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INDIANS 

OF 

THE YOSEMITE VALLEY 
AND VICINITY 

Their History, Customs and Traditions 

BY 
GALEN CLARK 

Author of "Big Trees of California/' Discoverer of the Mariposa 
Grove of Bis Trees, and for many years Guardian 
of the Yosemite Valley. 

With an Appendix 

or 

Useful Information for Yosemite Visitors 



ILLUSTRATED BY 

CHRIS. JORGENSEN 

AND FROM PHOTOGRAPHS 



YOSEMITE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA 

GALEN CLARK 

1907 



xx^xo^n.^.^. 



HARVARD COLLEGE UBftAR* 

FROM Tf:E LIQRARY OF 

JOHN GRAHAM BROOKS 

APRIL 25, 1939 



Copyright 1904, by Galen Clark, 
All Rights Reserved. 

third edition 



*Prtuof 

Rcfiex Publishing Co. 

Tltdondo, Cat. 



TO ICY FRIEND 

CHARLES HOWARD BURNETT 



(Unnttnta 



INTRODUCTION AND SKETCH OF THE 

AUTHOR lx 

CHAPTER 

I. EARLY HISTORY 1 

II. EFFECTS OF THE WAR 14 

III. CUSTOMS AND CHARACTERISTICS 21 

IV. SOURCES OF FOOD SUPPLY 31 

V. RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES AND BELIEFS. . 49 

VI. NATIVE INDUSTRIES 67 

VII. MYTHS AND LEGENDS 76 

APPENDIX: 

Hints to Yosemite Visitors 101 

Official Table of Distances and Livery 

Charges 105 

Supplementary Table of Distances 107 

Interpretation of Indian Names 107 

Tables of Altitudes 110 

Names of Indian Numerals Ill 

Indian Words in Common Use Ill 

Tribes Placed on Reservations in 1850-51 112 



Utat nf illlufitrattnttfi 



COVER DESIGN Mrs. Jo rye n sen 

FRONTISPIECE, GALEN CLARK Taber 

PAGE 

YOSEMITE FALLS, Fiske 3 

AN INDIAN DANCER, Boysen 8 

THREE BROTHERS, Foley 13 

CAPTAIN PAUL, Foley 17 

YOSEMITE MOTHER AND PAPOOSE, Boysen 20 

INDIAN O'-CHUM, Jorgensen 25 

YOSEMITE MAIDEN IN NATIVE DRESS, Jorgensen 27 

A YOSEMITE HUNTER, Jorgensen 32 

INDIAN SWEAT HOUSE, Jorgensen 34 

CHUCK'-AH, Mrs. Jorgensen 39 

HO'-YAS AND ME-TATS', Flske 42 

A WOOD GATHERER, Fiske 47 

A YOUNG YOSEMITE, Dove 53 

LENA AND VIRGIL, Boysen 55 

OLD KALAPINE, Boysen 62 

YOSEMITE BASKETRY, Boysen 66 

MRS. JORGENSENS BASKETS 68 



viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

INDIAN BEAD WORK, Fiske 70 

A BASKET MAKER, Boysen 73 

MART, Boysen 79 

HALF DOME, Foley 84 

A BURDEN BEARER, Fiske 88 

NORTH DOME, Foley 91 

EL CAPITAN, Foley 93 

BRIDAL VEIL FALL, Fiske 97 



Sntrnfcurtiim attb fi>k*irtf of % 



GALEN CLARK, the author of this little 
volume, is one of the notable char- 
acters of California, and the one best fitted 
to record the customs and traditions of the 
Yosemite Indians, but it was only after 
much persuasion that his friends succeeded 
in inducing him to write the history of these 
interesting people, with whom he has been 
in close communication for half a century. 

The Indians of the Yosemite are fast 
passing away. Only a handful now remain 
of the powerful tribes that once gathered 
in the Valley and considered it an absolute 
stronghold against their white enemies. 
Even in their diminished numbers and their 
comparatively civilized condition, they are 
still a source of great interest to all visi- 
tors, and it has been suggested many times 
that their history, customs and legends 
should be put in permanent and convenient 
form, before they are entirely lost. 

Many tales and histories of the Calif ornia 
Indians have been written by soldiers and 



x INTRODUCTION. 

pioneers, but Mr. Clark has told the story 
of these people from their own standpoint, 
and with a sympathetic understanding of 
their character. This fresh point of view 
gives double interest to his narrative. 

Galen Clark comes of a notable family; 
his English ancestors came to the State of 
Massachusetts in the seventeenth century, 
but he is a native of the Town of Dublin, 
Cheshire County, New Hampshire, born on 
the 28th day of March, 1814, and is conse- 
quently nearly ninety years of age, but still 
alert and active in mind and body. 

He attended school in his early youth 
during the winter months, and worked on 
a faim during the summer, leading nearly 
the same life which was followed by so 
many others who afterwards became fa- 
mous in our country's history. 

Later in life he learned chair-making and 
painting, an occupation which he followed 
for some years, when he removed to Phila- 
delphia and subsequently to New York City. 

Whilst residing in New York, in 1853, he 
resolved, after mature reflection, to visit 
the new Eldorado. His attention was first 
attracted to this State by visiting the cele- 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

brated Crystal Palace in New York, where 
there was then on exhibition quantities of 
gold dust which had been sent or brought 
East by successful miners. 

Mr. Clark left New York for California 
in October, 1853, coming via the Isthmus 
of Panama, and in due time reached his 
destination. In 1854 he went to Mariposa 
County, attracted thither by the wonderful 
accounts of the gold discoveries, and the 
marvelous stories he had heard of the 
grandeur and beauty of the Yosemite Val- 
ley and the surrounding mountains. 

Upon his first arrival in Mariposa, he 
engaged in mining, and was also employed 
to assist in surveying Government land on 
the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, 
and canals for mining purposes, some of 
which passed through the celebrated 
"Mariposa Grant,' 9 the subject of pro- 
longed and bitter litigation, both in this 
country and in Europe. He probably knows 
more about the actual facts concerning the 
Mariposa Grant than any one now living, 
and it is to be hoped that some day he may 
overcome his natural repugnance to notor- 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

iety, and give to the public the benefit of 
his knowledge. 

In the year 1855 Mr. Clark made his first 
trip into the Yosemite Valley with a party 
made up in Mariposa and Bear Valley. 

Returning to Mariposa, he resumed his 
old occupation of surveying and mining, 
and, whilst so engaged, by reason of ex- 
posure, had a serious attack of lung trou- 
ble, resulting in severe hemorrhages which 
threatened to end his life. 

He then removed, in April, 1857, to the 
South Fork of the Merced River, and built 
a log cabin in one of the most beautiful of 
our mountain valleys, on the spot where 
Wawona now stands. He soon recovered 
his health entirely, and, though constantly 
exposed to the winter storms and snows, 
has never had a recurrence of his malady. 

Wawona is twenty-six miles from Yosem- 
ite, and at that time became known as 
Clark's Station, being on the trail leading 
from Mariposa to the Valley, and a noted 
stopping place for travelers. This trail, as 
well as one from Coulterville, was com- 
pleted to the Valley in 1857, and the trip to 



INTRODUCTION. xlii 

Yosemite then involved a stage ride of 
ninety-two miles, and a journey of sixty 
miles more on horseback. In 1874 and 1875 
the three present stage roads were con- 
structed through to the Valley. 

All travelers by the Raymond route will 
remember Wawona and the surroundings; 
the peaceful valley, the swift-flowing 
Merced, and the surrounding peaks and 
mountains, almost equaling in grandeur 
the famous Yosemite itself. . 

In the early days this locality was an- 
nually visited by several bands of Indians 
from the Chowchilla and Fresno rivers. 
The Indian name for the place was Pal- 
lah'-chun. Whilst residing there Mr. Clark 
was in constant contact with these visiting 
tribes; he obtained their confidence, and 
retains it to this day. 

Whilst on a hunting trip, in the summer 
of 1857, Mr. Clark discovered and made 
known to the public the famous Big Tree 
Grove, now known all over the world as the 
"Mariposa Grove of Big Trees,' ' belonging 
to the State of California. On this expedi- 
tion he did not follow the route now. 
traveled, but came upon the grove at the 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

upper end, near the place where the road to 
Wawona Point now branches off from the 
main drive. The spot where he caught his 
first view of the Big Trees has been appro- 
priately marked, and can be seen from the 
stage road. 

So impressed was Mr. Clark with the im- 
portance of his discovery, that he opened 
up a good horse trail from Wawona to the 
Trees, and shortly afterwards built a log 
cabin in the grove, for the comfort and con- 
venience of visitors in bad or stormy 
weather. This cabin became known as 
' ' Galen 's Hospice. ' ' 

In the year 1864 the Congress of the 
United States passed an Act, which was 
approved in June of the same year, granting 
to the State of California the "Yosemite 
Valley* ' and the "Mariposa Grove of Big 
Trees.' ' This grant was made upon certain 
conditions, which were complied with by 
the State, and a Commission was appointed 
by Governor Low to manage and govern 
the Valley and the Big Tree Grove. Galen 
Clark was, of course, selected as one of the 
commissioners. He was subsequently ap- 
pointed Guardian of the Valley, and under 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

his administration many needed improve- 
ments were made and others suggested. 
Bridges were built, roads constructed on the 
floor of the Valley, and trails laid out and 
finished to various points of interest over- 
looking the Valley itself. In a word, the 
Guardian did everything possible with the 
limited means at his disposal. 

After serving twenty-four years, Mr. 
Clark voluntarily retired from the position 
of Guardian, carrying with him the respect 
and admiration of every member of the- 
Commission, of all the residents of the 
Valley, and of every visitor who enjoyed 
the pleasure of his personal acquaintance. 

As showing the opinion of those with 
whom Mr. Clark was intimately and 
officially associated for so long a time, the 
following resolutions passed by the Board 
of Commissioners upon his voluntary re- 
tirement from the office of Guardian, are 
herein given : 

Whereas, Galen Clark has for a long number of 
years been closely identified with Yosemite Valley, 
and nas for a considerable portion of that time been 
its Guardian; and 

Whereas, he has now, by his own choice and will, 
relinquished the trust confided in him and retired into 
private life; and 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

Whereas, his faithful and eminent services as Guar- 
dian, his constant efforts to preserve, protect and 
enhance the beauties of Yosemite; his dignified, 
kindly and courteous demeanor to all who have come 
to see and enjoy its wonders, and his upright and 
noble life, deserve from us a fitting recognition and 
memorial; Now, Therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the cordial assurance of the appre- 
ciation by this Commission of the efforts and labors 
of Galen Clark, as Guardian of Yosemite, in its 
behalf, be tendered and expressed to him. 

That we recognize in him a faithful, efficient 
and worthy citizen and officer of this Commission 
and of the State; that he will be followed into his 
retirement by the sincerest and best wishes of 
this Commission, individually and as a body, for 
continued long life and constant happiness. 

The subject of this sketch is one of the 
most modest of men; but perfectly self- 
reliant, and always actively engaged in 
some useful work. He has resided in the 
Valley for more than twenty summers, and 
lias also been a resident during many win- 
ters, and his descriptions of the Valley, 
when wrapped in snow and ice, are intense- 
ly interesting. Though always ready to give 
information, he is naturally reticent, and 
never forces his stories or reminiscences 
upon visitors ; indeed it requires some per- 
suasion to hear him talk about himself at 
all. 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

For some years Mr. Clark was post- 
master of Yosemite ; and he has made many 
trips on foot, both in winter and summer, 
in and out of the Valley. 

In September, 1903, this writer made a 
trip through the high Sierras from Yosem- 
ite, and, upon reaching the top of the Val- 
ley, Mr. Clark was met coming down the 
trail, having in charge a party of his 
friends, amongst whom was a lady with her 
two small children. This was at a point 2700 
feet above the floor of the Valley, which is 
itself 4000 feet above the level of the sea. 

Needless to say, he is perfectly familiar 
with all the mountain trails, and, notwith- 
standing his great age, he easily makes 
long trips on foot and horseback which 
would fatigue a much younger man. Mr. 
Clark is thoroughly familiar with the flora, 
fauna and geology of the Valley and its 
surroundings. His knowledge of botany is 
particularly accurate, a knowledge gleaned 
partly from books, but mainly from close 
personal observation, the best possible 
teacher. 

His long residence in Yosemite has made 
lim familiar with every spot, his love for 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

the Valley is deep and strong, and when he 
departs this life his remains will rest close 
to the Yosemite Falls, in the little grave 
yard where other pioneers are buried. 

With his own hands he has dug his grave, 
and quarried his own tombstone from one 
of the massive blocks of granite found in 
the immediate neighborhood. His monu- 
ment now rests in his grave, and when it is 
removed to receive his remains, will be used 
to mark his last resting place. His grave is 
surrounded by a neat fence, and trees, 
shrubs and vines, which he has himself 
planted, grow around in great profusion. 
In each corner of the lot is ay oxrng Sequoia. 

May it be many years before he is called 
to occupy his last earthly tenement. 

W. W. Foote. 

San Francisco, 

February, 1904. 



INDIANS OF THE 
YOSEMITE 



INDIANS OF THE 
YOSEMITE 



(ttljapter ©n*. 

EARLY HISTORY. 

