Brandis). 

1 have seen a tree of this in the Dapoli English Church 
(Mission)— K. R. K. 

Parts used: — The rind, fruit, bark and leaves. 

Use : — The rind is used as an astringent medicine for diar- 
rhoea and dysentery. ft has been found very useful in chronic 
diarrhoea in children by Waring and others. (Ph. Ind. ; p. 31.) 

It has also been used as a febrifuge (Dymockj. 

N. O. GUTTIFER,£. 145 

According to Rumphius, the bark and young leaves are 
employed by the Macassars in diarrhoea, dysentery and affections 
of the geni to-urinary tracts, and also as a wash for aphthae of 
the mouth. 

Tn exhibiting before the Melbourne Medical Congress of 
January 1889, a powder and a liquid extract of mangosteen from 
the fruit-rind prepared by the late Mr. M. C. Periera of the Bom- 
bay Medical Stores, Surgeon Major Kirtikar said thus : — " The 
value of these preparations lies in the yellow resin which the rind 
of the fruit contains a character of the fruits of the Guttifers. 
The resin acts like all other resins as a stimulant to the intes- 
tinal canal. I am not sure whether the crystallisable substance, 
mangostine, which Schmidt has obtained from the rind, has any 
particular therapeutic property. It is worthy of a trial, as the 
preparations are largely used by the Natives of Western India 
in chronic cases of the intestinal canal. Waitz recommends a 
decoction of the powdered rind as an external astringent appli- 
cation. I have no doubt that the resin adds to the value of this 
local remedy, by mechanically constricting the parts gently — an 
effect very often produced by uniform light bandaging." (Con- 
gress Proceedings, p. 948). 

A strong decoction has also been recommended as an exter- 
nal astringent application (Watt.) 

The fruit is said to have come into use of late years in 
European medicine as a substitute for Beel (Watt.) 

Mangostin (A) occurs in all parts of the Mangosteen tree. The dried 
fruit-skins contain about h°'o each of a crystalline resin (A) and non-crystal 
resin. (A) was first isolated by Schmidt, who assigned the formula C 20 H 22 5 . 
(A) has the typical resin properties, burning with a smoky, luminous flame, 
causing friction and vibration when rubbed between the fingers, and dissol- 
ving in alkalis, ale, Et 2 0, and many other solvents. (A) was obtained by 
concg. the alk. ext, of the dried skins in vacuo, shaking the syrupy residue 
with H 2 0, and dissolving the dried insol. portion in warm PhH containing a 
little Et 2 0. Recrystd. repeatedly from ale. containing a little H 2 0, it forms 
flat, pale yellow needles, m. 181-2°. The analyses and mol. wt. detns. in PhO H 
and (C0 2 Me) 2 gave results agreeing with C 23 H 24 6 . (A) is insol. in carbo- 
nates, dissolves in alkalies with a red color, and is repptd. by C0 2 and acids 
and gives a greenish brown color with FeCl 3 . It contains 1 MeO and 2 
phenolic OH, the latter being shown by titration and by the action of Me 2 S0 4 
and dil. aq. KOH, which yield dimethyl-mavgostin, C 25 H 28 -, faintly yellow, 



silky needles, m. 123\ [A) and warm HN0 3 gave (C0 2 H) 2 , even when HOAc 
was used as diluent. Coned. KMN0 4 also gave (C0 2 H) 2 . Fusion with 5 parts 
KOH at about 250 : gave a volatile oil with the odor of AniOH. The aq. 
soln. of the fusion was acidified and extd. with E-t 2 0. yielding BzOH, 
isolated as the Ca salt. In another expt. the aq. soln. of the fusion 
was satd. with C0 2 , shaken out with Et 2 and then with ale., which did not 
mix with the soln. The ale. soln. containing K salts was evapd., acidified with 
H 2 SO^, and distd. with steam. The resulting volatile acids were purified 
through the Ba and Xa salts, and finally sepd. as the Ag salts. HOAc and 
C\ H :j -C0 2 H were found. Boiled with HI for 12 hrs., (A) yields a substance, C 22 
H 22 6 , faintly yellow, silky needles, m. 180-1°, changes into short rhombs 
with identical properties on standing overnight in the mother-liquors when 
erystd. from ale. gives a deep green color in ale. with FeCl 3 ; its methyl 
derivative, prepd. with Me 2 S0 4 and aq. KOH containing a little ale. to 
facilitate solu. m. 216° ; the monoacetyl derivative, using Ac 2 O and NaOAc, 
m. 218-9°.— Chemical Abstracts, Aug. 10, 1915 ; p. 2061. 

128. 0. indiea, Chois., h.f.b.i., i. 261. 

Syn. : — G. purpurea, Rcxb, 443. 

Vern.\ — The fruit, Amsul, Kokarn (Bomb.); Brindad 
(Goa) ; the oil, Kokam tel (Bomb.); the bark, Ratamba-sal, 
Bomb.); Murgal mara (Tarn. . 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, glials of Concan and 

A slender tree with drooping branches, branchlets black. 
Bark light brown, rather shining, very thin, smooth. Wood 
greyish white, hard : many dark concentric lines, resembling 
annual rings, without or with very few pores ; very numerous, 
narrow, anastomozing white brands, in which the scanty 
moderate- sized pores appear. Medullary rays moderately 
broad, white, regular 1 ' Gamble). Leaves red. when young 
2-4 in., thickly membra - anceolate, occasionally oblanceolate, 
nearly sessile, mucronate, rarely obtuse. Secondary nerves 
slender. 6-10 pair, a few shorter, very slender : intermediate nerves 
between. Flowers tetramerous, small. Sepal- orbicular, outer 
small petals rather smaller. Male flowers: a central, round or 
4-sided mass with crowded, numerous. 2-celled anthers: in ter- 
minal 3-7-flowered, often pedunculate cymes ; pedicels Jin. long. 
Anthers numerous, 2-celled od short filaments crowded on a 


central hemispherical receptacle. Hermaphrodite flower : soli- 
tary. Stamens 10-18, in 4 bandies alternating with petals. 
Female flowers solitary, terminal, shortly strictly pedunclecl. 
Ovary 4-8- celled ; stigma 6-7 — radiate, each ray with 2 lines of 
tubercles. Ovary 5-7-celled, says Brandis. Fruit globose, as long 
as a small orange, purple, not grooved. Seeds 5-8, embedded, 
compressed in a reddish acid pulp. Flowering time, November- 
February. Fruit ready, April-May. 

Parts used : — The fruit, seeds, and bark. 

Use :— The Apothecaries of Qoa prepare a very fine purple 
syrup from the juice of the fruit, which is used in bilious 
affections. The bark is astringent, and the young leaves, after 
having been tied up in a plantain leaf and stewed in hot 
ashes, are rubbed with cold milk and given as a remedy for 
dysentery (Dymock.) 

The oil of the seeds is officinal in the Indian Pharma- 
copoeia for the preparation of ointments, suppositories and other 
pharmaceutical purposes. It has been used as a local appli- 
cation to ulcerations, fissures of the lips, hands, &c. (Ph, Ind., 
p. 31.) 

Regarding the oil, Modeen Sheriff writes : — " I have used 
it internally in my practice, and have found that its best 
medicinal properties are its usefulness in phthisis pulmonalis 
and some scrofulous diseases, and in dysentery and mucous 

The oil is used by the natives as a remedy for excoriations, 
chaps, fissures of the lips, &c, by partly melting it and rubbing 
on the affected part. It is solid at ordinary temperature. 

129. G. Morella, Desrouss. h.f.b.l, i. 264. 

Syn. : — G. pictoria, Roxb., 444. Q. elliptica, Wall. 

Vern. : —The tree = Tamil , the drug = ghotaghauba, gota 
ganba, tamal (Hind.); the tree=Tamal 3 the drug — tamal 
(Beug.; ; the drug — Ausaraherevan (Dec, 0. P.); the tree — 
Tamal, the drug — revachini sira, tamal (Mar.) ; the drug= 
Makki, ireVal-chinip-pal, the oil-makki (Tarn. J; the drug= 
Revalchini-pal (Tel.); the tree = Arsinagurgi mara, aradal, punar 
puli ; the drug — Tamal (Kan.); the tree = Daramba (Malay.) 


This is the Gamboge tree, and yields abundant of that 
pigment. The gamboge of commerce, says Trimen, is obtained 
fiom Siam, and is the produce of a variety (Var. pedicellata, 
Hanb.) of this species, recently raised to the specific rank as G. 
Hanburii H. F. (Fig. 33. Med Plants. Bentley and Trimen). 

Habitat :— Forests of Eastern Bengal, the Khasia Moun- 
tains, the Western Peninsula, in Malabar, Canara and Ceylon. 

A small pyramidal tree, with spreading branches. Bark 
smooth brown, young twigs quadrangular. Wood hard, yellowish 
brown. Leaves 3-4|-in., broadly lanceolate or oval, acute at base, 
subacute, shining, paler beneath ; lateral veins very oblique, 
inconspicuous ; petioles Jin. Flowers greenish white, sessile, in 
axils of fallen leaves ; Male 2 or 3 together, Female solitary ; 
Sepals and petals 4 each, the latter longer ; Male flowers :— 
Stamens monadelphous ; filaments combined into a sub-quad- 
rangular central column, but free at their summits ; anthers 
dehiscing transversely. Female flowers : — Stamens about 12 in a 
ring round the ovary, connate at base ; Ovary globular, smooth ; 
4-celled ; stigma peltate, irregularly lobed and tubercled. Fruit 
small, fin., globose, surrounded at base by persistent sepals, 
glabrous. Seeds 4, ovoid, kidney-shaped, slightly compressed, 
testa finely muriculate, blackish-brown. 
Parts used :— The gum and branches. 

Use :— The gamboge is officinal in the British and Indian 
Pharmacopoeias. It is considered a valuable hydragogue ca- 
thartic. It also possesses anthelmintic properties. It is used 
in dropsical affections, amenorrhea, obstinate constipation, and 
as a vermifuge. 

The stem rubbed with water is a household remedy 
amongst natives, as a local application to rising pimples and 
boils, and often cuts them short. 'Dr. Gray in Watt's 

130. G. xanthochymus, Hook. /., h.f.b.i., 
i. 269. 

Syn. : — Xanthochymus pictorious Roxb., 445. 

Vern : — Dampel ; tamal, (H.) ; Tamal, (B) ; Tepor, Tezpur, 

N. 0. GUTTIFERE^. 149 

Tilnor (Assam) ; Manho-la (Garo) ; Dampel, onth, ostb. (Bomb) ; 
Jharambi ( Mar. ) ; Jwara, memadi tamalumu, chitakamaraku, 

Habitat : — Eastern Bengal and tbe Eastern Himalaya, 
from Sikkim to tbe Kbasia Mountains, Eastern Peninsula, 
Western Peninsula, tbe Circars, and from tbe Bombay gbats 
southward . There is a tree in the Victoria Gardens, Bombay. 

A medium-sized evergreen tree. Bark brown, |in. thick, 
exfoliating in small round scales. Wood dark-greyish-brown, 
very hard, and close-grained ; concentric bands thin, white, 
numerous. Pores very scanty, moderate sized, scattered and 
unevenly distributed. Medially rays fine, white, numerous, but 
irregular. Yellow gum copious (Gamble). Foliage dense, dark 
green, shining. Branchlets quadrangular, dilated below the nodes. 
Leaves thickly coriaceous, oblong or elliptic-oblong, acute ; blade 
8-14in.long, petiole f-lin.long, thick-channelled on the upperside, 
secondary nerves numerous, parellel with shorter intermediate 
nerves. Flowers white, fasciculate on thick uneven, axillary 
protuberances. Pedicels lin.. petals iin.. orbicular spreading, 
thin. Male flowers : Stamens in 5 broad bundles of 3-5, on a 
fleshy lobed disk. Bisexual : Ovary 5-celled, stigma 5-lobed. 
Fruit dark yellow, 2-3in. diam, of the size of an apple, 5-celled ; 
subglobose, pointed. Seeds 1-4, oblong. 

Use : — The fruit, which is yellow and of the size of a small 
apple and very acid, sweetish when ripe, edible, is used for the 
same purposes as that of G. indica ; it is dried and made into a 
kind of Amsul. In bilious conditions, a sherbet made with 
about 1 oz. of the Amsul, with a little rock-salt, pepper, ginger, 
cumin and sugar, is administered (Dymock.) 

131. Ochrocarpus longifolins, Benth. and 
Hook., h.f.b.i., i. 270. 

Syn. : — Calysaccion longifolium, Wight. 
Nagakesaram-pushpam (Sans.) 
Vern. :— Nag-kesar-ke-phul (the flowers), (Hind.) ; Nagesarer- 
phul (the flowers), (Beng.^i ; Surangi, tarn bra nagkesar (Bomb.) ; 


Ran uhdi, sweet, i.e.. godi imdi, mid (Koncan) ; Punnag, suringi 
(Alar.); Rati-nag-kesar (Guz.) ; Nagap-pu, nagashap-pu, 
nagesar-pu, the flowers), (Tarn); Sura-poona (Tel); Wanai, 
laringi (male), piine female', suringi. gardundi (Kan.); Seraya 
(Malay. , 

Habitat : — Forests of the Western Peninsula, from Canara 
to the Concan. 

A large evergreen tree, young branches terete, youngest 
1-gonous — " Bark reddish-brown, Jin. thick, exuding a red gum. 
Wood red., hard, close and even-grained. Pores moderately 
broad, very numerous, the distance between them equal to or 
less than, the diameter of the pores. Annual rings marked by 
a dark line. Lines of soft texture numerous, but indistinct. 
Numerous resin-ducts in radial long cells, which appear as 
shining lines on a horizontal, and black points on a vertical 
section 5 " (Gamble). Leaves 5-9 by 2~2iHn., thickly coriaceous, 
dark green, base rounded, mid-rib stout, prominent, veins few, 
indistinct, very slender, united by innumerable venules, which 
give the dried leaf a very beautifully lacunose appearance ; 
petiole short, stout, Jin. Flower-buds globose, used to dye 
silk. Flowers highly fragrant, in dense fascicles. Male 
and bisexual, fin. diam., on nodes clothed with subulate brac- 
teoles in the axils of fallen leaves, or on the old wood. Pedicels 
1 in. slender. Calyx bursting in 2 valves, reflected during the 
flowering. Petals 4, acute, thin, deciduous, white, tinged 
yellowish red, almost orange. Stamens many ; Style subulate, 
Sitgma broad, discoid. Fruit obliquely ovoid, pointed, 1 in. 
long, tipped by the hard pointed style, stipitate, L-seeded. 
:; Flowers often hermaphrodite, and used for dying silk" 
(Beddome). Flowering time January, to March, in the Konkan 

Part used : —The flower-buds. Fruit edible, when ripe, 
sweet, refreshing. 

Uses : — The flower-buds possess astringent and aromatic 
properties, and are sometimes prescribed medicinally (Dymock.) 

The flowers are stimulant and carminative. They are use- 
ful in some forms of dyspepsia and in haemorrhoids. (Moodeen 

N. O. GUTTIFER.E. 151 

132. Calophyllum inophylhim. Lin., h.f.b.i., 
i. 273, Roxb. 437. Alexandrian Laurel. 

Sans : — Punnaga. 

Vern.: — Sultana champa, Surpan, surpunka undi (H.); 
Sultan champa, punnag (B.) ; Polong punang, (Uriya; ; Surangi, 
purreya, duggerfiil, undi (Sind.) ; undi (Bomb.) ; Udi (ditch.); 
Surfan, undi, surpanka (Dec.) ; Undi, undelar wundi, surangi, 
nagchampa, pumag, undag (Mar.) ; Bintango, punna, Ponna 
(Mai.); Pinnay, pungam, punnaivirar, punnagam (Tain.) ; Puna, 
punas, ponna pumagamu, ponna-chettu, ponna- vittulu (Tel.) ; 
Wiima pinne, ponna bijavKan.'* 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, Orissa and South India. 

An evergreen, middle-sized, ornamental tree or shrub, 
glabrous. Buds only with minute rusty hairs. " Bark grey or 
blackish brown, smooth. Wood reddish brown, moderately 
hard, close-grained. Pores moderate sized, arranged in groups 
or oblique strings. Aledullary rays extremely fine and numerous, 
bent round the pores. Occasional interrupted concentric lines 
of darker, but softer tissue, prominent on all sections" (Gamble). 
Leaves elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, or obovate, coriaceous ; blade 
4-8in., by 3-4in., narrowed into petiole, J-lJin. long, shining on 
both surfaces ; veins many tine. Flowers scented, pure white, 
fto lin. diam., in axillary racemes ; Racemes in upper axils loose, 
4-6in. long, shorter than the leaves, lax, few-flowered. Pedicels 
slender, 1-2 in. Petals 4, like the inner sepals. Stamens 
numerous ; filaments in 4 bundles. Rumphius and Blume 
say that the petals are sometimes 6-8. Ovary globose, stipitate ; 
style much exceeding the Stamens. Stigma peltate, lobed. 
Fruit yellow, round, 1 in. diam., smooth, pulpy. The seeds 
yield oil used for lamps ; often cultivated. 

Parts used : — The oil of the seeds, and seeds. 

Uses:— The kernels of this tree yield a grateful-smelling 
fixed oil, held by the natives in high esteem as an external 
application in rheumatism. From the bark exudes a resinous 
substance, Tacamahaca, said to resemble myrrh, and to be a 
useful remedy for indolent ulcers. (Pharm. Indiea.) 


The gum which flows from the wounded branches, mixed 
with strips of the bark and leaves, is steeped in water, and the 
oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to sore- 
eyes. Horsfield says that in Java the tree is supposed to 
possess diuretic properties (Drury). 

Rheede says that the tears which distil from the tree and 
its fruit are emetic and purgative. 

The oil exercises a great beneficial influence over the 
mucous membrane of the genito-urinary organs, and is therefore 
highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhoea and gleet. Ex- 
ternally, it is a good and useful embrocation in rheumatism 
and gout. The watery paste of the kernel of the seeds, applied 
to the painful joints and dried by the heat of fire, often affords 
a great relief in the same diseases, and may be resorted to in 
the absence of the oil. 

Although there is nothing in the sensible properties of 
this oil to indicate a poisonous character, yet, as far my know- 
ledge extends, it has never been administered internally in 
this or any other country. Having satisfied myself by personal 
use that it is neither detrimental to life nor deleterious to health 
up to a certain quantity, 1 employed it in my practice and found 
it to be a very valuable drug. It acts as a specific on the 
mucous membrane of the genito-urinary organs, and its control, 
therefore, over gonorrhoea and gleet is very considerable. It is 
so certain and speedy in its action that its good effect in the 
above diseases is often noticed a few hours after the exhibition 
of its first dose (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

The leaves soaked in water are employed as an application 
to inflamed eyes, in the Archipelago (Dr. Rice, New York). 
The fixed oil, expressed from the kernels of the seeds, is said 
to cure scabies (B. Gupta, Pooree.) 

According to the Hindoo writers, the bark is astringent 
and useful in internal haemorrhages (U. C. Durr.) 

The juice of the bark is used as a purgative, and is said 
to be very powerful in its action. (Surgeon Peacock, Nasik.) 

In rheumatism, the natives use the oil as an external appli- 
cation (E. A. Morris, Madras). Watt's Dictionary. 

N. 0. GUTTIFERi®. 153 

Oil from the seeds of Calophyllxim inophyllnm. The seeds contain 
22*8— 31*5 H 2 and 50*5—55 oil per* cent. The oil has a yellowish-green 
colour, an odour resembling fenugreek, a bitter taste, and, on keeping, 
fatty glycerides are deposited. It solidifies at 8°, melts again at 8°, and 
has a sp. gr. 09428 at 15°, Reichert-Meissl number 0'13, saponification 
number I960, acid number 28*45, iodine number 92*8, refracto-meter 
number 76 at 40°; it contains 0*25 per cent, of unsaponinble matter. 
The increase in weight due to oxygen absorption, when measured by Livache's 
method, amounted to 0*25, 0*71, 1*32, and 1*84 percent., after 18, 40, 64, and 
136 hours. Treatment with 5 per cent, soda solution removes the resinous 
constituents. The purified oil solidities at 4°, melts again at 8°, and has 
Reichert-Meissi number 0'18, saponification number 191, iodine number 86. 
The fatty acids of the oil are chiefly palmitic, stearic, and oleic. J. Ch. S. Vol. 
88 pt. 2, page 277. 

The seeds are brownish black, almost spherical, |— 1 inch in diameter and 
consist of an easily-broken shell surrounding a round, soft, whitish kernel 
which weighs about 4 grins. The kernels contain L3 per cent, of moisture and 
55 per cent, of viscous, green, bitter oil. 

Some samples of kernels from Bengal contained 3' 3 per cent, of moisture 
and 71-4 per cent, of oil having the Sp. gr. at 15° C. O" 950 ; acid value 45'9 ; 
Saponification value, 193-203 ; iodine value, 97*7. 

The oil is excellent for soap making. The residual cake is bitter and 
therefore suitable for use as a manure. 

Bulletin Imperial Institute 1913. 

133. G. Wightianum, Wall., h.f.b.l, i. 274. 

Syn. : — C. decipiens, Wight ; C. Spurium, Ghois. 

Vern. :— Kalpun, kutt-poiine bobbi, (Kan).; Cheru pinnay, 
piitengi (Tarn.) ; Tsirou-panna (Mai.) ; Cherupiani, sarapuna 
(Bomb.) ; Irai (Mar.) 

Habitat .-—Western ghats, from the Konkan to Travancore. 

A middle-sized evergreen tree, almost entirely glabrous. 

' Bark yellow, very characteristic. Wood hard, red. Pores 

large and moderate-sized, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays 

very fine, not very distinct. Numerous, interrupted wavy and 

anastomosing connective bands of soft tissue (Gamble). Young 

shoots 4-gonal, often pruinose. Leaves rigidly coriaceous, 

obovate, obtuse or oblong-cuneate ; 2-4 by lf-2in. ; veins most 

prominent on the undersurface ; petiole |in. Racemes from the 

axils of all the leaves and scars of fallen ones, several-flowered, 

shorter than the leaves. Peduncles and pedicels slender. The 

Racemes are shorter than the leaves. Flowers i-Jin. diam. 

Sepals 4, very thin, strongly-veined. Petals (or 4 small ones 



visible in the bud, Wight). Fruit 1 by fin. ellipsoid. Anderson 
says that he never found petals in any of the buds he opened. 

Medicinal use : — Bon ton, in his Medical Plants of Mauritius, 
says that the resin obtained from this plant acts as a " vulnerary 
resolutive and anodyne." The oil obtained from the seeds is 
used as medicine in leprosy and cutaneous affections, and 
in infusion, mixed with, honey, in scabies and rheumatism 
(WattH. 33.) 

134. Mesua ferrea, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 277 
Roxb. 437. 

Syn. : — M. speciosa, Chois ; M. coromandeliana, Wight. 

Sans. :— Nagakesara. 

Vera. : — Nagkesar ; naghas ( H. and B.) ; Nageshvoro, 
nageswar (Uriya); Nahor (Assam.) ; Nagchampa ; thorlachampa 
(Bom.; Nagchampa, thorla chumpa (Bombay); Nagachampa ; 
nagchampha (Mar.); Naugal ; Mallay naugal ; nagap-pu ; Nagas- 
hap-pu (Tarn.,); Naug (Tinnevelley) ; Naga Kesara ; naga 
kesaramu ; gejapushpam ! Tel.); Naga sampigi ; Nassampige 
(Kan. v ; Behetta-cham-pagam ; velutta-chenpakam (Mai.). 

Habitat : — Mountains of Eastern Bengal, the Eastern 
Himalaya and the Eastern and Western Peninsulas. 

A large evergreen glabrous tree ; trunk erect, straight ; 
twigs slender sub-4-angled. " Bark Jin. thick, reddish-brown, 
peeling off in flat thin cakes, having a slightly roughened 
surface. Wood somewhat resembling that of Calophyllum, but 
much harder and heavier. Heart-wood red, dark, extremely 
hard. Pores moderate-sized, scanty, often filled with yellow 
resin, singly or grouped, or in oblique strings of varying length. 
Medullary rays extremely fine, uniform, equidistant, very 
numerous. Numerous fine wavy lines of dark-coloured tissue, 
regular and prominent, but of very different lengths (Gamble). 
The young shoots at first brilliant red, then pink, gradually 
passing into dark green (Brandis). Leaves coriaceous, 2-6 by 
1J to If in., drooping linear-lanceolate, base acute or rounded, 
dark green and shining above, covered more or less with a fine 
waxy meal beneath ; veins very fine, close-set and equally 

N. 0. GUTTIFEIUE. 155 

inconspicuous on both surfaces ; petiole i-Jin. Flowers very 
fragrant, usually terminal and solitary or in pair, nearly sessile 
bisexual, 3-4in. diam. Flowers, Feb-April. Sepals 4, in 2 rows, 
thick orbicular, with membranous margins, inner pair largest. 
Petals 4, imbricate, spreading cuneate obovate, pure white. 
Stamens indefinite, Anthers as large, oblong, linear, basifixed, 
golden yellow. Ovary 2-celled, 2 ovules in each cell ; style 
filiform ; stigma peltate. Fruit pointed, conically ovoid, 1-l^in., 
2-valved. Valves tough, supported by the enlarged sepals. Seeds 
1-4, testa smooth, hard, shining, dark brown ; embryo a fleshy 
homogeneous mass. 

Parts used- -The flowers, kernel, bark and leaves. 

Use. — The flowers are considered by the Hindu physicians 
to have astringent and stomachic properties, A paste made 
of the flowers with butter and sugar, is used in bleeding piles 
and burning of the feet. (U. C. Dutt.) 

The flowers and leaves are used in Bengal as antidote to 
snake poison (O'Shaughnessy). The bark is mildly astringent 
and feebly aromatic (Dymock) ; the oil of the seeds is used as an 
embrocation in rheumatism in North Canara (Ph. Ind., p. 32), 
and found useful in the treatment of itch by K. L. Dey. 

In many localities, the flowers are used for cough, especially 
wheu attended with much expectoration. Rheede states that 
the bark is given as a sudorific combined with ginger. 

Moodeen Sheriff considers the flowers of Mesua fevrea 
and Ochrocarpus longifolius to be stimulant and carminative 
and useful in some forms of dyspepsia and in haemorrhoids. 

The seeds resemble chestnuts in colour and form. The 
kernel yields 79*48 p.c. of a brown non-drying oil, partially 
soluble in alcohol, and gives an orange coloration, with a mixture 
of sulphuric and nitric acids. The residue contains 2414 p. c. 
of proteins. (J. Ch. I, for Aug. 31, 1910, p. 1019.) 

The seeds are brown and generally pear shaped ; they consist of a shiny, 
brittle, woody shell containing a single buff-colored kernel. Shell 34 per cent., 
kernel 56 per cent, The kernels contain 76 per cent, of reddish brown oil 
with a sweetish smell and slight bitter taste. The oil became semi-solid on 
standing at 15° C. Sp-gr. at 15° C. 0'935 ; saponification value, 204 ; iodine 
value, 90. The oil is useful in soap making. The residual cake is bitter and 
probably poisonous ; it would only be of value as manure. 

[Bulletin Imperial Institute 1913.] 



135. Sehima Wallichii, Choky, h,f.b.i.,. I. 289. 

Syn. — Gordonia integrifolia, Roxb. 426. 

Vern. :— Makusal, Chilauni, makriya ChilaunKH.); Dingan 
(Kbasia) ; Boldak (Garo.\ Jam (Cachar) ; Sumbrong (Lepcha); 
Gugera (Goalpara). 

Habitat: — Eastern Himalaya, from Sikkim to Bhotari. 
Assam, Chittagong and the Kliasia Mountains. 

A large evergreen, with papery leaves, 80-l00ft. Bark, black 
or dark grey, with deep vertical cracks. Wood rough, red, mo- 
derately hard, shrinks much in seasoning, but is durable. Buds, 
branchlets, petioles and upperside of leaves pubescent, some- 
times tomentose. Leaves 6-7 by 2-3in., elliptic, tapering or 
rounded below, acute or slightly acuminate, glabrous and 
reddish-veined above, reticulate, and more or less pubescent 
beneath, entire or obscutely crenate-serrate, with forked lateral 
veins., petiole Jin., pubescent. Peduncles rather slender, f-2in.. 
with minute white warts. Bracts Jin., alternate, narrow, oblong, 
retuse. Flowers lj-2in. diani., white, fragrant. Sepals Jin. long, 
with pubescent-ciliate margins, glabrous, or slightly pubescent 
outside ; petals pubescent outside at the base. Stamens yellow. 
Fruit fin. diam.. pubescent when young, afterwards minutely 

Use : — "The bark is nearly black externally, with deep 
clefts ; the liber is made up of an abundance of white, needle- 
shaped cells, which are readily detached and act as cowage, in 
producing painful irritation, when brought into contact with 
the skin." — Gamble. 


136. Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Gaertn f. 
h.p.b.i., i. 295. Roxb. 439. 

Vern. — Gurjun, tiliya gurjun (Beng.) ; challan (Kan ). 
The Balsam, garjamka-tel (H. and Bom.). 


A lofty evergreen tree. Young branches compressed. Wood 
rough, soft to moderately hard ; sap wood white, heart wood 
red-brown, but not durable. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 
entire or sinuate-crenate, acute, base rounded ; 5-12 by 2J-7in ; 
glabrous on both surfaces or slightly pubescent, especially on 
the nerves and margins ; lateral nerves 14-18 pair. Petiole 
lj-3in. ; stipules with dense stellate canescene, pubescent to- 
wards the apex, varies greatly in regard to the pubescence of 
young shoots, leaves and inflorescence. Racemes 3-5-flowered. 
Flowers Bin. diam ; Calyx-tube obconic, hairy, subspheroidal, 
mouth contracted, unenlarged lobes deltoid-ovate. Petals pinkish 
white. Nut pubescent. 

Habitat. — Eastern Bengal and Eastern Peninsula, from 
Ohittagong and Pegu to Singapur ; not in Ceylon, nor in the 

Use : — The oleo-resin is applied externally to ulcers, ring- 
worm, and other cutaneous affections (Watt.) It is stimulant 
of mucous surfaces, particularly that of the geni to-urinary 
system ; and also diuretic. In gonorrhoea and other affections 
in which copaiba is generally employed, it has proved an 
effectual remedy (Ph. Ind., p. 32). Quite recently it has been 
brought prominently to notice by Dr. Dougall, of the Andamans, 
as a remedy for leprosy ; but, as far as I have heard, the new 
remedy is not likely to prove successful (Dymock). 

The best medical properties of this oil are its usefulness 
in gonorrhoea and gleet, and in all forms of psoriasis, including 
lepra vulgaris. In gonorrhoea and gleet, it is at least equal 
to Copaiba, and the only difference between these two drugs 
is that the former (Gurjun balsam) requires to be used in 
a much larger dose (3ii to 3iii) to produce the same effect 
as the latter. As Gurjun balsam is always used in the form 
of emulsion with mucilage, the largeness of its dose is no 
disadvantage. With regard to its usefulness in psoriasis and 
lepra vulgaris, I am not aware of any other local stimulant 
which is more efficacious in those diseases than this drug. I 
have either cured or relieved many cases of the above affections 
by the use of this drug, with little or no assistance of internal 


remedies. The internal use Gurjun oil is also attended with 
benefit in some cases of true leprosy, in its early stage ; but its 
efficacy in this respect is greatly enhanced with the addition of 
from five to ten drops of Ghaulmugra oil to each drachm of it, 

If well mixed in the above proportion, the combination of Chaul- 

mugra oil cannot be detected. Some years ago, I had received 

a bottle of Gurjun oil of this kind from a medical friend, which 

proved more useful in a case of true leprosy than all its varieties 

in the bazaar, but I did not know the existence of Ghaulmugra 

nil in it. until 1 was informed of it. (Moodeen Sheriff.; 

Balsamum Dipterocarpi (gurjun— or gardjan balsam, garjantel, wood-oil) 
is a product of various species of the genus Dipterocarpus, indigenous in 
South Asia. About 80 — 8*2 per cent, of it consists of an essential oil, which can 
be removed by distillation with steam ; this boils at 255° and has sp. gr. 0*912 
at 15.° Of the residue, gurjoresen, C 17 H 23 2 , forms the chief part, amounting 
to 16 — 18 per cent, of the balsam ; it is amorphous and melts at 40 — 48°. Only 
about 3 per cent, of the balsam consists of resin acids; the bulk of these 
dissolves in 1 per cent, ammonium carbonate solution and is amorphous ; the 
rest is insoluble, but dissolves in 1 per cent, sodium carbonate solution ; this 
part was obtained to some extent in a crystalline state. 

The deposits, largely crystalline in character, which had formed in vari- 
ous samples of gurjun balsam, were submitted to examination. They consist 
of crystalline resin-alcohols or resin-phenols, but yet are insoluble in alkalis, 
in these respects resembling amyrin. C 3O H 50 O. A substance obtained from 
Rirschsohn, and designated by him " neutral substance from gurjun balsam," 
consisted of such a hydroxy-compound. gurjuresinol, U 15 H 25 'OH, probably 
identical with metacholestol (Mach. Abstr., 1895, i, 384) and copaivic acid 
Keto, Abstr.. 1902, i, 167); it melts at 131— 132° and forms acetijl and benzoyl 
derivatives melting at 96° and 10G — 107 c respectively. The crystalline gur- 
' uturh ore sinol, from Dipterocarpus turbinatus, has the composition C 20 H 3o O 2 , 
and melts at 126— 129 c ; it is probably identical with Merck's copaivic acid 
and Trommsdorff's metacopaivic acid (Brix. Abstr., 1882, 65). Hirschsobn's 
"sodium salt from gurjun balsam. " when purified by reerystallisation, con- 
tained 8-6 per cent, of sodium; it consists of gurjuresinol along with the 
sodium salt of gurjoresinolic acid, C 16 H 2o -0 4 ; the acid is crystalline and melts 
at 254—255°. J. Ch. S. Vol. 84. part 1. p. 771. 

137. D. tubereulatus, Roxb. h.f.b.i.. i. 297 ; 
Roxb. 410. 

Habitat : — Chittagong and Burma. 

A large deciduous gregarious tree. " Bark dark grey. Wood 
dark red-brown, hard. Pores circular, large and moderate-sized, 


often filled with resin, rather unevenly distributed. Medullary 
rays prominent, moderately broad, with a number of fine rays 
between each pair of broad ones ; the distance between the 
broader rays equal to or up to twice the transverse diameter of 
the pores, the small rays passing through or round the pores'\ 
(Gamble). Young branches compressed, glabrous or canescent. 
Stipules 4-5in. long, greenish, tomentose. Leaves 10-18 by 5-14 
in., cordiform, acute, base cordate or truncate, margins sinuate- 
crenate, undulate ; lateral nerves, 15 pair ; petiole 4-5 in. 
Racemes 5-6in., simple or 2-fid, 4-7-flowerecl. Flowers large, 
rose-coloured ; petals l^in. long, tomentose outside. Fruiting 
calyx-tube obovate, velvety when young, glabrous when mature, 
between the segments produced into 5 sharp knobs. Calyx- 
tube in fruit \\ by 1 in,, mouth contracted, wings 4-5 by lj-ljin., 
linear-elliptic, obtuse, 3-nerved. Nuts tomentose. 

Use : — According to Mason, the oleo-resin of this tree is 
used with assafoetida and cocoanut oil as an application for large 

138. D. alatus, Roxb. h.f.b.i., i. 298, Roxb. 439. 

Vern: — Garjan (B.); 

Habitat : — Chittagong. Andamans, Pegu, Tenasseriin, 
Siam, Combodia. 

A very large tree with a grey bark. Sapwood white ; 
heartwoocl reddish-grey, moderately hard, smooth, mottled 
(.Gamble). Shoots and stipules pubescent. Leaves ovate or 
elliptic, acute, pubescent beneath, margin ciliate ; secondary 
nerves 12-15 pair, blade 4-6 in. Petiole softly hairy, 1-1 J in. 
long. Wings on fruiting calyx-tube, broad, half the diameter 
of the tube or more. Raceme about 7-flowered. 

The medullary rays consist of two classes of cells, long and 
short. The former up to 0T2 in. long, are filled with wood oil. 

Use : — This species yields, like D. turbinates, most of the 
Gurjun Balsam of commerce. 

139. I), incanus, Roxb. h.f.b.i., i. 298. Roxb. 


Habitat : — " Pegu, South Andamans (common), Chittagong 
(doubtful), Tongkah in Siam on the East Coast of the Malay 
Peninsula, at its north extremity," says Brand is. Roxbugh says 
thus : — " Grurjin is the vernacular name at Chittagong where 
the tree grows to a great size, and is said to furnish the largest 
proportion of the best sort of wood oil or balsam." 

All tender parts softly hairy, pubescent, compressed, 
branchlets, young shoots and petioles. Leaves ovate, with the 
base somewhat tapering, obtuse, soft and villous, 6 by 4Jin., 
thinly pubescent on both surfaces, margins cilliate, lateral nerves 
strongly marked, 12 pair, pubescent beneath. Petiole 2in., 
softly pubescent. Calyx-tube (in flower, softly pubescent, 
strongly winged. ( W. T.. Thiselton Dyer). "Spikes, axillary, 
half the length of the leaves ; belly of the Calyx simply fine- 
winged," lioxb, (Op cit). Flowers in Nov. -Dec. Seed ripens in 
April. Stamens indefinite. 

Use : -The species also yields most of the Gnrjun Balsam 
of Commerce. 

140. Shorea robusta, Gcertn., h.f.b.l, i. 306. 
Roxb. 440. 

Sans. : — Sala. Asvakarna. 

Vevn. :--Sal, sala, salwa, sakhu, sakher, sakoh (resin) = 
rail dhuna, damar (Hind.) ; Sal, shai (resin) = rall dhuna (Beiig.) ; 
Sarjmu, serkura. (Kol) ; Sarjom, Sontal ; Sorgi Bhumij, sekwa, 
sekwa oraon, bolsal (Garo) ; Sakwa (Nepal) Tatural, (Lepcha) ; 
Salwa, saringhi (Uriya) ; Sal, sarei, rinjal (C. P.) ; Sal, kandar 
sakhu, koron (N.-W. P.) ; Koroh (Oudhj ; Sal, serai (resin) = ral, 
dhua (Bomb.); (resin)=rala, guggul (Mar.); (resin) = ral, 
(Guz.); (resin) = guggala (Khan.); 

Habitat : — Tropical Himalaya, and along its base, from 
Assam to the Sutlej, Eastern districts of Central India, Western 
Bengal Hills. 

A large gregarious tree, deciduous, but never quite leaf- 
less. Bark off young tree smooth, with a few long, deep, vertical 
cracks; of old trees 1-2 in. thick, dark-coloured, rough, with deep 


longitudinal furrows. Wood. Sap wood small, whitish, not dur- 
able ; heartwood brown, pale, when first cut but darkening on 
exposure, coarse-grained, hard, with a remarkably cross-grained 
and fibrous structure ; the fibres of alternate belts in the wood 
on a vertical section, running in opposite directions, so that when 
the wood is dressed, a very sharp plane is necessary, or it will 
not get smooth ; does not season well. Leaves, when full grown, 
glabrous and shining, 6-10 by 4-6 in., petiole f-1 in., stipules fin., 
falcate, pubescent, caducous. — (W. T. Thiselton Dyer). 4-12 by 
2-7 in., ovate-oblong, acuminate, tough, thinly coriaceous ; lateral 
nerves 12-15 pair, twice near the apex, very slender, base cordate 
or rounded ; petioles terete (Kanjilal). Flowers in large lax 
terminal or axillary racemose panicles covered with white 
pubescence. Calyx-tube short, adnate to the torus ; segments 
ovate, all accrescent in fruit. Petals pale yellow, about Jin. 
long, narrow, oblong, lanceolate, bearded, minutely trifid at apex. 
Ovary 3- celled ; style subulate. Fruit \ in. long, ovoid, acute, 
rather fleshy,, indehiscent, white— pubescent. Wings 5, 2-3 in. 
long, spathulate, narrowed at the base, brown when dry, some- 
what unequal, with 10-12 straight parallel nerves. 

The tree yields, when tapped, a large quantiy of white 
opaline resin, which is burnt as incense. An oil is extracted 
from the fruit which is used for burning and to adulterate 
with ghee. The fruit is formed into flour and eaten by the 
poorer classes in times of scarcity (Kanjilal ). 

This is the principal tree of the Siwalik Division. In 
Nepal, it attains 100-150 ft., with a clear stem, to the first 
branch of 60-80 ft., and a girth of 20-25 ft. (Brandis). Within 
the limits of the Siwalik and Jaunsar Flora, it is seldom more 
than 80 ft. in height, and 6 ft. in girth, unless hollow inside 
(Kanjilal). ''Tropical Himalaya and along its base, from Assam 
to the Sutlej. Eastern Districts, Central India, western Bengal 
Hills." (W.T. T. Dyer). 

Farts used : — The resin and leaves. 

Use : — By the Hindoo writers, the resin is regarded as 
astringent and detergent, and is used in dysentery, and for 
fumigations, plasters, &c. The resin thrown over the fire gives 


out thick volumes of fragrant smoke, and is much used for fumi- 
gating rooms occupied by the sick (U. C. Dutt). 

The superior kinds of Sal resin are efficient substitues for 
the Pine resins of the European Pharmacopoeias. (Beng. Disp., 
p. 221.) 

Dr. Sakharam Arjun states ('Bombay Drugs') that he has 
seen shorea resin, mixed with sugar, given with good effect in 

According to Mr. Campbell, the leaves are used medici- 
nally by the Santals. 

The resin is used by native doctors for weak digestion, 
gonorrhoea, and as an aphrodisiac (Watt.) 

It is not prescribed internally, but used occasionally for 
fumigation of rooms and houses, to remove bad odours. It does 
not destroy offensive smell, but rather conceals it under its thick 
and odoriferous smoke. There is every reason to think that it 
will prove itself an efficient ingredient in many ointments and 
plasters, if employed, instead of pine and other resins (Moodeen 

141. S. Tumbuggaia, Roxb. h.f.b.l, i. 306. 
Roxb. 440. 

Vern.: — Kala-damar, (H. ; B. ; and Mar. and the Dec.) ; 
Kalo-damar, (Guz.) ; Karapu-damar ; Tumbugai-pishin (Tarn,) ; 
nalha-damar ; Nalla-sojan (Tel.); Kara-kundurukam, Tum- 
bugaipasha (Mai.) 

Habitat: — Western Peninsula, forests of Cudapah, and 
Palaghat in Mysore. 

A " gigantic dammer-producing " tree. Bark dry, rough, 
with deep vertical fissures, like those of Shorea robusta. Wood 
smooth, harder than that of Sal, but similar in structure and 
much smoother. Leaves 2J-3 by 1 J-4J in. (Beddome), ovate or 
oblong-cordiform, acuminate ; base truncate or emarginate, 
glabrous on both surfaces, lateral nerves about 8 pair. Petiole 
1-2 in. Panicles terminal, 8 in. long, hoary or nearly glabrous. 
Flowers shortly pedicelled, buds densely hoary. Stamens about 


30. Anthers with a hairy appendage. Stigma 3-lobulate. Capsule 
§ in. long, ovoid, acuminate, pubescent above ; bases of fruiting 
Calyx-segments J in. long., ovate, hoary ; wings 1|-1| by | in., 
spathulate, obtuse, 8-10-nerved. 

Part used : — The resin. 

Use : — It is an external stimulant. Not used internally. 

To all appearance, it will foim a good basis for some plas- 
ters and ointments (Moodeen Sheriff). 

142. Vateria Indica, Linn., h.f.b.l, i. 313. 
Roxb. 436. 

Vern. : — Sufed-damar; kahruba, sandras (H. ) : Koond- 
rikum, vellikoondricum (Tarn.) ; Vellakoondricum, Peinimarum 
(Malay); Dupa maram (Kan.); Dnpadu, (Tel.); Chandrus (B.) ; 
Ral (Bomb.). 

Eng. :— Indian Copal, Piney varnish, or white Dammar 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, from Canara to Travancore. 

A large handsome evergreen tree ; young shoots and in- 
florescence clothed with a scurfy stellate tomentum (Brand is). 
Bark whitish grey, rough, f in. thick, peeling off in round thick 
flakes. Sapwood white, with a tinge of grey or red ; heartwood 
light grey, rough, moderately hard, porous. Pores large, 
often subdivided, ringed. Medullary rays fine and broad, very 
prominent on all vertical sections, while on radial section they 
appear as rough plates, with shining fibres between them. 
The distance between the broad rays is generally greater than 
the transverse diameter of the pores. Annual rings doubtful, 
though distinct (Gamble). Leaves coriaceous, glabrous, elliptic- 
oblong ; blade 4-10 by 2J-3J in., obtuse or minutely acuminate, 
base rounded or emarginate ; petiole 1-1* in. long, secondary 
nerves 14-16 pair, prominent beneath as well as midrib. Sti- 
pules \ in., obliquely lanceolate, acute. Flowers J-J in. across, 
one-ranked, erect, in Inrge terminal panicles, loosely corymbose; 
pedicels.longer than Calyx-segments, which latter are lanceolate, 
obtuse, canescent on both surfaces. Petals spreading, slightly 


pubescent outside. Stamens 30-40 ; filaments short ; anthers 
linear, hairy at base, glabrous above, cells unequal, the outer 
longer ; appendix of connective as long as the anther. ' Ovary 
tomentose, style filiform, stigma minute. Fruit ovoid, 2-2\ in. 
long, splitting open into valves, fruiting-Calyx small, segments 
reflexed. Cotyledons filled with fat (Piney tallow)— Brandis. 
Piney gum — resin, says Gamble, (.P. So, Indian Timbers), makes 
an excellent varnish. One of the handsomest trees in Madras 
and Travancore. 

Part* used : — The oil, and resin. 

Use : — Under the influence of gentle heat, it combines with 
wax and oil and forms an excellent resinous ointment ; it forms 
a good substitute for officinal resin (G. Bidie.y From the fruit 
is obtained a solid fatty oil, which has obtained considerable 
repute as local application in chronic rheumatism and some 
other painful affections. It might be employed as a basis for 
ointments, &c. (Ph. Ind., p. 33.) Fine shavings of the resin 
are said by Irvine to be administered internally to check 
diarrhoea (Watt). 

N. 0. MALVACE^. 

143. Althcea officinalis, Linn., h.f.b.l, i. 319- 

This is the English Marsh-mallow, which yields " Gui- 
mauve," the sweet soft lozenges of which are used for sore-throat. 

Vern. : — The flowers, Gul-Khairu (Hind, and Bomb.) fShe- 
rnaituti (Tarn.) 

The fruits, Tukm-i-khitme (Pers. and Bomb.") 

The roots. Piesha-i-khitme (Pers. and Bomb.) 

Habitat : — Kashmir. 

A perennial, uniformly downy herb. Stem erect, 2-3 ft. 
Leaves ovate or ovoid, simple or slightly lobed, annular, base 
scarcely cordate, unequally toothed. Stipules linear-subulate. 
Flowers peduncled, in axillary clusters, 1-2 in. diam., rosj 7 . 
Bracteoles linear-lanceolate, half the length of the sepals. 
Anthers subglobose. Ovary many-celled ; ovules one in each 

N. 0. MALVACE^. 165 

cell. Carpels numerous, ultimately separating from a short 
torus. Seed solitary in each carpel, ascending. 

Parts used : — The flowers, carpels, leaves and root. 

Uses : — The Mahomedans describe it as a suppurative and 
emollient ; they use the leaves as a poultice and for fomenta- 
tions ; mixed with oil, the leaves and flowers are applied to 
burns and parts bitten by venomous reptiles. The root boiled 
with sugar is prescribed in coughs and irritable condition of the 
intestines and bladder. The decoction is also used as an emol- 
lient enema, and in making ointments (Dymock.) 

The root should be gathered in the autumn from plants 
not less than two years old. 

Emollient cataplasms are prepared from the rounded root. 

The root -contains a little starch, nearly twenty per cent 
of gum or mucilage, some uncrystallizable sugar, and a crys- 
tallizable principle, besides other unimportant constituents. The 
mucilage lies like the fecula in small cells, in the form of minute 
grains, which may be obtained pure by washing the chopped 
root in rectified spirit, and allowing them to subside. A yel- 
lowish white powder is thus procured, consisting of microscopic 
transparent grains, which seem intermediate between true gum 
and perfect starch. The crystalline principle "althaein " seems 
to be identical with the "asparagin " of asparagus. (Sowerby's 
English Botany.) 

Betaine can be obtained from the aqueous extract of the root of Althcea 
officinalis after removing the asparagine by precipitating it with nitric acid 
and sodium phosphomolybdate ; the free base obtained by treating the preci- 
pitate with barium hydroxide forms colourless crystals, is soluble in water 
and alcohol, and insoluble in ether. The hydrochloride is easily crystallised, 
and does not change on exposure to the air. With potassium dichromate 
solution and hydrochloric acid, betaine does not exhibit any colour reaction. 
It is precipitated by picric acid, zinc chloride, and auric chloride, but not 
bj tannin ; the aurochloride, C 5 H u N0 2 ,HAuCl 4 , crystallises in microscopic 
plates, or in short crystals arranged in the form of a cross. 

J. Ch. S, Vol. 76 part I. p. 4. 

144. A. rosea, Linn. H.F.B.I., I. 319. 

Vern.: — The same as for A. officinalis, Linn. 
S??^.:— Holly-hock. 


This is a cultivated, herbaceous plant in Indian gardens 
from English seed. 

Root biennial. Stem in garden-growth in pots, 6-10 ft. 
high, erect, stout, simple, more or less hispid, with fasciculated 
branched hairs 

Leaves on rather short petioles, cordate, five-to seven- 
lobed, the lobes angled, unequal]}' serrated ; upperside dark 
green, slightly downy, beneath pale, more downy, with fascicu- 
lated stipules, large, unequally bifid. Flowers solitary, large, 
handsome. Petiole short. Calyx large, five-cleft, downy, striated, 
the segments acute. Involucre monophjdlous, large, cup-shaped, 
six-to-nine-lobed, striated, downy, the lobes obtuse, often 
bifid. Staminal tube short. Anthers very numerous, pale 
yellow. Ovaries numerous, collected around the dilated downy 
base of the style which latter is cleft at the extremity into 
several segments. Corolla of five very broad, wavy, obcordate 
or somewhat cuneate petals, united at the base, often with 
a pale eye or centre, surrounded with a deep, black-purple, 

Parts used : — The flowers, leaves, seeds and root. 

Uses : — The seeds of this plant are demulcent, diuretic and 
febrifuge. The flowers have cooling and diuretic properties. 
The roots are supposed to be astringent and demulcent, and are 
much used in France to form demulcent drinks. 

In the Punjab, the flowers are given in rheumatism, and 
the roots in dysentery (Stewart.) 

The leaves and roots are also used for the same purposes 
as of the preceding species. 

Moodeen Sheriff describes the properties, and used A. 
offici?ialis and A. rosea collectively. According to him, they 
are demulcent, refrigerant and emollient. The mucilage of 
the petioles, stem and roots is generally a very useful adjunct 
to other medicines in dysentery and mucous diarrhoea, and, in 
some very slight cases, it is sufficient by itself to relieve these 
diseases to a great extent. Tormina and tenesmus are the 
symptoms which are most relieved by it. The decoction of the 

N. O. MALVACEJ1. 167 

dry root and seeds is useful in irritable and inflamed states of 
the pulmonary and geni to-urinary mucous membranes. 

145. Malva sylvestris, Linn., h.f.b.l, i. 320. 

Vern.: — Khubazi (Bomb.); Kunji, tilchuni. vilayati- 
kangai-ka-per goolkheir, (H.) ; Vildyati-kangoi-ka-jhar (Dec.); 
Khabajhi, (Sind.) 

Habitat : — Western temperate Himalaya, from Kumaon to 
Kashmir and the Pubjab. 

An erect, nearly glabrous annual herb, l-3ft. high. 
Leaves cordate, rounded, lobed ; petioles 4-5 in. Peduncles 
about 1 in. Bracteoles ovate, entire, shorter than the bell- 
shaped [ Calyx. Corolla lj in. diam. Petals notched, claw 
bearded. Carpels reticulated, downy or glabrous. 

Parts used : — All parts of the plant. 

Uses : — All parts of the plant are commended in Mahom- 
edan works, on account of their mucilaginous and cooling pro- 
perties, but the fruit is considered to be most efficient 

It is prescribed in pulmonary affections (Watt). Useful 
in irritation of the skin and for fomentations. The leaves are 
used as emollient cataplasms. As Oulkand used in strangury, 
'Murray, p. 58.) 

The little hard fruit, tasting something like a nut, is 
commonly called a "cheese/' " Chucky cheese" is the name 
given in Devonshire to the plant, in allusion to these little 
cheese-like fruits. 

There is a tradition that Mahomed had a garment made 
of the Mallow fibre ; and he was so well pleased with it, that he 
turned the plant into the more showy, but less useful geranium 
(Sowerby's English Botany,). 

146. M. rotundifolia, Linn., h.f.b.l, i. 320. 

Vern.:— Sonchala (Pb. and H.) ; Khubazi (H.) ; Chan- 
deree (Hind.) ; Trikala malle (Tel.) ; Kiikerai (Pushto.) 


Habitat: — North-West Provinces, Kumaon, Sindh and the 

A spreading herb, much branched, sparingly villous. 
Leaves suborbicular, lobed, crenate ; petiole 6-7 in. Peduncles 
H in., deflexed after flowering. Bracteoles lanceolate, half the 
length of the broadly lance-shaped sepals. Corolla 1 in. 
diam. Petals wedge-shaped, notched, twice the length of the 
sepals ; claw of petal bearded. Ripe carpels downy, flat or 

Parts used : —The leaves and seed. 

Use : — -The leaves are mucilaginous and emollient, em- 
ployed externally in scurvy, and reckoned useful in piles 


The seeds possess demulcent properties ; they are pres- 
cribed in bronchitis, cough, inflammation o- r the bladder, and 
haemorrhoids ; the seeds are also externally applied in skin 
diseases (Watt). 

147. M. parviflora, L'nn., h.f.b.i., i. 321. 

Vern. : — Nan*, panirak, supra, sonchol, gogi sag(H. & Pb.) 
II abitat :— North- West Himalaya, Upper Bengal, Sindh, 
and the Punjab. 

A comparatively small, spreading herb, slightly downy. 
Leaves roundish, obsoletely lobed. Peduncles short, spreading 
after flowering. Bracts linear. Sepals broad, acute. Petals 
notched, scarcely exceeding the sepals. Claw of petals 
glabrous. Carpels wrinkled. 

Parts used : — The seeds and root. 

Use : — The seeds are used as a demulcent in coughs, and 
ulcers in the bladder (Watt). 

148. Sida humilis, Willd., h.f.b.i., i. 322. 
Roxb. 516. 

* Sida veronicifolia, Lamk, is, according to Schuma, the 
oldest name for S. humilis (Trimen). 

Sanskrit : — Bhumibala ; 


V evn. :— Junka (B.^; Bir ; tandi ; bariar ; Jokha ; sakam 
(Santal.) ; Palampasi (Tain.) ; Gayapu aku (Tel.) ; (Gujrat and 
Porebunder) Bhoyabala ; (Marathij Bhui chikna, Bhoybal ; 
(Hindi) Bananiyar ; (Sinhalese) Bevila ; (Tarn.) Palum-padu. 

Habitat : — Generally distributed throughout the hotter 
parts of India, Ceylon and grassy ground and waste places. 

A perennial herb ; branches long, prostrate, trailing, root- 
ing at the nodes, with scattered stellate hairs. Leaves variable 
in size, J-l in., broadly ovate, cordate at base, acute, coarsely 
crenate- serrate, sparsely covered with long hairs. Petiole 
j-§ in., hairy. Flowers pale yellow, rather small, numerous, 
less than half an inch in diam. Peduncle 1 in. or more, stiff, 
slender, slightly hairy. Calyx 5-angled, segments triangular, 
very acute, with stellate hairs on margin. Petals broader than 
long, truncate, ripe carpels 5-pointed, slightly bicuspidate, 
smooth (Trimen). 

Part used : — The leaves. 

Use: — Among the Santals, the leaves are pounded, and 
used as a local application to cuts and bruises. They are also 
given in the diarrhoea of pregnancy (Revd. Campell). 

Jayakrishna Indraji says that the flowers and unripe 
fruits are given together in sugar for burning sensation, in 

149. S. spinom, Linn., h.f.b.i,, i. 123. 

Syn. : — S. alba, L., S. alinifolia, L., Roxb. 516. 

Sans. : — Nagabala. Khar-yashtika — J. Indraji. 

Vem. : — Jangli-methi, gulsakari (Hind, and Deck.) ; KAn- 
talo-bal ; (Guj. and Porebunder). (Marathi) Kanteri Tukati; 
Khareti, Gulsakari ; (Hindi). Mayirmanikkam (Tam.) ; Mayilu- 
manikyam (Te.) ; Mayirmanikkam, Katta-ventiyam (Malyal. N ; 
Kadu-menthya (Can.) ; Pilabarela, B6n-methi (Beng.) ; Koti-kam- 
babila, Mairmanikam (Sinh.); Shanbalide-barri, Shamlithe-dashti 

(Pers.) ; Kulbahebarri (Arab.). 



Habitat : — Throughout the hotter parts of India and 

An erect, much-branched undershrub ; stems slender, 
rough, with minute stellate hairs, often with small, recurved 
prickles at the nodes below the petioles. Leaves 1-1 J in., oval or 
oblong, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate, glabrous above, finely 
stellate-pubescent beneath. Petiole |-§ in., stellate-pubescent. 
Flowers white, \ in., pedicels f-f in., slender, jointed near top. 
Calyx hairy, segments short, triangular, acute ; ripe carpels 5, 
with 2 long, erect, rough scales, equalling the Calyx. Seeds 
solitary. Radicle superior. 

Parts used : — -The leaves and root. 

Uses : — The leaves are demulcent and refrigerant, and are 
useful in some cases of gonorrhoea, gleet and scalding urine. 

The decoction of the root-bark and root is used as a 
demulcent in irritability of the bladder and in gonorrhoea, says 
J. Indraji. 

The root acts as a gentle tonic and diaphoretic, and is 
employed in mild cases of debility and fever. 

The leaves are bruised in water, strained through cloth 
and administered in the form of a draught ; the root is used in 
decoction, prepared in a similar manner to that of S. caprini- 
folia (Moodeen Sheriff). 

150. S. eaprinifolia, Linn., h.f.b.i., I. 323. 

Syn. : — S. acuta, Burm. S. lanceolata, Roxb. 517. 

Sans. : — Bala Phanijivika (J. Indraji). 

Vern. :— Kareta (B. and H.) ; Vishaboddee (Tel.); Bariaca 
kareta (Hind.); Pila barela, koreta, bon-methi (Beng.) ; Isbadi, 
Isarbadi (Dec.) ; Bala, jangli-methi (Bomb.), Tupkaria, tukati, 
chikana pata (Mar.) ; jungli methi (Guz.) ; Maloconni (Malay.); 
Vata tirippi, malaitangi, mayir-manikkam, visha-boddi, chiti- 
mutti, mutu-vapulogum (Tam.) 

Habitat : — Throughout the hotter parts of India and Ceylon. 

A perennial undershrub, generally distributed throughout 

the hotter parts of India. Leaves nearly glabrous, narrow, 

N. 0. MALVACEAE. 171 

acuminate, serrate, about 2-3in., linear-lanceolate ; sometimes 
hoary beneath. Stipules linear-subulate, 2 or 3, sometimes 
longer than the petiole ; many-nerved. Petiole tVA in. Pedun- 
cle jointed in the middle, as long as the petiole. Flowers : — 
Sepals triangular, acute. Calyx-tube subglobose. Petals yellow, 
twice the length of the Calyx. Staminal-tube dividing at the 
summit. Corolla of 5 petals, free above and connate below, and 
adnate to the tube of the stamens. Ovary : — Carpels 5-9, 
rugose, awned, whorled. Styles as many as the carpels. 
Stigmas terminal. Fruit a capsule. Seeds solitary, radicle 

Part used : — The root, juice and leaves. 

Use: — By the Sanskrit writers, the roots of the different 
species of Sida are regarded as cooling, astringent, tonic and 
useful in nervous and urinary diseases, and also in disorders 
of the blood and bile (Dutt.) 

In the Concan, the root is applied with Sparrow's dung to 
burst boils (Dymook). 

The root is intensely bitter, and is prescribed in infusion, 
and in conjunction with ginger, in cases of intermittent fever. 
It is considered by the Hindoo practitioners as a valuable 
stomachic and useful remedy in chronic bowel complaints ; 
the dose, a small tea-cupful, twice daily. The leaves, made 
warm and moistened with, a little gingili oil, are employed to 
hasten suppuration (Ainslie). In Bengal, the expressed juice 
of the leaves is used in the form of an electuary, in the treat- 
ment of intestinal worms (O'Shaughnessy). 

The authors of the Bengal Dispensatory, after a trial of 
the roots, were unable to satisfy themselves as to its febrifuge 
action, but it was found to promote perspiration, to increase 
the appetite, and to act as a useful bitter tonic. In Goa, the 
Portuguese value it as a diuretic, especially in rheumatic affec- 
tions. They also use it as a demulcent in gonorrhoea, and Muhama- 
dans believe this to have aphrodisiac properties (Dymock.) 

When administered in the form of a strong decoction, the 
root of this plant has diaphoretic, antipyretic, stomachic and 


tonic properties, and has been found very useful in febrile 
affections and some forms of dyspepsia, and also in mild cases 
of debility from previous illness. (Moodeen Sheriff.) • 

151. 8. rhombifolia, Linn., h.f.b.i., i. 323. 
Roxb. 517. 

Sans.: — Atibala (Sanskrit) Mahabala, Pitapushpa. 

Vern.: — Lal-bariala or berela (Ben. and Hind.) ; (Sinha- 
lese) Kotikan-bevila ; (Tamil) Chittamaddi ; (Porebunder and 
Gujrat) Khetara ubal dana ; (Marathi) Chikna, Sadeva ; (Hindi) 
Sahadeva, Pitabala ; Sahadeva. J.— Indraji. 

N. B. Sahadevi (Sanskrit) is the name of Vernonia cineria. 
(K. R. K). 

Habitat : — Throughout India. 

A shrubby, erect herb ; perennial, very variable, glabrous, 
or with scattered stellate hairs. Leaves polymorphous, gene- 
rally more or less rhomboid, underside hoary, rarely green ; 
tapering at the base. Stipules linear- setacous, longer than the 
petiole. Peduncle longer than the petiole ; rarely less than 
twice as long as the petiole, axillary, or clustered at the ends of 
the branches. Flowers mostly yellow ; rarely white. Sepals 
deltoid, acuminate. Carpels smooth or reticulate, 10, awned or 
not, as long as the Calyx (Maxwell T. Masters). This species 
and its allies yield good fibre. Widely distributed through- 
out India and Tropics in both Hemispheres. 

Use : — The medicinal properties of this species resemble 
those of other species. 

152. S. rhombifoila, Var. retusa, Linn, h.f.b.i., 
i. 324., Roxb. 517. 

Vern.: — Jangli-methi (H. and Dec); Ban-methi (Beng.) ; 
Mayir-mannikkam 'Tel.) Arb : — Hulbahe-bari. Pers : — Sham- 

Stems prostrate, thick and woody, much-branched. Leaves 
very small, cuneate-obovate, retuse, apiculate ; ripe carpel, 

N. 0. MALVAOEiE. 173 

usually with beaks, as long as themselves. Flowers yellow, be- 
coming white when fading. 

The stems afford a good fibre. 

A very common weed in Ceylon in the dry country. 

Use : -The root is held in great, repute by natives in 
the treatment of rheumatism (Ph. Ind.). The stems abound 
in mucilage, and are employed as demulcents and emollients 
both for external and internal use. 

153. S. rhombifolia, Var. rhomboidea, Roxb, 
H.F.B.I, i. 324, Roxb. 517. 

Syn : — S. orientalis, Cav. Diss I ; t. 12. 
Sans.: — Mahabala. 

Vera.: — Swetberela (B.) ; kSufed-bariyala (H.) ; Athiballa- 
chettn (Tam.) 

Leaves rhomboid, hoary beneath ; peduncles jointed at 
the base ; carpelhiry awns very short inflected. The flowers 
expand at noon (Roxb.) 

Use : — Medicinal properties resemble those of other spe- 
cies (Watt.) 

154. S. eordifolia, Linn, it.f.b.i., i. 324. 
Roxb. 517. 

Sans. : — Batyalaka ; Bala. 

Vern. : — Kungyee, kharati, bariar (H.) ; Barila, bala (B.) ; 
Chikna (Mar.); Kharenti (Pb.) ; Bariara (Sind.) ; Muttava, 
kobirsir bhaji (Konkan); chiribena, tettagorra chettu, t el 1 a antisa, 

The seeds. Beejbund (H.) ; Hamaz, chukai (Pb.). 

Annual or perennial, downy, erect. Leaves 1J-2 by 1-1£ in., 
cordate- oblong obtuse crenate, very downy on both surfaces, 
petiole as large as the leaf. Stipules linear, half the length of 
the petiole. Peduncles jointed near the flower, lower distant, 
longer than the petioles, upper crowded, very short. Flowers 
rather small. Carpels furrowed at the back, sides reticulated, 


10-awned, awns longer than the Calyx, covered with stiff 
reflexed hairs. Flowers with the other species in the rainy and 

cool season. 

Generally distributed throughout Tropical and Sub-Tro- 
pical India. A Tropical weed. 

Parts used : — The root, seeds and leaves. 

Use : — A decoction of the root with ginger is given by 
Hindu physicians, in intermittent fever. It is also administered 
in fever accompanied by shivering fits and strong heat of body. 
The powder of the root-bark is given with milk and sugar for 
the relief of frequent micturition and leucorrhcea. In diseases 
of the nervous system the root is used alone, or in combination 
with other medicines. (Dutt.) 

The seeds are reckoned aphrodisiac, and are administered 
in gonorhcea. They are also given for colic and tenesmus 
(Stewart). In the Concan, the leaves, with other cooling leaves 
are applied in ophthalmia ; the root-juice is used to promote the 
healing of wounds, and the juice of the whole plant pounded 
with a little water is given in \ seer doses for spermatorrhoea 

155. Abutilon Indicum G. Don. h.f.b.i., 

i. 326. 

Syn. : — A. asiaticum, W. &. A. Sida Indica, Linn. Roxb. 

Sanskrit — Atibala, Kankatika. 

Vern. : — Kanghi, kungain, Tootree, Potaree (H.) ; simbul, 
Peelee-bootee (Pb. and Sind) ; Ati khirati-pala ;Pb.) ; Potari, 
(B.) ; Mini baha (Santatl) ; Petari, madmi, Kanghai chakra- 
bhenda. (Bomb); Petari, Tupkadi, Tubocuty (Goa). Tatti, 
(Tarn;; Uram, Pettaka (Mai); Anona (Sinhalesi) ; Peruntufcti, 
Vaddatuth (Tam.). The seeds, Balbij (Bomb). 

Habitat : — Throughout tropical India. Dry Country 

A semi-shrubby annual or perennial ; branches very finely 
downy ; Leaves -f-1 in., broadly ovate, very cordate at base, 

N. 0. MALVACEAE. 175 

acute, irregularly and coarsely dentate or erose, white, with 
very fine, dense pubescence on both sides, especially beneath, 
petioles very long, 1-3 in.; jointed near top. Flowers about 1 in., 
nodding. Pedicel slender, jointed near top. Calyx lobes, 
shallow, apiculate ; carpels 15-20, readily separating when 
ripe, sparsely and roughly hairy on back, beak short, sharp, 
spreading horizontally. Seeds minutely-dotted (Trimen), (Max- 
well M. Masters). 

Flowers orange yellow, throughout the year (Ceylon), 
\ in. diam., opening in the evening (Masters). 

