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X 






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THE INDIGENOUS DRUGS 

OF INDIA. 






THE 

INDIGENOUS DRUGS 

OF INDIA: 

SHORT DESCRIPTIVE NOTICES OF 

THE PRINCIPAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS MET WITH 

IN BRITISH INDIA: 



BY 



KANNY LALL DEY, Rai Bahadur, CLE., F.CS., 

Late Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Examiner to Government ; 
Honorary Member, Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain ; 
Joint President, Section of Pharmacology, Indian 
Medical Congress, 1894, etc. 



ASSISTED BY 

WILLIAM MAIR, 

Associate of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 



SECOND EDITION, 
Revised and Entirely Re-written. 



CALCUTTA: 

THACKER, SPINK ANT) CO, 
London: W. THACKER AND CO., 87, Newgate Street, E.C. 

1896. 
[All rights reserveti,] 



1 

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- * » ^* 
> * -**■*■* 



• ••• ••, 

• • • • 

• • •• • • 

• • • • 

• ••* % 



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• • 



• % • 

• • • 



CALCUTTA : 
PKINTBD BY THACKBR, SPINK AND CO. 



(on^i- 



« • • 
• •• • 

• • • 



WIIH nEMEB30S, TD THE 

PHARMACEUTICAL SOCEETY OF GREAT BRITAIN 



THE aoawn BAB WQ^ momM 1RA5 MTSABS 



FHABMACEmCAL ASiD FHABMACOLOGICAL 

KNOWLEDGE, 

ASD AS A HUSBLI TBIBCTS OF RKSFBCT. 

KANNY LALL DEY. 



• • 




No surer indication of progress could be cit( 
^han the awakened interest in the subject of India's 
Indigenous Drugs, witnessed within the past few 
years. In 1 826 Ainslie published the Materia Medica 
of Himlusian ; in 1844 O'Shaugnessy produced the 
Bengal Pharmacopoeia ; and in 1868 Waring issued 
the Indian Phavmacopceia. These monumental works 
are replete with particulars regarding the drugs of 
India. They give expression to a rich store of 
personal investigation and to laborious compilation 
from an army of contenipoi-aries, in the more direct 
field of botany, of whom mention need hardly be 
made of such names as Jones, Roxburgh, Wallich, 
Buchanan-Hamilton, Griffith,Graliam, Fleming, Royle 
and Wight. But with the establishment in India of 
Universities and Medical Schools where European 
medical science was taught there soon arose an army 
of pupils not unworthy of their great masters. In 
the field of pharmacology no ntimea are more dis- 
tinguished than those of Kanny Lall Dey, author of 



The Indigenous Vi-ugs of India, published in 1867 ; 
Moodeen Sheriff, Supplement to the Pharmacopceia of 
India, in 18G9 ; and U. C. Dutt, Vte Materia Medica 
of the Hindus, in 1877. Dr. Dey's two contempora- 
ries have passed away, but they have left to the 
rising generation the legacy of a still vastly unex- 
plored field of research. A veteran in both years 
and knowledge Dr. Dey still leads his countrymen 
forward, He has re^nsed and greatly improved his 
Indigenous Dnigs of India, and presents it to the 
public in a form in which it may fairly well claim to 
become a text-book in our Medical Schools. He has 
been pleased to place the proofs of this revision in 
my hands. I have looked through these with much 
interest. It has surprised me greatly to find how 
thoroughly and accurately he has compressed into 
the limited scope proposed for his work the more 
valuable and recent information regarding the chief 
drugs of India. His hand-book does not of course 
profess to supersede the great works that have 
appeared recently on that subject. The Phaiina- 
cographia Indica of Dymock, Warden and Hooper 
must continue to be in the hands of all interested in 
Indian drugs. Dr. Dey'a book has been written for 
students, and as such is eminently suitable. 

He has rightly recognised that the exjjression 
" Indigenous Drugs" if employed too literally would 
have excluded a distinct percentage of the drugs that 
enter very largely into every-day practice. Many of 
the eo called indigenous drugs can be shown to be 



introduced plants completely naturalised. Others, 
such as Cinchona, are cultivated in India, and there- 
fore should find a place in an Indian student's 
manual. But there is a still more arbitrary restric- 
tion forced sometimes on the expreseion " Indigenous 
Drugs" that would exclude from that position all the 
drugs that appear in the British Pharmacopteia even 
although India may be the country of the world's 
supply. Dr. Dey has uot accepted that view, and 
occordingly deals with all the drugs procurable in 
India whether they be indigenous to this country or 
not. 

As a strong advocate of a more extended substitu- 
tion of locally -procured drugs I hold with Dr. Dey 
that the advantage may not be so much in the finan- 
cial saving to the country as in the more extended 
use of serviceable drugs. No one who has looked 
into the question of t,he remedial agents sold in the 
village drug-shops can disguise from himself the 
conviction that many, in fact the majority, are worse 
than useless. The few that are good are neglected, 
and largely so because the cry for imported drugs 
and European pharmacy is obliterating all knowledge 
in the time immemorial experience of the useful 
drugs of this country. Dr. Dey has wisely eliminated 
the useless and concentrated attention on the valu- 
able- His work is a compendium of forty years' 
esperience and deserves to be widely popular and 
jf Btudied. 

GEOKGli; WATT. 



HBefully Btud 



CONTENTS. 



FREFATOBT MEMOIR 

nrrRODucTORY 

INDIAN PHARMAOOIiOGY-A REVIEW 
TABLES OF BRITISH INDIAN EQUIVALENTS ... 
INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA 
APPENDICES :- 

(I) AOONITUM NaPBLLUS 

Acx)NiTB Collection in the Himalaya 

(II) AILANTHUS EXCELSA 

(III) Fluid ExTKACTS 

(IV) Foods OP India 

BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION 

IHm^muJL. ••• .•• •■. ••• ... 



Page. 

• « ■ 

xui 

xxi 

xxvii 

xxxix 

1 

335 
337 
340 
341 
347 

349 
357 




It has appeared to the writer that a sketch of the public 
.'Uid professional career of the author of tbis work may be of 

Iterest to many readers. The present raemoir, necessarily 
lef, deals almost exclusively, in accordaoce with the 
pressed wish of itt subject, with those outstanding events 
his life relating more or less directly to that portion of 
{life's work which gives the title to this volume. 
Eanny Lall Dey was born in Calcutta in 1831, .^o that he 
now in his sixty-fifth year. His father, Rai Radhanath 
)y, was a Deputy Collector. By some favouring chance, 
imlike most men, young Eanny Lall discovered early the 
peculiar bent of his mind, and he was fortunate in the oppor- 
tunity of following its directions. His aptitude for chemistry 
d medical jurisprudence, while yet a diligent and successful 
ident of the Calcutta Medical College and winner of some 
|lta most coveted prizes, marked out these departments of 
e as his speciality. The proud possessor eventually of 
9 College diploma, a real distinction in those pre-tTniver- 
y days, and at the age of twenty-two, he entered Qovern- 
nt service as a Sub-Asststant Surgeon with the Bengal 
Bdical Establtshmeut, and was at once appointed as Assis- 
bt to the Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Examiner 



.^^B. 



Ifa ff 



XIV PHEFATOKY MICMOIR. 

to Q o vein men t in the Calcutta Medical College, a position 
which he held with much acceptance till 1869. In 1862 
was also appointed Piofesaov of Chemistry in the Preaidency 
College, Calcutta. During a portioD of the same year he 
officiated, during the abseuce, on furlough, of Dr. F. N. Mao- 
namara, as Professor of Chemistry and Cliemical Examiner 
to Government, and again acted in the same capacity i 
1S77. In 1SC7 he was appointed Additional Chemical 
Examiner to Govettiment, a position which he retained 
till 1872. 

Ill 1869 he was appointed Teacher of Chemistry and 
Medical Jurisprudence to the vernauular classes in the 
Calcutta Medical College, which appointment he contiuued 
to hold niitil bis retirement from Qovernmeut service 
1884. His tutorial record concludes with an Examinership 
in Medical Jurisprudence and Chemistry, to which he was 
ajipointed by the Syndicate of the University of Calcutta 
1878, and subsequently till 1891. The great want in those 
diiya of suitable text-books ill the vernacular induced Dr. 
Kanny Lall to undertake the preparation of several, in- 
cluding translations of some standard works into Bengali, 
which appeared fmm time to time. 

Throughout this long and active professorial career, and 
in brief intervals of leisure snatched from busy days, his 
private medical practice gradually increasing meanwhile, 
the Doctor had given his attention to a study, till then 
much neglected— the medicinal resources of his native land 
— which was destined to be the field in which he has won 
most of the distinction to which he has attained. 

The great commercial value of International Exhibitions, 
and their educational and economic interest, had been 
demonstrated by the Great Exhibition of 1851, originated 
and promoted by Albert the Good ; and to the second 



PaEFATORY Mt^MOIK. XT 

tnteniational Exhibition, held in Loudon in 1862, Dr. 
Kaiiiiy Lall Dey was invited to ctmtribute by the Qoveru- 
nient of India. He forwarded a callectiun of indigenouH 
dru>rs and medicinal oils, for wliich he viaa awarded two 
luedak. 

A catalogue which he prepared to accoiupany this Exhibit 
was the nucleus of the tirst edition of the present work, 
prepared at the instance of the tlien Inspector-General of 
Hospitals, and published in 1807, of which the Oovernment 
of India was pleased to purchase 600 copies. He con- 
^^^ibuted about this time a number of articles on the thera- 
^^■baticB of Indian indigenous drugs to the Pkat-macopceia 
^^HF India, then in course of preparation, the Editor's ac- 
^^fcowledgments being duly recorded in that work. Another 
^^hng collection, contributeil in the same year to the Paris Kx- 
^Ipsitioti Universale, brought him a gold medal and certificate 
li of honour, while a subsequent collection sent to Paris, to the 
great Exhibition of 187)J, for which he was ainiilarly reward- 
ed, earned for him in addition the congratulations and thanks 
of the Viceroy, for his services in developing the drug re- 
sources of the country. This collection was ultimately pre- 
sented by Dr. Kanny Lail Dey to the Museum de Pharmocie 
of Paris, for which lie received the acknowledgments of the 
I French Oovernment. Among other similar collections which 
j^^Kky be enumerated, omitting many local to India, are : — one 
^^ftwarded in 1^70 to the University of Virginia, U. S., for 
^^HUch he received the thanks of the Senate; and others, to 
^^^b Vienna Exhibition of 1872, for which he received a gold 
^^^bdal, a diploma and two certitlcates of honourable mention ; 
^^Ble Melbourne Exhibition, 1880; the Amsterdam Exhibitioni 
1883 ; the World's Centennial Exposition, New Orleans, 
imO.S. A, 1884-85; and the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. 
I^^^pdon, 1886, for all of which he has been suitably rewarded 



XVI PREFATORY MBMOllt, 

his bright study is decorated with diplomas and meinoriala 
of past achievements. In this connection may be recorded 
also the fact that he was selected by the Secretary of State, 
ill 1S74, to make a collection, to which he devoted two yeara, 
of the drugs of Bengal in illustration of the Pharmucopmaof 
Indiafor the Museum at Netley Hospital, for the benefit of 
surgeons joining the Indian Medical Service. It has perhaps 
been all too little made use of. He would wish to sec a 
knowledge of Indian Materia Medica taught in the training 
schools of India's medical ofGceis, In 1877 he prepared, 
under the orders of Government, five complete sets of the 
indigenous drugs of India for the five medical schools of 
Bengal, for which he received the thanks of Government. 

A graceful acknowledgment of his services in thus helping 
to further the economic progress of India was his appoint- 
ment, in 1872, to the Permanent Committee for the col- 
lection of Indian products for the Kensington and Vienna 
Museums, and later, in 1874, to the Select Committee ap- 
pointed on the occasion of the foundation of the Museum 
of India at Calcutta. He acted as juror in no less than 
fifteen sections at the Calcutta Exhibition of 1883-84. 

Some of the rewards and distinctions that have been be- 
stowed upon him may now fittingly be recorded, The Phnr- 
maceutical Society of Great Britain recognised, as early as 
1863, his abilities as a. pharmacognosist by electing him au 
Honorary Member, " a, distinction which is reserved," as the 
influential Chemiet and Ihuggiat lately observed, in an ap- 
preciative memoir of our subject C27th January 1 894), " for 
the world's fifty most eminent men of science related to phar- 
macy." He is at present the only Honorary Member of tha 
Society in India. He has made occasional original contri- 
butions to the Phai~>naceutical Journal. The President 
of the Society, Mr. Michael Carteighe, f,c.8„ has been 



PREFATOHY MEMOIR. XVII 

pleased to accept, on behalf of Biitish pharmaoologista, the 
dedication of thU book to the Pharmaceutical Society. 

The nest honour, in chronological sequence, was that of 
the then much coveted title, Rai Bahadur, bestowed in 1872, 
" in recognition," according to the Oazette, " of valuable ser- 
vicea rendered to the cause of medical science in India." 
The eitmiud or title-deed of distinction, was presented at 
the Medical College, before a large and enthusiastic gathering 
of the medical profession and alumni of the College, the 
London Times of 3rd October 1872, reporting that "the 
Native press is quite enthusiastic on the subject. The title 
is equivalent to our order of Knighthood, and is highly 
estimated in India." On the occasion of Her Majesty's 
assumption of the Imperial title he received a certificate of 
honour from the Hon'ble Sir Richard Temple, K.cs.l., then 
Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, in recognition of his services 
to the State as a practical chemist and teacher of chemistry. 
In 18G7 he was elected a Fellow of the Calcutta Univer- 
sity. 

In ISSO the Rai Bahadur was elected a Fellow of the 
Chemical Society of London, and in the same year a Fellow 
of the Society of Science, Letters and Arts of London- 
Nor have foreign scientists failed to recognise his ability. 
In I88G he became a corresponding Fellow of the 
College of Physicians, Philadelphia. He was invited to 
represent India at the International Pharmaceutical and 
Medical Congress held in London in 1881. It is perhaps to 
l>e regretted that religious prejudice, a stronger influence 
then than i'dw, should have prevented him from crossing 
1 "black water," but he sent the results of some original 
Krvations which were published in the Proceedings. At 
p close of thirty years of continuous Government service, 
his retirement in 1884, be was decorated with the 
b 




XVIU PREFATOHY MEMulK. 

dignity of a Companion of tlie Moat Emineut Order of the 
Indian Empire, "in recognition of valuable services rendered 
to Governmeut and of his professionul and scientific attain- 
ments." It may be noted that at that time ho was the only 
Indian medical practitioner, with one exception, on whom 
this high distinction had teen conferred. 

Such is the record of good v ork well done, a record of 
patient perseverance and gra'iual progress, a life of 
industrious research lived in the interests of his fellow 
counli'ymen and an admirable example of quiet andcultured 
ettort towards a high ideal of usefulness. Rai Kanny Lall 
has now retired from the extensive medical practice which 
he rapidly acquired on his relinquishingGovernuient service 
Imthe remains, as he has always been, a student, and hia 
time is mainly" devoted to clinical chemistry and its applica- 
tion in medical diagnosis, while maintaining his intimate 
■acquaintance with the literature of his favourite studi 
His services as a physician are still frequently requisitioned 
by old and grateful patients, and he is retained as medical 
adviser by several of the princely families of Calcutta. Nor 
is his well-earned leisure unencroached upon by ofBcial 
obligations (we omit entirely hia honorary, judicial and 
municipal appointments). He was called upon to give 
evidence before the Hemp Drugs Commission hold in India 
in 1894, and before the recent Royal Commission on Opium. 
His election to the Joint-Presidentship of the Indian Medical 
Congress, held at Calcutta in Christmas week of 1894, was 
a graceful tribute on the part of the medical profession in 
India. The address on " Indian Pharmacology," which he 
delivered on that occasion, reproduced in these pages, was 
honoured with important editorial notices in the three 
leading daily newspapers of Calcutta, and was in part the 
auhject of a resolution by the Government of India in 



PUEFATOHY MtMUIIt. XIX 

KlUticil at Simla iu the following year. The following is au 
Ecerpt from the text of the reeolation ; — 
"III the aectiouof Pharmacology and IndiaD Druga of tbe Indian 
Medical CongTcsa. eight papers were read on the oseof indigeuoQ^ 
dmga, iLe luoHt important being those by Dr. O. Watt, u.d., o.H., 
rx.&, C.I.B., and by Rai Baliadur Kauny L»ll Dey, f.o.s., c.i.e. Ib 
his paper on the subject, Dr .Watt enumerated the names and reputed 
properties of the drug's iudigenous to India, and urged the deairability 
of greater attention being given to the study of iuch drugs, aud Bat 
Bnbadur Kaiiny Lall Dey made the following suggeutioiis : — 

(I) thai definite pharmacologiuiil preporatioiia of certain indi- 
^^^ geaoua drugd aliould be m ide at the Medieaj Store Dapdti 

^^^H for distribution to the various hospitals and diapenaarios 

^^^1 for and report 

^^^P (3) that medicinal plant farma s'lonld be laid out in the districts 
^^H most suited to the ptanta which it is proposed to grow ; and 

^^^K (2) that a drug emporium should be established at Calcutta." 

With the view of conaidering these suggestions in a 
practical way aotl the question of the extended use of 
indigeuous drug.s, the Government of India appointed the 
Indigenous Drugs Committee, consisting of — Dr, George 
King. C.I.I-., Dr. J. F. P. McConnell, Dr. C. J. H. Warden, 
Dr. George Watt, C.I.E., and Dr, Kanny Lall Dey, CI.E,, 
which will not have completed its sittings ere this book is 
in the hands of the public 

The Doctor has read widely of the literature of the day ; 
he loves knowledge for its own sake, and he has written, 
(luring the years that have passed under review until 
the present time, numerous papem which have appeared in 
the Indiau medical journals on the subject of indigenous 
drug» and on toxicological and therapeutical topics, while 
he has contributed some enlightened writings towards the 
I reform of Hindu sociology. He is deeply religious, 
although a staunch adherent of the Brahamiuical 




.XX PRBFATORY MEMOIR. 

faith, is not conservative: he has a fine conception of true 
religion in its highest and most practical ideals. His 
dignified bearing, courteous and gentlemanly demeanour, 
begotten of his long-continued, intimate intercourse with 
men of eminence in official and professional circles, his per- 
fect command of the English language, allied to the subtle 
perception innate to the Bengali, and his sterling integrity 
of character, are distinguishing personal characteristics 
which have won for him the respect and esteem of his many 
fi'iends— European and Indian. 

It is pleasing to record that he is privileged to retain the 
friendship of many distinguished men who were his col- 
leagues and superiors in former years, now in well-earned 
retirement ' at Home.' 

** Folly loves the martyrdom of fame/' 

but Rai Eanny Lall Dey's name is writ permanently in the 
estimation of his countrymen, and it will live in his Father- 
land he has served so long and so well. May he be spared 
for many years to come in the satisfaction of having con- 
tributed his quota to his country's greatness. 

W. M. 



INTRODUCTORY- 



AXTHOUOH frequently and strongly urged by professioDat 
friends and by the publishers, to re-issue or re-print this- 
work, since the publication of the first edition in 1867, the 
author has deferred arrangements for the preparation of a 
new edition until the present time, chiefly because the field 
was worthily occupied by other students, some of whon> 
had better facilities and more opportunity for original re- 
search at their command. The interval has produced the 
Phai*macopcsia of Indian a work which, ostensibly a com- 
pendium of all that was reliable about important indigenous 
drugs, though admitted to be imperfect and inadequate, has 
now become not only practically obsolete, but is neither an 
official nor a legal standard. It has also seen the issue of the 
Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, and of the 
Phamiacographia Indica, works which are classical, but 
which may almost be said to be inaccessible, by reason of 
their voluminousness. 

The continued demand of the public, however, for this 
work seemed to indicate that the want of a convenient 
manual, not intended to replace larger works, but em- 
bodying the most essential, reliable and receiit informa- 
tion, still remained unfilled. The present edition is an 
attempt to supply that want : it is a r^aum^ of the great 
mass of information which has become available during 



XXll INTitODUCTORY. 

forty years of Htiuiy which the author has given to Uie 
indigenous medicinal products of this country, nrid it is be- 
lieved that it may form a useful guide to the important and 
extensive subjent of wliicb it treats. The original work 
extended to 1:J0 pages : the present edition has been entire- 
ly re-written and cousideiably enlarged. 

The marked and increasing interest which has been 
manifested during recent years, on the part of all grades of 
the uieilical profession in India, in the subject of indigenous 
drugs, leading up in some measure to the establishment of 
a successful secti'in devoted to Pharmacology and Indige- 
nous Drugs at the late Indian Medical Congress, and its still 
more practical outcome — the appointment of a Comraissioti. 
by the GovcrnTnent of India. " to consider tho desimbility 
of extending the use of indigenous drugs in India" — hiive 
together suggesLed the present as a suitable opportunity for 
the publication of this work in its present form. 

It will be evident that the limits of space have precludeil 
the possibility of the enumeration of any but the more pi-o- 
mtnent facts relating to each article, and those of a general 
and economic, rather than a purely scientilic application. Tiie 
information recorded has been compiled, as far as possible, 
from actuni acquaintance with individual substances and 
from pei'sonal experience : it was originally intended to have 
given in this edition descriptions in popular language of 
the principal drugs available, at least in Bengal, but this 
was ultimately abandoned, except in regard to some essen- 
tial distinguishing features, since the churacters are in 
many instances not so marked or so constant as to be readily 
identified by verbal description, and since any particular 
article ordinarily available in the baz^r may be readily 
obtained by the use of the vernacular names, given through- 
out tho text in more or less phonetic expression — consider- 



INTHODULTORY. XSlil 

Stions wliicb may eK|ilaiD apparent Hlmrtcotniugs in the 
department of pure pharmiici'giiysy. 

While a number of medicinal substances of minor import- 
ance, comparutivety, have necessarily been retaiiieJ, muiih 
that is primitive, empirical and irrational, and much that is 
obsolete, although still honoured with a place in modern 
works oD Indian Malerhi Medica, has been judiciously eli- 
DiiDBted in the present volume. The work, on the other 
hand, while devoted to products of indigenous origin as 
distiiiguiflbed from imported, would have been obviously 
incomplete but for the inclusion of several — e.g., Cin- 
chona — which are not indigenous in the coiTect sense of 
tlie expression, but which, nevertheless, arc important 
products of cultivation, while many so-called indigenous 
are believed tn he introduclioiis of wore or less obscure 
origin. 

The results of the newest chemical researches on In- 
dian medicinal products, concluded to the beginning of 
the present year, have been embodied in the work, together 
with references, in most instances, to the original com- 
munications: a considerable number have not hitherto 
a{'peared in any work dealing with the subject, and several 
are published for the first time. The painstaking labours 
in this connection of Surgeon-Licutenant-Colonel C. J. H. 
Warden, M.D.. f.cs., and Mr. I>avid Hooper, F.cs., f.l.s,, 
liave probably left little of much importance in the domain 
uf Indian pharmacology that is still unisolated. The 
line of research that probably offers more scope for the 
prosecution of this diBicult branch of the study by ohemi- 

1 Bpeuialists — ditUcnlt, since plant analysis is still largely 

ttpirical-^is the investigation of the probable identity of 

t) of the active principles which are now regarded as 

Pstinct. Thi^ has been indicated in the comparatively 




XXIV INTKODLFCTORY. 

recent discovery of the isomerism of hjoscyamine and 
atropine, and the subsequent discovery of the identity of 
liyoseine with scopolamine, and emphasised in Hooper'B 
recent work on AilantkuB ciceisa (Appendix, p. 3WJ, while 
the newer chemistry of croton oil (page 103} indicates 
another profitable line of research — that of re-inveatigating 
presently accepted principles. 

The classical names have been adopted at the head of 
each article as being the most universal : cross references 
have been provided where established names have been 
snpeiseded by newer botanical nomenclature, that of the 
Flora of Sritisli India, having been followed throughout 
the work. The alphabetical arrangement, if not the unist 
scientific, was adopted after careful consideration as being 
the most popular, and asTollowing the design of the original 
work ; other names and synonyms will readily be fonnd on 
a reference to the Index, which will be found to be fairly 
copious. 

A plan has been devised, it is believed for the 6rst time, 
and embodied in an Appendix — viz., the suggestion of phar- 
maceutical processes for the efficient exhibition of the 
medicinal products herein enumerated, fur the purpose of 
therapeutic investigation and practice. 

The author would take this opportunity of recording his 
cordial acknowledgments for much valuable assistance 
most willingly rendered by the following gentlemen; — 
Briqadk-Scroeon-Lieutbn ant-Colon EL George Kinu, 
MB., F.R.8., r.L.S., LL.D., c.i.E,, Superintendent of the 
Moyal Botanic Garden, Calcutta ; 
Dr. George Watt,M,b.,c.m,. f.la, ci.e., Reporter on Econ~ 

omic Products to the GovemTtient of India ; 
Mu, David Hoopeh, f.i.c, f.c.s., f.l.s., Quinologiat to tfte 
Goveiiiment of Madraa, Ootaoamund ; 





INTRODaCTORY. XXV 

Mr. Trailoehya Nath Mukharji, f.l.s., Assistant Curator, 
Economic and Art Section, Indian Mtiseum, Calcutta ; 
and to his friend and colleague, Mr. William Mair, to 
whom has fallen the task of editing the work and seeing 
it through the press. 

Dr. King has revised and corrected the Botanical Classi- 
fication. Dr. Watt's profound knowledge of the subject 
renders the Preface which he has contributed specially 
valuable. Mr. Hooper, in the course of a careful scrutiny 
which he has made of the proof-sheets as they have passed 
through the press, has added some important chemical facts 
and thus greatly enhanced the usefulness of the work. 
Mr. Mukharji has also revised, with much care, the proofs 
of the text and has made many valued emendations and 
additions which only his intimate practical acquaintance 
with the subject has rendered possible. The courtesies of 
several other friends have been acknowledged in the text. 

For valued counsel regarding the present publication 
and for the friendship and sympathy extended through 
many years by Dr. F. J. Mouat, Dr. F. N. Macnamara, 
and Sir Joseph Fayrer, Bart., the author desires to record 
in this place his sincere and grateful acknowledgments. 

To his son, Preo Lall Dey, f.cs., and to his nephew, 
AssiSTANT-SuuGEON RoMA Nath Dey, M.B., who have col- 
lected some of the materials, the Author's thanks are also 
due. 

KANNY LALL DEY. 

Calcutta, 4, Beadon Street, 
Ut July, 1896. 




H Thb immortal Dai'iviii concluded one of liU moat ex- 

^fiaastive monographs with tlie words : — " We only see how 
little has been maile out in comparison with what remain)} 
UDexplaiacd and unknown." This is exactly my feeling 
to-day in attempting to place before you a brief review of 
the subject which I have made a study for more than forty 
years. 

I aui fully conscious of the responsibility attached to 
the ofHce to wliich you have done me the honour to elect 
mo, and I trust that you may not be disappointed in my 
fulSIment of these responsibilities, I am becoming more 
and more reconciled to the fact that advancing age eon- 
strains me to leave this legacy of work undone to younger 
and abler men, but I shall endeavour in the time at my 
disposal to lay before you a sketch of the 

L PBOGiteSS OF PaARMACOLOOY 

Hk India, with some suggestions of possibilities as to its 
Ihtnre. 

It may not be unprofitable to glance for a moment at 
the aituieat Sanskrit Mntoria Medica of a time Joqg 
■ding tlie advent even of Aluhamcdauism in Iiklia, 



INDIAN PH4RMAC0L0GT : 



I have q 



3 lately found g 



i ruction 



I 



over seven centurie 
pleasure and no en 
old Sanski'it works dealing with the class ifi cat ion of vege- 
tables and the utilizatiou of their parts in medicine as 
practised by the physicians of India of the Puranic era aome 
thirteen centuries ago. The elaborate directions for the 
collection of drugs and their subseiiuent manipulation is, 
strange aa it may seem to European minds at least, not by 
any means unworthy of the methods of to-day, and you 
will perhaps be as astonished to learn, as I was to Gnd, that 
Honie of the mistakes of the most ancient of these Sanskrit 
writings survive in some of the best books treating of the 
indigenous drugs of India at the present time. They 
show the great progress which the ancient Hindiis had 
made in the healing art. Minute instructions were given 
on every conceivable point, such as the gathering of herbs, 
preparation of medicines, and the like. Annual plants were 
to be collected before the ripening of the seed, biennials in 
the spring, and perennials in the autumn : twigs were to be of 
the present year's growth : the roots to be collected in the 
cold season : the leaves in the hot .season : and the barks and 
woods in the rains. There were no fewer than twenty-six 
forma of medicine, including powders, extracts and boluaea, 
decoctions and infusions in water and milk, syrupa, expres- 
sions, distillations, fermentations, and medicated oils, many 
of them crude enough in their exhibition tut wondrously 
efficacious in the respective ailments for which they wers 
designed. Not, however, until the quickening influence of 
British supremacy had been fully established in India was 
any notable attempt made, of which there is any record, to 
improve or to augment what was already known of the 
medicinal resources of this country. Sir William Jones' 
" Botanical Observations on Select Indian Plants," was on« 



cnoi 

m 



A REVIEW. XXIX 

of the earliest contiibutious in this directiou -. Jolm 
Fleming's "Catalogue of Medicinal Plants" (1810); Ainslie's 
■•Materia Uediea of Hinduataa" (1813 and 182fi); Rox- 
burgh's"Flora Indica" in 1820, and the labours ui Wallicli, 
Royle, and later, of Di-s. F. J. Mouat and F. N: Mncnamara 
and other ardent botanists did much towards resolving the 
chaos in which they found the vast mass of material at their 
into some degree of scientific an-augement. 
The gradual progress of Indian pharmacology, the widen- 
and deepening of its inltuence, and its possibilities in 
contributing to the health and consequent prosperity of 
this vast Empire have been in complete sympathy with 
the gradual development of commerce, medicine, and 
science in this country. Clear of the mythology and super- 
stition from which, not unlike tlie medical science of Europe, 
it evolved, but which lingers stitl in India, the science ha-s 
in some measure at lesist demonstrated the marvellously 
liberal provision of curative and remedial agents within 
the reach of the teeming millions of tliis Empire. Follow- 
ing O'Shaugnessy's Bengal Pharmacopoeia (1844), the 
publication of the 

Pharmacopceia op India 
(1868) under the Editorship of Dr, Waring, signalized a new 
«pod) in the establishing of the value of indigenous medici- 
nal products. The more important were stamped with some 
measure of oHicial recognition, a preliminary step to the ulti- 
mate adoption of several in tbe British Pka^-macoptEia, a, dis- 
tinction of whicli many nitre, as I shall hope to allow, are 
«<|ua]ly worthy. Dr. Uoliideen Sheriff's " Supplement to the 
f hannacopceia," published in the following year, added very 
materially to the usefulness of that work, while his posthu- 
moUB work, edited by Mr. David Hooper, " Materia Medica of 
Jlftdras," is a useful work of lefereoce relating to the drugs 



^ 



XXX INDUS PHAKMACOLOay. 

of that Pi-esidency. Dr. U, C. Dult's bmiislation of " SansEnt- 
Materi& Medica" enriched this department of medical science 
in no inconsiderable degiee. The politstaktug labours of 
t'liickiger and Uaiibury, as embodied in the Pkarmacogm- 
phia, were of incalculable value in recording some ino»t im- 
[lortaut material relating to the medicinal products indigeii- 
uuato British India, Among recent authors the work of the 
late lamented Uymock has been perhaps the most valualile. 
His" Matsria Medica of Western India" (1883) was a most 
careful oompilation, while Ills later work, Pliarmacographia 
Indica, in joint authorship with Warden and Hooper, is au 
admirable emulabioQ of ita perfect prototype. 

Tlie comprehensive " Dictionary of the Economic Pro- 
ducts of India" by my honourable colleague in the Fresi- 
tiency of this section of the Indian Medical Congress, Dr. 
George Watt, c.i.E., combines a condensation of all the litera- 
ture of the subject with all tlie information it has been pos- 
sible to secure through official and other sources. Mr, T.N. 
Mukharji, F.L.ii., of the Imperial Museum, Calcutta, has, by 
the genuineness of his work in this department of science 
and his painstaking attention to details, come to be recog- 
nised as an authority ou all matters relating to the indig- 
enous drugs of India. The science is abo indebted to 
Mr. Thomas Christy, F.L.S, London, for his unremitted 
exertion to discover the value of new drugs and to in- 
troduce them to the commercial world. 

International Ex^uibitions 
in diHerent parts of the world, aud the invitations to 
the Indian Government to prepare exhibits infused fresh 
impetus into the somewhat commonplace researches into 
the medicinal resources of this country. 

Thus attempts have been made to separate the wheat 
from the tares. The literature on the subject is voluminous. 



ntet 
^^E dim 



idiiig even in the beat and moRt recent works toffardn 
ipriai and repetition, and the repctitiun, m I have already 
|K>iiit«d out, of statements that should long ago have been 
relegated to the oblivion whence they originated. In a new 
edition of my own little work (piiblinhed originally in 1867), 
on the "Indigenous Drugs of India." the advance sheets 
of which I have the honour to lay before you, I have tried 
to remedy these defects as fav as possible, to remove the 
errors and mistakes into which writer after writer had 
fallen by copying and quoting oue after nnntlier, to " prove 
■all and hold fast the good. " 
If we look now for 

RESULTS 

we will find that Materia Medico- as a science has bene* 
tiled materially from these reaeaTches, that the ai'n\amenta 
of the unprejudiced physician ha^ been increased with 
advantage, helping to raise Indian medicine in some small 
measure at least out of the mire of empiricism. The medi- 
einal properties and uses of these munificent gifts of Nature 
,ve become better known among the people, and uses that 
ifore were confitied to districts have .spread to larger and 
re useful areas. But while the example of the Oovem- 
lent of India is to be taken as our criterion in many 
instances it is not so in this particular ease. It is surety 
a reproach that in the latest list of medical stores for hospi- 
tab in Bengal only one country medicine — the herb 
cbiretta — appears.* 

I ■ Tlie OoveiDmant o( India hmve alDoe sapplemented thU intornatioD 
b7 their Rcaolntian nadec date, Simla, 3lat Ootobec Iit95. appointinga 
Commiuion lo oooBider the desirabilLty of exUailitij; the use of ia> 
dig«nooi drugs io India, of wliiah the toltowiag is nu exoerpt : — 

"TbeQoTBTQmeitof IdiIia ara advlBed that the mora ezteoded use of 
idigenooa drags in phaTmacologiaal prcparaliom bas hitherto been 



^^^UDdigenoaa dr 



ZZXU IKDIAX PHABIIACOLOGT : 

It U in view of such considerations as these that In 
endeavour to ofier some practical suggestions as to bow t 
more imjmrtant of our imligeuoUB drugs may be dealt witi 
not merely as indifferent substitutes for European products 
bat an each filling a place of its onn in point of usefuluec 
and therapeutic value. The 6rst consideration is that a 

mENTIFICATION. 
This will remain a prime difficulty until certain promineo 
characteristics of each drug become established, as 
amount of verbal description will enable the iion-botauieai'. 
miiid to identify some plants and parts which even j 
theuaclvesdo not invariably present t^uite the same ch&rae 
ters. The ease and cheapness with which almost all thedrug 
of this country are to be obtained will be facilitated great!) 



retarded by the circnmstaQce that the BophiBtic«lion and BdalteratjoB 
these drugs are carried on eo BjgtetaMioxi\j that it is aimosl 
to procuic tbem Iccatlj id a pare state, and also because there 
now aTailable imported remedies of a much more efficient nature. Ceitui 
indigenous drags, which can be obtained pure in the local tnarket, and 
id which adQlt^rations can be detected, are ased at the Medi 
Dep6ts. In his paper on Ibe subject, Rni Babadnt Kbqd; LatI Dej o 
oludes, from a perusal of the latest list of medical stores for hospital* 
in Bengal that ool; one sncb drug, namel; . chiretta, is so utilized 
bat from the list marginally aoted of drags now need in the Medioal. 
DepAts. wbich bu been famished to the Oovemment ol India, 
Lirt of drugs purchMod locally wonld seem that hia informati< 

' " " '"■ ° "' npou this point was imperfect. 

Govern meat ot India have no 
that other indigeDOUS drugs woal 
be employed in the Medical DepAM 
if the; ooold be obtained pure, 
a stable character, and at a pHoe i 
exceeding that at which they n 
Cartor ai], |^ Imported." 

[Indian o|>lam and Indiao grown cinohona and tbelr slkaloida i 
kiM uDed riolngUely.] 



JUnfcetido. 
Oalumba runt. 
Cardnmoni seoda, 

tkteuhu. 
Oiunamun bark. 
Cbiretto. 
Cnbebii. 



^uLutUi depAU 

Glycyrrhisa root 
Onm arabic. 

Myrrh. 
Senna laaTBH. 






with tile help of ttie vernacular uames peculiar to each 
district, as also with the aid of the profeasionat castes who 
deal ia these substances, the Musheras of Central and Upper 
India, the low caste Maules, Bediyds, Bagdia, Kaibartas, 
Pods, Chandals, Kaoras, and Karangae of Bengal and the 
Chandras, Bhils, and Gamtas of Bombay. These humble 
communities of the several Presidencies of India can render 
lensa service to medical men in supplying medicinal 
lants. This fact was fully recognised by Sir William 
'ones, the President-founder of the Asiatic Society of Bei^gal. 
In the second volume of his " Botanical Observations on 
Select Indian Plants '■ he wiote: — 

"laraverj solicitous to give ludicin plants their true Indian 
Kppellations ; becaoBe I am fully persuaded tbat Lionicus himself 
would hnve adopted them, had ha known the learned and ancient 
language of this country. • • • Far am I from doubting the great 
importance of perfect botanical (lescriptionB, for languages expire as 
nationa decay, and the true sense of many appellatives in every dead 
language must be lo&t in the course of ages ; but as long as those 
appellatives remain undarHtood, a travelling physician who should 
wish to procure an Arabian or Indian plant, and without asking for 
it by its learned or vulgar name, should hunt for it in the woods b; 
ita botanical character, would resemble a geographer, who, desiring 
toeniiiurebj name for a street or a town, would wait with his tables 
and instrnmenCs for a proper occasion to determine its longitude and 
latitude." 

The suggestion herein conveyed has been carried into 
effect in such namesas Anthocephalua Cadamba and Cednis 
Deodara, but it is to be regretted that it has not been 
possible to widen the system in the nomenclature of plants 
peculiar to India. 

Botanically, many of the doubtful points relating to the 

p lants yielding these drugs have been set at rest for ever 

^^^b Sir Joseph Hooker's extensive nork, the " Flora of British 



XKJilV INDIAN PHARMACOLOOV: 

India," uow completed in a.11 but the grasses, while the index 
collectiuns of authentic specimens which are in proeeai of 
Eurmatiou at the Lnperial Museum, Calcutta, and tha Impe- 
rial Inatitute, London, to which the " Dictionary of Econo- 
mic Products " is to form tlie catalogue and key, will, when 
complete, facilitate the identification of these products for 
i-ommercial purposes. All the well-oiled machinery of this 
otHoial mill, however, will not bring our actjualntanca with 
those of our Native medicines that we ought to know better 
out of the theoretical into the practical. I would auggest 
a further step in the establishment of facilities for the 
supply of 

RELIABLE PREPARATIONS, 

leady for immediate use by physicians, It is vain to 
expect medical ofiicers to assume the riUe either of ])ota.- 
iiista or druggists. That is a condition of things which haa 
long gone by. I have to suggest, therefore, that the Medical 
Storekeepers of the respective Presideucies should be asked 
to make some definite pharmaceutical preparations at their 
respective laboratories for distribution to the various hos- 
pitals and dispensaries for trial and report. In this way a 
step would be made towards their practical utilization 
while the ndvisability or otherwise of their replacing costly 
imported drugs could be most readily determined. Abanlute 
dependence ought not to be placed on individual opinion, 
for such may be funned from preconceived notioiis or may 
be alfected by influences or considerations which may 
detract from their real value. Some auch arrangement once 
thoroughly established, however, the great Indian Medical 
Service will be a source of unlimited blessing to the people 
and will be independent of the -iuea and the -ante and the 
tijuthetical monstroaitiea innumerable of these lost days. 
The particular class of preparation I would favour ia the 



general one of tluid extificbs &h originated in the United 
States Phai-macopiieia, one part of the product representiug 
ooe part of the ongnial drug operated upon-* They present 
the advaatages of portability, permnneace and adaptability, 
with concentratioD and iinifonui ty. I have myself made 
several esj»erinient3 in this directidii, the vesulta of which I 
have the honour to pieaeut for your inspection. I am 
persuaded that the future of Indian pliarmacology depemla 
lai-galy on considerations such as I have indicated to you. 

The next important point is the commercial aspect of 
this (juestion. The Government of India has encouraged 
with a liberality beyond all precedence the cultivation of 
medicinal plants suited to India, and the experimental culti- 
vation of others which have proved to be unsuitable to the 
»iiL The result has been, on the one hand, that the cin- 
^^chona industry of the world has been completely revolution- 
^^fctd, ruined, some will say, while on the other, thousands 
^^Hf rupees have been spent to practically no purpose in the 
^^Bttempt to establish ipecacuanha. The time has now come 
^Hbr laying out 
^V- MEDICINAL PLA.NT FARMS 

ill the districts most suited to the drugs which it is 
proposed to grow. There is enough belladonna on tlie 
Himalaya to supply the world, which, if transplanted and 
carefully cultivated, would surely at least save India the 
necessity, if not the cost, of importing that among many 
uUierdrugs which might simihirty be grown. The medicinal 
plant and essential oil gardens of Qermany and Belgium 
are sutScient evidence of the success attending such enter- 
prise, Another moat desirable step which would follow 
this in natural sequence would be the establishment of a 



8gb Appendix III, Fluid Extracts, pBgei!4l. 




XXSVl INDIAN PHARMACOLOOV : 

(li'ug empoiium for India. This for obvious reasons wool 
be most practically effected at Calcutta. A class of drug 
brokers would arise, whose business it would be to encourage 
the systematic collection of drugs for export to the great 
markets of Europe, Australia and America. The sorting 
of the drugs into tlieir various qualities could be effected 
quite as easily in the Calcutta as in the London market, 
and the present anomalous position of the Indian druggists 
importing drugs which have already been shipped from 
India would be done away. There are thousands of tons of 
valuable roots and Howers, and fruits and Bbres rotting 
in the jungles every year for want of a proper market 
in which to have their approximate values appraised. 
Nor are they even on the Himalaya so very inaccessible, 
The gentian grubbers of the Alps spend weeks at a time 
far away from their homes collecting for the market. 
Some of the medicinal plant farmers about Brussels employ 
500 collectors — whole families— who go out into the sur- 
rounding districts and collect the drugs, which they prepare 
for the markets of the world. With the cost of labour at a 
minimum in India and material in profusion, success in 
some corresponding degree is assured. The ever-improving 
railway communication should afford a great impetus to 
such an industry, which I am confident would in time 
become one of considerable importance to the people of 
India.* 

Above all I would appeal to my countrymen to be honest. 
It is imfortuuatelytoo true that theart of sophistication and 

ADULTERATION 
as applied to almost every commodity produced in India, 



• 8*e n desoription ol A 
page 3.17. 



« colleotioQ in the Him&lajk, Appendix II, 



has served to weaken the faith even of our owu countiy- 
men in what we are accustomed to call ' country ' pro- 
ducts. There aie certain branches of industry, it must 
be admitted, where this process of sophistication provides 
(|uite au iodustry of no little importance, but I ask you — 
id this sufficient compensation for a diminitihed faith and 
consequent depreciation in value in our exports to European 
markets? I do not say that we are even approaching in 
ingenuity to that which created the wooden nutmeg, but 
I hold that the success of all that I anticipate for the 
indigenous drugs of India depends upon this consideration- 
If I may present one or two instances in the brief space 
now at my disposal, I would remind you that Cannabis in- 
dica has lost a very considerable portion of the reputation 
it once had in European practice ou account of the fact that 
it is not of the same standard of quality as it was in former ■ 
years. Simihirly, the bark of Holai-rkena antidysenterica, 
the kurch'l, is losing its undoubted position as a specific in 
dysentery through the substitution of worthless barks. 
The aconites are equally unreliable, due, however, to care- 
less collection rather than adulteration. 

Among the most important of the drugs exported at pre- 
sent are : — Nux-vomica, sandal-wood, Indian aconite {Aco~ 
nitum/erox), Indian opium, Indian hemp, cinchona, chiretta, 
castor and croton-oil seeds, linseed, sesame and ground- 
nut oils, kino, ginger, capsicum, senna and catechu, while 
among others which might be exported to a larger extent 
than at present are : — Belladonna, hyoscyamus, taraxacum, 
podophyllum, jalap {Ipmncea Tuj-petkum), asaftetida, cassia 
pods, cardamoms, kurchf, gurjun, chaulm6gra and nim 
oils, ispagliiil. 
^^^^ I am hopeful that considerable encouragement will be 
^^^B^orded to the better appreciation of our indigenous drugs 



.feiiii 



ZXXVIU 



INDIAN PHARMAOOLOOT. 



by the facb that some are likely to be included in the 
proposed 

Imperial Psarxacopceia. 

In a paper which I prepared for the International Phar- 
maceutical Congress held in London in 1881, and which 
was presented on my behalf, I suggested several drugs as 
worthy of inclusion in a proposed revision of the British 
PhailnacoptBia. These suggestions are embodied in the 
following list : — 



Botanical Sourcb. 


1 

Popular Nabib. 

i 


Pbopertibs. 


Adhatoda Vasioa 


Bdkash 


Expectorant. 


Andrographis paniculata .. 


Crmt 


Febrifnge. 


CalotropU giRantea 
OaricaFapaya 


Mddar 


Alterative & Antipyretic. 


Papaya 


Source of Papain. 


Dipterocarpus turbinatus ... ^ 


Onrjun 


Analogous to Copaiba. 


Oarcinia raaneostafia 
G^nocardia odorata 
Holarrhena antidysenterica 


MangostMH ... 


Astringent. 


Chautmiigra ... 


Useful in Leprosy* 


Kurchl 


Specific in Dynentery. 


Melia Asadirachta 


mm 


Bitter Tonic and Anti- 
periodic. 


Psoralea corylif olia 


Bdbchl 


Useful in Leneoderma. 


Symplocos raceraosa 


Lodhra 


Useful in Menorrhagia. 



I have now attempted to place before you some of my 
views and some of my expectations which, in my old age, I 
cannot hope to see realised, but which, in the best interests 
of the great Oriental Empire of Her Majesty, I venture 
to hope may be furthered in seme measure by this Indian 
lledical Congress. 



^.^ 



BRITISH INDIAN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

AND EQUIVALENTS. 

MCABURSa OF WSIORT (BENGAL.) 

Unit of Weight— the tola* ==190 grains English Troy or Apothecaries' 
Wdght. 
1 Dliin (or grain) = I j grain Troy = rfidr. Avoir. 

4 Dhios = 1 Ratit = if „ „ = M 

8 Baftis ~ 1 Maaha = 15 grains „ = M „ 

12Masha8 ^ 1 Tola = 180 grains (7 dwt. » „ . fM«| 

12 grains) f - '^^ 

5 Tolas = 1 Ohittack ^ 1 os. m dwt. „ = 2A os. „ 
16 Ohittacks = 1 Seer = 2i lbs. „ = 2Alb8. „ 
40 Seers = 1 Maund = 100 „ „ = 82? „ „ 



To Convert Indian Weights into Avoirdupois. 

Multiply the weight in maunds by 5 and divide by 7 ; the result will be 
the weight in cwt. Avoirdupois. 

To CtoNVBRT Avoirdupois Weight urto Indian Weight, 

Multiply the weight in maunds by 7 and divide by 6 ; the result will be 
the weight in Maunds. 

The Bombay Biaund weighs 28 lbs. Avoirdupois. 
The Surat „ „ 37i lbs. 



>» 



A Ton is equal to 27*2 Maunds, or 271 Maunds nearly. 
Liquids are usually reckoned by weight. 

Bengal Square or Land Measure. 

1 chittak = 45 sq. ft. or 5 sq. yds. 

16chittaks= Icottah = 720 „ or 80 „ 

20 cottahs = 1 bigah = 14,400 „ or 1,600 „ 

3^ bigahs = 1 acre. 

British Indian Money. 

1 Pie ... marked P. par value s } Farthing. 

3 Piee ... = 1 Pice ... „ Ps. „ = l{ „ 

8 Kes ... = 1 Penny. 

4 Plod br 12 Pies = 1 Anna ... „ A. „ = 1) Pence. 

16 Annas ... =^ 1 Rupee ... „ R. „ =2 Shillings,t 

16 Rupees ... = lOoldMohur „ 6. M. (nominal) 

value. 

Cowries {Cfifpraa moneta), or small shells, are also made use of for frac- 
tional payments. 

They are reckoned in Bengal :— 

4 Cowries makelGunda. 

20Gundas „ 1 Pun. 

6 Puns (4(X) cowries) ... „ lAnna* 



^ A new rupee of the present currency weighs 1 tola. 

f Commonly, seecU of Ahru* prtcatortuM. 

t The Bxchftnge value of a Hupee of 1st July, 1896| stood at It. %L 



CORRIGENDA. 

















P*Rell. 


line 10 from bottom, for iSSchenanthera read Adenanthera. 


„ 38 


f» 9 ',, 


ff 


„ Narthex 


ff 


alliacea. 




. 39 


>» 13 . ,, 


top ( 


omii Aspidium Filix 


-ma8. 


> 




, 69 


»» 3 „ 


ff 


for Lgiusticum 


read 


\ Ligtisticnm. 




, 73 


„1&2 „ 


ff 


„ Sophora 


ff 


Sophera. 




, 118 


,. 10 „ 


ff 


„ Burmanii 


f f 


Burmanni. 




, 221 


»t 15 » 


bottom 




ff 


2-lbs. 




, 244 


If 6 „ 


top 




ff 


full. 




, 268 


If 16 »i 


top 


„ 4,000 


ff 


700. 




, 273 


Foot-note ti 




„ Her 


ff 


Herr. 




, 283 


line 6 from bottom 


„ chanand 


ff 


chandan. 




, 289 


ff 5 ff 


top 


„ hyacinthina 


f f 


hyacinthoides. 




, 303 


Foot-note, 




„ Matindale 


ff 


Martindale. 




, 323 line 12 from top 




ff 


magnesium. 



CONTRACTIONS OP VERNACULAR DESIGNATIONS. 



.S^n^.— Bengali. 

J7t9Ml.— Hindi. 

iSSsftf.— Sanskrit. 

Bom.— Bombay (including Guzra- 

thi and Mahrathi). 
ram.— Tamil. 



r*/.— Telugu. 

Burm.— Burmese. 

Mai. — Malayalim (including 

Cochin and Travancore). 
P*r*.— Persian. 
Arab* — Arabic. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS 

OF INDIA. 



ABIES WBBBIANA. 
Syn. — PiNus Wbbbiana. 

The Himalayan Silver Fib, 

Vem. — Beng. — ^Tdlispatra; Hind, — ^Tdlispatra; Sans,-^ 

Tdlisapatra. 

This lofty fir, natural order ConifercB, is widely distri- 
buted on the higher ranges of the Himdlayas. It yields 
a very pure white resin. 

Medicinal uses. — The dried terebinthinous Leaves arer 
useful in coughs, phthisis, &c. The leaves of Taocvs baccata 
are frequently substituted in the bazars of Calcutta and 
Bombay. It is doubtful whether Abies Webbiana is the 
tdiiapatra. 

ABBOMA AUanSTA. 

Perennial Indian Hemp. 

Vem. — Beng. — Ulatkambal. 

An Indian plant, of the natural order Malvaceoe, which is 
likely to come into prominent notice owing to its medicinal 
and fibre-yielding qualities. 

K»U>. 1 



INDIQENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA, 



j 



Medicinal uses.— The Root-babk i 
valuable in dysmenonhcea. It may be acl ministered in 
doses of one drachm. A deooctiou of the dried root in 
equally efficacious. The natives use it in uombinattoa 
with black pepjier. 

ABRUS PBBGATOBIUS. 

Jequibiiy. 
Yeva.—Beng, — Kimcb; Hind. — Qhuncbi; Sans. — Guqj4. Gut.— 

Gumchi; Tarn. — Gundumanni; Telu. — Ouriginja; Peri. — 

GungchL 

A beautiful climbing plant, of the natui-al order Legv- 
minoace, found all over India. The Root of Abrua 
precatonus was formerly regarded as a substitute for 
liquorice and commonly called Indian Liquorice. The 
Leaves have been shown recently by Hooper to contain 
a large proportion of glyoyrrhizic acid. The curiously 
coloured Seeds are used &.t weights (rati) — average weight 
2 grains — by Indian goldsmiths and are strung together 
for ornaments. 

Medloinol uses.— The watery extract of the Root is 
useful in relieving obstinate cough. It can be used like 
liquorice as an adjuvant in mixtures. The Seeds are 
poisonous and are used internally in nervous affections, 
but their use is attended with extreme danger. 

A 3 per cent, soluti'm of the decorticated seeds — prepared 
by macerating in water for 2i hours — has lately been used 
to produce purulent ophthalmia. The active principle has 
been isolated and named abnn. The intensely virulent 
nature of the seeds has been employed in the criminal 
poisoning of cattle in India. 



INDIOENOUa DRUGS OF INDIA, 



I 



ACACIA ARABICA. 

The Ivdias Gum Arabic Tree. 
km. — Beng. — BdblA; Hind. — Babul, kik^r; ^ans.— Vabbulaj 

Gvi, — Kaloabaval ; Tavi. — Karmelam ; Ttlu. — Kallu-tuma; 

Pm.— B&bul. 

The BibU tree, of tbe natural order Leguvninosce, la 
oommon all over India, plentiful in Bengnl, the Deccan 
and Cororaandel Coast, and yields a gum, somewhat darker 
in colour but not much inferior in adhesive property 
io that of Acacia vera. The bark ia esteusively used 
for tanning purposes. 

Hedicinal uses — The Bark is a powerful astringent, 
containing a large quantity of tannin, and its decoction 
is largely used as a substitute for oak baric with great 
success and efficacy. The decoction is used as an astringent, 
gargle and wash, and in cases where a vegetable astringent 
is indicated. 

Externally used as an injection in leucorrhaaa and 
TBginal discharges, and for astringent enemata generally. 

It baa been used in conjunction with the bark of the 
Banyan tree {Fiona bengaienaia). 



ACACIA CATECHU. 

Catechu ; Cutch : Terra Japosica. 
Tern. — £eng. — Khair ; Hind, — Kath ; Sam. — Kliodira ; 



Tam, — Eaahu-katti ; Telu, — Kanchu. 

An EXTRACT prepared in India and Burma from tb« 

wood of Acacia Catechu, of the natural order Legumijioi<B. 

le tree is common in tbe forests of many parts of India 

id Burma. It is an ingredient of the packet of betel 



^^^be tree 
^Hhd Bun 



4 IXSICEXOCK OKCVl CT DBU. 

yMh ■■ eaeelleot gna wU^ »^t !« i 
•rtid* «< export. CrTvUb of a pceafiar 
aahteDee iwiwl Actmj an aoMedn 
foMrior of tlM alcm like the camphor of i 
eampkora. 

■Codleteal tUM — AstringeQt and tonic In diairfacE* I 
caieclia in of loneb valoe adminUtored either in powdsr j 
form or an tiucture cocnbioed with other astrinj^ts and ] 
opiuiD. In mercurial salivatioo, and in oloeiation and j 
Kp'jngineM of the gums it is of great service. It is equally I 
UMful in hoariteneft), relaxed sore throat, \oea of voice, tx., J 
uxcd ill llie form of a lozenge. 

'Hie tincture ii an excellent application for threatened 
bed imnn. 



AOAOIA FARKKSIAKA- 

Syn. — MiJiosA Farnesiana. 

The Cahsie Flowbb. 

V»m.—Beit'j. — Oiiya liibla ; IJiwI. — Vilayati bdbiil ; Gut. — 

(}u-bnval ; Tarn. — Vedda-vela; Telu. — Nuga Tumma, 

Thin grocofal little plant, natural order Legumino$a, 

((loWB all ovor India and Is well known by its bright yellow 

Ki-owKiw wlileli yield a moat delicious perfume. The 

caHNio Ih not to h« confused With the cassia or cinnamon. 

The fragrant HowcrA are largely used in perfumery. It is ao 

»ai<ily grown in India that the (lowers ought to form an 

iinpiiitanl nitiolo of cultivation mid export. A GuJt exudes 

fiimi Uio hark of the tree which is a good aulstitute for 

gum nvnbic, but yieldd a gelatinous Uuid on treatment with 

wati*r. 






» 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 6 

ACALTPHA INDIOA. 

Vem.— i?ejy,— Muktajhuri, Muttdbaralii, i/'i'nd— Ru pi ; 
7'am. — Kuppin-memi ; Te/u.— Kuppin-chetta. 

The plant Acalypha iiuUca, of tlie natural order EupJior- 
hutceai, is a common annual in Indian gaidena. 

Medicinal uaea.— The decoction of the Leaves ia a 
valuable laxative, and the Root bruised in water, a cathartic. 

le expressed juice of the fresh leaves is a reliable emetic, 

id is used as sucK to some extent in Hindu medicine: 
i( has been found useful in c&ses of croup. In cases of 
constipation of children the bruised leaves introduced after 
the manner of a suppository has the invaiiable effect of 

once relieving the contraction of the .'phinder ani. 

ACAMPB FAPILLOSA. 

Vem.— Beng; Hind. — Raand ; Sans, — Gandho-nakuli, 
An orchid found in many parUt of India, but common in 
Konkan, South India and Burma. The roots of this as well 
aa of some other orchids, such as Vmula Haxburg/iii and 
V. WightiaTta are known among Indian practitioners by 
the name of Rasnii. 

Medicinal usee. — ^The Root, given in the form of a 
decoction, is said to bo highly efHcacious in acute rheuma- 
tism, sciatica and neuralgia. It is also considered benefioial 
in secondary syphilis and uterine diseases. 

ACBTUU. 

CoDNTRY Vinegar. 

—Beng. — Sirka; Hind. — Sirko; Qui. — Sirka; Tata. — Kadi; 

Telu.~ Kadi niUu ; /•«■»,— Sirkah. 

I Vinegar is made all over India cither from the sugar. 

tne or from toddy which has been made from native spiiit, 




ff ISDIOESOUS I»UOS or U.DU. 

The firesb juioe of the Cocoa nucifera kod that of Boraaua 
fiabtUiformvs aod Phtznix eylvestria are also capable of 
ihe acetous fermentatioo while the i/oAud tiowers (Bas»ia 
laltfotia) also yield ou infusioD ia water a sacchariDo liquor 
vrbich yields a good vinegar. 



ACHILLEA mLLfiFOLIUM. 

MiLFOii. OK Yarrow. 
Vem, — 5oni.— Bojmflri. 
A common herb, natural order Compoaibe, indigenoos to 
the Western Himdlaya, found plentifully on the bills a 
little to the north of Simla. The plant yields a bitter, 
aromatic volatile oil of cbaractenstic odour. It is eoldom 
used in India. 

Medicinal osea.— The Leaves and Floweh Heads are 
Used in the fonn of decoction as a carminative, tonic and 
aromatic stimulant. 



AOHTRANTHES ASPBBA. 

Vem. — Beng, — Apang; Hind. — Chircliira; Sam. — Apamargs. 
ffti%— Jhinjarvatto ; Talu. — Uttarreni ; Pen, — Khare 
vaBhnn. 

A small plant, of the natural order Amarantacea, very 
common in all parts of India and highly extolled by the 
people aa a remedy for bites of poisonous insects. 

UecUcinal oae. — Diuretic. Acts very mildly on the 
kidneys and tends to increase their secretions. Has been 
occasionally found efficacious in renal dropsies. 



INDIOENOUS DBUaS OF INDIA, 

AC0NITT7M PBROX. 

Indian Aconite. 

, — Beng. — Katblsli or mitha ; Hind. — Biah ; Saws, — 

' Visha ; Cms, — Vuohnag ; Tam. — Vishna noir ; Tela. — Vasa- 

nabhi ; Pert. — Bisbnog ; Arab. — Biah. 

The poisonous root Biah of the bazaars is chiefly denve<l 

from Aconilw^x ferox, natural order Ranuncvlacew, which 

grows plentifully in the temperate and Bub-a1ptne regions 

of the Himihiya. It must be regarded as distinctly more 

powerful than that of Aconituvi Napellus, and hence more 

suited fur the preparation of external applications or the 

manufacture of aconitine. As sold in the bazars it is of 

very variable nature. 

Medicinal usee. — The Rooryields a comparatively larger 

^^ quantity of i)Seu(laconitine or nepaline and a smaller 

^^Lqaantity of aconitine than other species of aconite, the 

^^Kfbrmer being the more powerful, physiologically, of the two 

alkaloids. It is therefore not to be given in the same doses 

as the true aconite. In the form of liniment it is useful 

in cases of neuralgia and muscular rheumatism. It is used 

by the hakinia in very small doses as an antiperiodic and 

alterative and as a nervine tonic in cases of paralysis, but 

Rnaiderable danger attends its internal administration on 
count of the extremely virulent character of the drug. 
AOONITUM HBTBBOPHYLLUM. 
Indian Atees. 
wn. — Beng, — Atis ; Hind. — Atis ; Sans. — Ataicha; Tam.— 

Ati-vudayam ; T^/u.— Ativasu ; Per*. — Vuggi-turki. 
The tuberous roots of this plant are considered tonic, 
Mtriogent, stomachic and aphrodisiac. The drug is chiefly 



5 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

used in the foi-m of powder winch is pure white, Gurina.- 
ceous, and with an intensely bitter taste. 

The active principle is atisine, an amorphous alkaloid 
of intensely bitter tasto but non-poisonous. Aconitine is 
absent in the true Atis. 

Medicinal UBea. — Used as an aatiperiodic in fevera. 
Eminent authorities have considered it a valuable febrifuge 
and bitter tonic in the absence of quinine. For combat- 
ing the debility after fevers and other diseases it is an 
excellent tonic, very efficacious in diarrhoea and dysenteiy. 

Substitute. — The dried tubers of Asparagus sarmenta- 
8U8 (Satuviuli), slightly resembling that of Aconitum hete- 
rophyllum, are aoraetimea sold in the bazars of Bengal 
under the name of Atis, This is insipid and perfectly 
inert 

ACONirrUM NAPBLLT7S. 

MoSKSUOOD. 

Vem. — Beng. — Kitbish ; Hind. — Mithazalmr ; Sane. — Visha. 
Indigenous to the temperate Himdlayan region where it 
grows in abundance. The dried root is extensively used 
in Indian medicine, and, but for the fact that it is very 
frequently found mixed with the roots of other species of 
aconite, might be used with the same confidence as the 
imported drug. It yields several chemical principles which 
are interesting on account of their peculiarly virulent 
action on the animal economy, the principal of these being 
the alkaloid aconitine. The true aconite is not easily 
obtainable in the bazars, 

Medicinal uses. — These have already been indicated 
under Aconitum ferox. Most of the preparations are made 



I 






INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 9 

from the Root, but an extract is made from the fresli 
Leaves and flowering tops. This, however, is somewhat 

I variable in its composition. 



AOORUS CALAMUS. 

Sweet Flag, 
tng. — Bach ; Hind. — Bash ; .S'on«. — VachA; 6ui. — 
Vach ; ram — Vaahambu ; Telu. — Vndaja, ; Fers, — Agri-turki, 
The Dkibd Rhizome uf this plant is one of the common- 



■£1 



eat of bazar inedicines and is indige: 
Burma. (Natural order Aroidete.) It I 
leJicine with the people uf India 
les. It is a tonic and stomach ic, and 



It is bitter, stimulant i 
and a volatile oil. 



to India and 

as been a favourite 

from the earliest 

3 given in the form 

id ai'omatic, yielding 






infusion, 
ft glucoaide 

Medicinal uses. — Used in dyspepsia attended with flatul- 
ence, in loss of appetite and constitutional debility. In 
of irrilation of the throat and cougli, the Root, 
nmply chewed, produces copious salivation and an agree- 
able sensation of warmth. It hn^; been used with beneflclal 
effect in diarrhtea of cbiklren. It is also carminative and 
nervine in amall doses and emetic in large doses. 

>ACTiEIA SPICATA. 
BAxeoeRRV, 
Thii is indigenous to the temperate Himdiayan region 
and h clonely allied to tlio Acta;a racemoaa or Ehick Snake 
Root of American eclectic medicine, Natural order Manuiu 
ffulaceo!. Cimicifuga faitida is another Himdlnyan plant 
prhioh is similavly allied to the official plant, 




10 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

Medicinal uses.— Usually prescribed in the form or a ' 
tiacbure of the Root. It act» as a powerful nerve sedative 
in neuralgia, rheumatic affections and the like. 



ADANSONIA DIGITATA 

The Baobab Tree. 
Vem. — Hind. — Gorakh amali ; Tarn. — Anai-puliyaroyi 

The Baobab is said to be one of the longest-lived trees 
in the world. It grows to a great height, and has been 
known to attain 30 feet in diameter. Found chiefly on the 
Bombay Ooast, Natural order Malvaceee. 

The Bajik yields a Gust which is insoluble in water and 
would seem to be allied to tragacatith. There has been also 
isolated from the bark a principle named Adansonia. 

Madloinal use.— The Bark has been used as an anti- 
periodic. 

ADHATODA VASICA 

Vem. — Beng. — Bakanh; Hind. — Aruslia ; Sant. — Vasaka; 
Tarn. — Adatodai; Telu. — Addasaram ; Pers. — Dansu. 

The plant Aditatoda Vasica, of the natural order Ac- 
aiithacecu, gi'owa wild all over Bengal. All the parts of this 
plant are bitterish and slightly aromatic and supposed to 
be antispasmodic. The Roots are expectorant and used as 
a substitute for senega. 

An infusion of the plant has lately been used as a 
remedy against blight on tea and other crops, and it has 
been suggested quite recently by Dr. Watt that it may be 
found useful aa an antiseptic to destroy the germa of 
disease in drinking ivater. 



INDIQENOUS DHUaS OF INDIA. 



11 



Medicinal uaea,— The Root, Babk and Leaves are useful 
igli, aatbtoa, ague and plithisis. lu catarrh and 
bronchitis the remedy is in frequent use in native practice, 
uBoallj iu the form of infusion of the root and extract of 
tha leaves. The dried Leaves are also smoked in cases of 



f 



ADIANTUM. 

Vera. — Hind. — Hansraj ; Arab. — Shaur-ul-jinn. 

Tbe Maiden-hair Fern (A. Capillus-VenenB) and several 
other species of Adiantum (tribe Pteridece) are indigenous 
to India and widely distributed. The gi-aceful delicate 
frouds are well known, and in the dried state are sold largely 
ill the Punjab bazars. 

Medicinal uses. — The Fbonds possess bitter and expec- 
torant properties; emetic in large doses. They are best 
employed in the form of a syrup which corresponds to the 
Sirop de Capillaire of the French Codex, and which is so 
extensively used in Europe for chest affections. 



k 



^CHENANTHEBA PAVONINA. 

'tm.^£eng. — Eakta-kumbiit; Taut. — Anai-gundumani; Teiu. — 
Baudi-gurivendn. 
A large tree, of the natural order Leguminosw, commou 
in Bengal, South India and Burma. 
Medicinal uaea —The Seeds, which like those of Abrut 
'.atorius are of a brilliant red colour, are said to be effi- 
liouB as an external application on boils, abscesses and all 
ids of inflammation. The decoction of the LEAVES is 
prescribed for chronic vhematism and gout. 



12 



INDIGENOUS DKUGS OF INDIA. 



MGtIiE MABMELOS. 

The Bael Fruit Tree: Bengal Quixck. 
Vern.— Ben?.— Bel ; Jlind.—B^l; .Vans.— BUva, Sriphal; 9lU. 

— Biliva-phal ; Tarn. — Vilvo-pazham ; 7'elu. — BUTajnnda ; 

P«'#.— Shul. 

The ^gU MarmeloB, of the natumi oitler Iiutace(Bi 
is indigeDou){ to and cultivated all over India. The tree 
is held in great veneration by the Hindus. It ia sacred 
to Siva whose worship cannot be ace omjili shed without 
it. Its leaves are ternate and linnce one of its vernacular 
names is tlte Tripatra. Asa medicinal agent it has perhaps 
been longer known and appreciated by the Indian peojile 
than any other. The unripo or half-ripe FkuIT is regarded 
as astringent, iligegtive and stomnchic, and useful in re- 
straining discharges from the alimentary canal. The ripe 
fruit is sweet, aromatic and laxative. Two kinds may be 
found in the bazars — the small or wild variety and tha 
larger or cultivated fruit. The ofHcinal portion is the fuU 
grown Fruit of either variety, just when it begins to ripen, 

It does not lose its astringent property on drying oi 
kee[)ing, although the fresh fruit is the most reliable. This 
medicinf^l property is not due to tannin, of which it only 
contiLina a small quantity, but partly to tha pectin and 
mucilaginous principles contained in the jelly-like mucous 
suiTOundiiig the seeds and to the astringent acids of the 
unripe fruit. 

Medicinal uses. — The remarkable efBcaoy of the Bael 
in chronic dysentery and diarrhoea is well known. The 
dried Fruit and liquid extract are official in the Britii^ 
Pharmacopma and an extract and liquid extract are official 
in the Pliarmacopceia of India. These preparations are 
extremely popular with medical practitioners in England. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



13 



It ia v&luable in obstinate cases of diarrhcea and dysen- 
teiy (vhen unattended by fever, and the patient is weak 
dyspeptic. It is also very valuable in diarrhcea and 
rsentery of children. 

It may also be administered in powder or as a dietetic 
in the form of an aromatised confection. The fresh juice 
of the Leaves is largely used in Bengal as autibilious and 
febrifuge. The unripe fruit is roasted and eaten with sugar 
in chronic dysentery and diarrhtea. A decoction of this 
led bad — Bel sati — is in frequent use among the natives 
a drink for the sick, especially for cases of fever with 
The natives also make from the ripe fruit a 
icious and refrigerent sherbet which they uae largely. 
Au essence prepared from tlie entire half-ripe fruit has 
been found by the author to be the iiio.it reliable pro- 
ration. 



^SCHYNOMEKB ASPERA, 

The Sola Plant. 

Vem. — Beng. — SoW, Phul-sola ; Mar. — Bland ; Tam.- 

Takke ; Wu.— Bend. 



^^brat 

^^VA small sub-Hoatiug bush, natural order Legu'ininos(E, 

found in the marshes of Bengal, South India and Assam, 

The spongy stems of the plant are largely used in the 

manufacture of hats for European use, forming a good 

• protection against the tropical sun. 

Uedlolnal oae. — The spongy pith is sometimes used as a 
substitute for surgical lint, specially for dilating the open- 
ings of sinuses and abscesses. The pith absorbs the mois- 
ture of the ulcerated tissues around, swells up, and thua 
eolargea the openings. 



IVDIOENOUS DBUOS OP UDU. 

J9SCHTKOMBNB SBSBAN. 



AOABICUS CAMPBSTBIS. 

Tbe SIcsbboom. 
Vem. — Beng. — Konrok, Chhata; PanJ: — Mokaha, Gari-kon. 
The Bltubroom is not caUivated in India for food, but 
severd species of tbe fungi are occasionallf, specially at tlie 
latter end of the rains, foaud growing wild in fields and 
gardens, which are collected and eaten by villagers. 



BS- — Dried mushrooms are largely used in 
medicine by the hakims of Punjab. Diuretic, purgative 
and emmenagogue properties are ascribed to it. It is 
considered efficacious in gravel in the bladder. In affec- 
tions of the throat it is prescribed as a gargle. 



AQAVE AMERICANA. 

The Americas Alob. 
Vem. — Beng. and Hind. — Rakas-pat, Ban-iaiiras, morga. 
This plant, of tbe natural order AmarylUdecB, has been 
long imported from America and naturalized in India, being 
cultivated for various economic purposes. It ia the source 
of the intoxicating liquor known as ■pulque, which is manu- 
factured in Mexico In enormous quantities. 

Medicinal uaea. — Diuretic and alterative. The Roots 
and LiCAVKH yield a sacchaiine juice which is believed to 
ponsosa antt-syphilitic virtues similar to those usually 
OHCribed to Sarsapanlla. 



INDIGENOUS DEUOS OF INDIA. 



16 



AQRIMONXA BUFATORIUM. 

Ao Bin ONI. 

This herb is quite common in India especially in the 
Himfllayan range. It belongs to the natural order Rosacea. 

Hedloinal aees. — Agrimony is comparatively little used 
in India, although it baa long been a favourite of European 
lierbalisbs. It is tonic and astringent. 



^r AIIiANTHUS EXOELSA. 

Vent — Bgng. and Hind — Maharukha; Sans. — M^ala. 

This tree, natural order Simai'ubea;, is common in many 

parts of India. The bark is intensely bitter resembling 

quassia. It yields an important bitter principle which 

has been named Ailantic ocid. 

Medicinal uaea. — The Bark as well as the Leaves are 
in great repute as a tonic especially in debility after chitd- 

Irtli. They also possess febrifuge properties and are useful 
I dyspeptic complaints, 



ALANGIUM IiAMARCEII. 

Syn. — Alasgium Decapetalum. 

Vem. — Beng. — Dhulakura, Bdgh-inchrd ; ninri. — Akola. 

Natural order Coi-naca:: common in the jungles of 

luthem India, and occasionally found in the gardens. 

Medicinal uaea. — The Root-bask possesses the emetic 
and nauseant properties of ipecacuanha. It is used by 
native practitioners in cases of leprosy and syphilitic and 
oth%r skin diseases, and appears to be vaiuahle in this 
rtapect. Is useful in simple continued fever. The I'oot- 
k is used in the form of powder. 




16 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



ALCOHOL. 

Vern. — Beng. — MimI ; Mind. — Sharab ; .S'ln*.— Surt 
Spirits and wines have been largely made in India from 
very ancient times. Sugar, rice, Mahua, the fruit of An- 
thoceplialua Cadamba, and various other substances were 
uaed in their otanufactui-e. A spirit, culled the Mritt- 
sanjibani or the " reviver of the dead " is a favourite 
stimulant among Indian physicians. It is fermented with 
raw sugar and some medicinal herbs and distilled. 

ALBUKITES MOLtJCGANA. 

Syn.—A. TiuLocA. 

Indian Walndt. 

Vern. — Btvy. — Jaiigli Akhr6t; Bind. — Akhrot; Sans,— 

Askhoto. 

The nuts of the plant Aleurites moluccana (natural 

order Euphorhiacew). It is native of the &Ialay Archipelago. 

It is also found wild in many parts of South India. The 

kernels of the nuts have the taste of English walnuts. 

They yield by expression a large proportion of a very 

Rcrreeable fixed oil which is a good substitute for rapensi]. 

The true walnut is the nut of Jugtana regii. 

Uediclnal ubob, — The Kernels are supposed to possess 
aphrodisiac properties. A. mild aperient action has also 
been ascribed to the Oil, to some extent resembling that of 
castor-oil. 

ALHAQI MAURORUM. 

The Persiak Matjsa Tree. 

Vern. — Benij. — Juwdsa; Sans. — Durlavd; Hind. — Jayasl. 

The shrub Alliagi mauroi^m (natural order Legumi- 

nosan) is a native of the desert of Egypt, Syria, Mesapotamia, 



INDIQEHOUS DRUOa OF INDIA. 



17 



brai 



Persia and India. There exudes from the leaves and 
brancbea of thia ahrub a sweet, saccharine substance called 
Taranjabhi, and which resembles in neatly all respects 
le manna of Fraxinus omue (the manna ash). 
Hedldnal usea. — As a gentle laxative specially useful 
and jileaaarit for children. Tlie Infusion of the spinous 
ilant is used in affections of the chest. 



ALLIUM CEPA. 

The Onion. 
■aj ; Hind. — Fiyaz ; Sam.— 



Mar. 



^^plant 

^^^nm. — Beng. — Piyaj ; Hind. — Piyaz; Sam. — Palandu 
^^ — KaadS; Tarn.— iruWi; 7Wa.— NiruUi. 

Tlte common onion (natural order Liliacem) is largely 
cultivated all over India as an article of food and condiment. 
Medicinal usqb. — The onion Bulbs contain an aciid vola- 
tile oil which piisseEses stimulant, diuretic and expectorant 
proper! ies, and are therefore prescribed by Indian physicians 
in fever, dropsy, and affections of the chest and throat. 
They are also considered hot and pungent, and are useful 

(flatulency and dysenterj-. 
: 



ALLIUM SATIVUM. 

The Garlic 



a. — Beng. — RoHttn ; 
— Shuniun ; 



Hind. — LasMi ; 



Sane. — Luuna ; Out, 

Pers.—Sir. 



-Velluli 
The garlic, a familiar member of the Liliaceous family, is 
largely cultivated all over India, and is always easily 
obtainable in the bazars. It yields on distillation with 
water an aromatic oil, the chief constituent of which is 
ollyl sulphide and to whicb is due its characteristjc odour, 
K, ID. S 



18 



INDIOENOirS DRUGS OF IHDU. 



Kedldnal qbos.— Oarlic is carmiDative, atomaebtc, al- 
terative, touic and useful in affections of the nervoos 
sj'Stem, Hatuteiice, hysteria, &c. The Oil is used extevnally 
in rheumatic affections, and paralysis. A small clove of 
garlic put in the ear allays the pain of otorrhcBa. It is not 
used to any extent in modern medicine. 

ALOCASIA INDICA. 

Vem.— ?«n^. — Mank&iida, Mdnkachu ; Hind. — Mdukanda { 
Sans. — Maiiaka. 

The underground stems of Alocasia indica, natural order 
AroidecE, cnnstitute a valuable and important vegetable 
of native^ dietary. The plant thrives best in shade under 
the eaves of huts or buildings and beside fences. 

Medicinal obsb. — Mdnkachu is specially useful in anasarca 
in which disease it is used in the following manner. Take 
of the powdered meal of Alocaaia huUca eight tolds, (3 ozs.) 
powdered rice sixteen tolas, (6 ozs.) water and milk forty- 
eight tolda (20 ozs.) each, boil them together till the water is 
evaporated. This preparation — called Mdnmanda~ia given 
as diet. No other food is allowed in addition to it excepfe 
milk. The dried Eour is an excellent substitute for arrow- 
toot and similar farinaceous substances. 

ALOE VERA. 

Barbadoes or Ikdian Aloes. 
Vem.—Benff. — Ghirtd-kumfiri, Musabbar; Ifintl. — Eumirii 

Kunvar; Sam. — Ghirta-kumari ; Tarn. — Eariya-potam ; Telu, 

— Mushajnbaram ; Afad. — Eliyd. 

This plant is cultivated in some parts of India. The 
best quality of aloes is that obtained whera the leaves are 



INDrOENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 19 

allowed to drain naturally. When heat is employed the 
active principle is partly destroyed. The MuasahbaT 
yielded by this species is not inferior to imported Socotrine 
aloea. 

The drug in mass is black, it has a glassy fracture. The 

powder is dull yellow and exhales an aloetic odour. The 

active principle is Aloin. 

Hedioinal uses. — In small doseait i.^ a stomachic tonic, in 
large doses purgative, and indirectly, emmeuagogue. It is 
valuable in constipation connected with hysteria or in that 
dependent on atony of the intestinal muscalar tissue ani} 

Idoroaia. 
I ALOB VBBA. 

f Var. — OpyiCINALIS, 

I Sfn. — Aloe Indict. 

em. — Seng. — Ghirtfi-kumiri, Musabbar; ffind. — Lal-kumirl 
The plant Aloe offiAiinalie and several other species of the 
same genus, found wild and cultivated in India, belonging 
to the natural order LUUtceca yield the medicinal aloes — 
Musabbar — of the bazar. The drug consists of the inspia- 
sated juice of the succulent leaves. 

Medicinal uses. — A valuable purgative in very common 
use usually combined with other medicines. Myrrh and 
mastich are common adjuncts to prevent griping. The 
visdd mucilage obtained from the fresh Ls&ves is used 
by the natives to some extent an an excellent demulcent. 
The fresh juice is regarded as cathartic, tonic and useful 
in fevers, and is used externally as an application ia 
enlarged lymphatic glands, spleen and liver and in eye 
diseases. 



INDiaENOUS DRUGS OF ISDIA, 



ALPINIA OALANOA. 

Galangal. 

Vem. — Beng. and Hmd— Kultnjina; Sans. — Kiilin-jina. 

The RHIZOMES of Alpinia Galanga, belonging to the 
Zingiberacece, growing abundantly tn Tiavancoro, South 
Concana and ChJttagong, are aromatic, pungent, and some- 
what bitter, and are sold by native druggists. The " Leaaer 
Qalaugali" (A. offici-narum) of the Em-ipeaii druggiif 
is imported. 

Medicinal useB.— The Rhizomes are carminative and 
stomachic. They were at one time regarded as a suitable 
Bubatitute for ginger. Galangal is sometimes used for 
chewing as a remedy for foetid breath, and it is supposed 
to improve the voice. 



eaaer 



4 



ALSTONIA SGHOLABIS. 

DiTA Bark ; Alatonia Bark. 
Vem. — Beng. — Chliiitin; Hind, — Chhatian ;5an». — Saptaj 
Bom. — Satvin. 

The bark of Alstonia scholavia, natural order Apocy- 
nacecB, is thick and spongy. The tree is quite common 
throughout the Indian Peninsula. It yields an inferioi 
quality of gutta-percha. The active principle of the bark 
has been isolated and named Ditain. It possesses powerful 
febrifuge properties. 

medicinal ubos. — The Bark is an astringent tonic anii 
febrifuge, useful in fever and in skin diseases. It ii 
also used in bowel -com plaints; bruised and mixed nitl 
water it is applied to ulcers, and as an application if 
rheumatic pains. 



d 



in 
It., 



INDIQENOUS DEUaS OF INDIA. 21 

ALTaSiA OPPIOINALIS. 

Ma Ran -Mallow : Guimauve. 

Vem. — Hind. — Oul-k hairo. 

This well-known Malvaceous plant is indigenous to tha 

njabaud Kaslimir, The Root of this apecies and that of 

A. rosea yield a largo percentage of a demulcent mucilage 

beside!! pectin and cnne sugar. 

Medicinal uses. — In the form of a syrup of the Root 
AUfara is largely employed as a demulcont. In pastilles 
in the form of pat^ de ijuimauvc it is also frequently 
ministered in Europe with beneficial eRect in throat and 
:ehest affections. It is sometimes also applied as an emol- 
lient poultice. The Leaves are a^ed in this latter form. 
The Seeds are considered demulcent, diuretic and febrifuge. 

IALTINaiA EXCELSA. 
Vern. — Hind. — Silariw ; Mai. — Rasaiuala ; 
Bur. — Nan-tn-yok. 
This ia a magnificent tree of the Indian Archipelago, 
■nmon also in Burma and Assam. It }'ields a fragrant 
sin allied to the storax of Liquidambav orientalis. It 
belongs to the sauie oi-der — Hainamelideui. 

ISedicinal uses- — The Resin is regarded as expectorant 
and stimulant, used usually in combination with other 
substances. 

ALUMEN. 

a. — Btng. — Phntkirf ; Hind. — Phitkari ; Sans. — Sphatika ; 
— Pati-kdram; Tclu. — Pati-kurnm ; Pera. — Ziik-safed ; 
i Arab.— Shih. 

I Alum is manufactured to a considerable extent in India, 
liefly at KdUbagb and Kutki in the Fuujab. It is also 




22 INDIGENOUS DBDOS OF INDIA. 

produced in the Beliar and Cutch States. Indian slam is 4 
usually darker in colour than the imported article due to 
impurities, chiefly iron. It is mauufactured from alum 
schist or shale. This is treated in a certain manner peculiar 1 
to each of the districts indicated, to produce sulphate of I 
alumina which is combined with either a potash salt, or aa [ 
atK&ldbagh, with a salt called jamsar, consisting chiefly of ] 
sulphate of soda, so that the base of this is a soda alum 
the oflicial alum having a potassium or ammonium base. 
Country alum is much cheaper than the imported article, 
and used chiefly for commei'cial purposes as a mordant and 
the like. 

Medicinal uses. — Alum is a valuable internal aud ex- ] 
ternal stimulant. It is used as an astringent garble 
relaxed and iuflamed sorethroat and as a lotion in leucorrboea j 
and ophthalmia. 



AMARANTUS SPINOSUS. 

The Pbicklv Asiarasth. 

Vera. — Beng. — Kantdnatia; Hind. — ChoUi; Sans. — Tandoliyi.] 1 
Qui, — Kanta-mi-dant J Tarn. — Muluk-kirai. 

This thorny weed is widely distributed in the plainal 
of India, especially in Bengal. Natural order ^marSTi-l 
tacece. 

MeiUclnal usea. — It is considered a valuable cooling I 
diuretic Its Rout is efficacious In menurrhagia. It j 
possesses mucilaginous properties. In the Mauritius a 
decoction of the LsAVEsnud Root is odministeted inter- 
'oally as a diuretic. 



WDIOBNOUS DBUGS OF INDIA. 



23 



^AKNIA BACCIFEBA. 
Blistering Ammania. 
^Vmil — Batg. — Dddm&ri; ^in(2,— Dad -m^ri ; Bom. — Bhir- 
jambol; Tarn. — Kallu-rivA; Ttlu. — Agnivea-dra-paku. 
An tiDrbaceciiiB sbrub, belonging to the natural order 
LythracecB. It is found in marBliy places tbroughout ludia. 
Medicinal uses. — The fresli bruiaed Lea.vB3 have been 
osfid ID skin diseases aa a rubefacient and as an external 
remedy in ringworm and parasitic skin affections. 
^^H Blistering properties have been ascribed to the leaves, 
^^^fat this has nob been found verified in practice. 

^H AMMONIUM CHLOBJDUM. 

^^^B Ammonium Chloride: Sal Ajuuoniac. 

^^^■■ni. — Beng. — NiBhedal ; Hind. — Kous^ar; Pers. — Ndshidar; 
^^^P Arab, — Armlni. 

This has been manufactmed in India for centuries, chiefly 
in the Kam&I District of the Punjab, A peculiar clay found 
in that region is roughly sliaped into bricks, from which 
when heated in a specially constructed kiln exudes a very 
impure ammonium compound. This product is subsequent- 
ly sublimed and yields a comparatively pure salt. It is 
used to a considerable extent in the arts by metal workers, 
id is easily obtained in the bazars. 

Used chiefly as an alterative in aSec- 
18 of the liver and spleen and in rheumatism. Useful in 
,|gia. It has been found beiieBcial in aifeetions of the 
t. It makes a good freezing mixture with potassium 
ibe and water. Liquid ammonia and other salts of 
lOnia are m&de from the chloride. 




21 INDIOKNOOS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

AMOMUM SUBULATUM. 

TnE Greater Cardamom. 

Vem. — Btng. — Bara t^Iachi ; Hind. — Bari clachi ; i?aiu. — E1& ; I 

Tam.—Elam; Telu.—Yela.k\i\a ; Pers.— QAkilahe-kaltin. 

Several of the plants of the tribe Zhiffiberacece (natural 
order Scitamineis) that yield the cardamoms of commerce 
are indigenous to India. The true cardamom, Elletaria 
Cafdamomum, (<j. v.) grows wild in the Cochin and Travan* I 
core forests and in Southern India generally. A. av.hulatv,m, i 
is found wild in the mountainous parts of India and in 
Nepal, The fruits are plentiful in the bazars and are j 
a cheap and efficient substitute for the true cardamom, 
They are of about the size of a nutmeg. 

Uedlclnal uses. — The Seeds are agreeably aromatic, car- 
minative and stimulant, but less heating than many other ' 
spices. Cardamom forms one of the ingredients of the mas- 
ticatory used throughout India. Both in Indian and Euro- 
pean medicine it is a frequent adjunct to other stimulants, 
bitters and purgatives, usually in the form of tincture or 
powder. An Oil is extracted from the seeds which ia 
applied to the eyelids to allay intlammation. 



AMOOBA BOHITUKA. 

Vern.— ^Mj.— Tikta-rdj, Pitrdj ; Hind.~Ho.na; Ham. — 
Rubitaka ; Tarn. — Shem-mai'am ; Telu. — Chuwa-maim, 

An evergreen tree, of the natural order Meliaceix, found 
in Bengal, Assam and Burma. 

Uedlclnal use.— The Bark is considered astringent. The 
Seeds yield an oil which is used as a stimulating liaiment 
in rheumatiemi 



INDIQENOTJS DKUGS OF iNDlA. 



25 



AMORPHOPHALUS OAMPANULATUa 

The Telinga Potato. 
B, — Beng. — 0); Hind. — Zamin-kand ; Sane. — Siirana, oUa; 
ram.— Karuna, sooran ; Telu. — Muncha-kunda. 
' The Amorpliopkalus campaiiulatua, natural order 
Aroidea, is native to and cultivated throughout India and 
Ceylon for the sake of its tubers which are cooked and 
eaten by the natives H1<e yams or potatoes. 

Medicinal use. — Useful in hemorrhoids, one of its 
^^Sanskrit synonyms being Arsaghna or curer of piles. 

^^H Vsm. — 



AMYQDALUS COMMUNIS. 

The Aluono, 
See Fruntjh Amyodalds. 

ANAOARDIUM OOOIDBNTALE. 

The Cab hew- Nut. 



;ni.— Kola 



[ Vsm. — Beng. — Hijli-Bdddm; Urnd. — Kajii 

mara ; Telu. — Idi-mamidi ; Bon. — Kijii. 
The cashew tree abounds oa the sea-coasts of India 
and other tropical countries. It belongs to the natural 
order AiiacardiacecE. Tiie kernel has a sweet and agree- 
able taste, and is eaten with relish when roasted. The oil 
obtained from it by expression is exactly similar to olive 
oil, the finer qualities being quite equal to almond oil. A 
gum that exudes from the bark resembles gum arable, but is 
only partially soluble in water and consists of true gum and 
baAsorine. The pericarp of the nut contains a black acrid 
oil called cardole or cashew-apple oil. It is applied to the 

doors and wooden rafters of houses to prevent the attacks 

^^HT white-auts, and used by book-binders with a Bimilor object. 



26 



INDIGENOUS DBUOS OP INDIA. 



Msdioinal uses.— The Oil from the kernel U nutritioiu 
and emollient. Internally used as a demulcent in the form 
of emulsion. It may be used in pharmacy like olive oil. 
The acrid oil possesses rubefacient and vesicant properties. 
The active principle is Anacardie Acid. It has been used 
as a local stimulant in leprosy and psoriasis. 

ANACTOLUS PYRBTHRUM. 
Tern. — Beng, and Hind. — Akarkari; Sans. — Akarksrava } 

Ta m. — Akkarakarum. 
The root of Anacydus pyretkrum (Anthemia pyretkrum), 
natural order Compositce, the common pellitory, 

Medicinal aaes. — The Root is a valuable sialogogue. It 
is potferfully irritant, and has been found successful in 
toothache. It is frequently employed in gargles. An in- 
fusion of this drug is useful in cases of rheumatism. 

ANAMIRTA OOCCULUS. 

CoccoLUS Indicub. 
Vem, — Sind. — Kakmari; £omb. — Kdkaphala. 

Natural order MenispefmacecB. Found in Southern and 
Eastern India and Burma. The poisonous berries constitute 
the Goccidvs i7idiou.8oi commerce, which is the source of 
picrotox^in, a highly poisonous, erystatlizable bitter prin- 
ciple. The fruits contain also about 50 per cent, of oil 

Medicinal uses.— The FttulTS are not used medicinally 
except occasionally in the form of an ointment which ia 
applied Eis an insecticide. They have been employed as a 
substitute for the bitter principle of hops in the manufac- 
ture of beer. Fierotoxin is employed for checking night 
sweats of phthisis and as an antidote in morphine aad 
chloral poisoning. 



INDIQEHOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



27 



ANANAS SATZVA. 

Ihe Pineapple. 
Vem. — Beng. — Aniras; Hind. — An^aa ; Our. — Anaras ; 

Tam. — ^Vu&ahappaliane ; Telu, — AnAnash-pandu j Arab. — 

Aainunnis. 

Natural order ■Bromeliacece. This plant, which yields the 
well-known delicious fruit, la largely cultivated in India. 

Medicinal uses. — The fresh juice of the Leaves is re- 
garded OS aiitheLmiatic. The fruit itself ia antiscorbutic. 



■ ANDBOORAPHIS FANICULATA. 

Cheat. 
Veni.— /*eny.— Kalmegh ; Sind. — Kiryit ; Sana. — Kirata j 

2'am. — Nilavembu ; Tetu. — Nelw-veum; Pen. — Nainehavandi. 

The plant Andrographia paniculata grows wild all over 
Bengal. It belongs to the natural order Acanthaceoj. The 
whole Plant is intensely bitter and yields its properties 
readily to water or spirit. It is sometimes called Indian 
ChireLta and frequently confused with the real herb of that 
name. One of the veruacular names for the Great is Makd- 
tika — King of bitters. 

Hediolnal uses.— It ia a powerful bitter tonic and haa 
been successfully used in cases of dysentery and diarrhcea. 
This ia the basis of the well-known domestic medicine 
alui which is a composition of carminatives formed into 
pills with the fresh juice of its leaves and preserved after 
being dried in the sun. It is frequently given with advan> 
tage to infants suffering from flatulence and diarrhcca 
caused by defective digestion. It also forms an ingredient 
of the celebrated French nostrum the Droguamere. It 
^Hbpi properties aimilar to quoasia, and is useful in general 



28 INDlQENOPa DRUGS OF INDIA. 

debility, in convalescence after fever, and in advanced atf^s 
of dysentery. During the late outbreak of inHiienza a 
tincture of the plant was found highly efiicacioua in arrest- 
ing the pr<^es8 of the disease. 



ANDROPOOON OITRATUS. 

Lemon-Grass. 
'Vem.— Beng. — Gandba bend; Sans, — BhiiHtrina. 

This grass (Gramhiaceai) is extensively cultivated 
throughout India. The well known fragrant volatile oil 
known as lemon-gra.'is or Indian Melissa oil is obtained by 
distillation with water from the fresh plant. It is largely 
used in perfumery, and very frequently employed to 
adulterate oil of verbena which it somewhat resembles. 

Hedlclnal uses. — The Oil is stimulant, carminative, 
antLspagmodic and diaphoretic : locally rubefacient Useful 
in flatulent colic and gastric irritability. In cholera it 
proves serviceable not only by allaying and arresting the 
vomiting but by aiding the process of reaction. Exter- 
nally applied it fonna an excellent embrocation Id 
chronic rheumatism, neuralgia, sprains, and other painful 
affections. 

ANDBOFOaON MUBICATUS. 

CuBcufl ; Khus-Khds : Veti-vebt. 

Vem. — Btnj, — Beni, Khus-Khus; Hind. — Khas-Khos; Satit.—' 
Uaira, Virana ; Tarn. — Vette-ver ; Pfrs. — Savandra-mtil, 
This is another of the luimeroua species of Andropogon 
which yield the fragrant grass oils of coinmerce. It is a 



mm 






INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 2B 

l^i'ge g^oss uative to the Coromandel and Mysore coasts, and 
fouad abundantly in moist grouud in Bengal and Bui'ma. 
The long fibrous Root of this plant is well known aa the 
Khus-Khus of which door-screeua — tatties — or aromatic 
scented mats are made. Tliey are kept constantly wet, thus 
cooling and agreeably perfuming the atmosphere during 
the hot weather. On distillation with water the roots 
yield a fragrant oil, the well-known khas-Jchas-ka-atav, 
so much valued in English and Indian perfumery. 

[ Meaiolnal usea.— The powdered Root is regarded aa 
Itoling, refrigeraiit, stomachic and useful in pyrexia, thirst, 
notability of the stomach, &c,, but it is not of much im- 
portance medicinally. Externally it is occasionally used in 
the form of a paste of the root to relieve oppressive heat 
of the skin. An infusion of the root ia used internidly as 

t gentle stimulant, and the essence or otto is similarly 
sd in small doses. 
ANDBOPOaON NABDUS. 
ClTROKELLA. 
"em. — Benff. — KamjUKh^r; Himl. — Oanjnf; -Vi'ny. — Maana. 
This grass is quite common in the North-West Provinces 
and the Punjab, and very largely cultivated in Ceylon and 
Singapore for the valualde oil it yields. The oil is a very 
important prodnct in perfumery. 

Medicinal usea. — Citronella oil is regarded as officinal by 
the Pkarmacopceia of India. It is little used medicinally, 
but may be regarded aa having properties airailar to those 
of A. oitratua, especially in rheumatism. The leaves are 
occasionally used in the form of infusion. 



30 INDIGENOUS DBUOS OF INDIA. 

ANDKOPOaON SCHCENAKTHUS. 

The Geranium Ooabs. 

Vem. — Senj.— Agyi-ghfia, Boabel ; ffind. — Biid-gh^ rusa-ktktel I 
(the oil) ; Jtfod.— Roflhet, 
This, anotherofthe fragrant Oraminacece. is indigenous | 
to Ceutral India, the North-West Provinces and the PuDJab. I 
The oil distilled from the leaves is of a pale sherry colour, 
and has an agreeable odour resembling, especially in its 
purified forms, that of otto of roses, which it is extensively i 
used to adulterate. Its taste is sharp and agreeable, ap- 
proaching that of oil of lamona. The oil is also known in 
commerce as " rusa " (probably a corruption of rose) oil, 
"nimar oil," and "oil of ginger grass." It is very exten- 
sively employed in soap-making and perfumery. 

Uediclnal usas. — Stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic 
and diaphoretic. Locally applied it is a rubefacient. It is 
found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of 
the bowels. ExternulJy it is commonly used in chronic 
rheumatism, neuralgia, sprains, &c., with excellent effect. 
It can he used as a substitute or in conjunction with 
cajeput oil. 



ANOKA SQUAMOSA. 

The Cpstard Apple. 

Vem. — JBetiff. — Atii, Sitaphal ; Hind. — Sbarifa; Tarn. — Sita- 

palam ; Telv. — Sita-pandu. 

The custard apple is a small tree of the natural oi-der 

AnonacetB, which is cultivated almost all over India for its 

fruit. 



uiDiasNoua drugs of ihdia. 31 

Medldnalose.— Tho ripe Fruit externally applied is 
considered mnturant, and is also used to hasten suppuration 
in cases of malignant tumours. The LEA.TBS, the Seeds 
and the Unripe Fruit possess insecticide properties. The 
Root is a violent purgative. 

Al^HEMIS NOBILIS. 

Syo. — Matricaria chauouila. 

Chamomilb. 

Vrnn-^Bttig. — Babilnah-phol ; Hind. — BabiSna-ke-phul ; 

Ptrs. — Babdnah ; .Irai.^Bdbiitiaj. 
'he dried flowers of the plant Anthemis nohiliB, natural 
order Conipo8it<s. It is a native of Europe and Persia, but 
cultivated in India and chiefly in the Punjab ; available in 
^ the bazai's. 

[edidnal osee.— Stomachic, antispasmodic, carminative 
tonic in dyspepsia and general debility. The warm 
ision in large doses is sometimes used to promote the 
actioQ of emetics; useful in hysteria, and in suppression oj 
menses. Chamomile also acts as a vermifuge. Externally, 
an infusion or decoction or cataplasm of the Flowers ia 
used to relieve pain. The essential Oil obtained by dis- 
^^tijlation possesses antispasmodic properties. 

^H ANTHEMIS FTRETHBUM. 

^^^1 See Anacyclus PvRETniiUM. 



^^ thi 
^^Bfusic 



AKTHOCEPHALXJS CADAMBA. 

Syn. — Sarcocephaluh cadamua. 
. — Berig. — Kndam ; Hind. — Kadamb ; Tam. — Vella, 
codamba ; Telu. — Kadiuul>o. 
lis tree, natural order Rubiace(e, ia found in Eastern 
i Korthern India 



32 rsmaKNOUs drugs of india. 

Uediolnal nsea.— The Bark has been used as a febrinige 
and the Leaves occasionally in the form of a gargle, 

ANTIABIS TOZICABXA. 

The Upas Trek, 
Vern. — Tam. — Nuttavil ; Burnt. — Mya-sheik. 
This is a large tree, belonging to the natural order UrtU 
caceoi, found in Burma, the Indian Archipelago and Ceylon. 
It is the source of a most powerful arrow-poison which is 
believed to contain a medicinal principle of some value. The 
arrow-poison is a gum resinous exudation from incisions in 
the trunk. The physiological etTects of this poison, which 
has been called antiarin, resemble those of strychnine, 
which alkaloid has indeed been found in the poison. 

ANTIHONHTM. 

Antimony: Black Antimony. 

■Beng. — Surm^; ffind. — Surmah-ka-pattlia 



Vern,— 

Eohal 



; Sana. — 
Bom. — Surmah-i-isfahani ; Pen. — Sangi-aurmah. 

A native ter^ulpbide of antimony purified by fusion and 
reduced to a black powder. It is found in several parta of 
the Punjab but not produced to any extent. It Is not used 
in the arts by the natives of India. It is applied by native 
women in Upper India as a cosmetic to the tarsus of the 
eye, to improve the personal appearance. When thus 
applied is also supposed to protect the eyes from the glare 
of the sun by absorbing the rays, 

UedlclDal uses. — It is seldom employed medicinally; 
occasionally as a tonic for horses. 

APLOTAXIS AURIOULATA. 

See Savssuhea Uyfoleuoa. 



I 



1N1>IGEN0US DRUGS OF INDIA. 33 

APIUM QBAVEOLENS. 

Celery. 

Vem. — Beng, — Randuni ; Hind. — Ajmodh. 

The plant, belonging to the natural order Umbelliferce, 
is a native of Europe, but now cultivated in India as a 
garden cro)>. The seeds are used as a spice. 

Medicinal use. — The Root is alterative and diuretic and 
is prescribed in anasarca and colic. The Sfi£DS are stimu- 
lant and carminative. 

APITJM PETBOSELnnTM. 

See Petroselinum sativum. 

AQXJILABIA AQAItLOCHA. 

Calambac: Eagle Wood. 

Vem. — Beng, — Agaru ; Hind. — Agar ; Sans, — Aguru ; Tam.^^ 
Aggalichandana ; Telu. — Agru ; P^r*.— Ayalur-che. 

The wood of this tree (natural order Thymelacece), con- 
tains scattered through it the fragments of sweetly-scented 
Agar Resin, which is highlj'^ prized by the natives of 
India. It is probably a degradation product of the wood. 

The wood is used in the composition of incense or in the 
production of a fragrant Otto — agar-ka-atar. It is seldom 
used medicinally. 

ARACHIS HYPOQ^A. 

