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During the last few years great interest has been 
manifested in the American Indians, particularly 
among our young people, and especially since the 
development of the organization known as the 
Camp Fire Girls. With this interest has grown a 
demand for Indian personal names, and names for 
clubs and camps. It is chiefly to meet such demand 
that this little book has been prepared. In 
compiling the material presented in the following 
pages, therefore, the needs of Camp Fire Girls 
particularly have been borne in mind, as it is 
understood their activities are patterned largely 
after those of the Indians, respecting whom so 
much misinformation has been cast abroad and so 
many popular fallacies have been absorbed by old 
and young alike. It is hoped that this attempt to 
correct a few of the misconceptions concerning our 
Indian tribes will be welcomed by those who are 
interested in any way in these first people of 

America. , 4 ..... . . . ., . o. 

The writer's thanks are gratefully extended to 
those members of the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy who generously ^rer-nei^d 'information and 

1 f. i* c t> 

criticized the manuscript. The illustrations are 
chiefly from material in possession cf the Bureau. 
The drawing of the totem pole on page 22 is from 
a copyrighted photograph by Mr. E. S. Curtis, 
who courteously granted permission for its use. 



Zuni Child 

To the little Indian children from 
whose forefathers we obtained the land 
in whick f we Hv.e, \this; booklet is affec- 

e t ' ' ' r t 
' f r c e r 
r c ' < , ,- 

< ' ,' ' ' ,e < t e e 
c c * < < r e , c r 



The Indians 7 

Language of the Indians 11 

Written language 12 

Symbolism 15 

Sign language 17 

Signals 19 

Totems 20 

Totem poles 22 

Fire-making 24 

Indian homes 27 

Occupations of women 30 

Clothing, ornament, feathers 32 

Indian children 35 

Naming of children 38 

Dolls 40 

Games 43 

Indian names for Camp Fire Girls 48 

Personal names 50 

Camp names 64 

Club names 68 

Names suitable for country homes or bungalows 68 

Boat names 69 

A few musical Indian tribal names that might serve 

for bungalows, country seats, or boats 72 

Some Indian terms useful as mottoes 74 

Books consulted 75 

Good books to read. . 77 

Pueblo Water Carrier 

As all children know, when Columbus 
y j. discovered the New World he thought 

he had found India by a new route, so 
when he described the natives to Queen Isabella 
and King Ferdinand he called them 'Indies," 
which in the Spanish language means 'Indians." 
Although the natives were not really Indians at 
all, the name has clung to them ever since, and 
by this name they will probably be known for- 

Applied to the Indians by some white people are 
a number of nicknames which should never be 
used in any way. It is disrespectful and unrefined 
to speak of an Indian man as "a big buck," or of 
his wife as a "squaw," and the term "Redskin" 
should also be forgotten. "Savage" is another 
name for the American Indian which, while not 
disrespectful, should not be used too freely. All 
Indians are not savages by any means; indeed 
many white people are inferior to some Indians in 
their ideals of right dealing, and in other ways. 

While to our boastful ideas of civilization the 
Indian may appear as savage, a study of history 
shows us that the Indian has endured great in- 
justice at the hands of his white brother. 

It has been shown that the rascality of one white 

man or another was at the bottom of most so-called 

'Indian atrocities," while the wrongs suffered by 

the Indians are so well known that fair-minded 


white people feel very much ashamed of their 
treatment. Records left by traders and scouts of 
the early days even show that miners and others 
of the days of 1849 used often to go out hunting 
the Indians and shooting them down without 
provocation, just as they would shoot jack- 

Much has been written regarding the cruelty and 
treachery of the Indians, but it should be remem- 
bered that they met the first white men who landed 
on their shores with dignity and kindness. Not 
until they had been dealt with treacherously did 
they become "treacherous." The Indians' desire 
for revenge when once they had been injured, and 
the swiftness with which they wrought it, made 
them appear more cruel, perhaps, than they really 
were. Indians are usually honest, and their 
admiration for the white man whom they know to 
"talk straight" (will not lie) knows no bounds. 

Many theories have been advanced in regard 
to the origin of the Indians, but to the present 
time no entirely satisfactory solution of the prob- 
lem has been found, although it is now generally 
believed that they came from Asia by way of 
Bering Strait and Alaska thousands of years ago. 

Regarding the population of the Indians, Mr. 
James Mooney, of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, who has made a special study of the sub- 
ject, estimates that at the time of the discovery 


of America there were probably 820,000 Indians 
north of Mexico alone, of whom 248,000 lived east 
of the Mississippi River. In 1915 the Indian 
Office gave a total Indian population for the 
United States, exclusive of Alaska, of 333,000. 
This number includes Indians of all degrees of 
mixed blood; in fact, it includes almost all persons 
who claim any Indian blood at all. Probably 
fewer than half this number are really pure-blood 

With respect to Indian customs, these vary with 
each tribe according to the conditions under which 
they live. The marriage ceremony among the 
Sioux Indians of the northern plains, for example, 
was entirely different from that of the Seminoles 
of Florida. Some tribes bury their dead, others 
place the dead in little houses above the ground; 
some Indians burn their dead, others put the 
bodies in trees to protect them from wild animals. 
In some tribes the dead are laid with the head 
toward the east; others bury them in a sitting 
position. Possibly the only custom common to 
all Indians in this respect was that of burying 
with the dead such personal belongings as the 
pipe, tobacco, bow and arrows, or gun, blankets, 
small trinkets and ornaments of all kinds, and 
usually vessels of food and water, in order that 
the spirit of the dead might be properly provided 
on its long journey to the future world. The 


Indian believed that each thing that occupied an 
important place in his life possessed a spirit the 
same as man, so that it was the spirits of the pipe, 
tobacco, bow and arrow, blanket and food and 
water that accompanied the dead, not the material 
things themselves. Sometimes the horse and the 
dog of a warrior were killed at his grave, and often 
his wife cut off her hair, smeared her face with 
charcoal, and cut her body until the blood flowed. 
It must be remembered, however, that customs of 
all kinds varied from tribe to tribe, so that what 
is true of one group of Indians is not necessarily 
true of another. 

Zuni Sacred Butterfly 


- t f Many people think of the Indians 

,, T j- as speaking one language. This 

The Indians /. r , ^, 

is very far from the truth. 1 here 

are hundreds of tribes north of Mexico alone, and 
of the known languages there are more than three 
hundred ! Some of these languages are very musical, 
while many others are almost unpronounceable by 
the English tongue. A few of the more pleasing 
languages are those of the Cherokee, the Seminole, 
the Creek, the Seneca and other Iroquois languages 
of New York and Canada; many of the Siouan 
languages of the northern plains and mountains, 
such as the Crow, Dakota, and Omaha ; a few of the 
Algonquian languages, among which are the Chip- 
pewa, Delaware, Blackfoot, and Potawatomi; the 
language spoken by the Pawnee, and some of the 
languages of the Pueblo Indians of the Southwest. 

Zuni Sacred Butterfly 


X T , The Indians north of Mexico had no 

Written A 

T written language. As a rule, know- 

L,anguage , , , . . . . . , , 

ledge of historical events was handed 

down from generation to generation by word of 
mouth, although a few notable historic events were 
recorded by rock carvings, called pidtographs, or 
by designs in wampum or shell beads, or were 
painted on animal skins or scratched on birch-bark. 
The first attempt at educating the American Indian 
to read and write his own language was made in 
1665 by Father Leclerc, who invented a syllabary 
called " Micmac hieroglyphics, " which was improved 
by Father Kauder in 1866. Many syllabaries are 
based on the Cree syllabary, or Evans syllabary, 
invented by the Reverend James Evans, a Methodist 
missionary in the Hudson's Bay region, in 1841, 
who adapted it from the shorthand systems current 
at that time. The most remarkable of all syllabaries 
is that known as the Cherokee alphabet, invented 
about 1821 by an uneducated half-blood Cherokee 
Indian named Sequoya ; it first contained eighty-two 
syllables, later eighty-six were represented. Sequoya 
gained his idea from an old spelling-book, though 
the characters do not at all correspond to their 
English sounds. It was first used for printing in 
1 827, and has been in constant use since for correspon- 
dence and for various literary purposes among the 
Cherokee Indians. Sequoya's alphabet is given on 
the following page. 





Tf A 





























Sounds represented by vowels: 

a as a in father, or short as a in rivals. 
e as a in hate, or short as e in me<. 
i as i in pique, or short as i in '/. 
o as aw in /<m> . or short as o in o<. 
u as oo in /oo/, or short as u in pull. 
v as M in &*, nasalized. 

Consonant Sounds: 

g nearly as in English, but approaching to k. 
d nearly as in English, but approaching to t. 
h, k, 1. m. n. q. s. 1. w, y, as in English. 


While the Indians north of Mexico had no written 
language at the time of the discovery of America, 
we should not forget the remarkable hieroglyphic 
writing of the Maya Indians of Central America 
and Yucatan. Some of the monuments of this 
people bear inscriptions, in curious hieroglyphics, 
that have been found to record dates that go back 
a period of two thousand years. 