Parts used : —The root ; bark ; leaves ; seeds and fruits. 

Use : — An infusion of the leaves or of the roots is pre- 
scribed in fevers as a cooling medicine (Ainslie). The seeds are 
reckoned aphrodisiac and are used as a laxative in piles. 

The seeds are burned on charcoal, and recta of children 
affected with thread worms are exposed to the smoke. 

A decoction of the leaves is used as a mouth-wash in cases 
of tooth-ache and tender gums, and also in gonorrhoea and 
inflammation of the bladder. 

In Western India, the bark is valued as a diuretic, and the 
seeds on account of their demulcent and mucilaginous properties 

The infusion of the root is useful in strangury and has ura- 

The infusion of the root is said to be useful in leprosy. 
The seeds are given in the treatment of coughs. 

According to the Chinese in Hong-Kong, the seeds are 
employed as an emollient and demulcent ; the root is used as a 
diuretic and pulmonary sedative, and the flowers and leaves as a 
local application to boils and ulcers. Porter Smith states that 
the seeds and the entire plant are used as " demulcent, lenitive, 
diuretic, laxative and discutient remedies. Puerperal diseases, 
urinary disorders, chronic dysentery and fevers are treated with 
the seeds." Notes on Chinese Materia Medica by Ho Kai and 
Crow in Ph. J. for Oct. 22, 1887. 

The leaves contain some mucilaginous substance which 


they yield to hot water. Their decoction is therefore useful 
as a fomentation to painful parts. The seeds have a distinct 
control over gonorrhoea, gleet, and chronic cystitis (Moodeen 

The juice of leaves about one tola, and ghee one tola, are 
given in catarrhal bilious diarrhoea. K.R.K. 

156. A graveolens, W. & A., h.f.b.l, i 327. 

Verti. : — Barkanghi, bara banghi (Cawnpore). Vaddattutti. 

Habitat : — United Provinces, Sindh, Nilgherries, Baluchis- 
tan, Central Provinces, Ceylon waste ground. 

An herbaceous annual, branches covered with clammy 
pubescence, mixed with spreading hairs. Leaves sometimes 
lobed, orbicular-cordate, abruptly acuminate, velvety on both 
sides. Petiole almost as long as the blade ; stipules linear ; 
reflexed (falcate). Peduncles as long as the petioles. Trimen 
says that the flowers in Ceylon are yellowish, becoming pink 
when withering. Flowers large, orange coloured, with a darker 
centre, ultimately reflexed. Sepals ovate, acuminate ; petals 
obcordate. Carpels 20 or more, truncate or rounded, hairy ; 
rather longer than the Calyx, notawned. 

Use : — In his Flora of the Upper Gangetic plain (p. 83), 
Duthie writes that the roots, leaves and seeds are medicinal. 
The fresh plant has often a strong and unpleasant smell. Tri- 
men says about the same plant growing in Ceylon:— "I do 
not notice any scent in the Ceylon plant." The uses are the 
same as those of A. indicum. 

157. A. Avieennce, Gcertn., h.f.b.l, i 327. 

Hyn. : - Sida abutilon, Linn. 
(Sanskrit) Jaya, Jayanti — J. Indraji. 
Eng, : — The Indian Mallow or American Jute. 
Vern. : — (Gujratand Porebunder) Nahani Khapat, Bhonya 
Kaski, Bhonya-Khapat. 

Habitat : — North-west India, Sindh, Kashmir and Bengal. 

N. 0. MALVACEAE. 177 

Aii annual herbaceous, softly tomentose plant. Leaves orbi- 
cular-cordate with a long point, 3-4in. Petiole Sin. Peduncles lin , 
solitary, axillary. Sepals free nearly to the base, ovate, acute. 
Petals yellow, hardly exceeding the sepals. Staminal tube very 
short. Carpels 15-20, much exceeding the sepals, oblong, trun- 
cate hispidulous or pubescent, with two long horizontal spreading 
ciliolate awns. 

Use : — Its leaves, seeds and roots are put to the same use 
as those of A. indicum. 

158. Urena lobata, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 329. 
Roxb. 519. 

Verm : — Bun-ochra (B.) ; Bhidi janelet (SantaL) ; Bachita 
(N.-W.P.) ; Vana-bhenda, Ran-tupkada ; Wagclau Bhendi 
(Marathi) ; Villiak (Konkan). 

Brachta, Bachit, Bachita (Hindi) ; (Sinhalese) Valta Epala. 

Habitat : — Generally distributed over the hotter parts of 
India. Waste open ground, Ceylon. 

A very variable, herbaceous plant, more or less hairy. 
Leaves about 1-2 by 2-3 in., cordate 5-7-lobed, acute or 
obtuse ; nerves 5-7, prominent on the under surface, the three 
central, or the midrib only, provided with a gland on the under 
surface; petiole usually shoiter than the blade. Bracteoles 
oblong-lanceolate, equalling the Calyx. Flowers bright pink, 
darker • in the centre, clustered. Carpels densely pubescent, 
echinate. Capsules barbed. 

Use : — In Chutia Nagpur, the root is employed as an 
external remedy for rheumatism. (Revd. Campbell). 

159. U. sinuata. Linn, h.f.b.l, i. Roxb. 

Vern.: — Lotloti, Kunjuya (H.) ; kunjia(B.); Mota bkedi- 
janelet (Santal.) ; Beri hit (Chutia Nagpur) ; Tapkote (Bomb.) ; 
Piliya Mankena (Tel.). 

Jayakrisna Indraji gives the following Vern. names : — 

(Porebunder and Gnjrat) Wagdau Bhindo ; (Marathi) Lichi, 

Rainkapshi; (Hindi) Kunjia, Lotaloti ; (Sinha lese) Hiwepula. 



Habitat : — Generally distributed over the hotter parts of 
India and is a weed in waste open ground in Ceylon, 

A perennial herb. Stem 2-4ft, much branched, finely 
stellate-hairy. Leaves very variable, lj-3in., rotundate, usually 
deeply palmately cut into 5 lobes, which are again lobed or 
pinnatifid, serrate, stellately hairy on both sides. Flowers 
bright pink, on short stout, hairy pedicels, axillary, solitary. 
Sepals 5, connate below into cap-shaped Calyx. Petals 5, 
connate and united to tube of stamens. Stamens monadelphous, 
anthers nearly sessile or 5-celled. Bracts a little shorter than 
the Calyx. Ovary 5-celled, with one ovule in each. Styles 10. 
Ripe carpels rounded on back, densely stellate-hairy, set with 
stiff long spines, with deflexed prongs at the extremeties (Tri- 
men), An oval glandular pore is situated at base of midrib, 
beneath, in both U. lobata and U. sinuata. 

Use ; — In Chutia Nagpur, the root is used as an external 
application for lumbago. 

160. U. repanda, Roxb. h.k.b.l, i. 330. 
Roxb. 519. 

Syn. : — U. Speciosa, Wall. 

Vern. : — Sikuar (Santal.). 

Habitat : — North- West India, Upper GJangetic plain and 
the Western Peninsula. 

Shrubby, stellate-hairy. Leaves roundish or somewhat 
lobed, shortly petioled, rough above, midrib glandular, at the 
base beneath ; lower 2-2|in. long, roundish, rarely lobed, cordate 
at the base, repand-serrate, upper lanceolate. Flowers racemose, 
in alternately leafless clusters. Bracteoles i-f in., suhcoriaceous, 
exceeding the membranous Calyx ; 5, subulate, connate below 
into a cnp ; sepals united for half their length ; Corolla pink, 
twice the length of the bracteoles. Carpels smooth, unarmed. 
Seed ascending smooth. 

Use : — The root and bark are believed by the Santals to 
be a cure for hydrophobia (Campbell). 

N. 0. MALVACEAE. 179 

161. Pavonia odorata, Willd. h.f.b.l, 
i. 331. Roxb. 530. 

Sans. : — Bala Heivera. 

Vern. : — Sugandha-bala(H.) ; Kala-vala (Bomb.) ; Peramu- 
tiver paramutha, mudda pulagam (Tarn.); Erra kuti (Tel.); 
Balarakkasi, gida (Kan.); Kalo Walo (Guj.). 

Habitat : —North- West Provinces, Sindh, Banda and Wes- 
tern Peninsula. 

An erect herbaceous plant, with sticky hairs, glandular, 
pubescent. Leaves 2J by 3in., cordate-ovate, with 3-5 shallow 
pointed lobes ; lower petioles longer than the blades. Pedun- 
cles as long as the leaves, 1-flowered, clustered at the ends of 
the branches. Bracteoles 10-12, linear. Sepals lanceolate. 
Corolla pink, twice as long as the Calyx. Carpels obovoid, 
dehiscent, unarmed, wingless. Styles 10. Stigmas capitate ; 
ovule one in each cell. Ripe carpels separating from the 
axis. Seeds ascending. 

Part used : — The root. 

Use : — The root is fragrant and aromatic, and possesses 
cooling and stomachic properties ; used in fever, inflammation 
and haemorrhage from internal organs (U. C. Dutt). According 
to Taylor, the root is prescribed as an astringent and tonic 
in cases of dysentery. 

The therapeutic properties of the root are probably due to 
the carminative quality of the odorous matter it contains, to- 
gether with the mucilaginous character commonly met with in 
members of N. 0. Malvaceae. 

162. Hibiscus fureatus, Roxb., h.f.b.l, i. 335. 

Roxb. 527. 


Vern. : — Huligowri (Kan.) ; Napiritta (Sinhalese). 
Habitat : — Hotter parts of India, from Bengal to Ceylon. 
A large, scrambling or climbing, semi-shrubby perennial ; 
stems more or less tomentose or glabrous, set with numerous 


scattered, sharp, decurved, hooked prickles. Leaves 2-3in., 
roundish in outline, deeply palmately cut into 3-5 lanceolate, 
acute, shortly serrate segments (the lower often entire), glabrous 
or pubescent, usually very prickly on the veins beneath ; 
petioles as long as or longer than leaves, stout, horizontal, 
cylindric, very prickly. Stipules, linear- lanceolate. Flowers 
large, 2|-4in.; pedicels l-3in., very prickly ; bracteoles 10-12, 
linear setaceous, bristly, lower half spreading or renexed, upper 
half erect, with a small deflexed leafy appendage at the middle ; 
sepals connate half way, ovate, very acute, sharp pointed, fin , 
enclosed in thickened and enlarged, connivent Calyx, covered 
with very coarse appressed bristly hair ; seed compressed, 
rough with scattered papillae grey brown. Flowers yellow, with 
dark crimson centre. This is a very handsome climber. There 
seems to be no published figure of this common plant, says 
Trimen 1893. Talbot has done it since. (See his Forest Flora 
of Bombay). 

Very common in Ceylon, over trees and bushes in the 
low country, hotter parts of India, from Bengal to Ceylon (Max- 
well. T. Masters). 

Use : — Roots infused in water make a cooling drink for 
the hot weather (Talbot). 

163. H. micranthus, Linn., h.k.f.b.i., i. 335. 

Vevn. : — (Porebunder) Adbau Buporio, Darianu jhad ; 
(Kutch), Kurudvel ; (Tamil) Peru-maddi. (GujrPiti) Chanak 
Bhindo ; (J. Indraji.) 

Habitat : — Hotter parts of India, from the North-West 
Provinces, eastward and southward to Ceylon. 

Shrubby, with slender rod-like spreading branches, thinly 
covered with stellate bristles. Leaves f-1 in., ovate or oblong, 
quite entire or serrate, glandless, rough with bristly hairs ; 
petioles very short. Peduncles axillary, as long as or longer 
than the leaves. Bracteoles linear, shorter than the Calyx. 
Flowers white or pink, f in. diam. Sepals lanceolate. Corolla 
reflexed. Anthers whorled. Capsule globose. Seeds cottony, 

N. 0. MALVACEAE. 181 

Use : — In Ceylon it is valued as a febrifuge (Duthie's 
Flora Upper Gangetic Plain, Vol. I, p. 89). 

164. H. cannabinus, Linn., h.f.b.i., i. 339. 
Roxb, 528. 

Sans.: — Machika, Phalamla, Rajjuda-Ambashta, Ambalika. 
Nali ; garmikura. 

Vern. : — San. (H.) ; Mesta-pat (B.) ; Ambadi (Dec.) ; 
Palungu (Tarn.) ; Ghongu-kuru. (Tel.); Dare kudrum (Santal.) ; 
kanuriya (Orissa) ; kudrum (Behar) ; Sajjado (Sind). ; Pim- 
drike gida, holada (Kan.). 

(Porebunder and Guj.) Bhindi Amboi ; (Marathi) Ambadi ; 
(Hindi) Patsan Am ban. (J. Indraji.) 

Habitat:— Generally cultivated; apparently wild east of 
the Northern Ghauts. 

An annual or perennial herb. Stem glabrous, prickly. 
Lower leaves entire, cordate, upper deeply palmately-lobed, lobes 
narrow serrate ; mid-nerve glandular beneath. Petiole prickly, 
lower much larger than the blade. Stipules linear, pointed. 
Peduncles very short, axillary. Bracteoles 7-10, linear, shorter 
than the Calyx. Sepals bristly, lanceolate, connate below the 
middle, with a gland at the back of each. Corolla large, spread- 
ing, yellow with a crimson centre. Capsule globose, pointed 
bristly. Seeds nearly glabrous. All parts agreeably acid. 

Parts used : — The seeds, leaves and juice. 

Use: — The seeds are used as an external application to 
pains and bruises, and are said to be aphrodisiac and fatten- 

One tola of the juice of the flowers, with sugar and 
black pepper is a popular remedy for biliousness with acidity 
(Dymock). The leaves are purgative. 

165. II. Sahdariffa, Linn., h.f.b.i., i. 340. 

Vern. :— Lal-ambadi, Patwa (B. Bomb.^; Mesta, (B); Lal- 
ambadi (Sind.); Sivappu-kashurnk-kai (Tarn.) ; Erra-gom-kaya 
(Tel); Polechi (Mai); Arak kudrumi, togat arak. (Santal.); 
Pulachakin, pundibija (Kan.). 


Eng. : — The Roselle of India or Red Sorrel of the W. 

Habitat : — Cultivated in hotter parts of India. 
An erect, cultivated annual shrub, glabrous, unarmed. Stem 
purple. Leaves entire or 3-lobed, serrate, midrib glandular 
beneath ; petiole 2 in. Peduncle solitary, axillary, shorter than 
the petiole. Bracteoles and Calyx accrescent. Bracteoles 8-12, 
linear, adnate to the base of the Calyx. Sepals dotted, acuminate, 
bristly, connate below the midrib into a purplish fleshy cup. 
Corolla 2 J in. diam., yellow. Capsule ovoid, pointed, villous, 
shorter than the Calyx, seeds reniform, sub-glabrous. 

Parts used :— The seeds, fruit and leaves. 

Use : — The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of 
what is called in Bombay Bazaars " Roselle " jelly or Rozal 
jelly, and, when dried, as an article of diet like tamarind is 
used much in curries. In bilious conditions, a diet drink 
is made by boiling it with water and adding a little salt, 
pepper, asafoetida and molasses (Dymock). 

Moodeen Sheriff recommends a decoction of the seeds as a 
draught, in doses of from 1 to 2 drs., 3 or 4 times a day, in 
dysuria and strangury, also in dyspepsia and debility. 

The fruit possesses anti-scorbutic properties. The leaves 
are regarded as emollient. They are often cooked as vegetable 
and in curries. K. R. K. 

The food plant roselle, Hibiscus Sabdariffa has recently been introduced 
into tho Philippine Islands and is the sole representative of a type, in which 
the calyx supplies the chief edible portion of the plant. After flowering, the 
calyx thickens and enlarges until it assumes the appearance of a large bud, 
which is harvested for making jam or jelly of a brilliant red colour and 
pleasant acid taste, and for the preparation of syrup and wine. The chemical 
composition of the calyx is very similar to that of the cranberry, comprising 
inter alia 3*31 per cent, of malic acid, 0'83 per cent, of invert sugar, and 0*24 
per cent, of sucrose. The malic acid present consists entirely of the dextro- 
rotatory modification, which form has never previously been identified in plant 
composition, and the acidity of the fruit is due entirely to it, analysis proving 
the absence of Tartaric and Citric acids. The roselle leaves contain about 1*25 
per cent, and the stems about 0*60 per cent, of dextro malic acid, in conse- 
quence of which, both stems and leaves can be utilised in conjunction with the 
calyxes, when a brilliantly coloured food product is required. 

J. Ch. I. Jan. 31, 1913 p. 104. 

N. 0. MALVACEAE. 18 

166. FL Abelmoschus, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 342. 
Rosb. 526. 

Syn. : — Abelmoschus moschatus, Moench. 

Sans. : — Lata-kasturika, 

Arab. : — Hab-ul-mishk. 

Vern. : — Kasture, kala-kasturi (B) ; Mushk-dana (H) ; kas- 
turu-benda ''Dec) ; kattuk-kasturi (Tarn) ; karpura-benda, (Tel) ; 
kasturi-bhenda (Mar) ; kapu kimissa (Singh.) 

Habitat : —Throughout the hotter parts of India ; most low 
country Ceylon. Found wild, says Trimen, or much cultivated in 
tropical countries. 

An annual hispid, herbaceous plant, with long deflexed hair, 
tall, 2-3 ft. high. Leaves polymorphous, ovate-cordate or more 
usually palmately cut into 3-5 acute lobes, dentate-serrate, hairy 
on both sides ; petiole usually longer than leaves, with long 
deflexed hairs. Stipules small, subulate. Flowers large, 3-4 in., 
solitary, often appearing to be terminal, bright yellow, with a 
purple centre. Pedicels stout, curved, much thickened beneath 
the flower. Bracteoles 8, distinct, linear, hispid, much shorter 
than Calyx. Sepals completely connate, save at their point into 
a tube which splits down one side. Capsule 2^-3 in., ovate- 
ovoid, acute, hispid ; seeds kidney-bean-shaped, striate. 

Parts used : — The seeds, root and leaves. 

Uses ; — The Hindus regard the seeds as cooling, tonic and 

The Arabic and Persian writers consider them to have sto- 
machic and tonic properties. The author of the Makhzan-ul- 
Adwia recommends a mucilage prepared from the roots and 
leaves of the plant in gonorrhosa. In Bombay, the seeds are 
rubbed to a paste with milk, and used to cure itch (Dymock). 

In the West Indies, the seeds are given in the cure of snake- 
bite, being administered both internally and externally (Watt). 
The late Dr. Moodeen Sheriff used a tincture of the seeds and 
considered it stimulant, stomachic and anti-spasmodic, and 
recommended its exhibition in cases of nervous debility, hysteria, 
and a tonic for dyspepsia. 


167. //. esculentus, Linn., h.f.b.l, i. 343. 
Roxb. 529. 

8yn. :— H. longifolius, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. III. 210. Abelmoschus 

esculentus, W. and A. 

English name: — Lady's finger. 

Sans. : — Tindisa ; Gandha-mula. 

Arab, and Vers. : — Bamiya. 

Vern. : — Bhindi ram-turai (H.) ; Dhenras, ram-torai (B.); 
Bhenda (Bom.) ; Bhindu Guz.) ; Bhendi (Dek.) ; Vendaik-kay, 
vendi (Tarn.); Pencla, benda-kaya (Tel.). 

Habitat : —Cultivated throughout India. 

A cultivated, annual, tall herb, with rough hairs. Leaves 
coarsely toothed ; petiole 6 in., more or less bristly. Stipules 
subulate. Peduncles about 1 in. Bracteoles 1 in., linear-subulate. 
Flowers yellow with a crimson centre. Staminal-tube antheri- 
ferous throughout. Fruit 6-10 by lin., pyramidal-oblong, 
glabrescent, cells 5-8-seeded. Seeds striate, hairy. 

Parts used :— The fruit, seeds and capsule. 

Use : — The Mahomedan writers describe it as cold and 
moist, and beneficial to people of a hot temperament (Dymockl 

Roxburgh recommends it in irritating cough. The 
mucilage from the fruits and seeds is useful in gonorrohoea and 
irritation of the genitourinary system. In the Indian Pharma- 
copoeia, the immature capsules are officinal for the preparation of 
a decoction, to be used as an emollient, demulcent and diuretic 
in catarrhal affections, ardor urinse, dysuria and gonorrhoea. 

168. H. tiliaceus, Linn., h.f.b.l, i. 343. 
Roxb. 522. 

Syn. : — Paritium tiliaceum, W. and A. ; Hibiscus tiliaceus, 

Vern. : — Bola, chelwa (B.) ; Bania or baria (Orissa) ; Bel- 
pata (Bomb.). (Sinhalese) Beli-patta. 

Habitat : — Coasts of both Peninsulas and Bengal. 

N. 0. MALVACEAE. 185 

A smal], much-branched tree. Young shoots and inflor- 
escence pubescent. Bark grey, inner-bark fibrous. Wood soft, 
grey, heartwood purplish. Leaves entire from a cordate base, 
nearly orbicular, shortly grey-pubescent ; blade 3-8 in. diam. 
Petiole 1-5 in. long. Stipules broad, early deciduous. Flowers in 
axillary or terminal few-fid racemes. Bracteoles 10, connate, 
half the length of the Calyx. Corolla 2-3 in. diam., pale yellow, 
with a crimson centre, red in the evening. Staminal-tube li in., 
antheriferous all the way down. Capsule 10-celled, ovoid, pointed 
above, 5-valved. Seeds slightly pilose, reniform. 

Parts used :— The bark and root. 

Use :— The bark is used in medicine (Watt). The root is 
said by Irvine in his Materia Medica of Patna to be febrifuge, 
and employed in the preparation of embrocations. 

169. H. Rosa-Sinensis, Linn., h.f.b.l, I, 344. 
Roxb. 523. 

Sans. : — Jap a. 

Vern. : — Joba, juva, oru (B). ; Jasoon or jasund (H. and 
Dec); shappathup-pu, (Tarn.) ; java-push-pamu (Tel.) ; Dasvalada- 
huvvu (Can.) ; jasut-nu-phul (Guz) ; Jasvan (Mar). 

Pers. : — Angharee-hind. 

Habitat: — Cultivated in gardens throughout India. I have 
seen 12 varieties in the Bombay gardens with cream-coloured, 
fawn-coloured, white and scarlet-blotched, pink, deep crimson, 
scarlet, with double and single-petalled flowers. It serves as a 
good roadside plant in Bombay. K. R. K. 

A shrubby perennial plant, cultivated in gardens. Stems 
woody, branched, not prickly. Leaves entire at base, coarsely 
toothed at apex, nearly glabrous, ovate, acuminate. Stipules 
ensiform. Bracteoles 6-7, linear, half the length of the bell-shap- 
ed Calyx. Peduncles axillary, solitary, as long as or longer than 
the adjoining leaf. Sepals f in. ; lanceolate, connate below the 
middle. Corolla 3 in. diam., variously coloured with a deep purple 
or black blotch inside, near insertion or base of petals. Staminal- 
tube exceeding Corolla. Capsule roundish, many-seeded. 


The juice of petals is much used in colouring sugar, 
confectionary pink (K. JR. K.) 3 and to ' black ' leather-shoes 

Parts used : — The flowers, leaves and root. 

Use : — The flowers are considered emollient, and an in- 
fusion of the petals is given as a demulcent. 

The flowers fried in ghee (clarified butter) are administered 
by natives for checking excessive menstruation. The leaves are 
considered emollient and aperient (Murray, p. 63). The buds 
are employed in the cure of seminal weakness and cystitis ; 
the root is valuable in coughs (S. Arjun). 

Moodeen Sheriff reports favourably of an infusion of the 
petals as a demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers (Ph. Ind). 

In Bombay, the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a 
substitute for Althoea. In the Concan, the fresh root-juice of the 
wild flower variety is given, in doses of two tolas with milk, 
sugar and cumin for gonorrhoea, and the root powdered is given 
with an equal quantity of lotus-root and the bark of Eriodendron 
anfractuosum, in the same manner, for menorrhagia, the dose of 
the three being 6 massas each. (Dymock). 

Dr. Moodeen Sheriff recommended an oil, made by mixing 
the juice of fresh petals and olive oil in equal portions, and 
boiling till all water is evaporated, as a stimulating application 
for the hair. 

170. Thespasia populnea, Cow., h.f.b.l, I. 
345. Roxb. 

Syn. : — Hibiscus populneus, Roxb. 522. 

Sans. : — Gardhabhanda, Parisa, Suparshvaka. 

Vern. : — Dumbla (Sundribuns) ; (Hindi) Paruspipal Gaj- 
dand, Paras pipul (H.) ; Poresh, parash, paresh-pipal (B.) ; Poris, 
portia, pursa Pursha-maram (Tarn.); gangaraya (Tel.); Bendi 
(Guz.) ; Bhendi, Bhend (Bomb.). (Sinhalese) Suriya, (Tamil) 
Kavarachu, Puvarachu. 

N. 0. MALVACEiE. 187 

Habitat: — Tropical shores of Bengal and both peninsulas, 

A middle-sized, evergreen, rapid-growing tree. Heartwood 
small, dark red, smooth ; sapwood soft. Leaves cordate, acumi- 
nate, entire on botli sides, with minute, peltate scales ; blade 
3-5 in., petiole 1-4 in. Flowers axillary, solitary or 2 together. 
Bracteoles none, or early deciduous. Calyx cup-shaped, truncate. 
Corolla yellow, passing into purplish pink when withering, 2 in. 
diam. Capsule dehiscent or i ndehiscent ; 1-J in., oblong, depress- 
ed, scaly, ultimately glabrescent. Seeds silky, pilose or powdery 
on the surface (Maxwell T. Masters). 

Parts used : — The bark, fruit, seeds, flowers, root and leaves. 

Uses : — The fruit yields a yellow, viscid juice, which forms a 
valuable local application in scabies and other cutaneous diseases 
in South India. The affected parts of the body are daily washed 
with a decoction of the bark (Watt). Ainslie says that a 
decoction of the bark is given internally as an alterative. 

Dr. Waring tried it in scabies and other cutaneous diseases; 
in some cases, it exercised a favourable influence, but in the 
majority it was productive of little or no benefit. 

In Tahiti, the fresh capsules, bruised and applied to the 
forehead are said to cure migraine ; the yellow sap exuding from 
the peduncles is considered a cure for the bites of insects, espe- 
cially .of the centipede ; it is also useful in sprains, bruises, and 
all cutaneous affections. In Mauritius, the bark is described 
as depurative, as used in dysentery, haemorrhoids ; the juice 
of the fruits being applied to warts." Christy's N. C. P., No. x., 
p. 43. 

Rumphius speaks highly of the value of heartwood as a 
remedy for bilious attacks and colic, and in a kind of pleuro- 
dynia from which the Malay as often suffer. 

In the Central Provinces, the root is taken as a tonic. 

In the Concan, the flowers are employed in the cure of itch ; 
and the leaves are employed as a local application to inflamed 
and swollen joints ^Dymock). 


171. T. Lampas, Dalz and Gibs, h.f.b.l, i. 

Syn. : — Hibiscus Lampas, Boxb. 524. 

Vern.: — Bankapas (B); Bonkapsi. (Santal); Bonkapash 
(Assam) ; Ran bhendi (Alar.); Adavipiatti, condapatti, rondapatti 
(Tel). Parus Piplo (Qujj. 

Habitat : — Tropical Himalaya, from Kumaon eastwards ; 
Bengal and the Western Peninsula. 

A subarboreous, herbaceous plant, not prickly ; portions 
downy. Leaves palmately-lobed, 5 in. diam., cordate, 3-lobed ; 
lobes spreading, acuminate, sparingly stellate, pilose above, 
tomentose beneath, midrib, with a glandular pore at the base 
beneath ; petiole 2\ in., downy. Stipules subulate, peduncles 
axillary or terminal, panicled, 3-flowered. Bracteoles 4-8, subu- 
late, deciduous. Calyx of 5-subulate, sepals, connate below the 
middle. Corolla campanulate, yellow, with a crimson centre. 
Capsule ovoid, pointed, villous, 5 rarely 4-valved or 3-valved ; 
valves hispid, glabrescent. Seeds glabre scent. 

Tropical Himalaya from Kumaon eastwards, Bengal, the 
Western Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon. 

Use : — The root and fruit are employed in Chutia Nagpur 
as a remedy in gonorrhoea and syphilis (Campbell). 

172. Gossypium herbaeeum, Linn., h.f.b.l, 
i. 346. Roxb. 519. 

Sans. : — Karpas. 

Vern. :— Rui, kapas (H.) ; Tula (B.) ; Parutti, (Tarn.}; Pratti, 
(Tel.). Kapus (Mar), Kapas (Guj.). 
Eng. : — The Indian cotton. 
Habitat : — Cultivated in India, Ceylon. 

An annual or perennial herb or shrub, nearly glabrous 
or more or less hairy, and with a few scattered glandular points. 
Leaves cordate, 3-5 ; or rarely 7-lobed, usually with a gland 
on the undersurface of the midrib. Leaf-lobes broadly ovate or 

N. 0. MALVACEiE. 189 

acuminate. Stipules ovate-lanceolate, entire or slightly toothed. 
Peduncles shorter than the petiole. Bractcoles not divided 
below the middle, equalling the capsule, sometimes, entire or 
nearly so. Calyx truncate or obtusely crenulate, much shorter 
than the bracteoles. Petals spreading, ovate or crenulate. 
Flowers yellow, with a purple centre, rarely wholly yellow or 
white or purple. Capsule ovate, globose, mucronate, 3-5-valved. 
Seeds 5-7 in each cell, ovoid. Cotton white, brown, rarely 
yellowish, overlaying a greenish or greyish down. I have 
a fabric, a coat made out of cloth, turned out at the Thana Jail 
(Konkan), nearly twenty years ago out of the fawn-coloured 
cotton-fibre found on some plants in the Jail gardens, unex- 
pectedly yielding the fawn-coloured cotton. It is unknown 
whence the seed of such plants came (K. R. Kirtikar). 

Parts used : — The bark, seeds, leaves, flowers and root-bark. 

Uses : — The Eastern physicians consider all parts of the 
cotton plant to be hot and moist ; a syrup of the flowers is 
prescribed in hypochondriasis, on account of its stimulating and 
exhilarant effect ; a poultice of them is applied to burns and 
scalds. Burnt cotton is applied to sores and wounds to promote 
healthy granulation ; dropsical or paralysed limbs are wrapped in 
cotton, after the application of a ginger plaster ; pounded cotton- 
seed, mixed with ginger and water, is applied in orchitis. Cotton 
is also used as a moxa, and the seeds as a laxative, expectorant, 
and aphrodisiac. The juice of the leaves is considered a good 
remedy in dysentery, and the leaves with oil are applied as a 
plaster to gouty joints ; a hip-bath of the young leaves and 
roots is recommended in uterine colic. 

The cotton- wool is applied to burns ; the seeds are said to 
increase the secretion of milk, and are also said to be useful in 
epilepsy, and as an antidote to snake-poison. The root is diu- 
retic, emenagogue and demulcent, and the leaves in decoction 
are tonic, and said to be used in fever and diarrhoea (Atkin- 

In India, the cotton seeds are employed to procure abortion. 
Cotton root-bark is officinal in the United States Pharmacopoeia, 


also a fluid extract of bark ; it appears to have first attracted 
attention from being used by the female negroes to produce 
abortion. It acts like ergot upon the uterus, and is useful in 
dysmenorrhoea and suppression of the menses when produced 
by cold. A decoction of 4 ozs of the bark in 2 pints of water, 
boiled down to one pint, may be used in doses of 2 ounces every 
20 or 30 minutes, or the fluid extract may be prescribed in 
doses of from 30 to 60 minims. Cotton-seed tea is given in 
dysentery in America ; the seeds are also reputed to be galac- 
tagogue (Dymock). 

Compared with ergot, the root of the cotton-plant causes a 
more natural contraction of the uterus ; but the former drug 
appears to be the more active during parturition. Gossypium 
can be given with impunity. In gynaecological practice ergot 
cannot compare with gossypium, the rapidity of action is not 
so necessary, and the remedy can be given without any un- 
pleasant secondary or after-effects, as is frequently complained 
of during a prolonged course of ergot subcutaneously or per- 
os" (I. M. G., November, 1884. pp. 334-5). 

The herbaceous part of G-ossypium herbaccum contains 
much mucilage, and is used as a demulcent. 

Cotton-seeds have been employed in the Southern States 
of America with great asserted success in the treatment of 
intermittents. A pint of the seeds is boiled in a quart of water 
to a pint, and a teacupful of the decoction is given to the 
patient in bed, an hour or two before the expected return of 
the chill. (U. S. Dispensatory). 

The seeds are considered a nervine tonic and are given 
in headache, etc. 

Cotton-seed is said to increase the secretion of milk, and 
cotton-seed oil is largely utilized for this reason in the feeding of 
cows. The reason of this physiological action, and the constituent 
of the seed which produces it, are not known. In order to apply 
this to women, attempts have been made to purify the seeds, and 
a preparation, bearing the name of lactagol, has been the outcome 
of these investigations. It is a fine white powder, having a not 

n. o. malvacej:. 191 

unpleasant taste. The patients take it well, and it does not pro- 
duce any disturbances of digestion. The action on the breast 
becomes evident after the patient has taken the powder for three 
or four days and has swallowed from 25 to 30 grams. The 
effect on the breasts is that they become fuller, that the baby is 
able to suck for a longer period, and that at the end of the meal 
the mother does not complain of pain in the breasts. The action 
does not appear to be lost if one discontinues the lactagol for 
one day, but if one leaves it off for two or three days the secretion 
becomes less. If one uses it in women, who have already been 
suckling for some time, one finds it necessary to give nearly 
double the amount before the action is obtained. — B. M. J. Epi- 
tome, August. 6, 1904. 

The flowers contain a coloring matter, a glucoside, named 
gcssypetin, C 16 H 1S 8 . It forms glistening, yellow needles, 
closely resembling quercetin in appearance, and is readily 
soluble in alcohol, but only very sparingly in water. Concentrated 
alkaline solutions dissolve it, forming orange-red solutions, 
which, on agitation and dilution with water, become green, and 
finally assume a dull brown tint. Ammonia behaves very 
similarly. Alcoholic lead-acetate gave a deep red precipitate 
in the cold, passing into dull brown at the boiling point, and 
alcoholic ferric chloride a dull, olivegreen liquid. Sulphuric 
acid dissolves it, forming an orange-red solution. 

Fusion with alkali.— When gossypetin is fused with caustic 
potash at 200-220,° two crystalline decomposition products 
are obtained, melting at 210° and at 194-196° respectively ; these 
consisted of phloroghucinol and protoeatechuic acid. J. Ch. S. 
1899 T, p. 825. 

When the phenolic constituents of cotton-seed oil are purified by repeat- 
ed fractionation from acetic acid solution, a crystalline product is obtained 
which can be further purified by crystallisation from a mixture of alcohol 
and dilute acetic acid ; this substance, to which the name of gossypol is given, 
has a composition corresponding fairly well with that required for the for- 
mula C 13 H 14 4 . 

Gossypol crystallises in glistening, golden scales, melts at 188°, dissolves 
readily in alcohol benzene, chloroform, ether, acetone, or acetic acid, but not 
in water. Sulphuric acid dissolves it with a beautiful, cherry-red coloration, 
similar to that observed with impure cotton-oils. Alkalis give a yellow 


solution, which soon becomes violet and then gradually loses its colour ; the 
violet colour is developed immediately when hydrogen peroxide is added to 
the alkaline solution. Alkaline solutions of gossypol reduce both Eehling's 
solution and ammoniacal silver nitrate. An alcoholic solution gives a dark 
green coloration with ferric chloride, which becomes dark reddish-brown on 
adding alkalis. The acetyl and benzoyl derivatives are very soluble in organic 
solvents, and were not obtained in crystalline form ; bromine and nitric acid 
also act on gossypol, but definite products were not isolated. Gossypol is 
not a glucoside. An analysis of the lead salt indicates the presence of two 
hydroxy! groups. Gossypol gives a grey shade, with iron mordants. — J. Ch. S. 
1899 A I. 821. 

173. G. arboreum, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 347. 
Roxb. 520. 

Vern : — Nurma, deo kapas. (H.) ; Budi Kaskoin, bhoga 
kuskom (Santal.) ; Manna, radhia, nurma (N.-W. P.; ; Kapas 
(Pb.) ; Deva Kapusa (Mar.) ; Sainparuthi (Tarn.); Patti (Tel). 

Habitat : — Plains of India, in gardens, but generally 

Arborescent or shrubby plant, rarely an herb. Branches 
purple, pilose. Leaves nearly glabrous, one-glandular, deeply 
palmately 5-7-lobed, lobes linear oblong, mucronate, con- 
tracted at the base, often with a supplementary lobe in the 
sinus. Stipules ensiform. Flowers purple, rarely white. 
Bracteoles nearly entire, cordate, ovate, acute. Petals spread- 
ing ; staminal-tube antheriferous for its whole length. Capsule 
about 1 in., oblong, pointed. Seeds free, covered with white 
wool overlying a dense, green down. Cotton not readily separ- 
able from the seed. 

Uses : — In Bombay, the root is used in the treatment of 

In the Konkan, the root, rubbed to a paste within the juice 
of patchouli leaves, has a reputation as a promoter of granula- 
tion in wounds, and the juice of the leaves, made into a paste 
with the seeds of Vernonia anthelmintica, is applied to eruptions 
of the skin following fever. In Pudukota, the leaves ground 
and mixed with milk, are given for strangury (Dymock). 

The petals squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk, 


are used as a soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis 
of infants (Dr. Thompson in Watt's Dictionary). 

The cotton is a very useful external remedy in burns, scalds, 
and some other surgical diseases. The seeds exercise some good 
influence over gonorrhoea, gleet, chronic cystitis, consumption 
and some catarrhal affections. The fresh young capsules and 
shoots have been observed to produce good effects in some cases 
of dysentery and gonorrhoea. The control of the seeds over 
gonorrhoea and gleet is more manifest when combined with 
some other drugs, a prescription for which is given below. 

Take of the cotton seeds, from two to four drachms ; fruit of 
Guminum eyminum (cumin seeds), from one and a half to 
three drachms ; fruit of Pimpinella Anisam, (anise seed), from 
one to two drachms ; and the siliciovs concretion of Bambusa 
arundinacea (tabshir), from fifteen to thirty grains. Bruise 
and rub all these ingredients well in a stone mortar, with three 
or four ounces of water and pass the liquid through cloth. This 
draught is to be used four or five times in the twenty-four 
hours, according to the severity of the symptoms (Moodeen 

174. Kydia calycina, Roxb. h.f.b.i., i. 348 ; 
Roxb. 521. 

Vern. :— Pola, pula, pulipatha, potari, choupultea (H.) ; 
Baranga, bhotti. (C.P.) Kubinde (Nepal.) ; Potri, pandini, podda, 
kunji (Tel.); Boldobak (Garo) ; Vdranga, varangada, ivarung, 
moti, potari (Bomb.) ; bittia gonyer, pata dhamin (Kol) ; Poshka 
olat, (Santal.) ; Derki (Karwarj ; sedangtaglar (Lepcha) ; kopa- 
sia (Uirya) ; Pulli, pula, pola (Pb.) ; -Bendi, bende-naru, bellaka 
(Kan.) ; Baruk, bosha, kunji (Gond.) nihoty Lirwani (Guj.). 

Habitat :— Tropical regions of the Himalaya, from Kumaon 
eastward, and throughout the Western ghats. Dun and Saha- 
ranpur gardens. Burma. 

A moderate-sized, deciduous tree or large shrub. Bark grey, 
exfoliating in large strips, rough, with large white specks on 


branches. Young parts covered with grey stellate hairs. Leaves 
downy beneath, 4-6 in. by 3 in. diam., rounded, cordate, pal- 
mately 5-7-nervecl, more or less lobed, midlobe longest, glabrous 
above or with thinly scattered hairs, closely felted beneath ; 
petiole 1-2 in. Flowers numerous, white or pink, |-f in. across, 
polygamous, generally dioecious, in much-branched axillary or 
terminal panicles. Bracteoles 4-6, oblong, spathulate, downy, 
nearly as long as the Calyx ; Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, seg- 
ments ovate, acute, accrescent and spreading in fruit, Petals 
clawed, adnate to the staminal-tube, longer than the Clayx, 
obcordate. Stamens monadelphous, the tube shorter than the 
petals and split halfway into 5 segments, each bearing at the 
apex 3-5 sessile anthers. Capsule subglobose.. 3-valved. Seeds 
reniform, furrowed. 

Use : — Among the Santals, the leaves are pounded and 
made into a paste and applied to the body for pains. They 
are also chewed, when there is a deficiency of saliva, (Revd. A. 

175. Adansonia digit ata, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 348. 
Roxb. 513. 

Vernr — Gorakh amli, amali, (H.) ; kalp briksh (Ajmere); 
Hathi-khatyan (Dec.) ; gorakh chintz, choyari chinch (Bomb.) ; 
Marjath Anai-puliyaroy Parutri, (Tarn.) ; Sima-chinta (Tel.) Go- 
rakh Amli (Porebunder) ; Rukhdo, Chor Amli (Guj.) ; Gorakh 
Chinch (Marathi) ; Katu-imbul (Sinhalese). 

Arab. : — Hujed. 

Eng. : — The baobab or monkey-bread tree of Africa. 

Habitat : —Cultivated in various parts of India and 

A deciduous large tree, 60-70 ft. high, very handsome, 
though stumpy when in foliage. Trunk short, thick, of great 
diam. Stem grey at base, rapidly narrowing upward, like a 
cone, throwing out very widely spreading branches. Bark soft, 
glaucous, thick. Leaves digitate, glabrous, pubescent beneath, 
when young ; leaflets generally 5-7, 3-4 in. long, obovate or 

N. 0. MALVACEiE. 195 

oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, attenuated at base, entire or sinu- 
ate at the margins. Flowers white, solitary, axilllary, pendu- 
lous, long-peduncled (often more than 12 in.). Bracteoles 2. 
Calyx thick, coriaceous, fleshy, cup-shaped, 5-cleft, tomentose (?) 
externally and clodded with silky hairs internally. Petals 
obovate, adnate below, to the stamens. Stami rial-tube thick, 
dividing above into numerous filaments ; anthers long, linear, 
reniform or contorted, 1-celled. Ovary ovoid. Style long, 
filiform, divided at summit into as many radiating stigmas as 
there are cells to the ovary. Cells of ovary 5 -10. Fruit pen- 
dulous, oblong-obovoid, downy, woody, brownish-green, indchis- 
cent, 8-12 in. long. Seeds about 30, kidney-shaped, brown, 
immersed in tough fibres and a mealy, reddish fawn-coloured, 
slightly acid pulp, which becomes powdery as the pulp matures. 

Trimen says the Roman Catholics call it " Judas' Bag," be- 
cause the fruit contains 30 seeds." Mr. Crawford of Ceylon Civil 
Service gives the circumference of the largest stem (in 1890) as 
61 ft. 9 in., whilst the tree is only 30 ft. high. A tree at Put- 
talam, in Ceylon, is mentioned by Emerson Tennent as being 
70 ft. in height and 46 ft. in girth (1848). In the village of 
Matunga (Bombay), in 1896, along the principal road going to 
Sion Hill, there was a large tree on the left hand side, of a 
similar enormous size. In the Thana District, 1 have seen several 
such trees in a Mahomedan graveyard on the right hand side 
while going from Thana by the Corset public Road to the Colset 
Bunder. Similar trees are mentioned as growing in Bengal. 
Originally, a Native of Tropical Africa, it was introduced into 
India and Ceylon by Arabian traders. It is now a naturalized 
plant, and grows all over India, along the coast of Gujrat, 
Central Provinces, Bengal. Into Ceylon also it was introduced 
by the Arabs. The Baobab trees, at Mannar have long been 

The disproportionately large, short trunk is remarkable. 
The wood is pale-coloured, soft and porous. It is said by Lisboa 
that the pulp is refrigerent and diuretic. The bark has been 
proposed as a substitute for quinine. Its liber affords excellent 
fibre. The pulp of the fibres is used for paper-manufacture. 


The following was said by Major Kirtikar at the Mel- 
bourne Medical Congress, in exhibiting an extract from the bark 
prepared by the late Mr. M. C, Periera of Bandra : — About 
30-40 graius a day, in small doses, are given every third or fourth 
hour in Intermittent Fevers. The fruit pulp is acid and 
makes a very pleasant refrigerent drink. When unripe, the 
fruit pulp is mucilaginous, but as it gets ripe, it assumes the 
appearance of dry pith, containing dry, powdery, acid, starch- 
like stuff, enclosed in bundles of fibre and surrounding the seeds. 
Walz has extracted an active principle from the Bark, called 
Adansonin. The pulp is an astringent in diarrhoea, like gallic 

Parts used : — The fruit, bark and leaves. 

Use : — It was introduced into India by the Arabians. In 
Africa, it is used for dysentery, and the leaves are made into 
poultices and used as a fomentation to painful swellings, or 
the leaves dried and reduced to powder are called lalo by the 
Africans, and are used to check excessive perspiration. (Royle.) 
Duchassing recommends the bark as an antiperiodic in fever. 
In Bombay, the pulp, mixed with butter-milk, is used as an 
astringent in diarrhoea and dysentery. In the Concan, the 
pulp with figs is given in asthma, and a sherbet made of it, 
with the addition of cumin and sugar, is administered in bilious 
dyspepsia. It is also given for this affection with Emblic myro- 
balans, fresh mint, rock-salt, and long pepper. (Dymock.) 

The fruit has been analysed by Messrs. Heckel and 
Schlagdenhauffen. The authors think that the pulp is rightly 
used by the natives as a remedy in dysentery. 

The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever, by 
diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. It has recently 
proved itself very successful in relieving the night-sweats 
and febrile flushes in a severe case of consumption. The bark 
is useful to some extent in simple and in complicated cases of 
continued and intermittent fevers (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

N, 0. MALVACEAE. 197 

176. Bombax Malabaricum D.C., h.f.b.i., 
i. 349. Roxb. 514. 

Syn. :— B. heptaphylla, Roxb. 

Sans. : — Shalmali; mocha. Rakta Shalmali. Maha vriksba, 
Panch-parni, kalpa vriksa. 

Vern. : — Semul or Semal, shembal, semur, pagun, somr, 
ragat-seubal, ragat-semar, kanti-seubal (H.) ; Rokto-simul, simul 
(B.);simbal, sliivlan (Pb.) Del (Kol); Edel (Santal) ; Bouro, 
(Uriya) ; Boicbu, pancbu (Naro) ; Sunglu (Lepcbaj ; Sanvari 
Kantesava saer, somr, semuel, shembal, (Bom.) ; La vara, Simbo, 
samar, kante-savar, kanteri samar, shevari, tamari savari, (Mar.) ; 
Rato-shemalo, shemolo, shimlo, shimul shimar, (Guz.); Kanton- 
Ka-Khatyan, kanto-ka-semul, lal-katyan (Dek) ; Mundlaburaga- 
chettu (Tel.) ; Pula, Mul-ilava-maram, mulilann (Tarn.) ; Pula- 
maram, mul-lilava, mullia-pula (Mai) ; Mullu-buragam-ara, burla, 
(Kan.) ; Wallaiki fGond.); Katseori ' v BhiL). 

Habitat : — Tropical Eastern Himalaya, and throughout the 
hotter forest regions of India, Ceylon, Burma, Sumatra. 

A very large deciduous tree, with branches in whorls, 5-7, 
spreading horizontally, and stem with buttresses at base. Bark 
grey, when young, with conical prickles, with corky base, when 
old with long irregular vertical cracks. Wood white when 
fresh cut, turning dark on exposure, very soft, perishable. 
No heartwood, no annual rings. Leaves digitate, glabrous. 
Leaflets 5 or 7, lanceolate, 4-8 in. long, common petiole as long as 
or longer than the leaflets. Flowers appearing before the leaves, 
large, scarlet, occasionally white ; Calyx inside silky — tomentose. 
Petals 2-3 in. long, stellate-tomentose on both faces. Filaments 
numerous, pluri-seriate, much longer than the staminal 
column ; 5 innermost forked at the top, each with an anther, 10 
intermediate. shorter, outer very numerous (Maxwell T. Masters). 
Brandis says the filaments are about 70 ; the numerous outer 
ones united in 5 clusters. Anthers long, afterwaids twisted. 
Petals 5, oblong, recurved, fleshy, twice the length of the 
stamens. Style longer than the stamens. Capsule 6-7 in., 
oblong, hard, woody, downy, 5-valved. Valves silky within. 


Seeds glabrous, embedded in silky wool. This is the silk-cotton 
tree of the Konkan. 

Parts used : — The gum, seed, fruit, tap-root, bark,' cotton 
and flower. 

Uses : — The gam or dried juice, moeha-ras, which the tree 
yields, is used as an aphrodisiac. The root has stimulant and 
tonic properties. The bark and the root are emetic. The 
young roots, dried in the shade and powdered, form the chief 
ingredient in the musla-semul, a medicine highly thought of 
as an aphrodisiac ; it is also given in impotence. The gum 
contains a large proportion of tannic and gallic acids, and may 
be successfully employed in cases requiring astringents. The 
gum has also tonic and alterative properties, and is used in 
diarrhoea, dysentery, and menorrhagia. 

The dry flowers, with poppy seeds, goats' milk, and sugar, 
are boiled and inspissated, and of this conserve two drachms 
are given three times a day in haemorrhoids (Medical Topography 
of Dacca, by Dr. Taylor). 

" Its gum is useful in diarrhoea ; dose : 20-30 grs., with 
equal parts of sugar (Surg. T. Anderson, Bijnor;. The taproot 
is used for gonorrhoea and dysentery (Mukerji, Cuttack). The 
leaves, singed and beaten, or rubbed with water to a pulp, make 
a useful application to glandular swellings (Forsyth). Watt's 
Diet. i. 491. 

The gum is astringent and demulcent ; the seeds nutrient 
and demulcent ; the young fruit stimulant, diuretic, tonic, 
aphrodisiac, expectorant, and exercises a great beneficial in- 
fluence over the membranes of the genito-urinary organs ; the 
tap-root is demulcent, tonic, slightly diuretic, and aphrodisiac ; 
the bark is demulcent, diuretic, tonic, and slightly astringent ; 
and the cotton is employed only externally for its mechanical 
properties (softness and elasticity) in padding splints and 
covering burned and inflamed surfaces, &c. 

The gum is useful in diarrhoea, dysentery and other 
affections in which kino and catechu are beneficial. The 
therapeutic uses of the seeds are similar to those of the seeds 

N. 0. MALVAOE^. 199 

of Gossypium herbaceum, G. Avboreum and G. Barbadense. The 
benefit of the dry young fruits in calculus affections and 
chronic inflammation and ulceration of the bladder and kidneys, 
including strangury and all other forms of dysuria, except 
those depending on mechanical causes, is remarkable. The 
fruits are also useful in weakness of the genital organs and in 
most of the disorders in which gentian and calumba are resorted 
to. As therapeutic agents, the tap-root and the bark, in the 
forms of decoction and extract, are nearly identical in their 
usefulness with Mdvdtimoggu, and therefore employed in almost 
the same affections. The cotton of B. Malabarieum is useful in 
all the surgical cases, &c, in which the cotton of Coehlosperum 
Gossypium. is employed, and the manner of using it is also the 

There is no drug in India which enjoys a greater reputation 
as an aphrodisiac and tonic in native medical works than the 
tap-root of the young plant of B. MalabariGum. There is no 
doubt that it is one of the useful drugs in this country, but the 
exaggeration of its good effect in some of the Indian writers is 
so great, that it is quite ridiculous and not worth mentioning 
here. I have recently given a trial to this drug in my practice, 
and found it to be a good demulcent tonic, and slightly aphro- 
disiac, but nothing beyond it. I may also state that even the 
good influence, which it does exert occasionally on the genital 
organs, is neither certain nor uniform. The great practical 
objection to the use of the Semal-mush is that it is neither sold 
in the bazar, nor procurable always in any garden or field. 
Besides, there is no medical property in it, which, according 
to my own experience, is not possessed in equal degree, 
if not more, by the dry young fruits and bark of B. Malabarieum. 
In fact, the Marati-moggu is not only the cheapest and most 
abundant, but also the best and most useful of all the parts of 
the above plant which are used as medicines. The young fruits 
seem to possess some soothing or special action on the mucous 
membrane of the genito-urinary tract, and have therefore proved 
themselves more useful than Pareira Brava in some of the 
diseases in which the latter is indicated (Moocleen Sheriff). 


" The gum exudes only from those portions of the bark which have been 
injured by decay or by insects, since incisions in the healthy bark do not 
cause the gum to flow. The gum first exudes in the form of a white, opaque, 
viscous mass, which readily turns red, and finally dries into hard, brittle, 
mahogany-coloured tears, the larger of which are hollow in the centre, the 
cavity being produced during the gradual drying of the jelly-like mass which 
first exudes from the tree. The fresh exudation contains about 84 per cent, 
of moisture which it loses on drying in air. The gum is best collected 
during the early part of the hot season— from March till June— since it has 
then lost most of its moisture, and consequently is less liable to ferment and 
deteriorate when it is stored.** 

" Chemical properties of the gum.— The gum contains a considerable quantity 
of tannin and belongs, in fact, to that class of tannin materials which Procter 
has classified as being of ' mixed and doubtful constitution.' It contains also 
catechol tannin." 

'* Hydrolysis of the gum.— Boiling the original substance with dilute acid, 
probably hydrochloric acid, yields a red coloured solution, together with 
an insoluble residue which possesses the colour of crimson lake. For brevity's 
sake this amorphous product will be referred to as ' Semu I red.' It is only 
very moderately soluble in alcohol, and, therefore, this colouring matter does 
not possess the solubility ordinarily attributed to the phlobaphenes. The 
filtrate from the hydrolysis deposits a small quantity of a dark red, amorphous 
powder, and if the tannin substances be removed by means of precipitation 
with lead acetate, and the excess of lead in solution be removed from 
the filtrate by means of sulphuretted hydrogen, then the residual liquid, 
freed from sulphuretted hydrogen, will reduce Fehlings' solution."— J. Ch. I 
29-4-1911 p. 469. 

177. Eriodendron anfractuosum., D.C. h.f.b.l, 
i. 350. 

Syn. :— Bombax pentandrum, Roxb. 513. 

Vern. :— Safed simal, senibal, hatian (H) ; Swet Simal (B.) ; 
llavam (Tarn.) ; Buruga, pur, buraga-sanna (Tel.) ; Pania, paniala 
(Mai.) ; Khatyan, safed-khatyan (Dec); shamicula, sapheta savara, 
shalmali, pandhari savar (Mar.) ; Biliburga, bili-barlu (Kan.). 

Habitat :— Forests, throughout the hotter parts of India, 
Ceylon. Native of Malay. 

A moderate-sized, deciduous tree. Bark greyish brown, 
green when young, peeling off in round bosses. Wood yellowish 
or brownish white, soft. Trunk straight ; the primary branches 
horizontal, in whorls of three ; young parts, glabrous. Leaves 

N. 0. MALVACE^. 201 

closely placed, on long glabrous petioles, digitate ; leaflets 5-7, 
on short, winged stalks, 3-5 in., lanceolate, acute at both ends, 
finely cuspidate, entire or serrulate near tip, glabrous, paler 
beneath, stipules \ in., linear-filiform, deciduous. Flowers 
cream-white, faintly scented ; 1^-2 in., in axillary clusters of 
2-8, appearing with the young leaves at the ends of branches, 
drooping ; pedicels about 1 in., no bracteoles. Calyx \ in., 
tubular-campanulate, with very shallow lobes, glabrous outside, 
lined with dense appressed hairs at the base within ; petals 
twice as long as Calyx, spreading, obovate-oblong, acute, densely 
tomentose outside, nearly glabrous within. Stamens a little 
longer than the petiole, erect. Ovary glabrous. Capsule 3J-4 in., 
surrounded at base by persistent Calyx, ovoid-fusiform, blunt, 
tardily dehiscent from base upwards by 5 septifragal membran- 
ous valves, 5-celled, cells densely lined with long white silky 
hair which is deciduous, so that the valves are ultimately 
glabrous and areolate within. Seeds over \ in., compressed- 
globose, quite glabrous, blackish, each surrounded by a copious 
crumpled mass of silky hair. Though each seed appears to have 
a separate investment of cotton, this is quite unconnected with 
the testa and really arises from the inner side of the wall of the 
capsule and from the central axis. It is ultimately separated 
from these, and is then a mere stuffing round the seeds. This 
silk-cotton is called Kapok in Malay. A bright red gum is 
afforded by the stem. 

Uses : — The tree yields a gum, called Hatyan gond, which 
is astringent and used as a remedy for bowel complaints 

The unripe fruits are regarded as demulcent and astrin- 

The roots are also used medicinally, like those of Bombax 
Malabaricum (which see). 

" The leaves are ground into a paste and administered in 
gonorrhoea" (Surgeon Thomas). 

" The gum is also used in the incontinence of urine of 

children " (Surgeon-Major Ratton.) 


"The root of the young plant is also used in cases of 

ascites and anasarca, when it acts as a diuretic." (Dr. Thornton) 

Watt's Dictionary. 

The Kapok tree, Eriodendron anfractuosum, grows in almost all tropical 
countries and resembles the cotton plant, in that it yields a fruit containing 
fine fibrous material in which the seeds are embedded. The Bast Indian tree, 
Bombax malabaricnm is also known as " kapok " and in commerce no distinc- 
tion is made between the oils derived from these two sources. The seeds 
contain about 23 per cent of oil, and yield about 17 per cent by pressing. 
Expressed oils yielded by ' kapok ' seeds from Java, East Africa, Ceylon, and 
Ecuador had the following characters : sp. gr. at 15°C. 0*9235 to 0'9326 ; refrac- 
tometer reading at 40°C. 51*7 to 597 ; iodine value, 8524 to 93*78 ; saponif. value 
189*2 to 194*5. Reichert-Meissl value, 0*20 to 66 ; Polenske value, 0*40 ; acid 
value, 18*5 to 210*2 ; insoluble fatty acids, 95*60 to 95*76 p. c. The fatty acids 
had : iodine value, 86*8 to 98*96 ; saponif value, 1990 to 202 7 ; solidif pt., 26 9°C 
to 31*8° ; m. pt., 32*2 to 34*2°. The expressed oil from Bombax seeds had : sp. gr. 
0*9300 ; refractometer reading at 40°C-, 57*0 ; iodine value, 73*59 ; saponif value, 
194*3; acid value, 3*0.; insoluble fatty acids, 95'61 p. c. The fatty acids from 
kapok oil yield a hexabromide melting at 112° to 114 C C. Kapok oil resembles 
cotton seed oil, and gives a strong reaction with Halphen's reagent ; it is not, 
however, used so extensively as cotton seed oil for edible purposes. — J". 
0. Ind. September 15, 1913. Page 874. 

The air-dried kapok seeds contain 25*6 per cent of fatty oil. The oil 
does not become entirely clear till warmed to 28°-29 c C. The sp. gr. at 15 C C is 
0*9218 for expressed commercial oil, and 0*9198 for extracted oil. The refractive 
index at 40°C is 1*4630. When dissolved in toluene, the oil is optically inactive. 
In Eogler's viscometer, the viscosity is 11*5 at 20°C. compared with water. 
The iodine value of the expressed oil was 88*7, and 93*3 to 94*5 for the 
extracted oil. The acid values were 21*6 for expressed oil and 3 4-4*6 
for extracted oil. The saponification values were 192*3 for the expressed 
oil, and 196*3 for the extracted oil. The acid values were 21*6 for 
expressed oil and 34-4*6 for extracted oil. The saponification values 
were 192*3 for the expressed oil and 196 3 for the extracted oil. The Jteichert 
— Meissl value was 0'8, and the Polenske value varied between 0'14 and 0'34. 
The fatty acids melted afc 34°-35 c C, and when freed from phytosterol they 
melted at 36°C. Characteristic reactions were obtained by the Halphen, 
Becchi and nitric acid tests. The oil did not show any drying properties 
It was found to consist principally of the triglycerides of palmitic, oleic, and 

linolic acids. A small amount of a phytosterol, m. pt. 136°C was isolated.— 

J. C. lnd. September 30, 1913, page 917. 

N. 0. STERCULIACE^. 203 


178. Stereulia fcetida, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 354, 
Roxb. 510. 

Vern. : — Jangli-baclam (H. and M. N| ; Jungli-badam, pun 
(Bomb.) ; Kuo-mhad, virhoi (Goa) ; Goldaru, nagalkuda (M) ; 
Pinari, kuddurai-pudduki, kudra-plukku, pinari-maruin (Tarn.) ; 
Gurapu-badam (Tel) ; Bhatala penari (Kan.) 

Habitat : — Western and Southern India, Burma, Ceylon. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark thin, white. Wood grey, 
spongy, soft. Branches whorled, horizontal. Leaves digitate, 
crowded at the ends of branches. Leaflets 7-9, elliptic lanceo- 
late, about 6 by 2in., pubescent when young, adult glabrous 
beneath. Petioles 3in. Stipules ensiform, caducous. Panicles 
erect, numerous-flowered, spreading (formed immediately under 
the leaves of the present year, Roxb.), branches glabrous, ulti- 
mate pedicels shorter than the flower, jointed in the middle. 
Bracteoles minute. Flowers polygamous, red, yellow or dull 
purple. Calyx deeply 5-parted, \-\ in. diam., dull orange 
coloured, campanulate ; lobes oblong-lanceolate, spreading, vill- 
ous within, much longer than the tube. Anthers 12-15. Car- 
pels 5 downy ; style curved. Follicles as large as the fist, 
woody, scarlet, oblong, boat-shaped, shortly beaked, villous in- 
side, nearly glabrous outside. Seeds black, 10-15, in each follicle. 
Cotyledons thick, fleshy ; albumen 0. 

Flowers dull orange. Smelling most offensively, with the 
odour of carrion. The great pendulous bright red follicles gap- 
ing open and showing the black seeds which are very striking 
objects (Trimen). The seeds are eaten roasted. 

Parts used : — The leaves, seeds and follicles. 

Uses : — The leaves are considered as repellent and aperient. 
Loureiro informs us that the seeds are oily, and when swallow- 
ed incautiously tbey bring on nausea and vertigo. Horsfield 
adds that the capsule is mucilaginous and astringent. (Ainslie.) 

179. S. urens, Roxb. h.f.b.i., i. 355, Roxb. 507. 

Vern. : — Gulu, kulii, giilar, buli (H.) ; Odla (Ass.) ; Pand- 
riika, kandol, karai sardol, sardora (Bomb.) ; Makchund ; Gur- 


karanj (Mundari,) Tele {Ho) ; Burkiinda (Mundarij (Bomb.) ; 
Kavalee talbsu (Tel.) ; Vellay putali (Tarn.) ; Kalru (Ajmir). 

Habitat : — N. W. India, Assam, Behar, Eastern and Wes- 
tern Peninsulas, Ceylon dry country. 

A large deciduous tree. " Bark J in. thick, very smooth, 
white or greenish grey, exfoliating in large thin irregular papery 
flakes. Wood very soft, reddish brown, with an unpleasant 
smell, with light coloured sap wood, always feels wet or oily. 
Pores large, often oval and sub-divided, very scanty, frequently 
filled with gum. Medullary rays moderately broad, on a radial 
section prominent as long, dark undulating bands, giving the 
wood a mottled silver-grain ; the distance between the rays is 
larger than the transverse diameter of the pores. Alternate dark 
and light concentric bands across the rays " (Gambled The 
bark gives good fibre. The colloid gum is called Katira. 
Leaves crowded at the ends of branches, tomentose beneath, 
nearly glabrous above, ; simple, cordate, shallowly-palmately- 
5-lobed ; lobes entire, acuminate, blade 8-12in., petiole 6-10in. 
long. Flowers yellow, small, in crowded, erect, more or less 
pyramidal dense panicles, clothed with a dense sticky tomen- 
tum of glandular stellate hairs ; a few flowers bisexual, mixed 
with a large number of male flowers. Staminal-column short ; 
anthers about 20. The gynophore short, thick. Calyx J in. 
diam., campanulate, 5-parted, lobes acute, spreading. Fruit 
-±-5 follicles, yellow-pubsecent, sessile, radiating, ovoid, thickly 
coriaceous. Carpels, 3 in. long, red when ripe, covered outside 
with stiff stinging bristles. Seeds 3-6 in each carpel, oblong, 
dark brown. This tree is often associated with Boswellia 
throughout the Peninsula (Brandis). 

Uses : —The leaves and tender branches steeped in water 
yield a mucilaginous extract, useful in pleuro-pneumonia in 
cattle (Watt.) 

The gum, known as karai-gond, is used as a substitute for 
tragacanth in Bombay (Dymock). 

The Santals consider the gum a useful medicine in throat 
affections. (Revd. A. Campbell.) 


Causes intolerable itching, if touched or handled ; oil 
removes the hairs, and the itching, effectually (J. J. Wood's 
Plants of Chutia Nagpur, p 85 ) 

180. S. scaphigera, Wall, h.f.b.l, i. 361. 

Habitat : — Chittagong. 

A tall, deciduous, glabrous tree. Leaves glabrous, oblong- 
lanceolate, 1-nerved, 12-14 by 6 in., coriaceous, base rounded. 
Petiole 4-5 in., thickened at the top. Flowers panicled. Calyx 
}in., pilose, campanulate, five-parted, lobes reflexed. Male 
flowers : — -Stamens 10-15. Anthers 16-15, pilose. Ovary villous 
on a long slender stalk, 2-celled, with a ring of sessile anthers 
at the base. Style filiform ; Stigmas 2-lobed, subcapitate. 
Follicles large, leafy, boat-shaped, dilated at the base, opening- 
long before maturity, at first pilose, ultimately 6-8 by 3-4 in., 
venose-reticulate, 1-2 seeded. Seeds globose, solitary, albumin- 
ous ; cotyledons pale-green, radicle next the hilum. 

Part used : — The fruit. 

Use : — The fruit is used is China as a remedy for 

181. Helicteres isora, Linn,, h.f.b.l, i. 365., 
Roxb. 506. 

Sans. : — Avartani. 

Vern. : — Marosi, marorphali, jonka-phali, kapasi, bhendu 
(H.); Antamora (B.) ; Vurkatee (Sind.); Dhameenee (Dec); 
Murad Shing (Marathij ; Kawun (Bomb.) ; Aita (Gond) ; Valum- 
birikai (Tarn.) ; Gubadarra (Tel.) 

Habitat : — Dry forests throughout Central and Western 
India, from Behar as far west as Jammu, and the Western Penin- 
sula. In the Thana Adawlat Garden (1881) there is a beautiful 
plant six feet high. K.R.K. Ceylon low country. 

Arborescent or shrubby. Leaves 3 by 2J in., bifarious, 
obliquely cordate, roundish, obovate, often lobed, shortly acumi- 
nate, serrate, scabrous above, pubescent beneath ; petiole i in., 
as long as the linear subulate stipules. Peduncles 2-3 together, 
in a short axillary cyme. Bracteoles small, subulate. Flowers 


If in. Calyx gibbous, laterally compressed, somewhat 2-lipped. 
Petals reflected, red at first, fading to lead colour, very unequal 
in size. 2 lower the largest, claw winged. Staminodes 5 emargi- 
nate scales. Stamens 10. anthers ovate. Ovary at the top of 
the Staminal-column, 5-lobed, 5-celled. Styles awl-shaped, 
more or less united, slightly thickened and stigmatose at the 
tips. Ovules many in each cell. Follicles spirally twisted, 
cylindric. beaked, pubescent. 

Parts used : — The fruit, root, and bark. 

Uses : — The fruits are made into liniment for sores of the 
ear (Ainslie. ) 

They are also internally administered for colic, according 
to the ancient "doctrine of signatures." 

Sloane speaks of the juice of the root having virtues in 
empyema and stomach affections. Leaves are used in Jamaica 
for decoction for clysters (Murray.; 

In the Konkan it is used in snake-bite and diabetes 
(Dymockj. It is also used in an thelmintic diarrhoea, dysent- 
ery, hose of powdered bark one wal* to \ tola. 