The Ground-Nut or Earth Nut. 

Vem. — Beng. — Chiner-bddam, Matkalai; Hind. — Mungphalif; 
Sans, — Buchanaka ; Tarn, — Verkadalai ; 2'elu. — Vernsana-ga- 
kaya; Bom, — Bhiii-chane. 

The legumes of Arachia hypogcea, a plant of the natural 
order LeguminoscB, ripen beneath the surface of the soil. 
The plant is cultivated in India, chiefly in the Madras and 
K, ID. 3 



34 



INDIOKNOUS DRUGS OK INDIA. 



Bombay Presidencies, and the shelled nuta and oil form 
most important article of export from Poiidiclierry atii 
other places. Thoy yield by expression about 40 to 50 pei 
cent, of a clear straw-coloured edible OiL — ^tlie Nut Oil 
coinmeice. It has a specific gravity of about 0918. Il 
possesses a faint odour and a very mild agreeable t 
It contains Oleic, Hypogceic, Palmitic and Arachi acidti 
AiBcbia oil i» highly esteemed for dometitic purposes, and 
does not become raticid so quiclcly as oLlier oils. It can be 
used for all purposes in pharmacy in place of olive oi 
almond oil, the latter of which it is used to adulterate^ 
The seeds themselves,— "pea-nuts," — are very popnlav as 
dietary in many parts of India, Africa and America. 

Medicinal uaea- — Tlie Oil is regarded by natives of tliis 
country as an excellent aperient and emollient. All that 
can be said of it is that it answers very well iu place of 
the oils indicated. 

ARBOA OATBCHTJ. 

The Areca or Betel-Nut Palm. 
Vem. — Beng. — Gua, Supdri ; 7/iiirf.— SupSri, chheli ; Sant.- 
Oubik ; Pere.—P6pa.l. 
The tree Areca Catechu, of the natural order Palirn 
is extensively cultivated in Bengal and Madras and aloni 
the sea coast of India and Burma tor its fruit — tho Area 
or Betel-nut of commerce. It is tin: most graceful bui 
elegant of the Indian paluis. The Kernbl of the frui 
is one of the constituents of the universal masticator 
(pan-Bupari), the "betel" of the East. Slices of the nu 
with a little catechu and several spices, according to tin 
means and taste of the individual, are wrapped up in 
leaf of the Piper betel or Betel vine, and having been smearei 
with a little shell-lime are chewed by the natives. An 



IHDIGENOUb DRVQS OF INDli. 35 

nut contains tannic principles, fatty and colouring matters, 
and several alkaloids cliiefly Arecoline. The tree yield a 
In-own variety of Catechu, known in the market as Bombay 
catechu. 

Medicinal nses.— Tlie unripe Nuts are laxative and car- 
minative. Tlie fresh nul.'i have intoxicating properties and 
produce giddiness. The diied nuts are uaed to sweeten 
i breath and strengthen the gums, end the powder is 
peforo freijuently combined in dentifrices. The burnt 
i (areca charcoal) is also used as a dentifrice, Areca 
. some reputation as an anthelmintic, especially in 
animals. 
^^ ABGBMONH MEXICANA. 

^^^h Thb Mbxica?( or Pricklv Poppr. 

i 



^P (a 



I Tern. — Beng. — Siil k&nt^ ; Hind. — Fiioghi Dhutura ; 
Sam. — Srigdla kantaka. 



kn American plant (natural order Papaveracece), wbteh 
r grows wild nearly all over India. The seeds yield a 
large quantity of OiL of a pale jellow colour and clear, 
resembling that of the poppy but possessing a disagreeable 
iimell. The whole plant abounds with a yellow JtJlCE 
veaembliug gamboge, 
Kedtolnal uses.— The Sekds are laxative and stomachic, 
ptic, expectorant and demulcent. Applied to herpetic 
ptioos and other skin diseases the Oil exercises a sooth- 
; influence. It is also usuful as a local application in 
indolent ulcers. 
AROBNTXJM. 

^^^BBdloliial uses.'wSiiver leaf is very frequently piescrib' 
ed in native medical pi-actice and often combined with gold 



K ea 

^^ftetic; 
^Hptic 
^flfe in 




36 INblOKNOUS DKUaS OF INDIA. 

It in supposed to be effective in iieivous diseases. In theV 
form of oxide it ia also employed 6a a nervine tonic. 

ABQTBEIA SPECIOSA. 

TlIK KlkPH.VNT CllKEPEU. 

Vem. — Bc'iy. — Bichtai'ftk ; Hind. — ^Samaudttr-ka-pAt ; Sant.~ 

Vriddha daraktv ; Turn. — Shamuddirap-pach-chai ; Telv.- 

^amudi-apala. 

This twiniiig plant fnatural urJer Convolvuluceai), iaJ 
found all over India. 

Medicinal useB.— The Roar is regarded im alterative and J 
tonic: useful in rheumatism and diseases of the nervous! 
syatem. The Leaves are used by the natives as a locall 
stimulant and rubefacient in skin diseases. 

ABISTOLOCHIA INDICA. 

TuE Indian BiKTinvoHT, 

Vem. — Beng. — iHnruiiil ; Hinii. — Isaiinul. 8ane. — Arkauiula;' 

Tata. — loh-oliura-inutiver ; Pert. — Zaravandi hiudl. 

Aristolochia indica (Aristolodtiaceai) is a twining peren-| 
nial growing nil over India. 

Medicinal osea— The Root of this as well as of other| 
species of Aristolochi'i, possesses a nanseous bitter taste 
and is a powerful enimenagogue and antiarthribic. It m 
perhaps the best antidote to the bites of poisonous insect 
being used both externally and internally. Mixed witbfl 
honey it is given in white leprosy. It is also considert 
useful ill dropsy. Macei-ated with blnck pepper-corns it UM 
given in cases of cholera and diarrhcea with much benefit. 
The fresh Lkaves applied, to the stomach of a child removn 
contitipation, 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



37 



ABSENIUM. 

ARSEN10U8 Acid. 
Arsenic: White AResNtc. 
— Benj. — Sonkhia, Seuko bish, Sanbul-klmr ; Hind. — 
l-sanbul ; Sant. — SdrnMa-kshara ; Pers. — Marg-moah. 
ores of arsenic are not worked to any extent in 
|ta, Lilt the drug is ea.iily obtained in a pui-e state in all 
STe ba/i,!-)). It is chiefly imported from China, Its uses 
in medicine and pliarmncy are well known. It la exten- 
sively employed in India in the treatment of obfitinats 
intermittent fever. 

Orpiiiieiit — the yellow sulphuret — (joraile aenko) and 

IUgar — tlie red snl|ihiiret — (iminrkal) are also euijiloyed 
Qindu medicine. 
: 
id 



ABTEMISIA MARITIMA. 

Worm-Seed ; Sastonica. 
■•m.— //'■»'/.— Kirmali; ft.m.— Kinnd.ii ; A'-ab.- 



.Shili or 
Shib; /'eis.-Shih, Damnniih. 
le minute dried Flowbr-heads of Artemisia maritima 
licli grows at high altitudes on tlie Western Himfilaya. 
Katural order Covipositce. They contain an important 
gluooaide Santonin. 

Medicinal uses. — The Flower-heads or "Worm-seed" 
are anthelmintic, deobstriient and stomacliic. Santonin 
i» very frefjiiently iiresenlwd for the removal of intestinal 
thread worms. As used in India it is mostly imported. 

ABTEMISIA VULaABIS. 
a. — Seng. — Dona ; Himl. — Nagdoui ; Sana. — Niigdaruani ; 

Tani. — Machipatri ; Tefii. — Dnranania. 
'he plant Artemisia vuhiaria {natural onler Gnnposifce), 
Aive of Nepal, and fom.d tlirous^hont tlio mountain 




SS INDIGENOUS DKUaS OF INDIA, 

tracts of ludia, is the Indian wormwood. It yield* a 
volatile easeutial oil on distillation known an Dona-ha-atar. 
Medicinal uaeB.— The Leaves and Flowerinq Tops are 
administered in the form of infusion for nervous and 
sjiasmodic atTectious. Wormwood is also employed as a 
vermifuge. 

ARTOCARPUS INTSaBIPOLIA. 

The Jack Fruit Thee. 

Vepn.~ Beng. — Kftiithiil ; Bind. — Panoa ; ^/ur.—P lianas ; 

3'om. -Pild; 3Wii.— Pausn. 
A large tree of the natural order Artocarpea;, cultivat- 
ed all over India for ita fruit. 

medicinal usea. —The products of the Jack-fruit treearo 
not much used for medicinal purposes. The ripe FitulT is 
considered an antidote to all icinda of animal poison. The 
Milk is applied to glandular swellings and abscesses to 
linmiote suppuration, the young Leaves are used in skin 
diseasei, and the Root is given internally in diarrhoea. 

ASAFCETIDA. 

Set Ferula Narthex. 

ASPARAanS ADSCENDENS. 

Vera. — Hind. — yufed niusti, Satiiwur. 

A plant of the natural order LiUacece, found in Noptli- 
eru India. 

Ucdlcinal uses. — The tuberous Root of this plant is the 
true sufed viiibH, of Indian practitioners, by whom it is 
highly valued for its demulcent properties. It is ofte|i 
used a.1 BR ubstitule for falcp-inisri . 



INDIGENOUS DRUOS OF INDIA. 



yn 



—Beng. — f^alaiiiuli ; //I'nt/.— Salivn 
Sfttamuli: 7'e/».— Challa ; Arab.- 



^ftiui: 

i 



ASPARAGUS SARMENTOSUS. 

in : Suns. — SatAvari, 
-Shakaigul. 
Tliia plant, belonging tu the natui'al order Liliacece, 13 
&iund iti Upper India, the Concans and Deecan. 
|Tlie Sanskrit name Satamxdi (posaessiog a hundred roots) 
P'in allusion to the numerous fusifonn tubers of this plant. 
9 tubei-s are candied and taken aa a Bweetmeat. They are 
lioiuetiiaes confused with ^1. adsccndens. 
Medicinal uses.— The Root is reputed as a good doraul- 

It and alterative tonic, diuretic, and aphrodisiac. The 
li juice is given witli honey as a demulcent. 



ASFIDIUM FILIX MAS. 

Set NEPIIliOlHU'M F1L1.\-MAS. 



ASTERACANTHA. LONaiFOLIA. 

Sf. HynROPIIlLA SPINOSA, 



ASTRAGALUS V^RUS. 

TuAr.ArASTii. ' 

Vem. — Benij. — Katiln ; lliwl — Anjirti. 

Natural order Leguminosce. This is found in the Himd- 

layn and yields in small quantities an excellent Gum Traga- 

canth, which exudes during the hot season through the bark 

I Blonder threads, which gradually increase, liarden and form 
ITS or worm-like pieces, This Gdm forms the basis of Bome 
Klicinal lozenges and styptic powder, and is extensively 
ad as a demulcent. In the arts it !s highly valued as an 
|rredient in dye-stutfs and as a glaze for calico and silks. 
Uedlcloal oees. — Emollient and demulcent. It is very 
iist-fiil in the irritation of the mucous membranes of the 

Iiiluumary and genito-urinary organs. It is chiefly used aa 
I vehicle for more active medicineM. 



40 INmOENOUS DRlias OF INDIA. 

ATBOPA BEI4LA.DONNA. 

Deadly NjunTsiiiDE. 
Tern. — Beng. — Yebruj ; Hind. — An^r-sh^b. 

Tliia valuable plant (natural oiHer Solanacete), is found in 
great alnuirlaiicc on tho Himiilaya extending froni Siinlti in 
Kiiahnili-, at altitudes varying from (J.OIM) to 12,000 feet. It 
is extensively employed in modern meilicine. It is not fownd 
in the baxArs except those of Nortliern India, most of the 
drug employed being imported nnnecessftrily. Thn Lkavks 
and dried Root are offieial in the Brilisk Pharmacopieia. 
All parts of the plant contain Atropine mkI Hynecyiimine. 
(See also Hyoscyamus,) 

Uediclnal usob.— Belladouna ia powprfiilly sedative, niio- 
dytie and an ti spasmodic. The Root is used chiefly in the 
pi-eparation of the alkaloid Atropiiie. the active principle. 
which is extensively used in ophthalmic practice. A lini- 
ment is also made from the root which is invaluable as nn 
anodyne ap]dication in i-benmatle and neuralgic pains. 
Internally it is chiefly nsed as a tincture of the leaves. 
A standard strength for preparations of belladonna would 
lie desirable. Atropine is antagonistic to aconite, morphine. 
Calabar bean fpilncarpine)nnd the ettl'ct^ of poisonous fnngi. 



AUBUM. 



Vern.— .Btfny.— Woiui ; //iHt?.— Suoii ; .S'^i ns. — .Suviirrm, Kw/vmn. 
Gold leaf is used to a considerable extent by the hitbirain 
(Bengali physicians) combined with silver leaf or ai-senicand 
sometimes with mercury in various forms, chiefly for nervons 
diseases. Tliey suppose that it improves the nienmry and 
intellect. It is probable that with some of their patients. 
faith in the efficacy of the remerly is in propurtiim to it.-* rnsi. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 41 

AZADIBACHTA INDICA. 

See Melia azadirachta. 



BALIOSPBBMUM MOXTTANUM. 

Vem. — Beng, — Dantimul ; Hind, — Danti ; Sans. — Danti. 

A common slivub of Northern and Eastern Bengal, belong- 
ing to the natural order Euphorbiacece, 

Medicinal uses.-— The Sbkds are administered as a drastic 
purgative. Like croton seeds, for which they are occasion- 
ally substituted, they are boiled in milk before use. The 
Root of the plant is cathartic. Both are much used in 
Hindu medicine as purgatives. 



BALSAMODENDBON MUKUL. 

Gum Gugul. 

Vem.— -^^n^. — Guggul, Mukul ; //tn^/.^Giigal ; Sana. — 

Guggula. 
The tree BaUamodendron Mukul (natural order Bur- 
8eracecB), is a native of Sind, Rajputnna, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. It yields the guggul gum, the Indian 
Bdellium, but probably' there are other species of the same 
genus which yield the same product — B. Roxburghii, pub- 
escens, and Bei^^yi, The gum is collected in the cold season 
by making incisions in the tree and letting the resin fall on 
the ground. This accounts for the dirty condition in which 
it is usually found in the shops. It is a GUM resin and 
sometimes used in |)lace of myrrh, being much cheaper. 
It is largely used by the Hindus as an incense in their 
religious ceremonies, the surrounding atmosphere becomincr 
impregnated with its agreeable odour. 



42 



INDIO.ENOrs DRUGS OP INDIA. 



Medicinal uses. — Demulcent, aperient, alterative and eftr- 
iiiinative. It is used in rheumatism, nervous diseases, 
scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and akin diseaaea. 



BALSAUODENDRON 2ITBBHA. 

MVRBII. 

Vern.— £*nj.— HInlb61 ; /7i/irf.— Bdl ; Pert.— Ti6L 
The solid gum resin obtAined from the bark of the tree 
BalBainodendron Myri-ka (natural order Buvsevaceo!). It 
exudes in a soft oily state, but soon hardens by exposure 
to air. It has an aromatic and balsamic odour and a bitter, 
aromatic taste. There are three varieties of this article in 
commerce, each differing in ap|iearance and each embracing 
several gmdes of different commercial value. The great 
myrrh market of the world is at Bombay, where it 
is exchanged fur Eogtish and Indian goods, reassort«d 
and exported to Europe. It has been used from time 
immemorial as an incense. 

Uedlcinal uses. — Stimulant, expectorant and emmena- 
gogue; useful in dyspepsia and in amenorrhoea. chlorosis 
and other atonic uterine affections. It is also useful as an 
expectorant in chest affections, especially in asthma. Ex- 
ternally it is used as an astringent and stimulating applica- 
tion in ulcerated conditions and a valued wash for the 
mouth and gums, and gargle in ulcerated sore-throat. 

BAMBUSA ABUNDINACBA. 

Bam doo. 

Vera. — Ben(f. — BAns; HiatL — Bdns; Sang. — Vimsa. 

In addition to the innumerable uses to which the various 

species of bamboo (natural order Graminea-), are put in 

India they are used to some extent medicinally. The 




INDiatNOUS DttUOS OF INDIA, 



43 



bamboo is said to flower only once in 30 or 40 yeara and 
only ill seasons of great drought so that it has been consi- 
dered a precursor of famine. 

Medicinal asea.^The siliceous concretion found in the 
Joints of the female bamboo is called Bansa rochana in Sans- 
krit and in Hindi TabaskU; and is largely used in botuce- 
mathic medicine as a sweet cooling tonic, aphrodisiac and 
paeful in cough, consumption, oatlima, &c. The Leaves aro 
Regarded as eraenagogue. 



BAHIIiIiA. 

Ohdde Carbonate or Soda. 

Vera. — Benff. — SajjI-mdti ; Khar-sajjt. 

This is a white efflorescence on the soil known usually 

, found in many parts of India. A purer form of 

inlla is also obtained from the ash of certain indigenous 

Iplants, chiefly Caroxylon Ori^thii. As collected in Northern 

tengal and in Bomliay and many other districts rek is used 

B dliobie's or fuller's earth fur washing purposes and in the 

manufacture of a crude country soap. It contains on an 

average 30 to 50 per cent, of carbonate of soda, which is 

easily separated by a simple process of lixiviation and has 

been produced in India on a commercial scale. 



BARRINOTONIA AOTJTANGTTLA. 

a. — B^iig. — ^Tja! ; Ilinil. — .Sumunilar-plial ; Aiiis.— Hi jjnlft. 

An evergreen tree, belonging to tlie natuml order Myr- 

Sacea, found plentifully in Bengal and extending to the 

lower Himalaya; found also in Central and South India 

ilHid Burma. The Sked», which are about the size of a 

liutmeg, are used to some extent in native medicine. They 



44 



ISDIOESOUS Dni'GS OF IKDIA. 



Hediclnal oses. — Tlie powdered Sked in doses of & 
grains is given to children as an expectorant and emetic. 
The Leaves and Root are bitter tonics. 



BASSIA BUTTRACBA 

The Isdia?( Bcttkb Tbbk. 

Vera. (The oil}— //>„(/.— Phulwa ; Phulwara. 

A deciduous tree of the Sub-Himtilayan tract, natural 

order Sapotacew. The Seeds yield on expression a concrete 

Oil or vegetable butter, which is used to some extent as a 

dietetic. It is also used externally in rheumati.^m. 

BASSIA LATIFOLXA. 

The Inuian Bptter Tree. 
Vera, — ^//inrf,— Mfthud ; Sa jij.^Mfulhuko. 
This valuable and most important tree is indigenous to 
and eiiteiisively cultivated nearly all over India for its 
flowei'8 and fruit. It belongs to the natural order SapO- 
tacete. It flav^ers in February and March. Tlie Flowehs 
form an important article of food amotig some of the 
poorer (glasses. The seeds yield by expression a large 
ijuantity, about 30 per cent., of concrete OIL used bj' the 
natives as a substitute for Kokum butter for culinary pur- 
puses, in adulterating ghC (clarlQed butter), for burning and 
in soap-making. The spirit produced I'loui the flowers, 
when carefully distilled, somewhat resembles Irish 
Whisky. It is called Maliuu Wine, and nianufactuied to a 
cmHiderable extent in several parts of India, while the 
Howors form an important article of export, being used 
in the preparation of an infoiioi kind ••i Inandy. 




INDIQ£NOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 45 

Medicinal uses. — The spirit is astringent, tonic and 

appetizing. It is a powerful diSusable stimulant. The 
flowers are cooling, tonic and nutritive. 



BASSOBA QUM. 

Gum Hog, Hoo Tragacanth. 

This name is given collectively to the product of a number 
of Indian gum-yielding trees which is occasionally found 
as an adulterant of gum tragacanth. It is known in the 
baz&rs as Katira. It is a very inferior gum and of an 
objectionable dark colour. 

BAUHINIA VABIBQATA. 

Vem. — Behg, — Bakta-Kanch&n ; Hind, — Kachnar ; 

Sans, — Kanchanara. 

This tree is found in the Sub-Himdlayan region and 
throughout the forests of India and Burmah. It belongs 
to the natural order Leguminosce, The Bark yields a 
brown-coloured Gum known as Semla-gdnd, 

Medicinal uses. — The bark of Bauhinia variegata is 
described as alterative, tonic, astringent and useful in 
scrofula, skin diseases and ulcers. 

BBNINOASA OBBIFBBA. 

The White Gourd Melon. 

Vem. — Beng, — Kumrd ; Hind* — Grol-kaddii ; Sans. — Kushmanda ; 

Bom, — Kohala. . 

Cultivated, largely in Bombay and the Deccan. It 
very much resembles the pumpkin (Cacurbita pepo) in 
appearance and belongs to the same natural order. It may 



46 ISDIOBMOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

frequently be seen growing on tlie thatched roofs of huts in 
Bengal. It ib cooked in curHea and made into sweetmeotH. A 
waxy secretion h found on tbe outside of tlie fruit in suffi- 
cient quantity to be collected. 

Uedicinal usee. — The Sebds possess anthelmintic pro- 
perties and are useful in cases of taenia. The expressed 
Oil of the seeds in doses of half an ounce repeated at an 
interval of two hours and followed by an aperient is said 
to be equally efficacious. The JuiCK of the ripe fiuit is 
considered efficacious in Liemoptysis and other internal 
discharges, and has been found particularly beneficial in 
phthisis. 

BEBBBBIS ABISTATA, B. LYCIUM, 

and other Species. 

Tui; Indian Babbkrky. 

Vem. — lieng. — Darhaldi ; Wind.— Roaaut, Rusot, Cliitra ; 

Sans. — ^DAruliaridra. t'eis. — Fil-zahrali ; Jir-kh&r. 
The barberry bushes grows on the Nilgiris and all over 
the Himalaya, whence the root and the root-bark could be 
obtained in great quantities, They belong to the natural 
order Berberideof. ITie Root occms in pieces varying in 
thicitness from 2 or 3 to 6 or 8 inches and in length from 
10 to 12 inches. It is yellow externally and bitter in taste 
The active principle is the alkaloid Berberine, 

Uedicinal usea.^The Root-Babk, administered in the 
form of the tincture, which is official in the I'karmaco- 
pceia of India, is antipyretic, antiperiodic, diaphoretio and 
tonic. It is greatly used in cases of remittent fever. As a 
diaphoretic and antipyretic it is considered equal to quinioe 
and Warburg's tincture, and ae a diaphoretic may be used 
B a substitute for James' Ponder, As an antiperiodic it 



INDIUKNOUS OnUOS OF ISDU. 



*7 



I 



I 



has some advantage over quinine aud cincliona, iiiasinucli 
as frequently repeated doses do not jtroduce depreasion of 
the system or deafness, and it may be used during the attack 
of fever, It is also used as a local application iu alfecbions 
of tlie eyelids, a crude Extract — known as Rasaut — being 
)>repared for tliia purpose. In chronic ophtbaluiia this 
lias been used with success painted over the eyelids and 
occasionally combined with ojtium and alum. It is also 
used as a febrifuge in doses of half a dracbm, 

BIXA ORE LL AIT A. 

Annatto or Arnaito. 
Vem. — Bciiff. — Latkaii; Himl. — Latkau; Bom. — Kisri. 
This plant, although not indigenous, as sometimes erro- 
neously stated, is extensively cultivated in India for the 
valuable dye-slufl' which it yields. It belongs to the natural 
order Biadnecn. The oiange-red dye — annatto — is obtained 
by boiling the seeds in water, the pulpy matter which cons- 
titutes tbe colouring matter being thus se|)arated. It is 
extensively used as a colouring for butter, cheese, etc. It is 
also used to colour pomatums imd toilet preparations. 



BLUMEA liACBRA. 

Tern. — Stun. — Kukm-aungii; Hind. — Kukniuda; .Vanj,— Kiiku- 
rftdru; Bom. — Niniiirdi. 

A common weed to be found all over India, plentiful 
on the Him&laya and extending to Ceylon, It belongs to 
the natural order Composiice. Several species of Blumea, 
particularly B. bcUeami/era and B. densijiora yield a 
atearoptene which has been found identical with camphor. 

Hedloinal uaea. — The Urieu Hicrb has been employed 
as » febrifugt^, astringent in hcemorrhagee, deobstruent and 



48 INDIGENOUS DHU(i» OP INDIA. 

stimulant. An astringent eye-lotion lias ali^o been prepared 
from the LkaVEs. 



BCEIIIHAAVIA DIFFUSA. 
Vera. — Beni/. — ^Funai-nabfi ; Uhnl. — lludhA-puma. 

A tioublesoiue weed of tlie natural order Nyctaghute, 
round all over India. There are twokindw: one with wliite, 
and the Either with red, Howei-s. The former is used in 
medicine. 

Uedlcinal ubbb. — The Root of the plant used in iiifii.sion 
or given in powder is considereil laxative, diuretic, antliel- 
uiintic and cooling. It hsis also expectorant properties, 
and lia-s l>een prescribed with advantage incases of astliiua. 
In large doi<&-) it acts as an emetic. 

BOMBAX MAIiABABICUM. 

Thk Silk Cotton Tkke. 

Vern. — Hfii'j. — Himul, Kemul ; Hind. — Semal ; Sane. — Mocliu 

5(1"!.— SeniuJ, Shenilml. 

A Gum obtained IVom this plant (natural order Malvac&v), 
is very frequently to be met witli in the Indian bazars, 
It is known as MiJckaras, and is usually in rouiidi-sh 
tears of a dirty brown colour and liollow. .somewhat re- 
sembling galls in general appearance with an ostiingent 
taste. Tlioy are sometimes also known as Stipavl-ka-phul. 
The silky portion of the seed forms a good substitute for 
cotton. The seeds also yield a good drying oil. 

Uedioloal uses. — The Mocliams gum contains a large 
proportion of tannic and gallic acids and may be employed 
in ca.ses where uu astring<,-nt is indicated. U has been 



iNitiaENOUs Diiuns of isdu. 49 

BiQiid nseful in diftiTlircii, dysentery niid iiieaorHiagiannd 
I an aplirodisioG, wliile it Iiuh been employed as a styptic. 
riie EluoTS known as Masla ur Sewul Musla have stiinu- 
nd tonic properties altiibuted to tliem. 



BORASSUS FLABELLIFOBMIS. 

The Palmyra or Fas Palm. 
Vera.— Br.i,'/.— Tal; //.n'/.— Tii- ; .¥<,,«,.— Tiilii, Tiinarij. 

Tliis noUe and useful palm (Palmm) inhabit'^ dry sandy 

blls ill most parts of Itnlid. Tlia leaves were used fur 

Irriting on by the ancient Hindus. The letters were en- 

»ved upon them by means of a pointed iron style. Tliia 

»t«iii of writing is still extant in Orissa and Travancore. 

1 the rural schools of Bengal the leaves are written upua 

rlUi pen and ink in* upm paper, the children washing 

tlieni clean again at the nearest tank wiien the ilay's lesson 

is Hnished. 

Medicinal uses. — The saccharine Juice obtained by ex- 
cision of tliespadix iscooling.aweetand u^efnl in inflamma- 
tory dropsy. The fermented juice, called Tart (tuddy), is 
intoxicating: it is largely consumed in several parts of 
Indii), au'l spirit may be distilled fnun it. From an analysis 
made I'y the author some years ago it was fmmd that the 
toddy, aitor exposure lo the sun for ten houra, ferments and 
very closely resembles in its constituents — alcoholic, nu- 
tritive and otherwise — those of beer. The sediment of the 
T forms a yeant which is largely used in bread-making. 
[Ar is manufactured from it in Madras. Burma, and 
Sugar is nut made fioin it in Bengal but sugar- 
idy obtained from this palm i.s imported into Calcutta from 




50 INDIQIENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

Ceylon, TliD yellow pulp smrounding the ripe NuTs is sweet, 
heavy and indigestible. It is made iuto cakes with flour 
and other ingredients The young Sei^ds contain a clear 
watei-y fluid wliich is very refreshing and cooling. The 
kernel of the seeds after the seedlings have germinated ia 
eaten. The terminal Buds of the Tdl tree are regarded as 
nutritive, diuretic and Ionic. The aslies of the flowering 
stalk are said to bo uaeiul in enlarged spleen. Tlie 'toddy 
poultice' is a valuable stimulant application to gangrenous 
ulcerations, carbuncle and iudolesit ulcers. The sugai-caudy 
produced in the manufacture of sugar from this palm is 
used in coughs and pulmonary affections. 



BOSWELLIA SEBBATA. 

The Indian Olibanux. 

Vem. — Beng. — Gandhabiroja, Lub^n ; Hind, — Salgd, Kundur : 

A'uns.— Kunduru, fluggulu ; Per*. — Kundur, 

Tills tree (natural order Buvaeracew) is a native of the 
mountainous tracts of Central India and very common in 
Shahabad. The gum BSSIN, (Indian olihanum) lias a 
balsamic and resinous odour and a bitter and aromatic 
flavour. It ia largely consumed as an incense in reli- 
gious ceremonies. 

Medicinal uaea.— It is used externally in the form of 
Dintment as a ruhefaeiciit and stimulant application to 
boils, carbuncles, etc. It has been occasionally given as an 
astringent and diaphoretic. Its action, when taken inter- 
nally, being chiefly directed on the mucous membrane 
especially of the lungs, it may be given in bronehitja 
chronic laryngitis and honehonhoea. 



INDIGENOUS lyiUGS OF INDIA. 51 

BBASSIOA ALBA. 

The White Mustard. 

Vem.'^Beng, — Dh6p-rai ; Hind. — Sufed-rai ; 
Pers, — Sipanddne-Bufaid. 

The mustard plants are not indigenous to, but are 
extensively cultivated in many parts of India. Natural 
order Cruciferce. White mustard when triturated witli 
water does not yield the characteristic essential oil of 
mustard. It is invariably mixed with black mustard seeds 
in the preparation of the mustard flour of commerce. 

Medicinal uses. — Mustard-flour made into a paste with 
water is applied to the skin as a stimulant cataplasm or 
sinapism. 

BBASSIOA CAMPBSTBIS. 

The Colza and the Rape Seed. 

Vern. — Beng, — Sarisha ; Bind. — Sorson ; Sans, — Sarshap. 

This species includes many sub-species, varieties and 
forms, the most common being the B. (Sinapia) dichotoma 
(colza), glauca (rape), and Toria, from the seeds of which 
is extracted by expression the mustard Oils, which together 
with the oil of B.juncea are universally used in India for 
culinary and anointing purposes. 

BBASSIOA JTTNOBA. 

Indian Mustard. 
Vern. — Beng. — Rdi-sarisha ; Hind. — Rai ; Bom. — Rai. 

Cultivated throughout India, forming an important crop 
in many districts. It yields the mustard Oil so largely 
prepared in the Presidency Jails by convict labour. The 
seeds, which closely resemble those of B. nigra, contain 



52 



INDIGENOUS DUUGS CF INDIA. 



about 20 to 25 per cent, of oil. Aii essential oil is also I 
produced by the action of water as in B. nigia. 

Uediclnal uses.— Mustard Oil is used as an external sti- 
mulant application in chest affections especially of cbildicn. , 
It is also used fur culinary pui-posea. The whole phtnt is I 
gathered when in flower, and ia considered to possess hitter, 
aperient and tonic properties. 

BBASSIGA NZQBA- 

The Black Mustard. 
Vfirn. — fiiiij.— Itai-sarislin; //j'nrf.^Makrii-iivi ; Pers.—BB.r»\\a,i. 

This is also largely cultivated in ludia for the Itxed On. 
which it yields. The seeds yield on distillation the 
essential On. of mustard, produced in the presence of water 
by the myrosiii of the black mustard. 

Medicinal uaea.~The powdered Sekds combined with | 
that of white nmstard, in the f'u-m of mu.9tiird-flom-, ia used 
OS a simple vesicant and rubefacient, Mustard poulticea 
are useful in febrile aud intlaiinnatury symptoms. Mustard ' 
is often administered as a simple and effective emetic. It 
is largely used as a digestive condiment. 

BRYONIA BPICKEA. 

See CoilALLOCARPUS EPIfJOH. 



BRYONIA LACINIOSA. 

Bbtosv. 
Tern. — Beng. — Mala; Hind. — Gargii-nanS; Bom. — Eawole^ 
dole ; Tel. — Linga-donda. 
This plant (natural order Cuoiirbitace(B) is common I 
throughout India. 

Uedloinal usea.— The whole Plant is collected when in J 
fruit, it has bitter, tonic and mild febrifuge properties. 



INDIGKNOUS DRU<JS OF INDIA. 



53 



BBYOPHYLLUM CALYCYNUM, 

I'Vem. — Beiuj. — Kup-pata, PatJiikachu ; P-^/'s, — Zakhaui-httiynt, 

A aiiccnleiit. plant with tliirk Beshy leaves, belougiiig to 

I the naturnl order OraeauXaced-, common tliroiigliout the liot 

and moist purtfi of India. The leaves coiitiLJn tartaric acid. 

Medicinal uses. — The Leaves aEter being made pliable 

by holiiing uvei a tire are ujiplied to wounds, bruises, and 

boili. al.so used in the form of poultice and puwder in bad 

olcers, 

BUCHANANIA LATIPOLIA. 

Vem.— 5ri(.'/.— Pial ; ///li./,— Ctiirauiiji ; .Ham. - Piydl ; 
Tf.l. — ^Cbara. 

[6 tree belonging to the natural order Anacardi- 
ind iij most fortita of India. 
Medicinal usee. — The tree yields a GUM which resembles 
the Boasura ;;;iini, and which is considered efficacious in 
diarrhucA. The Seeds called Chiraunji or Chironj are 
largely used in the preparation of sweets, and also yield 
by expression an oil, which may he used as a substitute 
for nimnnd oil, 




BUTEA PRONDOSA. 

ItUTKA (.4uJi, Bes<i.m. Kino, 

V9TB.~ II eag.—Fiiida ; //iJit/.— Dliak, Fulati, Khakhm; 

Sang, — Palaaa, tCiiisuka; Boiu. — PalAsa. 

This beautiful tree (naturul order Leguminosai) is a 

Luativeor the mountainous di-stncts of India and Burma 

nnd common all over Bengal. It is a middle-sized tree 

■and hafl a most attractive appearance when in flower, 

■ the inflorescence being of n bright Hcarlet colour and 

leapable of yielding a tine yellow dye {Tesu) which may 



54 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

be iateusified by boiling with dilute acid. The baik of 
this tree and that of B. auperha fuinish a very importODt 
exudation called the FaUin-gond, Ch&ni<i-g6nd or Bengal 
Kino, very common in the bazira of India. It baa been 
found very rich in tanuic and gallic acids, and i.^ very 
similar both in chemical propertiea and medicinal virtue to 
the official kind (Pterocai-pus marsupium) q.v. It is 
more soluble in water than the true Kino. The charcoal of 
the wood of this plant possesses decolorizing properties, 
which enable it to be used as a substitute for animal charcoal 
in the puiificatioii of alkaloids on account of its com- 
parative freedom from saline matter. 

medicinal uaes. — The large Battened Seeds — FiUas-papra 
are laxative and anthelmintic. Made into a paste, they are 
used externally as a remedy for ringworm. The GuM is a 
moat powerful astringent, and is given successfully in many 
forms of chronic diarrhoea, in 5 to 20 grain doses, with a 
little cinnamon. Externally it is used as an astringent 
appticatioQ. 

O^SALPmiA BONDUCBLLA. 

The Feveh Nut : pHvaic Nut : Boxdcc Skbm, 

Vera. — Bemj. — Nata Karanja, Natdr-phal, Kuiiduli-phal ; 

Hind. — Karnuju ; 'S^uik.— Kul>ortlk8l|{. 

A climbing shrub (natural order iej/unuKOfl(e), common all 
over Bengal, Bombay, Travancore and the Coromandel coast, 

medicinal uses.— The Sbicds or Nuts are believed to 
contain antiperiodic properties for which they have been used 
to a considerable extent in native medicine. Dose 10 to 
15 grains. The Root-Bark has been found similarly effica- 
cious, and an oil expressed from the leaves is reported to be 
useful in convulsions, paley and nervous complaints. The 
seeds contain an Oil which is used a.s an embrocation. 



r 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. fl 

C^SALPINIA SAPPAN. 

The Sappan Wood. 
Vero. — Benij. — Bakaiu; Hind. — Pntang ; Sans. — Fataiiga; 

Pera. — Bakmn. 
Tlie small tliorny tree, CoesUplna Sappciii, oultivateJ in 
Ceiitiul India, aflbrds tlie well-knowri "sappfiti" i>f Bengal 
commerce. Tlie boIkJ, lienvy, hard ami compact wuod 
Bakam, constituted a very importaat article of trade in 
Calcutta before the advent of tlie aniline dyes, ita chief 
use being tk'i a led dyo stutt' for cotton fabrics. 

Uedioioal uaes. — It possesses powerful astringent pro' 
[lerties and miglit be substituted in medicine for log-wood. 
U contains a principle resembling HaemateUi. The active 
crystalline principle of the G.Sappaii is said to be identical 
with Bras'din. It lias been found by Dr. Warden that 
re&iiious extract o£ the sappan tree contains a ciyatal- 
principle which, fused with potash, yields Resorcin. 



CALAMUS DRACO. 

Dkauon's Blood. 
Vem. — Beng. — Apmng; Uiad. — Apniiig ; Arab.— Dam-eth- 
thuabiin ; Horn. — Hira-dakhan. 
Habitat: — Indian Archipelago ; the tree being one of the 
Rotang or Rattan palms. The resin, which constitutes the 
valuable Wood-red pigment known a.s " dragon's blood," is 
contained in the fruits, which are shaken in a sack till it is 
separated. It is also obtained by boiling the fruits with 
water. The Rksin thus obtained ia melted and made into 
iiticks or run into canes as frequently met with in the bazdr. 
Burned as inceu'ieit evolves a most pleasing odour of flowers. 
Hedlelaal uses. — It is occasionally usedas an astringent in 
medicine. Its more general use is as a colouring agent 
tn and tooth-powdei-s and in the arts for varnish. 



|» Uealemi 
^^Hbtive med 



06 INDtOtNUllS DKUGS U¥ INDIA. 

CALCII CARBOKAS. 

Carbo.vati! op LiMK, Chalk, Mauble, Limestosb. 
Vem. — Benj/. and Hint/. Chi'ina (lime), Cliuiiftkalai (Nlaked lime). 

Occurs in one or otlipi- of tlie abi've fuiins in every dia- 
trict of Indiii. Lime is also foiui'! natiirftlly as "concre- 
tionary carljonato of lime" — Kaiikur — on tlio snifitce of llie 
ground in many jilaces or in the Ireds of streams. A large 
quantity of jHire lime is also produced by the calcining 
of frt'sli water nii'i marine sbeiKi. 

Hedlcinal ubob— Aa tlie source of lime wnter, lime is of 
considerable iniportnnce in nieilicine htkI pliarjnncy. 

OALOTROPIS aiGANTBA. 
Syn. — AscLEPiAB gigastka. 

MUDAR, SWALLOK-WOHT. 

Vem. — H<nj.— Akanda ; Z/('n(/.— Miwlai- ; Sane. — .■\rkii, Alurka ; 
Perf.—Khavk. 

The drug consists of the RouT-Bahk of two or more closely 
allied species of CiUotropia, (nntnral order Asdepiadea;,) — C. 
giganiea and C prcKern. Bi.tli these species are extremely 
common in waste groninl, the former in the lower parts of 
Bengal ami Sonthern India generally, the latter in Northern 
India. The 0. procera yields an aliundant acrid milky jniu« 
which, dried in the snu, constitutes a sort of GintA-PKHCHA, 
and has properties almost exnctly reiiemhling the real i 
caoutchcjue, 

medicinal uses- — The powdered Koot-Hark and in&pts- ' 
sated JncEareiiseil extensively for their diJiphoretic, emetic, 
alterative and purgative properties, which Inive lieeii known 
to the Indian practitioners for many centuries and regarded 
in some parts as "vegetable mercury." Doses: — Alterative ' 
S to 10 grains, Emetic 30 to 60 grains. The nuthor lias 



INDIUKNUL'IS UllllUS UF INDIA, 



n7 



me\y fijiind that a fluid extmct of the Leaves given in 
tea of one to five di-0|)3 in intermittent fever, during 
intermission, generally ciit-i off the imroxysin more efiect- 
ually than quinine, Poisonoun in large duses. The fresh 
Flowkhs tire also used medicinally. In the dried hark 
of the root, we have an aileqnate substitute fur ipecacuannh, 
and when coinhined with npiumitgood representative of the 
ufliclal Dover's Powder is prepared. In dysentry, in doses 
i>f 5 to 10 [jrniTiB, it may be safely substituted for ipecaa, 
though double tlie quantity i,s generally required. It has 
been used by native ]ihysicians in small doses in leprosy, 
eleplcintiasis, secondary syphilis and similar affections. It 
ia also useful in mercurinl cachexia and rheumatism. 



CAMELLIA THBIPBRA. 



rifl ah 

^^^H Vem.—lnti. — Chha, Chai, 

^^^B \ native of China (natural order Teriiatfcemiaceaf). 
^^Hlnie tea plant, an grown in the hill ilistilels of India, const!- 
^^Btotes a very large proportion of the tea supply of the world. 
^^rilia of little interest medicinally except thiit the dried Leaves 
(as well as the seeds of Cnfea arjtbica, q. v.) are the source 
of the crystallitie principle — Cn^^'eine, also called Theine and 
^tSuaraniiie, obtained by sublimation of an extract made by 
K|aeous infusion and evaporation, astringent and colouring 
Hfttters having been previously removed. It might be very 
rofitably uianulactured in India from tea dust, The average 
ih) is 3 to 4 per cent. An infusion of tea Skeds was 
t«]y suggested by Hooper a,s an remedy for insect blights, 

e seeds contain about 3U pur cent, of lixed Oil, some- 
|)iBt resembling olive oil. 

IHedloinal oses.— Tea is seldom used medicinally per se, 
Bcept as a stimulant in strong infueion or as nn astringent 




sa 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA, 



lotion on nccomit of the t-anniii it contains. Caffeine and 
Caffeine Citrate are exteitsively iise<! in moi.1erii praotice 
and are of great vaine In migraine, hem i crania, rieum'gia 
and similar nervous afiections, Like a strong infusifti of 
tea caffeine is atimiilant, causing wakefulness. It has nUo 
diuretic propertiea, Physiologically the infusion of tea ov 
coffee an-esta the inolecalar change thereby instituting ner- 
V0U.4 force. 

OANANGA ODORATA. 

Ylasg-Ylant;, Tlasg-Ilano. 

Vem Buim. — Kodat-ngan. 

A large evergreen tree, of tiie natural order AnQnacecu, 
found in Burma and cultivated in many parts of India 
for the sake of tlie Otto wliich is obtained from its sweet- 
smelling flowers. Largely used in perfumery. 

OANARIUM COMMUNE. 

The Java Almond Tree. East Indian Elehi. 

Vern. — Btng. and Hind. — Jangali Badam ; Mai. — Ktinari. 

The plant is a native of the Eastern Archipelago where 
it is extensively cultivated for the sake of its fruit which 
has almost the taste of the almond. It is also cultivated 
in Siiuthem India. Natural order Amyndacae. The 
Blenii of the Brilish Pharmacopceia is generally referred 
in works on Materia Medica to this tree although the exact 
botanical source is still undetermined. It is resinous and 
of a fragrant odour, resembling a combination of lemon and 
f-innel but somewhat terebinihinous, It contains Bri/odin 
and an essential Oil. An abundance of limidil nil is obtain- 
ed from the baik of this tree. Tiie oil has a pungent 
turpentine amell, cougeaiing to a buttery camphoraceous 
»uli!<taiici:. It uaniiut bu suid to ]i.-'<i'niblo the Elenii of the 



ISDI0ES0U8 DRUGS OF INDIA. 



59 



shops. An oil ia extracted fiom tlie nuts which, in 
tvA, is used in lamps and, when fi'e»h, i^ mixed with food. 
narium utrictum, common on the Wci^tem side of India, 
ields a kiiij of dammar resin {liaUt ddmar). 
Medicinal oaes. — Elemi is a luild tereblutliinate stimu- 
lant; not administered internally. Tiie ointment forms a 
iTOod application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcerations. 

I CANNABIS SATIVA. 

Syn — Casnabis ixdica. 
Inoias Hemp. 
■m. — Beng.—iiiaia, ChariW, Siddh{ ; Bind. — Ganja, Bbdng 
Chara8(the resin); Sans. — Ganja, Bbiinga, Hursiid; Arab. — 
Einn»b; J'ei-g. — Darakte-bang, Darakhte-kinnab. 
The hemp plant Camtabia saliva (natural order Canna- 
iiiiwe), is anative of Western and Central Asia and now widely 
distributed and largely cultivated in tempemteaud tropical 
countries. The remarkable fact thatliemp grown in India 
is of a very different character to tbot grown In Europe gave 
l^^^ae to tile distinctive name of CannabiB indica, a bota- 
^^^bcal distinction which has now, however, been abandoned. 
^^^P is largely cultivated all over India and is found wild on 
[f^^The Himalayas and in Ka^jhmir. It is chiefly cultivated 
in India for the various forms of narcotics which it yields 
Mad which have been used so largely by the natives from 
1 very remote period. The hemp plant is sacred to the 
pndus. The three principal ftunis in which the Cannabis 
tiva is used in India are — (I) Tlie Otinjtf, Qunjah, con- 
Iting of the unfertilized resinous flowering shoots of the 
inslo plant grown on the plains — in Ben<;al, the Central 
lOviuces and Bombay. The variation ali-eady noted in 
) character of the plant grown under tlifferent conditious 



m 



INDIOKNOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



of soil and climate are ass aiaiked in plant» growing in 
difleient parts of India. While the narcotic principle is 
only developed in the Gdujd in the unfertilized flowei's 
it entirely disai'penrs after fertilization has taken place. 
On the other hand, the plant grown on the lower hilla of 
the Punjab, and which yields (2) Bhdvff, does not develop 
the narcotic property until the fruits are mature, the dried 
leaves and fruiting shoots constituting the Bluing or Siddhi 
(sahji) which is iiaed so largely by the native-s of India and 
employed in making the intoxicating liquor Hashish or the 
nareotic conserve or confection called Majtini. ;3) The 
Chants or cannabis Kifsitf exudes naturally on the leaves, 
stem and fruits, Imt only on plants growing on the mountain 
tracts at an altitude of 6,000 to 8,000 feet. It is powerfully 
narcotic and is smoked with tobacco. In some parts of India 
the resiti is collected by men in leathern jackets running 
about among the plants. The O/inj'i, prepared by treading 
with the feet into an agglutinated mass, constitutes the Can- 
jwiiiis aativn of the British Pli<irinac<ipceia from which an 
official extract is prepared. It frequently contains the 
seeds or fruits, which contain 25 per cent, of fixed OlL, and 
should be rejected before the hemp is extracted. OdngA 
contains about 20 per cent., Bhdng 10 per cont,, and Charaa 
■VO per cent, of resin. This contains the active principle 
besides fatty matters aiul chlorophyll, A brown syrupy 
alkaloid — Caimabiue — has been isolated and a purified resin 
called CuHnabbione is now ^irepareJ. Both are employed 
as sedntives. Cannabinr I'uiLiiate is a j-ellowish brown 
powder which is said to be free of some of the toxic pra' 
perties of Caitnabis iiidica. 

In the coui-se of his evidence before the Indian Hemp 
Drugs Commission, held in Calcutta, April 189+. the author 
showed that Bhdng and Gunjii, while tliey were used very 



INDIOENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



(il 



Itensivel 



,vely by the natives of India to tlie exclusion of alco- 
duul other intoxicants, were iiresmibed by native iloctoi'S 
t bowel cointtlaiiils and recum mended as appetisers, tlicir 
vahie lis uervoiif* stimulants and lis a suurce of great 
Mtnying-power under severe exeition, exposure nr fatigue 
being considered important. It was also shown that tha 
effect in moderate nso of eitlier of the forms did not last 

Iiuore than a cuiiple of hours and that there were no aftev- 
jfiecta. The ultimate linding of the Commis-tion was based 
HI these lines. Indian liemp has somewhat fallen nut of 
Itvout' in European medicine during late years owing to 
I want of uniformity and connequent unceitainty in its 
Ibtion. This lias been partly due. Dr. Watt nuggests, to the 
fact thut the restrictions imposed by Government on its 
i-ultivation have tended to divert the supplies of tlie best 
Beiigid Oanja to Bombay, and that tl.e inferior Ganja of 
Ve&lern India has found iti way to the London market — 
e great drug emporium of the world. This is an unfor- 
Suuate ultimate experience with several valuable Indian 
which could be obviated by making Calcutta a 
[etieral drug depot wliere the lest samples could be selected 
bd exported ti) the great drug markets of England and 
Kinerira. Mi'. Uavid Hooper has lately" shown tKat the 
[rug loses its strength through deonnipusition of the active 
principles wlieii kept longer ihiin two or three years. 
Uedloinal ubbh.— Primarily Ntiniulant; secondarily nno- 
r dyne, sedative and antispasmodic. Indian hemp has been 
L considerable extent in European medicine, the 
[dried female tops {Qaiija) and an alcoholic extract — Extrac- 
ktm Cannabie ludiae — and tineture being official in the 
BrifisA I'karmacopceia. It produces a peculiar kind of deli 
1 and that state of the nervous system called catalep.sy. 
' Britlnh Pliarmnceiiticnl Conference 1S94. 




62 iNnioENors DnuGs of india. 

Its valuable anodyne, hypnotic and antispasmodic pvoperties 
render it specially valuable in allaying pain and relieving 
spasms. It lias been used with much success in tetanus, 
hydrophobia, deliiimn tremens, dysmeiiorrhoea, neuralgia 
and other nervous alTeetions. It is niao useful in hay- 
fever, asthma, cardiac functional derongemeiit and skin 
diseases attended with much pain, and pruritus. It has 
also heeii used in protracted labours de).'etiding upon atony 
of the uterus with the view of inducing uterine con- 
tractions. CannabtJie Ta'inmte is a useful hypnotic in 
hysteria and a valuable agent in dysnienorrhcpa. 

CANSCOBA DECnSSATA. 

Vem.—Beny.—Dinkum ; //I'lii/.- Sankhilhuli ; 
iS'd n« , — Sank h spuahp I . 
This little plant, nf the natural order Oentianacem, grows 
plentifully' from the Himiilayas to Burma. 

Medicinal nees.— It is regarded as laxative, alterative, 
tonic and is much praised as a nervine. It is used in 
inaonity, epilepsy and nervous debility. 

OANTHARIS VBSIOATORIA. 

CANTnARIDES, 

Mylahi-ia ckhorii (4. v.) is an indigenous substitute for 
this, 

OANTHIUM PARVIPLOBUM. 

A shrub found in \Ve^stern India, (natural order RuMacew.) 
Medicinal uses.— It has been regarded att useful in fever. 

A decoction of the Leaves and Root is prescribed in certain 

caee« of flux. 



isDiGPSous niiuas of india. 



03 



CAPPABIS APHYLLA. 

TiiE Capek Berry. 

Veni' — Beiig. —Kuril ; ffin (?, —K ar^l ; .?«««. ^Karlra. 

This plant grows in the Punjab, Nortli-Wtst Provinces— 

cliiefiy in Kajfiutatia — and tlie Deccan, It belongs to tlie 

natuiiil Older Gipparidea;. 

Medicinal uBea— T)ie Leavks of the plant ate biuiiietl 

and said to be used foi- blistering, It is also used for 

tooUiaclie, giving relief when chewed, and the Plant is 

^^^mployed aa a remedy in boils and skin eruptions. The 

^^^■ded flower-buds and ripe fruit are uaed as a pickle and 

^H CAPPABIS SPINOSA. 

^^^1 The Tkue Capej< Uehiiv. 

^^^1 Vera. — Hind. — Kabni ; Sintl. — Kahari ; Pers. — Kebir. 

^^r This plant is found chiefly in the northern and central 
dtairicis of the Punjab and in Sind. It is the source of the 
European "capers" and the unexpanded flower-buds ai« 
pickled and used to a considerabla extent as a similar condi- 
ment in India. It is nut used medicinally, but the condi- 
ment made from it is considered beneficial in scurvy. The 
caper berries have lately been foujid to contain myroain and 
a glucoside. the decomposition of which takes place under 
_the influence of the myrosin ns certain of the Ci-vcifera. 



CAPSBLLA BURSA PASTOBIS. I 

TnE Shbphero's Puhse. 
I'iiw comuKin weed (natural onler Cruci/era), is found 
ry plentifully tliroughout India especially in the tem- 
,te and colder districts. 




fii 



l.VUIflENOl'8 DKUGS OF INDIA. 



Medicinal uee— It yioM^on Jislilltitioti an esseittial Oil 
Roincwtmt similar to oil of mustard wliiclj lias ih>t., Imwever, 
been imicli used medicinally except in Amoriuii where it is 
emjiloyed as an antiscurbutic. 



CAPSICUM ANNUUM. 

Fhuctl's CAPMirr. 
Capsicvm, Rkii Pei-per, Cayenne Pkpi'KH, Pod J'bpper, 
Vem. — Beng. — Laoka-mnrich ; Hiiul. —IM-maricU ; Kafli. — 
Mirch-wangiim ; Pert. — Filfile-.surkh ; Sans. — Marichi-phalani, 
Alttiougii not originally a native of India this important 
plant, {natuml order Solanacea!,) H very largely cultivated 
throughout the plains of India and in the hills in aomc dis- 
ti'tcts. On the Western side it is chiefly cultivated atGoa, and 
capsicums are known in the Bonibny market as Gita Pepper. 
Seven or eiglit varieties of capsicum, all yielding pungent 
FflriTS, are cultivated in India, but tlie two which yield the 
bulk of tiie cayenne pepper of commerce arc C. unnuiim and 
C./rute8cens{q, v.). The riuitsof the Caniiuum are from ^ 
to j inch in length— smaller tliaii those of C. frutesi-eHsvuhich 
are usually known as long pepper or " chilliew." Capsicum 
owes its pungency and acridity to an Omu-KKSIN called Cap- 
sicin. Another cryatalline substance Capsaicin resides in the 
pericarp. Its vapoui's me described in Pharniacographia as of 
" the most dreadful acridity, even tlie ordinary manipulation 
of the substance reipiiring luuuli pi-ecaution," Thucapsicum 
fruits are universally employed in India as a principal in- 
gredient in ihe manufacture of various currien and chutneys. 
Medicinal uses. -Stumachic and stimulant, it is often 
employed in the form of tincture as an adjunct to tonic 
and bitter medicines. Capsicum has a powerfLil action 
on the mucous membrane and is particularly l)eneficial in 
sore throat. It is also employed as a rubefacient liniment. 



INDIQENOUS DRUGS UF INDIA. ftS 

OAFSIGUU FBUTBSCEINS 

■ CaUbnse Pkwkr, Chillius, Spur Peppkh, Goat Fbpper, 

Vtro-Saiff. — Ul-iuarich; Bind. — Lnl or Gach-inarich; Q^j. 

liU-mirchi; Tarn. — MuIlA-ghii ; Tel, — Mirap&-kaia ; Pert, — 
Fiiil-i-rfrkh. 

An annual plant largely cultivated tliroughout India, 
chiefly in Bengal, Madi-aa and Onssa, frequently planted 
by the edges of fields. The bright red Fruits are the source 
of much of the cayeiirie pepper of commerce, 
^^ The medicinal uses will be found under C. a^muuin. 



CABAFA MOL0OCBNSIS. 
Vem.— Heng — Poshur, 



A tree growing on the coasts of Bengal. The baric 
possesses bitter and aatrinjjent properties and has beeq 
employed in diarrhcea, etc. 



^^P Twn.~Beng.- 



OABBO LiaNI. 

Charcoal, 

■Kojdia; Hiad.- KAyeUh; Peti.- 
Arub. — Faliam. 



Zuffh^l; 



A large number of Indiau woods are used in th« 
production of charcoal for economic and uediciual pur- 
poses. The charcoal of areca nut is used as a tooth> 
powder. 

Medicinal uses,— Wood charcoal is a deodorizer and 
antiseptic as distinguished from animal charcoal whicli is a 
doooiorizer. Th-s charcoal of Bxttea frondosa (q.v,) has tlie 
property of decolorizing like ani^nal charcoal, 

K, ID. 5 



63 INDIGENODS DBUGS OF INDIA. 

OABDIOSPEBBIUM BALICAOABUU. 

Vem. — Beng. — Latiphfttkarl ; Bind. — Kayi-phatki t 
Jyotiahmati. 
This climbing plant, of the natural order Sapindaceie, in 
found plentifully in the plains, especially in Bengal, 

Hedldnal properties. — Tlie Root has been regarded as 
emetic, laxative, stomachic and rubefacient, used occasion* 
ally in rheumatism and nervous diseases. 

0ABB7A ABBOBEA. 

Vem. — Btng. — Kumbi, Kumbli; i/iW.— Kumbi, KhumbL 
A tree, named in houour of William Carey, first Mission- 
ary to India, belonging to the natural order Myrtacece. It 
is found on the Lower Him£ilaya aud in Bengal. 

Medicinal usee. — The Baiie is astringent and has been 
used internally as such. It also yields a considerable 
quantity of a brown-ooloured mucilage. 

OABIOA PAPAYA. 

TuE Papava OB Papaw Tree. 

Tern. — £eng. — Pepiya ; Bind, — Papaya, Papaya amba ; 

/few. — Amba-htndi ; Arab. — Amba-hindi. 

7his valuable b'ee is now one of the commonest objects 

in gardens all over India. It belongs to the natural order 

Pasaifioreai and is a native of America. It has long been 

domesticated in India and ia now specially cultivated for 

its well known fruit. It may be easily recognised by 

its plain, straight stem beariug at the summit a tuft of 

palmately lobed leaves. 

The Fruit of the Papaya yields the valuable ferment 
Papain (papayotin) which has now come to be popularly- 
regarded as vegetable pepsin. It exerts a peculiarly solvent 



UIDIOENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. Qf 

action upon albumens, but does not form true peptones 
BOeh as are obtained after digesting prote'ids with pepsin 
or pancieatin. Recent investigations have shown that it is 
Active as a digestive in neutral or weakly alkaline media, 
and that this action is not stopped in the presence of 03 
per cent, of hydrochloric acid, PapalD digestion and the 
products resulting tberefrom are still under investigation, 
very conflicting statements having been published. Fapai'o 
is precipitated from the FreijH Jujcb of the fruit with 
alcohol, dehydrating tlie resulting precipitate and extracting 
with water, preferably at a temperature of 36° to 40° C. 
The resulting |iroduct is drieii and powdered and is then 
ready for use. The colour should be nearly white, but 
oommercial fipecimeiiB of papain vary considerably both in 
colour and in proteolytic action. The fresh juice of th« 
fruit is even more effectual than the dried preparation, 
and it is regarded as of great value as a food material. 
Carpaine is an alkaloid which has been isolated from the 
LBAVES. It has a powerful action on the heart, resembling 
that of digitalis. The ferment myrosi7i has lately been 
detected in the leaves. It yields an essential oil in presence 
^bf water as in the Crucifer<e. 

B Uedloinal useB.— The use of Papain is indicated in defi- 
ciency of the gastric juice, excess of unhealthy mucous in the 
stomach, in dyspepsia, intestinal irritation, and the like, in 
doses of I to 5 grains. It is most conveniently exhibited 
1 the various forms of compi-essed tablets. It is used in 
UnUon to dissolve the fibrinous membrahe in croup or 
Jieria, a solution in glycerine being painted on the 
nx every few minutes. It has been applied with good 
9 to ulcers and fissures of the tongue, and in the form 
k pigment prepared with borax and water to remova 
trts and corns and other horny excrescences of the akin. 



ilk 




IS INDIOENOUS DHUOS OF INDIA. 

CABTHAltnTS TINGTOBnTS. 

The Saffloheei, 'Wild Saffron. 

Vem. — Beng. — Kuf^raphul ; £ofli.-— Kusumbft ; 

Sans. — Kusumbho. 

This plant, natuml order Compoaitce, is cultivated all 
over India tor the valuable dye stuff which it yields. 
It has been largely superseded by tlie aniline dyes. Tlie 
fiorels yield two distinct yellow dyes and one red known 
M Carlkamin. The latter is employed in blie manufacture 
of tlie well-known rouge Vi'g/tale, the caithamin being 
miKed with a certain proportion of finely-powdered talc. 
The floieis have been used as an adulterant of saffron. 

Medicinal tuiea. — The Seeds were foi-merly regarded as 
purgative, and an Oil prepared from the plant as useful in 
rheumatism and paralysis. The safflower is now seldom 
employed medicinally. 

CABUM CABUI. 

Tas Caraway. 

Vem. — Btng. — Jira; Hind. — Sldd-jira; Aral. — Earawya; 
Pen. — Kar6ya. 

Natural order Vmbdlife'rix. The Caraway is cultivated 
for its Fbuit in many parts of the plains of India. It ba« 
long been a favourite spice both in Europe and India, A 
valuable essential Oil is distilled from the seeds which is 
used in medicine and in perfumery. The oil consists easea* 
tially of two principles which have been named respeC' 
tively Cai-vene and Cai-vol. 

Uedlcinal uses. — The Seeds are employed as a cai-mi> 
native aromatic stimulant in conjunction with other 
medicines in Batulence, colic and the like, and the oil is used 
for the same purposes. 




INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA 99 

CARUM COPTIOUM. 

— Carck ajowan, Ammi copticum, PnroHOTrs coptica, 

Lr.lDSTICDM AJWAIX, 

Bishop's Weed. 

TTem. — Beng. — Jowan; Umd. — Ajowaii; Sang. — Yamanlj 

Som. — Ajwin. 

This plant, one of the titimeroiis eHseDtisl oil-yielding 
UnAellifera, is largely cultivjited in Eastern India. It is 
a source of the valuable nntiseptic Thymol, a stearopteiie 
vhicli is contained in tlie oU yielded by its Seeds, some- 
times to the extent of 20 or 30 per cent. It is identical 
with that obtained from Thymv.9 vulgaris. This crystal- 
line substance is well known in the bozdra of India as 
Ajwain-kf-pkul and a distilled water from tlie seeds — 
Omum water or Ajwain-ka-arfack — also contains it as 
an active principle. 

Hedldnal uses.— The Seeds themselves and Omum 
water are largely used by the natives of India as a carmi- 
native in flatulence, dyspepsia and spasmodic affections. 
Ajwiiin-ke-pkul is used in small doses for the same purposes 
and in cholera to some extent. Applied externally ia 
ioholic solution it is useful in allaying nervous pains. 
i has not taken the prominent place in European sur- 
f it was expected to do. The Oil distilled from tlie seeds 
Lolao used medicinally for the purposes indicated above. 

OARYOPHYLLUS AROMATICUS. 

Syn. — EooENiA cAnvopnvLLATA, 

Cloves, 
— Lavanga Hind. — Lavanga; 5an».— Lavanga j 
Bom, — La van g. 
I tree, Caryophyllus aromaticus (natural order Myi'~ 
w), in a native of New Guinea, Amboyna, and the 



fO IHDiaENOUS DBUOS OF INDIA. 

Moluccas. It is now cultivated to a considerable exteat in 
Southern India, althougli the trade in cloves lias not yet 
attained to any importance. The unexpanded Flowers of 
this tree are the cloves of commerce. In India these are 
used both as a condiment and a masticatory. The Hower- 
buds and flower-stalks yield when distilled with water a 
volatile Oil possessing in a powerful degree the odour and 
Savour of cloves. The yield is sometimes as much as 16 
or 20 per cent. Clove oil yields as an oxidation product 
or phenol Eugenol or Eugenic Acid, a powerful antiseptio 
several times stronger than carbolic acid. 

Medicinal ubjob. — Cloves are aromatic, stimulant and 
carminative. They are given to correct flatulence and 
aid digestion, but chiefly as an adjunct to bitter tonics 
or 03 a corrector of purgatives. The volatile oil LavangO' 
tel is also much used by perfumers, and dentists apply 

to carious teeth to cauterize the exposed nerve. It is 
also used in combination with other oils of the same 
class OS a stimulating embrocation. Tlie powder, tincture, 
infusion and oil are the various forms in which cloves are 
use . 

CASSIA ALATA. 

Vem. — Bciiij.—T)Admariia.n; Bind. — Dadmurdan; 

Sans. — Dadruglina. 

The leaves of Cassia alala, of the natural order Legvif 
ininoBCB, which grows wild and is cultivated all over Bengal 
and in many other parts of India, 

Medicinal uses. — One of the native names of thia 
plant is derived from its efflcacy in curing riugworm*- 
Tbe Fresh Leaves when bruised and mixed with lima- 
juice act with decided efficacy iu this and similar skia. 
Affections. 



UTDIGENOUS DJtUGS OF INDIA. 



n 



as 1 



CASSIA ANOTJSTIPOLIA. 

Syn.— C. LANCEOLATA. 

Indian or Tinnevellv Sesna. 
Vera. — Bentj. — Sona-mukLi ; Hind. — Sana; Arab. — Sana-e- 

Hindi. 

This plant (natural ordei- Legumiiioace), is largely cvUti- 
Tftt«d in SoulherD India, at Tionevelly and in the Bombay 
Presidency. It yields the Tinnevelly Senna of commerce 
■which is largely exported from Bombay. Indian Senna, 
As met with in the bazdrs, is of very inferior quality. 
Medicinal uses. — The properties of senna are well 
owD. The Leaves contain a glucoside or cathartic 
^inciple called Catkarlic Acid. They have long been 
extensively used aB a simple purgative, although they 
present a decided tendency to griping, which may ba 
overcome, however, by aromatics. The LEGUMES — Senna, 
.Fods — have mild purgative properties and have less ten- 
tency to griping. 



CASSIA FISTULA. 

Syn. — CATHABTOCAnPUS FIST C LA. 

Indian Laburnum. 
-Senjf.— SondAl, Sunddl! ; j?ind.— AmaltHs ; Sang — ' 
Suvamaka. 

Caeaia fistula is indigt^iious to and common throughout 
bidia and Burmah. " The tree is uncommonly beautiful 
IrbeQ in flower, few surpassing it in the elegance of its 
UDg pendulous racemes of large bright yellow flowers, 
Eatermixed with the young lively green foliage." The well 
jiown brown pendulous Pods, 1 to li foot in length, are 
|sed in medicine. 



72 INDIGENOlfS DRUaS OF INDIl. 

Medicinal usea. — The Pulp of the fruit ia an agreeable 
mild lasntive. It is best used combined with other pur- 
gatives 03 a cotifectioD or electuary, as by itself it requires 
to be taken in doses of frQm one to two ounces to produce 
any effect. It is official in the British Pharmacopoeia, 
as an ingredient in confection of senna. The Root-BabK 
is also laxative and the powdered SifEDs and Leaves are 
possessed of similar properties, but they are seldom 
employed. 

CASSIA OBOVATA. 

Country ok Jui^glb Senna. 
Vem. — Btng. — Sonamukhi ; Hind. — Sonapit. 
This species of Caseia, said to have been the first known 
to botanists, ia plentiful on the Coromandel coasts and in 
Mysore. The Leaves are sold in the bazars as country 
senna. It is said to have been cultivated as an adulterant 
of Alexandrian Senna, but this has been discontinued. 
It is seldom used medicinally by the natives. 



CASSIA OOOIDBNTALIS. 

The Nbgro Coffke. 

Vem. — Beng. — KilkAshundi ; Hind. — K^und^ 

A common weed distributed from the Himitlaya to 

Ceylon. The Seeds roasted and ground have been used 

as a substitute for coffee. The medicinal properties are 

destroyed in the roasting process. 

Uedlcinal uses.— The Leaves, Roots and Seeds are 
purgative. Externally the seeds are used in cutaneoas 
diueases. 



INDIGENOUS DHUGS OF INDIA. 



73 



CASSIA SOPHOBA. 

Syn.^SESNA BOPHORA. 

Vem. — Beng. — Kil-krisunda; Hind. — Kisundd; 
Sans. ^Kasamarda. 

This plant is coiuiuoii tliroiighout tlie tropica and well 
known in India. 

Hedidual uses.— Tlie Leaves and Sbedb aie employed in 
curing skin diseases, being regained as a specific in nng- 
woiin, especially in the form of a pa-tte mixed with sandal* 
wood oil. The seeds with equal parts cf sulpliur rubbed 
into a paste with water are applied with good effect to 
fjOtchesofpytyriasisand psoriasis. Tliis virtue would seem 
ka^6 mi^iQ Ckryeo-phanic AcidviXwh it and other species 
^ Caseia {C. alata, G. occi(le7itali8 and 0. fora) contain. 
Kspectorant properties have been attributed to tlie plant 

Ilffobably from the fact that the Sanskrit name means 
lldeetroyer of cough." 
' Th 
Pmwi 



OASSIA TOBA. 

The FfETiD Cashia. 

Vem. — Beng. — Cliakundft; Hind. — Chakund; Sans.—' 

Chakramardn. 

This plant is quite common in Bengal and the Central 

Provinces of India. Its Leaves and Seeds contain CKryao- 

ipiMtiie Acid to which is probably due their medicinal value 

in the treatment of skin diseases, 

Medicinal uses. — As a remedy in ringworm and scabies. 
The Leaves aie also used by some Hiiulu practitioners 
in the form of a paste with lime juice for ringwoiTO. The 
seeds have been used as an admixture and substitute 
It is known under the name of Caasophy, hut 
e-excitiiig properties. 



^iboffee. It 
^^^lo nerve-e: 



id«^ 



Ifor J 

Iiu J 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF IKDIA. 

OATBCHU. 

See AoACiA. Catechu and Abeca Catechu, 

CBDRXJS DEODABA. 

Syn. — PiNLs deodara. 
Thb Deodar, Himalayan Cedar. 
Vem. — Mind. — Deodar, Kelu; Sans. — Devadiru. 
This tall aud graceful tree (natural order Coni/erce), ia 
found all over the Northern Himdlaya and is largely culti- 
vated ia India as an ornamental tree. 

Medicinal and uees.— The wood yields an Oleo-Resik 
known as Kelu-ka-tel, and a dark-coloured Oil or tar 
resembling crude turpentine is obtained by destructive 
distillation. These are apj)lied to ulcers and skin diseasea 
Valuable in uiange in horses and tiore feet of cattle. The 
Leaves are also regarded as having mild terebinthinate 
properties. The Wood is carminative. 

CBLASTRirs PANIOTTLATA. 

Vem. — Beng. and Hind, — Malkdngni, 
This is a shrub which is common on the HimiUayaand 
in Behar, Bengal and Burma, natural order Celaatnnece, 
It yields a black empyieumatic oil, obtained from the 
Seeds by destruetive distillation. 

Other ingredients are mixed with this oil to form what 
is known as the oleum myritm, which is black, visud, 
with a smoky and aromatic odour, slightly hitter and acrid 
taste. 

Medicinal naea.— The Oil is a diuretic and diaphoreUfl 
in doses of from ten to tbiit)' minims. It is the best remedy 
for beri-f)eri—a.n epidemic disease peculiar to India. It 19 
also a powerful stimulant. 



INDIGENOUS DKUGS OF INDIA. 



76 



0BFHABLI3 IFBCAOTTANHA. 

Ipecacuanha Eoot. 
!Ee Ipecacuanha (natural order Rubiacace), is a native of 
zil. Its experimental cultivation has been promoted 
i Qoveniment of India for about twenty jeara with 
little success so that it is not likely to become a crop 
r any importance to Indian cultivators. The Qovern- 
nent of India was originally induced to encourage its 
introduction by the increasing importance of the drug 
I a remedy for dysentery and a probable scarcity in 
Ttie latter difficulty Las not, however, beeo 
ised, the Biazilian supplies being constant and plentU 
There are one or two species indigenous to the 
ICoIuccas, and tlie root has been exported from Singapore, 
mt it is not of good quality. 

J uses. — Ipecacuanha is most extensively used 

I modern medicine, in small doses as an expectorant and 

^aphoretic, and in large doses as an emetic. In doses of 

) to 40 grains it may be regarded as a specific in dysen- 

, and is largely used in India for this purpose either 

e or combined with opium. The coHical portion of the 

K)T contains Emetine, a mixture of altialoids, (about 25 

r cent) and Tpecacuanhic Acid, to the former of which 

B emetic pro]ierty is due. The latest researches (Paul 

d Cownley) have shown Emetine to be composed of 

wo principal alkaloids now named Emetine and CepkaSHne, 

Vltoth of which have emetic properties. A " Hydrochlorate 

\:^t Emetine" is now prepared. Little is known of the 

i|tarbicular constituent of Ipecacuanha to which its anti< 

dysenteric action is due, some having attributed it to 

. Ipecacuanha-taunic Add. It has been found that as a 

VAemedy for dysentery it is equally eflicacious sini emetine 

i tendency to nausea and depression being avoided) 



VB INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

and a "de-emetiiiized i iiecacuanha," originally prepared by 

Messrs. Symes of Simla at the suggestion of Surgeon-Major 
Harris of that station, is now extenaively employed. The 
result of analyses of the unofficial parts of the ipecacuanha 
plant show that both stem and leaves contain emetine. 

CEPHALANDRA INDICA. 

Syn. — CocciNiA indica. 
Vem- — Seng. — Tela-Kuoha; Hind. — Kandurl-kJ-bel ; 
Sans. — Bimbo ; J'erg. — Rabareliindi. 
A plant, belonging to the natural order CticurbitacecB, 
Tonamon throughout India. 

Medicinal uses.— The juice of the Root ia utieful in 
'diabetes. The Luiaves are used in skin diseases. 

CERA ALBA and CERA FLAVA, 

Wax. 

Vera. — Ben^. — M6ra; Ifind. — Mdm ; Sana. — Madhujam, 

Wax is collected nil over India as the product of wild 
and domesticated bees — Apis melli/ioa and other species. 
The honeycombs are usually deposited on shrubs or trees, 
these being leased out iu certain districts to collectoi's 
who extract the honey and prepare the yellow wax, 
usually in a somewhat impure Ntate, for the market. The 
yellow wax cut into liae ehreds, bleached in the sun and 
re-melted, constitutes white wax. Bee culture is encouraged 
in a primitive fashion in certain parts of Bengal, but it 
jnight be considerably extended, and much of the wax 
annually consumed in India produced in the countiy 
instead of being imported. 

Medicinal uses. — The principal use of bees' wax u 
medicine and pharmacy is in the preparation of ointments. 




IKDIGEMOUS DKUGS OF IHDU. 

CHAULMUaBA. 

See fJY>fOCAKDIA ODORATA. 



CHENOFODIUM AMBBOSIOIDES and 
O. BOTRYS 

Jerdsaleu Oak. 
These plants, belonging to the natural order Chenopo- 
diacece, are found in many parts of India and are held in 
some repute for their aiitlielmintic properties, admin is tered 
in the form of infusion. An essential OtL is also prepared 
from them which is regarded as tonic and antispasmodic 
and is useful in nervous affections. C. album (Beng. 
Batku-sag) is used as a Uixative in spleen and bilious 
disorders. 



CHIEIAT.S: HBBBA. 

See SwERTiA cniiiATA. 



CHRYSANTHEMUM COBONABnTM. 

The Chrysanthemum. 
Vem. — Beng. — Gul-daudi ; Hind, — Gal-dandi. 

This and one or two other species of the familiar garden 
plant (natural order Comp08it<x). are found in Bengal. 
chiefly acclimatised. 

Uediclnal uaes. — This plant was included in the Phav' 
macopceia of India with the suggestion that the Flowers 
might be used as a substitute for those of chamomilei 
while the Root resembled that of pellitory, in ao far as it 
presented the same tingling sensation to the tongue whea 
chewed. 



,78 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

CICHORIITM INTTBUS. 

Chicory. 
Vem- — Himl. — Kasiii; Pers. — Kasni. 

This pereiiDial herb (natural order OompontoB), growB wild 
in the Punjab, KaBhinir and Nortb-Wost India. Chicory 
has for about a century been associated with coffee as an 
adjunct and flavoui-ing a«;ent and not unfrequently aa a 
substitute for it. For this purpose the Roots are dried, 
roasted and ground. It might easily be cultivated exten- 
sively and protitably in India. Chicory contains no 
caffeine, 

Uedlclnal osee. — The Roor \a used in native medicine 
as a bitter tonic and carminative, occasionally as a substi- 
tute for taraxacum in liver congestion. 



CIMIdFUaA FCETIDA. 

See AcTEA Spicata. 



omOHONiGl CORTEX. 

CiscHONA Bakk, Peruvian fiAUK, Jesuit's Bars. 
Vem. — Be ng.^-G inchona. 
The most important species of cinchona (natural order 
Rv.hiacecEt tribe Cinchoneoi), indigenous to tropical South 
America, are now thoroughly acclimatized in India. The 
history of its introduction into India is an interesting 
study, and the literature on this subject aloae is quite 
voluminous, while its propagation and cultivation, encourag- 
ed with a libei-ality beyond all precedent by the Govern- 
ment of India, has been so eminently successful that the 
cinchona is now to be regarded as one of the most impor- 



INDiaiiNOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 79 

plftnt medicinal plftoU growu in the FeainsuU. While 
T {trimarilj designed to supply quinine at a lower price than 
tlie almost prohibitive rate:$ which prevailed about thirty 
years ago (due to tlie fact that the South American forests 
were being rapidly destroyed as the trees were felled for 
their bark), and in view of the extremely valuable nature of 
I the cinchona alkaloids especially in the malarial districts of 
' India, the extensive Governmenb plantations have produced 
. revolution in the cullivatioii of cinchona which will 
^be historical. Among names which will ever be asao' 
ted with the introduction of this valuable plant into 
ndia are those of Hr. Clements R. Markham, C.B., the 
[ately deceased Mr. Richard Spruce and his collaborateur 
W-Jiv. Cross, and more recently Mr. M. A. X^awson, Madras, 
I jMd Dr. George Ring, Superintendent of the Royal 
lotanic Gardens, Calcutta, who has given much practical 
idvice on the subject to the Government of India 
lod to private planters, while his Manual of Cinchona 
Ulivation in India is a valuable compendium of the 
f whole subject. To the late Mr, W. G. Maclvor, formerly 
f- ^perinteadent of the Government Gardens at Ootacamund, 
k U due, however, in large measure the credit of the remark- 
able auccess which has attended the cultivation of cinchona 
I In India. To him the first consignments of seeds and 
U plants sent from Kew and brought from Java and from 
^JSouth America were handed over and tended with a care 
Ad patience that was only rewarded by the fruitful result 
' his labours that has been already indicated. In the 
Sourae of his experiments Mr. Maclvor made the valuable 
fllBCOvery of the process now known as " mossing " where- 
ni>y trees were made to yield second growths of bark which 
, India are found in some species to excel in olkaloidal 
tine the natural or original bark, thus ensuring a produc- 



60 INDIGENOUS DRL'GS OF INDU. 

tiveness that had not liithettu been dreamt of even iu BoU?u 
or Peru. Mr, David Hooper, Government Quinologist at 
Ootacamund, Madras, has made extensive researches into 
the respective alkaluidal values of tlie numei-ous species of 
cinchona grown in India, from which he has found that 
the yield is, as a rule, richer than corresponding plants of 
South American origin. 

Cinchona is exported chiefly from private concerns in 
Madras, Southern India and Ceylon, although the competi- 
tion and low prices of late years have caused planters in 
the latter island to uproot the trees in many places. In 
the Rangbi valley, in Silckim, near Darjiling, the exten- 
sive Government plantations contain abunt five million 
cinchona plants, the hark produced here, and at the Nilgiri 
plantations, being mostly employed, however, in th© 
manufacture of sulphate of quinine and of the 

GOVERNMBNT CiNCHOXA FkBRIFUOK, 
a popular substitute for quinine, the distribution and sale 
of which is extensively promoted by Government. It is 
obtainable at all the European and native drug shops. 
It represents the total alkaloids in the bark extracted by 
a simple oil process, based on the solubility of these alka- 
loids in a mixture of fusel and kerosine oils. The powdered 
bark is mixed with caustic aoda.orcauaticlime and water, and 
the oils, the mixture being agitated for some hours and the 
alkaloids subsequently extracted from the oil by means of 
muriatic acid. Caustic soda precipitates the total alkaloids, 
which are then washed and dried. The powder as sold is 
of a yellowish colour, unlike Quinetum of English mana- 
factui'e, which also represents the total alkaloids, this being 
probably intended 'to prevent its being subatitnted for 
sulphate of quinine. The author has found it to act quite 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 81 

surely as quinine, but larger doses are required, and they 
often cause nausea and vomiting. It is best administered 
in the form of pills. Given in water each grain requires 
two drops of lemon juice to dissolve it : the mixture is not 
^ear, some resinous matter floating on the top. With this 
addition of lemon juice it is more acceptable to the stomach. 
In order to bring it within the reach of the very poorest 
of the population, Government-manufactured quinine is 
now put up for sale in pice packets in the Bengal and 
Madras Presidencies. 

Appended are brief details of the Pharmacopoeial barks 
as grown in India with one or two of the most important 
of the unofficial species. The cultivated barks do not 
iJways correspond to official characters. 

CINCHONA CALISAYA. 

CiNCHONiE FLAViE CoRTEX. 

Yellow Cinchona Bark (opp.) 

This species grows best in India at the Himdlayan* plan- 
tations where it is cultivated almost exclusively. It gives 
a good yield of alkaloids of which quinine is usually about 
a half. The bark of C. Ledgeriana, a cultivated variety, 
is also regarded as yellow bark. 



CmCHONA OFFICINALIS. 

CiNCHONiE PaLLID-E CoRTEX. 

Pale Cinchona Bark (opp.) 

This is chiefly cultivated on the Nilgiris, near Ootaca- 
mund, Madras, in Southern India and Ceylon, and it is 
largely exported. It yields the crown bark of commerce. 

K, ID. 6 



INDIOKSOUS DRVGS OF ISDIA. 



CINCHONA SnCCIRUBRA. 

ClNOUOK^ RVBfi£ COBTBI. 

Rbd CiNCBONA Bark (off.) 

The tree yielding the red bark of commerce grows weil 
both in Bengal (in Sikkim) and iq the Madras Pi-esidency. 
It has proved to be the hardiest and most easily cuUivated. 
The yielii of alkaloids is now riclier than that from South 
American barks. As is well-known the i-ed bark is used 
exclusively for official pharmaceutical preparation-'s. Among 
other cinchonas cultivated in India are C. anguatifolia, 
C. mierantha, 0. pitayene is, C. nitida, and numerous hybrids, 
Bome of which give an alkaloidal yield superior to the 
original species. 

Medicinal uses.— Tliese are well-known. The Babk 
and all preparations of cinchona are powerfully antiperiodic, 
specially valuable in intermittent fevers. They are most 
extensively prescribed aa tonics. The alkaloids are s: 
larly valuable as antipyretics, Quinine being the most 
important, and having been found the most efficacious in 
India, the other important alkaloids in the order of their 
medicinal value iu Indian fevers being Quinidine, CiiichO' 
nidine, and Cinchonine- 



dNNAMOlfUM aLANDUUFBRUU. 

S711. — Laurus olamdulipbra. 

Nepal Cahpbor Wood: Nepal Sassafras. 

Vem. — JVepa/.^Malligiri ; As»a.m. — OunseraL 

This large tree, natural order havA-inta, is a native ol 

Nepal and Eastern India extending to Assam and Sylhet. 



INDIOBNOUS DRUGS OF IKDIA. 83 

9 esBentiitl Oil coiitaine<:l in the vpood resembles to some 
Dt that of CinnamoviuvL Caviphora. Tliie tree is not 
I of g&mphor to any important extent. The wood 
' be regarded as a sut»bitute for Sassiifras. (See also 
t lacera.) 



OXNNAIIOMU&I TATWAT.A 

Cassia i,ionba : Oashia. 

-Beng.— {The Leaves)— Tej pat, (The Bark)— Dalchini ; 
ir»n</.— Taj-kalam (bark), Tajpat (leaves); ,Sani!.— Tejpatra, 
The ti-ee Cinnamomum Tamala,, natural order Lanrinea, 
'koommon on the Himalayas and in Eastern Bengal and 
The Bark ha^ an aromatic agreeable odour, siml- 
, and the finer qualities not much inferior to, the trug 
n — C. seylanicum. It yields an essential OiL 
bilarly resembling that of Ceylon cinnamon. An oil is 
D distilled from the Leates. 

Hediclnal uses.^The Bark possesses aromatic, canni- 
teve, and stimulating properties. It is commonly used 
la substitute for the more expensive cinnamon. The 
I have similar properties, and are largely used aa 
iondiment. 



CINNAMOMUM ZBTLANICUU. 

Cinnamon. 

IVem- — £eng. and Bind. — Dakhini; Sane. — Oudatvak. 
^be true cinnamon is indigenous to Ceylon and Southern 
lia, but it is cultivated only iu Ceylon. The fine inner 
SK is prepared into quills or sticks of about J inch 

■ diameter, each containing a number of smaller quills. 



8i INDIOICNOUS DRUGS UF INDIA. 

It is easily distinguished in this form from cassia bark 
which is often substituted for it, and which is usually 
in single (juilla and much thicket' and darker in colour. 

An important essential Oil is distilled from the bark. 
The leaves yield a darker coloured oil (Oleum Oinnamomi 
FoUoniiii) which has an oilour resembling that of cloves 
and cinnamon, containing as it does a large proportion 
of eugenol, one of the constituents of that product. It 
usually contains 70 to 80 per cent, of eugenol, the re- 
mainder being cinnamic aldehyde. 

Medicinal uses. — It is a grateful aiomatic, largely em- 
ployed as an adjunct to other medicines as a cordial and 
stimulant. It is also very laigely used as a spice. 



CISSAMPBLOS PARBIBA. 

False Fahbika Brava. 

Vern. — lien.j. — Nimuka; fimd.— Akanidi, Nirbiai ; Sant.— 

Ambashthdi, 

This plant, natural order MenispernvicefE, is common 
nearly all over India. The root constitutes the False 
Pareira Brava of commerce. The distinguishing features 
between this and the true Pareira Brava as derived from 
Chondodemlron tomentoauin are described in all works 
on Materia Mcdica. 

Medicinal uaea.— The dried Root was fonnerly much' 
prescribed, usually in the form of decoction or liquid 
extract, as a diuretic or in chronic catarrhal affections of 
the bladder and in calculus. It has been found useful in 
advanced stages of acute and chronic cystitis. The LEAVES 
are vsed in India as an external application to aorea ant 
abscesses, 



INDIGENOUS DIIUOS OF INDIA. 85 

1 CITRT7LLUS COLOOYNTHIS 
CoLocvvru : BiTiEii APPLK. 
-~Seng. — Indrdyan, Mfikfil ; Hind.— Jutirayem : Sane. 
— Indrn viruni: Bom. — Indra-yan; 
te eolocynth gourd is found wild in the arid tracts of the 
rth-Weat, in the Punjab and Sind, and on the Coroman- 
3 Coast, It belongs to the natural order Cucurbitacecc. 
B drug consists of the internal pulp of tlie dried peeled 
vn. the seeds having been removed. It has an intensely 
ter taste, and is poisonous in excessive doses. The active 
Inciple is a glucoside, Coloci/nthin. 

dioinal uses. — Its cathartic properties are well-known. 

ns usually combined with other drugs to counteract its grip- 

g tendencies. The powder is often used as an insecticide. 

FSnbB«tutes.— The fruits of Cucumis Ingonus ; Cpseu- 

olocyntkia, and C. Hardtoickii, plants growing abun- 

bity in the mountftinous regions of Northern India, 

&I, and the Punjab are frequently found in the haziirs, 

[ occasionally used to adulterate eolocynth. They are 

iguished from the round fruits of the true drug by their 

Hlllfir size and different shape, the first being somewhat 

gular, and the second of the size and shape of a small 



OITRULLXTS VUL&ABIS, 

The Water Mklon. 
—Setiff.—T&rmuj ; Hind. — Tarbuza ; JJom. — Kalinga. 
9 favourite fruit is very largely cultivated in India, 
lly in the colder regions. The Seeds of this iind 
lh«r Cucur6i(rtceo«s plants are used to some extent by the 
lives 09 a cooling and diuretic medicine, The juice is 
nented and used aa a spirituous liquor. 



i 



86 INDIGENOUS DKITGS OF INDIA. 

CITRUS AURANTIUM. 

Vah.— AuiiA.vriuv PuopETi. 

The Sweet Orange. 

Vem. — Beni/.^-Kainaiii tmbu ; Hind. — N4rangi; Sans. — Ni'ig- 

ranga, 

and CITRUS AURANTIUM. 

VaK. — BlGARADIA. 

Tbb BiTTBK OH Seville Oeianqe. 

Several of the importanl members of the genus CUi"U,8, 
natural order Rutacece, yielding valuable essential oii- 
bearing fruits, have long been extensively cultivated in 
India. 

The orange tree, C. Aurantium, supposed to be the origin 
of the cultivated orauge^ sweet or bitter, is believed by 
some autliors as originally a Native of Northern India. 

Different varieties of the sweet orange are grown all 
over India, cliiefly throughout the warmer moist regions, 
The bitter orange is not so largely cultivated. Bitter 
Orange Peel {Au'iuntii Cortex) and Bitter Orange FkciT 
(^Aurantii Fructus) am official in tlie British Pkat 
copceia. Orange Flowbr Water (Aqua Aurantii Ftort's) is 
directed to be distilled from the flowers of both. It is 
usually produced in the manufscture of Oil of Neroli 
{Oleum Aurantii Flonim), the water passing over with 
this Otto during dtstillatiou of the freah (lowers. The 
finest quality is that distilled from the petals only of 
tlie bitter orange. It is not produced in India, but is 
very popular in native perfumery and could be manufac- 
tured in a pure state with advantage. An artificial oil of 
neroli is now prepared. Essence de Petit Grain was 
formerly distilled from the seeds, but is now produced 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 87 

firom the leaves and small twigs, yielding a commoner oil 
-which is used to adulterate tlie oil of oeroli. Essential 
Oil of oraDge peel is made from the fresh fruit, that of 
the bitter being the more valuable. 

Medicinal uses. — The dried orange peel or Rind is 
stomachic and tonic, and used as such in the form of tincture 
and infusion, as an adjunct to other medicines. Syrup of 
orange flower and orange flower water are very frequently 
used in pharmacy as pleasant flavouring agents. 

CITRUS MBDIOA. 

Var. — Medica proper. 

The Citron : Cedrat. 

Vern. — Beng, — Bara nembu ; Hind, — limbu-turanj ; Sana, — 

Begapiird. 

The citron, the lemon and the limes are now usually 
classed as varieties of the species Citrus medica (Linn.) 
The citron is largely cultivated in India, and is found 
wild in the forests of Assam, Northern India, in Kumaon 
and Sikkim, of which regipn, it is believed, to have been 
originally a native. The fruit yields a valuable essential 
Oil {Oleum Cedrat) It is not used medicinally. 



CITRUS MEDICA. 

Var. — LiMONUM. 

The Lemon. 

Vern. — Beng. — Gonrd nembu ; ffind.— Jimbira ; Sans. — 
Mah&j&mbira ; Arab. — Qalambak. 

The lemon is cultivated with much success in Northern 
India chiefly for its Fruit ; the essential Oil (Oleu^n 



88 INUIGKNOUS DIIUGS OF INDIA. 

Limonis, B. P.}, not being manufactured, although it might 
form a valuabEe additional article of commerce. 

Cortex Limonis of the Pkavmaeopma is the outer pai-t 
of the rind or pericarp oHhe fresh fruit. Suceus Litiitytiia, 
the freahlj expressed juice of the ripe fruit, is also otficial. 
With lime juice, it is the source of citric acid ; the amount 
yielded by the Indian frnits being, Iiowevev, ."imaller than 
in the varieties cultivated in Europe. 

Medicinal uses- — The Oil, tincture and syriip prepared 
from the lemon Peel are largely used in pharmacy as 
Havouring agents. Lemon Juice is liighly valued as an 
autiscorbntic, and is given in rheumatism. It is largely used 
in the preparation of cooling beverages and effervescing 
draughts. 



CITRUS MBDICA. 

Vak.— AcioA. 
The Lime Tree. 

Vem. — Seng. — Pfiti nembu, Kagzi nembu ; Hind. — £agd. 

Several varieties of the lime, known as ^dti nembv,, 
kagzi nembu, and others are indigenous to the Himiilayas, 
and largely cultivated in Upper India and Bengal. The 
Juice of the i'RDiT, commonlj* known as Lime Jdice, haa 
properties similar to those of lemon juice, and is largely 
used as a cooling beverage. A preparation of lime juice 
preserved without the aidof alcohol, introduced by PreoLall 
Dey, F.C.3,, son of the author, is popular in Calcutta, and 
has attained a wide reputation in India as an antiscorbutic 
for general use and fur Uahomedan seumen, Indiai 
grants and others whose religious tenets forbid the use of | 
alcohol in any form. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 89 

OLAVIOBFS PURPUREA. 

The Ebgot. 

The rust of wheat and other crops in India has been 
found to possess properties similar to those of the true 
ergot. It is not, however, used medicinally by the Natives 
of this country. 



CLEOME VISOOSA. 

Syn. — PoLAXAsiA Icobandra. 

Wild Mustard. 

Vem. — Beng, — Hur-h<iria ; Hind, — Jangli hiir-hur. 

A common weed, belonging to the natural order Cappa- 
rndeo', found all over India and plentifully in Bengal. It 
has properties resembling those of mustard for which it is 
sometimes regarded as an efficient substitute. The seeds 
are known in the baz^r as churi-ajivan. 

Medicinal uses. — The fresh juice of the Leaves is in 
great repute among the Natives as a remedj' for earache, 
being dropped into the ear. It is also applied externally 
as a rubefacient and vesicant. The Seeds are stimulant, 
carminative and anthelmintic. They yield on expression a 
fixed Oil. 



CLERODENDRON INFORTUNATUM. 

Vem. — Beng. — Bh^nt ; Ghentii ; Hind, — Bhunt ; Sans, — 

Bh^ndira. 

The Clerodendron infortunatum is a wild plant com- 
mon all over Bengal, in Malabar, and the S. Concans. It 
belongs to the natural order Verbenacea', 



90 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

Uedioinal uses.— The fresh juice of the Leaves is used 
as a vermifuge, and also aa a bitter tonie and febrifuge in 
malarial fevers, especially in those of children. The RooT 
of this plant in 10 to 1.5 grain doses made into a paste with 
water has been fonnd of great value in hfemorrhoidal dis- 
turbance. It readily relieves congestion and torpidity of 
the bowel and acts as a slight aperient. 



OLITOBIA TBBNATGA. 

fieuy.^Aprajitfi : //I'nrf.— Aprajit ; Sam. — Aparajiti. 

A very common plant, belonging to the natural order 
Leguviinoiir. fmiml all over India ami cultivated in flower 
gardens. 

Uedioinal uses— Au alcoholic extract of the Root has 
been used as a cathartic in doses of 5 to 10 grains, and the 
Seeds as a mild pui^ative, the latter being sometimes com- 
bined in powdei- with cream of tartar and ginger. They 
have been confused with those of /pomcea hederaceti the 
kald-ddna {q. v.) 

COCCXNIA INDICA. 

Sff Vr.Vn ALAKDKA INIUCA. 

OOOCtTLTTS OOBDIFOLIUS. 

Sff TiNOSPORA ( 



coccuijns iNDions. 

.S'« AXAMIBTA COCCULUa. 



INDIOKNiU'S DHUGS OF INDIA. 



COCOTTLUS VILLOSUS. 



Vem. ^Hind.- 



i-ki-bel: .S'ans.— Vanatiktika. 



A climbing plant, of the natural order Meniapei 
fonml in Bengal, the Punjdb and Sind. 

Medicinal uses. — The Roots are bittor aiKl tonic, 
times administered in decoction for rheiimatisra. 
jaice of the Leaves ha» the property when mised with 
water of coagulating into a jelly-lika substance which is 
used as ft demulcent. 



COCCUS CACTI 

The Cocht\eal Inbkot. 

Vem. — Beng. — Kfrmdana, Kiranda. 

I CocctiB cacti is an Hemipteroua Insect, chiefly used in 
iharmftcy in the dried state as a colouring ingredient, 
when it constittitea cochineal. Carmine is a brilliant red 
Ptolouring matter also prepared from Oocciis cacti. It is 
r a valuable staining agent in histological work. Several 
L Attempts have been made to introduce the cultivation of the 
I insect into India, at Raj pu tana, and other places, nut without 
), several species of Coccua and the Cactus or Opuntia 
■plants on which they feed being already acclimatized. It 
Iwonld form a most important article of commerce. The 
EttJouring principle of cochineal is Carminic Acid. 

Uedldnal usea.— Cochineal has been supposed to possess 
[ anodyne aa>l antispasmodic properties for which it is oc- 
leionally used in pertussis. The tincture is the official 
I J^pamtion. 



i^idMta 



92 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



COCCUS LAGOA. 

Lao. 
Vem. — Beng. — Gala; Sinrf.^LAkh ; .Vang. — Laksli^. 
The impovtaDt article of commerce kaown aa "lac" is 
obtained from incrustations on the branches of various trees, 
chiefly Schleichera trijuga (Kusumb), Butea frondosa, 
Efythrina indica, and several s|)6cies of Ficus — produced 
by the lac iniiect Coccus lacca, which punctures the bark. 
The reaiuous incrustation is formed only by the female 
insect, and the portions of branches so covered are termed 
" stick-lac." Tlieae are treated with water, which separates 
the lac from the twigs and reduces it to the form of small 
grains in which form it is known as " seed -lac," while the 
residual liquid is evaporated down to produce the lac- 
dye of commerce. " Shell-lac " is produced by heating the 
seed-lac, and straining while liquid on to the surface of 
plantain leaves, the glossy nature of the leaf producing the 
scale-like form in which it is well-known, Shell-lae is 
used in Hindfi medicine in the prepamtion of several 
■ medicinal oils hikshAdi taila, Atigd-.-aka taila, etc., pro- 
bably as a colouring agent. lis more important uses are 
in the arts. 



COOOS NUCIPERA. 

The Copoa.vut Palm. 
Vem- — £«nj.— Niirikel ; Hind. — Niriycl ; Sans. — Mari-k^R. 
This graceful palm, natural order Paima; is extensively 
cultivated in Southern India and Ceylon. It is not found 
in the Upper Provinces of Hindtistau, but is plentiful in 
Eastern Bengal, in Southern India and Burma towards the 
Sea Coast, in Malabar and Coromandel, and the Islands of 



INDKiENOLS DRUGS OF INDIA. 93 

the Indian Archipelago. Th6 wliole tree is of great econo- 
mic value to the [leople of the aeaboard <)istncta of In'lia, 
llmnst every part beiog utilized, The juice extracted from 
I flowering spikes is made into a palm wine or toddy, 
u the unfermented juice a coarse sugar is prepared some- 
t ditfei-eiit from cane-sugar. The kernel of the fruit is 
I, and it yields on expression or boiling with water the 
WANOT Oil (nariyal-kd-t^) of commerce, which in 
r pure state is a solid substance of the consistence of 
1 at a temperature below ()9°F. and fluid at 74''F. Its 
J gravity ha.s been found by the author to average 
It is soluble in alcohol and ether. Cocoanut oil is 
roly used as an emollient and for toilet purposes, as 
a illuminant and in the manufacture of soap, The flbrous 
isk of the fruit, known us coir fibre, is one of the import- 
t products yielded by this tree. 
' Hediolnal uaea— The fresh watery Juice or Milk of 
^e well-known fruit is diuretic, antacid and refrigerant, 
1 is extensivelj' used for allaying gastric irritation; the 
T has also been used as a diuretic. The Oil constitutes 
isis of many of the medicinal oils of the Kobiraja, 
• readily absorbed by the skin. Given internally it is 
ng ill wasting diseases of children, being largely 
1 for this purpose in some A.mericaii hospitals. 



OOFPBA ABABICA. 

Coffee. 

''Vepn.—,Biin!7.— Coffee; //ind. — KAfi, Kawa, Bun; Bnm.— 

CaiB : jirab. — Xahwa. 

The Coffea arabica and several other species of the 

llant, natural order Rubiacete, are cultivated in Southern 

riadia, a very large proportion of the cofiee used all over 



94 INDiaENODS DEUOS OP INDIA. 

the world being the production of India and Ceylon. The 
dried Seeds, " coffee beans," yield the ciy-ttalltne principle 
Cafeine, which ia identical with the Theint contained in 
tea — {GameUia tkei/era), q. v. Catleiue is also contained in 
the Koia nut {Golu acuminata), q, v. It is allied to Theo- 
(n-omine of Tkeobroma Cacao. CoflFeeLKAVEs have also 
been found to contain caifoine, and have been employed in 
the pi-eparation of a beverage. A new alkaloid named 
Caffnixrine ha-s been iijolatecl from coffee beans. {Pharm. 
Jouni., ■29th June 1895.) 

Medicinal tuea. — Although its most extensive use is as a 
popular dietetic, coffee is aoinetinies presci'ibed as a nervoos 
fltimulant. 

A strong infusion of black coffee is used as au anti- 
soporific in opium-poisoning. In neuralgia aiirl migraine 
it isometimea acts with beneficial effect. 



COLA ACUMINATA 

Syn.— Stkbculia acuminata. 
Tub Kola Nut. 
Kola has been for some years under experimental culti- 
vation in India, seeds and plants having been supplied for 
this purpose from the Calcutta Botanic Gardens. It is a 
Native of the West of Africa and belongs lo the natural 
order Sterculiace(F. The Kola Nut was enthusiastically 
advocated some years ago as a valuable dietetic agent in 
su.staining the system ngainst fatigue, (jo'xl nuts of 
African origin contain about 2*5 per cent, of Caffevne 
and 02 per cent, of Theobromine and a glucoside Kola- 
tun. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

COLCHICUM LUTBUM. 

Hermodactvlus. 
Vem.— •Siirinjixn. 
The true Colchiciim (Liliacecti) is not fauud in India. 
The bitter Hermodactyl (Stirinjan-i-tallch) imported from 
Kaehmir. believed to consist of the corms of the above 
species of Colchicuio and readily obtainable in the bazars, 
is known to have properties resembling that of the drag 
obtained from C. autuvinale, to wliich it atau corresponds 
iu appearance. A sweet or tasteless variety also sold 
(^S&rinjan-i-ehirin) imported from Arabia has been found 
to be inert. This has been referred to Mercndeva pergica. 
It belongs to the same natural order, and each of these 
I drugs contains an alkaloid. 

Medicinal uses. — Diuretic and sedative. An acetous tinc- 
ture prepared from the bitter variety is an efficient prepa- 
I ration. It may be used like that of colcliicum in gout, 
I rheumatism, torpidity of the liver and dropsy. It has, 
lOvever, a depressing action for which it must be used 
rith caution. 