During the past few years a rapidly 
growing interest in the native Indians has 
been manifested by a large majority of 
visitors to the Yosemite Valley. They have 
evinced a great desire to see them in their 
rudely constructed summer camps, and to 
purchase some articles of their artistic 
basket and bead work, to take away as 
highly prized souvenirs. 

They are also anxious to learn something 
of their former modes of life, habits and 
domestic industries, before their original 
tribal relations were ruthlessly broken up 
by the sudden advent of the white popula- 
tion of gold miners and others in 1850, and 
the subsequent war, in which the Indians 



2 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

were defeated, and, as a result, nearly ex- 
terminated. 

ORIGIN OF THE YOSEMITE INDIANS. 

According to statements made by Teneiya 
(Ten-eye'-ya*) chief of the Yosemites, to 
Dr. L. H. Bunnell, and published by him in 
his book on the i i Discovery of the Yosem- 
ite," the original Indian name of the Valley 
was Ah- wah'-nee, which has been translated 
as "deep grassy valley," -and the Indians 
living there were called Ah-wah-nee'-chees, 
which signified ' ' dwellers in Ah- wah'-nee. ' ' 

Many years ago, the old chief said, the 
Ah-wah-nee'-chees had been a large and 
powerful tribe, but by reason of wars and a 
fatal black sickness, nearly all had been 
destroyed, and the survivors of the band 
fled from the Valley and joined other tribes. 

For years afterwards this locality was un- 
inhabited, but finally Teneiya, who claimed 
to be descended from an Ah-wah-nee'-chee 



* The Indian names are usually pronounced exactly 
as spelled, with each syllable distinctly sounded, 
and the principal accent on the penult, as in 
Ah-wah'-nee, or the antepenult, as in Yo-sem'-i-te. 
Where doubt might exist, the accent will be indi- 
cated, or the pronunciation given in parenthesis. 




Photoyraph by Fiske. 

YOSEMITE FALLS (CHO'-LACK), 
2,634 Feet. 
Near the foot of these falls was located the vil- 
lage of Ah-wah'-nee, the Indian capital and 
residence of Chief Teneiya. There were eight 
other villages in the Valley. 



4 INDIANS OF THE YO SEMITE. 

chief, left the Mo'nos, where he had been 
born and brought up, and, gathering some 
of his father's old tribe around him, visited 
the Valley and claimed it as the birthright 
of his people. He theri became the founder 
of a new tribe or band, which received the 
name "Yo-sem'-i-te. M This word signifies 
a full-grown grizzly bear, and Teneiya said 
that the name had been given to his band 
because they occupied the mountains and 
valley which were the favorite resort of the 
grizzly bears, and his people were expert in 
killing them ; that his tribe had adopted the 
name because those who had bestowed it 
were afraid of the grizzlies, and also feared 
his band. 

The Yosemites were perhaps the most 
warlike of any of the tribes in this part of 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains, who were, as 
a rule, a peaceful people, dividing the terri- 
tory among them, and indulging in few con- 
troversies. In fact, these Indians in general 
were less belligerent and warlike than any 
others on the Pacific Coast. When difficul- 
ties arose, they were usually settled peace- 
fully by arbitration, in a grand council of 



EARLY HISTORY. 5 

the chiefs and head men of the tribes in- 
volved, without resorting to open hostili- 
ties 

OTHER TRIBES. 

Other bands of Indians in the vicinity of 
the Yosemite Valley were the Po-ho-nee'- 
chees, who lived near the headwaters of the 
Po-ho'-no or Bridal Veil Creek in summer, 
and on the South Fork of the Merced' 
Eiver in winter, about twelve miles below 
Wawo'na; the Po-to-en'-cies, who lived on 
the Merced River; Wil-tuc-um'-nees, Tuol'- 
urnne River; Noot'-choos and Chow-chil'- 
las, Chowchilla Valley; Ho-na'-ches and 
Me'-woos, Fresno River and vicinity; and 
Chook-chan'-ces, San Joaquin River and 
vicinity. 

These tribes, including the Yosemites, 
were all somewhat affiliated by common an- 
cestry or by intermarriage, and were simi- 
lar in their general characteristics and cus- 
toms. They were all called by the early 
California settlers, "Digger Indians," as a 
term of derision, on account of their not 
being good fighters, and from their practice 
of digging the tuberous roots of certain 
native plants, for food. 



6 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

INDIAN WAR OF 1851. 

Dr. Bunnell, in his book already referred 
to, has given the soldiers ' and white men 's 
account of the cause of the Indian war of 
1851, but a statement of the grievances on 
the part of the Indians, which caused the 
uniting of all the different tribes in the 
mining region adjacent to Yosemite, in an 
attempt to drive the white invaders from 
their country, has never been published, 
and a brief account of these grievances 
may be interesting. 

AGGRESSIONS BY THE WHITE SETTLERS. 

The first parties of prospecting miners 
were welcomed by the Indians with their 
usual friendliness and hospitality toward 
strangers — a universal characteristic of 
these tribes, — and the mining for gold was 
watched with great interest. They soon 
learned the value of the gold dust, and some 
of them engaged in mining, and exchanged 
their gold at the trading stations for 
blankets and fancy trinkets, at an enormous 
profit to the traders, and peace and good 
feeling prevailed for a short time. 



EARLY HISTORY. 7 

The report of the rich gold "diggin's" 
on the waters of the Tuolumne, Merced, 
Mariposa, Chowchilla, and Fresno Rivers, 
soon spread, and miners by thousands came 
and took possession of the whole country, 
paying no regard to the natural rights or 
wishes of the Indians. 

Some of the Indian chiefs made the 
proposition that if the miners would give 
them some of the gold which they found in 
their part of the country, they might stay 
and work. This offer was not listened to by 
the miners, and a large majority of the 
white invaders treated the natives as though 
they had no rights whatever to be respected. 
In some instances, where Indians had found 
and were working good mining claims, they 
were forcibly driven away by white miners, 
who took possession of their claims and 
worked them. 

Moreover, the Indians saw that their 
main sources of food supply were being 
rapidly destroyed. The oak trees, which 
produced the acorns — one of their staple 
articles of food, — were being cut down and 
burned by miners and others in clearing up 
land for cultivation, and the deer and other 




Copyrighted Photograph by Boy sen. 

AN INDIAN DANCER. 
Chow-chil-la Indian in full war-dance costume. 



EARLY HISTORY. 9 

food game were being rapidly killed off or 
driven from the locality. 

In the " early days," before California 
was admitted as a free State into the Union, 
it was reported, and was probably true, 
that some of the immigrants from the slave- 
holding States took Indians and made 
slaves of them in working their mining 
claims. It was no uncommon event for the 
sanctity of their homes and families to be 
invaded by some of the " baser sort," and 
young women taken, willing or not, for ser- 
vants and wives. 

RETALIATION. 

In retaliation, and as some compensation 
for these many grievous outrages upon 
their natural inalienable rights of domain 
and property, and their native customs, the 
Indians stole horses and mules from the 
white settlers, and killed them for food for 
their families, who, in many instances, were 
in a condition of starvation. 

Finally the chiefs and leading men of all 
the tribes involved met in a grand council, 
and resolved to combine their warrior forces 
in one great effort to drive all their white 
enemies from the country, before they 
became more numerous and formidable. 



10 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITB. 

BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES. 

To prepare for this struggle for exist- 
ence, they made raids upon some of the 
principal trading posts in the mining sec- 
tions, killed those in charge, took all the 
blankets, clothing and provisions they could 
carry away, and fled to the mountains, 
where they were soon pursued by the sol- 
diers and volunteer citizens, and a spiiited 
battle was fought without any desisive ad- 
vantage to either side. 

The breaking out of actual hostilities 
created great excitement among the whites, 
and an urgent call was made upon the Gov- 
ernor of the State for a military force to 
meet the emergency, and protect the set- 
tlers — a force strong enough to thoroughly 
subdue the Indians, and remove all of them 
to reservations to be selectei by the United 
States Indian Commissioners for that 
purpose. 

Meantime the Governor and the Com- 
missioners, who had then arrived, were 
receiving numerous communications, many 
of them from persons in high official posi- 
tions, earnestly urging a more humane and 
just policy, averring that the Indians had 



EARLY HISTORY. 11 

real cause for complaint, that they had been 
' 'more sinned against than sinning" since 
the settling of California by the whites, and 
that they were justly entitled to protection 
by the Government and compensation for 
the spoliations and grievances they had 
suffered. 

These protests doubtless had some in- 
fluence in delaying hostile measures, and in 
the inauguration of efforts to induce the 
Indians to come in and treat with the Com- 
missioners, envoys being sent out to assure 
them of fair treatment and personal safety. 
Many of the Indians accepted these offers, 
and, as the different tribes surrendered, 
they were taken to the two reservations 
which the Commissioners had established 
for them on the Fresno River, the principal 
one being a few miles above the place 
where the town of Madera is now located. 

As before stated, these Indians were not 
a warlike people. Their only weapons were 
their bows and arrows, and these they soon 
found nearly useless in defending them- 
selves at long range against soldiers armed 
with rifles. Moreover, their stock of provi- 



12 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITB. 

sions was so limited that they either had to 
surrender or starve. 

DISCOVERY OF YOSEMITE VALLEY. 

The Yosemites and one or two other 
bands of Indians had refused to surrender, 
and had retreated to their mountain strong- 
holds, where they proposed to make a last 
determined resistance. Active preparations 
were accordingly made by the State author- 
ities to follow them, and either capture or 
exterminate all the tribes involved. For 
this purpose a body of State volunteers, 
known as the Mariposa Battalion, was or- 
ganized, under the command of Major 
James D. Savage, to pursue these tribes 
into the mountains; and, after many long 
marches and some fighting, the Indians 
were all defeated, captured, and, with their 
women and children, put upon the reserva- 
tions under strong military guard. 

It was during this campaign that 
Major Savage and his men discovered the 
Yosemite Valley, about the 21st of March, 
1851, while in pursuit of the Yosemites, 
under old Chief Teneiya, for whom Lake 
Teneiya and Teneiya Canyon have appro- 
priately been named. 



y/ft At 




L^g'--\*dA 


f s 


BwfeJ^lt 


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g^'c£\/^i- 






J^^Hi^HB^H 




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Photograph by Foley. 

THREE BROTHERS (WAW-HAW'-KEE), 
3,900 Feet. 

Named by the soldiers who discovered the Val- 
ley, to commemorate the capture of three 
sons of Teneiya near this place. The Indian 
name means "Falling: Rocks." 



Chapter ©ron. 

EFFECTS OF THE WAR. 

The Yosemites and all of the other tribes 
named in the previous chapter were put 
upon the Fresno reservation. Major Sav- 
age, who had been the leading figure in the 
war against the Indians, was perhaps their 
best friend while in captivity, and finally 
lost his life in a personal quarrel, while 
resenting a wrong which had been com- 
mitted against them. 

The tribes from south of the San Joaquin 
Eiver, who were also conquered in 1851, 
were put upon the Kings River and Tejon 
(T ay -hone') reservations. 

LIFE ON THE RESERVATIONS. 

Ample food supplies, blankets, clothing* 
and cheap fancy articles were furnished by 
the Government for the subsistence, com- 
fort and pleasure of the Indians on the res- 
ervations, and for a short time they seemed 
to be contented, and to enjoy the novelty 
of their new mode of life. The young, able- 
bodied men were put to work assisting in 



EFFECTS OF THE WAR. 15 

clearing, fencing and cultivating fields for 
hay and vegetables, and thus they were par- 
tially self-supporting. A large portion of 
them, however, soon began to tire of the 
restraints imposed, and longed for their 
former condition of freedom, and many of 
them sickened and died. 

Old Teneiya, chief of the "Grizzlies," 
was particularly affected by the change in 
his surroundings, and by the humiliation of 
defeat. He suffered keenly from the hot 
weather of the plains, after his free life in 
the mountains, and begged to be allowed to 
return to his old home, promising not to dis- 
turb the white settlers in any way, a pledge 
which he did not break. 

DEATH OF TENEIYA. 

Teneiya was finally allowed to depart, 
with his family, after having been on the 
reservation only a few months, and some of 
his old followers afterwards stole away and 
joined him. With this remnant of his band 
he returned to the Yosemite, but not long 
afterwards they were set upon by the 
Monos, a tribe from the eastern side of the 
Sierras, with whom they had quarreled, and 
the old chief and many of his warriors were 



16 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

killed. It was perhaps fitting that he should 
meet his death in the valley which he loved, 
and which he had so long defended against 
his enemies. 

RESTORED TO LIBERTY. 

In 1855, after four years of confinement 
on the reservations, an agreement was made 
with the Indian Commissioners, by the head 
men of the tribes, that if their people were 
again allowed their freedom, they would 
forever remain in peace with the white set- 
tlers, and try and support themselves free 
of expense to the Government. They were 
soon permitted to leave, and have ever 
since faithfully kept their promise. 

Most of them went back to the vicinity of 
their old homes, and made temporary settle- 
ments on unoccupied Government land, as 
many of their old village sites were now in 
possession of white settlers. As there was 
a very large crop of acorns that season, 
they gathered an abundant supply for win- 
ter use, and, with what was given to them 
in the way of food and clothing by some of 
the white settlers, they managed to get 
through the winter fairly well. 




Photograph by Foley. 