The root and bark used by the Santals for the same purposes 
as the fruit (Revd. A. Campbell.) 

According to Moodeen Sheriff, it is demulcent and mild 
astringent, and useful with other drugs in the griping of bowels, 
and flatulence of children. 

182. suberfolium. Lam, , h.f.b.l, 

i. 367. 

Syn. : — P. canescens, Eoxb. 512. 
Sans. : — Mooch ukunda. 

Vern. : — Muchukunda, muskunda (B.) ; Baslo giringa 
(Uriyaj ; Lolagu (Tel.) ; Taddo (Tarn.) ; Muchkand (H. and B.) ; 
Naji (Burm.) ; Velenge, venangu (Sing.) ; Muchkund (Marathi). 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula (Konkan and Kanara). For- 
ests of Orissa. The N. Circars ; theCarnatic; Burma. Ceylon, 
dry low country. 

* A uv7/=4 to fi grains (Jeweller's weight in Western India.) It is the 
scarlet seed of Adenanthera pavonin, Linn. 

N. 0. STERCULIACE^. 207 

A moderate-sized tree, with thick longitudinally cracked 
bark. Wood light red, moderately hard. Branchlets and in- 
florescence densely clothed, with fine ferruginous or tawny stel- 
late hairs. Leaves distichous, 2-4 in., from a rounded base 
ovate-oblong, acuminate, often irregularly lobed in the upper 
part, upperside glabrous, underside white or yellowish, filled 
with fine stellate hairs. Flowers yellowish-white, sweet-scented, 
peduncles short, axillary, sometimes bearing 2-3 flowers ; brac- 
teoles, deciduous, linear. ■ Sepals linear, fleshy, brown tomentose 
4-5 in. long, |-J in. broad. Petais a little larger then the sepals, 
but brown and thinner, white. Capsule 2-3 in. long, f in. diam., 
attenuate into a stalk J-f in. long, tapering at apex to a point, 
brown velvety. Seeds winged, numerous. 

Use : — The flower made into a paste with kanjika Trice 
vinegar) forms an application for hemicrania (Dutt). 

In theConcan, the flowers and bark of this, and P. acerifo- 
lium, are charred and mixed with kamalaand applied in suppur- 
ating small-pox. (Dymock.) The sweet scent of the flowers is due 
to the small glands on the outer side of the thickened sepals. The 
sepals are much used by the Bombay High-class ladies in their 
hair on account of the lasting fragrance of the glands, (K. R. K ) 

183. P. acerifolium, Willd., h.f.b.i., i. 368, 
Roxb. 158. 

Sansk : — Karnikara. 

Vern. : — Kanak-champa, kaniar, katha-champa (FT.) ; Mach- 
kunda (Santal) ; Laider (Michi.) ; rlarni-kara, kanak-champa 
;Bomb.) ; Matsa kanda (Tel.); Toungpetwun, tha-majam wei- 
soke (Burm.). 

Habitat :— From the N. W. Himalaya in Kumaon, to 
Chittagong and Concan. 

A tall evergreen tree. " Bark thin grey, smooth. Sap- 
wood white ; heart wood soft to moderately hard, red. Pores 
scanty, small oval or elongated, generally sub-divided, visible 
on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, 
undulating, not prominent, uniform, equidistant. Fnnumerable 
very fine concentric lines ^Gamble). Leaves obovate, polymor- 


phous, cordate or peltate, coarsely-toothed, palmately nerved, 
glabrous above, white tomentose beneath ; blade 10-40in. by 
6-12 in. ; petioles 5 in. long, stout. Flowers axillary, very large, 
and fragrant. Sepals linear brown tomentose without, paler 
within, 6 by 5in. Petals white, shorter than the sepals. Stami- 
nodes club-shaped, stouter and longer than the filamented 
anthers. Staminal- column glabrous, l-5in. long, filaments 
slender. Gynopbore longer than the staminal-column. Ovary 
5-angled, densely brown -tomentose ; style long, stout with a 
club-shaped stigma ; ovarian cells many-ovuled. Capsule 4-6 
in. long, 5 angled ; 5-celled. Seeds numerous, winged ; albumen 
mucilaginous, scanty ; cotyledons thin, folded. (Talbot. P. 149, 
Vol. I, Forest Flora, Bombay Presidency and Sind, 1909). 

Parts used : — The leaves, bark, and flowers. 

Uses : —The clown on the leaves is used to stop bleeding 
in wounds (Gamble). The flowers are used as a general tonic 
(T. N. Mukerji). 

184. Pentapetes phcenieea, Linn, h.f.b.i., 
1. 371., Roxh. 157. 

San. : — Raktaka, Bandhuka, bandhujiva, arka-vallabha, 
pushpa rakta. 

Vern. : — Kat-lala, Doopahuria (B.) ; Guidu. Paria (Pb.) 
Bare baha (Santal) ; Tambdi dupari (Mar.) ; Nag-pu (Tarn.) ; 
Dopahariya, dopohoria (H.j ; Bare baha 'Santal); 

Habitat : — Throughout the hotter parts of India. 

Annual herbs, branched, 2-5 ft., glabrous, or with a few 
scattered stellate hairs. Leaves 3-5 in., 1-nerved, crenate-ser- 
rate, petiole lin. Stipules subulate. Peduncle simple, axillary, 
as long as or longer than the petiole, 1-2-flowered, jointed near 
the flower. Bracteoles half the length of the Calyx. Flowers 
red, opening at noon and closing at the following dawn. Hence 
in Bombay it is called Dupari or Madhuk. (See A collection of 
Marathi Poems, Navanita, page 406, 4th edition, Bombay). 
Sepals 5, stellate-hairy, with a few bristles, lanceolate. Petals 5, 


obovate. Stamens 20, connate at the base, 15 fertile in groups 
of 5 each, alternating with 5 staminodes, which are nearly as 
long as the petals. Anthers 2-cellecl, extrorse ; style entire, 
twisted ; Stigmas 5. Capsule subglobose, bristly, half the length 
of the persistent Calyx, 5-valved, dividing longitudinally. Seeds 
8-12, 2-serrate in each cell ; not winged. Cotyledons plaited, 

Parts used : — The fruit and root. 

Uses : — The fruit is officinal on account of its mucilaginous 
properties. The root is employed as a medicine by the Santals 
(Revd. A. Campbell). 

185. Eriolcena quinqueloeularis, Wight. 

H.F.B., i. 371. 

Vern : — Bhawat (Chutia Nagpur). 

Habitat : — Behar ; Western Peninsula, chiefly on the west 
side, from Bombay southwards ; Chutia Nagpur ; Nilghiri Mts. 
Belgaum Ghats (S. Mahratta country), Coimbatore. 

A tree, herbaceous portions stellate hairy. Leaves round- 
ish, toothed, apex acute, shortly acuminate, base cordate, 2J-3 
in., each way, palmately-7-nerved, thinly stellately hairy or 
glabrascent above, whitish and softly pubescent beneath. 
Petioles 2in. Bracteoles a little distant from the flower, minute, 
caducous, entire or lobed. Cymes at end of branches ; peduncles 
longer than the leaves ; stellate-hairy. Pedicels shorter than 
the flower, jointed above the middle. Flower-buds ovate, oblong. 
Sepals fin. Petals equalling sepals ; claw broad, pubescent. 
Column as long as the petals. Stigma revolute, 5-10-lobed. 
Style hairy. Capsule l^in., oblong, pointed, 5-10-valved ; 
valves not tubercled, usually villous at the angles. Seeds 
numerous. Flowers in July and August. 

Use : -Poultice of root heals wounds (J. J. Wood's Plants 
of Chutia Nagpur, p. 85). 



186. Abroma augusta, Linn., h.f.b.i., i. 375, 
Roxb. 510. 

Syn. : — A. fastuosurn, Gcertn. 

Yern. : — Ulatkambal (B.) ; Olatkambol (Bomb.) 

Habitat: — Throughout the hotter parts of India, from 
the N. W. Provinces to Sikkim, Khasia Mountains, and 
Assam. Unknown in the Western Peninsula of India. 

A small tree native or cultivated throughout the hotter 
parts of India. Branches and branch! ets downy. The bark 
yields a beautiful silky fibre like that of hemp, and the shrub 
has often been recommended for growth as a crop. Wood 
light brown, soft. Pores moderate-sized, subdivided usually 
into 2 or 3 partitions. Medullary rays very short, brown, 
and very fine, bent round the pores whose diameter is greater 
than the distance between them" (Gamble). Leaves 4-6 by 
4-oin., repand, denticulate, ovate from a cordate base, often 
lobed or angled ; basal nerves 5-7, upper smaller, narrower, 
entire, glabrescent above, soft-pubescent below. Petiole J-lin. 
Stipules linear, dociduous, as long as petiole. Inflorescence 
soft-pubescent. Peduncles " extra axillary " (Brandis), with two 
or three purple bisexual flowers. Flowers 2in. diam. Sepals 
lin., persistent, lanceolate, free nearly to the base. Petals cover- 
ed in bud, deciduous ; claw concave. Staminal-tube short, 
4-petaloid. Staminodes alternating with sessile anthers. Cap- 
sule ljin., obpyramidal, ultimately glabrous, thrice as long as 
the persistent Calyx, membranous, 5-angled, 5-winged. 

Parts used : — The root, bark and leaves. 

Uses: — The root-bark has been brought to notice as an em- 
menagogue by Mr. B. M. Sircar, in the Indian Medical Gazette, 
for 1872. In the Lit G. for May 1900, he wrote :— " Forty 
years ago I first came to know the medicinal properties of this 
indigenous plant as a good emmenagogue in menstrual dis- 
orders. . . . The officinal part of the plant is the fresh 
viscid sap, which abounds in the thick, easily seperable bark of 
the root and is insoluble in water. 

N. 0. STERCULIACE^l. 211 

" . . . I have generally used the medicine during the 
period of the menses, commencing from two days before its 
appearance (when the pain precedes the flow) three days 
during the flow and two days after its cessation. In case of 
no premonitory pains, the medicine is given from the first day 
of the flow for seven days successively with equally good 

1 A single administration daring the menses generally cures 
the disease and brings on conception in young married 

"Attempts have been made to administer the drug in the 
more acceptable forms of tincture, pill or powder, but none 
prove so efficacious as the fresh viscid sap in substance, in which 
form I have used it with wonderful results. 

"Menstrual disorders, and notably the varieties of dysme- 
norrhea, are very prevalent in this country, and it seems nature 
has supplied it with a simple efficacious medicine by endowing 
the roots of an indigenous plant with such singular virtues. 
It is noteworthy that the roots branch out in numerous tender 
offshoots, superficially under the ground, and can be easily taken 
out in abundance." 

Dr. J. H. Thornton considers that it is useful in the 
congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhea, and that 
it regulates the menstrual flow and acts as an uterine tonic. It 
should be given during menstruation, with black pepper. The 
dose is said to be half a drachm of the fresh viscid juice of the 
root-bark (Am. Journ. Med. Sci., p. 276, 1873). 

The infusion of fresh leaves and stems in cold-water is de- 
mulcent, and very efficacious in gonorrhoea (Surgeon Meadows, 
in Watt's Dictionary.) 

187. Guazuma tomentosa, Kuntli, h.f.b.l, 
i. 375. 

Vern. : — Nipal tunth (Beng.) Of the bark : — Bandoq-ke- 
jhar-ki chhal (Dec.) ; Tain-puchli-pattai (Tarn.) ; Udrik-patta 
(Tel.) ; Rudrakshi (Kan.). 


Habitat : — Generally distributed, and frequently cultivated 
in the warmer parts of India and Ceylon. 

A small tree, a native of Tropical America, buc fre- 
quently cultivated in the warmer parts of India and Ceylon. 
Bark brown rough. Wood white or yellowish or light brown, 
soft, even-grained. Annual rings faintly marked. Pores mod- 
erate-sized, fairly numerous, often subdivided. Meduallary 
rays moderately broad to broad, not numerous, conspicuous 
in the silver-grain on a radical section. The tree is easily 
grown and propagated, "planted or run wild," adds Gamble. 
Herbaceous portions tomentose. Leaves from an unequal-sided 
base, obliquely cordate, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, acuminate, 
serrate, scabrid or glabrescent above, pubescent beneath ; base 
5-7-nerved ; petiole short. Flowers numerous, small, yellow and 
purple in terminal and axillary panicles, which are twice the 
length of the leaves ; or in multifid cymes. Flower-buds globose. 
Calyx 1 Jin. bell-shaped, stellate-hairy ; sepals ultimately re- 
flexed ; petals exceeding the Calyx, claw concave. 5 Petaloid 
Staminodes alternating with 5 filaments each, bearing several 
anthers. Anthers concealed in the hood of the petals. Capsule 
5-valved, lin. long, oblong obtuse, or ovoid, woody, with obtuse 
black tubercles, resembling a mulberry. 

Part used : — The bark. 

Use : — In Martinique, the infusion of the old bark is 
esteemed as a sudorific, and as useful in cutaneous diseases and 
diseases of the chest (Lindley.) 

The bark is tonic and demulcent, and is used with benefit 
in some of those cases in which calumba and gentian are indi- 
cated (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

The inner bark is esteemed as a remedy for elephantiasis 
in West Indies (Watt.) 


188. Grewia tilicefolia, Vahl. H.F.B.I., I. 386, 
Roxb. 431. 

Sans. : — Dharmana, Dhanurvriksha ; Dhanvan. 

N. 0. TILIACE.E. 213 

Vern. : — Pharsa dhamani (H. and B.) ; Dhaman Karkani 
(Bomb j ; Olat (Santa!) ; Kbesla, kasul (Gond) ; Tbada, tharra 
(Tarn.) ; Cbaraehi, tharrab, Udupai, tada (Tel.) ; Tbadsal, dadsal, 
batala, biitale (Kan.) 

Habitat : — Hot dry forests throughout Western India, as- 
cending 4,000 feet in tbe Himalaya. Western Peninsula, Burma, 
Ceylon low country. 

A large deciduous tree, with cinereous exfoliating bark. 
Leaves ovate, sometimes rliomboidal or 3-lobed, obliquely cor- 
date, acute or obtuse, acuminate at apex, bluntly crenate-serrate, 
sparsely stellate-pubescent or glabrous above, stellate-tomentose, 
often white beneath, stellate-pubescent on the nerves ; basal 
nerves 5 ; blade 2-5|-in. by l-4in., petiole J-lin. long; stipules 
Jin. long, leafy falcate, veined and auricled, deciduous. 
Flowers small, in axillary umbels ; peduncles |-lin. long, 
axillary, 3-8 fascicled, 3-flowered ; pedicels shorter than the 
peduncles ; buds ovoid, grey-tomentose, 5-ribbed ; bracteoles 
linear-lanceolate. Sepals linear-ovate, |in. long, glabrous, 
white tomentose outside and yellowish within. Petals ovate, 
emarginate, yellow, turning purple, much shorter than the 
sepals ; basal gland green and densely white-villous on the 
margins and often more than |- the length of the petal. 
Torus short-ribbed, glabrous, obscurely-toothed and hairy 
at top. Stamens, with purple filaments and yellow anthers. 
Ovary globose, villous ; style longer than the stamens ; 
stigma peltate, irregularly 5-lobed. Drupe 2-4 lobed, but not 
deeply, of the size of a pea, black ; lobes several-seeded. 

The fruit is said to be eaten (Trimen). 

Parts used : — The bark and wood. 

Uses : — in the Konkan the bark, after removal of the tuber, 
is rubbed down with water, and the thick mucilage strained 
from it and given in 5-tola doses, with 2 tolas of the flour of 
Panicum miliaceum (warri) as a remedy for dysentery 

The bark is also employed externally to remove the irrita- 
tion from cow-itch. 


Colonel Cox says that the wood reduced to a powder acts 
as an emetic, and is employed by the natives as an antidote to 
opium poisoning. 

189. G. asiatiea, Linn, h.f.b.l, i 386., 
Roxb. 431. 

Sans, : — Purusha. 

Vern. : — Phalsa, shakri (B. and H.) ; Phalna, pharnu (Pb.) ; 
Phutiki (Tel.) ; Singhindamin (Kol.) ; Jangolat (Santal) ; Ta- 
dachi (Tarn.'; Pastaoni, shikarim-ai-wah (Pushtu); Pharaho, 
phalsa (Sind). 

Habitat ' — Cultivated in India, except in the Gangetic 

plains and East Bengal, and said to be indigenous in the Salt 

Range, Poonch and Oudh, Ceylon. 

N.B. — KanjilaL's Syn. of this plant is G. Asiatica Var. vestita, Wall, (See 
p. 65. For. Fl. Sell. Circ., N. W. P., 3rd Ed. 1911, Calcutta). 

The following is Kanjilal's description : — "A tree with grey 
bark ; branches and young plants with large white blotches. 
Leaves 3-5 by 2-2 J in., obliquely ovate, generally not cordate, 
acuminate, minutely serrate, sometimes obscurely 3-lobed, pale 
and softly downy beneath, especially when young ; basal nerves 
5-6 ; petiole generally not exceeding Jin. ; stipules linear. 
Flowers in densely crowded (rarely solitary) axillary cymes ; 
peduncles |-f in. long, not ribbed. Sepals slightly pubescent, 
and yellow inside. Petals yellow, much shorter than the sepals. 
Drupe globose, ^-5 in. diam., sometimes indistinctly 2-4-lobed, 
dark brown, or black when ripe." 

Kanjilal further remarks: —On comparing a number of 
specimens collected by me, Mr. Duthie was satisfied that G. 
elastica, Royle, was quite distinct from G. vestita, Wall., on the 
grounds that in the former the innovations were dark rusty- 
tomentose, the petals not glandular at the base, and the leaves 
very frequently lobed. (p. 66 of cit.) Wood grey, tough, elastic, 
hard and close-grained. The bark yields white fibre. Fruit 

Parts used : — The fruit, leaves, bark and root. 

N. 0- TILIACEiE. 215 

Uses : — The fruit is supposed to possess astringent, cooling 
and stomachic properties ; from it a spirit is distilled and a 
pleasant sherbet. The leaves are used as an application to 
pustular eruptions, and the buds are also prescribed by native 
practitioners. An infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. 
(Dr. Stewart). 

The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Revd. A. 

190. G. seabrophylla, Lamk. h.f.b.l, i. 387., 
Roxb. 430. 

Vern. : — Pandhari dhaman, khatkhati (Mar.); Darsuk 

Habitat: — Tropical Himalaya, Garwhal, Sikkim, Mysore, 
from Gujrat straight to Behar, Sub-Himalaya tract and outer 
valley, from the Jumna eastward, Oudh forests, Northern 
Circars, Assam, Pegu, Upper Burma (Ava), Chittagong ; com- 
mon in Dun and Saharanpur forests (Kanjilal). 

A shrub ; branchlets, underside of leaves and inflorescence 
clothed with soft, tawny tomentum. Leaves 3-6 by 4 in., often 
slightly lobed, base 3-5-nerved, secondary nerves not arched, 
scabrous above, pubescent beneath, roundish ovate, irregularly 
serrate. Brandis says the leaves are 4-9 in. long, ovate or 
obovate, tertiary nerves distinct beneath. Petiole Jin. ; 
peduncles short, l-4in., axillary ; stipule subulate, Flowers 
large, 2-3 on each peduncle, f in. Blade of petals white, ovate, 
larger than often twice the length of the claw. 

Cymes umbellate, says Maxovell T. Masters (Hook.) ; 
pedicels diverging, longer than the peduncles. Bracteoles 
linear-subulate, deciduous. Flower-buds obovate-oblong, ribbed. 
Sepals linear-lanceolate, pubescent ; Petals notched, half the 
length of the sepals, or less. Gynophore glabrous, edge 
villous, 5, small tufts of hair at base, between petals. Fruit a 
globose drupe, not lobed, J-f in. diam., rind brown, crustaceous, 
hairy ; stones 4, 1-2-seecled, in sweet, yellowish viscid pulp. 

Parts used : — The leaves and root. 


Uses: — It is given in accordance with the ' ! doctrine of 
signatures" as a remedy for leprosy in the Concan ; it appears 
to be simply mucilaginous like most of the gums. (Dympck)" 

Its roots are used by the Goanese as the substitute of 

191. G. villosa, Willd. h.f.b.l, i. 388. 

Vern : — Gaphni (Kol) ; Tarse kotap (Santal) ; Jalidar 
kaskusri, thamther (Pb.) ; In zarra, pastuwanne (Pushtu ; 
Dhoban (Ajmer). Kharmati (Mar). Pade Khado (Gujrat and 
Porebnnder) ; Luskanu jhad (Cutch). 

Habitat ' — Western and Southern India, extending from 
Panjab and Sind to Travancore. Gujrat, Porebundar, Kutch. 

A shrub often gregarious. Branches, leaves and inflores- 
cence densely silky, with long stellate hairs. Leaves not hoary 
beneath, nearly orbicular, from a cordate base ; 1-4 in. diam., 
rugose, transverse veins numerous, prominent and parallel, 
tufts of sikly hairs in the serratures. Secondary nerves not 
arched. Petiole i-1 in. Base of leaves 5-nerved. Stipules 
broad, leafy. Flowers dull-yellow, peduncles very short, in 
compact axillary clusters, sometimes opposite the leaves. Bracts 
oblong. Sepals oblong or linear-acute, villous, membranous, 
\ in. long, clothed on both sides with short stellate hairs, out- 
side also with simple hairs, the tips often with a long-branched 
and stellate process. Blade of petal thin, twice the length of a 
claw, oblong, notched, much shorter than the sepals. Fruit 
globose, size of cherry, with a distinct crustaceous brown rind, 
with tufts of long stellate hairs ; pulp pleasant. Stones 4, 1-2- 

The sweet acid fruit is used as dessert by the poor of 
Porebunder. The juice of fresh bark is used with sugar and 
water for gonorrhoea and urinary complaints attended with irrita- 
bility of the bladder. 

Part used : —The root. 

Use : — The root is employed for diarrhoea in Chutia 
Nagpur (Revd. A. Campbell.) 

N. 0. TILIACEiE. 217 

912 G. polygama, Roxb. h.f.b.i., I. 398,, Roxb. 

Syn. :- — G. lancifolia, Graham, Cat Bombay Plants 21. 

Vern. : — Kukur bicha (H.) ; Seta kata, seta andir (Santal) ; 
Gowli or gowali (Bomb.) 

Habitat : — North-Western India, and along the Himalaya, 
from the Salt Range to Nepal, also Concan. Dry country, 

A shrubby plant or small tree. Branches bifarious, 
spreading ; branchlets, petioles, under side of leaves velvety. 
Leaves almost sessile, narrow beneath, distichous 3-4 by J-f in., 
lanceolate, very acute serrate, base 3-nerved, nerves not arched, 
secondary nerves transverse, parallel. Stipules subulate. 
Peduncles 1-5, short, axillary, slender, generally fasciculate, 
about half the length of the leaves ; pedicles 2-3, divergent, 
shorter than the peduncle. Male flower : — Sepals \-\ in. diam., 
linear, longer than the oblong entire petals, -§■ in., blade equal 
to claw which is hairy on back. Stamens as a rule 10-12, but 
sometimes more numerous. Hermaphrodite PI. : — Ovary very 
hairy, stigma 5-lobed, lobes spreading, deeply cut into numerous 
segments. Drupe \ in. diam ; hairy, brownish, more or less 
2-lobed. Stones 4, 1-seeded. 

Use : — This plant is used by the aborigines of North-Wes- 
tern Australia as a remedy for dysentery. Dr. W. E. Armit 
states that on one occasion, having had to treat dysentery 
following on fever and ague, this plant was pointed out to him 
by a native as a sure remedy. He collected a quantity of 
leaves, and having made a pale sherry-coloured decoction of 
the leaves, he administered about two tablespoonsful for a dose. 
Repeating this every four hours throughout the night, the sixth 
dose made a complete cure. " Since then," says Mr. Armit, 
u I have tried this remedy in scores of cases, and I have never 
known it to fail in any case, however serious. I have made 
it a rule to inform the carriers and travellers, I meet, of the 
sure cure they have always at hand in case it may be requir- 
ed, and all are unanimous in extolling its truly magical 


properties." (Christy's New Commercial Plants, No. 7, p. 

50. 1884). 

The fruit is employed as a medicine by the Santals, in 
diarrhoea and dysentery. The root pounded is also prescribed 
for the same diseases, and powdered in water is applied 
externally to hasten suppuration, and as a dressing for 
wounds. The paste dries and forms a hard coating, thus 
effectually excluding air from the raw surface (Revd. A. 

193. Triumfetta rliomboidea, Jaequin, h.f.b.i., 
i. 395. Roxb., 390 and 391. 

Sansk : — Jhinjharita (J. Indraji). 

Vern. :— Cbitki, Chiriyari (H.) ; Bun-okra (B."l ; Aodaiotti 
(Tarn.) Nichardi (Bomb.). Jhinjudi ; Nichardi (Marathi). 

Habitat : — Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, 
and Ceylon, a very common weed. It grows wild and freely on 
Matheran Hill.— K. R. Kirtikar. 

An annual or perennial herb, l|-3 ft., slightly branched ; 
branches pubescent, with simple hairs. Leaves 1-2 \ in., vari- 
able, the lower more or less deeply 3-fid., the upper ovate- 
lanceolate, all coarsely and irregulary serrate, simply hairy on 
both sides ; often tomentose and white beneath. Petiole of 
lower leaves long, of upper leaves very short. Flowers small, 
J- in. diam., yellow, on short pedicels, clusters crowded into a 
spicate inflorescence at end of branches, buds oblong, slightly 
stellate-pubescent ; petals equalling sepals. Stamens 8-15. 
Fruit very small, globose, iin., finely tomentose, spines less 
than |in., glabrous, hooked, cells 3-4. 

Parts used : —The fruit, flowers and leaves. 

Uses : — The mucilaginous and astringent properties of the 
leaves and fruits of certain Triumfettas, called Garapixo de 
Galcada in Brazil, which grow everywhere in that country, 
especially on the roadside, and in the vicinity of dwellings, 
render them serviceable in injections for inveterate gonorrhoea. 

N. 0. TILIACE^l. 219 

(Murray.) The bark and fresh leaves for diarrhoea ; also flowers 
rubbed with sugar and water are given in gonorrhoea by the 
villagers of Porebunder to stop the burning caused by urine 
(J. Tndraji.) 

All the species of this genus are mucilaginous, and are 
used as demulcents, but this is the one generally so employed 
The burr-like fruit is believed in India to promote 
parturition (Dymock.) 

194. Cor chorus capsularis, Linn., h.f.b.i., 
i. 397. Roxb. 429. 

Sans. '-— Kala Saka. 

Vern. : — Harrawa (Shahjahanpur District) Gbinalta pat, 
Narcha, Chouchen (Bombay); Chhuneht, Borachhuncht (Gujrat, 
Porebunder). — J. Indraji. 

Habitat : — Throughout the hotter parts of India. Low- 
couutry, Ceylon. 

An annual herb. Leaves 2-4 by f in., glabrescent, oblong, 
acuminate, coarsely toothed ; base generally prolonged into tail- 
like appendages ; petiole \\ in. Stipules \-\ in. Flowers yellow, 
less than half an inch in diameter ; pedicillate. Capsule 
oblate, subglobose, 5-celled, wrinkled, muricate, 5-valved, valves 
without transverse septa. Seeds few in each cell (Maxwell 
T. Masters). 

Parts used : —The leaf. Dried root and unripe fruit in 
diarrhoea, in decoction (Indraji.) 

Use : — The dried leaves are used medicinally, being eaten 
at breakfast-time with rice, in cases of dysentery. 

The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysen- 
teric complaints, fever, and dyspepsia (Watt). 

195. C. olitorius, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 397. Roxb. 

Sans. : — Nadika, patta, sing-gika. 

Vern.: — (Gujrat and Porebunder) Chhunchdo. Moti 
Chhunch ; Maha Chanchu. Singhin janascha (H.) ; Pat, lali- 


tapat, kashta, bhungi or banpat (B.) ; Bun-pat (Sind) ; Ban-phal 
(N.-W. P. and Pb.) ; Peratti-kirai (Tarn.) ; Parinta (Tel.)Tankla, 
Chunch; Mothi Chunch (Bombay.) 

Habitat : — Indigenous in many parts of India. Low 
country weed in Ceylon. 

An annual herb, more or less covered with stellate pube- 
scence. Leaves 2-4 by ]-2 in., nearly glabrous, ovate-lanceolate, 
3-5-nerved, serrate, the two lower serratures prolonged into a 
long sharp point ; petiole 1-2 in., pilose. Stipules shorter 
than the petioles. Peduncles 1-3-flowered ; shorter than the 
petiole. Sepals small, shortly-pointed. Petals yellow, spathulate, 
longer than the sepals. Fruit a capsule 2 in. long,cylindric, 
glabrous, 10-ribbed, " 10-12-times longer than broad." (Arnold). 
Beak entire. Valves with transverse partitions between the 
seeds, beak long, erect. Cultivated as a potherb, or for its fibre 
(Jute). The very soft pithy wood is used for county-made 
sulphur-tipped matches. 

Parts used: — The leaves, seeds. 

Uses : — The leaves and tender shoots are eaten, and in the 
dried state, known as nalita ; they are used in infusion by the 
natives as a domestic medicine, being tonic and slightly feb- 
rifuge, and hence used as a fever drink (Watt.) According 
to Ainslie, the Hindoos reduce the plant to ashes and mix it 
with honey for administration in obstructions of the abdominal 

Twining speaks favorably of an infusion of the leaves as 
a useful fever drink. 

Mr. Atkinson says : — The leaves are emollient, and used 
in infusion as refrigerant in fevers and special diseases. The 
dried plant roasted and powdered, is used in visceral obstruc- 

Dr. Kanay Lall Dey says : — The dried leaves are sold 
in the market. A cold infusion is used as a bitter tonic, 
and is devoid of any stimulating property. It can be safely 
given to patients recovering from acute dysentery to restore 
the appetite, and improve the strength. Six grains of the 
powder, combined with an equal quantity of curcuma longa, 

N. 0. T1LIACEJE. 221 

has been used in several instances, with much success, in acute 

In South India, the dried plant is used as a demulcent. 

Powder of leaves given in dysentery 5-10 grs., with an 
equal part of powdered turmeric. Powdered seeds with honey 
and ginger given in diarrhoea (Vaidya Rugnathji) — J. Indraji. 

The leaves are demulcent, tonic and diuretic, useful in 
some cases of chronic cystitis, gonorrhoea and dysuria. 
(Moodeen Sheriff.) 

196. C. trilocularis, Linn., h.f.b.l, i. 397, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 582. 

Sans. : — Kaunti. 

Vern. :— Kadu Chunch (Bomb.) ; The seeds, Raja-jiren 
(Bomb.) ; Isbund (Sind) ; Tandassir (Kan.) 

Habitat: — Sind, North-Western Provinces, from Umballa 
to the Punjab, Nilghiri Mountains. 

An annual herb. Leaves 1-4 by 1 in. Elliptic-oblong 
or oblong-lanceolate, crenate-serrate, with or without basal 
sharp-pointed lobes ; petiole very short, pilose. Peduncles 
1-3-flowered, very short, opposite the leaves. Flowers small, 
yellow. Capsule elongated, 3-angled ; scabrous or aculeate, 
straight or curved. 3-4-angled, 3-4-valved, valves scabrous, 
with transverse partitions, beak short, erect. 

It would appear that the three varieties mentioned by 
Wight and Arnold (Prod. I. 72) are mere individual variations. 
They are : — (a) leaves ovate-oblong, capsule in pair, 3-angled ; 
(6) leaves ovate-oblong, capsules solitary, 4- angled ; (c) leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, capsules in pairs, 3-angled. 

Uses : — The seeds are bitter and administered in doses of 
about 80 grains in fever and obstruction of the abdominal vis- 
cera (Dymock.) 

The plant, macerated for a few hours in water, yields a 
mucilage, prescribed as a demulcent ; seeds as a specific in 
rheumatism (Murray.) 


197. G. faseicularis, Lam. h.f.b.l, i. 398. 
Roxb. 429. 

Sans. : — Chunchu, Kshetra Chunchu. 

Vern. : — Hind — Khetapat, Bankosta — J. Indraji. Hiran- 
khori, Mothi Bahuphali, Bomb.) ; Jangli or ban-pat, bil-nalita 
(B.) ; Chhunchhadi, Ubhibahuphali, (Gujrat and Porebunder). 

Habitat: — Throughout the hotter parts of India, from 
Banda to Bengal and the Western Peninsula, Porebunder, 

An annual ' herb, erect, ramous. Leaves oblong or 
lanceolate, serrated ; 1-2 by |-|in. ; petioles very short, pilose. 
Peduncles 3-5-flowered, opposite to the leaves. Flowers 
yellow, snbsessile fascicles, sub-pentandrous. Sepals t 1 ^ in. 
Stamens about 5 (W. and A). " 5-10 " says Max-well T. Masters 
(H. F. B I.). Capsules linear-oblong, or cylindric, 4-6 times 
longer than broad, nearly terete, villous, rostrate, with three 
terminal points, 3-celled, 3-valved. Seeds numerous ; transverse 
septa nearly obsolete. 

Use : — It is very mucilaginous and somewhat astringent, 
and is valued as a restorative (Dymock.) 

In Bombay, a watery extract, mixed with sugar-candy, is 
taken as a nutritive tonic. It is also given in seminal weakness 
(S. Arjun), but with doubtful success — K. K. Kirtikar. 

198. G. antichorus, Raesch, h.f.b.l, i. 398. 

Vern. : — Bahuphalli, kurand, bophalli, bahuphalli, babuna 
v Pb.) ; Moodheeree (Sind) ; Baphuli (H.) (J. Indraji) ^-(Pore- 
bunder and Gujrat) Chhikni, Chhunchh ; Bethi-Bahuphali ; 
Bahuphali. (Marathi) Bahuphali. 

Habitat : — North- West India, from Sindh and the Punjab 
to Agra, Western Peninsula, in Kathiawar, Guzerat and the 

A perennial herb, woody 6-9 in., prostrate, much-branch- 
ed from the base ; branches prostrate, tortuous, imbricate 
6-7in. Leaves \-\ by i-Jin., roundish, usually wrinkled, 
plicate, crenate-serrate, glabrous, the serratures not appendaged, 
base rounded or cuneate ; 3-nerved. Petioles |-lin. long, very 

n. o. tiliacetE. 223 

slender ; stipules subulate. Cymes leaf-opposed. Peduncles 
short, stout ; bracts lanceolate, subulate ; pedicels very short. 
Sepals T 3 6in. long, linear-oblong, apiculate. Petals longer 
than the sepals ; oblong-ovate. Capsules f-f in. long, cylindric, 
elongate, beaked, glabrous, often curved upwards, generally 
straight, 4-valved. 

Part used : — The whole plant. 

Uses. — The plant is rubbed down and given as a cooling 
medicine. Leaves are emollient. The plant has tonic proper- 
ties as a whole. 

Infusion used as a fever drink (Stewart.) 

Very mucilaginous, mucilage demulcent, and used in 
Sindh for gonorrhoea (Murray). A decoction of seeds with milk 
and sugar as a tonic. Dose of powdered plant \ — 1 tola. 

The seeds of Corcliorua fascicularis are mucilaginous, sweet, non-toxic, 
and edible; those of C. Olitorius, are purgative; those of C. Capsnlaris 
C. bengalensis, C. acutangulus, C. argntus and C. trilocularis contain fat; and 
the last three, besides a green flu orescent body, a toxic glucoside, che cor- 
ehorini of Tunno and W. Friboes. Corchorin is intensely bitter, readily 
solublo in water and in alcohol, but insoluble in ether, chloroform, and 
henzene, so that it cannot be isolated by shaking out with the last-named 
liquids. It is very slightly precipatated by neutral lead acetate, but is 
thrown down by ammonical lead acetate. It gives a bluish green colour with 
strong sulphuric acid. It is removed from strong aqueous solutions by means 
of ammonium sulphate. Corchorin is hydrolysed by boiling with dilute 
mineral acids, forming a sugar and a decomposition product, which is in- 
soluble in neutral and acid aqueous solvents but soluble in alcohol. It is 
very poisonous, being allied to the digitalis glueosides. 

(J. .Ch-I. 30. 4. 1907 pp. 430-431). 

N. 0. LINEM 

199. Linum usitatissimum, Linn. H.F.B.I., 
i. 410. Roxb. 277. 

Sans, : — Atasi, Masrina, 

Vern. : — Alsi, tisi (H.) ; Tisi masina (B.) ; Alsi-virai (Tarn) 
Atasi (Tel.); Pesu (Uriya) ; Alasi (Porebundar and Gujrat) : 
Javas ; (Marathi) Alashi. 

Habitat : — Cultivated throughout India, Ceylon, Western 


An annual herb. Stem cylindric erect, simple below ; 2-4 
ft., often solitary, corymbosely branched above. Leaves narrow, 
linear or lanceolate, sub-3-nerved, without stipular. glands. 
Flowers lin. diam., in broad cymes ; sepals 5, ovate-acuminate, 
3-nerved, glandular, margins ciliate or not. Petals 5, crenate, 
contorted, fugacious, blue ; style, quite free ; stigmas linear- 
clavate. Carpels with, ciliated axile margins in the Indian 
plant, 5-celled ; cells 2-locellate, 2-ovuled. Capsule scarcely 
exceeding the narrowly white-margined sepals, 5-celled, 
septicidally splitting into 5 simple or 10 1-seeded Cocci. Seeds 
compressed, albumen sparing ; Embryo straight, 

Parts used : —The seeds, oil and flowers. 

Uses : — The Mahomedans consider it to be cold and dry, and 
that clothes made with the fibre, cool the body and lessen pers- 
piration ; they recommend fumigation with the smoke, for colds 
in the head and hysteria, and use the tinder to staunch haemorr- 
hages. The flowers are said to be cardiacal, the seeds aphrodi- 
siacal, and hot and dry. Linseed poultice is recommended for 
gouty and rheumatic swellings ; as an emollient, the mucilage 
is dropped into the eye ; with honey it is prescribed in coughs 
and colds. The roasted seeds are said to be astringent (Dy- 

The seeds are used internally for gonorrhoea and irrita- 
tion of the genitourinary system. The flowers are considered 
a cardiac tonic (Emerson). 

It is officinal in the Indian and the British Pharmacopoeias. 

Medicinally, it is used for poultices. 

The proteins of linseed were extracted ^ith 0*2 per cent, potassium 
hydroxide solution and hvdrolysed with hydrochloric acid of sp. gr. 1*16 
They yielded glycine traces ; alanine, r03 per cent. ; valine, 12'71 ; leucine 
and isoleucine, 3"97 ; proline, 2*85; phenylalanine, 4*14 ; aspartic acid, 1*65 ; 
glutamic acid, 1158 ; 'serine, traces ; trosine, 0*65 ; arginine, 6'06 ; histidine, 
166 ; lysine, 1*19; ammonia 1*94 ; and tryptophane, traces— in all amounting 
to 49*43 per cent. The chief feature of the hydrolysis is the very high pro- 
portion of valine, 12*7 per cent., as most proteins yield less than 1 per cent, 
of valine. The amount of tyrosine is exceptionally low and the accuracy of 
the methods of separating this amino-acid is open to doubt. Basic lead 
acetate precipitates from neutral or faintly alkaline solutions containing 

N. 0. LINE.E. 


tryosine, an insoluble basic salt, 2Pb(C 9 H 10 O 3 N) 2 ,5Pb(OH) 2 - This separates 
in a granular state and is readily filtered and washed. J. Oh. I. for Feb , 15, 
1911 p. 148. 

"My experience has been that Bombay oils usually give the highest 
iodine value, but that these vary from year to year with the crop and season." 



Sp. gr. 
at 15 3 . 

1 2 

M. pt. 

Calcutta oil 



39-1 39-3 


Dr. Harry Ingle in the J. Ch. I. for March 31, 1911 p. 344. 

200. Reinwardtia trigyna, Planch, h.f.b.l, 
i. 412. 

Syn. :— Linura trigynum, Roxb. 277. 

Vern. : — Karkiin, kuar, gud batal, basant, bal-basant, gul- 
ashruf (Pb.) Abai (Deccan). 

Habitat : — Hilly parts of India, Simla. From the Pan jab 
to Sikkim. Behar, Assam, Chittagong. Southward from the 
Bombay Ghats to the Nilgiri Hills. Very common in the Dun, 
and the Hills around. 

A tufted glabrous shrub, 2-3ft. high, with erect and 
prostrate rooting ; terete, rather stout, soft branches ; leaves 
entire, ovate-lanceolate, 2-4in., narrowed into a slender stalk ; 
tip obtuse or acute, minutely mucronate, lower surface pale. 
Flowers about lin. dia., axillary, solitary or in small clusters, 
sometimes combined in a terminal corymb. Sepals 5, lan- 
ceolate, acute, green. Petals primrose-yellow, much longer 
than the calyx, obovate. Stamens usually in 2 sets, 3 long, 
2 short. Ovary 5-celled. Styles usually 3, sometimes 4-7, 
longer or shorter than the stamens, more or less united, rarely 
free. Capsule size of a pea ; papery (Kanjilal), globose Jin. 
diam. ; separating into as many valves as there are styles. 
See Darwin's Forms of Flowers, Chap. VII. 

Use : — Said to be used as a medicine for cattle (Dr. 



201. Hugonia Mystax, Linn., h.f.b.l, i. 413. 

Vern. : — Agiire (Tarn.) ; gatrinta ; tivoa potike ; vendapa ; 
Kaki bira (Tel.) ; Modera Canni (Mai.) 

Trimen gives the following names : — 
Sinhalese : — Maha-getiya, Bugetuya ; 
Tamil : — Motirakanni. 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, from the Concan to Travan- 
cor. Ceylon, low country. 

In the Konkan, near the sea-coast, at Vingorla ; Northern 
Circars and -the Karnatic ; Ceylon (Trimen, Fl. Ceylon, 1. 189.) 

A climbing shrub, scrambling ; branches spreading, set 
with numerous short, stiff, yellow-tomentose branchlets. " Bark 
yellowish-white, corky. Wood greyish-white, hard, close- 
grained. Pores small, very numerous and evenly distributed. 
Medullary rays very faintly marked, numerous, regular." 
(Gamble). Branches leafless below, bearing in the axils of the 
lowest leaves a pair of woody, reflexed, circinate, tomentose 
pines (modified peduncles occasionally bearing flowers), above 
them tufts of leaves and axillary flowers. (Brandis). Leaves 
alternate, stipules subulate. Flowers yellow, 1 in. across. 
Sepals 5, unequal, imbricate. Petals 5, contorted. Stamens 10; 
filaments connate at base. Ovary 5-celled, styles 5, distinct- 
Drupe red or yellow, -§ in. long, endocarp bony, grooved ; 
Seeds 2-3 (Brandis). Flowering time, May-October. 

Uses : — The bruised roots are employed externally in 
reducing inflammatory swellings, and as an antidote to snake- 
bites. In the form of a powder, it is administered internally 
as an anthelmintic and febrifuge. The bark of the root is also 
employed as an antidote to poisons (Watt). 

202. Erythroxylon monogynum, Boxb. h.f.b.i., 
i. 414. Boxb. 322. 

Syn.: — E. indicum, Bedel Fl. Sylv. p. 81. Sethia Indica 

Vern ; Nat-ka-devdar (Dec.) ; Devdarum, Chemmanally 

(Tarn.) ; Adivi geranta, pagadapu-katta (Tel.) 

N. 0. LINEJ3. 227 

Habitat : — Hilly parts of the Western Peninsula ; Ceylon, 
dry country. 

A shrub or small tree. " Bark dark brown, thick, rough. 
Wood very hard. Sapwood white; heartwood^dark reddish- 
brown, with a pleasant resinous smell ; takes a beautiful polish. 
Pores very small, very numerous, often in radial strings or 
patches in lighter tissue. Medullary rays short, very fine, 
uniformly distributed " (Gamble). Leaves cuneate, l-2in. long, 
dull, not shining, glaucous-brown beneath, when dry; stipules 
triangular, long, acuminate. Pedicels about as long as the 
petiole. Flowers greenish-white, axillary generally in fascicles 
of 1-4, bisexual, pentamerous. Calyx 5-lobed. Petals with a 
scale, generally bifid at the top of the claw. Stamens 10. 
Styles 3, combined nearly at the apex, longer than the stamens. 
Stigmas clavate. Drupe oblong, triangular, 3-celled, 2 of the 
cells long, abortive ; apiculate, bright scarlet when ripe, support- 
ed by the persistent sepals and stamens. 

Parts used : — The leaves, wood and bark. 

Uses : — Dr. Bidie says that " during the Madras famine the 
leaves were largely eaten by the starving poor, and as there 
is nothing in them structurally likely to satisfy the pangs of 
hunger, it seems probable that they contain some principle like 
that of E. Cocoa." 

Subsequently, the leaves were examined by Dr. Waddel, 
Officiating Professor of Chemistry, Calcutta Medical College, for 
alkaloid, but he could not discover any. (Vide I.M.G., September 


According to Dr. Moodeen Sheriff, an infusion of the wood 
and bark is stomachic, diaphoretic and stimulant diuretic ; 
useful in some slight cases of dyspepsia and continued fever, 
and also in dropsy as an adjuvant to some other and more active 
medicines. The leaves are refrigerant. 

Dr. Bidie mentions the powder as used medicinally as a 
substitute for sandal wood. 

The pulp beaten into a liniment with gingelly oil is used as 
an external application to the head. 



203. Hiptage Madablota, Gaertn. h.f.b.i., 
i. 418. 

Syn. : — Gsertnera racemosa, Roxb. 360. 
Sans: — Madhavi, Atimukta. 

Vern. : — Kampti, madmalti ; mookta (H.) ; Endra, 
chopar, benkar (Pb.); Madhablata (B.); Haladwail, Madhumalati, 
Madhavlata, Madhavi. (Mar.) ; Aita-lugala (N. W. P.) ; Shem- 
pati (Nepal) ; Baromali (Uriya) ; Madhavi tige, vadla yarala, 
potuvadla (Tel.) 

Trirnen : — (Singhalese) Puwak-gedi. 

J. Indraji : — (Porebunder and Gujrat)Rakatpiti, Ragatpiti, 

Habitat : — Throughout the hotter parts of India. Ceylon, 
low country, moist and dry regions. 

A large straggling shrub, trunk stout and erect, often of 
considerable size. Branchlets, young leaves and inflorescence 
hoary or adpressed-tomentose. Bark brown, thin, exfoliating in 
small thin flakes. Wood reddish-brown, very rough, soft and 
moderately hard, with darker patches in the centre (Gamble). 
Branches stout. Leaves 3-6in., oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate or cordate-acuminate : coriaceous, petioled, shining 
above. Racemes with densely adpressed pubescence, l-6in., 
axillary, usually forming a leafy panicle. Flower i-lin. diam., 
very fragrant, white. Sepals obtuse. Petals twice as long, 
fimbriate, the 5th petal dashed with yellow at base. Carpels 
with a central wing between the 2 lateral. Wings of carpels 
coriaceous, middle one, one or two inches long, linear-oblong or 
oblanceolate, the two outer or lateral narrower or shorter, 
spreading half as long. Seeds snbglobose. Cotyledons thick, 

Parts used : — The leaves and bark. 

Uses : — The leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous dis- 
eases (Watt). 

The bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). 


The juice of the leaves is an effectual insecticide and a 
valuable application in scabies, if rubbed well and frequently 
over the affected parts (Moodeen Sheriff;. 

Useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma (Dr. Houston 
in Watt's Dictionary). 


204. Tribulus terrestris, Linn. h.f.b.i., 
i. 423. 

Syn. : — T. lanuginosus, Linn. 

Habitat: — Throughout India; the warmer countries 
Ceylon. Throughout the globe. 

Sans. : — Gokshur, Gokantak, Laghu Gokshur, Ikshu- 

Vern : — Gokshri, hussak (H.) ; Gokhru (B.) ; Trikundree 
(Sind); Bhakhra(Pb.); Kante Ghokru (Dec); Sarate (M.) Nerunji 
(Tarn.); Palleru-mullu 'Tel. 1 Nerinnil (Mai.) ; Lalina gokroo 

Vern. Trimen : — (Sinhalese) Sembu-Nerinchi ; (Tamil) 
Chira-nerinchi ; 

J. Indraji : — (Porebunder and Guj.) Mitha Gokhru, betha 
gokhru, Nahana Gokhru, Gokhru ; (Hindi) Chhota Gokhru : 

Annual or perennial, with numerous long, prostrate, more 
or less hairy or hispid branchlets ; " herbs hirsute or silky 
hairy," as Edgeworth and Hooker say. Common in sandy 
ground. Branches I-2ft. Leaves opposite. The pair usually 
unequal ; pinnate, with 3-6 pair of opposite, usually sessile 
leaflets. Leaflets i-Jin., 5-7 pair, subequal, mucronate, oblong, 
white and silky beneath, slightly silky above. Stipules lanceolate, 
acute ; peduncles shorter than the leaves, slender. Flowers 
bright yellow, i-fin. diam., solitary, axillary, or leaf-opposed. 
Sepals linear, acute. Petals rounded, longer than sepals, 
fugacious. Ovary bristly ; style stout, short. Fruit of (usually) 
5, hairy or nearly glabrous, woody cocci, each with 2 pair of 
stiff sharp spines, forming a more or less spherical, spiny ball. 


Of the two pair of spines, one pair is long and one short. The 
cocci are very variable. Stigmatic lobes larger than the dia- 
meter of the styles. 

Parts used : — The entire plant, and especially the fruit and 

Uses : — In Hindoo Medicine, the fruits are regarded as 
cooling, diuretic, tonic and aphrodisiac, and are used in painful 
micturition, calculous affections, urinary disorders and im- 
potence. They form one of the ten ingredients which constitute 
the Dashamula of the Hindoo physicians (Dutt). 

They are considered astringent, and Belle w states that 
they are taken by women to ensure fecundity, and an infusion 
of the stems taken for gonorrhoea (Stewart). 

In the Gujrat district of the Punjab, it is used in diseases 
of the kidneys, suppression of urine, also in cough and diseases 
of the heart (Ibbetson). 

In South of Europe, it is used as an aperient and diuretic. 

In Southern India, t he fruit is highly valued as a diuretic. 
In many cases where this has been tried, the result was quite 
perceptible in the increase of the urinary secretion. There is 
another method of administration, in which the fruit and the 
root boiled with rice to form a medicated water, which is 
taken in large quantities (Ph. Ind.) 

According to Moodeen Sheriff, the fruit and leaves are 
demulcent, diuretic and useful in cases of strangury, gleet 
and chronic cystitis. He recommends a decoction and the fresh 
juice of the leaves. 

An infusion made from the fruit has been found very 
useful as a diuretic in gout, kidney disease and gravel ; also 
used largely in the Panjab as an aphrodisiac (F. F. Perry, in 
Watts' Dictionary). 

205. T. alatus, Delile. h.f.b.i , i. 423. 

Vera. : — Nindo-trikund, gokhuri-kalan (H. ); Lotak, bakli- 
ra, hasak (Pb.) ; Latak (Sindj. 

Habitat: — Sindh and Punjab, at Multan. 


A villous and hispid annual. Branches procumbent or 
ascending. Leaves stipulate, opposite, usually unequal, ab- 
ruptly pinnate. Leaflets 5 pair, subacute. Stipules ovate, 
acute. Petals about equalling the sepals. Flowers i-iin. diam. 
Peduncles shorter than the leaves. Stamens 5-10. Fruit 
broadly pyramidal, somewhat pointed ; cocci hirsute, 2-seeded, 
the spines confluent into toothed wings. Fruit slightly bitter, 
eaten by the desert nomads in Multan. 

Part used : — The fruit. 

Use : — The fruits are used for the same purpose as those 
of T. terestris, Linn. 

In Baluchistan, the fruit is a domestic remedy for uterine 
disorders after parturition. 

206. ZygophyUum simplex, Linn., h.f.b.i., 
i. 424. 

Vera. :— Alethi (Pb.) ; Alethi ; putlani (Sind). 
Habitat : — Sandy deserts ; Sindh, the Punjab, at Multan : 

A small prostrate herb, glabrous slender much branched ; 
annual. Leaves simple, cylindrical, small, sessile, fleshy, 
obtuse ; stipules lanceolate, acute. Peduncles as long as the 
obovate cucullate sepals. Petals spathulate. Scales 2-partite. 
Capsule deflected, turbinate, rough, of 5 compressed 2-3-seeded 
cocci. Seeds fusiform, smooth. 

Use : — The Arabs beat up the leaves in water and apply 
the infusion to the eyes in ophthalmia, &c. (Murray.) 

207. Fagonia arabica, Linn., H.F.B.I., I. 425. 

Syn. : — F. mysorensis, Both. 

Habitat : — Throughout North-Western India, Sindh, the 
Punjab and the Southern Provinces of the Western Peninsula. 

Sans. : — Dusparsha. Dhanvayas. 

Vern. : — Drummahoi (Sind); Samaba (Pb.) ; J. Tndraji : — 
(Porebunder and Guj.) Dbamaso ; (Marathi) Dhamasa ; (Hindi) 
Ustargar, Ustarkhar ; (Katclii) Dhramau. 


Pers. : — Badavard. 

A small green spiny undershrub, with erect branches, 
more or less glandular. Young branches terete, striate, spines 
exceeding the linear leaflets. Leaves 1-3-foliate ; leaflets 
elliptic or linear, acute ; petiole often foliaceous. Flowers small, 
pale, rose-coloured. Sepals 5, oblong-lanceolate, half as long 
as the petals, deciduous, imbricate. Petals 5, closed, caducous, 
imbricate. Disk short, inconspicuous. Stamens 10, inserted 
on the disk ; filaments filiform, naked anthers oblong. Ovary 
sessile, 5-cornered, 5-celled, tapering into a subulate style. 
Stigma simple ; Ovules, 2 lateral at the base of each cell, pen- 
dulous from ascending funicles. Fruit a pubescent, 5-cornered 
capsule of 5 1-seeded cocci, which dehisce along the ventral 
suture and separate from a horny endocarp. Seeds punctulate, 
erect, compressed, broadly oblong, testa mucilaginous, albumen 
horny ; Cotyledons broad, flat, ovate. 

ParU used : — The leaves, twigs and juice. 

Uses : — The leaves and twigs are supposed to possess 
cooling properties (Watt). 

It has a great reputation as a suppurative in cases of 
abscesses from thorns, etc. It is also used for cooling the mouth 
in stomatitis ; the juice being boiled with sugar-candy until 
quite thick, and a small quantity allowed to dissolve in the 
mouth frequently. The juice is thought to prevent suppuration 
when applied to open wounds ^Dymock). 

It is largely used by the native practitioners as a bitter 
and astringent tonic (S. Arjun). 

It is used in Sindh and Afghanistan as a popular remedy 
for fever among the hill people (Pharmacop. Ind.) 

Dose of the cold infusion of the stem, and leaves 5-10 
tolas. The infusion is thus prepared: — Take of stem and 
leaves in sufficient quantity, cut to pieces and add 16 times the 
quantity of cold water ; allow it to remain to be infused for 
12 hours ; then strain" (Dr. ViRji Jhina.) 

208. F. Bruguieri, D.C. h.f.b.i., i. 425. 

Vern. : — Spalaghzai (N. W. Himalaya, Trans-Indus); Dha- 
ma, damiya, dramah (Pb. and Sindh.) ; Dhamaso (Guz.). 

N. O. ZYGOPHYLLEifc. 2^3 

Habitat :— North -West India. Peshawar. 

A small, green, spiny, undershrub, with procumbent 
branches. Internodes short, Lower leaves 3-foIiate, the rest 
1-foliate ; young branches sub-tetagonous, sides grooved, spines 
(modified stipules) exceeding the ovate, rather fleshy leaflets ; 
young leaflets rather minute. Peduncles solitary from between 
the spiny stipules. Fruit, a capsule, bearing on its top the 
remnant of the tapering subulate style. 

Part used : — The whole plant, 

Use : — The plant is given as a tonic and febrifuge, and in 
the Peshawar Valley it is given to children as a prophylactic 
against small-pox (Bellew). 

It is useful as an application to tumors, also in chronic 
fever, dropsy, and delirium, and in any disorder which arises 
from poisoning. (Punjab Products). 


209. Geraniim Walliehianum, Sweet, h.f.b.l, 
i. 430. 

Vern :-- Liljahri, N. W. P. Kao-ashud (Kashmir) Roots.— 
Mam-i-ran (Pushtu). 

Habitat : — Temperate Himalaya, from Nepal to Murree. 

A perennial hairy herb. Root-stock thick. Stems robust, 
l-4ft., erect. Leaves orbicular, 2-5in. across, palmate! y-3-5- 
lobed ; segments wedge-shaped, pointed, acutely and irre- 
gularly toothed ; stipules oblong-ovate, J-lin. Flowers blue- 
purple, H-2in. diam. Sepals abruptly long-pointed. Petals 
slightly notched, claw hairy (Collett); filaments suddenly dilated 
at base. Carpels pilose ; seeds smooth. 

The very large solitary stipules best distinguish this 
species (Edgeworth and Hook. FiL). 

Use : — Aitchison says the root of this plant was brought to 
him in Kuram as a valuable medicine known as Miim-i-ran (Ku- 
ram Valley Flora, J. L. S. xviii-p-26. ). 



The herb possesses the astringent properties of the genus to 
a marked degree. 

Duthie states, that in the villages of Jumnotri it is employed 
as a cure for toothache. (Watt.) 

210 G. nepalense, Sweet, h.f.b.l, i. 430. 

Vern : — Rowil ; bhanda fPb. and H). The root is called 
chaud (Pb). 

Habitat :- Throughout the Temperate Himalayas, the Khasia, 
Nilghiri and Pulney Mountains. 

A slender, diffuse and much-branched hairy or villous, 
glandular herb. Branches sometimes rooting, more or less 
clothed with spreading or reflexed hairs. Leaves lj-2^in. diam., 
opposite, spreading, 5-gonal, deeply 3-5-lobed or-partite, upper 
sessile, segments rhomboid, incised ; stipules subulate-lanceolate. 
Peduncles slender, 1-2- fid sometimes 1-flowered, very variable 
in length, spreading, reflexed after flowering. Flowers i-fin. 
diam.; pink or purple. Sepals usually silky, shortly awned, 
almost equalling the entire petals- Carpels hairy. Seeds shin- 
ing, smooth. 

Part used : — The whole plant. 

Use : — The plant is used in the Punjab as an astringent, and 
in certain renal diseases. (Watt). 

211. G. Rohertianum, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 432. 

Habitat : — Western temperate Himalaya, from Kashmir to 

A reddish erect, foetid, rather succulent annual or biennial. 
Branches pubescent, 6-18in., brittle, leafy, numerous. Leaves 
l-3in., broad ; triangular-oblong. 5-foliate or ternatisect 
segments, incised or pinnatifid ; petiole long ; stipules ovate. 
Peduncles slender. 2-flowered, pedicels spreading. Flower- 
buds pyramidal. Flowers -§in. diam., streaked with dark and 
light red. Petals narrow, twice as long as the sepals, claw 
glabrous. Carpels wrinkled, keeled. Fruit |-lin.; beak of 
carpels separating upwards from the axis and attached to its 
apex by silky hairs. Seeds punctulate. 

Part used : — The whole plant. 


Uses : — This herb, though now almost entirely neglected, was 
formerly much used in European medicine. It has a disagree- 
able, bitterish, astringent taste, and imparts its virtues to boiling 
water. It was formerly employed internally in intermittent 
fever, consumption, nephritic complaints, jaundice, and as a 
gargle in affections of the throat, and externally as a resolvent 
to swollen breasts and other tumours. (U. S. Dispensatory.) 

It possesses slightly astringent qualities, and, according 
to the doctrine of signatures, Sir John Hill informs us that its 
power to arrest bleeding is indicated by the beautiful red hue 
assumed by the fading leaves. In Wales it is still administered 
in medicine, and our never-failing friend Gerarde extols it as 
an excellent " Stauncher of blood." (Sowerby's English Botany). 

212. G. ocellatum., Camb. h.f.b.i., i. 433. 

Vern :-Bhand(H.) 

Habitat:— Hills of the Punjab, temperate and Sub-tropical 
Himalaya, from Kashmir and the salt range to E. Nipal ; Behar, 
on the top of Parusnatha. 

A small straggling annual, hoary-pubescent or hairy and 
glandular, excessively-branched, prostrate, slender shrub. Leaves 
orbicular i-2in. diam., rose-coloured, with a dark purple eye. 
Sepals rigid after flowering, wrinkled from the pressure against 
the carpels. Petals large broadly obcorclate, much larger than 
the acuminate sepals. Fruit erect, f-in., long. Carpels corru- 
gated, small, separating from the axis and beak, which latter 
eventually coils up elastically. Seeds smooth, shining, pale. 

Use : — The plant possesses diuretic and astringent properties. 

213. Oxalis corniculata, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 436. 

Roxb. 389. 

Sans : — Amlalonika ; Changeri. 

Vern:— Chalmori ; Amrul-sak ; Chuka-tripati (B. and H.) ; 
Surchi ; Khatta mitha (Pb.); Paliakiri ; Puli— yarai (Tarn); Palla- 
chinta (Tel) ; Nalkarda Ambuti ; Bhui-sarpati (Bomb.) ; Taudi 


chatorn arak (Santal.) ; chengeri tenga (Assam) ; Pullainpurachi 
sappu (Kan) ; Poli yarala (Mai.;. 

Eng : — The Indian sorrel. 

Habitat : — Throughout the warmer parts of India. 

An annual or biennial appressed-pubescent, diffuse herb 
of very variable size and habit. Stems branched, procumbent, 
without runners. Leaves long-petioled, all cauline, 3-foliate. 
Leaflets obcordate. Stipules adnate to the petiole. Peduncles 
axillary ; petals yellow, notched. Flowers sub umbel late, f-in. 
cliam. Sepals obtuse, bracts setaceous. Fruiting pedicels 
depressed. Capsules tomentose. subcylindric. Cells many- 
seeded. Seeds transversly ribbed, 

Part used : — The whole plant. 

Uses : — The leaves are considered by the Sanskrit writers, as 
cooling, refrigerant and stomachic. The fresh j nice expressed 
from them is said to relieve intoxication from Datura ; and 
said to be useful in dysentery and prolapsus of the rectum. 

An infusion of the small leaves is given as a cooling medicine 
in fevers (Honingberger >. It is used externally to remove warts 
and opacities of the cornea. (B. Powell. ) 

The fresh leaves made into a curry are said to improve the 
appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. Bruised with or 
without water, they are formed into a poultice and applied over 
inflamed parts, by which means, great cold is produced, and 
pain and other symptoms are relieved. Prepared with hot water, 
the leaves make a very efficient poultice for boils. The leaves 
are refrigerant and anti-scorbutic. (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

In the Concan the plant is rubbed down with water, boiled 
and the jnice of white onions added ; this mixture is applied fco 
the head in bilious headache. (Dymock.) 

214. 0. acetosella, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 436. 

( Sinhalese) Hin-Embul-Sinhiliya. 

Habitat: — Temperate Himalaya, from Kashmir to Sikkim. 
One of the commonest weeds throughout Ceylon, 

N. 0. GERANIAOE^. 237 

A pilose stemless herb. Root-stock creepy scaly. Leaves 
all radical, 3-foliate ; leaflets broadly obcordate, often purple 
beneath, i-fin., petioles 3-6in., stipules large broad mem- 
branous. Scape axillary, slender, 2-bracteate, about the middle. 
.Flowers yellow, solitary, f-f in., diam. Sepals oblong. Petals 
obovate white or pale-rose, veined with purple, erose, cohering 
above the claw. Capsule erect, pentagonal. Cells 2-3-seeded. 
Flowers throughout the year. Leaves have an acid taste. Very 
common in cultivated ground. 

Uses : —Although at one time this found a place in the Lon- 
don Pharmacopoeia, yet in India no account appears to exist of 
any supposed medicinal virtues inherent in this species. In Eu- 
rope it was introduced into the Pharmacopoeia as a refrigerant 
in fever, and as an anti-scorbutic in scurvy, but has now fallen 
into disuse. (Watt.' 

The leaves contain a large quantity of binoxalate of potash, 
when the juice is evaporated, this salt is deposited in crystals, 
and so prepared was formerly sold as " salt of lemons " or 
"salts of sorrel," for removing iron stains ; but since the manu- 
facture of oxalic acid from other sources, it is seldom used. 

A decoction of the leaves in whey is used in the Hebrides 
for putrid fevers ; infused in water they form an agreeable 
cooling drink in all febrile disorders, and a conserve made of 
the leaves beaten up with sugar is recommended for the same 

The wood sorrel approaches the nearest of all our native 
plants to the Sensitive plant, not only closing its petals and 
folding its bright green leaves at sunset and with every change 
of atmosphere but even if the stem be rudely or repeatedly 
struck. (Sowerby's English Botany). 

215. Biophytiim sensitivum, B.C. h.f.b.i., 
t. 436. 

Sans : — Jhalla-pushpa. 

Feni:— Lahan Amulki, Ladjri (Mar.); Zarer (Guj and Pore- 
bunder) ; Lak-Chana, Lajaln, zarair ; (Hind) ; Gas-nidi kumba 


Habitat: — Throughout the hotter parts of India, ascending 
to 6000ft. in the Himalayas ; Lower country, Ceylon. 

An annual, rarely perennial herb. Stem simple long or 
short, slender or robust, hispidly pubescent. Leaves lj-5in. ; 
petiole hispidulous or merely ciliate ; leaflets very variable in 
size i-J in., sometimes arched a little upwards, 6-15 pair, 
oblong, nearly straight, nerves few or many, rather oblique, 
often waved. Peduncles very variable. |-5in., hispid, some- 
times swollen at the tip : bracts rigid, setaceous, pedicels usually 
shorter than the sepals, sometimes equalling them or a little 
longer. Sepals usually much exceeding the capsule, rigid, sub- 
lanceolate, grooved, glandular and hispid. Petals usually twice 
as long as the sepals. Capsule elliptic, shining, cells few- 
seeded. Seeds with obliquely transverse, acute or obtuse 
tubercled ridges, very variable. 

Flowers throughout the year. Petals golden-yellow witli 
red veins. 

Uses. — The seeds are powdered and applied to wounds, 
and with butter to abscesses to promote suppuration ; the root 
in decoction is given in gonorrhoea and lithiasis (Rheede). 

J. Tndraji on the authority of Vaidya Rugnathji says that 
the leaves act as a diuretic when given internally rubbed with 
water. They allay thirst in bilious fevers. Dose \-\ a tola 
(Virji Jhina). 

216. Averrhoa carambola, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 439. 
Roxb. 387. 

Sans : — Karma ranga. 

Vern : — Karmal, Khamrak Kamaranga (H) ; Kamaranga, 
Kamarak (B) ; Kardai (Ass) ; Tamarak, Kamarakha (Guj); Ka- 
maraka (Mar) ; Khamaraka, karamara (Bora) ; Khamrak (Deck' ; 
Tamarata, tamarttamkay 'Tarn) ; Karomonga, tamartakaya (Tel) ; s 
Tamarat-tuka (Mai) ; Kamarak (Ran). 

Eng : — Gooseberry tree or Chinese Gooseberry (Balfour). 

Habitat : — Cultivated in gardens throughout the hotter parts 
of India as far north as Lahore. Common in Cylon gardens 
introduced from the New World by the Portuguese, saysTrimen. 

N. 0. GERANIACEtE. 239 

Two varieties are known : say some writers sweet and sour. 

