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Full text of "Indian names of places in Plymouth, Middleborough, Lakeville and Carver, Plymouth County, Massachusetts, with interpretations of some of them"




INDIAN NAMES 



OF PLACES IN 



PLYMOUTH, MIDDLEBOROUGH 

LAKEVILLE AND CARVER 

PLYMOUTH COUNTY 

MASSACHUSETTS 




PRESENTlil) liY 



Compliments of 

Lincoln N. Kinnicutt 



INDIAN NAMES 



OF PLACES IN 

PLYMOUTH, MIDDLEBOROUGH 
LAKEVILLE and CARVER 

PLYMOUTH COUNTY 
MASSACHUSETTS 

tVith Interpretations of Some of Them 



By 
LINCOLN NEWTON KINNICUTT 



WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 
1909 






Previous Publication: 

Indian Natnes of Places in Worcester County, Massachusetts, 
witli interpretations of some of t/'iem. 



Author 
(Pcrtoii) 

19 0CT19I0 



No. 



THE COMMONWEALTH PRESS 
WORCESTKR, MASS. 



To the land of Afassasoit, 
O71 the hills of Pomet acorn. 
By the streams of Ouadeqiiina, 
Through the woods of Queen IVeetamoo, 
If you will, this book will lead you. 



INTRODUCTION 

MY object ill collecting some of the Indian Place Names 
of Plymouth County and attempting their translation, 
is the wish to create an interest in the use of Indian 
names in New England. 

Although of the following comparatively small collection, 
few can be used, the early Massachusetts records and deeds 
contain innumerable Indian Place Names, many of which are 
more euphonious. The Algonkin language possesses also many 
euphonious words, which will describe some natural character- 
istic of almost any locality. 

We scarcely realize that this whole country was once 
inhabited by a people whose history is almost unknown, but 
whose characteristics, and traditions, and myths, and religions 
offer, in some respects, almost as wide a field for interesting 
study and for research, as the myths and traditions of the 
races of the old world. I am speaking of the race before it 
was corrupted by European influences. This is not a country 
without a past, and much may yet be revealed of great interest 
to the historian. 

The almost universal idea of the Indian is associated with 
cruelty, torture and massacre, while all other traits are generally 
unknown or forgotten. A very little study of the subject 
creates a broader estimate of his character. It seems to me 
that the Indian has never been given his true place in history. 
When condemnmg the " savage" to everlasting obloquy for his 
methods of warfare, and judging him by this alone, we should 
remember the civilized cruelties of the Spanish Inquisition of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, of the French Revolu- 
tion of the eighteenth, and the treatment of the Armenians by the 



INTRODUCTION 



Turks, and the Jews by the Russians, in the year of our Lord 
nineteen hundred and nine. 

Massachusetts was inhabited by different tribes of the great 
Algonkin family, which "extended from Hudson Bay on the 
North to the Carolinas on the South; from the Atlantic on the 
East to the Mississippi and Lake Winnipeg on the West. ' ' 

When the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth the territory was 
occupied by a family of tribes known by the name of Pokano- 
kets, all under the dominion of Massasoit. The Pokanokets or 
possibly the Wampanoags alone, at a little earlier date, " num- 
bered about three thousand warriors." {Samuel Cr. Brake.) 

Some of the Sachems, Sagamores and Captains (Mugwomps) 
of the Plymouth County tribes deserved admiration, respect, 
gratitude and sympathy from the descendants of the Pilgrims. 
Massasoit, Metacomet (King Philip), lyanough, Tisquantum 
(Squanto), Hobomok, Tispequin, Sassamon, were all impor- 
tant factors in the early days of the colony, between the years 
1620 and 1675. 

With a little investigation and study of the Algonkin 
language, euphonious and locally characteristic Indian names 
can easily be found for our country and seashore places and for 
our institutions. They bear the hall-mark of our own country 
and are more consistent with our national traits of independence 
and individuality than borrowed names from England, France 
or Italy. 

Imagination was rarely, if ever, used by the Indians in New 
England in their place names, and any translation expressing 
anything except a description of the locality to which it is 
afhxed, must be accepted with caution. In many other words, 
the Indian did use imagination, sometimes almost poetically. 
They called the sunset, Wayont, " when he has lost his way.' ' 
The name of the belt of Orion was ShivisJiaeitttowwaoug "The 
wigwam with three fires. " One of the names for the sun was 



INTRODUCTION 



Munnannock, probably from inunnoh-aunoch, "The Island 
Star. " The names of some of the plants, trees and flowers are 
wonderfully descriptive and at the same time imaginative. 

In the attempt to translate Indian Place Names the first and 
most important step is, in my opinion, to obtain a knowledge, 
if possible, of the peculiar characteristics of the place itself when 
the Indians occupied the country. The next step is to attempt 
to consider it, as one who has been much with the Indians of 
the North expressed it, "from the Indian point of view. ' ' The 
place names were, in a large majority of cases, very descriptive, 
so as to be easily recognized by the Indians of the neighborhood, 
and often so descriptive as to serve as guide-marks for wander- 
ers through a country, almost a wilderness, with few inhabitants 
and with only narrow trails from point to point. It must be 
borne in mind that the Indians had no written language. 

We cannot expect to find the exact meaning of many of 
these names, but I believe, to most, we can give the idea 
that was intended to be conveyed. The only foundations on 
which we have to build are the early records of these names, 
written by men very ignorant of the Indian language, struggling 
with the difficulty of expressing in writing, the sound of a word 
of an unknown tongue. As that same word was expressed by 
different hearers, with different spellings, the problem is a 
difficult one. Sometimes, for the sake of euphony, sometimes 
for contraction, more often through carelessness, almost all 
place names have been corrupted. This accounts, in part, for 
the different opinions of different students in regard to the same 
word, and a true student of the language, at the start, acknowl- 
edges possible wrong deductions in many cases. One object 
of my work is, however, the collecting by localities, the 
Indian Place Names of some of the towns of Plymouth 
County. I believe this has not been attempted before in a 
published form. I hope that my wivsh to create a new interest 
in the VVampanoag or Pokanoket names will be realized by this 
paper. 



INTRODUCTION 



I must ask the indulgence of Plymouth, Middleborough, 
Lakeville and Carver for any geographical errors or errors from 
ignorance of some local tradition or history, as I am not a native 
of Plymouth County. 

I have included m my list of names quite a number over the 
boundaries of the designated territory, but this is on account of 
their frequent recurrence in deeds examined. Many Indian 
names must have been omitted, which are probably to be found 
in old deeds and manuscripts inaccessible or unknown to me. 

I am greatly indebted to the late Hon. William T. Davis, of 
Plymouth, for the advice and information received from him, 
also to the late J. Hammond Trumbull, whose translations and 
suggestions, taken from his publications and letters, I liave 
used whenever possible. 

From the early publications of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society I have made many quotations, with the consent and 
courtesy of Dr. Samuel A. Green, and the manuscripts of the 
American Antiquarian Society have given me much valuable 
information. 

Roger Williams' " Key to the Indian Language, " Wood's 
"New England's Prospect," Josiah Cotton's "Vocabulary of 
the Massachusetts Indian Language, " Dr. Arthur Gallatin's 
"Vocabularies," Rev. Jonathan Edwards' "Observations on 
the Mohigan Language," Rev. Experience Mayhew's "Obser- 
vations on the Indian Language," Dr. J. Hammond Trum- 
bull's publications, are the authorities I have mostly consulted 
in regard to the translations. 

"The Plymouth Colony Records," "Records of the Town of 
Plymouth," " The Mayflower Descendant" and various Ply- 
mouth deeds and manuscripts are the authorities I have mostly 
used for the original spelling of the Indian place names. 

Mr. William AVallace Tooker's "Algonquian Series" and 
Mr. Henry Andrew Wright's "Indian Deeds" have furnished 
many valuable suggestions. 

I wish to acknowledge the kindness of Mr. Charles E. 
Weston whose familiarity with the old deeds and land boun- 
daries in Middleborough has been of great service. 



Abbreviated References 

Abn. . . . Abnaki. 

A. L. M. Ply. Ancient Land Marks of Plymouth. 

(Wm. T. Davis) 

Chip. . . . Chippewa. 

Col Colonial. 

Coll. . . . Collections. 

Coly. . . . Colony. 

C. H. S. Coll. Connecticut Historical Society Collections. 

Cotton . . . Josiah Cotton. 

I. N. C. . . Indian Names in Connecticut. 

(J. Hammond Trumbull.) 

M. H. S. Coll. Massachusetts Historical Society Collections. 

Moh. . . . Mohegan. 

Ply. Col. Rec. Plymouth Colony Records. 

p Page. 

R. W. . . . Roger Williams. 

Rec. . . . Records. 

s Series. 

J. H. T. . . Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull. 

W. T. D. . . William T. Davis. 

V Volume. 



INDIAN NAMES 



The Indian Names of Land in the Vicinity 
of the Towns of Plymouth County* 



Abington 

Manamooskeagin, "Much or many beavers." (M. H. S. 
Coll., s. 2, V. 7, p. 122.) 

Bridgewater 

Saughtuckquett, 8aughtuckett, "At the mouth of the 
stream, " 

Brockton 

Formerl}^ part of Bridgewater. ' 

Carver 

Mohootxet,, Formerly }iart of Plymouth. 

Duxbury 

JVamasakeesetoT MaUakeeset, "At the small fishing place." 

East Bridgev;^ater 

JVunketesi. 

Halifax 

Jlonpoaset, "Is ear the deep pond." 

Hanson 

JVconasakeest, or 3Ionjjonse(, "At the small fishing place," 
"Near the deep pond. " 



*The explanation of the translations will be found on other pages under 
the Indian name. 



INDIAN NAMES 



Hanover 

J^aimniacheAvit, 

Hingham 

Cono/tas.set, Wessaguscu!<. "A fishing promontory," 



Hull 

Nantamot^ Pasmtaquack. . "At the divided 

stream." 

Kingston 

Formerly part of Plymouth. 

Lakeville 

Axuawompaet, "At the half-way rock. '' 

Marion 

Sippican, possibly river country, or place. 

Marshfield 

/Sa;/oquas//, Also Missauka in cket^ "Hard rock," "At the 

large mouth of the river." 

Mattapoisett 

]\Iattapoif<ett^ "Near the resting place." 

