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INDIGENOUS TREES 



OF THE 



HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 



J. F. ROCK 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LANDSCAPE 

ARCHITECTURE 

BEQUEST 
OF 

ANITA D. S. BLAKE 



THE 




OP THE 



HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 



BY 



JOSEPH F. ROCK 

Botanist of the College of Hawaii 

Consulting Botanist, Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, 
Territory of Hawaii. 



ISSUED JUNE 26, 1913. 



With Two Hundred and Fifteen Photo-Engravings 



PUBLISHED UNDER PATRONAGE. 



Edition Limited to 1000 Copies 



HONOLULU. HAWAII 

E. HERR1CK BROWN 

1 140 FORT STREET 



COPYRIGHT. 1913. BY 

JOSEPH F. ROCK 

HONOLULU. T H. 



LANDSCAPE 

ARCHITECTURE 



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PREFACE:. 



It has long been the writer's desire to give to the public a volume on the na- 
tive trees of Hawaii, giving popular as well as technical descriptions of the trees 
peculiar to Hawaiian soil. 

At first it was thought that plain popular descriptions would suffice, but it 
soon became evident that the technical part could not be dispensed with, and in 
order to make the book valuable for both the layman and the scientist, it was 
therefore included. 

The rather lengthy introduction seemed an advisable feature and necessary, 
as it gives practically for the first time a more or less detailed description of all 
the floral regions and their plant associations found in this island group, not 
being restricted to trees alone but embracing the whole plant covering. 

In the sequence of families Engler and Prantl's Natiirliche Pflanzenfamilien 
System has been followed, beginning with the Cryptogams and ending with the 
Compositae. 

Under each species a complete reference and synonomy is given, as far as 
was possible. Of course, as in all works of this nature, mistakes will un- 
doubtedly be found, which will have to be overlooked on account of the insular 
position of the writer, as it was not always possible to consult original works, 
some of them old and out of print and therefore unobtainable. It will not be 
out of place here to acknowledge the kind assistance of Miss Mary A. Day, the 
Librarian of the Gray Herbarium, for the loan of books and copies of articles, etc. 

Following the reference is a technical description, usually enlarged and based 
on material in the College of Hawaii Herbarium ; only in such instances as when 
the plant is very common or has not been collected by the writer, are descrip- 
tions of old authors quoted. As far as possible native names are given under 
most of the trees in italics, as well as any legendary or other facts of sufficient 
interest, together with habitat, plant association, etc. Of a number of trees of 
which nothing is known of a popular nature, the technical side is enlarged upon, 
especially in the family Rutaceae (genus Pelea) and Campanulaceae (tribe Lo- 
belioideae). 

The writer wishes here to acknowledge above all the kind assistance of Prof. 
Dr. Ignatz Urban of Berlin, Prof. Le Comte of Paris, Prof. Dr. A. Zahlbruckner 
of Vienna and Profs. B. L. Robinson and M. L. Fernald of Harvard, in the loan 
of herbarium material, mainly types, for comparison, without which the authen- 
ticity of many determinations would have been doubtful; this refers mainly to 
the tribe Lobelioideae of the family Campanulaceae, one of the most intricate 
tribes found in these Islands. 



All such plants are included in this book as have been observed by the writer 
as trees, even if usually occurring as shrubs. To the many species of trees already 
known the writer has added 1 new genus, 22 new species, 31 new varieties, 3 new 
forms and 1 new hybrid, which are all described by him. A number of new 
species were discovered by the writer, but described by various authorities, in- 
cluding 4 new species of Palms by O. Beccari of Florence, Italy, all of which 
are included in this book. In an addendum the writer describes seven new 
species, seven new varieties and one new form belonging to the Family Cam- 
panulaceae, tribe Lobelioideae. This brings the total number of new plants 
described by him herein up to seventy -two. 

It was also necessary in some instances to make a few new combinations. 

Of the 215 photographs nearly all were taken by the writer in the field, with 
the exception of plates 1, 12, 17, 27, 68, 130, and 131, by Mr. R. S. Hosmer; nos. 
29 and 37 by Mr. R. Perkins ; no. 2, by Mr. A. Gartley, and nos. 23, 26 and 31, by 
Mr. R. J. Baker, to all of whom the writer wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness. 

The present volume is primarily due to the enthusiasm of Ex-Governor George 
R. Carter, who headed the list of patrons and secured the necessary funds to 
insure publication. Credit is due the College of Hawaii for supplying photo- 
graphic material and part of the writer's time. 

It should be stated here that most of the material on which this publication 
is based was collected by the writer under the auspices of the Board of Commis- 
sioners of Agriculture and Forestry of this Territory. 

To Dr. H. L. Lyon the writer is indebted for technical advice, and to Dr. E. 
Hackel and Rev. George Kiikenthal for identification of Grasses and Cyperaceae 
respectively. 

To Mr. Francis Gay of Kauai the writer is greatly indebted for knowledge of 
matters pertaining to Hawaiian names of trees and their vises ; he also wishes to 
express his thanks to all those who extended to him the far-famed Hawaiian 
hospitality during his many sojourns on the various islands of the group. 

Last but not least the writer wishes to acknowledge the kind assistance of 
Prof. H. M. Ballon of the College of Hawaii in his painstaking reading of proof- 
sheets, and expresses his thanks to him and all those who have helped in the 
preparation of this book. 

The volume is herewith presented to the public, who the writer hopes will be 
lenient towards any mistakes in the construction of sentences, English not being 
his mother-tongue. 

JOSEPH F. ROCK. 
College of Hawaii, 
Honolulu. T. H., April 23, 1913. 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES. 



MONOCOTYLEDONOUS OR ENDOGENOUS PLANTS. 
Ovary superior, naked flowers unisexual, on spathaceous spadices. 

Flowers dioecious, in heads or spikes, leaves elongate, prickly at the edges. 

Pandanaceae 96 

Ovary superior, syncarpous, 3-celled, perianth of 6 segments in 2 series. 
Perianth regular, wholly corolla-like, cells of ovary 2 to many ovulats. 

Liliaceae 109 

Perianth small, calyx-like, fruit drupaceous or baccate, 1-seeded, leaves palm- 
ate or pinnate, flowers on a branching spadix Palmae 99 

DICOTYLEDONOUS OR EXOGENOUS PLANTS. 

I. Perianth simple or none. 

Ovary of 3 or rarely 2 or more than 3 united carpels, with 1 or 2 pendu- 
lous ovules in each. 

Fruit either capsular, separating into as many 2 valved cocci as 

carpels, or succulent and indehiscent Euphorbiaceae 243 

Ovary free with one ovule, styles 2 or rarely 1. 
Ovule anatropous or amphitropous. 

Fruit indehiscent nut or drupe-like, one seeded.... Ulmaceae 113 

Fruit small, drupe-like, milksap present, leaves with 2 axillary 

stipules Moraceae 114 

Ovule orthotropous. 

Polycarpium or drupe often enclosed by and united with 

the perianth; usually without milksap Urticaceae 117 

Ovary 1-celled with few ovules, seed single. 

Perianth partly adnate to maturing ovary, ovules 1-3. 

Santalaceae 126 

Ovary 1-celled with a single ovule; embryo curved. 

Perianth dry, supported by 3 bractlets : stamens connate at the 

base, as many as perianth segments Amarantaceae 135 

Perianth tube persistent around the fruit, stamens not of the 

same number as lobes of perianth, hypogynous.. Nyctaginaceae 143 
Ovary one-celled, free, with a single ovule, embryo not curved. 

Perianth segments 6 in 2 circles, persistent; fruit a one seeded 

berry or drupe Lauraceae 149 

Perianth segments 4, stamens twice as many, sessile in 2 alter- 
nate rows, fruit a drupe-like reddish berry Thymelaeaceae 315 

II. Petals united, at least at the base. 

Corolla epigynous, regular. 

Ovary 2- or more celled, stamens adnate to the corolla, as many as 

corolla lobes; leaves opposite Rubiaceae 429 

Ovary 1 celled, 1-ovulate; stamens adnate, as many as corolla lobes. 

Compositae 497 

Corolla epigynous, irregular. 

Stamens 5, filaments and anthers connate, the latter bearded at the 

top; milk sap present Campanulaceae 469 

Lobelioideae 

Stamens free, stigma surrounded by a hairy indnsium. .. Goodeniaceae 494 
Corolla hypogynous or perigynous, bearing the stamens, regular. 
Ovarv 3 or more celled; 1 or 2 ovules in each cell. 

Stamens 5, alternate w r ith corolla lobes; a single ovule in each 

cell Eracridaceac 365 

Stamens indefinite; flowers unisexual Ebenaceae 393 

Stamens 5-6. opposite the corolla lobes when of =ome number, 
often alternating with staminiodia; milky sap present. 

Sapotaceae 380 

Ovarv 1-celled, with a free central placenta. 

Stamens opposite the corolla lobes; drupp with a single hasilar 

seed Myrsinaceae 367 



Ovary 2 or incompletely 4-celled. 

Corolla contorted in the bud; leaves opposite. 

Capsule 2 or 3-celled, with axile placentas, leaves stipulate. 

Loganiaceae 401 
Carpels 2, more or less distinct, milky gap present. 

Apocynaceae 407 
Corolla not contorted, leaves generally alternate. 

Ovary 2-celled with 1-3 ovules in each cell; corolla colored, 

4-lobed, imbricate Oleaceae 397 

Ovary 2-celled, with many ovules in each cell; corolla 

plaited or imbricate, 5-4 lobed Solanaceae 417 

Ovary 4-celled, with 1 ovule in eaeb cell; corolla 5-lobed, 

imbricate Borraginaceae 414 

Corolla perigynous, bearing the stamens, irregular. 

Ovary 2-10 celled, one ovule in each cell; corolla 5-7 lobed, as many 

as stamens Myoporaceae 425 

III. Petals free. Stamens perigynous or epigynous. 

Disc conspicuous, perigynous or hypogynous; flowers small, regular. 

Stamens alternate with petals; ovary 2-5 c-slled, with 2 or rarely 

1 ovule in each cell Celastraceae 267 

Stamens opposite the small petals; ovary free 2-4-celled with a single 

erect ovule in each cell Rhamnaceae 281 

Stamens alternate with the petals, or twice as many, ovary superior 
1-5 celled, fruit usually a one-celled drup*; leaves pinnate. 

Anacardiaceae 262 
Carpels free, or connate only at the base. 

Flowers irregular and imbricate or regular and valvate; fruit a 

2-valved pod Leguminosae 1 73 

Ovary syncarpous, superior, with axile placentas, ovules 1 or few in each cell. 

Corolla monopetalous, ovary many-celled Aquifoliaceae 263 

Ovary syncarpous, with axile placentas and many seeds on each placenta. 
Ovary inferior, stamens indefinite; calyx-lobes imbricate. 

Myrtaceae 319 

Ovary syncarpous with parietal placentas and many ovules on each of 
the latter. 
Ovary partly adnate to calyx, 2-5-celled; leaves opposite. 

Saxifragaceae 151 

Ovary inferior with an epigynous disc, 2- to several celled, with a 
single ovule in each cell. 

Calyx adnate to ovary, the latter 2 to many celled, with one ovule 

in each cell; leaves compound Araliaceae 336 

IV. Petals free from the calyx and from each other, wanting in Xyloxiiui. 

Ovary syncarpous, placentas parietal. 

Petals as many as sepals or none, stamens indefinite. .. Flacourtiaceae 311 
Sepals, petals and stamens isomerous, 5 each; fruit a two to four- 

valved woody capsule Pittosporaceae 153 

Ovary syncarpous, placentas axile. 
Disc wanting, sepals imbricate. 

Sepals and petals tetramerous, stamens indefinite; ovary 1-celled; 

leaves opposite Guttiferae 309 

Sepals and petals pentamerous, the latter often cohering at the 

base; stamens indefinite, leaves alternate Theaceae 307 

Disc wanting, sepals valvate. 

Stamens indefinite, monadelphous; fruit capsular; seed usually 

reniform, flowers often showy Malvaceae 291 

Stamens indefinite, polyadelphous Elaeocarpaceae 287 

Disc annular, inside the stamens. 

Leaves entire and opposite or imparipinnate and alternate; 
stamens as many or twice as many as petals; ovary 4-celled 

and in fruit 4 lofced, or of a single carpel Rutaceae 192 

Disc annular, outside the stamens. 

Leaves entire, impari-pinnate or dissected, alternate; petals 

sometimes wanting; ovary 3-celled Sapindaceae 26f) 



BOTANICAL REGIONS. 



Little attention has hitherto been paid to the various interesting botanical 
regions of the Hawaiian Islands. The different types of forests, even at the 
same elevation and often in one district, are so marked that one could draw 
imaginary lines separating these various types of forests with their peculiar 
species. There seems hardly to be a transition type present. It is owing to 
the various lava flows of all ages that such types of forests are at present in 
existence, but nevertheless climatic conditions, such as wind, rainfall, etc., are 
also .responsible for these peculiarities. This, of course, applies more to the 
Island of Hawaii, which is the largest and supposed to be the youngest of the 
group. 

If we include the scanty strand vegetation, which consists mainly of a few 
herbaceous plants and three or four species of trees, which are scattered, single 
ones here and there on the beaches, we have six botanical regions, each of which 
has again to be subdivided into sections, owing to topographical changes caused 
by lava flows and climatic conditions. Many changes on lava flows are caused 
by rain and exposure to wind, which disintegrates the lava quicker than in other 
regions more sheltered, and so decides the plants most adaptable to these re- 
gions, though this in turn depends again on the nature of the lava itself, whether 
aa (rough) or palwelwe (smooth) lava. 

The botanical regions are as follows: 

1. Strand vegetation. 

2. Lowland region. (This region merges into the lower forest region) . 

Section a, dry region. 
Section b, wet region. 

3. Lower forest region. 

Section a, windward side. 
Section b, leeward side. 

4. Middle forest region. 

Section a, dry region. 

Section b, semi-dry. 

Section c, wet region. 

Section d, kipukas, (small areas of lands with no trace of lava, soil 
black and fertile in dry section, surrounded by 
newer lava flows; richest in tree species). 

5. Bog region. 

6. Upper forest region. 



STRAND VEGETATION. 

As already remarked, the strand vegetation of these islands is extremely poor 
in comparison with the luxurious strand floras of the islands of the South Seas 
and other countries bordering on the Pacific. Of trees, the most common are 
the Hisbiscus tiliaceus (Han) and Pandanus odoratissimus (Puhala). (See 
plate I.)- While the former may be seen in scattered clumps along the shore, 
the latter forms dense forests on the windward sides of the islands of Hawaii 
and Maui, covering the precipitous walls down to the water's edge. They are 
usually associated with the Jambosa malaccensis (Ohio, ai), which, however, 
does not grow on the steep slopes, but at the bottom of narrow ravines, which 
the mountain streams have cut into the precipitous cliffs. They are also asso- 
ciated with the Aleurites moluccana (Kukui). 

It is in such places as Pololu, Honokaneiki, Honokanenui, Waimanu, etc.. 
on the windward side of Hawaii, and Makaiwa, and other valleys on the wind- 
ward side of Maui, where conditions are still undisturbed, that one can see 
strand vegetation that would somewhat remind him of the strand floras of the 
South Seas. But in the true sense of the word it is not a typical beach flora, 
but belongs to the lowland zone, which in certain localities, as mentioned above, 
reaches the water's edge. (See plate II.) 

On sandy beaches the cosmopolitan Ipomoea pes caprae (Pokuehue) is nearly 
always found, with its long runners reaching almost into the sea. Cuscuta 
Sandwich iana (Dodder or Pololo) may often be seen growing on Ipomoea pes 
caprae as well as 011 Ipomoea tuberculata. Among other Convolvulaceae pecu- 
liar to the shores is Ipomoea acetosae folia (Hunakai), which is found on the 
island of Niihau only. Jacquemontia Sandwicensis occurs farther inland, as 
well as on sandy shores, together with the nyctaginaceous Boerhaavia diffusa 
(Nena). Of the Caryophyllaceae, only two endemic species, Schiedea Remyi 
and Schiedea Lydgatei, are found on the shores, and those on the island of 
Molokai only, under the precipitous cliffs on the windward side. Of Legumi- 
nosae, the rare Sesbania tomentosa (Ohai), Vigna lutca and Canavalia sp? are 
to be found, the two latter especially common near Waialua, Oahu, and also on 
Molokai, together with the boraginaceous Heliotropium Curassavicum and H. 
anomalum (Hinaliina). Of Campanulaceae, the very interesting and queer 
looking Brighamia insignis of the tribe Lobelioideae is found on the islands of 
Niihau, Kauai, Molokai and Lanai, though only on the windward sides, growing 
on the precipitous cliffs down to a few feet from the waves, where they are 
Avithin reach of the tremendous spray of the sea. On the latter island it is found 
at the head of Mauna Lei gorge on the precipitous cliffs. 

One of the most common sea-shore plants is the cosmopolitan Scaevola 
frutescens, which is usually in company with Vitex trifolia. 

Of trees, CalopJiyllum Tnopliyllum (Kamani) forms usually large groves on 
the windward sides of most of the islands; but especial mention may be made 






of the beautiful grove on Molokai in the valley of Halawa, which was spoken of 
and recorded by the earliest navigators who visited these islands. 

Among the plants already mentioned, the following are often met with, 
though a few are peculiar to certain localities : 

( A species of Tetramolopium* on the more muddy flats 

on Molokai. 

(Nehe) Lipochaeta succulenta (Niihau and Kauai)* 
| (Nehe) Lipochaeta integrifolia* 
I (Xehe) Lipochaeta connata var. littoralis* 
V (Kookolau) Campylotheca molokaiensis. 
(Koko) Euphorbia cordata 

(Ohelo kai) Lycium Sandwicense 

Solanum Nelsoni* (Molokai) 
Kadua littoralis (Molokai)* 
Lepidium sp?* 

(Hoawa) Pittosporum halophilum (Molokai)* 

(Heuhiidii) Cassia Gaudichaudii (Lanai Manele) 

Scaevola coriacea* 
(Hialoa) Waltheria Americana 

Achyranthus sp. 

(Makou) Peucedanum Sandwicense* 

Lysimachia spathulata 
Ruppia maritima 

(Nmika) Lythrum maritimum (Waikolu, Molokai, only) 

(Mao) Gossypium tomentosum 

(Maiapilo) Capparis Sandwichiana 
(Anapanapa) Colubrina Asiatica 
(Kiilui) Nototrichium humile* 

Batis maritima 

(Ilialii aloe) Santalum littorale* 

(Kaunoa) Cassytha filiformis (usually on Ipomoea pes caprae) 
Of trees the following may be recorded: 
(Milo) Thespesia populnea 

(Niu) Cocos nucifera 

(Kou) Cordia subcordata 

(Kamani) Terminalia catappa 
(Noni) Morinda citrifolia 

On the rocks near the sea at Waialua and Cape Kaena, Oahu, the writer ob- 
served plants of Myoporum Sandwicense* only one foot high, which at 3000 
feet elevation becomes a tree 40 feet in height. 



* Those which are followed by an asterisk are all peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands 
and belong to the strand region, with the exception of a few which have descended from 
the lowlands and are found on the beaches. 



PLATE III. 



COPYRIGHT 1911 BY J, F. ROCK, 




COCOS NUCIFERA L. (Native name: Niu); coconut palm grove near Lahaina, Maui, 
only short distance from sea. Some of the trees are over 100 feet high. 



Of Cyperaceae, the following are to be found: 

Cyperus pennatus 

Cyperus phleoides 

Fimbristylis pycnocephala* 

Carex Sandwicensis var. (Makaiwa and Nahiku beach, Maui) 
Gramineae 

Sporobulus Virginicus, etc. 

The Cordia subcordata (Kou), which has followed the Malayan race in its 
migration, was once much more common than now. Only a few trees can be 
found along the shores, and those mainly on the less frequently visited islands, 
in out-of-the-way places. Whether the presence of this tree can be attributed 
to the ocean currents or to the agency of man can not definitely be determined, 
though presumably to the latter. The Coconut, of course, needs hardly to be 
mentioned, though it is not present in such extensive groves as in the South Sea 
Islands or Central America. (See plate III.) 

Of Cryptogams, mention may be made of the Opliioglossum vulgatum, which 
springs up on our shores after heavy rains. 

Between the beach formation and lowland zone occur lagoons on some of 
the islands, which are usually stocked with Sesuvium Portulacastrum, very 
common in company with Cijperus pennatus, C. laevigatus and Mesembrian- 
thenium of recent introduction. In the ponds themselves, Lemna minor and 
Wolfia columbiana are very common, besides Nelumbium speciosum, Sagittaria 
sagittifolia and the cryptogamous Marsilia villosa, Scirpus maritimus, and 
8. lacustris. Cyperus umbettiferus, having escaped from cultivation, is found 
occasionally in patches. The Chenopodiums are numerous, nearly always in 
company with Portulaca oleracea and Cenchrus echinatus. 

THE LOWLAND ZONE. 

Most of the plants mentioned in the strand formation can be found in the 
lowland zone, though, of course, several species of plants are peculiar to the 
lowland zone. This formation is usually open grassland on the leeward sides of 
the islands when spared by lava flows, and has lately been taken up with Pro- 
sopis j uli flora (Algaroba) and Acacia farnesiana (Kin). Of the native vege- 
tation belonging to this zone, Andropogon contort us (Pili grass) and Panicum 
torridum (Kakonakona) are the most common. In these fields Opuntia tuna 
occurs frequently with numerous aliens of many countries, of which the most 
obnoxious is Lantana camara (Lantana), which, however, ascends to an elevation 
of sometimes 3000 feet and even higher. 

Of other native plants, Sida falla.c and 8. cordifolia (Ilima) are the most 
common, with Waltheria Americana and a few species of Lipochaeta and per- 
haps a species of Haplostachys, which is peculiar to the dry, open, grassy dis- 
tricts. Thephrosia piscatoria is not uncommon. Passiflora triloba and P. foe- 
tida have become terrible pests in certain parts of the islands, covering large 



PLATE IV. 




LOWEE FOREST REGION on Oahu, a typical stand of Aleurites moluccana Willd. (na- 
tive name: Kukui). 



areas to the exclusion of everything else. A striking plant of the lowland zone 
is the Mexican Poppy, Argemone Mexicana, the Puakala of the natives. On the 
lava fields which have reached the shore, especially on the island of Hawaii in 
South Kona, native trees belonging to the lower forest zone have descended to 
the lowlands and can be found within a few yards from the sea. The most 
common is Reynoldsia sandwicensis. Even the Metrosideros polymorpha (Ohio, 
lehua) the writer found growing practically at sea level, together with Plectronia 
odorata, which was covered with the lauraceous leafless parasite, Cassytha fili- 
formis. What has just been said of the Ohio, lehua is also true of Myoporum 
sandwicense (Naio), which can be found near the sea on the west end of Oahu 
near Kaena Point, only a foot in height. 

THE LOWER FOREST REGION. 

This region is perhaps the most interesting one as far as tree growth is con- 
cerned'. It ranges from about 1000 feet to 2000 feet elevation, and is exceed- 
ingly tropical on the windward side, with a more or less uniform vegetation, 
though, of course, varying according to locality. 

Nothing can be more different in aspect than the lower forest region of the 
lee sides of some of the islands as compared to that of the windward side. How- 
ever, there are exceptions, as no two islands are alike in formation, and vary 
also greatly in age. The vegetation on some of the lava flows of more recent 
origin differs from that of the lava flows of greater age. On some of the islands, 
as on Oahu and Kauai, and perhaps Molokai, in certain localities on the leeward 
side, the vegetation differs very little from that of the windward side; but, 
nevertheless, each island, with the exception of Kahoolawe, and also Niihau, has 
its peculiar leeward lower forest flora, which is in all cases richer in species as 
far as tree growth is concerned than the rain forest. 

The island of Hawaii will need a special chapter, as it is the largest of the 
group and has the most widely ranging regions of all ; differing in climatic con- 
ditions, rainfall, soil formations, lava flows of all ages, winds, etc., all of which 
have contributed or are the cause of these marked types of forest or plant cover- 
ings belonging to the lower forest region. 

The island of Maui, which is the next largest, has also a very striking forest 
flora that belongs to the region discussed in this chapter. For convenience sake, 
this lower forest region is here divided into two subsections: (a), the windward, 
and (b), the leeward forest flora. The island of Hawaii is discussed separately. 

The most striking of all trees belonging to this region is the Aleurites moluc- 
cana or Kukui. It can be recognized at once from a distance on account of its 
pale foliage, which gives this lower forest region a distinguishing character. (See 
plate IV.) It either forms large groves to the exclusion of everything else or 
is found in company with Jambosa malaccensis (Ohio, ai) and other trees which 
will be taken into consideration as a whole. Immediately above the lowland re- 
gion a few straggling Kukui trees may be observed. They grow on the leeward 



PLATE V. 




VEGETATION ALONG A STREAM in the lower forest region on Oahu, Palolo Valley; 
the trees in the foreground are Aleurites moluccana Willd. (Native name: Kukui.) 



as well as the windward side, on dry, arid lav$ flows, in deep ravines, along dry 
stream beds, in exceedingly dense rain forests, but never going higher than 2200 
feet, and sometimes rarely that. 

Its associates are, however, not always the same, nor are they confined to the 
same region. With it in the dry as well as semi-wet districts is to be found the 
rubiaceous Plectronia odorata, usually a shrub or often a small tree. In the 
valleys back of Honolulu, Oahu, as well as in the valleys of Molokai or other 
islands (see plate V), it is associated with the Acacia Koa (Koa), which de- 
scends on Oahu as low as 600 feet, the Pandanus odoratissimus (Puliala), Jam- 
bosa malaccensis, and Elaeocarpus bifidus (Kalia), which, however, is not ex- 
actly a tree of the lower forest region, as it forms the largest part of the middle 
forest region on the island of Kauai, from 3000 to perhaps 4000 feet elevation. 
The rubiaceous trees, Straussia Kaduana, S. Mariniana, Gardenia Eemyi, Bobea 
elatior, and on Oahu, especially on the western range, Santalum ellipticum, are 
found in its company at an elevation of perhaps 800 to 1000 feet. The quite 
numerous Metrosideros polymorplia, in its various forms, grows also in this 
region, but is not confined to it, as it can be found from sea level to an elevation 
of 9000 feet, and even higher. The nyctaginaceous Pisonia umbellifera (Papala 
he pan) is one of the typical trees of this region, together with the urticaceous 
genera Pipturus, Boehmeria, and Touchardia, but rarely TJrera. The malvaceous 
Hibiscus tiliaceus (Hau), and also the native white Hibiscus, species Arnotti- 
anus, a medium-sized tree, may be found in this region, as well as the anacard- 
iaceous Rkus semialata var. Sandwicensis (Neneleau). The latter, however, 
forms groves by itself. 

A form of Maba Sandwicensis with narrow leaves may also come into this 
region. The tree is especially common back of Hilo along the road leading to 
Olaa. Of shrubs, the pretty white flowered goodeniaceous Scaevola Ckamis- 
soniana (Naupaka kuahiwi) is very gregarious with Wikstroemia; the latter 
genus is not confined to this region. Next to the Kukui, but not quite so con- 
spicuous from a distance on account of its much smaller size, is the monocotyle- 
donous plant, Cordyline terminalis, the common Ti or Ki of the natives. It 
clothes, sometimes, the lower slopes of the valleys, on steep sides or precipices, 
crowding out every other undershrub. 

Special mention must be made of the very strong and beautiful climber, 
Freycinetia Arnotti, which covers the trunks of trees (mainly OJiia leliua), 
smothering them beneath its great masses of runners with their peculiar cling 
roots. 

In this very interesting region the first signs of Lobelioideae, a tribe of the 
family Campanulaceae, occur, to the w r onderful development of which the writer 
wishes to call attention. (See plate VI.) It is the largest of all other families 
which occur in this Territory, the Hawaiian Islands. The most extreme forms 
can be found, from two to over forty feet in height. They are represented at 
from 800 to 2000 feet elevation by the very common Clermontia macrocarpa, 

11 



PLATE VI. 




CYANEA TRITHOMANTA Gray, a typical lobelioideous plant of the lower forest region 
on Hawaii; the vine in the background is Freycinetia Arnotti Gaud, (native name: 
leie). 



which can be found on nearly all the islands. Higher up, its place is taken by 
the most interesting and peculiar as well as handsome forms, such as C. persicae- 
folia, C. oblongifolia, C. drepanomorplia, etc. On Oahu the genus Rollandia, 
also of the tribe Lobelioideae, is represented in the lower forest region by the 
species R. lanceolata and E. grandifolia and another species of Rollandia found 
to be new and named R. truncata by the author. 

Clermontia Kolialae, a strictly lower forest zone type, is also new to science. 
It is found at Kohala on the island of Hawaii, where it is gregarious at 1500 
to 2000 feet elevation, after which place it is named. It is a small, handsome 
tree, flowering in the summer. To this region belongs also Cyanea angustifolia, 
C. acuminata, C. grimesiana, C. scabra, all of which are peculiar to this region. 

The gesneriaceous genus Cyrtandra, with its many species, characterized 
by the often bilabiate corolla, which is invariably white, having a fleshy berry 
of the same color as the flower, with minute, almost microscopic seeds, belongs 
to this zone; but not exclusively. These Cyrtandras have very few species in 
this region, but reach their best development in the middle forest zone. 

The euphorbiaceous Claoxylon, a small shrub, may be found occasionally in 
this zone, though most plentifully on West Maui in the valley of Waikapu. Of 
vines, several Convolvulaceae, especially the genus Ipomoea, are found trailing 
over guava, lantana and other introduced shrubbery which have established 
themselves in the lower forest region. Besides the Convolvulaceae, Dioscorea 
sativa and D. pentaphylla (Yam) are common, as well as the liliaceous Smilax 
Sandwicensis (Ploi), trailing over trees. 

The Hawaiian Labiatae are conspicuous by their absence in this region, at 
least in the region belonging to the windward subsection, though two are found 
in the dry section. 

Of monocotyledonous plants, the following remain to be mentioned: The 
Alocasia macrorrhiza (Ape), one of the huge species of taro, but not edible, 
though in times of scarcity the stem was cooked and eaten by the natives. With 
leaves several feet long, they can occasionally be found in shaded ravines or 
valleys, besides the useful Tacca pinnatifida (Pia). The last, but not least, is 
JIusa sapient um, the Banana, of which the natives recognized some forty odd 
varieties, which is a typical feature of the lower forest zone, and with it is the 
ginger, Zingiber zerumbet (Awapuhi). 

The cryptogamous flora is also represented in this region, its most conspicuous 
and typical representative being the Asplenium nidus or bird's-nest fern, \vhich 
usually is plentiful in the forks of the branches of the Kukui, with which it is 
invariably growing when not terrestrial. Of other ferns, mention may be made 
of the everpresent Xcphrolepis exaltata and the very troublesome Gleichenia 
linear is (Ulithe), which covers the ground so thickly with its far-reaching branches 
that it is next to impossible to penetrate any country taken up by this robust 
fern. It is usually in layers of four to five or even more feet thick, the lower 
ones usually dead, forming a canopy over which one crosses only with great diffi- 

13 



culty. It is often dangerous to cross places where this fern grows, as it com- 
pletely hides the ground underneath, sometimes concealing the holes, into which 
one is likely to fall should he entrust himself to this treacherous fern. Several 
species of Poly-podium are present, as P. spectrum, etc. Dryopteris and As- 
plenium have also species in this locality. In the more open places the ground 
is usually covered with Commelina nudiflora (Honohonowai) and several grasses, 
with a few cyperaceous plants, such as Rhynchospora thyrsoidea and Galmia 
Beecheyi. In the more open glades on the outskirts of the lower forests Micro- 
lepia strigosa and Odontosoria ckinensis, the Palapalae and Palaa ferns, are 
quite common, while occasionally Cibotium and Sadleria occur in this region also. 
The family Flacourtiaceae is represented by two species in these islands, 
both of the lower forest zone, though one, Xylosma Hawaiiensis, is peculiar to 
the wet, the other, X. Hillebrandii, to the dry. This holds good of the euphor- 
biaceous genus Antidesma, with its two species, A. platypkyllum and A. pulvi- 
natum, the former occurring in the wet section as well as in the dry, while the 
latter is found mainly in the dry section of the lower forest zone. 

SUBSECTION B LEEWARD LOWER FOREST FLORA. 

No two forest floras could be more different and strikingly peculiar than 
those in question. The plant covering of the leeward regions, as for example 
the Waianae mountains, Oahu, the southern slope of Haleakala, Maui, the 
west end of Molokai, etc., is the richest in species as far as tree growth is con- 
cerned. Nearly all trees growing on these more or less arid lava fields have 
developed extremely hard, close-grained wood. Only four or five species, as 
Reynoldsia, Erythrina, Nothocestrum, etc., are soft-wooded, and possess exceed- 
ingly thin bark, while those of hard wood possess a usually rough, scaly bark of 
perhaps half an inch or more in thickness. This striking flora gives the region 
a most peculiar aspect, and more so in such places which were disturbed by more 
or less recent lava flows, destroying the original vegetation, which is then suc- 
ceeded by an entirely different plant growth. These districts which harbor such 
an interesting flora are not very large, being only perhaps two to four miles 
long at the most and much less wide. It is in these peculiar regions that the 
botanical collector will find more in one day collecting than in a week or two in a 
wet region, and may it be said here that it is indeed astonishing that these various 
places like Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii, and Kahikinui, Maui, have been 
entirely neglected by the botanical collectors who have previously visited these 
islands. It may be of interest to know that not less than 60 per cent of all the 
species of indigenous trees growing in these islands can be found and are pecu- 
liar to the dry regions or lava fields of the lower forest zone, which in certain 
localities gradually passes into the middle forest region, carrying a few trees up 
into the latter zone. 

Exceptions are certain kipukas on Hawaii, at an elevation of between 4000 
and 5000 feet, which possess a flora which is otherwise entirely restricted to the 

15 



lower forest region. In these restricted areas one may find from 40 to 50 
species of trees, some of which are confined to one locality only. It is in these 
places that the writer has found many new species of trees and rediscovered 
some which were thought to have become extinct. Of course, most of the Ha- 
waiian plant genera have representatives in both wet and dry districts, which 
differ so greatly from each other that one cannot help coming to the conclusion 
that they must have originated in different periods, meaning that their evolution 
was not carried on simultaneously. 

The Kukui is sparingly represented in these floral districts and is replaced 
by the araliaceous Reynoldsia sandwicensis, a striking tree of sometimes 50 feet 
in height. (See plate VII.) It is one of the trees which possesses a soft wood 
and an exceedingly thin bark. Its most plentiful associate is the leguminous 
Erythrina monosperma, the Wiliwili of the natives, whose wood is also very 
light and soft. 

Nearly all Hawaiian Araliaceae come into this region, with the exception of 
a very few species, such as Tetraplasandra Waialealae, the Oahuan varieties of 
T. meiandra, Clieirodendron platyphyllum, and Pterotropia gymnocarpa, which 
are characteristic of the rain forest. Pterotropia dipyrena is peculiar to the 
region discussed in this chapter, though sometimes going over into the middle 
forest zone, to which Pterotropia Kavaiensis, a handsome tree found only on the 
island of Kauai, is peculiar. 

The Apocynaceae have three arborescent species represented, Rauwolfia sand- 
wicensis (Hao), either a shrub or more often a tree, and Ochrosia sandwicensis 
(Holei), not uncommon, and Pteralyxia macrocarpa (Kaulu), only found on 
Oahu in the valley of Makaleha. The latter is a small tree, with large, bright 
red, double fruits. The Gynopogon oliviformis (Maile), also belonging to this 
family, has a variety myrtillifolia occuring in the dry forests, usually climbing 
over trees, and sometimes strangling them to death. 

The most common tree is the liliaceous Dracaena aurea, or Halapepe of the 
natives. It is entirely restricted to this region and only very rarely is found 
outside of it. 

These dry or mixed forest regions occur, however, in other tropical countries, 
as in East Java and India, and are peculiar in so far as they are composed of 
periodically deciduous trees. In Hawaii only three or four species lose their 
leaves in the dry season, as Erythrina monosperma, Reynoldsia sandwicensis, 
Kokia drynariodes, and Sapindus saponaria. The same may be said of No- 
thocestrum, which also sheds its leaves, but without ever becoming leafless, as 
its defoliation immediately precedes its acquisition of new foliage. These dry, 
forest regions or mixed woodlands have hardly ever been investigated, previous 
explorers confining their investigations to the wet forests, which appear from a 
distance much more promising. These rain forests, however, display much less 
variety than the mixed forest, where not a single tree species can be called domi- 
nant. Of course, there are exceptions, as for example in South Kona, on Hawaii, 

17 




w 

O 03 

o w 

i! 

-u O 



ri o 



S 

o c 

-a 



K .. 
O >> 



where Metrosideros polymorplia (Oliia leliua) got the upper hand and now forms 
nearly pure stands, with perhaps a few other trees, like Straussia and Suttonia, 
on the more recent lava flows which intersect the mixed forests. This, however, 
is due to the wonderful adaptability of the Oliia to nearly any environment 
trad to its quicker growth, while the trees of the mixed lower forests are ex- 
tremely slow growing and their seeds usually do not germinate before one or 
two years, or perhaps much longer, after which the two cotyledons remain for 
another year before a third leaf appears. Trees of these mixed forests have 
practically no epiphytes and only one or two lianes are present, Embelia sp., 
whose huge, rope-like stems are entangled in the tops of the trees, having a thick- 
ness of several inches near the ground, on which they are twisted like the coil of a 
rope before ascending the trees. This giant Embelia has only been observed so 
far by the writer in the kipuka Puaulu, near the volcano on Hawaii. 

Caesalpinia bonducella is very common on the lava fields, and the writer met 
with huge plants whose rope-like stems climbed the tallest trees, forming also an 
impenetrable mass on the ground, very treacherous on account of their recurved 
sharp thorns and very spiny seed pods. Besides these lianes, two parasites are 
exceedingly common, one being the Hawaiian mistletoe, Viscum articulatum, 
which at that locality infests mainly the ebenaceous Maba sandwicensis, while 
the leafless parasite, Cassytha filiformis, with its thousands of thread-like, yellow 
ftems, covers the tops of trees (usually Plectronia odor at a), which in due time 
succumb to this pest. (See plate VIII.) 

Strange to say, these mixed forests have hardly any native undergrowth, 
with the exception of a few ferns and grasses, though in late years lantana and 
guava have driven out the few native plants which formed this undergrowth. 
In dry forests of normal conditions a few composites thrive, such as Lipochaeta, 
and a menispermaceous vine, CoccuUis Ferrandianus, and a species of the cucur- 
bitaceous genus Sicyos. Some of the trees belonging to the mixed or dry forests, 
as the handsome Pelea multiflora, Alectryon macrococcus and Hibiscadelphus, 
but mainly the former, are covered with a species of lichen which gives the trees 
a mournful appearance and is really injurious to them. This particular species 
(Usnea australis) does not infest all trees, but only certain species, mainly Pelea 
multiflora, in the dry forest of Auahi on the southern slope of Haleakala. 

Though it is said that the more conspicuous lichens are common on unhealthy 
trees, rather than on thrifty ones, nevertheless when they do occur in such quan- 
tities as on some of the trees of the mixed forests, they must interfere with the 
functions of the bark. It also may be said that nowhere is the lichen flora richer 
in species than in the mixed or dry forest of the lower zone. 

On Kauai, the dry or mixed forest zone has almost entirely disappeared and 
only a few trees can still be found. Most of the land has "been cleared for sugar 
cane fields up to an elevation of nearly 2000 feet; above Makaweli only little is 
left, while above Kekaha only grass land spreads up to an elevation of nearly 
3000 feet. 

19 



PLATE X. 




INTERIOR OF FERN FOREST on Hawaii, near Volcano Kilauea, elevation 4000 feet. 
The tree ferns are Cibotium; undergrowth ferns, Dryopteris, Asplenium, Aspidium, 
etc. 



That there was once a mixed woodland is told by the very few remaining 
trees, such as the white Hibiscus (Hibiscus Waimeae), a handsome tree with 
large, white, showy flowers, which still exists in a small valley in company with 
Osmanthus sandwicensis. At an elevation of 1000 feet, back of Makaweli, the 
most common tree is Sapindus oahuensis, remarkable for its simple leaves. This 
tree has hitherto not been reported from Kauai, from whence it must have come 
to Oahu, being much more numerous on Kauai than on the latter island. 

The plants which make up the mixed woodlands are usually the same on all 
the islands, with the exception of certain species which are peculiar to certain 
localities. Among them are the following : Hibiscus Waimeae to Kauai ; Ptera- 
lyxia macrocarpa, an apocynaceous tree with bright red double fruits, to the 
Waianae mountains on Oahu; Pelea multiflora, a newly described species, to- 
gether with P. cinerea var. racemosa, Hibiscadelplnis WUderianus, Sideroxylon 
aualiiense, all new to science, peculiar to the lava fields of Auahi, southern slopes 
of Haleakala; and Pittosporum Hosmeri, Xanthoxylum dipetalum var. nov., 
Kokia Rockii, and others, to Puuwaawaa, Kona, Hawaii; while Tetraplasandra 
Lanaiensis and a few other species are found on Lanai only. 

Not all dry forests of the lower zone are, however, alike, some differing very 
materially in possessing fewer species of trees than others, and thus form, so 
to say, a transition type. On Maui the forest above Makawao, which gradually 
passes into the middle forest zone, has a similar aspect to the dry forest on the 
southern slope, but, being more to the windward side, and therefore receiving 
more rain, is unsuitable for certain tree species, and thus less rich in species. 
Between this forest, which is somewhat a mixture of rain and dry forest, since 
it has suitable conditions for plants of both regions, and Kula, is now a large 
treeless plain, with the exception of the intervening valleys, or rather old lava 
gulches, with their precipitous walls, which show still a very interesting tree 
growth, mainly composed of Sideroxylon, Xanthoxylum, Pseudomorus and Dra- 
caena. The slopes of Kula, where once a beautiful dry forest existed, are now 
bare owing to cattle, and the only trees still to be found are Dracaena aurea. 

At Ulupalakua native vegetation has disappeared entirely and only planted 
Eucalypti are to be seen. The land of Ulupalakua must be extremly old, as not 
much lava is visible, while the immediate vicinity shows lava flows of little age. 
Several lava flows of various ages must have flowed down the mountain at in- 
tervals of a century or perhaps more, which can be judged by the presence of 
the various floral aspects on these different lava flows. The older lava flow has 
been taken possession of by tree growth of such species belonging to the typical 
dry forest as are more easily transported by either winds or birds and have the 
advantage of becoming more easily established than others, while the newer and 
also somewhat blacker flow is covered by a somewhat different vegetation, mainly 
of introduced weeds, with here and there a native shrub. Beyond these flows is 
the typical mixed or dry forest, undoubtedly of great age; its area is about 500 
acres, and is mainly aa (rough) lava, very much disintegrated in some places, 

21 



though where it is not covered with vegetation other than lichens it shows still 
all its characteristics. 

Beyond Auahi, with its fifty species of trees, is open, flat, rough country with 
a few scattered trees of Xanthoxylum, the last stragglers from the dry forest 
which have ventured out into the open, or perhaps are the survivors of an old 
forest previously existing in this locality. Close to it lies the Kaupo Gap, or 
southern outlet of Haleakala crater, beyond which seems to be a semi-wet dis- 
trict, followed immediately by the rain forest. 



22 



THE VARIOUS FOREST REGIONS ON THE ISLAND 

OF HAWAII 



The Island of Hawaii is composed mainly of the three mountains, Mauna 
Kea (13,823 feet), Mauna Loa (13,675 feet), and Hualalai (8273 feet), while 
the western end, the mountains of Kohala, are said to have formed once a sepa- 
rate island, being about of the same age as West Maui. The now extinct volcano, 
Mauna Kea, the highest mountain of the Pacific, is the oldest volcano on Hawaii, 
while Mauna Loa, whose summit crater, Mokuaweoweo, still becomes periodically 
active, is the youngest. Mt. Hualalai, the lowest of the volcanoes on Hawaii, now 
supposed to be extinct, was last active a little over a century ago, its last erup- 
tion, in 1801, being thought to have been witnessed by an Englishman. 

Naturally an island like Hawaii, still in process of formation, represents 
widely ranging districts : ancient lava flo\vs, deserts, dense tropical rain forests, 
dry or mixed forests, new lava flows bare of any vegetation, alpine zones, and 
almost any climate from dry desert heat to the most humid air of the rain forest, 
from tropical heat to ice and almost perpetual snow at the summits of the moun- 
tains, where a temperature of 13 degrees Fahrenheit in midsummer is nothing 
uncommon. From a phytogeographic standpoint the island of Hawaii offers the 
most interesting field in the Pacific. 

All these various districts, with their peculiar climates, support many inter- 
esting types of plant coverings. 

The windward side of Hawaii, as of nearly all the other islands, is very pre- 
cipitous, especially along the western end, the Kohala mountains, where ver- 
tical cliffs nearly 3000 feet in height are covered with verdure almost to the 
the water's edge. The rainfall is exceedingly heavy in this district, and the 
waters have cut huge gorges into these rocky walls, such as the valleys of Waipio, 
Waimanu, Pololu, Honokaneiki, etc. The vegetation of these valleys is rather 
uniform, and has been described under the lower windward forest region. 

Between Kohala and Mauna Kea is a large plain of many thousands of acres, 
now mainly grassland, at an elevation of 2000 to 3700 feet, after which the slopes 
of Mauna Kea rise more steeply. At from 3700 feet up to 7000 feet, on this big 
plain, is a belt of forest composed mainly of Sopliora clirysopliylla, while lower 
down are scattered trees, usually Osmantkus sandwicensis, the Hawaiian olive, 
with Myoporum sandwlcense, the Naio, etc. To windward, the mountain slopes 
rather gently, forming the Hamakua coast, which at the lowlands has been 
planted with sugar cane exclusively up to an elevation of 2000 feet. From thence 

23 



up is a stretch of forest which receives a heavy rainfall, and is composed mainly 
of Metrosideros polymorpha, with Perottetia, Straussia, Suttonia, Pipturus and 
other trees peculiar to such a forest type. Epiphytic plants occur in great num- 
bers, especially Pteridophytes and vines like the Freycinetia Arnotti (le-ie), 
while the lobeliaceous Clermontia parviflora is found on trunks of trees and on 
tree ferns. The whole forest, however, has suffered greatly, not only from the in- 
vasion by cattle, but also by forest fires, which have destroyed large areas. 
Ilex sandwicensis is found in great numbers, besides huge tree ferns, Cibo- 
tium Menziesii, some of which measure 25 to 30 feet in height, with a diameter 
of 3 feet. The fibrous trunks are usually covered with multitudes of species. 
Vaccinium is plentiful, also Clermontiae and Eubus Macraei. The Ohio,, which 
becomes a tall tree, is festooned with the liliaceous Astelia veratroides, besides 
Smilax and other plants. 

Between 2000 and 3000 feet elevation the forest has disappeared and only 
stragglers of tree ferns can be found standing, though ten times as many are 
lying dead on the ground and overgrown with all possible weeds, which the 
ranchmen have imported with their grass seeds. Among them is the composite 
climber, Senecio mikanioides, an awful pest, which has become well established 
on Hawaii. At 3000 feet a few K oa trees can be found, together with Naio, and 
here also was found a single native palm, Pritchardia sp., windswept and half 
dead. If one considers the natural condition in which this palm flourishes, as 
for example in the dense tropical rain forests in Kohala, and then looks at the 
single plant all alone in a field of Paspalum conjugatum, as the accuser of man 
the destroyer, it stands a witness to the fact that there, surrounding it, was once 
a beautiful tropical jungle. Above this dead forest belt is grass land only, 
while a little higher up Sopkora chrysophylla forms a belt of forest together 
with Acacia Koa, on whose trunks grows Asplenium adiantum nigrum. Far- 
ther up the Koa gives place to the Mamani, which forms the sole vegetation be- 
sides a few straggling shrubs of the rosaceous Osteomeles anthyllidi folia at 
6000 feet. 

In this locality are three cinder cones or craters on the mountain slope, Ka- 
luamakani, a little over 7000 feet, Moano, and Nau. The vegetation on these 
cones is scanty. The crater holes are very shallow and sandy and harbor only 
few plants. On the rim of the cones grows the monocotyledonous Sisyrynchium 
acre, a glabrous plant 6 to 10 inches in height, with small yellow flowers. In 
the shade of the Mamani, as well as on the slopes, grows Ranunculus Hawaii- 
ensis, while in the cracks of the crater wall several grasses, Cynodon dactylon, 
Koehleria glomerata, and Deschampsia australis var. were found in company 
with Gnaphalium luteo-album. At an elevation of 7000 feet on the wind- 
ward slope, Eaillardia arborea, one of the Hawaiian tree composites, grows in 
company with the epacridaceous Cyathodes. On the crater Nau several Compositae 
were found, mainly Raillardia, but also Campylotheca and Lipochaeta, besides 
a tree. Euphorbia lori folia, and several herbaceous Labiatae of the genus Ste- 

25 



nogyne. Encircling the base of the cone Nau is a deep lava gulch with precipi- 
tous walls, inaccessible to cattle. Here a composite vegetation with Labiatae 
flourishes; while outside only the hardy Mamani trees have survived the ravages 
of cattle. 

The forests of Puna near Hilo are extremely rich and are situated almost 
between the slopes of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa. Immediately back of Hilo 
is a somewhat mixed forest composed of species of trees peculiar to the dry and 
wet regions. The nearly impenetrable forests of the Hilo district are com- 
posed mainly of Mctrosideros polymorpha, which forms almost pure stands. 

FLORAL ASPECTS IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OP THE VOLCANO KILAUEA ON HAWAII. 

The floral aspects of the country surrounding Kilauea are exceedingly in- 
teresting, as there are many peculiar types of vegetation which are limited to 
certain small areas. Immediately back of the Volcano House is the fern or rain 
forest (see plate IX), composed of the tree ferns Cibotium Menziesii and 
Cibotmm Cliamissoi, which reach here a wonderful development as far as fronds 
are concerned, though the trunks are not so high as in the mountains of Kohala. 
The main trees are Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii, Ilex sandwicensis, Suttonia 
Lessertiana, while lobeliaceous species such as Clermontia parviflora var. plei- 
antlia and others grow in the forks of trees. Metrosideros polymorplia is also 
extremely common. The trunks of these trees are usually covered with moss a 
foot or so thick, holding a tremendous amount of water. In the moss on these 
trees epiphytes are numerous ; 10 to 15 species of ferns can sometimes be found 
on one trunk, mainly Poly podium tamariscinum, P. lineare, P. pseudo- 
gramnntis, P. sarmentosum, Asplenium horridum, A. pseudofalcatum, Elaplio- 
glossum gorgonciim, E. reticulatum, E. Wawrae, etc., while an occasional Ly- 
copod may be found also. Besides these numerous ferns, the liliaceous plant 
Astelia vcrairoidcs forms dense beds, especially on horizontal tree trunks, while 
Vaccinhtm penduliflorum and another variety occur quite frequently on the 
same trees. The undergrowth is mainly of ferns of the genera Asplenium and 
Aspidium. (See plate X.) From the trunks of tree ferns a beautiful Labiate, 
with large pink flowers, Stcnogyne calamintlwides, hangs gracefully and some- 
times interlaces several tree ferns with a number of its runners. Of shrubs, 
Broiissaisia arguta and several species of Cyrtandra are not uncommon, while in 
certain localities the cyperaceous Uncinia sp. covers the ground. However, the 
native undergrowth is now being driven out by the tenacious Eul)iis jamaicensis, 
or thimble berry, an introduced pest, which makes walking very difficult on ac- 
count of its nasty recurved thorns. The plant grows luxuriously in the shade of 
the tree ferns. Besides this obnoxious plant, another one has been introduced of 
late, the ordinary blackberry, which already shows signs of having taken a 
strong foothold. 

Before one reaches the true rain or fern forest, where rich, black, muddy 
soil abounds, a sort of semi-wet forest, or rather shrubby vegetation, is passed 

27 



through. Sadleria ferns, which like the open country, are numerous, with an 
occasional Cibotium (see plate XI) ; the trees are the same as in the rain forest, 
but are more stunted, while the shrubs are composed of different species. Vac- 
cinium reticulatum ranks first, then Cyathodes tameiameia, an epacridaceous 
plant with pretty white and red berries, and also the poisonous thymelaeaceous 
plant Wikstroemia sp. On the open lava fields Ohio, lehua abounds, and especially 
along the hot sulphur cracks, where the small trees are covered with the yellow 
crystals. Many cyperaceous plants can be found ; among them are the following 
indigenous species : Cyperus mauiensis, Carex sandwicensis, Gahnia Gaudi- 
cliaudii, Cladium angustifolium, Cladium Meyenii, etc. In the old cracks, San- 
talum Freycinetianum var. latifolium is common, besides several species of 
Coprosma and the composite shrub Raillardia laxiflora, the sapindaceous cos- 
mopolitan Dodonaea viscosa, besides the common fern, Polypodium pellucidum, 
Lycopodium cernuum, etc. Adjoining this open scrub vegetation is the Koa 
forest (see plate XII), where giant trees can be seen, some reaching a height of 
80 feet with a trunk 6 feet or so in diameter. It is mixed with Ohio, lehua, 
Straussia, Suttonia, Perrottetia, and tree ferns, while in the forks of its branches 
small trees of a new lobeliaceous plant, Clermontia sp.,* have established them- 
selves. Miles of this forest exist in which one can easily lose his way if he tries 
to penetrate into the interior, which in certain localities is inaccessible. The 
le-ie vine is occasionally met with, but 4000 feet elevation is its limit. Border- 
ing this forest to the south are extensive lava flows of aa, which have now been 
taken possession of by Acacia Koa solely. (See plate XIII.) Here the trees 
do not grow straight, but have short trunks with very crooked branches, of 
which the lower invariably trail on the ground. In contrast to the lowland aa 
flows, which are taken possession of by Ohia, at this elevation Koa is the pre- 
dominant or sole tree. 

Three or four miles from the Volcano House, in the midst of aa lava just 
described, is a bit of land composed of 56 acres, which is called Kipuka Puaulu 
by the natives. This little oasis, as it should properly be termed, shows no sign 
of lava rock, but has rich, deep, black soil which supports a marvelous mixture 
of vegetation. As many as forty species of trees are present in this beautiful 
park-like spot. (See plate XIV.) It is of a similar nature to the mixed or dry 
forest of the lower forest zone. This kipuka or oasis is situated at an elevation 
of 4000 to 4500 feet, and is surrounded on three sides by old aa flows, 20 to 30 
feet thick, while on the southeast side it is cut off by an old pahoehoe flow, 
which supports a scanty Ohia lehua growth. Many unique species of trees occur 
in this beautiful spot, and have not been found on the other islands and not 
even in other localities on the same island. 

It is the writer's opinion that this forest is the sort of type which covered 
the slopes of Mauna Loa at this elevation for quite a large area but was de- 
stroyed by the many lava flows which broke out on the flanks of the mountain. 
Fortunately this little oasis, which will soon be reserved as a National park, 



Clermontia Hawaiiensis (Hbd.) Rock. 

29 



escaped the fiery streams by its elevation. It is now used as a fattening paddock 
for cattle, and it is indeed high time that something is done, or else these won- 
derful trees, many of them new and unique, will be a thing of the past, in even 
the nearest future. No undergrowth exists, with the exception of a few ferns, 
mainly Aspidium and Asplenium, the most common being Polysticlmm falca- 
tum var. 

One of the most interesting trees is a Malvaceae nearest to Hibiscus. Only 
one tree is in existence, and was described by the writer as a new genus under 
the name " Hibiscadelphus. " Two other species have since been discovered by 
the writer belonging to the same new genus, which will be mentioned in their 
respective places. Among the biggest trees is a new variety of Xanthoxylum, 
with a straight trunk of over a foot in diameter. (See plate 83.) Several species 
of Pelea, besides other Xanthoxyla, Sapindus saponaria, and Suttonia, etc., 
make up this beautiful park. 

Beyond this oasis is another aa lava flow of more recent age, as it is still 
covered with a sort of scrub vegetation. Dodonaea, Rumex giganteus, Coprosma 
ernodeoides the Kukainene of the natives, Cyperus mauiensis, Carex, Koehleria 
glomerata, Styphelia, and a few others form the main vegetation, while a little 
lower is a triangular spot which was saved from the lava flows and supports a 
number of trees of Pittosporum Hosmeri var.,* the only Pittosporum representa- 
tive in the whole district. It is most remarkable that not a single species of 
Pittosporum or Sideroxylon can be found in the Kipuka Puaulu, which has most 
of their associates represented, while these two genera are conspicuous by their 
absence. With these Pittosporum are Pelea volcanica, Pelea sp ? and Cheiro- 
dendron Gaudicliaudii. This strip of lava beyond the little oasis is about half a 
mile wide. On its other side is an aa flow of much greater age. Oliia leliua has 
covered it densely, together with other species, the former, however, being the 
dominant tree. 

Adjoining this flow is another kipuka called Ki, similar to Puaulu, though 
much younger, as the vegetation is not half as rich in species as that of the 
latter. Sapindus saponaria is the predominant species, forming 50 per cent of 
the tree growth, while Acacia Koa, Sophora clirysophylla, Straussia, Pelea vol- 
canica; and others make up the rest of the forest. Sapindus saponaria is the 
largest tree present, reaching a height of about 80 feet, with trunks of 2 to 3 
feet in diameter. There is no undergrowth now with the exception of a few 
Aspidium and Polystichum ferns. Lichen growth is extremely rich in species, 
especially on the bark of Sapindus saponaria. This last kipuka is at an eleva- 
tion of about 4600 to 5000 feet. Above it is still another aa flow occupied by 
Acacia Koa, while below it is a forest of Sophora clirysopliylla, which at this, 
elevation, 4000 to 5000 feet, reaches its best development. 

Another aa flow joins this kipuka on the southwest side, supporting a vege- 
tation similar to the one adjoining it on the other, but is still younger. This, 
flow is perhaps two miles wide, and must have come from the west flank of 



Pittosporum Hosmeri var. longifolia Rock v. n. 

31 



PLATE XV. 




TYPICAL JUNGLE OF THE LOWER FOREST REGION, at Hilea, Kau, Hawaii, eleva- 
tion 1800 feet. Ferns to left, Sadleria; to right, Cibotium; vine in background, 
Freycinetia Arnotti Gaud. 



Manna Loa. The vegetation is extremely uniform, Oliia lehua being the only 
tree, while in certain localities it is entirely bare of vegetation. 

At 5000 feet elevation is a large area of land with rich soil supporting a 
number of species of native grasses, mainly Koehleria glomerata, with Car ex 
sandwicensis var. lav arum. Most beautiful Koa trees of great size form clumps 
of forests, together with Mamani. This land, which has been reserved as a pad- 
dock, must be extremely old, as no lava is visible, and is sharply contrasted by 
the rugged, sharp, black aa lava flows bordering it. Above this paddock, which 
is of considerable extent, is the again everpresent lava. It is only on this side, 
but mainly above Kapapala, that the silversword, Argyroxipliium sandwicense, 
is found as low down as 7000 feet elevation on Manna Loa. The vegetation from 
the volcano until one reaches Hilea, in Kan, is extremely uniform and quite unin- 
teresting. At Hilea, the slopes of Manna Loa are cut into many divisions, mainly 
valleys and ridges with very precipitous slopes. From Naalehu the country 
slopes very gradually. 

FLORAL ASPECTS OF KAU. 

LAVA FORMATION. 

Immediately below Hilea proper the land is all under cultivation, sugar cane 
being the only crop. At an elevation of about 2000 feet is a small plateau, 
mainly composed of pahoehoe lava of apparently great age, on both sides the 
mountain of Kaiholena rising to about 1000 feet, with very precipitous walls. 
The pahoehoe plain, which is called Kanalohu, is all hollow underneath. Great 
subterranean channels undermine the whole plain, and are now used for reser- 
voirs. The lava walls are perfectly smooth and black and form complete arched 
tunnels for a long distance. These were undoubtedly subterranean outlets of 
rushing lava streams. In fact, some of the channels can be traced right down 
to the water's edge. The main vegetation of this plateau is Paspalum conju~ 
gat um (Hilo grass), besides a number of ferns. 

Emerging into this flat plateau are several valleys, one of which, Kumauna ; 
is of interest. The forest from Hilea to Waiohinu, though being on the lee side 
of Hawaii, belongs to the rain or wet forest type. At Hilea proper it is somewhat 
mixed, being composed of trees belonging to both wet and dry forest types. The 
forest as a whole is more uniform than similar forest types in other localities, 
due mainly to the land being geologically much younger than in similar locali- 
ties on the other islands where volcanic activities ceased thousands of years 
ago, as it is situated on the southern slopes of the still active volcano Mauna Loa. 
The land, nevertheless, has extremely rich soil, which is black and somewhat 
muddy. The principal tree of which the Hilea forest is composed is Metrosideros 
polymorpha, which is the most numerous. Its associates are Antidesma platy- 
phyttum (Hame), Straussia, Perrottetia sandwicensis (Olomea), Pipturus, Sut- 
tonia (Kolea), Pelea volcanica, Pelea clusiaefolia, Bobea sp., Tetraplasandra 

33 



meiandra var., Eurya sandwicensis (Wanini), and several species of Gouldia, 
Coprosma being very common at lower levels. 

On the slopes of Kumauna and Kaiholena valley is found Pterotropia dipy- 
rena var., which reaches here a beautiful development. Trees 60 feet tall and 
more, with trunks of nearly two feet in diameter, are not uncommon in the 
valley, while at higher elevation it is a tree 30 feet in height with rather ram- 
bling branches. The ie-ie is gregarious, besides Smilax and Embelia, which are 
all lianes, climbing over trees. Of Leguminosae, a beautiful climber, Strongy- 
lodon lucidum, called Nukuiwi by the natives, covers the tops of the numerous 
Kukui trees in Kumauna valley. In few places has the writer seen such a beau- 
tiful forest as the one in question, reaching from Hilea to Waiohinu. Its natural 
condition is undisturbed, and therefore presents a marvelous display of growth 
up to an elevation of nearly 6000 feet. (See plate XV.) Several Lobeliaceae 
occur, such as Cyanea tritomantlia, which is exceedingly common in this locality, 
favored by the very shaded situation under the rank growth of trees, ferns and 
lianes. It belongs to the section Palmaeforin.es, which is peculiar to the middle 
forest region, but occasionally going a little lower. Clermontia coendea, Cl. 
parviflora, are also common, both being trees sometimes growing in the forks of 
other trees. The solanaceous genus Nothocestrum is represented by the species 
breviflorum, which is here a little tree 20 feet in height. 

The only plant cultivated near the Hilea plain is Piper methysticum, the 
awa of the natives. Pittosporums are absent as well as Sideroxylon and its as- 
sociates. In Kumauna valley proper, Pisonia inermis var. leiocarpa (Papala 
kepau) is very common. 

The country just below Hilea is called Kalaiki, and is mainly aa lava, which 
supports a strictly speaking dry or mixed forest flora, though not as rich in 
species, as the area is limited. It consists mainly of large groves of Kukui, be- 
sides stunted forms of Straussia and a few trees of Antidesma pulvinatum; Os- 
manthus sandwicensis is very common besides Plectronia odorata (Walahee), a 
pretty little tree or shrub with horizontal branches and a dark green, glossy 
foliage, which is pleasingly contrasted by the white, birch-like bark. A white 
flowered and white fruiting variety of the Ohia ai or mountain apple is also to 
be found among shrubs of the tapa plants Pipturus (Mamake) and Brousso- 
netia papyrifera (Wauke), the latter having of late become exceedingly scarce, 
as its cultivation has been discontinued since about fifty years or more ago. 

A few hundred feet below this small grove of mixed forest we find the 
typical lowland formation on aa lava fields, which is characterized by the legum- 
inous trees, Erythrina monosperma, Reynoldsia sandwicensis, Myopornm sand- 
wicense, Nototrichium, Dodonaea, several Cyperaceae, besides the following 
climbers, of which the leguminous thorny Caesalpinia bonducella (Kakalaioa) 
is the most common, in company with the convolvulaceous Ipomoea insularis 
(Koaliawahia) and Argyreia tiliaefolia (Pilikai). Large yellow patches are 
discernable on the tops of trees from the distance, and on examination are found 

34 



to be the very troublesome leafless parasite, Cassytha filiformis or Kaunoa of 
the natives, which is here more plentiful than in any other district of the islands 
of the group visited by the writer. 

THE FOREST BACK OF NAALEHU UP TO AN ELEVATION OF 6000 FEET. 

Above the cane fields, which are situated on the rather steep slopes back of 
Naalehu, is a more or less flat stretch of land clothed in a rather scanty vegeta- 
tion, mainly Sadleria ferns; the soil is muddy and numerous species of weeds 
abound, besides the everpresent Hilo grass, forming a dense carpet. Joining 
this open stretch of land at an elevation of about 2300 feet commences an almost 
impenetrable jungle which ascends uninterruptedly to an elevation of 6000 feet. 
The main vegetative feature is fern growth, intermixed with Scaevola shrubs, 
Straussia, Broussaisia, Clermontia parviflora, Cl. coerulea, the latter one of the 
most common trees. The larger trees are mainly Suttonia, Pelea, Perrottetia, Me- 
trosideros, and as we ascend a species of Pittosporum is not uncommon. The 
forest is strictly of the rain forest type, and becomes more uniform with in- 
creased elevation. For example, at from 3000 feet to 5000 feet elevation three 
species of trees, Suttonia Lessertiana, Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii and Metro- 
sideros polymorpha, are the principal ones, while an occasional straggler of 
Pittosporum, Gouldia, and Straussia can be observed. Tetraplasandra meiandra 
var. belongs to the 3000 foot level. The undershrubs are mainly Broussaisia 
peUucida and several species of Cyrtandra, with many species of ferns and a 
few Labiatae, such as Phyllostegia and Stenogyne. 

Pipturus albidus is the most common plant of all, reaching the size of a hand- 
some tree with a trunk of sometimes a foot or more in diameter. It ascends to 
an elevation of 5000 feet. Along the fern trail toward the mountain springs, 
from which the sugar plantation obtains its main water supply, the vegetation 
becomes richer; the ground is covered with thick moss. Here the writer was 
fortunate enough to discover three species of Lobelioideae new to science, two 
belonging to the genus Cyanea, one very remarkable for its creeping root stock; 
the third is a handsome shrub of the genus Clermontia with pinkish flowers. 
Lobelia hypoleuca and the exceedingly handsome Lobelia macrostachys occur 
here also, as well as at the higher levels. 

Of a species of Pritchardia 18 to 20 feet high (a native palm) with a smooth 
trunk about 8 inches in diameter, the writer found a few individual trees.* It 
differs from all the other native palms in its flowering spathes, which are thickly 
covered with a salmon-colored wool or tomentum. Its fruits are oval and little 
more than an inch long. It may be the same species that is found near Glenwood 
on the road to the Volcano Kilauea from Hilo, which the writer had no oppor- 
tunity of examining. This conclusion is drawn from the fact that the forest 
flora at this latter locality has many species in common with the one just de- 
scribed. 



* Since described by Beccari as Pritchardia eriostachia sp. n. 

35 



The writer crossed the Naalehu forest diagonally toward Kahuku up to the 
source of the 1868 lava flow, at an elevation of about 6600 feet. The main trees 
above 5000 feet elevation are Metrosideros polymorpha, the Ohio, leliua, usually 
tall trees with rather straight trunks, which are enwrapped with moss and 
epiphytic ferns; the Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii (Olapa) is the next most 
common, with Suttonia Lessertiana. 

The undergrowth is exceedingly dense and is composed mainly of Rubus 
Hawaiiensis, which is covered with fine aculeate spines which adhere to and 
penetrate into the flesh very easily when touched. It grows here erect, 5 to 8 
feet high, and was almost void of foliage (January). It has one main stem 
tapering toward the end without even small branchlets, having the shape of a 
whip. Ferns are also common, mainly Dryopteris globulifera, Sadleria, and 
here and there a Cibotium. At an elevation of 5600 feet Ohio, leliua is the prin- 
cipal tree. Associated with it, curiously enough, is the small-leaved Suttonia 
sandivicensis (Kolea), which is here a tree 18 to 25 feet in height with a straight 
trunk of 5 to 6 inches in diameter. The undershrubs are mainly Coprosma with 
rambling branches, Broussaisia pellucida, and Pipturus. The soil is still rich 
and muddy, and is often covered with tussocks of Astelia veratroides, the large- 
leaved form usually found to be terrestrial. At about 5000 feet, where in other 
localities a forest of this type would gradually change into an open, flat swamp 
like Puukukui on West Maui, or Waialeale on Kauai, the land here becomes 
drier, and the first pahoehoe lava becomes visible. The transition vegetation is 
stunted, though some straight, tall Oliia trees are not uncommon, while a pecu- 
liar low-growing Sadleria forms the undershrub. The most interesting fact is 
the absence of Acacia Koa in the entire stretch of forest between Hilea and 
Waiohinu, as well as of Sophora chrysophylla, which is not found even on the 
open pahoehoe lava field which supports the following vegetation belonging to 
the upper forest zone : Eaillardia sp., a small shrub 4 to 5 feet high, grows to- 
gether with Vaccinium reticulatum, and an undescribed variety of the same 
which is much taller and has a bluish-purple glaucous berry, with orbicular 
glaucous leaves. Geranium cuneatum var. ft. forms small shrubs with stout, stiff 
branchlets; the leaves are silvery underneath. It is usually plentiful on ele- 
vated crusts of pahoehoe lava which have become fissured, and covers them com- 
pletely together with Styphelia tameiameia and St. imbricata and Raillardia, 
forming densely-wooded mounds. Coprosma ernodeoides, a rubiaceous creeper 
with black, round berries, abounds, besides the Chilean strawberry, Fragaria 
Chilensis, the cyperaceous Gahnia Gaudichaudii, Carex sandwicensis, while the 
juncaceous Luzula Hawaiiensis Buch., which has all the aspects of a Cyperaceae, 
and Sisyrynchium acre of the order Iridaceae are growing scattered between the 
lava cracks. Lycopodium venustulum and the Gramineae Koehleria glomerata 
and Deschampsia australis can also be met with. 

36 



This is the limit of tree growth. Above this, old and more recent lava flows 
cover the ground, which is either bare or covered with a scrubby vegetation such 
as just described. 

VEGETATION OF THE LAVA FLOWS OF KAU AND SOUTH KONA FROM SEA LEVEL TO AN 

ELEVATION OF 4200 FEET. 

Between Waiohinu and Kahuku the vegetation is mainly composed of Ohio., 
with an occasional sandalwood tree, 8 ant alum Freycinetianum var. latifolium. 
Lava flows of various ages have descended from the upper as well as the lower 
slopes of Mauna Loa, some having reached the sea, others having just crossed 
the government road (1200 feet), while minor flows have descended for only 
about a mile from their source, after which they cooled and stopped. The 
neighborhood of Kahuku is the seat of many eruptions, some within the memory 
of man, as two flows came forth from the southern slopes of Mauna Loa, one in 
1867, and another in 1887, while as recently as January 9, 1907, after a few 
slight earthquakes, another flow proceeded in the same direction from an eleva- 
tion higher than that of the two previous flows. This last eruption emerged con- 
siderably below the summit of Mauna Loa, pouring forth a stream of aa (rough 
lava) which divided into two nearly equal streams, with a smaller one between 
This is ; however, not the place to give a description of the behavior of lava flows, 
and the writer wishes to refer the reader to Dr. Win. T. Brigham's valuable 
publication on the Volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa. All three flows men- 
tioned above are entirely bare of vegetation, and the half century intervening 
has not changed the appearance of these various flows in the slightest. The 
older ones look exactly as does the one of 1907, the only difference being in the 
color, which is a trifle lighter shade of brown. It is most interesting to note 
little areas of more ancient flows, perhaps only an acre or smaller in extent, 
which have not been covered by these flows, and bear an occasional shrub of 
Nototrichium, with Sadleria ferns, or a small, stunted Ohia. These more recent 
flows are very irregular in outline, and in the actual flow little islands of many 
shapes have remained that is, islands of old lava beds, bearing a typical dry 
scrub vegetation which was spared by the fiery streams. The last flow at first 
came forth as palioehoe (smooth lava), while lower down it assumed aa form, as 
can be seen along the government road. 

The first plant to settle along the margins of these various flows is Nephro- 
lepis exaltata, a cosmopolitan fern. Sadleria ferns follow after it or perhaps 
at the same time, but the former was always to be observed when hardly a grass 
or weed of any kind w r as visible. Two branches of the recent 1907 flow are about 
four miles apart, and this stretch of land is covered by a dry scrub vegetation 
and occasional trees, such as Xylosma Hillebrandii (Maua), which is by far 
the most common tree next to Ohia, Antidesma pulvinatum (Hame or Haa), 
Pipturus (Mamake) and Sadleria ferns. The land of Kahua, which is appar- 
ently older than Manuka, is of a rough lava nature, with occasional kipukas, and 

37 



supports a vegetation mostly composed of Nototrichium sandwicense and Dra- 
caena aurea, which are the predominant trees in this district. An occasional 
Pittosporum, Straussia, and Santalum can be observed, but the two first men- 
tioned form the main plant growth. On the kipukas, which were originally 
covered with Cynodon dactylon (Manienie grass), the guava has established 
itself to such an extent that it is difficult to penetrate far into these kipukas 
without a cane knife or an axe. 

From Manuka toward Honomalino are several stretches of aa lava flows 
geologically younger than the rest of the country. These flows have originated 
at an elevation of about 4000 feet and can be distinguished from afar by the 
entirely different vegetation which they support. These flows, of which Kaula- 
namauna is an example, are sharply outlined against the sky from the country 
which they intersect, by the tall, straight trees of Metrosideros polymorpha 
(Ohia) which form the main plant covering. It is only on the margins of these 
flows that intruders from the surrounding country, such as Reynoldsia, Pittos- 
porum, and others have taken a foothold, while Alphitonia excelsa (Kauila) has 
become a part of these Ohia forests. The scrub vegetation is mainly composed of 
the following plants: Styphelia tameiameia (Pukeawe), Santalum Freycine- 
tianum (Iliahi), the above mentioned Alphitonia, Gouldia sp., with very large, 
black berries, Vaccinium reticulatum, Coprosma montana, C. ernodeoides, Gah- 
nia gaudichaudii, and Eumex giganteus (Pawale), besides the two species of 
Cladium, Pellaea ternifolia and the everpresent Nephrolepis exaltata, which 
seems to thrive as well on aa lava as in the dampest lower forests. The vegeta- 
tion of Manuka is more or less uniform and not as interesting as that of Kapua, 
only a few miles distant. 

Besides the Kipuka Puaulu near the Volcano House, there are only two dis- 
tricts on Hawaii which possess an extremely rich and xerophilous flora, namely, 
Puuwaawaa in North Kona, and its rival Kapua in South Kona. There is no 
doubt in the writer's mind that a vegetation such as is represented in both these 
districts encircled the southern slopes of Mauna Loa, but was consumed by the 
various lava flows, leaving these two districts unmolested. Kapua is small in 
area, and so is Puuwaawaa; their vegetative growth is very similar, though the 
latter is richer in species. They are about 50 miles apart, and the intervening 
country is taken up by more or less uniform vegetation which has little in com- 
mon with either Kapua or Puuwaawaa. Beginning with the lowlands at Kapua 
to an elevation of about 2000 feet, the vegetation covering this area, which is on 
a gradual slope, belongs strictly to the dry or mixed forest type, while above it, 
between 2000 and 4200 feet, the vegetation is of the rain forest type, but by far 
not as wet as the rain forest above Naalehu, Kau. Species of the lower levels 
have ascended into the wet forest, or vice versa. 

Immediately above the lowland zone, which is composed of the ordinary 
types of plants common to that region, commences an exceedingly interesting 
and very varied xerophilous vegetation. The most common tree, forming 60 

38 



per cent of the vegetation, is Maba sandwicensis (Lama), which fruits prolific- 
ally during the winter months, and is associated with Erythrina monosperma 
(Wiliwili), Eeynoldsia sandwicensis (Olie), Plectronia odorata (Walahee), here 
a little shrub, Pandanus odoratissimus (Puliala), Aleurites moluccana (Kukui), 
and here and there in open places by itself Capparis Sandwichiana (Maiapilo), 
which becomes here a shrub 8 to 10 feet high with a thick stem and rambling 
branches. Opuntia tuna has ascended from the lowlands. The country is ex- 
tremely rocky, loose aa of ancient origin covering the ground for many feet in 
thickness. 

The undershrub is solely composed of the troublesome Lantana camara, now 
dead, killed by the insects introduced by Koebele, but still the country is almost 
inaccessible, as the dead, thorny shrubs stand more than 15 feet high in certain 
localities. It ascends to an elevation of 2000 feet, above which its place is taken 
by the guava, Psidium guayava, which forms thick stands on forsaken kuleanas 
or old native homesteads. 

As we ascend above 1000 feet elevation the vegetation becomes more inter- 
esting. (See plate XVI.) Osmanthus sandwicensis and Maba sandwicensis re- 
main still abundant, but are associated with Nototrichium sandwicense (Kului), 
Charpentiera ovata (Papala), and Pisonia sandwicensis (Papala kepau or Aidu). 
The euphorbiaceous trees Antidesma pulvinatum and A. platyphyllum are here 
the most numerous, and are indeed very characteristic. They can be recognized 
by their deeply, longitudinally furrowed, fibrous gray bark and broad, heart- 
shaped, dark leaves. Pittosporum Hosmeri var. is also exceedingly common, 
together with Dracaena aurea (Halapepe), Straussia sp?, Xylosma Hille- 
brandii, an occasional Colubrina oppositifolia (Kauila), while the other native 
Kauila (Alphitonia excelsa) is here absent and only found on lava flows of more 
recent origin, where Ohia lehua forms almost pure stands. Rutaceous genera 
are entirely absent, such as Pelea and Xanthoxylum, which reach such a won- 
derful development on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, so similar in floral aspects 
to that of Kapua. Eeynoldsia sandwicensis, while stunted at the lower eleva- 
tion, together with the Lama, is here a tall tree reaching a height of 40 to 50 
feet, with trunks of two feet in diameter. 

Of shrubs, the very strong, tenacious Osteomeles anthyllidi folia forms almost 
80 per cent. Its white rosaceous flowers are very fragrant. The wood is ex- 
ceedingly tough and can be bent into almost any position without breaking it. 
When growing on the slopes of the lowlands on the windward sides of the 
islands it is a small vine, while on the dry lava fields it develops many erect 
stems from a common root-stock, which are several inches thick and sparingly 
branched, reaching a height of 15 to 20 feet. Plectronia odorata is again very 
common, while the araliaceous Tetraplasandra Hawaiiensis is only sparingly 
represented. It reaches here a height of only about 25 feet. Of Sapotaceae, 
Sideroxylon auahiense var. is found, but is not numerous, being restricted to a 
single locality along a little gulch at 1600 feet elevation. Santalum Freycine- 

39 



tianum var. occurs also, but only small trees can be found. Malvaceous trees 
are entirely absent, though we might expect to find the newly discovered genus 
Hibiscadelphus, which is peculiar to such localities, one species, H. Hualala- 
iensis, occuring on Puuwaawaa. Besides Tetraplasandra Hawaiiensis, no other 
species of that genus, nor of Pterotropia, are present, though several can be 
found in similar localities. Neither can any urticaceous trees be observed. The 
Pipturus, so common in Kau, is not found in the district here described, and is 
only sparingly represented in the forest above it, where one would naturally ex- 
pect it in abundance, as in forests of Kau. Suttonia Lessertiana (Kolea) is 
scattered here and there. 

Nearly all the species of trees were in full fruit when visited by the writer 
during the month of February, 1912, with the exception of one tree, which is 
undoubtedly new and of which only three individuals were seen. As the tree 
had neither flowers nor fruits, and as a careful search on the ground below the 
tree did not reveal any sign of fruits or seeds of a previous season, the writer 
was unable to classify it. The writer, however, had occasion to visit that district 
again in the month of July when in company with Mr. W. M. Giffard ; the trees, 
which were then in flower and fruit, proved to be new, and are described in this 
volume; two male and one female trees were observed. 

Several Convolvulaceae flourish, such as Ipomoea insularis, and others of the 
same genus. Of Crassulaceae, the common Bryopliyllum calycinum (air plant) 
grows very gregariously along the roadside together with Cassia gaudichaudii, 
Pteridium aquilinum, Nephrolepis exaltata, Stachytarpheta dichotoma, and 
many other weeds. On old native homesteads or kuleanas which have been for- 
saken for many years, orange trees are bearing very prolifically, while the Che- 
rimolia, or Momona, as it is called by the natives, fruits seldom. One other re- 
markable fact is the absence of any leguminous tree, such as Mezoneurum 
Kauaiense, or the Sopliora clirysopliylla, or Mamani, so common on lava fields, 
and invariably associated with Myoporum sandwicense, the Naio, another tree 
which is absent on the lower half of the district of Kapua. It may be remarked 
that the inflorescences of Maba sandwicensis are attacked by a species of Acari, 
causing them to have the same appearance as the deformed inflorescences of 
Elaeocarpus bifidus on Oahu. 

Of interest is also the fact that it is difficult to find a sound capsule of 
Pittosporum Hosmeri var., as they are almost invariably pecked open by the 
native bird Alala (Corvus liawaiiensis), which feeds on the very oily black 
seeds. The bird is very abundant in this district. 

About a mile above the government road at an elevation of about 2000 feet 
we find an entirely different type of forest. It is neither exactly a wet nor is 
it a dry forest, but has all the characteristics of the former. Of the first, tall 
Oliia leliua trees form almost pure stands, with trunks, as elevation increases, 
covered by the climber Freycinetia Arnotti, the ie-ie. Straussia Hawaiiensis, 
a very handsome tree peculiar to Kona and Puna, reaches a height of about 40 

41 



feet, with a straight trunk and black bark of half an inch thickness. Xylosma 
Hillebrandii becomes here a beautiful big tree with a trunk of one and a half 
feet in diameter, straight ascending and clothed in a gray bark. Tetraplasan- 
dra Hawaiiensis is here a large tree 60 feet in height, with a fine trunk ascend- 
ing for 30 feet or so before branching. It is about two and a half feet thick 
and vested in a whitish bark three-quarters of an inch thick. It is the only 
representative of the family Araliaceae in this forest. Myoporum sandwicense 
is here a slender shrub, and only a few individual specimens can be observed. 
Coprosma, Perrottetia, Pipturus, Pelea volcanica only, Cheirodendron gaudi- 
chaudii, Antidesma platypliyllum and a species of Suttonia form the tree 
growth, together with Pittosporum and Ilex, up to the Koa belt at an eleva- 
tion of 4200 feet. Sadleria cyatlieoides, Gibotium Menziesii, and the lobelia- 
ceous Clermontia coerulea, which ranges from the extreme eastern end of Kau 
to North Kona, form the undergrowth. The latter ascends, however, up into 
the Koa belt, where it can be found on Koa trees, growing in the forks of their 
branches. 

Several aa flows of more recent origin intersect this forest. The flows are 
covered with a scanty vegetation, such as Vaccinium, Styphelia, Coprosma 
ernodeoides, Raillardia scabra (very common), and stunted Ohia; while the 
lava itself is entirely hidden by a species of lichen. At 4200 feet elevation the 
trees described above are replaced by Acacia Koa, which grows here under 
similar conditions as near the Volcano House, together with Urera sp. and the 
tree ferns. Cattle, however, have played serious havoc with this beautiful forest. 
The undergrowth is mainly composed of Polystichum falcatum var., Dryopteris, 
Asplenium, and Cibotium. 

The most interesting vegetation, however, occupies the area between 1500 
to 2000 feet, above which the forest is very uniform. Nowhere has the writer 
found such beautiful stands of the ebenaceous Maba sandwicensis (Lama) as 
in this district, where it associates mainly with tall-growing Kukui trees. Trees 
30 to 40 feet in height with trunks of a foot or more in diameter are not un- 
common. Beyond Kapua the country is covered mainly with Ohia leliua, and is 
as a whole very uniform, until we reach the boundary of South Kona, where a 
forest similar to that back of Naalehu, Kau, forms the lower and middle forest 
zones. Most of the land about 600 to 2500 feet elevation is under cultivation, 
Coffea arabica being the crop. 

THE MIDDLE FOREST ZONE IN KONA AND FLORAL ASPECTS OF THE GREAT CENTRAL 
PLAIN BETWEEN MAUNA LOA, HUALALAI AND MAUNA KEA. 

If we ascend from Kealakekua up the slopes of Mauna Loa, we at first pass 
through large areas of Psidium guayava, which has taken possession of the land 
and is the only shrub up to an elevation of about 1200 feet. The country then 
becomes more open and old pahoehoe flows are visible, which are covered with a 

42 



scanty grass vegetation. The trees on this lower plain are mainly Straussia and 
its associates, such as Charpcnticra obovata, Pisonia inermis, var. leiocarpa, with 
occasionally a Pelea. The trees are so scattered that one can count them easily. 
This somewhat mixed forest passes gradually into an Oliia leliua (Metrosideros 
polymorpJta) forest, with Suttonia Lessertiana (Kolea). Here also the lobe- 
liaceous shrub Clcrmontia coerulea, somewhat different from that of Kau, is 
present. It descends, however, as low as 1500 feet, but then only on the aa 
flows, as will afterwards be described. The forest in this section is as a whole 
very uniform. 

The Ohio, leliua gradually passes into the Koa forest, if such it can still be 
called ; for nowhere has the writer found such a pitiable sight as the Koa forest 
presents in this district at about 3000 feet up to 5000 feet elevation. Here 90 
per cent of these giant Koa trees are dead; their huge limbs dangle in the air 
on pieces of fibrous strings of bark, ready to drop, if stirred by the slightest 
breeze. The remaining 10 per cent of trees are in a dying condition, and in a 
very few years the country will be entirely denuded. Huge masses of trunks 
and limbs are scattered over the ground, and it is really difficult to ride through 
this remnant of forest. It is also dangerous, as any minute a few huge limbs 
may drop from the heights above. Trees reach here a height of 80 feet or more. 
This condition is mainly due to the cattle, which have destroyed all the under- 
shruBs and also injured the trees, which are then readily attacked by insects. It 
may be remarked that native insects, especially beetles, do not attack healthy 
trees, but only such as have been injured. 

As we ascend farther the dead Koa trees are associated with Myoporum sand- 
wicense (Naio), Sophora chrysophylla, Suttonia Lessertiana, and Santalum 
Freycinetianum, the Iliahi, or true Sandalwood of commerce, of which trees 50 
feet in height and trunks a foot and a half in diameter, are not uncommon. 
Next to Koa, Sandalwood is most numerous; but, like the former, most of it is 
destroyed. It differs from the Sandalwood found in other parts of Hawaii in 
its smooth, black bark and very dark green, glossy leaves. The wood is also ex- 
ceedingly fragrant. 

That the undergrowth must have been intensely interesting is evidenced by 
the fact of the abundance of vines on aa flows which intersect this forest area, 
and are very seldom frequented or even crossed by cattle. Lower down at an 
elevation of 1500 feet these aa flows present a dense jungle of ie-ie vines, many 
species of trees, mainly the rubiaceous Straussia and urticaceous Urera and 
Pipturus. Ferns are abundant as well as one or two lobeliaceous Clermontia. 
Higher up the main tree is Ohia leliua together with Sandalwood, which on 
these flows is in splendid condition. At an elevation of 4600 feet Sophora 
chrysophylla has encroached on the aa, but not the Koa. On the margins of the 
flows and in cracks and fissures many species of Labiatae thrive, the most num- 
erous representative of which is the genus Stenogyne. Trailing over aa lava 
we find Stenogyne rugosa var. ,?., St. cordata, St. sessilis, while climbing over 

43 



PLATE XVII. 




DELISSEA UNDULATA Gaud., in the upper forest regions on the slopes of Mauna Loa, 

elev. 5200 feet. The tall specimen to the left is 35 feet high. The trees are mainly 

Acacia Koa Gray, Sophora chrysophylla Seem., and Myoporum sandwicense Gray. 



Naio shrubs are St. calaminthoides and SI. scrophidarioides, the latter with small 
pale yellow flowers covered with silky hair. The genus Phyllostegia, also of the 
Labiate family, has several species. Raillardia scabra is also common on the aa 
as well as Smilax sandwicensis, and several ferns, of which Pellaea terni folia 
and Sadleria cyatheoides are the most common. And all of these in a compara- 
tively small area. Clermontia coerulea is here a fine tree, growing to a height 
of 20 feet or so, on the aa lava, shaded by Ohia and Sandalwood. 

This forest merges gradually into the great central plain at an elevation of 
5000 feet. Of course, clumps of tall trees can be found in certain localities and 
on the plateau also, as well as higher up on the slopes of Mauna Loa. The 
trees become smaller and only a few stunted Naio and Sophora trees (Mamani), 
together with Santalum, are here to be found. 

At Pulehua and beyond toward Mauna Loa a nice Koa forest, mixed with 
trees peculiar to this elevation, such as mentioned above, extends up to an ele- 
vation of 6000 feet. Koa is the principal tree. The country is composed of 
rich, black soil, now supporting a rank growth of undesirable weeds. A most 
interesting feature in this forest is the lobeliaceous Delissea undidata. Pre- 
viously this plant has only been recorded from Niihau, Kauai and Maui, and 
that at a low elevation on exposed open cliffs, only reaching a height of 10 feet. 
Here 'at 6000 feet it grows under the shade of giant Koa trees on the slopes of 
the numerous crater hills with which the country is covered. The plant grows 
here 35 feet tall, perfectly straight, with a bole only two inches in diameter, not 
branching, and bearing at its apex a crown of leaves only one and a half feet 
in diameter. (See plate XVII.) These beautiful little round crowns are often 
hidden in the foliage of the Koa, so that only the gray, straight stems covered 
with leaf-scars can be seen. The plants are exceedingly numerous, but especially 
on the crater bottoms of the numerous volcanic cones, where they form the main 
vegetation. Looking down into one of these cones, one sees the tops of this 
curious plant like cabbage heads protruding up to the rim of the cone. This is 
the only lobeliaceous plant at this elevation. 

THE GREAT CENTRAL PLAIN. 

When we step out on this great plateau from the South Kona side, we have 
Hualalai to the left, Mauna Loa to the right, and Mauna Kea in front of us. 
This great plain is composed mainly of pahoehoe lava and black cinder. The 
palwelioe lava has often broken through, and huge caverns or caves are visible, 
which expose again old palwelioe lava or black cinder. The clouds gather at 
about eight o'clock in the morning around the slopes of Mauna Loa up to an 
elevation of 4000 feet, where they remain under normal weather conditions up 
to noon. At about two o'clock they encroach on to the central plateau, which 
by three o'clock is completely covered by the clouds. When caught out on this 
plain without a compass in the fogs it is indeed exceedingly difficult to find 
one's way. The plain is about fifty miles across and almost level, full of holes 

45 



and cracks into which one is likely to fall, and by going round about them one 
gets lost in no time. The slopes of Mauna Loa are very gradual on this side, 
while those of Mauna Kea and Hualalai are steep. On this plain are scattered 
many volcanic cones, mainly composed of black cinder and covered with dense 
vegetation. But especially on the crater bottoms one is likely to find interest- 
ing plants which have disappeared from the open plain, where they are eagerly 
devoured by cattle and goats, while at the bottom of these craters they are safe 
from their ravages. Anyone collecting on this plain should direct his steps to 
all these cones, as it is here only that he can obtain things of interest. 

Curiously enough, the plants found on these various cones are not always 
the same. On the plain itself, Geranium cuneatum is plentiful, besides Rail- 
lardia sp.?, Coprosma ernodeoides, a rubiaceous creeper with black, round 
berries, the main food of the native geese, besides Ohelo, Bumex giganteus, 
Styphelia tameiameia, an epacridaceous plant, Myoporum sandwicense (Naio), 
Sophora chrysophylla, the iridaceous Sisyrynchium acre, while in the black cin- 
der the caryophyllaceous Silene struthioloides and 8. lanceolata thrive best. 
Both species develop a large root system having a main tap root, sometimes 
tuber-like, and often 5 inches in diameter and over a foot and a half long. The 
root is sweet to the taste, and is eaten by the natives. 

Here and there are shrubs or small trees of Mamani and Naio, among which 
one sometimes finds Suttonia and a stunted variety of Pittosporum Hosmeri. 
Dodonaea eriocarpa forms straight trees some 25 feet in height with trunks of 
8 inches in diameter. At Naahuaumi, a historic place where King Umi took the 
first Hawaiian census, near the old Judd road which leads to the 1859 flow, the 
santalaceous Exocarpus gaudichaudii, a shrub, is not uncommon, and extends 
up the slopes of Hualalai. Stenogyne rugosa var. must once have been exceed- 
ingly common, but can now only be found growing in deep fissures, which cover 
them completely, where they are safe from cattle. Osteomeles anthyllidi folia, a 
rosaceous vine of great toughness, forms dense tangles over thrown-up fissures 
in pahoehoe lava. During the morning sunshine thousands of Odynerus (Ha- 
waiian wasps) and bees can be found flying over the sweet-scented flowers of the 
above-mentioned vine, which is called Ulei by the natives. 

The only poisonous plant in this district is a shrub, a species of Wikstroe- 
mia, with long, drooping, slender branchlets. The bark, like that of all other 
Hawaiian Wikstroemia, or Akia, as they are termed by the natives, is extremely 
tough and very suitable for cordage. 

The crater cones in the neighborhood of Puulehua are Puuokeanue, Puuoi- 
kaaka, Pohakuloa and others. These cones support a very interesting vegeta- 
tion. Besides the plants found on the plain proper, Lipochaeta subcordata, de- 
scribed by Gray, is very numerous at an elevation of 5300 feet, and forms dense 
masses on Pohakuloa crater to the exclusion of everything else. It has previously 
only been reported from the sea shore, where it is one or two feet high, while 
at this elevation it branches diffusely, covering the whole crater, being almost 

46 



similar in habit to Gleiclienia linear is, the well-known Uluhe or staghorn fern. 
The writer has found it also on one of the other craters, but sparingly, and 
again on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, in North Kona. 

An arborescent Raillardia about 15 feet high grows on Puuokeanue in com- 
pany with Solanum incompletum, also found in North Kona, where it is a shrub 
5 to 8 feet tall. Campylotheca micrantha, another shrubby composite, was as- 
sociated with it. Campylotlicca Menziesii var. y, was only found on one crater 
on the slopes of Hualalai on Puuoikaaka. It, however, is not uncommon on the 
"Waimea side on the slopes of Maun a Kea, especially on Nohonaohae and Kemole 
crater. A species of Sida not found on the central plain proper is confined to 
Pohakuloa, where it forms dense thickets. Of trees, Santalum Freycinetiannm, 
Snttonia, Wikstroemia, etc., form the main vegetation, besides Sopkora cliry- 
sopliylla, the everpresent Naio, and Acacia Koa. The slopes of Mauna Loa are 
covered with a dense growth up to an elevation of 8000 feet, after which the 
plants become very stunted and few until we find nothing but a species of grass, 
Koelileria glomerata. 

The main trees are Sophora and Myoporum, but Koa is wanting. Of shrubs, 
the epacridaceous Styphelia is common, together with a species of Raillardia ; of 
Rubiaceae, two species of Coprosma are present, one being a creeper, the other 
a small shrub. GaJinia Gaudicliaudii, Carex, and Cyperus are scattered here 
and there. The main plant covering at an elevation of 6000 feet is the grass 
Keolileria glomerata, which grows exceedingly rank and stands sometimes three 
feet high. As already mentioned, it is the last plant one sees at an elevation of 
11,000 feet. Of course, the Olielo is also common. Noteworthy is the fact that 
Argyroxipkium sandwicense is not to be found on this side of Mauna Loa, but 
only above Kapapala at an elevation of from 7000 to 9000 feet. Besides, one 
looks in vain for the tree composites which can be met with so frequently on 
Mauna Kea up to 11,500 feet. Here on Mauna Loa only one species is present. 
The slopes of the mountain on the Kona side are mainly composed of palwelioe 
which is of great age, and very much disintegrated; the country is covered with 
holes, which are usually overgrown with Stenogyne rugosa at the lower levels, 
5000 to 6000 feet, and harbor Vaccinium shrubs or Mamani at the higher levels. 
The lava crust is very thin and cracks like ice, which makes traveling very un- 
comfortable. At about 9000 feet we meet the first aa flow, which covers the 
palwelwe for miles. It was ejected from a crater situated at that elevation. It 
is a triangular steep cone with sharp rims, and is called Puuouo. The aa flows 
are barren and of great thickness. Many aa flows intersect the ancient palwelioe 
at the higher levels. In traveling it is a continuous going round these flows, 
which one is occasionally forced to cross. Above 11,000 feet perfectly black, 
shining palwelwe covers the mountain. It is extremely thin and glassy in ap- 
pearance, breaking in at nearly every step. When the writer ascended Mauna 
Loa on February 17, 1912, snow was to be foimd only in patches several feet 
thick. The steep crater walls were more or less covered with snow, which was 

47 



X 



- 




beautifully contrasted from the red, yellow and black colored walls of cinder. 
(See plate XVIII.) 

The crater itself showed no activity. Two small cones of reddish-yellow 
cinder mark the outbreak of 1907. The temperature at nine o'clock in the 
morning on the upper lava flows was 92 Fahr. at an elevation of about 8500 
feet. At the summit the temperature was at 60 Fahr. about noon, and sank 
during the night to 35 at an elevation of 7000 feet. A most peculiar fact is 
the presence of millions of flies at the summit of the mountain, which make a 
stay of even a few minutes most disagreeable. Besides these flies, only another 
small insect, similar to an Ichneumon, was found, covering the patches of snow 
thickly. Only a few hundred feet lower, remarkable to say, not a single fly 
could be detected. They evidently had been blown up by the wind. 

HUALALAI AND PUUWAAWAA, NORTH KONA. 

From Kealakekua toward North Kona the forest is very uniform and of a 
similar nature to that between Kapua, South Kona, and Napoopoo. At the lower 
levels Kukui forms the main tree growth, together with introduced shrubs, such 
as lantana and guava. Coffee is extensively cultivated, also sisal, and in cer- 
tain localities sugar cane. The vegetation begins to become interesting at 
Huehu, near the lava flows on the northern flanks of Hualalai, and reaches 
its culminating point at Puuwaawaa, the richest floral section of any in the 
whole Territory. 

It is only as recently as 1909 that this region was botanically explored. The 
whole country was until ten years ago a wilderness of lava fields, and only since 
the opening of the country through the government road, ten years ago, was 
this beautiful floral region made accessible. 

MT. HUALALAI AND ITS FLORAL ASPECTS. 

Mt. Hualalai, which is the smallest volcano on Hawaii, has an elevation of 
8273 feet. Its last eruption was in the year 1801, not from the summit, how- 
ever, but at an elevation of about 1800 feet, where huge lava masses poured 
forth which changed the coast line of the region about Huehue for twenty-five 
miles from a bay to a headland. This lava flow is still bare of vegetation, with 
the exception of a few ferns and weeds. 

The lowland belt is extremely arid, rainfall being exceedingly scarce. Opun- 
tia tuna grows gregariously and is associated with many other introduced plants, 
such as Leucaena glauca. Datura stramonium, Waltheria americana, Nicotiana 
tabacum, Acacia farnesiana, and many others. 

The interesting native vegetation, w r hich is of a similar nature to that of 
Kapua in South Kona, begins at Huehue proper. Aleurites moluccana is still 
the principal tree, though as one advances toward Puuwaawaa it becomes more 
scarce. Antidesma platypliyllum and Antidesma pulvinatum, besides Dracaena 
aurea (Ilalapepe), Maba, and their usual associates are predominant. In this 

49 



district, however, occur many species of trees which are not found in other 
places, not even on the same island. The most prevailing tree is the rubiaceous 
Plectronia odorata (Walahee). Gardenia Brighami (Nau) of this same family, 
only common on Molokai and Lanai, is here also to be found, but will have to 
be termed for here a rather rare plant ; it has not been recorded previously from 
the Island of Hawaii. Nearly all the trees occurring at Kapua, South Kona, 
can be found also in North Kona, with possibly one or tw r o exceptions, though 
numerous trees occur here and not in the former locality. 

Of Leguminosae, the elsewhere very rare Mezoneurum Kauaiense (Uhiuhi) 
is here plentiful. It forms small groves by itself, while only here and there can 
a single tree be found, usually in company with the rhamnaceous Colubrina op- 
positifolia. Hillebrand records this species as a small tree. Here in this 
locality it grows to quite a good sized tree with trunks of over a foot in diam- 
eter. It is much more numerous in North Kona than in South Kona, outside of 
which the tree is not found. Of Rutaceae, which are absent in Kapua, two 
genera are represented, Pelea and Xanthoxylum. Pelea cinerea, not uncom- 
mon at an elevation of 4000 feet near the Volcano Kilauea, grows gregariously 
at 500 feet elevation and even lower, on rough aa lava fields. 

Of great interest is the genus Xanthoxylum, which has here four species; 
two belong to the X. dipetalum type, the other two are variations of X. Kauaiense 
and X. Mauiense. 

Pittosporum Hosmeri is also met with quite frequently, the trees found at 
Kapua being a variety. At Puuwaawaa the fruits are nearly twice the size of 
those from South Kona, while the tree itself is also larger. 

Euphorbia lorifolia (Akoko) is a shrub at 2000 feet elevation, while 700 feet 
higher it is a tree about 25 feet high, with a diameter of 10 inches. The tree 
yields a large amount of latex, which owing to its predominance in an area of 
5000 acres will undoubtedly prove a valuable commercial product. Of Arali- 
aceae, Reynoldsia sandwicensis is quite plentiful, besides Tetraplasandra sp., 
and Tetraplasandra Hawaiiensis growing at 3500 feet. Of Sapindaceae, Sapin- 
dus saponaria is quite common, especially at Puuwaawaa proper, a rugged 
hill of 3000 feet elevation. Associated with it are Acacia Koa, Claoxylon sp., 
Delissea undulata, a lobeliaceous plant also found on Mauna Loa, but in this 
locality much smaller in size, Xanthoxylum sp. and Charpentiera obovata (Pa- 
pala). Nothocestrum breviflorum occurs on the lava fields surrounding the 
crater. A very interesting tree is Hibiscadelphus Hualalaiensis, of which 
species several trees are in existence, while of the two other species, also pecu- 
liar to the dry districts, only one specimen of each species has been discovered. 
Sandal wood is frequently met with, as well as Pisonia inermis var. leiocarpa, 
and Ochrosia sandwicensis, the latter, however, being scarcer. Chenopodium 
sandwicheum (Alaweo or Aweoweo), which in other localities is herbaceous, is 
here a small tree and very plentiful. Of vines, Canavalia galeata, Mucuna gi- 
gantea, Cocculus Ferrandianus, two species of Ipomoea and one of Breweria can 

50 



be observed. Asplenium adiantum nig rum, Asplenium trichomanes, Poly- 
podium pellucidum and Pellaea ternifolia, besides Psilotutn triquetrum, rep- 
resent the cryptogams. 

About a mile above the government road Sophora chrysophylla (Mamani), 
together with Myoporum sandwicense, are the predominant species, with under- 
shrubs of Solanum incompletum, Campylotlieca sp., and a Labiate vine of the 
genus Phyllostegia. Still higher up the lava fields are bare for a certain dis- 
tance, especially lava fields of more recent origin. The only plants observed on 
these flows are Rumex giganteus (Pawale), Gnaphalium sandwicense, Raillardia 
scabra, and xerophytic ferns, as just mentioned above. 

The region called Waihou is composed of a semi-wet forest and is situated 
at an elevation of 3500 feet. The predominant tree is first Metrosideros poly- 
morpha (Ohia lekua), which inhabits an old pahoekoe lava flow adjoining the 
rough aa lava fields; here the trees are about 40 feet high. This grove of Ohia 
leJnia passes gradually into a more mixed forest, mainly Acacia Koa, Sophora, 
jMyoporum, and Euphorbia lorifolia (Akoko), which in places is so thick that 
it is almost impossible to pass through it. A species of Urera grows quite tall, 
besides Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii, Suttonia Lessertiana (Kolea), Ilex, and 
others. Higher up occur Pelea volcanica, Pipturus albidus, tree ferns, Cibotium, 
Broussaisia pellucida, and on the trunks of tree ferns, Clermontia coendea. 

At 4500 feet, Metrosideros polymorpha (Ohia lekua) is stunted, as it grows 
on aa lava flows, which intersect the old forest with its trees of 80 feet in 
height at this elevation. It is the predominant tree on these flows ; only occa- 
sionally one observes Suttonia sandwicensis and 8. Lessertiana. 

Vaccinium penduliflorum ft var. gemmaceum assumes here the size of a tall 
shrub ; here and there Stenogyne sessilis can be observed clinging to Ohia lehua. 

At 5000 feet, this vegetation gives place to a gravelly plain which is bordered 
on its northern and southern limits by heavily-forested hills or ancient craters. 
The principal trees on these hills are Acacia Koa, Ohia lehua, Styphelia tameia- 
meia, and Coprosma rhyncliocarpa. This latter tree reaches quite a size in height 
and diameter of trunk, though nearly all trees are diseased, their trunks being 
all hollow and the abode of a species of sow bug (Philoscia angusticauda) , which 
can be found by millions. 

It is here that the wild native raspberry, Rub us Macraei (Akala), attains 
its most wonderful development; its runners vary from 10 to 15 feet in length 
and are two inches in diameter, climbing over Koa trees and trailing over the 
ground, thus forming almost impenetrable thickets. 

Here and there in the extensive barren lava fields and cinder plains are 
beautiful green hills covered with old giants of Acacia Koa, which from their 
elevation escaped destruction by the fiery streams, and now appear like oases 
in a desert. 

On the northern border of this dismal plain, on the slopes of a crater, grows 

51 



Dubautia plantaginea, here a small tree, in -company with Pelea volcanica 
(Alani). 

Finally tree growth ceases, with the exception of a few straggling shrubs of 
Sophora clirysopliylla (Mamani) ; the ground is covered with a scrub vegetation 
of which Eaillardia scabra is predominant, besides Geranium, Coprosma erno- 
deoides, Frag aria chilensis, and also Plantago pacliypliylla. The crypto- 
gamous flora is composed of Asplenium trichomanes, Asplenium adiantum ni- 
grum and Polystichum falcatum var. 

At 7000 feet, Sophora clirysopliylla and Myoporum sandwicense, both trees 
of about 20 feet in height at this elevation, have gnarled trunks and form the 
main tree growth. Keoleria glomerata and Panicum nephelophilum represent 
the Gramineae. 

At the summit of Hualalai the vegetation is scrubby, with the exception of 
a few Ohia lehua trees (Metrosideros polymorpha var. p), with thick, woolly 
orbicular leaves, which grow on the rim of Honuaulu crater. The crater floors 
and slopes are covered with the ordinary eagle fern, Pteridium aquilinum, 
which on the northern side of the mountain summit forms the sole vegetation. 

The slopes of Honuaulu are covered with StypheUa tameiameia (Pukeawe), 
Dodonaea viscosa var. spathulata, and Coprosma Menziesii. (See plate XIX.) 

The summit of Hualalai is composed of a series of large craters, 200 to 500 
feet deep and several thousand feet in circumference. The highest point is 
Honuaulu, 8273 feet above sea level. Some of the walls of the craters are solid 
or composed of cinder, and almost vertical. In the rock crevasses of the 
crater walls one frequently meets with the composite Tetramolopium humile, 
the Hawaiian daisy. 

Northwest from Honuaulu, a half mile distant, is a series of craters and 
cones, one being especially remarkable for its unfathomable depth. Of these 
cones there are many. They are usually built up of aa, and have the shape of 
the well-known tufa cones. The one in question is a veritable chimney, about 
100 feet high, with a blow-hole of ten feet in diameter, the inner walls of which 
are perfectly smooth. A stone dropped by the writer in this chimney fell for 
sixteen seconds before the first reverberation could be heard. Between this cone 
and Honuaulu is a plain of pahoehoe lava, with a very thin crust which breaks 
at nearly every step, making it dangerous for man and animal to cross it. 

The slopes of Hualalai, from the Puuwaawaa side, are very steep and bear 
only one crater of considerable size, at an elevation of 5000 feet. 

This mountain is usually wrapped in clouds and only occasionally the very 
summit can be seen appearing like a little island above a sea of clouds, while 
Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are hardly ever completely hidden from view. 
(See plate XVIII.) 

Back of Puuwaawaa its wonderful vegetation ceases and its place is taken 
by the leguminous Sophora clirysopliylla and Myoporum sandwicense. Here 
and there a few composites can still be found and an occasional Euphorbia 

S3 



lorifolia, together with Pseudomorns Brunoniana, form the last stragglers. From 
here the country merges into the great central plateau whose vegetative charac- 
teristics have already been described. 

Adjoining Puuwaawaa on the north is another interesting strip of land called 
Puuanahulu. The plant formation on this land is very similar to that of Puu- 
waawaa, but harbors species of trees which can not be found in the latter locality. 
In this respect the vegetation approaches very much that of Kapua or Manuka 
in South Kona. 

On the way to Puuanahulu the road leads over a bluff of about 100 feet in 
height, over which the lava flowed cascade-like. The trees growing on this bluff 
are mainly Reynoldsia sandwicensis (Ohe) and Dracaena aurea (Halapepe). 
The land forms a promontory and is in reality an ancient crater; the soil is a 
yellow loam, and no trace of lava is visible. Opuntia tuna is exceedingly num- 
erous, together with Brousonettia papyrifera, which has been cultivated by the 
natives living there. It is one of the driest districts and very few trees can be 
found, such as the above mentioned and Erythrina monosperma (Wiliwili), all 
of them trees adapted for districts with very little rainfall. 

Immediately beyond the bluff, the 1859 flow, which found its source on the 
flanks of Mauna Loa, crossed the government road. The lava is pahoehoe 
(smooth), and is bare of any vegetation with the exception of some weeds, 
such as Solanum pseudocapsicum, which is very numerous in that neighborhood. 
Beyond this comparatively recent flow is an old aa (rough) lava flow which 
supports a very interesting xerophytic vegetation. Here we find Xanthoxylum 
Hawaiiense, a small tree, also Kokia Rockii, and Alphitonia excelsa. 

Adjoining Puuanahulu is Keaumoku, a large plain with a scrub vegetation 
which merges into the Parker ranch, and is really a continuation of the slopes 
of Mauna Kea. The shrubs found here are mainly Dodonaea viscosa (Aalii), 
Wikstroemia phyllyreae folia (Akia), a low shrub with brick-red globose ber- 
ries; and a few others also common to the central plateau. From Keaumoku 
on, the country is flat and mainly grassland; the grasses growing there are 
of recent introduction, such as Cynodon dactylon, Melinis rosea, Bromus vil- 
losus, and others; mixed with them are Sida falax, Argemone mexicana, Wal- 
theria americana, Silene gallica, etc. The country is extremely dry, and when 
very windy the dirt is carried for miles and so thickly that everything appears 
to be hazy as in a dense mist or fog. 

Of interest in this locality is the large crater Nohonaohae, as it harbors still 
some of the original vegetation which covered these lands before they were 
stocked with cattle and sheep. 

Of great interest is the Labiate Haplostachys Grayana, an exceedingly 
scarce plant which, like its congeners Haplostachys rosmarinifolia and H. trun- 
cata, belongs to the dry, open grasslands. As these lands are usually used for 
ranching, these beautiful plants were of the first to be devoured by sheep and 
cattle alike. It is also only in such places as Nohonaohae, owing to the partial 

54 



inaccessibility to cattle, that one can still find H. Grayana; with it grows Wik- 
stroemia, Campylotheca, several species of Lipochaeta, Dodonaea viscosa, Eail- 
lardia ciliolata and Xantlioxylum Hawaiiense, the latter a small tree or shrub 
with strongly lemon-scented leaves. 

The treeless plain extends over to the Waimea village, situated at the foot 
of the South Kohala mountains, at an elevation of 2700 feet. The country 
north of Waimea is extremely wet, while south of it the land is comparatively 
dry, especially so at Kawaihae. From Puukawai, a crater situated about three 
miles south of Waimea, the land is known as Kawaihaeiuka, and must have been 
once upon a time covered with a plant growth similar to Puuwaawaa now. 
Nearly all the common trees found in North Kona occur here; the only species 
not found in Kona and growing on the slopes of South Kohala that is in Ka- 
waihaeiuka is Acacia Koaia (Koaia), a tree resembling very much the Koa, but 
differing from it in size, in its rather gnarled trunk, harder wood and very nar- 
row seed pods. It can be found, however, on the slopes of Puuanahulu, the 
boundary of North Kona. The tree is peculiar to the very dry districts and 
never occurs in wet forests, as is the case with the Acacia Koa. Hillebrand in 
his Flora reports the araliaceous Pterotropia dipyrena as growing at Kawai- 
haeiuka, but the writer was unable to find it. In fact, the land is now very open 
and only few trees can still be found, cattle having destroyed them very rapidly. 
At 3000 feet elevation the land is swampy and the main plant covering is 
Paspalum conjugatum, with a few Sadleria ferns, instead of the dense forest 
which once here existed. 

In conclusion, the writer wishes to state that owing to the similar age of the 
Kohala Mountains to that of the West Maui Mountains, he finds it advisable to 
treat that district either separately or in conjunction with the West Maui for- 
ests and those of Waialeale, Kauai. 



55 



THE MIDDLE FOREST ZONE. 

Next to the xerophytic forest on the leeward sides of the various islands, 
the middle forest region is one of the most interesting, as it is here that certain 
plant families, such as the Campanulaceae, tribe Lobelioideae, and Labiatae, as 
well as Rutaceae, reach their best development and become highly specialized. 
As is the case with the lower forest regions on the various islands, in re- 
gard to non-uniformity, so it is with the middle forest region, but still more 
pronounced as the various islands are of different ages, Kauai being the oldest. 

Owing to the fact that there is no typical forest for all the islands as far 
as the middle forest zone is concerned, it will therefore be of greater interest 
and value to describe the vegetative formations of this particular region on 
each island separately. 

The Island of Kauai is almost orbicular in outline and is intersected on the 
leeward side by a large canyon and several valleys, of which Kalalau, Miloli and 
Olokele are the most noteworthy. 

At 3800 feet elevation Metrosideros polymorpha (Ohia lehua) is a very com- 
mon tree and inhabits the outskirts of the middle forest zone. It is, however, 
associated with Sideroxylon sandwicense (Alaa), Tetraplasandra Waimeae, the 
lauraceous Cryptocarya Mannii, previously thought to be peculiar to Kauai, but 
since found by C. N. Forbes on the Kaala Mountains on Oahu, Xanthoxylum 
dipetalum var. ?-., Broussaisia arguta, usually found along streams with the 
lobeliaceous Cyanea leptostegia (Halialua), a truly superb plant of palm-like 
habit which reaches sometimes a height of 40 feet. It is associated with Cyanea 
hirtella, and Cyanea spathulata, both of which are shrubs with small flowers. 
Santalum pyrularium, the Kauai Sandalwood, forms an important tree of this 
region, while Elaeocarpus bifidus (Kalia) forms about 30 per cent, of the forest, 
following immediately after the Ohia lehua. This particular elevation has still 
some species of the lower forest zone present, as can be seen by the occurrence 
of Pterotropia Kauaiensis, Osmanthus sandwicensis, Antidesma, and others ; 
while, as we enter the interior of the island, a wealth of foliage is displayed 
which can hardly be equaled anywhere in the group. 

Members of the Rutaceae are the most prominent, besides Pittosporum, of 
which P. Kauaiensis, P. acuminatum, and P. Gayanum, a species new to science, 
are of interest. The latter species occurs only on the high plateau at the 
foot of Mt. Waialeale, where the rainfall is immense. As already mentioned, 
the family Rutaceae is well represented in this floral zone. The genus Pelea, 
which has a few species in the drier regions, has not less than 14 or 15 species 
here, 10 of which are peculiar to Kauai, in the middle forest zone. They like 
heavy, gray, loamy soil, where water is often stagnant, forming small pools all 
the year round. Pelea cruciata (Piloula), and P. microcarpa (Kolokolo Moki* 
hana), both recently described species, are quite common in company with Wik- 
stroemia sandwicensis var. furcata (Akia), Pelea Kauaiensis, P. Knudsenii, P. 

56 



sapotaefolia and var. procumbens, P. macropus, P. oblong if olia (not peculiar to 
Kauai), P. barbigera (Uaheapele), and the well-known P. anisata (Mokihana), 
all are old denizens of Kauai and particularly of the middle forest zone. On 
the other islands several species of Pelea are found, but by far the most num- 
erous species are found on Kauai. On Oahu we find P. Lydgatei and P. clusi- 
aefolia, but the most common species is P. sandwicensis, whose place is taken 
on Hawaii by P. volcanica, which ascends, however, up to 6000 feet. Platy- 
desma rostrata and PI. campanulata var. macropliylla, both species belonging 
to a strictly Hawaiian genus with almost no affinities, are to be found. Of these 
two species, the former inhabits the more dry districts, as in the forest of Kopi- 
wai in company with Alphitonia excelsa, while the latter is usually found in the 
interior of the island, but in the Elaeocarpus forest belt. Solatium Kauaiense 
(Popoloaiakeakua) forms the undershrub, with several species of Cyrtandra and 
the very handsome composite Campylotheca cosmoides (Poolanui), a shrub with 
long, rambling branches and very large yollow, drooping flowers. The genus 
Raillardia, with its many species on Maui and Hawaii, has only one species rep- 
resented in the middle forest zone of Kauai, but this species, Raillardia, lati- 
folia, is so different from those found on the other islands that one would not 
recognize its relationship at the first glance. While all Raillardiae are either 
shrubs or small trees, the species in question is really a vine or climber. The 
writer observed it on Bobea Mannii and also on Xanthoxylum, both trees of 
about 30 feet in height. The genus Dubautia, also of the composite family, 
consists of seven species, all of which can be found on Kauai, five of them being 
peculiar to the island. Dubautia plantaginea is found on all the islands of the 
group, but has many variations on Kauai, where it is very common along Waia- 
lae stream. Dubautia Knudsenii usually grows on more open slopes and ridges 
and is a small shrub, while D. raillardioides is a small tree still belonging to the 
Elaeocarpus belt. Of other Compositae especial mention must be made of the 
highly interesting Wilkesia gymnoxiphium, a very beautiful plant usually found 
on the edge of canyons and bluffs, nearly always in company with the tall and 
handsome blue-flowered Lobelia yuccoides, \vhich becomes 15 to 20 feet in height ; 
they are usually found in company with Styphelia tameiameia, Bobea Mannii, 
Dodonaea viscosa, and Acacia Koa, and belong to the outskirts of the middle 
forest zone. 

If we follow the Waialae stream at an elevation of 4000 feet we find many 
interesting plants, among them the new lobeliaceous Cyanea rivularis with its 
large, bright-blue flowers. It covers the steep banks or walls of this wonderful 
valley, almost to the exclusion of everything else. At the head of this stream 
these beautiful plants stand erect like palms, with their large crown of leaves 
at the top of a single 15 to 20 feet tall stem, waving gracefully in the wind. 
With it is usually found Lobelia liypoleuca, Cyrtandra begomaefolia, and C. 
Wawrae, as well as the new Cyanea Gayana, another of the numerous Lobelioi- 
deae inhabiting this wonderful island. 

57 



As we advance into the interior of the island, Elaeocarpus bifidus and its 
associates give place to the araliaceous Cheirodendron platyphyllum (Lapalapa), 
which is the predominant tree with Metrosideros polymorpha; here dwell Scae- 
vola glabra, also known from Oahu, Labordea tinifolia, L. Waialealae, and sev- 
eral other species of this genus, some of which are new to science. The forest 
becomes wetter and wetter, thick, light-green moss covers the trees and ground 
alike, fern growth is abundant, and Hepaticae together with Hymenophyllums 
and Trichomanes ferns hang gracefully from every tree. The narrow leaved 
Astelia Menziesiana covers fallen trees ; with it can be found the very peculiar 
caryophyllaceous Schiedea lychnoides, with large white flowers, while Sckiedea 
stellarioides inhabits the drier districts. In these swampy forests the newly- 
described Lysimachia glutinosa, with large, beautiful cream-colored flowers, 
forms part of the undershrubs, but only in one locality, and that at the summit 
of the ridge leading to Kalalau. It is here that the writer discovered a species 
of Palm new to science, which has since been described by Dr. 0. Beccari of 
Florence, Italy, as Pritchardia minor. It is a very distinct species and differs 
from all the rest of Hawaiian palms in the oval black fruits, which are of the 
size of a black olive, while the other species have fruits of the size of a small 
hen's egg; besides the whole aspect of the palm is different. Of Rubiaceae, 
Straussia Mariniana and 8. oncocarpa var. p. grow side by side with Psychotria 
hexandra, since also found on Oahu in the Punaluu Mountains. Psychotria 
grandiflora, a small tree or shrub with beautiful cymosely-arranged white 
flowers, inhabits the dense, swampy jungle, with Cyrtandra Gay ana and several 
vines, such as Stenogyne purpurea var. brevipedunculata, and one or two species 
of Phyllostegia with fragrant flowers. 

The genera Kadua and Gouldia, both endemic genera of the Family Rubi- 
aceae, are represented in this zone by many species, of which Kadua Knudsenii, 
K. Waimeae, and K. glaucifolia are the most common. These with Gouldia 
species inhabit rather the more open places where Cyanea leptostegia abounds. 

In the smaller streambeds occur several species of Pipturus, as P. ruber, P. 
Kauaiensis, and others, besides Urera, Neraudia sp. nov., Perrottetia sandwi- 
censis, Dubautia laxa, Rubus hawaiiensis var. inermis, several species of Phyl- 
lostegia, Cyanea spathulata, Artemisia australis, and others. 

What is true of other genera is also true of the genus Suttonia (Myrsine). 
This genus, with its species Lessertiana, common on all the islands of the group, 
has four species peculiar to Kauai, which inhabit the swampy forests. Most 
peculiar is the fact that of the lobeliaceous genus Clermontia, which has reached 
such a wonderful development on Oahu, Maui and Hawaii, only one species (C. 
Gaudichaudii) occurs. It is a small tree, usually groAving along water courses, 
either terrestrial or epiphytic on other trees. 

Mention may also be made of the herbaceous Dianella ensi folia (Uki) with 
its lilac berries, which covers the ground thickly in the Elaeocarpus forest 
belt. Syzygium sandwicense (Oliia ha) attains quite a height and is associated 

58 



with Ohio, leliua, Kalia, and the rubiaceous genus Coprosma, of which C. pub ens, 
C. Kauaiensis and C. Waimcae (Olena) belong here. 

The third species, C. montana var. ~ ( ., is only found on the high, swampy 
plateau itself in company with Lobelia Kauaiensis and L. macrostacliys var. 
Kauaiensis var. nov., several species of Dubautia, and others. 

The further we penetrate into the interior the denser becomes the growth. 
Soil is no longer visible, as the ground is covered with a beautiful green carpet 
of moss, often two feet thick and saturated with water. The same can be said 
of the trees ; their trunks appear to be two feet in diameter, but on investigation 
we find the true diameter to be only 4 to 5 inches, the rest being mosses and 
hepaticae of all description. It is on such trees that Poly podium hymeno- 
plnjUoides, P. serrulatum, P. adenopliorus, and Lycopodium Mannii occur. 

The genus Diellia has several species peculiar to Kauai, as D. centifolia, D. 
laciniata, and D. Knudsenii, which belong to the swampy region. The same 
holds good of many Asplenium, Polystichum and Dryopteris species. 

In these dense forests, which harbor many species undoubtedly new to science, 
which will be described as soon as the bulky material can be worked up, we 
find large open places of several acres in area which resemble the peat bogs of 
Northern Europe. The vegetation is naturally stunted and only few shrubs 
occur. The soil in these bogs is of a gray color, loamy and heavy, and decayed 
vegetation is often found to be 10 to 15 feet deep. A bunch grass, Panicum monti- 
cola, forms large round mounds or tussocks, together with Panicum isachnoides 
of similar habit. In these tussocks we find Selaginella deflexa and Lycopodium 
erubescens, the latter, however, often submerged on the rocks in the middle of 
streambeds. The most interesting plant is Drosera longifolia (Mikinalo), one 
of the so-called insect-eating plants, which also occurs in the northern parts of 
Europe. Outside of Kauai the plant has not been found on the other islands 
of the group. 

Back of Kaholuamano, in the midst of a dense forest, is such a bog, which 
bears the name Lehua makanoe or "Lehua in the fog." The only shrub in this 
bog is Metrosideros pumila, probably a stunted sport of Metrosideros poly- 
morplia, in whose shade the beautiful herbaceous violet, Viola Kauaiensis (Poke 
hiwa) thrives. It is, however, not confined to this locality, but can also be found 
throughout the swampy forest, mainly on moss-covered tree trunks, as well as 
in Kauluwehi swamp (4210 feet), and on the summit of Waialeale, w r hose vegeta 
tion will be described under "bog formations." 