K. R. K. The fruit is sour when unripe and acid-sweet 
when ripe. 

A small densely branched tree. " Bark dark grey with 
horizontal folds. Wood white, turning light red, moderately 
hard, close-grained. Pores moderate-sized, often subdivided 
or disposed in short radial lines, scanty, prominent on a vertical 
section. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous and regular, 
somewhat indistinct" (Gamble). Leaves alternate, exstipulate, 
pinnate with a terminal leaflet. Leaflets subopposite, ovate, 
acuminate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, glabrous and glaucous 
beneath, 2-5 pair, lj-3in. ; petiole stout, pubescent. Flowers 
small, variegated white and purple ; panicles axillary, sometimes 
on the old wood. Calyx glabrous, half as long as the petals. 
Stamens 10-5 shorter without anthers, or sometimes one or 
two of these longer and antheriferous. Ovary pubescent. Fruit 
yellow, changing into brown ; ellipsoid, Sin. long with 5 pro- 
minent ridges, converting the fruit into one of 5 acutely angled 
lobes. Seeds arillate ; aril 2-lobed, lacerated. With regard to 
the arillus Brandis remarks thus : — Funicle of seed dilated 
"into a fleshy, bilabiate, irregularly cut arillus." It must be 
noted that, according to Edge, and Hook, F. the leaflets are 
irritable to touch. 

Parts used : — The leaves, root and fruit. : — Used as a cooling medicine. 

The acid dried fruit is given in fevers (Irvine p. 55.) It is 
cooling and useful in feverishness and possesses anti-scorbutic 
properties (Watt's Dictionary I. p. 360.) 

"The ripe fruit, which is generally sour (though there is a 
sweet variety) and contains oxalic acid, is a good remedy for 
bleeding piles, particularly in that variety of the disease which 
is known as internal piles. I have used it in several cases 
with more or less benefit, but in a few the result was very satis- 
factory, the bleeding disappearing rapidly and permanently. 
There is no doubt that the fruit will also produce a good effect 
in ha?matemesis, melsena, and some other forms of haemorrhage, 


but as it is nut always procurable, I have not yet had an op- 
portunity of trying it in those diseases. The firuit is also use- 
ful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement." (Moodeen 

217. A Bilimbi, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 439. Roxb. 387. 

Vent : — Belambu, Bilimbi, Hind, and Dek. Koch-chit- 
tamarta-kaya, Pulic7*-c/?akkay, Biliinbi-kaya, Tarn. Pulusu- 
kayalu, Bili-bili-kayalu, Bilinibi-kayalu, Tel. Vilanbikka, 
Vilimbi, Karic/iakka Malgal. Biliuibi, Beng ; Bombay Bilambu, 
Guz. Kaala-Zoim-si, Kala-Zounya-si, Bur. (Sinhalese) Bilin. 

Fabitat : — Cultivated in gardens throughout India, also 
naturalized as an escape. Cylon gardens, cultivated. 

A small tree. Wood white, tough, soft, very even-grained. 
Pores small or moderate-sized, sometimes subdivided, very 
scanty. Medullary rays extremely fine and indistinct, numer- 
ous. Faint pale concentric regular bands, (Gamble). Leaves 
paripinnate, alternate. Leaflets 6-14 pair, lower smallest, sub- 
opposite, ovate-oblong, acuminate, unequal-sided at the base, 
glabrous, pubescent on the nerves beneath, pale beneath ; 
blade 2-20in. by 1-loin.; petiolules short. Flowers dark purple 
brown says Talbot, dark crimson in Bombay (K. R. Kirtikar), 
cauliflorous in short panicles from the old wood of the stem and 
branches and from tender branches also. (K. R. K.). Brac- 
teoles subulate. Sepals ovate, glabrescent, or with a few 
shining hairs. Petals much longer than the sepals, pubescent. 
Fruit oblong, acid, slightly furrowed, 2in. long, obtusely lobed, 
juicy, greenish, yellow when ripe. Seeds without an arillus. 
Part used : — The fruit. 

Uses : — Astringent, stomachic and refrigerant. 

The syrup of fruit is useful in relieving thirst, febrile excite- 
ment, and also in some slight cases of haemorrhage from the 
bowels, stomach, and internal haemorrhoids. The fruit itself, 
in the form of curry, is a useful dietary article in piles and 

Preparation : — Syrup : Take of the juice of the ripe fruit, 
strained through cloth, ten fluid ounces ; refined sugar, thirty 

N. 0. GERANIACEJl. 241 

ounces ; water, ten fluid ounces ; mix and heat all the ingre- 
dients on a slow fire till the sugar is dissolved and the liquid 
assumes the consistence of a thick syrup. (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

218. Impatiens Balsamina, Linn, h.f.b.i., 
i. 453. 

Vern : — Gul-mendi (H) ; Dupati (B) ; Haragaura (Uriya) ; 
Mujethi (N. W. P.); Bantil, trual, halu ; tatura ; pallu ; tilphar ; 
juk (Pb.) ; Teradd (Bomb.)- (Porebunder) Gulmendi ; (Guj) 

Pan tambol ; (Sinhalese) Kudalu-kola. 

Habitat :— Found throughout India. Ceylon 2-4000ft. 

An annual erect herb l-3ft. ; Stem glabrous or pubescent, 
slightly branched, green, pithy, succulent. Leaves alternate, 
obscurely petioled, l|-5in. narrowly lanceolate or linear, 
tapering at both ends, especially at base, coarsely spinous- 
serrate, the lowest serratures often filiform and glandular, 
glabrous. Flowers bright pink, rather over lin. diam. ; on 
slender pubescent peduncle much shorter than leaf, 1-3 from 
axils of upper leaf. Sepals very small, linear ; tip keeled, 
mucronate, hairy ; spur 1 in. or more, slender, curved strongly 
pubescent ; standard small, roundish, retuse ; wings very much 
longer, lower lobe very large, bifid, rounded, upper lobe much 
smaller, obtuse, retuse. Capsule fin., pointed, tomentose. Seeds 
globose, tubercled. It is a rainy-season plant. 

Uses : — " It is not known whether any of the Indian 
Species of Impatiens have attributed to them medicinal pro- 
perties ; I. Noli-me-tangere (a British Species) has an acrid 
burning taste, and when taken internally, acts as an emetic, 
cathartic and diuretic. It is considered too dangerous, how- 
ever, to be of much use. The United States Dispensatory, after 
having previously discussed the properties of I. fulva, I. pallida, 
and I. Noli-me-tangere, states that I. Balsamina resembles the 
other species in its effects. Baillon says of I. Noli-me-tangere 
that it was formerly valued as a diuretic and anti-haemorrhoi- 
dal. It was topically used for pains in the joints and was said 


to cure diabetes but is not much thought of at present. In 
Japan I. corunta is said to make the hair grow." (Watt.) 

Throughout the Tropical and subtropical India and 
Ceylon. Trimen says that variety I. corunta, Linn, is considered 
to be the original garden Balsam. The common garden Balsam 
is a very variable plant. 

N. 0. RUTACE^]. 

219 Ritta graveolens, Linn. Var. angustifolia, 
H.F.B.I., i. 485. 

Syn : — R. angustifolia, Pers. 

Vem : — Sudab, pismarum ; satari ; (H) ; Sadaf (Dec) ; 
Arvada (Tarn) ; sadapa (Tel) ; Nagadab — sappu (Kan) ; Sadap 
(Guz) ; satap (Bom). Ispund ; Erunel (B). 

Habitat : — Cultivated in India. 

" The species of the Genus Ruta are herbs or under shrubs 
natives of the temperate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. 
The leaves are beset with small glands, containing a powerfully 
smelling oil : they are pinnate or much divided. The flowers 
are yellowish or greenish, and arranged in terminal corymbs 
or racemes. The Calyx has four persistent sepals ; the petals 
are four ; style one ; fruit capsular, 4-celled with 6-8 seeds in 
each cell." 

The Common Rue (R. gravcolens, Linn.) a native of the 
South of Europe is commonly cultivated in England. It is a 
somewhat shrubby plant, 2-3ft. high, Avith pinnately divided 
bluish green leaves and yellowish corymbose flowers. The 
first that opens has usually ten stamens, the others have 
eight stamens only. These stamens are of unequal length ; each 
is bent inwards to touch the pistil, and after the pollen has 
been shed it bends back again. The powerful fetid odour 
and acrid taste of this plant depends on the presence of a 
volatile oil (M. T. Masters). 

Parts used : - The leaves, herb and oil. 

N. 0. R.UTACEJJ. 24:6 

Uses : — The dried leaves are used as a f umigatory for 
children suffering from catarrh ; powdered and in combination 
with aromatics they are given in dyspepsia ; with the fresh 
leaves a tincture is made which is used as an external remedy 
in the first stages of paralysis. In the Punjab, the leaves are 

u sed as a remedy for rheumatic pains. Rue in all its forms is 

. considered injurious to pregnant women. 

The herb and the oil act as stimulants chiefly of the uterine 
and nervous systems. Rue has also been regarded as an an- 
thelmintic. In large doses it is an aero-narcotic poison. 
When fresh its topical action is acrid, and if much handled it 
produces redness, swelling and even vesication. 

It may be given internally in hysteria, amenorrhuea, epilepsy, 
flatulent colic, &c, and externally may be used as a rubefaci- 
ent. The oil is the best form for administration, but rue tea 
is a popular remedy. The dose of the powdered leaves is 10 
grs. to one drachm ; of the oil one to four minims. (Watt.) 

The dry rue leaves in the form of infusion and tincture are 
beneficial in dyspepsia with flatulency, flatulent colic and 
slight cases of amenorrhoea ; the juice of the leaves has a 
distinct control over infantile convulsions. (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

Rue is used by Arabs in Palestine and Syria as a preventive 

of the ill affects of water drunk at unaccumstomed spungs : they 

either chew the leaves, or soak the plant in water. (Fullerton.) 

Rutin, which is obtained from Rue, and quercitrin, are isomeric com- 
pounds of a composition represented by Herzig's formula for the latter, 
C 3o - H 33 O 20 -f 3 H 2 O. The product obtained by the decomposition of rutin 
with dilute mineral acids is named isoquercetin, and differs in physical 
properties from quercetin, which is similarly prepared from quercitrin. Iso- 
quercetin is l^ss soluble than quercetin, gives a dirty green coloration with 
ferric chloride which on warming turns bright red, whilst quercetin. with 
ferric chloride forms a dark green solution which on warming becomes dark 
red. I. Ch. S. 1897 A I. 433. 

220. Peganum Harmala, Linn. H.F.B.I., I. 486. 

Vern :— Hurmul, harmal, isband-lahouri, lahouri-hurmul, 
(Hind;; Isband (Beng) ; Hurmul, isbund-lahouri, lahouri- 
hurmul spelane. (P. B.) ; spail anai, (Pushtu, ; spand, spong, 
ispantban, (N. Baluchistan); Hurmul, isbund-lahouri, lahouri- 


hurmul (Sindj ; Vilayati-mhendi, vilayati-isbaiid (Dec) ; Hurmal, 
purmaro, ispand. (Bomb) ; Harmala, (Mar) ; Ispun, Hurmaro ; 
(Guz) ; spimai-aravandi, virati, shimai-azha-vanai-virai, (Tarn) ; 
Sima-goronti-vittulu, (Tel) Hurmul or harmal, (Arab) ; Isband, 
or ispand, (Pers). 

Habitat : — N. W. India, from Sindh, the Punjab, and the 
Kashmir plain to Delhi and Agra ; the Western Deccan. 

A glabrous bush. Stem 1-3 ft. high, stout, flexuous, 
dichotomously and corymbosely much branched and densely 
foliaged. Leaves 2-3in., green, pinuatifidly cut into linear, 
very narrow acute spreading lobes. Flowers -J-fin. diam., 
solitary in axils of the branches, sessile or pedicelled. Calyx- 
tube very narrow, much exceeding the Corolla, persistent. 
Sepals 4-5. Petals 4-5, subecjual imbricate, elliptic-oblong. 
Stamens 12-15, inserted at the base of the disk, some antherless ; 
filaments dilated below ; anthers linear. Ovary globose, deeply 
2-3-lobed ; styles basal, twisted, 2-3, keeled above, the keels 
stigmatose ; ovules many in each cell, inserted in the inner 
angle. Fruit a globose capsule Jin. diam., and less. Seeds 
angled, testa spongy, rough ; albumen fleshy ; embryo curved; 

Parts used : — The seeds, leaves and root. 

Use : — In Native works on Materia Medica, it is described 
as an alterative and purifying medicine in atrabilis, and also 
in diseases supposed to arise from cold humors, such as palsy, 
lumbago, &c. ; it is also said to stimulate the sexual system 
both in the male and female, increasing the flow of milk and 
menses in the latter. (Dymock.) 

In the Punjab, the seeds are considered narcotic and given 
in fevers and colic. The decoction of the leaves is given for 
rheumatism, and the powdered root mixed with mustard oil, 
is applied to the hair to destroy Vermin. Stewart.) 

In Gujrat, it is burnt in the sick-room as an antiseptic and 
deodorizer when any person surfers from wounds, ulcers, or 
small-pox. (Ibbetson's Gazeteer of Gujrat: p. 12.) 

The Natives of the Punjab use these seeds against weakness 
of sight and retention of urine. (Honingberger, Vol : II. p. 284). 

N. 0. JlUTAQKM. _M5 

Dr. P. Gopal, of Bombay, has found the infusion or tincture 
of the drug to act as stimulant emmenagogue, producing 
slight intoxication like Cannabis Indica. He gave the tincture 
in | drachm doses to a female suffering from amenorrhcea, 
and it had the effect of producing a free menstrual discharge ; 
he further says that it is sometimes used by the native mid wives 
to procure abortion. He believes that it has properties in 
common with ergot, savine and rue. (Dymock p. 125.) 

According to Moodeen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, anti- 
pasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmen- 
agogue. He recommends their employment in cases of asthma, 
hiccough, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the 
ureter, and of gallstone iu the gall duct, colic, jaundice, dysmen- 
orrhea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and 
procure sleep. The relief afforded by this drug in simple 
cough and a few other pectoral affections is generally satis- 
factory. It is also a good nauseant and depressant emetic 
in its largest medicinal doses ( 5 i ss. to 3 ii) ; but it cannot be 
employed as such in general practice, because its use in so 
large a quantity is always accompanied by its narcotic and 
hypnotic actions. " No Hospital should be, in my humble 
opinion," wrote the late Dr. Moodeen Sheriff, without a drug 
so cheap and with so many good qualities as Hurmal." 

According to J. A. Gunn (Royal Society, Edinburgh, 22, 
November 1901)) harmaline belongs to the group of protoplas- 
mic poisons of which the best known alkaloid is quinine, and 
the actions of harmaline and quinine are practically the same, 
so that it is possible that harmaline may come to be used as a 
substitute for quinine. 

Harmaline has been shown to be dihydrohartnine ; both it and harminc 
arc optically inactive in acetic acid solution. The oxidation of harmaline, 
C 13 H 14 N 2 O, to harminc, C 13 H 12 N 2 O, is best effected with potassium per- 
manganate in dilute sulphuric acid solution. Methylharmine melts at 209° ; 
its hydrochloride and flesh-coloured platinochloride, (C l3 H u Me N 2 0) 2 , H 2 l , tCl --|- 
211 2 0, were prepared ; it unites with more methylic iodide, yielding a quater- 
nary iodide, C 13 H u MeN 2 0, Mel, which reacts with silver nitrate, forming 
the crystalline nitrate ; the platinochlovide, and a uroclilor id e of this quater- 
nary base were also prepared. Acetylharmal'uie, C 13 H l3 AcN 2 0, can be prepared 
by dissolving harmaline and fused sodium acetate in acetic anhydride, heating 


cautiously to 60, c and then setting it aside ; it melts at 204-205.° Methyl- 
karmaline, prepared from harmaline methiodide by boiling it with baryta 
water, melts and decomposes at 162°, and will unite with more methylic 
iodide. Dihydroharuialine is best prepared by reducing harmaline with 
sodium in boiling amyl-alcoholic solution ; its acetyl and benzoyl derivatives, 
C 13 H 15 AeX 2 0, etc., melt at 239' and 158-159° respectively. Harmine and 
harmaline are oxidised to harminic acid, C 10 H 3 N 2 O 4 , by chromic acid in 
boiling acetic acid solution, or by nitric acid, the same product being obtained 
when harmol, dichloroharmine, or introharmine is oxidised. This acid reacts 
with normal alkali like a monobasic acid, but with resorcinol, like a dibasic 
acid, forming a fluorescein. It reacts with methylic iodide and aqueous 
potash, yielding mythl harminic acid, C l0 H 7 MeN 2 O 4 , which can also be obtained 
by the oxidation of methyl'iarmine, and which blackens between 260° and 280° 
when heated ; with ethylic iodide, it yields ethylharminic acid, C 10 H 7 Et N 2 4 , 
which blackens at 280°. Apoharmine, formed from harminic acid by the loss 
of 2 mols. of carbonic anhydride, yields a yellow picrate melting at 247,° 
boiling concentrated nitric acid converts it into a derivative, C d H 7 (N0 2 ) N 2 , 
which melts and decomposes at 270°, and is soluble in alkalis ; with methylic 
iodide, it yields the hydriodide of methylapoharmine, C b H 7 MeN 2 , which base 
melts at 77-7i>°, and yields a yellow platinochloride which decomposes at 260°, 
J. Ch. S. 189S A. I, 161. 

Harmalol has been isolated from the seeds of Peganum harmala, and is 
identical with the product obtained by the action of concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid on harmaline ; the green fluorescence of its aqeuous solution 
is almost completely destroyed by acids or alkalis. Harmine melts at 
257-259". Harminic acid is an ortho-dicarboxylic acid, but on titration behaves 
like a monobasic acid, one carboxyl group being combined as in a salt. 
Apoharmine is decomposed by potassium permanganate, forming ammonia and 
oxalic acid ; its nitro-derivative has both acid and basic properties (compare 
the nitroiminazoles of Bamberger and Berle). The aurochloride crystallises 
in orange yellow needles concentrically arranged. Harmol can not be directly 
reduced by the action of hydriodic acid or of zinc dust, but the oxygen may 
bo eliminated indirectly by means of the amino-deravative. 

Aminoharman, C 12 H n N 3 , prepared by the action of ammonio-zinc chloride 
and ammonium chloride on harmol at 250°, crystallises from water in flat 
needles or leaflets, has a silvery lustre, sinters at 292°, melts at298 ci , sublimes 
with partial decomposition, and is easily soluble in alcohol. The solutions 
of the salts show a blue fluorescence. The hydrochloride crystallises in 
colourless prisms, and is slightly soluble in water ; the nitrate aud sulphate 
were also prepared. 

Harman, C 12 H 10 N 2 , obtained by diazotising the amino-dcrivative, re- 
sembles harmine, and separates in leaflets or flat needles ; it crystallises 
from benzene in small stout crystals, melts at 230°, sublimes with partial 
decomposition, forming a sublimate which crystallises in needles, and is 
readily soluble in ethyl or methyl alcohol. Its solution in concentrated 
sulphuric acid has a faint blue fluorescence, whilst the solutions of its salts show 
a strong blue fluorescence. The plat inochloride, (C 12 H I0 N 2 ) 2 , H 2 PtCl d , |H 2 0, 

N. 0. RUTAOEiE. 247 

crystallises in pale yellow needles and is slightly soluble in water, the 
aiirichloride separating in matted, orange needles and the mere urichloride was 
also prepared. 

Harmaline crystallises from alcohol or benzene in large, colourless 
crystals which, in thicker layers, appear yellow. Its solution in concentrated 
sulphuric acid is intensely yellow but not fluorescent, whilst the alcoholic 
solutions of the yellow salts have a green fluorescence. By the action of 
hydrochloric acid on a boiling solution of acetyl-harmaline in alcohol, the 
solution becomes brown, greeu and finally dirty blue, and from the product 
ammonia precipitates a strong base, C 15 H l8 3 N 2 , in almost colourless needles 
or leaflets; it separates from water in yellow crystals, melts at 164—165°, 
is easily soluble in hot water, and forms yellow solutions in acids. The 
platinichloride, (C lS H l3 3 N 2 ) 2 ,H 2 PtCl 6 , crystallises in lustrous, brown needles, 
and decomposes at 210°. The aiirichloride is difficult to obtain in a crystalline 
form. The mercurichloride was also prepared. The base is only reconverted 
into harrnaline by prolonged boiling with alcoholic potash, and by the action 
of hydrochloric acid at 150 — 160° it forms harmalol. When harrnaline is boiled 
with nitric acid of sp. gr. 1'48, nitroanisic acid [OMe : N0 2 : C0 2 H— 1 : 2 : 4] 
is formed together with harminic acid. The former acid is derived from 
methoxy- nitrophthalic acid by elimination of carbon dioxide. The harrnaline 
alkaloids must therefore contain a complex, OMe.C -H 3 (C — )C, in which OMe: 
C : C^rl : 3 : 4 or 1 : 4 : 5. 

The physiological effect of these alkaloids is to reduce the temperature. 

J. Ch. S. 1901 A. I. pp. 405-406. 
The physiological action of some of the derivatives was investigat- 
ed, namely, harmine (C 13 H 12 ON 2 ), harrnaline (C 13 H 14: ON 2 ), dihydroharmaline 
(C 13 H 16 ON 2 ), and apoharmine (C a H 8 N 2 ). The first three have a paralysing action 
on frogs, whilst Apoharmine causes increased reflex irritability and tetanus. 
Harmine and harrnaline paralyse the skeletal and cardiac muscle of the frog. 
Harrnaline has an anthelmintic action, probably by paralysing the musculature 
of the parasites. In warm-blooded animals, harmine and harmaline cause 
convulsions, increase of saliva, interference with respiration, and depression 
of temperature. In the East the seeds are used as a substitute for hashish, 
and in dogs it is evident that psychic disturbances occur. The drugs are 
partly destroyed in the body (blood, liver, and nervous sj^stem), and partly 
excreted by the kidneys and intestine. 

J. Ch. S. 19ll, A. II. p. 138. 

On treating harmaline, harmine, apoharmine, and methylapoharinine with 
bromine in acetic acid, the hydrobromides of the corresponding monobromo- 
derivatives are obtained. Bromoharmaline, Ci 3 H ]3 ON 2 Br, crystallises in 
colourless, slender needles, m. p. 195° ; the hydrochloride, and platinichloride 
are yellow. In the case of harmine, two isomeric compounds are formed, and 
may be separated by heating the hydrobromides at 50°, bromoharmine hydrobro- 
mide alone fusing at this temperature. Bromoharmine, C l3 H n ON 2 Br, occurs 
in orthorhombic prisms, m. p. 275°; the salts crystallise from alcohol, but 
form jellies with water. /soBromoharmine crystallises in long needles, m. p. 
203°, and its salts crystallise from water ; the jilatimchloridc is orange-red. 


Bromoaptiharmine C 3 H 7 N. 2 Br, crystallises in long needles, m. p. 229°, and 
bromometliyla.-poharmine, CjHjN^Br, in nedles, m. p. 196°. 

On brominating, harmine in presence of sulphuric acid, and suspending the 
product, Fischer's supposed tetrabromide, in hot dilute alcohol, slender 
needles of dibromoharmine monohydrobromidp. are obtained ; when treated 
with ammonia this gives dibromoharmine, C 13 H 10 ON. 2 Br. 2 , m. p. 209°. Fischer's 
compound appears to be the dihydrobromide of this base. 
J. Ch. S. 1912, A. I. p. 209. 

221. Dictamnus albas., Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 487. 

Habitat : — Temperate Western Himalaya, from Kashmir to 
Kunawur, and according to Royle, Jumnotrie in Garwhal. 

A strong- smelling herb ; shrubby below, clothed with 
pustular glands. Stem stout but not woody, branched. Leaves 
lft. and upwards, alternate, unequally pinnate. Leaflets oppo- 
site, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, serrulate, 2-3|in., sessile, dark 
green, base wedge-shaped, nerves slender, petiole very stout, 
angular, margined. Racemes terminal, 4ft. and upwards, 
stout, strict, erect. Flowers white or rose-coloured, ljin. long, 
erect; pedicels l-3in. ; glandular, bracteate at the base and 
bracteolate usually above the middle. Calyx 5-partite ; deci- 
duous. Sepals small, lanceolate. Petals 5, 4 upper in pair, 
ascending, lower declinate ; elliptic-lanceolate, glandular on the 
back. Stamens 10, inserted at the base of a thick annular disk ; 
filaments long, slender, somewhat thickened and very glandular 
below the slender tip ; anthers subglobose. Ovary shortly 
stipitate, deeply 5-lobed, 5-celled. Style hispid, filiform, decli- 
nate. Stigma terminal. Ovules 3-4 in each cell, inserted on 
the ventral suture. Fruit of 5 carpels compressed, broad, 
truncate, long-beaked, elastically 2-valved, 2-3 seeded, hispid 
1 in. long. Endocarp horny, separable. Seeds subglobose ; 
testa thin, black, shining, albumen fleshy; cotyledons thick, 
radicle short. 

Uses : — Indian writers do not appear to have paid much 
attention to this plant. The bark of the root was once upon 
a time a favorite aromatic bitter. Storck prescribed it for 
most neiwous diseases, also for intermittent fever, amenorrhoea, 
hysteria, etc. (Watt). 

x. o. ituTACE.i:. 240 

222. Zanthoxylon alatum, Roxb. h.f.b.i., 
i. 493. Roxb. 717. 

Sans : — Tumburu. 

Vera: — Tejbal, tumru (II) ; Nepali dhania (B). Sungrukung 

(Lepcha) ; 

Habitat-. — Hot \ alley of the Sub-tropical Himalaya; from 
Jamu to Bhotan ; Khasia Mountains. 

Hot valleys in forest undergrowth s up to 6000ft. in Jau- 
nasar, Tehri-Gurkwal and the Outer-Himalaya from above 
Raj pur, Dharmigadh, Tons, and Bamsu valleys ; Korwa, Koti 
Forest (KanjilaF, Mongbyr, Khasia and Naga hills, Hills of Vizi- 
gapatam and Ganjam. 

A shrub or small tree almost entirely glabrous with a 
strong aromatic smell. Bark corky. Young stems with thick 
conical prickles from a corky base. Wood close-grained, yellow, 
says Gamble, white, says Brandis. Prickles shining, strong, 
broad, Hat on branchlets petioles and midrib ; thin on older 
branches, often on a corky base. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 
small. Leaflets 2-6 pair commonly ; petiole and rachis narrowly 
winged opposite, obtusely acuminate, more or less serrate, 1-3 byi 
by -fin., elliptic-lanceolate, pellucid-punctate ; secondary nerves 
distinct. Flowers small, yellow, usually unisexual, in dense lateral 
panicles ; sparingly branched. Calyx 6-8-fid. Petals none. 
Stamens 6-8, much exceeding the Calyx. Anthers large. Fruit 
usually a solitary carpel dehiscing ventrally, size of a pepper 
corn, tubercled, strongly aromatic : rugous, red; rarely 2-3. 

Parts used : — Seeds, bark and fruit. 

Uses • — Seeds and the bark are used as an aromatic tonic 
m fever, dyspepsia, and cholera ; the fruit as well as the 
branches and thorns are used as a remedy for tooth-ache, also 
deemed stomachic and carminative and employed to intoxicate 

The carpels of the fruits, which resemble those of coriander, yield an 
essential oil, which is isomeric with turpentine and is somewhat similar to 
eucalyptus oil in odor and properties. The oil may be found to possess 



antiseptic, disinfectant and deodorant properties similar to those of eucalyp- 

The bark of this and of the following species contains berberine 
(K. L. Day). 

223. Z. acantho podium, D. 0. h.f.b.l, i. 493. 

Vern : — Nipali dhanya ; tumra ; tejphal ; darmar (H) ; 
Thumbul (Bj ; Bogay timur (Nepal). 

Habitat : — Hot valleys of the Sub-tropical Himalaya, from 
Kumaon to Sikkim and the Khasia Hills. 

A small tree. Bark -|in. thick, greyish brown, shining, 
studded with the large conical corky bases of the prickles, 
which fall off as the tree grows. Wood yellowish white, soft. 
Pores small, often in short radial lines. Medullany rays fine. 

Branchlets glabrous or tomentose, leaflets 2-6 pairs, lan- 
ceolate, nerves distinct, glabrous or more or less pubescent 
beneath, petioles and rachis narrowly winged. Cymes very 
short, dense, J-lin. long, pubescent. Flowers apetalous. Wood, 
with a broad septate pith, adds J. D. Hooker. 

Use : — See Z. alatum above. 

224. Z. oxyphyllum, Edgew. h.f.b.l, i. 494. 

Habitat : — Himalaya, from Garhwal to Bhutan, also Khasia 

A climbing shrub, clothed with hooked prickles. " Bark 
greyish brown, covered with large corky lenticels, and armed 
with recurved thorns on a conical corky base, often -Jin. high. 
Wood yellowish white, soft, porous. Pores large, usually many 
times subdivided radially. Medullary rays moderately broad, 
bent where they pass the pores. Annual rings marked by a 
white line " [Gamble). Leaves very variable in size, 4-12 in., 
petiole arched, usually very prickly along the back. Leaflets, 
3-10 pair, alternate or opposite ; in young specimens ovate- 
lanceolate, very long-acuminate, crenate-serrate, pale ; nerves 
very distinct beneath, in older ones more elliptic or oblong, 
2-2§in. to upwards of 4in., coriaceous, shining above. Cymes 
much-branched, many- flowered. Flowers the largest of the 

N. O. RTiTAOE^E. 251 

Indian species, lilac, i-iin. diara., umbellate on the branches 
of the cyme ; pedicels slender, longer than the petals. Sepals 
4, small, obtuse. Petals 4, obtuse, imbricate. Ripe carpels 2-4, 
of the size of a pea, tuberculated, hardly beaked. Seeds black. 
Use : — See Z. alatum above. 

225. Z. Hamiltonianwin, Wall., h.f.b.l, i. 494. 

Vern. : — Purpuray timur (Nepal). 
Habitat: — Sikkim, Assam and Burma. 

A climbing thorny shrub. Bark dark grey, with white len- 
ticels, armed with short recurved prickles on a thick, nearly 
cylindrical corky base, often fin. high. Wood yellowish 
white, soft. Pores fine, not numerous. Medullary rays fine 
to moderately broad, numerous, nearly equidistant (Gamble). 
Leaves 6-8in., common petiole not winged, terete, stout, very 
prickly ; leaflets sub-sessile, suddenly narrowed into a broad 
notched apex, base rounded, glossy on both surfaces, glabrous 
or pubescent beneath, with many sub-parallel prominent arch- 
ing nerves. Cymes 3-4in., panicled, imbricate. Panicles or 
clusters of flowers axillary, ramifications alternate. Sepals 4. 
Petals as many. Flowers green. Stamens 4, hypogynous. 
Ovary 1-celled ; stigma capitate. Fruit globose, of 1-seeded 
carpel. Seed shining black ; embryo in a fleshy albumen, 
radicle short, cotyledons flat. 

Use : — The fruit employed medicinally like that of Z. 

226. Z. Bhetsa. D. C, h.f.b.l, i. 495. 

Syn. : — Fagara Rhetsa, Roxb. 140. 

Vern. :— Tessul, Koklee, chirphal, triphal (Bomb, and Goa). 
Vengurla. Rhetsa manm (Tel.) ; Jummina, jisumi-mara (Kan.). 
Katu Kina (Sinhalese). 

Habitat :— Western Peninsula, from Coromandel and the 
Concan southward. Occasionally cultivated in Ceylon. 

A large tree. " Bark cream-coloured, with thick cork 
in irregular masses, studded with conical spines, about 2in. 
long, and the same; in base diameter. Wood yellowish grey, 
moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small, rather scanty, 


single or in radial strings of 2-4. Medullary rays short, white, 
numerous, the distance between them about equal to the 
diameter of the pores. Annual rings, marked by the darker 
autumn wood, with few pores" (Gamble). Branches opposite. 
J. D. Hooker says that the wood has broad septate pith, and the 
leaves are 5-merous-foliate ; petiole not' winged. " The 
prickly stem resembles that of the Bombax. Leaves 1-lfft., 
clustered at the ends of the branches, equally or unequally 
pinnate; petiole unarmed. Leaflets opposite, 3-oin., with short 
partial petioles, recurved, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, caudate- 
acuminate, upper base, rounded, lower narrow and ending in 
the costa, nerves 10-12 on the upper half, fewer on the lower. 
Flowers yellow, in large terminal panicles " (Brandis). J. D. 
Hooker says : " Cymes terminal, very large, glabrous, Some- 
times lift, broad: branches opposite, angled; bracts minute 
caducous." Flowers 4-merous, fin. diam. Petals valvate. Ovary 
globose. Piipe carpels solitary, the size of a pea, tubercled. 
Seed subglobose, blue-black. The unripe carpels taste like 
orange peel, the seeds like black pepper. 

Parts used : — The carpels, oil, bark and root-bark. 

Uses : — The fruit is used for its aromatic and stimulant pro- 
perties. The Mohamedan physicians consider it to be hot 
and dry, and to have astringent, stimulant and digestive pro- 
perties. They prescribe it in dyspepsia arising from atrabilis ; 
also in some forms of diarrhoea. The root-bark is reputed in 
Goa to be purgative of the kidneys. The fruit with ajwan seeds 
is powdered, steeped in water and distilled, and the distillate 
given as a remedy for cholera. In rheumatism, the fruit is 
given in honey (Dymock.) 

The bark and root-bark are also probably equally valuable. 
The essential oil is used for cholera (Watt.) 

227. Z. Budrunga, Wall, h.f.b.l, i. 495. 

Syn. : — Fagara Budrunga, Roxb, 140. 
Vera. :— Budrung (Hin.): Brojonali (Assam). 
Habitat:— Tropical Himalaya, Kumaon, forests of Sylhet, 
the Khasia Mountains, Ohittagong, and Martaban. 

N. O. RUTACEiE. 253 

A tree, armed with prickles. " Bark greyish, brown ; 
young stems covered with thick, conical prickles from a corky 
base. Wood moderately hard, close-grained, white. Pores 
small, uniformly distributed, often in short radial lines. 
Medullary rays fine, short, numerous" (Gamble). Brandis 
says that it is an aromatic evergreen tree. Gamble says : — 
"It is a pretty tree. When young, the steins are leafless at 
the top, where the long pinnate leaves are put out umbrella- 
fashion." Leaflets 5-10 pair, glabrous, broadly crenate, witli 
large glands in the sinus, base very oblique ; Cymes terminal, 
very large, glabrous (J. D. Hooker). Seeds aromatic, says 

Use. — The carpels can hardly be distinguished from those 
of Z. Rhetsa, and are used similarly in medicine (Watt.) 

228. Toddalia aculeata, Pers. h.e.b.i., i. 497. 
Syn. : — Scopolia aculeata, Sm. Eoxb. 207. 
Sans. :— Kanchana ; dahana. 

Vern. : — Kanj (H.) ; Dahan, Lahan (Rajputana) ; Meinkaia 
(Nepal) ; Saphijirik (Lepcha) ; Milkaranai, Kandvi, (Tarn).; 
Konda-Kashinda. (Tel.) ; Jangli-Kali-mirchi (Bomb.). Kudnr- 
Miris (Sinhalese.) 

Habitat : — Throughout India, in Java, Sumatra, China and 
the Phillippines and Mauritius. Subtropical Himalaya, from 
Kumaon eastwards to Bhotan ; Khasia Mountains, and through- 
out the Western Peninsula. Ceylon, bushy places, from sea- 
level upto 6,000ft., very common. 

A large scandent shrub, the branches covered with prickles, 
on broad corky cones, often lin. high. Bark brown, thin, 
with prominent lenticels. Wood porous, yellowish white. 
Pores moderate-sized, often undivided, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays very fine, uniform and equidistant, bent where 
they touch the pores (Gamble). Prickles on branchlets sharp. 
The woody conical lenticels terminal, in short curved spines. 
Young shoots rusty, tomentose. Leaflets crenulate, greatly vary- 
ing in length, in the semi-evergreen scrub, near Madras 1 J-2in. t 


elsewhere often 4 in. long (called T. floribunda. — Wall). Flowers 
small, cream-coloured, in axillary panicles longer than the petiole; 
Jin. diam. Calyx glandular. Petals 5, imbricate. Stamens not 
exceeding the petals. Ovary usually 5-celled. Style short. 
Stigma 5-lobed. Ovules 2, superposed in each cell. Fruit 
globose, size of a large pea, 3-5-grooved, orange-coloured, fin. 
diam.; 3-5-celled. Seeds solitary in each cell. The whole plant 
hot and pungent, 

Parts used : — The root, bark, leaves and fruit. 

Uses :--The root is pungent and sub-aromatic, and is consi- 
dered as stomachic and tonic. It is given in a weak infusion 
to the quantity of half a teacupful in the course of the clay ; 
the leaves are also sometimes used for the same purpose 
(Ainslie). The fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in the 
bowels ; the fresh bark of the root is administered by the 
Telinga physicians for the cure of remittent fever. I conceive 
every part of this plant to be possessed of strong, stimulating 
powers, and have no doubt but, under proper management, it 
might prove a valuable medicine where stimulants are required 


The root-bark is officinal in the Indian Pharmacopoeia, 
being described as an aromatic tonic, stimulant and anti- 
periodic ; useful in constitutional debility, and in convalescence 
after febrile and other exhausting diseases. Dr. Bidie of 
Madras says, he knows of no single remedy in which active 
stimulant, carminative, and tonic properties are so happily 
combined as in this drug. 

Rheede states that the unripe fruit and root are rubbed 
down with oil to make a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. 

"I have been using the root-bark of T. aculeata in my prac- 
tice during the last twelve or thirteen years, and do not 
hesitate in saying that it is one of the most valuable drugs 
in India. It is, as antiperiodic and antipyretic, equal, if not 
superior, to quinine and other alkaloids of cinchona and to 
Warburg's tincture, respectively : and, as a diaphoretic, deci- 
dedly more efficacious than Pulv. Jacobi Vera or James' 
powder, and a few other antipyretic medicines mentioned 

!\. UUFACEJE. zoo 

above. It, therefore, demands an especial notice of the medi- 
cal profession. 

" Six drachms of the tincture or twelve ounces of the decoc- 
tion of T. aculeata are equal to one bottle of Warburg's 
tincture ; and if either of them is used in two doses during 
the presence of simple continued fever or a paroxysm of ague, 
it produces the same good effect as the latter drug (Warburg's 
tincture), namely, a copious perspiration and relief of the 
febrile condition ; and, again, if the tincture or decoction is 
repeated in the same dose during the interval of ague, every 
fourth or fifth hour, for two or three days, it prevents the 
return of paroxysm as successfully as very large doses of 
quinine. To render the cure more perfect and complete, the 
tincture or decoction should be continued in smaller doses for 
four of five days more. The beneficial influence of the tincture 
or decoction of T, aculeata in remittent fever is precisely the 
same, and the only difference is that it sometimes relieves the 
exacerbation and checks its return at once; and at others, it 
first converts the remittent into intermittent fever and then 
cures the latter in the same way as explained above. Out of 
the many severe and very obstinate cases of malarious, jungle, 
and other fevers, which yielded to this drug, there were several 
in which quinine with arsenic was first tried and failed. As the 
dose of the tincture of T. aculeata is much smaller than that of 
its decoction, and as it can also be prepared and kept always ready 
for use, it is preferable to the latter; but there is no difference 
whatever between the medical properties of both preparations. 

" The root-bark of T. aculeata is not only much cheaper 
than quinine and Warburg's tincture, but is also one of the 
cheapest drugs in Southern India, its price being only about 
2 annas per pound. In addition to this, its advantages over 
quinine are that it, unlike the latter, can be freely and success- 
fully administered in tbe absence as well as in the presence 
of fever ; and that, however long and frequently it may be em- 
ployed, it never produces ringing in the ears, deafness and 
some other disagreeable symptoms which are so commonly 
observed in the use of quinine. 


" The analogy between the medical properties of the root- 
bark of T. aeuleata and those of the root of Berberis asiatica 
and some other species of Berberi is very great. The former, 
however, has one advantage over the latter, which is its pro- 
curability in every large bazar of Southern India ; whereas, 
the Indian Barberry-root requires to be sent for from some 
hills and distant places, as the Nilgiris, Shevaroy Hills, Cal- 
cutta, Delhi, etc" (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

In the Australasian Congress of 1889, held at Melbourne, 
Surgeon-Major Kirtikar, in exhibiting the powder of the root, 
said as follows : — "The plant (Jangli-kali-mirchi) has been re- 
commended by Dr. Bidie of Madras as a bitter tonic in debility, 
after malarial fevers, and in convalescence from exhausting 
diseases. I have tried it in the malarial cachexia of fevers and 
found that it acts as a good stomachic tonic, improving the 
appetite, and aiding digestion. An infusion of the root-powder, 
in the proportion of an ounce of the powder to ten fluid ounces 
of boiling water, makes a capital preparation. Dose, one to two 
ounces, twice or thrice daily. Four years ago, I obtained a few 
pounds of the root from Dr. Dymock and tried it with great 
advantage. The root contains a bitter principle, the exact 
nature of which is yet unknown. It was once known in Europe 
under the name of Lopez-root as a remedy for diarrhoea, pro- 
bably from the large quantities of yellow resin which the vascu- 
lar and cortical system contain. " The Bark," says Dr. Dymock, 
" is remarkable for its large cells filled with resin and essential 
oil." (P. 949, Proceedings of the Australasian Congress, Mel- 
bourne, 1889.) 

The central woody portion, the inner bark, and the external yellow 
powder of the root, were separately examined. 

Ten grams of the external yellow powder were digested for two hours 
with 100 c.c. of boiling alcohol, filtered, and the residue again treated in 
a similar manner. To the orange brown filtrate alcoholic lead acetate solu- 
tion was added, drop by drop, as long as a colourless precipitate was formed, 
and after this was removed by filtration, the filtrate was evaporated 
to a small bulk and poured into five times its volume of dilute hydrochloric 
acid. A viscous, yellow precipitate was thus obtained, which increased in 
quantity on standing; this was collected upon calico, and after being rinsed 
with cold, was digested with boiling water, the turbid, yellow liquid thus 
obtained contained resinous matter in suspension, but this was readily 

N. o. rutace^:. 257 

removed by means of ether. After boiling the clear aqueous solution, ex- 
cess of hydrochloric acid was added ; and on cooling, it deposited long, orange* 
colored needles, which were collected and washed with dilute HC1. To 
purify this product, it was dissolved in boiling dilute alkali, and the solution 
digested with animal charcoal, filtered, treated withHCl, and allowed to cool ; 
the yellow needles which separated were collected, washed with water, and 
allowed to dry at the ordinary temperature. The product weighed 0*35 grams. 

This product was identical with Berberine. 

The inner bark also contains a trace of Berberine. It contains also 
some quantity of a sticky, resinous product, which is insoluble in water or 
dilute acids, but readily soluble in ether, and appeared to be identical with 
the similar substance present in the yellow powder. 

The central woody portion of the root yielded no Berberine. 

-J. Ch. S. 1895 T 413. 

229. Skimmia laureola, Hook. /., h.f.b.i., i. 499. 

Syn. : — Limonia Laureola, Wall. 

Vern. : — Ner ; barru ; shalangli (Pb.) ; chumloni (Nepal) ; 
Limburnyok (Lepcha). 

Habitat : — Throughout the temperate Himalaya, from 
Murree to Mishmi and Khasia Mountains. In Dun Hills, a 
common undershrub. 

An extremely aromatic, gregarious, evergreen shrub, glabrous 
wholly, often a small tree in Sikkim. Branched from the base. 
Branches and foliage very bright green, 3-5ft. high. Wood 
close-grained, white, soft, with distinct white concentric white 
lines. Wood has an aromatic scent when fresh cut. Bark thin, 
bluish grey. Leaves alternate, simple, quite entire, midrib 
prominent, Exceedingly variable in size, oblong-linear, elliptic- 
lanceolate, or obovate-obtuse, acute or cordate-acuminate, 3-7in. 
long, softly coriaceous, nerves indistinct ; petiole short, stout. 
Panicles terminal, short, dense-flowered, branched. Females 
smaller. Bracts and 2 bracteoles deciduous. Flowers 5-merous, 
about Jin. diam., yellowish white, inodorous, shortly pedi- 
celled. Sepals small. Petals oblong or obtuse ; filaments 
stout, subulate. Ovary ovoid, minute, conic, 4- cleft in male 
flowers ; style 1. 

Fruit J-fin. long, ellipsoid, red, fleshy. Seeds 1-3. Em- 
bryo green. Kanjilal says the odour of the musk-deer is 
propularly supposed to be derived from it, 


Very similar to the Japanese 8. Japonica, Thumb., but the flowers are 
4-merous in that species. 

A poisonous alkaloid, Skimmianine, has been found to be present in all 
parts of Skimmia Japonica, but most abundantly in the leaves. .It was 
isolated from the latter by extracting with 96 per cent, alcohol. Skimmiunine, 
32 H 29 9 N 3 , crystallises from alcohol, in yellow, four-sided prisms, melts at 
175* 5,° and is readily soluble in chloroform or alcohol, moderately so in methyl 
alcohol, very sparingly so in ether, atnyl alcohol, or carbon disulphide, and 
insoluble in water or light petroleum. All the solutions are neutral to 
litmus. The solutions of the base are almost tasteless, but those of the salts 
are very bitter. 

Injection of skimmianine into the femoral lymphatics of Rana eseulenta 
or Rana temporaria affects the appearance of the muscles at the place of 
application, and renders them stiff and brittle. The neighbouring muscles 
are also affected by larger doses. Voluntary motion becomes sluggish, the 
breathing superficial, and the pupils contract. Reflex sensibility appeared 
as a rule to increase only in the case of Rana eseulenta. The absolute 
strength, and the work performed by the muscles, were apparently dimi- 
nished. The alkoloid has probably a direct action on the muscles of the 
heart, decreasing the pulsations and causing disturbance of the diastole. The 
pulse is similarly affected, even when atropine has been previously adminis- 
tered. Intravenous injection, in the case of rabbits, causes general symptoms 
of poisoning. Slight poisoning is accompanied by feeble spasms. The pressure 
of the blood falls even when chloral has been administered, but after a time 
it increases again, probably owing to the compensating contraction of the 
peripheral vessels. Skimmianine has no effect on the secretion of urine. 

(I.Honda Chem Centr. 1904. II., 15-11-1512) 

J. Oh. S. LXXXV11I., pt II., p. 152. 

It is probable that the same alkaloid is also present in the 
Indian species, which deserves careful examination. At my re- 
quest, Mr. Satis Chandra Deb, M.A , Professor of Chemistry, Muir 
Central College, Allahabad, analysed the leaves of the plant, from 

which he obtained an alkaloid, but it was not in sufficiently large 
quantity to determine its nature. B.D B. 

230. Acronychia laurifolia, Bhune. h.f.b.i., i. 498. 

Vern. -. — (Sinhalese) Akenda. 

Habitat : — Sikkim Himalaya, in hot valleys; Khasia Mountains* 
Assam ; Chittagong ; Eastern Peninsula ; Western Peninsula, 
on the Ghats, from Concan to Travancore. Ce}don, moist regions, 
from sea-level up to 5,000ft. ; common in Malaya and Cochin- 

N. 0. RUTACE.E. 2o9 

A small tree, with pale, smooth bark ; young twigs glabrous. 
Wood close-grained, rather hairy, yellowish white. Leaves 
opposite or some alternate, 3-5in., oval or oblong-oval, acute at 
base, usually shortly acuminate, obtuse, entire, glabrous and 
shining, especially above, dark green ; petioles about Jin. 
Flowers pale, yellowish green ; about fin., on rather long pedicels, 
loosely arranged in pyramidal divaricate, corymbose Cymes on 
long, straight, axillary peduncles. Calyx-lobes short, broad ; 
petioles fin., strap-shaped, acute, inflexed at tip, hairy within 
the base, supersistent ; stamens shorter than petals, 4, inner 
shorter, filament slightly dilated at base ; disk tomentose, ovary 
tomentose, style very short ; fruit nearly globular, harder in 
centre, but with no distinct stone, 4-celled. 

Uses: — According to Dr. Trimen, the bark is used in Ceylon 
as an external application to sores and ulcers. The whole plant, 
says he, when bruised, has a warm terebinthinate scent. 

The leaves have an orange-like smell when crushed, and 
are burnt near small-pox patients, with a view to curative 
effects (Stewart). 

231. Murraya Koenigii, Spreng, e.f.b.i., i. 503. 
Syn. :— Bergera Koenigii, Linn. Roxb. 362. 
Sans. : — Surabhi-nimbu ; Paribadhra. 

Vern. :— Harri, Katnim (H.) ; Barsinga (B.) ; Gandla, gandi, 
bovvala (Pb.) ; (Guj and Porebunder) Kadhinimb, Kadu-pab, 
Jhirang (Bomb.) Kadhi-nimb ; Godanimb (Mar. and Bomb) ; 
Karee-pan, Karya-pan (Dec.) ; Karu-Veppilai, Karu-Vembu 
(Tarn.); Kari-vepa-chettu (Tel.); KariVempu, Mishta-Nimb (Tarn.) 
Karapincha (Sinhalese). 

Habitat : —Along the foot of the Himalayas, from Garwhal 
to Sikkim, Bengal, and southward to Travancore. 

A small, strong-smelling tree, deciduous in the hot season 
for a short time, umbrageous when in foliage, pubescent, nearly 
glabrous, unarmed. Bark thin grey or dark grey, with shallow 
netted fissures. Wood greyish white or pale brownish yellow, 
hard, close-grained, durable. Branches slender, young parts 


pubescent. Leaves 6-12in. long, imparipinnate, somewhat 
crowded, spreading. Rachis pubescent. Leaflets 16-25, shortly 
stalked, l-2in., oval or oblong-lanceolate, very oblique at base, 
slightly caudate ; obtuse or emarginate, irregularly crenate, 
smooth above, pubescent beneath, the lower ones smaller and 
more rotundate. Corymbs in terminal panicles, penduncled, 
many- flowered ; petiole about x a in. Flowers white, about Jinch, 
in much-branched, flattened tops ; " in corymbose terminal 
cymes," says Trimen. Bracts minute. Sepals small, acute, 
triangular, pubescent. Petals linear, oblong, erect, dotted with 
glands, glabrous, valvate. Stamens inserted on a fleshy disk. 
Filaments narrowed at top, ovary glabrous, without agynophore, 
2-celled, with 1 (rarely 2) ovules in each cell. Style long, 
stigma large. Berry f-fin., nearly glubular, apiculate, rough 
with glands, deep purple or black, when ripe, 2-seeded. The 
characteristic change in colour of the unripe berry from green 
to red, then purple, then black, when perfectly ripe, is very 

Parts used :— The bark, root and leaves. 

Uses : — The bark and root are used as stimulants by the 
native physicians. Externally, they are used to cure eruptions 
and the bites of poisonous animals. The green leaves are 
described to be eaten raw for the cure of dysentery ; they are 
also bruised and applied externally to cure eruptions (Roxb), 
An infusion of the toasted leaves is used to stop vomiting 
(Ainslie). In the Punjab, the leaves are applied to bruises 
(Stewart). In Bombay, the leaves are given in decoction with 
bitters as a febrifuge (Dymock.) The plant is noticed in the 
Indian Pharmacopoeia as having tonic and stomachic proper- 
ties. The root is slightly purgative (Watt). 

232. Limonia acidissima, Linn, h.f.b.l, 
i. 507. 

Syn. : — L. crennlata, Roxb. 364. 

Vern. : — Beli(H.}; Belsion (Chiitia Nagpur) ; Bhenta (Uriya); 

Keiri, Kara (Merwara); Ran limbu, naringi (Bomb,) Kawat, 
nai-bel (Mar.); Toralaga (Tel.); Nai-bel (Kan). 

N. 0. ROTAOEJE. 261 

Habitat : — Dry hills in various parts of India, N.W. Hima- 
laya ; in Simla an:l Kumaori ascending 4,000 ft. Monghyr hills 
in Behar ; Assam ; Western Peninsula, from the Bombay 
Ghats and Goromandel, southward. Yunan, J. Anderson. 

A spinous, glabrous shrub or small tree, with rigid flexuous, 
woody branches, spines J-lin. Leaves pinnate, l-4in. long ; 
leaflets petiole and rachis jointed, the former narrowly, the 
latter broadly winged. Leaflets 2-4 pair, sessile, opposite, obtuse, 
crenulate, l~2in., trapezoid-ovate, obtuse and notched at the tip, 
base cuneate, margins crenulate, nerves slender, reticulate. 
Racemes subumbellate, lin. long, pubescent, often leafy ; pedi- 
cels slender. Flowers tetramerous, ^in. diam., white, fragrant. 
Sepals small. Petals elliptic or oblong. Disk annular or 
columnar. Ovary 4-celied, cells 1-ovuled. Ovule pendulous in 
each cell. Berry globose, fin. diam., 1-4-seeded, very acid. 

Parts used : — The leaves, root and fruit. 

Uses : — The leaves are supposed to be a remedy for epilepsy ; 
the root is purgative, sudorific, and employed for the cure of 
colic and cardialgia. The dried fruit is tonic, diminishes in- 
testinal fermentation, has the power of resisting the contagion 
of small-pox, malignant and pestilent fevers, and is also con- 
sidered an excellent antidote to various poisons, on which ac- 
count it is much sought for, and forms an article of commerce 
with Arab and other merchants." (Rheede). 

Lisboa states that the berry is much used as a tonic in Mala- 
bar, and that its red-coloured mucilage is considered to be an 
antidote against snake-bite and the poisons of other venomous 

233. Luvanga scandens, Ham H. f. b. l, i. 509. 

Sansh. ; — Lavanga-lata. 

Habitat : — Eastern Bengal, Assam, the Khasia Mountains. 

A strong, climbing, annual, glabrous shrub, with woody flex- 
uous branches and strong axillary recurved spines. Leaves 
very variable, 3-foliate, thickly coriaceous ; petioles 2-5in., stout 


cylindric ; leaflets quite entire, 5-12in. oblong, elliptic-oblong, 
lanceolate or oblanceolate, tip rounded, acute or acuminate, 
shortly petioled ; nerves very faint, spreading. Cymes panicled 
or subracemose^ short, shortly peduncled, few-flowered. Flowers 
about Jin. diam., very fragrant, white. Calyx cup-shaped, 
entire or irregularly 4-6-lobed, with the margin truncate. 
Petals 4, fleshy (4-5, says Brandis), recurved, imbricate. 
Stamens 8-10, filaments sometimes united almost to the top, 
subulate, inserted round a cupular disk. Ovary 2-4-celled, style 
stout, deciduous ; ovules 2, superposed in each cell. Berry 
oblong, yellow when ripe, size of a pigeon's egg, rind smooth, 
thick, obscurely 3-lobed, pulp resinous, odoriferous. Seeds 1-3, 
pointed, ovoid ; cotyledons fleshy, albumen 0. 

Use : — The berries are used in preparing a perfumed medi- 
cinal oil (Kakkolaka), and are sold in the bazaars of Bengal 
under the name of Kakala ; they must not be confounded with 
Kshirakakkoli, a pseudo-bulb from Nepal, composed of from 8 
to 10 ovoid fleshy scales. Kakkola and Kshirakakkoli are 
chiefly of interest as being the only two constituents of the 
Ashta-varga or ' group of eight medicines,' which are known 
to the modern Hindus. The Sanskrit names of the other six 
plants are, Rishabha, Jivaka, Meda, Mahameda, Riddhi and 
Vriddhi. (Pharmacographia Indica, Vol I, 268). 

234. Paramignya monophylla, Wight. , H. f. b. l, 
i. 510. 

Vern. : — Kurwi Wageti ; Kari wageti, ranyid (Bomb and Goa): 
Nat-Kanta (Nepal); Jhunok (Lepcha.) 

Habitat : — Sikkim, Himalaya, Bhotan ; Khasia Mountains ; 
Western Peninsula ; the Western Forests, from the Concan 

A stout, climbing, evergreen, thorny shrub. Shoots densely 
pubescent, the older branches, with sharp recurved axillary 
spines |in. long. Bark white, corky, vertically cleft. Wood 
white, hard, close-grained. Leaves coriaceous, numerous, 2-4in-, 

N. 0. RUTACE/E. 263 

oval or oval-oblong, or lanceolate, rounded at base, obtuse or 
acute, entire or nearly so, glabrous, except the pubescent mid rib 
beneath ; conspicuously gland-dotted. Petiole Jin., twisted- 
Flowers fin., on short pubescent peduncle, 1-3 together in the 
axils. Calyx woolly-pubescent, lobes 5, shallow, rounded. Petals 
5, oblong-linear, recurved. Filaments hairy. Ovary 5-cellecl. 
Stigma large, capitate. Berry yellow, globose, pyriform, over 
lin. long, smooth. Seeds several, large, compressed (Trimen'. 

Rather common in the low country, Ceylon ; Sikkim, Bhutan 
Khasi Hills, Tenasserim, Western Ghats, South India. 
Darjeeling, N. E. Himalaya. 

Trimen gives Sinhalese name : — Wellangiriya. 

Part used : — The root. 

Use : — In the Concan, the root is given to cattle suffering 
from bloody urine, or bloody fluxes from the abdomen. When 
on a visit to Goa, I observed that the country people made use 
of the root as an alterative tonic (Dymock.) 

235. P. longispina. Hook. H. f. b. l, i. 511, 

Vern : — Ban Nimbu (Sundribuns). 

Habitat:— Eastern Sunderbuns, at Baniakhali (Prain) 

An erect, glabrous shrub. Branches stout ; spines long, 
straight, below petioles, opposite and alternate, sometimes 2in. 
long. Leaflets oblong, subacute, 3-4in., base cordate. Petiole 
very short. Flowers |in. long, solitary, small ; pedicels very 
short. Calyx-lobes obtuse, 5. Petals fin., broad, oblong, 
obtuse. Stamens 10, short, equal, glabrous, equalling the linear 
anthers. Anthers narrow, with a long apiculus. Style stout, 
cylindric ; ovary 3-4-celled, 4-ovuled, stipitate. Fruit a berry, 
3-4-angled, l-ljin. long, between globose and ovoid ; 3-4-celled. 
Ovules superposed in pair. Rind of fruit thick, coriaceous, 
glandular. Pulp 0. Seeds 2-4 in each cell ; oblong, com- 
pressed, narrowed at base into a short beak. 

Use : — Fruit used in cases of colic Prain's (Flora of the 
Sunderbuns, p. 291). 


236. Atlantia monophylla, Correa. h.f.b.l, i. 511. 

Syn. :— Limonia monophylla, Linn, Boxb. 363. 

Sans. :— Atavi-jambira. 

Vern. : — Makad-limbu (Mar.); Narguni (Uriya ; Adavi-nimma 
(TeL) Katbe-elumicbcbam-param, Katyalu iTam.); Kan-nimbe, 
adavi-nimba ^Kan.) ; Mal-naranga (Mai.) ; Jangli-nimbu (Dec); 
Matangnar (S. Konkan.) 

Habitat : — Sylhet at the foot of the Khasia Mountains; 
throughout the Western Peninsula, from Konkan and Coro- 
mandal southwards. Ceylon, not uncommon towards the north 
of the Island ; in dry regions common. Tamil name in 
Ceylon :— Perunkuruntu (Trimen). 

A small tree or shrub, with numerous rigid branches, the 
elder ones armed with short spines, young parts glabrous. 
Wood very hard and heavy, close-grained, yellow. Leaves 
lJ-Sin. ; rhomboid-lanceolate, acute at base, obtuse, deeply 
notched at apex, glabrous, thick- veiny ; petiole short, slightly 
pubescent, with one or two linear or setaceous, stipular scales at 
base. Flowers Jin., rather crowded in axillary umbels or 
corymbs. Pedicels Jin., glabrous, bracts small, ciliate. Calyx 
glabrous, irregularly split to base. Petals white obovate-oblong, 
obtuse, recurved. Stamens 8 ; filaments completely connate 
into a long tube and sometimes adnate to petals at base ; anthers 
broadly ovoid ; ovary oblong, glabrous, 4-celled, style short, no 
gynophore. Berry globular-ovoid, iin., with a long apiculus, 
4-celled, 4-seeded. 

Uses: — " The berries of this yield a warm oil which is, in 
native medicine, considered as a valuable application in chronic 
rheumatism and paralysis (Ainslie.) 

In the Concan, the leaf juice is an ingredient in a compound 
liniment used in hemiplegia (Dymogk.) 

237. Citrus meclica, Linn, h.f.b.l, l 514. 

Habitat : — Valleys along the foot of the Himalaya, from 
Garhwal to Sikkim ; the Khasia Mountains, Garrow Mountains, 

N. O RUTACE/E. 265 

Chittagong, the Western Ghats, and Satpura range in Central 

A shrub or small tree, flowering and fruiting at most 
seasons growing where, says J. D. Hooker, I found it on 
steep hill-sides (in Sikkim). Young shoots glabrous, purple. 
Leaflets glabrous, 3-Gin., elliptic ovate or ovate-lanceolate ; 
petiole naked or winged. Flowers 6-10in., a raceme, small or 
middle-side, often unisexual. Stamens 20-40 ; petals generally 
more or less pink. Fruit globose, ovoid, or oblong, often mamil- 
late at the apex. The stam'ens are 25-55, says Brandis. Brandis 
found it, says he, (1) apparently wild in the outer valleys of 
Kumaon (1875) ; {2) in the outer valleys of Sikkim (1879) ; 

(4) Damrahal, Garo Hills (1879), a tree of 6ft. girth, 40ft. high; 

(5) upper Yunzalim Valley above Lomatee, in swamps and near 
streams (1880). Reported to be wild in the Eastern Dun, on 
the Satpura Hills and the Western Ghats in the Bombay 
Presidency (Talbot), Chitagong and on the Khasi Hills (H. K. 
and W.). 

Of the more cultivated forms may be mentioned the 
following four varieties :-— 

Var. 1 C. medica proper, the Citron. Var. II. C. Limo- 
num, the Lemon. Var. III. 0. Acida, the sour lime of India. 
Var. IV. O. Limetta, the Sweet Lime of India. 

Variety I. C. Medica proper, the Citron. Boxb. 590. Leaflet 
oblong, petiole short, margined or not, flowers usually numerous ; 
fruit larger oblong or ovoid, or irregularly shaped, mamilla 
obtuse, rind usually wartecl, thick, tender; very aromatic, bitter, 
scanty subacid pulp. 

Sans. : — Matulunga ; phala pura ; bega pura. 

Vern. : — Bijaura ; limbu ; Kutla ; baranimbu (H.); Beg-pura ; 
lebu ; nebu ; bijaura; honsa nebu (B.); Bajauri nimbu (Pb).; 
Bijoru; turanj ; balank (Guz.); Bijapura ; mahalunga ; bijori ; 
binu (Roxb) ; Mahalung (M.) ; Turanj (Dec.) ; Elumich cham- 
pazham ; narttam pazhain (Tarn.) ; Nimma pandu ; naradabba 
(Tel.); Nimbe hanu ; limbu (Kan.) 

Pai'ts used : — The rind, pulp, seeds and leaves. 



Uses :— -Citron rind is hot, dry, and tonic ; the pulp cold and 
dry ; the seeds, leaves and flowers hot and dry ; the juice refri- 
gerant and astringent. According to Theophrastus, the fruit 
is an expellent of poisons. It also corrects foetid breath 
(Drury.) The distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative 
(Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1874, p. 623). 

The rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic. 
It is made into a preserve and is used for dysentery (Watt.) 
Var. II. C. Limonum. The Lemon, 

Verm. : — Jambira ; bara nimbu; pahari nimbu ; pahari- 
Kaghzi (H. and Dec); Kama nebu ; gora nebu ; bara nebu 
(B.); kimti ; gulgul ; khutta (Pb.); Meta limbu ; motu-limbu ; 
Motu nimbu (Guz.) ; Thorla-limbu (Mar.); Periya-elumich- 
cham-pazham (Tam.); Pedda-nimma-pandu (Tel.); Dodda-nimbe- 
hanun (Kan.) 

Habitat : — Cultivated in India. 

Leaflet ovate, petiole margined or winged, fruit middle-sized, 
ovoid, yellow, nobbed or mamiliate, rind thin, pulp abundant, 
very acid. 

Officinal Parts : — -1. The outer part of the rind of the ripe 
fruit (Limonis Gortex) ; 2 The essential oil of the rind (Limo- 
nis Oleum) ; and 3. The expressed juice of the ripe fruit 
(Limonis Saeeus.) 

Properties of the Bind. — Stomachic and carminative. 

Therapeutic Uses. — Similar to those of Cortex Aurantii 
(ante); it is, however, principally employed as a flavouring 

Oil of Lemon {Oleum Limonis). Obtained either by distil- 
lation or by simple expression of the finely grated rind. 

It is carminative in closes of from two to four drops, but is 
rarely employed in this character. It forms an ingredient in 
Spiritus Ammoniac Aromaticus, and in Linimentum Potassii 
Iodidi cum Sapone. It has been used as a local application 
in some forms of ophthalmia, but with doubtful results. 
Lemon oil mixed with glycerine is applied to the eruption of 
acne (Watt.) 

N. O. RUTACE2E. 267 

Lemon Juice (Sueeus Limonis.) — The expressed strained juice 
of the ripe fruit. 

Lemon juice contains citric acid, in the proportion of about 
32 grains to each fluid ounce, with mucilage and extractive. 
To prevent its undergoing decomposition, which it is apt to 
do by keeping, a proportion of about 10 per cent, of spirits 
of wine or strong brandy may be added, and the mucilage 
separated by filtration. Another effectual plan is to allow the 
juice to stand for a sliort time after expression, till the coagula- 
able matter separates, then to filter and put into bottles, with 
a stratum of almond or other sweet oil upon its surface. 

Properties. — Valuable anti-scorbutic and refrigerant ; pri- 
marily, anti-alkaline ; secondarily, antacid. 

Therapeutic Uses. — In scurvy, it is one of the best remedies 
we possess, both as a prophylactic and as a curative. In 
febrile and inflammatory affections, the diluted juice, sweetened, 
forms an excellent refrigerant drink. In acute rheumatism and 
rheumatic gout, in some forms of acute tropical dysentery and 
diarrhoea, &c, it has been successfully employed. As an anti- 
dote to some acro-narcotic poisons, it often proves effectual. 
Lemon juice and gun powder used topically for scabies. — Ph. I. 

The bark of the root has been used in the West Indies as 
a febrifuge and the seeds as a vermifuge (Watt.) 

A decoction of the lemon, reported by Dr. Aitken of Rome 
is said to be a very valuable remedy in the treatment of ague 
(B. M. J. Oct. 4, 1884). 

' Var. III. C. acida. The sour Lime of India. 

According to Bonavia (Oranges and Lemons of India, p. 24G), 
it is more probable that this has descended from C, Hystrix of 
Kurz than from the C medica of Linnaeus. 

For figures, see Bonavia's work Plates 238 and 239. 

Syn. : — C. acida, Roxb. 589., 

V em. : — Lebu ; nebu ; nimbu ; kagugi-nebu (B.) ; Nimbu ; 
khatta-nimbu (Pb.<; Khata limbu (Guz.); Limbu (Mar.); Limun 
nibu (Dec.) ; elu-mich-cham-pazham ; elemitchum ; elimichum ; 


elimichura pullam (Tam.); Nimma-pandu ; nemmapundii (Tel.) 
Nimbe hannu (Kan.). 

Habitat : — Wild in the warm valleys of the outer Hima- 
layas. Cultivated all over India. 

Leaflet elliptic-oblong, petiole many times shorter than the 
leaflet, linear or obovate, racemes short, flowers small, petals 
usually 4, fruit usually small, globose or ovoid, with a thick or 
thin rind, pulp pale, sharply acid. 

Part used : — The juice. 

Use : — Native practitioners consider lime-juice to have 
virtues in checking bilious vomiting, and believe that it is 
powerfully refrigerant and antiseptic (Ainslie.) 

Fresh lime-juice often proves effectual in relieving the irri- 
tation and swelling caused by mosquito-bites (Dr. Thornton 
in Watt's Dictionary.) 

Var. IV. C. limetta, B.C. h.f.b.l, i. 515. 

Sans. : — Madhu Karkatika. 

