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INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

WITH SPECIAL RtrBRXNCB 
TO THE 

MIDDLE AND NEW INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES 



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INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

WITH SraCUL KBFnXlCCB TO THB 

Middle and New Indo-Iranian 
Languages 



BY 

LOUIS H. GRAY, A.M. 

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THB REQUIREMENTS FOR THB 
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 
IN THE 
FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY, COLUMBIA UNIYERSITY 



THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS 

Thb Macmillan Company, Agents 
66 Fifth Avbnub 

1901 



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32i,Z.z 

A 



PRINTED AT OXFORD 

ENGLAND 

BY HORACE HART, M.A. 

HKiNTU TO THE UNIVRKSITV 



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TO 

MY FATHER 

AND TO 
TUB MSMORT OP 

MY MOTHER 



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INTRODUCTION 

The united erideoee of eonqpantive Ih^g ui Btieg y eUmognphy, 
and rdigion his efitabliahed tlie doctrine of Indo-Iimniin unity ea 
a firm foundation, thoeby affiuding a cardinal doctrine for the 
comparative sto^ <tf Sanskrit^ Aveatan, and Old Persian. Tlie 
woik of Wack^nagel and of Barthdomae^baaed upon this principle, 
has given the older dialects of the Indo-Iranian their dne. But, 
on the other hand, the phcmology of the Middle and New periods 
of this group has not thus hr received the attention which it 
deserves, and it is in an attempt to mxpplj the deficiency that this 
volume has been written. It aims to prove tiiat the later Indo- 
Iranian dialects are still closely akin, and have had in many 
instances analogous developments, which are legitimate evolutions 
of processes acknowledged in the oldest Indo-G^ermanio languages 
of India and Iran. 

A priori we should expect dialects derived firom a ooiomon 
source to pursue similar courses of phcmological development, as 
far as their surroundings, changing in course of time, permit To 
deny this seems tantamount to attacking the entire principle of 
phonetic law on which comparative linguistics must rest To 
affirm it is to give new straigth to scientific research. The Middle 
and New Indo-Iranian languages show many developments in 
phonology which may be paralleled with entire justice. To such 
similarities I have sought to call attention, and I hope that the 
material which has been gathered may be of service to other 
linguistic students, and prove that the underlying principle of 
the book has its justification. 

A paper of mine, entitled Certain parallel Levelcpfnents in Pali 



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viii INTRODUCTION 

and New Persian Phonology ^ read before the American Oriental 
Society at Cambridge, Mass., in April, 1899 (JAOS., xx 229-248), 
outlined the method which I have followed in this book. I advanced 
my views on the comparison of the Middle and New Indo-Iranian 
dialects before the Society in the following words : 

'It is a well-known £EU^t in linguistics that languages which are 
entirely without influence one on the other often show a striking 
similarity in their development. The Indo-Iranian group is 
ecfpecially instructive in this r^;ard, for its time-limit extends from 
the period of Indo-Iranian unity to the present day, while its 
geographical area stretches from the Simhalese in the south to the 
MAwindarftnT in the north, and from the Kurdish in the west to 
the Bangfill in the east Between the Indian and the Iranian 
divisions of the Aryan dialects a development may be traced which 
is frequently closely parallel . . • Such a study, which it is my 
hope and intention to make^ might be of service in the study of 
dialectic developments in general, and although confined to the 
Indo-Iranian dialects, it might by its implications be not altogether 
without bearing on the interests of the great body of the Indo- 
G^ermanic phonology/ 

The result of the investigations which I there proposed to make 
has been, at least to me, a signal confirmation of my belief. 

Mine is not the first attempt to parallel the phonological evolu- 
tion of the Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. The first 
Orientalist who, so far as I know, drew attention to the connexion 
between the two great modem dialect-groups was Beland. He 
wrote in his study De Unguis instdarum orientaiium C Disserta- 
tiones miscellaneae,' iii 86, Traj. ad Rhenum, 1708), 'Nonnullae 
voces [linguae singalaeae] cum Persicis conveniunt, uti AswajaOj 
equus, s^ Asp^ BaJtasOj arcanimi, j]; Bas^ KP Chaldaeis, arcanum. 
Bandinjaiy ligo, Jld Bandj Dewijan^ Deus, Pers. ji^ Divy Genius.' 
(Cf. also Benfey, Gesch. der Sprachmssensckj 241.) A veiy similar 
suggestion was made exactly a centmy later, when ^ en 1808 John 
Leyden fait du zend un dialecte pracrit, parallMe au pali, le pali 
^tant identique au magadhi des grammairiens et le zend a leur 



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INTRODUCTION ix 

sanraseni En 1819, Enkine fait du zend un dialecte sanacrit 
impoii^ de Tlnde en Perse par le fondateur de Magisme, mais 
n'ayant jamais ^ parl^ par les indigenes de Perse * (Darmesteter, 
Le ZA.^ I p. xzi, c£ SBE., iv. 2, p. xziii). In 1878 Trumpp in 
his Grammar of the Pql^ or Language of the Afghans compared 
f€ith the Irdnian and North-Indian Idioms revived the view that 
the later Indo-Iranian dialects were closely connected linguistically, 
even though his work was vitiated by his false theory that Af >&n 
is ^ an old independ^it language, forming the first transition from 
the Indo-Arian to the Ir&nian family, and therefore partaking of 
the characteristics of both' (p. ziL C£ the approving remarks 
of Hoemle, Comp. Gramm.^ zzziv-zxxv, as contrasted with 
Darmesteter, Chants populaires des Afghans^ p. lix). Finally, in 
1898, Horn, Grundr. der iran. Phihlj L b. 35 Anm., compared 
the Iranian change of r to ^ in Ski vrlcsa ^tree,* Av. vardSa : PhL 
v€Sakj New Pers. b^Sah with the Prfikritic g^Jia ' house * beside 
grha (see below, § 78). The same scholar also alludes to the 
mutations common to both dialect-groups of initial y to J, of inter- 
vocalic kto gjOr its syncope, of the epenthesis of •ary* to -^-, and 
of the apparent substitution of y for intervocalic d and g (see below, 
§§ 331, 116, 128, 8, 256, 143). Geiger, ibid., 208, notes that the 
occasional interchange of { and n in AfySn may be paralleled in 
Indian (see below, § 281). Against the view held by Geiger and 
Horn, Habschmann has expressed himself emphatically {IF. Ana.^ 
X 23), but his objection seems to me scarcely valid. 

The Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects which I have con- 
sidered may be classified as foUows : 

a. Indian. 1. Middle Indian or Pr&krit This group embraces 
Mahftrfistrl, the Prftkrit icar' iioxnvj with Jftina M&h&ras^rl, Msgadhi 
and Ardhamfigadhi (also called Ar^ and Jfiina Prakrit), and 
Saurasem, the principal Prfikrit of the drama. These form the 
literary dialects called bhasd by M&rkandSya, while the lower 
Prilkrits used in literature, Sftk&rl, C&ndall, Sabarl, and others 
form Mftrka^dSya's vihhdsa dasa. 13ie other Middle Indian groups 
are Apabhramsa and PaifiacL Apabhram&i denotes the Middle 



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X INTRODVCTJOK 

Indian vernaculars as distinguished from the PrAkrits or literary 
dialects of the period. PfiilSacI together with Culikap&i&icI seems 
to have comprised the dialects of the north and west of India 
(Pischel, Grramm. der PrakriUSpr,, §§ 1-80, c£ also Hoemle, 
Calcutta Rev., bud. 811-882 ; Grierson, ibid., ci 258-274). A 
somewhat peculiar position is held by the so-called Ofithft dialect 
of the Lalita-vistara, and by the Prfikrit of the inscriptions 
(Pischers ' Lenadialekt'). The Gsthft dialect is an artificial compo- 
sition of Prfikrit bases with Sanskrit inflections (Macdonell, Hist 
of Skt. Lit J 25-26), while the Lena dialect, a popular Middle Indian 
lingtui francttj shows many Sanskritisms in its Pr&krit (or Apa- 
bhraihl^) structure (Pischel, ^ 7). As Ardhamflgadhi and Jftina 
M&hfirilstrl became the sacred dialects of Jainism, so Pfili was the 
language of the southern Buddhist Church. From what district 
of India Pali came is very uncertain. Geiger, Lit und Spr. der 
Singh., 90-91, very plausibly supposes that the country comprised 
by modem Gujarat was its home (for other views see E. Mailer, 
Pali Gramm.y viii-ix). The Middle Indian languages are not 
descendants of Sanskrit, but of the Vedic dialect and its neigh- 
bours. Buried for a time by the literary supremacy of Sanskrit, 
they emerged when the religious movements of Buddha and Maha- 
vlra and the development of the drama gave them opportunity, 
and they then proved themselves worthy of cultivation in literature, 
both sacred and pro£Euie (Pischel, §§ 18-15). 

2. New Indian. The New Indian dialects are derived from the 
ApabhraihSas or folk-dialects of the Prakrits. Any attempt to 
trace rigidly Modem Indian dialects to specific Middle Indian 
predecessors is difficult with the sources now under our controL 
Pischel, § 5, derives GujarfitI, or Marwarl, from 6fturasSnI-Apa- 
bhrariiga, Mara^hl from Mfih&rSstrl-Apabhraihsa, while Bihdri and 
Western Bangall seem to come from Magadhl-Apabhramsa through 
the La(, or Pillar, dialect. The Indian basis of Simhalese and 
Maladive is derived from a dialect closely akin to Pali (Geiger, 
Lit mid Spr. der Singh., 86-93). Hocmlc, Coiup. Gramm., xxiv- 
xxy, and Calcutta Ecv.j bcxi. 311-332, Beamcs, Couip. Gramm., L 



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lirrRODUCTION xi 

6-7, 88-34, and Grierson, Seven Orammars . . , of the Bihdri 
Language^ pi. i, Calcutta, 1888, 8-7, should also be consulted. 

I have discussed the New Indian dialects in the following order: 
Assamese, Nfiipftll, Ea&nlrl, Uriyft, Bangftll, Bih&rl, Hindi, Pan- 
jfibi, Sindhi, GujarfitI, Mar&(hl, Siihhalese and its older form Eiu, 
Mftladive, and Gypsy. There are numerous sub-dialects in all of 
them. The most comprehensive classification of these languages 
is in Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India^ Firsts Rough Listj 
Calcutta, 1898. Here, for instance, sixty-four sub-dialects of 
GujarfttI are given with their districts and the number of persons 
speaking them ; Bangftll has sixteen varieties of vernacular, and 
Western Hindi fifty-two. For further information see Cust, 
Modem Languages of the East Indies^ London, 1878, 85-64, 
158-161 ; Beames, Comp. Ghramm.^ L 06-107 ; Geiger, Lit und Spr. 
der Singh, 88-89. 

Language maps of India should also be consulted, such as those 
given in Hoemle's Conip. Gramm.y and his edition of the Prakfiar- 
LaksanOy Calcutta, 1880 ; Beames's Outlines of Indian Philology , 
London, 1868; Grierson's Seven Gramm. of Biluiriy i; Cust's 
Mod. Lang, of the East Ind. ; Constable's Hand Atlas of India^ 
Westminster, 1893, plate 10, and others. 

b. Iranian. 1. Middle Iranian. The sole surviving representa- 
tive of Middle Iranian is Middle Persian, or Pahlavl, which is 
closely related to Old Persian (Salemann, Grundr. der iran. Fhilolj 
I 225-226). 

2. New Iranian. New Iranian dialects are exceedingly numerous. 
They are divided as follows : New Persian and the dialects of the 
Pamir, Caspian, and Central districts, Af/ftn, BalucI, Kurdish, and 
Ossetish. The Pamir dialects include WaxI, Siynl, Sariqoll, 
BofianI, Tajiki, Sangllcl, MinjanI or MungI, Yidyah, and Yaynobi 
(Geiger, Grundr. der iran. Phil., i. b. 290-291). Caspian dialects 
are SamnanI, MazandarAnl, LahljanI, Gllaki, TaliSi, and Tat 
(Geiger, 346-848). The Central dialects embrace GabrI, SirazI, 
Bahbahani, Sivcndl, Yazdl, Zafrahl, KaSahl, VoniSOnl, Kuhrudi, 
Nilylni, Natanzl, and KasanI (Geiger, 381-383). The Afyan 



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xii INTRODUCTION 

dialects arc tho Northom and Southern, which do not dilFor 
materially £rom each other (Geiger, 203 ; Darmcsteter, Chants pop.y 
p. iv). BalacI, the most primitive of all the New Iranian dialects, 
has two divisions, Northern and Southern (or MakranI), which 
diverge considerably. The greater portion of BalucT literature is 
in the Northern vernacular, but the Makr&nl is the more primitive 
speech* North BalQcI is divided into Lay&rl in the North and 
MarrI in the South, while Southern BalQcI comprises Eastern 
and Western sub-dialects (Qeiger, 232). The chief divisions of 
Kurdish are Ltirl, Kimi&nSahl, Guri&nl, MukrI, and Zaza (Socin, 
Grundr. der iran. Philoly I b. 249-252, cf. Justi, Kurd. Gramnu^ 
pp. xix-zxvii). The sub-groups of the Ossetish are Tagaurish or 
Irish, Ironish, in the (North-) East, Digorish or Dugorish, in the 
(North-) West, and Tualish in the South. Tagaurish, of which 
Tualish is merely a sub-dialect, is by far the most important Osse- 
tish vernacular (Htlbschmann, Etymol. und Lautl. der oss. Spr., 
11-12). The admirable summary of New Iranian by Geiger, 
Grundr. der iran. Philoly i. b. 417-423, and his language chart, 
ibid., 421, should be consulted in this connexion. Recent biblio- 
graphy on Middle and New Indo-Iranian may be gathered 
from Scherman's Orientalische Bibliographies and older literatui*e 
is collected by Pott, Techner's Zeitschnft, iL 109-115, 209-213, 
230-234, 241-248. 

I have intentionally refrained throughout my work &om foot- 
notes and references to my sources, which would have unduly 
increased tho size of the book. I have endeavoured, however, to 
work through the principal literature on my subject, and to be as 
complete as possible. For the Prakrit I had to rely mainly on 
Hemacandra (ed. Pischel, Halle, 1877-1880), Vararuci (ed. Cowell^, 
London, 1868), and the Prakrta-laksana (ed. Hoemle, Calcutta, 
1880). Lassen's InstiiiUiones linguae pracriticaej Bonn, 1837 ; 
Hoeme, Calcutta Rev., Ixxi. 311-332, and Bhandarkar, JRASBo., 
xvii. 1-48, also furnished hints. Pischel's Grammatik der PrdhriU 
SpracJien, Strassburg, 1900, did not appear until after my manu- 
script W21S in tho printer's hands. I have used it, nevertheless. 



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INTRODUCTION xiii 

in correcting mj proo^ although sometimes, for typographical 
reasons, errors in the Pr&krit, arising from too close adherence on 
my part to the native grammarians, could be checked only by a 
reference to Pischel (e.g. $§ 25, 57, 121, 184, etc.). For Ardha- 
mSgadhi I relied mainly on R MoUer's Beitrdge zur Oranmatih 
des Jainaprdkrit, Berlin, 1876 ; for Mfth&rfi^ on Jacobi's Ausge- 
tPdhUc Erjsdhlungeny Leipzig, 1886, and for the ' GkUM dialect ' on 
R Mailer, KB.y viil 257-292, and Lefinann, ZDMG.y xxix. 212- 
234. The material on the Lena dialect is drawn from Senart's 
Inscriptions de Piffodasij Paris, 1881-1886. I used for Pftli the 
grammars of R MCdler (London, 1884), Frankfurter (London, 
1883), Minayeflf (tr. Guyard, Paris, 1874) ; Kuhn's BeitrOge ewr 
Pali-Orammatikj Berlin, 1876, and articles by Mitra, JRA8Be.j 
xxiil 604-614, and Bhandarkar, JRASBo., xvL 275-818. 

For the New Indian I had, of course, the excellent, though 
somewhat antiquated. Comparative Orammar oj the Modem Aryan 
Languages of India, by Beames, London, 1872-1879 ; Hoemle's 
Comparative Grammar of the Gaudian Languages, London, 1880, 
and articles by Grierson, ZDMG., xlix, 893-421, L 1-42 ; Calcutta 
Rev., ci. 258-274, and Bhandarkar, JRASBo., xvi. 314-345, xviL 
99-182. Among my sources for individual New Indian dialects I 
may mention particularly Grierson's Seven Grammars of the Dialects 
and Suihdialects of the BiMH Language, Part I, Calcutta, 1883, 
and his papers on Ela&nlrl phonology, JRASBe., Ixv. 280-305, 
IxvL 180-184 ; Kellogg, Grammar of the Hindi Language, 
Allahabad, 1876; Trumpp, Grammar oJ the Sindhi Language, 
London, 1872 (cf. ZDMG., xv. 690-752) ; and the articles on 
Simhalese by Kuhn, Sits^. M. Ac. der Wiss., Philos.-philol d, 
1879, 399-434 (tr. D. Feigusson, lA., xiiL 53-65); R Mailer, 
lA., xi. 198-220, and Geiger, Abh. M. Ac der Wiss., I. CI., xxl 
177-273. The latter scholar's Literatur und Sprachc der Singha- 
lesen, Strassburg, 1901, and Mdldivische Studien, Sitjeib. M.Ac der 
Wiss., Philos.'iyhilol. CI, 1900, 641-684, ZDMG., Iv. 371-387, 
came in time to correct the final proof. My source for Gypsy 
phonology, a group of dialects to which I have referred but rarely, 



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XIV INTRODUCTION 

is the study bj Miklosioh in the Denkschri/ten der W. Ac. der 
Wiss.y Phil'hist. Cl.y xxx. 

The Iranian material is far less scattered For Fahlavl I relied 
mainly on the Manuel de Pehletd of de Harlez, Paris, 1880 ; Spinel's 
GrammaUk der Huevdresch^prachej Vienna, 1866 ; the edition of 
the Frahang-I Oim and the Sassanian Frahang (^ Old Zland-Fahlavi ' 
and ^ Old Pahlavi-Pazand ' glossaries) by Hoshangji and Haug, 
Bombay and London, 1867-1870 (see the excellent new edition by 
Eeichelt, WZKM.y xiv. 177-218, xv. 117-156), and the edition of 
The Book of Arda Viraf hy Haug and West, Bombay and London, 
1872-1874. Salemann's Mittdpersisch in the Gleiger-Euhn Grund- 
riss came after the final proo£9 were read. This Grundriss der 
iranischen Philologie, edited by Gbiger and Euhn, Strassburg, 
1885 to date, has been my main source for New Persian, the 
Pamir, Central, and Caspian dialects, Afy&n, BalQcI, and EurdisL 
It has been supplemented for New Persian material by Hom^s 
Neupersische Etymologies Strassburg, 1898, and Habschmann's 
Persische Sttidien, Strassburg, 1895; for Afyftn, by Trumpp's 
Grammar of {lie PaSto, London, 1873, Darmesteter, Chants popti- 
laires des Afghans^ Paris, 1888-1890, and Geiger, Abh. M. Ac 
der Wiss,, L CI., xx, 169-222 ; for BalacI, by Geiger, ibid., xix. 
107-163, 399-464, Sitzh. M. Ac. derJiViss., Philos.-phihl. a, 1889, 
65-92 ; for Kurdish, by Justi's Kurdische Grammatik, St. Peters- 
burg, 1880, and Fr. Mailer's study on the 2iaza dialect, Sitzb. W.Ac 
der Wiss., Phil-hist. CI, xlviil 227-245. The Ossotish material 
is drawn from Hdbschmann's Etymologic und Lautlehre der 
ossetisdien Sprache, Strassburg, 1887. I also consulted numerous 
other works and articles for minor points or without results. 

I follow Brugmann's Grundriss for the Indian transcription and 
the Geiger-Kuhn Grundp'iss for the Iranian, with a few additions 
and modifications, which follow. Indian : tii instead of ^ , i instead 
of i, and s for S, also r, rh, I for cerebral r, r/i, and I (2). In 
Middle and New Indian I write /!, 6 before single consonants, but 
e, before consonant-groups ; for Sindhi I add, according to the 
system of Trumpp and the Royal Asiatic Society,^, J, d, h, < uttered 



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INTRODUCTION xv 

with a certain stress in prolonging and somewhat strengthening 
the contact of the closed organ, as if one tried to double the sound 
at the beginning of a word' (Trumpp^ Grammair^ 13) ; for Siibha- 
lese, &J& have been added according to Geiger's usage, although 
I here transcribe his i}i, li by fk. Iranian: I transpose the 
functions of i and c, and of J and j, to harmonize with the Indian 
system, so that e^j denote palatals, and {, J affiricatae ; for Afy&n 
a I write a, m BalQcI i instead of f , in North BalacI ArA, cky thy pk 
instead ofk\6\ t\p\ and inOssetisho, t, c, ch^j^ 6, 6hjj instead of 
HQbschmann's dj i, tSy thi, dS^ tSy thSj cU. Socin's Kurdish tran- 
scription is conformed to the regular Iranian system and compared 
throughout with Justl 

Numerous parallels between the phonological phenomena here 
noted and sound-changes in other Indo-Germanic dialects will at 
once be perceived. Thus the syncope of g discussed in § 147 may 
be compared with the same process in Attic iytiv : Boeotian l^iv ; 
Attic SKCyos: Tarentine SkCos; laJtin Iguvium, Umbrian Ikuvinus 
beside later liouinur (c£ also § 148) ; Latin r^em ; Old French 
ret, Modem French rot (cf. Haag, Vergleichung des Prakrit mit 
den romanischen Sprachen^ Berlin, 1869 ; Brandreth, JRAS.^ NS. 
XL 287-316, xii. S85-864). Limitations of space prevented me 
from referring to such parallel phenomena in dialects outside the 
Indo-Iranian. For the same reason I abstained from any extensive 
explanations by physiological phonetics of the sound-changes which 
I have recorded, and from all discussion of inflection or syntax. 

Errors of detail, explanation, and example will undoubtedly be 
found in my Phonology, and I shall be grateful for all corrections 
and additions. If, however, my cardinal theorem holds good, 
I shall feel that the work has been not in vain. I trust that the 
book may serve, besides its main purpose, as a contribution towards 
comparative lexicography of the Middle and New Indo-Iranian 
languages, and with this object in view I have cited examples from 
as large a number of dialects as possible. Throughout my work 
I have sought to present facts rather than theories. My general 
conclusions in each chapter are summarized at its beginning (see 



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xvi INTRODUCTION 

§§ 1, 118, 460), and every paragraph is introduced by the results of 
my study of the material contained in it. The deductions gained 
from the entire book may be summarized thus : the phono- 
logical tendencies discernible as early as in the Old 
Indian and Iranian period have developed steadily, each 
on its own line, in thd Middle and New dialects, and 
through regular divergency, no less than through simi- 
larity of evolution, the tie of Indo-Iranian unity is potent 
still. 

To Professor Hopkins of Yale my thanks are due for his 
courtesy in lending me from his private library certain works of 
importance which would otherwise have been inaccessible. I am 
indebted to the excellent reader of the Oxford University Press, 
who has contributed in no small d^^ree by his care to the accuracy 
of the book. Especially do I wish to express my gratitude to my 
friend and teacher. Professor A. V. Williams Jackson, who has 
grudged neither time nor toil in his generous assistance. My 
student-life with him for guru at Columbia University, where this 
book was written, will ever be a happy memory. Well said the 
Sanskrit poet : 

ckam apy aksaratii yas tu guruh SisyS niv€dayH 
prthivydm n&sti tad dravyam yad datva sd *nrnl bhavSt. 

LOUIS H. GRAY. 



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XVII 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Afy. 


»Afy5ii. 


N. 


- North. 


Apab. 


"= Apabhraih^. 


Naip. 


« NSipSlL 


AnlhamSg. 


e ArdhamSgadhl. 


Nat. 


= Natanii. 


A88. 


a Assamese. 


Nay. 


- Nftyini. 


Av. 


= Avesta. 


nom. prop. 


s nomen proprium. 


Avant. 


= Avanil. 


0. H. G«rm. 


= Old High German. 


Bahb. 


« Bahbahfinl. 


Oaa. 


-» Ossetish. 


fial. 


= Balaci. 


PKif 


- Ki^aci. 


Bang. 


= Bangali. 


PaDg. 


-= Panjabi. 


Bulg. 


B Balgarian. 


P5a. 


-Pawind. 


Dig. 


« Digorish. 


Pen. 


- Persian. 


E. 


^East. 


Phi. 


= Pahlavi. 


Eng. 


-B English. 


Prak. 


«Priacrit. 


Gab. 


= Gabri. 


RSI 


«R<»Sni. 


GAv. 


= Gfi^-Avesta. 


^ak. 


= &k5ri. 


Gil. 


= Gllaki. 


Samn. 


» Samnanl. 


Gk. 


-Greek. 


SangL 


» Sanglicl. 


Guj. 


= Giyarati. 


Sarq. 


^ Sariqoli. 


Gyp. 


-Gypsy. 


^aur. 


« ^SurasSni. 


Ind. 


'= Indian. 


Siyn. 


= Siyni. 


Kaf. 


- Kafiri. 


Siihh. 


= Sinhalese. 


Kafi. 


= Ka§5nl. 


§Ir. 


= §irazT. 


Kaim. 


» Eaimirf. 


Siv. 


= SivendL 


Kuhr. 


= Kuhrudl. 


Skt. 


■= Sanskrit. 


Kurd. 


= Kurdish. 


Span. 


=s Spanish. 


Ut. 


= Latin. 


Tag. 


B Tagaurish. 


lexicog. 


= lexicographical. 


Kl. 


- Talish. 


Lith. 


=■ Lithuanian. 


Ur. 


-Uriya. 


MSg. 


= MSgadhl. 


V6n. 


- V5ni§Qni. 


MShfir. 


= M&hSrSs^ri. 


W. 


= West. 


Mar. 


= Maril^hi. 


Ya>n. 


= YaynSbi. 


M2U. 


» MSzandaranl. 


YAv. 


« Younger Avesta. 


Med. 


= Median. 


Yidg. 


= Yidgi. 


MiBJ. 


» Minjani. 


Zaf. 


» Zafrahi. 


MqU. 


« MultSni. 







• «» hypothetical forms. > ■= becomes. < = derived from. 

The titles of Magazines are abbreviated according to the system of the 
Orientalische BiUiographie, 

b 



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LIFE 

I, Louis Hbbbebt Gray, was born April 10, 1875, at Newark, 
New Jersey, the only child of Thomas Jefferson and his wife, 
Anna Elizabeth (n^e Earl). My father is still living, but my 
mother died in September, 1899. My early education was received 
at home and at the Newark Academy, firom which I graduated in 
1892. Entering Princeton College the same year, I received 
the degree of A.B. in 1896, and remained there a year longer 
as Fellow in Classics, devoting special attention to Sanskrit and 
Avestan, in addition to Clasacal and Germanic linguistics. Feeling 
my interest drawn entirely to Oriental languages, I entered Columbia 
University in 1897, where I have remained three years. I was 
twice appointed Fellow in Lido-Iranian and I have pursued courses 
in Sanskrit, Pali, Avestan, Old Persian, Pahlavi, New Persian, 
Armenian, Arabic, and Syriac. In 1898 I received from Columbia 
the d^ree of A.M. I am a member of the American and German 
Oriental Societies, and of the Twelfth International Congress of 
Orientalists. I have published ' The Metres of Bhartrihari,' J A OS., 
XX. 157-159 ; * Certain Parallel Developments in Pfili and New 
Persian Phonology,' ibid., 229-243; ' Indo-Iranian Studies, i.,' 
AJPkj xxi 1-22 ; * Contributions to Avestan Syntax, the Con- 
ditional Sentence,' Ann. N. Y. Acad. ScL, xii. 549-688 ; * Zur 
indogermanischen Syntax von *nA»ian,' JF., xi 807-813; *The 
Indo-Iranian Deity Ap^m Napat,' Arcli./. Religionsw.^ iii 18-51 ; 
and ' Classical Passages mentioning Zoroaster^s Name,' which forms 
the fifth Appendix of Jackson's Zoroaster ^ pp. 226-273 (New York, 
1899). I am also one of the r^^ar contributors to the Orientalische 
Bihliographie. Of my teachers my special thanks are due to 
Professors E. Y. Bobbins and J. P. Hoskins, of Princeton, and at 
Columbia to Professor R J. H. Gottheil, and Mr. Yohannan, and 
most of all to Professor A V. Williams Jackson. 



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INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 



VOWELS 

§ L Hie vowels of the Indo-Iranian period haye remained in 
general unchanged in the Middle and New Indo>Iranian dialects. 
But beeide the many instances of preservation of an original vowel, 
there are numerous examples of changes either in quantity or in 
quality, or in both. The most striking mutations will be found in 
the cases of original a and r . The reasons why these two vowels 
are especially liable to change are not far to seek. Indo-Iranian 
a = Indo-Glermanic a, e, o, & is the most simple of all the vowels. 
It represents, moreover, the so-called ^ natural vowel,' the basis of 
all articulate sounds, which lies midway between d and 6 (Sievers, 
Phonetik^, § 209). It is thus self-evident that the Indo-Iranian a 
is particularly liable to change. The changes in question are 
ordinarily due to the influence of surrounding consonants. Labials 
often colour a to f«, and sibilants colour a to i. From such 
a change of a to ti, i, a further development to d, 2, or to u, f 
may take place. 

Turning to f, it is well known that of all the Indo-Germanic 
languages only the Old Indian and the Avesta have preserved 
Indo-Oermanic r unchanged (Old Indian keeping also Indo-Gkr- 
manic f, {). Even the Old Indian has lost Indo-Germanic !, m, n, 
and the Avesta has lost these sounds with Indo-Gtermanic f, t in 
addition. In the Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects we find 
a continuation of the process already begun in the older period by 
which the sonant liquids and nasals lost their original values, and 
became coloured by the surrounding consonants. Thus Old Indian 



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2 INDO'IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

fy Aveeta pr?, became ar, a, ra, ir^ i, ri^ and the like in the Middle 
and New Indo-Iranian dialecta 

The changes of the other vowels from their values in the Indo- 
Iranian period are not without analogy to the changes of a and r, 
although they are more sporadic. Labials frequently colour i to u 
as sibilants colour u to i. The change of i, ti to a seems to be due 
to a weakening of the old value otijUto 9. 

The long vowels are subject to changes which are, generally 
speaking, analogous to those of the corresponding short vowels. 
Before two or more consonants all vowels, including also the Old 
Indian diphthongs, are to be considered short in the Middle and 
New Indian dialects. On the other hand, the simplification of 
a consonant-group is normally attended, in both the Indian and 
the Iranian dialects of the Middle and New periods, by the length- 
ening of a preceding short vowel. 

The following paragraphs will contain more precise statements 
upon these several points in their proper places. 

§ a. Indo-Iranian a is in general retained unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt bharaii * bears,' Prak. bharafj Pali bharati. 
Skt. pakva ' ripe,' Apab. Prftk. paJcJca, piJcka^ Pali pdkka, Ass. 
paM, Nsip. poky Kaiim. papi^ Ur. pakko^ Bang, paka, R Hindi 
pdkaly Hindi, Panj. pakkd, Sindhi pakd, Guj. \/pai, Vpik 
* ripen,' Mar. jpfi, pikdy Gyp. pakd. 

b. Iranian. Av. baraiti 'bears,' Old Pers. barati, Phi. barcUj 
New Pers. barad, GW>. bartmUn, Kai. bartaUj Maz. bavardan, Gil. 
bardan. Av. ctspa 'horse,' Old Pers. asa, PhL, New Pers. asp, 
WaxI yaSj Minj. i/as{a)Py My. aspa (fem.), Bal. (A)5p5, Kurd. 
haspj Dig. Oss. c^sa. 

a>i. 

§ 3. This change is not infrequent, either in the Indian or in 
the Iranian dialects. As has been noted in § 1, the change of 



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VOWELS 3 

a to i is due in many cases to the influence of a neighbouring 
sibilant 

a. Indian. In the Indian dialects a is changed to i more 
commonly in the West than in the East, so that the Sindh! 
shows the greatest number of examples of this phenomenon. 
The fondness of the Middle Indian dialects for the change 
was, on the whole, greater than that which is now shown by the 
New Indian. 

Skt pakva 'ripe/ Apab. Prfik. pakka^ pikiay Guj. Vpaky 
Vpikj Mar.plkypikdj etc. (see preceding §). Skt. at9g(ira 'coal/ 
Prsky Jfiina Prftk. iihgala, Gnj. iriigdr, ifkgdl, Mar. ifkgal, iihgdl 
Skt yatha ' how,' yatra * where,' Apab. Prak jidhAy jetthuj 
jattUy Pali yatthdj yatray Sindhi jt^i. Skt dyiUcikara 'gambler,' 
l^fik. and Mfig. Pr&k. ji«<2ia2a. Skt tom^ua ' darkness,' Pr&k. toma, 
Pali timisa. Skt pahjara ' cage,' M&g. Pr&k. pathjaUm, Fsli 
pahjara, Ur. pimjiroy Hindi jamjar, Sindhi j?infr. Skt ksamOy 
'patience,' Prfik., Pali ArAawd ' patience,' chama 'earth,' Hindi 
chimay chamay Panj. khimay Sindhi khimay Guj. khama. Skt 
varhara * goat,' Ur., Bang., Hindi bakar&y Panj. bakkarAy Sindhi 
lakird, Guj. bakardy Mar. hdkaTy Gyp. bakro. Skt *praihara 
* first,' Hindi pahaldy pdhil, Panj. pahily Guj. pShildy Sindhi 
paJuirydmy pahir{y)dm. Skt prdhara ' watch,' Prftk. paharUy 
Panj.|?aAtr, other New Ind. dialects jpaAar. 

b. Iranian. Av. atarS * fire,' PhL fitof, New Pers. {a)ta&y &ti5y 
§iy. yacy Sarq. yuiy Gab. taSy Minj. yuTy N. Bal. aCy Kurd, agify 
fir, &ry Zaza ctdir. Av. ydkard * liver,' PhL ^afeir, yakaty New 
Pers. jtjfar, Bal. jagaty N. BaL Jayar, Kurd, jarky Dig. Oss. 
igfar. Av. saia ' hundred,' New Pers. sady Afy. 5al, ^il, Kurd. 
sady Oss. sa(2t». Av. jpairi * around,' Old Pers. pariyy PhL, New 
Pers. pary BaL pir (cf. Siihh. jptrf). Av. jaini * woman,' PhL, 
New Pers. eaUy §iy. yin, Sarq. yfn, iin, Minj. iini^a. Gab. ja«, 
Kuhr. ian, ^'in, Zaf. Sany Afy. Jtnaf, jOnaf, Bal. jatty Kurd, ian, 
iin, Zaza jan. Av. anya ' other,' Old Pers. aniyay Paz. Aa*?, 
archaic New Pers. hdn, Oss. inna. 



B 2 



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INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 



a>U. 



§ 4. The change of a to u in the Middle and New Indo-Iranian 
dialects is a veiy frequent one. It has been noted in § 1 that 
a labial often colours an original a to u. 

a. Indian. As the change of a to i is more common in the 
western Indian dialects than in the eastern (see § 3, a), so the 
change of a to u is more frequent in tiie eastern dialects of 
India than in the western, and as a becomes i in Sindhi, Gujar&tl 
and Mar&|hl, so a becomes u most often of all in Uriya and 
Bangftll. 

Skt prathama ^ first/ Prsk. paihutna, pudhumay pudhamaj 
padhamaj P&li pathama. Skt prthoktva 'peculiarity/ Jaina 
Prftk. puhutta, Skt. manusa 'man/ Prfik. (inscriptions of 
Dhauli) munisa^ manusa. Skt. pahcavimSaii 'twenty-five/ 
Pali pannuvHsati. Skt. karkcUika 'cucumber/ Ur. kdrnkuri^ 
Bang, kdfhkury Hindi kakarl. Skt. mudgara * club/ Prftk., Pali 
moffgaraj Ur. mdgardj Bang, mugur, Hindi mUgara^ mdgaray 
Sindhi muhirdy Guj., Mar. mOgar. Skt. aiogulika ' finger/ Apab. 
Prak. amguliUj Pali amgidikdy Naip. aumld, Biharl amguriy Hindi 
ufhgaliy amguUy Panj. umgull. Skt., Pali dhanu 'bow,' Simh. 
dunu. Skt. mandrama 'delightful,' Simh. ^manurama-ka > 
nianumaraka ' grandson,' New Simh. munuburd. Skt. samudra 
' sea,' Prak. samuddaj samudra, Pali samudda, Simh. ^hamuda 
> *mahuda > muhuda. 

b. Iranian. Av. vand ' tree,' Phi. van, New Pers. bun, KaS. 
bana, Afy. vana^ Bal. gvan, Dig. Oss. bun. Tag. bin. Phi. x^aiai 
' God,' New Pers. xudAi, §iy., Sarq. quddy Kurd, aroife, xud€. 
Av. Savaite ' goes,' Old Pers. aiiyavam, New Pers. ^amrf, Afy. 
sval, Bal. Itite, N. Bal. Subd, SuOd, Kurd. cFaw, Oss. cailn. Av. 
caOward ' four,' PhL caAdr, Paz. ct^r, New Pers. cdhary WaxI 
cafewr, &»&ftr, Siy. iavor, cavar, Sarq. &rtir, 6avory Sangl. sa/bry 
Afy. ftitor, Kurd. (Sihna) cavdr. Dig. Oss. cupihphary Tag. ciphphar. 
Av. iwwu ' cattle,' Waxi jpM5, Afy. psa, BaL jpcw, N. BaL phaSy 
Kurd. i?a£r, Dig. Oss. fus. Tag. ;k. Av. •x^'an ' call,' PhL 



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VOWELS 5 

x'^awtanoy New Pers. x^dndan^ Wftxl Tcandam^ Siy. sandam^ 
Sarq. Mndam, Bal. t^na^, N. BaL vanay^ Kurd. ^*^diM2tn, xHndifiy 
Oss. :rf«ndf. Av. far5na 'thirst,' PhL tiSn, tiSnak{ih)y New Pera 
/«, §iy. te5wa(^I), Sarq. ^ar(f), Gab. taSnOj Yidg. <rtiina, Afy. 
iaiaiy Bal. tunnagy tUnag. 

a>&. 

§ 6. The change of a to d in the Middle and New Indo-Iraniaa 
dialects is due in the great majority of instances to compensatory 
lengthening, as noted in § 1. Sporadic cases of inoirganic length- 
ening of an original a are not infrequent. 

a. Indian. In the New Indian dialects Bangftll prefers the 
long vowel by compensatoiy lengthening before a simplified 
consonant-group, while Panjfibi and Sindhi show short vowels, 
the Panjabl having a repeated consonant and the Sindhi a single 
one. Hindi stands midway between the two extremes in this 
r^ard. The Braj dialect of Hindi is especially fond of changing 
a to d, and it is followed here by its sister dialects, the Mftr- 
wfirl, MaiwSrI, and Kan&ujI. In Marfifhl the root-vowel of the 
infinitive is frequently lengthened. 