Denser and wetter becomes the forest as we ascend the gradual slope which 
leads to Waialeale. We cross the first stream, Wailenalena, on whose banks the 
writer discovered a new violet, a variety of Viola robusta, which was named 
after the stream, var. Wailenalenae, outside of whose banks it has not been ob- 
served. It reaches a height of 3 to 6 feet, and has a woody stem, such as many of 
our violets possess. Two new shrubby species of Pelea grow in its company. As 
we approach the streams of Kailiili, Kaluiti, and Kanaholo, we find for the first 

59 



time the very interesting haloragaceous Gunner a petaloidea (Ape ape), with its 
huge, thick, rugose, reniform leaves of sometimes five feet in diameter. Both 
banks of the streams are lined with these handsome plants, under whose leaves 
the traveler finds as perfect a protection from rain as under an umbrella. The 
stems of the plants are 4 to 5 feet tall, and can be cut with one stroke of the 
knife, though almost six inches in diameter. Associated with it is the newly- 
described araliaceous T etraplasandra Waialealae, which ascends, however, up 
to the summit of Waialeale, where it is most common. 

One would expect that in such a locality the tribe Lobelioideae would have 
many forms, which, however, is not the case. Only one species is found, which 
occurs also in the Elaeocarpus belt, and is new to science. The two species 
of Lobelia, L. Kauaiensis and L. macrostackys var. Kauaiensis var. nov., are 
found in great numbers, especially the former, which forms often pure stands 
of several hundreds of plants in open spots. 

In the neighborhood of Kauluwehi swamp, Suttonia Kauaiensis and its 
tomentose variety form more or less tall shrubs. Cyperaceae are plentiful in the 
open swamps and forest as well, and will be mentioned under ' ' bog formations. ' ' 

A very peculiar cyperaceous plant was found on a dry ridge leading to 
Waiakealoha. It was unfortunately neither in flower nor fruit, but was sent to 
Dr. Kiikenthal, the authority on this family. 

The common species of Gahnia and Cladium can be found at Kaholuamano 
as well as in the neighboring districts. 

THE MIDDLE FOREST REGION OF OAHU AND MOLOKAI. 

The Islands of Oahu and Molokai have many species of plants in common. 
As we have seen, Elaeocarpus bifidus (Kalia) is almost the predominant tree of 
the first belt of the middle forest zone on Kauai; on Oahu the tree belongs to 
the lower forest zone and is only sparingly found above 2400 feet. On Molokai 
the tree is entirely absent, as well as on the rest of the islands of the group. The 
reason for this is probably to be found in the awkward size of the seed, which 
is about as large as a small pigeon's egg, and dispersed by nature's agents only 
with great difficulty or now not at all. 

Of Lobelioideae, the genus Clermontia, only represented by one species on 
Kauai, achieved a wonderful development on Molokai and Oahu. The most 
common species is Cl. macrocarpa, found also in the lower forest zone at 1200 
feet elevation. Since the dying out of the once beautiful forest on the northern 
slope of Haleakala, especially between Kailua and Honomanu, this shrub has 
taken possession of the land and seems to thrive where Ohia lehua trees could not 
exist. On Oahu we find the sharp ridges of the main range covered with dense 
vegetation (see Plate XX), especially so in the valleys of Punaluu and Ka- 
hana, until we reach the drier districts of Kahuku. Compositae are scarce on 
Oahu, and the genus Raillardia is practically absent. On Konahuanui several 

61 



species of Clermontiae abound, such as Cl. oblongifolia, which has a variety on 
Maui and is also not uncommon on Lanai ; Cl. persicae folia is, however, peculiar 
to Oahu. It is a small, handsome tree with white flowers, and is not uncommon 
in Palolo Valley along the ridge leading to Mt. Olympus. On Molokai, Cl. 
arborescens and Cl. grandi flora take the place of Cl. macrocarpa on Oahu, the 
former being especially common not only on Molokai, but also on Maui, where 
trees of 20 to 25 feet in height can be found. At the Pali of Wailau, Molokai, 
we find Cl. pallida as the third and last species of that genus on Molokai. 

The genus Cyanea, however, finds a larger development. On Oahu, the most 
common species are Cyanea angustifolia and Cyanea acuminata, the latter not 
unlike a Delissea at first appearance, to which supposition its white flowers 
would lead one. Cyanea Grimesiana, one of the few Lobelioideae with pinnate 
leaves, is often found hidden among ferns, and when not in flower could easily 
be overlooked as such. On Molokai we find Cyanea Mannii, C. solenocalyx, and 
C. ferox, which, however, has a close relative on East Maui. C. procera belongs 
to the 2000-foot level above Kamolo, in which district, however, the forest has 
suffered tremendously from cattle, and no doubt the introduced Japanese deer 
have contributed their share of uselessness. The trees in this section are again 
Ohia lehua, mainly with Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii (Olapa), Suttonia Lesser- 
liana, and several species of Pelea, such as Pelea Molokaiensis, P. oblongifolia, P. 
sandwicensis, etc. Of Rubiaceae, Straussia kaduana is the most common tree, 
and is distinguished from its ally S. mariniana in its drooping peduncle, which 
is usually of various lengths. Psychotria hexandra has also been found outside 
of Kauai, to which island it was once thought to be peculiar. It grows in the 
mountains of Punaluu in company with Pittosporum glomeratum, P. glabrum 
(Hoawa), Perrottetia sandwicensis, numerous species of Rollandia, and in its 
shade grows an exceedingly interesting species of Lysimachia, which was dis- 
covered by the writer in the year 1908, and has later been named by C. N. Forbes 
as L. longisepala. In the same locality grows a tree of the family Euphorbi- 
aceae; it is a true Euphorbia, and has been named after its discoverer as Eu- 
phorbia Eockii by C. N. Forbes, who also named a species of violet found by the 
author as Viola Oahuensis. The genus Cyrtandra of the family Gesneriaceae 
reaches here a wonderful development, and it can safely be said that Oahu har- 
bors more species of that genus than any other island of the group. 

Of Palms, we find Pritchardia Martii on Oahu, while on Molokai in the 
swamps of Kawela grows Pritchardia Hillebrandii. Of Araliaceae, Tetraplas- 
andra grows in the dense forests as well as on open, exposed ridges, in company 
with Scaevola gldbra, Pelea, Campylotheca, and Xanthoxylum oahuense, a small 
handsome tree. On Oahu we find Tetraplasandra meiandra in many varieties 
on the exposed ridges, while the variety /3 of the same species occurs along a 
large gulch near Kawela swamp in company with Pittosporum glabrum,, Lo- 
belia gaudichaudii, and Raillardia Molokaiensis. Tetraplasandra hawaiiensis 
is not uncommon on Molokai, especially above Kaluaaha and in Wailau valley, 

62 



as well as on the Island of Lanai on the main ridge of Haalelepakai, from which 
place it had not been reported previously. Hillebrand in his Flora reports 
Pterotropia dipyrcna from Lanai, especially from the main ridge; the writer, 
however, failed to find a single tree of this species, but Tetraplasandra hawaii- 
ensis being very common he comes to the conclusion that there is a possibility of 
Hillebrand having mistaken the identity of the trees in question, which resemble 
each other very much and perhaps could be mistaken one for the other when 
not in flower. 

The middle forest zone is also the home of the loganiaceous genus Labordea, 
of which many species exist, as new ones have come to light since the explora- 
tion of this group has been commenced systematically. Mention must also 
be made of the extraordinary species of Compositae belonging to the genus 
Hesperomannia. Mr. Forbes has described an interesting species which he 
found on the Island of Kauai, and the writer has found trees 30 feet in height 
of H. arborescens on Mt. Konahuanui, Oahu. The trees were originally 
found on the Island of Lanai on the highest ridge, where Hillebrand says he 
found about eight specimens of this tree. Dr. R. C. L. Perkins told the writer 
that he found two trees about ten years ago. A careful search during a six- 
weeks' stay on that island did not reveal even a sign of such a tree once having 
existed. Our three species of Hesperomannia are very closely related to the 
Tahitian Fitchia, a genus of two arborescent mountain species. 

Of Goodeniaceae, several species belong to this region, Scaevola mollis being 
peculiar to Oahu, as well as S. ckamissoniana, the latter, however, descending 
into the lower forest zone, while 8. procera inhabits the mountains of Molokai, 
Maui, and Kauai; 8. cylindrocarpa being only found on Lanai on the highest 
ridge. The epacridaceous shrub, Styphelia tameiameia, is also an inhabitant 
of this zone, together with V actinium penduliflorum. 

Of herbaceous plants, several species of Campylotheca belong here, as well 
as several vines, as Gynopogon oliviformis (Maile), the liliaceous Smilax sand- 
wicaisis (Pioi), and the myrsinaceous Embelia pacifica. Besides Euphorbia 
Rock ii, a number of other species belong to this zone, such as E. clusiae folia and 
E. multiformis, the former on more exposed ridges, especially back of Honolulu 
on one of the ridges leading to Konahuanui, where it is associated with a stunted 
form of Syzygium sandwicense (Oliia ha). 

Of Violaceae, Viola robusta, a very stout species 3 to 5 feet tall, is very com- 
mon in the dense, mossy forest, while V. Chamissoniana, a shrubby species with 
pink flowers, is found mainly along stream beds (see Plate XXI) in company 
with shrubby species of Plantago, such as Plantago princeps, not uncommon 
back of Kamoku camp, Molokai, where it grows over 6 feet tall. The Labiatae 
take here also an important place, Phyllostegia being represented by numerous 
species. Especial mention must be made of the truly superb specimens of Ste- 
nogyne Kamehamehac, which trail over the swampy ground with large clusters of 

63 



PLATE XXI. 




VEGETATION ALONG A STREAM BED on Molokai, ferns Sadleria cyatheoides. 



deep magenta flowers which are over 3 inches long. On Hawaii its place is 
taken by the also handsome species 8. calaminthoides, while on Oahu only two 
are recorded, of which one is doubtful. 

The amarantaceous Charpentiera ovata, as well as Ch. obovata, ascend oc- 
casionally into the middle forest zone, but are really typical of the lower forest 
region. The biggest trees of the species Ch. obovata were found at Puuwaaw r aa, 
Hawaii, where the writer measured trunks two feet in diameter. 

A handsome plant growing along streambeds and waterfalls is the begoni- 
aceous Hillebrandia sandwicensis, the native Begonia or Akaakaawa, or as it is 
often called, Puamakanui, the big-eyed flower. It is common on Kauai as well 
as Molokai, and may still be found on Oahu. On Maui the writer found it at 
about 6000 feet elevation, in the crater of Haleakala in the Koolau gap, where 
it grew over six feet high under the shade of Perrottetia sandwicensis (Oloniea). 

The queen of all is the lobeliaceous Cyanea siiperba var. regina, an exceed- 
ingly beautiful plant found only on Oahu, in the gulches of Wailupe and Niu, 
and in Makaleha of the Kaala range. 

Cryptogams reach also a wonderful development, especially the tree ferns, 
which have been referred to under the chapter on the Island of Haw r aii proper. 
Marattia Douglasii may be called a typical fern of the middle forest zone; it is 
known to the natives as Pala or mule-hoof fern on account of its large, fleshy 
auricles, which cover the caudex and are a source of food, as they abound in 
starch and mucilage. 

THE MIDDLE FOREST ZONE ON THE ISLAND OF MAUI AND KOHALA, HAWAII. 

Many of the trees found on Oahu and Molokai are common on Maui and also 
in the Kohala mountains on Hawaii, and need not be reenumerated ; only men- 
tion will be made of such plants as are peculiar to the localities treated in this 
chapter. 

WEST AND EAST MAUI. 

Undoubtedly West Maui once upon a time formed a separate island and was 
in no wise connected with the extinct volcano Haleakala, which forms the bulk 
of East Maui, ascending to a height of 10,030 feet. West Maui is very much 
older than Haleakala, as no trace of a crater is visible at its summit, with the 
exception of the flat swamp called Manna Eeke, which has the resemblance of a 
crater floor. West Maui is connected with East Maui by a narrow strip of land 
or isthmus with a mean elevation of 160 feet. The mountain mass of West Maui 
is intersected by many deep valleys or gorges, which find their source in the very 
heart of the mountain. Of these valleys, lao is the biggest, on the eastern side, 
while it is separated on the western side by a low ridge from another valley, 
called Oloalu, which has a rather narrow entrance but widens out amphithe- 
atrically. 

65 



The extreme western side is intersected by the valley Honokawai, which 
reaches almost to the head of Puukukui, the summit of West Maui, with an ele- 
vation of 5788 feet. This valley is much narrower than either lao or Oloalu, but 
resembles very much the northern valley called Honokahau, which finds its 
source at the head of Mauna Eeke at a height of approximately 4500 feet. On 
the northeastern side are still other valleys, the most interesting one being Wai- 
hee, which has a very interesting vegetation; but owing to the enormous amount 
of rainfall is not often accessible. The streambed is narrow and enclosed be- 
tween steep walls, which makes it very dangerous should one be caught in even 
a slight rain storm. The same is practically true of Waikapu, which is south of 
lao valley. 

The vegetation in most of these valleys is rather uniform and belongs to the 
lower forest zone. As the walls are very steep, in reality vertical, it is impossible 
to investigate these, but one has to satisfy himself by exploring the gradual 
slopes on each side of the valleys, which culminate into a more or less flat plateau 
with a stunted swamp vegetation. In the Kohala Mountains on Hawaii, how- 
ever, the plateau is much more extensive and is covered by a typical middle 
forest zone formation. Metrosideros polymorpha is again a predominant tree, 
with Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii, several species of Suttonia, Pelea clusiae- 
folia, Cyrtandra pilosa, the rubiaceous Kadua formosa, together with Schiedea 
diffusa and again Gunnera petaloidea, which covers the walls of the valleys to 
the exclusion of nearly everything else. 

The ground on the slopes at 4000 feet elevation is covered with moss, hold- 
ing a tremendous amount of moisture. In such places, under the dense shade, 
grow many species of Cyrtandra, which are nearly all dense shade-loving plants. 
With it we find the terrestrial Lycopodium serratum, while Lycopodium erru- 
bescens is found on rocks in streambeds. Here also is the home of the genus 
Labordea of the family Loganiaceae, herbaceous species with orange-colored 
flowers, growing in the thick moss, while shrubby or even arborescent species 
are found mostly along streambeds together with Urera sp., Gouldia axillaris, 
and Pittosporum insigne, the latter a common but handsome tree in this locality. 

Of Compositae, we find Dubautia laxa along the edge of Honokawai gulch, 
with species of Pelea and the rubiaceous genus Coprosma. Campylotheca has 
several species at an elevation of 4500 feet, while it is also represented in the 
lowlands by one or two species. Cladium angusti folium and Cladium Meyenii 
occur on the rather windswept edges of the gulches, together with Scaevola 
chamissoniana, Styphelia and other plants. 

Of interest is the tribe Lobelioideae, which is represented here by the genera 
Lobelia, Clermontia and Cyanea. The genus Lobelia is found only near the 
swampy plateau in the more open forest which leads into the great bog, the only 
species being L. Gaudichaudii. 

Immediately below the swampy plateau are one or two miniature bogs which 
harbor Plantago pachyphylla, with its many varieties peculiar to high elevations. 

66 



Here also occurs a creeping species of Lysimachia, together with Lycopods, and 
other cryptogams, besides Lagenophora mauiensis, which has descended from 
the bogs above. 

One of the interesting lobelioideous plants is Cyanea atra, a plant of the 
aspect of Cyanea tritomantka (see Plate VI), to which it is related. The 
flowers, as the name atra implies, are almost black. The plants are 10 to 15 
feet tall, and grow either along streambeds shaded by Gunner a petaloidea, or 
also in dense jungles in mossy forests. In the more open forests grow Cler- 
montia arborescens, Clermontia grandiflora, and, at an elevation of nearly 5000 
feet, Clermontia multiflora var. micrantha forma montana f. n. This latter 
plant is an exceedingly handsome lobelioideous shrub, with most beautiful foliage 
and bright pink flowers. It grows neither lower nor higher, but is peculiar to 
about 4800 to 5000 feet elevation. 

The variety micrantha is found, according to Hillebrand, in Waihee Valley 
in the bare gravel along the stream, while the species is found in the same valley 
and also on Oahu, in Wailupe. Another lobelioideous plant, Cyanea macrostegia, 
resembles C. atra closely, and is found often in its company. Other species of 
the same genus are found in Waikapu, lao Valley, and above Kaanapali, but 
more in the lower forest zone. Of trees, the araliaceous Tetraplasandra meiandra 
var.. may be mentioned, which is found at an elevation of 4300 feet. Here also 
belong the Labiate vines, such as Phyllostegia and Stenogyne, though sparingly 
represented. 

EAST MAUI HALEAKALA. 

Haleakala, an extinct crater over 10,000 feet high, makes up the whole of 
East Maui. Its vegetative covering is indeed of great interest, but has suffered 
severely the last fifty years, and represents probably an entirely different aspect 
from what it was before the slopes of Haleakala were given over to the ranch- 
man and his cattle. The lower forest zone has already been described, and we 
have to consider now mainly the vegetation between 3000 to 5000 feet on the 
northern slopes of the mountain, as on the western and partly southern slopes 
nothing remains to be considered, as the grassy plains have not even a remnant 
of the once existing forest, except in deep gulches inaccessible to cattle, from 
which we can judge of what the forest was once composed. 

The western slope of the mountain is not much intersected by gulches, the 
only one of interest being Waihou gulch. The northern slope, however, is cut 
into many gorges, such as Waikamoi, Puohaokamoa, and Honomanu. The big- 
gest, however, in the northern outlet of Haleakala at Keanae, called Koolau gap, 
while the western outlet is known as Kaupo gap. 

The interesting forest commences at Olinda in the district of Hamakuapoko 
and up to Ukulele, from which latter place the upper forest zone begins. We 
find practically the same trees in this district as on West Maui, the most com 
mon and predominating trees being Cheirodendron gandicliaudii (Olapa), Co- 

67 



PLATE XXII. 




A TYPICAL JUNGLE of the middle forest zone, Waikamoi trail, East Maui; elevation 

4000 feet. 



prosma, Metrosideros polymorpha (Ohia lekua), and Acacia Koa, which has 
ascended from the upper edge of the lower forest zone. It is, however, still a 
common tree in this zone, and rivals with Olapa and Okia lekua in predomi- 
nance. Straussia oncocarpa and Straussia leptocarpa, of the family Rubiaceae, 
belong to the 3500 foot level. 

On the open grassland between 3000 feet to almost 5000 feet, but especially 
a little over 3000 feet, is a belt of an endemic Labiate, Sphacele liastata, peculiar 
to Haleakala. It is really marvelous that this plant is still to be found in large 
numbers, as it is in the midst of a cattle ranch. On investigating, we find it 
owes its survival to its peculiar mint odor, apparently offensive to the taste of 
the cattle. All other vegetation has disappeared, though, as mentioned before, 
traces can still be found in inaccessible gulches. 

The semi-dry forest above Makawao gradually merges into the middle forest 
zone. Southeast of Olinda only grasslands prevail, though here and there many 
species of Eucalypti have been planted into symmetrical squares. 

The forest beginning at Olinda and extending all along the windward side 
of Haleakala is, however, the object of our investigation. Besides the trees al- 
ready mentioned, we find other araliaceous genera, such as Tetraplasandra mei- 
andra var. and the tall Pterotropia dipyrena (Oheohe), most common on Puu- 
kakai, an extinct crater between Ukulele and Olinda. Pittosporum insigne var. 
(3, Nothocestrum longifolium, Gouldia axillaris, Perrottetia sandwicensis, and 
Raillardia Menziesii, an arborescent composite which reaches its best develop- 
ment at the lower edge of the upper forest zone, are the more common trees. 

Of Lobelioideae, Clermontia arborescens is the most common, while Cl. tuber- 
culata is the rarest. Of shrubs, we find Platydesma campanulatum var. ? with a 
small Gouldia, and one or two species of Kadua, numerous Cyrtandra, a species 
of Scaevola, a few species of the rutaceous genus Pelea, and also the leguminous 
Sophora clirysopliylla, which inhabits here the wet forest with Suttonia Lesser- 
tiana. Dubautia plant aginea is occasionally met with, as well as an introduced 
Cassia. 

Of herbaceous plants, we find Ranunculus Mauiensis quite common in com- 
pany with numerous species of Labordea. Surprising is the dense undergrowth 
of Rubus hawaiiensis on the outskirts of the middle forest zone. As we pene- 
trate into the interior the forest becomes dense, moss covers the ground and 
trees (see Plate XXII), and many epiphytes, such as Astelia veratroides, with 
numerous species of ferns, especially of the genus Polypodium, abound. Pepe-- 
romiae form a dominant feature of the herbaceous growth; and it is here also 
that we find two species of our Orchids, poor, measly representatives of a family 
which reaches such wonderful development and floral beauty in other tropical 
countries. Labiatae are at home in this floral zone and display a beautiful va- 
riety of forms, many of which possess beautiful flowers worthy of cultivation. 
The genus Phyllostegia displays not less than nine species, of which P. grandi- 
flora, P. glabra, and P. racemosa are the most common and beautiful. They are 

69 



only surpassed in beauty by the species of Stenogyne, which flower in the late 
winter months. Their large curved corollas, which are borne in large whorls, 
vary in shades from deep magenta to crimson, pink, yellow and pure white, in- 
terlacing trees or gracefully festooning branches, or, as is often the case, 
forming dense carpets covering the ground in small spots to the exclusion of 
other plants. The handsomest species are St. Kamehamehae and St. longiflora. 

Another very important feature of the vegetation is the tribe Lobelioideae, 
of which most of the species found here are new to science; they belong nearly 
all to the Sect. III., Palmaeformes, and are more or less closely related. The 
most interesting is Cyanea aculeatiflora, which, as the name implies, is covered 
with spines even to the lobes of the corolla; another peculiar new species is 
Cyanea kamatiflora with broad sessile leaves, dark-red flowers, and large purple 
fruits ; the latter plant is most common on Puukakai, where it reaches a height of 
15 to 20 feet, similar to C. aculeatiflora. C. macrostegia with lobed leaves is not 
uncommon, and so is C. atra, but differing from the specimens found on West 
Maui. Cyanea ferox is here a shrub 15 feet in height with straight ascending 
branches, which together with the stem are covered with thorns; the leaves of 
this latter species are sinuate and remind one somewhat of Cyanea Grimesiana. 

Besides these tall species, two subherbaceous ones are found in the dense 
shady moss forest, the taller one of the two, Cyanea Bishopii (a new species, but 
first collected by the late E. Bishop, and referred by Hillebrand doubtfully to 
Cyanea Kunthianaf), with purple flowers, is the most common, but flowers, un- 
like the other species, in the winter months. As we cross Waikamoi, where we 
meet again with Gunnera petaloidea and Hillebrandia sandwicensis, the Ha- 
waiian begonia, the forest becomes more uniform. At the edge of Waikamoi 
proper, we find Lobelia macrostachys and a species of Wikstroemia, probably a 
new species. The writer crossed this forest belt from Olinda to Honomanu and 
followed along the ditch trail to Kailua. A forest as described in the above pages 
covers this stretch of land, and it may be remarked that at about 3000 feet ele- 
vation, above Honomanu, there are two clumps of Palms, Pritchardia arecina 
Becc. This palm, discovered by the writer, is new to science, and is described by 
Beccari in Webbia Vol. IV. Lower down along the ditch trail proper the forest 
has died for miles, the cause being still unascertained. All the Okia trees are 
dead, and only here and there a species of Tetraplasandra is struggling for exist- 
ence. Since the death of the tree growth the lobeliaceous Clermontia macro- 
carpa, so common on Oahu, has become almost the sole underbrush, with here 
and there a species of Cl. arborescens. 

What has been said of this forest belt up to Honomanu holds good for 
Keanae and Nahiku, the only exception being the presence of Sideroxylon rhyn- 
chospermum at Nahiku, besides several species of Cyanea. 

The forests spoken of by Hillebrand at Ulupalakua have entirely disappeared 
and only remnants of them can be found. Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii is still 
common, besides Suttonia, and Ohia lehua; numerous still is the araliaceous 

70 



Pterotropia dipyrena. The undershrub is again mainly Rub us hawaiiensis. 
The species of Cyanea found by Hillebrand are gone forever; and where they 
once reared their proud palm-like crowns toward the sky there is now only grass- 
land, with herds of cattle and ugly Eucalypti. The writer was fortunate enough 
to find a specimen of the long-sought-for, gorgeous Cyanea arborea in that locality 
in a small gdlch inaccessible to cattle. It was the last of its race. He scoured 
the country for miles searching for the handsome Cyanea comata, but his 
searches were in vain: it had vanished forever. 

THE MOUNTAINS OF KOHALA, HAWAII. 

Above 3000 feet in the mountains of Kohala we find the vegetation similar to 
that of East and West Maui. Metrosideros polymorpha, Cheirodendron Gaudi- 
cliaudii, and a host of species of Pelea are the most common trees. Like West 
Maui, the Kohala mountains are intersected by many deep gorges, of which the 
biggest are Waipio and Waimanu valleys, which are followed toward the west 
by Honokanenui, Honokaneiki and Pololu valleys ; beyond them the country 
becomes flatter and only little gulches descend to the sea. (See Plate XXIII.) 
All the sugar plantations of this part of the Island of Hawaii are situated here. 
As we advance farther west the land becomes very dry and is bare of vegetation. 

Back of Waimea village, which is situated at an elevation of 2700 feet, the 
mountains are intersected by only a few small gulches. The summit is called 
Kaala, and has an elevation of 5500 feet. The most prominent gulch on this 
side is Holokaiea. The valley of Waipio is very large and is divided into many 
other gorges of great interest. Hiilawe and Waima are minor valleys, while 
Alakahi and Kawainui, the latter a continuation of the former, reaches almost 
to the center of the mountain. The walls of these valleys are vertical and nearly 
3000 feet in height, with hundreds of waterfalls. Clouds hover nearly con- 
stantly over the ridges, and the traveler is lucky if he gets a glimpse of the 
depths below him. It is on these flats on each side of the valleys that the botan- 
ist finds a most interesting collecting ground. 

It is only recently that this part of the land was made accessible through 
the so-called upper Hamakua ditch trail, which leads to the headwaters of Ka- 
wainui gorge, opening to the botanist a most interesting field. Not less interest- 
ing is the land back of Awini in Kohala proper. On these flat forest lands the 
trees do not grow to any size, but are more or less stunted and covered with 
numerous mosses and hepatics, and are also festooned with Astelia veratroides, 
Vaccinium, and many ferns. Of great interest is the rutaceous genus Pelea, 
which has many forms here. One species new to science has extremely large 
capsules, and when bruised emits an even stronger odor than Pelea anisata of 
Kauai. Xanthoxylum is represented only by one species, which is new, and shall 
be known as Xanthoxylum Bluettianum sp. n., in honor of Mr. P. W. P. Bluett of 
Kohala, through whose courtesies the writer was enabled to explore this won- 

71 



PLATE XXIII. 




VEGETATION ALONG ONE OF THE MANY STREAMLETS which descends to the sea; 

Kohala Mts., Hawaii. 



derful country. Labiatae are represented numerously, the most common being 
Stenogyne calaminthoides and several species of Phyllostegia. 

The tribe Lobelioideae reaches a most remarkable development, but especially 
the genus Clermontia, the species parviflora being the most common, not only 
in this district but in all the wet forests on Hawaii. Clermontia Kolialae, a new 
species with dark-purple flowers, is found on the lower Kohala ditch trail as 
well as Awini. The largest flowered species, however, occurs at an elevation of 
4200 feet, and is very variable in leaf as well as flower. It is also new, and was 
named by the writer Cl. drepanomorplia. It is associated with another new 
species of the same genus named Cl. leptoclada. At least five more species of 
this genus can be found, nearly all of which are new and were discovered by the 
writer. The genus Clermontia forms a large percentage of plant growth in the 
upper Kohala mountains, which is not the case either on Waialeale, Kauai, or 
Puukukui, West Maui. As on the other mountains so also here we find Coprosma, 
Cyrtandra, Tetraplasandra, and at an elevation of 3000 feet the interesting palm 
Pritcliardia lanigera, differing from the other Hawaiian palms in its woolliness 
of leaf and spadix. Schiedea diffusa makes here also its appearance with several 
Labordea, and the lobeliaceous Cyanea pilosa. 

In more open boggy places we find Raillardia scabra, Raillardia sp., a new 
species of Plantago covered densely with long gray hair, Lycopods, Selaginella 
deflexa, Schizaea robust a, and other species. Suttonia sandwicensis is also not 
uncommon. At 4500 to 5000 feet elevation the forest is exceedingly wet and the 
ground covered with mosses two feet or more thick. On this high plateau are 
numerous volcanic blow-holes which are a constant danger to the traveler, as 
they are hidden from view by shrubs which grow on their sides and also by 
vines and moss. These blow-holes are often several hundred feet deep, and 
sometimes only 10 feet or so in diameter. As already said, they can seldom be 
perceived, but can always be heard, as water from the swamps drains into them, 
making the sound of a miniature waterfall. In this extremely wet, mossy forest 
the writer collected a great quantity of material which, owing to continuous field 
trips, has not yet all been worked up, but undoubtedly will result in the determ- 
ination of many new forms. 

Here also the writer found growing in the beautiful light-green moss a va- 
riety of Viola mauiensis which he named var. Kohalana. This is the first violet 
recorded from the Island of Hawaii. The flowers are blue, while the plant 
stands about five feet high. At the summit of the mountain a white-flowering 
form was found. 

T Jntil the material of this region has been thoroughly worked out the descrip- 
tion now given will have to suffice. In general, the vegetative characteristics are 
the same as on West Maui. On the steep slopes of the valleys, especially along 
the sides of the enormous waterfalls, we find Gunnera petaloidea, the Ape ape 
of the natives, besides many ferns usually common to all wet districts of the 
higher levels. 

73 



PLATE XXIV. 




LOBELIA MACROSTACHYS growing in the open swamps of Molokai. 



Of Gramineae, the following may be recorded: Polypogon monspeliensis, 
found in open places, often in pools; Isachne distichophylla, and Eragrostis 
grandis, the latter usually at lower elevation along streams. Cyperaceae are 
also more or less common, especially on the edges of the cliffs of Kawainui and 
Alakahi. Mention may be made of Cladium Meyenii, Uncinia uncinata, usually 
along streambeds and waterfalls, Cladium any usti folium, and Cy penis strigosus 
var. insularis Kiikenth. The juncaceous Luzula hawaiiensis, resembling very 
much a Cyperaceae, is also very common. 

THE BOG REGION. 

The bog region is usually confined to the summits of the mountains of the 
older islands or portions of islands, with an altitude of little over 5000 feet. 

Waialeale, the summit of Kauai, at an elevation of 5280 feet, represents 
such a bog, as well as Pun Kukui, the summit of West Maui (5788 feet) and 
Kaala, the summit of the Kohala mountains on Hawaii (5505 feet). All these 
three localities have many species of plants in common, but also each locality 
has again its peculiar species. 

The summits of these mountains are nearly always throughout the year en- 
wrapped by clouds, with the exception of a short period during which the south 
wind prevails. The best season for visiting these wonderful places is in October 
and the first part of November. The rainfall in these localities is enormous, bat 
no definite record has been kept in these places, with the exception of Waialeale, 
where the U. S. Geological Survey placed a rain gauge with the capacity of hold- 
ing 120 inches. The writer ascended Waialeale for the second time on October 
20, 1911. One month before the rain gauge had been emptied. On arrival at 
the summit on the above date the rain gauge was found overflowing. 

It may, however, be remarked that these bogs, with their peculiar flora, are 
not always confined to the summits of the mountains of an altitude of 5000 feet, 
but can also be found in the midst of the middle forest zone at an elevation of 
usually 4000 feet. Thus we have four bogs on Kauai besides Waialeale. The 
biggest one is situated a few miles back of Halemanu and extends almost to the 
edge of Wainiha gorge; this bog is known as Alakai swamp, and is about one 
and one-half miles across. Another much smaller bog is Kauluwehi swamp, 
situated at an elevation of 4200 feet, back of Kaholuamano on the trail to Waia- 
kealoha waterfall; the smallest one is Lehua makanoe, "Lehua in the fog" 
only about a mile back of Mr. F. Gay's mountain house. The next, though 
larger than either Kauluwehi or Lehua makanoe, is the bog of Wahiawa, at a 
much lower elevation than those previously mentioned. 

On Molokai there is only one bog worth mentioning, and that is Kawela 

swamp, back of Kamoku, not far from Pelekunu gorge. (See Plate XXIV.) 

On Maui we have besides Puu Kukui, the bog Mauna Eeke, situated above 

Honokahau gulch at an elevation of about 4100 feet. It is indeed of interest to 

note that most of the species of plants found on Puu Kukui are not peculiar to 

75 



the bog region, but have been found by the writer on the steep walls in Kaupo 
gap in the crater of Haleakala. 

In the Kohala Mountains there are several bogs besides the main one at the 
summit, the names of which are not known to the writer. 

THE BOGS OF KAUAI. 

In the bogs situated on the central plateau we find the vegetation the same, 
while the great bog of Waialeale has its peculiar species besides most of those 
found in lower situated bogs. 

The turfy soil is covered with tussocks of Gramineae and Cyperaceae, mainly 
Panicum monticola, Panicum imbricatum and P. isachnoides, together with the 
cyperaceous Oreobulus furcatus. 

On these tussocks of grasses and Cyperaceae we find the European Drosera 
longifolia (Mikinalo), the so-called insect-eating plant, embedded. It has been 
said that D. longifolia is hardly ever found without its associate D. rotundi folia, 
but here on Kauai it is the only representative of the family Droseraceae. Dro- 
sera longifolia is more common in the lower swamps than on the summit, where 
only few specimens of it have been found. Between these tussocks grow small 
bushes of Ohia lehua, or really called Lehua makanoe, from which one locality 
derives its name. The plant has been named by Heller Metrosideros pumila. In 
its shade grows the handsome blue-flowered violet, Viola Kauaiensis. Habenaria 
holochila was found by the writer in Alakai swamp in the turf, growing erect 
about three feet in height. It is the third species of our poor orchids. 

The swamps are bordered by many tall-growing Cyperaceae, as Carex sand- 
wicensis, which forms stands 4 to 5 feet high, together with Cladium sp., probably 
new, a tall plant with long, scaly, creeping rhizomes, with stems often 10 feet 
high. In the swamp proper we find Carex montis Eeka, Rhynchospora 
glauca var. chinensis, Deschampsia australis, Selaginella deflexa, Schizaea ro- 
busta, Styphelia imbricata var. struthioloides, a creeper, a species of Wikstroe- 
mia, Suttonia sandwicensis ft var. denticulata, Vaccinium penduliflorum, etc. 

The summit of Kauai, Mt. Waialeale, was visited first by Wawra, the botanist 
of the Austrian exploring expedition, in the year 1871 ; and it is peculiar that 
no other botanist or botanical collector had cared to visit the mountain again. 

The writer ascended Waialeale in the year 1910 and again in 1911. The 
second time the ascent was very much facilitated through the trails which had 
been cut by the men of the U. S. Geological Survey. The vegetation of Waia- 
leale is extremely interesting, and several new species were found and described 
by the writer. The ridges leading to the summit have an entirely different plant 
formation, composed of peculiar species. One of the striking plants is Pelea 
Waialealae (Anonia or Alaniwai), which grows together with Suttonia lanceo- 
lata, a very distinct species, both being shrubs but occasionally becoming small 
trees. Of Compositae we find Dubautia laxa var. pedicellata Rock v. n., which 
is here a shrub 10 to 15 feet high, in company with the rutaceous Pelea orbicu- 
laris var. ? and Pelea sp. ? and Dubautia paleata. A few small species of La- 

76 



bordea are not uncommon on the mossy tree trunks. Here we also meet with 
Lobelia Kauaiensis and Lobelia macrostachys var. Kauaiensis with deep crim- 
son flowers. As we ascend, we enter the open plateau or bog with still a few 
shrubs, and even higher up in little depressions we find trees such as the 
newly-described Tetraplasandra }Yaialealae, the second species of Tetra- 
plasaudra that is to be found on this island. Cheirodendron platyphyllum 
is also found here as a small tree \vith sinuate-serrate leaves, while at 
lower elevation the leaves are entire. Among such shrubbery grows Lobelia ma- 
crostacJiys var. Kauaiensis, w r hile L. Kauaiensis with either a simple or com- 
pound candelabra-like spike, with cream-colored purplish-streaked flowers, pre- 
fers the open, flat swamp where the vegetation is stunted. Labordea Waialealae, 
a shrub, is peculiar to this locality, as well as Labordea fagraeoidea var. pumila, 
which is subherbaceous. Pittosporum Gayanum var. is here a shrub, differ- 
ing from the species in its being glabrous throughout; with it occurs a stunted 
form of Eurya sandwicensis var. with rather large fruits; and also a species of 
Wikstroemia. 

In the open bog proper, we meet with the already-described Cyperaceae and 
Gramineae, besides a species of Cyperus and Descliampsia australis var. pumila. 
Astelia Waialealae is scattered over the ground plentifully, but is, however, not 
peculiar to Kauai, as it has been met with by the writer in Kawela swamp on 
Molokai. 

A curious species of Dubautia, named D. Waialealae, grows at the summit 
proper. On the outskirts together with the other shrubs grows Lysimachia 
HiUcbrandii var. venosa, with rather long herbaceous branches. 

In the grassy tussocks we find again Viola Kauaiensis, but only very small 
plants; in Sphagnum moss the pretty Geranium hum-He var. Kauaiensis (Noliu- 
anu) occurs together with Plantago pachypkylla var. Kauaiensis, and Acaena 
exigna, as well as Sanicula sandwicensis var. ,3., with leaves much less incised;, 
this latter plant had not been recorded previously from Kauai. Wawra's Plan- 
tago pacliyplnjlla var. pusilla occurs only in one locality, called Kawakoo. Me- 
trosideros pumila is here a small glabrous creeper only a few inches in length. 
Another variety of Plantago pachyphylla, which is wholly glabrous, occurs at 
the summit, and is here named var. glabrifolia Rock v. n. Lycopodium venus- 
t ulum var. herpeticum is found trailing at the summit in company with Ste- 
nogyne purpurea var. Lobelia Kauaiensis is an exceedingly handsome plant and 
is quite common at the summit. It differs very materially from L. Gaudichaudii r 
so common on Puu Kukui, West Maui, and when seen in the field no botanist 
can help but see the specific distinction. 

Of interest may be the names of the various localities on the summit of Waia- 
leale. Immediately after leaving the ridge leading into the open plateau a large 
patch of bright-red dirt is discernable; the natives used to go to this place, 
which the}- called Kaluaalaea, for this dirt, which they used for paint. The first 
point or hill on the plateau is called Honunamanu ; where the rain gauge is 
situated the place is known as Manakauaalakai ; the highest point, on which the 

77 



copper plate of the U. S. Geological Survey is enclosed in cement, is Kapailoahiki. 
Where the Heiau is situated is Kawakoo, then comes a pool called Waialeale, and 
beyond it a hill overlooking Wailua, which is known as Waikini. 

THE SUMMIT BOG OF WEST MAUI, PUU KUKUI, ELEVATION 5788 FEET. 

Puu Kukui is a large, open, more or less flat plateau, composed of light-gray, 
heavy, loamy soil. The vegetation is stunted, with the exception of such as 
occurs in depressions or small gulches, and at the head of lao Valley, where 
trees belonging to the middle forest region abound. 

The whole of Puu Kukui is a second Waialeale of Kauai, though a number 
of plants are peculiar to the former. We find the same globose tussocks of Ore- 
obulus furcatus and the very interesting Carex montis Eeka, besides Grami- 
neae, such as Deschampsia australis forma longius aristata, Calamagrostis Hille- 
brandii Hack. (nov. nom.), and others, while the juncaceous Luzula hawaiiensis 
var. glabrata grows in their company. One of the most striking vegetative fea- 
tures is the great abundance of the very beautiful Lobelia Gaudichaudii. In 
certain parts this plant covers the ground, and in the month of August it is in- 
deed a beautiful sight. At about 5000 feet elevation these Lobelias are only 
about 3 to 4 feet high, while at the extreme eastern end of this interesting bog 
the plant is from 8 to 15 feet high and branches candelabra-like into usually 
five erect racemes, bearing from 40 to 80 flowers each, while the plants in the 
open bog have only one pyramidal raceme about 2 to 3 feet long. The flowers 
are much larger than those of L. Kauaiensis, found on Waialeale, and also hand- 
somer; they are cream-colored with a slight pinkish tinge, and are three inches 
long and an inch wide. Lobelia macrostachys is here absent, while represented 
on Waialeale, Kauai, by a new variety. The beautifully branching Lobelia 
GaudicJiaudii found on the brink of lao Valley is certainly distinct from the one 
described by DeCandolle in many particulars, especially in the very long lanceo- 
late acuminate bracts, and shall from now on be known as var. longibracteata 
Rock, var. nov. 

Next to the Lobelioideae found at the summit, the Compositae have three 
representatives. Of greatest interest is the very handsome Wilkesia Grayana, 
with its 5 to 8 feet tall stem, bearing a dense crown of verticillate leaves, out of 
whose center the inflorescence comes forth as a large foliaceous raceme of one 
and one-half to two feet in length, bearing yellow globose flower heads of about 
10 lines in diameter. There is only one other species known of this interesting 
genus, W. gymnoxiphium. It occurs in the dry districts of Kauai, especially on 
open wind-swept cliffs in company with Lobelia yuccoides; while W. Grayana 
grows in the open bog, which receives an enormous amount of rainfall. 

The second interesting genus is Argyroxiphium, which also belongs to the 
most ancient of Hawaiian Compositae, though of American affinity. These two 
genera are undoubtedly the oldest denizens of the Hawaiian Islands. The genus 

78 



Argyroxiphium with its two species, sandwicense and virescens, has hitherto 
been found only in the drier upper forest region in black volcanic ash at an 
altitude of from 8000 to 10,000 feet. At the summit of Puu Kukui is a small 
species of this genus growing in a veritable pool, but only in one locality. The 
plant was not in flower at the time of the writer's visit, but it can be said that 
when the plant is fully known it will undoubtedly represent a new variety or 
intermediate form between A. sandwicense and A. virescens. The leaves of the 
plants in question are neither silvery nor green, but are covered with a bluish, 
somewhat silvery or glauceous pubescence. 

Lagenophora mauiensis is very common in the turfy soil in company w r ith the 
creeping Geranium humile with pink flowers. Acaena exigua, which is very 
scarce on Waialeale, is here exceedingly common, together with Viola mauiensis. 
Remarkable to say, Drosera longifolia, so common on Kauai, is here absent. A 
small creeping Metrosideros is also present with Lycopodium venustulum var. 
and Styphelia imbricata var. struthioloides. 

The writer met with a single plant of Lycopodium Haleakalae resembling 
very much L. erubescens, but stouter and not reddish. Several species of lich- 
ens grow on the exposed gray loam, such as Cladonia, Stereocaulon and others 

At the extreme eastern end of the bog on the brink of lao Valley the tree 
grow,th is mainly Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii, Suttonia sp. ?, Pelea sp., Metro- 
sideros polymorpha, and the lobelioideous Clermontia grandiflora. All the trees 
are covered thickly with moss and hepaticae or Liverworts. The sw r amp of 
Mauna Eeke harbors the same vegetation as that of Puu Kukui with possibly one 
or two exceptions. 

THE UPPER FOREST REGION. 

The upper forest region extends from about 5500 feet elevation up to 11,500. 
Of tree growth we can practically say that four species form the main trees. 
The most predominant of these is the leguminous Sophora chrysophylla (Ma- 
mani), and, secondly, Myoporum sandwicense (Naio), and on the lower edge of 
the upper forest zone, or as on Mt. Haleakala at 7000 feet elevation, Acacia Koa 
(Koa), with Metrosideros polymorpha (Ohia lehua). These four species form 
the main tree-growth, while here and there we find the rubiaceous Coprosma 
montana at 9000 feet elevation and with it the arborescent Compositae Raillardia 
arborea up to 10,000 feet, while R. struthioloides can be found up to an elevation 
of 11,500 feet; the two latter, however, only on Mauna Kea (13,823 feet), Ha- 
waii. Raillardia Menziesii is found at an elevation of 6000 to 8000 feet, and 
on Mt. Haleakala is the largest species in the genus Raillardia, but is a shrub 
at the higher levels up to the summit. 

On Mauna Loa tree-growth ceases at a little above 8000 feet; the tree com- 
positae found on Mauna Kea and Haleakala are, however, absent on Mauna Loa. 
Santalum Haleakalae, a species of Iliahi or Sandal wood, is peculiar to Haleakala, 
Maui, and can be found at from 7000 to 8500 feet elevation. This same species 

79 



PLATE XXV. 




AEGYEOXIPHIUM SANDWICENSE var. MACROCEPHALUM (Ahinahina, Silversword) 
growing in the crater of Haleakala, Maui, elevation 7500 feet. 



was, however, observed by the writer on the lava fields of Auahi, southern slopes 
of Mt. Haleakala, at an elevation of 2000 feet. Naturally the species was not 
stunted but developed to a fine looking tree ; only a single tree was found at the 
lower level, while at 8000 feet it is not uncommon, especially at the very head 
of Waikamoi or Honomanu gulch. 

The Compositae form quite a large part of the vegetation of the upper forest 
zone and are most numerously represented on Haleakala. 

The mountains which possess an upper forest flora are, according to age, 
Haleakala (10,030 feet), Maui; Mauna Kea (13,873 feet), Hualalai (8273 feet), 
and Mauna Loa, the youngest, (13,675 feet), Hawaii. All four mountains are 
volcanoes, three of them extinct, while Mauna Loa becomes still periodically 
active. 

Haleakala is entirely different in formation from the other mountains ; it has 
a summit crater of huge dimensions having a circumference of nearly 23 miles, 
is 2000 feet deep, and is covered at the bottom with numerous cinder cones, of 
which the highest is 1030 feet. 

The crater has two outlets, one on the north side called Koolau gap, and an- 
other on the southern side called Kaupo gap. The former gap is, up to an ele- 
vation of 6000 feet, an impenetrable tropical jungle, while the latter is compara- 
tively jdry and covered with more or less scrub vegetation. The largest portion 
of the crater is bare of vegetation, being composed mainly of extensive aa 
(rough) lava flows and huge fields of black volcanic ash; it is in the latter that 
the most beautiful Argyroxiphium sandwicense var. macrocephalum (Ahinahina 
or Silversword) thrives best. They still occur in thousands in Haleakala crater, 
but are indeed very scarce on Mauna Kea, and more so on Mauna Loa and Hua- 
lalai. The steep slopes in the upper part of Kaupo gap are covered with this 
most beautiful plant (see Plate XXV), which flowers from July to October. 
Wild goats are doing great damage to it, as they devour it eagerly, and so also 
do cattle, the arch-enemy of the Hawaiian forests. In earlier days this interest- 
ing plant was also found plentifully on the slopes of the mountain, but it has 
now vanished since tourists began to ascend to the mountain summit. 

Raillardia platypliylla, a shrubby composite, is quite gregarious along dry 
streambeds, especially along the upper part of Waikamoi near Puunianiau crater, 
while R. Menziesii grows as a tree at 6000 feet elevation and becomes a common 
shrub at 9000 feet near the summit. Of great interest is the green sword-plant, 
Argyroxiphium virescens, which is peculiar to Haleakala and found together 
with the plants just mentioned. It usually grows on the edges of cliffs in com- 
pany with the silversword, and is especially common near the base of Puunianiau 
crater. It has been observed in the crater of Haleakala itself, but not on the ash 
fields, as its congener, but in Kaupo gap along dry streambeds between rocks, 
together with Lobelia liypolcuca var., Diibautia plantaginea var., Raillardia 
sp., etc. 

Vaccinium reticulatum (Olielo), with its delicious berries, covers the moun- 

81 



tain slope, with another species which has lately been described as V actinium 
Fauriei, a very distinct plant, with large, glaucous berries and small leaves ; it 
grows much taller than V. reticulatum, and its berries are better tasting than 
those of the latter. 

Rubiaceae are also not uncommon. We find again Coprosma ernodeoides 
(Kukainene), Coprosma montana, and C. menziesii, with Sanicula sandwicensis, 
Plantago pachyphylla, Fragaria clnlensis (the Chilean strawberry), and the iri- 
daceous Sisyrynchium acre, once employed in tattooing by the Hawaiians. 

Ranunculus Hawaiiensis (Makou), the Hawaiian buttercup, is not uncommon 
on Puunianiau crater, and exceedingly plentiful on Mauna Kea, especially above 
Waiki and the craters Kaluamakani, Moano, etc. Silene struthioloides is found 
in black cinder in the crater, as well as on the slopes. Metrosideros polymorpha 
var. /?. and $ are usually found in gulches, together with Suttonia sp., Dodonaea 
eriocarpa, Sopliora chrysophylla, and others. 

Special mention must be made of the wonderful development which the tem- 
perate genus Geranium has reached in these islands. Like the Violaceae, it has 
become arborescent and evolved into many species. The Hawaiian species of 
Geranium form a distinct section in the family, called Neuropliyllodes. All 
species have a peculiar type of leaf which varies in size, shape, and pubescence. 

Geranium tridens is the common shrubby form which can be seen mixed with 
Sophora chrysophylla; its leaves are covered with a bright-silvery pubescence, 
and are tridentate at the apex, whence the name. It is the most common species 
on Haleakala, while G. arboreum is scarcer. It is usually found in sheltered 
places near Puunianiau crater. The leaves are the largest of any of the Ha- 
waiian Geraniums, and are not silvery ; the flowers are a purplish-red ; the petals 
are unequal, giving it the appearance of a violet. The name arboreum would 
have fitted better to G. multiflorum var. canum, which is, indeed, a small tree, 
15 feet in height, with a trunk of about 10 inches in diameter, while the former 
is a large shrub with drooping, rambling branches. G. multiflorum var. canum 
is not uncommon in the crater, but is found especially in Kaupo Gap, where it 
grows on upheaved aa lava, or fissures, together with Artemisia australis. 
Geranium ovatifolium, also a shrub, is found on the north bank of Haleakala 
crater. 

Labiatae are not very conspicuous in this region, though a few species of 
Phyllostegia and Stenogyne are not uncommon. One St. microphylla the writer 
found entangling Santalum Haleakalae; the leaves are very small, measuring 
only about three lines in length; the flowers are very inconspicuous and green. 
The epacridaceous shrub Styphelia tameiameia (Pukeawe) is the most common, 
while St. imbricata, very common on Mauna Kea, is only found near the summit 
of Haleakala. T etramolopium humile and T. Chamissonis var. arbuscula, the 
Hawaiian daisies, occupy cracks between rocks and can also be found in black 
cinder. 

The most interesting discovery, however, made by the writer is a new species 

82 



of the large tribe Lobelioideae. It is a rather handsome tree, undoubtedly one 
of the oldest types of Lobelias, and has an almost antediluvian appearance. This 
striking plant, of which only three trees are now in existence, is a species of 
Clermontia, and is described in this volume under the name Clermontia Hale- 
akalotsis. It was found on the inner slopes of Puunianiau crater at the head of 
one of the numerous small gulches which find their origin in this crater basin. 
The trees were thickly surrounded by Rubus hawaiiensis and Sophora chryso- 
pliylla. It flowered during the month of October. If not protected from the 
cattle, which are very fond of the thick, fleshy leaves of this wonderful plant, it 
also will join the others of its race, as Cyanea arbor ea and Cyanea comata, which 
have vanished forever. 

Of Gramineae, or grasses, mention may be made of the following: Koeleria 
glomerata, and var. nov. rigida Hack., and the newly-described Argrostis Rockii 
Hack., which was discovered by the writer at an elevation of 9700 feet between 
rocks near the summit of the mountain. Hackel, who described the plant, says 
that it is an excellent species and is nearest related to A. varians, which, how- 
ever, is no xerophyte, as is A. Rockii. 

The vegetative formation of the upper forest zone on Mauna Kea and Mauna 
Loa has already been described in the chapter on Hawaii. Mention may be 
made, however, of the introduced, or rather naturalized, flora of this region. 
Veronica arvensis grows as a weed among rocks and on the pasture lands above 
6000 feet elevation with Sonchus oleraceus, which, by the way, was the last plant 
observed on Mauna Kea at an elevation of 12,000 feet, where it was prostrate 
with leaves and flow r ers closely pressed to the ground, with a long root-stock. 
Gnaphalium sandwicensium and G. luteo-album grow side by side in the black cin- 
der and between rocks. One of the most common plants is Senecio vulgaris, 
which can be observed up to an elevation of 10,000 feet and even higher ; Cheno- 
podium album is often found in its company. 

Since the introduction of grass seeds by the ranchmen to improve their pas- 
ture lands, many undesirable grasses and weeds have come with them. We find 
Poa annua on the slopes of Mauna Kea together with Cynodon dactylon, Bromus 
unioloides, and Eragrostis atropioides, which, however, is a native grass originally 
found on Haleakala, Maui. Also Hordeum murinum var. leporinum, Lolium 
multiflorum, a very tall grass, usually found in company with Malvastrum tri- 
cuspidatum, which for that part of the district forms a valuable fodder plant, 
owing to the absence of anything better. Bromus villosus occurs here and there 
in patches, while Poa pratensis is found scattered. 

The following Cyperaceae occur in this region: Carex macloviana on Moano 
hill, Carex sandwicensis scattered over the w r hole of Mauna Kea, and a new va- 
riety of the same about to be published by Rev. G. Kiikenthal. 

In conclusion, a few w r ords may here not be out of place, describing briefly 
the floral aspects of Lanai, Niihau and Kahoolawe. 

The Island of Lanai is the best forest-covered island of the three last men- 

83 



PLATE XXVI. 




STAND OF ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (Kukui) at the head of Mauna Lei gorge, Lanai. 



tioned. It has an altitude of about 3400 feet. Two main ridges run parallel the 
length of the island, and are called Lanai hale and Haalelepakai, the former being 
the highest. On the leeward side of these mountain ranges is a flat plateau con- 
sisting of about 2-4,000 acres, having an elevation of approximately 2000 feet; 
the southeastern end toward Manele is covered with the cactus Opuntia tuna 
(Panini) exclusively. This plateau must have been once upon a time covered 
with a xerophytic vegetation similar to that of the Kipuka Puaulu on Hawaii 
near the Volcano Kilauea. 

The main ridges of Lanai are covered with a similar vegetation to that of 
Molokai above Kamolo, but are not as wet as the latter, though here and there 
swampy spots can be found in which the newly-described var. lanaiensis of Viola 
Helena occurs. Peculiar to these ridges are the thymelaeaceous Wikstroemia ~bi- 
cornuta, the lobelioideous Cyanea Gibsonii, and the goodeniaceous Scaevola 
cylindrocarpa. The most common composite at the summit ridge is Dubautia 
laxa var. hirsuta. One of the rare and interesting compositae, Hesperomannia 
arborescens, of which a few trees were seen about ten years ago, has vanished 
forever. Xanthoxylum has several species present, and so has also the genus 
Pittosporum, \vhich on Lanai has the most varying species. That this particular 
genus is in these islands dependent on insects for fertilization is brought out by 
these numerous variations. It is difficult to arrange the classification of the va- 
rious species according to their capsules, as the writer had observed on Lanai not 
less than three capsules of different species on a single flower cluster. 

Araliaceae has several species here, especially the genus Tetraplasandra, of 
which the newly-described T. Lanaiensis is peculiar to Lanai; with it occurs 
Suttonia Lanaiensis and Sideroxylon spathulatum, the latter a small tree with 
cone-shaped yellow fruits. 

Very interesting is the vegetation in the valleys of Mahana, Koele, and Kai- 
holena, which is of a xerophytic character. Lobelioideae are here rather scarce, 
and, as already mentioned, the tribe has only one species peculiar to Lanai. 

The extreme western district of Lanai is covered with an interesting mixed 
or dry forest, mainly composed of Osmanthus sandwicensis, Sideroxylon spathu- 
latum, Nothocestrum sp., Chrysophyllum polynesicum, Suttonia sp., Plectronia 
odorata, Gardenia Brighami, Bobea Hookeri, and others. 

The land has been very much eroded and portions of this interesting wood- 
land are now buried beneath earth and sand dunes, only the tips of trees pro- 
truding through the earth. 

The windward side is exceedingly barren and only the xerophytic Pili grass, 
Andropogon contortus, grows between the rocks, together with Waltheria ameri- 
cana, Sida fallax, and, lower down, Gossypium tomentosum. The gulches of 
Mauna Lei and Xahoku are almost barren, the latter very much so. Mauna Lei 
is exceedingly interesting from a geological standpoint. Vegetation is very scarce 
and only few trees can be found, as Erytlirina monosperma (Wiliwili) and some 
of those already mentioned above. At the very head of this gorge, which near 

85 




'!' t 



*'*: m 



the entrance divides into two main valleys, the vegetation becomes more inter- 
esting, a few Compositae cling to the rocks, such as Artemisia, and to the writer's 
surprise, he found the interesting lobelioideous Brigltamia insignis growing on 
the vertical cliffs, even inaccessible to the multitude of goats inhabiting this 
region. 

On the bottom, at the very head of the gulch, are huge trees of Aleuntes mo- 
luccana (Kukui) (see Plate XXVI), the trunks of some of which are torn into 
shreds by huge boulders which are constantly coming down from the heights 
above, which, when loosened by the goats, bring with them avalanches of rocks 
to the depths below. Nahoku gulch is the narrowest and steepest, and is void of 
vegetation, but in the early days enough water came down in the now dried-up 
streambed for the natives to carry on the cultivation of taro. 

The Island of Kahoolawe is the most eroded of the whole group and the only 
native tree growth which remains is composed of perhaps a dozen Erythrina 
monosperma (Wiliwili). (See Plate XXVII.) The urticaceous Neraudia Ka- 
hoolawensis, the only plant thought to be peculiar to Kahoolawe, was found by 
the writer on the lava fields of Auahi on the southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, 
Maui. Most of the land on this island has no soil, all having been blown into the 
sea by the wind, after it had been robbed of its vegetation by cattle, sheep, and 
goats, with which the island was overstocked. The result is that there is nothing 
left but pure hard-pan, several feet thickness of soil having been blown away. 
Even now on a windy day the island is not visible, as it is enshrouded in a cloud 
of red dirt which, when the south wind prevails is carried across the isthmus of 
the Island of Maui, to be deposited on the already fertile sugar cane fields. 

The Island of Niihau is in a similar state, though is not as eroded as Kahoo- 
lawe. The native vegetation of this small island has, however, disappeared. 
Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis juliflora (Kiawe or Algaroba) have been planted 
on the lowlands. 

In this rather lengthy introduction, the writer has tried to give a more or 
less detailed description of the various interesting botanical regions of this island 
group. The present paper by no means claims to be the result of an ecological 
study, but a mere foundation for such work, w r hich undoubtedly will have to 
follow. The whole of the introduction is devoted to the floral aspects of this in- 
teresting island group, and is merely floristic work with here and there an at- 
tempt to explain some of the ecological features. 

The writer has had occasion, as Botanist of the Board of Agriculture and 
Forestry and of the College of Hawaii, to visit all the islands of the group, each 
several times at the various seasons during five years, making a thorough botanical 
survey of each island, some of the results of which are herewith published. 



XOTE: All plants mentioned in this introduction as new to science (trees excluded) are 
briefly described in the appendix. All new trees mentioned are described in their respective 
places according to the natural system of classification. 

87 



EMBRYOPHYTA ASIPHONO- 

GAMA 

CRYPTOGAMIA 

Plants not bearing true flowers that is, having no stamens nor ovules and 
never producing seeds containing an embryo. 

Pteridophyta 

FILICE:S (Ferns) 

Sporangia minute, placed on the margin or under-surface of the leaf or frond, 
rarely somewhat larger and arranged in spikes or panicles. Spores all of one 
kind. 



CYATHE:ACE:AE 

The Cyatheaceae are mainly tropical, and are distributed over the old and 
new world more or less evenly. The family is restricted to localities with a very 
moist and uniform climate. They are found rarely in areas with a precipitation 
of less than 100 cm. annually. Against temperature they are more or less inde- 
pendent, as they still thrive prolifically in regions where mild frosts occur, as, 
for example, in Tasmania. With the appearance of this family in the Stewart 
Island of New Zealand, it has reached the border land of the Polar region. 

CIBOTIUM Kaulf. 
Pinonia Gaud., Dicksoniae sp. autt, Hk., Bk. 

Sori globose at the apex of a vein, marginal, enclosed in a prominent coriaceous, 
deeply 2-valved involucre, the outer box-shaped valve proceeding from the margin of the 
segment, but being of different texture. Sporangia stipitate. Annulus with a stomium 
consisting of thin walled cells, which can easily be distinguished from those of the walls 
of the sporangium. Tree ferns with very large leaves, which are usually tripinnate, the 
last pinnae with linear oblong segments. 

The distribution of the six or eight existing species, which seem to be very 
closely related, is very remarkable. C. guatemalense and C. Wendlandi occur 
in Guatemala, as well as C. Schiedei in South Mexico and Guatemala, in culti- 
vation for a long time. C. Barometz occurs in the monsoon districts of East 
Asia; another subspecies (C. Cumingi) is endemic in the Philippine Islands, 
while three are peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands. 

89 



PLATE 28 



^r 

s. 4 ' - ' t " * 










CIBOTIUM MENZIESII Hook. 
Hapu lii or Heii. 

Showing part of frond with sporecases, and part of the stipe to left; reduced. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Stipes tuberculate, and clothed with long blackish-brown hairs C. Menziesii 

Stipes smooth and glabrous in the upper portion C. Chamissoi 

Cibotium Menziesii Hook. 

Hapu Hi or Heii. 

(Plates 28, 29.) 

CIBOTIUM MENZIESII Hook. Spec. Fil. I. (1846) 84, t. 29 c; Brack. Fil. U. S. E. E. 
(1854) 280; H. Mann. Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 212; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 546; Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. IX. (1897) 776; Diels in Engl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. I. 4, (1902) 121; Christens. Index Fil. (1906) 183; Eobinson in Bui. 
Torr. Bot. Cl. 39, (1912) 243. C. pruinatum Metten et Kuhn in Linnaea, 36, 
(1869) 150. Diksonia Menziesii Hook, et Bak. Syn. (1866) 49 et II ed. (1874) 
49; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII (1892) 356. 

Stipes green, stout, with a ventral and two lateral furrows, tuberculate and shaggy 
at the base with a straightish and long brownish yellow glossy pulu which changes higher 
up into stiff long blackish hair, and as such often covers the entire stipes; frond with 
stipes 18 to 36 dm or more long and 9 to 15 dm or more broad, pyramidal-oblong, coriace- 
ous, naked underneath or sometimes with minute furfuraceous dots; the rhachis asperous 
with scattering tubercles; pinnae with a stipe of 25 to 50 mm, oblong, 4.5 to 7.5 dm 
long, bearing 18 to 24 pairs of free pinnules besides the pinnatifid apex; most pinnules 
shortly stipitate, linear lanceolate, acute, cut halfway or more, often to the rhachis at 
the base, into oblong rounded or entire segments, which are separated by broad sinuses; 
veinlets very prominent, simple or forked; sori 8 to 14 on a lobe, also fringing the sinus. 
Invol. corneous, large, a little more than 1 mm to nearly 3 mm in width, the outer valve 
fornicate and large, the inner flat and narrower. 

Cibotium Menziesii or Hapu Hi of the natives is the most stately tree fern 
of the Hawaiian forests. Nowhere in the islands does this handsome fern reach 
such a wonderful development as on Hawaii in the forests of Puna, Hilo, and 
especially in the Kohala mountains. In the district of Paauhau, on the wind- 
ward slopes of Mauna Kea (13823 feet) the writer saw the biggest specimens. 

The fibrous trunks of these immense ferns have often a diameter of three 
feet and reach a height of about 24 feet or so, not including the almost erect 
fronds, which measure occasionally more than 12 feet, giving it a total height 
of sometimes 36 feet. Thanks to the hardiness of these ferns, they were and are 
able to withstand attacks from cattle, and even when uprooted by wild pigs, and 
laid prostrate, they continue to grow. 

Nothing is more beautiful than a stand of pure Ohio, forest with trees of 
about 80 feet in height, when growing together with this beautiful fern, which 
forms the dense undergrowth. Their bright-green fronds produce a pleasing 
contrast to the rather grayish Oliia lelnia trees, which contrast is enhanced when 
the latter are displaying their beautiful red blossoms. Such a forest, when not 
in the vicinity of human dwellings, is inhabited by native birds of all colors, red 
(the liwi), however, predominating. These birds feed on the pollen of the Ohia 
flowers, and can be seen in great numbers, often sitting on the bright-green 
fronds of the majestic tree ferns. 

The Hapu Hi occurs, however, on all the islands at an elevation of from 2000 
to 6000 feet and perhaps higher. Ordinarily the trunks are not taller than 8 
feet or so, but, as already mentioned, the fern reaches its best development on 

91 



PLATE 29. 




CIBOTIUM MENZIESII Hook. 
Hapu lii Fern. 

Growing in the forests of Kohala, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



Cyatheaceae. 

the Island of Hawaii. The wool or pulu of this fern, as well as of the two other 
species, was used in stuffing pillows, etc., and the trees were ruthlessly cut down 
by the pulu gatherers in order to get easily at the wool. Since the pulu is no 
longer in demand and as hardly any is being gathered at present, the ferns 
have begun to thrive again, and fine specimens can be met with in all the Ha- 
waiian rain forests. 

It might be of interest to remark that the Ohio, lelma (Metrosideros poly- 
morplia) is a close associate of the Hapu Hi. Both the fern and the tree are 
often found growing together to such an extent that it is difficult to distinguish 
the tree trunk from the trunk of the fern. 

The natives have an idea that the Hapu In fern is the mother of the Oliia 
lelma. 

The seeds of the Oliia lelma often germinate in the crowns of the tree ferns, 
sending down their roots along the very fibrous, often water-soaked trunk. In 
time the fern begins to die and the Oliia lelma is left standing with stilt roots 
of often 15 feet or more in height, after which the real trunk of the tree com- 
mences. Such examples are very numerous in the Hawaiian forests, and un- 
doubtedly led the Hawaiians to the belief that the tree fern is the parent of the 
Oliia lelma. 

Cibotium Chamissoi Kaulf. 

Hapu. 
(Plate 30.) 

CIBOTIUM CHAMISSOI Kaulf. Enum. Fil. (1824) 230, t. 1, f. 14; Spreng. syst. IV. (1827) 
127; Presl Tentam. Pterid. (1836) 69, t. 11, f. 8; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 
512; Hook. Spec. Fil. I. (1846) 83; Brack. Fil. U. S. E. E. (1854) 279; Moore 
Ind. Fil. (1857-62) 259; H. Mann. Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 212; Hbd. 
Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 547; Christ Farnkr. (1897) 316; Heller in Minnes. 
Bot. Stud. I. (1897) 776; Diels in Engl. et Prantl. Pflzfam. I. 
4 (1902) 121; Christens. Ind. Fil. (1906) 183; Robinson in Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Cl. 39 (1912) 243. C. pruinatum Mett. et Kuhn in Linnaea 36 (1869) 
150. Dicksonia Chamissoi Hook, et Bak. Synops. Fil. (1866) 50, et II. ed. (1874) 
50; Hook. Icon. Plant. XVII (1886) pi. 1603. C. Chamissoni Del Cast. 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII (1892) 356. Pinonia splendens Gaud. Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 
(1824) 507, idem Gen. p. 96, et Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826 title page, appeared 
1830) 370, t. 21. Dicksonia splendens Desv. Prodr. (1827) 318. Dicksonia, Smith 
ex E. Brown. 

Stipes 12 to 24 dm, brownish, smooth, clothed at the base with a pale fawn-colored 
lustreless matted or cobwebby pulu, furfuraceous or naked above; frond 12 to 24 dm long, 
chartaceous, the under face green or dull glaucous and generally covered with a pale cob- 
webby pubescence; lowest pinnae 4.5 to 7.5 dm long, w r ith 24 to 28 pairs of pinnules, these 
shortly stipitate, linear lanceolate 12.5 to 15 cm by 16 to 20 mm, acute, the lower ones 
cut to near the rhachis into oblong, straightish, rather obtuse segments with narrow 
sinuses, the basal segments entire and not deflected; veinlets little prominent; sori 8 to 14 
to a segment, the involucre small about 1 mm wide, chartaceous. 

The Hapu, which is of much smaller stature than its congener, the Hapu Hi 
or Heii. is one of the most common tree ferns of the group. It occasionally has 
a trunk of 16 or more feet in height, but never reaches the size of Cibotium 
Menziesii. Both are, however, found growing together and are most numerous 
on Hawaii, especially in the forests of Puna and back of Hilo. Near the Volcano 

House pure stands of these two species can be found, usually associated with 

* 

93 



PLATE 30. 










CIBOTIUM CHAMISSOI Kaulf. 
Hapu. 

Showing fruiting pinnae of frond and pnlu to right 



Cyatheaceae. 

Mctrosideros polymorpha or Ohio, lehua of the natives. Where these ferns grow 
with a typical Oliia lehua forest, the soil is usually not deeper than 2 or 3 feet 
at the most, below which we find the arched pahoehoe lava. 

The Ohia lehua is, however, not their only associate. In the older forests we 
find them growing together with Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii (Olapa), Ilex 
sandwicensis, Perrottetia sandwicensis (Olomea), and especially with Suttonia 
Lessertiana (Kolea). In the drier or semi-wet forest we find it again with Aca- 
cia Koa (Koa), while it can also be met with in a typical xerophytic forest, but 
then only at an elevation of 4000 feet or so, and not at all common. Only a few 
stragglers can be found scattered in these interesting dry regions. On Oahu the 
Ha pit is much smaller than on Hawaii and not quite as common, as it never 
forms pure stands or covers large tracts of land as is the case on Hawaii. 

On the Island of Kauai occurs a variety of this species named var. 3. by 
Hillebrand, which differs from the species in its smaller frond, which is dull 
glaucous underneath. 

The young stems of this species are farinaceous, and used to be eaten by the 
natives in times of scarcity. They are baked in hot ashes and are then quite 
palatable. 

The trunks of the Hapu, as well as of the Hapu Hi, are used for forest trails, 
where they make an excellent pathway through the otherwise hardly-penetrable 
swampy jungles. Portions of trunks, when used for fern trails, sprout usually 
at one end, forming quite a handsome hedge of young fronds. The pulu wool, 
which densely covers the base of the leafstalks, is glossy and of a fine, silky tex- 
ture, and was used together with that of the Hapu Hi for stuffing pillows and 
mattresses, and formed a regular article of export to California. According to 
Hillebrand, the hairs consist of a single series of flat, thin-walled cells which 
break readily at the joints. The cells are shorter in Cibotium Chamissoi. 

Cibotium glaucum is occasionally found with the other two species, but is 
rather rare. All three species are peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands, outside of 
which they have not been recorded. 



95 



EMBRYOPHYTA SIPHONOGAM A 

Angiospermae 
MONOCOTYLE;DONEAE 

Embryo with only one cotyledon. Stem consisting of bundles of vascular 
fibres. 

PANDANACEAE 

The family Pandanaceae is peculiar to the tropical regions of the old world, 
and is represented in America by the Cyclanthaceae. The Pandanaceae are 
especially rich in the Malayan region, in Micronesia, in Madagascar, Bourbon 
(Reunion) and Mauritius. Little is known about the distribution of this family 
in West Africa. The Pandanaceae are related to the Palms and Araceae. 

Here in Hawaii we have two species of two different genera which belong to 
this family. One is the well-known Halo, or Puhala (Pandanus odoratissimus) 
and the other, the climber Freycinetia Arnotti or le ie. Only the former is here 
considered, being the only arborescent representative of this family. 

PANDANUS L. 

Erect trees or shrubs with simple or variously branched stems, mostly with 
aerial roots. Never climbers. Inflorescence often of immense size. 

The genus Pandanus, with its many species, is so far little known, owing to 
its dioecious character. In Hawaii there is only one species represented, which 
is however not peculiar to the islands, as it extends from Hawaii to the Sey- 
chelle Islands and Arabia. 

In German New Guinea eleven species have been found so far, six of which 
are endemic. 

Pandanus odoratissimus L. has been sunk by Warburg and made a synonym 
of P. tectorius; which he records as occurring in "Hawai." On the same page 
he creates a variety y. sandvicensis from the Sandwich Islands. Prof. War- 
burg evidently regards Hawai and the Sandwich Islands as two different 
groups, and it is possible that his variety came from the higher levels, whence, 
of course, it would differ somewhat from the tree found on the shores, where 
they are exposed to the salt air; while the higher altitude (1800 feet), larger 
precipitation, wind, etc., would undoubtedly cause some differentiation, which 
would not, however, warrant the creation of a new variety. On the strength of 
this, the name Pandanus odoratissimus is here retained. The genus consists of 
about 156 species. 

96 



Pandanaceae. 

Pandanus odoratissimus L. 

Hala, Puliala, Lauhala, or Screw-pine. 

(Plate 31.) 

PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS L. f. Suppl. (1781) 424; Forst. PI. escul. (1786) 38, et 
Prodr. (1786) no. 368; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 738; Guillem., Zeph. Tait. 
(1837) No. 136; Jardin, Hist. Nat. lies Marqu., (1858) 27; Pancher in Cuzent, 
Tahiti (1860) 241; Nadeaud, Enum. (1873) 286; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 
453; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1892) 324, et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 
232. Pandanus verus Eumph. Herb. amb. IV. (1744) 140 t. 74; H. Mann Proc. 
Am. Acad. VII (1867) 204; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1873) 281; Wawra in Flora (1875) 
245. Pandanus tectorius Sol. Prin. Fl. Ins. Pacif. Ined. 350; Parkins Draw. 
Tahiti PI. 113 (ined.); Warburg, Pflzreich. IV. 9 (1900) 46, fig. 13 F. et var. 
sandvicensis Warburg 1. c. p. 48. 

Leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, abruptly narrowing toward the apex into 
a long acumen (point); prickly at the margins and keeled midrib, coriaceous; spadix of 
male flowers compound pendulous, spikes sessile, supported by very odoriferous spathes; 
stamens racemosely fasciculated, the filaments shorter than the column, anthers linear, 
long mucronate; syncarpium surrounded by 3 sets of white imbricate leaf -like bracts, 
erect, globose, of the size of a child 's head when mature, about 50 to 80 drupes in a 
syncarpium, reddish when mature, each about 4 to 10 cm long, 2 to 6 cm broad, angular, 
composed of 5 to 12 carpels, the flat top divided by shallow grooves into as many spaces 
as there are carpels; the sessile stigmas at first oblique but finally apical, uniform. 

The Puliala or Hala is a small tree reaching the height of 15 to 20 feet. The 
trunk is short and branches in a dichotomous manner, having many aerial roots 
above the base and also from the branches. The bark is whitish and covered 
with prickly lenticels. In the female tree the outer cortex is exceedingly hard, 
while the inner pith is very fibrous and soft. In the male mature tree, however, 
the trunk is more or less solid throughout. The male flowers, which are called 
by the natives Hinano Hala, are very fragrant, and are pendulous from the cen- 
ter of the leaf- whorls; the spadix of the female flowers is solitary, globose, and 
reaches the size of a child's head when mature, and is orange-colored to red. 
The leaves, which are prickly at the margins, are arranged like a corkscrew, 
from which the tree derives its name. 

The Puhala is most common on the windward sides of all the islands, inhabit- 
ing the lowlands from sea-level up to 2000 feet. It is most common on the coast 
of Puna, Hawaii, and also on the northern slope of Haleakala, Maui, where, on 
the flat plateau above the cliffs between Keanae, Nahiku and Hana, it forms a 
thick forest exclusive of everything else. It is the landmark of the lower levels, 
and is often found with the Kukui and the Koa on Oahu. 

Many, indeed, are the uses of the Puliala. From the leaves handsome mats 
are made, while the wood of male trees, which is of exquisite beauty and exceed- 
ingly hard, was employed for many purposes. 

The orange-colored seeds are strung into leis together with the fragrant 
leaves of the Maile (Gynopogon oliviformis Gaud.) and worn by men and 
women alike. The seeds, after having become dry, were used as brushes, and 
with the fibrous end the various dyes were applied onto their tapa or cloth. In 

* 

97 



PLATE 31. 




PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS L. 

Puhala. 
A Pandanus forest at the lower zone on East Maui. 



Pandanaceae. 

Mauritius, where the tree is plentiful, the fiber derived from the leaves is used 
for making sacks for coffee, sugar and grain; the rqots are also fibrous and are 
used by basket makers as binding material. An oil is obtained by distilling the 
fragrant bracts of the male flowers and is called Keora in India. 

The natives of Burma make matting sails, by sewing together the leaves of 
the Hala; the very fragrant male flowers are used as hair decorations. The 
etheric oil expressed from the flowers is used as a stimulant, and is also applied 
as a remedy for headaches and rheumatism. The seeds are used in India as 
spools for twine. 

The wood of the female trees is often used, after the removal of the fibrous 
pith, as water pipes on the richly-wooded volcanic islands of South Polynesia. 
The native name in Tahiti is Fara, in Viti or Fiji Balawa and Vadra. 

The Puhala or Lauhala is distributed from the Seychelle Islands to Arabia, 
all over the South Sea Islands, to Guam and India. It is called Aggag in Guam, 
Pandan or Sabot an in the Philippines, and Fala or Laufala in Samoa. 

In India, where the tree is cultivated, female trees are a rare occurrence, 
while male trees are common ; this is just the reverse in the Hawaiian Islands. 

PALMAE 

The lamily Palmae is characteristic of the tropics. It is distributed over the 
old as well as the new world, and finds its northern boundary in the south of 
Spain, South Italy and Greece to the southern part of Asia Minor, and from 
there to the Himalayas, South China and to the most southern part of Japan. 
In the new world it is distributed from Southern California to Arizona and 
Mexico. The southern boundary of the Palms of the old world describes a 
circle through the arid interior of Africa to Madagascar, Australia, the South 
Island of New Zealand and through the Pacific Islands, including Hawaii. In 
equatorial Africa the family is poorer in species, but becomes richer in the 
West Indies, Central and South Brazil. 

This order consists of about 1000 species. Of interest, so far as Hawaii is 
concerned, is the Pacific genus Pritchardia, which is represented in the Ha- 
waiian Islands by ten species. Cocos nucifera, the Niu of the natives or coconut 
of the foreigner, is, of course, also present, but is too common to be described 
or otherwise mentioned. 

The most interesting species are the native Pritchardias or Loulu Palms, all 
of w r hich are endemic and found only at an elevation of about 2000-3000 feet, in 
the wet or rain forest zone, though occasionally Pr. Gaudichaudii occurs near 
the beach and often at 1000 feet elevation. 

PRITCHARDIA Seem, et H. Wendl. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, singly on the branches of the panicle; stamens G, connate 
at the base into a cup; ovary three-lobed with a single style, the latter tri-sulcate with 
3 minute stigmas. Drupe dryish, with a single nut or coccus, the pericarp thin fibrous, 
the endocarp crustaceous. Seeds with uniform albumen, and embryo at the base. Tall 
trees with terminal, fan-shaped palmatisect leaves, and unarmed petioles. 

99 



Palmae. 

Here in Hawaii only 2 species of Pritchardia were formerly known to exist, 
namely: Pr. Gaudichaudii and Pr. Martii. 0. Beccari, the world's authority 
on Palms, described three species since the publication of Hillebrand's Flora, 
based on the latter 's herbarium material. 

In the month of February, 1909, the writer discovered an interesting species, 
with very small olive-shaped, black, shining fruits, which was named by Beccari 
and published in Webbia Vol. III. 137 as Pr. minor. Since then the writer has 
carried on extensive explorations on all the Islands of the group under the 
auspices of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry, as well as under the College 
of Hawaii, with the result of bringing to light new plants of many families, 
among which the Palmae were represented by four new species, as follows, the 
first discovered by G. P. Wilder : Pr. eriopkora Becc., from Halemanu, Kauai ; 
Pr. arecina Becc., from Honomanu, Maui; Pr. Rockiana Becc., from the Puna- 
luu Mts., Oahu; and Pr. eriostacliia, from the slopes of Manna Loa, Hawaii. 
This brings the species of Hawaiian Pritchardia up to ten. As 0. Beccari re- 
marks in a letter to the writer, he believes that other species of Pritchardia yet 
remain to be discovered in these Islands, to which the writer cannot but agree. 

The writer has held back the manuscript on the Palms, as he had hoped to 
receive Beccari 's publication of the above-mentioned new species in Webbia 
Vol. IV, as was promised by him. In fact, the writer cabled to Beccari in 
Florence, Italy, for prompt despatch of the publication, but no answer has been 
received. It is, however, hoped that the publication has been issued before this 
book appears off the press. 

In order to have this book on the native trees as complete as possible, it was 
thought advisable to include all the species of palms so far known to be 
natives of Hawaii, and brief descriptions are given of the new ones by the 
writer, giving 0. Beccari credit as the author of the new species. 

In regard to the usefulness of the Loulu palms, it may be stated that excel- 
lent hats are made from the young fronds by the natives. This, however, has 
caused much havoc ; the present generation, being more or less afflicted with the 
hookworm, finds it easier to cut the palms down rather than climb them for 
the single young frond necessary for a hat. The Japanese have imitated the 
natives, and consequently many beautiful trees are being destroyed. 

The genus Pritchardia, which consists of about 14 species, is represented in 
Hawaii by 10 species. Of the remaining four, two belong to Fiji (Pr. pacifica. 
also cultivated in Honolulu, and Pr. Thurstonii) and two to the Dangerous Ar- 
chipelago, on the Island of Pomotu. 

Pritchardia Gaudichaudii H. Wendl. 
Loulu. 

PRITCHARDIA GAUDICHAUDII H. Wendl. in Bonpl. X (1862) 190; Seem. Fl. Vit. 
(1868) 274; H. Mann in Journ. of Bot. VII. (1869) 177; O. Beccari in Ma- 
lesia III. (1889) 295. tab. XXXVIII. fig. 11-13. P. Martii (non H. Wendl.) Hillebr. 
Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 450 (pro max. parte). Livistona (?) Gaudichaudii Martins 

100 



Palmae. 

Hist. Nat. Palm. III. (1836-50) 242 et 319. Washingtonia Gaudichaudii O. 
Ktze. Eev. Gen. PL II. (1891) 737. Eupritchardia Gaudichaudii 0. Ktze. Eev. 
Gen. PI. III. 2. (1898) 323. 

Canclex of medium height 1.5 to 2 m; 30 cm in diameter; young fronds squamose under- 
neath, small, narrow lanceolate, attenuate on both ends, with scattered silvery pubescence, 
with about 20 or more segments connate to the middle; spadices about 1 m, spathes with 
a scattered glaucous scaliness, sheathed, panicles rather short, erect; branchlets sinuous, 
glabrous; flowers alternately distichous, calyx tubular-eampanulate, sharply 3-dentate, out- 
side conspicuously striate-nervate; fruits large spherical, 4 cm and more in diameter, the 
very minute subsymmetrically apiculate style deciduous from the carpels, pericarp fibrous- 
grumose, 3 to 4 mm thick, endocarp osseous, 1 mm; seeds globose, embryo subbasal. 

This species was discovered by Gaudichaud, probably on Oahu. The above 
description is a translation of Beccari's Latin description as published in Ma- 
lesia, and is based on the original material. He says, "For the description of 
the floriferous spadix Hillebrand's specimens served me, and as I have said, re- 
ferred Pr. Martii of Hillebrand to Pr. Gaudichaudii. The fruits which I at- 
tribute to Pr. Gaudichaudii and are here described were communicated to me 
from Kew, and were collected by Stephen Spencer in the year 1884 on the small 
island off Molokai (a small rock supposedly cast off from the face of Waikolu 
cliff, Molokai, where also trees of Hillebrand's second species grow, by him re- 
ferred to Pr. Martii)." 

He then describes in detail specimens in the various Herbaria, as fronds to 
be found in the Herbarium Webb at Florence, etc. Suffice it to say, the writer, 
according to Beccari, to whom all the palm material was submitted, has not as 
yet collected Pr. Gaudichaudii in a wild state, though specimens are cultivated 
in Honolulu. 

Pritchardia Martii H. \Yendl. 
Loulu. 

PRITCHARDIA MARTII H. Wendl. in Bonplandia X. (1862) 199; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1868) 
274; H. Mann in Journ. of Bot. VII. (1869) 177; Hlbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 451 
(tantum quoad Spec. Lydg. e Xiu?). O. Beccari in Malesia III. (1889) 297 tab. 
XXXVIII. fig. 14, 15. Livistona (?) Martii Gaud. Bot. A T oy. Bon. (1844-52) t. 
58-59; Mart. Nat. Palm. III. (1836-50) 242 et 319. Washingtonia Martii O. Ktze. 
Rev. Gen. PI. III. 2. (1898) 323. 

Trunk of medium height. Petioles unarmed, ligule rotundate, leaf pluri-radiate, su- 
borbicular, with 40 segments connate not quite to the middle, coriaceous, intermediate 
threads to 1/3 bifid, densely covered underneath with a griseous-furfuraceous tomentum; 
fruit elliptical, the albumen in the ventral part not ruminate, testa only thickened; fruit 
of the size of an ordinary plum with the residuous stigmas at the acute vertex, glabrous; 
fruit-flesh about 4 mm thick; seeds globose-elliptical, testa dusky, shining, thicker in the 
part in which the embryo is imbedded; embryo subbasal, the small wart produced, conical, 
2 mm long. 

Gaudichaud has not indicated the precise location where he collected this 
species, but it is believed to have come from Oahu. Beccari says that he him- 
self has correctly referred to Pr. Martii the specimens often cited by Lydgate; 
this species can be found growing at Cape Niu. He continues, "Pritchardia 
Martii is in all probability very close to Pr. Gaudichaudii, but can be distin- 
guished from the latter above all in the elliptical fruits and not globose ones, 

101 



PLATE 32. 




PRITCHARDIA LANIGERA Bece. 

Loulu Palm. 
Growing in the mountains of Kohala, Hawaii; elevation 3000 feet. 



Palmae. 

in the larger dimension of all parts, in the calyx which is more distinctly cam- 
pauulate, and in the style which surpasses the urceolate androphore. The 
flowers are a little larger, very attenuate at the base and broader at the mouth, 
striate-nervose. ' ' 

The writer has never collected the typical Pr. Martii, which undoubtedly occurs 
on Oahu. In the Punalim Mts., Oahu, quite a number of native palms occur, 
some of which may have to be referred to this species. 

Pritchardia lanigera Becc. 

Loulu. 
(Plate 32.) 

PEITCHAKDIA LANIGERA Becc. in Malesia III. (1889) 298. tab. XXXVIII. fig. 1-3. 
Pr. Gaudichaudii (non H. Wendl.) Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 4oO ex pane. Wash- 
ingtonia lanigera O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL II. (1891) 737. Eupritchardia lanigera 
O. Ktze. Kev. PL III. 2. (1898) 323. 

Spadix long pedunculate, spathes 7 to 8, broadly lanceolate-oblong with auriculate, 
densely silvery-woolly clasping sheath, rhachys lanate, panicles short compact, ovate-thyr- 
soideous (12 to 15 cm long) branchlets densely woolly to pilose, erect-spreading, short; 
flowers somewhat large, calyx ovate, urceolate, rounded at the base, not striate outside, 
apex crowned by 3 rather short ciliate teeth; corolla-lobes not striate, coriaceous; the 
urceolate androphore as long as the calyx, filaments subulate, erect after the expansion of 
the flower; fruits oblong (rather large?). 

This species occurs on the Island of Hawaii and was collected first by Mr. J. 
Lydgate. It was again collected in the type locality by the writer in the Kohala 
Mountains above Awini at an elevation of 3000 feet in the dense tropical rain 
forest. It was in flower only, so that the mature fruits remain still undescribed. 

Beccari says: "A very distinct species, and uncomprehensible how Hille- 
brand could confuse it with Pr. Gaudichaudii." He states that fruits (as de- 
scribed above) were attached to the sheet in a separate envelope; he, however, 
believes for some reason that they do not belong to Pr. lanigera, and it is therefore 
wise to restrict the specific distinction to the floriferous spadix. Specimens of 
this species, together with other palm material, were forward to O. Beccari, who 
pronounced Xo. 8820 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium the typical Pritchardia 
lanigera. 

Pritchardia Hillebrandi Becc. 
Loulu. 

PRITCHARDIA HILLEBRANDI Becc. in Malesia III. (1889) 292 tab. XXXVIII fig. 

4-10. Pr. Gaudichaudii (non H. Wendl.) Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 450 (excl. 

specim. e Kohala ridge et e Bird Island). Washingtonia Hillebrandi O. Ktze. Rev. 

Gen. PL II. (1891) 737. Eupritchardia Hillebrandi O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. P. III. 2. 

(1898) 323. 

Caudex 6 to 7 m high, 30 cm in diameter; petiole 60 to 90 cm long, limb suborbicular 
1 m to 1.3 m in diameter, woolly-furfuraceous underneath to one-third divided into 60 acute 
bifid segments; spadices 50 to 60 cm long; panicle glabrous, diffuse, thyrsoid-ovate, inferior 
branches simple or divided into 7 to 8 furcate branchlets, superior ones simple; flowers 
oblong, apiculate; calyx cylindrical tubular or subcampanulately-dilated at the apex, trun- 
cate at the base, not striate-nervose outside, the urceolate androphore shortly exserted, fila- 
ments erect or spreading; fruits globose-ovate, symmetrical, 20 to 22 mm long, 17 to 18 
mm wide, seeds globose, 11 to 12 mm in diameter. (Descript. ex Becc.) 

103 



Palmae. 

Beccari in his notes following the description says* : "According to Hille- 
brand this palm seems to appear to grow spontaneously in the Hawaiian Islands 
upon cliffs of the northern coast of Molokai, but is also frequently cultivated 
on the other islands. (Native name Loulu lelo.) " 

He continues as follows : "I have not seen fronds which could be referred 
with certainty to this species. Therefore their characters, as well as relative 
indications of the trunk, I have taken from Hillebrand's description. 

"The spadices examined by me measure all together 55 cm, of which 23 cm 
fall to the peduncle, but of this, probably there is a small portion missing; 
the one at hand is slightly compressed and fugaciously pubescent. The panicle 
is rather diffuse, as a whole ovate thyrsoid, a little unlaterally incurved. Of 
the spathes there ought to be five (Hillebr.), but of the mentioned specimen the 
first portion of the peduncular part is missing." 

This species was not collected by the writer, but numerous palms were ob- 
served growing on the cliffs of Wailau, Molokai, near the sea, which probably 
belong to this species. 

Pritchardia remota Becc. 
Loulu. 

PRITCHARDIA REMOTA Becc. in Malesia III. (1889) 294. Pr. Gaudichaudii (non H. 
Wendl). Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 450 (partim). Washingtonia remota O. Ktze. 
Kev. Gen. PI. II. (1891) 737. Eupritchardia remota O. Ktze. Eev. Gen. PI. III. 2. 
(1898) 323. 

Spadix more ample than in Pr. Gaudichaudii, inferior branches divided into numerous 
simple subspirally disposed sinuous branchlets, calyx sharply 3-dentate. 

Hillebrand writes (p. 451) that this palm covers a part of Bird Island, a small 
volcanic rock 400 miles N. E. of Kauai, and also writes that seeds were brought 
to Honolulu in the year 1858 by the late Dr. Rooke, and that the palm is supposed 
to grow in the Palace court. 

Beccari says that the above description was drawn from a floriferous spadix 
sent to Kew by Hillebrand. 

This palm is not known to the writer, but on Laysan Island Prof. Bryan saw 
a single palm with a short trunk which is probably Beccari 's Pr. remota. 

Pritchardia minor Becc. 

Loulu. 
PRITCHARDIA MINOR Beccari Webbia III. (1910) 137. 

Under the above name, O. Beccari published a species of Pritchardia which 
was collected by the writer back of Halemanu in the swampy forest near Alakai 
swamp. Only mature fruits were collected by the writer, as the palm was 
then not in flower and only a single panicle with old fruits had remained on 
the tree. The seeds were taken to Honolulu and were sent to Dr. Francesci of 



Translated from the original. 



Palmae. 

Santa Barbara, California, by the Government Nurseryman of the Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry, without the knowledge of the writer. Dr. Francesci 
forwarded the seeds to 0. Beccari, on which the above species was based; from 
where and whom Beccari received the description of flowers, leaves, etc., is a 
mystery, as no one but the writer had ever collected that species and only the 
seeds at that. The description as given in Webbia III, pi. 137, is therefore 
apocryphal and entirely unreliable. 

Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder, while on an excursion to Halemanu, Kauai, was re- 
quested by the writer again to collect Pr. minor, as flowers, leaves, etc., were 
wanted. On May llth Mr. Wilder sent a box of specimens of a palm, which 
was, however, not the desired Pr. minor, but a new species named since by Beccari 
Pr. eriophora sp. nov. The Pr. minor was again collected by the writer on 
Kauai in the forests of Kaholuamano in October, 1911, differing, however, some- 
what from the one found at Halemanu. The palm from the latter place has a 
slender stem and is quite tall, 20-30 feet in height, with a trunk of about 10 cm 
in diameter ; the leaves are small and pubescent or woolly underneath ; the fruits 
are of the size of a small, black, ripe olive, and are covered with a black glossy 
pericarp. The specimens from Kaholuamano agree well with the writer's notes 
of the palm from Halemanu, with the exception of its general appearance; the 
trunk is shorter and thicker and the whole palm has not the slender aspect of that 
" from Halemanu. No type exists of Pr. minor, except the seeds now in Beccari 's 
possession. 

Pritchardia eriophora Becc. 
Loulu. 

PRITCHARDIA ERIOPHORA Becc. in Webbia IV. p. ? 

A tall slender palm 12 m or more high with a slender trunk; leaves small on short 
petioles which are densely covered with a matted light brown wool; spadices short; panicles 
short, the branches almost hidden by the thick matted wool which unites the branchlets 
almost into a compact mass as if covered with cotton; fruits very small, 12 to 15 mm long, 
8 to 10 mm wide, black, shining. 

This species was discovered by Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder in the forest-swamps of 
Halemanu, Kauai, and specimens were sent to the writer by him in May, 1911. 
It is an exceedingly interesting species and quite unique among Hawaiian Prit- 
chardias. It is, however, close to Pr. minor, from the same island. None of the 
palms so far found on Kauai have as large fruits as those found on the other 
islands of the Hawaiian group, another incident showing the great difference of 
species on Kauai from those of the geologically younger islands. The co-type 
is no. 8846 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Pritchardia Rockiana Becc. 

Loulu. 
PRITCHARDIA ROCKIANA Becc. in Webbia IV. p. 1 

A small tree 5 m high, trunk 3 dm in diameter, and of a gray color; leaves large, 
glabrous above but furfuraceous and lighter colored underneath; panicle open and spread- 
ing, freely branching, subglabrous; fruits large, obovate. 

105 



PLATE 33. 




PRITCHARDIA ERIOSTACHIA Becc. 

Loulu Palm. 
Showing flowering and fruiting spadices, and parts of leaf; reduced. 



Palmae. 

Specimens of this species were collected by the writer in the Punaluu Mts., 
Oahu, in August, 1911, and were sent to 0. Beccari, together with other speci- 
mens of Pritchardia from various islands of the Hawaiian group, all of which 
proved to be new, including the species in question. The co-type is no. 8822 in 
the College of Hawaii Herbarium. It grows in the rain forests of the Koolau 
range, Punaluu, at an elevation of 2500 feet. All four species are here only 
very briefly described: for complete descriptions see Webbia Vol. IV. 

Pritchardia eriostachia Becc. 

Loulu. 
(Plate 33.) 

PRITCHARDIA ERIOSTACHIA Becc. in Webbia IV. p. ? 

A small tree 6 to 7 in high, with a gray smooth trunk of 15 to 20 cm in diameter, 
petioles of leaves 6.5 to 10 dm long, spadices over 1 m long, covered, as are the panicles 
and spathes, with a dense salmon-colored wool; panicles very small, few branched; fruits 
elliptical-obovate, about 4 cm long. 

This exceedingly interesting species was also discovered by the writer. It 
occurs on the southern slopes of the active volcano Mauna Loa on Hawaii, in 
the dense rain forests of Naalehu, district of Kau, at an elevation of 3000 feet. 

Pritchardia arecina Becc. 

Loulu. 

PRITCHARDIA ARECINA Becc. in Webbia IV. p. ? 

A tall palm 10 m or more high, with a trunk of about 25 cm in diameter, bark some- 
what longitudinally furrowed; leaves very large on long stout broad woolly petioles; 
spadices over 1 m long, woolly, panicle short, few-branched, furfuraceous; fruits large, 
ovate or obovate, 5 cm or more long. 

Only two clumps of this species, which was discovered by the writer, were 
found on the northern slopes of Mt. Haleakala in the dense swampy forest above 
Honomanu gorge, at an elevation of 3000 feet. One single tall specimen was 
also observed above Nahiku on the same mountain at 4000 feet elevation along a 
stream bed. It is one of the largest species next to Pr. lanigera, of the Kohala 
Mts., Hawaii. Co-type in the College of Hawaii Herbarium no. 8821. 



107 



PLATE 34. 




DRACAENA AUEEA Mann. 

Halapepe. 
A flowering branch, much reduced. 



LIL1ACEAE. 

The family Liliaceae consists of about 2450 species, and is distributed all over 
the tropics of both the old and new world and also in the temperate zone. 

Hawaii is extremely poor in Liliaceae, as only 5 genera with 8 species can be 
found. Of interest here is the arborescent genus Dracaena, which is represented 
in these islands by a single species. 

DRACAENA Vandelli. 

Perianth whitish or golden. Ovules ascending, single in each cell of the ovary. 
Stigma entire, or scarcely divided, style filiform. Berry 3 to 1 seeded, with large globose 
seeds which are entire, whitish or black to brown. Trees or shrubs without stolons. 
Leaves linear lanceolate. Inflorescence a terminal foliaceous panicle. 

The genus Dracaena consists of about 50 species, distributed over the warmer 
regions of the old world. Only one species, Dracaena aurea (Halapepe} is found 
in these islands, outside of which it has not been recorded. In fact, Dracaena 
aurea is the only representative of this genus in Polynesia. 

Dracaena aurea H. Mann. 

(Plates 34, 35, 36.) 

Halapepe. 

DRACAENA AUREA H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 207; Wawra in Flora (1875) 

244; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 443; Del. Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII (1892) 

318; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 806. Draco aurea O. Ktze. Eev. Gen. PL II (1891) 
710. 

Leaves sessile, linear ensiform, with entire margins, acuminate at the apex, broad 
at the base, without midrib; panicles terminal, recurved, pendulous, about 6 dm long, 
foliose bracteate, flowers single or 2 or 3 together on slender pedicels; perianth tubular, 
golden yellow, divided to one-third into linear-lanceolate erect lobes; stamens inserted at 
the base of the lobes and of the same length as the latter; style shortly exserted; berry 
bright red globose, brownish when dry, 8 to 16 mm in diameter; seed generally single, 
globose. 

The Halapepe reaches a height of 25 to 35 feet or even more in certain locali- 
ties, and has a straight trunk of 1 to 3 feet in diameter,and is freely branching. 
The branches, Avhich are densely ridged with leaf -scars, are erect and stiff, bear- 
ing at their ends a whorl of long linear sword-shaped leaves. 

The Halapepe is a xerophyte; that is, a dry district loving tree or plant. It 
is especially common on the aa (rough) lava fields on all the islands of the 
group, and is usually to be found at an elevation of from 1000 to 2000 feet. 
The golden yellow flowers, which are arranged in long drooping terminal pani- 
cles, appear in the early spring in the drier localities, while it often flowers 
during the summer months in districts with more rainfall. 

The Halapepe is very common in North and South Kona, Hawaii, as well as 
in Kan, in the district Hilea. On the Kula slopes of Maui there once existed a 
forest of this tree, the remnants of which can still be seen. While the tree is 
very common on the other islands, it is rather scarce on Oahu, and not quite as 
plentiful on Molokai as on Kauai, where it forms almost pure stands at the 
bottom of the cliffs below Kaholuamano, near Waimea. 

109 



PLATE 35. 




DRACAENA AUREA Mann. 

Halapepe. 
A fruiting branch; reduced. 



PLATE 36. 




DRACAENA AUREA Mann. 

Halapepe Tree. 
Growing on the lava fields of Kapua, South Kona, Hawaii; elevation 2000 feet. 



Liliaceae. 

On the lava fields of Auahi, on the southern slope of Haleakala, the tree is 
most numerous, but differs in many regards from the specimens found in the 
forest of Makawao on the same mountain. The leaves of the Auahi specimens 
are much smaller and more graceful. 

The wood of the Halapepe is white, with reddish streaks, and is extremely 
soft. On account of its softness it was used by the natives for carving their 
idols. Certain gods, however, Avere carved, each from a particular wood, like 
the goddess Laka, who was represented on the altar by a large block of wood of 
the Lama (Maba sandwicensis) tree. 

The branches of the Halapepe were used by the natives in decorating the 
kuahu or altar of the goddess Laka, which was erected in the halau or hall in 
which the hula dances were performed, Laka having been the patron of the 
sacred Hula. 

Much of interest in regard to the decoration of the Halau and Kuahu can be 
found in Dr. N. B. Emerson's book, "Unwritten Literature of Hawaii." 



112 



DICOTYLEDONEAE. 
ULMACrLAE. 

The family Ulmaceae is at present to be found nearly everywhere in the 
tropical and extra tropical regions, though they are only sparingly represented in 
the western part of North America, and are entirely absent in the prairie re- 
gions as well as in the Asiatic and African deserts, and also in South and West 
Australia. As far as Hawaii is concerned, the genus Trema is alone of interest. 
The family consists of 13 genera, with about 117 species. 

TREMA Lour. 
(Sponia CommJ 

Perigone of the male flowers 5-, rarely 4-parted, as many stamens as segments. Ovary 
sessile, with permanent styles. Drupe small ovoid or subglobose. crowned by the styles, 
and enclosed in the perigone. Seeds with a fleshy albumen. Embryo curved or spiral 
with narrow cotyledons. Trees or shrubs with short petioled, triply or pinnately nerved 
leaves, and subsessile cymes; monoecious or dioecious. Flowers very small. 

This genus consists of about 30 species, which are all closely related, and occur 
in the tropics of the old and new world. The most common is T. amboinensis 
Bhune, which occurs in subtropical and tropical Asia and Australia and the 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Trema amboinensis Blume. 

TREMA AMBOINENSIS Blume Mus. Lugd. Bot. II (1852) 63; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. 
Mar. Pac. VII (1892) 294, ,et Fl. Polyn. Fr. (1893) 190; Engler in Engl. et 
Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 1 (1893) 65. Celtis amboinensis Willd. Spec. PI. IV. (1806) 
997; Decaisne, in Brongn., Voy. Coqu. (1828-29) 212, t. 47. Sponia velutina 
Planch, in Ann. Sc. Nat. 3, ser. X. (1848) 327; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1873) 235. 
Sponia amboinensis Planch, in A. DC. Prodr. XVII. (1873) 199; Hbd. Fl. Haw. 
Isl. (1888) 405. 

Leaves ovate oblong, cuspidate, cordate or rounded and often oblique at the base, 
margins serrate, very rough above, silky tomentose underneath when young; cymes with 
male, female and hermaphrodite flowers, shortly pedunculate or subsessile; male flowers 
sparingly pilose, perigone 5-parted to the base; stamens as long as the lobes; ovary obovate 
without style; female flower 5-fid to the middle; ovary 2-celled; drupe ovoid, puberulous, 
little fleshy. 

Trema amboinensis, which has no Hawaiian name as far as can be ascertained, 
is a small tree, 20 to 30 feet in height, whose young branches are covered with 
a soft gray pubescence. As has already been remarked, the tree is not peculiar 
to Hawaii, but is found on nearly all the other islands of the Pacific, as, for 
example, in Samoa. Viti (Fiji), Tahiti, etc., where the tree is much more com- 
mon than in Hawaii, and where it is also known by several native names. In 
Hawaii the tree has so far only been found in Manoa Valley and on the northern 
slope of Kaala, on Oahu, and also at Mapolehu, on the island of Molokai. 

Parts of the tree are used medicinally, mainly for their purgative properties, 
which are expressed in the Samoan names tio and in; the most common name by 
which the tree is known in Samoa is fauui, and on Tutuila the name ti'ovale is in 
use. The name fausoga occurs also in Samoa for this particular tree. From the 
bark of the fauui or fausoga the natives manufacture a strong fiber which they 
use for their fish nets. 

113 



MORACEAE. 

The family Moraceae consists of 55 genera which have a distribution similar 
to the Urticaceae ; though the number of species of the former is larger in tropical 
America. The family is closest related to Ulmaceae, but can be distinguished 
from them very easily by their inflorescence. It is less allied to the Urticaceae. 
The family Moraceae is an exceedingly useful one, primarily in their latex, 
which contains rubber in many species; second, in their fruits, which have a very 
pleasant taste, as figs, breadfruit, etc. ; and, third, in the fiber, which is used for 
various purposes. 

The family is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by two genera, with two 
widely-spread species. 

KEY TO THE GENEKA. 

Flowers dioecious or monoecious. 

Female flowers in spikes 1. Pseudomorus 

Flowers monoecious. 

Female flowers on a globose receptacle 2. Artocarpus 

PSEUDOMORUS Bureau. 

Embryo subglobose, with a large, curved cotyledon, which encloses the other smaller 
ones. A tree or shrub with entire or dentate leaves. Flowers monoecious or dioecious; 
female inflorescence short cylindrical, few flowered. 

The genus Pseudomorus consists of a single species only, which is of wide dis- 
tribution. Originally found on Norfolk Island. 

Pseudomorus Brunoniana (Endl.) Bureau. 
Ai ai. 

PSEUDOMORUS BRUNONIANA (Endl.) Bureau, in Ann. Sc. Nat. 5 ser. XT. (1869) 371 
et in DeCand. Prodr. XVII. (1873) 249; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 405; Del Cast. 
111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1892) 296; Engler in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 1 

(1893) 72. Morus Brunoniana Endl. Atakta Bot. ( ) t. 32. Morus pendulina 

Bauer 111. PI. Norfolk, tab. 186, ined., et in Endl. Prodr. Fl. Norfolk (1833) no. 
84; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. (1867) 201. 

Leaves distichous, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, acute, sinuate dentate, rounded or 
truncate at the base, thin pale shining, glabrous on both faces, chartaceous, flowers 
monoecious; male spikes in the upper axil, slender 7.5 to 10 cm long on peduncles of about 
2 to 4 mm; perigone 2 mm, 4- rarely 3-parted; stamens 4, twice as long as the perigone; 
pistil obcordate, naked; female spikes shorter, often ovoid, at most 12 mm long by 8 mm 
broad, with few drupes when mature, ovary ovoid, peaked; fruit a fleshy drupe; subglobose, 
6 to 8 mm, 2 horned with the conical style-bases. 

The Aiai is a milky tree or shrub, reaching a height of sometimes 40 feet. It 
is clothed in a whitish gray bark and has a trunk of up to 2 feet in diameter. 
The leaf resembles somewhat the mulberry at first appearance. 

The Aiai is not endemic to Hawaii, but is also found on Norfolk Island and 
in Australia. In the Hawaiian Islands it may be found on Lanai in the gulches 
of the main range of Haalelepakai, at an elevation of 2300 feet. It is common 
on the island of Maui, especially in the dry gulches above Makawao, where the 

114 



Moraceae. 

writer met with very large trees, about 40 feet high. The flowering and fruit- 
ing season falls during the summer months, and trees can be seen loaded with 
the small fruits in October. At Auahi, southern slopes of Haleakala, in the dry 
forest, it is again not uncommon in company with Ochrosia sandwicensis, Sider- 
oxylon auahiense, Pelea multi flora, etc., as well as at Ulupalakua at an eleva- 
tion of 3000 feet, and at Puuwaawaa, Kona, Hawaii. It also inhabits the dry 
regions of Kauai, Hawaii and Oahu, on the latter island in Wailupe Valley and 
in the Waianae range. 

The wood of the Aiai is light brown, close-grained, hard, and tough. The abor- 
iginals of New South Wales employed the wood for their boomerangs. When 
properly dressed and polished it has a remarkable resemblance to Oak. A well- 
seasoned specimen has an approximate weight of 56 pounds per cubic foot. It 
is known by the aboriginals of the Richmond and Clarence rivers of New South 
Wales as "Mail" or " Legaulbie." By the whites it is called "Whalebone tree." 

ARTOCARPUS Forst. 

Perigoue of the male flowers 2 to 4 lobed, with only one stamen; perigone of the fe- 
male flowers tubular, obovate, or linear; style with spathulate stigma, rarely 2-3 fid. 
Seeds without albumen. Embryo straight or curved, with thick fleshy equal or unequal 
cotyledons. Trees with large coriaceous leaves which are either entire or incised, with 
deciduous axillary stipules, and single, short or long peduncled inflorescences. Flowers 
monoecious, on globose or club-shaped often elongate receptacles. 

The genus Artocarpus consists of about 40 species distributed from Ceylon 
through the Indian Archipelago to China. Of interest is Artocarpus incisa, the 
Ulu of the natives or Breadfruit tree, which is indigenous in the Sunda Islands 
and has been cultivated for ages everywhere in the tropics, but especially on 
the islands of the Pacific. 

Artocarpus incisa Forst. 

Ulu, Breadfruit. 

(Plate 37.) 

ARTOCARPUS INCISA Forst. PL escul. (1786) 23, et Icon. (ined. cf. Seem.) t. 250-252; 
Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 882; Guill. Zeph. Tait. (1836-37) 172; Trecul, in 
Ann. Sc. Nat. 3 ser. VIII. (1847) 110; Pancher in Cuz. Tahit. (I860); H. Mann 
Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 201; Seem. PL Vit. (1873) 255; Nadeaud, Enum. 
PL Tab. (1873) n. 305; Hbd. Fl. Haw.Isl.(1888) 407; Engl. in Engl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. ITT. 1 (1888) 82 fig. 61; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1892) 
298, et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 196; Wilder Fr. Haw. Isl. (1911) pp. 101-106, pi. 
48-51. Rademachia incisa Thunb. in Vet. Akad. Handl. Stockh. 38 (1776) 253. 
Leaves coriaceous, pubescent, 3 dm or more in length, oblong in outline, pinnatifid, 

with acute or obtuse lobes; stipules 2, free, very large, rolled round the bud, soon caducous; 

male flowers on thick oblong, female flowers on large globose receptacles, both at first 

covered by 2 large bracts; male perigone of 2 divisions; style simple or 2-3 fid. 

The Ulu or Breadfruit has only one variety in the Hawaiian Islands, but has 
many in the South Seas which are well known to the islanders of the Pacific, as, 
for instance, in Samoa, Fiji and Tahiti, where they distinguish more than 24 
sub-species or varieties, each one having its native name. The milky sap of the 
tree is used by the Hawaiians for bird lime, and is chewed by the boys and girls 
in Samoa. 

t 
115 



PLATE 37. 




ARTOCAKPUS INCISA Forst. 

Ulu, Breadfruit. 
Showing a fruiting branch, much reduced. 



The Ulu has accompanied the Polynesians in all their migrations and was 
planted by them wherever it could possibly live. Here in the Hawaiian Islands 
we can find the Ulu always near native dwellings or in the valleys and ravines 
of the low lands, near by forsaken grass huts or native houses. In Hawaii the 
Breadfruit has not played a very important part in the household of the abor- 
igines, as it did with their relatives in the South Seas. The fruiting season in 
Hawaii is very short, being from June to August, and the art of preserving the 
fruit as is done in the South Seas (as will be explained in a special paragraph) 
was not understood. 

The Hawaiian Ulu never bears seeds, and is therefore cultivated by suckers. 
The fact that the tree does not bear seed is sufficient to show that it could not 
have been found here originally, but must have been brought here with the ar- 
rivals of that race which we now call Hawaiians. The seed-bearing species found 
in the islands is of comparatively recent introduction and came from the Caro- 
lines. Since then the Jack fruit (A. integrifolia) has been added to the stock 
of cultivated fruits. 

The Ulu often reaches a very large size, ranging from 40 to 60 feet or more in 
height ; the bark of the trunk is smooth, the latter often 2 feet in diameter. It 
is usually found together with the Ohio, ai or mountain apple (Jambosa malac- 
censis) and the Kukui. The wood of the Ulu was used in the construction of 
doors *and houses and for the bodies of canoes. The fruit was often made into 
a delicious poi, and the root was used medicinally as a purgative. 

The name Ulu occurs again in Samoa, though also known by 24 other names 
designating the various sub-species; the most common in use are uluea, ului, 
uliifauluma'a (meaning many seeded), ulumanua, etc. 

In times of superabundance of breadfruit, which is usually from January to 
March in Samoa, the fruits are preserved. They are thrown into a hole in the 
ground which has been laid out with banana leaves. Most of the fruit is placed 
in whole, while a few are cut up, and then covered with leaves and buried. These 
preserves are very useful in times of scarcity, as they do not spoil as long as 
they are buried. The Ulu preserve is known as Masi. The Tahitian name of 
the Breadfruit is Uni, and in Fiji Uto and Uto sore. For references of similar 
nature consult Saff orcl's "Useful Plants of Guam," p. 189, and Seem. Flora of 
Fi.ji, p. 255. 

URTICACEAE. 

The Urticaceae are differentiated from the Ulmaceae by the inflorescence and 
inflexed anthers, anel from the Moraceae by the absence of laticiferous vessels; 
the only exception being Neraudia and Urera. 

The family Urticaceae is only sparingly represented outside the tropics, es- 
pecially so in Europe. The family consists of 41 genera with about 500 species, 
of which 33 per cent, are to be found in the new world, and perhaps as many 

117 



PLATE 38. 




URERA SANDVICENSIS Wedd. 
Opuhe. 

Showing branch with male inflorescence; reduced. 



Urticaceae. 

in Asia and the Indian archipelago ; about 14 per cent, in Africa, 14 per cent, in 
Oceanic Islands and only 3 to 4 per cent, in Europe. In the Hawaiian Islands 
the family is represented by 9 genera, of which two only are endemic (Neraudia 
and Touchardia). Two genera, Pipturus and Urera, however, have arborescent 
species only. The usefulness of the Urticaceae is mainly in the long and very 
strong fiber which is obtained from the bark of some species. The fibre of the 
Hawaiian Olona (Touchardia latifolia) is one of the strongest in the world. 

KEY TO THE GENEEA. 

Urereae. Perigone of the female flowers four parted or four lobed. 
Flowers in cymes. 

Cymes divaricately dichotomous, corymbose, achene covered by the fleshy 

perigone 1. Urera 

Boehmerieae. Perigone of the female flowers tubular, free. 
Flowers in axillary clusters. 

Female flowers on a globose receptacle, the perigone dry with fruit . 2. Pipturus 

URERA Gaud. 

Perigone of the male flower 4-5 parted, stamens 4-5, and a globose or cupshaped rudi- 
mentary ovary. Female flower with equally large, or smaller outer segments. Stigma 
globose-penicillate or cylindrical, subsessile. Achenes enclosed in the fleshy perigone. 
Seeds with scanty albumen. Trees or shrubs with alternate leaves, and punctiformous to 
elongate, in the Hawaiian species ovate-elongate cystolithes, flowers in dichotomous or 
irregiUarly branching, loose cymes or corymbs. 

The genus Urera consists of about 22 species distributed over the tropics of 
America and Africa and the islands of the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands we 
have only two species with several varieties, both species being peculiar to the 
islands, outside of which they have not been found. The native name for both 
species is Opuhe. 

Urera Sandvicensis Wedd. 

Opuhe. 
(Plates 38, 39, 40.) 

URERA SANDVICENSIS Wedd. in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3. XVIII (1852) 177, et in DC. 
Prodr. XVI (1869) Sect. I. 92; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 200; 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 410 inclus. var. .; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
VII (1892) 299. Villebrunea crenulata Gaud. Bot. Voy. Bonite (1844-52) t. 92. 

Leaves oblong, 15 to 20 cm x 7 to 9 cm, on petioles of 3 to 5 cm, acuminate, moderately 
elliptico-contracting but more or less obtuse at the base, wavy crenulate in the upper, 
entire in the lower portion, chartaceous, or thick somewhat fleshy, pale underneath, either 
glabrous or pubescent along the veins and midrib, veins impressed in fresh specimens, 
penninerved, with 12 to 15 strong nerves on either side, all parallel, straight, the lowest 
equally long or often longer (not shortest as given in Hillebrand 's Flora); stipules lanceo- 
late about 4 cm; flowers dioecious; cymes in the lower axils, often rising from the naked 
branch, regularly and repeatedly dichotomous, corymbiform, 5 to 8 cm in diam. with a 
peduncle of about 15 mm'in the female and 30 to 35 mm in the male flowers; male perigones 
8 to 20 in a glomerule, subsessile, each about 3 mm in diam., pale reddish or yellow, with 
4 to 5 segments; anthers pale usually 5 in number; female perigone surrounded by a 
deciduous cup of bractlets, shortly pedicellate, 3 to 4 toothed, at length fleshy and orange 
yellow, about 2 mm or less; achene suboblique, with yellow stigma, ovate, tuberculate 
on both faces, entirely enclosed by the perigone. 

119 



PLATE 39. 




URERA SANDVICENSIS Wedd. 
Opuhe. 

Showing (female) fruiting branch; reduced. 



Urticaceae. 

The cystolites in the specimens from near the volcano Kilauea, Hawaii, are 
ovate elongate, while those from the Kohala mountains of the same island are 
punctif orm ; besides, the male inflorescence of specimens from the latter locality 
is only about 3 cm. in diameter, and the leaves are shortly petioled. The speci- 
mens found at the slopes of Manna Loa, Hawaii, seem to be the typical U. Sand- 
vice nsis and coincide exactly with Gaudichaud's most excellent plate. Hille- 
brand's var. /?. is here united with the species, as the pubescence, which seems 
to be his only distinctive character, occurs in nearly all the specimens from 
various localities. Hillebrand's var. ~f . from Molokai, Oahu and Lanai differs 
from the species mainly in the leaves, which are shorter petioled and are rounder 
or rather broadly truncate to cuneate at the base, making the leaf almost deltoid. 
The leaves are nearly all pubescent underneath in the writer's specimens, espe- 
cially along the veins and midrib. Heller suggests to uphold Weddel's Urera 
ylabm, which is a synonym of Hillebrand's var. y, merely on account of geo- 
graphical range: the difference is in reality slight, and Hillebrand's variety is 
here retained. The latter author's var. 8 or Wawra's Urera glabra var. mollis, 
which is cited as a synonym by Hillebrand, does not warrant being separated 
from var. r, with which it is here united. In Olokele Valley, on Kauai, the 
writer collected specimens of Urera Sandvicensis, which he refers to var. Y They 
differ somewhat from the plants found on Molokai in the longer petioled leaves 
which are slightly cuneate at the base, and the very large loose male inflores- 
cence ; the leaves are more or less deeply serrate even to the subtruncate-cuneate 
base, and wholly glabrous. 

The Opulie is a medium-sized tree with a straight trunk which is clothed in a 
smooth, very fibrous bark. It is distributed all over Hawaii, where it is nearly 
always a tree, while on the other islands it is merely a shrub. Near the Kilauea 
volcano, on Hawaii, slopes of Manna Loa, especially at the Kipuka Puaulu (4000 
feet), it is a very common tree, 25 feet or so in height, with rather long, thick, 
drooping branches. The tree is dioecious; that is, male and female flow r ers are 
borne on separate trees. It is associated with Koa, and Naio trees near Ship- 
man's ranch, and with many other trees at Puaulu, such as Straussia, Pelea, 
Xanthoxylum, etc. At Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii, it is not uncommon in 
Waihou forest (elevation 3000 feet), where trees 35 feet in height can be found. 
It is here that the writer met with the biggest trees ; some had trunks of one foot 
in diameter. In the Kohala mountains on the same island it is a shrub. Va- 
rieties of this tree occur on all the islands of the group, but not with well-defined 
characteristics. Like Neraudia, it also exudes a milky, watery fluid which is 
otherwise lacking in the family Urticaceae. It is not a very dry district plant, 
but favors regions with more frequent and heavier precipitation. 

The bark was used by the natives in a similar manner to that of the Olona for 
fish-nets, and even at times for their tapa cloth. It is, however, not as strong 
as Olona. The trees are free from insects. The wood is soft and light. 

121 



PLATE 40. 




URERA SANDVICENSIS Wedd. 

Opuhe. 

Female tree growing in the Kipuka Puaulu, near the Volcano Kilauea, on Hawaii; 

elevation 4000 feet. 



Urticaceae. 

On the island of Kauai, on the leeward side in the forest of Kaholuamano, 
grows a small tree about 18 feet high, which differs very materially from Urera 
sandvicensis, found on Hawaii. It is here described as a new variety under the 
name Urera sandvicensis var. Kauaiensis. The native name of this tree is Hona. 

Var. Kauaiensis var. nov. 
Ilona. 

Leaves broadly ovate, bluntly aecuminate at the apex, truncate to cuneate at the 
base, evenly crenate to serrate, thick coriaceous, dark green, with bright red midrib 
and veins, pinnately nerved, glabrous on both sides, 6 to 9 cm wide and 10 to 14 cm long, 
on petioles of 4 to 12 cm; male flowers bright red, perigone tuberculate, stamens purple 
to pink, 5 in number, inflorescence in the axils of the upper leaves and all along the naked 
branch, very shortly pednncled, branching cymosely or paniculate, flowers larger than 
in the species. 

The tree, which is called Hona by the natives, was the only one observed in the 
forests of Kaholuamano, Kauai, along a streambed. It was collected by the 
writer in August, 1909, and October, 1911. The number of the type is 9006 in 
the College of Hawaii Herbarium. It differs from the species in its very long 
petioled coriaceous leaves, shortly peduncled male inflorescence, which is of a 
bright red color, purple anthers and large perigones. 

Mention may be made here of Urera Kaalae Wawra, a small tree found in the 
Waianae range of Oahu. It differs from U. Scmdvicensis in the palmately 
nerv,ed, cordate leaves, small triangular stipules and bracteolate inflorescence. 
The plant was discovered by Wawra and described in Flora (1874), p. 542. His 
specimens came from Mt. Puakea of the Kaala range. Not collected by the 
writer. 

PIPTURUS Wedd. 
( Noth ocnide Blume. ) 

Perigone of the male flower with 4 to 5 ovate lobes. Perigone of the female flower 
thin and fleshy with the mature fruits. Embryo with scanty albumen and broad cotyledons. 
Trees and shrubs with alternate 3 to 5 nerved leaves, which are usually covered with a 
gray pubescence underneath, entire to serrate leaves; stipules bifid, easily caducous. 
Flower clusters globose, single in the leaf axils, or in some plants, not from the Ha- 
waiian Islands, arranged in catkins. 

The genus Pipturus consists of about 12 species, which are distributed over 
the Oceanic Islands, Hawaiian Islands, and Mascarene Islands to Australia. The 
Hawaiian species are all called Mamaki or Mamake; they furnished, next to 
WauJce (Brousonetia papyrifera), the fiber for their tapa or paper cloth. 

Pipturus albidus A. Gray. 

Mamaki or Mamake. 

(Plate 41.) 

PIPTURUS ALBIDUS A. Gray (ined.) in H. Mann, Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 201; 
Weddl. in DC. Prodr. XVI (1869) Sect. I. 23517; Nadeaud, Enum. (1873) n. 
313; Wawra in Flora (1874) 547; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 413; Del 
Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII (1892) 303, et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 203; 
Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 814. Boehmeria albida Hook, et Arn. Bot. Beech. 
(1832) 96; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 866. Pipturus tahitensis Wedd. in Ann. 
Sc. Nat. ser. 4. I (1854) 197, t Pipturus Gaudichaudianus Wedd. 1. c. p. 196. 
Perlarius albidus O. Ktze. Eev. Gen. PI. II (1891) 630. 

123 



PLATE 41. 




PIPTURUS ALBIDUS A. Gray. 

Mamaki or Mamake. 
Branch with female inflorescence. 



Urticaceae. 

Leaves ovate to obloug acute or accuminate at the apex, cordate, truncate or rounded 
iit the base, crenate to serrate, 10 to 14 cm long, 4.5 to 10.5 cm wide, chartaceous to 
coriaceous, shortly wliite-tomentose underneath (Oahu) often light green, to dark brown 
especially in specimens from the other Islands; tripli-nerved, the nerves often red in the 
living plant; stipules triangular bifid to the middle into subulate lobes; flowers all sessile 
in axillary clusters of 6 to 12 mm either all male or all female or male and female flowers 
in one glomerule (in Lanai specimens), white tomentose or very hispid; male perigone 
reddish acutely 4-fid to the middle or less; stamens little or much exserted (in plants from 
Paauhau, Hawaii) ; female perigones on a thick, finally fleshy receptacle, the uncinate 
stigma much longer than the perigone; fruit about 1 mm. 

This is a most variable species, and if one should undertake to separate the 
various forms, one would have to name individual trees. The leaves vary greatly 
in shape and size as well as in pubescence, some being densely gray tomentose 
underneath, others light green to brown; the same holds good of the nervature, 
which is often bright red. 

On Oahu the plant is only a small shrub about 8 feet in height, while in the 
forests of Naalehu in Kau, Hawaii, the writer observed the biggest trees, which 
occasionally attain a height of 30 feet with a trunk of often one foot in diam- 
eter. When a tree grows in the open it has long drooping branches, which are 
arranged pyramid-like. The trunk is clothed in an exceedingly strong fibrous 
smooth bark of a light brown color. As already stated, it is a very variable 
species and occurs on all the islands of the group, avoiding dry districts ; it in- 
habits the mesophytic forests at an elevation of 1500 to 4000 feet, but does not go 
higher. Occasionally it can be found in a sub-xerophytic district, but never on 
the lava fields as is the case with the Hawaiian genus Neraudia, which can be 
found in the hottest and driest districts, as well as in the rain forests. Two 
species of Pipturus were described by Heller from Kauai, as P. Kauaiensis and 
P. rubcr. The latter is a good species and was even distinguished by the na- 
tives from their Mamaki; it is known to them as Waimea on Kauai. 