Vern. :— Mitha nebu ; nembu ; mitha amritphal (H.); Mitha 
nebu(B); Mitha-nimbu (Pb.); Mitha limbu (Guz.); elemitcuhm 
(Tam. ; Nemma-pandu ; gajanimma 'Tel.). Eriimitchi narracum 
(Mai.). Sakar-Nimbu (Marathi ; Bombay}. 

Habitat: — Cultivated in most parts of India. 

Leaves and flowers as in Var. acida ; fruit globose, 3-5in, 
diam., rind very thin, smooth, adherent'to the pulp. Flowers pure 
white, at times tinged pink. The pulp is never acid, even in 
early stages of the fruit. Juice sweet, abundant, refreshing, " not 
aromatic," say Brandis and Hooker. I find it slightly aromatic 
with the faint flavour of the rose as grown in the Bombay and 
Dekkan gardens. (K. R. K.). 

Use : — Extensively used as refrigerant in fever and jaundice 

238. 0. aurantium, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 515, 

Habitat : — Hot valleys along the foot of the Himalaya and 
from Garwhal eastwards to Sikkim and in the Khasia Mountains ; 
Manipur; mountain forests in the Peninsula. 

N. 0. RUTACEJE. 269 

An arboreous, rarely shrubby, small, slender tree ; young 
shoots glabrous, greenish-white. Leaves glabrous, 3-6in., 
elliptic or ovate, acuminate ; pstioles naked or winged ; wings 
often obovate, as large as the blade or nearly so. Flowers 
pure white, scented more or less ; bisexual. Stamens 15-30. 
Fruit globose, often depressed, 2in. diam., generally oblate, 
not mammillate. 

Of the more commonly cultivated forms are : — 

Var. I. Aurantium proper. C. Aurantium, Linn, h.f.b.l, 
i. 515 ; Eoxb. 590. The Sweet Orange. Petiole naked or winged, 
pulp sweet, rind yellow, rarely red in India. 

Sans. : — Nagaranga. 

Vern. : — Narangi ; Santara (H.); Kamala nebu ; narangi (B.); 
Suntala (Uriya) ; Narangi (Guz. and Mar) ; Kichilli ; chechu ; 
colluiagie pull am (Tarn.); Ganjanimma ; naranga pandu (Tel.)/ 
Kithaboippe (Kan.); Mahura-naranna (Mai.) 

Habitat : — Cultivated in India. 

Parts used : — The rind and flowers. 

Uses : — The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit pos- 
sesses stomachic and tonic properties. It is useful in atonic 
dyspepsia, and general debility. * * The water distilled from 
orange flowers is employed, in one or two fluid ounces, as an 
antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases 
(Ph. Ind.) 

The Mahomedan writers describe the rind and flowers as 
hot and dry, the pulp cold and dry, and recommend the fruit in 
colds and coughs, when febrile symptoms are present. The 
juice is valuable in bilious affections, and stops bilious diarrhoea. 
* * The peel is useful for checking vomiting, and the preven- 
tion of intestinal worms. Orange poultice is recommended in 
some skin affections, such as psoariasis, &c. Oranges are con- 
sidered to be alexipharmic and disinfectant ; orange- water 
stimulating and refreshing. The essence is extracted by oil 
from the rind and flowers, and is used as a stimulating liniment 


" The fresh rind of the fruit is rubbed on the face by people 
suffering from acne" (Dr. Gray). "If the rind be mixed 
with a little water, and then rubbed on a part affected with 
eczema, much relief will be derived" (Dr. Wilson; — Watt's 

Var. IE G. Bigaradia, Brandis. (The bitter or Saville 
orange), Petiole usually winged, flowers larger and more strongly 
scented, rind very aromatic, pulp bitter. 

The Bitter or Seville Orange. Does not seem to be 
cultivated in India, except in gardens. 

Var. III. C. Bergamia. 

The Bergamotte Orange. 
Sans. : — Jambira-phalam, 

VertL :'— - Limun ; nibu (H.); Nebu (B.) elumich-cham-pazham 
(Tam.i; Nimma-pandu (Tel.); Cheru-narnna (Kan.). 
Habitat : — Rarely cultivated in India. 

Flowers small, very sweet-scented, fruit globose or pyriform, 
pleasant aroma. 

Part used :— The juice. 

Use : — The juice of the fruit possesses properties similar to 
those of lemon juice. It is often preferred to lemon juice, as 
the fresh juice can be readily obtained in all parts of the tro- 
pics, and as the preserved lemon juice is less effectual. It is 
useful as a refrigerant drink in small-pox, measles, scarlatina 
and other forms of fever. It may also be taken with advantage 
in cases of haemorrhage from the lungs, stomach, bowels, 
uterus, kidneys, and other internal organs (Waring's Bazaar 

Note. — In the common sweet orange, the skin, peel or rind 
lightly adheres to the pulp. The Nagpur Santra is characteristi- 
cally loose-skinned. It is grown in many places in Bombay, 
Poona, Aurangabad, throughout India and Burma ; on a large 
scale in the valley above Chelu, below Cherra Punji, and at 
other places on the south of the Khasi Hills, where the fruit 
ripens in autumn. 

N. 0. RUTACEiE. 271 

In Nagpur, the santras yield two crops in the year, the 
first crop from November to January, and the second in March 
and April (Brandis). 

239. — C. deeurnana, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 516. 
The Pomelo or Shaddock-Pumel. 

Vern. : — Mahanibu ; chakotra ; batavi nebu ; Sadaphal (H.); 
Batavi nebu ; maha nembu ; chakotra ; bator-nebu. (B.); chakotra 
(Pb.) ; Bijoro (Sind.) ; Oba Kotru (Guz) ; Panas Popnas (Bomb.), 
Papnassa ; 6 pappanassa (Mar.); Bombalinas (Tarn.); Edapandu 
(Tel.); Sakotra hannu (Kan.). 

Habitat : — Cultivated in India. 

An evergreen tree, 30-40ft. The trees very seldom reach 
higher than 10ft. in Bombay as grafts from " Goti," Bark 
thick ; young shoots pubescent. Leaflets large, ovate-oblong, 
6-9in., frequently emarginate, pubescent beneath, petiole 
broadly winged. Flowers large, white, highly odorous, the scent 
most delicate and delicious forming the " Neroli Water " very 
largely used by the European Jews of Bombay and obtained 
from Asiatic Turkey, probably Baghdad or Basorah. Stamens 
16-24. Fruit often very large, even larger than a man's head ; 
pale yellow when ripe, with juicy vesicles pink or crimson or 
pale rosy inside, in great abundance in each carpel, sweet or acid, 
slightly bitter in some varieties. Vesicle of pulp distinct. The 
vesicular pulp is not by any means acrid, as Hooker remarks, 
but aeid. The rind of the fruit is spongy, and the epicarp of 
it aromatic ; it is used by some Europeans in Bombay for 
making " Bitters," like Angustura bitters for mixing drops of 
it with sherry as a drink before dinner (K. R. K.). 

Parts used : — The fruit and leaves. 

Use : —The fruit is nutritive and refrigerant. It contains 
sugar and citric acid, with much essential oil in the peel. The 
leaves are said to be useful in epilepsy, chorea and convulsive 
cough (Punjab Products). 

In Brazil, " a gum which exudes in quantity from this tree 
when it begins to decay, probably in consequence of the attack 


of insect^ is used as a remedy for coughs. Ph. J. 27th Decem- 
ber, 1884. 

240. Feronia elephantum, Gorrea, h.f.b.l, 
i. 516, Eoxb. 

Sans, : — Kapitha, kapi-priya. 

Vera. : — Kaith-bilin, kat-bel 3 kavitlia (EL); Kath-bel B.j; 
Kainta, kouch-bel (Santal.); Koeta (Uriya) ; Katori, kavatha 
(Sind.); Kawat, kavith (Mar.) ; Kotha, kavit (Guz.j ; Vilam, 

vallanga, vela, kavit, kaist (Tarn.); Velaga, elaka, yellanga, 
kapitr (Tel,); Bilwar, byala da nannu, belada, bel (Kan.); 
Vilam (Mai.) ; Diwal (Sinhalese),; Vila, villate, Meladik-kuruntu 

Tamil v Ceylon. 

Habitat : — Throughout India in dry situations Java and 

Ceylon, very common in the dry region. 

A large glabrous, deciduous tree, armed with strong 
straight axillary thorns. Bark dark or nearly black. Wood 
yellowish or greenish-white, hard : pores small or moderate-sized, 
ringed, subdivided or in small patches, often filled with resin. 
Medullary rays short, white, prominent, moderately broad. 
Annual rings marked by a white line, and the fewer pores of 
the autumn wood (Gamble). The tree yields a gum similar to 
gum arabic. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate ; leaflets opposite 
1-4 pair, cuneate or obovate, crenate at tip ; common petiole 
often narrow winged. Flowers dull red, generally unisexual, 
in lax panicles, male and bisexual flowers frequently on the 
same inflorescence. Stamens 10-12, filaments short, subulate, 
from a broad villous base. Fruit globose, gray, covered with 
brownish fluff, in small chaff-like pieces, rough, 2-3in. diain. 
(often more especially in the Ceylon fruit upto 4 in. K. R. K.), 
rind hard, woody. Seeds numerous, oblong, embedded in fleshy 
edible acid, aromatic pulp. Flowers (from February to April), 
pale green, stained with red purple. Anthers dark red. 

Parts used : — The fruit, gum, leaves, bark and pulp. 

Uses : — The fruit is aromatic and used as a stomachic and 
stimulant in diseases of children. The gum, resembling gum- 
arabic, acts as a demulcent in bowel affections. " The unripe 

ft. 0. RUTACE.E. Zl6 

fruit is described as astringent, and is used in combination with 
beta and other medicines in diarrhoea and dysentery. The 
ripe fruit is said to be useful in hiccup and affections of the 
throat. The leaves are aromatic and carminative" (U. C. 

In Mahomedan medical works the leaves are described as 
astringent, the fruit as " cold and dry, refreshing, astringent, 
cordial, and tonic, a useful remedy in salivation and sore throat, 
strengthening the gums and acting as an astringent. Sherbet 
made from the fruit increases the appetite, and has alexipharmic 
properties. The pulp, applied externally, is a remedy for the 
bites of venomous insects ; if not obtainable, the powdered rind 
may be used" (Dymock.) 

Is sometimes used to adulterate Bael fruit. 

" The leaves are aromatic and carminative, and have the 
odour of anise ; prescribed by native practitioners in the indi- 
gestions and slight bowel affections of children" (Ainslie.) 

" The bark is said to be sometimes prescribed for bilious- 
ness" (Watt). 

241. Mgle Marmelos, (lorrea, h.f.b.i., I. 516 
lloxb. 428. 

Sails. : — Bilva. 

Vern :-- Bel, sriphal (H.) ; Bel (B.) ; Bil, bel (Mar. & Guz.) ; 
Bila, katori (Sind.); Lohagasi (Kol.) ; Awretpang (Magh.); Vilva- 
pazham, Vilvam Tamil ; (Sinhalese) ; Beli (Tarn.) ; Mareclu, 
maluramu, bilva-pandu, patir (Tel.) ; Maika, maliaka (Goncl.) ; 
Kiivalap-pazham (Mai.) ; Bilapatri (Kan.) 

Habitat: — Sub-Himalayan forests, from the Jhelum east- 
ward, Central and South India. Ceylon (cultivated.) 

A large or middle-sized tree, deciduous, glabrous, armed 
with axillary, straight, sharp, spines lin. long. Branches spiny. 
" Bark, Jin. thick, outer substance soft, grey, exfoliating in 
irregular flakes. Wood yellowish white, or greyish-white, hard, 
with a strong aromatic scent when fresh cut; no heartwood. 


Pores small, ringed, in small groups of two or three toge- 
ther, sometimes, but not always, more numerous, in the 
Autumn wood. Medullary rays wavy, fine, short, white, numer- 
ous, uniform and equidistant. Annual rings marked by dis- 
tant lines, and often by a continuous belt of pores (Gamble.) 
Leaves alternate, trifoliate. Leaflets 3 generally, some- 
times 5 ; ovate-lanceolate, crenate, lateral sessile, terminal, long- 
petioled. Flowers ljin. diam., bisexual, 4-5-merous, greenish- 
white, in short lateral panicles, with a fine, sweet, honey scent. 
Pedicels and Calyx pubescent. Calyx flat, teeth small ; Petals 
imbricate ; Stamens numerous, filaments short, sometimes fasci- 
cled (J. D. Hooker), anthers linear (Brandis.) Fruit 4-6in. diam., 
globose mostly ; rind smooth grey or yellow. J. D. Hooker says 
the fruit is oblong to pyriform. The tree is very common 
in Western India. I have not seen the fruit in any of the 
two latter shapes (K. R. Kirtikar.) Seeds numerous, oblong, 
flat ; testa densely clothed with thick fibrous hairs, in a thick 
orange-coloured, sweet, aromatic, gelatinous pulp. 

Parts used :— The fruit (both ripe and unripe), root bark, 
leaves, rind of the ripe fruit and flowers. 

Uses : —In medicine it is used in various ways : — 

(a) The unripe fruit is cut up and sun-dried, and in this 
form is sold in the bazaars in dried whole or broken slices. It is 
regarded as astringent, digestive and stomachic, and is pres- 
cribed in diarrhoea and dysentry, often proving effectual in 
chronic cases, after all other medicines have failed. It seems 
especially useful in chronic diarrhoea ; a simple change of the 
hours of meals and an alteration in the ordinary diet, combined 
with bael fruit, will almost universally succeed. 

The value of the fruit as a cure for dysentery is when 
it is unripe. (K. R. Kirtikar.) 

(b) The ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling ; and, 
made into a morning sherbet, cooled with ice, is pleasantly 
laxative and a good simple cure for dyspepsia. The dried ripe 
pulp is astringent and used in dysentery. 

(c) The root bark is sometimes made into a decoction and 

N. 0. RUTACE^. 275 

used in the cure of intermittent fever. It constitutes an ingre- 
dient in the dasamul or ten roots. "Used on the Malabar Coast 
in hypochondriasis, melancholia, and palpitation of the heart." 

(d) The leaves are made into poultice, used in the treat- 
ment of ophthalmia, and the fresh juice diluted is praised in 
catarrhs and feverishness. 

(e) The astringent rind of the ripe fruit is used in dyeing 
and tanning. It is also sometimes used medicinally, 

The expressed juice of the leaves is used in ophthalmia 
and other eye affections. In Malabar a decoction of the leaves 
is valued in asthmatic complaints. A hot poultice to the head 
is used in delirium of fevers. 

A water, distilled from the flowers, is said to be alexiphar- 

A decoction of the root of lEgle Marmelos is given with 
sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhoea and gastric irrita- 
bility in infants. 

" The fresh juice of the leaves is given, with the addition 
of black pepper, in anasarca, with, costiveness and jaundice. In 
external inflammations, the juice of the leaves is given internally 
to remove the supposed derangement of humours" (U. K. 

" The Mahomedans consider the ripe fruit to be hot and 
dry, the very young fruit to be cold in the second degree, and 
the half-ripe fruit cold in the first and dry in the second degree ; 
its properties are described in the Makhzan-el-Adioiya as car- 
diacal, restorative, tonic and astringent ; it is directed to be 
combined with sugar for administration to prevent its giving 
rise to piles. * ® * In the Concan the small unripe fruit is 
given with fennel seeds and ginger, in decoction, for piles. 
•:•:- * -:•:- ^wo t i as f the juice of the bark is given with a little 
cummin in milk as a remedy for poverty of the seminal fluid" 

" The pulp of the unripe fruit is soaked in gingelly oil for 
a week, and this oil, smeared over the body before bathing, to 


remove the peculiar burning sensation in the soles of the feet, so 

common amongst natives" (Dr. John Lancaster.) 

" Used in chronic gonorrhoea, when the pulp of the fresh 
fruit is mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder. 
Supposed to act as diuretic and astringent on the mucous 
membranes of the generative organs" (Dr. Fitzpatrick.) 

" The leaves are very efficacious when pounded into a 
pulp without any admixture of water, and applied cold in the 
form of a poultice to unhealthy ulcers" (Asst. -Surgeon A. C. 

li The fresh juice of the leaves acts as a mild laxative in 
cases of fever and catarrh, and has probably the effect of remedy- 
ing these conditions" (Asst. -Surgeon Doyal Ch. Shome). 

" The decoction of the leaves is used as a febrifuge and 
expectorant " (Asst.-Surgn — N. L. Ghose.) 

"The juice of the fresh leaves has a laxative action." 
(Surgn. K. D. Ghose.) 

" The root is said to be an antidote against poisonous 
snakebite." (Surgn, Meadows.) Watt's Dictionary. 

In the Pharmaeopceia of India, the half-ripe fruit is officinal. 

The value of Bael in intestinal affections, though noticed by 
Rheede (Eort. Malab., vol. iif, p. 37), Burman (Flor. Tnd. Ed. 
1768, p. 109), and other old writers, attracted little notice till 
1853, when Sir Ranald Martin (Lancet, 1853, vol. ii., p. 53) called 
the attention of the profession to it. Dr. J. Shortt and Dr. J. 
Newton, as the result of their respective personal experience, 
report very favourably of its action in dysentery. According to 
Dr. J. A. Green, a sherbet of the ripe fruit, taken every morning, 
proves serviceable in the dyspepsia of Europeans, when accom- 
panied by obstinate constipation and flatulence. He adds that 
the unripe fruit baked for six hours is a powerful astringent, 
and as such is used by the natives in dysentery. Dr. B. Bose 
advocates the daily use of a sherbet of this fruit during 
cho 1 era epidemics as a prophylactic. At such seasons it is 
doubtless of service to regulate the bowels carefully, avoiding 
either constipation or purgation. Dr. G. Bidie (Madras Quart. 

N. 0. RUTACE.E. 277 

Journ. of Med., 1862, vol. v., p. 44) states that the fruit of 
Feronia elepliantum , or Wood-apple, which bears a general 
resemblance to Bael, is often substituted for it in hospital 
supplies, and being comparatively useless has induced many to 
treat the Bael with neglect. The fullest account of its properties 
and uses is by Dr. A. Grant (Indian Ann. of Med. Sei. 1854, vol. 
ii., p. 224)— Ph. Ind. 

" Physiological Actions. — The pulp is stimulant, stomachic, 
antipyretic, antiscorbutic, and possesses a beneficial influence 
over the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal." 

" Therapeutic Uses. — The pulp of the fruit has proved 
very useful in my bands in dysentery, diarrhoea, aphtha?, land- 
scurvy and some continued fevers. I have generally used it in 
the forms of powder and syrup. The pulp of the ripe fruit is 
more suited for the syrup, and that of the half-ripe for the 
powder. The powder, again, is more useful in acute diseases, 
and the syrup in the chronic. In acute dysentery, the powder 
is required to be employed in much larger doses than in any 
other disease. The first good effect of the powder in acute 
dysentery is generally the disappearance of blood and a pro- 
portionate increase of the faeculent matter in evacuations. In 
fact, the powder seems to have more power in altering the 
nature of the dysenteric motions than in reducing their number. 
To check the frequency of evacuations, the powder generally 
requires the combination of opiates or some other astringent 
medicines. The powder and syrup, particularly the former, are 
also very useful in relieving the febrile condition in some forms 
of continued fever, including the hectic and typhoid. The 
abnormal temperature is reduced under its use in a remarkable 
manner and deserves particular attention. 

"Preparations. — Powder and Syrup. — Powder: The pulp 
being first prepared and dried in the manner described below, 
is reduced to a fine powder in the usual way and kept in 
a closed vessel. Syrup : Take of the dry pulp, five ounces ; 
soak it in two pints of water for a few hours or till it becomes 
soft ; rub it well with the hand and strain the liquid through 
cloth up to one pint ; add to the latter fifteen ounces of refined 


sugar, and heat it till it acquires the consistency of a thick 
syrup. When the syrup is prepared from the pulp of the large 
or cultivated variety of bael-fruit, the quantity of sugar required 

is only ten ounces. 

" Doses. — Of the powder, as a remedy in dysentery, from 
twenty to forty-five grains ; and for all other purposes, from ten 
to twenty grains ; four, five or six times in the twenty-four 
hours. Of the syrup, from four fluid drachms to one fluid ounce 
every third or fourth hour. The small or common variety of 
bael fruit being, as a medicine, stronger than the larger or 
cultivated variety, the dose of its powder should always be less 
than that of the latter by one-third. . 

" Remarks. — There are two varieties of Male Marmelos, 
the small or common, and the large or cultivated. There is no 
distinct difference between the medical properties of both varie- 
ties, except that the fruit of the small or common variety, which 
is described in every botanical work in this country, is much 
stronger, as a drug, than that of the large or cultivated variety. 
The large or cultivated variety differs from the small or com- 
mon one in the following points : — 

(C Generally free from spines ; leaflets broadly and abruptly 
acuminate, instead of oblong or broadly lanceolate, and when 
bruised, have an agreeable and aromatic odor ; fruit eatable 
and delicious when quite ripe, almost invariably globular, 
generally two or three times larger than that of the small or 
common variety, and sometimes attains the size of a small 
child's head. 

" The pulp of the ripe and half-ripe fruit of both varieties 
is the best and most useful part of the plant for medicinal pur- 
poses. The pulp should be removed from the rind before the 
fruit is dry, cut into small pieces and dried in the sun. The pulp 
of the ripe fruit of the large variety is, first, of flesh color, but 
gradually becomes dark-brown ; it has an agreeable and aroma- 
tic odour and a terebinthinate and sweetish taste. It is not 
destroyed by keeping. However old it may be, if soaked in 
water for some hours, it becomes as soft as it is when fresh, and 
still retains its characteristic smell and taste. 

N. 0. RUTA0E.E. 


" From its greater abundance and cheapness, the Wood-apple 
(Feronia elephantum) is occasionally substituted for the Bael- 
fruit in the bazaar when the latter is sold in large quantities, 
but there will be no difficulty in distinguishing them from each 
other, if the following distinctions be attended to : — 

Bael- fruit of both varieties. 

1. Generally roundish, ovoid or 
otaovate, and sometimes oblong. 

2. Generally about the size of a 
large orange, often as big as a large 
pomegranate, and sometimes attains 
the size of a small child's head. 

3. Greenish or yellowish brown in 
color, smooth and slightly shining. 

4. Rind very hard, woody and thin. 

5. In the centre of the pulp there 
are from five to eighteen small cells, 
each of which contains some mucus, 
and from one to twelve or more seeds. 
(In the small variety of bael-fruit, the 
seeds are often absent in some cells.) 

6. The seeds are oblong, flat or 
compressed, woolly, and about the size 
of a lime-seed. 

7. The mucus is thick, very tenaci- 
ous, transparent, and strongly tere- 
binthinate in smell and taste. 


Almost always round or spheri- 

2. Generally about the size of an 
orange, and often as large as a pome- 

3. Greenish white or ash colored, 
neither smooth nor shining. 

4. Rind hard, woody, and though 
somewhat thicker, yet more easily 

5. No cells at all, and the seeds 
are numerous and embedded in the 
pulp. A fruit contains about 500 seeds. 

6, The seeds are generally about 
the same shape, but onehalf smaller 
in size. 

7. Contains no mucus, but is acid 
from the presence of citric acid. 

8. When the fruit is quite ripe, the | 8. In the same condition, the pulp 
pulp is of a brownishred or reddish is of a reddish grey or flesh color, 
yellow color, with a strong balsamic ' with a very agreeable and slightly 
odour and sweetish taste. | aromatic odor and sub-acidj taste" 

(Moodeen Sheriff.) 


243. Ailanthus glandulosa, Desf. ; ii.f.b.i., i. 518. 
Eng. Syn. : — Japan Varnish Tree. 
Habitat : — Northern India. 
A lofty tree ; leaves pubescent or sub-glabrous ; leaflets very 
coarsely toothed at base, very numerous, divided very unequally 


by the midrib, paler beneath. Flowers small, in much-branched 
panicles. Filaments elongate, filiform, exserted, several times 
exceeding the anther. Fruit about 3 membranous, linear-oblong 
samaras, about 1£ by fin. Seed near the centre of the samara, 
about i by loin. 

Part used : — The bark. 

Medicinal uses : — According to Professor Hetet, the bark is 
an active vermifuge ; in powder it has a strong, narcotic, naus- 
eating odour. It exerts a powerful, depressing influence over 
the nervous system similar to that of tobacco. 

Leaves used as an atringent in China,- — (Ph. J., 20th, 
December 1884.) 

Useful in dysentery.— (I. M. G., March L877, p. 83.) 

It contains ellagic acid, and a colouring matter, quercetin (C lS H 10 07). 
On fusion with alkali, protocatechnic acid (in. p. 194-196°) and phloroglucinol 
(m. p. 210°) were identified as the principal products of the decomposition 
of qu rcetin. 

The aqueous filtrate from the quercetin was found to contain a large 
quantity of gallic acid. The tannin of the Ailanthus glandulosa is evidently 
gallotannic acid. 

A tannin analysis gave the following result :— 
Tanning matter 
Soluble non-tannins 
Insoluble at 60° F ... 
Water ... 

Total ... ... 100-0 

J. Ch. S. T. 1898, p. 381. 

244. — A. excelsa, Roxb. h.f.b.i. i. 518. 

Sans. : — Madala, Aralu. Atarusha. 

Vern. : — Maharukha, maharukha, limbado (Hind.); Adulsa, 
Adusa, Maharuka, Mahanimb (Mar.) ; Mahanim, mahala, gormi- 
kawat (Uriya) ; Ghorkaram (Palamow) ; Moto aduso (Guz.) ; 
Varul, maharukh (Dec.) ; Arua (N.-W. P. and Mewar) ; Peru, 
pee, perumarutha (Tam.) ; Pedu, pey, pedda, pedda manu putta 
(Tel.); Perumarum (Mai.) 

Habitat: — Common in the North- Western Provinces, Behar, 

11-2 p. c, 

20-4 „ 

60-0 „ 


N. 0. SIMARUBEiE. 281 

the Western Peninsula, and the Carnatic, in the Bombay 
Presidency, widely distributed over the Thana, Kaira, Panch 
Mahals and Guzerat districts, occasionally met with in Rajpu- 
tana, common on the Coromandel Coast. 

A tree 60-80ft. Leaves 1ft or more, glandular-hairy ; 
leaflets very numerous, very coarsely toothed, on long petioles, 
very unequal at base. Flowers larger than in A. glandulosa, on 
longish pedicels, in large lax often on very much branched, 
panicles. Petals ovate-lanceolate, commonly reflexed. Fila- 
ments short, half the length of anthers. Samara large copper-red 
longer than in A. glandulosa, 2'm. by iin., strongly veined, 
blunt or pointed at both ends, always once or twice twisted 
at base. 

Parts used : — The bark and leaves. 

Medicinal uses : — The bark is aromatic and used for dys- 
peptic complaints. It is also regarded as a tonic and febrifuge 
in cases of debility. Expectorant and anti-spasmodic, given in 
chronic bronchitis and asthma. 

" In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a 
tonic, especially in debility after child-birth. In the Concan the 
juice of the leaves is usually administered in khiv, or the juice 
of the fresh bark is g'ven with cocoanut juice and treacle, or 
with aromatics and honey ; it is said to stop after-pains" 

Used also as an astringent in diarrhoea and dysentery. 

" Mr. Narayan Daji separated an acid principle which he 

named Ailanthic acid. This acid may be given in doses of 

1 to 3 grains, and is said to be tonic, and alterative. In large 

doses, it causes nausea and vomiting, and is purgative. He 

recommended its use in dyspepsia with constipation" (G. 


Its bark is used as a febrifuge and tonic. Narain Daji isolated from it 
an acid principle which he named ailanthic acid. He also found a bitter, 
non crystallisable principle. It belongs to a neutral class of substances re- 
lated toquassin, and may probably prove to be identical ^ifch cedrin andsama- 
derin, which have been obtained from other members of the Simanibaccae. 

J. Ch. Industry, 1895, p. 985, 


245. — A. malabarica, V. C. h.f.b.i., i. 518. 

Vern. of the resin : — Mudde-dhupa, baga-dhupa (Bom.); Peru, 
peru-marattup-pattai, maddi-pal (Tarn.); Perumarum, pedda- 
manu-patta, maddi-palu (Tel.) : Mattip-pal (Mai.) ; Guggula- 
dhup, ud fMar.); Dhup, baga-dhup (Kan.); Ladan ''•Dec.) 
Kumbalu, Walbilin (Sin.) 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, in Canara. Ceylon low country 
of the moist regions. Cochin China. 

A lofty tree, with straight trunk and rough bark ; branch- 
lets, with large closely placed leaf-scars. Young parts pubescent, 
with fine simple stellate hairs. Wood very light soft spongy. 
Leaves very large, li-2ft., crowded, spreading, pinnate ; rachis 
cylindric, with a raised line along upper side, very finely stellate- 
pubescent, much thickened at base ; leaflets 16-20, distant, 
opposite or sub-opposite, shortly stalked, 3-5in., ovate-oblong, 
tapering, acute, unequal at base, with upper half larger and 
rounded, and lower half acute, entire, margin slightly reflexed, 
glabrous, glaucous beneath, rather thick. Flowers white, small ; 
the bisexual, rather larger than the male, numerous, pedicellate, 
in long, loose, stalked, axillary panicles. Calyx small, hairy, 
segments acute. Stamens exceeding petals. Ovary ovoid, glab- 
rous. Samara 2J-3in., flat, oblong, obtuse at both ends, 
papery, glabrous, with the seed about the middle. Seed much 
compressed, circular. 

Trimen says : " The bark is tonic and febrifuge. A 
brown, fragrant, resinous exudation is given by the inner bark, 
and is used in Dysentery as well as material for incense." 

Parts used : — The bark, fruit and gum. 

Uses : — The bark is given in dyspepsia, and is also considered 
a valuable tonic and febrifuge. It yields a fragrant resin, 
which, reduced to powder, mixed with milk and strained, is 
given in small doses in dysentery, and also in bronchitis, and 
is reputed to be an excellent remedy, chiefly owing to its 
balsamic properties. " The fruit, triturated with mango, and 
mixed with rice, is reckoned useful in cases of ophthalmia, and 
the juice of the fresh bark, in 1 ounce doses with an equal 

N. 0. SIMARUBEiE. 283 

quantity of curds, is said to be a valuable remedy in dysen- 
tery" (Dymock.) 

"The resin is terebinthinate-stirnulant, its action being chiefly 
directed to the mucous surface of the genito-urinary organs 
and of the large and small intestines ; and the bark is tonic and 

11 The resin, particularly its first or soft variety, possesses a 
great control over acute dysentery and diarrhoea. In gonorrhoea, 
gleet, chronic bronchitis and cystitis also it proves very useful 
and exercises a distinct beneficial influence. As a tonic, the 
bark resembles calumba and quassia, and like them it is ad- 
ministered with the preparations of iron, since it contains no 
tannin and is devoid of astringency. 

" Remarks. — : There are three varieties of the resin of .A. 
malabarica, which, for the sake of convenience, may be called 
the first or soft, the second or flat, and the third or hard. The 
resin of the first variety is collected in bamboo-joints, one of 
which I have received from the Annamullay forests in the 
Coimbatore district. This variety is never found in the bazaars 
of Madras or any other place, as far as my knowledge extends, 
but is occasionally supplied by special request to exhibitions 
and to medical men requiring to examine or use it, by the 
Forest Department. When new, the resin in this variety is 
grey, very soft, viscid, plastic, opaque, and bears a great resem- 
blance in its appearance to the birdlime prepared from the 
milky juice of Fieus glomerata. It retains its grey color in- 
ternally for a long time, but every part of it which comes in 
contact with the atmosphere becomes reddish-brown in a few 
hours and then deep-brown. The resin has an agreeable aro- 
matic or balsamic odour, and though it is not soluble in saliva, 
it produces a terebinthinate taste in the mouth when chewed. 
The resin is neither soluble nor miscible in cold or hot water. 
It is, however, miscible with the aid of rubbing and grinding 
in alcohol, ether and many fixed and essential oils, as cocoanut, 
olive, turpentine, cajuput, anise, &c. After the lapse of some, 
months, the resin, if exposed to the air, becomes much harder 
and feels as tough as wax ; and after a few months more, it is 


as hard as a stick. The second or flat variety is extremely rare 
and occurs in flat and circular pipes, varying in diameter from 
two to three inches, and in thickness from J to \ inch. The pieces 
are more or less soft like the first variety in all other characters. 
" The third or hard variety (No. 159), which is by far. the 
most common, occurs in small balls generally about the size 
of a small orange. The balls are very hard, smooth, dark-brown 
in color, both externally and internally, and possess the same 
kind of smell and taste, but in a much slighter degree. It con- 
tains a great deal of impurities (about 80 per cent.) as earth, sand, 
fragments of wood, &c, upon which its hardness chiefly depends. 

" With regard to the therapeutic use of the resin of A. 
malabariea, its first variety, if fresh, has a very remarkable 
control over dysentery and diarrhoea, as though it possesses 
some specific action over the mucous coat of the large and small 
intestines, and therefore deserves some special attention of the 
profession. In some ordinary cases of acute dysentery and 
diarrhoea, two or three doses of the resin, in the form of emulsion, 
with the mucilage of gum acacia, and with from 5 to 10 minims 
of Tinctura opii in each dose, were sufficient to nip the diseases 
in the bud. There were no more motions, tormina or tenesmus 
after the second or third dose for 10 or 12 hours, and when the 
bowels did begin to move again after this period, the evacua- 
tions were always healthier and soon became natural without 
further treatment. In more severe cases, however, the medicine 
had to be repeated three or four times in the 24 hours and con- 
tinued for two or three days before the cure was effected. In 
still more severe or serious and complicated cases, it was neces- 
sary to resort to some other medicines, including astringent 
enemata, &c, to assist the resin according to the condition and 
symptoms of each individual case. Matti-pal is also useful in 
gonorrhoea and gleet, and to the same extent as the Copaiba 
and Gurjun-balsam" (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

246. — Samadera indica, Gcertn. h.f.b.l, l 519. 
Vern :— Karinghota (Mai.) ; Niepa (Tarn.); Samadara (Sin.). 

tt. 0. StMARUBEJL 285 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, throughout the South Con can 
and Malabar. Moist low country. Ceylon. 

A small glabrous tree, 30-35ft., with stout branches. " Bark 
pale, transversely cracked. Wood light yellow, soft, no heart- 
wood. Pores small, very scanty. Medullaiy rays very fine, 
uniform, closely-packed " (Gamble). Leaves simple, 8 by 3in. 
or larger, blunt, with short thick petioles, coriaceous, elliptic — 
oblong, shining, quite entire. Flowers numerous, bisexual, 4- 
merous, pinkish yellow, in dense pedunculate umbels, short- 
stalked. Calyx small, thick, ciliated, persistent in fruit. 
Petals narrowly oblong, often spiculate, f-lin. long. Stamens 
twice as many as petals ; filaments, with a small hairy scale at 
base, very long. Ovary on a gynophore, usually deeply lobed. 
Fruit oval, l|in. by lin. (Bennett), of one carpel, thickly coriace- 
ous, shining, compressed, keeled, 2 by 1 Jin. (Brandis.) 

Parts used : — The bark, leaves, seeds and oil. 

Use : — " The bark is used by the natives as a febrifuge. An 
oil extracted from the kernels of the fruit forms a good applica- 
tion in rheumatism. The bruised leaves are externally applied 
in erysipelas. The seeds are worn round the neck as a prevent- 
ive of asthma and chest affections. An infusion of the wood 
is also taken as a general tonic" (Rheede and Drury). 

The root is used medicinally by the Singhalese. An in- 
fusion of leaves is a good insecticide and destructive to white 
ants (Trimen.) 

" An infusion of the wood is taken as a general tonic. This 

drug may well be used as a substitute for quassia" (Dymock . 

From the seeds were obtained :— (1) A fatty oil, forming 63 p. c. of the 
whole, and consisting of triolein 88, tripalmitin 8, and tristearin 4 p. c; (2) a 
proteid, soluble in alcohol and in water, and containing 18 p. c. of nitrogen ; 
(3) sucrose ; (4) a sugar that reduces Fehling's solution directly ; (15) inositol ; 
(6) a crystalline bitter substance.. 

From the bark :— (1) The same bitter substance as from the seeds; (2) 
a crystalline bitter substance crystallising in yellow plates, probably an 
anthraquinone derivative ; (3) a'tannic acid belonging to the group of phloro- 
glucotannoids ; (4) ellago tannic acid ; (5) a tannic acid closely resembling 
tannin ; (6) a large amount of inorganic salts. 

From the wood :— (1) A bitter substance crystallising in yellow, rhombic 
prisms; (2) a bitter substance very closely allied to quassin. 


The bitter substance that occurs in both seeds and barks crystallises in 
monoclinic plates, melts at 255° and decomposes at 260°, and has ?il*624 and 
[a] D -f250.° It contains no water of crystallisation, and has the composition 
C 29 H 34 11 . With phenylhydrazine, it yields a yellowish, crystalline substance, 
melting at 214°; no methoxyl or ethoxyl group is present. It gives a violet 
coloration with strong sulphuric acid, and has a poisonous action on frogs, 
less so on guinea pigs and rabbits. Most probably it is identical with the 
samaderin of Rost Van Tonningen. (By J.L. Van Der Marck, Arch. Pharm. 
1901, 239, 96-113.) J. Ch. S. LXXX., pt, II., p. 334. 

The seeds of Samadera Indica contain 63 p. c. of fat, which consists of 
877 p. c. of triolein, 8.41 of tripalmitin, and 3.89 of tristearin. The alcoholic 
extract contains an alkaloid which appears to be identical with gliadine and 
a resin ; glucosides and a bitter principle are present in the seeds. The bitter 
principle is also contained in the bast and is accompanied by tannic acid; 
it is somewhat soluble in alcohol and acetone, melts at 255°, and is apparently 
identical with Rost Van Tonningen's samaderin. It contains carboxyl groups, 
but neither a methoxy, nor an ethoxy-group, and, when administered to cold- 
blooded animals, causes paralysis of the voluntary nerves and death. 

A second bitter principle is found in the roots ; it melts at 209°, is soluble 
in alcohol and sodium hydroxide solution, and is apparently identical with 

J. Ch. S. Vol. LXXX. pt, II. p. 71. 

247. — S. lucida, Wall. b. F. b. l, i. 519. 
Vern. : — Ka-thay (Burm.) 
Habitat: — Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Very nearly allied to S. indica, and perhaps only a variety. 
Leaves a paler green, sometimes larger, with longer petioles. 
Peduncles of umbels shorter than the leaves. Umbels some- 
times almost sessile. Fruit strongly reticulated, smaller, pear- 
shaped, dark brown, glabrous, with a narrow wing. 

Use : — The leaves are intensely bitter and taste like quassia. 

248. — Picrasma quassioides, Benn. H. F. B. I., 
i. 520. 

Syn. : — Simaba quassioides, Ham. Nima quassioides, Ham. 

Vern. : — Bharangi or baringi (H.) ; Puthorin, bera, mathu, 
bering, pesho, kashbar, birgo (Pb. Himalayan names, ; Shama 
baringi (Nepal). 

N. 0. SIMARUBEiE. 287 

Habitat: — Sub-tropical Himalaya, from Jammu to Nepal. 
Garwhal and Bhutan. 

A tall, scrambling tree, witli stout, often spotted, branches. 
Bark very bitter ; light brown, rather smooth, shining, thin. 
Wood bright yellow, moderately hard ; sapwood white. Annual 
rings well-marked by a line of pores in the autumn wood. Pores 
moderately sized, unevenly scattered, except on the line of the 
annular rings. Medullary rays fine to moderately broad, short, 
distant, forming on a radial section a pretty silver-grain (Gamble). 
Leaves pubescent, a foot or more long, of 9-15 leaflets, the lowest 
pair much smaller and stipuliform ; leaflets 6-4 pair, obovate, 
acuminate, serrate, opposite, nearly sessile. Flower polygamous, 
in pubescent panicles ; small greenish, generally pentamerous. 
Calyx-segments small, imbricate. Petals ovate or obovate, 
persistent in female and hermaphrodite flowers. Much enlarged 
and coriaceous in fruit ; filaments strap-shaped, equalling the 
petals, villous, about the size of a pea, iin diam., black, each 
containing one erect seed. 

Parts used : —The bark, root and leaves. 

Use : — Dr. Royle draws attention to the bark, wood and root 
of this plant as quite as bitter as the quassia of the West Indies, 
for which it would doubtless prove an excellent substitute. 
The Pharmacopoeia Indica regards this bark as worthy of 
further attention. 

The leaves, according to Stewart, are applied to itch. 

248a. — P. javaniea, Bl. h. f. b. i., i. 520. 

This large tree is common in the Ataran Forest Division, Tenasserim 
where it is called by the Karens "Napaw-ow." The bark is exceedingly 
bitter and is used by the Karens as a febrifuge instead of quinine. The bark 
contains a bitter principle allied to quassin, and has an advantage in contain- 
ing no tannin. There is no alkaloidal principle such as quinine in the bark. 

249. — Brucea Sumatrana Boxb., h. f. b. i 
i. 521. Roxb. 151. 

Vern. : — Ampadoo-Barrowing (Mai). 

Habitat :— Assam ; Eastern Peninsula ; Tenasserim ; and the 
Andaman Islands. 


A large evergreen shrub, with bitter and somewhat fetid 
properties. Branchlets, leaves, and inflorescence tawny-pubescent. 
Leaves very large, often more than a foot long, " covered with 
a dense yellow pubescence, especially on the veins beneath " 
(Alfred \V. Bennett). The lowest leaflets sometimes compound, 
the upper ones numerous, very closely toothed or serrate, villous 
beneath and opposite, 4-6 pair, ovate-lanceolate. Flowers purple, 
in small distant racemiform panicles, often as long as leaves. 
Flowers usually hermaphrodite ; Calyx very minute. Petals 
larger than the Calyx-segments, linear, spathulate. Stamens 
short, not exceeding the petals in length. Ovary deeply 4-lobed. 
Drupes entirely free, black, ovoid, Jin. long (Brandis. , J-Jin. 
(Bennett;, glabrous, reticulated. Albumen 0. 

Uses : — Roxburgh wrote : " From the sensible qualities of the 
green parts of this plant being somewhat fetid, and simply, 
though intensely, bitter, it promises to be as good an antidy- 
senterical medicine as Bruce s Abyssinian Wooginos itself." 

Dr. Mougeot, whose investigaiions into the subject of a cure for dysentery 
have been attracting attention in Saigon for sometime past, now claims to 
have discovered a remedy for the disease. This is the seed of the plant 
named Brucea Sumatrana, belonging to the family Simarubacece, which is 
found in those parts of Southern China, Lower India, the island of Sunda and 
tropical America where the malady prevails in its more virulent form. Both 
the tree and its seed are known in the vernacular of its habitat by the name 
of kosu or kosam. It may be remembered that several years ago the 
scientist, Roger, discovered a bacillus which was held to be the cause of 
dysentery. In experiments which he conducted upon animals, Dr. Mougeot 
found that, wherever these bacteria were most numerous iu the bowels, the 
use of the kosu seed, which, by the way, is about a centimetre in length and 
lies hidden within a small oily kernel, led to their utter destruction. He 
usually administered from six to ten seeds on the first day and twelve on the 
second, in which time a change for the better generally became apparent. 
Eight hundred and seventy-one out of eight hundred and seventy-nine cases 
experimented upon by Dr. Mougeot, proved successful. — Indian Lancet for lOtli 
June, 1901. 

Messrs F. B. Power and F. H. Lees find that the seeds contain a small 
quantity of a hydrolytic enzyme, but no alkaloid ; they contain 1*8 per cent, 
of tannin. The combined alcoholic and petroleum extracts of the seeds 
yielded the following substances : (1) A small quantity of a mixture of esters, 
probably of one of the butyric acids, and having the odour of the crushed 
seeds ; (2) a very small amount of free formic acid ; (3) 20 per cent, (on the 
weight of the seeds) of a fatty oil consisting chiefly of the glycerides of oleic, 
linolic, stearic, and palmitic acids, together with a saturated hydrocarbon, 

N. 0. SIMARUBEA. 289 

hentriacontane, C sl H fl4 m. pt. 67°-68°C., and a crystalline substance, C 20 H 34 O, 
in. pt. 130°-133 C C., [a] 23° D =—37 7% allied to the cholesterols, and agreeing in 
composition with quebrachol, cupreol, and cinchol ; (4) Two bitter principles. 
The bitter principles are found in the aqueous layer of the residue from the 
steam-distillation of the combined alcoholic and petroleum extracts.; the 
solution also contains a quantity of reducing sugar, and a very small amount 
of a substance which gives a deep green colour with ferric chloride. One of 
the bitter principles (a) is completely extracted by chloroform from the 
aqueous solution and can subsequently be obtained from ether, in which it is 
sparingly soluble, as a light-coloured amorphous powder. The other bitter 
principle (b) could only be obtained as a brown extract. The authors could 
obtain no evidence of the presence of quassin as stated by Heckel and 
Schlagdenhauffen, nor of the glucosidal bitter principle, named " kosamiue" 
by Bertrand.—J. S. of C. I. September 15, 1903, page 1013. 

The bark of Brucea Sumatrana yielded an amorphous, bitter principle, 
volatile acids ^formic, acetic, an.l butyric), proteins, and an acid which was 
probably behenic acid— (Ph. J. 1907 Vol. 79 pp. 126-130). 

250.- — Balanites Roxburghii, Planch. H. F. B. I., 
i. 522. 

Syn. :— Ximenia iEgyptica, B. iEgyptica, Wall. 

Sans : — Ingudi-Vrikshaka. 

Ver : — Hingan, ingua, hingol, liingota (H.) ; Egorea, hinger 
(Guz.) ; Hingon (B.) ; Hinganbet, hingan (Dec) ; Garah, (Goncli) ; 
Nanjunda (Tam.) ; Mancliuta (Mai.) ; Gari ; gara-chethi, ringri 
(Tel). Hingoriyun (Porebunder and Guz.) 

Habitat: — Drier parts of India, from Cawnpore to Sikkim, 
Behar, Guzerat, Khandeish and the Deccan. Mhasvad Road, 
Satara district. Burmah. 

A scraggy shrub ; in favourable situations, a small tree, 
30ft. high, with glabrous puberulous branches, ending in very 
strong, sharp, ascending spines. Wood yellowish white, moder- 
ately hard. Bark yellow or cinereous. The roots spread far 
and throw up root-suckers at a considerable distance from 
the trunk. Leaves of two elliptic or obovate puberulous, entire 
coriaceous leaflets. Cymes 4-10-flowered. Flowers white or 
green, fragrant. Sepals and petals ovate, velvety-pubescent, 
more than an inch long. Drupes ovoid, lj-2in. long, 5-grooved ; 
pulp bitter, with an offensive greasy smell. Stone hard, 



Parts used : — The seeds, Lark, leaves and fruit. : — " The seeds are given in coughs. The bark, unripe 
fruit, and leaves are pungent, bitter and purgative, and are 
considered to have anthelmintic properties. The African Arabs 
use the pulp of the fruit as a detergent and the bark to poison 
fish." (Dymock.) 

According to Surgeon Parker of Poona, the seeds are useful 
in colic (Watt 1 Dictionary, Vol. I.) 

The soft parts of the fruit contain 7 per cent, of the Saponin C 13 H 23 O 10 . 
J. Ch. S. 1901 A I 648, 

A sample of oil prepared by the natives of Marogoro (German East 
Africa) from the seeds was of a light yellow colour and had a pleasant nutty 
taste and smell. It had the following characteristics :— Sp. gr. 0-9173 (15 C C) ; 
Sapon. Value 195'6 ; Reichert-Meissl Value, 0'55 ; Poleuske Value 0'4 ; iodine 
Value, 77*2 ; Acid Value 8 5; unsaponifiable, 0*07 percent; Stearic acid content, 
2-4 per cent. The oil became cloudy at 8-8°C. J. Ch. I. 15th Ma- 1912 p : 442 

251. — Gomphia angustifolia, Vahl. h. f. b. i., 
i. 525. 

Vern. :— Valermani (Mai); Bokera (Sinhalese). 

Habitat: — Southern provinces of the Western Peninsula. 
Ceylon, common in low country, upper zone, rare in the 
dry region. Also on the Malabar coast, Singapore and the 

A small much-branched tree, young parts glabrous. 
Leaves 2J-5in., distichous, nearly sessile, lanceolate, acute at 
both ends, finely serrate, glabrous, shining, veins very close 
and numerous, pellucid, with 2 marginal ones near the edge. 
Stipules deciduous. Flowers numerous, yellow, about iin., 
on slender pedicels, in large pyramidal terminal and axillary 
panicles. Sepals red, oval, acute, glabrous ; petals twice as 
long as sepals, clawed, obtuse. Stamens 10, filaments very 
short, anthers large, oblong. Ovary carpels ovoid, smooth. 
Style stout, very much exceeding Stamens. Ripe carpels 5 (or 
fewerj, attached near their base to sides of the very large 
gynophore, surrounded by the persistent sepals, J-fin., ovoid, 
reniform, purple black, shining. Seed erect, embryo green. 

N. 0. SIMARUBEiE. 291 

Use : — The root and leaves are bitter, and are employed 
in the form of a decoction in Malabar, as a tonic, stomachic 
and anti-emetic (0 ' Shaughnessy). 

252. — Boswellia serrata, Roxb. H. F. b. i., i. 528, 
Roxb. 365. 

Syn. : — B. thurifera, Roxb. 

Sans : — Salasi-niryasa, sallaki, kundnru, gugguli. 

Vern. : — (The gum resin) Salhe, salci or salai, saiga, sel-gond, 
kundur, salpe, luban (H.) ; Luban, salai, kundro (B.) ; Saiga 
(Santal.) ; Anduku, anduga, guggar, dnmsal (Knmaon) ; Salla, 
bor-salci, ganga (Gond), Silai (C, P.) ; Salar (Ulwar) ; Salai, 
saiga, guggula, salai-dhup, salaphali (Bom.) ; Salaphali (Mar.) ; 
Kundur (Duk.) ; Dhup, mukul salai, gugali (Guz,) ; Saliya, 
gugul (Cutch) ; Kungli, gugulu, kimdrikam morada, kundruk- 
kampishin, parangi-shambi-rani (Tarn.) ; Parangi-sambrani, 
anduga-pisunu, anduku, andu, Adak (Tel.) ; Vella-kundirukkam 
(Mai.); Chittu Maddi (Kan.) 

Habitat : — Forests of the base of the Western Himalaya as 
far west as the Sutlej. Central India from Behar to Rajpntana, 
and Southward into the Dekkan and to the Circars and the 
Conkan within 10-20 miles of the Western Ghats. 

A deciduous, middle-sized tree, with a spreading flat 
crown. Bark nearly Jin. thick, greenish, ash-colonred, peeling 
off in thin smooth flakes. Young shoots and leaves pubescent, 
with simple hairs Leaves imparipinnate, crowded at the ends 
of branches ; leaflets 8-15 pair, opposite or nearly opposite, 
sessile, lanceolate, more or less deeply crenate, apex generally 
obtuse. Flowers bisexual. Calyx small, 5-7-cleft, petals 5-7. 
Stamens 10-12, inserted at the base of the red annular fleshy 
disk. Ovary 3-celled, half immersed in the disk ; 2 collateral 
ovules in each cell. Fruit 3-valved, the valves separating from 
the dissepiments which remain attached to the axis. Seeds 3, 
enclosed in heart-shaped stones attached to the inner angle. 
Cotyledons trifid, lobes laciniate, radicle superior. 



The leaves fall about March and April, the fresh foliage 
comes out in June. Flowers, when the tree is leafless, some- 
times before the old leaves fall or after the fresh appear. 
Coppices well, and readily grows from the cutting (Brand is). 

" Uses : — The gum of this tree is used as a diaphoretic and 
astringent, and is used in the preparation of ointment for sores. 
It is also prescribed with clarified butter in syphilitic diseases ; 
with cocoanut oil for sores ; and as a stimulant in pulmonary 
diseases. The Olibanum is also given in bronchorrcea and 
chronic laryngitis, employed both internally and in the form of 
fumigation. An ointment has been prepared from it which is 
said to be a good stimulant application to carbuncles, ulcera- 
tions, boils, &c. The Mahomedans consider it hot and dry, 
and to have dessicative, astringent properties " (Dymock). 

" The resin in tears is known is hundur, but in soft masses 
it is called gundah-ferosah" (Modeen Sheriff.) In Bombay it is 
known as gandaberoza. 

Mixed with gum acacia, it is used as a corrective for foul 
breath. Used for any length of time in one drachm doses it is 
said to reduce obesity. 

Dr. Moodeen Sheriff considers it to be an internal and ex- 
ternal stimulant, expectorant, stimulant diuretic and stomachic. 
It is also a slight hepatic stimulant. Useful in jaundice, not 
depending on mechanical obstruction, and in some slight and 
chronic cases of diarrhoea, dysentery, dyspepsia, pulmonary 
affections and haemorrhoids. In the form of an oily solution, 
it exercises some good influence over the growth of the hair ; 
and in that of an ointment, it excites a healthy action in some 
weak and unhealthy kinds of ulceration. 

" The gum-resin is used to promote the absorption of bubo, 
and is applied locally. The oil in 10 or 20 minim doses is 
useful in gonorrhoea, taken in demulcent drinks" (Surgeon 
C. M. Russel, Bengal.) 

" Refrigerant, diuretic, and emmenagogue" (Saboona Lai, 
Hospital-Assistant, Jubbulpore.) 

"Astringent, applied in the form of an ointment to chronic 
ulcers, diseased bones, buboes, &c." 

N. 0. SIMARUBE^. 293 

" The Bosiuellia serrata (Salai) gumresin enquiry is now approaching a 
definite conclusion. During the year samples of the oil and rosin, products 
of steam distillation, were forwarded for valuation to the Imperial Institute, 
London. The report on these has been received and is to the effect that the 
oil closely resembles American Turpentine Oil except as regards smell and is 
of excellent quality and will readily command a market, the rosin on the 
other hand is of poor quality, the defects being low saponification value and 
bad odour. Another experiment is now being carried out under the solvent 
process. The quality of the gum and resin produced by this process appears 
to be far superior to that produced by steam distillation and samples are 
therefore being forwarded to the Imperial Institute for a further report. 

As regards the prospects of an industry arising from the tapping of 
Boswellia it cannot be said that these are at present very hopeful, the chief 
obstacles being the relatively small amount of resin exuded and consequently 
the high cost of the crude product. Reports from the local forest officers also 
indicate that tapping may permanently damage the trees so that investiga- 
tion on this point, viz., whether the trees are damaged by tapping, as well as 
the best of methods of tapping to obtain the maximum yield is to be under- 
taken during the coming working season." Annual Report of the Board of 
Scientific advice for India, 1914-15 pp. 128-129. 

253. — Garuga pinnata, Roxb. h. f. b. l, i. 528 ; 
Roxb. 370. 

Vevn> : — Kurak (Bomb.); Kusimba also kakad (Concan) ; 
Garuga or gam goo (Tel.) ; Joom (B.) 

Habitat : — Throughout India. 

A large, deciduous tree. Bark lin. thick, soft red inside, 
grey or brown outside, exfoliating in large irregularly shaped 
scales. Wood variable : sapwood white, large ; heartwood 
reddish brown, moderately hard, even-grained. Pores large, not 
numerous, often subdivided, sometimes filled with resin. Medul- 
lary rays short, moderately broad, on a radial section, visible 
as narrow horizontal plates, and giving a pretty silvergrain 
(Gamble). Young shoots and inflorescence grey pubescent. 
Leaves imparipinnate, crowded near the ends of the branches. 
Leaflets 0-9 pair, opposite or nearly so ; lanceolate, or ovate- 
lanceolate, crenate. Flowers j^ellow, or pale-yellow, in axillary 
panicles, several at the end of branches. Calyx campanulate, 
10-ribbed, 5-cleft, lined by a thin disk, with a crenate margin, 
on the edges of which the 5 petals and 10 stamens are 


inserted. Ovary 4-5-celled, 2 collateral ovules in each cell. Fruit 
a fleshy globose drupe, pale yellow when ripe, enclosing 2, 
rarely more, bony, 1-seeded tuberculated stones. Fresh foliage — 
April or May— with the flowers or after them. Leafless during 
the greater part of the dry season. 

Parts used : — The fruit, and juice of the leaves and stem. 

Uses : — " In Salsette, near Bombay, the juice of the stem is 
dropped into the eye to cure opacities of the conjunctiva ; the 
fruit is pickled and eaten as a cooling and stomachic remedy. 
In the Concan, the juice of the leaves, with that of the leaves 
of Adhatoda Vasiea and Vitex trifolia, mixed with honey, is 
given in asthma" (Dymock.). The epicarp of the fruit is also 
cooked in Bombay with the flower heads of the aroid Shevala 
plant to reduce the acrid taste of the latter, and eaten as vege- 

254.-— Balsamodendron mukul, Hook. H. f. b. i., 
i. 529. 

Sans. : — Konshikaha, guggulu. 

Vern. : — Gugal, mukul, ranghan turb (B., H., Dec, Guz.) ; 
Maishlkshi, gukkal, gukkulu (Tarn.) ; Mahi-saksh gugal (Teh) 

J. Indraji :--Gugar, gugal. (Porebunder and Guj.) Mukul, 
Gugal (Marathi) ; Gugal (Hindi). 

Arab. : — Mokl-arzak, aflatan. 

Pers. : — Boe-jahudan. 

Habitat : — Sindh, Rajputana, Bednore, Khandeish, Berars, 
Mysore, and Bellary. 

A stunted shrub or dwarfed tree. " Bark greenish yellow, 
peeling in long thin, shining paper-like scrolls. Wood soft, 
white. Pores small. Medullary rays fine, short. The bark 
yields a £um called Gugal " (Gamble). 

Branches thick, spreading, branchlets often spinescent. 
Trunk knotty. The outer bark coming off in rough flakes, 
leaving exposed an inner layer which is bright, shining and 
peels off, as noted above from Gamble's remarks, like thin 

N. O. SIMARUBE^. 295 

paper. Leaves generally approximate at the ends of thick 
short arrested branchlets, obovate, almost sessile, the tapering 
base entire, the upper part toothed. On luxuriant shoots the 
leaves are distant, trifoliate, the lateral leaflets small. Flowers 
unisexual, subsessile, 2 or 3 together. Petal 4-5, strap-shaped. 
Stamens 8-10, alternately longer. Drupe red, when ripe. 

Part used : — The gum. 

Use : — " It is used in Native medicine as a demulcent, aperi- 
ent, carminative, and alterative ; especially useful in nervous 
diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin- 
diseases, and is used in the preparation of an ointment for bad 
ulcers." (Watt. 

" Applied as a hot paste to incipient abscesses, as an absorb- 
ent. Is used as an expectorant. Aphrodisiac according to 
Sk. Boali-Saina. Applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids." 
(Dr. Emerson.) 

" Held in highest repute in the treatment of rheumatism, 
given internally and applied locally " (Surgn. Robb.) — Watt, 
i. 367. 

255. B. Roxburghii, Am. h.f.b.l, i. 529. 

Syn. : — Amyris commiphora, Boxb. 323. 

Vem. :— Gugala (B.) ; Gugal, mahishabola (Bom.) ; Gugar 
(Sind.) ; Kookul (Tarn.). 

Habitat :•— Eastern Bengal, Sylhet and Assam. 

. Spinescent says Brandis. Branches spiny, (says Alfred 
W. Bennett in Hooker.) Leaves 3-foliate, terminal leaflet very 
finely serrulate, lateral leaflets very small. 

Use: — -The gum resin is also used medicinally like other 
species of Balsamodendron. 

Balsamodendron Roxburghii, which, when broken, or bruised, diffuses a 
grateful fragrance, like that of the finest myyrh, yet that " the juice never 
congeals, but is carried off by evaporation, leaving little or nothing behind ; 
and all that he (Dr. Royle) could ever procure was a very minute portion of 
gummy matter, which certainly resembles myrrh both in smell and appear- 
ance, but has no tendency to be even tenacious or elastic." 


The excellent Dr. Royle, however, rather inclines to the opinion that 
this tree, when old, does yield a gum resin, closely resembling myrrh, because 
that which he examined '* was said to come from the hills, at the foot of which 
the tree is found."— Ed. — Hooker's Journal of Botany. 

256. B. pubeseens, Stocks, jelf.b.i., i. 529. 

Hahitat : — Rocky parts of Sinclh, as far south as Karachi. 
Distributed through Baluchistun. 

A small tree, with pubescent, unarmed branches. Leaves 
3-5-foliate, on slender petioles, longer than the blade, soft and 
downy when young. Leaflets entire, lateral leaflets nearly orbi- 
cular, terminal, ovate-cuneate, petiolate. Flowers sessile, 4- 
merous. Stamens equal. Drupe red, with 2 stones ; pulp orange- 

Use : — Dr. J. Newton reports that the gum obtained from 
this tree may be used in the form of ointment for cleansing and 
stimulating bad ulcers. It is a favorite application in Dehli 
sores, combined with sulphur, catechu and borax. It is reported 
to stimulate healthy action, (Pharm. Ind.). 

257. Ganarium commune, Linn. h.f.b.l, 
i. 531 ; Boxb. 504. 

Vern. : — Jangli badam (H.) ; Jangali bedana (Cutcli) ; 
Kaglimara, kagga libija, Java bada miyaune (Kan.) ; Oaiiari 
(Mai.). Rata-Kakuna (Sinhalese.) 

Eng. : — Java Almond tree. 

Habitat : — A native of the Malayan Peninsula, but general- 
ly cultivated in India. 

A large tree introduced into India from Malay. Wood 
greyish white, soft, smooth (Gamble). Extremities of branches 
tawny, puberulous or glabrate. Stipules elliptic or rotundate, 
auricled, often early deciduous. Leaves of flowering branches 
f-ljft., more or less ; leaflets entire, 7-9 ovate to oblong, ellip- 
tical, acuminate, glabrous ; lateral nerves about 10-15 pair, 
often paler and sub-prominent beneath. Upper leaflets 4-6 by 
l£-2i in.; petiolules J-lin. Panicles terminal puberulous, 
with spreading, successively shorter, lateral branches. Buds 

N. O. SIMARUBEiE. 297 

enclosed in ovate-rotundate toinentose bracts. Flowers variable 
in size, normally 3-merous ; female flowers \ to over Jin. in 
length. Calyx campaimlate. Stamens in maleflowers, insert- 
ed around the hairy rudiment of ovary. Ovary glabrous, in- 
crassate above. Drupe ellipsoidal, subtrigonous with a bony 
1-3 — celled stone. Cotyledons tripartite, contorted (Blume). 

Use : — The gum, according to Ainslie, has the same pro- 
perties as balsam of copaiba. It is applied in the form of an 
ointment to indolent ulcers. The oil expressed from the 
kernels might be substituted for almond oil. 

258. 0. striatum, Roxb. h.f.b.i., i. 534 ; 
Roxb. 504. 

Eng. : — The black Damar tree. 

Vevn.. : — Kala dammar (H. B. and Gtiz.) ; Dhup, gugul 
(Bom.) ; Dhup, raldhup (Mar.) : Karapu kongiliam, karapu dam- 
mar, congiliummarum, karuppu damar (Tarn.) ; Nallarojan 
(Tel.) ; Manda-dhup, raldhupada (Kan.) ; Thelli (Mala.). 

Habitat :— Western Peninsula, Concan, Bababuden Hills, 

A very large, straight, diciduous tree. Bark grey, roughish. 
Wood moderately hard, heart-wood pink, sap wood greyish 
white. This handsome tree, says Gamble, is one of the most 
conspicuous trees of the Western Ghat, especially when coming 
into new leaf, for the young leaves are of a bright crimson 
colour, very hairy and like red velvet. Branchlets, petiole, 
midrib and nerves beneath, densely clothed with soft reddish 
brown tomentum. Leaves imparipinnate, l-ljft., long more 
or less on flowering branches, varying to 4ft. Leaflets coria- 
ceous, 12, 3-4 pair, serrate or crenulate while young, 3-6in. 
long, by 1|-2J (5), in broad secondary nerves, prominent beneath 
Petiole iVim- Panicles shorter than leaves, upper lateral 
branches short or male flowers in sessile fascicles. Male flower 
\\\\. long, in a narrow, racemiform panicle, 6-9in. long. Calyx 
tubular, with three shallow broad teeth. Petals coriaceous, 
oblong, rudimentary, ovary depressed, lobed, hispid. Female 

flowers in short few-fid racemes, less crowded on stout 


longer pedicels, marked with scar of small caducous bracts. 
Calyx tomentose, campanulate, shortly and broadly 3-lobed. 
Petals thinly tomentose above. Ovary glabrate, equalling the 
stout style. Drupe l-2in. long, ellipsoid or ovoid, tapering, 
with a thick, bony stone. 

Fart used : — Gum. 

Uses : — According to Dr. Bidie, the resin is used as a sub- 
stitute for Burgundy pitch in making plasters. Also employed 
with gingelly oil in rheumatic pains (Watt ii. 96). 

259. C. bengalense, Roxb., i. 534. 
Roxb. 504. 

Habitat : — Sylhet and the adjoining districts. 
Vern. : — Gogul-dhup (Nepal) ; Narokpa (Lepcha) ; Tekreng 
(Garo); Bisjang, dhuna (Assam). 

A tall, ever-green, glabrous tree. Bark Jin. thick, rather 
smooth, greyish white, with numerous lenticels, peeling off in 
small round thick flakes. Wood soft, sap wood yellowish white, 
heartwood reddish brown. Extremities rusty, pubescent, glabrate, 
with subulate stipules. Leaves l-2ft. Leaflets sub-opposite, 
13-21, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous, 3-6 byl-2 
in. Panicles racemiform, from upper axils, shorter than or 
equalling the leaves ; buds cylindrical. Calyx cupuliform, 
3-fid. Petals obvate oblong, 3, imbricate ; filaments confluent, 
half their length. Disk hirsute, within the stamens. Drupe 
ellipsoidal, smooth, size of a large olive, 1-3 — celled, dark purple, 
pruinose. Stone trigonous, thick, bony. Cotyledons contortopli- 
cate. A clear, amberlike resin exudes from wound in the bark. 

Use :--The leaves and bark are used externally for rheu- 
matic swellings (Watt ii. 94). 

260. Turrcea villosa, Benn. h.f.b.l, i. 542. 

Vern : — Kapur-bhendi (Bom.). 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula ; on the Anamally and 
Alahableshwar hills ; Guzerat at Dolca. 

N. 0. MELIAOEiE. 299 

A large or small shrub more or less pubescent with short 
hairs. Leaves thin, pubescent, ovate, acute or shortly acumin- 
ate, acute or obtuse at base, entire ; in flower usually about 
l^in., in fruit about 2-4 by 2J-lJin. Petioles |in. long, pubes- 
cent. Flowers sweet-scented, white, axillary 1-1 Jin. long, in few 
— flowered clusters or short racemes ; peduncles short, pedicles 
fin. long, hairy, tomentose. Calyx short, cup-shaped, pubescent 
outside, teeth acute. Petals yellow, linear, longer than the 
Staminal — tube, free, glabrous. Staminal-tube glabrous, slender, 
f-lin. long, dilated at top, teeth subulate, short. Anthers \ as 
long. Ovary 5-celled. Style long, exserted, Stigma capitate, 
urn-shaped. Capsule sub-globose, glabrate, Jin. diam. (Talbot). 
Seeds not winged (W.P. Hiern). 

Western Peninsula, on the Ghats, from the Concan south- 
ward ; Mahableshwar, North Canara. Gujrat at Dolra (Dholara). 
Use : — " The root is used as an application to fistulas, and 
is administered internally in black leprosy" (Dymock). 

261. Naregamia alata, W. and A. h.f.b.l, 
i. 542. 

Vern. : — Kapur-bhendi, pit-wel, tinpana (Mar.) ; Trifolio 
(Goa) ; Kanu-dida (Kan.) ; Nela naregam (Malay.). 