Skt. samrddhi * prosperity,' Prftk. sdmiddhiy Pftli samiddhi. 
Skt. sarsapa * mustard,' Jaina Prfik. sd^aw, Pftli sQsapa. Skt. 
spariana ' touch,' Prftk. pluisay Pfili ptiassa. Skt. pradaksina 
' pertaining to the right hand,' Gfithft pradaksina, Skt. pahva 
* ripe,' Naip. poky Bang. paMy R Hindi pikaly etc. (see § 2). 
Skt. vatsa * calf^' Prftk., Pali vacchay Ass. hOcru (pron. hasrn)y 
Ka&n. wH6y Ur. hachutiy Bang, vdxchdy b&cc&y £. Hindi bdchy 
Hindi hachafU, bacharay Panj. bacc&y Sindhi McOy Guj. baccdy Mar. 
hacreihy vOsrum. Skt. khafvd 'bedstead,' Prftk. khattCty Ur. khafUy 
Bang. khat{ala)y Hindi khai, Panj. khatty Sindhi khafy Guj., Mar. 
kh(U. Skt, Pali kacchapa ' tortoise,' Ur. kachimay Bang, kdchimay 
Hindi, Panj. kachUdy Sindhi kachUm. Skt calafia * course,' Ur. 
calibdy Braj cHandwhy Hindi calandy Mar. calan^. Skt. satya 
^ true,' Prak., Pali saccay Ur., Bang. sa4:d,y Braj safkCy Hindi saCy 
Panj. sacCy Sindhi sac^y Ghij., Mar. sac. Skt fMgna < naked,' 



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6 INDO-IRANIAK PHONOLOGY 

Prdk., P&li naggaj Ur. namgaldy Bang. n&M&j Hindi namgdf 
E Panj. naf9gd^ W. Panj. n(lf9gd, Sindhi naihgd, Guj. ndguniy 
Mar. namg&f nciggSL, 

b. Iranian. Skt. noA^Aa 'finger-nail,' Phi., New Pers. iiaxuny 
My. nUky BaL ndkun^ nahutiy Kurd, nainuk. Skt. j^aru^ ' last 
year/ New Pers. j)ar, WaxI pard^ Sarq. parvuSy Afy. pards, Bal. 
jparf, N. BaL pMrly Dig. Oss. /ara, Tag. faron. Av. luusanra 
' thousand/ PhL, New Pers. Ao^dr, WaxI AojerOr, Sarq. /io^'^r, 
Afy. £rar, Kurd, hazar. Av. ^^^ra * dark/ Phi., New Pers. tar, 
Minj. tar&vij Afy. ^^, Dig. Oss. thalingay Tag. ihaling. Av. 
ra/in ' snow/ PhL t^i^/r, New Pers. barf, Gab., Kfifi., Mftz., Gil. 
varfj Afy. t^tra. Av. mardta * man,' Old Pers. martiya. Phi. 
marf, New Pers. mard. Gab. mdr(2, Siv. wlrd, BaL niar, Kurd, 
mfr, m^*-. Phi. lap * lip,' New Pers. lah, WaxI, Sang. ?at?, Gab. 
lav. Av. 5ar9to * cold,' PhL sart. New Pers. sard, WaxI «ir(f), 
Gab. 5ar/, Afy. sdr, Bal. sard, N. BaL sdrth, Kurd. 5dr, Tag. Oss. 
mid. Av. cwpa * horse,' Old Pers. a^a, Bal. (fi^ps, etc. (see § 2). 
Av. paScat * afterward,' Old Pers. pasa, Phi. 2>cwl?«), New Pers. 
2pas, Kuhr. 2^05, l?a^, KaS. pac, BaL jpa5, Kurd. paSva, paSl, Dig. 
Oss. fastaga, Tag. fastag. Skt. Sva^rtl * mother-in-law,' New 
Pers. a:M^i<, ;rM5e?, WaxI, Siy. jca^, KaS. xasrti, Afy. x^aSa, Bal. 
t*as50, t;assl, vasse, Kurd. :cosJ, ;ra55M, xasreZ. 

a >f. 

§ 6. This change is a very rare one. 

b. Iranian. Av. jaini * woman,' Sarq. yln, Hn, etc. (see § 3). 

a > t7. 

§ 7. This change is closely akin to the one described in the 
preceding paragrapL 

a. Indian. Skt. vatsa * calf,' Ka^m. vm, etc. (see § 5). 

b. Iranian. Av. jaini * woman/ Afy. jinai, jUnal, etc. (see 
$ 3). Av. tarbui * thirst,' BaL tunnag, tunag, etc. (see § 4). 
Av. maibyqna * middle,' Phi., New Pers. miydn, WaxI malung. 



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VOWELS 7 

§iy. maibdnaj Sarq. m^, SangL mlda^ My. mla. Dig. Oss. mSdag^ 
Tag. mfdd^. New Pen. namak ' salt/ Siy. Sir. nfmtit 

a >l. 

§ 8. This change is of comparatively rare occurrence. It is due 
very frequently to the palatalizing influence of a neighbouring y, 

a. Indian. In the Middle and New Indian dialects e is long 
only before single consonants : before a consonant-group it is 
to be considered short Of the New Indian dialects Panj&bl 
and Gigar&tl show the greatest number of examples of the 
change of a to ?. The intermediate step of the change from 
a to 6 is shown by the change of a to A in Siihhalese, or by the 
Marfi^hl di developed from Indian a (the reverse of the Panjfibi 
change of Old Indian di to a). 

Skt. aicarya * wonderful/ Prftk. acch^a^ acchariaj acchaara, 
ctccharijjaj Pali acclharia, acch&ra, Hindi, Panj., Sindhi acaraj. 
Skt. Sayya * bed,' Prfik. sejja, Pali seyydj Hindi sej^ Mar. S^j. 
Skt. trayodaia 'thirteen,' Prftk. teraha, Pfili tBdasUy t&rasa^ tilasa, 
Kaiim. truvdh^ Ur., Bang, tefahaf Bihftrl, Hindi femA, W. Hindi 
t&ray Panj. tCram^ Sindhi t&raham^ Guj. f^r, Mar. t^ray Sithh. 
teles, Skt phalgu * empty,' Pali pheggu. Skt sandhi * buiglar's 
mine,' Prftk., Pali sandhij Ass. sindhiy Ea&n. satiy Ur., Bang. 
sindh, E. Hindi s&iihj Hindi simdhy Panj. sannh, Sindhi semdhiy 
Mult, sandh. Skt laharl 'wave/ Hindi lahar^ Panj. lahir^ Guj. 
Idh^. Skt badhira ' deaf,' Prftk. bahiray Hindi, Panj. bahira, 
Guj. beJiBTy Siifah. bihira. Skt kapdta * door,' Pali kavata, Ur., 
Bang, kab&tay Bihar. k^vQr{a)j Hindi, Panj., Mar. kav&d. 

Skt asii 'eight,' Prftk., Pali attha, Ka&n., Ur., Bihftrl, Hindi 
athy Panj. a«A, Sindlil o/A, Guj., Mar. df/t, Simh. dta. Skt 
madhya ' middle,' Prak., Pali niajjhay Ass. imf;, Easm. mam^, 
Ur. tnajhij Bang. majA, Hindi majhi, mdfhjhj mamh, Panj. m&mjhj 
mqjjhf Sindhi mamjhi, Mar. md/A, Siifth. mdcJa, inscriptions 
mdnda. Skt, Prftk. ^'ana ' person,' Siihh. dena, dana. 

Skt vaf9gana 'egg-plant,' Ur. bdigu^ Bang, b^un, Hindi 



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8 INDMBANJAN PHONOLOOY 

bdimgany Panj. baihafh^ Mar. bdithgan. Skt. saptaccOvarifhSat 
'forty-seven/ EaiSm. satatdjihj Ur. satcdliSay Bang. ScUcaliSy 
Bihar., Hindi sdimtalis, Panj. ^am/flft, Sindhl satmilh, Guj. 
sUdtdttSj Mar. saiUedlls. 

b. Iranian. The change of Indo-Iranian a to e is veiy rare in 
the Iranian dialects, excepting in the Kurdish. In the Zaza 
dialect of the Kurdish the Iranian a is often pronounced di. 

Sanm. dH verbal prefix, Moz. do, GiL da, dfi, de, Afy. da, 
Kurd, d^, do, Oss. dr. Av. v/iar^^ * drag,' Phi. kaSltand, Afy. 
*5aZ, Bal. Jca§ag, N. BaL kltaSay, Kurd. A^5a», Mdn. Old Pers. 
fnartiya *man,' Kurd, wtr, w^, etc. (see § 5). Av. xSvaSti 

* sixty,' New Pers. Sa§ty Sast, Afy. §p€taj Kurd. &i5f. Av. tarSti 

* flight,' Afy. f«to. Av. afaf9har ' sister,' Phi., New Pers. x^'ahar. 
Wftxl a^ui, Sarq. ycu^, SangL ia:^ra, Minj. yaaivay Afy. a:^, BaL 
ffvahdr, Kurd. a:cJA, :rt?7ia, Zaza rat, Oss. xora. Av. aite ' eight,' 
PhL (h)aSt, New Pers. haSt, Wfixl *d^, Ao^, Siy. vaSt, Sarq. wa:^, 
BoS. 7m£^, SangL hdtj Minj. o^^, Yayn. uxs, Afy. oto, Zaza 
Aaiif^, Oss. asth. 

a>o. 

§> 9. This change, like the preceding one, is not of frequent 
occurrence either in the Indian or in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. It is well known that the common pronimciation 
of an original a approaches 6 in Assamese, Uriya, and Bangftll. 
The change of a to o is most common in Uriya and Bang&ll, 
and in Siihhalese it often occurs near I developed from a cerebral 
or dental. 

Skt badura * jujube tree,* Prftk. vdra, Pfili badara, Ur. bara 
(pron. bdrd)j Bang. 6alr, Hindi, Panj. ftfltr, 6^r, Sindhl bSru^ 
b^'i, Guj., Mar. bdr. Skt. sammarsa ' confusion,' Pali sammdsa. 
Skt. varlcara *goat,' Mar. bfikar, etc. (see § 3). Skt SmaSru 
' moustache,' Prak nidsu, massu, inanisu, Psli massu, As& mdc, 
Ur., Bang., Bihar, mdmchj Hindi mUchj Panj. macchy Sindhl 
mtichj Guj. much Skt. caksu * eye,' Prfik., Pali cakkhu^ Bang. 
cdkhj caukh. Skt cahcu 'beak,' Bang. cOmfhay Hindi, Mar. 



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VOWELS 9 

edmc Skt ikodaia 'eleven,' PrftL &iraha^ F&li ekadasayKsAn. 
kahj Ur., Bang, igdra, R Hindi Igyarah^ Hindi igarahj gydrdhy 
Panj. giOraihf Sindhi iX^ro^m, yaraham^ 6uj. o^iar. Mar. 
a*am. Skti)ffA(i>J* earth,' PrtJc.jHi^Aarf,iM4*a(t;)l,PfiUi^ 
pathatHj Old Hindi jmAiimt, Siihh. polava. 

b. Iranian. Av. modu ' mead,' PhL, New Pers. mai, Kurd. 
mOt^ Osa mud^ mui Av. asm 'tear,' PhL, New Pera ars, 
Kfi8. a4 Mfiz. flwr, Afy. (J&i, BaL ab. Av. panca 'five,' Phi. 
jHinc, New Pere. panj, Wfol pam, §iy., Sarq. pins, SangL |>d»ur, 
Minj. panCj Yidg. |>dnj, Samn. imn^, Afy. pinja, Kurd, jwtty, 
l>^j, Oss. /onj. Skt Vcfam 'tame,' New Pers. ddm 'domeotic 
animal,' Oss. domun ' to tame.' 

a> au. 

§ 10. This change is excessively rare both in the Indian and in 
the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt caksu 'eye,' Bang. cOkhy cCtukhy etc. (see 
preceding §, a). 

b. Iranian. Av. pa4sata ' cooked,' PhL puxtand. New Pers. 
puxtan, Wfixl p6cam, Gab. paxtmHn, Kfifi. pat&t, Mfiz. j>a:rto, 
Afy. paxavtd, BaL i?acac^, N. BaL phaSay, Kurd. j)a^in, Zaza 
paujana, Oss. ^cm». 

Aphaeresis of a. 

§ IL The loss of an initial a in the Middle and New Indo- 
Iranian dialects is not uncommon. 

a. Indian. Aphaeresis of a in the Indian dialects is especially 
frequent when the initial vowel is unaccented and is followed by 
an accented syllable. 

Skt alafokara 'adornment,' PrSk. alafhMrOj dUnMcia, Pfili 
lawMra, Elu lahxra. Skt adhas 'below,' Prsk. hettha, Pfili 
heliha, Ur., Bang. MhOj Sindhi MM, Guj. hetM, Mar. A^. Skt 
avatrana 'rescue,' Ur. bacaibd, Bang. bOcdn, Hindi baedri^na. 
Mar. vacavin&h. Skt aranya 'forest,' Mahfir. PrSk. nmna, 
Sftur. Prak. aranna, Pftli oraikna. Old Hindi raihj, Hindi ran, 



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10 INDMRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Sindhi rihy rinu^ Guj., Mar. ran, Siifih. rana. Skt. amdtya 
'miniflter,' Prfik., Pali amaccay Suhh. mdti. Skt., Pftli atasl 
' linseed/ Eafau alii, Ur. tM, Bang, ^iif, Hindi O^ alsJ. Skt. 
o^^A^a 'sort of tree/ Prftk. o^to, Pftli asOka, Sizhh. A^. Skt. 
anurdga *love/ Prftk. anuria, Siihh. nurd, Skt at^a * ditch,' 
Sidik vaUi. 

b. Iranian. In New Persian it is a law that initial a before 
a single consonant is dropped. 

Av. anguSta 'finger/ PhL angust, New Pers. anguSt, Waxl 
yanglj §iy. angaSt, Sarq. ungaxt, SangL in^iY, Minj. angar, Siv. 
(^{15, Von. un^u^, Mftz. angus, Afy. ^t^, Osa angursth, cf. also 
New Pers. anguStar * ring/ Kurd, jfti^^ir. Av. asanga * stone/ 
Old Pers. aOqgahia, PhL, New Pers. sang. Av., Old Pers. 
(wda 'knowledge,' Afy. zda, Av. ap<js 'open,* PhL apdc, apaj, 
Pfiz. auaS, awOJg, New Pers. fca^^, Wfixl vdUg, Sarq. velflr, BaL pac, 
Kurd. mJf. Av. ahmdka 'ours/ Old Pers. amd2:am 'of us,' 
Pfiz. €md, New Pers. ma, Osa wuu:. Av. apardndyu ' boy,' Phi. 
apumdyak, New Pers. bumd, bamd, Afy. i?^r. Av., Old Pers. 
o^mau ' heaven,' PliL, New Pers. dsmdn, Gab. asbdn, Mftz. ^ama, 
Bal. dsmdn, N. BaL aSnxdn. 

Syncope of a. 

§ 12. The syncope of internal a is found occasionally both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Sjrncope of Indo-Iranian a is quite rare in the 
New Indian dialects, and it is rarer still in the Middle Indian 
period. Entire syncope of an original a is often preceded by 
the weakening of a to the so-called 'neutral vowel' 9, in case a is 
unaccented but is preceded or followed by an accented syllable. 

Skt. pugaphala * areca-nut,' Prftk. popphala < *pugphala, Guj. 
pdphaly Mar. pdplwl. Skt. jdgarati 'watches,' Prftk. jaggai, Pftli 
jaggati, Ur. jagand, Bangjdgite, Sindbljdganuj Gujjdgarum, Mar. 
jdgan&n. Skt. durbala 'weak,' Prftk., Pftli duhbala, Bang, dubld, 
Bihftrl dubard, dObar, Hindi dubld, Sindhi dubirO, rabaloy Guj. 



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VOWELS 11 

dubd!{a),MBT.dubal Ski cdmara 'fly-whisk,' PidL., Pali cdmora, 
Bang, camrdy Hindi cAufhri, Mar. cdmar, odurf^Anglo-IncL chowry. 

b. Iranian. Syncope of Indo-Iranian a is more common in 
the Iranian than in the Indian dialecta 

Av. yaeaianqin *of the angels,' PhL yaetdn^ yazdan. New 
Pers. yaedan * Grod/ Av. paBana * broad/ PhL pahn(dL% My. 
plan, Bal. patan, Kurd, pan, OBa.fathan. Av. axSaSna 'blue/ 
PhL, New Pers. xaSln, Afy. Sin but fem. Sna, Kurd. (Aa)ftn, Oss. 
(ixsinag. Av. nanuiA ' homage,' PhL namOc, Paz. namOS, New 
Pers. «awa.e, Afy. nmun;, BaL namOS, nava§, Kurd. niwf(i), 
wawtll, namei. Av. vl^aitt ' twenty,' PhL iHst, New Pers. 6fe^, 
KaS. vista, tis(8a), Afy. rijff, BaL gist. 

Apocope of a. 

§ 13. The apocope of Indo-Iranian a is a veiy frequent phe- 
nomenon in the New Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. The Middle Indian dialects retain the final a un- 
changed. In the New Indian the final a of the Old and Middle 
Indian dialects is dropped unless it bears the accent. If final 
a is accented it is lengthened in Hindi. In Ur. and Bang, on 
the other hand final a is often pronoimced. 

Skt. mudgara ' club,' Prak., Pali moggara, Ur. mdgarO, Bang. 
mugura, Hindi mUgard, nidgarO, Sindhi tnuhird, Guj., Mar. mdgar. 
8kt. satya * true,' Prak., Pali sacca, Ur., Bang, sacd, Braj sdthc, 
Hindi sac, Panj. sacc, Sindhi s(icd, Guj., Mar. sac. Skt. trayddaia 
' thirteen,' Prak. t&raha, Pali tsdasa, t&rasa, tdasa, Kasm. truvoh, 
Ur., Bang, t^aha, Bihfirl, Hindi t&rah, W. Hindi tdra, Panj. 
t&rani, Sindhi teraliam, Guj. t&r, Mar. <^d, Siihh. teles. 

b. Iranian. The Middle Iranian dialects, unlike the Middle 
Indian, do not retain original final a. The New Iranian dialects 
follow the Middle Iranian in this r^ard, but the Digaurian 
Ossetish often retains the final a imchanged. 

Av. dar^ya 'long,' Old Pers. darga. Phi. darg. My. larya, 
Kurd., Oss. darg. Old Pers. tigra ' sharp/ Phi. t€j, Paz. tii, 



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12 INDO-TRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

New Pers. ftUr, Wftxl tis^ Sarq. talZy Kurd. ilf{l). Av. ^ar^^a 
'year/ PhL, New Fere. s(U, Dig. Osa sarda, Tag. sard Av. 
dasa ' ten/ PhL r&z/tum ' tenth,' New Pers. dah * ten,' Wftxl has. 
las, Siy. blSj USy Sarq. 5a9, SangL, Yayn. dcLS, Afy. 2a^, Oss. das, 

Prothesis of a. 
§ 14. Prothesis of a is not found in the Middle period either of 
the Indian or of the Iranian dialects. In New Indian the collo- 
quial Hindi prefixes a to words beginning with a consonant-group 
whose first member is s. In the New Persian prothesis is one of 
the most common phenomena, since in that language no word may 
begin with a consonant-group. Prothesis of a is also quite common 
in BalQcL 

a. Indian. Skt. sndna ^ bath,' colloquial Hindi a^sndn. Skt. 
sthdna 'place,' colloquial Hindi asthdn. Skt. stri 'woman/ 
colloquial Hindi asM or istrl (see below, § 86). 

This prothesis is also found in foreign loan-words, such as 
Eng. sclwoly colloquial Hindi askiH, ishll. 

b. Iranian. Av. brvat *brow,' PhL brUy New Pers. abf% 
Wftxl varao, §iy. vrtiy, Sarq. vara^j SangL vurij, Qsb. bum, 
Afy. vrUja, Bal. burvdn, 6/rran, Kurd, burtl, fcurl. Dig. Oss. 
arfukj Tag. arfig. Av. stdrg 'star,' Phi. stdrak. New Pery. 
sitarah, My, storai, BaL astdr, istar, Kurd, istirk, Oss. stali 
Av., Old Pers. hrdtar ' brother,* PhL hr(Uar, New Pers. birOdar, 
Wftxl vrUt, Siy. vrod, virOd, Sarq. vrOd, Afy. vror, Bal. haf, 
Kurd, bard, Dig. Oss. arvOda, Tag. arvOd. 



§ 16. Indo-Iranian d is generally retained unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects of all periods. 

a. Indian. Skt dhdrayati 'holds,' Pali dhdrSti. Skt. 
vydghra 'tiger,' Prftk. vaggha, Pali vyagglui, Hindi bdgh, Sindhi 
vdghu, 

b. Iranian. Av. vdi^i ' canal,' Wftxl vdZ, §iy. v^, Sarq. vdJb. 



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VOWELS 18 

Av. pdia * fooV PhL paij New Pera pdij Wftxl pM, Siy. J?a^, 
SangLjpiu^ Ofl. p6,TsA, pd, BaLpOdjN. Bsl. phOd, phd0. Av. 
giUu 'place,' Old Pen. gaOUy Phi. gOSj New Pera jjrdA, Afy. 
ydlat. Av. aAmdJta 'oura/ Old Pen. amOxam 'of ub,' New 
PercLy Kurd md, Oss. tnax. 

a > a. 

§ 16. 13ie shortening of an original d is the most frequent 
change of all those to which this sound is subject, whether in the 
Indian or in the Iranian dialecta It is well known that the 
doubling of an original single consonant or the retention of an 
original consonant-group causes a preceding long vowel to become 
short in the Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. Beside the 
regular shortening of original d imder the conditions just described 
there are nmnerous instances of sporadic shortening of original d. 

a. Indian. Skt. vydghra ' tiger/ Pr&k. vaggha, Pfili vyaggha, 
Hindi Mgh^ Sindhi vQgh. Skt mdrgaSira ' November^Decem- 
ber/ Apab. PrSk. maggasirUy P&li mOgasiray maggcisira. Skt. 
upctsthapiiva 'having established," Gsthft upasthapitva. Ski 
devalaya ' temple/ Ur. dSula, Bang., Hindi devalj Panj. dSvdldy 
Sindhi devallj Ouj. d^val, Mar. devalj diUl, Skt mdrga ' road,' 
Apab. Prak. maggUj Pali magga^ Hindi mag^ mamgdy Sindhi 
m&gu, other New Ind. dialects mdg. Skt mah&rgha 'costly,' 
Pfili mahagghay Ass. maliaiihgay N&ip. mahamgdy R Hindi, Hindi 
mahamgdy Panj. niahifhgdy Sindhi tnahathgdy Guj. mlhhghuihy 
Mar. mahag. Skt kkadati 'eats,' Pr&k. kMly P&li khodatiy 
N&ip. Tchail^ilky Ea&n. Tihyufiy Ur. khandy Bang. X:toi^,. Sindhi 
khdinUy Guj. khdvufhy Mar. khdn^y Sixhh. kanavdy Gyp. cha. 
Skt bhdgineya 'sister's son/ M&hftr. Prak. bhdginejjay Pfili 
bhagineyyay Siihh. MAiXnd^ Mn^ Skt j^dnta ' village,' PrSk., 
Pali gamay Ur., Bang, jfdm, Hindi jrdmv, Sindhi ^dmti, gd{m)Uy 
Guj. ^am, Mar. jfdwt;, Siihh. gdmiy Gyp. jfat;. 

b. Iranian. Av. kahrkdsa 'vulture,' PhL kahrkOSy kargdSy 
New Pera kargas. Av. ydna 'path,' New Pers. ydn, Afy. y«». 



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14 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOOT 

Skt Idjpaia *fox,' PhL rl^Os, rObOSj New Pers. rdboh, Sarq. 
rap6^ KisS. r&vOs, TsL rvds, N. Bal. rophaskj Kurd rHvi, Dig. 
Oss. robaSy Tag. rflftcw. Skt a6/*a ^ glory ' + tapa 'heat,' New 
Pers. aftdb ' sun,' §iy., Sarq. q/feit;, Kurd. (Uafj So (w:«lt?, a/a/*, 
adar, Bohtan tdv. Av. ^pdda *army,' PhL spah^ New Pers. 
5ipdA, Dig. Oss. afsady Tag. a/^oA PhL, New Pera Grd * meal.' 
Gasp, dialects or, Nfty. ar, Af y. dra. 

a > t . 
§ 17. The change of d to t occxirs very rarely. 

b, Iranian. Skt UpOia * fox,' Kurd, ritoi^ etc. (see preceding 
§). PhL, New Pers. darman 'medicine,' §iy., Sarq. damtln. 
Old Pers. am&naya ' remained,' PhL, Pftz., New Pers. niandan, 
Kurd, minim ' I remain.' 

a> u. 
§ 18. The change of d to u is excessively rare in the Middle 
and New Indian dialects. In the New Persian and its dialects as 
well as in niunerous sporadic instances in the other Iranian dialects 
n, is changed to H before m and n, as (^ is changed to f under the 
same circumstances (see § 89). 

a. Indian. Skt karpdsa 'cotton,' Ur. JcapH, Bang. kQpoH, 
Hindi kapdSj Panj. Icapah, Sindhi kapdhj Guj., Mar. kdpus, 
Siihli. Jcapu. Skt sdsftd ' paunch,' Prfik. sunlid. 

b. Iranian. Av. zdnu * knee,' Phi. ^dnUk, New Pers. zamh 
Wsal jsan^ Sarq. ^tln, SangL eongj Judaeo-Pers. ziinl, zani, Af y. 
zangum, BaL £&n, Kurd. zdna. Av. rfina ' thigh,' Phi., New 
Pers. rdUj §iy. rtin, Afy. T;rfiw. Phi. yam>ak, jdniak ' robe,' New 
Pera jdmah, Nay. ySww, Kurd, ytlma. Av. cadtcdrO 'four,' 
Phi., New Pers. caA^?r, WaxI cahur, Siy. caror, carar, Sarq. 
cavur, cavory SangL 5a/wr, Minj. cafir^ Yidg. cir, Afy. catot-. 
Kurd. (Sihna) cavdr, Dig. Oss. cuphphar^ Tag. 6ipJiphar. Av. 
t^rdsaiti 'fears,' Old Pers. tarsatiy, PhL farsltandy New Pers. 
farsfln ' cowardly,' BaL /rM5a^, N. Bal. tursay^ Kurd, iarsunaL 
Oss. tharsufk 



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VOWELS 15 

a> I 

§ 19. The change of d to ^ is one of exoessiye rarity both in the 
Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. In Assamese and colloquial Bangfill the change 
of d to e is not infrequent 

Skt. nUUra ' measure/ Prfik. mettaj Psli matta. Skt. siMpayati 
'establishes,' Mar. thevanCfh. Skt. did 'hope,' Mahfir. PrSk. 
asa. Ass. €sa, asO. Skt rOhi ' night,' Pr&k. ratti^ rdl, P&li ratfij 
Ur., Bang., Bihar. rQt(i)j Hindi rOt, Panj. raU, rOi^ Sindhi rOtiy 
Guj., Mar. rdf, Suhh. rS, raya. Skt, P&li dl6ka ' appearance,' 
Siihh. eliyaj alu. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. tilv ' strength,' beside UXv. PhL t;^f * 
* market-place,' New Pers. ftOrflr, Gab. ryOr, Efii. 6(;i^, t>5;(;r, 
KiuxL hdz&Ty Eng. loan-word bcbeoar. 

§ 20, The change of d to ^ seems not to be found in the Indian 
dialects. In the Iranian dialects, on the other hand, it is not 
infrequent The change is especially frequent in MfizandarftnT 
and l^sh, and in Afyftn a regularly becomes ^, excepting before 
nasals, where the change is to ti (cf. § 18 above). It is also to be 
noted that in New Persian itself the pronunciation of d often 
tends to approach the value of o, 

b. Iranian. Av. vGia * wind,' Phi. t;^. New Pers. tod. Gab. 
rdrf, Siv. vai, Zaf. t75, KfiS. vdij V6n., Kuhr., Nfiy. vddy Nat. t?dd, 
Mfiz. vd, Tat vdr, Afy. w, Bal. gvOty N. BaL gvOOj gvOs, Kurd, 
id, vdij Tag. Oss. vOcL New Pers. (dialectic) mdng ' moon,' Gab. 
mam, Maz. iMtJwflf, GiL indw, TaL mlhigy Tst mang, Kurd, mang, 
Av. Sp *wator,' PhL ap^ Paz. du?, New Pers. dfc, dv, WaxI 
yopai-, yuplcy Minj. yooya, Yidg. yovy, Yayn. op. Gab. ^, Siv. aw, 
av, Yazdi v5, Kafi. dv. Nay. d5, Nat. au, Samn. 5, Maz. (J(u), GiL, 
Tal., Tat en;, Afy. Cte, Bal. dp, N. Bal. d/, Kurd. av. Av. 
nqman 'name,' Old Pers. nOman, PhL, New Pers. ndm, WaxI 



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16 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOOT 

nung^ Msz. nUtmj OiL tOm^ My. n^lm^ BaL niJm^ Dig. Osa mm, 
Tag. nom. 

Aphaeresis oj d. 
§ 2L The aphaeresis of A is not imcommon in the Iranian 
dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. (UarS 'fire/ New Pers. (UaS, taS, dtiiy Siy. 
yaS, Sarq. ytsS, Grab. ta§j Minj. yttr^ etc. (see § 8). Av. Oyapta 
'reward,' PhL (a)yQftany New Pers. yd/ten, Dig. Oss. ydfun, 
Tag. yd/Jn. 

Apocope of (I. 
§ 22. The apocope of original d is similar to the apocope of the 
corresponding short vowel (see § 13, a). 

a. Indian. Ski, Prftk., Pfili cMya 'shadow/ Hindi cha»h(v), 
chatiihj chnd}hj Panj. chOm, chdUfh, Sindhi chaih{v), Guj. chAfhy. 
Skt. nidra * sleep/ Prfik., Pali niddd, Hindi, Panj. nimd, Sindhi 
nimr, Guj. nirndd. Mar. nid. Skt. dUrva 'grass,' Pali dubbd, 
Ur., Bang. (Jti&a, Hindi dUb. 

Anaptyxis of 0. 
§ 23. The anaptjnds of d is an excessively rare phenomenon. 

b. Iranian. Av. mat-patifrasa ' with recompense,' PhL pat* 
Jras, Paz. padafrOhy New Pers. pOdOfrah, pddafrah. 



§ 24. Indo-Iranian i is generally retained unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Skt iva * as/ Prak. via, Pali iva. Skt. vidyut ' h'ghtning/ 
Prak, Pali vijju, Ur. 6yMK, Bang., Hindi, Panj. hijali, Sindhi 
vijum, Guj. vijuUj Mar. 6i;aft, vlj, 

b. Iranian. Av., Old Pers. pitar * father,' Phi. pit{ar)j New 
Pera |>wtor, Ka5. paX, §iy., Sarq. |)id. Av. cit ' what,' Old Pers. 
ciy, Paz., New Pers. ci&, Afy. ca, Kurd, cl, ca, c^. Dig. Oss. ci, 
^i, Tag. ci. Av. t%a ' brick,' Phi., New Pere. xiSt, BaL iSt, it 



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TOWELS 17 



f >«. 



§ 25. The change of i to a is qmte common both in the 
Indian and in the Iranian dialects. In Indian the phenomenon 
occurs moBt frequently in Panjfibl, Sindhl, and above all in 
OujarStL See now Pischel, Gramm. der Ptakrit-Spracheny § 115. 

a. Indian. Skt. hcmdra Hurmeric/ Pr&k. haladdO^ haXaddi^ 
Pfili halidddy also Ea&n. lidiTj lidofy Ur. haldlf Bang, haluday 
BihfiH, Hindi halOiy Panj. haUhl, Guj. haJad^ Mar. hihddd. 
Skt. iti ' thus/ Prfik. «i, ta, Pftli i«. Skt. Hthila ' loose/ Prfik. 
sadhilay sidhilay P&li sithilay saihilay Ass. dAil, Nftip. dhlld, Ur. 
dAfZa, Bang, dhtla, dlwla, Bih&rl dMZd, E. Hindi dhaly Hindi 
^Alld, Panj. dhxUy dhird, Sindhi ^%ar(^, dAird, dhild,Quj.dMlufhy 
Mar. ^(MlAal, d^iZd. Skt., Pfili kathina 'difficult,' Ur., Bang., 
Hindi kathiHy Panj. kathatif Sindhi Jcatanu, Ouj. haihany Mar. 
l-o^IAm. Skt garbhini 'pregnant,' Prfik. gabbhinl, P&li gab- 
bhinlj Bang, gibhina (vulg. gdbna), Hindi gibhiny Panj. garabhanj 
Sindhi pd6%tnf, Guj., Mar. ^a(^n. Skt dit;a«a 'day/ Pr&k. 
divahdy diaha, Sftur. divo^a, Pfili divasa^ Mar. divasa. Old Siihh. 
ditTO^a, Siihh. daro^a. 

b. Iranian. Av. zimd ' of winter,* Phi., New Pers. jeam, TaL 
eumistany WfizI je^am, §iy. .£7m;, Sarq. eamO/n, Afy. eimai, Kurd. 
zavistan. Dig. Oss. eumagy Tag. zimag. Av. 5ptf ' louse,' PhL 
^'f, ^jmif, New Pers. ^ujmj, ti5pul, ^ptijf, Wfizi ^, Sarq. spaly 
Afy. 5i?a/a, Kurd, sipiy Oss. 5is<A. Av. Aieva 'tongue/ PhL 
{h)uzvany nft?an. New Pers. zaJbdny zubdn. Gab. i^van, WaxI ziJcy 
Siy. ;?av, Sarq. giVy Afy. ii&a, BaL /nrndny Kurd, o^rmdn, isrumdn, 
Oss. at7.m(/. 

i> A. 

§ 26. The change of i to d occurs very rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt iksu 'sugar-cane/ Pr&k., Psli ucchHy Ur. 
dkhuy ukhay liAa, Bang, diu, Hindi iM, Ukhy Guj., Mar. il^, 
Siihh. ifhguy uh 

o 



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18 INDOIRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

i > u. 

§ 27. The change of i to u is found both in the Indian and in 
the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. The change of i to u is particularly frequent in 
unaccented syllables in Uriya and Bang&lL 

Skt. rajila 'lizard,' Pali rdjula. Skt isu * arrow/ Jsina 
Prak., Pali usu. Skt., Pali bindu 'drop,' Ur., Bang, bindlj 
Hindi, Panj. hundy bindy Sindhi bUmdy buAirdj liihrly Quj. bundj 
vindu, Mar. hindly bundy Siihh. poda. Skt. gdirilM * red chalk,' 
Ur. g&ruy Hindi gSrU, Guj. gSrUy Mar. g&H. Skt. tintidl * tama- 
rind,' Ass. t&htdi, Naip. tUrij Ur. t&htully t&httUly Bang. ti(m)tul. 
Skt. iksu ' sugar-cane,' Simh. ithgu, uhy etc. (see preceding §). 

b. Iranian. The change of i to ti is especially common in 
the Digaurish dialect of the Ossetish. 

New Pers. mxiiah * eyelash,' beside miSahy Gab. mujang, KaS. 
majOy muja, ntaSay BaL miclU^y N. BaL mi5&Sy Kurd. miSank, 
mi£i. Av. spiS ' louse,' PhL spiSy spuS, New Pera sapuSy uspaSy 
§puS, etc. (see § 25). Av. zimO * of winter,' Tal. jmmistany Dig. 
Oss. zumagy etc. (see § 25). Av. hizva ' tongue,' PhL {li)uzvany 
zuvdHy New Pers. aabdny mbctUy etc. (see § 25). 

i > f . 

§ 28. The lengthening of i to f is due in the majority of cases 
to compensatory lengthening, as in the case of d developed from a 
(see § 5). The phenomenon occurs both in the Indian and in the 
Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt sithha ' lion,' Prak. ^%a, Gatha ^mha, EaiSm. 
suhy Bihan, E. Hindi stthghy shkh, swgh, Panj. sithghy other 
New Indian dialects simK Skt jihva 'tongue,' Prak. jlhdy 
jibbhdy Fslijihvay Ass. jibdy Naip. jibro, KaSm. zSOy Sindhi ^*f6A, 
Siihh. diva, Maladive dti, other New Indian dialects ^f&A. Skt 
dupaSivi, nom. prop., Pali upa^va. Skt vith^ati 'twenty,' 
Prak. visaly Pali vfsathy vTsati, KaSm. vuhy Bang, bl^a, Hindi bfSy 
Panj. blhy Sindhi vlhj Guj., Mar. tUs. Skt bliaginl 'sister/ 



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VOWELS 19 

Prfik. iahinlj P&li bhaginlj (Jr. bhaunlj bhaUif% Bang. bJMn^ 
Hindi bahin, Panj. &%din, baiikh, Sindhi bhSnUy Gxij. 6^%^, 
Mar. bahln. 

b. Iranian. Av. hiciOra ^ beautiful,' PhL hucihr. New Pers. 
Atteff , Aujir, aiylr . Av. vicinOU ' gathered,' PhL dUand^ New 
Pera (Jfdan, BaL cinagj N. BaL chinayy Kurd cenin. Skt 
kapihjala 'partridge/ BaL haplnjar^ N. Bal. khavinjar. Av. 
t5#^ 'brick,' PhL, New Pers. xiSt, BaL t^, ft Old Pers. ciSciy 
' something,' New Pers. cUsf^ Kurd. <ii/; 

i >«. 

§ 29. The change of i to i{ is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Ski iksu 'sugar-cane,' Ur. akhUj l£Aa, filAa, 
Hindi iJchy Okhj 6uj., Mar. Us, etc. (see § 26). 

i > ?. 

§ 80. The change of i to e, ^ is not infrequent in the Indian 
dialects, but it is exceedingly rare in the Iranian dialects, where 
a few cases of the compensatoiy lengthening of i to ^ are found. 
In the Indian dialects the change appears most frequently before 
double consonants in Middle Indian (consequently the e in such 
cases is short). Of the New Indian dialects the GujarfitX presents 
the greatest number of examples of this change, which is, on the 
whole, more common in the West of India than in the East 

a. Indian. Skt. nidrA 'sleep,' Pr&k. neddOy niddd. Skb 
kirdfa * hypocrite,' Pali keraiika, kerOtiycL Skt dvibhOga ' two- 
fold,' Pali dvibhaga. Skt tintidi 'tamarind,' Ass. i&hUli, Ur. 
tenifuU, tentitdl, Bang. i(!{m)tuly etc. (see § 27). Skt sindOra 
' vermilion,' Prfik. sendUra, Pftli sindUra, Asa sendur, sindur, 
Bang, sinduvy Bihftrl s^ur, Hindi sMidUr, Sindhi sindhurUj Guj. 
sindilry Mar. sMxdUr. 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. ciy 'what,' Kurd, c^, cf, ca, etc. (see $ 24). 
New Pers. giSnis 'coriander,' Bal. gSnlc. 

C2 



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20 INDO-ItUNIAN PHOKOLOGT 

Aphaeresis of i. 

§ 8L Aphaeresis of original i is very rare in the Indian 
dialects. The Tagaurish dialect of the Ossetish presents several 
instances of the aphaeresis of i which has become initial after the 
loss of original initial consonants. 

a. Indian. Skt. idanlfk ' now/ Prsk., Pftli dani(m). 

[b. Iranian. Av. tUsaiti * twenty/ PhL f^j New Pers. 6frf, 
Kfifi. rUstay vls{sa)j W&H t^, Sarq. vist^ BaL gist, Dig. Oss. 
insaiy Tag. ssaj. Av. hiStaiti ^ stands/ Dig. Oss. isthun, Tag. 
sthin.] 

Syncope of i. 

\ 82. The syncope of i is excessively rare. Possibly the loss 
of a final tin a word which is made the firstmember of a compound 
may be considered here. 

b. Iranian. Av. zairirgaona 'having a golden colour/ New 
Pers. zaryOn, Afy. jsaryHn. 

Apocope of i. 