COLOOASIA ANTXQUOBUM. 
Syn. — Aruu colocasia. 

Vem. — Beng. — Kachu, Gumri-kachu ; Hind. — Gbuya ; 

Sans. — Kachu. 

This plant, natural order Aittideii:, is to be found nearly 

^»li over India. It is cultivated in most parts of India 

for the tubers, which are an important article of food. It 

• is ]ireferred as a food iu cases of (edeuia on account of 

I its diuretic action. 



9C INDIGENOUS DBUUS OF INDIA. 

Medicdnal OBes. — The fresh JuicE of the leaf stalksl 
been found to poasess reraarkftble pi^operties as a styptic 
for wounds, which merit further attention. 

OONVOLVULTJS SCAMMONIA. 

ScAMMONY. 

Vom. — ffinti.'afld Arab. — Sukh-muma. 

This climbing plant, natural order Convolvulnce/T. is a 
native of Levunt and Syria, found wild in Quzerat and 
cultivated in some parts of India. A Qum-Rbsin — Scain- 
mony of the English markets and iSu^/i-muHiri of the Indian 
bazars — is obtained by incision of the crown of the living 
Root. The juice is collecte'linahellMand allowed to become 
conci-ete. It is not manufactured to any extent in India. 
The drug, as found in the bazars, is generally much adul- 
terated. 

Uedlclcal uses. — Scamraony resin is a powerful purga- 
tive. In inflammatory and irritable dropsies it is used as a 
hydrogogue cjithartic. 

GOPTIS TEETA. 
MishmiTebta: Gold Thread. 
Vera.— flfnj.— MishmlTttA; ifiW. -Tita; AVnd— Mftlimini, 
Mimirin. 
The plant, known as Coptis Tesfa, natural order Ranun- 
calacem, a native of the mountaiuous region bordering on 
Upper Assam, enjoys a high repute among the MlshmTs, 
Lamas and the Assamese. The Root of this plant is offi- 
cinal. It is sent down to Assam in neat little baskets, with 
open meshes of narrow strips of bamboo or rattan, each 
basketconbainingabout an ounce of small pieces ofthedark- 
yellowiah, bitter rhizome, from 1 to 3 inches long. It is not 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



97 



UUy available in tlie Bengal markets, the limited supply 
F the true diiig being augmented by sevei-al substitutes 
bich are plentiful in the Upjiei and Western Provinces, 
mtains the alkaloid Berherhie so combined as to be 
tdily soluble in water. 
Medicinal uaea. — It was introduced into the Pharmaco- 
ptpia of India as & bitter tonic resembling calumba in its 
properties. The fluid extract is the most suitable prepara- 
tion. 

Substitutes. — Roots of certain species of Picrorkiza and 
that of Tkalic'rttm foliotosum are found in the bazirs as 
substitutes for the true mishmi tita. Tt is difficult to dis- 
iiDguish these from the genuine article. 

COBALLOCABPXJS BPIG^A. 

Vem. — Beng. and Hind. — R»kas-gaddab ; Peta. — Lu£a. 
' A climbing plant, belonging to the natural order Oucur- 

ee€B and found in the PunjAb, Sind and the Deccan. 
[ 'Medicinal uses. — The Root has been administered in the 

I of powder, and has attained some reputation as an 
terative in syphilis. The active principle is a glucoside 

mbling Bryonin. 



COBCHORUS CAPSULARIS 
and C. OLITORIUS. 

Jute. 
— jffenj.— Pat, koshUi, Nalitapat ; flmi/,— Fftt-sanj Sans. — 
Nddikd. 

Ffieven or eight species of Corckorat, annual plants belong- 
to the natural order TiliaciKB, are fonnd in India, 
Bhoagh they are not now regarded as indigenous. 
I. ID. 7 



98 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA, 

Of these C. oUtorius and C. capsularia are most exten- 
sively cultivated in Bengal, for the production of the well- 
known jute fibre which forma so important an article of the 
commerce of India. The former ia grown chiefly in the 
jute-producing districts of Eastern Bengal and on the islands 
and moist low-lying lands of the Meghna and Brahmaputra 
rivers, and the latter in the northern, central and eastern 
districts of the province. In addition to its most import- 
ant economic value, the leaves of the jute plant are used 
by the poorer classes of the Natives by whom it is culti- 
vated, as an article of food and to some extent medicinally. 
A sort of spinach known as n&lUa is made from the leaves, 
which are more or less bitter, and they are also used with 
other vegetable curries as a stomachic and condiment. It 
was proposed some years ago to utilize the hard ends of 
the jute fibre (the part nearest the root, which is regarded 
as waste) in the production of alcohol or " jute whiskey " 
by converting the cellulose in which it so largely abounds 
into sugar by means of sulphuric acid and fermenting. 
This has not, however, been attempted on a commercial 
scale. 

Uediclnal usea. — The Leaves of the jute plants are used 
as a cheap domestic medicine in Hindd households, eapecial- 
ly in the districts where they are cultivated. The dried 
leaves are also obtainable in the baz&rs of Bengal. An 
infusion with coriander and aniseed constitutes a simple 
bitter, used like chiretta as a stomachic and tonic, but 
having the advantage over that herb in being milder and 
not BO heating. 

The finely carded fibre has been used as a basis for anti- 
septic surgical dressings. It is highly absorptive and 
admirably suited for this purpose. 



ISDIOENOUS DRUGS OF iNDU. 9& 

CORDIA M7XA. 

SEBKeTEN Fhoit. 
a. — Beng. — Bal-phal ; ///ud^LaBori ; Sam. — BAkam- 
pBd&ruka ; Som. — Bhokara. 
, small deciduous tree, belonging to tba natural order 
"aginecB, growing nearly all over India and cultivated 
I Bengal. 
Klftediobial uses. — The well-kaown FktJIT is very mucU- 
s and is highly esteumed as u demulcent in coughs. 
heBABK is astringent and is used in the form of a gargle. 



CORIANDBUM SATIVUM. 

CORIANDEK. 



D. — Seng. — Dhanija ; Hind.— Dha 
Arab, — Kusbara ; Pera.- 



ia ; Sam. — Dhdnyaka ; 
Kishniz. 



Vwitmdrwm sativum, natural order Umhellifav, is a 

arbaceous plant, extensively cultivated in all parts of India 

r ils seeds (in reality smail Fiujits) which are much used 

t India aa a condiment. Indian coriander is also largely 

bported and forms a considerable part of the world's supply 

' this commodity. The individual fruits are somewhat 

' than those grown in Europe. The unripe fruit 

Bses a very unpleasant odour, resembling that of 

, from which circumstance the name coriander has 

iginated, but this changes rapidly as ripening proceeds. 

I, to the flzteat of about ^ per cent,, an essential 

L to which it owes its aromatic odour. 

Hedioinal UBea — Coriander is an excellent carminative 

aromatic. It conceals the odour and flavour and 

recta the action of senna better than any other aromatic, 



too INOHJKNOITS DHDGS OF INDIA. 

and it eiitei-s into ttie cooipositiini of many of the pi-epa- 
rations of that drug. 

GORYDALIS GOVANIANA. 

Vern. — Beny, untl i/iR(/.— BhutkuB. 

A plant of the natural order Fumariaceis growing 
plentifully on the North- West Himalayas. Tlie Root con- 
tains a crystalline bitter principle which has been named 
Corydalitie. 

Uedicinal uses. — The Root has not been tried medi- 
cinally to any extent. It is regarded as tonic iind diuretic, 
and has been administered in doae.^ of 10 to 30 grains, 
also aa tincture and decoction. 

COSCmiUM FENESTBATUM. 

Vern. — Benff. — Haldi-gach ; Iltnd. — Jhir-hal'Ii ; Sam. — Darvi, 

Diru-haridr&kam. 

A climbing plant, natural order MenispermoA^eoi, found 
plentifully in the forests of Western India. The wood 
yields a yellow dye resemblitig turmeric. The RoOT m 
used medicinally and resembles calumba in some of its 
properties and contains Berbenne. 

Medicinal usea — The Root is regarded aa a bitter tonic 
and stomachic, and employed in the form of preparations 
similar to thu.se of calumba. 

COSTUS SPBCIOSUS. 

Vem— Jeny. and Hind.—Kist, Kdalit, Kut. 

An elegant climbing plant, belonging to the Scitaininca;. 

fcjund plentifully all over Bengal nnd in some other part« 

of Eastern India. The Root was formerly regarded ns 



INDIGENOUS DRUOS OK INDIA. 



101 



reeetnbliiig orria and violets in its udurous property, but it 
would seem to have been confused witb that o( Sausaurea 
Lappa (q.v.), the costus of the Greeks, tlie M.sht rhizome 
having practically no smell, and the oil distilled from it 
Imving an odour resembling Elecampane and only after 
Rtaitding a very faint ixlonr of violets. (Schimmel, Btrickte, 
1895.) 

\ Medicinal uaea. — The Root of this plant has been used 
^ Bome extent as a tonic and aplirodisiac. 

GRATiBVA BELieiOSA. 

—Smj. and Hind — Bnruii ; il^an*. — VRruiiA ; Bom. — 
Vuj.v.r,,,!. 
stree, natural order CapparidecB, is usually cultivated 
■■ vicinity of temples in Central India, Beisgal and 
The varuna Bakk as found in the baztirs is 
Sieved to be that of C. religiosa var, Nui-vala, and the 

*VE8 those of var. Roxburffliii. 
f Medicinal uses. — The Bark of the stem and Root of 
■lis plant have been regarded as useful in calculous a£fec- 
ms, given in the form of decoction. They are said to 
umote tbe appetite, increa'ie the secretion of the bile, act 
■ a laxative, and remove disorders of the urinary organs. 
[(The fresh Leaves, bruised with a little vinegar and 
plied to the skin, act as a rubefncient and vesicant. 

CBmXTM ASIATIGUM. 

Tern. — Beug. — Sukh-darsftQ ; Hind. — Chindnr ; Bom. — 



k large plant, with handsome white inflorescence and 
»ful foliage, natural order Amaryllidea, much culti- 
i Indian gardens, and also found in low humid 
Rota iu various parts of India and in the Moluoca.s. 



102 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



Hediclnal uses. — The expressed juice of the freah BULB 
13 a useful emetic; in small doses diaphoretic. Its use is 
analogous to that of squill. 

OROOUS SATIVUS. 

Saffbun. 

Vem. — Beng. — J&phrfin ; Hind. — Zafran, Ko-sar ; Sam. — 
Kumkuraa; flom. — Safran. 

The saffron crocus, natural order IridetF. a native of 
Asia Minor, is cultivated on a small scale in Persia and 
Kashmir. The dried stigmata of the well-known flowers 
constitute the saffron of commerce. Compressed into cake.s 
it is called " Cake Saffron " (i:4sar-ki-roti), ordinary safiron 
bein;; called " Hay Saffron," It is seldom used medicinally, 
its chief value being as a powerful colouring agent. The 
drug, as used in India, is usually imported. It is sometimes 
found adulterated with the flowers of Carthamua (incfomw 
— the safflower. It is largely used by the Natives of India 
in religious rites and in the colouring and flavouring of food. 

CEOTON TIGLnJM 

The Croton. 
Vem. — Beng. — Jaypil; Hind. — Jamal-gota; Sam. — Jayapiln, 

Kanskaphala. 
The crotons, a genus of plants belonging to the natural 
order Euphorbiacea<, are found wild and widely distributed 
throughout India. The most important species, C. Tig- 
Hum, is plentiful in Eastern Bengal, extending to Assam 
and Burma and to Ceylon. The Seeds form an important 
article of export, being the source of the Oleum Crotonis of 
the Pharmacopoda, which is contained in the kernels to the 
extent of about 50 per cent. The oil is usually expressed in 
Britain. The seeds of C. ohlo-ngifolius are occasionally found 
mixed with those of the true croton. 



INDIQENOUS DBUaS OF INDIA. 103 

A new enquiry into tlie nature of tlie vesicating, or more 
strictly, pustule-producing constituent of croton oil' has re- 
Bulted in the isolation, fiom the fatty acids which were 
formerly believed to be the active principle, of a resin 
possessing extraordinary power as a vesicant to which the 
vesicating property of the oil ia due. It has been named 
Croton Resin. Tlie Croton-Oleic Acid of Koberl and 
Hirscheydt has been found to be a mixture of oleic acid 
ad croton resin. 

Medicinal uaea.— The Seeds are used in India as a power- 
lul cathartic, one seed being a full dose. The Oil is well- 
inowQ for its remarltable purgative properties, which are 
a possessed by the Leaves and Wood, The oil is parti- 
nlarly valuable in cases where a minute and effectual dose 
B required, one drop on sugar or iu emulsion being usually 
infficient for an adult. Externally it is of great value as a 
ptimulant rubefacient and vesicant, the official liniment 
Bliig perhaps the most desirable preparation. 

CUBEBA OFFICINALIS. 

See Piper Cubeba. 

CUCUMIS MELO. 

Thr Melon. 
—Seng. — Kharmuj ; Sind. — Kharb^ja; Sans. — Kliarvujit; 
Som. — Kharabuja. 
' This well-known plant of the Cueurbitacea is indige- 
ms to, and largely cultivated in, India, particulaily in 
Horthern Bengal, and also in Kashmir and Afghanistan- 
lie sweet fruit is greatly esteemed both by Europeans and 
Hfttives; the seeds yield a quantity of oil which is utilized 
r emollient and buiTiing puiposes. 



104 INDIOEKOCS DHUtJS OF CKDU. 

Medicinal usea. — Tlie Seeds are diuretic, a 
cooliug aud depurative. 



OUCUMIS SATIVITS. 

Thk Cdcusiuek, 

Vem. — Seng. — HasA; Sirtd. — Khira; Snii*.— Trnpiiahii; Born. — 

Kakri. 

The cucumber, natural order Oucurbilaoea', ia said to 
be indigenous to Northern India, and it ia stated to be 
found wild in the Himalaya from Eum&oii to Sikkim. It 
is cultivated in gardens, and the f IIUIT, as that of the 
melon, is used by the people for culinary purposes. The 
seeds yield a bland nutritious oil. 

Uedlcinal uses. — Diuretic aud nutritive. The powdered 
Seed has been employed as a diuretic in doses of 30 graJna 



CUCTTRBITA PBPO. 

Thb Pumpkin: Veobtablr Marrow 
Vern, — Beng. — Kumr4; ^[nrf.^l'etha ; .Jan«. — Kushmanda. 
The large fruit of this GucuTbitaceouB plant is eaten by 
the Natives in their curries, and is extensively cultivated, 
very frequently on the roofs of houses, all over India. 

Uedlcinal uses. — The Seeds are anthelmintic, useful in 
cases of tienia. The expressed Oil of the seeds in doses 
of half an ounce repeated at an interval of two horn's and 
followed by an aperient is said to be equally efficacious 
The dried pulp is a remedy in hiemoptyais and hemorrhages 
from the pulmonary organs, given in the form of a con- 
fection. 



1NDIGKK0U8 DRUGS OF ItiVlk. 105 

CUMINITM CYMINITM. 

Cummin. 
'Vevn.Seng.—J\v&; iTinA— Zira; <S^an*.—J£raka; Per*.— Zir A, 

An important essential oil-yielding plant of -the UmbeUi-' 
ferce, extensively cultivated for its Fruits in the North-West 
Provinces and the PiinjAb, affording a considerable amount 
of commerce from Jubbulpur, Quzerat, and other places. 
Cummin is largely used by the people of India as a spice 
ip curries. The cummin of the Punjd,b is known as ftato- 
jtrd, being darker in colour and stronger in aroma. 

Medicinal uses.— The Fruits and the essential Oil to 
which they owe their properties and odour are aromatic^ 
stomachic and stimulant. They are seldom employed medi- 
cinally, but both are used to some extent as a carminative 
and corrective in veterinary pharmacy. 

CUPRUM. 

Copper. 
Vem. — Beng, — Tama ; Hind, — Tanbd ; Sana, — Tamra. 

Copper ore is found in the districts of Singbhtim and 
Hazdribagh, in Western Bengal, and smelting is carried on 
on a small scale. 

The principal salt of copper used medicinally is the sul- 
phate : — 

OUPBI SULPHAS. 

Bluestonb. 

Vera. — -B^n^. —Nil-tutiya ; iTmc/.— Nila-tdti; 5aiM.— Tfittha, 
Pers, — ^Zakc-sabz ; Burm, — Douth&. 

It is prepared in a fairly pure state by roasting the 
copper pyrites and crystallizing from solution in water. 
It may be obtained in all the baz£rs. 



106 



INDIGENOUS DKUGS OF INDIA. 



Medicinal uses. — Applied locally as a stiniulaiit, styptic 
and escliarotic. Usetl in oplithalmia, leueorrhcea, gonor- 
rhoea and ulcerations. Internally as an astringent in cases 
of chronic diarrhoea and dysentery in doses of ^ to J grain, 
as an emetic in doses of 8 to 10 grains. 



OUROULIOO ORGHIOIDBS. 

Vera. — Beng. — T4lft tnulf ; Hind. — Eali-miiali, Siya-muali ; 

Sans,— Mushftli, Talti-miilibfi : Tam. — Nilap-panaik-kizhangu; 

Tel. — Nalla-tady-gudda ; Som.— Miiali-kaud. 

A small herbaceous plant, belonging to the natural order 
Amaryliidece, found in the hotter parts of India. The 
tuberous Roots constitute the kali (hlack) tw&sH of the 
bazars, the white variety eafed tntisli, being the tubers of 
Asparagus adscendens (q. v.) 

Uediciaal uses. — The Root is demulcent, diuretic and 
aphrodisiac. It is largely prescribed in native medicine, 
usually combined with bitters and nromatics. 

CURCUMA AMADA. 

Manoo GiN'GKK, 

Vern.— Beny. — Amidi; Sind. — Ania-baldi; Sans. — 

Karpura-haridri. 

This plant is found in Bengal, chiefly on the hilla. The 

tubers are used as a cuKliment. The CurcuTna species 

belong to the natural order Scitnmine(B. 

Uedicinal ueea — The Tubers have been regarded as 
stomachic and carminative, cooling and useful in prurigo. 
The infusion is used to produce the flavour of the mango 
artificially in confectioneiy. 



INDIGENOUS DRUnS OF INDIA. 107 

CUaCUMA ANGUSTIPOLIA. 

Ei-iT Indian Ahhowroot. 

Vem. — Beng. and Bind. — Tiktir ; Sang. — TftvakaUri, 

Found pleutifiilly in Bengal and in the Central Provineea, 

ztendiog to Bombay. The tubers of this and other species 

[are the chief aomce of East Indian arrowroot which is so 

r liighly valued aa an article of diet. It is largely mauufac- 

Ltered and exported at Travancore. 

The better qualities are not much inferior to that of the 
Itaranta (q, v.) or Bermuda arrowroot. 



CURCUMA AROMATICA. 

Wn.D Turmeric: Yeu.ow Zedo.yky: Cochin Turmeric. 
I Vern. — Beng. — Ban-halud; ^ini— Jujigli-baldi ; Sans. — 
Vutaharidr^ ; rara.^Kasturiinanjal ; Tel. — Kastuii-paj^npo, 
[ Found wild all over Bengal and largely cultivated in 
-dens. The rhizomes yield a yellow colouring matter 
turmeric, and the fiesh root has a, camphoraceous 
idour. 
Medicinal uaes. — The dried RhizohE is used as a car- 
I minative and aromatic adjunct to other mediciiies. It la 
I bIso used externally, hruised in oil, as an application in 
rains and bruises. 

CUROUMA LONQA. 

TURMBRIC. 

-ffwiy.^Halud ; //inrf.— Haldi ; Sans. — Haridnt; Tarn. 
— Manjal ; '/'«/.— Patiuptt; Pets. — ZarrKchubfth. 
The turmeric plant is indigenous and extensively culti- 
FVated in all parts of India for its rhizomes, which are 



108 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



aD essential ingredient iu curries. It is eioployed for 
culinary purposes as a colouring agent and condiment, and 
it is very largely employed in India as a dye. The 
rliizotuea are to be found in every bazar throughout India, 
and a specially prepared variety from a harder root is sold 
for dyeing purposes. It yields a bright but fleeting yellow 
which is turned red by alkalis, The colouring principle 
has been isolated and named Curcumin. It has the peculiar 
property of combining with boracic acid in presence of a 
mineral acid to foiin a brown compound, thus providing 
a reliable test for boracic acid. The yellow colour and 
aromatic principles seem to be developed as the rliizoinea 
attain the full season's growth. The mature rhizome con- 
tains a yellosr essential oil. The employment of tuimeric 
is regarded as essential in certain religimis ceremonies of 
the Hindis. 

Medicinal usea— Stimulant and ctvrminative. Made 
into a pa.-ite with lime the powdered Hhizomb is very suc- 
cessfully applied to relieve sprains and bruises. In catarrh, 
or severe 'cold in the head,' the inhalation of the fumes of « 
burning turmeric is said to cause a considerable discharge 
of mucus from the nostrils, and instant relief is experienced. 
In catarrhal and purulent conjunctivitis a decoction of 
turmeric has been recommended a.s a remedial lotion. 



OUROUMA ZBDOABIA 

The Round Zedoaby. 

Vem- — Bfng. — Sati; Miad. — Kachiir ; 5ans. —Sali, Kai'hura; 

2'oni.— Pulan-kishanga; Tel. —KB.oh6ram; Perf.~Ka,zhur. 

A plant cultivated in gardens in many parts of India 
for ite root which is an important article of native per- 



INDIGENOUS DHUOS OF INDIA. 109 

tnery. This rhizome also constitutes the basis of the 

i abir powder, which is mixed with water and scattered 

»Ter tbe person at the koU festival of the Hindlis. The 

)doar; is greyish white externally, grey internally, and 

Inth an aromatic odour allied to ginger but cantphoraceous. 

Medicinal uses. — The Rhizome is to be regarded as a 

Rmild carminative and aromatic stimulant, useful in flatu- 

I'lence and 'ijapepsia, and as a corrector of purgatives. 

nabined with alum in water it is also applied to bruises. 



CUSCUTA BEPIiEXA. 



■toni. — Seng. — Algoch-latd, Algust ; Hind. — Akas-bel ; Sam. — 

Amaravelft ; Pen. — Aftimiin. 
\ A parasitic climbing plant, belonging to the natural order 
ititwiwttfecetc, fiiuud plentifully in the plains of India on 
ain hedges and hushes — Euphorbia tiracalli, Adkatoda- 
I, and others. 

llediclnal usee. — The Skkd:^ have been regarded as 
EtMumi native. 



CYDONIA VTTLOARIS. 

The gui!<cE. 
— Senff.— Bihi-diiiift; //(>«i.— Bihi ; Tel. — Shimoi-madalai- 
virai ; /'er».— Bihi-danah. 
Cultivated in Afghanistan and Northern India: natural 
■•order Rosncea^: The delicif.us fruits are highly esteemed 
when ripe. They are largely expone<l from Cabiil. 
Medloinal uses.— The Seeds contain a large proportion 
f mucilaginous matter. They are used to some extent 



IMDtCBNOUS DBDOS OF INDU. 



t seeds of the ^ 



in decoction as demulcent The ash-iogont 
unripe fruits have been used in dtanhi 



CTHODON DACTYLON. 

Couch Grass : Doo's Tooth Grass. 
Vem. — Beng. and Bind. — Durba, Dub ; San«. — Durva. 
An elegajit perennial graas {Qramineo!) found plentifully- 
all over India. The creeping root stock is used medicinally. 
Uddicinal uses. — A decoction of the Rhizoub is di- 
uretic and valuable in cases of vesical calculus and in 
anasarca. In India the juice of the green grass is applied 
as a popular application to bleeding svounds as an astrin- 
gent. It has also been applied in catarrhal ophthalmia. 



CYPBRUS ROTUNDUS. 

Vem. — Beng. and Hind. — Muthi; Sana. — Must£, 
A plant belonging to the natural order Cyperacetr, found 
plentifully throughout the plains of India. 
Medicinal ub©b.— The Root is diaphoretic and astringent. 

GYPBRUS SCARIOSUS. 

Vem. —Beng. — Nagar-iuutba ; //■in(i.^Nagai-ra6tLa ; Saiw. — 
Nagar-mustaka. 
A delicate slender grass found in moist places In Bengal, 
The roots of this and other species yield a pleasing fra- 
grance when bruised. Medicinally the Root of C. scarioaus 
i8 osed foe the same purposes as those of C. rolundus. 



INDIQENOUS DRUOS OF INDIA, 111 

DiQMIA EXTENSA. 
Sya. — AscLspiAs echisata. 

Vem. — Bevg. — Chhdgalbaati ; //iVirf.— Sagowani j Bom. — 
Utami. 

A. climbing plaut found in the hotter parts of India. The 
whole Plant has beeu used medicinally. The leave!) contain 
ail alkaloid DcBinme (Hooper, 1890). 

Medicinal uses. — Expectorant and emetic. The juice of 
! the Leaves is couaideied useful in asthmatic affectiona. 

DATURA PASTUOSA. 

The Black Datuha. 
—Beng. — KalaKlhuturi ; Hind, — Eala-dhutura ; Sant. — 
DhattiSra, dhustura ; /'er«,— Tatulah ; Ai-ab. — Jouz-ul-mathil, 



ANW 

DATURA PASTUOSA. 

Var. — Alba. 
Syn. — Datcra Alba. 
— Beng. — Dhutura (sada) ; Hind. — SafW-dhdturi j Sana, 
— Dliuatura, Ummatta-viikaha ; Tam. — Umatai ; Pers. — Kouz- 
maaab-safed. 

These plants, of the natural order Solanacea, are found 
' wild, not usually cultivated, throughout the hotter parts of 
the Peninsula, growing often in waste places, They have 
long beeu known to the people of India for tlieir intoxicat- 
aiid narcotic properties, the former being the more 
i. powerful and frequently admioistered in sweetmeats uud 
Lin various other ways for effecting criminal designs. The 
I thugs ox drtfjirwis— Indian professional datura poisoners — 



112 



INDIGENOUS DItUaS OF I 



SO common in former years, but now practically extermi- 
nated, relied chi«lly on the datura to aid them in their 
depredations. Tlie drug was not administered with the 
intention of killing but of producing temporary insensibi- 
lity, althougli an overduae frequently had fatal effect. 
At the present time the seeds are in popular use in India 
by the dissipated and ilepraved in combination with aab- 
ji to induce a state of delirious stupefaction. They are also 
frequently used in adultei'ating several intosicanta such as 
toddy, majttni, and the lil«e, with the object of increasing 
their stupefying property, and in conjunction with j^tin- 
ja. A. profound lethargy, resembling coma, combined with 
delirium, difficulty of respiration and dilation of the pupils 
are the symptoms induced by the administration of the 
drug. The plants contain the alkaloid Daturine, the active 
principle of D. Stramonium (q. v.) 

Medicinal uses. — The Leaves and Sheds of the variety 
alha were made official in the Pharmacopoeia of India, 
and ol' these a tincture, extract, plaster and poultice are 
directed to bo made. Both plants are narcotic, anodyne 
aod antispasm'>dic, and in large do.'ies virulent poisons : 
useful in neuralgia, gastrodynia and emphysema of the 
iuugs. and regarded also as valuable in epilepsy and m&nia. 
The datura po.>iaeasea properties analogous to tliose of 
belladonna, and is sometimes used to dilate the pupil of the 
eye. The practice of smoking the dried leaves ;ind stems 
is attended with great success and relief in spasmodic 
asthma and kindred atfections. A decoction of the leaves 
1ia.<< been recommended as an internal remedy for the pre- 
vention of hydro|ihobia. The fresh juice of the leaves is 
mixed with emollients and applied externally in rheumatic 
pains. 



XDIOKNOnS Rituas ( 



113 



DATURA STRAMONIUM 

Stramohium ; Thotin Apple. 

Vem. — Beng. mu) ffind. — DhuCura. 

Ttidigenous to India &Tid abundant on the temperate. 

Siro&laya. The plant is used in the hilU for the same 

mpular uses as those belonging to the plains. The Seeds. 

ind Leaves contain tlie alkaloid Daturine, which has been 

(bund to be practically identical in chemical composition 

rith Atropine — the alkaloid of belladunua— and aa such is 

■ngarded as one of the mydriatics, although the fact that 

kit only possesses about half the physiological activity 

I does not correspond to the chemical constitution. It is 

I identical Aith Hgoacyamine in its chemical and physio-, 

^cal properties. It has also been shown that stramonium 

KQCmtaiits two alkaloids — heavy aud light daturine— the 

viner cousiating of atropine and hyoscyamine, and the 

Wter of hyoscyamine only. 

Medicinal uaaa. — The chief use of the drug is in asthma,, 

lithe dried LuAVKS of this variety and of that of the variety 

[ littulu [gkarbhuli (Bombay)] made into cigars and cigar- 

Lattes, being smoked for this purpose. It is used internally 

■in place of belladonna as having more direct action on the 

Itespiratory organs. An extract and tincture are official 

i.in the British Pkarmacopa-ia. 



DAUCUS CAROTA. 

The Cab rot. 

Tjem.— 5en3.^G4jari Mind.—Q&jar; 5ans,— Garjara; Tam. — 

Q&jjara-kelangu ; 7'el. — Gajjara-gedda ; Pert, — Zardak. 

The carrot, natural order UmbelU/eroB, is indigenous to 

Kashmtr and the Western Him&laya, and Is now largely 

K, lU. 8 



114 



INDIQKNUUS DHU6B OF INDIA. 



cultivated in Iu'lia for culinary purposes. It is not used 
to any extent in European medicine, but the Natives em- 
ploy the Serds to some extent. 

Hedlolnal ueeB. — The Seeds are used as a nervine tonic. 
Externally the familiar Root has been used as a stimulat- 
ing application. The Seeds yield a yellowish coloured 
volatile Oil, also regarded as a nervine tonic. 



DELPHINIUM DBNTTDATUM. 

Vem. — fl'in d.^Nirbisi, jadwar. 
An annual plant, belonging to the natui'al order BaiiMn- 
eulaeea, growing abundantly on the slopes of the temperate 
Himalaya. It is of little importance medicinally, but has 
been the subject of maeh controversy as to whether the 
Root should be regarded as the Nirhisi of ancient Sanskrit 
Materia Medica. It has properties resembling those of 
a({8, and has been classed among the '' noa-poisonous 
aconites." The term jadwar has, however, been applied to 
very different plants at different timea As sold in the 
bozlirs the rout appears usually to have undergone some 
kind of preparation. 



DBSUODIUH OANGETICUM. 

Voro.— 5mij.— Sftlpini ; .ffmd.— Sarivan ; ^atw.— Salaparni. 
Natural order Legununosa : a small shrub common 
on the Lower Himalaya and in the plains,— The plant h 
interesting, as being the chief of the ten ingredients in the 
Daaamula kvatka of Hindu medicine. It is r^arded as 
febrifuge and aati*catarrhal. 



ISDIOENOCS DltUQS OF INDIA. 



116 



DUiLENIA INDICA. 
Vem. — Beng. and Hind. — Clialta ; Sans. — Ruvya. 
A large evergreen tree found in Bengal, Central and 
I Bonth India and Burma. Natural order DUleniaceie. 

Hedicinal uses. — The juice of the Frdit, mixed with 
f sagar and water, is considered a eooling beverage; expee- 
I iorant in coughs ; the Babk and Leaves are astringent. 



DIOSPYBOS BMBRYOPTEBIS. 



rVan. — Beng. — Gab; ffii 



Tumbika ; 



id.— T^ndiS; ; 
•Tiunil; Fert.- 



— Tinduka; Ta 
— Abnufie-pindi. 

This tree, natural order Ebenaceir;, grows common^ 
[ all over India. The Bahk and unripe Frdit are astringent, 
t tbe latter yielding a juice of remarkable astringency con- 
{ tuning 20 to 40 per cent, of tannic acid. The infusion of 
I onripe fruit is extensively used for tanning fishing 
nets to render them more durable. When ripe the fhrit 
, loses its a.'^tringency and is eaten by children. 

Hedioinal ases.— The juiee of the Frdit is astringent 
, and styptic : useful in diarrhcea and chronic dysentery and 
in beemorrhages from the internal organs. An infusion of 
Ibe (ruit is used as a gargle in aphtha and sorethroat. 



DIPTEROOABPUS TURBENATUS 

and other species, 

GtiRJUN ; Kajjyin. 

Tern. — Beng. and Hind, — Garjan, Tihya-garjan (the balsam), 

Teli-garjau ; Garjon-ka-tel. 

The above and several other species of the genua DipU- 

rocarpuB, natural order Dipterocarpece, yield collectively 



UG 



INDlOliNOUS DRUGS OF INDIA, 



the balsamic product known in India as QuttJUN OiL or 
Balnaut or " Wood Oil," The most important is the variety 
turbinatuB, or kanyin tree, a magnificent evergreen tree 
growing plentifully in Eastern Bengal, Burma. Chittagong 
and Pegu to Singapore, sotnelimes attaining a height of 
200 feet. D. alatus and incanu8 are also found in the 
Chittagong district, the former extending to the Andaman 
Ulands D. turherculatus, the eug or in tree of Burma, 
yields a thick honey-like Oleo-Resis, which is probably 
mixed with the product of the other trees. 

Different methods are followed in different districts for 
the collection of the Diptervcai-pua balsam, and the product 
varies accordingly. 

The usual method is to cut a series of cavities in the 
trunk of the growing tree, live charcoal being placed In 
them to aid the flow of the resinous oil. When this ceases 
a fresh portion of the »ap-wood is cut and re-charred. 
The t'n oil of Buima is extracted without the aid of 
heat, 

Qurjun oil is usually found in the bazirs of Eastern India 
asanOmo-RESiNof which thereare three principal varieties 
— the pale (aafed garjan-tca-tel; aafed lakri-ka-ttl) ; the red 
or reddish brown (laV), and the black {kdM) or dark brown. 
The pure pale oil b somewhat fluorescent with a greenish- 
grey colour seen by reflected light, transparent and reddish 
brown in strong daylight. It has a feeble aromatic copaiba- 
like odour and a bitter aromatic taste without the persistent 
acridity of copaiba. 

Subjected to simple distillation with water the oleo-teein 
yields an essential Oil to the extent of 30 to 40 per cent, 
and leaves a dark-coloured viscid resin. The former has 
the peculiar property that when it is heated to 130* it 



INDIQKNODS DBITGS OF INDIA. 117 

becomes gelatinous and does not resume its fluidity on cool- 
ing, while the resin has been found like that of copaiba to 
contain a ciystallizuble portion which has been called Qiir- 
junic Acid. 

Giirjuii balsam is largely produced in Burma, Chittagnng. 
and the Malayan Peninsula, and occasionally exported. It is 
known Ut be used to some extent an an adulterant of copaiba. 
This may be detected by iU complete solubility in mineral 
naphtha, copaiba not being completely soluble. It is 
largely used in India as a natural varnish, and might be 
extensively utilized for water- proofing, being an effective 
solvent of caoutchouc. 

Uediciual uses. — The Oi,eo-Re8IN has properties ana- 
logous to copaiba, and it was hoped many years ago that 
it would supersede in India the South American balsam. 
It has undoubted efficacy in the conditions for which its 
) has been advocated — gonorrhoea and gleet and the like 
I ^^-administered in doses of half to ono Huid drachm as 
I emulsion with mucilage acacia or an alkali. In considera- 
I tion of this it was made official in the Pharniacop(eia 
I d/ India. Externally it haa a stimulant action, and 
has been applied to indolent ulcers,. It was strongly 
recommended and extensively tried some years ago as 
a specific for leprosy, but it was found that while it 
avted admirably as a palliative it could not claim to be 
cousidered a cure. It is useful in psoriasis and kindred 
akin atiections mixed to the consistence of cream with 
equal parts of lime water and applied freely, and the pale oil 
.given internally to the extent of two drachms three times 
i day. The addition of chaulmigra oil has been found to 
'.enhance the effect. The essential Oil may lie admiois- 
tered internally in place of the oleo-resin. 



118 INDl(J&NODS DRUOS OF INDIA. 

DOLICHOS BIFIiOBUS. 

House Okah. 

Vem-— Bf ny-^Kurti-kalai ; Bi^d. — Kiilti ; Saru. — Knlattha. 

A comiuOD twiniDg plant of the Leguminoaa;, growing all 
over India. It aflfords a valuable fodder. 

Medicinal uses. — A decoction of the Flaht has some 
reputation as a remedy in leucorrhoea. 

DRACOCBPHALUM ROYLEANUM. 

-See Lallkmastia royikana. 

DROSEBA BURMANII and D. PBLTATA 

Ve rn. — Hind. — -M uk ha-j uli. 
These curious little insectivorous plants, somewhat re- 
!»embiing the British Sun-dew and belonging to the same 
natural order, Droseracew, are common in sandy soil, — the 
former in the Cliutia Nagpur and Orissa districts and 
around Burdwan and in Burma, and the latter ou the 
Hiujulayas and Nilgiris. 

Medicinal uses. — The leaves of the Dromra are occa- 
sionally used in some parts of India, either bruised or 
sometimes mixed with salt as a blister. Placed in milk 
they rapidly curdle it, — ti property attrihutable to the 
peculiar peptic-like ferment which the leaves are capable 
of secreting. They also contain a red crystalline colouring 
matter. 

BCLIPTA ALBA. 
Thk Kesuki. 
Vem. — 5ctij'.— Keysuritt, Kesuti ; IlinJ. — Moch-raud. Babr! ; 
Sana. — Keaaifija. 
A weed belonging to the GompositcE, abundant through- 
out India and plentiful on the Himalaya. 



INDIOKKOUS DRUGS < 



119 



UedlolmU nses- — The Root has been reconi mended as 
An ezcellent substitute for that of taraxacum. The ex- 
pressed juice of the Lkaves has beeu used an a tonic and 
deobstruent in hepatic and spleuic enlargements and in skin 
^diseases, being also iu the latter case applied externally. 



ELBTTARIA CABDAMOMUM. 

Cardamom : The Lesser Cahdamom, 
Tem. — 5fnj.— Elachi, Gujrati eUchi ; Hinii. — Chhoti eUchi ; 
^aw.— Ela ; T-.m.— Ellakay ; 7*e/.— Elakfiya ; ion.— MaU- 
bari-elaclii ; PtT». — Kakilahe-kburd. 

This plant, natural orileriSci(amiKfia!,tribeZin3i6eroec(e, 
I ifl a native of the mountainous tracts of Malabar, the Cochin 

and Travancore forest?, Eanara, Mysore and Madura, and it 

is also found wild in Burma. It is cultivated for its fruit 
, in many parts of Southern India and Ceylon, and largely 
I exported, although the trade has fallen off to some extent 

in recent years. It yields the cardamoms of commerce, the 
[' &miliar capsular fruits being previously washed in water 
[containing the powdered fruit of the soap-nut (Sa/>i'ndu9 
Tifnfoliatv.9) and afterwards bleached in the sun, while they 
I ftre further treated in some places by a process of "starching" 
I to render them whiter. This fruit and that of Ari\om.u,n\ 
I w,bv,latuv\ (q. v.) known as the '' Greater or Nepal Carda- 
y mom " have been used in India from n remote period as a 

condiment and as a constituent of the universal Oriental 
I masticatory. 

Uedlaloal uaee. — The Seeds are valuable as a warm 
l^eordial and aromatic carminative stimulant due to, an 
mtial Oil, which is their characteristic constituent. 



T20 



ISDKJKNtJlJM DKUUS OF INDIA, 



BMBELIA BIBES and B BOBUSTA. 

Vem. — Beng — Biiaiiya ; llinii. — Baberang ; San/. — VJdanga ; 

Tarn. a.\\A Tei.— Vfiyu-vilamgan ; Biftii.— Vaivivmng. 

The former is a large climber abundant in the hilly parts 
of India from the Central Himalaya to Ceylon and Singa- 
pore; common ubout Bombay, also in Bunua. The latter is 
found chiefly in Bengal and Burma extending to the Lower 
HimiUaya. They belong to the natural order Myrsinea;. 
The beiries of E. vihes aomewhat resemble tliose of black 
pepper, which they are sometimes used to adulterate. 

Medloloal uaea.— The dried berries of both varieties are 
carminative, atumachic and stimulant : given in infusion 
they act as a certuin anthelmintic, especially in tapeworm. 
The active principle was discovered by Warden (1888) to 
be Embelic Acid. 

BNHTDEA PLUCTUANS. 

Tern. — £eni/. — Hingciia; Bind.- — Harhuch ; San.'. — Hflamo- 

chikl 
An aquatic plant, natural order CtnnposUw, found in 
Eastern Bengal, Assam and Sylhet. 

Medicinal usee. — Tlie expressed juice of the Lbavics 
ba-i been u.sed as a laxative. 



BNICOSTEMA LITTOBALE. 

Veru.—Beng. and J7i>id.— Chhota-kirdyata. 

A herb, belonging to the natural order Oentianaceee, 

Gommou in the plains but not found in Bengal. It is 

a popular stomachic tonic, and known in some parts aa I 

the chhota (ftmall) chiretta. 



NDIMKNuUS DHUOS i^ 



INOIA. 



121 



BNTADA SCAKDENS 

Thb Gill* NuTa. 
Vem— fienj.— Gilla ; Bom, — Gardal, Pilpipla- 
Natural ordec LeguminosiE. A climbing plant found on 
the Eastern Himalaya, in Eastern Bengal, Soutliern India 
and Burma, 

Medioinal uses —The Seeds are used as an euetic, occa^ 
fiiuiially Bft a febrifuge. They contain Saponin. 

BRTTHRINA INDICA. 

The Indian Coral Tbeb. 

V«m.—Sen'j. — PiiliU-miiddr ; Iliiiit. — Paiigra; ^ant.— Pwijata ; 

Tarn. — MiiT\ik& : Te/ — Bnrijftmu, 

This tree, natural order LeguminoscB, well-known by 

its bright, red-coloured flowers, is common in Bengal and 

I tnany parts of India, often grown in gardens as a support 

' for black pepper and coffee plants. 

Medicinal uses. — The Babk is used medicinally, being 
regarded as anltbilious and febrifuge. The Leaves are 
Ajiplied externally to disperse butioes and the like. The bark 
r^and leaves contain a poisonous alkaloid named Erythrine. 



BBYTHROXYLON COCA. 

The C(x;a Plant. 

The experimental cultivation of this South Amorican 

• .riirub has been cairied on for some years in India and 

'CoyloQ in the tea districts with some success. The 

(•icUmate and soil of many parts of India, at modemte 

I altitudes, have been found suited to the plant, and the 

leaves, when carefully collected and dried, have been found 



122 INDIOBNOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

rich in the cryBtalline alkaloid Cocaine, th& yield increaBuig 
with the age of tiie plant, but it is doubtful if the cultiva- 
tion would be a success commerciaUy. It belongs to the 
natural order Lineai {Ei-ythroxylacece), and is a native of 
Peru and Bolivia. E, mtynogynum, grows wild and plenti- 
fully in Madias, but it cuntains no alkaloid analogous to 
cocaine. 

Medicinal nsea. — The Lkaves have the property when 
chewed, due to the cocaine they contain, of affording 
t'oiuFirkahle sustaining povser, which has been largely taken 
advantage of in the native habitat of the plant and of 
late in military operations. The alkaloid and ita salts 
are stimulant and restorative : injected hypodermically and 
painted externally they produce local anseatheaia; cocaine 
also produces mydriasis, hence much used and highly valued 
in minor operations and ia ophthalmic surgery. The action 
usually commences in about three minutes and ceases in 
about half an hour. 

EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

The Blub Gum Tbbi-:. 
Several species of the Eucalyptus trees, natural order 
MyrtacecB, of Australia and Tasmania, have been cultivated 
in India, chiefly on the Nilgiris, with considerable success, 
the globulus variety being the most suitable. The well- 
known Eucalyptus Oil, distilled from the Leaves, is greatly 
valued in India for its antiseptic, rubefacient, stimulating 
and antispasmodic properties, mueh used as an inhalant. 
The active constituent is a crystallizable body Eucalyptol 
(Cineol), to which the medicinal virtue must be ascribed. I 
The Red Ouu nr Eucalyptus Eino which exudes from the J 
Baiie of several species is an astringent. 



INDIGENOUS DK0G8 OF INDIA. 

BnaBNIA JAMBOLANA. 

Syn. — Stzyqium jambolanum. 
Jaubul : Thr Black Pluu. 



-Beng. — Kila-jii 

Tarn. — Naval 



Tel. 



Hind. — J&mau : Sar 
— Nnredu; Bom.— Ja 



ibul. 



A tree, belonging to the natural order Myrtaceo!, and 
found nearly all over India, extending from tlie Himdlaya 
to Soutbern India. Tt yields an abundance of a sub-acid 
edible fi'uit, astringent when unripe. 

Medicinal ubcb. — The Bake is astringent, and is used as 
such in decoutions and gargles. The Skeu, or atone of the 
fruit, has acquired some reputation as a remedy in diabetes, 
and is believed to check the diastasic conversion of starch 
into sugar in that form of the disease dependinn; on in- 
ised production of glucose, but although many favourable 
irepnrts as to its use have been published, it would not 

i «ppear to have justitied the higlk claims originally made for 
The liquid extract, prepared by re -percolation with a 
weak alcoholic menstruum, is the most suitable preparation. 

I A careful research by Mr. T. Stephenson, F.c.s., into the 
comparative medicinal value of old and fresh seeds, and of 
the kernel and pericarp and into the various processes for 
the production of medicinal preparation^ bus led to the 
conclusion that only fresh seeds, freed from the pericarp 

> (skin and pulp), should be used and that heat should be 

I avoided in theirextraction. (iSTee Appendix: Fluid Extracts). 
An unstable glucoside named Jambidin has been said 

\ io exist in the seeds, which also contain gallic acid, but 
'tiie medicinal principle has not yet been fully investigated. 
I 'The dose of the extract is ^ to 2 drachmn, and that of the 
ponder 5 to 30 grains. 



124 INniGESOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

EULOPHIA CAMPBSTBIS. 

Vera.—Btng.—Saug raisri, Salep-misrl. 
An orchid round in Oudli and collected for its tubers 
which are regarded as an excellent and nutritious satep- 
vrisri by several of the peoples in Northern India E. vera 
is also believed to he one of the sources of Indian aalep. 

BUPATORIUM ATAPANA 
Vem. — £tng. — Ajapan. 
A shrub found in many parts of India; natural order 
Compositoi, a Native of Brazil. The leaves were formerly 
extolled as a remedy in the treatment of snake-bite, but are 
now regarded as a simple tonic and diaphoretic. The plant 
contains a neutral principle, Ayapanin. 

EUPHORBIA ANTIQUORUM. 
Vem. — flen^. — Narsij, tekiita mij ; Iliiul. — Tidhara sehund; 
Sam. — Vajra-kantJika; Tam.— Tirikalli ; JV/.— BoBoma jeniudu. 

A small tree, common iu India, chiefly id Bengal, natural 
order Eupkorhiaceix. 

Uedioloa] uses.— The fresh milky Jdice of the plant is 
an acrid irtitaiit, used in rheumatir^m. Internally it acts 
as a violent purgative. 

EUPHORBIA NEBIIFOLIA 
Vem. — A^ny.-Miuiaa-sij ; Hind. — Wij, aebuud; Tarn. — 

llaik-kalli ; 7W.--Aku-jemudu. 

A small tr>;e found in Central India and cultivated in 

Bengal. The branches of tbi.'i tree yield a white acrid 

milky juice which is farmed into a guttapercha-like huI>- 

stance on boilinK. 



IKDIOENUUS DIIUQS OF INDU. 



\2a 



Hediolnal uses. — The milky Juice is regarded as pur- 
gative iiiterually ami nibofacient externally. It is used to 
^ remove wart» and similar escreseences, and to aflbid relief 
a earache. 

BITPHORBIA PIIiULIFEBA. 

Vem. — Brtj_7.— Bumkeni, KhiruP; Z7iW.— Dudhi ; Bom. — 

A small erect herb of Lhe Euphorbiacea, common nearly 

all over India. 

Hedloioal uses. — The fresh Plant is used largely in 

I India in adections of children, chitiliy in bowel -complaints 

I and chest affections. A fluid extract of the plant was 

■trongly advocated some years ago as a specific for asthma. 

It has been found decidedly useful lately as a remedy in 

kwiute and chronic dysentery. 

BUBTALE FBBOX. 

The Oorcon Feuit. 
Vem. — Beng. and Hiiul. — MakhuniL 
An aquatic plant, of the natural order Nympkaeex, found 
I in the ponds of Bengal, Assam and Central India. The Seed 
8 been regarded medicinally as useful in checking urethral 
I discharge. 

BXACUM BICOLOB. 

Vem. — Hind. — liarii-chireta. 
A plant belonging to tlie natural order Qentianacem and 
I flommon in the Deccan. 

Medicinal usee-^Thc Roor has properties resembling 

I gentian : the dried Plant has aromatic tonic properties, 

land is sometimes sold as chiretta, being known as oountfy 

ibireCta. 



126 INDIOKKOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. ^^H 

FAQB^A PRAGBANS. ^ 

A small evergreen tree, natural order Loganiacece, grow- 
ing plentifully in Burma, Malacca and the Aridamans. 

Medicinal uses. — The Babe has been found useful in 
the treatment of malarious fever, and has been uaed to a 
considerable extent for this purpose in the districts to 
whieh the tree \n indigenous. As the result of a careful 
chemical analysis made by the author some years ago the 
bark was found to contain an alkaloid which seemed to be 
isomeric with strychnine and to possess similar pro- 
perties. 

FBI*. 

PUBIFIBD BlLB. 

Vem. — Uind. — Safra; Sant. — Pitta. 
The fresh gall of the ox, butfalo, wild-boar and goat and 
also of the peacock and certain Sshee, are used in India as 
slight laxatives. 

FBBONIA BLEPHANTUM. 

The Wood-Applb, 
Vem. — Ben?.— Kath-bel; Bind. — Eaitha; Sam. — Kapittha: 
Tarn.— Vilim ; r«/.~Veliga; ^Mrm.— Mahan. 
The wood-apple tree is met with throughout India. It 
belongs to the natural order Rutacea. It is cultivated to 
a considerable extent for its fruit, the pulp of which is 
edible and resembles bael in some respects. The tree yields 
iu some quantity an important Ouu occurring usaally 
in small, rouodisli, transparent tears with a bland and mu- 
cilaginous teste and very closely resembling some of the 
better qualities of gum-arabic. Ferooia or wood<apple gum 
nelds a mucilage superior in adhesive property to that 



INDIQENOnS DRUGS OF INDIA. 127 

niBde from gum-arabic. It differs slightly from the latter 

ID chemical composition. It is seldom seen or employed. 

Uedloliul ufldB. — The ripe Fruit is antiscorbutic and 

I much esteemed hy the people of India, given in the form of 

k gkerbet or chatni either alone or in combioatioD with 

bael fniit. The unripe Fruit is useful in diarrhoea 

dysentery : it contains citric acid. The Leaves are 

ramatic, carminative and astringent, with an odour re- 

r sembling that of anise. The Guh is demulcent and may 

be used in place of the true gum-arabic. 

FSBBI SULPHAS- 
Vem- — BfTig. — Hirakas; Bind. — Hirikaaia; Sans. — KomisAk 
Sulphate of iron is obtained by subjecting iron wire to the 
action of dilute sulphuric acid and evaporating the solution 
to cryetallization. This is a common market article of 
India, which is used as a hsematinic tonic like other pre- 
parations of iron. Iron Pyrites, sulphide or sulphuret of 
iron (Beng. — Kangsmuki) is also used in Hind6 medicine. 
Uediclual uaes. — Powerful chalybeate tonic, astringent, 
emmenagogue, antiperiodic, and anthelmintic, poisonous 
in large doses. liocally applied, stimulant and astringent. 
Useful in aniemia, chlorosis, leucorrhoea, amenorrhcea, en- 
largement of spleen, intermittent Cever, hypocbondrioeiB, 
hooping cough and (tenia. Locally useful in erysipelas, 
chancre, hmmorrhoids, prolapsus recti, and uterine cancer. 

FBBTTLA AZ.LIACBA. 

Syn. — P. ASATtETIDA. 

Vara. — Btng. and Hind. — Hing ; Saiu. — Hingu ; Tam.—KyKta ; 

Out. — Hing ; Pers. — Ajiguza. 

A small herb of the UmbetlifenB growing wild and 



I« 



INDIGENOUS DKDOS OF INDIA. 



plentirully in Easteru Persia and Afghanistan. This plant 
is the source of the asafcetida chieiiy used in India. F. 
Narthac, the soui-ce of the true a-safcetida, has been found* 
in Kashmir, but the drug is nob collected in tliat country. 
The Gdm-Re8IN, with its characteristic odour, is to be 
found in all the Indian bazirs. It is obtained by incision 
i)f the living root from which a slice is cut every two or 
three days with the exudation adhering to it until the root 
is exhaasted. It yields sometimes as much as ten per 
cent, of an essential Oil, which is a sulphur compound of 
tUyl. 

Medicinal uaes.— Asafcetida is stimulant and antispas- 
modic. It has been in popular use in India for many 
centurie.t, being known ashiitg, and the commoner varieties 
as hiiigra. It is particularly useful iu nervous affections, 
and in hysterical and convulsive symptoms. The people of 
India also use it occasionally as a condiment. 



FERULA FCETIDA. 

Syn. — F. scoRoDOSMA. 
VeTD.—£eng. mul ffm*/.— (The Gum-Rcsiii), Hingra; 
Sam. — Hingu ; Som. — Hingra. 
All Umbelliferous herb of larger stature than the pre- 
ceding. It grows in Southern Turkestan, in Persia and 
AfghaniftCan. It is the source of much of the commoner 
qualities of the asafcetida of commerce, which are known in 
the bazars as hingra. It is much adulterated, and slices 
of root are not unfrequently mixed with it. Its usea and 
properties will be found under F. uUiacea. 

. M. Uolmss. P.L^ in 



INDIGENOUS DKUGS OF INDU. 



FERULA GAIiBANIFItUA. 



; Tam.- 



Tern. — Hind. — Bireja ; Atab. — Barzad ; Pert. — Jawasbir. 

Another of the resinous UmhilliferfB, growing in Persia, 
whence the Gum-Resin is imported into Bombay and re- 
exported to Egypt «nd Turkey. The resin is somewhat 
allied in its composition to aaafcetida, and yields an eesen- 
^^P tial Oil. 1l is not used in Indin. 

H FIOUS BENaALENSIS. 

^H Tbb Banya\ Tree. 

^^HVsm- — Beng. — Bur ; Bind, — Bar : Sang, — Vata ; 

^^^K Tel. — Mari ; Buna. — Pyi-nyouug. 

^^^K Natural oi'der Urtitsacea. This well-known tree is wild 

^^^n the Lower Himdiaya and now found all over India, 

Hedlolnal OBes- — The Root fibres have been used io 
the form of decoction with savsaparilla, and are believed 
to possess similar properties. The milky JoicE is applied 
externally to pains and bruises, and as an anodyne appli- 
cation in rheumatism. The Baek has been regarded as a 
tonic, and to be useful in the treatment of diabetes. A 
decoction of the bark, which contains about 10 per cent, of 

Ituinin, is used as an astringent lotion in leucorrbcsa with 
tid vantage. 



FICnS GABICA. 

The Fio. 

Vera.— -^eiij?. — Anjir ; Hind. — Aujir ; .Sanj. — Anjfra : 

Bom. — Anjfra; Pert. — Anjir. 

* Another member of the Urtiaacece cultivated throughout 

India. Fresh figs are to be found in all tlie Indian bas&rs. 

9 




ISO 



INDIOENOCS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



The so-called fruit when ripe contains GO to 70 per cent, 
of grape sugar. They are seldom employed medicinally 
but are demulcent, emollient, nutritive and laxative. The 
pulp is occasionally used in the form of e poultice to 
promote suppuration. 

PIOtJB CUNIA. 

Vem. — Beng. — Dumur ; Bind. — Khurkur ; Burm. — Ye-kha-ong, 
Found in the Lower Himalaya extending to Bengal and 

Bui-ma. 
filedioinal uses.— The Fkuit is given in aphtha, and a 

bath prepared with the bark as a remedy iu leprosy. 



PIOUS BLASTICA. 

Tbe Assam Ruboeb Tree. 

Vem. — Beng. — Bor, Attah bar; Burnt. — Nyaung bawdi. 

This tree, which is one of the sources of the India-rub- 
ber of commerce, is indigenous in the moist evergreen 
forests of Assam, Burma and C'hittagong, where it is culti- 
vated along with several other members of the same genus. 
Natural order Vrticacem. India-rubber is the inspissated 
milky sap, which contains Caoutchouc. Although of solely 
economic interest it is noticed in this place because of its 
univei-sal application. In this connection may be noted 
the tree yielding 

Indian Gutta-peucha, 
Dickopsia elliptica, natural order Sapotacece, known as 
the Panclioti tree and common on the Malabar Coast and 
in the forests of Coorg, H'yndd and Travaucore. Tiie 
milky sap which exudes on incision yields a substance 
simUar to gutta-percha and known as Pala-gum. It has 



J 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



131 



wen used an adulterant of Singapore gutta. A careful 
Examination and report by Mr, David Hooper shows that 
its chief objection is its extremely brittle natiiie which, 
he suggests, might be ovei-come by removing tho crystal- 
line matters which cause the brittleneas and so obtain an 
■article similar to the Malayan article, 
Gutta-percha is used to some extent in pharmacy as a 
basis for medicinal plasters and the solution in chloroform 
{Liquor Otitta-percka, B. P.), and a similar solution known 
as Traumaticin as a protective application to bed-sores and 

I as a vehicle for the application of chryaarobin and other 
medicaments in psoriasis, 
fou 
at)( 



FICnSaLOHEBATA. 

The GtiLAK Fio. 

'em, — Beng. — Jajnaa dumur; Hind. — Gular ; Sant. — Udum- 
bara ; Tarn. — Atti ; Tel. — Moydi ; Bum. — Ye-tha-pan. 

A large tree, belonging to the natural order Urticacem, 
found in the Sub-Himalayan raoges extending to Bengal 
and the Central Provinces, plentiful also in Assam and 
BuiTaa. 

Medicinal uses. — The Bark, Leaves, and unripe Fruit 
are astringent, and used as such as an external application 
land internally in dysentery. The fruit is said to be effica- 
cious in diabetes. 



FICnS HISPIDA. 

hTern. — Beng. — Dumftr; Hind. — Kagahu,; Sana. — Kakftdumbur; 
Tarn. — Ye^tiaa; Ttl, — Bamari; Burnt. — Kadut; Ptrs. — Anjfr- 
k.dashte. 

^ A small tree extending from the Himfilaya southward 
a Central India, Burma, and the Andaman. Islands. 




1S2 



NDIGENOUS DHtfGS OF I 



Hedlolnal asea- — Emetic properties h&ve been attributed 
to the FRt'iT. Seeds of the ripe fmit, and the Babk of this 
tree. The powdered bark was reconamended in tbe Phar- 
macopceia of Tvdia as an antiperiodic and tonic. One 
drachm of the powdered seeds is sufficient for an emetic, 
the bark being given in dosea of 30 or 40 grains, the action 
of the latter, however, being attended with purging. 



FIOUS BBLIQIOSA. 

The Peepcl Tree. 
"Vbtu. — Seng. — Ashathwa; Hind. — Flpal; Sani. — ABwaththsinu ; 
Horn. — Jari, pimpal ; Burm. — Nyaung bandi. 
The Hacred peepul is a large tree found wild and culti- 
vated in Bengal, Centi-al India, and the Lower Himalaya. 

Hedldnal naes. — The lipe Frcit is edible and laxative. 
Tbe Bark ist astringent, 

PfflNICULXTM VT7LGARB. 

Syn. — F. DCLcK. 

Indian Sweet FEinrEL. 

Vera. — Beng. — Mauri, Paa-mauri ; Hind. — Saunf, Bari-Haunf ; 

,S'an(t.— Madlmrika; Tam. — SoHkire ; Tet— Peddft-jila-kumi ; 

JJoni.— Hari-Hhdphft. 

Found wild in some parts uf India and largely cultivated 
for culinary purposes nearly all over the Peninsula. It is 
a perennial jilant belonging to the UmbellifercB. The Fruit 
yieldson distillation a pale yellow essential oil, to the extent 
of about three per cent., having the same chemical eoinposi- 
tion as oil of ani.wed. It consists of crystallizable anethol or 
anise cami^or. the remaining Said portion being isomeric 



INDIQBN0U3 DRUGS OF INDIA. 



13S 



with turpentine. The fruits are smaller and straighter 
than those of the F. ca'pUlaoevLm, the fennel of Southern 
Europe. 

Medicinal usee. — The Fruits and essential OiLaie stimu- 
lant, aromatic and carminative, used largely as a flavouring 
agent or adjunct to other medicines. Fennel water, which 
is knotvn in India as Myjiori-ka-arak or Ai-alchidian, is 
given to children in colic and flatulence. The LEAVES ate 
also aromatic, and the Root is purgative. 



FBAXINUS EXCELSIOR, 

The Commojj Ash, 
and P. FLORIBUNDA 

Manna Ash. 

fVera.— (Manna); H.nrf.—Shir-khiat; Tarn, and TW,— M^ni; 
Malay. — Manna ; Arab. — Sbir-khist ; Pers. — Shir-khist. 

These ash trees, natural order Oieacete, grow to a large 
I «ize on the temperate Western Himilaya. Like the manna 
[ Ash ( F. ornus) of Southern Europe they exude on incision of 
[ the stem a concrete saccharine "manna" which hardens 
[ into flat, whitish or pale yellowiah flakes or tears. It has 
I a pleasant honey-like taste, being composed for the most 
I pai't of a sugar known as mannite which diflers from cane 
I hnd grape sugai's in not being readily fermentable. 

The mannas found in the bozfira of Northern India are ; — 
I Shir<khist, from Cotoneaster numviularia {Roaacece). 
y Q&zangabfn, from Tamarisk galUca { Tamariscinece), 
[ Taranjabiu from Alhagi maurorum ^Leguminoau:). Be- 
I Aides these, saccharine exudations are occasionally found 
Ion the willow, oak, plantain, and pine of the Himalayas, 

1 the cultivated eucalyptus trees of the Nilgirls. 



134 INDIGENOUS DUUG3 OF INDIA. 

Medicinal oaeB.— The indigenous ManNA is not UM 
any extent in India, altliough the better qualities do not 
differ materially from the European article. It is a valu- 
able mild laxative specially useful for children. The Babk 
is regarded as bitter and astringent. The Leaves are 
purgative. 



FUUABIA OFFICINALIS. 

The Fumitory. 

Vera. — Beng. — Ban-^tulpha ; Hind. — Pit-pSpari ; Tam.—Jm&; 

Td/.— Cliata-rashi; Pers. — Shfihtara. 

This is a native of Persia, Another species, F. •parviflora, 
is generally met with in the plains of India, often in rice- 
fields. They belong to the natural order Fumariacece. 

medicinal uses-^Although not now employed in Euro- 
pean practice, fumitory is atill used to some extent in India. 
The Leaves and Stems are regarded as laxative, diuretic, 
alterative and tonic. The herbs have been recommended 
in scrofulous skiu affectionB. 



aABCINIA INDIOA. 

KoKUM BuTTKn L Mangobtekn Oil. 
Jerti. — Hinrl. — Kolcmn, KokuiD-ko-tel ; J'am. — Mdrgul mam; 
Bom. — Kok um-chat«! . 
This trae grows plentifully in the Konkan and KauaitL 
districts of Western India. It belongs to the natural order 
QuttifercB. It yields abundantly a spherical fruit, about 
Be size of a small apple, containing a purple pulp and 
ids yielding about 30 per cent, of oil. This oil or 
"butter," consisting chiefly of Ti-i-stearin, is extracted by 



INDIGENOUS DKUGS OF INDIA. 135 

one of severa] methods — boiling, cold extiactioD of the 
powdered sueds by water — which gives the best [iroducti 
or simple expression. When solid it is made into egg- 
shaped lumps of about four ounces in weight and of a dirty 
white or yellowish colour and solid consistency, in which 
form it is usually found in the bazars of Western India. 

Medicinal uboh. — The acidulous Fruit has long been 
esteemed by the people of India as a semi-medicinal 
article of food, and in some parts in the preparation of 
acidulous drinks, being mildly astringent and cooling. 
The concrete Oil is nutritive, demulcent and emollient. 
It has been recommended as a substitute for cod-liver oil. 
It was included in the Pharmacopceia of India with the 
view to its adoption in the preparation of ointments, sup- 
positories and the like. It has not, however, been used to 
any extent for this purpose. 



GARCZNIA MANOOSTANA. 

The Mangostees. 

, *Vei7l- — Ben^. (uid Hind. — Maiigustin ; Bom, — Mangostln, 
Mengut; itfa/.— Mangguata ; Burm. — Mengkop. 

The mangosteen Fbuits are largely imported into India 
rom the Straits and Singapore, the native habitat of the 
, which belongs to the natural order Outtiferce. It 
I also extensively cultivated in Biitish Burma and the 
Malayan Peninsula, while it has been introduced with 
some success into the Madras Presidency and is grown in 
South Tenasserira. The experimental cultivation of the 
mangosteen in Bengal has completely failed. The palatable 

fruit, of the size and shape of a small apple, with thick 

^Btooody, astringent rind, is much esteemed in India, the 



186 INDIGENOUS DBUGS OF INDIA. 

succulent sub-acid internal |Jortion being eaten as a table 
fruit. The rind has long been regarded an a valuable 
astringent of wonderful efficacy in diaiThcea and djaentery. 
It contains tannin, resin, end a principle which has been 
named Mangostin forming bright yellow laminar, odour- 
leas and tasteless crystals, and to which is probably due in 
some degree the special efficacy which the drug seems to 
possess in the conditions iudicated. Tlie Eabk of the tree 
and young Leaves are also very astringent. 

Medicinal uaes— The Rind or entire dried Fruit are 
emjtioyed as remedies in chronic diarrhcea aud dysentery, 
usually in the form of a syrup, the drug being boiled in 
water, and sugar added to the strained decoction, previously 
evaporated to a suitable volume. It may also be employed 
in powder given in port wine or made into a paste with 
a little sugar, and in either form may be improved by the 
addition of aromatics. 



GARCINIA MORELLA. 

TiiR (■AMBOGE Tree. 

Vem. (The Tree)— Beiiff. and Hind.—Tanm] ; 7'aw.— Makki- 

maram; Tel, — Tanial. 

(The Dnig)—£ens.— Tanial ; //I'nrf.— Ghota-ganba, Tniualj 

Tarn. — Makki ; Tel, — Re\ alchiui-pfil ; Pert. — Rubbi-revind, 

The true gamboge tree, natural order Guttifera;, grows 
plentiFuIly in the forests of Eastern Bengal, and in Western 
India in the Malabar and Kanara districts. It is abundant 
also in Singapore and Ceylon, It yields a Gum-Resw 
which is identical with that exported from Siam, and 
which might be put on the European markets if sufficient 
care were taken in it^ collection and preparation. At the 



^^V INDIGENOUS DKUGB OK INDIA. 137 

present time Indian gamboge is found in t«ars or ag- 
glutinated masses and ia very impure. In the baz&is 
imported gamboge is usually sold in the familiar sticks 
formed by being run into pieces of hollow bamboo on its 
exuding from inciaions in tbe tree. Several other species 
ot Gamma yield gamboge. It is used as a yellow dye 
and as a pigment, and by several classes of Hindlis for 

I their sectarial markings on the forehead. 
Medicinal uaea.— The Gdm-ResiN is a valuable hydra- 
gogue cathartic and anthelmintic, usually in combination 
vitb other medicines. 



GABDBNIA OTJMMIFKBA and Q. LUCIDA 

DiKAHALI OR CaUBI RebIN. 

Tern. — (The Gmn-Resin)^5enj. and Hinil. — Dikama.li ; Tajii. — 
Kuiubai ; Tel. — Tella-tnanga ; Bom, — Dikaniali ; Arab. — 
Eunkham. 

Both these trees, natural order Rubiaceie, are common 
in many parts of India, particularly in the Central and 
Southern Provinces. They yield a Gum-Resis which 
occurs in tlie form of irregular earthy-looking masses of 
a dull olive-green colour, consisting of tho resin more or 
lens mixed with portions of bark, sticks and other im- 
purities. The odour is peculiar and offensive, like that of 
cat's ui'ine. As it exudes from the trees it forms trans- 
parent tears at the tips of the young shoots and buds 
which are broken off with the adhering gum-resin and 
collected for sale. In this state it is transparent and of 
a bright yellow colour. 

Uedlolnal uses.— The Gum-Resin is antispasmodic and 
carminative. In dyspepsia attended with flatulence it baa 
been frequently used with advantage. 



138 ISDIGKNOUS DRUGa OF INDIA. 

OABTJGA PINNATA 

Vem.— Sent/— Jinn; Hind. — GhoRar; Tani. — Karvambii : 
B'm. — Kakfid, Riiritk ; i(urni.— Chinyok. 

This tree, natural older BuraeracetB, gi'owing in the Sub- 
Himiilayan range and found also in Burma, yields a green- 
ish-yellow, translucent GuM-RsstH. It is not put to any 
ecotioraic or medicinal use of any importance. 



QAULTHBBIA FBAQBANTISSIMA. 

Indian Winterobeen. 

Tills plant, a member of the Ericaae(x, covers the hill 
tops for many miles in the Nilgiris. It is also found in 
Burma and Ceylon, and several species are common ia 
Java and known as Oandapuro. The leaves yield a 
fragrant volatile Oil which is practically identical with 
that of the true wintergreen (Qaultheria procumbenB), 
and which is at present not ultilized but might be exported 
with advantage, great quantities of the oil being used in 
France and in America. It consists almost entirely of 
Methyl Salieylate (which occurs frequently lu the vege- 
table kingdom) and is the source of natural salicylic 
acid, which it contains to the extent of about 80 to 90 per 
cent, A small proportion of a colourless terpene which has 
been named Qaultherilene may also be present. A process 
was described in the Pharm. Jour, for October 1871, by 
Mr. Broughton, late Government Quinologist at Ootaca- 
tuund, for the preparation of pure carbolic acid from the oil. 

Medicinal uses.— The oil is aromatic, stimulant and 
carminative. It has been given with success in acute 
iheumatism and sciatica, its properties corresponding to 
those of the salicylates, in doses of 10 minima giadually 
increased, preferablj' in capsules. The oil is also applied 



INDIGENOUS DRDRS OF INDIA. 



139 



^H|xtei-naUy in liDiments oi- in the form of a suitable oint- 
^^^Bfiiit. It has powerful antiseptic properties, and may be 
"^ used in small quantity for preserving vegetable prepara- 
tions. It is also used as a pleasant flavouring agent, 
especially for dentifrices, 

SnbBtltutes- — In commerce the oil is being replaced by 
synthetical oil of wintergreen and by oil of biich, a diatil- 
^^ late from the wood of Betula lenta. 

^M QBLIDroM 00BNBT7M. 

^H AoAtt-AoAR : Japanese Isinqlasb. 

^P Vem.— Chinia ghis. 

^^^ The above and other species of Algco or sea-weeds, 
collected on the sea-coast in Japan, are the source of the 
product known as Agar-agar also known as Thao and 
China Moss. It occurs in shrivelled, semi-transparent, 
membrane-like strips and consists of a substance which 
has been named G^lose. It has gieat gelatinizing power 
combining with 100 times its weight of water to form a 
jelly, having ten times the value in this reapect of isinglass. 
The jelly of Oelidium differs from that of isinglass in its 
requiring a much greater degree of heat for its liquefaction. 
It is used to some extent in the preparation of jellies for 
invalids, as a dressing for giving a lustre to ailk and other 
fabrics, and is now largely employed in bacteriology as a 
suitable nidua for germ culture. It has been lately recom- 
mended an a basis for suppositories, but its high melting 
point is an objection to its use for thin purpose. Another 
product of a similar nature is the 

Ceylon Moss, 
Oracilaria lichenoides, also known as Agar-agar, and in 

Ez&ts under the same vernacular name, It is caat up 
coasts of Southern India and Ceylon. The gelatinizing 



uo 



INDIQENODS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



principle is believed to he the same as that contained 
in the so-called Japanese Isinglass. Ceylou Moss is much 
valued in India for the preparation of invalid delicacies 
and as an emollient and demulcent in pectoral afiections. 

Isinglass is prepared in India from certain fish and the 
fins of sharks. 

aENTIANA KUBBOO. 

Indian Gentian. 
Vem. — l}enff. and Hind. — Karu, Kutki ; Horn. — PhAshinveda. 

Several indigenous species of gentian, natural order 
OentianacecE, are common on the Himalaya, the Gentiana 
Kurroo being usually regarded as yielding the most useful 
Root, It abounds round Simla, extending to Kashmir, at 
altitudes of five to ten thousand feet. The Root has beea 
regarded as an efficient substitute for the imported gentian, 
the root of Qentlana lutea. It contains the same principles, 
gentian bitter.Gejtfiamciciiy, pectin and an uncryatallizable 
sugar, as the European root. 

Medicinal uses. — Indian gentian Root is a valuable 
bitter tonic, the tincture and infusion corresponding closely 
to that of the European gentian. It might be employed 
with advantage to a much larger extent than at present. 



QEBANIUM BOBERTIANUM. 



Hei 



I Koi 



Several of the wild Indian geraniums (Gmuniacew) are 
used medicinally for their astringent properties. They are 
to be found throughout the temperate Himalaya. Other ge- 
raniums wliioh are used to some extent by the people in the 
districts where they abound are: — G. nepalenae {bfiinda), 
G. oceUatwn [bliandu), 0. Wallichiunum (liljakH). 



INDIOENOUS Dlll'QS OF INDIA, 



141 



Mediolnal uses. — The ubovo Flints have the astringent 
And diuretic properties common to the genus. Tlie Herb 
Robert was formerly much employed in European medicine 
ill diarrhcea and hvemonhages, but it has fallen into disuse 
probably on account of its fcetid odouv. The other 
Indian species are free from this objection. The Roots 
have similar astringent properties. 

QLOBIOSA SUPBRBA. 
(viTsm. — Reng. — Biahalanguli ; Bind. — Karih&ri ; Sans. — I^nga- 
likA ; Tarn. — Kalftippaik-kishangu ; Tel. — Knlappa-gadda ; 
Som. — Karianng. 

An elegant climbing plant, belonging to the natural 
(arder lAtiacecE, Hovering at the end of the rains, com- 
mon in Bengal, and in low jungles throughout India. The 
(ot was formerly held in some esteem as a medicine and 
tensely poisonous properties resembling those of aconite 
rere ascribed to it. An investigation made by Warden 
Aowed the presence of two resins and a bitter principle 
which he named Superb Ine. 
Uedlolnal uses. —The tuberous Root may be I'egarded 
s tonic and stomachic in doses of 5 to. 10 grains. It has 
Hen employed as an anthelmintic for cattle. 



OLYGYRRHIZA QLABBA. 

LlliUOBICE. 

Vmv. — Bej^. — Yashti-madhu ; Mind. — Uuleathti ; Sans. — 
Tuhti-modhu j Tarn. — Anti'ma-durani ; Tel. — Yashti-madhu- 
ksm ; £am. — Jethimadh. 

The dried Root and subterranean stems of Otyoyrrhiza 
I, natural order Leguminoece, are quite common in 
} box&rs of India, being chiefly imported. lodi^j^noas 



142 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

liquorice fiods its way into the Bombay market front Kara- 
chi and from around Peshawar where it is cultivated to 
some extent. These roots resemble in internal structure 
and constitution the imported drug, the sweet taste being 
due to a compound, Qlycyrrhizate of AnimoniiLin, and con- 
taining Mugar and albuminous matter. Liquorice has been 
ill popular use in India medicinally for many centuries. 

Uedicinal uaea.— The Root is a pleasant demulcent for 
coughs and sore-throat, and is used in pharmaceutical 
preparations as an adjunct. The licjuid extract is specially 
useful in disguising the taste of nauseous medicines. 

CHUBLINA ABBOBEA. 

Vem. — Benj. — Gamari ; Hind. — Kumbh&r ; Sana. — Oambhar j 
2'oTjj. — Gumudu t^ku ; Tet. — Gikaar tek ; Bom. — Shewmi. 
A large tree, common on the Lower Himalaya and in 
Burma. Natural order Verb&naceee. 

Mediotnal usea. — The Root is an ingredient of the dasa- 
mula, a compound decoction of ten plants in great repute 
aniong Hind6 physicians. It is employed as a bitter tonic, 
stomachic and laxative. The young Leaviss are demulcent. 
The Hoot of (?. asiatica (Hind., Badhdra) is also used 
as a demulcent, chiefly in gonoiThcea and catarrh of the 
bladder. The Bare is us«d in the Madras Presidency to 
assist the feiTueutation of toddy. 

GOSSTPiniU HEBBACBUM. 

The Cotton Plant. 
Vem. — Beng. — Kapas, Tula; Hind. — Ruf, Kapis ; Sam. — 

Earpaa; G\it. — Bu; Bum. — Wah; Bom. — Rui, Kapifl, 

Various species of the cotton plants, natural order Mat- 

vaceoB, are extensively cultivated in India, several hybrids 



INDIOEMOtJS DHDGS OF INDIA. 14? 

of G. herbaceum being common in Sind and iii many places 
tliiougliout the Eastern and Western Peninsula. The 
hairs of the seed cleaned and purified constitute the cotton 
of commerce, Indian cotton being exported, chiefly from 
Bombay, to a very large extent and forming a considerable 
propoition of the world's supply. 

The On. (Cotton-seed Oil) expressed from the seed aftef 
removal of the "floss" or cotton, to the extent of 20 or 
25 per cent, is an important vegetable oil largely consumed 
in England and in America. The value of the seed as an 
article of export is at present almost entirely neglected by 
Indian cotton cultivators, although the trade has assumed 
immense proportions in America where the oil is used 
in a large variety of industrial applications. 

Ckitton-wool is composed of almost pure cellulose. It is 
used in the prepamtion of gun-cotton or pyroxylin which 
in turn is the source of collodion. 

Uedioinal 11868. — Cotton Seeds are laxative, demulcent, 
expectorant and aphrodisiac, they are employed to reduce 
the pain of the testes during ■ moon fever,' an affection 
peculiar to India. The herbaceous part of the plant is 
demulcent. The bark of the Root is also medicinal, and 
is used in the United States in place of ergot in dyamen- 
non-hceo. The Oil being partly o drying and partly a 
non-drying oil ia not suited for pharmaceutical purposes. 



aREWIA ASIATICA. 

— Beng. and //iW.— Phalsi; Sans. — ^Puruslia; Gni. — 
Phalaa ; r«/.— Putiki ; £om.— Phalasi. 

A moderat«-Hized tree belonging to the natural order 
^iiaoece, and found throughout India. The small acid 
ITruit is much enteemed by the people of India. A 



m INDIGENOUS DR003 OF INDIA. 

sherbet is made from it, and a spirit is also distilled after 
formeiitation. 

Hediciaol uses. — ^Tbe tree is cultivated for the Fkuit, 
which ia one of the pkala-traya or fiuit-triad of SaDskrit 
writers (see Punica Qranatam, the ponie^iaQate), and 
possesses astringent and cooling properties. The Bark 
contains a mucilaginous juice, and the infusion is uaed as a 
demulcent. 



O0IZOTIA ABYSSTNIOA. 

NidEB Sebo : KersanI Ssbd. 

Vem. — Benff. — Rim-til, Surguja; Hind. — Kala-t(1 ; Tel. — 
Valesulii ; Bom. — Kerani, Kersanl 

An annual herbaceous plant, a member of the Composito!, 
cultivated in many parts of India, chiefly in Bengal, 
Bombay and the Deccau. The seeds yield on expression a 
flxed sweet Oil, somewhat allied to the HI or sesame oil, 
and sometimes sold as a lower grade of that product. 

The Oil is employed in cooking and for anointing the 
body, and it may be used in place of sesame or olive oils. 
It is frequently employed in India as an adulterant of 
more valuable oils. 



aTMNBMA STLVBSTBH. 

Vem. — Beng. and Hind. — Mim^aingl ^ Sans. — Meshasringi; Turn. 
— Shiru-kurunja ; Tri.— Poda^patra; Bom. — Kavoli. 

A shrubby climbing plant, natural order Asclepiadeiv. 
common in Central and Southern India and on the Western 
aide, plentiful about Bombay. The Root has long been held 
in great repute by the Hindus as a remedy for snake-bite. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 145 

the powder being dusted upon tlio wound and a decoction 
given internally. The Leaves have the remarkable pro- 
perty when chewed of deadening the sense of taste to sweet 
and bitter substances, a property which it has been suggest- 
ed might be utilized in disguising the taste of nauseous 
and bitter medicines. 

A careful analysis of the leaves by Hooper has revealed 
the presence of a glucoside which he has named Gymnemic 
Acid. It forms more than six per cent, of the composition 
of the leaves in combination with a base which is inorganic. 
It is related in some particulars to glycyrrhizic acid, but 
having some distinctly peculiar reactions and having the 
anti-saccharine properly alluded to. Tartaric acid and a 
neutral principle were also found to be present. 

OYNANDROPSIS PBNTAPHYLLA. 

Caravella Seeds. 

Vem. — Beng. — Hurhuria, Sdda-hurhuria ; Hind, — Hurhur ; 
Sana. — Arkapushpika, Surjavarta ; Tarn, — Velai ; 2'eL — Vela- 
kura; MaL — Kara-v^la. 

A common annual on cultivated ground in the warmer 
parts of India. Natural order CappaHdeoe, The small 
kidney-shaped black seeds are frequently confused with 
those of Cleome viscosa which they resemble except that 
they are rougher externally. The whole plant has an odour 
somewhat resembling black currant leaf, and when crushed 
in the fresh state yields an acrid essential Oil resembling 
that of garlic or mustard. 

Medicinal uses. — The powdei*ed Seeds, in doses of about 
30 grains, are anthelmintic, and the juice of the Leaves is 
used occasionally for earache and otorrhcea, and other aiSec- 
iions of the ear. 

K, ID 10 



14fi INDIGENOUS DKUGS OF INDIA. 

GTNOCABDIA ODORATA. 

Cu\VLSSV(iR\. 

Vem. — Benff. — Chaulmiigra, Petarkura ; ffind. — Chalmiigra ; 
Lfpcha. — TiSk-kung ; ifom.— Chaulmugra ; 7'er«.— Birinj- 

in6gra. 

An evergreen tree belonging to tlie natural order 
Bixiiiea. It grows on the Lower Himalaya, abounding 
in Sikkim, and extends to Bangoon and Chittagang. The 
rongh-skinned hard, round seeds, about an inch or less in 
diameter, three or four of which are contained in each 
fruit growing on the stem and main branches, yield on 
cold expression about 30 to 35 per cent, of a fixed Oil, 
of a light brown colour when fresh and peculiar odour, 
with a specific gravity of -OS at 90° F., solid and unctuous 
under CCF. Cliaulmi'tgra oil, aa obtained in the hazAr in 
Calcutta, 13 of a more or less dark colour, thick, obtained 
by hot expression, usually adulterated, and containing a 
whitish granular deposit of its fatty constituents. The 
oil has long had a great reputation in India as a remedy 
for leprosy, and it lias been used with considerable success 
in European practice for cutaneous diseases, having been 
extensively tried in several of the London hospitals. The 
active constituent is Oynocardlo Acid, besides Palmitic, 
Sypoga'ic and Cocinic Acids, the acid, burning taste of 
the oil being due to the first-mentioned body. Mr, David 
Hooper has found the proportion of palmitic acid present 
in pure oil to be very large and stearic acid absent. 

Medicinal uses. — The Oil is a valuable external stimu- 
lating application in psoriai-is, acute and chronic eczema, 
syphilitic eruptions, leprosy, and the like, and in rheuma- 
tism and rheumatic gout, Its action is usually enhanced 
by its alterative action administered internally in doses of 



INDIOBNOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



147 



I 



6 or 6 minims in eoiulsioaor in milk or cod-liver oil, pre- 
ferably in capsules, gradually increased to 30 minims. It 
has been used successfully in plitliiaig, employed internBllyj 
and externally to the cliest. Gyuocardic acid may also 
be given internally in doses of J to J grain. Magnesium 
Gynocardate has lately been tried with some success in 
leprosy. Tlie magnesia salt is said to agree better than the 
oil and to be applicable with equal advantage. The best 
external jireparation is an ointment prepared with lanoline. 
From evidence recorded in connection with the Leprosy 
Commission in India (1890-91), it appears that the action 
of Chaulmfigra oil in leprosy, though at the best palliative, 
IB nevertheless more marked than that of Guijuu oil (.Dip- 
terocarpus, q, v.). It was considered probable that a pro- 
longed and regular use of the oil might in some cases arrest 
the progress of the disease, though for how long was still 
doubtful. 

Substitutes. — The seeds of the allied Hydnocarpua 
Wightiana yield an oil which is sometimes used in place 
of that of the Cbaulmilgrn. Lukrabo seeds, an article of 
commerce in China, also allied to Chaulmfigra, is regarded 
as a false variety of the drug. It is referred to Hydno- 
oarpus, and is known in Chiua as Ta fuiig-taze, where the 
oil has beeu used as au application in leprosy for cen- 
turies. 



HARDWICKIA PINNATA. 

Tern. — Tarn. — Sampii-aui ; Mai. — Slmrali ; 

Tiiinevell'/.—KolB.VTX. 

A large tree growing on the ghauts of Kanara, Travan- 
3 and the Kamatic. Natural order Leguminosce. An 
BO-Resih is obtained from the wood which closely 



148 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

resembles in its appearance and properties that obtained 
from diflferent species of Dipterocarpxis (q. v.), or gurjun 
ti'ees. 

Medicinal uses. — The OLEo-Rt:siN has properties resem- 
bling those of copaiba, for which it may be found to be 
a useful substitute. 



HEDYCHIUM SPICATUM. 

Vem. — Beng. and Hind, — Kapiir-kachri, Sit-ruti ; Sans'. — 
Kapurakachali ; Bom, — Kapdr-kachri. 

Natural order Scitctminefie, A tree common in the 
Punjab, Himalaya und Nepal. The aromatic root stocks 
are an article of some commercial importance in India, 
as an ingredient of the abir perfumed red powder largely 
used by the Hind6s in the holi religious festival. In the 
bazars Kapilr-kachri is found in round slices, usually 
^ inch or less in diameter, whitish and starchy, with an 
aromatic odour somewhat resembling orris and punorent 
bitter taste. 

Medicinal uses. — The Rqizomb has aromatic, stomachic, 
and stimulant properties. 



HBLIANTHUS ANNUUS. 

The Sunflower. 

Vem,— 'Beng. — Surjya-miikhi ; //inc/.— Surajradkhl ; Sans, — 

Suriya>mukhi ; Pers, — Guli-aftab. 

This annual plant, natural order CompoaitcB, with its 
large, coarse, yellow flowera is common in Indian gardens. 
The Seeds yield on expression an Oil which may be 
employed in culinary and industrial purposes. 



INDIGENOUS DnUGS OF INDIA. 149 

HBLIANTHUS TTTBBROSUS. 

The Jerusalem Artichoke. 

Vern. — Beng,—Bra.hm6ka ; Hind, — Hatticli6k. 

The tuberous Roots of this plant, natural order Com- 
positce, cultivated in gardens, are sometimes recommended 
as a nutritious article of diet to invalids in preference to. 
the potato tuber. The rapid growth of the plant has 
been taken advantage of to purify the air in malarious 
districts. 



HELICTERES ISOBA. 

The Ixdiax Screw Tree. 

Vera. — Beng, — Antmord ; Hind. — IVIorarphali ; Sa ns. — A warta- 
ni; Tarn. — Valumberi; TeL — Kavanchi ; Guz, — Mriga-shinga ; 
Pera. — Kisht-bar-kisht. 

A shrub, belonging to the natural order Sterculiacece, 
common in Central and Western India. The Fruits, con- 
sisting of spirally twisted carpels, are very common in the 
drug bazars, and have long been a popular medicine with 
the Natives. They have been employed chiefly in intestinal 
disturbances, colic and the like, the medicinal virtues 
ascribed being largely fallacious and probably traceable to 
the doctrine of signatures in allusion to the twisted shape 
of the intestines. 



HELIOTBOPIUM INDIGUM. 

Heliotrope. 

Vem. — Deng, — Hatisura ; Hind. — Hatta-jurf. 

A small fragrant plant, natural order Boraginece, com- 
mon in many parts of India. 



laO INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INBIA. 

Medicinal usea.— The juice of the Leaves is used as an 
applicatiuQ to boils and to tlie bites of scorpions and stings 
of insects. 

HEMIDESMUS mOICUS. 

Indian SAREAPARatA. 
Tern. — Beng. — Anantamul ; Hind, — Magrabu, Hindfsdlsd ; 

5ans.— Anmti, Sariva ; Tarn. — Nfwindri ; Tel. — Godisugandj ; 

Bom. — TJparsara; Pet-e. — Aushbahe-liindi. 

A climbing plant, of tlie natural order Asdepiadea, 
plentiful throughout Northern India, common in Bengal 
and extending to Travancore and Ceylon. It is also found 
in the Bombay Presidency. It is met with in commerce in 
small bundles consisting of the tortuous Roots and rootlets 
of one or more plants bound together with a wisp of the 
stem. The individual roots are several feet long; the 
vernacular name anantamul being derived from the Sans- 
krit "endless root," from J to J inch in diameter, with 
numerous transvei'se cracks when dry, with a sweetish taste 
and a faint odour when fresh or dry resembling that of 
Tonquin bean. 

Hemidesmus root and a .syrup prepared from it were 
made official in the British Pharmacopeia of 1864, and it 
was also included in the Phaiinacopo'.ia of India. It was 
believed to possess properties allied to those of sarsapanlla' 
This has not even yet been fully established, but it is 
perhaps at least equal in medicinul value to that drug' 
The chemical constitution of the root has not been fully 
determined, but its flavouring principle is a derivative of 
coumarin. 

Medicinal uses.— He mi J earn us, usually pi-escrihed in the 
form of syrup, is believed to have demulcent, mild altera- 
tive and diuretic properties. It ia not largely employed in 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OP INDIA. 



151 



HBBMODACTYLUS. 

See CoLCiiicuM. 



Europeaa practice, but is prescribed to a considerable exbeot 

I by Native physicians at least in Calcutta, usually aa a 
vehicle for the more active potassium iodide, for the same 
purposes as sarsapaiilla. 
la 



HBRPESTIS MONNIKBA. 

—Beng.—BrAhmi, Adlia-bimi ; //i>i(/.— Baranil>hi, Safed 



-Nii--l)riiriii ; 2V/.— Sambra 



Vom.- 

Sant.—Bi 

chettn ; Bom. — Eama. 

A small annual creeping plant, natural order Scropkii- 
ilarinecu, found in tlie tropical regions of bothiiemiaphereB, 

medicinal uasa, — The brahvii of ancient Sanskrit 
l^ateria Metlica was regarded as a remedy in insanity and 
epilepsy, the whole Plant, including the Root, being em- 
ployed. The virtues ascribed were probably fallacious, and 
it ia questionable whether the plant under notice yields the 
corresponding drug, lu Bombay the plant Hydrocolyle 
asiatica is known under the namo of buahmi. It is now 
ployed as a diuretic. 



HIBISCUS ABBBMOSOHUS. 

Syn. — AuELMosrntTR moscjiatus. 

The Mi'sK Mallow, 

ICyVwn. — Beng. and Hind. — Musi ik-d ana, Ka^turi-dtoj, lAti- 

knetun; 5a»w.— Latakasturika; 3aiH.— KnttukkastiSri ; 2'tt.— 

KasturibendHvittulu ; Bom. — Miskh-daua. 

A herbaceous annual, natural order Malvace<E, grown in 

bany parts of India for its libre, common in Bengal and 

Ebund in most tropiual regions. The brown, kidney -shaped 




162 INDIGESOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

Seeds, known as mushlc-dana, are reailily obtainable in 
tbe bazdre. They liave a faint oiioiir i-osembliiig inusk or 
musk and finibei-, benco tlie name. They nro used to some 
extent in perfuming medicinal oils. The seeds of this plant 
are known as grains d'avibretle (musk seeds.) They are 
little useJ, and are not now exported from India. 

Medicinal ueea. — Tlie Seeds are aromatic, tonic, and car- 
minative, used in nervoii.s disordur.s, debility and hysteria 
in place of mnsk, which is much prescribeil in India iu 
these ntlections. Tlie tincture is an eSicieut preparation. 



HIBISCUS ESOULBNT0S. 

Syn. — Abelmobchus esculextcs 

The EmDLE Hmtscia : Okro. 

Vera. — Ilenff. — Dhenras, Dh^rus ; ffind. — Ram-turai, Bhiudi; 

Sans. — Gaiidhamula; Tam. — Vendaikkay; Tel. — Vendakayaj 

Pen. — Bimiyah ; Bom. — Bhenda. 

A tall herbaceous annual, belonging to tbe Jilalvacece, 
naturalised in all tropical countiie.^. It is much esteemed 
in India for its Fruit, wliicli in the unripe state is edible 
and nutritious, abounding, as does the wliole plant, in insipid 
mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch, a com- 
mon feature uf many members of this order. The fruit 
is known as "ladies' fingers, " and is largely used both by 
Europeans and Natives. The fresli immature Pods or cap- 
sules and a decoction are oflicial in ibo Pharinacopceia 
of India. The mucilage contained in the fruits is believed 
to be identical with that of AWimi. 

Medicinal uses.— T!ie decoction administered internally 
is euuillient, demulcent and diuretic in catarrhal affections. 
Externally the Leaves form a useful eninllient potiltice. 



ice. J 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 158 

HIBISCUS BOSA-SINBNSIS. 

Vern. — Beng, — Jaba ; Hind. — Jasut ; Sans. — J aba ; 

Bom. — Jasavanda. 

Common in flower-gardens in India. The expressed juice 
of the dark red Petals of this Malvaceous species com- 
municates a bluish purple tint to paper which turns red 
with acid, forming a compound similar to that formed 
with litmus. The other parts of the plant are demulcent. 

HIBISCUS SUBDABIFFA. 

RozELLE OR Red Sorrel. 

Vern. — Beng.— MestA, Patwa; ffind, — Lal-ambaii ; Bom. — 

Lal-ambari. 

" Largely cultivated for its fibre in many parts of India. 
?rhis plant also possesses the emollient demulcent qualities 
common to the MalvacrcB, the seeds beirtg used medicinally. 
These properties are combined in this plant with a certain 
amount of acidity which has a tendency to prevent oppres- 
sion of the stomach daring the administration of the 
mucilaginous decoction. The FiiulT has valuable antiscor- 
butic properties. 

HIRUDO MEDICINALIS. 

The Leech. 

Vern, — Beng. — J6nk; Hind. — J6k, Jonk; Sans. — Jalaka; 
7\vn. — Attai; Tel. — Attalu; Bo7n. — Jala. 

Leeches have been employed by the Hindus from a very 
remote period. They belong to the natural order Hirucli- 
nece and family Gnathobdellideiv. Twelve species of Indian 
leeches, six of which arc said to be venomous and six use- 
ful, are described in Sanskrit writings. 



151 



ISDIOENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



They are found in abundance, during the wet season or 
monsoon, in marshes and around the edges of tanks in 
several places in Bengal, the Punjab and North-Weat Pro- 
vinces. They are collected at Baraset, Delhi, and in the 
neighbourhood of Patiala, usually by men who go into the 
water and allow the animals to attach themselves to their 
legs. 

ISedicinal usea. — Leeches are employed for local abstrac- 
tion of blood, in cases of conffestion and in cases of inter- 
nal inflammation. 

HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTBRIOA. 

Srn. — \\'llIGllTIA AS'TIDVSESTERICA. 

The Kurcui: C'onessi or Tellicuerrv Bark. 
Vem. — £eng. — Kurclii; //in^t — Karclii, Kurey^ Dudhi;5aM.— 

Kutaja, Kalinga ; 7'am. — Veppalei ; Honi. — Pandhra-kura J 

Pen. — Indar- ja vi-tal kli . 
(The Seeds)— ^fjiy, and flind, — Indrajab, Titi-indrajao; Sani. — 

Indrnyava ; 2'om. — Kulappalai-virai ; Bom. — Karva-indrajou. 

A small tree common in the forests of India, indigenoua 
to the tropical Himalaya. It belongs to the natural order 
Apocynacece. The BAltK of the stem and root, preferably 
of the young plants, and llie Seeds, which are known in 
the bazars by distinctive names, as above, have attained 
a well deserved reputation both in Indian and European 
medical practice as remedies in acute and chronic diarrhoea 
and dyaentery. The author has advocated the bark being 
made official in the Biitisk Fkarmacopceia. 

Tho bark contains an alkaloido! principle which has 
been named Coiieaaine and Kurchieiie, and which has been 
employed medicinally. 

Medicinal UBea. — Astritigent, antidysentenc, febrifuge, 
and anthehniiitic. The best prcpaiutions of Inivchi are 



s 
ri fcea 



INDIGENODS DRDGS OF INDIA. 153 

the soliJ and liquid extracts niid the decoction. Indrajao 
is used in the form of powder. Both drugs may be advan- 
tageously combined with other astringents. 

Subatltute.— Tlie bark of Wiigktia tmctoria has very 
frequently been confused with that of the true kurchi. 

tit is comparatively inert, and the fact of its having been 
nibstituted probably accounts for the drug under notice 

""liaving fallen to some extent into disrepute. The false 
bark may be easily distinguished by being reddish brown 
and smooth as compared with the genuine which ia thicker 
and of a dirty white and buff colour, the former being much 
less bitter to taste. The seeds of the two plants are 
similarly confused, those of Wrigktia are known as Tndra- 

IJao ahirin and those of H. uniidyeenterica as Indrajao 
\ 
eor 
be1< 
iXDei 
poi 
seoi 



HOLIQARNA LONGIPOLIA. 

The Black VAicNisii Tree. 
Tern, — Beng. — Barok; £om.— Bibii, H^U-geri, Kalu-geri ; 



Mai. — Charei, Kanin-chai-ei ; 5«fm.— ^h&Kjhe, 
A common tree in the Madras Presidency and Travan- 
[ core, found also in Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and Pegu. It 
f belongs to the AnacardiacecB, and in common with several 
Lmemhers of that order exudes a black, resinous, acrid and 
tpoisonous juice from the trunk and rind of the fruit This 
Beoration is of a powerfully caustic nature and blisters tlio 
skin when brought into contact with it. It is used by 
)ainters as a lacquer vnniish. 

The blistering principle as contained in the pericarp of 
3)6 fruit has recently been investigated by Hooper " and 
lOnd to be Anacardic Acid and an acrid oily substance 

Pharmaetutieal Jvumal, 20Lb June 18^5. 




156 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

identical with cardol, the constituents being practically 
the same as those of the seeds of two other trees of th6 
same natural order — Anacanlium oceidentale (the cashew- 
nut, q. V.) and Semecarpus Anacardium (the marking- 
nut, q. V.) 

The Holigarna varnish is not known to be employed 
misdicinally. 

HOPEA ODOBATA. 

Rock Dammar. 

Vem.-— jSwrm. — Th^ngan ; Andam. — Rimda. 

A large tree in Burma, and in the Andamans, growing 
abundantly, natural order Dipterocarpece, It yields a clear 
fragrant resin closely allied to dammar. It forms with 
turpentine or benzene a water-white durable varnish. 

HORDBUM VULQARE. 

Barley. 

Vem. — Beng, — »Tab ; Ilind. — Jav, jaoa ; Sans. — Yava, Situs- 
hiika; Tarn. — Barlhi arisi ; 7W. — Pachchayava; Pers, — Jao. 

This cereal, natural order Graminecv, is largely cul- 
tivated in several varieties in each of the Provinces of 
India. The dried Seed divested of its integuments is the 
Hordeum decorticatam of the Pharmacopoeias. Barley 
contains starch and nutritive constituents resembling those 
of wheat and in addition three per cent, of fixed oil. It 
contains alarae amount of nitrofjcnous matter which makes 
it specially suitable as an invalid's food in form of powder. 
The partially germinated and dried grain is the source of 
Malt extract which is prepared by aqueous extraction and 
evaporation in vacuo. It consists chiefly of dextrin and 
malt sugar (maltose) and contains the ferment, Diastase, 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 157 

which is developed during the malting process, and which 
possesses the power of converting starch into dextrin and 
sugar, thus assisting in the digestion of starchy or farina- 
ceous foods. 

Medicinal uses. — A decoction of barley forms a demul- 
cent nutrient drink (barley water) which may be given 
ad libitum. It may be improved by the addition of lemon 
flavouring and sugar. Malt extract has become extremely 
popular as a nutritive and demulcent, and a valuable 
vehicle for other medicines, especially cod-liver oil with 
which it forms a palatable combination. 

HYDRARGYRUM. 

Mercury. 
Vem. — Beng. and Hind, — Pdra ; Sans. — Rasa, Pdrada. 

Compounds of mercury have been used in Hindti medi- 
cine for many centuries chiefly for the same diseases as 
those for which they are employed in modern medicine. 
The methods of purification and preparation carried out 
by the hakims were peculiarly Indian, and need scarcely 
be recorded here since the mercurials may be easily obtain- 
ed in a pure and more efficient state. The preparations in 
use at the present time among Native practitioners, with 
their Bengali names, are: — The perchloride (i^asa-karpura), 
which is really a mixture of the perchloride and chloride 
(calomel), cinnabar (hingul, shingvaf), and the black sul- 
phide (kajjali). As found in the bazars these substances 
are impure, and it is not advisable to substitute them for 
the imported article. The medicinal uses of the mercurials 
are generally alterative. A combination of mercury and 
sulphur prepared by the kavirajs and carefully sublimed 
18 known as 'iHisa-sindiir, and is one of the chief remedies 



158 



IMDIQENOUS DBUG3 OF INDIA. 



in their hands as an alterative. Unlike other preparations 
of mercury it does not readily cause salivation. Another 
preparation, of mercury and gold, known aa the makaradh- 
ivaja, is considered highly beneficial for all kinds of consti- 
tutional diseases, and as a remedy for renovating the 
system when broken down by long ill-health. 

HTDBOCOTYLB ASIATICA. 