The Mamdke furnished the natives of old with the fiber for their tapa (kapa) 
or paper cloth, which they obtained from the bark of the tree. It is said that 
Mamaki fiber made the finest tapa and was preferred to that made of the Wauke 
bark. For further information on the tapa making and the fibers used, the 
writer wishes to refer the reader to Dr. "Wm. T. Brigham's valuable book "Ka 
Hana Kapa, " which is an exhaustive treatise on the subject. The wood of the 
Mamaki is exceedingly hard and durable. It is of pinkish color when newly cut, 
and turns brownish with age. The bark and fruits of the Mamaki are supposed 
to have been employed by the natives medicinally for consumption. 

In Samoa several species of Pipturus occur under the name fausoga or soga. 
The bark of these trees is used by the natives in a similar manner as was that of 
the Hawaiian species for their tapa or paper cloth. The Hawaiian species is 
supposed to occur also in Tahiti. 



125 



SANTALACEAE:. 

The family Santalaceae, which consists of 26 genera and about 250 species, is 
divided into two groups: Holoparasites or genuine, and Hemiparasites or half 
parasites. To the latter group, among others, belongs the genus Santalum, which 
is represented here in the Islands by several species. The Hemiparasitic Santala 
root in the ground and partly extract nutriment from the roots or stems of other 
plants by means of haustoria or suck-organs. It has been proved in Santalum 
album, the Indian Sandalwood, that it can exist and grow in soil perfectly devoid 
of foreign roots. Botanists are of the opinion that parasitism in this group must 
have played an important part in the existence of these plants in previous pe- 
riods, on account of the large number of haustoria on their rootlets, and the 
small number of which succeed in bringing about adhesion to roots of other 
plants; while in genuine parasites, as the Loranthaceae, no such extravagant 
endowment is to be found. The opinion has been expressed that these Hemipara- 
sites, which root in the ground, form an intermediate step to those para- 
sites which live on tree branches, rather than being reduced forms of the latter 
or genuine root parasites. 

The Santalaceae are distributed over the tropics and the temperate zone. A 
majority of the genera occurs only in dry regions and comparatively few belong 
to regions with heavy precipitation. 

In Hawaii the family is represented by two genera, Exocarpus and Santalum ; 
of the former two species are to be found, while of the latter four or five species 
occur in the mountains of all of the Hawaiian islands. 

It may be of interest here to remark that in the days of Vancouver, Sandal- 
wood was the main export from these Islands, which was shipped to China. An 
interesting account is given in regard to Sandalwood export from the South Pa- 
cific islands to various parts of the world, in Seeman 's Flora of the Fiji Islands. 

The Chinese term the Sandalwood Tanheong. i. e., scented tree. The Hawaiian 
Islands are called Tan-skan or Sandalwood mountains by the Chinese, on account 
of the Sandalwood trade which was carried on with China. 

SANTALUM Linn. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, perigone 4 to 5 lobed. Tube of perigone campanulate or ovate. 
Lobes of perigone free to the discus, each lobe with a tuft of hair at its base. Stamens 
inserted at the base of the perigone, and shorter than the latter; filaments short. Discus 
drawn out into fleshy, spathulate triangular lobes, between the stamens. Ovary at first 
superior, later on partly inferior. Style simple, stigma short, 2 to 4 lobed. Ovules 
2 to 4, pendulous. Drupe, ovoid to globose crowned with the scars of the fallen lobes; 
exocarp thin, somewhat fleshy and hard rugose endocarp. Seeds ovoid to globose. 
Embryo in the center of the albumen, obliquely embedded; radical longer than the 
cotyledons. Glabrous hemiparasitic trees or shrubs with opposite rarely alternate, entire 
leaves, and relatively large panicles or racemes which are either terminal or axillary 
Bracts not present. 

The genus Santalum consists of about 10 species which are all closely related 
and occur in East India, on the islands of the Malayan Archipelago, on the 
islands of the Pacific and in Australia. 

126 



Santalaceae. 

In the Hawaiian Islands four species are to be found, which are perhaps only 
variations of a single species. Since the large export of Sandalwood from these 
Islands to China, the trees have became rather scarce and only individual ones 
can be found scattered through the drier forests. On Oahu, Sandalwood trees 
or Iliahi are still plentiful in certain districts, such as Kahuku, and in Palolo 
Valley, where they are very numerous at the lower elevation in company with 
Acacia Koa (Koa). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 
Inflorescence axillary and terminal. 
Perigone reddish, 8 to 10 mm. 

Drupe ovoid, smooth S. ellipticum 

Perigone reddish, large, 12 to 14 mm. cylindrical. 

Drupe obovoid, rough S. pyrularium 

Perigone yellowish, 6 mm campanulate. 

Drupe ovoid, smooth, mucronate S. Freycinetianum 

Inflorescence a terminal cymose densely flowered panicle. 

Perigone bright red S. Haleakalae 

Santalum Freycinetianum Gaud. 

Iliahi. 
(Plates 42, 43.) 

SANTALUM FEEYCINETIANUM Gaud. Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826) (1830) 442, t. 45; 
Hook, et Am. Bot. Beech. (1832) 90; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 939; Guill. Zeph. 
Tait. (1836-37) no. 184; DC. Prodr. XIV. (1857) 682; Jardin, Hist. lies. Marqu. 
(1858) 184; A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. IV. (1860) 326; et in Bot. U. S. E. E. 
ined; Panch. in Cuzent, Tahiti (1860) 233; H. Mann Proc. Amer. Acad. VII 
(1867) 198; Wawra in Flora (1875) 171; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 389; 
Hieronym. in Engl. et Prantl. Pflzfam. Ill, 1 (1889) 221; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. 
Mar. Pacif. VII (1892) 282 et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 173. Santalum insulare 
Bertero, in Guill, 1. c.; Nadeaud Enum. (1873) no. 328. 

Leaves opposite, ovate to obovate or elliptico oblong, 4 to 8 cm long, 2.5 to 4 cm wide, 
on petioles of 2 to 15 mm; either obtuse or acute at both ends, chartaceous, glabrous, glossy 
and darker green above, lighter underneath or in specimens from North Kona golden yel- 
low; cymes paniculate terminal or in the axils of the upper leaves 2.5 to 5 cm long, few 
flowered in axillary inflorescences, densely flowered in terminal ones; the flowers in almost 
sessile clusters or 3 to 9 or more; perigone yellowish green, with slight reddish tint, cam- 
panulate about 6 mm, the somewhat acute lobes as long or longer than the tube; disc 
lobes short and broad, tufts of hair very scanty and short; anthers longer than the fila- 
ments; style little shorter than the perigone, shortly 3 to 4 cleft; drupe ovoid, about 15 
mm long when mature, the apex somewhat truncate, very shortly mucronate, and crowned 
with depressed annulus; putamen smooth. 

Santalum Freycinetianum, the Hawaiian Sandalwood of the commerce of by- 
gone days, is a most variable species. It is often a small shrub, but usually a 
medium-sized tree, and is peculiar to the dry regions of these Islands. It loves the 
lava fields of the Island of Hawaii, where it is especially common, comparatively 
speaking. It occurs as a small tree in South Kona on the lava fields of Kapua, 
and Manuka, while in North Kona on the old lava flows of Mt. Hualalai it 
reaches a handsome size. Here the tree grows 35 feet or so tall, with a trunk of 
10 to 12 inches in diameter, which is clothed in a rather rough scaly bark. 

On the slopes of Mauna Loa above Kealakekua, at an elevation of about 5000 
feet, the writer met with the biggest Sandalwood trees to be found in the whole 
group. They differ very much in their outward appearance from the other varie- 
ties known to the writer. The trees reach a height of over 50 feet and have a 



PLATE 42. 




SANTALUM FREYCINETIANUM Gaud. 

Iliahi, Sandal wood. 

Growing on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii; elevation 2800 ft. Show- 
ing flowering and fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree. Note the rough bark. 



Santalaceae. 

trunk of over one and a half, and occasionally two, feet in diameter. The bark is 
black and smooth, the leaves very dark green and glossy, and drupes olive shaped 
and black, with somewhat fleshy exocarp. It occurs mainly on the rough aa 
flows intersecting this beautiful country, but can also be found in the Koa forest, 
where it is very numerous ; many large trees were found dead ; undoubtedly due 
to the dying off of their hosts. Nearly 90% of the trees which formed this once 
beautiful forest are now dead. 

Santahtm Freycinctianum occurs on all the islands. On Lanai it can be found 
on the extreme eastern end, scattered about on the exposed open grasslands. At 
Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii, it grows on the lava fields at 2000 feet and 
higher up on the slopes of Hualalai large trees can be observed. This species of 
Santalum has several varieties, found on the various islands. On Lanai and East 
Mani on the southern slopes of Haleakala occurs Hillebrand's var. - f . cuneatum, 
which differs from the species in its small thick, fleshy, suborbicular leaves, which 
are slightly cuneate at the base. It is usually a shrub, but to the writer's aston- 
ishment it grew as a veritable vine, completely covering a species of Sideroxylon. 

At the volcano of Kilauea, Hawaii, elevation 4000 feet, occurs another variety 
called ,5. var. latifolium Gray. Its leaves are coriaceous pale glaucous underneath 
and quite broad; the flowers are arranged in numerous panicles which are axil- 
lary and terminal. It grows plentifully on the cliffs surrounding the main 
crater, but always as a shrub. 

On Diamond Head crater, the landmark of the Island of Oahu, and in Kailua, 
Hawaii, as well as at Cape Kaena, Oahu, grows a small much branching shrub, 
which is another variety called var. . littorale Hbd., as it grows in the vicinity 
of the seashore. 

On Lanai on a spur of the main ridge, Lanaihale, the writer found a tree quite 
distinct from any of the other varieties known. It has the largest leaf of any 
Santalum known, and also flowers which almost exceed in size those of Santalum 
pyrularium of Kauai. It is here described as follows: 

Var. Lanaiense var. nov. 

Branches robust, stiff; leaves orbicular in outline, mucronate at the apex, slightly 
contracting at the base into a petiole of 5 mm, 7 to 10 cm each way, dark green above, 
bright glaucous underneath with red veins, chartaceous; panicles very small, axillary, 25 
mm long, flowers two or single on minute pedicels, flowers large, bright red with glaucous 
hue; perigone 12 mm long, campanulate to cylindrical, the acute lobes a third the length 
of the tube; anthers as long as the perigone; drupe unknown. 

A medium-sized tree with stiff gnarled branches, growing at an elevation of 
about 3000 feet in company with Straussia, Bobea, Dubautia, etc. It has the 
largest leaf in the genus and is almost worthy of specific distinction. Collected 
in July, 1910. Type in the College of Hawaii Herbarium; co-type in the au- 
thor's Herbarium no. 10061. 

It may be of interest here to relate the rise and fall of the Sandalwood trade 
in the Hawaiian Islands. In the year 1778 the attention of the commercial w r orld 
was first drawn to the existence of Sandalwood in these islands ; a Captain Ken- 

129 



PLATE 43. 







SANTALUM FREYCINETIANUM Gaud. 

Iliahi, Samlalwood. 

Growing on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii. One of the biggest 
Sandalwood trees in the Hawaiian Islands. 



Santalaceae. 

drick, of a Boston brig, is known to have been the first who left two men on 
Kauai to contract for several cargoes. Under the able government of Kameha- 
meha, vast quantities of the wood were exported. The Sandalwood w r as to these 
islanders the start in life. From 1790 to 1820 numerous vessels called for this 
wood, bringing many and various things in exchange, and about 1810 Kameha- 
meha I. and his people began to accumulate considerable wealth. In one year 
nearly 400,000 dollars were realized. Under the reign of Liholiho the Sandal- 
wood began to be exhausted, though in the year 1820 we still hear of 80,000 dol- 
lars ' worth of the wood being paid for the yacht ''Cleopatra's Barge," and in 
1822 of a voyage to Kauai to collect the annual tribute of the wood in that 
island; though the produce became every day more difficult to procure, and 
could no longer be demanded in payment of taxes. Finally a substitute was 
discovered, the Naio (Myoporum sandwicense A. Gray) or Bastard Sandalwood, . 
though no relation to true Sandalwood ; it. however, could not revive the trade. 

Thus came to an end the export of the IliaJii or Laau ala (fragrant wood) as 
the natives termed the wood. 

For further particulars in regard to Sandahvood trade in Hawaii, consult J. 
J. Jarves' History of the Hawaiian Islands. 

Santalum ellipticum Gaud. 
Iliali i. 

(Plate 44.) 

SANTALUM ELLIPTICUM Gaud. Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826, 1830) 442; Endl. Fl. Suds. 
(1836) 940; DC. Prodr. XIV (1857) 682; A. Gray Proc. Am. Acad. IV (1860) 
327; Mrs. Sinclair Indig. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1885) pi. 34; Heller, PI. Haw. Isl. 
(1897) 818. Santalum Freycinetianum var. e. ellipticum Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. 
iued; H. Mann, Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 198; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 
390; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII (1892) 283. 

Branches slender, more or less drooping; leaves thin chartaceous, elliptical-oblong, 
reddish, about 17 cm long and 3 cm wide, on slender petioles of 18 mm, acuminate glabrous; 
panicles in the axils of the upper leaves, rather loose, the flowers on distinct pedicels of 
:! mm; perigone 8 to 10 mm reddish, the lobes as long as the tube or longer, with long 
tufts of hair; drupe as in /S. Freycinctia-imm. 

Santalum ellipticum or Ilialii is not uncommon on the islands of Kauai and 
Oahu ; on the latter island trees of this species are very numerous on the eastern 
end, especially in the valley of Palolo, where they are associated with Acacia Koa 
(Koa) mainly, which is probably its host. It extends from an elevation of 600 
feet up to about 1500 feet, at which latter elevation it grows together with Straus- 
sia Kaduana (Kopiko), Elaeocarpus bifidus (Kalia) and others. It has a short, 
straight trunk and a rather round crown, formed of slender branches. It is very 
conspicuous from a distance on account of its reddish tinted foliage. 

The Hawaiian Sandalwood, according to old natives, grows to a height of 
often 80 feet, with trunks of often three feet in diameter. The older and bigger 
the tree the more valuable it becomes, as its fragrance increases with age. It is 
only the very heart wood that is scented, and in small or young trees the roots 
only are fragrant. 

131 



PLATE 44. 




SANTALUM ELLIPTICUM Gaud. 
Iliahi, Sandal wood. 



Santalaceae. 

Santalum pyrularium A. Gray. 
Ilia hi. 

SANTALUM PYRULAEIUM A. Gray Proc. Am. Acad. IV (1860) 327, et in Bot. U. S. E. E. 
ined; H. Mann, Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 198; Wawra in Flora (1875) 172; 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 390; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII (1892) 283. 
A medium sized tree, leaves as in ^untiiliim cUipticitm of Oahu, but glaucous under- 
neath; panicles axillary, loose, few flowered; flowers on pedicels of 3 mm^ perigone dull 
red, cylindrical 12 to 14 mm, the lobes as long as the tube or shorter; anthers as long as 
the filaments; style nearly as long as the perigone, 3-cleft; drupe large 1-4 to 24 mm long, 
the putamen rough, runcinate, crowned with membraneous annulus below the apex. 

This species is peculiar to the Island of Kauai and occurs in the forests of Hale- 
manu at an elevation of 3000 to 4000 feet, where it is a tree 35 to 40 feet high, 
occasionally. It can also be found in the woods of Kaholuamano, on the same 
leeward side, above Waimea in the more dry regions in company with Elaeocarpus 
bifidus (Kalia), Tetraplasandra Waimeae (Olie kikoola), Pterotropia Kauaiensis 
(Olie olie}, Straussia (Kopiko), Bobea Mannii (Ahakea) and others. It also en- 
croaches on the border of the rain forest where it is a straighter and taller tree 
than when growing on the drier forehills. 

On the road to Halemanu, near Puu ka pele of the Waimea canyon, the writer 
saw a fine specimen which was loaded with fruit, and the ground beneath was 
covered with thousands of seeds, but none had sprouted. 

It may be remarked, that any attempt to germinate seeds of the Hawaiian 
Sandalwoods resulted in failure. Hillebrand records a similar fate in his Flora 
of the Hawaiian Islands. 

Santalum Haleakalae Hbd. 

Iliahi. 
(Plate 45.) 

SANTALUM HALEAKALAE Hbd. Flora Haw. Isl. (1888) 390;-Del Cast. 1. c. p. 283. 
Santalum pyrularium var. ft. A. Gray, mss. Bot. U. S. E. E. ined; H. Mann, Proc. 
Am. Acad. A'H (1867) 198. 

A small tree with stiff erect branches; leaves thick, coriaceous to chartaceous (at 
lower elevations) dull light green, ovate-obovate oblong 3 to 5 cm long, 25 to 30 mm 
broad, on petioles of 4 to 6 mm, bluntly acuminate or rounded; panicles crowded near the 
end of each branch, constituting a terminal corymb of 3 to 8 cm in length and also in 
width; flowers subsessile, of a deep scarlet red, the perigone 8 to 10 mm, with the lobes 
as long as the tube or longer; disc-lobes lanceolate, longer than the filaments; anthers 
on short filaments, their cells diverging at base and apex; style subexserted, 3-cleft; drupe 
ovoid 12 to 16 mm long, truncate at the base, and with a conical vertex at the apex and a 
short annulus below the same, putamen minutely runcinate. 

This species, which is easily distinguished from the other Hawaiian Sandal- 
woods by its dense corymbose inflorescence, which is bright scarlet, is peculiar to 
the Island of Maui, and at that confined to the eastern part Mt. Haleakala, after 
which mountain it was named by Hillebrand, who records it as a shrub. 

It is, however, also a tree, though not of any size ; the highest trees observed by 
the writer were about 25 feet. It grows around the crater of Puunianiau, on the 
northeastern slope of Mt. Haleakala, at an elevation of 7000 to 9000 feet. It was 

133 



PLATE 45. 





SANTALUM HALEAKALAE (Gray) Hbd. 
Iliahi, Sandalwood. 



Amarantaceae. 

also found as a small tree 15 to 18 feet in height on the floor of Haleakala crater 
in Koolau gap and Kaupo gap, in company with Sophora chnjsophylla (Mamani), 
Geranium tridens (Hinahina), and the well-known Silversword (Argyroxiphium 
sandwicense var. nMcrocephatum) . 

It has been reported by Hillebrand to grow only at very high elevations near the 
summit of the mountain, together with Raillardia and Geranium. It may, how- 
ever, be of interest to state that it was observed by the writer on the southern 
slopes of Haleakala on the lava flows of Auahi, Kahikinui, at an elevation of 2600 
feet. At this latter locality, which is one of the richest botanical districts in the 
Territory, it is a fine-looking tree and does not show any signs of stiff branches 
and short, gnarled trunks, as, of course, must be expected at high altitudes. Were 
it not for the dense inflorescence and bright scarlet perigones, one could easily 
mistake it for Santalum elliptic urn of Oahu, which it, in reality, resembles greatly. 

The wood of trees from the high levels is exceedingly fragrant, and of a dark 
yellowish brown color. 

AMARANTACEAE. 

The family Amarantaceae occurs in all floral regions of the world, with the ex- 
ception of the frigid zones. It consists of about 40 genera, with about 655 species. 

In the Hawaiian Islands only five genera are represented, two of which are 
endemic (Charpentiera and Nototrichium) and have arborescent species. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Style simple with a capitate stigma. 

Flowers villous or hispid; in terminal or axillary spikes 2. Nototrichium 

Style deeply divided into 2 stigmatic branches. 

Flowers glabrous, in long paniculate spikes 1. Charpentiera 

CHARPENTIERA Gaud. 

Flowers inconspicuous, arranged on long slender branched paniculate spikes. Ovary 
ovoid, with two stigmas. Androeceum consisting of a shortly 5 lobed discus-cup, with 5 
stamina, alternating with the discus lobes. Pericarp dry. Trees or shrubs with always 
long petioled, ovate to obovate or elliptico-lanceolate leaves. 

The genus Charpentiera is peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands and consists of two 
species, Clt. elliptica (Hbd.) Heller, and Ch. obovata Gaud. The former is a 
shrub peculiar to Kauai, the latter a tree found on all the islands. The native 
name of the species is Papala. 

Charpentiera obovata Gaud. 

Papala. 
(Plates 46, 47, 48.) 

CHARPENTIEKA OBOVATA Gaud. Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826, 1830) 444, pi. 48; Hook, et 
Arnott. Bot. Beech. (1832) 94; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 718; Moquin-Tandon 
in DC. Prodr. XIII (1849) 2. p. 232; Wawra (1875) 188; Sinclair Indig. Fl. Haw. 
Isl. (1885) pi. 44; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 375; Del Cast. 111. PI. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
VII (1892) 269; Schinz in Engl. et Prantl. Pflzfam. III. 1. a. (1893) 10], fig. 52; 
Heller PL Haw. Isl. (1897) 820. Ch. ovata Gaud. 1. c. pi. 47; H. et A. 1. c.; 
Endl. 1. c. no. 919; Moqu. 1. c.; Mann Enum. (1867) no. 423 (ex parte); Hbd. 
1. c. etc. 

135 



PLATE 46. 




CHARPENTIERA OBOVATA Gaud. 
Papala. 

Flowering and fruiting branch, reduced one-half. 



PLATE 47. 




CHARPENTIERA OBOVATA Gaud. 
Papala. 

Growing on the lava fields of Kapua, South Kona, Hawaii; elevation 2000 feet. Fruiting 
branch pinned against trunk of tree. 



PLATE 48. 




CHARPENTIERA OBOVATA Gaud. 

Papala. 
Growing on the lava fields of Kapua, South Kona, Hawaii. Tree about 25 feet tall. 



Amarantaceae. 

Leaves ovate or obovate-oblong 6 to 30 cm long, 4 to 12 cm wide, on petioles of 
2 to 8 cm rounded at both ends, slightly decurrent into the petiole, fleshy, thick or char- 
taceous when fresh, glabrous, dark green, with impressed straight parallel veins; panicles 
compound, red, often 40 to 50 cm long, but smaller in the specimens from dry districts, on 
peduncles of sometimes more than 12 cm; flowers 2 mm, thin rather pale; bracts about 1 
mm, ovate; sepals ovate, stamens about as long as the sepals; utriculus 2 to 3 mm, 
enclosed or partly exserted; stigmas deeply bifid exserted. 

This is a tree of 15 to 35 feet in height, and reaches its best development in 
the dry regions. It is a very variable species, and was, as a matter of fact, de- 
scribed by Gaudichaud as two different species, mainly on the shape of the leaf. 

The Papala occurs on all the islands of the group in the rain as well as the dry 
forests. It is not uncommon in Manoa and Pauoa valleys, Oahu, as well as in 
the whole Koolau range, where it grows in densely shaded ravines and on moun- 
tain slopes. On Kauai it is plentiful at Hanalei and neighborhood. We find it 
again in all the valleys of the Kohala mountains, but not higher than about 4000 
feet. The biggest and finest specimens of this tree the writer observed in North 
Kona, Hawaii, at Puuwaawaa, where the trunks reached a diameter of two and 
a half feet, being perfectly straight and clothed in a very smooth, light brown, thin 
bark. The trunk, in its lower portion, usually divides into several column-like 
parts, in the form of buttresses. When in full bloom it is a rather attractive 
looking tree. The wood is very soft and fibrous, and when dry exceedingly light, 
and will burn like paper. It is the very tree which was used by the natives for a 
most. original and grand display of fireworks, owing to the easiness with which 
the wood can be ignited. Mrs. Sinclair in her beautiful book on the "Indigenous 
Flowers of the Hawaiian Islands, ' ' says the following in regard to this sport : 
"On the northwest side of Kauai the coast is extremely precipitous, the cliffs 
rising abruptly from the sea to a height of from one to two thousand feet, and 
from these giddy heights the ingenious and beautiful pyrotechnic displays take 
place. 

' ' On dark moonless nights upon certain points of these awful precipices, where 
a stone would drop sheer into the sea, the operator takes his stand with a supply of 
papala sticks, and, lighting one, launches it into space. The buoyancy of the w r ood 
causes it to float in mid-air, rising or falling according to the force of the wind, 
sometimes darting far seaward, and again drifting towards the land. Firebrand 
follows firebrand, until, to the spectators (w r ho enjoy the scene in canoes upon the 
ocean hundreds of feet below), the heavens appear ablaze with great shooting 
stars, rising and falling, crossing and recrossing each other, in the most weird 
manner. So the display continues until the firebrands are consumed, or a lull in 
the wind permits them to descend slowly and gracefully to the sea." 

On the Island of Kauai in the forest of Kaholuamano occurs another species of 
this genus Ch. elliptica (Hbd.) Heller. It is certainly quite distinct from Ch. 
obovata in the long elliptical-lanceolate leaves, and very short inflorescence which 
is almost erect and not drooping. Hillebrand mentions it as a variety elliptica. 

NOTOTRICHIUM Hbd. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, small conical, hispid villous or pubescent. Perianth deeply 
4 parted, the lobes equal, an outer pair enclosing the inner one. Stamens slightly con- 

139 



PLATE 49. 




NOTOTRICHIUM SANDWICENSE Hbd. 
Kului. 

Showing flowering branch. 
Photographed from Herbarium specimen; nearly one-half natural size. 



Amarantaceae. 

nected at the base. Ovary one-celled, one-ovulate. Style slender; stigma capitate. Fruit 
an oblong or obovoid thin utricle, enclosed in the perianth. Seed lenticular, with thin 
testa. Shrubs or trees with dichotomous branches and opposite penninerved leaves. Flow- 
ers in terminal and axillary spikes with a woolly or pubescent rhachis. 

The endemic genus consists of three closely-related species. In Engler and 
Prantl's Xattirl. Pllzfam. the genus Nototrichium is merged with Psilotrichium, 
from which it differs, however, in the equal perianth lobes and tetramerous. 
flowers. 

Only one species, N. sandwicense, becomes arborescent; the other two species, 
are shrubs. One of them occurs on Kauai, the other on Oahu, while N. sand- 
u- ice use or Kului occurs on nearly all the islands of the group. 

Nototrichium sandwicense Hbd. 
Kului. 

(Plates 49, 50.) 

NOTOTRICHIUM SANDWICENSE Hbd. Flora Haw. Isl. (1888) 373; Heller PI. Haw. IsL 
(1S97) 821. Ptilotus sandwicensis A. Gray in Bot. U. S. E. E. ined; H. Mann 
Proe. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 200. Psilotrichium sandwicense Seem. Fl. Vit. (1867) 
198, adnot; Wawra in Flora (1875) 186; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII 
(1892) 270; Schinz in Engl. et Prantl. Pflzfam. III. 1. a. (1893) 111. 

Branches slender, articulated, covered with an ochraceous tomentum; leaves opposite, 
ovate, acuminate, covered with a silky adpressed tomentum especially the underside of the 
leaf, which is silvery tomentose, contracting into a petiole of 12 to 18 mm, 2 to 8 cm 
long, 1.5 to -1 cm wide; spikes generally 3 or 5 at the end of a branch; thick ovoid to cylin- 
drical, 1.5 to 3 cm long on peduncles of 6 to 30 mm, the rhachis densely villous; flowers 
crowded, ovoid 2 to 3 mm long, villous with spreading hairs at the base; perianth lobes 
ovate lanceolate 3 to 5 nerved, hispid at the back; stamens nearly as long; ovary oblong r 
truncate; style as long as the perianth, with punctiform stigma. 

The Kului, which is usually only a shrub several feet high in the lowlands, be- 
comes a small tree of about 15 to 20 feet in height in the lower forest zone at 2000- 
to 3000 feet altitude. 

It is a handsome little tree and quite conspicuous by its silvery gray foliage and 
its pretty catkins which droop from the end of every branchlet. It is peculiar to- 
the very dry regions and may be found as a straggling shrub where nothing else 
can live. 

In Kona, Hawaii, especially near Puuwaawaa, it forms a regular hedge along 
the government road on the rough aa lava fields. On Molokai it grows on the 
western end in gulches, on the slopes of Mauna Loa, where it forms, together with 
the Xau (Gardenia Brigiiamii), the Ohe (Reynoldsia sandwicensis} and the Wili- 
u'iU (Enjthrina monosperma), the last remnants of what was once a xerophytic 
forest. At Puuwaawaa, Hawaii, proper, it grows to a small tree about 15 to 20 1 
feet in height at an elevation of 3000 feet, besides also at Kawaihaeiuka (2500- 
feet), together with Maua (Xylosma Hillebrandii} and the Mamani (Sophora 
cJirysopJnjUa}. It also is not uncommon on Maui and Oahu. On the latter island 
it inhabits the arid regions of the Waianae Mountains. It occurs as a tree on the 
lava fields of Kau, and South Kona ; on the slopes of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and 
forms, in certain districts as Manuka, about 80% of the growth. 

141 



PLATE 50. 




NOTOTRICHIUM SANDWICENSE Hbd. 

Kului. 

Growing on the slopes of Mauna Loa, Molokai; elevation 2000 feet, 
ground, Erythrina monosperma (Wiliwili). 



Tree in back- 



Nyctaginaceae. 

Two varieties have been described, one from Kauai by Asa Gray, and another 
from the Pali of Kalaupapa, Molokai. 

The wood is coarsely grained and very light, resembling the wood of the Papala. 

NYCTAGINACEAE. 

This family is one of the most interesting in the vegetable kingdom, on account 
of its many peculiarities. All Nyctaginaceae are void of corollas, but possess, 
however, a perigone of often remarkable beauty. The family consists of 18 
genera, with about 155 species ; it is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by 
three genera, only one of which, Pisonia, has arborescent species. 

The Nyctaginaceae are either herbs, shrubs or trees, and are distributed over the 
warmer regions of the whole world, especially in tropical America. 

PISONIA Plum. 

Flowers rarely hermaphrodite, usually unisexual, with 2 to 3 small triangular to linear 
bracts at their base. Male flower campanulate, with a 5-lobed perigone and 5 to 30 
(usually 6 to 8) stamens, which are very shortly united at their base, and exserted, sur- 
rounding a rudimentary ovary. Female flowers tubular, 5 lobed, with staminodia and 
an often plainly stipitate, elongate ovary, with a filiform style and fringed capitate stigma. 
Anthocarp of variable form, elliptical to long prismatic, etc., smooth or angular with 
viscous glands. Shrubs or trees with small often fragrant flowers and usually opposite, 
elliptical, lanceolate or obovate leaves. 

The genus consists of about 40 described species which occur in the tropics and 
their neighboring regions. Only one species is found on the African coasts. 

The fruiting perigone of the Hawaiian species exudes a very viscous substance, 
which was used by the natives as a bird lime. 

The nomenclature of the species of Pisonia is very much confused, different 
authors having referred our species to plants from other parts of the world. A. 
Heimerl expresses the possibility of our endemic species (P. sandwicensis) being 
identical with P. artensis from New Caledonia. 

The writer has adhered to Hillebrand's nomenclature as regards this latter 
species, rather than Heimerl's, who says that our Hawaiian Pisonia is not well 
known to him. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Limb of perigone lobed. 

Leaves cuneate, inflorescence a terminal loose umbel or contracted panicle 

P. umbellifera 

Leaves broad at the base, inflorescence a globose head P. sandwicensis 

Limb of perigone entire. 

Leaves elliptical oblong, inflorescence a loose open panicle P. inermis 



143 



PLATE 51. 




PISONIA SANDWICENSIS Ilbd. 
Aulu. 

Female flowering branch and fruits, reduced one-half. 



Xyctaginaceae. 

Pisonia umbellifera (Forst.) Seem. 
Papala kepau. 

PISONIA UMBELLIFERA (Forst.) Seem, in Bonpl. X. (1862) 154; et Fl. Vit. (1866) 
195; Xadeaud, Enum. Tahit. PI. (1873) no. 326; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 
368; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pae. VII (1892)268, et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 
157; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 823. Ceodes umbellifera Forst. Charact. Gen. 
(1776) 141, t. 71. C. umbellata Forst. Prodr. (1786) no. 569. Pisonia excelsa 
Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 735; Choisy in DC. Prodr. XIII. 2. (1849) 441; H. Maim 
Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 198.' P. macrocarpa Presl. Symb. (1833) t. 56. P. 
Forsteriana Endl. In Herb. Meyen ex Seliauer et AValp. Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. XIX., 
Suppl. (1843) 403 t. 51. P. Sinclair! Hook. f. Fl. New Zeal. I. (1853) 209 t. 50. 
P. Mooreana F. Muller Fragm. I. (1858-59) 20. 

Brandies large and stiff with long internodes; leaves broadly obovate, cuneate at 
the base, obtuse or shortly acuminate but sometimes broad at the base and suborbicular, 
12 to 26 cm long, 8 to 12 cm wide, on petioles of about 12 mm, fleshy, the upper ones 
crowded in a whorl at the internodes of the branches, the lower sub-opposite; inflorescence 
terminal, subumbellate, one or several peduncles rising from the apex of a branch, divid- 
ing at or near the apex into loose umbel or contracted panicle; perigone greenish to yel- 
lowish, smooth, with the limb 5-fid; fruiting pedicels of 6 to 18 mm, obtusely 5-ribbed, 
viscid, but smooth; utricle 1/2 to 2/3 the length of the perigone. 

A low tree 15 to 30 feet high, common on most of the islands, inhabiting the 
forests of the lower regions. On Oahu it is a common feature of the vegetation 
back of Tantalus and adjoining valleys. Unlike the other species, it is moisture 
loving, and forms large clumps in the valleys on the windward side, where the 
rainfall is very large. Logs of this tree, which the writer collected for wood 
specimens, shriveled to such an extent that it was impossible to recognize them 
afterward, resembling the stems of shriveled banana plants. Trunks of a foot 
in diameter can be felled with one stroke of the axe. It is of a very wide geo- 
graphical distribution, ranging from Polynesia to Australia and the Philippines. 
On Oahu it is found at an elevation of 200 to 1600 feet, and possibly higher. It 
is very difficult to find good specimens on account of an insect which feeds on the 
leaves, and thus most of the trees have a very ungainly appearance. 

Pisonia sandwicensis Hbd. 
Aulu on Kauai. 

(Plate 51.) 

PISONIA SANDWICENSIS Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 369; Heimerl in Engl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. III. 1. b. (1889) 29; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 823. Pisonia umbelli- 
fera Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII (1892) 268 (ex parte) et Fl. Polyn. 
Franc. (1893) 157. 

Leaves thick coriaceous 10 to 30 cm long, 6 to 15 cm wide, on petioles of 3 to 5 cm, 
ovate oblong, obtuse or rounded or bluntly acute at the apex, often even emarginate, the 
base rounded, the ribs and veins prominent; peduncles in the axils of the uppermost 
leaves, 3 to 6 cm long, dividing in few short rays, forming a globose head of about 5 cm 
in diam., flowers sessile; male perigone 5 to 6 mm, deeply parted into 5 to 6 obtuse lobes; 
stamens 18 to 20, long exserted, twice the length of the perigone; female perigone tubular, 
style exserted, fringed along its upper clavate portion; fruiting perigone (mature) 4 cm 
long, ovoid-cylindrical, crowned with the lobes of the limb and style; not muricate, but 
faintly many ribbed. 

The Aiilu, as the tree is called on Kauai, is a tall tree, reaching a height 
of 50 to 60 feet, with usually 2 to 3 trunks of 1 to 2 feet in diameter, rising from 

145 

10 



PLATE 52. 




PISONIA INERMIS Forst. 
Papala kepau. 

Fruiting branch. Note insects caught on viscous fruits. One-half natural size. 



Nyctaginaceae. 

a common base. The writer has observed splendid specimens on the Island of 
Kauai, in the dry districts and gulches below Kaholuamano about 2500 feet 
above sea level, where it is to be found in company with Cryptocarya Mannii, 
Hibiscus Waimeae, Urera sp., Xylosma Hawaiiense (Maua), Osmanthus sand- 
ivicensis, the native olive, Olopua or Pua, and others. The tree is conspicuous 
from the distance on account of its large and very dark-green leaves ; the wood, 
like that of the other species, is soft, and trees are never cut for the sake of the 
wood. The flowers, which are arranged in globose heads, are very fragrant and 
not altogether unattractive. On Lanai, where it does not grow to such a height as 
on Kauai, it associates with Rauwolfia sandwicensis, Sideroxylon sp., Suttonia 
Lanaiensis, etc., and thrives best at an altitude of about 2000 feet, on the dry 
ridges of Kaiholena and Mahana valleys. It has also been recorded from Molokai 
and Maui. The Aulu flowers usually during the summer months, from June to 
August, though fruits, which have the same properties as the Papala kepau, may 
be seen together with flowers on one and the same tree. It is peculiar to the 
Hawaiian Islands. The largest leafed specimens the writer observed on the lava 
fields of Kapua, S. Kona, Hawaii, where it is a small tree. 

The wood is very light w r hen dry and very porous; the branches are very 
brittle and break easily. 

Pisonia inermis Forst. 

Papala kepau. 

(Plates 52, 53.) 

PISONIA INERMIS Forst. Prodr. (1776) 75. no. 397; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1866) 195. 
P. inermis var. leiocarpa Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 369. P. grandis E, Brown 
Prodr. Nov. Holl. (1810) 422; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 197; 
Heimerl in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 1. b. (1889) 29. P. procera, Bertero, mss. 
in Guill. Zeph. Tait. (1837) 39; Delles. Icon. Select. III. t. 87. P. Brunoniana 
Eiidl. Fl. Norf. (1833) 43. n. 88; F. Bauer, Illust. PI. Norf. t. 145. P. umbelli- 
fera Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 268 et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 
157, ex parte. 

Leaves opposite, elliptico or obovate oblong 8 to 14 cm long,, 3 to 8 em wide, on 
petioles of 15 to 20 mm, bluntly acuminate, contracted at the base, thin; flowers mostly 
hermaphrodite in a loose open panicle of 15 to 35 cm in length; perigone pale, 4 to 6 mm, 
tubular funnel shaped, the spreading limb entire, plaited with 5 to 10 crenatures; stamens 
8 to 12 exserted; style as long as the stamens, stigma oblique, not fringed; fruiting peri- 
gone fusiform 35 mm long, 5-ribbed. 

This tree, as well as Pisonia umbellifera, is known to the natives as Papala 
Kepau (kepau being the general name for substances such as tar, pitch, etc.), 
on account of the viscid glue which exudes from the fruits. It is a small tree 15 
to 18 feet high, with elliptical-oblong thin leaves; it differs from the other two 
species in its large, loose panicle and in the flowers, which have the perigone not 
parted but entire. It inhabits the dry or semi-dry districts. It may be found in 
gulches back of Makawao, Island of Maui, in company with Pelea cinerea, Xan- 
tlio.rylum sp., Pseudomorus Bninnoniana, etc., as well as on the lava fields of 
Auahi, crater of Haleakala. On Hawaii it grows on the outskirts of the lava fields 



PLATE 53. 




PISONIA INERMIS Forst. 

Papala kepau. 
Growing in the Kipuka Puaulu, near Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



in Kona, slope of Mt. Hualalai, elevation 2000 feet, and on the slopes of Mauna 
Loa, land of Keauhou, at an elevation of 4000 feet, near Kilauea volcano ; on the 
Parker Ranch near Waimea, and also on Molokai. 

The fruits of this, as well as other species, were used by the natives for catch- 
ing birds, and was spoken of as the "he kepau kapili manu," or bird lime. The 
wood is very soft and of no value. Pisonia inermis extends over the Society, Gam- 
bier, Fiji, and Tonga groups, as well as Australia and Ceylon. It forms part of 
the beach forests of the Andaman Islands. The fresh leaves are used in India 
medicinally to subdue elephantiac inflammation in the legs or other parts. It 
is not uncommon in New Zealand, where it is called "Para-para" by the northern 
Maoris. 

LAURACBAE. 

The family Lauraceae is distributed over the tropical and subtropical regions 
of both hemispheres. It consists of 39 genera, with about 950 species. The 
genus Cassitha, also occurring in the Hawaiian Islands, is the only genus with 
parasitic species, which reminds one very much of the Dodder or Cuscuta species. 

In these islands only one genus (Cryptocarya) has a single arborescent repre- 
sentative, which is peculiar to Kauai and the Waianae range of Oahu. 

CRYPTOCARYA R. Br. 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Tube of perianth, after flowering, constricted. Staminodia 
of the 4 circles ovate, shortly stipitate. Fruit dry, but entirely enclosed within 
the fleshy periantheal tubes. Testa of the seed hardly separable from pericarp. Flowers 
small in short axillary panicles. Trees with alternate penninerved leaves. 

The genus Cryptocarya, which consists of about 40 species, reaches its best de- 
velopment in South-east Asia, especially Java and the Sunda Islands. A few oc- 
cur in South Africa, nine in tropical Australia and a single one in the Hawaiian 
Islands. Ten species are American, especially Brazilian. To this genus belongs 
Cr. inoschata Mart., the American nutmeg. 

Cryptccarya Mannii Hbd. 
Hollo. 

CRYPTOCARYA MANNH TIbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 382; -Del Cast. 111. Fl. Mar. Pac. 
VII. (1892) 278; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 826. Oreodaphne? Mann in Proc. 
Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 199. 

Branches angular, the young leaves and inflorescence silky with a brownish tomentum; 
leaves thick coriaceous, glabrate, oblong 7 to 10 cm long, 30 to 40 mm wide, obtuse, nar- 
rowing at the base, the flat midrib prolonged into a flat margined petiole of 8 to 16 mm; 
panicles or racemes axillary, 12 to 18 mm long, few flowered; flowers hermaphrodite; 
perianth silky outside and within, funnel shaped 4 to 5 mm; lobes 6 in two series, the 
inner ones larger, rounded; stamens 9 of nearly equal length, the 6 outer ones inserted at 
the base of the lobes and shorter, anthers longer than the broad hairy filaments; the 3 
inner anthers extrorse, ovoid, alternating with broad triangular staminodia. Ovary 
free, ovoid; style short obtuse; drupe ovoid globose, bluish-black, about 16 mm long, 
12-ribbed, the thin putamen closely adherent to the perianth; seed with thin testa; the 
drupe is crowned by the remains of the perianth. 

149 



PLATE 54. 




BROUSSAISIA PELLUCIDA Gand. 

Kanawau and Puahanui. 
Male and female branch, the latter with mature fruits; reduced. 



The Holio is a very common tree in the forests of the leeward side of Kauai, 
where it associates with Bobea Mannii (Ahakea), Elaeocarpus bifidus (Kalia), Al- 
pliitonia excelsa (Kauila), and others. It is a medium-sized tree, reaching a 
height of 20 to 30 feet, but rarely more. The trunk is somewhat rough and not 
exceeding 10 to 12 inches in diameter. It inhabits the drier districts of Kauai at 
an elevation of 3000 to 4000 feet, is light-loving and therefore mostly found on 
the outskirts of the forests. Mr. Forbes has found this tree, which was thought 
to be peculiar to Kauai, on the Waianae range of Oahu, whose vegetation is very 
similar to that of Kauai. Nothing could be ascertained from the natives as to 
the uses of this tree. Even the name Holio was not known to many of them. 

SAXIFRAGACEAE 

The family Saxifragaceae, which consists of 69 genera and about 581 species, is 
very widely distributed from tropical Asia to Africa and Australia, also in 
America and insular regions. In the Hawaiian Islands the family is represented 
by a single endemic genus with two species, which belongs to the section Hydran- 
geoideae, as it is a relative and representative of the well-known Hydrangea. 

BROUSSAISIA Gaud. 



Flowers through abortion unisexual. Male flowers with fiat receptacle, 5 lanceolate 
sepals, and 5 valvate petals. Stamens 10, with thick subulate filaments, ovate anthers, and 
sterile gynoeceum. Female flowers with cup-shaped to ovoid receptacle, triangular sepals, 
and small scale-like petals, without stamens. Ovary inferior, five-celled; ovules numerous 
on thick bipartite placentas, with thick style and thick 5-lobed stigma. Berry globose, 
fleshy, many seeded. Trees with thick densely tomentose terete branches, opposite or 
whorled serrate leaves, and small flowers arranged in terminal corymbs. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves opposite; petals bluish green B. arguta 

Leaves ternate; petals reddish B. pellucida 

Broussaisia arguta Gaud. 
Kanawau and Puahanui. 

BROUSSAISIA ARGUTA Gaud. Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826, 1830) 479-80 t. 69; DC. Prodr. 
IV. (1830) 17; Hook, et Am. Bot. Beech. (1832) 84;-Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) 
no. 1417; A. Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 683. t. 87; H. Mann, Proc. Am. Acad. 
VII. (1867) 165, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 240; Mrs. Sinclair Indig. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1885) pi. 36 (is not B. pellucida] i ; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 120; Del Cast. 
111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 163; Engler in Engl. et Prantl. Pflzfam. III. 
2. a. (1891) 77; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 828. 

Leaves opposite (never ternate) obovate oblong, slightly acuminate, closely serrate, 
gradually tapering into a thick fleshy petiole which is dilated at the base, coriaceous gla- 
brous, quite opaque, dark green above with impressed A r eins which are shortly hirsute; 
corymb 5 to 7 cm in height and about 10 cm in width, hirsute, the branches subtended by 
foliaceous sessile bracts of 12 to 25 mm, the bractlets smaller, caducous; male flowers: 
petals greenish-blue, spreading triangular, coriaceous, much longer than the acute sepals; 
stamens exserted; female flowers calyx ovoid, the narrow acute teeth 2 mm, petals scale- 
like, 1 mm, ovary adnate to about % of its length; berry dark red, globose with a free 
conical apex, with distinct persistent style and crowned by the calycine teeth and petals; 
seed V-2 mm. 

151 



Saxifragaceae. 

This is one of the most common trees or shrubs which the traveler will meet in 
the Hawaiian rain forests. It occurs in all the islands of the group at elevations 
of 1000 to 3000 feet. It is conspicuous by its dark green shiny leaves, and when 
in fruit it is not at all unattractive. The native name of this, as well as of the 
other species, is Puahanui and Kanawau. It is never found in the dry districts, 
but is confined to the rain forests, where precipitation is heavy. It is easily dis- 
tinguished from the other species by its small corymb and opposite leaves, which 
are not transparent. 

Broussaisia pellucida Gaud. 
Puahanui. 
(Plate 54.) 

BROUSSAISIA PELLUCIDA Gaud. Bot. Voy. Bon. (1844-52) pi. 9. (exclus. fig. 11 & 12); 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 121; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. VI (1890) 163; Engl. in 
Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 2. a. (1891) 77. 

Leaves whorled, ternate, narrower, 4 to 6 cm in width; corymb larger and more 
open; male flowers: calyx about 2 mm; petals 4 mm, reddish; female flowers: calycine 
lobes short dentiform, not longer than the petaloid scales; ovary adnate only in the lower 
half; berry smaller, the stigma sessile on the free conical apex. 

This species is certainly quite distinct from B. arguta, but is not confined to 
Puna, Hawaii, as it occurs on all the islands of the group, but at higher elevations 
than B. arguta. This latter species practically goes not higher than 3000 to 3500 
feet, while the other species takes its place up to 5000 and nearly 6000 feet eleva- 
tion. It differs from B. arguta in the larger female corymb, which is more open 
and almost as long as broad, while the male corymb is smaller and denser. A 
characteristic is the ternate leaves, which are not as broad as in B. arguta, and 
are perfectly pellucid, a characteristic not found in B. arguta, whose leaves are 
opaque. All these characteristics are constant; Gaudichaud's plate in Bot. Voy. 
Bonite is most excellent and shows at a glance the specific distinction from B. 
arguta. (Excluding figures 11 and 12.) 

The figs. 11 and 12 in Gaudichaud's plate certainly do not represent B. pellu- 
cida as the stigmas in all specimens examined are sessile and not raised on a 
columnar style as is the case in B. arguta. As no text was published with the 
plate, they perhaps were introduced for comparison. 

The native names for this and the previous species are Puahanui and Kanawau. 
It occurs on all the islands of the group, and is not confined to Puna, Hawaii, as 
;*iven by Hillebrand. The writer collected it on the high plateau of Kauai and at 
the summit of Waialeale, on the same island : on Haleakala, Maui, it is not uncom- 
mon in the rain forests at an elevation of 4000 to 6000 feet. It is found on all 
the mountains of Hawaii, Mauna Loa, Kau, Hualalai, South and North Kona, Ila- 
makua, and on the summit of the Kohala Mountains. The red berries are much 
sought for by the native birds. 

It is a small tree, but often a shrub with stout and soft branches which are 
hirsute at their ends. 

152 



PITTOSPORACE:AE. 

With the exception of the genus Pittosporum, this family is exclusively Aus- 
tralian. It consists of 9 genera, 8 of which are peculiar to Australia. The 
genus Pittosporum is distributed over the tropics of the old world, from tropical 
and extra-tropical South Africa to the Hawaiian Islands, and reaches its 
northern boundary in Japan and from there to the Canary Islands. Its position 
in the natural system has been a varied one, as the relationship of this family 
to other plant families has been rather a mystery. Pax, in his treatise in Engler 
& Prantl, places it near the Hamamelidaceae, in common with which it has the 
resin ducts. 

PITTOSPORUM Banks. 

Calyx lobes free or united at the base, petals sometimes united; stamina subulate; 
anthers erect. Ovary sessile or shortly stipitate, incompletely 2, rarely 3-5celled. Style 
short. Capsule often laterally compressed, with coriaceous or woody valves. Seeds smooth 
or rugose, covered with a viscous resinous milky white pulp. Evergreen shrubs or trees, 
glabrous or tomentose. Leaves entire or dentate, often crowded in spurious whorls. 
Flowers in terminal or axillary racemes, panicles or clusters. 

The genus consists of more than 70 species, and is distributed from Africa 
to the islands of the Pacific, as in Fiji, Timor, New Guinea and in the Hawaiian 
Islands, where they have reached a wonderful development. The species are 
dependent on the insects for pollination. The flowers of the Hawaiian species 
are dimorphous; that is, they are of two kinds fertile and sterile. It is very 
difficult to render the exact limitation of each species, which is shown by the 
fact that the writer has found capsules belonging to three different species on a 
single inflorescence, on a tree found on the island of Lanai. Hillebrand, who 
had no mature capsules of each species, but of only a few, based his key to the 
species on the flowers. Ten species were originally described, to which number 
the writer has added three new ones. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Inflorescence axillary or cauline. 

Leaves glabrous; flowers white or cream-colored, the raceme pedunculate, seeds 
smooth. 
Flowers pedicellate. 

Sepals ovate, capsule smooth or occasionally roughened, leaves spathu- 

late to oblong lanceolate P. glabrum 

Sepals lanceolate acute or subulate, capsule rough. 

Pedicels and peduncle very long, leaves acuminate... P. acuminatum 

Pedicels short, leaves thick dark green rounded P. spathulatum 

Flowers sessile or glomerate at the end of a long peduncle.... P. glomeratum 
Leaves tomentose, obtuse or acuminate, flowers subsessile or pedicellate; seeds often 
rough at the back. 

Flowers small in a sessile cluster; capsule smooth P. terminalioides 

Flowers larger on a distinct peduncle, capsule smooth P. cauliflorum 

Flowers glomerate pedicellate, capsule very large 5 to 7 cm long, smooth 

P. Hosmeri 

Flowers pedicellate, capsule small, rough, densely tomentose, leaves strongly 
curved P, Gayanum 

153 



PLATE 55. 




PITTOSPORUM GLABRUM Hook, et Am. 
Hoawa. 

Fruiting branch about one-half natural size. 



Pittosporaceae. 

Inflorescence terminal, axillary and cauline. 
Leaves glabrous, seeds smooth. 

Flowers large pedicellate, capsule rough, glabrous P. insigne 

Leaves tomentose, seeds smooth. 

Flowers large, capsule bluish glaucous, deeply wrinkled P. Hawaiiense 

Flowers subsessile, capsule small, quadrangular smooth P. Kauaiense 

Leaves tomentose, seeds rough. 

Flowers nearly always terminal, capsule rough, tomentose P. confertiflorum 

Pittosporum glabrum Hook, et Arn. 

Hoawa. 
(Plate 55.) 

PITTOSPORUM GLABRUM Hook, et Arn. Bot. Beech. (1832) 110; End. Fl. Suds. (1836) 

no. 1585; Gray, Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 229; H. Mann, Proc. Am. Ac. VII. 

(1867) 151 et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 125; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 23; Del Cast. 

111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI (1890) 110; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 829. 

A small tree glabrous throughout; only the young shoots pubescent; leaves thin 

coriaceous, on slender branches, in loose whorls; spathulate to ovate oblong or oblanceolate, 

tapering at the base into a short petiole, the apex obtuse, rounded or acuminate; peduncles 

terminal, axillary or below the leaves, corymbose racemose, 6 to 12 flowered; sepals ovate 

acute 3 mm, glabrous; corolla 12 mm, white or cream-colored, the spreading tips 4 mm 

long; stamens nearly as long as the tube; style twice the length of the glabrous ovary; 

stigma truncate; capsule subglobose smooth, or rough, (wrinkled) two to three valved, the 

valves coriaceous, 25 mm in diam.; seeds smooth, angular. 

This is a variable species and presumably occurs on the whole Koolau range. 
It was collected by the writer in Manoa and Pauoa valleys, also in Nuuanu Val- 
ley* on Konahuanui, Mt. Olympus, and especially Palolo Valley, where it is ex- 
ceedingly common. In Niu Valley occurs a plant which agrees fairly well with 
those from the mountains back of Honolulu ; the leaves are little shorter and not 
acuminate, neither are the capsules rough, but smooth and more or less oblong 
rather than subglobose. It must, however, be referred to this species. 

It is a small tree 15 to 20 feet high and is peculiar to the rain, as well as the 
drier forests of the main mountain range of the island of Oahu at an elevation 
of 2000 feet. 

Pittosporum acuminatum Mann. 
Hoawa or Papahekili. 

PITTOSPORUM ACUMINATUM Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 152, et Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1867) 125; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 22; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 
VI. (1890) 110; Pax in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 2 a (1891) ID 1; Heller 
PI. Haw Isl. (1897) 828. 

Leaves chartaceous, oblanceolate-acuminate, perfectly glabrous, 8 to 20 cm long, 
2 to 4 cm wide, gradually merging into a short petiole of about 1 cm; axillary peduncles 
very slender 2.5 to 6 cm with flower, with fruit 8 cm, corymbose-racemose, the peduncle and 
pedicels hirsute, bracts subulate; flowers very fragrant, 5 to 12 or^even more, on pedicels 
of 7 to 20 mm, sepals very narrow subulate, pubescent, petals cream colored, stamens as 
long as the tube, anthers sagittate; style slender, as long as the corolla, often exserted, 
stigma capitate; capsule subglobose, tomentose, rugose (wrinkled), seeds black, minutely 
tuberculate. 

A very handsome, graceful tree with beautiful cream-colored, fragrant flowers. 
Tree about 18 to 20 feet high. It is a very distinct species and differs from all 
the rest of the Hawaiian Pittosporums in the slender long peduncles and 
pedicels. 

155 



PLATE 56. 




PITTOSPORUM SPATHULATUM Mann. 
Hoawa. 

Fruiting branch, about one-half natural size. 



Pittosporaceae. 

Wawra in Flora writes that P. aciiminatum, described by Mann, may belong 
to the group of P. terminal ioidcs. This view the writer does not share with 
AVawra. but he thinks it to be closer to P. insigne var. (3 Hbd. However, it is 
quite a distinct species. Specimens were collected by the writer on Kauai, to 
which island the tree is peculiar. It is plentiful at Halemanu, and Kaholua- 
mano at an elevation of 4000 feet, where it grows in the drier forests or on ex- 
posed ridges. It was also observed above Makaweli at an elevation of 2000 feet. 
Specimens from this locality differ somewhat from those of the higher elevations 
in being much stouter, and in having coriaceous instead of chartaceous leaves. 

Pittosporum spathulatum Mann. 
Hoawa. 

(Plate 56.) 

PITTOSPORUM SPATHULATUM Mann. Proc. Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 151, et Fl. Haw. 

Isl. (1867) 125; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 24; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 

VI. (1890) 111; Pax in Engl. et Prantl. Pflzfam. III. 2. a. (1891) 111. P. 

terminalioides Planch, var. spathulatum Gray, Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 231; 

Wawra in Flora (1873) 169. 

Branches stiff, densely foliose, the leaves dark green, sub-coriaceous glabrous, cuneate 
or obovate-spathulate, gradually narrowing from an obtuse and rounded apex into a short 
petiole of 1 to 1.5 cm; 6 to 12 cm long, 2 to 4 cm wide; inflorescence axillary with a yel- 
lowish pubescence; peduncle very short, about 6 mm or more, pedicels of the same length; 
sepals ovate-elongate, obtuse or acute, sparingly pubescent; stamens shorter than the tube, 
anthers sagittate; ovary densely tomentose, style the length of the ovary, stigma capi- 
tate; 'capsule glabrous when old, subquadrangular, deeply furrowed or runcinate, seeds 
smooth. 

A tree of 15 to 18 feet in height, occurring in the rain forests of Oahu, espe- 
cially in the Koolau range. It is a very distinct and not variable species, as its 
characteristics are quite constant. It is a rather handsome, though somber, 
plant, and is conspicuous from a distance on account of its dark green foliage. 
It is quite common on the upper slopes of Konahuanui, elevation 3000 feet, and in 
the mountains of Punaluu, Waiahole, and Waikane. In the upper forests of 
Oahu it takes the place of P. glabrum. which grows up to 2000 feet elevation. 
Horace Mann's specimens came from Kaala Mt., Waianae range. 

Pittosporum glomeratum Hbd. 
Hoawa, 

PITTOSPORUM GLOMERATUM Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 23; Del Cast. 1. c. p. 110; 
Pax 1. c. p. 111. 

Leaf whorls at intervals of 5 to 10 cm, the young shoots cinereous-pubescent; leaves 
spathulate elongate, 15 to 25 cm x 2.5 to 5.5 cm, acuminate or obtuse, gradually narrow- 
ing into a petiole of 25 mm or less, chartaceous glabrous; peduncle axillary 25 to 32 mm, 
bracteate, with a dense cluster of almost sessile flowers at the apex, pubescent, the lanceo- 
late bracts 3 to 6 mm; sepals ovate, obtuse 2 to 3 mm, tomentose; corolla white; with a 
tube of 10 mm; ovary tomentose; capsule and seeds as in P. glabrum. 

A small tree occurring at the eastern end of Oahu in Wailupe Valley. Hille- 
brand also describes a variety ft. acutisepala from the same region, evidently a 
slight variation. 

The species comes very close to P. glabrum and is perhaps only a form of it. 

157 



PLATE 57. 




PITTOSPORUM TERMINALIOIDES Planch. 
Flowering and fruiting branch, less than one-half natural size. 



Pittosporaceae. 

Pittosporum terminalioides Planch. 

Hoawa. 
(Plate 57.) 

PITTOSPORUM TERMINALIOIDES Planch, in Herb. Hook; A. Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. 
(1S.34) 231; H. Mann Proc. Acad. VII. (1867) 151; et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 
123; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 24; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI (1890) 
111. P. glabratum Putterl. Syn. Pittosp. 11. (pro parte non Hook, et Arn.). 

A small tree, with stiff branches; leaves crowded near the ends of the branches, 
chartaeeous to thick coriaceous, the upper side wrinkled with a close net-work, the lower 
side pubescent or glabrous when old, obovate to spathulate, or oblong, rounded at the apex 
or bluntly acuminate with revolute margins, 7 to 10 cm long, 2.5 to 3 cm wide on a 
petiole of 15 to 20 mm; inflorescence terminal, axillary or cauline, short tomentose, the 
thick peduncle about 2 to 10 mm long, the flowers subsessile; sepals ovate tomentose, 4 
mm, corolla cream-colored, the tube short, 6 mm, its lobes half as long; stamens half the 
length of the tube; ovary tomeutose, style of the same length as ovary, the two lobes 
of the stigma spreading; capsule quadrangular to oblong, tomentose, flattened, about 25 
mm each way, with a longitudinal median groove; seeds rough, dull. 

This species occurs on the island of Hawaii in the scrub forest at an elevation 
of 2000 feet and again in the scrub forests or open country at 7000 feet eleva- 
tion. On Maui the writer collected specimens on the lava fields of Auahi, dis- 
trict of Kahikinui, southern slopes of Haleakala at an elevation of 1500 feet, 
which belong to this species. It differs from the Hawaii plants in the leaves 
only; which are of much thinner texture, being chartaeeous and having rather 
indistinct veins, while in the plants from Kona and Kau, Hawaii, the veins are 
very strong and prominent. The specimen figured came from East Maui, 
southern slopes of Haleakala, where it grew on the rough aa flows along the gov- 
ernment road. It is a small tree, 15 to 18 feet in height, with a small trunk 
about 5 inches in diameter. 

Pittosporum cauliflorum Mann. 
Hoawa. 

PITTOSPORUM CAULIFLORUM Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 151, et Fl. Haw. 
Isl. (1867) 124; Wawra in Flora (1873) 168; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 24; 
Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI (1890) 110; Pax in Engl. et Prantl. Pflzfam. 
III. 2. a. (1891) 111. 

A loosely branching tree; leaves crowded at the ends of the stiff stout branches, 
coriaceous, closely areolate above, elongate-obovate or cuneate 15 to 20 cm long, 5 to 7.5 
cm wide, rounded or shortly apiculate, gradually narrowing into a petiole of 12 mm, pale 
green, densely covered underneath with a soft fawn or pale lemon colored tomentum; 
flowers cauline on the bare branches below the leaves, peduncle 4 to 8 mm, bearing at the 
end 8 to 12 subsessile flowers; bracts 5 mm; sepals 3 mm, ovate obtuse, tomentose; corolla 
cream colored, with a tube of 8 to 10 mm; stamens half as long, with sagittate anthers; 
ovary tomentose, the stigma capitate, 2-lobed; capsule thick woody, the flattened valves, 
with a median furrow and transverse waves 18 to 25 mm, with the endocarp pale orange; 
seeds flat angular, crenulate or tubercular at the back and edges. 

A tree 30 feet in height, with a trunk of 8 to 10 inches in diameter. It was. 
first collected by H. Mann on the Waianae range, on Mt. Kaala, and by Hille- 
brand in Makaleha Valley of the same range. 

159 



PLATE 58. 




PITTOSPORUM HOSMERI var. longifolia Eock var. nov, 
Flowering and fruiting branch much reduced. 



Pittosporaceae. 

The writer is not acquainted with this species. Hillebrand records three va- 
rieties of this species as follows: /?. var. fulvinn, Oahu, Ewa to Waialua; y. var. 
from Mt. Kaala, and finally <5 var. flocculosum, also from Mt. Kaala. 

It is exceeding!}- difficult properly to diagnose the Hawaiian species of Pitto- 
sporum and more so the varieties. Pittosporum terminalioides has all possible 
intermediates finally approaching P. confertiHorum. It is perhaps one of the 
many forms of the latter. The two species, together with Pittosporum Hosmeri, 
have tuberculate seeds in common, while all the other species have the seeds 
smooth and shining. P. Gcnjanum also belongs to this group as far as foliage is 
concerned, but the seeds are smooth and not tuberculate. 

The writer has abundant material, but even so, it is extremely difficult to sepa- 
rate them specifically, as all seem to run very much into each other. 

P. glabrum is very close to P. glomeratum and differs from it only in the 
sepals and pedicellate flowers, a characteristic which can not be very well relied 
upon, as both forms occur often on one and the same plant. The capsules of P. 
confertiflorum from the various localities have all possible shapes and forms, but 
can not be separated successfully into varieties. It will have to remain a poly- 
morphous species. 

In conclusion the writer wishes to state that he has gathered much material 
from localities from where Pittosporums had never been recorded. Some of 
them undoubtedly are new, but owing to incomplete specimens, as the wanting 
of flowers, or mature capsules, the writer thinks it, advisable not to include them 
in this already voluminous book, but rather to wait for additional material and 
then make an exhaustive study of this very variable group, of plants. 

Pittosporum Hosmeri Rock. 
Aawa Jiua kukui. 

PITTOSPORUM HOSMERI Eock Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 37 (1910) 297 pi. 1, et Kept. Board 
Com. Agr. & For. (1911) 84, pi. 20. 

Branches stout, young shoot pubescent, leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, 
subcoriaceous, glabrous above, wrinkled with a close network, densely tomentose under- 
neath with a light to dark brown wool, young leaves covered on both sides, entire with 
revolute margins, 10 to 26 em long, 3 to 6 cm wide, on petioles of 2 to 3 cm; inflorescence 
axillary and cauline, a corymbose raceme, the tomentose peduncle 2 to 3 cm, bracteate, 
the peduncle surrounded at the base with numerous linear subulate bracts, sepals tomen- 
tose, ovate acute 4 mm long; corolla cream-colored, the tube about 8 to 10 mm long, the 
lobes 5 mm, ovate, with prominent veins; stamens as long as the tube, anthers oblong; 
ovary tomentose, ovoid-oblong, the style nearly twice as long, slightly exserted; capsule 
tomentose when young, glabrous and smooth when mature, valves woody, oblong to sub- 
quadrangular 55 to 75 mm long, 40 to 55 mm wide, and about 45 mm thick, opening into 
two to four valves, with a longitudinal median groove, endocarp bright orange colored, 
seeds arranged alternately in two rows on each placenta, black, rugose 6 to 7 mm in 
diameter, differing from the other Pittosporums in that the capsules are not filled com- 
pletely by the seeds, but are arranged only in two rows. 

It is a medium-sized tree 18 to 25 feet or more in height with stiff more or 
less ascending branches ; it is most remarkable for the enormous capsules, which 
are the largest in the genus. The type specimen was collected on the lava field 

161 
11 



PLATE 59. 










PITTOSPORUM HOSMERI var. longifolia Bock var. nov. 
Trunk showing bark, and flowering and fruiting branch pinned to trunk, 
the lava fields of South Kona. Kapua, Hawaii. 



Growing on 



Pittosporaceae. 

of Puuwaawaa, in North Kona, on the slopes of Mt. Hualalai, Hawaii, on June 17, 
1909. Since that time the writer visited again this district and collected addi- 
tional material ; most of the trees were then in flower. The writer made also 
extensive exploration of the forest surroundins Mauna Loa, especially the drier 
districts in South Kona, which resemble Puuwaawaa greatly as far as vegetation 
is concerned. In that latter locality the writer found this species very common, 
and it is certainly astounding that it has been kept from our knowledge for so 
long. The plants from this latter locality, however, differ somewhat from those 
from Puuwaawaa, in size of capsules, which are smaller, and in the size of 
leaves, which are much larger. The tree itself is much smaller and more nearly 
a shrub, while the trees at Puuwaawaa have often a diameter of a foot or so. 

Near Kilauea Volcano at an elevation of 4000 feet is a small Kipuka or piece 
of land of great age which is surrounded by rough (aa) lava flow r s. The area 
of this Kipuka is 56 acres ; on it are to be found not less than 42 species of trees. 
The vegetation is such that one would immediately look for Pittosporum, but in 
vain. The writer persisted, however, to locate a Pittosporum representative in 
the vicinity, and after a search of several days found a small triangular lot of 
about an acre in extent, which must have been once upon a time a part of the 
above Kipuka; it was surrounded by enormously thick aa flows, which were cov- 
ered with stunted Oliia leliua growth, whilst in that small pocket of land grew 
Pittosporum Hosmeri var. longifolia, together with Pelea and Xanthoxylum. 

The trees from Kilauea are identical with those from Kapua, S. Kona, and 
also with specimens from the upper slopes of Hualalai, from the forests above 
Huehue at an elevation of 5000 feet, while the typical Pittosporum Hosmeri is 
peculiar to Puuwaawaa. 

The variety is here described as follows: 

Var. longifolia var. nov. 
(Plates 58, 59, 60.) 

Leaves lanceolate-oblong to obovate oblong, rounded or acuminate at the apex, 15 to 
40 cm long, 5 to 9 cm wide, on petioles of 2 to 5 cm, glabrous above, densely covered under- 
neath with' an ochraceous to rufous tomentum; flowers as in the species; capsules smaller 
subsessile, 10 on a common peduncle forming a cluster of often 12 cm in diameter, cap- 
sules globose, quadrangular to oblong, 2-3-4 valved, the valves woody, 4 to 5 cm long or 
5 cm each way, glabrous, smooth, seeds as in the species. Capsule orange yellow when 
mature. 

The tree is quite common at Kapua, S. Kona, Hawaii, on the lava flows, but 
does not reach such a height and size as at Puuwaawaa. The trees of the latter 
locality are loaded with fruit during June and July, while those of Kapua bear 
mature fruit during the month of February. However, the fruiting season of 
these, like nearly all the other Hawaiian trees, can not be relied upon. Occurs 
also at Kilauea, and Hualalai, Hawaii. 

This species with its variety resembles somewhat P. terminalioides of the same 
regions, but has only the roughened seeds in common with it. 

The fruits of P. Hosmeri and variety are a source of food for the native crow, 

163 



PLATE 60. 




PITTOSPORUM HOSMERI var. longifolia Bock var. nov. 
Growing on the lava flows of South Kona, Kapua, Hawaii; elevation 2000 feet. 



PLATE 61. 




PITTOSPORUM GAYANUM Rock. 
Hoawa. 

Fruiting branch; less than one-half natural size. 



Pittosporaceae. 

Corvus hawaiiensis or Alala, which pecks open the large woody capsules and 
feeds on the oily seeds within. The crow is peculiar to Kona, Hawaii. Nearly 
80% of all the capsules of this species examined by the writer were eaten out 
by these birds, which are still very common. 

Pittosporum Gayanum Rock sp. nov. 
(Plate 61.) 

A small tree 15 to 18 feet high with a round spreading crown, or when growing on 
the high central plateau near Waialeale in the dense rain forest, a tree with very few 
straight ascending branches; leaves crowded at the ends of the branches or scattered, 
obovate oblong, shortly acuminate, with revolute margins, glabrous above, veins very 
prominent impressed, dark green with dark brown or fulvous tomentum underneath, 
especially on the very prominent veins, the young leaves covered on both sides with a 
dark reddish-brown wool, 15 to 25 cm long, 4 to 10 cm wide, on somewhat margined 
petioles of about 2 cm; inflorescence axillary and cauline, peduncle short, 12 mm, with 
dark reddish brown tomentum, bracteate, bracts linear subulate, woolly as well as the 
ovate Lo linear lanceolate sepals; flowers on pedicels of 5 to 10 mm, sepals 3 mm, tube 
of the cream-colored corolla about 10 mm, the lobes 4 mm, stamens as long as the tube, 
anthers oblong, style exserted, three times the length of the tornentose ovary; capsule 
ovoid to cordate, pointed, densely tomentose with dark reddish brown wool, about 2 cm 
or more in diam. the valves rugose, wrinkled; seeds angular, shining black, smooth, 
about 5 mm long. 

This very interesting tree is peculiar to the interior, high plateau of Kauai, 
especially the upper slopes of Waialeale. It grows in the swamps and swampy 
forests as well as along streambeds several miles inland from Kaholuamano, at 
an elevation of 4800 to 5000 feet. It is not uncommon in the more open flat 
swamps in company with the thousands of Lobelia macrostachys at this region, 
which is constantly wrapped in clouds. It is rather curious plant, with a 
short trunk and perfectly straight branches, which are only few, three or four, 
and the large dark green and brown foliage. It is a constant species and grows 
all over the summit of Kauai. It was collected by the writer first in Septem- 
ber, 1909, and again in October, 1909, in the Alakai swamp near the head of 
Wainiha, and on Waialeale October 20, 1911. The type is 8867 in the College 
of Hawaii Herbarium, Honolulu, T. H. The plant is named in honor of Mr. 
Francis Gay of Kauai, whose kind hospitality and help in exploring the Kauai 
forests the writer was fortunate to enjoy. At the very summit of Waialeale 
in the open bog the writer found a variety of this species perfectly glabrous ; it 
was a shrub about 5 feet high, and may be described here as follows : 

Var. Waialealae var. nov. 

Leaves whorled at the ends of the branches, glabrous even the very young leaves, 
obovate oblong, acuminate" dull green on both sides, 5 to 10 cm long, 2 to 3.5 cm wide, 
contracting into a petiole of 1 cm; capsules 2 cm each way, the valves deeply wrinkled 
glabrous, young capsules tomentose, seeds as in the species. 

Type No. 8866 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium, collected by the writer 
October 10, 1911, at the summit bog of Waialeale, Kauai, elevation 5200 feet. It 
grew in company with Pelea Waialealae. Labordea Waialealae, Lobelia Kauai- 
ensis, etc. 

166 



PLATE 62. 




PITTOSPORUM INSIGNE Hbd. 

Hoawa. 
Fruiting branch, half natural size. 



PLATE 63. 




PITTOSPORUM HAWAIIENSE Hbd. 
Hoawa. 

Showing fruiting branch. 



Pittosporaceae. 

Pittosporum insigne Hbd. 
Hoawa. 

(Plate 62.) 

PITTOSPOKUM INSIGNE Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 25; Del Cast. 111. PI. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
VI (1890) 110; Pax in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill 2. a (1891) 111. 

Leaves in distant whorls, thick, chartaceous. glabrous, obovate-oblong, acuminate 
6 to 12 cm x 2.5 to 4 cm, contracting into a short petiole of 1 to 2 cm; flowers terminal 
in the uppermost leaf -whorls and axillary or all along the stem; inflorescence a corymbose 
raceme (or in East Maui specimens more or less glomerate) the flowers on pedicels of 1 to 2 
mm, the rhachis tomentose, surrounded at the base with numerous linear bracts of 5 to 10 
mm, bearing 15 to 25 flowers on pedicels of 4 to 8 mm (in specimens from the type 
locality) ; sepals ovate, acute, densely tomentose, tomentum light yellowish, corolla large, 
tube 10 to 12 mm, the lobes broad ovate about 8 mm; stamens half the length of the 
tube, style and ovary as long as the tube, the latter densely villous; capsule oblong about 
25 mm long, deeply wrinkled, seeds smooth. 

A very handsome tree with large cream-colored flowers; it reaches a height of 
about 25 feet and has stiff ascending branches. Hillebrand's description, which 
has been enlarged upon to suit the abundant material which is at the writer's 
disposal, agrees exactly with plants from the type locality. It is not uncommon 
on West Maui, above Kaanapali, at an elevation of about 3500 to 4000 feet, 
where it grows in the rain forest. It was also collected by the writer in lao 
Valley, on the same island. 

On East Maui, in the rain forest of Mt. Haleakala, at an elevation of 4000 
feet, the writer met with a Pittosporum which he must refer to this species, 
though differing somewhat from the trees found on West Maui. This is, how- 
ever, not surprising, since all Hawaiian Pittosporums are very variable. The 
East Maui plants differ from the West Maui ones in the inflorescence, which 's 
shorter peduncled and has almost sessile flowers ; the latter agree, however, with 
those from the type locality. On the northern slope of Haleakala, at Nahiku, 
on the crater Hinai, at an elevation of about 3000 feet, the writer met with a 
large number of trees which will also have to be referred to this species; they 
differ from the type specimens in the young leaves, which are covered with light 
brown tomentum, and in some other minor points. 

On the same mountain, at 2000 feet elevation, the writer collected Hillebrand's 
var. ft of this species, which is easily distinguished by the long axillary pe- 
duncles, which measure often 5 cm. and more. The variety is a small tree, 15 to 
18 feet in height. 

Pittosporum Hawaiiense Hbd. 

Hoawa. 
(Plate 63.) 

PITTOSPORUM HAWAIIENSE Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 26; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. 
Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 110; Pax in Engl. et Prantl. Pflzfam. III. 2. a (1891) 111. 

Leaves scattering or in distant whorls, large obovate-oblong, acute strongly nerved, 
glabrous on both sides when old or pubescent underneath, young shoots covered with a 
dense fawn colored tomentum on both sides, thick chartaceous, 12 to 22 cm long, 5 to 7 cm 
wide, on petioles of 1.5 to 3 cm, flowers axillary or cauline, racemose rarely terminal on 
hirsute peduncles of about 15 mm, pedicels 3 to 7 mm; sepals ovate, triangular 3 

169 



PLATE 64. 




PITTOSPORTJM CONFERTIFLORTJM Gray. 

Fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree, growing near Ukulele, Haleakala, Maui; 

elevation about 6000 feet. 



Pittosporaceae. 

mm, bracts ovate lanceolate 5 to 8 mm; tube of corolla about 8 mm split up to the upper 
third, the lobes broadly ovate; stamens as long as the tube, anthers oblong-sagittate; 
ovary ovoid, densely tomentose style almost twice as long; capsule bluish-glaucous or 
colored, subquadrangular, about 3 cm or more in diameter, valves woody, deeply wrinkled; 
seeds black, smooth or minutely tuberculate. 

This species is a small tree, 15 to 18 feet high, with straight ascending 
branches, bark white, smooth ; flowers cream-colored. This particular species, 
occurs on the island of Hawaii in the forests of Naalehu, Kau, at an elevation 
of from 2300 to 4000 feet or more, where it is quite plentiful. It was also 
collected by the writer on the great plateau of the Kohala mountains of the 
same island at an elevation of 4000 feet, but not at all common. Its distinctive 
characteristics are the capsules, which are bluish-glaucous and deeply wrinkled,, 
as well as the very large foliage, which is, however, exceeded in size by Pit- 
tosporum Hosmeri var. lougifolia. 

Pittosporum Kauaiense Hbd. 
Hoawa 

PITTOSPORUM KAUAIENSE Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 25; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pac. VI. (1890) 111; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 829. 

Leaves chartaceous with strong prominent nerves, obovate oblong, 12 to 24 cm long, 
4 to 8 cm wide, shortly acuminate, with a distinct petiole of 2 to 4 cm long, dark green, 
glabrous above, covered with a whitish or golden yellowish pubescence; inflorescence 
axillary or cauline, densely hirsute with brownish hair, peduncle short, about 8 mm r 
pedicels 4 mm, sepals scarcely 2 mm, acute, villous, corolla cream colored the lobes about 
2 mm with a strong median nerve; stamens as long as the tube, style little longer; capsule 
subglobose 16 mm in diam., glabrous when mature, covered with brownish wool when 
young, with 4 deep longitudinal furrows; seeds smooth, shiny. 

This is one of the tallest species of Pittosporum, reaching a height of 30 to 40" 
feet, with a trunk of about 10 inches in diameter, which is vested in a smooth 
whitish bark. It is peculiar to the island of Kauai, where it grows in the 
forest of Kopiwai, below Halemanu, 3600 feet, as well as at higher elevation. 
It is not common at Kaholuamano, but was again collected by the writer in Olo- 
kele canyon and in the woods of Makaweli, elevation 2000 feet. The trees from 
the lower locality differ from those of the type locality, Halemanu, in the cap- 
sules, which are wrinkled, but are otherwise the same. The pubescence of the 
underside of the leaves disappears with age. 

Pittosporum confertiflorum Gray. 
Hoawa. 

(Plate 64.) 

PITTOSPORUM CONFERTIFLORUM Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 232, pi. 19; H. Mann 
Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 150, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 123; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 26; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI (1890) 110; Pax in Engl. et 
Prantl. Pflzfam. Ill, 2. a (1891) 111. P. terminalioides ,3. Gray 1. c. p. 231. 

Branches stout, leafy, woolly when young, leaves thick coriaceous, alternate or whorled 
obovate-oblong, shortly acuminate 12 to 20 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, contracting into a 
distinct petiole of 2.5 cm, pale fulvo-tomentose underneath, and occasionally above; in- 
florescence terminal, axillary and cauline. the numerous flowers densely packed in a 
corymbose raceme with an axis of about 25 mm; pedicels 6 to 12 mm; bracts linear 
oblong 16 mm; sepals orbicular ovate densely woolly, obtuse 6 mm; corolla cream-colored 

171 



Pittosporaceae. 

or white, tube 10 to 12 mm or less, lobes about 6 mm, stamens nearly as long as the tube, 
anthers linear sagittate; pistil short, ovary sessile, oblong, tomentose; capsule globose- 
ovoid, somewhat flattened, the thick woody valves 2.5 mm, wrinkled or rough or some- 
times smooth; seeds purple, compressed and angled, closely packed in two rows in each 
cell, testa dull, minutely tuberculate-rugose. 

A tree 20 feet in height with stiff, stout, ascending branches. It is a some- 
what variable species; the inflorescence is not always terminal, but also axillary 
and even cauline in specimens from Haleakala, Maui. The writer collected 
specimens of this species from the type locality southern slopes of Haleakala, 
Maui, where the tree is not at all common. It also grows near Kaupo at an ele- 
vation of about 5000 feet. The leaves in the writer 's specimen are much larger 
than those figured by Asa Gray. 

Hillebrand 's var. ft. from Kau and Kona agrees well with the writer 's material 
from Lanai. The genus Pittosporum is exceedingly well represented on Lanai, 
the species confertiflorum evidently being very variable, as there are as many dif- 
ferent forms as there are Pittosporum trees and one would be naming individual 
trees. It is indeed puzzling, the question of specific distinction in the Hawaiian 
Pittosporums, thanks to the insects on which the plants depend for pollination. 

Hillebrand 's typical var. /?. occurs in nearly all the valleys of Lanai, as Kai- 
holena, Mahana, Koele, and also on the ridges. It differs from the species in its 
smaller leaves and lanceolate sepals, and is a small tree about 18 feet in height. 
In some of the Lanai specimens the capsules are deeply wrinkled, and quad- 
rangular, with perfectly flat valves 3 cm. each way; one specimen, No. 8109, 
has a long bracteate peduncle of 4 cm., with large pedicellate flowers. 



172 



LEGUMINOSAE:. 

This, the second largest plant family being only exceeded by the Composite 
family consists of nearly 450 genera, with over 7000 species, and is of much 
greater economic importance than the latter. 

The Leguminosae family is distributed all over the world, and is only absent 
from the very remote islands of the Antarctic, though only sparingly repre- 
sented in New Zealand. 

In regard to the sub-families, the Mimosoideae are entirely absent in Europe, 
while the Papilionatae are to be found in the Arctic as well as high Alpine re- 
gions of both hemispheres. 

The family is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by 25 genera, only four 
of which, however, have arborescent species. 

KEY TO THE GENEKA. 
SUB-FAM. MIMOSOIDEAE. 

Leaves twice pinnate; flowers in heads or spikes: 

Stamens indefinite; leaves mostly replaced by dilated petioles. . . 1. Acacia 

SUB-FAM. CAESALPLNTOIDEAE. 

Leaves twice pinnate: 

Pod-winged along the upper suture, calyx very oblique 2. Mezoneurum 

SUB-FAM. PAPILIONATAE. 
Leaves abruptly pinnate: 

Pod four-winged 3. Sophora 

Leaves of three leaflets 4. Erythrina 

ACACIA Willd. 

Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous; calyx campanulate, toothed or petals free or 
united; stamens numerous, free or united at the base; ovary sessile or raised, two to many 
ovuled. Legume oval, oblong or linear, straight or curved, flat or convex, membraneous, 
coriaceous, indehiscent. Unarmed or thorny trees or shrubs. Leaves bi-pinnate, or re- 
duced to a phyllodium or dilated petiole. Flowers small, numerous, mostly yellow in 
globular heads or cylindrical spikes. 

The genus consists of about 450 species, which are distributed over the tropical 
and subtropical regions of both worlds, being especially numerous in Africa 
and Australia. In these islands only three species are represented; one is 
doubtful (Acacia Kauaiensis, Hbd.). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Phyllodia instead of true leaves: 

Pod flat, broad and straight A. Koa 

Pod narrow and curved A. Koaia 

Acacia Koa Gray. 
Koa or Koa ka. 

(Plates 65, 66, 67, 68.) 

ACACIA KOA Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 480; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1866) 
165; H. Mann Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 235; Wawra in Flora (1873) 141; Hbd. Fl. 
Haw. Isl. (1888) 112; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI (1890) 160; Engl. 
& Prantl Pflzfam. III. 3 (1894) 110; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 830. Acacia 
heterophylla Hook, et Am. Voy. Bot. Beech. (1832) 81; Benth. Mimos. in Hook. 
Lond. Journ. Bot. I. (1839) 368. 

173 



PLATE 65. 







ACACIA KOA Gray. 
Koa. 

About one-third natural size. Showing true leaves and phyllodia, flowers and fruits. 



Leguminosae. 

Phyllodia falcate, coriaceous, 10 to 15 cm long, varying from 6 to 8 mm to 24 mm or 
more in breadth, narrowed at the base, acute or obtuse at the tapering apex; the smooth 
surface is striate with many nerves; on younger plants the phyllodia bear a bipiniiate 
leaf; the leaflets 12 to 15 pairs, oblong, emarginate, crowded; peduncles solitary or fascicled 
in the axils, about 12 mm long, bearing a dense many flowered head of 8 mm in diameter, 
calyx teeth very short 5 in number, petals 5, oblong lanceolate, glabrous, more or less 
united, longer than the calyx, half the length of the stamens; legume broadly linear, 
straight or slightly falcate, 7.5 to 15 cm long, 16 to 18 mm broad, glabrous, flat, two- 
valved, about 12 seeded; seeds dark brown to black. 

The Koa is one of our most stately forest trees and is next to the 07? la lehua 
(Metrosideros polymorplia), the most common. It is perhaps the most valuable 
tree which the islands possess, as it is adapted for construction as well as for 
cabinet work. The Koa reaches a height of more than 80 feet in certain locali- 
ties, with a large trunk vested in a rough, scaly bark of nearly an inch in 
thickness. When growing in the open, it develops a beautiful, symmetrical 
crown, with usually short trunks of perhaps 15 to 20 feet in height and a di- 
ameter of more than 6 feet. The lower branches are then almost horizontal, 
far-spreading, while farther up the branches become peculiarly twisted and 
more or less ascending. When growing in the rain or fern forest, it develops a 
long, straight bole of considerable length and thickness, clothed in a rather 
smooth, gray bark ; usually branching 40 feet or so above the ground. ( See plate 
68.) It is this sort of timber which is most valuable for construction work, 
while the Koa of the drier districts has a much more beautiful wood and is 
more suitable for cabinet work. The Koa has two kinds of leaves, true leaves 
and phyllodia. Young twigs or young trees always have first the true twice 
pinnate leaves, which gradually pass into phyllodia that is, the petioles become 
dilated and take the place of the true leaf. 

The adult trees bear phyllodia only, though an occasional twig near the base 
of the trunk will have true leaves. The Koa is found on all the islands of the 
group, and adapts itself to almost any condition. It descends to as low as 600 
feet, and ascends to an elevation of 5000 feet, and sometimes higher. Beautiful 
trees can be observed on the slopes of Mauna Loa on the Island of Hawaii, not 
far from the volcano, as well as in South Kona on the same mountain. It is 
sad, however, to see these gigantic trees succumb to the ravages of cattle and 
insects. 

Large tracts of Koa forest which twenty years or so ago were in their prime 
have now perished, and nothing is left but the dead trunks with their huge 
branches dangling on strings of bark, ready to drop from the dizzy heights, 
when stirred by the slightest gust of wind, crushing everything beneath them. 
Such is the condition of the Koa forest of today in certain tracts of land on 
Hawaii. Cattle are the great enemy of the Koa. 

Above Kealakekua, in South Kona, of the once beautiful Koa forest 90 per 
cent of the trees are now dead, and the remaining 10 per cent in a dying con- 
dition. Their huge trunks and limbs cover the ground so thickly that it is diffi- 
cult to ride through the forest, if such it can be called. It might be said, how- 

175 



PLATE 66. 




ACACIA KOA Gray. 
Koa. 

Showing trunk, bark and flowering branch; near tree-molds, Kilauea, Hawaii; elevation 

4000 feet. 



Leguminosae. 

ever, that there are still tracts of land where the Koa forest is in its natural 
condition. As already mentioned, the Koa adapts itself to almost any 
environment. Ancient aa (rough) lava flows have been covered by Koa trees 
to the exclusion of everything else. It is on these lava fields that the trees are 
still in good condition, as cattle usually avoid crossing these sharp, rugged fields 
of lava. 

From the big trees found in Kona, Hawaii, the natives of by-gone days used 
to carve their great war canoes. Occasionally one can find an unfinished log 
which, owing to its enormous weight, was abandoned by the natives, who were 
unable to remove it to the lowlands and beach. Today the wood is used for 
furniture and is sold as Hawaiian mahogany, though, of course, it bears no 
relation to the tree of that name. The bark of the Koa was used by natives 
for tanning purposes. 

At lower elevations, as on Oahu on the windward side, Koa is associated 
with the screw pine (Pandanus odoratissimus), while at the middle forest zone, 
at 4000 feet, it is usually found in company with the Naio (Myoporum sand- 
wicense), Kolea (Suttonia), Metrosideros polymorpha, and Mamani (Sophora 
clirysopliylla), while in the forks of its branches in accumulated humus flourish 
arborescent species of Lobelias of the genus Clermontia. 

The Koa is peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands, but is closely related to a 
species (Acacia heterophylla Willd.), in Mauritius and Bourbon; while Acacia 
laurifolia is a seaside tree in Viti and Samoa; the vernacular name in Viti is 
Tatakia, and in Samoa Tatakia or Tatagia. 

The Koa is attacked by several insects. A few lepidopterous insects feed on 
the Koa leaves, such as Scotorythra caryopis Meyr and S. idolias Meyr, which 
are often responsible for the defoliated Koa trees, as well as the S. rara (Bult), 
the most common species of the genus. Of borers, several beetles live in the 
Koa trunks, such as Aegosomus, while the larvae of Thyrocopa alboonu- 
bila Walsm. are found in dead branches of Koa, as well as larvae of T. abusa 
Walsm. on the bark and dead twigs. Besides, other lepidopterous insects may 
be found in more or less decayed Koa trunks. 

Acacia Koaia Hbd. 
Koaia or Koa oha. 

ACACIA KOAIA Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 113; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif VI 

(1890) 160. 

Leaves as in Koa; axillary racemes with not more than 3 heads, generally reduced 
to a single one; pod very narrow, not over 8 mm wide, and about 15.5 to 15 cm long; 
otherwise as in Acacia Koa. 

The Koaia, unlike the Koa, is a rather small tree, reaching a height of only 
20 to 25 feet. The trunk is not straight as in the Koa, but gnarled and twisted. 
The bark is rough and corrugated. It differs mainly from the Koa in its pods, 
which are very narrow, linear, while those of the Koa are broad. The leaves 
are the same as in the Koa. 

177 

12 



PLATE 67. 




ACACIA KOA Gray. 
Koa. 

Tree about 80 feet tall, with diameter of trunk about 4 feetj growing in the Klpuka 
Puaulu, near Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



PLATE 68. 




ACACIA KOA Gray. 
Koa. 

Showing straight growth of bole in wet or fern forest, near Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii; 

elevation 4000 feet. 



PLATE 69. 




MEZONEURUM KAUAIENSE (Mann) Hbd. 

Uhiuhi. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen. About one-third natural size. 



Leguminosae. 

The Koaia inhabits the very dry districts on the leeward sides of the Islands 
of Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii. On Molokai, it grows at Kalae as well as on the 
edge of the dry canyon below Kamoku, in company with Naio (Myoporum sand- 
wicense), Walahee (Plectronia odorata), Aiea (Nothocestrum), Dodonaea, etc. 
On Maui it can be found on the Kula slopes of Haleakala at an elevation of 
2000 feet or more, together with the Halapepe, while on Hawaii it grows on the 
lava fields of North Kona, especially on the slopes of the ridge between Puua- 
nahulu and Puuwaawaa, associated with Reynoldsia, Maba, Osteomeles (Ulei), 
etc., as well as on the lava fields of Kawaihae iuka, along the road together with 
the Maua, Naio, Mamani, and Kului. 

Koaia wood, which is much harder than the Koa and closer grained, was used 
by the natives for spears and fancy paddles. It is endemic to the islands, and 
was first discovered by Dr. W. Hillebrand, and described by him in his valuable 
work on the Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. 

He also describes a species of Acacia from Kauai, specimens of which were 
sent to him by Valdemar Knudsen of Kekaha, Kauai. He gave it the name 
Acacia Kauaiensis, but does not say whether it is a tree or shrub. As the writer 
did not meet with any trees that would answer the description given by Hille- 
brand, it is here omitted and simply mention made of it. 

The Koaia flowers during the early part of the summer or late spring, but 
flowers and fruits usually can be observed on the same tree during July and 
August. 

MEZONEURUM Desf. 

Calyx short oblique, the lowest lobe larger than the four remaining; concave; petals 
5 nearly all equal; stamens 10, free declinate, ovary sessile free, with 2 to many seeds; 
legume flat compressed, indehiscent, with a dorsal wing; seeds flat, compressed exalbumin- 
ous. Trees or climbing shrubs. Leaves bipinnate. Flowers red or yellow. 

A genus of eleven species found in the tropics of the old world, distributed 
from India to Malay archipelago, Queensland, and New South Wales, with one 
species in tropical West Africa, and one in the Hawaiian Islands. 

Mezoneurum Kauaiense (Mann) Hbd. 

Uhiuhi; Kea on Maui. 

(Plates 69, 70, 71.) 

(The native name "Kalamona" is not applied to this plant, as stated by Hillebrand, but 

to an introduced species of Cassia.) 
MEZONEURUM KAUAIENSH (Mann) Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 110; Del Cast. 111. Fl. 

Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1890) 157. Caesalpinia Kavaiensis Mann Proc. Am. Acad. 

VII. (1866) 164, and Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867), 233; Brigham Mem. B. P. B. Mus. III. 

(1911) 178. 

Branches loose spreading, unarmed, the young shoots covered with a hoary pubescence; 
leaves abruptly pinnate with 1 to 5 pairs of pinnae, each pinnae with 4 to 8 pairs of leaf- 
lets, the common rhachis 7.5 to 12.5 cm, the pinnae 3.5 to 7.5 cm; leaflets oblong, 25 to 30 
mm x 12.5 mm. obtuse at both ends membraneous, on petioles of 2 mm; stipules none or 
small wart-like; raceme terminal, hoary 25 to 75 mm long densely floriferous from the 
base; the pedicels 25 to 50 mm, jointed above the middle; bracts ciliate, caducous; 
calyx glabrous pinkish or red; petals pinkish purple or red, shorter than the calycine 



PLATE 70. 




MEZONEURUM KAUAIENSE (Mann) Hbd. 

Uhiuhi. 

Showing trunk with bark and flowering and fruiting branch pinned to it. (Trunk about 

1 foot in diameter.) On the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, North Kona, 

Hawaii: elevation 2000 feet. 



PLATE 71. 




MEZONEURUM KAUAIENSE (Mann) Hbd. 

Uhiuhi. 
Along the government road in North Kona, Hawaii; elevation 2000 feet. 



PLATE 72. 




SOPHOEA CHRYSOPHYLLA Seem. 

Mamani. 
Flowering branch. 



Leguminosae. 

lubes; stamens exserted, the filaments hairy, broad and flat below; ovary glabrous, 3 to 5- 
ovuled; style incurved; stigma small; pod broad-oblong or obovate nearly 10 cm long 
by about H cm wide, with a dorsal wing of 6 to 2 mm in width running along its whole 
length and ending in an uncinate point, indehiscent, glaucous reddish when young; 
seeds 2 to 4, pale ovate, flat, 18 to 20 mm x 14 to 16 mm. 

The Uhiuhi is a very beautiful tree with a trunk of sometimes more than 
one foot in diameter. The bark is rough-scaly and of a dark-gray to brown 
color. The leaves are pinnate, having 4 to 8 pairs of leaflets of about 1^ inches 
in length. The flowers are arranged in terminal racemes 1 to 4 inches long, and 
are of a beautiful dark-red color ; legume is broad, oblong, 3 to 3 l / 2 by 2 inches, 
and is winged on one side; when young it is pinkish, glaucous, and very pretty. 

The tree, which was first discovered on the Island of Kauai, inhabits the 
leeward side of the islands, especially the aa lava fields. It is not uncommon on 
the Island of Hawaii. At North Kona, between Huehue and Puuwaawaa, eleva- 
tion 2000 feet, the writer observed the biggest trees. They are not, however, 
very tall, reaching a height of about 30 feet, with short trunks. On Kauai the;/ 
are very scarce nowadays, only individual trees being found in a gulch belov- 
Puu ka Pele back of Waimea; on Hawaii they are only found in Kona, where 
quite a number of trees exist, the latter place being a new locality, as no Uhiuhi 
had been recorded previously from Hawaii. 

The tree is known by the natives as Uhiuhi on Kauai and Hawaii, while 
on Maui, along Kaupo, the southern outlet of Haleakala crater, it is known as 
Kea. It blossoms in the early spring. On Hawaii it is associated with Kokia 
Bockii Lewton, the native red cotton or Kokio, Erythrina monosperma or 
Wiliwili, Colubrina oppositifolia, Dodonaea, Sideroxylon, Maba sandwicensis, 
Osteomeles, etc. It is also found on Oahu in the mountains of Waianae and on 
Wailupe. It has not been reported from Molokai or Lanai. 

The wood of the Uhiuhi is extremely hard, close-grained, and very durable; it 
is of almost black color, with a light-colored sapwood. The natives made their 
spears from it, as well as the laau melo-melo or laau makaalei, a peculiar imple- 
ment for fishing. The laau melo-melo had the shape of a club, to which a line was 
attached at the tapering end. When fishing, the natives used to drop the wood, 
which previously was besmeared with a sweet, sticky substance, into the water, 
through which it was slowly pulled in order to attract the fishes, which were 
then caught by a man with a net, who followed behind. The wood, being very 
heavy, will sink in the water even if a hundred years old, and was on that ac- 
count selected by the natives for the above-described purpose. 

The Uhiuhi is peculiar to these islands, outside of which it is not found. 
A species of Tortrix feeds on the flat seed-pods of the Uhiuhi; it is seldom 
that perfect pods are met with. 

SOPHORA L. 

Calyx with short teeth; vexilum broad, obovate or circular, often shorter, rarely longer 
than the c.irina; alae oblong; stamens free or rarely connected at the base in a ring, with 
dorsifixed anthers, ovary with many ovules; pod cylindrical often contracted between the 

185 



PLATE 73. 




SOPHORA CHRYSOPHYLLA Seem. 

Mamani. 
Kipuka Puaulu, near Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



Leguminosae. 

seeds, or slightly compressed, coriaceous, often four winged, fleshy or woody, usually 
indehiscent; seeds ovate or globose. Trees or shrubs, rarely perennial herbs with impari- 
pinnate leaves; leaflets usually small and numerous; flowers yellow or white, rarely purple, 
in simple terminal racemes or several forming a terminal panicle. 

Only one species found in the Hawaiian Islands. The genus consists of more 
than twenty-five species, distributed over the warmer regions of both hemispheres. 
Trees or shrubs, distributed from Western Thibet to Ceylon, China and Japan, 
Siberia, Texas, California, South America, New Zealand, Bourbon, and one on 
our islands. 8. tomentosa is a tropical cosmopolitan, and is found in all the 
islands of the South Seas, including New Guinea. 

Sophora chrysophylla Seem. 
Mamani. 

(Plates 72, 73, 74.) 

SOPHORA CHRYSOPHYLLA Seem, in Flora Vit. (1873) 66; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. 
VII (1866) 164, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 192; Hbd. PI. Haw. Isl. (1888) 108; 
Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI (1890) 157. Edwardsia chrysophylla 
Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. IX (1808) 302 t. 26, f. 1; Ker. Bot. Eeg. t. 738; 
DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 97; Endl. PL Suds. (1836) no. 1610; A. Gray U. S. E. E. 
(1854) 459; Wawra in Flora (1873) 140. 

Young shoots silky pubescent; leaves 15.5 to 15 cm long, with 6 to 10 pairs of leaflets; 
leaflets obovate oblong, 20 to 36 mm x 8 to 12 mm, obtuse, often retuse, with a cinereous 
silvery or tawny pubescence (when growing at high altitudes) or glabrous (at low eleva- 
tio'n); racemes terminal and lateral, 12 to 25 mm long, tomentose; calyx about 6 to 10 mm, 
cup-shaped lobes broad and obtuse; petals 25 mm long; yellow, the broad vexilum re- 
curved, the suberect alae and carina nearly as long; stamens as long as the carina; ovary 
tomentose; pod 10 to 15 cm long, 8 mm wide, often deeply constricted between the seeds, 
four-winged; indehiscent; seeds 4 to 8, oval somewhat compressed, yellow 8 mm long. 
The var. ft mentioned in the Bot. of the U. S. Exploring Expedition is only a glabrous 
form of this species usually found in the lowlands where it is shrub, and never a tree. 

The Mamani is a tree of 20 to 40 feet in height, with a trunk reaching some- 
times 2 feet in diameter. It is vested in a light-brown corrugated bark of a 
half inch in thickness. The leaves are 5 to 6 inches long, and have from 6 to 10 
pairs of leaflets. The flowers are a bright yellow, and are arranged in droop- 
ing racemes, which are either terminal or lateral. 

The Mamani, which may be found on all the islands with the exception of 
Oahu and Molokai, grows from almost sea level up to nearly 10,000 feet elevation. 
It inhabits the high mountains of Hawaii, Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, and Hua- 
lalai up to 10,000 feet, where it forms the upper forest zone together w r ith 
shrubby Composites, such as Raillardia arborea and R. struthioloides and other 
plants peculiar to these regions. On Kauai it never grows to a tree, while on the 
slopes of Mauna Loa, on Hawaii, near the volcano of Kilauea, it reaches its best 
development. Trees of 40 feet in height are not uncommon at an elevation of 
4000 feet. In North Kona, on the slopes of Hualalai on the lava fields just 
below Huehue, it is about 2 to 4 feet high, branching from the base, and does 
not resemble the fine trees which may be found higher up at 7000 to 8000 feet 

187 



PLATE 74. 




SOPHORA CHEYSOPHYLLA Seem. 

Mamani. 

Growing in Kipuka Puaulu, near Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 

Tree 40 feet. high. 



Leguminosae. 

on the same slopes. At low elevation the plant is entirely glabrous, while just 
below and above the snow-line it is covered with silvery-gray hair, which pro- 
tects it from the severe cold which it experiences not only during the winter 
but also in the summer months. The writer experienced a temperature of 19 
Fahr. during a night spent on Mauna Kea in the month of July. A few small 
trees were found on Lanai just above the homestead of the former manager of 
the Lanai Ranch Co., in a small gulch all by themselves. Whether they were 
planted there by human hand or by birds cannot be ascertained, but the former 
may be more reasonable, as they were not found elsewhere on Lanai. 

The wood of the Mamani is exceedingly hard and very durable in the ground. 
It is therefore mainly used for fence posts by the cattle ranchers on the large 
estates on Hawaii. On Haleakala, Maui, the trees are of medium size, though 
reaching a similar development at Auahi as near the volcano at Puaulu. On the 
upper slopes of Haleakala they are shrubby. The wild cattle and horses, which 
are very numerous on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea, live almost exclusively 
on the young leaf shoots of the Mamani during the dry season, when there is 
no grass available. But, thanks to the hardiness of the trees, which are ex- 
ceedingly deep-rooted, they are able to withstand these ravages of the descend- 
ants of Vancouver's cattle. 

The Mamani is peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands, while 8. tomentosa is found 
in the South Sea Islands, where it grows on the beach. In Viti or Fiji it is 
known by the name Kau ni alewa, or women's tree. 

Two native beetles infest the Mamani. They belong to the peculiar genus 
Plagithmysus, and nearly every tree can be seen perforated with small holes, the 
work of the beetle. But to the credit of the beetle may it be said that they at- 
tack only trees already in a dying condition. The two species are P. Blackburni 
and P. Darwinianus. 

ERYTHRINA L. 

Calyx campanulate, truncate, or 5 toothed; vexilum large, conduplicate, alae short, 
often very small or wanting; carina longer or shorter than the alae, the two petals free 
or partially connate; vexillary stamens free, or connate with the others which are connate 
to the middle; ovary stipitate, with several ovules; style subulate, with a small terminal 
stigma; pod stipitate, linear, curved, compressed or cylindrical, tapering at both ends, 
contracted between the oval seeds; two valved, sometimes follicular or indehiscent. Trees 
or erect shrubs with stout, often prickly branches. Leaves pinnately three-foliolate, with 
glandular etipellae; flowers in terminal or axillary racemes, generally scarlet; bracts and 
bractlets small or wanting. 

Only one species represented in the islands. The genus, which is distributed 
over the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres, consists of thirty species. 
They range from the Himalayas to tropical West Africa, Brazil, Australia and 
tropical America, one species being cosmopolitan, with one species in the Ha- 
waiian Islands, which is, however, found in the other islands of the Pacific. 

189 



PLATE 75. 




If 



ERYTHRINA MONOSPERMA Gaud. 

Wiliwili. 

Showing trunk, bark and fruiting branch. Lava fields near Puuwaawaa, Hawaii; 

elevation 2000 feet. 



Leguminosae. 

Erythrina monosperma Gaud. 
Wiliwili. 

(Plate 75.) 

ERYTHRINA MONOSPERMA Gaud. Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826) 486, pi. 114; Hook, et 
Am. Bot. Beech. (1832) 81; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 1641; A. Gray U. S. E. E. 
(1854) 444; H. Mann 1. c. p. 163, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 185; Sinclair Indig, 
Fl. Haw. Isl. (1885) pi. 18; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 99; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. 
Mar. Pacif. VI (1890) 151, et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 47; Heller PI. Haw. IsL 
(1897) 834. E. montana Forst. in Pancher, Herb., et iu Cuzent, Tahiti (1860) 
240. E. tahitensis Nadeaud Enum. (1873) n. 499. Corallodendron monosperum O 
Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. I. (1891) 173. 

Leaflets ovate or deltoid, broader than long 5 to 6.5 cm x 6.5 to 9 cm, obtuse, entire, 
truncate or subcordate at the base, chartaceous, tomentose underneath; the petiole of the 
terminal leaflet 10 to 25 cm long, the petiolules of the lateral ones 5 mm; stipules 
gland-like; racemes in the axils of the ultimate leaves, fulvo-tomentose, stout, dense, 
nodose, with two or one flowers at a node, 15 to 20 cm long; bracts 2 mm or less; 
pedicels 4 to 8 mm; calyx thickly tomentose; minutely toothed; flowers pale yellow or 
brick red; vexilum 25 to 50 mm nearly as broad as long, about 3 times longer than the 
obtuse alae and carina; stamens about as long as the vexilum; anthers pointed, versatile; 
ovary tomentose, about 12 mm long, stipitate 3 to 5 ovuled, half the length of the style; 
pod 35 to 50 mm long, 1 to many seeded (the name monosperma is badly chosen) ; seeds- 
about 12 mm, bright red. 

The Wiliwili is a medium-sized tree of 20 to 30 feet, with stiff, gnarled 
branches and a spreading crown. The trunk is usually short, with few conical 
prickle's on its otherwise smooth, thin, yellowish bark. It is usually of very 
large diameter, often 3 to 4 feet and more. The Wiliwili has the reputation of 
having the lightest wood of any of our island trees. It loses its leaves in the 
early fall or late summer and flowers from early spring to June or July, accord- 
ing to environment, before the new leaves appear, though sometimes flowers and 
leaves may be found together. The former are of a brick-red or white color, 
and not altogether unhandsome. The bright-red seeds are usually single, one 
in a pod, from which the tree derives its specific name monosperma (one- 
seeded). It is called tiger 's-claw by the foreigners, on account of its flowers, 
which are claw-shaped. 

The Wiliwili is the feature of lowland vegetation up to 1500 feet. It thrives 
best in the hottest and driest districts on the leeward sides of all the islands, es- 
pecially on the scoria and among rocks. It grows usually in company with 
Myoporum sandwicense (Naio), Reynoldsia sandwicensis, Nototrichium sandwi- 
cense, etc. It is characteristic of the lava fields of North Kona, Hawaii, on the 
west end of Molokai, the gorges of Mauna Lei and Nahoku on Lanai, the lava 
fields on the southern slopes of Haleakala, Maui, in the dry canyons on Kauai, and 
even on the barren Island of Kahoolawe a few trees are still in existence. (See- 
Plate XXVII.) 

The very soft, white wood of the Wiliwili was and is still used by the na- 
tives for outriggers on their fishing canoes, but since it has become more and 
more scarce, the Hau is used as a substitute. The pretty red seeds are strung 
into leis and worn by the native women ; those sold as Wiliwili leis in the curio' 
shops are not of the native Wiliwili, but are the seeds of the so-called Red San- 

191 



Leguminosae. 

dalwood or Adenanthera pavonina, a tree introduced into the islands from 
India. The wood of other species is manufactured into corks. 

The Wiliwili is not peculiar to Hawaii, but is distributed from Hawaii to 
Tahiti and New Caledonia. 

Erythrina indica Lam. is a cosmopolitan species of the South Seas, being 
found in Samoa, New Guinea, Solomon and Marshall Islands, and also has 
found its way even into North Australia. Its vernacular names are Malatum 
of the Tami Islands, Gatae in Samoa, where the natives have even a name for 
the flowers, which they call alo'alo. The bark is used as a remedy for colic, etc. 

RUTACE:AE:. 

The family Rutaceae belongs to the warmer regions of the globe, and wherever 
they appear form a distinct part, or contribute to the vegetative character of 
that particular region. This is especially true in the Hawaiian Islands, where 
the family is one of the most prominent features of the Hawaiian forest. The 
group of Xanthoxyleae-Evodiinae, to which our Hawaiian Eutaceae belong, finds 
its best development on the islands and on the western coast of the Pacific Ocean. 
The family is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by three genera, one of 
which, Platydesma, is endemic, while Pelea is found in New Caledonia and 
Madagascar. It has in these islands the largest number of species. The whole 
family consists of 111 genera with over 900 species. The group Aurantieae 
possesses the most useful members, namely, the fruit trees, such as oranges, cit- 
rons, etc. 

KEY TO GENEEA. 

Leaves compound, alternate; flowers unisexual 1 Xanthoxylum 

Leaves simple, opposite or whorled. 

Stamens free; petals valvate 2 Pelea 

Stamens united; petals imbricate 3 Platydesma 

XANTHOXYLUM L. 

Flowers polygamous or unisexual. Calyx lobes 1 to 5, small, more or less united. 
Petals 2 to 10, imbricate or valvate. Stamens 3 to 5, hypogynous, alternate with the 
petals, rudimentary or wanting in the pistillate flowers; filaments filiform or subulate; 
anthers elliptic to nearly orbicular or ovate. Pistils 1 to 5, raised on a fleshy gynophore, 
sometimes slightly united below, rudimentary in the staminate flowers. Ovaries 1-celled; 
styles short and slender, more or less united toward the summit; stigmas capitate; ovules 
2 in each cavity, collateral, pendulous from the inner angle of the cell. Follicles 1 to 5; 
endocarp free. Seeds oblong, ovoid, or globose, suspended on a slender funiculus often 
hanging from the carpel at maturity; seed-coat black or reddish, shining. Embryo 
straight or curved. Cotyledons oval or obicular foliaceous. Trees or shrubs, often prickly, 
but unarmed in the Hawaiian species, with acid aromatic bark, alternate equally or 
odd pinnate or three-foliolate leaves, rarely unifoliolate, dotted with pellucid oil glands. 
Infloresence terminal or axillary, cymose, paniculate, racemose or glomerate. Type 
species Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis L. 

The genus Xanthoxylum, or Zanthoxylum as it may also be written, consists 
of numerous species, which were all except nine placed in the genus Fagara by 
Engler in the Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien. The writer, however, adheres 
rather to the old classification, as the distinctions on which Engler based his new 

192 



Kutaceae. 

arrangement are not at all well brought out in the Hawaiian species. In most 
of the other works Engler's new combinations have been placed as synonyms. 

The genus Xanthoxylum is distributed over North America, Eastern Asia and 
also most tropical countries. It is found in Polynesia, outside of the Hawaiian 
Islands, where seven species and numerous varieties have so far been discovered, 
only in Tahiti. All Hawaiian species are unarmed. The leaves are quite aro- 
matic, most of them having a peculiar soapy odor, while one, X. hawaiiense Hbd. 
var. citriodoro, is strongly lemon-scented. The flowers of some species are also 
quite fragrant. 

Most of our Xanthoxyla inhabit the dry regions on the leeward sides, espe- 
cially old lava flows, where they reach their best development, as, for example, 
on the southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii, and 
on Manna Kea in the open scrub-country. Several species occur only in the rain 
forests, as A", oahuense and X. Bluettianum. They are usually found at an ele- 
vation of 2500 to 4000 feet, but rarely higher. All Hawaiian Xanthoxyla are 
trees, except a new species found in the Kohala rain forests. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

Petals 4, thin and slightly imbricate. Flowering panicles appear before the leaves in the 
axils of large scales. 

Leaflets pedately ternate, the lateral ones on long petiolules. 

All petiolules articulate at or below the middle X. Oahuense 

Lateral petiolules without articulation X. hawaiiense 

Leaflets ovate cuneate on petiolules of 16-20 mm X. Bluettianum 

Leaflets 7 to 3 foliolate the lateral leaflets sessile or on short petiolules. 

Leaflets 9-7 lanceolate with copious oil-dots X. glandulosum 

Leaflets 5-3 ovate or ovate oblong opaque X. Kauaiense 

Leaflets 3 or rarely 5, thick, tomentose truncate at the base... X. Mauiense 
Petals 4 or 2, thick coriaceous and valvate. Small stipelliform leaflets at the base 
of the lowest leaflets . X. dipetalum 

Xanthoxylum Oahuense Hbd. 

Ae or Heae. 

(Plate 76.) 

XANTHOXYLUM OAHUENSE Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 75; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pac. VI. (1890) 130. Fagara Oahuensis Engler in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 

4. (1895) 119. 

A small tree, glabrous; leaves 3-foliolate, on long petioles of 8 to 10 cm, their leaflets 
on petioles of nearly even length, the terminal one 5 to 8 cm, the lateral ones 4 to 5 cm, 
all of which are articulate or thickened in the upper fourth, ovate or orbicular, 7 to 8 
cm long, 5 to 7 cm or more wide, caudate-acuminate, the lateral ones unsymmetrical at the 
base, excised in the upper half, glabrous coriaceous, opaque, dark green, brownish-black 
when dry: panicles at the base of the branch 6 to 12 cm long, loosely and few-flowered; 
male flowers: sepals minute, petals greenish, ovoid-oblong blunt at the apex, imbricate in 
the bud, stamens slightly exserted 2.5 mm in length, with subglobose anthers; follicles 10 
to 12 mm, rugose and pitted. 

The Oahuan A'e or Hea'e is a small, rather handsome tree and is peculiar to 
the island after which it is named. It is one of the few Hawaiian Xanthoxyla 
which inhabits the wet middle, or rain forest zone, growing on the highest 

193 

13 



PLATE 76. 




XANTHOXYLUM OAHUENSE Hbd. 

A'e or Hea'e. 

Male flowering branch, and fruiting panicles in the upper corners; less than half 

natural size. 



Rutaceae. 

ridges, as on Konahuanui, Niu Valley, and in the Koolau range, where the tree 
is not uncommon. 

The bark, as of nearly all the other Hawaiian species of this genus, is thin 
and smoothish, with yellowish lenticels ; in other species the bark is dark brown 
to black and has the appearance of having been burned; the granular mass will 
come off even when only touched, in others again the bark is covered with very 
narrow only slightly protruding confluent ridges. The wood of this, as of the 
other species, is yellow and bitter to the taste. 

Xanthoxylum hawaiiense Hbd. 

A'e or Hea'e. 

(Plate 77.) 

XANTHOXYLUM HAWAIIENSE Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (188) 76; Del Cast. 111. PI. Ins. 
Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 129. Fagara hawaiiensis Engler in Engl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. III. 4. (1895) 119. 

A medium sized tree, glabrous; leaves pedately 3-foliolate, on petioles of 3.5 to 4.5 
em, the leaflets on petiolules of equal length, not articulate, but occasionally thickened 
near the blade, acuminate, ovate to deltoid, the lateral ones unsymmetrical or subcordate, 
5 to 7 cm long, 4.5 to 5.5 cm wide; panicles in the axils of the leaves or at the end of 
the branches; follicles curved, almost smooth, but pitted, 1 cm in diameter. 

Hillebrand records this tree from the central plateau on the Island of Hawaii 
at 5000 to 6000 feet elevation, evidently from between Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa 
and Mt. Hualalai. The writer did not meet with this tree on that great plain, 
but collected specimens of an evident variety of this species on the slopes of 
Mauna Kea near Keaumoku, among composites such as Raillardia and Lipo- 
chaeta, near the extinct crater of Xohonaohae at an elevation of perhaps 4000 
feet. 

On his last visit to North Kona, Puuwaawaa, he collected flowering specimens 
of a Xanthoxylum ; in fact, the same species as found at Nohonaohae, referrable 
to X. hawaiiense. The specimens were collected on the laA r a fields beyond Puu- 
anahulu joining the pahoehoe lava flow of 1859. The leaves of this tree as well 
as those from Xohonaohae are exceedingly strong lemon scented, exactly as those 
of Eucalyptus citriodom. which fact caused the manager of the Parker Ranch, 
on which land the trees are found, to believe that the tree was the lemon-scented 
gum. 

It is peculiar that Hillebrand should not have noticed such a strong aromatic 
odor, which none of our other Xanthoxyla possess ; he, however, fails to mention 
anything about it. The true species, answering Hillebrand's description in 
nearly every detail, was found by the writer on the southern slopes of Mt. Hale- 
akala, Maui, where the tree is, however, not abundant. There the trees have not 
the slightest odor of lemon, but the ordinary, somewhat soapy smell, as have the 
rest of our Xanthoxyla. In the latter locality the trees were in fruit during 
Xovember, 1910, where the writer collected his first material of this species (no. 
8657 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium). 

195 



PLATE 77. 




XANTHOXYLUM HAWAIIENSE Hbd. 

A'e or Hea'e Tree. 

Growing on the ancient lava fields of Auahi, district of Kahikinui, East Maui. 
Tree about 20 feet in height. 



Rutaceae. 

The trees from Hawaii first mentioned differed somewhat from Hillebrand's 
description, and on this, as well as on the strength of its exceedingly aromatic 
odor, it is here described as a new variety. 

Var. citriodora Rock var. nov. 

Leaves 3-foliolate on a common pubescent petiole of 4 cm. leaflets deltoid 3.5 to 4 cm 
in diameter on not articulated petiolules, the median one 5 cm, the lateral one 3 cm, 
puberulous underneath, transparent, with a continuous row of pellucid oil glands along 
the entire margin, strongly lemon-scented when fresh, young leaves velvety tomentose. 
panicles pubescent at the end of the branchlets. sepals and petals pubescent, the latter 2.5 
mm ovoid, stamens as long, anthers ovoid, the rudimentary ovary pubescent. 

Hillebrand's variety /?. the writer collected on Lanai. This variety has cori- 
aceous leaves which are also larger, ovoid to orbicular and even deltoid; it is as 
a whole a much more robust tree and entirely glabrous. Collected without flower 
or fruit July 24, 1910, in Kaiholena Valley, Lanai, no. 8076 in College of Ha- 
waii Herbarium. On Kauai the writer saw one tree and collected specimens of 
the same below Kaholuamano, growing on the edge of one of the canyons. It 
must be referred to Hillebrand's var. /?., from which it, however, differs in the 
lateral petiolules, which are only 1.5 cm long. Collected Sept. 18, 1909, Kaho- 
luamano, Kauai. (No. 5207 in College of Hawaii Herbarium.) 

Var. velutinosum Rock var. nov. 

Leaves 3-foliolate on a common petiole of 4 to 5 cm, leaflets on petiolules of nearly 
even length, ovate acuminate, not articulate, truncate to unevensided at the base, gray- 
velvety tomentose throughout on upper and lower surface, quite opaque, without marginal 
oil glands, and not lemon-scented, in fact without any odor, even when leaves are crushed; 
stipules below the leaf-whorls, spathulate, many nerved, pubescent. 

This tree occurs on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii, ad- 
joining the lava fields of Puuanahulu, where the variety citriodora occurs. This 
variety differs from the latter in the shape of the leaves, which are inodoriferous 
and densely velvety tomentose and quite opaque and without marginal oil glands. 
Collected March, 1912 ; type no. 10205 in College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Xanthoxylum glandulosum Hbd. 
A'e or Hea'e. 

XANTHOXYLUM GLANDULOSUM Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 74; Del Cast. 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 129. Fagara glandulosa Engl. in Engl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. III. 4. (1895) 119. 

Leaves 9 to 7 foliolate, 18 to 20 cm long, the leaflets lanceolate 7.5 to 9 cm x 2.5 to 3 
cm, acute, contracting at the base, membraneous, glabrous, copiously punctate with large 
transparent oil-dots, the common petiole about 2.5 cm, that of the terminal leaflet about 18 
mm, the lateral leaflets subsessile. 

Hillebrand collected this species on AVest Maui, gulch of Lahainaluna. The 
writer found a small tree 10 feet high of this species in Waihou Gulch, near the 
spring at the head of the valley, back of Makawao on the northwestern slope of 
Mt. Haleakala on East Maui, elevation 3000 feet. The tree was neither in flower 
nor fruit; the 7-foliolate leaves were coriaceous and not membraneous. A va- 

197 



PLATE 78. 







XANTHOXYLUM KAUAIENSE Gray. 

A'e or Hea'e Tree. 

The three-foliolate form growing on the aa lava fields on the southern slopes of 
Mt. Haleakala, Auahi, Maiii. 



Rutaceae. 

riety ft. Hbd. with 7 to 5 leaflets, large, oblong, caudate-acuminate, rounded at 

the base and dotted as before, occurs in the woods of Hilo, on the Island of 

Hawaii. The writer is not acquainted with this variety. 

Xanthoxylum Kauaiense Gray. 

A'e or Hea'e. 

(Plates 78, 79.) 

XANTHOXYLUM KAUAIENSE Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 354; H. Mann in Proc. 

Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 318; et Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 160, et Fl. 

Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Inst. (1869) 170; Wawra in Flora (1873) 139; Hbd. Fl. 

Haw. Isl. (1888) 73; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 130. Fagara 

kauaiensis Engler in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 4. (1895) 119. 

A small graceful tree, about 6 to 12 m high, with a straight trunk and a dense round 
crown; leaves 5 or 3-foliolate (in the trees of East Maui, southern slopes of Mt. Hale- 
akala) on petioles of 2.5 to 3.5 cm; the leaflets ovate or oblong, 4 to 6 cm long, 2 to 3 
cm wide, subacuminate, coriaceous and quite opaque, or with a few transparent dots along 
the margin, glabrous, the petiolule of the terminal one occasionally but not always articu- 
late near the blade, 12 to 16 mm, those of the lateral ones 2 to 3 mm; panicles 1 to 4 
near the base of the short branchlets 3.5 to 7 cm long, the compressed peduncle 12 to 20 
mm, the pedicels 2 to 4 mm, the bracelets minute; flowers tetramerous, 0.5 mm, acute, 
petals 3 to 4 mm. stamens in the male flowers longer than the petals, (in sterile flowers 
according to Hillebrand 2 mm long) anthers ovoid, wanting in the fertile flowers; 
carpel single, with a globose subsessile stigma, rudimentary in the sterile flowers; follicle 
on a stipe of 4 mm, (teste Hillebr.) obovate, glabrous, faintly pitted and striate; seed 
solitary, 8 to 10 mm. 

The Kauai A'e is a rather handsome tree with a beautiful round crown when 
growing in the open. It occurs most frequently at Kaholuamano, as well as 
at Halemanu, on the leeward side of Kauai, at an elevation of 3600 to 4000 feet, 
at the outskirts of the forest, which at this elevation is more of a dry nature and 
of a mixed type. It is quite common along stream beds in company with various 
species of Pelea, Xanthoxylum dipetalum var. y, Alphitonia excelsa, Cyanea lep- 
tostegia, Cryptocaria Mannii, Bobea Mannii, and Tetraplasandra Waimeae. 

The leaves of the Kauai trees of this species are all 5-foliolate, that is consisting 
of five leaflets, which are glabrous. The flowers of this species are fragrant ; the 
wood is yellowish white. 

The writer collected several forms, nos. 2103, 5677, in the type locality, flow- 
ering only. 

On the Island of Maui on the eastern section, which is formed by the great 
mass of the largest extinct volcano, Mt. Haleakala, the writer found on its 
southern flank, on ancient, now wooded, aa lava flows, numerous trees belonging 
to this species. They differ, however, in some respects from the Kauai specimens 
in that the leaves are always three-foliolate and never five-foliolate, in being 
chartaceous instead of coriaceous, but otherwise exactly as in the specimens from 
Kauai. At Auahi, the name of the above-mentioned locality on Maui, the trees 
reach a handsome size and trunks of a foot and a half or even more in diameter 
are not uncommon, though growing never taller than 40 feet. The trees are 
quite numerous, especially on the southern border of Auahi, where the district 
of Kahikinui joins that of Kaupo; there the writer saw the finest specimens, 
which formed practically the sole tree-growth. On the northwestern slope of 

199 



PLATE 79. 




XANTHOXYLUM KAUAIENSE Gray var. /3 Hbd. 

A'e or Hea'e. 

Branch pinned against trunk of tree. Growing on the aa lava flows of Puuwaawaa, 
North Kona, Hawaii; elevation 3000 feet. 



Rutaceae. 