§ 33. Apocope of i is common both in the Indian and in the 
Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. drsH 'sight,' Pr&k, Psli diithi, Hindi dfthi, 
dUhy dlthy Panj. ditth, Sindhi diti, Mar. dlth. Skt vyakti 
' person,' Hindi bikat 

b. Iranian. Av. haca ' from * + oMiri 'beneath,' Paz. cUfer, 
New Pers. zSr, Afy. tor, Kurd, iff, Tag. Osa dala. 

Prothesis oft. 

§ 84. Prothetic i is excessively rare in the Indian dialects. 
In the Iranian dialects, on the other hand, it is quite common, 
especially before initial consonant-groups whose first component 
is a sibilant. 

a. Indian. Skt. stri 'woman,' Prfik, Pali itthij thl, Gatha 

istri, colloquial Hindi isM, astri, Sindhi istrij Elu itiri, Siiiih. 

istri. 



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VOWELS 21 

b. Iranian. Av. ^paOa 'white/ PhL sp&y New Per& sip^ 
ispSdy Za£ sObdy EfiS. a$b^ Euhr. asb€y Sarq. spaid, Yidg. spf, 
Afy. ^{fi, sp&raj Kurd, t^, ^pl. Ski stgUa 'jackal,' PhL, 
New Pens. Saydlj §iy., Sarq. iifibdl, Afy. caydl. Av. ^oo&i ' ear/ 
PhL, New Pers. gdS, WfiH yfll, y«, Afy. ywy, BaL gdSy Kurd. 
jfOA, Dig. C)s& yoSf Tag. ^Os, but Dig. iyosun 'to hear," Tag. 
^O^n. Ski af9ga 'limb/ Dig. Oss. iaUj Tag. on. [Hfdbechmann 
considers the i in these cases to be original in the Oss., but he 
thinks that the Tag. dialect has lost the i, rather than that the 
Dig. shows a prothetic «.] 



1 = 1. 

§ 35. Indo-Iranian f is generally preserved without change 
both in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. In Assamese no 
character for I exists, i being written instead The Old Hindi 
often writes iy for I (Skt. jlva 'life,' Old Hindi jVyam). The New 
Persian, as is well known, has confused in many words the nuyhiil 
('imknown [to the Arabs] '= Persian sounds) vowels €, 6 with the 
malntf ('known [to the Arabs] '= Arabic sounds) vowels f, H 
The Judaeo-Persian and the BalGcI, like the Indian pronunciation 
of New Persian, maintain clearly the original distinction between 
the majhul and the ma irti/ vowels. 

a. Indian. Skt. jlviia ' life/ Prfik. jfria, Pfili jivita. Skt 
dlrgha ' long,' Prftk. diJui(ra)j diggha^ Pali dlgha, Sindhi drighO. 

b. Iranian. Skt kslra ' milk,' PhL, New Pers. Sir, Sir., Siy. 
Hrin, Minj. xSir, Kurd Sir, Oss. (ixSir. Av. rfm ' understand- 
ing,' PhL fXr(aJc), New Pera vir, Gab. rfr, BaL jffr, Kurd. 6fr. 

f > a. 

§ 36. The change of i to a is an excessively rare one. 

a. Indian. Skt bhlsma 'terrible,' Pfili bhasma, bhisma. Skt 
pariksa 'test,' Bang, pcmikha, parakJM, Hindi paraWlnd, 
parakhdiyOj Panj. pardkhavwik, parakhandr, Sindhi p(irakhia^ 
parkhanu, Mar. parakhanethj porahhi. 



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22 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOOT 



l>i. 



§ 87. The shortening of I is naturally the most common change 
to which { is subject. It occurs, however^ with comparative 
infrequency in the Iranian dialects. For the principal conditions 
under which the change occurs see above under § 25. 

a. Indian. Skt. ttksna 'sharp/ Prfik. tinhay tikkha, Pali 
tinhay tikkha^ tikhinay New Indian dialects tlkhy except Panj., 
Sindhi, Guj. tikh. Skt. iSvara 'lord/ Prftk. Isara, Pali issara, 
Hindi, Panj. isar. Skt, allka ^ felae,' FtSlL alia, FHi alika. Skt. 
dvitJya ' second,' Prfik. duia, Ur. dtisraj Old Hindi diljd, Hindi 
dUsarO, Panj. dii{j)a, Sindhi llj6, bid, Guj. hJj6, Mar. dusara. Skt. 
ga(m)hklra *• deep,* Prftk. gahira, Pftli ga{fn)bklra, Ur. gahira, 
Hindi gahira, gahard, Sindhi gdhirO. Skt. klla 'pin,' Pfili 
k{h)lla, Ur. kilO, Hindi fo7te, Panj. kill, Sindhi A;e7f, Mar. itito. 
Skt kita 'worm,'Ur., Bang., Hindi, Panj, klda, Sindhi kidd, 
Guj. kldd, Mar. ticfel, Arlrf. Skt. ^irsa 'head,' Prfik. sissa, slsa, 
Pftli ^a, Hindi, Panj. sl5, Sindhi sisl, Guj. ^li. Mar. il(w)5, 
Siihh. iha, isa, his, sis. Skt Mrti 'fame,' Prftk., Pfili kitti 
Siriih. kit 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. jlvahy 'thou shalt live,' Phi. zlvandak 
'living,' New Pers. zindak. Skt. kslra ' milk,' Sir., Siy. 5m w, 
Oss. axSir, etc. (see § 35). Ski bija 'seed,' BaL 6?/. New Pers. 
kdhl 'mountainous,' Kurd. kdvi. 

f > w. 

§ 38. The change of I to u is excessively rare in the Indo- 
Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski jlra 'cummin-seed,' Simh. duru. Skt. pra- 
vOsin ' sojourner,' Prftk. pavasu. 

b. Iranian. Av. mlida ' reward,' PhL musd, Pfiz. mozd. New 
Pera muzd, miiSd, Kurd., Oss. mizd. 



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VOWELS 28 

I XL 

§ 39. The change of f to d is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Ski tiraSaXna 'going sideways,' Pali tiracchdna 
'animaL' 

l>l 

§ 40. The change from { to I is not very common in the 
Middle Indian dialects, while in the New Indian and in the 
Iranian dialects it is still more rare. 

a. Indian. Ski kldrSa 'what kind?' Prftk. k&risa, Apab. 
Prfik. Muj Smdhi kehard, k&ru. Skt nl^a ' nest/ Prak. nedda, 
niday P&li niddhaj nlla. Skt gtliUva 'having taken,' Pfili 
gahetvO. Skt hrida 'sport,' Pfili *A^to, Hindi khelnO^ Gyp. 
Vhhel ' to dance.' Skt. hhlma 'fearful,' Siihh. bem. 

b. Iranian. PhL plr ' old,' New Pers. plr^ Judaeo-Per& pSi\ 
BaL j?f rfli, N. Bal. phlrOc. 

%> i. 

§ 4L The change of { to 2 is very rare in the Indo-Iranian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt tlrtha 'landing-place,' Prfik. titthaj tiSJia, 
Pfili tiUha, Sindhi tlHhUy Siihh. toia. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. einjtr 'chain,' Wfixl eawHr^ Siy. 
einzify Sarq. eamaiTy BaL zanusXlj Kurd, zanjdr, zanjlr. 

Apocope of I. 

§ 42. The apocope of final I occurs in several New Indian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt garbhinl 'pregnant,' Hindi gd^hifij Panj. 
garabhanj Guj., Mar. gdhhan, etc (see § 25). 



U= II. 



§ 43. Indo-Iranian u is in general retained unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 



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24 INDO'IBANIAN PHONQLOGT 

a. Indian. Skb chupati ^ iioucheB* Prsk. chupaiy Psli chupatij 
Ur., Bang, ehuih, Old Hindi chuh^ Hindi cAo, Panj. chuhj 
Sindhi cAttA, Qiij. cAu, chd. Skt purusa 'man,' Prftk. jmma, 
paUrisaj Pali |mma, Bang. i>t^tff , Sindhi jninwM, Gyp. iw>5a, c£ 
also SiibiL pirimiy^ Maladive/nmfAa. 

b. Iranian. Av. huSka 'dry/ Old Pers. uSka^ PhL, New 
Pers. aru^A;, KfiS. uSk, Wftxl wwi, Afy. vuCj BaL Auifay, Osa 
aru^t). Av. duybar * daughter/ PhL duxt. New Pers. (2tu:^ar), 
Wsxl bagdj SangL day, Minj. 7ox(2a, Yidg. luydoh, My. lUr^ 
Kurd, duxty ditt. Skt mu<?rd ' seal,' PhL mutrOk^ mudarj muhr^ 
New Pers., Kurd, muhr, Oss. mixur. 

u > a. 

§ 44. The change of u to a is not uncommon in the Indian 
dialecta In the Iranian dialects, on the other hand, it is com- 
paratively rare. 

a. Indian. Ski punar ' again/ PrSk. punu, pana (Shfihbftz- 
garhi inscriptions), Pali pana. Skt sphurati 'flashes,' Pfili 
pharati. Skt suruf9ga 'mine,' Pali suruthgaj Ur. sudamga, 
Bihftrt, Hindi suraAig^ Sindhi sirimghj Mar. suraihg. Skt 
karbura ' variegated,' Hindi kabardj hdibar^ Panj. kahrOj Sindhi 
huhirOy Ghij. Tcabaty Mar. kaharO. Skt durbala ' weak,' Prak., 
Pftli duBalaj Bang. dublOj Bihan cfu&ard, diibar^ Hindi clu&Zd, 
Panj. c2t<&6a2, Sindhi dulird, dabald, Guj. (2u&a{(d), Mar. dt4bal 

b. Iranian. Av. yuvan 'youth,' PhL ytivdn, New Pers, javdn, 
vany Maz. jat;an, Afy., BaL javan. Skt mtiiAa ' face,' Afy. 

max. Av. uStra 'camel,' PhL uStTy New Pers. uStur, Wftxl 
«5^ilr, §iy. Stur^ BaL huStarj Kurd. 7tai«r. Av. Jtima 'tail,' 
PhL, New Pers. dufn{b)y Sarq. dafii(to), Afy. lantj BaL i2fm, 
Kurd. c2t?t;, dunky Dig. Oss. dumagy Tag. clima^. 

tt > t. 

§ 45. The change of u to i is not common either in the Indian 
or in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt purusa ' man,' Prftk. purisa, paiirisay Pali 



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VOWELS 26 

pwrisOj c£ alBO Siifali. pirimiydy Maladive firimlha^ eta (see 
§ 48). Ski kufumba 'fanuly/ P&li kutinOM. Skt utkltim, 
undara ^Tst/ Pfili undura^ R New Ind. dialects itklar. Mar. 
undJir. Skt «aZu*a 'sand,' Pali vQlukO, Ass., Ur., Bang. 6dZi^ 
Hindi halo, Sindhi t^f^, Ouj. hciu, Mar. t^uyd. Skt ^u^i 
' praise,' Prfik. thui^ P&li thuiiy Simh. tiyu, fiiHi^ tti^i. 

b. Iranian. Av. puOra 'son,' Old Pera puff" ay PhL iH«(ar), 
New Pera pikry ptisar, pisar. Gab. pOTy KfiS. |>tlr, i>iir, Samn. plr, 
Wftxl |?eJ/r, §iy. |>Mc, Sarq. pdSy Kurd. J>wtr, Dig. Oss. furthy 
Tag, ^r/A. Av. ttisan 'they evacuated,' PhL <i*fclt 'empty,' 
New Pers. tihly Oab. tohly Judaeo-Peis. ttihay BaL ^u^o^, N. BaL 
thusay. Av. 6una 'foundation,' PhL, New Pers. ftwii, WaxI 
&M, §iy. &on, Sarq. btin, BaL bund, Kurd, ^in, bun, Dig. Oss. 
bun, Tag. bin. Skt $fu^ 'praise,' Dig. Osa study Tag. ^id 

§ 46. The change of u to d is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt bMnumoH 'jugglery,' Mar. bhandma^ 

u >%. 

§ 47. The change of u to I is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. stuxra 'red,' Old Pera Ouxm-, PhL stucTy 
New Pera surxy Sir. slrahy Siv. 5fr, Yazdl surkuhy Kuhr., Efii. 
«lr, Wfixl sOkTy Siy. ^m*^ Afy. ^Or, BaL suJiTy Kurd. 55r, Dig. 
Osa surXy Tag. 5inc Av. duma 'tail,' BaL rffm^ eta (see § 44). 

u >«. 

§ 48. The lengthening of u in the Middle and New Indo- 
Iranian dialects is due in the majority of cases to compensation 
(cf. also §§ 5, 28). 

a. Indian. Skt utsava 'feast^' Pr&k. UsavOy Pfili ussava. 
Skt kida 'family,' Prfik., Pfili kukty Ur. kujoy Sindhi kurUy ktduy 
6uj. kuly Mar. kal, ktd. Skt. musala 'pestle,' Prfik. musaloy 
Pfili musalOy Bang. mUsaly Hindi mOsaZ. Skt pura 'town,' 
Prfik., P&li jnim, Bihfir. pur. Skt samudra 'sea,' Prfik. ^o- 



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26 IKDO-ISANIAK PHONOLOG T 

mudday Pfili scmudday muhudda^ Siifih. muhuda, rnHda. Skt 
musti ^fist,' Prilk., Pftli muHU, Bang. muthO, tntdhi, Hindi 
miUhy mutha, Sindhl wtrfAt, muihy Guj. mu^Ao. 

b. Iranian. Av. p^rdtu ' bridge,' PhL pulWy puhl, New Pers. 
jmW, p&ly Gil. jptird, Kurd. j?ar, pir(d), purd. Av. i>udm * son,' 
New Pera pUty pusar^ pisar, Gab. pHr^ Kfii jHlr, pur, etc. (see 
§ 46). Av. siixra ' red,' Afy. stir, etc. (see preceding §). Kurd. 
turb * turnip,' Mukn tar. 

u > t 
§ 49. The change of u to I is excessively rare both in the 
Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt p(h)upphu8a *lung,' Prak. phupphusa, Pali 
phapphOsa, Ur. phariisapJiathsa, pharhph&mi, Bang, phethpara, 
plUhhpasd, Hindi pMpliarO, pliPpliara, Sindhl phiphiru. Mar. 
phOpJs. 

b. Iranian. Av. Savaite 'goes,' Old Pers. aSiyavam, New 
Pers. §ud, WaxI cauam, Siy. eafcam, Sarq. zavsam, Afy* &«^, 
BaL £2i^(a), N. Bal. ^d, ^da, Kurd, clan, Zaza ^^, Oss. ciatou 

u > 0. 

§ 60. The change of u to o is very rare in the Indian dialects. 
In the Iranian dialects the confusion between the majhul and the 
inalruf vowels must be borne in mind. Somewhat akin to the 
change of u to d is the change of u to d in W&xl and to it in Sari- 
qoll, while the other New Persian dialects usually retain original 
u unchanged. 

a. Indian. Skt. muktd * pearl,' PrSk. tnotid, Pftli muttd, Ur. 

tndti, Bang, tndti, niati, Hindi, Panj., Sindhl, Guj., Mar. mdti. 

Ski ultlJchala 'mortar,' Prak. dhala, okkliala, u(I)iihala, Ur. 

ukhcUl, Mar. ukhal Skt. uUca * torch,' Prak. ukka, Pali okkd. 

Skt. kustha ' leprosy,' Ass. kuih, Naip. kdr, Ur. kddlia, Bang. 

kdih, E. Hindi, Hindi, Guj. kOdh (c£ Ski ku^ithin 'leper,' Hindi 

kdrt), Mar. Ud. Ski, Pali kuddala 'hoe,' Ur. kf^rO, Bang, kddol, 

Sindhl kdrar^, Guj. kdd&rO, Siihh. uilalu, udl(S(^. Ski pustaka 



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VOWELS 27 

^book^' PiAk. potthaaj Pfili poUhdka, New IncL dialecte pdtho, 
pdthlf Siiiih. pota. 

b. Iranian. Av. uH ^ understanding,' PhL {h)dSy New Pers. 
hOSy has. Av. uSah ' dawn,' PhL, New Pers. hdS. Av. pudra 
* son,' EfiS. j)flr, pOr^ Wfixl |>eJ<r, Sarq. pe^, etc (see § 46). Av. 
suxra ^ red,' Kuhr., KfiS. sUr^ Wfixl ^iir, etc. (see § 47). Ski 
ytijra 'yoke,' New Pers. juy, Kuhr. yO, Siy. yuy, Sarq. ytty, 
Kurdji?*. 

Aphaeresis of u. 

§ 5L The loss of initial u is not uncommon in the New Indian 
dialects, although it occurs but rarely in the Middle Indian. In 
the Iranian dialects aphaeresis of u seems to have been preceded 
in the Middle Iranian by a change of u to a (Old Pera upariy 
'above,' PhL apoTj Psz. atc^r. New Pers. {aynir. Skt upusthana 
' assistance,' PhL apastdn). 

a. Indian. Skt udaJca^ daka 'water,' Jftina Prsk. dagaj Pfili 
dakUf dka^ Siifah. daga, daya^ diya. Skt upavUati 'sits down,' 
Pfili upavisoMy Ass. hdh^y Nfiip. 5a^, KaSm. Vhthj Ur., Bang. 
&a^, R Hindi, Hindi haisBj Sindhi Uh^ Mar. &at^^ iMV^e. Skt, 
Pfili tidumbara 'fig-tree,' Ur. dumurif Bang, dfimur. Skt 
upadhyaya 'teacher,' Prfik. uajjhQa^ Pfili upajjhayay Bihfirl 
jwldAa, Hindi o;7t^ 

b. Iranian. Av. upairi ' above,' Old Pers. upariy^ PhL aj?ar, 
Pfiz. awar, New Pera (a)6ar, Wfixl, Sarq. var, Afy, |>r^, BaL 
par, gvavj N. Bal. |?^r, Kurd, bar, Dig. Oss. t?ol, Tag. ol Av. 
11^^ 'camel,' PhL uStr, New Pers. wrfar, Sutur, Wftxl ilif«r, 
diy. jjt4r, BaL htiStar, uStir. 

Syncope of u. 

§ 52. Syncope of u is comparatively rare both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt duhitar 'daughter,' Prfik. dhuidja, (2A{(d)A, 
Pfili dhUOj Ur. jhia. Bang. j&{, Hindi, Panj. dhMyd), Sindhi 
dhiu, dhiy, Guj. dhifya). 

b. Iranian. Av. daii&hurpaiU 'lord of the land,' New Pers. 



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28 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

dihxdn ' village-chief * {ct Arm^iian loan-word dehpet from Av. 
daipiht4rpaiti). 

Apocope of tk 

§ 58. The loss of final u occurs very frequently in the New 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt, Prfik. tern * tree/ Biharl tar(u). Skt bOhu 
'arm,' Apab. boh&y Pfili bahu, Ur., Bang. bOha, Hindi, Panj. 
bdfhhj Sindhi Idmh^ Guj. bdthhi, Mar. (dihAi, bcthlj hdhu. 

Prothesis of u. 

§ 54. The prothesis of u is very frequent in the Iranian dialects 
before initial consonant-groups. The phenomenon is not found in 
the Indian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. stUna ^ column,' Phi. stUn, New Per& striUny 

ustHnj Afy. Stan, Kurd. {i)stun. Ski sihUra * firm/ New Pera 

siiurg, suturg, Yidg. ustiirj Afy. star, BaL istHrj Kurd. t<5^t?r, 

Dig. Oss. sthuVy Tag. ^f Air. Av. stara ' star/ SangL usiurak^ etc. 

(see § 14). Av. spiS * louse/ New Pera suptd, uspuSy SpuS^ etc. 

(see § 25). 

Epenthesis of u. 

§ 65. The epenthesis of u is very rare. The Ka&niri shows 
many cases of an inserted u after i in ti-stems. 

a. Indian. Skt. nila ^ blue/ E[a$m. nytda. Skt. drstha ' seen/ 
Kalm. dyuthu. 

§ 56. Indo-Iranian tZ is in general retained unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt, Prfik. hhUmi ' earth,' Pfili hhUmi, hhummij 
Ur. bhUmay Bang. bhUm^ Hindi, Panj. bhatHy bhmth, bhUthj 
Sindhi bhti{ifh)y Guj. &A%), bhOyy Mar. &fct^, Siifah. binui. 

b. Iranian. Av. bdmi * earth,' PhL, New Pera. bum. Av., 
Old Pers. rftlm 'far,' PhL, New Pers. dUr, Gab. dfr, Mfiz. dlr, 
Ga d«r, Wfixl efr, Siy., Sarq. tor, Yidg. iilro, Afy. liri, Kurd, 
(lor. 



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VOWELS 29 

§ 57. The change of HI to a is not frequent either in the Indian 
or in the Iranian dialects, excepting in the Afyfin, when H often 
becomes a before nasals or r. 

a. Indian. Skt dukuHa ^silken robe/ PrSk dwMaj duUHay 
Jftina PrSk duguUa^ P&li dukala. Skt hhfiJbmuk'ha ' eyebrow/ 
Jfiina PrSk hhamuha^ P&li hhamuka (cf also Pfili hhamu ^ eye- 
brow*), Gyp. phov. [See now Pischel, Gr. d. PrOfe-Spr., 
§§ 206, 261.] 

b. Iranian. Skt. sthHra 'laige/ New Pera siturgy suturg^ 
Yidg. ustntr, Afy. star^ BaL istOr, Kurd. u^fOr, Dig. Oss. sffiuTj 
Tag. 5<Atr. Skt ni^nam * now/ Av. n6r9mf PhL, New Pers. nflw, 
diy. ntir, Sarq. nUr, Afy. nan, BaL nUn. 

§ 58. The change of A to i is very rare in the Indo-Iranian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt miilya 'price/ Ur. mala, Guj., Mar. mOl, 
Siifah. mila. Skt sdrya * sun/ Pr&k. sujjay sUriay P&li suriya^ 
Hindi, Panj. ^t«mj, Sindhi ^iTf^ti, ^Ortjti) Guj. surajy silry Sixfah. 
(%)irti. 

b. Iranian. Skt mas ' mouse,' New Pers. mUSj Gab. mttSk, 
■ Samn. mtif, Afy. nM»ya(%), Bal mti£i, N. BaL mUSkj Kurd. 

mij(i)i, Dig. Osa mista^ Tag. mi^. 

§ 50. The shortening of a to u is the most frequent change to 
which u is subject in the Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. 
It occurs especially before double consonants or consonant-groups 
(c£ §§ 16, 87). In Assamese a is always written u. 

a. Indian. Skt tniUya 'price,' Prftk. mutlaj tnoUaf Ea&n. 

mol (but miUai ^ radically *), Ur. mtZZa, Bang., Hindi mdl, Panj. 

mullf Sindhi mulhttj Mar. mdl Skt tttrya ' musical instrument^' 

PrSk. tUray Jfiina Prfik. tudiya, P&li turiyaj Ur. ^url. Bang. 

ftirum, Hindi tUdfiy tikrahly Panj. ^tiram, Sindhi, Guj. tuf%. Skt 



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80 INDO'IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Sdiaka < root of the water-lily/ Pali sOluka. Skt. cQrna ^ dust,' 
Prfik, Pftli cunna^ Ea&XL czln, Ur. cura^ Bang, c^r^ Hindi ctind, 
Panj. cQTj Sindhi anxoj Guj. cwr6j Mar. cOr, also Ur., Bang, cund, 
Hindi c«n5, Panj. cana, ctZnl, Sindhi cwnu, Guj. aiMy Mar. 
cund. Skt Mpa ^ well/ Nftip. X;t<t;d, Ka&n. Tclmh^ Ur., Bang. 
A;ad, Bihar!, Hindi, Panj. hiil{m)dm, Sindhi khiihu, Guj., Mar. 
A;urd. Skt dhUtna 'smoke,' PrSk., Pftli dhUma^ Ass. dJUhk&j 
Nftip. dhuctfhj KalSm. clfiA, Ur. dAtZmd, Bang, dhuydtii, R Hindi, 
Hindi, Panj. (IAt{(m)dfH, Sindhi dhUfhhamj Guj., Mar. (2/»am, 
Simh. dum, Gyp. ^Attv. 

b. Iranian. Av. bujsa * goat,* PhL 6^', New Pers. tur, 6uj, 
Wftxl fttic, 6ft(^ Siy., Sarq. va^, SangL t7MJBr, Minj. vum. Av. 
/;t?5a * excrement,* Phi., New Pers. giih, KsJL gUs, Wftxl gil, jf, 
§iy. yaO, Tayn. ytit{ah), Afy. yuZ, N. BaL flrW, Kurd. flrtJ. Skt 
7iilfiam 'now,' Av. ^itTr^m, §iy. wwr, Sarq. ^?ftr, etc. (see § 57). 
Av. itl * where,' Pfiz. kuj New Pers. kujc^ Minj. Ao, Afy. itJw, 
BaL /:tl, N. Bal. khu, Kurd, iw, Oss. iAw((i). 

[Final U is often shortened to u in the New Indian dialect& 

Skt vadhu * bride/ Prfik, vahtJ, Pftli vadha, Ur. &a/«/, Bang. 

hail, Hindi ta/iu, Panj. bohu, Sindhi vahU, Guj. vaAtt, Mar. vahu 

(}^et in most of these dialects the word is actually pronounced 

boh(u)),] 

il> a. 

§ 60. The change of t? to d is an excessively rare one. 
a. Indian. Skt inasuraka 'pillow,' Pali masdraka. 

«>f. 

§ eL The change of t2 to f is very rare in the Indian dialects, 
but in the Iranian dialects it is not imcommon. 

a. Indian. Skt bahumpa * juggler,' Mar. bhorapiy b(h)dflp. 

b. Iranian. Av., Old Pers. dUra 'far,' Gab. dlr, Mftz. dfr, 
Wftxl blr, Afy. ftn, Kn, etc. (see § 56). Skt dhUnia 'smoke,' 
PhL diU, New Pers. dud, Wftxl bU, §iy. lud, Sarq. Mlf, My. M, 
Bal. dtU, dltj N. BaL did, Kurd. dH New Pers. biidand 'they 
were,' Tftt blrOnd, Kurd, barik ' pocket ' beside barilk. 



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VOWELS 81 

§ 62. The change of i{ to I is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt nUpura ^ anklet,' PrSk. nSuraj n^ra^ niuraj 
Pfili nUpura^ Ur. nSpuraj nUpura^ Sindhi ntirO, Guj., Mar. 
n^piir. Ski piJtrva * former/ Prftk. puwa^ 6aur. Prak. puravay 
New Ind. dialects pfirba^ except Hindi piJirabj Sindhi purhu, 
Simh. jpem. 

b. Iranian. Av. siika ' needle/ Phi. sUcan^ P&z. sUzaiij sdmn, 
New Pers. sdmn, Gab. sajaitj Ksk, Zaf. ^oi^d, WaxI siS, Sarq. 
^ic, BaL ^uctn, ^icfn, N. BaL 5!^n, £7&zn, ilSln, SeHn, Kurd. 

§ 63. This change, like the one preceding, is a very rare one. 

a. Indian. Skt urja 'strength,' Pfili dja. Skt. tambtUa 
* betel,' Prfik. tambdla, Pfili tambtila, Ur. tambdla, Guj. tambul, 
Mar. tambiU, cf. also Bang, tom&u^l ' betel-seller/ Hindi tambdlly 
Panj. fam&dZf, Guj. ^m&^^ft, Mar. tamboll. 

a > yah. 

§ 64. The interchange of U and yah occurs only finally. It is 
exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. zalu Ueech,' §iy., Sarq. jscUyah, Afy. 
iavara, BaL mrdyj Kurd. Ji^alu{g)j zuliU, ziJirl. 

a > va. 

§ 66. The change of fl to tvi seems to occur only initially. It is 
extremely imcommon. 

a. Indian. Skt. unavifh^ati 'nineteen,' Prfik. Unavlsal, Ka&n. 
hunavuh, Ur. unal^a, Bang. UniS, Bihfirf onaiSj vanals, Hindi 
unfs, Panj. unnth. 

§ 66. Indo-Iranian r, which is represented by r in Old Indian, 
by dr9 in Avestan, and by ar in Old Persian, has been changed in 



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82 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

the Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects to A^ f, ti, i^ or into r 
(sometimes J) preceded or followed by a, i, u. The quality of the 
vowel in the various developments here considered is generally 
determined by the character of the consonants which stand near 
the original r. Thus the usual change of r is to aij)^ ra, but labials 
often colour the vowel to v{r)j and sibilants colour it to Hf). 

In the Indian Gftthft dialect r is regularly retained unchanged, 
and in Apabhramla PrSkrit r often remains. 

a. Indian. Skt sukrta 'well done/ Apab. PrSk. sukrdu, 

stiki(d)u. Skt trna 'grass,' Apab. Pr&k. tmu, tanuj tinti, 

Bang. tinaJcOy tilctka, Hindi tinakOf Panj. tin, Sindhi till, Mar. 

tan, Simh. tana. 

r > ar. 

§ 67. The change of r to ar is quite rare in the Indian dialecta 
In the Iranian dialects, on the contrary, it is quite frequent 

a. Indian. Skt grha ' house ' (also geha), Pr&k. gsJia, Apab. 
Prfik. gharu, Pali ghara, gaha, giha, KbSxtl gahar, gar. Old 
Hindi gSha, New Ind. dialects gJiar, excepting Mar. geh, Sidih. 
g€, geya, Gyp. kJwr, kyel 

b, Iranian. Av. apdr^nayu ' boy,' PhL apumdyak. New Pers. 
bamd, bumcL Av. Icardtna 'worm,' PhL hxnn, New Pers. kirm, 
Sarq. cami, Kurd, karm, kurum, Dig. Oss. khalmitha. Tag. 
klialm, Av. ard&a 'bear,' Phi., New Pers. xirs, Maz. d5, &y. 
yufi, Sarq. yiJrr, Yidg. yar5, Afy. yaS, Kurd. riVic, Air?, hire, 
Zaza a:^c, Oss. ars, Av. zdrolaya 'heart,' PhL, New Pera dil, 
Maz. snlah, GiL iOl, §iy. jgras, xreiy, Sarq. eard^ SangL w^^y, 
Minj. if Z, Afy. era, BaL irirtfe, Kurd, zar, Oss. jwirdo. Av. sar^to 
'cold,' Phi. sart, New Pers. sard. Gab. 5arf, WaxI sar(f), Afy. 
55r, BaL 5ar(^ N. BaL sarth, Kurd. 5dr, Oss. said. 

r > a. 

§ 68. The change of r to a is very common in the Middle and 
New Indian dialects. In the Iranian dialects, on the other hand, 
it is extremely rare. 



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rowBLS 88 

a. Indian. B^tvrdSUia^lbXffiy'Tj^vadika^^^ 

Pfili vaddhoy viddka^ bu^JMy vuddha^ Asa bar^ Nsip. bard^ 
KsbxL bar^ bod^ Ur., Bang, bada^ R Hindi bariJ^ barOf baddlXy 
Hindi bada, Panj. t^odcEd^ W. Panj. ba4da, Sindhl txiJd, Gnj. 
va4dj Gyp. &a#io, but Skt vrddha 'old,' Ur. bOrAd, &adl, Bang. 
buda, Hindi bti^Ad, bO^Ad, Panj. budU, Sindhl &tK2&(^, (u^, 
Ouj. burU. Skt vrsdbha 'bull,' Pr&k. vo^Ao^ dsur. Pr&k. 
tni^Aa, Pfili vasabha. Skt jfrAa 'house,' Pfili gaha^ gharOj 
gihoj etc. (see preceding §). Skt mrttiX^d ' earth,' Prfik. mafti^ 
Pfili mattika, Nfiip. mOiiiM, Ea&n. mi^ Ur., Bang. mOt^ Hindi, 
Panj. maft% mt^f, md^f, Sindhl mt/i, Ouj. mo^i, mi^i, m^i, 
Mar. mOti. Skt mrfo 'dead,' Prfik. maa^ mtia, Mfig. Prfik. 
tno^ Ur. malAy Hindi mud, Panj. muia, Sindhl mu6j Ghij. 
muruiit, Mar. mSlSfhy Siihh. ntaZa, Gyp. mulo. 

b. Iranian. Skt prdaku ' leopard,' New Pens, pilangy pdlang, 
Af y. i>reinj7. 

f > w. 

§ 69. The change of r to m is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt vrhsa 'tree,' Prfik. vracha (inscriptions of 
Gimar), rukkhaj riccJuij rihkhaj Pfili rukkhay Ur. riikhay Hindi 
brich, Mar. rukl^ Simh. rj<A:, WA;, Gyp. ruk. [According to 
Pischel § 820 Prfik. mkkJia (and its New Ind. derivatives) is 
derived from Skt ruksOy not vrksa,] 

r > ir. 

§ 70. This change, like the one discussed in the preceding 
section, occurs very rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt rtvij ' brahmanical priest,' Pfili iritvija. Skt 
vrsa ' Taurus ' (in the Zodiac), Pfili vusa^ Sindhl virkhu. 

b. Iranian. Av. kordnia 'worm,' New Pers. kirm^ etc (see 
§67). 

r>i. 

§ 7L The change of r to i occurs with great frequency both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialecta 



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34 INDChlRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

a. Indian. Ski krta 'done/ Prfik. (Shfihbfizgarhi inscrip- 
tionB), hita, Mag. Prfik. iadS^ Mahfir. Prfik. fciya, Pfiii Prfik. 
kata, Ardhamfig., Avani, §ak. Prfik. kola, Apab. Prfik. Jcidu^ 
Pali Jcaiaj Jcaia, Bihftri katl, Jcdily kayal, Old Hindi ISya, Sindhi 
kid. Skt A;fyana * wretched/ Apab. Prfik. kivantL Skt mrga 
* deer/ Pfili fwte/a, maga (c£ Ski mrdatdka * having a deernsign, 
moon,' Prfik. miamka). Ski rji * sage/ Prfik. t^", risi^ Pfili t^i, 
Siihh. n^si^ Gyp. ro^dy. Ski grdhra 'vulture/ Sfiur. Prfik. 
giddha, Pfili giddha, gijjha, gaddha, Bang, gidh, Bihfirl fl^A, 
gidhvOj Hindi jfkW*, ^A, Panj. flri<WA, Sindhi gijhy Guj., Mar. 
gidharh, gJd(h). Ski jrArto 'melted butter/ Prfik. gJiaija, Pfili 
jfAato, Ur. (//^ta, Bang, ghi, Hindi, Panj. ghly ghiUy Sindhi gihuj 
Guj., Mar. gh% Gyp. khilj Anglo-Ind. ghee. Ski imga 'horn,' 
Prfik. simga^ sathga, Pfili sitUgay Ur. Simgd, Bang, itiff^, Hindi 
^♦ftjr, Panj. sifhg, Sindhi sif9Uj Guj., Mar. iintg, Gyp. 5inflf. Ski 
hrdaya 'hearty' Prfik. hia(y)a^ Pfiii Prfik. Jiitaaka, Pali hadaya^ 
Ass., Ur., Bihfirl 7i?a^ Hindi Aiy^ Panj. hiydm, hidumj Sindhi 
himdthu^ Mar. hiyy^ hiyCfhj Gyp. (y)iJo. Ski prstJia 'back,' 
Prfik. patthiy pitthi, puithij Jfiina Prfik., Pfili pitfJiij Ur. pithay 
pithiy Bang., Hindi plihy Panj. i?if//t, 1?m?.^A, Sindhi puthxy Guj. 
J7//A, i?w#7j, Mar. paihy puihcL, Simh. jpi/a, Gyp. piVito, Ski 
/r^nd 'thirst/ Pnlk. tanhay Pfili fan/id, ^iij/m, tasindy Hindi 
tirakkhd, thiakJid, Panj. ^e/id, Sindhi /t'A, ft7(dl. Mar. ^a/mn. 

b. Iranian. Av. tar§na 'thirst,' PhL iiSHy New Pers. tiS, 
Wfixl taxiJ), §iyn. ^)ki, Sarq. tar{l), Tidg. /rw^;?^, Afy. ^aiae, 
BaL tunnagj ttJnag, N. BaL thun, Kurd. ft. Av. zordhaya 
'heart,' PhL, New Pers. rf«7, Bal. zirdu, etc. (see § 67). Av. 
arB^a 'bear/ PhL, New Pers. xirs^ Kurd. t?frc, Afr5, hira, etc. 
(see § 67). Av. gargpta 'seized,' New Pers. giriftah, Mfiz. gttah^ 
Kfii, ^io/i^ BaL gipta. 

r> ri. 

§ 72. The change of r to ri occurs only initially, and only in 
semitatsamas or tatsamas in the New Indian dialects. The phe- 
nomenon is not infrequent in Hindi and Panjfibl; Sindhi and 



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VOWELS 86 

GujarSt] show fewer examples of it, and it is veiy uncommon in 
Uriya, Bangsll, and Mar&thl. 

a. Indian. Skt rddha * prosperity/ PrSk Hctdhi, iddhi, Pfili 
iddhi. Ski rJcsa * bear/ Prfik. rikkha, riccJia^ Pfili ikka, acehOy 
t^5)a, Ur. (rare) richaj Bihfiil rlch^ rikh^ Hindi tick, Panj. ricchj 
Sindhi richu, Guj. rfcA, Mar. ns. Skt grhasfha 'householder/ 
Hindi grihastha, Panj. g{a)risaH, Sindhi grihistUy Guj. grastha. 

r > ur. 

§ 73. The change of r to ur is frequent only m Pahlavl and 
New Persian. Elsewhere it is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. h9r9js:a 'high,' Phi., New Pers. hurZy £uid. 
barzy Oss. harzond. Av. pdrdna 'full,' PhL, New Pers. pur. 
Av. pdrdsahi 'thou askest,' Old Pera patiparsOhyy PhL pur^- 
iandj New Pers. pursidan, Wfixl, Sarq. pOrsam, Afy. jMiirf, 
Kurd, pirsitty Dig. Oss. farsun^ Tag. farsin. Av, fnar^ya ' bird,* 
PhL twtiry, mwrr, New Pera t/twry, Mfiz. mary, Afy. warya, 
Kurd. fnri§ky Oss. wary. 

r > t*. 

§ 74. The change of r to u is very common both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialecta As has been noted in § 66, r becomes 
M especially in the vicinity of labials. 

a. Indian. Skt. prthivl ' earth,' Prfik. pudhavlj puhuvlj pur 
havl, F^ pathavJ, pathavly puthuvl, puthat% Old Hindi iniAwtwi. 
Ski mpiala 'lotus-fibre,* Prfik. munala, Pfili mulala. Skt rtu 
'season,' Prfik. u(d)ily riHy Pfili uiUy Sindhi rutiy Guj. rut(u). 
Mar. rutil. Skt. vrsti ' rain,' Prfik. vuHhly vifiMy Pfili vutihi. 
Skt. vrddha ' old,' Ur. lurhay Itldly Bang, ttirfa, Hindi buddhay 
badhdy Panj. twd/id, Sindhi ?iw(?/ic;, lw(7//o, Guj. burho (cf. § 68). 

b. Iranian. Av. parUi ' back,' PhL, New Pers. xmUy Wfixl 
party Mfiz. jpa5^, N. BaL pliuiy Kurd, |)f5^, Zaza pa&t Av. 
kdr^naoiti 'makes,* Pfiz. Artinofw, New Pers. kunady GiL kudan, 
kardaUy Wfixl caraniy Siy. kinaniy Sarq. kananty BaL iawa^, 
N. BaL klianay, Kurd, iirin. Dig. Oss. khanun. Tag. khanin (cf. 

n 2 



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86 IKDO-nUNIAN PHONOLOGY 

also Skt ahrnavam *I did,' Old Pera. ahunavam ; Skt akrnOt 
' did,' Old Pera. akunauS, as well as Av. for^to * done,' Bal. kut, 
N. BaL khuda). Av. vdrdbka 'kidney,' PhL gurtdkj New Pera. 
gurdahy Wfixl wtt, BaL guttiy. Av. fratdrdsaiti ^ fears,' PhL 
ftir^ttanii, Afy. tarhSdalj BaL fru^oflf, iwr^ay, N. BaL thursoYj 
Kurd, fimn, Dig. Oes. tharsutij Tag. tharsin. 