CAPTAIN PAUL. 
One of the characters of the Valley. Supposed 

to be 105 years old, and a survivor of Tenei- 

ya's band. 



18 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

HARDSHIP AND SUFFERING. 

Their four years' residence on the reser- 
vations, however, had been more of a school 
in the vices of the whites than one of a 
higher education. They became demoral- 
ized socially, addicted to many bad habits, 
and left the reservations in worse condition 
than when they were taken there. Their old 
tribal relations and customs were nearly 
broken up, though they still had their head 
men to whom they looked for counsel in all 
important matters. 

As the country became more settled, much 
of their main food supply, the acorns, was 
consumed by the domestic animals of the 
ranchers, and their mode of living became 
more precarious and transitory, and many 
of them were, at times, in a condition near 
to starvation. In these straitened and 
desperate circumstances, many of their 
young women were used as commercial 
property, and peddled out to the mining 
camps and gambling saloons for money to 
buy food, clothing or whisky, this latter ar- 
ticle being obtained through the aid of 
some white person, in violation of law. 



EFFECTS OF THE WAR. 19 

Their miserable, squalid condition of liv- 
ing opened the way for diseases of a malig- 
nant character, which their medicine men 
could not cure, and their numbers were rap- 
idly reduced by death. 

At the present time there are not in exist- 
ence a half-dozen of the old Yosemites who 
were living, even as children, when the Val- 
ley was first discovered in 1851 ; and many 
of the other tribes have been correspond- 
ingly reduced. 




Pholofjraph by Boysen. 

YOSEMITE MOTHER AND PAPOOSE. 
The baby basket is carried on the back, like all 

burdens, and supported by a band across the 

forehead. 



(Hljaptrr Qtym. 

CUSTOMS AND CHARACTERISTICS. 

As stated in a previous chapter, all of the 
Indian tribes occupying the region in the 
vicinity of the Yosemite Valley were more 
or less affiliated by blood and intermarriage 
and resembled each other in their customs, 
characteristics and religious beliefs. What 
is said, therefore, on these subjects in the 
following pages, will be understood to ap- 
ply generally to all of the tribes which have 
been mentioned as inhabiting this region, 
although, of course, minor differences did 
exist, principally due to environment. As 
in the case of all primitive peoples, their 
mode of life, food supply, etc., were largely 
determined by natural conditions, and the 
tribes living in the warm foot-hills differed 
somewhat in these respects from those 
dwelling higher in the mountains. 

DIVISION OF TERRITORY. 

In their original tribal settlements, at the 
time the first pioneer whites came among 
them, the Indians had well defined or under- 



22 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

stood boundary lines, between the territor- 
ies claimed by each tribe for their exclusive 
use in hunting game and gathering means 
of support ; and any trespassing on the do- 
main of others was likely to cause trouble. 
This arrangement, however, did not apply 
to the higher ranges of the Sierras, which 
were considered common hunting ground. 

COMMEBCE AMONG THE TRIBES. 

As there was a difference in the natural 
products and resources of different sections 
of the country, there was a system of recip- 
rocal trade in the exchange of the differ- 
ent desirable commodities. Sometimes com- 
merce between tribes extended for a long 
distance, as, for instance, the Indians on 
the western side of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains were entirely dependent upon 
the Pai-utes (Pye-yutes') on the eastern 
side for the obsidian, a kind of volcanic 
glass, from which they made the points for 
their most deadly arrows, used in hunting 
large game or when in mortal combat with 
their enemies. They were also dependent 
upon the Pai-utes for their supply of salt 
for domestic use, which came in solid blocks 



CUSTOMS AND CHARACTERISTICS. 23 

as quarried from salt mines, said to be two 
days' travel on foot from Mono Lake. 

From the Indians at or near the Catholic 
Missions to the South, on the Pacific Coast, 
they got their hunting knives of iron or 
steel, and sea shells of various kinds, for 
personal or dress ornaments, and also to be 
used as money. From the same source they 
obtained beads of various forms, sizes and 
colors, cheap jewelry and other fancy arti- 
cles, a few blankets, and pieces of red bunt- 
ing, strips of which the chiefs and head 
men wore around their heads as badges, in- 
dicating their official positions. 

COMMUNICATION. 

They had a very efficient system of 
quickly spreading important news by relays 
of special couriers, who took the news to 
the first stations or tribes in different direc- 
tions, where others took the verbal dis- 
patches and ran to the next station, and so 
on, so that all tribes within an area of a 
hundred miles would get the good or bad 
tidings within a few hours. In this manner 
important communication was kept up be- 
tween the different tribes. 



24 INDIANS OF THE YO SEMITE. 

They also had well organized signal sys- 
tems, by fires in the night and smoke by 
day, on high points of observation — varia- 
tions in the lights (either steady, bright or 
flashing) indicating somewhat the character 
of the tidings thus given. 

DWELLINGS. 

Their winter huts, or o'-chums, as they 
termed them, were invariably of a conical 
form, made with small poles, and covered 
with the bark of the incense cedar (Liboce- 
drus decurrens) . A few poles ten or twelve 
feet long were set in the ground around au 
area of about twelve feet in diameter, with 
their tops inclined together. The outside 
was then closely covered with long strips of 
the cedar bark, making it perfectly water- 
tight. An opening was left on the south 
side for an entrance, which could be readily 
closed with a portable door. An opening 
was also left at the top for the escape of the 
smoke, a fire being kindled in the center 
inside. 

One of these huts would hold a family of 
a half-dozen persons, with all their house- 
hold property, dogs included ; and there is 



j 




Drawing by Jorgensen. 

INDIAN O'-CHUM. 
This style of house, made of cedar poles covered 

with bark, is more easily heated than any 

other form of dwelling known. 



26 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

no other form of a single-room dwelling 
that can be kept warm and comfortable in 
cold weather with so little fire, as this In- 
dian o'-chum. 

Their under-bedding usually consisted of 
the skins of bears, deer, antelope or elk, and 
the top covering was a blanket or robe made 
of the skins of small fur-bearing animals, 
such as rabbits, hares, wildcats and foxes. 
The skins were cut in narrow strips, which 
were loosly twisted so as to bring the fur 
entirely around on the outside, and then 
woven into a warp of strong twine made of 
the fine, tough, fibrous bark of a variety of 
milKweed (Asclepias speciosa). These fur 
robes w T ere very warm, and were also used 
as wraps when traveling in cold weather. 

During the warm summer season they 
generally lived outside in brush arbors, and 
used their o' -chums as storage places. 

CLOTHING. 

Their clothing was very simple and scant, 
before being initiated into the use of a more 
ample and complete style of covering while 
living at the reservations. The ordinary 
full complement of dress for a man (Nung f - 




Dra icing by Jorgensen. 

YOSEMITE MAIDEN IN NATIVE DRESS. 
This buckskin costume has now been replaced 

by the unpicturesque calico of civilization. 



28 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

ah) was simply a breech-clout, or short hip- 
skirt made of skins; that for a woman 
(O'-hoh) was a skirt reaching from the 
waist to the knees, made of dressed deer- 
skin finished at the bottom with a slit 
fringe, and sometimes decorated with var- 
ious fancy ornaments. Both men and wo- 
men frequently wore moccasins made of 
dressed deer or elk skin. Young children 
generally went entirely nude. 

CHARACTERISTICS. 

The Indians of the various tribes in this 
part of the Sierras vary somewhat in phy- 
sical characteristics, but in general are of 
medium height, strong, lean and agile, and 
the men are usually fine specimens of man- 
hood. They are rather light in color, but 
frequently rub their bodies with some kind 
of oil, which gives the flesh a much redder 
and more glossy appearance. The hair is 
hlack and straight, and the eyes are black 
and deep set. The beard is sparse, and in 
former times was not allowed to grow at 
all, each hair being pulled out with a rude 
kind of tweezers. They are naturally of a 
gentle and friendly disposition, but their 



CUSTOMS AND CHARACTERISTICS. 29 

experience with the white race has made 
them distant and uncommunicative to 
strangers. 

Most of the older Indians still cling to 
their old customs and manner of living, and 
are very slow to learn or talk our language, 
but the younger ones are striving to live like 
the white people, and seem proud to adopt 
our style of dress and manner of cooking. 
They all speak our language plainly, and 
some few of them attend the public schools 
when living near by, and acquire very read- 
ily the common rudiments of an education. 

Their style of architecture is in a state 
of transition, like themselves. Their old 
o'-chum form of dwelling is now very sel- 
dom seen — a rude building of more roomy 
and modern design having taken its place. 

All the able-bodied men are ready and 
willing to work at any kind of common 
labor, when they have an opporutnity, and 
have learned to want nearly the same 
amount of pay as a white man for the same 
work. 

As a rule, they are trustworthy, and when 
confidence is placed in their honesty it is 
very rarely betrayed. During nearly the 



30 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

past fifty years, a great many thousands of 
people have visited the Yosemite Valley 
with their own camping outfits, and, during 
the day, and often all night, are absent on 
distant trips of observation, with no one 
left in charge of camp, yet there has never 
to my knowledge been an instance of any- 
thing being stolen or molested by Indians. 
There are, however, some dishonest In- 
dians, who will steal from their own peo- 
ple, and some times, when a long distance 
from their own camp, they may steal from 
the whites. A few, if they can get whisky, 
through the aid of some white person, will 
become drunk and fight among themselves, 
and occasionally one of them may be killed; 
but, as a rule, they are peaceful and order- 
ly, and hold sacred the promise made to the 
Indian Commissioners by the old tribal 
chiefs, when released from confinement on 
the reservations, that they would forever 
keep the peace, and never again make war 
against the white people. 



Chapter Jfaur. 

SOURCES OF FOOD SUPPLY. 

The food supply of the Sierra Indians 
was extensive and abundant, consisting of 
the flesh of deer, antelope, elk and mustang 
horses, together with fish, water-fowls, 
birds, acorns, berries, pine nuts, esculent 
herbage and the tuberous roots of certain 
plants, all of which were easily obtained, 
even with their simple and limited means 
of securing them. Mushrooms, fungi, 
grasshoppers, worms and the larvae of 
ants and other insects, were also eaten, and 
some of these articles were considered 
great delicacies. 

HUNTING. 

Their main effective weapons for hunting 
large game were their bows and obsidian- 
pointed arrows. Their manner of hunting 
was either by the stealthy still hunt, or a 
general turn-out, surrounding a large area 
of favorable country and driving to a com- 
mon center, where at close range the 




s 

co 



55 © 

03 

M 0> 
* S 

«< "3 






FOOD SUPPLY. 33 

hunters could sometimes make an extensive 
slaughter. 

When on the still hunt for deer in the 
brushy, sparsely timbered foothills of the 
Sierra Range of mountains, or higher up in 
the extensive forests, some of the hunters 
wore for a headgear a false deer's head, by 
which deceptive device they were enabled 
to get to a closer and more effective range 
with their bows and arrows. This head- 
dress was made of the whole skin of a doe's 
head, with a part of the neck, the head part 
stuffed with light material, the eyeholes 
filled in with the green feathered scalp of 
a duck's head, and the top furnished with 
light wooden horns, the branching stems of 
the manzanita (Arctostaphylos) being gen- 
erally used for this purpose. The neck part 
was made to fit on the hunter's head and 
fasten with strings tied under the chin. 
This unique style of headgear was used by 
some Indian hunters for many years after 
they had guns to hunt with. 

The high ranges of the mountains, as 
already stated, were considered common 
hunting ground by the different tribes. The 
deer, many of them, were in some degree 




as 9 



0* 

si 
9* 

Z o 



J ^ 



FOOD SUPPLY. 35 

migratory in their habits, being driven from 
the higher ranges to the foothills by the 
deep winter snows, and in the spring follow- 
ing close to the melting, receding snow, 
back again to their favorite summer haunts. 
Late in the summer, or early in the fall, 
just before holding some of their grand 
social or sacred festivals, the Indian hunters 
would make preparation for a big hunt in 
the mountains, to get a good supply of veni- 
son for the feast. One of the first absolute 
prerequisites was to go through a thorough 
course of sweating and personal cleansing. 
This was done by resorting to their sweat 
houses, which were similar in construction 
to the o'-chums, except that the top was 
rounded and the whole structure was cov 
ered thickly with mud and earth to exclude 
the air. These houses were heated with hot 
stones and coals of fire, and the hunters 
would then crawl into them and remain un- 
til in a profuse perspiration, when they 
would come out and plunge into cold water 
for a wash-off. This was repeated until they 
thought themselves sufficiently free from all 
bodily odor so that the deer could not detect 
their approach by scent, and flee for safety. 



36 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

After this purification they kept them- 
selves strictly as celibates until the hunt 
was over, though their women went along 
to help carry the outfit, keep camp, cook, 
search for berries and pine nuts, and assist 
in bringing to camp and taking care of the 
deer as killed, and in "packing" the meat 
out to the place of rendezvous appointed 
for the grand ceremonies and feast. 

Their usual manner of cooking fresh 
meat was by broiling on hot coals, or roast- 
ing before the fire or in the embers. Some- 
times, however, they made a cavity in the 
ground, in which they built a fire, which 
was afterwards cleared away and the cav- 
ity lined with very hot stones, on which 
they placed the meat wrapped in green 
herbage, and covered it with other hot rocks 
and earth, to remain until suitably cooked. 