Haleakala the writer met with trees of this species in the forests above Makawao, 
but there the leaves were all five-foliolate, membraneous, and quite glabrous. This 
latter tree Hillebrand refers to his var. ft. of the same species, though erroneously, 
in the writer's opinion. The Auahi specimens were collected in November, 1910 
fruiting, no. 8658 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. On his last visit to 
Auahi the writer photographed one of these trees, which is figured in this book. 
(See plate 78.) 

Hillebrand 's var. ft. is five-foliolate and strongly pubescent underneath. The 
leaflets are, however, not smaller than in the species, at least in certain trees, for 
this variety seems to be quite a variable one. The true variety ft. the writer col- 
lected at Puuwaawaa, lava fields of North Kona, fruiting (no. 3651), on June 
17, 1909. On his last visit, March, 1912, he collected the variety again, but found 
numerous trees on the Puuwaawaa hill proper, which differed somewhat from 
those found on the plain below, in having much larger leaves and quite pubescent 
follicles; the leaflets are broadly ovate to ovate-acute, w r hile those of the plain 
below are smaller of typical A', kauaiense shape, and have glabrous follicles. The 
leaf-branch and trunk figured is the true var. ft. Hillebrand 's material came 
from Kawaihaeiuka, a neighboring district. In that latter locality tree growth 
has disappeared to a certain extent, owing to cattle ranches; only the most 
hardy trees have survived. 

Hillebrand 's variety y, with rather large leaflets, comes from Kauai from the 
forests above Waimea, meaning either Halemanu or Kaholuamano. The va- 
riety is represented in the College of Hawaii Herbarium by the number 5960 col- 
lected in the type locality, flowering Sept. 6, 1909. 

In order to have this monograph on the genus Xanthoxylum complete, the 
writer wishes to describe a new species belonging to this genus. The same is, 
however, only a shrub three feet or even less high and occurs in the rain forests 
of the Kohala Mts. at an elevation of 4100 feet. It may be described as follows: 

Xanthoxylum Bluettianum Rock sp. nov. 

A sparingly branching shrub 1 m high, glabrous; leaves three-foliolate on petioles 
of 5 to 6.5 cm, leaflets ovate, acute, with a cuneate base, the lateral ones unevensided 5.5 
to 8.5 cm x 3 to 5.5 cm, thick coriaceous opaque puberulous underneath, the petiolule of 
the terminal leaflet often articulate near the blade 2.5 to 3.5 cm, those of the lateral 
leaflets 16 to 20 mm; panicles at the base of the branchlets 8 to 12 cm long with a gray 
pubescent compressed peduncle of 5 cm. Flowers unknown. Follicles 1 cm, pitted 
striately rugose, curved; seeds 16 mm, the woody testa rugose under the black shining 
epidermis. 

Hawaii : High mountains of Kohala at the edge of Honokanenui gulch at an 
elevation of 4100 feet, in company with Schiedea diffusa (fruiting June, 1910, 
Rock n. 8373, type in College of Hawaii Herbarium). 

Named in honor of Mr. P. W. P. Bluett, Manager of Kohala Ditch, through 
whose kindly aid the exploration of Kohala was made possible. 

201 



PLATE 80. 




XANTHOXYLUM MAUIENSE Mann var. KIGIDUM Rock var. nov. 
Fruiting branch, about one-third of the natural size. 



Rutaceae. 

Xanthoxylum mauiense Mann. 
Ae or Heae. 

XANTHOXYLUM MAUIENSE Mann, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 319, et Proc. 
Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 160, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. E?s. Inst. V. (1867) 170; 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 74; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 130. 
Fagara mauiensis Engler in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 4. (1895) 119. 

Leaflets 3 on a common petiole of 2.5 to 3 cm, ovate or ovate-oblong 6 to 8 em long, 
3.5 to 5 cm wide, acuminate or somewhat obtuse, pale coriaceous, quite opaque, puberu- 
lent above, gray-tomentose underneath as well as the petioles and petiolules in the writer's 
specimens, the lateral ones subtruncate at the base, more or less cut in the upper half, on 
petiolules of 2 to 4 mm, that of the median leaflet 16 to 18 mm, and often articulate near 
the blade; panicles 3.5 to 10 cm long many flowered, the common peduncle 2.5 to 4.5 cm, 
the pedicels about 4 mm, tomentose; follicles 8 to 10 mm. stipitate, luuulate-obovoid, the 
apex almost lateral, after dehiscence recurved, rugose and pitted. 

This species seems to be indeed a very variable one; the writer has collected 
material of this species on Maui, Hawaii and Lanai, and even specimens of a 
small tree were collected by him on Kauai, which seems to be intermediate be- 
tween A', tnauicnse and A', hawaiiense ; the petiolules of the lateral leaflets being 
shorter than in hawaiiense, but longer than in mauiense. The specimens from 
the above-mentioned islands vary considerably, especially those from Lanai, and 
from Maui proper. Horace Mann's type came from West Maui, in which 
latter locality the writer did not find any Xanthoxylum. The specimens on 
which Mann based his species were collected by Remy n. 615. and Lydgate, but no 
definite locality is given, other than West Maui. It is the writer's opinion 
that the tree must be a dry district species, as all other varieties occur in the 
mixed forests, rather than in mesophytic forests. The writer's specimen which 
comes closest to the original description came from the lava fields of Puuwaa- 
waa. North Kona, Hawaii, on the slopes of Mt. Hualalai (no. 3716), where the 
genus Xanthoxylum has numerous representatives. 

The leaves and inflorescence are quite pubescent, and the former opaque, and 
as a whole answer well to Mann's description; there seems, however, to be a 
transition type present which has the pubescent leaves, and besides being tri- 
foliolate, has also five leaflets, which would remind one of X. kauaiense. The 
species is dioecious, a fact of which Hillebrand was not certain. 

Specimens gathered on the Island of Lanai, in Mahana Valley (no. 8112), un- 
doubtedly will have to be referred to this species, though differing from it in 
the less coriaceous and perfectly glabrous leaves, and may therefore be called 
forma glabnim f. nov. Hillebrand describes a var. (3. from Maunahui, Molokai, 
which differs from the species in the very long petioles 5 to 10 cm, the leaves of 
which are glabrous above and coarsely pubescent underneath, with pellucid dots 
along the margin. The writer is unacquainted with this variety. 

Another variety described by Hillebrand as var. y the writer collected on Lanai. 
This latter tree is indeed quite common on Lanai. occurring on the main ridges 
Lanaihale and Haalelepakai ; elevation 3000 feet. It may be described as follows : 

203 



PLATE 81. 




XANTHOXYLUM DIPETALUM Mann var. GEMINICARPUM Eock var. nov. 
Less than one-half natural size. 



Rutaceae. 

Leaflets thick coriaceous, opaque, obtuse or rounded, the lateral ones subsessile, 
truncate at the base, rhomboidal, the lower half much produced, almost auriculate, the 
rib puberulous or more often glabrate, the median leaflet rarely articulate; panicles simple 
or compound. 

The writer's number 8071, collected in Mahana Valley, Lanai, is the typical 
var. y, while number 8217 has the leaves not quite so coriaceous and has densely 
flowered panicles. 

Var. rigidum Rock var. nov. 
(Plate 80.) 

A small tree 5 m high, with few very stiff stout branches, leaves three foliolate, on 
petioles of 5 to 6 cm, leaflets ovoid to ovoid-oblong, bluntly acute, truncate at the base, 
the lateral ones subsessile or on petiolules of 4 mm, the median leaflet on an articulate 
petiolule of 3 cm, 12 to 15 cm long, 8 to 12 cm wide, (having the largest leaves of any 
Hawaiian Xanthoxylum) thick coriaceous, opaque, with prominent stramineous midrib 
and veins; panicles densely flowered, 9 to 12 cm long, on flat, compressed peduncles of 
3.5 to 4 cm, ultimate pedicels 6 mm, follicle as in the species. 

Collected on the Island of Maui on the northwestern slopes of Haleakala in 

Waihou gulch, back of Makawao, elevation 3000 feet, March, 1912, in company 
with Pseudomorus Brunoniana and Sideroxylon Ceresolii. Type is number 
10200 in the Herbarium of the College of Hawaii. It is a small tree 15 feet 
high and is peculiar to Mt. Haleakala, where it grows in the drier regions on the 
steep slopes of Waihou gulch. 

From the Kaala Mt., Oahu, Hillebrand describes a variety 8 with 3 to 5-foliolate 
leaves. The writer is not acquainted with this variety. 

Var. anceps Rock. var. nov. 

Leaves trifoliolate on petioles of 8 to 12 em, pubescent with whitish hair, leaflets lanceo- 
late to ovate-lanceolate, the lateral ones sessile, almost rhomboidal in outline, very un- 
evensided, acuminate at the apex, the terminal leaflet on a petiole of 22 to 30 mm, which 
is not articulate, 10 to 15 cm long, 3.5 to 9 cm wide pubescent or glabrous above, pubes- 
cent underneath, especially along the prominent midrib; panicles large 15 to 20 cm, open, 
many flowered, pubescent throughout, with a common, broad and. flat (compressed) 
peduncle of 6 to 9 cm, ultimate pedicels 5 mm; male flowers: sepals minute dentiform, 
pubescent, petals cream-colored, 5 mm long ovoid, acute, stamens slightly shorter, anthers 
orbicular, ovary pronounced, though rudimentary: follicle only 8 mm, minutely pitted. 

A medium-sized tree 20 feet in height, pubescent throughout. It is peculiar 
to the Island of Hawaii, where it grows near the Volcano of Kilauea at an ele- 
vation of 4000 feet in the Kipuka Puaulu, which is so rich in species. A number 
of other species of Xanthoxylum are found in this small area (56 acres), which 
is surrounded by ancient aa lava flows which are in turn covered by a forest of 
Acacia Koa. 

Specimens of this variety were collected flowering and fruiting by the writer 
in July, 1911. The type is number 10201 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 
The name anceps refers to the broad and compressed peduncle. 

In the same locality another form was collected with 3 to 5 leaflets which are 
glabrous and coriaceous. In fruit only, the leaves resemble more var. rigidum 
(no. 10202). 

205 



PLATE 82. 




XANTHOXYLUM DIPETALUM Matin var. GEMINICARPUM Rock var. nov. 
Trunk 2 1 /. feet in diameter, growing in Kipuka Puaulu. Kilauea, Hawaii. 



Rutaceae. 

To the variety anceps must be referred another tree found in the same locality. 
The inflorescence is exactly as in the variety, but the leaves, which are also 
pubescent, have three but rarely five leaflets which are subcordate to truncate 
at the base ; the lateral ones instead of being sessile are on petiolules of about 10 
mm and are subcordate to uneveusided ; the leaflets remind one very much of 
those of Pterotropia Kauaiensis. The terminal leaflet is also articulate. Evi- 
dently the length of the petiolules of the lateral leaflets, on which Hillebrand laid 
so much stress, is not a good specific character. According to his key to the 
species, this latter form, which may be known now as forma petiolulatum f. n., 
would belong to A', liaicaiiense, rather than to A", mauiense, but can not be sep- 
arated from the latter, as it differs otherwise very materially from the former 
species, whose lateral leaflets are practically deltoid, with petiolules as long as 
the terminal one. These varieties and forms seem to be intermediates between 
A", mauiense and A', hawaiiense, though reminding one much more of the former 
than of the latter. 

Xanthoxylum dipetalum Mann. 

XANTHOXYLUM DIPETALUM Mann in Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1867) 160, et 
Proc. Ess. Inst. V. (1868) 170; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 76; Del Cast. 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 129. Fagara dipetala Engl. in "Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. 
III. 4. (1895) 119. 

Leaves 15 to 18 cm long including a petiole of 2.5 to 3.5 cm, pinnately 5 to 7 folio- 
late, the lowest pair of leaflets generally with a pair of stipelliform or auricular folioles 
dose to its base; lateral petiolules 6 mm, the terminal one 12 to 18 mm, often articulate; 
leaflets oblong 7.5 to 8.75 cm long, 3.75 to 4.5 cm wide, obtuse, all contracting and nearly 
symmetrical at the base, coriaceous, with faint nerves and many pellucid dots, glossy; 
panicles terminal and oppositifolious, 7.5 to 10 cm long, with a peduncle of 2.5 to 3.75 cm 
and suberect branches, the ternate flowers on pedicels of 6 mm, the lateral pedicels 
minutely bracteate below the middle; male flowers: sepals 4, rounded, little more than 
1 mm high; petals 2, lanceolate, thick coriaceous and valvate, 10 mm long, stamens 4, 
scarcely half the length of the petals, placed on the edge of the disc, with long apiculate 
anthers of 2 to 3 mm; ovary rudimentary. 

This very interesting species, which is quite distinct from all the other Ha- 
waiian Xanthoxyla, was first collected by Dr. Wm. Hillebrand and communicated 
by him to H. Mann, who described it. The writer is only acquainted with sev- 
eral forms or varieties of this species found on the other islands, but has never 
collected the species proper, found on Oahu by Hillebrand on the slopes of 
Waiolani, also called Lanihuli, in Xuuanu Valley. The dipetalous flowers occur 
in the species, and in the varieties the flowers are tetramerous. It is a tree about 
30 feet high and quite glabrous. In regard to the dipetalous flowers Hillebrand 
quite correcth r states: ''The reduced number of the petals in the species is 
owing not to a suppression of a pair, but to coalescence of two contiguous petals ; 
it is not so much therefore on the strength of these characters that the present 
species must claim a place distinct from the preceding ones within the genus, as 
for its mode of inflorescence and the presence of the supplementary pair of 
reduced leaflets in such an extraordinary position, where they appear like ap- 
pendages of the lowest folioles. ' ' 

207 



PLATE 83. 




XANTHOXYLUM DIPETALUM Mann var. GEMINICARPUM Rock var. nov. 
Tree growing in the Kipuka Puaulu, near Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



Rutaceae. 

H. Mann described Hbd. 's variety y, doubtfully in the genus Connarus as C. ? 
Kauaiensis, and remarks that the two lower lateral leaflets, which are very small 
and have strongly revolute margins, are perhaps a diseased state. This is, how- 
ever, not the case, as in all forms examined from Kauai and Hawaii these stipel- 
liform leaflets are present. 

Hillebrand describes a variety /? with generally 3-foliolate leaves and acute an- 
thers which are longer than their filaments, from the Island of Hawaii, from the 
western, dry section of Kawaihaeiuka. The writer did not meet with this va- 
riety, though he found another form in the neighboring district of North Kona 
on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, which proved to be new and is here described 
as follows : 

Var. tomentosum Rock var. nov. 

Leaves 5 to 7 foliolate, including the reduced pair of stipelliform leaflets, on petioles 
of 2.5 to 4 cm, densely tomentose throughout, as is the inflorescence; leaflets oblong to 
linear-oblong, or orbiculate, or obovate-oblong, rounded at the apex and base, or bluntly 
acute, or with even emarginate apex, 5.5 to 15 cm long, 3 to 8 cm wide, pubescent above, 
densely velvety tomentose underneath, the terminal petiolule 1 to 3 cm, articulate, the 
lateral ones 1 to 5 cm, densely tomentose, the stipelliform leaflets immediately below 
the last pair of normal leaflets, the margins revolute, or completely folded, opaque, with- 
out oil glands; veins and midrib prominent underneath; panicles 4 to 15 cm long including 
a peduncle of 5 mm to 7 cm; male flowers: sepals 4, rounded or acute, 2 mm high, hispid, 
petals 2. tomentose, broadly ovate, acute, stamens 4, oblong, 1.5 mm long, four times as 
long as filament; female flowers: stamens wanting, ovary ovoid, slightly raised on a disc, 
tomentose; stigma sessile, with two flat broad lobes; follicles woody, 2.5 cm long, 2 cm 
wide, tapering into a point of 3 to 5 mm, rugose and pitted; seed ovoid, black, 16 mm long, 
12 mm wide, shining, raphe extending its entire length. 

This very interesting tree occurs on the lava flows of Mt. Hualalai, at Puu- 
waawaa, North Kona, Hawaii, w r here it is, however, not common. It was first 
collected by the writer, fruiting and flowering, on June 17, 1909 (no. 3695), and 
again during March, 1912, when several forms of this variety were found, which 
have been here described collectively. Type is 10207 in College of Hawaii Her- 
barium. 

Var. geminicarpum Rock var. nov. 
(Plates 81, 82, 83.) 

Leaves one to three foliolate with the ever present stipellifoim leaflets, on short 
petioles, leaflets entirely glabrous, thick coriaceous, with midrib and nerves prominent, 
united by a reticulate venation, ovate-oblong, or elliptical-oblong, acute or rounded at 
the apex, the terminal leaflet gradually tapering into a non-articulate petiolule of 1 to 3.5 
cm, the lateral ones subsessile or on peduncles of often more than 5 cm; female flowers: 
sepals 4, ovate, acute or rounded petals 2 to 4 reddish yellow, lanceolate, 10 mm, thick, 
acute, when 2; terete tapering styles distinct, united at the apex by the reddish, close 
grooved stigma; ovary 2, rarely 3-celled; follicles usually two,* with an ovoid, black 
smooth seed in each, occasionally with a single seed, the other rudimentary. 

A large tree 40 feet high with a straight trunk, 2,y 2 feet in diameter, bark gray, 
covered with lenticels. This interesting variety the writer discovered on the 



* In the writer's material each fruit consists of two follicles, though the figure on 
plate 81 shows only a single one. 



14 



Rutaceae. 

slopes of Mauna Loa at an elevation of 4000 feet, in the Kipuka Puaulu, near 
the Volcano Kilauea on Hawaii. Only two trees were observed; both were of 
the same size, about 40 feet in height, with stout, ungainly looking, ascending 
branches. Collected flowering and fruiting July 20, 1911. Type is no. 10208 in 
the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Xanthoxylum dipetalum Mann. var. -/ Hbd. 
Kawau on Kauai. 

XANTHOXYLUM DIPETALUM Mann. var. -y Hbd. Fl. Haw. lal. 1. c. p.; Wawra in 
Flora (1873) 139. Connarus ? Kauaiensis Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 162. 

Leaves on short petioles of 1 cm, 3 to 1 foliolate, with the supplementary pair of 
stipellif )rm leaflets besides, obovate-oblong, thick coriaceous and quite opaque, with promi- 
nent veins and a distinct intramarginal nerve; panicles as in the species, few flowered; 
female flowers: sepals 4, 1 mm long, rounded, puberulous, as are the 4 lanceolate petals; 
stamens wanting, ovary glabrous, styles apparently two, but not distinct as in var. 
yeminicarpum, appearing only to be grooved, united at the apex by a broad, flat, orbicu- 
lar, grooved stigma; male flowers: petals 2, ovoid, smaller, only two-thirds the length of 
the female flower, anthers 4, less than half the length of the petals, 2.5 mm, including 
the 0.5 mm long filament, ovary rudimentary; follicle single, 3 cm long, including the 6 
mm long acumen at the apex, slightly pitted, woody; seed ovoid, 2 cm, the hard woody 
testa covered with a black, shining, thin and brittle epidermis, the raphe extending its 
entire length; cotyledons thick fleshy, plano-convex, the radicle very short and enclosed. 

This exceedingly interesting tree reaches a height of more than 30 feet with a 
trunk of often over a foot in diameter. It favors the outskirts of the forests 
on the leeward side of Kauai, especially at Kaholuamano and Halemanu above 
Waimea at an elevation of 3600 to 4000 feet. It is found in company with 
Pelea anisata, Bobea Mannii, Pelea Kauaiensis, Elaeocarpus bifidus, Cyanea lepto- 
stegia, Tetraplasandra Waimeae, Sideroxylon sandwicense, Alphitonia excelsa, 
Pterotropia kauaiensis, and others which make up this very interesting mixed 
forest. 

On Kauai, to which island this tree is peculiar, its trunk was in great demand 
for tapa or kapa logs or anvils on which the strips of the wauke bark were beaten. 
The yellowish wood of this tree was especially in favor with the natives on ac- 
count of the resonant tones it produced when struck with a tapa beater made of 
some of the hard woods, such as Uhiuhi, Kauila, and others. The sound of the 
tapa beating would be heard from valley to valley, and constituted a regular 
system of communication by means of a code. 

This Kawau tree, or as it is also termed Kawau kua kuku kapa, is the subject of 
a mele or old Hawaiian song, which begins thus: "Mehe Kawau laka ale i ka 
moana, etc. ' ' As the Kawau so is the sound of the ocean. The old natives evi- 
dently had reference to the sounds produced by the pounding surf, which can 
be heard for a long distance, and compared it with the resonant sound produced 
when beating tapa on the Kawau log. According to Mr. Francis Gay of Kauai, 
the natives of that island preferred this tree to any other for the above described 
purpose. 

210 



Eutaceae. 
PELEA Gray. 

Flowers polygamous. Calyx lobes 4, rarely 5, imbricate. Lobes of corolla 4, rarely 5, 
valvate. Stamens 8, rarely 10, inserted at the base of a slightly 8 lobed discus, in the 
fertile flowers rudimentary, usually the height of the ovary, in the sterile flowers 4, often 
as long as the petals and occasionally longer and protruding; filaments flat; anthers short 
ovate or sagittate, introrse. Carpels 4, rarely 5, united, each with two collateral ovules, 
one ascending, the other pendulous. Capsule of 4 follicles either discreet and 4-coccous 
or more or less deeply 4-parted, in a few species cuboid; follicles 2-valved. Seeds crus- 
taceous with black shining testa, on a short and broad funiculus. Embryo straight, in a 
fleshy albumen, with broad ovate cotyledons and short radicle. Unarmed trees with 
opposite or whorled leaves, which are simple and entire, and have an intramarginal nerve. 
Flowers in axillary, simple or compound, mostly paniculate cymes. 

The genus Pelea, which was dedicated by Asa Gray to the Hawaiian goddess 
of the Volcano, Pele, is not strictly Hawaiian, though the bulk of the species is 
found in these Islands. A few only occur outside the Hawaiian archipelago, as, 
for example, three in New Caledonia and one in Madagascar. 

The Hawaiian Pelea are rather difficult for the systematist, as they are ex- 
tremely variable and have numerous forms and varieties which link several species 
together. There are, strictly speaking, very few well denned species. The 
writer in this treatise on the arboreous species of this genus, has added five new 
species and five new varieties. The work of classifying all the variable species of 
Pelea was made extremely difficult and troublesome through the publication of 
supposed new species of Pelea by H. Leveille based on material collected by Abbe 
U. Faurie, in the year 1910. It certainly is most regrettable that this material, 
which often is beyond recognition, w r as turned over to Mr. Leveille, who was 
only too ambitious to swell the number of his new species. The descriptions are 
so incomplete that it was impossible to make use of them and consequently the 
work had to be ignored. 

The writer still has numerous plants of Pelea which could not be placed, which 
are undoubtedly new, but the material is incomplete, either flowers or capsules 
being lacking, and it certainly would be of no help to describe these plants as 
new, without complete material, such as sterile and fertile flowers and fruits. 
Even Hillebrand's descriptions are not too complete, some of them are even 
dubious, and references to such will be found in their proper places. The writer 
could also have swelled the number of new species of Pelea as Mr. Leveille did, 
to the sorrow of future workers on the Hawaiian Flora, but refrained from doing 
so on account of insufficient material. Of the new species of Pelea described in 
this book, the writer had abundant and complete material, having visited the 
various localities at different seasons in order to secure the plants in all stages 
of development. Leveille describes, if so it can be called, five species of Pelea 
in Fedde Repertorium Vol. X. no. 10-14, 1911, and 10 species in Vol. X. no. 27-29, 
1912, the names of all of which are as follows: Pelea Leveillei Faurie, Pelea 
waianaiensis Levl., P. oahuensis Levl., P. penduliflora Levl., P. Feddei Levl., P. 
subpeltata Levl., P. nodosa Levl., P. singuliflora Levl., P. peduncularis Levl., P. 

211 



Rutaceae. 

grandipetala Levl., P. Hillebrandii Levl., P. foetida Levl., P. sessilis LevL, Pelea'l 
acutivalvata Levl., P. Fauriei Levl. 

The latter one the writer thinks to be only a mere variety of P. clusiaefolia 
Gray. It is a very small leaved form, but owing to the fact that it is found in 
the rather dry forests back of Kaluaha and Kamolo on the leeward side of Mo- 
lokai, it can be easily the result of the location, a fact which has disproved many 
an apparently new species. Leveille absolutely ignores fertile or sterile flowers 
and gives only a general description that may be applied to any species in the 
genus. An example may follow. P. Hillebrandii, Rami fragiles, nodosi; flores 
magni axillares cymosi pedicelli bibracteolati, caylce minuto, sepala obtusa, glabra, 
petala 4-5-plo longiora, glabra apice triangularia ; stamina paulo breviora. 

This description, especially of the flower, is really a marvel, and anyone able 
to place P. Hillebrandii by it, must be a clairvoyant, and a clever one at that. 
Anyone acquainted with the extreme variability of the Hawaiian Pelea, their 
many intermediates, and who has at his disposal such a large material as is at 
the writer's disposal, cannot help but deplore such work, which is not to the ad- 
vancement, but to the hindrance of botanical science. 

The Hawaiian Pelea, for the sake of convenience, may be classed into four 
units, and embraced under a special name sp. (ecies) c. (ollectiva). 

For example: Pelea clusiaefolia with all its varieties is closely related to P. 
auriculae folia, P. Cookeana, P. sapotaefolia, P. Waialealae, P. microcarpa, P. Fau- 
riei and perhaps P. pallida. All these species have a more or less variable, but 
always small capsule in common, and have all either quaternate or ternate leaves, 
and never opposite ones unless it be in very rare instances, or perhaps in a 
very dubious variety of some one of these species. The writer would propose for 
this group of species the name Pelea sp. c. verticillifolia ; this expresses the con- 
ception of the group as a very closely related one, in a comprehensive and easy 
way. 

The second and largest group has opposite leaves and is characterized by the 
large capsules, which are deeply parted but not discreet. The typical species of 
this group is Pelea volcanica, and is followed by Pelea pseudoanisata, P. oblongi- 
folia, P. rotundifolia, P. orbicularis, P. molokaiensis, P. Mannii, P. parvifolia, P. 
macropus, P. Kauaiensis, and P. sandwicensis. P. Balloui, of which only 
young capsules (which are silky pubescent) are known, may also belong to this 
group for which the writer proposes the name P. sp. c. megacarpa. This in itself 
is a practical key which will facilitate the identification of species. 

Another marked group, though small, has cuboid capsules and opposite leaves 
and is made up of the following members : Pelea anisata, P. Wawraeana, P. 
Zahlbruckneri, and may be termed P. sp. c. cubicarpa. 

The fourth group is composed of the following, with Pelea cinerea, as the most 
variable one, in the lead; it is followed closely by P. Knudsenii, P. multiflora, P. 

212 



Rutaceae. 

barbigera, and the P. elliptica. All these form a marked group which can be 
expressed by the name Pelea sp. c. apocarpa. 

Drake Del Castillo, in his " Illustrationes Florae Insularum Maris Pacifici," 
united the genera Melicope and Pelea with Evodia. The latter genus differs, 
however, from Pelea in the strictly tetramerous flowers, while the genus Pelea 
has never less than eight stamens. Melicope again differs from Pelea in the im- 
bricate petals. The writer has here adhered to the original classification, uphold- 
ing the genus Pelea, as has also been done by Engler in his treatise on the family 
Rutaceae. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

I. Verticillifoliae. 

Capsule syncarpous the carpels more or less united. 
Flowers fasciculate on a short axis. 
Leaves quaternate or ternate. 
Capsule deeply parted, small. 

Leaves obovate, shortly petiolate, capsule woody, small. 

P. clusiaefolia 
Leaves large obovate-oblong, attenuate at the base, subsessile, 

flowers small P. Cookeana 

Leaves ovate, small, 2 to 5 cm. subsessile .... P. Fauriei 
Leaves large, elongate oblong, spathulate, villous underneath 

P. sapotaefolia 

Leaves lanceolate-acute capsule thin P. Waialealae 

Leaves sessile with an auriculate base P. auriculaefolia 

Leaves ternate, obovate, petiolate, the midrib pubescent, cap- 
sule very small P. microcarpa 

II. Megacarpae. 

Capsules large, deeply 4 parted. 

Leaves opposite branches hirsute tomentose. 

Leaves oval, hirsute underneath P. volcanica 

Leaves oval or oblong, strongly reticulated, glabrous under- 
neath P. sandwicensis 

Leaves orbicular, petiolate, mucronate P. orbicularis 

Leaves opposite, branches glabrous. 

Leaves coriaceous, velvety villous underneath on hirsute 

petioles P. Kauaiensis 

Leaves orbicular, sessile, glabrous P. rotundifolia 

Leaves obovate, retuse base, glabrous, chartaceous 

P. Molokaiensis 
Leaves elliptico-oblong, contracted, not emarginate 

P. macropus 

Leaves ovate to obovate oblong, shining on both sides, cap- 
sule very large, strongly anise-scented P. pseudoanisata 

Leaves ovate, thick coriaceous, capsule silky tomentose, 
sepals and petals persistent P. Balloui 

III. Cubicarpae. 

Capsules cuboid, almost entire. 

Leaves opposite, capsules small. 

Leaves thin, glabrous, anise-scented P. anista 

Leaves elliptico oblong, coriaceous, glabrous. P. Wawraeana 

Leaves opposite, capsule large. 

Leaves obovate-oblong, chartaceous P. Zahlbruckneri 



PLATE 84. 




PELEA CLUSIAEFOLIA A. Gray. 
Alani. 

Showing flowering and fruiting branch. 



Rutaceae. 

IV. Apocarpae. 

Capsules apocarpous, carpels discreet. 

Leaves opposite, cobwebby, capsules glabrous. 

Leaves oblong, cobwebby underneath, flowers up to 200 

P. multiflora 
Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, cordate, flowers up to 40 

P. Knudsenii 
Leaves elliptico oblong, curved, concave, chartaceous, flow r ers 

3 to 5 P. barbigera 

Leaves opposite, capsules pubescent. 

Leaves thin chartaceous, obtuse, pale pubescent, capsule 

puberulous P. elliptica 

Leaves ovate oblong, subcoriaceous, tomentulose, capsule with 
fulvous tomentum P. cinerea 

Pelea clusiaefolia Gray. 

Alani. 
(Plate 84.) 

PELEA CLUSIAEFOLIA Gray, Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 340, pi. 35; Mann. Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 312. et Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 158, et Proc. 
Essex Inst. V. (1867) 165; Wawra in Flora (1873) 107; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 62; Heller Plants Haw. Isl. (1897) 838. Clusia sessilis Hook, et Arn. 
Bot. Beech. (1832) 80 (not Forster). Evodia clusiaefolia Drake Del. Cast. 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 131. 

A small glabrous tree; leaves in whorls of 4 or 3, occasionally 2, obovate or obovate- 
oblong, rounded or emarginate, with contracted base, thick coriaceous, with a prominent 
midrib and continuous intramarginal nerve which is close to the edge, shining above, dull 
underneath, 5 to 12 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, on either short petioles of 1 cm or even 
subsessile, or on petioles of 2.5 cm; flowers in axillary clusters, often cauline, the thick 
peduncle scarcely 2 mm in length, the pedicels 2 to 4 mm, minutely bracteate at the base; 
sterile flowers of the same size as the fertile, in the former some of the stamens are as 
long as the petals and even longer, protruding, the sepals and petals acute, the latter 
twice as long as the former, ovary glabrous, rudimentary, composed of 4 globose carpels, 
with apparently no style in the writer's specimens, but small sessile stigma; fertile 
flowers 4 to 6 mm, the petals more than twice the length of the sepals, stamens rudi- 
mentary, little longer than the rather depressed ovary, anthers sagittate on broad fila- 
ments, style 2 mm, with a 4 lobed stigma, the lobes rather thick and blunt; capsule 4 
lobed, the carpels united to the middle, obtuse or obovate, prominently marked with con- 
centric wrinkles, one to two seeded, 16 mm in diameter. 

Wawra says of this species that the flowers are hermaphrodite ; this is, however, 
not the case. All Hawaiian Peleae have fertile and sterile flowers with either one 
or the other organ rudimentary, making them appear to be hermaphrodite. The 
male flowers of this species were not known to Asa Gray. 

Wawra in Flora records three forms: fm. a (normalis) from the Waianae 
Mts., fm. (3 (macrocarpa) and fm. y microcarpa. Asa Gray enumerates two va- 
rieties ft and y, so does Hillebrand. 

The writer has large material of this species from many localities. It is one 
of the most common Pelea on Oahu, as well as on other islands, especially on 
Hawaii in the forests of Puna, near the Volcano Kilauea. 

It is a medium-sized tree reaching a height of 25 to 30 feet in certain localities. 

Specimens from Konahuanui, Oahu, have ovate acute leaves, but also varying 
tremendously, while others from the Waikane Mts., on the windward side of 
Oahu, have obovate subsessile leaves. From the same locality the writer col- 

215 



Eutaceae. 

lected specimens with linear oblong leaves 15 cm long, and 3 cm wide and 
petiolate. 

A distinct variety recorded as ft by Hillebrand the writer collected in the type 
locality, back of Wahiawa, in the north fork of Kaukonahua gulch; the leaves 
are narrow and on rather long petioles of 3 to 4.5 cm, flowering, fruiting May 15, 
1909, no. 3053. 

A more robust variety was collected on Hawaii in the Kohala mountains, with 
stout branches and petioles; flowering and fruiting June, 1910, no. 8366. 

Hillebrand 's var. y was collected along the government road above Glenwood 
and near the Volcano of Kilauea on Hawaii, fruiting no. 8775, April, 1911 ; July, 
1911 ; December, 1911. 

Pelea Cookeana Rock sp. nov. 

Branches densely foliate at the ends; leaves obovate-oblong, or obovate, or even 
ovate, quaternate, rounded at the apex or emarginate, attenuate at the base, rounded or 
subemarginate, slightly auriculate, subsessile, thick coriaceous, opaque, with a prominent 
midrib, leaves punctate underneath, intramarginal nerve almost straight, close to the 
edge of the leaf, 5.5 to 14 cm long, 2.5 to 6.5 cm wide; inflorescence as in P. clusiaefolia, 
in fascicles; male flowers: sepals ovate acute, petals twice the length, acute, stamens 8, 
4 as long as the petals, the remaining shorter and of unequal size, filaments broad, anthers 
very short, acute, deeply emarginate at the base, ovary glabrous, style 1 mm, with a 
bluntly 4-lobed stigma, lobes minute; female flowers smaller, petals slightly longer than 
the sepals, stamens minute, less than 1 mm, ovary flat, circular in outline, style filiform, 
1 mm, with a 4-lobed stigma; capsule as in P. clusiaefolia but smaller. 

This certainly very variable species, which is here named in honor of Mr. 
George P. Cooke of Molokai, occurs in the dense rain forests above Kamoku, on 
the leeward side of Molokai, at an elevation of 4000 feet. It is a small tree, 
though often inclined to be shrubby with rather stiff and stout branches. It 
occurs all over Molokai in various forms, but always in the dense rain forest. It 
is closely allied to P. clusiaefolia, and perhaps also to P. auriculae folia. The 
leaves are, however, much larger, subsessile, of thick texture, the inflorescence 
smaller as well as the capsules ; the tree has an entirely different aspect with its 
stout branches, which remind somewhat of P. microcarpa from Kauai. 

The type material was collected on the Island of Molokai in the swampy forest 
above Kamoku camp, at an elevation of 4000 feet ; flowering and fruiting no. 
6262, March 23, 1910. Flowering April 10, 1910, no. 7075, from Wailau Pali, 
Molokai, elevation 4000 feet. 

Pelea Fauriei Levl. 

PELEA FAUEIEI Levl. in Fedde Eepert. X. 10-14 (1911) 153. 

A clusiaefolia Gray affini distinguitur: cortice nigrescente, ramulis rugosis vel articu- 
latis; foliis brevibus et minoribus 1 to 5 x 1 to 2 cm opacis, subsessilibus, profuse nigro- 
punctatis et subtus conspicue tomentosis et validissime, reticulatis; capsula et cetera fere 
P. clusiaefoliae. 

A P. sessili adhorret colore pallido foliorum; floribus breviter fasciculatis, et duplo 
majoribus. 

Molokai: Kamolo, 1000 m, Pukoo, 600 m, maio-jun. 1910; Faurie no. 104, 203. 

The plant in question was collected first by the writer in April, 1910, in the 

216 



Rutaceae. 

woods of Kaluaha, Molokai, with flower buds; no. 7066. Owing to very incom- 
plete material the writer is unable to enlarge upon Leveille's description. In the 
writer's hand is a co-type of Faurie's no. 203, but without flower and fruit. The 
writer is very much inclined to reduce this plant to a variety of P. clusiae folia, 
as it only differs from that species in the rather small subsessile leaves; but 
owing to insufficient material for study, it is left at present unmolested. It is a 
small tree, also shrubby. 

Pelea sapotaefolia Mann. 

PELEA SAPOTAEFOLIA Mann Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 312, et Proc. Am. 
Ac. VII. (1867) 158, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 165; Wawra in 
Flora (1873) 109; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 63; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 
840. Evodia sapotaefolia Drake Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 133. 

A small tree much branched; the young naked leaf -buds hirsute, the branches and 
inflorescence glabrous; leaves verticillate, in fours, elongated-oblong or slightly spathulate- 
oblong, chartaceous, 10 to 22.5 cm long. 5 to 7.5 cm wide, somewhat attenuated at the 
base, or sometimes obtuse, on a petiole of 2.5 to 3.5 cm, with a strong, prominent midrib, 
the very numerous primary veins (30 to 50 pairs) running out nearly transversely towards 
the margin, where they unite with a distinct intra-marginal vein; the leaves are some- 
what villous pubescent on the under surface, more especially on the midrib, but quite 
glabrous above; the texture and especially the venation of the leaves gives them some- 
what the appearance of the larger forms of (Sapota sandicicensis) Sideroxylon sandwiccnse; 
flowers in axillary sessile clusters, the pedicels 4 to 6 mm long; calyx 4-parted, the lobes 
broadly ovate, imbricated in aestivation, about 2 to 3 mm long; petals 4, valvate, ovate, 
a third longer than the sepals, not thickened at the apex, stamens 8, much shorter than the 
petals evidently from a fertile flower (Rock), filaments linear-lanceolate, glabrous; 
anthers deltoid-sagittate, adnate-introrse; hypogynous disk very short; ovary glabrous, 
depressed, globular, 4-lobed, 4-celled. the 4 carpels somewhat united; style a little longer 
than the ovary; 4-parted nearly to the base, the divisions clavate, stigmatic at and near 
the summit ; the immature capsule is puberulent and deeply four-grooved. 

The above is the original description of this species by Mann, as found in 
the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. 10, page 313. In 
Hillebrand's description of this species the fact that the immature capsule is 
deeply 4 grooved is omitted, and the writer thinks it altogether wrong to place 
this species in the key as having cuboid subentire capsules. 

The writer collected specimens of a Pelea on Mt. Waialeale, the summit of 
Kauai, overlooking directly Kealia and Hanalei, on the windward side of Kauai, 
which he must refer as a variety to Pelea sapotaefolia. In trying to place the 
plant according to Hillebrand's key to the species, the writer was quite unsuc- 
cessful, as his key calls for cuboid capsules ; however, in looking up the original 
description of Mann, which is very complete of this species, he came to the con- 
clusion that the Waialeale plant is a variety of this species. The capsules are 
deeply 4-lobed when mature, and evidently likewise in the species found at 
Kealia, of which no one seems to have collected mature capsules. Owing to a 
plant collected by Knudsen at Waimea, Kauai, with cuboid capsules, Hillebrand, 
who seemed not to have collected the species, referred it to the latter, and merely 
took for granted that P. sapotaefolia had also cuboid fruits. The fact is strength- 
ened by Heller's statement, who collected Hillebrand's variety ft, which says: 

217 



Rutaceae. 

"That this variety is specifically distinct from P. sapotaefolia is pretty evident." 
He goes on saying: "One old capsule was found on the tree, but unfortunately 
it dropped to the ground and could not be found in the dense tangle of ferns 
and weeds which were growing at the foot of the tree. * * * From what I 
recollect of it, it was entirely too deeply lobed to belong to the same section as 
P. sapotae folia." 

Unfortunately the writer has not collected the species, having only little ex- 
plored the forests of Kealia or Hanalei. However, there seems to be evident 
proof that the true species P. sapotaefolia has not cuboid but deeply-grooved or 
lobed capsules. The variety may be described as follows. 

Var. dumosa Rock var. nov. 

Shrubby, with rather stout branches, leaves smaller than in the species, whorled, 
ovate oblong or slightly spathulate, attenuated at the base, rounded or emarginate at the 
apex, glabrous above, villous underneath especially on the midrib, the petioles of the 
young leaves hirsute; petioles shorter than in the species about 1.5 cm; flowers as in 
the species, capsules 18 mm in diameter, deeply 4-parted to more than half the length of 
the cocci, strongly marked with concentric wrinkles; endocarp glabrous. 

This variety was collected by the writer on the summit of Mt. Waialeale, Kauai, 
at an elevation of 5200 feet, flowering and fruiting September 24, 1909. The 
type is numbered 4974 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

It is very unlikely that the variety y procumbens Hillebrand, is in reality a 
variety of P. sapotaefolia, and until better material is at hand nothing can be 
done towards solving the question. The writer collected specimens of a pro- 
cumbent Pelea on Waialeale (no. 8854) without fruits, which seems to answer 
the description of Hillebrand 's variety y procumbens, but in the writer's mind 
could not be associated with P. sapotaefolia. 

Pelea Waialealae Wawra. 
Anonia or Alaniwai. 

PELEA WAIALEALAE Wawra in Flora (1873) 108; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 63; 
Heller PI. Haw. Tsl. (1897) 841. Evodia Waialealae Drake, Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. 
Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 134. 

A shrub or tree; leaves quaternate, lanceolate, 5 to 8 cm long, 1 to 3 cm wide, acute, 
narrowing at the base into. a margined petiole of 6 to 8 mm, coriaceous, glabrous, covered 
underneath with minute dots, opaque, with prominent veins and midrib, marginal nerve 
close to the edge; flowers fasciculate, shortly stalked, pedicels bibracteolate near the 
base and puberulous; male flowers: sepals broader than high, 2 mm, rounded, petals 7 mm, 
thin oblong acute, somewhat pubescent outside, stamens, 8, 4 as long or longer than the 
petals, the remaining ones a little shorter, on very broad filaments, anthers oblong, ovary 
rudimentary, with a 4-notched sessile stigma; female flowers: smaller than male flowers; 
ovary glabrous, surrounded at the base with the rudimentary anthers which are scarcely 
as high as the ovary; style filiform, 2 mm, stigma 4 lobed. each lobe 1 mm long; capsule 
10 mm in diameter, glabrous, strongly veined, deeply parted, thin chartaceous, the cocci 
globose, keeled along the sutures, endocarp glabrous, shining, seeds angular, black shining. 

Wawra says in his description: "Male floAvers much smaller than the female 
flowers," a statement \vhich the writer finds to be the reverse. In fact, nearly 
all species of Pelea have the male flowers larger than the female flowers. 

218 



Rutaceae. 

The Anonia or Alaniwai is one of the handsomest species of Pelea. It is re- 
corded by AVawra and Heller as a shrub 3 feet high. The writer collected ma- 
terial of this species first September 24, 1909, and again October, 1911. It grows 
only on the Island of Kauai on the summit of Mt. Waialeale, a big flat swamp at 
an elevation of 5200 feet. It is a small tree with a straight trvink of 4 to 5 feet 
and reaches a height of 15 to 20 feet. The mountain is always enshrouded by 
clouds and it is extremely difficult to see farther than a few feet. On the day 
of the writer's last ascent the sky was perfectly cloudless and a thorough survey 
could be made of the vegetation, which resulted in the discovery of a number of 
new species, and also furnished additional data in regard to the plants already 
known. During the writer's first visit to this most interesting mountain, the 
cold was so intense, the wind blew with such great force, and rain came down 
in such torrents, that it was impossible to remain longer than a couple of hours. 
The second time, however, the writer was more fortunate. Collected flowering 
and fruiting September 24, 1909, no. 4975, and October, 1911, no. 8883 in the 
Herbarium of the College of Hawaii. Heller records the plant as a shrub 3 to 4 
feet high from the bog of Wahiawa, Kauai; this latter locality is at a much 
lower elevation, about 3000 feet. 

Pelea auriculaefolia Gray. 

PELEA AURICULAEFOLIA Gray. Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 343, pi. 36; Mann Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 313, et Proc. Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 158, et Proc. Ess. Inst. 
V. (1867) 166; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 838. Platydesma auriculaefolia Hbd. Fl. 
Haw. Isl. (1888) 72; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 134. Platydesma 
auriculifolium Engl. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 4 (1895) 128.. 

Following is a quotation of A. Gray's brief description of the above species: 

"P. glabra; foliis ternis oblongo-spatulatis basi auriculatis sessilibus; flori'nis 
fasciculatis ad axillas foliorum delapsorum secus caulem virgatum brevissime 
pedicellatis ; capsula quadripartita. " 

He says: "The specimen, taken from an upright, nearly simple shrub, bears 
only a little fruit, and a few fertile ovaries, from which the perianth, stamens, 
etc., have fallen. The virgate stem is very leafy above; and the flowers have 
been produced lower down, in small fascicles from the axils of earlier leaves, 
now fallen. Plant glabrous throughout. Leaves verticillate in threes, coriaceous, 
pale, oblong-spathulate, obtuse, auriculate at the base, sessile, from 3 to 5 inches 
long, veined and dotted nearly as in the preceding species; the midrib salient 
underneath. Ovary more deeply lobed than in P. clusiae folia, being united only 
at the base; style has mostly fallen. Capsule deeply four-parted; the cocci oval- 
oblong, otherwise similar, as apparently are the seeds to those of Pelea clusiae- 
folia. 

"Forests of Hawaii, on the flank of Mauna Kea." 

How Hillebrand could have taken this plant for a Platydesma is difficult to 
understand. Even Engler in the Natiirlichen Pflanzenf ami lien places it under 
the latter genus. 

219 



Rutaceae. 

The writer did not meet with this plant in the forests of Mauna Kea, but on 
the slopes of Mauna Loa at about 5000 feet elevation the writer collected speci- 
mens of a Pelea which resembles very much the above species. The leaves are 
quaternate instead of ternate, are subsessile and very slightly auriculate ; they are, 
however, decidedly punctate and so are the deeply-parted capsules which answer 
well Gray's description. It is an erect shrub or small tree with straight ascending 
branches ; trunk about 3 inches in diameter ; leaves quaternate subsessile ; flowers 
arranged in fascicles as in P. clusiaefolia; female flowers: sepals acuminate, 
petals linear oblong, acute, little longer than the sepals; the 8 stamens short, 
rudimentary, little higher than the glabrous ovary; style filiform, 2 mm, with 
thickened clavate 4-lobed stigma. 

It is still somewhat doubtful if this plant is actually P. auriculae folia, as there 
is no description of either fertile or sterile flowers given by Gray, who had only a 
fruiting specimen. As the leaves are very variable in the Hawaiian Pelea, the 
plant collected on the slopes of Mauna Loa by the writer seems to be best at 
present referable to this species. 

Collected flowering and fruiting in the forests above Naalehu, Kau, Hawaii, 
January 13, 1912 ; no. 10012. 

On Molokai occur several Pelea with quaternate leaves, resembling this one in 
question, but are more affiliated with P. clusiaefolia than with P. auriculae folia. 

Pelea microcarpa Heller. 
Kukaimoa. 

PELEA MICROCARPA Heller PL Haw. Isl. Minnes. Bot. Stud. IX. (1897) 839, pi. 49. 
A small tree with stout trunk and grayish bark; branches more or less curved up- 
wards; leaves in threes or quaternate, near the ends of the branches, on flattened, some- 
what hirsute petioles of 3 to 3.5 cm, obovate-oblong, or spathulate, rounded at the apex 
and retuse, quite glabrous above, pubescent below, especially along the midrib, 8 to 14 
cm long, 4 to 6 em wide, coriaceous, opaque, the secondary veins parallel, at almost right 
angles to the midrib, united by an intramarginal nerve which is very close to the edge; 
flowers all along the naked branches, in the axils of fallen leaves; peduncles exceedingly 
short, about 1 mm, 2 to 3 flowered, pedicels stoutish 2 mm; sepals ovate acute, 3 mm, 
about as broad as high, petals twice the length of sepals, acute, stamens 8, 4 protruding 
from the corolla, 4 smaller, half the length, or of unequal length, on broad filaments; 
style very short less than 1 mm, with a very indistinctly 4 notched stigma, capsule small, 
cuboid, 8 to 10 mm in diameter, merely notched or slightly lobed, glabrous. 

This tree, 10 to 15 feet high, is called Kukaimoa by the natives. It is quite 
common in the forests of Kaholuamano, Kauai, at an elevation of 3600 to 4000 
feet and inhabits the swampy forests together with Pelea Kauaiensis. It was 
first discovered by Heller. The writer found the tree quite numerous and col- 
lected flowering and fruiting specimens at different times (no. 5621, September 6, 
1909, and no. 2010 flowering at Halemanu, Kauai). 

Were it not for the small cuboid capsules the plant could be mistaken for 
Pelea sapotaefolia, of which Hillebrand omits the description of its fruits, while 
Mann says the immature capsule is puberulent and deeply four-grooved. 

The native name of this species, which means ' ' chicken droppings, ' ' originated 

220 



Rutaceae. 

at first as an exclamation of disappointment, insofar as the capsules of this species 
resemble very much those of the Mokihana, but are without the fragrant odor of 
the latter. When the natives gathered the capsules for leis or wreaths, they quite 
often mistook the capsules of the species in question for Mokihana seeds and on 
finding them without odor, exclaimed "Kukaimoa," by which the tree is now 
known. 

Pelea volcanica Gray. 
Alani. 

PELEA VOLCANICA Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 346, pi. 38; H. Mann in Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 315, et Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 159, et Fl. Haw. 
Isl. in Proc. Ess. Inst. (1867) 167; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 67; Engler in 
Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 4. (1895) 113 fig. 64. K-N. Evodia volcanica Drake 
Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 134. 

Leaves opposite, oval, or ovate oblong, coriaceous, obtuse at both ends, occasionally 
retuse at the apex, glabrous above, glabrate underneath or slightly pubescent, especially 
on the prominent midrib, not shining, somewhat pellucid, the secondary veins nearly 
parallel, united by an arcuate intramargiual nerve, not distant from the edge of the leaf, 
8 to 16 cm long, 5 to 9 cm wide, on petioles of 3 to 5 cm which are stout and apparently 
lignescent: inflorescence paniculate, axillary; female flowers: sepals ovate triangular, 
mucronulate, pubescent, 3 mm, petals ovate lanceolate, twice as long, glabrous, ovary 
pubescent; stamens short 1 mm, (as long as the petals in the male flowers) anthers 
sagittate (or oblong in the male flowers) ; style 4 mm long pubescent, especially in its 
lower half, stigma with 4 blunt lobes of 1 mm in length; capsule large 3.75 cm in dia- 
meter, but often with one, two, or three cocci abortive, cocci glabrous, somewhat 
lignescent. united in the axis, but recurved; the papery endocarp glabrous; seeds ovoid 
black shining. 

According to Asa Gray, this tree reaches a height of 40 feet with a trunk of 
11/2 feet in diameter. It occurs on the slopes of Mauna Kea near the bullock 
plains in the forests bordering the latter. The waiter's material (no. 3325) came 
from the northern slopes of Mauna Kea from the forests of Paauhau No. 2 at 
an elevation of 3000 feet; he also collected it in the Kohala mountains (no. 
8399) ; flowering and fruiting June, 1910. 

It is a striking species on account of its very large capsules, but is also very 
variable, as are nearly all Hawaiian Pelea. Complete material is needed to ar- 
range satisfactorily and determine this rather difficult genus. The writer cannot 
help but deplore the awful chaos into which our Hawaiian Pelea have been 
thrown through the very inefficient and hasty work of H. Leveille, which owing 
to the poor descriptions, which might fit any species in the genus, will have to 
be ignored. 

In the dense rain forest of Hamakuapoko, Maui, the writer collected a specimen 
of a tree which is unquestionably P. volcanica Gray, fruiting September, 1910 (no. 
8566). 

Hillebrand in his flora enumerates two varieties. The first is var. ft grandi folia, 
with very large leaves which are chartaceous, and a tomentose inflorescence; the 
capsules are 25 mm across and parted more than half way. It occurs in the 
woods near Hilo, Hawaii, but is not known to the writer. 

The second variety, y ovalifolia, is a tall tree with oblong or ovate oblong emar- 



PLATE 85. 




PELEA SANDWICENSIS Gray. 
Alani. 

Fruiting branch, about one-half natural size. 



Eutaceae. 

ginate, or subcordate leaves, with a 5 to 9 flowered panicle and capsules as in 
the species. This variety was collected by Hillebrand on the Island of Maui in 
the Valley of Waihee and on the southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala ; the writer is 
not acquainted with this plant. 

Var. montana Rock var. nov. 

A slender tree 20 to 30 feet tall, the branches hirsute, leaves obovate to elliptico- 
oblong, bluntly acute at the apex, rounded at the base, very thick coriaceous, strongly 
hirsute above when young but glabrate with age, densely pubescent underneath., the promi- 
nent midrib hirsute as are the 1.5 to 4 cm long petioles, margins revolute, the secondary 
veins parallel at nearly right angles to the midrib and united by an intramarginal nerve 
not distant from the edge of the leaf, 6 to 12 cm long, 4 to 6 cm wide; inflorescence 
axillary paniculate, densely hirsute 1 to 5 flowered; female flowers: sepals ovate- 
triangular acute 3 mm, pubescent, as are the ovate-lanceolate petals, the latter twice as 
long as the sepals, stamens rudimentary the height of the yellowish hirsuite ovary, anthers 
sagittate, acute, filaments broad, glabrous; style hirsute, not quite as long as the petals, 
with a bluntly four-lobed stigma; capsule largest in the genus, 5 cm in diameter, puberu- 
lous, parted more than %, the cocci acute, at maturity the apex is deeply split, often one 
or two abortive, always two seeded, the papery endocarp glabrous. 

This variety the writer discovered on the upper slopes of Mt. Hualalai at an 
elevation of 5000 to 6000 feet on the rim of a crater called Puuki. It is a slender 
tree 25 to 30 feet in height, but has a rather small trunk of 3 to 5 inches diameter. 
It has long and slender branches which are foliate only at the ends. The writer 
met with it also lower down at 3500 to 4000 feet, but it was more numerous 
around the rims and at the floors of extinct craters, scattered over the western 
slope of Hualalai in close vicinity to the dismal cinder plain above Huehue. 

The type is 3849 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium, flowering and fruiting 
June, 1909. A very similar form with somewhat smaller capsules the writer 
collected in the woods back of Waimea, Hawaii, fruiting June, 1910, no. 8426. 

Here must also be referred a shrubby form with long rambling branches, often 
a small tree, which may be known as : 

Var. terminalis Rock var. nov. 

Leaves smaller, more or less glabrous, on short petioles of 1 to 1.5 cm, linear-oblong, 
acute, thick coriaceous. 3.5 to 12 cm long, 2 to 6 cm wide, on long slender rambling 
branches; capsules smaller than in variety iiunitdna, about 4 cm in diameter, usually 4 to 6 
on a common bracteate peduncle of 1 cm or more, usually terminal, the ends of the branch- 
lets drooping under the weight of the mature capsules, occasionally also axillary; capsula 
as in var. montana, smaller. 

Collected at Auahi, southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Maui, on the lava fields 
at an elevation of 2600 feet ; type no. 8655, fruiting November, 1910, College of 
Hawaii Herbarium. 

On the Island of Lanai in the scrub vegetation of Mahana Valley occurs a 
shrub with long rambling branches which becomes finally a vine entangling all 
the neighboring trees and reaching way into their crowns. It is in all respects a 
variety of Pelea volcanica and may be called : 

Var. lianoides Rock var. nov. 

Leaves as in the species, glabrate above, pubescent underneath, especially along the 
salient midrib, on shorter petioles than in the species; inflorescence axillary, paniculate, 
hearing from 3 to 10 flowers; female flowers large, pubescent, petals twice as long as the 

223 



Rutaceae. 

sepals exactly as in the species; male flowers smaller, stamens of all sizes some as long 
as the petals; ovary pubescent stigma with 4-globular lobes, and sessile; capsule little 
smaller, endocarp glabrous. 

This variety, which seems to be a typical liane, forming dense tangles, was 
collected flowering and fruiting by the writer in the valley of Mahana, Island of 
Lanai, on the dry open wooded forehills, on July 24, 1910. The type is no. 8057 
in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Pelea sandwicensis Gray. 

Alani. 
(Plate 85.) 

PELEA SANDWICENSIS Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 345 ; t. 37; H. Mann, Proc. Bost. 

Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 31-5, et Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 159, et Proc. Ess. 

Inst. V. (1867) 167; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 66. Brunelia sandwicensis Gaud. 

Bot. Voy. Uranie (1830) 39 sine descript; Hook, et Arn. Beech. (1832) 80; 

Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) 184, no. 1589. Evodia sandwicensis Drake Del Cast. III. 

Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 133. 

New branchlets, inflorescence, etc., tomentose with a rather hirsute pubescence; 
leaves opposite, oval or oblong, thick coriaceous, glabrous above, more or less puberulent 
beneath, when young pubescent on the thick midrib, very veiny and reticulated, punctate, 
rounded at the apex or acute and mucronate, 7 to 15 cm long, 4 to 8 cm wide, on stout 
lignescent petioles of 20 to 35 mm; cymes axillary, short peduncled, 3 to 9 flowered; 
pedicels short, annulate by the broad scars of the ovate subulate bracts; sterile flowers: 
sepals ovate, acute, puberulous, 3 mm; petals 7 mm, oblong acute; stamens 8, 4 as long or 
longer than the petals, on broad filaments, 4 shorter of unequal length; anthers sagittate; 
ovary smaller than in the fertile flowers, pubescent, style pubescent 1.5 mm long with 
short bluntly notched stigma; fertile flowers smaller, ovary tomentose, style longer, with a 
bluntly, short-lobed stigma; stamens not quite the height of the ovary, anthers smaller; 
capsule finely tomentose, or glabrous when old, deeply four lobed, 20 to 24 mm in diameter, 
the cocci oval, endocarp finely pubescent. 

A medium-sized tree, but perhaps one of the largest for the genus Pelea, reach- 
ing a height of 30 feet or little more, with a trunk 10 to 12 inches in diameter. 

The Alani occurs in the wet forests of Oahu, especially of the main western 
range, where it is a common tree at an elevation of 2000 to 2500 feet. The writer 
met with it most plentifuly in the mountains of Punaluu, on the windward side 
of Oahu, as well as on Konahuanui, back of Honolulu. Several varieties of IT. is 
species are known, perhaps doubtful. According to Dr. Wm. T. Brigham, the 
tough wood of this species was used for tapa beaters. (Flowering and fruiting 
November 14, 1908; no. 912, Mts. of Punaluu; fruiting Konahuanui, November, 
1912, no. 10215 College of Hawaii Herbarium.) 

Hillebrand's var. /?. the writer collected at Wahiawa in the north fork of Kau- 
konahua gulch on Oahu, on May 15, 1909, fruiting no. 3046. The leaves are per- 
fectly glabrous, and chartaceous, the capsules are larger and also glabrous, even 
when very young. 

Pelea orbicularis Hbd. 

PELEA ORBICULARIS Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 67. Evodia orbicularis Drake De] 
Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 133. 

A rather small tree, stunted, the young shoots coarsely hirsute; leaves opposite, sub- 
orbicular, or orbicular, emarginate at both ends, mucronate at the apex, thick coriaceous, 

224 



Rutaceae. 

dull, glabrous above, pubescent to hirsute underneath in the young leaves, pubescent 
along the prominent reddish midrib, the marginal nerve close to the edge and continuous 
6 to 8 cm long, 5 to 7 cm wide, on petioles of 15 to 20 mm; panicles hirsute in the axils of 
the leaves. 6 to 15 flowered; male flowers: sepals ovate acute, 3 mm, petals little longer, 
stamens of unequal length some as long as the petals, anthers ovoid, ovary hirsute; female 
flowers: stamens rudimentary, half the height of the ovary, the latter 3 mm high, pubes- 
cent, deeply parted, style filiform, 1.5 mm, with a bluntly 4-lobed stigma, the lobes thick; 
capsule not known. 

This small stunted tree is peculiar to the summits of Puu Kukui, West Maui, 
and to the summit of Mt, Waileale, Kauai, where it grows on the borders of the 
great swampy plateau and in little gulches of the summit swamp proper. 

The writer collected specimens of this tree on West Maui, Puu Kukui elevation 
5700 feet, flowering August 21, 1910, in company with Mr. G. Hammond, no. 
815-i; also on the edge of Honokawai Gulch at 4300 feet, flowering August 24, 
1910, no. 8184. 

On the summit of Kauai, Mt. Waialeale, the writer collected this species flow- 
ering on September 24, 1909, no. 4987, and again flowering October 20, 1911, no. 
8880. The plants from this latter locality have the leaves from orbicular to ovate 
and even oblong on the same branch ; however, they do not differ in other respects 
from those on West Maui, with the exception that they are shrubs on Waialeale, 
Kauai. 

* 

Pelea kauaiensis Mann. 
Pilo ula. 

PELEA KAUAIENSIS Mann in Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 313, et Proc. Am. 
Acad. VII. (1867) 158, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 166; Hbd. Fl. 
Haw. Isl. (1888) 64. Pelea cruciata Heller PI. Haw. Isl. Minn. Bot. Stud. IX. 
(1897) 839, pi. 48. Evodia Kavaiensis Drake Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
VI. (1890) 132. 

Leaves opposite, ovate or elliptico-oblong, 10 to 22 cm long, 5 to 10 cm wide, thick 
coriaceous, (and not chartaceous) rounded or bluntly acute or emarginate at the apex, 
giadually tapering into a villous angular petiole of 2.5 to 3.5 cm, the marginal nerve re- 
mote from the edge, arched, uniting the secondary veins, which are parallel and almost 
at right angles to the midrib, pubescent above, especially along the impressed midrib, 
villous underneath, velvety, especially thick on the prominent midrib; finely reticulated 
on both sides; flowers single, 2 to 5 in a cluster, borne on slender pubescent pedicels 
of 2 mm; sepals ovate, rounded, broader than high, with subciliate margins; petals some- 
what longer, oblong-ovate, the apices incurved, thin, glabrous, valvate, about o mm long, 
anthers rudimentary in the female flowers, of the height of the glabrous ovary; style 
filiform, nearly 2 mm, with an obtusely 4-lobed stigma; capsule glabrous, 15 to 30 mm in 
diameter deeply four parted, the cocci thick in the full grown fruits, one to two seeded, 
the cocci elongate, one or two often abortive. 

The Pilo ula is a small tree, reaching a height of 15 feet, and has rather stout 
villous branches. Its trunk is short and only a few (6 to 8) inches in diameter. 
It inhabits the high central plateau of Kauai in the gray swampy, loamy soil near 
Kaholuamano, especially in the forests bordering the bog Lehua Makanoe. It 
grows in company with several species of Pelea, Wikstroemia sandwicensis var. 
furcata, Platydesma campamilatum, etc. It is not uncommon also at Halemanu 
above Makaweli. Heller in his "Plants of the Hawaiian Islands" described it 
as a new species "Pelea cruciata" and remarks as follows: "Mann's description 

225 
15 



Rutaceae. 

calls for a small capsule, while these are large. ' ' But had Heller seen the original 
description he would have noticed Mann 's remark, ' 'Ripe fruit unknown, ' ' which 
accounts for his capsules being small, as they were not fully developed. The 
writer has abundant fruiting material in which the capsules are of various sizes 
from 12 mm to over 30 mm in diameter. Collected Halemanu flowering and 
fruiting February 14, 1909, no. 2292, and Kaholuamano, September, 1909, no. 
5292, and fruiting October, 1911, no. 10214 in Herbarium, College of Hawaii. 
Faurie no. 226 with immature fruits March, 1910, in College of Hawaii Her- 
barium. 

From within 5 minutes walk of the summit of Kauai, Mt. Waialeale, the writer 
collected a specimen of a Pelea which must be referred to this species ; it is, how- 
ever, a small stunted shrub, but answers otherwise the description of P. Kauai- 
ensis. The capsules are much larger and all cocci are fully developed ; the diam- 
eter of the mature capsule is 3.5 cm. Collected September 24, 1909, Waialeale, 
Kauai, 5000 feet elevation, no. 4990. 

Hillebrand reports a variety /?. glabra, from the same locality with glabrous 
leaves which are on longer petioles; perhaps the writer's no. 1994 from Hale- 
manu, without flowers or fruits. 

Pelea rotundifolia Gray. 

PELEA ROTUNDIFOLIA Gray. Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 344, pi. 37, fig. A; H. Mann 
Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 315, et Proc. Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 159, et 
Proc. Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 167; Wawra in Flora (1873) 137; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 68; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. Minnes. Bot. Stud. (1897) 840. Evodia rotundi- 
folia Drake Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac, VI. (1890) 133. 

A small tree or shrub, leaves sessile or subsessile, orbicular to ovate, rounded and 
emarginate or acute at the apex, cordate at the base, thick coriaceous, prominently nerved 
below, the intramarginal nerve arched, distant from the edge, with intervening meshes 
entirely glabrous 6 to 12 cm long, little less wide, flowers several in a short peduneled 
somewhat racemose cyme in the axils of the upper or occasionally lower leaves; bracts 
and bractlets opposite, minute, ovate, subulate; male flowers: sepals ovate, acute, puberu- 
lous, 4 mm high, petals more than twice the length, oblong, acute, glabrous; stamens 8, 
4 longer than the petals, protruding, the remaining ones shorter and of unequal size, on 
broadened filaments; anthers sagittate, acute; rudimentary ovary pubescent, four lobed, 
pubescence encroaching on the lower part of the style, which is 2 mm in length and ter- 
minates into a bluntly 4 lobed stigma; female flowers shorter, about half the length of 
the male flowers, petals slightly longer than the sepals, the 8 stamens not longer than the 
ovary; ovules 2 in each cell; fruit nearly as in Pelcti rolcinii.ra, but smaller, minutely 
pubescent, the carpels united at the base. 

This peculiar species can be found not uncommon in the mountains back of 
Honolulu, and is easily recognized by its rather large sessile cordate leaves, and 
rambling or long drooping branches. Wawra quite correctly remarks that the 
otherwise excellent figure shows undeveloped flowers ; the detailed drawings rep- 
resent female flowers, so does Gray's description, as he had not seen the much 
larger male flowers. It is peculiar to Oahu and occurs throughout the main 
Koolau range at an elevation of 2000 to 2500 feet. 

Flowering, Punaluu Mts., November 21, 1908, no. 577; flowering and fruiting r 

226 



Kutaceae. 

Wahiawa, May 15, 1909, no. 3026; and Waikane Mts. flowering January 23, 
1909, no. 1238. The inflorescence in the specimens from the last locality is 
more than 10-flowered. 

Pelea molokaiensis Hbd. 

PELEA MOLOKAIENSIS Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 65. Evodia Molokaiensis Drake Del 

Cast. 111. Fl. lus. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 132. 

A small tree about 6 m high, the young shoots slightly puberulous, leaves 10 to 12.5 
cm long. 6.5 to 8 cm or more wide, on petioles of 12 to 24 mm, or often subsessile, or on 
petioles of 8 mm (in Lanai specimens), quite glabrous, even on the reddish midrib, 
obovate, with retuse base and rounded or emarginate apex, the marginal nerve at some 
distance from the edge, with one or two sets of meshes intervening; flowers glabrous, or 
puberulous, 2 to 5 in a cyme or pseudo-raceme of 18 to 36 mm in length, the terete slender 
rhachis with 2 to 3 nodes, the pedicels 10 to 12 mm, nodose near the middle and thickened 
beyond; sepals triangular, 3 to 4 mm; petals reddish 5 to 6 mm; capsule as in P. volcanica 
20 to 36 mm transversely. 

According to Hillebrand this is the most prevailing form on Molokai and is 
also found on West Maui. The writer's material of this species is scanty and 
incomplete, several forms having been collected which may be referred to this 
species. A few plants have sessile leaves, others subsessile, others again on 
petioles as called for in the description, but the leaves are much smaller. On 
Lanai the writer collected specimens from a shrub with rambling branches which 
are undoubtedly Pelea molokaiensis, though differing somewhat from the original 
description. The leaves are prominently veined on both sides, while Hillebrand 
says: "nerves little prominent"; the species in question is evidently a very 
variable one, and as the writer's material of this species is without fruit in 
every case, the diagnosis is somewhat doubtful. However, no. 8023 from the 
main ridge of Lanai is here referred to P. molokaiensis, flowering July 25, 1910. 
At first glance it resembles somewhat Pelea rotundifolia. Hillebrand records a 
variety ft (doubtfully) of this species from Oahu, Niu Valley; leaves as in P. 
orbicidaris, all on long petioles. 

Pelea macropus Hbd. 

PELEA MACROPUS Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 65. Evodia macropus Del Cast 111 Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 132. 

A small tree about 5 in high, quite glabrous, leaves opposite obovately oblong, con- 
tracted and not emarginate at the base; flowers single, on a short peduncle of 2 to 4 mm, 
which bears 1 or 2 pairs of minute bractlets, the pedicels beyond them clavately thickened 
to the length of 24 to 30 mm; petals greenish; capsule nearly 3.75 cm transversely and 
8 mm high, its carpels parted more than % their length. 

This species was first collected by V. Knudsen of Kauai (no. 189), on which 
island it is found, probably in the forests of Halemanu, back of Waimea. 

To the writer the species is not known, though a shrubby variety of it occurs 
on the high plateau of Kauai near Waialeale. 

Pelea pseudoanisata Rock sp. nov. 

A very variable small tree or shrub; branches ascending; every part of the plant 
emits an exceedingly strong odor of anise, leaves ovate, obovate oblong, or oblong, shining 

227 



Rutaceae. 

on both sides, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, glabrous, densely punctate underneath slightly 
pubescent along the salient midrib, prominently veined, the arcuate intramarginal nerve 
somewhat distant from the edge of the leaf, rounded at both ends or retuse at the apex, 
occasionally bluntly acute and mucronate, often subemarginate at the base, (i to 12 cm 
long, 3 to 7 cm wide, on stout lignescent angular petioles of 3 to 2 cm; inflorescence a 
cyme, axillary, usually in the axils of the lower leaves, single to 3 flowered, peduncle and 
pedicels filiform, nodose, the former 6 to 10 mm long, the pedicels of variable length 2 to 3 
cm, nodose, bibracteolate at each node, bracteoles linear-subulate pubescent; flowers large 
in both sexes, female flowex's greenish yellow to red, strongly anise-scented as is the whole 
plant, sepals ovate, acute, 3 mm, almost deltoid, petals linear-oblong, acute, 1 cm long, 
glabrous as are the sepals, stamens rudimentary, as high as the ovary, the latter 1.5 mm. 
glabrous; style slender filiform, 6 mm, or more, often protruding beyond the petals, 
glabrous, with a four lobed stigma, the lobes slender oblong, 1 to 1.5 mm in length, 
puberulous; male flowers as large as the female flowers or smaller ; petals broad, oblong, 
acute, usually 12 mm long and 4.5 mm wide, glabrous, many nerved; stamens 8, 4 nearly 
as long as the petals, the filaments broad, thin, and penninerved, the remaining 4, two- 
thirds the length of the others, anthers oblong, deeply split at the base; ovary rudi- 
mentary; style slender 3 mm, with a very indistinctly four notched, almost capitate 
stigma; capsule nearly 5 cm transversely, and 18 to 20 mm high, somewhat chartaceous, 
glabrous, the 4 follicles united half their length, in shape much like that of P. volcanica, 
recurved, 1 to 2 seeded, rarely one or two abortive; endocarp loose, chartaceous, glabrous; 
seed large, 9 mm long, ovoid to sub-orbiculir, black, shining. 

This exceedingly interesting species, which has been called the mokihana of 
Hawaii, is a small tree or shrub, and is peculiar to the summit ridges and 
swamps of the Kohala mountains on Hawaii. It occurs only at an elevation of 
4000 to 5000 feet, and is exceedingly common at the summit of the Kohala range 
called Kaala. It inhabits the dense rainforest where moss covers the ground 
over a foot deep and where most beautiful 5-feet-high violets abound. When 
bruised it emits an exceedingly strong odor of anise, much more so than the true 
mokihana of Kauai, Pelea anisata. If a branch is bruised accidentally by work- 
ing one's way through the jungle, the odor emitted can be detected for a long 
distance through the forest jungle. The species has the biggest capsule in the 
genus and also the largest flowers. 

The writer has excellent and most complete material of this species, which 
seems to be related to P. oblongifolia, in all stages of growth. It was first col- 
lected by the writer on July 13, 1909, flowering and fruiting, in the forests of 
Kohala, no. 4455 ; it was again collected in June, 1910, in the same locality and 
on the summit of Kohala proper, where it is most abundant in the swampy jungle 
bordering a big open bog. Certain forms resemble somewhat Pelea parvifolia 
Hbd. 

The type is no. 8306 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium and was collected at 
the summit of Kohala, Hawaii. It also borders the edges of the great valleys of 
Alakahi and Kawainui in the heart of the mountains at an elevation of 4200 
feet, where they are enwrapped by clouds ten months or more of the year. 

Pelea Balloui Rock sp. nov. 

A small tree or shrub; leaves ovate or obovate rounded at both ends, occasionally 
retuse at the apex, thick coriaceous, opaque, finely reticulated on both sides especially 
underneath, the salient midrib reddish, pubescent, as is the under surface of the young 
leaves, soon glabrate, the intramarginal nerve not distant from the edge of the leaf, 
but with one set of meshes intervening 5 to 10 cm long, 3 to 7 cm wide, on petioles of 

228 



Eutaceae. 

1 to 2.5 cm; inflorescence axillary, covered with a silky appressed yellowish green pubes- 
cence throughout, paniculate, branching from every node, bracteate throughout, bracts 1 
mm, triangular, acute; peduncle 3 to 12 mm, the ultimate bibracteolate pedicels 5 mm; 
sepals ovate, acute, not quite 3 mm, petals acuminate, 4 mm, both sepals and petals per- 
sistent with the capsule, (description drawn from persistent sepals and petals) flowers 
unknown; capsule silky tomentose, parted more than half into 4 ovoid cocci which when 
fresh are nearly as beaked as in Platydesma, rostrata. 

This rather interesting species, which is named here after Prof. Howard M. 
Ballon, to whom the writer is indebted for corrections of the proof sheets of 
this book, grows in the dense rain forest on the slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Mani, 
along the trail leading from Ukulele to Waikamoi Gulch, at an elevation of 5000 
feet. It was collected by the writer in the above locality, fruiting, October 25, 
1910, in company with Mr. L. von Tempsky. The type is numbered 8609 in the 
College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

It is apparently related to the rather dubious Pelea Mannii Hbd., but differs 
from the latter in the pedunculate inflorescence and the silky-haired rostrate 
capsules; while the ovary in Pelea Mannii is glabrous. 

Pelea anisata Mann. 
Mokihana or Mokehana. 

PELEA ANISATA Mann in Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 314, et Proc. Am. 

Acad. (1867) 159, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 166; Wawra in 

- Flora (1873) 109; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 64; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 

837; Brigham, Ka Hana Kapa, (1911) 163, fig. 97. Evodia anisata Drake Del 

Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 130. 

A slender tree; leaves opposite oblong, 5 to 12 cm long, 3.75 to 5.5 cm wide on 
petioles of 2.5 cm, obtuse or rounded at both ends, or emarginate with an attenuate base, 
chartaceous, the marginal nerve distant from the edge, with smaller secondary meshes 
intervening; flowers small, 1 to 5 on a short peduncle of 4 mm, which is bracteate at the 
apex, pedicels 2 mm, bracteolate at the middle; sepals obtuse, 2 mm, thin and transparent; 
petals 4 to 7 mm long, oblong, acuminate, stamens 8, four longer than the petals, the 
remaining 4 slightly shorter, or as long as the petals; ovary glabrous, style 1.5 mm, with 
4 minute stigmatic branches; capsule coriaceous, small 12 mm in diameter, cuboid, sub- 
entire, the outer faces notched only by a "shallow sulcus, the axis remaining entire after 
dehiscence; all parts of this tree emit a very strong anise odor. 

This very strongly scented tree, called Mokihana by the natives of Kauai, is 
peculiar to the latter island. It is a slender tree reaching a height of over 20 
feet, and a trunk of 10 inches or more in diameter, and is vested in a smooth 
thin bark ; all parts of the tree have a strong anise odor, which is retained even 
for years in the dry wood as well as in the capsules. The latter are in great 
favor with the natives and are threaded and worn by women and men alike as 
leis or wreaths. It was one of their favorite perfumes and twigs as well as cap- 
sules were placed between their tapa cloth. 

The tree is evenly distributed over the Island of Kauai, and is quite common 
in the forest of Kaholuamano and Halemanu, above Waimea, as well as at Ha- 
nalei on the windward side; it, however, does not ascend higher than 4000 feet 
and not lower than 3000 feet. This is not the only tree of this genus which 
possesses an odor of anise. On the Island of Hawaii in the high swamp forest of 

229 



PLATE 86. 




PELEA ZAHLBRUCKNERI Rock sp. nov. 
Flowering and fruiting branch, less than one-half natural size. 



Rutaceae. 

the Kohala mountains grows a species with exceedingly strong anise odor, even 
more so than in the Kauai plant, but it does not retain its odor. The capsules are 
three times as large as those of the Mokihana and resemble very much the cap- 
sules of P. volcanica. 

The Mokihana fruits abundantly during the early fall, especially during the 
month of September, when the trees are loaded with the mature capsules. 

Pelea Wawreana Rock sp. nov. 

Leaves elliptico-oblong or obovate-oblong, opposite, bright green, thick coriaceous, 
shining above, dull underneath, glabrous throughout, even on the reddish prominent mid- 
rib, rounded at the apex, often retuse, more or less pellucid, cuneate or often rounded at 
the base, veins prominent united by an arched intramarginal nerve which is close to the 
edge of the leaf at the base, and more or less distant toward the apex, the secondary veins 
about parallel in angles of about 85 to the midrib, 8 to 15 em long, 4 to 7 cm wide, on 
stout petioles which are thickened near the blade, angular when young, 2 to 3 cm long; 
inflorescence axillary, 2 to 3 flowered, young bud pubescent; peduncle stiff, thick, about 
5 mm or little longer, pubescent, bracteate, the pedicels half the length, bibracteolate at 
the middle; capsule cuboid, scarcely notched, 12 to 14 mm in diameter, about 10 mm 
high, the cocci one to two seeded, endocarp glabrous. 

This species, named in memory of the author's compatriot, Dr. H. Wawra of 
the Austrian exploring expedition, is a small tree 10 to 15 feet high with a short 
trunk which is vested in a smooth brown bark; the branches are ascending, 
robust and very tough. It is probably related to P. sapotaefolia, from which it 
differs in the opposite glabrous leaves and much smaller cuboid capsules. 

It is not uncommon on the slopes of Konahuanui, but especially along the 
Manoa cliff trail at an elevation of about 2000 feet, together with Perrottetia 
sandwicensis, Hibiscus, Maba sandwicensis, Straussia Kaduana, and others. 

Collected November 30, 1912, and fruiting February 2, 1913, in company with 
Dr. E. A. Back. The type is no. 10220 in the Herbarium of the College of 
Hawaii. 

A pubescent form of this species was collected at Wahiawa in the north fork 
of Kaukonahua Gulch of the Koolau range on May 15, 1909, flowering and 
fruiting (no. 3020). 

The leaves are pubescent along the midrib ; the inflorescence, which is 5 to 7 
flowered, is covered with a yellowish tomentum, as are the sepals. The petals 
are glabrous ; the female flowers are rather small, only 3 mm in length ; stamens 
about 0.5 mm, ovary hirsute, style thick w r ith a bluntly four-lobed stigma. 

Pelea Zahlbruckneri Rock sp. nov. 
(Plates 86, 87.) 

Leaves opposite, large, elliptical oblong, obovate oblong, or oblong or suborbicular, 
thin chartaceous, rounded or retuse at the apex, almost cuneate at the base, midrib promi- 
nent, secondary veins more or less parallel, at not quite right angles to the midrib, 
united by an arched intramarginal nerve which is quite distant from the revolute margin 
of the leaf, glabrous above, puberulous or glabrate underneath, 8 to 24 cm long, 4.5 to 
12.5 cm wide, on petioles of 2 to 6 cm, pale green, whitish when dry, cymes axillary, very 
slender, 2 to 4 flowered, peduncle somewhat compressed, 1 cm, bracteate, pedicels 4 mm, 
bibracteate at the base, bracts triangular to subulate; flowers very small, sepals triangu- 
lar 1.5 mm, petals 3 mm, acute, stamens of unequal length, all shorter than the petals; 

231 



PLATE 87. 




PELEA ZAHLBRUCKNERI Eock sp. nov. 
Growing in the Kipuka Puanln, near Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



Eutaceae. 

the sagittate anthers on broad filaments; the glabrous ovary neither lobed nor notched, 
entire, crowned by a short style with a bluntly notched stigma; capsule large. 3 cm in dia- 
meter, chartaceous, entire, cuboid, scarcely even notched, glabrous, the ovary thin, trans- 
parent, glabrous endocarp entirely loose; the cocci appear to be somewhat divided after 
dehiscence of the capsule, each cocci 1 to 2 seeded; seeds large 8 mm. ovoid, black, shining. 

This very interesting species, which seems to be related to Hillebrand's var. ft 
of Pelea sapotaefolia as far as capsules are concerned, occurs in the park-like 
Kipuka Puaulu near the Volcano of Kilauea, on Hawaii, at an elevation of 4000 
feet. It is a conspicuous tree on account of its peculiar branching habit, ex- 
ceedingly large leaves, and very large cuboid capsules. It is quite plentiful in 
company with Pelea rolcanica, Pelea dusiaefolia, Xanthoxylum, Sapindus sapo- 
naria, Suttonia and other trees. It was discovered by the writer in July, 1911, 
when he collected his type material, which is no. 10216 in the College of Haw r aii 
Herbarium. Named in honor of Dr. A. Zahlbruckner, Director of the Botanical 
Museum in Vienna. 

Pelea multiflora Rock. 
(Plates 88, 89.) 

PELEA MULTIFLORA Eock in Coll. Haw. Publ. Bot. Bull. I. (1911), pi. III. 

Leaves opposite, oblong, rounded at the apex, subcordate at the base, dull green, 
glabrous above, densely covered underneath with an olivaceous tomentum, as well as the 
2.5 to 4 cm long petiole, 10 to 20 cm long, o to 9 cm wide, thick coriaceous, quite opaque, 
marginal nerve wanting; young leaves golden yellow, densely hirsute; inflorescence 10 to 
15 cm and more long, cyniosely paniculate, densely tomentose, on a common peduncle of 
4 to 6 cm, bracteate throughout, the bracts 1 to 1.5 cm, linear oblong, acuminate, ultimate 
pedicels 3 to 5 mm long; flowers 10 to 200 on a single inflorescence; floral bracts subulate, 
enclosing the persistent calyx which in turn encloses the four valvate petals of 5 mm 
in the fertile flowers; male flowers larger than the female flowers, calyx half the length 
of the corolla; stamens 8, four shorter than the petals, the remaining four as long as the 
corolla, and sometimes protruding, ovary rudimentary with 4 minute stigmatic branches; 
female flowers, calyx as long as the corolla, silky gray, the lobes acuminate, smaller than 
the male flowers; ovary large glabrous, four lobed, style 4 mm long with a white four 
lobed stigma, each lobe 2 mm long; follicles glabrous, 3 cm each way, carpels parted their 
entire length; endocarp yellow, shining, glabrous, more or less loose; each follicle 1 to 2 
seeded, seeds ovoid, black, shining. 

This exceedingly interesting species was discovered by the writer on the lava 
fields of Mt. Haleakala on the southern slopes, in the district of Kahikinui, on 
Maui. The particular locality where this tree occurs is called Auahi, and is sit- 
uated at an elevation of 2600 to 3000 feet. It is the richest botanical section in 
the whole Territory, with the exception of Puuwaawaa on Hawaii. 

The species in question is a good-sized tree 30 to 40 feet in height, with a 
trunk of over one foot in diameter, which is clothed in a gray smooth bark. The 
tree is badly attacked by a lichen, a species of Usnea, probably australis, which 
seems to check the growth of the trees; they are literally covered, trunk and 
branches, with this ungainly looking lichen. 

The tree was discovered during November, 1910, when the- first specimens were 
collected (no. 8646 flowering and fruiting). During the first part of March, 
1912, the writer revisited that locality for the purpose of collecting additional 
material and also to secure photographs. Many trees were then in flower, and 



PLATE 




PELEA MULTITLORA Rock. 

Male flowering branch, showing a (placed) mature capsule in the upper branch; 

one-half natural size. 



Rutaceae. 

on the strength of the new material, the specific description is herewith enlarged. 
It is one of our most interesting species of Pelea in that it has the greatest 
number of flowers in its inflorescence, bearing often more than 200 flowers. It 
belongs to the same group as Pelea cinerea and Pelea barbigera, though it is spe- 
cifically very distinct from both. At Auahi, to which place this tree is peculiar, 
it is associated with Alectryon macrococcus, Pterotropia dipyrena, Bobea Hookeri, 
Alphitonia excelsa, Sideroxylon aualiiense, Antidesma pulvinatum, etc. 

Pelea Knudsenii Hbd. 

PELEA KNUDSENII Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 70. Evodia Knudseni Drake Del Cast. 
111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 132. 

A tree about 10 in high, the young shoots and inflorescence covered with a gray 
tomentum; leaves opposite, 12.5 to 15 cm long, 7.5 to 10 cm wide, on petioles of 5 to 6.5 cm, 
ovate or ovate-oblong, cordate at the base, or the basal lobes connate, with the petiole 
subpeltately inserted above the base, bluntish, glabrous above, pubescent underneath, the 
midrib and nerves densely villous with a soft grayish wool, thin chartaceous, with the 
marginal nerve in deep arches; flowers numerous 20 to 40, in a large pyramidal panicle 
of 5-6.5 cm in length, with 3 to 4 pairs of divaricate branches, the stiff angular peduncle 
about 24 mm, the ultimate pedicels very short, with the last bractlets close to the calyx; 
bracts 8 to 6 mm; calyx and corolla villous externally, the sepals 6 mm; the oblong petals 
scarcely longer; disk 8 lobed hairy; ovary sparsely pubescent. 

The plant was collected by Valdemar Knudsen of Kauai, for whom it was 
named by Hillebrand. It is recorded as growing at an elevation of 1500 feet 
back' of Waimea, Kauai, and is, of course, a dry district plant. It is not known 
to the writer, who collected extensively in the above referred to locality, but 
never met with this species. It is evidently closely related to the writer's Pelea 
multiflora, which differs, however, from the foregoing in the exceedingly large 
inflorescence, which is 15 cm long, in the 6 cm long peduncle, and in the number 
of flowers, which is up to 200; the ovary in this species is glabrous. 

The capsule of P. Knudsenii is not known, but is unquestionably apocarpous, 
under which latter heading it is placed in Hillebrand 's key to the species. 

Pelea barbigera (Gray) Hbd. 
Uahe a Pele. 

PELEA BARBIGERA (Gray) Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 70. Melicope barbigera Gray 
Bot. TJ. S. E. E. (1854) 351, t. 39, fig. B; H. Mann Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 
X. (1866) 316, et Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 159, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. 
Inst, V. (1867) 168. Melicope cinerea fm. barbigera Wawra in Flora (1873) 
139. Evodia barbigera Drake Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 130. 

Leaves elliptical, oblong, 10 to 16 cm long, 5 to 6.5 cm wide, on petioles of 2.5 to 5 
cm, contracting but obtuse at both ends, pale green, dull, not shining above, beneath 
densely clothed, especially along the midrib, with a cobwebby wool, whk;h disappears 
with age, chartaceous with faint nerves, the leaves all curved, the upper surface convex, 
the lower concave; flowers 3 to 5 on a stiff angular gray tomentose peduncle of 20 to 24 
tarn, the pedicels 2 to 6 mm long, and bracteolate at the middle, the bracts and bractlets 
usually large for the genus, 8 to 6 mm; sepals and petals gray-tomentose, the former 
ovate-acute, 3 to 4 mm, the latter 5 to 6 mm; ovary sparingly pubescent, with distinct 
style and 4 short stigmatic branches; follicles discreet, one or another abortive, obovoid, 
25 mm in diameter, glabrous, rather thin, concentrically striate, endocarp glabrous; one to 
two seeded. 

235 



PLATE 89. 




PELEA MULTIFLORA Eock. 

Flowering branch pinned against trunk of tree; growing on the lava fields of 
Auahi, Mt. Haleakala, Maui. 



Rutaceae. 

This rather interesting species, called Uahe a Pele by the natives, meaning: 
smoke of Pele, owing to the peculiar smoky gray color of the leaves, is only found 
on the Island of Kauai, where it inhabits the drier districts especially near Ka- 
holuamaiio and Halemanu, above "Waimea, at an elevation of 3600 to 4000 feet. It 
is a rather small tree or often only a shrub. It is quite different from Pelea 
clmrca in general aspect as well as in the leaves, which are thinner and curved,, 
and mainly in its fruits, which are glabrous, and have also a glabrous endocarp. 
It comes, however, nearest to that species, though specifically distinct from it and 
not a mere form, as Wawra tried to make out. 

Pelea elliptica Hbd. 

PELEA ELLIPTICA Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 69. Melicope ? elliptica Gray Bot. U. S. 
E. E. (1854) 353; Mann. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 317, "et Proc.. 
Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 159, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 168. Pelea. 
Kaalae Wawra in Flora (1873) 110. Evodia elliptica Drake Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. 
Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 131. 

A small tree; leaves thin chartaceous, with pellucid dots, elliptico-oblong 7.5 to 12.5- 
cm long, 2.5 to 3.5 cm wide, on petioles of 8 to 16 mm, broadly obtuse or rounded, even 
emarginate at both ends, faintly nerved, with the sinuous marginal nerve rather distant 
from the edge, sparsely dotted underneath with a pale pubescence, but soon glabrous 
and pale; flowers 1 to 3 on a short angular peduncle of 2 to 6 mm, the pedicels 6 mm, 
bractQolate below the middle with dentiform bractlets; sometimes several cymes in one 
axilla; sepals and petals coriaceous, persistent below the capsule, both canescent in the 
bud, but sub-glabrate in a later period; sepals 2 mm, obTuse, petals valvate in the bud, 
oblong 3 to 5 mm; style obscurely 4-lobed, almost capitate in the sterile flowers; follicle* 
discreet to the base, gray, puberulous, 8 to 10 mm, thin papery, dehiscent in both sutures,, 
one or more abortive. 

The plant was first collected by the U. S. Exploring Expedition on Kaala of the 
Waianae range, Island of Oahu. The writer is not familiar with this species, as- 
he has never collected it. Hillebrand describes five varieties of this species, two 
from Maui, one from Niu Valley, Oahu, and the last var. e. from Kalae and 
Mauna Loa, Molokai. 

Pelea cinerea (Gray) Hbd. 
Manena on Maui. 

(Plate 90.) 

PELEA CINEREA (Gray) Hbd. Flora Haw. Isl. (1888) 68. Melicope cinerea Gray, Bot- 
U. S. E. E. (1854) 350, t. 39, fig. A; H. Mann in Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. X. 
(1866) 316, et Proc. Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 159, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Inst. 
V. (1867) 168; Wawra in Flora (1873) 139. Evodia cinerea Drake Del Cast. 
111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 13.1. 

Young shoots covered with a grayish or ochraceous tomentum; leaves opposite, ovate 
oblong 7.5 to 10 cm long, 3.75 to 5 cm wide, on petioles of 16 to 24 mm, shortly acuminate,, 
subcoriaceous. with faint nerves, the marginal nerve distant and arcuate, tomentulose to 
pubescent underneath, glabrate when old; flowers 3 to 5 in a short cyme or raceme, the- 
angular peduncle 6 to 12 mm, the pedicels 4 to 8 mm, bibracteolate at the middle; petals 
4 mm, valvate in the bud, but some edges forced out before expansion, gray puberulous; 
ovary tomentose; capsule 20 to 24 mm transversely, the follicles cohering slightly at the- 
base only, soon glabrate, thick coriaceous, opening only along the ventral suture, gener- 
ally all maturing; the thick endocarp pubescent; seeds Y or 2 in each follicle, 4 to 6 mm 
in diameter; cotyledons plano-convex, extending the whole length and breadth of the- 
albumen. 

237 



PLATE 90. 




PELEA CINEREA (Gray) Hbd. var. 7 Hbd. 

Manena Tree. 
Growing in the Kipuka Puaulu, near Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



Butaceae. 

Specimens of this species were first collected by the U. S. Exploring Expe- 
dition on the Island of Oahu, on the Waianae range, in a ravine of Mt. Kaala. 
This species is a typical dry district Pelea and is found on nearly all the islands 
of the group in various forms, which do not differ much from the species. In 
certain localities they are small trees or shrubs, while again in others they are 
handsome trees with trunks of often a foot or more in diameter. The writer 
has not collected the species on this island (Oahu), but has abundant material 
from the other islands. 

Hillebrand's var. ft. with an olivaceous tomentum, and coriaceous leaves, the 
writer collected on Maui in the dry gulches back of Makawao, on the northwestern 
slope of Mt. Ilaleakala ; no. 8550, flowering and fruiting September, 1910. The 
leaves in this variety are quite pale, with revolute margins and more or less 
glabrous on both sides ; the peduncles are 3-flowered, the flowers are smaller 
than in the species; the capsules are of a sulphur-yellow and are densely to- 
mentose ; the tree is conspicuous on account of its leaves, which are whitish pale 
underneath. Another variety, enumerated as y in Hillebrand's Flora, and de- 
scribed as Pelea Hawaiiensis by Wawra in Flora (1873) 110, occurs in Hawaii 
in the Kohala range, evidently in the dry districts near Mahukona, as this par- 
ticular species has never been found in the rain forest, but always on ancient 
lava flows or in kipiikas. 

To this variety evidently will have to be referred the various specimens col- 
lected by the writer on the Island of Hawaii. At Puuwaawaa, North Kona, 
Hawaii, on the ancient lava fields, it occurs quite plentifully (no. 10211). The 
young shoots as well as the leaves are tomentose, but become glabrate when old; 
the capsules are 2 cm in diameter, light ochra-yellow and densely tomentose; the 
leaves are thick coriaceous, with prominent veins. In the Kipuka Puaulu, on 
the slopes of Mauna Loa, near Kilauea Volcano, the writer met with the finest 
trees of this variety, one of which is here figured. The capsules are of a darker 
yellow and larger. The trunk of this tree is vested in a smooth pinkish, light 
brown bark, which is about half an inch thick and of a dirty brownish yellow 
color inside. (No. 10210, fruiting July, 1911.) Another form of this variety 
was collected (no. 8774) in the same locality, with acute glabrous leaves and 5-15 
or more flowered panicles ; petals elongate acute tomentose outside, four stamens 
protruding, four half as long, filaments puberulous, as long as the petals (3.5 
mm), anthers oblong, 1 mm, ovary hirsute. 

Hillebrand's var. 8 the writer collected on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa at an 
elevation of 2000 feet. It is quite distinct from the variety found a thousand 
feet higher. It differs mainly in the thinner perfectly glabrous acute leaves; 
the peduncles in the writer's specimens are about 8 mm, each bearing a single 
fruit ; follicles larger, 3 cm in diameter, covered with a reddish yellow velvety 
lomentum. Collected June 6, 1909, fruiting (no. 3561). It is a shrub with 

239 



PLATE 91. 




PLATYDESMA CAMPANULATUM Mann. 
Pilokea. 



Rutaceae. 

rather rambling branches. Hillebrand's material came from Kau and South 
Kona. 

Var. racemiflcra Rock var. nov. 

Leaves ovate, cordate at the base, bluntly, acute, glabrous above, puberulous under- 
neath, on compressed hirsute petioles; panicles racemose, terminal and in the axils of 
the leaves, often more than 6 cm long, with yellowish pubescence; flowers small, numer- 
ous, stamens wanting in the fertile flowers, ovary tomentose. 

This new variety is a small tree with broad flat crown, and reaches a height of 

10 to 15 feet. The branches are stout and woody to the last ramification. It 
occurs on the rough aa lava flows on the southern slope of Mt. Haleakala, Maui, 
between the huge blocks of lava, at an elevation of 1500 feet, where it is in com- 
pany with Reynoldsia sandwiccnsis and Alpliitonia excelsa, the most predominant 
trees in the district. It was collected by the writer in flower, November, 1910. 
The type is no. 8676 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. The native name of 
the tree is Manena. 

PLATYDESMA Mann. 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Sepals 4, roundish, broadly imbricate. Petals 3, large, 
imbricate or convolute. Discus flat, slightly 4 to 8 lobed. Stamens 8 inserted at the 
margin of the discus; the filaments flat, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, united into a wide 
tube, with elongate sagittate anthers, with linear anther cells converging at the apex. 
Carpels 4, united, each with 5 to 8 ovules suspended from a broad funiculus, hemitropous. 
Ovary deeply lobed. Style terminal, undivided, with thick stigma. Fruit a dry 4-lobed 
indehiscent or loculicidal capsule, with thin endocarp, with 2 or more seeds in each cell- 
Seeds subglobose, with black shining crustaceous testa, and with albumen. Embryo in 
the middle of the albumen, with thin, broad, roundish cotyledons and short radicle. 
Small trees or shrubs with strong pepsin odor, and opposite or whorled, single entire 
leaves. Flowers large in axillary cymes. 

The genus Platydesma is peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands and consists of 
three endemic species, only one of which is arborescent. PI. rostratum, a shrub 
branching from the base, with rostrate or beaked capsules, is peculiar to Kauai, 
while PL cor nut um is found on Oahu. PI. campamilatum occurs principally on 
Oahu, but is represented on the other islands in various forms. Pelea auriculae- 
folia Gray has erroneously been referred to Platydesma by both Hillebrand and 
Engler. Leveille described two species collected by Abbe Faurie, both from the 
Punaluu Mts., Oahu. One, Platydesma Fauriei, is undoubtedly PI. campanu- 
latum ; the other, PL oalmensis, is probably referable to PI. cornutum, which the 
writer collected in the Punaluu Mts. Leveille in his description of his second 
new species says : petalis luteis ? None of the Hawaiian Platydesma have yellow 
petals, but are of a waxy white or cream color. 

Platydesma campanulatum Mann. 

Pilo kca. 
(Plate 91.) 

PLATYDESMA CAMPANULATUM Mann Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. X. (1866) 317, et 
Proc. Am. Ac. TIL (1867) 160. et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Ins. V. (1867) 169, 
et Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. I. 4. (1869) 530, pi. 22; Wawra in Flora (1873) 

241 

16 



Rutaceae. 

139; Hillbr. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 71; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 
134; Engler in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 4 (1895) 127, fig. 69, A-F; Heller 
PI. Haw. Isl. in Minnes. Bot. Stud. IX. (1897) 841. Platydesma Fauriei Levl. in 
Fedde Eepert. X. no. 10-14. (1911) 153. Melicope spathulata Gray, Bot. U. S. 
Expl. E. (1854) 352; (doubtful). 

A variable species; leaves opposite, obovate oblong, bluntly acuminate at both ends, 
or rounded at the apex, narrowing at the base, chartaceous, often rather thick when 
fresh, with transparent dots, the nerves not prominent, with the exception of the midrib 
which is salient, punctate on the underside, glabrous above, occasionally sparingly 
pubescent along the veins and midrib, leaves varying in size on different parts of the tree, 
from 7.5 to 35 cm long, by 2.5 to 10 and 15.5 cm wide, the petioles from 1 to 5 cm in 
length; peduncles of about the same length as the petioles, bearing ovate subulate bracts; 
cyme 3 to 5 flowered, occasionally single flowered; pedicels 4 to 6 mm long, bracteolate; 
flowers hermaphrodite, 18 to 20 mm long, 12 to 14 mm in diameter, campanulate; sepals 
round, 8 to 10 mm long, decussatingly imbricate, clothed with a sericeous pubescence ex- 
tending also to the pedicels; petals 4, cream colored, alternate with the sepals, strongly 
imbricate, 16 to 18 mm long, obovate, thick, waxy, minutely sericeous, bearded on the 
margins; stamens 8, nearly as long as the petals, inserted on the margin of the thin 
hypogynous disc; the dilated filaments monadelphous to the middle; anthers sagittate, in- 
trorsely dehiscent, 4 mm long; ovary globular, the four rounded carpels joined only by the 
central columnar style, which is four times their length; stigma terminal, entile, slightly 
four-grooved; ovules 5 in each cell, collateral; capsule of 4 distinct erect cocci, 16 to 22 
mm long and 10 to 12 mm in diameter, whole capsules 30 mm transversely; endocarp 
smooth, crustaceous, and half enclosed by the persistent cup-shaped calyx; seeds resembling 
very much those of Pelea. The capsule often rots away but the seed remain attached 
to the placenta for some time. Two seeds usually ripen. 

This exceedingly interesting tree, which must have been much more common 
than it is now, can still be found in the mountains behind Honolulu on the 
slopes of Konahuanui, and also in the whole Koolau range, especially in the 
mountains of Punaluu, on the windward side of Oahu. The tree is, however, not 
confined to the Island of Oahu, but is found also on the other islands of the 
Hawaiian group, with the exception of Molokai and Lanai. The writer observed 
it only as a shrub outside of Oahu, while on the latter island it reaches a height 
of 15 to 20 feet or perhaps a little more; the trunk is, however, not more than 
5 inches or so in diameter. The whole plant, when bruised, emits an exceedingly 
strong odor of pepsin, which is not unpleasant. This species is the type of the 
genus and has the largest capsules, while the other two species have much 
smaller and quite different capsules. It is certainly very variable. It was 
collected by the writer first at Punaluu, no. 65, flowering August, 1908, and again 
November 13, 1908, flowering and fruiting no. 630; flowering and fruiting No- 
vember 30, 1912, Manoa Valley, Mt. Olympus, no. 10225. 

Hillebrand describes two varieties, ft. var. pallida from Kaala, Oahu; and 
East Maui, Hamakua. It differs from the species in the densely pubescent or 
tomentose leaves. The second, y var. macrophylla, he records from Kauai. 

The writer collected this variety on Kauai in the mountains of Halemanu and 
Kaholuamano back of Waimea at an elevation of 3600 feet. The leaves are 
quite large, some of them 36 cm long, on petioles of 4 cm, and are densely to- 
mentose underneath, especially along the midrib; the flowers are arranged in 
cymes on a peduncle of less than one millimeter, at the nodes of the naked 
branches; flowers as in the species; a very robust form which evidently belongs 

242 



Rutaceae. 

here was collected along the Honomanu trail on the northern slopes of Mt. Ha- 
leakala, Maui, elevation 2500 feet, with enormous leaves 20 cm wide; another 
form at 4000 feet elevation on the same island in the forests near Olinda, with 
smaller leaves, flowering, September, 1910 ; no. 8534. 

Hillebrand's var. y. macroplnjlla with large glabrous leaves is from Kauai. 

On the Island of Hawaii, in the Kohala Mts. proper, west of Honokanenui gorge, 
the writer collected specimens of a tree 15 to 20 feet high, with very robust 
branches ; the leaves are glabrous, thick coriaceous, and probably belong to Hille- 
brand's var. y. The leaves are on petioles of 5 to 5.5 cm and differ therefore from 
the latter variety, which has the leaves on short petioles of 6 to 8 mm; it may 
be known as forma coriaceum f. nov. 

Collected June, 1910, fruiting, no. 8367, in College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Var. sessilifolia Rock var. nov. 

A shrubby plant, with erect stems foliose at the apex; leaves large, opposite, per- 
fectly sessile with a broad base, oblong or obovate oblong, gradually tapering toward the 
base, very thin chartaceous, transparent, midrib and veins prominent, rounded at the 
apex, glabrous above, pubescent underneath, 26 to 38 cm long, 9 to 14 cm wide, flowers 
as in the species, the petals acute; capsule exceedingly large, the erect cocci separated by 
a very broad sinus of 4 mm. 

Collected in the dense forests of the summit mountain of the Kohala range, 
Hawaii, fruiting July 12, 1909, type no. 4222 in the College of Hawaii Her- 
barium. 

EUPHORBIACEAZ. 

This is an exceedingly large family, consisting of more than 208 genera with 
many species, distributed over all parts of the world, with the exception of the 
Arctic and Alpine regions. 

The genus Euphorbia is the most widely distributed of the family, reaching 
as far as the polar borders of the northern and southern hemispheres. 

In the Hawaiian Islands the family is represented by five genera, four of 
which have arborescent species. 

KEY TO THE GENEEA. 
Plants not milky: 

I. PHYLLANTHEAE. Flowers monoecious or dioecious; ovary cells two-ovulate: 
Leaves alternate entire, fruit a berry, three celled, seeds arillate. . . . Neowawraea 

Leaves alternate, entire; fruits flat, one-seeded Antidesma 

U. CROTONEAE. Flowers monoecious or dioecious; ovary cells one-ovulate: 
Leaves alternate, crenate or serrate; fruits capsular, two-three celled 

Claoxylon 

Leaves alternate, lobed; stone fruit one-seeded, splitting into two-four cocci 

Aleurites 

Plants milky: 

III. EUPHORBIEAE. Flowers mostly monoecious, rarely dioecious; ovary three 

celled, one-ovulate: 
Leaves opposite, linear; fruit a three celled capsule Euphorbia 

NEOWAWRAEA Rock gen. nov. 

Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: sepals 5, of unequal shape and size. Petals none. 
Stamens 3' to 4, rarely 5, inserted between the sinuses of the hypogynous disc, consisting 

243 



PLATE 92. 




NEOWAWEAEA PHYLLANTHOIDES Eoek gen. et sp. nov. 
Showing male flowering branch, and female branch in fruit; about one-half natural size. 



Euphorbiaceae. 

usually of 4 glands. Female flowers unknown. Fruit a globose berry, reddish-black, with 
persistent calyx. Endocarp of 3 thin membraneous' cocci each with two seeds, rarely 4, 
vhich are enclosed in an arillus. Embryo filling the whole cavity of the seed, cotyledons 
flat, subrotundous. radicle exserted. albumen scanty. An unarmed tree with alternate, 
ovate, glabrous, entire leaves. Flowers in fascicles all along the stipulate branchlets. 

This proposed new genus, which is here dedicated to the memory of the author's 
compatriot, Dr. IT. Wawra, Ritter von Fernsee, of the Austrian Exploring Ex- 
pedition, consists of a single remarkable species, of which only three male and 
one female trees are in existence. It is evidently related to Phyllanthus. Owing 
to the fruit being a berry it would come closer to Bischofia, from which it, how- 
ever, differs in the presence of a discus and the fasciculate inflorescence. 

t 

Neowawraea phyllanthoides Rock sp. nov. 

A tree 10 to 12 m high, with a straight trunk of about 4 dm or more in diameter; 
bark light brown, rough and scaly; branches semi-erect, with many small branchlets 
which are covered with light gray, oblong lenticels; leaves ovate, rounded or truncate at 
the base, bluntly acute at the apex, light green above, glaucous underneath, penni- 
nerved, the lateral veins nearly parallel, at angles of about 60 to the midrib, thin, 
chartaceous, glossy above, dull underneath, glabrous, 8 to 14 cm long, 4 to 9 cm wide, on 
petioles of 15 to 20 mm; stipules triangular, subcaudate, membraneous, caducous; in- 
florescence axillary, fasciculate, all along the branchlets; male flowers in dense fascicles or 
close clusters, very small 1.5 mm in diameter, on short pedicels of 2 mm, which are sur- 
rounded at the base by several roundish bracts, in the shape of a cup, out of whose 
center the pedicels arise. The 5 sepals are minute, unequal, petals wanting, stamens 3 
to 4, rarely 5, inserted between the sinuses of an hypogynous disc, usually consisting of 
4 glands, female flowers not known; fruit an indehiscent globose berry, 6 mm in diameter, 
with the calyx persistent, reddish-black, juicy, staining purplish, endocarp thin mem- 
braneous, divided into three cocci, each with two arillate seeds, rarely 4; seeds pale 
yellow, about 2 mm long, convex outside, acute angled inside, hilum suborbicular to ovate 
situated in the upper third of the seed; embryo 2.3 mm long, cotyledons flat, filling the 
whole cavity of the seed, 1 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, radicle 1 mm, protruding; albumen 
scanty. 

This very interesting and remarkable tree, for which an old native Hawaiian 
gave the name Mehamehame, is exceedingly rare, only three males and one female 
tree being in existence. In regard to the native name, the writer is not inclined 
to accept it. The outward appearance of the tree resembles somewhat our Ha- 
waiian Antidesma, which are also called Home or Mehame or Mehamehame. The 
old native might have easily taken it for such. It is very doubtful if the natives 
ever had a name for the tree, as it is peculiar to such a small area, located in 
a most inhospitable place on the southern flanks of the great volcano Mauna Loa 
on rough aa lava flows, made accessible only very recently. 

It was discovered by the writer in the above locality at an elevation of 2000 
feet, called Kapua, during the month of February, 1912 ; but was at that time 
neither in flower nor in fruit. A careful search of the ground beneath the 
trees, revealed no sign of seeds of a previous season. This, however, was ex- 
plained on a later visit in the month of July (15), 1912, in company with Mr. 
AV. M. Giffard, when it w r as found that the trees first examined were all male and 
in flower. Only one other tree was seen, which fortunately turned out to be a 
female tree bearing fruit. It is a striking tree of medium height, and is quite 

245 



PLATE 93. 




NEOWAWRAEA PHYLLANTHOIDES Eock gen. et sp. nov. 
Branches pinned against trunk of tree. Growing on the lava fields of Kapua, 

South Kona, Hawaii. 



Euphorbiaceae. 

conspicuous in that small area on account of its pale glaucous foliage. The wood 
is exceedingly heavy, close grained and very hard. The sap wood is red, while 
the heartwood is black, making a beautiful contrast. The type is no. 10030 in 
the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

It is associated with Antidesma pulvinatum, A. platyphyllum, Pittosporum 
Hosmeri var. longifolia, Maba sandwicensis, Alpliitonia excelsa, Cohibrina oppo- 
sitifolia, Santalum Freycinetianum, Osmanthus sandwicensis, Tetraplasandra 
Ilawaiiensis, and many other interesting tree species. 

ANTIDESMA Linn. 

Flowers dioecious. Calyx 3 to 5 lobed. Discus teeth free, rarely united. Male flow- 
ers: Stamens 2 to 5, opposite the sepals; anthers bent inward in the bud, later erect. 
The rudimentary ovary small. Female flowers: Ovary 1 very rarely also 2-celled. 
Style 3, very short, 2 lobed. Stone fruit small often oblique. Seeds without caruncle. 

A genus of trees and shrubs, with more than 70 species in the warmer re- 
gions of the old world. It is distributed from tropical Africa to Australia, 
Japan and the islands of the Pacific. 

Two species or probably three are to be found in these islands, with one in 
the Viti (Fiji) Islands, one in Samoa, and two in New Guinea. The only repre- 
sentative of the genus in tropical Polvnesia, a doubtful one, is recorded by 
Hemsley from Admiralty Island. None have so far been discovered in America. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves ovate or obovate. glabrous A. platyphyllum 

Leaves cordate with a patch of hairs in the angles of rib and veins A. pulvinatum 

Antidesma platyphyllum Mann. 

Ilame or Haa. 

(Plate 94.) 

ANTIDESMA PLATYPHYLLUM Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 202; Hbd. Fl. Haw. 
Isl. (1888) 402; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1892) 289; Heller PI. 
Haw. Isl. (1897) 842. 

Leaves ovate to obovate or orbicular 8 to 12 cm long, 4 to 10 cm wide, on petioles of 
about 5 mm, shortly acuminate, glabrous, shining above but punctato papillose, chartaceous 
to coriaceous, panicles puberulous; male flowers: subsessile along the simple branches of 
a paniculate rhachis of about 8 cm; bracts conchoid, as long as the calyx or longer; 
calyx less than 2 mm, puberulous, with 5 to 4 roundish lobes; petals rudimentary, diso 
glabrous, lobed, stamens 5 or 4, long exserted; ovary rudimentary, with peltate stigmas. 
Female flowers: pedicellate along the branches of a solitary, axile. paniculate rhachis of 
5 to 14 cm; bracts linear; calyx less than 2 mm, 5 to 8 cleft; disc small, annular; ovary 
glabrous; style terminal; drupe reddish or dark purplish, fleshy, compressed, suboblique 
the osseous putamen irregularly ridged. Cotyledons suborbicular, as broad as the scanty 
albumen, 2 or 3 times as long as the radicle. 

The Hame or Haa is a very handsome tree, reaching a height of 20 to 30 feet, 
with a trunk of a foot or more in diameter; the bark is fibrous, deeply corru- 
gated, and whitish. It has no round crown, as the few branches are rather as- 
cending and have only a few branches. It is conspicuous by its large leaves, 
which are bright green and glossy, and is on that account often mistaken for 
the Maua tree (Xijlosrna Hillebrandii or X. Hawaiiense') , which it resembles 

247 



PLATE 94. 




ANTIDESMA PLATYPHYLLUM Mann. 

Hame or Haa. 
Fruiting branch, less than one-half natural size. 



Euphorbiaceae. 

greatly. During the months of June, July, and August, and on Kauai as late 
as October, the trees are loaded with the very dark-red, fleshy, compressed ber- 
ries, which are of the size of a large pea; they are arranged all along the 
branches on a paniculate rachis. On the lava fields of Kona, especially at 
Kapua, it fruits in December and January. 

The Hame inhabits the dry as well as the wet forests on all the islands, espe- 
cially at an elevation of 1500 to 3000 feet. It is not uncommon above Makawao, 
Maui, where it grows in company with Sideroxylon, Labordia, Pelea, Pittos- 
porum, Ochrosia, Xanthoxylum, Straussia, etc. On Molokai it inhabits the dry 
sections and is also found in the wettest district along the stream in Wailau 
valley proper, which has an enormous rainfall. On Hawaii it is plentiful in 
North and South Kona, on the slopes of Hualalai. and the slopes of Mauna Loa, 
also Waipio valley and the mountains of Kohala. It can also be found along 
the Keanae ditch trail on the windward side of Maui, but not growing to any 
size. On Kauai a variety grows just below Kaholuamano, 3000 feet elevation, 
associated with Cyanea leptostegia, Xanthoxylum, Charpentiera, Osmanthus, etc. 
The wood of the Hame or Haa is close-grained, rather hard, and of a reddish- 
brown color. It was used by the natives for Olona anvils. The Olona formed 
one of their principal fiber plants, which was beaten to thin strips on Hame 
logs. The wood, which takes a fine polish, is excellent for cabinet work, but, un- 
fortunately, it is not found in sufficient quantities to be of any commercial 
value. The red coloring matter of the fleshy berries was used in conjunction 
with the Kamani oil, into which such tapa was placed as was intended to be 
worn as bathing malos by the chiefs ; this infusion gave it a bright color. 

From Kauai, Hillebrand describes a variety /? with broad obtuse leaves which 
are shining on both faces. 

X Antidesma Kapuae Rock nov. hybr. 
(Antidesma plat ypJiyll um Mann X J-- pulvinatum Hbd.) 

Leaves as in A. platyphyttum, but quite acuminate, while the fruits are al- 
most exactly like in A. pulvinatum Hbd. 

Both A. platyphyllum and A. pulvinatum are extremely common in Kapua on 
the lava fields of South Kona, Hawaii, at an elevation of 2000 feet. Here the 
writer met- with trees whose leaves are identical with those of A. platyphyttum, 
while the fruits are those of A. pulvinatum. It could not be placed either to the 
one or the other, and is here mentioned as a probable hybrid. 

Antidesma pulvinatum Hbd. 

Haa, or Mehama. 
(Plates 95, 96 and 97.) 

ANTIDESMA PULVINATUM Hbd. PL Haw. Isl. (1888) 403; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pac. VII. (1892) 289. 

Young branches and inflorescence ochraceous, tomentose; leaves ovate, cordate, shortly 
acuminate, thin chartaceous, dark green above, lighter and tomentose underneath, witb 

249 



PLATE 95. 




ANTIDESMA PULVINATUM Hbd. 
Haa or Mehame. 

Fruiting branch, less than one-half natural size. 



PLATE 96. 




ANTIDESMA PULVINATUM Hbd. 

Haa or Mehame. 

Fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree; showing deep longitudinal corrugation of 
bark. Growing on the lava fields of Kapua, South Kona, Hawaii. 



PLATE 97. 




ANTIDESMA PULVINATUM Hbcl. 

Haa or Mehane tree. 
Growing on the a.a lava fields of Kapua, South Kona, Hawaii. 



Euphorbiaceae. 

prominent veins, and always with a villous patch in the angles of rib and veins; panicles 
short, branching only near the base; ovary tomentose; drupe much smaller than in A. 
platj/phyllum, 4 to 6 mm, black; female calyx tomentose, 5 to 6 cleft; style branches very 
short, subentire. 

This species, unlike the previous, is confined to the dry districts, especially 
to the aa (rough) lava fields. It does not reach the height of A. platyphyUum, 
but has a beautiful round, symmetrical crown. The trunk is short and about 
10 inches to over one foot in diameter. The bark is deeply corrugated, longi- 
tudinally furrowed, fibrous, and whitish. The leaves are ovate, generally heart- 
shaped at the base, not glossy, of a dull-green, and haw villous patches on the 
underside in the angles of rib and veins, giving them a brownish color. The 
berries are much smaller than in the Hame or Haa, and are blackish. 

It inhabits the dry region of the lower elevations and may be found on the 
southern slope of Haleakala on the aa lava fields of A.uahi in company with 
Reynoldsia, Maba sandwicensis, Xylosma Hillebrandii, etc. On Oahu it is 
found in the Waianae range, but it is most plentiful on the lava fields of South 
Kona, Hawaii, especially at Kapua (2000 feet), where it forms about 60 per 
cent of the tree growth. 

CLAOXYLON Juss. 

Dioecious, rarely monoecious. Discus of various formation. Male flowers: calyx 
subglobose, 3 to 4 cleft; filaments free, anthers extrorse; without rudimentary ovary. 
Female flowers: calyx less divided, 2 to 4 lobed. Discus entire or lobed. Ovary 3 to 2 
celled. Styles short, free or united at the base. Seeds without caruncle, globose. Albu- 
men fleshy. Cotyledons flat. Glabrous or tomentose trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, 
petioled, often large, subcoriaceous, entire or serrate; inflorescence axillary single or fas- 
ciculate, shorter than the leaves. Flowers small, the male flowers usually fascicled, the 
female flowers single under each bract. 

The genus Claoxylon consists of over 40 species, and is distributed in the 
tropics of the old world, from Africa to the islands of the Pacific. Two species 
occur in these islands, two in New Guinea (C. longifolium (Bl.) Mull.-Arg., and 
C. bicarpellatum Laut. & SchJ. One species is recorded from New Caledonia, 
one from Tahiti, and two from Viti or Fiji Islands. Of the Hawaiian species 
only one is arborescent. 

Claoxylon sandwicense Mull.-Arg. 

Poola. 
(Plate 98.) 

CLAOXYLON SANDWICENSE Mull.-Arg. in Linnaea XXXIV. (1865) 165; et in DC. 

Prodr. XV. 2. (1866) 780; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 203; Seem. 

Flora Vit. (1867) 224; Wawra in Flora (1875) 148; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 

398; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1890) 291; Pax in Engl. et Prantl 

Pflzfam. III. 5 (1896) 48. 

A small soft wooded tree, with pale spreading branches, the youngest shoots tomentose; 
leaves obovate-oblong or lanceolate, 10 to 20 cm long, 5 to 7 cm wide, on petioles of 2.5 to 5 
cm, shortly acuminate or obtuse, crenate-serrate with callous teeth; membraneous, lurid 
green, scabro papillose, tut glabrate; flowers clustered in distant fascicles of 2 to 4 and 
minutely bracteate along a simple rachis of from 7 to 12 cm in length. Male flowers: 
calyx 6 mm, parted to the base into 3 (rarely 2 or 4) triangular lobes; no disc or glands, 

253 



PLATE 98. 




CLAOXYLON SANDWICENSE Mull.-Arg. 
Poola. 

Flowering and fruiting branch, from the forest about Glenwood above Hilo, Hawaii. 

About one-half natural size. 



Euphorbiaceae. 

stamens about 200; female flowers: calyx 2 to 3 mm, sepals ovate, glands 3, oblong, nearly 
the size of the sepals; ovary tomentose or silky; styles short, spreading; capsule dividing 
into 3 cocci, 5 mm high and 6 mm broad, deeply furrowed; seeds globose, rugose; embryo 
axile, cotyledons orbicular, twice as long as the radicle. 

The Poola is a very small, soft-wooded tree, reaching a height of not more 
than 15 to 18 feet, rarely 20. The trunk is usually branching 6 to 8 feet above 
the ground with pale, spreading branches, forming rather an unsymmetrical 
crown. 

On East Maui, on the southern slopes of Haleakala, on the lava fields of 
Auahi, it grows to a small tree at an elevation of 2000 to 2500 feet, in company 
with Alectryon, Xanthoxylum, Xylosma, Pelea, Tetraplasandra, etc. On Ha- 
waii it is not uncommon on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, where it is a small 
tree. The plants from the latter locality differ somewhat from those of other 
localities, in that their leaves turn to a steel-blue color on drying, and in some 
other minor points. On Lanai, the Poola is most plentiful in the valleys of 
Kaiholena and Mahana. It is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. No record 
remains as to the usefulness of this tree. 

The second Hawaiian species, C. tomentosum (Hbd.) Heller, is a shrub, and 
occurs on Kauai only. 

ALEURITES Forst. 

Monoecious to almost dioecious. Male flowers: calyx irregularly 2 to 3 cleft. Petals 
longer than the calyx. Stamens inserted on a conical receptacle, in 1 to 4 whorls, the 5 
cuter ones epipetalous. Alternipetalous disc-glands 5, without rudimentary ovary. Fe- 
male flowers: corolla the same as in the male flower. Disc much reduced. Ovary 2 to 5- 
celled. Style divided into two thick, linear branches; stone fruit indehiscent, exocarp 
thin, endocarp crusty, 2 to 5 celled. Testa thick, woody. Albumen thick, hard, very 
oily. Trees with stellate pubescence. Leaves alternate, long petioled, large, 5 to 7 
nerved at the base, entire or 3 to 5 to 7-lobed; peduncle at the apex with two glands. Flow- 
ers in loose, widely branched eymose corymbs. 

A small genus of 3 to 5 species, of which A. moluccana (L.) Willd. is the 
most common and widely distributed species; it occurs in the tropics and sub- 
tropics of the old world, in the West Indies and Brazil, Pacific islands, etc. 

Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. 
Kukui. 

(Plate 99.) 

ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (L.) Willd. Sp. PI. IV. (1805) 590; Mull. Arg. in DC. Prodr. 
XV. 2. (1866) 723; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 203; Seem. Fl. Vit. 
(1867) 223; Nadeaud Enum. Tahit. Plants (1873) No. 462; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 400; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 289, et Fl. Polyn. 
Franc. (1893) 183; Pax in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 5. (1896) 73. fig. 44; 
Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 842. Brigham Ka Hana Kapa (1911) 138, fig. 84. 
Jatropha moluccana Linn. Spec PI. ed. 1. (1753) 1006. Aleurites triloba Forst. 
Char. Gen. (1776) 112. t. 56., et Prodr. (1786) no. 360, et Incon. (ined. cf. Seem.) 
t. 262; Hook, et Arn. Bot. Beech. (1832) 69, et 95; Endl Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 
1554; GuilL Zeph. Tait. (1836-37) no. 180; Jardin lies Marqu. (1858) 25. 
Telopia perspicua Soland. Prin. Fl. Ins. Pac. (1858) 332, et in Park. Draw. Tah. 
PI. 105, et. 106 (ined. cf. Seem.). Camirium moluccanum 0. Ktze. Eev. Gen. PI. II. 
(1891) 595. 
Leaves of variable shape, ovate or rhombeo-lanceolate, undivided or 3, 5 to 7 lobed, 

with triangular acuminate lobes, pale, with the rib and nerves tomentose; corymb 10 to 

255 



PLATE 99. 




ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (L.) Willd. 
Kukui. 

Flowering and fruiting branch, reduced. 



Euphorbiaceae. 

15 cm long. Male flowers: calyx ovoid in the bud petals white to cream colored, oblanceo- 
late; stamens about 18, anthers erect, introrse. Female flowers: calyx 6 mm; ovary hairy, 
2-celled; fruit fleshy, coriaceous, globose, about 5 cm or more in diameter, with 4 shallow 
furrows; seeds 1 or '2, rugose-gibbous. 

The Kukui is one of the most common of Hawaiian forest trees, growing at 
elevations of from about sea level to about 2200 feet. It reaches a height of 
sometimes 80 feet and more, especially in narrow, rocky gorges, such as Mauna 
Lei on Lanai, and other narrow valleys. The trunks reach large dimensions, and 
it is not uncommon to find them several feet in diameter. Of all Hawaiian trees 
the Kidiid has the lightest colored foliage, it being covered with a silvery-gray 
powder which makes it very conspicuous in the forest, and can be recognized 
from far off. The trunks are not always erect, but sometimes are twisted and 
running on the ground, as are also the huge branches. It is mainly in narrow 
gorges that the tree has a perfectly straight trunk, branching 40 feet or so above 
the ground. 