Penn Treaty Belt of Wampum 


There seems to be as much misunder- 
Symbolism standing with respect to symbolism 

as there is in regard to the languages 
of Indians. Many persons seem to have the idea 
that the Indians had not only a symbolic meaning 
for every object or action known to them, but that 
all Indians understood them alike. This is by no 
means the case. 

Little has been published on the subject of the 
symbolism of the Indians, for the reason that this 
is a study which is not yet complete. In the hun- 
dreds of different tribes north of Mexico there may 
be various meanings for the same symbol. It is 
true that the Indians symbolize only that object or 
phenomenon of nature which occupies an important 
place in their lives. For example: The Pueblo 
Indians of the Southwest are an agricultural people 
who live in an arid country. To them it is of great 
importance that they should have rain in season 
(rainfall is a phenomenon of nature); thus they 
sometimes symbolize the rain-cloud 
as a triangle with the life-giving rain 
falling from it. On the other hand, 
some of the Indians of the Plains might read this 
symbol as meaning the foot of a bear and thus 
would look for the near presence of the bear itself, 
while certain Indians of the Northwest coast, who 
live by fishing, would interpret the triangle as the 
dorsal fin of the killerwhale. 


From this example it will be seen that all Indians 
do not read symbols alike, nor is there a symbol for 
every flower, bird, or animal known to them, or for 
such abstract virtues as honor, goodness, and kind- 

Dragon-fly Totem 


. T The sign language is frequently 

Sign Language , , ,. ' 

confused with symbolism. I he 

sign language is a system of gestures used by some 
Indians for communicating with tribes speaking 
different languages. A symbol is an object or an 
action that conveys a meaning distinct from the 
actual meaning conveyed by the object or action. 
There is evidence that a sign language was once 
used in the eastern part of the United States, in 
the Canadian Northwest, and in Mexico, but it 
appears that no such system was used west of the 
Rocky mountains excepting by the Nez Perce 
Indians, who frequently made excursions into the 
prairies in pursuit of game, and thus came into 
intimate contact with the Plains tribes. So 
the sign language as known today belongs to 
the tribes between Missouri river and the Rocky 
mountains and from the Saskatchewan river in 
Canada to the Rio Grande. This vast region, 
extending two thousand miles north and south, 
is commonly known as the Great Plains, and 
the tribes that lived therein are collectively 
called Plains Indians. This great body of Indians 
was made up of a large number of tribes speaking 
different languages, but as all roamed the plains 
either on hunting or war expeditions, they were con- 
tinually brought into friendly meeting or hostile 
collision. This constant association resulted in a 
highly developed system of gestures as a means of 


communication which, for all ordinary purposes, 
almost equaled a spoken language. This was the 
origin of the sign language. It is said that the Crow, 
Cheyenne, and Kiowa Indians are more expert in 
its use than any other tribes, and that for ease and 
grace of movement a conversation between a 
Cheyenne and a Kiowa Indian is the very poetry 
of motion. 

Hopi "Canteen" made of Basketry Water-proofed with Pitch 


Si *. The system of long-distance signals used 
by many Indians tribes may be regarded 
as supplementary to the sign language. These 
signals were in greatest use by the Plains Indians of 
the middle-western and southwestern United States, 
where the view was unobstructed, often for many 
miles, and the air very clear. In swampy regions, 
where the air was cloudy from the warm 
climate, and the view was often interrupted by 
forests, long-distance signals were not in such com- 
mon use. These signals were ordinarily conveyed 
by smoke in the daytime, fire by night, or by the 
movements of men either on foot or on horse. Their 
purpose was generally to indicate danger or the 
presence of game. The drum was also used to call 
people together on ceremonial occasions. In forest 
regions signals were also made by bending a twig, 
cutting the bark of trees, piling up stones, or carv- 
ing rude pictures on rocks. 

* * 

A Hopi Drawing of a Ceremony 


The word "totem" is a corruption of 
the term ototeman, which means "his 
brother-sister kin" in Chippewa and related Algon- 
quian languages. Among the Indians there are many 
tribes which have groups of persons called "clans" 
or "gentes. " In the clan the child takes its family 

name and inherits property from 
the mother, while in the gens it 
takes its name and inherits prop- 
erty through the father. These 
clans are usually named for some 
animal, bird, or plant, such as 
deer, bear, raven, turtle, buffalo, 
eagle, hawk, corn. An Indian 
belonging to the Bear clan might 
meet another Indian who was a 
total stranger to him, yet if the stranger drew the 
rude outline of a bear, or indi- 
cated in any other way the clan 
to which he belonged, the Indian 
would greet him as a brother, 
because the two belonged to the 
same clan. So strongly was this 
relationship regarded that a man 
could not marry a woman belong- 
ing to the same clan or gens as Raven Totem 
himself, as that would be the same as marrying his 
own sister. 

Many people have thought that when an Indian 


Killerwhale Totem 

drew the rude outline of some animal, he was making 
his personal mark or signing his name. This is 
not true. He was drawing the emblem, or totem, 
of the clan to which he belonged, which was his way 
of saying "I am a member of the Deer clan," or 
whatever clan it might be. 

Frog Totem 


Totem Poles T f m P? les are 

cedar poles erected by 

the Indians inhabiting the Northwest coast 
from Vancouver Island, British Colum- 
bia, to Alaska. Poles that stand in the 
open in front of the houses are three or 
more feet wide at the base, and sometimes 
more than fifty feet high. The very 
wealthy members of the tribes some- 
times had totem poles that stood inside 
their houses; these poles were not very 
large and they stood in the middle of 
the house directly behind the fireplace, 
marking the seat of honor. Smaller 
totem poles were used as grave-posts. 

These Northwest-coast Indians perform 
a great winter ceremony the native name 
of which, in one of the languages of the 
region, is patshatl, which means "gift" 
or "giving." This name, being rather 
awkward for the English tongue, was 
corrupted by white people into "pot- 
latch," and this is the name by which 
the ceremony is now popularly known. 
Potlatches are always marked by great 
feasts at which quantities of goods, 
commonly blankets, are given away by 
the one who gives the ceremony. Some- 
times the host gives away everything he Totem Pole of 

. i . . " r , . , , the Kwakiutl 

owns, with the exception or his house, but Indians 


by this generosity he gains great respectability 
among his people, and when someone else gives a 
potlatch, he receives his share with interest, so that 
often in the end the giver is richer than he was 

It was during these potlatches that the totem 
poles were erected. The trunks of the trees from 
which they were carved were cut down amid songs 
and dancing, then rolled into the water and towed 
to the village. Regular carvers were employed to 
cut the designs, and these men were always paid 
very handsomely. Among some tribes the carvings 
represented some story of what the man who was 
erecting the pole had done, or a tribal myth, while 
among others they depicted the traditions of the 
owner of the house, and hence were a kind of family 
tree. Grave-posts usually bore only the crest 
owned by the family of the deceased. 

Owing to the pressure of civilization on the Indians 
from all sides, the custom of erecting totem poles 
is now dying out. 

It should be borne in mind that totem poles and 
totems are not related in any way. A totem is the 
official emblem of a clan or gens, while a totem pole 
may be a memorial column representing an incident 
in the life of the man who erected the pole, or it may 
be merely the representation of a tribal myth. 



Fire makinp- One thing which all Camp Fire Girls 
should study and practice is the 
method of producing fire without the aid of matches. 
Following are descriptions and illustrations of two of 
the simplest means the Indians had of making fire. 
Two pieces of cedar wood are best for 
this purpose, though dry, "punky" 
wood of any kind is suitable. The larger piece is 
the socket, or hearth, and the smaller piece, which 
should be somewhat harder than the hearth, is 
called the spindle. This simple apparatus is called 
the "twirled hand-drill," and the process of using 
it is the simplest as well as the most primitive means 
of procuring fire. A quantity of "tinder," that is, 
very fine slivers of dry wood, should be used to make 
the flame after the spark is produced. The il- 
lustration shows the method of operating this drill. 

1. A shallow de- 
pression is made in 
the hearth in order 
to hold in place the 
end of the spindle. 
A groove is cut down 
the side of the hearth 
from this depression, 
to accommodate the 
wood powder which 
Making Fire with the Hand-drill will be ground off. 
2. Take the spindle by its upper end between the 


palms of the hands; insert the lower end in the 
depression of the hearth; twirl rapidly with a strong 
downward pressure; the hands, which necessarily 
move downward through the combined pressure and 
the backward and forward movement, must be re- 
returned quickly to the top of the spindle without 
allowing the air to get under the lower end of the 

Flame is never directly produced in this manner; 
the spark or "coal" must be placed in contact with 
the tinder and fanned into flame. This is a smoky 
process, but with practice one becomes so expert 
that a flame can be produced in one minute or less. 
For this method of making fire the im- 

Method pl ements are a short, cylindrical, pointed 
stick, called a "rubber," and a larger 
billet of wood, in which a groove is some- 
times begun, called the "hearth". The rubber is 
grasped between the 
hands, and, held at 
an angle, is projected 
to and fro along the 
groove of the larger 
stick, or hearth, upon 
which the operator 
kneels. At first the _ 

rubber is forced back Making Fire by the Plowing 
and forth along the Method 

groove for a space of six or seven inches; then, as 


the wood begins to wear away, the movement is 
increased and the range shortened until, as the stick 
is moved with great rapidity, the brown dust ignites ; 
then, as the tinder is applied, it is easily fanned into 
flame. An expert operator can produce fire in this 
manner in a few seconds. 