When they had a surplus of fresh meat 
they cut it in strips and hung it in the sun- 
shine to dry. The dried meat was generally 
cooked by roasting in hot embers, and then 
beaten to soften it before being eaten. 

A young hunter never ate any of the first 
deer he killed, as he believed that if he did 



FOOD SUPPLY. 37 

so he would never succeed in killing 
another. 

FISHING. 

They had various methods of catching 
fish — with hook and line, with a spear, by 
weir-traps in the stream, and by saturating 
the water with the juice of the soap-root 
plant (Chlorogalum pomeridianum). Be- 
fore they could obtain fishhooks of modern 
make, they made them of bone. Their lines 
were made of the tough, fibrous, silken bark 
of the variety of milkweed or silkweed, 
already mentioned. Their spears were 
small poles pointed with a single tine of 
bone, which was so arranged that it became 
detached by the struggles of the fish, and 
was then held by a string fastened near its 
center, which turned it crosswise of the 
wound and made it act as an effective barb. 

Their weir-traps were put in the rapids, 
and constructed by building wing dams 
diagonally down to the middle of the stream 
until the two ends came near together, and 
in this narrow outlet was placed a sort of 
wicker basket trap, made of long willow 
sprouts loosely woven together and closed 



38 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

at the pointed lower end, which was ele- 
vated above the surface of the water below 
the dam. The fish, in going down stream, 
ran into this trap, and soon found them- 
selves at the lower end and out of the water. 

The soap-root was used at a low stage 
of water, late in summer. They dug several 
bushels of the bulbous roots and went to a 
suitable place on the bank, where the roots 
were pounded into a pulp, and mixed with 
soil and water. This mixture, by the hand- 
ful, was then rubbed on rocks out in the 
stream, which roiled the water and also 
made it somewhat foamy. The fish were 
soon affected by it, became stupid with a 
sort of strangulation, and rose to the sur- 
face, where they were easily captured by 
the Indians with their scoop baskets. In a 
stream the size of the South Fork of the 
Merced River at Wawona, by this one oper- 
ation every fish in it for a distance of three 
miles would be taken in a few hours. 

The fish were generally cooked by roast- 
ing on hot coals from burned oak wood or 
bfirk 

ACORNS AS FOOD. 

Acorns were their main staple article of 
breadstuff, and they are still used by the 




Draicinfj by Mr*. Jorgensen. 

CHUCK'-AH. 
Storehouse for nuts and acorns, thatched with 

pine branches, points downward, to keep 

out mice and squirrels. 



40 INDIANS OF THE YO SEMITE. 

present generation whenever they can be 
obtained. 

They are gathered in the fall when ripe, 
and are preserved for future use in the old 
style Indian cache or storehouse. This con- 
sists of a structure which they call a 
chuck'-ah, which is a large basket-shaped 
receptacle made of long willow sprouts 
closely woven together. It is usually about 
six feet high and three feet in diameter. It 
is set upon stout posts about three feet high 
and supported in position by four longer 
posts on the outside, reaching to the top, 
and there bound firmly to keep them from 
spreading. The outside of the basket is 
thatched with small pine branches, points 
downward, to shed the rain and snow, and 
to protect the contents from the depreda- 
tions of squirrels and woodpeckers. When 
filled, the top also is securely covered with 
bark, as a protection from the winter 
storms. When the acorns are wanted for 
use, a small hole is made at the bottom of 
the chuck'-ah, and they are taken out from 
time to time as required. 

The acorns from the black or Kellogg 's 
oak (Quercus Calif ornica) are considered 



FOOD SUPPLY. 41 

much the best and most nutritious by the 
Indians. This is the oak which is so beau- 
tiful and abundant in the Yosemite Valley. 

These acorns are quite bitter, and are not 
eaten in their natural condition, as most 
fruit and nuts are eaten, but have to be 
quite elaborately prepared and cooked to 
make them palatable. First, the hull is 
cracked and removed, and the kernel 
pounded or ground into a fine meal. In the 
Yosemite Valley and at other Indian camps 
in the mountains, this is done by grinding 
with their stone pestles or metats 
(may-tat's) in the ho'yas or mortars, worn 
by long usage in large flat-top granite 
rocks, one of which is near every Indian 
camp. Lower down in the foothills, where 
there are no suitable large rocks for these 
permanent mortars, the Indians used single 
portable stone mortars for this purpose. 

After the acorns are ground to a fine 
meal, the next process is to take out the 
bitter tannin principle. This is done in the 
following manner : They make large shal- 
low basins in clean washed sand, in the cen- 
ter of which are laid a few flat, fan-like ends 
of fir branches. A fire is then made near by, 



FOOD SUPPLY. 43 

and small stones of four or five pounds in 
weight are heated, with which they warm 
water in some of their large cooking baskets, 
and mix the acorn meal with it to the con- 
sistency of thin gruel. This mixture is 
poured into the sand basins, and as the 
water leaches out into the sand it takes with 
it the bitter quality — the warm water being 
renewed until all the bitter taste is washed 
out from the meal sediment, or dough. 

This is then taken, and, after being 
cleansed from the adhering sand, is put into 
cooking baskets, thinned down with hot 
water to the desired condition, and cooked 
by means of hot stones which are held in it 
with two sticks for tongs. The mush, while 
cooking, is stirred with a peculiar stirring 
stick, made of a tough oak sprout, doubled 
so as to form a round, open loop at one end, 
which is used in lifting out any loose stones. 
When the dough is well cooked, it is either 
left en masse in the basket or scooped out 
in rolls and put into cold water to cool and 
harden before being eaten. Sometimes the 
thick paste is made into cakes and baked on 
hot rocks. One of these cakes, when rolled 
in paper, will in a short time saturate it 



44 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

with oil. This acorn food is probably more 
nutritious than any of the cereals. 

INDIAN DOGS. 

The Indian dogs, of which every family 
had several, are as fond of the acorn food 
as their owners. These dogs are made use- 
ful in treeing wild-cats, California lions 
and gray squirrels, and are very expert in 
catching ground squirrels by intercepting 
them when away from their burrows, and 
when the Indians drown them out in the 
early spring by turning water from the 
flooded streams into their holes. 

As far as can be learned, dogs were 
about the only domestic animals which the 
Yosemites, and other adjacent tribes of 
Indians, kept for use before the country 
was settled by the white people. 

NUTS AND BERRIES. 

Pine nuts were another important article 
of food, and were much prized by the In- 
dians. They are very palatable and nutri- 
tious, and are also greatly relished by white 
people whenever they can be obtained. The 
seeds of the Digger or nut pine (Pirns 
Sabiniana) were the ones most used on the 



FOOD SUPPLY. 45 

western side of the Sierras, although the 
seeds of the sugar pine (P. Lambertiana) 
were also sometimes eaten. On account of 
their soft shell, nuts from the pinon 
pine (P. monophylla), which grows princi- 
pally on the eastern side of the mountains, 
were considered superior to either of the 
other kinds, and were an important article 
of barter with the tribes of that region. 
All of these trees are very prolific, and their 
crop of nuts in fruitful years has been 
estimated to be even greater than the enor- 
mous wheat crop of California, although of 
course but a very small'portion of it is ever 
gathered. Many other kinds of nuts and 
seeds were also eaten. 

The principal berries used by the Indians 
of Yosemite and tribes lower down in the 
foothills were those of the manzanita (Arc- 
tostaphylos glauca). They are about the 
size of huckleberries, of a light brown color, 
and when ripe have the flavor of dried 
apples. They are used for eating, and also 
to make a kind of cider for drinking, and 
for mixing with some food preparations. 
Manzanita is the Spanish for "little ap- 
ple," and this shrub, with its rich red 



46 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

bark and pale green foliage, is perhaps the 
most beautiful and most widely distributed 
in California. Strawberries, black rasp- 
berries, elderberries, wild cherries and the 
fruit of the Sierra plum (Prunus subcor- 
data) are also used by the Indians, but wild 
edible berries are not as plentiful in Cali- 
fornia as they are in the Atlantic States. 

GRASSHOPPERS AND WORMS. 

In addition to the staple articles of food 
already mentioned, many other things were 
eaten when they could be obtained. These 
included grasshoppers, certain kinds of 
large tree worms, the white fungi which 
grows upon the oak, mushrooms, and the 
larvae and pupae of ants and other insects. 
The pupae of a certain kind of fly which 
breeds extensively on the shores of Mono 
Lake, about forty miles from Yosemite,was 
an important article of commerce across 
the mountains, and was made into a kind of 
paste called ka-eha'-vee, which is still much 
relished by the Indians, and is a prominent 
dish at their feasts. 

The manner of catching grasshoppers was 
to dig a large hole, somewhat in the shape 




Photoyrapli by Fiske. 

A WOOD GATHERER. 
As in all Indian tribes, the women do most of 
the work. 



48 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

of a fly trap, with the bottom larger than 
the opening at the top, so that the insects 
could not readily get out of it. This hole 
was dug in the center of a meadow, which 
was then surrounded by Indians armed 
with small boughs, who beat the grasshop- 
pers towards a common center and drove 
them into the trap. A fire was then kindled 
on top of them, and after they had been 
well roasted they were gathered up and 
stored for future use. 

Other articles of food were various kinds 
of roots, grasses and herbage, some of 
which were cooked, while others were eaten 
in their natural condition. The lupine 
(Lupinus bicolor and other species), whose 
brilliant flowers are such a beautiful feature 
of all the mountain meadows in the spring 
and summer, was a favorite plant for mak- 
ing what white people would call "greens," 
and when eaten was frequently moistened 
with some of the manzanita cider already 
referred to. Among the roots used for food 
were those of the wild caraway (Carum), 
wild hyacinth (Brodioea), sorrel (Oxalis), 
and camass (Camassia esculenta). 



RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES AND BELIEFS. 

The Indians of this region, in common 
with most, if not all, of the North American 
aborigines, were of a highly religious tem- 
perament, most devout in their beliefs and 
observances, and easily wrought upon by 
the priests or medicine men of their tribes. 
Elaborate ceremonies were carried out, in 
which all of the details were highly symbol- 
ical, and some of their curious and pictur- 
esque superstitions were responsible for 
acts of cruelty and vengeance, which in 
many cases were foreign to their natural 
disposition. 

DANCES. 

Dancing was an important part of all 
religious observances, and was practiced 
purely as a ceremonial, and never for pleas- 
ure or recreation. Both men and women 
took part, the men executing a peculiar 
shuffling step which involved a great deal 
of stamping upon the ground with their 



50 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

bare feet, and the women performing a cur- 
ious sideways, swaying motion. Some of 
the dancers carried wands or arrows, and 
indulged in wild gesticulations. They usu- 
ally circled slowly around a fire, and danced 
to the point of exhaustion, when others 
would immediately take their places. The 
ceremony was accompanied by the beating 
of rude drums, and by a monotonous chant, 
which was joined in by all the dancers. 

The great occasions for dancing were 
before going to war, and when cremating 
the bodies of their dead. The war dance 
was probably the most elaborate in costume 
and other details, and of recent years the 
Indians have sometimes given public ex- 
hibitions of what purported to be war 
dances, but these performances, like every- 
thing else which they do from purely mer- 
cenary motives, are very poor imitations of 
the originals, and it is doubtful if they have 
ever allowed a genuine war dance to be wit- 
nessed by white men. 

FESTIVALS. 

The various tribes in the vicinity of 
Yosemite Valley are accustomed to hold a 



CEREMONIES AND BELIEFS. 51 

great meeting or festival once a year, each 
tribe taking its turn as hosts, and the others 
sometimes coming from considerable dis- 
tances. At these meetings there are dances 
and other ceremonials, and also a grand 
feast, for which extensive preparations are 
made. Another feature of the occasion is 
the presentation of gifts to the visit- 
ing tribes, consisting of money, blankets, 
clothing, baskets, bead-work, or other val- 
uable articles. These presents, or their 
equivalent, no matter how small they may 
be, are always returned to the givers at the 
next annual festival, together with addi- 
tional gifts, which, in turn, must be given 
back the following year, and so on. 

At these gatherings an Indian is ap- 
pointed to secure and keep on hand a good 
supply of wood for the camp fires, and 
every day he spreads a blanket on the 
ground and sits on it, and the other Indians 
throw money, clothing, or other contribu- 
tions, into the blanket, to pay him and his 
assistants for their services. At other times 
this man acts as a messenger or news car- 
rier — first spreading his blanket to collect 



52 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

his fees, and then starting off on his 
mission. 

MARBIAGE. 

Many of the Indians in Mariposa and 
adjoining counties were polygamists, hav- 
ing two or three, and sometimes more, 
wives. Some of the chiefs and head men 
would have wives from several of the adja- 
cent tribes, which had a tendency to estab- 
lish permanent friendly relations among 
them. 

Every man who took a young woman for 
his wife had to buy her. Young women 
were considered by their parents as per- 
sonal chattels, subject to sale to the highest 
suitable bidder, and the payment of the 
price constituted the main part of the mar- 
riage ceremony. The wife was then the 
personal property of the husband, which 
he might sell or gamble away if he wished ; 
but such instances were said to be very 
rare. In case negotiations for a marriage 
fell through, the preliminary payments 
were scrupulously returned to the rejected 
suitor by the parents. 