Middleborough 

JSfamasket, NainaMciket, "At the fishing place." 

Norwell 

Formerly part of Scituate. 

Pembroke 

jMaf/akeese(, "At tlie small fishing place." 



INDIAN NAMES 



Plymouth 

Patuxet, Appaum^ Umjxine, "At the little falls." 



Plympton 

Wiitnatuxet, "Near the good stream." 

Rochester 

Sippican, Sepaconnet, "Long river."? (M. H. S. Coll., 
s. 2, V. 4, p. 265.) 

Rockland 

Formerly part of Abingtoii. 

Scituate 

Satuit, Assanipi, . "Rock water." 

Wareham 

Agawaam, Waywayartik, Wewewantett, "Unloading 
place," , "Crooked River." 

West Bridge-water 

JHuncketetest. 

Whitman 

Formerly part of Abington. 



PLYMOUTH 



INDIAN NAMES 



Accomack, Aca^vmuck. 

The present site of Plymouth was called Accomack by 
Captain John Smith in 1614. "A name given not by the 
Indians, who occupied it, but by those, probably who lived far- 
ther north ' On the other side of Plymouth Bay' from Acawme 
or Ogkome (Ahn-aga-mi, Chip. Agami) means 'on the other 
side.' " (J. H. T., C. H. S. Coll., v. 2, p. 10.) 

In the Massachusetts Historical Soc. Collections (s. 2, v. 
3, p. 175) it is spelled ^ca?<^';;»tc/r; and the signification is given 
" Go by water, ' ' for which I can find no other authority. 

Acomeques (inoli) was named by Uncas as his south bounds 
on the east side of Mohegan (Thames) River (Col. Rec. 3-149). 
The name means "land (or place) 'on the other side' of the 
river." (J. H. T., I. N. C, p. 2.) This was also a name of 
a river in Virginia. 

2. Aggamenticus. York, Maine. " The small other side 
river." 

3. Acawmenoalcet. Old England "The land on the other 
side. " 

4. Accomac. A peninsular east of Chesapeake Bay which 
was "other side land" to the Powhatans of Virsriuia. 



Agawam, Aggawom. 

Name of river in Plymouth and Wareham and village in 
Wareham . 

The river rises in Coatuit or Half Way Pond in Plymouth, 
flows through the southern part of Plymouth into Wareham and 
empties into Wareham River. 

The "Agawam Purchase" from the Indians in 1660, called 

I? 



INDIAN NAMES 



the "Plantation of Agawam," included a part of the town of 
Wareham . 

The river probably took its name from the village near its 
mouth, as this same name was used by several tribes for river 
settlements, namely, at Ipswich, Springfield, Southampton, in 
New York State, and in Canada. 

There are many opmions in regard to the interpretation of 
this name and it has never been satisfactorily translated. From 
the formation of the word and from the locations of all Aga- 
wam Indian villages, I believe "The unloading place" or "the 
landing place" is the most natural signification. 

Low Land — Fish Curing Place — Ground overflowed with 
water — Great fishing place — smoked fish, etc., are other mean- 
ings given to this word by different authorities. 

Lemoine, in his Montagnaise dictionary, gives ^'■Agwanus 
— an unloading place." 

Appaum, Apaum, Umpame. 

" The ancient name applied to that part of Plymouth on 
one side of Town Brook, Patuxet, the name applied to the 
other side" (letter from William T. Davis, Sept. 19, 1906> 
"Umpame, written Apaum m the Colony Records, is the name 
of Plymouth m Churches History, and so it is called still 
(1815) by the natives of Massapee." (M. H. S. Coll., s. 2, v. 3, 
p. 175.) Possibly a contraction or corruption of Appamond, a 
place for fishing with traps. Appeh "trap" amauri — "pond." 

2. Appamatuck, name of a river in Virginia mentioned 
by John Smith in 1607. 

Alkarmus Field, Alkermaus— 1641. 

" On the westerly side of Sandwich Street, including Mount 
Pleasant Street and the laud on both sides and bounded by Gal- 

i8 



INDIAN NAMES 



lows Lane on the west." (W. T. D., A. L. M. Ply., p. 149.) 
Although sometimes claimed among Indian place names it 
is probably not of Indian origin. I believe without much doubt 
it is from Alkermes or Iiermes, the usual form of the word, 
an insect found on several species of oak, formerly much used 
as a red dye before cochineal was discovered. Kermes was for- 
merly regarded as the fruit of the tree on which it lived. The 
"Kermes Oak"' was a dwarf oak from two to five feet high. 
The following extracts are from Captain John Smith's account 
of his visit to New England in 1614. «'The herbs and fruits 
are of many sorts and kinds as, alkennes, currans, mulberies." 
"Certain red berries called kermes may yearly be gathered a 
good quantity." "Certain red berries called alkennes which is 
worth ten shillings a pomid may yearely be gathered a good 
quantitie." 

It is probable, from these quotations, that some part of 
Plymouth was covered with a growth of small oak at the time 
of Captain John Smith's visit. Possibly he may have mistaken 
the cranberry or the boxberry for the alkennes but this is very 
doubtful. 



Cattacapcheise. 

"An Indian field" mentioned as a boundary of John Don- 
hames land near Winberry Hill. (Ply. Col. Records, 1637.) 



Coatuit, Cotuit, Coituate, Satuite. 

"The present name of a district in Plymouth? The Indian 
name of Half Way Pond." (M. H. S., s. 2, v. 3, p. 175.) 
In the southern central part of Plymouth. Possibly a cor- 
ruption of Kootucket — Pine Tree River, Koo or Koowa — Pine 
— Tuck — river or stream with the locative suffix et or it and 

19 



INDIAN NAMES 



would refer to some well known place on the river. It may 
have been one of the aboriginal names of the Agawara River 
itself which rises in that pond. The present name of the river, 
without doubt, was taken from the Indian village Agawam. 
It is said that the last male Indian, of unmixed blood, in Ply- 
mouth died at Coatuit or Half Way Pond, in bis wigwam, in 
1801. Half Way Pond is so called being half way on the road 
from Plymouth to Sandwich. Kodtuhkoet would probably 
mean " at the top of a hill." 

Coatuit was a well known name among the Barnstable Coun- 
ty Indians and probably also among the Plymouth Indians, as 
one of their very old traditions tells of the formation of Coatuit 
River in Barnstable. "The Trout King wishing to furnish the 
Indians with a stream of fresh water forced his way into the 
land at Poponesset Bay but finding the effort too great for his 
strength he expired, when another fish took up the work where 
he left it and completed the river to Sanctuit Pond. The 
mounds made by these two trout, and supposed to be their 
graves, can be seen to-day." (1800.) Coatuit Town, Coatuit 
River, Harbor, Point and Highland are all present names in 
Barnstable. 



Cantaughcantiest, Caughtaughcanteist, 1638, Cau- 
ghtacanteist, 1641 (Ply. Col. Rec.) 

' ' The aboriginal name of the Strawberry Hill of the first 
planters." Was also called in early times " Mill Hill," after- 
wards Watson's Hill, which name it now retains. 

Tradition asserts tliat the meaning of the name is ' ' Planted 
fields." On this hill Massasoit camped in April, 1621, when he 
first visited the Pilgrims and greeting them through the Sachem 
Samoset and Tisquantum made the famous treaty which lasted 
as long as he lived. Edward Winslow remained as a liostage 
on this hill while the conference was beinff held. 



INDIAN NAMES 



The Treaty of Cantaugticimteist or Oaughtaughcanta , as it 
should be called, was one of the most important events in our 
early Colonial history and with all its picturesque surroundings 
should take its place in song and story with the ballads of Scot- 
land and of France and with the Celtic and Saxon national 
tales of Great Britain. 

The Sachem Samoset was the first Indian with whom the 
Pilgrims held communication and his words of greeting, when 
he met them a few weeks before the treaty," Welcome, English- 
men,'' are historical. After much study of this word I think 
possibly this name was not applied originally, by the Indians, to 
the hill but only after the treaty. It must be borne in mind 
that this was the first time the Pilgrims had met any number 
of Indians (April 1621) and knew very little of their language. 
Massasoit was encamped on this hill and insisted that the 
Englishmen should send some one to meet him. A word which 
the Indians might naturally have repeated several times, con- 
sidering all the circumstances, and which might easily be con- 
sidered by the Pilgrims to refer to the hill itself, would be 
Ke kuttokauiita which means "Let us parley" or "talk." The 
first mention I find of this name in the Plymouth Colony Rec- 
ords is in 1638, where it is spelled Caugh taugh cant teist. 
Comparing this with Ke kut tok kun ta it is easily conceived 
that the first syllable of the original Indian word, Ke, could be 
lost or dropped, and the final syllable is probably a corruption, 
as I know of no Massachusetts Indian names with the termina- 
tion tei&t. Caughtaughcanieist or Kekuttokunta , Conference 
Hill is certainly an appropriate name. 

Compare Ca ugh-taugh-cant-teist 

(^e) Kut- to-kunt- ta 

I offer the above only as a suggestion. 

Catawmet. 

The name of a district of Plymouth. (See Kitteaumut.^ 



Also a name used near Falmouth. 



INDIAN NAMES 



Hobbamak's Ground. 

"A parcel of land on Watson's Hill occupied by Hobba- 
mak by permission of the colony before 1623." (W. T. D., 
A. L. M. Ply., p. 152.) This tiuct consists of about four 
acres at the top of the hill. 

Sohhamak or, as his name is spelled by Samuel G . Drake, 
Hobomok, was a Wampanoag Indian, always a great friend of 
the English and served them often as a guide and interpreter. 

The Pilgrim Colony owed much to the two Indians Squanto 
and Hobbamak, and but for the devotion and faithfulness of 
these two "savages " during the first year of settlement, Ply- 
mouth would have a very different history. 

It is a curious fact that Squantam or Squantum and Saba- 
mouk were the names of the two evil gods of the Indians, and 
it is very plausible that these names were given to them by 
their own tribe as characterizing the results to the Indian 
thi-ougli then- friendship to the white man. One of the Indian 
Chiefs, Caunbitant, speaking of Squanto said, "If he were 
dead the English had lost their tongue." 

Tisquantum was the name by which Squanto was most usu- 
ally called in the earliest records and the abbreviation of this 
name I should judge was of a little later origin. Edward 
Winslow mentions him many times in his "Relation" as 
Tisquantum. 