Pueblo Water Jar 


Indian Homes lt t is < ? mmon fo f pe ph to 

01 a wigwam whenever they 
have the Indian in mind, as though all Indians lived 
in wigwams the year round. A few types of Indian 
dwellings will be mentioned: 

A wigwam is 
not a tent, but an 
arbor-like or con- 
ical structure 
built over a shal- 
low depression in 

the ground. In 

Winnebago Bark Wigwam 

some localities 

Nez Perce Skin Tipi 

wigwams resemble 
hay-cocks. The 
framework of poles 
is covered with 
bark, rushes, |or 

A tipi (tee'pee) 
is a circular dwell- 
ing made by setting 
poles at an angle 
in a circle about 
fifteen feet in diam- 
eter, tied together 
at the top, and 
covered with 


Other Indians built earth lodges by excavating a 
circle from thirty to sixty feet in diameter and a few 
feet deep, then erecting posts, across the top of which 
were laid heavy beams ; across the beams were placed 
the trunks of long slender trees, which were covered 
with willow branches ; on top of these was laid coarse 
grass tied in bunches, and the whole was covered with 
sods placed like shingles. The floor within was made 
hard and smooth by wetting and stamping many 
times. The doorway was covered with a skin. 

Some of the natives of Alaska build earth lodges 
in similar fashion ; others build their houses of whale- 
bone and stones; winter dwellings are built of ice by 
some of the Eskimo of the Arctic region. 

The Northwest-coast Indians live in houses of 
wood. Some writers say that the genius of these 
Indians in erecting these wooden houses might well 
have placed them among the foremost builders of 
America. Great labor was expended in getting out 
the huge tree-trunks, and in carving the house and 
totem poles. Some of these dwellings were large 
enough to shelter several families. 

The Pueblo (pway'blo) Indians of the Southwest 
build houses of adobes (ahdo'bays, sun-dried bricks) 
or of stone. There are old pueblos or towns in this 
dry region which have been standing since before 
Columbus discovered America. The cliff-dwellings, 
built high up in the face of precipices, were occupied 
by the forefathers of the present Pueblo Indians as 
a defense against their enemies. 


Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico 

Other tribes of Indians in the southeastern part 
of the United States built dwellings of grass, or of 
palmetto leaves, which, when finished, looked like 
great beehives. 
The Wichita tribe, 
which formerly 
lived in Kansas but 
are now in Okla- 
homa, were noted 
for their grass 


Wichita Grass House 

From this brief description it will be seen that all 
Indians did not live in wigwams; indeed some 
Indians never saw a wigwam. 


~ .. Another often mistaken idea with 

Occupations T ,. . . . 

r <i 7 regard to Indians is that the women 

01 Women , , . , , , 

are drudges and household slaves. 

Among the Indians of North America each sex had 
its own particular duties, which varied greatly 
according to the manner in which the tribe lived. 
It was the duty of the men of all tribes to protect 
and support their wives, children, and kindred, but 
it may easily be imagined that when tribes were at 
war the men had little time for anything else. 

In tribes that lived by hunting and were much 
given to war, the warrior was frequently absent far 
from home on the chase or the warpath. These 
absences varied from weeks to months and some- 
times as much as a year. Often hunters or warriors 

traveled hundreds of 
miles and suffered great 
hardship; many times 
they were in danger of 
death through hunting 
and fighting, and of ill 

v health through exposure 

Zuni Eating Bowl to *~ 

and lack of food. In 
these long journeys it became necessary for the wife 
and the older children to do all the work pertaining 
to the care of the family and the home, in addition 
to the work which she shared in common with her 
husband. From being so frequently left alone the 
woman came to do much that she otherwise would 


not have been required to do. When on the march 
the care of all camp outfits and family belongings fell 
to the woman. It was from seeing the women, 
assisted by their children, performing this heavy 
work that white people came to believe that In- 
dian women were little better than slaves. 

Among the Indians who live in permanent settle- 
ments, such as the agricultural Pueblo Indians of 
the Southwest, the women cultivate the gardens and 
help to care for the larger crops, carry water, make 
pottery, weave blankets, and care for the children; 
and, indeed, they perform a multitude of tasks. 
The men do most of the 
heavier farming, gather fuel, 
make moccasins and other 
articles of clothing for their 
wives and children, and help 
the women with the heavier 
part of the work of house- 
building.although the houses 
are built and owned by the H pi Bab Y Shoe 
women. In fact, the work seems to be about as 
equally divided as possible under the circumstances. 

The general work of Indian women may be 
classified as follows: 

Gathering roots, seeds, and plants for future use. 
Preparing and cooking the food. Making dyes 
for coloring basketry and clothing. Carrying water. 
Gardening. Skin dressing. Weaving. Making 
pottery vessels and basketry. 


Clothing The c ^ 1111168 of the American Indian 
women north of Mexico, taken as a 

whole, differed very little. As a rule they consisted 

of a long shirt-dress, belt, 
leggings, and moccasins. 
The hair was usually worn 
parted in the middle and 
hanging in a braid at each 
side of the face. Those 
tribes whose dress differed 
distinctly from all others 
were the Eskimo of the 
Northwest and the Pueblo 
Indians of the Southwest. 
Most people are familiar 
with the fur suits worn 
by the Eskimo men and 
women, but fewer are 
acquainted with the pictur- 
esque dress of the Pueblo 
women. This costume 
consists of a knee-length 
woolen dress made in the 
form of a blanket, the two 
ends sewed together; the 
garment is worn over the 
right shoulder and under 
the left, belted at the waist 

Hopi Maiden 

with a very long sash, usually of red and green wool, 
fringed at the ends and tucked in (see frontispiece) ; 
for indoor use a cotton skirt extending to the knees 
and knitted leggings of yarn were worn. For gala 
occasions the leggings sometimes consist of an entire 
deerskin wrapped round from below the knee to 
ankle and forming part of the moccasins of the same 
material. The hair of the married women of the 
Pueblo Indians is worn slightly banged in front, 
and wrapped in two large coils back of the ears; 
the girls of the Hopi (one of the Pueblo tribes) wear 
their hair in two large whorls at the sides of the 
head. These whorls are in imitation of the squash 
blossom, which is the symbol of both purity and 
fertility. When the girls are married the whorls 
are taken down and the hair is worn as above 

The Indians of all tribes were fond 
Ornament Q f persona i adornment, which some- 
times was carried to extreme. The women of some 
of the Eskimo tribes wore a ring in the nose ; to the 
Indians of the Plains elk-teeth and bear-claws were 
very precious; while the Pueblo Indians still wear 
bracelets and rings of silver, and necklaces of silver, 
turquoise, and shell. All Indians are fond of bright 

Feathers as a means of decoration were 
Feathers ugec j Jn many wayS- Some tribes used 

them for ornamenting ceremonial costumes; others 


wove them into their blankets; the Eskimo sewed 
little sprays of feathers into the seams of his clothing 
and bags. The quills of small birds and of porcu- 
pines were split and dyed and used for beautiful 
embroidery and for ornamenting bags and basketry. 
Indian women never wore quill-feathers in their 
hair, though they are often seen thus decorated both 
in magazines and on the motion-picture screen. 
Feathers in the hair of an Indian man indicated war 
honors, which, of course, were not possible with 
women. Among the Chippewa Indians, if a man 
scalped an enemy he was permitted to wear two 
feathers in his hair; if he captured a wounded 
prisoner on the battlefield he was permitted to wear 
five. If Camp Fire Girls desire to wear an Indian 
headdress, a beaded band is not only becoming 
but true to Indian custom. 

Chippewa Writing on Birch-bark 


T _. . When school children are studying their 

p. ..j history on warm, lazy spring days, 

they are likely to say to themselves, 
"I wish I were an Indian!" particularly when they 
are reading about the natives of the West Indies 
where Columbus first caught a glimpse of the New 
World.or about Powhatan and Pocahontas. Children 
often have the idea that the life of the Indian is one 
long holiday, especially that of the Indian child. But 
Indian children have their les- 
sons to learn, just as white 
children have, and at an early 
age are instructed by their 
elders, not only in hunting and 
the household arts, but in the 
traditions and religious ideas of 
the tribe. At about the age 
of fifteen the boy bids farewell 
to his childhood life and takes 
up his duties as a man and 
a member of his tribe. The girls generally mature 
at an earlier age than the boys, and at thirteen years, 
in many tribes, they are ready to assume the duties 
of women. So, after all, the little white child has a 
much longer "play-time" than the Indian, as our 
girls and boys are usually looked on as being chil- 
dren until they are eighteen or twenty years of age. 
Indian parents are devoted to their children. 
Among some tribes the father makes ready for the 


Indian Girl 

coming of the little infant by preparing the wooden 
frame for its cradle, which is the child's portable 
bed until it is able to walk. After the frame of the 
cradle is made it is ornamented by the grandmother, 
or by some woman in the tribe noted for her expert- 
ness, with beads, quill-work, fringes, and bangles. 
Since the Indian no longer roams the country at will, 
as he did in the days of his forefathers, but lives on 
reservations in houses, much as white people live, 
the baby is kept in the cradle only when on a jour- 
ney or when being carried about; the remainder of 
the time it rolls about on the ground or on the bed as 
much as it pleases. In primitive times, however, 
it was taken out of the cradle only to exercise its 
little limbs and stretch itself, then put back again. 
The cradle swung in the breeze on the limb of a 
tree, out of the way of poisonous snakes and harmful 
insects, while the mother worked near-by. 