Even a widow, independent of control in 
the matter of marriage, if she consented to 




Photograph by Dove. 

A YOUNG YOSEMtTE. 
The babies are tied to their baskets to make 
them straight, and keep them out of mischief. 



54 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

become a man's wife, received some 
compensation herself from her intended 
husband. 

It is said that in their marital relations 
they were as a rule strictly faithful to each 
other. If the woman was found to be guilty 
of unfaithfulness to her husband, the pen- 
alty was death. Such a thing as a man 
whipping or beating his wife was never 
known. Whipping under any circumstances 
was considered a more humiliating and dis- 
graceful punishment than death. 

Even in the management of children, 
whipping was never resorted to as punish- 
ment for disobedience, fn fact, children 
were always treated in such a kind, patient, 
loving manner, that disobedience was a 
fault rarely known. The pre-natal maternal 
influence, and subsequent treatment after 
birth, were such that they were naturally 
patient and readily submissive to kind 
parental control. 

In recent years, under the influence and 
examples often seen in what is called civil- 
ized life, Indian husbands have been known 
to beat their wives, and mothers to whip 
their children. 




Photo fjraph by Boysvn. 

LENA AND VIRGIL. 

The canopy of the baby basket is called Cho- 
ko'-ni. and the Royal Arches, from their 
resemblance to it, have also received this 
name from the Indians. 



56 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

MEDICINE MEN. 

At the time of the settlement of Califor- 
nia by the whites, every Indian tribe had 
its professional doctors or medicine men, 
who also acted as religious leaders. They 
were the confidential counselors of the 
chiefs and head-men of the tribes, and had 
great influence and control over the people. 
They claimed to be spiritual mediums, and 
to have communication with the departed 
spirits of some of their old and most rever- 
ed chieftains and dear friends, now in a 
much more happy condition than when here 
in earthly life. They were thought to be 
en lowed with supernatural powers, not on- 
ly in curing all diseases (except those due I 
to old age), but also in making a well per- 
son sick at their pleasure, even at a dis- 
tance; but when their sorcery failed to 
work on their white enemies and extermin- 
ate them, they lost the confidence of their 
followers to a large extent. 

With the invasion of the white settlers 
came forced changes in their old customs 
and manner of living, and a new variety of 
epidemic and other diseases. When a doc- 
tor failed to cure these diseases, and several 



CEREMONIES AND BELIEFS. 57 

deaths occurred in quick succession in a 
canip, they believed the doctor was under 
the control of some evil spirit, and killed 
him. 

After the Indians were given their free- 
dom from the reservations in 1855, the old 
ones, subdued and broken-hearted, sickened 
and died very fast, and most of the men 
doctors were killed off in a few years. 
There are none known who now attempt to 
act in that capacity. 

There are still some women doctors who 
continue to practice the magic art, but as 
there are now but very few Indians, there 
is not so much sickness, and very few 
deaths in a year, so that the doctors very 
rarely forfeit their lives by many of their 
patients dying in quick succession. 

Their most common mode of treatment in 
cases of sickness was to scarify the painful 
locality with the sharp edge of a piece of 
obsidian, and suck out the blood with the 
mouth. In cases of headache, the forehead 
was operated on ; in a case of colic the ab- 
domen was treated in the same way, as 
were also all painful swellings on any part 
of the body. 



\X C w NO**-- 



Copy 



CEREMONIES AND BELIEFS. 59 

<«ks, or on a string of beads, to protect 
■*ni from sickness. 

In cases of malignant sores or ulcers on 
y part of the body, the doctors treated 
m by applying dirt or earth, and in 
rm weather would excavate a place in 
■ ground and put the patient in it, either 
a sitting or recumbent position, as the 
ture of the case required, and cover the 
t'cted part with earth for several hours 
ily. Sometimes, by this mode of treat- 
nt, wonderful cures were made. 
in all cases, if a doctor failed to cure a 
-ease, and the patient died, he was obliged 
refund to the relatives any fee which he 

I received for his services. 

DISPOSING OF THE DEAD. 

II the early days of the settlement of Cal- 
■mia, it seemed to be the univeral custom 

the Indians along the foothills of the 
■■rra Nevada range of mountains to burn 
<* bodies of their dead. 
A suitable pile of readily combustible 
»od was prepared. The body was taken 
arge of by persons chosen to perform the 
-t sacred rites, and firmly bound in skins 



60 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

or blankets, and then placed upon the 
funeral pyre, with all the personal effects 
of the deceased, together with numerous 
votive offerings from friends and relatives. 
The chief mourners of the occasion seemed 
to take but little active part in the cere- 
monies. When all was ready, one of the 
assistants would light the fire, and the terri- 
ble, wailing, mournful cry would commence, 
and the professional chanters, with peculiar 
sidling movements and frantic gestures, 
would circle round and round about the 
burning pile. Occasionally, on arriving at 
the northwest corner of the pile, they would 
stop, and, pointing to the West, would end 
a crying refrain by exclaiming "Him-i- 
la'-ha!" When these became exhausted, 
others would step in and take their places, 
and thus keep up the mournful ceremony 
until the whole pile was consumed. 

After the pile had cooled, the charred 
bones and ashes were gathered up, a few 
pieces of bone selected, and the remainder 
buried. Of the pieces retained, some would 
. be sent to distant relatives, and the others 
pounded to a fine powder, then mixed with 
pine pitch and plastered on the faces of the 



CEREMONIES AND BELIEFS. 61 

nearest female relatives as a badge of 
mourning, to be kept there until it naturally 
wore off. Every Indian camp used to have 
some of these hideous looking old women in 
it in the " early days." 

One principal reason for burning the 
bodies of the dead was the belief that there 
is an evil spirit, waiting and watching for 
the animating spirit or soul to leave the 
body, that he may get it to take to his own 
world of darkness and misery. By burning 
the perishable body they thought that the 
immortal soul would be more quickly re- 
leased and set free to speed to the happy 
spirit world in the El-o'-icin, or far distant 
West, while with their loud, wailing cries 
the evil spirit was kept away. 

The young women take great care of their 
long, shiny, black hair, of which they all 
feel very proud, as adding much to their 
personal beauty, and they seldom have it cut 
before marriage. But upon the death of a 
husband the wife has her hair all cut off and 
burned with his body, so that he may still 
have it in his future spirit home, to love and 
caress as a memento of his living earth- wife. 



CEREMONIES AND BELIEFS. 63 

These Indians believe that everything on 
earth, both natural and artificial, is endow- 
ed with an immortal spirit, which is inde- 
structible, and that whatever personal prop- 
erty or precious gifts are burned, either 
with the body or in later years for the de- 
parted friend's benefit, will be received and 
made use of in the spirit world. In recent 
years the Yosemites and other remnants of 
tribes closely associated with them, have 
adopted the custom of the white people, and 
bury their dead. The fine, expensive 
blankets, and most beautifully worked 
baskets, which have been kept sacredly in 
hiding for many years, to be buried with 
the owner, are now cut into small frag- 
ments before being deposited in the ground, 
for fear some white person will desecrate 
the grave by digging them up and carrying 
them away. 

There are no people in the world who 
show more reverence for their dead, or hold 
their memory more sacred, than these so- 
called "Digger" Indians. After being re- 
leased from the reservations they kept 
themselves in abject poverty for many 
years by sacrificing their best blankets, 



64 INDIAN3 OF THE YOSEMITE. 

baskets and clothing in the devouring 
flames of a fire kindled for that purpose, 
when holding their annual mourning festi- 
vals in memory of their dead friends. 

RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. 

The old Indians are all very reticent 
regarding their religious beliefs. They hold 
them too sacred to be exposed to possible 
ridicule, and it is therefore very diffi- 
cult to get information from them by direct 
questions. 

They seem, however, to have a vague, in- 
distinct belief or tradition that their orig- 
inal ancestors, in the long forgotten past, 
dwelt in a better and much more desirable 
country than this, in the El-o'-ivin, or dis- 
tant West, and that by some misfortune or 
great calamity they were separated from 
that nappy land, and became wanderers in 
this part of the world. They also believe 
that the spirits of all good Indians will be 
permitted, after death, to go back to that 
happy country of their ancestors 7 origin; 
but that the spirits of bad Indians have to 
serve another earth life in the form of a 
grizzly bear, as a punishment for their 



CEREMONIES AND BELIEFS. 65 

former crimes. Hence, no Indians ever eat 
bear meat if they know it. 

All the old Indians are spiritualists, and 
very superstitious in their religious beliefs. 
One special tenet is that if one of their rela- 
tives or friends has been murdered, he will 
not receive them on terms of friendship in 
the spirit world unless they revenge his 
death, by either killing the murderer or 
some one of the same blood. This belief 
sometimes results in an entirely innocent 
person being put to death. 

They all have a great fear of evil spirits, 
which they believe have the power to do 
them much harm and defeat their undertak- 
ings. They also have a fairly distinct idea 
of a Diety or Great Spirit, who never does 
them any harm, and whose home is in the 
happy land of their ancestors in the West. 



(Etjapfrr &tx. 

NATIVE INDUSTRIES. 

The Yosemites and other kindred or ad- 
jacent tribes have been branded as " Dig- 
gers,' 9 and are generally thought to be the 
lowest class of Indians in America, but in 
some lines of artistic work they excelled all 
other tribes. For example, their basketry 
work, for domestic and sacred purposes, 
and their bows and arrows, were of very 
superior workmanship and fine finish. 

BASKETRY AND BEAD WORK. 

Many years ago the chief industry of the 
Indian women, aside from their other 
domestic duties, was the making of baskets. 
They made a great variety of shapes and 
sizes for their common use, and also many 
of a more artistic design and finer finish for 
the sacred purpose of being burned or bur- 
ied with their bodies, or that of some rela- 
tive or dear friend, after death. The bas- 
kets devoted to this special purpose are the 
finest made, but are very seldom seen by 
any white person, and are not for sale at 



NATIVE INDUSTRIES. 69 

any price. This finest style of work seems 
to have been made a specialty by certain of 
the most artistic workers in each tribe. 

At the present time, in their more mod- 
ern style of living, they do not require so 
many baskets, and the industry of making 
them is fast on the decline. Some of the 
old women, however, still continue to make 
such as are required for their own use, and 
a few others for sale. 

Most of the ornamental figures and de- 
signs worked into the finest basketry are 
symbolical in character, and of so ancient 
an origin that Indians of the present day 
do not know what many of them are 
intended to represent. They have simply 
been copied from time immemorial, with the 
idea that they were necessary for the com- 
plete finish and beauty of the article made. 

In recent years they sometimes make use 
of more modern styles of ornamentation, 
which they see in print. 

Many of the young women are now giv- 
ing their attention to making fancy bead 
work, in the form of ornamental belts and 
hat-bands, but this is an industry of very 
modern origin. Some of them are employed 










c - 

£1 



< > 

(2 

5! 



*r£ 



•5 * 






« be 

1 5 

2 K ' 
£ 2 



NATIVE INDUSTRIES. 71 

by white people to do laundry and other 
work, and any labor of this kind pays them 
better than making baskets for sale. Forty 
years ago a finely made basket could have 
been bought for less than ten dollars. At 
present, if the time spent in getting and 
preparing the necessary materials, and in 
working them into the basket, were paid for 
at the same rate per day that a young 
woman receives for doing washing in the 
hotel laundry, or for private families, it 
would amount to over one hundred dollars. 
Most of the baskets made for domestic 
use are so closely woven that they are prac- 
tically water-tight, and are used for cooking 
and similar purposes. Over on the eastern 
side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, near 
the dry, desert country, the Indians make 
some of their baskets in the form of jugs of 
various sizes. These are smeared over with 
a pitch composition, which renders them 
perfectly water-tight, and they are used for 
carrying water when traveling over those 
desolate, sandy wastes. 

BOWS AND ARROWS. 

The Indian men showed no less ingenuity 
and artistic skill in their special lines of 



72 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

work than the women, especially in the 
manufacture of their bows and arrows, in 
the making of fish lines and coarser twine 
out of the soft, flexible bark of the milk- 
weed (Asclepias speciosa), and in making 
other useful implements and utensils with 
the very limited means at their disposal. 

Their bows were made of a branch of the 
incense cedar (Libocedrus decurrens) y ov of 
the California nutmeg (Tumion Cali- 
fomicum [Torreya] ), made flat on the outer 
side, and rounded smooth on the inner or 
concave side when the bow is strung for 
use. The flat, outer side was covered with 
sinew, usually that from the leg of a deer, 
steeped in hot water until it became soft 
and glutinous, and then laid evenly and 
smoothly over the wood, and so shaped at 
the ends as to hold the string in place. 
When thoroughly dry the sinew contracted, 
so that the bow when not strung was con- 
cave on the outer side. 

When not in use the bow was always left 
unstrung. To string it for use, it was 
necessary in cold weather to warm it, thus 
making it more elastic and easily bent. The 




Photograph by Boy sen. 

A BASKET MAKER. 
She is weaving a burden basket. The one to the 

left is for cooking", and a baby basket stands 

against the tent. 



74 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

best strings were also made of sinew, or of 
pax-wax cartilage, for their finest bows. 

The arrows were made of reeds and 
various kinds of wood, including the syringa 
(Philadelphus Leivisii) and a small shrub 
or tree which the Indians called Le-ham'-i- 
tee, or arrow-wood, and which grew quite 
plentifully in what is now known as Indian 
Canyon, near the Yosemite Falls. 