Kamesit, District of Plymouth. 

"The Indian name of the country about South Pond." 
(W. T. D., A. L. M. Ply., p. 152.) In the central part of 
Plymouth. Possibly the name of the pond itself. (M. H. S. 
Coll., s. 2, V. 3, p. 175.) 



INDIAN NAMES 



Kav^amasuhkakamid, Kawamasohkakannit, 1664, 
Koomasabunkawitt, 1674 (Ply. Col. Rec.) 
Comassakumkanit. 

Probably Herring Pond, in the southeastern part of Ply- 
mouth (M. H. S. Coll., s. 1, V. 1, p. 198). Hon. Nathaniel 
Freeman, in 1792, suggests that this name might have been 
given to the Indian territory in the neighborhood of Hemng 
Pond, about five miles northwest of Sandwich, extending along 
shore to ISIonument Pond, and inhabited by a distinct tribe 
called the Herring Pond Indians. " Of that land called Kawa- 
masuhkakariiid.'' (Indian deed, 1664.) 

Richard Bourne, in a letter to Daniel Gookin in 1664, gives 
the fourth spelling of the name. From the construction of the 
word I am inclined to believe that it signified the place where 
the Indians fished for herring or alewives, Ommissakkeag or 
Ammassakkeag — "a fishing place for alewives." '■'■Amoskeag^' 
at the falls of the Merrimack has probably the same meaning. 
(J. H. T.) 

"Great Herring Pond" is probably a literal translation of 
'■^Kawamasuhkakamid'' doubtless a somewhat corrupted form of 
an original noxne K \ehti) , ommissuogamaug — KeJiti (often ab- 
breviated) " greatest" — " principal " — onimissuog — " herring " 
— amaug " fishing place" "pond." 

Kitteaumut, Katamet, Kitaumet, Cataumit. 

Monument Ponds. (M. H. S. Coll., s. 3, v. 2, p. 244 Cotton.) 

The Indian name of the country from Manomet to Buzzard's 
Bay. (W. T. D., A. L. M. P., p. 152.) 

A general name of the Village of Ponds. (M. H. S. Coll., 
s. 2, V. 3, p. 175.) 

In comparing various statements in regard to Kitteaumut — 
Manomet and Monumet I am led to the conclusion that the 

23 



INDIAN NAMES 



name Manomet originated at or about the head of Buzzard's 
Bay, Monuiiiet or Monument was a corruption of the original 
word and the name was finally used as a general name for all 
the country from Plymouth town to Buzzard's Bay, including 
part of Sandwich and Bourne. Kitteaumut was a name per- 
haps originally given to Great Herring Pond and then became 
the name for all that part of Manomet about the ponds. 

I believe the name is from Kehte-amaug . (Keht — The 
"greatest," or *' principal, "awwi^y "fishing place.") 



Kowpiscowonkonett. 

Indian deed, 1678, Ply. Col. Rec, v. 1, p. 231. 

Mentioned as a boundary. Near Bartlett's marsh in Ply- 
mouth and Wareham. Perhaps it has the same signification as 
Kohpakommocket which signifies the place where the squaws 
and children were hidden in time of danger — usually a swamp. 

(See Coppoani»sett.) 



Make^vaumaquest. 

Indian deed, 1678, Ply. Col. Rec, v. 1, p. 231. 
A place mentioned as a boundary. Was between Red Brook 
and Agawam River, in Wareham. 



Manittoo-Asseinah. Sacrifice Rocks. 

There are two of these rocks near the Cornish Tavern on 
the Sandwich road "where the natives still (1815) offer the 
homage of branches as they pass by in silence." (M. H. S. 
Coll., s. 2, V. 3, p. 201.) I should judge from this letter in 
the Massachusetts Historical Collections that these rocks were 
then called by the natives Manittoo-Asseinah. 

24 



INDIAN NAMES 



Manitto was the Indian word for God (^Manittoo — It is a 
God — R. W.) has8U7i — "rock," hrrssuvash — <' rocks", God's 
Rocks. 



Manomet, Manaumet, Mannamoiett. 

Now called Bourne, a village on the Monuraet River a few 
miles from the head of Buzzard's Bay. This is one of the ear- 
liest known Indian place names in Plymouth County and to-day 
probably the best known and more universally used than any 
other in the County, Manomet Hills, Manomet Ponds, Mano- 
met Beach, ^»Ionumet Village, Monumet River, etc., all owe 
their origin to the small Indian village of Manomet. It is de- 
scribed by Edward Winslow in "Good News from New Eng- 
land" published in London in 1625. "This town lieth from us 
South well near twenty miles and stands upon a fresh liver 
which runneth into the 'R-aj oi J^ncnnoMgganseV' ( Narragansett) . 
("Edward Winslow mistook Buzzard's Bay for Narragansett 
Bay.") 

It was known as early as July, 1621. The following is an 
extract from Gov. Bradford's diary of that date. " One John 
Billington lost himselfe in y^ woods and wandered up and 
downe some 5 days. At length he light on an Indian planta- 
tion 20 miles south of this place, called Manamet.'' (Brad- 
ford's History, page 124.) 

In 1627 "that they (the Pilgrims) might ye better take all 
convenient opportunitie to follow their trade .... re- 
solved to build a smale pinass at Manamet, a place 20 miles 
from ye plantation standing on y^ sea to y^ southward of them, 
unto which by another creeke on this side, they could carry 
their goods within 4 or 5 miles and then transport them over 
land to their vessell ; and so avoid the compasing of Cap-Cod 
and so make any vioge to y" southward in much shorter time 
and with farr less danger." (Bradford's Journal, p. 266.) I 

25 



INDIAN NAMES 



believe, from the name itself, that the Indians, from very early 
times, used this same crossing of the cape for like purposes and 
taking into consideration the whole history of the Cape Cod canal 
at this very spot, the translation of this Indian place name is 
very interestmg. I believe the Indian name Manomet is derived 
from Mai — "a path," and a form of the verb '*■ Nayeuvicni" — 
" he bears (or carries) on his back or shoulders" — and the loca- 
tive suffix et — ' ' at or near. ' ' The whole literal translation would 
be — "at the path where they carry (across) on their backs or 
shoulders." A free translation — "The Burden Pathway." The 
pronunciation by the white man of the Indian word Mainayeu- 
mauet can easily be imagined as Manomet or Manaumet or 
Mannamoiett . 

In 1622-3 Governor Bradford first visited this village in 
search of corn, and a trading house was erected there in 1627; 
the second visit to Manomet, by Miles Standish, is also histori- 
cal. 

In an article written in 1815 — M. H. S. Coll., s. 2, v. 4, p. 
291, it is stated that the Indian name of the river was Pimese- 
poese and it signified "provision rivulet" (?) Aptuxet is given 
as the Indian name of the old trading house. (M. H. S. Pro- 
ceedings 1855-1858, V. 3, p. 256.) It probably took its name 
from the river — Ajypeh — "trap" — tuclc — " river" with the di- 
minutive and the locative suffix. " At the little trap river." 
Believing my translation of Manomet to be correct, no name could 
now be used more appropriately for the land first occupied by 
the Pilgrims, the Pilgrim country. Manomet — " The trail of 
the burden carriers." (See Monomoy.) 

Mashashinett, Massashinet. 

Indian deed, Ply. Col. Records, v. 1, p. 231. 
¥iova. Mass — "great," hassune — "stone," ei — at,"the place 
of large stones." Mentioned as a pond in boundary description. 

26 



INDIAN NAMES 



Massassoomineuk. 

" Is a place somewhere in the vicinage of Herring Pond." 
"This word is literally "much cranberries." (M. H. S. Coll., 
8. 2, V. 3, p. 175.) I believe, however, as the word is now 
spelled a literal translation would be ' ' the place of the large 
cranberry," or " where large cranberries are. " 3IaBsa " great," 
sasemine cranberry, and auk ^place. —Sasemineash — cranberries 
(R.W.) The plural of many kinds of berries was formed 
by adding '■'ash" to the singular. 

Meshmuskuchtekutt. 

Indian deed. Ply. Col. Rec, vol. 1, p. 231. 
From Mishe-ni'askelit-tuck-ut. "At the great grass (or 
buUrush) brook." Near Agawam River or Red Brook. 

Missaucatucket. 

The Indian name for the land about Marshfield. Probably 
from Miss — "Great" sauk — "the mouth of the stream or out- 
let" — tuck — " river " and the locative et, meaning "(a place) on 
the stream which has a very large, wide outlet." 

Monechchan, Maneikshan 

"An Indian territory just beyond Ellis's usually called by 
the English ' Black Ground' " (M. H. S. Coll., s. 2, v. 3, p. 
175.) In the southeast part of Plymouth, very near the 
coast. "Called by the English the 'Black bank, ' but called by 
the Indians J/o??ecAc7tan." (Indian deed, 1674.) I think it very 
probable, from the construction of the word, that the English 
name was taken from the Indian name. J/oo^ — black and some 
form of the word Anoohque or Nogqui which might mean "it 
looks like black earth." Mooi-ne-nan " it has the appearance of 
blackness." 

27 



INDIAN NAMES 



Monomoy, Monnamoiet, Monamoyick, Manamoy- 
ack, Manamoyake. 

The Indian name of land about Chatham. This I think 
has the same signiification as Manomet and to me is additional 
proof that my translation of Manomet is correct. In Bradford's 
History we find there was a path from '■'■NaumskacheW'' Harbor 
at the bottom of Cape Cod Bay to '■'■ 3Ta7ianw7/ack Bay ,'' the 
distance being only two miles, saving the passage by boat 
around the head of the cape.^ and it was used by the Indians 
for the very same purpose as the path at Manomet was used. 
In 1626 an English ship bound for Virginia was wrecked at 
Manamoyake and the Plymouth Colony sent them aid and pro- 
visions over this trail. 

Mainayeumauk — "the path where they carry (across) on their 
shoulders." ( See Manomet.) It was at this place that Squanto 
died in 1622. 

Monomoy Point, near Chatham. 

Monumet. 

Name of river rising in Great Herring Pond on the boundary 
line between Plymouth and Bourne, flowing southwesterly 
through Bourne into Buzzard's Bay. 

The historical Indian village of Manomet (^Monumet) ^ was 
situated almost at its mouth. 