Little girls are their mothers' companions, and 
very early are taught all that pertains to the arts of 
home life, such as sewing, cooking, weaving, gather- 
ing medicinal roots and barks, and taking care of 
the smaller brothers and sisters. In fact, the care 
of the baby of the home is usually the first task 
learned by the little Indian girl, as she is its constant 
attendant while the mother is busy with her many 
household duties. In this way the eldest girl becomes 
versed in medicine; thus, if the mother were taken 
away, there would be "one who could help" in the 


The life of the little Hopi girl of the Southwest is 
full of labor, such as few little white girls dream of; 
but even then she is happy, for the Hopi are a happy 
people, the women singing at their labors, the 
children singing at their play, and the men also 
singing as they work in the fields. Aside from caring 
for the babies, the little girls help their mothers to 
weave, to grind the corn which they make into bread, 
or, with the other children, to keep the birds from the 
crops. When the mother goes to carry water the 
little girl accompanies her, and if too small to carry 
a water-jar, she fills her little pottery canteen, which 
she carries up the steep and rocky trail four hundred 
feet high. And yet, with all her duties, the little 
Hopi girl has time to play with her dolls. 

Fighting and quarreling among Indian children 
are almost unknown, and so well-behaved and 
obedient are they that it may be said an Indian child 
never needs to be punished. 

Southwestern Pottery Decoration 


Naming of Without re s ard to lan s ua g e . the 

r^t_-u Indians north of Mexico may be 

Children , . . , , . , , 

divided into two classes those with 

clan or gens organization, and those without (see 
page 20). In those tribes in which such organiza- 
tion exists, the manner of naming a child is some- 
times an elaborate ceremony. Each clan had its own 
set of names, distinct from those of all other clans, 
and usually referring to the totems of the tribe. 
The children in these tribes are usually born into the 
use of certain names. While still infants, or at least 
very small, they frequently have no particular name, 
being called "child," "baby," or "girl," until they 
are old enough to take their tribal names. The 
names they are given at that time are used the 
remainder of their lives, although, as among white 
people, nicknames are common. The Iroquois tribes 
have sets of clan names which are used exclusively 
by members of each clan: there is a name for each 
period in life, classified as follows: boys' names, 
men's names, elder men's names, official names; 
girls' names, women's names, elder women's names, 
and official (women's) names. 

Among those tribes which do not have a clan 
organization the methods of naming children differ, 
but as a rule the children receive two names, one at 
birth and the other when the boy or man has 
done something to distinguish him from his fellows. 
Among some tribes the child is named from some 


incident in connection with its birth : thus, if the sun 
coming up in the sky were the first thing the mother 
saw, the child might be named "Coming Sun," and 
this name would be used until he had distinguished 
himself either for skill or bravery, or for some meri- 
torious action. A boy's father and mother usually 
addressed him all his life by his boyhood name. 
Generally the names of men and women differed, 
though not always. Indian girls' names frequently 
expressed whole sentences instead of a single word, 
as in the Yankton Sioux name, Wastewayakapiwin 
( Wah stay wah yah kah pee ween) , ' Woman who 
is pretty to look at." They were never named after 
such moral qualities as faith, hope, or charity, as is 
common among the white people, nor for garnets, 
opals, and the like, though in some tribes women 
have been named for flowers, as in the Iroquois term 
Aweont ' ' (ah way ' ongt) , meaning " 1 1 is a growing 
flower." The Indian girl would not be named simply 
"Rose," as a white girl is named, but she would 
be given a name which might mean "She is a beauti- 
ful rose," or "Rose Woman.' Names for houses 
and canoes often followed those of families and 
clans, like personal names. 

Eagle Totem 

P. The little Indian girl, though early taught 
the arts of home life, is much like the little 

white girl when it comes to dolls, for, regardless of the 

tribe to which she belongs, if she 
has no doll of her own she will 
fashion one of a corn-cob or a 
bundle of corn-husks, in much the 
same manner that a small white 
girl dresses a squash or a bun- 
dle of rags. Sometimes the little 
Indian girl takes a puppy, and, 
w r ap - 
ping it in 
a cloth, 
it across 
her back 

in a sling, in imitation of 

her mother carrying her 

baby brother or sister in its 


Indian parents, however, 

have the greatest affection 

for their children, and it 

would be a very poor family 

indeed if the father could not find the time to carve 

a doll for his little daughter. 
Away up in Eskimo-land where, in winter time, 

the people live in funny little houses made of ice, 


Doll of the Plains 

Eskimo Dolls 

called igloos, and the little girls wear fur suits so like 
those of their brothers that a stranger cannot tell 
them apart, the Eskimo father carves the dolls from 
ivory or bone. So well are they made that they 
will stand on their feet, much to the delight of the 
little girls. 

Dolls were common among all tribes. Those 
used merely as playthings were often dressed quite 
finely, in accordance with the customs of the tribe, 
by the mother of the little girl, and often they 
were provided with 
little cradles and 
dishes made of pot- 

Among the 
Pueblo Indians of 
the Southwest were 
many dolls made in 

imitation of their Hopi Doll and Cradle 

various deities, 

which are represented by men and women in 
the great religious dances. These dolls are made 
by priests in the kivas (kee'vahs), or ceremo- 
nial rooms, while they are preparing to take 
part in the ceremonies which sometimes con- 
tinue for several days, and on the morning of 
the last day the dolls are presented to the 
little girls. These dolls are made usually of cotton- 
wood, and are so carved and painted as to represent 


in miniature the elaborate head-dress, mask, body, 
and costume of particular deities. In this way the 
young become familiar with the compli- 
cated and symbolic masks, ornaments, 
and garments worn in performing the 
religious rites of the tribe. The dolls 
were never worshipped, but travelers 
have often mistaken them for idols. 

In the Southwest and the extreme North 
little figures or dolls are made for use 
in ceremonies in which mythic ancestors 
or dead relatives are remembered. Among 
the Eskimo there is a festival in which 
small dolls are used to represent the dead, 
and food is prepared and eaten in the 
presence of these little figures in memory 

of the time when those represented by 
and painted them were living. 

Hopi Doll and Cradle 


Investigators among the Indians have 
Games been surprised to find so many games in 

use by them. These games, which are 
all of native origin, are divided into two great groups 
games of skill, and games of chance, or gambling 
games. Notwithstanding all these games, the 
Indian girls have few amusements asid.e from play- 
ing with dolls or some of the various ball-games. 
The older women play some of the gambling games, 
but as these are not of interest to Camp Fire Girls 
they are not listed here. The games following are 
distinctly women's games, while battledore and 
shuttlecock is a universal child's game. 

Northwest Coast Battledore and Shuttlecock 

This game is played with two balls 
fastened together by a cord about five 
inches long; the balls are thrown and 
caught by sticks with a hook or a fork at the end; 
the sticks may be any length between twenty-six 
inches and six feet. The bases are two poles set 
from three hundred to four hundred feet apart, 


though in some tribes they are set at a distance of 
a mile apart. The object of the game is to get the 

(Three inches in diameter) 

(Length, 26 inches to 6 feet. They may also be slightly hooked or bent at 

the end, if preferred.) 

Double-ball and Sticks 

ball over the opponents' base-line, or to take one's 
own ball home, as in the American game of "shinny." 
The balls may be of any shape and weighted with 
sand, or made from billets of wood. 

This game is 
played with a 
large leather ball, 
which is let fall first on the foot 
and then on the knee, again 
throwing it up and catching it, 
thus keeping it in motion for a 

Hand and 
Foot Ball 

Hand and Foot Ball 
(Six inches in diameter) 

Ball and 
Stick Game 

Foot Ball 

length of time without letting it fall to the 
ground. The one who keeps it up longest, wins. 

The Choctaw Indian girls have a 
game in which they take a small stick 
(or any small object) off the ground 
after having thrown a small ball into the air which 
they catch again, having picked up the stick. 
(This game corresponds to the little white girls' 
game of "jacks".) 

This game may be played by two or 
more persons. If four persons play 
together, they stand in the form of a 
square. Each pair of players has a ball, which is 
thrown or driven back and forth across the square. 
The ball is thrown 
upon the ground, 
midway between 
the players, so 
that itshall bound 
toward the oppo- 
site one. She 
strikes the ball 
down and back 
toward her part- 
ner with the palm of her hand. Sometimes the ball 
is caught on the toe or hand and tossed up, then 
struck or kicked back toward the other side. The 
one who misses the least, or has fewer "dead" balls 
on her side, wins. 