Indian Pennywort, 
Vem. — Benif. — Thol-kuri ; Hinil. — Khulakhudi, B fall mama n- 
duki; ^ojis. — Mandukaparni ; Tarn. — Vallirai; £om. — 
Karinga, 

A common Vmbell'feroua weed in Bengal and nearly ail 
over India, plentiful around Calcutta near tanks and other 
moist places. The fresh plant has a faint, aromatic odour 
when crushed, somewhat resembling ivy, which it loses on 
drying. The Leaves are reniform, J to 1 4 inch in diameter 
on thin short stalks. They were made official in the 
Pharmacopceia of India, but the whole plant may be used 
medicinally, the Root being believed to be the most active 
part. The constituents are oily and resinous, together 
with mncilagiuouH principles and tannin. They have been 
named collectively VeHaHii, derived from the Tamil name 
of the plant- 
Medicinal uses.— An alterative, tonic, and reliable local 
stimulant. Its efficacy as an internal and external remedy 
in ulcerations, eczema, leprosy, and other cutaneous affec- 
tions has been fully demonstrated. The fiuid extract of 
the fresh plant may be administered internally in dosea of 
1 to 5 minims. When this dose is largely exceeded it acts 
aa an irritant poison. Externally the official powder of the 
dried Leaves fur dusting on affacted surfaces or the poultice 



INUIOENOUS DEUGS OF INDIA. 159 

of the fresh leavo3 have marked stimulating and healin* 
action. A better external preparation is an ointment pre- 
pared with lanoline containing one diaclim of the liquid 
extract in each ounce. In elephantiasis, enlarged scrotum 
and atTections of the cellular tissues this ointment may be 
found efficacious, while the internal administration of the 
liquid extract will be found to check the periodic fever 
called in India ' raoon-fever' associated with these affections. 



HYOROPHILA SPINOSA. 

Syn. — ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA. 

Vent. — Binj. — Kulidkhdrd; Hind. — Talmakhana; Sam. — Ko- 
kilfUcsha, Ikiihaghandhii ; Tam. — Kirmulli ; £i>»). — Talim- 
khana. 

A common herb in India ajid Ceylon, Natural order 
Acanthaceai. A principle has been isolated from the Roots 
which has been found to be a Cholesterol, this fact havinc 

■ been fully confirmed by Drs. C, J. H. Warden and C. L, 
Bose. 
Uedloinal uses. — This Plant was recognised a.s cooling 
I and diuretic by Sanskrit writers. The Roots, Leaves and 

SeBds are still regarded as demulcent and diuretic and 
indicated in diseases of the geuito-urinary tract and in 

t dropsical afl'eetions. The seeds are chiefly employed and 
ftre easily obtainable iu most bazilrs. 
!' 
(tr 



HYMBNODIOTYON BXOB LSUM. 

[. Vern.— ffinJ-— Bhaiiliui, Dliau li, Bun.laru; 7V/.— Banddru 

Born. — Knlu-kurwnh, Rnla-kadu, 

A, large tree belonging to the natural order Rubiaceo! 

r(tribe CinciumetE) found on the Western Himalaya, in the 



IGO 



l.VDIGEKOUS DRUGS UP I.VDIA, 



Central Provinces and ihe Deceaii and at Cliittagong. Lifc( 
tliat of some cinclioiias the bark lias an Inner coat of 
a reiidisb colour containing a liitter astringent principle, 
Thi'H was investigated some years ago by Mr. W. A. H, 
Nnylor and found to consist of an crystal lizable alkaloid 
which lie named Hymeuodichjonmc, together with a bitteC' 
neutral priuci|)le, the former being somewhat analogous- 
in its clieniical propeiiiea to tliose of nicotine. 

Medicinal UBes.— Tiie Eaiik is inten.sely bitter, febrifuge, 
antiporiodic, and astringent. It has long been known in, 
Hiudfi Materia Medica, but it is little used at the present 



HYOSOYAMUS NIGER. 

Hen HAS- n. 

Vers. — {The Plant) — ife??^.— Kliorasani-ajowau ; Hind. 

Khui'A-adnl-ajwilu ; Sans. — PilrftMikayu; Bom. — Khorasaiu 
ujowa ; I'am. — Kurasftni-omam ; 7V/. — Kuraahani-viliiiaai 
Pere. — Bazrulbang. (The i6eeds)—Bciirj. and Jlind. — Baznil. 

Thia valuable niodicinal plant, natural order Solanacece, 
grows wild in great abundance tlironghout the Him^lavaa 
range at allitudea varying from 8,000 to 11,000 feet. It has 
also been cultivated suceessfiilly in India at the Botanical 
Gardens of Saharanpur, Poena and Calcutta, chiefly for the 
use of Ooveriimont Medical Stores, although the indigenous 
drug is not at present used at the latter centre. It is re- 
markable that, as in the case of helladonua, wliiie each of 
these drugs is plentiful and not inaccessible, practically the 
whole of the hysocyainus used in India should continue to 
be imported. The plant, as found in the temperate Him4> 
layan region, may be regarded as practically identical in 
its chemical constituents with that cultivated for the drug 



^L fnx 



INDIQBMUU3 DRUGS OF INDIA. 161 

markets of tlio worlJ, and the more geDeral standardization 
of pharmaceutical preparations would overcomo tbe varia- 
tions which must be inevitable in plants grown even 
under the same conditions in varying seasons. Even the 
seeds as sold in the bazars under the above name are im- 
jiorted from Persia and A fgbau istan, and are believed to be 
those of H. albv-s. Of cultivated henbanes the second 
yeai"'3 growth of the biennial plant has usually been pre- 
ferred, although it has been found that the first year's 
gi-owth may be equal in alkaloidal value. The active 
jiiinciple, which resides mainly in the Siceds and is 
aiso contained in the Leaves and green Flowering 
Tops, is /^josc^ftmine, one of the three mydriatic alkaloids 
(Atropine, Hyoscyamine or Daturine and Hyoseine). It 
is isomeric with atropine into which it can be converted. 
It may be split up into Hyoscine (said to be taomeric with 
caca'tnc) and Hyoscinic Acid. Hyo3cine is a volatile oily 
liquid about five times more powerful therapeutically than 
hyoscyamine. The seeds contain in addition about 25 per 
cent, of a thick yellow fixed Oil. The fresh Lewes and 
Flowers and Flowering Tops and the dried Leaves and 
FloweRiNO Tops are official in the British Pharmacopoeia. 
From the fresh jdant an extract and juice are prepared, and 
the tincture is made from the dried herb. 

Hetllolnal oses. — Sedative, anodyne, antispasmodic and 
stimulant, mydriatic (dilating the pupil of the eye). Its 
effects are milder than those of belladonna. Hyoscyamus 
is largely prescribed in mental excitement, insomnia, palpi- 
tation connected with debility and hysteria. It has a 
peculiarly sedative effect in affections of geni to-urinary 
organs, particularly cystitis, and is given with advantage 
iu this class of cases. The alkaloids and their salts are 
frequently administered hypodermically. 

t,iD II 



162 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OP INDIi. 

HYPECOUM PROOUMBENS. 

The Horsed Ccmmix. 

A low annual weed belonging to tlie Fumanace<B Soam 
in SiniJ, Afghanistan, and the Punj&b salt range. 

medicinal use. — Tlie plant lias been noticed on account 
of iis Juice, wliich is said to resemble opium in its pro- 
perties. 

HYSSOPUS OFFICINALIS. 

The Hyssop. 

Vern. — Hind., Arab, and Pers. — ZufoJi-i-Yitbis. 

The true byasop is to be found on the Hinidlaja : natural 

order Labiata. The herb ia occasionally met with in the 

Native diug shops, but it ia considered doubtful whether 

Zu/ah~i-Tdbi8 is the true hyssop. 

Uedlolnal ubsb. — Foimerly regarded as tonic, stimulant 
and deobstruent. It is only occasionally used by herbalists, 



lOHNOCARPUS FBUTESOENS. 

Vern. — £eng. — Syama latA ; Ehid. — Dudbi-lat^ Siama Util; 

Sans. — Siriva ; Burm. — TanaapaL 

A climbing plant of the Ajiocynace^e, widely distributed 
from the Western Him&laya to Bengal, Burma, the South- 
ern part of the Bombay Presidency, South India and 
Ceylon, 

Medioinal uses. — The RoOT is regarded as analogous in 
its properties to that of Hemideamus indicua, and is often 
used as country sarsaparilla in the treatment of akin 
eruptions. The Stalk and Leaves are in common use, in 
the form of decoction, in simple fever. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA, 163 

IMPATIENS SULCATA. 

A species ofBiilsaiii, natural orJer Gernniacew, often 15 

1 Iieight, ffcqiieiit ou the temperate Himalaya, Dr. 

iWatt records liftving fuun^t a den'se growth o£ tliia plant ia 

K-ulu which formed an almost impenetrable mass. On 

indeavouring to push his way through it the seeds shot oS 

1 every direction so that it woa ahnost impossible to open 

the eyes. He found that the Seeds were regularly eaten, 

and that an 0(L was extracted From tliem which is regard- 

(1 as of special merit, but the exact properties of which 
ive not yet been ascertaiued. 
An erect shrub of the Leguminofia, not usually more 
lan two or three feet high, found wild and cultivated ex- 
nsively in India for the valuable dye-stuff which it 
J. olds, chiefly in Bengal, in the delta of the Ganges, also in 
Madras, Sind and Bombay. Bengal indigo forma a most 
important article of Indian export, although the discovery 
of aniline dyes has somewhat affected it. The process 
of indigu manufacture as followed by planters in ludia con- 
Btats essentially of allowing the fresh green plant to fer- 
ment in large vats in the presence of water, the resulting 
yellow liquor being run off. and the Leucindigo orindigo- 
white, produced from the glucnside Indican (which is pre- 
Beat in the plant) being oudized by the iutroduction of air 



INDIGOPBRA TINCTORIA. 
The Trce Indigo. 



Tem.—JS«ng. and ffin<i. 


-Nil; 


^ajw.—Nila; 


Bom.— sum 


eui.—Qali; Sind.—Sa-, 


Tam. 


-Nilam; Tel. 


— Nili-mandu J 


i>w*.-Nilah, 









^_ irmtfl, pi 



1&4 



uiDioESotrs Dttvoa or ikdia. 



with wbidi it u Tigoroosly imxed. The oxidixed p 
chiefly Indigoiin or indigo-blae — settles to tfae bcrttom and 
U earefallj collected, washed, and pressed ioto cakes wfaidi 
are tliea cut into eabes of 3 or 3^ iocb«s sqaare and finally 
•Itied. Tbe yield of indigo is sometimes as much aa 50 
per ceut. ladigotin is insoluble in water, alcohol aad 
dilute acids; it is soluble in strong sulphuric acid fomiii); 
tbe compound " sulpbato of indigo " or "ezUact of iod^o " 
wliicli is employed aa a chemical test, the colour of iudigo 
being destroyed by free chlorine and hypoclilorates. Indi- 
gotiti has beeo prepared artificially, 

Kedicinat nBes.~~The Leaves and indigo hara been 
used ill hepatitis, epilepsy, and other nervous affections. 
The plant is popularly regarded in some parts as a preven- 
tive of hydrophobia, administered internally in infuaion, 
and the juice applied externally to the part bitten. 



lONIDIUM SUPPRUnCOSITM. 

Syn. — Viola suFFBCTicoaA. 

Vem- — Beng. — Nunbora ; Hind. — Batanpurs ; Sam. — Ohirati ; J 
Tam. — Orilai tdmarai; Td. — Suryak&ntL 

A small herbaceous plant, belonging to the natural order i 
ViolacecE, found in many parts of India from Agra to the | 
Southern Provincea. Among other constituents it yields J 
Quercitrin allied to Viola-quercitnn contained in some J 
species of the ViolacecB. See also Viola odorata. 

Uedloloal uaeB.— The Leaves and tender Stalks have 1 
been rtiRardod as demulcent, tonic and diuretic, administer- 
ed in decoction and confection and in powder in dosea of 20 J 
to 60 grains , 



INDIGENOUS DRUOS CF INDIA. 1C5 

IFOSLSA DIGITATA. 

Vem. — Ben'j. — Bhuin-kumri; Him^— Bilai-khand ; Sam. — 
VidAri; fiom.— Bbui kohala ; Te/.— Matta pal-tiga. 

A plant, with large tuberous roots, natural order Con- 
folvulacece, indigenous to the hotter parts of India and 
largely cultivated as an ornamental plant. 

Medlotnal uses. — The RooT is regarded as tonic, altera- 
Ltive, aphrodisiac and lactagogue. The roots of a smaller 
I variety are known in Bombay as asgand, and used for the 
e purposes as the above. 



IPOM.^A HEDEBACBA. 

Syn. — PnAELiTis nil. 

Tub Kala-Danas. 

I Vem. — Benff. and Hind. — Kald-ddna, Mirchai ; Bom. — EaU 
d&nah; Mad. — Kala-zirki ; Tarn. — Kodi-kakkatanvirai ; Tel, — 
KoUi-'v-ittulu ; ylcaS,— Hab-un-nll ; /"<)•».— Tukhm-i-nll. 

The Convolvtilaceoua plant yielding the feiM-rfiiia seeds 
■ Is found wild in some parts of India and cultivated in 
F several places. The Secds have long been known in India 
as an efficient cathartic closely allied to jalap, and an 
extract, tincture, compound powder and resin were made 
official in the Pharmacopoeia of India. The active princi- 
ple is a. pale yellowish resin, Pharbltiain, existing to the 
extent of about 8 per cent, somewhat resembling reain of 
■jahkp (Convolvulin) and corresponding to that body in its 
ihemical characters. 

Another drug of a similar nature met with in the bazSr 
itPotnaand surrounding districts and brought to Calcutta, 




16t> INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

is the Shapusaundo. formerly alao called lal-ddna on account ' 
of its brownish red colour which distingui-fhes it from the 
black or Icala-dd^ia. The aeeda, imlike tlioao of I. hederacea, 
are covered with minute soft hairs, so that although the 
author originally attributed them to an undetermined epe- 
cies oi Ipo7ii(xa, this is probably incorrect. 

Hediclnal uoe, — The Seeds are a reliable purgative 
reseiabiing in action that of jalap, and have been used 
as such to a cousiderable extent in several charitable 
dispensaries. The dried and powdered seeds may be ad- 
ministered in doses of half to one drachm either alone or 
in combination with creamof tartar and ginger. Theresin 
is given in doses of 2 to^S'graina, 



TP mvrgii A PUBOA. 

Jalap. 

The true jalap, natural order Convolvxdacecs, is success- 
fully cultivated on the North- West Himalayii, at MusBOOrie 
and on the Niigiria near Ootacamuad, where the greater 
pait of the supplies of the drug for the Medical Storea 
Department at Madras are grown. The dried roots or tubar- 
cules of well-matured plants give an equal yield of the I 
active resinous principles with the bestjalnp imported from 
Mexico and South America. JicBina JalapoE of the Phar* J 
macopceiaa is a pale brown powder. It contains two J 
glucosidal resins, which have been named Coiivolvulin and 1 
Jalapin. Jaiapin of pharmacy is the purified decolorized I 
resin of jalap, in whitish amorphous powder. 

Medicinal use. — Jalap is well-known as a hydragogual 
purgative. 



-INDIGENOUS DBUOS Or INDIA. 



167 



I 
I 



IPOM^ffilA TUBPBTHUM. 

TtRPETH Boot : Indian Jalap. 
'Yma.—Beng.—Teon, Dhud ; fltnd.— Pitohri, Nisoth, Tarbud; 

Sobs. — Trivrit ; Bom. — Niahotar, Phutfcari ; Tarn. — Sbivadai ; 

Tel.— Tigada, ; J rat.— Turbuad. 

A peretiiiial i>laiit growing wild nearly all over India. 
Tlie Root and Root-Bark of " white turpeth " aie obtain- 
able it) tbe bazdrs, and are in common use by Native piac- 
titionera as a catliartic, a darker variety known as "black 
turpetb " being avoided as too drastic in its properties. 
Tlie Root-Bark only is to bs relied upon aa medicinal, 
mncli disappointment having been caused by the employ- 
ment of the inert stem and root in European practice. 
It haft been suggested by Mr. T. N. Mukliarji that the 
substitution of the root of Ipamcea bona-nox, which is not 
readily distinguishable when dry from that of /. turpethum, 
may account for this to some extent. The root-bark 
eontftiua i per cent, of a brownish yellow glucoaidal resin 
8-5 por cent, of wliich is Turpethin. The root contains a 
volatile oil and yellow colouring matter. 

Uedlolnal uaea.— Catharticand laxative, resembling jalap 
in ita action. The dried and powdered Root-bark is best 
administered in doses of ^ to 1} drachm, in combination with 
ginger and cream of tartar as in compound jaUp powder. 



IBIS FLORENTINA. 

Orris Boot. 

Vem. — I!m</. — Irsa, Irisa; /'i;m.— Beg-i-ban(sa (violet root). 

This plant, natural order Iridaceie, is cultivated in 

I Kashmir and Kablil. Orris Root is to be found in the 

I bazars of Calcutta under the name of hetj-banfuha, with 

I bark aOUering, Uuch of this is probably the 



168 INDIOENOUS DRUGS OF IKDIA. 

I'liizome of /. gemianica. It has not Vieen ascerttuoeii 
whether it contains Iridin. Orris root contains an essen- 
tial Oil., Otto of Orris, highly valued in perfumery, 

Uedicinal uaea.— Orris root ia occasionally uaeil in native 
practice as deobstruent and diuretic. The powdered root 
enters largely as a fragrant ingredient into the composition 
of dentifrices. 



JASMINUM aRANDIPLORUM. 

The SPANiaii Jasmine. 

Vern. — Bmg. — Chameli, Jati ; Himf. — Jati ; Sans.^f &ti ; 
Bom. — Chambell. 

This plant, belonging to the natural order Oleacece, ia 
fouud oil the temperate Hiraiilaya. The Lbaves and 
fragrant Flowers have long been known in Hindii medi- 
cine. From the flowers a perfumed Oil or Otto is prepared 
which is greatly esteemed. Otto of jasmine is largely used 
in India bs a perfume, but it is for the most part imported, 
although tho extraction of the oil by crushed sesamum 
seeds is carried on to some extent, An alkaloid, called 
Jasminine, has been isolated from the leaves. 

Uedlolnal usob. — The Leavls are regarded as usefuh 
administered internally in skin diseases. They have been 
known to heal ulceration in the mouth by simply chewing. 



JASMDHTM SAMBAO. 

The j\jLAmAN Jasmine. 
Vera. — Beng. and Hxnd. — Bal-phul, Motiyo, Mogra; Sam. — 

Mallika ; 5o»i.— Mogrx ; r«m.— Mallipu ; Te}. — Boddu malle ; 

Pers. — Zambak. 

Another of the Jasmine species cultivated in India, 
Burma and Ceylon. The Sowers yield a fragrant essential 
Oil similar to that of J. gvandijlorum. 



INUIOBNULIS DRUGS CF INDIA, 



1G9 



Hedloioal use. — The Leaves are considered valuable in 
aome parts an a lactifuge, the bruised leaves being applied 
to the breasts. 

JATROFHA OUBCAS. 

Vem. — Sen;;. — Ban-bhertuitla, Gab bbemnda ; Hind. — Jnngli- 
arandi, Bag-berenda ; Sam. — Kanana-eranda ; Bom. — MogliU- 
erendi ; Tarn. — Kattdmanaku ; Pers. — Daadi-nahri. 
An evergreen plant, cultivated chiefly for hedges in the 
Southern parts of India. Like the allied Eiiphovhiac&ous 
pinnta, castor and croton, the Seeds and Oil which this plant 
yields have purgative properties. The Oil is of lower speci- 
fic gravity than that of castor oil, an d does not appear todiffer 
essentially in the nature of its constituents but in their 
relative proportion. The seeds are sometimes called "physic 
nuts." The action of both the seeds and oil is, however, very 
uncertain: they exhibit acrid and emetic properties, and 
have been known to be poisonous. The active principle of 
the oil has been named Jatrophic Acid. A recent research 
(A. Siegel, 1894) attributes the activity of the seeds to a 
poisonous toxalbumen analogous to ricin and named Curcin. 
Medicinal oaea. — In addition to the purgative properties 
mentioned above, which are only employed by the poorer 
classes of Natives in Southern India, the Oil is applied in 
itch, herpes and eczema. The milky JuiCK which exudes 
from the stem is applied to wounds as a hiemostatic and 
forms a protecting film in the same manner as collodion. 

JUaiiANS REaiA. 

The Walnut. 

Vem. — Beni/. and ffind. — Akhrflt ; Arab. — Jouz ; Pers. — 

Charm aghz. 

A valuable timber tree, natural order Juglandece, wild 

in the Himalaya and largely cultivated in Afghanistan, 



170 



INDiGENOns DBUOS OF INDIA. 



Kashmtr and Wostein Tliibet. Ths Kernels of the culti- 
vated varieties are edible and exported in considerable 
quiiiitities to the pltiins. Tliey cuntain about 50 per cent, 
of a clear fixed oil which is little used in India except by 
the liitl tribea, where the waluut grows, who employ it as 
an illumiiiant and lubricant. 

Medicinal uses. — The Bark of the tree is said to be 
usoi as ait astrijigent and anthelmintic. 

JUNIPBBUS COMMUNIS. 

The JunirxB, 
Vem. — Hind. — Aarar ; Bom. — Hab-ul-arar. 

The juiii|)er tree, natural order GoitifercB, is common on 
the North-West HimAUya. The wood is resinous and ia 
used as incense. The Fittjir, commonly known as "juniper 
berries," is aromatic and terebinthinate, and a volatile 
Oil is distilled from it — "juniper berry oil," — both of which 
are used in medicine. An oil is also distilled from the 
leaves and young twigs. Tlie fruits also contain glucose 
ami a bitter principle which has been named Juniperine. 
In Europe the berries ava used to impart the peculiar 
flavour to gin. 

MedlolDal uses. — Tiie FitulT and Oil aie carminative 
and diuretic, useful in dropsy and renal a£Eections. 



K.SIMPFBRIA. ROTUNDA. 

Vem. — Siinj.— BhuichtLmpa ; Iliiid. — Bhui-champa ; Sans.-~ 
Bh um it'll ampak a. 
A plant with round leaves and fragrant flowers, natural 
order iSci((imi7iccB, found ill Inilia and Burma, often cul- 
tivated in gardens. The almost glolnilar roota have 



INDIGENOUS DllUOS OF INDIA, 



171 



an aromatic, camplioraceoiia taste, somewhat reseiubUng 
zedoary, with wliioh tliey have been coiifuundeJ. 

Medicinal usee. — The fresh bruised Tubers are in popu- 
lar use in many parts of India aa an application to wounds 
and bruises to reduce BWe!Ui)ga. 



KALANOHOB LAOINIATA. 
Vern.~~Senij. aud Hind. — Hemsdgar ; Sums. — H^masdgara j 
iJoHi.— Zakhm hyat. 
A succulent plant o£ the CraasulacecB order, cultivated 
ill gardeus, wild on the hills of North-Weatern India. 

Uedloinal uses. — Similar properties have been attributed 
to the Leaves to those that will be found under Bryophyl- 
lum. callfcinum, the two plants having been confused in 
early works on Indian Materia Medica. 

The bruised leaves aud JuicB have some reputation as 
ail application to bruises and contusions to allay inflam- 
mation and prevent discolouration and as a styptic on 
fresh wounds. 



LAOTTJOA SOARIOLA. 



Vem.—Beng. and //inrf.— KAhii, 8dlid; £om.— KAhn; 

Arab. — Bazr-ui-khas ; Pert. — Tukini-kahu, 

This familiar herb, natural order Co/nposita, is wild on 

;tbe Western Himalaya. L. sativa, the cnnimon or garden 

variety, is cultivated in many parts of India as a culinary 

vegetable. 



172 IXDIGESOCS DBCGS OF INDIA. 

The iiispis,sate(l JuiCE of this plant, Laetuearium, 
called Tlirid&ce or lettuce opium, waa fonnerly beM in 
great repute as a sedatit^e, anodyne and antlspaamodic. 
A cotreaponding preparation, Extradum Lactuca, is still 
official in the Britiak Pharmacopteia, and directed to be 
mitde from the closely allied plant L. tnTOsa, but it has 
practically fallen into disuse, although the drug U still em> 
ployed in France and GeiinaDy. Lactuoarium contains 
a crystalline principle, Lactucerin, besides Lactticin and 
Lactu€ie Acid. 

The wild variety la belieTcd to possess the sedative pro 
perty in greater degree than the cultivated. Byoseyamine 
is said to be found both in L. saliva aud L. viroaa. 

The Seeds are obtainable in the Indian bazars; they 
contain a fixed oil. 



LAOENARIA VULGARIS. 

The Bottle Godrd. 
Vem, — Beng. — Lau, Kodd ; Hind, — Lau, Lauki, Tumri ; Sam. 
_(Wild) — Katutumbi; (Cultivated)— Alabu ; Bom.—Karwar 
bopla; Tarn. — Soriai-kai ; T"*/.— Sora-kdya ; Per*.— Kaddu. 
A climbing CucurhUaceoiie plant found wild and culti- 
vated nearly all over India. The fruit and leaves are edible. 
The Fbuit contains a thick white pulp which in the culti- 
vated variety {hod&) is sweet and edible, while in the 
Bmaller wild variety (iuniW)it Is bitter and drastic purgative, 
resembling that of coloeynth. The fruit or gourd grows 
to a large size, and the outer ligneous rind dries quite hard, 
the bottle -shaped varieties being made into musical instru- 
ments or used as water-bottles. In some parts of the 
Beccan where the fruits grow to 5 or G feet in length they 
are used as tloats or rafts for crossing rivers. 



I 



INDIOENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 173 

Medicinal OBe- — The seeds yield an Oil, which has been 
used aa au application to relieve headache. 



LAIiLKMANTIA ROTLEANA. 

Vem.— Jenj. and Hind. — Tokmalanga, KaehmiliS, Gharei j 
Pera. — Tukhmi-balangA. 
This plant, natural order Labiatce, is cultivated to a con- 
siderable extent in the Piinjdb and other parts for its muci- 
Ic^inous Sekds which are used in decoction as cooling and 
sedative. A poultice of the seeds is found useful in abscesses 
and inflammations. 

LATHTRUS SATIVUS. 

Vem. — Seng, — KheaArf, Teora; Hmd. — Khesarl; Saiu. — 
Triputi; Fers. — Masang. 

Natural order LegaminoscB. Largely cultivated as a 
pulse crop, chiefly on alluvial soils, in the North-West and 
Central Provinces. Tho Sued ia a nutritious food, but 
its continued use has the remarkable property of inducing 
paralysis, termed lathyriaraus, in the lower limbs in men nnd 
animals, This toxic property has been traced to a volatile 
alkaloid which, it is found, ia readily dissipated by heat and 
if the pulse is properly cooked. Dr. George Watt, c.l,K., has 
recently shown (Indian Medical Congress, December 18911 
that a smaller seeded variety known as lakkori, believed to 
be devoid of the poisonous property referred to, ia cultivated 
extensively in the Nai^pur and Bhandara districts of the 
Central Provinces. Ha can distinguish no botanical diSer- 
ence other than the size of the seed, and is at a loss to 
explain the apparent diversity in the chemical constitution 
of the two pulses. 



^^_ expld 
^B ofth 



IH 



tSDlO%SOUS DBCGS OP X!tDU. 



I^WSONIA AT.BA. 

HKmAi CutPHiKE: Samphibe. 

VMn.— ^«?.— MAMi, Shodi ; flwd.— Mendil, H^n» ; Smu. — 

Mendbi ; S<mi. — Udmdi ; Tarn. — Muvtut^ori ; Jrah. — Hina. 

A small fragrant shnib, belotigiog to the oatui-a) order 
LythracecB, common nearly all over India and cultivated 
chiefly as a hedge plant. The leaves jield a dye which ia 
uaed for staining the handa and finger naila a dull orange 
colour : in conjunction with catechu and indigo they are also 
used aa a hair-dye. The flow-era yield a fragrant Otto or On. 
which is much esteemed aa a perfume. The seeds contain an 
oil. The colouring principle of the leaves is believed to be a 
peculiar tannic aci<l to which is attributed also their astrin- 
gent medicinal property. Henna has been known in the 
Bast from the moat ancient times ; it was the " Cypreas of 
I^pt" and 13 regarded Ly the best authorities aa re- 
ferred to in the parage in Solomon's Song (I, 14). — "My 
beloved is to me aa a cluster of Camphire in the vineyards 
of En-gedi." 

Medicinal use. — The Leaves of henna are aatringflot, 
and they are occaaionally oaed aa such in infusion for 
external application. 



LENS BSCTJLENTA. 

Syn. — Ekvum Lens. 

Thk Lentil. 

Vem. — Beng. — Musilri; i/iW. — Maatir; Sam. — Moaura; Tarn. 

— Miaur-purpur ; Tel. — Misur-pappu ; Arab. — Adas. 

The lentil, natural order Leguviinosce, is grown as a food 

pulse in various parts of India chiefly in Behar, the Central 

Provinces and Madras. It hoa been known in the East 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OP INDIA, 



175 



from the remotest times. Tha flour forms the basis of tlie 
Ervaleiita (or Rovalenta) invalid foods of commerce. 
• Hediolnal use. — &.a a dietetic agent in the prevention of 
I constipation. 



LBPIDIUM SATIVUM. 

TuE CosiMos Cress. 
I'Vem. — Mind. — Hdlim, Chanaar, Hurf; Sam. — Chandra-sura; 
Bom.— Aailiya ; Tom.— Ali-virai ; Te/.— Adityalu. 
This fanailiar herb of the (h-uclferce is cultivated as a 
I culinary vegetable all over Asia. The Skeds are available 
I the bazdra of Western India, and are used to some extent 
[ in Native medicine. The Hgkb and Siceds contain a vola- 
tile ari.iraatic OiL. The seeda contain also a fatty oil. 

Medicinal use. — A decoction uf the Seeds (I in 20) 
has been found useful in cases of diarrhcea, the chief virtue 
being in its mucilaginous property. 



LIGUSTICUM (sp.) 

Math OBAN. 
The roots of an undetermined UmbelliferouB plant, sold 
all over Kangra and Kulu. Dr. George Watt, ci.E., has 
recently stated (Indian Medical Congress, December 1804), 
that the mathosan roots are made in the districts indicated 
into cakes with barley and sold as dhell, probably identica 
with the papa of the Thibetans. These cakes are used for 
the purpose of causing the fermentation of sur or beer. 
Dr. Watt regarded these cakes as of considerable service 
in bread-making and of pussiblo value in the bremug 
ioduBtry. 




17() INDIGENOUS DRUGS OP INDIA. ^ 

LINUM USITATISSIMUM. 

CoMMos Flax ; LisaEED. 
Vern. — Seng.—Tiai, Myami ; Hml. — AlsJ, Tisl; .Sam. — AtJid,- 

£oni.— Alasi ; rtim.— Alashi-^-irai; Tel.— Aia»i; Pert. — 

Zaghii. 

Tlie flax plant, uatuial order Linece, is extensively culti- 
vated, chiefly in Beliar, Bengal, and the North-West Provin- 
ces, for its SiiiED — linseed — which forms a most important 
article of export from Calcutta and Bonihay. Three varie- 
ties are known in Iiidin, distinguished by their colour — 
brown, white and red. By expression the linseed yields 
25 to 30 per cent, of a fixed Oil, linseed oil, which ia 
clear and almost colourless when fresh and {uepared with* 
out heat, but which is fuuiid in commerce of a dark yellow- 
ish-biown colour, due to the presence of other seed oils, 
chiefly those of plants of the natural order Cruciferce, which 
are usually associated with the flax plant in cultivation. 
When oxidised by exposure to the air, or in large quantities 
by boiling with oxide of lead, when the oil assumes the form 
of " boiled linseed oil," it dries rapidly as a thin trans- 
parent varnish consisting of Linoxyn. The seeds also con- 
tain a considerable quantity of mucilaginous matter which 
ia extracted by cold water as a viscid jelly-like mass. This 
mucilage is now believed to be produced by the transforma- 
tion of starch, since unripe linseed contains starch and 
the ripe seed contains none. The crushed seed or the 
powdered seed cake after expression of the oil, constitute 
the various grades of " linseed meal." 

A new glucoside Linamarin has been isolated from the 
germs of linseed. 

The bast fibres of the stem, prepared and bleached, are 
manufactured into linen cloth. The best qualities of lint 
are still made from the retted and finely carded fibre. The 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



177 



production of the fil»re is neglected in India, although it ia 
naturally availahle in great abundance. The stems ave 
burned as fuel. 

Medicinal uses. — The infusion of the SEEDS, "linseed tea," 
i« given internally as a demulcent drink in coughs and in 
diseases of the urinary organs. The poultice made from lin- 
seed meal is a valuable application to inflamed surfaces. A 
popular remedy to alleviate the pain of burns is "carronoil," 
a mixture of er^ual parts of raw linseed oil and lime water. 

LIQUIDAMBAB OBIBNTALIS. 

Liquid Stohax : Hose Malloe.s. 
Vera. — Ben^., Hind., Bom., i'C. — ^SilAras ; Sant. — Silliakii - 
Tarn. — Neri-ariahippdl ; Ttl. — Shilo-i-asamj Mai — Rasamiilln ; 
Pen. — Meih -sila . 
I The forest tree, natural order Hamamelideie, yielding 
I liquid storax, is a native of the South-W estern districts of 
F Asia Minor. Tire drug is well known in the bazars of 
Calcutta and Bombay under the above names, and forms 
an luticle of import and export of some importance at 
the latter city. It is an aromatic, semi-fluid, opacjue, grey 
V Bai^&m, obtained by boiling the inner bark in water. It 
8 used by the Hindus for perfuming medicinal oils. 
Medicinal uses.— Stimulant expectorant. It is seldom 
I used in medicine except as an ingredient of the compound 
■ iincture of benzoin. 



LITS.S!A SBBIFBBA. 

Syn- — Tepkantukha Ro-\iHJRi;uii : T. laurifolia. 
[ Vorn. — fientf.— Kiikiii-clihU ; //ini/.— Oarbijaur ; Boai.— 
Maida-lakri (Uie bark) ; Ttxvi. — Maida-Iivlki (the bark.) 
The Bask of this tree, natural order Laurinece, ia a popu- 
lar Native medicine well-knowa in the bazirs of Beu^t as 
K, ID 12 



1/8 INDIOKNOUS DIIUGS OF INDIA. 

maida-lukri. It i» feelily balsamic, mucilaginous, ant 
esteemed aa a demulceut In ilian-hisa : externally as ai 
emollient application to brui»es. Hooper found the bark 
to yield un analysis distinct reactions for an alkaloid having 
the characters of Laurotetanine, a poisonous base pecuHar 
to several Javanese lnuraceoiis plants. 

LODOICBA SECHELLABUM 

The Sea Cocoanut. 
Vem. — Hind. — I>inya-ka-oiiiya! ; Bom. — Jahari-narol ; Tarn. — 
Kadat-rengdy. 
A palm growing in the Seychelles and noticed in this 
place because the Fruit is obtainable on the Bombay side 
The fruit or nuts attain to a great size, and frequently 40 
to 50lb9, ill weight, taking, it is said, four years to forn* 
and at least ten years to ripen. They were formerly cast 
ashore in India from the Indian Ocean, and much esteemed 
in Native medicine. They are now imported and used to 
some extent by the Natives of North-Western India aa 
food and medicine, being regarded as preservative and 
alexipharmic. 

LUFPA AOUTANaxn^A. 

VaR— AMARA. 

Vera. — Beng. — Ghosha-latd; Hind. — Karvi-taru, Turai; Sant,—' 

KoshAtaki ; j5oni. — Kadd-sirolft, Ban-turai ; Tarn.— PtS-pii^ 

khain ; TW.— Verri-bira. 

A Cucurbitaceoua plant cultivated in India, chiefly oi> 
Ihe Western side. Dr. Warden has found, in the fruit, a 
principle soluble in alcohol, having very marked gelati- 
nizing properties. It is named Lvffein. 

Medicinal uses. — The ripe Siceds of this gourd have been 
found to possess emetic properties which are believed io 



IHDIGKNOOa DBFG9 OF INDIA. 



179 



[resile in the kernel, twenty ot thirty gmina of the dried 
I kevDQl being administered. The fruit of Luffa ecfunata 
I (Hind. — Bi-nddl) has tiie reputation in Siiid of a remedy 
i for jaundice. 

VMRTSk ABBNABIA. 

The Earth Sugar Root. 
Vem. — Tarn. — Pumichftkarei ; Te}. — Puta-tiga. 

The eartii-sugar root of the Tamils has been known in 
I Southern India for centuries. The shrub belongs to the 
Pnatural order Capparidea:. The Root slightly resembles 
I liquorice root in appearance and taste. It is aaid to be 
] used aa an alterative, tonic and stimulant. From an 

lalj-ais of the drug, made lately by Hooper, it was found 
k to contain ordinary plant conatitueuts and a quantity of 
KBOgar, and probably possesses very little, if any, real medici- 
ilial value. 



MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS. 

Syn. — RonxEHA tisctokia : Ckoton fniLippiNExsis. 
Moskey-Face Tree ; Kahela or Kasiala Dye. 
FVem. — Beng. — Kamitii, Kamila-guri, Kamala-gundi ; Hind. — 
Komela, Kamala ; Sans. — Reclianaka ; Bom. — Shendri, Kama- 
la ; Gil*. — Kapilo; Tam. — Kapila ; Ttl. — Kiinkuma; Arab 
»— Kinbll ; P^r*.— Kanb^lu. 
A small evergreen forest tree, belonging to the natural 
order £/upAoriiacecB, found all over India, from Eashmfr to 
Ceylon, and in Burma, Singapore, and the Andamans. It 
ie important as being the source of the valuable dye-stuflf 
tani^^a, which is a granular, mobile powder of a brick red 
colour consisting of the minute Qlands and stellate hairs 
collected from the surface of the ripe fruits or capsules; 



180 



INDIGENOUS DRfGS OF INDIA. 



chiefly in the Noith-West Provinces, the Concans and 
Madias (Ganjam district). 

Il is also found in small quantities on the leave!> and stalks 
of the plant, but what is collected for sale is the powder 
caiefuUy brushed ofl' the capsules. 

The kami^la powder is used as an orange brown dye 
especially for silk. The vernacular names are those of 
jaundice, referring probably to the yellow colour of the ekin 
in that disease, Eam^la ia quite iusuluble in water, bat 
soluble in alcohol and ether; the solution in the latter 
medium extracting about 70 to 80 per cent, of a red resin 
from which yellow crystalline substances, SoHlerin and 
leorottlerin, may be isolated. The Roots are said to yield 
a red dye. 

Medicinal usea.— Kamela is used as an anthelmintic for 
the expulsion of tapeworm. It also purges freely in doses 
of ^ to 2 drachms. Externally it has been used in cuta- 
neous diseases. 

Substitutes aud Adulterations.— A powder prepared 
from the fruits of the banyan tree {Ficu9 bengalensia) has 
been found mixed with kanu'la. Powdered safflowera have 
been known to be used as an adulterant. As obtained in 
the bazCirs it is frequently adulterated with sand and earthy 
matters. The pure article should not yield more than 
6 per cent, of a^h. 



MALVA SYLVBSTRIS. 

The Common Mallow. 
Vem. — i/iW.— Vilayati-kangfti ; 5o»l— Khubazi ; Pera.—^ 

Nfin-i-kulugh (crow's bread) ; Arah.—Khuha/a. 
A herbaceous plant growing on the temperate Western I 
Bim&laya. In common with other Malvaceoiis species 



INDICIENOUS DRU03 OF INDIA. 



181 

cilagliious 



it abouiids, and especially tlie FiiuiT, ; 
principles. 

Hediclnal uses. — The Seeds are employed intevnatly in 
decoction iva a deimiicent, Tlie Leaves are made into ft 
poultice as an emollient external application. 



MANOIFEBA INDICA. 

The Mango Tree, 
Vera. — Seng. — Am ; Hind. — Am, Amb ; Sunf. — Amra, Chiita; 
Som. — Ainba, Ambo ; Satn. — Thayet ; Tani. — Mangos, 
Mangamaram ; ?'e/.~Elamdvi ; J'ejj.— Amlja, Naglizak. 
An elegant moderate-sized tree of the AnacardiacecB 
indigenous to India and cultivated in many varieties 
almost everj-whers in the plains, yielding large crops 
annually of the familiar egg-shaped FnuiT. Mangos are 
exceedingly plentiful in all the bazars from May to July, and 
are esteemed by both Europeans and Natives as the most 
delicious of Indian fruits. The ripe fruit is very whole- 
some, nourishing, and highly antiscorbutic ; the unripe fruit 

' is made into refreshing sherbets and custards, into piukles 
and preserves, as a i^our ingredient in certain curries, and 
as the principal ingredient of the chutiii'es so populitr in 
Indian cookery and exported to Europe. The kernel inside 
the large flattened ' atone ' or seed contains about 10 per 
cent, of tannic acid, of which an enormouti (juantity must be 
wasted each mango season, the seeds not being utilized. 

The pulp of the ripe fruit contains a trace of gallic 
acid, with citric acid and gum : the unripe fruit contains 
about 20 per cent, of free acids, tartnric, citric and 
malic. The B.vrk of the tree contains tannic acid and 

I from it exudes a pink-coloured Gdm partly soluble in water. 

I The fruit exudes just before ripening a resinous substance 



182 



INDIGKN0U8 DItUGS OP INDIA. 



with a» odour of turpentiae. The Blossom is regarded 
astringeut. 

Uedioinal uses. — The powdered Kernel of \ha fieeJ, 
called aviar kusi, is uaed as an a-stringent in diarrhoea, and 
as a remedy in leuconhcea. also as an aaUielmintic. A fluid 
extract of tlie Bark has been lecommeiided in hiemorr- 
hages. Tl)e popular idea among Europeans in India tlmt 
the mango Iruit is productive of boils and skin eruptions is 
a fallacy, and has probably arisen through the coincidence of 
the occuiTence of those symptoms witii the mango season 
the end of tlie hot season atid beginning of the rains. On 
the contrary, as has been indicated, it is a valuable anti- 
scorbutic, unless when used immoderately. 

MANIHOT UTILISSIMA. 

Tapioca, Maxioc, Sweet Cassava. 

Vem. — Tarn. — Maravuli ; Mai. — Mnrachini. 

This plant, natural order Euphorbiacece, a native of 

Brazil, is cultivated in Assam and in Southern India. The 

food-stuff " tapioca" is prepared from the farinaceous root- 

s talks or tubers. 

A variety of the plant known as the bitter cassava is 
extremely poisonous, the roots containing a proportion of 
hydrocyanic (prussic) acid. 

MABANTA ABUNDmACEA. 

West Indian Arrowboot, 
Vem. — J«iff. — Ararat ; Hind. — Tikhor ; Bom. — Ararat : 

Tarn. — Kuamau ; Bum. — Pen-hwa, 

The tnio aiTowroot plant, natural order ScHaiMneifi, 

a native of the West Indies, is cultivated in Eastern Bengal, 

the North-West Provinces and in Madras, The author 



^■H 



INDiaUNOUS DRUGS OF INDIA 



183 



lias cullivabed it in his garden at Butdwan and obtained 
from it a very aupoiior airowioot, Tbis product is the 
dried fecula obtained by washing the rasped tubers of this 
plant and that of M. vam03i3sima. It is a pure starcli, and 
is chiefly given as a light food iti invalid diet. It is manu- 
factured and largely used in India, and not exported to any 
•extent. The arrowroot obtained ia the bazdi-s is frequently 
adulterated with potato starcli. This may be detected by 
■the luieroseope. the granules of potato starch being larger 
tut nut materially different in structure, 

MARRUBIUM VULaARB. 

HOREHOUND, 

This herb, natural order Labiatce, is to be found on the 
Western Himalaya. As grown in Europe it has long had 
the reputation, in domestic medicine, of an aromatic bitter, 
expectorant and diuretic. 

MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA. 

iSV? ASTIIEMIH NOBELIS. 



MKL. 

HON'EY. 

' Vam. — Beng. — Madhu; Hind. — Madh shohad; Sam. — Ma- 
dhu; Bom.— Madh; Tam.—T6a; Ta/.— Tene; .icofe.— Aasl ; 
Pers. — ^Angabio. 

Honey is a saccharine secretion deposited in the honey- 
comb of the Honey Bee (Apis mellijica) and other species 
belonging to the insect order Ht/menoptera. It ia a vege- 
table product, occurring chiefly in the nectaries of many 
.species of flowers, which the bee collects, certain chemical 
changes taking place in the secretion before it ia deposited 



184 



INDIGENOUS UltUGS OF INDIA. 



by the bee in the honeycomb prepared fi'cm waxy sub» 
stancea elaborated within the bo(iy of the insect and collect* 
ed from the surfaces of leaves. The principal change 
which takes place U that the cane sugar becoinea partly 
converted into grape Biigar and "invert" sugar or lavulose 
of which honey is mainly composed, together with a little 
vuntnile. 

In many parts of India wild beea attach their nests or 
combs to branches of trees and in hollow trunks of trees in 
the jungles and in crevices of rocks. The honey is collected 
by the people, and in some parta the right to collect thft 
honey and wax (see Cera) in the forests is leased out, or the 
collecting la done by the Forest Department. Beea have 
beea domesticated successfully at Simla and several other 
places in the hilLs, an industry which might be extended 
with much advantage. As collected and prepared in India 
honey is of somewnat inferior quality, and occasionally d6- 
leterious from its having been collected from poisonous- 
flowers. 

Medicinal uses — Nutritious and demulcent. Honey 1in» 
long been a favourite vehicle for medicines with the 
Hindijs. It is used in modern medicine tm a flavouring and 
sweetening agent in mixtures and as a basis for confeo- 
tions. 

MELALBtTCA LEUCADENDBOK. 

VaR. — UlSOR. 

The Cajupdt Tree. 
Vera. — ictj. — Cujupiiti, Iloclii; //inf/.— Knjaputi; Bom. — 
Kaydkuti ; Tarn. — Kijapiiti!, 
A large evergreen tree, belonging to the natural order 
Myrlaceae, indigenous to the islands of the Indian Archi- 
pelago. The Oil distilled from the Lkaves is an important 



IKDIOENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



185 



I 



article of commerce at Singapore, being imported from 
Java, Manilla, Celebes, and other islands where the oil is 
lirepareO, and re-exported in large fjiiantitiea chieflj' to 
Calcutta and Bombay, where It is fonnd in the familiar 
^ine and brandy bottles, in which it is met with in the 
European drug markets. Kayaputi-ka-lel. as it is called 
in the Calcutta bazdr, is a transparent, limpid, volatile Oil, 
of a pale blulsh-grefin colour, pungent odour resembling a 
combination of camphor and cardamoms, and bitter aromatic 
tnsto. It conaisti largely of a body which has been named 
Cajiiputot. The characteristic green colour has been attri- 
buted to chlorophyll, but is generally believed to be due 
to copper probably from the vessels in which tho oil ia 
distilled. It is colourless when rectified. 

Uedicinal uses. — The Oil may be used intenially, 
although it is very seldom employed, as a stimulant, cavmi- 
native, and antispasmodic in flatulence And colic, in doses of 
2 to 8 minims or J to 2 fl. drachms of the official spirit. It 
is a powerful sudorific. Externally it is largely used in 
India as a rubefactetit in rheumatism either alono and as 
an ingredient of croton liniment, or combined with other 
Btimulatiiig applications. It is a domestic remedy for all 
muscular pains. 

MELANOREHCEA USITATA. 

The Black VAJiXiaii Thee. 
Vera.— Bdcnj.— ThiUi ; A'orcn.— Kiahoiig. 
Aforest tree belonging to the A nacardincecE, and aUiod to 
Ithe l)ipterocarpu8 species, found at Prome and neighbour- 
l districts iu Burma. It is intei'esting as the source of 
'_ an Oleo-Rbsin known as the black varnish (thitsi) of the 
Burmese, and extensively used as a natural varnish or 
squer and to some extent as a medicine. 



186 INDIQKMOUS DilUOS OF INDIA. 

Medicinal use.— The Oleo-Besin is used in Burma in 
combiiiatiitn with lioney a.? an anthelmiaLio. 



MBLIA AZADIBACHTA. 

Syn. — Az-vDiRACUTA indica. 

The Neem or Makgosa Tree : Indian Lilac. 

Vepn. — Beng. — Nim, Niingach ; Iliad. — Nlin, Nlnib ; iSan*.— 7 

Nimba, Arisbta; Bom. — '^im, Bal-nimb; Tain. — V^mbu; 

Tel. — Vepa-ch^tta. 

A large ornamental tree, natural order Meliace<B, iu- 
digeiioua to Indiii and cultivatod nearly all over the Penin- 
sula and in Burma. It thrives best iu the drier climate of 
the North-West Proviuces, and is believed in many idaces 
to be advantageous to health when planted aroaud villager, 
as a i)io]ihy lactic against malaria. Almost every part of 
the tree is utilized medicinally, and the powdered Babk 
and fresh Leaves were mado official in the PiMrniacopceiit 
of India. The barb contains a bitter principle, of a resinoua 
nature, believed to reside iu the inner bark or liber, so that 
the alcoholic tincture or fluid extract is the most efficient 
preparation of the bark. Another important product of the 
tree is the yellow fixed OiL contained to the extent of 
about 10 per cent, in the Seeds and extracted by pressure. 
It has a specific gravity of -925 at 15''C., a bitter disagree- 
able taste and alliaceous odour due to aulphur wliich itcon- 
tains, According to an exhaustive research by Dr. Warden 
the nim oil consists of the fixed fatty acids — stearic, oleic, 
and a small amount of lauric, — with butyric and a trace of 
valeric acids as the volatile fatty principles. Sulphur was 
estimated to the extent of '427 per cent. As the result of 
some unpublished experiments by Mr. J. Q. Prebble, it has 
been found that when the inner hark is moistened with 



iflb 



INDIGENOUS DEUQS OF INDIA. 



187 



water a ferment ia decomposed which pioiucea a sulpluir 

CQUipourid of ally], allied to timt yielded by garlic. The 

. presence of the sulphur and consequent antiseptic property 

I may be accounted for in this way. It is believed that 

I the seeds contains a similar ferment. An undetermined 

alkaloid was also isolated by Dr. Warden, besides neutral 

and acid resins. The wood ia so bitter that no insect will 

attack it, and the leaves are used to pi-eveut the ravages 

of wliite-ants and other insects. 

Uedicinal uees. — Nim Babe is a bitter tonic, astringent 

. and febrifuge (in doses of one dmchm of the powder or 

rfluid extract.) The Oil. is useful as an application in 

|:erysi|ielas, scrofula, and similar skin diseases, and in rheu- 

rmatlsm, the organically combined sulphur it contains being 

I believed to be the remedial principle It has been reconi- 

I mended in combination with chaulm^gra and gurjun oils 

■ as an application in leprosy. It is also used as an an- 

Tthelmintic and insecticide. The Leaves are applied an a 

letimulating poultice to boils, hastening suppuration: in 

Idecoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion 

Jov fomentation to unhealthy sores. The Fruit is purgative, 

■.emollient and anthelmintic. A OlTM exudes from the burk 

I'Whicli i.i regarded as a stimulant. 



MELIA AZSDARACH. 

The Persia!) Lilao. 

Vem. — Beng. — Ghorfi-nlm, Maha-nimb; Mind.—Drek, Bakayaii; 

Sant. — Mahanimba; Bom. — YUayati iifra ; Tarn. — Malai-vcui- 

bri; Tel. — Ronda-vepa; Arab. — Hab-ui-bnn; Pera. — Tifc. 

This large tree, another member of the Meliacece, the 

piahogany family, is found wild in Persia and the Western 

Binnilaya, and cultivated in some parts of India as an 



188 INDIOENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

ornamental tree. It yields products somewhat reseml 
those of the Indian rJm in appearance and propefties. 
These include a Gum from the bark and an Oil rrom the 
seeds. The Bark has been found to contain resinous 
priociples of an alkaloidal nature which reside in the 
inner hark. 

Medicinal use. — The Bare is recommended as on sn- 
tlielmintie. a fluid extract being a suitable preparation. 
Tbo other products are little known. 

MBLILOTUS OFFICINALIS. 
Vem. — Beng. — Bnn-piring ; IHnd. — Aapurk ; Pert. — Zirir. 

Several species of the Melilotus genus, natural oi-der 
LeguminoscE, contain Couviarin, a neutral, crystalline, 
odorous principle obtained chiefly from Tonquin Leans and 
now manufactured artiflcially. M. offioinaliB, alba and 
parvlfiora grow in India. Coumann is also contained in 
the crescent-shaped legumes of Trigonella uncata (llkU- 
cl-niaWc), imported from Persia into Bombay. 

Uedicinal use. — Couniarin is used to disguise the odour 
of iodoform. 

MENTHA ABVBN8IS. 

The Marmh Mixt. 

Vem.~Ben/i. — Pudiiiil; Hind. — PiSdinah; £0111. — Pudinah; Tam. 

and Tel. ^PmUn-X ; ylmfi. — Naanfii-hindi ; Pers. — Pudinah. 

This fragrant Hkrb and M. sylvcatrla are natives of the 
temperate Western Himiilaya. Natural order Labiatas. 
The true peppermint, M. piperita, is not found wild in 
India, but is frequently cultivated in gardens in the plains. 
M. m-vensia yields by distillation an aromatic essential Oil 
similar to that obtained from peppermint, but inferior in 
quality and aroma. 



INDIUKNUUH DUUGS OF INDIA. 



189 



Tlie pepi>ermiut oils Ipddina-ha-td or atar) of the Indian 
haz&rs are chiefly imported from Yokohama itnd Canton, 
and are sold iii the original cliaractevistic packages. The 
Japanese Pharmacopfsia recoginsea M. arvenna var. pipe- 
ntscena. Tliese oils are inferior to the imported English 
and American oils. 
I Peppermiut oils contain two characteristic constituent'!, 
Mentftol and Menihone. The former is a white crystalline 
fitearoptene ("peppermint camphor") witli a strong odour 
and taste of peppermint, menthone heing the liquid portion. 
Menthol, pddine-hc-phul of the Indian bazfirs, is yielded 
1 chiefly by the Japanese oil, from wliich it is deposited on 
cooling below 4°C. As imported from Japan and China 
most of the oil is denientholised. 

The article known in commerce as " mixed oil" and as 
" Chinese oil of peppermint " {Po-ho-yo) may bo obtained. 
It contains about 40 per cent of pme menthol. 

Hedlclnal uses. — The Herbs of mint are much esteemed 
in India njj aromatic, carminative, stimulant, antispasmodic, 
and stomachic. They are used in chutueys. The Oil and 
menthol have the samo properties. The latter is an invalu- 
able anti-neuralgic applied externally in alcoholic solution 
or in the form of the popular " menthol cone." 



MBSUA FEBRBA. 

[ Vern. — Bemj. — Ndgeaar; Hind. — Nfigkeaar ; -^ant, — Ndgakesa- 
ra ; Bom. — Niigclmnipft ; Tarn.— Nangal ; TeU — Nagn k^sara 
Jl/a/.— Veila. 
A tree, belonging ti the natni'al order (.rutli/era;, com- 

[ mon on the mountains of E&sterti Bengal, the Eastern 

[Himalaya, Burma, and the Andamans; cultivated in gar- 

I dens in Bengal. 



T',*^ Hatz. rvic siii icner »rs if «ae piiaiic exsie mm 
^iczmnzin ^jrJX'^'^lLxass loe giznac heia^ iinml rrvati the 
rAVi :»f ^Jift :^.«i5r fnit Tie :iei2-?»ci 2tu 5ait^eeBt 
rr-c«ir:i*5ft T'le perMr^ rf the FiLiT 2* T»ry ftstrti^ 
•r.t A £x.*ti Oil a -ap rLiwi i Snia lie weils vaKh kss 

^^rlfvi fi-TL^rans Fi/>^ns ir» ^ge»i '- j FTTiifi pIij^-nAifes for 



V^ni. — B^v-! ^v*^ ^^ B'lWL — OuynpiL Oamip^f : Stmt. — 

BwrTA. — ^h\^ 

A ta'.l ev<!;rgreen tree, belonging to the natand order 
M^AgnoliaotfJi, growing wild in Xep^, Beng&l, Aseam and 
Bnrma, ar.d comrnonlv caltivated for its yellow, sweetljr- 
Kcent^l flowers which are given as an offering to the gods 
and of which an otto, somewhat resembling that of the 
ilang, in prepared. A kind of camphor, named Oiampaeol 
han been obtained by di-stillation from the Wood. 

Ifadicinal naea.~An infusion of the Flowbbs has been 
a'lvrx;ated as a stimulant tonic and carminative. The Bark 
\a bitter and aromatic, and has been regarded as antiperiodic 
in dr/ses of 10 to 30 grains. The medicinal principle has 
not bf!cn investigated, but the author has found that it is 
volatile and is dissipated by boiling in water. 

MIMOSA FUDIOA. 

Thk Hknsitive Plant. 
Vam. //#w//.— Lij}A\)aii ; Hind, — Lajfild ; Sans, — ^Anjalikarika; 
This fiiniiiiHr plant, natural order LegtiminoscB, is a native 
of Drazii, but lias long been naturalized and is plentiful in 



IND1GKN0U3 UEUtJb OF INDIA. 



191 



I Hie hotter regions. Medicinal properties, largely fallticioiis, 
Lliave been attributed ta it. The Root contains a peculiai* 
^tannin. 

MIMUSOFS ELENQI. 

f Tern. — Sini?.— Bakul ; fi"in(/.— Mulsiri ; Sans. — Bakula ; Tarn. 

— Mogadam ; Tel. — Pagada : Bimn. — Kiiaya, 

A large ornainental eveigieen tiee, of the natural order 

Sapotace<E, cultivated in India and found wild in the 

forests of Southern India and Burma. A perfume is dis- 

I tilled from the fragrant .star-shaped Flowers. The Babk 

I lias been regarded as astringent, tonic, and febrifuge, but it 

I 13 of little value or interest. A decoction is used as a gargle 

I and mouthwash. The pulp of the Fruit is edible and con- 

I t&inii a large amount of sugar. The fatty oil obtained from 

[ the Sekds is much valued in Tnnjore. 



MOMORDICA OHARANTIA. 

Vopn. — Stng. — Karald ; Hind. — ^Knreii, Knrela ; Sane. — Kara- 

vella; Bom.—Kir\&; Tarn. — Favakka-chedi ; Tel. — Kakara- 

chettu ; Arab. — Quisaul-barri. 

Thia climbing plant, natural order CucurbitacefE, ia cul- 
tivated in gardens everywhere in India for its FauiT, 
which is wholesome and eaten as a vegetable. There are 
two varieties, one with a small roundish or ovoid fruit 
(Ucltchhe of the Bengal bazfira) and the other longer and 
more cucumber like. 

Sledloloal UBea.— The FituiT is bitter, acts as an anthel- 
mintic, stomachic, antibilious and laxative. Tlie juice of 
fi-eah Leaves is given to children as a mild purgative, 
mt 13 not unattended with danger. 




192 iXDi(;Exoi;s duugs of ikdia. 

MOBZNDA CITBIFOLIA. 

The Isdias Mctlberby. 

Vera. — Ben-j. — Ach; Hind. — Al ; J5oni,— Aal; Tarn. — Miua 

maram ; Tel. — Maddi-chetta. 

Tliia siua.ll tree or bush is found wild and cultivated neai-ly 

all over India. It belongs to the natural order Ritbiacea:. 

The Leaves and Fruit are supposed to be medicinal, aud 

tlie Root and root-hark yield a red djre aomewliat resem- 

hliog thai imparted by madder. This is used for colouring 

the red khurtia cloth which is univei'sally used for covering 

account hooks by the people of India, as it is not attacked 

by white-ant». A crystalline (irinciple has been isolated 

from the root-bark and named Morindin. 

Medicinal uses.— The Leaves and Fruit have been 
regarded na deobstruent and emmenagogue. 

MORINQA PTBRTOOSPEBMA. 

The Horse-Radihu Tree. 

Vorn. — Beitg. — Sojna; Bind. — Shajna; Satu. — S6bhSnjana ; 
Som. — Saragavo ; Tarn. — Morungai j Tel. — Munaga. 

A beautiful tree, of the natural order Moringcm, wild in 
the Sub-Himlilayan range, and commonly cultivated in 
India and Burma for its leaves, flowers and immature cap- 
sules, which are eaten in curries. The Root resembles iii 
appearance and odour that of the horse-rndish Cooldeana 
Armoracia, and is regarded as an efScient substitute for it. 
Distilled with water it yields an essential Oil more pun- 
gent and offensive in odDur than those of mustard or garlic. 
The Sehids yield a fine Gxod Oil (BeuOW) which does not 
turn i-aiicid, ami hence is much valued by perfumers for 
ozti-acting the odrmrs of flowers and by watchmakers as a 
lubricant. 



INDIGENOUS DBUaS OF INDU. 193 

The bark exudes on incision a GUM of the tragacanth 
order, being partially soluble in water and in spirit. The 
bark has been found by Dymock to contain an alkaloid 
and two resins. 

Medicinal uses. — The fresh Root is regarded as an acrid, 
pungent, stimulant. It has been used as a vesicant and 
considered a good remedy in bites of rabid animals, epilepsy 
and hysteria. It is also reckoned a useful rubefacient in 
palsy and chronic rheumatism. The OiL is considered 
aperient and used in gout and rheumatism. 



MOBUS ALBA. 

Var—indica. 

The White Mulberry. 

Vem. — Beng, sjid Hind. — Tiit, Shah-tut; Bom, — Tutri; Tam,-^ 

Kambilipiich ; Pers. — Tiit. 

The Indian white mulberry is found wild on the temperate 
Himalaya and cultivated in Kashmir, the Punjib, Bengal 
and Burma, chiefly for its leaves, on which the silkworm 
feeds. The sub-acid Fruits are eaten fresh and dried. 
Syrup of mulberries is useful in sore-throat. It is seldom 
used in India. 



MOSOHUS MOSOHIFBBUS. 

The Musk Deer. 

Vem.— (Musk) Beng. — Kastiirl ; Mriga-ndbhi ; Hind. — Kasturi, 
Mushk; Sans. — Kasturi; Pers, — Mushk. 

The musk deer lives at altitudes above 8,000 feet 
throughout the whole range of the Him&laya and in Thibet 

K, ID 13 



194 



nJDlGENOUS DBU03 OF INDIA. 



and Assam, It belongs to the order Sumlnantia : famil^ 
MoBchidcB. The well-known, dark -colon red, grnnular Biib- 
stance, MosK, 13 a dried st-cretion obtained from the prepu- 
tial folllcte.s, contained in a globular s^ic, about I^ inch in 
diameter, known aa the 'miisk-pod.' This is cut from tha 
body of tlie slain deer while it is still hot and carefaUy 
dried in the sun or more rapidly on a hot stone, the latter 
method producing an inferior product. Only the male deer 
produces the odoriferous secretion, and each animal yields 
one pod weighing on an average one ounce, the hunters 
obtaining in the markets of Northern India, usually by 
barter, 15 to 20 or 25 rupees. 

The pods, enclosed in a portion of the hairy skin, and 
often adulterated with the dried blood of tlie animal or 
fragments of the Hver and in variona other way.?, are very 
frequently oSered to chemists and merchants in Simla, 
Darjtling and Mnssfirie, and occasionally in Calcutta. A 
large part of the musk supply of the world is distributed 
from Bengal, although the exports would seem to be declii 
ing owing to shortness of supply, due doubtless to the 
wholesale extermination of tlie deer, estimated hy Dr. Watt 
at 20,000 annually, including females, the hunters not 
being always able to identify the males. The chamcteiiatio 
constituent of musk is a volatile oil which it contains, in 
addition to ammonia, stearin and cbolesterin. 

Medicinal uses.— The drug has long been valued in Hindfi 
medictiie and regarded as a stimulant and aphrodisiac in 
debility and impotence. It is given in modern medicine in 
hysteria and epilepsy. It is very frequently prescribed in 
India an a stimulant, combined with other restoratives and 
as an antispasmodic, in tincture or powders. It is often 
given with camphor, which has the property of destroying^ 
the odour to a large extent. 



INDIQENOUS DHUG3 OF INDIA. 



195 



Subatitutes. — Tlie odour of musk is found in several other 
members of Uie Eiiiiinal and vegetable kingdom. The 
"musk-rat" of India secretes a substance posseasiug the 
odour of the true muak, which is not, however, utilized. The 
common musk plant, Mimulue inoschatue, is well-known 
and the seeds of Hibiacus AbelmoBekuB (q. v.) are used in 
perfumery. The manufacture of artificial musk has lately 

I been perfected, and this article is likely to become a for- 
biidable rival to the natural product. 
i 
Se 
It 



MUGUNA PRURIENS. 

Syn. — DoLicHoa pbcrienb. 

The Cowhacb Plant. 



Hind. — Kiwanch, Kiwachh ; Sattg. — 
Kuhill; ram.— Punaik-kali ; Tel.~~ 



■Seng. — Alkuahi ; 
^Eapikachcbhu ; Bom,- 
Tilli-adugu. 

An annual climbing shrub of the Legitminoece, wild lo 
fiengal and common in the forests throughout the plains. 
It is cultivated iu some parts for the sake of the goldeo 
brown velvety Lequhes which aje cooked and eaten as a 
vegetable. The name " cowhage" is derived from the Hindi 
kiwacJih. 

I The pods are covered with sbiET hairs which produce an 
Intenae irritation of the skin if incautiously handled. 

medicinal usee.— The Hairs covering the seed pods 
mixed with honey have been used as a vermifuge, the action 
being purely mechanical. They are seldom employed in 
intideni medicine, nlthougli the pods are still exported from 
India, The Seeds have been regarded as a nervine tonic 
nod the Root as useful in paralysis and affections of the 
itrvDUS system. 




INDIOENOns DRUOS OP INDIA." 

MUSA SAPIENTUM. 

Syn.— H. PARADISUCA. 

Tbe Plantain or Baitaita. 






ffinrf.— K^la ; 5an».— Kadali; Bom. — 
ni.— Valei; re/.— KadaU. 



An indigenoua, perennial, herbaceous plant belonging to 
the natural order iSct(ami9iece, usually 10 to 12 feet hig] 
cultivated universally in many varieties throughout Indul 
for its nutritious and delicious fi'uit. 

The finer fruit of M. ettpiendtm has been regarded by 
some botanists as the true banana and the coarser fruit of 
M.. paradisiaca as the plantain, but the former ia regarded 
by recent writers as embracing buth forma (Watt). 

The unripe fruit conbaitis as much starchy mattera as 
the potato, and is largely employed in Africa and the Weet 
Indies in the fresh and sun-dried state, and powdered, 
("plantain meal") as a food-stuff, but various investigators 
have lately shown that it is not to be regarded as equal 
to the potato in nutritive value. The fully ripe fruit 
contains about 20 per cent, of sugar. The plant fruits 
once only, and is then cut down for fodder or burned 
for the alkaline a.sh, rich in potash, which it yields, 
and which is used instead of countr}- soap or Fuller's earth 
for washing clothes. The flowers (mocha) and the inner 
portion of the young steins (thor) are eaten as vegetables. 

Medicinal uses. — The tender Frdit is nutritive, antiscsor- 
butic and slightly nstringent. It forms a valuable diet ii 
dysentery and diarrhoea. The fully ripe fruit is laxative if 
taken regularly in the early morning. The cooked FlowbhS 
are used in diabetes. A syrup of bananas is popular i 
America for producing a refreshing beverage and as an effei 
tive remedy in relieving bronchitis. In addition to manjn 



I 

1 



INDIGENOUS DRUOS OF INDIA. 



197 



^domestic purposes to wliicli tlie large leaves are put in 
[JniJia, chiefly for seivmg food on at feasts and largely 

a a substitute for wrapping paper, the young tender leaves 
|:Bre used as a conl dreasing for iatlamed and blistered sur- 

icea, aa a green shade for the eyes, and in many charitable 
^iapensaries in place of oiled silk and gutta-percha to 
[etain the moisture of water dressings. 



MYLABBIS CHICOBII. 

The Telini Fly. 

Vern.— ffenj.— Telini-poka; ffi«(/.— Tclni, Telni-mflkR 

Several species of insects of the Coleoptera or beetle 

Border, n'ith vesicant properties ^hen dried, similar to those 

F of the blistering or Spanish fly {Cantliaris vesicatoria), are 

common in India. The most important is the M. ckicorii 

which exists plentifully in many parts of India, quite 

common in the Hyderabad district and Ueccan. This insect 

khaa been found to yield a fatty acid believed to be Cantka- 

%tidin in greater quantity than the true cautharides, for 

which it has been substituted, for external application, in 

medical practice in India. 



UYBICA NAai. 

S;Q. — M. BAFIDA. 

The Box- Myrtle. 

[ Vepn.— ffenj., ffinii, and^om.— Kaiphal ; Sant. — Katphala; 

7'ant. — Mfti-udam-pattai ; Tel. — Kaidaryamu* 

An evergreen tree, natural order Myncacece, of the Sub- 

■opical Himalaya, found also in the Kbosia mountains 

«d the hills of Burma. 



198 IKDIGCNOUS DRUGS OF ISDIA. 

The Bark U exported Trom the WzJtrs of Northern India, 
and usually to be found in the drug markets of the large 
cities. A recent examination of the bark by Buoper shows 
it to contain II to 11 per cent, of tannin and Indications 
of an alkalojdal principle. 

medicinal uses. — The Bark is aromatic and astringent 
The powder is recommended as a snutl' in catarrh and in 
combination with ginger as an externa! stimulant applica- 
tion in cholera. 

MTBISTICA FBAaBANS. 

S^n. — M. OFFICINALIS : M. UOSCHATA, 

Vem. — (The Nutmeg) Seng, and Hind. — Jayphoi, Jaiphal} 

5an».— Jdti-pha!am; Bom Jaiphal ; 'I'am. — Jadikkay ; Tc/, — 

Jajikaja, 
(Mace) Seng.—J&itn ; .Hintf.— Japatr ; Sam. — J&ti-patrl 
Som. — Jawantri; Tarn. — Jadi-pattiri ; Tel. — Japatri, 

The nutmeg tree, natural order Myriatiae<E, is cultivated 
in the Malay Peninsula and Penang. It baa been success- 
fully cultivated in Madras and Southern India. The Sbeds 
are the nutmegs of commerce and the ariUus surrounding* 
the seed within the outer ahoU onstitutes, when dried, the 
product known as mace. The nutmeg yields an essential 
and a lixed Oil : mace also contains n peculiar essential Oil, 

The fixed oil, "nutmeg butter," commonly, but erront 
ously, called "oil of mace," is obtained by expression, bfaa 
powdered nuts being steamed and pressed while hot. ll 
occurs in solid blocks or "bricks" of a yellowish-brown 
Colour, Bomewhab mottled, and imported from the Bandi 
Islands into India as Jawitri-ka-tel. It consisba essen 
tially of Myristin and Myristlc Awl and retains a certain 
proportion of the essential oil. The essential oil is ob- 
tained by distillation, and is water-white in colour, with 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



laa 



' the fragrant spicy odour of ilia nutmeg, Ita constituents 
have been named MyriBticena and Myristicol. The essen- 
tial oil of mace is of a yellowish colour, with the odour of 
mace, and consists of Macene. 'I'hese volatile oils are used 
to a large extent in pei'fumery. 

Medicinal uses. — The nutmeg is an aromatic stimulant, 
carminativt?, and in large doaes narcotic. It is chiefly era- 
ployed as a Havouriiig agent and condiment. The concrete 
Oil is used iu India as a rubefacieiiEi. The essential Oil 
b administered in diarrhcsa and dysentery to relieve pain, 
and is used in combination with other stimulating oik aa 
an external application in rheumatism. 

MTRISTICA MALABABIOA. 

Bo Mb AY Mace. 

Vera.— Spni. — {The Nut) Jangli jaiphal. — (Tlie Mace) 
Rainpatri 

This tree is indigenous to the Concans, Eanara and 
Malabar, and yields a SkeD, larger and more ubiong than 
the true nutmeg, but contiining a fixed Oil analogous to 
that expressed from the latter. 

The arillua is known as " Bombay Mace," and has been 

' used to adulterate powdered mace, It is greatly delicient 

' in odour and fl:ivour. Several tests have been proposed for 

its detection depending chiefly on the deeper brownish 

I yellow colour of the inferior article. 



MYRSINB APRIOANA. 

Vern.— -Wiiic/.— Bcbiang, Bahburanfj, Biiibaraug. 
A small aUrnb, of the natural order Myraineas, found in 
I the Himalaya from Kashmir to Nepal. The FitUlT is 



200 



INDIGENOUS DltUGS OF IKDIA. 



common id the Punjdb bazars, and is said to be a powei'fbl 
catliartic vermifuge. The Plant also yields a Gum wbiuli 
is prescribed foi' djsmenorrlioea, 

MYRTUS COMMUNIS. 
Tbb Mybtle. 
Vom. — Hind. — Hab-ul-as ; Viliyati niehudi. 
Tliia shrub, natural order Myrtaceai, is cultivated in 
many parts of India. 

Medicinal uses. — The fragrant volatile Oil, distilled 
from the Leaves, has antiseptic and rubofacient propertie;. 
The fruit, myrtle berrioa, is carminative and given in diar- 
thcea and dysentery. 



NABDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. 
Syn. — Valekiaxa Jatamansi. 
Spikenard. 
Vera. — Beng. — Jat&mfLnsi ; Hind. — Jatamanei, Bal-chhar ; Sant. 

— Jfttdmdnsi ; Bphi. — Sumbul ; Tnau — Jatam^hi ; 7V/.— Jat*- 

mamshi; Arab. — Sunibulu'l-hind ; Pert. — Sunbuhittib. 

Aji herb, belonging to the natural order Valerianea, 
growing at great elevations on the Alpine Himalaya, in 
Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkiin, nsceudiug in some places to 
17,000 feet. 

It occurs iu the Native drug sellers' shops as the short 
Rhizomes with the tufted fibrous remains of radical leaves 
not unlike a "shock" head uf hair, the Sanskrit namea 
indeed having a reference to this resemblance. It is the 
Spikenard of the ancients "and there is much reason to 
believe, from a general view of the early history of Jata- 
manai, that the ointment of Spikenard alluded to by 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 201 

St. John^ and the alabostei* box of ointment mentioned by 
St. Mark, contained as the principal ingredient the essence 
yielded by this plant. Spikenard is also mentioned more 
than once in the " Song of Solomon." As the ointment 
was usually described as having been 'poured' when used, 
its consistency must have been rather in the nature of 
an oil in which condition Jatamanai, mixed with a variety 
of other perfumes, is in common use as a hair-wash among 
Indian women at the present day." (J. F. Duthie, in Waifs 
Did, Econ. Prod. Ind,) The drug is bitter and aromatic 
with an odour likened by Dymock to a mixture of valerian 
and patchouli. It yields on distillation an essential Oil 
which resembles in its properties that of valerian. 

Medicinal uses. — The drug is regarded as a tonic, ner- 
vous stimulant and antispasmodic. It is little used in 
India at the present time, but has been advocated as an 
efficient representative of valerian in hysteria, epilepsy and 
similar nervous and convulsive atfections. The dose is 
from 30 to 40 grains in powder. A fluid extract prepared 
with an ammoniacal menstruum would probably be the 
most suitable preparation. Tlie Oil is administered in 
epilepsy in doses of 2 to 5 minims. Jatamansi is chiefly 
used in India as an agent in perfumery and as an in- 
gredient in medicinal oils. It is popularly believed to 
increase the growth and blackness of the hair. 

NABEQAMIA ALATA. 

GoANESE Ipecacuanha. 

Vern. — Mar, — Tinpdni, Pittvel ; Kan, — Nela-naringu ; Goa, — 

TrifoUo. 

A small woody shrub, of the natural order MeliaceoB, 
growing in Western and Southern India. It is known as 
*' country ipecacuanaha " at Qoa and Calicut where it is 



SOS 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



collected. Tlie drug consiatfl of the creeping Roots and 
slender Stems divested of leaves. It lia.'* a pungent aro- 
matic odour and little taste. An investigation of thi'* 
drug by Hooper revealed the presence of au alkaloid for 
which he proposed the name Narcgamine, au osidizalila 
fixed oil and a wax, 

Uedlcinal uses. — Emetic properties have long been 
attiibtited t't the Root in South-Western India. It was 
reported on from Madra.s some ^ears ago as a remedy equal 
to ipecacuanha, in tlie same doses, in acute dysentery, and 
as au emetic and expectorant. The drug as above de- 
scribed has lately been tried in Europe with considerable 
3ucces,s as an expectorant, in chronic forms of bronchitis, 
where there is a thick scanty and tenacious expectoration 
and in bronchial catarrh with astlimatic tendencies and 
heart difficulty. The preparation recimi mended is a fluid 
extract in doaes of 2 to 10 minims. Nareganiia exerts no 
special influence on the circulation or on the digestive 
functions, and no toxic properties reside in the remedy. 

NELUKEBIUM SPBCIOSUM. 

Tug Sacred Lotus. 
Vem. — Beng. — Fadinn ; Hind. — Kanwal ; Sane. — Padma ; 

Som. — Kamala; Tarn. — Ambal; Tel. — Evrurtimara-veru; jdj-afi. 

and I' era. — Nilufer. 

A large aquatic herb, belonging to the natural order 
Nyin-phasacefB, with elegant, sweet-scented, white or red 
flowers. It is held sacred by the Etndds to Lakshmi, tha 
goddess of wealth and prosperity, and occupies an import- 
ant place in their religion and mythology. An alkaloid 
has been isolated from tlie rhizome. 

Uedloinal usea. — The Flowisio, filaments and juice of 
the riower-stalks arc regarded as refrigeraut and astringent. 



MBMMh 



INDIGENOUS DltUOS UF INDIA. 203 

aud are recoiuiuuuiiad as n cardiac tonic Tlie seeds are 

edible, forming tlio iwilckana, a diet asod in certaia eere- 
I murikK Tlie KotiT ia mucilagirnnm and demulcent, given 
, in pilea, Tiie SiitDU are med &a an application in cutaneous 

afTections. Tiio largo leavea are used as cool IjeJ-Hheeta in 

high fever with mucli heat of tliu skin. 

NBRinM ODORUM. 

TlIK HWEET-SCENTED OLEANDER. 

Vern. — lieng. — Karubii ffinr/.— Kaner, Kanel; Sana. — Kara- 
vira; Som. — Kanhera; Tarn. — Alari; 7>/. — Ganneru. 
A small evergreen shrub, with a yellowish milky juice, 
\ wild in Western Afghanistan ami in several other parts of 
Northern India and cultivated in gardens for its flowei-s 
\- which are given as an oHering to the gods. There arc two 
I vurie ties, one with red and tlie other with white flowers: 
[ natural order Apaojnacem. The fresh roots of the white 
variety, known in Bengal an Shetk-karabl, are intensely 
poisonous, OS are also the leaves, bark and flowers. The 
bark has been found by Pruf. H. G. Greenish to contain 
two resinous bitter pi Jnciptes, one soluble in chloroform and 
little soluble in wati^r to which he has given the name 
NeriadMfin, and tbe otiier very soluble iu water and in- 
soluble in chloruforni, which he has named Ner'wdorun. 
Both tliese substances are powerful heart pcjisoDs, and it 
has been shown by Prof. T. R. Fra-ier that the physio- 
logicai action of oleander is analogous to that of digitalis. 
It is not, however, used internally in any form. Subsequent 
investigations have shown tho leaves to contain two priu- 
ciples whieh have been named Oleaildrlne and Peeiido- 
eurarine (Lenkowsky), and which are probably identical 
with those isolated by Uri:fjii«h, while two gliicosidcs have 



204 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

been isolated from the leaves and named J*''«i'ii«e and 
3'"eric(iiime{Sehmiedeberg, 1883), the former being believed 
to be identical with digitaledie. A further research Las 
revealed the presence of another glucoslde Rosaginine, so 
named from the German name of Oleander, CoTtex Roaaginit. 
The seeds of N. tkebaci, the yeliow oleander, are intensely 
poisonous. Cases have been known of children mistaking 
them for almonds with fatal eflect. 

Uedicinal uses. — The RooT is used externally, made into 
a paste with water as an external application iii chancres 
and ulcerations, and is said to be also applied in leprosy. 
A decoction of the Leaves is useful to reduce swelling. 
Criminal records show that the root is used to procure 
abortion. 

NICOTIANA TABAOUM. 



Vem. — JBeng.- — ^Timiik ; Hind. — T&mikku ; 5oni.— Tambakhu 

Tarn. — Poghako ; Te/. — Pogiku ; jli-oi,— Tanbak ; /"(rs.— 

Taobaku. 

The tobacco plant, natural order Solanacecs, is a native 
of America. It is quite common in India iu a semi-wild 
state OS an escape from cultivation. It is cultivated to 
a very large extent, over 2,000,000 acres being under 
tobacco in India in many parts of Bengal, Bombay and 
Burma, and in Madrai and Travancore. JV. ntsJica ia 
cultivated aud prepared in some parts of Upper India, 
Bengal and the Punjitb. It is known as East Indian 
tobacco. 

Tobacco is used in India oa an article of luxury by all 
classes of the people, chiefly for smoking and by some 
races in powder as snufl, and by others with lime and p&n 



INDIQEKOUS DHU03 OF INDIA. 205 

for chewing, while Burma, Tnchinopoly and other 'che- 
roota' of Indian manufacture are popular with Europeans, 
the greater part of the tobacco produced, wliich ia entirely 
free of duty or restriction, being consumed in the country. 
As prepared by the Natives for smoking the coarsely 
powdered tobacco is mixed with uui-e&ned sugar (gilr) and 
aromatic and fragrant sub:jtances, sometimes with sandal- 
wood oil, patchouli leaves, otto of roses, musk and other 
perfumes into the form of a black-looking conserve known 
as jnirafeii. A portion of this is placed with live charcoal 
in the ch'lam of the univei-sal kooJcah, made commonly of a 
cocoanut shell or of metal and which, as ia well-known, 
contains water through which the vapour is passed in 
smoking, The practice, in some parts of India, is equally 
common with women and children as with men. 

Tobacco leaves contain Nieotine, an intensely poisonous, 
colourless liquid alkalnid which darkens with age, and 
Nicolinnine or " tobacco-camphor," a concrete volatile oil 
to which the odour of tobacco is due, the oppressive 
odour which nicotine acquires on keeping being probably 
due to the presence of this substance. Other toxic bodies 
produced on comhuation of tobacco, as in pipe-BRioking, 
and which are believed to cause the disagreeable symptoms 
aometimes experienced by persons who indulge in this 
h&bit, are Pyridine, Picoline, Pai-voline and Collidine 
while hydrocyanic, formic, carbolic and other acids are said 
to have been found in the residues condensed from the 
smoke. 

Medicinal uses. — Tobacco ia little used in modern medi- 
cine oil account of its poisonous properties, although it had 
a place in the British Pharmaccypaut of 18(i7, when an 
enema, used for the expulsioa of worms, was ofHcial. lb ia 
I (till used to 8ome extent in veterinary medicine, The 



806 INDIOENOUS DRUGS OF I.VDIA. 

(irioil leaves are powerfully sedative, atfecttiig the heart, 
fiequcntly caiisiii;! great depiessioa, antis]msiiioiHc, emetic 
and narcotic. A decoction lias been used aa a rometitation 
to the spine in tetanus, and as a means of inducing inuscu- 
lai' velaxatioii, thus aiding in the reduction of strangulated 
hernia and dislocations. Tobacco-smoking is resorted to 
with excellent effect in many cases of asthma, nervoua 
irritabilifcy and sleeplessness, and it is in common repute aa 
a prophylactic against diseases of niicrobic origin, A com- 
mon and useful practice in India is to insert the smoothed 
stem of the leaf, sometimes dipped in castor oil, after the 
form ot a suppository, for children as a laxative. Nico- 
tine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to 
stryolmine. Its internal use is attended, however, with 
the greatest danger. 



NICH3LLA SATIVA. 

Small Fennel. 

Vem. — Beng. — Kil.i-jlra, Mugrela; fl^ini/. — Kala-jira, Katnungi; 
Sans. — Krishna-jit-iika; Bout, — Kalooji ; Tarn. — Kunim-shira- 
gan ; Tet. — Nalla-jilakara ; .Perg. — Siyah-ddnah. 

This plant, natural order Manunculacea, is cnilivated in 
some parts of India tor its seeds, which are used as a con- 
diment in curries. It is believed to bo the " black cum- 
min" of Scripture. The small triangular seeds, which 
resemble coarse gunpowder, contain a clear fised and a 
yellowish volatile oil of disagreeable odour, and specific 
gravity 0'875 (Schimmel, 18!j5), which is not fluorescent aa 
has been stated. Ureenish found the seeds to contain 
ilelanUii7i, a substance allied to helleboriii and like saponin 
possessing emulsifying powers. 



IHDIQENOUS DRDQ8 OF INDIA. 



207 



Medicinal uses. — The SicBim are aromatic, carminative, 
I and stomacliic ; they are used as a corrective of purgatives 
Iftnd otlier medicines, and are believed by the baHvis to 
ieas diuretic, aiiUieiuiir.tic, and emuieiiagogiie properties. 
I They liave a decided nction as a galactagogiie. A co'inaoti 
ftdumestic use in as a pruteotioii for linen against the ravins 
I of insects. Tlie oil removes the odour of iudafurm to a 
F gi-eat extent. 



NTCTANTHBS ARBOR TRISTIS. 

Night JAsMrNE : Weepino Nvctasthes. 
I'Vem. — Beng. — Seoii, Singbar, Ilarsinghitr ; ffintl. — Har, Har- 
singfair; Sana. — Sephdliki; £ov). — Haras i n gara ; Tarn. — 
Manja-pu; Tel. — Paghada. 

A smalt tree, also called the square-stalkeJ Nijclanthes 

I from the shape of the j'oung shoots, natural order Oleacece, 

[ found wild in the forests of Central India and the Sub- 

Him&la3'an regions and citnimonly cultivated in gardens 

I in many parts of India for its fragrant flowers which are 

I given as votive cH'erings and of which a perfume is made. 

The flowers open at sunset, and betora morning the ground 

■ is strewn witli the fallen corollas. These are collected by 

Native women and children, and the orange-coloured corolla 

tubes having been separated from the white jiet)ds, they 

are dried in the sun, and yield on boiling a beautiful but 

fleeting yellow dye for silk. 

The leaves have been investigated by the authors of the 
I Pharmacogniplua Iiidica and shown to contain au alka- 
\ loidal principle, named provisionally Nyctanfkiiie. 

medicinal uses. — The Lbavkis are regarded as antibili- 
[ ous and "xpooLorant; used in bilious fevers. The juice of 
[ the fresh leaves is also a safe purgative for infants, 



208 IXDIGEKOrS DRUGS OF IKDLi. 

NYMPHJBA LOTUS. 

The Water-Lily. 

Vem. — ^rn ^— ShilTi XaJ : Hin'J. — Nilofar, ChoU Kanval ; 

Sim. — Kamala : Til. — Tella-kaluTa. 

The \rater-liiy is regarded as ilie queen of Indian flowers, 
beloved of the p:»et5and saorel to the g'>is, and only second 
in estimation to the lotus [yehimhium speciosum). There 
are three varieties, tlie white, reJ, and blue, and they gi-ow 
in tanks and marshes throughout the warmer parts of India. 
Natural orJer yymphj'icecE. 

Medicinal uses.— These miv be considered to be the 
same as those of the corresponding parts of Nelumbium 
speciosuvi already described. The roots and seeds are edible^ 
the latter forming the diet known as Dhapar-koki. 



OCIMUM BASILICXTM. 

The Sweet Basil. 

Vem. — Beng. — Babui-tulsi, Debunsha ; Hind. — Bdhiil, Sabza, 
Kali-tulsi; Sans. — Munjariki; BoJti. — Sabja; Tarn. — Tiruni- 
tru-pachchai ; TeL — Bhii-tulasi. 

A small shrub indigenous to Persia and Sind, cultivated 
in gardens in India. It belongs to the same natural order 
as the mints — Labiat(B — some of the cultivated forms re- 
sembling mint to a small extent in appearance and odour. 
The whole plant is aromatic, with an odour slightly re- 
sembling that of cloves. On distillation with water the 
leaves yield an essential Oil which when kept solidifies as 
crystalline camphor allied to menthol and called Basil^am- 
phor. The seeds are mucilaginous. 

Medicinal uses. — The plant is regarded as carminative 
and stimulant, the Seeds demulcent and diuretic. 



I 



INDIGENOUS DRDQS OF INDIA. 209 

The plant has lately been stated (P}iarm. Journal, TV, 
1306, p. 51), to be useful in oasal myosia, used by irrigatioB 
in the fono of a 12 per cent, decoction, producing local anaes- 
thesia, and acting as a parasiticide and antiseptic so that 
the lai'Vie which cause the disease are rendered inactive and 
expelled. It has long been used in Bengal with like efleot 
fov a similar affection known as pinaak. 



— Kala-tulsi, Yarandi ; Sane.—- 
— Tulaaa ; Tarn, and Te/.— TulaU, 



^^M ociivrnM sakctum. 

^^^V The Sacreo Baisil. 

^^^^Vera. — Beng. — Tulosi ; Sini 
^^^m Manj&riko, Tulost ; Boni.- 

I The holy basil is the most aacred plant of the Hind^, 

being dedicated to Vishnu, the Preserver of the World, 
It is on herb or small shrub belonging to the natural order 
Labiatw, found throughout India and universally cultivated 
for ceremonial purposes. It may be seen everywhere near 

• Hiudd houses, and near the doorways of nearly all Euro- 
jieau houses, where it ii tended by Hindf^ servants. The 
wood is made into beads. 

Uedlcloal uaea. — ^The dried plant has expectorant and 

stomachic properties. It is a domestic remedy for croup, 

^^^The seeds aie mucilaginous and demulcent, 

^H OLDBNLANDIA CORYMBOSA. 

^^^^^•m. — Benj. — Khetpapra ; Hind, — Daman-papar ; Sans.^ 
^^^1 Farpata, 

^^B A Plant belonging to the Rubiace(B, common as a weed 
throughout India. It is considered useful as an alterative 
in low forms of fuver, administered in decoction. The root 
■ttf 0, umhcUata is the cbay-root or Indian Madder, used as 
I dyeing material. 

14 




210 INDIGBNOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

ONOSMA BBACTBATUM. 

Vem. — Seng. — Gao-zabdn. 

A plant of the Boraginece growing on the Western 
Himdlaya. The leaves are imported from Persia and sold 
in the bazars, and the flowers are known as gulUi-gao-zaban. 
GaO'Zaban has the reputation among the hakims of being 
a mild tonic and alterative. It has perhaps little mediciDal 
value. 

ONOSMA ECHIOIDES. 

Vem. — Beng, and Ifind, — Eatanjot. 

Thia plant is plentiful in tlie Western Himalaya. The 
root is used as a red colouring matter to medicinal and toilet 
oils. 

Medicinal uses. — Tlie bruised Root is applied externally 
to eruptions, and the Flowkhs as a cardiac and stimulant 
in rheumatism and palpitation of the heart. 



OPHIOBBHIZA MUNQOS. 

Thk Mongoose Plant. 

Vem. — Beng. — Gandhandkuli ; IIin(L — Sarahati ; Sans, — Sir 
paksbi; Tanu — Kiripurandan ; TeL — Sarpashi-chettu. 

An herb belonging to the Rubiacece, found in the moun- 
tains of Assam, Burma, the Western Peninsula and Ceylon. 
The roots are sold to ignorant people in some places as a 
charm against snake-bite, the name of the plant having 
fiome relation to the fact that the plant is supposed to 
afford the curious little animal, the mongoose, an antidote 
to the bites of poisonous snakes. Medicinally the Boot is 
an agreeable bitter tonic. 




IHDIOENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

OPIUM. 

See Papaver bomsiferum. 

OPUNTIA DILLBNII- 

Syn. ^Cactus indious. 
Thb PnicKLY Pear. 
Beng. and Hind. — Phaui-manaaa ; Ndg-pliana ; Tarn, 
aad Tel.— H&gBdaii 
A native of America, now naturalised in Itidia, great 
tracts growing ia Rajputaiia a-nd iii Madma and Mysore 
and other places. Natural order Caote<B. The cochineal 
insect might bo iitoBtably fed on the prickly pear in many 
pai't^ of India. 
medicinal uses. — The Fruit is refrigerant and has been 
iciimmouded, made into a syrup, as «n expectoraut and 

idy in whooping cough and aisthina. It contains malic 1 
lid and manganese. The LiCAves made into a pulp aie-l 
id OS a poultice. 

ORCHIS MASOULA. 

The Salep Oncnio. 

—Benij. and /?Vn(i.^8alep-misrI, Salab-mierf ; Tata, 

&hdlil.iniHhiri ; n/.— Sili-raisiri ; Pefs.— SilabmiarL 
Several species of terrestrial orchids, natural order 
OrohideCB, found in Europe and Northern Asia, yield the 
salep of commerce. Tlio most important are : — 0. masvula 
LatifoUa, 0. laxijlora, 0. viaculaia, and others. The 
ialep of the Indian baz&rs is principally imported from 
rcrsia and Afghanistan v'ui Bombay, some of ib being 
Irobabty of European origin. Several species of Eulophiit 
, v.) found in Northern India, yield tubers which are 
ed locally as substitutes for aalep. A bitter variety 
s in iDdia aa Royal Salep {tiadaah'StUab) is derived 




1 



S12 IXDIGEKOUS DRUGS OP LKDU. 

from Allium Macleani {Liliacece). Salep mUri consists of 
the washed, ac&lded and dried Tcbgrs, hard and horny, 
translucent in appearance, almost oilouriess.and with a very 
filightiy sweetish mucilagiuous taste. It is met with in 
several forms — palmate fouc eknown and Iiighly esteemed as 
Hadix PalmtE Christi) and in more or leas ovoid or rounded 
tubers, sometimes sti'ung together. It yields a large quan- 
tity of mucilage to water, and on boiling, even with 40 parts 
of water, forma a thick jelly which is regarded as highly 
nutritious. 

Medicinal nsea. — Salep has long been esteemed in India 
as a tonic aphrodisiitc. It is now generally regarded as a 
valuable nutritive diet specially useful in diarrhoea and 
dysentery and in chronic fever. For this purpose it may 
be boiled with milk. 

ORIGANUM VtJLQARB. 

Vera..— Wii <l. — Sal hrti. 
A common herb of the temperate Himalaya. Natural 
order Labiatcc. It is used in some parts of the Punjab 89 
a pot-herb like mint. It yields a volatile Oil which is used 
as an aromatic stimulaut in colic and locnlly in rheumatism 
and earache. 0. Marjorani (Marjoram) — Marwa — of the 
bazdra is also cultivated in gardens for the same purposes. 

OBOXYLUM INDIOUM. 

Syn. — Bic.xosiA isdica. 

Vem. — Beng. — Hood, Nasoudjfi'iW. — Arlii, Sauna; San*. — 

SyonAkft ; Bom. — Tetu, Sauna as-snr ; Tam Vauga-niariun ; 

Te/.— Dundillam. 
A small tree with tenninul spikes of liirge, fleshy, lurid 
flowers, natural order Bignoniaccoi, growing all over 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 213 

Ilndia and Ceylon. The RooT-BARK la well known and 

■much esteemed by the Natives, being an ingredient of the 

Vasamula of Hindu medicine, a compound decoction of ten 

idi'ugs held in great repute and used in remittent fevers and 

[other diseases. An exhaustive examination of the root- 

uk by Naylor and Chaplin (1890) revealed the presence 

i yellow crystalline body which was named Oroxylin, 

1 addition to acrid, pectinons, and astringent prinoiples 

(and citric ticid. 

Uedloinal uses. — The RooT-BAitK is regarded as astringent 

jid tonic, useful in diarrhce^i and dysentery. It is said to 

nsed by the Gonds, by whom it is knuwn as Jaitnangal, 

a discntient application t<) rheutnatic swellings and in 

JowdtT (5 to 15 grains) aa a diaphoretic. 

ORYZA SATIVA. 

Rick. 

,rn.— fl^n?.— Chil Chdul (husked), Dhin ; ffmrf,— Dhin, ChA- 

'al, (husked); 5an*.— Dhauya, Vrihi ; Bam.— ^hit, chokhaj 

Tarn. — Arishi ; T"*/.— Biyyum ; JmS.— Arruz ; i'er*. — Biranj. 

Tiiis well-known cereal, natural order Qramineoi, occu- 

1 pies the foremost place among the food-crops of India, and 

I forms the staple-food of the people of Bengal. Assam, 

Burma, and several parts of Madras and Bombay. The 

»tal area under cultivation in Bengal has been estimated 

It 60 milliona of acres, and the total annual production 

6f the grain in that Presidency, most of the land yielding 

1 least two harvests, at nearly 15 millions of tons. Dr. 

(Patt has stated that no fewer than 4,000 varieties of rices, 

fild and cultivated, are known and named in Bengal 

■done, and that, if the varieties produced in all India were 

■numerated, they would probably ho little short of 10,000. 

Two principal divisions are known in cultivation, aman 



214 INDIGENOUS DBUGS OF INDIA. 

or winter rice, and aus or autumn rice. Unhusked rice, is 
known as " paddj" (Mai. padi), and the husked and 
cleaned grain, which is exported very largely from Burma, 
IS the rice of commerce. 

Its nutritive value is comparatively small, containing as 
it does only 9 per cent, of nitrogenous, and about 89 per 
cent, of non-nitrogenous, principles, while the proportion of 
mineral matters is small. In chemical composition rice 
approximates to that of the potato, consisting largely of 
starch. (See Appendix, "Foods of India.") A common 
kind of alcoholic liquor, known as rice beer (pachtoai) 
prepared in a very simple manner by half boiling the grain 
in water and allowing it to feiment slightly, is in almost 
universal use by the lower classes in many parts of India. 
A raw spirit is prepared from this liquor to a considerable 
extent by a rude process of distillation. Rice is much used 
in the religious and marriage ceremonies of the Hindds. 

Medicinal uses. — Rice is free from laxative properties, 
and is therefore admirably adapted as a diet for the sick 
and convalescent, especially in cases where there is a 
tendency to diarrhoea. The decoction (rice water) is a 
pleasant demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers and 
inflammatory affections of the bowels and kidneys. It 
may be improved by the addition of a little lemon juice 
Rice poultice is sometimes used instead of linseed meal. 

OXALIS COBNICULATA. 

The Indian Sorrel. 
Vem. — Beng. — Amrul, Chuka-tripati ; Hind, — Amrul ; Sans, — 
Amlalonika ; Bom, — Bhul-sarpatl ; Tarn, — Puli-ydrai ; TeL — 
Puli-chintaku. 

A common garden weed found throughout India, natural 
order Geraniaceoe. The plant has an acid taste, due to 



INDIGENOUS DRnaS OF INDIA. 



215 



ttho pra^ence of nctd oxalate of potnaauim to wliich ia due 
its property in domestic use of removing iron stains from 
linen. 
Hediclnal usee. — The Leaves have long been consiilered 
I cooling, vefiigeraiit and antiscorbutic. They have also 

ibeen used for removing corns and other excrescences on 
libe skin. The fresli juice is believed to counteract the 
Intoxication of datura. 



OXYSTBLMA BSOTTLENTUM. 

Tem. — Beng. and Hind. — Dudhlata ; Sam. — Tiktadugdha. 

A climbing ]>Iant with odible fruit belonging to the 



AechpiadecE, wild in the ]ilains, 

Uediciaal uses. — A decoction of the PLAINT is used as a 
gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore, 
throat. The fresh Roots are .said to be used in Orlssa as 
a specific for jaundice. 



PJEDBRIA FOITIDA. 

Vem.— Srti7.-Gand!iahhAdu]i; Sind.—G&nAhkVt, Khip; 

Sam. — Praairani : Boin. — Prtisdram ; 7'e/,— Savirela. 
A twining plant of tlio natural order 'Riihiaccfe. found in 
3i8 Central and Eastern Himalaya, Western India and 
Bengal and Assam. The plant gives off when bruised a 
piarked odour of carbon disulphide. Tlie authors of the 
macographia Indian obtained a volatile Oil, by dia- 
^lation of the plant with water, which has the highly 
iffensive odour of the fresh drug. They obtained evidence 
r the presence of at least two alkaloids which they named 
novisionally a and (i PcEilcrine. 

Medicinal usee.— The Leaves and RoOT are considered 
nrholeaomo and tonic, and are used to a considerable extent 



i^^^SaOm 



21C INDIGENOUS DRD03 OF INDIA. 

in Bengal as a constituent of a food given to aict and I 
convalescent patienta. The offensive odour is removed in 
the process of cooking. 

The Plant h&n had some repute in rlienmatiHtn according 
to Sanskrit writings. 



P^SONIA EMODI. 

The Pj:ont Rose. 
Vern. — Bind. — XJd-salap, Mamekh ; Bom. — Ud-sal&m. 

The Tubers of this plant and those of P. ojfficinalia 
natural order Ranunculaceai, wliich are imported from 
Turkey, have some reputation iu uterine disorders, epilepsy, 
bilious obstructions, convulsions and hysteria. 

It was once a common belief, which is probably not 
yet extinct among the peasantry of Europe, that the pteony 
root worn round the necks of children had the effect of 
preventing and curing epileptic nttacks. 

PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS. 

Vero, — Btnff. — Kcora, Keya; Hind, — Keora ; Sans. — KetabA ; 
Bom.— Kenda ; Tatti. — TazLaa-chedi ; Tel. — Mogali-cbettu, 
A shrub with fragrant flowers, belonging to the natural 
order PandanecB, wild in Southern India, Burma, and the 
Andamans, cultivated in gardens in Bengal. A perfumed 
Oil is extracted from the floral bracts by means of sesa- 
mum oil, and a fragrant Otto and water, Keora-ka-ardk, 
are also prepared from the bracts. At the instanca of Mr. 
E. M. Holmes, Curator of the Piiannaceutical Society's 
Museum, Mr. J. G. Prebble lately undertook to distil a 
quantity of the bracts to ascertain the probable yield of 
essential oil. None was however obtained, only a small 



INDIOENODS BnXraS OF INDIA. 217 

quantity of fatty mattev, and it was assumed that the 
odorous principle was a stearopfcene allied to that contained 
in elder-flower oil. 

Medicinal UBBfl. — Tlie Oil and distilled water are 
regarded as stitaulant and antispasmodic. The former is 
useful in earache. 

PAPAVBR RHCBAS. 

The Red Poppy or Corn Rose, 
Vom. — Betig. — L&l-p6&Ui, ; Sind. — Lal-post, LSla ; Sang. — 
1 Eakta-piista ; Bom, — Jangli-mudrika ; Pers.— Koknai-e-surkh. 
This herb and P, dubium, natural order Papaveraceai, 
' are abundant in Kashmir and occasionally to be seen in 
gardens in the plains. The Petals are of a bright red 
colour and contain a colouring principle, attributed to 
the presence of two acids, Rhceadic and Papaveric. The 
Capsules on incision yield a milky juice with a slightly 
narcotic odour. It contains no morphine but a crystal- 
Usable, non-poisonous principle named Rhceadine. The 
fresh petals are used in the preparation of Syrup Rkceadus 
of the British Pkarmacopma, which is given to infants to 
L allay cough, but chiefly used as a colouring agent. 