It inhabits the lower slopes of the mountains in the dry region as well as on 
the windward side, where the rainfall is usually heavy. It is common on all 
the islands from almost sea level up to 2200 feet, but not higher. 

The nuts especially were a necessity to the natives, who made their torches 
from the seeds, strung on coconut or palm-leaf midribs. An oil was expressed 
from tke nuts, which they burnt in stone lamps. Of the acrid juice of the fleshy 
covering of the nuts they prepared a black dye, used in tattooing. From the 
bark of the root a similar dye was used in coloring canoes black. The trunk 
itself was sometimes made into canoes, while the soot of the burning nuts was 
used as canoe paint. The trunk, Avhen bruised, exudes a gum or resin called 
pilaU by the natives, who employed it for various purposes. The gummy sub- 
stance is said to be chewed by the Tahitians, especially that exuding from the 
fruits. The nuts contain 50 per cent of oil, which is known as Kekuna in India 
and Ceylon, and Kukui in Hawaii. In former times the yearly production of 
the Kukui nut oil in the Hawaiian Islands amounted to 10,000 gallons, and was 
exported to Europe. The cake, after expression of the oil, is a good food for 
cattle, and also useful for manuring. Medicinally, the oil is used as a purgative, 
and also makes an ideal dressing for ulcers. 

The nuts are also roasted by the Hawaiians and, when chopped, are mixed 
with seaweed and served at luaus or native feasts as a relish. In Samoa the 
nuts are strung similarly to the old Hawaiian method and used as house lamps, 
50 to 60 nuts being necessary for one night. They are boiled before being 
strung on the midribs of palm leaves. It is called lama and tuitui in Samoa, 
nibbol by the Tami Islanders in New Guinea, and raguar in the Caroline Islands; 
it is the laud, sikeci and tuitui in the various dialects of Fiji. 

The wood of the Kukui is of a light color, soft and absolutely not durable. 
It decays very easily when cut full of sap. Many insects bore into the wood, 
but especial mention may be made of the big beetle Aegosoma, belonging to the 
Longicorn family, which is also a great enemy of the Koa and other trees. 

257 

17 



PLATE 100. 



- 




ITQPHORBIA LORIFOLIA (Gray) Hbd. var. GRACILIS Bock var. nov. 

Koko or Akoko. 

Fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree; bark is incised, note flow of latex. Grow- 
ing on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii; elevation 3000 feet. 



Euphorbiaceae. 
EUPHORBIA L. 

Cyathium campanulate, 4 to 5 lobed, the lobes entire or slit, often hidden by glands. 
Glands between the lobes, rarely less, entire or two horned or digitate. Male flowers: 
numerous without calyx, very rarely w r ith a small scale on the articulation of the stamens. 
Female flowers: single from the middle of the cyathium, finally stipitate and exserted from 
the cyathium, naked or with a calyx formed by three small scales. Styles 3, free or 
united, entire or bifid. Capsule separating into 3 two-valved cocci. Herbs, shrubs or 
trees, abounding in milky juice. Leaves entire, opposite, or alternate. Cyathia in ter- 
minal cymes or in the axis of two dichotomous branches, or in the axils of the leaves; 
stem often thick fleshy, cactus-like or even leafless. 

The genus consists of more than 600 species, and is distributed especially 
over the warmer regions; it is absent in the Arctic regions, and only very 
sparingly represented in the colder parts of the temperate zone. 

In the Hawaiian Islands ten species are endemic, of which only three be- 
come small trees. 

All Hawaiian Euphorbiae are called Akoko or Atoto by the natives. The 
name Atoto appears also in Tahiti for Euphorbia atoto, which is called Totolu 
and Totoyava by the Fijians. Euphorbia atoto is credited to the Hawaiian 
Islands by Seeman, who mistook for it the closely allied Euphorbia cordata of 
our seashores. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves linear oblong; flowerheads terminal or axillary, single; capsule small. E. lorifolia 
Leaves obovate oblong; flowerheads in open axillary cymes; capsules large. E. Rockii 

Euphorbia lorifolia (Gray) Hbd. 

Koko or Akoko. 

(Plate 100.) 

EUPHOEBIA LORIFOLIA (Gray) Hbd. Flora Haw. Isl. (1888) 395; Del Cast. 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1892) 285. E. multiformis var. lorifolia Gray in H. Mann, 
Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 202. E. multiformis var. angustifolia Boiss. in DC. 
Prodr. XV. 2 (1866) 11 (ex parte). 

A small tree, with stiff branches which are nodose with short internodes and puberu- 
lous; leaves opposite, linear or oblong, somewhat spathulate, 2.5 to 5 cm long, 4 to 10 mm 
wide, on petioles of 1 mm or almost sessile, obtuse or truncate, often retuse at the apex, 
entire, slightly contracted and subtruncate or uneven sided at the base, chartaceous or 
somewhat fleshy; stipules very low, triangular with a broad base; flowerheads terminal and 
axillary, generally single or (in the Main specimens) 2 to 3 in the leaf-axils, subsessile, 
supported by several short bracts; involucre less than 3 mm, pubescent outside, glabrous 
within, with 4 suborbicular glands; the lobes obovate or quadrate, with ragged margins; 
bracteoles 3 to 4 fid; styles free to the base, shortly bifid with clavate branches; capsule 
erect on a short stalk, 3 mm in diameter, puberulous, obtuse at the angles, the cocci 
broader at the base; seeds rugose, scrobiculate. 

Var. gracilis Rock. var. nov. 

Branches not erect and stiff, but very slender and drooping; leaves linear oblong, 
acute at both ends, chartaceous, opposite, on petioles of 2 to 3 mm, midrib and veins very 
prominent, pubescent underneath, pellucid, capsules smaller, the cocci of equal width. 
Type no. 3593 in College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

This variety is peculiar to Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii, where it grows 
on the aa lava fields. It reaches a height of 20 to 25 feet and a diameter of 

259 



PLATE 101. 




EUPHORBIA ROCKII Forbes. 

Koko. 
Showing fruiting branch and flowers, reduced. 



Euphorbiaceae. 

often more than 10 inches. The trunk is vested in a pinkish, rather thin bark 
which is smooth when young, but often forms thick knobs which are deeply 
wrinkled in very old trees. It has a tremendous liow of latex, which does no* 
coagulate on the tree, but becomes yellow, especially in old trees. 

The species occurs in the gulches back of Makawao, Maui, and also on the 
slopes of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, near the crater Nan, 011 the boundary of the 
Parker and Horner ranches. The writer met with it also on the Island of Lanai 
in the dry gulches of Mahana. 

The new variety, however, occurs only on the slopes of Hualalai between Hue- 
hue and Puuwaawaa, Hawaii, at an elevation of 3000 feet, on the rough aa lava 
fields and also in the more humid forest of Waihou. The area with which this 
tree is practically covered amounts to about 5000 acres. During a recent visit in 
North Kona, engaged in botanizing in this most interesting locality, the writer 
was struck by the tremendous flow of latex and the large amount which could 
be procured from a single tree. Thinking it worth while to take some latex 
samples for examination, the writer sent a large bottleful to the U. S. Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station in Honolulu for analysis. 

This Station has since published the results of the analysis in the form of a 
Press Bulletin No. 37, entitled "Euphorbia lorifolia, a Possible Source of Eubber 
and Chicle," by Win. McGeorge, Assistant Chemist, and W. A. Anderson, Su- 
perintendent Rubber Substation 

Euphorbia Rockii Forbes. 

Koko. 
(Plate 101.) 

EUPHORBIA ROCKII Forbes Occas. Pap. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Vol. IV. 3. (1909) 38, 

pi. 1. 

Leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, obtuse, uneven-sided with a clasping base, nearly 
sessile, 8 to 12 cm long, 2.5 to 3 cm wide; flowers in open axillary cymes 3 to 3.5 cm long; 
involucre campanulate, minutely hairy or glabrous on the outside, pubescent on the inside, 
lobes ovate, minute, glands transversely oblong, not appendiculate; style branches short, 
nearly free; capsules large 18 to 24 mm. glabrous, pink or dark crimson, on nodding 
peduncles. 

This tree, which was discovered by the writer in August, 1908, when in full 
fruit is exceedingly handsome. It reaches a height of about 15 to 20 feet, with 
a trunk of about eight inches in diameter. The bark is smooth and whitish. 
Like all Euphorbiae, it exudes a sticky, milky sap when bruised. The branches 
are flat and spreading, giving the trees a broad, flat crown. The flowers are 
small and inconspicuous and are borne on dichotomous cymes. The three-cor- 
nered capsules are bright pink or deep scarlet when mature, of an inch or more 
in length clothing the whole crown in scarlet, which is beautifully contrasted 
with the dark-green, glossy, sessile foliage. 

The Enplwrbia Eockii is peculiar to the Island of Oahu, and is only found 
on the windward side, in the mountains of Punaluu above Kaliuwaa valley, at 
an elevation of 2000 feet or more. On the summit ridge it grows to a shrub, 

261 



Euphorbiaceae-Anacardiaceae. 

while in the shaded ravines it becomes a tree 15 to 18 feet in height. It asso- 
ciates with Pittosporum glomeratum, Straussia sp., Psychortia liexandra, Ptero- 
tropia gymnocarpa, Cyrtandra, many Lobelias and other plants peculiar to the 
rain forest, of which this tree is also typical. 

A N AC ARDI ACE1AE. 

This family, which consists of 58 genera with over 420 species, reaches its best 
development in the tropical regions of the old and new world, but mainly in the 
Malayan Archipelago. Only a few genera occur in the extra tropical regions of 
the northern and southern hemispheres, as in the Mediterranean, and Manchu- 
rian- Japanese regions, in the forests of North America, and in the Andes region 
of South America. 

Among the most useful members of this family are the Mango (Mangifera 
indica), Wi (Spondias dulcis), Cacheu-nut (Anacardium occidentale) and many 
others. 

RHUS L. 

Flowers polygamous, calyx 5-lobed. Petals longer than the calyx, both imbricate. 
Stamens inserted below a broad disciis, with subulate filaments, and ovate anthers, in the 
female flowers often small. Ovary ovate or subglobose, with a single ovule suspended 
from an erect funis; styles terminal 3, free or somewhat united, with truncate or capitate 
stigmas. Drupe globose or compressed, with thin glabrous or tomentose exocarp. Seeds 
ovate or reniform with thin testa. Shrubs or trees with alternate, simple, trifoliate or 
pinnate leaves, and usually small flowers arranged in compound panicles. 

The genus Rhus has the largest number of species of any genus of the above 
family. It consists of over 120 species and subspecies, and is distributed over 
the tropics, subtropics and temperate zones, but chiefly in South Africa. Sev- 
eral species are found in the Viti (Fiji) and Society Islands. 

The Hawaiian variety of R. semialata differs from the species in having the 
rhachis of the leaf not winged. 

R. semialata extends from the Himalaya Mts. through China to Japan. 

The Japanese Sumach (R. vernix) has been introduced into the islands here. 

Some species of Rhus are poisonous to the touch, others are employed for tan- 
ning and dyeing purposes. 

The Tahitian name of R. Taitensis, peculiar to the South Sea Islands ( Samoa, 
Viti, and Tongan Islands) is "Waiwai," in Samoa "Tavai." 

Rhus semialata Murr. var. sandwicensis Engl. 
Neneleau or Neleau. 

RHUS SEMIALATA Murr. var. SANDWICENSIS Engl. in DC. Monogr. IV. (1883) 380; 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 89; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 145; 
Engler in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 5 (1896) 168. R. semialata Murr., Mann 
Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 162, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 177. Rhus sandwicensis 
Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 369, Toxicodendron semialatum (Murr.) O. Ktze Rev. 
Gen. PI. I. (1891) 154. 

262 



Anacardiaceae-Aquifoliaceae. 

Branches feruginous at the ends; leaves impari-pinnate, v, T ith 2 to 6 pairs of leaflets, 
the raehis 10 to 30 cm long, terete, not margined, petiolate in the lower third or fourth; 
leaflets oval or oblong, more or less acute or acuminate, 5 to 15 cm long and 2.5 to 8 cm 
wide, almost sessile, feather veined, downy underneath, subglabrous above; panicle ter- 
minal, very large and compound, very dense, 30 cm long, many flowered, flowers small 
yellowish, calyx 1 mm, deeply 5-cleft, tomentose; petals 5, 2 mm, obovate, glabrous or 
ciliate; anthers 5, ovoid, obtuse, on very short filaments, styles 2 to 3, short, with capi- 
tate stigmas; fruit 3 to 4 mm, ovoid, somewhat flattened, tomentose. 

The Neneleau, or Hawaiian Sumach, is a small tree of 15 to 25 feet in height. 
It sometimes sends up numerous shoots from the roots and thus forms dense 
clumps of great extent. The trunk is seldom a foot in diameter and is vested in 
a smooth bark ; the leaves are pinnate, of a bright green with red veins and peti- 
oles, and when it is in flower is quite an attractive looking tree. The flowering 
panicle is terminal rusty tomentose, and very dense. The flowers are very small 
and pale yellow. The Neneleau is strictly of the lowland and lower forest zone 
between 600 to 2000 feet elevation, and may be found in more or less isolated clus- 
ters. On Kauai it grows above Makaweli together with the Kukui (Aleurites 
moluccana), Sapindus oahuensis, Pisonia, etc., while on Hawaii it is most com- 
mon all along the road back of Hilo. It is also found in Kona and back of the 
Waimea village. On Maui it grows on the windward (Kailua) and leeward 
slopes of Haleakala (at Auahi), together with the Puhala (Pandanus odoratissi- 
mus), and it is not uncommon in Nuuanu Valley, on Oahu. 

The wood of the Neneleau is soft and very light, of a yellowish gray color, and 
has a rather coarse grain with darker streaks. It, however, is tough and is 
largely used for ox plows by the ranchers. 

In North Kona above Kailua, Hawaii, there is a large grove of Neneleau, 
though now almost dead, due to a fungus pest which has also made its appear- 
ance in Hilo. 

The species of which this Hawaiian tree is a variety is a small tree whose 
habitat is in the outer Himalaya Mts., from the Indus to Assam, growing at an 
elevation of 6000 feet, and on the Khasia Mts. at altitudes between 3000 and 
5000 feet. The fruit is used by the hill tribes of the Himalaya as a remedy for 
colic. From the pulp which surrounds the drupes, the omlu, a vegetable wax, 
is prepared by the Nepalese. which is similar to the Japanese wax of com- 
merce. The Neneleau, however, is peculiar to Hawaii. 

AQUIFOLIACEAE. 

Of the family Aquifoliaceae only about 176 species are known, of which more 
than 170 belong to the genus Ilex. The remaining species belong to 3 genera. 
The center of distribution of Ilex is in the central and southern part of America, 
with nearly half as many species in Asia and a few in the Pacific Isles. One 
genus (Xemopanthes) is North American, while the genus Phelline and others 
belong to the Australian floral region. 

263 



PLATE 302. 




ILEX SANDWICENSIS (Endl.) Loes. 

Kawau or Aiea on Kauai. 
Fruiting branch about one-half natural size. Typical Oahu specimen. 



Aquifoliaceae. 

ILEX L. 

Flowers through abortion dioecious. 4 to many lobed, usually isomerous, calyx 
rarely oligomerous, and ovary pleiomerous. 

Subgenus BYEONIA (Endl.) Loes. 

Inflorescence single or in the leaf axils or single lateral at the base of young shoots, 
usually long peduncled, one or several times dichotomous or trichotomous, cymose or ir- 
regularly forked, rarely umbellately contracted. Flowers isomerous, or oftener at least 
the female flowers heteromerous. Petals occasionally shorter than the ovary. Staminodia 
of. the female flower often without anthers, resembling entirely the petals. Ovary 5, or 
more often 6, to many celled, occasionally 22 celled. Ovules single in each cell. Trees 
with chartaceous or mostly thick coriaceous, entire, or rarely serrulate leaves. 

The genus Byronia, established by Endlicher, was reduced by Loesener to a 
subgenus under the genus Ilex, which was again divided into two classes, A. Eu- 
byronia, into which falls the Hawaiian representative, now Ilex sandwicensis 
(Endl.) Loes., and B. Micrococca Loes. with a single species found in Japan. 

Ilex sandwicensis (Endl.) Loes. 

Kawau, or Aiea on Kauai. 

(Plate 102.) 

ILEX SANDWICENSIS (Endl.) Loes. in Engler et Prantl Pflzfam. Nachtr. I. 7 218. 
Ilex ? anomala Hook et Am. Bot. Beech. (1832) 111 t. 25. Byronia sandwicensis 
Endl. in Ann. Wien. Mus. I. (1836) 184, et Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 1577; A. Gray 
Bot. U. S. E. E. (3854) 296. pi. 26; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 161, 
et Fl. Haw. Isl. Essex Inst. V. (1867) 171; Wawra in Flora (1873) 170; 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 78; Del Cast.' 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pae. VI. (1890) 138; 
Brigham Ka Hana Kapa (1911) 178, fig 105. Byronia anomala Heller PI. Haw. 
Isl. (1897) 847, et B. sandwicensis Endl. Heller 1. c. p. 848. 

Leaves elliptico-oblong or obovate to ovate, 5 to 12 cm long, 2 to 6 cm wide, on petioles 
of 5 to 25 mm, obtuse, narrowing toward the base, entire or rarely serrulate, coriaceous, 
dark green above, lighter underneath, glossy above, with impressed nerves; flowers numer- 
ous in cymose panicles of 5 to 10 cm in length, the naked compressed two-edged peduncle 
2.5 to 5 cm, pedicels 6 mm, bibracteolate below the middle, the bractlets 2 to 3 mm; 
calyx 4-lobed, the lobes rounded, corolla rotate white, deeply 6 to 10 cleft, female flowers 
with staminodia often without anthers, as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate 
with them; ovary closely sessile in the calyx, globular, 12 to 18 celled; in sterile flowers 
smaller and imperfect; stigma sessile, broad, radiate with 12 to 18 lines, persistent, ovules 
single in each cell, stamens half the length of the corolla, filaments flattened, anthers 
didymous, drupe spherical, smooth, 12 to 18 grooved when mature or dry, black, dull, with 
purplish fruit flesh, containing 2 to 18 separable pyrenae. 

The writer has abundant material of this species from various localities all 
over the group, and after comparing the many specimens he comes to the conclu- 
sion that, as so many of our Hawaiian trees are polymorphous or variable, the 
Kawau or Aiea proves to be no exception. Hillebrand in his Flora of the Ha- 
waiian Islands fails to mention that the flowers are often sterile and that the 
anthers are often wanting in fertile flowers. 

It is a handsome tree reaching a height of 20 to 40 feet, with a trunk of often 
one foot in diameter. It is, however, occasionally a shrub with stiff ascending 
branches and leaves crowded at the ends of the latter. Such shrubs can be found 
near Kilauea Volcano on Hawaii, elevation 4000 feet, among the sub-xerophytic 
vegetation, or in open swampy country. It is one of the most common forest trees 
on all the islands and is more or less confined to the rain forests, though occa- 

265 



PLATE 103. 




PERROTTETIA SANDWICENSIS A. Gray. 

Olomea or Waimea on Maui. 
Fruiting branch, about one-half natural size. 



Aquifoliaceae-Celastraceae. 

sionally met with in the drier districts. It can be found usually in company 
with Pcrrottetia sandicicensis (Olomea*), Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii (Olapa], 
Straussia, Bobea, Elaeocarpus bifidus (Kalia), and others peculiar to that zone. 
The tree is seldom tarnished by insects or blight, and the dark glossy leaves make 
the tree a conspicuous object in the forest, and more so when it is in full bloom, 
exhibiting its cymes of white flowers in the upper axils, and abundant small black 
fruits below r the leaves, along the stem. 

The leaves vary tremendously in size, shape and texture, and so does the in- 
florescence, which is sometimes very shortly peduncled and appears to be ter- 
minal. A form with very small leaves is not uncommon on Kauai, while the 
biggest fruited specimens the writer collected on the slopes of Mt. Hualalai, in 
North Kona, Hawaii. 

The wood of the tree is whitish and rather soft. It has been employed for 
saddle-trees by the Haw r aiians of today. 

CELASTRACEAE. 

With the exception of the Arctic Zone, the Celastraceae are to be found in all 
floral regions, but especially in southern and tropical Africa, including Madagas- 
car; also in tropical and subtropical Asia, in China, and Japan. 

The genus Perrottetia, which occurs in the Indo-Malayan region, is also to be 
found in tropical America, with one species in the Hawaiian Islands. The family 
consists of 38 genera with numerous species. 

PERROTTETIA H. B. K. 

Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual; calyx broad, flat cupshaped to obconical; lobes 
triangular 5, short, erect, open or imbricate in the bud. Petals 5, erect, similar to the 
sepals, occasionally ciliate, valvate in the bud. Disc flat, cup or ring-shaped, entire, or 
minutely wavy, or undulate. Stamens 5, inserted in the margin of the disc; in the male 
flowers longer than the petals, in the female flowers very short, sterile, filaments filiform 
or subulate, anthers broad round or oval, versatile; ovary ovate, or lageniform, free from 
the disc, mostly 2 celled or oftener apparently 4-celled at the base. Ovules 2 in each cell. 
Style short, stigma 2 or 3 to 4 parted, 1 to 2 erect ovules in each cell. Fruit a thick fleshy 
globose berry with persistent calyx, corolla, disc and stamens, 2 to 4 celled, cells 1 to 2 
seeded. Seeds round with thin fleshy albumen. Unarmed trees or shrubs with alternate, 
thin coriaceous serrate leaves; stipules triangular, small and deciduous. Inflorescence 
single in the leaf-axils, paniculate or cymosely branched. Flowers small. 

Perrottetia sandwicensis A. Gray. 

Olomea, or Waimea on Maui. 

(Plate 103.) 

PERROTTETIA SANDWICENSIS A. Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 291. pi. 24; Mann, 
Proc. Am. Ac. VII (1867) 161, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 172; Wawra in Flora 
(1873) 141; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 79; Del Cast 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. 
(1890) 139; Loes. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 5. (1896) 220, et Nachtr. 
I. (1897) 224, Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 848. 

Leaves alternate, ovate oblong, somewhat acuminate, either obtuse or acute at the 
base, serrate, rather charta'ceous, pinnately veined, shining above, pale underneath, veins 
and nerves as well as petioles red, the latter 12 to 25 mm in length; stipules minute, 

267 



PLATE 104 




SAPINDUS SAPONABIA Linn. 

Ae and Manele. 
Showing a fruiting branch and seeds at the base. 



Celastraceae-Sapindaceae. 

caducous; flowers small, polygamo-dioecious, greenish, pedicellate, numerous in com- 
pound panicles from the axils of the leaves, peduncle puberulent or tomeutose, branching 
divaricately; sepals 5, ovate lanceolate; petals 5, triangular ovate, acute; stamens 5, 
alternate with the petals; anthers 2-celled; ovary ovoid, in the male flowers abortive 
and sterile; ovules 2 in each cell; fruit bright red, globose, slightly depressed, about 6 mm 
when mature; seeds marked with minute transverse wavv lines. 

A tall shrub or tree 10 to 18 feet or more in height, nearly glabrous. The 
branches are short and stiff, but when growing at higher elevation become long 
and more or less drooping. 

During the month of October and November, when the tree is in full fruit, it 
is not unattractive. The bright red berries gracefully droop on densely clustered 
panicles from every branch. The Olomea inhabits both the dry and the wet 
forests on all the islands, ranging from 1000 feet to 6000 feet elevation. 

It is most common on Maui, in Koolau, the northern gap or outlet of Haleakala 
crater, where the tree forms a forest to the exclusion of nearly everything else 
at an elevation of 6000 feet. The undergrowth in this Olomea jungle consists of 
the native Begonia, Akaakaawa, which stands 10 feet high. It is not uncommon 
near Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, in the dry forest 4000 feet above sea level, while 
it is a common feature especially in the rain forests on all the islands. 

The wood of the Olomea is of medium strength, of a golden brown color with 
red*dish tint, and was used by the natives for producing fire by friction. Two 
sticks called Aunaki were used, the upper of Olomea wood and the lower of the 
much softer Hau. In the Hawaiian mythology their origin is explained thus : 
During the first appearance of the sun which caused the separation of the 
heavens, Lailai (goddess) is taken up to him ornamented w r ith the dress of the 
dawn, while he encloses the fire on earth in the rubbing sticks called Aunaki. 

SAPINDACEAE. 

The family Sapindaceae, w r hich is almost purely tropical, consists of not less 
than 118 genera with over one thousand species, nearly one-third of which (be- 
longing to five genera of the tribe Paullinieae) are climbing or twining plants 
peculiar to America. The only exception is Cardiospermum, which is found in 
all tropical countries, besides one other climbing species, Paullinia pinnata, 
occurring in Africa. The remaining genera, consisting either of shrubs or trees, 
are distributed over Asia, Africa, Australia, and Oceanea. 

In the Hawaiian Islands only four genera are represented, three of which 
have arborescent species. 

KEY TO THE GENEEA. 

Petals present: 

Sepals and petals 5; fruit 1-3 cocci, leaves simple or abruptly pinnate. . . . Sapindus 

Petals wanting: 

Sepals 5; fruit of one or two cocci Alectryon 

Sepals 2-5; fruit a winged capsule Dodonaea 

269 



PLATE 105. 




SAPINDUS SAPONARIA L. 

A'e or Manele. 

Buttressed trunk of a very large A 'e tree. Growing at the Kipuka Puaulu, near the 
Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



Sapindaceae. 

SAPINDUS L. 

Sepals 5, round or ovate, concave, either small, glabrous and petaloid, or larger, and 
densely villous outside, the two outer smaller. Petals usually 5 densely tomentose outside. 
each with a scale at the base. Disc annular, rarely incomplete; stamens 8 (10) free, gener- 
ally hairy. Fruit of 3 to 1 cocci, indehiscent, with coriaceous exocarp, mesocarp fleshy 
containing saponine, .putamen chartaceous. Seeds globose or elliptical, with a hard bony 
testa. Embryo oily. Large or medium sized trees with numerous leaflets and occasionally 
winged rhachis, one Hawaiian species only with simple leaves. Flowers in terminal and 
axillary panicles. 

A genus of eleven species, mainly medium-sized or large trees, occuring in 
tropical and sub-tropical countries, with the exception of Africa and New Hol- 
land. All species of Sapindus have leaves consisting of many leaflets, with the 
exception of one species occurring in these islands, which has simple and entire 
leaves. 

Sapindus Saponaria, described by Linnaeus, is found in America in many 
forms, which have been mistaken for different species. 

The genus is represented in these islands by two species, while one other 
occurs in the Viti (Fiji) Islands. The species of Sapindus found in Tahiti, the 
Marquesas, and Easter Island, is identified by some botanists with the already 
mentioned S. Saponaria L. 

KEY TO THE SJ'ECIES. 

Leaves abruptly pinnate S. Saponaria 

Leaves simple, entire S. Oahuensis 

Sapindus saponaria L. 

A'e and Manele. 
(Plates 104, 105, 106.) 

SAPINDUS SAPONARIA L. Spec, pi. ed. 1 (1753) 367; Forst. Prodr. (1786) 178; 
DC. Prodr. I. (1S24) 607; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) No. 1534; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1866) 
47 ; _Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 143, et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 
35; Eadlk. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 5. (1896) 315, fig. 164. S. microcarpa 
Jardin Hist. Nat. lies Marquises (1858) 25. S. Thurstonii Eock Bull. Hawaii 
Board Agric, and For. I. (1911) 6, fig. 2, pi. 3. 

A deciduous tree; leaves alternate; leaflets opposite or slightly alternate, the rhachis 
slightly marginate or winged in young leaves; leaflets subsessile in 4 to 6 pairs, chartace- 
ous, elliptical-oblong, slightly falcate, 6 to 12 cm long, 2 to 3.5 cm wide, acuminate, 
rounded at the base, glabrous above, tomentose underneath; the pubescent panicles ter- 
minal, about 12 cm long; flower-buds green, strongly pubescent; fruits consisting of 1 to 2 
globose cocci, 17 to 20 mm in diam. which are connate, or when single bear the rudi- 
ments of two abortive ones; pericarp coriaceous, endocarp pergameneous, pale, seeds 
globose, dark reddish brown or black, 10 to 12 mm in diam. with a long testa bearing no 
-tufts of hair at the base (in the Hawaiian specimens). 

The A'e or Manele is a very beautiful tree, attaining a height of about 80 
feet, when growing in the middle forest zone at an elevation of 4000 feet. 

The bark on young trees is of a light-brown color and smooth, and falls off 
-in large scales from mature trees, exposing the smooth inner layers. 

The leaves are abruptly pinnate, light-green, and have a winged rhachis 
when young. The small flowers are on terminal panicles and of a yellowish 
xjolor. The berries are round, and two or three may be found attached to each 

271 



PLATE 106. 




SAPINDUS SAPONARIA L. 

A'e or Manele. 
Tree growing in the Kipuka Puaulu, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



Sapindaceae. 

other with a parchment-like covering, but are usually single with two abortive 
ones at the base; the seed is round, brownish-black, and hard. The tree loses its 
leaves in the winter months ; but as the young leaves come out before all the old 
ones drop, it is hardly bare for any length of time. Owing to the ravages of a 
caterpillar which feeds on the flowers, making the whole inflorescence wilt be- 
fore expansion, very few trees, indeed, bear fruits. 

S. Saponaria L. is the second species of the genus Sapindus found in these 
islands. It is called A'e on Mauna Loa, while on Hualalai it is known as Ma- 
nele. The wood is whitish and is of medium strength. 

After reexamination of extensive material of this plant, the writer came to 
the mature conclusion that the Hawaiian A'e or Manele is identical with the 
American Sapindus saponaria L. The tree was first found by the writer on the 
Island of Hawaii on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, in North Kona, in the year 
1909. Mr. L. A. Thurston called the writer's attention to some very large trees 
near the Kilauea Volcano, in the Kipuka Puaulu, and on visiting this most in- 
teresting district the writer found the trees identical with those from Puuwaa- 
waa, the only difference being in the size of trunk (5 to 6 feet) and height of 
tree (80 feet), while in the latter locality the tree is rather small. After exam- 
ining the material and comparing it with specimens of the introduced Sapindus 
saponaria L., growing about town, the writer came to the conclusion that the 
Hawaii plant was new to science. It certainly differed materially from the 
trees growing at Honolulu. 

The writer after careful examination (unfortunately after the publication of 
the name Sapindus Thurstonii} came to the conclusion that these differences 
were not specific and that the tree is identical with the American Sapindus 
saponaria L., and as such it is here published. The tree had, however, never 
been recorded growing in its native state on Hawaii, save by J. Remy (No. 566 
bis), who collected on these islands in the early days, and is only cited in the pub- 
lication by Drake del Castillo. 

It is desired to state that the trees of Sapindus saponaria L. from Hawaii for- 
ests reach a larger size than was ever recorded of that species in other parts of 
the world. The diameter of some of the trees measures six feet and is also but- 
tressed, as can be seen in the accompanying illustration. The bark of old trees 
comes off in huge thick scales, exposing the smooth inner layers. The Hawaiian 
trees are also deciduous. 

Sapindus Oahuensis Hbd. 
Aulu and Kaulu on Oahu, Lonomea on Kauai. 

SAPINDUS OAHUENSIS Hbd. in Radlkofer, Berichte d. K. Bayer. Acad. (1878) 401, et 
FI. Haw. Isl. (1888) 85; Radlk. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 5. (1896) 316. 
Celastrina? Wawra in Flora (1873) 141. 

A glabrous tree, with whitish bark covered with lenticels, the wood pale; leaves 
ovate, 10 to 20 cm long, 5 to 12 cm wide, on petioles of 2.5 to 7 cm, acuminate, rounded or 
truncate at the base, but slightly decurrent, quite entire, thick chartaceous. pale glabrous; 

273 

18 



PLATE 107. 




ALECTRYON MACROCOCCUS Kadlk. 
Mahoe. 

Showing fruiting branch, with young and mature fruits; less than one-half natural size. 



Sapindaceae. 

panicles tomentose with a fulvous pubescence, either several in the axils of the uppermost 
leaves and then 5 to 10 cm long, or single, terminal and 10 to 12 cm long, 
with the lowest bracts foliaceous, the branches alternate and patent, the pedi- 
cels 2 mm, minutely bracteolate about the middle; sepals unequal, orbicular, 
3 mm; tomentose, slightly connate at the base; petals 5, little longer, equal, 
pubescent and ciliate; stamens 8, inserted on the thick margin of a pentagonal glabrous 
disc 2 mm; ovary glabrous, 3 to 2 lobed; stigma subsessile, lobes broad, rounded; cocci 
either 2, connate, or oftener a single one with the rudiments of 1 or 2 abortive one? 
at the base; the single coccus obovoid, 30 to 20 mm; pericarp leathery, shining; endocarp 
pergameneous, pale, villous in the immature state; seed obovoid, 20 to 12 mm; testa black, 
osseous, rugose, with a broad truncate, rather carunculate base; embryo curved, cotyledons 
accumbent to the short tapering radicle. Hillebrand 's var. fi differs from the species in 
its leaves, which are narrowing at the base, and are shorter petioled; the flowering panicle 
is also denser and not open as in the species. 

This tree, which reaches a height of 20 to 30 feet, is endemic to the Hawaiian 
Islands, and is found on Oahu and Kauai. It develops a rather short trunk of 
about eight inches in diameter, and is vested in a whitish bark which is covered 
with lenticels. While all other known species of Sapindus have pinnate leaves, 
the AuUi or Lonomea is a remarkable exception, in having single, oblong, entire 
leaves, which never show any indication of division. 

The small, yellow flowers are arranged in long, terminal panicles, which 
are covered with a rusty-brown down. 

It is distinctly a tree of the lower forest zone, and inhabits the leeward sides 
of the Islands of Oahu and Kauai. On the former island it is found in the 
valleys of Makaha and Makaleha of the Kaala range, while a variety of it grows 
in the valley of Niu. On the latter island it is scattered on the lower levels at 
an elevation of 1000 feet back of Makaweli and Waimea, together with the 
Ahuritcs moluccana (Kuknij, Oclirosia sandwicensis, Straussia, etc. 

The wood of the Aulu is whitish and of no value. On Kauai the seeds were 
used as a cathartic by the natives. A dose consisted of 7 to 8 seeds. 

The variety occurs in Nui Valley, on Oahu, but all the trees found in Nui by 
the writer were attacked very badly by a moth (Rhyiocoppha sp. ?), which gave 
the trees an ungainly appearance; in fact, most of them were devoid of leaves. 

ALECTRYON Gartn. 
(Mahoe Hillebr.) 

Flowers regular, calyx short, cup-shaped, 4 to 5 toothed, valvate or somewhat imbri- 
cate. Petals 4 to 5, with 2 scales, or wanting. Discus complete. Stamens 8 to 10. 
Ovary 2 to 3 celled, and usually of 2 to 3 cocci, style with a short 2 to 3 lobed stigma, 
rarely undivided; cell one ovuled. Fruit of 2 or 3 or, through abortion, of one coccus. Cocci 
large globose or ovate, often of the size of a pea, occasionally keeled, coriaceous or 
cortico-crustaceous, opening in an irregular fissure. Seeds nearly globose or compressed, 
with shining brown, smooth testa, arilate. Trees with abruptly pinnate leaves consisting 
of 1 to 5 pairs of leaflets, entire, or serrate, papillose on the underside in a few species. 
Flowers small, in thyrses or less branched panicles. 

The genus Alectryon consists of 16 species, which are all arborescent and are 
distributed over the Malayan, Papuan and Pacific islands, represented by the 
species of Xephelium in the two latter groups. 

The type of the genus is the Titaki of New Zealand, A. excelsus, which, like 
our Hawaiian species, the Makoe tree, has edible fruits. 

275 



PLATE 108. 




ALECTRYON MACROCOCCUS Eadlk. 

Mahoe tree. 

Growing or, the lava fields of Auahi. land of Kahikinui, southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, 

Maui; elevation 2600 feet. 



Sapindaceae. 

Alectryon macrococcus Radlk. 

Mahoe. 
(Plates 107 and 108.) 

ALECTRYON MACROCOCCUS Badlk. in Sitzber. k. Bayer. Acad. XX (1890) 255, et in 
Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 5. (1895) 333, et in Bull. Hawaii Bd. Agric. and 
Forest. I. (1911) 1; Rock Rep. Hawaii Board Agric. and For. (1910) 81. pi. 19. 
et Bull. Bd. Agric. "and For. I (1911) 2. pi. 1. in part. Mahoe gen. nov.? Hbd. 
Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 86. Dodonaea sp. Del Castill. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. 
(1890) 144 in obs. ad. Dod. vise. Vulgo Mahoe in Molokai et Maui (quo nomine 
in Nuov-Zealandia Melicytus ramiflorus Forst. salutatur t. Kirk, in Forest Fl. 
X.-Zeal. 1889. 3.). 

Medium sized tree; branches terete, glabrous, young branches striate, with new leaves 
covered with an appressed yellowish silky tomentum; leaves with 2 to 5 pair of leaflets; 
the latter large, opposite, elliptical or subovate, obtuse at both ends, or with an acuminate 
apex, petioled, entire undulate, coriaceous to chartaceous, 10 to 18 cm long } 4 to 10 cm 
wide, the lateral nerves oblique; shining above, densely tomentose underneath with a 
yellowish brown tomentum; panicles axillary; female flowers small, on pedicels of 2 mm, 
calyx 5-lobed, the lobes 2 mm, subacute, persistent with the young fruits; petals none, 
rudimentary; stamens 6-8, in sinuses within the pubescent discus-margin, filaments very 
short, hirsute; anthers red, 1 mm long, subdidymous at the base; ovary compressed, 
densely hirsute, 1 to 2 celled; style short, almost arched, with a bifid stigma; male flowers 
unknown; fruits of 1 to 2 cocci; young fruits covered densely with yellowish-golden 
setulose hair, crowned by the remnants of the style, mature fruits glabrous, dark brown 
corticose-coriaceous, globose 3 to 6 cm in diameter; or of one coccus with 1 to 2 abortive 
ones, largest for the genus; arillus scarlet, seeds with a crustaceous testa, brown, shining, 
(In th'e Herbarium of the College of Hawaii No. 8642). 

The Mahoe, which is the single representative of the genus Alectryon in the 
Hawaiian Islands, is a medium-sized tree 20 to 25 feet tall, with a trunk of per- 
haps 6 to 8 inches in diameter. The bark is brown, somewhat rough; the wood 
is hard, dark yellowish-brown, and very tough. 

It is an ungainly tree. The branchlets and inflorescence, as well as young 
fruits, are covered with a dense coat of silky-brown hair; the leaves are large, 
having from 2 to 4 leaflets, which are glabrous above and tomentose underneath. 
The fruits of the Mahoe, which are of very large size, have the color of a 
potato and are perfectly smooth. They hang in clusters from the branches and 
become ruptured when mature, the fissure being irregular, exposing a bright 
scarlet aril and the glossy surface of the chestnut-brown orbicular seed, giving 
a not altogether unpleasing contrast. Flowering and fruiting trees were ob- 
served by the writer during the month of November, ' who would judge, how- 
ever, that the flowering period would fall during the late summer months, as 
most of the trees bore young fruits and old ones from the previous year. 

The Mahoe inhabits the dry regions on the leeward side of the islands. It 
is very scarce on Oahu, where it grows in Makaha valley of the Kaala range, 
and practically extinct on Molokai ; on Kauai it was found by Mr. Francis Gay 
back of Makaweli, while the writer discovered a new locality from which it had 
not been reported previously. About seven miles from Ulupalakua, on the 
Island of Maui, is a small area of forest on the lava fields of Auahi. Unprom- 
ising as it looks from the road, this forest is botanically, nevertheless, one of the 
richest in the Territory. It is there that the Mahoe is not uncommon, and still 

277 



Sapindaceae. 

thrives in company with many other rare trees peculiar to that small area, such 
as Pelea, Xanthoxylum, Bobea, Pittosporum, Pterotropia, Tetraplasandra, etc. 
Owing to its scarcity, it is unknown to most of the old natives, who have heard 
of it only in rare instances from their ancestors. 

The wood, which is very hard and tough, has not been made use of by the 
natives, as far as can be ascertained. The bright scarlet fruit flesh is eaten by 
the natives, as well as the kernel of the seed, and are not altogether unpleasant 
to the taste. 

The Malioe is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, and is remarkable for its 
fruits, which are the largest in the genus. 

The name Malioe, meaning ' ' twins, ' ' undoubtedly refers to the double fruits, 
which are not uncommon in our Alectryon. 

DODONAEA. 

Flowers dioecious, regular (often appearing as if hermaphrodite). Sepals 3 to 7 im- 
bricate or valvate; petals none. Disc developed or in the fern, flowers forming a short 
carpophore. Stamens 8 or less, rarely more, with short filaments and elongate anthers. 
Ovary usually orbicular or obcordate, mostly 3- also 2- or 4, rarely 5-6 ridged with as many 
cells as ridges and with 2 ovules in each cell, the upper ascending and apotropous, the 
lower pendulous and epitropous, styles short, with 3 to 6 short stigmating lobes. Capsule 
papery or coriaceous, 3-2-6 celled, winged, rarely without wings. Seeds single or 2 in 
each cell, globose or lentiform. Embryo spirally twisted, containing aleuron as well as 
saponine. Trees or shrubs often only bushes with a viscous surface; leaves simple, or 
pinnate (not in the Hawaiian species), often covered with resinal glands. Flowers pedi- 
celed, axillary or terminal, single, or in racemes or panicles. 

The genus Dodonaea consists of 46 species, 44 of which are endemic in Aus- 
tralia, including the cosmopolitan D. viscosa L., which can be found in all 
tropical countries. 

In Hawaii three species occur; the above-mentioned D. viscosa L., besides 
D. eriocarpa Smith, and D. stenoptera Hbd., the latter a shrub 2 to 4 feet high 
and peculiar to Molokai. Outside of the Australian and Hawaiian species, 
there is only one other species, D. madagascariensis Rdlk.. which is peculiar to 
Madagascar. They are trees or shrubs, or also bushes. 

The leaves in the Hawaiian Dodonaea or Aalii, as they are called by the 
natives, are simple, usually covered with glands which secrete a resin. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Capsule broadly winged, with wings projecting above: 

Capsule glabrous, flat, 2-winged D. viscosa 

Capsule pubescent, 3-4 winged D. eriocarpa 

Dodonaea viscosa L. 
Aalii or Aalii Jcumakua. 

DODONAEA VISCOSA L., Mant. II. (1771) 238; Forst. Prodr. (1786) no. 164; DC. 
Prodr. I. (1824) 616; Hook, et Am. Bot. Beech. (1832) 61; Endl. Fl. Suds. 
(1836) no. 1539; Guill. Zeph. Tait. (1836-1837) no. 335; A. Gray Bot. U. S. 
E. E. (1854) 260; Pancher in Cuz. (1860) 1. c.; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1866) 49; 
Mann. Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 175; Nadeaud Enum. Tahit. PI. (1873) 

278 



Sapindaceae. 

447; Sinclair Indig. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1885) pi. 39; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 87; 
Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 144, et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 36; 
Eadlk. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 5. (1895) 357; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 
849. 

Branches angular, stiff, glabrous, glutinous at the ends; leaves lanceolate, oblanceolate 
or obovate, acuminate, or obtuse, entire, chartaceous panicles terminal and axillary 2.5 
to 5 cm long; male flowers: sepals 4, glabrous, 2 mm; stamens 7 to 9; ovary rudimentary; 
female flowers: sepals 4, stamens wanting; ovary shortly stipitate, viscid, glabrous, 2 to 3 
celled, each cell with 2 ovules; style several times as long as the ovary with two linear 
lobes glued together; capsule bright yellow, red or brown, membraneous, flat, orbicular, 
faintly ridged along the middle, 2 to 3 winged the latter 4 to 6 mm broad; seeds 4 mm, 
ovate, flattened. 

The Aalii or Aalii Kumakua is a small tree, reaching a height of 15 to 25 feet 
or more; the branches are angular, stiff, and glutinous at the ends. It develops 
a rather short trunk of only a few feet in height with a diameter of 5 to 10 
inches. The bark is thick, longitudinally and very closely wrinkled or corru- 
gated, and of a reddish-brown color. Plants may be found only a foot high and 
bearing profusely, while sometimes trees can be observed up to 30 feet in height. 
The male and female flowers are borne on different trees, but female trees are 
met with much oftener than male trees. The Aalii varies tremendously in 
habit and stature. The two-winged, papery capsules are of a bright red, or 
pale -yellow, and very conspicuous on that account. It has been said that 
owing to the viscousness of the very light capsules, they easily adhere to the 
plumage of birds, to which agents the plant owes its world- wide distribution; 
the capsules of the Hawaiian Dodonaea are only viscous when young, and are 
perfectly glabrous and papery when mature. 

The wood of the Aalii is of a golden-brown color, with black heartwood, and 
is extremely hard. Its density and heaviness would make it a very desirable 
wood for cabinet work and many other purposes. In New Zealand it has been 
employed as a substitute for brass for machine bearings, with good results. 

The Aalii is common on all the islands of the Hawaiian archipelago, and is 
gregarious at elevations of 1000 to 4000 feet. On Oahu it can be found on the 
main range, as well as on the Waianae mountains, but is especially common in 
Palolo valley at an elevation of 1000 feet. As already mentioned, it is a cosmo- 
politan, and occurs in all tropical countries from Australia to New Zealand, 
Chatham Islands, Tahiti, Viti, and Samoan Islands, to Africa, America, and 
Asia. In Hawaii it has a variety named by Hillebrand ,5. var. spathulata. J' 
is a stunted shrub and occurs on the higher elevations, especially on Hawaii. It 
forms almost 50 per cent of the vegetation at the summit slope of Mt. Hualalai 
(8270 feet). 

Undoubtedly the wood was employed by the natives for various purposes, 
but no information can be obtained from this generation. The leaves were used 
as medicine. 

It is known to the Samoans as Togovao, who employ its leaves for baths as 
a remedy for rheumatism and other inflammations. In the Viti Islands it i? 

279 



PLATE 109. 







DODONAEA ERIOCARPA Smith. 

Aalii Kumakani. 

Typical specimen from the upper slopes of Mt. Haleakala. Male flowering branch. 

Mature capsules at the left. 



Sapiudaceae-Rhamnaeeae. 

the lVfl.$f. and in Tahiti, Apiri. It is the Ake of Rarotonga and New Zealand; 
in the latter place often called Akeake. 

Dodonaea eriocarpa Smith. 

Aalii kumakani. 

(Plate 109.) 

DODONAEA ERIOCARPA Smith in Rees. Cycl. XII. No. 6; DC. Prodr. I. (1824) 617; 
Eudl. Fl. Suds. (1836) No. 1540; Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 260; Mann Proc. 
Am. Acad. 1. c. et Flora Haw. Isl. 1. c. p. 176; Hbd Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 88; 
Del Cast. 1. c.; Heller. PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 839. 

Flowers polygamous, with male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on the same plant; 
leaves narrow, lanceolate or oblaneeolate, acute, puberulous when young; panicle terminal, 
pubescent; sepals 5, ovate, pubescent, stamens 10, round a ciliate torus in the male flow- 
ers; ovary pubescent, shortly stipitate; style short, stigmas indicated by 4 dots, or 3 to 6 
mm long in the female flowers; capsule turgid; 8 to 16 mm high, 3 to 4 winged, pubescent 
along the margins of the wings; seed ovoid. 

The Aalii kumakani is a small shrub, or tall, much-branched shrub or medium- 
sized tree of 20 feet or so in height. It differs very little from the Aalii kuma- 
kua, and that mainly in the pubescent capsules, which are three or four- 
winged, instead of having two wings. It is a shrub on the leeward side of Kauai, 
above Waimea on the open, barren slopes at an elevation of 2000 feet, and is a 
small tree on the upper slopes of Mt. Haleakala at elevations of 6000 to 8000 
feet, where it grows in gulches and along dry stream beds in company with a 
species of Suttonia, with the Silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense var. 
macroceplialum, A. virescens, the green sword plant, and numerous other Com- 
positae, as Raillardia, and Artemisia. It is a handsome tree with dark-green, 
viscous, shining leaves, forming a beautiful, symmetrical, round crown. It also 
occurs on Haw r aii in the dry regions of Kau, and on the central plateau on the 
slopes of Maim a Loa. 

On Molokai above Kamalo grows another species (Dodonaea stenoptera Hbd.) 
peculiar to the above locality. It is, however, never a tree and therefore here 
omitted. 

RHAMNACEAE:. 

The family Rhamnaceae occurs in all regions whose climate permits lignaceous 
growth. The genus Rhamnus is the widest distributed; its center of develop- 
ment is Europe and extra tropical Asia. Here in the Hawaiian Islands the 
family, with its 45 genera, has only two representatives, the genera Alphitonia 
and Colubrina, with only one endemic species belonging to the latter genus. 

KEY TO THE GENEEA. 

Fruit three-grooved at the apex, the calycine cup not extending beyond the base. 

Colubrina 
Fruit not grooved, globose, the calycine cup extending to the middle Alphitonia 

COLUBRINA Brongn. 

Sepals, petals and stamens 5. Calycine cup hemispherical, not extending beyond the 
ovary. Disc broad annular, more or less flat. Style trifid. Ovary immersed in the cup 
of the calyx, three-celled. Fruit dry or with somewhat fleshy exocarp, enclosed at the 

281 



PLATE 110. 




COLUBEINA OPPOSITIFOLIA Brongn. 

Kauila. 

Flowering and fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree. Growing on the ancient 
lava flows of Puuwaawaa Mt. Hualalai, Hawaii; elevation 2000 feet. 



Rhamnaceae. 

base by the calycine cup. Endocarp divided into three cocci, opening elastically. Seeds 
with thick smooth testa, occasionally with small arillus. Albumen present. Unarmed 
shrubs or trees with glabrous or more or less tomentose leaves which are usually alter- 
nate, or opposite in one of the Hawaiian species, cordate to elongate, three to penninerved. 
Flowers usually in axillary, short peduncled cymules or single. 

The genus Colubrina consists of about 15 species distributed mainly in trop- 
ical America and the warmer regions of North America. One is endemic in the 
Hawaiian Islands, and one is widely distributed in the tropics of the old world. 

Colubrina opposil ifolia Brongn. 

Kauila. 
(Plates 110 and 111.) 

COLUBRINA OPPOSITIFOLIA Brongn. (In Herb. Gray) H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. 
VII (1867) 161, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Essex Inst. V.' (1867) 173; Wawra in Flora 
(1873) 170; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 80; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
VI. (1890) 140; Weberb. in Engl. et Prantl III. 5. (1896) 415. 

A medium sized tree (and not a shrub) 10 to 12 m high with a trunk of often 3 dm 
and more in diameter; leaves opposite, ovate or oblong 7 to lo cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, 
on petioles of 3 to 5 cm, thin chartaceous, bright green on both sides, entire; penninerved, 
with a gland at the base of each nerve on the lower face; flowers 5 to 10 in an umbellate 
cyme on a common peduncle of about 1 cm or more, the pedicels 6 to 12 mm, with minute 
ovate bractlets at the base; calyx cup-shaped 3 mm, parted to the middle; petals not ex- 
ceeding the calyx and enclosing the short stamens; anthers ovoid; style very short, three- 
lobed; fruit subglobose, 3-grooved at the apex, about 10 to 12 mm in diameter, the calycine 
cup not exceeding the lower third; exocarp woody, not separating from the endocarp, 
cocci 3; seeds reddish-brown, angular convex; cotyledons rather thick and fleshy, nearly 
as long and broad as the thin albumen; radicle short. 

This is the Kauila of South and North Kona, Hawaii. It is in the latter lo- 
cality that the tree is quite common, while in South Kona on the lava fields of 
Kapua the tree is quite scarce. Between Puuwaawaa and Huehue, on the slopes 
of Hualalai in North Kona, the tree reaches its best development. Trees 35 feet 
or more in height are not uncommon, with a trunk of often a foot or more in 
diameter. The bark is of a light brown color and scales off in large round 
flakes. It is associated with Kokia Rockii (Kokio), Mezoneurum Kauaiense 
(riiiuhi), Myoporum sandwicense (Naio), and many others. 

The wood of this Kauila is harder than the Kauila (AlpJiitonia excelsa} of 
Kauai, Hawaii and Maui ; it is exceedingly hard, close grained and of a dark 
red color, without black streaks such as occur in Alphitonia excelsa. 

The wood of this tree was used by the natives for spears on account of its 
hardness and durability. It is peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands, as it is not 
known from other parts of the world. A second species occurs in the islands, 
which is a small rambling shrub (Colubrina asiatica) and is at once distinguish- 
able by its alternate leaves. Its native name is Anapanapa or Kukuku. It is 
extremely poisonous and was often used for stupefying fish. It grows only 
near the sea. It is a cosmopolitan and is widely distributed over the tropics of 
the old world. 

283 



PLATE 111. 




COLUBEINA OPPOSITIFOLIA Brongn. 

Kauila tree. 

Growing along the North Kona road between Hnehue and Puuwaawaa, Hawaii; 

elevation 2000 feet. 



Rhamnaceae. 

ALPHITONIA Reissek. 

Flowers polygamous; sepals, petals and stamens 5; disc flat annular. Style 2 to 3 fid. 
Ovary 2 to 3 celled. Fruit below and at the middle invested by the cup-shaped calyx- 
tube and coalesced with the same; exocarp strongly developed, brittle, but not so much 
in the Hawaiian plants. Endocarp divided into 2 or 3 cocci with woody or crustaceous 
partitions opening inward by a longitudinal slit. Seeds with aril, often enclosing the 
seed completely. After the falling away of the pericarp, the seeds remain on the re- 
ceptacle; in the Hawaiian plant the pericarp never falls away but it is often not even 
cracked o\ving to the calyx tube investing the drupe up to the middle and even beyond. 
(A fact which Hillebrand pointed out and correctly). A tree with leaves, petioles, and 
inflorescence tomeiitose. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, penuinerved, broadly ovate to 
lanceolate, glabrous above, with a whitish to reddish brown tomentum underneath. Flow- 
ers in terminal or lateral loose cymes. 

The genus Alphitonia consists of a single extremely variable species, which 
is distributed from Australia to Polynesia and Borneo. 

In Hawaii the tree is known as Kauila. Hillebrand in his Flora of the Ha- 
waiian Islands described it as a new species, "Alphitonia ponderosa." It is true 
it is a quite different plant from those in the writer's possession from Australia. 
In the Australian plants the fruits are barely 6 mm. in diameter and are cracked 
to the base, while the Hawaiian plants have the fruits 14 mm. in diameter; they 
also are hardly even split ; only on rare occasions the writer found cracked fruits 
on a tree. 

He,. however, refers this tree to A. excelsa, as he has not seen the intermediates 
of the Australian and South Polynesian plants. 

Alphitcnia excelsa Reiss. 

Kauila, Kauwila or O'a on Maui. 

(Plate 112.) 

ALPHITONIA EXCELSA Reiss. ex Endl. Gen. (1840) 1098; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1866) 43;- 

H. Mann, Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 161, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 174; Wawra 

in Flora (1873) 170; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 140 (ex parte) 

et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 33; Weberb. in Engl. et Prantl III. 5. (1896) 419; 

Brigham Ka Hana Kapa (1911) 174, fig. 103. Colubrina excelsa Fenzl. in Hugl. 

Enum. (1837) 20. Rhamnus zizyphoides Soland. in Forst. Prodr. (1786) no. 510 

absqu. char.); Sprgl. Syst. I. (1825) 768; DC. Prodr. II. (1825) 27; Pancber, in 

Tahiti, (I860) 230. Pomaderris zizyphoides Hook, et Am. Bot. Beech. (1832) 61; 

Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 1570; Guill. Zephyr. T\it. (1836-1837) no. 330; A. ziz- 

phoides Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 278 t. 22; Nadeaud Ennm. (1873) no. 451. 

A. franguloides Gray 1. c. 280 t. 22". Zizphoides argentea Soland. Prim. Fl. Pac. 

378, et in Parkins Draw. Tahit. PI. (ined. cf. Seem, 1. c.) A. ponderosa Hbd. Fl 

Haw. Isl. (1888) 81; Del Cast. 1. c. 140; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 849. 

Leaves ovate, ovate-oblong, lanceolate, generally acute, entire, dark green above, with 

a rust colored tomentum underneath; flowers in the axils of the youngest leaves, in short 

tomentose dichotomous cymes; calyx 6 mm, lobes expanded; petals half as long as calyx 

lobes, spathulate, enclosing the short stamens; anthers ovoid, style very short 2 to 3 fid; 

fruit globose 14 to 18 mm in diam. ringed at the middle by the border of the adnate calyx 

in the Hawaiian plants, almost indeshiscent; arillus a dark red separable film enveloping 

the whole seed. Cotyledons broad, oblong. 

The Kauila is a stately tree and attains its greatest height, 80 feet, on the 
Island of Kauai, especially in the forest of Kopiwai. It has a straight trunk of 
1% to 2 feet in diameter with a whitish deeply corrugated bark in the dry dis- 
tricts. 

285 



PLATE 112. 




ALPHITONIA EXCELSA Beiss. 
Kauila or O'a. 

Fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree. Growing on the <i (rough) lava fields of 
Auahi, Kahikinui, southern slopes of Haleakala, Maui; elevation 2600 feet. 



Rhamnaceae-Elaeocarpaceae. 

It inhabits the dry regions on the leeward slopes of all the islands, but is no- 
where common except on Kauai and at Auahi, district of Kahikinui, on Maui, 
where it is gregarious on the aa lava fields. It is in this latter place that the 
writer met with trees whose trunks were more than 2 feet in diameter. 

On the islands of Molokai and Lanai it is very scarce indeed and found only 
on exposed ridges as straggling shrubs. On Maui, on the southern slopes of 
Haleakala at an elevation of 2600 to 3000 feet, it is a beautiful tree with a 
straight trunk. The name Kauila is unknown on the Island of Maui, for this 
species; it is always referred to as the O'a, while the name Kauila is applied to 
Colubrina oppositi folia, from Hawaii. 

On Oahu it can be found on Mt. Kaala on dry exposed ridges, while on Ha- 
waii it is not uncommon in Kau and North and South Kona; but never in com- 
pany with Colubrina oppositi folia, which inhabits the more ancient lava flo\vs. 

The wood, which is of a beautiful reddish color with black streaks, is very 
durable, close and hard grained and exceedingly heavy. It was employed by 
the natives for their spears as well as for tapa beaters or mallets and other tools. 

The Kauila or O'a is indigenous to Hawaii, but not endemic, as it is also 
found in most of the Polynesian islands of the South Seas, Australia and Borneo. 

It is known as Doi in Fiji and as Toi in Tahiti, while the Samoan name of the- 
species is also Toi. 

The Samoans use the leaves for medicinal purposes. They are also often 
ground between stones, and are used in washing out the lime from the hair. 

In Australia the tree is known as Mountain Ash, Red Ash, Leather Jacket, 
and Cooper's Wood. The aboriginals of Australia have also several names for 
it ; among them are Mee-a-mee, Culgeraculgera, and Murrrung in the Ilaawara 
district of New South Wales. 

E1LAEOCARPACEAE. 

The family Elaeocarpaceae is rather small, consisting of only seven genera, 
with somewhat more than 120 species. It is distributed over the tropics of the 
old and new world, and reaches its most northern point in Japan, where two 
species, belonging to the genus Elaeocarpus, are to be found. 

The genus Elaeocarpus, represented in thes^ islands by one species, is the- 
largest in the family, with more than 60 species. The distribution of the family 
ranges from the West Indies to the latitude of the Island of Chiloe, and from 
Japan to New Zealand. 

ELAEOCARPUS L. 

Flowers usually hermaphrodite. Sepals 5. Petals 5, usually bifid at the apex, at the 
base flat, free, valvate in the bud. Androgynophor mostly 5 lobed. Stamens numerous, 
anthers linear, often ciliate, with two adnate cells opening at the apex into transverse 
valves. Ovary 2 to 5 celled with several ovules in each cell. Stone fruit with hard, 
3 to 5 celled, 1 to 5 seeded stone, usually very hard and rugose. Trees with usually 
alternate leaves, which are either entire or serrate. Flowers in simple axillary, often many" 
flowered racemes. 

287 



PLATE 




ELAEOCARPUS BIFEDUS Hook, et Am. 

Kalia. 
Flowering and fruiting branch about one-half natural size. 



Elaeocarpaceae 

A genus of more than 60 species of trees. It is distributed from India 
through the Malayan Archipelago to Australia, New Caledonia, and New Zea- 
land ; also over the Philippines to Japan, with a single species in Hawaii. 

Elaeocarpus bifidus Hook, et Arn. 
Kalia. 

(Plate 113.) 

ELAEOCARPUS BITIDUS Hook et Am. Bot. Beech. (1832) 110, t. 24; Endl. Fl. Suds. 
(1836) no. 14; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 205; H. Mann, Proc. Am. Acad. 
VII (1867) 158, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 143;-Wawra in Flora (1873) 171; 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 53; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 126; 
Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 850. Beythea bifida End. Gen. PI. Walp. Rep. I. (1840) 
365 et V. 121. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong 10 to 18 cm long, 5 to 9 cm wide, on petioles of 5 cm, 
acuminate, crenate or bluntly serrate, often nearly entire, chartaceous; stipules lanceolate, 
2 mm long, caducous; racemes 25 to 50 mm long with 5 to 8 flowers on pedicels of 12 mm; 
sepals narrow lanceolate, petals as long as sepals, about 8 mm, greenish, linear oblong, 
shortly bifid or scarcely emarginate, pubescent on both faces; stamens 13 to 16, 1/3 the 
length of the sepals, with short filaments; anthers obtuse or emarginate, ovary ovoid, 
2 to 3 celled, tapering into the simple 2 to 3 grooved style; ovules 3 to 6 in each cell, 
stone fruit olive-shaped, 25 to 30 mm long, the putamen thick woody; seeds generally 
solitary, rarely two, with a thin testa. 

The Kalia is a perfectly glabrous tree, reaching a height of 30 to 40 feet, with 
a trunk of several inches to sometimes a foot in diameter. The bark is dark-gray, 
one-fourth of an inch thick, and roughened. Its branches are drooping and 
sending out many branchlets, which are gummy at their ends. The flowers of 
the Kalia are attacked by an insect, which accounts for the monstrous deforma- 
tion of the flowers, which can be seen on nearly every tree. The insect is a 
species of Acari. The layman would certainly mistake it for the flowers, as its 
bright-red color is not altogether unattractive. The writer on all of his rambles 
found very few trees, indeed, which had normal flowers. The real flowers, how- 
ever, are small and greenish and rather inconspicuous. The drupe is olive- 
shaped and over an inch long, with usually one seed, rarely two. 

The Kalia is most common on Kauai, where it inhabits the leeward side at 
an elevation of 3500 to 4000 feet. It is distinctly a tree of the rain forest, and 
is never found in the dry region or on lava fields. 

It loves boggy forests and gray loam. It associates with Straussia, Bobea, 
Clieirodendron platypliyllum, Cryptocarya Mannii, Pelea sp., etc. On Oahu it 
is not uncommon and can be found on all the ranges, windward and leeward. 
It is, however, not as common as on Kauai, where it forms 30 per cent of the 
leeward forest. On all the explorations undertaken by the writer he was un- 
able to find a single tree on any of the other islands, making the tree peculiar 
to Kauai and Oahu. This may be explained on account of the large seed, which 
is impossible to be carried either by birds or winds, and as the tree inhabits the 
middle forests zones, the ocean currents can have nothing to do with its dis- 
persal, especially as the seeds are not buoyant. 

289 

19 



PLATE 114. 




HIBISCUS ARNOTTIANUS Gray. 

Kokio Keokeo. 
Native white Hibiscus from Oahu. Flowering branch, reduced one-half. 



Elaeocarpaceae-Malvaceae. 

The bast of the Kalia was made into cordage, while its slender branches were 
employed for "alioa" or thatching rods for house building, the larger branches 
being selected for rafters. 

MALVACEAE. 

The family Malvaceae is distributed all over the world with exception of the 
frigid zones. The most northern species is Malva rotundifolia L., which can be 
found in Sweden and Russia. The farther we advance towards the tropics the 
richer in species becomes this very useful family. The members of this family 
inhabit usually the lower regions, but in the South American Andes they can 
be found at considerable elevation. A few genera have a very restricted dis- 
tribution, as, for example, Hibiscadelphus, which is peculiar to Hawaii, while 
the genus Hoberia is only found in New Zealand. On the other hand, we find 
genera as Hibiscus, Abutilon, Sida and others distributed over both hemispheres. 
In the Hawaiian Islands we have several genera, of which two are endemic 
(Kokia and Hibiscadelphus), and also Hibiscus and Thespesia, all of which 
have arborescent species. 

KEY TO THE GENEKA. 

Style branches long as many as divisions in the ovary. 

Calyx persistent with fruit Hibiscus 

Calyx deciduous before maturity of fruit Hibiscadelphus 

Style branches simple, club-shaped or divided into short erect clavate branches. 

Bracteoles small or narrow Thespesia 

Bracteoles large ovate, sinuate or slightly lobed Kokia 

HIBISCUS L. 

Involucre none or consisting of 3 to many bracts. Staminal column antheriferous 
below the truncate or 5 toothed apex. Ovary 5-celled, with several ascending ovules in 
each cell. Style-branches short, 5, somewhat thickened towards the apex. Capsule 
loculicidal; endocarp always smooth and glabrous, rarely detached. Trees, shrubs, or 
herbs, the trees usually clothed with a stellate pubescence. Leaves lobed or entire. 
Flowers usually large, and of a conspicuous color, mostly single, axillary. The calyx 
remains with the fruit. 

The genus Hibiscus is exceedingly large, consisting of not less than 180 
species, which occur nearly all in the tropics with the exception of two found in 
Europe. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Flowers yellow. 

Leaves cordate, acuminate H. tiliaceus 

Flowers white. 

Leaves entire, ovate, bluntly acuminate H. Arnottiauus 

Leaves crenate, suborbicular, tomentose H. Waimeae 

Flowers red. 

Leaves crenate, acuminate, style branches horizontal H. Kokio 

291 



PLATE 115. 




HIBISCUS WAIMEAE Heller. 

Kokio Keokeo. 
Kauai white Hibiscus, one-half natural size. 



Malvaceae. 

Hibiscus tiliaceus L. 
Hau. 

HIBISCUS TILIACEUS Linn. Spec, plant, ed. I. (1753) 694; Forst. Prodr. (1786) no. 
261; DC. Prodr. I. (1824) 454; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) 182, no. 1504; Seem. Fl. 
Vit. (1865) 18; Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 157, et Fl. Haw. Jsl. Proc. 
Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 140; Wawra in Flora (1873) 173; Mrs. Sincl. Indig. Flow. 
Haw. Isl. (1885) pi. 1; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 121; 
Brigham Ka Hana Kapa, Mem. B. P. B. Mus. III. (1911) 132, fig. 82. Paritium 
tiliaceum A. St.-Hil. Flora Bras, mer. I. (1827) 256; Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. 
(1854) 178; Nadeaud Enum. Tahit. PI. (1873) no. 429; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 49. 

Leaves on long petioles, orbicular-cordate, shortly acuminate, entire, palmately 7 to 9 
nerved; stipules large ovate, caducous; involucre campanulate, half the length of the calyx 
with 10 to 12 acute lobes; lobes of the calyx lanceolate; petals large yellow, usually with 
a dark center or pure yellow; capsule about 2.5 cm in diameter, opening into 5 valves; 3 
naked seeds to each cell. 

The Hau is one of the most common trees found on the lowlands and on the 
beaches on all the islands; it is a cosmopolitan and occurs in all tropical coun- 
tries, but is especially plentiful in the South Sea Islands. It is a very useful 
tree and is much desired on account of its shade, and is therefore trained into 
lanais or arbors. The wood serves for outriggers of canoes, while the bark fur- 
nishes a tough and pliable bast for ropes. In Fiji the bark is chiefly used for 
the women's "liku," a dress consisting of a number of fringes attached to a 
waist-band. The bark is stripped off, steeped in water to render it soft and to 
allow the fibers to separate. According to Dr. Hillebrand, a decoction is made 
of the flowers by the natives as a useful emollient in bronchial and intestinal 
catarrhs. The Vitian and Tahitian name is Fan, Pago at Guam, Varo or Baro 
in Madagascar, and Au in Rarotonga. 

Hibiscus Arnottianus Gray. 

Koliia keokeo. 

(Plate 114.) 

HIBISCUS ARNOTTIANUS Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 176; Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. 
VII. (1867) 157, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 139; Wawra in 
Flora (1873) 173; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1878) 48; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pac. VI. (1890) 121; Heller in Minnes Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 851 
H. Boryamus H. et A. Bot. Beech. (1832) 79. (n. DC.); Endl. Flora Suds. (1836) 
182, no. 1495. Hibiscus Fauriei Leveil. Fedde Repert. X. 6/9. (1911) 120. 

Leaves large of variable size, ovate, bluntly acuminate, entire, 3-nerved, chartaceous, 
dark green; stipules subulate, caducous; flowers solitary in the axils, white with pinkish 
veins, or pure white even the pistil, (Molokai, Wailau), pedicels articulate near the end; 
involucral bracts 5 to 7,. triangular to lanceolate, 4 to 6 mm long, calyx 16 to 24 mm, 
tubular, 5-toothed splitting laterally when with fruit; petals white, obovate-oblong, or 
lanceolate and free, (very variable), 7.5 to 10 cm or more long; staminal column long ex- 
serted, 10 to 15 cm long, red or white, sending off filaments of 12 to 16 mm, from its 
upper half or third; style branches 6 to 8 mm, erect; capsule elongate, as long as the 
calyx, chartaceous; seeds 5 mm, reniform. 

In regard to the nomenclature of this species there seems to have been some 
doubt. Heller and others thought that the white native Hibiscus was without 
a name, as Gray in his description of H. Arnottianus says: flowers red * * *. 

293 



PLATE 116. 




HIBISCUS KOKIO Hbd. 

Kokio or Pualoalo. 
Bed native Hibiscus, somewhat reduced. 



Malvaceae. 

This also accounts for the publication of a Hibiscus Fan rid by Leveille, coming 
from the mountains behind Honolulu, where the tree is quite common. In order 
to straighten matters out the writer sent specimens to the Gray Herbarium to be 
compared with Asa Gray's type. Dr. B. L. Kobinson kindly replied as follows: 
"There can be no question that the white flowered species (no. 8831) from Oahu 
is precisely the real H. Arnottianus Gray. 

"The red flowered species (a photograph was sent) as far as can be made out 
from the photograph corresponds very well with authentic material of H. Kokio 
Hbd. ; the chief difference being the larger petioles. ' ' This, however, may be 
due to the fact that the plant was grown in cultivation ; it came from the garden 
of Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder. This now settles the controversy in regard to one 
of the most beautiful native flowering trees which the Islands possess. Along 
streambeds in the mountains of Koolau, Oahu, it is usually a tree 30 feet tall 
and when in flower makes a beautiful display. It is also cultivated by residents 
of Honolulu. On the other islands it is not uncommon, but varies to some 
extent. A pure white flowered one occurs on the beach of Wailau Valley, on 
Molokai. 

Hibiscus Waimeae Heller. 

Kokia keokeo. 

(Plate 115.) 

HIBISCUS WAIMEAE Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 851, pi. 53. Hibiscus 
Arnottianus Gray forma Mrs. Sinclair Indig. Flow. Haw. Isl. (1885) pi. 8. 

Leaves suborbicular about 5 cm or more in diameter, pale green, crenate, pubescent 
on both sides, velvety to the touch; petioles half the length of the leaves; stipules small; 
flowers axillary near the ends of the branches, large white or tinged with pink, on 
pubescent pedicels; calyx broadly tubular, pubescent outside, woolly within, petals 10 to 15 
cm long, 18 to 25 mm wide, prominently veined, pubescent on the outside; staminal column 
rather stout, long exserted, red, otherwise as in H. Arnottianus Gray. 

This rather distinct plant occurs as a tree 20 to 30 feet in height on the 
leew r ard side of Kauai below the forests of Kaholuamano at the bottom of vertical 
cliffs, in dry situations, and in gulches on open grass lands below Halemanu, 
Kauai, at an elevation of 2500 feet up to 3000 feet, in company with Dracaena 
aurea, Osmanthus sandwicensis and others. It is also cultivated now in Ho- 
nolulu. 

Hibiscus Kokio Hbd. 

Kokia ula or Pualoalo. 

(Plate 116.) 

HIBISCUS KOKIO Hbd. mss. in Flora (1873) 174; Hbd. Flora Haw. Isl. (1888) 48; 
Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 121. H. Arnottianus A. Gray forma 
Mrs. Sinclair Ind. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1885) pi. 9. 

Leaves ovate or elliptical-oblong, rather acuminate, sinuately crenate, scarcely pal- 
mate-nerved, chartaceous, glabrous, on petioles of 6 to 18 mm or more; flowers axillary, 
solitary; pedicels 18 to 30 mm, pubescent, articulate in the upper third; involucral bracts 
6 to 7, linear, 8 to 12 mm long; calyx tubular or subeampanulate, 8 to 30 mm, cleft to the 
middle into 5 acute lobes, glabrate; petals 5 to 6.5 cm, entire, red; staminal column 

295 



PLATE 117. 




HIBISCADELPHUS GIFFARDIANUS Rock. 

Hau Kuahiwi. 

Showing flowering branch and mature fruits in lower left hand corner, reduced. 
Showing flowering and fruiting branch; one-half natural size. 



Malvaceae. 

shorter, red, the short filaments crowded near the five-toothed apex; style branches 8 to 10 
mm, spreading horizontally, ciliate; capsule glabrous, 18 mm; seeds 5 mm, reniform 
covered with a coarse brownish pubescence. 

This species is somewhat rare, at least Dot so common as the white native Hi- 
biscus. The writer met with two varieties on Molokai one at Mapulehu, where 
it is a shrub at about 1000 feet elevation; the other at the bottom of Wailau 
Valley, only a few hundred feet above sea level. On Kauai only, it is apparently 
a tree. Mr. Lydgate informed the writer that he saw a tree about 40 feet in 
height back of Lihue, along the pole-line. As the writer did not see specimens, 
it is doubtful whether it is II. Kokio or Forbes' H. Kaliilii, a tree 27 feet high, 
which, however, seems not to differ very much from the former, according to 
Forbes, only in the pubescent calyx and in other minor points, one of which, 
according to his figure, seems to be the bluntly acute or somewhat obtuse apices 
of the leaves. His specimen came from near the Wahiawa swamp, Kauai. H. 
Kahilii Forbes Occ. Pap. B. P. B. Mus. V. (1912) 4, with plate. 

HIBISCADELPHUS Rock. 

Bracteoles 5 to 7, very narrow linear or dentate, free. Calyx deeply and unevenly 
2 to 3 cleft. Stamiual column antheriferous below the 5-dentate apex. Ovary 5-celled, 
with 1 to 3 ovules in each cell; style branches 5, suberect with capitate flesh-colored stig- 
mas. Capsule woody or coriaceous, 5 valved; endocarp chartaceous, detached. Seeds 
reniform, covered with a dirty white tomentum. Medium sized trees with a stellate 
tomentum. Leaves cordate, unevenly 3 to 5 pointed or rounded and entire. Flowers 
single or several in the axils of the leaves at the ends of the branches; color of petals 
magenta, yellowish and green. Calyx deciduous before maturation of the fruit. 

The genus Hibiscadelphus established by the w r riter consists of 3 species w r hich 
are peculiar to the dry sections of Hawaii and Maui. Of two of the species 
only an individual tree is in existence, w r hile of the third several can still be 
found on the slopes of Mt. Hualalai, in the forest of Waihau, in North Kona, 
Hawaii. 

The genus, of which Hibiscadelphus Giffardianus is the type, is closely re- 
lated to Hibiscus, from which it differs mainly in the deciduous calyx, and quite 
different flowers. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Flowers 5 to 6 cm long. 

Involucral bracts 2 cm, filiform, free H. Giffardianus 

Involucral bracts linear-spathulate, one nerved H. Wilderianus 

Flowers 2.5 to 3 cm long. 

Involucral bracts dentiform, 1 mm H. Hualalaiensis 

Hibiscadelphus Giffardianus Rock. 

Hau kuahiwi. 

(Plate 117.) 

HIBISCADELPHUS GIFFARDIANUS Bock in Bull. Hawaii Bd. of Agric. and Forestry I. 

(1911) 10. pi. 4. 

A medium sized tree; bark smooth, fibrous, whitish; branches terete, glabrous, covered 
with leaf scars; leaves on long petioles orbicular in outline cordate, bluntly acute at the 
apex, 12-15 cm each way, unevenly lobed or pointed, chartaceous, covered on both sides 

297 



PLATE 118. 




HIBISCADELPHTJS HUALALAIENSIS Eoek. 
Hau Kuahiwi. 

Showing flowering and fruiting branch; less than one-half natural size. 



Malvaceae. 

with a stellate tomentum, palmately 7-nerved, with hispid glands in the angles of ribs 
and veins on both sides; stipules small triangular caducous; flowers solitary or several in 
the axils of the leaves on the ends of the branches; bracteoles 5 to 7 very narrow, 2 cm 
long, free, filiform; calyx saccate, deeply and unevenly 2 to 3 cleft, lobes acuminate, many- 
nerved, yellowish green outside, with stellate hairs, glabrous inside; corolla convolute, 
curved, only the very apex slightly opening, on account of the almost completely con- 
torted aestivation; on pedicels of 2 to 3 cm, petals 5 to 6 cm long acute at the apex, 
oblong very uneven-sided, deep magenta inside, grayish-green outside with a stellate 
hispid tomentum on the exposed parts, especially on the prominent nerves; staminal 
column 1/3 longer than the petals, with numerous long filaments on nearly half its length, 
hispid at its base; style branches sub-erect 5 mm, hispid; stigmas flesh-colored; capsule 
coriaceous to woody oblong tapering toward the apex 4 to 5 cm x 2 to 2.5 cm, broadest 
at the base, rugose, yellowish-green, covered with stellate hairs; the calyx and bracteoles 
deciduous before maturation of fruit; endocarp chartaceous shining glabrous, loose; seeds 
large 7 to 10 mm, reniform, covered with dirty whitish-gray wool. 

The Hau Kualnici is a remarkable tree. At first appearance one would think 
it to be the common Hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus), but at closer inspection one can- 
not but wonder at the most peculiar shape of the flowers, which are of a deep 
magenta, and the large yellowish tuberculate capsules. It is a rather low tree, 
with not erect but rather inclining trunk of a foot in diameter, with a many- 
branching round crown. The genus ' ' Hibiscadelphus, " meaning "brother of 
Hibiscus," was described by the author and the species named in honor of Mr. 
W. M. Giffard of Honolulu, in whose company the writer collected his first 
specimens. 

It differs from the genus Hibiscus in its very peculiar flowers and mainly in 
the calyx, which is not persistent with the capsules, but drops together with 
the bracts as soon as the capsules are formed. 

Unfortunately the tree, of which a specimen is figured in this book, is the only 
one in existence. It is unique among all Hawaiian plants, and the author is 
sorry to relate that nothing has been done to protect it. Like many other Ha- 
waiian trees, it will succumb to the ravages of cattle, which inhabit a great many 
of our native forests. 

This single tree is found on a small Kipuka of 56 acres called Puaulu, on the 
land of Keauhou, near Kilauea Volcano, at an elevation of 4200 feet, on the 
Island of Hawaii. It is surrounded by a great many rare trees, which will share 
its fate sooner or later. Among them are beautiful trees of Sapindus saponaria, 
Pelea, Xanthoxylum, Urera, Straussia, Ochrosia, etc. 

The genus consists of three species the above described one on Hawaii, one 
on Maui with only a single tree left, and the third on Hualalai, Hawaii. The 
wood is white, not so soft as in the Hau, while the bark is whitish and fibrous. 

Hibiscadelphus Wilderianus Rock. 
Hau kuahiwi. 

HIBISCADELPHUS WILDERIANUS Rock in Bull. Haw Bd. of Agric. & For. I. (1911) 
12. pi. 5. 

A tree 5 m, trunk erect; leaves orbicular in outline trilobed wavy, cordate with a 
broad sinus at the base, with subacute or blunt apex, on petioles of 7 to 10 cm, palmately 
5 to 7 nerved, puberulous above, with minute stellate hair underneath; nerves prominent, 

299 



PLATE 119. 




HIBISCADELPHTJS HUALALAIENSIS Eock. 

Hau Kuahiwi tree. 
Growing inWaihou forest sj.ope of Mt. Hualalai, North Kona, Hawaii; elevation 3000 feet. 



Malvaceae. 

hispid; the subulate stipules small and puberulous; flowers solitary on pedicels of 1.5 to 4 
cm, bracteoles linear, spathulate, free, 2 cm long one-nerved; calyx saccate unevenly 
tri-lobed, the lobes triangular acute; hirsute outside, puberulous inside, 2.5 cm long, 
flowers nearly the same size as in H. Giffardiantts, petals greenish yellow outside, yellowish 
inside, many and strongly ribbed, the nerves branching at the apex, densely hirsute es- 
pecially on the very prominent nerves, 4 to 5 cm long, contorted, with oiunt or acute apex; 
staminal column long exserted, antheriferous to the five lobed apex, the lobes acuminate, 
less than 2 mm; stamens numerous, filaments 6 mm long, anthers dark red; style branches 
erect, 3 mm; capsule ovoid 3.5 cm x 4 cm greenish-black, woody, tuberculate, stellate- 
hispid, seeds same as in the previous species. 

Of this interesting tree only one is in existence and when last visited (1912) 
by Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder, who also collected the first open flowers from which the 
description is drawn, the tree was found to be in a dying condition ; the branches 
were completely covered with a species of Usnea, probably australis. The tree 
occurs on the ancient lava fields of Auahi, on the land of Kahikinui, southern 
slope of Mt. Haleakala, on the lee side, where rain is very infrequent. Mr. 
Wilder visited the tree twice, and only on the last trip was enabled to find one 
open flower and a few more or less developed buds. Seeds of this species were 
planted by Mr. Wilder, who succeeded in raising one single plant. As the tree 
is situated on a cattle ranch, it will be only a very short time until it will have 
disappeared from its natural habitat. It was first discovered by the writer in 
November, 1910. The type is 8663 in the Herbarium of the Board of Agri- 
ture" and Forestry, now in the safe-keeping of the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Hibiscadelphus Hualalaiensis Rock. 

Hau kuahiwi. 
(Plates 118, 119.) 

HIBISCADELPHUS HUALALAIENSIS Rock in Bull. Hawaii Bd. Agric. & For. I. (1911) 
14. pi. 6. 

Tree 5 to 7 m high, with an erect trunk 0.3 m in diameter, bark white, branches 
terete, with young leaves densely hirsute, leaves somewhat reniform, or bluntly and 
shallow trilobed. on long petioles (10 to 16 cm) with scattered stellate hair above, to-. 
mentose underneath, the main nerves branching several times; flowers usually single on 
tomeutose pedicels of 1.5 to 2 cm; bracteoles minute dentiform about 1 mm, calyx irregu- 
larly 3 to 6 lobed, the lobes acuminate of unequal size, some only 2 mm, others 15 mm, 
flowers half the size as in the two other species, 2.5 to 3 cm curved, petals green, some- 
what reddish inside, contorted, many ribbed hirsute near the bluntly acuminate lobes 
and on the nerves, silky at the base, the margins even ciliate; corolla only slightly open- 
ing, apex of the petals recurved; staminal column exserted one-third its length, bearing 
numerous filaments, with semicircularly curved anthers; style branches erect, ciliate, with 
lavate hirsute stigmas; ovary conical densely silky tomentose five celled, with 3 ovate 
ovules in each cell of which the upper is ascending the lower horizontal; capsule small 
ovate, 2 cm long, 1.5 cm wide covered with yellowish stellate hair; seeds reniform, covered 
with a yellowish white wool. 

This exceedingly interesting and distinct species was found by the writer in 
the year 1909 on the lava fields of Mt. Hualalai, in North Kona, Hawaii, and in 
the forest of Waihou of the same district, where about a dozen trees are still in 
existence. The writer revisited the above locality in March, 1912, and found 
the trees in flower, while on his previous visit. June 18, 1909, only a few worm- 
eaten capsules could be found. The trees are badly attacked by several species 

301 



Malvaceae. 

of moths which feed on the leaves and also mature capsules. Mr. Gerrit Wilder, 
however, succeeded in growing a few plants from healthy seeds collected by the 
writer. 

THESPESIA Corr. 

Involueral bracts 3 to 5, small. Calyx not punctate, usually cup-shaped and trun- 
cate. Staminal column antheriferous below the toothed apex. Ovary 5-celled, with few 
ascending ovules in each cell; style club-shaped, 5-grooved. Capsule woody or coriaceous, 
almost baccate, dehiscent or almost indehiscent. Seeds woolly; cotyledons black-punc- 
tate. Trees with entire leaves. Flowers large, single in the axils of the leaves. 

This genus possesses only a few species in tropical Asia and Polynesia. T. 
populnea (L.) Corr., the Hawaiian ~M.Ho, is a cosmopolitan beach-tree, occurring 
in tropical Africa, Asia and Polynesia; in Hawaii it is not as common now as 
in the early days. 

Thespesia populnea (L). Corr. 
Milo. 

THESPESIA POPULNEA (L.) Corr. in Ann. Mus. Par. IX. (1807) 290, t. 8. fig. 2; 
DC. Prodr. I. (1824) 457; H. et A. Bot. Beech. (1832) 60; Endl. Fl. Suds. 
(1836) 182. no. 1506; Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 179;' Seem. Fl. Vit. (1865) 
18; Mann in Proc. Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 140; Mrs. Sincl. Indig. Flow. Haw. Isl. 
(1885) pi. 10; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 49; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
VI. (1890) 119; Brigham Ka Hana Kapa, Mem. B. P. B. Mus.. III. (1911) 135. 
Hibiscus populneus Linn. Spec. pi. ed. I. (1753) 694. H. bacciferus Forst. Prodr. 
(1786) no. 260. 

Leaves roundish, cordate, acuminate entire, 10 to 12.5 cm in diameter, glabrous; 
peduncles as long as the petioles; involucral bracts lanceolate equalling the calyx, soon, 
deciduous; calyx truncate 12 mm; petals obovate-oblong 5 cm, yellow; capsule globose, 24 
to 30 mm in diameter, almost woody, very tardily dehiscent; seed 8 mm, villous at the 
base and angles. 

The Milo, like the Hau, is a tree not uncommonly found along the sandy 
beaches on all the islands. Its habit of growth is, however, different, as it 
develops a straight trunk of often 2 feet or more in diameter, with a thick ccr- 
rugated bark. 

It is a favorite shade tree, reaching a height of over 40 feet, and is often 
planted. The name Milo occurs also in Tonga, Samoa, and Tahiti for the same 
tree, while it is called Miro in Rarotonga and Mulo in Viti. 

Hillebrand in his Flora p. 50 remarks that the tree was regarded sacred in 
Tahiti and used to be planted in Morais or temples and its leaves were employed 
in religious ceremonies. That the tree was held in high esteem by the Hawaiians 
is shown by the fact that several of them surrounded the house of King Kame- 
hameha I. at Waikiki. 

The wood of the Milo is very beautiful, being of a rich brown color and 
capable of taking a fine polish. It is made into poi calabashes by the natives, 
and is highly prized, though not so much as those of the less common Ron, 
(Cordia subcordata) . 

302 



Malvaceae. 
KOKIA Lewton. 

Tree 4 to 8 m high, woody throughout. Flowers single in the axils of the upper- 
most leaves; peduncle bearing below the middle a broadly sessile, obliquely clasping cadu- 
cous, ovate bract. Bracteoles 3, persistent, accrescent, ovate, entire, sinuate or slightly 
lobed, narrowed at the base, not in the least auriculate. coriaceous, glabrous, strongly 
reticulated, 7 to 13 nerved. Calyx urceolate, thin scarious, punctate with black warts; 
lobes 5, shallow, rounded, the scarious almost hyaline margins overlapping and completely 
enclosing the bud. Calyx tube often with median transverse vein, the upper half of the 
calyx usually soon breaking off at this point, giving the appearance of being truncate. 
At the base of the calyx at the point of insertion of the petals there is a ring of stiff 
brownish hairs. Floral nectary naked, extra floral nectaries not evident. Corolla two to 
three times the length of the bracteoles, red. Ovary 5-celled, with one ascending ovum 
in each cell. Capsule ovoid, ligneous, opening tardily. Seeds ovoid, sharply angled 
on the ventral side, rounded on the dorsal, covered with short brick-red tomentum. 
Cotyledons punctuate with black dots. Bark containing a reddish brown sap. 

This genus established by Lewton consists of two species and one variety. The 
type is Kokia Rockii Lewton, no. 691082 in the U. S. National Herbarium. The 
co-type is in the Herbarium, College of Hawaii, no. 3549. 

The writer sent specimens of this plant to Mr. Fairchild, agricultural explorer 
in charge of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., at his 
request, as there were no specimens of this plant in the U. S. Nat. Herbarium, 
Mr. Fairchild 's attention having been called to this interesting plant in the 
writer's report to the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, 
1910. The plants were sent under the name Gossypium drynarioides Seem., with 
the remark that it is at least a new variety of the plant by the above name, which 
is found on Molokai, while the writer's material came from a new locality: 
slopes of Mt. Hualalai, lava fields of Puuwaawaa, Kona, Hawaii. The specimens, 
with additional notes on the living trees, were furnished Mr. Lewton, who then 
proceeded to describe the plant under a new genus. Specimens of the 
original Gossypium drynarioides Seem, from Molokai were also sent. Hille- 
brand found one tree on Oahu, with lanceolate bracts, which he called variety 
ft. Mr. Lewton named this variety Kokia lanceolata on the strength of a few 
scraps of lanceolate bracts in the Gray Herbarium. The writer does not think 
it justifiable to create a new species on such incomplete material and more or 
less on the strength that it grew on another island. The writer knows the Ha- 
waiian flora thoroughly, and is well acquainted with tremendous variations found 
in all Hawaiian plants, and therefore prefers to retain the varietal rank rather 
than specific. The plant in question has, however, become extinct. The fact 
that Lewton 's third species grows on another island is not sufficient to make it 
a species. Besides, Makapuu Point, on Oahu, where Hbd's var, ft grew, is 
exactly opposite the point on Molokai where Kokia drynarioides grows, and is 
only about 25 miles distant. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Bracts broadly obovate, 6.5 cm x 8 em K. Eockii 

Bracts broadly ovate, entire, 2.5 to 3 cm x 2.5 cm. K. drynarioides 

303 



PLATE 120. 














KOKIA ROCKII Lewton. 
Kokio. 

Flowering branch, flowers bright red of silky texture. About one-third natural size. 



Malvaceae. 

Kckia Rockii Lewton. 

Kokio. 
(Plates 120, 121.) 

KOKIA ROCKII Lewt. in Smithson. Misc. Coll. LX. 5. (1912) 3, pi. 1, 2, 3, 4; Rock in 
Report. Haw. Bd. Agric. & For. (1912) pi. 19-20 ; Gossypium drynarioides Rock 
in Rep. Haw. Bd. Agr. & For. (1910) 71. pi. 13. 

Bracts broadly obovate 6.5 cm long 6.5 to 8 cm broad, with three to five blunt and 
shallow lobes, very strongly reticulated and veined below. Leaves glabrous below except 
for a dense patch of rusty hairs 2 to 2.5 cm in diameter at point of attachment of the 
petiole, the pulvinus of which is also hairy; staminal tube 9 to 10 cm long curved; seeds 
2 cm long by 1 cm wide; lint 3 mm long. 

The KoJiio or native red cotton (not to be mistaken for the Kokio ula or Pua- 
loalo, red native Hibiscus) is an exceedingly rare tree of 12 to 13 feet in height, 
with a trunk up to one foot in diameter and vested in a thin grayish-brown 
bark, which is covered with lenticels. The trunks of the Hawaii plants are 
straight and not gnarled. It is sparingly branching and woody in its last rami- 
fication. The leaves resemble those of a young Kukui tree, though they have the 
color of a maple leaf with the autumn tints from reddish-yellow to green. 

The tree is of striking beauty when in flow r er and is worthy of cultivation. 

The writer observed a young tree in Kona, Hawaii, which was literally loaded 
with the bright red blossoms which excel in beauty many a Hibiscus flower. On 
the Island of Hawaii the writer discovered several trees of this species, some of 
which were in excellent condition. It inhabits the dry region of North Kona 
and is scattered all along the Government Road between Huehue and Puuwaa- 
waa, elevation 2000 feet. There it is associated with the Lama (Maba sand- 
ii'icensis), Kauila (Colubrina oppositifolia) , Halapepe (Dracaena aurea), etc. 

The bark, which contains a rich reddish-brown juice, is used by the natives, 
who dye their fish nets with it. They strip the tree for several feet of its bark, 
which is macerated, and the juice thus obtained is used as a dye. The wood is 
soft and of a reddish-brown color. 

This particular Kokio is endemic and peculiar to the Island of Haw r aii, where 
it is still in its prime and, if properly protected from cattle and man, should not 
become extinct. 

The writer is glad to relate that the owners as well as the lessee of the land on 
which these few trees are growing, have already fenced these trees, so as to 
protect them from the ravages of cattle. A regulation has also been posted to 
prevent the natives from stripping the trees of their bark, and thus the writer 
hopes that this interesting species may live many more years. Abundant seed 
has been collected and forwarded to the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 
Washington, D. C. A quantity of seed has also been distributed here in Hono- 
lulu, and people interested in showy flowers have been urged to plant them 

Quite a number are now growing in Honolulu. 

. 

305 
20 



PLATE 121. 




KOKIA ROCKII Lewton. 

Kokio tree. 
Growing on the la\ 7 a flows of Puuanahulu, Kona, Hawaii; elevation 2500 feet. 



Mai va eeae-Theaceae. 

Kokia drynarioides (Seem.) Lewt. 
Kokio. 

KOKIA DRYNARIOIDES (Seem.) Lewt. in Smithson. Misc. Coll. LX. 5. (1912) 3. pi. 5. 
Gossypium drynarioides Seem. Fl. Yit. (1865) 22; ET. Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. 
(1867) 157; et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 141; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 51; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 1 20. Hibiscus drynarioides 
Kuntze Eev. Gen. PL I. (1891) 68. 

Leaves on long petioles, membraneous, glabrous, but with a few brownish hairs at 
the base of the veins, cordate 7 to 5 lobed, the deltoid lobes about 3.5 cm deep, the basal 
sinus quite open; flowers single in the axils of the uppermost leaves, on stout peduncles 
of 2.5 to 5 cm, which bear at the middle a broadly sessile and obliquely clasping caducous 
bract of 8 to 10 mm in length; inyolucral bracts broadly ovate to sub-cordate, obtuse, 
entire, 7 to 13-nerved, 2.5 to 3 cm long, and 2.5 cm or more broad, glabrous, coriaceous; 
calyx urceolate, truncate, thin scarious; petals red, obovate-oblong, entire, 7.5 to 10 cm 
long, silky outside; staminal column of same length, truncate or obsoletely 2 to 3-toothed 
at the apex, antheriferous in the upper third with short filaments; style shortly exserted, 
clavate, 5-grooved; ovary 5-celled, each cell with one ascending ovule; capsule ovoid 
2.5 cm, thick woody, opening tardily near the apex; seeds obovoid, covered with a short 
reddish-brown tomentum. 

Of this exceedingly interesting species there has been only one tree in existence 
np to a few months ago. This same tree which was declared dead, showed still 
some signs of life and produced a few capsules with mature seeds ; but this is 
evidently the last, only a small branchlet having produced a few leaves. Seeds 
of this tree have been planted by the manager of the Molokai Ranch Co. and by 
Mr. G. P. Wilder, who secured the last ones to be had. A few have been sent 
to Washington to the Bureau of Plant Introduction. Thus it is hoped still to 
perpetuate this most interesting plant. Several trees occurred on the west end 
of Moloaki, at Mahana, all having now died, owing to ravages of cattle, sheep 
and goats, which eat off the bark and leaves. On Oahu, at the eastern end, on 
the hills of Makapuu and Koko Head, grew a variety of this species with lanceo- 
late involucral bracts, which has long been extinct. It was described by Lewton 
as a new species, though really only of varietal rank. 

It should be called Kokia drynarioides var. lonceolata. The reasons for this 
change are explained in the generic discussion. 

THEACEAE:. 

The family Theaceae, with its 16 genera and about 174 species, is rather con- 
fined to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A few appear in the 
temperate regions of the northern hemisphere in America and Asia. The genus 
Eurya is the only representative of this family in the Hawaiian Islands, where it 
has one endemic species. To this family belongs Thea sinensis L., the Tea of 
commerce, which is found wild in the interior of the south Chinese island Hai- 
nan, and Upper Assam in Bengal, from whence it was introduced as an agricul- 
tural plant into China and Japan about 810 A. D. 

307 



Theaceae. 
EURYA Thunb. 

Trees or shrubs with coriaceous leaves. Flowers single or exceptionally in 
very short racemes, which are axillary. 

Subgenus TERNSTROEMIOPSIS Urb. 

Flowers dioecious, corolla fleshy. Male flowers, with 10 to 15 stamens in one row, 
the anthers twice as long as the filaments, linear lanceolate, split down to the base. Ovary 
3-celled, in each cell 15 ovules, of which the most are pendulous while the upper are 
nearly horizontal. Styles 3, with ovate lanceolate stigmas. Fruit a berry with 12 seeds 
in each cell. Cotyledons shorter than the radicle of the embryo. Leaves spiral. To 
this subgenus belongs the Hawaiian species (Eitri/a sandwicetwis Gray) only. 

The genus to which the Hawaiian species belongs consists of about 36 species 
and several subspecies which are distributed over Mexico, South America and 
the East and West Indies. 

Eurya sandwicensis A. Gray. 
Anini or Wanini. 

EURYA SANDWICENSIS A. Gray. Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 209; H. Mann. Proc. 
Am. Acad. VII (1867) 156, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 134; Wawra in Flora (1873) 
168; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 41; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 
117; Szyszyl. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 6. (1895) 189, et Engl. in Nachtr. 
(1897) 247; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 856. Ternstroemiopsis sandwicensis 
Urban in Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. XIV. (1896) 49. 

A small tree 5 to 6 m in height, or at higher altitudes a shrub 2 to 3 m, the ultimate 
branchlets pubescent; leaves obovate oblong, obovate or oval, obtuse, or bluntly acuminate 
at the apex, cordate at the base, closely serrate, thick coriaceous, or subchartaceous. 
somewhat shining above, 5 to 7.5 cm long, 25 to 30 mm wide, on short petioles of 2 to 3 
mm; flowers solitary in the axils, subsessile or on pedicels of 6 mm; sepals dark purplish, 
coriaceous, suborbicular, persistent; petals deciduous in the fertile flowers, somewhat 
fleshy, ovate or obovate, about 8 mm, yellowish; stamens free, very short; anthers mucro- 
nate; styles 2 to 3. distinct; berry dryish, globose, black, about 10 mm in diameter, 
tubereulate, crowned by the styles; seeds 12 in each cell, globular-reniform, with a thin 
testa; albumen scanty; cotyledons thick and broad; radicle somewhat longer. 

Hillebrand in his Flora of the Hawaiian Islands describes a variety ft, with 
larger leaves, rounded or acute at the base, from Kealia, Kauai. 

Wawra in Flora (1873), page 168, describes this particular form as Eurya 
sandwicensis Gray, fm. grandi folia Wawra, arbuscula foliis tenerioribus, spar sis, 
4 poll, longis, l 1 /^ poll, latis, basi rotundatis vel acutis, minutissime serrulatis; 
pedunculis 4 lin. longis. Kauai um Kealia, etc. 2025. 

The variety is not known to the writer. The species occurs on all the islands 
of the group, especially in the middle forest zone up to 5000 feet and even 
higher. It is a small, rather glabrous tree, but more often a shrub. It is 
known to the old natives as Wanini, or Anini. On the summit of Waialeale, 
Kauai, the writer met with this species as a stiff shrub, with very large fruits, 
as compared with those of the middle forest zone, where the berries do not 
become larger than 6 mm. 

The Wanini is peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands, outside of which it has not 
been found. 

308 



GUTTIFELRAE: 

The family Guttiferae reaches its highest development between the tropics of 
Cancer and Capricorn, and only the genus Hypericum is found also outside the 
tropics. To this family belong the Mammei apple, the Mangosteen, and other 
edible fruits. The genus Calophyllum is here represented by only one cosmo- 
politan species. 

CALOPHYLLUM L. 

Flowers polygamous; sepals and petals not always distinguishable from each other, 
together 4 to 12, in 2 to 3 rows, imbricate; stamens many, free or hardly united at the 
base, filiform, with ovate or elongate anthers, long style and peltate stigma. Fruit a 
drupe with thin sarcocarp, with crustaceous stone and globose or ovoid seed. Trees with 
shiny coriaceous leaves, with numerous parallel nerves, and medium sized or rather small 
flowers, arranged in racemes or panicles. 

The genus Calophyllum with its 55 species occurs in the old world, with the 
exception of 4 species which are found in tropical America. Only one species, 
C. Inopliyllum, the true Hawaiian Kamani, is represented in these islands. It 
is the most noteworthy species of those occurring in the old world. It produces 
the real Balsamum Mariae, and a resin called Tacamaliak. 

Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. 

Kamani. 
(Plate 122.) 

CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Spec. Plant. I. (1753) 513; Forst. Prodr. (1786) 
no. 225; DC. Prodr. I. (1824) 562; Guillem. Zeph. Tait. (1836-1837) no. 337; 
Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 1397; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 218; Pancher 
in Cuzent, Tahiti (1860) 223; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1865) 12; Parkins Draw. Tab. 
PI. (ined. cf. Seem.) t. 55; H. Mann, Proc. Am. Ac-ad. VII. (1867) 156, et Fl. 
Haw. Isl. in Proc. Essex Inst. V. (1867) 133; Nadeaud Enum. Tahit. PI. (1873) 
no 440. Wawra in Flora (1874); Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 40; Del Cast. 111. 
Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 116, et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 10: Erigler in Engl. et 
Prantl Pflzfam. III. 6. (1895) 222. Fig. 105; Wilder Fr. Haw. Isl. (1911) 152. 
pi. 74. Brigham Ka Hana Kapa (1911) 171, fig. 102. 

Leaves coriaceous, shining, broadly oblong or obovate, 20 cm x 10 cm rounded or 
emarginate. on petioles of about 2.5 cm; racemes axillary, 5 to 17 cm long, the pedicles 
2.5 to 3.5 cm with short, soon deciduous bracts at the base; sepals 4, rounded 8 to 10 mm 
long; petals 4, rarely 6 to 8, white, oblong 14 to 16 mm; stamens numerous, style 4 to 6 
mm; fruit globose 2.5 to 4 cm thick; the flowers are fragrant. 

This beautiful cosmopolitan tree, which grows always near or at the sea- 
shore, reaches a height of 50 to 60 feet or even more ; it forms large groves in 
certain districts of the islands. One is especially remarkable on the Island of 
Molokai. at the entrance of the vallev of Halawa, which has been referred to 
by the earliest navigators. Trees of this species, which was found here by the 
first white men and is therefore counted as indigenous, occur on all the islands 
of the group on the sea-shores. It is also known through all tropical Asia and 
Polynesia. Its Tahitian name is Tamanu, while it is known in Samoa as Tefau. 
The Samoans employ the oil of the nuts as a remedy for eye catarrh, while in 

309 



PLATE 122. 




CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. 

Kamani. 

Trunk of tree with fruiting and flowering branch pinned to it. 

with scale. 



Leaves badly infested 



Guttiferae-Flacourtiaceae. 

Nauru (Micronesia) it is employed for skin diseases. In Fiji the tree is known 
as Diol. Seeman in his Flora of Fiji writes: "The most valuable oil pro- 
duced in Fiji is that extracted from the seeds of this tree. The natives use it 
for greasing their bodies and polishing their arms." 

The Hawaiians used the wood for calabashes or poi bowls. In India the tree 
is known as Alexandrian Laurel and its wood is used for cabinet work, ma- 
chinery, railway sleepers and mast spars. The wood is moderately hard, close 
grained and of a reddish brown color. The resin exuding from the bark is 
useful in indolent ulcers. 

FLACOURTIACEAE 

This family, consisting of 70 genera and more than 500 species, is exclu- 
sively tropical. Not a single species is found either in Europe or North America. 
They are distributed from India to Australia, Africa and the Pacific islands. 
Nearly all Flacourtiaceae inhabit the lowlands or lower forest zone. 

The family is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by two species belonging 
to the genus Xylosma. 

XYLOSMA Forst. 

Flowers dioecious, rarely polygamous. Calyx lobes 4 to 5, somewhat united at the 
base, imbricate, usually ciliate. Petals none. Stamens numerous, surrounded by an an- 
nular discus, the latter often consisting of several glands; filaments free, filiform, long; 
anthers round or elliptical, 2-celled, extrorse, versatile. Ovary wanting in the male flow- 
ers, surrounded by a discus or rarely by staminodia, 1-celled, free, with 2 to 3 placentas, 
each with 2 or (4 to 6) ascending, epitropous ovules. Style short, occasionally entirely 
missing. Stigma peltately lobed. Fruit a 2 to 8 seeded berry with little fruit flesh. Seeds 
obovoid with rich albumen, embryo large, with broad cotyledons. Small trees or shrubs, 
often with axillary thorns, but unarmed in the Hawaiian species. Leaves alternate, 
shortly petioled, entire ,or dentate-crenate, coriaceous without stipules. Flowers small, 
in short axillary racemes with small bracts. 

A genus of 45 species, distributed over all tropical countries, with the excep- 
tion of Africa. Thirty-two species alone are found in America, while only four 
are known from Polynesia, including the two Hawaiian species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves entire; stigma sessile, generally 3 X. Hawaiiense 

Leaves crenate or sinuate; stigmas raised on a style, generally 2 X. Hillfcbrandii 

Xylosma Hawaiiense Seem. 
Maua. 

XYLOSMA HAWAIIENSE Seem. Flora Vit. (1865) 7; Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. 
(1867) 150, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 122; Wawra in Florg 
(1873) 171; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 20; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
VI. (1890) 109. Myroxylon Hawaiiense (Seem.) O. Ktze. Eev. Gen. PI. (1891) 
44; Warburg in Engl. et Prantl III. 6a. (1893) 41; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. 
Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 856. 

Leaves distichous on petioles of 12 mm, ovate or rounded 7.5 to 10 cm long, 6 to 7.5 
cm wide, shortly acuminate, entire, thick, coriaceous, glabrous; flowers small greenish or 

311 



PLATE 123. 




XYLOSMA HILLEBRANDII Wawra. 

Maua. 
Fruiting branch, one-half natural size. 



Flacourtiaceae. 

reddish, about 8 in racemes of 10 to 15 mm in length, often several racemes from one 
gemma, the pedicels of about the same length, bracteolate below the middle; male flowers: 
sepals 4, connected at the base, ovate, obtuse 3 mm, margins ciliate; stamens 2 or 3 times 
as long, on a raised torus and surrounded by a crenulate disc; female flowers: sepals 5, 
quincunial; ovary surrounded by a crenulate disc and a few rudimentary stamens; stigma 
sessile, peltately 2 to 3 (or 4) lobed, the lobes reflexed; placentas 3 (-4) with 3 pendulous 
ovules to each; berry reddish somewhat dry 8 to 12 mm long, ovoid; seeds 5 mm; embryo 
straight in copious albumen, but shorter, the radicle shorter than the broad foliaceous 
cotyledons. 

The Maua is a very handsome tree, conspicuous in the forest by its reddish 
young leaves. It thrives best in the drier districts on the Islands of Oahu and 
Kauai only. The Maua of Molokai, Hawaii, and Maui is botanically referred 
to another species. 

In the forest of Kopiwai, a semi-dry district on the leeward side of Kauai. 
it grows to a height of 30 feet, developing a more or less straight trunk of some- 
times more than a foot in diameter, with a smooth bark. It is conspicuous on 
account of its large ovate or rounded leaves, which are of a dark-green color 
with reddish hue and shining. It is not uncommon at an altitude of 2000 feet, 
and sometimes as high as 3000 feet, where it can usually be found in company 
with the Hame or Haa, Kopiko, Ahakea, and others. 

It is confined, like the Kalia, to the Islands of Oahu and Kauai. In the 
former island it grows in nearly all the valleys of the leeward side, but has also 
been- observed in Punaluu, on the windward side of Oahu ; at lower elevation it 
usually is not taller than 20 feet, or sometimes even less. 

On Kauai it is found in the lower forest zone above Waimea, in the woods of 
Kopiwai, where it is associated with the Alphitonia excelsa (Kauila), Dracae- 
na aurea, the Halapepa, 8 ant alum pryrularium, Sandalwood, and others; also at 
Kaholuamano and probably in the woods above Koloa. It is not found outside 
of the Hawaiian group, but has a relative in the Marquesas, Tonga and Viti 
islands. 

There seem to be intermediate leaves between this species and the following; 
on Lanai occurs a tree with entire leaves, while others have a faint suggestion 
of crenate leaves; evidently the two species are very little distinct specifically. 
The following may only be a good variety of the former. 

Xylosma Hillebrandii Wawra. 
Maua. 

(Plate 123.) 

XYLOSMA HILLEBRANDII Wawra in Flora (1873) 171; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 20; 
Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins.. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 109. Myroxylon Hillebrandii (Wawra) 
O. Ktze. Eev. Gen. PI. I. (1891) 44; Warburg in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill 6 a. 

(1893") 41. 

Leaves on petioles of 12 mm, ovate-oblong, 6 to 10 cm long, 3 to 7 em wide, somewhat 
obtuse, or acute, contracted at the base or rounded, repandly crenate, even sinuate, the 
teeth tipped with a callous gland, membraneous, chartaceous or in very dry districts cori- 
caeous, glabrous and shining, racemes puberulous. 12 to 25 mm long, with 10 to 12 flowers 
on pedicels of 2 to 6 mm, which are bracteolate above the base and articulate: male 
flowers: sepals 4, broadly ovate or triangular, with a white pubescence on both faces, 

313 



PLATK 124. 




WIKSTROEMIA OAHUENSIS (Gray) Eoek. 

Akia. 
Flowering branch, two-thirds natural size. 



Flacourtiaceae-Thymelaeaceae. 

ciliate, disc 4-lobed; female flowers: sepals 4, occasionally 5, stigma 2-lobed, on a short 
style; placentas (2, rarely 3), each with 3 pendulous ovules; fruit subglobose to obovoid, 
beaked with the permanent style.. 

This tree, which is also called Maua by the natives, is to be found on all the 
islands of the group, with the exception of Oahu and Kauai. It differs mainly 
from its cogener in its leaves, which are not entire, but crenate. It is a much 
smaller tree in certain localities, only reaching a height of 10 to 15 feet, pre- 
fering the very dry lands on the leeward sides of Lanai, Molokai, Hawaii, and 
Maui. On the latter island on the southern slopes of Haleakala, and on Hawaii 
in the rain forest of Kau, it reaches its best development : there have been ob- 
served trees 40 feet in height with a trunk of over one foot in diameter. This 
Maua presents a very poor appearance on the west end of Molokai, where in- 
dividual trees are still to be found on the slopes of Mahana valley. Windswept 
and stunted, it stands as a relic of by-gone days, the remnant of what was once 
a beautiful forest. Its associates, Gardenia Brighami (Nau), Keynoldsia sand- 
wicensis (Olie), Kokia drynarioides (Kokio), and others, of which only a 
few are left, have experienced a similar fate, and in time not far hence will be 
things of the past. On Hawaii, it grows on the aa (rough) lava fields of Puu- 
waawaa and Huehue, North Kona, and Kawaihaeiuka (2000 feet), and at an 
elevation of 4000 feet on the slopes of Mauna Loa on the land of Keauhou near 
Kilauea volcano. Here the tree is larger and of similar size to the Maua of 
Kauai and Oahu. On Lanai it may be found on the dry ridges as well as on the 
flat land of Kaa, where a peculiar forest of an area of perhaps 30 acres has with- 
stood the ravages of cattle and sheep, but, as on Molokai, is rapidly succumbing. 
On Maui it grows above Makawao and on the southern slopes of the crater of 
Haleakala on the lava field of Auahi. district of Kahikinui, at a height of 2600 
feet above sea level. Both Mauas blossom usually in midsummer, but no par- 
ticular month can be stated, as the flowering period varies greatly according to 
locality and environment. 

This species is closely related to the Tahitian Xylosma suaveolens Forst., 
while the other Maua approaches very closely Xylosma orbiculatum from 
the Viti, Marquesas, and Tongan islands. 

This species is quite variable. Specimens from the west of Molokai are quite 
distinct from those of East Maui, above Makawao; from the latter place the 
racemes are the longest in any specimen of this species, being 25 to 30 mm long 
on the naked branch below the leaves, while in those from Molokai the racemes 
are very short and axillary only. In regard to the leaves, the crenation differs 
very much also, some having almost entire leaves. 

THYMELAEACEAE. 

The family Thymelaeaceae is a rather small one, consisting of 37 genera with 
about 455 species. With the exception of the Polar zones, the family is dis- 
tributed over the whole globe, and ranges from Terra del Fuego to Canada, 

315 



Thymelaeaceae. 

in America, and In the old world from New Zealand to Norway. It is poorly 
represented in the tropical and temperate regions, but is very rich in species in 
the sub-tropical regions of Africa and Australia, and in the steppes of Asia. 
In the Hawaiian Islands the family is represented by the genus Wikstroemia, 
which has about eight species in this archipelago, all of which, with the ex- 
ception perhaps of one, are endemic. Three species become trees. The others 
are small shrubs. 

WIKSTROEMIA Endl. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, tetramerous. Eeceptacle long cylindrical. Calyx lobes 
spreading, petals none. Stamens in two alternate rows, inserted in the upper portion of 
the receptacular tube, the upper near the top of the tube opposite the lobes. Hypogynous 
scales 4 to 2. Ovary sessile, glabrous or tomentose. Style very short, the large globose 
stigma therefore almost sessile. Fruit a drupe, or dry, and then enclosed by the 
receptacular base. Albumen scanty or none. Embryo with fleshy cotyledons. Shrubs or 
trees with opposite or rarely alternate leaves. Flowers terminal ill short racemes or 
spikes. Bracts none. 

This genus, whose Hawaiian species are known to the natives by the name 
Akia, is composed of about 20 species, found in the Indo-Malayan region, China, 
Australia and the Hawaiian Islands; in the latter locality about eight species 
are endemic. All have a very tough bark and furnished one of the strongest 
Hawaiian fibers. The Hawaiian Akia or Akea contain an acrid narcotic and 
were used for stupefying fish. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES'. 
Leaves ovate, small, 3.5 cm, glabrous. 

Spikes short, glabrous W. oahuensis 

Leaves large, ovate-oblong, occasionally pubescent. 
Spikes tomentose, thick. 

Branches often drooping, spikes often 3 cm long W. sandwicensis 

Branches stiff, erect, spikes 4 to 7.5 cm, many forked W. furcata 

Wikstroemia oahuensis (Gray) Rock. 

Akia. 
(Plate 124.) 

WIKSTEOEMIA OAHUENSIS (Gray) Eock. Wikstroemia foetida var. Oahuensis Gray 
in Seem. Journ. Bot. III. (1865) 302; Seem. Flora Vit. (1866) 207; H. Mann in 
Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 199; Wawra in Flora (1875) 175; Hbd. Fl. Haw. 
Isl. (1888) 385. Wikstroemia indica Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII (1892) 
280. Diplomorpha Oahuensis Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 860. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate 2.5 to 5 cm long, 12 to 25 mm wide, on petioles of 
2 to 4 mm, acute at the apex, rounded or slightly contracted at the base, glabrous, pale 
underneath, thin chartaceous; flowers 6 to 12 on pedicels of 1 mm, clustered at the head 
of a short terminal peduncle, the cluster at most elongating into a spikelet of 4 mm in 
length; perianth pale or greenish yellow, tubular, puberulous, about 7 mm long, including 
the spreading lobes, which are somewhat obtuse, and perhaps half, often less, the length of 
the tube; lower stamens at the middle of the tube or somewhat higher; hypogynous 
scales 4 to 5, linear, connate at the base, as long as the ovary, which is glabrous except 
the apex which is often, but not always, strigose-pubescent, style very short, with capi- 
tate stigma; drupe ovoid, 6 to 8 mm, reddish yellow. 

This species of Akia is usually a shrub 2 to 4 feet high, but on the upper 
slopes of Mt. Konahuanui it is a small tree 12 to 15 feet in height, where it 

316 



Thymelaeaceae. 

grows in company with Cheirodendron platyphyllum, Lobelia macrostaclnjs, 
Pittosponim spathidatum, several species of Pelea, Scaevola glabra and others. 
On the low lands on the outskirts of the forest on open glades, as in Niu Valley, 
it is only 2 feet or so in height. The trunk and branches are clothed in a 
black, very tough, fibrous bark, which, owing to its strength, was employed by 
the natives for ropes and other purposes where strong fiber was needed; it 
almost equals the Olona in strength. The plant is poisonous and was employed 
by the natives, similarly to the Auhola or Auhiilu (Tephrosia piscatoria) for 
fishing. The plant was pounded to pulp and thrown into the water, which 
stupefied the fishes in the immediate neighborhood, which floated to the surface 
of the water. This mode of fishing has been forbidden of late. 

Wikstroemia sandwicensis Meisn. 
Akia. 

WIKSTROEMIA SANDWICENSIS Meisner in DC. Prodr. XIV. (1856) 545; Gray in 
Seem. Jour. Bot. III. (1865) 303; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1866) 206; Mann Proc. 'Am. 
Acad. VII. (1867) 199; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 386; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. 
Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 280; Gilg. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 6a. (1894) 235. 
W. foetida var. glauca Wawra in Flora (1875) 176 Diplomorpha sandwice-isis 
Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 861. 

Leaves dark green, glabrous, or slightly pubescent underneath, especially along the 
midrib and veins, chartaceous and faintly nerved, ovate or ovate oblong to lanceolate, 5-10 
cm long, 2.5-4 cm wide, on petioles of 6-8 mm which are often pubescent, acute at both ends 
or often rounded at the base; adult spikes 4-30 mm long on peduncles of 2-6 mm, suberect 
or drooping, usually terminal, densely flowered near the apex, the rachys thick squarrose 
and tomentose, sometimes dichotomously forking; perianth on a short pedicel of 1 mm, 
silky tomentose 5-6 mm long, the lobes somewhat obtuse; scales 4 linear, free, as long as 
the ovary, drupe ovoid 8-10 mm, usually only two maturing at the apex of the spike. 

To this species will have to be referred Leveille's Wikstroemia Fauriei, which 
is based mainly on the pubescent leaves. 

The writer has large material of this species (TV. sandwicensis) with perfectly 
glabrous leaves, and again specimens with leaves which are pubescent under- 
neath. Pubescence in Hawaiian plants is not at all a characteristic to be relied 
upon, which anyone who has collected in these islands can readily verify. If 
one should make new species of a plant based on such characteristics there 
would be no end and the number of Hawaiian plants would reach several 
thousand. 

This species occurs mainly on Hawaii on the lava fields and on the great 
central plain on the outskirts of the forest and in the Koa forest at an elevation 
of 5000 feet, where it is a small tree 15 feet high. At this elevation it is much 
branching and the branches are drooping and sparingly foliose. Like all other 
Hawaiian Akia, the bark is very tough and blackish. It fruits prolifically 
during the winter months. Hillebrand records it from Hilo, where Faurie's 
specimens were collected also. 

317 



PLATE 125. 




JAMBOSA MALACCENSIS (Linn.) P. DC. 

Ohia Ai or Ohia, Mountain Apple. 
Flowering branch, about one-half natural size. 



Thymelaeaceae-Myrtaceae. 

Wikstroemia furcata (Hbd.) Rock. 
Akia. 

WIKSTROEMIA FURCATA (Hbd.) Bock. Wikstroemia sandwicensis Meisn. var. furcata 
Hbd. Flora Haw. Isl. (1888) 386; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 
280. 

Leaves 6 to 14 cm long, 2 to 5 cm wide, dark green above, pale underneath, glabrous 
on both sides, shortly contracted at the base, acute or rounded or subcordate, acute or 
obtuse at the apex, on petioles of 4 to 8 mm, chartaceous; spikes 5 to 7.5 cm long re- 
peatedly forking 3 to 5 times, yellowish pubescent, many flowered, the perianth silky 
tomentose on a pedicel of 2 mm, tube of perianth yellowish, about 4 mm, the spreading 
lobes acute, about one third the length of the tube, apex of ovary silky pubescent, as well 
as the short style and thick stigma; drupes much larger than in 'IT. Mindicieeiisis, 15 mm 
long, ovoid, bright red; seed ovoid to acute, testa thin, black, and shining. 

Found on Kauai, especially in the swampy jungles back of Kaholuamano and 
Halemanu at an elevation of 4000 feet. It certainly is a very striking plant, 
especially during the month of October, when the small trees are loaded with 
the rather large, bright red fruits. The branches are erect and not drooping, 
and rather stout. 

It differs from W. sandwicensis in the long and many-forked spike, the large 
leaves, and the large bright red drupes. The native name, like that of all 
other species, is Akia. 

MYRTACEAE1 

The family Myrtaceae consists of 72 genera with about 2750 species, which 
belong to two main evolutional centers, one in tropical America, the other on 
the Australian continent. It is less numerous in species in Polynesia, tropical 
Asia, Africa and subtropical America. In the Mediterranean region only one 
species occurs, the ordinary Myrtle. The family cannot adapt itself to cold 
climates; only a few species of Eucalypti occur in such regions in Tasmania 
as are covered with snow r for several months in the year. 

In the Hawaiian Islands four genera are represented, three of which possess 
one species each, while the genus Metrosideros has several species, of which one 
occurs from sea-level to 9000 feet elevation in the most varied forms. 

Of early introduction are the various Guayava species (Guava) and of late 
the genus Eucalyptus, with about 60 to 70 species. 

KEY TO THE GENEEA. 

Fruit a berry. 

Petals falling off single; staminal discus distinct Jambosa 

Petals cohering, falling off together; staminal discus not distinct Syzygium 

Fruit a capsule Metrosideros 

JAMBOSA DC. 

Keceptacle obconical, funnel-shaped, cup-shaped or cylindrical, gradually tapering into 
the peduncle, and prolonged over the ovary; dilated discus-like at the insertion of the 
stamens. Calyx lobes comparatively large, usually semicircular. Flowers single or in 
terminal or lateral cymes or corymbs. 

319 



PLATE 126. 




SYZYG1UM SANDWICENSE (Gray) Ndz. 

Ohia Ha or Paihi. 
Flowering and fruiting branch, about one-half natural size. 



Myrtaceae. 

The genus Jambosa consists of about 120 species, which are distributed over 
the Indo-Malayan, but especially Malagassic, regions; also over north-eastern 
Australia and Polynesia. 

In the Hawaiian Islands the genus is represented by one cosmopolitan species. 

Jambosa malaccensis (Linn.) P.DC. 

Oliia ai, Mountain Apple. 

(Plate 125.) 

JAMBOSA MALACCENSIS (Linn.) P. DC. Prodr. III. (1828) 286; Hook, et Am. Bot. 
Beech. (1832) 83; Endl. Flora Suds, in Ann. Wien. Mus. (1836) 181, n. 1466; 
Guillem. Zeph. Tait. (1836-1837) no. 298; Pancher in Cuz. Tahiti, (1860) 232; 
Jardin Hist. Nat. lies Marqu. (1858) 24; Nadeaud Enum. Tab. PI. (1873) 488; 
Niedenzu in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 7. (1893) 84; Wilder Fruits Haw. Isl. 
(1911) 20. pi. 8. Eugenia malaccensis Linn. Spec. PI. ed. I. (1753) 470; Forst. 
Prodr. (1786) no. 220; Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 510; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1866) 
77; Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 166, et Fl. Haw. Isl. Proc. Ess. Inst. 
V. (1867) 245; Mrs. Sinclair Ind. Flow. Haw. Isl. (1885) pi. 41; Hbd. Fl. Haw. 
Isl. (1888) 128; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 169, et Fl. Polyn. 
Franc. (2893) 67; Heller in Minnes. Bot. S'tud. Bull. IX. (1897) 862; Brigham 
Ka Hana Kapa Mem. B. P. Bish. Mus. III. (1911) 156, fig. 93. Jambosa domestica 
Eumph. Herb. Amb. I. (1741) 127. t. 37; Blume Mus. Bot. (1849) 91. J. pur- 
purascens DC. 1. c. 

Leaves opposite, elliptical or obovate-oblong, 15 to 20 cm long, 5 to 7.5 cm wide, 
on petioles of 12 mm, suddenly acuminate, dark green and shining, not dotte-I, the sinuate 
marginal nerve distant from the edge; cymes axillary, usually cauline, short, about 5 cm 
long, their lowest branches 8 to 12 mm long and 3 flowered, the middle and terminal 
branch racemose; pedicels short, gradually enlarging into the calyx; calyx turbinate, pro- 
duced beyond the ovary, with 4 rounded lobes; petals obovate, red, reddish-purple or 
white, 6 mm; the red or white stamens 18 mm long; fruit obovate ; about 7.5 cm in dia- 
meter, umbilicate at the top and crowned by the truncate scar of the calyx-lobes, deep 
crimson, pale pinkish, or white; seed generally one. 