Women's Foot Ball 
(Seven and one-half inches) 


The Winnebago Indian girls play the game with 
a ball made of a light, soft object, such as a stuffed 
stocking-foot. This ball is placed on the toe, then 
while the player stands on the other foot the ball is 
kicked into the air a few inches, and as it falls it is 
caaght on the toe and again kicked up. The object 
of the game is to send the ball up as often as possible 
without letting it fall to the ground. When one 
girl misses, the next takes her turn. The first to 
count one hundred (or any number decided on) wins 
the game. 
Battledore This game is played by both boys 

and and girls. The Zuni children of 

Shuttlecock New Mexico play with the shut- 
tlecock only, which is made of woven cornhusks 
decorated with feathers and batted with the 


(3 inches high) 


(12 inches square) 

(5 to 7 inches high) 

palm of the hand. The children of the Northwest- 
coast Indians make a battledore of four slats 
of unpainted wood, and a shuttlecock of a piece of 
twig stuck with three feathers. The size of the 
battledore may be from twelve to fourteen inches, 
and the shuttlecock from three to seven inches in 
length. Two can play the game, or if there are 
many they stand in a circle and bat always toward 
the right, and in front of the body. The one who 
lasts longest wins. 

Wichita Double Ball and Stick 
(Length of Stick, 23 inches) 


Indian Names for !" the r s ^ on on 
r* *& r* 1 Indian Children it is shown 

Camp Fire Girls , c 

that many tribes lollow defi- 
nite customs in naming their children. As white 
people follow no fixed rules for naming their children, 
the Indian names listed herein will be found to meet 
the needs of Camp Fire Girls as personal names, 
club and camp names, and canoe or boat names, in 
various Indian languages. It should be remembered 
that while these are the Indian names for the terms 
given, the Indians themselves would not necessarily 
use all of them as personal names without some 
explanatory suffix in addition. Included in this 
list, however, are a few typical Indian personal 
names; these are indicated by stars. 

Many Indian languages are very difficult for the 
English-speaking tongue to pronounce; indeed there 
are numerous shades of sounds in some of the lan- 
guages that the English ear fails to catch at all, and 
in this way many so-called Indian names have been 
recorded that are so far from correct that the Indian 
himself would not recognize the terms if he heard 
them spoken. Then, too, Frenchmen have written 
down Indian words in the French language; 
Germans in the German language, and English- 
men in the English language, and each has 
used characters to indicate sounds in his own lan- 
guage that perhaps might not exist in any of the 
others. Thus, one recorder might give the letter 


a the value of a in cat; another a as in father, and 
still another might give the letter a a sound resem- 
bling u as in tub. In order to avoid confusing the 
young people who use this book, by giving a com- 
plicated system of diacritical marks, the names 
have been given in simplified spelling with the 
pronunciation following in i parentheses. In words 
without accents, all syllables should be given the 
same stress. 

Hopi Basket 


Personal Names 

NAT I CK Massachusetts 

Chogan (cho'gahn) Blackbird 
Mishannock (mish an' nock) Morning star 
Tummunk (turn' munk) Beaver 
Weetomp (wee' tomp) Friend; kinsman 
Wohsumoe (woh' soo mo' ay) Bright ; shining 
Wunnegen (wun' ne gen) Good ; desirable ; pleas- 
ing; handsome 
Wuttaunin (wut' taw nin) Daughter 


Awenhatagi (ah weng hah tah' gee) Wild rose 

Jiskaka (dji skah' kah) Robin 

Kaahongsa (kah a hong' sa) Jack-in-the-pulpit 

(Indian baby-cradle) 
Kanawahaks (kah nah wah' hahks) Cowslip (It 

opens the swamps from blossoming in the spring) 
Nakayagi (nah kah yah' gi) Beaver 
Oawensa (oh a weng' sah) Sunflower 
Osohada (oh so ha' dah) White cedar (feather 


Oyongwa (oh yong' wah) Golden rod 
Skajiena (skah djee ay' nah) Eagle (big claws) 
Skennontonh (sken nong' tonh) Deer 
Takwahason (tahk wah hah' sone) Flying squirrel 


SENECA New York 
Awendea (ah weng day' ah)* Early day 
Aweinon (ah way ee' nong)* Moving flowers 
Aweogon (ah way' oh gon)* Nothing but flowers 
Aweont (ah way' ongt)* Growing flower 
Dewendons (day weng' dongs)* It swings 
Djaweondi (djah way' on dee)* Beyond the flower 
Ganonkwenon (gah nonk way' none)* She is alert 
Gaondawas (gah ong dah' ways)* She shakes the 


Anekus (a nee' kus) Ground squirrel; chipmunk 
Moosquin (moos' kin) A fawn 
Chippanock (chip pah' nock) The Pleiades 
Kokokehom (ko ko' ke hom) Large owl 
Munnanock (mun na' nock) Moon, or sun 
Paupock (paw' pock) Partridge 
Sokanon (sock' a non) Rain 
Wequash (we' quash) Swan 
Wuskowhan (wus ko' whan) Pigeon 

DELAWARE Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, 
Delaware (later Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, Okla- 
homa, Texas) 

The vowels in this list of Delaware names take the short 
sound (a as in hat; e as in met; * as in pin; o as in not; as in 
nut). As there are no accented syllables the words are 
pronounced as spelled. 

Chimalus Bluebird 
Cholena Bird 


Cholentit Little bird 
Nichantit My little friend 
Tipatit Little chicken 
Waselandeu Clear sunshine 
Wisawanik Red squirrel 
Woapasum White sunshine 
Woatwes Flower 
Wuligachis Pretty little paw 
Wulisso Good; handsome; pretty 
Zelozelos Cricket 

POWHATAN Virginia 

These names are from a vocabulary by William Strachey in 
his "Historic of Travaile into Virginia Britannia," written in 
1611. The author's spelling has not been changed, and as 
there is no other historical authority for these words (the Pow- 
hatan language being extinct), they must be taken as they are. 

Amonosoquath (ah mon' so quath) Bear 
Amosens (ah' mo sens) Daughter 
Arrokoth (ah' ro koth) Sky 
Asqueowan (ahs' kwee oh wahn) Arrow 
Assimoest (ahs' sih mo' est) Fox 
Cheawanta (chee ah wahn' tah) Robin 
Kikithamots (ki kith' ah mots) The wind 
Mahquaih (mah' quai) A great wind 
Manaang-gwas (mah nah ahng gwahs) Butterfly 
Matacawiak (mah tah kah wee' ak) Pearl 
Meightoram (my' to ram) "A post" 
Missanek (miss' ah neck) Squirrel 
Momuscken (mo mus' ken) A mole 


Monanaw (mo' nah naw) Turkey 

Nechaun (ne' chawn) Child 

Netab (ne' tahb) "A friend or the principal 

word of kindness") 
Nonattewh (no' nat tooh) Fawn 
Opotenaiok (oh po tee nai' ok) Eagle 
Paskamath (pas' ka math) Mulberries 
Pussaqwembun (pus sa kwem' bun) Rose 
Qwannacut (kwan' na kut) Rainbow 
Qwanonats (kwan' oh nahts) Wood pigeon 
Raputtak (rap' put tack) Arrowhead 
Suckimma (suck' kim mah) New moon 
Tshecomah (she' ko mah) Musselshell 
Tsheship (she' ship) Duck 
Ussak (us' sack) Crane 
Wekowehees (we ko we' hees) Hare 
Woussicket (woo sick' et) Running- brook 
Yapam (yah'' pam) The sea 

CHIPPEWA Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Il- 
linois, and Ontario and Manitoba, Canada 

Anang (ah nahng') Star 
Anangons (ah nahn gons') Little star 
Ananidji (ah' nahn i dji') Pearl 
Bidaban (bid ah bahn')* It begins to dawn 
Debwewin (dabe weh win') Truth 
Enabandang (en' ah bahn dahng') Dreamer 
Inawendiwin (in' ah wen di win') Friendship 
Memengwa (mem en gwah) Butterfly 


Migisi (mi gi si') Eagle 

Namid (nah mid') Dancer 

Opitchi (o pit chee') Thrush; robin 

Wabanang (wah bah nahng') Eastern star; 

morning star 

Wabaningosi (wah' bah nin go si') Snowbird 
Wahwahtassee (wah' wah tas see') Glow worm 
Wawinges (wah win ges') Skilful 

MIAMI Wisconsin, Michigan. Illinois, Indiana, 

Ahsonzong (ah son' zong) Sunshine 
Metosanya (met oh san' yah) Indian 
Monjenikyah (mon jee ni kyah) Big body 
Onzahpakottek (ong zah pah kot' tek) Yellow 

CHEYENNE Minnesota; later, South Dakota, 
Nebraska, Montana, Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas, 
and Oklahoma. 