PAFAVER SOMNIFEBUM. 

The Opium ok White Poppy. 
IVera.— .fl^'ij. — (The Cupaules) PosUwiherl ; Hluil—{0^\am) 
Aflm, Afiyiin— (The Seed.'*) Kashkash, Post; Sang.—Ahi- 
phcna; Bom. — Aphtm, appo ; raw.— Abini, Gasha-gaaha — 
(The Ciip3uleH)PoaUika-tol; Tei. — Abliini, Gasagasiilu ; Bwm 
— Bbain ; Arab. — Afiun, Qishrul-khtuih-khaah ; Fers, — Afiiin, 
Khosh-khash. 

The opium-poppy (P. somniferum var. album), with 
frbi^ flowers and white seeds, is very extenhively grown 



218 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OP INDIA. 



in India foi- tlie manufactuie of opiuin, and is by far tho 
moat important of the indigenous medicinnl plants. It 
belongs to the natural order PapaveracecE. The three 
main centres of cultivation, embracing greab tracts in the 
respective localities nre : — (1) in Behar, with head-quarters 
at Patna, the produce being known as Patna Opium and 
usually considered the best; (2) in Benares and tiio North- 
West Provinces, with a centrnl dep5t at Ghazipiir, producing 
Benares Opium; and (3) in Central and Western India and 
Rajputana, the source of what is known as Malwa Opium. 
Tlie two former, called tlie Eeharand Benares agencies, are 
directly under the administration of the Government of 
Bengal, and their product is known collectively aa Bengal 
Opium. The opium produced in great quantity in the 
province of Malwa, which is teas esteemed and usually 
fetches little mora than half the price of Patna opium, is 
grown and manufactured in the Native States without 
jurisdiction of Government, but a large revenue is derived 
from a heavy duty levied on the produce brought in transit 
to a British port for exportation. The opium industry is 
thus entirely under the monopoly of the Qoverament of 
India. Opium is also grown and produced in Nepal, Assam 
and Burma, in the district-s outside the limits of British 
territory, that of Nepal being regularly exported into 
India. 

The area under poppy eultlvatiim for Bengal opium is 
about 550,000 acros,* the number of licensed cultivatora 
usually exceeding a million. The amount of opium pro- 
duced annually ia about 00,000 mauiids (71,000 cwta.) 
Of this quantity not more than 2,500 maunds (1,850 cwta.) 



• In I893.9J it hn'i fnllcn. ciiltivntorn beinp ilie 
bail ysnra to 173,0011 ncrea. [.V,if/-.— 1 be IiiJia 
(Bppgnl) ii equal to 3^, nurea,] 



[irnged by a 



itUaof 



INDIGENOUS DRUQ3 OF INDIA. 



219 






osed in India, the remainder being exported from 
VCalcutta to China and the Straits Settlements. Malwa 
■opium is also exported to China from Bombay.' The 
Jievenue accruing from this export trade to China amounts 
■ to about £8,000,000 sterling (S crores of rupees) per annum, 
|about a seventh part of the total revenue of India. 



Opium -'► 

This is the concrete inspissated juice (or milky sap) by 
ipontaneoua evaporation, obtained by scarification of the 
anripe poppy capsules. The opium of European medicine 
is obtained from P. aovmiferum var. glabruvi, grown in 
Asia Minor, as it has been for the patit 2,000 years. The 
Boporifie properties of the drug have been known from 
ancient classic times and from a very remote period in 
fndiai possibly from tbe 7th century, although it is said not 
to be mentioned in early Sanskrit writings, 

The opium of Asia Minor is alone official in tbe British 
Pharmacopma for the manufacture of pharmaceutical pre- 
larations. although other opiums may be employed aa a 
lurce of alkaloids, 

Indian opium in the manufactured state and in powiler 
and Indian-manufactured alkaloid.') are used exclusively at 
the Government Medical Stores in India. Excis" opium, 
.Ihe special form of the drug issued fur consumption in tbe 
leouutry, is generally used in pharmacy in India, although 
tho Pharmacopoeial drug is also imported, usually in the 
dry powder and extract. The alkaloids are imported and 
ara also manufactured to some extent by private concern,^, 

The opiam-prodocing nren of ali India is probablf about one mil- 
Nad the toUl auunul frodnctian about 160,1100 tunuuili [orar 
ins] Ihs aTL'cn^e jiolit per icre being about lOseera [201b».]— 
DUl. Et-on. FrodueltKf India.) 




220 



INDIGENOUS DItUGS OF INDIA. 



Indian Opium- 

The method of opium extraction an>l manipulation, aa 
followed at the Government agencies, has been several 
times described in otBeial publications* and in the phar- 
maceutical-f- and medical journnls. The latest and beat 
account is that given by Surgn.-Ca])t. F. P. Maynard, 
Calc'.tta, formedy Ofliciatiog Factory Superintendent and 
Opium Examiner to the Uehar Agency, in the Indian 
Medical Qasette, February lS9i, from which the following 
extracts are taken : — 

"When the poppj' Jlower is in full bloom, about February, 
the rj'ota, or Aiiamti, ae tlie liceuaed opium cultivators nre oalled, 
first collect tha petals by gently removing tJietn from the capBulea, 
never plucking tliem off forcibly as this would injure the Ifttter, 
[The potaia are subsequently mnde into the'leavea' which are used 
in making the shulla of the opium cakes ] The next proceeding ia to 
collect the poppy juice, tiud this ia a very critioal operation, clepend- 
ing largely for ita succeaa on favourable climatic conditions. EzCeM 
of liumidity in the atmosphere increaaes the Sow of juice, but at tlio 
same time gives riee to a eubatance termed fattTDht, a iiygroBCopie 
liquid of strong opiate smell aud vary acrid taste, which, tlioa;;h 
perfectly pure opium and indeed valuable for ita alkaloids, caus«» 
the opium containing it to give a higher assay than a hand eatimn 
tion would lead one to inter, and so giving the cultivator, who is 
|>aid for his opium on its consistence a higher price thau he deserv«a : 
and, moreover, its hygroscopic quality renders It unfit to be used for 
the interior of the opium cakes. 

The Atsamig turn out in the afternoons armed with acsrifiera 
made of 4 to G pointed Jlat piecDa of iron, 4 inches to 6 inches long, 
bound together with cotton thread. By ptaaing the tlu'ead between 
each piece and binding them up to within | inch or ^ inch of ths 
end, a very good scariSer, capable of making limited inciaions, ia 



' Eatwell, The Oplvm Poppy; Awtt, Manual of Opii'ui /luih/tadry. 
t Dr. P. A. Weir, I'harmaciKtIeat Journal. Anguat aist, 1689, qwot- 
JDg lilt Journal of the Bueitty if Cktmieal tnduilry. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDU. 



I Iliads. With tbeaa tbej inoiae the capsulsa vertioitUy in thrse or 
four places, iknd at once n milky jufce eiudes. This ia oollected the 
following morning by means of a Bmnll iron BCoop und stored in 
wrlhen veeaela. Ench set of incUioua yields a grain or two of opium, 
And ll>e scarification a are repeated as long as an/ juice flows. Ab 
tbns collected opium is a gruuular roga-red liquid containing 46 to 
40 per cent, of moisture. It ia kept in tlia sliade in earthen veasela 
tilted to an angle of 46 degrees — to allow the /tasewha to separate 
ftnd be removed — and con ta mi nation with duat avoided, until it has 
bscoms inepiaaated, when it is brougbt in, at the appointed time, to 
the District Officer. 

The remains of the po|ipy plant, atems, Isavsa and capeulea aro 
Lrokea up and sent in also ns Iraih, which is uaed for packing the 
opium sent to China. 
[After examination, as^ay »nd classification the drug is packed in 

■tbs three forms in which it is iaaued.] l.-^l'roniion Opium for the 
CSiioa market. This ia always sent out [in round balls] at a standard 
aorsistence ofTf>°[iV>35 per cent, moiature,] It ia packed in cheats and 
despatched to Calcutta, where it ia acid at auction to the highest bidder 
at the monthly sales by the Board of Eevenua. II.— A bkari or £xeUe 
Opium for consumption in India. This is tlm same opium as for 
provision purposes, but it is dried iu shallow wooden trays in the sun 
and stirred till its consistence reaches 00", whan it ia made into 
[square] cakes, weighing a iter [21-ba,] each, in a hand-press. The 
cakes are wrapped in three layers of Nepal paper, the inner of which 
is oiled with poppy oil. lU.— Medical Opium is all mads itt I'atna 
and is of two kinds— cakes and powder— and is made from the same 
opium as I and II, that of the highest consistence and lightest colour 
beiu); selected. It ia spread out iu shallow wooden trays iu the shade, 
carefully protected from duat and kueaded by hand every few days 
until it rises to 9C^ consistence. This takes mouths to effect, and it 
is then pressed in a hand-press into cakes of one *eer each, wrapped 
in Nopal paper and issued on indent to the Medicnl Store -keepers. 
Tbs powder is simply opium dried to a powder on plates an the 
Bteam table and is puro opium at 100° conaiatence. IV. — Opium 
not suitable for any of tiia above purposes, confiscated opium, and 
paitin/ui is sent to Ohasipnr, where it ii uied for the eitractiou 
of alkaloids." 



222 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



Chemistry of Opium. 

The chemical compositiou of opium is extremely com-' 
plex. The following 18 alkaloids have been isolated. 

Alkaloids : 



Primary 



Derived 



Morphine, 




Apomorphine. 
Oxydimorphine. 




Codeine . 




Apocodeine. 
Desoxycodeine. 




Tkehaine or 


para- 


Thebenine. 





morphine. 

Narcotine or Anarcotine. 

Narceine, 

Crjptopine. 

Hydrocotariiine. 

PdeudomQr pb i ne. 

Protopiue. 

Laudauine. 

Codaiuine. 

Papaverine. 

Bhoeadiiie. 

Meconidine. 

Laudauosine. 

Lauthopine. 

Gnoscopiue. 

Xauthaliue. 



Thebaic! ne 
Cotarniue. 



Rhoeagenine. 



The last mentioued was announced by Messrs. T. and H. 
Smith, Edinburgh, in 1893, although it was discovered by 
them twelve years previously. Tliere are also present 

Acids : 
Meconic, Thebolactic, Acetic. 

Neutral Principles : 
Meoonine or Opianine, Meoonoiosin. 



INDIQENOIIS DltUQS OF INDIA, 223 

Ad additional neutral constituent was isolated by Pedler 
fttid Warden in 1886 from Bengal opium, but not named. 
Atiotlier priucipte, Porphyroxin, first described by Merck 
and found in Bengal and Smyrna opiums is interesting as 
being a means of detection of opium in medico-legal re- 
search in cases of suspected polsuning by the drug. Por- 
phyroxiu has the property of turning purple in presence 
of hydrochloric acid, and is at once evident on applying 
ileiusch's test in the preliminary examination for mineral 
poisons in the viscera. This test was drst applied by the 
ftutlior whili: additional Chemical Examiner to Qovernment 
in 18G7, and communicated to the International Plmnna- 
ceutieal aud Medical Congress held in London in July, 1881. 
Tliere are nninerons other derivatives of minor interest. 
Morphine and the m><ro important of the other alkaloids are 
in combination with meconlc acid as meconates; narcutine is 
present in the free state. Only those in italics in the above 
hbt have been invistigated tlierapeuticully. The medicinal 
I valueof theopinmofcoursedependson the presence of these 
ralkaloids, the proportion of which varies greatly iuditlereut 
[^opiums. Good Smyrna opium in powder should not yield 
less than 10 per cent, of morphine. Indian opium is notable 
for its low percentage of that nlkaloid— 3 to 5 per cent, is 
a fair average, although 8 per cent, has been reached, — and 
large proportion of narcotinc* — about i to ti or even 8 per 
, cent., as compared with the Smyrna drug 1 to 2 pur 
i cent. A special research undertaken by L)r. B. il. Paul and 
lilr. A. J. Cownley i^l'lutrm. Jatirn., 2+th December 1892J, 



la cLtcamaUtnce bu bctn attiibutcd l>j the >utliorH ol Ilia PAi 
aeagraphia Co " a inetliDd of collection nbiuh is r&ilicull; delccUTu : 
'm •oMoelj oanceiTiible tliat the Iod^ petiod daring irhich tho juice re 
M in the wet bUU— klwaiii^ Id t weelu — iIdcb not uieroUe b, deeCrnU' 
Mn uilon on lu oooBliiuciiW." 




224 



INDIGENOUS DKUGS OF INDIA. 



with a view to ascertain the applicability of ludian opiam 
for general |)hannaceutieal purposes* restiUed, in a sample 
of dried Patna opium supplied by Dr. Warden, in a yield 
of 8'55 per cent, of morphine. A tincture made from it waa 
found to yield on evaporation 21-3 grains of dry extrafib 
per fluid ounce, as compared wit!» a sample of Turkey 
opium which yielded 1084 per cent, of morphine and 19'8 
grains of extractive. The former was equal to 274 grains 
of morphine in each ounce of tincture, and the latter to 3'4 
grains, the Bnthh Pkarmacopceia requirement being 3'3 
grains. Dr, George Watt, CLE., Reporter on Eeonomie 
Products to tlie Government of India has recentlyf- re- 
expressed the desirahility that experiments shotild be un- 
dertaken to determine definitely wlietlier the low percent- 
age of morphine in Indian opium is due to the Indian 
mode of preparation of the ding, or whether the alkaloid 
is deBcieiit in the juice of the poppy. Ho suggests that 
since the crude product is collected by the Natives in poivfta 
or unglazed earthen vessels and " in consequence a large 
amount of its fluid contents is absorbed and drained off 
before it reaches the factory, it is possible that n larger 
proportion of the morphine may bo thus lost than ',here is 
any conception of at present.''^ 

* Mr, E. M. Holmvf, v LB , liud eipresaed cheopiuiou iita luttotiiifcof tlie 
BritiHh PliunuaceiiUcaiCouCereuceboliliD Curdilf ia I8t)2 tliut "there Ii 
no reaaon wli; ludia, iuBlesd of Tnrke;, tboulJ not suppl; the «rbi>l« 
woiM with meiliciiiBl opiam." 

t PKaToiaeeKtical Joarnal, Sept. T, IBOfi, qnotlog tlio Imperial XiutU 
(life Joufjial. 

X Dr. Walt (nrthec suggests thnt tbe objection to the use of IndUn 
opium in EiiTopiJiin Phurmaoj " proceeds more froni prejudice tbitn fact, 
the dtag being univerialt; prcsetibed in India (in the urdiiiarj Entopeui 
preparntioQB and in die same doeo) with tharapentio slleots idenUoal 
With the Baropean experience aoqnlred with Tarkej opium." 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



225 



The bj'di-ochlorate, sulphate and acetate of morphine and 
the alkaloid codeine are manufactured at Ghazipur. Nar- 
cotiiie was formerly prepared, but is not now in demand. 

The chemical constitution of the vapour produced when 
opium la amotced has not yet been clearly ascertained. The 
active principles of the drug are not, or to a very sljo-ht 
extent, volatilizable by heat, although morphine is probably 
carried into the lungs in finely divided particles with the 
carbonaceous matter of the smoke. 

The poppy juice also contains a peculiar gum, wax, 
caoutchouc, albumen, sugar, and an undetermined essen* 
tial oil. 

Medicinal osea. — The therapeutics of the drug opium are 

■well and popularly known. It is the moat largely used and 

perhaps the most important agent in the Materia Medioa. 

Primarily and iu small doses its action is stimulating, 

L flecondarily it is narcotic, anodyne and antispasmodic : under 

Llts influence the pupil of the eye becomes contracted: in 

koverdosesitisapowerful poison. The internal and external 

Applications of the numerous pharmacopceial and other 

Kiireparations of opium are too numerous to be detailed 

■liere.* Of the alkaloids, morphine is almost purely narcotic. 

B'The action of the morphine salts is similar to that exerted 

Bl^ opium generally ; they are much administered hypoder- 

mically and have leas tendency to nausea and headache 

I Hian the crude drug. Codeine has a feebly narcotic action 

bUd is much used to allay cough in phthisis. Thebaine 

B purely convulsive in its action, resembling strychnine 

. this respect. Narcotine has no narcotic properties (its 

newer name, Anarootine, is to be preferred on this account) ; 

it was formerly issued by the medical depSta in India and 

" A NoMoD the Tberapj of Opium and iCs Alknloida," b; the 
In Utdieat Itrporter. Oslcattn, October IGth. 1891. 
K, ID 15 




£26 



ISDIGESOCS DRUGS OP ISDIA. 




much used as an anttperiodic* id remittent fever &ud agoe^ 
but has now been eutirely superseded by quiuioe aad 
cinchona febrifuge : its use has recently been re-aJvocated.t 
Karceiue is a soporiGc. Apomorphine is a powerfol ex- 
pectorant and non-irritant emetic. 

Bruised " poppy- heads " are used as a sedative foment- 
ation and poultice. They contain a trace of opium. As 
grown in ludia they are much smaller than thoaij imported 
from and grown in England. 

Toxicology. 

Opium is sold iu common wkb many other dangeroos 
poisons without restriction ill the bazirs throughout Bengal 
and elsewhere. Cases of opium-poisoning, chiefly 3uicidal4^ 
are of very frequent occurrence in the towns; they ate 
recorded daily in the newspapers, and the number of caeaa 
which remain unrecorded iu the country districts must be 
considerable, 

A new, prompt and reliable antidote to opium and 
morphine poisoning is announced by Dr. William Moor of 
New York (British Medical Journal, 22nd June 1895) 
and recently confirmed by Dr. Raw of Dundee, in per- 
manganate of potassium. It has been shown that this 
completely oxidises the alkaloid and renders it void c^ 
toxic properties. One grain of the permanganate has been 

* It biB been contended ihM the preponderance ol DBrcatins ovir 
morphine in Indian opium (lea tlie Chapter on " Cbemistt; of Oplom"), 
is a natara! provifiion aEainet malajift in those diacriots where it abouidB 
Mid an argnitienC is faroor of its babitnal use ob a piopbf lactic. 

t Sir William RobertB, M.D., British Medical Asaociatioa, 1896. 

] Tbn number reported by the Chemical Gxamiuer to the QoTemment 
Qt Bongai duciug IS'Jl was TG (inclndiog U b; morphioe) out of SSO 
bninui viaceru examined, althongh tliia doea not indicate ths 
niimbei of dealiiB due to opium- poison iiig. 



» 



INDIGENOUS DROGS OF INDIA. 227 

found to oxidise exactly one grain of a niorpliine sa!t. 
It is administered in solution in water, repeated two or 
three times, aud in the case of the alkaloid itself or opium 
and its preparations it is considered advisable to acidulate 
the antidotal solution with dilute sulphuric acid. 

The Opiom Habit in India. 

The h&bitual use of opium by a large proportion of the 
people of India and the policy of Qovernment In encouraging 
its cultivation and manufacture and export to China have 
been subjects of much discussion and agitation during many 
years. The last Royal Commission on Opium — appointed 
in 1893, to enquire whether the Government of India should 
not diminish or suppress the cultivation of the poppy in 
British India, except for medical purposes — has set at rest 
for a considerable period many (juestiona upon which much 
opinion aud sentiment have been expended. Thi? consensuB 
of medical evidence, European and Native, official and 
private, adduced in India before the Commission showed 
that opium was a panacea with large communities of the 
people from childhood to old age and their only safeguard 
in unhealthy environments in many large districts where 
their poverty and the comparative scarcity of medical 
men prevented their obtaining medical advice. It was 
commonly believed to be a prophylactic against malaria, 
rheumatism, diabetes, endemic diarrhoea, cholera and dy- 
sentery, while the belief in its use in the mitigation 
of suffering and in painful and wasting diseases was all 
but nniversal. It further appeared that, although much 
of the virtue attributed to it, for instance, as tend- 
ing to longevity, was probably over-estimated, and much 
of the invigoratiou produced by it was largely artificial, 
there was no evidence of extensive moral, physical or 



kof the 1 
there v 



228 rNDiQENous DRras of india. 

social degiftdation from its use in any measure comparaUfl 
with the use of alcohol in other countries similarly as an 
article of luxury and indulgence. Tlie author, in the 
course of hia evidence, stated that no injurious effects 
attended its moderate use, and that it was believed to have 
the desirable effect in old age of arresting or retarding 
molecular change. The report ot the Commission, issufid 
in 1895, was in effect (hat the non-medical and quaai- 
medical uses of the drug were so interwoven with the 
pmely medical uses, that it would not be practicable to 
draw a distinction between them in the distribution and 
sale of the drug, and that it would be impolitic to interpose 
any obstacle to the easy acquisition by the people of bo 
important a household medicament. The habitual use of 
opium as a stimulant by young people was generally 
condemned, and opium-smoking, in the forms of chandii 
and madat, though now little practised in India, was 
considered a disreputable habit.* 

It should be noted that the opium habit is practised in 
India to a much smaller extent than in China. The present 
system of administration, which has been a State monopoly 
since the time of the Mogul dynasty and subsequently in 
the days of the Honourable John Company, was considered 
satisfactory by the Royal Commission. It has the advan- 
tage over private enterprise in precluding to a large extent 
the possibility of adulteration and corruption. 

Other products of P. somnifenini. 

Poppy Seeds are exported : they are cooked and eaten in 
certain curry powders, and are used by the sweetmeat 
makers. They yield by expression about 50 per cent, of a 
clear Oil, having a similar composition to linseed oil and 



* Repott of Ihe Bojal Comm 



Q Opini: 



189G, Vol. e, p, 9T 



INDIGENOUS DBUaS OF INDIA. 229 

diying slowly in the air. Poppy-seed oil is well adapted as a 
sabstitute for olive oil in diapeuaavy practice, and it 13 pro- 

fbly used to adulterate olive oil. It has 00 narcotic pro> 
rties, although it is much used as a soothing application. 
PABMELIA PBRLATA. 
Vem.— Hini/.— Charfla,Pathar-ke-phul. 
The above and several other species of the lichen order 
are sold in the bazars under vernacular names meaning 
" stone-flowera." 

Medicinal oaea. — These lichens have long been regarded 
in India as astringent and resolvent. They were formerly 
considered useful as a diuretic, applied in the form of 
loultico to the renal and lumbar region. 



I CO 



PAVETTA INDICA. 

Vem. — Seng. — Kukura-chura ; Bind. — Pfipari, Kaakra ; >S^iim> 
— PippAna ; ram.— Pa vuttay-vayr ; 2*^/.— Pfiputtfi-vaynl, 
A common shrub, natural order Ruhlacem, found through- 
lut India. The authora of the Pkai'macograpkia Indica 

XBolated from the root a bitter glucoside closely allied to 

salioin. 

Kedlclnal nses. — The bitter Root is frequently prescribed 

by Native physicians in visceral obstructions. It has a 

purgative action. 

PAVONIA ODORATA. 

I Vein. — Beng. — Bali ; Hind. — Bila, Sugaudha - bali ; Sant.— 
BAli, Hrivora; Bom. — KilA-vald; Tam. — Perdmutiver; Te/, — 
Erra kuti. 

An herb of the Malvacete, with a musk-like odour, wild 
1 the North- West Provinces, the Western Peninsula, Sind 
md Burma. 



ti^fe 



230 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



Medicinal uees.— The Roots, which also have the odour 
of musk, are regarded as cooling and stomachic and enter 
into the composition of a well-known fever drink called 
Sadgandba pdmya. The carminative action of the root 
is believed to be due to the aromatic odorous principle. 



Vera. — Hind. — Jloti 



PBABLS. 

Sans. — Mukta; rom.— Muthu-chippi ; 
rri.— Muti-amu. 

The Indian pearl fisheries have been notabio from time 
immemorial. Quite an industry still exists off the coast of 
Cej'Ion and the South-Eastern Coast of India, near Tinne- 
velly and Madura in fishinj; for the ' pearl-oyster,' 

The Calcarea Carb. of the homreopatlis is the calcined 
" mother-of-pearl " from the inside of the shell, 

Medicinal uses. — The pearl has been held in great re- 
pute in Indian medicine for many centuries. It formed an 
ingredient in several of the complex prescriptions peculiar 
to Sanskrit Materia Mcdica. Ita only virtue was probably 
in the calcined state as an alkaline ash, chieSy carbonate 
and oside of lime, acting as an antacid in heart-burn and 
bilious affections. It was formerly esteemed hy the Hindfis 
in urinary diseases and consumption, and was believed 
to increase the strength, nutrition, and energy of weak 
patients. Itoncehada place in the British Pharmacopoeia. 

PEDALIUM MTTBBX. 

The Burra GoKEnri. 
Vem. — £eny.-— Bara-ghdknS ; Bind. — Bftni-gokhni, Fartdbuti ; 

£om. — Motto-gh6kr(i ; Tam. — Peru-nerunji ; ?V/. — Peddji- 
"{Mlleru. 

A succulent herb, natural order Pedalinets, common in 
the Deccan, Southern India and Ceylon. The four-angled 



INDIQKNOUS DKnaS OF INDIA. 231 

Spiny Fruit is easily obtained in the bazars under ths 
above names. It haa tlie property, in common with the 
LeaTbs, of rendering water or milk mucilaginous when 
steeped in them, without imparting any colour or taste. 
The fresh plant and fruit are covered witii minute 
crj'atnllino glanda to which this property is attiibuted. 
The chota'gol:hr& ia the fruit of Trihuhia tei-reatria (q, v.). 
Medicinal usea. — The mucilaginous property alluded to 
above has long been utilized in India, the ct-ld watery 
infusion beiug used as an etfeotive demulcent and diuretic 
solders of the urinary system where a mucilaginous 
agent is indicated, Tlie Seeds have of late years gained 
some reputation as remedies for spermatoiThcoa and in- 

Ieontinence of urine, in cold infusion of one ounce to a 
pint, this quantity being administered daily. The Leaves 
sre used very largely by the common people as a healing 
triplication to ulcers. 
vil 



PEQAITUM HABMALA. 

IIarmai. : SvRiAN Rue. 
I Vera. — Beng. — ^Isbfind : Uind. — Haruial, Hurmul; Bom, — 

Hurmai ; Tarn. — Shimai-azha-vanai-virai ; Tel. — Shimagoranti- 

vittulu; Pers. — Ispand. 

A shrub of the Rittacece found in North-Western India, 
Che PunjAb, Sind and Persia, and in the Western Deccan, 
The Seeds are imported from Persia and are easily obtain- 
able. They yield a red dye. They also contain two &\ka- 
\oida, narmaline and Harinine, and a soft red-coloured 
resin with a narcotic odour resembling that of Cannabis 
indica. 

Medicinal ubos.— The Seeds may be regarded as narcotic, 
anodyne, emetic and emmenagogue. The powder, in doaes 
of ^ to S drachms, is a good anodyne in asthma, colic and 



232 



INDIGENOUS DRCGS OF INDIA.. 



jaundice, and the watery iofusion is similarly useful. A 
tincture has been found to have tuild emmeiiagogue pro- 
perties resembling those of ergot. Wounds are fumigated 
by burning the seeds, the smoke being believed to hAve ' 

antiseptic properties. 

PERIOAMPYLUS INOANUS. 

The Roots of this MeHispennaceoua plant are sold in 
the Bengal bazars under the name of Bardh-kanta. They 
have long been held in great repute among snake-charmers 
in India as an antidote to the bites of poisonous snakes. 
An interesting research lately concluded by Snrgeou-Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel D. D. Cunningham,* has proved that a fluid 
extract of the roots, vflien injected into the bitten place, 
possesses decided remedial power, though it has no general 
action. It acts by precipitating the poison, and thus ren- 
dering it inert when brought into direct relation witti it 
prior to the absorption of the venom into the system gen- 
erally. The chemical constitution of the drug is under 
investigation by Mr. David Hooper, 



PBTBOSBLINUM SATIVUM. 

Syn.^ApiuM i 

The Parsley, 

This culinary herb is cultivated in gardens in Indian 
Natural order Utnbelli/ercE. It is interesting as being the 
source of Apiol, a green oily liquid which is distilled from 
the Root. The name is also applied to a crystalline 
Btearoptene contained in parsley Oil distilled from the i 
Seed. 

* DepartmeiiC of the Saniurj Com mise inner with the Ocvftrament tit I 



INDIGENOUS DKUQS OF INDiA. 233 

Mfldlolnal uses. — Apiol has been much recommended in 

KftmenoiTlicea and in dysmenorrlifpa, in doses of 2 to 3 
I miniiiis, admiuisteied in capaulea. 

PEUCBDANUM GBAVBOLENS- 
Syn. — Anethum sowa. 
The Dill: Sowa. 
a. — £eng. — Sowa, Siilpha; Sind. — Sowd, Soya; Sans,— 

Satapusbpi. 
This herb, natural order UmbelU/ertB, ia cultivated in 
Indian gardens for culinary purposes. The Seeds yield 
an essential Oil which is largely used for its valuable 
carminative properties. Its principal constituent is a fluid 
I hydrocarbon Anethone. Another constituent is believed to 
p be identical with the Caruot of Carum carui. P. grande, 
growing on the Hills of Western India, also yields an essen- 
tial oil with a more lemon-like flavour than the true dill, 
J Uedicinal uses. — The oil, essence and water of dill are 

^^^L much esteemed iu India as carmiuatives for flatulence in 
^^H children and in adults. 



a 

^T g 



PKARBITIS NIL. 

Sea Ifom^a i 



PHCBNIX DACTYLIPBBA. 

TuE Edible Date. 
em. — Beng.~~ Gharar-khejur ; Eind, — Khurmi, Chhiih^l 
Sana.—' EharjjiSra ; Som. — Chunrti, Eurma ; Tarn. — P^rich- 
ohankay; Tel. — Karjuru-kdyo; Arab. — Khurrodi-yibis; Pera, — 
Khu rmal-Khushk. 

This tall date-palm (Palmce) is cultivated in Sind and 

Southern and Western PunjAb, chiefly in the Mdit n 

district. The tree ia known generally as khajiir. The 



231 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



Fkuit has long been valued in India, and in some parts 
used as a food, although ik is much inferior to that im- 
ported from Arabia and Egypt. The Seeds have been 
roasted aud ground and used as coffee — " date coffee." 

Medicinal oaes. — The sweet, pulpy FnuiT is demulcent, 
expectorant, laxative and nutrient. A paste made of the 
ground SEEDS is said to be applied in Southern India for 
opacity of the cornea. A GuM, kuhn cliil, obtained from tbe 
tree, is used as a demulcent in genito-urinary affections. 

FHCENIZ SYLVBSTBIS. 

The Wild Date Palm : The Datk-Sdgab Palm, 
Vem. — Beng. — Khejur ; Rind. — Kliajur, Sendhi, Thalm» j 
■Sons. — Kliarjjiira; Tarn. — Itchaninar j Tel. — lahan-chedi. 
This is the date-palm of India and is widely distri- 
buted in India and Ceylon. It is common in Bengal and 
Behar, regions where the cultivated variety (P. dactylifera) 
is not found. Date-sugar {dhulua) is made by evaponat* 
ing the sap obtained from notches cut in the tree : this soft 
yellowish sugar is an article of considerable commerce in 
Jessore. The juice is also fermented aud used a.? an intoxi- 
cating drink or toddy {tari). 

PHYLLANTHUS BMBLICA. 
Syn. — EaBLicA officinalis. 

E.MBLIC MYROBALAN, 

Tern. — Beng. — Amid, Amlaki; Bind. — AonU, Amlaki ; 

— Amalflki ; Sem.— Avalkati ; yam.— Selli-ktti ; Tel. — 
- TJaereki. 

A medium sized tree, natural order Euphorbiacea, 
common all over Tropical India, found also in Burma, The 
leaves, bark and the fresh, unripe fruit contain tannin, the 
latter about 35 per cent. {Pharmacographia /flrfico.) 



INDIGEN0D8 DRUGS OF INDIA. 



235 






medicinal uses. — The fresh juice of the round, acidulous 
Fruit is used in combination with that of the other My- 
Tobalans — Cliebulic {Terminalia Chebula) and Beleric (T. 
belerica) q.v., in the form of a decoction known as triphala 
(three fruits) — as a cooling and refrigerant sherbet, and as 
an astringent medicine in diarrhcea, haemoptysis, hiemate- 
mesb, and the like. The Root also contains an aatringeut 
principle. 

The fresh ripe Fruits o£ Emblic Myrobalan are used very 
lai^ely in India as a laxative, one or two being sufEcient 
for a doae. They have been exported co Europe, preserved 
in sugar, and are valued as a pleasant laxative for children 

id made into a confection consisting of the pulp of the 

;it freed from the seeds. 



PHYLLANTHUS NmURI and P. URINARIA. 
Tern. — £eng. — Bhui-smlA; Hinii. — Jiirimla : Suns.— Bhumyi- 

malaki; Som.—Bhui-&va\& ; Tam.—Kixhk&y-aetii; Tel.^ 

N^Ia-usirika. 

These herbs, belonging to the Euphorbiacete, are com- 
mon in Central and Southern India, extending to Ceylon. 
Both plants are used for the same purposes, P. uHnafia 
I lieing known by the addition of the adjective red to the 
ftAbove vernacular names. The authors of the Pharmaco- 
graphia Indica isolated from the whole plant of P. Niruri 
a bitter neutral principle which they named provision- 
ally PBeudo-chiratin, and whioh has subsequently been 
investigated imd named Pbyllanthin. 

Medicinal uses. — The plant is considered deobstrueat, 
diuretic, astringent and cooling. It ia administered in 
.jaundice in doses of a teaspoonful of the dried powdered 
plant, and in decoction. 



INDiailNOUS DRUGS OF IMDU. 

PHYSALIS PLEXTJOSA. 

See WiTHANIA 90M.V1FEKA. 



PICRASMA QUASSIOIDBS. 

Vem. — fieny.^Charaagi ; Hind. — Bbarungi. 

A small tree belonging to the sub-tropical Him&laya.fl 
The wood of this tree waa many years ago advocated aa an. 1 
indigenous substitute for the true Quassia— the wood ofl 
Picrcsna excdaa — of the West Indies. It belongs to tho f 
same natural order, SimarubecB. According to the Pfiarma- \ 
eopcBUi of India the wood is brought to Bengal from the 
hills under the name of Bharanffi, but the authors of the 
Phai-niacographia Indica have shown that what is usually i 
sold under this name is the root and stems of Cleroderi' i 
dron aerratum. An exhaustive research by Dymock and ^ 
Warden (Phami. Journ., 20th July 1889) into the actual | 
chemical constitution of the wood of P. quaaaioides i 
compared with quassia, indicated the presence of a bitter I 
crystalline principle, probably the Qaassiin of the trus I 
quassia. The wood is not so bitter to the taste aa ordinary I 
(juassia. The structure of both closely corresponds. 

Medicinal usea. — The Wood might be employed aa t 
bitter tonic and stomachic in the same way as the import- 1 
ed drug. 

PICRORHIZA EURROOA. 

Vem. — Beno. and Hind. — Kutki, Eatki, Kara ; Sam.— 
Katuki ; Bom. — Kdli-kutki ; Tarn. — Katnku-rogani ; Ttl. — 
£iLtuku-ronl. 
An herb common on the Alpine Himalaya from KaabmCr 

to Sikkim. Dr. Watt has lately stated* that the plant la 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



237 



int at altitiiiles of 10,000 to 15,000 feet, and 
)llectioTi and transportation gives employment 
iber of persona. He had seen iu Kangra 
alone during a march of about a week's duration quite 100 
tnule loads of this drug being carried towards the plains. 
Natural order ScrophularinefB. The drug consists of the 
small, thin Rhizome. Considerable confusion has been occa- 
moned through the name kutki having been applied to 
several drugs, chiefly the poisonous Black Hellebore. 

The authors of the Pharmacographia Indica have isola- 
ted a bitter principle, named Picrorhiziti, and a decomposi- 
tion product, Picrorhizetin, which is believed to exist in 
small proportion naturally formed in the drug. Cathartic 
acid was supposed also to be a constituent. 

Medicinal uses. — The Rhizome is bitter and stomachic, 
in doses of 10 to 20 grains, much used as a popular remedy 
:n dyspepsia. It has been found useful as an antiperiodic 
n doses of 30 to 40 grains. In both instances it may be 
advantageously combined with aromatics and in smaller 
doses may be given to children. 



IFIMPINELLA ANISUM. 
Anise. 
fn. — Seng. — Muhiirl, Mithe^-jirA; JZind, — Sfturi^ Anisdn ; 
Bom. — Ervftdos; Tarn.— Sombd; Tel. — Kuppi. 
!his well-known herb of the Uvibelliferai is cultivated 
Persia and in Northern India. The Frdit yields an 
essential Oil — Oil of Anise-seed — which consists mainly of 
Anethol or Anise camphor. 

Medicinal uses. — The FaniT and essential Oil are much 
valued in India as being aromatic, stomachic and carmina- 
tive. Anise water — Arah Badian — is also much used for 
the same purposes. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDU, 

PmnS DEODABA. 

See Ckdf 



PINUS LONGIPOLIA. 

The Txinc-leaved Pixb: Ch/k Pwe, 

Vem.— (The Tree) i^ind.—Saral, Chir, ClUl; 

(The Oleo-ResLn) Bind. — Gandha-biroza, Chfr-ka-goad. 

Tlii3 tree is the comiuouest of the Himalayan Coniferas. \ 
It covei-a {jreat areas iu Upper and North- Western lodia J 
from AfghAuistiin to Kashmir, Like the Deodar and s 
ral other Indian pines it is the source of an Olbo-Resin 1 
which ia a product of considerable importance to the people J 
of India. Extending to comparatively low altitudes and j 
therefore more accesaibEe, the resin of this tree is perhaps | 
the most largely collected and made use of. The oleo-resin ' 
exudes naturally in small quantity from the bark and is 
collected in larger quantity by making incisions or notches 
into the wood. This crude product is heated in order to 
obtain the Rksin which ia usually employed medicinally, 
the valuable volatile principles being thus dissipated. 

A very pure turpentine, Chlr Pine Oil, may be distilled 
from the oleo-resin, leaving a fine light-brown colophony 
resin. It ia distilled and collected to a small exteat from 
chips of tlie aromatic wood during the production of Ohlr i 
Pine Tar. 

Dr. Watt has suggested that the wood might prove auit- j 
able for the manufacture of wood-wool, now largely used" 
as a highly absorptive surgical dressing, and for pine-wood 
paper and other useful products. 

Uedloinal uses. — The Oliiio-Ri^sin and resin are much 
usedas external stimulating applications, for ulcers, abscesses 
and the lilie, and as a basis for plasters and an ingredieDt 



INDIQENODS DBUGS OF INDIA, 



239 



in ointraents. Internally they are used to some extent 
aad ■with aome succoaa as a stimulant diuretic in gleet and 
similar affections. The purified oleo-resin might be given 
in. doses o£ one to two drachms in emulsion. The tar is 
employed in chronio bronclaitia and phthisis, and is a 

ITomite application in skin diseases. 
At 
kted 



FIFER BETLE. 
Syn. — CuAvicA Beile. 
Betel Pepper. 
■Pin; jffiiirf.— Pan, Tambuli ; Ai»».— Tfimbula, 



-Pin, Vilyadele; 
— Tttinb^l. 



raw.— Vettilai ; 



.JTigavalli; Boti 
Niga-valli ; Per 

A twining plant of the natural order Piperacem, culti- 
Aed very oxtenaively in the warm and moist parts of 
India, in Bengal and Orissa, Madras, the North-West and 
Centml Provinces, Bombay and Burma, for its Leaves, 
which form ths basis of the favourite masticatory {pdn- 
au/piiri) of the East. The ' betel-vine' is a delicate plant 
and requires great care and skill iu its cultivation, In 
;al, the pdn garden is carefully enclosed and covered 
with wicker work and the prettily trellised plants 
ao interesting ohjeet. The gardens producing the best 
,ves are said to be those of the banks of the Hooghly. 
practice of chewing the betel leaf is universal among 
Natives of India of all classes and castes. Slices of 
nut {Areca catechu, q. v., erroneously but popularly 
the held nut) with a proportionate quantity of 
icha and various spices according to the means and 
of the individual are wrapped in the leaf previously 
ith ft little chunam or shell-lime. This combina- 
bclieved to act as a gentle stimulant, tonic and 



iriH^ 



240 INDIGENOUS DRDOS OP IKDIA. 

digestive. It certainly has a useful action in iacreamn^ 
the salivary aeoretion, while the antheptic property of the 
betel leaf is beneficial, but, as practised, betel-chewing haa 
the unpleasant effect; of highly colouring the saliva and 
staining the teeth. 

Betel-leaf contains an aromatic essential Oil [isolated 
by Kemp, in 1S85, as a heavy and a light volatile oil). 
Treatment of the oil by caustic potash yields Chavlcol, a 
phenol having powerful antiseptic properties, said to be 
five times more powerful than carbolic acid and twice aa 
strong as eugenol. To this " betel-phenol " is due the 
characteristic odour of the leaves and oil. It is stated in 
Dr. Watt's Dictionary of the Economic Products of India 
that an alkaloid named Arakene, with properties some- 
what allied to those of cocaine, has been extracted from 
the leaves.* 

Uediclnal Qsee-— The fresh Leaves and the fresh juice 
of the leaves and the On. have aromatic, carminative and 
astringent properties. The warm leaves form a valuable 
application to the chest in cases of bronchial difiiculty, and 
are applied to the mamma; to check the secretion of milk, 
A little of the juice o£ the leaf is dropped into the ear to 
relieve earache. A common practice is to insert the stalk 
or midrib of the leaf, previously dipped in castor oil, after 
the manner of a suppository for constipation of children. 

It is remarkable that, notwithstanding the extensive use 
of the leaf in India, and " in spite of repeated efforts to 
introduce it to European practice, the oil has never given 
rise to the slightest interest in medical circles." (Berititte 
von Sdiimmel <& Oo., April 1892.) Its employment has 



• [Mr. Ddvid Hooper, F.O.S , F.L.S., oommentiog oi 
to ft reTiaftl of the proofs of tliis work, a&ja that ho o 
cal Hiithoritf for it.] 



this gtsMment, 



^1 



INDIQENOUS DRUGS OF INDl^ 



241 



f 



been auggeatied in recent yeavs in inflammation of the 
mucous membmue of the larynx, and in diphtheria, uaed as 
It is very powerful and must be largely diluted. 



PIPER OHABA. 

Syn. — P. OFFiciNARuu. 

-5eRj.— Chai; Sind.—Ch&h, Chavi ; 5ana.— Chavikdj 

Bom. — Kankala, Cbavak. 

This plant, natural order Piperacm, is a Native of tha 

Indian Archipelago (Java and Sumatra), Its fruit is tho 

Long Pepper of European commerce, and is imported into 

Calcutta vid Singapore (see also P. longum). 

Medicinal uaea. — The Fruit is considered aromatic, 
litimolant and carminative, occasionally used in medicines 
lughs and throat affections. It is obtainable in the 
rs, but is not much used in Native medicine. 



PIPER CUBEBA 

Syn. — CuriEBA OFFICINALIS. 

CUBEBS 

B, — Beng. and ffitul. — KiLbal>cliiai ; Sana.- 
lanurioha j Bom. — Kdbdb-chini ; 7'am.— Vdl-milaku ; Tel. — 
l*Obalavn-miriyalu; Pers. — Kibabeh ; Arab. — Kababah, 
^ A climbing woody shrub or busli , belonging to the natural 
order Piperacece, indigenous to Java and Sumatra, and 
probably cultivated to a small extent in India. The dried, 
unripe full-grown Fruits or berries are tho cubebs of com- 
merce, and are easily obtainable in the Indian bozii's, being 
imported from Singapore, and the drug is therefore noticed 
briefly in this place, The berries somewhat resemble those 
of black pepper in general appearance, tho distinguisbing 



k 



K, ID 



16 



242 



INDIGENOUS DBCGS OF INDIA, 



Ceature being tlie short pedicel or stalk attached to the 

of the cubebs. The English name is derived &om the 

Arabic, kababah. 

The characteristic constituent of cubebs is the aromatig 
volatile Oil which deposits on cooling crystals of Camphor 
of Cubebs. It also contains a resin, consisting partly of 
Cubebia Acid and a crystalline body termed Cubebin. The 
^ential oil and cubebin are believed to be inert therapeU' 
tically and are eliminated in the preparation of the Olbo- 
Besin of cubebs of the British Pliarmaoopceia. 

Medicinal use. — Stimulant to the mucous membrane^ 
especially those of the throat and of the urino-genital 
organs, usually employed in powder, tincture or oleo-resin. 

PIPER LONGUM. 

Long Fepfeb. 

Vera.— Bmg.— (The Fruit )—Pipul, Pipli. (The Root>-KpnlJ 

miil; nind. 'The Fruit)— Pipul, Pipli (The Root)— Pipli 

miil; Sant. — Pippali ; Bom. — Pipli, Piper; Tam. — TippUij 

Tel. — Pippali katte ; Arab. — Dar-filfil ; Ptt->.— Maghz-ptpal. 

This plant, also belonging to the Piperaceaa, is ndigenouB 

to Eastern and Southern India from Nepal and Assam to 

Ceylon, and is cultivated in Eastern Bengal for its Fruit, 

which ia exported from India to some extent aa Long 

Pepper as well aa that of P. Ckaba, the true long pepper 

(q.v.). The article consists in either case of the full-grown, 

8un-dried, unripe fruit, or spike of Biiiall fruits, that of the 

Indian product being somewhat smaller and thinner, but 

quite similar to that grown in Java, which usually averages 

1^ inch in length and about \ inch in thickness. Thft 

former is also less pungent in taste and aroma. The 00Q-> 

stituenta of both fruits are the same as those of P. ni't^runt 



INDIGENOUS DHUQS OF IKDIA, 



243 



(q.v.) viz., an aromatic volatile oil, an aciid oleo-resin 
and a crystalline substance culled Piperin. The Root of 
P. longum, aliced and dried, is known among the Native 
druggists as pipul-tnul, and is believed to possess the virtues 
of the fruit in a weaker degree, 

Sugaiidhi ptppali ia the name of a third variety of long 
pepper which, according to Dymock, is imported from 
Zanzibar and sold in the bozdrs of Bombay, 

Hedlcinal uses. — Stimulant, carminative and alterative 
tonic: more powerful than black pepper. The powdered 
pipul is given with honey in catarrhal affections, in colic 
and cholera, and used as au external stimulant application 
mbbed over painful parts. The fruit is used to some 
QEtent as a spice. The root ia much used as a stimulant 
remedy and spice. 



PIPER NI&B.UM. 
Black Pepper. 
-Seng. — GiS!-mttrich, Kala-morich ; Hind. — Odltnirch, 
i Miroh, Kali-mirch; Sans. — Maricha; Jom. — Miri, Eala-iniri; 
i Tarn. — Mildgu ; Tel. — Miriyilu ; Mai. — Kuru-mulaka ; Burm. — 
i. Ba-yo niai. 

The "pepper-vine" {Piperocece) ia a perennial, climbing 
shrub indigenous to the Malabar and Travancore coasts, 
whence, according to the Pharmacograpkia, it has been 
inti^oduced into Sumatra, Java, the Malay Peninsula, Siam, 
the Philippines ami the West Indies, The plant is exten- 
sively cultivated in South Western India, and the Fruit 
I very largely exported from Madras, Bombay, Karachi 
1 Calcutta, forming a considerable portion of the world's 
5)ply of black pepper. The principal exporting centre 
pthe Malayan and West Indian product ia Singapore. 




214 INDlOENOCa DRUGS OP INDIA. 

Tlie spice lias been exported fioin India from about tbft 
11th century, "and was for many ages the staple articlt 
of trade between Eurojie and India" (Pkarmacographui) 
having been to a large extent the nucleus of the 
now existing between these two continents. 

The globular berry-like fruit is collected when fu 
grown but unripe, when it begins to turn from green to 
red : it assumes the blackish -brown colour and wrinkled 
appearance of the commercial article on drying in the sua. 

The chemical constituents of black pepper are S to 8^ 
per cent, of a crystalline substance called Pipertn, which 
is the active principle, having the name chemical compos!' 
tion as morphine, although almost devoid of taste, coloOE 
or smell, and which is resolvable into Piperic Acid and a 
colouvlesa liquid alkaloid, Piperit/ime {now believed to b© 
also present in Ihe fruit): an acrid oleo-resin to which th* 
well-known pungent taate and aromatic odour is due, ftnd 
an aromatic essential oil, staixih and gum. 

White Peppbb, 
. (Piper Album) consists of the Fruits of P. nigrum 
divested of the dark outer skin, which is easily removed by 
soaking in water, the berries being subsequently dried sod 
bleached in the aan. 

This treatment removes some of the pungent and acrid: 
principles, these being contained chiefly in the pericarp 
or outer coat of the fruit. The vernacular names are a 
above with the prefix safed or sada (white). 

The popular use of the commercial varieties of peppen 
as culinnry spices is well-known, and would appear to bft 
extending to all countries of the world. 

Medicinal uses. — Black pep)>er has held an important 
place in Indian medicine for many centuries, a populu 



INDIGBNOOS DKUGS OF INDIA, 245 

Sanski'it prescription having been a confection of pepper. 
It is still regarded and much used as an aromatic stimu- 
laut and carminative, useful in dyspepsia and flatulence, in 
hemorrhoids, and occasionally employed as an antiperiodic 
in obstinate fevers. Externally it is valued as a rubefacient 
and stimulant to the skin. It is little used in modern 
European medicine excej^t as an ingredient of sevei'al of 
the confections of the Pharmacopoeia, that of pepper being 
used chiefly in the treatment of hfemorrhoids. Piperin is 
official in the United States Pharmacopceia, and used aa a 
febrifuge in doses of 2 to 8 grains. 

AdtUteratlons. — Black pepper, which is always exported 
nnground, is seldom adulterated in India. The berries of 
Evihelia Ribes (q.v.) are occasionally found as an admix- 
ture, sometimes accidental. Powdered black pepper is 
believed to undergo a considerable amount of sophistica- 
tion in commerce. 

PISTACIA INTSaEBBIMA. 

Vern. — {11)6, GbIIb)— Seng. — Kakra-sringi ; Hind. — Kdkrasingi; 

Sant. — Karkata sringi ; Horn. — Kfikrasiiigi ; Tatn.^Kakkata 

ahingi ; Tel. — K4kara^bingi. 

The drug sold in the baz&rs of Northern India under the 
ivo names consi.tts of the };all-Uke excrescences formed 
by insects on the leaves and petioles of this tree (natural 
order Anacardiacea:) found on the mountain ranges of the 
North-Weat from Peshawar to Simla. The Qalls are hard, 
hollow, irregular, greyish externally and yellow internally, 
usually I to IJ inch long, sometimes much larger and shaped 
like a horn, hence the name aingi. 

The galls have been examined by Mr. J. O. Pi-ebble 
'Pharmacograpkia ladica) and found to contain 76 per 

it of taonin. 



Bw»' 



246 



INDIQBNOUa DRUG3 OF INDIA. 



Uedlolnal uses. — The powdered Oalls have been giTeB.1 
03 an expectorant in coughs and phthisin, ia doses of 20 
grains combined with demulcents, and in diairhcea witbj 
other astringents, 

PISTAOIA LBNTISO0S. 

The Mastiche Tree. 
Vom. — niivi. — Riimi maatiki ; Pera. — Mastiia-i-rumi. 
The mastiche oi- mastic Resin, imported in small 
quantity into India from Asia Minor, through Persia ood 
Afghanistan, is an exudation obtained by inciaioD from tbs 
bark of this tree. Natural order Anaca^-dlaceix. It is 
^^— used as a masticatory by persons of high rank in India to 

^^B preserve the teeth and sweeten the breath. Mastiche waa 

^^H formerly employed to some extent in medicine, but is now 

^^M regarded as having little therapeutic value. It is used by 

^H dentists for filling carious teeth. 

^H 

^B en 

H 



PISTACIA TBBBBINTHUS. 

The Terebisth ok Cuias Tubpentinb Trkk, 
BoMBAr Mastiche. 
Vem. — (The Resin) — Hind. — Mastdki, Kabuli-masUUti, 
Khinjak. 
Three varieties of this tree, also belonging to the Ana- 
cardiaceas, indigenous to Sind, BeKiohist^n and Afghiois- 
P. mutica, P. cabuUca and P. lihinjwh, now gen- 
erally regarded as one species — yield oloo-resins allied more 
or less to that of true mastiche and used in India as 
Bubstitutes for it. The OLEO-REajN exudes, like mastiche, 
from incisions in the bark and is of a darker colour than 
the true drug, the finer qualities (in tears when fresh) 



H INDIOKNOCS DBUaS OF INDIA. 2*7 

usually runniDg into a pasty mass which Ibecomes hard 
■nd brittle on exposure to the air. It i b known as Bombay 
or East Indian mastiche, and is identical with the produot 
known as Chian turpentine, although this drug, as used io 
medicine, is collected solely from P. Terebintkua growing 

^ul the Island of Scio (Ohio) in the Mediterranean. 
Chian turpentine consists of a resin and an essential oil 
BS contrasted with mastiche which consists essentially of 
two resins. 

Hedlcinal uses. — Bombay mastiche is not used medicU 
tially in India, although the better qualities might be used 
in the same way as Chian turpentine. The latter had 
almost fallen into disuse in European medicine until revived 
aome years ago aa a remedy in uterine cancer, given in 
emulsion or in a pill with sulphur in doses of 5 to 10 
grains. 

PISTACIA VERA. I 

The PisT4caio-NUT Tree. ■ 

Vera. — Beng. and Rind. — Pisti ; Pers. — Pisteh. 

The tree, natural order Anacardiacece, grows in the 

forests of Syria and Persia, and is cultivated to some extent 

I Afghinistdn. The Fruit or nnts are brought to India 

isiderable quantities by the Kabul traders along with 

lafcetida and other drugs. The pistachio nuts are used as 

lood by some high class Indian people aud regarded aa 

Every nourishing. They also enter into certain confections. 

!be fruit somewhat resembles that of the olive, ovoid and 

reddish externally, astringent and terebinthinate, with a 

lernel which yields a sweet, aromatic oil. OalU are formed 

on the leaves which have been found to co::^iin 45 per 

cent, of tannin allied to gallo-tannic acid, bi;sides gallSe 

^K acid and 7 per cent, of a resin or oleo-resia to which their 



INDIGENOUS DKUOS OF INDIA. 

terebintliinoua odour is due (Pkarmacographia Indica). 
They are known as Gut-i-pisteh or Bazghanj, and ate also 
imported into India. 

medicinal naea. — The Not has been regarded as tonic 
and useful in debility. The Oil expressed from it is 
used as a demulcent Tlie Galls are useful as aa astrin- 
gent. 

FISTIA STRATIOTES. 

Vem. — Bing. — Toki-pfini ; ifmcf.^-Jal-kunbhi ; Amu.— Kum- 
bhiki; Bom. — Prashnl; Tarn, — Agaaartamar^ ; Td. — Antora- 
timara. 

An aquatic stemless plaut, belonging to the natural order 
AroidecB, growing on the surface of the water in tanks and 
stagnant pools in Bengal and also found on the Bea-sbore. 
The ash of the plant, known as pdnd salt, has some repute 
in some parts of India as an application for ringworm. It 
has been found by Dr. Warden to consist chiefly of potaa> 
sium chloride and sulphate. 



PLANTAGO OVATA. 



Ispagui5l OS Spogel Seeds. 
Vem. — Beng. — IsabgiSI, IspnghdJ, Eshopgdl ; Hind. — Isabghdl, 
Ispaghiil, Isaufgill ; Bom. — Isapghol ; Tarn. — Ish&ppukol* 
virai ; Tel. — Isapagita-vittidu ; Pera. — lapaghiil, Ispareah. 

A Persian herb, found also in North -Western India, the 
Punjab and Sind: cultivated to a small extent in Bengal, 
Natural order Plantagiite(x. The minute boat-shaped 
Sekds, of a pinkish-grey colour, are well-known and 
easily obtainable in all the bazdrs under the above vemtl- 
cular names, being for the most part imported from Persia. 



INDIGENOUS DKUas OF INDIA. 249 

They were made olQcial in the Pharmacopceia of India, 
and are much valued in India for their demulcent and 
emollient properties. Steeped or boiled in water they 
become coated with an abundant, adherent, bland mucilage. 
The seeds of several other species of the same genus 
exhibit a similar property, those of P. aviplexicaulia being 
the brown variety of the drug sometimes met with in the 
bazirs. 

Hediolnal uses. — A decoction of the Seeds (about 1 in 
60) is used in India as a cooling demulcent drink. Their 
more important use, however, is as a valuable remedy in 
chronic diarrhcea and dysentery, especially in that peculiar 
form of iotestiiial irritation known as "hill" diarrhoea. 
The medicine has been given with advantage in powder, in 
doses of i to 2 drachms, sometimes mixf^d with sugar, 
although the best method of administration is in decoction 
(1 in 40), or about one diacbm of the seed after soaking 
in water. Surgn,-Lieut.-Col. C. Hi. Joubert has stated* that 
he has found Ispaghiil to be a very valuable remedy in the 
conditions indicated, given in spoonful doses of the whole 
seed, steeped for 15 or 20 minutes in water, the resulting 
mucilaginous mass being swallowed. Many of the swollen 
seeds pass out whole with the motions, and he believes their 
action to be mechanical as well as astringent to the 
Intestinal ulcers. 

The remedy is perfectly tasteless, and therefore eqaally 
suitable for children as adults and so safe that it may be 
given almost ad libitum. Wliile practically non -astringent 
it forms an admirable adjunct to astringent medicines, with 
which, however, it should not be combined. It has a 
beneficial action in other inflammatory affections of the 



■ Wfttfi DiclinHari/ <•/ Ike Efoneiitic Produpti of India. 



250 



IKDIGEKOCS DBUGS OF IKDtA. 



macous tnembrane of tbe alimentAry canal, as in gastnD 
catarrh. 

The bruised seeds moistened with water form a good 
emollient poultice. 

PLTTUBAGO ROSEA. 

Vem. — Beng. — Lal-chitft, Kakto-cliitra ; Hind. — L&l-chltarak, 
lAl-cbitM ; San». — Kaktachitraka ; Bom. — Lal-cbltm ; Tan. — 
Sbivappu^hittira i Tel. — Yerra-chitra. 
A plant commonly cultivated in gavdens in India. 
Natural order Plumbaginem. The Root has vesicant pro- 
perties when applied to tbe skiu, and it has been proposed 
OS on efficient subatitute for cantharides. The bruised root 
mixed with oil is uMed as a rubefacient application in 
rbeuQiatiam. Taken internally it is a powerful aCTO- 
narcotic poison. The records of the Chemical Examiner's 
Departments uhow that it is employed to procure criminal 
designs. 

The root contains a crystalline principle, Plumbagin, 
which is the active constituent. 

PLUMBAQO ZBTLANICA. 

Vera.— 5fnj.— Chitfi, Chitruk safaid ; Sind.—Chitri, Chita^aki 

Sans. — Cliitraka; Tam, — Chittira; Tel. — Chitra-mulam, 

A plant closely allied to the former, growing wild ftod 
cultivated as a hedge plant in Bengal and Southern Indifc 
P. rosea is sometimes regarded as a cultivated variety of 
the plant under notice. The Root contains the same acUvS 
principle and has similar properties although in a smallflr 
clegree. It is in popular use as a counter-irritant and 
vesicant. It was formerly and is still used as a stimulant 



INDIGENOUS DBUCS OF INDIA, 



S51 






adjunct to otber medicines in small doses of the powder. 
Like the root of the foi-nier epecieu it is powerfully 
poisonous and its use is attended with great danger. 



PODOPHYLLUM EMODL 

Indian Podophtllcm. 
Tern. — ^ffinrf.^PApra, Pdpri, Bhavan-bakra, Bakra-chimyaka. 
A herbaceous plant of the natural order Bevbendece, 
indigenous to the temperate Himalaya from Sikkim to 
Kashmir, plentiful near Simla, usually at altitudes above 
3,000 feet. It is more plentiful on the Western Himalaya 
than on the Eastern ranges. The plant ia closely allied 
in botanical characters to the American species, P. peltatwni, 
the source of the Resin of Podophyllum of the British Pkar' 
macopceia ; the lobed leaves have the same appearance 
that has given the name to the American plant of " duck's 
foot"; the scarlet red pulpy fiiiit, of the size and shape ofa 
pigeon's egg, is eaten by the hill tribes as the " May-apple" 
{fruit of P. peltatum) is in America, and the Rhizome or 
linderground stem and rootlets contain similar medicinal 
principles. 

The resinous constituents of both species, called colleo- 
ively Podopkyllin, are obtained by re-percolation of tha 
and powdered rhizomes, precipitation by acidulated 
,ter and drying at a low temperature. Podophyllin is 
amorphous powder, usually of a bright brownish yellow 
ilour, soluble in rectilied spirit and in aqueous ammonia, 
has been found, according to a research made by Podwis- 
tzki (1882) that the physiologically active portion of 
idophyllin consists of an amorphous principle soluble in 
;ohol, isolated from a chloroformic extract of the root 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

and named Podophyllotoxin. It containa none of the 
fatty or colouring matters of tlie official reain, and has been 
administered as a purgative in doses of ,\; to ^ grain. 
Podophyllotoxin is cumposed of a bitter, crystalline, tieubral 
body, Picropodophyllin, probably lield in solution bj' 
Picropodopkyllic Acid. The resin also contains Podo- 
phyllic Acid, wbicli is inert, a yellow colouring matter, 
Podophylloquercetin (not berberine aa formerly supposed) 
and fatty matter, 

Mr. Darid Hooper showed in 1888 that Indian podo- 
phyllum yielded 12 per cent, of resins as compared with 
4 per cent, yielded by the American drug. Practical 
working averages are about 10 and 5 per cent, respectively. 
Following a communication to the PharniaceuticalJournal 
by Dymock and Hooper (26th January 1889} introducing 
P. emodi aa a desirable addition to the MateHa Medica, 
and partly through interest being aroused in it by Dr. 
George Watt, ci.E., Reporter on Economic Products to the 
Qovernment of India, considerable quantities of the drug 
were exported from India, and found B ready market in 
London. 

In a paper contributed to the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference, held in Edinburgh in 1802, Mr. John C. Umney 
reported the results of a series of experiments undertaken 
with a view to determine whether an occasional uncertainty 
of action attributed to the podophyllin of P. emodi was 
due to a difference in chemical constitution as compared 
with the official resin. Parallel analyses by Podwissotzki's 
method showed that while the rhizome of P. emodi yielded 
nearly double the amount of resia yielded by P. pelta- 
tum, the former contained only about half the quantity 
of podophyllotoxin, and consequently of picropodophyl- 
lin, to which the value as a cathartic was believed to 



ofl 



INDIGENOUS DRU03 OF INDIA. 253 

be due. On the other hand, an analysis published by 
Mr. F. A. Thomp.ion.Ph. o. (A m. Journ. Pharm., May, 1890) 
shows the percentage of podophyllotoxin as fully 25 per 
cent, higher than the average amount found in the podo- 
phyllin of P. pelfatum. Active commercial interest in 
the Indian drug has somewhat waned since these conflict- 
ing results have been puhlistieJ, hut a more extended 
chemical and physiological investigation is desirable before 
the claims of P. emodi to recognition as an additional 
official source of podophyllin resin can be altogether 
it aside. 

The plant is very plentiful and easily accessible on the 

lim&laya. Dr. Watt reports* that the number of persons 

'who make a living by collecting and exporting drugs 

from the higher ranges of Rangra and KCilfi, where it 

abounds, ia very gnjat, and that if European merchants 

'ished to procure it they would find little difficulty in 

iziiig an agency. 

Uediclnal uses. — It is remaikable that the medicinal 

'Blue of the poilophyllum should have escaped the notice 

if the Indian people, who are now, however, beginning to 

cognise the purgative property of the roots. Podophyllin 

ESIN is one of the most popular of modern medicines 

'.t is a powerful biliary purgative, its action somewhat 

(rresponding to that of mercurj', hence the name " vege- 

.blfi calomel." It ia an active chohigogue and aperient in 

ises of Jth to 1 grain, usually in pills, alone or combined 

ith other hepatics and purgatives or in solution in alcohol 

'Tiiictura Podophylli, B. P.) The rhizome itself is not 

ployed in medicine. 

• IndUn Medical Congreu, 1894. Fr«tid«aUftl Addrets Jd the Section 
t Pharmacol og J. 



4 



254 lITDIOESorS DBCGS OF IBDU. 

PONOAmA aiiABBA. 
Vem. — Bttg. — Kanuija, Karma j ; Hind. — E&raiij, Kirftnilj 

Satu. — Korknjft, X&ktaiiu(l& ; Tom. — Poo)^ Fimgaiii-ma* 
" nxa;Td. — Einog^ B&okgD ; ii«iL — KRraajjJ/a/. — Poogam. 

A moderate sized tree of the LegyiminoecE, common all 
over India ixom the temperate Himalaya to Central and 
Southern India and Ceylon. The Seeds yield on expre»- 
fflon about 25 per cent, of a thick, yelloirish brown bitt«r 
Oil of specific gravity about 0'933, which is osed for 
illuminative purposes and ia likely to prove of considerabls 
value medicinally. 

Medicinal uses. — Fongamia Oil (known in some parts 
also as homje oil) has marked antiaeptie, cleansing and heal- 
ing properties when applied to skin diseases, in scabies, 
herpes and the like. An embrocation made of equal parts 
of the oil and lime or lemon juice is useful in rheumatism, 
and the same combination has proved elHcacious as as 
application in psoriaaia and pityriasis. The juice of the 
Stem, Leaves and Root appear to possess similar propertjea. 

POTASSII NITBAS. 
NlTBATE OF PoTAaeniM. 
Vern. — Be«g. — Siird j Hind. — Shtird, Suri&khar ; Bom. — ShAra 
mitha. 
This salt, known commonly a^ nitre or saltpetre, is pro- 
duced very largely as a natural efflorescence on the surface 
of the soil in many parts of India. 

\n Bengal it occurs as a thin white crust not unlike 
frost-rind, chiefly in the Behar district, whence the partially 
puriQed salt is brought down in great quantities to Calcutta 
for export, while it is also collected in the North-Wast 
Provinces, throughout the course of the Ganges, from land 



salii 
^S flllr 



INDIOENODS DRUGS OF INDIA. 235 

which has beeu iauudiited during the rains, and in the 
Punjab. 

TheNative saltpetre refiners, or leonalis as they are called, 

cominence operations soon after the rains by collecting 

the efflorescence from the land and from mud-lieaps, mud 

buildings, and other places on which it lias formed. Tha 

saline earth is now subjected to a process of solution and 

fillratioQ through a crude mud Qlter. The solution, which 

been freed of earthy matters, contains a certain 

proportion of nitrate of lime, to remove which it is passed 

through layers of wood-ashes and ashes of plants (impure 

carbonate of potassium), carbouate of lime being deposited, 

and the nitrate of potassium solution evaporated and 

crystallized. The impure nitre is now kuown as dkoak 

and contains about iH to 70 per cent, of the actual salt, 

the remainder being sulphate and chloride of sodium and 

isoluble matter. It is again dissolved and crystallized 

fore it is sent, under the name of ahora Icalmi (reSned) 

the bazars for sale, while it is further re-crystallized in 

Calcutta and elsewhere before being sold for use. 

Indian saltpetre formerly constituted the whole of the 
world's supply of that valuable chemical substance, the 
trade having been a profitable monopoly of the East India 
Company for over a century. It is still very largely ex- 
ported from Calcutta, although it has a formidable rival iu 
Chilian saltpetre, and that produced by chemical manufac- 
ture. It is much used in India for some industrial pur- 
.poaea, and saltpetre is not imported except for medicinal 
purposes. 

Medicinal usea-— In solution, diuretic and diaphoretic, 
irritant if given in the solid form or in concentrated solu- 
tion: locally as a refrigerant lotion. Inhalation of the 
fumes uf bibulous papers soalced iu a saturated solution 



256 



INDIGKNODS DRUGS OP INDIA. 



ot the nitrate and dried, sometimes combined with datan 
and other drugs, and burned, often atfords marked relief 
in asthma and other spaaniodic affections, the virtue being 
believed to reside in the oxygen which the salt evolves on 
ignition or strongly heating. 

FRUIfUS AMYQDALUS. 

Syn. — AMYGDiLDs coMsmuia 

The Almoxd. 



Zinrf.— Badam ; Saue.—BidSf 
VAdam-kotUi ; Tel.—BMam 



Vem. — Seng. — BilAti-badiini ; 

mitte ; Som. — BiLdam ; Tain. 

-rittulu ; Peie. — BidSm. 

The almond tree is a Native of Western Asia, and has 
now become naturalized in the Mediterranean countries of 
Europe and Africa. It is cultivated in the PnnjSb, 
Kashmir and Afghanistan, whence the Fruit (almond in 
shell) is exported in large quantities to India. Tiie natural 
order is Mosacece. The almond tree ia very frequently 
cultivated for ornamental purposes in the plains and the 
fruit forms but does not ripen. 

Two varieties of the tree are recognised— (?«/ci's and 
aviara — yielding respectively sweet and bitter almonds, 
but without other botanical difference. The distinctioa 
in the fruits may be matie in the above vernacular 
names by the addition of the words "sweet" or "bitter." 
Both varieties yield to expression about 50 per cent, of a 
fine, clear, yellowish, fixed Oil, contained in the kernel, 
with an agreeable flavour and no odour. They also 
contain a neutral principle called Emulsui or St/nap' 
lose and the bitter almond in addition a crystalline 
glucoside, Amygdalin, These bodies do not reaet in the 
dry state, but in the presence of water the emulsin acts aa 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



257 



a ferment on the amygdalin, producing benzoic aldehyd 
(essential oil of bitter almonds), Iiydrocyanic or pruasic 

Pacid ami glucose. The essential oil, thin pioJucetl only 
from bitter almoTuIa and in the presence of water, is pre- 
Jiared commercially by treating the almond cake, left after 
expression of the fixed oil, with water and distilling. It 
is highly poisoiioua, due to thfs presence of the pmssio 
acid, which is, however, usually removed by distillation 
with lime and aulpliate of iron. Tlie tree yields a gum 
known as Badavi-i-gond which is exported from Bombay 
and occasionally used in place of tragacantli. 

Medicinal U86h. — Almonds per ae are little used in medi- 
cine. The white emulsion produced when the blanched 
and powdered kernels are triturated with water is used as a 
vehicle for medicines. Tlie essential oil is much employed 
as an agreeable flavouring agent. Almond meal has been 

I recommended as a suitable diet for diabetic patients, as it 
contains no starch. The burnt shell (almond shell charcoal ) 
is used in India aa a tooth powder. 
e: 
Ta 



PBUNUS COMMUNIS. 

VaB.— INSITITIA. 

Tbk Bokhara. Plum. 

Vefn. Seng, and Uind. — Alii, Aiii-bokhara, Atiioha. 

The Fanrr of this tree, which belongs to the natural 



:der Romee(e, and grows on the Western Himalaya, is 

immou in the Indian markets, being brought down by the 

fghan tradei^, and largely consumed by the rich in 

Taiious forma "f ckatni. It acts as a cooling laxative and 

is regarded as suitable for all the pui-poses to which the 



English y 
f Senna. 



pn 



t, as in 



the 



preji 



iration of Confecttoi 



256 INDIOBNOFS DBUGS OP IMOI*. 

FSIDItTM 01TYAVA. 

Tab.— pvEirEEUM (while) ake pomifkbcii (red).! 
Tbk Gdata. 

Vom^—Beng.—'Goaabhi-f'htA, Piyint; Siad.—Ain, Amrdt; I 
Som. — Persia; Tarn. — Goyyi-pazham ; Tel. — J&m-pAndn. 
This tree, natural order MyrtacecB, cultivated nearly all I 
over India and common in Bengal, is much valued on I 
account of its pleasant fruit which forms when stewed the 1 
well-known guava jelly. The Stkh-Bark has attracted I 
some attention as an astringent, and has been found to con- { 
tain about 25 per cent, of tannic acid. 

Uedldnal usefl' — The root-bark Ipaa been recommended I 
in chronic infantile diarrbcea, in decoction of \ oz. in 6 OS. I 
of water, boiled down to 3 oz., and given in tea8po<Hi-l 
ful doses: and as a local application in prolapsus an! offl 
children. 

FSOBALEA COBTLIFOLXA. 

Syn--^TRiFOLiuH uhifoliuh. 
BABcnf Seeds. 
^6m.—Benif. — Lat^kaAturi, Babachi, Hakiich ; Bind. — Babe 

Bfibachi, Bh&vanj ; Sans. — VikiSohi; Bom. — Bawachf; J 

— Karpo-kariahi ; Tel. — BhavaDchi-vittulu. 

The Seeds of this common weed are ovate, very at 
of a dark brown colour, with an aromatic and bitter ta8t«.l 
The plant belongs to the natural order Leguminoace, andfl 
is common in Bengal and all over the plains of India.! 
The seeds yielded the authors of the PltarmacograptUctM 
Indioa a colourleae essuibial oil, lighter than water, and! 
which possessed in a marked degree the odour q£ t 



INDIGENOUS DRUG3 OF INDIA. 259 

drug, and a crystalline colouring luatber. The consti- 
tuents were found to be partly soluble in water, alcohol 
aad ether. 

Uedicinal usea. — The author communicated to tha 

International Pharmaceutical Congreas held in Xondon in 
1881, the results of a Beries of experiments he had conduct- 
ed with au oleo-resinous extract of the Seeds, diluted with 
chaulmdgra oil, as an application in cases of leucoderma or 
■white leprosy. The course of the treatment was thus de- 
Bcribed: — "After application for some days the white patches 
appear to become red and vascular; sometimes a slightly 
painful sensation is felt. Occasionally some small vesicles 
or pimples appear, and if these be allowed to remain undis- 
turbed, they dry up, leaving a dark spot of pigmentary 
matter, which forma, as it wore, a nucleus. From this spot, 
aa well as from the margin of the patch, pigmentary matters 
gradually develop, which ultimately coalesce witli each 
other, and thus the whole patch diiaappears. It is also re- 
markable that the appearance of fresh patches is arrested 
by its application." {Pliarin. Journ., 24th Sept. 1881.) 
The late Brigade-Surgeon W. Dymock, commenting on this 
mode of treatment, stated that in the hands of other 
observers only negative results had been obtained. The 
author has found, however, as the result of many years 
experience in the treatment of the disease, which is ver^ 
prevalent iu Bengal, that he has no reason to alter bia 
original announcement of the merits of this drug as a reliable 
specific in the conditions indicated. It may be noted that 
the treatment is more successful ia young persons than 
in older patients where the circulation is slower and 
the pigmentary matter in the blood smaller in quaatitv. 
The ointment may be prepared by combining one part 

F aa alcoholic extract of the seeds with two parts of 



260 



IMDIQEMOUS DRUGS OF INDU. 



chftulmligra oilaad two parts of laiiolioe. The proportioi 
of the active ingredient may be increased if the actioi 
is delayed. 

PTBBOCAaPITS MABSUProiit 

The Indian Kiko Tree: Malabar Eixo. 

Vem. — Seng.— Pit-fi&l ; Hind. — Bija, Bijas^ ; Bom. — Bibla, 

Hmin£ ; Tam. — Vengai-maram ; Ttt. — Peddagi. 

A large tree of Central and Southern India and Cey}on 
belonging to the natural order Leguminoaa, 

It is the official source of the kino of the Eiiropeai 
Pharmacopoeias and that of the United States, Kino is i 
"natural exudation obtained by incisions in the trunk, in- 
npissated without artificial heat. It occurs usually in s 
angular, dark brownish-red, glistening brittle fragments, 
with a very astringent taste. The kino trees are carefully 
reserved by Qovemmeut both in the Malabar and Madrnai 
forests and are leased out to collectors. 

The principal constituent of kino is a peculiar tanniOi 
Kino-tannic Acid, usually believed to be identical with th» 
tannin of catechu (catechu- tannic acid) and distinct from 
gallo-tannic acid. By boiling an aqueous solution of kino- 
tannic acid a precipitate of Kino-red is obtained : treated 
with dilute acid a sirailar precipitate occurs and crystals of 
Kinoln separate. By dry distillation kino yields Pyro-oata- 
chin and heated with caustic alkalies, i*ro(<ica(ecAttio .4c»d 
and Phlorogludn, similar products to those afforded 
catechu, 

Malabar kino is little used in Native medicine in India] 
it is reserved for export to Europe, Bengal or Butea li 
' (q.v,), an inferior product, taking its place. 

Uedlcinal uao. — Kino ia a simple astringent, adminitt 
tered in diarrhosa, somewhat milder in action than catecba 



INDIQENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 261^ 

PTEROOARPUS SANTALINUS- 

Red Sanueiu oh Sasdalwood, 

I Tom. — Beng. — Rakto-chandana ; Mind. — Rukbtii-chandan, Ldl 
' ohandan ; Sana. — Raktachandana ; Bom. — Ratanjli ; Tam. — 
Shen-Bhandanam ; Tel. — Rakta-gandbam ; Pert. — Sandale- 
earkh. 

A small tree, natural order LeguminosuB, belonging to the 
nests of Itfadros and Mysore and the Coromandel and 
llalnbar Coasts of Southern Itidia. 

The telling of the trees is under strict Government con- 
trol and yields a considerable revenue. The wood, formerly 
,!led by the Dutch "calliature wood," is exported' 
chiefly from Madras in large logs consisting chiefly of the 
lower portion of the tree trunk and roots, much of the 
^^^actual wood being retained in India for ornamental wood- 
^Krork. 

^^^B The chips or raspings of the bright — red heart — WooD, aa 
^^^K>und in the pharmacies, are the red sanders wood (^Lignum- 
^^^mjpterocarpi) of the Pharmacopceias. 

^^V Although misnamed "red sandalwood" and described 
[ in Sanskrit writings as a variety of the true sandalwood 

{Sanfalum album), n.v., the products are quite distinct. 
^^ Red Banders wood contains a red, crystalline, resinoid, 
^^L -ooluuring matter, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, 
^^P named Sanialin or Santalio Add. From the wood has 
^^^ «tsn been isolated a odourless principle, called Santal, which 
is capable of being converted into what is believed to bc^ 
vesorcin. Another crystalline body, Pieracarpin, has ako: 
1 isolated. , 

The wood is not employed medicinally. In pharmacy it 
:olouring ingredient in the compound tincture of 
lavender. , 




262 INDIGENOUS DRCOS OF INDIA. 

PUNICA GBANATUM. 

The Posieobjnate. 
Vem.— {The Fniit)— Benjr.— Dalim, Ddrim, Anir ; Bi 

Anar, Darini ; Sang. — Dadimft-phalam ; Bern. — . Dalhnbo^ 

Anara ; Tarn. — M&cldlaip-pazliaio ; Tel. — Dtuumnia-puTva j 

JroS.— Rumman ; /■<-.-«.— Anar. 

Tlie poinegvanate tree, natural order LythractcB, ia wild 
in Persia, Afghitniet^n and fieluchistnn and cultivated 
chiefly for its Fruit nearly all over India. Tlie fruit is- 
always plentiful in the cold weatlier in the bazir in Cal- 
cutta, that grown in the plains heing. however, much infe- 
rior to that brought down by (he Eabtili fruit merchants. 
The fi'uit in usually as large as a good sized apple, with & 
hard, leathery rind of a brownish-red colour externally 
enclosing very numerons yellowish seeds embedded in a^ 
pellucid red pulp. It ia occasionally exported whole, more* 
commonly in ])ortions of the rind. The pomegranate frutt- 
has been esteemed in the East from a very remote period 
as is evidenced by the numerous references to it in Scrip- 
ture. In India it has been used as food and medicine for 
centuries. The Rind of the fruit and the Root-Bauk are 
the officinal portions, tho latter having been adopted iik 
many of the Pharmacopoeias. The root-bark is not usually- 
sold in the drug shops in India, being usually obtainei) 
fresh as required. 

The principal chemical con.stitiient of the rind of the- 
fruit is tannin, which it may contain to the extent of 22 to- 
25 per cent. The root-bark contains 20 to 25 per cent, of 
the same astringent principle, ctnsidered to be a peculiar 
variety and named Panico-tannic Acid, which, when 
boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, is resolvable into- 
Ellagio Acid and sugar. According to the authors of the- 
fharmacographia, punico-tannic acid is accompanied by 



r 



INDIGENOUS DItUas OP INDIA. 2<iS 

common tannic acid, yielding by means of sulphuric acid, 
gallic acid, which appears sometimes to pt-e-exist in the 
bark. Uannite is also obtainable from the bark, which was 
believed by the same authors to be the Punicin ov Granatin 
of former observers. It has been stated by an American 
investigator (J, Culley, Year Book of Pharmacy, 1894, 
p. 63) that, as the result of several expsrimenfcs, there 
is sufficient agreement in the properties and composition 
of punico-tannic acid with gallo-taniiic acM obtained from 
gallfl, to justify the conclusion that these two tannins are 
identical. 

A liquid volatile alkaloid, named Pelletierine (Tanret, 
1878) has been isolated from the root-bark, to which the 
medicinal value of the hark as a tionifuge is attributed. 
Another alkaloid, Isopelletie-rine, was subsequently dis- 
covered by the same investigator. 

Uedlclnal uses. — The pomegranate RlND, known aa 
dalim cMl or naspal in the bazir, is a valuable astringent 
in diarrhcea and dysentery, usually administered in decoc- 
tion (1 in 10) with the addition of cloves or other 
aromatic and opium. The Root-Bark is very generally 
recognised, and has long been used in India, aa a reliable 
tienifuge or sppcific for the expulsion of ticnia or tape- 
worm. It should be obtained freah, and is administered in 
decoction, which is best made by digesting two ounces of 
the bark and a little clove or other aromatic in a pint of 
cold water for six hours and reducing the strained liquor 
by evaporation to ten ounces. This quantity should be 
given fasting in doses of two ounces at intervals of two 
hours, and preceded and followed by a full dose of castor 
oil or compound powder of jalap with the addition of two 
grains of calomel, for an adult. This treatment rarely fails 
in vffecting the removal of the orgauiam, together with the 



£61 



iNDlOtEtiOl'S DRUGS OF INDU. 



lijad, 80 ttiat there id iio lelupse. T^Bre is little of tbft * 
1 ausea usually experienced in the use of the drug as aoeb 
of the tannin that is extracted in the usual method of ' 
boiling remains in the bark. A Quid extract uf the fresh 
bnrk in doaea of half aa ounce, i-e)>eated, 19 equally effeo- 
tiial. The alkaloid, pclletieiine, and its compounds have 
also been used as anthelmintic and Uenicide, the most smt- < 
able being the tannate nhicb ia difficultly soluble and 
therefore not readily absorbed, and is administered in doses | 
of 3 to S grains, fasting, and followed by a pargativ& 

The acid, saccharine juice of the fresh fruit is much | 
esteemed ia India aa a cooling beverage In fevers and sick- 
ness, and it is one of the phala-traya or favourite fruit I 
triad, of Sanskrit writers. The FlowERS are said to be 
alao used as an astringent where they are obtainable. 



— Maziiphal, Miipbal ; Satu.— 
aw.— Machakai ; r«/.— Maahi- 



QUBRCUS INPECTOBIA. 
Oak Galls. 
Vem.—Ber>g. — Majuphul; Hind. 

Majtiphal; Bom. — Maiphala; 1 

kdya; Pert. — Mazu. 

The tree bearing the oak galls of commerce ia a native 
of Greece, Asia Minor and Syria, extending to Perata, 
whence they are imported into India in considerable quan- 
tities, as they have been from an early period. They ara 
therefore noticed briefly in this place. 

The oaks belong to the natural order CupuUfercB. The 
Qalls are excrescences caused by an Eymenopteroua insect 
{CynipB Qallce tinctori(e) puncturing the twigs or young 
branches of the oak and depositing its ova. The irritation 
produced causes a flow of the natural juices of the plant to 
the part, which suiTOund the ova ond develop into a gall^ 



I 




INDIGKNOUS DRUGS OF 1NDI4. 



265 



aometimea of considurable size. Within the gall thua 
farmed the larva uudergoes its various transfonuiitiooB uotil 
tbo winged insect bores a passage for itself from tite centre 
to the surface and escapes. The best quality of galls are 
bhose collected before tlie fly has escaped. They are 
darker in colour and known in the bazilra as the "black" 
gr"blue" variety, the "white" or perforated galls being 
lighter in colour. 

Most of the above vernacular names signify "magic 
nuts," from the fact that galls have been much employed 
in India by magicians. 

The principal chemical constituent of galls is Tannin or 
Tannic Add, usually distinguished as Oallo-tanuic Add, 
to the extent of 50 to 60 or 70 per cent., and about 3 per 
cent, of Gallic Add, 

Hedlolnal uses. — Galls constitute a powerful vegetable 
astringent. The (lowder is used to some extent in India 
aa an astringent in diarrhoea. A more general appHcatioa 
ia in the form of an ointment or suppository, usually com- 
bined with opium as a remedy for hsemorrhoids. Tannic 
utd gallic acids are valuable styptics and astringents. 



BANDIA DTTMETOBUM. 

a. — Beng. — Monphal, Madan ; Hind. — Mainphal, Maii3rul; 
[ iS'an;. — Madana; 5ohi.— Gelaphaia; 3'am. — Maruk-kallan-kai ; 
, Tel. — Mandd; Pen. — Jilz-ul-kueh. 

.'A small thorny tree of the Rubiaceae, common in the 
lOngleB all over India, distributed from the Himalaya to 
Ceylon. The FitulT when ripe looks like a small apple and 
B a sweetish, sickly smell. lb is described by Sanskrit 
i oa the best and safest of emetics, and the drug on 



JNDIQKNOUS DItCOS OF IKDU. 

which the ancient Hindlls chiefly depended for causiag 
emesia. The palp of one ripe fresh fiuit was asually auBB- 
cient for the purpose. It ia still considered a reliable emetic 
and expectorant, useful in charitable dispensary work on 
account of its cheapness. The pulp may be removeil, dried 
and I'owdered and kept ready for use, the dose being 
15 to 60 grains as an emetic, and 5 te 10 grains as an 
expectorant 

The authors oHhs Pharmacograpkia Indica have shown 
the active principle of the fruit to be saponin, while vslerie 
acid was also found to be present. 

Medicinal iiseB. — In addition to the useful emetic pro- 
perty above indicated the fruit was advocated by Sir Jamea 
Sawyer of Birmingham, in 1891, as a nervine calmative and 
antispasmodic.wlth properties resembling those of valeriaa. 
The drug had been brought to his notice by Mr. David 
Hooper. He recommended a tincture prepared with Spirit- 
us Etheris, B. P., in doses of 15 to 30 minims In water. 



BAFHANUS SATIVUS. 

Tee Radish, 
Vem. — Seag.—M.ui& ; Hind. — Muli, Muro; Sam. — M&laka; 

Bom. — Mula; Tani. and 2W. — Mullangi, 
' An annual herb belonging to the Gi-uciferie, cultivated 
everywhere in the plains for culinary purposes. 

The Seed and Root yield to distillation a fostid essential 
Oil allied in its nature to that of mustard and other Orttei' 
feroua plants, and containing a certain proportion of oi^ani- 
cally combined sulphur. 

Uedicinal uses.— The seed and root are regarded as 
stimulant and diuretic. 



INDIQESODS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

BATTWOLPIA SERPENTINA. 

Vera.— -fl^nij.— Chnndra ; S"i'nrf.— Chotii-clmnd ; .' 



267 



Cliundrika 



-Pdtala gandhi. 



I A climbing slirub ftiund in the tropical HimAiaya and at 
tQoderato altitudes in Sikkim, Assam, Pegu and Tennaa- 
Berim. Natural order J-pocynncece. The Root is said to 
have been long known to the people of India as au antidote 
to poison and to the bites of poisonous reptiles and stings 
of insects. It seems to have some beneficial action as a 
febrifuge. In the Pkarmacograpkia Indica, Prof. 0. J. H. 
Warden indicated the presence of alkaloidal constituents 
and in a la'er research, conducted in conjunction with 
Assistant-Surgeon C. L. Bose (Year Book of Pharmacy, 
1893, p. 128), has shown the root to contain an alkaloid 
allied in some respects to brncine and which was named 
provisionally, Peeudohruoine. Comparative physiological 
experiments with pseuilobrucine and brucine showed the 
former to be weaker and slower in its action. 

BHEUM EMODI. 
Indian Rhubarb. 
— Senj.— BanglA-r^van-chini ; Hirtd.- 



■Hindi-r^vand-chini, 

Tam. and 7'e/.— Ndttu- 



Vera. 

Ohiikri ; Bom. — Ladaki-r^vandiv-cbini 

ii^val-chinni. 

The Himitlayan Rhubarb is usually considered to be 
the produce of Rheum emodi And the allied species R. 
Stoorcroflianum, R. Webbianum, and R. Spiciforme, 
natnml order Polygonacew, found wild in great abundance 
at altitudes of 11,000 to 12,000 feet on the Himalaya, in 
Kashmir and in Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan. The rhubarb 
of commerce, known an Chinese or East Indian, is attri- 
buted to R. offioinale and R. palmatum, growing in the 



S6S 



iKDiGENons Diiraa of india. 



adjacent territory of Soulh-Eostera Thibet and North- 
Western China. 

The officina) part of the plants is the decorticated and 
dried Root or voot-stock, knovrnas "rhubarb," the Indian 
drug being of a darker coh)ur. inferior aroma and coarser 
texture, and untrimmed, as contra'ited with the commercial 
variety, while the powder is of a dull browiii ah -yellow 
colour instead of bright yellow. 

The rhubarb of the Indian bazars is for the mont part an 
inferior grade of tlie Cliinese drug, the better qualities sold 
bj the Native druggists heing Engliah-grown and imported 
from Loudon. Tlie indigenous root is not used to anj' large 
extent in tlie country, although Dr. Watt reports having 
discovered on a recent visit to Ka-shmir and the Punj&b, 
that it is exported from tlie Kangra District alone to the 
extent of 1,000 maunds (4.000 cwts.) annually. 

Rhubarb root of commerce contains a large proportion 
of Chrj/aophaiiic Acid, sometimes called Chrysopkan, to 
which is due the yellow colour and prolmbly some part of 
its cathartic property, a'thongh this baa been attributed to 
Cathartic Acid. An allied substance, Emodin, has also been 
isolated, and a tannin, named Rkeo-tannic Acid, besides 
resinous and mucilaginous principles. It usually contains 
a large proportion of crystals of oxalate of calcium. 

Dr. 0. Hesse has recently (1895) shown that rhubarb 
contains a series of substances related to each other in 
chemical composition, viz., chrysophanic acid, emodin and 
Blteln, and these substances probably originate from on 
unknown constituent by oxidation* [D. Hooper.] 

Uedlclnal uHes. — Stomachic and purgative, the latter 
action being followed by constipation, hence employed ia 
simple diarrhoea. It has been little used in India at apuF- 
Phariiafeutitat Journat, IV., 1331, XHthOot. mb. 



INDIOBKOUS DRUGS OF IKDU. 



269 



gative. Dr. Watt lias lately Btated that he has found it used 
externally as an ingredient in certain preparations applied 
to wounds and in ophthalmia, uses which ai'e probably 
applied in ignorance of the actual medicinal nature of the 
drug. 

SubBtitute. — The root of a species of dock, Rumex 
•nepalensis, very abundant in some parts of India, is sold 
under the name of ' Reivand ckini' in the bazfirs of 
Bengal. It is used medicinally for rhubarb and contains 
utnilar constituents [D. H.] 



BHINACANTHXTS COMMUNIS, 
Syn. — JusTiciA nabuta. 
Nauahlilli, 
Vem. — Seng. — Jui-pana ; Hind. — Pilak-juhi ; iSanii.— Yuthiko- 
B^pumi ; Bom. — Gajkami, Gaehltaran ; Tarn. — Naga-malli; ^ 



^^B~pumi ; Bom.- 
^B 7>I.— N^amalle. 

A small shrub, belonging to the uatural order Acanlfuicece, 

said to be indigenous to the Deccan and Ceylon, cultivated 

' in many parts of Western and Southern India. The Leaves 

■'and Root have long been rej(arded by the people of 
Pouthern India as antidotes to the bites of poisououa 
snakes; the name naga-mulU, by which the plant is most 
commonly known, indicating this property. 

The active principle is a red resinous substance named 
Sliinttcanlhin : it is believed to be related to chrjaophaaio 
and frangulic acids. 

Medicinal ubss. — The root, powdered and made into a 
paste with lime juice, has been used with beneficial etfect 
in eczema and ringworm, especially the variety of that 
feclion known in India as dhobie itch (TUiea drcinatk 
lica). The remedy was iutrodiiccd to European practice 





▼•«.— 



- Amanalrlrwi ; TdL— ] 



b tried ia tke tnUMcat < 

BICIKUS COMMUHIH 
Thx Ci«To»OiL Pun. 

n 

%nadi ; Juam. — Eri 

Th« CHtor'oU pluit, natoral order KMfkorinaeeM, aX- 
tboogh comnum and apparently qaite wild in the jongtes 
ID India, hu afTnrded great botaaiata some scope for apeoo- 
Utiuii as to whether it ia really a native of India and not 
of Africa. 

It hw been cultivated in India from n remote aatJ<{aify. 
Two [irirnftry forms are known in tliia eoaotiy ; — (1)^ — t, 
perenninl butliy Hhrub.orgroall tree.grownosuallyasahedge 
jjlatit, with large fruits and large red see'ls which may yield 
40 por cent, of oil, uned chiefly for lubricating and illaml- 
nation; and (2),— a much smaller, annual plant, grown as a 
distinct crop or planted in vows in betel and sugar-cane 
and other gardens, with small grey aeeds with brown spots, 
yielding 37 per cent, of oil, the better qualities of which 
are u»ted for medicinal purposes. There are many local 
forinH which serve to give a distinct character to the seeda 
of different districts, which are classed accordingly and 
named with the name of the district in which they are 
grown. The cultivation of the caator-oil plants extends 
throughout India, chiefly in the Madras, Bengal and Bom- 
bay I'rosidoiicios, ami the trans mission of the seeda to 
Calcutta and Bombay for export forms an important part 
of Iho coiiHbwiso and iuliind tralHc. 



INDIGENOUS DRDGS OF INDIA. 



271 



- > 
t 

I 



* 



• The Seeds contaiu afixedOil,caBtor-oil of commeiceand 
.|iharm aey, Oie!(m Ricini of tlie Phaiiuacopceias, once known 
^tiao as Oleuvi PalmcE Chviet'i, in relation to the palmately 
laped leaves. The oil is obtained chiefly by expression, 
and when "cold-diawn " or extracted witliout the aid of 
heat ia colourless, or of a faintly yellowish or straw colour, 
practically odourless, with a bland and very slightly acrid 
taste. The following grades of castor-oil are known in the 
^{}alcntta bazir: — 

1. — Cold'clrAWD. I 4. — Good second No. S. 

2.— No. I-Hot-drBwii. 6.— Ordinary No. a. 

a.— Good aacond. Hgt-drawn. | 8.— Ordinarj No. 8. 

There are also intermediate qualities. The "cold-drawn" 
is not made at the present time in Calcutta, one firm which 
attempted to place it on the market having, it is aaid, 
become bankrupt. Nos. 2 and 3 are made from the small 
Uadras seed by the owners of hand presses in Calcutta, of 
whom there are about 300, and by certain Native firms who 
own screw presses, worked by bullocks, and in the Bengal 
jaila, where screw presses are employed. Hydraulic power 
is not used, as there is said to be a difficulty in regulating 
the esact amount of pressure for the different grades of oil 
required, Nos. 4, 6 and 6 in the above liafc are made from 
inferior seeds of the large variety grown in Bengal, and 
used and known as " lamp oil " and for lubricating. 

For the medicinal oils the seeds are haod-cleaned and 
husked, the kernels dried in the sun and afterwards broken 
in a crushing machine. They are then placed in canvas 
bagsand pressed between alternate iron-plates, the oil being 
collected in a vat beneath. In the hot-pressing process 
commonly in vogue a slow fire is placed beneath tiie hand- 
mill, which liqueties the oil and increases the yield. The 
oil is subsequently bleached by exposure to the sun and 



H mui, wn 

^^■oil is SI 



272 



IMDIOENOUS DBUas UF INDIA. 



p&rtially clarified by boiling witK water. This haa tlie-' 
effect of coagulating the albumen, dissolvin};; out mucilagt- 
tious matters anO separating im|>uritle3. It is then filtered ] 
tlirough a bed of animal charcoal and six or eight fblda of 1 
flannel cloth and is ready for use. 

The inferior qualities are made by a similar process, lees J 
care boitig taken in the extraction and purification. In I 
many parts of India an inferior oil is pi'oduced by boiling ] 
the crushed seeds in water, the oil being collected as it 
rises to the surface. 

An improved process* of manufacture of medicinal cas- 
tor-oil has been perfected in Calcutta, and in London, where j 
great quantities of Indian seed are expressed annually. 
It consists essentially of subjecting the carefully cleaned 
seeds, whole and unhusked, in a specially designed hydrau- 
lic press, to a pressure of 480 tons, withoutthe aid of heat, 
the oil being drawn at once into a series of filters through 
which it pa.^se9 in vacuo to the bottles in which it is uUi- 
mately placed upon the market. The adi'antages of tliis 
process are that while the oil is absolutely " coM-drawn," 
thus avoiding much of the acridity and nanseouanesa 
commonly associated with it, it is less complicated and 
more economical than the process ordinarily employed. 
Only half of the available 44 per cent, of oil is extracted 
by the first pressure; tha marc is subsequently subjected 
to a second, giving an additional 16 per cent., which is 
employed tis a lubricant. 

The chemistry of castor-oil is scarcely complete. It has 
been the suhject of many investigations, but the identity of 
the active principle has not yet been satisfactorily settled. 
The oil consists chiefly of Ricinoleate of Qlycei-yt, or 



• Mihiliali's Prooet*. Phu'-iuar, 
and Brilith aid G-<t"»ial Dnigyinl 



ieiU Jonrnat, Ohrmitt and DruggUt, 
Uj II, I89fi. 



INDIGENOUS DR0O3 OF INDIA. 273 

Tti-Ticinoleine, soluble in all proportions, unlike most fixed 
oila, ill absolute alcoliol and glacial acetic acid. The seeda 
have also been stated to cotilain au alkaloid, Ricinine, 
which has no purgative property, RIcinoleic Acid has 
been believed to be the purgative principle, and it has been 
isolated and eui|)loyed as such," while it has been con- 
tended that the action is due, not to an intestinal irritant 
ready formed in the oil, but to riciiioleic acid which is set 
free by the partial sapouiScation of tiie oil by the alkalis 
of the small intestine. The poisonous constituent of the 
seed has been isoUted and named Ricin.f It is believed 
to be an albuminoid body, identical with the "/Jphjtal- 
bnmose," sepitrated from the dried juice of Carica, Papaya 
and belonging to the class of unformed ferments. It is a 
most powerful poison, exercising a remarkable power of 
coagulation on the bluod. It does not act as a purgative 
but produces hmmorrhagic inflammation of the gastro- 
intestinal tract, even when admiaistered hypodermically. 
Subsequent experiments have shown this substance to be 
identical with similar ferments contained in other drastic 
seeds of ffi(p/io)*6('acfloufl plants, including Croton Tiglium 
and Jati'opha Curcan,q.v. To the presence of this body 
is therefore attributed the fact that three of the seeda have 
been known to bo poisonous to an adult, while the castor- 
oil cake after expression of the oil has been fatal to cattle 
when given as a food.J 

* Prof, Hail' Mayer: PharmaceHtieal Journal, Jannarj 31, 1S91, 
p. 661. 

t Her Stillmark. Pharmaoologioal Inalitnte, Dori»t : Pharmaeenli- 
cal Journal. Nofembet S, IBBB, p. 341. 

t A Vdlaabla Bf/icrt nn tir Oaltor OUt in the Indian Section ef th« 
Imperial laititvte. Lenian, by DMriaK Md Redwood, has b«sn pnb. 
Hahed a« P«t6 IT (1894) of Ibo Aprionltnral Ledger, obtainable at the 
Imperial Inntilnto and at the Indian Hneeuni, Calootttt, 

K, ID 18 



fi74 



INDIOENOUa DRUOS OF INDIA. 



^ 



Commercially the seeds and oil are products of grea 
importance. The aniuunt of castor-oil seed exported f 
India, chiefly from Calcutta, dunng the year ending Moid 
1895* amounted to 1,174.895 cwts. (l.G44,K50 maunda' 
valued at Ra. 55,07,182 {ahout £S80,000), and of castor-oil b 
2,679,230 gallons, valued at Rs. 25,66,253 (about £130,000; 
about one-half of the export going to the United Kingdom 

An important economic use of the plant is that of rear 
ing the eri silk-worm, which feeds on the leaves, &aA 
which Mr, T. N. Mukhaiji, F.L.S., has done much of laU 
years to popularize. 

Uedlclnal uses. — The use of pure, medicinal castor On* 
aa a mild, reliable, uon-irritant, and safe purgative is ani- 
versaL It is official in all the Pharmacopoeias of tha 
world. The finer qualities are now popularly termed 
"tasteless." It is specially useful (plain or in emulsion 
with mucilage) in inflammatory conditions of the bowels, 
in diarrhoea of childhood, and often combined with opium 
in simple diarrboaa. The purgative effect should be 
obtained with doses of one to two drachms taken i 
empty stomach. Larger doses frequently induce diarrhtea. 
A compound of the oil with magnesia, called Uagnesium 
Ricinoleate, has been suggestedf aa probably presenting th6 
activeprinciplea in an elegant form, butitstherapeuticactjoil 
proved disappointing. The corresponding Soda Ricinoleate 
was also suggested as a useful form for suppositories. 

The oil is largely used in India as a basis of petfnmec 
toilet oils for anointing the head. The Root-Bakk t 
Leavk9 have purgative properties and have been ased il 

* Triule nnd NavigntioD Bepoit of Biitiah Indik, 1696, 
t Kalph StookmRD, M.D., and D. B. Dott, F.B.8.E.. in PkarMMtuHt 
Jmrnal, February 2S, IS^S, p. 706. 



INDIGBNOUS DRUGS OF INDIA, 



875 

id>: 



I , . tteta 



India. Tiie leaves applied to the breasts oj 

fluid extract given internally, act as a gal&ctagogue. 

Adulteration, — Inferior qualities of seeds are often mixed 
with superior and the oil is adulterated in Calcutta with 
ilaliua and other oils that may be found cheaper at the 
time, but adulteration is practised on a limited scale. 