(See Manomet and ICitteaumut.^) 

Muchquachema, Mauthquohkoma 

"To a swamp called Muchquachehia.^' (Indian deed, Ply. 
Col. Rec, V. 1, p. 231.) Possibly this may mean — "where it 
is difficult to paddle a canoe" — from the verb Moosqhean — "it 
troubles," and cheman — " lie paddles " or cJiemaun — " a canoe." 
Schoolcraft gives "- ehe'maim " as the Indian word for canoe and 
Longfellow uses the same word in Hiawatha. 

The swamp was probably near Red Brook. 

28 



INDIAN NAMES 



Muskapasesett, Muscapasset. 

"So running southerly to a place called Mushapasesett ." 
Boundary, Indian Deed, Ply. Col. Rec, v. 1, p. 231. Also 
in Ralph Jones's deed of 1703. 

Near Little Herring Pond, Plymouth. 

Muscho-jjauge — name of large pond in Worcester County — 
'■''Mooihou-paug, Muskiat Pond." 

Mussaauwomineukonett, Massawominekonet. 

"To a place called 3Iu8saanwomineuko7iett.'^ 
Indian deed, 1703, Ply. County Registry of Deeds, book 5, 
p. 65. 

Somewhere near Great Herring Pond, Plymouth. 
(See Mas8assoomineuk. ) 

Namasakeeset or Mattakeeset. 

The Indian name of land about Duxbury including also 
Pembroke and probably Carver. 

These two names are without doubt the same, from Namas 
"fish" and ak "land or place" with the diminutive and the 
locative "at the small fishing place.' ' "All the land lying be- 
tween the path and the ponds between Namassakeset and Indian 
Head River. " 

Namassakeset River, in Pembroke, with Indian River form 
the two principal heads of North River. 

Narragansett. 

Name of pond and ridge of hills in the northwestern part 
of Plymouth, now called "Clear Pond." 

In "Ancient Land Marks of Plymouth" Mr. William T. 
Davis says that the pond derives its name from a battle fought 
near it between the Narragansetts and the Pockonokets in which 
a large number of the Narragansetts were killed and their bodies 
29 



INDIAN NAMES 



thrown into the pond. The ridge of hills on which the battle 
was mainly fought is south of the pond. 

Narragansett ; the anglicized name of the country of the Na- 
hif/aneuk, the ^^Nahicans" of the early Dutch explorers. The 
tribal name denotes "people of the point (Point Judith)" (J. 
H. T., Ind. Names in Conn., p. 35). 

Patackosi. 

"Probably is typical of the Town Brook from Tackosi 
"short, narrow" (M. H. S. Coll., s. 2, v. 3, p. 175). 

In note II in Winthrop's History of New England, Savage 
says Patackosi is a part of Plymouth. 

I should s appose it might be a corruption or derivation from 
Pautuxet. 

(See Pautuxet.^ 

Paukopunnakuk, Pochuppunnukaak. 

(1665) "That weary hill this side of Ellis's called by the 
early settlers 'Break Heart Hill'" (M. H. S. Coll., s. 2, v. 
3, p. 175). I believe the translation of this word to be The 
place where you turn aside and take the narrow path. PoJi- 
eliau — " he turns aside" (Z>eL Pachgechen — "where the road 
strikes off "), and Pmogok — " where the path is narrow." 

Paukopun nakuk . 

PoJichaupeonogok (Eliot's Bible, Matt. 7:13,14). 

Assuming this translation to be correct, it is one of the 
striking examples of the geographical descriptive use the Indians 
made of thek place names, for guidance as well as for de- 
scription. I should suppose it was the path around the hill. 

Patopacassitt. 

Indian deed, March 16, 1664. Ply. Co. Rec, Patoompack- 
slck, 1674. 

30 



INDIAN NAMES 



Polopaeassatt, Poloopacassett. 

A pond in the southeastern part of Plymouth. The Indian 
name of Little Herring Pond. 

'■'■Paeassatt,^' the greater part of the word, denotes a place 
at which "a strait widens — where the narrows open out." On 
examination of the formation of Little Herring Pond and noting 
the gradual widening out of the very short stream between 
Great and Little Herring Ponds, this part of the word certainly 
describes the locality. The first part of the name has probably 
been changed. 

Pato — possibly Pehtean — "foaming" — "a foaming narrows." 
Petaug — "a bay;" Po^oJa^ — a bay. "Where the narrows 
open out mto a small pond." 

Pethto, Pogsett. 

Boundary, Indian deed, 1678, Ply. Col. Rec, v. 1, p. 231. 
" To a place called Pethtopognet & by ye English Hedges pond." 
Deed of Ralph Jones (Indian), 1703 (Ply. County Registry of 
Deeds, book 5, p. 65). From these deeds and from the ety- 
mology of the word I am inclined to believe that Pethtopogset 
was Little Herring Pond and the original Hedges Pond ; the 
name of Hedges Pond being transferred to the small pond now 
bearing that name. 

(See Patopacassitf). 

Patuxet, Patuxat. 

i. e., Paiit-tuk-es-it — "At the little falls." 

The original name of land about Plymouth. On the 16th 
of INlarch, 1621, Samoset suddenly appeared at Plymouth and 
greeted our Pilgrim Fathers with the words, " Welcome, Eng- 
lishmen." "He told us the place where we now live is called 
Patuxet." (Mourt's Relation, M. H. S. Coll., s. 1, v. 8, p. 
218-219, in original edition, P. 19 and 20.) 

31 



INDIAN NAMES 



The name is derived from Powntuek with the locative suf- 
fix — et, and is the diminutive. '■^Powntuek is a general name 
for all falls." (Chandler's Survey of the Mohegan Countries.) 
"Probably from some little falls on Tov^n Brook." (J. H. T., 
Conn. Hist. Coll., v. 2. p. 9) "The Indian name perhaps 
of that part of Plymouth south of Town Brook" (W. T. D., 
A. L. M. P., p. 153). 

Poekquamscutt. 

Probably refers to cleared land, or land that had been 
broken for planting. The word Paquiaug with many variations 
occurs throughout New England. 

<■<■ Poekquamscutt OY a great rocke neare unto the brooke " 
(Red Brook). Indian deed, 1678 (Ply. Col. Rec, v. 1, p. 
231). 

If this name applied to the rock itself 1 should suppose from 
the formation of the word that the rock was broken into two 
parts. 

Pokanoket, The Pokanoket. 

The name of a large family of tribes who occupied much of 
the land of the Plymouth Colony in 1620. This family in- 
cluded the Wampanoags and the Patuxets of Plymouth, the 
Namaskets of Middleborough and many others. All these 
tribes were under the dominion of Massasoit. The name sig- 
nifies "cleared land," or country. 

^'■Pauqu-un-auk-it — " On, or at, cleared land." 

Drake in his History of the Indians of North America states 
that Mount Hope was called Pokanoket by the Narragansetts, 
and Sowams by the Wampanoags, and that it was the principal 
place of residence of Massasoit. 

Sowams, meaning "South Country," or "southward," was 
the Indian name of all of Barrington, a portion of Swanzey, 
Seakonkand East Providence (Bicknell History of Barrington). 

32 



INDIAN NAMES 



Ponkashute. 

"A part of Chiltonville near Russell's Mills, so called by 
the Indians as late as 1770" (W. T. D., A. L. M. Ply.). 

Ouanpaukoessett, Quanpasseesset. 

"To a pond called Quanpaukoeseett." (Indian deed, 1678, 
Ply. Col. Rec, v. 1, p. 231.) 

Probably means near the little long pond. From Quinni- 
long, pmig — pond, diminutiye es, locative sett — "near." 

Ouohtauannet, Sachtanannet. 

" So running southerly to a place called Quohtauannet.^' 
(Indian deed, 1678, Ply. Col. Rec, v. 1, p. 231). 

This must have been south of Little Herring Pond. 

Otan means a town or village. Kehtotanet would signify 
at the great town. 

Ousuknash, Qusuknashunk. 

"Rock in the sea below Ellisville;" from Qusmk, 2i rock 
and Auke, place, " a place of rocks or rock ground." 

Qussukanash. "Rocks'' (Cotton). Eliot gives Qussukqua- 
nash, as "rocks," in 1 Samuel 17-40, with the diminutive. 
Apparently this name is one of the least corrupted of Indian 
names in Plymouth County. 

AuJce from ohke — "land," "ground," was often written 
" unk." 

"A great rock in ye water called Qussuknashunk'' (Indian 
deed, 1664). 

Sagoquas, Saquish, Sagaquish, Sagaquash. 

The Saquish of to-day was formerly an island at the entrance 
of Plymouth Harbour. First mentioned ui an account of Sieur 

33 



INDIAN NAMES 



de Monts Voyage of 1604, and is shown as an island on Cham- 
plain's map of 1605, but in neither case is a name given. 
Saquish Beach and Saquish Head are now the modern names of 
places about Plymouth Harbour. William T. Davis gives the 
meaning of Saquish as a "small creek." Possibly the name 
may have some relation to the Indian word for clams, but I 
think it is very doubtful. It is spoken of in this connection in 
the Mass. Historical Society Collections, series 2, vol. 3, p. 175. 

(^Sukkissuog "clams" (Cotton), from Sohq-ussuog "they 
squirt. ") 

Without doubt this is the Sagoquas mentioned by Captain 
John Smith in his account of his voyage to New England in 
1614. Afterward, in 1615, named "Oxford by Prince 
Charles" (Charles 1st). In Captain Smith's map Oxford is 
placed a little north of Plymouth Harbor and on the main 
land, probably the present Marshfield. Changing the original 
exact locality of Indian place names of towns and villages is 
almost a rule rather than an exception. The original Sagoquas 
may have been from Sagaqussuk or Sagaqussukashet, meaning 
"at the hard rocks," referring to stones from which they made 
their weapons. Sioge, Soggoh, "hard" (applied to rocks). 

'•'■ Sagaguahe Harbour'" (Hubbard's History of New Eng- 
land). 

I am inclined to believe the name was first applied to the 
land very near Brant Rock, or to the rock itself. 

Sanqutagnappiepanquash, Sanqutuquappiepon- 
quash. 

Boundary in Indian deed. Ply. Col. Rec, vol. 1, p. 231, 
" to a pond called Sanqutagnappiepanquash. ' ' This pond must 
have been near White Island Pond in Plymouth and may have 
been the name of the pond itself. 