Hoimani (ho ee mah nee) Lawmaker 
Ihikona (ee hee' ko nah) Industrious worker 
Istas (ee' stahs) Snow 
Maishi (mah ee shee') Robin-redbreast 
Nisimaha (nee see mah hah') My comrade 
Otokson (oh toe' ksone) Little stars 
Wikis (wee kees') Bird 


CHEROKEE North and South Carolina, Georgia, 
Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky, and Virginia 
Adsila (ad see' lah) Blossom 
Aginaliya (ah gee nah' lee yah) My true friend 
Awinita (ah wee nee' tah) Young deer 
Ayasta (ah yas' tah)* The spoiler 
Ayita (ah yi' tah) Worker 
Ayunli (ah yung' li) Dance leader, first in the 


Gahistiski (gah hees tee' skee) Peacemaker 
Galilahi (gah lee' lah hee) Gentle, amiable, 


Gateya (gah tay' yah)* Frighten it away 
Gatitla (gah tee' tlah)* They run to her 
Gayini (gah yee' nee)* Leading by the hand 
Kamama (ka mah' mah) Butterfly 
Nakwisi (nah' kwee see) Star 
Nundayeli (nung dah yay' lee) Midday sun 
Salali (sah lah' lee) Squirrel 
Sinasta (seen ah' stah) Expert 
Tayanita (tah yah nee' tah) Young beaver 
Tsungani (tsoon gah' nee) Excels all others 
Ulskasti (ools kah' stee) Fearless, independent 

CHOCTAW Mississippi and Alabama 

There is no definite rule for placing the accent in the 
Choctaw language. Generally speaking, each syllable in a 
word is given equal stress. 

Achukma (ah chook mah) Purity 
Achunanchi (ah choon ahn chee) Perseverance 


Ahah ahni (ah hah ah nee) Careful, solicitous 
Aiokpanchi (I oke pahn chee) Welcome 
Akomachi (ah ko mah chee) Sweet 
Apelachi (ah pay lah chee) A helper 
Bishkoko (beesh ko ko) Red-headed woodpecker 
Foe bilishke (foe bee leesh kay) Honey-bee 
Hobachi (ho bah chee) Echo 
Holitopa (ho lee toe pah) Pearl 
Ilatomba (ee lah tome bah) Prudence 
Nishkin halupa (neesh keen hah loo pah) Eagle- 
eyed (sharp-eyed) 

Okshulba (oke shool bah) Honeysuckle 
Oktalonli (oke tah lone lee) Blue-eyed 
Yukpa (yook pah) Merry 
Yukpa shahli (yook pah shah lee) Jolly 
Yushbonuli (yoosh bo noo lee) Curly-headed 

CREEK Alabama and Georgia 

The meanings of some of these terms are unknown, but as 
they are personal names in common use among these Indians 
they are included. 

Asihmi (ass ih' mi)* "To give up" 

Fulhaki (ful hah' kee)* "They returned from 

the enemies" 
Nahiyeli (nah hee yay' li)* "Dancing" (as a 

babe is danced up and down) 
Sihane (see hah' neh)* "The enemy gets close 

enough to quarrel with them" 
Teakfulichi (tee ak fool i' chee) "To follow" 


Tibai (tee bah' ee)* "To add to" (child added 

to family) 

Wilagwekhchi (wi lah gweh' khchi) "A scout" 
Mahoyi (mah ho' yi)* Meaning unknown 
Selani (seh lah' ni)* Meaning unknown 
Sindi (sin' di)* Meaning unknown 
Sipka (seep' kuh)* Meaning unknown 
Wani (wah' ni)* Meaning unknown 
Wilti (wiK ti)* Meaning unknown 
Chuli (choo' li) Pine tree 
Fuswa (foos' wah) Bird 
Fuschati (foos chah' ti) Redbird 
Hoktuchi chutki (hoke too' chi choot' ki) Little 

Takfolupa (tack fo loo' pah) Butterfly 

HIDATSA North Dakota 
Apitsa (ah peet' sah) Crane 
Apoksha (ah poke' sha) Jewel 
Imaksidi (ee mahk see' dee) Lark 
Madadaka (mah 7 dah dah kah) Snowbird 
Makhupa (mah khoo pah') Spirit-creature 
Maishu (mah ee shoo') Golden eagle 
Matsu (maht' soo) Cherry 
Miakaza (mee ah kah' zah) Young woman 
Mitskapa (meets kah' pah) Rose 
Sakagawea (sah kah gah' way ah)* Bird woman 


DAKOTA OR SIOUX North and South Dakota, 
Minnesota, Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska 

The names starred in this list were taken from old Indian 
reservation payrolls. 

Akikhoka (ah kee' kho kah) One who is skilful 
Chantesuta (chahng tay' soo tah) To be firm 

of heart 
Chanteyukan (chahng tay' yoo kahng) To 

have a kind heart; benevolent 
Chumani (choo' mah nee) Dewdrops 
Hapanwin (hah pahn ween)* Second daughter 
Hinhanwaste (heen hahn wah stay)* Pretty Owl 
Kimimela (kee mee' may lah) Butterfly 
Makhpiyato (makh pee' yah toe) The blue sky 
Makawin (mah kah ween)* Earth woman 
Owanyakena (o wahn yah kay nah)* Pretty 
Paji (pah jee)* Yellow hair 
Tanyanmaniwin (tahn yahn mah nee ween)* 

Woman that walks pretty 
Wahihi (wah hee hee)* Soft snow 
Wakasansan (wah kah' sahng sahng) Snowbird 
Wakichonza (wah kee' chon zah) One who deter- 
mines or decides; a leader 
Wakishaka (wah kee' shah kah) One who never 

tires; indefatigable 

Wanyecha (wahng yay' chah) Firefly 
Waokiya (wah oh' kee yah) One who commands 
Wapike (wah' pee kay) One who is fortunate 


Wast ewayakapi win (wah stay wah yah kah pee 

ween)* Woman who is pretty to look at 
Wawidake (wah wee' dah kay) A ruler 
Wawokiye (wah wo' kee yay) One who helps 
Wichincha (wee cheeng' chah) Girl 
Wichaka (wee chah' kah) To be true 
Winona (wee' no nah) First born, if a daughter 
Wiwasteka (wee' wah stay kah) Beautiful woman 
Woape (wo' ah pay) Hope 
Wogan (wo' ghahng) Snowdrift 
Wokiyapi (wo' kee yah pee) Peace 
Wokiziye (wo' kee zee yay) A healer 
Woksape (wo' ksah pay) Wisdom 
Woohiye (wo' oh hee yay) Victory 
Wowachintanka (wo' wah cheeng tahng kah) 


Wowashake (wo' wah shah kay) Strength 
Wowichada (wo' wee chah dah) Faith 
Wowichake (wo' wee chah kay) Truth 
Wowitan (wo' wee tahng) Honor 
Zhonta (zhong' tah) Trustworthy 
Zitkana (zee tkah nah)* Bird 
Zitkalaska (zee tkah' lah skah) White bird pure 
Zitkatanka (zee tkah' tahng kah) Blackbird 

OSAGE Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma 
Mina (mee' nah) Elder sister 
Niabi (nee' ah bee) Fawn (one that is spared 
by the hunter) 


Tewauh (tay wah uh)* Buffalo Woman 
Wihe (wee' hay) Younger sister 

PAWNEE Nebraska 

Apikatos (ah pee' kah tos) Antelope 
Chowat (cho waht') Little girl 
Irari (ee rah' ree) Friend 
Koru (ko' roo) Moon 
Lihtakats (leeh' tah kahts) Eagle 
Likutski (lee koots' kee) Bird 

CROW Montana , ' 

Arakashe (ah rah kah' shay) Sunlight 
Asirik (ah see' reek) Bud (of a tree or flower) 
Bitskipe (beets kee pay') Rosebud 
Dakakchia (dah kah chee' ah) Red-headed wood- 

Dakakshuak (dah kah shoo' ahk) Bluebird 
Manake (mah nah' kay) My child 
Popate (po pah' teh) Owl 

NEZ PERCE (nay per say') Idaho, Oregon 
Hatiya (hah' tee yah) Wind 
Ilakawit (ee lah kah' weet) Light 
Khastiyo (khah stee' yo) Star 
Tekut (teh' kut) Golden-winged woodpecker 
Tilipe (tee lee' peh) Fox 
Watsamyus (wah tsahm' yoos) Rainbow 
Weptesh (wep' tesh) Eagle 


Wisaskesit (wee sahs keh' sect)* The clouds 

shade the sun 
Witalu (wee' tah loo) Dove 

ASSINIBOIN Province of Alberta, Canada, and 

the State of Montana 

Chiwintku (chee weent' koo) Daughter 
Hawi (hah wee') Moon 
Koda (ko dah') Friend 

Shunkashana (shoonk ah shah' nah) Red fox 
Titkana (teet kah' nah) Bird 
Tokana (toe kah' nah) Gray fox 
Wakomohiza (wah ko mo' hee zah) Maize 
Wamindi (wah meen dee') Eagle 
Wichapi (wee chah' pee) Star 

BLACKFOOT The Province of Alberta, Canada, 

and the State of Montana 
Akima (ah kee' mah) Woman 
Aponi (ah po' nee) Butterfly 
Isakimi (ee sah' kee me) Sister 
Kakatos (kah kah' tos) Star 
Kiniks (kee neeks') Rosebud 
Nituna (nee too' nah) My daughter 

PIEGAN Belong to the Blackfoot tribe 
Aksutamaki (ahk soo tah' mah kee)* Good- 
leader woman 

Aksuwataneki (ahk soo wah tahn' nay kee)* 
Shield woman 


Iksuyawauka (eek soo yah wah' ooh kah)* 

Wades in water 

Ipisoaki (ee pee so' ah kee)* Morning-star woman 
Kaiyetscheaki (kah ee yates chay' ah kee)* Sings 

in the air 

Natosaki (nah toe' sah kee)* Sun woman 
Nitowaakia (nee toe wah ah' kee ah)* Medicine 


Piksaki (peek sah' kee)* Hawk woman 
Pinatoyaki (pee nah toe yah' kee)* Fisher woman 
Pitaki (pee' tah kee)* Eagle woman 
Pokunaki (poke oon' ah kee)* Pearl woman 
Sinupaki (see noo pah' kee)* Fox woman 

GOSIUTE Western Utah and eastern Nevada. 