BOSA DAMASCBKA. 
TsE Damask or Febbian Boag. 
: — Bmij. — GolAp-phul ; Hind. — Gulab-ke-phui j Sans. —^ 
.tapattri (hundred-leafed) ; Som. — Gulab-nu-phul ; Tatii,-^ 

OuUppa, Irojdppu j 7'et. — Roja-puvou, Oula-puvou ; Pert.—~ 

Guli-surkh. 

Several species and cultivated forms of roses (natural 
order Romcete), are grown in India. The shrubby plant, 
with the familiar red. double flowers, S. damoBcena, is 
the most important: it is cultivated on large areas of 
ground set apart as rose gardens in several places in Bengal 
and the Punjib, chieHy near Patna, Ghazipur and Lahore, 
and the rose-leaves, or more correctly, petals of the flowers, 
*re sold to distillers for the production of rose-water and 
attar of roses. R. centifolia is also cultivated, and several 
lass important species occur wild, the latter including R. 
bengalensis, which haaanodoursnggestive of jargonelle pear. 

Rose-water (giddb) is distilled in simple Native stills, 
a laH (1,00,000) of roses being reckoned to produce 100 
bottles of rose-water, each containing about 20 ounces. 
The newly distilled water is set aside over-night and the 
slight * scum ' of attar which floats on the top is carefully 
Temoved with a feather and placed in the sun to clear. 
This is best effected in the cold weather, when the yield ia 
'greatest. Ttie average yield of good attar from a lakh of 
TtMM has been estimated at one toUt weight or ISO gratm 



276 



INDIOENOOS DltUGS OF IKDIA. 



The calyces of the fluwers are not removed befoi'e distillingj 
OB tliey do not affect the odour and perhaps slightly incre 
the yield. 

The e.^ential Oil (roae-oil) or Otto, or attar of roses, I 
which the flowers owe tlieit fragrance, and which is i 
important an article of pevfumery, is greatly esteemed i 
India, practically all that is produced in the country betm 
consumed, while it is also imported in considerable quanti 
ties Troni Pei'sia and also from Turkey and, in the ordinal] 
course of European trade, from London. It is freely u 
as a perfume by the wealthier classes of the people : 
distribution along with jian-aupdri is the common expre 
Bion of good feeling towards guests, and it is an essentia 
accompaniment of festive occasions, durbars and pAJM 
Rose-water is equally popular and similarly used : it ih a 
imported, fts are dry roses for distillation. 

Rose-oil may vary in colour from emerald green to reddia 
yellow: the specific gravity ought to be "87 to 89, and i 
may solidify at 11° to 18° C. according to the amount a 
Btearoptene it contains, which is very variable according t 
the circumstances of growth and frequently of adulteratioq 

This stearoptene or solid hydrocarbon constituent differs 
from other bodies of the same class in other essential oils 
(e.g., thymol from the oil of Carwn copticum) in bein^ 
odourless. Fluckiger believed it to belong to the paraf 
aeries. The remaining liquid CQiistituent or eleeopta 
constitutes the odorous portion of rose-oil. 

An abstract of the newer chemistry of otto of roses i 
te found in the Year Boole of Pharmacy, 1894, page 7fl 
where it is stated that the chief constituent of the elsso^ 
tene is an alcohol which has been named Roseol, 

medicinal uses. — A conserve known as gulkandismdA 
in India from the fresh rose petals. It has tnild laxatia) 



INDIOKHOUS DHUOS OF INDIA. 



277 



properties : the unexpaoded flower buds are cODsiilered 
ostriogent. Rose-waier is much used ^ a vehicle for 
medicines. The otto ia seldom used medicinally except 
for peifuming emollients an<] meiliciiinl soaps. 

Adulteration. — Rose-oil, as retailed bj the attar-wallaha 
(otto-sellers) all over India, \r much adulterated witli sandal- 
vood and other oils. Sandal-wood chips are also added to 
the rose leaves befoi'e distilling. The essential oil of An- 
dropogon SehoiiiaiUhus (geranium grass oil) is exported 
from India to Turkey tor the ex|>ress purpose of adulterat- 
ing otto of rases, but it does not appear to he used for this 
purpose in India. 

*RUBIA COBDIFOLIA. 
The Indian Madder. 
Vem. — Manjft, Manjishtha. 
A climbing plant of the RubiaceeB, growing in the North- 
West Himalaya and the hilly districts of India generally, 
The Roots are collected and used in India fur a red dyo 
vhicli they yield. Tiie chemical constituents are a red 
principle, Purpurin, and a yellow colouring matter, named 
Mwijistin. 

Medicinal OBBB.—Manjlt was formerly used to some 
extent in medicine and was believed to have deobstnient 
properties. It is chiefly used as a colouring ingredient of 
medicinal oils. 

RUTA ORAVEOLBNS. 

Oabden Rue. 
•"Beng. — Ispand ; Hind. — Saditb ; Sans. — Sadtipaha ; 

Tarn.— Arvads. ; Tet. — Saddpa. 
9 plant is cultivated in Indian gardens. It belongs 
|the natural order i2u(ace(£. An essential Oil distilled 




tT8 IMDIOKNOUS DRDOS OF IKDIA. 

from the Herb ib used in medicine as & stimulant to 
aterine and nervous syatema, given in hysteria and 
rfa<ea. 

SACGHABUH OFFIdNARUM. 

The Suoab-caite. 

Vem. — Beng,—Ak; Sind. — TJth, GaaoA; Sant. — Itahn; 

5om.— tJa, Sheradi ; ram.— Kanimbii ; Te/.— Cheroku. 

The Saceharuin genua belongs to the grass order ((3ra 
•minecB). The commou sugar-cane is very extensively cult 
vated throughout India in several varieties or races. It : 
considered doubtful ly botanists whether it is a native < 
India, although there is much evidence that is believed i 
indicate that it may have been. It has been cultivated ij 
this country f»r many centuries, during which time it ba 
been held in great veneration by the Hindus and used b] 
them as votive offerings at the shrines of their gods. 

Besides the varieties of S. offi-oinaTitm which are cultti 
vated for the sugar which they yield, several varieties o 
Saccharttni are grown as fibre producers. In the hot weatha 
the thin, tender portion of the stem is cut into small piecs 
and very largely consumed raw throughout the country a 
a sweetmeat, being simply chewed. The expressed juie 
is also much used as a sweet driuk. 

The chief constituent of the sugar-cane is 
SUQAR, 
which is contained in the expressed juice, from the holloi 
jointed stem of the mature plant. The chemical compouni 
known as cane-sugar is a most interesting product—ef thl 
cheuiistiy of Nature. It is a derivative of starch, a carbo 
hydrate, and is believed to be produced by the action of th 
sun's rays in the leaves of certain pUnts and stored up, il 



INDIQEKOUS DRVan OP IKDIA. 279 

aqueous solution, in the tissues as reserves in the plant ecoa- 
omy. It occiivs id several membeia of the vegetable kingt 
doin besides the sugar-caue, the moat impnitaii t commercially 
being ihe root of Beta marltirtvt, tbe beet, which is grown 
in lailia as a culinary vegetable, in the juice of certain 
palms, chiufly Cocos nucifera, Boramnn fiabdliformia and 
especially the date-palm, Pkcenix aylvestrlB. 

Ill the process of manufacture of ludiau sugara the aweet 
juice or jaggery, also known as ras, is strained and boilad 
down to a dark-brown thick consistence in which form it 
constitutes gdr or gwl, the crude fi)rm of sugar commonly 
used by tlie people of India. It contains a considerable 
proportion of " molasses " or " treacle" known as chkoa, the 
uncrystallizable portion, invert sugar, of the saccharine juice, 
which is drained o3 and sold as a distinct product. Indian 
molasses does not quite correspond to that produced in 
European sugar retining : it has a deep black colour and 
pronounced bitter taste of "caramel" or "burnt sugar," due 
to over-boiling, and is of thinner consistence and usually 
fermented. When the better qualities of gAr have been 
more or less completely drained of molasses they consti- 
tute the con.rse brown sugar, known as " country " sugar, 
sknkkar or batigla ckiiii* which is much used, and which 
consists of a soft, moist, partly crystalline mass varying 
much in quality. A coarser description of giir called 
rab is sold to the refiners, and from this the crystalline 
forms of sugar are directly prepared. The molasses having 
been pressed out. the crystalline portion is bleached in the 
sun, dissolved, clarified, and crystallized, the resulting pro- 
duct being the familiar white sugar, ckinior safed ehakkar 

* Tba term i» believed to indicitte that tba pruucHii of mi gar-refluins 
r have boeii learned from China at an early period oC the IndUK 
.1 indiubrj. 



SSO ISDlaUtUUS DBUG8 or IKDIA. 

This is uow Terj saceeafolly mannfartured «t Kveral a 
inilla in BeDgal and Uadns, those or the Coesi 
WoT^B, near Calcutta, and tbe Row Faetoij near Shahj»- 
banpar, being the moAt uDptatant DoaUe lefined and 
cr;Bt&llizedsDgar,nu>H orIAafid.*isa)aoproduc«d inu 
ral forms, iDcluilinuJtusa im>r<, sagar-eandy, wlii^isBa 
by pouring the clarified Bolutkiiiorsynipinto Teasels in wfaidb 
strings are su«|>eiii)ed round which the crystals eoDgregste. 

Tlie export traiJe in Indian sDgar has declined from tfaa 
very important |>o3ttion to which it attained in the 
of the Honourable the East India Conifiaoy, due in Iarg» 
measure to the a>lvent of beet-BUgar and its extensiTa 
manufacture in Europe, but crudely refined nr uiiFefined 
sugar is exported annually from Madras, Boml<ay and 
Calcutta to t)ie extent of about a million hundred- weights 
and of refined sugar about a fourth of this quantity. The 
importa of refined sugar show a decline during recent ye*n, 
due (o inipnivemeiits in local manufacture, but the 
imported during the year 189t-95 waa 2.296,193 ewta, 
valued at Rs. 283,ol>,fJ00 of which quantity more than 
tenth part conuisied of German beet-sugar. 

Uediclnal uses.— Sugar has practically no direct thera- 
peutical effect'^. It is a sweet demulcent, nnd may be 
regarded as nutritious and pectoral. It is a valuable agent 
in pharmacy, and is much used in the |iie|>Hrati'>n of syrapa 
and confections, for disguising the ta'ite nf un|>leasaut medi- 
cines, as a preservative and for protecting ferruginous pre- 
parations from oxidation. Treacle is einjiloyed as a pill 
excipient and caramel as a colouring agent. 

' It i« inlereBtiDg to noM thst the Saoikrit word khaiida (okodiadiugkr) 
b tba origiii of tha familinr term -' cknilj" or '■•□gHr-CBQclT " m applM 
to crjut&lline forms of the commercial produat. 



INDia>':NOUli DRUGS 07 INDI4. 



281 



SALIX CAPREA. 

The Sallow. 
Topn. — /nrf— (Tlie Flowers) Bed-iimshk. 

This is a species of willow, natural oider Siilicine(F, culti- 
'ated in Persia, and in NortL-WeaLeru India, in Kashmir, 
and at Peshawar and Lahore, 

From the fragrant Flowers are distilled an easentialOlL 
or attar and a perfumed water (ina-el-kkildf) which ia 
much used in Northern India, chiefly by Pei'sian?, and in 
Western India by Parsls, and regarded as atiiiiulaiit and 
aromatic. The Bark contains the cryslaliine glucoside, 
Salicin, and tannin. Saliciu is contained in the bark oC 
several species of willow grown iu India: it is not, however, 
extracted. 

The leaves of this and several other Indian willows are 
occasionally covered with a syrupy exudation, which dries 
op in thin, white flakes to a sugar or uianiia. Mr. J. O. 
Prebble iias described' such an exudation wliich he found 
on the leaves of a tree of S. tetrasperma, growing at 
Mahahk.shwariuthe Western Ghats, It was very soluble in 
water and seemed to correspond in chemical oum|iositii)U to 
a Persian manna described as Bidaiigubin or " willow- 
honey " which ci^>ntaiiis 12 per cent, of a peculiar su^ar 
which lias been named Bklenguebinose.i 

medicinal usee. — The Bare of 8. Caprea is said to be 
used as a febrifuge iu the l()calitie8 where itgrows. Salicin 
was formerly much used as an antiperiodic, but il has heen 
found to pijssess little, if any, such property. It is now 
used as a tonic and anti-rheumatic, and was used some 
years ago with beneflcial efl'cct in influenza. 





A tmaD tm or AnA, wUA. vith the allied S. oUoiJm, 
■atvnl order Saltmdoraeta. is fbaad in tht uid tisets of 
Smd, in the Panjib. and in North- Western India and Pep- 
■a. The Peniaa Dame gina ahave ngni&e* " looth-famall 
tne," frooi the bet thai pieees of the root an vatd M 
tootfa-bnwbes by the people in the n^oos where the plaai 
grows. 

The fresh Root-Babe, bnused and applied to the akio. ia 
■aid to act as a Teaicant : in actual experience it has been 
found to caa<ie redness withoat vesicaling. aud ua; ba 
regar<led oa an active external stimulant. 

T)ie root^bark of S. ptraica afibnied Warden (Pharmaeo^ 
griip/iia Indict) a qnautitj of triniethi/Camine which v 
believed to partly exist in the free state and partly 
cbli'Hde, and to which the stimulating effects of the fr«ah 
bark when applieil to the skin were helieved to be due. 
A trace of an alkaloid was also separated, for which tho 
uamo Salvadorine was proposed. 

Fruni tho Skkds, an Oil of thick consistence, bright green 
colour and pungent odour is expressed, wliich is used as A 
Btiinulant application in rlieuinatism. The Leaves aro 
UBtnl Its a poultice witli like effect in similar aSections. 

SALVIA SPINOSA. 

Dyoiock, in the Pharviacot/raphia Itidica, describes un- 
dm- Phyllnnthus mfidrae}>ateiws, natuial order Ev.phorhia>- 
cem, a PoiMiaii drug, known as Kanocka seed in the bae^. 



I 



■ INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 283 

I «f Western India, a atnall (nangiilar seed which, when 
I poaked in water, immediately becomes thickly coated with 
a semi-opaque mucilage. The seeds are oily and have a 
sweet nutty taste, ami are said to he used medicinally on 
account of the mucilage which they afford. 0. Stapf 
(f/iami. /ourTt. [:i], XXIII, p. 745) announces that he has 
found these seeds to be tlie iiutlet.s of Salvia spinoaa 
(natural order LabiatfB), which are sold under the name of 
iiarv, and believed to be uned aa above. 

The seeds of S, plebeia and S. cegyptiaca are used in ths 
North of India for gonorrhcea and as aphroiiisiacs. i 

SAMADBKA INDICA. < 

Vem. — Tarn, and S. Ind, — Niepa, Samadara. 

A tree, belonging to the natural order SimarubecE, found 

in Western India and extending to Malabar and Ceylon, 

The Bark and Wood contain a bitter principle, Samaderiii, 

also called Quassiin by Fliickiger. Tlie wood has proper- 

•^ies resembling those of quassia, and was considered by 
Dymock an ethcient substitute for it. The Siceds contain 
B similar principle, together with a quantity uf fixed oil. 
Medicinal uses, — The wood may be regarded as a bitter 
I tonic resembling that of quassia, 

^B SANTALUM ALBUM. 1 

^^K The Sandal-wood Tree. ' 

^^^Vem. — Beng, — Chanand, SweUchandan, Fitchandan; Sind. — 
^^^V Chondal, Saadal ; Sans. — Chandana ; Bom. — Safed-chandan ; 
^^^ 2'am, — Sandanak-kattai ; 7'el. — Gandliapu-chekka. 

A small, somewhat delicate evergreen tree, natural order 
^^SantalacecB, indigenous to, and cultivated in, the Mynore 
^Hfitate, grown also in Coirobatore and the Southern parts of 



S84 UDIGENOCS DBUGS OF IXDIA. 

Uadna, adjoining Sijaore. The eoltivaUoin aad felling of 
Ibe tree* is entirely onder GoTemmeot moDopoly in Mysore, 
■lid prodaeea a ooosiderable portion of Uie forest revenue. 
Tltere is no actual monopoly in the Uadraa PrasideDcy, but 
the greater portion of the trees ta " reeenred " and aadec 
the adininistraiion of the Forest Departmeot. 

The iree is valuable for its aromatic, yellowiab-broim 
heart-woOD, which contains an essential Oil — Sandal-wood 
oiL The wood reaches maturity at about the age of thirty 
years, when the tree is felled, now more generally uprooted, 
the hark removed, and the white outer sapwood and branches, 
which are odourless and useless, rejected. The wood is 
then ruughly shaped into billets — the sandal-wood of com- 
merce — sorted into various jirades and sold by auction, 
being exported chie&y to Bombay, whence it is distributed 
to the drug markets of the world. The export from India, 
for the year ending March 1895, amounted to £56,736. 

The essential oil is distilled from small chips or raspings of 
the heart' wood, which usually yields in India about 2( per 
cent., although as much as 5 percent, ia said to have been 
obtained wiih more efficient appliances. The Roots are 
considered to yield a larger quantity and a finer quality of 
oil and usually fetch a good price at the auctions. 

The oil has a persistent, somewhat roseate odour and 
aromatic, bitterish, slightly acrid taste. It consists almost 
entirely of two bodies — an alcohol, named Santctlol (SO 
to 90 percent.), and a small quantity of a corresponding 
aldehyde. 

The oil ia distilled in Mysore and exported, but it k not 
ofhigh quality, dark-coloured and usually much adulterat- 
ed before it readies the markets. The bulk of the oil of 
Erij^lish commerce is distilled in London or in France and 
Qorniaiiy and the quality varies very considerably. 



INOlOENOUb DKfOS OF INDIA. 



S85 



I 



The fragrant wood has been used in India from a very 
early period. It occupies un important place in Hindis 
ceremouiak : the last mark of rei^pect u.'^imlly jiaid to a 
departed chief is to afford him a funerul pyre entirely com- 
posed of sandal- wood. It is much used by the Parsis in 
iheir fire temples. The powder rubbed into ii paste ia . 
used by the Bruhmins for their sectarial markings on the 
forehead. 

Carved work in sandal-wood employs quite an industry 

in Southern India and Ceylon ; fancy boxes are made of the 

wooil which retain tlio odour of the oil (or many yeara. 

The oil forms the basis of many of the perfumed ottos 

80 popular in India, A fixed oil is ohtaiued by expression 

from the seeds, which is used in Mysore fur burning in 

lamps. 

M&dlolnal oaea. — Sandal-wood has long been I'e^farded in 

dia as bitter, cooling, astringent and useful in bilioua 

ivera : applied externally in the form of a paste with 

rater in prickly heat and skin eruptions. The essential 

Oil is largely used as a popular remedy as a demulcent, 

diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhoea and kindred afTec- 

tions and in chronic cystitis, given in doses of 10 to 30 

minims, commonly in capsules or emulsion. A fluid extract 

of the wood is given in America in similar cases with good 

effect. 

Adnlteratlona. — Castor-oil is a common adulterant 
of Indian saiidal-wood oil. In the oil.n of commerce 
cedar-wood and cupaiba oils are very frequently found, 
OS much as 10 per cent, and are exi.eedingly difficult 
of detection, A method of detecting the admixture of 
at least 2 per cent, of the former was communicated 
to the British Pharmaceutical Conference, 1895, by Mr. 
E. J. Parry, B. Sc. 



s&c 



I5DiaK!lut79 DftOGS Of IKDI*. 



SAPINOUS TBIPOLIATirS 

Syn, — S. tiLiBGiSiTTS, 

The SoAP-xtnr Tbsz. 

Vam-^S*"?.— Ritha, Barnitba ; ^MdL— Ritfas ; Sa*s. — Pte I 

niU; Bom.—'RitiA, Aritha ; Timi.— Ponin^otUi ; 7UL— • | 

A large tree cominoa in Soobbera todU, coItiTftted w 
Bengal. The Frdit, and thut of S. MukoroMi (Sya.—S. 
detergena) ths si>ap-nu(. tree of Nortliero India (Hind. — 
RUha, Dodan) are the soa]j-iiuts which are used bo largely 
in India by the people aa aoap-subatitutes for woabiog. 
Both trees belong Ut the natural onler Sapindaeea. The 
£ruita eonUuti Saponin, estimated in thoie of 5. trifoliatus, 
by the authors of the Pharmaeographia Indica at I V5 per 
oeot. 

Hedlolual nsea.— Soap-nuts have long been used in India 
in domestic medicine. They may be employed as emetic; 
in doses of 1 to 2 drachm-t (purgative in larger doses), 
nauseant, and ss expectorant, in doses of 10 to 20 grains 
of the pericarp, or pulp and kernel of the fruit. 



SARAOA INDIOA. 

Syn. — JowEsiA AflOKA. 
Tbb A^oke Tree. 
Vera. — Beng. and llind.—ABoV ; Sam. — Aeoka, Kauk^j 
Bom. — Ashokft, Jdsuodi ; Tarn. — Ashogam ; ?>/. — Asek. 
The aBolc is otic of the aacied trees of the Hindus. It 
ia cultivated throughout India, forming a very attractive 
object ill gardens with its dense dusters of brilliant orange 
or yellow-coloured Sowers. It belongs to the natural order 



INUJOKNOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



287 
:e: it 



LeguminoscB. The bark is used in Native medici: 

contains a quantity of tannin. 
^^K Medicinal use. — The baik is an a.striiigent : it h much 
^^Ked by Indian practitioners in uterine affections, especially 
^^Bl meiiorrliagia. 

I 



Syn.- 



Vern. 

Kushtha 
Knstam. 



SATTSSURBA LAPPA. 

Aplotaxis Lappa ; Aucklandia Costus. 
The CosTca. 
Beng. — Fichak ; Hind, — Kut, Kust, Pachak ; Sam.~- 



Bom. — Ouplat*, Upaltit; Tarn. — Goshtan; TeL~ 



The Costua of the Greeks and Romans was a medicine 
held in high repute from the remotest antiquity. Its origin 
was for long shrouded in obscurity, but the drug now 
known and easily obtainable in the bazars under the same 
name, and believed by some to be identical, is now referred 
to SausBurea Lappa and probably also S, hypoleuca 
(Syn. — Aplotaxis auriculata), stout herbs belonging to the 
natural order Composita', and growing abundantly in the 
mountains of Kashmir. It was formerly erroneously refer- 
red to Costus spedostta (q. v.), a plant of the natural order 
ScitaminecB, common in the jungles in Bengal, the roots of 
which are named by the same vernacular names, although 
quite destitute of odour, that of the true fcuat suggesting 
the perfume of orris or violets. 

The Roots are dug up in large quantities in Kashmir 
where its collection is a State monopoly, and, as Dr. Watt 
has lately discovered, in Kulu and KanjTia; it is cut into 
Knall pieces of two or four inches long and sent down 

t Calcutta and Bombay, whence it ia exported very 



S88 INDIOENUUS DKUGS OF INDIA. 

largely to China, where it is used as an iDcoDse and ) 
a meiliciiie. 

Tlie Costua root, when dry, ia brown-coloured, brittle anm 
resinous: it ha.s a bitter pungent and camphoraceous tast«a 
^/nv and faint fragrant odour of orris and violets, as indicate 

h above, or of musk and oiris root. It contains Inulin, a formal 

of starch peculiar to the roots of the CoTnpoHtcB, and t 
nous princi|>les to whicli the odour ia due. It aomewhatfl 
iSlfW*^/'^^* reuemblea elecampane in appearance, structure and chemi-f 
yttMt^Km ) Qg\ composition. It is used as a perfume. 

Hedicinal ueea. — The drug has been used in India firontJ 
the eaiiiest times as a tonic and aphrodisiac. It may b^l 
regarded as an aromatic stimulant. It is used in Iiidiaaf 
an ingredient in stimulating mixturea for choleiu and ufi 
an ointment applied to ulcers. 

Adulteration. — Kust is said to be sometimes adulterate 
ed before it reaches India, with a root known as tut, ref«r>l 
red to a species of Salvia. 



SCHLEICHBRA TBIJUOA. 

Vem. — fliitd. — Koaum, Kosuinba; Bom. — Eosamb; Tam.^^ 
Pu-maram; Tel. — Piiskti, Roatanga. 

A large tree, of the natural order SapindacecB, gvow'tagm 
in the hiwer Himalaya towards the North-West, and alsa-f 
in Central and Southern India, Burma and Ceylon. A SnoJ 
quality of lac is produced on the young branches. The I 
Beeds contained in the pulpy fruit yield to expressioaJ 
a fixed Oil which ia said to be the original " Macaasarfl 
Oil." A recent chemical examination of the oil under thisf 
name appears in the Year Book of Pharmacy for 1894^ 
p. 179. 



INDIQENOUS DltUUS OF INDIA. 2S9 

This oil boa been much lecommeiided as a stimulatiag 
cleansing apptication to the scalp, promoting the 
^}wth of the hair. 



^ii 



SCILLA XNDICA. 

Syn. — Ledebouria hvacisthina. 
—Stnff. and Hind. — Suphaidi-khua ; Som, — Bhulk^ndd : 
Tom. — Shiru-nari-vengayam. 
A Liliaceous plant very conimou in sandy soil in the 
Eonktin. The squill of the Indian bazirs is believed to 
partly consist of the Bulbs of this plant (S. indica, Baker) 
and chiefly of Urginea indioa (the S. indica of Roxburgh) 
Both have been found to be efficient substitutes for 
the official squill (the sliced and dried butbs of Urginea 
Soilli). As found in the bazars, the drug is usually In the 
whole or unaliced state. The two kinds of squill may be 
distiuguished by the Urginea bulb being imbricated and 
the Scilla bulb being tunicated. 

Uediclnal uses. — Squill is much used in medicine as a 
filimulant, expectorant and diuretic. 



SOINDAPSUS OPPIOINALIS. 

Vem. — Beng. — Oaj-pipul ; Hind. — Gaj-pipll, Barl-pipU; Sani.— 
Kari'pippall ; 5<>in. — Thora-piinpali ; I'am. — Acti-tippili ; TeL 

► — Enugdrpippalu. 
A large climbing plant growing in tropical parts of India, 
common in the Mkluapur district, where the sliced and 
dried Fhoit is sold in the bazdrs as a carminative and sti- 
mulant medicine. It is chiefiy used as an aromatic adjunct 
1 other medicines. 

K, ID 19 




290 



INUIOKNOOS Dl;UOS OF INDIA. 



SEUECARPnS ANACABDTCrU 

Tub Markinq-sot Tree. 

Vmn-Seag. and Hinrf.— Bh^la, Bliiliwa; ,9ans.— Bhallatakd; 

£om — Bibba; ram.— Sh^n-kottai; Tel. — Jidi-vittulu. 

A mo derate -si zed tree, belonging to the natural order 
Anacardiaceas, growing on the temperate Hlmdlaya and in 
the hotter parts of India: common in Ea'^tein Bengal, bat 
not extending further South. 

The pericarp or fleshy pulp of the fruit or Seed abounds 
in a block, oily, acrid juice which is uuiveraally utilized by 
the people of India as "marking ink" for cotton fabrics, 
hence the popular name applied to the tree. It is used in 
combination with lime water or cau.stic lime, which act as 
mordants, and it is practically indelible, being insoluble in 
water, although soluble in alcohol after treatment with 
strong alkali. The juice acts as a powerful escharotic 
when applied to the skin : it is little used medicinally. A 
dark brown Oil is extracted, to the extent of 32 per cent. 
(Dymock), by boiling the bruised seeds in water, whiob re- 
tains the acrid properties of the crude juice, and ia closely 
allied to the vesicating oil of the Gasliew-nut {Anacardium 
occidentals) q. v. and that of the Holigarna, q. v., the 
active principles being doubtless the same — anacardtc acid 
and cardol. 

The kernels yield to expression a sweet Oil which has 
no vesicant properties. The root-bark contains aimil&r 
vesicating principles. 

Uedlclnal usea. — The juice of the nut is aometimea used 
in amall quantities as a counter-irritant in rheuraatiam and 
sprains. If not used with caution it caases erysipelatoiis 
imflammation and swelling. Its irritant properties are 
sometimes employed to simulate marks of bruises by persOQS 
feigning disablement. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



291 



It is occasion aJly used internally in small da-ies (I to 3 
^minims) diluted witli a bland oil in scrofulous affections 
and syphilis. The vesicant oil is similarly employed to a 
lall extent. Both are used in hoi-se medicines. 



SBSAMUM INDICUM. 

Sebau£ oa GiNQGLi Oil : T^l ; BEimi Oil. 



I Vera.— Benj.— Tfl; Bind.- 
Tal; Tarn. 



Elli 



-Til, Gingli; San.— TUb.; 

— Nuwulu. 



^ 



An annual herb or small bush, 2 to 4 feet in height, 
belonging to the natural order PedaliTiece, indigenous to 
India and very extensively cultivated, especially in the 
warmer regions, for its oil-yielding seed. Several varieties 
are known in commerce — black, white and red — according 
to the colour of the seed, the first giving the largest yield 
and the beat quality of oil. 

The minute fiat seeds yield to expression about 30 to 40 
per cent, of a clear, limpid, non-drying Oil, of a pale straw 
to dark amber colour and, in the finer qualities, with prac- 
tically no odour and bland taste, not readily becoming 
thick or rancid. It consists chiefiy of oleine, wliicb couati- 
tutcB the liquid portion to the extent of about 75 per cent., 
the solid portion being palmitic, stearic and myristic acids. 

Sesam^ seed and oil form an important article of export 
from Calcutta and Madras, Bombay and Karaclii, the 
amount of seed exported, chiefly to France and Italy, from 
the whole of British India in IS94-D5 being 2,324,793 cwts. 
(32,55.000 maunds) valued at Rs. 1,88,08,353 (about 
£945,000). Dr. Watt estimates* tliat tlie total area of land 
under sosam^ in India must be about 10,000,000 acres, 




S92 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

probably much more, and that the local consumption is, 
on an average, two-thirds of the actual outturn. 

Sesain^ oil has been used from time immemorial for die- 
tetic purposes titroughout India, and the seeds enter largely 
into the composition of Native confectionery. 

The (lil forms the basis of the majority of the perfumed 
and medicinal oils so popular with all classes of the people : 
the odours of fragrant flowers — jasmine and the like — are 
extracted by means of the seeds, placed in alternate layeis 
with those of the flowers and, after a few days, the scented 
oil expressed. 

Til oil is also much used as an emollient and a.s an lUu- 
minant. 

Uediclnal uaea. — The Seeds are emollient, demulcent and 
lasative, hence used with good effect as a decoction, taken 
internally fur piles, and in sweetmeats against constipation. 
The Oil may bo employed in pharmacy for all the purposes 
to which olive oil ia applied. The Leaves are used in 
America as a demulcent. They are mucilaginous wheQ 
placed in water: an emollient poultice is also made from 
them. 

Adulteration. — Sesara^ oil is probably a very common 
adulterant of the olive and almond oils of commerce. It is 
itself adulterated in India with ground nut and mustard 
oils. 

SBSBAiriA .^aYPTIAOA. 

Syn. — .^scHTNOMENB Sbbban. 
Beng. — Jayanti ; Hind. — Jajantf, Jet, Rasin ; Sam. — 



Bom. — Janjan, Sheviri ; Tarn. — Champai ; Tel.- 



Vem, 

Jyantika 
Somanti. 

A small tree, of the natural order [LegwrninosfB, found 
wild and cultivated in almost all parts of India. 



INDIGENOUS DRUaS OF INDIA, 



293 



I 



Uedlclual oees. — The Leaves are iniicli used in tlie form 

! of poultices to promote suppuration of boila and abscesses 

and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. 

The Seeds are supposed to hava stimulant, emmenagogue 

properties. 



SESBANIA aRANDIFLOBA. 

Vem.— -ffen?.— Bak; Hind.—Bnk, AgastA,; Sans.— Baku,, Vaka; 

£onL — Agasta ; Tarn. — Agati ; Til. — AveaL 

A tree, also belonging to the Legumino8(B, cultivated in 

I Bengal for its flowers which are given as an offering to the 

I gods. It is also largely cultivated in South India to afford 

shade to the betel vine, as also for its leaves, which are used 

as a pot-herb. The flowers and the young pods are eaten 

cooked. 

tHediclnal ose. — The fresh Bark is astringent and con- 
tains a red gum resembling Bengal kino ; an infusion of it 
is given in small-pox and other eruptive fevers, 
po: 



^L^ resin 

L 



SHOBEA ROBUSrA. 

The Sal Tree. 
■VarD.—Beng.—SAl, Shal ; Bind —Sal, Sala. (The Ilesin) Rdl, 

Dhiinfl; Sans. — Sala; Bom. — Sal; Tarn. — Kungiliyam; TeL 

— Guggilamu. 

A large timber tree, of the natural order Lipterocarpea, 
pommon in the Sub-Himalayan regions and the forests of 
Western Bengal. Large quantities of a brown, tasteless and 
odourless Resin exude from incisions made in the bark, 
known as the Dammar resin o£ the Indian baziirs. It ia 
used for several of the purposes to which oiiliiiary pine 
resin is put, as an astringent and as an ingredient of 
ibimulating plasters and ointments. It is also used as 



SM IMDIGBNOUS DRUGS OP IMDIA. 

incense and for fumigatiiig apartments. The Bajik contains 
tannic piinciplea and yields, on boiling with water, an 
extract similar to catechu, which is osed to a small extent 
mediciitally as au antringent. 

SHUKAI. 

Vem. — Ind. — Shukai. 
- This is a Persian drug which is sold in all the Indian 
bazdrs. It fcas described by Dymock and Warden in the 
Fharmaceutical Juur»o,l, January 9, 1892, and ascribed 
to Illoea. spiiiositmrna (natural order Chenopodiacets), but 
doubtfully: the popular name is therefore adopted at the 
head of this article. The drug as met with in India consists 
of all purts of the plant, including the roots, broken up, the 
greenish-yellow, crooked, channelled, branched stems aod 
leaves with petioles cla-sping the stem being the most promi- 
Dent portions. 

An exliaustive chemical examination showed the pre- 
sence of an alkaloid, a glucoside, a characterisuc acid prin- 
ciple and two distinct resins, besides otiier less important 
constituents. 

medicinal usee. — Shukai is said to be held in great 
repute in Persia as a remedy for ague, and it lias l}een 
regarded as useful in paUy, melancholia and leprosy. 

SIDA COBDIFOLIA. 

Vem. — Sfii</. and i/iw(i— Bold, Bereld, Bariam ; .Sana. — BoUf 
BoTi. — Chikttua; Tarn. — Mayir-mauikhain; Tft. — Chitimattf. 
The Roots of this and several otiier species cf the genos 
Biiia (S. carpinifolia, S. rhombifoiia, S. spinofa), natural 
order Malvacfw, weeds common in most placea all orer 
India, are used in infusion as cooling, astringent and tonic 
medicine, and occasionally given in nervous disordei's. 



INDIGENOUS DRITQS OF INDIA, 



295 



SIKOESBECKIA OBIBNTALIS. 

Vern, — A'. l«(l. — KaUiuipaiu. 
A Composite plant common throughout India. It has 
T been known in China, wliere it is called kau-kau, as 
i remedy for ague, rheumatism and renal colic : its raedici- 
ilial properties are not known to the Natives of India 
jckj, It contains a bitter crystalline principle which 
en named Daruiine, whidi is believed to be a deri- 
^Vative of salicylic acid, an'l which does not appear to be an 
aloid, glucoside, acid or resin. 
Uediclnal uaes. — A tincture of the drug has been recom- 
mended, in doses of 1 to 2 drachms, as a remedy in scrofu- 
lous and syphilitic affections: externally a mixture of 
equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in 
Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic 
■eruptions. Antiseptic properties have been ascribed to the 
1 plant, applied to unhealthy sores. 



SINAFIS sp 

See Brass I c A. 



SMILAX CHINA. 

China Root. 
—Beng. and Bind. — Chob-chini, Shiik-chinA ; San», — 
Chobaohini ; Bout. — Chob^;hfnI ; Tarn. — Paringay ; Ttl. — 
Piran gi-chekka. 

A shrub indigenous to Ctiina and Japan, where it is call- 
1 Too-fiih, not found in India, although the drug, China 
)ot, is common in all the bazdrs. It is believed, however, 
that the roots of S. glabra growing in Assam, Sylhet and 
|be KhiUia Hiils probably constitute part of the drug aa 
lold in India. Tlie natural order is SmilacecB, The drug 



S96 INDIOENOUS DRUQS OF INDIA. 

consists of the dried tuberous Roots, usually peeled by lb» 
Native drug-sellers; it lias long beld the reputation of 
possessing properties allieil to those of sarsaparilla, irhieh 
is the toot of several species o[ Smilax indigeiious to tropi' 
cal America. A glucosidal principle has been isolated 
from this root corresponding to tliat reputed to be the 
active constituent of sarsaparilla. 

The drug is imported from Cliina to a considerable extent 
by coasting steamers trading with Calcutta and Bombay. 
It is now completely neglected in European medicine, 
although once held in considerable esteem and official in tbe 
Britisli. PliaTniacopceia : it still occasionally appears, how 
ever, in the London drug market. 

anedlclnal uses. — China root is still used to some extent 
in India, in the same manner as sarsaparilla, as a depura- 
tive, alterative, anti-syphilitic and aphrodisiac, in decoction 
(2 ounces to 1 pint, boiled to 10 ounces: dose 2 to 4 
ounceB). 

SODII BIBORAS. 

BiBORATE OF Sodium : Eohax. 
Vera. — Berig. — Sohiga ; ffiiul. — Sohiga, Tinkil ; Sant. — Tan- 
kaiia ; Tarn. — Venkdram ; 7'el. — Velligaram ; Arai. — Burak- 
es-Sftghah; few.— Tinkar, Bureh; Thibetan.— Oni-a&l 
Borax was known to the ancient Hindis from a veiy 
^'emote period : it is believed that it"* uses were first dis- 
covered in India, and that the first supplies of the article 
received in Europe were from this country. 

It is brought to India in considerable quantities, about 
50,000 maunds (35,730 cwts.) yearly, carried on the back* 
of sheep and goats across the frontier from Nepal and 
Thibet, where it occurs in the waters of certain lakes, and 
from Persia, In Tliibet there is a cliain of salt lakes, one 



INDIGENOUS DltUCa OF INDIA. 



297 



re- 
exj 
fici 
pai 

oci 



of which is said to be about 20 miles in circumference and 
supplied by brackish apringa rising from the bottom, the 
waters of which contain borax associated with common salt, 
le boiux crystallizes on the edges and shallows of the lakes 
id is taken up in large masses, broken up, dried and sent, 
is the impure state, to India, where it ia roughly purified by 
re- crystallization at places on the frontier. It was formerly 
exported to England, but is now being superseded by arti- 
ficial manufacture and by borax deposits in more accessible 
parts of the world. 

Indian borax is very largely used by Native gold and 
ilver-smiths and by potters a.s a glaze, and it is easily ob- 
inable in all the bazars. 

Medicinal uses. — Borax is given internally as a diui'etic, 
id ennnenagogue (dose 5 to 30 grains) : externally as a 
local sedative and antiseptic lotion, and in aphtlicEB and 
BOre mouth or throat, the official Mel Boracis and Glyceri- 
num Boracis being usefnl preparations. It ia also effectual 
aa a detergent lotion in certain skin diseases — (iFurilus, 
psoriasis and eczema. It sometimes enters into the compo- 
sition of pills curative of eularged spleen. 



SODII CARBONAS. 

See Barilla. 



SODII CHLOBIDUM. 

Chloride OF Soniuu: Com mos Salt. 
Vem. — Beng. — Tjav&n, Ntin, Luu; IlinJ, — Nimak, Lon ; Sant. 

— Lttvana; Bom. — Mf thiS ; Tarn. — Uppu ; 7W. — LiLvanam. 

"In India salt has been lavishly provided by Nature; it 
la dissolved in a wide expanse of sea which lashes the 
shores of the Peninsula; is stored u[) in mines; is spread 



TNDIOKSOUS DltCQS OF INDIl. 



i 



out in salt-irapregnftteii lakes and marshes ; mid is found to 
effloresce at many localities in the interior and on the sea- 
board. 

"In Upper India, with a population of over 100 miJIiaoB 
(includiijfj the Punjab, North-West Provinces. Oudh, R£jpu* 
tfiiia and Central India), only local salt is consumed, of 
which there are practically inexhanstable sources in minea 
in the Punjab and in the salt lakes and mai'shes of R^jpu- 
titua. Some salt from Thibet is imported into the Himalayan 
districts of Kumaon and Gharwal. Eartli-salt ia made 
under treaty with the Britisli Government iu the fdudatoi'y 
States of Gwalior, Dattia and Bikanir, and a tittle salt is 
also made in the Patiala Stale in the PunjAb."* 

The salt supply of Tndia is almost completely under excise 
control and yields an annual revenue of about S crores of 
rupees (or 8 millions sterling). -f- The preparation of salt by 
lixiviation of saline soiU or by solar evaporation of the 
water of brine wells is practically prohibited except in the 
regions indicated above, and the impure product of local 
manufacture is almost entirely supei-seded by Cheshire salt, 
which is imported in enormous quantities, chiefly from 
Liverpool, as ballast for ships coming to Calcutta, Chittit- 
gong and Rangoon for Indian produce. 

Black salt (//i(-wln) is prepared for medicinal purposes 
by heating the crude common salt with myrohalana. Itja' 
regarded as a digestive, 

Khari-n-&n, an impure sulphate of soda, is produced at 
the salt works by crystallization from brine. It is used to 
some extent as a saline purgative for cattle. 

* Eiuerpl from a iiote OQ Salt b; Hr. 0. K. Biiokle?, Superinlondratf 
Noitborn lu-Jin Bait Itevenue, in Wiitf« D'vtieaar^ of the Beenamie PfVm 

ivvtt of Iitilia. 
t Computoii nt the nominal rate of cjDhanKe— 3 Bhilling* pec rupee 



INDIGENOUS DHUOS OF INDIA. 



2d9 



Hedicloal uses. — In addition to its great importance as 
a dietetic agent, common aaltis a good antiseptic. lu large 

{Mes (2 to i drachms) in so ition it acta as an emetic. 
It. 



soLAmrna dulcamaba. 

I>U1.CAMAR.\ ; BlTTER-BWEET. 

Vera. — Imi. — (The Berries) Anab-es-silab. 
( A shrub, belongintr to the Solanacem, met with in Koah- 
iiilr. The young shoots or Stkms and Leaves are used in 
(dieiiie in India, and the red BicimiES are imported, 
according to Dymock.from Persia into Bombay. 

The drug contains a peculiar bitter-sweet principle 
(hence the popular name) which lias been believed to con- 
sist of a poisonous alkaloid, nanaed Solanine, resolvable 
into sugar and Solanidine. The characteristic principle is 
now believed to be Didcamarin, a yellowish substance, 
not an alkaloid, which has at first a bitter and subsequent- 
ly permanently sweet ta^te. Solanine is common to seve- 
ral species of Solanum, including tlie potato, in which 
it is, however, rendered innocuous on boiling, 

Uedtoinal uses. — Dulcamara is almost completely 
neglected in European medicine: it is still used by Indian 
physicians and considered alterative and diuretic, usually 
in decoction. The berries are similarly employed. 

tSOLANUM INDICUM. 
im- — ^«nj.— Byakui-d ; ff/jid.— BarhantA ; .yan*.— Vrihati 
Bhantiki. 
A plant of tli6 Solanacece, common all over India. The 
K)T is one of the drugs required in the preparation of the 
much esteemed Daanmula Kvatha, or decoction of ten drugs. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

of Hiiidd medicine. It is seldom used alone, but is regard- 
ed as diuretic, useful in dropsy. The RooTofS. xanViO' 
carpum {Kantakari) ia similarly empl'^yed. The Sbkdh of 
these plants are largely used for the cure of tootbaohe. 
The vapour of the burning seedy relieves the pain. 




SOLANUM MELONaSNA. 

The EoG-PLiST ; Brinjal. 

Vem. — Beng. — Begdn ; ffind. — Brinjal ; 5an«.— Birtika ; 

Som. — Baigana. 
Tiie egg-plant, anotber of the SolanaceouB species, 
extensively cultivated all over India for its FruIT, whiol 
is used by both Europeans and Natives aa a culinary v 
table. It is white, ovoid and somewhat similar in appeal 
ance to an ordinary hen's egg, but much larger, Tliereai 
several varieties in cultivation differing in shape and coloiu 
It ia the "aubergine" of the French, with whom it 1 
popular as a vegetable. It is insipid and uninviting evei 
when cooked. The fruit bas lately been noticed' as " « 
excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complainta,9 



SOLAKUM NIGRUM. 
Vem. — Beng. — Kakmachi ; i/iiit/.— Gurkamai ; Sana. — K 

wScliai; Bom.—KAmani; J'.tw.— Mrtnattak-kali ; Tel — K 

manchi'chettu. 

A plant of the order Solanacece, common throughottl 
India. It has tbe same chemical constituents as <S. Dw 
mara, tbe alkaloid solaniue having been first isolated £ 
this plant. 

* Britiih Mrdifal Jovrnal. April G, 1895. 



INDIQENODS DllDOS OF INDIA. 



301 



Uedlctnal uses. — The black Berries are available in the 
bazilis in some parts of Inilia, They are believed to have 
alterative and diuretic properties. The Leaves and young 
Stems aie reputed to have similar properties, a fluid extract 
being recommended in dropsy, in doses of j to 2 drachms. 

SOTMIDA FEBRIFUGA. 

Syn, — SwlETKNIA PBHBIFUGA. 

The Indian Red-wood Tree. 

Tern. — Btmg. and Hind. — Roliun, Rohan; Sam. — Rohuna 

Tam. — Shenimarunj ; rs/.^Somida-maiiii. 

A large forest tree, belonging to the mahogany order; 

Mtliacece, common in the Nortb-West and in Central, 

and Southern India, The Bark, occurring usually in half 

(quills of a rich red-brown coloui-, is to be regarded as an 
utringent tonic. It contains tannic acid and an undeter- 
ksined resinous bitter principle. 
I STROPHANTHUS. 

Several Bpecic of the SiropKanthus genus, natural order 
Apocynacece, ai ind-'-enous to tropical India. None are 
however used !diclf<-IIy, An allied African species, S. 

I^MpidwH, var. 7ro7?ifc' yields the Strophanthus Seeds which 
|iave become a most important agent in modern medicine. 
Xto cultivation has been tried experimentally, and with 
■ome success, in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 
The seeds are poisonous: they nfTord the Korab^ arrow 
poison of Africa. A tincture prepared from them is now 
much used, in doses of 2 to 10 minims, as a heart tonic and 
tliuretic, its action resembling that of digitalis, though more 
lOwerful and non-cumulative. The active principle 13 a 




DfDiaeNUUS DRUGS OF INDU. 



^ 



glucoside Stropkanthin which baa been lesolvet? iato 
cose and Strophanthidin. It baa not beou ascertaint 
whether the Indian species contain Sirophanlhi^i. 

STRTCHNOS lONATH. 

St. iGSATitTB? Beass. 
The Seeds of a tree growing in the Phillipine Island 
natural order Loganiacete. They are occasionally to 1 
met with in the drug bazdrs of the large cities in Indi 
and are said to be used in cholera. They are roundish c 
oval, and usually about an inch in length, varying inuci 
in size, and contain the same alkaloidal cdnstitnenta t 
nui-voniica seedB-^Stiychnine and Brucine, in vaiyin 
proportion, about 1 '5 per cent, of the former to 0*3 per cen' 
of the latter. The glucoside Loganin is also believed to li 
present.* They are sometimes utilized in Europe for th 
strychnine which they yield in somewhat larger qua&ti^ 
than nux-vomica. A tincture (known as Tinctui-a Ignalia 
is also prepared (1 in 10) and administered in doses of 3 t 
20 minims as a nervine touic. A similar preparation t 
used in homceopathio medicine. 

STBTOHNOS NUX VOMICA. 

The Ndx-vomica or STRYcnsr*B Tree : Snare-wood. 
Tern. — Seng. — Kuchild; Hind. — Kuchid; Bora. — Eajra; Ta 
— Yetti-kottai ; r*/.— Muahti-vittulu. 
A moderate sized evergreen tree, 40 or 50 feet high, wil 
and plentiful throughout tropical India, and extendiq 
southwards to Madras and the Travancore and Corotnondl 
Coasts. Natural order Loganiacece. The lozenge>lib 



IKDIOENOITS DKUGS OF INDIA. 303 

flattened, round Seeds separated from the oraoge-coloured, 
pulpy fruit and washed and dried constitute the drug, nux- 
vomica. 

The active conBtituents are two alkaloids, in vnryiug 
proportions — Strychnine (0*2 to 05 per cent.), and Bmcine 
,(0*12 to 1 per cent.) in combination with Strychnic or 
^JgaauiHc Acid as igasumtes. [In a sample of seeds from 
Ceylon, Dunstan and Shortt found over 5 per cent, of total 
alkaloids D.H.] The probable existence of a third crystalline 
principle, named Igaaur'tne. has long remained unconfirmed. 
A glucoside, named Loganin, is present in the pulp of the 
fruit and to a small extent in the seeds. Nux-vomica also 
«outains mucilage and sugar (C per cent.). The Bare and 
Wood, which are also used medicinally in India contain 
bi'ucine and the Leaves contain 03 per cent, of brucine 
(Hooper, 1890), no slryclinine having been detected. The 
pulp of the fruit contains strychnine, it is nevertheless eaten 
with avidity by certain birds which appear to be insuscep- 
tible to the action of the poison. 

The galenical preparations of nus-voraica in the British 
Pkai-macopceia are standardized, the extract to contain 15 
per cent, of total alkaloids, and the tincture (which is now 
prepared from it, instead of from the seeds as formerly) to 
1 grain of alkaloids in each fluid ounce. According to aa 
aoalysia of 25,500 prescriptions * dispensed in various parts 
of the world, nux-votnica is the most frequently employed 
drug in the Materia Medica. The extract and tincture 
find a place in all the pharmacopceias. The drug is similarly 
one of the chief agents in homceopathic medicine. 

The seeds are exported very largely from Cochin, In 
Southern India and from Bombay, Madras and Calcutta, 

Th* iWfa Phiirmacj-teia—y MiaMetnA Weslcott.Sth Kd., 1890' 



I 

i 

I 



rt^ 



304 



IKDIOKNOUS DItnQS OF INDtA. 



tlie total export rioiu India being about 20,000 cwta. aDni 
ally, almost entirely to Oieat Britain. It luay be noted 
that practically all tlie nux-vomica used in India is re- 
iuiporteil, chiefly in the form of extract. 

medicinal ubgb. — Nux-vomica is a powerful nervine touie 
and stimulant: in excess doses a virulent poison producing 
tetanic convulsions. It is employed in doses of J to 2 grains 
of the extract and 5 to 20 minims of the tincture.' 

The powdered seed is also occasionally administered in 
doses of 1 to 5 grains. Strychnine presents the same thera- 
peutic action and is prescribed in doses of a"* to ^'j gruu, 
It is antagonistic to calabar bean and has been used success- 
fully as an antidote to that poison, It is also employed hy- 
podermically as a remedy in narcotic poisoning and against 
the effects of clironic alcoholism. It lias for some years 
been popularly regarded as an antidote to snake-bite, ad- 
miuistered hypodermically (,'i to j'^ grain) near the bitten 
part, favourable results having been obtained iu Australia 
with this method of treatment, but as the result of oa 
exhaustive research by Sui-g.-Lieut.-CoL D. D. CunniDgham, 
published in 1895,f it has been shown that it is not an 
antidote chemically or physiologically, to the bites of the 
poisonous snakes of India. Brucine has been used in epilepBy i 
in doses of ^ to ^ grain in solution. 

The Bauk and Wood are commonly used as bitter tooios 
in the native habitat of the tree. An OiL, obtained by 
heating the fresh seeds, is used externally in rheumatism. 

Substitution. — The bark is known in Europe as *' false 
angostura bark", having on one occasion been sold in the 

* A rvmmf o! tbe tUerapy of the Axag ntiJ of Birychnine, bj the ftulbor, 
ia given in the Indian Medical Bueord, IHCb Nov. 1S91, 
~t Department ol the Saaitarj CommiMioner with the Qorernmeat ot 



INDIGENOUS DKUGS OF INDIA. 



305 



I 



London drug market by mistake for the true angostura or 
cuHparia bark. It has been repeatedly aubstituted in mis- 
take, and with fatal effect, by ignorant drug sellers in the 
bazirs in India for the kurchi bark (Holarrhena antidy- 
wnterioa), the similarity of this name with kuchlii and the 
slight resemblance of the dtnga. probably causing the con- 
fusion. The simplest distinguishing feature is the intensely 
bitter taste of the nux-vomica bark as compared with that 
of the kurchi. The former is also of a dirty white and buff 
colour externally, and the latter grey, with bright, ruBt- 
iloured patches of cork, and white warty excrescences. 



STRYCHNOS POTATORUM. 

The CLEAiiixG Nut Tree. 



4-c. — Nirmali ; Sans. — K&tako, 
— Tetran-kottai ; Tel. — Chillo-chettu. 



'am. — Bing., Hind., 

Ambii-priLsada : Tam.- 

A small tree, of the LoganiacetB, belonging to Bengal, 
Central and Southern India and Burma. It is notable on 
account of its Seeds which have been used from early times 
in India for their property of clearing muddy water, hence 
their popular name. The seeds are button -shaped and con- 
tained in a black pulpy fruit about the size of a cherry. 
They are commonly sliced and rubbed rouud the sides of 
the unglazed earthen vessels in which drinking water is 
stored, having the effect of acting as a mechanical precipi- 
tant of suspended matter present in the water. The action 
ia clearly due to albumen, which becomes evident as a thick 
mucilage on simple maceration of the seed in water and 
yields a white coagulum on boiling. The seeds were for- 
merly used medicinally in affections of the eyes but are not 
employed. 

K, ID 80 




306 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

STTBAX BENZOIN. 

The Gom Benzoin Tkee. 
Vem. — Ind. — {The Resin) — Luban. 

The tree is a imtive oE the Malay PeiiiDsula (Lower Siam 
and Sumatra: natural order Styracae. It yields, alonj 
with probably one or two other species, the balsamic i-esin,, 
Gum Benzoin or Gum Benjamin, of commerce, which is 
largely imported into India (about 12,000 cwts. annually) 
from Penang, chiefly into Bombay, and used throughoui 
India as an incense. It is also exported to Europe. Gum 
Benjamin is the source of Bemoio Acid, which is large- 
ly used in medicine, It also contains Cinnamic Acid, 
Dymock says that in the Bombay bazdr an artificial ben» 
zoin ia manufactured in which pieces of silicate of magnesia 
are imbedded in common American reain and sold to the 
poor, who use it for religious purposes. 

Uediolnal uaes. — Stimulant and expectorant. The 
pound tincture of benzoin ia employed as an expectoraal 
and inhalant, and externally as a styptic and antiseptic. 



siriiPHuii. 

Vem. — Beng. — Gandrok ; ffitid. — Gundhak ; Sane. — Oandhak 
Sulphur occurs naturally in some pai-ts of India, in Nept 
Kashmir and Afghanistan and in Burma. Country eulphi 
is little used, however, although a pure variety of washt 
sulphur known as atnlasa gundhak, may be obtunedi 
the bazfirs of Bengal. 

Uedloinal uses. — These are well-kndwn. Sulphur is list 
internally as a laxative and alterative in skin 
extei-nally in similar aflections and in rheumatism. 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

SWERTIA CHIBATA. 
Syn. — Ophblia Chirata ; Gentiana Ch 

CUIRATA : Cm R ETTA. 

.—Beng.~Ch.iT^t&.; //iW.— Charayatah, Kiriyat; Sana. 
— Eirata-tikta ; Bom. — Chiraita ; Tarn. — Nila-vembu ; Tel. — 
Nela-vemu, 

An annual erect herb of the gentiao order, 2 to 4 feet 
high, indigenous to the temperate Htmdlaja, at altitudes 
above 4,000 feet, from Simla to Nepal and Bliutan, 

The drug consists of the entire, dried Plant, including 
the branched stems and roots. It is official in the British 
I'karmacopceia and in that of the United States. It ia 
■plentiful in the bazirs in Bengal, and brought down in large 
quantities from Nepal to Ciilcutta packed in square bales 
of about 1 cwt. each, made up of small bundles of 2^ to 
"2 lbs., bound with a slip of bamboo, in which form it is 
exported to London. 

The principles to which the intensely bitter taste of 
chiretta is due, are Ophelia Acid and Chiratin. 

Hedlcinal usea.^-Chiretta has been used in India as a 
bitter tonic and stomachic from a remote period. It is not 
used to any large extent in European medicine, probably 
on account of its intense and persistent bitterness, consider- 
ably exceeding that of gentian, It is antibilious, and has 
no tendency to constipation, hence much esteemed in India 
as a remedy in liver disorder, preferably in the form of 
liquid extract or of the official tincture and infusion. 

SubBtltntea. — Chiretta is seldom adulterated in India. 
Herbs of other species have occasionally been found inter- 
mixed, usually in mistake. The T^lant, Svjertia anguBli/olia, 
known aa the sweet chiretta (viitlia kirayat), and several 
ot hers of the same genus have been recognised : they are 
^Haficient in bitterness as compared with the true drug, 



398 



INDIGENOUS DRUaS OF INDIA. 



The stems of madder, Rubia cordi/olia (manjit), havoil 
alao been said to have been discovered in chiretta consign-' 
ed to London. 

The true drug is frequently confused in India with the I 
creat, Andrographis paniciilata (q. v.), which is sometimes I 
known as Indian Chiretta. This article was lately offered I 
for sale as chiretta in the London drug market.* 



STMPLOCOS BACEMOSA. 

TaE LoDH Tree. 

Vern. — Beng., Hind., ^c. — Lodh, Lodhra ; Sans. — Lodhra^ j 

Tilaka, 

A Hmall ti-ee of the lower hills of Bengal, At^sam and | 
Biiirua: natural order Styraceaa. Lodh Bark is easily ob- 
tainable in the Calcutta baz^r, and is soft, friable atid fawn- 
coliiured: itia occasionally used in dyeing. It was formerly 1 
exported to Europe and known as Lotuv bark. Threa I 
alkaloids have been isolated from the bark, named respec- I 
tively, Loturine, Colloturine and Lottiridine. Kirwvin . 
(Quiiiovin) has also been separated. The bark contains no | 
tannin. 

Medicinal oaes. — The Bark has been used in Hind6 I 
medicine as a mild astringent. It has been recommended-f* I 
in doses of 20 grains in powder, mixed with sugar, as a j 
useful remedy in cases of menoirbagia, due to relaxation of I 

■ A description bjHr. J, S. WaTd, with aBgare.nppsaTa in ths Pharma* I 
e-^ntieal Journal (TV), l3Jfi, 7th Sept. ISBC, tn<1 an ilinntriited ftoooont-l 
oftliBhistoloCTof Andrographii paniculata by Proteaaor H.O. QreeDith^l 
FharmaecHtieal JaiiTiial (IV), 132S, I6th Nov. 1886. 

t By Dr. T, B. Charle*. formetlf ProfeBeot of .Valeria Sfedita In tl 
Uedlokl CollesB, Oklcutta. and the *,nViii)T—Phaimaenticiat Jnu 
34th Sept. 19SI. 



INDIOKNOUii DRVOH UF INDU. 



309 



the utenae tissue, given two or three times a day for three 
or four days. A fluid extract, in half-draclim doses would 
be a more suitable form for exiiibiting the remedy in such 
ooaes. 

TAQETES ERBCTA. 

The Fkknch Maskiolo. 

Vera. — Sfng. and 3ind. — Oenrla ; Bom. — Makhmal, Gul-jifiri ; 
Ma r. — Roj ia-cha-ph ul. 

This plant and T.patula, the African marigold, belong- 
ing to the natural order CompoaUcB, are commonly cultivat- 
ed in Indian gardens, their bright yellow flowera being 
much admired and made into garlands to hang round tha 
necks of idols. The flowers yield a yellow dye which is 
occasionally employed by poor people. The juice of the 
Flowicrs is said to be ucca.'sioiially used medicinally as a 
puriSer of the blood and as a remedy in piles. It is, how- 
ever, Utile used or known. Chnda has been referred in 
some books to Calendula officinalis. This is an error, the 
jjltter being a rare plant of tlie Punjab and not found in 



TAMABINDTJS INDICA. 
The Tamarind Tree. 
O. — Beig- — Tentiil, Ambli, Imli ; tfwirf, — A m i I, Amlicfl; 
Saiu. — Tinlidi, Auilika ; Bom. — Chinte ; Tam. — Paliyam-paz- 
hnm ; Tel. — Chinto-pandu. 

A handsome evergreen tree of the Lejttminoace, common- 
ly 50 to 70 feet high, cultivated throughout India and 
fiurma, and in tropical countries generally. It is believed 
by botanists to be indigenous to S<juthern India. The 



»pj. 



310 



INDIOENODS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



Fruit has been known and valued in India from a remote 
period : the name (tamar-hindi) ia of Peraian origin and 
means " Indian date." The preserved pulp of the tamarind 
fruit is official in the British Pliarmacopceia. It conaieta 
of a reddish -brown, moist, sugary mass — enclosing the 
stringy fibres found within the pulp, and the seeds, enclosed 
in n, tougli membranous coat — having been prepared by 
pouring boiling eyrup over alternate layers of the fruit and 
sugar. A corresponding product occurs in India as a black 
solid massof the pulp, more or lesa freed from fibre and husk, 
pressed into round cakes and preserved with salt. This 
iorm is known in the Hume markets as East Indian oi 
Black Tamarinds and the former as West Indian or Red 
Tamarinds, 

The acidulous pulp contains acid tartrate of potassium 
(cream of tartar), tartaric, citric, acetic and a trace of malic 
acids. A peculiar exudation occurring on an old tamarind 
tree, observed by Mr. J. O. Prebble and recorded in the 
Pharmacographia tndica, wa-s found to consist almosti 
entirely of oxalate of calcium and flows from the tn 
liquid or syrupy state, afterwards drying into white crys- 
talline masses. 

Tamarinds enter largely into the composition of Nativi 
dietary In curries, chutnies, and boiled in water and sweeU 
ened as a cooling sherbet ; the fruit could be exportei 
fnnn India with advantage if preserved in the same 
ner as the West Indian. 

Medicinal uses. — The pu][) of the fruit is cooling, car 
miiiative and lasatlve: it is used as an adjunct to otlia 
laxatives as in the confection of senna and presumabll 
as the basis of the preparations of which "Tamoc 
Indien" is a type, H is a useful addition to cougl 
mixtuies. 



INDIGKNOUS DHUOS OF INDIA. 

TATVTAHIX OALLICA. 

Tee Tamaeibk. 
-(The Galls)— Jeny. and ffmrf.— Eari-mAfn ; 



Pere.- 



Satu. — 
Gaxmdzaj. (The 



11 



Jh^vuka ; Horn. — Magiya-mdin ; 

Manna) — Gazan gabin. 

A small tree or shrub belonging to the natural order 

■mariecineis, found throughout India, commoii iu Persia 
lind Afgh&nistdn. The Galls produced on this shrub, and 
a smaller kind produced on T. articulata, common in Sind 
and the Punjab, are occasionally fouud in the bazArs of 
Western India and used as a substitute for oak-galls. Tha 
gails of T. gallic'i are somewhat smaller than oak-galls and 
three-angled ; both varieties equal the true galls in their 
yield of tannic acid. 

A variety of this species (var. manni/era) yields the 
tamarisk manna which is known in the bazars of Northern 
India under the Persian name given above. It exudes on 
the leaves and slender branches in consequence of the ])unc- 
ture of an insect and solidifies into a more or less solid mass, 
liquefying on keeping to a honey-liko consistence. It ia 
lionally used in India as a mild la.-sative. 



TARAXACUM OPPICINALE. 

The Dandelion. 
Vem. — Hind — Diidal, Baran, Kaiiphiil. 
Ibis familiar Composite plant is found on the temperate 
tn&taya, common in Tliibet, and on the Nilgiria. It ia 
^iltivated at Saharanpur for the Med ical Stores Depart- 
ments of Bengal and the North-West Provinces, that of 
Uadrus being supplied from Ootacamund where the planE 
:ndance as a weed in the cinchona plantations. 



^^■Vowa in abun 



S12 INDIOIfNOUB DHUGS OF INDIA. 

The Root is officinal : as sold in Uie baz&rs, it is smaller 
tban the imported root. The bitter pnociples are Taraxacin 
and Taraxacerin, with inulin, a common conatituent of the 
roots iif many members of the order Composite!, and sugar 
and levulin, to which is due the sweetish taste of the root. 

Medicinal usea. — Dand€lion Hoot is a valuable hejiatic 
stimulant, and mild tonic and diuretic. A popular combi- 
nation is that of the fluid extract with podophjilin, which 
may be reckoned a good remedy in liver congestion. An- 
other popular form is the admixture with cofTee iti the 
same manner as chicory root (see Clchoi-ium). 

Substitutes. — Dym<^ck (Pharviacog. Ind.) enumerates 
four plants of the same natural order, yielding roots which 
are substituted for dandelion in Western India, viz., Lau- 
TWea pinnatlfida, Lactuca, Eeyneana, Sonchua oUraceua 
and EviUia sovcJu/oUa, the latter beitig a common weed 
in Indian gardens and known in Bengal as Shud/mudi. 

TAXUS BAOCATA. 

The Yew. 
VeTU.—Jiitid.—Thuao, Birml, GeU, Liiat. 

A large evergreen tree of the temperate Himalaya and 
the Khasia Hills: natural order Coni/erw. 

Tlie sprigs or young branches and the linear Leavks are 
exported to the plains and used in medicine. They are 
known in the bazars of Bombay as Talinpatra, and were 
believed by Dymock to be the tnie Talispatfa of ancient 
Sanskrit Materia Medica. The drug sold under the same 
name in the Calcutta bazar consists of the leaves of Abiea 
Webbinna (q. v.).* 

* The nnme. TAli'piilra. tin* also besn Bpplied to tlie le«Tei of Ciima' 

MDffiiDii Tainala and tn thoae of Flamirlin CatapKroHa. 



NDIOKNOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



313 



Yew leaves contain a volatile oil, tannic acid and a tosic 
cryBtalline alkaloid, uamed Taxine. The leaves and aeeda 
are poisonous: the red pulp of tlia fruit contains no poi- 
sonous principle and is eaten by tbe hill tribes. 

Medicinal uses.— The leaves and fruit have been reput- 
ed to have emmenagogue properties: they are little used 
except in domestic medicine, Tdlispatra was recomineud- 
ed as an expectorant in phthisis, and the diffeient drugs 
now sold under this name are used as such. 

kTBRMINALIA ARJXJNA. 
The Ar.tuna Myrobalan. 
Vem. — Beng. and Stnil. — ArjUn, Kahii ; Sana. — Arjima, Ku- 

kubha; Sont. — Arjunarsadra ; Tam. — Vella-marda; Tel. — 

Yenuaddi. 

A large deciduous tree of the Lower Himdlaya, Bengal, 
Burma, Cential and Southern India and Ceylon. Natural 
order CombretaceoB. The Bark is astringent, containing 
about 15 percent, of tannin. It is used to ]irepare a lotion 
applied to ulcer's. The bark also contains a large propor- 
tion (over 30 per cent.) of calcium carbonate, minute crys- 
tals of which may be observed in the pinkish, quilled bark. 



PTERUINALIA BELBBICA. 
Eelekic Myrodalahs. 
Vem.--5en«.— Baheri, Bohori; Mind. — Bhairfi, Bahera, Barld; 
Sans. — Vibhitaka, Bahira; .Som.—Behada, Vahela; J'atn, — 
TAnrik-kiy ; Te/.— Tindra-kdya. 

A large tree, also belonging to the natural order Combre- 
^icece, common in the forests of India and Burma. The 
iiigeut FuDlT is one of the " myrobaians " of commerce. 




314 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



There are two principal varieties, yielded by different treea, 
one globular in form, ) to j inch diameter, the other ovoid 
and about twice the size: both contain taDnin in variable 
proportions. Tliey are collected and sold at auction by 
the Foreat Department and largely exported for dyeing 
and tanning purposes. An inaoliible gum exudes in BOme 
quantity from the bark : it is little used, but ia said to bo 
sometimes mixed with soluble gums. The kernel of the 
fruit is popularly believed to act as a nareotio and 
intoxicant when taken internally ; this has now, however, 
been disproved in both varieties. An oil expressed from 
it is used as a dressing for the hair. 

Uedioinal uses. — The unripe Fruit is purgative: the 
fully ripe fruit is astringent. The latter is used in dropsy, 
piles and diarrlicea. It is an ingredient of the famous 
triphala or fruit triad, a remedy much prescribed in a large 
variety of cases. (See also T. chebula and Pliyllitnthua 
emhlica.) 

TERMINAL! A. OATAPPA- 

TuE Indian Almond. 
Vem. — Beng. — BanglA-boddm ; Smif. — Jangli-badim, Hindi- 
baddm; Mai. — Katappa. 
A large ornamental tree of the CombretacefB, commonly ( 
caltivated throughout India. The Reiinel of the fruit is ] 
not unlike the almond in taste and yields to expression I 
50 per cent, of an oil which may he regarded as a good sub- 1 
stitute for almond oil. It has the same taste and odour, 
although slightly darker in colour: it deposits stearin at a J 
temperature under 5° C. The kernel is about half the j 
size of the true almond and nearly cylindrical ; they are j 
also known as " leaf nuts." The bark and leaves contain J 
tannin. 



INDIQENOL'S DRUGS OF INDIA. 315 

TEBMINALIA CHEBULA. 

Syn. — Myhobalanus Chebula. 
The Chbbulic or Clack Myrobalan. 
—(The Tree) Beni;.—B.Mt&ki; H^inrf.— Har, Harri.— 
(The Fruit) Beng.—Jiora, Hdritaki ; flmrf.— Har, Ham, BAl- 
har, Zaoghl-har ; 5'an*. — Haritaki, Abhaya, Pathjfi; Bom. — 
Hardd, Hftrle, Hirada; ram.— Kaduk-kai; Te/.— Karakkaya 
— (The Galla) jffi'nrf.— Hiritakl-phul 

Another large tree of the Combretacecc order, yielding 
Fruits which constitute the greater part of the " Myro- 
balans" of commerce. It ia wild in the forests of Nortliero 
India, the Central Provinces and Bengal, common in Mad- 
ras and in Mysore and in the Southern portion of the 
Bombay Presidency, where it forms an important source of 
revenue for the Forest Department. It ia found and culti- 
vated, in several varieties, chiefly vara, typica and citU' 
na, the latter believed by some botanists to be a diutiucfc 
species. 
The dried fruits form one of the most valuable of Indian 
^^tanning materials, and they are very largely exported from 
^^Hndia for this purpose, chiefly from Biinibay. The better 
^^Bnalities contain about 25 per cent, of gallo-tanuic acid 
^^Buiding in the pulp surrounding the seed, which ia itself 
^^Hbvoid of astringent principles. The Gai.ls produced on 
^^nhe leaves are rich in tannic acid and are used locally for 
tanning and as a mordant in dyeing. 

Two principal kinds of cliebulio rayrobalans are sold in 

_tbe baz&ra — one smaller than the other — the smaller being 

1 in medicine and consisting probably of the young or 

ripe fruits. They are somewhat ovoid in shape, pointed, 

it an inch in leugth, shrivelled and yellowish-brown to 

ick externally : they sink when placed in water. The 




316 



INDIGENOUS DltLias OF INDIA. 



Iftfger fruits are rounder and smoother; they are chieOy 
used in tanning. 

Thfl chemistry of myroljalans has received considerable 
attention ill recent years. Chebulic myrobalans may coa- 
tain varying proportions of gallo-tannio acid accurdiDg to 
the stage of maturity to which the fruit has reached, the 
fully grown fruits cotitaining less of the tannic principles. 
Mr. A. Campbell Stark* found 188 per cent, of tannin 
in a sample of commercial ground myrobalans. 

Fridolin (1S81) isolated an organic acid which he nam- 
ed Chebulinic A«d,ond which he believed to be the source 
of the gallic and tannic acids detected by previous observera 
in the fruit. Another research {Year Book of Pharmacy , 
1893, p. 156) resulted in the isolation of about 3 5 per cent, 
of an acid named Chebulic Acid, "in addition to a large 
proportion of tannin," the latternained acid being probably 
identical with the former. Another contribution to the 
literature of tlie subject is recorded in the P/tarm. J^oitrn,, 
27th June 1891, in which it is stated that the tannin of 
myrobalans h'ld been found to be a mixture of two tannins, 
one of which is the ghicoside of gallic acid and named 
Mlagic Acid, and the other a tannic acid proper, named 
Ellagotannic A cid. 

A green-coloured oleo-resin has been extracted from the 
fruits and named Myrobalanin. A transparent fixed On, 
ia expressed from the kernels. 

Medicinal usee. — The dried unripe Fruit, notwithstand- 
ing the a^tiiiigent nature of its constituents, is very com- 
monly used in India as a purgative and antibilious : 1 to 2 
drachms of the pulp, corresponding to 3 or 4 fruits, is 
usually sufEcient and may be taken in decoction combined 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 317 

with aromatica. It is an essential iugredieot oithatri- 
pkdla or three fruits (the clielitiHc, beleric and emblic 
myroLalaDs), a favourite remedy of the kaviraja. and a 
popular ilomeatic aperient medicine and liver regulator and 
adjunct to other medicines. A conserve is made of the 
large, fully ripe fruit which is considered a good digestive. 
Substitute,— The fruits of T. tomentosa are sometimes 
mixed with tliose of T. Chebula. They are smaller and 
much inferior in every respect. 

THALIOTBUM POLIOLOSUM. 

I Tern. — Hind. — Pinjari, Pilijarl, Gurbiaai ; Bom. — Mariran. 

An herb, belonging to tlie natural order RnJiuvcidaceai, 
^nnd on the temperate Himillaya and the Kha.sia Hills, 
Ihe Boots, which are not unlike liquorice in appearance, 
very bitter, are exported to the plains and sold in the 
jhops under the name of PiUjari or Piaranga. Thalictrum 
K)t contains tiie alkaloid Berberiiie, combined in such a 
[brni, na in rusot, as to be readily soluble in water. 

Uedicinal uses.— A cold infusion of the Root is used as 
h lotion for ophthalmia. It is also a valuable tonic in dya- 
wpsia and lias been found to possess nntiperiodic proper- 

THEVBTIA NBBIIPOLIA. 

Thb Exile or Yellow Oleander. 
Vern.— -Brtij.— Kolkephul ; Hind.—Pi\i-]ca.a^r; 

Tarn, and Tel, — Pachcbai-alari. I 

A plant commonly cultivated as an ornamental slirub in 

gardens in the plains. Natural order dpocynaceai. The 

8giiD3 contain a fixed Oil, to which poisonous properties 

^Hhave been attributed. Dr. Warden has discovered that 



318 



INDIGENOUS DRUQS OF INDIA. 



the oil, when pure, is quite inerb, but that a highly poisoa 
ous alkaloid, which he has uained Thevetlne, may be i: 
lated from tbe cake left after expreeision of the seeda. It 
is probably allied in its nature to the alkaloids of JtTeitui 
odontm {<\. v.). The milky Jqice of the plant is poisonous. 
The Bark is bitter, cathartic and antiperiodic in small doses 
of 0. tincture, but its use is attended with cousiderabls 
danger. 

TINOSPOBA CORDIFOLIA. 

Syn. — CoccuLus cobdifo Litis. 
Vera. — (The Root) Seng. — Gulaachi, Gurach, Gilo ; IlmtL- 

Gulaneha, Gurcb, Gul-Wl ; Sam. — Gudiichi, Aiazita} Bom.- 

Gulwail, Oulavela ; Tam. — Shhidil-kodi ; Tel. — Tippa-ti^ge • 

Burm. — Singo-mon^. 

A common climbing shrub, growing on Nivx and other 
high trees in tropical India and Burma, and Ceyloa. 
Natural order Menisperviacece. The whole Plakt (StEJI, 
Leaves and RuOT) ia used in mediciue,prcferably in the freah 
state ; it may be readily obtained iu the dried state in any 
baz^r. A dry aqueous extract (Hind. — Palv or Sati-giH) 
prepared from the stem and root, is used in Native medicine. 
It is of a dirty white colour and consists almost entirely 
of starch. Fllickiger detected a trace of berbeiiue in 
the stem, but no crystallizable bitter principle could be 
isolated. 

A tincture, infusion and extract (the latter corresponding 
to pal6) was made official in the Pharmacopceia of India. 
Uedlclnal uses. — The herb and the extract have un> 
doubted tonic and alterative properties and in a lessdegree 
antiporiodic and diuretic. They have been found usefui 
in chronic rheumatism. A fluid extract of the plant ia 
probably the moat useful prepavaliou. 




INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA, 



TODDALIA ACT7LEATA. 
Syn. — ScopoLiA ac-uleata. 
■Beng, — Kudo- tod ali ; Hind. — Jangli-kajf-niirch j San», 



Bom. — Limri ; Tam. — Mila-karanai ; 



Vern, 

— Kdnobana, Dahana 
Tei. — K onda-kaahiada, 

A climbing shrub (natural order Rutaceoe) found in the 
Lower Himalaya, common in Bhutan at altitudes of about 
5,000 feet and in Western and Southern India. The fresh 
Boot-Bahk and the whole plant are pungent and aromatic. 
The former is well known to the Natives and used in 
medicine in Southern India and the ripe golden coloured 
pungent, unripe berries are pickled and eaten. The root- 
bark, separated from the white woody root, was included 
in the Pharmacopteia of India : it was formerly known in 
European medicine im " Lopez root," but has long ago 

^ fallen into disuse. Messrs. Hummel and Perkin have recently 
found that the alkaloid berberiue in the root-bark is the 
source of the bil-temess and colouring matter. Tiie Leavks 
yield to distillation ayellowish-green volatile oil havingan 
odour somewhat resembling that of citron, and containing 
citronella-aldehyde. [D. H.] 

. Medicinal usea. — The freah Root-Eahk given in Infusion 
(1 to 2 ounce.i) or fiuid extract (^ to % drachmn) m a useful 
■stimulating tonic and carminative. The drug ha» decided 
antiperiodio and antipyretic properties useful in eiimple 

I fever. 
TRAPA BISPINOSA. 
The Indian Wateii Chestnut : Tue Sinohara Not. 
Tern. — Beng. — Fantphal; Bind. — SinghArS ; Sana. — SriiigAtaka. 
An aquatic plant found commonly Seating on the surface 
1 o£ lakes, tanks and pools throughout India. Natural order 



319 -J 



320 



tSDiatJtoUS DBUCM op IHOI^ 



Onagracece. The white kerael eontaiaed viUiin the red^ 
browu, spiny fruit is used as a f->od by lajrg9 com- 
muuities of the poorer elates in Northern India. Tbftl 
plant is cultivated for this purpose in the Nortli-Wdsi I 
Provinces and in Kashmir, affording in some places a source I 
of land revenue in rents from tanks devoted to its cultars. I 
It abounds i a starch and resembles the chestnut in Bavour. 1 

An analysis of the kernels by Mr, D. Hooper (Pkarm, | 
Journ. (3) XXtV. 8th July 1893) showed the nutritjv* J 
value to be equal to that of rice. Plants of the Trapa I 
species have been noted as remarkable for their pover I 
of taking up manganese. The same investigator reeonls 
that that metal wa^ found iu small quantity in the kernel 
while the pericarp was very rich in manganese. 

Medicinal ose.—The fruits are considered useful in some 
parts of Northern India an usieful in bilious affections with . 
diarrhoea. 

TRIBULUS T£]RBESTBIS. 

Sya. — T. LAHTJGisoscs. 

TuE Chhota Gokeru. 

Vera. — Beng. — Giikhrd, Gokahura ; Hind. — Gokhuru, Chhota- I 

gokhru; •S'aru.— Iksbugaadiia ; Bom. — Lahana-gokhru, Uitha- I 

gokhru ; Tarn. — Neranji ; Tel. — Palleru-mnllu ; Mai. — N«rin* 1 

A trailing plant common in sandy soil thmughout India, I 
plentiful in the North-Weat Provinces and in Uadras. 
Natural order ZygopkylleoB. The whole Plant, including 
the ruot and the Fhuit, are used medicinally iu India. 

The fruit is covered with stout, blunt spines; it has a 
faintly aromatic odour and little taste. The authors of 1 
the Plutrnuicographia Indica have isolated from it an 



^tm 



tNDlGENUUS DRUOS OF INDIA. 321 

alkaloidal principle, a fat nnd a resin, to tlie latter of wbicb 
the erDiaa of the drug is supposed to be due. 

The biuTa-gokhr^ is the fruit of Pedalium murex (q. v.). 
Medicinal u8eB.~The plant and more especially the dried 
Fbcit, in irfusioii, have long been much esteemed iti India aa 
possessing diuretic properties, useful in spermatoirhcea and 
diseases of the geni to-urinary system. Mr. Tiiomas Christy, 
F. L. S„ London, aathor of New an d Rare Drugs, introduced 
to the medical profession some years ago a fluid extract and 
syrup of the chota-gokerii which were used with much success 
as remedies in sperniaton hcea and kindred affections, 

TB.ICHOSANTHES DIOIOA. 

Vera.— J?e"7.— Pat<51 ; //mrf.— Palval, Parwar ; 5aH«.— Patola. 
A climbing plant common in Bengal, and cultivated 
Id Northern India and the PunjAb. The Fruit is a pepo 
and has properties resembling tiiose of coloeynth, belong- 
ing, as it does, to the same natural order, Cucurhitacece. 
In Western India the fruit of T. cucumerma, the Wild 
Snake Gourd { iangli-f^ii-ch'mda) is, according to Dymock, 
regarded as the patola. The dried pulp of the unripe fruit 
of either species may be regarded as purgatives. They were 
formerly considered febrifuge. 
From the rind and pulp of the fruits of another gourd T.pal- 
MZta(Hind. — f(tZ-('ndr(iyai() commonly sold iii the bazdrs of 
Undia has been isolated a bitter principle resembling colocyn- 
Ithin to some eictentand named provisionally Trickosanthin. 

TRIQONBLLA FCENUM-aR^GUM. 

The FbsdorBbk. 

Vera.— Bmt;., Bind., 5«n#.— Methi, Methika, 

1 An annua) herb belonging to the natural on'er Legutni- 

(, found wild and extensively cultivated in Kashmir, 

, ID 21 



322 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

the Punjab, and some parts of the Bombay and Mjuti 
Presidencies. The Skeds are exported from Bombay to ibe 
extent of over 10,000 cwta, annuftlly. The seeds are etnoll, 
mucilaginous when placed in water and have a faint odour 
suggestive of couinarin, which is contained in an allied 
species {see page 188). Fluckigerand Haubury {Pbaitnaoa- 
yraphia) found that the air-dried seeds gave off 10 per cent. 
of water at 100° C, and on subsequent inciueration left 
7 per cent, of ash, of which nearly a fourth was phosphorio 
acid. They yielded 6 per cent, of a fcetid tatty oil. hav- 
ing a bitter taste. A later research indicates the presence 
in the seeds of two alkaloids, CJioline, a base found in 
animal secretions, and another, named Trigonelline, haying 
a weak saline taste. 

Fenugreek is now quite neglected in European medicine 
although formerly held in some repute. It frequently 
occurs however in the drug markets, being an important 
constituent of foods and condition powders for horses and 
cattle, and used also to some extent in the preparation of 
curry powders. 

Medicinal ubbb, — The SEEDS have long been valaed in 
India as tonic and carminative. The young plants nod 
aromatic leaves are much used as culinary vegetables and 
the seeds as a condiment. 

TRITIOUM SATIVUM. 

Syn. — T, vnLCARE : T, «8titum. 

Wheat, 

Tern, — Beng. — 0am, Gidn ; Untd. — G^hiin, Kanak ; Satts. — 

Godhuma ; Bom. — Gahim ; Tarn. — Godumai; Tel. — Godmulu. 

Indian wheat has attained a position of great importance 

in the commerce of the country during a comparatively 

recent period. It is extensively cultivated, in various local 



INDIOEXOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 323 

forms or varieties, in the Punjfib and in the North-West, 
Central and Bombay Provinces, and exported, chiefly from 
Bombay, Karachi and Calcutta, to the extent, from all 
India, o£ about 1,500,000 tons annually. 

It is the most important of the cereals, and forms the 
staple food of a large proportion of the better classes of the 
people in extensive areas of Northern and Western India 
which are not dependent upon rice, pulses, millets, and 
other food-grains. It belongs to the grass order, Oramineee. 

The grain consists essentially of staroh, about 70 per cent., 
with nitrojrenous (including </Iufen) and albuminoid matters, 
sugar, gum, oil and phosphates of potassium, m 
lime and sodium. 

Medicinal tises.— Wheaten flour {FaHna Tritici, B. P.) 
is official for making yeast poultice. It is used in domes- 
tic medicine as a dusting powder applied over inflamed 
surfaces, aa in erysipela-i and burns. Crumb of bread 
made from wheaten flour is abo included in the British 
PharmacQpasia, as Mica Panis, for the preparation of char- 
coal poultice. It is used in pharmacy as a basis for pills 
containing kreosote aud similar medicaments. " Bran," the 
ground, husked grain, is used in baths in psoriasis and in 
making poultices. 

ITYLOPHOBA ASTHMATICA. 
Bm. — Beng. — AntamOl; Hind. — Jaogli-pikvan j B<»n. — PitmS- 
ri; Taw.— Ndy-pdlai ; T*/.— Veri-pala; ifa/.— Valli-pala. 
A small twining plant of the natural order Asdepiadete 
eommoQ in the jungles throughout Eastern India, in Ben- 
gal, Assam, Southern India and Burma. All parts of the 
plant, and especially the LB^iTES and Root contain emetic 
priuoiples which it was proposed many years ago to atUize 



324 



INDIOENODS DBUG3 OF IKDU, 



in place of ipecacuanha. The leaves were cousequenl 
made official in the Pharmacopmia of India at a tii 
when a probable scarcity of ipecacuanlia was appreheodi 
but this and other indigenous siibBtitutes (see Hani 
duineUyfum, and Ifaregavnia alata) for that drug aie noi 
seldom employed except in domestic medicine. 

Hooper has isolated from the leaves and root a crjsl 
able alkaloid which he has named Tylophorine. 

Medicinal uaeB. — The dried Leaves and the dried axt 
powdered hark of tlie fresh Root have been administere 
in doses of 30 to 40 grains as emetic, and 5 to 10 giwoa t 
expectorant and diaphoretic. They liave also been use 
in dysentery with good effect, and may be regarded i 
resembling ipecacuanha in their properties, the dose « 
quired being however about double. 

UNCABIA GAMBIEB, 

Gambibb : Pale Catechu : Terra Japonica. 

Vera- — Beng. — Papri; ffind. — Kath, Eatha; Bom. — Chinai- 

katba ; Mai. — Gamhir. 

Gambler is the product of a shrub or bush, natural ords 
BubiacecB, cultivated in Malacca, Penang and Siiigapon 
and largely in the forests of Joliore. It is extracted froi 
the leaves and young shoots by lioiling and suhaeqaeu 
evaporation. It is imported into India in considerabl 
quantity In irregular, sometimes partly agglutinated, cuba 
and is therefore briefly noticed in this place. 

Gambler is closely allied to catechu in its nature an 
characters; it is commonly known as " pale catechu" ai^ 
is the " catechu " of the Pharmaoopceia. It contains 
same chemical constituents, principally " tannin " (catecht 
tannic acid) in equal quantity (40 tci .50 per ceoL, reekoui 



ISDIOENOUS DRU03 OF INDIA. 



325 



OS gallo-tannic acid) and the yellow colouring principle 
Quercetin. Catechu Nigrum is the product of Acacia 
Catechu, (q. v.) Both are largely used in tanning and medi- 
cinally as astringents. Qambier is used very largely in 
India as an ingredient in pdn-supiiri. 

Adulteration. — Mr. J. G. Prebble lins described' a sophis- 
ticated gaifibier imported into Bombay from Singapore, 
which he fuund ti> contain a large percentage of starch, 
Ml'. Peter MacEwan, F.C.S., in an excellent monograph on 



garabieri-f states that a i 
^M an adulterant. 



iry light clay or ( 



,rth 



I used 






XmaiNBA INDIGA. 

Indian Squill. 
■©m. — Beng. and Bind. — Kindi, Jangli-piya/ ; Suni'. — Vana- 
,l4nddu; Bmn. — Kol-kanda ; 2'um.— Niiri-vcngAynw ; Tel. 
Nakk ft- vuUi-gadda. 
This plant, the ScUla iiidica o£ Roxbnrgh, yielding 
the bulk of the squill of the bazAr.s, grows throughout India 
in sandy places near the sea and is found in the Lower 
Himalaya. It belongs to the natural order LiiiacecB. The 
bulb is the officinal portion, and it is to be preferred when 
well-formed, but not mature, as the outer coata of the older 
bulbs are inert. As met with in tlie baz&ra, the drug is 
Ijelieved to consist chiefly of the bulbs, whole and unsliced, 
of the plant under notice, with those of Scilla indica, q. v., 
frequently mixed. It may be regarded as equal in medici- 
nal value bo the oflicial drug from Urginea Scilla, cultivated 
the shores of the Mediterranean and imported into India. 



PharmaecHlu-al Jni 




Hat (0 Tul, XSIV, p. ai, Hth Juij IS»3, 
"ol (.1) Vol. X7, p. 7a.t, 28th MnruU 1885. 



32fi INDIGENOUS DRUOS OF INDIA. 

It has been used for several years in place of impoxtfl 
squill at the OoverDmeut Medical Store Depots in India, j 

The chemical constituents of squill are a glucoside, i 
lain, and Scillipicrin and Scillitoxin, bitter prtncipld! 
Mucilage, sugar and crystals of calcium oxalate are &ln 
present. The Indian drug baa been investigated by A 
tant-Surgeon Cliuui Lai Bose, hut not with regard to ilfl 
relation to the official aiticle. The medicinal propei'ties d 
squill have been indicated atS. indica. 



VALERIANA "WALLIOHII. 
Indian Valerian. 

Vem. — Beng., Hind., <t:c. — Tagar, Nah&ni, Shumeo, j 
Som. — Tagar-gmithoda ; Sam. — Tngara. 

Several plants of the Valerian species (natural ordw 
Valo-ianea:) are iudigenous to the temperate Himalaya, 
found in Knshmir and Bliutdn. The most importantis the. 
above, the Rhizomes or root-atocks of which are coUeciaAg 
in Afghanistan regularly and exported to the plains formec 
cinal use and as a perfume. V. Hardwickii is also e 
ly exported into India, and the true valerian, F. o^ 
is said to be found in North Kashmir. 

The chemical constitution of the roots of V. Wa3lie 
approximates very closely to that of the ofBcial drug, i 
which it has been found an efficient substitute medicinal 

It has a more powerful odour and yields a larger propd 
tiou of volatile Oil and Valeric Acid, on distillation win 
water. 

Medicinal use. — Yalerian acts as a stimulant and and 
spasmodic: its use is indicated in nervous and Iiystedcl 
symptoms. (See also Nardostachya Jatamaiisi.) 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 327 

VATERIA INDIOA. 

The Piney Resis or Ixdian Copal Thee : White Dammar. 

-fiiW.— Suf^d damar; ram.— (The Tree)— Dapada. 

(The Resin) — Vellai-kungilijara. 

A large evergreen tree of the natural order Dipterocar- 

pecB, indigenous to South-Weatern India, Caiiara and 

Travancore. A fine reain, the better qiialitieB not unlike 

amber, exudes from incisions made in the trunk and is 

used like copal for making varnishea: it dissolves in tur- 

pentine and is less soluble in alcohol. It has been recom- 

tended for use in plianaacy in place of the official pine 

The large, fatty seeds contain nearly half their 

night of a concrete Oil, resembling kokum butter (see 

prcinia indica) in consistence, which is employed locally 

I an emollient in rheumatism and which might be utilized 

f a basis for ointments. 

VIOLA ODOBATA. 

Thb WitD Violet. 
IVern.— (The Plant) — ffind., Bom., Pen., l^c.— Ban&fahah, 

(Tlie Floweris)— Gul-i-Banafshah, 

I This and several closely allied species (natural order 

wlaeeoi) are found in Kashmir and the temperate Wee- 

I Bim&laya, above 5,000 feet. The flowering plants, 

eluding the root, chiefly of V. serpens, are collected for 

export to the plains and may easily be obtained in the 

dried state in the drug bazits of Bengal. 

The violet flowers aud root contain an emetic principle 
named Violin, believed to resemble emetine in some of its 
characters: the flowers also contain, in addition to traces 

If a volatile oil, several peculiar colouring matters and 
\iola-(iaevcitrin, a yellow principle, and sugar. 



328 



INDIGENOUS DBUGS Or INDIA. 



Uediolnal usea. — The Flowers are regarded and mtii 
Used by the hakivia as cooling and diaphoretic ; they ban 
slight aperient and diuretic properties, and ore suitabl; 
combined with other vegetable laxatives. The Root, ani 
the flowers in large doses, are reputed to have emetic pro 
pevtiea. 

The banafaluih of the bozdrs cannot be said to poBsei 
tbe valuable medicinal properties once attributed to th 
drug of that name, which probably consisted of V. odorata. 



VITIS VINIPBBA. 

TuE Grape V'wb. 
Vem. — (Grapea) — Beng. — Drakhyaluta ; ffind. — Angdr, DralEb 
Tarn. — Dirakhsha-pazham ; Tel. — DnlkBhA-pandu ; Saiu.- 
Diikshi^ MridrikA; Fere. — Kiahmiah, Muuakka. 

Grapes are now largely cultivated, in many varieties, i 
North-Western India, in the Punjab, Kashmir, BeMchists 
and AfgliSiiistin. Natural order Avipelidece (Vitaoea 
They have been highly esteemed in India fiom a vet 
remote period and the ripe FitulTS, partly dried in the boi 
"raisins," have been used in Sanskrit medicine for man 
centuries. 

Grapes and raisins, gro wn in extensive vineyards in Eabd 
are sold in the bazars of Calcutta and Bombay and ela 
where, the former article in neat little baskets oontatnin 
about 100 half-dried grapes. Two varieties of raisins aj 
sold in the market, one large and purplish in colour, wit 
seeds, called Munakka, and used in medicine; the othi 
small, seedless, brownish in culonr, called Kishmish. 

Raisins {Uvat PaaauB of the B. P.) contain grape 
malic and other fruit acids, acid tartrate of potaaaii 



INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDU. 



329 



fcream of tartar) and mucilage. The seeds contain a dense 
fixed oil or fat, and about 5 per cent, uf tannic acid, wliicb 
also exists in the skin of the fruit. 

Medicinal uees. — Baisind have long been used in Native 
medicine as an ingredient in laxative, demulcent and ex- 
pectorant medicines and of confections as a vehicle for 
unpleasant medicaments. Wine is made from grapes in 
ishmir, but the wines used in medicine and pharmacy 
1 India are imported. 



WITHANIA OOAGULANS 

Vegetaule Rennet. 
—Seng. — Ashvagandi ; Bind. — Akri, Punir ; Bom. — Ka- 



— Amutkura ; Tel. — Penn^ru-gadda ; Pert. — 



I fcanaj ; Ta 

I Panfr-bod. 

I A small shrub of the natural order Solanacetx, c 

D the Punjab, Stnd, Afghdnistdn and Beltichistan. The 
pund, capsular Fruit is used in the fresh state in these 

nintriea as an emetic and in small doses as a remedy in 



mat 



An application of more general interest, to which it is 
also commonly applied in Nortb-Westerti India, is that of 
coagulating or curdling milk. A small portion is rubbed 
up with a little water or milk and added to the milk to be 
coagulated. The dried capsules have been found by Sir 
S, D. Hooker, from experiments conducted at Kew, to retain 
the coagulating property in an er^ual degree, a decoction 
made with one ounce of the powdered fruits to one quart of 

ling [?] water, giving an excellent curd in about half an 

lur with one tablespoonful to one gallon of warm milk. 

The active principle resides in the numerous small eeeda 
contained within the capsules and is believed to be a 



330 INDIQENOUS DKCas OF IKDIA. 

ferment closely allied to the rennet of the animal oiganist 
It has been isolated ami the name, WitlLanin, proposed fol 
it. It is destroyed by boiling and is precipitated by alec 
hoi, which latter does not however affect its coagulating pro 
perty. A careful research by Mr. Sheridan Lea* has shovn 
that it can be extracted from the seeds either by glycerin oi 
by a moderately strong solution of common salt, extract) 
prepared by either means having strong coagulating poweri 
even in small amounta, 

It was found that these extracts could be preserved V] 
means of common salt or alcohol, and that their activitj 
was about equal to that of most commercial extracts ( 
animal rennet, an important matter in certain parts o 
India where caste prejudice precludes the useofaiuma 
preparations. 



WITHANIA SOMNIPERA. 
Syn. — PnvsALis flexl'osa : V. aosiNiFERi. 
Vem.—Seng. — Asvagandha ; I£ind. — Asgandh ; Sans, — Asvi 
gandha ; Som. — Asgand, 
A small tilirub, common in Bombay and Western Indtl 
occasionally met with in Bengal, natural order Sola^ 
The long, tapering, brittle, light-brown Root, white inte 
nally, has a peculiar pungent odour of horse's urine, wlu< 
has given rise to vernacular names conveying this meaain 
Asgand is a name also applied to the roots of IpomcBa rfi 
tata (q. v.), sold in Bombay. An alkaloid possessing h; 
notic properties and named Somnifenne has been iaolati 
from the plant as grown in Southern Europe. 

" PharniaftvHfal Jnurnal (.1) XtV, p. COIJ, qootiny the Pvoeeeitngi 
the Eojnl Sooiety. 188.1. 



INDIOBNOCS DBnOS OF INDIA. 



331 



The seeds have been found to possess the property of 
coagulating milk, like those of W. coagulans, but they 
also contain poisonous principles. 

ISedlclnal osea. — Tbo leaves and root are reputed to 
have narcotic properties; the latter is also considered diure- 
^c and deobstiueiit, They arc little known or used in 
tengal. 

WOODPORDIA PL0RIBI7NDA. 

—.B^n J.— Dhai-pbul ; Bind.—Dha., Dhaura ; Sans.—Dha^ 
laki ; Bom. — Dliayati ; Tel. — Seriugl. 
A large shrub, of the natural order Lijlhracew, common 
a many parts of India. 
The bright red Howera are used as a dye in Northera 
[India, and are collected in the jungles in Bengal and else- 
irhere, and largely used as a tanning material. They 
toutain a large quantity — about 20 per cent. — of tannic 
eid which circumstance accounts fur their use as an 
'astringent in Native medicine. They are employed in 
dysentery and other forms of litemorrhage, 



V 



WRIGHTIA ANTIDYSENTBRICA. 

Ste HOLAHRHENA ASTlDVSF.STEIiirA. 

ZANTHOXYLUM ALATUM. 

— J5fny.— Timiliul ; ^im/.— Tejphd, Tuniru ; Sans.- 



A shrub or busli common in the temperate Himalaya, in 

Bhutan and in the Khasia Uiils, found aho in the Darjtling 

district. Natural order RuUicete, The carpels of the fruits, 

which resemble those of coriander, yield an essential OiL, 

rliich has been investigated by Stenliouse and later by 




S3S 



INDIOENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 



Pedler and Warden. It is isomeric with turpentine and is 
somewhat similar to eucalyptus oil in odour and properties. 
The oil maj be found to possess antiseptic, disinfflcbant and 
deodorant properties similar to those of eucalyptus. 

The bark of tliis and several other species of the same 
genus contain berberine. 

ZnrOIBBB OFFICINAIiB. 

Ginger. 
Vera.— The Root: .Senj.— (Fresh)— Adi-ok, Adl (Dried)— 
S(5iit; HiW.— (Freah)-Ji.drakh. (Dried)— Sonth ; ^an*.— 
Sringav^ra; Bom.— {Fresh)-^Alem. (Dried)— Sunta ; Tarn. — 
(Freab) — Inji, (Dried) — Shukku ; ^^-/.-(Freah) — Allam. 
( Dried)— Sonti ; .(Irai..— Zanjabll. 

Ginger has been cultivated in India and used as a spice 
and medicine for many centuries. The plant yielding it 
belongs to the natural order Scltaminew, formerly called 
the Zingiberacece. or ginger order. It is now cultivated on 
ri large scale in the warm, moist regions of India, chiefly 
in Madras, Cochin and Travaucore, and to a somewhat less 
extent in Bengal and the Punjab. The officinal portion is 
the dried Rhizomb, the ginger or ginger root of commerce. 
Cochin ginger Js very largely exported from the port 
of that name and from Calicut and other places on the 
Malabar Coast, forming a considerable portion of the ginger 
supply of the world, and is reckoned in the London market 
as next in value to the more carefully prepared, and coii- 
sequently better looking, Jamaica ginger. Bombay aod 
Calcutta also etport largo quantities annually. The me- 
thod commonly employed in India in the preparation of 
ginger for the market is crude and imperfect. The rhi- 
zomes having been dug up and washed, they are shaken 



INDIOENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 333 

together in a rough basket, to remove more or leaB of the 
brown outer skin, and aubaequently graihially dried in the 
SUB. The better qualitiea are more carefully scraped, which 
OODBtderably iinprovea the appearance, and occasionally 
bleached. 

Ginger is always easily obtainable, In the fresh or dried 
Btates in all the bazars. The latter is commonly used an a 
condiment, and a cinserve is made from the freah younger 
rhizomes corresponding to the preserved "green ginger" 
exported from China. 

The chemistry of ginger wa» fully inveftti^'ated in 1880-2 
by Mr. J. C. Thresh, B.Sc. He found Cochin ginger to 
oo&tain 0'6 per cent, of ifingerol, the active prinoiple, 
a straw-coloured, viscid, odourless fluid of extremely 
pungent taste ; 1-4 per cent, of a pale yellow essential oil, 
with an aromatic but not pangent taste, to which the 
fragrant aroma of ginger is due : odour somewhat camphor- 
aceoas in bulk; besides resiiu and several other less 
characteristic constituents. It was also found that, in 
genera], Jamaica ginger contains only about half the 
quantity of essential oil yielded by the Cochin althmigh 
the former possesses a much finer frsgrsuce. 