The name may possibly indicate the outlet of the Cold 
Water ponds? or the fording place where the stream comes out 
of the ponds? 

34 



INDIAN NAMES 



Scituate, Satuit. 

Town in the northeast part of Plymouth County. '* Prob- 
ably from a well known brook, implies Cold-brook?" (M.H.S. 
Coll., s. 2, V. 4, p. 223.) I am inclined to think the deriva- 
tion is from see — " salt," tuck — " stream,'" et — "at.'' "At the 
salt stream." 

Skook, Scokes. 

A pond in Plymouth at Manomet Pond settlement. 

This is given as an Indian name by Dr. James Savage in 
Winthiop's History of New England. (Note R., vol. 2, 
appendix.) 

'■'■Scook is the Indian name for a small pond near Manomet 
Point where are many rocks.'' (Thatcher's History of Ply- 
mouth, p. 248.) 

Scokes, Pond in Manomet where an Indian by that name 
lived. (W. T. D. ) The Indian, however, probably took his 
name from the pond. In its present form I should suppose it 
must have lost one or two syllables. Possibly it is a corruption 
of Qussukook, " stone country. " Qussuk, " stone, "awA:, "place." 

Skapeunk. 

District in Plymouth. (W. T. D., A. L. M. P., p. 153.) 

TaupoowaAvmsett. 

" One necke of land more that shools into the herring river 
pond (Great Herring Pond) called Taupoowau7nsett.'" Prob- 
ably the name of an Indian Sachem or Medicine Man. 

Taupowaw, " a wise speaker." PowwaWj "a priest." 

Untsatuitt, Unsatuet. 

"to a place called UnUatuit.'^ (Indian deed, 1703, Ply. 
County Registry of Deeds, book 5, p. 65.) In Plymouth, 
south of Great Herring Pond. 

35 



INDIAN NAMES 



Wampanoag, The Wampanoag. 

The name of the tribe of Indians who occupied the greater 
part of Plymouth County and much of the country east of 
Narragansett Bay in 1620. The word means "East Land," 
Wampa7i-o}ilce, from Wompan — "day," Wompanand — "The 
Eastern ( J od " (R. VV.), Wompanniyeu — "where the daylight 
is." 

This name, " the East Land People," was probably applied 
to them by tribes living farther west, and Drake, in his history 
of Indians of North America, says "This tribe (the Wampa- 
noags) was perhaps the third in importance in New England 
when settled by the English." Massasoit was their sachem. 

Wankinco, Wonkinco, Wankinquoak. 

A river forming a part of the boundary line between Ply- 
mouth and Carver, also name of a bog at head of the river. 
Although in modern maps it is spelled Wankinco^ it is usually 
written Wankinquoah, which I believe expresses more nearly 
the Indian name. Probably from Wonqun, crooked, and may 
have been first affixed to a part of the river at its source. 

(See Wonquonqiiay.^ 

Wauphaneeskitt, Wenphennesaket. 

"To a place called Wauphaneeskitt.''^ (Boundary, Indian 
deed. Ply. Col. Rec, v. 1, p. 231.) Somewhere near Red 
Brook in Plymouth. 

Possibly from Woapin — " white, " anna — " shell," with the 
diminutive and locative et. "Near the little white shell place?" 

(Compare Wappanucket.) 

Wauquanchett. 

"The lands lying neare Wauquanchett.'" (Indian deed, 
1678, Ply. CoL Rec, v. 1, p. 231.) 

36 



INDIAN NAMES 



Probably from Wonqwi — "crooked, ' ' applied often to a bend 
in a river. This land was very near a deep bend in Red Brook 
on boundary between Plymouth and Wareham, " at the Bend." 

(Compare Wankinco.') 

Weakpocoinke. 

"Thence southerly to a little pond called by the Indians 
Weakpocoinke.' ' Indiau deed, 1674. From Quachattasett to 
Will Hedge or Wehaquequaw. The original Indian name of 
Will Hedge was probably "xi/ia^." This pond was near Little 
Herring Pond and was probably the present Hedges Pond. 
Possibly this name was originally Week-paug-ongque meaning 
" the wigwam -^ondi on the other side" (of Great Herring Pond) 
or " the Wigwam Pond, which is the farthest off." 

Week — "wigwam," paug — "pond," onque — "the other 
side "— " the farthest off. ' ' 

Wonammanitt. 

Mentioned as a boundary in Indian deed, 1678, Ply. Col. 
Rec, V. 1, p. 231. 

In Wareham between Red Brook and Agawam River. 

Wonquonquauy. 

" Voted to let out a sertaine branch of a cedar swamp about 
the head of Wonquonquauy.''^ (Plymouth Town Records, Dec. 
11, 1699.) This probably is the same name as Wonkinco. 
Possibly meant a bend or crooked place in the river. At the 
cedar swamp and where the Stag Brook enters Wankinco River 
there is a very curious bend. 

Wauki — " crooked " (R. W.) Wonkoi — " crooked" (Cotton). 

Woojiki. Wonqun — " crooked." 

Wakkichoo — "It is crooked" ? 

(See Wonkinco.) 

37 



MIDDLEBOROUGH, LAKEVILLE 
AND CARVER 



INDIAN NAMES 



Annasnappet, Annisnippi. 

Name of village and also name of brook. Rises in the south 
eastern part of Plympton, flows westerly into the Wmnetuxett 
River. The first mention ] find of this name is in Plymouth 
Town Records, May 1701. Probably an Indian village. 
'■<■ Noosnippi — Beaver water, Noosup being one of the names for 
the beaver in the Indian dialects of New England." (M. H. 
S. Coll., s. 2, V. 4, p. 275.) I think this translation very 
doubtful. 

I would suggest Anna — "shell," es — (diminutive), nippe 
— "water," the small shell brook or small shell pond, referring 
perhaps to fresh water mussels. Near the source of the brook 
is a small pond from which the brook may have taken its name. 

Mps, iW/j»s«sA— "pond," "ponds." (R. W.) Nippe- — 
" water." 

Asnemscussett. 

A pond mentioned as a boundary in "Woods Purchase" 
from Tuspaquin, Aug. 9th, 1667. " On ye other end by a lit- 
tle pond called Asnemscussett.'' The present name is Woods 
Pond. In the eastern part of Middleborough north of Tespe- 
qum Pond. The meaning of this word may be ' ' The rapid brook 
which flows over small rocks" from Hassunemes — "small 
stones " and kussitanip — "a quick flowing stream." The pond 
taking its name from the brook flowing out of it, now called 
Woods Ik'ook. 

Assawampsett, Assa^vompsett, Assawamsett. 

Was the Indian name of the land in the neighborhood of 
Assawompset Pond in Middleborough and Lakeville. Probably 
from (>y) ashuae-omps-et, "At or near the upright rock that is 
between," or " in the middle." Perhaps referring to some large 
prominent rock between the ponds, or a rocky land mark that 

41 



INDIAN NAMES 



was between two well known localities. Could be translated 
"at the middle rock," possibly "at the half way rock." I 
believe the accepted translation of the word in Middleborough 
is "At the place of the white stone," but the construction of the 
word or its etymology does not permit this interpretation. 

'-'■Ashawog, Assawaug, Nashawog, et al.,^' " this name desig- 
nated a place between {JVashaue, Eliot) 'or in the middle,' 
occurs in various forms throughout New England" (J. H. T., 
Indian Names in Connecticut, p. 5). 

Nashaue-komuk. (Ohilmark — on Martha's Vineyard) "Half 
way House" (J. H. T.). 

Assawomjysett is the present name of a vei-y large pond 
between Middleborough and Lakeville, also was the name of one 
of the Indian Praying Villages, also the name of a brook. In a 
cove of this pond the Indian murderers concealed the body of 
John Sassamon in 1675, and the execution of the murderers 
hastened the beginning of King Philip's war. In early records 
the pond itself was called Namaskett, which probably meant 
"the fishing place." 

Mr. Thomas Weston in his history of Middleboro says that 
" the name of Middleberry may have been given on account of 
its location mid way between Plymouth and the residence of 
Pokanoket Chief." Is it not very possible that the early settlers 
knowing the meaning of the Indian name partially Anglicized 
it and used it for their own. Assawompsett — " the middle 
borough? " The name may have been first used to designate the 
very large rock on which stands the present village of Rock, 
and later applied to the pond which is only about a mile away. 
Originally Assawompsett was not a water name. 

Assonett, Assonet. 

The present name of town, bay and river in Freetown. 
(Name of Indian town. Ply. Col. Rec, 1639.) The country about 
Freetown was called by the Indians Assonet^ the river and town 

42 



J[NDIAN NAMES 



taking the same name. Probably the name is a corruption of 
Hassunet, "near the rock." Hassun — " a stone or rock" — et 
— " at" or "near." 

As the Dighton Rock, with its ancient inscription, is very 
near the })reseiit town of Assonet, and must have be^n a land- 
mark widely known to the Indians, the whole country in its 
vicinity would naturally refer to the rock. Although the in- 
scription was first attributed to the Norsemen, later antiquarians 
have concluded, I believe, that it is the rock writing of the 
aborigines. I know of no other rock inscriptions in Massa- 
chusetts and these must have been of very early date. The first 
tracing from this rock was made in 1680 by Dr. Danforth. 

Cadohunset. 

In Carver. Mentioned as the name of a brook as a boundary 
line in deed of land to James Cole and John Rickard from 
Tispequin. It is described as being near Tippicunnicut. Pos- 
sibly meaning " at the boundary ? " 

Chippopoquet, Chupipoggut. 

Indian deed, 1673, from Wattuspaquin to Assowetough. 

Another name of Pocksha Pond. A part of Assawompsett 
Pond in Middleborough and Lakeville. Chippe. — "separated," 
Paug — "Pond," et — " at." "The pond that is separated from 
another. This interpretation seems to be absolutely descriptive. 

(See Pocksha. Compare Coppoanessett.'y 

Coppoanissett, or Pinguin Hole. 

(Ply. Col. Rec, 1664.) A river near the Sandwich line 
(A. L. M. P., 153, W. T. D.). 

Possibly from J5ro^)pao?iA', " a place shut in," "a haven," 
with the diminutive -ess and the suffix -et. "At the little 
haven." It certainly is very descriptive of the place. 

43 



INDIAN NAMES 



Pinguin Hole is the present name of a small inlet from 
Buzzard's Bay, a little nortli of Barlow River, on the western 
coast of Bourne. 