Occasionally a tree of 60 feet in height. It is the mountain apple of the 
white man and the Ohio, ai or edible Ohio, of the native Hawaiian. So much has 
been written about this cosmopolitan species that only a brief account of it 
will be given in the following lines. 

The Oliia ai was undoubtedly brought to Hawaii by the natives long before 
the arrival of the first white man, and was the only Hawaiian fruit before the 
coming of the latter. It is widely distributed over the islands of the Pacific, 
where it is known by various names. It favors the windward sides of the 
islands in the valleys and gorges, where it forms almost pure stands, along 
streambeds. It is restricted to the lowlands and never ascends into the 
mountains. 

It flowers and fruits at various times of the year according to locality. In 
one district the trees can be seen in flower while in another the trees are loaded 
with the bright red watery apples. 

The Oliia ai played an important role in the legends of Hawaii and Polynesia 
as a whole, and was regarded as sacred, and from its wood many idols were 
carved. 

The white variety is known in Hawaii as Oliia ai Ima ~keokeo, and in Fiji as 

321 

21 



PLATE 127. 




METROSIDEROS POLYMORPHA Gaud. 

Oliia Lehua. 
High mountain form from Mt. Haleakala, Maui; belongs to section IT. var. t\ reduced. 



Myrtaceae. 

Kavika vulavula, while the red is called Kavika damudamu by the Fijians. In 
Samoa the tree is called nonufi afi'a or nomula for the red variety, while the 
white variety is known as nonuui. The bark of the trees is used as an astringent, 
while the flowers and leaves are used for lung troubles. 

The trunks of the trees were hewn into posts and rafters for houses, also used 
in making the enclosures about temples. From it were also made the sticks to 
couple together the double canoes. 

SYZYGIUM Gaertn. 

S'taminal discus wanting. Sepals usually short and broad or entirely missing. Petals 
usually united and falling off together at the opening of the flowers. Otherwise as in 
Jambosa. 

The genus Syzygium consists of more than 140 species, of which only two or 
three are found in tropical Africa. The majority of the species of this genus 
occur in the East Indian-Malayan archipelago or region, while four are found 
in Australia, of which two are endemic. The Hawaiian Islands possess a single 
endemic species which is known by the natives as Ohio, ha or Paihi. 

Syzygium sandwicense (Gray) Ndz. 

Ohia ha or Paihi on Maui. 

(Plate 126.) 

SYZYGIUM SANDWICENSE (Gray) Ndz. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 7. (1893) 85. 
Eugenia sandwicensis Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 519; Mann Proc. Am. Acad. 
VII. (1867) 166, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 246; Wawra in Flora (1873) 171; 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 129. Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 170; 
Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 862. 

Sometimes a tree of 20 m; branches angular, sharply margined; leaves obovate or 
obovate-oblong, rounded and usually emarginate at the apex, glabrous, dark green or 
yellowish brown with red veins, subcoriaceous, 4-10 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, on petioles of 
about 12 mm, the marginal nerve continuous; cymes single or compound in the axils of the 
upper leaves, the common peduncle angular and elongate, 2.5-3.5 cm, the pedicels only 
about 3 mm, articulate and bibracteolate below the calyx; bractlets small triangular; calyx 
turbinate, 3-4 mm long, 4-lobed, imbricate, early deciduous; petals obovate, often emarginate, 
pinkish, about 2 mm, generally discreet, but sometimes united and falling off togefher; 
stamens 20-30, shorter than the petals; style short; ovary 2-celled, with 10 or more ovules 
in each cell; berry turbinate or globose, flat at the top, 8-10 mm in diameter, red; seeds 
1 or 2, with a pale thin testa, the thick cotyledons not consolidated. 

The Ohia ha, or Paihi as it is called on Maui, occurs on all the islands of the 
group and becomes often a tree 60 feet or more in height, with a diameter of 
trunk of one to one and a half feet. 

The bark is reddish brown and smooth and it can therefore be distinguished 
easily from the Ohia lehua ( Metros! deros), which has rough scaly bark. The 
wood of the Ohia ha is hard and durable and is of a reddish color. It inhabits 
the forests of lower elevations, but can often be found also up to 4000 feet, as, 
for example, on Kauai in the forests of Kaholuamano and Halemanu. It 
reaches its best development in the dense rain forest, while on open, exposed 
ridges it becomes stunted and is inclined to be shrubby. During the late summer 

323 



PLATE 128. 




METROSIDEROS POLYMORPHA Gaud. 

Ohia Lehua. 
From near Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; belongs to section III. var. t; reduced. 



Myrtaceae. 

months the trees are often loaded with the bright red berries, which are edible, 
though somewhat insipid. The inflorescence is often monstrously deformed, 
similarly to that of the Kalia tree (Elaeocarpus bifidus), the work of a species 
of Acari. 

The wood was used as fuel and also in house-making, while the bark was 
employed in staining tapa a black color. 

METROSIDEROS Banks. 

Flowers perigynous. Receptaculum funnel-shaped or campanulate. Calyx-lobes 
deltoid or obtuse, 5. Petals 5, rounded. Stamens numerous, usually in a row; filaments 
free, long; anthers elongate, dorsifixed, versatile. Ovary united at the base with the 
receptaculum, 3-celled. Style very long; stigma simple. Seeds many, covering the whole 
placenta, only partially fertile; testa thin; embryo straight; cotyledons flat or folded, 
longer than the radicle. Trees or shrubs, rarely climbers (in New Zealand). Leaves op- 
posite. Flowers in terminal or axillary cymes. 

The genus Metrosideros consists of over 20 species, of which only one occurs 
in the Cape Colony, one in the Sunda Islands, and the remainder are distributed 
over Australia and Polynesia. The Hawaiian Islands possess five species, of 
which one is cosmopolitan (M. polymorpha) and occurs here in numerous va- 
rieties, while the others are peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands. 

This genus furnishes the bulk of the Hawaiian forests; next in number is 
the Acacia Koa. 

For the numerous varieties of the OJtia lehiia the natives of the olden days 
had many names, as, for example, Lehua mamo, an orange yellow flowering Me- 
trosideros polymorpha; Lehua humakua, w 7 ith sessile cordate leaves; Lehua 
laulii, with very small leaves; Lehua puakea, with white flowers, and others. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves on short petioles. 

Leaves suborbicular, cordate ovate or oblong; capsule almost free. ... M. polymorpha 

Leaves linear or elliptical, acute at both ends M. tremuloides 

Leaves rugose and impressed above; capsule adnate to near the apex M. rugosa 

Leaves on long petioles of 2 to 5 cm. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong; capsule hidden in the calyx tube M. macropus 

Leaves acuminate-caudate, capsule projecting beyond the calyx-tube M. tremuloides 

var. Waialealae 

Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. 

Ohia lehua or Lehua. 
(Plates 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132.) 

METROSIDEROS POLYMORPHA Gaud. Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826-1830) 482. pi. 108 et 
109; DC. Prodr. III. (1828) 225; H. et A. Bot. Beech. Voy. (1832) 82; Endl. PI. 
Suds. (1836) 181. no. 1452; A. Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 562; Seem. PI. Vit. 
(1866) 83; Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 166, et PL Haw. Isl. Proc. 
Ess. Inst. V. (1867) 243; Wawra in Flora (1873) 171; Mrs. Sin- 
clair Indig. Flow. Haw. Isl. (1885) pi. 2; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Tsl. (1888) 
125. Metrosideros collina Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 558. pi. 68; Nadeaud 
Enum. Tahit. PI. (1873) no. 484; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 167, 
et Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1893) 64; Ndz. in Engl. et Prantl III. 7. (1893) 87. 
M. lutea Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 560 pi. 69. B. M. villosa Smith in Trans. 

325 



PLATE 129. 



% lm 




TRUNK OF METROSIDEROS POLYMORPHA Gaud., showing scaly bark and young 

branches growing from the base of the trunk. In the forests of Kaholuamano, 

Katiai; elevation 4000 feet. 



Myrtaceae. 

Linn. Soc. III. (1797) 268. M. spectabilis Gaertn. Fruct. I. (1788) 172, pi. 34. 
fig. 9; Sol. Prim. Fl. Ins. Pacif. 263 (ined.) et in Parkins. Draw. Tali. PI. t. 54. 
M. diffusa Hook, et Arn. Bot. Beech. (1832) 63, (non Smith). M. obovata 
Hook, et Arn. Bot. Beech. (1832) 63. pi. 12. Melaleuca villosa Linn. 
fig. m-p. Nania collina O. K. Rev. Gen. PI. I. (1891) 242. Nania pumila Heller 
in Minn. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897)864. Nania glabrifolia Heller 1. c. 866. 
Nania lutea Heller 1. c. 867. X Nania Fauriei Levl. in Fedde Eepert. X. 10/14 
(1911) 150. x Nania Feddei Levl. 1. c. 150. N. polymorpha var. nummularifolia 
Levl. Eepert. X. 10/14 (1911) 149. 

Branches angular or terete, tomento=e or glabrate; bracts of leaf buds short, scarlet, 
early deciduous; leaves opposite on short or long petioles, lanceolate, oblong, ovate, obovate 
or orbicuJar, at the base acute, rounded or cordate, glabrous or tomentose underneath, 
with faint nerves; flowers in terminal cymose corymbs, pedicellate or subsessile, 3 on a 
branchlet or peduncle, red, salmon, pink, or yellow, bractlets 3 mm caducous; calyx 
turbinate, 3 to 5 mm, glabrose or tomentose, with deltoid or rounded lobes; petals 3 to 6 
mm, oblong or obovate; capsule semi-adnate, at last almost free, 3-lobed, 3-valved, glabrous 
or tomentose; seeds linear fusiform. 

The numerous varieties of Metrosideros polymorpha may be arranged into 
three sections as follows : 

Sect. I. Glabrae. 

Leaves glabrous on both sides, calyx also glabrous. 
Sect. II. Hemilanatae. 

Leaves glabrous on both sides, calyx silvery or whitish tomentose or woolly. 
Sect. III. Tomentosae. 

Leaves whitish or grayish tomentose, calyx tomentose or woolly. 
Sect. I. Glabrae. 

a ' Small plants usually only found at the summit swamps as on Mt. Puukukui, 
and Mauna Eke on Maui, (no. 8145). 

Leaves small cordate, suborbicular, glabrous on both faces, strongly but finely reticu- 
lated; calyx glabrous or here and there with a small patch of minute silky pubescence; 
petals and stamens red, the former slightly ciliate at the margins. 

ft Trees on the main range of Oahu, at an elevation of 1000-2000 feet. Niu 
Valley, (no. 4829), Pauoa. Valley (no. 1010), Manoa Valley. 

Leaves small ovate-elliptical, acute or rounded at the apex, tapering at the base into 
a somewhat margined petiole; calyx perfectly glabrous, the lobes triangular acute, 
branchlets red; resembles M. tremuloides. Inflorescence occasionally but sparingly 
sprinkled with a silky pubescence. 

y Large trees, probably the typical M. polymorpha on the main range, Koolau 
Mts. (no. 1279), Oahu; also from Kauai. 

Leaves elliptical to ovate-oblong, larger, glabrous on both faces bluntly acute, dark 
green, with a straight marginal nerve, shortly petioled; calyx and corolla glabrous or very 
finely pubescent, of a silky white. 

Sect. II. Hemilanatae. 

8 Trees or shrubs. Kamoku forest, Molokai, (no. 6181). 

Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, obtuse at both ends, rather large, long petiolate, 
glabrous on both faces with indistinct marginal nerve; calyx and pedicels densely white 
tomentose, the rounded sepals green and glabrous, petals red and margins not ciliate. 

Creepers in swampy open places, or bogs, on Molokai, Kawela, (no. 5087 
and 6097), resembles var. a sect. I. glabrae. 

327 



PLATE 130. 



* 




METRO SIDEROS POLYMORPHA Gaud. 

Ohia Lehua Tree. 

STiowing large bunch of aerial roots common to this species. Growing on lava 

fields, Hawaii. 



PLATE 131. 




STILT-EOOTS OF METROSIDEROS POLYMORPHA Gaud. Ohia Lehua. Xote the 
remnants of tree-fern trunk in the upper portion of tree trunk. For explanation 
see text. Forests near Glenwood, Hawaii; elevation 3500 feet. The tree to the 
left is Straussia sp. 



PLATE 132. 




GEOVE OF METROSIDEROS POLYMOKPHA Gaud., Ohia Lehua; near the Volcano of 
Kilauea, Hawaii, elevation 4000 feet. Some of the trees are nearly 100 feet high. 



Myrtaceae. 

Leaves small, suborfcicular, cordate, subsessile, pale green or yellowish, glabrous on 
both faces; inflorescence and calyx densely tomentose or white woolly, the lobes green, 
pubescent, with ciliate margins, red- punctate on the outer face, petals glabrous; leaves 
often slightly pubescent when young. 

Large trees found on Kauai, above Waimea, (no. 2044). 

Leaves large, ovate oblong, shortly petiolate, the petioles and part of leaf-midrib 
pubescent, thick coriaceous, subcordate at the base; young branches and inflorescence 
covered with a white pubescence; calyx, sepals and petals white tomentose or woolly, the 
latter showing the red through the white pubescence, the margins white ciliate. 

r, Trees, at high elevation 6000-7000 feet. Mt. Haleakala, Maui, (no. 8593). 

Brandies stout, stiff and gnarled, scaly; leaves small, thick coriaceous, suborbicular, 
cordate, sessile, or auriculate at the base; inflorescence densely and thickly white woolly, 
as are the pedicels and calyx lobes, petals red, glabrous, the margins only white ciliate. 

6 Trees, main ridge of Mahana, Lanai, (no. 8055). 

Leaves ovate, or suborbicular, cordate at the base, thin, subcoriaceous, entirely 
glabrous on both faces, very shortly petiolate; calyx slightly or thinly pubescent, of a dark 
silvery or dirty gray color, sepals green and puberulous or glabrous; petals and stamens 
yellowish, or salmon pink, the former glabrous with slightly ciliate margins; here also 
belongs a form with longer petiolate leaves, which are suborbicular and cordate, pale 
green; calyx and sepals densely white woolly, petals large, yellow, glabrous, with ciliate 
margins; the petioles pubescent. 

Sect. III. Tomentosae. 

i Trees at 4000-9000 feet elevation Kilauea, Hawaii, also Oahu, Pauoa Val- 
ley, (no. 722) ; Hualalai, Hawaii (no. 3626). 

Leaves large orbicular, cordate at the base, coriaceous, glabrous above, or finely 
pubescent, tomentose underneath of a dirty gray color, petioles short, tomentose, inflores- 
cence and calyx pubescent; often yellow flowered. 

K Creepers from the summit swamp of Kohala, Hawaii, (no. 8414). 

Leaves small, orbicular, emarginate at the apex, cordate at the base, sessile, glabrous 
above, densely covered underneath with a yellow strigose pubescence; inflorescence, calyx 
and sepals with yellowish strigose hairs, petals red, slightly pubescent, margins ciliate. 

The Oliia lelnia is the most prevalent tree in the forests of the islands of the 
Hawaiian archipelago. It can be found from sea-level to an elevation of 9000 
feet. It certainly deserves its specific name polymorpha as it is the most vari- 
able tree which the Islands possess. On the summits of Kohala, Hawaii, Mt. 
AYaialeale on Kauai. and Pimkukui, West Maui, which have an elevation rang- 
ing from 5000-5600 feet, it is a creeper, only a few inches in length, though 
flowering. It grows in company with native violets, geraniums and sundews 
(Drosera longifolia) while in the middle forest zone it becomes a giant of often 
100 feet in height, with a trunk of several feet in diameter. At the seashore, as 
for example at Xapoopoo, Hawaii, it is a stunted gnarled tree 10-15 feet in height 
growing on ancient pahoehoe lava in company with Eeynoldsia sandwicensis, 
the OJic kukuluaeo of the natives, and other trees. On the windward side of 
Hawaii, not far from Hilo, it covers the vertical cliffs down to the water's edge, 
but does not attain any size. Its best development and the largest forests 
composed of this tree are found on the volcanic slopes of Mauna Loa and Mauna 

331 



PLATE 133. 




METROSIDEROS TREMULOIDES (Heller) Bock. 

Lehua Ahihi. 
Flowering branch, one-half natural size. 



Myrtaceae. 

Kea, on the island of Hawaii, and it is there that the trees reach their biggest 
size. 

On Hawaii the Ohio, leliua is usually associated with the tree ferns, the 
Hapu and Hapu Hi (which see). In such forests, the seeds of the Ohio, trees 
fall 011 the moist woolly trunks of the tree ferns; there they germinate. At 
first the young tree finds enough nourishment in the humus, dead leaves, etc., 
which collect in the axils of dead fern leaves all along the tall fern trunks, 
but finally it sends its roots down along the fern trunks into the ground. As 
the tree grows larger and taller, the fern becomes enclosed between the stilt -like 
roots of the Oliia tree, until finally the fern dies and decays, leaving the stilt roots 
standing some 15-20 feet above the ground, after which the real trunk of the tree 
commences. Such stilt-like Oliia trees are very common in the Hawaiian forest, 
but mainly on Hawaii. The accompanying illustration shows an Ohia tree with 
stilt-roots between which remnants of a decayed tree-fern trunk are still visible. 

The wood of the Oliia lehua is of a dark reddish color, durable, hard and equal 
in strength to the Oak. It was employed by the natives for the carving of their 
idols, spears, mallets, etc., but is used now for paving-blocks, flooring, and 
interior house finishings. Mills have been erected on Hawaii at Pahoa where 
lumber is turned out at a profit. Several railroads, especially the Santa Fe rail- 
road of the mainland, have ordered large shipments of Ohia ties. 

The flowers of the Ohia lelma are of a bright red, pale yellow to orange yel- 
low and pink-salmon, while some are even white. They are the source of food 
for some of the native birds, as the liwi and Olokele, both of which possess a 
bright red plumage, matching the scarlet Lehua blossom while flitting from 
flower to flower for their honey. 

The name Lelma is an interesting one. Lehua in everyday language means 
"hair." It was undoubtedly applied to the tree in question on account of the 
numerous long red stamens resembling fine hair, which makes the Ohia lehua 
flower attractive. 

The tree in its various forms is not peculiar to Hawaii, but is well distributed 
over Polynesia and New Zealand, w r here the tree is known as Rata and Pohutu- 
kaica. It has the most numerous varieties, however, in the Hawaiian Islands. 
A number of species have been described from other islands of the Pacific, 
which later turned out to be identical with the Ohia lehua. 

Metrosideros tremuloides (Heller) Rock. 
Lehua ahiJti. 
(Plate 133.) 

METEOSIDEKOS TREMULOIDES (Heller) Eock comb. nov. Nania tremuloides Heller 
in Minnes. Rot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 866. Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. var. i\ 
Hhd. Flora Haw. Isl. (1888) 127. 

A small tree, with slender trunk and smooth grayish bark, glabrous throughout, even 
the inflorescence; branches slender, loosely spreading; leaves narrowly lanceolate, acute 
or acuminate at both ends, bright green, shining above, paler underneath, coriaceous, on 

333 



PLATE 134. 




\ - 




METROSIDEROS RUGOSA A. Gray. 

Lcliua papa. 
Two-thirds natural size. 



Myrtaceae. 

flat slightly winged petioles of about 6 mm in length, not prominently veined, but midrib 
conspicuous; cyme branches divaricate, peduncles slender of varying length though hardly 
longer than 10 mm; pedicels half the length; calyx campanulate, the lobes rounded and 
equaling the tube in length, margins scarious; petals, bright red, almost orbicular twice 
the length of the calyx lobes, stamens bright red, barely 2 cm in length, capsule half free. 

The Lehua alnlii is one of the handsomest species of the genus Metrosideros. 
The fine bright green graceful foliage stands quite distinct from all the other 
species and varieties and certainly deserves specific rank. It can be found on 
Oahti at the lower elevation around Tantalus back of Honolulu, and in nearly 
all the neighboring valleys on their upper slopes at about 1000-2000 feet eleva- 
tion. When in full flower the slender branches are drooping and almost con- 
tinually in motion, whence its specific name. 

Var. Waialealae Rock. var. nov. 

Leaves larger, bright green above pale underneath, with bright red midrib and leaf- 
margin, 5 to 7 cm long, 2 to 2.5 cm wide, coriaceous, acute at the base, acuminate-caudate 
at the apex, the apex curved, the bright red petiole 15 to 20 mm long, flat and somewhat 
margined; flowers as in the species; fruits very large, the same size as in M. macropus> 
the calyx-lobes persistent but the capsule projecting almost its whole height beyond the 
calyx, almost free; seeds linear, lunulate, pointed at each end. 

This variety is peculiar to the summit ridge of Mt. Waialeale on Kauai, where 
it was observed and collected by the writer. It certainly is the most beautiful 
Metrosideros or Ohio, lehua known to him. It only grows at a certain ridge at 
the summit of the mountain of Kauai where it forms pure stands with hardly 
any other tree around it. It is a small tree 25 feet high. Collected flowering 
and fruiting Sept. 24, 1909, Mt. Waialeale, Kauai, elev. 5200 feet, type no. 5083, 
in College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Metrosideros rugosa Gray. 
Lekua papa. 
(Plate 134.) 

METROSIDEEOS RUGOSA Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1853) 561. t. 69 B.; Mann in Proc. 
Am. Acad. VII. (1807) 166, et Haw. Isl. (1867) 244; Wawra in Flora (1873) 
173; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 127; Niedz. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IIF. 7. 
(1893) 87. Metrosideros polymorpha Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 
167 (ex parte). Nania rugosa Kuntze Eev. Gen. PI. (1891) 242; Heller in 
Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 864. 

A small tree or shrub, with quadrangular branchlets, only the ultimate ones tomen- 
tose; leaves orbicular, about 2.5 cm in diameter, thick and coriaceous, strikingly rugose 
above and deeply impressed along the veins, which are remarkably strong and ridged 
underneath, the under-surface thickly tomentose with a ferruginous wool as arc the leaf- 
buds on both faces, the petiole .scarcely 2 mm; cymes small, solitary or in pairs at thd 
summit of the branches, the peduncles and their divisions short and stout, thick tomen- 
tose, the whole subtended by rather conspicuous and coriaceous bud-scales; bractlets as 
long as the calyx, oval tomentose, soon deciduous; flowers subsessile, about as large as 
in the common species; calyx tomentose; petals and stamens red, the former pubescent; 
ovary deeply immersed in the tube of the calyx, its summit only free. 

This species, which is called Lehua papa by the natives, is peculiar to the 
Island of Oahu, where it can be found at the summits of the ridges of the main 

335 



Myrtaceae-Araliaceae. 

range, and on the vertical cliffs or pali on the windward side of the island. It 
certainly is quite distinct from the ordinary Ohio, lehua and can be distinguished 
from it at a glance by the deeply rugose small leaves. It is never a large tree, 
but only of about 10-15 feet in height or more often a shrub. Flowering, Koolau 
Mts. Punaluu, Nov. 14-21, 1908. no. 294, College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Metrosideros macropus Hook, et Arn. 
Oliia lehua. 

METROSIDEEOS MACROPUS Hook, et Arn. Bot. Beech. (1832) 83; Endl. Fl. Suds, in 
Ann. Wien. Mus. (1836) 181, no. 1453; Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 564. t. 70; 
Mann in Proe. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 166, et Fl. Haw. Isl. (1867) 244; Wawra 
in Flora (1873) 172; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 127; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pac. VI. (1890) 168; Ndz. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. III. 7. (1893) 87. Nania 
macropus 0. Kuntze Kev. Gen. PI. (1891) 242; Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. 
IX. (1897) 865. 

A well proportioned tree glabrous throughout; the branchlets angled; leaves ovate or 
ovate-oblong, coriaceous rather dull, acute at the base, copiously feather-veined; petioles 
2.5 to 5 cm long usually margined, and standing nearly at right angles to the stem; 
cymes terminal usually geminate, subsessile, many-flowered, crowded, evolved from a 
large scaly bud, the scales of which remain persistent for some time as ovate or oblong 
pointed bracts, 12 mm in length; pedicels about 4 mm long, subtended by similar smaller 
ovate lanceolate bractlets which are deciduous; flowers larger than in the largest flowered 
forms of M. polymorpha; petals and stamens red or yellow, ovary three-celled, free nearly 
to the middle; capsule nearly included in the turbinate tube of the calyx, of which the 
lobes are persistent, free to the middle, three-valved. many seeded; seeds fusiform, subu- 
late, not much pointed. 

This species is peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands and differs from the cosmopoli- 
tan M. polymorpha in the long petioled leaves, large floral scales, and much 
larger flowers. It is a tree of considerable size and can be found in the moun- 
tains of Oahu on the main Koolau range, as well as on Molokai and on Kauai. 

Hybrids of this and the cosmopolitan species can be met with wherever they 
occur together. 

ARALIACEAE. 

The family Araliaceae, which is chiefly tropical, consists of 51 genera and 
numerous species. In Polynesia it is represented by the genera Plerandra, Rey- 
noldsia, Meryta, and others ; while in Hawaii, the most northern islands of Poly- 
nesia, it has two endemic genera, Pterotropia and Cheirodendron, besides several 
species of Tetraplasandra, which now T includes also Triplasandra, which genus 
has been merged into the former by Harms. The genus Tetraplasandra is not 
peculiar to the islands, as it has two species which occur outside of Hawaii, one 
in New Guinea and the other in Celebes. Reynoldsia, which is represented in 
Hawaii by one species, has also one species in the Society Islands and one in 
Samoa. 

336 



Araliaceae. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Leaves pinnate, alternate. 
Leaflets entire: 

Leaflets 13-21, flowers racemose umbellate, arranged' in a long drooping 

panicle Pterotropia 

Leaflets 5-13, inflor. racemose-umbellate or umbellate and panicu- 
late Tetraplasandra 

Leaflets sinuate creuate Reynoldsia 

Leaves digitate, opposite Cheirodendron 

TETRAPLASANDRA A. Gray. 
(Triplasandra Seem.) 

Calyx border undulate or denticulate, petals 5 to 8, valvate in the bud. Stamens as 
many as petals or 2 to 3 times or even 6 times as many, arranged in 1 or 4 series, with 
rather thick filaments and ovate or lanceolate anthers. Ovary quite inferior, ovate, 13-7-5-2 
celled. The stigmas on a short stylopod or subsessile; drupes globose to ovate-elongate 
or cylindrical, with a somewhat fleshy covering. Pyrenae chartaceous, crustaceous or 
coriaceous, compressed. Seeds often ribbed or furrowed. Unarmed glabrous or tomeutose 
trees or shrubs with a glutinous sap. Leaves large, alternate impari-pinnate, with 5 to 13 
entire leaflets; petiolule of the terminal leaflet usually articulate. Stipules wanting or 
rudimentary. Inflorescence a racemose umbellate panicle or a simple or compound umbel; 
bracts caducous, small or larger; peduncles not articulate, often very thick. 

The genus Tetraplasandra derives its name from the Greek rerpairXa^io^ 
(tetraplasios), fourfold, and arSpa (andra), stamens, having- four times as many 
stamens' as petals. It consists of possibly 12 species, two of which are not found 
in the Hawaiian Islands; T. paucidens Miq. occurs in New Guinea, while T. 
Koerdersii Harms is found in Celebes. Of Hawaiian species, only two were de- 
scribed originally, T. Jiawaiiensis A. Gray and T. Waimeae Wawra. All the 
species of Triplasandra (established by Seeman) have been merged into Tetra- 
plasandra by H. Harms. The writer has since added two new species: T. 
Lanaiensis and T. Waialealae. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

I. EUTETEAPLASANDRA. Stamens 2-6-8 times as many as petals. 
Leaves tomentose underneath. 
Inflorescence paniculate. 

Stamens 4 times as many as petals T. Hawaiiensis 

Leaves glabrous underneath. 
Inflorescence umbellate. 

Stamens numerous, 6-8 times as many as petals... T. Waimeae 
Inflorescence compound umbellate. 

Stamens 4 times as many as petals; ovary 6 celled. . T. Waialealae 
Stamens twice as many as petals; ovary 3 celled. . . T. Lanaiensis 
Stamens 2-3 times as many as petals. 

Drupe ovoid with conical vertex T. Lydgatei 

Drupe cylindrical truncate. 

Stamens l()-lo; ovary 5-6 celled T. Oahuensis 

Stamens 12-18; ovary 4-3 celled T. Kaalae 

II. NOTHOTETRAPIASANDRA. Stamens as many as petals, 5-8; ovary, 5-2 celled. 
Inflorescence umbellate or compound umbellate T. meiandra and varieties 

337 
22 



PLATE 135. 




TETRAPLASANDRA HAWAIIENSIS A. Gray. 
Ohe. 

Showing fruiting branch and flower buds pinned against trunk of tree, bark in the dry 
districts rough and scaly. South Kona, lava fields of Kapua; elevation 1200 feet. 



Araliaceae. 

Tetraplasandra hawaiiensis A. Gray. 

Ohe. 
(Plate 135.) 

TETRAPLASANDRA HAWAIIENSIS A. Gray Bot. U. S. E. E. (1854) 728, t. 94; 
H. Mann. Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 169; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 154; 
Del. Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 183; Harms in Engler et Prantl 
Pflzfam. Ill, 8 (1898) 30, Fig. 2, g-h. 

BrancLlets with the leaf -stalks, inflorescence and the exterior of the flowers canescent 
with a soft tomeiituin; leaves alternate, exstipulate, 3 to 4.5 cm long, pinnately 5 to 7 folio- 
late; leaflets oblong or elliptical 10 to 17 cm long and 5 cm or more in width, obtuse at both 
ends, entire, coriaceous, glabrous above, densely canescent-tomeutose underneath, the ribs 
hirsute; peduncle terminal stout, bearing an ample and open panicle of compound or de- 
compound umbels; peduncles and pedicels articulate, densely tomeutose; calyx tube cup- 
shaped, the truncate limb very short, entire; petals 5 to 8 tomentose as is the calyx, 
cohering at the apex, 6 to 8 mm long; stamens 4 times as many as petals or less in one 
circle, recurved; ovary 7 to 13 celled; the apex crowned with a short and conical stylopod 
which bears an obscurely 7 to 13 rayed stigma; ovules solitary; fruit a globose baccate 
drupe 1 cm in diameter, many ribbed when dry, containing 7 to 13 flat chartaceous com- 
pressed pyrenae. 

The olie, not to be mistaken for the ohe of the lowlands, is a beautiful tree 
with a broad, flat crown reaching a height of 40 to 80 feet, with a trunk of 1 to 2 
feet or more in diameter. The writer met with huge trees in Kona, Hawaii, in 
the semi-wet forest, overtowering the tallest Oliia trees. The bark is whitish and 
more or less smooth. 

It 4 can be distinguished from afar on account of its large pinnate leaves, 
which are 1 to \ l / 2 feet long, having from 5 to 9 oblong leaflets, which are light- 
green above and pale-ocher colored underneath, due to a dense tomentum. The 
flowering panicles are often more than one foot long, bearing umbellate racemes 
along umbellate and racemose tertiary and secondary branches. The globose 
fruits become many-ribbed when dry. 

The olie inhabits the drier as well as very wet regions and is not uncommon 
in the valley of Wailau, Molokai, where it grows on the steep pali or cliff covered 
with tropical verdure. On Eanai, from which island it had not been been re- 
corded previously, it can be found near the summit ridges of Haalelepakai and 
Lanaihale, at an elevation of 3000 feet, and also on Mahana ridge. 

On Maui it growes above Kaanapali, and on Hawaii it is found in the rain 
forests of Puna and semi-wet forests of South Kona, together with Xylosma, 
Pelea. etc. 

Its associates are usually species of Straussia, Bobea, Metrosideros, Cheiro- 
dendron, and such as are peculiar to the rain forests. 

Tetraplasandra Waimeae Wawra. 
Ohe Kikoola. 
(Plate 136.) 

TETRAPLASANDRA WAIMEAE Wawra in Flora (1873) 158; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 

155; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 184; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. 

(1897) 871; Harms in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 8 (1898) 30. 

Leave? 30 to 45 cm long, leaflets 5 to 13, oblong or ovate-oblong, 10 to 15 cm long, 3.5 

to 5 cm wide, on petioles of 12 to 18 mm, obtuse with rounded, the laterals ones with un- 

symmetrical, bases, chartaceous to coriaceous, glabrous; inflorescence a terminal umbel of 

339 



PLATE 136. 




TETEAPLASANDEA WAIMEAE Wawra. 

Ohe kikoola. 
Growing in the mountains of Kauai in the forest of Kaholuamano; elevation 3600 feet. 



Araliaceae. 

10 to 12 rays, with or without a short common rhachis, each 10 to 15 cm long and bear- 
ing at its npex an umbel of ]5 to 30 flowers 011 thick and long pedicels of 2.5 to 5 cm; calyx 
8 to 12 mm long broad tubular, slightly constricted below the wavy denticulate border; 
petals 7 to 8, triangular lanceolate, 12 mm long, pink or reddish, coriaceous, glabrous, at 
last expanded, the open corolla measuring sometimes 3.5 cm in diameter, the largest in the 
genus; stamens 6, 7 or 8 times as many as petals, 8 to 10 mm long, in two rows; ovary 6 to 
8 celled, the stigma on a short stylopod of 1 mm; drupe globose, about 3 cm or often more in 
diameter, somewhat fleshy, strongly ribbed when dry; pyrenae compressed, thick coriace- 
ous, deeply notched at the upper inner angle, and with two prominent ridges on each side. 

The Ohe kikoola is a medium-sized tree with an erect trunk of 30 to 40 feet 
in height and a diameter of a foot or more. The erect bole is vested in a grayish- 
white smooth bark. It divides very sparingly near the top into rather short as- 
cending branches, which bear large leaf whorls at the apex. The leaves are 
over a foot long and consist of 5 to 13 leaflets. The inflorescence is a terminal 
umbel of several rays, bearing at its apex peculiar rose-colored flowers, which 
are the largest in the genus, measuring an inch or more in diameter. The drupe 
is globose, an inch or more across, 'somewhat fleshy, and becomes ribbed on drying. 

The tree is peculiar to the Island of Kauai, where it grows on the leeward 
side above Waimea at an altitude of 3600 feet, in the drier forest or outskirts 
of the woods around Kaholuamano. It is associated with Cyanea leptostegia, 
Cryptocaria Mannii, Bobea Mannii, Sidero ylon sandwicense, Elaeocarpus bifidus, 
etc. It also is not uncommon at Halemanu, where it was first collected by Dr. 
Wawra of the Austrian Exploring Expedition ship "Donau," and named by 
him after the district of Waimea. 

The wood is whitish, of a silky, wavy green, and of medium strength. 

Tetraplasandra Waialealae Rock. 

TETKAPLASANDBA WAIALEALAE Eock Coll. Haw. Publ. Bull. 1. (1911) 10, pi. I. 

Leaves 30 to 45 cm long; leaflets oblong acuminate thick coriaceous, unevensided at the 
base, otherwise rounded; inflorescence a terminal compound umbel of usually 4 peduncles, 
each about from 7 to, 10 cm long, bearing 6 rays about 6 cm long, each bearing an umbel 
of 2-5 pedicels about 2 cm long; calyx tubular purplish-black with an undulate border; 
petals 5 to 7, triangular, thick, with a prominent median nerve, glabrous; stamens in two 
circles, four times as many as petals; ovary 6 celled; stigma on a conical stylopod of 5 mm. 

This remarkable tree, which as far as is known has no native name, is of 
rather small size, 15 to 25 feet high, with sub-erect long branches, bearing, 
crowded at their ends, irregularly pinnate leaves. The leaflets are dark-green 
and glossy; the trunk is rather short, is vested in a white bark, and is about 6 
to 8 inches in diameter. 

The inflorescence is compound umbellate, not as large as that of the Ohe 
kikoola, but is also terminal. 

This interesting tree, which the writer discovered on the summit of Mt. Wai- 
aleale, on Kauai, 5200 feet elevation, was named by him after that wonderful 
mountain. Unlike the Ohe kikoola, which grows in the dryer forest on Kauai 
back of AVaimea, it inhabits the high summit swamp, where the rainfall is im- 
mense. This swamp is enshrouded by clouds nearly all the year round, and is 
swept by the strong trade winds for over nine months of the year. 

341 



PLATE 137. 




TETRAPLASANDRA MEIANDRA (Hbd.) Harms, var. y. 

Flowering and fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree. Growing at Puuwaawaa, 
North Kona, Hawaii, elevation 2800 feet. Trunk about a foot in diameter. 



Araliaceae. 

Tetraplasandra Waialealae is really the only tree of any size at the summit, 
where the rest of the vegetation is stunted. It is associated with Pelea Waia- 
lealae, the Anouia of the natives, LagenopJtora mauiensis, Sanicula sandwicensis 
var.. Lobelia kauaiensis. Lobelia macrostacJtys var., Drosera longifolia, Dubautia 
Waialealae, Geranium Jin mile var. Kauaiense, etc. 

It is the second species of Tetraplasandra which has been so far recorded 
from Kauai, and is peculiar to Waialeale, though it may be found along the 
Kaluiti and Kailiili streams a little below the summit. The wood is soft and 
white. 

Tetraplasandra Lanaiensis Rock. 

TETRAPLASANDRA LANAIENSIS Rock. Coll. Haw. Publ. Bull. 1. (1911) 12, pi. 2. 

Leaves 30 to 38 cm long, leaflets 5 to 7, oblong obtuse or bluntly acuminate, uneven- 
sided at the base, midrib prominent, 8 to 10 cm long, 4 to 5 cm wide, dark green above, 
light underneath, the terminal leaflet on a petiolule of 4 cm which is articulate near the 
blade, the lateral ones on petiolules of 1 to 1.5 cm, subcoriaceous; inflorescence thrice 
umbellate, not erect, but drooping, the 3 to 5 peduncles on a common rhachis of about 
2.5 cm, about 20 cm long, bearing umbels of 17 to 21 slender droopings rays of 8 to 10 cm 
length, these again umbellate with 7 to 13 pedicels; calyx tubular 6 mm with a denticu- 
late border, petals 5 to 6, lanceolate, greenish-yellow, 7 mm long, stamens twice as many 
as petals, ovary 3-celled, stigmas sessile. 

This tree was discovered by the writer on the Island of Lanai and described 
by him under the above name. It is rather small, only about 20 feet high, with 
a trunk of a few inches in diameter. It branches irregularly, and as it was 
crowded in with other trees it was impossible to form an idea of its general 
aspect, 

It is remarkable in the genus Tetraplasandra for its large inflorescence, 
which, instead of being erect, is drooping, and for its very small flowers. The 
leaves are dull and of a light-green color, making the tree quite conspicuous 
among the dark-leaved Maba, Suttonia, and Sideroxylon, with which it is asso- 
ciated. The tree is peculiar to the Island of Lanai and was seen only in Kai- 
holena Valley, crowded by other trees at an elevation of 2000 feet. Kaiholena 
Valley, belonging to the drier regions of Lanai, is extremely interesting and 
harbors a very multiformous tree flora. 

Tetraplasandra Lydgatei (Hbd.) Harms. 

TETRAPLASANDRA LYDGATEI (Hbd.) Harms in Engl. et. Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 8 
(1898) 20. Triplasandra Lydgatei Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 153; Del Cast. 111. 
Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI (1890) 184. 

Leaves 20 to 30 cm long; leaflets 5 to 9 on petioles of 8 to 16 mm, oblong 7.5 to 9 
cm long, 2.5 to 4 cm, obtuse and slightly emarginate, contracting at the base, thin 
chartaceous; inflorescence compound-umbellate from a short common rhachis of about 12 
mm, the 4 or 5 slender peduncles bearing umbels of about 12 slender pedicels of 16 to 18 
mm; calyx broad obconical, 5 mm, with an undulating border; petals 5, cohering at 
their apices, 6 mm; stamens 12, about 1/3 shorter, with straight or recurved anthers; 
ovary 4 celled, inferior, the disk slightly raised, with sessile stigmas; drupe ovoid-globose, 
8 to 10 mm in diameter, obtusely 4 angled, the short conical apex finally elongated into 
a short stylopod. 

343 



PLATE 138. 






' 



ft 







TETRAPLASANDKA MEIANDRA (Hbd.) Harms, var. 5 

Flowering branch pinned against trunk of tree. Growing on the lava fields of Auahi, 
East Maui, southern slopes of Haleakala, elevation 3000 feet. Diameter of trunk 2 ft. 



Araliaceae. 

This species, which like the two following has no native name, is a small tree 
originally found by John Lydgate in the valley of Wailupe on Oahu, and re- 
sembles somewhat Pterotropia gymnocarpa from the same mountain range. 

It has not been collected by the writer, and as there are no specimens of this 
plant in herbaria in the Territory of Hawaii, the above short description will 
have to suffice. 

Tetraplasandra oahuensis (A. Gray) Harms. 
Olie mauka. 

TETRAPLASANDRA OAHUENSIS (A. Gray) Harms in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 
8 (1898) 30. Gastonia? oahuensis A. Gray U. S. E. E. (1854) 726. H. Mann 
Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 169. Triplasandra Oahuensis Seem, in Jonrn. Bot. 
VI (1868) 139; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 153; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pacif. VI (1890) 184. 

Leaves about 3 cm long; leaflets 7 to 13, ovate or broad oblong. 5.5 to 8.5 cm long, 
2.5 to 5 cm wide, on petiolules of 3 to 6 mm, obtuse, coriaceous glabrous; inflorescence 
compound umbellate, 3 to 5 peduncles, 5 to 7.5 cm long, either free or united on a short 
rhachis of about 12 mm, each bearing an umbel of 16 to 20 pedicels of 12 mm in length; 
calyx cylindrical 4 to 6 mm; petals 5 to 6, about 6 mm long; stamens 10 to 15, half as 
long as the petals, with recurved anthers; ovary 5 to 6 celled; drupe ovoid or short cylin- 
drical, 6 to 8 mm, inferior 5 to 6 ribbed or angled, truncate, the stigmas on a short stylopod. 

This species and a variety /;. occur on the Island of Oahu on the slopes of 
Waiolani and Konahuanui back of Honolulu. It differs from the foregoing 
species mainly in the drupe, which is cylindrical and truncate, while the former 
has ovoid drupes with conical vertices. 

It is a small tree about 20 feet in height and is peculiar to Oahu. The writer 
observed several trees at the head of Pauoa Valley and on the slopes of Koiia- 
huanui. It is sparingly branching about 6 feet above the ground; the trunk is 
vested in a gray, smooth bark, and is about 6 to 8 inches in diameter. Accord- 
ing to Horace Mann, its native name is Ohe mauka or the mountain Ohe, while 
Reynoldsia sandwiccHsis is Ohe makai; the latter, however, is also known as Olie 
kukuluaeo. 

Tetraplasandra Kaalae (Hbd.) Harms. 

TETRAPLASANDRA KAALAE (Hbd.) Harms in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 8 (1898) 
30. Triplasandra Kaalae Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 154; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. 
Mar. Pacif. VI (1890) 184. 

Leaves about 3 dm long, with widely clasping base, leaflets 7 to 11, ovate or ovate- 
oblong. 7.5 to 10 cm long, 5 to 7.5 cm wide, on petiolules of 12 to 24 mm, obtusely 
acuminate, rounded and unsymmetrical at the base, thick coriaceous, glabrous under- 
neath, dark green; inflorescence thrice umbellate, 3 to 5 peduncles rising from a short 
common rhachis, each 4 to 6.5 cm long, with an umbel of about 12 rays of 2.5 to 3.5 
cm or more long, these again umbellate with 10 to 12 pedicels of 8 to 12 mm; calyx 
obeonical, glabrous, 2 mm; petals 6 at last expanded, 6 to 8 mm; stamens_ three times as 
many as petals or less, 18 to 12; ovary 4- rarely 3-celled; stigmas sessile on a conical apex. 

This tree was first collected by Hillebrand on the summit of Mt. Kaala of the 
Waianae range on Oahu at an elevation of 4000 feet. It is, like the two fore- 
going species, a small tree 12 to 16 feet in height and of no economic value. 

345 



PLATE 139. 




TETRAPLASANDRA MEIANDRA (Hbd.) Harms, var. 
Fruiting specimen, much reduced. 



Araliaceae. 

Tetraplasandra meiandra (Hbd.) Harms. 
(Plates 137, 138, 139.) 

TETRAPLASANDRA MEIANDRA (Hbd.) Harms in Eng. et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 8 
(1898) 30. Triplasandra meiandra Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 152; Del Cast. 111. 
Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI (1890) 184. Triplasandra Waimeae (Wawra) Heller 
PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 871. Heptapleurum (?) Waimeae Wawra in Flora (1873) 
158. (Wawra's specific name Waimeae should hold good on account of priority, 
but as there is already a species with that name in Tetraplasandra, Hillebrand 's 
moiandra is here adhered to.) 

Leaves 3 to 4.5 cm long, the petiole dilated at the base and clasping; leaflets 7 to 
J3; inflorescence, umbellate but variable: either the pedicels at the end of 3 to 5 ter- 
minal peduncles (simply umbellate, but then shrubs), or at the ends of rays which 
proceed from the ends of 3 to 5 peduncles, the latter rarely united by a common rhachis 
(compoundly umbellate); bracts broadly ovate, 4 to 8 mm long, caducous long before 
the flowers expand; calyx cylindrical, ovate or obovate, with a short denticulate or 
undulate border; petals 5 to 8, triangular or linear lanceolate; stamens as many, shorter, 
or as long as the petals (in one variety only). Ovary 2 to 6 celled; stigmas 2 to 6, 
sessile on the conical vertex, or, when 4 to 6, raised on a short stylopod, drupe cylindrical, 
ovate, oblong, or obovate, or subglobose. 

Hillebrand, in his Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, says in a foot note on 
page 152 : 

"Under this collective species I have united the following forms, which are 
exceedingly rare, each corresponding to a single or a few individuals, found in 
closely-circumscribed localities. ' ' 

He then describes six varieties, as follows : 
Stigmas 2, rarely 3. 

a. 7 to 12 leaflets. 
/3. 7 to 9 leaflets, 
y. 11 leaflets. 
Stigmas 3 (4). 

8. 7 to 9 leaflets. 
Stigmas 3-4-5. 

e. 9 to 13 leaflets. 
Stigmas 4-5-6. 

. Leaflets as in 8, drupe ovoid. 

The above key to the varieties of this species can not be relied upon, as one 
may find plants with only 2 stigmas and 13 leaflets, and plants with 4 stigmas, 
6 stamens and 9 leaflets. The specimens from Oahu are more or less shrubs, and 
have rather long rays or peduncles, while the plants from the other islands are 
always trees, and have rather short rays. It is unfortunate that Hillebrand did 
not define them more clearly. However, complete material is not always possible 
to obtain, and therefore an exact diagnosis not always possible, as the stamens 
play an important part in the identification of this very variable species. 

Only such variations are here cited as are trees, and the writer is sorry to 
state that, owing to incomplete material from other varieties occuring in the 
Kohala Mountains, Hawaii, and West Maui mountains, certain trees are here- 
with omitted. They are, however, all referable to Tetraplasandra meiandra. 
It is the writer's intention later to monograph this interesting family. 

On Hawaii on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, North Kona, grow r a few speci- 

,347 



PLATE 140. 




EEYNOLDSIA SANDWICENSIS A. Gray. 
Fruiting branch. 



Araliaceae. 

meiis of a tree which may be referred to Hillebrand's var y. It is a medium- 
sized tree 35 feet or so in height, with bright-green imparipinnate foliage. The 
inflorescence, which is compound umbellate, arises usually in the axil of the two 
uppermost branchlets. 

On Maui, on the lava fields of Auahi, situated on the southern slopes of Hale- 
akala, grows a beautiful tree which has to be referred to variety d, though differ- 
ing from the plants on Lanai ; the drupes of var. 8 resemble very much var. 
which see. It is a handsome tree of 50 feet or so in height, with a trunk of almost 
two feet in diameter. The trunk is perfectly straight and vested in a smooth 
gray bark. The branches are thick and ascending, bearing at their ends large 
leaf-whorls, underneath which are umbels with small greenish flowers. 

The writer found many varieties from new localities, such as Haleakala, 
West Maui, Kau forests, Kohala Mountains, etc., which all come under Tetra- 
plasandra meiandra; while Hillebrand's varieties came mostly from Oahu. They 
are, however, not quite so rare as Hillebrand thought them to be; the forests 
have merely been opened up nowadays by ditch trails, while in Hillebrand's 
time the rain forests were almost inaccessible. 

Varieties of the above species occur both in extremely wet forests and in ex- 
ceedingly dry or mixed forests. It is in the latter regions that they reach their 
best development. They are there associated with Pterotropia, Alectryon, Pelea, 
Xaiithoxylum, Hibiscadelphus, etc. 

Variety ,. which is here illustrated, grows in the forests of Kau above Naa- 
lehu on Hawaii. Hillebrand's plant came from the w r oods of Hilo, where it was 
collected by Mr. J. Lydgate. In Kau it is a medium-sized tree, 35 feet in height, 
with a rather short trunk and large, stout, ascending branches; the leaves are 
over a foot long and consist of 7 to 13 leaflets; the inflorescence is a compound 
umbel with usually five rays, each ray bearing an umbel of 5 to 16 peduncles, 
each peduncle having again from 5 to 12 pedicels half an inch long, petals 7, 
stamens as many ; the ovarian portion is ovoid and has a conical vertex with four 
stigmas raised on a minute stylopod. 

As far as known the natives made no use of this tree. Its wood is white and 
soft and of no value, as is the case with all the rest of the species belonging to 
this genus and those closely allied to it. 

Varieties of this species grow also above Awini in the rain forests of Kohala, 
Hawaii; in the mountains of West Maui, on the ridges of Honokawai; on the 
summit ridge of Lanai, Haalelepakai ; in the Punaluu Mountains, and Kona- 
huanui on Oahu, as well as in Xiu and Wailupe Valley of the same island. On 
Molokai, it grows in the forests of Kamoku; in the swamp forest on the wind- 
ward side of Haleakala a new variety is not uncommon. The species and its 
forms grow at altitudes of from 1000 to 4000 feet, and are either small shrubs 
or medium-sized trees in the w r et forests, and larger trees in the dry regions (on 
lava fields). 

349 



PLATE 141. 




REYNOLDSIA SANDWICENSIS A. Gray. 

Fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree; diameter of the latter 2 feet; growing on the 
land of Kapua, South Kona, Hawaii; elevation 1800 feet. 



Araliaceae. 

REYNOLDSIA A. Gray. 

Calyx border short, undulate. Petals 8 to 10, linear-lanceolate, valvate in the bud. 
Stamens as many as petals and somewhat shorter. Ovary 8 to 10 or 15 to 22 celled. 
Stigmas arranged in a circle around the very short, thick style. Drupe globose, some 
what fleshy. Pyreuae laterally compressed, chartaceous or crustaeeous. Embryo small 
at the apex of an even fleshy albumen. Unarmed, glabrous trees. Leaves large, impari- 
piunate, with 3 to 9 oval or cordate sinuate-crenate or (in the species not from Haw r aii) 
entire leaflets; exstipulate. Flowers racemose-umbellate on the alternate branches of a 
terminal panicle. Bracts minute linear. 

A genus of three species, one inhabiting Tahiti (R. verrucosa Seem.), one 
Samoa (Savaii) (E. pleiosperma A. Gray), and the third our islands. 

Reynoldsia sandwicensis A. Gray. 

Ohe, or Ohe makai. 
(Plates 140, 1-41, 142.) 

HEYNOLDSIA SANDWICENSIS A. Gray U. S. E. E. (1854) 724, pi. 92; H. Mann Proc. 
Am. Acad. VII (1807) 169; Wawra in Flora (1873) 142; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 156; Harms in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 8 (1898) 30. Eschweileria 
Sandwicensis Durand Ind. Gen. 167; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 
182. 

Leaves about 3 dm long, glabrous, the slender petioles shortly toothed at the dilating 
Lase (according to Hillebr. but not in the writer's specimens); leaflets 7 to 11, ovate to 
cordate, 7 to 10 cm x 5 to 8.5 cm on petiolules of 2 cm in the upper pair of leaflets and 
4 cm in the lower pair, obtuse or bluntly acuminate, repando, or sinuate crenate, stiff 
membraneous, light green, glossy; inflorescence of 3 terminal peduncles, rising from a 
short cpmmon rhachis, each about 12 to 20 cm long and branching from the base upward, 
the branches horizontal, 4 to 5 cm when with flower, 7 to 9 cm when in fruit, and 
jacemose umbellate in their upper halves, with pedicels of 10 to 12 mm; calyx obconical 
truncate, 2 to 3 mm; petals 8 to 10, about 6 mm long, cohering; ovary 8 to 10 celled, 
wholly inferior; drupe globose 6 to 8 mm in diameter ribbed when dry; pyrenae crustaee- 
ous, with smooth sides. 

The Ohe is a very peculiar Hawaiian tree, which sheds its leaves in the winter 
months and flowers before the reappearance of the leaves in the early summer. 
When bare, it resembles somewhat the WiUwili, which also sheds its leaves dur- 
ing the rainy season. 

It reaches a height of from 15 to 60 feet and develops thick and often short 
trunks with bluish-gray, smooth bark, and a spreading crown with straight as- 
cending branches. The leaves, which are about a foot long, consist of 7 to 11 
leaflets, heart-shaped at the base. The flowers are arranged on stiff, erect term- 
inal peduncles, rising from a short common rhachis, branching from the base 
upward, and racemose-umbellate in the upper half. 

It is peculiar to the very dry districts of the lowland zone and especially on 
-aa lava fields, where the heat is intense and rain is very infrequent. The trunk 
exudes a very thick resin or gum which is of a clear yellowish-golden color. 

On Mani it is not uncommon on the lava fields near Ulupalakua on the south- 
ern slopes of Haleakala, as well as on Molokai, where it can be found at the 
western end at Mahana in gulches, and on the heights above Kamolo, associated 
with Dracaena aurea (Halapepe). On Hawaii, on the lava fields of North and 
'South Kona. it reaches its best development, trunks with a diameter of lj/2 to 2 
:feet being not uncommon. It also grows on Lanai on the slopes above Manele 

351 



PLATE 142. 



5^5? 
s&v 




KEYNOLDSIA SANDWICENSIS A. Gray. 

Growing ou the lava fields of Kahikinui, southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Island of 

Maui. Elevation 1500 feet. 



Araliaceae. 

and Kalama in company with a variety of 8 ant alum Freycinetianum (Sandal- 
wood). Owing to the softness of the whitish wood, it is of no commercial value. 
The gum or resin which the tree is capable of producing was used by the natives 
for various purposes. 

The wood was used for making the kukuluaeo, or stilts, employed by the old 
Hawaiians in a game by that name, and it is spoken of as the "He ohe kahi laau 
liana ia i mea kukuluaeo." 

In Tahiti the name "Ofe" is applied to a tree of the same family to which 
our Reynoldsia belongs. 

PTEROTROPIA Hbd. 
(Dipanax Seem.) 

Calyx border slightly prominent and repandly dentate. Petals 5 to 9, valvate in the 
bud, thick, cohering or finally spreading. Stamens as many as petals, shorter than the 
latter; anthers ovate to oblong. Ovary 2 to 5 celled; stigmas sessile on the top of the 
conical vertex or raised on a conspicuous style. Drupe somewhat succulent, ovoid or 
sub-globose, with conical apex, round not angular, ringed above, below or at the middle, 
or at the base by the calycine border and naked above. Pyrenae with a thin endocarp, 
ovoid or slightly compressed, with a broad back and a prominent ridge on either side. 
Trees with glutinous sap. Leaves alternate, large, impari-pinnate, with 13 to 21 ovoid 
or oblong entire leaflets, with a scattering scaly or stellate pubescence, but occasionally 
glabrous. Inflorescence terminal and lateral; flowers umbellate-racemose on the umbellate 
racemose branches of a panicle with a short rhachis. Pedicels not articulate; bracts 
minute', deciduous. (The name Dipanax is not as old as Mann's section name Pterotropia 
and the latter is therefore retained.) 

A Hawaiian genus of three species. Tall or medium-sized trees with 
straight trunks and smooth bark. Easily distinguished from all other Hawaiian 
Araliaceae by their leaves, which reach a size of over three feet and have from 
9 to 21 leaflets, and their large inflorescence, which is racemose-umbellate and 
drooping below the leaf -whorls, often two feet and more long ; in P. gymnocarpa 
apparently above the leaf -whorls. 

The native name for all three species is Ohe ohe. They are peculiar to the 
dry districts, with the exception of P. gymnocarpa, which occurs in the rain 
forest. 

The only distinguishing character between P. Kavaiensis (Mann) Hbd. and 
P. dipyrena (Mann) Hbd. is the number of stigmas. In Hillebrand's key to the 
species he also mentions the definite number of leaflets, which, since, more mate- 
rial is at hand, can no longer be relied upon. 

Specimens of P. dipyrena collected by the writer in Kau have 21 leaflets, 
which are truncate, and flowers with 2 to 3 stigmas. The same number of leaflets 
and stigmas occurs in plants from East Maui on the southern slopes of Haleakala 
on the lava fields of Auahi, and also on plants back of Ulupalakua. 

As the number of stigmas varies in that species and differs mainly from the 
Kauai species in the fact that they are sessile, the writer is almost persuaded to 
unite them both under P. dipyrena. 

The character of the fruit as given in Hillebrand's Flora regarding the two 

353 

23 



PLATE 143. 




PTEROTROPIA GYMNOCARPA Hbd. 
One-half natural size. Fruiting specimen. 



Araliaceae. 

species in question is also uncertain, since drupes ringed above and below the 
middle can be observed in P. Kavaiensis; the drupes of P. dipyrena are ringed 
above the middle only. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Drupe ringed at the base. 

Stigmas 2 to 3, sessile P. gymnocarpa 

Drupe ringed either above or below or at the middle. 

Stigmas 2, 3 to 4, sessile P. dipyrena 

Stigmas 4 to 5 on a conspicuous style P. Kavaiensis 

Pterotropia gymnocarpa Hbd. 
(Plate 143.) 

PTEROTROPIA GYMNOCARPA Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 151; Harms in Engl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. Ill, 8 (1898) 31. Heptapleurum gymnocarpum Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. 
Mar. Pae. VI (1890) 183. Dipanax gymnocarpa Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 870. 
Leaves 3 to 4 dm long, leaflets 9 to 11 (according to Hillebrand 15 to 17), 8 to 18 
cm long, 4.5 to 8 cm wide, ovate oblong, the lower pair diminishing in size on petioles 
of 2 to 18 mm, obtuse or obliquely acuminate, with rounded base or unevensided, char- 
taceous to coriaceous, glabrous underneath, shining above; rhachis of panicle rather 
short, with 3 to 5 umbellately radiating primary branches of 10 to 20 cm, the flowers 
about 12 in an umbel at the ends of racemose and umbellate secondary branches of 
5 to 9 cm, on pedicels of 8 to 20 mm; calyx very short; petals 6, rarely 7, cohering at 
the apex, about 8 mm in length; ovary 2 to 3 celled (in one of the writer's specimens all 
ovaries are two celled, one of which is abortive); stigmas sessile; drupe globose (accord- 
ing to Hillebr.) or oblong-turbinate in the writer's specimens, 12 to 15 mm long, and 
about 7 mm in diameter, nearly entirely free and naked, the adherent calyx forming a 
low disk at its base; pyrenae thin papery, ovoid, beaked above and faintly notched below 
the beak. 

This is a small or medium-sized tree reaching a height of 15 to 30 feet. It 
differs from the other two species in its smaller leaves and leaflets, which be- 
come quite glabrous when old, while only the very young branchlets are mealy. 
The branching habit is similar to Oahuan species of Tetraplasandra, 
rather than Pterotropia, and it is oiten mistaken for such at first glance. It 
inhabits the main range of Oahu, to which island it is peculiar. It is, however, 
easily distinguished from Tetraplasandra by its rather dark foliage. 

Fine trees may be found in the forest on the windward side of Punaluu and 
above Kaliuwaa valley at an elevation of 2000 feet or more, usually along 
streambeds and in gulches. It is associated with Pelea sandwicensis, Euphorbia 
Rockii, Hibiscus Anwttiaitus, Syzijyium sandivicense, Elaeocarpus bifidus, Pit- 
tosporum, etc. 

On Mt. Olympus at the head of Palolo Valley near the summit ridge fine 
trees may be observed ; also on Mt. Konahuanui of the same range. The biggest 
trees occur in the Punaluu Mountains of the Koolau range. Hillebrand 's 
specimens came from Niu Valley. This tree is in every respect a Pterotropia 
but in habit, as it does not reach the height of the other two species, which is 
sometimes 60 to 80 feet. 

The trees from Mt. Olympus have a two-celled ovary, while those from other 
localities are three-celled. The inflorescence is not drooping, but almost erect 
above the leaves. 

355 



PLATE 144. 




PTEROTROPIA DIPYRENA (Mann) Hbd. 
Showing fruiting specimen. Much reduced. 



Araliaceae. 

Pterotropia kavaiensis (Mann) Hbd. 
Ohe ohe. 

PTEROTROPIA KAVAIENSIS (Mann) Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 150; Harms in Engl. 

et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 8 (1898) 31. Heptapleurum (Pterotropia) kavaiense 

Maun Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 168; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. 

(1890) 183. Agalma kavaiense Seem. Eevis. Hederac. (1868) 103. Dipanax 

kavaiensis Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 871. 

Leaves impari-pinnate, 6 to 9 dm long; leaflets 11 to 21, ovate oblong, 7 to 19 cm 
long, 4 to 8 cm wide, on petioles of 2 to 15 mm (the last upper pair of leaflets almost 
sessile in some specimens, the lowest pair of leaflets much smaller than the others, but 
on the longest petiolules), acuminate or rounded at the apex, rounded or truncate at the 
base, coriaceous, sprinkled above, but densely tomentose underneath; panicle large and 
ample, its 5 primary branches 1 to 3 dm long mostly alternate on a common rhachis of 5 to 
7 cm, the secondary branches 4 to 7 cm, mostly alternate; petals 6 to 7, rarely 9, densely 
tomentose especially in the bud; ovary generally 4-celled, or 3 to 5 celled, stigmas on a 
distinct stylopod of 1 mm; drupe ovoid about 12 mm, ringed below, at, or above the middle, 
the pyrenae chartaceous. 

This species differs very little from P. dipyrena, and is only distinguishable 
from the latter in the raised stigmas, the number of which is usually four in 
P. kavaiensis and two to three to four in P. dipyrena. The characters of the 
leaves can not at all be relied upon, the leaflets of P. dipyrena varying from 
linear oblong to ovoid, and are either cordate, truncate or rounded at the base, 
on petiolules of about 1 mm to 30 mm; the stigmas are more or less sessile in 
P. dipyrena. 

Pterotropia kavaiensis, in the writer's mind, should be united with P. dipy- 
rena, b.ut as only one good flowering specimen from one locality is at present in 
his possession, he defers such action until the future, when more complete mate- 
rial shall be at hand. 

The Olie ohe of Kauai is a very beautiful and symmetrical tree reaching a 
height of 50 feet and occasionally more, with a trunk of over one foot in diam- 
eter. It divides near the top into a few ascending stout branches, at the end of 
which are large leaf-whorls. The crown is flat and is about one-fifth the height 
of the tree. When growing, crowded by other trees, it branches 10 or 15 feet 
above the ground and is not as symmetrical as trees growing apart. It is a tree 
which inhabits the mountains on the leeward side of Kauai, above Waimea, in 
the dry regions at an elevation of 2800 to 4000 feet. 

Its associates are Bobea Mannii, Cryptocaria Mannii, Cyanea leptostegia, 
Tetraplasandra Waimeae, Metrosideros, etc. It can be recognized from afar, as 
it usually towers above the trees surrounding it, giving the landscape a peculiar 
aspect. 

The wood of the Ohe ohe is white and rather soft. 

Pterotropia dipyrena (Mann) Hbd. 

Ohe ohe. 
(Plates 144, 145.) 

PTEROTROPIA DIPYRENA (Mann) Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 150; Harms in Engl. et 
Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 8 (1898) 31. Heptapleurum (Pterotropia) dipyrenum Mann 
Proc. Amer. Acad. VII (1867) 160. Dipanax Mannii Seem. Journ. Bot. VI 
(1868) 41; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI (1890) 182; Heller PI. Haw. 
Isl. (1897) 870. 

357 



PLATE 145. 




PTEROTROPIA DIPYRENA (Mann) Hbd. 
Ohe Ohe. 

Growing at an elevation of 4500 feet above Ulupalakua on the southeastern slopes of 

Mt. Haleakala, Maui. 



Araliaceae. 

Leaves 36 to 100 cm long, composed of 15 to 21 leaflets varying greatly in size 
and shape, usually ovate oblong 8 to 21 cm long, 4 to 11 cm wide, cordate, truncate or un- 
evensided at the base, acuminate at the apex, the longest pair of leaflets at about the middle 
of the leaf, the lowest pair the broadest but shorter, on short petioles in the smaller 
leaf-forms, and on petioles of often 25 mm in the large leaf forms, glabrous above, fur- 
furaceous below; panicle very large almost one meter long (in the Kau, Hawaii, speci- 
mens, but about 36 cm in some of the Maui specimens) rising from a common rhachis of 
sometimes 15 cm, with 8 drooping rays, each ray often 7.5 dm long, covered with a brown 
tomentum, the secondary branches 4 to 10 cm long, alternate, the flowers racemose and 
subumbellate on pedicels of about 1 cm, bracts short triangular; calyx small with an 
undulate border; petals 6 to 8, 12 mm long, lanceolate, cohering, but finally free; stamens 
6 to 8, anthers white; drupe ovoid to subglobose, ringed with the calyx border above the 
middle, stigmas 2 or 3 or 4, slightly raised or sessile on a conical disk; pyrenae coriace- 
ous inseparable. 

The Ohe olie of Maui and Hawaii is like that of Kauai, a stately tree 50 to 60 
feet and sometimes even 80 feet in height. It has a straight bole for 30 feet or 
more, with few stout ascending branches. The trunk, which is clothed in a whit- 
ish-gray smooth bark, is often a foot or more in diameter. The tree was first 
described by H. Mann, who collected it on the Island of Lanai, recording it as 
a small tree 12 to 20 feet in height. It has since been found on Maui and Ha- 
waii. It is, however, still most numerous on the southeastern and strictly south- 
ern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Island of Maui. In the former locality above Ulu- 
palakua it is the only species alive, as can be seen in the picture, all the rest of 
the vegetation having been killed by cattle, goats and sheep. 

On the lava fields of Auahi, district of Kahikinui, the writer found some very 
big trees in company with Pelea multiflora, Bobea Hookeri, Alectryon macro- 
coccus, Xanthoxylum sp., Tetraplasandra meiandra, and many others. It is more 
or less peculiar to the dry districts, but is also not uncommon in the rain forest 
on the northeastern slope of Haleakala along the Kula pipe line trail, especially 
on the crater of Puukakai at an elevation of about 4500 feet. 

On Hawaii it has been found by Hillebrand in the dry district of Kawaihae- 
iuka, but could not be located during a visit made by the writer in that locality, 
though the writer was fortunate, however, to find it in the forests of Hilea in 
Kau, the most southern point on the Island of Hawaii, at an elevation of 2000 
feet. In this latter locality occur the biggest trees of this species, while in the 
Kaiholena Mountains, elevation 4000 feet, of the same district, the trees are 
smaller and resemble the description (outward appearance) given by Mann of 
the trees which he found on Lanai. 

The wood of the Ohe ohe is rather soft and of no particular value. It is a 
hardy tree and can stand the ravages of cattle and other enemies better than any 
other Hawaiian tree. 

CHEIRODENDRON Nutt. 

Calyx border with 5 short teeth. Petals 5, valvate in the bud, triangular. Stamens 
5 shorter than the petals, anthers ovoid. Ovary 5 to 2 celled, stigmas sessile on a 
conical elevation of the disk, or apical on a thick and short style. Fruit globose, ribbed 
when dry, with somewhat fleshy exocarp; pyrenae laterally compressed, coriaceous. 
Albumen even, not wrinkled, fleshy to horny. Glabrous unarmed trees. Leaves opposite, 

359 



PLATE 146. 




CHEIRODENDRON GAUDICHATJDII (DC.) fe'eem. 

Fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree, diameter of the latter nearly 2 feet. Grow- 
ing in Kipuka Puaulu, near Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



Araliaceae. 

digitate with 3 to 5 leaflets, long petiolate. entire or toothed. Flowers umbellate on the 
ultimate division of a terminal or lateral panicle, with opposite horizontal branches, 
which are articulate at all nodes and below the calyx. Bracts small opposite. 

A genus of two species peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands, but related to 
Xothopanax, a genus occurring in New Zealand, Samoa and Tasmania. Xotko- 
panax samoense Gray is called Tanc-tane by the Samoans. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaflets 3 to 5, longer than broad Ch. Gaudichaudii 

Leaflets 3, broader than long Ch. platyphyllum 

Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii (DC.) Seem. 

Olapa, or Kauila Malm on Kauai. 

(Plates 146, 147.) 

CHEIRODENDRON GAUDICHAUDII (DC.) Seem. Journ. Bot. V. (1867) 236; Hbd. 
Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 148; Harms in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 8 (1898) 48. 
Panax? Gaudichaudi DC. Prodr. IV (1830) 253; Hook, et Am. Bot. Beechey 
(1832) 84; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 1340; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 
VI (1890) 181. Aralia trigyna Gaud. Bot. Toy. Uranie (1826) (but appeared 
in reality 1830) 474, pi. 98. Hedera Gaudichaudii A. Gray. Bot. U. S. E. E. 
(1854) 719, t. 90; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 168; Wawra in 
Flora (1873) 142. Cheirodendron trigynum. (Gaud.) Heller PI. Haw. Isl. 
(1897) 870. 

Had Gaudichaud's Botany of the Voyage Uranie appeared really in 1826, as 
indicated on the title page, Heller's combination would hold good; Gaudichaud's 
description, however, appeared in 1830 after the publication of the species by 
DeCandolle in his Prodromus (1830). 

Leaflets 3 to 5, the outer ones smaller, petioled, ovate, oblong or obovate, the margin 
generally thickened and toothed or serrulate, with a gland in the notch of each serrature, 
or entire (in specimens from the Punaluu mountains, Oahu) with no signs of any denta- 
tion, chartaceous to coriaceous, glabrous, shining above; panicle subpyramidal, shorter 
than the leaves, compact, with 4 to 5 nodes to the rhachis; flowers 4 mm greenish; 
pedicels 2 mm; petals thick ovate 2 to 3 mm, soon caducous; stamens nearly as long; 
ovary generally 3 celled, or 2 or 4 celled, rarely 5 celled; stigmas short and thick, re- 
curved, sessile or subsessile on a short stylopod; drupe ovoid 6 mm long, 2 to 5 angled 
when dry. 

Hooker et Arnott's Panaxf ovatum is Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii (DC.) 
Seem. var. 'X Hbd. I.e. 

The Olapa, as the tree is usually called on all the islands, reaches a height 
of 40 to 50 feet and sometimes more. It derives its name ' ' Cheirodendron ' ' from 
the Greek (Keiros hand and Dendron tree) on account of its leaves, which 
consist usually of five leaflets, giving it the shape of a hand. It is one of our 
most common forest trees, and is always conspicuous in the woods by its foliage, 
which is constantly in motion, even if there is hardly any breeze. Its trunk is 
sometimes two feet and even more in diameter, and is vested in a smooth, yel- 
lowish bark when growing in wet forest, and rough, scaly bark in dry districts. 
All parts of this tree, as well as of the Lapalapa, emit a very strong carroty 
odor when bruised, not unlike turpentine, and the wood of both species is said 
to burn when green. Several varieties are recognized which are peculiar to cer- 
tain sections of the various islands, and are as follows : 

361 



PLATE 147. 




CHEIRODENDRON GAUDICHAUDII (DC.) Seem. 

Tree growing on the old lava fields of Auahi, southern slope of Mt. Haleakala, Maui; 

elevation 2800 feet. 



Araliaceae. 

var. a- Leaflets 5 to 3, ovate oblong, deeply crenate or serrate; panicles short, 

styles 3, rarely 2 to 4. (E. Maui and Hawaii.) 
var. fi. Leaflets generally 3, rarely 5, ovate to suborbicular, remotely dentate, 

on a long common petiole, panicle large; stigmas 3 or 2. (W. Maui, Molo_- 

kai, Hawaii.) 
var. v. Leaflets 3, entire, the common petiole rather long; panicle large, open, 

panicle drawn out, stigmas 3 to 2. (Koolau Eange, Oahu.) 
var. 3. Leaflets 3, rarely 5, remotely and faintly dentate, on rather short petioles, 

styles 3, 4 or 5. (Oahu, Koolau range; Mt. Kaala, and Niihau.) 
var. . Leaflets subentire, small, membraneous, styles 2 to 5. (Woods of Kauai.) 

The Olapa is most common on East Maui, in the middle forest zone on the 
slopes of Haleakala at an elevation of 4000 feet, and it is here that it attains its 
best development. As mentioned before, it is common on all the islands of the 
group at elevations from 2000 to 4000 feet. 

The performers of the native liula, or dance, were divided into two groups, 
the Olapa and the Hoopaa. The former, who undoubtedly derive their name 
from the Olapa tree, were those whose part in the dance was the agile one, who 
could best illustrate, by the graceful bending of their bodies, the motion of the 
leaves of the Olapa trees. From the leaves and bark the natives extracted a 
bluish dye, which they employed in dyeing their tapa, or paper cloth. 

Cheirodendron platyphyllum (Hook, et Arn.) Seem. 
Lapalapa. 
(Plate 148.) 

CHEIRODENDRON PLATYPHYLLUM (Hook, et Arn.) Seem. Journ. Bot. V. (1867) 
236; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 149; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 869; 
Harms in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. Ill, 8 (1898) 48. Panax? platyphyllum Hook, 
et Arn. Bot. Beechey (1832) 84; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 1342; Del Cast. 111. 
Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI (1890) 182. Hedera platyphylla A. Gray Bot. TJ. S. E. E. 
(1854) 720, t. 91; Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 168; Wawra in Flora 
(1873) 157. 

Leaflets 3, ovate, broader than long, 4 to 8 cm x 5 to 7.5 cm, mucronate or suddenly 
and shortly acuminate, truncate at the base, or sometimes cuneate, entire or shortly den- 
tate or almost sinuate-dentate (Waialeale, Kauai, plants), with thickened margin, coriace- 
ous and shining, on long spreading petioles about 4 cm, the common petioles 6 to 8 cm 
long; panicles single, or three together, very open, 10 to 15 cm long, pedunculate; um- 
bellets 4 to 7 flowered, the pedicles 2 to 6 mm; flowers 6 mm; stigmas 5, rarely 4, in- 
curved or truncate, triangular on a very short and thick stylopod; drupe subglobose, 
6 to 7 mm in diameter, 5 to 4 angled when dry. 

The Lapalapa, somewhat smaller than the Olapa, is a very handsome tree, 
though by far not as common as the latter, as it is only found on the high 
plateau of Kauai up to the summit of Waialeale, and on the Koolau mountain 
range of Oahu. It is easily distinguished from the Olapa by its leaves, which 
are much broader than long and are on long, spreading petioles with only three 
leaflets. What has been said of the Olapa in regard to the constant motion of 
its leaves applies also to the Lapalapa. 

It is confined to the Islands of Kauai and Oahu and inhabits the very wet 
or rain forests at an elevation of 4000 feet up to 5000 feet; it hardly descends 
lower than 3000 feet. It thrives best in swampy ground, and is a common fea- 

363 



PLATE 148. 




CHEIRODENDRON PLATYPHYLLUM (Hook, et Am.) Seem. 
Flowering branch, reduced. 



Araliaceae-Epacridaceae. 

ture of the vegetation on the high plateau of Kauai, bordering the extensive open 
bogs of Kauluwehi, Alakai, and Lehua makanoe. At the summit of Waialeale it 
is a small tree or rather shrub, with almost sinuate leaves. At lower elevations 
the leaves are entire. It is associated with Pelea, Dubautia (the high mountain 
forms), Labordea, Lobelia Gaudicliaudii, Scaevola glabra, etc. On Oahu it is 
confined to the summit ridges of the Koolau range, especially Konahuanui, and 
has also been found on Kaala of the Waianae range. 

The wood of the Lapalapa is whitish, with a yellow tinge, and is said to burn 
when green. 

EPACRIDACEAE. 

The family Epacridaceae has only a limited distribution. The bulk of its 
species is to be found in Australia and Tasmania, with quite a number of genera 
in New Zealand. The family possesses 21 genera of which 273 species occur in 
Australia. Of all the 21 genera only one genus with one subgenus is not to be 
found in Australia or Tasmania. A few endemic species occur in New Cale- 
donia and the most southern part of South America, besides a few species of 
large genera in India and the Malayan-Archipelago. Here in the Hawaiian 
Islands we have two species represented, of the subgenus Cyathodes, formerly 
recognized as a genus, but now a subgenus of Styphelia by Drude. 

STYPHELIA Sol. 

Corolla campanulate, funnel-shaped or tubular. Stamens enclosed in the tubes of 
the corolla; anthers hardly visible, or exserted on long filaments. Style longer than the 
stamens, stigma simple small. Disc a ring or composed of 5 lobes or scales. Ovary usually 
5-celled, rarely through abortion 3- or 2-celled. Fruit a berry or drupe. Shrubs or low trees 
with usually broad or narrow lanceolate, spathulate-elliptical leaves, the flowers single, 
axillary, or in racemes, with 2 to several bracts. 

This is the richest genus in the family Epacridaceae of which the largest 
number of species belongs to Australia. The Hawaiian species St. Tameiameia 
and St. Grayana come under the fourth subgenus Cyathodes which may be de- 
scribed as follows: 

Subgen. Cyathodes Lab. 

Calyx surrounded by many bracts; corolla funnel-shaped, its tube hardly protruding 
from the calyx, inside and at the throat without glands and beardless; stamens enclosed; 
ovary 5-10 celled. 

The subgenus Cyathodes occurs in Tasmania, New Zealand, and in the Ha- 
waiian Islands with two species. 

Styphelia tameiameia F. Muell. 
Pukeawe or Puakeawe. 

STYPHELIA TAMEIAMEIA F. Muell. Fragm. VI. (1867) 55; Drude in Engl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. IV. 1. 78. Cyathodes tameiameia Cham, in Linnaea I. (1826) 
539; End!. Fl. Suds. (1836) 170. No. 1070; DC. Prodr. VTT '1839) 741; 

365 



Epacridaceae. 

Th. Nuttal in Transact. Am. Phil. S'oc. VIII. (1843) 270; A. Gray 
Proc. Am. Acad. V. (1862) 325; Mann Proc. Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 188; 
Wawra in Flora (1873) 59; Hbd. PI. Haw. Isl. (1888) 272; Del Cast. 111. PI. Ins. 
Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 224; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. 
(1897) 872. 

Leaves stiff coriaceous, linear or oblong 8-12 mm long, 2-4 mm broad, on broadish 
petioles of less than 1 mm, acute or somewhat obtuse, shortly mucronate, cuneate or some- 
what obtuse at the base, naked, smooth above, waxy-white or glaucous underneath and 
striate with 9-13 longitudinal nerves, which fork or branch more or less, particularly in 
the obovate leaves; peduncle with flower shorter than the leaf; bracts (5-9) and sepals 
obtuse coriaceous; corolla whitish, 3 mm long, the tube included in the calyx, the acute 
lobes V-2 the length of the tube, with 5 lines of hairlets running down the tube; anthers 
oblong, obtuse, subexserted, about as long as their filaments; disc small; ovary 5-8 celled; 
style as long as the ovary, thick tapering; drupe globose 4-6 mm in diameter, red, white 
or pink, rather dry; seeds ovoid, with thin testa; embryo axile two-third the length of the 
mealy albumen, the radicle scarcely distinguishable from the cotyledons. 

The Pukeaive, or as it is also called Maiele, Puakeawe and Kawau on Lanai, 
is a shrub in the lower elevations, but becomes a small tree 10-15 feet in height 
in the upper regions at 6000-7000 feet elevation. The trunk is rather twisted 
and vested in a finely corrugated brown bark; the tallest specimens were ob- 
served by the writer on the upper slopes of Mt. Hualalai on Hawaii at an eleva- 
tion of 6000 feet. The species occurs on all the islands of the group and can be 
found at all elevations. The species besides being found in Hawaii exists also 
in Tahiti and Eimeo of the Society group. 

Interesting legends are connected with this plant in Hawaii ; it was a favorite 
of the Kahuna or native priest. David Malo, the Hawaiian historian, tells us 
that it was used in incremating the body of any one who had made himself an 
outlaw beyond the protection of the tabu. Dr. N. Emerson gives an interesting 
explanation of this procedure of incremation. He also says : ' ' When a kapu-chief 
found it convenient to lay aside his dread exclusiveness for a time, that he might 
perhaps mingle with people on equal terms without injury to them or to himself, 
it was the custom for him and according to one authority those with whom he 
intended to mingle joined with him in the ceremony to shut himself into a 
little house and smudge himself with the smoke from a fire of the Pukeawe 
shrub. At the conclusion of this fumigation a priest recited a Pule Huikala 
prayer for a dispensation. 

The Pukeawa is familiar to all who have been at all in the Hawaiian forests, 
especially around the Volcano of Kilauea on Hawaii where the plant is very 
common in company with the Olelo berries. It is very striking on account of 
its heath-like appearance, and the white or red dry berries. On the high 
mountains at from 10,000 feet elevation up to the limit of plant growth occurs 
another species, which is a shrub. Its scientific name, which was Cyathodes 
imbricata Stschegleew, will have to be changed, as there is already a St. im- 
bricata in that genus as a synonym, and therefore will be known from now on 
as Styphelia Gray ana (Stschegleew) Eock. 

366 



MYRSINACEAE:. 

The family Myrsinaceae consists of 32 genera and about 770 species. The 
family is a distinctly tropical one and is distributed over the whole world. In 
the eastern hemisphere it ranges from the island of Tsu Sima, Korea straits, 
to Victoria in Australia, and in the western hemisphere from Florida to Argen- 
tine. 

In the Hawaiian Islands only two genera are represented, Suttonia and Em- 
belia, the former occurs outside of Hawaii only in New Zealand arid has arbores- 
cent forms, while the genus Embelia has two species in these Islands, which 
are climbers, but consists of more than 92 species which have a wide distribution 
(Africa, India, Hawaii, Australia). 

SUTTONIA Hook. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, 4 or 5-merous. Sepals shortly, or very shortly united, or free 
at the base, imbricate or open, with ciliolate margins. Petals free, valvate or very obscurely 
imbricate, broadly or rarely narrow-elliptical, or very rarely obovate, rounded or subacute 
at the apex, with papillulose or ciliate margins, often punctate or lineate. Anthers usually 
sessile and little shorter than the petals, introrse, somewhat acute at the apex or subobtuse, 
and papillose. Ovary ovoid, style wanting or very short; stigma capitate and often 
fimbriate. Placenta 2-4 ovulate. Fruits globose or ovoid, 1-seeded, crowned by the stigma; 
endocarp'crustaeeous to chartaceous. Seeds globose with the rudiments of the placenta, 
albumen horny, embryo cylindrical. Trees or shrubs with entire, very variable leaves. 
Inflorescence lateral, fasciculate in the axils of fallen leaves, few-flowered. Flowers small, 
pedicellate. 

The Hawaiian species of the genus Suttonia form a section by themselves 
"Subgenus Rapaneopsis Mez;" with pentamerous flowers. 

The Hawaiian Kolea were originally placed in the genus Myrsine by A. 
DeCandolle, and later transferred to the genus Suttonia by Mez. The whole 
genus consists of 17 species, 11 of which are endemic in the Hawaiian Islands; 
of the remaining 6, 5 are found in New Zealand and one in Norfolk Island. 
Originally only four Hawaiian species were known and are described in Hille- 
braud's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Since then 4 were added by Mez, and 
3 distinct new species and 3 new varieties by the writer. H. Leveille described 
10 new species of which 6 are now synonyms ; one of his species, Suttonia molo- 
kaiensis, is a small leaved form of Sideroxylon sandwicense. As the descrip- 
tion of the remaining ones is so vague, and material of them not in the writer '& 
possession, they are very dubious and are here ignored. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves tomentose underneath. 

Branches glabrous, leaves 65 mm S. Kauaiensis 

Branches covered with ferruginous tomentum, leaves 100 mm or mor< S. Wawraea 

Leaves glabrous. 

Leaves thin, without marginal nerve, petals markedly punctate S. Lanaiensis- 

Leaves large 210 mm, elongate elliptical, petiolate, chartaceous.... S. Fernseei 

Leave's succulent, spathulate, 75 mm, petiole margined, S. spathulata, 

367 



Myrsinaceae. 

Leaves dark, chartaceous, pale veined, not punctate; drupe very 

small 3 mm, spheroidal S. volcanica 

Leaves ovate to suborbicular, glaucous, margins revolute, style 

distinct S. Knudsenii 

Leaves thick coriaceous, 100 mm long or more, reticulate, euneate 

at the" base . . .__. S. Lessertiana 

Leaves coriaceous, small, 24 mm, emarginate at the apex S. Sandwicensis 

Leaves elliptical-oblong, petiolate, 50 mm long, strongly reticulate. S. Hillebrandii 

Leaves sessile, very narrow, lanceolate, apex caudate, acuminate.. S. lanceolata 

Suttonia kauaiensis (Hbd.) Mez. 

SUTTONIA KAUAIENSIS (Hbd.) Mez Das Pflzenreich 9. IV. 236. (1902) 335; Pax in 
Ehgl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 1. (1908) 278. Myrsine kauaiensis Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 280; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 227. Heller in Minnes. 
Bot. Stud. IX. (1897) 873. 

A small tree 12 m in height; branches slender, glabrous; leaves pilose when young, 
glabrate when old, on petioles of 4-15 mm, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, shortly and obscurely 
acuminate at the apex or somewhat obtuse, reticulate on both sides, the adult leaves densely 
set with blackish minute dots; inflorescence of 1-5-7 flowers, bracts linear, 2-2.5 mm, the 
slender pedicels 5.7 mm, glabrous or pilose; flowers 3 mm long; sepals connate one-third 
their length, often covered with long hair at the dorsal side, ovate; petals elliptical, 
subrotundate at tBe apex, with elongate, brownish, or shortly linear dots; stamens with 
large, ovate-elliptical, somewhat acuminate anthers, slightly papillose; ovary glabrous, ovoid, 
style shert and thick, stigma obtuse, very obscurely 5-angular; drupe globose, 4 mm. 

This species was first collected by V. Knudsen (no. 191) of Kauai. It grows 
in the outskirts of the forests of Halemanu and Kaholuamano on Kauai. Speci- 
mens which evidently belong to this species were collected by the writer in the 
type locality (Halemanu) flowering (no. 1567) Febr. 14, 1909; and in Milolii 
gorge (no. 2355) Febr. 26, 1909. In this latter form the young leaves are 
membraneous and puberulous ; without flower or fruit. 

The typical Suttonia kauaiensis was collected in the forests of Kaholuamano, 
at an elevation of 3800 feet, flowering March, 1909, (no. 2359). The pedicels 
are glabrous, as well as the flowers, with the exception of the ciliate margin of 
sepals and petals ; the leaves are subemarginate at the base. 

Suttonia Wawraea Mez. 

SUTTONIA WAWRAEA Mez Das Pflzreich 9. IV. 236. (1902) 335. Myrsine Gaudichaudii 
var. hirsuta Wawra in Flora (1874) 524. Myrsine Kauaiensis var. hirsuta Hbd. 
in Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 281; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 227. 

A small tree or shrub; young branches densely and shortly covered v/ith a turbid 
brown-ferruginous tomentum; leaves on petioles of 4 mm, elliptical or obovate-elliptical, 
somewhat obtuse at the apex, 8-16 cm long, 40-60 mm wide, the medium nerve covered 
with an appressed reddish tomentum, the under side of the young leaves with a scattered 
pubescence of the same color, prominently reticulate on both sides, the upper side glabrous, 
punctulate, with transparent dots; flowers 6-10, 14 mm long, pedicels densely tomentose 5-7 
mm long; flowers densely tomentose, sepals connate at the base one-fourth their length, 
ovate, somewhat acute, with the margins very densely "illous-ciliate; petals linear, anthers 
barbellate at the apex; stigma in the female flowers echiuate-capitulate; drupe dark 
bluish, glaucous, globose 8 mm in diameter, crowned by the persistent stigma; seeds globose, 
many-ribbed, 6 mm in diameter, endocarp thin, papery. 

368 



Myrsinaceae. 

This exceedingly interesting and handsome species, which is undoubtedly very 
closely related to S. Kauaiensis, occurs only in the very dense forest of the in- 
terior of Kauai, often bordering the extensive bogs. It is quite conspicuous on 
account of its dark green leaves which are dark reddish pubescent underneath, 
and also for its fruits, which are blackish blue with glaucous hue. It rarely 
attains a height of more than 12 feet and is often shrubby ; the writer collected 
it on the borders of the bog Kauluwehi, elevation 4300 feet, in the heart of the 
Kauai forests, fruiting October, 1911, (no. 10229) ; and flowering, Kaholuamano 
forests (no. 2362), March 3-10, 1909; (no. 5956) fruiting from the tabular 
summit of Kauai Sept. 4, 1909. Abbe Faurie flowering March, 1910, (no. 424). 

Suttonia lanaiensis (Hbd.) Mez. 

SUTTONIA LANAIENSIS (Hbd.) Mez Das Pflzenreich 9. IV. 326. (1902) 336. Myrsine 
Lanaiensis Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 281. Del Cast. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pae. VII. (1892) 
227. 

A small tree, glabrous throughout, the bark of the rather stiff branches covered with 
lenticels; leaves on petioles of 4-18 mm, elliptical, or obovate-oblong, shortly acute at the 
base, moderately acuminate at the apex, pale, dull, membraneous to chartaceous, minutely 
dotted above, very obscurely so underneath, 85 mm or more long, 40-60 mm wide, flowers 
rameal and in the axils of leaves, flowers usually 5-8 or even more, pedicels 5-6 mm, 
slender, glabrous; flowers 3 mm long; sepals almost free, ovate to suborbicular, with the 
margins papillose-fimbriate; petals elliptico-lanceolate, subacute, dotted with black roundish 
dots or lines; anthers ovate, subacute, the apex papillulose; ovary ovoid, narrowed toward 
the apex, .glabrous, style none, stigma large, pulvinate; drupe globose, depressed 5-6 mm in 
diam. reddish, with chartaceous putamen, 1-seeded, with the rudiments of 2 or three ovules; 
embryo arcuately curved in horny albumen. 

This handsome species, which has hitherto been thought to be peculiar to the 
Island of Lanai, has also been collected on the eastern part of Maui in open dry 
gulches back of Makawao at an elevation of 2500 feet, where it reaches a height 
of 30 feet. 

It is exceedingly common on the Island of Lanai in the open dry gulches, 
such as Kaiholena, Mahana and Koele, where it is a small tree, and quite con- 
spicuous on account of its pale, graceful foliage, which has always a pinkish 
tint. It is associated with Rauwolfia sandwicensis, Xanthoxylum hawaiiense 
var. ft., Pisonia sandwicensis, and many others. 

It is collected by the writer on Lanai, flowering July 27, 1910, (no. 8027) ; 
and flowering and fruiting Sept., 1910, (no. 8533) in a gulch above Makawao, 
Island of Maui. 

Var. coriacea Rock var. nov. 

A tree with stout and robust branches; leaves thick coriaceous, ovate-oblong, somewhat 
shining above, copper colored on both sides, dull underneath, prominently veined, very 
minutely punctate above, subacute or slightly emarginate at the apex, somewhat acute at 
the base, slightly contracted on puberulous stout petioles of 10-12 mm; flowers 8, on stout 
pedicels of 6 mm, glabrous, otherwise as in the species; fruit not seen. 

Of this variety only one tree was observed in the xerophylous forest on the 
western end of Lanai, called Kaa, where a remnant of what must have been 

369 

24 



Myrsinaceae. 

once an interesting forest is still to be found. The tree was at once conspicu- 
ous by its thick leathery bronze colored leaves; it was just beginning to flower. 
It is associated with Osmanthus sandwicensis, Xylosma Hillebrandii, and Maba 
sandwicensis. From a distance the tree looked almost exactly like a Sideroxylon 
or Chrysophyllum. Collected flowering July 27, 1910, (no. 8078), type in the 
Herbarium of the College of Hawaii. 

Suttonia Fernseei Mez. 

SUTTONIA FEENSEEI Mez. in Das Pflzenreich 9. IV. 236. (1902) 336. Myrsine G-audi- 

chaudii var. grandifolia Wawra in Flora (1874) 524. 

Branches very thick, at the very apex beset with minute ferruginous scales; leaves 
on petioles of 7 mm or more, elongate and narrowly elliptical, acute at the base, shortly 
contracted, 210 mm or more long, 65 mm broad, membranaceous to chartaceous, somewhat 
shining, reticulate; flowers 5-8, 12 mm or more long, pedicels slender, glabrous, 8 nun; 
flowers 3 mm long, glabrous; sepals connate one-third their length, the lobes triangular, 
with the margins densely ciliate, petals acute, very obscurely marked with lines; anthers 
of the female flowers little reduced, acute; ovary glabrous, with a sessile capitate stigma. 

This species named by Mez in honor of Wawra, Ritter von Fernsee, was col- 
lected by the latter on the Island of Kauai (no. 2019). It is not known to the 
writer. It may, however, be identical with an exceeding^ large Suttonia tree 
with a trunk of 2 feet in diameter, and very large leaves, found at Opaiwela 
near Kaholuamano, Kauai. Owing to the size of the tree it was impossible to 
secure specimens. The writer did not meet with any other tree of this sort, and 
was assured by Mr. Francis Gay of Kauai, who is more familiar with the Kauai 
forests than any other man, that the one in question is the only one known 
to him in the surrounding forests. 

On the Koolau range on the Island of Oahu, in the mountains of Punaluu, the 
writer collected specimens of a Suttonia (no. 473) but without flower or fruit, 
whose leaves answer well Mez's description of 8. Fernseei, and it is here doubt- 
fully referred to that species. Among the numerous duplicates of the various 
Suttonia, the writer found a sheet numbered 2364 collected at Kaholuamano, 
Kauai, March, 1909, but without flower or fruit ; it must however be referred 
to S. Fernseei, as the leaves answer the description. 

Suttonia spathulata Rock sp. nov. 
Kolea. 

A small tree 6-8 m high, glabrous throughout; branches stiff, more or less ascending; 
leaves decidedly spathulate, bluntly acute at the apex or rounded, thick fleshy, rather 
succulent, on short margined petioles of 5-8 mm, or often subsessile, dark green above, light 
underneath, petioles reddish, veins quite inconspicuous, sparingly punctate with minute 
black dots, 5-7.5 cm long, 2-3 cm wide; branchlets densely flowered their whole length, 
(flowers unknown); fruits usually 4-6 in a cluster on pedicels of 10 mm, bracts broad, 
triangular; pedicels and the persistent ovate sepals glabrous, the latter with slightly 
fimbriate margins; fruit globose, black, 6 mm in diameter, crowned by the stigma. 

This rather striking species is a small tree of 15-20 feet or little more^ and is 
peculiar to Mt. Haleakala, Maul, where it grows on the northwest slope at an 
elevation of 6500 feet in the gulches back of the extinct crater of Puunianiau, 

370 



Myrsinaceae. 

associated with Dodonaea eriocarpa, Argyroxiphium virescens, Raillardia platy- 
pkylla; S ant alum Haleakalae, Geranium arbor eum, and others. 

It was collected by the writer fruiting on Oct. 11, 1910. The type is number 
8591 in the Herbarium of the College of Hawaii. 

It is at once distinguished from other Suttonia by its small spathulate, very 
thick leaves, and branchlets, which are densely covered with the rather large 
fruits. In the dry specimens the leaves turn pale and the fruits yellowish. 

Suttonia volcanica Rock sp. nov. 
Kolea. 

A small tree 4-5 m high, with slender branches, glabrous throughout; leaves dark green, 
very prominently and pale veined, midrib red, pale underneath, not dotted, thin chartaceous, 
shining above, dull underneath, ovate-oblong, bluntly acuminate or acute, or slightly obtuse, 
rounded at the base, 5-10 cm long, 2-4.5 cm wide, on somewhat margined petioles of 6-8 
mm; the slender branchlets densely covered with mature fruits; (flowers unknown); fruits 
2-8 in a cluster on very slender glabrous pedicels of 6-8 mm; bracts reddish-brown, dentiform 
to linear, the persistent calyx parted two-third its length into 5-7 triangular lobes of 
1 mm, with slightly ciliate margins; fruit subglobose or rather spheroidal, black when 
mature, very small for a Suttonia, 3-4 mm in diameter, glabrous, crowned by the stigma. 

This species is remarkable for its very small fruits, which are densely clus- 
tered around the slender branchlets, and for its leaves, which are chartaceous, 
thin, and prominently veined, but not punctate. It was found by the writer 
on the great central plain between Mauna Loa and Mt. Hualalai on Hawaii on 
the cinder slopes of a crater called Puuokeanue, at an elevation of 5300 feet in 
company with Solatium incompletum, S ant alum Freycinetianum, and Raillardia 
sp. It was collected fruiting Feb. 13, 1912. The type is no. 10230 in the Her- 
barium of the College of Hawaii. 

Var. lavarum Rock var. nov. 

Leaves elliptical-oblong, to oblong-lanceolate, of the same texture and venation as the 
species, obscurely acute, or obtuse, slightly contracted at the base, dark green above, dull 
and lighter underneath, not punctate, 6-12 cm long, 2-3.5 cm wide, on black petioles 10-15 
mm, inflorescence in fascicles, mainly in leaf-axils and also along the branches but not 
very numerous; inflorescence of 8 flowers, on slender pedicels 4-7 mm, bracts as in the 
species; calyx parted one-half its length into 5-7 ovate rounded lobes with ciliate margins; 
petals pubescent with ciliate-fimbriate margins, densely punctate with rather large black 
dots; anthers sagittate, with pubescent apex; ovary globose, with sessile capitate stigma; 
fruits as in the species, little larger. 

The variety lavarum occurs on the southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Maui, 
on the aa lava fields of Auahi, on the land of Kahikinui, an exceedingly dry 
locality at an elevation of 2000 feet. It was collected by the writer flowering 
and fruiting November, 1910. The type is number 8678 in the College of 
Hawaii Herbarium. 

It is a small tree and quite distinct from Suttonia Lessertiana and its numer- 
ous variations, which occur at little higher elevation in the same locality. In 
texture and venation of leaf, shape and size of fruit, as well as general aspeet, 
it is almost identical with Suttonia volcanica from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, of which 
it is here made a variety. 

371 



PLATE 149. 




SUTTONIA LESSERTIANA (A. DC.) Mez. 

Kolea. 

Flowering branch, from a tall tree found in the rain forests of Naalehu, Kau, Hawaii; 

one-half natural size. 



Myrsinaceae. 
Suttonia Knudsenii Rock sp. nov. 

A small tree or shrub, branches tortuose, glabrous; leaves ovate to obovate, or subor- 
bicular, glabrous on both sides, venation prominent, reticulated, the margins revolute, 
quite opaque, sparingly punctate underneath, dark green, with glaucous hue, shining above, 
dull beneath, quite chartaceous, 4.5-7 cm long, 3-4.5 cm wide, on petioles of 2-4 mm; 
inflorescence fasciculated at intervals of 15 mm along the slender branchlets and in the 
axils of the leaves, of 3-12 flowers, puberulous, pedicels of 2-2.5 mm, the bracts 1 mm, 
triangular, with ciliate margins; calyx 2 mm, parted more than half its length into acute 
lobes, densely punctate, with fimbriate margins, corolla twice as long as the calyx, orna- 
mented with dark dots, anthers oblong, puberulous at the apex, ovary ovoid, with distinct 
style; fruit unknown. 

This exceedingly handsome species is peculiar to the Island of Kauai and is 
only found in the forests of Halemanu, in the interior swampy woods ; it is dis- 
tinguished from the other Suttonias by its thin leaves which are ovate to suborbi- 
cular and are of a glaucous color, and in the very shortly pedicellate red flowers. 
It is a striking species and is here named for Mr. Augustus Knudsen, of Waiawa, 
Kauai, to whom the \vriter is greatly indebted for extended hospitality and 
facilities for collecting in the mountains of Kauai. The type is number 2337 
in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. Collected February 14-26, 1909, Hale- 
manu, Kauai, flowering. 

A form with somewhat smaller leaves, which are acute at the apex instead 
of rounded, and more elliptical in outline, must be referred here as forma 
elliptica'hn. nov. (no. 1661), flowering, February, 1909, Halemanu, Kauai. 

Suttonia Hillebrandii Mez. 
Kolea. 

SUTTONIA HILLEBKANDII Mez Das Pflzenreich 9. IV. 236. (1908) 337. 

Branches entirely glabrous, leaves on petioles of about 3 mm, acute at the base, 
shortly contracted, quite acuminate at the apex, rarely somewhat obtuse, about 50 mm 
long, 20 mm broad, not punctate; inflorescence 5 or more flowered, 10 mm long, pedicels 
slender, glabrous, 7 mm long sepals 1/3 connate, the lobes ovate somewhat acute, the 
margins remotely dentate and ciliate, lineate; ovary globose, stigma thick capituliform. 

This species, which is not known to the writer, was collected by Wawra on 
the Island of Kauai, evidently at Halemanu. There are several forms found 
on the Island of Oahu which are certainly referable to this species; some of 
them are varieties. 

On the Island of Oahu in the Koolau range, Mountains of Waikane, the 
writer collected specimens of a tree which is a good variety and may be de- 
scribed as follows: 

Var, emarginata Rock var. nov. 

A small tree; leaves lanceolate oblong, glabrous throughout, chartaceous, 3.5 to 
8 cm long, 12 to 15 mm wide, contracting at the base into a slightly margined petiole of 
2 to 3 mm, veins prominent; intramarginal nerve continuous and very close to the edge, 
rounded at the apex and always emarginate; dark green above, lighter beneath; in- 
florescence in the axils of the leaves and along the branchlets, 3 to 8 flowered, pedicels 
slender, puberulous, as are the petals, which are sparingly punctulate with reddish dots 
or even lined; stamens oblong, little shorter than the petals; ovary ovoid, style distinct; 
fruits large, black, 8 to 9 mm in diameter. 

373 



PLATE 150. 




SUTTONIA LESSERTIANA (K. DC.) Mez. 

Kolea. 

Fruiting branch from a stunted tree found on open exposed ridges on Mt. Konahuanui, 
Oahu; about one-half natural size. 



Myrsinaceae. 

In Niu Valley, Oahu, occurs a small tree which belongs to this variety. In 
specimens from the latter locality the fruits are densely clustered along the 
branchlets, especially on defoliate ones, making them appear like axillary 
racemes. 

Collected flowering (no. 1217)) January 23, 1909, AVaikane Mts., Oahu, and 
Niu Valley, fruiting Aug. 22, 1909 (no. 4807), and Feb. 8, 1913, fruiting (no. 
10232), same locality. 

Suttonia Lessertiana (A. DC.) Mez. 

Kolea. 
(Plates 149, 150, 151.) 

SUTTONIA LESSERTIANA (A.DC.) Mez Das Pflzenreich 9. IV. 236. (1902) 336; Pax 
in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. Nachtr. IV. 1. (1908) 278. Brigham Ka Hana Kapa 
in Mem. B. P. Bish. Mus. (1911) 148. fig. 89. Myrsine Lessertiana A. DC. in 
Ann. Sc. Nat. 2. Ser. XVI. (1841) 85 et in DC. Prodr. VIII. (1844) 96; Gray 
in Proc. Am. Acad. V. (1862) 331; Seem. Fl. Vit. (1866) 149; Mann in Proc. 
Am. Acad. VII. (1866) 188; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 279; Del Cast. 111. Ins. 
Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 227; Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. IX. (1897) 874. 
Myrsine Gaudichaudii Wawra (non DC.) in Flora (1874) 523; Gray 1. c. 331; 
Seem. 1. c.; Mann 1. c. 188; Hbd. 1. e. 280; Heller 1. c. 873. Myrsine 
Fauriei Levl. in Fedde Kepert. X. 10-14. (1911) 154. Suttonia Fauriei Levl. in 
Fedde Eepert. X. 24-26. (1912) 373. Suttonia cuneata Levl. et Faurie in Fedde 
Repert. X. 27-29. (1912) 443 ; Suttonia pukooensis Levl. 1. c. 444. 

Branches thick or very thick, quite glabrous, old ones verrucous; leaves very shortly 
petioled or often broadly sessile, broad or narrow elliptical, or elliptical-lanceolate or 
obovate, somewhat obtuse at both ends or rounded at the apex, often acut at the base, of 
variable length and width, coriaceous, the adult leaves densely and minutely punctulate 
above with black dots, the veins little prominent and connected by a straight marginal 
nerve; flowers in the axils of the oldest leaves and all along the branchlets and on pro- 
jecting spurs of the bare branches, in fascicles of 3 to 7 or more, pedicels slender, glabrous, 
5 to 6 mm with flowers, and longer with fruits; flowers 3 to 3.5 mm long, glabrous, sepals 
shortly (1/5) united at the base, lobes 5 to 7 ovate somewhat acute, the margins very 
shortly fimbriate; petals broadly elliptical twice the length of the calyx, yellowish with 
reddish dots, apex obtuse, the margin papillose; stamens little shorter than the petals, 
anthers ovate, apex papillulose, emarginate at the base; ovary ovoid-conical, stigma sessile 
or on a short style, capitate, fimbriate or 5-laciniate on the fruit; drupe globose, reddish 
or black, 4 to 6 mm with chartaceous pyrena. 

This species is one of the most variable ones in the genus, and that to such 
an extent that hardly two trees are alike. The leaves are the most variable 
part of the plant ; also shape and branching habit vary greatly. It certainly is a 
graceful tree in the rain forests of Oahu and Hawaii, as well as on the other 
islands of the Hawaiian group. Should one undertake to describe all the vari- 
ous forms as new species, as H. Leveille did, one would certainly be naming 
individuals, and swell the synonyms of Suttonia Lessertiana, into which most 
of II. Leveille species have wandered to remain there forever; the remaining 
ones are synonyms of S. sandwicensis. 

As already stated the species occurs on all the islands of the group in many 
forms which are too numerous to cite, but have been incorporated in the de- 
scription to some extent. The trees reach often a height of 60 feet or so, 
with a trunk of one to two feet in diameter, and clothed in a gray bark which 

375 



PLATE 151. 




SUTTONIA LESSERTIANA (A. DC.) Mez. 

Kolea Tree. 
Growing in the Kipuka Puaulu, near the Volcano of Kilauea, Hawaii, elevation 4000 feet. 



Myrsinaceae. 

is either smooth or covered with lenticels; when cut into, a red sap exudes 
very freely, which was employed by the natives of by-gone days for dyeing 
the tapa or paper cloth. The wood is quite handsome, of a pink color and mot- 
tled throughout. It is not very hard, but was used by the natives for house 
posts and beams ; it takes a fine polish and could be employed for cabinet work 
as it can be easily worked. The biggest trees the writer observed on the Island 
of Hawaii on the slopes of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, as well as in Waihou 
forest on the flanks of Mt. Hualalai. It favors an elevation of from 3000-4000 
feet, but descends lower on Oahu, though higher on Hawaii. It grows in the rain 
forests, though its best development is attained in the more open park-like for- 
ests situated on the above mentioned mountains. 

On the Island of Lanai occurs a tree which must be referred to S. Lessertiana, 
but from which it differs in the decidedly ovate fruits, or even elongate-ovate, 
and is here named forma ovicarpa fm. nov. Collected in Mahana Valley, Lanai, 
fruiting Aug. 1st, 1910 ; no. 8102. 

Suttonia sandwicensis (A. DC.) Mez. 
Kolea laulii. 
(Plate 152.) 

SUTTONIA SANDWICENSIS (A. DC.) Mez Das Pflanzenreich 9. IV. 236. (1902) 336. 
Myrsine sandwicensis A. DC. in Ann. Sc. Nat. 2. S'er. XVI. (1841.) 85 et in DC. 
Prodr. VIII. (1844) 96; Gray Proc. Am. Ac. V. (1862) 331; Seem. Fl. Vit. 
(1866) 149; Mann Proc. Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 188; Wawra in Flora (1874) 
523?; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 281; Pax in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 1. 
(1889) 92; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 227: Heller in Miniies. 
Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 874 (not Myrsine lanceolate). Myrsine Vanioti Levl. 
in Fedde Kepert. X. 10/14. (1911) 157. Myrsine sandwicensis var. mauiensis 
Lev!. 1. c. 157. M. sandwicensis var. punctata Levl. 1. c. 157. Suttonia mauiensis 
(Levl.) Levl. in Fedde Eepert. X. 27/29 444. S. punctata (Levl.) Levl. 1. c. 
144, identical with Myrsine sandwicensis DC. var. f3 denticulata Hbd. 1. c. 

A small tree or shrub of myrtillaceous habit, with the young branches somewhat 
tomentulose, or in Kauai specimens covered with a rufous tomei.'tum. leaves on petioles of 
up to 3 mm, obovate or lanceolate-obovate, acute at the base, emarginate at the apex, 14 
to 24 mm long, 6 to 10 mm broad, coriaceous, with hidden veins, quite opaque, rugose 
underneath, glabrous, the 3 r oung leaves often densely punctulate with reddish dots; in- 
florescence of 3 to 7 flowers, on not protruding gemmae, the pedicels 4 to 6 mm; flowers 
2 to 2.5 inm long; sepals little connate, ovate, the margins papillulose-ciliate; petals 
elliptical-lanceolate, acute, scarcely twice as long as the sepals, yellowish or reddish, with 
reddish-brown streaks; stamens only half as long as the corolla, anthers shortly acuminate 
at the apex; ovary ovoid, gabrous, stigma subsessile, large, capitate-pulvinate; drupe black 
or bluish aud glaucous, globose or ovoid, 3 to 5 mm in diameter. 

This very handsome species is usually found as a shrub, but also as a tree, 
especially in the forest of the southern slopes of Mauna Loa at an elevation 
of 5500 feet, where it attains a height of 25 feet. It is quite conspicuous in the 
woods on account of its small foliage which is less than an inch long, dark 
green above and pale underneath. It occurs on all the islands of the group 
and is more or less uniform, with the exception of on Kauai, where it is quite 

377 



PLATE 152. 




SUTTONIA SANDWICENSIS (A. DC.) Mez. 

Kolea Laulii. 
Flowering branch, about one-half natural size. 



Myrsinaceae. 

variable. It is plentiful in different forms in the forests of Halemanu, above 
AVaimea, Kauai, where it is a small tree or shrub. 

It is not found at low elevations where 8. Lessertiana abounds, but is more 
or less restricted to the higher levels, that is between 3000-5500 feet, or occa- 
sionally even higher. To this species are referred Leveille's numerous new 
species, which are not even forms of 8. sandwicensis. His 8. punctata is identical 
with Hillebrand's var. ft. denticulata a low shrub, which occurs on the high 
plateau of Kauai in open bogs, or often also in the swampy forests. The 
writer had at his disposal co-types of Leveille's plants, which were kindly loaned 
to him by the Brothers of the Catholic school of Hilo, to whom Abbe Faurie sent 
one set of his duplicates. With the help of these plants the writer was en- 
abled to straighten out Leveille's species, which could not have been done satis- 
factorily with Leveille's short description only. 

Var. apodocarpa (Levl.) Rock. 

Suttonia apodocarpa Levl. et Faurie in Fedde Kepertor. X. 27/29 (1912) 44. 

Leaves linear, indistinctly multipunctate, 1 to 2 cm long, 2 to 5 mm wide, acuminate 
glabrous, rugulose, with revolute margin, subpetiolate, long attenuate, fruits usually single 
or 2 to 4 in a cluster, on very short pedicels, (according to Leveille sessile, but his specimen 
at my disposal bears neither flower nor fruit) globose, 3 to 4 mm, crowned by the capitate 
stigma. Abbe Faurie 's number is 446, coll. Waimea, Kauai, Febr., 1910. 

The writer's own material of this plant, which is not specifically distinct from 
8. sandwicensis,, but is a variety, was collected on the central plateau of Kauai in 
September, 1909, fruiting no. 5605. Hillebrand's var. ft.denticulata occurs also 
in that locality, flowering and fruiting no. 4967, Sept., 1909, and Oct., 1911. 

Suttonia lanceolata (Wawra) Rock. 
Kolea. 

Myrsine saruiwicensis var. lanceolata Wawra in Flora (1874) 526. Myrsine 
lanceolata Heller in Minnes. Bot. Bull. IX. (1897) 873, not M. angustifolia, 
Heller Suttonia angustifolia Mez Das Pflzenreich 9. IV. 236. (1902) 337. 

Branches slender, glabrous, nodose, dark reddish brown, foliate only at the apex; 
leaves, linear-lanceolate, dark green above, pale underneath, caudate-acuminate at the 
apex, acute at the base, sessile or subsessile, minutely reticulate underneath, minutely 
punctulate above, with black dots, 40 to 65 mm long, 5 to 8 mm wide; flowers single or 
two in the axils of the leaves on short pedicels of 2 mm; flowers 3 mm, glabrous, sepals 
ovate, subacute, sparingly punctate, half the length of the corolla; petals oblong, subacute, 
sparingly punctate, with a reddish thickened margin, stamens the height of the ovary, 
which is less than half the length of the petals, anthers acute, glabrous, ovary conical 
with a sessile capitate stigma; drupes usually on the naked branchlets, bluish-black, 
glaucous, 8 mm in diameter. 

This very distinct species is peculiar to the high mountains of Kauai, and is 
not uncommon at the summit of Kauai, Mt. Waialeale, elevation 5200 feet, where 
it grows as a small tree 15 feet or more in height in the open boggy country, in 
company with Labordea Waialealae, Pelea Waialealae, Dubautia paleata, 
Tctraplasandra ^Va^alealae, Lobelia Kauaiensis, and others. It is an exceedingly 

379 



Myrsinaceae-Sapotaceae. 

handsome species on account of its beautiful delicate foliage. Lower down, in 
the great bogs of Lehua makanoe and Kauluwehi (4500 feet) it is a shrub 8 
feet in height. 

Collected by the writer on September 24, 1909, fruiting (no. 4958), on the 
summit of Waialeale, Kauai, and flowering and fruiting October 20, 1911, (no. 
8887), Mt. Waialeale, Kauai. 

SAPOTACEAE:. 

The family Sapotaceae, which consists of about 445 species distributed in 
more than 31 genera, occurs in the tropics of the whole world, but is absent in 
Europe and extra-tropical Asia. In the Hawaiian Islands two genera are rep- 
resented: Chrysophyllum with a single species, and Sideroxylon with four dis- 
tinct species and several varieties, all of which are peculiar to these Islands. The 
Sapotaceae are characterized mainly by their milky sap, and regular cyclic con- 
struction of their flowers. All Sapotaceae are woody plants with entire leaves, 
save in a single exception. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Corolla 8 to 10 lobed, without staminodia, fruit small, black, olive shaped. 

Chrysophyllum 

Corolla 5 lobed, with staminodia, fruit large, globose or ovate Sideroxylon 

CHRYSOPHYLLUM L. 

Calyx with 5, rarely 6 to 7 imbricate lobes. Corolla with campanulate or short cylin- 
drical tube of 5, rarely 6 to 7, occasionally, as in the Hawaiian species, 8 to 10 imbricate 
segments. Stamens as many as segments in the corolla, filaments filiform; anthers short. 
ovoid, opening outside or laterally, occasionally abortive. Ovary 5 to 10 celled, pubescent. 
Style short, with small capitate stigma. Berry rarely more than one-celled, and with 
several compressed seeds; usually with one ovate or olive shaped seed, testa opaque, shin- 
ing. Cotyledons thin, foliaceous. Milky trees with alternate ovate or lanceolate leaves, 
without stipules. Flowers usually small, whitish or yellowish, shortly stipitate in axil- 
lary fascicles. 

The genus Chrysophyllum, with its 70 species, is mainly tropical and is most 
numerous in species in tropical America. 

In Hawaii the genus is represented by a single species, Ch. Polynesicum Hbd., 
which is peculiar to these Islands, and inhabits the dry regions on the leeward 
sides, but is by no means common. 

Chrysophyllum Polynesicum Hbd. 
Keahi. 

CHRYSOPHYLLUM POLYNESICUM Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 277;-Engler in Engl. 
et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 1. (1890) 149. Isonandra polynesica Benth. et Hook. Gen. 
PI. II. (1876) 658; Del. Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1892) 229. 

Branches stiff, cinereous; young leaves and inflorescence rusty-tomentose, leaves scat- 
tering, oblong or obovate 5 to 10 cm long, 5.5 to 5 cm wide, on petioles of 12 to 25 mm, 
rounded or emarginate at the apex, thick coriaceous, glabrate with age; flowers axillary on 
prominent nodes, 3 to 6 in a cluster, on pedicels of 4 to 6 mm, which are bracteate at the 

380 



Sapotaceae. 

base; calyx persistent, coriaceous, deeply 4 to o parted; corolla little longer 4 to 5 mm, 
urceolate, divided into twice as many lobes as the calyx; staminodia none; stamens 
inserted at the base of the corolla, as many as lobes; ovary hairy 4 to 5 celled; style 
angular; fruit a somewhat fleshy black shining olive-shaped berry with a thin fibrous 
endocarp, about 16 mm long, 1- rarely 2-seeded, the single seed ovoid, with thick, bony, 
shining, pale brown testa; hilum obliquely basal, leaving a broad roundish deep scar; 
embryo axillary, cotyledons oblong, obtuse, radicle very short, inferior. 

The Kealii is a medium-sized milky tree with a roundish crown, and rough 
drooping branches. The leaves resemble somewhat those of the Sapota pear, or 
more so the Alaa (Sideroxylon sandwicense) , and is hardly distinguishable from 
it when without fruit or flower. 

The flowers are borne all along the branchlets and very densely. It is a very 
prolifically bearing tree and can be found loaded with the black, olive-shaped 
shining fruits during the months of May to August. It inhabits the very dry 
regions on the leeward sides of most of the islands, and is very common on 
Lanai, where it grows in company with Sideroxylon sandwicense, S. spathu- 
latum, the leaves of which look all very much alike and when not in fruit are 
exceedingly difficult to distinguish. On Molokai it is also common, as well as 
on the Island of Maui on the slopes of Haleakala, district of Kahikinui, while it 
has so far not been found on Hawaii. Together with Sideroxylon, Nothoces- 
trum, Suttonia, Osmanthus, Reynoldsia, Gardenia, Antidesma, Bobea Hookeri, 
and Rauwolfia, it forms the typical dry forest at the lower elevation on Mt. 
Haleakala, on the lava fields of Auahi. 

The Kealii is peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands. As far as can be ascertained, 
the natives made no use of this tree, though the wood is quite hard and durable, 
while the fruits are not edible. 

SIDEROXYLON L. 

Flowers occasionally polygamous; caVyx lobes 5 to 6, imbricate; corolla broad-cam- 
panulate, with short or longer tube and 5 to 6 obtuse or acute segments. Staminodia 
5 to 6, petaloid, or only scale-like to filiform. Stamens 5 to 6, with short or long fila- 
ments and ovate to lanceolate anthers. Ovary glabrous or pubescent, 5 to 2 celled. Style 
short or long, with small stigma. Berry ovoid to globose, usually small or often large, 
with thin pericarp, with 5 to 2 seeds, more often one-seeded. Seeds with shining hard 
testa and elongate linear hilum; albuminous. Cotyledons broad, flat. Trees with usually 
coriaceous leaves, with and without stipules, and small sessile or peduncled flowers. 

A genus of over 100 species, occurring in the tropical and subtropical regions 
of the old and new world. In the Hawaiian Islands the genus is represented by 
several species usually growing in the dry districts on the lee sides on the various 
islands. Originally only two species were known from Hawaii, to which the 
writer had added two new ones. 

What has been said of the polymorphism of the genus Pittosporum in Hawaii, 
holds also good for the genus Sideroxylon. 

The tremendous variations which we find in the species growing in Hawaii 
make it indeed difficult to separate all these forms satisfactorily. The fruits 
of the Hawaiian Sideroxyla are of various shapes and colors, the largest fruits 

381 



_ PLATE 153. 




SIDEROXYLON SANDWICENSE (Gray) Benth. and Hook 

Alaa. 
Showing fruiting branch, about two-third natural size. 



Sapotaceae. 

occurring in 8. rliyncliospermnm Rock. They are ovoid and of a deep purplish 
black color. The fruits of 8. sandwicense (Gray) B. & H. are pear-shaped to 
ovoid and also black and long peduncled, while those of 8. auahiense Rock and its 
varieties on Hawaii are bright citron yellow, globose to top-shaped and sessile. 
The writer has collected large material of this genus from numerous localities. 
That 8. auahiense is a good species is brought out by the fact that the latter 
grows in company with 8. sandwicense with black ovoid fruits on the lava fields 
of Auahi, Maui, and nothing is more in contrast than to see these two species 
growing side by side, especially when loaded with respectively the bright yellow 
and the black fruits. On the slopes of Haleakala, back of Makawao, the writer 
collected specimens of a tree with large cone shaped, whitish-gray fruits, whose 
seeds differ decidedly from all the other Hawaiian species, while in the same 
locality only 50 yards off grew the typical 8. sandwicense. 

On Molokai occurs a very small-leaved species, which was unfortunately not 
in fruit, perhaps a form of 8. spathulatum Hillebr. from Lanai. On the latter 
island the writer collected the largest leaved Sideroxylon with long pear-shaped 
black fruits. Another form was in flower only, the latter being of exceedingly 
large size compared with the other Hawaiian Sideroxyla. All the specimens col- 
lected by the writer on Kauai are one seeded, while those from the other islands 
are all five seeded, save a few exceptions. 

The* Hawaiian species of Sideroxylon may be arranged as follows : 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Flowers 2 to 4, in clusters, pedicellate. 

Fruits globose ovoid to obovate, purplish black. 

Seeds thick, rounded at both ends S. sandwicense 

Seeds thin flat, beaked at both ends S. rhynchospermum 

Flowers single and sessile. 

Fruits globose citron or orange yellow. 

Seeds as in S. sandwicense but smaller S. auahiense 

Flowers 2 to 3, pedicellate. 

Fruits conical, brownish yellow. 

Seeds small, linear-elongate, dull S. spathulatum 

Flowers single, pedicellate. 

Fruits large conical, grayish-white. 

Seeds elliptical elongate, dull; radicle long, protruding S. Ceresolii 

Sideroxylon sandwicense (Gray) Benth. & Hook. 

Alaa or Aulu, Kaulu according to Hillebrand. 

(Plate 153.) 

SIDEROXYLON SANDWICENSE (Gray) Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. II. (1876) 655; 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888)) 276; Engi. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. I. (1890) 
144. fig. 77, L (Sect. VIII., in Nachtr. Sect. IX.); Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pao. VII. (1892) 288. Sapota Sandwicensis A. Gray in Proc. Am. Ac. V. (1862) 
328; H. Mann Prqc. Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 188; Wawra in Flora (1875) Ad- 
denda 252. 

Leaves coriaceous, obovate-oblong, on petioles of 2.5 to 3.5 cm, equally rounded at 
both ends, or contracted at the base, quite entire, old leaves glabrous on both faces, often 
clothed with a brownish pubescence underneath, shining above, veins prominent straight 

383 



PLATE 154. 







SIDEROXYLON RHYNCHOSPERMUM Bock. 

Alaa. 
Showing fruiting branch and seeds; about one-half natural size. 



Sapotaceae. 

and close, connected by an intra-marginal nerve; flowers in clusters of 2 to 4 on tomen- 
tose pedicels of about 20 mm; calyx 5 lobed, (3 int. 2 ext.) broadly ovate, covered with a 
rusty brown tomentnm, the two inner only pubescent on the exposed parts; corolla 
glabrous, slightly longer than the calyx, parted to little beyond the middle into 5 obtuse 
broad lobes, 6 mm, includ. the corolla tube; staminodia linear in front of the sinus; 
stamens inserted at the base of each lobe, perfectly glabrous, anthers sagittate, opening 
laterally, included; ovary conical densely hirsute with long stiff hair, 5-celled with one 
ascending ovule in each cell; style short, grooved at the apex; berry globose, or pear- 
shaped, to obovate, black, 3 cm in diameter, or 3 to 4.5 cm when obovate or ovate, 
rather dry, 5 to 1 seeded, each seed enclosed in a thin chartaceous pyrena, 20 mm long, 
8 mm thick when single, more or less compressed when many, the crustaceous testa yel- 
lowish brown and shining, the elongate scar of the raphe occupying nearly the whole 
central angle; cotyledons nearly as long and broad as the albumen, the minute radicle 
inferior. 

The Alaa is a fine tree of often 50 feet in height and is conspicuous in the 
forest by its leaves, which are of bronze to reddish brown color underneath, due 
to a hairiness of that color. It is usually found in the dry districts of nearly all 
the islands, and is especially common on Lanai in the valleys of Kaiholena and 
Mahana. On Maui big trees can be found above Makawao, in the gulches of the 
north-western slopes of Mt. Haleakala, as well as at Auahi, on the south side of 
the said mountain. On Hawaii this species is wanting, but the genus is repre- 
sented by another species, S. auahiense var. aurantium Rock, with globose orange 
colored sessile fruits. The natives employed the milky sap as a bird glue. Hille- 
brand remarks in his Flora that the fruit of this tree is rarely met with perhaps 
on account of dimorphism in the flower. This the writer cannot verify, as all 
the trees found by him bore fruit in abundance, with the exception of on Kauai, 
where none of the trees bore perfect fruits, but were all abortive and conse- 
quently of very small size. The fruits are not always globose, but are quite often 
ovate, obovate and even long pear-shaped and of a black color. It inhabits 
mainly the dry districts, but can also be found along the Manoa Valley trail and 
Tantalus on Oahu, as well as at Kahuku, Waialua, and the Waianae range. 