[Somewhat similar to r > uib r > d before sibilants in Wfixl, 
e. g. Av. harSta ' ploughed,' Wftfl kdSi.] 

r > ru. 

§ 76. The change of r to ru occurs but rarely, and like the 
change of r to ri (cf. § 72) it is found only initially. 

a. Indian. Skt vr^a Hree,' Prfik. nikkha^ rikkha, riccha^ 
vrachaj Pali rukkhaj Ur. rHkhaf Mar. riikhf SiihL rui, rift, Gyp. 
rtikf etc. (see § 69). 

r > a. 
§ 76. The change of r to d is excessively rara 

a. Indian. Skt prstha 'back,' Mar. path, ptUhd, etc. (see 
§ 71). Skt krsi ' agriculture,' Pfili kasi, Ur. cdsa, tOsa, Bang. oUs. 

r>f. 
§ 77. The change of r to f is found very rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt prstha ' back,' Ur. pJtha, pithi, Bang., Hindi 
pUhy etc. (see § 71). 

b. Iranian. Av. parUi ' back,' Kurd. pUSt, piSt, etc. (see § 74). 

r>l 
§ 78. The change of r to I is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt grha 'house' beside gSha, Prfik. gSha, Pfili 
geha, ghara, gaha, Old Hindi g^lui, Mar. g^h, Simh. ^^ geycu, 
Gyp. iA^, ftycZ, etc. (see § 67). 

b. Iranian. Av. vardSa 'forest,' Phi. v^ky New Pers. 6^A, 
Kfii. t;l&», Mfiz., TfiL rtf^ Kurd. t?l&k 

f > if. 
§ 79. The change of r to i, like the other developments of 



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VOWELS 87 

Indo-Iranian r considered in the sections immediately preceding, 
occurs but seldom. 

a. Indian. Skt nirfA ' fialsely/ PrSk nKM, mtbd, Pfili mti^ 

(in like manner Skt mr^at^in ' lying,' Prfik. n^9MUk^ miOMM^ 

Pfili musdtucklin). 

r > al 

§ 80. In the Indian dialects r becomes a{ apparently only in 
the Mfigadhl Pr&krit The Iranian dialects show a few examples 
of a development of al from an original n 

a. Indian. Skt JiTbOi, < having done/ Prfik. hxri^JL^ Mfig. 
Prfik. Jialia, Bilifirl &i(r)i, Hindi IcaiXi). Skt Shrta 'held,' 
Prfik. dAarfa, Mfig. Prfik. dhalidSy Bihftrl cZAaifZ, dA^liZ, dhayal 
(in this word the Mfig. I has been elided, while the Mfig. d has 
become 2 as in all Bihfirl perfect participles). 

b. Iranian. Av. v9r9hJca 'kidney,' Wfijd valk, etc. (see § 74). 
Av. rar^fei * leaf,' PhL varg, New Pera 6arflF, Gab. vardk, EfiS. 
m^, Mfiz. varaky GiL mZ$f, mZA;, Judaeo-Pers., Kurd. valg. 

r > r. 

§ 81. The change of r to r seems to occur only after t and 
before vowels, and it is apparently confined to the SindhL 

a. Indian. Skt jdmdtrka * son-in-law,' Prfik. janvdila, Sindhi 

jdtrd. Skt mdtrTca 'maternal uncle,' Prfik. niaUa, Sindhi 

nUXtrL 

§ 82. Numerous examples may be cited where Indo-Iranian r 
develops into different voweb in the same word in the same period 
and dialect 

a. Indian. Skt trna 'grass,' Apab. Prfik. trnUj fonu, tinUj 

etc. (see § 66). Skt grha * house,' Pfili ghara^ gaha, gShOj etc. 

(see § 67). Skt mrttika 'earth,' Hindi, Panj., Guj. mattlj nMl, 

mittij etc. (see § 68). Skt vpita 'stem of a flower,' Prfik. vinta, 

ventay vonta, Pfili vanta. Skt rsi 'sage,' Prfik. m, risi, etc. 

(see § 71). Skt prsiha ' back,' Prfik. patihi, pUt^i, putthi, Panj. 

pitthj puithy Guj. piihj puihy Mar. pOth^ pufha^ etc. (see § 71). 



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88 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Ski trsna ' thiret,' Pali tinha, tanho, tasina, etc. (see § 71). Skt 

mrsa * falsely/ Prfik. mdsdy musd, mUsdy etc. (see § 79). 

b. Iranian. Av. apgrdndyu * boy/ New Pera bamd, bum&, 

etc. (see § 67). Av. kdrdtna ' worm,* Kurd, kamtj kurumj etc. 

(see § 67). Skt prdaku * leopard,' New Pers. pilang, palang, 

etc. (see § 68). Av. A:ai^naoi<i 'makes,' GiL iioZan, Jcardatij 

etc. (see § 74). 

The great variety of changes undeigone by Indo-Iranian r in the 
various Indo-Iranian dialects is obviou& Thus the r of Skt 
mrttika * earth * > ayi,(X'y the r of Skt grlia * house * > a, ^ ; of 
Skt vrddlia ' large ' > a, ti, 5 ; of Skt prstlia * back ' > a, i, u, d, 
f ; of Skt mrsd * falsely * > m, tZ, 5. In like manner the r of Av. 
pdrdsahi * thou askest ' > a, i, w, ^ ; and of Av. parsti ' back * > 
a, t, u, i. 



§ 83. Indo-Iranian f, arising from Indo-Grermanic f, 7, stands 
in Indian in ablaut with tr, tlr (before consonants), ir, ur (before 
vowels), ari, rd (Wackemagel, Altind. GramnUy I 22-30; Hirt, 
Indogenn. Ablaut, 48-49, 54-55, 60, 70-71, 76 sqq.). In Iranian 
the Indo-Iranian f is represented by ar (Bartholomae, Grundr. der 
iran. JPhilolj i. 25). The Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects 
Iiave in general retained without change the old representations of 
Indo-Iranian f. 

a.-b. Indo-Iranian. Skt tlrtha * across,' Prak. titthaj ttlha, 
Pali tittha ; WSxI tUrt Skt Urmi ' wave ' ; Av. vardmij Sarq. 
varm, BaL gvarm. Skt dUrgha 'long,' Prak. dfraJux, dlha, 
diggha, Pali diyliay Sindhi drigho ; Av. dardya^ Old Pers. darga. 
New Pers. dirdZy My. larya, Bal. drdj, N. Bal. drct£, Kurd. 
diri£, Tjaza darg, Oss. dary. 



I 
§ 84. Indo-Germanic 2 is lost entirely in the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian dialects, and it disappeared from the Iranian dialects 



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VOWELS 39 

in the pre-Iranian period In Old Indian I is veiy rare. The 
developments of I in Middle Indian were analogous to those of n 
a. Indian. Skt Mpta ^ done/ Prftk. kilitta, Pfili Jcappita. 



§ 86. Indo-Iranian ^ is in general retained unchanged in the 
Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. In the Middle and New Indian dialects e is long 
only before vowels and single consonants. Before consonant- 
groups it is to be r^arded as short. In Assamese e is invariably 
short 

Skt. dcva 'god,' Prat ddaj Pfili deva, Kalm. day, Ur., Bang. 
&f, Hindi dSd, dSu^ Panj., Sindhi (few, Gyp. devsl, del Skt. 
jyretna 'love,* Prat pefnma, Pali pSma, New Indian dialects 
p(r)eni. 

b. Iranian. The confusion in New Persian of the niajhiU € 
with the mnlraf I has been noted above, § 85. The Caspian 
dialects also show this confusion, while the Judaeo-Persian, in 
conmion with several other Eastern Persian dialects, preserves 
carefully the distinction between € and f. 

Av. daeva * demon,' PhL, New Pers. (fci;, WaxI ftr, Siy. 6fe;, 
Sarq. lev. Av. haca * from ' + ahairi * beneath,' PhL azSr, Pfiz. 
aier, New Pers. zlr, Siv. §i, Za£ iUr, other Cent^ dialects jtr, 
Samm. jer, TaL jiar, Judaeo-Pers. ^r, Kurd, jsflr. Av. vaSH 
* willow,* Phi. v^fj New Pers. bed, Pamir dialects vid, Gab. vJd. 
Siv. vf, Zaf., KfiS. t% Von. vJd, Kuhr. vSt, Nat vld, Afy. vala, 
N, BaL ^^e>, Kurd, vl, hl(h). 

6> a. 
§ 86. The change of ^ to a is not frequent In Western 
Bangall, however, several instances of a are found where the 
Eastern Bangall keeps the original S unchanged (e.g. Skt Ska 
*one,' R Bang, eka, W. Bang. ak). 

a. Indian. Skt mlSccha 'barbarian,' Prat milicchu, Pali 
milakkhu. Skt tkOdaia ' eleven,' Prat saraha, Pali ekOdasa, 



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40 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOQT 

ekar<isa, Ea&n. k&h^ Ur., Bang. SgarOj Bihfiil egydrah^ Hindi 
igOrah, gtfdrah^ Panj. giardrhy Sindhi tkOraham, yAra/iaiH, Gtg. 
ogiAr^ Mar. aX:ard. 

b. Iranian. Av. vaSti * willow/ Afy. wfa, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). Av. cU^sma 'fuel,' PhL (A)&eam, Pfiz., New Pera 
h€J9ainj Gab. iema, KftS., Ruhr. {h)Ssamy Kurd. Juufang. 

€ > i. 

§ 87. The change of ^ to i is found both in the Indian and in 
the Iranian dialects. In the Indian dialects the change occurs 
more frequently in the West than in the East Among the 
Iranian dialects the Ossetish regularly develops i from e before n. 

a. Indian. Skt. vcdand 'pain,' Prftk. reand, v^and, Pali 
vSdanCL Skt dBvara * brother-in-law/ Prfik. diara^ dSvara, Pali 
d&xiraj Ur. d&fura^ Bang., Hindi, Panj. (fewir, dByaty Sindhi 
d^rUj Guj. d5ur, dfo-, Mar. efewir, cfeyar. Skt SkOdaia 'eleven,' 
Hindi igdrahy gydrahy Sindhi ikdraham, yarahathy etc. (see 
preceding §). Skt prativ€iaka 'neighbouring,' P&li pativissaka. 

b. Iranian. Av. da&sa 'garden,' Old Pers. irapi]b€ia'os, PhL 
dis, New Pens. dt>, di£y cfer. PhL m€hmctn 'guest,' New Pers. 
mehmdnj mihnUlnj Afy. mehna, Kurd. mUvdn. Old Pers. na/Z^i 
'good,' PhL n^e.'(aAj), New Pers. n€k{d)j nikd. Av. axSaena 'green,' 
PhL, New Pers. 5;a5ln, §iy. &in, Sarq. aroin, Tidg. axSfn, Afy. 
arfn, ^n, Kurd. (ha)Slnj Oss. axsimig. Skt i>%^na ' foam,' Dig. 
Osa ^fntAa, Tag. Jinkh. 

C> a. 

§ 88. The change of ^ to d is excessively rare, 
a. Indian. Skt keyiira 'bracelet,' Pali kOyiira. 

«> f. 

§ 89. The change of ^ to f is rare both in the Indian and in 
the Iranian dialects, excepting in Pfizand and Ne^ Persian, where 
€ becomes f r^ularly before a nasaL 

a. Indian. Skt m^ha 'cloud,' Prfik. tniha, Psi& Prfik. 



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VOWELS 41 

vi^hx^ Pfili inOgha^ Hindi mlifiA^ m^\ Panj. mlfiiA^ mlhaihf 
Sindhi mlmhu. 

b. Iranian. Av. txiina 'noee^' PhL t^lii^ bSniky P&z. t^nf^ 
New Pens. &fnf, Ssmn. t^nf, Mfiz. i;^f, TsL t;lnf, Kurd. 6^ 
&it^ R Kurd, bafxxl Av. axSa^ta 'blue/ PhL, New Pens. 
a;alfn, Yidg. dx^n^ Afy. 2:fn, iTn, £urd. (ha)^nj etc (see § 87). 
Av. do^nan 'glance/ PhL and€mankar, Pfiz. ancJirmdni; New 
Pera. dim, Sir., Zaf., Efii. dim, Kuhr. dim, dUm, Afy. Z^ina^ BaL 
dem, N. Bal. d^m)9, Kurd. dim. Av. ^i^Mi^^a ' white,' PhL sp^, 
New Pera sipSd, $ap€d, ispsd, Zaf. «^, KfiS. 0^5^ Kuhr. o^b^ 
Sarq. spaid {ai of secondary development, c£ New Pers. d^ 
4ong,' Sarq. loan-word dair), li!idg. 5pl, Kurd. ^jpl. Av. dixa 
*ice,' Pfiz. yah, New Pers. yoo:, WaxI, §iy. yew:, Tidg. yua:, 
Yayn. ix, Dig. Oss. ya^. Tag. ix. Av. Aa^u 'bridge," Dig. Oss. 
xed, Tag. a:f d 

§ 90. The change of ^ to S is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt vBsfana 'crown,' Pali vSthana, Siifah. voiunu, 
New SiihL otunna. 

e > ai. 

§ 91. The change of ^ to ai is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. ofaSda 'sweat,* PhL x^di. New Pers. ofai, 
Wfizi xil, Sarq. xaib, Afy. x^'aiU, BaL %^ N. BaL hid, Kurd. 
a;a, oroi, xOh, Oss. xod 

^>y. 
§ 92. The change of ^ to y is very rare and it occurs only 
initially. (This y is probably really prothetic.) 

a. Sanskrit Ska ' one,' Prftk. ehka, Pali Ska, KaSm. dkh, Ur., 
Bang. Ska, W. Bang, dk, Bihan yak, Sk, Old Hindi iA^i:), Hindi 
ek, Panj. iX;, Sindhi hiku, {h)Sku, hikidd, hikidd, Guj. ^, aiJk, 
Mar. «i, y^t. Gyp. yek, yekh. 

b. Iranian. Av. a&Hi ' one,' Old Pers. aiva, PhL a;(aA;), Pfts., 
New Pera yak, V6a yar, i*f, Kuhr. y, f , it, WaxI f (r), Siy. yft;. 



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42 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

yi,yu,yUj Sarq. i% % SangL tfokj ICnj. yao^ My. yw, BaL ^6k, 
Kurd f^ Dig. Oaa ^ti^ Tag. yu. Av. a^j» 'ice/ Pftz. yaA, 
New Pere^ Wftifl, Siy. yox, Yidg. yiM^ Dig. Osa yax, etc. 
(see §89). 

^ j>%aerem of ^. 

§ 98. The loss of initial ^ occurs with extreme rarity, 
a. Indian. Skt iranda ^ castorK>il tree,' Hindi rSnidh 

Apocope of L 

§ 94. Final ^ is lost in the New Indian dialects in the majority 
of instancea 

a. Indian. Skt tete * beneath,' Ur. ta\v), Hindi iaU, Guj., 

Mar. ia\ tal Skt sat9ge *with,' Ur. sathgcj Hindi, Panj. samny 

Sindhi sdfhy Guj. santHj Mar. samgah. 

The multiform changes to which a final S is subject in the New 
Indian dialects may be well illustrated from the modem repre- 
sentatives of Old Indian *pa^c€ for the Sanskrit pascat ' after.' 
Skt '^paice ' after,' Apab. Prftk. pacclial^ Ur. pach^^ pachUy 

Bang, piclidy pacchBy Hindi pdclvPy plcJie, j^c/u?, Panj. jyichc, 

pichOm, Sindhi |>5c, pudm^ Guj. pacJi^j pacJtt, pacJio. 



iXi = di. 

§ 96. Indo-Iranian di has been lost in the Indo-Iranian dia- 
lects. The few cases in the Iranian dialects in which di is appar- 
ently retained show in reality a change of di to ay (cf. § 108). 

b. Iranian. Av. rdi * radiance/ New Pers. rdy. [New Pers. 
rdy is, however, to be compared rather with Av. gen. sg. ^rdyd.] 

di > at 

§ 96. The change of di to a% occurs very rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt sdinya 'soldier,' Prftk. saXniia, senna, Pali 
sSniya. 



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VOWELS 48 

ai >f. 

§ 97. The change of ai to f is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt cOUiirya 'firmness,' Prfik. dhira, dhijja, Ur., 
Sindhi, Guj., Mar. dh%r. 

di > f. 

§ 98. The change of di to e is the normal one to which Ai is 
subject in the Middle and New Indian dialects, where it is fomid 
very frequently. 

a. Indian. Skt. Saila 'hill,' PrSk, Pfili sSla. Skt haivarta 
'fisherman,' Prftk., Pfili kevatia, Hindi kSvai. Skt taila'oilj* 
Prfik., Pfili tella^ New Ind. dialects Ul Skt gairika 'red 
chalk/ Pfili geriia, Ur. g^i^ Hindi gerU, Guj. gSrUj Mar. g&rH 



§ 99. Indo-Iranian 6 is in general preserved unchanged in the 
Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. In Assamese 6, although 
it is retained in the script, is pronounced ti. The New Persian 
presents the same confusion of the majhul d and the malrHf a 
which has already been observed in the case of ^ and I (see §§ 85, 
85). The Judaeo-Persian, like the majority of the East Iranian 
dialects, observes carefully the distinction between 6 and t? (cf. 
§85). 

a. Indian. Skt lihdjana 'food,' Prfik. lih^nay Pfili bhCjana. 
Skt ydktra 'yoke,' Pfili yoUa, Ur., Bang., Hindi, Panj. j6t, 
SindhljoUf Guj. jStor, Mar. j5/. 

b. Iranian. Av. raocah 'day,' Old Pers. raticah^ PhL rdCy 
New Pers. rOJSf Gab. rHj, Caspian dialects $% excepting KfiiS. r5, 
TfiL rdJS, riiiy Wfixl rauj, Afy. rtraj, Bal. rdc, N. BaL rdS^ Kurd. 
roS, rd(i). Av. gaoSa ' ear,' Old Pers. jfa«&, PhL, New Pers. 
gdSf Sir., Bahb. gful, Nfiy. gilS, Wfixl yilS, yi§, &yn. yOS, Sarq. 
yaul {au of secondary development), Tidg. yH, Afy. yvaiy, BaL 
J(JS, Kurd. flfwA, Dig. Oss. yoSy Tag. jtfe. Av. iaoiU 'perfume^' 
PhL W(^ 6e«, New Pers. W(i), Wfixl rwZ, Sarq. baOj Tayn. oki; 



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44 INDO-nUNIAN PHONOLOGY 

BaL hddj N. BaL &e», hdSy Oaa hud. Av. rooSa 'face,' PhL rdd. 
New Pers. r^i), Judaeo-Pers. rdu 

6 > atL 

§ 100. Hie change of d to au is exoeesiyely rare. 

b. IraniaiL Av. saok^tUatxifU 'sulphurous,' Pfiz. sauxtgand^ 
New Pera saugand, 

d > a. 

§ lOL The change of d to a is not common either in the Indian 
or in the Iranian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt gddhama 'wheat,' Apab. PrftL gdhamUy Pali 
godhUma^ Ass. ghethhu^ Naip. gahtVhy Ur. gdhama^ gania^ Bang. 
gdnt, gam, Bihari gdhUm, Hindi gd(m)huiliy gchufk^ gMunij Panj. 
gh'ufhj Sindhi gehunij Guj. gJiaUm, Gyp. giv. 

b. Iranian. Av. saocaydhi 'shalt bum,' PhL sdxtandj sdcinl- 
fandj New Pers. sOxtatij Gab. sajan^ Mfiz., GiL V^i;, Sarq. $aujg, 
Afy. sSzalf sSjal, BaL ^mco^, N. BaL 5u^y (intrana), BaL sOcag^ 
N. BaL 55lay (trans.), Kurd, sotin^ Dig. Oss. ^^Jun, Tag. sujin. Av. 
sraoni 'loin,* PhL 5ar«<Z?, ^ann, New Pers. sardn, surhij Wftxl 
{wwj, §iy. Saun, Sarq. a:»Mn, BaL 5aren. New Pers. p6z ' parts 
about the nose,' Gab. jptlar, BangL fusik, Minj. /b^fcx, Afy. poza, 
pajsa, BaL jpo(n)^, N. BaL phdnZj Kurd. j>el^, i^^jg". Dig. Oss. JinjCy 
Tag. fng. 

> i. 
§ 102. The change of d^ to i is excessively rare, 
b. Iranian. Av. gaoSa ' ear/ WaxI yiS, yUS, etc. (see § 99). 

6 > u. 

§ 108. The change of d to u is common both in the Indian and 
in the Iranian dialects. As in all cases of shortening, the phe- 
nomenon here discussed occurs especially before double consonants 
or consonant-groups. 

a. Indian. The change of d to ti in the New Indian dialects 

occurs more frequently in the West than in the East, although 



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V0WBL8 45 

the Bangsll often has u wliere the other New Indian dialects 
show 6. 

Skt rOcati 'shines^' Prfik. ruooail, Msg. Prftk. VMi, Pftli 
ruccati, rdcatk Skt jyCtsna ' moon-lit nighty' Prfik. jlkhha^ Pfili 
iuiftto. Skt Ujjas 'strength,' Jfiina Prfik. uya^ Pftii (^ Skt 
I(^.^^m 'in a small water-pot,' R New Ind. dialects li^iff(lf W. 
New Ind dialects Uriiya. Skt, Pfili lOhakOra 'blacksmith,' 
Sindhi luharu. 

Here too may be considered the Ea&nlrl ^, U arising from 6 
through the imilaut of a following f, a g. Kahn. br(^ ' tom-cat,' 
fem. biihr (written br&riXi; Skt vrddka 'laige,' KaSm. lodd 
(written ladu), fern. bUd (written haditf, etc. (see § 68). 

b. Iranian. Av. kao/a 'hiU,' Old Pera ka^fil, PhL kdf, New 
Pers. hdh, kuh^ Kuhr. htfttn^ mountain Jewish X^ Afy. hvahj 
BaL A^ejpoX^ N. BaL A;A(;/Siy, Kurd, itivf. Av. tnaoiri ' ant,' PhL, 
New Pera rndfy Gab. m(^i, KfiS., Vdn. m^rcuna, Yidg. mfiryaA, 
Dig. Oss. muljugj Tag. maVjig. Av. pooJa 'ear,' Sir., Bahb. gui^ 
etc. (see § 99). New Pers. gOiah 'comer,' Kurd, jrtlf, jfO&i, 
Bohtani X^i. 

3 >f. 

§ 104. The change of d to f is rather infrequent 
b. Iranian. Some of the New Iranian dialects preserve the 

transition-grade U. 
PhL na(d), mm ' hair,' New Pers. nai, Gab. mid, Slv., Bahb., 

Nfiy., Mfiz. mi, GiL, TfiL mU, other Caspian dialects ma, BaL 

m«k, mfd, N. Bal. mid. New Pers. «7aA 'puppy,' Slv. ftte. 

d > 0. 

§ 106. In Pfizand and New Persian Indo-Iranian d becomes U 
regularly before m or n (compare the analogous change in these 
dialects of ^ to f before nasals, § 89). In Af yfin 6 becomes H before 
n, but it remains unchanged before m. Elsewhere the change is 
sporadic only. 

b. Iranian. Av. gaona 'colour,' PhL giln(ak\ New Pen. 



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46 INDO'IRANIAN PHONOLOGT 

gtln(ah)y Afy. yUna. Av. haoma ^ Homa-plant^' PhL hdm, Pftz., 
New Pers. hUm, Afy. (hna. Av. saocaydhi ' shalt bum,* Mftz., GiL 
Vsaj, Tag. Oss. sujin, etc. (see § 101). Av. raocaA ' day/ Gab. 
raj, Til. roi, rtl?, Kurd rOi, reJ(i), etc. (see § 99). Av. draoya 
* lie/ Old Pers. dratigq, PhL c?r5(7, dr5y, New Pers. durdy, darOy, 
Msz. dartl, durU, TaL do, Sarq. dur«, Afy. darCy, BaL d(a)rdj, 
N. BaL drdy. Av. rooyna *oil,' PhL rdkan, rdyan^ New Pers. 
rOyanj Kurd. rtin. 

§ 106. The change of d to ^ is foimd with some frequency. 

a. Indian. Skt, Pfili rdhita 'kind of fish/ Ass. rd, K Hindi 
rvM, Hindi rCAa, Panj. r^fet?, Sufah. reJiCj rd. Skt gbdhfima 
'wheat,' Asa gliSthhUy Hindi gShwh, flfft^tt^i, jf5(m)7mw, Panj. 
gMum, Sindhi ^^fcwrfi, etc. (see § 101). Skt. cdra Hhief,' Prftk., 
Pali Cora, New Ind. dialects cur, excepting Kalm. cur, Siifah. 
heraj hora. Gyp. cor. 

> va. 

§ 107. The change of 5 to va occurs regularly in Afyftn, except- 
ing before in, where o is retained, and before n, where becomes U 
(see § 105). 

b. Iranian. Av. gaoSa ' ear,' Afy. yraty, etc. (see § 99). Av. 
raocah ' day,' Afy. ^-vaj, etc. (see § 99). 



ctu = aw. 

§ 108. The Indo-Iranian dii has been lost in the Indo-Iranian 
dialects. The few cases in which dii has apparently been retained 
in the Iranian dialects show in reality a change of du to Qv (cf. 
§95). 

b. Iranian. Skt. ndu 'ship,' Av. ndvaya * navigable,' Old 

Pers. ndviyd 'fleet' (?), Phi. ndvJcahy ndvidk, New Pers. mv. 
prhe New Pers. ndv is, however, to be compared rather with tlie 
Av. gen. sg. "^fidvd.] 



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VOWELS 47 

du > aU. 

§ 109. The change of du to aU is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. pdura 'citizen/ Prfik. paUray Pfili pdra. 
Skt. gdurava * respect,' Prfik. gailravaj 6fiur. Prftk. gdrava. 
Skt. mdiili 'garland,' Pr&k. maUli, Pfili mOli. 

dtt > u. 

§ 110. The change of du to u is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. Mukseyaka * sword,' Prfik. ktMchSaa. Skt. 
dauvarika * porter,' Prfik. duwdria^ Pfili dovarika. Skt. oHurya 
* theft,' Prfik cdriOj Nfiip. c^rf, Ur. cdrij Bang, curi, Hindl^ Mar. 
cdrl. Skt. dutsukya 'zeal,' Prfik. o^wiAa, Pali t<5stiJi;Aa. 

au > H 

§ 111. The change of du to t2 is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt Sdurya 'heroism,' Prfik. sdria, Sindhi 
sHriMl. 

du > d. 

§ 112. The change of du to diB the normal one to which Indo- 
Iranian du is subject in the Middle and New Indian dialects. It 
may also be noted that an in Assamese script is always pro- 
nomiced o. 

a. Indian. Skt kdumtidi 'moonlight,' Prfik. homuij Pfili 
kofnudi, Gyp. comut 'moon.' Skt yduvana 'youth,* Prfik, Jormwa, 
Pfili yohhanaj Sindhi joblianu. Skt dupamya 'analogy,' Pfili 
dpamma. Skt gdura ' pale,' Pfili gdra. New Ind, dialects gdrd. 
Skt.jhdulika 'pouch,' Ur., Bang, jhull, jhuli, jhOlJ, Hindi jhOll, 
Guj., Mar. jhdp. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 

§ 118. The Indo-Iranian consonants remain for the most part 
unchanged in the Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. The 
law of spirantization which sharply distinguishes the Iranian from 
the Indian dialects is still operative^ and all phenomena to be 
discussed in the following chapter must be considered with this 
fact in mind. The principal changes undergone by the Indo- 
Iranian single consonants are in general easily explicable. Clom- 
mon both to the Indian and to the Iranian dialects, although more 
frequent in the latter, is the change of an original voiced consonant 
to a voiceless, or the reverse. Aspiration and deaspiration, the 
loss of a consonant and the subsequent insertion of y or i; in its 
place to avoid a resultant hiatus, are the most striking changes 
noted in the Indian dialects. The changes presented by the 
Iranian dialects in the single consonants are far more sporadic 
and less regular than those which are found in the Indian dialects. 
In the Iranian dialects a voiceless intervocalic consonant regularly 
becon^es voiced. In general it may be said that the Indian dialects 
have preserved the original Indo-Iranian vowels more faithfully 
than the Iranian dialects have, but that, on the other hand, the 
Iranian consonants have suffered less change than the Indian. 

In the following paragraphs will be found in some detail the 
principal changes undergone by the Indo-Iranian consonants in 
the various Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. 

§ 114. Indo-Iranian A; is in general preserved unchanged both 
in the Indian and in the Iranian dialecta 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS ^ 

a. Indian. Skt Tcafhayati 'tells,' Pr&k. Tcahal, TcdhH, Psli 
hUMiy Ur., Bang., Hindi, Panj., Sindhi Tcah, Ghij. Mh, Siihh, 
kiyanavO. Skt eka 'one,' Pr&k. ekka^ Pali ^^ Ea6m. aA;%» Ur., 
Bang. «X», W. Bang, ak^ BihfiH ydk, So, Old Hindi tJfc(&), Hindi 
ikj Panj. i£, Sindhi %tA;t4^ {h)Shu, Aiiti^, %^A;i^, Guj. aJb, aiky 
Mar. (y)^i. Gyp. ye*, yekh. 

b. Iranian. Av. *ao/a 'hill,' Old Pers. ka^/a, PhL fel/(a*), 
New Pers. te^ Kuhr. kufun, Tat X^ Afy. %c^, BaL h^pak, 
N. BaL khojay, Kurd. ifOA. Av. iar^naot^i 'makes,' Old Pers. 
kunavAhify PhL A^and, New Pers. kardan, W&xl &imi», Siyn. 
kinaiUf Sarq. kanam, BaL kanagy N. BaL A;%anay, Kurd ftirin, 
Dig. Oss. i^nun. Tag. klianin. 

k > khyX. 

§ 115. In the Indian dialects the aspirization of an original k is 
only sporadic, but the Middle and New Iranian dialects r^ularly 
change k into the spirant x internally between vowels. In North 
BalucI k becomes kh regularly initially, and the change occurs 
uniformly both initially and finally in Ossetish. 

a. Indian. Ski ktibja ' hmnp-backed,' Pr&k., Pali khujjay 
Ur. kUJAj Bang. ku(m]j(l, kubjAy Hindi kulyd, kubbcty kubrdy Panj. 
kubbdy kul^y Sindhi kubdy Guj. ktibardy Mar. kubaddy khub. 
Ski kOsa 'cough,' Mfthftr. Prfik. khOsay Pfili kOsay Hindi, Panj., 
Sindhi khOfh^y khamsna. Ski kapa 'well,' Prftk. ftt*{t7)a, Pfili 
kilp<iy Ea&n. khuhy Ur., Bang. kMy Hindi kudihy Panj. khuhay 
Sindhi khuhuy Guj., Mar. kuvd. Ski krddaka 'lap,' Hindi A;^, 
Guj. khdld. Ski ^uiuindm 'youth,' Pr&L sUntdlay sukumOlOy 
Pfili $uA;AfiinA2a, ^uX^umdra. 

b. Iranian. Av. kafa 'foam,' PhL, New Pers. kafy WfitI 
xufy Sarq. 2:0/ Bal. A^p, Kurd, ka/y Dig. Oss. a;q/|[a), Tag. axif. 
Av. kahrkOsa ' vulture,* PhL taArids, kargaSy New Pers. kargaSy 
BaL kargazy N. BaL khargaZy 08& kharkh. Av. aAmdfom 'of 
us,' Old Pers. aiw^teaw, New Pers. m«, KfiS. (A)^>^, Adnsd, Osa 
moa:. GAv. xSmaka 'yours,' TAv. yuSmakay Pfiz., New Pera 
jumd, BaL &xul, Dig. Oss. smaXy Tag. wmoo^ Av. niy^J^ 

X 



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50 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOOT 

'grandfather/ Old Pers. apanydka, PhL nydk, New Pers. niydy 
Afy. nlka, BaL ndio, N. BaL nUxoy fern. nakh. 

k >g. 

§ 116. The change of A; to ^ is not frequent, excepting in the 
Iranian dialects internally between vowels. 

a. Indian. Skt, Pali hlra ^ parrot,' Simh. gird, giravd, hira. 
Skt. marakata ^emerald,' Prfik. maragaya. Skt sakdla 'whole/ 
Mllhar. Prfik. sayala, Pali sakala. Bang, sagun, Biharl sagar, 
Hindi saguHy sagrdy Panj. sagrd^ Sindhi sagunu, Guj. saglo^ Mar. 
sagluj Simh. siyalu. Skt kliJca 'crow/ Prak. kda^ Bang., Hindi, 
Panj. kagy Sindhi kdmgu, Mar. kctg, 

b. Iranian. Av. ka 'who?' New Pers. kill, Waxi kui, koi, 
Siyn. iai, Sarq. coi, BaL ft^, N. BaL kJiai, Tur Kurd, flfo, Dig. 
Oss. khtty Tag. ct, Kamunti khl. Av. ydkaro ' liver,' PhL jalcar^ 
yakar. New Pers. jVgfar, BaL jograr, N. BaL jayar, Kurd, ^ari, 
Oss. igar. Av. sukuruna 'porcupine,' Phi. sukuvy New Pers. 
^M^u;*(naA), Ghtb. sUxufy My. Slcon^ Skun, BaL slkufiy N. Bal. 

£ > A;/. 

§ 117. The palatalization of A; to X;^ is found in Iranian. 

b. Iranian. Av. kaofa 'hill,' Kurd, kiuhy etc. (see § 114). 
Av. kafa ' house ' ElaS., Kuhr. kiyah, Nat. kiah^ Yidg. X;^^, etc. 
(see following §). 

I > <^ d 

§ 118. The change of % to c is very rare in the Indian dialects, 
but in the Iranian dialects c or ^ is not infrequently developed 
from an original k, 

a. Indian. Skt kiriUa 'name of a degraded tribe,' Prak. 

cila(d)a (but kiraya 'monkey'). Skt kunda 'turner,' Pali 

cunda. Skt krsi ' agriculture,' Pali kasiy Ur. cdsa, tOsaj Bang. 

cas. Skt gdsthika 'belonging to a village,' Sindhi gdihScd. 

[Here may be noted the Kaiimlrl change of A; to c in the forma- 
tion of the feminine, e. g. Kaim. batuk ' drake,' bdtUc ' duck.'] 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 51 

b. Iranian. Av. kata ^ house,' PhL JcataJcy New Pers. kad{ah)j 
Zaf. kl, Esfi. kiyahy Van. ke^ Euhr. kiyahy Nat kiah^ W&xl katj 
diyn« ^ Sarq. c^d^ Minj. kaiy Yidg. A:^^. Av. k9r9ta 'knife,' 
PhL toff, New Pers. kardy N. Afy. cfiro^ Bal kan^fl^ N. Bal. 
khOrcay Kurd. J!;lr((2), Osb. ib^ni New Pers. kaik ^ flea,' Kurd. 
kiCy kac Av. X;a 'who ? ' Sarq. coiy Tag. Oss. ci, etc. (see § 116). 
Av. ^oto 'needle/ Phi. 5t7can, Pfiz. ^tlean, £d^n, New Pers. 
sdzan, Gab. ^ajan, Zaf., Ka& ^oj00, WfizI ^, Sarq. ^ BaL 
^ticin, ^7cln, N. Bal. ^Sin^ SiSan^ &Siny seSltiy Kurd. SoSin. 

k>t. 

§ 110. The change of A; to ^ is very rare. In many of its 

occurrences it is due to dissimilation. 

a. Indian. Skt. krsi 'agriculture,' X7r. tllsay cdsa, etc. (see 

preceding §). Skt kakkdla 'bdellium,' Pfili takkdla, Simh. 

takfiL 

k > p. 

§ 120. The change of i to |? is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. jalnkikd ' leech,' Pfili jdlupikdj jatiika (due 
in this example to dissimilation). 

k >bh. 

§ 12L The change o{ k to bh occurs with extreme rarity. 

a. Indian. Skt iikara ' spray,' Prfik. sii{fi)aray sibharay P^i 
siikara. [See now Pischel, § 206.] 

k>y. 

§ 122. The change of £ to y is only apparent The k is actu- 
ally lost through the transition-grade g, and y is then inserted 
to prevent the hiatus caused by the loss of the k. The phe- 
nomenon is far less frequent in the Iranian than in the Indian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt ndriksJa 'cocoanut,' Nsip. narival, Bang. 
narSly BihArl nariyary Hindi ndriyaly Panj. nariluj nal&% 
Sindhi nUrelii, ndlru^ Ouj. nUriyal Mar. n&ral Skt OMra 

B 3 



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62 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

'figure/ Pr&k. Ogara, Mfihar. ayara, OkOra, P&li dkara. Skt 
hdhila ^cuckoo/ Prfik. kdila, Ur. k^ila, Hindi, Panj., Sindhl 
kdUf Gtij. kGyaly Mar. kokil, Sufah. kavulldy Anglo-Ind. JmI 
Skt {u)daka < water/ Jfiina Prsk. dagay Pfili (JaJto, dA», SimL 
daga, daya, diya. Skt. oah^ra 'sort of bird,' Mu siyuruy Siifah. 

b. Iranian. PhL nUUikdn 'mare,' New Pers. nUtdigHn^ BaL 
madydn^ N. BaL mdtin^ mdjerin. 

i > r. 

§ 128. The change of A; to r, like that of X; to y, is only apparent. 
The h is actually lost through the transition-grade g^ and v is then 
inserted to prevent the hiatus caused by the loss of the h. 

a. Indian. Skt Suka 'parrot,' Psli suka^ suva. Skt naktda 
'mongoose,' P&li nakulaj Ur., Bang, n^d^ Hindi nSval, Panj. 
netdf Sindhl ndrtij Guj. ndliytu Skt kokila 'cuckoo,' Siihh. 
kaviMd, etc (see preceding §). 

b. Iranian. Skt vikdiatS 'appears,' Phi. gukds 'witness,' 
Pftz. guvdhj guvdij New Pers. guva{h). Skt vikaroti 'trans- 
poses,' PhL gtikarifand, Pfiz. guJidra^, New Pers. guvdrad. Av. 
span 'dog,' Med. cnraKo, PhL sai, 5a(/, New Pers. sag, Gab. 
^oM, ^az^d, KfiS. o^&d, o^, Samn. o^&a, T&L sipd, Af/. j?pai, 
Kurd sah. 

k>§. 

§ 124. The change of £ to jf is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. suka 'needle,' N. BaL slSiHy £?£an, SlSln^ 
seSln^ etc. (see § 118). 

*> h. 

§ 126. The change of X; to % is rare in the Indian and 
especially rare in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt 5pAa^tA;a 'crystal,' Pr&k. i?Aa|tAa,j)AaZiya,j)%a- 
diajPSi^phalika. Skt iriA^ 'beauty/ M&hftr. Pr&k. ^'ri/t^l. Skt 
nikaSa 'touchstone,' Pr&k. nihasa^ Jfiina Pr&L nihasa^ nighasa^ 



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SINGLE coi^ONAirrs 58 

Psli nikasa. Skt srjanaJOra 'creator/ Sindhi sitjanahdru. 
Ski. akaSa 'sky/ Prftk. dydsOj Psli aJc&sa, Siiiih. a/to^, dso. 

b. Iranian. Av. span ' d(>g,' Med. (nr^Uo, Kurd. ^^ etc (see 
§128). 