Kabpaonk (Eliot Bible, Acts 27:8), "A haven." 
From Kuppi — " close-shut in," " enclosed." 
Cappacommock or Kahpakommoch signifies a place where the 
squaws and children were hidden on the approach of boats. 

CuppacommocJc — "the hiding place." A noted place of 
refuge of the Pequots, sometimes called Oliomowcmke — "the 
owl's nest." A swamp in the S. W. part of Ledyard, Conn. 

Cuttootquat— "Ales Teticut." 

March 26, 1722, Ply. T. Rec, vol. 2, p. 216. 

Mentioned in description of land given by the Indians to 
Nathan Wood — twelve acres. 

This description is an apt illustration of some of the diffi- 
culties in the translation of Indian Place Names. It is the same 
name as Kchtehticut — " on the great river," and in this short 
description is spelled five different ways — Cuttootquat — Catoo- 
quot — Teticut — Tootqut — Catootquot. 

Dr. Trumbull states that ' ' the omission or displacement of 
a consonant or an emphasized vocal necessarily modifies the 
signification of the compound name, the methods of Algonkin 
synthesis are so exactly prescribed." (I. N. C, p. 7.) 

(See Titicut.') 

Mahutchet, Mahuchet. 

Now called Rocky Meadow, in Middleborough near Carver 
line; also name of pond and brook, now Rocky Meadow Brook. 
Named probably from an Indian Chief of that name. (Weston's 
History of Middleborough, page 334 and 335.) Mentioned as a 
boundary '■'■Mahudsett '* in south purchase. 

In the records of the Town of Plymouth (v. 2, p. 124) the 
brook is spelled MaJiucket, "Unto Mahuket Brook at the old 

44 



INDIAN NAMES 



Indian path," etc. From this description it seems veiy prob- 
able that the interpretation is " near "or "at the place of the 
path" from 31ai—' 'path, ' 'cmh or uck—' ' place, ' ' with the locative 
suffix e^— "The place on the trail." (See Manyhootset.') 

31oJioot8et Pond, in northwest comer of Carver. (M. H. 
S., s. 2, V. 4, p. 272.) 

Mahutcheff. Running of town lines in 1700. 

Manyhootset. 

"A little brook called ManyhooUef a boundary in 'Major or 
Five Men's Purchase.' " (Indian deed, 166.3.) In the Major's 
purchase it is described as between a cart path on the north and 
a new path on the south from Plymouth to Namasket, and with 
this spelling the name may possibly mean near the second small 
path, from Mai — "path" and Jwhtoen — "that which comes 
next" or "second," with the dmiinutive and the locative. Pres- 
ent name — Short's Brook. 

(See Mahutchet.) 

Mashquomoh, MassQuamak. 

"A little swamp place called Mashquomoh.'' Indian deed 
of 1673 from old Wuttuspaquin to Assowetough (Betty Sassa- 
mon). This was a part of the original grant of Betty's Neck 
in Lakeville. Probably from i¥a.sse^— " marsh," or Maskhef— 
"grass," Komuk — "an inclosed place." 

A similar name, 'Masquomcossick,'' in Deerfield. 

Mashucket Brook. 

Mentioned as a boundary in "Little Lotmen's Purchase'' 
from Wampatuck to Captain William Bradford and others, in 
1664, "From Pochauge Neck to Mashuck Brook." Derived 
probably fromilia.s-A:Ae/—" grass," ock — "land," e^— "at," pos- 
sibly meaning " at the grass land or meadow." The brook, 
taking the name from the meadow, is now called Joses Brook, 
in ^liddleborough. 

45 



INDIAN NAMES 



Massapanoch. 

Mentioned in boundary deed of South Purchase from Tus- 
paquin, July 23, 1673. "To a place called by the Indians 
Massapanoch.^' 

This word is probably a corruption and abbreviation of 
H Massa-sappan-och , "Great miry place" or the "great swamp," 

the "swamp country." Derived from Saujyae or Saupaun — 
' ' made soft by water, " " miry . ' ' Massa — ' ' great, " och — ' ' place ' ' 
or "land." In this "purchase" swamps are mentioned in two 
places. Probably the swamps near Double Brook in Middle- 
borough. 

Mattapoisett. 

A town at the head of Mattapoissett Harbor in Buzzard's 
Bay, also name of river, neck of land, etc. 

"A place of rest." (Mason's Gazetteer.) This is derived 
from Matfajjii — "He sits down," with a locative suffix, set — 
"near." "The resting place." Used in slightly varying forms 
in various parts of New England. Probably used to designate 
the end of a carry, between rivers, around falls, etc. 

(See Mattapuyef). 

Mattapuyst, Mattapuiet. 

Mentioned as an Indian town by Edward Winslow in March, 
1622, as the place where he passed the night with the Indian 
Chief Corbitant when he visited Massasoit who was very ill 
near ^^PucA'anoJcick.'' (In Good News from New England.) 

Probably from Mattapu — "he sits down," denoting a resting 
place, the end of a cany, between rivers, around falls, etc., 
where, after carrying the canoe, they rested. This word in various 
forms is found throughout New England. Mattapoisett — town 
and harbor in Buzzard's Bay. '■'■Mattapuyst — a neck of land in 
the township of Swanzey commonly pronounced Mattapoiset." 
(Belk. Biog., 2, p. 292.) It was here T'Fee<'a;«oo — "the Squaw 

46 



INDIAN NAMES 



Sachem," or "Queen of Pocasset," was drowned, Aug. 6, 1676. 
She was the wife of Alexander (Wamsutta) and sister-m-law 
of King Philip (Ponietacom) both sons of Massasoit. "Her 
body was found near the water side, her head was cut off and 
set upon a pole in Taunton." (Drake, N. A. Indians.) 

Misquitucket — "Seeks the sea at Buttermilk Bay." (M. H. 

S. Coll., s. 2, V. 3, p. 175.) 

It is derived from M'squi-tuck-et, signifymg "at the Red 
Brook. ' ' Mus-qui — " it is red, ' ' tuch — ' ' a tidal stream " and the 
locative suffix et. The modern name is Red Brook, and it 
forms part of the boundary line between Wareham and Ply- 
mouth, having its source in White Island Pond. 

Monhiggin. 

A river mentioned as a boundary in " South Purchase " from 
Tuspaquin to Benjamin Church and another, July 23, 1673. 
"By a river called Monhiggin which runneth into a pond called 
Quitquassett." The present name of the river is Black Brook. 
(See Monlionkenock.') I believe these two words were the same. 
Originally this was probably not the name of the river but the 
countr}' in the vicinity of the river and the pond. " The place 
where the islands are." From Munnoli — " an island," referrinsr 
to the islands in Quitticas Pond. 

Monhiggon — name of island at the mouth of the Kenne- 
beck. 

Monhonkenock. River in Middleborough. (See Pook- 

PO A WKQUACHOO . ) 

"Six miles south of wading place over Namasket River." 
(Town Records of Middleborough, April 6,1686. ) Present name 
is Black Brook. This name must originally have been given 
to the land about Quitticus Pond. 3Iunnohhan — "island," 

47 



INDIAN NAMES 



ode — "place or country." The wbole name signifying "the 
place where the islands are." Great Quittacus Pond into which 
Black Brook flows has three large islands. 
(See Monhifigin.') 

Monponsett, Moonponsett. 

Large pond in northeast corner of Halifax, mentioned in Ply- 
mouth Town Records in 1663, where it is spelled Munponsett, 
It was the Indian name of the land all about Halifax. 

In Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., s. 2, v. 4, p. 281, it is suggested 
that the meaning may be "much nets or many ponds." Neither 
of these translations are satisfactory; possibly it may be from 
Moonoi — "deep," J9a?r^ — "pond," and the locative suffix sr-tf, 
"at or near the deep pond." 

Muttock. 

An Indian village in Middleborough . ' ' On the banks of a high 
hill on the westerly side of the Namasket River." (\Veston"s 
History of Middleborough, page 2.) "The first comers gave it 
the name of Muttock from Chesemuttock, one of the last of 
the Namasket Indians. ' ' ( Weston's History of Middleborough.) 
Mr. Weston also says that the Indian name of 3Iuttock was 
Pauwathuf, "A swift river running between hills." 

Kcheaemuttugk would mean "great shoulders," and this 
may have been the interpretation of the Indian chief's name. 

Nahteawanet, In Lakeville. 

"A tract of land called Nahteawanet." Indian deed to 
Assowetough, alias Betty, from Wattuspaquin, 1673. 

The Indian name of "Betty's Neck," given by her to her 
daughter JNIercy, 1696. Nai — "it makes a comer," yaue-nai 
— " it is four angled," "square," or yaue nee — "four corners," 
tonwag — " a gap, " " a place left open, ' ' with the locative suffix et. 

48 



INDIAN NAMES 



NaJdeawanet — "at a gap that is square " — "at the place of 
four corners." This translation is curiously descriptive of the 
locality. 

Namasket, Namaschet, Nummastaguyt. 

The Indian name of Middleborough and present name of 
small village in Middleborough. Also name of river rising in 
Assavvompsett Pond, flows north into Taunton (Titicut) River. 
It was first visited by Thomas Dermer in 1619, "a days journey 
westward (from Plymouth) to a place called Nummastaguyt." 
Squanto was his guide and he probably met Massasoit on this 
journey. '■'• J^amasehet,'^ as first known by the Pilgrims is de- 
scribed in "Purchase's Pilgrims" published in 1622, in "A 
journy to Pakanokik " taken by Stephen Hopkins and Edward 
Winslow to meet Massasoit, in July, 1621. The name prob- 
ably means "a fishing place," from Namas — "fish," auk — 
"place," et — "at." It is used in various forms throughout 
Plymouth County. Ncimassakeese, Namassachusett, Namaus- 
keag^ etc. The Indians in the neighborhood of Middleborough 
were called JVamaseheuks. 

Ninipoket. 

A pond mentioned as a boundary m deed of "Sixteen Shil- 
lings Purchase' from Witispican. "One (pond) is commonly 
called by the name of Ninipoket the other gos by the name of 
Quitticus Pond," the ponds being the bounds on the one side 
and end. Probably the same as Nunnippoget, "The fresh water 
pond," or "the cold water pond.'' Nunnaquoquitt (Ply. C. R., 
v. 7, p. 241, 1681). Nunni — "fresh," pog — "pond," with 
the locative et — "at." 