"Oingerin" is s cmde, liqaid oleo-rwiin prepared from 
Uie root. It is osaslly extract«>i with ether, lias tli« 
colour and coasistenee of treacle an<l retains the aromatic 
and pungent cocstttoents of the drag. East Indian ifin^er 
yields about 8 per c«ni, Jamaica fpnger about 5 per wai.f 

Hediclnal oaes.— In ailditioii to noiMrous p"piilar and 
domestic U5«i ginger root is roach valtMil ami I*rKi>ly iimnI 

I medicine. It ts aromatic, cansinativs mvI ■ItiaulMt, 






334 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA. 

usefal in dyspepsia, flatulence and spasmodic affections of 
the stomach, and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives to 
prevent nausea and griping. The tincture and the stronger 
tincture are the most important official preparations, Qin* 
gerin is a convenient form for addition to pills. 

ZIZTPHUS JUJUBA. 

The Jujube Fruit. 

Vem. — Beng, — B^r, Kul; Hind, — B^r; Sans. — Badari; Bom. 
— Bor; raw.— Elandap ; Tel — R^gu ; Pers. — Kun£r. 

A small or moderate sized tree found wild and cultivated 
in many parts of India and in Burma. Natural order 
WiamnecB. The fruit of the wild variety is not unlike a 
crab-apple in appearance and taste, palatable, very acid 
and astringent. It is eaten raw and also preserved by 
drying. The fruits of the cultivated varieties are more 
palatable and less acid. The jujube fruit sold in the mar- 
ket is imported from China, probably also from Nepal, 
and is believed to be the product of Z. vulgaris. 

The Fruit contains mucilage and sugar, in addition to 
fruit acids. The bark contains much tannin (named ZizU 
photannic Acid) and a crystaUizable principle, Ziziphic 
Acid, has been isolated from a watery extract of the wood. 

Medicinal uses. — The bark is said to be used in some 
localities as a simple remedy in diarrhoea and as a domestio 
application in cases where an astringent is indicated. 



APPENDICES. 



ACONITUM HAPBLLTTS. 
Tbb chemistry' of the acoaite alhaloida Lnving been the subject of 
BSTerAl receut researchea, concluded since the earlier ]>DrIioagof this 
book hikd been printed, a brief re'ruvi'!' is preaeiited. 

Professor Wjndhaui H. Dunatan, in conjunction witli Messrs. £. P. 
EarriaoD, F.H. Carr, and H. A. D. Jowett, has deteriuiued that "pure 
cry»taUme ilcoiii'dW, a highly toxic base of definite and invariabla 
compoution, and capable of producing constant therupeutic elfects, 
is uaociated in Aeonitam Najiellut vith at Imut three amorphous 
sad much less poisonoua alkaloids, iu., Acotiine, Itaconitim and 
fiomoivaconi'd'ne, which constitute at least 75 per cent, of the total 
bases, aud occur likewise to a ver/ large extent in many commercial 
^>eoimaiia of aconitinu. It ia therefore conaidared most important 
that in futare none but the pure crj^ttalUne base abould be used in 
madioine. Two of tlia amorphoua allcaloids, sconine and isaconitine, 
Juve been isolated in a pure condition and their properties and 
GOmpoBition invest iga ted. laaconitiue, which is ragardsd aa a new 
faftoa, entirely different from the variable mixture of amorphous 
alkaloide, described by earlier work era under the D»maof napelline, is 
v.ft)nnd to occur in aconite root to aa l&rge an extant as aconitjne, and 
■ to ba the chief baao preaent in the acouitine aalts of oommerca. 
EWhiUdiffaringaassntially fromaconitine in chemical const! to ti on and 
Biological activity, it provea to b« iso 
le readily obtainable from it, and to 
Mniaa and beDzoio acid en hydrolyais." 
9.) 




ith the latter basa, 
agree with it in yielding 
{Ttar Book of Pharmaifj/, 



in bsing non-painoaotu. The forsisttoi) from acanitiae of « cotutanl 
qasntitj' of toetic acid ou hcatiDg or hj hjdrolj'aia, iiromiaei to Mrr* 
aa the baiit of a italMfactor? proceM for the usay and atutduxliBB- 
tion of galenical preparationa of aconite." 

"The ideutilj' uf iaaconitine andGroveaaiidWright't picraconitine, 
•■ wall aa the formation of this body along with acetic acid in ti)« 
flrtt alaga at the action of boiling water on Acoultine, hare alao been 
obHTVtd, in(Ia|>and«ntlj' of W. B. Dunstan and bis collaborators, 
nnd iiraatioally at the laroe time, by M. Frennd and P. Beck" (I'ear 
Ooob 0/ J'/uin,i'iflj/, 1994) 'ilie qoeetion of priority has been the 
aubjact of controvony ; in the latest contribution* to the enbject M. 
Freand aatablinhei tbe independence of hia own work and maiutaiuB 
that the nnuljtical roaulte of Beck and hiniBelf, which were very 
Hilanaive, are not only different from Dunatan's, but show that the 
otianiioal formulm uai^ned to aconitina and aconine bj the latter 
Inveiliftntor are inoorr«et. 

A raNonroli into the <:heinical coDBtitntion of tlie alkaloida of 
Aaonitum iVa/ielliu nnd A.ferox, as grown in the Himilayn, ia nuder- 
■tood to bu In pru^ruaa (IBD6) at the Reaearch Laboratory of Ut* 
Fharmaceutioal Sooiuty. 






ACONITE COLLECTION IN THE HIMALAYA. 
The foiloviDg extract, from a.a official report (1895), iadic&tea 
le nsture of drug-collecttiig nt high nltitudes in Northern India, 
ii] ftucoants in Boma meaaiire for the f&ct that aconite root aa com- 
mit Bold iti the biiz,irB is extremely variable in character and 
tDsiite of a mixtare of the roots of aevernl epeciea of iiaouite, while 
tho ooat to the purehaser usunllj exceeds that of the imported 
drug. 

'■ Aconite ia collected b^ Sirba Bhutiae dwelling in the DarjdiDg 

diatrlot, and occftBionallj making a joume; to their native coutttry, 

Bhutau. It is to be found (trowiny at aa elev:ition of ten thousand 

feet above the aea-level, and among other ptace-i on the Siugalilati. a 

utain range which is the watershed bouiiduvy between Nepal 

Brittih territory North- West of Darjiling. Hare two species of 

lonite, Aeonilaiii /lalmaCnm and A. .Vtij-e!hig or ^I'epalm, grow 

,.ly. 

A.eonitani palnvilum ia collected in abundance at ToDglu, the 
ithern termination of the Singalilas ; but X-i/'ellHi, the more poi- 
inoUB variety, reqiiirea a higher elevaClou in which to thrive. It takes 
idly to the bleafc, rugged crags of Suiidnkphu (12,029 feet), and is 
be found uuilor tho rhododendron covers and cold ahadj water* 
ea. It Beldoiii grows taller than three feet, a aiugle stock with 
flowers springing from each bulb or root. The Nativea, espe- 
illy the hill-tribes, take aconite in its crude state itP a remedy for 
'vftrioua ailtnenta, and every Bhutia has a few dried roota put away 
'.in some aeouTB corner of his hut. 

" Early in October, when the aconite root has matured, one of the 
leading men in the village organises a. party coiupriaed of both aeiee, 
Hefor the time being becomes their leader, settles all disputeaandquar* 
reU while ont in camp, and while keeping nn account of the general 
expsnaea, supplies to each the daily roqnirements in the way of food, 
Hia first step ia to take out a ' permit ' from tlie Forest Department, 
which coBta fifteen rupees, (If the pwty is proceeding to the Nepal 
liills, no permit is required, but a toll is charged at each station on 
every load). He wraps the pass up in a rag, and places it in his net- 
work bag of valuablea, collects hia band together, and sets out for the 
higher ranges. They travel as lightly as |iosaib]e, eacli carrying a 
fhvnul, or large bjmboo basket, which contains a brass t>ot for cook- 
ing, a flat iron spoon to help out the rice, with a satScient quantity 
and vegetables to last five or six days. They also carry a 
lick Bhutia blanket, with the indispenaabls l-utrl, or hatchet-knifv 




33S APPC5DU. 



fuceziai ;Lna'x:i *ae vii9GhauL>i. A iSTzn-g mtz^TLZ icmi i« » walc- 
from the ca;i ir.:Ll a aal- L» aia.:* 'vS"i«ii ^-d. tLej rcL:-»re 

fire-:r swi i: ':r-ij !!▼:•:■ I 'j "'i-t L.-i ;: i.i.: i.=.i «te*l zirri-fi in the 
ahcithj of -Jl's.t l-i^i '\4 ^-*J ••- -■'-" iri.c. Ti* '»it«r otT the ri-rc, 
aa Li .--izerilij ::i.-r. -.ii •».!.: :: :z & :-■:"*: iii*d ic c:^ I-biTei feccr.ed 
oat jf th« j'lc^I* TT-"":-! T*-_-»*^.i::*i frl*: ii. •:!! i!i*i %a izL*z:r:z nasu- 
ber of b:^ ohilli-a. Oc-s hiiir *»** :j.-*- tiriigs. th*:r meal uid 
rea»iv to ::r.::L-:4 :h*:r niirih. ixai- ^^-'rn *T»c.:nc coc3«:3 on tLev 
m.%ke 1 aecoiii :.i>. in vzzii d-esiri'il* tIv:* :■: seed the nigh:, where 
t he J icno*: i t 7 tc 21 : •: nrj s ■ . el :*r - m i •* ■: f b-i zihrA>i, to keep o^ t h e 
nighr-de-sr, ^qix". rcaii :le £r<M rhej Lit* l:gh:e«l. •rrack jocea^ and 
r elite advent -ir^s t:-.-»v Lire niet w::l TL-i r.-sadnin. trho £3 nsaallj* 
the zeiitre of ^ttrx; ::■:::, Lia i :il i :: *"..;r:*s a: Lii :o2iniind Or if a 
Lara% (prieat — tla ia no: aQ:rrq:i9!i:lT th-2 rise — ia the leader of the 
party, he giT« extra :u o-i* •-■: tLeir reli^ioii wrirlngj. It is an 
interesting ai^Lt to aeehini per^h*-! on 1 n:se«l bit of eroand. with 
his followers I;-":ng r,ar.l hica in all po-i^irij, gazinj with rapt atten- 
tion while he iivea eLisrAss oa: of tiieir «i:re«l b>>:>kd. The Bhati u 
are of the Bud ihfat relig'on, and own ta their spirit ail head the 
Gre%t L'lma of Thibet, but the BaddhisLi to which thev adhere is 
mach interwoven with demon-worship 

** As night advanced, and the party think it is time to retire, they 
disappear within their bamboo shelters, taking the precaution to put 
their X'v/* /if under their heads, incise of a night attack from the 
robber tril>es who hover about the frontier. Some of the hardier of 
the .Sirbas sleep in the open air, with a blanket about them, heedless 
of the cutting wind and thermometer at zero. They are generally 
followed by a big Thibetan dog, a 6erce-looking animal resembling a 
bear, with largu blue eyes. He sleeps during the day, and keeps 
watch at night, giving low growls every now and again. 

'* As soon as the party has arrived at the slopes where aconite ia 
plentiful, they build bamboo huts about five feet high, with leaves for 
the roofs, and make the place generally habitable. After their 
morning meal, each shoulders his basket, and takes a spade, for 
which a handle has been made from a jungle s^Cpling. They start 
for the slopes lower down, leaving the dog and one of the oompauy 
behind in charge of the camp. Before beginning operatiou2, a cere- 
mony has to be perforiced. 



APPENDIX. 339 

** The Nepalese leldom take ap the trade of aconite collecting, aa they 
have a superstition that the presiding demon of the hills imprisons 
evil spirits in this plant, which jiy oat as soon as it is dug up, 
and inflict dire calamity on the digger. Bhutias have this supersti- 
tion also, with a remedy. They always have in their party a de- 
stroyer of these spirits; and every morning before digging, the Lama, 
standing on a convenient hill with his crowd round him, makes a 
fire and bums some dhuna, a sort of resin, then putting two fingers 
in his mouth, he gives several shrill whistles. All wait in breathless 
silence till an answering whistle is heard, an echo, the cry of a bird 
— pheasant as a rule from the gorge below, or the soughing of the 
wind among the pines — which they take as the dying dirge of the 
spirits. 

" Thus satisfied, they commence the digging, shake out the mud, and 
throw the roots into the basket. By evening you can see them 
climbing up the hillsides from various directions, making for the 
encampment, where they empty out the contents of their baskets in 
heaps, and cover them with bamboo leaves, to keep out the heavy 
frost of the night. The collectors work in couples, and duriug the 
day the roots are spread out to dry in the sun. When a sufficient 
quantity is collected and dried, bamboo frames are made, with a fire 
below, on which the aconite is placed when the flame has died out. 
Three to four days over this artificial heat dries up the root. While 
the firing process is going on, the man attending to it has a cloth tied 
round his head, covering his nose, as it is injurious to inhale the 
fumes. It causes a feeling of heaviness, followed by symptoms not 
unlike intoxication. 

"While the aconite is drying, .the collectors fill in all their time 
snaring pheasants, which come to the open country to feed, trapping 
musk deer, which are plentiful on the Singalilas, and shooting vari- 
ous other kinds of game to supply their immediate wants. The live 
pheasants and deer they put into bamboo baskets, and bring into 
the stations for sale. 

'* The whole trip generally lasts a month, and when sufficient aco. 
nite has been collected and dried, the roots are packed in baskets, with 
^ther goods and chattels on the top, which make a very decent load, 
varying from one hundred and twenty to two hundred pounds. 
Sirba women are as sturdy as the men, and it not un frequently 
happens that their loads are heavier than those of the so-oalied 
atronger sex. When all {Ire ready, they shoulder their baskets and 
atart off at a brisk pace, walking one behind the other, from a diitane® 



340 APPESDIH. 

looking not nnliko a huge serpent winding along the hill-patli. Keep- 
ing step the/ move ao rapidlj that it is difficolt for others nnaoeiis* 
tomed to hill-climbiog to keep ap with these hardj moantaineers. 
To one who understands their language, it is bv no means doll work 
walking with them, as thej are a joilj crowd, laughing, chatting, 
and relating stories in their graphic Oriental manner — the sum and 
substance first, then the narrative t'n extetao, not leaving out the 
most minute detail. 

'^ Arriving at the commercial centre at the termination of their 
march the goods are disposed of, and each man receives his share of 
the profits according to the amount of aconite he has collected. They 
then make their purchases for the winter, besides vegetable and 
other Heeds for the coming season, and once more settle down to their 
quiet village life, to attend to the cultivation of potatoes, Indian 
corn, bringaels (or brinjals, the fruit of the egg plant), and carda- 
mom." 



II. 



AILANTHUS EXGBLSA. 



Mr. David Hooper, f.l.8., has recently re-examined the bark 
of AUanthut ezreU'.i. {Pharm, Journal (IV) 1322, 26th Oct., 1895.> 
He findH that the bitter principle, formerly believed to be ailantic 
acid (page 15) has no claim to be considered an acid, but rather to 
Y)elong to a neutral class of substances related to quassiin. The 
fluorescence of its solutions, the abundant precipitate it gives with 
tannin, and the purplish colour it communicates to strong sul- 
phuric acid are characteristic of the bitter principles of many 
plants of the Simarubacece, and Hooper believes that "the cedrin 
obtained by Lewy in the seeds of Siinaha cedron^ the princi- 
ples separated byWarden from the wood of Ptcrasma quassioideSy 
and by Shimojama and Hirano from P. ailanthoideSy and the 
lamaderin from Samadera indtca may, on more complete analysis, 
prove to be one and the same active principle, and that principle» 
quassiin." 



APPENDIX. .341 

III. 

FLUID BXTRAOTS 
OK INDIAN INDIGENOUS DRUGS. 

In the prefatory portion of this book the suggestion has been 
made that the form of pharmaceutical preparation best suited for 
the exhibition of many of the medicinal products enumerated in these 
pages, which it may be desirable to put to more extended use, is the 
general one of Fluid Extracts. 

They are official in the Pharmacopoeia of ihe United States and 
very popular in America, where they were originated, and where 
their manufacture is carried to great perfection by pharmaceutical 
specialists. Several 'Miquid extracts" are official in the British 

Pharmacopceia, 

Fluid extracts are defined by Professor Remington* as ** liquid 
Alcoholic preparations of uniform and definite strength, made by 
percolating drugs with menstrua, and concentrating a portion of the 
percolate, so that in each case a cubic centimetre represents the medi- 
cinal virtues of one gramme of the drugt : they are mostly concen- 
trated tinctures." Alcohol, of various strengths, is used exclusively 
as the extractive and preservative medium. The advantages possess- 
ed by this class of preparation have already been cited. Various 
methods of manufacture are adopted in practice, and various 
modifications even of official formuLe, according to the treatment 
best suited by experience to each individual drug. Although the 
preparation of such products comes essentially within the domain of 
the practical pharmacist, a description of the principal processes 
involved, and of the preparation of a typical iluid extract are append- 
ed, together with a brief enumeration of the more important drugs 
according to the menstruum best suited for their extraction, in 
order that their experimental preparation and therapeutical trial 
may be encouraged, specially in charitable dispensary practice in 
India. 



• *• Practice of Pharmacy" 

t [Approximately one fluid ounoo represents one ounce of the original dnig : 
one part by measure is made from one part by weight.] 



342 APPENDIX 

The process of '* percolation " or displacement, oflBcial in the 
Cfiiied States Pharmacopaia, 1890, is well described in that volume 

as follows : — 

" It consists in subjecting a substance or a mixture of substances, 
in powder, contained in a vessel called a percolator, to the solvent 
action of successive portions of a certain menstruum in such a 
manner, that the liquid as it traverser the powder in its descent 
to the receiver, shall be charged with the soluble portion of it, and 
pass from the percolator free from insoluble matter. 

" When the process is successfully conducted, the first portion of the 
liquid, or percolate, passing through the percolator, will be nearly 
saturated with the soluble constituents of the substance treated ; and 
if the quantity of menstruum be sufficient for its exhaustion, the 
last portion of the,percolate will be nearly free from colour, odour and 
taste, other than those of the menstruum itself. 

"The j)ercolator should be nearly cylindrical or slightly conical, 
with a funnel-shaped termination at the smaller end [capacity about 
1 litre or 1} (1'76077) pint]. The neck of the funnel-end should be 
rather short and should gradually and regularly become narrower 
towards the orifice, so that a perforated cork, bearing a short glass 
tube, may be tightly wedged into it from within until the end of the 
cork is ^ush with the outer edge of the orifice. The glass tube, which 
must not project above the inner surface of the cork, should extend 3 
to 4 centimetres [about 1 inch] beyond the outer surface of the cork 
[and should be provided with an arrangement for opening and 
closing, such as a tube and pinchcock]. ♦ ♦ • Xhe shape of the 
percolator should be adapted to the nature of the drug to be operated 
upon. For drugs which are apt to swell, particularly when a feebly 
alcoholic or an aqueous menstruum is employed, a conical percolator 
is preferable. A cylindrical or only slightly tapering percolator 
may be used for drugs which are not liable to swell, and when the 
menstruum is strongly alcoholic, or when ether or some other volatile 
liquid is used for extraction. The size of the percolator should be 
in proportion to the quantity of drug extracted. When properly 
packed in the percolator, the drug should not occupy more than two- 
thirds of its height. The percolator is best constructed of glass or 
stone-ware, but, unless otherwise directed, may be made of any 
suitable material not affected by the drug or menstruum. 

" The percolator is prepared for percolation by gently pressing a 
small tuft of cotton into the neck above the cork, a thin layer of 
clean and dry sand [or powdered glass] being then poured upon the 
surface of the cotton to hold it in its place. 



APPENDIX. 343 

<' The powdered substance to be percolated (wliich must be of uni- 
form fineness and should be perfectly air-drj before it is weighed) 
is put into a basin, the specified quantity of menstruum is poured on, 
and it is thoroughly stirred with a spatula, or other suitable instru- 
ment until it appears uniformly moistened. The moist powder may 
be passed through a coarse sieve and is now transferred to a sheet of 
thick paper and the whole quantity poured from this into the perco- 
lator. It is then shaken down lightly, and allowed to remain in that 
condition for a period varying from fifteen minutes to several hours, 
unless otherwise directed ; after which the powder is pressed, by the 
aid of a plunger of suitable dimensions, more or less firmly, in pro- 
portion to the character of the powdered substance and the alcoholic 
strength of the menstruum ; strongly alcoholic menstrua, as a rule, 
permitting firmer packing of the powder than the weaker. The per- 
colator is now placed in position for percolation, and the surface of 
the powder covered by an accurately fitting disk of filtering paper, 
or other suitable material, and a sufficient quantity of the menstruum 
poured on through a funnel reaching nearly to the surface of the 
paper. If these conditions be accurately observed, the menstruum 
will penetrate the powder equally : the percolator is now closely 
covered to prevent evaporation. The apparatus is then allowed to 
stand at rest for the time specified in the formula [usually for 
forty-eight hours]." 

The following typical formula from the United StrUes Pharmaco- 
pceia will illustrate the preparation of a fluid extract : — 

EXTRACTUM CHIRAT^ FLUIDUM. 

Fluid Extract of Chirata. 

Ghirata, in No. 30 powder,* one thousand grammes ... 1,000 Gm. 

Alcohol, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity. 



To make one thousand cubic centimeters ... 1,000 Cc. 

Mix six hundred (600) cubic centimeters of Alcohol with three 
hundred (300) cubic centimeters of Water, and, having moistened the 
powder with three hundred and fift^ (350) cubic centimeters of the 
mixture, pack it firmly in a cylindrical percolator, then add enough 



* [A moderately coarse powder, which should pass through a sieve hayiing 3 
meshes to the linear inch.] 



3U 



APPENDIX. 



> saturate the povder and l«a«a a Btratniu abOTe U. 1 
When theliqaid begins to drop from the percolator, close tbs lower ' 
orifice, and, having closelj covered thepercolator,tiiacerate for forty- 
eight hoars. Tlien allow the t'ercol&tion to proceed, gradaalty I 
adding meDstrDuia, usiog tLe same proportions of Alcohol and 1 
"Water as before, until the CbiratH h eihaaated. Reserve the Erat [ 
eight kundrtd "ud H/ty (850) cm&k eenlimeter* of the percolate. 
Distil off the Alcohol from the remainder bjt means of a wstei^balb, 
and evaporate the rt<sitlae lo a soft extract,* diasolve this in th« re- 
served portion, aud add enough meDstruum to make the Fluid Ex- 
tract measure one (/lownnrf (l.OCO) cubic ctntimettn. 

A simple percolator for small experimeutal quantities of a faVT 
ouucea may be made from ikii inverted conical flask or champagne 
bottle from vhich the bottom pottiou hns been cut away. 

The jirocesH of *' repercolatioru " is an iD)]irovemeiit oa the method 
above (leacribed, because tbs drug is percolated to e:chAUHtiou and 
evaporatiou obviated by storing iiw.-iy the weak percolate until the 
next operation upon the same drug, when it ia used in place of freab 
menatruum, It ia defined by ha aulhor. Dr. E, R. Squibb, as"tha 
Bucceaaire application of the same percolating menstruum to fresh 
portions of Iha eubstance to be percolated." (Remington's Praelict 
of Phannai^.) The process also obviates llio use of heat and possible 
loss of volatile constituents, Repercolation auJ tipresaion ia the J 
process generally followed ou thu lar^je scnlo iu Americn. 

Processes have been devised for the a»i<'^ of fluid extructa contain- 
iug powerful active principles. Standardised fluid extract of nui- 
vomica is official in the ITniud Stale* PAarnuieojiiria, ISSK), and among 
others Forwhich assay methods have been proposed are aconite root and 
belladonna leaves and root (based on alkaloidal yield); cannabis indica ' 
(10 per cent. reainouapriuoipleB, soluble in cliloroform); cinchona and , 
henbane (alkaloidal); jalap (12 per cent, of rosin); podophyllum (yield J 
of podophyllotoxin) ; atramonium leaves and seeds (total alkaloid 
reckoned as daturine). 

The following t^ible iudicates the menatruum auggesCed for the I 
preparatiou of fluid extracts of some Indian iudigenoua drugs, a 
includes tlioae at present official. 



* [Hoit is tliiiH npplicJ oaty to n 
of the Bnitbed produut.] 



umiill proportion rolntivoly, oboiit 1-lOtb port 



dta 



APPENDIX. 



345 



FLUID EXTRACTS 

Arranged in classes, according to the alcoholic strength of their 

menstrua. 

The articles printed in heavier- faced type are official in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia^ where full working formulas are given. 



ALCOHOL.* 



Calamus 
Cannabis Indioa 
Capsicum 
Cimicifuga. 
Cubeb. 
Ginger. 
Kala-dana. 

Indian Jalap (root- 
bark). 
Sandal- wood. 



ALCOHOL 
WATER 



4 
1 



Babchi. 

Belladonna (root). 

Chamomile. 

Ooatus. 

Podophyllum, 

Rhubarb. 

Ptychotis. 



ALCOHOL ... 3 
WATER ... 1 



Calumba. 
Indian Valerian. 
Ipeoaouanha. 

Jatamonsi. 
Naregamia. 



Aoonite (root). 
Antamul (root-bark). 



ALCOHOL 
WATER 



Betel (leaves). 
Bitter-orange peel. 
Castor (leaves). 
Chirata. 
Colehioum (Hermo- 

dactjl). 
Hyoseyamus. 
Phyllanthm ?!irnri. 



DILUTED ALCO- 
HOLt 



Acalypha indica 

(leaves). 
Coca. 
Dulcamara. 

Dita (bark). 
Indian Gentian. 
Picrorhiza Knrooa, 

Senna. 
Taraxacum. 



WATER 
ALCOHOL 



2 
1 



Ahruma av gust a {root' 
bark). 

Adhatoda Vasica, 

Ailanthus excelsa 
(bark). 

Asok (bark). 

Bael (fresh unripe 
fruit). 

China root. 

Euphorbia pilulifera, 

Hemidesmus. 

Bydrocotyle asiatica, 

Jambul. 

Jute (leaves). 

Kreat. 

Kurcbi. 

Lodh (bark). 

Mangosteen (rind). 

Picrasma quansioides. 

Pomegranate (rind). 

Samadera (wood). 

Sarsaparilla. 



* Consisting of about 91 per cent, by weight, of Etbyl alcohol, and 
about 9 per cent., by weight, of water. 

t Dilated alcohol, U. S. P., corresponding to Proof Spirit B.P. : 600 o. o. 
alcohol mixed with 600 c. c. distilled water, at 16-6® C. (60<> F.) measure 
when oooled to the same temperature, about 971 o. o. 



846 



APPENDIX. 



ALCOHOL ... 3 
AM MONI A 

WATER ... 0-6 
WATER ...6 5 



Liquorice. 

Abrim prrcatnriuH 
(leaves or root). 



ALCOHOL ... 3 
WATER ... 1 
ACETIC ACID 0-5 



Nux-vomica.* 



ALCOHOL ... 4 

GLYCERINE 1 

Snbseqaently, 
ALCOHOL ... 4 
WATER ... 1 



Cinchona. 



GLYCERINE 3 
WATER ... 6 
ALCOHOL ... 2 



Cotton-root bark. 
Gokhru (chhota). 
(bara). 



Gnlancha (herb). 
Indian Barberry. 
Misbmi Teeta. 
Nim (bark). 
Pericampjlns (root).t 
Pomegranate (freah 

root- bark). 
Siegetbeckia orientalii, 

GLYCERINE 1 
ALCOHOL ... 9 



}> 



Nut-galls. 
Myrobalans. 
Pistachio uut. 



POSOLOOY. 

General iidult <lose of the above preparations: — 5 to 30 niininis ; 
with the following exceptions : — 

Aconite. 
Dellndonna. 
Cautmbis Indica. 
Cimicifiiga. 
Colchicum. 
I/i/drocofyle a sialic a. 
Nux-vomica. 
Rtrainoninm. 



' 1 to 5 miDimp. 



Pomegranate (root-bark). 
Gokhru. 



I ^ to 1 fluid ounce. 



Wliile the above safe limit of dosage has been indicated, and the 
themj)eutic8 of all important indigenous drugs given in the text, 
no attempt has been made to attach arbitrary statements of doses 
of individual medicines as suited to particular requirements. This is 
best learned from actual practice and trial with small quantities, 
judiciously increased where desirable. 



* Standardised to 1*5 per cent, of total alkaloids, 
t For Hypodermic Injection : $ee page 282. 



APPENDIX. 347 

IV. 

FOODS OP INDIA. 

The foUoniog table, prepared by the author from an oiteiisive 
aeries of experimente conducted by him Bome jefira ago, gives the 
ftverage percentage compoaition and comparative value of the most 
imporUnt dietetic articlea used in India, some of which have been 

cidentally referred to in tlie preceding pages : — 





R>pular and Venu- 
eulBr Xttino». 


ftsicutiac Kan«». 


^ 


gBperronliwe. 


A-t,c.«™Food. 


s 


-■ 




1 

1 








1 


1 












E 


A- 


" 


g 


Ri<» 


CAfl( 


Orj-iaBAUva 


i 


78 


1 


14 


Anow-coot ... 


Ara,-«t 


Marantft ^TruiidinacBa 


) 








Sago 


S^j«. 


Sn(rusl«»i^ 


r 


fis 


1 


13 


Water-Caltrop... 


/•««i.M«( 


TnLpabi.i,in™a5 ... 


) 








PotDto 


Aln 




- 


23 


* 


^* 




Sacchahink. 








Sugar 


C/iini 


Saoeli»rumofficinnn..u 





lOO 







Ol.EAGIS-OL-9. 








Butler 


Okte 


ButyruQ. 





100 















Wheat 


0«m 


Tritiium Tulgnre 


IS 


n 


2 3 


Hako 


J.mar 


Zca mays 


a 


l^ 


2 i 


Great Millet ... 


Ja»:an 


Sorghiim vulgaro 
Pemcillaria Bpimla ... 


9 
10 


1 


\ I 


Spiked Millet ... 
Utile UillBt ... 


Bajra 
KLmi 


73 




12 


70 


J 7 


Data 


J«i 


AveuQsntiTU 


11 


«U 


3 7 


Barley 


Jab 


Hurdoum hoiastichum 


11 


72 


? 6 


Fish 


Mach 


Pisois 


14 




1 S 


Heat 


Ca 


Oirais 


.. 


n 


1 63 


Gram 


Chiothr Dal ... 


CCcorariotinum 


11) 


G2 


3 16 


Pigeon Pea ... 


AnthirDal 


Cojnnus indicus 


'20 


5a 


3 16 


Common Pea ... 


Malar Pal 




25 


Lantjla 


Jf«.H.' l)at 




24 


6U 


2 16 


Vetch 


Khaai-il>al 


Lnthyriis mtiviii 


liS 


iid 


3 IS 


ChouH 


Darb-liDal ... 




'2-i 


69 


3 14 


Green Oram ... 


aixg Dal 




■2i 


l>0 


3 1» 


Pbaaeol 


HaA K..la;/a Dal 


PboeeeluB radiatui ... 


is 


62 


3 13 


Green Pen ... 


KaritSaH 


Piiura sativum 




3tt 


2 6S 


Milk 


Dwtt 


Lactia 


6 


8 


1 86 



* 1 1 diM next paffe. 



348 APPENDIX. 



* Flesh-formers are nHrogenout matters which supply nutriment and 
form the tissues of the body. The nutritive or flesh-forming parts of a 
food are called Jibrin, albumen and casein : they contain the four ele- 
ments, — carbon, hydrogen^ nitrogen^ and owygen^ — in exactly the same 
proportions, and are found both in vegetable and animal food. Fibrin 
may be got either by stirring fresh-drawn blood, or from the juice of a 
cauliflower ; albumen, or white of eg^, from eggs, from cabbage juice, 
or from flour : casein or cheese exists more abundantly in peas and beans, 
than it doeR in milk itself. Both the animal and vegetable casein puts a 
great strain on the digestive functions to convert it into fibrin and al- 
bumen. Vegetables are the true makers of flesh. 

t Heat-givers, or carbonaceous food, consist of starchy, saccharine, 
and oleaginous matters, which supply fat and heat to the animal system. 

X Mineral matters supply the various salts which enter into the com- 
position of the blood and tissues. These salts are iron, phosphate of lime 
and potash, carbonate of lime, fluoride of calcium, phosphate of magne- 
sium, chloride of sodium and potassium, sulphates, silica, and manganese. 



BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION 

IN 

NATURAL ORDERS 

OF 

PLANTS ENUMERATED IN THIS WORK. 



After the ^^ Flora of British India" 



I. — Ranunculace-«. 

Thalictrum foliolosum, DC. 

CoptiaTeeta, WalL 

Delphinium denudatum, Wall. 

Aconitum ferox, Wall, 

„ heterophyllum, WalL 
„ Napellu8, Linn, 

Actaea spicata, Linn. 

Pieonia emodi, WalL 

II . — DlLLENIACB^. 

Dillenia indica, Linn. 

III. — MAGNOLIACEiE. 

Michelia Champaca, Linn. 

IV. — Anonacbjs. 

Cananga odorata, Hooh, Jil. 
Anona squamosa, Linn. 

v.— MbNISPERM ACE^. 

Tinospora cordi folia, Miers. 
Anamirta Oocculus, W, S A. 
Coscinium fenestratum. Cole' 

brooke. 
Cocculus villosus, DC. 
Pericampylus incanus, Miers. 
Cissampelos Pareira, Linn. 



VI. — Berberide^. 

Berberis ariatata, DC. 

„ Lycium, Rayle. 

„ asiatica, Itoxh. 
Podophyllum emodi, Wall. 

VII — Nymph.eace^. 

Nyraphica Lotus, Linn. 
Euryale fcrox, Sdlish. 
Nelumbiuni speciosum, Willd. 

VIII.— Papaverace^. 

Papaver Rhojas, Lijin. 

„ somniferum, Linn. 
Argemoue mexicana, Linn. 

IX. — FuMARIACEiE. 

Hypecouiii procumbens, Linn. 
Corydalis Govaniana, WalL 
Fumaria officinalis (parviflora) 
Lamk. 

X.—Cruciferje. 

Brassica nigra. Koch. 

„ campestrfs, Linn. 

„ juncea, Hook. Jil. 
Capsella Bursa-pastoris, McencK 
Lepidium sativum, Linn. 
Baphanus sativus, Zinn. 



350 



BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION. 



XI — Capparidrj:. 

Cleome viscosa. Linn. 
Gjrnauclro|:<dis pentaphylla, DC. 
Mterua arenaria, II. F <t T. 
Cratteva religiosa, Forst. 
Capparis spinosa, Linn. 
„ ai.hylla, /loth 

XII I.— Violacej:. 

Viola odorata. Linn. 
loniduui buffruticosum, Ginfj. 

XIV.— Bixisej:. 

Bixa Orellau:i, Linn. 
Gjrnoc irdia odorata, It. Br. 

XX. — Tamariscisejs 
Tamarix g.illica, Lin7i. 

XXIII. — GUTTIFKR-E. 

Garcinia Mangostaua, Linn. 

„ indicii, Chois. 

„ Morella, Desrouss 
Mesua ferrea, Linn. 



XXIV. — Ternstr(emiace^. 
Camellia theifera, Griff, 

XXV. — DiPTKROCARPE-i:. 

DipterocarpuB turbinatus, Gcerin. 
Shorea robusta, Gcertn. 
Hopea odorata, lioxh, 
Valeria iudica, Linn. 

XXVI. — Malvaceae. 

Althfica officinalis, Linn, 
Malva sylvestris, Linn. 
Sida cordifolia, Linn. 
Pavouia odorata, Willd. 
Hibiscus Sabdariffa, Linn. 

„ Abelnioschus, Linn. 

,, esculentus, Linn. 

„ Bosa-sinensis, Linn. 
Gossypiura herbaceum, Linn. 
Adansonia did lata, Linn. 
Bombax malabaricum, DC. 

XXVII. — Stbrouliaceje. 
Helicteres Isora, Linn. 
Abroma augusta, Linn. 
Cola acuminata, R. Br. 



XXVIII.— TlUACBA 

Grewia asiatica, Linn. 
Corchorus capsolaris, Linn. 
„ olitorioB, Linn, 
XX IX. — Li2r&£. 

Linum usitatisaimum, Linn. 
Erythroxylon Coca, Lam. 
Erythroxylon monogynam, Roxh. 

XXXI. — Ztoophtlule. 
Tribulus terrestris, Linn. 
XXXII. — Geraniace^. 

Geranium Kobertianum, Linn. 
Oxalis corniculata, Linn. 
Impatieus sulcata. Wall. 

XXXIII. — RUTACB^. 

Buta graveolens, Linn. 
Peganum Harmala, Linn, 
Toddalia aculeate Per$. 
Citrus medicu, Linn. 

„ Aurautium, Linn. 
Ferouia elephantum, Correa, 
-£gle Marmelos, Correa. 

XXXIV. — SlMARUBB^. 

Ailauthus excelsa, Roxb. 
Samadera indica, Gaertn, 
Picrasma quassioides, Benn. 

XXXVI — BuRSERACKfi. 

Boswellia serrata, Roxh. 
Garuga pinnata, Roxb. 
Balsamodendron Mukul, Hook. 
„ Myrrha, Nee9, 

Canarium commune, Linn. 

XXXVI I . — Meli ACRfi. 
Naregamia alata, W. dt A. 
Melia Azadirachta, Linn. 

„ Azedarach, Linn. 
Amoora Rohituka, W. <& A. 
Carapa moluccensis, Lam. 
Soymida febrifuga, Adr. Ju39. 

XLI.— Cblastrineje. 
Celastrus paniculata, Willd. 

XLII . — Bh AMNR.£ . 

Zizyphus Jujuba, Lamk. 

XLIII. — AMPELIDB& 

Vitis vinifera, Linn. 



BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION. 



3ul 






)} 



XLIV.— SAPINDACEiE. 

Cardiospernmm Halicacabum, 

Linn, 
Schleiobera trijuga, }Yilld, 
Sapiudaa trifoliatus, Linn. 

XLVI.— ANACARDlACEiE. 

Pistacia integerrima, Stewart. 

leutiscus, Linn. 

Terebinthus, Linii. 

vera, Li7i7i. 
Mangifera indica, Linii. 
Anacardium occidentale, Linn. 
Melanorrhcea usitata, Wall. 
Semecarpuu Anacardium, Li^m. 
Holigariia loiigifolia, Roxb. 

X LVII I. — MORIN G KJE. 

Moringa pterygosperma, Ocerin. 

L. — LEGUMlNOSJi. 

Trigonella Fcenum-gruccum, Liim. 
Melilotus officinalis, Willd. 
Indigofera tiuctoria, Linn. 
Psoralea coryiifolia, Li7in. 
Sesbania »egyptiaca, Fers. 

,, grandlflora, Pers. 
Astralagus verus (bicu8pi8.,/*i«cA). 
Alhagi maurorum, Besr. 
.^Eschynomeno aspera, Linn. 
Desmodium gangeticum, DC. 
Abrud precatorius, Linn. 
Lens esculeuta, Li7in. 
Lathyrus sativus, Znzn. 
Mucnna pruriens, DC. 
Erythrina indica, Linn. 
Butea frondosa, Hoxb. 
Clitoria ternatea, Linn 
Dolichos biBorus, Linn. 
PterocarpusMarsupium, lio.vh. 
„ santalinus. Linn, 

Pongamia glabra, Ve7ii. 
Oesalpinia Bonducella, Fleming. 

„ Sappan, Linn. 

Cassia Fistula, Linn, 

occideu talis, Linn. 

sophera, Zinn. 

Tora, Lin7i. 

obovata, Collad, 

alata, Linn, 

angusti folia, Vahl. 
Hardwickia pinmita, Roxb, 



» 

» 



)> 



Saraca indica, Li7i7\. 
Tamarindus indica, Li7in, 
Bauliinia variegata, Linn. 
Entada scan dens, Be7ith, 
Mimosa pudica, Linn, 
Adenanthera pavouina, Linn. 
Acacia Farnesiana, Willd. 

,, tirabica, Willd. 

„ Catechu, Willd, 
Glycyrrhiza glabra, Boiss. 

LI. — ROSACE-E. 

Prunus Amygdalus, Linn. 

„ communis, lluus. 
Agrimonia Eupatorium, Liii7i. 
Kosa damascena, Mill. 

„ centifolia, Livn. 
Cydonia vulgaris, Vera. 

LIII. — CRASSULACEJi. 

Bryophyllum cal vein urn, Salisb. 
Kalanchce laciniata, DC. 

LIV. — Droserace-e. 

Drosera Burmauni, Vahl. 
„ peltata, Sm. 

LV. — HAMAMELlDE-t. 

Liquidambar orien talis. Miller. 
Altingia excelsa, yoronha. 

LVIII — CoMBRETACE-E. 

I 

Terminulia Cata})pa, Lin7i. 
belerica, Roxb. 
Chebula, Retz. 
Arjuna, Bedd. 



»> 
J) 



LIX. — Myrtack-k. 

Melaleuca Leucadeudron, Linn. 
Psidium Guyava, Linn. 
Eugenia Jambolana, Lain, 
Barringtonia acutangula, Oaertn. 
Carey a arbor ea, Roxb. 
Caryopliyllus aroma ticus, Li7i7i, 
Eucalyptus globulus, Labill. 
Myrtus communis, Li7in, 

LXI.— Lythrace^ 

Ammania baccifcra, Li7m, 
Woodfordia iloribunda, Salitb, 
Lawsonia alba, Lamk. 
Punica Granatum, Linn, 



352 



B0TA3ICAL CLASBIFICATIOS. 



LXIL — Oy A<HLkCHJL 
Trapa biapinQsii^ Roxb. 

Gkrica Papajx, Zi .i«. 

LXT. — CrCTTElBrTACK-E. 

Trichoaanthes dioica. /lox^. 
Ijigenaria Tnlgaria, S**rimi«. 
LoSk acutangnla. ^oj:5. 
Banincaaa ceri ferx 5- r V. 
Momordioii Charantia, Zi ™». 
Cncamia 31elo. Linn, 

„ aacivna, Lin-n. 
Citrallua Colcvnthia, S'^kr^'L 

„ vulgaria, 5:Aro'/. 
Cephalandra indica, 3*i»''. 
Cucurbit A Pepo, DC. 
Brvonla Ucinioaa, Linn.. 
Corallccarpua epig ea, ffocL jiL 

LXVni— Cactkje. 

OpT3ntia Dillenii. Hfv:. 

LXX- — Uhbellifer-e. 

Hydrocotjle Asiatica, Lir-in. 
Apiam praveolena, Linn. 
Camm Cdrni, Lipn. 

^ copticnm. Denth. 
Pimpinella Anisam. Boiu. 
F<eniculum vulgare. G.tertn, 
Femla Xarthex, Boiss. 
alliacea, Bo its. 
fretida. J!ahL 

„ galbaniflua, Boits. 
Peucedanuni graveolens, Benth. 
Coriandrum sativum, Zuiw. 
Cumiriuiu Cyminuni, Linn. 
DaucuA (.'arota, TAnn. 
Ligusticuni, Hp. 
Petro»elinuin sativum, HojB^. 

LXXI I. — CoRNACEiE. 

Alangium Laraarckii, Thwaites. 

LXXV. — RuBIACRfi. 

Anthoceplmlus Cadamba, Miq, 
Uncaria Gambier, Roxh. 
Cinchona Calisaya, WeddelL 
„ officinalis, Hook, 
,, fiuccirubra, Pavon. 
ITynionodictyon excelsura, WalU 
Oldonlandia cor)rmbo8a, Linn, 



»i 



>» 



<7phirirr!iiz& ICimgOBt Linn^ 
Baniiia dainttUiruiiL, LamJt 
Gordeiiia laeida^ &oxb. 

^ gujmnif tfa, Zi Affi. 
CaDthixxm parridoram, Lamk. 
Pavctta imiica, Linn. 
Coi&a arabica^ Zj aa. 
I IConzidacicrifoIia, Linn, 
P-ederia t£tida^ Zi«a. 
Babia coniifolia. Linn, 
C<iphaclia Ipecacuanha, Rick, 

V»I-«rian.i WdliichiL DC. 
yanic-ata.:l'v^ Jatamanai, DC. 

LXXVI EI— Coafposrr^ 



Eapacoriam Ajapana, Vent. 

Bluniea laeera, DC. 

Helianchaa azinuas» Linn, 
., caberoaus, Linn. 

Sieseab«ckia orientaiia, Linn. 

Eohvdra dactuana, Lonr. 

Eclipta alba, Hastk. 

GaizoCia abvssinica, Cau. 

Achillea millefolium, Linn. 

Ant hernia nobilia, Linn. 

Anacvclus Pvrethruic, DC. 

Matricaria Chamomila, Linn. 
I Artemisia maritima, Zi*n9i. 
I „ Tulgaria, Linn. 

; Calendula officinalia, Linn. 

Saussurea Lappa, Clarke. 

Carthamus tiuctorina, Linn. 
j Cichorium Intvbua, Linn. 

Taraxacum officinale, Wigg. 

Lactuca scariola, Linn. 

Tagetes erecta, Linn, 



LXXXIL — Ericace^. 
Gaultheria fragrautissima, Wall. 

LXXXVI. — PLUMBAOINBiB. 

Plumbago zeylanica, Linn 
„ rosea, Linn. 

LXXXVIIL — Mtrsin&s. 

Emboli a Bibes, Burm. 
„ robusta, Roxh, 



^^H BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION. 353 ^| 


LXXXIX— Sapioaob^. 


C— BoRAOiifKa:, ^M 


Basita latitolia, Roxb. 


Cordia Myia, Linn. ^M 


„ butyracoa, Roxb. 


Heliotropium indicum, Linn. ^M 




Onosiaa ocbioides, Linn. V 


^H^ XC— Ebsnaoe£. 


„ bracteatum, Wall. V 


^^KDioaprjrros Embryopteria, Pore. 


CI.— CoNVfjLVOLAcBi;. B 


^r XCL— STYRAcafi. 


Argyreia speciosa, Sioiet. ^^^^^| 


Symplocos racemosa, Roxl. 


Ipooiiea Itederacea, Jaeq. ^^^^^H 


Styrfti BanMin, Dri/and. 


dtgitatn, Linn. ^^^^H 


scrt-OLBACEA 


Taqiethuni, Br. ^^^^H 
Caacuta reflexn, Roxb. 


Jaamiouni Sambac, Jij. 


„ grand ifloruo), Linn. 
Nyctantlies Arbor- triatis, Linn. 


Convolvulas Scamiaonia, Linn. 


PrnxiHUB floribundft. Walt. 


CII — Solasacej:. 


^^H BiceUicir, Linn. 


Solanum nigrum, Linn, 


^^^h XCItl. SALV^iDOBACE.E. 


„ Dulcamara, Linn. 


^^^HlTadora peratca, Linn 


„ indicum, Linn. 


^HF XCIV.— Afoctnacb^. 


„ Melongena, Linn. 
CapHicnra fruteaoaua, Ltnn. 


^^EftfttiwolGt serpentina, Benth. 


Wilhaoia BOiuniferB, Danal. 


^B^touia scholaris, Brovia. 


„ coagutaus, Dnnal. 


^HP^oUrrhena autidyaenterica, 


Atropa Belladonna, Linn. 


^" TToi;. 


DiluraStramouiuni. Linn. 


Wrightia zeylaiiica, Br. 


„ faatiiOHa, Linn. 


Neriuni odorum, Soland. 


Hyoacyaniua niger, Linn. 


Tlievetin neriifdia, Jui». 


Nicotian,! Tftbaeitm, Linn. 


Strophantlius, ap, 




lolinooarpUH fruteacenB, Br. 


cm. —a CBorpuLARiNBA:. 


XCV— ABCLKPlADRiE. 


Herpeatia Moiiniera, B. B. d K. 


Hamidesmiis indicus, Br. 


Picrorliiza Kurrooa, EentL 


OiyaWiiua eacu leu turn, Br. 


evil — Bio SON I ACE j:. 


Calotropisgigantea, Br. 




Demin enlensa, Br. 


Oroiylnm indicum. Vent- 


Qjmneiua sylveetre, Br. 




Tvlonliora aslbmatica, Wight 06 


CVIII,-Pedaunb«. 


Am. 


Fadalium murex, Linn. 


XCVI.— LooASi AC tfi. 


Seeamum indicum, i)C 


Strychnoi Ipatfi, Linn 
^m^ „ Nui-vomica, Linn. 
^^m potatorum. Linn. 
^^B Tngrfen fragraua, lloxh. 


CIX.— ACASTHA CBLK. 


Hygrophilaspinostt, y. Andart, 
Adhatoda Vasica. AW. 


F XOVir.-aRNTTANACE.E. 


Bliinacantliua conirouniu, Neu. 


Exacuin bicolor, Roxh. 
EnicoBtema littorale, Blitme. 


CXI.— Vbrbknaokjs. 




Qmelioa arboroa, Linn. 


QflntiaOA Kurroo, Roi/U. 


Clorodendroii infortuBntom, 


^H Swertia Chirata, /Turn. 


Oenrfn. 


^H ID 


23 



354 



BOTASICAL CLASSmCATIOH. 



CXII.— Labiate 
Ocimam Baiilican, Linn. 

„ •anctnm, Xi'nn- 
Mentha arrensi*, Xinti. 
Origanntn vnlgare, l/tnn 
H^raopoB offieinalu, Linn. 
Lallemantia Ro;leaiia, Bettth- 
Harrubinm vnlgare, Linn. 

CXIII — pLATtaoaaj. 
PlanUgo ovata, Fortk. 

CXI v.— NrcTiciSRi. 



CX7I.— Akarastackji. 



CX VI I . — Ckbso roei At b-e. 
Cbenopodiau Botrya, Linn. 

„ anibrosioidee, Zi'ni 

CXIX— P-JLTOONACB^. 

BlieoDi emodi, IFaU. 

CXXI II— AmsToLocHiAc Ks. 
AriaUilocbia indica, Linn. 

CXXI V. — PlPBRACB*. 
Piper Cubeba, Linn. 



„ nigrum, Linn. 

CXX V t.— MrBLsTittK. 
MjTistica Iragrans, Hovit. 
„ lUftlabarica, L^tmk. 
CXXVIII— Lacbisr^. 
CJDnaiuomaiu Taiuala, Nee*. 

„ zeylanicuui, Ztr^ni 

„ glaDdulifcrani, 

ifeiiin. 
Litsraa aobifera, Pert. 

CXXX.— TuriiBLSACE^. 
Aqaiiaria Agallocha, Jioxb. 

CXXXUI.-SAMTAiaCBUB. 

Santalum albaiu, limi. 



CXXXV.— EorBOHBUO&K. 
EapborbU; pilnlifara, Linm. 

„ Deriifolia, Linn. 

„ BDtiquomm, Linn. 

Pbyllanthns emblica, Linn, 

„ Drinaria, Linn. 

„ Nirori, Linn. 

Jatropha Cnrcu, Zinn. 
AleuritsamclQCCaDa, Wtlld. 
CrotOD Tiglium, Linn. 
Acalypha indica, Linn. 
ftfallotos plullJptnenaia, MucU. 
Ricinus communis, Liun. 
Baliospsrmiini montanom [luit- 

liare, Blwtu). 
Manihot ntiliMima, Pyt. 

CXXXVI.— Urtiuacr* 
CAnnabiB eativa, Linn. 
Morua indies. Linn. 
FicDB beiigalenaie, Linn. 

„ elaatica, Boxb. 

,, religioas, Linn. 

„ hispida, Linn. 

„ Cania, Linn. 

„ Riomerata, ito*b. 

„ Ciirica, Lam. 
Antiaris toxicaria, Leichsn, 
ArtocarpUB integrifolia, Linn. 

CSXJ^VI I.— JtroLASOMt. 
Jnglans regia, Linn. 

CXXXVIIL-MTRioAQiy 
Myrica Nagi, Tknnb. 

CXL— CUPDLITI 

QaarcuB infectoria, 

iCX LI . — S ALICIMKO, ■ 

Salii Caprea, Lin 

CXLVII.— CoHii-M 
Ju nip em a communiB, Linn. 
Pinua longifolia, Boxb. 
CedruB Deodara, Loud. 
Abies Webbiana, Lindlty. 

CXLTIII.— OacHiDK*. 
Acampo papilloaa, Lindl. 
Enlophia caiopeatria, LinA 
OrcbiB mascuta, Linn. 



■^A^aate^tai^ 



BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION. 



355 



CXLIX. — SCITAMINEJE. 

Oarcaraa angnstifolia, Roxh. 
„ aromatica, Salisb, 
„ Zedoaria, Roxb, 
„ Amada, Roxb. 
„ longa, Linn. 

MaraDta arundiuacea, Linn. 

Kfompferia rotuuda, Linn. 

Hedychium apicatum, Hamilt. 

Amomum subnlatum, Roxb. 

Zingiber officinale, Ro.vb. 

Costas specioflUB, Linn. 

Elettaria Gardamomum, Maton. 

Alpinia Qalanga, Willd. 

Musa sapientum, Linn. 

CLL — iRIDE-fi. 

Iris ilorentina, Linn. 
-Crocus sativus, Linn. 

CLII. — AMARTLLIDEiE. 

Curculigo orchioides, Gcsrtn. 
Orinuiu asiaticum, Linn. 
Agave americana, Linn. 

CLVII — LlLIACB-£. 

Smilax ferox, Wall. 
Asparagus adscendens, Roxb. 
„ sarmentoBus, Linn. 

Allium cepa, Linn. 

„ satiTum, Linn. 
Urginea indica, Kunth. 
Scilla indica, Baker. 
Colchicum luteum, Baker. 
Gloriosa superba, Linn. 

CLXIII.— Palmes 

Areca Catechu, Linn. 
Phoenix s^lvestris, Roxb. 
Phoenix dactlylif era, Linn. 



I Calamus Draco, }Villd. 
Borassus flabelliformis, Linn. 
Cocoa nucifera, Linn. 
Lodoicea sechellarum, Labill, 

CLXIV. — Pandane^. 

Pandanus fascicularis, Latn. (odo- 
ratissimus, Roxb.) 

CLXVI.— Aroide^. 

Pistia Stratiotes, Linn. 
Colocasia autiquorum, Schott. 
Alocasia indica, Schott. 
Scindapsus officinalis, Schott. 
Acorus Calamus, Linn. 

CLXXII. — CTrERACE.£. 

Cyperus scariosus, Br. 
„ rotundus, Linn. 

CLXXIIL — Qramineje. 

Andropogon citratus, DC. 

muricatus, Retz. 

Nardus, Linn. 
„ Schoenanthus, Linn* 

Bambusa arundiuacea, Retz. 
Cynodon Dactylon, Pers. 
Hordeum vulgare, Linn. 
Oryza sativa, Linn. 
Triticum sativum, Lindl. 
Saccharum Officinarum, Linn. 

Bromeliace^. 
Ananas sativa, Linn. 
Pteride^ 
AdiantumCapillus-Veneris, Linn, 

Gelidium corueum, Lam. 






INDEX. 

Heads of Articles are Printed in Small Capitals, 



Aainunn^, 27. 
Aal, 192. 
Aarar, 170. 
Aasl, 183. 

Abelmoschus esculentus, 152. 
,, moschatus, 151. 

Abhaya, 315. 
Abies Webbiana, 1, 
Abini, 217. 
Abir, 109, 148. 
Abnuse-pindi, 115. 
Abrin, 2. 

Abkoma auoubta, 1. 
Abbus pbecatobius, 2. 
Acacia ababica, 3. 

„ Catechu, 3. 

„ Fabnesiana, 4. 
aoaltpha indica, 5. 

AOAMPE PAFILLOaA, 5. 

Aoetam, 5. 

Ach, 192. 

Achillea millefolium, 6. 

achybanthes a8peba, 6. 

Aconite, 8, 337. 

AconiUne, 7, 8, 335. 

ACONITUM FEBOX, 7. 

„ HETEBOPHYLLUM, 7. 

,, Napellus, 8. 
Acorin, 9. 

AooBUS Calamus, 9. 
Acteea racemosa, 9. 

ACT.£A SPICATA, 9. 

Ada, 332. 

ADAKSONIA digit ATA, 10. 

Adansonin, 10. 
Adas, 174. 
Adatodai, 10. 
Addaaaram, 10. 
Adenantheba payonika, 11. 
Adha-birni, 151. 
Adhatoda Vasica, 10. 



ADiAiniuM Capillus-Venebm, 11. 
Adityalu, 175. 
Adrakh, adrokh, 332. 
^ole mabmelos, 12. 

^SCHYNOMENE ASPEBA, 13. 
„ SESBAN, 14. 

Afim, afiiin, afiyiin, 217. 
Aftlmiin, 109. 
Agar, 33. 
Agar-agar, 139. 

AOABICUS CAMPESTBIS, 14. 

Agar-ka-atar, 33* 
Agar resin, 33. 
Agaru, 33. 
Agasta, agasti, 293. 

AOAVE AMEBICANA, 14. 

Aggalichandana, 33. 
Agniven-dra-paku, 23. 

AOBIMONIA EUPATOBIUM, 15. 

Agrimony, 15. 
Agri-turki, 9» 
Agru,33. 
Aguru, 33. 
Aiyd-^h&s. 30. 
Aimntic acid, 15, 340. 

AlLANTHUS EXCELSA, 15, 340. 

Air-plant, 53. 
A^modh, 33. 
A^owan, 09. 

A^owan (khorasani), 160. 
Aiwain-ka-arrack, vQ. 
A]wain-ke-phul, 09. 
A; wan, aiwain, 09. 
Aiwan (cnuri), 89. 
Ak, 278. 
AkanAdi, 84. 
Akanda, 56* 
Akarkara, 26. 
Akarkarava, 26. 
Akas-bel, 109. 
Akhr6t.i6, 160. 
AkkaraJcaram, 26. 



358 



INDEX. 



Akola. 15. 

Akn, 329. 

Aku-jemudu, 124. 

Al, m. 

Ala, 129. 

AlAbu. 172. 

Alangium decapetalum, 15. 

Alanoium Lamabckii, 15. 

Alan, 203. 

Alarka, 56. 

Alashi-virai, 176. 

AUsi, 176. 

Alcohol, 16. 

Alcm, 332. 

Aleurites moluccana, 16. 

Aleurites trilol.a, 16. 

Algoch-latA, 109. 

Algusi, 109. 

Alhaoi maurorum, 16, 133. 

Alishi-virai, 175. 

Ali-virai, 175. 

Alkushi, 195. 

Allium cepa, 17. 

Allium Maclcani, 212. 

Allium sativum, 17. 

AUyl sulphide, 17. 

Almond, 25, 256. 

,, (Indian), 314. 

„ (Java), 58. 
Alocasia in Die a, 18. 
Aloe (American), 14. 
Aloe indica, 19. 
Aloe vera, 18. 

„ ,, var. officinalis, 19. 
Aloes, Barbadoes, 18. 
Aloin, 19. 

Alpinia Galanoa, 20. 
Alpinia oilicinarum, 20. 
Alsi, 176. 
Alstonia bark, 20. 
Alstonia hcholaris, 20. 
axthiea offioinalls, 21. 
Altinoia excelsa, 21. 
Alu, alucha, 257, 347. 
Ah\-bokhdra, 257. 
Alui, 27. 
Alum, 21. 
Alum EN, 21. 
Am, 181, 258. 
Am^d, 106. 
Ama-haldi, 106. 
Amalaki, 234. 
Aman, 213. 
Amanakkam, 270. 
Amaranth, Prickly, 22. 
AMARANTUS 8PIN08US, 22. 

Amaravola, 109. 
Amar kusi, 182. 
Amb, amba, ambo, 181, 
Amba-hindi, 66. 
Ambal. 202. 
Amboshthdi, 84. 



Ambli, 309. 

Ambi*ette; Grains, d', 152. 

Ambu-prasida, 905. 

Amid, 234. 

Amlaki, 234. 

Amlalonikd, 214. 

Amiasagundhak, 306. 

Amli, 309. 

Amlicd, 309. 

Ammannia baccifeba, 23. 

Ammi copticum, 69. 

Ammonia, 23. 

AMMONIUM Chloridum, 23. 

AMOMUM 8UBULATUM, 24. 

Amoora Rohituka, 24. 
Amorphophalus campanulatus^ 

Amra, 181. 

Amrita, 318. 

Amrul, 214. 

Amriit, 258. 

Amukkura, 329. 

Araygdalin, 256. 

Amygdalus communis, 25, 256. 

Anab es-sdlab, 299. 

Anacardic Acid. 26, 155, 290. 

Anacardium oocidentale. 25,156. 

Anacyclus Pyrethrum, 26. 

Anai-gundumani, 11. 

AXAMIRTA COCCULUS, 26. 

Andnas, 27. 

Ananas sativa, 27. 

Andnash-pandu, 27. 

Anantd, 150. 

Allan tarn ul, 150. 

Anar, anara, 262. 

Anaras, 27. 

Anarcotine, 222, 225. 

Andshappahanc, 27. 

ANDROGRAPHIS PANIC'ULATA. 27 

308. •■ 

Andropooon citratus, 28. 
muricatu8, 28. 
Nardus, 29. 
., Sch<enanthu8, 30» 

Anethol, 237. 
Anethone, 233, 
Anethum Sowa, 233. 
Angabin, 183. 

Angdraka, angdraka taila, 92. 
Angostura (false), 304. 
Angur, 328. 
Angur-ka-sirka, 40. 

,, shcfa, 40. 
Anguza, 127. 
Anise, 237. 

Anise (camphor), 237. 
Anialikarilot, 190. 
Aniir. 129. 
Anjird. 39, 129. 
Anjir-dashte^ 131. 



»» 
»» 
It 



INDBX. 



869 



Annatto, 47. 

Anona squamoba, 90. 

Antamul, 323. 

Anthemis pyrethrum, 26, 31. 

Anthemis nobius, 31. 

Anthocbfualus Oadabcba, 31. 

Antiarin, 32. 

AimAKIB TOXICARIA, 32. 

Antimaduram, 141. 
Antimonium, 32. 
Antimony, 32. 
Antmora. 149. 
AonlA, 234. 
Apamiip^ 6. 
Aping, 6. 
Aparf jitA, 90. 
Aphim, 217. 
Apiol, 232. 

Apis mellifica, 76, 183. 
Apiu^ grayeolens, 33. 
„ i>etroselinum, 232. 
ApcNoodeine, 222. 
ApomorphinOj 222. 
Aplotaxis aunculata, 287. 

„ Lappa, 287. 
Appo. 217. 
Aprifita, 90. 
Aprang, 55. 

Aquilabia Aoallocua, 33. 
Arachic acid, 34. 
Araohis hypoosa, 33. 
Arachis oil, 34. 
Arakene, 240. 
Arand, 270. 
Ararat, 182. 
Areca Catechu, 34. 
Areca-nut, .34. 
Arecoline, 35. 
Aroemone mexicana, 35. 
Aroentum, 35. 

ARGYREIA SPECI08A, 36. 

Ariahi, 213. 

Arishta, 186. 

Aribtoloohia indica, 36. 

Aritha, 286. 

Arldn, arjuna, 313. 

Ariana-ssbdra, 313. 

Area, 56. 

Arkamuld, 36. 

Arkapashpika, 145. 

Arid. 212. 

Armina, 23. 

Arrowroot, East Indian, 107, 347. 

„ West Indian, 182. 
AiTOz. 213. 
Arsagnna, 25. 
Arsenic, 37. 
Arsenious acid, 37. 
Absenium, 37. 
Artemisia MARimiA, 37. 

„ YULOARIB, 37. 

Artichoke, 149. 



Artocarpus integrifolia, 38. 

Arum colocasia, 95. 

Arushi, 10. 

Arvada, 277. 

Asafoetida, 128. 

Asdliya, 175. 

Asarum, 326. 

Asclepias gigantea, 56. 

Asek, 286. 

Asgand, 165, 330. 

Ash, 133. 

Ashathwa, 132. 

Ashogara, 286. 

Ashoka, 286. 

Ashvaganda, 329. 

Askhota, 16. 

Asok, asoka, 286. 

Asparagcjs adscendenb, 38. 

„ SARBfENTOSUS, 8, 39 

Aspark, 188. 

Asteracantha longifolia, 159. 

Astragalus yebus, 39. 

Asvagandha, 330. 

Aswaththamu, 132. 

Ata,30. 

Ataicha, 7. 

Atasi, 176. 

Atees, 7. 

Atis. 7. 

Atisine, 8. 

Ati-vasu, 7. 

Ati-vuda^m, 7. 

Atropa Belladonna, 40. 

Atropine, 40, 113, 161. 

Attai, attalu, 153. 

Atti, 131. 

Atti-tippiU, 289. 

Auhergine, 300. 

Aucklandia Costus, 287. 

Aurantii Cortex, 86. 

„ Floris, Aqua, 86. 

„ Fructus, 86. 
Aurum, 40. 
Aus, 213. 

Aushbahe-hindi, 150. 
Avalkati, 234. 
Avesi, 2^. 
Awartani, 149. 
Ayalur-che, 33. 
Ayapan, ayapana, 124. 
Ayapanin, lz4. 
Azaairachta indica, 186. 



Babachi, babchi, 258. 
Babedkng, 120. 
BdblA,3. 
Babreng, 120. 
Babui-tulsi, 208. 
Babul, 3, 206. 



^M .IRDBX. ^^^1 


I 


^H BabOna, bdlmmLh. UbunaJ, 3L 


^?^ri^ 


^^H 






■ Bach. 9. 


., Deinba.87. 




^H BAdun. bulami. m. 


., rithfl,286. 




^H „ biUti, 256. 


Baiahml, 151. ■ 




^H „ (b«DeU). 314. 
^H „ (jangli). at, 314. 


BarAk-kaDta. 232. J 




Banunbhi, 131. ■ 




^B , r-Bo^ 2^7. 
^H vfttDlti, 330. 


Baran, 311. ■ 




Barberry, 46. ■ 






Bar«la, m. ■ 




^1 BA<Uri,3at 


BarhanU. 299. ■ 




^H Badhira, 142. 


Bariara, m. ■ 




■ liSMS«.=='- 


Banjsjno, 131. ■ 




bakilla. 4S. n 




^H Bag-berenda. 18B. 


Baria, 313. ■ 






Barlej, la6. 




^H Bteh-AncbrA. 15. 


Barlhi ariai, 158. 




I ^^ 


Barola. 155. 




Barrinqtonia ACTTASon.* 


43. ■ 


Birtak... 300. 




■ is^nr 


Banin, tul. 
Barad. 13S. 


1 


^H BalTb^SSS. 


Basfa.g. 




^H Ba&nTH^ 


Basil, 208. 




^H Bakaa.Wkufa.lD. 


.. Hunpbor. 208. , 




^H BakajaD. 187. 


„ sacred. 209. 






Bahsu buttracea, 4*. 




^H B8Lkul.bakiila,igi. 
^H Bala, 329, 294. 


„ L*TIW>U*. (J, 44. 




BassobaGcm. 45, 




^M B^hha^.m 


Bathu-sas, 77. 




^H Bal-har, 315. 


Baciuhia varieoata, tS.. 




^H B41J0BPEBSCCM MONTiNTM. «. 


BAvanchi. 25?. 




^H Saa-nirab, IW. 


Bawacbi, -2S8. 




^H Bol-pbal. 99. 


Baighanj, 24S. 




^H Bal^o^endron Berryi. 41. 


Basnil. baimlbang, 160. 




Bur-ul-khaa, ITl. 




^H BalsA-Uodenuuo.n MrKUL, 11. 


BdelUum. 41. 




^1 MVBRUA. 42. 


Bebrang. 199. 




^H pubesoens. 41. 
^H Boiburglm,41. 


Bed-mushk, ^1. 




BMt.279. 




^H Baua, 151. 






^M Bamiiri, 131. 


Beg-i-banfia, 167 




^H Bamboo, 42. 


B^n. 300. 
Bebada, 313. 




^H Bambuba Aa0NDiKACB.E, 42, 




■ ^£&. 


Bil, 12. 




Bel-aiiti. 13. 




^H Banana. 196. 


Beleric myrobalan., 81 










^H Bandari, band'aru, ISO. 


Bon oil, 192. 






Bona. 28. 




^H BauGberry, 9. 
^H Bao-balud, lff7. 


Bend, 13. 




Bengal Kino, 53. 




^M Ban-piring. 188. 


„ QuinoB, 12. 




^M Ban«;«!. 


BEtflNCAHA CBBIrSRA, U, 




^m Ban>R,10. 


Benne oil, Z9I. 




^^B rochana, 43. 


Benioic acid, 306. 






Benzoin, 306. 




^H Banyan Tree. 3, 129. 


Ber.334. 






^M Bar, 129w 


BEBBEKia AKISTATA, 40. 


^ 


^H Bam-chireta. 125. 


Lyuium, 46. 


■ 


^H „ elacia, 24. 


Beta mariUma, 279. 

- ^ 


J 



INDEX. 



361 



tf 
»l 
If 



Betel leaf, 239. 

nut, 34, 230. 

-nut PtJm, 31. 

pepper, 2^. 
„ phenol, 2i0. 
Betola lenta, 139. 
Bhain, 217. 
BhaihL,313. 
Bhallitaki, 290. 
Bhi^da, 140. 
Bhi^dira, 89. 
BhiLnff, bhAnga, 59. 
Bhinl 89. 
BhantiUd, 299. 
Bh^r-jambol, 23. 
Bharanffi, 236. 
Bliit,m 
Bhaulan, 159. 
Bhavan-bakra, 251. 
Bhavanchi-vittolu, 258. 
Bb&TanJ. 258. 
Bh^Uk 290. 
Bhenda, bhendi, 152. 
Bherenda, 270. 

„ ban-, 169. 
BbilAwi,290. 
Bbindi, 152. 
Bhokara, 99. 
Bbui-dmk, 235. 

4vaU, 235. 

cbampa,-champaka, 170* 

chane, 33. 

kobala, 165. 

kumrd, 165. 

sarpati, 214. 

tulasi, 206. 
Bhiimy&malaki, 235. 
Bhustrina. 28. 
Bhiitkas, 100. 
Bibba, 290. 
Bibla, 260. 
Bibu, 155. 
Bicbtadkk, 36. 
Bidangubin, 281. 
Bidenguebinose, 281. 
Bignonia indica, 212. 
Bihi-d&na, 109. 
Biia. bigasdr, 260. 
BUai-khand, 165. 
BUe (purified), 126. 
Biliva-phal, 12. 
Bilva, 12. 
Bilvapandu, 12. 
Bimba, 76. 
Bind&l, 179. 
Biranga. 120. 
Biran], 213. 
Biroh, oil of, 139. 
Bireja, 129. 
Birin]-m6grd, 146. 
Blmi, 312. 
Blah, 7. 



•t 
»f 
tt 

»t 
ff 



tf 
»( 
ff 



Bishal&nguU, 141. 
Bishnag, 7. 
Bishop^ weed, 69. 
Bit-nun. 298. 
Bitter almonds, 256. 
„ apple, 85. 
„ sweet, 299. 
BiXA Orellana, 47. 
Biyyam, 213. 
Black cumin, 105. 

dammar, 59. 

Mustard, 52. 

Snake Root, 9. 
„ Varnish Tree, 155, 185. 
Bland, 13. 

Blistering Ammania, 23. 
Blue Gum Tree, 122. 
Bluestone, 105. 
Blumea dcnsiflora, 47. 
Blumea lacera, 47. 
Boddu malle, 168. 

B(ERHAAVIA DIFFUSA, 48. 

Bohora, 313. 
Bokhara plum, 257. 
B61. 42. 

Bomb AX malabaricum, 48. 
Bombay catechu, 35. 
„ mace, 199. 
Bomma jemudu, 124. 
Bonduc Seeds, 54. 
Bor, 130, 3^. 

BORASSUS FLABELLIFORMIS, 6, 49, 

279. 
Borax, 296. 

BOSWELLIA SERRATA, 50. 

Bottle Gourd, 172. 
Brahmamanduki, 158. 
Brahmi, 151. 
Brahmoka, 149. 
Bran, 323. 
Brasilin, 55. 
Brassica alba, 51. 

camfestris, 51. 

dichotoma, 51. 

glauca, 51. 

JUNCEA, 51. 

NIGRA, 51. 

,j toria, 51. 
Brinjal, 300. 
Brucine, 302, 303. 
Bryodin, 58. 
Bryonia epigooa, 52. 
Bryonia laciniosa, 52. 
Bryonin, 97. 
Bryony, 52. 
Bryophyllum oalycynum, 53. 

171. 
Buchanaka. 33. 
Bdkampadaruka, 99. 
Bun, 9£ 
Bureh, 296. 
Barra, #m Bara. 



ff 
ff 
ti 
ff 
ft 



362 



INDEX. 



BUTEA FBONDOSA, 53, 92. 

,t Gam, 53. 

„ saperba, 54. 
Byakuri, 299. 



Cactus, 91. 

„ indicus, 211. 
Cadamba, 31. 
giebalpinia bonducella, 51. 

„ Sappan, 55. 

Ca£fearine, 91. 
Caffeine, 57, 94. 
Cajuput, 184. 
Caiuputol, 185. 
Calambac, 33. 
Calabiuu draco, 55. 

,, root, 9. 
Calcarea carb., 230. 
Calcu Cabbonas, 56. 
Calendula oflScinalis, 309. 
Calomel, 157. 

„ (Vegetable), 253. 
Calotropis oioantea, 56. 

,, procera, 56. 

Cambi, 137. 

Camellia theifera, 57. 
Camphire, 174. 
Camphor, 47. 

„ Wood (Nepal), 82. 
Canancja odorata, 58. 
Canarium cx)mmune, 58. 

„ strictum, 59. 

Cannabine, 60. 

„ tannate, 60. 
Cannabinone, 60. 
Cannabis indica, 59. 
Cannabis »ativa, 59. 

CaN8CX)RA DECUS8ATA, 62. 

Cantharides, 62, 197. 
Cantharidin, 197. 
Canthium parviflorum, 62. 
Caoutchouc, 130. 
Caper Berry, 63. 
Capparis aphylla, 63. 

„ 8PINOSA, 63. 
Capsaicin, 64. 

CAPSELLA BUR8A-PA8TORIS, 63. 

Capsicin, 64. 
Capsicum annuum, 64. 
„ frutescens, 65. 
Caramel, 279. 
Carapa moluccensis, 65. 
Caravella Seeds, 145. 
Caraway, 68. 
Carbo Ligni, 65. 
Cardamom (greater), 24, 340. 

„ (lesser), 119. 
Cardiobpermum Hauoacabum,66. 
Gardol, 26, 156, 290. 



CaEETA ARBOREA, 66. 

Carica Papaya, 66, 273. 

Carmine, 91. 

Carminic acid, 91. 

Carox^lon Griffitbii, 43. 

Carpaine, 67. 

Carrot, 113. 

Carthajnin, 68. 

Carthamus TiNcroRius, 68, 102 

Carom ajowan, 69. 

Carum Carui, 68. 

„ copncuM, 69. - 
Carvene, 68. 
Carvol, 68, 233. 

Cartophyllus aromaticus, 09. 
Cashew-apple oil, 25. 

„ nut, 25. 
Cassava (sweet), 183. 
Cassia, 83. 
Cassia alata, 70, 73. 

anoustifolia, 71. 

Fistula, 71. 

(foetid). 73. 

lanceolata, 71. 

lignea, 83. 

OBOVATA, 72. 

OCCIDENTALIS, 72, 73. 

pods, 71. 
pulp, 72. 

SOPHERA, 73. 
TORA, 73. 
Cassie Flower, 4. 
Cassophy, 73. 
Castor-oil Plant, 270. 
„ Seeds, 270. 
Catappa, 314. 
Catechu, 3. 324. 

(Bombay), 34. 

nigrum, 3. 

psae, 324. 

tannic acid, 324. 
Cathartic acid, 71, 268. 
Cathartocarpus fistula, 71. 
Cayenne Pepper, 64, 65. 
Cedar (Himalayan), 74. 
Oedrat, 87. 

Cedrus Deodar a, 74. 
Oelastrus paniculata, 74. 
Celery, 33. 

Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, 75. 
Cephaeline, 75. 
CEPHALANDRA INDICA, 76. 

Cera Alba, 76. 

„ Flava, 76. 
Ceylon cinnamon, 83. 

,, moss, 139* 
ChA, 57. 
Chdb, 241. 
Chai, 57, 241. 
Chaknunarda, 73. 
ChflJrandd, 73. 
Chti, 2h 



»« 

K 
II 
II 



INDEX. 



363 



GhalaTa^miriyaln, 241. 

Chalk, 56. 

CliaUa,30. 

Clia]iDi!wra, 146. 

Chalta, 115. 

Ghamboli, 168. 

Chameli, 168. 

Chamoi (safed), 151. 

Chamomile, 31. 

Champi, 190. 

Champac, champaka, 190. 

Champocol, 190. 

Champai, 292. 

Chanel (chhota), 267. 

Chakndal, chandan, chandaoa, 283. 

Chandan (rakta), 261. 

M (lAl), 261. 
(safed), 283. 
Ch&ndi, 35. 
Chandra, 267. 
Chandra-sura, 175. 
Cbandrika, 267. 
Chandu, 228. 
Chansar, 175. 
Chara, 53. 
Cbarangi, 236. 
Charas, 50. 
Chirati. 164, 307. 
Charcoal, 65. 

„ (almond-shell), 257. 

„ (areca), 35. 
Cbarei, 155. 
Chardla, 229. 
Charmaghx, 169. 
Chata-rashi, 134. 
Chadl, 21H. 
Chaulrougra oil, 117, 146, 187. 

„ false, 147. 

Chaval, 213. 
Chavica Betle, 239. 
Chavicol, 240. 
ChaTikd, 241. 
Chawa-manii, 24. 
Chay root, 209. 
Chebulic acid, .316. 

,, myrobalans, 315. 
CheDuUnic acid, 316. 

CHENOPODIUM AMBR06I0IDES, 77. 

„ B0TRY8, 77. 

Cherukn, 278. 
Chh&, 57. 

ChhofOilbdnU, 111. 
Chh&tA, 14. 

Chhatin, chhattian, 20. 
Chheli, 34. 
Chhoa, 279. 
Chhota-chand, 267. 

„ ffokhru, 320. 

„ kirayat, 120. 

„ pilu, 282. 
Chhiih&ra, 233. 
Chian turpentine, 246. 



y* 



*f 
It 

i« 



Chicory, 78. 

Chikana, 294. 

Chil, 238. 

Chilla-chettu, 305. 

Chillies, 64. 65. 

China root, 295. 

Chindar, 101. 

Chiner*bdd&m, 33. 

Chini, 279. 
„ (banpla), 279. 

Chiuta-paudu, 309. 

Chir, 238. 

Chirata, 307. 

Chiratin, 307. 

Chiraunji, 53. 

Chirchii*a, 6. 

Ohiretta, 307. 

(bara), 125. 
(small), 120. 
(sweet), 307. 

Chir-ka-pond. 238. 

Chiron j, 53. 

Chir pine oil. 238. 
tar, 238. 

Chitimutti. 294. 
Chitra, 46. 

Chitrak. chitraka, 250. 
(lAl). 250. 
(mulam), 250. 
(rakto), 251. 
Chob-chini. 295. 
Chokha, 213. 
Choline, 322. 
Chonda, jaiigli-chi, 321. 
Chondodcndron tomcntosum, 84. 
Chrysanthemum coronarium, 77. 
Chrysophan, 268. 
Chrysophanic acid, 73, 268. 
Chuai-a, 2:«. 
Chuka-tripati, 214. 
Chukri, 267. 
Chiiiid, 56. 
Chiind-kalai, 56. 
Chunid*|;ond, 54. 
C'huri-anvan, 89. 
Chi'ita, 181. 
CirHouiuM iNTvnus, 78. 

CiMICFUOA FtKTIDA, 78. 

Cinchona anguHtifolia, 82. 
Cinchona Calisaya, 81. 

Febrifiiffo, 80. 

Ledgcriana, 81. 

Micrantha, 82. 

nitifia, 82. 

OFFICINALIH, 81. 

pitayensis, 82. 
Hl'CVIRUBRA, 82. 

bark (crown), 81. 
„ (pale), 81. 
., (red), 82. 
„ (yellow) 81. 
CiNCHONiE Cortex, 78. 



II 
f I 
II 
i» 
It 
If 
ft 
ff 
ff 
ff 
If 



^H ^^^^^1 


^^1 Cinchooec Cortex IPIuvec), SI. 


Conesai bark, 154. 


^H Pullidie), 81, 




^M JRubrsc),82. 


Oonvolvulin. 166. 




CONVOLvri.ua Scammokia, 96. 


^H Cinchonine, X2. 


Copal (resin ), 327, 


^H Ciimabar, 157. 


Copper, 105. 


^H Cinoamic acid. 306. 


CoPTia Tbeta. 90. 


^^H CinnainQraum Campbora, 83. 
^H Ca93&. 83. 


COBALLOU.MtPUa RPlQ.Ei, 97. 


CORPHOKUS CAraULARIB. 97. 


^B CIKNAMO]«VMOI,AKDUUFKRCM,82. 


OLITORIUS, 97. 


^H Tamala, 83. 313. 


CORUIA Myxa, 90. 


^^H ZEVLANICUV, S3. 




^^M Cianamon, 83. 


CORIANOBPM SATmTM, 99. 


^^M Ol8SAMPELOa Pakeiba, 84. 




^H CitHcacid, S8. 


COBYDALIB dOVANIAKA, 100. 


^B Citron, HT. 


COSI'INIUM FENESTRATUU, 100. 




Coatui. 287. 


^H „ grass, -29.' 


CosTUB BPBOioaUfi, 100. 2S7. 


^H „ oil, 29. 




^^H ClTBULLUH COLOCTNTRIS, 65. 




^H VVL<IAB1S, 8S. 


Cotton, 142. 


^B OnBUs AuiLUiTif u, 86. 


„ seed oil, 143. 


^^M var., BlOARA- 


„ (silk) tree, 48. 


^H uiA, 86. 


Couch grajs. 110. 


^H „ MEDICA, 


Coumarin,188.322. 




Country alum, 22. 


^H rnri! LiuONbH,8T. 


„ chirctW. 125. 




;: fp.X,i 201,33*. 


^H Clearing nut. 305. 


^H Oleoue vihcosa, 89. 


„ >an»parllla, 150. 


^^H Clbrouendron infoktdnatcm ,69. 


8ennEir72. 


^H aerratum, 236. 


., spirit, 16. 


^^m Olitorea tbrnatea, 90. 


Bugar, 279. 


^H Gloves, 69. 


„ vinegar, S. , 


^B Oocaina, 122. 


Cowbage, 1^ ^^^^M 


^H Coccinla indira, 76. 


CRAT.£vl KELIOIOSA, lOL .^^^H 


^H OOUCITLUS CORUIFOLIDS, 31S. 


Creat, 27. 308. ^^^M 


^H indicus. 26. 


^^^^H 




Cbinuu ASIATIoyu. lot. ^^^^H 
Ckocuu sATivuB, 102. ^^^^^^M 


^^1 Coccus CACTI, 01. 


^B UM-vl,9i. 


102. ^^^^H 


^B Cochineal, 91. 


oblonrifoliuB, 109. ^^^^M 


^H Cocioia acid, 140. 


^H Oocoa-niit Palm, 92. 


a^id, 103. ^^^^^1 


^B oil. 93. 


.. philippineiuds, ITfc^^^^H 


^H (Ma). ITS. 


reain,103. ^^^^H 


^H COCOH KOlTFEUA, 6, 92, 279. 


CnoTDV TiOuCH, 102. ^^^^^^M 




Ciiii^b camphor. S49. ^^^^M 


^M Oodoine, ^, £!5. 


^^B OOFFBA ABABICA, 93. 


OUBEUA OFFIUINALIH, 341. i^^^^^^l 


^H Coffco, 93. 


Cuhcbic acid, 242. ^^^^H 


^^1 (nogro). 72. 


Cubebin, 242. ^^^^H 


^H Ooir,03. 


CubebB, 241. ^^^^H 


^H COLAACITIQNAIA, 91. 


Cucumbor.lM. ^^^^1 
CUCPMU UKLO, 103. ^^^^H 


^^H COLrinCUU LUTECM, 95, 


^m CoUidlno. 20.5. 


Hurdwickii, 85. ^H 


^H CoUodion, 143. 


pseudo.colc<cynthia,BSL ^H 




sATivrs, lot. ^H 


^^H C01.0CASIA ANTiquoauM, Ki. 


triepnui, as. ^M 
Cdcukiiita FEfo, 45, m. ^H 




^H Cobernthin, 85. 


Cumin, t05. ^M 


^H C0lM,5I. 


horned. 162. ^M 



Cuprum, 105. 

Cnrdn, IBB. 

OnscuLioo OBCHiomEB, 106. 

CUBCUMA AXADA, too. 

„ ANOUCTIFOUA, 107. 

AROJUTICl. 107. 

„ LONOA, 107. 
Zedoaria, 106. 
Curcun ' "'" 



CUB-CI 



,28. 



,109. 



CUBCTTA 

Oiutaril Apple, 3U. 
Cutch, 3. 

CVDONIA \lfLl;ABl 



OYFXBUa BOTUNDUB, 110. 
BCABIOSU8, 110. 
CrpNM, 174. 



Bidimo-phalaiD, £02. 



Didmardan, TO. 
Dadroghna, TO. 
DsulA exTENeA, 111. 
Ihemine, 111. 
Dnluna, 310. 
IMchini, S3. 
Dallmta, S6^. 
Salim clidl, 263. 
DainaD-pnpar, 200. 
Dam-eththuahnn, £5. 
Dammar, 29:t. 

(kala), SO. 
rock). 156. 
„ (white), 32T. 
Dandelion, 311. 
Dandi-nahri, 16S. 
Danimma-puwu, 262. 
Dankuni, 62. 
Duiti. 41. 
DanUmiil, 41. 
Darakhto-Viiina1:i, 30. 
Darakht-i-miawak, 2S2. 
Darakto-bang, .'i9. 
Daranaioa, 3T. 
Darhaldi, 46. 
Darim, 262. 
Dannanah, ifl. 
Diniharidri, 46. 
DimhaHdrdkain, 100. 
Darutino. 295. 
Dani, 100. 
Daryi k*-nfirijal, ITS. 
DMunnIa-kratha, 114, 14S, 212, ! 
Date palm, 233. 

„ fugar, 234, 
,. „ Tild, 234. 
Datuka alsa. 111. 



!X. 365 

Datum (black). 111. 
Datdka fastuoba, 111. 

„ yASTUOSA, por., ALBA, 111. 

„ Strauohium, 113, 
tatula, 113. 
DaturiDe, 112, 113. 

DAUI'US CAROTi, 113. 

Deadly nighlahade, 40. 

Debunsha, 208. 

DELPHlNIfM DENl-DATUM, 114. 

Deodar T4. 

Dehmodium oanoeTIcum, 114. 

Deaoxycodcinc, 222. 

Devaddru, 74. 

Dha. Dhai-pbul, 331. 

Dhik, .'>,'). 

Dhiin, 213. 

Dhaniri. dhanija, dhinyaka, 99. 

Dhfinya, 213. 

DIupar.koki, 208. 

Dbataki, 331. 

Dhatura, 111. 

DhauU, im. 

Dhaura, 331. 

Dheli. 175. 

Dbeortu, 1S2. 

DWtob. 152. 

~' Da,255. 

Dhop-rai, 61. 

Dhud, 16T. 

DliUlflkQr.1, 15. 

Dhuliia. S.'M. 

Dhiinn, 203. 339. 

Dhnslura, IH. 

' " itura, 111. 113. 

(kala), 111. 

(sada), 111. 
Diastase, ISG. 
Diuitalcine. 20!. 
DiKBiaali, 137. 
Dill, 233. 

DlLLENlA IHDICA, 115. 

DroaPYBos Embbvopteris, 115, 
Diptcrocarpiia alatus, 118. 

incanut. 116. 

tuberculatuB, 116. 

DiPTlifiniAlU'T'S TURBINATUS, 115. 

Dirakhaba paiham, 328. 

Dita bark, 20. 

Ditaio, 20. 

Dodder, 109. 

Dog-a Tooth Graaa, 110. 

DOLICHOB BIPUIBU6, 118. 

„ pruriena, 196. 

Dona, 3T. 
Dona-ka-atar, 38. 
Dauthd, lie. 

Dracoceplialum HoylMtiDm, 118. 
Dragon's blood. 55. 
Drakhyalula, 32S. 
Droksha-nandu, 329. 
Drck. 187. 



366 



JNDBX. 



Droguamere, 27. 
Drosera burmanni, 118. 

„ PELTATA, 118. 

Dryobalanops camphora, 4. 
Dub, 110. 
Diidal, 311. 
Dudhi, 125. 154. 
Dudhlata, 215. 
Dulcamara, 299. 
Dulcaraarin, 299. 
Dumur, 130. 

„ (jajnaa), 131. 
Dundillam, 212. 
Dupada, 327. 
Durba, diirva, 110. 



Eagle Wood. 33. 
Earth-nut, aS. 
Earth-sugar Root, 179. 

ECLIPTA ALBA, 118. 

Egg-plant, 300. 
Eia, clam, 24, 119. 
Eldchi, 24, 119. 

„ (chhota), 119. 

„ Giijrati), 119. 

„ (Malabari), 119. 
Elakdya, 119. 
ElamAvi, 181. 
Elandap, 334. 
Elecamp^ane, 288. 
Elemi (East Indian), 58. 
Elephant (Jrceper, 36, 
Elettaria Cardamomum, 24, 119. 
EliyA, 18. 

Ellagic acid, 262, 316. 
EUagotannic acid, 316. 
Ellakay, 119. 
EUu, 291. 
Embelia Ribes, 120, 245. 

„ ROBUSTA, 120. 

Embelic acid, 120. 
Emblic myrobalan, 234. 
Emblica otHcinalis, 234. 
Emetine, 75. 

„ hydrochlorate, 75. 
Emilia sonchifolia, 312. 
Emodin, 268. 
Emulsin, 256. 
Eng, 116. 

Enhydra fluotuans, 120. 
Enicjostema littorale, 120. 
Ektada scandexs, 121. 
Enuga-pippalu, 289. 
Eramudapu, 270. 
Erand, eranda, erendi, 270. 

„ .1 ^ f» .* (jangli), 169. 

Ergot, 89. 
Bri, 270. 
Erra-kuti, 229. 
Ervados, 237. 



Erva-tdmara-veru, 202. 
Ervalenta, 175. 
Ervnm Liens, 174. 
Ertthrina indica, 92, 121. 
Erythrine, 121. 
Brythroxylon Coca, 121. 

,, roonogynum, 122 

Esabgol, 332. 
Eshopgol, 248. 
Eucalyptol, 122. 

Eucalyptus globulus, 122, 332. 
Eugenia caryophyllata, 69. 
Eugenia Jambolaka, 123. 
Eugenic acid, 70. 
Eugenol, 70, 84. 

EULOPHIA CAMPESTRIS, 124. 

„ vera, 124. 

BUPATORIUM Ayapaka, 124. 
Euphorbia antiquorum, 124. 

nerii folia, 124. 

pilulifera, 125. 

Tirucalli, 109. 

EURYALB FKROX, 125. 
EXACUM BICOLOR, 125. 



t* 



If 



f f 



If 



f I 



FAGRiBA FRAGRANS, 126. 

Faham, 65. 
Faridbuti, 230. 
Farina tritici, 323. 
Febrifuge (cinchona), 80. 
Fel, 126. 
Fennel, 132. 

„ (small), 206. 
Fenugreek, 321. 
Feronia elephantum, 126. 

„ gum, 126. 
Ferri Sulphas, 127. 
Ferula alliacea, 127. 
AsafcBtida, 127. 
fcetida, 128. 
galbaniflua, 129. 
Narthex, 128. 
„ scorodosma, 128. 
Fever Nut, 54. 

Ficus benoalensis, 3, 129. 
Carica, 129. 
OUNIA, 130. 
ELASTICA, 130. 
GLOMERATA, 131. 
HISPU>A, 131. 
RELIGIOSA, 132. 

Figs, 129. 

Fil-zahrah, 46. 

Filfile-surkh, 64. 

FilfiM surkh, 65. 

Fir (sUver), 1. 

Flacourtia Gatapbracta, 312. 

Flax. 176. 

FcBniculum duToe, 1.^ 

F(E!nOULUM VULGA&B, 182. 



INDEX. 



367 



Frankinoense, 60. 
Fraxinus excslsiob, 133. 

„ flobibunda, 133. 

„ ornas, 17, 133. 

Fringhi dhatora, 35. 
Frait triad, 144. 

FUMARIA OFFICINALIS, 134. 

,. parviflora, 134. 
Fumitory, 134. 



Gab-bheranda, 160. 
Gachkaran, 260. 
Oadha-puma, 48. 
Gadisngandi, 150. 
Gahan, 322. 
Qaj-pipul, 280. 
Gijar, 113. 

Odjjara-kelangu, 113. 
Gaiiara gedda, 113. 
OaikarDi, 260. 
Oik, 02. 

Qalangal (great), 20. 
„ (lesser), 20. 
Galbanum, 120. 
GaU, 163. 
Gallic acid, 265. 
Gallo-taimic acid, 263, 265. 
Gal]i,264. 

„ tamarisk, 311. 
Gam, 322. 
Gamari, 142. 
Gambhar, 142. 
Gambler, 324. 
Gamboge, 136. 
Gandapuro, 138. 
Gandha-bena, 28. 

-bhaduli, 215. 

-biroja, 50, 238. 
,, -mula, 152. 
Gandhali, 215. 
Gandha-nakuli, 5, 210. 
Gandhapu-chekka, 283. 
Gandrok, 306. 
Ganja, 50. 
Ganjni, 20. 
Ganna, 278. 
Gaoneru, 203. 
Gao-zaban, 210. 
Garbijaor, 177. 
Garcinia indica, 134. 

„ Manoobtana, 135. 

., MORSLLA, 136. 

Gardal, 121. 
Gardenia oummifera, 137« 

,, LUOIDA, 137. 

Gan-kun, 14, 
Garjan, 115. 

ka-td, U6. 

tihya, 110. 









»• 
II 



Garga-narn, 52. 
Garlic, 17. 
Garuga-chettu. 

„ pinnata, 138. 
Gasagasalu, 217. 
Gasha-gasha, 217. 
Gaulthbma fraorantissima, 138. 

„ procumbens, 138. 

Gaultherilene, 138. 
Gazangabin, 133, 311. 
Gazmazag,311. 
Gehun, ^. 
Gelaphala, 265. 
Geli, 312. 

Gblidium corneum, 130. 
Qelpsc, 130. 
Genda, 300. 
Gentian, 140. 
Gentiana Chirayita, 307. 

„ lutea, 140. 

„ KURROO, 140. 

Gentianic acid, 140. 
Geranium Grass, 30. 

grass oil, 30. 
nepalense, 140. 
ocellatum, 140. 
Geranium Robertianum, 140. 

„ Wallichianum, 140. 

Gharar-khejur, 233. 
Gharbuli, 113. 
Gharei, 173. 
Ghentu, 80. 
Ghirta-kuraari, 18. 
Ghogar, 138. 
Ghosha-lata, 178. 
Ghotaganba, 136. 
Ghuncni, 2. 
Ghuya, 05. 
Gilla nuts, 121. 
Gilo, 318. 
Ginger, 332. 

„ Cochin^ 332. 
„ grass oil, 30. 
„ oil, 201. 
Gingerin, 333. 
Gingerol, 333. 
Giun, 322. 

Gloriosa superba, 141. 
Glyoyrrhiza glabra, 141. 
Glycyrrhizate of Ammonium, 142* 
Glycyrrhizic acid, 2. 
Gbielina arborea, 142. 

„ asiatica, 142. 
Gnoscopine, 222. 
Goa Pepper, 64. 
Goachhi-phaJ, 258. 
Godhuma, 322. 
Gokhru bara, 230. 

„ chhota, 920. 

„ lahana, 320. 

„ mithay 820. 
Gokshora, 320. 



^H IHDBX. ^^^^1 


^^H Golap-phul, 275. 
^B Gold, «). 


Gur, 279. ^^^H 
Gurach, 318. ^M 


^H „ thread. 9G. 


Gumku. 205. ■ 


^H Gol-kiiddii, 45. 


Ourch, 31S. ^M 


^H Oiil-marioh, 243. 


Gurmin (balsam, oil), 116. ^^^^| 
Guri^DJa, _^^^B 


^^M Oom-nimb, 187. 


^H Ooreon fruit. 125. 
^M OooHtan. 287. 


Gurjuo oil, 115. 147, 1S7. ^^^H 
GuFJunic acid. 117. ^^^^H 

Ourlianiiu. 300. ^^^^H 


^H OOBSTFtCM UERBACECM, 142. 


^^1 Gourd, bottle, 1T2. 


Gutta-percha, 20, 50, 130. ^^^H 


^^H Oorya-pazliam, 259. 


Gura-&bla,4. ■ 




GYMNEMi SVLVESTRE. 1*4. ^M 


^^m Grain d'ambretto, 152. 


Gfninemic acid, 145. H 


^^B Granatjo, 203. 


GVStSDROmU PENTAPHYLU, B 


^H Grape vine, 32S. 


145. ■ B 


^V Great Oalangal, 20. 


Gykocardia okobata, 146. B 


^^B Gbbwia ahiatica, 142. 


O7nooardicacid,14i>, ■ 


^H Ground-nut, 33. 




^H Gaa, 34. 




^H Guaronine, 57. 


H m 


^B Guava. 2.-». 


^H GubalE. 34. 




^H Gu-baTol. 4. 


Hab iiU8, 200. B 


^H Ouduchi, 318. 


., -ban. 187. _B 


^H GiiRoI. gue<i1. 41. 


Httb-unnil, Ifti. ^^_^H 


^B Gaegilamu, 293. 


HB^niatein, 55. ^^^H 


^H Ou(Ru1. Ou^truU. 41. 


Hnkiich. 25S. ^^^H 


Haldi, ^^^^B 


^^H 'pate de, 21. 


Haldi-gach, 100. ^^^^B 


^B OmZOTli ABYK8YNI0A, 1«. 


BdliiD, ^^^^H 


^^M Gil , 279. 


Halud. 107. ^^^^H 


^H Gu ab. 275. 


Halvira, m. ^^^^H 


^^H Gu ab-kc-pliiil, 275. 


Har, 207. 315. ^^^^H 


^H Ou -daodi, 77. 


Hardii, 315. ^^^^^M 


^H Uu ancha, 31S. 


Haruwiokia FunriTA, M^^^^^^l 


^H Oulnppa, 275. 


Harhuob, 120. ^^^^^B 


^^H OuIa-puTou, 273. 


HaridrA, 107. ^^^^B 


^H Ou ur, 131. 


Harin. ». ^^^^H 


^M Gu -bel, 318. 


Hdrit4kl, 315. ^^^^1 


^H Guli-onab. 148. 


Hannal. 231. ^^^^B 


^^B Guli-gao-znbaD. 210. 


Harmalinc, 231. ^^^H 


^B GuI-i-baDafabah, 327. 


Harmine. 231. ^^^^B 


^H „ -pistoh, 248. 


HorrA, 316. ^^^^B 


^B -aurkh. 276. 


HBnlngbAr, 2ff7. ^^^^M 


^B Gul-iafaH, 309. 


HoshUh, 00. ^^^^B 


^H Gulkand. 276. 


HatUiira. H9. ^^^^M 


^B Gitl-khairo, 21. 


Malta juri, 149. ^H 

Hattich<Sk. 149. ^M 


^B Gul-iaircb.S43. 


^B Gamar t«k, 142. 


Heuvohidm spioatuu, 148. ^H 


^^m Gun Arabic, 3. 


Helianthus iysvca, lis. ^H 


^H ., Benjamin, 306. 


TITBEROSVa, 140. ^H 


^H „ Hog,4S. 


Heuctgbes igoRA, 149. ^H 


^B Gumcbi, 2. 


Heliotrnpo, 149. ^H 


HEUDTBonuU INDIODH. 149. ^H 


^B Gumri-knchu, OS. 


Hellebore (black), 237. H 


^B Gumudu toku, 142. 


HEUIt>GSHT;S iNDIUl'S, ISO. ^H 




Hemp, 59. H 

Bems^r, 171. ■ 




^^H Gnndhakn, 306. - 


Henbane. 100. H 


■ B:r>:l>. 


Henna, 174. ^B 


Herb Robert, 140. ^^^^M 




Hennodactj'lus, OS, in. ^^^^M 



_,J MONMIEBl, 161. 

HiBiecua ABELuoacHus, 161. 

EBCDLEHTUS, IS2. 
„ ItOSA-SINE!r»lH, 133. 

„ S>JBli(.&trr», 153. 
Hiijala. 43. 
Hijli-b^Am, Z\ 
Bitaniochiki,120. 
Himaliyan Cedar, 74. 

., Silver Fir, 1. 

HiDK, m. 
HinKohd. 120. 

Hingu.'l27,'l28. 
HiQCitl. 1^. 
Hirab61.12. 
Hiratla, .Slu. 

Hir4-diikhaii,55. 
Hirika«. hirifkaai'i. 127. 

HiRUDO UR Dill .VALID, 133. 

HofT tnumcanth, 4.1. 

HOJ.AElliHG.SA ANTIIIYSENTiiKl 

15*. 
BoUaARVA LONGIfnLU,l."5. 

Holr BoBil, 200. 
Hone;, 7«, 183. 

„ willow, 281. 
Hong^ oil, 251. 
Honn^, aeO. 
HOPBA odobaU, 136. 
Hora. 315. 

HORDBITU VULDAKE, IJO. 

Hordeum dccorticatnm, ISO. 
Sorehounil, 183. 
Hone-gram. IK. 
Horee-radiah tree, ID2. 
Hrireni, H^. 
HAl-eeri. 165. 
Unrf. 175. 
Hiir-hnr, liiir-huHa, 89, 14.i. 

(JftiBlil, 89. 

(oodn). 145. 
Hamial, hnrmul, 231. 
Honinl, SO. 
H;(]iiocnrpaK WiRlitianft, 147. 

HVCBARliyRUM, 137. 

" ■ ■ 222. 



HviiRociyn-LB A 
HvaBOPHiLA nemos A, 150. 
Hymb-iowltyos bxcelsuh, 18 
Bymenodictyonlne, IBO. 
Hfouioe, m. 
Hroaeinic acid, 161. 
Hyoeoyaniino, 40. 113, Ifll, 17^ 
Hyoscyamiia albus, lUl. 
Ryoscvamds niqeb, ISO. 
Hytbcxicscprocumbknh, im 
Hypogaicacid, 34, 148. 
HrMop, 102, 

KYSHOPUli OFFiaKALU, 162. 

K,ID 



Irh-cliuriL-miitiver, 36. 

ICKNOC'ABPUH PKL'IESCBNa, Ift!. 

leiuuric add. 303. 
Igaauriiic, 303, 
lili-mamidi. 23. 
Imiatius' bcan», 303. 
lEnhu, ■!!». 