Belong to the Ute tribe 

Kanagwana (kah' nah gwah nah) Evening prim- 

Komu (ko' moo) Indian corn 
Kusiakendzip (koo' see ah ken dzip) Arrowroot 
Miropampi (mee' ro pahm pee) Buttercup 
Pasagwip (pah' sah gwip) Sweet Cicely 
Pawapi (pah' wah pee) Red cedar 
Tiabi (tee' ah bee) Wild rose 
Tibawara (tee' bah wah rah) Pinon pine 
Toiyadisas (toy' yah dee sahs) Golden aster 

ARAPAHO Wyoming, Colorado, Oklahoma 

Bachewishe (bah chay wee' shay) Red willow 


Nihanaina (nee hah nah' ee nah) Yellow flower 
Suskuito (soos koo' ee toe) Ground sparrow 

ZUNI New Mexico 

Akyamoni (ah' kyah mo ni) Garnet 

Kohakwa (ko' hah kwah) White-shell bead 

Kyatsiki (kyat' see kee) Little girl; daughter 

Kyakyali (kya' kya li) Eagle 

Neshapakoya (nesh' ah pah ko yah) Dove 

Ohapa (oh' hah pah) Bee 

Okshiko (oke' she ko) Rabbit 

Omatsupa (oh' mah tsoo pah) Sunflower 

Onaaway (oh' nah ah way) Blossoms 

Shohoita (sho' hoy ta) Deer 

Tawya (taw' yah) Maize, corn 

Tehya (tay' hyah) Precious 

Thliakwa (thlee' ah kwah) Turquoise 

Tona (toe' nah) Turkey 

Tonashi (toe' nah she) Badger 

Tsana (tsah' nah) Little 

Tsawya (tsaw' yah) Pretty; bright 

Yachune (yatch' oo nay) Moon 

Yaktosha (yahk' to shah) Beautiful 

Yashi (yah' she) Pine squirrel 

Yatokya (ya' to kyah) Sun 

NAVAHO Arizona, New Mexico, southeastern Utah 
Bilatqahi (bee lat' kha hee) Flower 
Bitsos (beetsos') Down-feather 


Datsa (da' tsa) Mistletoe 
Doli (doll' lee) Bluebird 

Dolihlchi (doe' lihl chee) Red-breasted bluebird 
Kalugi (kah lug' ee) Butterfly 
Shandin (shan dine) Sunlight 
Sotso (so' tso) Morning star 
Soyazhe (so ya' zhay) Little star 
Tsisna (tsis na') Bee 
Zahalani (za hah la' nee) Mockingbird 
Zahalzhin (za' hahl zhine) Sparrow (English 

NOOTKA Vancouver Island, British Columbia 

Aptsina (ahpts' ee nah) Abalone shell 

Chiishkale (chee ish' kah lay) Kingfisher 

Chukudabi (chuck oo' dah bi) Sparrow 

Koushin (ko' oo shin) Raven 

Kwalis (kwahl' iss) Crane 

Mawi (mah' wee) Red Pine 

Qishqishi (kish kish' ee) Bluejay 

Totopichus (to to pi chus') Cottontail rabbit 

Tuchi (too' chee) East wind 

Tsutsutsid (tsoo tsoo' tsid) Chipmunk 

Yoati (yo' ah ti) North wind 

HAIDA Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, 
and southern Alaska 

Kaecho (kah ay' chow) Star 
Kalgahlina (kahl' gahl ee' nah) Abalone shell 


Kaltsida (kahl tsi' dah) Crow 
Skahio (skah hee ow') Robin 

Reindeer Totem 

Camp Names 


Adahi (ah dah' hee) In the woods; forest place 
Ahaluna (ah hah loo' nah) Lookout place 
Amadahi (ah mah dah' hee) Forest water 
Amaiyulti (ah mah ee yool' tee) Water side; 

near the water 

Amuganasta (ahm ooga nah' stah) Sweet water 
Ayeliyu adahi (ah yale ee' yoo ah dah' hee) In 

the heart (middle) of the woods 
Elitsehi (ay leet say' hee) Green meadow; ver- 
dant fields 
Gatiyi (gah tee' yee) Town house ; (tribal dance 

and council house) 

Gatusi (gah too' see) In the mountain 
Inagei (ee nah gay' ee) In the wilderness 
Natsihi (naht see' hee) In the pines 
Saluyi (sah loo' yee) In the thicket 
Talahi (tah lah' hee) In the oaks; oak forest 
Tsiskwahi (tsees kwah' hee) Bird place 


Unaliyi (oon ah lee' yee) Place of friends 
Unilawisti (oon eel ah wee 7 stee) Council place 
Untalulti (oon tah lool' tee) On the bank of 

the lake 

Ustanali (oo stahn ah' lee) Rock ledge 
Wahiliyi (wah hee lee' yee) Eagle place 
Yanahi (yah nah' hee) Bear place 


Agaming (ah gah ming') On the shore 
Anokiwaki (ah no ki wah' ki) Hunting-ground 
Anwebewin (ahn' web eh win') Rest; quietness 
Chickagami (chick' ah gah mi') By the lake 
Chigakwa (chi gah kwah') Near the forest 
Manakiki (mah' nah ki ki') Maple-forest 
Mitigwaking (mi' ti gawh king') In the woods 
Nawakwa (nah wah kwah') In the midst of the 


Nissaki (nis sah ki') At the foot of the mountain 
Nopiming (no pirn ing') In the woods 
Wakitatina (wah ki tah ti' nah) On the hilltop 
Wasabinang (wah' sah bi nahng') Outlook; at 

the place of looking 


Chanyata (chahng yah' tah) At the woods 
Tingtata (teeng tah' tah) On the prairie 
Waziyata (wah zee yah' tah) At the pines 



Shankitunk (shahn' kee toonk) Woody place 
Meniolagamika (may nee oh lah gah mee' kah) 
Pleasant enclosure 


Chipkahki oongi (cheep kah' kee oon ge) Place 
of roots 


Ikan-hilusi (ee' kon hee loo' see) Beautiful land 
Tula-hilusi (too' lah hee loo' see) Beautiful coun- 

Ukhusi-kunhi (ook hoo' see koon' hee) Crooked 


Aiowata (i oh wut' ah) Hunting ground 
Hotak-aiukli (ho' tahk i ook' lee) Beautiful lake 
Nan-okweli (nahn' ok way' lee) Fishing place 
Ok-aiyoka (oke' i yo' kah) Beautiful water 
Tiak foka (tee' ahk fo' kah) Piney region 

Wusapinuk (wuh sa' pin uk) Bank (of a river) 

Deer Totem 

Club Names 

Otyokwa (ote yo' kwah) A group or body of 
persons forming a single fellowship 


Mukkinneunk (muk kin' ne unk) A gathering; 
an assembly 


Netoppew (ne' top pew) Friends 
Cheskchamay (chesk' cha may) All friends 


Nowetompatirnrnin (no we torn pat' im min) 

We are friends 
Wetomachick (we' to ma chick) Friends 

Crane Totem 

Names Suitable for Country Homes 

or Bungalows 


Akwenasa (ah kwain' ah sah) My home 
Kultsa te adahi (kult sah' tay ah dah' he) House 

in the woods 

Watuhiyi (wah too he' ye) Beautiful place 



Aboha afoha (ah bo' hah ah fo' ha) House of rest 
Aboha hanta (ah bo' hah hahn' tah) House of 


Aiyukpa (i yoo' kpah) Happy place 
Ayataia (i yah ty' ah) Resting place 
Oka-balama (o' kah bah lah' mah) Sweetwater 


Machacammac (match a kam' mak) Great house 
Wahchesao (watch ee sah' o) Bird's nest 
Yohacan (yo hah' kan) House 

Ponewhush (po' nee whush) Lay down your 


Weekan (we e' kan) It is sweet 
Yokowish (yo ko' wish) Do lodge here 

Wetuomuck (weh' too oh muck) At home 

Wolf Totem 

Boat Names 


Chilantakoba (chee lahn tah ko bah) Pelican 
Oka hushi (oke ah hoo she) Waterfowl 
Fichik hika (fee cheek hee kah) Flying star 