Habitat :— Western Peninsula or the Western Ghats, from 
the Concan southwards. 

Parts used : — The roots and stems. 
A small, glabrous and shining undershrub. Branches erect 
or decumbent, from a few inches to 2ft. long. Leaves trifoliate, 
l-4in. long. Leaflet sessile, cuneate obovate, quite entire, or 
obtusely lobed, terminal leaflet rather longer than the lateral 
ones, and about the length of the common petiole. Common 
petioles winged. Flowers 1-1 £in. long, quite white, longer 
than the peduncles. Petals 5. Calyx 5 cleft, small campanulate. 
Staminal-tube elongated, inflated above, 10 crenate at the mouth. 
Anthers 10, terminal, shortly oblong, inserted at the crenatures 
of the mouth, exserted, setaceous-apiculate. Disk annular. 
Ovary 3-celled, loculicidally 3-valved. Style yellow. Seeds 2 in 
each cell ; albumen fleshy, embryo foliaceous. 


Western Peninsula on the Western Ghats from the Concan 

Use : — " This is the country ipecacuanha of the Portuguese 
at Goa. The drag consists of the creeping root, with the slender 
stems attached to it, the leaves having been stripped off. It 
has a somewhat pungent, aromatic odour, but hardly any taste ; 
and is given as an emetic, in doses of from 12 to 18 grains. In 
Southern India it is used as a remedy for rheumatism. In the 
Concan the Hindus use the leaves and stems in decoction with 
bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. In the 
Southern Concan it is called pit-yel or pitpapra, on account of 
its well-marked, emetic and bile-expelling properties ; it is the 
best indigenous emetic on this side of India" (Dymock). 

It has recently been tried in Madras in acute dysentery and 

also as an emetic and expectorant, with results similar to those 

of ipecacuanha, given in equal doses (Pbarmacog. Ind.). 

An ethereal extract contained 0*3 per cent, of Hooper's alkaloid narega- 
miane, 2'0 of wax, 2*5 of resin, and 0*9 of fatty oil and cloring matter. The 
wax melted 58° had a sp. gr. 0*91, acid number 5*9 (Chloroform solution), 6*1 
(alcoholic solution), ether number 21*1, and saponification number 27'0. 
When the alcoholic solusion was poured into water, a resin was precipitated, 
whilst in the solution there still remained a substance which readily reduced 
Fehling's solution (sugar). The aqueous extract had a faint acid reaction 
and gave a blue coloration with iodine ; a crystalline compound, which is 
probably asparagine (Hooper), was also isolated and the extract contained 
proteids, gum, and pectin substances but not tannin. The drug left 5*73— 7*1 
per cent, of ash, that of the wood being 1*79 and that of the bark 5'97 ; 5-9 per 
cent, of dry residue was obtained from the alcoholic and 12*3 from the aqueous 

J. Ch. S. Vol : LXXX. (Pt. II of 1901) pp. 70-71. 

252. Melia azadiraehta, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 544. 
Roxb. 368. 

Syn. :—■ Azadiraehta indica, Aclr. Juss. 

Sans.~The bark :— Nimba-valkalam, Nimba-muiam-val- 
kalam. The fruit :— Nimba-phalam. The oil :— Nimba-tailam, 
The flower :— Nimba-pushpam. The leaf :— Nimba-patram, The 
juice : — Nimba-niryasam. 

N. 0. MELIACE^. 301 

Vern. : — Of the bark — The Nim or Margosa bark, Eng. 
Nimhki-chhdl, Hind. Wim-ki-chhdl, Duh. Vembu-pattai, veppam- 
pattai, Tarn. Vepa-patta, vepa-chettu-patta, Tel. Veppa-toli, 
ariya-veppa-toli, Malyal. Bevina-marapette, Kan. Nim-sal, Beng. 
Limbaeha-patta, Mah. lAmba-nu-ehdl, Guz. Kohumbapotta, nim- 
bugaha-potta, Ging. Tama-bin-akhav, Burnt. Poste-azad-darakhte- 
hindi, Poste-nib, Vers. Of the root-bark — The Nim or Margosa 
root-bark, Eng. Nimb-ki-jar-ki-c/z/zaZ, Hind. Nim-ki-jar-ki- 
ehhdl, Duh. Vembu-ver-pattai, veppam-verpattai, Tarn. Vepa- 
veru-patta, Tel. Veppa-mulam-toli, Malyal. Beviua-beru-patte, 
Kan. Nim -shikar-sal, Beng. Limba-cha-muli-patta, Mah. Limba- 
nujad-chal, Guz. Kobumba-mul-potta, nimbu- mul-potta, Ging. 
Tama-mi-akhav, Bur. Poste-bekhe-nib, posteaznd-darakhte-hindi, 
Pers. Of the fruit — The Nim or Margosa fruit, Eng. Nimb or 
Nimb-ka-phal, Hind. Nim-bachya-ninboliyan Duk Veppam- 
paramvembu-pazham, Tarn. Vepa-pandu, vepa-chettu-pandu, 
Tel. Veppa-kaya, ariya veppa-kaya, Ma^aLBevina-mara-hannu, 
Kan. Nim-chapandu, Mali. Nim-phal, 5e??^.Limbanu-phal Guz. 
Nimba-gadi, Kohumba-ka, Ging. Tama-asi, Bur. Barre-nib, Barre- 
azad-darakhte-hindi, Pers. Of the nut — The Nimor Margosa nut, 
Eng. Nimb-ki-guthliyan, Hind. Nim-gutliyan, Duk.Yemhu- 
kottai, veppam-kottai, Tarn. Vepa-kottai, Tel. Veppa-kuru, 
ariya-veppa-anti, Malyal. Bevina-gotti, Kan. Nim-gotli, Beng. 
Limba-cha-antholi, Mah. Limba-nu-gotli, Guz. Kohumba-atta, 
nimba-kotta, Ging. Tamabin-zi, Bur. Tukh?rctf-azad-clarakhte- 
hindi, tukhme-nib, Pers. Of the oil — Nim or Margosa oil, 
Eng. Nimb-ka-tel, Hind. Nimb-achen-tel, Duh. Vembu-enney, 
Veppamenney, Tarn. Vepa-mine, Tel. Veppa-enna, ariya- veppu- 
enna, Malyal. Bevana-yanne, bevana-mara-yanne, Kan. Nim- 
tail, Beng. Limba-cha-tela, Mah. Limbanu tel, Guz. Kohumba- 
tel, nimba-tel, Ging. Tama-si, tamabin-si, Bur. Roghane- 
azad-darakhte-hiudi, Roghane-nib, Pers. Of the flowers — The 
Nim or Margosa flowers, Eng. Nimb-ke-phul, nim-ke-phul, 
Hind. Nim-ke-phul, Duk. Nambu-pu, veppam-pu, Tarn. Vepa- 
puvvu, Tel. Vappapu, ariya-veppa-pu, Malyal. Bevina-huvvu, 
bevina-mara-huvvu, Kan. Nim-phul, Beng. Limbache-phula, 
Mah. Limba-nu- phula, Guz. Kohumba-mal, nimba-mal, Ging. 
Tama-poen, Bur. Gule-azad-darakhte-hindi, gule-nib, Pers. Of 


the leaves — The Nim or Margosa leaves, Eng. Nimb-ke-pat, 
nim-ka-patta, Hind. Nim-ke-patte, Dah. Vembu-ilai,veppam- 
ilai, Tarn. Vepa-aku, Tel. Veppa el a, ariya-veppa-ela, Malyal. 
Bevina-yale, bevina-mara-yale, Kan. Nimpata, Beng.~Limba,- 
cha-pane, Mali. Limba-un-pandru, Guz. Kohumba-kola, 
nimba-kola, Ging. Tamayo-e, Bur. Barge-azad-darakhte-hindi, 
barge-nib, Pers. Of the gum — The Niiri or Margosa gum, Eng. 
Nimb-ka-gond, nimb-ka-gond, Hind. Nim-bachk-gond, Dull. 
Vembu-pisbin, veppam-pishin, Tdm. Vepapi-sunu, Tel. Veppa- 
pasha, ariya-veppa-pasha, Malyal. Bevina-gondu, bevina-mara- 
gondu, Kan. Trimen — " in Ceylon, in Sinhalase, Kohmba, 
Tamil, aVempu." Nim-lasa, Beng. Limba-che-gonda, Mah. 
Limba-nu-gundar, Guz. Kohumba-melliyam, nimba melliyam, 
Ging. Tama-si, tama- bin-si, Bur. Samaghe-nib, Samaghe- 
azad-darakhte-hindi, Pers. Of the toddy — The Nim or Margosa 
toddy, Eng. Nimb-ka-nira, Nimba-ka-nira, Hind. Nimba-chaa- 
nira, Duk. Veppam-kallu, Tarn. Vepa-kallu, Tel. 

Vern. : — J. Inclraji (Porebunder and Guj.) Limbdo. (Marathi) 
Kadn Nimb ; Nimba; (Hindi) Hiva Nim. Vempu (Tamil); 
Kohomba (Sinhalese). 

Habitat : — Common throughout India. 

A tall tree, with a straight trunk and long spreading 
branches. Altogether a very handsome, graceful, shady tree in 
the Deccan and the Concan, 40-50ft Bark grey, with 
numerous scattered tubercles. Wood hard, close-grained ; 
sapwood grey, heart-wood red. Young parts glabrous- Leaves 
8-15in., rather crowded near the ends of branches, simply 
pinnate. Rachis 6-9 inches, says Trimen, glabrous. Leaflets 
2-8 pair and alternate, 1-3 by J-lJin., 9-15 pair, says Hiern ; 
opposite or alternate, very shortly stocked ; lanceolate, falcate, 
very unequal-sided, oblique at base, coarsely dentate-serrate, 
glabrous, pale green. Flowers small, in lax, narrow, axillary 
panicles, 5-8in. long ; white, sweet-scented. Sepal rounded, finely 
ciliate ; staminal-tube dilated above, hairy within, teeth truncate, 
trifid, recurved. Anthers small, erect. Ovary 3-celled. Drupe 
oblong-ovoid |-fin., blunt, smooth. Fruit greenish yellow 
when ripe. Pulp scanty ; endocarp bony. Seed solitary. 

N. 0. MELIACEiE. 303 

Planted everywhere in Ceylon ; Southern and Western India. 
Wild in the sub-Himalaya bract, Burma, cultivated in Dun and 
Shaharanpur Districts, common along Siwalik Hills. 

Parts used : — Every part of this plant, except the wood, is 
used in medicine, namely, the bark, root- bark, young fruit, nuts 
or seeds, oil, flowers, leaves, gum and toddy. 

" Physiological Actions. — The physiological actions of all 
the parts of this plant employed as drugs may be arranged as 
follows : — 

" The root-bark, bark and young fruit — tonic and anti- 

" The oil, nuts, and leaves — local stimulant, insecticide, 
and antiseptic. 

" The flowers — stimulant-tonic and stomachic. 

" The gum— demulcent-tonic. 

" The toddy-— refrigerant, nutrient and alterative tonic. 

" Therapeutic Uses. — The bark, root-bark, and young fruit 
are useful in some slight cases of intermittent fever and general 
debility. The root-bark is more active and speedy in its action 
than the bark and young fruit. The margosa oil has proved 
itself a useful local remedy in some chronic forms of skin 
diseases and ulcers, by stimulating and exciting a healthy 
action. Applied to foul and sloughing ulcers, it retards the 
sloughing process to some extent, prevents the production of 
maggots, and dislodges them if already produced. The oil is 
also a very useful adjunct to some other and stronger remedies, 
as chaulmugra oil, as already mentioned in my remarks under 
the latter drug. The dry nuts of M. Azadirachta possess almost 
the same medical properties as the oil, but they require to be 
bruised and mixed with, water or some other liquid before they 
can be applied to the skin or ulcers ; and their use, is therefore, 
attended with so much, inconvenience that they cannot be 
resorted to at all, except in those places where the oil is not 
procurable. A strong decoction of the fresh leaves is a slight 
antiseptic, and is useful like a weak carbolic lotion in washing 


wounds and ulcers, and syringing out the vagina in the after- 
treatment of parturition, &c. When the pustules of small or 
cow-pox burst and begin to ulcerate, the Hindu medical practi- 
tioners invariably recommend the application of the paste of the 
fresh margosa leaves two or three times in the twenty-four 
hours, and speak highly of its healing power. As the paste is a 
slight stimulant and antiseptic, I thought the supposition of 
Vythians is not without foundation, and therefore watched some 
of the cases under its use and found the result to be good in 
all the slight and ordinary cases. In some severe forms of 
ulceration from small-pox, however, it proved quite useless, as 
naturally expected. On the whole, the use of the paste is quite 
justifiable in many slight and ordinary cases of ulceration from 
the pustules of small or cow-pox. The aroma of the fresh or 
recently dried leaves is sufficient to prevent the attack of insects, 
and they are therefore often placed in books and clothes by the 
natives of this country ; but they are much inferior to camphor 
in this respect. 

" The flowers are useful in some cases of atonic dyspepsia 
and general debility. The gum being bestowed with a slight 
tonic action in addition to its demulcent property, it is a better 
auxiliary to other remedies than Gum Arabic and feronia gum 
in catarrhal and other affections, particularly when the latter 
are accompanied by great debility. The toddy of the margosa 
tree appears to be of great service in some chronic and long- 
standing cases of leprosy and other skin diseases, consumption, 
atonic dyspepsia and general debility, and although I have not 
prescribed it myself, I am acquainted with several persons who 
praise the drug very highly from personal use and observation. 
It is, however, extremely scarce, and this is a great drawback 
to its use and adoption into general practice. 

"Preparations. — Of the root-bark, bark and young fruit — 
Decoction, tincture and powder. Decoction : Take of the inner 
layer of the root-bark, cut into small pieces, four ounces ; 
water, two pints ; boil on a slow fire till the liquid is reduced to 
one pint, and strain while hot. The decoction of the bark is 
prepared in precisely the same manner, and in both cases the 

N. 0. MELIACE^I. 305 

fresh bark is preferable to the dry and old one. In preparing 
the decoction of the fruit, they should be selected when they 
are very young or before attaining half of their natural size ; 
cut into small slices and dry in the sun ; and then their propor- 
tion to the water and the method of boiling and straining are 
exactly the same as in the decoction of root-bark. Tincture : 
Take of the inner layer of the root-bark or bark, in coarse pow- 
der, four ounces ; alcohol or proof spirit, one pint ; macerate 
for seven days in a closed vessel with occasional agitation, 
press, filter and add more spirit, if necessary, to make one 
pint. Powder : The inner layer of the root-bark or bark, or 
the dry young fruit, may be reduced to powder, passed 
through a fine sieve and kept in a closed vessel. Of the leaves, 
nuts and oil — Decoction, paste or poultice and solution. De- 
coction : Take of the fresh leaves, four ounces ; water, two 
pints; boil till the liquid is reduced to half of its quantity, and 
strain when cool. Paste or poultice : Bruise and rub the fresh 
leaves with hot or cold water in a stone mortar, till they are 
reduced to a soft and pulpy mass. Solution : Bruise and rub 
the kernel of the nuts with cocoanut oil, water or some other 
liquid, in a mortar till it becomes well mixed and thin. The 
oil is either applied by itself or in combination with other 
drugs, as chaulmugra oil, &c. Of the flowers — Infusion : Take 
of the flowers, three ounces ; hot water, one pint or just suffi- 
cient to cover the flowers ; infuse in a covered vessel for an 
hour and strain. Of the gum — Mucilage, which is prepared 
in the same way as the corresponding preparation of the 
Indian Gum Arabic, under the head of Preparation, in the 
article Aeaeia Arabiea. Of the toddy — There is no pre- 
paration of the sap or margosa toddy, it being always used 

" Doses— -Of the decoction of the root-bark, bark or youni 
fruit, from one-and-a-half to three fluid ounces ; of the tincture 
of the root-bark or stem bark, from one to three fluid drachms ; 
and of the powder of any of the above drugs, from one to 
two drachms; three or four times in the twenty-four hounj. 
Of the infusion of flowers, from one-and-a-half, to three fluid 


ounces ; of the mucilage of the gum, from one to two fluid 
ounces ; three or four times in the twenty-four hours 

" Remarks — No less than nine parts of the margosa nim tree 
are employed in medicine, and I am not aware of any other 
plant which produces so many drugs. 

" The nim or margosa to-day is an important therapeutic 
agent and requires a special notice. The toddy or sap is yielded 
either spontaneously or extracted artificially. In the former 
case, a clear and colorless liquid begins to flow in a very thin 
stream or continuous drops, from two or three and sometimes 
more parts of the plant, and continues to do so from three to 
seven weeks. The trunk and large branches and roots are 
the parts from which the flow takes place through very small 
and recent cracks or fissures, and the quantity of the liquid 
discharged in the 24 hours from the whole tree varies from two 
to eight bottles according to its size. Of the several margosa 
trees in Madras and its vicinity known to yield occasionally 
the sap under discussion, there was one in Mylapore which 
enjoyed the greatest repute in this respect. This plant was 
in a small street, at the southern end of the above village, 
and died about 15 or 16 years ago. It was a pretty large tree, 
about 50 or 60 years old, and produced the sap every 3rd or 
4th year. After the last or fourth occasion, the trunk became 
rapidly hollow and the plant died soon after this. On each 
occasion, before the sap began to flow, there was always, for 
three or four days, a distinct and peculiar rushing or pumping 
noise of a liquid within the trunk, which did not entirely cease 
till the discharge actually commenced from three or four parts 
of the plant. 

"The above phenomenon being a sure forerunner of the 
flow of the sap, as just explained, the owner of the plant (Faiz 
Ahmed Khan) always gave notice of its occurrence to all his 
neighbours and many other persons, with a view to be prepared 
to avail themselves of this extremely rare medicine if they were 
in need of it. The fame of the sap as a curative agent was 
certainly so great that the plant was surrounded by people 
morning and 'evening, who bought and drank the drug very 

N. 0. MRLIACEiE. o07 

eagerly. The price of it was very variable, but generally 
between 4 and 10 annas per bottle, and at one time it rose to a 
rupee for the same quantity. The sap was more or less bit- 
terish in taste, with a slight and peculiar aroma of the nira tree 
and was never known to ferment or possess any intoxicating 
property. The word toddy is, therefore, not correctly applica- 
ble to this liquid drug. I have already mentioned the diseases 
which were most benefited by its use, under the heading of 
' Therapeutic Uses.' 

" The nim trees which yield the sap artificial^ seem to be 
more rare, for I have heard only of three or four of such plants. 
All these are said to have been pretty young and large trees, 
and were found near water or on the banks of nullas or water- 
courses which were constantly wet. The air passing through 
nim trees is thought to be highly beneficial to health, and hence 
the practice among the natives of planting nim trees near their 
dwelling-houses. Many Europeans even believe in this, espe- 
cially in the North- Western Provinces and Oudh, and frequently 
cite villages surrounded with nim trees as proverbially free 
from fever, while adjoining villages have suffered severely. 
Dr. C. Macnamara advocates the use of the watery extract of 
dry leaves in leprosy (Moodeen Sheriff)." 

The seeds are eaten as a substitute for almonds (Trimen.) 

The dried leaves powdered are applied locally to the anus 
of children suffering from intestinal worms (B. D. Basu). 
The Therapeutic uses of Neem— By Major D. B. Spencer, I. M. S.— 

I have used the leaves, bark, and oil of Neem. All parts of the plant are 

1. Leaves. A handful of leaves, crushed and flattened, will make an excel- 
lent poultice for boils and sores ; its action is stimulant and antiseptic. 

The dried leaves I have used to preserve books and clothes from vermin. 

Internally, two ounces of fresh leaves, made into an infusion, with a pint of 
boiling water, form an exceedingly useful bitter vegetable tonic and alter- 
ative. It has a marked action upon the liver— the stools often become brilliant 
yellow in colour after its use. 

This infusion is also valuable in chronic malarial fever, although not so 
efficacious as the oil. In chronic syphilitic affections it acts as a powerful 
alterative. I have used it also in leprosy, but, except perhaps in one case, it 
had no specific effect upon the disease. 


2. The bark has astringent, antiperiodic, and alterative properties, and 
may be used as an infusion in the same way as the leaves. 

8. The oil, I think, is the most active medicinal part of the plant. Ex- 
ternally, it has stimulant, antiseptic, and alterative properties and is very 
useful in chronic syphilitic sores and indolent ulcers, which show no tendency 
to heal. If the effect of the pure oil be found too stimulating, it should be 
diluted with equal parts of some bland oil or even a weaker strength may be 

The oil is also extremely useful as a parasiticide in various cutaneous 
affections, such as ringworm, scabies, and others, where the presence of any 
kind of parasite may be suspected. It rapidly destroys the parasite and induces 
a healthy action. When the parasite is in the deeper layers of the skin, it 
will be necessary to rub the oil well in for perhaps 10 minutes or more at a 
time. I have used this oil in mange in dogs and found it useful. 

Internally, the oil in 5-10 minim doses, once or twice a day, is useful in 
chronic malarial fevers, in syphilis, leprosy and other diseases where an 
alterative action is indicated. I have used it internally for the last 12 years, 
chiefly in chronic malarial fevers, and have no hesitation in saying that it is 
a drug of undoubted value in these fevers. Vide my "Record of Indian 
Fevers," 1899, published, by Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Co. 

In the Indian Forester for June 1913, pp. 264-265, 
Mr. T. P. Ghose, B. Sc, Assistant to Forest Chemist, Dehra 
Dun, writes : — 


In the December issue of the Indian Forester, Mr. Allen brought to 
the notice of its readers the fact that leprous persons eagerly take the 
exudation of Neem as a remedy against the hateful malady. This belief is 
of very old standing, and has in fact originated from the old medical literature 
of the Hindus. There can be no doubt about the fact that the leaves and 
bark, and *also the oil out of the seeds, have specific medicinal properties. 
Dr. Watt in his Dictionary of Economic Products has collected opinions of 
various medical men, both Europen and Indian, about the medicinal properties 
of the different parts of this tree. From all these it can easily be gathered 
that the bark is a good febrifuge, and is especially useful in periodic fever, 
also in thirst and nausea. The leaves as well as the oil are very useful in 
skin diseases. They are also a germicide and an antiseptic. Since so many 
parts of this tree are medicinal, specially when some of them have specific 
action on the skin, it is but natural that people should ascribe some valuable 
medicinal properties to its spontaneous exudation. It is not every day that 
the Neem begins spontaneously to exude the toddy, and therefore the rarity 
of the occurrence adds a good deal to the importance of this product in 
popular estimation. 

A sample of toddy received from Rai Bahadur Har Swarup, Conservator of 
Forests, Gwalior State, was chemically examined to find out its constituents 
and to ascertain whether there is any active principle that might produce the 
effects popularly ascribed to it. The toddy was a milk-like whitish emulsion 

N. O. MELIACEiE. 309 

with a pale yellow tinge. It was sweet in taste and possessed the peculiar 
aromatic odour of full ripe Neem fruits. On boiling and removing the 
precipitated albuminous matter, a limpid faintly yellow solution was obtained. 
Angle of rotation of this solution at 15°C was + 1L°C. Its specific gravity at 
the same temperature Avas 1*0-589. 

The following is the general composition of the material :— 

Moisture ... ... ... ... 86*56 per cen r -. 

Proteids ... ... ... ... 0*36 „ 

Gums and colouring matter ... ... ... 6*17 ,. 

Glucose (grape sugar) ... ... ... 2*99 ., 

Sucrose (cane sugar) ... ... ... 3'5l ,, 

Ash ... ... .. ... ... 0*41 „ 

Petroleum ether extracted from the dried solids of the toddy only a trace 
of fatty and resinous matter. Tests for alkaloidal and glucosidal principle 
were in the negative. 

Qualitative analysis of the ash showed the presence of potassium, iron, 
aluminium, calcium and carbon dioxide in it. 

From the above analysis it can easily be seen that the toddy cannot claim 
any special medicinal properties. It is, like all other toddies, a syrupy 
solution of sugar plus a little albuminous and gummy matter with the peculiar 
odour of ripe Neem fruits. The valuable active principle of Neem which is 
an alkaloid according to Cornish and a resinous body according to Broughton 
(vide Watt's Dictionary of Economic Products), is absent. Hence the Neem 
toddy can be said to be a cooling nutrient and stimulating tonic, but it does 
not seem to contain anything which can be said to be useful for leprosy or 
other skin-diseases. 

Dr. Watt also mentions the tapping of Neem for its toddy. This is not 
a general practice, but if it can be successfully tapped, and if it is made 
available in large quantities, then it might be a fruitful source of country 
liquor or even alcohol, and in that case the tree might well be brought under 
the Excise Act. 

This investigation was carried out under the instructions of the Forest 

.263. M. azadarach, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 544. Roxb, 

The English " Persian " Lilac. 

Habitat. — Commonly cultivated in India and Burma ; wild 
in the Sub- Himalaya tract. Supposed to be indigenous in Balu- 
chistan and the Jhelum valley in Kashmir (Brandis) and 

Syn. — Melia sempervirens, Sw. ; M. Bukayun, Royle. 

Sanskrit. — Mahanimba, himadruma, parvata-nimba-vriksha 


Vern. — Drek, bakain, bakayan, betain, deikna, bakarja, 
mahanib (Hind.); Ghoranim, maha-nim, (Beng.) ; Gara nim, 
(KoL); Thamaga (Assam) ; Bakainu (Nepal) ; Bukain (N.-W. P.); 
Chein, kachen, bakain, dhek, drek, jek, seecl = habbulban (Pb.j ; 
Bakyana, (Pushtu) ; Bakayun, drek (Sind.) Maha limbo, 'malla 
nim muhli, (C. P.) ; Gouri-nim, gouli-nim (Dec ) ; Nimb, maha- 
limbo, drek, bakayan, wilayati nim (Bomb.) ; Limbara bakana- 
nimb, wilayati-nimb (Mar.) ; Dek (Dun) ; Bakan limbodo (Guz.) ; 
Malai, vembu, malai-veppam (Tarn.) ; Taraka vepa, makanim, 
konda-vepa (Tel.) ; Bevu, chik bevu, hutchu bevu, kadbevina- 
mara, bettada-bevina (Kan.) ; Mullay vaempu (Malay.) ; Ta-ma- 
ka, ka-ma-ka (Burm.) ; Maha-nimba, lunumidella (Sing.); 
Habul-ban (Arab). 

J. Indraji : — (Porbunder and Guj.) Bakan, Bakan-limbdo ; 
(Marathi) Bakayin ; (Hind.) Bakayin. 

English— The Persian Lilac, Indian lilac, or Bead tree. 

A middle-sized, deciduous tree, young shoots and inflores- 
cence sparsely clothed with deciduous stellate hairs, heartwood 
light red ; annual rings marked by a belt of large vessels. 
Pinnate, 3-4 pair, more or less opposite. Leaflets 3-12, ovat - 
lanceolate, more or less deeply serrate, sometimes lobed. Flowers 
lilac, with a strong honey-scent. Staminal-tube purple, i'm. 
long, teeth 20-30, linear ; anthers glabrous, shorter than, or as 
long as the teeth. Stigma clavate, 5-tootbed. Drupe yellow, 
when ripe 3-4in. long. 

Uses. — " Hindu writers on Materia Medica seem to have 
almost entirely neglected the Persian Lilac in favour of their 
own nim. It has, however, long been used by the Arabs and 
Persians, who brought a knowledge of its virtues with them 
into India. They consider the root-bark, fruit, flowers, and 
leaves to be hot and dry, and to have deobstruent, resolvent, and 
alexipharmic properties. Thus, the flowers and leaves are 
applied as a poultice to relieve nervous headaches. The juice 
of the leaves, administered internally, is said to be anthelmintic, 
antilithic, diuretic, and emmenagogue, and is thought to relieve 
cold swellings, and expel the humors which give rise to them" 

N. 0. MELTACE^. 311 

In America, a decoction of the leaves has been employed in 
hysteria, and is believed to be astringent and stomachic. The 
leaves and bark are used internally and externally in leprosy 
and scrofula ; while a poultice of the flowers is believed to have 
vermicide properties and to be a valuable remedy in eruptive 
skin diseases. The fruit has poisonous properties, but is used 
in leprosy and scrofula, and is worn as a necklace to avert con- 
tagion. In the Punjab, the seeds are prescribed in rheumatism, 
and in Kangra they are pounded and mixed with apricots as an 
external application for the same disease. In Bombay, strings 
of the seeds are suspended over doors and verandahs during 
the prevalence of epidemics to avert the disease. The oil is 
said to possess similar properties to that of the nim ; and, 
according to Ainslie, this species also yields a similar toddy. 
Emerson states that the gum is used as a remedy for splenic 

Several parts of the Persian Lilac are considerably 
employed in America. Thus, " the root bark has obtained a 
place in- the secondary list of the United States Pharmacopoeia 
as an anthelmintic. It has a bitter nauseous taste, and yields its 
virtues to boiling water. It is administered in the form of 
decoction (4 ozs. of the fresh bark to two pints of water, boiled 
to one pint), of which the dose for a child is a tablespoonful every 
third hour, until it sensibly affects the bowels or stomach, or a 
dose may be given every morning or evening for several days 
and then be followed by a cathartic " (Pharmacop. Inol.). 
Moodeen Sheriff states that, after a careful trial of the above 
preparation, he has arrived at the conclusion that " if the root- 
bark is vermifuge at all, it is very weakly so." 

" Other preparations have been used in America. The 
dried berries in whisky have been employed against ascarides, 
tapeworm and verminous diseases, and the pulp of the berries 
stewed in lard has been used with success against scald head. 
A fluid extract and syrup prepared from the bark have been 
recommended, the latter containing vanilla which is said to 
wholly disguise the bitter and disagreeable taste of the drug 
{Year Booh of Pharmacy (1875), 375). A recent writer on the 


subject, Mr. Jacobs, states that, when prepared in March or 
April while the sap is ascending, unpleasant effects have been 
observed, such as stupor, dilatation of the pupil, &c, which 
symptoms, however, pass off without perceptible injury to the 
system. There appears little doubt that, if given in large, doses, 
the bark, leaves, and fruits are all toxic, producing narcotism 
followed by death. Dr. Burton Brown (Punjab Poisons) records 
a case in which a European girl ate the berries, became insen- 
sible and died. Descourtilz says that six to eight seeds cause 
nausea, spasm and choleraic symptoms, sometimes followed by 
death" (Watt). 

Margosa Oil. 

This oil is obtained from the seeds of Melia uzedarach. 

It has a Sp. Gr. of 0*9023 ; at 04740° ; Saponification nnmber, 196*9 ; iodine 
number, 52. The oil is solid at the ordinary temperature. 

264. M. dubia, Gav, h. f. b. l, i. 545. 

8yn. : — M. Superba, Roxb ; M. Robusta, Roxb. 369. 

Vern. : — Nimbara, limbada (Bomb.) 

The fruit, kala khajur, kuaru khajur (Bomb.) ; Dingkur- 
long (Assam) ; Lapshi (Nepal) ; Kadu khajur (Guz.) ; Mallay 
vembu (Tain.) ; Bevu, letta-beru, kad-bevu, Karibevin, ara-bevu 

Habitat : — Wild and cultivated in the Eastern and West- 
ern Peninsulas. 

A very large handsome tree, deciduous, very fast-growing. 
Bark smooth, dark brown or dark purplish brown, thin. 
Wood soft, sapwood grey, heartwood reddish white. l r oung 
parts stellate-mealy. Leaves crowded, very large, l-3ft. or 
more, bi-or somewhat — tripinnate, pinnae 3-6 pair, distant, 
opposite or nearly so ; leaflets 2-5 pair, in each pinna and a 
terminal one, stalked, oval or ovate, slightly oblique at base, 
acuminate, coarsely shallowly crenate, the lowest often again 
pinnate, glabrous ; rachis cylindric, glabrous, dilated at base. 
Corymbose panicles numerous, 4-8in. long. Peduncle axillary, 
stellate-scurfy. Calyx-segments lanceolate, acute, stellate-mealy. 
Petals white, linear-oblong, obtuse reflexed, stellate-mealy 

N. 0. MELIACEiE. 313 

outside, pubescent within. Staminal-tube somewhat tapering, 
hairy within, teeth spreading, filiform ; anthers nearly sessile ; 
style long, stigma clavate, 5-toothed. Drupe ovoid, 1-1 Jin., 
smooth and shining, yellowish. Seeds solitary in each cell ; 
pointed, smooth, brown. 

Part used :— The fruit. 

Uses : —The pulp of the fruit has a bitter nauseous taste. 
It is a favourite remedy amongst the laboring classes for colic, 
half a fruit being the dose for an adult. It appears to have 
hardly any purgative properties, but is said to relieve the pain 
most effectively. In the Concan, the juice of the green fruit, 
with a third of its weight of sulphur, and an equal quantity of 
curds, heated together in a copper pot, is used as an application 
to scabies, and to sores infested with maggots (Dymock, 173.) 

265. Sandorieum indiciim, Cav., h. f.b.i., i. 553. 

Vem. :— Thitto (Burm.) ; Santor (Malay). 

Habitat: — Eastern Peninsula; from Rangoon, Tenasserim 
to Penang. Introduced into the Western Peninsula. 

Trimen : —Sinhalese name— Lunu-midella. Tamil — Malal- 

An evergreen tree, with trifoliate, coriaceous leaves, attain- 
ing 60ft. Wood close-grained, moderately hard, medullary rays 
conspicuous on radial section. Branchlets, inflorescence and 
leaves velvety. Flowers yellow, in narrow axillary panicles. 
Staminal-tube 10-dentate, style articulate at base, clavate above, 
ending in a thickened ring, bearing five obtuse stigmatic lobes, 
fruit globose, 3in. diam., yellow and velvety when ripe ; exocarp 
a fleshy and edible pulp, endocarp lining the cells, horny, 
covered with a densely felted mass of long pluricellular hairs, 
over Jin. long. Cotyledons filled with starch and oil. 

Use : — The root, which is bitter, bruised with vinegar and 
water, is used by the Amboyans as a carminative and also in 
cases of diarrhoea and dysentery (Rumphius). 

266. Aglaia Roxbiirghiana, ri. f. b. L, i. 553. 
Sy)i : — Milnea Roxburghiana W. and A., A. odoratissima, 


Vern. : — Priyangu (B, H, Mar. and Sans.) 
Habitat : — Western Peninsula, from the Concan and 
Midnapore southwards. 

A large evergreen tree (near the coast in Kanara, a shrub). 

Bark light brown, smooth, peeling of! in flat rectangular scales. 
Wood bright red, hard, very tough, close-grained, handsomely 
marked. Annual rings distinguished by a darker belt. Pores 
small, scanty, in narrow rings of whitish tissue which run 
concentrically and appear on a cross-section as narrow wavy 
lines. Medullary rays fine, numerous, evenly distributed ; the 
distance between them equal to or less than the diameter of the 
pores. Youngest shoots and inflorescences clothed with round 
peltate scales. Leaves 3-7in. Leaflets 1^-4|- by f-3in., glabrous 
opposite, pale beneath ; naked part of common petiole as long 
as the upper portion ; petiolules iq to |in. Flowers xVn. 
diam. ; in. diam, says Brandis. Panicles rather supra- 
axillary, pyramidal ; elongate, pedicels short. Calyx dull yellow, 
often covered with stellate hairs. Petals yellow. Fruit fin. 
diam. : buff- coloured, very minutely pilose. Seed ovoid, sur- 
rounded with a white thick, slighty acid edible pulp, embryo 
green, radicle minutely pilose. 

Use : — Said by the Sanscrit writers to be cooling, and 
useful in burning of the body and painful micturition. The 
fruit is described as sweet, astringent and tonic. (U. K. Dutt.) 

267. Amoova rohituka, W. and A. H. f. b. i., 
i. 559. 

Syn. : — Andersonia Rohituka, Roxb. 314. 

Sans. : — Rohitaka, 

Vern. :— Harin hara, harin khana (H.) ; Tikta-raj, pitraj 
(B.); Bandri phal (Nepal); Sohaga (Oudh) ; Sikru (KoL) ; 
Tanga ruk (Lepcha) ; Lota amari, amora amari (Assam) ; 
Shem-maram (Tarn, and Mai.) ; Chaw-a-manu, rohitakah (Tel.) 

Habitat:- Assan^ Sylhet, Cachar, Oudh, Western Penin- 
ula, from Concan to Travancore. 

N. O. MELIACEiE. 315 

A middle- si zed evergreen tree, with a heavy crown. " Bark 
thin, grey. Wood reddish, close and even-grained, hard ; pores 
small and moderate-sized. Medullary rays moderately broad, 
uniform and equidistant, distantly visible on radial section. 
Pores joined by reddish, soft, wavy, concentric lines. The 
concentric bands in this species are remarkable " (Gamble). 
Youngest shoots pubescent. Leaves l-3ft. . Leaflets 9-15, 3-9in. 
by l 1 -4in., more or less elliptic or ovate, acuminate, opposite, 
base usually obtuse, shortly petiolulate ; secondary nerves 
prominent beneath. Flowers white, bracteate, subsessile. 
Trimen says, yellow. Panicles spicate, male branched, female 
simple, solitary much shorter than the leaves ; or branched (W. 
P. Hiern). Male flowers , female Jin. long. Calyx 5-partite ; 
petals 3, anthers 6, attached to the tube at its base, Staminal- 
tube 6-toothed. Ovary sessile, short ; style short, stigma 
trigonous, angles opposite the Calyx-lobes. Fruit globose, 
yellow or reddish when ripe, l-ljin. diam., smooth, 3-celled, 
3-valved, pericarp coriaceous. Seed one, oblong, with a scarlet 
arillus. The seeds supply an economic oil. 

Trimen — Sinhalese name, Hingul ; found in Ceylon in 
most regions up to about 3000ft. 

Parts used : — The bark and seed. 

Use : — The bark of this plant is used as an astringent 
(Watt). The ripe seeds yield an oil which is used as a 
stimulating liniment in rheumatism (D. Basu)— Watt's Dictio- 

The seeds spherical, brownish black with a pale brown hilum, and con- 
sisted of a thin brittle husk which adhered to the kernel. Weight of 1 seed 
about 0-7 grm. 

Two samples of seed contained 42-5 and 43-5 per cent, of oil respectively. 

The oil is viscous, clear, and yellow brown ; it has an unpleasant smell 
and bitter taste. Sp. gr. at 15° C. 0-929—0-931 ; Saponification value, 193*0— 
192-3 ; Iodine value, 131-7-102-5 ; Hehner value, 92-4 ; unsaponifiable matter, 
1-2 per cent ; Rechert-Meissl value 1-2 ; Solidif pt, of fatty acids (titer test), 
32-40 C 

The Oil is suitable for Soap-Making. The residual cake could be used 
only as Manure on account of its bitter taste. 

(Bull. Imp, Inst. 1913). 


268. A. Cucullata Roxb., be. f. b. i;, i. 560. 

Vern. :— Amur ; Latmi ; Natmi (B.). 

Habitat : — Lower Bengal, in the Sunder bunds, and in 

A glabrous middle-sized, at times a large, evergreen tree, of 
slow growth, with smooth branches. Bark thin, grey. Wood 
hard, close-grained, but apt to split; heartwood red. Leaves 6-10in. 
Leaflets 2-4 pair, falcate, very oblique at base, 3-5in. long ; 
opposite or sub-opposite. Male panicles drooping, about as long 
as the leaves, with numerous diverging branches, sparingly 
lepidote. Female racemes few-flowered, supra-axillary. Petio- 
lule i-fin., or terminal one longer. Male flower fin., yellow. 
Bracts caducous, 2 at the base of the calyx. Calyx 3-lobed. 
Petals 3, anthers 6. Staminal-tube turbinate or sub-globose. 
Seeds covered with a fleshy, bright orange-coloured aril. 
Capsule globose, 2\\n. diam. Ovary 3-celled ; cells 2-ovuled. 

Use : — Leaves when bruised applied to reduce inflammation 
(Prain's Flora of the Sunderbuns, p. 292). 

269. Walsura piseidia, Boxb, h. f. b. i., 
i. 564. 

Vern.: — Walasura, wallursi (Bomb.); Walsura (Tarn.); 
Chadda-vakku, walsurai, kanna-kampu (Tarn.) in Ceylon ; Vala- 
rasi, walurasi (Tel.; (Sinhalese) Kiri-Kon, Mol-petta. ; ( Tamil ) 

Habitat : —Western Peninsula ; Malabar and Travancore. 
Trimen : Habitat — Malabar and Travancore, very common in 
the low country of Ceylon. 

A glabrous, generally middle-sized, at times a large, tree. 
bark sin. ; greyish brown, tessallated in somewhat erect angular 
squares. Wood hard ; sapwood reddish brown, heart-wood 
dark red, much streaked with black, close-grained. Leaves 
trifoliate, 2-7in. Leaflets pinkish, says Trimen, 2-3in. long, 
elliptic, obtuse, often retnse, glabrous, shining, pale beneath. 

N. 0. MELIAOEiE. 317 

Flowers pen tarn erous ; sordid-yellow. Petals imbricated. Sta- 
minal-tube half the length of the petals, equally 10-cleft for of 
its length; divisions all bifid at the apex, hairy above. Petioles 
^-Mn., terminal one longer. Ovary 2-, rarely 3-celled. Fruit 
egg-shaped, fin., covered with a short tomentum. 

Varies in appearance and character of foliage. The pulpy 
aril of the seed is edible and pleasant. 

Use : — Corre and Lejanne state that in the Antilles the 
tree is known as Herbe a mauvaise gens or Herbe a mediants, 
and that the bark acts as a dangerous emmenagogue and violent 
emetic. Air. Heelings worth of Madras has experimented with 
it, and finds it to be stimulant and expectorant. The fruit of 
another species of the same genus is said by Forskhal to be the 
jauz-el-kai or the emetic nut of the Arabs, with whom it is 
also used as hair wash to kill vermin, and as an ointment to 
cure itch (Pharmacog. Ind.). 

270. Heynea trijuga, Roxb. h. f. b. l, 
i. 565. Roxb. 367. 

Vern : — Kapia Kushi, Chenenji (B.) ; Limbara (Bomb.) ; 
Gundira (Mar.) ; Kora (Kan.); Kora hadi (Mai.) 

Habitat : Forests of N. Oudh ; Himalaya, from Nepal 
to Bhutan ; Khasia Mts. ; Bengal (Chota Nagpur ; Tirhut) ; 
Western Peninsula, from the Concan southwards. 

Central and Eastern Himalaya, from Kumaon and Oudh 
to Bhutan. Khasia Hills, Burma, Chota-Nagpur. Hills of 
Western India. North Kanara and Nilgiri. Godavary district, 
Man i pur. 

A small somewhat shrubby tree, sometimes attaining a 
large size. Bark thin, rough, reddish brown, with lozenge- 
shaped, depressed lenticels. Wood grey, when young, yellowish 
white, moderately hard. Leaves imparipinnate. Leaflets oppo- 
site, 4 pair, 2-6in., pale and often softly pubescent beneath. 
Flowers white, in axillary corymbose panicles. Peduncle nearly 
as long as leaf. Calyx campanulate, 3-5-cleft, petals valved in 


bud. Staminal-tube 8-10-fid. Segments bidentate. Anthers 
between the subulate teeth of segments. Capsule J-|in. diam. 
Valves 2, broad, obtuse. Seed enclosed in a thin white arillus. 
Testa orange, brown afterwards.. 

Use:— The bark and leaves possess bitter and' tonic 
principles (Duthic). 

271. Carapa moluccensis, Lam, h. f. b. i., 
i. 567. 

Syn. : — C. obovata, S/., Xylocarpus granatum, Koen. 
Vern ' — Poshiir, pussur (B.) ; Kandalanga (Tam.j 
Habitat : — Aluddy sea-coasts, throughout India and Ceylon. 
Tn Ceylon ' mangrove swamps, on the west coast ; rather rare. 
Trim en says. " This is called the common ball tree from the 
great spherical hard fruit." The Sinhalese name is Muclu- 
nelun ; but is generally reckoned with mangroves and called, 
like them, Kadol. 

An ever green tree, all parts glabrous. Bark thin, grey, 
peeling off in regular flakes. Wood red, hard ; sapwood lighter. 
Pores small to moderate sized, often subdivided, scanty. Medul- 
lary rays prominent, fine, numerous, uniform and equidistant 
Annual rings distinctly marked by a continuous belt of pores, 
and a dark line (Gamble). Stem 25-40ft. high, clear stem 
8-20ft. long, girth 4-6ft. Leaves abruptly pinnate, or occasion- 
ally simple, the smooth rachis brown or red ; leaflets in 2 or a 
single pair, rarely the one or other solitary ovate to obovate 
oblong, narrowed at base, very shortly petioluled, round or 
retuse at the apex, 3-4in. long, entire, fleshy, coriaceous when 
fresh, glossy on both sides. Flowers pinkish yellow (Trimen), 
rather small, nearly 4 in. in diam., on 3-4 in. long, thick 
pedicels, forming meagre, short, glabrous panicles or recemes 
in axils of the leaves. Calyx 4-cleft, the lobes rotundate. 
Petals 4, about 2 in. long. Staminal-tube 8-lobed. Capsule 
globose, as large as a small shaddok, or smaller, apiculate, 
containing 5-6 very large angular brown seeds. (Kurz Fl. 

N. 0. UELIGEM. 319 

Burma, Vol. I. p. 226.) The C. Molluccensis, Lamk. has a smaller 
fruit than the one given in the plate in this work (K. R. K.). 

Use : — The bark, in common with other parts of the tree, 
possesses extreme bitterness, conjoined with astringency ; it 
may probably prove a good astringent tonic. It is much em- 
ployed by the Malays in cholera, colic, diarrhoea, and other 
abdominal affections. — Ph, Ind. 

272. Soymida febrifuga, Adv. Juss., H. F. B. I., 
I., 567. 

Syn. :— Swietenia febrifuga, Roxb. Fl. Ind. II 398. 

Sans. : — Patranga. Rohini. 

Vern. : — Rohun rohunna rakat rohan (Hind.) ; Rohan 
rohina rohra (Beng.) ; Rakat rohen (Kol.) ; Ruhen (Santal.) ; 
Sohan, suam, mal (S. P.) ; Rohni bugut rori rohun (0. P J ; 
Soimi (Goond.) ; Royta (Bhil.) ; Rohan, merwara, rohun, 
rohunna, roven, ruhin (Deccan) ; Rohan rohing (Bomb.) ; Rorna 
(Kathiawar) ; rohiria (Guz.) ; Shem, wond wundmarum shem- 
maruin (Tarn.); Sumi somida moun cheva moun (Tel.) ; Suami 
simemara some (Kan.). J. Indraji : — (Porbunder) Rona ; (Guj.^ 
Rohani ; (Marathi) Ruhin, Potar ; (Hindi) Rohan. 

Habitat : — Hilly districts of North- Western, Central and 
Southern India, extending southwards to Travancore. 

A lofty, deciduous, glabrous tree. 'Bark * to |in. thick, 
bluish grey or dark brown. Sapwood small, whitish; heart- 
wood extremely hard and close-grained, very dark, red-brown, 
very durable, with numerous fine concentric lines of lighter 
colour, often closely packed. Pores moderate sized, scanty. 
Medullary rays moderately broad, distinctly visible on a radial 
section as dark shining plates, making with the section of the 
black pores, a very pretty silver grain having a satiny lustre " 
(Gamble). Trunk tall, straight, symmetrical. Bark bitter. 
Leaves paripinnate, petioled, with a thickened base, leaflets 
opposite, rarely serrate, 3-6 pair, 2-4in. long. Secondary nerves 


10-14 pair, alternating with shorter, intermediate ones ; tertiary 
nerves prominently reticulate. Flowers bisexual. Pentamerous, 
greenish white, in large terminal panicles, with triangular bracts. 
Petals obovate, narrowed into a claw, contorted in bud. Stami- 
nal-tube cup-shaped, 10-cleft, each segment with 2 short/fleshy 
teeth, the anthers between them on a short filament. Capsule 
smooth, l-2in. long, 5-celled, valves separating from the dissepi- 
ments, which remain attached to the thick spongy axis. Seeds 
numerous in each cell, flat, imbricated, winged at both ends. 

Reproduces itself by root suckers. 
(j ses ■ — The bark is officinal in the Indian Pharmacopoeia 
where it is described as astringent, tonic and antiperiodic. 

In intermittent fevers and general debility, in the advanc- 
ed stages of dysentery, in diarrhoea, and in other cases requi- 
ring the use of astringents, it has been used with success. 

Of the powdered bark, a drachm twice daily. This is the 
best form of administration. 

The decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark, and 
is well adapted for gargles, vaginal injections and enemas.— 
(Ph. Ind.) 

273. Chickrassia tabularis, Adv. Juss., h.f.b.l, 

i. 568. 

Syn. : — Swietenia Chickrassia, Eoxb. 370. 

Eng. : — The Chittagong wood. 

Vem. : — Chikrassi, pabba, dalmara (B.) ; Boga poma 
(Ass.); Pabha pubha (Bom.); Pabba, palara, mil (Mar.); 
Aglay, agal, agle-marum, elcutharay (Tarn.) ; Madagari vembu 
Chittagong chettu, Chittagong karru, cheta kum karra (Tel.) ; 
Dovedale (Mai.) ; Dalmara, lal devdari (Kan.) ; Maiu (Hydera- 
bad). Hulanhik (Sinhalese) ; Aglad Kaloti (Tamil.) 

Habitat : — Low country, Ceylon ; Western Peninsula, from 
the Concan to the Coorg ; also in Bombay, Malacca, Assam, 
Eastern Bengal, Chittagong, Forests of Burma, from Shan Hills, 

A very large tree. Bark reddish brown, deeply vertically 

N. 0. MELIAOE^. 321 

cracked. Wood varying from yellowish brown to reddish 
brown, with a beautiful satiny lustre, seasons and works well. 
Sap wood of lighter colour (Gamble.) Trunk straight, tall, 
young pairs pubescent. Leaves pinnate, rachis 8-10in., cylin- 
drical, softly tomentose. Leaflets 10-16, usually 12, stalked, 
alternate, 2J-5in., ovate, very unequal at base, acuminate, acute, 
entire, closely velvety, tomentose on both sides, dark green above, 
paler beneath. Flowers pale green (Trimeh\ §-lin., pedicellate, 
in large terminal pyramidal panicles. Calyx-lobes shallow, 
rounded, hairy. Petals linear-oblong, spreading. Staminal- 
tube iin. Style as long as staminal-tube. Capsule ljin., 
broadly ovoid, apiculate, smooth, brown, valves woody, separat- 
ing entirely from the 4-winged axis. Seeds closely packed, 
compressed with abroad, obtuse, terminal wing, twice as long as 

Use : — The bark is powerfully astringent (O'Shaugh- 

274. Gedrela toona, Roxb. H. f. b. l, i. 568. 
Roxb. 663. 

Eng, : — The Toon or Indian mahogany tree. 

Sans. : — Tunna, kuberaka, nandi-vriksha. 

Vern. : — Tun, tuni, lun, mahanim, mahalimbo, tiinka- 
jhar, tuna, lud (H.) ; Tuni, tun, lud, tunna (B.); Kujya (Tippera); 
Somso (Bhutia); Katangi (Kol. N ; Mahalimbu (Uriya) ; Drawi, 
cbittisirin, tun, drab, deri, bisrui, darab, khiishing, khanam 
(Pb.) ; Tuni, babich, labshi (Nepal); Simal iLepclia; ; Poraa, 
henduri poma, tun, jia, tunga (Ass.) ; Deodari, kiiruk (Mar.) ; 
Deodari, kuruk, tiindu, tiin (Bom.) ; Tunu-maram, tun-maram, 
mali, wunjuli (Tarn.); Nandi-chettu, nandi (Tel.); Arana- 
maram (Mai.) ; Suli, mali (Salem) ; Kal kilingi (Nilgbiris) ; 
Tundie, Kempu-gandagheri, tunda, Sanola-mara, devadari 

Habitat :— Tropical Himalaya, from the Indus eastward, 
and throughout the hilly districts of Central and Southern 



A large deciduous tree, with a dense spreading crown. 
Bark thin, grey, dark brown, exfoliating when old, in irregular 
woody scales. Wood brick red, soft, shining, even-grained, 
fragrant; seasons readily ; does not split or warp (Gamble). 
Leaves paripinnate, l-2ft. long, generally glabrous. Leaflets 
8-30, usually opposite, 2-6 by f-2lin., lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, sometimes pubescent beneath ; margins 
entire, usually wavy ; base acute, somewhat oblique. Petiolule 
|-fin. long, slender. Flowers cream-coloured, scented like 
honey, in ample drooping panicles. Calyx short, lobes ciliate. 
Petals g-Jiu. long, free, oblong or ovate, ciliate. Disk hairy at 
the orange-coloured lobes. Stamens 5, inserted on the lobes of the 
disk. Stigma capitate, with a large depression at apex. Cap- 
sule septifragally dehiscent, |-lin long by i-l'm. diam., oblong 
or oblanceolate, dark brown. Seeds reddish brown, light, with 
a submembranous wing at either end, about Jin. long, including 
the wings. 

Dun and Sharanpur, generally in marshy places. Tropi- 
cal Himalaya, from the Tndus eastward throughout the hilly 
districts of Central and Southern India. Burma. Absent in 

It is known as the red Toon. 

Parts used :— The bark and flowers. 

Uses : — The bark of this tree is a powerful astringent, and 
may be resorted to when other remedies of the same class are 
not available. Dr. Waitz (Bis. of Children in Hot Climates, 
p. 225/ used with success an extract of the bark in chronic in- 
fantile dysentery. Blume attributes valuable antiperiodic vir- 
tues to it, and in this character it is favourably noticed by Dr. 
J. Kennedy [Ann. of Med. 1796, Vol.1, p. 387). Dr. JE. Ross 
speaks of it as a reliable antiperiodic, and, Dr. J. Newton, as a 
good substitute for cinchona. The dose of the dried bark is 
about an once daily in the form of infusion. The powder of the 
bark was found by Dr. Kennedy to be of great service as a local 
astringent application in various forms of ulceration. (Ph. Ind.) 

The flowers, called gul-tur in Bombay, are considered 

N. 0. MELIACE^. 323 

These flowers which constitute an Indian dye stuff of minor importance, 
yeild a minute amount of a red, crystalline colouring matter 15 H 18 O 3 , identical 
with the nycanthin obtained by Hill from the flowers of Nycanthis arbor 
tristis. This melts at 285°— 287° and not 234 c — 235°C. as given by Hill, and in 
dyeing and other properties closely resembles, but is not identical with, the 
bixin of annatto (Bixa Orellana). The presence of quercetin contaminated 
with a trace of an allied colouring matter as glucosides, and of a sugar, 
C 12 H„O n have also been detected, and to the former the main dyeing proper- 
ties of the flowers appear to be due. 

J. Ch. I. 31st August, 1912 p. 765. 

275. Chloroxylon swietenia, D.C. H. f, b. i 
i, 569. 

Syn. :— Swietenia Chloroxylon, Boxb. 370. 

Eng. : — The Indian Satin wood. 

Vem. : — Dhoura, bhirra, girya (H.) ; Behru, biluga,bhayrii 
bheyri(Uriya) ; Behra, girya, behru, bihri (C. P.) ; Sengel sali 
(Kol.); Bhira (Gond.) ; Hulda, billu hardi, bheria (Bom.); 
Halda, bheria (Mar.) ; Miidudad, burus, purushmududad- 
maram, purus-burus, vummray, mudiida, vummaai-porasham, 
k'odawah-porash, kodawah-porasham, v um may-ma ram, Kodawa 
purrh (Tarn.) ; Billu, billuda, bilgu, biluga, billuchettu, billa- 
kora, billukura, bhallu-chettu (Tel.) ; Mashuda (Kan.) ; Hura- 
galu (Mysore). Ceylon Tamil, Mutrrai ; Buruta (Sinhalese). 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, from the Concan to the 
Nilghiris. Ceylon dry regions. 

A moderate-sized, deciduous tree. Bark Jin. thick, soft 
spongy, light grey or yellow. Wood very hard, yellow, or 
cream-coloured, the inner wood darker than the outer, but no 
distinct heart-wood ; having only a fine satiny lustre ; fragrant. 
Young parts, petioles and inflorescence covered with grey 
pubescence. Leaves paripinnate 5-9in. Leaflets 10-20 pair, 
f-lj by J-§in., opposite, sub-opposite or alternate, gland-dotted 
un-equal-sided, obtuse. Flowers bisexual, cream-coloured, in 
small, terminal and axillary panicles Pedicels longer than the 
flowers Petals 5, coloured, spreading, imbricate in bud. Disk 
fleshy, 10-lobed. Stamens 10, inserted outside the disk at its 
base ; anthers cordate, apiculate, versatile. Ovary immersed in 
the disk, 3-celled ; ovules 8 in each cell. Capsule lin. long by 
^in, thick, oblong, coriaceous, 3-celled loculicidaliy, 3-valved, the 


dissepiments remaining attached to the valves. Seeds imbricate, 
oblong winged, compressed ; cotyledons plano-convex. Exal- 

Found common in the dry regions of Ceylon. There is a 
good tree in the Ratnngiri Club garden. It yields the well- 
known satin wood, very hard, heavy, fine-grained, yellow, 
(reddish-brown rather, K. R. K.), with a satiny lustre. It is the 
principal timber from Ceylon (Trimen). 
Parts used : — The bark and leaves. 

Use : — The astringent bark is sometimes prescribed (Dy- 
mock). Leaves are applied to wounds (Beddome) : also used 
in rheumatism (C. P. Gaz. 118). Watt ii. 270. 

N. 0. OLACINE^]. 

276. Olax seandens, Roxb. h. f. b. l, i 575 ; 

Roxb. 55. 

Vern. : — Dheniani (H.) ; Koko-arn (B.); Rimmel (Kol) ; 
Bodo-bodo-ria (Yriya); Hund (Santal) ; Earduli ; Urchirri (Mar ) ; 
Kurpodur ; marki ; malle, turka-vepa; bapanamushti ; kotiki 
(Yd). Kakundan (Jabalpur) ; Kadalracnhi (Tarn.). 

Habitat :— Tropical Western Himalaya in Kumaon ; Oudh 
Berar ; Central and Southern India. Rohilkund, Tenasserim, 
Burma, Ceylon (dry country rather common.) 

A large, rambling shrub, sometimes a climber. Bark grey, 
i'm. thick, deeply cleft vertically, vessels large. Wood porous, 
yellow- white, soft (Gamble.) Trunk as thick as a man's thigh. 
A few stout thorns on the older branches. Branches terete, 
more or less puberulous, prickly, stout, curved. Branchlets, 
petiole and midrib puberulous. Leaves distichous, ovate, 
oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 2-3in. long, yellowish-green, 
glabrous or sometimes puberulous beneath. Petiole jVJin. 
Racemes solitary, axillary half the length of the leaves. Pedun- 
cles erect, twice the length of the minute bracts. Flowers many, 
white, sweet-scented, small, |in. Bracts ovoid caducous. Buds 
ovoid. Calyx puberulous or glabrescent. Petals 3-5-6, irre- 
gularly cleft. More or less cohering, says Brandis ; linear, acute, 
recurved. Fertile stamens 3, anthers oblong. Staminodes 2-fid. 

jr. o. olaoinetE. 325 

Ovary ovoid-oblong, 1-celled, 1-rarely 2-ovuled. Drupe ovoid, a 
globose, yellow, f covered by the accrescent membranous calyx, 


£7 S g.__l n Cbutia Nagpur, a preparation of the bark is 
given for proverty of blood during fevers (Campbell). 

277. 0. Nana, Wall h. f. b. i., i. 576. 

Vern. :—Merone met (Santal) (Porebunder and Guj.) 
Sudi ; Himi. Tadholi, called Shigroti at Junagadh (J. Indraji). 

Habitat : — Hot valleys of the Western Himalaya, from 
Nipal westward and in the Punjab, Porebunder. 

An undershrub, with a woody root-stock, from which annual 
shoots, about 2ft. high, spring up during the rains. Stems 
ribbed. Leaves alternate, 1|-2|- by |-|in., oblong lanceolate, 
subsessile, glabrous and light green above, glaucous beneath ; 
margins recurved ; midrib prominent beneath, straight ; lateral 
nerves indistinct. Flowers solitary, fin. across ; buds ovoid. 
Calyx minute, accrescent. Petals 3, oblong-lanceolate; fertile 
stamens 3, opposite to the petals. Staminodes 5-6, bifid, longer 
than the fertile Stamens. Ovary 1-celled. Style simple, termi- 
nal. Fruit the size of a pea, globular, (Kanjilal). 

On the crest of the Saharanpur, Sewalik, behind Rampur. 
Hot valleys of the Western Himalaya. From Nepal westward 
and in the Punjab. Bengal, in the grass lands of the sub- 
Himalayan tract. 

Use:— The fruit is used medicinally by the Santals 

. 278. Sarcostigma Kleinii, W. and A. H. F. B. I., 
i. 594. 

Vern: — Puvana, puvenagah ( = the plank) adul, odul 
( = tne oil). 

Habitat: — Eastern and Western Peninsulas; Cochin, 
Malacca, Maingay, and Travancore, the Concan, in evergreen 

A climbing, branched shrub. Wood without zones. Bran- 
ches terete. Leaves alternate simple, coriaceous, 4-10 by 2-4in., 
glabrous, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, pale on both 


surfaces; base rounded; nerves prominent beneath. Petiole 
fin., transversely wrinkled. Rachis extra-axillary angular, 
covered with brownish strigose hairs. Flowers Jin. diam. 
Male flowers: — Calyx minute, pilosulous, cup-shaped, obscurely 
4-5-lobed. Petals ^in., glabrous, oblong, acute. Stamens as 
long as the petals, filaments glabrous, flat, strap-shaped ; anthers 
2-celled. Rudiment of pistil conical. Female flowers:— Calyx 
and Corolla as in the male. Ovary obovoid, pilosulous, surround- 
ed by 5 hypogynous abortive stamens. Stigma subsessile, coni- 
cal. Ovules 2, collateral. Fruit 1-l^in. olive-shaped, somewhat 
compressed, bright orange-red, rugose and strigose externally, 
smooth within. 

Use :— The oil is highly esteemed in the treatment of 
rheumatism (Drury). 


279. Euonymus tingens, Wall. h. f. b. i., 610. 

Vern. : — Kungku (N -W. P.); Newar, kashri (Nepali); 

Chopra ; mer mahan (Simla). Skiosh (Bassahir) ; 
Bhambeli, Roini (Jauns.) 

Habitat :— Western temperate Himalaya, alt. 6-1, 000ft. 
From Sutlej to Nepal ; Simla. 

A tree 16-20ft. Branches cylindric. Leaves l|-3in. by 
§-lin., thick, coriaceous, lucid, rugose aud dark green above,, 
very pale beneath, ovate-lanceolate, sharply serrate. Peduncles 
compressed. Flowers usually pentamerous. Cymes fascicled ; 
petals abruptly clawed, nearly orbicular, coarsely crenulate, Jin., 
yellowish, with purple veins. Fruit Jin. across, nearly round, 
4-5-angled. The flowers of this species are sometimes tetrame- 
rous (Lawson). 

Uses : — It is considered by the Natives to be useful in 
disesaes of the eye (O'Shaughnessy). 

280. Kokoona zeylanica, Thwaites, h, f. b. i., 


Habitat : — Western Peninsula, Annamally Hills (S. India), 
Ceylon between 1,000-4,000 ft., rather rare. 

Vera : — Trim en : Sinhalese, Kokun, Wana-potu. 

A very large tree, much-branched. Bark rough, corky, 
grey, bright yellow within. Wood pale, yellowish brown, 
smooth, light, readily splitting. Young parts glabrous. Leaves 
2J-4in., obovate, cuneate at base, rounded or retuse at apex, 
entire or faintly serrate, coriaceous, glabrous, paler beneath and 
there punctate with numerous, minute, glandular dots, each 
covered with a red scale. Petiole about Jin. Stipules very 
minute, triangular, persistent. Flowers dull, yellowish-brown, 
Jin., in axillary or extra-axillary panicles, much shorter than the 
leaves. Pedicels glabrous. Bracts minute. Calyx glabrous, 
lobes very shallow. Petals broadly ovate, or rounded, concave, 
thick-dotted, within stamens shorter than the petals Disk fleshy, 
dark green. Capsule nearly 4inches, oblong-ovoid, bluntly 
trigonous, valves thick, coriaceous, glabrous. Seed compressed, 
over 5in. long (with the wing) ; wing broadly oblong, straight 
on one side, oblong, veined, orange-yellow. 

Use : — The inner yellow bark is employed medicinally. 
It is also made into a kind of snuff, which excites copious 
secretion, and is considered beneficial in headache (Watt). 

281. Gelastrus paniculatus, Willd. h. f. b. l, 
i. 617. Roxb. 209. 

Syn. :— C multiflora, and C. nutans, Roxb. 

Habitat: — Tropical and sub-tropical Himalaya, Punjab 
and throughout the hilly districts of India ; Burma, Ceylon. 

Sans : — Jyotishmati. Kanguni. 

Jyotishmati is also one of the Sanskrit names of Cardios- 
permum helieacabum. 

Vern. : — Mal-Kangni (H. and Bomb.); Mal-Kakni (Oudh, 
Kumaun) ; Kahundan rangul (C. P.) Kangoni, pigavi (Mar.) ; 
Ruglim (Lepcha; ; Valuluvai, atiparich-cham (Jam.) ; Mal- 
kanguni-vittulu Tel.) ; Sankhu (Pb.) ; Kariganue (Kan.) Mal- 
kanguni-ka-jantar (Dec.) 

J. Indraji : — ( Porebunder and Guj. ) Malakankana ; 


Malakakani, Malkan kanino Velo ; (Marathi) Pengi, Malkangoni, 
Kangooi; (Hindi) Malkangni, Malkangi. 

(Sinhalese) Duhudu. 

A large, climbing shrub. Bark usually yellow, corky, some- 
times fibrous, spirally twisted and smooth. Wood porous, 
soft, very variable, according to locality and climate. 

Young shoots marked with lenticels (Kanjilal). Leaves 
alternate, very variable in size and shape ; generally 2-4 by 1J- 
3in., obovate, orbicular, elliptic or oblong lanceolate, short- 
acuminate, more or less coriaceous, glabrous ; base acute, lateral 
nerves 4-6 pair, parallel to margins. Petiole J-|in. long. 
Flowers Jin., pale or yellowish green in terminal pedulous pyra- 
midal panicles, 2-4in. long. Pedicels slender, puberulous. 
Calyx-lobes shallow, unequal, rounded toothed. Petals oblong, 
broad-based, acute. Disk inconspicuous. Anthers large, about 
the size of the petals Ovary free, stigma simple. Capsule gin. 
broadly ovoid or roundish, blunt, transparently wrinkled, bright 
yellow ; valves septifragai above, leaving the seeds exposed. 
Seed |in., cinnamon-brown, striate, completely enveloped in 
scarlet fleshy aril. 

Tropical and sub-tropical Himalaya. Throughout India, 
Burma, Ceylon. » 

Parts used — The seeds, leaves and oil. 

Use : — The seeds are thought by the natives to be hot and 
dry, aphrodisiac and stimulant, useful both as an external and 
internal remedy in rheumatism, gout, paralysis, leprosy, and 
other disorders which are supposed to be caused by cold 
humours. The crushed seeds, combined with aromatics, are said 
to be very efficient in removing local pains of a rheumatic or 
malarious nature. 

In the Concan, 4 tolas of the leaf-juice are given as an 
antidote in overdoses of opium, and the seeds, made into a 
paste, with cow's urine, are applied to cure scabies (Dymock). 

In Ajtnere, the seeds are considered sudorific (Irvine). 