The finest arrows were furnished with 
points made of obsidian, or volcanic glass, 
which was obtained in the vicinity of Mono 
Lake on the eastern side of the Sierras. It 
required great care and delicate skill to 
work this brittle material into the fine 
sharp points, and the making of them seem- 
ed to be a special business or trade with 
some of the old men. Arrows furnished 
with these points were only used in hunt- 
ing large game, or in hostile combat with 
enemies ; for common use, in hunting small 
game, the hard wooden arrow was merely 
sharpened to a point. 

The butt, or end used on the string, was 
furnished with three or four short strips of 
feathers taken from a hawk's wing, and 
fastened on lengthwise. These strips of 



NATIVE INDUSTRIES. 75 

feathers are supposed to aid in the more 
accurate flight of the arrow when shot from 
the bow. 

When out on a hunt the Indian carried 
his bow strung ready for use, and his bun- 
dle of assorted arrows in a quiver made of 
the skin of a small fox, wild-cat or fisher, 
hung conveniently over his shoulder. 

These primitive weapons, which were in 
universal use by the Yosemite Indians fifty 
years ago, are now never seen except in 
some collection of Indian relics and curios. 

Other articles manufactured by these 
tribes were stone hammers, and also others 
made from the points of deer horns mount- 
ed on wooden handles, which they used in 
delicately chipping the brittle obsidian in 
forming arrowheads. Eude musical instru- 
ments, principally drums and flageolets, 
were also made. 



(tttjapftr fmn. 

MYTHS AND LEGENDS. 

The Indians of the Yosemite Valley and 
vicinity have a great fund of mythological 
lore, which has been handed down verbally 
from generation to generation for hundreds 
of years, but they are very reluctant to 
speak of these legends to white people, and 
it is extremely difficult to get reliable in- 
formation on the subject. Moreover, the 
Indians most familiar with them have 
not a sufficient knowledge of the English 
language to be able to express their ideas 
clearly. 

Many Yosemite legends have been pub- 
lished at different times and in various 
forms, and it is probable that most of them 
have had at least a foundation in real In- 
dian myths, but many are obviously fanci- 
ful in some particulars, and it is impossible 
to tell how much is of Indian origin and 
how much is due to poetic embellishment. 
When asked about some of these legends, 
many years ago, one of the old Yosemite 



MYTHS AND LEGENDS. 77 

Indians remarked contemptuously, "White 
man too much lie. ' ' 

On the other hand, red men as well as 
white men are sometimes given to romanc- 
ing, and I have known of cases where 
" legends" would be manufactured on the 
spur of the moment by some young Indian 
to satisfy an importunate and credulous 
questioner, to the keen but suppressed 
amusement of other Indians present. 

It will therefore be seen that this sub- 
ject is surrounded with some difficulty, and 
it must not be understood that the legends 
here given are vouched for as of wholly In- 
dian origin. Some of them, notably those 
of the Tul-tok'-a-na and the second legend 
of Tis-sa'-ack, have been accepted by emi- 
nent ethnologists, and are believed to be 
purely aboriginal, while others have doubt- 
less been somewhat idealized in translation 
and in the course of numerous repetitions. 

The legend of To-tau-kon-nu'-la and 
Tis-sa'-ack is made up of fragments of 
mythological lore obtained from a number 
of old Indians at various times during the 
past fifty years. It varies somewhat from 
other legends which have been published 



78 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

regarding these same characters, but it is 
well known that the Indians living in 
Yosemite in recent years are of mixed tribal 
origin and do not all agree as to the tradi- 
tional history of the region, nor the names 
of the prominent scenic features, nor even 
of the Valley itself. And this largely ac- 
counts for the fact that some of the legends 
do not harmonize with each other in details 
or in sentiment. All of them, however, are 
picturesque, and they certainly give an 
added interest to the natural beauties and 
wonders with which they are associated. 

LEGEND OF TO-TAU-KON-NU'-LA AND TIS- 
SA-ACK. 

Innumerable moons and snows have 
passed since the Great Spirit guided a little 
band of his favorite children into the beau- 
tiful vale of Ah-wah'-nee,* and bid them 
stop and rest from their long and weary 
wanderings, which had lasted ever since 
they had been separated by the great waters 
from the happy land of their forefathers in 
the far distant El-o'-win (West). 



* Yosemite Valley. 




Photograph by 



Boy8€n. 

MARY. 



Daughter of Captain John, one of the last Chiefs 
of the Yosemites. 



/. 



80 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

Here they found food in abundance for 
all. The rivers gave them plenty of la-pe'-si 
(trout). They found in the meadows sweet 
ha'-ker (clover), and sour yu-yu-yu-mah 
(oxalis) for spring medicine, and sweet 
toon'-gy and other edible roots in abun- 
dance. The trees and bushes yielded acorns, 
pine nuts, fruits and berries. In the forests 
were herds of he -her (deer) and other ani- 
mals, which gave meat for food and skins 
for clothing and beds. And here they lived 
and multiplied, and, as instructed by their 
medicine men, worshipped the Great Spirit 
which gave them life, and the sun which 
warmed and made them happy. 

They also kept in memory the happy land 
of their forefathers. The story was told by 
the old people to the young, and they again 
told it to their children from generation to 
generation, and they all believed that after 
death their spirits would return to dwell 
forever in that distant country. 

They prospered and built other towns out- 
side of Ah-wah'-nee, and became a great 
nation. They learned wisdom by experience 
and by observing how the Great Spirit 
taught the animals and insects to live, and 



MYTHS AND LEGENDS. 81 

they believed that their children could ab- 
sorb the cunning of the wild creatures. And 
so the young son of their chieftain was made 
to sleep in the skins of the beaver and coy- 
ote, that he might grow wise in building, 
and keen of scent in following game. On 
some days he was fed with la-pe'-si that he 
might become a good swimmer, and on oth- 
er days the eggs of the great to-tau-kon 
(crane) were his food, that he might grow 
tall and keen of sight, and have a clear, 
ringing voice. He was also fed on the flesh 
of the he-ker that he might be fleet of foot, 
and on that of the great yo-sem'-i-te (griz- 
zly bear) to make him powerful in combat. 

And the little boy grew up and became a 
great and wise chieftain, and he was also a 
rain wizard, and brought timely rains for 
the crops. 

As was the custom in giving names to all 
Indians, his name was changed from time 
to time, as his character developed, until 
lie was called Choo'-too-se-ka', meaning the 
Supreme Good. His grand o -chum 
(house) was built at the base of the great 



82 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

rock called To-tau-kon-nu'-la,* because the 
great to-tau'-kons made their nests and 
raised their young in a meadow at its sum- 
mit, and their loud ringing cries resounded 
over the whole Valley. 

As the moons and snows passed, this 
great rock and all the great rocky walls 
around the Valley grew in height, and the 
hills became high mountains. 

After a time Choo'-too-se-ka' built him- 
self a great palace o'-chum on the summit 
of the rock To-tau-kon-nu'-la, and had his 
great chair of state a little west of his pal- 
ace, where on all festival occasions he could 
overlook and talk to the great multitude 
below; and the remains of this chair are 
still to be seen. 

Choo'-too-se-ka' was then named To-tau- 
kon-nu'-la, because he had built his o'-chum 
on the summit of the great rock and taken 
the place of the to-tau'-kons.. He had no 
wife, but all the women served him in his 
domestic needs, as he was their great chief, 
and his wishes were paramount. The many 
valuable donations which he received from 



El Capitan. 



MYTHS AND LEGENDS. 83 

his people at the great annual festivals 
made him wealthy beyond all personal 
wants, and he gave freely to the needy. 

One day, while standing on the top of the 
great dome* above the south wall of the 
Valley, watching the great herds of deer, he 
saw some strange people approaching, 
bearing heavy burdens. They were fairer 
of skin, and their clothing was different 
from that of his people, and when they 
drew near he asked them who they were 
and whence they came. 

And a woman replied, ' ' I am Tis-sa'-ack, 
and these are some of my people. We come 
from cat' -tan chu'-much (far South). I 
have heard of your great wisdom and 
goodness, and have come to see you and 
your people. We bring you presents of 
many fine baskets, and beads of many col- 
ors, as tokens of our friendship. When we 
have rested and seen your people and beau- 
tiful valley we will return to our home. ' ' 

To-tau-kon-nu'-la was much pleased with 
his fair visitor, and built a large o'-chum 
for her and her companions on the summit 



* Sentinel Dome. 




Photograph by Foley. 

HALF DOME (TIS-SA'-ACK). 
5,000 Feet. 
Named for a woman in Indian mythology who 
was turned to stone for quarreling: with her 
husband. See "Legend of Tis-sa'-ack." 



MYTHS AND LEGENDS. 85 

of the great dome at the east end of the 
Valley,* and this dome still retains her 
name. 

And she tarried there and taught the 
women of Ah-wah'-nee how to make the 
beautiful baskets which they still make at 
the present day ; and To-tau-kon-nu'-la vis- 
ited her daily, and became charmed with her 
loveliness, and wanted her to remain and 
be his wife, but she denied him, saying, ' ' I 
must return to my people," and, when 
he still persisted, she left her o'-chum in the 
night and was never seen again. And the 
love-stricken chieftain forgot his people, 
and went in search of her, and they waited 
many moons for his return and mourned his 
long absence, but they never saw him more. 

This was the beginning of a series of 
calamities which nearly destroyed the great 
tribe of Ah-wah-nee'-chees. First a great 
drouth prevailed, and the crops failed, and 
the streams of water dried up. The deer 
went wild and wandered away. Then a 
dark .cloud of smoke arose in the East and 
obscured the sun, so that it gave no heat, 



' Half Dome. 



86 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

and many of the people perished from cold 
and hunger. Then the earth shook terribly 
and groaned with great pain, and enormous 
rocks fell from the walls around Ah-wah'- 
nee. The great dome called Tis-sa'-ack 
was burst asunder, and half of it fell into 
the Valley. A fire burst out of the earth 
in the East, and the ca'-lah (snow) on 
the sky mountains was changed to water, 
which flowed down and formed the Lake 
Ah-wei'-yah.* And all the streams were 
filled to overflowing, and still the waters 
rose, and there was a great flood, so that 
a large part of the Valley became a 
lake, and many persons were drowned. 

After a time the Great Spirit took pity on 
his children, and the dark cloud of smoke 
disappeared, the sun warmed the Valley 
again into new life, and the few people who 
were left had plenty of food once more. 

Many moons afterwards there appeared 
on the face of the great rock To-tau-kon- 
nu'-la the figure of a man in a flowing robe, 
and with one hand extended toward the 
West, in which direction he appears to be 



* Mirror Lake. 



MYTHS AND LEGENDS. 87 

traveling. This figure was interpreted to be 
the picture of the great lost Chieftain, indi- 
cating that he had gone to the ' i happy hunt- 
ing grounds" of his ancestors, and it is 
looked upon with great veneration and awe 
by the few Indians still living in Yosemite. 
At about the same time the face of the 
beautiful Tis-sa'-ack appeared on the great 
flat side of the dome which bears her name, 
and the Indians recognized her by the way 
in which her dark hair was cut straight 
across her forehead and fell down at the 
sides, which was then considered among the 
Yosemites as the acme of feminine beauty, 
and is so regarded to this day. 

ANOTHER LEGEND OF TIS-SA'-ACK. 

Tis-sa'-ack and her husband traveled 
from a far-off country, and entered the Val- 
ley footsore and weary. She walked ahead, 
carrying a great conical burden-basket, 
which was supported by a band across her 
forehead, and was filled with many things. 
He followed after, carrying a rude staff in 
his hand and a roll of woven skin blankets 
over his shoulder. They had come across 
the mountains and were very thirsty, and 




05 t- 



Q ed 

Dm ^ 



.* £ B 









MYTHS AND LEGENDS. 89 

they hurried to reach the Valley, where they 
knew there was water. The woman was 
still far in advance when she reached the 
Lake Ah-wei'-yah,* and she dipped up the 
water in her basket and drank long and 
deep. She was so thirsty that she even 
drank up all the water in the lake and 
drained it dry before her husband arrived. 
And because the lake was dry there came a 
terrible drouth in the Valley, and the soil 
was dried up and nothing grew. 

And the husband was much displeased 
because the woman had drunk up all the 
water and left none for him, and he became 
so angry that he forgot the customs of his 
people and beat the woman with his staff. 
She ran away from him, but he followed her 
and beat her yet more. And she wept, and 
in her anger she turned and reviled her hus- 
band, and threw her basket at him. And 
while they were in this attitude, one facing 
the other, they were turned into stone for 
their wickedness, and there they still re- 
main. The upturned basket lies beside the 
husband, where the woman threw it, and 



* Mirror Lake. 



90 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

the woman's face is tear stained with long 
dark lines trailing down. 

Half -Dome is the woman Tis-sa'-ack and 
North Dome is her husband, while beside 
the latter is a smaller dome which is still 
called Basket Dome to this day. 

LEGEND OF THE GRIZZLY BEAR. 

The significance and derivation of the 
name " Yosemite," as given by old Tenei'- 
ya, chief of the tribe, have been explained 
in another chapter, but there is also a 
legendary account of its origin, which may 
be of interest. 