Maniski (mah nee' skee) Water lizard 
Miesa (mee ay' sah) Fish duck 


Awuth nakuwee (ah wooth' nah koo" way ay) 
White-nosed duck 

Babithinahe (bah bee theen' ah hay) Little red- 
winged bird 


Tamahe (tah' mah hay) Pike 
Witawata (wee' tah wah tah) Ship 
Witko (wee tko') Dogfish 

Kopohan Sturgeon 
Hurissameck Catfish 


Makhaska (mah khah' skah) Swan 
Patkasha (paht kah' shah) Turtle 


Anokie (ah no' kee ay) Water Rat 
Onaton (oh nah' tone) Water Snake 


Bishawih (bee shah' wih) Black cod 
Hahashid (hah' hah sheed) Red cod 
Qalal (khal' ahl) Sea gull 
Haqadish (hah kha' deesh) Sea lion 


Hinikoas (hee nee' ko ass) Dog salmon 
Hitsiwunni (hee' tsee wun nee) Porpoise 
Kalahlchu (kah lahl' choo) Flounder 
Shuyuhl (shoo yuhl') Halibut 
Tichuk (tee' chuck) Sea Otter 
Yacha (yah' chah) Dogfish 


Chanskagit (chahn' skah git) Blackfish 
Kahada (kah' hah dah) Dogfish 


Acomtan (a' kom tan) Boat 
Coiahgwus (koy' ah gwus) Gull 
Cuppatoan (kup pah toe' an) Sturgeon 
Namaske (na' mask) Fish 
Potawaugh (po' tah waw) Porpoise 
Tatamaho (tah tah mah' ho) Garfish 

Frog Totem 


A few Musical Indian Tribal Names that might Serve 
for Bungalows, Country Seats, or Boats 

Abnaki (ahb nah' ki) 
Alibamu (ali bah' moo) 
Apache (a pach' ee) 
Arapaho (ah rap' ah ho) 
Bellacoola (bel lah kool' ah) 
Catawba (kah taw' bah) 
Cayuga (ky you' ga) 
Chastacosta (chas ta cost' ah) 
Cherokee (cher' oh kee) 
Cheyenne (shy en') 
Chickahominy (chick a horn' i ny) 
Chickasaw (chick' i saw) 
Chilkat (chil' kat) 
Chimariko (chim ah ree' ko) 
Chinook (chin ook') 
Chippewa (chip' pe way) 
Choctaw (chock' taw) 
Cochiti (ko chi tee') 
Comanche (ko man' chee) 
Cree (kree) 
Croatan (kro' ah tan) 
Haida (hide' ah) 
Hidatsa (hid aht' sah) 
Kalispel (kal' iss pel) 
Kickapoo (kick' ah poo) 
Kiowa (ky' oh wah) 
Koasati (ko ah sah' ti) 


Kutenai (koot' en eye) 

Kwakiutl (kwahk' i ootl) 

Maidu (my' doo) 

Maricopa (mah ree ko' pah) 

Micmac (mick' mack) 

Mohave (mo ha' vay) 

Mohawk (mo' hawk) 

Mohegan (mo hee' gan) 

Munsee (mun' see) 

Narraganset (nar ra gan' set) 

Navaho (nahv' ah ho) 

Nootka (noot' kah) 

Omaha (oh' mah ha) 

Oneida (oh ny' dah) 

Onondaga (oh non dah' gah) 

Osage (oh' sage) 

Ottawa (ot' tah wah) 

Pamunkey (pah mun' key) 

Passamaquoddy (pah sah mah quod' dy) 

Pawnee (paw nee') 

Penobscot (pen ob' skot) 

Piegan (pee' gan) 

Potawatomi (pot a waht' oh mi) 

Powhatan (pow ha tan') 

Salish (say' lish) 

Santiam (san' ti am) 

Seminole (sem i no' li) 

Seneca (sen' ek ah) 

Shawnee (shaw nee') 


Shinnecock (shin' nee cock) 
Shoshoni (sho sho' nee) 
Sioux (soo) 

Tonkawa (tonk' ah way) 
Tuscarora (tusk ah ro' rah) 
Wichita (wich' i taw) 
Winnebago (win nee bay' go) 
Wyandot (wy' an dot) 
Yakima (yah' ki mah) 

Some Indian Terms Useful as Mottoes 

Kowaunkamish (ko waunk' ah mish) My service 

to you 
Wetompatitea (wee torn pa' ti tee ah) Let us 

make friends 
Wunnishaunta (wun nish awn' tah) Let us agree 

Chiakong (chee ah kong) Do what thou canst 


Wichingen (wee cheen gain) To help along. 
Elgithin (ale gee theen) To be worthy 

Merman Totem 


Baraga, Frederic. A Dictionary of the Otchipwe 
Language, explained in English. Montreal, 

Byington's Choctaw Dictionary, edited by J. R. 
Swanton and H. S. Halbert. Washington, 1915. 

Chamberlin, Ralph V. The Ethno-botany of the 
Gosiute Indians of Utah. Lancaster, Pa., 1911. 

Culin, Stewart. Games of the North American In- 
dians. Washington, 1907. 

Curtis, Edward S. The North American Indian. 
New York, 1907-1916. 

Dunn, J. P. True Indian Stories. Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa, 1909. 
Massacres of the Mountains. New York, 1886. 

Franciscan Fathers A Vocabulary of the Navaho 
Language. St. Michaels, Arizona, 1912. 

Handbook of American Indians, edited by F. W. 
Hodge. Washington, 1907-1910. 

Hayden, F. V. Contributions to the Ethnography 
and Philology of the Indian Tribes of the Mis- 
souri Valley. Philadelphia, 1862. 

Hough, Walter. The Methods of Fire-making. 
Washington, 1892. 
The Hopi Indians. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1915. 

Matthews, Washington. Ethnography and Philol- 
ogy of theHidatsa Indians. Washington, 1877. 

.. , 


Mooney, James. Myths of the Cherokee. Washing- 
ton, 1900. 

Rand, Silas Tertius. Dictionary of the Language 
of the Micmac Indians. Halifax, 1888. 

Riggs, S. R. Grammar and Dictionary of the Dakota 
Language, collected by members of the Dakota 
Mission. Washington, 1851. 

Strachey, William. The Historic of Travaile into 
Virginia Britannia; written in 1611. London, 

Trumbull, J. H. Natick Dictionary. Washington, 

Williams, Roger. Key to the [Narragansett] In- 
dian Language. Providence, 1827. 

Zeisberger's Indian Dictionary, translated by Eben 
Norton Horsford. Cambridge, Mass., 1887. 

Kingfisher Totem 


c c c c c 

< ( 

C I 

Good Books to Read 

.-. Curtis, Edward S. Indian Days of Long Ago. 
Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1915 
In The Land of The Head-Hunters. Yonkers- 
on-Hudson, New York, 1915. 

>' Dunn, J. P. True Indian Stories. Cedar Rapids. 
Iowa, 1908. 

.' Fletcher, Alice C. Indian Story and Song from 
North America. Boston, 1900. 

Grinnell, G. B. The Punishment of the Stingy and 
Other Indian Stories. New York, 1901. 

:'.: Handbook of American Indians, Bulletin 30 of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, edited by F. 

..'.^..;- - W. Hodge. 

(This book contains articles and notes on a 11 the I n- 
... .. dians studied up to 1907. It is no longer available for 
distribution by the Bureau, but may be consulted, to- 
gether with all other Bureau pnblications, in the libraries 
;""', of all State universities and in the public libraries of the 

.; ' .^ larger cities, or it may be purchased from the Superin- 

tendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 
;:.>.' Washington, D. C., at $3.00 for the two volumes.) 


Hough, Walter, The Hopi Indians. Cedar Rapids, 
';.'.. 1915. 

Jackson, Helen Hunt. A Century of Dishonor. 
: . .', ; New York, 1881. 

Jenks, Albert E. The Childhood of Ji-shib the 
Ojibwa. Madison, Wisconsin, 1900. 


, * > ,,' 

, ' l , , 

> 39 
1 > 1 

J > , , ' 3 J 

j * " ' J J ' J>> )J 

J > > -> > J 1 't "j / ' ', ' *J 

La Flesche, Francis. The Middle Five. Boston, 1901. 

Lipps, Oscar H. The Navaho. Cedar Rapids, 1909. 

Lummis, C. F. A New Mexico David and Other 
Stories and Sketches of the Southwest. New 
York, 1891. 

The Man Who Married The Moon and Other 
Pueblo Indian Folk-stories. New York, 1 894. 
The King of The Broncos and Other Stories of 
New Mexico. New York, 1897. 

McLaughlin, James. My Friend the Indian. Bos- 
ton, 1910. 

Ober, Fred A. Tommy Foster's Adventures among 
the Southwest Indians. Philadelphia, 1901. 

Saunders, Charles F. The Indians of the Ter- 
raced Houses. New York and London, 1912. 

Skinner, Alanson, The Indians of Greater New 
York. Cedar Rapids, 1915. 

Wilson, Gilbert L. Goodbird, the Indian. New 
York, Chicago, and Toronto, 1914. 



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