* > 5, i. 

§ 126. The change of & to #, i occurs with extreme rarity in 
the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. siikd ' needle/ Pftz. silgai% sdJKMj New Pers. 
sdMHy Zaf., KsS. $0£^j Kurd, jfttftn, etc (see § IIS). 

Aphaeresis of k. 

§ 127. The loss of an initial h is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Ski, Pali kudddla 'hoe/ Ur. kdra, Bang, kddal, 
Sindhi X^atl, Ouj. kdddrOf SimL ucfoZti^ uddUa. 

Syncope of k. 

§ 128. The loss of an internal k is not infirequent in the Indian 
dialects, although it is noteworthy that the phenomenon occurs 
more often in the Middle than in the New period. 

a. Indian. Skt avakdia ' opportunity/ PrSk. odsa^ avatfdsa, 
Psli okOsa, avakOsa. Skt. nakula 'mongoose,' Ur., Bang., 
Panj. niul, Sindhi norti, Guj. ndliyUy etc. (see § 128). Skt 
ndrikela 'cocoanut,' Bang. ndrSl, Panj. nardtij ndUrUy Sindhi 
ndreluy ndh^ Mar. ndral, etc (see § 122). Skt kOkila ' cuckoo,' 
Prfik. kdilOy Hindi, Panj., Sindhi kdil, etc (see § 122). Skt 
carmakdra 'leather-worker,' Pfili cammakdra, Ur. camdraj Bang. 
edfndr^ Hindi, Panj. camdr^ Sindhi camdrUj Guj. camdr^ Mar. 
cdmhdr. 

Apocope of k. 

§ 120. The loss of a final k is very common in the Iranian 
dialects. 

b. Iram'an. Old Pers. bqdaka ' servant,' PhL handak, New 
Pers. bandah. Phi. cdrak 'means,' PS2. cdra^ New Pers. odrah^ 
Afy. cdra^ 6ara. Av. span ' dog,' Med. o-^iiica, Gab. sahd^ savdy 



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54 INDO-nUNIAN PHONOLOGT 

KfiS. aspdy asba, Samn. asbct, T&L sipd, Afy. spai, etc. (see § 128). 
Skt navaka ' lad,' New Pers. navahy Kurd tor, Id, lau{h). Phi. 
adnoi ^ house,' New Pers. xanah, Kurd. a:an^ Mukil xdniL 

Epenthesis ofh. 

§ 180. The insertion of £ is very rare (merely graphic ?). 
b. Iranian. Av. miOaoxta 4ie,' PhL mVOkxt, Pfiz. midtcxf. 



§ 18L Indo-Iranian hh remains in general unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt nakha ' nail,' Pr&k., Pfili nahha, Gyp. nay, 
Skt likhati * writes,' Prftk. Ithai, Pftli likhatiy Ka&n. lehh, 
Hindi likhtUl, Ouj. lakhavufh. Mar. liAm^/n, Siihh. liyanava. 
Skt AAam 'donkey,' Prak., Pali iAam. Skt hhadati 'eats,' 
Prak. A;*fif, Pali khOdati, Ur. iAdlJd, Bang, khdite, Hindi 
IMn^ Panj. A:Adnd, Sindhi khdlnu, Ouj. £Adrum, Mar. khdn^j 
Sinxh. A^anat^ 

b. Iranian. Av. xara ' donkey,' PhL, New Pers. xar. Wax! 
arwr, Siyn. har, Sarq. car, 5ar, SangL xar, Minj. awm, Yidg. 
xuruh, My. xar, N. BaL khar, xar, Kurd. i(i)ar, Zaza xar, Oes. 
aramgr. Av. noo^a 'nail,' PhL ndxdn, New Pers. ndXHUj My. 
nUk, BaL nakun, ndhuHy N. BaL naxun, Kurd, naimik, Osa 
ntj:. Av. a«a:a 'ice,' New Pers. yox, WaxI yix, Siyn. you:, 
Yidg. ywx, Yayn. Ix, Dig. Oss. yax. Tag. ir. Skt wtd'Aa ' face,' 
Afy. max. 

kh > k. 

§ 132. In the Indian dialects the deaspirization of an original 
kh is very rare, but in the later Iranian dialects the phenomenon 
is somewhat more frequent 

a. Indian. Skt khalu ' indeed,' Prak. (inscriptions of Kapur 

di Giri) ku, lit Prak. Mw, Pali khd, khalu. Skt kha 'spring,' 

Pali id, kha, G^yp. chev. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 55 

b. IraniaiL Av. xara 'donkey/ Kurd h{i)ary etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). Av. naxa ^nwl/ BaL nHhun^ ndhtmy etc. (see 
preceding §). 

hh > ghy y. 

§ 188. The change of hh to gh^ y, is found occasionally in the 
Indian dialects, but in the Iranian dialects it is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. rBkha 'line,' Prftk. f«Aa, Pali r(kha^ Hindi, 
Panj. rikhj Sindhi r^ghl^ Guj. r^g^ tikh^ Mar. ttgh. Skt 
Srmkhala 'chain,' Pr&L saii/ikala^ sai/nkhaJdy sifhkhalOj P&li 
samkhaliy Ka&n. hdmhala, Ur. sdrnkakt, sCtrnkaraj Bang, iikal, 
sikal^ Panj., Sindhi samghar^ Ghij. .sdmX^Z, Mar. sa(m)kal 

b. Iranian. Skb ^dX;Ad ' twig,' PhL &tJk, New Pers. SOx, Say. 

hh > c 

§ 184. The change of M to c is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. xara 'donkey,' Sarq. car, sar^ etc. (see 
§181). 

hh > s. 

§ 185. This change, like the preceding one, is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. xara 'donkey,' Sarq. sar, car^ etc. (see 

§ 181). 

hh > h. 

§ 186. The change of A;A to A is found both in the Indian and 
in the Iranian dialects, although it occurs less frequently in the 
latter group of languages. 

a. Indian. Skt. sahhi 'friend,' Prftk. sahiy Pfili sahhiy Sindhi 
sahl. Skt muhha 'face,' Pr&k. muhaj Pfili mtikha, Bih&rl 
fnfji{m)hy Hindi muihh, Panj. mUmhtij muhum, Sindhi munihufky 
muhhUy Simh. mutw. Gyp. mug. 

b. Iranian. Av. xara 'donkey,' §iyn. hary etc. (see § 181). 
Av. naxa ' nail,' BaL ndhuUy ndhur^j etc. (see § 181). 

hh > y. 

§ 187. The change of hh to y, like that of i to y (see § 122), is 
only apparent 



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56 nmO-IRAMAS isosologt 

a. LidijUL Ski UkkaU <wntea»' Safah. UsamoMtL, et& fm 

th >v. 
§ laa The change dihhiov, wfaidi ie^ like tluit of i to r (see 
§ 123), only apperent^ oeem Tery rarely. 

a. LidiaiL Skt nwkka ' fiioe,' Subli. mini^ etc ^ § 13^ 

Protkesis o/tk 
§ 139. Prodietic M is fonnd quite freqoently in the Iranian 
dialects prefixed to words which originally began with vowelsL 
tx Iranian. Av. aiima ^wrath,' PhL x^&ft, New Pers. xiim. 
Ay. ar9ia ^bear/ PhL, New Pen. xirs^ MSz. di, Siyn. yifr^ Sarq. 
yarxj Yidg. ynrS, Afy. yoi, Kurd, virc, hirCy hir§y 7sx^ xSCy Oss. 
ars. Ok. c#<(ir ^ egg,' PhL :rdyai, New Pen. xHyahj (hh. vue^ 
Afy. ha, BaL AaO^ Kurd. Aaiti, la, hek, Oss. atiA<a). Ski dma 
' raw/ New Pers. xdm, WazI yfiti^, Af /. dm, Urn, BaL Admo^, 
N. BaL Mmay, Euid. rnav. 



§ 140. Indo-L-anian j^ is in general retained unchanged in the 
Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects, exc^t for the Iranian 
law of spirantization which develops y from 9, unless the g is 
either initial or is preceded by a nasal or a sibilant 

a. Indian. Skt garddbha ^ donkey,' PrftL gaddaha, gadddha, 
Pali gadrahha, Ass. gOdh, Naip. gaddJuiy Ur. gadJid, Bang. gOdhd, 
Bihfirl, Hindi gadJid, Panj. gadha, gaddd, Sindhi garahu, Ouj. 
gadhiddj Mar. gOdlitw. Skt yugcda ^pair,' Apah. Pr&k. jualuy 
Pali yugala, Ur. jugaJa, Bang, Hindi, Panj., Guj. jugal. Mar. 
juVi, juli juvdL 

b. Iranian. Av. garwia ' warm,' Old Pers. garmapada, PhL, 
New Pers. garm, Siyn. ^orm, Sarq. ^Anti, £arm, ASy. ydrma, 
BaL, Kurd, garm, Dig. Osa yarm. Tag. qarm. Av. ^w ' cow,' 
PhL, New Pers. gd, gav, Zaf., KaS., Von. gd, Kuhr. ^^6, WatI 
yau, yft, Siyn. iflr, Sarq. iao, SangL, Minj. y€U>, Tayn, gotxt, 
Afy. yt^, BaL gdk, N. BaL ^djr, Kurd, ga, Dig. Oss. yt)^, Tag. 
qag. Skt &%a < joinV BaL %, N. BaL &dy. 



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SINGLE CONSONAirrS 67 

§ 14L The change of the voiced g to the voiceless h is not 
frequent in the Indian dialects. In the Iranian dialects it is 
still more rare, excepting in the Tagaurish Ossetish, which has 
q initially for Lido-Iranian g (Digaurish y). 

a. Indian. Ski nagara ^citj/ Pr&k. naanij M&hfir. PrSk. 
naya/rOj Psii Prfik ndkara, New Ind dialects ndirj nBr^ Siibh. 
nuva/rOy niyari. Ski maga ^Magian,' Pr&k. (inscriptions of 
Eapur di Oiri) maJca. Ski chagala ^goat^' P&li chdkala. 
Skb ajagara < boa-constrictor/ Pfili ajakarOj ajagara. Skb 
garu4a ' mythical bird," Prfik. garudOy garuUif galuda^ Pfili garukty 
£lu gf4ruluj Siihh. ki4fuUa. Skt. ga{m)bhira ^ deep/ Prfik. gahirUj 
Pfili ga(m)bhlra^ Ur. gahirOj Hindi gdlnra^ galiam^y Sindhi gahirOf 
Siihh. gdmburuy kuniburu. 

b. Iranian. Av. garBtna 'warm/ Tag. Oea. qarmy etc. (see 
preceding §). Av. ^oo&i * ear/ Old Pera flfau&i, PhL, New Pers. 
gdS, Sir., Bahb. guS^ Nfiy. ^ilJ, Wfixl yilS, yiB, Siyn. yili, Sarq. 
yaulj Yidg. y«, Afy. ywiy, BaL goS^ Kurd. jtiA, Dig. Oss. y05, 
Tag. jt^. 

S^> Ay- 
§ 142. The aspirization of Indo-Iranian g is rare and only 
sporadic in the Indian dialects, but in the Iranian dialects g 
becomes y regularly, excepting initially or after a nasal or a sibi- 
lant. In the Pfimir dialects, in Afyfin, and in Digaurish Ossetish 
Indo-Iranian g becomes y also initially. 

a. Indian* Skt grha, gSha 'house/ Prfik. gSha, Apab. Prfik. 
gJwrUy Pfili ghara, gaha^ g^ha^ Eafim. gdhar, gar, Old Hindi 
g€ha, New Ind. dialects ghar^ excepting Mar. gSh, Siifah. g€, geya, 
Gyp. kheTy kyeL Skt gddhama * wheat,* Apab. Prfik. gdhUmu, 
Pfili gddJiUma, Ass. gh&nhu, Nfiip. gahUfhy Ur. g€i(ha)ma, Bang. 
g{^ gam, Bihfirl gdhUth, Hindi gd{m)hwh, gShuth^ ghSuth, Panj. 
gheufhj Sindhi gihwh, Ouj. ghaUihy Oyp. giv. 

b. Iranian. Skt yuga *yoke,' New Pers. juy, Siyn. yuy, 
Sarq. yfly, Kurd. j«ft. Av. gaoSa *ear/ Wfixl yiUf, yiS^ Siyn. 



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58 IKDO-IRANIAN FHONOLOOT 

yHi, Sarq. yaul, Yidg. yO, Afy. ywty, Dig. Oss. yos, etc. (see 
preceding §). Av. gaZa 'thief/ Afy. yal Av. fn9r9ya 'bird,' 
PhL muTYf murv, New Pers. muryj Maz. twary, Afy. maryo^ 
Kurd. mriSk, Oss. iwory. PhL, Paz., New Pera. nan * bread,' 
Saf. nOy Nay. nauj Minj. nayan, Cent DiaL ntin^ BaL nagan^ 
N. BaL nayan. 

§ 148. The change of ^ to y is only apparent The p is in 
reality lost, and y is then inserted to prevent the resulting hiatus 
(cf. §§ 122, 187). 

a. Indian. Skt jctgat 'world,' Mahar. Prak. jaya^ Sindhi 
jagiiy 3ag(xtu. Skt nagara ' city,' Mahar. Prak. nayara^ Siihh. 
niyarij nuvara^ etc. (see § 141). Skt nOga ' snake/ Prak., Pali 
nCUfa^ Siihh. nayd^ nd. 

b. Iranian. Av. jsairi-gaona 'having a golden colour,* PhL 
£fafingilny New Pers, zargunj Afy. mryUn. 

9 >v. 

§ 144. The change of (/ to t; in the Indian dialects is only an 
apparent one, the v being really inserted to prevent the hiatus 
arising from the loss of the original g (cf. §§ 123, 188). In the 
Iranian dialects, on the contrary, the change of ^ to i; is a real one. 
The phenomenon does not occur frequently. 

a. Indian. Skt. nctgara 'city,' Siihh. nuvara, niyari^ etc. 
(see § 141). 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. magu 'Magian,' PhL ntaga, magHpat^ 
inavpaty New Pers. muy, mdyy mdbad. Av. mdraya 'bird,' PhL 
muryj murVy etc. (see § 142). New Pers. xargOS ' hare ' (lit 
'donkey-eared,' Av. *xara-g<ioSa)y Kurd. karvoL 

g > i. 
§ 145. The change of ^ to i is excessively rare, although it 
is sometimes found initially in sporadic words in Siynl and 
SariqolL 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 59 

b. IraniaiL Av. gau 'cow/ SiyD. aHv, Sarq. £aOj etc. (see 
§ 140). Av. gardtna * warm,' Sarq. SUrm^ gUmij etc. (see § 140). 

p > *. 
§ 146. Hie change of ^ to A is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt bhOgineya 'sister's son/ Pfili hhS^inejja^ 
Sidih. hahana, bdnO. 

Syncope of g. 

§ 147. The loss of an internal g is found both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialects, although the New Indian does not 
suffer syncope of ^ as frequently as do the Middle Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt bhdgndheya 'share,' Prfik. biidadihay Mshftr. 
Prftk. bhaya, Pftli bhOga. Skt. srgala 'jackal,' Prak. siala^ Pali 
sigdlay XJr. SiOla, ScClUlj Bang, sialy Si±h. hivald. Skt dgata 
'arrived,' Mfig. Prftk. Oade. Skt dviguna 'two-fold,' PraL 
duuna, Pali digunc^ Hindi, Panj. dUnd.^ Sindhi dUnlXj Mar. dUn. 
Skt bhaginl 'sister,' Prak. bahinl, bhaini^ Pali bhagin% Ur. 
bhaunlj bhaUnly Bang, bain, Hindi bctfnn^ Panj. bh&in^ bairiihy 
Sindhi bJiSnUy Guj. bsJiBny Mar. baAin, &Adm. Skt ytyala 'pair,' 
Apab. Prak. j'ua^ Mar. julU, jUl juvalj etc. (see § 140). 

b. Iranian. Av. draoya 'lie,' Old Pers. drauga, PhL drS^, 
drSy, New Pers. durOyy Maz. darfl, TaL da, Sarq. dwrw, Afy. 
rfaroy, BaL d(a)rog, N. BaL (?r5y, Kurd, darav, darau. Av. ci 
'what? '-^gaona 'kind,' PhL cigtln(lh), New Pers. cigUnah, cun. 



gh = gh. 

§ 148. Indo-Iranian ^A is in general retained unchanged both 
in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt ghata 'jar,' Prak. ghada^ Hindi ghada, other 
New Ind. dialects ghadiy Gyp. khorO. 

b. Iranian. Av. maeya 'cloud,' PhL, New Pers. m^, Dig. 
Oss. mByOy Tag. mly. 



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60 INDO-ntANIAN PHONOLOGY 

gh>lc 

§ 149. The change of ^A to £ occurs very rarely as a final in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. ahmaoya ^destroying righteousness,' PhL 
ahramok. Ay. daya 'conflagration^'PhL ddyj New Pers. d&y, 
BaL dag, N. BaL day, Kurd. dak. 

gh > hk 

§ 160. The change of gh to hh occurs regularly in Pfii&u^T 
Prakrit. 

a. Indian. Ski mfgha ^ cloud,' Pr&k. miha^ Pfiifi. Pride. 
nUkha, P&li meghc^ Hindi mefhh, fnhhh, Panj. mlthhy mlJiariu 
Sindhi mlmhi^ 

gh>g. 
§ 16L The deaspirization of gk is very rare both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialects, excepting in Kaimlri. 

a. Indian. Skt ghdtaJca ^ horse,' Prak. ghodaay Pftli glwidka, 
New Ind. dialects ghora, but Kafim. gur^j Gj^). gard. Skt 
vighat<U6 'perishes,' Pfili vighOtHiy Ur., Bang, bigada, Hindi, 
Panj. bigad, Sindhi bigidj Guj. bagad, Mar. bighdd. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. ytdyul ^chaiiery' Kurd, gdlagdl, galgdl 

gh >h. 

§ 162. The change of gh to h is not uncommon in the Indian 
dialects, but in the Iranian dialects it is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Ski laghu * light,' Prfik., Pali lahu, Si±L lahuj 
luJiu. Ski araghatta ^ weU-wheel,' Hindi, Panj. {a)rahaty Sindhi 
ar{a)(Uy Guj. refht, Mar. rahdi. Skt. m(igha * cloud,' PrUk. 
m^hay Hindi mSthhj mltiih, Panj. mlfhhy mlham, Sindhi mfm/m, 
etc. (see § 150). 

b. Iranian. Av. *baya-^tana 'abode of Gk)d,' Old Pers. 
rd BayioTovov 6posj Paz. bay. New Pers. bahistanj bahistan. 
biston. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 61 

Syncope of gh 
§ 15a The lofis of Indo-Iranian gh internally is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. raya nom. prop., Old Pers. raga, PhL rak^ 
r&iy New Pers. rai. 



99, ft 

§ 154. Of the Middle and New Indian dialects the Sindhi, 
Assamese, and N&ipfill alone have retained i9, n, pronounced f9g 
and ni. In the rest of the New Indian and in all the Iranian 
dialects 99 and h have been lost. The Sindhi 99 and ft are of 
secondary development in the majoriiy of their occurrences. 



§ 155. Indo-Iranian c is in general preserved unchanged in the 
Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects, although in the latter 
group internal Indo-Iranian c is rare, excepting in Pahlavl and 
BalQcL 

a. Indian. Skt catvari * four,' PrfiL cattdri, caUrOj Pali catUy 
Ur., Bang, cdri, Ka&n. &r, Hindi, Panj. cdr, Sindhi cari^ Guj., 
Mar. car. Skt. nice * beneath,' Ur., Bang, nlca, Hindi ntcUy 
Panj. nlcdfhj Sindhi, Guj. nTcS, Mar. nfc. 

b. Iranian. Av. caSman *eye,' PhL, New Pers. ca5m. Gab. 
canif Siv., Zaf. cclSj KsS., Van. cam^ Kuhr. caSy Samn., M&z. cas^ 
GiL ciSf Wfixl cdStHy Siyn. 6em, Sarq. &91*, Sangl. &wn, Minj. 
catHy Yidg. cum, BaL cam, N. BaL cAam, Kurd. dl% Zaza ciiii^ 
Dig. Oss. castaj Tag. ^^A. Av. caxra *wheel,' PhL caxr^ New 
Pers. oarxy cahr^ Efil odnA, (^r. Dig. Oss. (»2a;. Av. eiOra 
'appearance,' Old Pers. ciO% PhL citre^ cihr{ak\ New Pers. 
cihr{(ih)y My. Stray ^ra^ Kurd. cdra. 

06. 

\ 156. The change of the palatal c to the affiricative S is very 
rare in the Indian dialects, excepting in Ea&nlrl, Kafirl, and East 
Bang&ll In early tadbhavas, deiajas, and before non-palatal 



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62 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

vowels the Mar&|hl pronounces c as 6^ and j as j>, but before the 
palatal vowels ^ ?, in tatsamas and late tadbhavns the old sounds 
of c and J are retained The Iranian dialects show few instances 
of a change of c to ^, excepting in the Persian dialects and in 
Afy&n. 

a. Indian. Skt. catvdri *four,' Kagm. &r, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). Kaf. mdc ' man,' Sindhi mdctL 

b. Iranian. Av. caOtcdrd *four,' PhL, New Pers. cahdr^ 
Wftxl cabuTy cdbUry §iyn. cavor^ (avary Sarq. cavur, cavoTj Sangl. 
sa/or, Minj. ca/Tr, Yidg. Sir, My. calory BaL cflr, N. BaL ajiiry 
Kiml. (Sihna) cavSLfy Dig. Oss. 6upJtphary Tag. SiphpJiar. Av. 
caiman 'eye,' §iyn. ^t, Sarq. cam. Dig. Oss. &i^, Tag. kisthy 
etc (see preceding §). Av. pacaiti 'cooks,' Phi. i^-e^, New 
Pers. pazady Gab. j>axa, KfiS. patany Mfiz.|>arto, WaxI|>d*oa?», 
Afy. paxamdy Bal. paca^y N. BaL pJiaSayy Kurd. j)d^tn, Bazazid 
pathitiy Dig. Oss. ./Scun, Tag. ^m. 

c >(*, 

§ 167. The change of c to cA is found initially in North BalQcL 
b. Iranian* Av. caSman 'eye,' N. BaL cAam, etc. (see § 155). 

§ 168. The change of the tenuis c to the media j is excessively 
rare in the Indian dialects. It is, on the other hand, common 
between vowels in the Persian dialects, where the New Persian 
shows jg (see § 167). 

a. Indian. Skt acald 'earth,' Pr&k. (inscriptions of Dhatdi) 
ajala, Mfihfir. Prak. ayaJo. Skt sruc 'ladle,' Pfili sty a. Skt 
ntOca 'glass,' Mar. (vulg.) mdj. 

b. Iranian. Av. frasaocaydhi 'bumest,' PhL sdcSnty Paz. 
sdtiety New Pers. sozaniy Gab. sajatiy Mftz., GiL -/^u;, Sarq. 
sau^y Afy. sejaly svajjavuly s^eal, Bal. sacagy N. BaL 5u&iy, Dig. 
Oss. ^Mti, Tag. sujin. Av. Aaca+a^am 'from beneath,' Phi. 
ajgery Paz. oia-, New Pers. oBr, Sir, 5f, Zaf. i^, other Central 



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SINGLE coi^oNAirrs 63 

dialects jfr, Samn. j^, Tal. jiar^ Judaeo-Pers. jg(hr, Kurd, ^rtr, 
Tag. Oss. dala. Av. vaocaf * spoke/ Phi. vdc(ak) 'voice,' New 
Pers. vaS, bdjj Gab. vivaji, Zaf. tdf , KaS. vojy Von. 6ei;a, Kuhr. 
bavoj% Nfty. Oodj. 

§ 169. The change of c to J is excessively rare. Cases of it are 
found in AfySn and Ossetish. 

b. Iranian. Av. frasaocaydhi 'bumest,' Afy. sS)alj svaj- 
ami, $Sml, Dig. Oss. sdjiun, Tag. sujin, etc. (see preceding §). 
Av. mocah ' day,' Old Pers. raucah, PhL r(Jc(fA), New Pers. rOz, 
Gab. mj, Siv. rOSa, Caspian dialects rfl, but TfiL r5i, rOf, Afy. 
nwj, BaL rOc, N. BaL t^5, Kurd. ruJlj rd{S). 

c > th. 

§ 160. The change of <; to th, like all other changes in which 
the cerebrals are concerned, is confined to the Indian dialects. It 
is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. cahcu 'beak,' Ur. {hanf, tliofhi. Bang, thdmty 

cdfhf, Hindi ththhth, cOfhc, Guj. cQthCj Mar. cdriic 

ot 

§ leL The change of c to < occurs very rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt cikits(% 'cure,' Jfiina Prfik. Ugicchd, Pfili 
iihicdiA. 

b. Iranian. Av. pdmiti 'cooks,' K&8. patatij Kurd. pMin, 
etc. (see § 156). Old Pers. ciSciy 'anything,' New Pers. c^ 
Kurd. tiSt. 

c> thjO. 

§ 162. The change of c to ^A, ^, is excessively rare. 

a. Indian* Skt cahcu 'beak,' Ur. thant, thdfktj etc (see 
§160). 

b. Iranian. Av. pacaiti 'cooks,' Bayazid Kurd. pOthin, etc. 
(see § 156). 



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64 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

e> d. 

§ 168. The change of c to d occurs with extreme rarity except- 
ing in Simhalese. 

a. Indian. Skb Ocdrya ^ teacher/ MfihAr. Prfik. ayariffOj Psli 
Ocdriyay Siifah. OdurG^ Maladive eduru. Skt mueanti ^they 
release,' Prfik. muoal, Mfihftr. Prfik. mujfa% Pfili fnuhcoHj Siifah. 
mudanavd. 

€> y. 
§ 164. The change of <; to y is only an apparent one, y being 
inserted to prevent the hiatus arising firom the syncope of e (cf. 
§§ 122, 137, 143). 

a. Indian. Skt CUOrya ^ teacher,' Mahfir. Prfik. ayariya^ etc. 
(see preceding §). Skt. muoanti ^they release,' M&hfir. Prfik. 
muya% etc. (see preceding §). 

OS. 

§ 165. In Assamese and West Hindi c is always pronounced s. 
The Siifahalese often changes c to s^ which may further develop 
into h. Of the Iranian dialects the Afyfin shows the development 
of 8 from c most frequently. 

a. Indian. Skb cakra ^ wheel,' Prfik., Pfili cdkkOj Ass. c&k 
(pron. sak\ Ur. cdky E. Hindi cak, W. Hindi cdkkl (pron. sakkX)^ 
Panj. caJck^ Sindhi caiku^ Guj., Mar. cdJc^ Simh. sak^ liak Skt. 
pacati ^ cooks,' Pfili pacatiy New Ind. dialects VpaCj Siifah. 
pOsavanavd. 

b. Iranian. Av. ciOra ^appearance,' Afy. sHrOf Sira (see 
§155). 

e> L 

§ 166. The change of c to I occiirs very rarely in the Iranian 
dialect& 

b. Iranian* Av. Jictca ^from,' Old Pera hacOf PhL a;. New 
Pers. aSy iff), Wfixl, Sarq. j?, Afy. /, BaL ac, aS^ Kurd. aJf^ £(a). 
PhL nOcuk 'tender,' New Pers. ndeuky Kuhr. naSiar, PhL 
{h)ec ' ever,' Pfiz. A5c(f), New Pers. (h)Se^ M^ KfiS. fe Av. mocjaA 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 65 

*day/ Siv. f^a, N. BaLfO^etc. (see§159). FhL (Op^wood,' 
New Pers. cOby Sir. cHyf WfizI S6kk^ Sarq. :rai&, Kurd, cd^ 
Amarlu Hv. 

§ 167. The change of c to ir is made regularly in New Persian 
between vowels, affc^ r, and finally. 

b. Iranian. Av. tacaiti ^ runs,' PhL UioH^ t^^j ^^^ Pers. 
tOeadj WfiH Ukam, Sarq. tajam, My. taSal^ BaL fooi^, N. BaL 
thaSay, Dig. Oss. thajin. Av. ratioiA * day/ New Pera rO£y etc 
(see § 159). Av. sacaiti < follows,' PhL 8dxtan6j New Pers. 
^oeod^ EfiS. &a^d^', Judaeo-Pers. ^jodL 

c > i. 
§ 168. The change of c to i, which is closely akin to that dis- 
cussed in the preceding paragraph, is found occasionally in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. huciOra * beautiful,' PhL hucihr^ New Pers. 
hvjlr^ xujlr, huilr, Av. raucah * day,' TiL r5i, rtZf , Kurd. rHij 
rd£j rdy eto. (see § 159). Old Pers. KairiOri * measure for wheat,' 
PhL haplCf New Pers. hcufli, havfa. 

€ > h. 
§ 160. The change of c to A is made, as already noted in § 165, 
through the transition-grade $. It is not of common occurrence. 

a. Indian. Skt. cakra ^ wheel,' Siihh. hakj sak, eto. (see 
§ 165). Skt cdra 'thiei^' Prat, Pali cora, New Ind. dialects 
and Gyp. dh', Siihh. hora^ hero. 

c> d. 
§ 170. The change of c to (^ is found occasionally in the North 
BalQcL 

b. Iranian. Av. caStoctrd 'four,' N. BaL qfcir, eto. (see 
§166). 

Syncope of c 
§ 171. The loss of Indo-Iranian c occurs not infrequently in the 

F 



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66 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Indo-Iranian dialects. It is more common in the Middle than 
in the New Indian period. In the Iranian dialects, where the 
syncope is found least often, c is lost only in the vicinity of 
long vowels. 

a. Indian. Skt vacana ^ voice,' Prak. vaanOy vacancy Fsli 
racandj Sindhl vacanu. Skt sacl ' needle,' Pr&k. 5fll, Pfili ^tW, 
Ur., Bang. sUcl, Hindi, Panj., Sindhl sUi^ Guj. sOy^ Mar. sul^ 
Gyp. SUV. 

b. Iranian. Av. raocah ' day,' Caspian dialects rUf Kurd, rdy 
rO£, ruij etc. (see § 159). 



chsz ch. 

§ 172. It is only in the Indian dialects that ch occur& Here, 
however, it is in general preserved unchanged. 

a. Indian. Skt VcJiap 'go' (?), Ur. tipibd, Bang, chdpite, 
cdpitS 'to conceal,' ^i^, Hindi cMpand, cdmpana 'to print, to 
squeeze,' tdpana, topana, tJiapandy ffpand 'to bury,' Sindhl 
chapanti, capanu ' to shampoo,' tapttdanUy tliapanUy Mar. cJUiptP' 
ncrity cdpcUandrity Utp, fiapakd, Anglo-Indian (firstjcltopj shampoo. 

cli > c 

§ 178. The deaspirization of ch is a very rare phenomenon. 

a. Indian. Skt i/chap 'go ' (?), Bang. o&piU, chdpite, Hindi 
campandy cJidpanOy Sindhl capanu, chapanu, Mar. cdpaianiihj 
chdpan&itj etc. (see preceding §). 

ch > t. 

§ 174. The change of chiot\B exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt VcJiap 'go' (?), Ur. tipibOj Bang. <Q?ife, 
Hindi ilpandy thapand, tdpanO, tdpana, Sindhl tapudanu, thor 
panuj Mar. tdp, thapanu, etc. (see § 172). 

ch > th. 

§ 175. The change of ch to th is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. VcJmp ' go ' (?), Hindi thapand, tlpandy id' 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 67 

panOy U^nd, Sindhi thapanu, fapudai^Uy Mar. tJiapaid^idpy etc. 
(see § 172). 

ch > t 
§ 176. The change o{chtot is very rare.. 

a. Indian. Skt. Vcltap 'go/ Hindi Uipana, fSpanO, fipanO, 
thapana, etc. (see § 172). 

ch > s. 

§ 177. Many New Indian dialects, especially Assamese, Ban- 
gfill, and Marfi^hl, as well as the others in sporadic instances, 
pronounce or write s instead of ch. 

a. Indian. Skt prchati * asks,' Prfik. pucchal^ Pali pucchatiy 

Ur. puchana, ptuAra, Bang. pudiiUj Hindi pOchanO^ Panj. pucch^ 

Sindbl puchanu, Qmj. puchamtiif TAbt. pusanerit. 

With this change of ch to s may perhaps be compared the cases 
where Iranian s = Indian cA, e.g. 

Skt. chaya 'shadow,' Prfik. chaya^ chOd 'beauty,' Pfili chdyd 

'shadow,' Ur. didhlna^ Hindi chiJbh{v)y chAfkhy chaMiy Panj. 

ca(fl)m, Sindhi chdm(v\ 6uj. cathy : Av. asayc^ PhL sdyak^ New 

Pers. s&yah^ BaL sdig^ N. BaL sdi^ Kurd. sf. 



§ 178. Indo-Iranian/ is in general preserved unchanged both 
in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

ft. Indian. Skt jaf9gha ' 1^' Prfik., Pfili jathghct, Nfiip. j&99, 
Baxig.jafkfij R Hindi, Bindljafkgh^FBnj.jiihghf Sindhi Jat^//, 
jathghy Guj., Mar. jariighdj jdfhgh^ Gyp. cang. Skt bhrdtrjdya 
'brother's wife,' Ur., Bang. hhdUjc^ Hindi bh&ij, bhdvajj bhdujt, 
bhi^di^ Sindhi bhdjdi^ Mar. bhd^OJi. Skt bhrdtrja ' nephew,' 
Hindi, Panj., Guj. bhatljd. 

b. Iranian. Av. jaini, 'woman,' PhL, New Pers. mn, (Jab. 
jan, yan(iZX;), Siv. £iny Zaf. iati, KfiB., Ruhr, jatiy jin, yan^ ian^ 
Nfiy. yanahf Samn. ianikd^ Siyn. ytn, Sarq. yfn, iin, Minj. 
Jfingctf Afy. /inaf, ^anal, jaZ, BaL jan^ Kurd, iin, Zaza jan. 
Av. jaitrfi 'kills/ Old Pers. ajanam^ PhL jon^, New Pera 

pa 



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68 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Banady Zaf. bafint, EfiS. jidan, Euhr. jindamUnj Siyn. j^nanty 
Sarq. ganc^Hj Af /. ianam, Bal. janag, Kurd, jsanin. Old Pers. 
6a;i ' tribute/ New Pers. 6r?;, M-^, 6fii. PhL barman * oven,' 
New Pers. barSjan, BaL 6n;a^, ftr^'ajr, 

J > 9h y- 
§ 179. The change of j to gh^ y, is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. jaini ^ woman,' Siyn. yirij Sarq. yfn, iin, 
etc. (see preceding §). 

i > c 

§ 180. The change of the mediae' to the tenuis c is r^ular in 
Pfii^I Prflkrit according to the well-known rule of this dialect 
that all mediae or mediae aspiratae become tenues or tenuee aspira- 
tae. Elsewhere the change is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. r^jan ' king,' Prftk. raa^ Mfihfir. Prfik. rdya^ 
Paii Prftk. fUctly Pali rajliy New Ind. dialects rau^ tiiVy except 
Sirfih. radOy Maladive radung, Gyp. ray. Skt. vrajati * wanders,' 
Prfik. raccal, Pali vajati. Skt. kamboja 'Cambodia,' Prak. 
(inscriptions of Dhauli) kambdca. 

3 >JJi' 
§ 181. The aspirization of an original j is a phenomenon of 
rare occurrence. 

a. Indian. Skt, Pslijai9gala 'wild,' Old Hindi ^aw^ar, New 
Ind. dialects janigdliy except Ass. jawgJial, Sindhi jltanigall. 
Skt., Prak., Pali jana 'person,' Bang. (Malda) jAan, Qy^.jenO. 

3 > d. 
§ 182. The change of j to d is not uncommon in the Middle 
Indian dialects, and it is the regular change to which an original 
j is subject in Siihhalese. 

a. Indian. Skt. jihvd ' tongue,' Prak. jlha, jibbM, Pali jivho, 
Ass. jibay Naip. jibrd, Kasm. 0dd, New Ind. dialects jlbh (Sindhi 
jibh)y Simh. diva, Maladive da. Gyp. cib. Skt. jugupsati 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 09 

'despises,' Prftk. du{g)ucehaiy du{g}ufh(Aa%Jhunaiy juueehaiy Pfili 
jigucchati. Skt tijjas 'glory/ Pr&k« teu, Mfih&r. Prftk. Uya, 
Psli ^0, Siihh. teda. 

i>y- 

§ 188. The change of j to y is in the Indian dialects only an 
apparent one, y being really inserted to prevent the hiatus arising 
from the loss of an intervocalic i (of. §§ 122, 187, 148, 164). In 
the Iranian dialects an actual change of j toy is found, but it is 
very uncommon. 

a. Indian. Skt rajan 'kin^' Mfth&r. PrSk rdyO, etc (see 
§ 180). Skt. samaja 'herd,' Prfik. (inscriptions of Eiqmr di 
Giri) samaym. Skt gaja 'elephant,' PrSk. gay(iy gaa, Pfili 
gaja. 

b. Iranian. Av. jaini 'woman,' Gab. yan(iJik\ jatij EfiS., 
Kuhr. yan, jan, jin, SaUy Nfty. yanaJi, ete. (see § 178). 

j >v. 

§ 184. The change of j to t;, like that of J to y in the Indian 
dialects, is only apparent, v being actually inserted to prevent the 
hiatus arising from the loss of an intervocalic j (cf. §§ 123, 138, 
144). The phenomenon is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt rajanah 'of a king,' Prfik. rMnd, 6fik. Prfik. 

lavdnd (cf. also § 180). [See now Pischel, §§ 399-400.] 

j > A 

§ 185. In the Iranian dialects the change of j toziB very fre- 
quent In the Indian dialects, however, it is only in the North 
East, particularly in Assamese, Kafonlrl, vulgar Bangfill (Bfijbaifofil 
and Eastern), and Bihfirl, that j is pronounced a. 

a. Indian. Skt jihvA ' tongue,' Ka^. jg^d, ete. (see § 182). 
Skt, Prfik., Pfili jala ' water,' Ass., Ka&n., vulgar Bang., Bihfirl 
jal (pron. ml^y Sindhi jan«. 

b. Iranian. Av. jvaiti ' lives,' Old Pers. jlvdhy. Phi. fitxw- 
tand, New Pers. JiOstatij Kfifi. vcufanddj jigoy My. ivand{^n\ 



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70 INDO-IRANZAN PHONOLOOT 

Kurd. Jf n, Hin. Av. jaini * woman,' PhL, New Pers, gany ^. 
(see § 178). Kurd t^jdr * this time,' BohtanI vfisitlr. Av. jafira 

* deep/ PhL jnt/br, jw/V, New Pera. iai:^ Judaeo-Per& jsovfy Af y. 
iatwr, BaL j'kAI, N. Bal. j'o/il, Kurd, idr, Zazaj^. 

§ 186. The change of j to i, which is closely akin to the one 
discussed in the preceding paragraph, is very common in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. jaini * woman,' Siv. iiw, Za£ iaw, KfiS., 

Kuhr. tan^ jan^ jin^ yan^ Samn. ianikd^ Sarq. Hn^ yi/t, Minj. 

iinga^ Kurd, iin, etc. (see § 178). Av. jvaiti 'lives,' Afy. 

ivand(iin\ Kurd, iiinj ziny etc. (see preceding §). Av. j'a^ 

* deep,* New Pere. iatfj Aiy. iavary Kurd. ioTy etc. (see preced- 
ing §). Av. dftrja/i 'length,' PhL, BaL drajy N. BaL draSy 
Kurd, diflf. 