Long, long ago, when the remote ances- 
tors of the Yosemite Indians dwelt peace- 
fully in the valley called Ah-wah'-nee,* one 
of the stalwart young braves of the tribe 
went early one morning to spear some fish 
in the lake Ah-wei'-yahJ Before reaching 
his destination he was confronted by a huge 
grizzly bear, who appeared from behind one 
of the enormous boulders in that vicinity, 
and savagely disputed his passage. 

Being attacked in this unexpected man- 
ner, the Indian defended himself to the best 



* Yosemite Valley, 
t Mirror Lake. 




Photograph hy Fiske. 

NORTH DOME (TO-KO'-YA). 
3,725 Feet. 
This rock is believed by the Indians to represent 
Tis-sa'-ack's husband, turned into stone for 
beating his wife. The lower dome to the 
right is the basket which she threw at him. 
See "Legend of Tis-sa'-ack." 



92 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

of his ability, using for the purpose the 
dead limb of a tree which was near at hand, 
and, after a long and furious struggle, in 
which he was badly wounded, he at length 
succeeded in killing the bear. 

His exploit was considered so remark- 
able by the rest of the tribe that they called 
him Yo-sem'-i-te (meaning a full-grown 
grizzly bear), in honor of his achievement, 
and this name was transmitted to his chil- 
dren, and eventually to the whole tribe. 

LEGEND OF THE TUL-TOK'-A-NA. 

There were once two little boys living in 
the Valley of Ah-wah'-nee, who went down 
to the river to swim. When they had finished 
their bath they went on shore and lay down 
on a large boulder to dry themselves in the 
-sun. While lying there they fell asleep, and 
slept so soundly that they never woke up 
again. Through many moons and many 
snows they slept, and while they slept the 
great rock* on which they lay was slowly 
rising, little by little, until it soon lifted 
them up out of sight, and their friends 
searched for them everywhere without suc- 



* El Capitan. 




Photograph by Foley. 

EL CAPITAN (TO-TAU-KON-NU'-LA). 
3,300 Feet. 
The Indians believe that this great rock grew 
form a small boulder. See "Legend of the 
Tul-tok'-a-na." 



94 INDIANS OF THE YO SEMITE. 

cess. Thus they were carried up into the 
blue sky, until they scraped their faces 
against the moon; and still they slept on. 

Then all the animals assembled to bring- 
down the little boys from the top of the 
great rock. Each animal sprang up the 
face of the rock as far as he could. The 
mouse could only spring a hand's breadth,, 
the rat two hands' breadths, the raccoon a 
little more, and so on. The grizzly bear 
made a great leap up the wall, but fell back 
like all the others, without reaching the top. 
Finally came the lion, who jumped up 
farther than any of the others, but even he 
fell back and could not reach the top. 

Then came the tul-tok'-a-na, the insignifi- 
cant measuring worm, who was despised by 
all the other creatures, and began to creep 
up the face of the rock. Step by step, little 
by little, he measured his way up until he 
was soon above the lion's jump, and still 
farther and farther, until presently he was 
out of sight ; and still he crawled up and up, 
day and night, through many moons, and at 
length he reached the top, and took the little 
boys and brought them safely down to the 
ground. And therefore the rock was named 



MYTHS AND LEGENDS. 95 

for the measuring worm, and was called 
Tu-tok-a-nu'-la. 

LEGEND OF GROUSE LAKE. 

I will here relate a personal experience 
which occurred in September, 1857, while 
out with a large party of Indians on a deer 
liunt in the mountains. 

One day, after a long tramp, I stopped to 
rest by the side of a small lake about eight 
miles from the present site of Wawona, and 
I then named it Grouse Lake on account of 
the great number of grouse found there. 
Very soon a party of Indians came along 
carrying some deer, and stopped on the op- 
posite side of the lake to rest and get some 
water. Soon after they had started again 
for their camp I heard a distinct wailing 
cry, somewhat like the cry of a puppy when 
lost, and I thought the Indians must have 
left one of their young dogs behind. 

When I joined the Indians in camp that 
night I inquired of them about the sound I 
had heard. They replied that it was not a 
dog — that a long time ago an Indian boy 
had been drowned in the lake, and that 
every time any one passed there he always 
cried after them, and that no one dared to 



96 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

go in the lake, for he would catch them by 
the legs and pull them down and they would 
be drowned. I then concluded that it must 
have been some unseen water-fowl that 
made the cry, and at that time I thought 
that the Indians were trying to impose on 
my credulity, but I am now convinced that 
they fully believed the story they told me. 
Po-ho'-no Lake, the headwaters of the 
Bridal Veil Creek, was also thought to be 
haunted by troubled spirits, which affected 
the stream clear down into the Yosemite 
Valley; and the Indians believed that an 
evil wind there had been the cause of some 
fatal accidents many years ago. The word 
Po-ho'-no means a puffing wind, and has 
also been translated "Evil Wind," on ac- 
count of the superstition above referred to. 

LEGEND OF THE LOST ARROW. 

Tee-hee'-nay was a beautiful Ah- wah'-nee 
maiden, said to be the most beautiful of her 
tribe, and she was beloved by Kos-su'-kah, 
a strong and valiant young brave. Valuable 
presents had been made to the bride's par- 
ents, and they had given their consent to an 
early marriage, which was to be celebrated 
by a great feast. 




Photograph by Fiske. 

BRIDAL VEIL FALL (PO-HO'-NO). 

940 Feet. 

The source of this stream is supposed by the 

Indians to be haunted by troubled spirits, 

which affect the water along - its whole course. 

The word Po-ho'-no means a "puffing wind." 



98 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

To provide an abundance of venison and 
other meat for this banquet, Kos-su'-kah 
gathered together his young companions 
and went into the mountains in search of 
game. In order that Tee-hee'-nay might 
know of his welfare and the success of the 
hunt, it was agreed between the lovers that 
at sunset Kos-su'-kah should go to the high 
rock to the east of Cho'-lak,* and should 
shoot an arrow into the Valley, to which 
should be attached a number of grouse 
feathers corresponding to the number of 
deer that had fallen before the skill of the 
hunters. 

At the time appointed Tee-hee'-nay went 
near the foot of the great cliff and waited, 
with her eyes raised to the towering rocks 
above, hoping with her keen sight to see the 
form of her lover outlined against the sky, 
but no form could she see, and no arrow 
fell into the Valley. As darkness gathered, 
gloomy forebodings took possession of her, 
and she climbed part way up the canyon 
called Le-ham'-i-teet because the arrow- 
wood grew there, and finally she stood at 

* Yosemite Falls. 

t Now known as Indian Canyon. 



MYTHS AND LEGENDS. 99 

the very foot of the rocky wall which rose 
to dizzy heights above her, and there she 
waited through the long night. 

With the first streak of dawn she bounded 
swiftly up the rough canyon, for she was 
fully convinced that some terrible fate had 
overtaken the brave Kos-su'-kah, and soon 
she stood upon the lofty summit,* where 
she found her lover's footsteps leading to- 
wards the edge of the precipice. Drawing 
nearer she was startled to find that a por- 
tion of the cliff had given way, and, upon 
peering over the brink, what was her hor- 
ror to discover the blood-stained and life- 
less body of Kos-su'-kah lying on a rocky 
ledge far beneath. 

Summoning assistance by means of a sig- 
nal fire, which was seen from the Valley 
below, a rope was made of sapling tama- 
racks lashed firmly together with thongs 
from one of the deer that was to have 
furnished the marriage feast, and Tee-hee'- 
nay herself insisted on being lowered over 
the precipice to recover the body of her 
lover. This was at last successfully accom- 
plished, and when his ghastly form lay once 

* Yosemite Point. 



100 INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE. 

more upon the rocky summit, she threw 
herself on his bosom and gave way to a 
passionate outburst of grief. 

Finally she became quiet, but when they 
stooped to raise her they found that her 
spirit had fled to join the lost Kos-su'-kah, 
and that the lovers were re-united in death. 

The fateful arrow that was the cause of 
so much sorrow could never be found, 
and the Indians believe that it was taken 
away by the spirits of Kos-su'-kah and 
Tee-hee'-nay. In memory of them, and of 
this tragedy, the slender spire of rock* that 
rises heavenward near the top of the cliff at 
this point is known among the Indians as 
Hum-mo', or the Lost Arrow. 



* Sometimes called "The Devil's Thumb." 



Apjifttirtx- 



HINTS TO YOSEMITE VISITORS. 

Secure stage seats in advance. 

Take only hand baggage, unless for a 
protracted visit. For a short trip, an out- 
ing suit and two or three waists, with a 
change for evening wear, will be found 
sufficient. The free baggage allowance on 
the stage lines is fifty pounds. 

Men will find flannel or negligee shirts 
the most comfortable. 

In April, May and June wear warm cloth- 
ing and take heavy wraps. In July, August 
and September wear medium clothing, with 
light wraps. In October and November 
wear warm clothing, with heavy wraps. 
The nights are cool at all seasons. 

Dusters are always advisable, and ladies 
should provide some light head covering to 
protect the hair from dust. Sun bonnets 
are frequently worn. 

Short skirts are most convenient. 

Divided skirts are proper for trail trips, 
as ladies are required, to ride astride. 



102 APPENDIX. 

Heavy denim for skirt and bloomers is very 
satisfactory. Such skirts can be hired in 
the Valley. 

Waists of soft material and neutral 
shades are appropriate. Avoid white. 

Something absolutely soft for neckwear 
will be found a great comfort, both by men 
and women. 

Leggings, stout, comfortable shoes, and 
heavy, loose gloves, will be found very 
serviceable. 

A soft felt hat is preferable to straw. One 
that will shade the eyes is best. A cloth 
traveling cap is the worst thing to wear. 

Smoked glasses will sometimes save the 
wearer a headache. 

Except in April, May and November, an 
umbrella is apt to be a useless encumbrance. 

If the skin is sensitive, and one wishes to 
avoid painful sunburn, the use of a pure 
cream and soft cloth is preferable to water, 
and far more efficacious. 

A week is the shortest time that should 
be allowed for a trip to Yosemite. Two 
weeks are better. The grandeur of the 
Valley cannot be fully appreciated in a few 
days. 



APPENDIX. 103 

Those not accustomed to staging or moun- 
tain climbing should make some allowance 
in their itineraries for rest. Many visitors 
spoil their pleasure by getting too tired. 

Take a little more money than you think 
will be needed. You may want to prolong 
your stay. 

Hunting, or the possession of firearms, is 
not permitted in the Yosemite National 
Park. Fishing is allowed, and in June and 
July an expert angler is likely to be well 
rewarded. Rods and tackle may be hired 
in the Valley. 

There is no hardship, risk or danger in 
any part of the Yosemite trip. Many old 
people and children visit the Valley with- 
out difficulty. 

A knowledge of horsemanship is not 
needed for going on the trails. The most 
timid people make the trips with enjoy- 
ment. Some of the finest views can only 
be obtained in this way. 

There is a laundry in the Valley. 

There is a barber shop. 

There is a post office, telegraph and ex- 
press. 



104 APPENDIX. 

There is a general store and places for 
the sale of photographs, curios and Indian 
work. 

Treat the Indians with courtesy and con- 
sideration, if you expect similar treatment 
from them. Do not expect them to pose for 
you for nothing. They are asked to do it 
hundreds of times every summer, and are 
entitled to payment for their trouble. 

Kodak films and plates can be obtained 
in the Valley. 

Developing and printing are done in the 
Valley. 

Take your camera. 



APPENDIX. 



105 



OFFICIAL TABLE OF DISTANCES AND LIVERY 
CHARGES. 

.The following are the legal rates for 
transportation of tourists in and about the 
Yosemite Valley : 



CARRIAGES. 



FROM HOTELS OR PUBLIC 
CAMPS, AND RETURN. 





S» 






ft 


h 




*s 


£ oj 3 


fiS 


fll °® 


5"5 





J** 



Miles | Each 
I i Person 

To Cascades, Yosemite and i 
Bridal Veil Falls | 16.00 I $ 1.50 



i 



To Mirror Lake. 



i 5.82 

To River View and Bridal I 
Veil Falls i 10.41 



To New Inspiration Point. 

To Happy Isles 

To Yosemite Falls 



14.38 
4.00 
3.00 



1.00 

1.00 

2.00 

.50 

.50 



Each 
Person 

$2.00 

1.00 

1.50 

2.50 

1.00 

.75 



Continued on next page. 



106 



APPENDIX. 



SADDLE HORSES. 



FROM HOTELS OR PUBLIC 
CAMPS, AND RETURN. 



To Vernal and Nevada Falls 

To Yosemite Falls and Eagle 
Peak 

To Glacier Point and Sen- 
tinel Dome 

To Yosemite Point 

To Eagle Peak 

To Vernal and Nevada Falls 
and Glacier Point (Con- 
tinuous 1 rip) 

To Glacier Point, Sentinel 
Dome and Fissures 

To Old Inspiration Point and 
Stanford Point 

To Vernal and Nevada Falls 
and Cloud's Rest (Same 
Day) 

Charges for Guide (Includ- 
ing Horse) When Furnished 



Estimated 
Distance 
(Round Trip) 


Rate for Party 
of Four or 
More 


Rate for Party 
of Less Than 
Four 


Miles 


Each 
Person 


Each 
Person 


10.90 


$ 2.50 


$ 3.00 


13.18 


3.00 


3.00 


11.14 
10.00 
13.00 


3.00 
2.50 
3.00 


3.00 
3.00 
3.00 


19.22 


4.00 


5.00 


14.00 


3.50 


3.75 


16.00 


4.00 


4.00 


22.00 


4.00 


5.00 




Free 


3.00 



1. Trips other than those above specified shall be 
subject to special arrangements between the parties 
and the stables. 