By a rude form of distillation, the Natives obtain from 
them a black empyreumatic oil, which, under the name of 
" Oleum nigrum" was brought forward by the late Dr. Herklots 

N. 0. OELASTRINEiE. 329 

as a sovereign remedy in Beri-beri. In doses of from ten to 
fifteen drops, twice daily, it is a powerful stimulant. Its action 
in this character is generally followed in a few hours by free 
diaphoresis, unattended by subsequent exhaustion. Though it has 
failed to realize Dr. Herklots' encomiums, yet, in some cases treat- 
ed with it, detailed by Dr. Malcolmson, its beneficial effects were 
unequivocally evidenced ; in others, however, it failed. It 
appears to be chiefly adapted for recent cases, and for those 
in which the nervous and paralytic symptoms predominate 
(Pharm. Ind.) 

The Santals use the oil in disorders of the stomach (Revd. 
A. Campbell). The seeds, bruised and formed into a poultice, 
are a good stimulant application to foul, unhealthy and indolent 
ulcers (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

I have been using the black oil myself occasionally in my 
practice during the last thirty-nine or forty years ; and for 
about fifteen years, at the commencement of this period, my 
opinion as to its therapeutic value was not very high ; but 
ever since Ibegau, about twenty-five years ago, to employ the 
varieties of this drug obtained from Vizagapatam, Masuli- 
patam and Ellore, I consider it the best and most efficacious of 
all the remedies ever suggested for the treatment of Beri-beri, 
and quite agree with Dr. Herklots in everything he has said 
in its favour. I recollect many cases of Beri-beri which were 
not benefited, for weeks or months, under the use of other 
medicines, but began at once to improve when placed under 
the course of black oil The first good effect of this medicine, 
according to my own observation, is generally an increase in 
the quantity of urine, and with this the dropsical effusion 
begins to disappear. A relief in paralytic and ansthetic 
symptoms is also noticed about the same time, but generally 
after the abatement of dropsical symptoms. During the use 
of black oil, the native practitioners invariably enjoin a very 
low and strict diet, giving nothing to the patient except water 
and wheaten cakes for a long period — a restriction which is as 
injurious as unnecessary in my opinion. The patients labor- 
ing under Beri-beri require a very liberal and nourishing diet. 


I have also used this oil in some simple and uncomplicated 
cases of dropsy, and with good and encouraging results. 

The seeds are supposed to have the property of 
stimulating the intellect and sharpening the memory. The 
oil is used in the courts and colleges by a great many pandits 
and munshis to increase the intelligence of their pupils. 

282. Gymnosporia montana, Roxb. H. f. b. l. 
i. 621, Roxb. 208. 

Sanskrit : — Vaikankat, Vikankat. 

Vern. :— (Baluch) — Vingar ; (Hindi) Baikal; (Ajmer) Kakra; 
(Marathi) Bharuli ; (Kanara Tandraja) ; Sherawane. (Trans- 
Indus) ; Talkar, kharai (Pb.) ; Baikal, gaja-chinni (C. P.); Mai 
Kangoni, Zekadi (Bomb. ) ; Danta, babur (Gordi) ; Danti, pedda 
chintu (Tel.) 

J. Indraji : — (Porebunder) Vikaro ; (Guj.) Vikalo ; 
(Marathi) Vekar, Vekal ; (flindi) Kingani. 

Habitat : — Throughout the drier parts of Central, South- 
western and North- Western India, common in the Punjab, 
Sindh, Rajputana. Central Provinces, Bihar, and the drier 
districts of the Peninsula. Flower at various times of the year. 
Afghanistan Malay Archipelago. 

A tall armed shrub, spines often bearing leaves and flowers ; 
under favourable circumstances a small tree. Leaves grey, 
coriaceous, exceedingly variable in shape and size, obovate, 
oblanceolate to linear-spathulate, narrowed into the petiole. 
Flowers small, pale, greenish white. Cymes axillary or fasci- 
culate, on short branchlets, often forming terminal, elongate 
panicles. Capsule fin., usually 2-valved. Seeds 1,2, rarely 3. 

Use : — The bark ground to a paste, applied with other 
oils to the head, for destroying pediculi. 

283. Elceodendron glaucum, Pers. H. F. B. I., 
i. 623, Roxb. 214. 

Syn. : — E. Roxburghii, W. and A. 


Vern. : — Mirandu, padriun, bakra (Pb.); Bakra, chauli, 
shanria (N.-W. P.) ; Chauri (Oudh) ; Karkava, irkuli, chelup- 
pai-maram (Tarn. ) ; Nerija, booligi (Tel.) ; Miri, tbanki (Kol.) ; 
Newri (Santal). Tbe leaves— Bhutapala (Mar.) ; Tamrug ; Aran 
tandig bbukas (Bomb.), Burkas (Konan). 

Habitat : — Tbrougbout tbe botter parts of India. 

A moderate-sized or large tree, often witb reddish branch- 
lets. Bark dark-grey, smooth, blood-red inside, exuding when 
cut a profuse watery sap from the cambium layer. Leaves 
opposite or sub-opposite ; less frequently alternate 2-6 by l-3in., 
elliptic ovate-oblong or obovate, acuminate, crenate subcoria- 
ceous, glabrous, dark green and shining above, glaucous 
beneath. (Whence the specific name " Glaucum ") main lateral 
nerves about 10 pair, slender; petiole §-lin. long, channeled. 
Cymes axillary, dichotomous, § in. long, peduncle l-2gin. long, 
often red. Flowers fin. diam., whitish, pale, yellowish-green, says 
Trimen. Calyx 4-5-cleft, segments obtuse. Disk fleshy. Petals 
4-5, about 1 1 q in. long, oblong. Stamens 4-5, short, inserted under 
the edge of the disk ; filaments recurved. Ovary adnate to the 
disk. Style very short. Fruit a dry obovoid drupe, §-|in. long, 
1-celled, 1-seeded, tipped with persistent style, mostly sterile, 
(reproduction chiefly by root-suckers — Kanjilal). 

Flowers all the year, says Trimen. 

Found in Ceylon, dry country. 

Trimen :— (Singhalese) Naralu ; (Tamil) piyari ; Perun- 

Parts used. — The leaves, root and bark. 
Use :--The powdered leaves have a powerful sternutatory 
action, and are used as a fumigatory to rouse women from 
hysterical syncope, and as a snuff to relieve ordinary headache. 
(S. Arjun). The fresh root-bark, when rubbed into a paste 
with water, is applied by the Natives to remove almost every 
sort of swelling (Roxb\ The root is a specific against snake- 
bite, and the bark is used in native medicine and said to be 
a virulent poison. (Watt.) 


N. 0. RHAMNEiE. 

284. Ventilago madraspatana, Oaertn. H. p. b. I., 
i. 631. 

Sans. : — Raktavalli. 

Vern. : — Pitti (H.) ; Raktapita (B.) ; Chorgu (Hyderabad) ; 
Kroti pitti (C. P.) ; Lokandi, kanwail (Bomb.) ; Ragatarohado 
(Guz.) ; Luri-chakka (Dec.) ; Pappili-chakka, suralpattai, lurala 
chaki, surate cheka, papli, vembadain, veinpadon (Triman) 
(Tarn.) ; Surabi ; papri Kali-bili (Dun) ; Bonga-Sarjom (Kol.) 
petli tige, lurala tige, arra chiratali (Tel) ; Paipli-chakka, papli, 
popli (Kan.) ; yaccaduvel (Sinhalese). 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, from the Concan southward. 
Tenasserim. Throughout the plains of India. Forests of Burma 
and Ceylon, in hot dry places. 

A large, much-branched, woody climber or climbing shrub. 
Bark grey white. Vertical cracks, exposing the inner surface 
which has a vermilion colour. Wood yellow, porous, soft ; 
branchlets elongated, slender, younger parts, branchlets, petioles 
and young leaves pubescent. 

A very conspicuous forest climber, climbing over the 
tallest trees and hanging its branches down in festoons (Gamble). 
Tendrils woody. Leaves l|-5in. (usually about 2|), ovate, ovate- 
lanceolate, obtuse or rounded at base, acuminate, obtuse or 
rarely acute, shallowly crenate-serrate or entire, glabrous and 
shining ; lateral veins 6-10 in each side, fine but conspicuous, 
oblique, connected by very fine transverse reticulation. Petiole, 
ii'in., stipules very small, lanceolate, pubescent. Flowers pale 
green, ^ in., numerous, on short pubescent pedicels, arranged 
in clusters on the branches of large spreading and drooping, 
pubescent, elongated, terminal panicles. Calyx pubescent, 
lobes erect, very acute. Petals shorter than calyx, 2-lobed. 
Stamens as long as petals. Styles short. Nut small, globular, 
supported on persistent calyx. Wing 1-1| in. linear oblong, 
1 athery, pubescent, slightly, bifid at apex. 

N. 0. RHAMNEJE. 333 

Part used : — The root-bark. 

Uses: — The powdered root-bark is carminative, stomachic, 
tonic and stimulant ; useful in atonic dyspepsia, debility and 
slight cases of fever (Moodeen Sheriff). 

The powdered bark (mixed with gingelly oil) is also said 
to be sometimes used in South India as an external application 
for itch and other skin diseases (Watt). 

Ventilago Madraspatana. 

On treating this dye-stuff with carbon bisulphide five crystalline sub- 
stances are extracted, together with a wax and a resinous colouring 

1. A substance of the formula C 16 H 12 5 . This crystallises in long, 
orange-red needles, melting at 200° ; it sublimes at higher temperatures, 
partially carbonising. Its alkaline solutions have a purple tint, and the 
corresponding salt can be obtained in the form of violet-colored needles 
sparingly soluble in alcohol. There is a great deal of similarity in appear- 
ance, properties, and melting point between emodin from Rhamnus frangula 
and this substance. They are probably identical. 

2. A substance of the formula C 16 -H 14 4 (A). This forms long, colourless 
needles, which decompose at about 260° before melting ; it is soluble in alka- 
line solutions with a yellowish brown coloration. 

3. A substance of the formula C l6 H 14 4 (B). This crystallises in pale 
yellow needles melting at 173°. With acetic anhydride, it yields what is 
probably a triacetyl compound melting at 227-229°, the alcoholic solution of 
which has a strong blue fluorescence. Tt dissolves in alkalis forming yellow- 
ish brown solutions which on long exposure to air become red, and on treat- 
ment with acid yield a precipitate of emodin methyl ether. 

4. A substance of the formula G 16 H 3 8 . This is an orange-red, crystalline 
powder, which, when heated, begins to darken at 260°, and melts and carbon- 
ises at 275-280°. It is distinguished from the preceding substances by its 
sparing solubility in most solvents. Solutions of the alkalis dissolve it with 
an orange-red coloration, and it yields an acetyl derivative, C l0 -H 7 O 8 (C 2 H 3 0), 
which crystallises in yellow needles melting and decomposing at 216-220°. 

5. A substance of the formula 17 H 12 5 . This is a chocolate-colored, 
crystalline powder. When treated with dilute alkali, it dissolves with a yel- 
low coloration, but on exposure to air the solution deposits a blue, amorphous 
precipitate, and it therefore appears to contain in its molecule a reduced 
quinone group. 

6. The wax (C 9 H l6 0) n , consists of nearly colourless, minute needles, 
melting at 72°. 


7. The colon ring matter is a reddish-brown, brittle resin of the formula 
C 15 H 14 O g , and, up to the present, has resisted all attempts to obtain it in a 
crystalline condition, It softens at about 100°, and melts at 100-110°. Dilute 
alkalis dissolve it with a purple-violet coloration, and the corresponding 
salts are obtained as violet, amorphous precipitates, on adding common salts 
to these solutions. From its nature and properties, it appears possible that 
it is allied to alkanin, 1S H 14r 4 , the colouring matter of the roots of the 
Anchusa tinctoria. Alkanin is also of a resinous nature. It is possible, 
therefore, that the coloring matter of the Ventilago madraspatana, for which 
the name of ventilagin is proposed, is represented by alkanin containing two 
additional hydroxyl groups.— J. Ch. S. T. 1894, p. 924 et seq. 

285. V. calyculata, Tulasne. h.f.b.l, i. 631. 

Syn : : — V. Madraspatana, Roxb., Roxb. 211. 

[King Journ. As. Soc, Bengal, Vol. 65 (1897) 379] con- 
siders this to be a variety of V. Madraspatana, so also does 
Duthie (Fl. of the Upper Gang. Plain, p. 162). 

Vern. : — Rai ohani (H.) ; Raktapita (B.) ; Bonga-sarjun, doe- 
saraj, noduar fKol.) ; Bonga-sarjom (Santal) ; Raktapita kala 
lag (Kumadn) ; Papri (C. P.); Sakal yel (Mar.); Zerra chiotali 

(Tel.); Karkandi chayeh ; Kanyel ^Bomb.). 

Habitat: —Throughout hotter parts of India, from the 
Kumaon Himalaya and Nepal to Bhutan. 

Sylhet, Tenassarim. Dun, Saharanpur. Throughout the 
Western Peninsula. 

A large woody climber, with strong tendrils. Branchlets 
pubescent. Bark dark grey. Leaves 2-4 by l-2|in., ovate or 
oblong-elliptic, more or less acute, cuneate or entire, sub- 
coriaceous, pubescent when young; lateral nerves 6-8 pair, 
arcuate ; base unequal ; petiole J-§in. pubescent. Flowers 
numerous, small, greenish, in large terminal panicles. Calyx 
pubescent; lobes 5, keeled inside. Petals 5, deflexed. Disk 
5-lobed, filling the Calyx-tube. Ovary 2-celled, sunk in disk. 
Style short, prolonged and winged on both sides in fruit. 
Fruit a sub-globose nut, |in, diam., girt about middle by ten 
rims of the adherent Calyx-tube and prolonged into a wing, 
which is 1-1J by J-§ in., linear, strongly reaticulate and with 
a prominent straight midrib. 

N. 0. RHAMNE^. 335 

Brandis says:— I follow King in uniting this with V. 
Madraspatana, Gcertn :— V. calyculata, Tulsane, is supposed to 
be recognized by broader leaves, rounded at the base, a pubes- 
cent disk, and half the fruit enclosed in the cup-shaped 

Parts used : — The bark and shoots. 

Uses : — The juice of the bark and young shoots is, in Chutia 
Nagpur, applied to the body as a remedy for the pains which 
accompany malarial fever. A ring made from the tendril is 
used as a charm against toothache. (Campbell.) 

286. Zizyphus Jnjuba, Lamh h. f. b. I., i. 632. 
Roxb. 204. 

Habitat : — Throughout India, wild and extensively cultivated. 
Ceylon, dry region common. Afghanistan, China, Malay. 

Sans. : — Badari. 

Arab : — Sidr. 

Pers. : — Kunar. 

Trimen says it is usually known in Ceylon by its Portugese 
name ' Masun ' (Masca, an apple). 

Vern. : — Janun jan (Kol.) ; Ringa (Gond.) ; Jelachi (Kan.) ; 
Ziben (Burmese) — Brandis. Ber, baer (H.) ; Kul, ber (B.) ; Beyr, 
jangra (Sind) ; Reugha, regi, rega-panda (Tel.) ; Yellaude, 
Elandap-pazham (Tam.) ; Yelchi (Kan.) Jom Janum (Santal 
and Kol); Bar Koli (Uriya). J. Indraji : — (Porebunder & Guj.) 
Bordi, Bori ; (Marathi) Baher, Bor ; (Hindi) Ber, Ben, Baher. 

Trimen :— (Sinh ) Malmdebara ; (Tamil) Uantai. 

A moderate-sized, deciduous thorny tree, almost ever- 
green, 30-50ft. Young branches and flowers covered with a 
dense fuscous tomentum. Large branches drooping, armed 
with stipular spines, equal, or, one straight, the other bent, 


rarely unarmed. " Branchlets, petioles, underside of leaves, 
and inflorescence densely clothed with bright tawny or nearly 
white tomentum" (Brandis). " Bark Jin. thick, dark grey, 
nearly black, with irregular cracks. Wood hard, reddish ; no 
heart-wood. Annual rings distinct, in specimens from N. India, 
indistinct from those in warmer regions. Pores small or mode- 
rate-sized, scanty, often oval and sub-divided. Medullary rays 
fine, very numerous, uniform and equidistant ; the distance 
between two rays much less than the transverse diameter of 
the pores. Pores frequently joined by short, fine, concentric lines 
(Gamble). A very variable tree. Leaves variable. 1-2J by 
|-2in., elliptic-ovate or sub-orbicular, dark green and glabrous 
above, covered beneath with a dense woolly pale coloured 
tomentum. Margin entire or serrulate. Petiole T J-§in. long. 
Flowers greenish-yellow, greenish-white, says Trimen, on short 
axillary cymes fin. long. Calyx glabrous, white. Petals 
unguiculate, sub-spathulate, very caducous, reflexed ; lamina 
oblong, concave or hooded. Disk fleshy, 10-lobed ; lobes 
grooved. Ovary 2-celled. Style 2, united to the middle. Dru- 
pes 2-celled, fleshy and mealy, glabrous, mucilaginous when 
ripe and orange or red. Stone tuberculate, bony, irregularly 
furrowed, generally one-celled, never more than 2-celled. 
Use :— The fruit is said to be nourishing (mawkish), mucila- 
ginous, and pectoral and styptic. I think that the ripe fruit has 
a very agreeable taste — K.R.K. It is refreshing at any rate, 
Trimen says: — "The pulp has a pleasant sweetish flavour, 
when fully ripe. The berries are considered to purify the 
blood and to assist digestion. The bark is said to be a remedy 
in diarrhoea. The root is used in decoction in fever, and 
powdered to be applied to ulcers and old wounds. The leaves 
form a plaster in strangury (Baden-Powell.) 

The young leaves are pounded with those of Ficus gloraer- 
ata, and applied to scorpion stings in the Concan ; they are 
also, with acacia catechu leaves, given as a cooling medicine in 
hot weather : dose 2 tolas. According to Ainslie, the root is 
prescribed in decoction by the Vytians in conjunction with 
sundry warm seeds, as a drink in certain cases of fever (Dymock). 

N. O. liHAMNE.E. 337 

287. Z. glabrata, Ueyne, h.f.b.l, i. 633. 

Syn.: — Z. trinervia, Roxb, not Poir. Roxb. 204. 

Sans. : — Vata-dalla. 

Vern. :— Carookoova Kurka tura karukata, karkattam 
(Tarn.) ; Kakoopala (Tel.). 

Habitat : — Eastern Bengal and Bhotan ; Western Penin- 
sula and the Nilghiri Mts. 

A small, unarmed tree, youngest shoots and inflorescence 
pubescent. Leaves glabrous, obtusely minutely-serrate. Basal 
nerves prominent, continued to the apex. Secondary nerves 
faint ; veins minutely reticulate ; blade 1-3 by ■§ by If in., 
elliptic, glabrous on both sides, dark green. Petiole Jin. long. 
Cymes nearly sessile or Jin. long. Flowers slightly pube- 
rulous, yellowish, or greenish-yellow, Jin diam. Petals ob- 
triangular, with convolute margins. Disk faintly 10-lobed, not 
pitted or grooved, glabrous. Anthers-cells parallel, not diverg- 
ing at base. Ovary 2-celled ; styles 2, united to the middle. 
Drupe globose, g-fin. long, often apiculate. 

Part used : — The leaves. 

Use:— A decoction of the leaves is given to purify the 
blood in cases of cachexia, and as an alterative in old venereal 
affections (Ainslie.) 

288. Z. nummular la, W. & A., h.f.b.l, i. 633. 

Syn. : — Z. microphylla, Uoxb. 200. 

Sans : — Bhu-hrdari-balakapriya, Aja-priya, Bhu-kamtaka, 

Vern. : — Jharberi (Pb.) ; Nundo-jangro (Sind) ; Malla, ber, 
jhari, kanta (U. P.); Parpalli (Kan.) Gangar (Guz). 

Vern.: — J. Indraji (Porebuncler) Paleran, (Guj.) Adbau 
bordi, Khetrau Borcli, Jhardan Bor. Chanya Bor., (Marathi) 
Gangar, Jungar Jungle bor, (Hindi) Jharberi, Jharber, 

Habitat : — The Punjab ascending to 3,000ft. Gujerat, and 
the Western Peninsula, from the Dekkan and the Concan 
southward, Persia. 

A profusely-armed shrub, with widely divaricating flesuous 


brandies. Young branches puberulous. Leaves serrate, dark 
green and velvety above, pale and more felted beneath, J-lin., 
ovate to orbicular. Cymes under |in. Petals ovate, with convo- 
lute margins. Disk 10-lobed. with a pit opposite each lobe. 
Ovary 2-celled, styles 2, united to above the middle. Fruit fin. 
diam., globose, woody, black, 2-celled. Much used for fencing 
and for the sweet subacid fruit as food, especially in famine 

Use :— In the Punjab, the fruit is used in bilious affections ; 
and considered by the natives to be cool and astringent 


289. Z. vulgaris, Lamk] h.f.b.i., i. 633, Roxb. 

Vern. : — Unnab (Arab). ; Sinjid-i-jilani (Pers.) ; Titni-ber, 
kandiari (EL), Sanjit (Pb); Unab (Bomb). 

Habitat : — The Punjab, extending to the Western Frontier 
from the Punjab Himalaya. Wild and cultivated, extending to 
Bengal, Kashmir, Baluchistan. The best fruit (Dried) comes 
from China and Japan. 

A large shrub or small tree, armed. Bark rough, with 
longitudinal furrows, dark grey. Wood pale, yellow-brown. 
Heartwood dark-brown, even grained. Stewart says this is the 
handsomest species, and that he has seen it as large as 5-6ft. 
in girth and 25-30ft. high Gamble). Rigid, spreading boughs 
and stiff branches, which are often unarmed. The whole 
plant is quite glabrous. Leaves f-2^in. sub-obliquely ovate, 
obtuse or sub-acute, crenate-serrate ; prickles usually gemmate, 
the straight one often over 1 in. long, stout. Flowers few, 
fascicled in the axils of the leaves. Petals cucullate. Disk thin, 
obscurely 5-lobed. Ovary 2-celled. Styles 2, united to the 
middle. Fruit Jin. diam., globose or oblong, esculent, red and 
black, shining. 

Use. — Mir Muhamraed Husain regards the dried fruits as 

a suppurative, expectorant, and purifier of the blood. The 
bark of the tree is used to clean wounds and sores. The gum 

N. O. RHAMNEJE. 330 

in certain affections of the eyes, and the leaves when chewed, 
are said to destroy the power of the tongue to appreciate the 
taste of disagreeable medicines (Dymock). 

A syrup of the dried fruits is used in the Punjab for bron- 

290. Z. ragosa, Lamk.,, i, 636. 

Syn. :— Z. glabra, Eoxb, 206. 

Vern. :•— Suran, churan (Hindi) ; Dhaush (Oudh) ; Sekra 
(San tli.) ; Todali (Mai.) Mayanksi (Lower Burma.) ; Tabu, Mitha 
Tabu (Upper Burma). Toran, Chnrna (Bomb). 

Trimen; — (Sinhalese), Maha-eraminiya, (Tamil) Churai. 

Eabim:— Eastern Himalaya, 2,000ft. Behar. Shan hills 
to 4000ft. Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Ganges eastward, 
ascending to 2,000ft. Burma, South India, Western Peninsula ; 
Ceylon, moist low country to 2,000 ft ; common. 

A large, straggling or climbing bush, with long virgate 
branches, fulvous, tometose, when young. Leaves 2-3in., broadly 
oval or rotundate, unequal, sided, oblique at base, very short- 
acuminate, denticulate, glabrous above, densely fulvous tomen- 
tose, becoming glabrous beneath. Petiole fin., prickles usually 
solitary, numerous, strong, broad-based, recurved or nearly 
straight, heavy. Flowers greenish, very small, numerous, 
in tomentose, pedunculate cymes about 1 in., arranged 
along one side of short, usually leafless, lateral branches. 
Calyx hairy outside, lobes ovate. Petals O ; dark, 5- 
lobed ; styles 2, connate at base. Fruit small, J-|in. Drupe 
edible, sweet, pinkish when ripe, pyriform globose, apiculate, 
smooth. Stone very thin, 1-celled, 1- seeded. 

Use : — The flowers, with an equal quantity of the petioles 
of the betel leaf and half as much lime, are given in 4-grain 
pills twice a day for menorrhagia (Dymock.) 

291. Rhamnits dahuricus, Pall., ii.f.b.i., 1.639. 

Syn. : — R. Virgatus, Eoxb. 203. 

Vern. : — Chato, chedwala, chadua (II.); Tsapo, mail (Tibet); 
Spiti (Kumaon) ; Phipai, dadur tadru, setapajja, hangi, mamral, 


shomfol reteon, gogsa, sindool, mutui, mor, chakra, romusk, 
thalot, chetain (Pb.) ; Wurak (Pushtu). 

Habitat :— Trans-Indus Himalaya 2,400-7,000 ft., from the 
Indus eastward ; Manipur, Shan Hills, Upper Burma, 4,000 ft. 

A spinescent large shrub, or small tree; heart-wood brown, 
hard, possessing wavy radial belts ; branches often spinescent, 
young shoots pubescent. Leaves membranous, almost oppo- 
site, glabrous, frequently fascicled or arrested branchlets, lan- 
ceolate, or obovate-lanceolate, blade 1-4 in., petiole \-\ in. long. 
Flowers greenish, on slender pedicels, in axillary clusters ; 4- 
merous ; petals, minute, linear, spathulate. Fruit obovate, 
orbicular, I in. long. Seed grooved, groove narrow, nearly 
closed. Closely allied to the European R. Catharticus (LowsonL 

Part used : — The fruit. 

Use: — The fruit which is bitter, even when ripe, has 
emetic and purgative properties, and is given (Trans-Indus) in 
affections of the spleen, (Watt.) 

Closely allied to the European R. Catharticus for which 
it may be used as a substitute in India. (B. D. B.) 

292. E. Wightii, T7. and A., h.f.b.l, i. 639. 

Vern : — Rakta-rohida, Rakt zorar (Bom.). 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, and from the highest hills 
of the Concan southwards to the Nilghiris. There is a fine tree in 
Thana Judge's garden. Common in Upper Montane Zone, Ceylon. 

Brandis says : " It is found on the Western Ghats, from 
Mahabaleshwar southwards ; Nilgiris, Palm Hills. 

A large shrub, young parts puberulous. Leaves 2-3|- in., 
ovate-oval or ovate, rounded at base, acuminate, obtuse, apicu- 
late, finely glandular-serrate, glabrous on both sides. Petiole 
i in.; Stipules very early caducous. Flowers yellowish green, 
on glabrous pedicels, shorter than the petiole, 1-5 in. axillary 
clusters. Calyx glabrous ; segments 5, triangular. Petals 5, 
very small, spathulate. Stamens 5 ; ovary 3 (or 4J-celled ; 
Styles 3-(or 4), connate half way up. Berry j in. globose, sup- 
ported on flat persistent Calyx-tube, tipped with persistent 
styles, smooth, reddish purple. 

N. 0. RHAMNEiE. 341 

Trimen says it is nearly allied to R. frangula, the Alder 
buck-thorn of England. 

Use : —In the Western Peninsula the bark is in much 
repute on account of its tonic, astringent and deobstruent pro- 
perties (Dymock.) 

295. R. purpureus, Edgew, h.f.b.i., i. 639. 

Vern. ' — Bal sinjal, karu, memarira, Kinji (Pb.). 
Habitat : — West Himalaya, from Mnrree to Kumaon, In- 
dus to Sard river 4500 p. 10,000. 

An unarmed, middle-sized tree, young shoots pubescent, 
the previous year's branchlets purple. Leaves alternate, ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate. Secondary nerves 6-10 pair, prominent, 
blade 3-4 in. Petiole \ in. Flowers mostly bi-sexual, 5-merous, 
in axillary clusters or Cymes. Petals O ; style short, 3-cleft 
nearly to the base. Drupe \ to \ in. long, sub-globose, bitter. 

Use : — In Hazara the fruit is used as a purgative (Ste- 

294. R. triqueter, Wall, h. f. b. i., i. 639. 

Vein. : — Rangrek (Pb.) Lhish Jaunsar. 

Habitat : — Punjab, in the Salt Range ; Western Himalaya, 
from the Jhelum, alt. 3-4,000 ft., to Kumaon. Lanowla, Puran- 
dhar Hill, in the Poona District. 

A small tree. Branchlets and leaves, with dense short 
tomentum. Leaves ovate or elliptic-oblong. Secondary nerves 
6-10 pair, prominent. Blade 2-5 in., petiole J-f in. long. 
Flowers clustered on axillary racemes attaining 3 in., puber- 
ulous, fascicled on the leafless (very rarely leafy) branches. 
Fruit i in., obovoid, 3-lobed. Seeds, with a broad open 

Use : — Talbot writes that " it is very like R. Wightii, and 
may have been formerly cultivated in the Deccan for its medi- 
cinal qualities " (Forest Flora, p. 30). 

295. Gouania leptostachya, B.C., h.f.b.i., i. 643. 
Vern, : — Batwasi, tung-cheougmourik (Sikkim.) 


Habitat : — (Brandis) Sub-Himalayan tract and outer hills 
from the Jumna eastward, ascending up to 6,000 ft. in Sikkim. 
Khasi Hills, Lower Burma, Andamans. Tonkin, Cochin China, 
Malay Peninsula and the Archipelago. 

An unarmed, climbing shrub ; branches glabrous ; leaves 
3-4 by If- 2 in., ovate, acuminate, slightly cordate at the base, 
coarsely crenate-serrated, glabrous : racemes interrupted, axil- 
lary or in terminal panicles, elongated, pubescent when young, 
afterward glabrous. Flowers on very short pedicels, polyga- 
mous. Disk glabrous, stellate ; accessory angles partly adnate 
to the calycine-lobes, free and acuminated towards the 2-horned 
apex. Fruit, glabrous, shortly winged. 

Use : — The leaves are used by Lepchas to make poultices 
for sores (Gamble.) 

N. 0. AMPELID^. 
296. Vitis quadrangularis, Wall., h.f.b.l, i. 645. 

Syn. : — Cissus quadrangularis, Linn. Roxb. 136. 

Sans. : — Asthisanhari, vajravalli. 

Vern. : — Harshankar, harjora, kandawel, Mhoisvel, nallar, 
Kharbuti H. and Bomb.) ; Had Sankal, Hadsankal (Porebander 
and Guj.); Pirandal (Tarn.) ; Nulle rotigeh, Nallera (Tel.) ; Tsgan- 
gelamparenda (Mai.). Hiressa (Singhalese). 

Habitat : — Throughout the hotter parts of India, from the 
foot of the Western Himalayas in Kumaon to Ceylon and 
Malacca. Malay Peninsula, Java. 

Stems very long, not woody, thick, sharply compressed, 
quadrangular but scarcely winged, the sides concave, much 
branched, jointed by contractions at the nodes, glabrous, green, 
fleshy, the younger ones square on section and with winged 
angles. Tendrils long, slender, simple. Leaves distant, few, 
1-2 in., broadly ovate or rotundate-deltoid, truncate at base, 
very obtuse, distantly spinous-crenate, glabrous, thick. Petiole 
\-\ in., sub-quadrangular ; stipules small, in small umbels on 
branches of short paniculate cymes. Petals ovate, acute. Style 
short, blunt. Berry globose, apiculate, red. 

Parts used :— The stalk and leaves. 

N. 0. AMPEL1D/E. 343 

Use ; — The leaves and young shoots when dried are pow- 
dered and given by the Tamool practitioners in certain bowel 
affections connected with indigestion ; they are also considered 
as powerful alteratives (Ainslie). 

The juice of the stem is dropped into the ear in otorrhcea, 
and into the nose in epistaxis by the Marathas. It has also 
a reputation in scurvy and in irregular menstruation (Dymock). 

Trimen : — "An article of food, both fried and curried." 
The stem beaten into a paste is given in asthma (Balfour). 
A preserve of the stem prepared by boiling it in lime water 
is a useful stomachic (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

297. V. adnata, Wall, h.f.b.l, i. 649. 

Sun. — Cissus adnata, Roxb. 136. 

Vern. — Kole-Zan (Bom.) ; Bod-lar-nari (Santal) ; Panilari 
(Paharia) ; Kungchen-rik (Lepcha) ; Gudametige, kokkitaya-ralu 
(Tel) ; Nadena (Mahabaleshwar) Marathi. This is the name 
in the Concan. Thana District — K. R. Kirtikar. 

Habitat. — Hotter parts of India, from the Western Hima- 
laya in Garhwal to Assam, Sylhet and Bengal. Western 
Peninsula and Ceylon. 

Stems slender, cylindric, at first covered with orange 
tomentum, afterwards glabrous. Tendrils forked, woolly. 
Leaves 2-3 in., broadly ovate, cordate or wide-truncate at base, 
shortly acuminate, acute, spinous-serrate, nearly glabrous above 
(when full-grown), densely covered with orange tonemtum 
beneath. Petioles about lin., very tomentose. Stipules broad, 
obtuse, membranous, hairy. Flowers on slender, hairy, rather 
drooping pedicels. Cymes paniculate, orange-tomentose ; ped- 
uncles exceeding the petioles. Berry \ in. ; black, on recurved 
stalk, pyriform, appendiculate. Tendril woody, says Lawson. 
Seed t 3 o in., pyriform, smooth. 

Parts used. — The tubers and roots. 

Use. — The dried tubers are used by the country people as 
an alterative, in the form of a decoction ; they consider that 


it purifies the blood, acts as a diuretic, and renders the secre- 
tions healthy (Dymook.) 

The root, powdered and heated, is applied to cuts and 
fractures by the Santals (Revd. A. Campbell,) 

298. V. latifolia, h.f.b.l. i. 652, Roxb. 222. 

Vern. : — Pani-bel, musal (lierwaraj ; Govila (B.) Jungli 
Drakh (Porebander and Guj.); Golinda (Marathi). 

Habitat. North-West India ; Kuruaon and Moradabad. 
Assam, Silhet and the Western Peninsula, from the Concan and 
Coromandel coast, southwards. 

The whole plant quite glabrous generally. Stems weak, 
hollow, far-climbing, striate. Leaves 5-S by 6-8 in., glossy, 
roundly-cordate, 3-7-angled or-lobed, peduncles shortish, bearing 
a slender iorked tendril. Flowers very small, in small, some- 
what compact, thyrsoid Cymes, reddish-brown ; petals distinct ; 
peduncles bearing a short, wiry tendril a little below the cyme. 
Style 0. Fruit of the size of a current, black, 2-seeded. Seeds 
■|-J in., elliptic, with a linear tubercle on the back and the 
margins transversely rugose, bluntly ridged on the face. 

Use. — According to Royle, the roots (Kusar) are used 
medicinally (Royle. 111., p. 144.) 

299. V. vinifera, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 652. 

Sans. — L)r aksha ; mridirka. 

Vern. — Of the fresh fruit— Grapes, Eng. Angur, JJakh, 
Hind. Angur, Ihik. Kodi-mundrip-pazham, Diraksha-pazkam 
or Uiraksha-param, Tarn. Draksha-pandu, Gostini-pandu, Tel. 
Muntirinnap-pazham or Uuntri-param, Malyal. Drakshi-hannu, 
Can. Angur, Drakkya, Beng. Draksha-phalam, Sans. Drakska, 
Mali. Drakh, Guz. Aludra-palam, Mudraka, Cing. Sabi-si 
Sabya-si, Bur. Ainab or Aanab, Arab. Angur, Pers. Of the 
ripe fruit, dried in the sun or with artificial heat — Monaqqa, 
Hind., Bull, and Pers. Ularnda-diraksha-pazham or Ularnda- 
dracha-param, Tarn. Endu-draksha-pandu, Dipa-rlraksha-pandu, 
Tel. Unanniya-muntrinap-param, Malyal. Dipa-drakshi, Can. 
ILonakkka, Beng. Vellich-cha-mudra-palam, Cing. Zabibmavez, 

N. 0. AMPELID^. 345 

Arab. Of the small variety of raisins without stones — Sultana 
Raisins, Eng. Kishmish, Bedanah, Hind., Duh. and Pers. 

Habitat. — Wild in the N. W. Himalaya ; cultivated exten- 
sively in N. W. India and rarely in the Peninsula as Poona and 

A large, woody climber ; tendrils long, bifid. Leaves 
simple, glabrous above, clothed beneath with grey floccose 
deciduous tomentum, from a cordate base nearly orbicular, 
more or less deeply 5-lobed, edge cut into large unequal, acute 
teeth ; basal nerves 5, the midrib with 4-5 pair of prominent 
secondary nerves, petioles generally shorter than leaf, longer than 
half its length. Flowers green, fragrant, petals cohering at the 
top. Inflorescence usually on the tendrils. Cymes arranged in 
panicles. Fruit 3-5-seeded. 

Use. — The dried fruits, called raisins, are used in medicine. 
They are described as demulcent, laxative, sweet, cooling, 
agreeable and useful in thirst, heat of body, cough, hoarseness 
and consumption (Dutt). 

Mahomedan writers consider grapes and raisins to be 
attenuant, suppurative, pectoral and the most digestible of fruit, 
purifying the blood and increasing its quantity and quality. 
The ashes of the wood are recommended as a preventive of 
stone in the bladder, cold swellings of the testes and piles. 
The juice of the unripe grapes is used as an astringent. The 
modern Italians use the juice in affections of the throat 

The leaves, on account of their astrigency, are sometimes 
used in diarrhoea. 

In modern native practice, the raisins are considered cool 
and aperient, and given in coughs, catarrh and jaundice 

Grapes are refrigerant, diuretic and antipyretic. In large 
doses, raisins act as a demulcent, expectorant and laxative, 
and in smaller ones as an astringent. 

The sherbet or syrup of grapes is a very pleasant and cool- 
ing drink, and proves very useful in relieving thirst and other 
pyrexial symptoms in many forms of fever. I have also used 


it with advantage in ardor-urinse, dysuria, strangury and some 
cases of bilious dyspepsia. It is one of the best and most 
agreeable vehicles for other medicines, particularly those used 
in dyspepsia, dysentery, diarrhoea, and dropsical affections. 
From their combined actions of demulcent, expectorant and 
laxative, raisins are a frequent ingredient in Mohamedan 
prescriptions for catarrhal and febrile complaints. They enter into 
the composition of Tinctura Cardamomi Composita and Tinctura 
Sennae. They also form an ingredient in one of my own formulae 
for certain forms of fever. There is little or no difference 
between the medicinal properties of the common variety of raisins 
and those of the small ones without stones (Moodeen Sheriff.) 

300. V. indiea, Linn, h.f.b.l, i. 653. 

Vera. : — Amdhauka, Amulka(B.); Jangli angur (H. and 
Dec.) ; Sambara or shembara-valli (Tel.) Chempara-valli 
(Malyal.) ; Randraksha, kole-jan (Alar.) ; Palkanda (Konk.) 
To-wel, Rata-bulatwel (Sinhalese). 

Habitat :— The central tableland of India, the Western 
Peninsula and Bengal. Ceylon most low country, up to 2,500 ft. 

Stems slender ; permanently woolly-tomentose branches, 
leaves and peduncles. Leaves 4-10in., coriaceous, at length 
glabrous and shining above, cordate-obovate, acute, denticulate- 
serrate, the points of the serratures hard almost to spiny. Ped- 
uncles stoutish, bearing a long, simple or bifurcated tendril {K. 
R. K). Flowers greenish-purple, nearly sessile, in short cylin- 
drical spikes, about 2 in. Petals distinct ; rhomboid-ovate. Style 
0. Fruit globose, the size of a large currant or pea, 2-4 seeded. 
Seed \ by^in., elliptic, slightly curved on the back, from end to 
end, otherwise flattisb, with a spathulate tubercle, the face 
w r edge-shaped. 

Use : — According to Rheede, the juice of the root, with the 
kernel of the cocoanut, is employed as a depurative and aperient. 

In the Concan, the country folk use it as an alterative in the 
form of a decoction, and they consider it to purify the blood and 
act as a diuretic and render the secretions healthy (Dymock.) 

N. O. AMPELIDiE. 347 

301. V. setosa, Wall, h.f.b.i., i. 654. 

Syn. : — Cissus Setosa, Roxb. 137. 

Vern. : — Baru-butsali, barre bach-cbali, warsi pala, pulla 
bach-cbali (Tel.) ; Harwal (H.) ; Yek-gisam-ka-bachla (Dec.) ; 
Khaj goli-cha vel (Mar.); Puli-perandai ; puli-naravi ; Anuittad- 
betichal (Tarn.) 

Habitat :- Western Peninsula, from the Circars and Mysore 
southwards. Ceylon. 

Stems prostrate, weak-branched, succulent, zigzag, striate, 
hispid, with glandular hairs. Tendrils long, forked. Leaves 
3-foliate (rarely simple), sessile. Leaflets shortly stalked, 
obovate or oblong-cuneate at base, obtuse, irregularly toothed 
or laciniate, succulent, glabrous above, glandular-hispid on the 
veins beneath, pale green, the central one narrower and on 
longer stalk. Stipules broad ovate, acute. Flowers small on 
long glandular pedicels. Cymes teminating lateral branches, 
dichotomous, lax, divaricate. Peduncle l|-4 in. long, glandular- 
hispid. Calyx loose, truncate. Petals contracted in the middle, 
hooked, ultimately reflexed. Berry over \ in., ovoid, strongly 
glandular-hisped, scarlet, size of a pea. Seed sub-globose, nearly 
smooth. The fruit is acid at first to taste, but afterwards very 
burning and acrid. In fact, every part of the plant is exceedingly 
acrid, says M. B. Lawson in Hooker's Flora, Br. Tnd. 

Parts used : — The leaves. 

Use : — It is exceedingly acrid. The leaves are sometimes 
externally applied as a domestic remedy to promote suppuration 
and assist in the extraction of guinea-worm (Dymock). 

It is a useful local stimulant, in the form of a poulitice 
(Moodeen Sheriff). 

302. V. trifolia, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 654, Foxb. 

Syn. : — V. Carnosa, Wall. 
Sans : — Amla-parni. 

Vern. : — Amal-bel, gidad-drak, kassar (II.) ; Bundal, amal- 
lala, sone-kesur (B.) ; Jarila-lara (Pah aria) ; Takbli-rik (Lepoha); 


Mairnati (Assam) ; Karik, amal-bel, gidardak, drikri, vallur 
(Pb.) ; Odki, ambat-vel (Mar.) ; Khat-khatumbo, tamanya 
(Guz.) ; Kuru dinne, kadepa tige, kanapatige, mandulamari 
tige, meka mettani chettu (Tab) Walratdiyalabu (Sinhalese). 

Habitat : — Throughout the hotter parts of India and as- 
cending into the tropical Himalaya. Ceylon. 

Stems slender, much-branched, angular, quite glabrous. 
Tendrils long, slender, wavy, branched, and opposite the leaves. 
Young shoots glabrous, red. Leaves 3-foliate, 2-6 in., on long 
peduncles, channelled above. Leaflets small, usually shortly 
stalked, the middle one the largest and on longer stalk, broadly 
oval or rotundate, rounded at base, acute or obtuse, very 
coarsely crenate-serrate, glabrous and shining, thick. Stipules 
small, ovate, acute. Flowers white, green, says Trimen, shortly 
pedicellate. Cymes di-or-tri-chotomous, lax, divaricate, termina- 
ting lateral branches. Peduncle 2J-3 in., glabrous, petals acute, 
spreading. Berry f in., or more, depressed-globose, smooth, 
purple, 3-or 4-seeded, very juicy. Seed acutely trigonous, 
sharply pointed, bluntly muricate on beak, wedge-shaped on 
the face. 

Parts used. — The seeds and roots. 

Use. — The names given to it in many parts of India denote 
one of its most general uses, viz., the treatment of yoke sores 
on the necks of bullocks. For that purpose, a poultice of the 
leaves is employed (Elliot). According to Irvine the seeds and 
also leaves are employed as an embrocation. Stewart remarks 
that the root, ground with black, pepper, is applied to boils. 
The root — Xamraj (H.) is used as an astringent medicine. 

303. V. araneosus, Dalz. & Gibs, h.f.b.l, 
i. 657. 

Vern. : — Bendir, bender-wel, ghorwel (Bom.). The root — 
Chamarmusli (Bomb.) 

Habitat : — Western Peninsula, highest ghats of the Concan 
and Pulney Mts. Grows very freely in Thana, and is called 

N. 0. AMPELIM. 349 

The whole plant covered with decidous down, except on 
the under-surface of the leaves where it is persistent. Stems 
flattened, slender for climbing. Leaves membranous, 4-6 in. 
petiole 1-2 in. ; terminal leaflet elliptic, lateral semi-elliptic, 
shortly stalked, serrate, at length glabrous above, felted beneath. 
Flowers dark brown or red, in small compact umbellate cymes, 
on long woolly peduncles, which bear a forked tendril about an 
inch from the top. Style very short. Fruit globose, of the 
size of a cnrrant, black, 3-4-seeded. Seeds i by i in., elliptic, 
with a round depression on the back, puckered round the 

Use:— -The vine is often given to horses when it first 
springs up ; it is said to be very beneficial once a year. The 
tuberous, starchy, astringent roots, sliced and dried, are sold by 
the Goncan herbalists, under the name of Chamar-musli 

304. V. pedata, Vahl. h.f.b.l, i. 661, Roxb. 

Sans. : — Godhapadi (foot of the Iguana, from the shape of 
the leaf). 

Vern. :— Goali-lata (B.); Tungrutrikup (Lepcha.); Edakula, 
mandula, kaunem, pulimada, kaniapatige, kadepatige (Tel.) ; 
Ghorpad-vel (Mar.) ; Mediya-wel (Sinhalese). 

Habitat : — Bengal, Sylhet, Assam, Khasia Hills and the 
Western Peninsula, from the Concan to Ceylon. 

A large climber. Stems weak, cylindric, striate, usually 
covered with short pubescence, mixed with longer, brown, spread- 
ing hairs; tendrils long, forked, very slender, young parts 
tomentose. Leaves large, 3-foliate (Trimen), usually 7-foliate 
(M.A. Lawson) ; the lateral leaflets usually pedately-compound. 
Petiole 2-3in,, pubescent and hairy, like the stem, central leaflet 
long-stalked, lateral leaflets shortly stalked, rarely simple, 
usually divided into 2-3 or 4 leaflets which are unequal, nearly 
sessile or shortly stalked, all leaflets acute and often oblique 
at base, shortly acuminate, acute, coarsely and shallowly 



repand-Jentate, more or less pubescent on both sides, especially 
beneath. Flowers white, bi-sexual, on short pubescent pedicels. 
Cyme corymbose, shortly pedunculate, dichotomous, lax, spread- 
ing, axillary, shorter or longer than petiole. Calyx very 
shallow, segments usually 4 (rarely 5) ; hooked and slightly 
coherent at top, pubescent outside, soon falling. Berry \ in, 
depressed, globose, cream-coloured, 2-4-seeded. Seed serni- 
globose, smooth. 

Use : — Sometimes used as a substitute for, or adulterant of, 
V. setosa. 

This plant is used as a domestic medicine, because of its 
astringency fDiMociO. 

305. Leea maerophylla, Roxb. h.f.b.l, i. 664, 
Roxb. 291. 

Sans. : — Samoodraka. 

Vern. — Dhol-shumoodra (B.) ; Dinda (Bomb.) ; Samudraca 
(H.) ; Hatkan ( Santal) ; Dinda (Mar.). 

Habitat :— Throughout the hotter parts of India, from the 
tropical Himalaya, as far west as Kumaon, to Bengal, Assam, 
and the Western Peninsula. 

Stems erect, flexuose. Leaves simple, 9in., 2-fid, broadly 
ovate, sub-cordate at base, coarsely serrate or dentate or sub- 
lobed, repand, glabrous and dark green above, nearly white 
beneath, and pubescent, with minute-branching hairs. Cymes 
puberulous, 1-ft. or more, freely-branching. Flowers white, 
small. Fruit the size of a small cherry, smooth, black, 

Part used : — The root. 

Uses : — The tuberous root is employed in the cure of gui- 
nea-worm, and when pounded is applied to obstinate sores to pro- 
mote cicatrization. According to Roxburgh, the root is astrin- 
gent and a reputed remedy for ringworm (Dymock). 

The root is said to yield colour for dyeing. 

K. 0. AMPELID/E. 351 

In Chutia Nagpur, it is supposed to have anodyne proper- 
ties, being applied externally to allay pain (Revd. A. Camp- 

The Burmans use the root as an application to wounds to 
stop the effusion of blood (Mason). 

306. L. erisjja, Willd., i. 665, Roxb. 

Vern. : — Ban-chelta (B.) ; Nalugu (Malay). 

Habitat : — Sikkim, Terai, Assam Khasi hills, Dacca, 
Chittagong, Lower Burma, Concan, North Kanara. 

A stiff shrub. Leaves usually quinate-pinnate, stems, 
branches and petioles general^ with 6-8 narrow crispid wings, 
nearly glabrous ; leaflets usually 5, oblong, 4-12 in. by lj-3i i 


deeply and irregularly serrate; secondary nerves numerous, 
prominent beneath, straight, parallel one to each serration ; 
tertiary nerves indefinite, parallel. Corymbs stoutish, small ; 
bracts minute. Anthers distinct. Fruit the size of a cherry, 
black, succulent. The crisped, winged stems and petioles, 
says Lawson, give to this plant a most elegant appearance. 

Use : — The tubers are used as a remedy for guinea-worm, 
and are said to be more efficient than those of L. maerophylla 

The leaves, when bruised, are employed in Bengal as an 
application to wounds. (Revd. J. Long). 

307. L. sambiicina, Willd. h.f.b.i., i. 666, 
Roxb. 221. 

Vern. — Kurkur-jihwa (H. and B.) ; Dino (Goa) ; kar-kani 
(Mar.) ; Aukados (Tel.) ; Nalugu (Mai.). Burulla guralla (Sin- 

Habitat. — Throughout the hotter parts of India. Ceylon. 

A shrub, with straight branches. Leaves pinnate or tri- 
pinnate, often 31 by 4 ft.; leaflets stalked, very variable in size 
and shape ; nerves arcuate. Flowers greenish-white. Anthers 
connate. Fruit dry, the size of a small dry cherry. 


Parts used : — The root and leaves. 

Use : — According to Rheede, a decoction of the root is 
given in colic, and it is cooling and relieves thirst. 

In Goa, the root, called ratanhia by the Portuguese, is 
much used in diarrhoea and chronic dysentery. The roasted 
leaves are applied to the head in vertigo. The juice of the 
young leaves is a digestive. In Reunion, the root is called Bois 
de Surreau, and is said to be used as a sudorific (Dymock). 

308. L. robusta, Roxb. h.f.b.l, i. 667, Roxb. 

Vern : — Gino (Goa, ; Hararnada, hatkan (Santal) ; Gabui 
(Nepal) ; Pantom (Lepcha). 

Habitat : -Sikkim Himalaya and Khasia Mts., Western 
Peninsula and the Northern Circars. Kolaba, Mirya Hill, 

A large, robust shrub, 5-6 ft. Stems stout, the older parts 
glabrous, the young covered with harsh, coarse, short pubescence. 
Leaves 2-3-pinnate, pubescent, 1-3 ft. long, often broader leaflets 
6-12 by 2|-6 in. ovate or ovate-lanceolate, cuspidate, serrate, 
glabrous above, pubescent on the veins beneath. Bracts large, 
persistent, ^-1 in. lanceolate. Flowers larger than in the other 
species. Cymes compact. Flowers larger than in the other 
species. Anthers connate. Fruit black, succulent, the size of 
a small cherry. 

Uses : — In Chutia Nagpur, the soft and fleshy root is 
applied externally as an anodyne, and is also given to cattle for 
diarrhoea (Revd. A. Campbell). 

309. L. hirta, Roxb. h.f.b.l, i. 668. Roxb. 

Syn : — Leea arguata, Linn. 

Sans. : — Kakajangha. 

Habitat :— Sikkim Himalaya, ascending too 2,000 ft., Assam, 
Vilhasi hills Silhet, the Khasia Mts., Sundarban, East Bengal, 

N. 0. SAPINDA0E2E. 353 

and Chittagong. Pegu and Andaman Islands. Forests near 

A shrubby evergreen, with coarse, scabrous branches and 
petioles. Leaves hairy ; leaflets 4.-12 by 2-4 in., lanceolate or 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, harsh and scabrous above, 
hairy beneath, veins arched. Cymes very short and compact, 
2-5 in., densely hirsute. Bracts inconspicuous. Flowers large, 
anthers connate. Fruit the size of a pea, black when ripe. 

Use : — It is used medicinally. The tubers and stems are 
probably astringent and mucilaginous. 


310. Cardiospermum helicacabum, Linn. 
H.F.B.i., i. 670, Roxb. 335. 

Eng, :-— Balloon-Vine, Heart Pea or Winter Cherry. 
Sans. : — Jyotishmati, Karavi. 

Verm. ■:— Lataphatkari, nayaphatki, noaphutki, sibjhul 
(B.) ; Hab-ul-kal-kal (seed) (Pb.) ; Karolio (Guz.) ; Kanphuti, 
bodha, khibjal, Naphat (Bom.); Muda-cottan (Tarn.); Walla 
gulisienda, kanakaia, budha-kakara (Tel.); Penel-wel (Sinha- 
lese) ; Kagdolio (Porebunder). 

Habitat : — Throughout India, chiefly in Bengal and the 
North- Western Provinces, Ceylon, Malacca. 

A sub-scandent annual. Stem slender, strongly furrowed, 
slightly branched, glabrous, young parts puberulous. Leaves 
biternate. Petiole long, 2-3 in., spreading or deflexed, furrowed. 
Leaflets sessile or shortly stalked, ovate, tapering at base, acute, 
deeply incised-serrate, glabous, thin, flaccid. Flowers very 
small, ^ in., on slender pedicels 3-7 in., a very small cyme, termi- 
nating to stiff, slender, horizontal, axillary peduncle 4 in., long, 
and provided beneath the cyme with 2 opposite reflexed, 
circinate or hooked tendrils. Sepals rounded, the outer pair 
very small. Petals rounded, scarcely clawed ; scales of upper 
ones emarginate. Style very short. Capsule on a short, slender 
stalk, bladder-like, |-i in- wide, depressed-pyriform, trigonous, 


truncate at top, winged at the angles, valves papery, veiny, 
finely pubescent. Seeds |-J in., globular, glabrous, black, the 

aril heart- shaped, white. 

Paris used : — The roots, leaves and seeds. 

Uses : — The Sanskrit writers describe the root as emetic, 
laxative, stomachic and rubefacient. Combined with other medi- 
cines, they prescribe it in rheumatism, nervous diseases, piles 
&c. The fried leaves are said to bring on the secretion of 
the menses (Dutt). The seeds are officinal ; and the root is 
considered by the native practitioners diaphoretic, diuretic and 
aperient. It is mucilaginous, and imparts this property to water, 
rendering it nauseous, and is thus administered in fevers. 
Rheede says that on the Malabar Coast the leaves are adminis- 
tered in pulmonic complaints. According to Ainslie, the leaves 
mixed with castor oil, are employed internally in rheumatism 
and lumbago. 

The whole plant rubbed up with water is applied to rheum- 
atism and stiffness of the limbs. The leaves, mixed with 
jaggery, and boiled in oil, is a good specific in sore-eyes 

The whole plant, steeped in milk, is successfully applied to 
reduce swellings and hardened tumours (Drury). 

In the Punjab, the seed is used as a tonic in fever, and a 
diaphoretic in rheumatism (Baden Powell). 

The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during 
the menstrual period. It is also a demulcent in gonorrhoea and 
in pulmonary affections (Baden Powell). 

The Hindu practitioners in South India, especially those in 
villages, frequently employ the leaves and root of C. kelieaea- 
bum in the treatment of several diseases, including rheumatism, 
gravel and calculi ; but I have only seen the juice of the leaves, 
in about three-ounce doses, producing a good and satisfactory 
result in two cases of acute rheumatism. In each of these 
cases, the drug acted upon the bowels and produced four or 
five loose motions, but the relief it afforded to the pain and 
other symptoms of rheumatism was distinctly more than that 

N. 0. SAPINDAOE^. 355 

generally observed in the same disease under the use of ordi- 
nary purgatives. This is the chief cause of my including the 
above plant in this work (Moodeen Sheriff). 

311. ZEsculus hippocastanum, Linn,, 
i. 675.- 

Eng. Horse-chestnut. 

Vern:— Pfi (Pb.j. 

Habitat : — Found in India only in a state of cultivation. 

North America, Temparate Asia, Asia Minor ; Central 

Large trees, often reaching 50-60 ft., with a broad pyram- 
idal outline or shrubs. Trunk erect. Leaves opposite ex-stipnlate, 
digitately composite ; leaflets 7, broad, unequal in size, serrate. 
Flowers irregular, polygamous, interminal, more or less elongate, 
branched cymiferous racemes. Cymes often 1-parous. Lobes of 
gamophyllons tubular Calyx 5, unequal, imbricate. Corolla 
snowy white, dashed with pink and yellow, inodorous. Petals 5, 
or, the 5th place vacant, 4, unequal unguiculale ; claw linear, 
compressed or canaliculate ; limb in-appendiculate, imbricate. 
Stamens 5-8, subcentric ; filaments free, interior to annular 
or unilateral disk. Sub-hypogynous, erect or arcuately decli- 
nate. Anthers introse, 2-rimose, dehiscent by two longitudinal 
clefts. Germen (in male flower rudimentary) sub-centric, sessile, 
3-locular, the ovular coat is double. Style terminal, elongate, 
apex stigmatose, simple. Ovules in cells 2, inserted in the internal 
angle ; one ascendent ; raphe ventral ; the other descendent ; 
raphe dorsal. Fruit capsular, 3-locular, smooth or more rarely 
echinate, coriaceous, globose or sub-3-lobed, loculicidal, cells, 
1-3, 1-2-spermous. Seeds sub-globose ; hilum large. Testa 
smooth, coriaceous, exarillate. Cotyledons of ex-albuminous 
embryo thickly fleshy, hemi-spherical, conferruminate. Radicle 
arched, more or less sheathed within the testa. The pollen is 

* In Hooker's P. B. I., contributor W. P. Hiern says, at p. 675; "the 
JEsculus Hippocastanum, Linn, is said to be indigenous in North India, but it 
is not now known in the wild state (1875 A. D.)"— K. R. K. 


In 1874-1877 I used to see a row of some excellent, huge, 
Land some Lorse-chestnut trees along the garden enclosing wall 
of tLe Kensington Gardens, London (K. R K.) 

Uses : — The fruit and bark Lave for long been regarded 

as useful in the treatment of fevers as an anti-periodic. 

Esculine, in doses of 15 grains, is said to have been found 

useful in malarial disorders. 

Composition of the fruit, after drying. Shell=16"9%, kernelr=83'l%. 
The kernel, shell and whole fruit, resp., show on analysis : ash 2, 8, 1*7, 26 ; 
protein, 121, 5*7, 11*0 ; fiber, 2*1, 13% 4-0 ; oil, 6*3, 0*9, 5*3 ; carbohydrates, 
74*5, 71*6, 74-0. The ash contains 12-3% P 2 5 . This nut contains no harmful 
ingredient, but the relatively large proportion of bitter acid present renders 
the material unpalatable. When ground and mixed with molasses these nuts 
have been used as a substitute for oil-cake in cattle fodder. Drying, macerat- 
ing, or boiling the nuts greatly reduces the bitter taste and increases the 
nutritive value. One kg. of dried nuts is equivalent to 6 kg. of beet-roots. 
Numerous methods are employed in separating the starch of chestnut. 
Horse-chestnut oil is very similar to almond and mustard seed oils. The 
following consts. were obtained: d 15 , 0*926; n, 1*4747; Sapon. no., 194*5; 
I no, 95*4 ; R— M. no, 1'54 ; Hehner no., 92*9 ; acetyl no, 13*5. The acid prin- 
ciple of this nut has not been clearly identified. 

Chemical Abstracts for Jan. 20, 1914. p. 384. 

312. M. indica, Colebr. h.f.b.l, i. 675. 

Eng. : — Indian horse-chestnut. 

Vern. : — Bankhor, gugu, kanor, pankar (H.) ; Gun, kanor 
(Pb.) ; Kishing (Kumaon) ; Home, hanudum (Kashmir) ; Torjaga 

Habitat :— Western Himalaya, from the Indus to Nepal. 

A large, deciduous tree, with scaby sticky, buds. Bark 
grey ; when old, exfoliating upwards in long flakes or thin bands, 
which remain attached to the upper ends and hang down 
outwards, having a straight appearance. Wood white, with a 
pinkish tinge, soft, close-grained. A very handsome tree, reach- 
ing 100 ft. or more in height, in suitable places, with perhaps 
25 ft. in girth. Leaves opposite, digitate, ex-stipulate ; common 
petiole 4-6 in. long. Leaflets 5-9 ; 6-10 by 2-3J in., the centre 
ones the largest, oblanceolate, or oblong, acuminate, sharply 

N. 0. SAPINDACE^. 357 

serrate ; lateral nerves 15-22 pair, arcuate ; base acute. Petiolules 
J-l in., long. Bud scales about 1| in. long, membranous, cadu- 
cous. Flowers white, horizontal, in large thyrsoid, cyme-bearing, 
terminal panicles. Calyx |-| in. long, tubular, with 5 short, 
rounded lobes, often split longitudinally in open flowers. Petals 
4, the place of the 5 usually vacant, white and yellow, §-§ in. 
long, clawed, unequal in breadth. Stamens 7 filiform, curved 
upward, longer than the petals ; anthers variable. Disk one- 
sided. Ovary sessile, 3-celled ; style simple, sessile, slender, 
Fruit a 1-3-celled. Capsule, lj in. long, ovoid, rough outside. 
Seeds ex-albuminous, about 1 J in. diam. dark brown, smooth, 
shining. Hilum about \ in. diam. 

Use : — The fruit is used for horses in colic. It is also ap- 
plied externally in rheumatism ; for this purpose the oil is 
generally extracted from the seeds (Watt). 

313. Schleichera trijuga, Willd., H. F. B. I., 
i. 681, Eoxb. 331 : 

Vern. — Kosum, kusum, gausam, (Hind.) ; Puvatti, (Kaders.) ; 
Baru, (Santali ; Kol.) ; Kosum, kohan, kosimb, peduman, (Mar); 
Kosum, kocham, kosumb, gosam, assumar, (Guj.); Komur, 
pusku, (Gond.) ; Rusara, (Uriya) ; Kussam, kojba, (C. P.) ; 
Samma, jamoa, gausam, kussumb, (Pb.) ; Pava, pu, pulachi, 
zolim buriki, pumarum, pularari, puva, (Tarn.) ; Pusku, posuku, 
pusi, may, mayi, rotanga, roatanga, (Tel.) ; Sagdi,' sagade, 
akota, chakota, (Kan.) ; Chendala, (Coorg) ; Puva, (Mai); Gyo, 
kyetmouk, kobin, (Burm.) Kon, kong, conghas, (Sing.) 

Kusum is the Hindustani name for the Safflower plant, and 
perhaps refers to the colouring matter of the lac-insect which 
often feeds upon the tree. The seeds are called paka or pacca 
in Calcutta. 

Habitat. — " Dry, chiefly deciduous forests in the greater part 
India, Burma, and Ceylon, but apparently absent from Bengal 
and Assam. It is found from the Sutlej to Nepal in the lower 
Himalaya, Sub-Himalayan tract and Siwalicks up to 3,000 feet, 
throughout Central India, the East and West coast regions, the 
Deccan and Carnatic, in all deciduous forests throughout Burma 


and in the low country of Ceylon up to 2,000 feet," (Gamble, 
Manual of Indian Timbers, 2nd ed. 195.) 

A large deciduous tree, leafing and flowering early in the 
spring. i( Bark \ in. thick, grey, ex-foliating in small, rounded 
plates of irregular shape and size, Wood very hard. Sap-wood 
whitish ; heart-wood light and reddish brown. Pores scanty, 
moderate-sized, often oval and sub- divided, often joined by 
pale, interrupted, wavy and concentric lines. Medullary rays 
very fine, very numerous, wavy, uniform and equidistant, closely 
packed ; the distance between the rays less than the transverse 
diameter of the Pores " (Gamble). Leaves paripinnate 8-16 in. 
Leaflets opposite, sessile, 1-10 by §-4^ in., the lowest pairs the 
smallest, 1-3 in. long ; terminal pair 6-9 in. long ; deep-crimson 
when young, soon changing to green. Flowers yellow (green, 
says Trimen) ; male and bi-sexual, generally on different trees, 
fascicled on interrupted, often slender, racemes. Hiern says 
flowers are yellowish or green. Calyx small, 4-cleft. Petals 
0. Stamens 8-6, longer than Calyx ; filaments more or less 
hairy ; disk flat, undulate. Ovary 3-4-celled. hairy ; style rigid ; 
stigma sometimes capitate, 3-4-cleft, one, erect, ovate in each 
cell. Fruit 1 in. long, usually echinate. Seeds 1-2 ; testa brown, 
enclosed in a succulent arillus of pleasantly acid taste. Cotyle- 
dons full of oil. This is the Ceylon Oak of the English 

There is a female tree, found by Assistant-Surgeon 
Johnstone, Sub 1. M. S., incharge of the Andheri Nasurwanji 
Wadia Charitable Dispensary in the garden of Mr, Guzclar at 
Andheri (Tirana District)— K R. K., 1915. 

Use:— The bark is astringent ; rubbed up with oil, the 
natives use it to cure itch (Roxb.). 

The oil of the seeds proves a very efficient and stimulating 
agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth 
of hair (Ph. J., Dec. 3, 1887.) 

The oil is used by native practitioners for the cure of itch 
and acne. 

The Santals use the bark by external application to relieve 
pains in the back and the loins (Revd. A. Campbell). 

N. 0. SAPINDAOE.E. oD\) 

In the Nilgiris the oil is used for anointing the body. The medicinal 
effects are variously reported as purgative (in the United Provinces) and as 
prophylactic against cholera (in Thana division, Bombay). It is more usual 
to apply it externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay), for the cure of 
headache (Sambalpur, Central Provinces). Its application in Bombay, 
Malabar, and Coorg is said to be effective in removing itch and other forms 
of skin diseases, and this remedy is known to the wild forest tribes. The 
powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals and for removing maggots. 

The seeds, 

The seeds are ovoid or rounded in shape, about five -eighths of an inch 
long by half an inch broad, smooth, reddish-brown in colour, and marked with 
an indented hilum at one end. One hundred seeds weigh 57 grains giving 
an average weight of 87 grains per seed. On removing the brown, brittle 
shell a dirty white kernel is disclosed with white markings on the testa. 
One hundred parts of seeds afford 66 parts of kernels and 34 parts of shells. 
The kernels extracted with ether or petroleum spirit yielded in the Calcutta 
Indian Museum laboratory 61*4 per cent, of oil, showing that the entire seed 
contains 40*5 per cent, of oil- 
Mr. J. H. Walker of the Oil Department of the Gouripore Company, Naihati, 
obtained a yield of 60*4 per cent, of a thick fixed oil from the kernels, which 
is equivalent to 36*7 per cent, on the nuts. 

Composition of seeds and oil. 

The first analysis of the seeds appears to have been made by Dr. L. Van 
Itallie [Apoth. Zeitung. (1889), 4°506], who separated about 36 per cent, of a 
buttery fat, which he called the Macassar oil of commerce. It had a specific 
gravity of 0*924 at 15° C, melted at 28° C., had an iodine number of 53, a 
saponification equivalent of 219 (1 gram required 230 mgm. of potash for 
saponification), contained 91 per cent, of insoluble fatty acids and 6*3 per 
cent, of glycerol. The fatty acids present included acetic, butyric, lauric, 
arachie and oleic acids. 

The next recorded analysis of Macassar oil is that of Dr. K. Trummel 
[Apoth., Zeitung. (1889), 4*518]. The oil had a melting point of 21°-22° C. 
The presence of hydrocyanic acid was detected and 0'47 per cent, obtained by 
steam distillation. Benzaldehyde was detected in the distillate by its 
transformation into benzoic acid by the action of potassium permanganate. 