Syncope of j. 

§ 187. The loss of an original intervocalic j is found occasion- 
ally in the Middle and New Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. rajan ' king,' Prak. raa^ New Ind. dialects 
raUy raVy etc. (see § 180). Skt vyajana 'fan,' Prak. viana^ 
Hindi h^na, Skt., Pali ajagara ' boa-constrictor,' Mar. ar. 



jh=jh. 

§ 188. Original jh is excessively rare in the Indian dialects, 
:ind it is lacking altogether in the Iranian languages. In the 
majority of instances in the Indian dialects original jh is pre- 
served unchanged. 

a. Indian. Skt. jhampa ' leap,' Mar. jh&iip, 

jh >j. 
§ 180. The deaspirization o{jh is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. jhalla 'name of a degraded caste,' Jaina 
Prak. jaUa. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 71 

jh > 8. 
§ 190. In ABsamese an original jh is written J, which is pro- 
nounced a (c£ § 185). Similarly the resultant jh of the Ka&nlrl 
is pronounced z, 

a. Indian. As& jH ^pungency' (pron. zaii)^ Bang, jhaluyay 
Hindi jAaL 

§ 19L All cases in which cerebral letters are concerned are 
confined to the Indian dialects. Indian t is preserved unchanged 
in the great majority of instances. 

a. Indian. Skt trtUoH ' comes apart^' Prftk. tuttaiy tO^oXy Ur. 
tddandj Bang. tOdalUy Sindhi tddanu, Guj. tutavwihy tddavuihy 
Mar. tufan^y tddanSfh. Skt kapOta ^ door/ Prfik. Jcap&tay Ur., 
Bang, kabalay Hindi, Panj., Mar. kavOd. Skt. V'c(A)u; <to cut 
o£^' New Ind. dialects ^/chuiy but also Hindi ch(hry Mar. ^, s^. 

§ 102. The change of the tenuis t to the media 4 ^ the most 
frequent one to which Indian t is subject In the East New 
Indian dialects d often interchanges with r and this r itself may 
further develop into r. No distinction is here made between 
d and r. 

a. Indian. Skt aiavi ^ forest^" Apab. Pr&k. ada^y Pfili atavl. 
Skt hhafa 'soldier/ Pr&k. bhadOy Apab. bhadUy Psli bhata. 
Skt (/Atirfa 'jar/ Prfik. ghaday Pfili ^Ao^o, Hindi gluidcty other 
New Ind. dialects ghadl. Skt ir/a ' worm,' Prfik. Joday Pali 
X^ifo, Ur., Bang., Hmdl kidOy Sindhi A:idd, Ouj. kiddy Mar. £ldf, 
iidO, Gyp. kirh Skt, Pfili kaiaJia 'pan,* Ur. X^raf, iaAmV, 
iod/i^i, Bang. kad{al)y Hindi, Panj., Sindhi kadahly Guj. JbodH 
kadhaiy Siihh. A;u2dm. 

§ 198. The rare change of ^ to ^A seems to occur more often 
in the Middle than in the New Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt sata 'mane,' Prfik. sa^ha. Skt iakaiika 



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72 INDO-ISANIAN PHONOLOGY 

'carfc,' Prfik sayadhd, Ssur. Prfik. saadidj Psli sakaia. Skt 
kaitabha ^naine of a demon,' Prfik. Todhma. Skt ak^apdta 
'arena^' R Hindi oiAdr^ Hindi akhdrO, Mar. dkhOdO. 

§ 194. The decerebralization of Indian ttot occurs very rarely, 
a. Indian. Skt kuiumbdka 'house-holder/ Pfiil Prfik. 
htUumbaka, kuiufkbakOj Pfili hutumbaka^ kutinibaka. 

i>p. 

§ 195. The change of t top is excessively rare, 
a. Indian. Skt kardti ' pot^' Pfili kaldpi. 

t>r. 
§ 196. The change of ^ to r (cf. § 192) is not frequent 

a. Indian. Skt kaiaJia ^pan,' Ur. karal^ kaJwHei^ kadhSif etc. 
(see § 192). Skt ceia ^ servant^' Panj. cSrdy cda^ etc (see 
following §). 

§ 197. The change of j to Z is not uncommon in the Indian 
dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt sphaiika ' crystal,' Prfik. phalika, phadihcij 
pJuxdiOy Pfili phalika. Skt katkataka ^crab/ Jfiina Prfik. kak- 
kada, Pfili kakkaiakOj Siihh. kakuhwOj kakuhwdt. Skt katoha 
' pan,' Siifah. hddm, etc. (see § 192). Skt <^ 'servant^' Prfik. 
e5da, Pfili c^aJta, Ur., Bang, cdldy Hindi c^^ ceda^ Panj. c^te, 
eem, Sindhi, Ouj. cSlO, Mar. (^2d. 

§ 198. The change of ^ to Z occurs especially in Sixhhalese, 
where { and { are used indiscriminately, although the Maladive 
distinguishes sharply between { and I 

a. Indian. Skt kiUa 'peak,' Prfik. koda, Pfili kitta^ Siifah. 

kulu. Skt spJafati ' bursts forth,' Prfik. phf4ta% phudai, Pfili 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 78 

phtaati, Hindi phtiij Panj. phutt^ other New Ind. dialects phuif 
except Sixfah. poUmavO. 



§ 100. The retention of ih without change is very rare in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. maiha ^ college,' Prftk. madha^ Mar. (dimin.) 
madhly other New Ind. dialects maih. 

th > t. 
§ 200. The deaspirization of th is very rare in the Indian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt hu(haf% 'axe,' Prftk. hu4hara, Pfili kuthdfi, 
Ur. kuiarf^ hihrari^ hutO^ly Bang. kurJody kurhGd^^ Bihftrl, 
Hindi kulhar%y kuhddOj Panj. kuJuKfa, kufklharO, kulhap^ Sindhi, 
Guj. kuhardy Mar. kwrJm^ kurhar. 

th>4. 

§ 201. The change of /A to ^ is found occasionally in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt pltha 'pedestal,' Prfik. pldlia, pSdha^ P&li 
plthctj Bang. pimdOj Hindi, Panj. pldhO, Sindhi pMdkl, Guj. 
p^hl, Mar. pat. Skt. pathana ' reading/ Ur. padhibA^ Bang. 
padhit€f Hindi, Panj. padhan&y Sindhi padahanUj Guj. pad- 
havuihf Mar. padhanSfk. 

th>dK 
§ 202. The change of ^A to ^ is the most common one of all 

those to which Indian th is subject. It is especially characteristic 

of the Western dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt j?{/Aa 'pedestal,' Prfik. pUdha^ P^hOy Hindi, 
Panj. pidha^ Guj. p^hly etc. (see preceding §). Skt kuthari 
'axe,' Prak. kudharOj Bang, kurhld, kurha^l^ etc. (see § 200). 
Skt pafhati ' reads,' Pwk. padliat^ Pali pathatij Asa V^iwirii^ 
Bang, par^ New Ind. dialects jmi^A, parh^ K New Ind. dialects 
also |>arA. 



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74 INDO-IRANJAN PHONOLOOT 

fh > rhj rh. 
§ 208. The change of ih torh^rhjiB especially characteristic of 
the Eastern dialects, while the Western dialects, as noted in the 
preceding paragraph, tend to the change of th to dh. 

a. Indian. Skb kuthdri 'axe/ Bang, hurhidj kurhodif etc 
(see § 200). Ski paihati ^ reads,* New Ind. dialects i>arA, padh^ 
K New Ind. dialects alaoparhy etc. (see preceding §). 

th> U. 
§ 204. The change of ^A to K is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt ankdiha^ atdkoVfyi ^ name of a tree,' PrfiL 
amkoVOj Pali amkdla^ Guj., Mar. OAhhdL 

th > Uk 
§ 205. The change of ih to JJi is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skb huihdri 'axe,' Bihfirl, Hindi kulhdf^, kuhadd, 
Panj. JcuthUdOy kuthlharay kuhadd, etc (see § 200). Skt. kuthara 
' sugar-mill,' Mfig. Prftk. kudhaUy Bih&rl kdlhU. 

th > k 
§ 206. The change of th to A is one of extreme rarity in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski kufhari 'axe,' Bih&rl, Hindi kuhOdd^ kuJr 
hatij Panj. kuhddoty kulhadd, kmilMrdj Sindhi, Guj. kuhdrdy etc. 
(see § 200). 

th > hr. 
§ 207. The change of th to hr is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt kuthdri ' axe,' Ur. kuhrari, kutodi, kuiarly etc 
(see §200). 

d^d. 
§ 208. Indian ^ is in general retained unchanged in the 
Middle and New Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski jpldana' pressure,' Prfik. 2>7{ami^ l>eZ2ana, Pfili 
pHana, Hindi pedanciy pdlanHj Panj. pldhand^ pelana^ vilana^ 
Sindhi pldanUy p^ranu^ Mar. pliant. 



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SINGLE CONSONAJfTS 75 

§ 209. The change of ^ to ^ occurs regularly in the Ffti^l 
Prakrit 

a. Indian. Skt. vadiiay hadiia ^fish-hook,' Prftk. badisa^ 
balisoy Pfiifi. Prftk. vaiisay Pali balisOj Hindi balia. 

4>d. 

§ 210. The decerebralization of Indian 4 occurs very rarely in 

the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. ^dap ' to collect/ Ur. dabtbd^ Bang. dAbana^ 

Hindi d&lana^ dabQVy dabel, Panj. dabbanOj Sindhi dabant^ Guj. 

ddbavuriiy Mar. ddbanefh. 

d>r,r. 

§ 21L The change of ^ to r, r, is particularly characteristic of 

the East New Indian dialects. Such an r developed from an 

original d may often become r, and indeed in Hindi r and r are 

interchangeabla In the West New Indian dialects, however, d is 

generally retained unchanged, and it seldom becomes r, r (cf. 

§§ 202, 203). 

a. Indian. Skt. pidana 'pressure,' Sindhi piranUj pldanu^ 

etc, (see § 208). Skt. tidupa * boat,' Pfili uhimpaj Simh. oru{va)y 

Maladive odi. 

d>l 

§ 212. The change of ^ to { is one of the most frequent of all 

those to which Indian d is subject 

a. Indian. Ski d&dhnaf ddlima, Prftk. d&limaj Pftli d&litna, 

Hindi darim^ Sindhi dai^Um. Skt Tctldati ' plays,' Prftk. Ma^f, 

Apab. Prftk. Taladij Pali hilati. Skt sddaSa 'sixteen,' Prftk. 

sdlaha^ Jfiina Prftk. sdlasay Pali sdlasOy sdrahoy Ka&n. surdhj Ur. 

sdliala^ Bang, sdla^ Bihfirl sOrahy Hindi sdlah^ Pai^. sdWny 

Sindhi sdraharhj Guj. soly Mar. sdla. 

4>l 
§ 218. The change of cI to 2, which is closely akin to the change 
discussed in the preceding paragraph, occurs quite frequently in 
the Indian dialects. 



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76 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOOT 

a. Indian. Skt. xyldana ^pressure,* Mar. pllan&k^ etc. (see 
§ 208). Skt udupa ' boat,' Pftli ulwmpa, etc. (see § 211). Skt 
krOdaka ' lap/ Apab. Prak. kdlaily Guj. kdld. Skt so4a£a ' six- 
teen,' Prftk. soldha^ Jftina Prftk. soUmOj Pali 6(^Za^ Panj. soUihy 
Ouj. ^dj^ Mar. sdVlj etc. (see preceding §). 



dh > rh. 
§ 214. The change of dh to rA is quite common in the New 
Indian dialects, especially in the Eastern languages (cf. §§ 202, 
208, 211). 

a. Indian. Skt mUdha 'fool,' New Ind. dialects (except 
Bang., Mar.) mnrhu. 

dh > r. 

§ 216. The change of ^% to r occurs very rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt mUdhatva ' folly,' Prftk. mi2^7ia^na, Hindi 
mUrakliapan, Panj. mUralchapunA, 

dh > Ij Ih 
§ 216. The change of dA to Z, ZA> is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt udvodha 'brid^room,' Bang, dulln^ dulaly 
Hmdl dulha. Skt udadha ' bride,' Hindi dulhin, Guj. dnl&hl. 

dh > I Ih. 
§ 217. The change of dh to J |A, is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt drdJia ' firm,' Prftk. dadha, PfiU dalliOy Siifah. 
ddUi. 

n > «. 
§ 218. The change of n to n is not frequent in the Indian 
dialects, excepting in the Pftififtcl Prakrit, where it occurs regularly, 
a. Indian. Skt gunaganayukta 'equipped with a host of 
virtues,' Pftifi. Prftk. gunaganajutta. Skt brdhmwta ' Brahman,' 
Prftk. (inscriptions of Kapur di Giri) h{r)amana, lit Prftk. 5dm- 
Jianaj Mfthftr. Prftk. bamhltanOy Pftli brahmana. 

n >U. 
§ 210. The change of n to {, Z, is excessively rare in the Indian 
dialects. 



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SINOLB CONSONANTS 77 

a. Indian. Skt vdnija ^merchanV PrSk. fOnfiijyiy Siifah. 
ffelathdiy veffcuhda. 

< = <• 
§ 220. Indo-Iranian t remains in general unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects, excepting for the Iranian 
spirantization of f to ^ before consonants. 

a. Indian. Skt., Prfik., Pfili tunda ^snout^* Bihfirl thdrhthy 
fhOr, Hindi, Panj. Uhhd, Gig. dund^ Mar. tdihda, iuthd, tund, 
ddmd. Skt jydti ' light,' Pftli j6ti, Hindi jdt(i)j Panj. jotanA, 
Sindhi jot(i)j Guj. j6t Skt rtu ^season,' Prftk. udu (Ssur. and 
Mfig.), uu, riUy Pali ti/u, Sindhi nUi, Guj. rtit{u)j Mar. rutH. 

b. Iranian. Old PerB. rautah * river,' PhL fT5^, New Pers. 
rddy BaL rOt^ Kurd. r5. Av. tanu * body,' PhL, New Pers. tan, 
Wftxl ton, Siyn. fano, Afy. ton, Oss. thanag. Av. ^orSna 
* thirst,' PhL' tiSn, New Pers. tiS, Gab. tofoia, Wfixl <ar(7), Siyn. 
taSnOj Sarq. Mt^Oy ^idg. truSnay Afy. toiai, Bal. tunnag, tUnag, 
N. BaL ^At<n, Kurd, ^f, tonf. Av. paitidlta ' seen,' PhL dt^d. 
New Pers. didah, BaL (2ito^ Kurd. di^. 

t>i. 
§ 221. The vocalization of Indo-Iranian t is veiy rara The 
stages in this development were probably tto djto b,to i, 

b. Iranian. Av. Jcata ' house,' PhL katdkj New Pers. kadahy 
Zaf. ^ KsS. A:iya&, Yon. he, Kuhr. ifciyoA, Nat ikia^ W&zl hat, 
Siyn. ^ Sarq. cCd, Minj. iai, Yidg. Ay^, Yayn. kat. Av., Old 
Pers. brdlar 'brother,' PhL hrOtar, br&t, New Pers. hirGdar, 
KfiS. battti, hardy GiL ftrSr, Wfixl rrO^, Siyn. vir(ldy Sarq. ir^ 
San0. vurdy Yidg. rrai, Yayn. ritia/, Afy. wi5r, BaL 6rd<, N. BaL 
hrdSy ira$y Kurd, ^aro, vir&dy Dig. Oss. art^dcto. Tag. arvdd. Av. 
t;l5aitt * twenty,' Phi. tUst, New Pers. 6l5^ Wftxl tUsty Sarq. rirf, 
BaL gUsty Dig. Oss. iiwai. Tag. ssqj. 

t > g. 
§ 222. The change of < to ^ is excessively rare, 
b. Iranian. Av. atari *fire,' PhL dtaSy New Pers. {a)taSy atiSy 



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78 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Gab. taSj Siyn. yoS^ Sarq. yulj N. BaL &e, Kurd, agir^ Or, er, 

ZHzsLodir. 

t > e. 

§ 228. The change of < to c is excessively rare, 
a. Indian. Skt tisthati ^stands/ Prak. cUthadi^ cittha^, 

thai (cf. also cithitu ' let him stand,' inscriptions of Dhauli), Psli 

titthati, tJtdtij Ur. cidd, thoe, Hindi, Panj. </j^, Sindhi thUy Guj. 

tMy, Mar. tliin&h. 

[Here we may perhaps note the change of ^ to c in Ea&nlrl 
under the influence of a following i in the formation of the femi- 
nine, e.g., KaiSm. mot 'foolish,' fem. mUc K^moti.] 

t>t. 
§ 224. The cerebralization of Indo-Iranian t occurs quite 

frequently in the Indian dialects. It is especially common in 

SindhL 

a. Indian. Ski, Pfili tilaka 'sectarial mark,' Ur., Bang. 
ttka^ Hindi tikdry Panj. tikkciy Sindhi ^^cOy Guj. iiluy tiUy tildy 
Mar. tikd, iila. Skt. prati ' toward,' Prak. pcUi, padij Pftli pati. 
Skt tdmra 'copper,' Prak. tambOy tanibiroy Ass. ^(ii», Ka&n. 
traniy Ur., Bang, tdrndy E. Hindi, Hindi, Panj. tdmhcly tdmiiy 
Sindhi tdniOj Guj. tdmbuj tramhuntj Mar. tdmbefhy Siihh. iambara. 

t>th. 
§ 226. The change of ^ to f A is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt tunda ' snout,' Bihftrl tJidththj thdr^ etc. (see 
§ 220). Skt vrtti 'business,' Prak. vaitiy Sindhi vcUhi. 

t>d. 
§ 226. The change of < to ^ is not infrequent in the Indian 
dialects, being much more common than the change of ^ to ^. 

a. Indian. Skt. patati ' falls,' Prak. padai, Pali patati, Ur. 
pa4i1ca, Bang, padandj Hindi parandj Sindhi pavmu, Guj. 
padavuihj Mar. padanM^j paran&inj Gyg. V per. Skt pcetdhi 
' banner,' Prsk. paddyaj J&ina Pr&k. padagO^ Pfili patoM. Skt 
takfan ' carpenter,' Sindhi 4oJ^nu^ 



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SINGLE CONSONAlfTS 79 

t > th, e. 

§ 227. The change of *^ to tJij 0^ is rare both in the Indian and 
in the Iranian dialects, apart from the change of < to ^ according 
to the Iranian law of spirantization and excepting ih developed 
from t in North BalQcI and Ossetish. 

a. Indian. Skt trpyati ' rejoices,' Pr&k« thipp(a. Skt Op&ta 
• path,' Pali apatlia. 

b. Iranian. Av. tapayeUi * warms,' PhL tUftandj New Pers. 
tabad^ (hh. tdj Ks8. tdv&nj Woxl Oavam, Siyn. tabantj Sarq. 
Oavmn^ My, taba, BaL fop, N. Bal. thap^ thaf, Eiird. taVj Dig. 
Osa thaftj Tag. thavin. Av. tarasaiti 'fears,' PhL tar^tandj 
New Pers. tarsldattf Afy. tarhcdaly BaL tursay, irusag^ N. Bal. 
thursayj Kurd, firsin, Dig. Oss. ^^rsun, Tag. tharsin, Av., Old 
Pers. date 'law,' Phi. do/, New Pers. dOd, BaL do^o, N. Bal. 
dnSa^ dasd, Av. broter ' brother,' N. BaL bmd, brdSj etc. (see 
§ 221). 

t>d. 

§ 228. The change of the tenuis t to the media d is very common 
both in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski tatah 'thence,' M&hfir. Prak. taUdj 6ftur. 
Prak. taddy Apab. Prfik. daU, Pali iatd. Skt tdvat 'so long,' 
§aur. Prak. dam, Pali fat;a. Skt gata 'gone,' Saur., Mag. 
Prak. gaddj Pail. Prak. yato, Apab. Prak. gadUy Pali jrato, 
Siihh. giya, Gyp. (/e?o. Skt. krta ' done,' Mag. Prak. kade^ kadSj 
Ardhamag., Avant, Sakarl Prak. hcdaj PaiiS. Prak. kataj Apab. 
Prak. kiduy Pali A:ato, kafay Old Hindi Myo, Bihan kafl^ kail^ 
kayal, Sindhi A;^(). Skt irta ' or,' Prak tio, Pali lida. Skt <g 
'of thee,' Prak. d5, ti. 

b. Iranian. Av. vdta ' wind,' PhL twj. New Pers. bad, Gab. 
t?ad, Siv. vdi, Zaf. r5, KaB. vdij Vto., Ruhr., Nay. r5d, Nat vadj 
Maz. m, I^t vdr, Afy. i;^, BaL j^, N. BaL gvae, gvds, Kurd &d, 
wit, Oss. t?ad. Av. brcttar ' brother,' New Pers. biradcar, Siyn. 
rinld, Sarq. rreJd, SangL vurd, Kurd, inmd^ 6ar3, Dig. Oss. 
wrvOdOy Tag. omfd, etc. (see § 221). Av. mai ' willow,' PhL 



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80 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

vSty New Pers. bsd, Gab. tfd, Slv. rl, Zaf. vS, VSn. rTd; Kuhr. 
vStj My. valttj BaL gSOj Kurd. t;l, 6f. Av. tava ' of thee/ New 
Pers. tuj A£y. to, Kurd ti4^ Dig. Osa (2^ Tag. di. 

t>y. 

§ 229. The change of ^ to y in the Indo-Iranian dialects is only 
an apparent one, y being actually inserted to prevent the hiatus 
caused by the loss of an intervocalic t (see §§ 122, 137, 148, 161, 
188). 

a. Indian. Skt. itara ' other,' Prsk. iara^ Mshfir. Prftk. iyara. 
Skt katara ' coward,' Apab. Prftk. JuXyaru, R Hindi, Hindi, Guj. 
Myar, Mar. Mvara. 

b. Iranian. Av. mdtar 'mother,* PhL fndt{ar)^ New Pers. 
mOdarj Gab., Slv. mdyOy Ksi. mdi, m6ya, Van. mda^ Maz. mar, 
mikTy GiL nid^r^ mdr^ TfiL mO, Tat ntdi, §iyn. f?2^u2, Minj. mdyA. 
Av., Old Pers. pitar ^ father,* PhL pit(ar)^ New Pers. pidar^ Gab. 
par J Efi& J7ai, Nfiy. Phpayi, ^iyiLpad, Sarq.pitj Afy.pldr, BaL 
pitj N. BaL i?Ai5, i?Ai^, Dig. Oss-^/Sda, Tag.^ 

t > r. 
§ 280. The change of t to r ^ the Indian dialects through the 
transition-grades d, rf, r) is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Ski saptati ' seventy,* Prak., Pftli saMari, Naip. 
sattarij Ka&n. satcUj Ur. sattdri^ Bang., BihlirT, Hindi, Panj. 
saUar, Sindhi satari^ Guj. sit^j Mar. scUtar. 

b. Iranian. Av. vdta ' wind,* Tat t^r, etc. (see § 228). 

§ 28L Hie change of ^ to I is very rare in the Indo-Iranian 
dialects, excepting in Afyfin, where t regularly becomes 2, unless 
the t is protected by a voiceless consonant 

a. Indian. Skt. krta ' done,* Ardhamag., Avant, iSakfirl Prak. 
JcaUiy Biharl kail, kail, kayal (similarly in all perf. part in 
Bihan), etc. (see § 228). 

b. Iranian. Av. pit<ir 'father,* Afy. pldr, etc. (see § 229). 
Av. vaMi 'willow,* Afy. vala, etc. (see § 228). 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 81 

t >V. 
§ 282. The change of < to t; is only apparent, v being actually 
inserted to prevent the hiatus arising from the loss of an inter- 
vocalic t (c£ §§ 128, 188, 144, 184). The phenomenon is very 
rare. 

a. Indian. Skt Otapa < sunshine,' Pfili dt&pOj Siifah. av(u)v<i. 
Skt m&tar ' mother,' Pr&k. mdd^ Pftli matar^ Hindi ind(l), mOUj 
Panj. maOj nUlUihy mitihUy md(f), Sindhl mdUj ISLn mava^ Siibh« 
9nav(u), mO. 

t> 8. 

§ 283. The change of < to « is excessively rare, excepting in 
Siibhalese and North BalQcL 

a. Indian. Skt tuccha ' empty,' Pr&k. c(h)ucchaj Psli tucchoj 
Siihh. siSj his. 

b. Iranian. Av. data 'law,' N. BaL dUsAy dSLBa^ etc. (see 
§ 227). Av. 6r«ar 'brother,' N. BaL hrOs, hroe, etc. (see § 221). 

§ 234. The change of < to A is very rare, excepting in Siifaha- 
lese, where the A is a further development of the s arising from an 
original t (see preceding §). 

a. Indian. Skt tiiccha ' empty,' Pr&k. c(h)uccha^ P&li tuccha^ 
. Siifah. hiSj sis. 

Syncope of t 

§ 235. The loss of Indo-Iranian t is quite frequent both in the 
Middle and in the New periods of the Indo-Iranian languages. The 
syncope occurs more often in the Middle than in the New Indian 
dialects, and more commonly in the Iranian than in the Indian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt caturtha 'fourth,' Pr&k. caUtthaj caOttJiOy 
eotthOj Ur. c&udha^ Bang. cGMdOj Hindi, Panj. c&uthA^ Sindhl, 
Guj. e6th6y Mar. oautMhA. Skt iota 'hundred,' Prftk. saa^ 
saya^ P&i& Pr&k. sata^ Pfili satOj Ea&n. haih^ Ur. SaB^ Bang. 

a 



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82 INDO-nUNIAN PHOKOLOQT 

iayOj Bihftrl sHUy Hindi, Panj. sSLij si%^ Sindhi sdti, Ouj. idj 
Mar. iMi^ Satiftbhctr. Skt pUar ' father/ Pr&k« piAj Pftli jpi^, 
Hindi piu^ Panj. |n^ Sindhi piu^ Siihh. jnyo. Skt md^ 
'mother/ Pr&k« maOj Hindi ind(¥), ma% Panj. m^l^ m^aifo, 
mdmu, mdff)^ Sindhi maily Siifah. m^ mad(u\ etc (see § 282). 

b. Iranian. Av. m&tar 'mother/ Kfii. maiy mCyOj Ydn. mdo^ 
Mfiz. mdr^ mUr^ GiL mdor, moTj TsL mHj Tfit m(^i, etc. (see 
§ 229). Skt jtlte ' swift,' PhL ir«?f, New Pers. zQd, Maz. irt, TSL, 
Tit jrtJ, BaL jerttf, jb«, N. BaL x^, Kurd. ^rtZ. Av. vata 'wind,' 
Siv. wf, Zaf. t;^, KfiS. rc^i, Mfiz. t;^, Afy. ro, Kurd. &fi, wi, etc. 
(see § 228). 

Epenthesis of t 

§ 236. Epenthetic Hs an extremely rare phenomenon. 

b. Iranian. Av. asru 'tear/ PhL, New Pers. ara^ KfiS. asl^ 
M&z. asr^ My. dSa^ BaL oZs, Kurd. (7i)t^er, a^. 



th = /A. 

§ 237. Indo-Iranian th is in general preserved unchanged both 
in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt, Pali mathana ' churning,' Bang, mathanay 
maiJidy Hindi mafhafid, maJianaj mathOy Sindhi mathanUj Guj. 
mathavufhy mathdy Mar. ma(m)thanSfhy mdthan. Skt yiUha 
'herd,' Mfihftr. Prftk. jOAo, Pali jftUliOy Hindi jathyjathOy Panj. 
jahy Guj. jathOy Mar. jathan^h. 

b. Iranian. Av. jpo^ana 'broad,* Phi. pahan. New Pers. 
jpa%n, KfiS. j>^n, pahan, pan, Aly.plan, B&Lpatany Kurd. jTdn, 
Oss. fathan. Av. gUOa ' excrement,' PhL, New Pers. gUl^j KaS. 
giis, WaxI ^fl, jfl, §iyn. yaO, Tayn. y«/(aA), Afy. yuly N. BaL ^f ^, 
Kurd. gU, Av. fradanjayeiti ' harnesses,' New Pers. tatyldan, 
BaL tqjSnagy Dig. Oss. ithinjuny Tag. thinjin. 

th > th. 

§ 238. 73ie cerebraUzation of Indo-Iranian ^A occurs rarely in 
the Indian dialects. 



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8INQLS CONSONANTS 83 

a. Indian. Skb praihama 'first,' FMk. padhamOj Pftli 
pafhcma^ ABB.pOnaTj Nfiip. jpoAiZe), Bih&rl pahil^ pahd, Hindi, 
Panj.|Ki%t2^ 8md}apdhary(hhypihir{y}0ihjpaheryaj Qu3.pBhildy 
pehdluihf Mar. pahilo, SixbL pdUmu. 

th>dh. 

§ 289. The change of <A to dA is more fireqaent in the Indian 
dialects than the simple cerebralization of an original th, 

a. Indian. Skt. iUhila < slack,' PiAk. sidhilOy Pali sUhilay 
sathila, Ur. ^Afld, Bang, dhflct, Hindi dAfJd, Panj. dhillQ, 
SindhI ^Ai;^, ^Aird, Gig. dhtluih, Mar. ^AiZO. Skb tn^^Ai < post,' 
Prfik. nt^Af , Mar. nUdhl^ medhA. 

ih>l 

§ 240. The deaspirization of Indo-Iranian th is excessively 
rare, except in BalQcI. 

a. Indian. Skt, Prfik., Pali hitha 'tale,' Bang. (Burdwan) 
haUL 

b. Iranian. Av. fraSanjayeUi 'harnesses,' New Pers. tanjl- 
dafty Bal. taj^nag, etc. (see § 287). Av. maSdana 'abode,' Phi., 
New Pers. mBhan, BaL mBtag. 

tk>dh. 

§ 241. Hie change of th to dhiB very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. atha 'thus,' Sfiur., Pfiil. Prfik. adha, Pali 
atha. Skt. tatha 'so,' dfiur. Prfik. tadha^ Psli to^Ad. Skt 
vyathayati ' trembles,' Pfili vBdhati. 

th >y. 

§ 242. The insertion of y to prevent the hiatus caused by the 
loss of an original intervocalic th is exceedingly rare (cf. §§ 122, 
187, 148, 164, 188, 229). 

a. Indian. Skt ratha 'cart^' Apab. Prfik. rahu, Pfili rathaj 
Siihh. riya. 

G a 



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84 INDO-IEANIAK PHONOLOGY 

(h>l. 

§ 248. Hie change oi thU>l\B excessiyely rare, excepting in 
Afyftn. 

b. Iranian. Av. paOana 'broad,' Afy. platij etc (see § 237). 
Av. gUBa ^ excrement^' Afy. yvlj etc. (see § 287). 

th>l 

§ 244. The change of f A to Z is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt prathama 'first^' Siifah. paUxmu^ etc. (see 

§238). 

<^> A. 

§ 246. Hie change of ^A to A is by £ar the most frequent one of 
all the changes to which Indo-Iranian th is subject. 

a. Indian. Skt cUhavd 'or/ Prfik. ahctvAj Apab. ahavatj 
inscriptions of Gimar, Dhauli, and Khftlsi ahdj F&li atJiava. 
Skt ratha 'cart,^ Apab. Prftk. rahu, etc (see § 242). Skt 
Tcaihana 'speech,' Pr&k. kahanOj F&li hathanOy Ur. kahibd^ 
Bang. Jcahitij Hindi ibaAaticI, Panj. ^oAind, Sindhi hahantiy Guj. 
kihavum. Skt prathama 'first,' Nfiip. pahilOj Bih&rl |KiAt7, 
jMiJ^Z, Hindi, Panj. pahildj Sindhi paharyoniy pihir(y)dni, pa- 
herya^ Guj. pSJiildy pshdluniy Mar. pahilOj etc. (see § 238). Skt. 
go^Aa 'song,' Prak. flfflAd, Pali gatM, Old Hindi ^dAa, Sindhi 
gd%. Skt prth{^vl ' earth,' Prftk. puhavfy puAKVf, pudJiavlj Pali 
pathavJ, puthavlj puthuvi, pathavlj Old Hindi |?u^mi. 

b. Iranian. Av. viaSdana 'abode,' PhL, New Pers. mihan^ 
etc. (see § 240). Av. paBana ' broad,' PhL pahan. New Pers. 
//aAn, KftS. jxxAan, pariy pSn, etc. (see § 237). Av. ^a ' excre- 
ment,' PhL, New Pers. gHh, etc. (see § 237). Av. gaeSafiqm ' of 
creatures,' PhL, New Pers. gSh&n. 



d = d. 

§ 246. Indo-Iranian i is in general preserved imchanged in 
the Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt da^a 'ten,' PrftL dasa^ Saur. Prak. daha, 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 85 

Pfili dasoy Ea&UL dahoj Ur., Bang., BihftHy Hindi das^ Pan> 
dasj dahy Sindhi dah, Ouj. (205, Mar. dahO. Skt doiofi 'bites,' 
Pali dasatij Ur. cZotft^O^ daifii, Bang. daOiSy ^dihi(a), Hindi 
(2afhs(aA;), dSmiky Sindhi dcahganUj Mar. doifii, dMhcanSfhj dafh* 
khaneih, dasaneth. Skb yodi 'i^' Pr&k. ja% Jfiina Ptfik. jati, 
Pftliyodi, Hindi iad;i«,jeJ, Panj., Sindhi >«. 

b. Iranian. Av. do/Sman 'face," PhL andemankoTj Pbz. ancTl- 
ntdni, New Pers. dtm, Sfir., Za£, EfiS. ciim, Euhr. dim, dilm, 
Afy. Uma. Av. danton * tooth,' PhL, New Pera dandatij Wtol 
dUndUkj §iyn., Sarq. danddn, Minj. landj BaL dan^n, N. Bal. 
dathdn, dhanthdny Kurd. dicKin, Oss. dandag. Av. i?Ada ' foot,' 
PhL paij New Pere. pd{i)y Wtol |?«6, Siyn. |>a5, Sarq. j>a8, 
SangL jHid^ Minj. palah^ Hdg. jptiRuA^ Yayn. jnido, Afy. palj 
BaL i>^ N. Bal. phah, pMs, Zaaapai. 

d > i. 

§ 247. The vocalization of Indo-Iranian d through the transi- 
tion-grade b is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. pila * foot,' PhL pd^ New Pers. p(i(i), Zaza 
paij etc. (see preceding §). 

d > kh^ X. 

§ 248. The change of d to kh^ a:, is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Iran. *m + v^dttft ' to hide,' New Pers. nihufian, 
Kurd, nixiftin (very doubtful). 

d>g. 

§ 249. The change of d to ^ is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt dadrdghna ' good for leprosy,' Pfili gaddH^ 
hana (the change of d to ^ in this word is due to dissimilation 
from the second d and assimilation to the following gh). 

d>jh. 

§ 260. The change of d to jA occurs with extreme rarity, 
a. Indian. Skt duAitar * daughter,' Prftk. dAf(y)a, Saur. Prftk. 



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86 INDO-IRAmAN PHONOLOGY 

dJiMd, dhm, Pfili dhltO, dMtara, Aaa. jij Ur. jhia, Bang, jhi, 
Hindi, Panj. dhlijfa), Sindhi dhiu, dhiyy Gtij. dh%(ffa). 

d>d. 
§ 26L 73i6 oerebialization of Indo-Iranian d is found quite 
frequently in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt dahati 'bums,' Ptfik. do^ Pftli dahati, 
Hindi otaA, (ZftA, Sindhi d<A. Skb «Ar(2aJka < hearty/ Msg. 
Pr&k. hadakka. Skt dOto 'messenger/ Jsina Pr&k. ^i^o, P&li 
data. Skt. {7aia/i 'bites,' Bang. dathS{&), domi^ Hindi dSffiii, 
e7aff}i((zA:), Sindhi damganUy Mar. 4^Micaneihj dasanem^ damkhor 
n^j damSf etc. (see § 246). Skt pravdda 'narrative,' Pfili 
pavadOj Hindi, Sindhi jHH^r, Guj. pavQd^ Mar. pavQdA. Skt 
efd^d 'swing,' Prftk. d^I^ Pftli dM, BihArl ct^, (2^, Hindi doMjX), 
doUy d6l{a)y ddlikj Panj., Sindhi ^{i, Guj. dd'a, ddhvuthj Mar. 
ddla, ddllj ddlctj ddll, Anglo-Ind. dooli/. 

d>t. 
§ 262. The change of the voiced d to the voiceless t is regular 
in the Pfii&ici Prftkrit, but elsewhere it is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt durga ' name of ParvatI,' P&i& Pr&k. tukkd, 
Skt pradnSa 'district,' Pftifi. Prftk. paUsa^ Pftli padesa. Skt 
yadi ' if/ Jftina Prftk. jatiy etc. (see § 246). 

d>th. 
§ 253. The change of d to f A occiub very rarely in Ossetish. 

b. Iranian. Av. ddbaiti 'gives,' PhL dMan6^ New Pers. 
dadan^ Samn. (torn, Mftz. MdiOj Gfl. /aiidi, TM. diah^ Wftxl 
roJaw, Siyn. ^ia»l, Sarq. ham, Afy. foZ, BaL dSag, N. BaL deay, 
Kurd, dan, Dig. Oss. dadthun. Tag. daththin. Av. (fat^ya 
'long,' Old Pers. darjra, Afy. teryo, Kurd., Oss. darg, but Oss. 
iharqus 'hare' (lit 'long-ear/ cf. New Pers. darazgOS 'hare, 
donkey *). 

d > dhy d. 

§ 254. The aspirization of an original d is found both in the 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 87 

Indian and in the Iranian dialects apart from the regular change 
in Iranian of d to 5 before consonanta 

a. Indian. Skt duhitar ' daughter/ Pr&k. dA%)a, Sflur. Pr&k. 
dhadOj dhlda^ Pali dhUO, dhttara, Hindi, Panj. dhMya\ Sindhi 
dhiu, dhiy, Gtg. dhMyd), etc. (see § 250). Skt. dfthhita 'firm,' 
Jsina Pr&k cOMniycu 

b. Iranian. Av. dasa 'ten,' PhL ddhumy New Pent, dah^ 
WazI baSy lasj Siyn. hlSy lis, Sarq. bSs^ SangL daSy Yidg. It<5, 
Yayn. daSy Afy. {as, Kurd. cZot^, Zaza das, Oes. das{am). Av. 
dabaiti 'gives^' W&zl roMn, Siyn. Ham^ Sarq. dOni, etc. (see 
preceding §). Av. |>Ada ' foot,' WfizI pUb, Siyn. i>^, Sarq. pahj 
N. BaL jpAdd, phajfj etc. (see § 246). Av. x^aSba * sweat,' PhL 
x^^j x^alj New Pers. aj'^at, Wfixl xil, Sarq. a:ai5, Afy. x^als, 
BaL %^ N. BaL hsb, Kurd. a;tZ, ^rdA, xoi, Oss. xad. 

d> n. 

§ 256. The change of d to n is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. navadasa 'nineteen,' PhL nav&cdahumj New 

Pers. nuvcUddhutny Afy. nUnas, niUas, Dig. Oss. naudaSj Tag. 

nudas. 

d>y. 