Pachusett Brook. 

Mentioned in Titicut Purchase 1670. 

"From Pachusett Brook on the east where it runs into 
Titicut or Great River." 

49 



INDIAN NAMES 



Paukohkoesseke. 

Boundary in Indian deed, 1678, Ply. Col. Rec, v. 1, p. 
231. Possibly the place from where the pine trees had been 
cleared. From Poquaug — "cleared land," Tzoo or koicaa — 
"pine tree," and auke — "place." Probably on Agawam River 
near White Island Pond. 

Pocaset, Pocassett. 

Indian name of little brook running into the north end of 
Pocksha Pond in Middleborough. Boundaiy in Sixteen Shil- 
ling Purchase. "The brook is called by the name of Pocaset.'' 
1675. 

Paugeset would mean "near" or "at the small pond." 

Pochaboquitt. 

Mentioned as a boundary m the "South Purchase," 1673. 
"To a place called Pochaboquett." Probably from Paucliau 
or Policliau which signifies "to divide in two" and Paug — 
"pond," with the locative sufiix. This place may possibly 
have been the name of a little pond which seems to divide the 
river into two brooks. Green Brook and Stony Brook. 

Pauchau-paug-et — "the dividing in two," pond. 

Pohsha, Pocksha. 

In reality the eastern part of Assawompsett Pond in Lake- 
ville. Assawompsett Pond, after becoming very narrow in the 
eastern part turns to the north and south, expands again and 
forms Pocksha Pond. From this circumstance the name is 
probably derived. 

Pahehau, Pauchau, PoJichau — "He turns aside — deviates," 
Pohshaog describes "A place where they divide in two." (See 
Chupipoggut.} 

Pokesha — "It is broke." (R. W.) 

50 



INDIAN NAMES 



Ponaquahot Pond. 

Mentioned as a boundary in "Running of the Town of 
Middleborougli Bounds." (Town Records, April 6,1666.) This 
was probably the Indian name of Long Pond in Lakeville. 
Another name of Long Pond may have been Namatakeeset 
(I. W. Putnam, First Church of Middleborough). 

Ponikin and Quassaponakin are Indian place names in 
Worcester County. 

Penugqueog would probably mean — "a place on the bank" 
(of a river or a pond). 

Polapoda, Polypody. Polypode. 

Polapoda Cove, often erroneously given as an Indian name, 
is mentioned in the Town Records of Plymouth as boundary 
land laid out in 1694, also in Town Records, Oct. 7, 1701, 
Polapoda Cove is mentioned as being in the neighborhood of 
the South Meadows. "To extend from Polapoda Cove to 
Beaver Dam Pond. " In the same record the name is also 
written Pollapod and Pollapody. 

'■'■ Polypody Cove,''' m Carver, a " place of brakes." (M. 
H. S. Coll., s. 2, V. 4, p. 275.) The name is derived from 
the word polypody, a species of ferns. A large rock in Middle- 
borough is called Polypode Rock and ferns grow very luxuri- 
antly all about it. Mentioned in South Purchase. 

Pookpoawkquachoo, or Monhonkenock. 

An early name of river in Middleborough mentioned as a 
boundary in " Running of the Town Bounds, " April 6, 1686. 
The present name of this stream is Black Brook, which flows 
into Great Quitticas Pond about " Six miles south of wading 
place over Namasket River." I believe this name originally 
was the name of a hill in this Aacinity and later given to the 
brook. 

51 



INDIAN NAMES 



PohpoKku and PooJipoohguttog s\gm\AQ(\. "quail,'' or Polvpoh- 
kussu — " paitridge," and Achoo or Aehu — " hill; '' " Partridge 
or Quail Hill." Where Black Brook enters Quitticas is a hill 
to which this name probably belonged. 

(See Monhonkenock.^ 

Poquoy, or Trout Brook. 

liises in the northwest part of Lakeville and flows into the 
Taunton River. P'orms part of the boundai-y between Lakeville 
and Middleborough. Possibly from Pohki or Pohqui "it is 
clear or transparent." If so, however, a suffix has been lost 
signifying a brook or stream. More probably the name refers 
to the cleared land from the root Pohque. This root is found 
in many Plymouth County names and many of the small tribes 
used it in some form to designate the cleared wood land or 
meadow in their neighborhood. From early colonial history we 
know that in Plymouth County much land had been cleared by 
the Indians in various places for planting. 

Possibly from Pohqui — " it divides in two " — when it enters 
Taunton River. 

Purchade, Pochade, Porchaeg, Pachaeg. Brook, 
Pond, and Neck in Middleborough. 

Takes its name from a ' ' certain neck of land called Paehaey 
Pond " mentioned in deed of the Purchade Purchase in 1662, 
and in Little Lotmen's Purchase, 1664. This was the land near 
the junction of the Namasket and Taunton rivers. Pvrchade 
Brook runs through it and empties into the Namasket. 

Probably from PacJiaug PacJiau-auke — "a turning place." 
Poochoag or Pochag means a "corner or recess." Just before 
the Namasket River enters the Taunton River it makes a most 
curious turn forming nearly three sides of a square. Pachaeg 
may have been the original name of Never Touch Pond. 

52 



INDIAN NAMES 



0uitquassett,1673,0uitiquas,0uetquas,Aquetquas. 

Possibly originally from Aquedne-ash-et . Aquednaish — 
"islands," with a locative sutHx "at the islands," "the island 
place." There are three islands in Great Quitticas Pond. 

Great Quittacas is on the boundary of Middleboroiigh, Roch- 
ester and Lakeville, and Little Quittacas pond is between Lake- 
ville and Rochester. Quetecas was the early name given to the 
hills in the vicinity of the ponds, also the name of one of the 
islands. 

Thomas Weston, in his History of Middleborough, states 
that the name was from an Indian chief (p. 429). 

Mnnnoh was another name for an island. (See Blonhiggin.') 

Sammauchamoi. 

A tract of land in Middleboiough sold by Wampatuck in 
1666. ' ' Bounded south by Namasket Pond ' ' (Assawompsett) . 
Possibly from Assamau — "he feeds," and komuk — " a place " 
— " a feeding place; " modern free translation — a picnic ground. 
It may be from Samme-auk-amog — "oil-place-pond." 

Sasonkususet, Susunksisit. 

"A pond called Sasonkususet." Indian deed of 1673, from 
old Wuttuspaquin to Assowetough (Betty Sassamon). This 
pond was a boundary in the original deed of part of Betty's 
Neck in Lakeville, Cranberry is its present name. 

Satucket, Saughtughtett. (Bradford.) 

A pond very near the boundary line of Middleborough, 
Bridgewater and Halifax, now called Robbin Pond. Probably 
from /Sauk-tuck-et "near the mouth of the stream." Mentioned 
in surveying town lines in 1681. The pond taking the name 
of an Indian village. 

The Indian name of land about Bridgewatei sold by Massa- 

53 



INDIAN NAMES 



soit to Miles Standish in 1649. Saul- — "outlet," tuck — 
" stream," with the locative et — " near '' or "at." 

"*S(atwcZ'ei, a contraction of Saquatuckett or Massaquatuckett.'' 
(M. H. S. Coll., s. 2, V. 7, p. 140.) In the deed of 1649 it 
was written '■'■ Saughtuckett. ' ' 

Saw^comst. 

Mentioned as a boundary in Henry Wood's Purchase from 
Tuspaquin, Aug. 9,1667, " to that part of y^ brook that is stony 
like to a fall called /Sawcovist.'" The present name is Fall 
Brook. In Twelve Men 's Purchase "Fall Brook" is mentioned 
as a boundary. Possibly the root of this name is sauk — "a 
stream flowing out of a pond." 

Seipican, Sepaconnet. 

The Indian " name of a brook in Rochester, having its 
source in Middleborough. From this little stream the Planta- 
tion (Rochester) took its name." (M. H. S. Coll., s. 2, v. 4, 
p. 253.) 

Name of harbor, river, and town in Marion. 

Various translations have been given of this name but I 
think them doubtful. '■'■Seip means river but only used as a 
base word with adjectival prefix — as Missi-sijn'' (J. H. T.). 
Seip — "river . " (R . W . ) 

Sniptuet, Snipatuit, Senepetuit. 

A large pond in the northern part of Rochester near the 
Middleborough line. Mentioned as a boundary of South 
Purchase in Indian deed of 1673. 

S^svanhold, Swan Holt. 

Mentioned as a boundary hi deed of South Purchase from 
Tuspaquin, July 23, 1673. The place is described as " a little 

54 



INDIAN NAMES 



southeast of Wenham Pond." (M. II. S., s. 2, v. 4, p. 274.) 
Stvanholt. A place in the town of Wenham, so called by 
the first planters in 1642. " Holt was the Saxon name of a 
wood." It is a ciu'ious fact that sowhan-ohke, in the Indian 
language means "the south land" or "south place," and 
Swanhold certainly was in the neighborhood of the present 
South Brook and South Meadow. Swanliold may have been a 
corruption of Sowhanohke. 

Sucktequesite. 

A river mentioned as a boundary in "■ Sixteen Shilling 
Purchase " May 14, 1675. " Till it meets with a river called 
Snckterpiisite ^ ^ Running into Great Quittacas Pond. This 
without doubt is a corruption of SuckitucJceset . SucM — ' ' black, 
tuch — "river," with the diminutive es and the locative suffix, 
meaning "at or near the small black river." This interpreta- 
tion is probably correct, as the present name of this stream is 
Black Brook. 

Several other Indian names have been given to Black Brook 
but with the exception of the above I believe all to have been 
laud names of certain localities in the neighborhood of the brook 
and then gradually given to the brook by the early settlers. 
This occurs to a great extent througliout New England. 

Tamett. 

Small brook flowing into the southern extreme of Assa- 
wompsett Pond. 

Tepikamicut, Tippecunnicut. 

An old Indian village mentioned in Indian deed of "Twenty- 
six Men's Purchase" and also an Indian deed of Tispequin to 
James Coee. "On the old Namasket path." The first spelling 
was in the deed of 1661. This may also be a corrupted abbre- 
viation of Kehti-paquon-oc-et, as Tippicanoe is supposed to be. 

Kehtipoquonunk — " at the great clearing." 

55 



INDIAN NAMES 



Tionet, Tihonet. 