IkshughandliA, 130,320, 
llnolil, 110. 
Ilaib-kalli, 124. 
llaDg-ilang, ,18. 
Ilayuchi. IIO. 
Ilkil-el-inalik, 188. 

lUPATIBNM SUU.'ATA, 16,1. 
la, 116. 

loceniie, 50. 

lHdarV"tnikli, 151. 

India rubber, 13I). 
Indian Aconite, 7. 

„ Almond. 314, 

„ Alotn, 18. 

„ Barlwrry, 40. 

„ Bdellium, 41. 

„ Birt1i«ort,36. 

„ Butter Tree. 44. 

„ Cliirotia, 27.308. 

„ Copal Tree. .'HT. 

„ Gentian, 140. 

„ Uuni Ambie Tr«e, 3. 

„ Homp, .'iO. 

„ Hemp (perennial), 1. 

„ Jalap, 167. 

„ Laburnum, 71. 

„ Liloe, ISO. 

„ Liquorir.-, 2. 

„ Madder, 'iOn, 277. 

„ M.1IIK.TIT, 192. 

„ Mustard. 51. 

„ Olibanitiu.SO. 

„ Opium, 220. 

„ Pennywort, 158. 

„ Podophyllum, 251. 

„ Bliiibarb, 267. 

„ ^rtuiiarilla, 160, 

„ Screw Tree, I4i). 

„ Senna, 71. 

,, Sorrel, S14. 

„ Squill, 323. 

„ Valerian, 326. 

„ Walnut. 16. 

„ Water Cheitnut, 319. 

„ Wjntergreen 138. 

,, Wormwood, 37. 
Indioan, 163. 
Indigo, 163. 

„ blae, 164. 

IMDIOOFBRA CIKCTOBIA, 163. 

Indigotln, 164. 
iDdrajftb, IH. 

S4 



370 



INDEX. 



»t 
If 

l» 



Indrajao shirin, 155. 

„ talk, 155. 
Indra vdruni, 85. 
Indr^yan, 85. 

(lal), 321. 
Indrayava, 154. 
Inji. 332. 
Inulin, 288. 
lONIDIUM SUFFRUTICOSUM, 164. 

Ipecacuanha, 75. 

(countrjr), 201, 324. 

de-emetinizcd, 76. 

(Goanese), 201. 

sins emetine, 75. 

— tannic acid, 75. 
Ipecacuanhic acid, 75. 
Ipoma'a bona-nox, 167. 

IPOM^A DIOITATA, 165. 
„ HEDERACEA, 165. 
„ PURGA. 166. 

' „ Tdrpethum, 167. 
Iridin, 168. 
Iron Pyrites, 127. 
Iris florentina, 167. 

,, gernianica, 168. 
Irisa, 167. 
Irojdppn, 275. 
Irsa. 167. 
Irulli. 17. 
Isabgiil, 248. 
Isapagdla-vittulu, 248. 
Isarmiil, 36. 
Isband, 231. 
Isban-chedi, 234. 
Ishappukol-virai, 248. 
Isinglass, 140. 

,, (Japanese), 139. 
Isopelletierine, 263 
Isorottlerin, 180. 
Ispaghul, 248. 
Ispand, 231, 277. 
Isparzah, 248. 
Issufgul, 248. 
Itchanmar, 234. 



Jab, 156. 
Jaba, 153. 

.Tack-fruit Tree, 38. 
Jadikkay, 198. 
Jadi-pattri, 198. 
Jadwar, 114. 
Jaggery, 279. 
Jdnari naraU 178. 
Jaimangal, 213. 
Jaiphal, 198. 

„ (jangli), 199. 
Jditri, 198. 
Jaiikaya, 196. 
Jala, jalaka, 153. 



»» 



»» 



»♦ 



i» 



Jalap, 166. 
Jalapin, 166. 
Jal-kunbhi, 248. 
Jam, 138. 
Jamdl-gota, 102. 
Jdman, 123. 
Jdmbira, 87. 
Jambu, jambul, 23. 
Jambulin, 123. 
Jam-pandu, 258. 
Jamsar, 22. 
Jamti-ki-bel, 91. 
Jdmun, 123. 
Jangli-akhrot, 16. 

badam, 58. 314. 

erendi, 169. 

haldi, 107. 

hur-hiir, 89. 

jaiphal, 199. 

mndrika, 217. 
„ pikvan, 323. 
Janjan, 293. 
Japatri, 198. 
Japhran, 102. 
JardmU, 235. 
Jdri, 132. 
Jao, jaoa, 156. 
Jasavanda, 153. 
Jasmine (Arabian), 168. 
„ (night), 207. 
(Spanish), 168. 
Jasminine, 168. 
Jasmin UM orandiflorctm, 168. 

„ Sambac, 168. 
Jdsundi, 286. 
Jasut, 153. 
Jatamanshi, 200. 
Jdti, 168. 
Jdti-patri, 198. 
Jati-phalam, 198. 
Jatropha Curcab, 1691 
Jatrophic acid, 169. 
Jawantri, 198. 
Jawashir, 129. 
Jawitri-ka-tel, 198. 
Jayanti, 292. 
Jayapdla, 102. 
JayapKatri, 198. 
Jayasi, 16. 
Jaypal, 102. 
Jayphal, 198. 
Jequirity, 2. 
Jerusalem Oak, 77. 
Jesuits* Bark, 78. 
Jet, 292. 
Jethimadh, 141. 
Jhal, 212. 
Jhdrhaldi, 100. 
Jhinjarvatto, 6. 
Jidi-vittulu,.290. 
Jira, 68, 105. 
„ (kala),206. 



i. 



INDICX. 



371 



Jiraka, 105. 

„ (kriflhna), 206. 
Jir-kh^, 46. 
J6k, 153. 

Jonesia Asoka, 286. 
J6nk, 153. 
Joox, 160. 

Joui-nl-maihil, 111. 
Jowan, 60. 
Jai-pana, 260. 

JUOLANS REOIA, 16, 160. 

Jujabe fruit, 334. 
Jibn, 138. 
Juniper, 170. 
Juniperine, 170. 

JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS, 170. 

Justicia nasuta, 260. 
Jute, 07. 
Jnwdsi, 16. 
Jiiz-ul-kueh, 265. 
Jyantika, 202. 
Jyotishmati, 66. 



Kababah, 241. 
K&bib-chini, 241. 
Kabare-hiudi, 76. 
Kabra, 63. 
Kabuli-mast&ki, 246. 
Kachnar, 45. 
Kach6ram, 108. 
Kachii. 05. 

Kachur, kachura, 108. 
Kadali, 106. 
Kadam, kadamba, 31. 
Kada-todali, 310. 
Kadat-ngan, 58. 

,, rengdy, 178. 
Kaddu, 172. 
Kadi, kadi nUlu, 5. 
Kadiisirola, 178. 
Kaduk-kii, 315. 
Kadut, 131. 

K^MPFERIA BOTUNDA, 170. 

Kafi, 03. 
KafSBhA, 131. 
Kagzi,88. 

„ nembu, 88. 
KdhtJ, 171, 313. 
Kahwa, 03. 
Kaidaryamu, 107. 
Kaiphal, 107. 
Kaitha, 126. 
Kajjali, 157. 
Kdjra, 302. 
K&ja, 25. 
Kakad, 138. 
Kdkadumbar, 131. 
Kakanaj, 320. 
Kdkaphala, 26. 



t» 



•t 



Kakai'a-chettu, 101. 
Kakhan, 282. 
Kakilahe-khurd, 110. 
K&kmdcbi. 300. 
Kakmari, 26. 
Kdkra-sringi, 245. 
Kakri, 104. 
Kala, 106. 
Kala-d&mar, 50. 

„ d&na, 00, 165. 

„ daturd, 111. 

„ jdm, 1^. 

Iira, 105, 206. 
:urwab, 1.50. 

„ musli, 106. 

„ til, 144. 

„ tnisi, 208, 200. 

„ vAlA,220. 

,, zirki, 165. 
Kalaippaik-kishangu, 141. 
Kalan<;hob laciniata, 171. 
Kalaungi, 206. 
KaUnga, 85, 154. 
Kdlkdshundd, 72, 73. 
Kallu-rivd, 23. 
Kdlmegh, 27. 
Kaloa^vla, 3. 
Kalu-geri, 155. 
Kalvari, 63. 
Karod-kbdr, 20. 
Kamala, 170. 
Kamanchi-chettu, .9X). 
Kambilipuch, 103. 
ELamela, kaniild, 170. 
Kamila-gundi, 170. 

„ guri. 170. 
Kdmuni, 300. 
Kdnana-eitinda, 160. 
Kanbhcr, 170. 
Kanakaphala, 102. 
Kdndri, 58. 
Kanbdld, 170. 

Kdnchaiia, kancbanara, 45, 310. 
Kandd, 17. 325. 
Kan^r. 203. 

„ (pila), .317. 
Kanduri<ki-bel, 76. 
Kanpmiiki, 127. 
Kanhera, 203. 
Kankala, 241. 
Kankar, 5n. 
f Kankeli, 2H4). 
Kankra, 229. 
Kanocha, 2Sl\ 
Kdnpbul, 311. 
Kanta-ini dant, 22. 
Kdntdnatid, 22. 
Kdnthdl. :«<. 
Kdnuga, 254. 
Kanval ichhota), 208. 
Kanwal, 202. 
Kanyin, ll.'y. 



372 

KapA«, 142. 
Kftplkachchbu. 105. 
Kapila. 179. 
Kapittha, 126. 
Kapur-kauhri, l^H. 
Kapura-kAcliali. 148. 
Karabi. 'JOB. 
Karakk^ft. 315. 
Karani, klLranja. «• '^^■ 
Karanja-HBtik. 5t. 
Kamvellft. 145.191. 
Karavira, 'J03. 
Karawya, 68. 
Karel,6t. 
KareUj karcli, 191. 
Knri-pippali, 2SS. 
Karianuf. 141. 
Karlhan. U1. 
Karine&. iSS. 
Karin. 63. 
Kariya-potam. IM, 
Kanilru-k^, -231. 
Karkata Riingi, OS. 

Kirli. 191. ' 
KarmolaTn, 't. 
Karmuj, 251. 
Karoya, 6S. 
KarpM. 142. 
Karpo-ka.rUbi, 238. 
Karpur. 148. 
KarpLira-liariilra, 106. 
Karu, 140, ZIG. 
Kanimbii. 27S. 
Kanim-shirH^n, WS. 
Karun-ubarei, 155. 
Korri-iiulraiou, 154. 
Karrambil, 138. 
Karvi-taru, 1T8. 
KarwabopU, 173. 
Kiaamarda, 73. 
Kuhkash, 217. 
Ka*bni41u, 173. 
Kasira, 127. 
Kasiii, 78. 
Kaattlrl. 193. 
Kantui'i.bundavittLilu.Ul. 

„ <l&nd. 151. 

„ ninnjal, 107. 

,. (KUUpa, 11)7. 
Kaaundil.72. 73. 
K&taka, 305. 
KataiDpatn. ^So, 



Katappa, 

KAtbuh. 



314. 



KAtbuh. 
Kath..^24. 
Kath bcl. 126. 
Katba. 126. 
Ktttiltt, .39. 
Katira, 45. 
Katki,23S. 
Kfttphala. 197. 



Kattainmnaku, IBO. 
KalUik-ka^tiiri, 151. 
Katuka, 236. 
Katu-tuinbi. 172. 
Kau-kau. 295. 
Karali, 144. 
Kavutiohi, 140. 
Kawa, 93. 

Kiiwalc chedole, S2. 
Kaviipiiti-ki-Uil, 185. 
Kailiiir, KW. 
Kebir, 6.S. 
Kl.1,1, 196. 
Kelu, 74. 
Kcnda, 216. 
Kcora, 216. 
Korani, 144. 
Korsani, 144. 
Kern, 125. 
K.^^:.v. k:wiia.l02, 
Ki-iii-ii.i. IIS. 
Ki-iM. I7:{. 
Iv-.i.ld-roti,102. 
\i.-.un. kivsuti, 118. 
Kotaks. 210. 
Koj-a, 2ltl. 
Khaiur, 233, 234. 
KhiVhra. 53. 
Khaiida. 280. 
Kharbuja. 103. 
Kharevnihun, 6. 
Khtti-L-nun, 298. 
Khttijjdra, 233, 234. 
Khark, 56. 
Kliarmnj, 103. 
Khar-sttjji, 43. 
Kliarua. 192. 
KhirviijS. 103, 
Kliai* kiiaa. 28. 

.. kbaa-ka-atar, 29. 
Kha-li-klia-Hli, 217. 
Kbaya, 191. 
Kheraal, 4. 
Khesdri. 173. 
Kli.:liiapra. 209. 
Khiiijttk, 246. 
Khira, 104. 
Khip, 215. 

KhonuHLnl-ajomui. 160. 
Khuliail, m. 
Khulakhudi. 15S. 
Khuri-ianf-aiwan, 16(k 
Khurkiir, 130. 
Khumii, 233. 
Khurmdl-jiibis, 233. 
Khui-khus. 28 
Kiahong, tSC 
KijapiiW, 184. 
EiW, 3. 
Kinbll. 170. 
Kinnab, 09. 
Kiao,3a0. 



INDEX. 



373 



Kino (Bengal), 63, 203. 

„ (Malabar), 260. 
Kino-red, 260. 
Kinoin, 260. 
Kino-tannic acid, 260. 
Kinovin, 308. 
Kinsuka, 53. 
KiramAl, 254. 
Kiranda, 91. 
Kirata, 27. 
Kiratatikta, 307. 
KirAj-at, 27, 307. 

„ (chhota), 120. 

„ (mitha). 307. 
Kiripiimndan, 210. 
Kirm&U, 37. 
Kirniani, 37. 
Kimidana, 91. 
Kishmish, 328. 
Kiahniz, 99. 
Kisht-bar-kisht, 149. 
Kisn, 47. 
Kivdnch, 195. 
Kiwachh, 195. 
Kiwdnch, 195. 
Kizhk&yncUi, 235. 
Kodi-kakkatanvirai, 165. 
Kodu, 172. 
Kohal, 32. 
Kohala, 45. 
Kokildk.slia, 159. 
K6knAre-surkh, 217. 
Kokaro, 134. 
Kokum butter, 134, 327. 

„ chatel, 134. 
Kokum-ka-tel, 134. 
Kola-nut, 94. 
Kola-mara« 25. 
Kolanin, 94. 
Kolavu, 147. 
Kolkepbul, 317. 
Konda-ka^binda, 319. 
Konda-vepa, 187. 
Kop-pdtd, 53. 
Kosbdtaki, 178. 
Kosbta, 97. 
Kosum, kosumba. 288. 
Kouz-mdsab-safea, 111. 
Koydld, 65. 
Kreat, 27. 

Krisbna-jiraka, 206. 
Kuamau, 182. 
KuberakHbi, 54. 
Kucbild, 302. 
Kucbld, 302. 
Kubili, 195. 
Kukmcbil.234« 
Kukubba, 313. 
Kiiki^r-chhta, 177. 
Kul, 334. 

Kalappalai-virai, 154. 
Kulattha, 118. 



Kulidkhdrd, 159. 

Kulinjdna, 20. 

KUlti, 118. 

Kulu-mulaka, 243. 

Kumdri, 18. 

Kumbai, 137. 

Kumbbdr, 142. 

Kumbhikd, 2i8. 

Kumbi, Kumbbi, 66. 

Kumkuma, 102. 

Kumrd, 45. 

Kunak, 322. 

Kunar, 334. 

Kunch, 2. 

Kunduli-Dbal, 54. 

Kundur, kunduru, 50. 

Kunciliyam, 29S, 

KunKbam, 137. 

Kunkudu-kdyalu, 286. 

Kunkiima, 179. 

Kuurok, 14. 

Kunvar, 18. 

Kuppi, 237. 

Kuppin-cbctta, 5. 
,, memi, 5. 

Kurasani-omam, 160. 
KuraHbani-vdroam, 160. 
Kurchi, 154, .%5. 
Kurcbieno. 154. 
Kureyd, 154. 
Kiirma, 233. 
Kurti-kalai, 118. 
Kusampbul, 68. 
Kusbai*a, 99. 
Kusbmduda, 45. 
Ku8bt, 100. 
Kushumba, 92, 
Kus-kus, 28. 
Ki:ist, lOO. 186. 
Kustba, 287. 
Kusumb, 92. 
Kusumba, 68. 
Kut, 100, 287. 
Kutaja, 154. 
Kutba, 324. 
Kutki, 140, 236. 
Kyam, 127. 



Lac, 92, 288. 

Lactuca Heyneana, 312. 

Lactuca scariola, 171. 

Lactucarium, 172. 

Lactucerin, 172. 

Lactucio acid, 172. 

Lactucin, 172. 

Ladaki r^vanda-cbini, 267. 

Ladies' Finsers, 152. 

LsBvulose, 184. 

LaOKNARIA VULQABI8, 172. 

Lajdln, 190. 



374 



INDRX. 



Ldjj&bati, 19(). 
Ldkh, 92. 
Lakhori, 173. 
Lakri-ka-tcl, 110. 
Likshd, 92. 
Likiihddi-taila, 92. 
LdlambdH. 153. 

,, ddna. 10<{. 

», kumdri, 19. 

,, marich, 64. 

,, iK^Hta, 217. 
Ldli, 217. 

LaLLKMANTIA K')YLKANA, 173. 
Ldnffalikd, 141. 
LanKa-n)ai'icb^G4. 
Lanthopinc, 222. 
LaHan, 17. 
Ijasuna, 17. 
Latdkaaturi, 151, 25K. 
Latdphatkari, 60. 
Lathyrus sATivrs, 17.3. 
Latkan, 47. 
Lau, 172. 
Laudaninc, 222. 
LaudanoHinc, 222, 
Lauroti^tanine, 178. 
LauriiB plandnlifci*a, H2. 
lAvan, lavana, 297. 
Lavanffa, 69. 
Lauki, 172. 
Launooa pinnatifida, 312. 

LaWHONIA ALBA, 174. 

Leaf-nutH, 314. 

LKI>KnOl'Kl.V IIYACINTIIOIDRO, 289. 

Leofh. 153. 
Lemon, 87. 

„ jfinws, 28. 

„ oil. 28. 

„ juict*. 87. 

.. oil, 87. 

LRNS ESri'LKNTA, 174. 

Lentil, 174. 

LKl»I!»irM SATIVUM, 175. 

Lettuw, 171. 

,, opium, 172. 
Loiioindigo, 163. 
Lichens, 229. 
Llui'STirVM («}>.) 175. 
„ Ajwam, 69. 
Liljahri, 140. 
Limbn-turanj, 87. 
Lime, earbonato, 56. 

„ juico, iW. 

„ tret\ 88, 
Limestone, 56. 
Limri, 319. 
Linamarin. 176. 
Liniia'donda, 52. 
Linoxyn, 176. 
Unwed, 176. 

„ meal, 176. 
oiK 176. 



•* 



LiNUH USITATLSSIMCM, 176. 
LiQUlDAMBAR ORIEXTALIH, 21, 177. 

Liquid Storax 177. 
Liquorice, 141. 

LiTS.F.A 8EBIFP.RA, 177. 

Lodh, .308. 
Lodhra, 308. 

LODOICEA SEOHELLARUM, 177. 

Loganin, 302, 303. 

Lon, 297. 

Lon(( Pepper, 242. 

Lopez root, 319. 

Lotur bark, 308. 

Loturidine. .308. 

Loturine, 908. 

LotUH 9aci*cd, 202. 

Luban, 50, .306. 

Lufa, 97. 

Luff A acutanglla, 178 

,, echinata, 179. 
Luffein,178. 
Lukrabo scciIm, 147. 
Lun, 297. 
Lust, .312. 

M 

Maana, 29. 
MacasHar oil, 288. 
Mace, 198. 

„ (Bombay), 199. 
Maccne, 199. 
Machakai, 264. 
Machipatri, .37. 
Mad, 16. 
Madan, 265. 
Madala, 15. 
Madalaip-pazham, 262. 
Madar, «i6. 
Madat, 228. 
Madder, 277. 
Maddichettu, 192. 
Madhshahad, 183. 
Madhu, 183. 
Madhuka. 44. 
Madhu jam, 76. 
Madhurika. 132. 

M.fi:RrA ARRNARIA, 179. 

Ma-elkhilaf. 281. 

Maghz pipat, 243. 

Mafrnesium G^-nocardate, 147 
„ Ricinoleate, 274. 

I Macrrabu. 150. 
I Manajambira, 87. 
I Mahan, 126. 

Maha>nimb, 187. 

Maharukha, 15. 

Mahatika, 27. 

Mahmira, 96. 

Mahaa, 6, 44, 274. 
„ wine, 44. 

Maidalakri, 177 



"Haiden-hBir fern, lli 
Main, bari. 311. 

,, magira, 311. 
MainphnU S65. 
MDlpbal, S64. 
Mnjum, en. 
Maiiiphnl. 2ftt. 
Makal. 85. 

Makhana, I'ili. 
Makhmal, 309. 
Makki-nuLraDi, 1.%. 

MalAbar Carcluniiini. 11! 

,. Kino. '>00. 
Halai-vi'inbri, 1S7. 

Malligiri, S2. 
HalliE», 168. 
Hkllipn. IlH. 
MALLorrs PHiLirriKB: 
Mallow. 180. 

„ (Mnsk), I.M. 
Uolt. IS6. 

HiLTA B 



Mamehh, SI 



HanilukBpiH-r 
UanRiu, l8l. 



1, 21S, 



m. 



Mansgnsta, 135. 
HA:aaiFKKA in Dig a, mi. 
Mingo, ISl. 
Hanfto-Kinser, 1(16. 
IMniiKOltan, 133. 
MftHKoateeo. 135. 

oil, 134. 
IfanjnMtin, IS», 
IfMRUDtin. 13&. 

UaSIBOT OTILISi^IMA, VS. 

Manioc, 183. 
Mftiua-iiii.ar. 
Manjal, 107. 
Mankrika. 209. 
MoniitihEliii. 2T7. 
Hanjlt. 277, 30S. 
Hinkocliii, 18. 
Hinkauda. IR. 
MAomiuulii, IS. 
Hftnnn, 133. 
Manna (Mlui«i), IT. 

„ A-h. IT, 133. 

„ (Ootoiieajiter) 133. 
riiikj, 311. 



MuiyiiV! 



.. ramoBii"ir 

MaravH\i. 182. 
- Mui-g-inoxh. 37. 
I Mavgoaa,, ISG. 
' Alan, 129. 
, ftlurich Igarh), G.1. 

lk;ila),m 



: Mai'ii 



■ 1,-213. 



3IarigiiI< 



uriaulJ lAfiii-nii). 301). 

Marjoram. 212. 
' Marting-niit, 290, 
I Marnutuni-i. 174. 

MaRUIBI MVl I.'iAKK. 1«3. 

! Mar^li-niaTlQW SI. 

MaruHaiD-pattui, 1117. 

Mai iik-kiiUiin-kaf, 20.'). 
, Murv. 2H3. 

Marnu, Sl'i. 
' Mawtiif, 173. 
, Ma<ihi-l[dytt, '>Sf . 

Maataki. -US. 

i-riimi, -.'W. 
, ., (Knbiili), 24l{. 

Moatklio, :^4li. 

(Bomlmy). "J-Mi. 
' Maaiir maiUM, 17(. 
I Matlioxan. 175. 
I Mathalai, 33. 
; MatrhjauiaCkawiiiiu.*.; 

Slatlapal-tiga. lIlTi. 
I Ma.uri 1.32. 
I Maynplial. 204. 
I Mojir-nminkham, 204. 

Hi^iiphal -X*. 

Mcoonictu'I'l, 322. 

MecODiilinA, -22] 

iteeonine, 222. 
I MecDQoioain 23^. 
i MfhMi. ITk 

Mcili-slla, 177. 
' Mej., lat 
i Melalki'ia LBl-rAiuiNi'im: 

MRLASOItKltlKA V«1TATA, 1* 

I Molanthiii. 2tB, 

I MELIA AZAI.IIlAlHTA.IHfi. 
I .. AKKL>AHA<'II, 1M7. 

Mclilot.li*«. 
I MclilotiiH Allin. 18H. 
I Melilotud offii-is'aijh. 1H8 
I .. iKiiriBora. IKS. 

McliHau oil, 2H. 
r MeIOD,103. 

M^iul, 133. 

Mendhi. 174. 
' Msngkop. 135. 
. McnRiit. 135. 



Mmtlwyne. Vtt. 

McTcorj, 157. 

Iptrrhhiridt.. 157, 
i*Dlthid<>', 157. 

Jtnnnjrr* perrirk 95. 



Htm^ Fknwaiaiii, 4. 

MIMM4 rCI'h.A. ISO. 

Minwliu nvwhatu*. Kd. 
HlMt'utrx KLry<:i. 191. 
Mina fnarata, liri. 
Hint, IW. 
Himpa-luia, &1. 
Hireh. 2U, 
HinJuL 10S. 
Mlnihr^tw1i.k>ti. 310. 
HlRrb-inuinini, M. 
Mlnrtil IUI|. ^ 
Hlri (k»h{. 343. 
Mlrifilii.m 
Mi>hk^lan:i. m. 



Mi<li 



l-tit4. t 



Hiiri, -JM). 

MUurpuppii, 174. 
Mitha-iiri. 237. 

., -Vlniyai. aJ7. 
HlttiAiAliitr. H. 
Miliiii.-.>0T. 
Morha, IX. Iflil. 

MoK&llniii. lUI. 

Mi<t;hlii<rcii<lf, 169. 

Moki)iA, 1^ 
MoluM, 779. 
Mom, TO. 

UOUOBDIOACirAIIJ 



Honknhoml, t. 
Monrphiili, 140, 
Holun^A tTTBiroLi*, 192. 
Moriiidiii. 192. 

HOKIHIM rTKRYnoHPRRMA, 192. 
MorphiDa. 2£J, 22,% 244. 



I, m. 



a^, 



MrCTXA PSTBISKB, JKl 
MnUr, 5L 



tSfe" 






9SS. 



Mathtnr (Indan). UC 
IWbite\, 193. 
WBlU-Khw,^ 
Halbn^l. as. 
Mol-ari, ISl. 
Hulnk-ktrai. 22. 
MuDa(,->, 19iL 
MuD^ka. l&i, 
MuDcbal, 37. 
HunKphalif , 33. 



MuTuka, 121. 
Mu^iluT, 18, 19. 
Uiua panuUsiara. 19S. 
HCM SAnKSTtv, 196. 
Moihali. lOB. 
MiMhaiiiba.nun, 18. 
Mubk, 193. 
Huahk-dana. 131. 
, Mushroom, 141. 
■Musk, 1!R. 338. 
■ „ Mallow. 151. 
I „ seeds, ayi. 
MubU, 49. 
Husli (kalo), 106. 
„ (taf«d), 106. 
„ kand, 106. 
Muihti-vittalu, 302. 
MuKta, 110. 
Huitard, 51. 

., (black), 52. 
„ oil. 52. 
„ oil (essential), 61. 
„ (white), 51, 
,. (wild), 89. 
Hatha, 110. 
Hiuuri, 174. 
Hutha-chippi, 239. 



If otl-AmD, 330; 
H^helk, 32. 
Hti^brih L'HiooRn, lOT, 
Hybica Naoi, 107. 
„ npida, IBT. 
Hf rutic add, 196. 
Utrihtica fraoeakh, IOH. 



HyriBticene, 199. 
Hrristicol, 199. 
l^ristin. IBS. 
Mjiolinlutilarjiii 



'UrrobsJanin, 316. 

ffir(»ba1anuB Obebula. SIS. 
tmUi, 52. 83, 87. 
Myrrh. 42. 
Uh-tle, 200. 
MVRTTS t.'OMMt'SIs, •31". 



Ka.Hka, ffT. 
HHtr-clianipa. ISO. 
Nae-iihaaa, 211. 
Kagndali. 211. 
VsKamulU, -Ml. 
flagax muHtaka. 1 10. 

„ mutba. 110. 
'Sks&- valli. 239. 
VdceMf, 1S9. 
'Vafdeunaiil. 37. 
ATudona, 37. 
iXacdown. 101. 
Mkjrhiak, 181. 
Vdekesu-, Itfg. 
HkiibI. I)<0. 
NaA&ni, ^fiS. 
Naineharandi, 27. 
Kakka-vulli-ciuliia, 32?, 
^kktamala, So4. 
Ksl. 2US. 
NaUtapaC, 97. 
Kalla-jilahara. 9)6. 
Nallafakdy-gutlfU, 10(t. 
KaUu-tuma. 3. 
NAn-i-kiilDcb. ISO. 
Kannaii, IfiO. 
]Tan-ta-;ok, 21. 
Kapellinc, 7. 
Karceine. 222. 
Narcotine, 222. 22.i. 
NARKOaTACBYS Jaiamakhi, 300. 
NarduB, 200. 
Handu, 123. 
Kabemauia alata, 201. 
KaKftanlne, SOS. 



I HArikcl, iiarikcla. 92. 
Nari-vcngayani, 325. 
Nariyal-ka-tul, 93. 
Haraij. 124. 
Naryeti. 14). 
NoDona, 212. 
Natai'-phal. Ri. 
Nattu-ircval -chilli, 267. 
Naval, 123. 
Kay-palai, 323. 
Naya-phatki.Oli. 
Nccm, IMt. 

„ (Boral, 1N7. 

„ »il, IWi. 

{ro coif UP. Vi, 

ia-nai'in)^, 2111. 
uDirika, 23o. 
., TeniiiSOT. 
Nelli-kai.234. 

NELDMBICM HPI!l.'IOSV)f, 

Ncla-voum.27. 
Nembu (hara), H7. 

E»rai, S7. 

(isitit, 8H. 
Nepaliiie. 7. 
" ■iantinc, 2CM. 
■i-arishippal. 177 



I. 204. 



NEKIL'MOIHIK 

Neruh, Sti. 

Ncninji,.12l). 

Nicociuiin rti^t 

HivoruXA TaHaccm, 204. 

Vicotiarim- 2<M. 

:" ....iie.2IM. 

Nipp.1. -Js-i. 

[VA, aw. 



114. 



Hil-tiitiya. 1 

Niluiruviiuik-kUUi 
NlLi-tiitn, iLfi. 
Nila-vombn,.TI)7. 
Kilavembu, 27. 
Nili-manclu, IIH. 
Milofar, 20K. 
' Siluter, 202. 



i, Dilam, 103. 



I Nin 



180. 



Nimak, 297. 
I Nimar oil, 30. 
• Nimb, niiiiha, IMO. 
I NimgM'h, IHO. 

Nimiika, S4. 
' NirbiBliI. 84. 
I NiTblsl, 114. 

Nlr-brami, lol. 

Nirmali, 30S. 
I NinnalUilOQ. 



378 



INDKX. 



Nirulli, 17. 
Nishcdal, 23. 
Nishotar. 167. 
Nitre, 2^. 

Noea spinosissinia, *J1M. 
Noshailar, 23. 
NouiHular, 2:^. 
Nuga-tumma, 4. 
Nun, bit-. 298. 

„ khari. 298. 
Nunbora, 104. 
Nuvvulu, 291. 
Nutmeif, 198. 

,. butter, 19S. 
Nuttavil, .32. 
Nut oil, :U. 
Nux- vomica, .302. 
Nyaung bandi, 130, IIH, 
Nyctanthes Arbor tristls, 207. 
Nyctanthinc, 207. 
NymphvEa Lotus, 208. 



Oak galls. 204. 

Ogimum Basilh tm. 208. 

., SANCTUM, 209. 

Okro. lo2. 
01,25. 
Oldenlandia corymbosa, 209, 

,, umbel lata, 209. 

Oleander, scented, 203. 

„ yellow, 317. 
Oleandrine, 20:i. 
Oleic acid, .34. 
Oleum Nigi-a. 74. 
Olibanum, 50. 
Olla, 25. 

Omum water, 69. 
Onion, 17. 

Onosma BHACTEATL'M, 210. 
„ E<^HI01DKH. 210. 

Ophelia Chirativ, 307. 
Ophelic acid. 307. 
Ophiorrhiza Mun(;os. 210. 
Opianine, 222. 
Opium, 219. 

xVbkari, 221. 

,, chemistry of. 222. 

„ Benares. 218. 

„ Excise, 221. 

„ habit, 227. 
Malwa, 218. 

,, me<lical. 221. 

,, Patna, 218. 

„ Provision, 221. 

„ toxicology of. 226. 
Opuntia Dillknii, 211. 
Orange bitter, 86. 

„ flowers, 86. 

„ Soville, 86. 



Orange, sweet, 86. 

Orchids, 5, 211. 

Orchis latifolia, 211. 
,, laxiflora, 211. 
„ maculata, 211. 

Orchis mascula, 211. 

Origanum Marjorana, 212. 
; Origanum vumiare, 212. 

Orilai taraami, 164. 

Oroxylin, 213. 
! Oroxylum indicum, 212. 
i Orpiment, 37. 

Orris root, 167. 

Oryza sativa, 213. 

Otto of roses. 275. 

OXALIS CORNICULATA, 214. 

Oxydimorphine, 222. 
' OXYSTELMA BSCULENTl'M, 215. 



Pachak, 287. 
Pachcha-alari, 317. 
,, yava, 156. 
Pachwai, 214. 
Paddy, 214. 
Padi, 214. 
Padma, 202. 

P.«DERIA F(ETIDA, 215. 

PaMierine, 215. 

P^EONIA EMODI, 216. 

„ officinalis, 216. 
Paeon y rose, 216, 
Paghada, 207. 
Pala, 130. 
Paiak-juhi, 269. 
Palandu, 17. 
Palds, 5.3. 
Palas-papiti, 54. 
Palasa-gond, 'A. 
Palita-madar, 121. 
Palleru-mullu, 320. 
Palm (fan), 49. 
Palmitic acid, .34. 
Palm (Palmyra), 49. 

,, (rattan). 55 

„ bugar, 9.3. 

„ wine, 93. 
Palmsc Christi (Radix), 212 

„ „ (Oleum), 271. 

Palmyra, 49. 
Palo, 318. 
Palval, 321. 
Pan, 4, 204, 239. 
Panas, 38. 
Pana salt, 248. 
Panchoti, 130. 

PaNDANUS ODORATI8SIMUS, 216. 

Pandhra-kura, 154. 
Pangra, 121. 
Panlr-bad, 329. 
Pansa, 38. 



INDKX. 



.S7J) 



P&n-8upari, 34, 239, 276, 325. 
Papain, 66. 
Papari, 229. 
Papaver Rhceas, 217. 

„ 80mnifbkum, 217. 
Papaveric aci<1, 217. 
Papaverine, 222. 
Papaw, 66. 
Papaya, 66. 

„ aniba, ()6. 
Papayotin, 66. 
Pappana. 229. 
Papra, 251. 
Paputta-vayrii, 229. 
Paramorphine, 222. 
P4r4, pdrada, 157. 
Pariera Brava (False), 84. 
PaRMRLTA perl ATA, 229. 

Parijata, 121. 

Parpata, 209. 

Parsley, 232. 

Parusha, 143. 

Parvoline, 205. 

Pasewha, 220. 

Pasnpa, 107. 

Pat, 97. 

Patang, patanjira, 55. 

Patarkuchu, 53. 

Pathar-ke-phul, 229. 

Pathya, 315. 

Pati-karam, pnti-ktii-ani, 21. 

„ nembu, 88. 
Patol, 321. 
Pat-san, 97. 
Patwa, 153. 
Patala-gandhi, 267. 
Pavakka-chedi, 191. 
Pavbtta indica, 229. 
pavonia odor ata, 229. 
Pearls, 230. 
Pea-nuts, 34. 
Pear, prickly, 211. 
Pe-atiss, 131. 
Pedauum murex, 2:^0. 
Peddagi, 260. 
Pedda-jila kurra, 132. 

„ pallcru, 2H0. 
Peepul, 132. 

Peoanum Harm a la, 231. 
Pen-bwa, 182. 
Pelletierine. 26.3. 
Pellitory, 26. 
Penneru-padda, 329. 
Peony, 216. 
Pepiya, 66. 
Pepper (betel). 239. 

,, (black), 24.3. 

„ (cayenne), 64. 

„ jGoa), 64. 

„ (ffoat), 64. 

., {Tonal 64, 241, 242. 

„ (pod), 64. 



Pepper (red), 64. 

„ (spur), 65. 

„ (white), 244. 
Peppermint, 188. 

,, camphor. 189. 
P^-pirkham, 178. 
Pepsin (vegetable), 66. 
Peramutiver, 229. 
Perioampylus incanuh, 232. 
Perich-chankay, 233. 
Pei-sian lilac, 187. 
Peru neriinji, 230. 
Peruvian Bark, 78. 
Pctarkura, 14($. 
Petit Grain, Essence, 86. 
Petroselincm sativtm. 2:)2. 
Pouc^Mlanum grande, 233. 
PKrcEDANUM oraveolrns, 2.3;^. 
Phala-traya, 144. 
Phalasi, 143. 
Phalsd, 14:^. 
Phanas, .38. 
Phani-manasa, 211. 
Pharbitis nil, 165. 
Pharbitisin, 165. 
Phashanveda, 140. 
Phatkiri, phitkari, 21. 
Phenila, 286. 
Phloroglucin, 260. 
Ph<enix dactylifera. 23:i. 

„ 8YLVESTRI8, 6, 234, 279. 
Phulw-a, phulwara, 44. 
Phutkari, 167. 
Phyllanthin. 235. 
Phyllanthus emblica, 234. 

madraspatensis, 282. 

NiRURl, 235. 

URINARIA, 235. 
Physaiis flexuosa, 330. 

,, somnifera, 3^)0. 
Physic nuts, 51, 169. 
Pial, 153. 
Picoline, 205. 
Picra'na excelsa, 236. 

PiCRASMA QUA8SIOII)£8, 2:K>. 

Picropodophyllic acid, 252. 
Picropodophyllin, 252. 
Pk-rorhiza Kurrooa, 236. 
Picrorhizetin, 237. 
Picrorhizin, 237. 
Picrotoxin, 26. 
Pikvan, jangli, 323. 
PiU, 38. 
PilA-kancr. 317. 
Pilli-adugu, 195. 
Pilpipta. 121. 
Pilu, Piludi, 282. 
Pilvu. 282. 
Pimpal, 132. 

Pimpinella Anisu&i, 237, 
Pine, chir, 238. 

long* leaved, 238. 






>t 



380 



INDEX. 



Pineapple, 27. 
Piney resin, 327. 
Pixus Deodara, 238. 

„ LOXGIFOLIA, 238. 

„ Webbiana, 1. 
Pipal, 132. 
Piper album, 244. 
Piper Betle. 239. 

„ CUABA, 241. 

„ CrBEBA, 241. 

,, LONiJlM, 242. 

„ NIGRUM, 243. 

,, officinariim, 241. 
Piperic acid, 244. 
Piperidine, 244. 
Pipeiin, 243, 244, 
Pipli (bari), 289. 

„ -mill, 242. 
Pippali-katte, 242. 
Pipul. 242. 
Pirangi-chekka, 295. 
Pista, 247. 
Pistacia cabulica, 246. 

PISTACIA INTEGERRIMA, 245. 
LENTISCUS, 246. 

,, miitica, 246. 

,, Terebinth U8, 246. 
VERA, 247. 
Pistachio nut, 247. 
Plstia Stratiotes, 248. 
Pit-chandan, 283. 
Pitkaii, pitmari, 323. 
Pit-p:ipard, 134. 
Pit-sal. 200. 
Pitraj, 24. 
Pitta, 126. 
Pittvel, 201. 
Piyaj, piyaz, 17. 

,, jangli, 325. 
Piyal, 53. 
Piyard, 2>8. 
Plantago amplexicaulia, 249. 

,, Ispaghula, 248. 
Plantago ovata, 248. 
Plantain, 196. 
Plum (black), 123. 

„ (Bokhara), 257. 
Plumbagin, 250. 
Plvmbaoo rosea, 250. 

„ ZEYLANICA, 250. 

Poda-patra, 144. 
Podina-ka-tel, 189. 
Podinc-kc-phul, 189. 
Podophyllic acid, 252. 
Podophyllin, 251, 312. 
Podophyllotoxin, 252. 
Podophylloquercetin, 252. 

POm>l»HTLLUM EMODI, 251. 

„ poltatum, 251. 

Pogoda, 191. 
Pogdku. 204. 
Po-ho-yo, 189. 



Polanasia Icosandra, 89. 
Pomegranate, 144, 262. 
Pon)in-kottai, 286. 
Ponga, pongam, 254. 

PONGAMIA GLABRA, 254. 

„ oil, 254. 

Popal, 34. 
Poppy capsules, 226. 

(Mexican), 35. 

oil, 229. 

(opium), 217. 

petals, 217. 

(prickly), 35. 



»♦ 



»t 



„ (red), 217. 
,, seeci, ^mO. 






seed oil, 229. 
(white), 217. 
Porphyroxin, 223. 

POTASSU NiTRAS, 254. 

Poshur, 65. 
Post, 217. 
Postaka-tol, 217. 
Posto (lal), 217. 

„ dheri, 217. 
Prasdrani, 215. 
Protocatechuic acid, 260. 
Pro to pine, ^2. 
Pruni's amygdalus, 256. 

„ communis, 257. 
Pseudaconitine, 7. 
Paeudo-brucine, 267. 

cliiratin, 235. 

curarine, 203. 
,, morphine, 222. 
PSIDIUM GUYAVA, 2£8. 

Psora LEA gorylifolia, 258. 
Pterocarpi Lignum, 261. 
Ptorocarpin, tSjl. 
Pterogarpds Marsupium, 260. 
„ santalinus, 261. 

Ptychotis Ajwan, 69. 
„ coptica, 69. 
Pudind, 188. 
Pudind-kc-phul, 189. 
Pulan-kishanga, 108. 
Puli-chinta.ku, 214. 
Puliyam-pazham, 309. 
Puli-ydrai, 214. 
Pulque, 14. 
Pu-maram, 288. 
Pumichakarei, 179. 
Pumpkin, 104. 
Punaik-kdli, 195. 
Punarnaba, 48. 
Pungam-maram, 254. 
PuNicA Granatum, 262. 
Punicin, 2&3. 
Punioo-tannic acid, 262. 
Purpurin, 277. 
Piiskii, 288. 
Puta-tiga, 179. 
Putiki, 143. 



I^ro-catochin, 260. 
I^roiylin, 143. 



Qikilacbo-kiUilii. 2i. 
Qalambnk, 87. 
Qiahrul-khosh-khaab, 317. 
Quawia, 23(S. 
QDUiiin, 236, 233, 341). 
Queroetiii. n2S. 
Uuereltrin, 1&4. 
QuEHUus mrw?ri>RH, 284, 
Quince, 109. 

„ (BenKftI), 12. 
Quinetiiiu, 80. 
Qulnidine. 82. 
uuinine. 



Quiwul-borri, 191. 



Bab, 270. 
Baaial], 266. 
B&i,51. 

„ makra, Ki. 

„ «ariih&, 61. 

lUkaa-Kaddah, QT. 
Baku-pat, 14. 
Bakta-chandana, 261. 

„ -Handham, 261. 

„ -Eftn>bal, II. 

„ -kinchan, 4fi. 

., -n6sla,217. 
Bil.293. 
Kftla-kailH, Iffl). 
Bnnipatri. 199. 
Bam til, 144. 
Ram turai. 132. 
BanoRU, 2o4. 

BANfiiA [lUueTOBCi.i, 265. 
Randiiiii, 3S. 
Ban.tumi, 178. 
Rape seed, SI. 
Raphanus sAnvcB, 266. 
Has. 279. 

■Raaa-kiirpura, 167. 
R.-iHiim(illii, il.n?, 
Bautut,46. 



Raiiln, IT. 
Batanjli, 261. 

BBtADJot, 210. 

Ratanpurs, IM. 

RaU,£ 

Baupy*. 35. 

Bauwolfii bbbpentina, 267. 



267. 



Realgar, 37. 

Rechanaka, 179. 

Reh, 43. 

Red Gum, 122. 

Red- wood Ti-ee, 301. 

BeKu,334. 

Hoiiiiet. vojntlable, 329. 

lles<jmn.r»,261. 

Kuralcliini piil, l.%. 

Rpvaleiilji. 17.';. 

Ri'vand-chiiiL. 2G7. 

Bhein, 268, 

Bhkuh emodi, 267. 

>, MoorOToftinniii- 

,. oHiriuale, 367. 

,1 ralmatum, 267. 

■■ Webbutnum, 267. 

KHINACANTI]1.'K CO.VMrwTK, ■'li 

Hhcsadic Qci<l, 217 
BhcBadinB. 217, 2i'. ■ 
HhcpoiceiiinR, 222. 
BhubBi'b, 267. 
Rice, 213. 
Ricin. 27.1. 
Ricinine, 273. 

BIcinoli'ate o( Glyceryl, 272. 
Rioinoleio ncid, 273, 
ttitiinra 'OMh !.■,■«», 270. 
Bimda, 156. 
Bitha, 286, 

., Imm, 286. 
Roatanpi. »*8- 

Kohun, :m. 

Bohini, :XI1. 
Bohitaka. 24. 
Roja-puvoii, 275. 
Rojia-cha tibiil,3(e. 
Kojniaii, e. 
Bona bengnlenaii, 27u. 

„ (.-ontifolia, 276. 
Bos A DAM AS(;B^A, 275. 
BosafcinlUQ, 201. 
RosapiiiH. Cortex, 204. 
Rosauniliir, 167. 
Rose, 276. 

„ attar of, 275. 

„ mallooa, 177. 

Roahel. I'OahSt, W. 

Bottlora tinctorin, 179. 

Bottlcrin. 180. 

BouRc vi^Hetale, 68. 

Baiolle, IM. 

Bii, 142. 

Biii-KhiU . :ffl. 

Rubber tree, 1311. 

Rubbi-rerind. 136. 

RVBIA oOBPirOLU, 277, 306. 



9H± I 

Rui, 1*2, _„ 

Rumex nepaleiiiii, 269. 
RunmUin, 2B2. 
Eiipd, 35. 
Bupi. 5. 
Ri^k. 138. 
Ru><a oil, ao. 
Ruxa-ka-tel, 30. 
Rusot, 16. 

RrTA ORAVBOLESB, 2T7. 

Bnvj-a. 115. 

S 
Babji. 60. 113. 
Hahm,. 'JON. 

BAtX'HiKlM OFriClNARVM, 27H. 
Sadib, 277. 
Haddp. 277. 
Dafcii-chanini, 161. 

,, chnndan. 283. 

„ chiim, 250. 

„ dl.ntnra.lll. 

,. ni<»li. 38, lOe. 

„ rai. .11. 

„ mnbul, 37. 
Kafflower. 68, 102. 
Kahu, 12S. 
Bafr&li, 102. 
Haflron. 102. 

(wild), 68. 
Saga, 100. 
BMOwani, 111. 
Saint Isnatius' Bean. 302. 
Sajji-ra^tl. 43. 
m. sala, 293. 
EUld-miHiri, 211. 
Salab-min-i.211. 

„ (bodBhah), 211. 
Salaparni, 114. 
8Bl4mmo&Eac,23. 
Balep orchid, 211. 

„ min-l, 124. 211. 

.. (royal), 211. 
Ball<:in. SHO. 281. 
Kalicylic acid (natmikl), 138. 
Haux Cafbka, ail. 

„ tetTasperma, 281. 
»alga,GO. 
Hallow. 281. 
Salpani. 114. 
HiUtd (biri'ti), ISO. 
Halt, onmmon, 297. 
galtpeli'e. 254. 
Balnulora oleoidos. 282. 
BalVauAka ri(iwitA,2S2. 
Salvailorine. 282. 
Salvia O'lnrptiaca, 283. 

„ piebou, -m. 

Salvia HFinnu, 282. 
Snmailara. 2S3. 
Samaubba iMorcA.SSS. 



I Saina(lerin.283.3«>. 
I Samaadar-ki-pit. 36. 
' Sambala-tiBbara, 31. 
I Sambmni chi?ttii, ISU 
I Samphire. IT4. 
I Sampirani. 147. 

SaiDUdrapala. 38. 
. SaiDundar-phal. 43. 
, Sana, 71. 
I „ -e-himli. 71. 

Sanbulkhai'. 37. 
, Sandal oil. 28*. 
' ., (re.1). 201. 

Sanilale aurkb. 261. 
I 8andalwcK>d, 283. 
I Sandaiiak'katlai, 'J83. 
I Sanders (rHl). 261. 
. SanKi-Burmab. 32. 
i SankhAhuH, (H. 
I Sankhapuflhpi. 62. 
I Sarikhia. 37. 
I Santal. 261. 

Bantalic acid. -261. 

Santalin, 2ttl. 
! Bantalol, 284. 

BlNTALVU ALBVII, 283. 

Bantonin, SJ. 
Bapiniluii dEtcrtcenn, 286. 

„ cmarginatDS, 286. 

„ MukonuBt, 286. 

SaPINDUS TBIFOLlATnS, 119, 2 

Snpomn, 43, 121. 206, 386. 
Sap pan Wood. 55. 
Snptaparna. 20. 
BAKitA INWCA, 286. 
.. 192. 



^anwuTi 



210. 



Sai'isI 



,. 51. 



\a Cndamba, 31. 



Bariva. 150. 162. 
Sdrpitkshi. 210. 
Sarpashi cbettu, 210. 
Sarmparilla tcountry), ISO, VS. 

„ • (Indlaol, IM. 
Sinhaf. S2. 
Sanbap, SI. 



SaUvari,m 
Satiwar, 38. 
Sithm, 212. 
Sati, 108. 
8ati-dl6. . _ 
SatTin, 20. 



318. 



Saussubra L«pp*, SST. 
Savaodra-mul, 28. 
Savirela, 215, 
8a-yo mai, 243. 
SraraiDony, H. 

SCBl.&tCHBRATRI.rC(iA,ft 

8cUlttm,33e. 

SCILLA tNDICA.S89. 

Scillipicrin. 326. 
BciiliWKin. 326. 

8ctKDAPl4U)l OtTICINALtS, 

Seopolu acoleaU, 319. 

SeaHtocoanut. ITS. 

Sebesten Fruit, 97. 

8oerl-lM3, 02. 

Sehnnri, 124. 

Sbmicakpus Axacardium, 

Semla-e'Oni], 43. 

Semul, semul, ti. 

Seraul uiihIii, 4II. 

Sendhi. TM. 

Senko bish, 37. 

Senbo, iorodc, 37. 

Senna (country). 72. 

„ pckIm, 71. 

„ aaphera, 73. 

„ (Tinnevelly), 71, 
Sonaitivu plant, 190. 
Sooli. 207. 
Sephalika. 20T. 
Serinei. '^'11 ■ 
a,2Dl. 



■289. 



Shahtara. KU. 
Shab-tut. 193. 
Sb&jna. 192. 
BhatAlgui. 39. 
fihakkar^ 279. 

safed, 270. 
Hlial. 30:). 
Sbili-miBbiri,211. 
Shiluk, 2IH. 
Shampagni puv 
Hhanipan^, \dO. 
Sbam udil I ra.|i- poch 
ShaptiaaiirKlo, 166. 

ghamb, 16. 
Shftrifa, 30. 
Sbo-ube, 153. 
Shidl'btc, 02. 
Shembal, 48. 
Mheiii-mn.niin,M, 301. 
Shemlri, 17!!. 
Hhi^ii-kottai,290, 
Slien ihanilanam, 261, 
8hepfaer(l'apiinc,63. 
Shenwii, 278. 
Sheth kiLrabt, 203. 
Bhe*4ri, 202. 
8h«wuii,142. 



190. 



ghiijim, 06. 

6hib, 21. 

Shib, shih, 37. 

Shila-rasani, 177. 

Shiiuneoranti' vittulu, 231. 

Sbiinai Luba-vanai-vinUj23I. 
., madalai-vi:^, 109. 

Shindil-kodi. 318. 

Shingraf, 157. 

ShiAhialit. lai. 
1 ahiru-kiirdnia, 144. 

„ nari-veugayam, 289. 
1 Shivadai, I6T. 
I Sbivappu-chittira, 230. 
I Shopa, bai-i, 132. 

Sborvkalmi, 255. 
„ mitha. 254. 

ShoBGA KOH'sIa, 293. 

Shu<li. 1T4. 

Sbiidimiidi, 312. 

Shak-china. 20). 

Skukai, 294. 

Sbukkii. 3:t2. 

Sbiil. 12. 

Shuniuo, 326. 

Sbunain, 17. 

Shurali, 147. 

Si^l Unia, :t3. 

8iama Intii, 1^2. 
, Sii)Af<)nmi"iLiA,294. 
„ carplnifolia, 294. 
„ rhombifolia, 291. 
„ Hpino-u, 291. 

Siddhi, Xl. 

SiBOEsBt:i-KiA obie:itai,i3, 293. 

Si], 124. 

Sililraa, 21. 177. 

Silhaka. 177. 

Silk Cotton Ti-ec, 48. 

Silver, :t\ 

Simul, 48. 

Sinapis (ap.). HI, 

SinKhara, 310. 

Sintro-raonr, 318. 

Sipanddne-aufaid, 51. 

Mir, 17. 

Sirka, Hirkah. Hirko, 3. 

Strop <ie capillajre, 11. 

SiCapalam, 30. 

Sitapandu. 30. 

Silapbal. :«. 

Situahiika, LiH. 

fiiyil d&na. 206. 

Siya-miisli. t06. 

Bmi.iX China. 206. 

Snako-wot'd, 302. 

Soau-niit, 110, 280, 

SobhAiijnna, 192. 

Soda, oarbonate, 4.t. 
„ rivfnolMt«. it*. 
„ •u)pbat«. 398. 

Sodlnm Uborat«, 2M. 



S84. 

Sodium chloride, "ST. 

Sohikire, 13->. 

Soini, 102. 

Sok. 13. 

Bolanidine, 290. 

Solanino, SSffl. ,^, 

SOLANCM DUKAMAKA, 20!l, 
„ INDICUM, 'J99, 

„ MBIXISOESA. 30lt. 

SIORHM, 300. 

x»nthoi.lCT. 300. 
Somanti, 39*^. 
SomM, 237. 
goniida-inanii. 301. 
SomiiifBriiie. SW). 
Soni, 40, 213. 
Sona-miikhi, 71, T2. 
Soncpit, T2. 
Sonchus olerueeii-i, .11 J- 
Sondil, 71. _ 

Sont, Honth, sonti, -132. 
Sooran. 2>'i. 
SorA, 254. 
Soiu-kdya. 172. 
Soriai-kai, 172. 
Sorrel, 214. 
Sorrel (reil), 1 J3. 
Sorson, Bl. 
Son-a.233. 
Soya. 233. 

80VMII>* FBBRIKIfU, ,«1. 

SuhattktL, 31. 

Spikenard, 200. 

Bpii-lt (country). 10. 

SpoLrel aeeat, 248. 

Sqiull. 289. 

,, (Inrfiaiil, 32!>. 

SriinUa kantaka, 3'>. 

Srin^tnkn, 310. 

Sringnvera, 332. 

Srinei. a*-"*. 

Bripbal, 12. 

8tercillia<uuininaUL,tH. 

Stioklac. B2. 

8torai,21,177. 

StnLmoniiim, 113. 

Stniphantliidin, 302. 

StrophMithiti, 302. 

Strophantliu*, 301. 

Btrychnic add, 3IXt. 

Strychnine, Si. 120. Wa. 303. 

STEyCHSOft lONATII, 302. 

HUX-VOMICl, .~ 
POTATORUM, 305, 

SnuAx Benzoin, 308. 
Sufed. Sm Sated. 
Bugandha-MU, 220. 

„ raurichajWl. 

„ piiiiya, 230. 

„ plppali, 24.3. 
BufTKr, 278. 



.302. 



Sukh^darw 
Sukhmiin 
Sulpha. 233. 



Ktii,ri 



i.30fl. 



Mumbiili-Miidi.aOO. 
Sunbullittib, 200, 
SuDd^li, 71. 
SuuBower, 148. 
SuDC-miirl, 124. 
Simth, 332. 
Supilri. .34, 
Supari kOi-phLiI, 48. 
Huporbitie. 141. 
Siipliaidi-khus, 2S9. 
8iira, IQ. 



Sui iakhar. 254. 
SuHnjan, 96. 

L-ohfrin, S5. 
Surjavarta, 143. 
Sumii, 32. 

Surmali-i-istolmni, 32. 
l^urniah-hd-pattluu', 32, 
Siir>-akdnli, 164. 
Suvarnn, 4U. 
Suvarnaka, 71, 






Swai 



1.40. 



■i-t, 50. 



307. 



Swcot almond, SSO. 
„ chiretla. 307. 
,. Flag. 9. 

Sffcrtia anzuBtifolia, 

SWERTIA CBtKATA, 

Swet-chandnn, 2S3. 
S\viet«nia fehrifuea, 301, 
Syanrn lutit, 102. 

SVHPIXMXBi 

Synaptose. 'Ji 
Syoiiaka, 212. 

SVZVIilUM Jj 



Tabaahir. 43. 
Ta-fiiniF-t<ie, 147, 
Ta(tar,326. 

„ ganthoda, 326, 
Taqetek bhecta. 300, 

,. patula, 309. 
Taj-kalam, 83. 
Taipat. 83. 
T4k. 187. 
Takke, 13. 
TU, t&la, 40, 201. 
Tila-niulii-mulifaL 106. 
Talimkhana, 130. 



^^^^H^ 


H 




Tssa. S3. 


H 


TftliiiftkhaiiB, 159. 


Tatran-kotlai. 305. 




Tftinft.106. 


Tbtiunthora lanrirolia. 177. 




l^mil, 136. 


,, Roxburghii. 177. 
Totu, ^2. 




T&niar-biDdJ, 310. 
Tamurind. SOB. 




THALICTRrU FOLIOLOPCM. 97 


^M 


TAMAULVIIDB DJPlC.l, 309. 


ThiUma. 234. 




Tamarisk, 311. 


Thayet. 181. 
Thabaicine. 222. 




., manna. .111. 




■bmariiarticuiata, 311. 


Thehaino, 222. 




TAM4B1X O-VLLICA, 133. 311. 


Thebenine. 222. 




Ttunbokhu, -204. 


Thobolnctio add, 222. 




Tamboli, 239. 331. 


Theine, 57, 91. 




TumiB. lOS. 


Th.%mn, 156. 
Theobromine. W. 




Hnbi,ia5. 




TBEVETIA NBMITOUA,317. 




Tindra-kiya, 313. 
TuibBoa. 206. 


Tl.il8i. 185. 




Tholkuri, 168. 




Tannic acid. 2&1. 265. 


Thor, lae. 




Tanmn, 283.265. 
Tinrik-kiy. 313. 


Thora-pimpali, 289. 
Thorn-apple. 113. 






Tannpai. 162. 


Thridace. l?i 




Tapioca, 182. 


Thuno, 312. 




Tir. 49. 


Thymol, 09. 




TM»njabin. 17, 133. 


Thy m 113 viilgariB. 69. 
Tidhara aehund, 12*. 








TaraxBcin. 312. 


Tilcar, Vf7. 






Tikhor, 182. 
Tikta-Jugdha, 215. 




T*KAXACrU OPPIOINALE. 311. 




Twbum, 85. 


Tikla-raj, 21. 




T^ (palm tod>ly), 49. 234. 


Til. tila. 291. 




lUrmuJ, 85. 


TiUa-- 




Tartaric acid, 53. 




Tattiw (Khua-Khaa). 29. 


Tinduka. 115. 




Tatulft. HI. 


TiDkal. tinkar, 296. 




Tavakshn, 107. 


TlNOBl^RA CXlRUirOLIA, 318. 




Taiino. 313. 


TiDpani, 201. 




TAXD8 BACCATA, 1. 312. 

T4»han-cli(idi, 2^6. 


sxarii'.'- 






Tea. 57. 


Tisi, 176. 




TeeL 8w Til. 


Tito, 96. 






Tobacco. 204. ' 




iS"^"''^ 




,. 'camphor. 205. 




l<etinRn I^otato*. 25. 


Todd ALIA aculkata. 319. 




Toddy (palm), 49. B3. 




Telinr-poka, 197. 


TonB-panB-chong, 270. 
Tooa-br-uah Tree. 282. 




TelM-kaluva, 20S. 




„ kucha, 76. 


Toka.pana, 248. 




.. manga. 137. 
TeUichBrry bark. 164. 


TraBBcanth, 39. 




TiLAPA BISPINOBA. 319. 




TrapuBha. IM. 




Ten, tone. 1S3. 


Treacle, 279. 




TendD. 116. 


TBJBiaUB TBRRESTHK, 320. 




Tantidi, 309. 


lanuKinoBUB. .120. 




Tentul, 309. 






TEWdSALlA Arjuna, 313, 


TBJCHOSANTHE3 DIOIOA, 321 




„ belerica, 313. 


poliDBta, 321. 




Catappa. 314. 




L „ Ohbbl'la. 316, 


Trifolia, 201. ' 




^■krra Japooioa. 3, 3^. 






Trioonella FiE.'Jiijf-oK.Kcrw 


321. ^M 


^H[ ID 


25 


M 



386 



INDEX. 



Trigonella uncata, 188. 
Trigonelline, 322. 
Trimethylamine 282. 
Trinaraj, 49. 
Tripatra, 12. 

Triphal, triphala, 235, 264, 314. 
Triputi, 173. 
Tri-ricinoleine 273. 
Tri-stearin, 134. 
Triticura cestivum 322. 
Triticum sativum, 322. 

,, vulgai*e, 322. 
Tukhm-i-nil, 165. 
Tukhrai-balanga, 173. 
Tuk-kung, 146. 
Tukm-i-kahu, 171. 
Tula, 142. 
Tulasi, 208, 209. 
Tulsi (babui). 208. 

„ kala. 208, 209. 
Tumblka, 115. 
Tumburu, 331. 
Tumil, 115. 
Tumn, 172. 
Tumru, 331. 
Tura, 131. 
Turai, 178. 
Turbund, 167. 
Turmeric, 107. 

(Cochin), 107. 

(wild), 107. 
Turpeth Root, 167. 
Turpethin, 167. 
Tut, 193, 288. 
Tutri, 193. 
Tuttha, 105. 

Tylopuora asthmatic a, .32.3. 
Tylophorine, 324. 



U 

Uchchhe, 191. 
Ud-sdlap, 216. 
Udumbara, 131. 
Ughai-puttai, 282. 
Ukh, 278. 
Ulatkarabal, 1. 
Umatai, 111. 
Ummatta-vriksha, 111. 
Uncaria Gambibr, 321. 
Upalet, 287. 
Uparsara, 150. 
Upas Tree, 32. 
Uppu, 297. 

UrOINEA INDICA, 325. 

Scilla, 289. 
Us, 278. 
Usereki, 234. 
Usira, 2S. 
Utami, 111. 
Utta-reni, 6. 



I 



Vabbula, 3. 
Vach, vacha, 9. 
Vadaja, 9. 
Vadan-kottai, 256. 
Vahela, 313. 
Vaivarang, 120. 
Vajra-kantaka, 124. 
Vaka, 293. 
Vakuchi, 258. 
Valei, 196. 

Valeriana Hardwickii, 326. 
„ Jatamansi, 200. 
„ officinalis, 326. 
Valeriana WALucHn, 326 
Valmilaku, 241. 
Valeric acid, 266,326. 
Vallarai. 158. 
Valli-pala, 323. 
Valumberi, 149. 
Vanaharidrd, 107. 
Vana-palan dam, 325. 
Vanatiktika, 91. 
Vanda Roxburghii, 6. 

„ Wightiana, 5. 
Vanga-maram, 212. 
Vansa, 42. 
Vara-gogu, 282. 
Varanda, 209. 
Varuna, 101. 
Vasa-nubhi, 7. 
Vasaka, 10. 
Vashambu, 9. 
Vata, 129. 

Vateria indica, 327. 
Vayavarna, 101. 
Vayu-vilamgan, 120. 
Vedda-vela, 4. 
Vegetable Marrow, 04. 
Veila, 189. 
Vela-knra, 145. 
Velai, 145. 
Vella, 31. 

„ raarda, 313. 
Vollai-kungiliyam, 327. 
Vellarin, 158. 
Velligaram, 296. 
Velluli, 17. 
Vembu, 186. 
Vondaikkay, 152. 
Vendakaya, 152. 
Vengai-maram, 260. 
Venkaram, 296. 
Vepa-chetta, 186. 
Veppalei, 154. 
Veri-pala, 323. 
Verkadalai, 33. 
Vernsana-gakaya, 33. 
Verri-bira, 178. 
Veti-vert, 28. 
Vottilai, 239. 



INDEX. 



387 



* > 



»• 



Vetaver. 28. 
Yidanga, 120. 
Vidan, 165. 
Yilayati-babul, 4. 

kangaij 180. 
mehndi, 200. 
„ nim, 187. 
Yilva-pazham, 12. 
Vilyadele. 239. 
Vine, 328. 

Vinegar, 5. * 

Viola odorata, 327. 
Viola-quercitrin, 164, 327. 

,, serpens, 327. 

„ sanriiticosa, 164. 
Violet (wild), 327. 
Violin, 327. 
Virana, 28. 
Visha, 7, 8. 
Vishna nuir, 7. 
Vms VINIFEEA, 328. 
Vrihati, 299. 
Vrihi, 213. 
Vriddha-daraka, 36. 
Vuchnag, 7. 
Vuggi-turki, 7. 



w 

Wall, 142. 

Walnut (Indian), 16. 
Water-melon, 85. 
Wax (white), 76. 

„ (yellow), 76. 
Wheat, 322. 
Wild Mustard, 89. 

,, Saffron, 67. 

., Turmeric, 107. 
Willow-honey, 281. 
Wintergreen, 138. 

WiTHANIA COAGULAN8, 329. 
„ SOMNIFERA, 330. 

Withanin, 330. 
Wood-apple, 126. 
„ oil, 116. 

WOODFORDIA rLORIBUNDA, 331. 

Worm-seed, 37. 
Wormwood, 38, 



Wrightia antidysenterica, 154. 
„ tinctoria, 155. 



Xanthaline, 222. 



Yamani, 69. 

Yarrow, 6. 

Yashti-madhu,-mathukam, 141. 

Yava, 156. 

Yebruj, 40. 

Ye-kha-ong, 130. 

Yela-kulu, 24. 

Yermaddi, 313. 

Yerra-chitra, 250. 

Ye-tha-pan, 131. 

Yetti-kottai, 300. 

Yew. 312. 

Ylan^-ylang, 58. 

YuthiKJEi purni, 269. 



Zafran, 102. 
Zachu, 176. 
Zak-safed, 21. 
Zake-sabz, 105. 
Zakham-haiyat, 53. 
Zakhm-hyat, 171. 
Zambak, 168. 
Zamin-kand, 25. 
Zanghi-har, 315. 
Zanjabil, 332. 

Zanthoxylum alatum, 331. 
Zaravandi hindi, .%. 
Zardak, 113. 
Zedoary, 108. 

(yellow), 107. 
Zingiber officinale, 332. 
Zira, 105. 
Zirir, 188. 
Ziziphlc acid, 334. 
Zizipho-tannic acid, 334 
ZlZYPHUS JUJUBA, 334. 
„ vulgaris, 334. 
Zufah-i-yabis, 162. 
Zughal, 65. 





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^^■^HlHTORT, Cirs-rOHS.TRATHLS, 1 


.re. 8 1 


TH*cK«it'B UdiahDi 


..CT...... H 


^^rO«rT. UATas'WoitKBoxHonaae 11 | 


M*i-9. KTC. 




^MiJPOBT AND VktKRII'AHT Wo 


Kia 13 


N*T.iH«i,Hi8TO«r. Bi 


IT.KT, KTO. S3 ^1 


^^KMbDICINR, nrolINK, KTO. 


... IG 


HlKDIJSTXHI, P.KSI.M 


■ 


^H^DoMRSTio Hooks ... 


... 18 1 Bi>i.K-Kiii(Pi«o,4o,. 


■ 


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THE BSCOND BOMBAEDMEKT AND CAFTUBS OF FOST VILLUM. 

Cauiutta. An Ace<mii( ol tlir Bomlistdmcni al Foci William, lod ibt 
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Ac,, by ■ RuiUii FIral iiid Aimf, Compiled Iidid Uk Oiuicaal Pmim 
Skmo' Vnno^fwr and Ganeral TaOodkih. Trinilattd hoip iIh 
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mSTOKY, CUSTOMS, TRAVELS, btc. 

THE EABLY ANNAL8 OF TBE ENOUSH D) BENOAL : BKUto thi 

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idle ambition 



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T1m*> 

MIDt , 

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■purl from atl ilieolonlcni prepoaieaiinn, and bla volume ie likely ta be a 
uelul book of reference," — Guardian. 

MODEBN HINDmBU : ntana Ay Aocount op the Rbuoiox inp 

l.iFKof tbeHinriui in Noriliern India. Br W. J. Vrii.KiiiB. author nf 
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THE DEAHHAPADA: OR, SoRtFTCTKiL Texts. A Book of Buddhiat 

PrrcFrta and MaiitniB. Tranalated from Ibe Pali on Ibe Busia of Burmeac 
Mirtusarl|ii. By JahM Ghit, Seeond Edition. 8 to. boards. Re, 1, 

TEE ETHICS OF IBLAH. A I.n?rimE BY TBS Hoh'BLe Aubse A'T . 

U.I.B., Author of "Tbo Spirit of lalom," "The Pencmal Lav of tlM 

Hnliomedans," etc. Crnwii Sto, cImIi gilt, Ks. >-8, 

An allompL lowarda ibetipoaition of lallmio Ethiciin the EnKliab laaK>>M«. 

Beaidea moai of the Koranle Ocdlnaneu, a number ol ttae preeepu and iajinfa 

of Ibe Prophet, Ilie Calipb Ali, and ol 'Our Ladj.' are mnalaled and gifcn, 



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THEOSOPHICAL CHRISTIAHITT. An AnnKBSS BV L. S. Saoond 

liditinn, lieviae,! ,m<[ Kiilnrup,!. Smnll 4t", A>. 8. 

EASROABIA (EASTBBK OR CHINESE TDBKESTAH). Histobical. 

ArniT. rrsQsiiiiBd by Mnj. Govr*s, H.'m.'s Indian Army. Svo." lii, 3. 



ANCIENT INDIA AS DESCRIBED B7 HEGASTHEHES AND ABBIAN. 

Wiih [nirmluciio.1, N.nes, nnd n Mm. ..f AiiPiem Indis. By J. W. 
McCWIIDLK, M.A. Hv,.. Kg. 2-». 

THE COHUERCE AND NAVia&TtOH OF THE EBTTHBAAH SEA: 

Periplua Mule Ervihriei; and of Ajrion'* Ateoun. of ihe Voriiee of 
Nrarkhoi, Willi I'nlr.iduetion, CominfnUry. NotE-, und Indeit.' By J. 
W. MfCHisnLK. M.A. 8vD. R.. a. 

ANCIENT INDIA AS DESCRIBED BT ETESIAS THE KNIDIAN. 

A Tr«niUlion of ilie Aliridgment ol i,h 'iFidiko,' Uv Pl..iiioa. Wilh 
Introdncticn, Notes, In.lox. By J, W. McCKinnLit, H.*. 8vo, Kb. 3. 

A UEUOnt OF CENTRAL INDIA, 



ic. Rfp,-inlid from Third Ediiii 
BOOK OF INDIAN ERAS. WtiH Tablbs v 



K>,a, 



}1 Sdilii'i 



dotli, lii 



>, lt«, 1 



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•• Will atuorb llie atieiition of all who delifilil in driiiinK r«ord« i)f adven- 
ture and Baring, It ia im mere compiUtion, but an eariiwl and bii)(hllv 
written b"ok."—Ih>ils Chronictt. 

A OBinOAL EXPOSITION OF THE POPULAR "JIHAD." SaowiNO 
tint all iha Wars nf UHhammad were defensivd, and tlial AEKreaaire 
War or ConiDtilaarv Cutiverilun in not nllnwrd in the Koran ie, B.r 
Moiilaci CHKKinii Ali, auihi.r uf ■■ Relnrm. under Moslem RBla." 
" Hyderabad nndor Sir SaJar Jung." 8vn. Itg. 6. 

IIU7AH-HA : THE HOHE OF THE BDRHAN. By Taaya (Rev. H. 



Poi 



t.g. 



Rj. • 



TRACKER. SPINK AND CO.. CALCUTTA. 



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TH 



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dUH-LnSHAI LAND. iKCLimnfo a DKSCRiFnoH or tbb VARioira 

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Country. B; SurgD.-Liout.-ColoQel A. 8. Rkid. u.b.', Indian Medieal 
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gilt. Ba. 12. 
Canuini a description of tlia Chin-Lotbii Hills iiid iheir inbiliiunU, 



th« wild mountBinoui I'txcc which Utt l>ei» een I».b> i 



, Ueing given 



Gottttt, 

THE IBIAQE OF WAB ; OS SEBTICE nf THE CHin HUXS. A Coi^ 

LEcnoS of 34 Full-pnge Cnllotyp™ °f InaUntaiieoue i'botognipha and 
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Eipeditioii."— rAe Tivui. 

nature ol the counlrf ini<ri;h«il ibrouch. melhMl of cimiiaLgn. and ila'ly social 



AM INDIAN JODENAUST : being ti 
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Rnjjel." !iy F. H.Skiiink, i.c,8. Wi 

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THE EHFEBOK AKBAB. A OoNTKiBtiTiON TOWAUDii the HisToaY 
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TKRD. SvDDd Edition. Enlarged and IllDitraied. Post Sto. Rs. 6. 

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wbicli the value will irorfaio wilh years."— jBajiijAmmi. 



<i tbe kind of 



CAPT. HAYES' WORKS ON HORSES. 
ILLHSTRATED HOBSE BKEAEINQ. Br CtPTAis- M. H. Hates. 
Second Edition. Numerouji lllnstrannns by .1. H. Ogwai.d-BhOws. 
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SCHHARTOFCOTrrBnTS:— MeutalQualiTiesof llie Hora*— Theory of Horse 
CoHirol—Theory of MouibinR— Walhods of Horse Control— Brealtioy un Fool 
—Ordinary Moonteil Brvakme—Teaebinu Horse" In Jump— Urea king to 
Harness— School Breiking- Breaking for Spuial Work- Faults of Moulh— 
Faults of Temper— Circus Tiicka- Index. 

"One areat merit of tbe book u ita simulicitv."- /ndian Doilf iVnoi. 

"A work which ia entitled to high Dtnise as beine far and away tbe beat 
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years." — TVmss of India, 

SJOmO: ON THE FLAT AND ACROSS COUNTRT. A Oxtidk TO 
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and Enh 
The whole te 



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" A very instructive and readable book." — Sport. 

" Tbis usetal and eminently practical biwk." — Frttman't Journal, 



ibe work the 



THE FOIHTB OF THE HOBSE. A Familiar Tbbatisho 

class ol borses consists. By CapUin M. II. Hatrs. lllustr 
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nnilAir BACIHO BEHIinSCENOES : BKINO EarBBTAIHIRO Nabba- 
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TETEOINAST NOTES FOB HOBSE-OWHEBS. A Fopolar Gttide 

I□H<lr9l^MeclicinEsadSu[R«^v. Dv Cipmin U. H. Haim. Fifth Edi- 
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Xen HlDstrftlioni by J. H. USWALD-Bnnwn. Croira 8to, backram. 

[ /n tht Prat 

The chief new maiwr in this Edition ii'-Aitiales on Contracied Heela, 
Doakev'a Foot Diseue, ForKing or CliekinK, Rheumatie Joint Diuue, 
Abicest, Diilocuion ot tlie Shoulder Joint, Inflammaiion of the Mouth and 
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Fever, Cane Horie Sidmesi, Horsa STphilia, Rabiei, Megrims. SuKiten, 



ipular veteiioary books irhieh have ao: 
le of the moat aoienttfio and reliable, 
ims and tbe direotions for the apnlioai 



"SiniDlicitr ixone of tbemostcommendable features in Che book,"— /Jfau- 
Iraitd 3porling and Dranntic NltBM, 

"Capuin Haves, in the new edition of -Veteritmrr Xotea.' bi> ad.led aon< 
■Iderably in it* valne, and rendered the book more utelui to those nnii-proles- 
ikinal people who may be inclined or cninpetlwl to treat theif own borHW 
''' — ^- 1— J " -VtltHaary Jnvnial. 



when liok oi 
"We 



«lni 



n aenerai a 



TBAnnHQ AND HOBSE MAHAaEMENT IN INDIA. Bv Oaftain M. 
H. Hatks, Anrhor of " 7«iermnrv Noifa inr Horse-Owners," " RidinR," 
ic. Filth Edition. Crown 8ra. ' Its. 6. 



— reterinnry Jimrnal, 



Concise, practiokl. 



THACKEK. SPINK AND CO.. CALCUTTA. 



Sport and Veierinaif/ Wtn-ks. 



.BODHDHESS AND AOE OF HOUSES. A VBTBRtiCABy ami Lgoai. 

1 ol Uiits»a (or Soiiniliie«>, dr Csptaiil M. H. 

1 100 UluaiTiitiMns. Crown Svo. Ra. S. 
1 Ha:r« i' eniitinl to inuu)i oredii for ibe explictl mil wialble 



G bu d 



T qUMI 



— Vtltriaarjf Journal 

"All who liait borira If bur, Mil. or keep will llnd plenCr lo inreresr lliem 

wrinkles."— Rtfem, 

" Gsplain Hsyen' work is evidtntly the ntnli of muab carcfiil ruuicb, and 

jaiiand iiiMruotive." — /lieirf. 



A PftAcnoAL Guide TO Side-Saddlb Ridiho. 

By Urs. HiTKH, ami Eilitcd bv CapLain M. li. Uaikb. Illu.-trat«l l>y 4B 

DrawiD)n hv J. Ohwald-Bkowk and 4 Pliotagraphg. Uiiifnnn with 

"Riilini.': on the Plat ami Aornti Caantry." Imp. l6mo, Ita. 7-li. 

"Thia ia the first occaaion on which a practical borseman and a praciloai 

horHwnman have CDllaboriiei] in hrin^e out ■ buak ua riding [or ladies. 

The result ia in every way ■aiiufHOtorv." — Fiiid. 

" A large amoont nl sound practical inatruoiion. wry judiciooaiy and plea- 

"Wa haieaetdom oomc aoroii a briffbter book ibiii 'The HomeKniiiiii.'"— 
JlAenaum, 

■' Kmiaently sensible and prsctical." — Boi/j Chi-onicU, 



SPORT AND VETEKINAllY WOKK.S. 
mOHLANDS OF CENTRAL INDIA. NorES ok thbik Fobmts 

New Edition. Wiib Map and Tinted lllusiraiioi.s, Rs. 7-n, 

OALOUTTA TUBF CLUB RULES OF BACINQ, tooethek with tbd 
Kules lelatine to Lotieriei, Brttiitc. Defaulters, mid tlie Uules ol the 
CulcnttaTurf Club. Iteviied Uay ltl92. Authorized Ednion. Rt.2. 

THE RACDia CALEBDAS, Vot. Til, PKOU May 1894 to Apbil ISW, 

Kkoxa I'AST. Published by Ibe Calculta Turt Club. CoHTxNTa :^Rulea 
ol Itaciue, Lotteries, C. T. C. etc, Itetrisiered Colours; U»n(ed Train- 
ais end JoekcTs: Assnmeil Namea:; List of Uursee Aged. Classed and 
J. and W. I. T. U.; Races Itiiii under C, T. C. Ruleat 



Perfi 



of Hor 



THE OACING CALEin)AB 




li Index 



Ks. 4. 



l8T August 1888 To 30rH Aphh, 1888. 

ITol. I, Rs. 4. Vol. 11, lo April I89(i, 
Bs. 4. V..I. Ill, 10 April 1891. Me. *. Vol. 17, tn April ]i.HJ. Ri. 4. 
Vol. T. in April IH93, Kg. 4. Vol. VI, to April 1801. Rs. 4. Vol. Til, 
lo April 1896, Rs. 4. 



THACKBtt, SPINK AND CO., OALCDTTA. 



THE SPOBTBUAK'S MANUAL, in QuRSt of Oaxb in Kt)u.c, 

Lahoal, mid Lailik In the Tx) Mnrtri Lake, iriih Noug oii Shooting in 
Spiti. Usra BaualiBl, Cliaiiibi, und Kubmir, and a <lelai]ed deMription ol 
Spotiin moteiban lOONalm. Witb 9 Hapa. By Lt.-Col. R. H. Traosi, 
laie B. M.'a 98tb and 31[b RtKiments. Fup. Hvo, eloUi. Be. 3^8. 

8E0HEE : or, C&uf Lifb oh res Satpcba Ranob. A Talk ok 

Indian Adventure. Bv IL A. Stkrhdilk. Aaihor of "Mammalia ol 
India," " DeBiaeni ol iIk Jaaaltn." Illu.traled by tho Anihor. With a 
Map and na Appendix cuDtainiQ); a briBf Topo^rapbical and Ellsurical 
AcoDUni ni the District of Seonee in lUe Central Provincps of India. 
Crown 8to, cloth. Es. 7. 

IiAEQE OAKE SHOOTIHO IN THIBET, THE HIBIALATAS, Northbrk 
AMD Ckhikai. I>Dia> By Brig.- General A LKx Anon II A. KihIOcS. Con- 
uitiioi! DooriptionB xl iha CoDotry and ol tbe varioas Aniiiiati lo b« 
found ; tngether with cxtracia from a ionrnal of several Tears' atuidiTig. 
With as ItluBliaUoas from pbotogrsphi and a Uai>. Third Edition. Ba- 
viud and Enlarged. Df my ito, eletrantly bound, Rs. 'iG. 
"Thii splenrlidly illuBttated record ol apori. the pbotogravufet, eapecially 

the heads of Ibe variouB aiitelopn, ue lila-like ; and Che leller-preai ia very 

pleasant readini^." — Graphic^ 

"The boob is capitally ^ot np, the type is batter than in former editioaa, and 

the excellent pnoiocravurM ftiTe an esceptianai value I4i the work." — Aiian. 

OENIZCHS OF THE JUNQLES. A SBKIRS OP 3eetohes or Wlu> 

AsTKiu, illosiracing their form and natural attitude. With Letter.prMa 
Desoripti'n .>f eaoh Plate. Br K. A, STannt>*t,K, r.a.o.s., F.Z.B., 
Author of ■• Natural History of the Mammalia of India," " Seonee," 4o. 
Obloni! folio. K>. 10. 

LOBD WILUAU BEBESFOIU) : SOLDIEK, STATESMAN AND &P0BT8- 

M*s ! boiiii: * tMorii "f lu* Eiuhiesri veari m ln<!ta ami a full rimrnf at 
bii lUcini; Career, ity H. E. ABBorr. Crowo Hvo, sewed, lie. 1. 



HOBSE BKEEDINO AND BEABJNG IN INDIA. WrrB Notch on 
THtiNinn lor tlin Flat, and Aciass Country, and on Purebaae. BrealiiDe in 
ind General Manacement. Bv Major Jbtiir Mumfhict, b.b.c. f.n.». 
Crown 8vo, dotb. Ita. SS. 

INDIAN HOBSE NOTES. Aft Epitomb of oheful Infdkiution 
arranged for ready reference on Emetueniiea. and specially adapted lot 
iJScers and Uoluasil Besidenis. All Technloal Terms explained uid 

Simplest Remediea selected. Bt Major C , Anthor of "Indiaa 

dotes about Do^." Third Editioa. ftevised and oonaiderably Bn- 
Urged. Fcap. 8vo, ololh. Bi. 3. 



THAGKER, 8P1NK AND CO., CALCUTTA. 



Sport and Veterinary Works. 



DOOS FOB HOT CLIltA.TES. A Guide fob Besiuents in Tropical 

■nd Docionng. B; Vb»o Sk*w and CapUm H. H. Hathb. With 



» 



lul breeds bealaund tbe climaW. 7 lie bo 
for aeniibU tr«Biuient Hill sire the life 
PBi."— indinn Plant tr,' GauUt. 

A BOBBEBT PACK IH nraiA. With an Appendix uontaihino 

shoii Excur,u. on Bsniing and ar. Interviow with Mr. Pickwick. 
Captain JulmM. Crown Sto, lowed. Ha. l-B. 

BOTES ON STABLE KANAQEMENT. By VBTY-SCRa. J. A. Svs 



I 



GUIDE TO EXAUINATIOH OF HORSES, i 

Vet;. Offieer, ReniouDi I>ep5t, Calcutta. Pe'i 

lUDma FOB LADIES. WITH BDTTB ON THE STABLE. A Luiy's 
HokbhBooe. by Mrs.PowKRU'DoHOoHuH. WithTo llliutrationa by 
A. Chabtbbt CoiiBODiji. Elet'autly prmwd and bound. Imp. IBmo, 
gilt. Its, 7-8. 



AKQUNO ON TEE EUHAOR LA2EB. WtTB ». Map of thb Kuuaoh 
LiKR CoiFHTRT and Plan oi each Lake. Br Depr. SarKCoD. Genera I 
W. Walker. Ctowu 8vo, clolb. Ra. <. 



tbe followers oi the Renile an."— flojwi' Sporting 

THE ASMS ACT (Zl OF 1878). With au, ti 



1CB§ OF THE GOT- 
oTinoH and Punjab 
By W, Hawktmb. 



POLO. A GtriDB TO thb Game, with iNsrauonoss os n 

Seleo^oD and Training of the Ponica. Bt E. D. Mii.lkk (■*» Uth 
LaneerB). Edited by i:apt. M. H. Hates. Itluatrated from PbatOKrapbt, j 



iSmo, clolb. Ha. 12.8. 



d from Bn^ Sporting Stat. Fcap. 8td. Re. I. 

> POLO CALENDAB. Compilbd by thb Indian Poto Asso- 

CUTioii. Con 1 eiiti ;—Coniini Ilea ol Siewatda, Kulea for tbe KaduUtion 
uf ToDinamenta, Ac— Kulei of the Game— Station Polo— Liat of 
Uimbsri — Lilt of EiiatinB Polo Ponies, names and deaeription, with 
Alphabetical Liai— Kecorda of Toumamenta.— Preriona Winnera, 
Vol. I, I89S-8S. Vol. II, 189B-94, K»oh Be. 1-8. Vol. Ill, 1894.95, Ka.2, 
KuLBe OP Poui.'-Fram Ibe Polo Cslftndar. Reviaed 1S9&, As, B, 



THACKER, SPINK AND CO., CALCUTTA. 



MEDICINE, HYGIENE, no. 



and ii]ieUi(;aat eutdp.' 



*.. M.e- 



Tht ifedkal Timet a 



1 1 Hoore'* 



EIHTS FOB THE BUNAQESERT AND MEDICAL TBEATKENT OF 

Wsdicnl Cnll-B'. Colcuno'. Third Kiiiiioii, TteviBed". 'fleina ibe Ninth 
Eilition of " GandeT«-s Hinis lor the Muiageinenl ol Children in India." 
Crnwn 8vo, oloih. B». 7. 

and Gatette, in an trtisle anoi 
„ __. ._ . . India," »«ye:—" The iwo works 

wltei pVobnblv about the beat giamplei of medicBl 

DTDfHfinnHl readert. The alyle ol each ii liinpU, i 

trom ifchnieal espreiainna. Tlie modea oE inatni 

genaralk ilioae moal Ukeir lo r'leld ewd resiilta in llie hanili ot layoieii; 

■nd ihrnuuhoat each Tolame the immTranl fact ia kept eonalntitlv before the 

mind nf the render, thai the vnlnine he is DBinK ia inn a poor aubatitute for 

penonal pfofeisional adviee. lor wdioh it ma« lie diamrdec! w believer ibCTB 

" It ia a book which "iidhr to lie found in rvaty boiuehold." — Pionetr, 

THE INDIQENOUS DBDOS OF INDIA. Bhokt DEaonipiTTE KonoEa 

ol the princiral Medicinal I'rndueti met witti io Briiiab India. Bv 
Rai Baiiauiik Eanht Lali.Di<t,c.i.k. Satond Edition, KevuHi and 



s tree aa poaaiblc 
recommended an 



OUTLINES OF UEDICAL JUBISFBITDENCE FOB INDIA. Br J. D. B. 
GniBBi,S. II.C.B. (KeEired), and Caihick H-Hin, m.d.. F.R.c.a.n. Third 

Edition. Revised, Enlarged, and Annotated. Demr Bvo. Ri. &.g. 

DB. EBNE8T HABT'S ADDBESS BEFOBE THE INDIAN BIEDICAL 

ConRiesa. The Medical ProieaNiun in India: ita Positmu Olid in Work. 
8va, sewed, Ka. •IS, 

BCDIMENTS OF SANITATION. Fob Indian Sctiools. By Patrioe 



njRE, DlSBASE, AND PBESBRTAtlOK. 
me and Proiihetic Deatiatry. Miae PlatM. 
K. S«cond Edition. B*o. elolb. B), S-C. 



TBACKBB, SPINK ANP CO.. CALCUTTA. 



TEE BABT. Notes on the Febdino. Rbakimo akd Dibbabmr of 

brriKTfi. Bv S. O. Mnssa, Lietnutie ..f iliii lloya] College of Hl.T.ieuna, 
Edinburgti, Ac. lemo, cloth. Ba. 2. 

MY LEPEE FBIUNUS. An Account of Pebsonal Work ahoko 

Lepebs, Bnd tlieir duly life in liidiit. B« Mia. Baths. Witb llluatra- 

itonn from PhoiORraphs. inJ ■ Cbapter on Leproay bj' Dr. 6. G. Hao- 

LtHKo. Imp. aquare 3imo. Ri.a-8. 

"Tbe iDiliOT ptctnrflt ■ very ud pbu« of faamin miury br relatiaf; ibe 

•lory dI the inner lilo ol aiiHoreri whom the has known."— Cwi Crmttiltitiem. 

" It is impneaihle to read Mrs. Haves' bdok withoat feeling the l«en«[ aym. 
puby wilh lier in h« brave and onerous «ark, and it mnnnt fail to reauli in 
■ Mnriderable rctom t-r the adnntaar of ihe lepan. Hra. Hayea write* 
well and viiidly, and Ibere is a note nf thoroagh ainoeriiy in all (lie aaya tliat 
lends an aitilitionai ehatm lo the work. There are aeveral 

illiuuaiionain ihebook. reproduced from phoioirraphaol lepara.' — Home t/tte; 
"On Che whole. Urs. HiiyB huwritiea her btwk in a very rympaibiaiag 
Kpii'u."— Indian Daihi Nrtn. 



CHOLERA EFIDEHIC IN EASHinR, 18B3. Bv A. BflXKA. L.R.C.F., 
U«.o.s., rrintipil Medical Ufficsr iti K»hm>r. With Hap and I'ablt*. 

'Ito, aewed. lie. I. 

A SECOBO OF THREE TEAKS' WOKK OF THE MATIORAL A8B0- 
OI'TIOK fur Supplvin,; Krniiie Metlirii! Aid t.> the tVomsii of India, 
Ausum I88n lo Auguai 1H««. Hv H. E. THKCouwTna- «f Duffbhib. 
Crown 8vo. Re. 1. 



THE INDIAN KEDICAL SERVICE. A Ouuis roR intended OiJjDi> 
D«TR9 fnr Comniiatioiii iirid tnr the Junior Oflicera ol the Service. By 
Wn-uaH Whbg, M.B.. Suri;e»n. lleiigsl Army, late Aiencv Suruaon at 
■ be Court of Bikanir. Super in lendeni of Dispell aariea, Jaili. a'nd Vaccina- 
tion in die Bikunir ^lare, and lor torn* time Quudian to H. B. tbe Uaba- 
rajah. Cro*ri Bto. Ri. 4. 
" We recommend tbe book lo all who tliink nf competing for admlaaion into 

Ibe Indian Uedieal SerTiDe."~L<u«l. 

AQUE; OR, INTERHITTENT FEVER. Bv M. D. O'Co.nnbl, m.d. 



THE LANDHABBE OF SHAKE-POISON LITERATURE: bung i 

Review ul the moieiniporiaiii Ueuateli'-t nan theNntuieol Shake-Poiwna, 
Br VtnOKHT KiCHAHiH, r.K.c.B. bi'., Ac, Civil tledieal OlBeer ol 
Qoalundo. Bengal. Ra. !-8. 



THAOKBH. SPINK AND CO., CALriJ'lTA. 




Thacker, Spink and Vo.'» Puhlientiont. 



, bauuH it 



«. bat very reaiinblc Bnil 

is pitby. Tbf lolyMU »n 

, notbina nncxDlained: bat it ii 

.0 the point."— ri^ Piatuer. 

lefcil nMure, uid iaspirei eonddenc* br tlic 

--■- ■' ■ l.iiM."— /ri,* Tint*. 

IDerisDCe. ind ghoulil 

—Homi NoDt. 

i bive ilerived from 

re in deed refrcaliiag. 






reidine Dr.'Youne 
The™ ia no vsrbi 
MUiiary Gnztttt. 



FEBSOHAL AND DOUESTIC ETQIENE fob thb School and Homx. 

beiDR a Texl-book ou Blsme-nury fbvgiology, Hygirni-. Hoiua Murunc, 

ind Firtt Aid 10 the Injured ; for Senior Scbools and FnmilT Ssfareneci. 

By Ura. Hakold Brkiilht, Medalliit, KstlotuI Hultb SocUir. Biuc- 

land. 36 lllusuationi. Ex. fcBp. 8to, oloth. Ri. 2; or cloth Kill, Ra. S-g, 

"Wg are dwidadlj of opinion (hut it ia the mosipractical and useful book 

ol iu liind nbicti bai beeti poblisbed in India. We trust it will i^in a lugs 

ciicalation in ibe schools and homei of India." — Indian Utdical GaxMU. 

■' We eau reeommeDd tbii volume without besitstion. In the absence 
ul the docior oue miicht nbiaia bints (rom any pa|;e of it Oa Hyitiene, Nar*iDe> 
Aeeidenta and EmerK^ciea. So far as we can Bee noihlnKia otnitted, andtflrr 



-direction in ]{ivi 



mple intelligible lanKUSR'."-' 
3 GAU38 AMU Effects: Ma labia and the Sflkem: 

tie Spleen : Au Analysis of 3S ea«B, By E. G. Ruuhll. M.S., 

lioLh. Hi, 8. 



c, Bombay. The i.wnl 1 
, Second Edition. Illui 






DOMESTIC BOOKS. t- 

IE INDIAK COOEEBT BOOK. A Pbaciical Handbook to tBB 

KiTOHKN IK Ii>iii>, adapted to ihe Three Preiidcnoies. ConiAiuing OriginBl 
and Approved Keoiptts in every department ot Indian Cookery; RMipw 
for SumiDet Bevetagea and Home-made Liquearsj Hediainal and oibM 
BaeipM; luetber with ■ vaiiety of chinga worth knowing, ByaTbitijr- 
five leara' fteaidcnt. lli. B, 



THACKEfi, SPINK AND CO.. CALCUTTA. 



DometCic Bookt. 



ISIAN DOKESnC ECONOHT ani 

BTiiNBB rominiziHl names, Gnmpi 
KbolESuuiB Cookery, balh OrLeii»Lan<l R<i.[lishi witi 
miner, BniiiTennc; 'II genoraL narposu of rehi 
Ssiueholrl aflura likely M be immediately rsqoired by Fi 
and privRte indiTidDila inidiriK at the Pregidanciu or Ou 
Dr. R. RiDDELL. Eigbib Edition. Reiised. ?a>t 8vo, i 



Receipt Book, with Hindit- 
connected wilb 



^K^i 



naumoEB's kanual of qabdeninq fob arou. a Ncw Edi> 

Lioii (the lourtli) thiir.mclilv Kei'ned nnd H«-wrirten. With imny llliu- 
By H. St. J. Jacksom, Imp. Ifimo, oloth, giiL Rj. 10, 



iDLTKY-EEEPIHO IN INDIA. A Simflk and P&a(TTicax Book 

lerinj; them prnduble. Br IsA Twkkd, (atbar of "Cnw.Keeping in 

ia," With lIluBiratiuna. Crona Sto, cloth, Rilr. Ra. 4. 

[jok nhich will be found of great uae br all thoae who keep a pauluy- 

■Maira, MaU. 
"We ean recommend it lo all vrhn either keep poultry from ■ likioK for 
toKls, or beeaoae ihey deaire autnetbint; better lor the Ubie than baiaar egga 
■nd baiaar mur^hia." — Cieil and MUUary Gazelli. 



OOW-ECBPIHO IN INDIA. A Sihfle a 

them proQiable. by IsA Tweed. Wit 
Brecda, Ac. Crown Svo, cloth, gilt. Ki 
" K moat uaeful ooniribaiiaD to a very 
■trnngly recommend \\"^itadrai Mail, 



ring 



PKAcncAi, Book on 

37 lUuatiattana of the 

4.«. 

[uportaat labjeei, and ire cai 

literature in the Eaal,''— C;ylo. 



BM0U8H ETIQUETTE FOB INIIIAN GENTLEHEH. By W. Treso 

Whbd. Bengal Edueaiional Depuimenu Third Edition. Fcip. 8vo, 

clotli. Kb. 1-1; p«per, lie. 1. 

The book oompriaea chapters an General Conduct, Calla, Dining.oui, Levdei, 

Balls. Garden- partiea, Railway-iruTelling. 4c. It also coaiaina a ohapier on 

Uller-writiHB, proper Uodea o( AddrBsa, Ac, together with hints on how to 

draw ap Applications for AppointmeDIs, with Exam plea. 

PEBBONAL AMD DOMESTIC HYOIEMB for the School ahu Haiu 

beine a Text-book on Elementary Physiology, Hygiene. Home Nuraina, 
and Fitat Aid to the Injared ; tor Senior Sohcls and F.mik Referent! 
By Mil. UtHOLri UKNDLicr. Ex. foip. 8vo, cloib. Ks. S i or elolh gilt. 



With a pew Horre 



THE HEH-SAHIB-8 BOOK OF CASES. BISCUITS, i 

Irrns, and Hmduiitani VwMbuliry, Weig 
ISmo, olotli. Ra. 2. 



THAOKKB, HPINK AND (X>., CALCLTITA. 




Thaeker, Spink and t'o.'§ PubtiaiipMt. 



Wc can iceomincnd ii li> "at radua viih Ihe Bimm eonfidcocc, ai Mek not 
aoly iniouelivt, bni cilrctnd.T iaurtaiing, tod wHitan in ■ •lalightfnllj 
thtuy tXruD."—Cml and Hiiitary GaictU. 

•• Very prieticil throDgbont. Tliarc could not be betler kdria thn 
uid Ibe •'■7 ii i* eircn ■taom thi (nihuHUni of Mr*. Templa-WrigliL' 



mNTS FOR THE KANA^EIEENT AlTD KEDICAL TEEATXENT OP 
CtHLDHnnni iHDf. BtBdw««dA. UntcH. h.d.. I*u PrinoMi. M«di(^ 
Cxlltgc CaleutU. Tliird Edition, KeriKd and EiiUr,:Al. BeiiiK U>c " 
Ediiiun of " Goodece'* HinU lor ihi Management of CliilJten ia I 



GUIDE BOOKS. 

ntCE'S EASHHIB HANDBOOK. AGciDB fokVihitdks. Re-Writtn» 

Kid inucb h.d»rt*d by Joshu* DvkK. Oori.-Ll.-L'ol^ Beneil HcditMl 
Servire. fnnntrly CitiI Surgeon, Giljtii aiid Srinagar. Fcan. 8to, tleth. 
Mops io cli>tli cue. Wiih Appendix conuinint; [he Jfaalum Tallcy " 



!rt. Lakea, Moun 



linntilactDm, Aniiqaiiin, etc— Keqaiiiiei for th« JonrucT- 

»oiifiMii..n [o Traveller^Cielul Hini^Kontas Gajnl uid Pir Paniai— 

" ' ><n, Tmicrot and Eedi foaoctj—Rairal Pindi and Huriee— Tbc H«V' 



Road— BuBan Abdil. Abbmiabad, the Jbilain— The Kubenuuntfa Taltn— 
Eaalem Ponioii ol Eaahmir— Let— Wuurii Ponion of Eaalinir— Wa«li '' 
Lake— Golmarg— Lolati Valler. Ladak— Pingkoog Idk*— Gilgii— AM«r- 
Skardu— Tbe TiUib Valley, Ac., and tbe fnlloiriiie - 

UAPB:-n) Jammn and Kailimir oiih adjoining countritn. (H) Ifap tbomU 
Boulet 10 Skirdn, etc. (3) Hap abowine Leb to Himia UoDaaiecr, Sail 1^ 
Tatlay, Pangkone Lake. Kamci Paw, Buiail Pan. («) Astor and Gilirfl Iril 
■QtiouDdiDECounirV' Tkt MapiaTtfiatig extmtdhg tkt Sfrvty of Iti^ D^ 

CAJBBMIB EN FAWn.i.c a. NABSATtVB of thk EXPUUBKCn OP 

Ketideiice there mav be'comlDtiably made. Bt H. c! B, With a Pratoi 
by ilajot E. A Bd;<i,ciwi. ISmo, elalh. Rn. J. 

BAWAL PINDI TO 8SDIA0AS. A Detailed Aooouxt op thb Hki 
Jbeltini Valley K-t-i; t<«eili« with a Brief Nuie o( Gie other Hau. 

leading inlo tbe Valley. Heme an Appendix lo Ineei 



THACKER, SPINK AND CO., CAIXnTTTA. 



I TBOH anehA to bhipei ni Chinese tbibet. An i 



N-FoKBoa, Rifle Biigidi. 



lTinKH«MiiiB-^iml> It 

Forest Roiiit, Simla to ibe 
■ Stulle.' 

A TiJlULATBD IlKS- 

lepoTt, etc. B; Uajor- 
Genenl Mabquis ■>■< Bouiibrl. 
HANDBOOK FOB VI8IT0BS TO AORA AND ITS NEIOBBomiHOOD 
By H. G. Kkksk, r.a. Fiftli KJition, BeviBcd, Mups, I'I.iib, 4c, Fc«p, 



[.A HANDBOOK FOA VISITORS TO ALLAHABAD. OAWNPOBE, 

I LucKKOw AMD BxRiKis. Bi B. G. Epohi'. Seciind Kdiiivn, Revised. 

Wiib lour Mapi nnd n F'Iiit, Feip. tSvo. cIu'Ij. Its. V-8. 

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Penunanea of the Indian Kitipire: the daiaa ut their birib and auccaaaioD 
to iJie gvddi ; ■ conoiae accoont of iboir immediate predeceaaori and all 
the deeda ot honour and valour of their booae and family. Imp., red 
clutb, gilt. Ka. ih. 



THACKER, aPINK AND 00., CALCDTTA.