2. Any excess of the above rates, as well as any 
extortion, incivility, misrepresentation, or riding of 
unsafe animals, should be reported to the Superin- 
tendent's office. 

3. All distances are estimated from the Superin- 
tendent's office. 



APPENDIX. 107 

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE OF DISTANCES. 
FROM SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE. 

MILES 

Bridal Veil Falls 4 

Yosemite Falls, base % 

Upper Yosemite Fall, base 2% 

Upper Yosemite Fall, top 4^4 

Little Yosemite Valley 8 

Glacier Point (short trail) 4% 

Glacier Point (via Nevada Falls) 14% 

Cascades 8 



INTERPRETATION OF INDIAN NAMES. 

The Indians had names for all the prom- 
inent features of the Yosemite Valley, and 
these have been variously translated (some- 
times with considerable poetic license), and 
variously spelled. The translations given 
below are as literal as posible, without 
embellishment, and are believed to be fairly 
accurate. The spelling adopted is such as 
best indicates the pronunciation. 

The English names, by which the falls and 
peaks are commonly known, bear no rela- 
tion to the Indian names, but were be- 
stowed by the soldiers of the Mariposa 



108 APPENDIX. 

Battalion at the time the Valley was dis- 
covered. The appropriateness and good 
taste of most of them are due to Dr. L. H. 
Bunnell, the surgeon of the expedition. 
Ah-wah'-nee (original name of Yosemite 

Valley) — "Deep grassy valley." 
Yo-sem'-i-te — "Full-grown grizzly bear." 
Po-ho'-no (Bridal Veil) — "A puffing 

wind. ' ' 
Loi'-ya (The Sentinel) — "A signal sta- 
tion." 
Cho'-lack (Yosemite Falls)— "The falls." 
Cho-ko'-ni (Royal Arches) — "Canopy of 
baby basket." Strictly speaking, this 
name applies only to a deep alcove near 
the top of this cliff. 
Yo- wei'- yee ( Nevada ) — i ' Twisting. ' ' 
To-tau-kon-nu'-la (El Capitan) — Named 
from the To-tau'-kons, or cranes, which 
used to make their nests in a meadow 
near the top of this rock. 
Ku-so'-ko (Cathedral Rock) — Interpreta- 
tion doubtful. 
Pu-see'-na Chuck'-ah (Cathedral Spires) 
— "Pu-see-na" means mouse or rat, and 
might possibly be applied to a squirrel. 
"Chuck-ah" is a store house or cache. 



APPENDIX. 109 

"Waw-haw'-kee (Three Brothers)— " Fall- 
ing rocks. Pom-pom-pa'-sus, usually 
given as the Indian name of the Three 
Brothers, is the name of a smaller rock 
immediately to the West. 

Wei-yo w' ( Mt. Watkins ) — "Juniper 
Mountain. ' ' 

To-ko'-ya (North Dome)— "The Basket." 

Tis-sa'-ack (Half Dome) — A character in 
Indian mythology. 

Mah'-ta (Cap of Liberty) — Said to mean 
"Martyr Mountain." 

Pi-wei'-ack (Vernal Fall) — Said to mean 
* ' Sparkling water. ' ' 

Le-ham'-i-tee (Indian Canyon) — "The 
place of the arrow- wood. ' 9 

Hum-mo / (Devil's Thumb)— "The Lost 
Arrow. ' ' 

Ah-wei'-ya ( Mirror Lake) --' ' Quiet Water. ' ' 

Too-loo'-lo-wei-ack ( Illillouette Fall) — In- 
terpretation doubtful. 

Wah'-wo-nah — "Big Tree." (Now com- 
monly spelled and pronounced Wa-wo'- 
na.) 



110 APPENDIX. 

HEIGHTS OF YOSEMITE'S WATERFALLS. 

FEET 

Cascades 700 

Bridal Veil 940 

Ribbon 3,300 

Sentinel 3,270 

Yosemite (Upper 1,600 ft.; Lower 400 ft.) 2,634 

Royal Arch 2,000 

Vernal 350 

Nevada 700 

Illillouette 500 



YOSEMITE'S PEAKS AND DOMES. 
WITH ALTITUDES ABOVE FLOOB OF VALLEY. 

(The Valley Floor is about 4,000 feet above 
sea level.) 

FEET 

Inspiration Point 1,248 

El Capitan 3,300 

Cathedral Rock 2,678 

Cathedral Spires 1,934 

Royal Arches (span) 2,000 

The Sentinel 3,100 

Sentinel Dome 4,122 

Three Brothers 3,900 

Eagle Peak 3,900 

Yosemite Point 3,220 

Glacier Point 3,250 

North Dome 3,725 

Half Dome 5,000 

Cap of Liberty 3,062 

Union Point 2,350 

Cloud's Rest 5,912 

Mt. Starr King 5,100 



APPENDIX. Ill 

NAMES OF INDIAN NUMERALS. 

King-eet' One 

O-tee'-cat Two 

Tul-o'-cat Three 

O-e'-sart Four 

Mo'-ho"-cat Five 

Te'-mo"-cat Six 

Te- tow'-ok Seven 

Cow-in'-tuk Eight 

El'-e"-wok Nine 

Ne-ah'-jah Ten 

Larger numbers are expressed by combinations of 
these numbers. 

INDIAN WORDS IN COMMON USE. 

Wat-too' The Sun 

Co'-ma Moon 

He-a'-mah Day 

Cow-il'-la Night 

Tum-aw'-lin North 

Chu'-muck South 

He'-home East 

El-o'-win West 

Het-a-poo'-pa Cold 

Wool-tut'-tee Hat 

Come'-haw Burn 

Chum'-haw Dead or Die 

Na'-win Up or Above 

Hoo'-ya Down or Below 

Wool-ar'-nee To Hunt or Look For 

Took'-hah To Kill 

E'-win Now 

Oo'-haw By and By 

Man'-nik More 

Ut'-tee Much 

Wa'-le-co Quick 

Now'-tah To Steal 

Nung'-hah Man 

O'-hock Woman 

Es-el'-lo Baby or Infant 



112 APPENDIX. 

NAMES OF THE INDIAN TRIBES PLACED 

ON THE 

FRESNO AND KINGS RIVER RESERVATIONS 

IN 1850 AND 1851. 

Names of Tribes — From — 

Wil-tuk'-um-nees Tuolumne River 

Yo-sem'-i-tees Yosemite Valley 

Po-to-en'-sees and Noot'-choos Merced River 

Chow-chil'-lies Chowchilla Valley 

Me'-woos Fresno Valley 

Chook-chan'-cies Fresno and San Joaquin Rivers 

Ho-na'-ches San Joaquin River 

Pit-cal'-chees and Tal-an'-chees . . .San Joaquin Valley 

Cas-was'-sees Fine Gold Gulch 

Wah-too'-kees, Wat'-chees, No'-to- 

no'-tose and We-mel'-chees Kings River 

Cow-il'-lees and Tel-um'-nees Four Creeks 

Woo'- wells and Tal'-chees Tule Lake 



WAWON A 

Formerly "Clark's" 

One of the most charming spots on earth, near 

the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees, on the 

Wawona Route to Yosemite Valley. 



Splendid Trout Fishing 

Elevation, 4,000 Feet 

Celebrated Mineral Springs 



Address 



Wawona Hotel Co. 



WAWONA, CAL. 



The finest view of the 
Valley is to be had from 
™ Artist's Point == 



But views from all points, 
in genuine platinum prints 
(black and white, and sepia) 
also in Velox, bromide and 
other papers, may be had at 

Fiske's Studio 



Opposite the Postofflce 



Yosemite Valley 



FREE EXHIBIT OF PHOTOGRAPHS 
AND TRANSPARENCIES=^ 



Yosemite Valley Store 

NELSON E. SALTER, Proprietor 

Yosemite - - - California 



A specialty made of 
Tourists' and 
Campers' Supplies 

A fresh line of 
Groceries and 
Provisions always 
on hand 

Tents and complete 
Camping Outfits 
for rent 

Parties Outfitted for 
High Sierra Camp- 
ing Trips 



Write for Prices and Information 



tSentinel Hotel 



Yosemite Valley 




J. B. COOK, Proprietor. 

Situated on the Bank of the River 

Directly Opposite the 

Yosemite Falls 



TABLE FIRST CLASS 



Western Union Telegraph, Express and 
Post Offices in Connection with this Hotel. 
Stage Seats Reserved. Express and Post 
Office Money Orders Cashed. 

For further Information, address 

J. B. COOK, YOSEMITE, CAL., 
or any of the Agencies 



Camp Yosemite 



Conducted Under the Management 
of the Sentinel Hotel 



Situated just to the right of the Yosem- 
ite Falls, in a magnificent grove of black 
oaks, in the ideal spot of all Yosemite. At 
the camp will be found Galen Clark, the 
discoverer of the Mariposa Grove of Big 
Trees, and one of the first white men to 
enter the Yosemite Valley. Mr. Clark is 
probably more familiar with Yosemite 
and its Indian legends than any other liv- 
ing exponent and consequently makes an 
interesting guest at the camp fire in the 
evening. 

Camp Yosemite coupons accepted at 
the Glacier Point Camp without additional 
cost to the holder. 

For further information, address 

J. B. COOK, Yosemite, Cal. 

or any of the Agencies 



BooI^s by Galen Clark 



"Indians of the Yosemite" 

Their History, Customs and Traditions 

'The Big Trees of California" 

Their History and Characteristics 



These books contain the latest and 
most authoritative information on 
the Big Trees and Yosemite Valley, 
and should be read by all visitors 
to this wonderful region. The cloth- « 
bound copies (without advertising 
pages) make handsome gifts or ap- 
propriate souvenirs. 

For sale by dealers, or will be sent post 
paid by the author on receipt of price. 
Cloth, $1.00; Paper, 50 cents. 

GALEN CLARK, 

Yosemite California 



GET POSTED ON CALIFORNIA 



"Railroad Blue Book" 

The most comprehensive pocket 
guide for the transportation sys- 
tems of the Pacific Coast. Rates 
of fare, elevations, populations and 
complete index for all railroad and 
stage points. 

"CALIFORNIA" 

The pioneer guide for the tourist 
and pleasure seeker. A description 
of the well known resorts and how 
they are reached. 

"Summer Trips for 1907" 

This is the eighth annual edition of 
the best known guide to the sum- 
mer resorts. Get one before they 
are all gone. 

Send us ten cents postage for above 

publications, or call at our 

well known 

FREE INFORMATION BUREAUS 

The Peck-Judah Co., Inc. 

789 Market St. 222 So. Spring St. 

San Francisco Los Angeles 



Being a stranger and visitor in 

Yosemite, what you NOW most 

desire and need is 

Foley's Yosemite 

Souvenir and Guide 

1907 Edition and up to date 

This is not an ordinary stock guide 
book, but one full of choice Yosemite 
matter, both historical and descriptive. 

The illustrations are good, too. You 
not only need this book here, but you will 
also need it when you return home, for it 
will then help you to describe what you 
have already seen here. 

...Only 50c... 

D. J. FOLEY, Publisher, "Tourist" Office, 

YOSEMITE, CAL. 

YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK 

Also Publisher of the "Yosemite Tourist," the 
Valley paper, put up for mailing at 10c per copy 



In Touring California 
Visit 

Hotel del Monte 

California's Beautiful Winter 
and Summer Hotel 

Weather is ideal the year round 
for surf-bathing, hunting, auto- 
mobiling, polo and pony racing. 
You can play golf every day in 
the year. A full eighteen-hole 
course, with green and tees 
always green — the finest in the 
world. 

Through Parlor Car from Los Angeles 
Direct to the Hotel 

Write 

GEO. P. SNELL, Manager 

DEL MONTE, CALIFORNIA 



9 Hon? from San Francisco— 16 Hours from Los Angeles 




YOSEMITE 

COMFORTABLE - DUSTLESS - CONVENIENT 

SAN 80 MILE *mr 

TEEL HIGHWAY 

TO 

CALIFORNIA'S WONDERLAND 

ITS FEATURES 
A first-class, up-to-date, standard gauge railroad. 
Fine vestibule trains for convenience of patrons. 
Luxurious observation cars a special feature. 
The quickest and most scenic route to Yosemite.* 

FORMERLY 

two days' hot. dusty, tiresome staging. 
NOW 



..four hours in an observation car.. 



Write O. W. LEHMER, Traf. Mgr. 

YOSEMITE VALLEY RAILROAD CO. 

MERCED, CAL. 



THE BORROWER WILL BE CHARGED 
AN OVERDUE FEE IFTHIS BOOK IS NOT 
RETURNED TO THE LIBRARY ON OR 
BEFORE THEJ-AST DATE STAMPED 
BELOW. NON-RECEIPT OF OVERDUE 
NOTICES DOES NOT EXEMPT THE 
BORROWER FROM OVERDUE FEES. 







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