§ 266. The change of d to y is only apparent, the y being 
really inserted to prevent the hiatus caused by the loss of an 
original intervocalic d (cf. §§ 122, 137, 143, 164, 183, 229, 242). 
The phenomenon is much more infrequent in the Iranian than in 
the Indian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt. hhadita ' eaten,' Pr&k. khila, M&h&r. Pr&k. 
khaiya, P&li khayita, Panj. khadha, Guj. khadhdy Mar. khattd. 
Skt. hrdaya 'heart,' Prftk. Maya, hiaa, Pali hadaya, Asa, Ur., 
Bih&rl hiij Hindi hiyd, Panj. hiyarhj hiailih, Sindhi hithuriiu, 
Mar. hiyyOy hiyefh^ Gyp. (y)tto. Skt. OdsSa 'order,' Pftli adisa, 
Old Biharl aySsUy oBsUy aydsu^ alsu. Skt p&da 'foot,' Prfik. 
jpAo, M&h&r. Pr&k. j?Sc7a, Hindi p&(fh)Vy Panj. |7d(m)t;, jTdifffi, 
Siihh, payOy piycu 

b. Iranian. Skt khOdoH 'eats,' New Pers. a::aya(^ Kurd. 



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88 INDO-IBAmAN PHONOLOGY 

xoMn. Fhl. xadit(k) ' saliva,' New Pers. xayUy xadO. New Pen. 
haddm *' almond,' Siyn., Sarq. v^yGm^ Kurd, hdhlv^ hcOv. 

d > r. 

§ 257. The change of d to r is not a frequent one. 

a. Indian. Skt tadrSa 'such,' Pr&k. tarisa, Psil Pr&k. 

tatisaj Pfili tadisa. Skt. itOdrSa 'such,' Mfih&r. Pr&k. ^risa, 

earisOj Pali erisa, Sdisa. Skt gadgada 'stammering,' Pr&k. 

gaggara. Ski ikadaSa 'eleven,' Pr&k. ^mAo, Pfili eJcarasOj 

ekadasa, Ea&n. £aA, Ur., Bang, ^aroj Bih&rl egydrdh^ Hindi 

igardhy gy&rahy Panj. gidrdth, Sindhi ikarahamy yiirdha/ih, Guj. 

o^idr, Mar. oA^om. 

(i>Z. 

§ 268. The change of d to Z is quite frequent in the Indian 
dialects, but it is very rare indeed in the Iranian dialects, excepting 
in the Afyftn. 

a. Indian. Skt. hadafnba 'sort of tree,' Pr&k. kalamba. Skt. 
pradipta ' kindled,' Prftk. pallvOj palitta, M&h&r. Pr&k. pdUmyOj 
J&ina Pr&k. pciitta, Bih&H j>aM Skt ddhada, ddhala 'longing 
of a pregnant woman,' Pr&k. ddhala^ ^^haloy dOhadciy P&li 
ddhala. 

b. Iranian. Av. dasa 'ten,' W&zl laSy baSj Si/n. iJs, iiSj 
Yidg. luSy Afy. laSy etc. (see § 254). Av. paba 'foot,' Minj. 
palah, Yidg. pulluhy Afy. pal, etc. (see § 24Q. Phi. x^aidi 
' God,' New Pers. xudai, §iyn., Sarq. qudd, Kurd, iro^, icwd^, 
MukrI xola. Av. fraegalaiti ' hastens forth,' Afy. jeryoZf. 

d>|. 
§ 269. The change of (2 to Z is exceedin^y rare. 

a. Indian. Skt dohada, ddhala 'longing of a pregnani; 
woman,' Pr&k. 4dhalay ddhada, ddhala, Pfili ddhala. 

d> V. 
§ 260. The change of (Z to v is only apparent, v being actually 
inserted to prevent the hiatus caused by the loss of an original 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 89 

intervocalic d (cf. ^ 128, 188, 144, 184, 232). The phenomenon 

18 very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt JcaddU 'plantain,' Pr&k. hardUy hayakj JaU^ 
Pali kaddll, Ur., Bang., Hindi, Panj. kajfdlO^ MlO^ Sindhi 
hxydUiy Ma, dimin. Tavi4dy Guj. Tal Ur, Mar. Ml, Siibh« hehel, 
kesel 

d>h. 

§ 261. The change of d to A is very rare both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt kadall 'plantain,' Simh. Jcehel, Jcesel [s by 
&l8e analogy), etc. (see preceding §). Skt. pddika 'quarter,' 
Ur. pdlii, Bang, jpdl, Hindi |7dl, Anglo-Ind. pie. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. bdd&m 'almond,' Kurd, blihiv, balv, 
etc. (see § 256). 

Syncope of d. 

§ 262. The syncope of Indo-Iranian d is less frequent in the 
Iranian than in the Indian dialects. In Iranian the loss of d 
occurs especially in the Persian dialects and in Kurdish. 

a. Indian. Skt. nadli 'river,' Pr&k. naf, Pfili nadi, New 
Ind. dialects nodi, W. Bang, also ladl. Skt hidall ' plantain,' 
Prftk. Mil, hayaU, JcaraU, Ur., Bang., Hindi, Panj. held, kaycdd, 
Sindhi Mia, TcayalO, Guj. Ml Mr, Mar. Ml, etc. (see § 260). 
Skt khadana ' meal,' Pr&k. khaana, Pftli khodana, Ur. kMilO, 
Bang. khaiU, Hindi khanO, Panj. kkana, Sindhi khalnu, Guj. 
khavuiih. Mar. klUXn^h. Skt Scxrad 'autumn,' Pr&k 5araa, 
Mfih&r. Prsk. saraya, Pftli sarada, Sindhi saraU. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. nadaram 'I have not,' Mfiz. narmah, 
GiL naramaA, but boeZSin ' I give.* Skt padika 'traveller,' PhL 
paik, New Per& paig (cf. Mfthftr. Pr&k. loan-word from New 
Pers. paikka). 

Epentliesis of d. 

§ 268. The epenthesiB of (i is very rare both in the Indian and 
in the Iranian dialects. 



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90 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

a. Indian. Skb pahcadaSa ^fifteen,' Pr&k« pannarahi, Psli 
pahcadasOj Ea&n. pand&hj Ur. j9an(2%(ir, Bang. pdnSrOj Bihfirl 
l^andaraA, Hindi pa$hdrahj Panj. jMufk^of^^ Sindhi pamdror 
hafhy poihdhrdmj Guj. pamdar^ Mar. pailKf&afid. 

b. Iranian. Ay. ddna 'grain,' PhL ddnaky New Pers. d&ndh, 
Sarq. (Jdno^ Kurd, dandah, danakl. 



dh^dh. 
§ 264. Indo-Iranian c2& is in general retained unchanged both 
in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. dkavala 'white,' Prak., Pfili dhavaloy Ur., 
Bang, dhdla^ Hindi dhaula, Sindhi dhauthrdy Guj. dJujlum, Mar. 
dhav&y dh(wal Skt. dhavdka ' washerman,' Ur., Bang, dlwhaj 
dUpa, Hindi dhohd. Skt. Jcsudha 'hunger,' Mahar. Prak. 
hhuha^ Pali hhudOy Hindi khudhOj Panj. Tchuddhia. 

b. Iranian. Av. &aoidi ' perfume,' PhL hod^ 651, New Pers. 

Uij Gab. 6«(^ WaxI vid, Sarq. &5o, BaL hOd, N. BaL 6o«, 6(Jj, 

Oss. hud, 

dh > d. 

§ 265. The change otdhtod is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. dhrsta ' bold,' Prak. dhittha, dhattha^ Naip. 

dhUmtd, Hindi, Panj. dhUh, Sindhi dithu. 

dh > dh. 
§ 266. The cerebralization of Indo-Iranian dh is not foimd 
very frequently in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt dhrsta^ hold/ Prak. dhittha, dhattha^ Hindi, 
Panj. dhlthy etc. (see preceding §). Skt. Vdhakk 'destroy,' Prak 
dhakka%, Ur. dhakanct, dhamkanOj Bang. dhakiUj Hindi dhakkdy 
Panj. dhakkOj Sindhi ^hakanu, dhikoj Guj. dMmkavtm, Mar. 

(?A > fc 
§ 267. The change of dh to Ob very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt dhdrayati ' holds,' PraL dharai, Pali dhar^H, 
Simh. fetienow, daranaw. Gyp. Vther. 



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SINGLE CONSONAm^ 91 

dh>cL 

§ 268. The deaspirization of Indo-Iranian c2& is the most 
frequent change to which it is subject both in the Indian and 
in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt dharma ^ virtue,' Pr&k., Ffili dhammaj Ea&n. 
daroMj Elu dahamy Siifah. dam. Skt dhattara 'thorn-apple/ 
Eaim. dattur^ TJr. dhiiturdy dhudurd^ Bang., Hindi, Panj. dhor 
tara, Sindhi dhOlurdj Guj. dhatUrd^ Mar. dhatarO. Skt h§udha 
'hunger/ F&li khudd^ etc. (see § 264). Skt madhu 'mead,' 
Mfihar. Pr&k. mahu, PftU madhu, Hindi mat^ t^iodAti, Sindhi 
fnacJti, Mar. madhtij Gyp. m^Z. 

b. Iranian. Skt dhamati 'blows,' Phi., New Pera dam. 
Dig. Oss. dumunj Tag. dimin. Av. &aot5i ' perfume/ PhL b6dj 
hua, Gab. ma, BaL ^(^ Osa &ud; etc. (see § 264). 

(» >hh. 

§ 269. The change of dA to &A is excessively rara 

a. Indian. Skt saAinirundhati 'impedes,' Pali sannirufh* 
lihatiy sannirufhhati. 

dh>y. 
§ 270. The change of dhto yiB only apparent, y being really 
introduced to prevent the hiatus arising frx)m the loss of an inter- 
vocaHc dh (cf. §§ 122, 137, 143, 183, 229, 242, 266). The phe- 
nomenon is not common. 

a. Indian. Skt madhura 'sweet,' Mahftr. Prftk. tnahurOj 
Pali madhura, Siifah. miyuru. 

b. Iranian. Skt vadha 'bride/ New Pers. hayd, Judaeo- 
Pers. hayDg, Kurd. ftoi. Av. mahu 'wine,' PhL, New Pers. 
mai, Osa mud 

dh>l 

§ 271. The change of dA to 2 is quite rare both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt grhagddhika ' lizard,' Pali gharagdliko. 

b. Iranian. Av. boMi ' perfume,' Wfixl ml, etc. (see § 264). 



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92 INDO-IRAmAN PHONOLOGY 

dh > V. 
§ 272. The change of d% to v is only apparent, v being actually 
inserted to prevent the hiatus arising from the loss of dh (cf. 
§§ 128, 188, 144, 184, 282, 260> 

a. Indian. Skt. tuladMra ' balance-holding," Siifah. tulavaru. 

dh>h. 
§ 278. The change of dA to A is quite firequent in the Indian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt ditsadhi * drug,' Prfik. osdhoy dsadha, P&li 
vsadhi. Skt. sadhu ^good,' Prak. sahUj Pali sctdhu, Biharl sah, 
Sindhl saa. Skt badhira ' deaf,' Prfik hahira, Pftli badhira, Ur. 
lahira, Bang. hahSra, Hindi bahird, Sindhl bord, bdddy 6uj. bdherdy 
Mar. bahir&, Siibh. bihiri. Skt godhUma ' wheat,' Apab. Prak. 
gohUtnUj Pali godhUmOj Asa ghihhhu, Naip. gdhum, XJr. gahama, 
gamoy Bang, ^oi^t, (/a^n, Biharl gohuritj Hindi 9(>(m)/tu»n, gchumj 
gh^tifhy Panj. gJUfuihy Sindhl gehuihy Guj. gJiaiUh, Gyp. ^ir. Skt 
rod/^ti ' bride,' Prak. ra/ti?, Pali vddha, Ur. &aAu, Bang. 6att, Hindi 
6a(7<)tZ, Panj. &dAtl, Sindhl t?a&«, bohHy Guj. ro/m. Mar. ra/tt?. 

Syncope of dh. 
§ 274. The loss of dh occurs only rarely in the Indo-Iranian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt gddhuma ' wheat,' Ur. gama, gahamoy Bang. 
gom, gam, Hindi gheum, gdhmhy go{th)humj Panj. gheum^ Guj. 
ghaiifh, Gyp. giv, etc. (see preceding §). 

b. Iranian. Av. vibUj vibava 'widow,' Phi. vevdky New 
Pers. bCvah, KaS. via, vlga, bJvi, Kurd. 6l, Tag. Oss. idaj. Av. 
/ioca * from ' + aZairi ' beneath,' PhL cwitJr, Pfiz. oiiJr, New Pers. 
rcr, Stv. 5f, Zaf. iBTj other Central dialects jf r, Samn. jcTy 5M. 
jiar, Judaeo-Pers. eSr, Kurd. ;etr. Tag. Oss. dala. 



§ 276. Indo-Iranian n is in general retained unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects, although in Middle Indian 
an original n is usually cerebralized to ti. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 98 

a. Indian. Skt ndman 'name,' Prfik, Pali ndmoft. New 
Ind. dialects nikn{v)y Gyp. anaVj nav. Skt nOmdnfoH 'bows^' 
PrftL nam^iy Pfili ndmtti^ Ur. nurfidl, Bang, ndm, nuyo^ Hindi 
niSi{v)j Panj. nit^ Sindhl naAw(k Skt ^ndna 'batii,' Apab. 
Prftk. nhanuj P&li rindno^ nd^no^ Hindi nhOnSL, Panj. nASiin^ 
Guj. ndhdny Mar. naA^n, n&han&lh. 

b. Iranian. Av. ngman 'name,' Old Pers. ndtnanj PhL, 
New Pers. ndn^ W&xl nwt^, Afy. ntim, BaL nOm^ Dig. Oss. 
non, Tag. nam. Av. naitya 'virile,' PhL nSrOk^ Pftz., New 
Pers. nXrOj Siyn. nfr, Sarq. nior, SangL nardky Yidg. nar. Av. 
nova 'new/ Phi. nami, n^^A:, Pfiz. nd, New Pers. nd, nao^ Siyn. 
nati, Sarq. nli;, A£y. nau, novai, Bal. n^Jb, N. BaL n^, Kurd, 
nu, Dig. Oss. navag. Tag. nwgr. Av. jaini 'woman,' Phi., New 
Pers. jsatty Gab. yan> yan(iOc)y Siv. JHuy Tai.iany KfiS., Euhr.^an, 
Jin, yan^ Jfatiy Nfty. yanaA, Samn. ianihdj Siyn. ytn, Sarq. yfn, 
Sin^ Minj, iin^a, Afy. jtwaf, jtJnaf, jai, BaL jan, Kurd. Hn^ 
ZaasLJan. 

n >ft. 

§ 276. The change of n to A is confined to the Sindhl, which 
alone preserves 99, ft, pronounced fdg and ni respectively (see 
§ 154). 

a. Indian. Skt stana 'female breast,' Prfik., Pdli thanay 
Ur., Bang. thanOj Hindi thinj Panj. thaUy Sindhl thahuj thanUj 
Guj. tMny Mar. thanH. Skt mSnana ' respect^' Hindi mannd^ 
Sindhl mahanu. 

n>n. 

§ 277. The cerebralization of n is very frequent in the Middle 
Indian dialects. Yararuci, ii. 42, goes so far as to postulate a change 
of n to n throughout the Prftkrits (nd nah sarvatra, c£ Pischel on 
HSmacandra, L 229, Gramm. der Prdkrit-Sprdchenj § 224). In the 
j!Tew Indian dialects the change is less conmion. 

a. Indian. Skt nadl ' river,' Prfik. nal^ Pfili nacUy New Ind. 

dialects nadf^ W. Bang, also ladi. Skt vacana ^ speech,' Prfik. 

vacatfo^ Mfihfir. Prfik vayanOy Pfili vacana. Skt JchanH ' should 



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94 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

dig,' Osth& Jchai^. Ski dhSnu ' cow/ Prfik. dhSnu, Pfili dh^Uy 

Sindhi dhSnu. 

n>b. 

§ 278. The change of n to & is excessively rare, 
b. Iranian. Skt nagna ^ naked/ Av. mayiuiy Oss. haynag. 

n > m. 

§ 279. The change of n to m occurs occasionally finally in 
Iranian. 

b. Iranian. Ay.paUiddna^pejiom/FhLpad&nijPnz.pandm, 
pandmy New Pers. pandm. PhL Mn *roo^' New Pers. 6a», 
Mm, Siv. boHy KjeA. bii{n)j bdn, T&t sarbu, Afy. b&m, Kurd. ban. 
Av. &fiina 'blessing/ PhL Ofrln Upraise,' nq/Hn * curse/ New 
Pera nafrln, Eiu*d. no^m. 

n >r. 

§ 280. The change of n to r is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt n&irahjana nom. prop., Pali ni!rahjara. 

Skt stMna 'place/ Prak. thana, thdnci, Apab. Prak. tMnu, 

iMUy Pali tMnay Naip. thaf9if Ur. fAano, fMndj Bang. fAd», 

thana, Biharl {liaiJi(m\ tJui{m)Vy Hindi <//a«a, ihaUnaj Panj. 

^/mn«, tMndj Sindhi tMnu, thanUj Guj. /Aan, fAan, Mar. tJiary 

ihan, Siiiih. Mna, Mna. 

n >l 

§ 281. The change of n to Z is not uncommon in the Indian 
dialects, and in Siihhalese the change is regular. In the Iranian 
dialects, on the contrary, the development is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt Snas 'faulty' Pali el<i, ija. Skt. nitnba 'sort 
of tree,' Prak. Uihhaf Pali nimbay Biharl nfm, Hindi llm, nfm, 
Sindhi limiiy Guj. limbadd, Mar. limb. Skt navanlta ' butter/ 
Pali navanlta, ndnlta, Bang, nanl, Hindi ndnl, Mar. Idnl. Skt., 
Prak, Pali nlla 'blue,' KaSm. nytiZ, Bang., Biharl III, nil, Guj. 
ft?. Skt vana 'forest,' Prak. wno, Pali vana, Simh. mZ, Mala- 
dive vali. Skt, Prak., Pali nava ' new,' Siifah. ?a, Gyp. nevd. 

b. Iranian. Av. jaini ' woman,* Afy. jaZ, jinai, junal, etc. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 95 

(see § 275). Skt fuwaka 'youth^' New Per& navahj Kurd. 
lau{k), lav, Id. 

n>l 
§ 282. The change of n to I is exceedingly rare, 

a. Indian. Skt Bnas <faulV P&li ^Jo^ ^lo. Skt vana 'forest^' 
Maladive vali, etc. (see preceding §). 

n > V. 
§ 288. The change of n to t; is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. vaSna *nose,' Phi. vSnlk, ienlkj Paz. tinlj 
New Pers. 6fnf, Samn. rlnf, Mfiz. vSnlj TU. rlnf, R Kurd, baval, 
Kurd. &it;iZ, &^n. 

Syncope of n. 
§ 284. The loss of Indo-Iranian n is rather uncommon* In 
the Iranian dialects the apocope of n is found occasionally after 
ong vowels. 

a. Indian. Skt. sthdna 'place/ Apab. Prftk. ihdUj ihdnUy 
Biharl iMa(m), tha{fh)v, etc. (see § 280). 

b. Iranian. PhL var&n * rain,' New Pers. 65rftw> Zaf. vurdy 

KaS. vOnln, Nay. varan, Kurd, hdrin, Dig. Oss. wrw», Tag. 

varin. PhL, Paz., New Pers. n&n ' bread,' Zaf. nU, Nay. ndu, 

Central dialects nUn, BaL nagan, N. BaL nayan. New Pera 

tabistdn 'summer,' Siv. tavisd. New Pers. $d 'manner,' sdn. 

PhL, New Pers. pasln * hinder/ Kurd. paH. 

• 
Prothesis of n, 

§ 286. The prothesis of n is an excessively rare phenomenon. 

b. Iranian. PhL dlnlnak 'mirror,* New Pers. dlnah, BaL 
adSnk, {h)adek, N. BaL OdSn, (Mna, Kurd, nainak. Dig. Osa 
aidana. 

Epenthesis of n. 
§ 286. The epenthesis of n is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. hazama 'thousand,' PhL, New Pers. hoMcir^ 
Afy. zar, ZazBL hanxdr. 



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96 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

§ 287. Indo-Iranian |7 is in general retained unchanged both 
in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian* S]sLpa£(M ' afterward,' Prfik., Pfili pacchA^ Ass. 
pic^ pac^ Ea&n. p(xt(h), Ur. pachBj pOchu^ Bang, pacha, Hindi 
pachBj plchSy pachOy pUcha, Panj. pichBy pichOrk, Sindhi pde, 
puathy Guj. pachSy pachl, pachd, SiihL pas{u). Ski pahva 
^ ripe/ Apab. Prftk. pakka, pikka, Pali pakka, Ass. pakO, Nfiip. 
pdkj Ea&n. pdp, Ur. pakkd, Bang. |>di^ R Hindi i>aJE;aZ, Hindi, 
Panj. pakkdj Sindhi pakd, Guj. Vpak, pik, Mar. plk, pikct. Skt. 
V'cAop * go * (?), Ur. tipibdj Bang. cAdpt^^ cdpife, <g^ife, Hindi 
chapana, caAipan&y tdpana, tdpanOy ppand, thapana, Sindhi 
cMpanu, octpa/nUj tapudanu, thapanUy Mar. chapan^, dXpator 
ne^h, tap, thapakOj Anglo-Ind. (first) chop, shampoo. Skt., P^di 
japana ' muttering/ Hindi ja{rii)pand, Mar. jdpaneth. 

b. Iranian. Av. pasca * afterward,' Old Pers. pasa{va), Phi., 
New Pers. pas, KfiS. pac, paS, Bal. paS, Kurd. pdSl, pdSva, Dig. 
Oss. fastOga, Tag. fastag. Av. j;56a * foot,' PhL pal, New Pers. 
j)a(i), WftxIjHi^, Siyn. j?^, Sarq, j)ai, Sangl. jwd^ Minj. palah, 
Tidg. j>mZZu&, Yayn. j^uia, Afy. pal, Bal. 2?ad, N. Bal. pUaib, 
pMe, Zaasipai. Av. ap 'water,' PhL 5p, Pftz. aw, New Pers. 
a6, at?, Gab. d, Siv. at?, aw, Yazdl vd, KlfiS. 5t?, Nay. dd, Nat. aw, 
Samn. (>, Mfiz. ej(t'), GiL, TfiL, Tfit Gv, WaxI yt/j?/i:, yopaft, Yidg. 
yovy, Yayn. op, Afy. ()6a, BaL dp, N. BaL ^ Kurd. av. 

p >k. 

§ 288. The change of jp to i is excessively rare, 
a. Indian. Skt. pipHlika 'ant,' Psli kipilUka, pipHUka (by 
dissimilation). 

p >ph,f. 

§ 280. In the Middle and New Indian dialects the aspirization 
of an original p is usually caused by a following aspirate or sibi- 
lant. In the Iranian dialects jp becomes /(apart from the regular 
laws of aspiration in Iranian) in Ossetish| and between vowels, or 



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SnrOLB CONSONANTS 97 

finally after vowels in North BalacI, although this dialeet shows 
ph initially before vowels and r. 

a. Indian. Skt parigha ' bar/ Prftk. phaiiha. Skt paru§a 
'rough,' Pftli pharusa. Skt pciribhadra 'sort of tree,' PrSk. 
pMUhaddOy Psli ph(A%bhadia. Skt pufpa ' flower/ Pr&k., Psli 
pupphcL^ Bihfi]! phiJlp(h\ Old Hindi puhupny Hindi i^AAjp, Oig., 
Mar.jpAoZ. Skt i>dia 'noose,' Mahfir. Prftk., P&li pOsOy Nfiip. 
pK(JtAi86y p(is6j Ur. i^Ao^, Bang., R Hindi, Hindi phUikSj Pa^j. 
i>A<3Aei, SinSSol phagiy pMhl, Ghij., Mar.jpAdfft& 

b. Iranian. Av. pacaiti 'cooks,' PhL jpeui^. New Pers. 
poModj Qth. paxOy EfiS. pataUj Maz. jpoxfa, W&zi pOcam^ Afy. 
paxavul, BaL jxico^, N. BaL i^Aofoy, Kurd. j>dfin, Bayazid 
jpeUAin, Dig. Oss. y{6un> Tag. fiSin. Av. jKirma 'feather/ Phi., 
New Pera parr^ Afy. par^ BaL jwin, Kurd, /ir, palj par^ Zaatk 
Jinn 'to fly.' Skt tapas 'heat,' New Pers. Ob, Gab. <0, EfiS. 
tavj Afy. fo&o^ BaL fop, N. BaL thaphy ihaf, thap, Kurd. Ui{v)j 
Tag. Osa f AA/ Av., Old Pers. xSapan ' ni^t,' PhL Sap^ iatOk, 
New Pera ja&, Samn. Id, M&z. fa, TaL lav, TU la, Siyn. iab^ 
Sarq. a:a&, Minj. xktva^ Afy. ^xi, BaL lop, N. BaL Iq/^ Kurd, 
lat;, Osa axkao. 

p >b. 

§ 290. The change of the tenuis |) to the media b is more 
conmion in the Iranian than in the Indian dialects, where p 
normally becomes v. 

a. Indian. Skt lipi 'tablet,' Pifik. (inscriptions of Delhi) 
libi, P&li lipi. Skt ndpita 'barber/ Prfik. nJuM^n^ ndviOj 
dakara Prflk. niibida. Skt kapOta 'door/ Prfik. aplUOj Ur., 
Bang. kabii4(h Hindi, Panj., Mar. kavdd. Skt api 'also/ Prfik. 
piy avij Pfili {a)piy Sindhi bi. Skt sthdpayati 'establishes,' 
Prfik. {h^Mi, Pfili ihapeH^ Ur. thuiba, Bang. ^Adff^ Hindi, Panj. 
thdpaniXj 6uj. ^|7atn<ifi. Mar. f%d|7an^ Simh. tabanavCL Skt 
IHini^vanf 'rhinoceros,' Pfili balasaia. 

b. Iranian. Skt kaplita 'dove/ PhL A;apei<(af), New Pera 
TcabQtar^ Wftxl A^t&i^, Sarq. cabaud^ Yidg. Aurt^ Afy. AaMfor, 



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98 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

kavntafy BaL iapdt, Jcqiar^ Kurd havOh Av. dbpan' night,' 
New Pers., Siyn. &&, Sarq. xab, etc. (see preceding §)• Av. ip 
* water/ New Pera ^6, dr, Afy. 56a, etc. (see § 287). Skt. 
IdpO^a 'fox,' Phi. f«p55, r^5, New Pera rdbdhy Qsh. nXvOSj 
Sarq. rapS^ BaL raphaskj Kurd, rflvt, Dig. Oss. robov, Tag. 
rubas. 

p >m. 

§ 201. The change of j? to m is very rare outside the Middle 
Indian dialecta 

a. Indian. Ski nlpa 'Eadamba tree,' Pr&k. nlmaj nlva, Pfili 
nJpa. Skt apfda *chaplet,' PrajL ant^la, aveda. Skt punah 
'again,' Pr&k. (inscriptions of Delhi), mincij (inscriptions of 
Shahbazgarhi) pana^ lii Prfik. punOj Pali panOy Bih&rl phittf 
p(h)un. Skt svapant 'sleeping,' P&li sumantOj but supati 
'sleeps.' Skt, Pftli A-a«;Aapa ' tortoise,' Bang, kachim, Hindi, 
Panj. kachUfif Sindhi ka^chu Skt sapddika 'one and one 
fourth,' Prfik. savdla^ Ur. saUyatj Bang, sailyd, Hindi savd^ 
W. Hindi sanidy Panj. sava{Xa)j Sindhi savalj Guj savA^ Mar. 
sawd. 

§ 202. The change o{ p toy, which is, as in all similar phe- 
nomena, only apparent (cf. 5§ 122, 137, 143, 183, 229, 242, 256, 
270), is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt, PBlipip&sa 'thirst,' Hindi piyds, pids, pyds. 

p > V. 

§ 208. The change of |) to t; is the most frequent one of all 
those to which Indo-Iranian|7 is subject, both in the Indian and in 
the Iranian dialects. It is closely akin to the changes of |> to h 
and of & to i; noted in §§ 290, 308. 

a. Indian. Skt kapdla ' skull,' Prfik., Pali kav6la. Skt papa 
' evil,' Prfik. pdva, Pfili pdpa^ KBkm. paph, Siifah.|7at;u, other New 
Ind. dialects pOp, Skt. upadhydya ' teacher,' Prfik. uvajjhda, 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 99 

ujjhOaj Pfili upaijhayay Bihfirl pULdha^ Sindhl vQo^' ^^ Tcapdta 
' door/ Hindi, Panj., Mar. havadj etc. (see § 290). 

b. Iranian. Av. upairi 'above,' Old Pers. upariy, PhL opar, 
Paz. auwr, New Pers. (a)barf Waxi, Sarq. tw, Afy. jwi$, BaL 
jpar, N. BaL phary gvar, Kurd. 6ar, Osa vala. PhL lop *lip,' 
Pfiz. latOy New Pers. 2a5, Gab. Idv^ Bahb. Zau, Za£ l6, KfiS. 7at;, 
Von. Wi, Nay. liyU, WaxI, SangL far, BaL lapj Kurd. Ziv. Av. 
ap * water,* New Pers. dt;, fit, Siv. at?, au, KfiS. (h), Maz. 5t;, 5, 
GiL, TaL, Tat ^, Yidg. yory, Kurd. &v, etc. (see § 287). Av. 
xSapan ' night,' PhL &zt;dX:, %?, 1^ &it;. Minj xkiva, Kurd. £at;, 
Oss. axSaVj etc. (see § 289). Skt IdpGia * fox,' Gab. rOoaSy Kurd. 
r«ri, etc. (see § 290). Skt iopi^'oZa * partridge,' BaL /topfnjar, 
N. BaL Jchatvinjar. 

Syncope of p. 
^ 204. The loss of Indo-Iranian p throu^ the transition-grades 
b and t? (c£ ^§ 290, 293, 809, 876) is not uncommon in the 
Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. dryajn</ra' father-in-kVs son,' Prakc^jaii/fo. 
Skt. A-t^wi 'well,' Naip. Jcuvdy Ka£m. Jchuhy Ur., Bang. JcUay 
Biharl, Hindi, Panj. l'ti(m)afhy Sindhl khuhuy Guj., Mar. kuvo. 
Skt lapittha 'wood-apple tree,' Ur. kaita, Hindi kaihabel (with 
metathesis). 

b. Iranian. Av. Sp ' water,' Gab. dy Nay. d5, Samn. d, Maz. 
d, dVy etc. (see § 287). Skt tapa$ 'heat,' Gab. tdy Kurd, tdy taVy 
etc. (see § 289). 

ph = |>A. 

^ 205. Indo-Iranian ph is in general preserved tmchanged 
both in the Indian and in the Iranian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt, Pali phana 'snake's hood,' Ur., Bang., 
Hindi i7%an<7, Sindhl j^Aani, Guj. j^Aa^tc^, Mar. j?Aand. 

b. Iranian. Av. kafa 'foam,' PhL, New Pers. kafy WaxI 
x\ify Sarq. xafy BaL kapy Kurd. iq/J Dig. Osa xafay Tag. xaf. 
Av. 5q/b ' hoo^' Afy. svOy Oss. sqfthag. 

H 2 



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100 INDMBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

ph > p. 

§ 296. The deaspirization of Indo-Iranian ph is excessively 
rare in the Indo-Iranian dialects, excepting in BalQcI, where inter- 
vocalic ph regularly becomes p^ which North BalacI has developed 
to/ 

a. Indian. Ski phadi$9ga ' flying insect,' Pftli patai9ga. Skt 
phalgu ' herb/ P&li *phalgava > paggava. 

b. Iranian. Av. Jcaofa 'mountain/ Old Pers. Jcaufaj Phi. 
Jcd/iak), New Pers. kdhy Euhr. knftinj Tbt kttf, Afy. kvaby BaL 
Mpag^ N. BaL Jbo/by, Kurd. hOfh. Av. kc^a 'foam,' BaL kap^ 
etc. (see preceding §). 

ph > b. 

§ 207. The change otph to & is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. kaoja ' mountain/ Afy. kvabj etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

ph > hh. 

§ 208. The change otph to &A is found not infrequently in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. rSpha 'burring soimd,' Pr&k. r€bha. Skt. 
saphala 'fruitful,' Prftk. sabhala, Apab. Prak. sahalUy P&li 
saphala. Skt Saphari 'carp,' Prak. sabharij sahariy Pali so- 
pJMfiy Hindi sahafl, Panj. saiil. 

ph >v. 

§ 200. The change of ph to t; is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. kaofa ' moimtain,' Kurd. kH^h^ but k(M ' wild,' 
etc. (see § 296). Av. ^q/Ji 'hoof,' Afy. sva^ etc. (see § 296). 

jpA > A. 

§ 300. The change of j^A to & is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Ski iaphari ' carp/ Prak. sahariy sabhariy Hindi 
5aAarf, etc. (see § 298). 

b. Iranian. Av. kaofa ' moimtain,' New Pera kdhy etc. (see 
§296). 



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SINGLE C0N80NA2n:S 101 

Syncope of ph. 
§ dOL The loss of Indo-Iranian phis a very rare phenomenon. 

a. Indian. Skt iaphari ^carp^' Panj. saiil etc* (see § 298). 

Epenthesis of ph, f 
§ 802. The epenthesis of ph^f is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. taSa 'axe,' New Pers. iaSj Kurd. U^fsciu. 



§ 808. Indo-Iranian & is in general retained unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. badhnaii 'binds,' Prftk. baMha% Pfili baih- 
dhatiy Hindi baihdhy Panj. bannh^ Sindhi lOihdh. Skt budhyaiS 
'knows^' Prftk. bujjhai, Rdi bujjhatij Ea&n. sanyhOadiy bujhibOy 
Ur., Bang. bUjhana, Hindi bf^jhaniiy Panj. bujjhan&y Sindhi 
hujkanuj Ouj. ^t^'avuifi, Mar. b^Jh. Skt Sahara 'barbarian,' 
Pr&k. sabaroy samara. 

b. Iranian. Av. baxSaiti ' divides,' PhL baxtand^ Pftz., New 
Pers. baxJTeZan, Afy. &afa2, 5aa:a2, BaL bakSag^ N. BaL bofJl-a/, 
Kurd. ftocSiit. Av. ftar^ir < high,' PhL, New Pers. bura^ Kurd, 
(arir, Oss. bareond. 

b >p. 

§ 804. 13ie change of the & to |) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt bMha ' firm,' PrSk. (inscriptions of Ehftlsi 
and Dhauli) j?^;ia, Mfth&r. Prftk. bOiha. Skt balmja 'reed,' 

Pfili JTO&^/O. 

6>6A. 
§ 806. The aspirization of Indo-Iranian b is very rara 
a. Indian. Skt brhaspati nom. prop., Prftk. bhaaphadi. 

6 > m. 
§ 806. The change of & to m is extremely rare (c£ Skt briihi 
' speak I ' Av. mrOihi). 

a. Indian. Skt Sahara 'barbarian,' Prftk. samara^ Sahara. 
Skt kdhandha ' belly, cloud,' Prftk. kamaihdfMy kayo/ihdha. 



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102 INDO-nUNIAN PHONOLOGY 

h >1f. 

§ 807. The change of & to y, which is only an apparent one (cf. 

§§ 122, 187, 143, 188, 229, 242, 256, 270, 292), is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt kdbandha 'belly, doud,' Pr&k. kayatlidha, 

Jcamathdha. 

b > V. 

^ 808. The change of b to t^ is very common, both in the 
Indian and in the Iranian dialects. The Pr&krits have so far con- 
fused b and v that Yararuci writes v for b throughout. The New 
Indian dialects use t; almost to the exclusion of & in the East, 
Hindi reverses this, writing every v as by Panj&bl uses b and v 
indifferently, while the Western dialects preserve the original 
distinction between the two more carefully. 

a. Indian. Skt bdspa 'vapor,' Pr&k. bdha 'tear,' bappha 
^ smoke,' Saur. Pr&k. bappOf P&li bappa^ Ea&n. bdha, Ur., Bang. 
bapha, bliupha, E. Hindi, Hindi bd(m)phy Panj. bhdph, Sindhi 
laphj Guj. bd{rii)ph, Mar. vaph. Skt bandhyd ' barren woman,' 
Prak., Pali va^jjhOj Bang, bathjha, Sindhi vatkjhj Ms^arl 
brlriijliadly Gruj. vdfi%jhafhj Mar. vdmjh. 

b. Iranian. Av. bUza 'goat,' PhL buj. New Pers. buz, WaxI 
hue, bile, Siyn., Sarq. vaz, SangL vuz, Minj. voaa, Yidg. viza, Afy. 
vuz, Kurd, bizin. Old Pers. fiaiba ' beautiful,' PhL nevaJc, mr. 
New Pers. nSv, nSk. 

Syncope ofK 

§ 309. The syncope of an intervocalic b is very rare in the 
Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt pibati ' drinks,' Prfik. pial, P&li pibcUi, Siihh. 
boiiava, cans, pavanavd. 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. naiba 'beautiful,' PhL mvah, nHv, 
New Pers. neJc, ncv. 

Epenthesis of b. 
§ 310. The epenthesis of b is quite rare. It seems to occur 
mostly in the vicinity of m. 

b. Iranian. Av. staxra 'stifi^' PhL stahrtibaktar, stahmaliar, 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 108 

New Pare, aitam. Av. duma ^tail,' PhL, Kew Pers. dmtj dumb, 
Sarq. bUntj SOmM, Afy. 2am, Kurd. dUv^ dunky Big. Oss. dumag^ 
Tag. dimo^. Skt r^nan * hair of the body/ New Pera rfiw, 
rtimoA, rum6aA. 

§ SIL In the Indian dialects Indo-Iranian && is in general 
retained unchanged. The Iranian dialects, on the other hand, 
change bh to 5, which, however, in the younger Avesta became tr, 
excepting when b was preceded by a written nasal or sibilant, or 
when b was initiaL 

a. Indian. Skt pratibhaii 'gloiy,' Pr&k pa4%bhaii. Skt, 
Prfik., Pfili bhami < earth,' Ur. bhUma, bhUririi, Bang. bMm, 
Hindi bMthj bMifhy bhariihj Panj. bJiMij bhUmy bhUriihy bh^th^ 
Sindhi bhi^fh), Guj. 6Aa(y), bhdy, Mar. &A«y, Gyp. phuv. 

bh > khy z. 
§ 812. The change of bh to Jch, x^ is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Skt Obha 'glory ' + Ml'a 'heat,' New Per& Oft^ 

'sun,' diyn., Sarq. aftauj Kurd, dto/. So oo:^, afe(/^ adaVj 

BoxtanI Ulv. 

bh >phjf. 

§ 818. The change of bh ix>phjfj is found occasionally in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. aimrooayeiti ' kindles,' PhL afrdxtand, New 
Pera (^frdxtan. Skt abhi-^Sana 'whetstone,' PhL afsan^ New 
Pers. afsatij avsanjfasan^ Wfixl, Sarq. pasan. Skt Qrnavdbhi 
' spinning-wheeV New Pers. bdftanj Qsh. vaftmHn^ Wfixl ri{/Jim, 
Sarq. vafamj My. Odal, udalf BaL gvapag, N. BaL gvafay^ Osa 
t7q/?n. 

6*>&. 

§ 814. The deaspirization of Indo-Iranian bh is by no means 
common. 

a. Indian. Skt bhaginl 'sister,' Pr&k. bhaii^l^ bahinl^ Pfili 
bhaginl^ Ka&n. byanj Ur. &Adtfnl> bhaUnl, Bang. ^Yit, Hindi 



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104 INDO-IEANIAN PHONOLOGT 

hahin, Panj. hhaiif, hOinh, Sindhi hhenUy Ouj. Uh^ Mar. iahlnj 

Gyp. phen. 

bh>m. 