Hillebrand records a variety ft. auratum with leaves and calyx, as well as co- 
rolla, densely ferruginous. The flowers are also generally single. Collected by 
Hillebrand on the dry forehills of Molokai and Lanai. From the latter islands 
the writer collected material which he must refer to this variety, though the 
flowers are not always single but often two in each leaf axil. Rock, Lanai, Kai- 
holena Valley, July, 1910. No. 8064. 

Sideroxylon Ceresolii Rock spec. nov. 

Leaves perfectly glabrous when old, chartaceous, (not thick leathery) obovate-oblong, 
bluntly acuminate, gradually tapering into a margined petiole of 2.5 to 3 cm; fruits single 
in the axils of the leaves, on peduncles of 5 mm, berry ovoid, acuminate at the apex, 
grayish-white in color, very soft and fleshy, 4 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, yellowish inside, 
5-seeded, seeds elliptical-elongate, acute at both ends but not beaked, or somewhat obtuse, 
thin flat, dull brown, mottled, 24 mm long, 10 rnm wide at the middle, testa rather thin, 
the raphe not quite as long as the ventral angle; cotyledons as broad as the albumen but 
only 2/3 its length, the inferior radicle 8 mm long, protruding half its length. 

Collected on the Island of Maui in Waihou gulch on the northwestern slope 
of Mt. Haleakala, elevation 3000 feet, in company with my friend, Dr. P. Cere- 

385 

25 



PLATE 155. 




SIDEROXYLON RHYNCHOSPERMUM Rock. 

Alaa. 
Showing fruits and seeds about natural size. 



Sapotaceae. 

sole, after whom the tree is named. Rock & Ceresole, March, 1912; type in 
College of Hawaii Herbarium, No. 10150. 

A medium-sized tree 20 to 30 feet in height with straight ascending branches. 
The fruit and seeds of this species differ very materially from all other known 
Hawaiian Sideroxyla. 

Sideroxylon rhynchospermum Rock. 

Alaa. 
(Plates 154, 155.) 

SIDEROXYLON RHYNCHOSPERMUM Kock in Torrey Bot. CJ. Bull. Vol. 37, 6. (1910) 
29o, fig. 2 & 3 a. b. et Eeport Hawn. Bd. Com. Agr. & For. (1911) 84, pi. 21. 

A tree 10 to 20 m high, dividing freely into ascending branches; bark brownish, with 
shallow, narrow longitudinal corrugations about 3 mm thick, trunk up to 45 cm in diam. 
four feet from the ground; leaves coriaceous, obovate oblong 14 to 18 cm x 4.5 to 8 cm, 
on petioles 2.5 to 3 cm, alternate, exstipulate, quite glabrous with age, some pubescence 
remaining on the sides and angles of midrib and veins, especially on the lower surface, 
shining above, dull beneath, midrib prominent, with lateral veins leaving midrib at wide 
angles, parallel and connected with a continuous intra-marginal nerve; young leaves 
densely covered with appressed brown hair on both surfaces; flowers in cluster 2 or 3 on 
tomentose pedicels 12 to 20 mm long; calyx 5 parted to near the base, lobes acute, 3 to 5 
mm; corolla light yellow, longer than the calyx, 4 to 5 parted to the base, lobes acute; 
staminodia half as long linear; stamens 5, inserted at the base of the corolla, glabrous, 
anthers ovate, the cells confluent at the apex, opening laterally; ovary hirsute, 5-celled, 
style short; fruit a purplish black plum-like berry 4.5 to 5.5 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, rather 
fleshy, 3 to 5 seeded; seeds enclosed in a papery pyrena 25 to 30 mm x 12 to 14 mm, 
perfectly* flat, about 3 mm thick, beaked at both ends of the ventral angle, which is occu- 
pied by the sear of the raphe, the crustaceous testa thin, of a light brown color. 

This rather handsome tree was first collected by Dr. H. L. Lyon in the woods 
of Xahiku, on the north-eastern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Maui, at an elevation 
of 1300 feet. The species differs from the other Hawaiian Sideroxyla in the 
large black ovoid fruits and mainly in the very flat thin-beaked seeds. It grows 
in the rain forest of Nahiku, where precipitation is exceedingly heavy; while 
most of the other Hawaiian Sideroxyla are peculiar to the dry regions. When 
the writer visited the forests of Nahiku in the year 1911, the trees were neither 
in flower nor in fruit. The trees are not very abundant, but only individual 
trees could be seen scattered through the forest. 

Sideroxylon auahiense Rock. 
Alaa. 

SIDEROXYLON AUAHIENSE Rock Coll. Haw. Publ. Bot. Bull. 1. (1911) 18. pi. 5. 

Leaves coriaceous, pale green, glabrous on both sides when old, shining above, covered 
with a gray silvery tomentum when young, elliptical oblong, bluntly acuminate or rounded, 
8 to 12 cm long, 4 to 6 cm wide, on petioles of 3 to 4 cm, veins parallel leaving midrib 
at wide angles of about 80; flowers single, rarely two in the axils of the alternate leaves, 
calyx hirsute, 5 parted to near the base, the lobes rounded, corolla lobes 5, obtuse, 
staminodia shorter than the lobes, 5, triangular; stamens wanting in the female flowers; 
ovary hirsute with a dense circle of long reddish hair at its base, 5-celled; style short 
conical; berry sessile or subsessile, pale citron yellow, with a grayish hue, rather globose 
with the apex drawn out into a short acumen; 3.5 to 4.5 cm in diam., bright yellow inside, 
quite fleshy; seeds 20 mm long, 10 mm wide, enclosed in a thin papery pyrena, the thick 
hard testa pale yellow, with reddish spots, shining; the scar of the raphe shorter than the 
ventral angle; cotyledons broad, the minute radicle inferior. 

387 



PLATE 156. 




SIDEROXYLON AUAHIENSE var. AURANTIUM Rock var. nov. 

Alaa. 

Showing fruiting branch with mature fruits; specimen from Kapua, South Kona. 
Less than one-half natural size. 



PLATE 157. 




SIDEROXYLON AUAHIENSE var. AURANTIUM Eock var. nov. 

Alaa. 

Fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree, showing thick scaly bark. Growing on 
the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii. 



PLATE 158. 




SIDEROXYLON AUAHIENSE var. AURANTIUM Rock var. nov. 

Alaa Tree. 
Growing at Puuwaawaa, on the lava fields of Mt. Hualalai, North Kona, Hawaii. 



Sapotaceae. 

This species, which is a tree 25 to 30 feet high, has a rather broad round crown, 
and pale glaucous, terete, glabrous branches. The tree differs from S. sand- 
wicense mainly in its pale yellow sessile fruits, in its single unisexual flowers, and 
very pale glabrous foliage. It was discovered by the writer during the month 
of November, 1910, on the Island of Maui, southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, on 
the lava fields of Auahi, district of Kahikinui, elevation 3000 feet. It grows in 
company with Alectryon macrococcus, Pelca multiflora, Pterotropia dipyrena and 
Siderojcylon sandicicense, as well as with another Sideroxylon with perfectly 
globose, orange-colored fruits which are smaller than in the species in question, 
and may be described as follows: 

Var. aurantium Rock var. nov. 
(Plates 156, 157, 158.) 

Leaves elliptical-ovate to linear-oblong, acuminate or rounded at the apex, covered 
with a bronze-colored tomentum underneath, pale green and dull above; flowers single; 
fruits perfectly sessile deep orange-colored, globose, 2 to 2.5 cm in diam., one to five 
seeded, seeds smaller than in the species, enclosed in a thick pergameneous pyrena. 

This variety is a medium-sized tree, of different habit than the species, with 
straight ascending branches. The biggest tree the writer observed on the lava 
fields of Puuwaawaa, North Kona, Hawaii, with trunks of nearly two feet in 
diameter, and clothed in a thick gray very rough bark, while the younger trees 
have a smooth grayish-white bark. The variety occurs on the Island of Hawaii 
in North and South Kona, as well as at Auahi, Maui, and can be distinguished 
at a glance from the species, even at a distance. 

SIDEROXYLON SPATHULATUM Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 277; Engl. in Engl. et 
Prantl Pflzfam. IV. i. (1890) 144;-Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 
228; Eock Coll. Haw. Publ. Bot. Bull. 1. (1911) 20. Sapota sandwicensis var. /3 
Gray Proc. Am. Acad. V. (1862) 328. 

A small stiff-branched tree or shrub 4 to 5 m in height; leaves spathulate or elliptico- 
oblong, bluntly acuminate, contracting into a margined petiole of 12 to 18 mm, rusty- 
tomentose underneath, thick coriaceous, with the veins little prominent; flowers single or 
in clusters of 2 to 3, on short pedicels of 2 to 4 mm; calyx and corolla rusty-tomentose 
4 mm high, their lobes somewhat acute; stamens inserted at the middle of the corolla, at 
the base of the lobes, the short filaments slightly reflected, not hairy below, the anthers 
apiculate; staminodia broad, half the width of the lobes; ovary hairy, with short style; 
berry dark orange colored and glabrous when mature, covered with a rufous tomentum 
when young, 3.5 cm long, by little over 2 cm wide, conical in outline, with an acuminate 
apex, 5-seeded, each seed enclosed in a membraneous yellow pyrena, 20 mm long, 7 mm 
wide, rounded at both ends, grayish-brown, rather dull, linear elongate, cotyledons nearly 
as long and broad as the albumen, radicle about 3 mm long and superior, fruit flesh 
light yellow. 

This species is quite common on the Island of Lanai in the valleys of Kai- 
holena and Mahana, as well as on the windward side toward Halepalaua, and 
in the Kaa forest. It grows in company with ChrysOphyttum polynesicum, 
Bobea Hooker i, Osmanthus sandwicensis, etc. The writer met with this same 
species on the southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, on the lava fields of Auahi, at 
an elevation of 2000, near the government road, in company with Reynoldsia 
sandwicensis, Antidesma pulvitiatum, etc. 

391 



Sapotaceae. 

Var. /? densiflorum Hbcl. 

Leaves large 7.5 em long, generally glabrous when old; flowers in clusters of 4 to 6 
in the axils of the upper closely set leaves, on pedicels of 4 mm, completely covering the 
end of the branch. 

Hillebrand records this variety from the leeward slopes of Mt. Kaala of the 
Waianae range on Oahu. The plant is not known to the author, but he col- 
lected specimens of another variety, coming rather close to this one, on Molokai, 
near Kapulo'u below Kamoku camp in the rather dry district, in company 
with Myoporum sandwicense, Ochrosia sandwicensis, and Nothocestrum lati- 
folium. It may be described as follows: 

Var. molokaiense (Levl.) Rock comb. nov. 

Myrsine molokaiensis Levl. in Fedde Eep. Spec, nov, regn. veg. X. 10-14 (1911) 154 et 
Suttonia molokaiensis Lev!, nov. nom. in Fedde, 1. c. X. 24-26 (1912) 373. 

Leaves elliptical oblong, dark green, glabrous above, with a fine silvery pubescence 
underneath, young leaves yellowish pubescent; flowers either single or 4 to 6 in the axils 
of the upper leaves, often very densely flowered, on pedicels of 10 to 12 mm, whole in- 
florescence of a golden yellow, the glabrous petals longer than the calyx, staminodia 
petaloid, ovary densely hirsute with distinct style; fruit subglobose, beaked, resembling 
the fruit of 8. spathulatum. 

In Abbe Faurie's collection, which I have at hand, is a plant numbered 435 
and labelled " Myrsine molokaiensis Levl. sp. nov. Molokai, Kamolo 1000 m. leg. 
Faurie Junio 1910. ' ' The plant is at a first glance recognizable as a Sideroxylon 
and is identical with my number 6154 Sideroxylon spathulatum var. molokai- 
ense Rock. 

At first the writer could not believe that such a gross error could be committed, 
but after reading the most incomplete description by Leveille, which says: "Af- 
finis M. sandwicensis DC. a quo secernitur foliis supra atro-viridibus, subtus in- 
canis vel incano-tomentosis, " it can be no other plant than Faurie's specimen 
marked 435. Faurie's specimen is in fruit, but quite immature. 

The material collected by the writer came from almost the identical locality 
where Faurie collected his plants, but a little more toward the west. However, 
one cannot depend very well on Faurie's exactness in citing localities, as can be 
seen in Leveille 's publication, who places Hilo on the Island of Maui and Mt. 
Haleakala on a different island than Maui. Some plants are simply marked: 
Sandwich. It is indeed very regrettable that the material of Abbe Faurie (which 
is often beyond recognition) fell in the hands of H. Leveille, whose ambition 
seems to be to bring the number of his new species up to 1000. A goodly 
number of his new species are European weeds which have been imported by 
the cattle estates with grass seeds, and have become scattered over the mountains 
in the pasture lands which he calls in herbidis; may it be said that in these vast 
meadows not even a native grass can be found, still less herbaceous native plants, 
which have been crowded out by imported grasses and such weeds which Leveille 
describes now as new species, and thus would change the whole endemic aspect 
of our most interesting flora. 

392 



EBENACEAE:. 

The family Ebenaceae is almost exclusively tropical and subtropical, inhabit- 
ing especially the eastern hemisphere. They have reached their best develop- 
ment in the East Indies and the Malayan Archipelago. In the Hawaiian Islands 
the family is represented by the genus Maba only. The family is closely re- 
lated to the Symplocaceae, from which it however differs in the superior ovary 
and the unisexual flowers. 

MABA J. R. et G. Forster. 

Flowers usually 3- rarely 3-6-fid. Calyx enlarged with fruit. Male flowers: Stamens 
3 to several, usually 9; filaments free or united to 2 to 3; anthers elongate, opening 
laterally. Ovary 3- or 6-celled, with 6 ovules. Style 3-fid or 3 single styles. Fruit usually 
an ovate or globose, glabrous or pubescent 1 to 6 seeded berry. Trees or shrubs with alter- 
nate, simple and entire leaves. Flowers solitary or in short axillary cymes. 

The genus Maba consists of about 63 species and is distributed over the same 
regions as the family with the exception of South Africa. In the Hawaiian 
Islands only two species and one variety are to be found. One of the two species, 
Maba Hillebra-ndii Seem., is endemic, while Maba sandwicensis occurs also in Fiji. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves pale green, smooth on both faces, calycine lobes obtuse M. sandwicensis 

Leaves dark green, wrinkled on the upper face, calycine lobes acute. . . M. Hillebrandii 

Maba sandwicensis A. DC. 

Lama. 
(Plates 159, 160.) 

MABA SANDWICENSIS A. DC. Prodr. VIII. (1844) 242; A. Gray Proc. Am. Acad. V. 
(1862) 327; Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 188; Wawra in Flora (1873) 
59; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (188) 274. Gurke in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 1. 
(1891) 160; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1892) 230. Ebenus eandwi- 
censis 0. Ktze. Eev. Gen. PI. II. (1891) 408. 

Leaves distichous, coriaceous, with hidden veins, pale green, elliptical, or, ovate-oblong 
3.5 to 5 cm long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm wide, on petioles of 4 to 6 mm, shortly acuminate., entire 
glabrous, but silky haired when young; flowers single, rarely the male in clusters of 2 to 5, 
the very short peduncle covered with about 6 small, ovate-obtuse, deciduous bracts; calyx 
coriaceous, silky with oppressed hair, 4 to 5 mm, shortly 3 to 4 fid with obtuse lobes;, 
corolla coriaceous, 5 to 6 mm, densely hairy in the upper half, 3-toothed, the lobules blunt, 
and sinistrorsely convolute in the bud; male flowers, stamens free, 12 to 18, around the 
hirsute rudiments of an ovary, 1/3 the length of the corolla, glabrous, anthers short, 
oblong, as long as the filaments; female flowers without stamens, the ovary hairy; style 
very short 3-rayed; fruit dry or somewhat fleshy; 18 mm high, pubescent when young, 
3-celled, with 1 seed in each cell, but generally one-seeded when mature; seeds oblong witfi 
thin testa and smooth albumen; cotyledons half the length of the radicle, complanate, 
oblong, obtuse. 

The Lama is a beautiful medium sized tree reaching a height of 20 to 40 feet. 
The leaves are thick, leathery, dull green and are arranged alternately in op- 
posite rows, making the little branchlets resemble pinnate leaves. 

393 



PLATE 159. 




MABA SANDWICENSIS DC. 
Lama. 

Fruiting branch, typical Oahu specimen; one-half natural size. 



Ebenaceae. 

The Lama inhabits the wet as well as the dry regions on all the islands of the 
group. The small leaved form occurs on the Koolau range of Oahu, as in 
Manoa Valley and Niu as well as all along toward Kahuku. Back of Hilo on 
Hawaii it is a very common tree, reaching a height of 40 feet; in this latter 
locality it is quite common in company with Straussia, Metrosideros, etc., fol- 
lowing immediately the Pandanus forest. The trunk of the Lama is vested in a 
black rather smooth bark, but in old trees the bark becomes rough and scaly, 
forming irregular squares of a dark gray color. The tree is common on all the 
islands of the group, but especially so in the dry districts, where it forms often 
pure stands, as in the low lands of Kapua in South Kona where the writer met 
with the finest trees with perfectly straight trunks of a foot in diameter. It 
grows in company with Ale H rites Moluccana, Pittosporum Hosmeri var. longi- 
folia, and Antidesma pulvinatum. The berries, which are of a reddish yellow 
color when mature, are quite palatable and are eaten by the natives and birds. 
The trees fruit prolifically during the late winter months, especially in the 
month of February, when the trees are loaded with the bright colored fruits. 

The wood is very hard, close grained, and of a rich reddish brown color when 
old; it was employed in building houses for the gods. A block of Lama wood 
was always placed upon the Kualiu, altar, in the temple of the goddess of the 
sacred Hula dance, Laka, which latter personality it represented. This un- 
carved block was wrapped in choice yellow tapa, scented with turmeric and was 
set conspicuously upon the altar.* The wood was also used in making sacred 
inclosures for other tabu purposes. 

A variety /? Hbd. with ovate or ovate oblong, larger leaves, which are broadly 
rounded at the base, and pubescent underneath, occurs on the lava flows and 
on the leeward sides of the islands in general, but always in dry situations. 
On Kauai the variety has the largest leaves 10 to 12.5 cm x 5 to 5.5 cm. 

Maba Hillebrandii Seem. 

MABA HILLEBRANDII Seem, in Flora Vitiensis (1866) 151; H. Mann 1. c.; Hillebr. 
Fl. Hw. Isl. (1888) 275; Gurke in Engl. et Prantl Natiirl. Pflzfam. 1. c.; Del 
Cast 1. c. Ebenus Hillebrandii O. Ktze. Kev. Gen. PI. II. (1891) 408. 

Leaves oblong, 8 to 12 cm long, 3.5 to 6 cm wide, on petioles of 4 mm, obtuse or bluntly 
acute, contracted, rounded or truncate or even emarginate at the base, glabrous, dark green, 
coriaceous, smooth on the lower face, but deeply rugose on the upper by a close and 
fine areolar network; bracts and calyx glabrous, coriaceous, the latter 3-fid almost to the 
middle with broad triangular acute lobes; corolla 7 mm, hairy, shortly 3-toothed; stamens 
9, short, glabrous, with pointed anthers; fruit obovoid, about 2 cm long and 15 to 18 
mm in diameter, pubescent at the apex only. 

This species, which is quite different from the lama, is endemic in the Ha- 
waiian Islands and is peculiar to Oahu, where it can be found in the hills of 



Emerson, Unwritten Literature of Hawaii. 

395 



PLATE 160. 




MABA SANDWICENSIS DC. var. /3. Hbd. 

Lama. 

Fruiting branch pinned to trunk of tree. Growing on the lava fields of 
Kapua, &'. Kona, Hawaii; elevation 1500 feet. 



Ebenaceae-Oleaceae. 

Kalmku and Waialua; the writer met with it in Niu Valley where it is quite 
plentiful at an elevation of 2000 feet. Hillebrand records it also from Wailupe 
Valley. 

OLEACEIAE:. 

The family Oleaceae, which consists of about 370 to 390 species, inhabits the 
temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the earth, especially in East India, 
where some of the genera like Jasminum and others are rich in species. Only 
about 12 species belonging to this family occur in Europe ; in Polynesia and Aus- 
tralia about 26 ; in America and Africa each about 46 species. In the Hawaiian 
Islands the family is represented by the genus Osmanthus with a single species. 

OSMANTHUS Lour. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, polygamous or dioecious, calyx short, 4 toothed or 4 lobed. 
Tube of corolla short. Stamens 2, rarely 4, with short filaments inserted on the tube of 
the corolla and enclosed by the same. Anthers laterally dehiscing. Style short. Stigma 
small, entire or 2-lobed. Shrubs or trees with evergreen leaves. The small flowers are 
arranged on axillary simple or compound racemes. 

The genus Osmanthus with its 10 species is distributed in South Asia, East 
Asia, Polynesia and North America, with one species Osmanthus sandwicensis 
(A. Gray) Knobl. in the Hawaiian Islands. 

Osmanthus sandwicensis (A. Gray) Knobl. 

Pua or Olopua. 
(Plates 161, 162, 163.) 

OSMANTHUS SANDWICENSIS (A. Gray) Knobl. in Bot. Centralbl. LXI (1895) 82, et in 
Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 2. (1895) 9. Olea sandwicensis A. Gray Proc. Am. 
Ac-ad. V. (1862) 331; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 197; Wawra in 
Flora (1874) 548; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 301; inclus. var. ft Hbd. from 
Kauai; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII (1892) 231; Heller PI. Haw. 
Isl. (1897) 876. 

A large tree often 20 in high, quite glabrous; leaves pale underneath, darker above, 
coriaceous elliptico-obloiig or lanceolate acute, or acuminate or obtuse, 7 to 15 cm long, 
2.5 to 7 cm wide, on petioles of about 12 mm; racemes axillary tomentose, short; flowers 
hermaphrodite; calyx obtusely 4-toothed; corolla about 4 mm, pale yellow, rotate, deeply 
4 parted; anthers always 4, alternate with the lobes of the corolla and as long as the 
latter (in the writer's specimens) sessile on the short tube, oblong obtuse; ovary conical, 
elongate, stigma subsessile, 2-lobed; drupe ovoid, peaked or obtuse, 12 to 22 mm long, 
bluish-black, when mature rather dry, but the exocarp somewhat fleshy and staining, 
with an osseous putamen and a single seed; embryo straight in the axis of horny albumen, 
the obtuse cotyledons as long as the superior radicle. 

The Pua or Olopua is one of the most common Hawaiian trees, but rarely in- 
habiting the rain forests or even their outskirts. It is more confined to the 
lower forest zone, especially on the leeward sides of all the islands, and is usually 
the predominating tree on the lava fields of Hawaii. The Pua, like all Hawaiian 
trees, is very variable and only a trained eye can at first glance decide if it 
is the Pua or not. The leaves are often very large and again very small, as in 
the Molokai specimens, which have elliptical lanceolate leaves, while those of 

397 



PLATE 161. 



I 




OSMANTHUS SANDWICENSIS (Gray) Knobl. 

Pua or Olopua. 
Fruiting branch, less than one-third natural size. 



PLATE 162. 




OSMANTHUS SANDWICENSIS (Gray) Knobl. 

Pua or Olopua. 

Trunk of tree showing roughness of bark; about 3 feet in diameter. Growing in Kipuka 
I'uaulu near Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



PLATE 163. 




OSMANTHUS SANDWICENSIS (Gray) Knobl. 

Pua or Olopua. 

One of the biggest pua trees in the islands, growing in the Kipuka Fuaultt near Kilauea 
Volcano, Hawaii; height of tree about 60 feet. 



Oleaceae-Loganiaceae. 

Kauai are exceedingly large and oblong acuminate. It flowers usually in March 
in certain localities, but the writer found the trees in South Kona on the lava 
fields of Kapua loaded with the ripe bluish fruits during the month of January. 
It is a graceful tree and reaches often a height of 60 feet, with a trunk of 3 feet 
in diameter; the bark is thick and very corrugated, often divided into oblong 
scales. It occurs on all the islands of the group, especially on the dry leesides 
from 600 to 4000 feet elevation. On Kauai it grows in the great Waimea Canyon 
and at Halemanu, as well as Milolii and in Kopiwai forest, where the writer met 
with handsome specimens. The biggest tree the writer saw in the Kipuka Puaulu 
on the edge of an old aa lava flow near the Volcano Kilauea, on the slopes of 
Mauna Loa, elevation 4000 feet. 

The wood of the Pua is extremely hard, close grained and very durable; it is 
of a dark brow r nish color with blackish streaks, exceedingly heavy and takes a 
most excellent polish. The wood was often used by the natives for various pur- 
poses such as adze-handles. In helping to shape the fish hooks, the Pua wood was 
used, as well as the rough pahoehoe lava rock, as rasps. 

LOGANIACEAE. 

The family Loganiaceae, with its 31 genera and more than 370 species, is de- 
cidedly tropical ; only few representatives are found outside the tropics, and 
only two genera are found distributed in the tropics of the whole world, while 
the remaining ones are restricted to certain regions. In the Hawaiian Islands 
only one genus (Labordia) of this family occurs, which is endemic. 

LABORDIA Gaud. 

Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, pentamerous. Calycine lobes large, lanceolate 
or foliaceous, occasionally unequal. Corolla distinctly tubular, with narrow, lanceolate 
contorted lobes. Stamens with short filaments and enclosed linear anthers. Ovary 2 to 3 
celled, with cylindrical style and elongate clavate stigma; ovules many. Fruit a capsule. 
Seeds ovoid or ellipsoidal imbedded in an orange colored or greenish pulp; with fleshy 
albumen. Embryo straight with short cotyledons and longer radicle. Small trees or 
shrubs; stipules sheathing. Inflorescence a terminal cyme, corymbiform or paniculate, 
sometimes reduced to a single flower. 

The genus Labordia consists of numerous species, and is endemic to the Ha- 
waiian Islands. Only a few become trees, while the majority of them are 
shrubs inhabiting the middle forest zone along stream beds or in swampy 
grounds in dense shades up to an elevation of over 5000 feet. Only one or two 
occur on the forehills of the dry districts at the outskirts of the forests, as for 
example in Mahana Valley on Lanai. The native name of nearly all the species 
is Kamal;aliala. The majority of the species have green flowers, while some have 
orange colored thick fleshy corollas. 

H. Baillon in his treatise on the tribe of Labordia remarks that in his opinion 
the Genus Labordia cannot be sustained. He goes on to say that owing to 
the imbricate and more often twisted corolla the genus should rather be classi- 
fied under the family Apocynaceae than Loganiaceae. "The existence of stipules 

401 

26 



PLATE 164. 




LABOEDIA MEMBRANACEA Mann. 
Fruiting specimen; from the mountains back of Honolulu. One-half natural size. 



Loganiaceae. 

between the leaves would be the only characteristic which might separate them 
from the former family., had it not been demonstrated that too much value alto- 
gether has been attached to the presence or absence of these organs, etc." 
Owing to limited space it is here impossible fully to discuss this interesting ques- 
tion. A definite settlement in regard to the nomenclature of our Hawaiian 
Labordia will have to be deferred until the future. The writer possesses numerous 
new species of Labordiae and complete material of those already known, which 
will be worked up after the writer's return from Europe, where he will have 
opportunity to compare his specimens with the typ>es in the various Herbaria of 
Europe. Only after then can a satisfactory treatise on this difficult group be 
published. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 
Corolla yellow. 

Flowers single, enclosed within the foliaceous calyx lobes. 

Capsule small crested L. molokaiana 

Flowers several in a sessile cyme. 

Capsule 40 mm long, not crested L. membranacea 

Capsule 5 mm high, three valved, minutely pedunculate L. sessilis 

Corolla greenish. 

Flowers in a paniculate cyme L. tinif olia 

There are undoubtedly several more Labordia which become trees, but owing 
to the general chaos in which this genus is at present, it was decided by the 
writer -to limit the number of arborescent species to be described to four, as the 
diagnosis of the latter is fairly certain. 

Labordia Molokaiana H. Baillon. 
Kamakahala. 

LABOEDIA MOLOKAIANA H. Baillon in Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris, I. (1880) n. 30. 240; 
Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 237. Labordia lophocarpa Hbd. PI. 
Haw. Isl. (1888) 289; Solereder in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 2. (1892) 32. 

A tree 10 m high, glabrous, the younger branches fleshy, slender, and sharply ridged 
or angular; stipular sheath large, emarginate laterally; leaves elliptical or obovate-oblong, 
4 to 10.5 cm long, 2.5 to 3 cm wide, shortly acuminate, suddenly narrowing into a petiole 
of 4 to 12 mm, thin chartaceous, dark underneath when dry, pale even whitish when fresh, 
and somewhat fleshy in texture, glabrous or distantly hispidulous; inflorescence a single 
terminal flower on a puberulous pedicel of 4 to 10 mm; bractlets lanceolate or spathulate, 
12 mm; calyx as long as the corolla, the lobes 14 to 20 mm, divided into 4 to 5 broad 
foliaceous sepals, shortly acuminate, 9 to 11 nerved; corolla deep yellow, enclosed in the 
calyx, glabrous outside, puberulous inside, the broad tube 10 to 12 mm long; style 4 mm, 
shorter than the broad clavate stigma; capsule 12 to 14 mm high, 2 to 3 valved, the 
valves broadly winged at the back, above, with the wings rounded and generally not con- 
fluent at the apex. 

In regard to the nomenclature of this species there seems to be some doubt 
whether it is Hillebrand's Labordia lophocarpa or Gaudichaud's L. fagraeoidea, 
but to the writer's mind it must be identical with the former. However, the 
question cannot be decided definitely until material has been examined on which 
Baillon based his description. Baillon states in regard to L. Molokaiana as 
follows:* "The L. Molokaiana gathered on Molokai by Mr. J. Remy (no. 363) 



* Translated from the original. 

403 



PLATE 165. 




LABOEDIA TINITOLIA Gray. 

Kamakahala. 
Fruiting branch, photographed from an herbarium specimen; two-thirds natural size 



Loganiaceae. 

which has much narrower, lanceolate and longer petioled leaves, with less closer 
internodes, is perhaps but another variety of L. fagraeoidea. Their inflor- 
escences are contracted and pauciflorous, and the divisions of their corollas are 
linear. ' ' 

In the writer's opinion the plant is quite distinct from Gaudichaud's L. 
fagraeoidea. 

The species Labordia are certainly very badly confused, earlier authors, as 
Mann, giving only three or four line descriptions which may be applied to sev- 
eral variable species, have later been enlarged upon by other authors simply 
taking for granted that their specimens are referable to either the one or the 
other, increased the confusion rather than clearing matters up. Until type- 
material of all the previous authors has been examined and compared, a satis- 
factory treatise on this difficult genus cannot be undertaken. 

L. Molokaiana occurs on Molokai principally, where it was collected by the 
writer at the pali of Wailua in the dense rain forest, at an elevation of 3000 
feet. The specimens agree exactly with Hillebrand's description of L. lopho- 
carpa, which is a synonym of the former (flowering and fruiting no. 7044, April 
15, 1910). Hillebrand enumerates two varieties, pluriflora and phyllocalyx 
which may be distinct species. 

Labordia membranacea Mann. 
Kamakahala. 
(Plate 164.) 

LABORDIA MEMBRANACEA Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 197. Wawra in 
Flora (1872) 516; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 291; Solereder in Engl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. IV. 2 (1892) 32; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1892) 237. 
Branches thick, fleshy, pubescent with short dark brown hair, terete, or slightly 
angled; leaves broadly ovate, shortly acuminate, (not membraneous when fresh) rather 
fleshy, succulent, pale underneath, dark green and shining or somewhat dull above, petioles 
thick fleshy, midrib thick, prominent, veins transparent; interpetiolar stipules very short, 
rounded or truncate; inflorescence terminal, a three-flowered cyme, subsessile or sessile 
in the axis of the uppermost leaflets, with two linear bracts at the base; peduncles terete 
fleshy, alternately bracteolate, bracteole, linear subulate; calyx divided nearly to the 
base into five linear acute segments 1.5 cm long, hirsute with blackish hairlets as is the 
whole inflorescence; corolla pale yellow, the long slender tube urceolate, about 2 cm long, 
the lobes (5) reflexed, about 2/3 the length of the tube, acuminate; anthers sessile at the 
throat of the tube, between the sinuses of the corolla-lobes, slightly exserted; ovary two- 
celled, oblong-conical, about 1 cm high, style short about 2 mm, stigma large, clavate 5 
mm long, 2.5 mm thick, slightly notched or grooved at the apex. Capsule two-valved, very 
large 40 mm long, 18 mm broad, conical-oblong, the valves not ridged at the back. 

Mann describes a small tree from the mountains behind Honolulu under La- 
bordia membranacea, though very briefly. The writer found numerous trees 
which will have to be referred to Mann's species. Like all Labordiae it is some- 
what variable. It is however easily distinguished, by the large oblong leaves 
and exceedingly large capsules. The writer has enlarged upon Mann's descrip- 
tion. The flowers of this species are hermaphrodite. It occurs in the dense 
rain forests of the main range of Oahu, especially between Manoa and Mt. 
Olympus trail, where it is a small tree 10 to 18 feet in height. 

405 



Loganiaceae. 
Labordia sessilis Gray. 

LABORDIA SESSILIS Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. IV. (1860) 323; H. Baillon Bull. Mens. 
S'oc. Linn. Paris. L (1880)240. L. fagraeoidea Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) in part. 

Leaves subsessile, thick leathery, oblong, or lanceolate oblong, acute at the apex, 
cuneate at the base, 7.5 cm to 12.5 cm long, pale underneath, veins transparent, stipules 
united, tubular, long; sepals oblong-lanceolate, capsules 5 mm high, minutely pedunculate 
or sessile in the axis of the last leaves within the stipules, three-valved. 

This species which is certainly distinct from L. fagraeoidea, is a tree often 35 
to 40 feet in height, but occasionally a shrub, and occurs only in the rain forests 
of Oahu, on the main range. It is especially common in Manoa Valley at an 
elevation of 2500 feet. It can easily be recognized by its oblong-lanceolate pale 
green foliage and transparent venation. The capsules are exceedingly small and 
hidden in the stipules. 

Labordia tinifolia Gray. 
(Plate 165.) 

LABORDIA TINIFOLIA Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. IV. (1860) 322; Mann in Proc. Am. 
Acad. VII. (1867) 197. Wawra in Flora (1872) 515; Baill. in Bull. Mens. Soc. 
Linn. Paris. (1880) 238-240; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 292; Solereder in Engl. 
et Prantl IV. 2. (1892) 32; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 237; 
Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 877. 

A small tree 6 to 8 m high, with slender aiid pale terete branches; leaves elliptical 
or obovate or ovate-oblong, 5 to 10 cm long, 18 to 37 mm wide, on petioles of 4 to 12 mm, 
acute or acuminate at both ends, or obtuse at tb,e apex, chartaceous glabrous; flowers 
many in a paniculate cyme 3.5 to 10 cm in length, with a peduncle of 12 to 30 mm in 
length, the ultimate pedicels 6 to 18 mm, subequal; bractlets subulate; calyx 3 mm, divided 
beyond the middle into 5 triangular acute lobes; corolla greenish, very slender, salver- 
shaped, the tube 6 to 8 mm, glabrous, but pubescent within, the lobes about one-third as 
long; capsules globose, short, ovoid, or obovoid somewhat obtuse or acute, 8 to 12 mm long, 
slightly sulcate, 2 valved or very rarely 3-valved, the valves rounded at the back. 

This species is a small tree of 15 to 20 feet or more in height and occurs on 
Kauai, Maui, Lanai, Molokai, and according to Hillebrand also on Oahu ; as it is 
found on these various islands at different altitudes it is somewhat variable. 
The trunks of the trees are straight, especially in the specimens from the forests 
above Makawao (no. 8616). The bark resembles very much that of the Aalii, 
Dodonaea vlscosa, or that of Styphelia tameiameia. It is of a dark brown color, 
and is closely and deeply corrugated, the furrows are not straight, but seem to 
encircle the trunk, somewhat cork-screw fashion. The peduncle varies consider- 
ably in length, as do also the leaves in size. On Lanai the tree was observed on 
the dry forehills of Mahana and Kaiholena Valleys, (no. 8000 and no. 8099). 
On West Maui it grows above Kaanapali at 2000 feet elevation (no. 8169). It is 
typical of the drier regions and hardly ever ascends into the rain forest. It 
comes very close to L. triflora Hbd. and seems to differ from the latter in not 
having cordate and subsessile leaves. On Kauai, along the trail to Opaiwela 
stream near Kaholumano it grows as a shrub; the leaves are larger and the 
capsules ovoid, acute. 

406 



APOCYNACrLAE. 

The family Apocynaceae consists of about 1000 species, the larger number 
of which belong to the tropics. Of its 133 genera only five are represented in 
the Hawaiian Islands, three of which have arborescent species. One genus 
(Pteralyxia K. Sch.) is endemic, with a single species. The largest number of 
Apocynaceae are climbing shrubs, while erect shrubs or trees are not as nu- 
merous. In these Islands we have only one climbing plant of this family, the 
well-known Maile of the natives, Alyxia olivaeformis Gaud., while the re- 
maining ones are trees, with the exception of the cultivated Vinca rosea, which 
has also become naturalized, having escaped from cultivation. Annuals are not 
known in this family. Of interest and usefulness is the milky sap which nearly 
all members of this family possess, as it contains caoutchouc. Not a few of the 
species of Apocynaceae are extremely poisonous, and undoubtedly these strong 
poisonous substances are to be found in the milky sap. 

KEY TO THE GENEEA. 

Discus wanting. 

Endocarp winged, drupe always 1-celled, large, bright red 1. Pteralyxia 

Endocarp compressed, deeply furrowed underneath, drupe 2-celled, large, yellow. 
3. Ochrosia 

Discus present. 

Leaves whorled, drupe smooth, small, black, obcordate 2. Rauwolfia 

PTERALYXIA K. Sch. 

Calyx deeply 2-parted, with almost free, imbricate lobes, glandless. Corolla tubular, 
without scales at the constricted throat, and short obtuse sinistrorse lobes. Stamens in- 
serted below the throat, ovate-lanceolate, acute. Discus absent. Ovary superior, with 
2 pendulous ovules in each cell. Style filiform, with subglobose, thickened stigma, which 
is shortly 2-lobed. Drupe dry, obovate, bright red. Putamen with 2 large winged 
lateral angles and 2 sharp middle-crests. Seeds large (3 to 3.5 cm long, and 1 to 1.5 cm 
in diam.), with ruminate albumen. 

A Hawaiian genus with a single arborescent species, peculiar to the Island 
of Oahu. The species was first described by Hillebrand in the genus Vallesia 
as T 7 . macrocarpa Hbd. According to K. Schumann the plant is nearest related 
to the genus Alyxia. 

Pteralyxia macrocarpa (Hbd.) K. Sch. 
Kaulu. 

PTEBALYXIA MACKOCARPA (Hbd.) K. Schum. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 2. 
(1895) 151. Vallesia macrocarpa Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 297; Del Cast. 111. 
Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1892) 232. 

A small tree with short and thick diverging branches and very tenacious milky sap; 
leaves obovate or obovate-oblong, on petioles of about 5 cm; rounded at the apex, coriace- 
ous, pale, glabrous, veins prominent, strictly parallel; cymes contracted, 6 to 12 flowered, 
terminal, sessile on short leafy spurs or branches, pedicels very short, with squamaceous 
bractlets; calyx 2 mm, lobes obtuse short; corolla pale yellow, tube 6 to 8 mm, lobes 2 to 3 
mm; stamens with very short filaments, anthers acute; style nearly the length of the tube; 
drupes dry, 5 cm long. 2.5 cm or more wide, bright red; seed elliptical, 36 mm long, 16 
mm broad and 12 mm deep, pointed at both ends; albumen deeply wrinkled by transverse 
sinuous folds; embryo axile, straight, nearly as long as the albumen, the linear oblong 
fleshy cotyledons about as long as the inferior radicle and scarcely broader. 

407 




RAUWOLFIA SANDWICENSIS A. DC. 
Hao. 

Fruiting branch photographed from an herbarium specimen. About one-half natural size. 



Apocynaceae. 

This most interesting species is a small tree 15 to 25 feet in height and re- 
sembles somewhat the Alaa or Sideroxylon sandwicense. The native name of 
this rather rare tree is Kaulu, according to Hillebrand. The locality for the 
tree is Oahu, Nuuanu Valley, and Makaleha Valley of the Waianae range. In 
the latter place the tree was observed by C. N. Forbes and also by a student of 
the College of Hawaii, but has not been collected by the writer. The tree seems 
to be conspicuous on account of its bright red double fruits. 

RAUWOLFIA Linn. 

Calyx small, deeply 5-cleft, with obtuse or acute, imbricate lobes, glandless. Corolla 
salver-shaped, cylindrical, constricted at the scaleless throat, tube dilated at the place 
of insertion of the stamens, lobes sinistrorse. Stamens small, with obtuse or acute 
anthers, inserted at the middle of the tube or higher. Discus cup-shaped, truncate or 
lobed. Ovaries 2, superior, entirely free, or connate, at the base; ovules paired in each 
cell, pendulous; style filiform, with a short cylindrical stigma with a membraneous ring 
at the base. Drupes distinct, frequently connate at the base, obcordate, with crustaceous 
putamen. Seeds with uniform albumen. Glabrous rarely tomentose trees or shrubs with 
usually opposite or whorled leaves. Flowers small in compound often umbellate cymes, 
at first terminal. 

The genus Rauwolfia consists of about 45 species, which occur in the tropics of 
the old and new world. In the Hawaiian Islands only one species is represented. 
The Hawaiian species has often been confused with Ochrosia parviflora (Forst.) 
DC. and has even been described twice by De Candolle, once as Ochrosia sand- 
wiccnsis, which now stands as a synonym. 

Rauwolfia sandwicensis A. DC. 

Hao. 
(Plate 166.) 

EAITWOLFIA SANDWICENSIS A. DC. Prodr. VIII. (1844) 339; H. Mann Proc. Am. 
Ac-ad. VII. (1867) 197; Wawra in Flora (1874) 367; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 
295; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 232; K. Schum. in Engl. et 
Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 2. (1895) 153; Heller Plants Haw. Isl. (1897) 878. 
Cerbera parviflora Hook, et Am. (not Forst.) Bot. Beech. (1832) 90. Ochrosia 
sandwicensis A. DC. Prodr. VIII. (1844) 357 (not Gray). 

Leaves 5 in a whorl, elliptico oblong, acuminate at both ends, pale chartaceous, on 
petioles of 1.5 to 3 cm (in all of the writer's material and not 2 to 3 mm as given in 
Hillebrand), with 5 to 12 stipitate glands in each axilla; flowers crowded into 4 um- 
bellately compound cymes of the same length or longer than the petioles, at first terminal 
then axillary; the common peduncle 1 to 3.5 cm, pedicels about 2 mm; calyx 5 mm, parted 
to near the base into 5 oblong obtuse lobes; tube of the yellowish-green corolla 8 mm, 
scantily hairy inside, dilated below the constricted throat, the lobes 3 mm; anthers sub- 
sessile, sagittate, shortly exserted; discus small, annular or 5 lobed; ovules 4 in each 
carpel; drupe compressed, obcordate, deeply emarginate at the top, 8 to 12 mm in height 
and more in width, fleshy, black when mature; albumen scanty, radicle terete, superior. 

The Hao is a medium-sized tree with milky sap. When growing in localities 
with rich soil and occasional rainfall it develops a straight trunk 6 to 12 inches 
in diameter and a total height of sometimes over 20 feet. When growing on 
the rough aa lava flows on the leeward sides of the Islands, as on Auahi, Maui, 
on the southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, it is a more or less stunted shrub. 

It resembles the Holei very much and when not in flower or fruit is not often 
easily distinguished from it. The leaves are of a lighter green than the Holei 
and not quite as thick in texture; it differs mainly from it in its small black 
fruits which are obcordate. 

409 



PLATE 167. 




OCHROSIA SANDWICENSIS A. Gray, 
Holei. 

Showing fruiting branch about one-half natural size. 



PLATE 168. 




OCHROSIA SANDWICENSIS A. Gray. 
Holei. 

Growing in the Kipuka Puaulu, near the Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii; elevation 4000 feet. 



PLATE 169. 




OCHROSIA SANDWICENSIS A. Gray. 

Holei Tree. 
In the Kipuka Puaulu, Kilauea Volcano. Hawaii. 



Apocynaceae. 

It inhabits the dry regions on the leeward sides of all the islands at an ele- 
vation of about 2000 feet. On Lanai, in the valleys of Kaiholena and Mahana, 
it develops a straight trunk ; the branches are somewhat stiff and densely 
studded with leaf-scars. It associates with Eeynoldsia sandwicensis, Pitto- 
sporum, Antidesma, and other trees peculiar to the dry regions. On Oahu it is 
more or less shrubby, sepecially so in Niu Valley and on Tantalus, while on 
Kauai big trees may be found above Makaweli. 

The wood of the Hao is of medium strength, fairly close grained, and dark 
yellowish in color. It is never used for firewood, as the natives claim that the 
smoke is poisonous. As it burns to ashes and leaves no charcoal, it was never 
employed by the natives for the production of the latter. It is called the Ha- 
waiian Ironwood on account of its durability. 

OCHROSIA Juss. 

Calyx small, deeply 5-cleft, with imbricate obtuse lobes, glandless. Corolla salver- 
shaped, with cylindrical tube which is dilated at the point of the insertion of the stamens, 
and is constricted at the glabrous throat, lobes dextrorse. Stamens oblong lanceolate, 
with acute anthers. Discus wanting, or very indistinct, short, annular. Ovary superior 
with few ovules in each cell arranged in two rows. Carpels frequently connate at the 
base. Drupes in pairs or through abortion single, diverging, rather dry, united at the 
base or free, with thin exocarp and wood}' endocarp which is dorsally compressed ano! 
deeply furrowed on the ventral side. Seeds few, three for the most in a double drupe. 
Trees 'with whorled coriaceous leaves, which are narrowly parallel-veined; flowers of 
medium size and often very fragrant, arranged in cymes from the axils of the upper- 
most leaves. 

The genus Ochrosia supposedly consists of 13 to 15 species, and extends from 
the Mascarene Islands, through Malaysia and tropical Australia into Polynesia. 
Only one species, Ochrosia parviflora (Forst.) Hemsl., is widely distributed over 
the Pacific Islands. Ochrosia sandwicensis, one of the Hawaiian species, to- 
gether with the New Caledonian Ochrosia elliptica, comes very near to Oclirosia 
oppositifolia (0. borbonica} and may only be a variety of the latter. 

Ochrosia sandwicensis Gray. 

Holei. 
(Plates 167, 168, 169.) 

OCHROSIA SANDWICENSIS Gray (not DC.) Proc. Am. Acad. V. (1862) 333; H. Mann 
Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 197;-- -Wawra in Flora (1874) 366; Hbd. Fl. Haw. 
Isl. (1888) 296; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 234;-K. Schum. in 
Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 2. (1895) 156; Brigham in Ka Hana Kapa (1911) 
154, fig. 2, (the plant figured in Dr. Brigham 's work is not Ochrosia sandicicensis, 
but Xylomna HiUebrandii Wawra). 

Leaves 3 to 4 in a whorl, elongate oblong, on petioles of about 15 to 25 mm, shortly 
acuminate, chartaceous, shining above, the close and faint nerves parallel and at almost 
right angles to the midrib, and united by a distinct intramarginal nerve; cymes com- 
pound, 10 to 16 cm long, divaricately branching, the angular peduncle about 3 cm r the 
lateral pedicels about 3 to 4 mm, the medium flower subsessile; bracteoles short, ovate to 
dentiform; calyx 2 to 7 mm with acute lanceolate teeth or lobes, corolla yellowish to 
cream colored, quite fragrant, hairy inside, dilated below the throat, lobes linear oblong, 
equal, stamens inserted above the middle, with short hairy filaments and elongate included 

413 



Apocynaceae-Borraginaceae. 

anthers; stigma included, clavate; drupes dry, yellow when mature, ellipsoid or ovoid- 
elongate; seeds 1 on each side of the placenta and peltately attached to it; testa thin, 
chartaceous; albumen hard and fleshy; embryo axillary; radicle superior, as long as the 
cotyledons. 

The Holei is a small milky tree, or sometimes shrub reaching a height of 10 to 
25 feet, having long drooping branches. The trunk usually divides a few feet 
above the ground or has a single bole of eight inches in diameter vested in a 
brownish smooth bark. It is conspicuous in the forest by its oblong dark green 
leaves, which are arranged in whorls, and by its large light yellow to orange 
colored double fruits, which are suspended on long terminal or axillary pedun- 
cles. The flowers are yellowish and very fragrant. 

The Holei, which has become rather scarce, inhabits the dry districts on the 
leeward side of the islands, and is only abundant on the Island of Maui, at an 
elevation of 2500 feet, back of Makawao, slopes of Haleakala, and on the lava 
fields of Auahi. On Hawaii several trees can be found in Puaulu, on the land 
of Keauhou, three miles from the Volcano of Kilauea, at an elevation of 4000 
feet, as well as on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, slopes of Hualalai. 

The Holei is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The natives knew how to 
extract a yellow dye from the bark and roots, wherewith to stain their tapa or 
paper clothing. The wood of the Holei is hard, fine grained and of a dark yel- 
lowish brown color. 

Hillebrand's var. (3., which he describes as: 

"Leaves opposite 7-9 in. x 2 l / 2 -3 in., on petioles of l-l 1 /^ in., coriaceous, with 
prominent nerves. Cymes densely flowered," has been raised to specific rank 
by K. Schumann under the name: 

Ochrosia compta K. Schum. 
Holei. 

OCHEOSIA COMPTA K. Schum. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 2. (1895) 156.-O. sandwi- 

censis var. j8. Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 297. 
Leaves coriaceous, flowers in contracted dense inflorescences. 

This is all the description given by Schumann in Engler & Prantl Natiirliche 
Pflanzenfamilien. The writer has never met with this plant, but desires to 
express the opinion that it is a rather doubtful species and perhaps only a form 
of Ochrosia sandwicensis. Especially when Schumann himself thinks 0. sand- 
wicensis to be only a form of 0. oppositifolia, a species occurring in Madagascar, 
Mauritius, Java and Singapore. 

BORRAGINACEAE. 

The family Borraginaceae is distributed over the temperate and tropical re- 
gions of both worlds. The main center of distribution lies in the Mediterranean 
region. Pacific North America, especially California, is the second main center 

414 



Borraginaceae. 

with numerous endemic species. Of most of the species of Cordia, Brazil as well 
as the rest of tropical South America possesses by far the majority. 

In Hawaii 3 genera are represented, of which only the genus Cordia has a 
single cosmopolitan species which attains the size of a tree. 

CORDIA Linn. 

Calyx tubular or campanulate, 3 to 5 toothed, or split at the apex; after flo"wering 
often enlarged. Corolla funnel or salver shaped, with 4 to many, but usually 5, rarely 
imbricate lobes. Stamens as many as corolla lobes, inserted in the tube. Style usually 
prolonged, twice bifid, with a capitate or clavate stigma. Ovules erect. Drupe sur- 
rounded or more or less enclosed by the persistent calyx, 4-celled of which usually only one 
contains a developed seed. Seed with very scanty albumen and irregularly folded, 
thick or more often very broad thin and fan-shaped folded cotyledons, and short superior 
radicle. Trees or shrubs with alternate, often almost opposite, petiolate, entire pr serrate 
leaves. Flowers usually white or dark orange yellow, arranged in expanded or con- 
tracted cymes. 

The genus Cordia consists of about 230 species distributed in the warmer 
regions of both hemispheres, especially in tropical America. In the Hawaiian 
Islands only the cosmopolitan Cordia subcordata Lam. (Kou) is represented. 

Cordia subcordata Lam. 
Kou. 

COEDIA SUBCORDATA Lam. 111. I. (1791) no. 1899; Cham, in Linnaea IV (1829) 474; 
Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 1212; DC. Prodr. IX. (1845) 477; Pancher in Cuzent 
Tahiti (1860) 235; Seem. Fl. Viti (1866) 168, t. 34; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. 
VII. (1867) 194; Nadeaud Enum. PI. Tahit. (1873) no. 375; Wawra in Flora 
(1874); Sinclair Indig. Flowers Haw. Isl. (1885) pi. 7; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 321; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 240, et Fl. Polyn. Franc. 
(1893) 128. C. Sebestana Forst. Prodr. (1786) 108 (non Linn.); Soland. Prim. 
Fl. Ins. Pacif. (ined.) 235, et in Parkins Draw, of Tahit. PI. t. 29 (ined.) cf. 
Seem.) Endl. 1. c. no. 1208; C. orientalis Eoem. et Schult. Syst. IV (1819) 
449; Guill. Zephyr. Tait. (1836-1837) n. 239. 

Leaves ovate or subcordate 12.5 to 15 cm long, 8 to 10 cm wide, on petioles of 2.5 
to 3 cm or more, acuminate, entire or wavy, glabrous excepting slight tomentose patches 
or streaks in the axils of the principal veins; flowers in short terminal or lateral subrace- 
mose panicles; calyx coriaceous, broadly and irregularly 3 to 5 toothed; corolla orange 
colored, its tube little longer than the calyx, with rotund, broadly expanded limb, 5 to 7 
lobed; drupe ovate, submucronate, enclosed within the calyx. 

The Kou, which is indigenous in the Hawaiian Islands, though presumably 
brought here by the Hawaiians centuries ago, can only be found along the sea- 
shore here and there. Nowadays it is exceedingly scarce, but in times gone by it 
was rather plentiful, and much planted by the Hawaiians near their dwellings 
or grass huts. The wood of the Kou was much sought for, on account of its 
beautiful grain, for calabashes or poi bowls, spittoons, etc. It is a tree 30 to 
50 feet in height and had trunks of sometimes three feet in diameter. 

Today trees are never larger than 15 to 20 feet, with trunks only a few 
inches in diameter. The writer observed it growing wild on the Island of 
Lanai, along the beach near Manele, and also on Maui near the lava fields beyond 
Makena, together with the Algaroba (Prosopis juliflora), which has taken pos- 
session of the country there, being on the leeside of Mt. Haleakala. 

415 



PLATE 170. 




NOTHOCESTRUM BREVIFLORUM Gray. 

Aiea. 
Flowering branch, reduced one-half. 



Borraginaceae-Solanaceae. 

The Kou, whose Tahitian name is Ton, and is known in Samoa and Fiji as Ton 
or Hauanave and Xawanawa respectively, ranges all the way from the Hawaiian 
Islands to Madagascar, the Moluccas, and tropical New Holland. 

The wood is used by the Samoans for rafts, and the fruits for paste for their 
tapa clothing. The wood, which is much prized by the natives, is rather soft 
but durable. 

SOLANACE1AE. 

The family Solanaceae is distributed over the tropical and temperate regions 
of the old and new world. The center of distribution is in Central and South 
America. In the Hawaiian Islands the family has one endemic genus which is 
closely related to a genus occurring in Brazil, but is not known from any other 
part of the world. Of the genus Solanum six species are also peculiar to these 
islands, but only one is a tree. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Corolla salver-shaped, 4 lobed, anthers sessile Nothocestrum 

Corolla rotate, 5-lobed, anthers connivent Solanum 

NOTHOCESTRUM Gray. 

Calyx campanulate, 4-deiitate or the teeth almost bilabiate. Corolla silky, salver- 
shaped, 4-iobed, the lobes ovate, valvate and folded in the bud. Anthers 4, sessile 
below the throat, linear, acute, the cells opening inward and lengthwise. Ovary globose 
to ovoid, 2-celled; ovules many. Style very short with a 2-lobed stigma. Fruit a berry. 
Seeds reniform, suspended from a funicle, the testa chartaceous and pitted. Embryo peri- 
pherical, curved around a fleshy albumen; the thick clavate radicle longer than the 
cylindrical cotyledons. Soft wooded trees or shrubs with single or fasciculate, greenish- 
yellow, inconspicuous flowers. 

The genus Nothocestrum consists of 4 species and is peculiar to the Hawaiian 
Islands, where all of its species are known by the name Aiea. The genus 
Nothocestrum is closest related to the genus Athenaea Sendtn. which possesses 
about 14 species peculiar to Brazil. The Hawaiian genus differs from the latter 
mainly in the tetramerous flowers which are salver-shaped, and besides in the 
calyx, which does not become enlarged at the maturity of the fruit, as is the 
case in Athenaea. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Flowers single, rarely 2 or 3; berry longate N. longifolium 

Flowers several on short axillary spurs; berry globose. 
Tube of corolja enclosed in the calyx. 

Leaves elliptical-oblong; fruit enclosed in the calyx N. breviflonun 

Tube of corolla longer than the calyx. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, often sinuate; calyx remains open with 

fruit N. latifolium 

Leaves ovate-cordate; fruit not closed over by calyx N. subcordatmn 

417 

27 



PLATE 171. 




NOTHOCESTRUM BREVIFLORUM Gray. 

Aiea Tree. 

Injured trunk of Aiea tree, growing on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, North Kona, 
Hawaii; elevation 2400 feet. 



Solanaceae. 

Nothocestrum longifolium Gray. 
Aiea. 

NOTHOCESTRUM LONGIFOLIUM Gray, in Proc. Am. Acad. VI. (1862) 48; Seem. 
Flora Vit. (1866) 173; Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 191; Wawra in 
Flora (18731 62; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 308; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 
VII. (1892) 249. 

A small tree or shrub with slender ascending branches, quite glabrous; leaves thin 
membraneous, lanceolate or elliptical-oblong, acuminate at both ends or occasionally only 
acute or somewhat obtuse, 10 to 20 cm long, 3.5 to 8.5 cm wide, on petioles of 8 to 20 mm; 
flowers axillary, usually single, but not uncommonly 2 or 3, on pedicels of 8 to 30 mm; 
calyx tubular, 8 to 12 mm with flowers, 14 to 16 mm with fruit, glabrous, sharply or ob- 
tusely, always unevenly, 4-toothed; corolla pale yellow, the tube not longer than the 
calyx, the lobes of variable size, narrowly margined, glabrous when open, silky pubescent 
when in the bud, but with a remnant of pubescence on the back of the petals when open; 
anthers partly exserted; stigma clavate, included in the tube; berry elongate or fusiform, 
12 to 20 mm long, orange-colored, rather fleshy, included in the calyx or exserted beyond. 

This rather slender species is more often a shrub than a tree, and is peculiar 
to the rain forests on all the islands of the group. It usually sends out thin 
slender stems which do not branch, reaching a height of 7-10 feet, bearing leaf 
whorls at the ends, or it is a regular shrub with long and slender branches. 
Occasionally it is a tree 15-20 feet high. As such it was observed and collected 
by the writer in the Kipuku Puaulu, near the Volcano Kilauea on Hawaii at 
an elevation of over 4000 feet. This is the only record where it was not found 
in the .rain forest proper. It is not uncommon on Oahu, on the Koolau range, 
and can be collected in the mountains back of Honolulu. 

A variety /? brevi folium Hbd. occurs in the mountains of Kauai, where it was 
collected by the writer along Opaiwela stream in the forests of Kaholuamano. 

Nothocestrum breviflorum Gray. 

Aiea. 
(Plates 170, 171.) 

NOTHOCESTRUM BREVIFLORUM Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. VI. (1866) 49; Seem. 

Flora Vit. (1866) 173; Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 191; Hbd. Fl. Haw. 

Isl. (1888) 308; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 248. 

A stout tree about 10 to 12 m high; branches stiff, ascending; leaves oblong or 
elliptical-oblong, 5 to 12 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, on petioles of 3 to 5 cm, acute or obtuse 
on both ends, thin chartaceous, tomentose underneath, flowers many, clustered on short axil- 
lary spurs, the pedicels 4 to 10 mm, calyx campanulate with flowers, globose with fruit and 
closed over it, dentate, almost bilabiate; corolla greenish yellow, tube enclosed in the calyx, 
lobes with yellowish, coarse pubescence outside, with the exception of the margins which 
are glabrous, glabrous inside; anthers not protruding, linear, acute, glabrous; ovary ovoid, 
style short; berry globose or oblong, orange-red, 6 to 8 mm, or more long. 

The Aiea of Hawaii is a medium sized tree, 30-35 feet high, with a trunk of 
often V/ 2 feet in diameter ; the bark is perfectly smooth and of a chocolate brown 
or grayish color; the wood is soft and w T hitish-green, and full of sap. It is 
peculiar to the Island of Hawaii, where it occurs in the dry districts especially 
on the aa lava flows of North Kona, at Puuwaawaa on the slopes of Mt. Hualalai, 
where it is exceedingly common. In that locality the writer met with the big- 
gest trees. The trunks, owing to their softness are easily damaged and often 

419 



PLATE 172. 




NOTHOCESTRUM LATIFOLIUM Gray. 

Aiea Tree. 

Fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree. Growing on the lava fields of 

Auahi, East Maui. 



Solanaceae. 

eaten out by thirsty cattle, and are often covered with peculiar looking scars, 
and covered with knobs, increasing the ungainly appearance of the tree. It 
may be said here that none of the species of Nothocestrum (Aiea trees) deserves 
any claim to beauty ; in fact they are the most ugly trees which the Hawaiian 
Islands possess. In the forests of Naalehu, southern slopes of Mauna Loa, 
Hawaii, the writer met with a form of this species, which owing to thb fact 
that it grew in a wetter forest had a somewhat different aspect. The fruits 
were more or less oblong instead of globose, but agreed otherwise well with 
.V. brcviflonim. Collected fruiting June, 1909, North Kona, Hawaii, (no. 
3552) ; and flowering and fruiting Jan. 15, 1912, in Hilea forests, Kau, Hawaii, 
(no. 10016). 
The tree is usually found at an elevation of between 2000-2500 feet. 

Nothocestrum latifolium Gray. 

Aiea. 
(Plates 172, 173.) 

NOTHOCESTRUM LATIFOLIUM Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. VT. (1862) 48; Seem. Flora 
Vit. (1866) 173; Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 191; Wawra in Flora (1873) 
62; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 308; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII (1892) 
249; Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 885. 

A small tree; branches rigid, ascending; leaves broad ovate, or obovate-oblong, or 
suborbicular (Lanai spec.) entire or with very shallow sinuses, acute or obtuse and often 
rounded at the apex, covered with an ochraceous tomentum when young, puberulous at a 
later a,ge, of somewhat thick texture when fresh, thin chartaceous in dried specimens, 
pellucid, 4 to 12 cm long, 3 to 7 cm wide, on petioles of 10 to 50 mm; flowers clustered 
on short spurs, the pedicels 4 to 18 mm, calyx urceolate, about 6 mm, truncate, at length 
globose, tomentose or glabrate, open with fruit; corolla greenish-yellow, silky, the tube 
twice as long as the calyx, the lobes less than half its length; anthers protruding, some- 
what shorter than in the foregoing species; ovary globose, style as long as tube, berry 
globose 4 to 6 mm, whitish. 

This species of Aiea occurs on all the islands of the group with the exception 
of Hawaii. Like the former it prefers the dry forehills on the leeward sides 
as well as aa lava fields. It is one of the most common and ungainly looking 
trees on the Island of Lanai, where it can be found in the Kaa desert, the most 
western point of Lanai. It is taller than any other tree in that locality and can 
be recognized from a distance by its long stiff ascending branches, which are 
only slightly foliate; on Molokai it is common at Mapulo'u in the dry canyons 
and rocky situation 2000 feet above Kaunakakai, where it associates with 
Sideroxylon, Acacia Koaia, Myopontm sandwicense, and other trees; collected 
March 22, 1910, Mapulo'u, Molokai, no. 6155 fruiting; flowering at Mauna Lei, 
Lanai, July 26, 1910, (no. 8082). 

On the Island of Maui, on the southern slopes of Haleakala on the lava fields 
of Auahi, land of Kahikinui, occurs a variety enumerated as ft by Hillebrand in 
his Flora During the winter months, especially in the month of November, 
the trees are adorned with large dark green foliage hiding the ugly gnarled stiff 
branches, while in the month of March they are either bare or with only very 
scanty foliage. 



PLATE 173. 



' 




NOTHOCESTRUM LATIFOLIUM Gray. 

Aiea Tree. 
Growing on the aa lava fields of Auahi, Haleakala, East Maui; elevation 2600 feet. 



Solanaceae. 

The leaves are large with sinuate margins, subcordate at the base, densely 
tomeiitose, dark green with pale venation; inflorescence also covered with a 
dirty yellowish pubescence ; otherwise as in the species. At the same locality 
occurs, however, also the species with entire leaves or just a slight indication 
of a wavy margin. 

The tree illustrated was photographed when the foliage was scanty. 

The wood of this, as well as of the other species, is soft and of a green color ; 
it was used by the natives in the olden days for finishing off canoes. The reddish 
yellow berries are sometimes eaten. 

Nothocestrum subcordatum Mann. 
Aiea. 

NOTHOCESTRUM SUBCORDATUM Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 191; Wawra 
iu Flora (1873) 62; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 309; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pac. VII. (1892) 249. 

A medium sized tree about 10 m high; leaves ovate or cordate, 7.5 to 12.5 cm long, 
5 to 10 cm wide, on petioles of 3 to 4.5 cm, bluntly acuminate, thick coriaceous, glabrous; 
flowers cluttered, but often only a single one developed, on pedicels of 4 to 5 mm; calyx 
4 to 8 mm, glabrous, campanulate with flowers, globose with fruit but not closed over it; 
corolla exserted, silky yellow, its tube 8 to 10 mm, the limb half as long and 4 to 5 lobed; 
berry globose. 

This species, which is undoubtedly closely related to N. latifolium, if at all 
distinct from it, occurs in the ravines of Mt. Kaala of the Waianae range, and in 
the Valley of Wailupe, at the eastern end of Oahu. It is not known to the 
writer. Wawra collected it at Halemanu on Kauai, (no. 2140). 

SOLANUM L. 

Calyx 5 to 10 toothed or lobed, only rarely enlarged with fruit. Corolla rotate or 
broad campanulate, 5-lobed. Filaments very short, inserted at the base of the corolla; 
anthers oblong or linear, erect and connivent in a cone round the style, opening at the 
apex by 1 to 2 pores. Berry globose or elongate. Herbs, shrubs or trees, prostrate, erect, 
or climbing, with entire or lobed leaves. Flowers in umbellate cymes or racemes, or often 
a corymbose panicle, rarely single. Corolla white, yellow, purple, blue or red. 

This genus, which numbers more than 900 species, is distributed over the 
tropical and temperate parts of the whole globe; the largest number of species 
occurs however in South America. The Hawaiian Islands possess 6 endemic 
species of which only the one here described is a tree, the remaining five being 
shrubs. Besides the six endemic species quite a number of species are culti- 
vated for ornamental purposes, and a few are weeds along the roadside, as the 
nightshade (Popolo} etc. To this genus also belongs the Potato, Solanum 
t-uberosum L., and the Egg plant, S. Melongena. 

Solanum Carterianum Rock sp. nov. 
Puananahonua. 

A medium sized or small tree 5 to 7 m high, with very few stiff branches, straight 
trunk of 15 to 20 cm in diameter, vested in a grayish smooth bark; branches covered 

423 



PLATE 174. 




MYOPORUM SANDWICENS1S (A.DC.) Gray. 

Naio or Bastard Sandalwood. 
Flowering and fruiting branch, less than one-half natural size. 



Solanaceae-Myoporaceae. 

throughout with a pale yellow to cinereous, long, stellate pubescence; leaves pale green 
and velvety tomentose above, densely covered beneath, especially on the veins and mid- 
rib, with a stellate pale tomentum, as well as the petioles, which are 20 to 30 mm long, 
elliptical-oblong, long acuminate at the apex, shortly contracted at the base, acute, 
chartaeeous, entire, 12 to 25 cm long, 3.5 to 7 cm wide; inflorescence a terminal corynib", 
when fully developed 15 cm long, standing erect on a common stiff peduncle of 8 cm, 
densely covered with a long stellate woolly tomentum, calyx densely tomentose, divided 
to the middle into ovate acute lobes of 4 mm length, corolla parted two thirds its length 
into ovate-oblong acute lobes, which are of a blue color, and glabrous inside, but densely 
tomeutose outside, with a prominent median nerve; stamens on short filaments, anthers pale, 
short, oblong, not attenuate, broader at the apex than at the base, 2.5 mm long, with two 
ovoid apical pores; ovary villous, style long protruding, 6 mm, hairy; berry globose, black 
covered with a short stellate pubescence when young, 10 to 12 mm in diameter on pedicels 
of 6 mm; the peduncle and pedicels woody and thick, when with fruit. 

This most remarkable species was discovered by the writer on the Island of 
Oahu in the lower forests near Waiahole, at the entrance of Waianu Valley, 
on January 22, 1909 ; only a single tree was seen, for which an old native gave 
the name as Puananalwnua. He remarked that he knew of the tree when he 
was a boy, and that his parents used the fruits for medicinal purposes. 

This is the only species of Hawaiian Solanum which becomes a tree, all the 
rest of them being shrubs. It is remarkable for its large entire leaves, but 
mainly for its terminal woody corymbose inflorescence which reaches a length 
over 15 cm ; also for the bright blue corolla, and long filiform style. 

It is named in honor of Ex-Governor George R. Carter, Avho made the publica* 
tion of this volume possible. 

Collected at Waianu, Oahu, flowering and fruiting, January 22, 1909, (no. 
1191), type in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

MYOPORACEAE:. 

The main regions of the distribution of this family are situated in Australia 
and in the neighboring islands. Only a few out of the 102 species are found 
outside of Australia, one each in China and Japan, one in Mauritius, one in 
South and West Africa, and another species in the West Indies. Here in the 
Hawaiian Islands we have also only one species represented. The family con- 
sists only of 4 genera, nearly all Australian. 

MYOPORUM Banks et Sol. 

Calyx 5-lobed. unchanged at maturity of the fruit. Corolla with short tube sub 
campanulate. or with longer tube and funnel shaped, actinomorphous. Stamens 4, two 
large, rarely 5. Ovary 2 to 10 celled; and as many seeded. Trees or shrubs or bushes 
with erect and prostrate stems. Flowers single or fasciculate in the leaf-axils. 

The genus numbers about 25 species, which are divided into 5 sections. It is 
distributed over Australia, China, Japan, Mauritius and the Hawaiian Islands 
with a single species which comes under section II. Polycoelium. 

The only useful species of Myoporum are M. platycarpum R. Br., the sandal 
or sugar tree or dog wood of the Australians, which exudes a sort of manna, and 

425 



PLATE 175. 




MYOPORUM SANDWICENSE (A.DC.) Gray. 

Naio. 

Trunk of large tree showing peculiar scaly bark, more than two feet in diameter; growing 
in forest above Makawao, Maui; elevation 2500 feet. 



Myoporaceae. 

also a resin which is used as sealing wax. and the Hawaiian species, M. sandwi- 
cense (DC.) A. Gray, or Naio or Bastard Sandalwood, used as a substitute for 
the true sandalwood after the exhaustion of the latter. 

Myoporum Sandwicense (DC.) A. Gray. 

Naio or Bastard Sandalwood. 

(Plates 174, 175, 176.) 

MYOPOEUM SANDWICENSIS (DC.) A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. VI. (1866) 53; 
H. Mann, in Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1867) 194; Wawra in Flora (1874); 
Hbd. FL Haw. Isl. (1888) 339; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif VII. (1892) 
258; v. Wettstein in Engl. et Prautl Pflzfam. IV. 3. 1. (1895) 360; Heller PI. 
Haw. Isl. (1897) 892. Polycoelium sandwicense A. DC. Prodr. XI. (1847) 706. 
Myoporum tenuifolium Hook, et Arn. in Bot. Beech. (1832) 93. 

Leaves crowded towards the ends of the branches, alternate, elliptico lanceolate or 
oblong lanceolate, very acute, or acuminate, ehartaceous, or fleshy when growing at the 
sea-shore or even at low elevations (300 feet) 6 to 15 cm long, 1 to 5 cm wide on petioles 
of about 1 cm or less, acute at both ends, entire, or serrate in the specimens from Mt. 
Hualalai, ]S T orth Kona, Hawaii, the young leaves very viscous in all specimens; flowers 
in clusters of 5 to 8, white or deep pink colored, on pedicels of 8 mm; calyx 1 to 3 mm, 
parted to the base into ovate-lanceolate acute lobes; corolla campanulate 5 to 8 mm, cleft 
to the middle into 5 to 6 or rarely 7 obovate lobes; stamens as many as lobes, shorter 
than the latter, all alike, or two little exceeding the others; style short, flattened, incurved 
near the apex; stigma truncate. Drupe dry or somewhat fleshy and white globose or 
ovate, about 2 mm in diameter, crowned by the style, ribbed when dry; embryo cylindrical 
cotyledons as long as the radicle. 

On the Island of Molokai is a very narrow leaved form, with linear lanceolate 
very acuminate leaves, which are viscous; and with small pink flowers. It 
grows on all the islands of the group, from high elevations down to near or at 
the sea-shore, where it forms globose tussocks with salty fleshy leaves. 

The Naio or Bastard Sandalwood is a very handsome tree which reaches a 
considerable size. Its thick bark is of H dark gray color and deeply irregularly 
corrugated. It inhabits all the islands of the group and according to Hille- 
brand is supposed to reach its best development on the high mountains of Ha- 
waii, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, up to 10,000 feet elevation, which, however, 
is not the case. Next to Oliia and Koa, it is one of our most common forest 
trees, growing at all elevations from sea level, where it is a small shrub 2 feet 
high, up to 10,000 feet. On the Island of Maui, in the dry forest back of Ma- 
kawao (elevation 2500 feet), as well as at Auahi, southern slopes of Haleakala, 
it attains its greatest height and diameter of trunk; trees of 50 to 60 feet with 
trunks of more than 3 feet in diameter are not uncommon. It prefers the lee- 
ward sides of the islands, especially the aa lava fields, regions with very little 
rainfall, as well as the high mountains of Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, Hualalai and 
Haleakala, where it forms the upper forest zone together with the Mamani (So- 
ph ora clirysopliylla] , Raillardia, Coprosma, and Styphelia, reaching a height of 
about 20 feet, and withstanding heavy frosts. At the lower levels it is associ- 
ated with the Maua, Hold, Aalii, Kauila, Uhiuhi, etc. Hillebrand in his flora 
says that it is wanting on Molokai. The writer, however, found it very abundant 
above Kaunakakai, on the open dry ridges at Mapulou, where it grew together 
with Koaia and Alaa. The tree is glabrous throughout, has from narrow lance- 

427 



PLATE 176. 




MYOPORUM SANDWICENSE (A. DC.) Gray. 

Naio, Bastard Sandalwood. 

A large Naio tree, growing on the lava fields of Auahi, southern slopes of Haleakala, 

Maui; elevation 2600 feet. 



M yoporaceae-Rubiaceae. 

olate to obovate pointed glossy leaves which are crowded at the ends of the 
branches. The flowers, which are of a white or pink color, are borne all along 
the slender branches and are quite fragrant. 

The dark yellowish green wood becomes very fragrant on drying and re- 
sembles the odor of true Sandalwood. After the supply of the latter became 
exhausted in the islands, it was shipped to China as a substitute. The Naio is 
peculiar to this archipelago, though undoubtedly it must have originated either 
from Australia or New Zealand, the home of most of the Myoporums. 

Dead trees or old trunks are called Aaka by the natives. 

RUBIACEAE. 

The family Rubiaceae with its 4500 or more species and about 350 genera is 
a decidedly tropical one. The distribution of its species over Africa, Asia and 
America is rather even. Polynesia possesses also a large number of species. In 
the Hawaiian Islands this family is represented by 13 genera of which 4, 
(Straussia, Bobea, Gouldia and Kadua) are endemic. Eight of the 13 genera 
have arborescent species while the remaining 5 have shrubby or also herbaceous 
species only, and are therefore here omitted. A large contingent of the Hawaiian 
Flora is made up of this family which is the largest next to (Lobelioideae) 
Campanulaceae and Rutaceae. The family is easily distinguished by its op- 
posite leaves and interpetiolar stipules. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Ovules many in each cell. 

Ovary 2- rarely 3-4 celled. 

Fruit a bluish-black, indehiscent fleshy berry Gouldia 

Ovary 1-celled. 

Fruit larger globose or pyriform, succulent or dry, crowned with the calycine 

limb Gardenia 

Ovules one in each cell. 

Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous. 
Ovary 2 to 10-celled. 

Flowers greenish, the corolla-lobes imbricate in the bud Bobea 

Ovary 2-celled. 

Flowers white fragrant, the corolla lobes valvate Plectronia 

Flowers white small, rotate Straussia 

Flowers larger, white funnel-shaped, drupe crowned by the long calycine 

limb Psychotria 

Ovary 4-celIed. 

Flowers in globose heads; drupes united into a fleshy compound 

fruit Morinda 

Flowers dioecious, stigma bifid to the base, anthers 4 to 11 Coprosma 

GOULDIA Gray. 

Calyx short, cup-shaped, 4-toothed. Corolla salver-shaped, coriaceous, with 4 thick, 
fleshy lobes and glabrous throat. Stamens 4. inserted in the tuhe or throat. Ovary 
2-celled; style with 2 filiform branches. Fruit a berry with 2 drupaceous divisions, bisul- 
cate. Shrubs or small trees with coriaceous leaves and short interpetiolar, caducous 
stipules. 

429. 



PLATE 177. 




GOULDIA AXILLARIS Wawra. 

Manono. 
Fruiting branch; reduced. 



Rubiaceae. 

The genus Gouldia is strictly Hawaiian, and consists of a goodly number of 
ill-defined species, most of which are shrubs, only very few becoming trees. As 
they are at present in a mixup, and difficult to determine without type material, 
it is thought wise to mention only these few. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Panicles axillary and short, leaves pubescent underneath Or. axillaris 

Panicles terminal, large, loose G. elongata 

Gouldia axillaris \Yawra. 

Manono. 
(Plate 177.) 

GOULDIA AXILLARIS Wawra in Flora (1874) 397; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 170; 
Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 189. G. sandwicensis var. hirtella 
Gray Proc. Am. Ac. IV. (1860) 310, in part. 

Branches angular, solid, densely and evenly foliose throughout, coarsely pubescent; 
leaves on petioles of 4 to 12 mm, elliptical, obovate-oblong or lanceolate, 5 to 15 cm long, 
1.5 to 5 cm wide, more or less acuminate, contracted or rounded at the base, bluish-green 
when fresh, membraneous to chartaceous, with not very distinct nerves, coarsely but 
sparingly pubescent underneath; stipules 6 mm; panicles numerous, pubescent, short, 2.5 
to 5 cm long, in the axils of mostly older leaves or on the naked branches, with slender 
peduncles of 4 to 12 mm; the lowest bracts 6 to 12 mm or foliaceous; corolla puberulous, 
small; anthers subexserted; berry pale blue or blackish, 3 to 4 mm in diameter; seeds 20 
to 22 on each placenta. 

This species is a small tree about 20 to 25 feet high, and is very variable. It 
occurs practically on all the islands of the group in the rain or middle forest 
zone at an elevation of about 3000 feet. Specimens from South Koria, in the 
forests back of the lava fields of Kapua, Hawaii, have exceedingly large fruits, 
and larger panicles all along the branches, as well as terminal; collected fruit- 
ing February, 1912, (no. 10030). Other numbers in the Herbarium of the 
College of Hawaii are 3706 from Hualalai, Hawaii ; 7016 from Maunaluri, Molo- 
kai ; 8535 from Mt. Haleakala, Maui. 

Gouldia elongata Heller. 
Man ono. 

GOULDIA ELONGATA Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1807) 897. G. terminalis 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 169 in part. 

Branches subherbaceous near the ends, drooping, slender, four-angled, glabrous 
throughout; or the young leaves finely puberulous underneath; bark gray, smooth; leaves 
elliptical-lanceolate, slightly more contracted at the apex than at the base; 5 to 7.5 cm 
long, 3 cm or more wide, entire, midrib prominent, impressed above, on short petioles about 
2 em; panicles terminal or occasionally axillary, pyramidal, very large and loose; pedicels 
slender; berries small, 2 mm in diameter, bluish. 

This Manono is usually a shrub, but it w r as also observed as a tree in the for- 
ests of Kaholuamano, Kauai. Plants occur on Maui (no. 8531) which would be 
referable to this species, but differ to some extent, as in the contracted panicle, 
which comes closer to G. sambucina. The latter is also a small tree described 
by Heller. It occurs in the forests of Kaholuamano, Kauai. The leaves of this 
latter species are very wide and thick coriaceous. 

431 



PLATE 178. 




GARDENIA REMYI Mann. 

Nanu or Nau. 
Flowering and fruiting branch; reduced. 



Rubiaceae. 
GARDENIA Ellis. 

Calyx usually tubular and truncate, toothed or lobed, persistent. Corolla salver- 
shaped, campanulate, or funnel-shaped with cylindrical tube; lobes occasionally more than 
5. Stamens 5 to 11, inserted in the throat, enclosed or shortly protruding. Ovary 1-celled, 
with 2-several parietal placentas; style often with clavate stigma protruding. Fruit coriace- 
ous or succulent, often irregularly opening, smooth or ribbed, globose or pyriform Shrubs 
or trees with chartaceous or coriaceous leaves, and interpetiolar, often connate and sheath- 
ing stipules. Flowers occasionally very large, terminal or axillary, white, yellow or purple. 

The genus consists of about 70 species which are distributed over tropical 
Africa, Asia and Australia. About 10 species have been described from the 
Pacific isles, two of which are peculiar to Hawaii, while the remaining ones 
occur in Tahiti (1), Fiji (6) and in Samoa (1). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Branches not glutinous, fruit globose G. Brighami 

Branches glutinous, fruit quadrangular, pyriform G. Remyi 

Gardenia Brighami Mann. 

Nau. 

GARDENIA BRIGHAMI Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 171; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 171; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 191; Brigham Ka Hana 
Kapa in Mem. B. P. B. Mus. III. (1911) 146. 

Branches dichotomous, densely foliose, scarcely glutinous at the ends; leaves on short 
petioles of 4 mm, ovate, shortly acuminate, chartaceous, with prominent straight nerves, 
shining above, papillose and puberulous when young; stipules triangular or truncate; 
flowers single, terminal, subsessile; calyx tube shortly produced above the ovary, 10 mm 
long, 4 lobed; anthers subsessile, linear, their apices exserted; style as long as the tube 
(14 to 18 mm), the two clavate branches nearly half its length; fruit globose, with 4 faint 
lines, about 2.5 cm in diameter, coriaceous, indehiscent, tipped with the contracted limb of 
the calyx, 1-celled, w r ith 4 (or 3 or 5) parietal placentas projecting about 4 mm from the 
pergameneous endocarp; seeds many in a yellowish pulp, horizontal, flattened, obtusely 
3 or more angled. 

The San is a small tree, reaching a height of 15 to 18 feet, or is even smaller 
when it is a shrub. It has a trunk 6 to 8 inches in diameter and is vested in a 
smooth or slightly roughened bark. The flowers are of a beautiful white and 
very fragrant and would be worthy of cultivation on that account. During the 
month of March the trees are usually loaded with the globose fruits, which turn 
black when mature. Hillebrand remarks that the fruits do not open on the 
tree, though the writer saw them split into several divisions on most of the 
trees on Molokai. 

The Sau is peculiar to the very dry districts on the leeward sides of the 
islands, and is especially common on Molokai, where it forms the remnants of 
the dry forest on the slopes of Mauna Loa which forms the west end of that 
Island. The trees on Molokai are taller than on the other islands. It associates 
with the KcaJii, CkrysophyUum polynesicum, Kokia drynarioides, Reynoldsia 
sandwicensis, Xylosma PHUcbrandii, NototricMum sandwicense, etc. On Lanai 
it is also very common in the Valleys of Mahana and Kaiholena, as well as on 
the slopes of the Kaa desert, where it can be found with some of the above 
mentioned trees and also with Bobea sandwicensis, Nothocestrum sp., Os'nantlius 

433 

28 



PLATE 179. 




PLECTRONIA ODORATA (Forst.) F. v. M. 

Walahee or Alahee Trees. 
Growing on the extreme western end of Molokai. 



Rubiaceae. 

sandwicensis, various Sideroxylons and others. On Hawaii the writer found a 
small tree on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, elevation 2000 feet, North Kona, 
while on Oahu it is recorded from Nuuanu and the dry forehills of Makaleha. 
The wood of the Nau is whitish yellow. The yellow pulp of the fruit was em- 
ployed in dyeing tapa, or kapa, yellow. 

Gardenia Remyi Mann. 
Nanu or Nau. 

(Plate 178.) 

GARDENIA EEMYI Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 171; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. 
(1888) 172; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 191; Brigham Ka Hana 
Kapa Mem. B. P. B. Mus. III. (1911) 146. fig. 88. 

Leaves obovate oblong, 10 to 22.5 cm long, 5 to 10 cm wide on petioles of 4 to 8 mm, 
shortly acuminate, contracted at the base, chartaceous, papillose underneath, prominently 
nerved; stipules truncate and sheathing, flowers terminal, single, sessile; calyx-tube angu- 
lar, 18 mm long with 4 to 5 lobes which are falciform, and dilated toward the oMuse 
apex, net-veined, spreading with the plane vertical about 3 to 5 cm long, equalling or ex- 
ceeding the corolla; corolla white, the tube 2.5 cm, the 7 to 8 obovate-oblong suberect 
lobes about 20 mm long, narrowed at the base and separated by broad sinuses; anthers 
enclosed; fruit 4 to 5-angled, pyriform, 3.5 to 5 cm, the permanent calyx-lobes surrounding 
a disc 6 to 8 mm in diameter. 

The Nanu or Nau, unlike the afore described, is a tall tree reaching a height 
of 20 to 40 feet with a rather large broad crown. The branches are more or 
less horizontal in large trees; the trunk is short. The leaves which are larger 
than in the foregoing species are light green and covered as with a layer of 
varnish due to a glutinous substance which exudes from the young shoots. The 
large sweet-scented flowers are terminal and single and have no flower stalk. 
The fruit, which is quadrangular, is crowned by four wings, which are the per- 
sistent lobes of the calyx, a characteristic which is absent in the other Hawaiian 
Nau. 

The Nanu or Nau may be found on the slopes of Tantalus and especially in 
Palolo Valley on Oahu, where it is a smaller tree, while on Molokai back of 
Kaluaha large trees can be found in company with Acacia Koa (Koa), Bobea 
elatior, Straussia Kaduana, etc. It grows on the leeward sides of some of the 
islands and also in the rain forests on the windward sides, as for example on 
Maui, where it is scattered between the valleys of Waikamoi and Honomanu 
on the northern slope of Haleakala, where the rainfall is exceedingly large, as 
well as on Kauai in the forests of Hanalei. Like the former it is endemic to the 
Hawaiian Islands ; both species were discovered by Horace Mann and also de- 
scribed by him in his "Enumeration of Hawaiian Plants"; the former he named 
in honor of his companion, Prof. Wm. T. Brigham, the latter for the French 
Botanist Jules Remy. 

The glutinous leaf buds were used by the natives as a cement, and the yellow 
fruit-pulp for dyeing purposes. 

435 



PLATE 180. 




BOBEA ELATIOE Gaud. 
Ahakea. 

Fruiting branch; reduced. 



Rubiaceae. 
PLECTRONIA Linn. 

Calyx short, cup-shaped, truncate or 4 to 5 toothed. Tube of corolla short or pro- 
longed, corolla funnel shaped or campanulate, with obtuse or acute lobes. Stamens 4 to 5, 
inserted near the throat. Ovary 2-celled; style with thickened, obtuse, capitate stigma. 
Drupe 2-seeded, one cell often abortive. Shrubs or trees, occasionally climbers, armed 
or unarmed, with coriaceous leaves and interpetiolar stipules. Flowers small in fascicles 
or corymbose cymes. 

A genus of more than 80 species distributed over the warmer or hottest regions 
of the old world, with the exception of Europe. In the Hawaiian Islands we 
have only one species, the WalaJiee or Alahee, distributed however over the 
South Pacific Islands. 

Plectronia odorata (Forst.) F. v. M. 
Walahee or Alakee. 
(Plate 178.) 

PLECTRONIA ODORATA Forst. F. v. Muell ? Hbd Fl. Haw. Isl. 

(1888) 175; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 194; K. Schum. in 
Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 4. (1891) 92; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 902. 
Coffea odorata Forst. Prodr. (1786) no. 94. Ixora odorata Sprengl. Syst. veg. 
I. (1825) 409. Canthium lucidum H. et A. Bot. Beech. (1832) 65; Mann Proc. 
Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 169; Wawra in Flora (1874) 298. Myonima umbellatum 
Hook, et Am. Bot. Beech. (1832) 86. Pavetta dubia Endl. Fl. S'uds. (1836) 176. 
no. 1296. Canthium odoratum Seem. Fl. Vit. (1866) 132. 

Leaves elliptical-oblong, acuminate or somewhat obtuse, dark green, glossy above, 
paler beneath; stipules mucronate; flowers white, fragrant in cymose corymbs 2.5 to 3.5 
cm long; calyx 2 mm, dentate; corolla 6 mm long, 4 to 5 fid, pilose at the insertion of 
the stamens, the latter exserted; style little longer, glabrous, stigma short ovoid or rather 
the 2 thick lobes co-adnate; drupe obovoid, compressed, black and juicy when mature, 
emarginate, grooved on each side, 8x10 mm, 2-celled. Seed incurved. 

The Walahee or Alahee is a shrub or small tree reaching a maximum height of 
20 feet. It has a round crown, bright green, very glossy leaves ; the white frag- 
rant flowers add to the beauty of the little tree during the summer months. 

It inhabits the dry regions of the low land or lower forest zone up to 2000 
feet, and is rather a common tree on all the islands. On the west end of Molo- 
kai, Walahee trees form the sole arborescent growth in the little gulches (see 
plate 178). 

The wood of the Alahee is very handsome, exceedingly hard, and durable. It 
was used by the natives for their implements with which they tilled the soil. 
The leaves were used in coloring articles black. 

BOBEA Gaud. 

Flowers polygamous-dioecious. Calyx cup-shaped, truncate, 4-toothed or 4-lobed. 
Corolla salver-shaped, lobes imbricate in the bud. Stamens inserted in the throat, their 
apices protruding. Ovary 2 to 11-celled; style in the male flowers with 2-, in the female 
flowers with 2 to 11 filiform branches. Drupe globose, somewhat dry or fleshy, furrowed 
when dry, with 2 to 11 osseous, uniseriate pyrenae. Seeds straight. Trees with sub- 
coriaceous to chartaceous, pale green leaves, and interpetiolar easily caducous stipules. 
Flowers usually 3, or single, in axillary symes. 

437 



PLATE 181. 




BOBEA HOOKERI Hbd. 

Ahakea. 
Flowering and fruiting branch; reduced. 



Rubiaceae. 

The genus Bobea, named by Gaudichaud in honor of M. Bobe-Moreau, a 
physician and pharmacist in the French Marine, consists of 4 or perhaps 5 
species, which are all peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands. They form two groups, 
one composed of Bobea elatior and B. Mannii which are perhaps a single species, 
and B. timonioides, B. sandwicensis and B. Hookeri, only differing from each 
other mainly in the number of pyrenae. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Limb of calyx cup-shaped, truncate, drupe with 2 to 11 pyrenae. 

Leaves glabrous; peduncle erect B. elatior 

Leaves hairy underneath, peduncle drooping B. Mannii 

Limb of calyx cup-shaped, 4 toothed B. timonoides 

Limb of calyx broadly 4 lobed. 

Flowers in cymes; drupe with 2 pyrenae B. sandwicensis 

Flowers single; drupes with 4 to 6 pyrenae B. Hookeri 

Bobea elatior Gaud. 

Aliakea. 
(Plate 180.) 

BOBEA ELATIOR Gaud. Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826-30) 473. pi. 93; A. Gray Proc. Am. 
Acad. IV. (1860) 36; Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 170; Hbd. Fl. Haw. 
Isl. (1888) 173; K. Schum. in Engl. et Prantl IV. 4. (1891) 96; Del Cast. 111. 
Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 192; Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud Bull. IX. (1897) 
893. Burneya Gaudichaudii Cham, et Schlecht. in Linn. IV. (1829) 190. Timonius 
' Gaudichaudii DC. Prodr. IV. (1830) 461; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) 176, no. 1288. 

Leaves pale, obovate oblong, 5 to 10 cm long, 2.5 to 5 cm wide, on petioles of 6 to 24 
mm, acuminate, chartaceous, glabrous; stipules oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 12 mm, rather con- 
volute in the bud; flowers 3 (accord. Hillbd. 3 to 7) in a cyme, with a common peduncle 
of 5 to 7.5 cm, the middle flower sessile, the lateral ones on pedicels of 12 to 18 mm;! 
bracts and braetlets cup-shaped, low; calyx 4 to 5 cm, the cup-shaped truncate limb as 
long as the adnate portion; corolla greenish, glabrous, the lobes in the bud silky near the 
apex, the tube 4 to 8 mm, plicate at the throat, the obovate or rounded lobes 3 to 5 mm; 
anthers sessile at the middle of the tube; style 3 to 11 cleft; drupe rather fleshy, purplisn 
ovoid 6 to 10 mm in diameter, or spheroidal crowned by the calycine limb which sur- 
rounds a glabrous disk of 2 mm in diam.; pyrenae 3 to 11, thick walled, complanate. 

This Aliakca is a tree 30 feet or so tall with often a large trunk of \y 2 feet 
in diameter. It occurs in the rain forests of the Islands of Oahu, Kauai, and 
Hawaii, and can be recognized by its rather pale green foliage, which is often 
reddish- veined. 

It is not uncommon back of Honolulu in the Valleys of Pauoa and Palolo as 
w r ell as in the whole Koolau range. The biggest trees were observed in the 
mountains of Punaluu on the windward side of Oahu. The wood of the 
Ahakea is yellow and was employed by the natives for poi boards and the top- 
rims of outrigger canoes, which in modern ones are painted yellow, to take the 
place of the yellow 7 Aliakea wood. 

Few are the natives now-a-days w r ho are familiar with the Ahakeas of the 
Hawaiian forests. 

At a lower elevation, about 1000 feet, there occurs an apparent variety of the 

439 



PLATE 182. 




BOBEA HOOKERI Hbd. 

Ahakea. 

Flowering and fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree. Growing on the lava fields 
Auahi, southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Maui. 



Rubiaceae. 

true B. elatior, with smaller leaves, and fruits with only two pyrenae. The 
whole aspect of the tree is different from the true B. elatior occurring 1000 feet 
higher. 

Hillebrand enumerates a variety (3. ~brevipes, and gives the length of the 
peduncles at 3 lines or 6 mm; in a foot note, however, he states: "the single 
flowers are on a peduncle of 12 to 20 lines or 24 to 40 mm. 

On the Island of Molokai in various districts, as in Wailau Valley, Mapuleho, 
and Kaluaha occurs a species of Bobea which at first glance would appear to be 
B. elatior. However, the flowers are single and usually with 11 pyrenae. The 
tree is entirely glabrous in all parts. It may be Gray's B. brevipes, but his 
description: " pedunculis brevibns uni/loris?" would speak against it, and there- 
fore the writer would suggest the name: Bobea elatior Gaud. var. Molokaiensis 
Rock var. nov. The type is 7028 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. Col- 
lected flowering and fruiting Wailau Valley, Molokai, April, 1910. It is a small 
tree about 20 to 25 feet in height with a slender straight trunk. 

On the Island of Kauai the writer observed several trees of Bobea, one oc- 
curring in the mountains of Halemanu in the dense forest, a rather large tree 
with a broad round crown. It is known to the natives as Akupa. Its leaves 
are ovate, bluntly acute, or obtuse or rounded at both ends and are on petioles 
of 4 mm, or even subsessile, the branchlets, petioles and leaves are hirtulose with 
whitish hair. As the tree was neither in flower nor in fruit its diagnosis is un- 
certain ; it will probably prove to be a new species of Bobea when complete ma- 
terial is at hand. 

On the lower mountain slopes back of Makaweli, Kauai, occur a few small 
trees which may be referred to Hillebrand 's Bobea Mannii, though all peduncles, 
which are rather short, drooping and hirsute, are single flowered and would 
therefore come under Gray's B. brevipes. There is however some doubt in the 
writer's mind in regard to the specific value of Bobea Mannii which, with the 
exception of the three flowered inflorescence, agrees well with Gray's B. brevipes. 
Until the type material can be examined, these questions cannot be definitely 
settled. 

Bobea Hookeri Hbd. 

Aliakea. 
(Plates 181, 182, 183.) 

BOBEA HOOKERI Hbd. Flora Haw. Isl. (1888) 175; K. Schum. in Eiigl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. IV. 4. (1891) 96. Rhytidotus sandwicensis Hook. f. Icon Plant. (1870) 
tab. 1071; Del Cast. HI. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pae. VI. (1890) 192. 

Branches and branchlets terete, the latter nodose, stipules triangular puberulous, 4 
mm; leaves ovate, slightly and irregularly crenulate, or with a transparent wavy margin, 
acuminate. 6 to 9 cm long, 3 to 5 cm wide, chartacous, with pellucid veins, dark green 
above, lighter underneath, with reddish midrib and petioles, the latter 6 to 12 mm, pubes- 
cent, as are the young leaves; flowers single, usually axillary or in the axils of fallen 
leaves, on peduncles of 1 mm to 2.5 cm and even slightly longer; calyx-tube 3 mm, pubes- 
cent, with 4 many-nerved ovate-oblong lobes of 4 to 5 mm, reticulately veined; corolla tube 

441 



PLATE 183. 




BOBEA HOOKEKI Hbd. 

Ahakea Tree. 

Growing on the aa lava fields of Auahi, southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Maul; elevation 

3000 feet. 



Rubiaceae. 

cylindrical, silky pubescent, 5 mm, the lobes one-third as long, with a patch of yellowish 
hair underneath each lobe; anthers linear, slightly exserted, sessile; style densely tomentose, 
protruding, divided into 4 to 6 filiform stigmatic branches, which are erect and not spread- 
ing; fruits globose, 8 to 12 mm, purplish, with a gray pubescence, pyrenae 4 to 6, crowned 
by the calyx lobes. 

This species differs very little from Bobea sandwicensis Hbd. Its outward ap- 
pearance, color of leaves, and branching habit, are exactly the same in both species. 
When neither in flower nor fruit it would be absolutely impossible to separate 
the two species. The only difference is that in the species in question the 
flowers are single and the fruits have from 4 to 6 pyrenae, while in Bobea 
sandwicensis the inflorescence is cymose but usually of only 3 flowers, and with 
fruits of 2 pyrenae ; otherwise the trees could not be distinguished. 

Bobca Hookeri Hbd. was collected by the writer on Molokai in the open dry 
gulches below Mr. G. P. Cooke's residence, Kauluwai, at an elevation of 2000 
feet, only a single tree was observed, (no. 6177 flowering and fruiting March 26, 
1910). It also grows on the lava fields of Auahi, district of Kahikinui, southern 
slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Maui ; there the writer met with a single tree with a 
large trunk vested in a gray large-scaly bark, (see plates 182 and 183) ; it had 
three main trunks each of a foot or more in diameter. It is associated with 
Alectryon macrococcus, Tetraplasandra meiandra var., Pittosporum, Dracaena 
a urea, and others. It is one of the rarest trees in the territory. Hillebrand 
records it from Oahu, from the valleys of AVailupe and Makaleha, but it was 
never met with by the writer on Oahu. 

Bobea sandwicensis Hbd. 
Ahakea. 

BOBEA SANDWICENSIS Hbd. Fl. Haw. Tsl. (1888) 174; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
VI. (1890) 193. Chomelia ? sandwicensis Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. IV. (1860) 
38. Guettardella sandwicensis H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 170. 
Branehlets pubescent, leaves as in Bobca Hookeri but pubescent underneath and puberu- 
lous above; inflorescence eymose, 3 flowered in the writer's material, 3 to 7 flowered accord- 
ing to Hillebrand, peduncle tomentose about 10 mm, the lateral flowers sessile, calyx 
and corolla silky tomentose, yellowish-green; bracteoles 1 mm; calyx as in Bobca Hookeri, 
the lobes larger; tube of corolla cylindrical, 8 mm, anthers exserted, style in all the 
writer's specimens only 1.5 mm long and slightly bifid, exserted or quite short according 
to Hillebrand; drupe globose 5 mm in diameter, blackish, with a gray pubescence, with two 
bony pyrenae. 

The writer collected this species on the Island of Lanai on the dry open 
slopes below Koele, and near the edge of the Mauna Lei canyon. It is quite 
numerous and grows in company with Siderorylon spathulatum, Gardenia Brig- 
hami, Chrysophyllum polynesicum, and others. 

It is a medium sized tree about 20 to 25 feet in height, has a short trunk 
(about 4 feet), but a large round and spreading crown, and is very freely 
branching. (Flowering and fruiting July 26, 1910. Rock and Hammond, no. 
8038.) 

443 




STEAUSSIA KADUANA Gray. 

Kopiko kea. 
Flowering branches; reduced; typical Oahu specimen. 



Rubiaceae. 

Hillebrand records it from West Maui, Molokai and Lanai ; it is known to the 
writer only from the latter island. The size of calyx and corolla varies con- 
siderably in this species; the larger flowers being an indication of dimorphism. 

Bobea timonioides Hbd. 
Ahakca. 

BOBEA TIMONIOIDES Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 174; K. Schum, in Engl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. IV. 4. (1891) 96. Obbea timonioides Hook. f. Icon, plant. (1870) tab. 
1070 et Gen. Plant. II. (1873) 102; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 
193. Chomelia? sp. Wawra in Flora (1874) 330. 

A small tree with the ultimate branches slender and straggling, pubescent and ciliate 
on the deep cicatrices of the fallen stipules; leaves pale, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, some- 
times falcate, on petioles of 8 to 12 mm, acuminate, chartaceous, glabrous or slightly 
puberulous on the nerves underneath; stipules triangular, acute pubescent; cymes many, 
tomentose, 3 to 7-flowered, the common peduncle 8 to 12 mm, the lateral flowers on 
pedicels of 2 to 4 mm; braetlets minute; calyx and corolla densely tomentose, the former 
turbinate, with the free limb cup-shaped, and 4-toothed; tube of corolla 6 to 8 mm, the 
obovate lobes 1/3 shorter; anthers sessile, above the middle of the tube, elongate, included 
or the tips exserted; disc conical, hairy; style thick, pubescent, about M: the length 
of the corolla, deeply bifid into 2 pointed branches; ovary 2-celled, the single seed sus- 
pended from a short and broad funis. 

Hillebrand records this tree from South Kona, Hawaii, and Kawaihaeiuka of 
the same island. This tree is not known to the writer, but is undoubtedly very 
close to B. sandwicensis from which it seems only to differ in the toothed calyx 
and one seeded fruits. These last three species may form in reality only a very 
variable species. 

STRAUSSIA A. Gray. 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx cup-shaped, persistent, 4 to 5 toothed or truncate. 
Corolla short funnel-shaped with glabrous tube, sparingly pubescent at the throat. Stamens 
inserted at the throat, half exserted; anthers basifixed, with thickened connective. Ovary 
2-celled; style short with two branches. Fruit convex. Trees with coriaceous, obovate, 
obtuse, or acute leaves, and interpetiolar broad rather obtuse stipules. Flowers small, 
white, in peduncled, terminal cormybose cymes. 

The genus Straussia consists of 7 species, all of which are peculiar to the Ha- 
waiian Islands. Heller's two new species, St. psychotrioides and St. pubiftora, 
described in the Minnesota Botanical Studies Bull. IX. (1897) 904 & 905, are 
not very distinct species and will undoubtedly be referred to St. Kaduana. 

The genus is not found at higher elevation than 4500 feet, but descends some- 
what lower than 1000 feet. To the five species originally known the writer has 
added two new ones ; a third new one was described by H. Leveille. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves on short petioles of 2 to 12 mm. 

Leaves obovate-oblong, obtuse, panicle long drooping St. Kaduana 

Leaves cuneate, subsessile, prominently nerved, panicles 25 cm long. St. longissima 

Leaves obovate-suborbicular pubescent, panicle short pubescent St. oncocarpa 

Leaves ovate acute or suborbicular glabrous, small, subsessile St. Fauriei 

445 



PLATE 185. 




STRAUSSIA LONGISSIMA Eock sp. nov. 
Flowering and fruiting branch, less than one-half natural size. 



Rubiaceae. 

Leaves on petioles of 12 to 45 mm. 

Leaves obovate-elliptical oblong, acuminate, pubescent underneath. . . St. leptocarpa 

Leaves acute at both ends, obovate-oblong, panicle erect St. Mariniana 

Leaves large, oblong, rounded at both ends, pubescent underneath . . . St. Hillebrandii 

Leaves large, obovate with cuneate base, glabrous St. hawaiiensis 

Straussia kaduana (Cham, et Schlecht.) Gray. 
Kopiko kea. 
(Plate 184.) 

STRAUSSIA KADUANA (Cham, et Schlecht.) Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. IV. (1860) 43; 
H. Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 170; Wawra in Flora (1874) 321; 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 179; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 197; 
K. Schum. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 4. (1891) 112; Heller in Minnes. Bot. 
Stud. IX. (1897) 903. Coffea kaduana Cham, in Linnaea IV. (1829) 33; DC. 
Prodr. IV. (1830) 502; Hook, et Am. Bot. Beech.. (1832) 86; Endl. Fl. Suds. 
(1836) 176 no. 1297. Apionaema obovatum et pendulifloruin Nutt. in Herb. Kew. 
(Hbd.). 

Leaves obovate or obovate oblong, 5 to 10 cm long, 3 to 5 cm wide, on short petioles 
of 4 to 12 mm or even sessile, rounded or shortly acuminate, cuneate toward the base, 
chartaceous to coriaceous, with nerves prominent or little prominent, glabrate or puberulous 
underneath, turning black when dry; stipules short 4 to 6 mm, broadly triangular; panicle 
4 to 12.5 cm long, erect or nodding, puberulous or glabrate, with only 1 or 2 approximate 
whorls of rays toward the end of a long peduncle; calyx 1 mm, the limb denticulate; 
corolla about 4 mm, naked at the throat, its 4 to 6 lobes generally longer than the tube, 
often 2 to 3 times as long; drupe obovoid or top-shaped, almost quadrangular, with a broad, 
flat disc, 10 to 14 mm long, and about 8 mm broad near the top. 

This. is a very variable species and occurs mainly in the mountains of the 
Island of Oahu, where it is quite common. The flowers, which are very small 
and white, are arranged on rather long drooping panicles ; the drupes are yellow 
and resemble a coffee-drupe. It is a medium sized or small tree of 15 to 20 
feet in height, and is often quite stunted and shrubby when growing on the 
crests of mountain ridges. It occurs on Lanai on the Mahana ridge (no. 8044) 
in company with Pittosporum confertiftorum, Xanthoxylum, Gouldia, Tetra- 
plasandra meiandra, and others. 

The wood being whitish, it is called Kopiko kea by the natives. Hillebrand 
records is also from Molokai ; he enumerates two varieties which are here in- 
cluded in the species. A very interesting new species was found by the writer 
when in company with Mr. G. P. Wilder, in Nuuanu Valley, Oahu, and is de- 
scribed as follows. 

Straussia longissima Rock sp. nov. 
(Plate 185.) 

Leaves obovate-oblong, acute at the apex or rounded, strictly cuneate at the base, 
sessile or on petioles of 2 m, 2 to 15 cm long, 4 to 8 cm wide, light green above and 
glabrous, with prominent strong nerves and midrib, which, like the whole underside of 
the leaves, are covered with a rufous pubescence; stipules broadly triangular to oblong, 
acute; panicles exceedingly long up to 25 cm, pendulous, the common peduncle up to 18 em 
long, the shortest 10 cm, with three whorls, each of four rays, the whole inflorescence in- 
cluding peduncle rufous pubescent; calyx limb truncate to dentate, pubescent, corolla small 
2.5 mm, white, naked at the throat, the 4 lobes as long as the tube, glabrous; drupe obovoi'd 
to oblong 12 to 14 mm long, 6 mm wide, with a small conical disc, not ribbed. 

447 



Rubiaceae. 

This exceedingly interesting Straussia, with decidedly specific characters, is a 
tree 12 to 20 feet high with ascending branches and is remarkable for the very long 
pendulous panicles, the longest in the genus. It is restricted as far as known 
to Nuuanu Valley in one of the small side gulches of Konahuanui, along a small 
streambed at a thousand feet elevation. It is associated with Charpentiera obo- 
vata, Hibiscus Arnottianus, Perrottettia sandwicensis, Cyrtandra and others. 

It was collected when in company with Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder, flowering and 
fruiting May, 1912. The type is No. 10200 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Straussia oncocarpa Hbcl. 
Kopiko. 

STEAUSSIA ONCOCAEPA Hbd. Flora Haw. Isl. (1888) 180; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pae. VI. (1890) 197. 

Leaves obovate or suborbicular 5 to 7.5 cm long, 3.75 cm wide, on petioles of 4 to 12 
mm, rounded at both ends, subcoriaceous, pubescent underneath, the costal glands hidden 
under the hairs; stipules triangular, obtuse 3 to 4 mm; panicle short, 2.5 to 5 cm long, 
bearing one whorl of short rays, rusty-pubescent, as are also the calyx and corolla; calyx 
distinctly dentate; corolla naked at the throat, its tube 4 mm; the lobes as long; drupe 
obovoid, 4-ribbed, tumid at the base, 12 mm long, 8 mm wide, with a small disc. 

Hillebrand records this species from Ulupalakua, Maui, only. The writer col- 
lected the typical St. oncocarpa on the Island of Lanai, (nos. 8024 and 8025) at 
the head of Waiakiola gulch, at an elevation of 2800 feet. It is a tall tree 40 
to 50 feet in height. The leaves are on slender petioles of little over 2.5 cm, 
about twice as long as in Hillebrand 's specimens. On East Maui specimens 
were collected of this species which answer the original description in every detail 
with the exception that some of the leaves are subcordate at the base and strongly 
nerved (no. 8540) ; this latter tree occurs in the open drier gulches back of 
Makawao and is only about 25 feet tall. In the same locality occurs a tree 
which must be referred to the same species, the leaves are larger, pale green 
the panicle is 1 to 2 whorled, otherwise as in the species. 

Hillebrand 's var. ,5. the writer collected on Kauai at Kaholuamano, probably 
the type locality (no. 1935) fruiting, March 3-10, 1909. The panicles are shorter, 
less than 2.5 cm and contracted; the leaves are obovate-oblong and rounded, 
though cuneate at the base. 

Var. subcordata Rock var. nov. 

Leaves as in the species, but thin chartaceous, glabrous on both sides and subcordate 
at the base, on very short petioles; panicles of 3 whorls, pubescent, slender, 12 cm long in- 
cluding the peduncle, which measures often more than 7 cm; calyx-limb dentate; corolla 
lobes half the length of the tube. 

This variety occurs at the Wailau pali on the Island of Molokai, at an eleva- 
tion of 4000 feet. It is a small tree 25 feet in height. Collected April, 1910, 
flowering, no. 7072 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

448 



Kubiaceae. 
Var. sccriacea Rock var. nov. 

Branches light gray, terete and striate. Leaves suborbicular, shining, coriaceous, 
pubescent along the prominent nerves and midrib, on petioles of 2 to 2.5 cm; the flat 
glands triangular and very conspicuous in the axils of the nerves; panicles of 1 to 2 
whorls, rather short, 2.5 to 3 cm, densely tomeutose, with a dirty yellowish-gray tomentum; 
calyx and corolla pubescent, the former truncate; drupes angled, obovate, rather small, 7 
mm, pubescent. 

As the name implies, this variety occurs on the scoria or aa lava fields of 
Manuka in Kau on the southern slopes of Mauna Loa, Hawaii. It is a small 
tree 15 feet in height and grows in company with Nototrichium sandu'icense, 
Santaliun Freycinetianum, Osteomeles anthyllidi folia, and others. Collected 
July, 1911, flowering and fruiting. The type is no. 10201 in the College of 
Hawaii Herbarium. 

Straussia Fauriei Levl. 
Kopiko. 

STRAUSSIA FAURIEI Levl. in Fedde Eepert. X. 10/14 (1911) 155. 

Branches stout; leaves obovate or suborbicular, 3 to 7.5 cm long, 2 to 6 cm wide", 
rounded or acute at the apex, somewhat contracted at the base, slightly subcordate, sub- 
sessile or on petioles of 1 mm, reddish to bronze-colored when dry, glabrate, with strong 
prominent nerves; panicles erect, short, rusty tomentose, peduncle 15 to 25 mm; calyx limb 
truncate or wavy, corolla lobes twice the length of the tube, puberulous, slightly bearded 
at the throat; the drupe is obovate, crowned by the calycine limb and a small conical 
disc which is not protruding. 

This marked species is a small tree 10 feet or little more in height and occurs 
on Oahu as well as on Lanai on the crests of the mountain ridges exposed to the 
wind and cold and therefore appears stunted. The species was first discovered 
by the writer in the Punaluu Mts., Oahu, on Aug. 23rd, 1908 (no. 25), was 
again collected on December 3, 1908 (no. 634) ; and also on the Island of Lanai 
(no. 8047) on the top of the ridges leading to the summit Lanaihale. In the 
Lanai specimens the leaves are 3x2 cm, while the Oahu specimens have larger 
leaves. The panicles are usually one-whorled. Collected also by Abbe Faurie 
(no. 400) at Nuuanu pali, December, 1909. 

Straussia leptocarpa Hbd. 
Kopiko. 

STRAUSSIA LEPTOCARPA Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 180; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 

Pac. VI. (1890) 197; K. Schum. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 4. (1891) 112. 
Leaves obovate or elliptical oblong, 10 to 12.5 cm long, acuminate, contracted below 
triangular, obtuse, 3 mm; panicle furfuraceous-pubescent, erect, short, with 2 to 3 whorls, 
the peduncle about 2.5 cm; calyx and corolla puberulous in the bud, the latter four to six- 
lobed, with faint hairs at the throat, the lobes scarcely longer than the tube; stamens 
4 to 6; ovary semi-superior; drupe slender, ellipsoidal or fusiform, 12 mm long and 4 mm 
broad at the middle, the conical apex or disc projecting beyond the calycine limb. 

Hillebrand records this species as a shrub from East Maui, woods of Pumelei. 
The writer collected specimens from apparently this species from West Maui, 
and also East Maui, in open gulches above Makawao, Avhere it is a small tree 

449 

2.9 



PLATE 186. 




STRAUSSIA HAWAIIENSIS Gray. 
Kopiko. 

Flowering and fruiting branch, less than one-half natural size. 



Rubiaeeae. 

15 to 20 feet in height. Hillebrand's description, which is cited above, answers 
very well to the writer's specimens. It may be remarked that St. leptocarpa 
and St. oncocarpa come very close to each other, as the number of whorls in the 
panicle and dentate calyx limb cannot always be relied upon as constant char- 
acters. The writer has observed subtruncate and decidedly dentate calyx limbs 
on a single panicle. In the writer's specimens (no. 8541) from Makawao, 
Maui, the peduncles are from 4.5 to 5 cm long, and glabrate, while the leaves 
are on petioles of 12 to 20 mm. Specimens from West Maui, above Kaana- 
pali, (no. 8167) come much closer to St. leptocarpa than no. 8541, though the 
leaves are much smaller (4 to 5 cm) than the description calls for; the panicles 
are smaller, and pubescent, the peduncle is exactly 2.5 cm or 1 inch. The species 
is peculiar to the open dry forehills of West and East Maui. 

Straussia Mariniana (Cham, et Schlecht.) Gray. 
Kopiko. 

STRAUSSIA MARINIANA (Cham, et Schlecht.) Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. TV. (1860) 43; 
Mann in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 170; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 179; 
Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 197; Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. 
Bull. IX. (1897) 904. Coffea Mariniana Cham, in Linnaea IV. (1829) 35; DC. 
Prodr. IV. (1830) 86; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) 176. no. 1298. Apionema sulcatum 
Nuttal in Herb. Kew, teste Hillebrand. 

Leaves obovate-oblong, or elliptical-lanceolate, acute at both ends or the apex bluntly 
acuminate, 10 to 15 cm long, 5 to 6.5 cm wide, on petioles of 12 to 15 mm, chartaceous to 
coriaceous, glabrate underneath, and dark green, with rather prominent reddish rib and 
nerves; stipules obovate from a broad base, somewhat obtuse, 6 to 12 mm long; panicles 
glabrous, erect, 5 to 8 cm (impossible to be 4 lines=8 mm, according to Hillebrand) in 
the writer's specimens, including a peduncle of about 3 to 3.5 cm; calyx truncate; 
corolla with a pilose patch at the base of each lobe; the lobes scarcely longer than the 
tube; drupe as in Stntitxxid kaduana. 

This species, which is distinguished from Straussia kaduana mainly in the 
bearded corolla, and the more or less elliptical-lanceolate leaves, which are acute 
at both ends and twice as long petioled as in the latter species, occurs on Oahu, 
Maui, and Kauai. On the latter island the writer collected it in the forests 
above Makaweli at an elevation of 3000 feet (no. 5833) and also in the woods 
of Kaholuamano, though from this locality the leaves have pubescent glands in 
the axils of the nerves, (no. 5352). An apparent variety with oblong leaves was 
collected at Kaholuamano, Kauai, in Sept., 1909, (no. 5346) ; the panicles in this 
variety are slightly pubescent, but the throat of the corolla appears to be naked. 
As it is a very variable species no exact limits of either Straussia kaduana or 
St. Mariniana can be set. It would perhaps be best to unite both into one 
species. 

Straussia hawaiiensis Gray. 

Kopiko ula. 

(Plate 186.) 

STRAUSSIA HAWAIIENSIS Gray in Proc. Am. Aead. IV. (1860) 43; H. Mann Proc. Am. 
Acad. VII. (1867) 170; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 180; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins 
Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 196. 

451 



PLATE 187. 




STRAUSSIA HILLEBRANDII Rock sp. nov. 

Kopiko. 
Fruiting branch, about one-third natural size. 



Rubiaceae. 

Leaves thick, chartaceous, with stout nerves, obovate 10 to 18 cm long. 5.5 to 8.5 cm 
wide, petioles of 1.5 to 3 cm, somewhat rounded at the apex or bluntly acute, obovate 
oblong, contracting or cuneate toward the base, glabrous, except on the flat glands in the 
axils of the nerves, which are usually large and pubescent; midrib impressed above, reddish 
underneath, stipules triangular, obtuse, 6 mm; peduncles from 16 mm to 8 cm long, whole 
length of panicle 16 cm or even more, panicle wide and spreading, often 12 cm in diameter, 
of 3 to 4 whorls, of usually 3 rays, whole inflorescence covered with a rufous pubescence, 
calyx truncate; corolla 3 to 4 mm, the 4.5 lobes as long as the tube or little longer 
each with a patch of hairlets at the base; drupe obovoid, small, 6 mm or less, crowned 
by the truncate limb of the calyx. 

This species, which is a tree 20 to 35 feet tall, occurs in the forests of South 
Kona, Hawaii, on the slopes of Mauna Loa, especially in the more uniform for- 
ests above the lava fields of Kapua at an elevation of 3000 feet; the trunk is 
about one foot in diameter and vested in a smooth black bark. It is associated 
with Metrosideros polymorplia, Myoporum sandwicense, Xylosma Hillebrandii, 
Clermontia coerulea, and others. Hillebrand's description of the tree- is not 
quite correct: he says: "panicles as in No. 2," (Straussia Mariniana). This latter 
species however has panicles only 4 lines long according to his description, while 
St. hawaiiensis has exceedingly large panicles. Gray's description of this 
species is too vague to permit a certain diagnosis. However the plant figured 
(plate 186) is none other than St. hawaiiensis and was collected in the type 
locality. The leaves are over 18 cm long, and the panicles 16 cm long, including 
the peduncle, while on the same tree some panicles are only 3 cm long, but none 
are 8 mm as stated by Hillebrand. Collected flowering and fruiting Feb., 1912, 
(no. 10028). The flat circular glands in the axils of veins, are well brought 
out in the accompanying plate (plate 186). 

Straussia Hillebrandii Rock sp. nov. 

Kopiko. 
(Plates 187 and 188.) 

Leaves obovate oblong, rounded at both ends, or cuneate at the base, chartaceous to 
coriaceous, glabrous and dark green above, but with a scattered rufus pubescence under- 
neath, especially on the very prominent reddish midrib and nerves, whose axils are entirely 
destitute of glands, so conspicuous in St. iHiinii'u'iixiK, 10 to 15 cm long, 6 to 9 cm wide, 
on petioles of 10 to 45 mm; stipules ovate-oblong, acute, 12 mm long; panicles stout, 
rusty pubescent, large and open, 12 to 16 cm long, 7 to 10 cm wide, erect or drooping, 
with 3 whorls, each with 4 to 6 rays which in turn branch dichotomously, the free peduncles 
6 to 10 cm long; calyx dentate to subtruncate, subglabrous; corolla 3 mm, the 4 lobes 
longer than the tube, puberulous inside, anthers partly exserted, style exserted, with two 
long clavate stigmatic branches; drupe small, obovoid, 6 mm, crowned by the minute 
dentate calyx-limb. 

This new species of Kopiko, named in memory of Dr. W. Hillebrand, occurs 
on the Island of Hawaii, on the slopes of Mauna Loa, only 3 miles from the 
volcano of Kilauea in the famous Kipuka Puaulu, which has already furnished 
a number of new species and even a new genus. 

The species comes close to Straussia hawaiiensis in one way and in the other 
to St. oncocarpa. Hillebrand, in a foot note under St. Hawaiiensis says: "A 
specimen, probably from the Kohala range, has the leaves rounded at the base 

453 



PLATE 188. 




STRAUSSIA HILLEBRANDII Rock. 

A new Kopiko tree. 
Growing in the Kipuka Puaulu, Kilauea, Hawaii. 



Kubiaceae. 

and pubescent underneath along the nerves, which are almost destitute of glands ; 
the panicle is also pubescent and inclined." 

This seems to apply very much to the species in question, but it is really quite 
distinct from St. Hawaiiensis, in the leaves, fruits and dentate calyx-lobes, be- 
sides in the whole aspect of the tree, which is much smaller (see plate 188). 
Collected flowering and fruiting in the above mentioned locality, April, 1911, 
and July, 1911, type no. 8779 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

The species also occurs on the Parker ranch, Hawaii, and in the forests of 
Paauhau, Hamakua, Hawaii. 

Var. Molokaiensis Rock var. nov. 

Leaves as in the species, chartaceous, quite large; panicles slender, drooping, pubescent, 
about 10 era long, including the 6 cm long peduncle; calyx-limb dentate; corolla as in the 
species; drupe oblong, larger than in the species. 

The panicles of this variety are not so open and wide, but rather close and of 
only 1 to 2 whorls. It occurs in the rain forests of Molokai, especially at Ka- 
luaha on the leeward side. It was collected flowering and fruiting April, 1910, 
the type is no. 7085 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

PSYCHOTRIA Linn. 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx short, 5 to 6 toothed. Corolla funnel-shaped, tubular 
or campanulate. Stamens inserted in the throat, partly exserted. Ovary 2- (rarely 3-5) 
celled. Fruit 2 to 5 seeded. Shrubs or trees, rarely herbs. Leaves whorled or opposite, 
stipules iuterpetiolar. Flowers in terminal cymose corymbs, rarely axillary, white in the 
Hawaiian species. 

The genus Psychotria consists of about 350 species or more. It is distributed 
over tropical Africa, the Malayan archipelago, East India, Brazil; it also occurs 
in China, but is not known from Japan. In the Hawaiian Islands three species 
are found of which two, P. grandiflora and P. liirta, are peculiar to Kauai, while 
the third. P. hexandra, occurs on Oahu and Kauai but on none of the other islands 
of the group. The genus occurs also in Fiji and other Pacific Islands. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Flowers in a trichotomous corymbose cyme. 

Leaves acute at both ends, glabrous P. hexandra 

Leaves obovate, cuneate, pubescent underneath P. hirta 

Flowers large in a panicle with verticillate rays P. grandiflora 

Psychotria hexandra Mann. 

PSYCHOTRIA HEXANDRA Mann in Proc. Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 170; Wawra in Flora 
(1374) 328; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 181; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. 
(1890) 198; Heller Pi. Haw. Isl. (1897) 902. 

Branches quadrangular, compressed; leaves obovate or obovate-oblong, 7.5 to 15 cm 
long, 2.5 to 3.5 cm wide, on petioles of 6 to 25 mm, shortly and abruptly acuminate, cuneate 
at the base, membraneous, pale and glabrous underneath; stipules one on each side, broad, 
oblong, 8 to 12 mm long, caducous, leaving a fringe of hairlets in the axils; flowers in a 
terminal semi-erect, corymbose, glabrous cyme of not more than 5 to 6 cm, the peduncle 12 
to 25 m; bracteoles below the calyx ovate, acute 4 to 2 mm; calyx 6 mm, with 6 toothlets; 

455 



PLATE 189. 




PSYCHOTRIA HEXANDEA Mann. 

Fruiting branch, little more than one-half natural size. From the mountains behind 

Honolulu, Oahu. 