Dr. Trummel in conjunction with Mr, Kivassick further investigated the 
oil in 1891 (Pharm. Zeit. May 1891, 314), after confirming previous results the 
authors separated the constituents of the oil. The fatty acids, with the 
exception of 3*15 per cent, of free oleic acid, were present as glycerides. 
Of these in combination 70 per cent, consisted of oleic acid, and of the 
solid fatty acids 5 per cent, was palmitic and 25 per cent, arachie 
acid, the characteristic acid of the ground-nut. Lauric acid was not 
present, and of the volatile fat acids only acetic and no butyric acid 
could be detected. Hydrocyanic was found in the oil and in the seeds, 
being determined as 0*03 per cent, in the former and 0*62 per cent, in 


the latter. No amyadalin could be detected in the seeds, bat hydrocyanic, 
benzaldehyde and grape sugar, possibly the decomposition products of it, 
were found. A small quantity of cane sugar was also separated in the 
crystallised form. 

In 1893 an examination was made by Mr. R. Glenk (Amer. Journ. Pharm. 
LXV. 528) of a specimen of the oil from seeds sent from Mirzapur. The 
oil was described as a yellowish- white semi-solid substance having a faint 
odour of bitter almonds and a specific gravity of 0942. The oil had an acid 
re-action, and completely liquified at 28° C. It was readily Saponified by 
sodium hydrate even at a low temparature, forming a white hard soap. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid acquired a reddish-brown colour on addition of 
the oil. It is soluble in chloroform, ether, bisulphate of carbon, benzene, 
and the fixed and volatile oils. 

Dr. J. J". A. Wijs examined the seeds in 1900 (Zeits. physic. Chem. 31*255— 
257). The seeds of Schleichera trijuga were obtained from the Celebes, 
and 60 per cent, consisted of kernels. The kernels had the following com- 
position : — 

Water ... — ... ... ••• 3*5 

Fat ... .- .» .» .» 70*5 

Proteids ... ... ... ... • •• 12*0 

Fibre and ash... ... ... ... ... 14*0 


The fat extracted by means of petroleum ether had the colour and 
consistence of butter. The following constants were determined: melting 
point (by the Le Sueur and Crossley method), 22° C. ; melting point of the fatty 
acids, 52 — 54° C; Hehner value, 91'55; saponification value (Henriques 1 cold 
process), 215.3 ; iodine value (TTijs' iodine chloride and acetic acid method), 
55*0, that of the fatty acids being 58'9 ; Reichert-Meissl value, 9; acid num- 
ber 19*2 • acid number of the fatty acids, 191-2—192-0 ; unsaponiflable matter, 
3-12 per cent. The volatile acids (acetic acid with a little butyric acid) were 
examined by the Duclaux method ; and the ratio of the solid (45per cent.) to 
the liquid fatty acids (55 per cent, with iodine value 193*2) was determined 
by the Rose method. (Agricultural Ledger 1905— No. 1). 

314. Sapindus trifoliatus, Linn. H. F. B. I., 
I. 682. 

Syn. : — S. laurifolia, Vahl. Roxb. 331. S. Emarginata, 
Vdhl. Roxb. 331. 

San : — Arishta and Plienila. 

Vern. :— The fruit — Ritha (Hind.); Bara-ritha, ritha (Beng.); 
ud-rack, ritha, ringin, ritha, ritha (Mar.); Arithan, aritha (Guz.) ; 

N. 0. SAPINDACE^. Jbl 

ritha (Dec.) ; Ponnauga, ponau-kottai, pureandi, puvanti (Tarn.) ; 
Kunkudu cliettu, kukudu, koukudu, kukudu-koyalu, kukudu- 
Kayaln, Neykkoddau, Pannalaw (Tel.) ; Autala, artala, thalog 
moratlm, kukate-kayi, kugate, auta wala, puvella, punerai gaspe- 
nela, Penela (Sing.). 

Eng. : — The Soap-nut Tree. 

Habitat :— Common about the villages in South India and 
cultivated in Bengal, Ceylon, Bombay. Barocla city, in the 
Lakshmi Vilas Palace gardens. 

A large tree. Bark shining, grey, with rough, deciduous 
scales. Wood yellow, hard. Leaves 5-12 in. (usually) ; normally 
abruptly pinnate. Leaflets 2-3 pair, elliptic, generally obtuse 
and somewhat emarginate, at times acute, those of the 
terminal pair longest, 3-7in., glabrous or especially beneath, 
pubescent, with short curved or stellate hairs ; base obtuse, 
petioles short. Inflorescence rusty-pubscent, in terminal panicles. 
Calyx rusty pubescent. Flowers £-J in. long, white, hairy, 
greenish-white (Trimen). Sepals 5 elliptic, obtuse. Petals 4-5, 
narrower, oblong or lanceolate without scales, or with two 
tufts of white hair (Brand is ; " scale of the petals membranous, 
pilose, ciliate," says Hiern. Disk concave, edge fleshy, hirsute. 
Stamens 8, anthers oblong, spiculate. Ovary hairy densely 
rusty, tomentose. Fruit 2-3-lobed fleshy. Drupes slightly unit- 
ed, \-\ in. long, at length glaucescent, saponaceous. There are 
two forms of this tree usually regarded as distinct species, 
corresponding to ValiTs names, one with acuminate, glabrous 
leaves, the other with emarginate leaves, pubescent beneath. 

Part used : — The fruit. 

Uses : — The fruit is described in the Makhzan-ul-Adwiya, 
as hot, dry, tonic and alexipharmic. Four grains in wine 
or sherbet cure colic ; one miskal rubbed in water until it 
soaps, and then strained, may be given to people who have 
been bitten by venomous reptiles, and to those suffering from 
diarrhoea or cholera. Three or four grains may be given by 
the nose in all kinds of fits producing insensibility. Fumiga- 
tions with it are useful in hysteria and melancholia. Externally, 


it may be applied, by being made into a plaster with vinegar, 
to the bites of reptiles, and to scrofulous swellings. The root is 
said to be useful as an expectorant. Pessaries made of the 
kernel of the seed are used to stimulate the uterus in child-birth 
and amenorrhcea. One miskal of the pulp, with one-eighth 
of a miskal of scammony, act as a good brisk purgative 

According to Ainslie, the Vytians use it as an expectorant 
in asthma. Externally, it is applied on pimples and abscesses 
T. N. Mookerji), 

Honniberger recommended a tincture of the capsules in 
chlorosis. If brayed in water and inserted under the lids, it 
causes a copious flow of tears, and was used in ordinary op- 
thalmia with considerable benefit by the late Mr. Narayan 
Daji (S. Arjun). In Bombay, it is given successfully as an 
anthelmintic, in four grain doses (Dymock). 

Physiological Action : — Internally: emetic, nauseant and 
expectorant. Through the nose : a remedy in hemicrania, 
asthma, hysteria and epilepsy. Externally : detergent, and a 
remedy for the stings and bites of poisonous insects, as scor- 
pions, centipedes, &c. 

Therapeutic Uses : — As an emetic : nauseant and expectorant. 
The pericarp or pulp of soap-nut is quite equal to ipecacuanha, 
if not superior to it, and is very useful in all the affections in 
which the latter is indicated. The emetic action of soap-nut 
always relieves asthma to a more or less extent, and generally 
more speedily than ipecacuanha and Tylophora asthmatica. 
It is also useful in the same way in some classes of colic, 
particularly when the latter is depending on indigestion. A 
thick watery solution of the drug is often resorted to by the 
natives of this country for the relief of hemicrania, hysteria, 
and epilepsy. They drop a few drops of the solution in each 
nostril during the fit of any of the above diseases, and it pro- 
duces a temporary relief by irritating the mucous membrane 
and increasing its secretion, which flows out by the nostrils or 
the mouth or by both. I gave a trial to this plan of treatment, 
in my own practice, not only in the above maladies, but also 

K. 0. SAPINfrACE^E. 363 

in asthma, and the result was pretty favourable. There was 
more or less relief in almost every case of hemicrania and 
asthma in which the solution was tried ; but the cases of hys- 
teria and epilepsy benefited by it were very few. Although 
the relief afforded by the solution is always temporary, yet it 
is in many cases instantaneous. The quantity of the solution 
must not be more than four or five drops in each nostril, for 
in one case in which it exceeded ten or twelve drops, the irrita- 
tion of the membrane was severe and lasted for one or two 
days. Applied in the form of paste or poultice over the parts 
stung or bitten by poisonous insects, as scorpions, centipedes, 
&c., the pulp of soap-nut relieved the pain in two or three 
cases to my own knowledge. When bruised and agitated 
in water, it forms suds like soap, and in this condition is 
an efficient detergent and very useful for washing and cleaning 
the body, linen and hair. The kernel of the seeds is sweetish, 
nutrient, and yields an oil on expression, which is a very good 
substitute for almond oil. 

I have been using the pericarp of soap-nut in my practice 
for several months, and have just (August 1887) discovered 
it to be the one of the best, cheapest and commonest emetics 
in India. While it is as safe as ipecacuanha and several 
other vegetable emetics, it is decidedly more speedy in its 
action than all those drugs. It is however, required to be 
employed in a much larger dose than ipecacuanha ; but this is 
no disadvantage, for it is always administered in the form of 
a draught, and this draught is less nauseous and unpleasant 
than that of ipecacuanha and many other emetics. As an 
emetic, the soap-nut well deserves to be brought into general 
use by the medical profession. 

Soap-nut is supposed to be a good anthelmintic in some 
native medical works, in four or five grain doses ; but this is not 
really the case. I have used it in very large doses f 3 j to 3 ij) 
in many cases, and its emetic action was sometimes accom- 
panied by one or two loose motions. But 1 have neither seen 
nor heard of any of my patients passing a single round or any 
other abdominal worm on any occasion. The root of the 


soap-nut tree is woody, very bard and quite inert. The root- 
bark and bark, however, contain the vegetable principle, 
saponin-, and form froth-like soap, when bruised and agitated 
in water. I have used each of these drugs in decoction, and 
in large and repeated doses, and found them to be very mild 
expectorants and demulcents. As medicines, they are so weak, 
that 1 did not consider them worthy of being treated as such. 
(Moodeen Sheriff). 

315. S. Mukorossi, Gaertn. h.f.b.l, i. 683. 

There are two forms of this plant : — (I) S. detergens Eoxb. 
332 ; (2) S. Acuminata Wall. Royle, 111. 139. 

Sans. : — Phenila, Arista. 

Vern. : — Ritha, dodan, kammar (H.) ; Dodan (Pb.) ; Ita 

Habitat : — Cultivated throughout X. W. India, Bengal, 
Kumaon, Sylhet and Assam. 

A handsome tree, attaining 60ft., deciduous. Bark grey, 
wood light jellow, rough, moderately hard, compact and close- 
grained. Leaves alternate, paripinnate, 12-20in. long. Leaflets 
5-10 pair; opposite or alternate, 3J-6 by l-3in.. gradually 
smaller towards the apex of the rachis, lanceolate, acuminate, 
entire, coriaceous, glabrous ; lateral nerves numerous, petiolate 
To~^ ni - long. Inflorescence a terminal thyrsus or compound 
cymose panicle. Flowers small, regular, polygamous. Calyx- 
lobes somewhat unequal, ciliate. Petals white, inserted in the 
centre of the disk ; filaments 8, white, woolly ; anthers versatile. 
Ovary usually 3-ceiled. Fruit a fleshy globose, 1-seeded drupe ; 
J-lin. diam. Seed smooth black, loose inside when dry. The 
saponaceous pericarp wrinkled and translucent in the dry fruit 

Parts used : -~ The fruits and seeds. 

Uses : — The fruits are used medicinally in salivation, epi- 
lepsy and as an expectorant. They are also recommended for 
the cure of chlorosis (Watt). 

Honnigberger states that seeds pounded with water, are 
said often to put an end to an epileptic paroxysm, a small 
quantity being introduced into the patient's mouth. 

N. 0. sapindaceJ:. 365 

From the soft parts of the dried berries, 10. 5 p. c. of the saponin, C l7 H 2t5 
O 10 is obtained. J. Ch. S. 1901 A. I. 648. 

The sajDonin occurs in the form of salts, probably IS T a and K. The pow- 
dered fruit shells are extd. with 95% ale., Pb (0Ac) 2 is aded to ppt. the Pb salt 
of the saponin, and the Pb salt is decompd. by H 2 S, the solu. evapcl., dild. with 
water and acidified with dil. HCl ; the saponin seps. very slowly as an almost 
white flocculent ppt. It is filtered, washed with dil. ale. and purified first by 
dialysis, then bypptn.from ale. with H 2 0. When dried it forms a white 
power, sol. in ale, MeOH. insol. in H 2 0, Et 2 0, CHC1 3 , acetone and petr. ether. 
H 2 S0 4 gives a yellowish red color changing to reddish violet ; when the 
saponin is added drop by drop, to a soln. in Ac 2 0, a violet-red color results. 
NaOH added to a suspension in H 2 0, forms a foaming, strongly hemolytic soln., 
[a]20 -f 13-28° (in ale). Fehling soln, is not reduced directly. On hydrolysis 
with 3% H 2 S0 4 or ale. HCl. sapogenin and d-arabinose are formed. Sapogenin, 
white, odorless and tasteless plates from ale. m. 319°, insol. in H 2 0, Et 2 0, 
CHC1 3 , acetone and petr. ether, sol, in ale, MeOH and ale KOH. Potassium 
salt, C 31 H 47 5 K, white needles, difficulty sol. in H 2 0. Barium salt, white 
needles. Triacetyl sapogenin, prepd. by heating a mixt. of sapogenin, AcCl 
and AcONa at the b. p., fine white needles, m. 167°. Benzoyl sapogenin, 
m. 107°. Monomethylsapogpnin, prepd. with Me 2 S0 4 , needles (from ale), 
m. 218°.— Chemical Abstracts, for July 20, 1916 p. 1864. 

316. Nephelium litchi, Camb. h.f.b.l, I. 687. 
Roxb. 328. 

Hahitat : — Cultivated in India ; originally an ative of China. 

Vern : — Litchi (H.) ; Kyetmauk (Burm.) ; Lichi (Bomb.). 

A handsome, evergreen tree, 30-40ft. high ; clear stem 
12-20ft. long, girth 3-4ft. Bark thin, grey, rough. Wood 
red, hard, heavy. Pores moderate-sized, the transverse diameter 
usually considerably greater than the distance between the 
rays. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous (Gamble), all 
parts glabrous. Leaves usually abruptly pinnate ; leaflets in 
6 to 8 pair, opposite, lanceolate, shortly petioled, about 3-6in. 
long, acuminate, entire, coriaceous, glossy above, glaucous 
beneath, the netvenation obsolete ; flowers minute, greenish, 
shortly pedicelled, forming a terminal branched, usually slightly 
puberulous panicle, of the length of the leaves or longer ; petals 
none. Stamens 6-8 ; filaments and ovary pubescent. Style with 
2-stigmate lobes ; fruit-lobes usually solitary by abortion, 
rarely haired, oval, the size of a pigeon's egg, covered by the 
red muricate-areolate, somewhat crustaceous epicarp, 1-seeded ; 
the seed large, black, shining, completely covered with the 


sappy, whitish or pale bluish edible, delicious, sweet arillus, 
with a fine rosy smell ; juice refreshing. 

Uses : — In China the leaves are stated to be officinal as a 
remedy for the bites of animals (Duthie in Watt's Dictionary). 

317. A 7 . Longana, Canib. h.f.b.i., i. 688, Roxb. 

Vern. : — Ashphal (B.) ; Wumb, wumb-ashphal (Bomb.) ; 
Vomb (Mar.) ; Puvati, Nurai. (Tam.) ; Malahcota, Kanakindali 
(Kan.); Kayetmauk (Lower Burma) ; Tawthayet (Upper Burma) ; 
Mora, Rasamora (Sinhalese). 

Habitat: — Westside of the Peninsula, from the Konkan 
southwards. Khasi Hills. Burma. 

Cultivated in N. India, Ceylon, Malaya Peninsula, Hima- 
laya, from the Jhelum to Bhutan. Dehra Dun. 

A large evergreen tree, attaining 50ft. Bark smooth, 
yellowish grey. Wood red, moderately hard. Leaves paripin- 
nate, 4-18in. Leaflets 4-10 (2-5 pair) opposite, alternate 
usually rather obtuse at both ends, glabrous above, sub-glauces- 
cent, glabrous or nearly so, marked with lateral veins beneath, 
wavy, entire, base oblique. Panicles ample, rusty pubescent. 
Flowers monoecious fin. across. Calyx tomentose, segments 
5-6, narrowly imbricate. Petals pubescent, spathulate, as long 
as Calyx. Stamens 6-10 ; in the male flower long-exserted, in 
the hermaphrodite flower, as long as Calyx ; filaments hairy near 
base. Anthers glabrous, ovary 2-3-lobed, hairy. Carpel usually 
one, ovoid or globose, nearly smooth, yellowish-red, fin. diam. 
Seed entirely enclosed by the succulent sweet edible arillus. 

Use : — In China the fruit is reputed to be nutrient, sto- 
machic and anthelmintic (Duthie 1. c.) 

The seed of the following plant belonging to this genus has been chemi- 
cally analysed. 

Nephelium Lappaceum, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 687. 

The percentage composition of the ground seed is as follows. Water, 
5*87 ; fat, soluble in ether and petroleum 35-07 ; ether extractive matter, in- 
soluble in petroleum, 3'00 ; ash, 1"95 ; albumin, 889. Crude fibre, 6-90; 
starch, 25'G3 ; sugar, 1*25. The fats consist of the triglycerides of arachic 
and oleic acids, together with a very small quantity of the triglyceride of 
stearic acid —J. Ch. S. LXX, pt. II. (1896), p. 209. 

N. 0. SAPAINDACE^. 367 

318. Acer pictum, Thunb. h.f.b.i., i. 896. 

The commonest Maple of the West Himayalan range. 

Current name : Acer cultratum. Wall. 

Vern. : — Kilpattar, trekhan, tarkhana, Kakru, Kan jar, 
Kunzal, jerimu, laur, tian (Pb.) ; Kanchali, Kainjli (N. W. P.), 
Kainchli, Kabusi, Dudh Kainju (Jaunsar) ; Dhadonjra (Simla) ; 
Tikta, pata, bankima (Kumaon) ; Gudkima, potli, dumitha 
(Garhwal) ; Chindia, tilani, Chitulia, (Dotial). 

Habitat : — Outer and Middle Himalaya, from the Indus to 
Assam at 4-9, 000ft. Tibetan drinking-cups are made out of 
the knotty excrescences. 

A handsome, moderate-sized tree. Bark thin grey. Wood 
white, soft to moderately hard, close-grained. Pores very 
small, scanty. Medullary rays fine and very fine, dark, with 
a pretty, fine silver-grain ^Gamble). Leaves 2 to 5 by 2J to 
7in., broader than long, 5-7-lobed, rather membranous, glabrous, 
turning red before falling ; margins quite entire ; base usually 
deeply cordate, rarely truncate. Petiole l-6in. long, slender, 
flexuous. Flowers glabrous, on slender pedicels, arranged in 
terminal or lateral corymbs. Sepals about j a in. long, oblong. 
Petals as long as the sepals, spathulate. Stamens shorter than 
the petals. Fruit glabrous ; nuts thin ; wings l-l|-in. long, very 
divergent, with the back sigmoidly curved. Flowers, April to 
May. Fruit, June and July. 

Uses : — The knots on the stems are made into the curious 
water-cups supposed by some of the hill tribes to have a medi- 
cinal influence over the water. 

The leaves are said to yield an acrid juice in Kanawar 
which blisters the hands. 

319. Dodoncea viscosa, Linn. ; h.f.b.i., i. 697. 

*S?y??. : — D. angustifolia, Willd and D. diodea, Roxb. 324. 

Vern. : — Bandari, zakhmi (Bomb.); Aliar (FT.); Sanatha 
(Hazara) ; Dhasera, dawa ka j ha r, latchmi, Sanatha, mendru ban- 
mandii, Santha, mendar iPb,) ; Ghurabke, vera-vena (Pushtu) ; 
Pipalu (Simla) ; Virali (Tarn.) ; Bandaru, golla pulleda banded u 
(Tel.); Bandurgi, bandrike (Kan.) ; Eta and Werella (Sinhalese). 


Habitat : — Throughout India, from the Indus eastwards, 
and southwards to Ceylon and Malacca. 

A gregarious evergreen shrub or small tree. Bark thin, 
grey, exfoliating, in long thin strips. Heart-wood extremely 
hard and close-grained, dark brown, with an irregular outline, 
sometimes mottled with black ; sap-wood pale. Pores very 
small, scattered or in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, 
very numerous, the distance between them equal to the diameter 
of the pores (Gamble). Shoots terete or somewhat angular. 
Leaves more or less viscid, with shining yellowish resin, very 
variable in breadth, 1-5 by 1 -ljin., undivided, oblanceolate, 
glabrous, subapiculate, base cuneate-alternate, subsessile, 
margin, revolute, entire or nearly so. Cymes terminal, short. 
Flowers regular, yellowish, polygamous, inconspicuous. Sepals 
oblong, 5-2 imbricate or valvate, T Vi m - long. Petals absent. 
Stamens usually 8, as long as sepals in male flowers, shorter 
than the sepals in hermaphrodite (lowers ; filaments much 
shorter than the anthers. Disk inconspicuous. Ovary 3 or 4- 
celled, 2 ovules in each cell. Style cylindric, 2-lobed on top. 
Fruit a membranous capsule, with 2-4 broad wings from base to 
style, | in. long and fin. across, including the wings, separating 
septicidally into as many valves as cells, each valve winged on 
its back. Seeds opaque, dark brown or black, with a thickened 

Parts used : — The leaves. 

Uses : — The leaves of this shrub are viscid, and have a 
somewhat sour and bitter taste (Dymock.) 

Lindley says the leaves are used in baths and fomentations. 

It is believed that the powdered leaves applied over a 
wound will heal it without leaving a white scar. It is applied 
in burns and scalds. Said to be useful also in rheumatism 
(C. J. Peters in Watt's Dictionary.) Said to possess febrifuge 

In the Punjab, it is used in snake-bite. For this purpose, 
the leaves are bruised and applied to the bitten part ; juice of 
the leaves is also given internally (B. D. B.). 



320. Rhus yarviflora, Roxb. h.f.b.l, ii. 9, 
Roxb, 274. 

Habitat : — Western Himalaya, from Kumaon to Nepal. 
Central India on the Pachmarhi Hills. 

Vern. : — Tung, rai tiing, tumra (Ph. and H.) ; Tunga, 
tungla, diingla, tumra, rannel (N. W. P.); Samak (Kashmir). 

A large shrub or small tree, unarmed, often gregarious. 
"Bark thin, rough, reddish-brown. Wood dark, reddish- 
brown, streaked, very hard, close-grained ; sapwood light 
brown. Annual rings marked by a line and rather more numer- 
ous pores. Pores small, scattered, sometimes in short radial 
strings. Medullary rays fine, numerous, the distance between 
them about equal to diameter" (Gamble). Branchlets, petioles, 
underside of leaves and inflorescence clothed with dense 
tomentum. Leaves trifoliate. Leaflets obovate, the lower por- 
tion entire, the upper irregular, crenale. Terminal leaflets 
2-3in. long, narrowed into a short marginate petiole, the lateral 
sessile, smaller. Panicle large terminal, the lower branches 
from the axils of leaves, bracts linear, minute, pedicels shorter 
than the flower. Sepals ovate, two narrower than the others ; 
petals oblong, more than twice the length of the sepals. Disk 
five-lobed. Drupe glabrous, brown, shining, Jin. diam. 

Part used : — The fruit. 

Use : — Used in Hindu medicine, and, mixed with salt, is 
said to act like tamarind (Stewart.) 

321. R. semialata, Murray, h.f.b.l, ii. 10. 
Syn. : — R. bucki amela, Roxb. 273. 

Habitat :— Temperate Himalaya, from Banahal to Sikkim, 
and the Khasi Mountains. 

Vern. : — Tatri, arkhar, arkol (Pb.); Dakhmila, daswila 
(N. W. P.); Bakkiawela (Nepal) ; Takhril (Lepclia). 

A middle-sized, deciduous tree. Young parts covered 
with dark grey pubescence. Resinous canal in the bark filled 
with white milk which is sticky, but does not turn black. 


Branchlets, petioles, underside of leaves and inflorescence 
clothed with short, soft brownish grey pubescence (Brand is). 
Leaves not aromatic, imparipinnate, over a foot long, turning 
red before falling ; common petiole usually winged. Leaflets 
4-6 pair, opposite, sessile 2-4 by l-2in., elliptic, acuminate, 
deeply crenate or dentate, glabrous above, soft tomentose 
beneath ; lateral nerves 10-15 pair, parallel ; base rounded, some- 
what oblique. Panicles terminal, 6-8in. long, conical, dense- 
flowered. Flowers toin. diam., pale green. Sepals ovate; petals 
oblong, ciliate, much exceeding the sepals. Wood soft, white, 
with dark streaks. Fruit a drupe, tomentose, eaten by the 
hill people (Kanjilal). 

Outer Hirnalya Ranges, Assam, Khasi Shan and Naga 
Hills. Jaunsar and Tehri-Garhvval, 3-7000ft. Dharagad and 
Tons Valleys. Simla, the glen, Mahasu. 

Galls of various shapes on branches, used for ink 
(Collett). Flowers pale yellow green (Brandis). 

Use : — The fruit is given in colic (Stewart.) 

322. R. Wallichii, Hook f. h.f.b.l, ii. 11. 

Vern. : — Kambal, godumbal, arkhar (Pb.) ; Akoria, Kaun- 
ui, bhaliiin (N. W. P.) ; Bhalaio, chosi (Nepal). 

Habitat : — Temperate Himalaya, from Garwhal to Nepal. 

A small or moderate-sized, deciduous tree, attaining 
50ft. Bark smooth, grey; resin-canals in bark, filled with 
white milk which turns black and raises blisters in skin. 
Sap wood white, soft. Heart wood reddish brown, yellow when 
dry (Brandis). Branchlets, petioles, underside of leaflets and 
panicles densely clothed with yellowish brown tomentum. 
Leaves imparipinnate, approximate, near the ends of branches, 
not aromatic, petiole terete. Leaflets 3-5 pair, quite entire, 
coriaceous, elliptic or oblong acuminate, shortly petiolulate, 
base rounded, upper surface pubescent or glabrous ; 4-7in. 
long, 2-3in. broad. Secondary nerves 18-25 pair ; parallel. 
Panicles axillary, much shorter than the leaves ; branches 
short, stout. Flowers sub-sessile, join, diam., greenish white. 
Petals longer than sepals, with dark veins, concave ; sepals 
broadly ovate-obtuse. Filaments short, anthers large. Disk 

N. 0. ANACARDIACE^. 371 

broad, cup-shaped obscurely lobed. Drupes densely crowded, 
|in. diam., globose, puberulous, epicarp dry, crustaceous, 
bursting irregularly ; stone globose, very thick, bony, surround- 
ed by vegetable wax. 

Use : — The juice of the leaves is corrosive and blisters the 
skin (Stewart.) 

323. R. insignis Book f. H. f.b.i., ii. 11. 

Vern. :— Kagphulai (Nepal) ; Serh (Lepcha). 

Habitat : — Sikkim, Himalaya and the Khasi Mountains. 

A small, beautiful, deciduous tree ; attains 50ft. Bark thin 
grey. Wood grey, soft ; heart- wood yellowish brown. Medul- 
lary rays fine, numerous. Leaves 12-18in. ; petiole terete. 
Leaflets 6-9 by 3-4 Jin., coriaceous, quite entire, elliptic or 
oblong, abruptly acuminate, glabrous and shining above, 
rusty, softly tomentose beneath ; nerves very numerous, as in R. 
Wallichii ; panicles larger, more lax and nearly glabrous. 
Fruiting panicles axillary, stout, lOin. long, peduncled ; bran- 
ches spreading. Drupes scattered on panicles, smaller than 
in R. Wallichii, globose, |in. diam. ; epicarp thin, dry, bursting 
irregularly and enclosing a globose white mass of vegetable 
wax, containing a small crustaceous stone. 

Use : — The juice is a powerful vesicant (Gamble). 

324. R. succedanea, Linn. h. f.b.i., ii. 12,Roxb. 

Sans. : — Karkat sringi. 

Vevn : — Tatree, rikul(Pb). ; Kakra-Singi, kakkarsing (H.) ; 
Kakra sringi (B.) ; Raniwalai (Nepal) ; Serhnyok (Lepcha) ; 
Dingkain (Khasia). 

Habitat : — Temperate Himalaya, from the Jhelum east- 
ward. From Kashmir to Sikkim Bhutan, Khasia Mts. Tehri 
Garhwal, Lambatacl. Pajidhar above Nairtwar. Valleys near 
Simla (Collett). Found by me," says Brandis, " in the Rupen 
Valley, October 1874." 

A middle-sized, deciduous tree with dark grey thin 
bark. Leaves imparipinnate, approximate near the ends of the 
branches. Leaflets 3-6 pair, opposite, 3-C by lj-3in., ovate-Ian- 


ceolate, long, acuminate, entire, thinly coriaceous, usually quite 
glabrous, lateral nerves 8-15 pair, alternating with shorter in- 
termediate ones ; base rounded acute or oblique, petiolules 
slender, 5-fin. long. Panicles axillary, with slender and 
drooping ramifications, much shorter than the leaves. Flowers 
pedicelled, scarcely i^in. diam., greenish yellow. Sepals 
ovate-obtuse. Petals much larger, oblong or obtuse. Disk 
5-lobed. Drapes Jin. diam., compressed, glabrous, rugose, 
yellow or light brown; epicarp thin, bursting irregularly. 
Mesocarp fibrous. Kernel compressed, hard, surrounded by 
a vegetable wax (Kanjilal), " mixed with the fibre," adds 

Use : — The juice of the leaves is said to blister the skin 
(Stewart). The fruit is considered officinal and is used in Kash- 
mir in the treatment of phthisis. 

Chemistry.— The sap is a thick, nearly white, alkaline cream, superficially 
oxidisable by air to an intensely black, impervious susbtance, insoluble in 
the usual solvents. 

Complete oxidation only takes place in the presence of a diastatic 
ferment, laccase, which can be separated from the other essential constituent 
of the sap by means of alcohol, in which it is insoluble. When precipitated 
by alcohol from aqueous solution, the crude laccase dries to white, opaque 
fragments, like gum, and is probably a mixture of the ferment with carbo- 
hydrates, as it can be oxidised to mucic acid, and hydrolysed to galactose 
and arabinose. 

From the portion of the sap soluble in alcohol, a substance, laccol, 
probably a polyphenol, can be precipitated by lead acetate. It is a thick 
oil, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, &c, and is intensely irritating 
to the skin, as is the crude sap. Laccol is readily oxidisable in the air to a 
reddish, viscous, or resinous substance ; in alkaline solution, it behaves 
like pyrogallol, blackening and absorbing oxygen with such rapidity as 
to become hot ; it reduces ferric chloride in alcoholic solution, forming 
a black, metallic derivative. 

When laccol is precipitated from alcoholic solution by an aqueous 
solution of laccase, the white emulsion rapidly blackens from absorption of 
oxygen ; but this does not take place if the laccase solution has been boiled, 
or if water alone is the precipitant. The action of laccase on gallic acid 
&C, is similar, the rate of absorption of oxygen being enormously increased. 
As the ferment has no action on starch, sugar, amygdalin, &c, it seems to be 
the first member of a new class of " oxidising diastases." 

Since laccase is present in many plants, it seems not improbable that 
this diastase plays an important part in the respiration of plants, 

J.Ch.S. 1895 Alp. 386. 

N. 0. ANA0ARDIACE.E. 373 

325. — Pistacia integerrima, Steioart, h.f.b.i., 
ii. 13. 

Syn. : — R. Kakrasingee, Royle, 111. 175. 

Sans. : — Karkatasringi. 

Vern. :■ — Kakrasingi (H. and B.) ; Kaka, kakar, kangar, 
tuga (Pb.) ; Kakkatashingi (Tarn.) ; Kakra, galls-kakra-singi 
(Hind.) kakrashingi (Mar.) (Guz,) ; Galls : — kakrasringi (Beng.) ; 
Kakhar, drek, gurgu (Kashmir) ; Kaugar, khaugar, kakar, 
kakkar, khakkar, kakkrei, kakra, kakkeran, kakraiu, kakkran- 
gelie, kakla, drek, gurgu, tauhari, taugu, shno, sarawau, masna. 
Galls: — Kakra-singi Fruit: — Sumak (P. B.) ; Sarawau, shne, 
masna, (Pushto). Galls: — Kakka-tashingi ; (Tam.) ; Galls: — 
Kakarashingi (Tel.) Galls : — Dusptapu chattwa (Kan.). 

Habitat. — Sulaiman and Salt Ranges, Punjab. Outer 
Western Himalaya, extending as far as Kumaon, Junsar and 

A middle-sized, deciduous tree. Bark grey, rough. Wood 
very hard, close and even-grained. Sapwood white. Heart- 
wood yellowish brown, beautifully mottled with yellow and 
dark veins. Young shoots red. Leaves aromatic, alternate, 
impari-or paripinnate, finely pubescent when young, 6-9in. 
long ; leaflets 4-6 pair, usually opposite or subopposite (Kanjilal) ; 
minutely petioluled, 3-6 by 1-lfin., lanceolate from an oblique 
base, long, acuminate, entire, hard, coriaceous, glabrous; main- 
lateral nerves about 20 pair, slender. Inflorescence a lateral 
panicle. Flowers small, apetalous, dioecious. Male flowers : 
Panicles 2-4in. long, compact, pubescent. Calyx gamosepalous, 
3-5ft. Stamens 5-7 on a black disk ; anthers large red. 
Female flowers : Panicles 6-10in. long, lax, thyrsoid. Sepals 
4, free, linear, deciduous. Ovary sessile, 1-celled. Styles 3. 
Cohering near the base. Drupe Jin. diam., oblique, broader 
than long, glabrous, rugose. Irregularly shaped galls, called 
Kakra singi, from the leaves, often 6-7in. long. 

Part used : — The gall. 

Uses : — By the Sanskrit writers the gall is considered as 
tonic, expectorant and useful in cough, phthisis, asthma, fever, 
want of appetite and irritability of the stomach. The usual 


dose is about 20 grains, combined with demulcents and aro- 

Mahomedan writers describe them as hot, dry, and useful 
in chronic pulmonary affections, especially those of children ; 
also in dyspeptic vomiting and diarrhoea. They notice their 
use in fever and want of appetite, and say that they are good 
external applications in cases of psoriasis (Dymockj. 

The fruit of this tree is probably the sumak, sold in the 
Punjab bazars and used to strengthen the digestion (Brandis). 

The galls powdered, fried with glii and a little sugar 
added, may be given internally with good effect in dysentery 
(Surgeon-Major Thompsoo, C. I. E., in Watts's Dictionary.) 

326. — Mangifera indica, Linn, h.f.b.i., ii. 13, 


Sans. : — Amra ; Chuta (the juicy) ; Madhahdiita (messenger 
of spring). 

Vern. : — Amb, am (H.) ; Am (B.) ; Manga maram, maa, 
mangas (Tarn,) ; Amba (Dec); Makaudamu, mavi (Tel.) ; Amba- 
nujhada (Guz.) ; Mavina, mavu, amba (Kan.); Marka (Gond.) ; 
pii(Kol); Ul(SantaL). 

Eng. : — The Mango. 

Habitat : — Throughout tropical India. 

A large, evergreen tree. Bark thick, dark grey, nearly 
black, rough, with numerous small fissures and exfoliating 
scales. Wood grey, in old trees, sometimes dark brown, with 
black streaks, and hard ; in younger trees coarse-grained, soft 
(Gamble). Branches widely spreading. Leaves dark green, 
coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, blade 5-12in., petiole f-ljin. ; 
secondary nerves slightly arching, numerous, alternating with 
shorter intermediate nerves. Panicles larger, erect, pubescent. 
Flowers fragrant, nearly sessile, petals twice the length of 
Calyx-lobes. Anther one, oval, purple, steritle stamens minute, 
2-4. Drupe 2-6in. long, yellow when ripe. There are many 
cultivated varieties all over India, 

N. 0. ANACARDIACE^. 375 

Parts used : — The fruit, kernel, leaves, flower, bark and 

Use :— The smoke of the burning leaves is supposed to 
have a curative effect in some affections of the throat. Accord- 
ing to the author of the Makhzan, the Hindus make a confection 
of the unripe fruit mixed with sugar, which, in times of plague 
or cholera, they take internally and rub all over the body ; it 
is also stated in the same work that the midribs of the leaves 
calcined are used to remove warts on the eyelids. Ainslie says 
that the gum-resin, mixed with lime-juice or oil, is used in 
scabies and cutaneous affections. The juice of the ripe fruits 
dried in the sun, so as to form thin cakes, Amras or Amwaat 
(Hind.), Ambapuri, Ambipoli (Bom.), Amsatta (Beng.), is used 
as a relish and antiscorbutic (Dymoek). 

A resin obtained from the bark of the tree is considered 
anti-syphilitic (Murray). 

Resinous juice mixed with the white of an egg and a little 
Opium, is considered a good specific on the Malabar Coast for 
diarrhoea and dysentery (Ainslie). 

The unripe fruit is said to be useful in ophthalmia and 
eruptions, and the seeds in asthma. 

The rind of the fruit is astringent and also a stimulant 
tonic in debility of the stomach. 

The ripe fruit is considered laxative, and therefore much 
prized by persons labouring under habitual constipation. The 
bark and kernel are known as astringent and used in haemorrhage, 
diarrhoea and other discharges. The decoction of the kernel, 
either alone or in combination with bel and ginger, is gene- 
rally prescribed in diarrhoea. The juice of the kernel, if 
snuffed, can stop nasal bleeding. The kernel is also described 
in the Indian Pharmacopoeia as an anthelmintic and containing 
a large quantity of gallic acid, highly useful in bleeding piles 
and menorrhagia. 

Mango bark and fruit have been lately introduced by Dr. 
Linguist as a medicine in Europe ; he recommends it for its 
extraordinary action in cases of haemorrhage from the uterus, 
lungs or intestines (Dymoek). 


A native article of diet, known as amchiir or ambosi 
(Bom.), is made of green mangoes which have been skinned, 
their stones removed and the pulp cut up into pieces and dried 
in the sun, is recommended by the Inspector-General of Prisons, 

Xorth- Western Provinces and Oudh, as a good and cheap 
antiscorbutic for native troops (Dr. Emerson). 

The flowers of the mango are used either in the form of 
tea or powder for catarrh of the bladder. The powder is also 
used in the form of fumigation against mosquitoes (Brazilian 
Drugs, Ph. J., Oct. 25, 1884). 

Introduced into America in the form of fluid extract, either 
from the fruit or the rind, Astringent with a specific tonic 
action on mucous membranes. Its effects are great in diphtheria 
and other malignant throat diseases. The fluid extract applied 
locally is very useful in haemorrhages. (I. M. G. February 1883, 
p. 56). 

The kernels of the seeds contain 47*5 per cent, of water, and 5-2 per 
cent, of fat, which melts at 36°C. ; acid value, 12*3 ; Saponification value, 175 ; 
iodine value, 54*5 ; Reichert-MeissI value, 0*2. The bulk of the fat consists of 
oleodistearin. By adding alcohol to the ether solution of the fat until 
turbidity occurs, this crystallises out in fine needles ; m. pt. about 44°C ; 
readily soluble in ether, sparingly so in alcohol. 

[J. Ch. I. May 31, 1911, p. 634]. 

The gum contains 1657 per cent, of moisture and 3*357 per cent, of ash, 
and the dry substance is soluble in water to the extent of 39*36 per cent., the 
solution having [a] d— 25 33°. The gum contains an oxydase, yielding a red 
colour with guaiacol solution. 

It contains 71*42 per cent, of sugars, including 25*33 of galactose, and 
35*095 of pentoses (arabinose was also separated). 

The portion insoluble in water contains moisture 10*51 ; and in the dry 
substance, galactose 32*08 ; pentoses 42*87 ; total galactoses, 86' 28 per cent., 
having a D +64*89°. 

(P. Lemeland, J. Pharm. Chim. (1004) J. Ch. S. Vol. LXXXVI, pt. II., p. 

327. — Anacardinm occidentale, Linn., h.f.b.i., 
ii. 20, Roxb., 342. 

Vern. : — Kajii (H.) ; Hijli-badam (B.) ; Kottaimundi, Rolla 
mavu (Tarn.) ; Kajucba-bi, kaju (Mali.); gidi-mamedi, munda- 

n. o. anacardiacej:. 377 

mamddichettu (Tel.) ; Jidi-vate, kempu gern bija, geru-poppu, 
geru-vate, gerabija godamby (Kan.) ; Parahki-mava kuru, 
Parangi-tnavu, kappal-clierunkuru, kappa-mavakuru (Mai.) The 
hon. Inayet (Burm).. 

Eng. : — The Cashew Nut. 

Habitat: — Hotter parts of India, especially near the sea. 
Naturalised from America. 

An evergreen, 10-20ft. high. Bark considerably rough. 
In old trees it is deeply cracked. The juice from the stem is 
thickish and resinous, slightly brownish, blackening on 
exposure. From the bark comes a yellowish hard resin having 
mostly the appearance of yellow amber — the Cashew gum — 
soluble and used for nearly the same purpose as gum-arabic." 
Wood dark brown. Charcoal of the wood used by the iron- 
smiths of Tavoy as the best for their trade. Leaves simple, 
smooth, alternate, ex-stipulate, quite entire, ovate or obovate, 
with a slightly rounded emarginate apex, smooth on both sides, 
of a hard texture ; narrower, but obtuse at base ; 4-8in. by 3-5in. 
Venation well-marked, whitish and permanent on the under 
surface. Nerves 10 pair, otten less, nearly horizontal, some- 
times bifurcating faintly. The bark and leaves contain much 
tannin. Petiole £-|in., slightly grooved on ventral side ; at 
times cylindric. Panicles corymbose, branched and spread- 
ing. Bracts leafy, numerous, lanceolate, hairy. Bracteoles at 
base of pedicels, broadly ovate, generally lanceolate, acuminate. 
Flowers small pentamerous, polygamous, Jin. diam ; yellow, 
with pink, longitudinal stripes, often deep-crimson ; odour of 
mixed cloves and cinnamon. Calyx inferior, cleft nearly to 
base. Sepals erect, deciduous ; the base of sepals a crescent, 
forming an erect disk. Corolla alternate, linear-lanceolate, 
twice as long as the sepals. Stamens usually 9, all fertile ; one 
of these is nearly twice as long as the rest. Stamens often 
vary alternately. Filaments connate at base, free upwards. 
Anthers 2-celled, introse. Pistil in the male flower minute, 
with a very short style ; both well-devloped in the hermaph- 
rodite flower. Ovary in the hermaphrodite flower free, 

campylotropous, superior, one-celled, ovoid or obcordate. Bail- 


Ion describes it as compresso-obovate or obcordate, hence 
gibbous. This is a more accurate description, I think. Style 
simple, solitary, filiform, eccentric, becoming convolute, as if to 
bring the stigma into contact with the large anther of the long 
filament (Roxb). Stigma minute, often tinged crimson. Ovule 
solitary, long, conical ; inserted at the summit of a suberect, 
ascending panicle. Chalaza superior ; micropyle introse, inferior, 
near funicle. Fruit an ash-coloured nut, kidney-shaped, dry, 
shining, indchiscent. lin. long, ^in. broad at hilum ; some- 
what compressed. Mesocarp soft, corky, lacunose, oleo-resinous. 
The epicarp and pericarp coriaceous, not woody, as Baillon says. 
The most noteworthy part of the plant is the succulent, fleshy, 
enlarged peduncle, soft and juicy, obovoid, slightly sweet, at 
times very acrid and irritating to the throat and tongue ; popu- 
larly sold as the Kaju fruit in the bazaar, and of which much 
liquor is manufactured in Goa. Seed kidney-shaped which is the 
real fruit, corresponding to the pericarp. Testa crisp, mem- 
branous, and easily removable, mottled reddish-brown outside, 
deep crimson inside, of an astringent aromatic taste, separable 
from the kernel or milkwhite cotyledons by a resinous 
fracture ; albumen absent. 

Parts used : — The fruit, seeds and spirit. 

Uses : — The bark is said to have alterative properties. The 
tar, which contains about 90 p. c. of anacardic acid and 10 p. c. 
of cardol, has recently been recommended as an external appli- 
cation in leprosy, ringworm, corns and obstinate ulcers ; it is 
powerfully rubefacient and vesicant, and requires to be used 
with caution. In Native practice, it is sometimes used as a 
counter-irritant. In Europe, a tincture of the pericarp (1 to 10 
of rectified spirit) has been used in doses of 2 to 10 minims as 
a vermifuge. According to Basiner, the subcutaneous injection 
of small doses of cardol produces on cold-blooded animals 
paresis, increasing to paralysis of the extremities, stupor, para- 
lysis of respiration and tetanic spasms. In warm-blooded 
animals large doses are not lethal, but stupor, paralysis of the 
extremities and diarrhoea occur, and, after death, congestion of 


the intestinal lining is found. Gardol seems to be excreted 
chiefly with the urine, but partially also with faeces. Applied 
on a small piece of lint to the skin of the breast, it raised 
a watery blister in 1A hours (Am. Journ. Pharm., 1882, 

Between the laminae of the shell of the kernel there is a 
black caustic fluid, which contains an acrid, oily principle, 
cardol and a peculiar acid, anacardie acid. 

The spirit distilled from the expressed juice of the fruit 
may be used as a stimulant (Watt.) 

The kernel is nutritive, demulcent and emollient ; and the 
oil emollient. In the form of mixture, the kernel is useful for all 
the purposes for which the Mistura Amygdalae is employed, and 
also as a food in very weak patients suffering from incessant 
and chronic vomiting, with two or three minims of acid hydro- 
cyanic dil. in each dose. The oil is a mechanical as well as a 
chemical antidote for irritant poisons. It not only protects, to 
some extent, the lining membrane of the stomach and bowels 
from the irritation of the poison, and prevents both the solution 
and absorption of it, but also neutralizes it by forming a soap 
with it, if it happens to be an alkaline. It is also a good 
vehicle for liniments and other external applications (Mooden 

The kernels yield a light, yellow, bland oil. Niederstadt (1902) found the 
saponification value to be 179*84, and the iodine value, 60*6. 

The pericarp or shell yields a black, acrid and powerfully vesicating oil. 
Crossley and Le Sueur determined the following constants : Specific gravity, 
0*9594 ; saponification value, 45*1 ; iodine value, 294*2 ; Reichert-Meissl value, 
1*26. Though it possessed an abnormally high iodine value, practical 
experiments showed it to be a non-drying oil. 

328. — Buehanania latifolia, Roxb., h.f.b.i., 
ii. 23, Roxb. 365. 

Sans. : — Piyala ; Chara ; Chirika. 

Vern. :— Piyar, piyal, piyala, chironji (the kernel), (H.), 
Chironji, peal (the fruit), chirunji (the kernel), piyal, pial, pear 
(the tree), (B.) ; Chirauli, chiraoli (the fruit), chironji, (Pb.) ; 
Pial, payala, muria, katbhilawa, (Garhwal) ; Piar, peira, paira, 
paila, pairwa, perrah, (Oudh) ; Tarum, (Kol) ; Pial, (Bhumij) ; 


Peea, (Kharwar) ; Tarop, (Santal) ; Charu, char, chara, charo, 
(Uriya) ; Achar, char, char-ka-jhar, chironji (the fruit), ehar-ka- 
gond (the gum), (C.P.) ; Saraka, surraka, herka, char-ka-gadh 
(the gum), (Gond) ; Taro, tarope, (Kurku) ; Sir, (Bhil) ; Char-ki- 
charoli (the kernel), (Duk) ; Piyal, charoli, char, biji, (Bomb.) ; 
Charwari, (Hyderabad); Char, chironji (the fruit), (Behar) ; 
Mowda or katimango, marum, kat man, aima, katma-maram 
(the plant), katma-payam or katma param (the fruit), katma- 
parpu (the kernel), (Tarn.) ; Chara, sara, charu madudi, chiuna 
mora, morli morlu-banka, morlu-chettu, chara-chettu, charu- 
chettu, or sarachettu. chara-mamidi, jarumamidi (the plant), 
chara- pandu (the fruit), chara-puppu, charu-puppu (the ker- 
nel), (Tel); Nuskul, murkalu, murukalu, (Kan.) ; Kala maram, 
(Mala); Charoli, (Guj., Cutch) ; Pyal-char, (Mar.); Lonepho, 
lunbo, lamboben, lombo or lonpo, loneopomaa, (Burm.) 

Habitat: — A tree leafless only for a very short time. 
Found in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastward, 
ascending to 2,000 feet ; throughout India and Burma, common 
in the hotter and drier parts of the empire, and frequently asso- 
ciated with the sal, the mahua, and the dak. 

A middle-sized tree, leafless only for a short time, attaining 
50ft. Bark 1 in. thick, dark grey, sometimes nearly black, 
rough, tessallated, with regular " boss "-like prominence. 
Wood greyish brown, moderately hard, with a small, dark- 
coloured heart-wood (Gamble). Leaves 6-10in., very coriaceous 
or hard, nerves prominent, 15-20 pair, stout or nearly straight, 
usually broadly oblong, rounded at the tip, closely reticulate, 
softly hairy beneath. Petiole ^-i in., stout, pubescent. 
Panicles terminal and axillary, tomentose, shorter than the 
leaves ; pyramidal branches stout, bracts small, caducous. Flow- 
ers crowded, sessile, greenish white, ^in. diam. Calyx 5-toothed, 
petals oblong. Disk fleshy. Stamens 10, spreading as long as 
the petals. Drupe black, Jin., subglobose, slightly compressed, 
edible. Stones hard, bony, 2-valved. Seed oily, edible, pleasant 
to taste when fresh, soon gets rancid on keeping. 

Parts used : — The fruit, seed, gum, roots, leaves. 

Uses : — By Hindu writers the fruit is said to be sweet and 

N. 0. ANACARDIACE^. 381 

laxative ; used to relieve thirst, burning of the body and fever. 

The seed is very palatable and nutritious when roasted ; 
used in medicine and considered heating (Irvine, Med. Top., 
A j mere). 

It yields a gum said to be administered in diarhcea. The 
oil extracted from the kernels of the fruit is used as a substi- 
tute for almond oil in Native medicinal preparations and con- 
fectionery. It is also applied to glandular swellings of the 
neck (Watt). 

In the Jhansi District, the kernel worked up into an 
ointment, is used in skin diseases. 

In the Central Provinces, the roots and leaves, pounded and 
mixed with butter-milk, are taken in cases of diarrhoea. The 
fruit is used by Hakims in tonic medicines and for applying to 
the tongue when inflamed or very hard. 

It is believed to cure pimples, prickly heat and itch. 
In Berar, kernels pounded and applied outwardly are 
used as a remedy for itch ; also employed by women to remove 
spots and blemishes from the face. (The Agricultural Ledger, 
1900, No. 9.) 

In the Bombay Presidency, the kernel is employed as a 
tonic, being sometimes substituted for the almond. 

In the Madras Presidency, the gum with goat's milk is given 
internally for intercostal pains. 

It is used to flavour preserved preparations of milk, such as 
Berfi, Basundi, Pedhe, Halva of the white gourd ; preserved 
cocoanut sweets, such as Khobripak, in Bombay, Surat, 
Ahmed abad, Poona. 

The kernels are brown and mottled with darker brown, and laterally com- 
pressed like vetch seeds. They yield 58*6 per -cent, of oil (Church), which 
commences to congeal into a white semisolid mass at 18-5°. 

Crossley and Le Sueur obtained the following constants : Specific gravity 
at 100°, 0-8942; melting point, 32°; acid value, 15*4; saponification value, 
193*6; iodine value, 57*3; Reichert-Meissl value, 0*33; refractive index, 
1*4584 ; insoluble acids and unsaponifiable, 95*8 per cent. 

329. — Melanorrhcea usitata, Wall, h.f.b.l, ii. 25, 
Ertg. :— The Varnish Tree. 


Vern. ■:— Khen (Manipur) ; Soothan (Tel.); Thitsi (Bur- 

Habitat : — Manipur. 
A large, deciduous tree. Bark dark grey. Wood dark red, 
with yellowish streaks turning very dark after long exposure ; 
very hard. Branchlets very stout, velvety. Petioles, underside 
of leaves, and panicles softly tomentose. Leaves obovate or 
oblanceolate ; 6-14 by 4-6in., base cuneate ; nerves 28-30 pair, 
stout, straight. Petiole flattened, winged, -J-lin. Panicles 1ft. 
long, peduncled. Flowers white, lax, |in. diam. ; pedicels 
slender ; petals pubescent. Stamens many, 20-30. Calyx 
calyptriform, beaked, pubescent. Petals 5-6, eventually 2-4in. 
long, linear-oblong, obtuse, coriaceous, reticulated, gland-dotted, 
pubescent. Drupe red, glaucous ; f-fin. diam., stalk thick, 
|in. long, supported by the oblong, stellately-spreading, 
enlarged petals, 2-4in. long. Pedicel |in. The tree yields 
the black Burmese lacquer or varnish from incisions made into 
the bark, while the tree is in leaf (Brandis). 

Use : — The thick, greyish fluid, which is found in ever} 7 
part of the plant, has been used in medicine as an anthelmintic 
with great success. If the juice be too much handled, it causes 
erysipelas-like swellings in certain constitutions, which are 
cured by the application of an infusion of teak wood. 
Separation of Constituents. 

Pure Thitsi extracted with hot alcohol. 


I ! 

Residue shaken with dry ether Alcoholic extract contains Urushic acid 

nd filtered. (about 85 per cent.) 

Residue boiled with water. Filtrate, distilled, dried and again 

I extracted with hot alcohol. 

I I 

Residue oily or fatty matter Extract contains last traces of 

(smalt quantity). Urushic acid. 

I I 

Final residue is Diastatic matter Aqueous extract contains Gum. 

(about 2 per cent). (Total (Gives the ordinary reactions 

nitrogen in this diastase = 4*7 of gum arabic. Amount about 

per cent.) 3 per cent.) 

N. 0. ANAOARDUCE^. 383 

The present investigation has proved with the aid of the method outlined 
above that the most important and main constituent of the Burmese natural 
v mish is urushic acid, which amounts to about 85 per cent, in the pure 
unadulterated specimens. (Mr. Puran Singh's paper in the Indian Forest 
Records, Vol. I. part IV.) 

330. — Odina wodier, Roxb., h.f.b.l, ii. 29, 
Roxb. 336. 

Sans : — Jingini. 

Vern. : — Jingan, kashmala, kaimul, mowen H.) ; Jival, 
bohar, ghadi (B.) ; Odiya-maram, wodier, Odi, (Tarn.) ; Odai- 
manu (Tel.) ; Shimti ; Miii [Bomb, and Sind] ; Mooi, indramai 

(Porebunder) Mavedo ; (Guj.) Mavedi ; (Mara tin) Sbimti, 
Mewa, Moyini ; (Hind.) Jingan, Mayini ; 

Habitat : — Tbrougbout tbe hotter parts of India. Ceylon. 
Burma, Andaman Isles. 

A moderate-sized or large, deciduous tree. Bark Jin. thick, 
compact, grey, smooth, exfoliating in small irregular plates. 
Tbe stem affords gum. Wood moderately bard, close-grained. 
Sapwood large white ; heart-wood scanty, light red when fresh 
cut, turning reddish brown on exposure. Leaves imparipinnate. 
Rachis 6-10in., cylindric, glabrous, swollen at base. Leaflets 
3-4 pair, opposite ; 2-6 pair, says Trirnen, and a terminal one, 
shortly stalked or nearly sessile, 3-5in., lanceolate, acute or 
rounded, often unequal at base, more or less caudate-acuminate, 
entire or faintly crenate, glabrous, shining and deeply tinged 
with pink when young. Pinkish yellow. Flowers small, nearly 
sessile, pinkish yellow, appearing when the tree is bare of 
leaves. Inflorescence : the flowers are in small clusters, laxly 
arranged on elongated, slightly branched, stellate, pubescent, 
axillary panicles, appearing with the young leaves on the new 
shoots. Calyx minute, hairy. Petals oblong-oval, obtuse, 
reflexed in female flowers. Ovary oblong, large, glabrous. 
Styles very stout, divaricate. Drupe about ^-in., reniform, 
ovoid, obtuse, compressed, smooth. Stone reniform, very hard. 
Parts used : — The bark, gum and leaves. The bark yields 
a gum. 


Use : — The bark, powdered and mixed with Margosa oil, is 
considered by the Vytians a valuable application to old and 
obstinate ulcers. [Ainslie]. The gum beaten up with cocoa- 
nut milk, is applied to sprains and bruises, and the leaves 
boiled in oil are used for a similar purpose [Wight]. 

In the Indian Pharmacopoeia the astringent properties of 
the bark are noticed, and its use as a lotion in impetiginous 
eruptions and obstinate ulcerations. The late Dr. Bholanath 
Bose recommended a decoction of the bark as an astringent 
gargle. Powdered bark used for leprous ulcers as a paste 
in Ratnagiri. 

The juice of the green branches, in a four-ounce dose 
mixed with two ounces of tamarind, is given as an emetic 
in cases of coma or in insensibility produced by opium or other 
narcotics [Taylor's Topography of Dacca.] 

A decoction of the bark is useful internally in some cases 
of atonic dyspepsia and general debility, particularly if it is 
combined with tincture of gentian, calumba, &c. [Moodeen 

In Burma, a decoction of the bark is used for tooth-ache. 

In some parts of the Madras Presidency and Burma, the 
leaves are used for all local swellings and pains of the body. 
They are first boiled and then applied. 

331. — Semeearpus anaeardium, Linn. f. h.f.b.l, 
ii. 30, Roxb. 268. 

Sans. : — Bhallataka, Arushkara. 
Arab. :— Habbul-fahm. 
Vers. : — Biladur. 

Vern. :— Bhela, bhilaura (H.) ; Bhela, bhelatuki (B.) ; Bhallia 
(Uriya) ; Konghi (Lepcha) ; Bhilavan (Dec.) ; Shenkottai, sheran- 
kottai (Tarn.) ; Jidi-Vittulu (Tel.) ; Oherun kuru 'Mai.) ; Giru 
(Kan.) ; Bibba (Bomb.) ; Bhiamu, (Guz.) 

Eng. :— The Marking-Nut Tree. 


Habitat : — Tropical outer Himalaya, from Sirmoor to Sikkim, 
and throughout the hotter parts of India, as far east as 
Assam (absent in the Eastern Peninsula). 

A handsome tree, 20-40ft. high ; deciduous, girth 4-6ft. 
Bark lin thick, dusky grey ; wounds on bark yield a brownish 
soft gum which dissolves slowly in the mouth. Wood ash- 
coloured, reddish white or brown ; even, but open-grained ; full 
of acrid juice, causing irritation and swelling. Leaves gener- 
ally closely arranged at the extremities of the branchlets of 
numerous spreading branches ; simple, alternate, very coriace- 
ous, flat ; 9-30in. by 5-1 2in., cuneate, oblong or obovate-oblong, 
rarely linear-oblong. Apex rounded, margins entire, cartilagin- 
ous. Base rounded, cordate or cuneate ; surface opaque above, 
slightly pubescent, especially when young, whitish or glaucous 
and thickly pubescent beneath. Nerves 16-25 pair, stout, 
slightly arched, pale whitly. Venation marked coarse on the 
under surface. Petiole l-2in., densely puberulous ; small, 
i-fin. diam., subsessile, fascicled in erect tomentose compound 
terminal panicles. Bracts and bracteoles fugacious Estivation 
imbricate. Female and Hermaphrodite flowers lfriin. long, 
longer than the almost sessile male flowers. Calyx 5-fid. ; 
segments deciduous. Corolla greenish white or greenish yellow; 
petals 5, 3 or 4 times the length of Calyx, oblong, pointed at 
the apex, inserted under the margin of the disk, sessile, glab- 
rous, very spreading. Disk annular, broad, between stamens 
and ovary. Stamens 5, alternate, inserted on the margins of 
the disk ; imperfect or sterile in female flowers, equal, dis- 
tinct ; filaments subulate from a somewhat dilated base, of the 
length of petals. Anthers ovoid or elliptical, yellow. Ovary 
free, sessile, one-celled, densely appressed, tawny, hispid. 
Styles 3, divergent, incrassate. Stigma subclavate, shortly 
2-lobed or retused . Ovules inserted at apex of the cell. Pen- 
dulous from a basal funicle. Male flowers often on a separate 
tree. Calyx and Corolla as in the hermaphrodite flower, but 
smaller. Filaments 5, of the length of petals. Anthers much 
larger than the hermaphrodites. Pistil absent or abortive. 

Fruit, a drupe, lin. long, and about as broad or fin., ovoid, 


obliquely ovoid or cordate-ovate, with a slight obtuse notch on 
either side under the apex ; unequally compressed ; slightly 
convex in some parts, and quite plain in others ; cup fleshy, 
orange-red, smooth, succulent, sweet, edible when ripe, formed 
of the thickened disk and accrescent Calyx-base. Pericarp 
smooth, shining, black, thick ; containing between the outer 
and inner laminse roundish or oblong cells, full of corrosive 
resinous juice. This juice is white when the fruit is young, 
darkening on exposure to air. In the mature fruit, it is brown- 
ish or perfectly black ; inner lamina hard, rugose, outer smooth, 
leathery, less hard. Seed pendulous, with a swollen or umbil- 
licate funicle (Lubbock). 

Testa coriaceous, inner coat somewhat fleshy. Embryo 
thick, milk-white. Plumule ovate-leaved, veined, conduplicate, 
very thin. Cotyledons fleshy, thick, white, irregularly plano- 
convex. Albumen absent. Radicle superior, minute, connate 
with the apex of the cotyledons, always directed to the hilum. 

Parts used: — The fruit. 

Use : — In Hindoo medicine the ripe fruits are regarded as 
acrid, heating, stimulant, digestive, nervine and escharotic, and 
are used in dyspepsia, piles, skin diseases, nervous debility, &c. 


Mahomedan writers consider the juice of the pericarp to be 
hot and dry, useful in all kinds of skin diseases, palsy, epilepsy 
and other affections of the nervous system. Externally, it is 
applied to cold swellings, such as piles (Dymock). 

The Hakeems administer it for weakness of memory, epilepsy, 
etc. They consider it to be injurious to the liver, inflames the 
blood, and can produce melancholia, insanity, frenzy, etc. 

The Telingee physicians use it as a specific in all kinds of 
venereal affections (Roxburgh). A brown gum exudes from 
the bark which the Hindus regard as a valuable medicine in 
scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections (Ainslie). An oil 
from the nut acts as a vesicant in rheumatism and sprains 

N. 0. ANACARDIACE^. 387 

In Goa, the nut is used internally in asthma after having 
been steeped in butter-milk, and is also given as vermifuge. 
In the Concan, a single fruit is heated in the flame of a lamp 
and the oil allowed to drop into a quarter-seer of milk ; this 
draught is given daily in cough, caused by relaxation of the 
uvula and palate. The juice of the root-bark is also used 
medicinally on account of its acrid properties (Dymock). 
The bruised nut is applied to the os uteri by the native women 
to procure abortion (Ph. Ind). Basiner found that within 12 
hours the brown oil of the nut raised a black blister ; this should 
be carefully protected from touch, as the fluid causes eczematous 
vesicles on any part of the body it may come in contact with. 
He has also noticed painful micturition, the urine being reddish 
brown and bloody, and painful stools, as a sequel to the 
external application of the oil (Am. J. of Pharm., 1882, 

" I have used the black, thick and acrid oil of the 
marking-nut, prepared either by expression or with the aid of 
heat, or the nut itself in the form of electuary, pretty extensively 
in my practice, and found it so eflicacious in acute rheumatism 
that it may be considered a specific in that disease. The drug 
is also of great service in asthma, and more or less beneficial in 
secondary syphilis, haemorrhoids, neuralgia, epilepsy, 
anaesthesia, paralysis, lepra, psoriasis and a few other cutaneous 
affections. Externally, the oil is a very cheap and pretty useful 
counter-irritant, but requires great care and caution in its 
employment. It should not be applied much or continuously 
to any part, but always in the form of parallel lines by means 
of a long needle or wire. In very severe cases, these lines may 
be crossed with other parallel lines in an opposite direction. 
In either case, when the blister is risen, it should be pricked 
and the serum allowed to dribble away ; and then the use of 
poultices for two or three clays renders the part very clean and 
fit to be dressed with simple dressing, carron oil or plantain 
leaves. The nut is more useful in haemorrhoids in the form of 
fumigation than the internal administration of its oil or 
electuary ; but unfortunately its smoke is attended with bad 
effects in some constitutions. Out of the two severe and painful 


cases of piles I treated with fumigation, one suffered from a 
swelling on the face, chest and abdomen with an erysipelatous 
blush ; while the other was quite free from all these symptoms. 
Both, however, were much benefited by the remedy in one siting 
Although T have not seen any case of bad effects from internal 
use of the marking-nut, yet there is no doubt that it is an irritant 
poison in a large quantity or overdose " (Moodeen Sheriff). 

" Marking-nut is one of the few drugs which T have found 
more or less useful in all the diseases for wich it is recommended 
in Native and other medical works. These works, however, 
speak of the usefulness of the drug in rheumatism in a very 
casual manner and only as a local application ; but, according 
to my own experience, it is, as an internal remedy, so useful 
in the acute form of that disease that it deserves a special 
attention. Used in full and repeated medicinal doses, the 
relief it affords is very great and satisfactory, and I do not 
hesitate in calling it a sovereign remedy in acute rheumatism. 
It is certainly more sure and speedy in its action than salicylic 
acid, salicylate of soda, colchicum, &c, and therefore the best 
drug for the above complaint. The more recent and acute 
the disease is, the more speedy and successful this meedicine 
proves. Many of the patients suffering from acute rheumatism 
who were brought to me in doolies or other vehicles, and who 
were quite unable to sit or move without assistance, were able 
from the use of the electuary or the acrid oil of this drug to 
return to me walking on the 6th or 7th day after their first vist. 
On a few occasions, again, I was pleasantly surprised to see 
them walking lamely and coming to me on the very next or 
3rd morning to say they were much better. In the latter case 
the patients were all youths or very young men. 

" With regard to the preparations of the marking-nut I have 
described (electuary and acrid oil), there is no difference 
between the therapeutic uses of them, particularly in the 
treatment of acute rheumatism; but the patients generally 
prefer the former on account of its very pleasant taste. The 
number of the doses of these preparations I have generally used 
in the 24 hours is 4, and the dose of both is the same, viz., from 

N. 0. ANACARDIACE^. 389 

one and a half drachm to two drachms and a half. In some 
very severe cases, when the patients were very strong and 
robust, the dose was increased to three drachms ; but the average 
dose is two drachms, which is the one I have most frequently 
employed in my practice. As soon as the patients are much 
relieved and able to walk about to some extent without 
assistance, I generally omit the drug and complete the cure with 
milder or less active medicines, such as salicylate of soda, 
colchicum, alkalines, and with stimulant embrocations. 

" In chronic and muscular forms of rheumatism, however, 
the marking-nut is not half as useful as it is in its acute variety, 
and I am therefore unable to speak much in its favour in the 
treatment of the former diseases. 

" Marking-nut is also a good therapeutic agent in asthma, but 
the relief it affords in so small doses as those mentioned in some 
books, is very slight. To secure its best effects in this disease 
it should be used repeatedly and in doses similar to those 
I generally employ in acute rheumatism. Gout is so rare 
among the Natives of this country that I never had an 
opportunity of using this drug in any well-marked case of that 
disease during the last two years ; but from its great influence 
over acute rheumatism ; I am almost sure that it will also 
produce good results in the acute form of the former. 

" There is a notion among the Natives of Southern India that 
the internal use of the marking-nut is apt to produce sore mouth 
or ptyalism, but I have never met with a single instance of 
of these bad effects, though I have administered the dru