"An angle of Plymouth that nearly touches the sea at 
Wareham" (M. H. S. Coll., s. 2, v. 3, p. 175). 

Taimag (or Taiineh R. W.) means "a crane." " Tauneh, 
the ' crane, ' is doubtless the name applicable rather to the 
rocky shore or point actually within that town where these birds 
seek their food." (M. H. S. Coll., s. 2, v. 3, p. 175.) 

If this is the derivation, the word is much corrupted and 
part of it lost. Taunek-aug or Taunelc-aug-set, would probably 
mean a place where cranes were usually to be found. The home 
of the cranes. 

" That small part of Plymouth which was annexed to Ware- 
ham, January, 1827 " (History of Plymouth, p. 159,W.T. D.). 

Tihonet Pond near the boundary land of Wareham, Plymouth, 
and Carver. 

Titicut, Kehtehticut, Cutuhtikut, Tetiquid, Catuht- 
kut. 

The present name of a town in the northwestern part of 
Middlebo rough. A settlement was made at Titicut in 1637 by 
Miss Elizabeth Poole. This land had been conveyed to her 
before it had been reserved for the exclusive use of the Indians. 
The land in this vicinity was the old Indian reservation deeded 
by Chickatabutt, in 1664, to the Indians on ^'■CatuhtJx'ut liiver.'^ 
It was also one of the old Indian praying towns. " The great 
river after receiving the waters of the Winetuxet, to Namasket 
is commonly called Titicut River, but from there to the sea is 
called Taunton Great River. '* (M. H. S. Coll., s. 2, v. 7, p. 
172.) T>ii. TvumhvM &Q,ys '■'■ Kehtehticut (-kehte-tuk-uf) a fa- 
mous fishing place ' on the great river' near Taunton, Mass., 
was abbreviated and corrupted to Teightaquid-Teghtacutt, etc., 
and finally to Titicut as the name of a village in Middleborough.' ' 

Kehttetuck signifies the great or principal river; Kehti — 

56 



INDIAN NAMES 



"chief," " principal, greatest ;" tuclc — •• a tidal or broad river. ' ' 
The land probably took the name fiom the river. The Indian 
name of the Blackstone Kiver in Worcester County, Massachu- 
setts, was Kuttntuck, often written in old deeds ' ' Titiciit. ' ' 

Tuppatwett. 

Mentioned as boundary Indian deed of South Purchase 
from Tuspaquin July 29, 1673. "And so to a rivers mouth 
called Tuppatwett wich runneth into y^ pond called Quittu- 
washet." This is the brook flowing between Great Quitticas 
Pond and Snipatuit Pond. Northwest part of Rochester. 

Tuspaquin, Tispaquin, Tispequin, Tispequn. 

A pond in the eastern central part of Middleborough about 
two miles northeast of Pocksha Pond, so called from Tuspaquin, 
the Black Sachem, who inherited much land from Pamantaquash, 
the Pond Sachem, by will made in 1668. This pond is men- 
tioned as a boundary in deed of Twelve Men's Purchase from 
Tuspaquin. In Wood's Purchase, 1667, aboundaiy pond called 
the Black Sachem's Pond is the same, and so by the deed its 
original Indian name was Waumpaucutt. The Black Sachem 
who owned much land in Plymouth County gave many deeds, 
many in Middleborough. He was brother-in-law to King Philip 
and one of his most trusted chiefs. Upon a promise by Captain 
Church that the lives of his wife and childi-en and his own life 
should be spared he went to Plymouth and gave himself up to 
the Governor and his Council, but he was soon after tried and 
publicly executed. 

Tusconnanset. 

Mentioned as a boundarj'^ of South Purchase from Tuspa- 
quin, Jan. 23, 1673, "to a river that runneth out of Swanhold 
unto a place called Tuseonnanset." Probably from the root 

57 



INDIAN NAMES 



tooskeonk — "a wading place." It was probably on South Mea- 
dow Brook in Carver not very far from Wenham. 

Tooskeonr/anit, Tusconnanset — "near the wading place." 

Wachamotusset. 

Name of brook mentioned in an adjustment of boundaries 
between "Mr. Constant Southworth and Philip the Sachem." 
Must have been near Assawompsett Pond. Probably Tamett 
Brook. 

See Mahchumoo — " waste," "barren;" tuck — " brook, "with 
the dimmutive es and locative et — " small barren brook." 

Wappanuckett (Dr. Thomas Delano's will, 1222), Wau- 
paunucket, Wappahnucket, Wappond. 

A neck of land in Middleborough near Assawompsett Pond. 
In deed of one of the tracts of land in Sixteen Shilling 
Purchase it is described as follows, "Neck of land commonly 
cald by the name of Wappond bounded on the northerly sid 
with Assawamset Pond and on the westerly sid or end with a 
pond commonly called Poksha," May 14, 1675. 

Probably from Wapunnukquas — "swallow." Wappahnuc- 
ket — " the place of the swallows," now known as Walnut Plain. 
Possibly the name was originally the same as Waumpatuck, the 
old Indian Sagamore who owned much land in this vicinity. 

Waupaunucket — "Village among the hills." (Thomas 
Weston Hist. Midi.) 

Waumpaucutt Povd, mentioned as a boundary in "Wood's 
Purchase," 1667. "By y*' pond called y^ Black Sachems 
pond, y^ Indian name being Wampaucutt .^ ' This, therefore, 
seems to be another name of Tispaquin Pond. Probably 
from Wompi — "white," paug — "pond," iit — locative suffix ; 
" at or near the white pond;" referring, perhaps, to white stones 
or the white birch trees m or about the pond. 

58 



INDIAN NAMES 



Washanest. 

"The Town granted unto Acannootus, 15 acres of land att 
a place called Washanest." (Vol. 1, Plymouth Town Records, 
page 172.) 

Wecektuket, " in Kingston. " 

" Is a brook which joins Jones River from the south, the 
native term seems to signify 'little wading.'" (M. H. S. 
Coll., s. 2, V. 3, p. 168.) I cannot explain this translation. 
Possibly Wek — or ' ' tveek, ' ' tuck-et — ' 'wigwam brook. ' ' ( Wigwam 
is a corruption from wek or week or ivetu), tuck — "river" or 
"stream," with a locative et. 

We^veantitt, Wawayontat, We^veantet, Wewean- 
tic. 

A river formmg part of the boundary line between Middle- 
borough and Carver and flows through Wareham. Dr. Francis 
Lebaron bought a large tract of land on the south side of this 
river, in Middleborough, m the early part of the eighteenth 
century (Weston's History of Middleborough, p. 336). Prob- 
ably the word comes from the same root as Woweaitshiii-Woweou, 
etc., conveying the idea of waDdering about, and this descrip- 
tion is more applicable to the river than the word crooked, as 
in its lower part it expands itself, forming inlets into the 
country. 

Waywayantek or Wewewantett was the Indian name of the 
land about Wareham (M. H. S., s. 1, v. 1, p. 198). 

Winnapauckett. 

A pond mentioned in Gov. Thomas Prince's wOl, 1673. 

"Land on the easterly syde of Namassakett River between 
Winnapauckett '^oiiA and a tract of land called "the Major's 
purchase." 

59 



INDIAN NAMES 



From Winne oi Wunne — " ^ood," paug — " pond," et — " at." 
" The good pond, " " the beautiful pond." 

Winetuxet, Winnatuxett, Winnytucktuett. 

River in Halifax, Plympton and Carver, also name of town 
in southern part of Plympton. "The source of it is in Muddy 
Pond in the North Section of Carver where it was the Six Mile 
Brook of the first planters on their first path to Namassketf 
(M. H. S., s. 2, V. 4, p. 268). 

Wliituslsett Brook. Mentioned as north boundary in deed 
of "Twenty-Six Men's Purchase." It flows into the Taunton 
River. 

Winne-tuJc-es-et — "good small river," with a locative suffix. 
Probably meaning a good river for the canoes. "The beautiful 
small river." In "Twenty-Six Men's Purchase" it is written 
Wimabusksett Brooke," 1661. 

^^Winnatuxett or 'the New-found meadows.' " 

The following names are mentioned in the will of Pumanta- 
quash, the Pond Sachem, 1668, " all his lands at Assawamsett 
or elsewhere." (Ply. Col. Rec, v. 1, p. 229.) 

These places may all have been in the vicinity of Assa- 
wompsett Pond in Middleborough and Lakeville, but I have 
been unable to identify them. 

Fachamaquast , 

Nekatattacoeuek^ 

/Setness7iett, 

Wacagasaneps, 

Quaviakecl'ett, 

Tol'opissett, 

Wampaketatelcam, 

Caskakachesqua («A), 

Waehj^usk, 

Pachest. 

6o 



INDIAN NAMES 



IN MEMORIAM 

The Grantors 

" Lest we forget." 



Massasoit, "The Great Chief," Sachem of the Wampa- 
noags, died 1661 or 1662. 

QuADEQUiNA, Brother of Massasoit. 

Wamsutta (Alexander), Oldest son of Massasoit, suc- 
ceeded his father in 1661 or 1662. Died in 1662. 

PoMETACOM (King Philip), The great chief of the Warapa- 
noags, second son of Massasoit, succeeded Alexander in 1662, 
shot August 12, 1676. Beheaded, and his quartered body 
hung on the trees. 

Weetamoo, Queen Sachem of Pocassit, wife of Alexander. 
Found drowned, August 6, 1676, in Taunton River, Her body 
was beheaded. 

Wootonekanuske, wife of King Philip and sister of 
Weetamoo. Captured in August, 1665. Probably sold into 
slavery, with her son nine years old. 

Tuspaquin, "The Black Sachem," Brother-in-law of King 
Philip. Surrendered on the condition that his life should be 
spared. Shot and beheaded September, 1676. 

Pajmajsttaquash, "The Pond Sachem," died about 1668. 
63 



INDIAN NAMES 



QunsHSTAPiisr, Brother-in-law of King Philip. Shot at New- 
port, August 25, 1676. 

Chikataubut, Sachem of The Massachusetts, Died No- 
vember, 1633. 

Wampatuck, Sachem of Mattakeesett, Killed by the Mo- 
hawks in 1669. 

TiSQUANTUM (Squanto) and Hobomok, not Grantors, but 
loyal Friends, Interpreters and Guides to the Pilgrims. 



64