Rubiaceae. 

corolla waxy white, funnel shaped, villous at the tliroat, 6-lobed; anthers subsessile at the 
throat, acute, little exserted; style slightly exserted, the short lobes dilated; drupe 12 mm 
crowned with the calyeine limb; pyrenae with 3 ridges at the back. 

This species, for which there is no native name as far as can be ascertained, 
was originally discovered on Kauai. It was however found by the writer on the 
Island of Oahu, in the forests of the Koolau range. It is a small tree 15 to 20 
feet in height and occurs along the Manoa cliff trail back of Honolulu, as well 
as in the forest of Punaluu, on the windward side of Oahu. The flowers of this 
species are white and much larger than those of Straussia (Kopiko). 

On Kauai in the mountains of Kaholuaniano and Halemanu occur two other 
species, one of them a small tree, first described by Wawra as a variety hirta 
of the above species, but raised since to specific rank by Heller and now known 
as Psyclwtria Jiirta (Wawra) Heller. It differs from P. liexandra in the leaves, 
which are obovate cuneate at the base and pubescent underneath; the calyx 
teeth are also shorter. The third species, Psycliotria grandiflora Mann, is a 
shrub and was collected by the w r riter in the swampy forests of Halemanu near 
Alakai swamp. It is the handsomest species, as it has the largest flowers, which 
are pure white to cream colored on long drooping panicles. Hillebrand records 
it as a tree, but it was observed by the writer only as a shrub. 

COPROSMA Forst. 

Flowers unisexual, dioecious in all Hawaiian species. Calyx cup-shaped, truncate or 
more or less toothed or lobed, larger in the female flowers than in the male. Corolla 
funnel-shaped or campanulate 4 to 9 lobed, lobes in the female flowers often reflexed. 
Stamens 4 to 9 inserted at the base of the corolla-tube, exserted. Ovary 2, very rarely 
4-celled; style divided to the base, pubescent. Drupe ovate or globose, fleshy. Prostrate 
or erect shrubs or trees with opposite or rarely verticillate leaves, entire or dentate stipules. 
Flowers white or greenish, quite inconspicuous, single or in few flowered cymes, terminal 
or axillary. 

The genus Coprosma, which consists of about 45 to 50 species, of which the 
majority are found in New Zealand, has quite a number of species in the Ha- 
waiian Islands. So far 15 species have been found in these islands, of which 4 
were described lately, two by the present w*riter in this volume and two by 
H. Leveille in Fedde repertorium (C. Fauriei and C. parvifolia). The latter 
was first collected by the writer on West Maui, while Faurie's specimen came 
from Molokai. C. Fauriei is not a good species and is referable to C. Kauaiensis 
(Gray) Heller. A few species occur in the Fiji and Norfolk Islands, 8 in 
Australia, 1 in the Malay Peninsula, and 1 or 2 in Chile. 

None of the Hawaiian species has a foetid odor, as the generic name would 
imply. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves opposite. 

Flowers sessile on short axillary spurs C. montana 

Flowers raised on distinct peduncles 

Drupes beaked with the long tubular limb of the calyx. 

Flowers 3-5-6, subsessile at the end of a short peduncle. C. rhynchocarpa 
Flowers single or in racemes, pedicellate C. Vontempskyi 

457 



PLATE 190. 




COPROSMA RHYNCHOCARPA Gray. 
Pilo. 

Fruiting branch, less than one-half natural size. 



Kubiaceae. 

Drupes crowned by the calycine teeth. 

Flowers 2-3, sessile at the end of a short peduncle C. Grayana 

Flowers 2 on axillary peduncles of 5 mm, drupes largest of all Hawaiian 

species C. Waimeae 

Drupes naked at the apex. 

Flowers numerous, crowded on short peduncles C. pubens 

Flowers 3, sessile on a peduncle of 2 cm C. Kauaiensis 

Leaves ternate. 

Flowers many, crowded at the ends of long peduncles C. longifolia 

Coprosma montana Hbd. 
Pilo. 

COPROSMA MONTANA Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 185; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
VI. (1890) 201; K. Schum. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 4. (1891) 132. 
C. Menziesii var. 7 Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. IV. (1860) 49; Wawra in Flora 
(1874) 326. 

A small tree 5 to 6 m in height, with stiff, stout ascending branches, densely foliose, 
covered with stiptiles below and more or less pubescent; leaves obovate or spathulate, 
18 to 25 mm long, 10 to 12 mm wide, penninerved, bluntly acuminate or rounded, the base 
contracting into a margined petiole, thick coriaceous, shining; stipules broad triangular, 
ciliate at the upper border; flowers axillary, sessile on very short and thick spurs; female 
flowers: calyx 2 mm, urceolate, the limb denticulate; corolla 4 mm, deeply 5 to 6 parted, 
with reflexed lobes; styles 6 mm; drupe yellow or reddish, ovoid, 6 to 8 mm, tipped with the 
short calyciue limb. 

This species, which is occasionally a shrub of 3 to 4 feet and often even pros- 
trate as recorded by Hillebrand, is also a small tree 15 to 18 feet in height, 
especially on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an elevation of 10000 feet, above the 
crater of Kaluamakani and on Papalekoki as well as Moano and Nan, where it 
grows in company with arborescent compositae such as Raillardia struthioloides, 
E. arborea, as well as with the leguminous tree, Sophora chrysophylla, the 
Mamani of the natives. It is decidedly a high mountain species, as it grows to a 
small tree on Mt. Haleakala on Maui, on the crater of Puunianiau in company 
with Mamani and S ant alum Haleakalae, a species of sandalwood peculiar to that 
mountain. On Mt. Hualalai, Hawaii, 8000 feet, it is a shrub 4 feet high and 
grows with Dodonaea viscosa. The leaves are thick glabrous but almost succulent 
in all locations. 

Two varieties /? and y occur in the high mountain swamps of Puukukui, West 
Maui, and Waialeale, Kauai, respectively. The varieties are prostrate, but occa- 
sionally shrubby. 

Coprosma rhynchocarpa Gray. 

Pilo. 
(Plate 190.) 

COPROSMA RHYNCHOCARPA Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. IV. (1860) 48; Mann Proc. Am. 
Acad. VII. (1867) 169; Wawra in Flora (1874) 325; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 
187; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 201. 

Leaves elliptical or obovately oblong. 4 to 7 cm long, 15 to 25 mm wide, on petioles of 
6 to 18 mm, acuminate at both ends, chartaceous, papillose to pubescent or sparsely hispid 
underneath; stipules 5 to 7 mm, a loose funnel-shaped sheath, the free portions triangular, 

459 



PLATE 19J. 




COPROSMA VONTEMPSKYI Bock sp. nov. 

Pilo tree. 
Growing in the forests about Oliuda, slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Mani; elevation 4000 feet. 



Rubiaceae. 

the upper border ciliate with pale fawn-colored hair as is the base, and thus resembling 
C. stephanocarpa; flowers 3-5-6, subsessile at the end of a short peduncle of 4 to 6 mm; 
the bracts 2 to 3 mm; male flowers sometimes racemose; calyx minute; corolla 4 mm long, 
6 to 8 lobed; female flowers: calyx 6 mm, the limb twice as long as the adnate portion 
and equalling the corolla, constricted below, tubular or funnel-shaped, with 5 to 6 small 
teeth; styles 6 mm; drupe yellowish red, globose or ovoid, 6 to 8 mm, crowned with the 
long, beak-like limb of the calyx. 

The species occurs as a tree of 15 to 20 feet or so in height with a trunk of a 
foot in diameter on the upper slopes of Mt. Hualalai, at Hinakapauula, eleva- 
tion 6000 feet. It however descends as low as 4000 feet. Nearly every trunk 
of these trees, which are very numerous at the above locality, is rotten, though the 
outward appearance of the tree is healthy ; the trunks are without bark and full 
of holes, and are entirely hollow being inhabited by thousands of sow-bugs, 
(Pliiloscia angusticauda). It is also common at Paauhau, 3000 feet elevation on 
Parker ranch, Hawaii, and was also collected by the writer on the slopes of 
Mauna Loa in the upper part of the rain forest of Kau above Naalehu and 
Waiohinu, 5000 feet elevation. Specimens from this latter locality differ some- 
what from those of Hualalai in that the calycine limb is only half the length 
of that occurring on Hualalai and Paauhau. 

Coprosma Vontempskyi Rock sp. nov. 

Pilo. 
(Plate 191.) 

A small tree with rather slender branches, which are terete; leaves membraneous, 
ovate or linear oblong, acuminate at both ends, pubescent above and underneath especi- 
ally along the midrib, 3.5 to 5.5 cm long, 14 to 20 mm wide, on a somewhat margined 
pubescent petiole of about 10 mm; stipules thin, 2 mm, sheathing, acute, pubescent, with 
slightly ciliolate margins, flowers unknown; drupes single or in racemes of 2.5 cm length on 
pedicels of 3 mm, when single the peduncle measures 5 mm, with foliaceous bracts of 6 mm 
length; drupe ovoid, 6 mm long, 4 mm wide, crowned by the calycine, dentate limb of 
3 to 4 mm. 

This interesting species seems to be an intermediate between C. cymosa and 
C. rhynchocarpa. It has the typical, though somewhat shorter, calycine limb 
of the latter species, and the inflorescence of the former. In general habit it is 
however quite different, as well as in many other respects. It occurs in the rain 
forest above and below Olinda on Maui, on the slopes of Mt. Haleakala, where it 
was collected by the writer in September, 1910. It is named after the writer's 
friend, Mr. L. v. Tempsky, the manager of Haleakala ranch, to whom he is 
greatly indebted for often extended hospitality and without whose aid the ex- 
ploration of Mt. Haleakala could not have been accomplished in such a satis- 
factory way. 

The type is 8529 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Coprosma Grayana Rock sp. nov. 
(Plate 192.) 

Branches pale terete, glabrous, leaves opposite, elliptical-oblong, acute or bluntly 
acuminate at both ends, midrib and veins prominent, dark green, dull, lighter underneath, 

461 



PLATE 192. 




COPROSMA GRAYANA Bock sp. nov. 
Pilo. 

Fruiting branch, one-half natural size. 



Eubiaceae. 

chartaceous, glabrous on both sides, 8 to 12 cm long, 3 to 4 cm wide; on petioles of 3 to 4 
cm; stipules broad sheathing, thin, 8 mm high, slightly broad, ciliate at the upper border; 
flowers 2 to 3, sessile at the end of a short axillary peduncle of 2 to 5 mm; bracts 2.5 mm; 
(flower buds only known) calyx urceolate, very short dentate; corolla about 4 mm; drupes 
oblong-ellipsoidal bright red, usually single, 12 mm long, crowned by the calycine teeth; 
seeds whitish, rounded at the apex, acute at the base, oblong. 

This new species, which is a tree 20 feet or more high, with a trunk of several 
inches in diameter was discovered by the writer in the forests of Xaalehu, Kau. 
Hawaii, in the tropical rain forest situated on the southern slopes of Manna 
Loa at an elevation of 3000 feet. The bark of this tree is fawn-colored and 
corky, the sap-wood yellow like that of the Noni (Morinda citrifolia), the heart- 
wood is blackish; when cut into an exceedingly large amount of sap squirts 
out in all directions, having a very peculiar oily odor. The wood is quite 
close grained and comparatively hard. It was collected in flower buds and fruit 
on January 9, 1912. The type is no. 10005 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Coprosma pubens Gray. 
Pilo. 

COPROSMA PUBENS Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. IV. (1860) 49; Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII. 
(1S67) 169; Wawra in Flora (1874) 324; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 188; 
Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 201. 

Leaves lanceolate or obovate-oblong, 5 to 12.5 cm long, 2.5 to 3.5 cm wide, on petioles 
of 10 to 20 mm, acuminate, narrowing at the base, chartaceous glabrous, or pubescent at 
higher elevations, dark when dry; stipules 4 to 8 mm, loosely sheathing on half their length, 
the free portions triangular, strigose-pubescent; flowers numerous, glomerate at the apex of 
short peduncles; male flowers: calyx 2 mm, corolla 6 to 8 mm long, 6 to 7-. lobed; female 
flowers: calyx 2 to 4 mm, cylindrical, the very short limb dentate; corolla 4 mm; styles 
18 to 16 mm; drupes reddish, ovoid or ellipsoidal, 8 to 12 mm long, naked at the top, the 
pointed apex projecting beyond the calycine scar. 

This species, often a shrub, was however observed only as a small tree 15 to 18 
feet in height. It occurs only in the rain forests and is quite common in the 
mountains of Kohala, Hawaii, where the writer collected it, as well as in the 
valleys of Waipio, Puakalehua, Waimanu, etc. According to Hillebrand it oc- 
curs on all the islands of the group, but the typical C. pubens was collected only 
on Hawaii by the writer. It is distinguished from the other species of 
Coprosma in the numerous flowers, which are glomerate at the end of a short 
peduncle, and the narrow ellipsoidal fruit. 

Coprosma kauaiensis (Gray) Heller. 
Koi. 

COPROSMA KAUAIENSIS (Gray) Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 894. Coprosma pubens var. 
Kauaiensis Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. IV. (1860) 49; Wawra in Flora (1874) 
323. C. stephanocarpa . var. Kauaiensis Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 187; Del 
Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 201. 

Leaves obovate-oblong, or ovate, bluntly acute at both ends, 6.5 cm to 3 cm, dull green, 
pubescent underneath, on petioles of 4 to 8 mm; peduncle naked about 2 cm long witB 
3 sessile flowers at the apex, supported by spathular bracts of 3 mm; calyx of female 
flower urceolate 3 to 4 mm with 5 to 6 lanceolate lobules; drupe small obovate, very obtuse 

463 



PLATE 193. 




COPROSMA LONGIFOLIA Gray. 
Pilo. 

Fruiting branch, about one-half natural size. 



Rubiaceae. 

The Koi is a tree 15 to 20 feet in height with a trunk of a few inches in dia- 
meter. It is like the Olena peculiar to the Island of Kauai, where it occurs in 
the forests of Kaholuamano. The name Pilo, by which all other Hawaiian 
Coprosmas are known on the other islands, is applied on Kauai to a species of 
Pelea and to one of Platydesma. 

Coprosma Waimeae Wawra. 
Olena. 

COPROSMA WAIMEAE Wawra in Flora (1874) 327; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 895 
C. foliosa Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 186, in part 

Leaves elliptical-oblong, acuminate at both ends or shortly acute, on petioles of 5 mm, 
glabrous; stipules broadly triangular or ovate and long or caudately acuminate; drupes 
orange colored, largest of all Hawaiian species, ovate, 12x8 mm, crowned by the 
calycine teeth. 

This species, which Hillebrand incorrectly referred to C. foliosa, is certainly 
distinct from all the other Hawaiian species, and as Wawra remarked in a foot- 
note, has the largest fruits of all Hawaiian Coprosmas. It is a small tree and 
occurs in the forests of Halemanu and Kaholuamano, Kauai, above Kekaha and 
Waimea at an elevation of 3600-4000 feet. 

The native name, Olena, meaning yellow, is derived from the yellow r color of 
the wood. 

Coprosma longifolia Gray. 

Pilo. 
(Plate 193.) 

COPROSMA LONGIFOLIA Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. IV. (1860) 48; Mann Proc. Am. 
Acad. VII. (1867) 169; Wawra in Flora (1874) 324; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 
188; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI (1890) 200; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. 

(1897) 895. 

Leaves ternate, elliptico-oblong or lanceolate of even breadth in their greatest length, 
6.5 to 10 cm long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm wide, on petioles of 12 to 18 mm. acute at both ends, char- 
taceous, stipules thin 6 to 12 mm, connate; flowers 6 to 15, glomerate at the end of 
axillary peduncles of 6 to 10 mm; bracts 6 mm, sometimes foliaceous; male flowers: calyx 
2 mm, 5 to 8 toothed, corolla 6 to 8 mm, with 5 to 8 lobes; stamens long exserted 12 to 
16 mm; female flowers: calyx urceolate, 4 mm, corolla 4 mm, with revolute lobes; styles 
8 to 12 mm; drupes ellipsoidal 6 to 8 mm long, reddish, tipped with the short calycine 
teeth. 

On the lower slopes of Mt. Konahuanui, Oahu, at an elevation of 2500 feet or 
higher, this very distinct species occurs as a tree 15 feet or more high with a 
short trunk of several inches in diameter. It is quite striking in its appearance, 
especially during the early winter months when the tree is loaded with the 
bright reddish drupes or fruits, contrasted with the graceful foliage. According 
to Hillebrand the species occurs on Kauai, besides Oahu, but was only seen on the 
latter island by the writer, where it is plentiful on the whole Koolau mountain 
range. 

465 

3O 



PLATE 194. 




MORINDA CITRIFOIJA Linn. 

Noni. 
Flowering and fruiting branch, one-half natural size. 



Rubiaceae. 
MORINDA Linn. 

Calyx cup-shaped truncate or toothed. Corolla salver-shaped to campanulate. 
Stamens inserted in throat of the tube, included or exserted. Ovary 4-celled; style with 
two branches. Drupes or berries united into one fleshy fruit. Seeds obovoid or reni- 
form. Trees or shrubs (occasionally climbing and epiphytic but not in Hawaii) with 
opposite leaves, and interpetiolar stipules, connate with the petioles. Flowers in globose 
heads, on axillary, terminal single or clustered peduncles. 

The genus consists of about 46 species distributed over both hemispheres, but 
especially in the old world and the Pacific islands. Only two species occur in 
Hawaii, one of which is endemic. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves oblong, fruit 2.5 cm in diameter M. trimera 

Leaves ovate, fruit 5 to 10 cm in diameter M. citrifolia 

Morinda citrifolia Linn. 
(Plate 194.) 

MORINDA CITEIFOLIA Linn. Spec. PI. ed. 1. (1753) 176; DC. Prodr. IV. (1830) 446; 
Hook, et Am. Bot. Beech. (1832) 65; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) 176; Seem. Flora 
Vit. (1866) 129; Maun Proc, Am. Ac. VII. (1867) 170; Wawra in Flora (1874) 
p. ?; Mrs. Sincl. Indig. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1885) t. 40; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 
177; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 195; K. Schum. in Eng. et 
Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 4. (1891) 138; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 901; Brigham 
Ka Hana Kapa Mem. B. P. B. Mus. III. (1911) 144. fig. 87. 

Leaves broadly ovate 15 to 20 cm long, 10 to 15 cm wide, on short petioles,, somewhat 
obtuse, thick; stipules broad and rounded, connate into a sheath enclosing the peduncle; 
flowerheads on short bractless peduncles placed opposite the leaves; calycine limb short, 
truncate; corolla white, tubular to funnel-shaped, 5-cleft, pilose at. the insertion of the 
sessile anthers below the middle of the corolla; syucarpium 5 to 10 cm, fleshy. 

This well known cosmopolitan species, which Hillebrand believes to be of abori- 
ginal introduction, occurs only on the lowlands in the vicinity of native dwell- 
ings, or now growing apparently wild but more correctly on overgrown for- 
saken native dwelling-sites. The species has an exceedingly wide distribu- 
tion and is cultivated by the Polynesians as a dye-plant. It is also used 
medicinally by the Hawaiians and from the mature fruits they extract an oil of 
very unpleasant odor, used for the hair; ripe fruits are also used as a poultice. 
The wood is intensely yellow when fresh cut. The root yields a yellow dye Avhile 
the bark furnishes a red dye. It is a small tree 15 feet in height with a trunk 
of usually a few inches in diameter; the leaves are large and shining and have 
impressed veins. The fruit when mature is foetid and of a yellow color. In 
Fiji the fruit is eaten either raw or cooked. The leaves are also used medi- 
cinally against diarrhoea and disturbances in menstruation, as well as for fever. 

Morinda trimera Hbd. 
Noni-kuahiwi. 

(Plate 195.) 

MORINDA TRIMERA Hbd. Fl. Haw. Tsl. (1888) 177; K. Schum. In Engl. et Prantl 
Pflzfam. IV. 4. (1891) 148. M. trinerva Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. 
(1890) 196, should be trimera, evidently a misprint. 
Branches pale terete, covered with numerous warts and lenticels; leaves elliptical or 

obovate-oblong, 10 to 18 cm long, 3.5 to 6 cm wide, on petioles of 2.5 to 3.5 cm, acuminate 

467 



PLATE 195. 




MORINDA TRIMERA Hbcl. 

Noni-kuahiwi. 
Fruiting branch, from the type locality. 



Rubiaceae-Campanulaceae. 

at both ends, chartaceous to membraneous, pubescent underneath; stipules 6 mm acuminate; 
peduncles in the axils of old leaves and cauline 3.5 to 4 cm long, pluribracteate at 
the base; flowers 8 to 12 in a glomerule, connate with their bases; calyx 2 to 3 mm, free 
from the ovary, truncate, with 3-toothlets; corolla 8 mm, puberulous, tubular, 3-toothed; 
anthers 3, subsessile on the lower third of the corolla, included; ovary small, globose 
depressed, immersed in an annular disc at the bottom of the calyx; style of the length of 
the calyx, bifid; drupe or berry of 4 distinct woody pyrena, fleshy, adherent with and 
enclosed within the globose calyx, each pyrena with 1 erect seed, and the calyxes connate 
into a syncarpium which measures about 2.5 cm in diameter. 

This exceedingly rare species was first collected by J. Lydgate in the forests 
of Hamakua and Waikapu, Maui. The writer's attention was called to a tree 
growing in the forest above Makawao, Maui, by Mr. L. v. Tempsky, who hav- 
ing become interested in native trees, happened to find it though practically 
hidden by Kopiko trees and le-ie vines. It turned out to be this rare species. 

A large tree of this species was found by the writer along the ditch trail on 
the windward side of Mt. Haleakala, near Honomanu gorge. The tree is freely 
branching and has a trunk of over one foot in diameter. The wood is yellow. 

According to Hillebrand a variety occurs on Mt. Puakea of the Waianae range, 
Oahu. Its leaves are thicker and obtuse ; the corolla is four-toothed and possesses 
4 stamens instead of three. First collected by Dr. H. Wawra. 

CAMPANULACEIAE. 

Tribe Lobelioideae. 

While the family Campanulaceae numbers 59 genera, only the tribe Lobeli- 
oideae, with 22 genera, is of importance as far as Hawaii is concerned. Of this 
tribe, the Hawaiian Islands possesses six genera, five of which are endemic, the 
remaining one being the cosmopolitan genus Lobelia. Nowhere, with the ex- 
ception of South America, does this tribe reach such a wonderful development 
as in the Hawaiian Islands. It has the largest number of species of any plant 
family represented here in these islands ; next to it ranks the Compositae. 

Many of our Lobelioideae are arborerscent, some of them reaching a height of 
40 feet, and are a typical feature in the forests of Hawaii. The tribe in general 
is mainly tropical, and reaches to the southern temperate zone. Quite a number 
inhabit North America, and two the Mediterranean regions. The Hawaiian 
Islands, with its numerous arborescent forms, ranks next to South America, which 
has the largest number of species, as Centropogon Presl., with 80 to 90 species, 
and Siphocampylus Pohl, with 100 species, especially numerous in the Andes 
and Brazil. But if we compare South America in size with the Hawaiian Islands, 
which has up to 100 species of the tribe Lobelioideae, we find that really nowhere 
in the world does this tribe reach such a wonderful development in such a com- 
paratively small area. The other islands of the Pacific are void of Lobelioideae, 
and only Tahiti and the Society Islands, with Raiatea, have in all four species 
belonging to three different genera. 

The Hawaiian species present sometimes really grotesque and specialized 

469 



PLATE 196. 




CLERMONTIA DEEPANOMORPHA. Rock. 
About two-thirds natural size; showing flowers and fruits. 



Campanulaceae. 

forms, while others again (new forms) run into each other to such an extent 
that it is difficult to recognize specific distinction. While most of them are 
shrubs or small trees, only those are included here which reach a height of about 
18 to 40 feet. Delissea undulata, which attains a height of over 30 feet on Mauna 
Loa, Hawaii (see plate XVI), is here omitted, as its stem is rarely thicker than 
two inches. 

The genus Lobelia, which is represented by five very handsome species, some 
reaching a height of 18 feet (L. macrostachys in Kau, Hawaii), possesses about 
200 species, which are distributed over Africa and South America, while very 
few are to be found in Central America. They usually inhabit high mountains, 
like Abyssinia, Ruwenzori, Kenia, etc., in company with arborescent Compositae. 

In the Hawaiian Islands the genus Lobelia is confined to the middle forest 
zone, but does occasionally ascend into the upper forest zone to an elevation of 
6500 feet. (L. liypoleuca, Puunianiau crater, Haleakala.) 

KEY TO THE GENEEA. 

Milky shrubs or trees with axillary inflorescences. 

Berry large yellow, an inch or more in diameter: 

Corolla deeply slit to the base; flowers 2-6 in simple cymes Clermontia 

Berry small, occasionally large, but then purple: 

Corolla slit beyond the middle, flowers in racemes Cyanea 

CLERMONTIA Gaud. 

Calycine lobes either as long as the corolla and then bilabiate and deciduous or 
shorter than the corolla, bluntly lobed or acute, free and persistent; corolla nearly uni- 
labiate, staminal column free from the corolla; the two lower anthers penicillate, the 
upper ones naked; fruit a globose or pear-shaped berry with a broad epigynous disc; 
seeds brown shining. Shrubs or trees (with thick latex) branching candelabra like. 
Inflorescence a two to many flowered cyme. 

The genus Clermontia, which is peculiar to Hawaii, consists of 17 species, 13 
of which can be included in the term tree. 

The most common of the shrubby ones is C. macrocarpa Gaud., which grows 
at an elevation of from 1000 to 2500 feet, and even higher, and is replaced in 
the middle forest zone by C. persicaefolia, C. oblongifolia on Oahu, and C. dre- 
panomorplia, etc., on Hawaii. Their branching habit is always candelabra-like, 
and not more than 6 or 8 feet above the ground. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

I. CLERMONTIA GENUINAE. 

Calyx lobes connate, as long as the corolla; at maturity the entire tube falls with the 

corolla. 
Peduncle two flowered. 

Peduncle long filiform pendulous C. grandiflora 

Peduncle arched, drooping, 1-10 cm long; fleshy, corolla dark purple 

C. drepanomorpha 

Peduncle short, erect. 

Corolla and calyx not or little curved when open, slender, whitish 

C. persicaefolia 
Corolla and calyx strongly arched, green C. oblongifolia 

471 



PLATE 197. 




CLERMONTIA PERSICAEFOLIA Gaud. 
Less than half natural size. 



Campanulaceae. 

Peduncle 20-25 mm, drooping. 

Corolla long, slender, dark, purplish-black . . . C. Kohalae 

Peduncle two to four flowered. 

Corolla smaller, dark, purplish; calyx green; branches slender; leaves with a 

purplish black tinge C. leptoclada 

Corolla large, green, purplish or white, ovarian portion strongly ribbed 

C. Hawaiiensis 
II. CLERMONTIOIDEAE. 

Calyx lobes free, shorter than the corolla, persistent. 
Peduncle short 15 mm or less. 

Calyx five toothed; corolla puberulous C. Gaudichaudii 

Calyx with minute acute teeth; corolla dark purplish-red... C. Peleana 

Calyx five lobed; corolla glabrous, thick, fleshy C. arborescens 

Calyx with five short obtuse lobes; corolla and calyx covered with tubercles 

C. tuberculata 
Peduncle 2 cm or more in length; two to three flowered. 

Corolla bluish-white or purplish-green C. coerulea 

Peduncle two-six flowered; flowers whitish-green C. Haleakalensis 

Clermontia grandifiora Gaud. 

CLERMONTIA GRANDIFLORA Gaud. Bot. Toy. Uranie (1826) 459: pi. 73; Presl Monogr. 
Lobel. (1836) 48. DC. Prodr. VII (1839) 342; A. Gray Proc. Am. Acad. V. 
(1862) 150; H. Mann Proc. Am. Acad. VII (1866) 184; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 
240; Del Cast. Ill, Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII. (1892) 221. Delissea filigera Wawra 
in Flora (1873) 31; Not Kauai, but Maui: Walder ober Waihee. 

Leaves obovate to oblong 7 to 10 cm x 2.5 to 3 cm on petioles of 1 to 4 cm, shortly 
acuminate, bluntly serrulate or dentate, chartaceous glabrous dull; peduncle filiform, 
pendulous 2 to 8 cm long bracteate at the middle, two flowered, pedicels slender bracteo- 
late about the middle, sometimes cymosely 4 to 5 flowered by dichotomy of pedicels; 
calyx glabrous greenish or purplish, thin, the lobes tubular, strongly curved before expan- 
sion 5 to 6 cm long; corolla purplish somewhat longer than the calyx, berry pear- 
shaped about 2 cm orange yellow. 

This quite distinct species occurs on the Islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui, 
where it inhabits the rain forest from an elevation of 2000 to 5000 feet, or a 
little higher. It is very common on West Maui, but especially at the summit of 
Pun Kukui (5788 feet), at the edge of lao valley, in company with Lobelia 
Gaudichaudii, Labordea, Wilkesia Grayana, etc. On Molokai it can be found 
in the forest above Mapulehu and along a stream back of Kamoku. It is quite 
conspicuous by its green, purplish-streaked corolla, which is pendulous on long 
filiform peduncles, which characterizes it from all the other species. It is most 
plentiful at 4000 feet elevation on the windward slope of Haleakala, East Maui, 
in the dense mossy rain forest along Waikamoi, Puohaokamoa and Honomanu 
gulch. On Lanai it grows in the more open dry districts at the ridge of Kaiho- 
lena valley, where it is a shrub, while in the other more shaded localities it be- 
comes a small tree 15 to 18 feet in height. 

The specific name grandifiora is rather misleading, as it is by no means the 
largest flowering Clermontia, being exceeded by C. drepanomorpha and C. ar- 
borescens. 

Clermontia drepanomorpha Rock sp. nov. 
(Plate 196.) 

Leaves oblong or obovate, lanceolate 10 to 18 cm x 1.5 to 4 cm glabrous above or 
sparsely hispid underneath along the prominent reddish midrib, dark green above, lighter 

473 



PLATE 198. 




CLERMONTIA OBLONGIFOLIA Gaud. 
Less than one-half natural size; showing flowers and flower buds. 



Campanulaceae. 

underneath, on petioles of 3 to 5 cm, denticulate in the upper two-thirds with callous teeth, 
entire in the lower; peduncle glabrous 6 to 8 cm long with flower, 10 cm lo.ng with fruit, 
pedicels 2 cm, two flowered; bracts and bractlets triangular; calyx dark purplish, the 
ovarian portion 1.5 to 2 cm triangular to globose, the lobes as long as the corolla, the 
peduncles drooping, but the flowers erect; corolla purple, curved 4 to 6 cm long by 1.5 to 2 
cm wide, fleshy; staminal column glabrous purplish; anthers bluish-lilac, hirsute along 
the sutures, the lower anthers peuicillate; berry large globose yellow 3 cm in diameter; 
seeds yellowish-brown, smooth. 

This remarkable species was discovered by the writer on the open swamp 
lands in the mountains of Kohala, Hawaii; also along Alakahi and Kawainui 
gorges at an elevation of 4000 to 5000 feet. It is a small tree 12 to 20 feet in 
height, and is peculiar to the boggy regions of West Hawaii, where the rainfall 
is enormous. It was collected flowering and fruiting in July, 1909, and again 
the following year during the same month on the high plateau, summit of Ko- 
hala ; the type is No. 4745 in the Herbarium of the College of Hawaii. 

It grows in company with several species of Pelea, Cheirodendron, Tetra- 
plasandra, and a number of other species of Clermontia. It is remarkable for its 
handsome flowers, which are even larger than those of C. arborescens. 

The birds are very fond of its very large, bright-yellow fruits, which they 
hollow out until only the skin remains on the stalks. This, however, is the case 
with most of our Lobelioideae. The trunks of this species are thickly covered 
with moss up to the ultimate branchlets. The wood is soft and whitish. 

Clermontia persicaefolia Gaud. 
(Plate 197.) 

CLERMONTIA PERSICAEFOLIA Gaud. Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826) pi. 72; DC. Prodr. 
VII (1839) 342; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 241; Del. Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pacif. VII (1892) 222; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. (1897) 907. Clermontia 
persicifolia Presl Monogr. Lob. (1836) 48. Clermontia grandiflora var. 
13 oblongifolia Gray, in part, Proc. Am. Acad. V. (1862) 150; H. Mann 1. c. p. 
184 in part. Lobelia persicifolia Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 1061. Clermontia 
parviflora Wawra Flora (1873) 47. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblong 8 to 10 cm x 1 to 2 cm acuminate or obtuse, coarsely 
erenate* or serrulate, the base gradually contracting into a long petiole of 4 to 6 cm 
subcoriaceous, glossy above, glabrous and glaucous underneath; peduncles 10 to 14 mm, 
two flowered, with a pair of bracts below the middle; pedicels 12 to 15 mm long bibracteo- 
late at or near the base; calyx and corolla slender almost white, with purplish tinge, 
greenish when young, smaller than V. iiKicnx-arpfi; the ovarian portion is turbinate. 



A handsome shrub or small tree 15 to 18 feet in height, sometimes growing 
on other trees. It is peculiar to the Island of Oahu, where it can be found in the 
rain forests of the main range, and not uncommon on the mountain Waiolani, 
and also near the crater in Palolo valley at an elevation of from 1300 to 2000 
feet. It is much branching and has a beautiful, round, symmetrical crown; 
flowers in spring. It also occurs on Mt. Kaala of the Waianae range. 

Wawra 's Clermontia parviflora No. 2206 in the Herb. Museum Caes. Palat 
Vindob., which the writer had occasion to examine, is really Gaudichaud 's Cl. 
persicaefolia. 

475 



Campanulaceae. 

Clermontia oblongifolia Gaud. 

(Plate 198.) 

CLERMONTIA OBLONGIFOLIA Gaud. Bot. Voy. Bonite (1838) 459 pi. 71; Presl 
Monogr. Lob. (1836) 48; DC. Prodr. VII (1839) 342; Wawra in Flora (1873) 
47; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 241; Del Cast. VII (1892) 222; Heller PI. 
Haw. Isl. (1897) 908. Lobelia oblongifolia Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) no. 1061. 
Clermontia grandiflora var. oblongifolia Gray Proc. Am. Acad. V. (1862) 150 
pro parte; . Mann 1. c. p. 184 pro parte. 

Leaves oblong 8 to 12 cm x 3 em obtuse or rounded, crenate or bluntly serrulate 
toward the apex, contracting into a long petiole of 4 to 8 cm, chartaceous pale, whitish 
underneath: peduncle 10 to 16 mm long, two rarely three flowered, with one or two 
pairs of dentiform bracts; pedicels of the same length as peduncle, with two bractlets 
near the base; calyx pale greenish, the lobes as long as the corolla, strongly arcuate, 
circa 6 cm long by 12 mm wide; berry globose not furrowed, seeds dark brown. 

It is a small and handsome tree, reaching a height of about 15 to 25 feet, but 
is often found as a shrub in the more open country or swampy flat lands, as at 
the head of Pauoa valley on Oahu, to which island it was thought to be peculiar. 
It has since been found by the writer on Maui in Honomanu gulch, and on Mo- 
lokai at Maunahui, as on the ridges of Manoa, Palolo, Niu and Waipio valleys, 
Oahu. Its large, very arched, green flo\vers are not particularly handsome. 

All Clermontiae are known to the natives as OJiawai or Halia. The milky, 
viscous sap was employed as bird lime in the olden days by the native bird- 
hunter. 

Var. Mauiensis Rock var. nov. 

Leaves acuminate 15 to 19 cm long, 3.5 to 4.5 cm wide, glabrous, pale green, on 
shorter petioles (4 cm); peduncle 1.5 cm long 2-3 flowered, pedicels somewhat longer, 
bracts 4 mm, bracteoles 2 mm; calyx green; corolla purplish; staminal column and anthers 
dark purple, the former glabrous, the latter hirsute along the sutures. 

A small tree 15 to 18 feet high, resembling very much the species on Oahu. 
This tree is not at all common, but can be found on the Island of Maui on the 
windw r ard slopes of Mt. Haleakala along the Kailua ditch trail in the valley of 
Honomanu at an elevation of 2800 to 3000 feet in the rain forest. The type 
specimen is No. 8804 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. Collected flowering 
April, 1911. The tree grows in company with Cl. macrocarpa, which is the most 
common species in that locality, and CL arborescens. 

Clermontia Kohalae Rock sp. nov. 

Leaves linear oblong bluntly acuminate or obtuse 7 to 16 cm long, 2 to 3 cm wide, 
gradually narrowing into a petiole of 2 to 4 cm, glabrous, dull, pale underneath, with 
impressed veins chartaceous denticulate or serrate in the upper two-thirds, entire at 
the base; peduncle 15 to 35 mm, two flowered, hispid or even scabrous, with two 
triangular bracts above the middle; pedicels as long as the peduncles bibracteolate; the 
ovarian portion of the calyx turbinate, green, the lobes as long as the corolla, dark 
blackish purple, slender, not fleshy, suberect or slightly arcuate, glabrous; corolla of the 
same color as the calycine lobes, glabrous; staminal column glabrous; anthers pale, 
hirsute along the sutures, the two lower anthers only penicillate; berry subglobose circa 
2 cm in diameter; seeds pale brown smooth shining. 

This species, new to science, is a small tree 15 to 18 feet in height with a 
trunk of a few inches in diameter, branching candelabra-like a few feet above 

476 



Campanulaceae. 

the ground. It was discovered by the writer in July, 1910, in- the lower forests 
of Kohala, Hawaii, and in the gulches on the windward side, along the streams 
at an elevation of 1500 to 2500 feet, where it is not uncommon. It is exceedingly 
handsome when in flower; the numerous dark-purple corollae in the axils of the 
leaves give it a pleasing appearance. It flowers during the summer months. The 
type is Xo. 8810 in the Herbarium of the College of Hawaii. 

This very interesting and handsome Lobelia is peculiar to Kohala, Hawaii, 
after which district it is named. It was also observed along the lower Kohala 
ditch trial when in company with Mr. Bluett. 

Clermontia leptoclada Rock sp. nov. 

Branches slender loosely foliose; leaves oblong acuminate at both ends 12 to 18 cm 
long by 2.5 to 4 cm wide, denticulate with callous teeth, dark green above, with a dark 
purple-bluish tinge at the margins and apex, glabrous above, coriaceous, with impressed 
veins, pale underneath and sparingly hispid along the veins and midrib, on petioles of 
4 to 6 cm; flowers all along the slender stem on cymosely branching hirsute peduncles 
of 2.5 to 4 cm, which are bracteate in the upper third; pedicels two usually three to four 
1.5 to 3.5 cm long, bibracteolate at the middle, the bractlets linear subulate 5 mm long; 
calyx, ovarian portion subglobose, the tube as long as the corolla, purplish with promi- 
nent hispid nerves; corolla slightly arcuate 4.5 cm long, lobes linear lanceolate, dark purple, 
hispid with white hair; staminal column purplish puberulous, the anthers hirsute along 
the sutures, bluish purple, the lower ones penicillate; fruit globose 2.5 cm in diameter; 
seeds brown smooth shining. 

This species, which becomes a tree of 18 to 20 feet in height, was discovered 
by the writer near the summit of the Kohala mountains on Hawaii, along the 
Alakahi and Kawainui ditch trail at an elevation of 4200 feet, during the month 
of July, 1909, at which time it was found in flower and fruit. It is one of the 
many remarkable Lobelioideae which inhabits our high swampy plateaus. The 
type is No. 4760 in the Herbarium of the College of Hawaii. 

Clermontia Hawaiiensis (Hbd.) Rock. 
(Plate 199.) 

CLERMONTIA HAWAIIENSIS (Hbd.) Eock. Clermontia macrocarpa var. Hawaiiensis 

Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 241. 

Leaves ovate-obovate, oblong, undulate dark green, glossy above, glabrous, lighter 
underneath, pubescent along the veins and midrib; the veins impressed; 15 to 22 cm long, 
3 to 6 cm wide on petioles of 2.5 to 3 cm reddish; peduncles 2 to 4 flowered, 3 to 6 cm 
long, pedicels 2 to 4 cm long; peduncle bibracteate in the upper fourth, bracts foliace- 
ous 2 to 3.5 cm long, linear oblong denticulate, pedicels bibracteolate at the 
middle and at their common base, puberulous, calyx subglobose, the ovarian portion pro- 
nouncedly 10 ridged, the dorsal one almost wing-like, the tube green or purplish 6 to 6.5 
cm long, as long or even longer than the corolla; the dorsal slit extending to the base, 
the lateral slits beyond the middle, each lobe strongly nerved, each nerve being a continua- 
tion of a ridge of the ovarian portion of the calyx; corolla slightly arched thickened 
toward the apex in the bud; staminal column glabrous, green or purple, anthers pale purple 
or dark hirsute along the sutures or glabrous, the two lower only penicillate, berry large 
3 cm in diameter, 10 ridged, orange yellow. 

This shrub or small tree reaches a height of 20 or more feet. It is a very 
variable species; the leaves are sometimes oblong or ovate, the peduncle either 
very long and then twice as long as the pedicels and two-flowered, or as long 
as the pedicels or little longer and then four-flowered ; the two inner pedicels 

477 



PLATE 199. 




CLERMONTIA HAWAIIENSIS (libel.) Rock. 

Ohawai. 

Flowering and fruiting specimen from near the Volcano of Kilanea, Hawaii; elevation 
4000 feet. One-half natural size. 



Campanulaceae. 

shorter and thicker ( almost four-cornered) than the two outer pedicels. In the 
four-flowered specimens the corolla is purple, while in the long peduncled, two- 
flowered specimens the corolla is either whitish or green. 

This species occurs in the semi-wet forest on the land of Keauhou about three 
miles from the Volcano House. It becomes exceedingly plentiful as one pene- 
trates into the interior. It usually grows on the trunks of Cibotium tree ferns 
or is also occasionally terrestrial. It is associated with Acacia Koa, Metrosideros 
polymorplia, Perrottetia sandivicensis, Stranssia sp., Myoporu-m sandwicense, etc. 

The specimens found lower down along the government road come nearer 
to Cl. macrocarpa; while the plants found back of Hilo are Clermontia macro- 
carpa. The plants found below the Volcano House and those beyond Shipman's 
paddock on Keauhou, cannot be very well separated, and therefore the writer 
found it advisable to make it a species, as the plants from the type locality can 
certainly not be called a variety of Cl. macrocarpa. 

Collected April, 1911, July, 1911, and July 9, 1912, in company with Mr. 
AY. M. Giffard. The type is No. 8803 in the College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Clermontia Gaudichaudii (Gaud.) Hbd. 
Halia or Hahaaiakamanu. 

CLERMONTIA GAUDICHAUDII (Gaud.) Hbd. Fl. Haw. . Isl. (1888) 243; Del. Cast. 
111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII (1892) 211. Delissea clermontioides Gaud. Voy. Bon 
(1838) pi. 47, (1866) p. 64; Gray Proc. Am. Acad. V (1862) 147; H. "Mann. 
1. c. p. 178; Wawra in Flora (1873) 8. Clermontia clermontioides Heller PI. 
Haw. Isl. (1897) 906. Clermontia Clermontioides (Gaud.) Heller, would really be 
correct but owing to the silliness of the combination. Hillebrand's name is here 
retained. 

Leaves elliptico oblong to lanceolate 8 to 12 cm x 1.5 to 4 cm on petioles of 2 to 3 
cm, acute at both ends, crenulate, glabrous, pale and dull, chartaceous; peduncle short 
about 1 cm; pedicels 12 to 15 mm, bracts 1 mm; calyx broad campanulate about 15 mm 
high with 5 short acute teeth; coroUa arched as much as in C. oblort-gifolia, about 4 -cm 
long and 1 cm wide, greenish purple; anthers pale, glabrous; berry globose, furrowed, 
22 to 25 mm in diameter. 

This species, which is peculiar to the middle forest region of the Island of 
Kauai, is either a shrub or small tree, with many candelabra-like branches form- 
ing a beautiful round or flatish crown. It grows mainly along stream beds, and 
is plentiful along Waialae gulch (4000 feet). It also grows in the swampy high 
plateau in gray, muddy soil, or can often be found on other trees between their 
main branches in accumulated humus. 

It ascends even as high as to the foot of Mt. Waialeale (4600 feet), where it 
grows in company with the curious Gunnera petaloidea, or Apeape, along Ka- 
luiti and Kailiili streams. 

The natives, as well as the birds, are very fond of the large, sweet, yellow 
berries, from which the tree receives its name, Haha or Oka being the native 
generic name for all Clermontiae. while ai a l;a manu is the specific one, meaning 
" eaten by the birds." 

479 



PLATE 200. 




CLERMONTIA PELEANA Rock sp. nov. 
Flowering specimen from near Kilauea, Hawaii. More than one-half natural size. 



PLATE 201. 




CLERMONTIA ARBORESCENS (Mann) Hbd. 

Ohawai. 
Less than half natural size; showing flowering branch and fruit. 



31 



PLATE 202. 




CLERMONTIA TUEERCULATA Forbes 
Natural size, showing flowerbuds. Note tubercles on the inflorescence. 



Campanulaceae. 

Clermontia Peleana Rock sp. nov. 

(Plate 200.) 

Leaves oblong acuminate 18 to 20 cm long by 3.5 to 4.5 cm wide, dark green above, 
glossy somewhat lighter underneath, with dark purple veins and midrib, irregularly 
crenate to nearly the base of the leaf, which is on a petiole of 4 to 6 cm; flowers axillary 
usually two on a short peduncle of 1.5 cm with two small linear bracts at the middle; 
pedicles 3 to 4 cm with two bracteoles at their common base; calyx dark green, the 
ovarian portion turbinate 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter, with minute teeth; corolla strongly 
arched when open, 4 to 5 cm, dark blackish purple, thin not fleshy, silky, the apex 
almost returning to the level of the base; staminal column glabrous dark purple, as are 
the anthers of which the two lower are penicillate; style glabrous with a bluntly two- 
lobed stigma; fruit unknown. 

This species, which is a small, glabrous tree 20 feet in height, has long, more 
or less rambling branches. It was discovered by the writer on the Island of Ha- 
waii, in the middle rain forest zone, at an elevation of 3800 feet, four or five 
miles below Kilauea volcano, along the government road. Only three plants 
were observed, one of which had never flowered. It is a very handsome species, 
and is associated with Clermontia Hawaiiensis, Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii, 
Cyrtandra, Cibotium tree ferns, Ilex, etc. 

It is named after the Hawaiian goddess Pele, whose abode is in the fires of 
Kilauea, in the vicinity of which this tree grows. 

The type is in the Herbarium of the College of Hawaii, No. 8800, collected 
flowering in July, 1911, and July 10, 1912. 

Clermontia arborescens (Mann) Hbd. 

Oha wai. 
(Plate 201.) 

CLERMONTIA ARBORESCENS (Mann) Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 242; Del. Cast. 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII (1892) 221. Cyanea arborescens Mann. Proc. Am. Acad. VII 
(1S66) 183. Delissea Waihiae Wawra in Flora (1873) 8. 

Leaves obovate oblong 12 to 16 cm x 4 to 5 cm, on petioles of 3 to 6 cm, shortly 
acuminate or rounded, narrowing at the base, crenate or serrulate, coriaceous, dark 
green, glossy above, paler underneath; peduncle very short fleshy, two flowered only, the 
pedicels about 25 mm or also 35 cm, bracts small, bractlets at the base of the pedicels; 
calyx green with a campanulate tube of about 20 mm and thick obtuse or deltoid lobes of 
very variable length, separated by sinuses when small and partly connate when large; 
corolla exceedingly thick and fleshy, strongly arched about 6 cm long of an even width, 
greenish white or sometimes cream colored with a tinge of reddish purple; anthers 
glabrous; berry yellow very deeply furrowed and crowned by the calycine lobes; seeds 
pale yellow shining. 

It is one of the most common Clermontia, next to the Oahuan C. macrocarpa, 
but unlike the latter inhabits the middle forest zone between 2000 and 4000 feet. 
It occurs on the three central islands, but is absent on Oahu, Kauai, and Hawaii. 
It is peculiar to the wet forests, where it is a small tree 15 to 25 feet in height. 
The yellow berries, which reach the size of a little lime, are eaten by birds and 
the natives. It is conspicuous by its monstrous fleshy inflorescence, which is, 
next to that of C. drepanomorpha, the largest in the genus. The Oha wai can be 
found along the Kula pipe line trail, East Maui, where it is extremely common. 
Also on West Maui (Kaanapali), Molokai (Pelekunu), Lanai (Haalelepakai), 
usually in company with species of Cyanea and Clermontia grandiflora. 

483 



PLATE 203. 




CLERMONTIA COERULEA TIM. 
One-third natural size; showing flowers and fruits. 



Campanulaceae. 

Clermontia tuberculata Forbes. 

(Plate 202.) 
CLERMONTIA TUBERCULATA Forbes Occas. Papers B. P. Bish. Mus. V. (1912) 8, pi. 3. 

Leaves obovate to oblong, serrulate, glabrous, coriaceous, the veins on the under- 
side minutely tuberculate 19.5 cm to 4 cm, with petioles 2 to 3 cm long; peduncle two- 
flowered 5 mm long pedicels 3 cm, both covered with small tubercles; calyx tube cam- 
panulate with short obtuse lobes, which together with the thick fleshy corolla is covered 
with pronounced tubercles; anthers dark red, glabrous; berry globose, strongly tuberculate 
on the outside 1.3 cm in diameter; seeds smooth, yellow, shiny, ovoid. 

This small tree, which reaches a height of about 12 to 15 feet, was discovered 
by Mr. C. N. Forbes of the Bishop Museum, who collected it on the Island of 
Maui on the slopes of Haleakala, in the wet forests near Ukulele (5000 feet). 

The writer collected specimens of this species a year later from the identical 
tree from which Mr. Forbes derived his material. One other tree was seen 
along a stream bed, its branches touching the rushing waters, between Puukakai 
hill and the Kula pipe line trail, when in company with Dr. P. Ceresole. 

It comes nearest to Clermontia arborescens Hbd., but does not grow to such 
a size. It is a very distinct species, differing from all other Clermontiae in its 
tuberculate inflorescence, a character which, however, occurs in certain species 
of Cyanea new to science. 

Clermontia coerulea Hbd. 
(Plate 203.) 

CLERMONTIA COERULEA Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 243; Del. Cast. 111. Fl. Ins Mar 
Pacif. VII (1892) 211. 

Leaves oblong 12 to 15 cm long 2 to 4 cm wide on petioles of 3 to 5 cm shortly 
acuminate, contracting at the base, minutely denticulate, glabrous above, membraneous, 
with a scattered pubescence along the midrib underneath; peduncle slender 2.5 to 4 cm 
long, with a pair of short bracts considerably above the middle, pedicels of the same 
length or longer (in Hillebrand's specimen the pedicels are shorter) than the peduncle, 
bracteolate below the middle; (Hillebrand's statement that" the bracteoles are at the 
middle is incorrect; his specimen of C. coerulea which I examined has the bracteoles 
also below the middle) calyx colored, the tube about 15 mm, turbinate, the lobes either 
large 15 to 17 cm or minutely denticulate; corolla moderately curved about 4 cm long 
greenish in Kau specimens, purplish in Kona specimens, of a thin texture; berry globose 
yellow about 2 cm in diameter somewhat furrowed. 

What Clermontia macrocarpa is to Oahu, Clermontia coerulea is to Hawaii, 
especially on the southern end. It is the most common Clermontia on the slopes 
of Mauna Loa in Kau, from where it ranges way over to North Kona. It can be 
found at an elevation of 2000 feet above Naalehu, Kau, in wet rain forests up to 
an elevation of 4000 feet. It also occurs in the wet forest back of Kapua, where 
it extends up into the Koa belt. It is not uncommon in the forests above Keala- 
kekua and on the slopes of Hualalai back of Huehue. In Kau it is a tree 15 to 
20 feet in height with a trunk of about -4 to 5 inches in diameter, and is freely 
branching. In the specimens from Kau, the calyCine lobes are minutely denti- 
culate, while in the Kona specimens the lobes are broad deltoid. In the latter 
locality it is a shrub. 

485 



PLATE 204. 




CLERMONTIA HALEAKALENSIS Rock. 
Less than half natural size. 



PLATE 205. 




CLERMONTIA HALE AKALEN SIS Bock. 

Growing on the inner crater wall of Puunianiau, slopes of Mt. Haleakala; elevation 7000 

feet. Island of Maui. 



PLATE 206. 




r 



CYANEA AKBOEEA (Gray) Hhd. 
Portion of crown of leaves with inflorescence; less than one-third natural size. 



Campanulaceae. 

Clermontia Haleakalensis Rock, sp. nov. 
(Plates 204, 205.) 

Leaves 20 to 30 cm long including the short margined petiole, fleshy, 1.5 to 4 cm 
wide, obtuse, oblong lanceolate, dark green above, pale underneath, midrib thick promi- 
nent, veins impressed, pellucid, the upper half crenate, lower half entire, glabrous, gradu- 
ally tapering into a short margined petiole; cymes in the axils of the leaves, peduncle 2 to 
5 cm long, bearing usually 6 flowers on pedicels of 1 to 1.5 cm, the bracts linear subulate 
about 7 mm, the pedicels bibracteolate below the middle; calyx tube oblong turbinate 
1.5 cm slightly pubescent, the lobes linear subulate 5 mm long, corolla whitish green 3.5 
to 4 cm long, curved, the dorsal slit not always extending to the base, sometimes only 
to the middle, lobes linear lanceolate glabrous; staminal column white pubescent at the 
base, as is the disc, glabrous in the upper part, the two lower anthers penicillate; style 
slightly pubescent, inner side of the staminal column hispid with white hair in the 
lower half, berry oblong, seeds smooth whitish. 

A small tree 10 to 20 feet tall, with few very robust branches, having at first 
glance the aspect of a Dracaena. It is soft-wooded, and glabrous. This very 
curious tree, which has almost an antediluvian appearance, comes nearly between 
Clermontia and Cyanea. Its decidedly cymose inflorescence places it with the 
former genus, while the dorsal slit of the corolla does not always extend to the 
base, but the middle. It also has a characteristic of the genus Delissea, and that 
is the thickened portion or knob in the flower bud about the middle, indicating 
the termination of the dorsal slit ; though the seeds, which in Delissea are deeply 
wrinkled, are smooth and shining in the species in question. 

This remarkable tree is undoubtedly one of the oldest forms of our Hawaiian 
Lobelioideae, as it is so strikingly different from all the rest of the Lobelioideae 
inhabiting these islands. 

This particular species was discovered by the writer October 11, 1910, on the 
Island of Maui, on the western slopes of Mt. Haleakala, on the crater of Puu- 
nianiau, at an elevation of 7000 feet, in a locality where no one would expect to 
find a member of this wonderful tribe. It grows in open, dry scrub in company 
with plants belonging to the upper forest zone, such as Raillardia platypliylla, 
Argyroxiphium virescens, Sophora clirysophylla, Santalum Haleakalae, etc. Un- 
fortunately, only three trees are in existence, and as they are peculiar to the 
above locality, it will not be long before they will have shared the fate of so 
many of our native trees, becoming extinct, as cattle have free access and browse 
on the lower branches within their reach. The writer appealed to the manager 
of Haleakala ranch to protect these trees from the ravages of cattle, which he 
kindly promised to do. 

The type specimen is No. 8595 in the Herbarium of the College of Hawaii. 

CYANEA Gaud. 
(Kittelia Keichb., Marcrochilus Presl.) 

Calycine lobes of variable length, from dentate to foliaceous; the dorsal slit of the 
corolla extending to the middle. The two lower small anthers or all penicillate; seeds 
crustaceous shining smooth. Shrubs or small trees with erect simple stem or branches, 
occasionally covered with thorns. Leaves entire, lobed, or pinnate. Flowers bluish or 
purple or white in axillary racemes. 

489 



PLATE 207. 




Side view. 



CYANEA ARBOREA (Gray) Hbd. 
At Ulupalakua, Maui. Note the dense inflorescence. 



PLATE 208. 




CYANEA ARBOREA (Gray) Hbd. 
Front view. Growing in a small gulch at Ulupalakua, Maui; elevation 5500 feet. 



I'LATK L'll!). 



r 





CYANEA LEPTOSTEGIA A. (!r:iy. 
Hahalua. 

IM:int iv:iolii>s :i height of forty tVft. (i nu\ in^ 1 in tln> t'on-st of KnholuaiiiiVno on Kaiiai. 



Campanulaceae. 

The genus Cyanea is endemic in the Hawaiian Islands and possesses more 
species than either Clermontia or Delissea. All the species are shrubby, with 
three exceptions. One species, C. Icptostegia, reaches 40 feet in height, and is 
the tallest of any of our Lobelioideae. The genus consists of many species, 31 
having been so far described, while many more have been discovered by the 
writer which will be published in a monograph on this tribe, bringing the 
number of species of Cyanea probably up to 45, or even more. 

The genus Cyanea consists of milky shrubs or trees with a single erect or 
branching stem, which includes a medullary cavity. Flowers are arranged in 
racemes. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Calyeine lobes shorter than the tube. 

Flowers grayish white or cream colored C. arborea 

Calyeine lobes longer than the tube. 

Flowers dark purple C. leptostegia 

Cyanea arborea (Gray) Hbd. 
(Plates 206, 207, 208.) 

CYANEA ARBOREA (Gray) Hbd. Fl. Haw Isl. (1888) 261; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
I'acif. VII (1892) 219. Delissea coriacea var. A. Gray 1. c. p. 148; H. Mann 
1. c. p. 178. Delissea arborea II. Mann 1. c. p. 180. Cyanea longifolia Heller 
1. c. p. 909. 

Leaves sessile oblanceolate 40-65 cm x 7-12.5 cm, shortly acuminate or rounded and 
upiculate, gradually narrowing toward the base, faintly dentate, but almost entire and 
wavy towards the base, glabrous or pubescent along the rib, glossy, chartaceous to coriace- 
ous; peduncle slender but stiff 15-30 cm long, almost naked above, closely many flowered 
in the last fourth, pedicels short 3.8 mm; bracts 2-4 mm; bractlets 1 mm; calyx subglobose. 
glabrous, shortly toothed, the tube 6 mm; corolla slender moderately curved, suberect 5 
cm long, ~i nun wide, glabrous grayish white, rather thin, with a deep dorsal sTTt and 
coiinivent lobes; staminal column glabrous; berry globose, faintly ribbed, 10-12 mm in 
diameter. 

A tree 12 to 24 feet tall of palm-like habit with a crown of leaves at the apex 
of the stem, the latter measuring about 4 inches in diameter or more. 

This is one of the most handsome Lobelias which the islands possess. Unfor- 
tunately it is exceedingly scarce, and the writer fears that it has become extinct. 

"Where there was once a forest at Ulupalakula there is now only grassland 
with planted Eucalypti. The writer met with only one single plant in a small 
gulch which was inaccessible to cattle. For three days the w r riter searched for 
this beautiful Lobelia, and he had nearly abandoned all hope when he saw this 
handsome plant hidden in a small and very narrow gulch. It evidently is the 
last of its race. In the whole district of Ulupalakua there is now no forest at 
all, only here and there stands a tree of the araliaceous species Pterotropia 
dipyrena. 

(' !l<inea comata, another beautiful lobeliaceous plant once common in this 
district, has vanished forever. 

The plant is peculiar to Haleakala, Ulupalakua, Maui, and was once plentiful 
at an elevation of 4000 to 5000 feet. It flowers in the early spring. 

493 



Campanulaceae-Goodeniaceae. 

Cyanea leptcstegia A. Gray. 

Hahalua. 
(Plate 209.) 

CYANEA LEPTOSTEGIA A. Gray Proc. Am. Acad. V. (1862) 149; Mann. Proc. Am. 
Acad. VII (1866) 184; Wawra in Flora (1873) 47; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 
261; Del. Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VII (1892) 219; Heller PI. Haw. Isl. 

(1897) 908. 

Leaves sessile narrow lanceolate, 40 to 48 cm x 4 to 5 cm denticulate or subentire, 
glabrous shining chartaceous, the midrib of the leaves hollow, leaves of young plants 
lobed, the lobes extending sometimes to the midrib; peduncle (with flower) 2 to 3 cm 
slender, naked below, many-flowered at the apex, 10 to 20 flowers in a crowded cluster on 
pedicels of about 8 mm, bracts linear, twice as long as the bractlets; calyx glabrous, the 
tube cylindrical, lobes linear or filiform, sometimes 4 cm long; corolla dark purplish red, 
glabrous, semierect and slender about 4 cm long and 4 mm broad, antliers glabrous; berry 
ovoid, yellow, crowned by the filiform calycine lobes. 

The Hahalua, which reaches a height of sometimes 40 feet, or about 13 m, has 
a pronounced palm-like habit, possessing a single erect trunk which is densely 
covered in its upper portion with rhomboid leaf -scars, bearing at the end a crown 
of sessile leaves. 

The Hahalua is peculiar to the Island of Kauai, where it inhabits the middle 
forest zone on the leeward side in the drier and more open districts. It is as- 
sociated with Antidesma platyphyllum var. /3., Xylosma Hawaiiense, Maba 
sandwicensis var., Pisonia sandwicensis, Cyanea spathulata, and Cyanea kirtella. 
It flowers in the summer months. 

Numerous species of caterpillars feed on the fruits and withered flowers 

The leaves of the young plants are always lobed, a characteristic found quite 
often in young plants of Cyaneae, especially in those of Section III Palmae- 
formes. The milky juice of this species is yellow. 

GOODENIACEAE:. 

The family Goodeniaceae consists of 13 genera, of which 10 are only found in 
Australia. The species number 291, of which 27 are not found in Australia. In 
the Hawaiian Islands only the genus Scaevola is represented of this family, with 
a few species. 

SCAEVOLA L. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, zygomorphous, pentamerous. Calyx tube adnate to the ovary, 
the limb very short, annular, truncate or 5-parted. Tube of corolla dorsally slit to thq 
base, all lobes nearly of equal length or the two superior ones shorter. Filaments linear, 
anthers free. Ovary inferior, rarely very shortly superior, bi-locular, ovules solitary in 
each locule. erect, anatropous. Style entire, the margin of the indusium ciliate, very 
rarely glabrous; stigma truncate or subbilobate. Fruit indehiscent, exocarp fleshy suc- 
culent, or suberose, endocarp hard, ligneous, or bony, rarely crustaceous. Seeds solitary. 
Embryo as long as the albumen, with terete or foliaceous cotyledons. Herbs, shrubs or 
small trees with alternate, rarely opposite leaves, which are toothed, serrate, or entire. 
Flowers rarely solitary, usually in cymes, bracteate and bracteolate, sessile or pedicellate. 
Corolla white, purple or yellow. 

The genus consists of 83 species, distributed over Australia, but mainly West 

494 



Goodeniaceae. 

Australia, India, a few in New Caledonia and 6 endemic species in the Ha- 
waiian Islands, with one other 8. frutescens (Mill.) Krause, of wide distribution. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves obovate oblong, toothed or serrate. 

Cymes short, crowded, leaves pubescent S. procera 

Cymes long, many flowered; leaves glabrous S. Chamissoniana 

Scaevola Chamissoniana Gaud. 

Naupaka or Naupaka kuahiwi. 

(Plate 210.) 

SCAEVOLA CHAMISSONIANA Gaud. Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826) 461. t.82; Hook, et Arn. 
Bot. Beech. Voy. (1832) 89; Endl. Fl. S'uds. Ann. Wien. Mus. I. (1836) 170 no. 
1043; DC. Prodr. VII. (1839) 506; A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 187; 
Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 267; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VE. (1890) 216; 
Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 913; Krause Das Pflzenr. LIV. 4. 
277. (1912) 123. S. Chamissoniana Gaud. var. 7 Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 267 

S. ciliata G. Don Gen. Syst. III. (1834) 728 S. ligustrifolia Nutt. in Trans. Am. 

Phil. Soc. N. S. VIII. (1843) 253. Tenninckia Chamissoniana de Vriese Gooden. 
(1854) 8; Walp. Ann. II. (1852) 1057. Lobelia Chamissoniana 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. 
PI. II. (1891) 378. 

A -shrub or small tree 5 to 6 m high; branches terete glabrous or in the axils of leaves 
sparsely white-villose; leaves chartaceous, obovate or obovate lanceolate, acuminate at the 
apex, cuneate at the base, narrowing into a petiole of 6 to 12 mm, margins serrate- 
dentate, glabrous on both sides, 4 to 10 cm long, 2 to 4.5 cm wide; flowers in subdivari- 
cate cymes. 7 to 15 flowered, as long as the leaves or longer; bracts small linear, acute 
2 to 5 cm long, ovary obovoid, glabrous, 3 to 4 mm long; calyx 1 to 2 mm long, shortly 
5-lobed, sparsely ciliolate; corolla white with purple streaks or pure white, the erect tube 
narrow cylindrical, 1.5 to 2 cm long, glabrous outside, sparsely pubescent inside, lobes 
about half the length of the tube or shorter, winged; stamens almost the length of the 
tube, the filiform filaments somewhat dilated at the base, anthers small, oblong, truncate; 
style slightly protruding from the corolla, pubescent below, glabrous above; indusium 
glabrous, the superior margin sparsely and shortly ciliate. fruit ellipsoidal, glabrous, 6 to 10 
mm long, 4 to 5 mm thick. 

This species is one of the most common shrubs or often small trees which one 
is likely to meet everywhere in the lower or middle forest zone. It is in now r er 
nearly all the year round and is quite a conspicuous object in the forest on ac- 
count of its w r hite flower, which appears to be only a half a flower, though com- 
plete. It occurs on all the islands of the group from 800 feet elevation up to 
4000 feet and even higher; several varieties have been described. Krause in his 
monograph on the Goodeniaceae of the world distinguishes three varieties of 
this species: (1) var. pubescens (Nutt.) Krause, from Kohala, Oahu, (2) var. 
bracteosa Hbd. from Maui, Hawaii, and Molokai, and (3) var. cylindrocarpa 
(Hbd.) Krause, from Lanai. 

There are many more varieties of this species in the writer's possession, which 
belong all to shrubs and therefore do not come within the scope of this book. 
Plate 210 shows a branch from the typical S. Chamissoniana, as it occurs in 
the forests of Oahu. 

Here may be recorded another species, the Ohenaupaka of the natives or 
Scaevola glabra II. et A. This latter plant often reaches a height of fifteen 

495 



PLATE 210. 




SCAEVOLA CHAMISSONIANA Gaud. 

Naupaka. 
Flowering and fruiting branch, reduced. 



Goodeniaceae-Compositae. 

feet, but is seldom a tree ; it grows usually in out-of-the-way places, as on the sum- 
mit ridges of the mountains of Oahu, and in the swampy forest and borders of 
great bogs on Kauai, usually at an elevation of from 3000-5000 feet. The flowers 
are the largest of the Hawaiian Xaupaka and are bright yellow. 

Scaevola procera Hbd. 
Naupaka or Xaupaka kuahiwi. 

SCAEVOLA PROCERA Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 268; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
VII. (1892) 217; Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. (1897) 914; Krause Das 
Pflzenreich LIV. 4. 277. (1912) 123. Lobelia procera O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL II. 
(1891) 378. 

Branches terete, densely and shortly cinereous tomentose, adult ones somewhat glabrous, 
and barbellate in the leal-axils; leaves chartaceous obovate-oblong or lanceolate-oblong, 
acuminate at the apex, contracting into a petiole of 1 to 1.6 cm rarely longer, margin 
acutely serrate-dentate, or the base entire, 6 to 15 cm long, 2.5 to 4.5 cm broad, sparsely 
hispidulous above, pubescent beneath, with distinct and prominent nerves; flowers large 
in axillary divaricate trichotomous cymes which are cinereous tomeutulose, and shorter 
than the leaves; bracts linear lanceolate, acute, 2 to 4 mm long, ovary obovoid-oblong, 
puberulous or subglabrous, about 4 mm; calyx lobes very short, obsoletely deltoid-otate, 
subacute, with ciliolate margins; corolla white with purple streaks, 1.8 to 2.5 cm long, 
outside sparcely but inside densely puberulous, the subpatent lobes shorter than the 
tube, with somewhat broad wings; stamens at the base little dilated, the filiform fila- 
ments 7 to 8 mm long, anthers elliptical-oblong, truncate, much shorter than the filaments; 
style somewhat complanate, sparsely puberulous, quite glabrous at the apex, little shorter 
than the corolla; iudusium with the upper margin shortly ciliate; fruit ovoid, glabrous, 6 
mm long, 3 to 4 mm thick, indistinctly and longitudinally costate. 

This rather handsome species occurs as a shrub and small tree 15 feet or so 
high on several islands of the Hawaiian group, but is most common on Molokai. 
It resembles somewhat S. mollis. It was first found by Hillebrand on Molokai 
at the Pali of Pelekunu Valley. It was collected by the writer March, 1910, 
flowering and fruiting back of Kamoku, near Kawela swamp (no. 6159), and 
again at Wailau pali (no. 7031 and 7036), Molokai. On Kauai he collected it 
back of Lihue on the Haupu range with almost entire leaves, flowering March 19, 
3909. (College of Hawaii Herbarium.) 

COMPOSITAE. 

The Composite, or Sunflower, family, is the largest family of plants, com- 
prising over 800 genera, with more than 10,000 species. The Composite family 
is considered one of the youngest of the plant families, as some of its tribes are 
still in full evolution. 

It is distributed over the whole Globe, and is represented in these islands by 
about 60 species, only a few of which become trees. Of striking character is 
the well-known Hawaiian Silversword, Argyroxiphium sandiciccnse (Hinahixa), 
with its variety macroccplialum from Haleakala crater. Some of the arborescent 
species of Hawaiian Compositae inhabit the high mountains of the group, up to 
an elevation of over 10,000 feet. 

497 

32 



PLATE 211. 




DUBAUTIA PLANTAGINEA Gaud. 

Naenae. 
Flowering branch, about one-half natural size. 



Compositae. 
KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Flowerheads small, yellowish: 
Style of fertil flowers bifid: 

Bracts of involucre in one row free Dubautia 

Bracts of involucre connate Raillardia 

Flower heads large, two inches or more, brownish yellow: 

Style of all florets entire or shortly bidentate Hesperomannia 

DUBAUTIA Gaud. 

Flowerheads homogamous, discoid, all florets hermaphrodite and fertile. Involucre 
turbinate, with 5 to 10 equal bracts in one row r ; receptacle naked or paleaceous, the 
paleae corresponding in number to the inner florets; corolla tubular with a 5-fid limb; 
anthers purple, shortly appendiculate; style-branches revolute; achenes hispid, 4 to 5 
ribbed, with several shortly ciliate rays in a single row. Shrubs or smaljl trees with op- 
posite or ternate leaves which are either sessile or subsessile, the leaves are paralleV 
nerved, with a slightly branching middle nerve, and remind one of tlie leaves of species of 
Plantago or Bupleurum. Inflorescence terminal, paniculate or corymbose. 

The genus Dubautia is strictly Hawaiian and is closely allied to the genus 
Raillardia, which is also peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands. It consists of seven 
species, only two of which attain-the height which entitle them to be called trees ; 
the remaining five are shrubs. The Dubautiae or Naenae, as the Hawaiians term 
these plants, are peculiar to the wet regions of the middle forest zone, and reach 
their best development on the Island of Kauai, where five species are found. 

Dubautia plantaginea Gaud. 

Naenae. 
(Plate 211.) 

DUBAUTIA PLANTAGINEA Gaud. Bot. Voy. Uranie (1826) 469. pi. 84; Less in Lin- 
naea VI. (1831) 162; Endl. Fl. Suds. (1836) n. 998; A. Gray Proc. Am. Ac. 
V. (1862) 134; Wawra in Flora (1873) 76; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 222; 
Hoffmann in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 5. (1889) 248. fig. 120. G.; Del Cast. 
111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI. (1890) 212; Heller in Minnes. Bot. Stud. Bull. IX. 
(1897) 918. 

Leaves opposite, lanceolate 10 to 20 cm x 8 to 20 mm, acute gradually contracting at 
both ends, clasping with the narrow base, entire or remotely denticulate in the upper 1 
half, strongly 7 to 13 nerved; panicle pubescent, pyramidal, 15 to 25 cm long, projecting 
beyond the leaves, with horizontal branches, the lowest 5 to 7.5 cm long, the ultimate 
pedicels 2 to 3 mm, racemosely arranged; heads cylindrical, florets 7 to 10, involucral 
bracts 7 to 8; receptacle mostly naked; corolla orange colored, exserted; style branches 
revolute; pappus-rays linear-subulate, with upright ciliae. 

The Xaenae is a small tree of 10 to 16 feet in height with a short trunk of a 
few inches in diameter. The branches are very slender, spreading, and bear at 
their ends long, lanceolate, bright-green opposite leaves, which are strongly 7 to 
13 nerved. It is a strikingly handsome tree when in full flower, which is from 
about July to August, varying, of course, according to locality. The small yellow 
flowers are borne on a large pyramidal panicle which projects beyond the leaves, 
about ten inches or more in length, drooping or standing erect. The corolla is 
orange-colored with a slender tube which dilates into a bell-shaped (campanu- 
late) limb with reflexed lobes. The flowers have the odor of bee's-wax, and are 
often purplish instead of yellow. 

499 



PLATE 212. 




RAILLARDIA ARBOREA Gray. 

Naenae. 
Photographed from an herbarium specimen, about one-half natural size. 



Compositae. 

The Xaenae is more or less common on all the islands, but particularly on 
Oahu, where it can be found at an elevation of 2000 feet at the head of Pauoa 
valley, at the foot of Konahuanui. On Maui it is very common at the west end 
at a lower elevation along Honakawai gulch, back of Kaanapali, as well as at 
Honokahau. On Haleakala it is plentiful along the gulches near Kula, at 3000 
feet, and is scattered in the rain forest near Waikamoi and Puukakai above 
Olinda at an elevation of 4000 feet. Occasional plants can be found in the crater 
of Haleakala in Kaupo Gap at an elevation of 5000 to 6000 feet, together with 
Raillardia sp., Argyroxiphium virescens, Lobelia liypoleuca, Geranium multi- 
forum, etc. On Hawaii it is found in the mountains of Kohala, as well as on the 
slopes of Hualalai at about 6000 feet, in company with Dodonaea, Styphelia, 
Coprosma, etc., on black cinder. On Kauai it is gregarious along Waialae stream 
together with Diibautia laevigata and other plants. 

It is peculiar to the rain forest, where it reaches its best development, but can 
occasionally be found in the drier districts. On Oahu it is also plentiful in the 
mountains of Punaluu at an elevation of 2000 feet. 

Another species, Diibautia laxa Hook, et Arn. occurs on Oahu, though a shrub. 
The Writer discovered a variety of this latter species on Kauai at the central 
plateau in the swampy forests and on the borders of the great open bogs at an 
elevation of 4500-5000 feet, It is a small tree 15 to 18 feet in height with few 
spreading branches, which, together with the leaves are hirsute with whitish- 
gray hair. The inflorescence is a large hirsute corymb, bearing dark orange- 
yellow heads of 6 mm in diameter on pedicels of 12 mm. It differs from the 
species in the large, orange colored flower-heads which are on long pedicels, 
while in the species they are nearly subsessile. It may be known as Diibautia 
laxa H. et A. var. pcdicellata Rock var. nov. 

RAILLARDIA Gaud. 

The genus Raillardia differs from Diibautia in its plumose pappus-rays and 
usually naked receptacle; flower-heads as in Diibautia. Shrubs or trees with 
ternate. alternate, or opposite leaves, with various venations ; flowers in terminal 
racemes, panicles or corymbs, yeLhnv. 

The genus Raillardia is peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands, though it is of 
American affinity, as it is closely related to the California genus, Raillardella, 
established by Gray, with four species peculiar to the high mountains of the 
Sierra Nevada and Yosemite district at elevations from 8000 to 11,000 feet. 
Most of the Hawaiian Raillardiae inhabit our high mountains to an altitude of 
11,000 feet, but a few species (shrubby) occur as low as 2500 feet, or even lower. 

The arborescent species are found at high elevations only. The California 
Raillardella are acaulescent herbs with stout, creeping rootstocks. 

The species of Raillardia are not at all clearly defined in Hillebrand's Flora, 
and need a revision. A few species run into each other so that it is sometimes 

501 



PLATE 213. 




RAILLARDIA MENZIESII Gray. 

Fruiting branch pinned against trunk of tree; growing in the upper forest of Mt. 

Haleakala; elevation 6000 feet. 



Compositae. 

very difficult to distinguish them. Some species will have to be united, and per- 
haps one or two new species described, as they do not fit in Hillebrand's key to 
the species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves with a viscous pubescence; inflorescence paniculate R. arborea 

Leaves silky pubescent, lanceolate acute R. struthioloides 

Leaves glossy, stiff ciliate; flower heads in a foliose raceme , R. Menziesii 

Raillardia arborea Gray. 
Naenae. 

(Plate 212.) 

RAILLARDIA ARBOREA Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. V. (1862) 134; H. Mann Proe. Am. 
Acad. VII. (1867) 176; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 228; Hoffm. in Eng. et Prantl 
IV. 5. (1889) 248;-Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. VI (1890) 213. 

Young branches and inflorescence hirsute with glandular hairs; leaves ternate, close, 
sessile with a broad base, but not clasping, 3 to 5 nerved, hispid and viscid as is the 
inflorescence; the foliose panicle 8 to 10 cm long, involucre of 9 to 14 bracts with 22 to 45 
florets; corollae glandular; achenes glabrous. 

This species, which inhabits the dry upland slopes of Mauna Kea, is by no 
means common. It is usually a shrub or, when growing in black cinder at an 
elevation of 10,000 to 11,000 feet, a tree of about 20 feet in height with a trunk 
a foot in diameter. The writer saw only a few trees ; the best developed speci- 
men grew at a little over 10,000 feet on the slopes of Mauna Kea above Kemole ; 
above Waikii at 9000 feet elevation it was a shrub, as well as back of Nau crater 
on the windward slope at 8000 feet. These arborescent Raillardia have a peculiar 
odor, and their presence can b3 detected long before the plants are reached, 
when once familiar with the odor. This applies also more or less to the shrubby 
species of the lower forests. Raillardia arborea is associated with Styphelia 
Grayana. Geranium cuneatum var. y., Raillardia struthioloides, Sophora cliry- 
sopliylla, Rubus Hawaiiensis, Coprosma montana, Rumex giganteus, etc. It can 
stand severe frost, and is sometimes covered with snow during part of the year. 

Raillardia struthioloides Gray. 
Naenae. 

RAILLARDIA STRUTHIOLOIDES Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. V. (1862) 134; H. Mann 
Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 176; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 228; Del Cast. 111. 
Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 214. 

A small tree 6 to 7 m high, with a trunk of about 22 cm in diameter, the branches 
canescent with a silky not glandular pubescence; leaves closely crowded, erect, imbricate, 
or at length spreading, lanceolate, 5 cm long. 8 to 14 mm wide, acute, broadly sessile, 
entire, coriaceous, rather concave when young, with 3 to 5 indistinct nerves, dull opaque, 
canescent with soft appressed hairs, scabrous on the margin, but not ciliate; inflorescence 
a raceme or panicle 10 to 15 cm long, with recurved pedicels; heads 12 mm; involucre 8 mm, 
pubescent, of 7 to 11 bracts; florets 12 to 22, the corolla almost tubular, not exserted. 

This species, which is usually a shrub, but often a tree of 20 feet or so in 
height, ascends the highest of any of our Raillardia, as it can be found at an 
elevation of 11,500 feet on Mauna Kea. The trunk is not thicker than about 
nine inches. It differs from R. arborea in not being viscous, but covered with 

503 



PLATE 214. 




RAILLARDIA MENZIESII Gray. 

Naenae tree. 
Growing on the slopes of Mt. Haleakala, Maui ; near Pminianiau crater; elevation 6000 feet. 



Compositae. 

a silky canescent pubescence which is not glandular. The leaves are lanceolate 
a.nite, leathery in texture, and concave when young. The flowers are yellow. 
It is found lower down in company with Argyroxiphium sanrtwiccnse, or Silver- 
sword, Silene, etc. 

Raillardia Menziesii Gray 
Naenae. 

(Plates 213, 214.) 

RAILLAKDIA MENZIESII Gray Proc. Am. Acad. V. (1862) 133; Mann Proc. Am. 

Acacl. VII. (1867) 176; Wawra in Flora (1873) 79; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 

228; Hoffm. in Engl. et Prantl Pflzfam. IV. 5. (1889) 248; Del Cast. 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mai-. Pac. VI. (1890) 214. 

A shrub or small tree, branches stiff and stout, or at lower elevation profusely branch- 
ing, densely foliose, cinereous or with a rufous hispid not glandular pubescence; leaves 
ternate or opposite, sessile, elliptical-oblong, or lanceolate, acuminate, entire, or faintly 
and remotely denticulate, coriaceous, 3 to 5 nerved, glabrate when full grown, but retain- 
ing a fringe of stiff scabrous ciliae among the margins; heads 10 mm or less, few in a, 
foliose raceme or panicle of o cm or more, on pedicels of 2 to 8 mm; involucre 
obcouical, or oblong, florets 2 to 25, but usually only 2 to 10, corollae funnel-shaped, not 
exserted; achenes glabrous or slightly hispid, ribbed. 

The typical Raillardia Menziesii Gray, (no. 8621 and 8546, in the Herbarium 
of the College of Hawaii) is a shrub with stiff stout branches and thick, fleshy 
leathery, ternate leaves, and occurs on and near the summit of Mt. Haleakala at 
an elevation of from 7000-10000 feet. At 6000 feet elevation, and in gulches 
at 7000 feet, above Ukulele, on the same mountain, there are quite a number of 
trees some of them 20 feet high and pictured on plate 214 ; the leaves are thinner, 
opposite, and approach more Raillardia linearis Gaud. In order to ascertain the 
identity of the tree, the writer sent several specimens of the species in question 
to the Gray Herbarium for comparison. In the absence of Prof. M. L. Fernald. 
Mr. E. W. Sinnott kindly compared the material, of which he writes as follows : 
"Of R. Menziesii we have but two sheets, one of them the type. Your speci- 
mens no. 8621 and 8546 (the latter from the summit of Mt. Haleakala with 
ternate leaves) are obviously typical //. Menziesii upon comparison. The other 
two, no. 8573 and 8590, (the latter a specimen from the tree figured on plate no. 
214) are probably referable to the same species, but seem to approach R. linearis 
Gaud. These two species are placed next each other by Dr. Gray, in his review 
of the genus in 1862." 

The writer collected the typical R. linearis on the lava fields of Auahi, Kahi- 
kinui, southern slopes of Mt. Haleakala where it is a shrub 3 feet high at 2000 
feet elevation. At present it will be advisable to retain the tree in question 
under R. Menziesii rather than create a new species, until the vast Hawaiian 
composite material is thoroughly worked up and monographed. 

HESPEROMANNIA A. Gray. 

Heads homogamous, all florets hermaphrodite and equal. Involucre turbinate-cam- 
panulate, the bracts imbricate, in many rows, dry, thin, chartaceous to coriaceous, the 

505 



PLATE 215. 




HESPEROMANNIA AEBORESCENS A. Gray. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen; one-half natural size. 



Compositae. 

inner bracts longest, linear lanceolate, the outer ones short, ovate. Eeceptaele flat 
naked. Corollae regular, slender, deeply 5-cleft into linear acute straight lobes. Stamens 
affixed to the base of the corolla, the anthers long linear, united until fertilization, ex- 
serted. Style filiform, long exserted, shortly bi-dentate or entire. Achenes linear-oblong, 
5-angular, with several faces ribbed. Pappus of many pluri-seriate stiff and scabrous 
capillary bristles which are twice the length of the achene. Trees or shrubs with very 
hard grained wood. Leaves alternate, penni-nerved, entire. Heads large and few in 
terminal clusters, or in the forks of the branches. Corolla brownish-yellow. 

This most interesting Hawaiian genus consists of three species two of which 
become arborescent. The genus belongs to the tribe Mutisieae which is chiefly 
American, but especially occurring in the South American Andes. It has been 
called the Hawaiian Thistle tree. 

Hesperomannia arborescens Gray. 
(Plate 215.) 

HESPEROMANNIA ARBORESCENS Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. VI. (1866) 554; H. Mann 
in Proc. Am. Acad. VII. (1867) 176; Brigham in Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 
I. 4. (1868) 527. p. 20; Wawra in Flora (1873) 76; Hbd. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 
232; Del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. VI. (1890) 215. 

Leaves glabrous, dark on both faces, thin chartaceous. or often somewhat fleshy in 
texture when fresh, and minutely pubescent with grayish hairlets when young, especially 
along the veins and midrib, obovate-oblong 12 to 34 cm long, 4 to 20 cm wide, with 
reddish midrib and petiole, the latter 2 to 4 cm; bluntly acuminate, crenate-dentate, often 
sub-entire; heads about 5 cm high, 5 to 7 in a terminal cluster or cymose umbel on thick 
pedicels of about 10 to 14 mm; involucre 2.5 cm high, quite glabrous, its bracts in 4 to 7 
rows, corolla 24 to 30 mm, divided to the middle, anthers 8 to 10 mm, achenes glabrous, 
12 to 14 mm, linear-oblong, the tawny pappus twice that length. 

The first tree of this species was discovered by H. Mann, on the Island of 
Lanai on the highest ridge; Hillebrand writes that he saw about eight, four 
years later. Dr. R. C. L. Perkins who thoroughly explored the islands for in- 
sects, and consequently became familiar with the Hawaiian Flora to some extent, 
informed the writer that he saw 2 trees of this species on Lanai about 10 years 
ago. When exploring the Island of Lanai in the year 1910, from June to 
August, the writer failed to find even a sign of this tree anywhere on the island. 
However, large trees of apparently this species were found by C. N. Forbes in 
the Koolau Mts. on Oahu, and the writer found a tree about 20 feet in height on 
the lower slopes of Mt. Konahuanui, back of Honolulu, practically at the head of 
Pauoa Valley. Its leaves were exceedingly large, though the last terminal ones 
answered the description by Gray. It was in flower and fruit and is figured on 
plate 214. 

Mr. C. X. Forbes described a very interesting species from Kauai in the Wa- 
hiawa Mts. where it was collected by J. M. Lydgate. It has the habit of growth 
of a lobelia. The large flower-heads are on slender filiform pedicels. The 
leaves are entire. It was named by him H. Lydgatei Forbes. 

507 



ADDENDA. 

Descriptions of New Species other than Trees. 

Lobelioideae. 

Cyanea pilosa Gray. 

Var. densiflora Rock var. nov. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, same as in the species; somewhat fleshy, white or silvery under- 
neath, dark green above; the hirsute 10-16 flowered peduncle very short, pedicels hir- 
sute; flowers white or with purplish tinge; staminal column white glabrous; anthers white, 
hirsute, the lower ones penicillate only; berry dark orange colored, 10-ribbed, crowned by 
the small linear calycine lobes, sparingly hispid. 

Hawaii: Southern slopes of Mauna Loa in the forest back of Naalehu, Kau, 
in swampy jungle, terrestrial, elevation 4000 feet; flowering and. fruiting Janu- 
ary 9, 1912 ; Rock no. 10001 in the Herbarium of the College of Hawaii. 

Var. glabrifolia Rock var. nov. 

Herbaceous, terrestrial, about 9-10 dm high, the stem strigosely hispidj leaves elliptical 
oblong, acuminate at both ends, thin chartaceous, pale green above, paler underneath, 
18-28 cm x 5-8 cm, on hirsute petioles of 2Vo-3 cm, young leaves densely hispid underneath, 
old ones glabrous above, hispid along the midrib and veins; flowers several on a hirsute 
peduncle of about 7 cm, bracteate above the middle; pedicels 6-10 mm long, filiform, 
sparingly hispid and bibracteolate at the base; bracteoles linear lanceolate, about 4 mm 
long; calyx greenish, the ovarian portion 5 mm, the lobes of nearly the same length 
(4 mm); corolla greenish white, sparingly hispid, 2 cm long; staminal column glabrous, 
whitish, the anthers densely hirsute; berry glabrous, oblong, dark orange, crowned by the 
calyciue teeth; seeds light yellow. 

Hawaii : In dense swampy forest near Kilauea, elev. 3700 ft., but especially 
numerous in Mr. W. M. Giffard's mountain lot, Kalanilehua; outside the fenced 
portion in the forest it is scarce owing to cattle which are allowed to graze in 
portions of the forest. The plant is usually small and can easily be over- 
looked, as it grows in dense shaded places, hidden under the numerous ferns 
and other foliage. Rock no. 8805, flowering and fruiting July, 1911; Type in 
College of Hawaii Herbarium. 

Var. Bondiana Rock var. nov. 

Plant about 8 dm high, terrestrial, stem hirsute; leaves short petiolate, coriaceous, 
ovate oblong, glabrous above, covered with a soft light brown tomentum underneath, 
acuminate at both ends, 10-14 cm x 3.5-5.5 cm; peduncles very short 3 mm, few flowered, 
hirsute, as are the pedicels and calyx, the lobes of the latter of the same length as the 
ovarian portion, linear; (flower buds only) corolla purple, sparingly hispid; terry glabrous 
yellow, globose. 

Hawaii : Mountains of Kohala, about 7 miles above Awini, near summit in 
exceedingly dense swampy forest, altitude about 5000 feet; flowerbuds and 
fruiting June, 1910. Rock, no. 8727 in the herbarium College of Hawaii, T. H. 

Named in honor of Dr. B. D. Bond of Kohala for many courtesies received 
from him by the author. 

508 



Yar. megacarpa Rock var. nov. 

Plant erect, terrestrial, stem hirsute, leaves large, obovate oblong, blunt at the apex, 
narrowing suddenly into a fleshy petiole of 5 cm, with few scattered single hairs above, 
sparingly hispid underneath, 20-22 cm x 9.5-10.5 cm; berries large, 22 mm in diameter, 
globose, crowned by the broadly triangular 8 mm long calyx lobes (flowers unknown). 

Hawaii : Mts. of Kohala in swampy forest back of "VYaimea, along the 
Alakahi gorge, elev. 4200 ft. Only one plant observed; fruiting June, 1910, 
Rock no. 8728, in the herbarium, College of Hawaii, T. H. 

Cyanea Bishopii Rock sp. n. 

Cyanea Kunthiana? Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 264; Drake Del Cast. 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pac. VII. (1892) 219. 

Plant subherbaceous, woody only at the base 10-14 dm high, rarely branching, leaves 
crowded at the top, obovate oblong, bluntly acuminate at the apex, gradually tapering 
into a margined petiole of ca 3 cm; leaves 20-30 cm long, 4-7 cm wide (measured at their 
widest portion) sparingly hispid with scattered whitish hairlets above, pubescent under- 
neath especially along the veins and midrib; inflorescence denselv clustered along the 
stem, immediately under the leaves, extending down for about 12-15 cm; flowers numerous 
on a short hirsute many bracteate peduncle, ca 8 mm in length; pedicels 5-6 mm when 
with flowers. 12 mm when with fruit, bibracteolate above the middle, bracteoles linear 
subulate ca 3 mm ; calyx hirsute the subglobose ovarian portion 6 mm, calycine lobes as 
long as the tube or longer; corolla slender, somewhat curved, 3 cm long, 4 mm wide, 
hirsute, pale purple or lilac with whitish streaks, lobes very short, 3-4 mm, retrorsely 
dentate above, the dorsal slit extending one-third the length of the tube; staminal column 
sparingly hispid, anthers densely covered with strigose pale purplish hair, the lower ones 
only penicillate; berry subglobose, deep orange ca 8 mm in diam., crowned by the caly- 
cine lobes. 

Maui : Back of Lahaina, West Maui, 4000 ft. on the ridge overlooking Wai- 
luku, coll. by E. F. Bishop, Jan., 1871. Slopes of Haleakala, wet forest between 
"Waikamoi and Honomanu gulch, along Kula pipe line trail in dense swampy 
jungle, elev. 4200 ft., west of Olinda, East Maui; fruiting October, 1910; Rock 
no. 8572 ; flowering May, 1911 ; Rock no. 8806, Herbarium, College of Hawaii. 

Cyanea stictophylla Rock sp. nov. 

Plant 2 m high, erect, not branching; leaves 20-30 cm long, 4-4.5 cm wide, linear 
lanceolate, bluntly acuminate at both ends, narrowing into a petiole of 2.5-3 cm, glabrous 
above and evenly punctate with glandular points, hirsute underneath especially along 
the midrib and veins, with an undulate or irregularly notched margin, peduncles axillary 1-2.5 
cm long, hirtellous, bracteate at the apex, usually 5-flowered, pedicels hirtellous 7-15 mm 
long, bibracteolate below the middle; calyx green puberulous, ovarian portion ovoid, caly- 
cine lobes triangular about 2 mm (flowers unknown). 

Hawaii : Mts. of Kaiholena, in rain forest southern slopes of Mauna Loa, 
Kau, elevation 6000 ft,, Jan., 1912 ; Rock no. 10055, shortly after flowering with 
immature fruits. Type in Herbarium, College of Hawaii. The plant belongs 
to the group to which Cyanea pilosa belongs, to which it is related. 

Cyanea aculeatiflora Rock sp. nov. 

Plant 3-7 m tall single stemmed or occasionally branching not far above the ground, 
covered with leaf -scars especially in the upper half; leaves at the ends of erect stems, 
large 40-60 cm x 10-20 cm, thick and stiff, dark green above, lighter underneath, the mid- 
rib as well as the 15 cm long fleshy petiole muricate; the upper side muricate at the 
angles of the veins, densely hispid underneath; inflorescence muricate throughout with 
aculeate tubercules; arranged in cymes in the axils of the leaves, on a common peduncle of 

509 



about 8 cm with large foliaeeous bracts of 3-4 cm, the ultimate pedicels 1 to 1.5 cm; 
calyx oblong, 2 cm long the oblong liner muricate lobes 2.5 cm x 0.5 cm; corolla dark 
purple, curved, muricate with yellow spines, the lobes bluish white, spreading, muricate 
on the outside; staminal column glabrous, purple, longer than the 5 cm long tube, of the 
corolla, anthers dark purple, glabrous, the two lower penicillate; style thickening towards, 
the shortly two-lobed hirsute stigma; fruit unknown. 

Maui: Northwestern slopes of Haleakala in dense rain forest along streams 
or swampy ground, terrestrial, from Waikamoi to Honomanu gorge, elev. 4000 
ft. ; flowering Sept., 1910, Rock. no. 7513, type Herb., Board of Agriculture 
& Forestry, T. H. It grows in company with Clermontia arborescens, Cyanea 
hamatiflora, Tetraplasandra, etc.. The >young plants are covered with spines 
throughout while the trunk of old ones is prickly only at the base. 

Cyanea hamatiflora Rock sp. n. 

Plant 3-4 m high, unarmed, glabrous, erect not branching; leaves broadly lanceolate, 
somewhat acute, broadly sessile at the base 60-70 cm long, 10-14 cm wide, puberulous 
above, pubescent underneath, midrib thick fleshy red, irregularly serrate with callous 
teeth; flowers on short peduncles in the axils of the leaves under which they are hidden; 
bracts lanceolate acuminate with a prominent median nerve, pedicels 5-6 mm with linear 
lanceolate bracteoles at their base; calyx ovate, green, 1.5 cm x 6-7 mm, lobes of irregular 
length, the lower two usually much shorter than the remaining three, lanceolate, obtuse 
the lower 12-14 mm, the upper 15-18 mm x 4 mm; corolla purplish red, unilabiate, the 
dorsal slit extending more than one-third of its length, lobes sharply curved at the apex 
only, thick in texture and somewhat hirsute, staminal column glabrous, anthers sparingly 
hispid along the sutures, the two lower ones long penicillate. The whole inflorescence 
exudes a very viscid resinous substance especially when with young flowerbuds, which 
adhere to the paper in the Herbarium. 

Fruit obovate-oblong dark purplish-red 10-12 ribbed, crowned by the long calycine 
lobes, 4 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, purple inside, seeds dark brown, shining. 

Maui: Slopes of Mt. Haleakala, elev. 4000 ft. in dense rain forest, between 
Waikamoi and Honomanu. The plant is conspicuous by its broad sessile light 
green leaves, which stand out horizontally. It grows in company with Cyanea 
aculeati flora, Clermontia arborescens, Cyrtandra sp., Phyllostegia, Stenogyne, etc. 

Rock n. 8514 flowering Sept., 1910 ; type in Herbarium, Board of Agriculture 
& Forestry, T. H. 

Cyanea Gayana Rock sp. nov. 

Trunk 1.5-3 m high, hardly woody, erect, stem smooth, not branching, (only when 
broken) foliose at the apex, leaves thick fleshy, lanceolate oblong, bluntly acuminate, 
denticulate, gradually narrowing into a margined petiole of 1 cm. making it appear 
subsessile, the lower portion entire, dark green above glabrous or puberulous, veins and 
midrib bright red thick fleshy, lighter underneath, and covered with grayish pubescence; 
peduncles thick fleshy, multi-bracteate from the base, hispid strigose, bearing flowers 
from half its length to the apex; pedicels densely hirsute 1-1.5 cm long, bracteate at 
the base; calyx dark, hirsute as is the corolla, tube ovate-obconical, 6-8 mm, the lobes 
triangular dentiform, 4 mm; corolla, suberect magenta-red with darker streaks, 3-4 cm 
long by 4 mm wide, the dorsal slit extending to the base; staminal column glabrous as 
well as the anthers, of the latter the two lower only penicillate; fruit ovoid of a glaucous 
color about 2-1.5 (?) cm long, crowned by the calycine teeth. 

Kauai: Mountains back of Waimea, woods of Kaholuamano, elev. 4000 ft., 
along streams only, near Waialae and Waiakealoha on the high plateau in com- 
pany with numerous other Lobelioideae, Kadua, Cyrtandra. Hillebrandia, 
Clermontia Gaudicliaudii, etc. Rock n. 2463, flowering March 10, 1909, and n. 
Sept., 1909, fruiting, (but fruits were lost, description of fruit from notes), 

510 



Bock, 1905, fiowerbuds Oct. 20, 1911. Named in honor of Mr. Francis Gay of 
Kauai to whom the writer is greatly indebted for extended hospitality on Kauai, 
and without whose aid the writer would have been unable to make such a 
thorough botanical survey of that part of Kauai. 

Type in Herbarium, Board of Agriculture and Forestry, T. H. 

Cyanea rivularis Rock sp. n. 

A shrub 4-5 cm high, stem simple or branching at the base, leaf whorls at the end 
of the tomentose branches; leaves linear oblong bluntly acuminate at both ends, crenate 
or serrate with callous teeth; 20-30 cm long, by 3-8 cm wide; pubescent above, densely 
velvety tomentose underneath, and pale; on tomentose petioles of 4-8 inches; whole in- 
florescence tomeritose including the blue corolla; peduncle 4-8 cm long, naked two-thirds 
of its length, many flowered, the pedicels 1-1.5 cm, bracts linear subulate; calyx dark 
purplish green, its teeth sharply triangular, corolla 3 cm long, light pale to whitish with 
dark ultramarine blue streaks, velvety tomentose with short white hairlets, the dorsal 
slit extending one-third its length, curved with a knob in the bud showing the termina- 
tion of the dorsal slit, lobes short; staminal column glabrous, white, anthers bright blue, 
slightly pubescent at the base, only the two lower ones penicillate, stigmatic lobes pubes- 
cent outside; berry dark bluish-black, globose 1-1.5 cm in diameter, crowned by the caly- 
cine teeth, seeds whitish large, and somewhat minutely wrinkled. 

Kauai: Mts. above Waimea along streambeds at the high plateau only, elev. 
4200 ft. or more. The banks near the head of Waialae stream are covered 
with this species their palm-like stems gracefully waving in the wind. Also 
near Waiakealoha waterfalls (Rock no. 5365, Waiakealoha, Sept., 1909, 
flowering, and Waialea stream; Rock no. 9010 flowering and fruiting 
Get 15, 1911). Abundant in company with Lobelia hypoleuca, Cyanea 
Gayana, etc. 

Cyanea atra Hbcl. var. lobata Rock v. nov. 

Erect single stemmed with subentire and lobed leaves, petiole muricate, 6-7 cm, leaves 
coriaceous, when not lobed the margin is almost fringed; or lobed iregularly deeply but 
not to the rhachis; tuberculate above, covered with an olivaceous tomentum underneath; 
peduncle longer than in the species, 3-4 cm, many flowered bracts and bractlets as in 
species; pedicels 15-18 mm; calyx and corolla as in the species, the staminal column and 
anthers glabrous. 

Maui : Upper ditch trail leading from Ukulele, elevation 5000 ft. to "Wai- 
kamoi gulch in dense rain forest. Only few plants observed, when in company 
with Mr. L. v. Tempsky of Makawao, (Rock no. 8537, flowering October, 1910). 

Clermontia multiflora var. micrantha Hbd. 
forma montana Rock f. n. 

A shrub 2-3 m high, many branched; leaves smaller than in the variety, thick cori- 
aceous, veins and denticulate margins pink as is the petiole; flowers somewhat larger, 
pinkish-purple, calyx lobes glabrous, corolla slightly hirtellous, peduncle usually 2-flowered. 
berry 1.5 cm or more long, not subglobose, but ovoid oblong. 

Maui : On the highest ridge leading to Puukukui, West Maui Mountains, in 
swampy forest at an elevation of 4600 ft. Rock and Hammond, flowering and 
fruiting, August, 1910, no. 8179, in Herbarium, College of Hawaii. Differs 
from var. micrantlia in the two-flowered peduncle and in the larger ovoid-oblong 
fruits. 

511 



Clermontia parviflora Gaud. var. calycina Rock v. nov. 

A shrub; leaves as in the species on somewhat longer petioles; flowers usually three 
on a peduncle, calyx lobes subulate 5 mm long, corolla larger than in the species, bluish 
gray, pubescent. 

Hawaii : High plateau of Kohala Mts., back of Waimea along Alakahi ditch 

trail, elevation 4000 ft. (Rock no. 4793, flowering July 12, 1909). 

The plant has decidedly the aspect of C. parviflora, but differs from it in its 
larger flowers and short calycine lobes. 

Clermontia Gaudichaudii Hbd. 
Var. y singuliflora Rock v. nov. 

A shrub 1.5-2 m high, glabrous throughout, leaves coriaceous, coarser dentate, veins 
dark prominent, flowers somewhat larger single on long pedicels; calyx-lobes dentate, 
anthers glabrous, the lower ones penicillate. 

Hawaii : Not uncommon on the northern slope of Mauna Kea, liamakua, on 
trees, usually Cheirodendron or Cibotium, upper forest of Paauhau No. 1, (Rock 
no. 3252, flowering June 1909). 

Differs from the species in its single flowers and long pedicels. 



512 



INDEX TO THE SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF INDIGENOUS TREES. 

All adopted genera, with their species, are preceded by an asterisk, while 
generic synonyms are without such. All plants described by the author in this 
book as new, are in bold type. 



*Acacia Willd. 173 

Koa Grav 173 

Koaia Hbd. 177 
Agalma Miq. 357 
*Alectryon Gaertn. 275 

macrococcus Radlk. 277 
*Aleurites Forst. 255 

moluecana (L.) Willd. 

255 
*Alphitonia Reissek. 285 

excelsa Reiss. 285 

A.MARANTAOEAE 135 
ANACARDIACEAE 262 
*Antidesma L. 247 
X Kapuae Rock 249 
platyphyllum Mann 247 
pulvinatum Hbd. 249 
Apionaema Xutt. 447, 451 
APOCYXACEAE 407 
AQUIFOLIACEAE 263 
Aralia L. 361 
ARALIACEAE 336 
*Artocarpus Forst. 115 

incisa Forst. 115 
Beythea Endl. 289 
*Bobea Gaud. 437 
elatior Gaud. 439 
var. Molokaiensis Rock 

441 

Hookeri Hbd. 441 
sandwicensis Hbd. 443 
timonoides Hbd. 445 
Boehmeria Jacq. 123 
BOBBAGINACEAE 414 
*Broussaisia Gaud. 151 
arguta Gaud. 151 
pellucida Gaud. 152 
Brunelia Pers. 224 
Burneya Cham, et Schl. 

439 

Byronia Endl. 265 
Caesalpinia L. 181 
CAESALPINIOIDEAE 

173 
*Calophyllum L. 309 

inophyllum L. 309 
Camirium O. Ktze. 255 
CAMPAXULACEAE 469 
Canthium Lam. 437 
< KLASTRACEAE 267 
Celastrina ? Wawra 273 
Celtis L. 113 
Ceodes Forst. 145 



Cerbera L. 409 
*Charpentiera Gaud. 135 

obovata Gaud. 135 

*Cheirodendron Nutt. 359 

Gaudichaudii (DC.) 

Seem. 361 
platyphyllum (H. & A.) 

Seem. 363 

Chomelia ? sp. Wawra 445 
Chomelia ? Gray 443 
*Chrysophyllum L. 380 

Polynesicum Hbd. 380 
*Cibotium Kaulf. 89 
Chamissoi Kaulf. 93 
Menziesii Hook. 91 
*Claoxylon Jnss. 253 

sandwicense Mull.-Arg. 

253 

*Clermontia Gaud. 471 
arborescens (Mann) 

Hbd. 483 

coerulea Hbd. 485 
drepanomorpha Rock 

473 
Gaudichaudii (Gaud.) 

Hbd. 479 

Gaudichaudii Hbd. var. 
7 singuliflora Rock 512 
grandiflora Gaud. 473 
Haleakalensis Rock 489 
Hawaiiensis (Hbd.) 

Rock 477 

Kohalae Rock 476 
leptoclada Rock 477 
mutliflora Hbd. var. 
micrantha Hbd. forma 

montana Rock 511 
oblongifolia Gaud. 476 
var. Mauiensis Rock 

476 
parviflora Gaud var. 

calycina Rock 511 
Peleana Rock 483 
persicaefolia Gaud. 475 
tufcerculata Forbes 485 
Clermontia genuinae 471 
Clermontioideae 473 
Clusia L. 215 
Coffea L. 437, 447, 451 
*Colubrina Brongn. 281 

oppositifolia Brongn. 283 
Colubrina Fenzl. 285 
COMPOSITAE 497 



Connarus ? Mann 210 
*Coprosma Forst. 457 
Grayana Rock 461 
Kauaiensis (Grav) Hel- 
ler 463 

longifolia Gray 465 
montana Hbd. 459 
pubens Gray 463 
rhynchocarpa Gray 459 
Vontempskyi Rock 461 
Waimeae Wawra 465 
Coralladendron O. Ktze. 

191 
*Cordia L. 415 

subcordata Lam. 415 
*Cryptocarya R. Br. 149 

Mannii Hbd. 149 
Crotoneae 243 
CEYPTOGAMIA 89 
*Cyanea Gaud. 489 

aculeatiflora Rock 509 
arborea (Gray) Hbd. 493 
atra Hbd. var. lobata 

Rock 511 

Bishopii Rock 70, 509 
Gayana Rock 510 
hamatiflora Rock 510 
leptostegia Gray 494 
pilosa Gray 

var. Bondiana Rock 

508 
var. densiflora Rock 

508 
var. glabrifolia Rock 

508 
var. megacarpa Rock 

509 

rivularis Rock 511 
stictophylla Rock 509 
Cyanea Gaud. 483 
CYATHEACEAE 89 
Cyathodes Lab. 365 
Delissea Gaud. 473, 479, 

483, 493 
Dicksoniae sp. autt. Hk., 

Bk. 89 

DICOTYLEDONEAE 113 
Dipanax S'eem. 353, 355, 

357 
Diplomorpha Meissn. 316- 

317 
*Dodonaea L. 278 

eriocarpa Smith 281 



513 



viscosa L. 278 
Dodonaea sp. Del Cast 277 
*Dracaena Vandelli 109 

aurea Mann 109 

Draco O. Ktze. 109 

*Dubautia Gaud. 499 

laxa H. et A. var. pedi- 

cellata Eock 501 
plantaginea Gaud. 499 
EBENACEAE 393 
Ebenus Hiern. 393, 395 
Edwardsia Salisb. 187 
ELAEOCAEPACEAE 287 
*Elaeocarpus L. 287 

bifidus H. & A. 289 
EMBEYOPHYTA ASI- 

PHONOGAMA 89 
EMBEYOPHYTA SIPHO- 

NOGAMA 96 
EPACEIDACEAE 365 
*Erythrina L. 189 

monospeima Gaud. 191 
Eschweileria Zipp. 351 
Eugenia L. 321, 323 
*Euphorbia L. 259 

lorifolia (Gray) Hbd. 
259 

var. gracilis Eock 259 
Eockii Forbes 261 
EUPHOEBIACEAE 243 
Euphorbieae 243 
Eupritchardia O. Ktze. 

101, 103, 104 
*Eurya Thunb. 308 

sandwicensis Gray 308 
Eutetraplasandra 337 
Evodia Forst. 215-237 
Fagara L. 193-207 
FLACOUETIACEAE 311 
*Gardenia Ellis 433 
Brighami Mann 433 
Eemyi Mann 435 
Gastonia ? Gray 345 
GOODENTACEAE 494 
Gossypium L. 305, 307 
*Gouldia Gray 429 

axillaris Wawra 431 
elongata Heller 431 
Guettardella Champ. 443 
GUTTIFEEAE 309 
Hedera L. 361, 363 
Heptapleurum ? Wawra 

347 
Heptapleurum Mann 355, 

357 
*Hesperomannia Gray 505 

arborescens Gray 507 
*Hibiscadelphus Eock 297 
Giffardianus Eock 297 
Hualalaiensis Eock 301 
Wilderianus Eock 299 
*Hibiscus L. 291 

Arnottianus Gray 293 
Kokio Hbd. 295 ' 
tiliaceus L. 293 
Waimeae Heller 295 



Hibiscus L. 302, 307 
*Ilex L. 265 

sandwicensis (Endl.) 
Loes. 265 

Isonandra auct 380 
Ixora L. 437 
*Jambosa DC. 319 

malaccensis (L.) P. DC. 

321 

Jatropha L. 255 
Kittelia Eeichb. 489 
*Kokia Lewt. 303 

drynarioides (Seem.) 
Lewt. 307 
var. lanceolata(Lewt.) 

Eock 307 
Eockii Lewt. 305 
*Labordia Gaud. 401 

membranacea Mann 405 
molokaiana Baillon 403 
sessilis Gray 406 
tinifolia Gray 406 
LAUEACEAE 149 
LEGUMINOSAE 173 
LILIACEAE 109 
Livistona ? 100, 101 
*Lobelia L. 

Gaudichaudii DC. var. 
longibracteata Eock 
78 

Lobelia Endl. 475, 476 
Lobelia Adans. 495, 497 
Lobelioideae 469 
LOGANIACEAE 401 
*Maba J. E. & G. Forst 393 
Hillebrandii Seem. 395 
sandwicensis A. DC. 393 
Macrochilus Presl. 489 
Mahoe Hbd. 277 
MALVACEAE 291 
Melaleuca L. 327 
Melicope Forst. 235, 237, 

242 

*Metrosideros Banks 325 
macropus H. & A. 336 
polymorpha Gaud. 325 
rugosa Gray 335 
tremuloides (Heller) 
Eock 333 
var. Waialealae Eock 

335 

*Mezoneurum Desf. 181 
Kauaiense (Mann) Hbd. 

181 

Mimosoideae 173 
MONOCOTYLEDONEAE 

96 

MOEACEAE 114 
*Morinda L. 467 
citrifolia L. 467 
trimera Hbd. 467 
Morus L. 114 
Myonima Comm. 437 
MYOPOEACEAE 425 
*Myoporum Banks et Sol. 
425 

514 



fe'andwicense (DC.) Gray 
427 

Myroxylon Forst. 311-313 

MYESINACEAE 367 

Myrsine L. 368, 369, 370, 
375, 377, 379 

Myrsine Levl. 392 

MYETACEAE 319 

Nania Miq. 327-336 
*Neowawraea Eock 243 

phyllanthoides Eock 245 
*Nothocestrum Gray 417 
breviflorum Gray 419 
latifolium Gray 421 
longifolium Gray 419 
subcordatum Mann 423 

Nothocnide Blume 123 

Nothotetr aplasandra 337 
*Nototrichium Hbd. 139 
sandwicense Hbd. 141 

NYCTAGINACEAE 143 

Obbea Hook. 445 
*0chrosia Juss. 413 
compta K. Sch. 414 
sandwicensis Gray 413 

Ochrosia DC. 409 

Olea L. 397 

OLEACEAE 397 

Oreodaphne? Mann 149 
*Osmanthus Lour. 397 
sandwicensis (Gray) 
Knobl. 397 

PALMAE 99 

Panax? DC. 361, 363 

PANDANACEAE 96 
*Pandanus L. 96 

odoratissimus L. 97 

Papilionatae 173 

Paritium A. St.-Hil. 293 

Pavetta L. 437 
*Pelea Gray 211 

anisata Mann 229 
auriculaefolia Gray 219 
BaUoui Eock 228 
barbigera (Gray) Hbd. 

235 

clnsiaefolia Gray 215 
cinerea (Gray) Hbd. 237 
var. racemiflora Eock 

241 

Cookeana Eock 216 
elliptica Hbd 237 
Fauriei Levl. 216 
kauaiensis Mann 225 
Knudsenii Hbd. 235 
macropus Hbd. 227 
microcarpa Heller 220 
molokaiensis Hbd. 227 
multiflora Eock 233 
orbicularis Hbd. 224 
pseudoanisata Eock 227 
rotundifolia Gray 226 
sandwicensis Gray 224 
sapotaefolia Mann 217 

var. dumosa Eock 218 
volcanica Gray 221 



var. lianoides. Kock 

223 
var. montana Rock 

223 
var. terminalis Rock 

223 

Waialealae Wawra 218 
Wawraeana Rock 231 
Zahlbruckneri Rock 231 
Perlarius O. Ktze. 123 
*Perrottetia H. B. K. 267 
sandwicensis Gray 267 
Phyllantheae 243 
Pinonia Gaud. 89 
*Pipturus Wedd. 123 
albidus Gray 123 
*Pisonia Plum. 143 
inermis Forst. 1 -' 7 
sandwicensis Hbd. 145 
umbellifera (Forst.) 

Seem. 145 

PITTOSPORACEAE 153 
*Pittosporum Banks. 153 
acuminatum Mann 155 
cauliflorum Mann 159 
confertiflorum Giay 171 
Gayanum Rock 166 
var. Waialealae Rock 

166 

glabrum H. et A. 155 
glomeratum Hbd. 157 
Hawaiiense Hbd. 169 
Hosmeri Rock 161 

var. longifolium Rock 

163 

insigne Hbd. 169 
Kauaiense Hbd. 171 
spathulatum Mann 157 
terminalioides Planch. 

159 
*Plantago L. 

pachyphylla var. glabri- 

folia Rock 77 
*Platydesma Mann 241 
campannlatum Mann 241 
var. 7 macrophyllum 
Hbd. forma coria- 
ceum Rock 243 
var. sessilifolia Rock 

243 

Platydesma Hbd. 219 
*Plectronia L. 437 

odorata (Forst.) F. v 

M. 437 

Polycoelium A. DC. 427 
Pomaderris Labill. 285 
*Pritchardia Seem, et H. 

Wendl. 99 
arecina Becc. 107 
eriophora Becc. 105 
eriostachia Becc. 107 
Gaudichaudii H. Wendl. 

100 

Hillebrandi Becc. 103 
lanigera Becc. 103 
Martii H. Wendl. 101 



minor Becc. 104 
remota Becc. 104 
Rockiana Becc. 105 
*Pseudomorus Bureau 114 
Brunoniana (Endl.) 

Bureau 114 

Psilotriehium Blume. 141 
*Psychotria L. 455 

grandiflora Maun 457 
hexandra Mann 455 
hirta (Wawra) Heller 

457 

*Pteralyxia K. Sch. 407 
macrocarpa (Hbd.) K. 

Sch. 407 
*Pterotropia Hbd. 353 

dipyrena (Mann) Hbd. 

357 

gymnocarpa Hbd. 355 
Kavaiensis (Mann) Hbd. 

357 

Ptilotus R. Br. 141 
Rademachia Steudl. 115 
*Raillardia Gaud. 501 
arborea Gray 503 
Menziesii Gray 505 
struthioloides Gray 503 
*Rauwolfia L. 409 

sandwicensis A. DC. 409 
*Reynoldsia Gray 351 

sandwicensis Gray 351 
RHAMNACEAE 281 
Rhamnus L. 285 
*Rhus L. 262 

semialata Murr. var. 
sandwicensis Engl. 262 
Rhytidotus Hook f. 441 
RUBIACEAE 429 
RUTACEAE 192 
SANTALACEAE 126 
*Santalum L. 126 

ellipticum Gaud. 131 
Freycinetianum Gaud. 

'127 
var. Lanaiense Rock 

129 

Haleakalae Hbd. 133 
pyrularium Gray 133 
SAPINDACEAE 269 
*Sapindus L. 271 

Oahuensis Hbd. 273 
saponaria L. 271 
Sapota Gaertn. 383, 390 
SAPOTACEAE 380 
SAXIFRAGACEAE 151 
Sideroxylon L. 381 
auahiense Rock 387 
var. aurantium Rock 

391 

Ceresolii Rock 385 
rhvnehospermum Rock 

387 
sandwicense (Gray) B. 

et H. 383 
spathulatum Hbd. 391 



var. )3 densiflorum 

Hbd. 392 
var. molokaiense 

(Levl.) Rock 392 
*Scaevola L. 494 

Chamissoniana Gaud. 495 
glabra H. et A. 495 
procera Hbd. 497 
SOLANACEAE 417 
*Solanum L 423 

Carterianum Rock 423 
*Sophora L. 185 

chrysophylla Seem. 187 
Sponia Con:m. 113 
*Straussia Gray 445 
Fauriei Levl. 449 
hawaiiensis Gray 451 
Hillebrandii Rock 453 
var. Molokaiensis 

Rock 455 
kaduana (Ch. et Sch.) 

Gray 447 

leptocarpa Hbd. 449 
longissima Rock 447 
Mariniana (Ch. et Sch.) 

Gray 451 

oncocarpa Hbd. 448 
var. scoriacea Rock 

449 
var. subcordata Rock 

448 
*Styphelia Sol. 365 

Grayana (Stschegl.) 

Rock 366 

tameiameia F. Muel. 365 
*Suttonia 367 

Fernseei Mez. 370 
HillebraEdii Mez. 373 
var. emarginata Rock 
373 
Kauaiecsis (Hbd.) Mez. 

368 

Knudsenii Rock 373 
Lanaiensis (Hbd.) Mez. 
369 

var. coriacea Rock 369 
lanceolata (Wawra) 

Rock 379 
Lessertiana (A. DC.) 

Mez. 375 

Sandwicensis (A. DC.) 
Mez. 377 
var. apodocarpa 

(Levl.) Rock 379 
spathulata Rock 370 
volcanica Rock 371 

var. lavarum Rock 371 
Wawraea Mez. 368 
Suttonia Levl 392 
*Syzygium Gaertn. 323 
sandwicense (Gray) 

Ndz. 323 
Telopia Sol. 255 
Tenninckia 495 
Ternstrocmiopsis Urb. 308 
*Tetraplasandra Gray 337 



515 



Hawaiiensis Gray 339 
Kaalae (Hbd.) Harms 

345 

Lanaiensis Rock 343 
Lydgatei (Hbd.) Harms 

343 
meiandra (Hbd.) Harms 

347 
Oahuensis (Grav) Harms 

345 

Waialealae Rock 341 
Waimeae Wawra 339 
THEACEAE 307 
*Thespesia Corr. 302 

populnea (L.) Corr. 302 
THYMELAEACEAE 315 
Timonius DC. 439 
Toxicodendron L. 262 
*Trema Lour. 113 

amboinersis Blume 113 
Triplasandra Seem. 337 



ULMACEAE 113 
*Urera Gaud. 119 

Kaalae Wawra 123 
Sandvicensis Wedd. 119 
var. Kauaiensis Rock 

123 

URTICACEAE 117 
Vallesia Ruiz et Pav. 407 
Villebrunea Gaud. 119 
Washingtonia H. Wendl. 

101, 103, 104 
*Wikstroemia Endl. 316 
furcata (Hbd.) Rock 319 
oahuensis (Gray) Rock 

316 

sandwicensis Meisn. 317 
*Xanthoxylum L. 192 
Bluettianum Rock 201 
dipetalum Mann 207 
var. geminicarpum 
Rock 209 



var. tomentosum Rock 

20U 

var. 7 Hbd. 210 
glandulosum Hbd. 197 
hawaiiense Hbd. 195 
var. citriodora Rock 

197 

var. velutinosum Rock 
197 

Kauaiense Gray 199 
Mauiense Mann 203 

forma glabmm Rock 

203 

var. anceps Rock 205 
forma petiolulatum 

Reck 207 

var. rigidum Rock 205 
Oahuense Hbd. 193 
*Xylosma Forst. 311 

Hawaiiecse S'eem. 311 
Hillebrandii Wawra 313 



516 



INDEX TO THE HAWAIIAN AND ENGLISH NAMES OF TREES. 



Aalii 278 

Aalii Kumakua 278 

' kumakani 281 

Aawa hua kitkui 161 

Ae...l93, 195, 197, 199, 20.3 

A'e 271 

Ahakea..A38, 441, 443, 445 

Aiai 114 

Aiea 265. 419, 421, 423 

Akia 316, 317, 319 

Akoko 259 

Alaa . . 383, 387 

Alahee 437 

Alani 215, 221, 224 

Alaniwai 218 

Anini 308 

Anonia 218 

Aulu 145, 273, 383 

Bastard Sandalwood.... 427 
Breadfruit 115 

Haa 247, 249 

Haha 479 

Hahaaiakamanu 479 

HahaJua 494 

Hula 97 

Halapepe 109 

Name 247 

Nao 409 

Ilapu 93 

Hapu In 91 

Hau 293 

Han kuahiwi.. .297, 299, 301 

Heae 

...193, 195, 197, 199, 203 

Heii 91 

Hoawa 

...155, 157, 159, 169, 171 

Holei 413 

Eolio 149 

Hona ' 123 

H'wlii 127, 131, 133 

Kalia 289 

Kamakahala 403,405 

Kamani 309 

Kanaicau 151 

Kanila 283, 285 

Kauila mahu . . 361 



Kaiilu 273, 383, 407 

Kawau 210, 265, 366 

Kea 181 

Keahi 380 

Koa 173 

Koa ka 173 

Koa oJia 177 

Koaia 177 

Koi 463 

Kokio 307 

Kokio ula 295 

Kokio keokeo 293, 295 

Koko 259, 261 

Kolea 

...370, 371, 373, 375, 379 

Kolea laulii 377 

Kopiko.. A48, 449, 451, 453 

Kopiko kea 447 

Kopiko ula 451 

Kou 415 

Kukaimoa 220 

Kukui 255 

Kului 141 

Lama 393 

Lapalapa 363 

Lauhala 97 

Lehua 325 

Lehua ahihi 333 

Lehua papa 335 

Lonomea 273 

Lo?M...100, 101, 103, 

104, 105, 107 

Mahoe 277 

Maiele 366 

Mamake 123 

Mamaki 123 

Mamani 187 

Manele 271 

Manena 237 

Manono 431 

Maua 311, 313 

Mehame 249 

Milo 302 

Nokihana 229 

Mountain Apple 321 

Naenae 499, 503, 505 

Naio 427 

Nanu . . 434 



Nau 433, 434 

Naupaka 495 

Naupaka kuahiwi. ..495, 497 

Neleau 262 

Neneleau 262 

Noni . 467 

Noni Tcuahiwi 467 

O'a 285 

Ohawai 476, 483 

Ohe 339, 35] 

Ohe kikoola 339 

Ohe kuknliiaco 351 

Ohe makai 351 

Ohe mauka 345 

Ohe Ohe 357 

Ohio 321 

Ohio ai 321 

Ohio ha 32, 

Ohio lehua 325, 330 

Olapa 361 

Olena 465 

Olomea 267 

Olopua 397 

Opuhe 119 

Paihi 323 

Papahekili 155 

Papala \ 135 

Papala kepau 145, 147 

Pilo 459, 461, 463, 465 

Pilo kea 241 

Pilo ula 225 

Poola 253 

Pua 397 

Puahanui 151, 152 

Puakfea-we 365 

Puananahonua 423 

Puhala 97 

Pukeawe 365 

Sandalwood 127 

Screw-pine 97 

Uahea pele 235 

Uhiuhi 181 

Ulu 115 

Waimea 267 

Wanini 308 

Walahee 437 

Wiliwili . . 191 



517 



ERRATA. 

Page 76, line 28, and page 79, line 15, for Styphelia imbricata read Styphelia 

Gray ana. 

Page 97, line 3 from bottom, for Gynopogon oliviformis read Aly.via olivaeformis. 
Pages 160, 162, 163, for longifolia read longifolium. 
Page 191, line 10, for monosperum read monospermum. 
Page 225, line 10, for Waileale read Waialeale. 
Page 231, line 7, for Wawreana read Wawraeana. 

Page 242, line 7 from bottom, and page 243, line 5, should read macro phyllum. 
Page 242, line 9 from bottom, should read pallidum. 
Page 243, line 13, for sessilifolia read sessili folium. 
Page 252, for Mehane read Mehame. 

Page 285, lines 36 and 38, for Zizphoides read Zizyphoides. 
Page 295, lines 19 and 35, for Kokia read Kokio. 
Page 347, line 35, for 8 read e. 
Page 366, line 7 from bottom, for Olclo read Ohelo. 



518 



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