§ 816. The change of &A to m is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt dundubhi ' drum,' Ffili dindima. 

b. Iranian. Ski bhatpgd 'bhang, hemp/ Av. bafdha^ PhL, 
New Pers. mangy bang. Skt nObhi * navel,' Av. n4/5iA, PhL 
n(Jlif[ak)y Afy. nu, nam, BaL napag^ ndjagy N. BaL nOfayy Kurd. 

§ 816. The change of bh to mA is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt &Aana^ ' speaks,' Prftk. bAatuxlf, P&li bAano^i, 

Mar. mhanan&ni. 

bh>v. 

§ 817. The change of &A to t; is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Skt nabhas ' cloud,' Yidg. nutmh. 

bh>h. 

§ 818. The change of && to A is the most common of all the 
changes to which Indo-Iranian bh is subject in the Indian dialects, 
but bh does not become A in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. bhdnda ' pot,' Psli bhanda, Ur., Bang. hUm^i, 
Bih&n hdfhdy bhamd, Hincb, Panj. hdth^ly Sindhi hathdly Guj. 
hamdiy Mar. li&mdl. Skt labJiati 'takes,' PrSk. lahai, Pali 
labhatiy Ur. nS, Bang. !ae^. Old Hindi laha, Hindi 2^, Panj. ZaAi, 
laiy Sindhi ZaA, Guj. 2^, Mar. n& Skt bhavati 'becomes,' Pr&k. 
huvaiy bhavaiy Pfiii Prfik. bhoti, l^ur. %^i, huvadi, havadiy 
bhddiy bhuvadiy bhavadi, Pali %(^^i, bhavoH, Ur. %^i^ ^&d. Bang. 
hditSy Hindi A^nd, Panj. Ac^d, Sindhi huanUy Guj. Mvuthy Mar. 

HI s: 911. 

§ 810. Indo-Iranian m is in general retained unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt madhya ' middle,' PrSk., P&li majjJuiy Ass. 



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8IN0LE CONSONANTS 105 

m^', Ea&n. mathMyUr. majhiy Bang. ni^fA^ Hindi i»4Av fnathjholdj 
Panj. mithjhy nuyjh, Sindbl ma^jhuj Mar. majhy Siifah. m^m)(ia. 
Skt mrfo 'dead,' Prftk. iitoa, mtia, Mfig. PrSk. madij Ur. 
ftiala, Hindi mM, Panj. muid, Sindhi imi^^y Gxg. mutmifi^ Mar. 
911^2^ SiiiiL mala. Skt Jb^amA 'patience,' PrSk. khanUJ^ 
'patience/ chamA 'earth,' P&li khamOf Hindi chimO, Panj., 
Sindhi JchimOj Ouj. iAamd, Mar. A:%amaitM. Skt grama 
'village,' Prfik.,Pftli ^Omo, Ur., Bang, gaih^ Hindi ^tnv, Sindhi 
gdmu, gaa^ Guj. gdm^ Mar. (^^v. 

b. Iranian. Av. maihyana ' middle,' PhL, New Pers. miydnj 
W&zl mdlungy diyn. moMno^ Sarq. ntoMti, Afy. man/. Dig. 
Oss. medagj Tag. madag. Av. m9r9ta 'dead,' PhL moif 'mortal,' 
New Pars, mord^ Bal. mar, Kurd. mir. Av. jrim^ ' of winter,' 
PhL, New Pera jeam, WfttI ivim, diyn. iimj, irin/, Sarq. ssamdny 
My. Hmaiy Dig. Oea. gumag, Tag. jnmo^. Av. n^man ' name,' 
Old Pers. fUtman, PhL, New Per& tidm, Mfiz. nUmj 6lL n(^ 
Wfixl nungy Afy. n^ BaL nAm, Dig. Oss. nofij plur. namththa^ 
Tag. nom. PhL ydmoft, jdmoX; ' robe,' New Pers. jQmahj So 
Kurd. yUma. 

m> n. 

§ 320. The change of m to n is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. nqman 'name,' Dig. Oss. non^ but plur. 
namththay etc. (see preceding \). 

m> t9g. 

§ 3aL The change of m to ^dgr occurs but seldom. 

b. Iranian. Av, nqman 'name,' WaxI nung^ etc. (see § 819). 
Skt. ama ' raw,' New Pers. xflm, Wftxl yUngy Afy. 5m, «w, BaL 
hamag, N. BaL Admay, Kurd. xdv. 

m >]?hjf. 

§ 822. The change of m to ph^ / is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Skt dOman 'bond,' New Pers. dSmy Afy. tern, 
Kurd, dq^ 



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106 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGT 

m > 6. 
§ 828. The change of m to & is exoeBsively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt fnahisa 'buffido/ Fsli mahimsOj Ea&n. 
mums, Ur. hhay^Oj Bang, hhalti^s^ Bihfiil mhaiSy hhaiiks^ mahiSy 
bahiSj Hindi bhaiths^ nihditkSy Panj. majhj Sindhi mamjhj mathhiy 
Ouj. bhSfhSy bhaUhSy bhaiihhy Mar. bhaithSj nih&is. Skt, P&li 
mandrama 'delightful,' Old Siihh. manumaraka 'grandson' 
< *manurama4caj Siihh. munubiiru {m >bhy dissimilaidon). 

m > V. 
§ 324. In the New Indian dialects the change of m to i; is 
a very frequent one. It is more rare in the Middle Indian, while 
only a few instances are quotable from the Iranian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt manmatha 'love,' Prfik. vammaJui, Saur. 
Prak. mammadha. Ski dbhimanyu nom. prop., Prak. ahivannu, 
ahimannti. Skt. yanuHa ' pair,' Jaina Prfik. y&varaj Pali yamala. 
Ski mlm&ihs 'investigating,' Pali vlvaihs. Skt. dtnaldka 'myro- 
balan,' Prak. dmalaay Pali dmaldkay Ur. dritaldy Bang. dOldy dUlAy 
Hindi, Panj. dmvaldy Sindhi dnwirdy Mar. dthvald. Skt. ^ydr 
mala 'swarthy,' Pfili sdmalOy E. Hindi sdihvaVy Hindi sdfhvaldy 
W. Hindi sdmvraUy Panj. sdmvald, Sindhi sdriwalUy sdmviruy 
Mar. sdmvald. Skt gOsvdmika 'monk,' Biharl gdsdmly Mar. 
gOsdvly other New Ind. dialects gosdiniy Anglo-Ind. gosain. 

b. Iranian. Av. da£f)tan * face,' Phi. andenidnTcary Paz. aneli- 
wmnf. New Pers. dlnVy Siv., Zaf., KaS. diwi, Kuhr. rfim, cZflw?, 
Afy. UmOy BaL d^ N. BaL df-r, efet?, Kurd. (fe>n. Av. pairi 
* around ' + r(wraifi 'flies,' New Pers. pamidjs 'flight' beside 
paitdJg, New Pers. patrdnah 'butterfly' beside parnidnah. 
Av. ndniah 'homage,' PhL namdCy Pfiz., New Pers. namdZy Afy. 
nmunj, Bal. nat?«5, nanidSy Kurd. «Tt'^-^, nt?ci, «wtci. Av. na&na 
'half,' PhL n^m(ai), Paz., New Pers. nfwt, Afy. wf^nai, BaL 
nihnagy Kurd. «fr. 

m > 5. 

§ 825. The change of m to ^ is extremely rare, 
a. Indian. Skt bhramara 'bee,' Prak. hhasalay bhasara. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 107 

hhasanOj hhamarOy Apab. Prfik. IhasahUj Jfiina Prsk hhasam^ 
Pali lihamarct, Ur. &^mara, Bang, hhamara^ Bihfirl tAdtimrd, 
Hindi hhamvarj hMumrj Panj. ^Aaffetify Sindhi hh&uikru^ Mar. 
&AM)n [So HSmaeandra falsely (see Pischel, § 251).] 

fn> Al 

§ 826. The change of m to tfi is not infrequent in the Indian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt, Prftk., Psli ndman ' name/ Hindi iMlmt;, Panj. 
naUm, Sindhi namuihj Mar. n&Vj Gyp. an&v, nav. Skt., PrSk. 
bhUmi ' earth,' P&li &At3mi, bhummi, Ur. 6%^?ma, &%i3iffiy Bang. 
hham^ Hindi &At7fh, &At2fri), &At2m, Panj. hhafhy bhmihf bhdlfiif 
bhUm, Sindhi bhuim^ bhu, Guj. &%a, bhuy^ bhGyy Mar. b/ttly, SiihL 
bimcL Skt., Pr&k., Pftli rdman ^ hair of the body/ Bang, rdm&j 
Bihfirl r^flfw, reH;aw, Hindi, Panj., rdam, Sindhi Zom. Skt 
^dsvdmiA'a ^ monk,' New Ind. dialects gOsdlth^ etc. (see § 324). 
Skt., Prfik., Pali dhama < smoke,' Ass. dhdthdt, Nfiip. dhuaih, 
Ka&n. duhj Bang, dhuyath^ R Hindi, Hindi, Panj. d%ilifuZ»fi, 
dhMfhj Sindhi dumMthj Guj., Mar. dhUmj Siihh. dum. 

wt > mv. 

§ 827. The change of m to riiv is found occasionally in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt n&man 'name,' Hindi nAmv, etc (see pre- 
ceding §). Skt. humara ^prince/ Prfik. JtufiiSra, Mfig. Prfik. 
kunUXUy Pfili humdrahiy Bih&rl A:u9fiar, Atfar, &ut?ar, Hindi hwmr 
voTj Panj. lammr, Mar. kufhvar. 

Syncope of m. 

§ 828. The loss of Indo*Iranian m is very frequent in the New 
Indian dialects, although in Middle Indian m is lost only when 
final In the Iranian dialects the phenomenon is fotmd but 
rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt katham 'how,' Prfik iaha, kdham. Skt 

idanlm 'now/ Prfik. cJdni, cZdntiti^ Shfihbfi^garhi inscriptions 



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108 INDaiRANIAN PHONOLOGT 

hidaldkika ^temporaL' Skt, Pali nSmi 'circumference,' Ur. niOj 
Bang, n^dy R Hindi, Hindi n^, Panj. niuth^ Ouj. nSv, Ski 
cdfnara ' ox-tail fan,' Pr&k. dmarOy Pali cQmara, Ur. camarOy 
Bang, c&uihrj camera^ Hindi odtiri, e^iliri, Panj. cdur, Sindhi 
cduruj Guj. cOurf , Mar. cduri, caumri, cdmar, Anglolnd. ehawry. 
Skt. c2%t2ma 'smoke,' Nfiip. cZAtldfis^ Hindi, Panj. dhuatk, dhO^ 
fhOfhj etc. (see § 826). Skt vamana 'dwarf,' Prak., Pali vQmanOj 
Bang, b&uniffdy Hindi (and, iAtfitd, Panj. b^wUL 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. gqdumaoc^ name of a place, PhL, Pas. 
gantum 'garlic,' New Pers. gandumy Nay. gunddy Wa^d yidfm, 
diyn. iriiulam, Sarq. Bandamy zanduniy SangL, Minj. yaftdaniy 
Yidg. yodumj My. yanwny BaL gandim. Old Pers. at;^A:anam 
'I dug,' New Pera hanamy (hh. akanay akani, but 1 pL 
dkanlm. 

Epenthesis of m, th. 

§ 829. In the Indian dialects epenthesis of m, ff», is very 
frequent It is far less common in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt ycU prabhrti 'since,' Jaina Prak. jappabhiUhy 
c£ Mahar. Prak. tappabhiifh. Skt mdhisa ' buffialo,' Pali mO' 
JiMisay Kaim. mUmSy Bang. bhatthSy Biharl bhaithSy mMiSy 
mahiSy bahis, Hindi bJulithSy mhaims, Sindhi mathjhy mdmhiy 
Guj. bJieniSy bhaifhSy bhaithhy Mar. bhdiihSy mhdiSy etc. (see § 828). 
Skt kapa 'well,' Naip. kuv^y Ea&n. khuhy Ur., Bang. lOd, 
Bihan, Hindi, Panj. kuriiafhy kM^hy Sindhi khuhu, Guj., Mar. 
A^t^. Skt diOya 'shadow,' Prak. chahly chaya 'beauty,' Pali 
chayOy Ur. chdhinay Bihan choAihy Hindi cAdiii, cliamVy cJiOtkhy 
clMhhy Panj. cAdtn, chaUfhy Sindhi cAdffi(t;), Guj. t;^%. Skt 
nabhas 'cloud,' Prak. naha, Pali naibhay Siiiih. nwrnfta, nu6a. 
Skt, Prak., Pali lajja 'modesty,' Ur., Old Bang., Hindi lajjOy 
lAjy Panj. lajjy Sindhi fo^, Guj., Mar. lajjOy lajy Sirfih. Zain(to, 

b. Iranian. Skt. prddku 'leopard,' New Pers. palangy pilangy 
Af y. pr&ng. Av. wmaA ' homage,' Af y. ntnunjy etc. (see § 824). 
Lat t?c5pa 'wasp/ Lith. twp^a, BaL jrmm^, gvdbjff. New Pers, 



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SUfQLE COIfSONANTS lOd 

1^^ ^part about the nose,' Oab. piU^ SangL fuHh^ Minj.^bda, 
A£y. pdMy pojBOj BalpGnMypdSy N. BalpJUhuf, phdgj EurcLiHZf, 
pds, Dig. 088. j$it^>, Tag. fing. PhL hi^and 'to hid< 8 a. 
prea hmbei^ New Pera mAf^/Zon^ nihunbudan^ Kurd niar^/^n. 

§ 830. Indo-Iranian y remains in general unchanged in the 
Iranian dialects, especially in the Persian dialect& In the Indian 
dialects, on the other hand, the preservation of an initial y is 
excessively rare, although it is usually retained internally. 

a. Indian. Skt ffdbhoH 'futuit,' Sindhi yabhanu. Skt, 
Prfik., Pali daydlu ' merciful,' Ur., Bang., Hindi, Panj. daydl{u\ 
Sindhi dayalu, Ouj., Mar. dayal{u). Skt. hrdaya < heart,' Prfik. 
hia(i/)ay P&i& Prfik. hitaaka^ Pfili hadaya^ Ass., Ur., Bihfirl Aid, 
Hindi hiya^ Panj. Aiydm, hidwhy Sindhi hitkaihu^ Mar. hiyyCL^ 
hiySth^ Gyp. iy)ilo. 

b. Iranian. Av. yaska ' disease,' PhL yaskj New Pers. jctsk. 
Skt yuga ' yoke,' New Pers. juy, Kuhr. yO, Siyn. yuy^ Sarq. 
yily, BaL J^, Kurd. juk. Av. yaw 'barley,' PhL yat>, jat>, New 
Pera jav, Siv. yu, Zaf. yaA, Ksk ya^ Ruhr. ya&, §iyn. yavaj^ 
Sarq. yat4j[;, Yayn. yat4, BaL jd, jat^, N. BaL, Kurd, jau^ Mukn 
ydy Oss. yau. Av. ydna ' path,' New Pers. ydn^ Af y. yiln. Av. 
ii9aya ^ shadowless,' PhL sdyak ' shadow,' New Pers. sdyah, BaL 
sAig^ N. BaL ^f, Kurd. sH. Av. zayala 'was bom,' PhL jbo- 
yand^ New Pers. eayadj My. ^f, BaL slkyagy N. BaL j3y, Kurd. 
juAin, Oss. ioyi. 

y>i- 

§ 88L In the Indian dialects original y r^;ularly becomes j. 
Uriya and Bangftll pronounce every y as j, and the same practice 
is observed in most instances by Hindi and PanjfibL The West 
Indian dialects, the Sindhi, OujarfttI, and Marfi^hl, on the other 
hand, retain the Old Indian value of y (cf. also §808). The change 
of y to J is less common in the Iranian dialects, although New 
Persian, Afyfin, Balaci, and Kurdish show frequent examples 
of it 



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110 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

a. Indian. Skt ya ' who,* Pr&k. ja, Pali ya, Ur., Bang, je, 
Hindi, Panj., Sindhi j5y Guj. j^ Mar. jO. Skt yOgya ' worthy,' 
Pr&k. jo^a, Pali yoggaj New Ind. dialects jdy^ Mar. also ^(^. 
Skt. yauvana 'youth,' Prak. jawanOy Pali yobbana, Sindhi 
jdbhanti. Skt yatUragrha ^ bath-room,' Pali jantOgharaj jantag^ 
gha. Skt yatha ' how,' Prftk. jahOy Pali ja^Ad, Gatha jo/*^ Ur. 
jSthOy Bang. jikhAnS, Hindi jahan% Panj. jftt*^, Sindhi jiff, 
Guj. jamhamy Mar. j«fe«», jif/*^. Skt, Pali yflwa ' vehicle,' Ur. 
jiba, Bang. jd¥^, Hindi jdnd, Panj. jdn^ Guj. javuni, Mar. 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. yu/viya 'canal,' PhL y^, j^. New Pera 
jdi, Afy. jova, Av. yuxto 'joined,' Phi. jtady New Pers. jm/?, 
Afy. juxt. Av. yaw ' barley,' PhL jav^ yav, New Pers. jav, Bal. 
j^, jar, N. BaL, Kurd, jau, etc. (see preceding §). Av. ydi?ta 
'glass,' PhL jdm, yarn. New Pera jdm. 

y>b. 

§ 332. The change of y to b is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Sktj^tJya 'pus,' Pali j>u66a. Skt jar^lyu 'uterus,' 
Fsii jalabUy Siihh. dalabu. 

y>bh. 

§ 333. The change of y to bh is extremely rare. 
a. Indian. Skt sarayu name of a river, Pali sarabhu. 

y >r. 

§ 334. The change of y to r is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt SrOman^a 'novice,' Pali sdmanSra. Skt 
sndyu ' sinew,' Jaina Prak. nharu, Pali nahOrti, Siifah. naJuiraya. 

y>l 

§ 336. The change of y to 2 is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt yasti ' stafl^' Prak. laUhiy 6aur. Prak. jatthiy 
Pali laUhiy Ur., Bang. Whly Hindi lofit), lothly Panj. fapf, Sindhi 
WMy Guj. te?, tef*, Mar. lattk Skt dydtayati ' illuminates,' Pali 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS HI 

jdtdlati^ jdtayaHjj(^L BihftrT dildtarsu ^ one htindred and two * 
beside diyDtarsu (on the analogy of iilotarstij caldtarsUj etc.). 

y > V. 

§ 886. The change of y to v occurs veiy seldom. 

a. Indian. Ski mrgaya ' hunt/ Pftli migava. Skt. trayaS' 
trimiat ^ thirty-three/ Jaina Prftk., Pali tavattlsay Ea&n. tyaya- 
trahj Bih&rl taiihtiSy cf. archaic Siihh. tavak. Skt dyudha 
' weapon,' Prfik. auhaj Pail Prftk. dyudha^ Pali ayudha^ Ovudha^ 
Siifah. avMya). 

y >h. 

§ 887. The change of y to & is an exceedingly rare one. 

a. Indian. Skt cMya 'shadow/ Pr&k. chdlia 'shadow/ 
chdya ' beauty/ P&li chdydj Ur. chdhlna, Hindi chOnhhj chath{v)j 
chiUMij Panj. c(i{U)fhj Sindhi chdth{v), Guj. c&my. Skt ranah- 
jaya 'victorious/ Pali ranaihjahih Skt svayampcUi ' epithet of 
Brahma,' Pali sahampati. 

Apocope of y. 

§ 888. The loss of an ori^nal initial y is foxmd, although but 
seldom, in the Indo-Iranian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt yHika ' louse/ Pali iHA^ Hindi jt^rft, Qyp. jw). 

b. Iranian. Skt yusmiiham 'of you,' OAv. :thMka^ YAv. 
y%$&mGk9m^ P&z., New Pers. himd^ Bal. javd, Dig. Oss. smaxy Tag. 

Syncope of y. 

§ 889. The loss of an original y is not a veiy frequent phe- 
nomenon. 

a. Indian. Skt kisalaya 'sprout,' Prak. kisalOj hisalaya. 
Skt hrdaya 'heart,' Prak. Aioo, hiayOj Paifi. Prak. hitaaka^ 
Asa, Ur., Bang, hi&j Panj. /itdum, hiy&th, etc (see § 880). Skt 
t;a^ ' wind,' Prak. vdO, Pali i;dyfi, Ur. bda^ Bang., Hindi idf, 
bOdj Panj. t^a, Sindhi &d¥, vdU^ Guj. t;d(ir), Mar. odv. Skt deva^ 



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112 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

laya ' temple,' Ur. dml, Bang., Hindi dandy Panj. d^oftZO, Sindhl 
defHxlly GKg. dSval Mar. dSval deal 

Proihesis of y. 
§ 840. Prothetic y is occasionally found botii in ihe Indianand 
in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski eva < indeed,' Prfik. yeoOy dftur. Prfik. jewaj 
Pfili 6vay yeva, h§va. Skt (j^rbhutva ' having become manifest,' 
Jftina Prftk. yavihatUL 

b. Iranian. Av. dlarS ' fire,' PhL OtaSj New Pers. (d)foj, OtiS, 

Gab. foil, Siyn. yd6, Sarq. yu^ Minj. yUr, N. BaL d{^ Av. aspa 

' horse,' PhL, New Pers. asp, Waxi yol, Minj., Yidg. yosp, Afy. 

d5, BaL (h)ap8j Kurd. Aasp, Dig. Oss. (^^Oj Tag. ya/&. Av. 

aAmi ' I am,' Old Pers. amiy^ New Pers. am, Afy. yam^ am^ 

Kurd. tm. 

aya > a. 

§ 34L The loss of Indo*Iraman y in the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian dialects, which has been noted in § 839, gives rise to 
various contractions. Similar contractions often occur in conse- 
quence of the i^cope of Indo-Iranian consonants. The contrac- 
tion of aya to d is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt abhyayana 'rehabilitation,' Pali (ibbhQna. 
Skt., Pali udaya ' rise,' Siihh. udA. 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. ddrayavat^S nom. prop., PhL ddriav^ 
New Pers. dara{b), dardv. 

aya > €. 
§ 842. The contraction of aya to ^ is the normal one in the 
Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. It is carried out in all 
causatives in the Middle Indian. 

a. Indian. Skt. dhdrayati < holds,' Prak. dhdrHy Pali dharSti. 
Skt. JcathayaH ' tells,' d&ur. Prfik. Jcadh^i, hahsdi, Pali hUUtl. 
Skt. nayaii ' leads,' Prfik. nrt, Sfiur. Prfik. w^i, Paifi. Prak. n«t, 
Pali nayati, nitij Gatha upanHi. Skt hsaya ' destruction,' Mag. 
Prak., Pali hhaya, Hindi, Panj. chai^ Ghij. TcM, Mar. hha%. Skt, 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 118 

Frftk., Fftli bhoffa 'fear/ Ur. bke, Hindi, Panj. bhai^ Sindhi bhai, 
bhauy Mar. bhB. Skt. nayana 'eye/ Prsk. ifoanay P&li nayana^ 
Hindi, Panj. naiity Sindhi nenu^ Guj. nenoMj nethn. Skt moya 
<moilier/ Simh. ma&^iyam. Skt iayandsana 'bed-room,' Pftli 
sayandsanOy Siihh. ^eno^n. 

b. Iranian. Av. paourva ' former ' + ayai9 'day/ PhL, New 
Pers. parSfy Ksk pare, BaL parM, pair&ri ' last year/ N. Bal. 
I^Aairi. Av. eayeiti ' is bom,' Pfimir dialects ifd. 

ay« > 0. 

§ 848. The contraction of ayH io 6i& veiy rare. 

a. Indian. Skt mayikra ' peacock,' Pr&k., Pali mUra^ Eaftn., 
Ur. mdTy Sindhi nOru, Ouj., Mar. mGr. 

ayd > 5, fli. 

§ 344. The contraction of ayd to ^ di, is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt trayddaia 'thirteen,' Pr&k. teraha^ tidasa 
(inscriptions of Khfilsi), trdidasa (inscriptions of Oimar), Pali 
Urasa, Kaim. hruvdhy Ur. iSraj Bang. ttrOj Hindi t&rahy Panj. 
t&ramy Sindhi teraMth, Guj. ^, Mar. t^a. 

iya > t. 

§ 845. The contraction of iya to f is a rare one. 

a. Indian. Skt kiyant 'how much?' Pali kittaka < ^kiyat- 
takcL 

b. Iranian. Skt priya ' beloved,' Av. fiya. New Pers. /rf . 

ay a > d. 

§ 846. The contraction of dya to d seems to be the most usual 
one to which dya is subject. 

a. Indian. Skt. vdihdyasa ' aerial,' Jfiina Prftk., Pali vdhdsa. 
Skt upatthdyaJca ' servant/ Pali upatihdha. Skt kdldyasa ' iron/ 
Pali kdldsoj kdldyasa. 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. xSdyaOiya ' king,' PhL, New Pers. Sdh. 

I 



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114 IXDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

ay a > B 

§ 347. The contraction of Qya to 5 is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt paVXyati ' flees,' MsMr. PrSk. paldyai, Pali 
paUti. 

ay a > at 
§ 348. The contraction of dya to a% is found in Ossetish. 

b. Iranian. Av. frasfidyanta *they washed,' Dig. Oss. axsnufij 
Tag. axsnin *wash,' Tag. natn 'bathe.' Skt. rCtyati * bellows,' 
Oss. raXn. 

r=r. 

§ 349. Indo-Iranian r is in general preserved unchanged both 
in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. rekhd 'streak,' Prak. rchd, Pali rCkhd, Hindi, 
Panj. rekh, Sindhi rSghlj Guj. r^g, Mar. re{g)h. Ski rajan * king,* 
Prak. roa, Mag. Prak laa, Mahar. Prak. raya, PaiS. Prak. raja, 
Culikapais. Prak. rOcd, Pali rajatij Hindi rail, rflr, Siiiih. rada. 
Skt. karpilra 'camphor,' Mahar. Prak., Pali kappUra^ Hindi, 
Panj., Sindhi, Guj. kapUr, Mar. kajyilr. Skt. iva^ura * father-in- 
law,' Pali sasura, Ur., Bang., Hindi sasiir, Panj. sahura, saur 
Jmra, Sindhi sahurd, Guj., Mar. sasara, Maladive Jmrs. 

b. Iranian. Av. raoyfia ' oil,' Phi. rokan, rdyan, New Pers. 
rdyan, KaS. rtiyan, rd, Waxi ruyUti, ruyn, Sarq. ravan, SangL 
roy, Minj. rayan, Kurd. rtln. Av., Old Pers. rasta ' right,' Phi., 
New Pers. rOsty Oss. rast, rastlu Av. raocah ' day,' Old Pers. 
raucahy PhL ro(^h)y New Pers. rdz. Gab. r«7;, Caspian dialects 
rUy but KaS. r5, TU. r^i, rtTi, Afy. rmj, Bal. roCj N. BaL r^i, 
Kurd, rtii, rd^(i). Av. rfara 'star,' Plil. starak, New Pers. 
sitarahj Wail ^^clr, Siyn. itor;, Sarq. xturj, SangL usiUrak, Minj. 
astariy Afy. stdrai, Kurd, t^firi, 2Iaza o^ar, Oss. 5teW. Av. 
x^araiti ' eats,' Old Pers. fxapn-xopa, PhL x'^afiand, New Pera 
rrurdan, KaS. a:«rton, Siyn. xaravi, Sarq. j^orawj, SangL x^aranty 
Minj. :ramm, Afy. x^aral, BaL t^am^, N. Bal. raray, KunL 
arwrm, x^arin. Dig. Oss, xvarun. Tag. xarin. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 116 

r>j. 

§ 350. The change ofrioj is excessiyely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt, Pfili pOrana < fulfilment,' Hindi pUjnay 
Sindhi ptydnu. 

r>4h. 

^ d5L The change of r to d& is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt arahdha ^ beginning,' Prfik. iJ4hatta^ draddkay 
M&hflr. PraL, Pali araddha. [See now Pischel, § 228.] 

r > d. 

§ 852. The change of r to d is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt purandara ' epithet of Indra,' P&li purin- 
daduy purinda (by assimilation or false analogy). 

r > n. 

§ 353. The change of r to n is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. ddrayamiy * I hold/ Phi., New Pers. 
ddram, Wax! va6Uramj Sarq. horaffiy Lftd. ddnam. Phi., New 
Pers. mar ' serpent,' Afy. mangarai. 

r>l. 

§ 354. The change of r to 7 is by far the most common of all 

the changes to which Indo-Iranian r is subject, both in the Indian 

and in the Iranian dialects. In Mfigadhi Prakrit r becomes I 

everywhere. Similarly in the Prakrit of the inscriptions of 

Dhauli, Jaugada, Khfilsi, Bhabra, Sahasarfim, and Bair&t r becomes 

{ throughout, but in the inscriptions of BGpnftth r occurs twice. 

a. Indian. Ski ratnl 'night,' Pr&k. ratt%, rai^ Mfig. Prftk. 

lattly Pali ratttj Ur., Bang. rat(i), Hindi rOt^ Panj. rSty Sindhi 

rati, Guj., Mar. rOt Ski carana 'foot,' Prfik. calanckj dfiur. 

Prfik. also carana, Apab. Prfik. calanu, Pfiii Prfik. calana, Pfili 

carana. Ski hdridra 'yellow,' Prfik, Pfili hdlidda. Ski 

parigha 'iron bar,' Pfili paligha. Ski riijju 'string,' Ass. fe/u, 

R Hindi UjufL Ski catvarifSiiat 'forty,' Prfik. cattaUha^ 

I a 



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116 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

cMUsOy Pfili cattaksaj cattarisay Ea&n. fatajihy Ur. cdliiaj Bang. 
caUiiOy Bih&rl cHiSy Hindi cOllSy Panj. cOlf, Sindhi calih, Ouj., 
Mar. cd&^y SiiiilL hatalihay sataliha. 

b. Iranian. Av. raScayai ' poured,' PhL t^arfand, Paz. rs£6dy 
New Pers. r&rfon, Gab. retman, V5n. f«fen, Wa^d varicamy 
Sarq. t^ratjeam, BaL tiSoajf, N. BaL rf&»y, Kurd, r^in, Dig. Oss. 
UjuHy Tag. ftjf n. Av. varayna ' raven/ PhL vdlay, vdray, vdrah 
Av. (5pa) taurund * puppy/ PhL forui, ^tZrui, f^niA;, f5mA:, New 
Pers. ^{oA, tOrahy Gab. ^aA, EfiS. ^d^o, tUroy turay BaL tela^, 
N. BaL thdlayy Kurd. ^tlra. New Pers. sUrOx * hole/ Judaeo- 
Pers. siUdXy Afy. Mmi. Av. maoiri 'ant,' PhL, New Pers. 
mOTy GkJb. moflft, V5n. n^fwna, Dig. Osa muijugy Tag. maljig. 
Av., PhL, New Pers. nar * man,' SangL namA^ Afy., BaL, Kurd. 
nafy Dig. Oss. nala. Tag. na!. 

r>L 

§ 855. The change of r to Z is not a very frequent one. It is, 
of course, confined to the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt afdgdra ' coal,' Pr&k. ithgala, Pali amgdray 
Guj. imgdroy amgdrd, Mar. vhgal{a)y ifhgdl^ Gyp. angdr. Skt. 
catvctrimiat 'forty/ Pali cattdUsa, cattdflsay Panj. cdfi, Simh. 
hatalihay satalihay etc. (see preceding ^). Skt. Ar^dm 'ashes,' 
Prak. chara, Pali A;A<Jm, chdrikay New Ind. dialects iAar, but 
Sindhi charuy Siihh. (A)alu, Maladive AtcZti. 

Syncope of r. 

§ 856. The loss of an original r is infrequent both in the 
Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt param, pars 'beyond,' Mag. Prak. paUy 
Apab. Prak. pali, Biharl pdi. Skt durOsdrita ' duly and unduly 
restored,' Pali ddsarita. 

b. Iranian. Paz., New Pers. agar^Hy' Siv. ay. New Pers. 
kar ' make I ' Qsh. kar. Central dialects ka, KaS. ki, Nay. nika. 
New Pers. bar * bear ! ' Zaf. bar, KaS. 6a, V5n. bar, Kuhr., Kurd. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 117 

ha. Av. mlUar * mother/ PhL fnM{af)j New Pers. mOdar, Gab. 
mayey KfiS. ma%, mGya, Mftz. mdr, mtir, GiL f>0r, mdar, 7^ mHy 
&yn. ind(2, Minj. md^A, Afy. m^, BaL tiiA^, N. BaL nUiOy mOSy 
Kurd, maiy Dig. Ofis. mada^ Tag. mM 

Epenihesis of r, 
§ 857. Epenthetic r occurs in the Indo-Iranian dialects very 
rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt kOti ^ ten millions,' MSg. Prfik. kodi^ Bihftrl 
har^j kardr, Hindi krdr, Anglo-Ind. crore. Skt. vydsa nom. 
prop., Apab. Prfik. vrOsu. Skt. bhdsya 'commentary/ Prftk. 
bhr&sa. 

b. Iranian. Av. taSojt 'shaped,' archaic New Pers. tOSitan, 
Afy. tarxaj. Av. baxta '£ate,' PhL, New Pers. baxt, Afy. 
barxa, braxa. Av. a£i dahdka nom. prop., PhL aSS dahdkj 
New Pers. aJSdaha ' dragon,' Kurd. aidarhUj aiddha. 



§ 858. Indo-Iranian lis in general preserved unchanged in the 
Indian dialects. In Old Iranian Indo*Iranian I was entirely lost, 
excepting in the foreign proper names Jialdita and dubala in the 
Old Persian inscriptions In the Middle and New Iranian { 
reappears, sometimes representing Indo*Iranian {, and sometimes 
Indo-Iranian r. 

a. Indian. Skt 2a^ma' attached,' Prfik., PsliZoi/jra, Hindi Zo^, 
l&g, Panj. lag, other New Ind. dialects lag, Skt limpaii ' smears,' 
Prfik. limpaiy Pfili limpatiy Ur. lipj Bang. Up, Hindi Up, Up, 
Panj. lipp, limb, limm, Sindhi limb, Guj. lip, Mar. lep, Skt 
dmalaka ' myrobalan,' Prfik. amalaa, P&U dmoZoia, Ur. dmald, 
Bang. ddZa, dilla, Hindi dntvala, Panj. diild, Sindhi aiftt?i»i9, Mar. 
athvajd. Skt calaft 'wanders,' Prfik. cdlai, Pfili caZa^i, Ur., 
Bang, cdl, Hindi cal, Marw. car, Panj. caU, Sindhi oaZ, Guj., 
Mar. cdl, cat Skt, Pfili pippala 'sort of tree,' Bang, pippal, 
Bihfirl, R Hindi pUpar, Panj. pippal, Sindhi |^j?ini, Guj. pipal. 
Mar. j^impaL 



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118 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

b. Iranian. PU. lap 'lip/ New Pera lab, Kfii. lav, Tftt lov, 
Wftxl lav, lafc, Sangl. lav, BaL lap, Kurd. Ztt? (cf. Lat. labium, 
Anglo-Saxon lippa). PhL lilitan6 ' lick,' New Pers. liHan, 7al., 
KfiS. 5ato, Wftxl lixam (e£ Skt i^mt, rgAmi ' I lick,' Gk. kdyt^, 
LitL l^m, 0. H. Gterm. leckAn). Ay. garah 'throat;,' PhL 
garak. New Pers. gulu, gala, SangL yar, My. ydra, Kurd, garu 
(cf. Skt yala, Lat. gula, 0. R Germ. feZa). 

l>d. 
§ 359. The change of Z to i is very rara 

a. Indian. Skt. paloSa 'green,' 6ak. Prftk. paddSa. Skt. 
laldta, rarcUa ' forehead,' Prftk. niddla, Pfili laldfa, naldta (cf. 
lexicog. Skt. nitala). Skt. ^Za 'palmyra-palm,' Pfili ^2a, Ur. 
tdl, Bang, ^a?, other New Ind. dialects tad, tdr 

I > n. 
§ 360. The change of Z to n is quite frequent in the Indian 
dialects. In Uriya and Bangfill initial I is almost always pro- 
nounced n. 

a. Indian. Skt. latdgala 'plough,' Prftk. naiitgala, lamgala, 
Pali namgala, Bilifiri Idmgal, Mar. ndmgar, Siihh. naguh, 
nagala. Skt. laldta, rardta 'forehead,' Prftk. niclala, Pali 
nalata, lalata. Skt. lavana ' salt,' Prftk., Pali Una, Ka&n., Ur., 
Bang, mln, Idn, Bihftrl Idn, non, Hindi non, nun, Ian, Panj. 
nUn, Sindhi lUmi, Guj. Itm, Mar. Imid, Gyp. Ion. Skt. hinf{h)a 
'robbery,' Ur. nutl, Hindi lut, Anglo-Ind. loot. Skt. dshall 
' threshold,' Pali dshani. Skt. jamhUla ' rose-apple tree,' Bihari 

Z >r. 
§ 36L The change of Z to r is the most frequent of all the 
changes to which Indo-Iranian Z is subject In Old Iranian, as 
already noted in § 358, original Z has become r throughout. 

a. Indian. Skt yhmdla ' pair,' Jaina Prak. ydvara, Pali ya* 
niah: Skt dlambana ' support,' Pali arammana. Skt ptppah 
* sort of tree,' R Hindi plpar, Sindlil piping, etc. (see § 358). 



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SINGLE CONSONAin^ 119 

Skt iyamala 'swarthy/ Pali sOmalOf R Hindi sdrhvar, Hindi 
sdntvald, W. Hindi $(khvraUj Panj. satkvald, Sindhi s(UhvirUy 
sClmvcUu, Mar. s^mvaloL 

b. Iranian. Skt ph&la ' plough,' New Per& supar^ Sarq. spur, 
Afy. 5p^a. Skt IdpOSa *fox,* Phi. r^j^cw, IdpaSj New Pere. 
r^A, Gab. ruvdSf Sarq. rape, BaL ropAasA*, Kurd, ritvij Dig. 
OsB. n?6a5, Tag. rUbas. Skt Kijd 'nit,' New Pers. riSk, Afy. 
rtco, Dig. Oss. liskay Tag. {tsA; 

I > I 
§ 362. The change of 2 to 2 occurs frequently in the Indian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt., Prak, Mia * black,' Pftli Jcala, Ur. kala, Bang., 
Hindi kctla^ Panj. kala^ Sindhi k^rd, Guj. kalj). Mar. kaUt^ Siihh., 
Maladive kalu. Skt. sthala 'place,' Ur., Panj. thai, Sindhi 
tJiarUj Guj., Mar. thai Skt ialati 'totters,' Ur. ial, Bang., 
Hindi tal, Panj. ial, Sindhi iiJy tar, Guj., Mar. ial 

Syncope of I 
§ 863. The syncope of an original 2 is an excessively rare 
phenomenon. 

a. Indian. Skt kihculaka 'earth-worm,' M9g. Prfik. kwi- 
cula€, Bihar! k^tcuva, kbhcva, Skt. halivarda 'bull,* Prak. 
ba'illa, Pali balivadda. Skt khalu 'indeed,' Prak. {k)khu, 
Shahbazgarhi inscriptions khO, ku, Pali khO. 



V = V, 

§ 364. Indo-Iranian v remains in general unchanged both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt vartika ' wick,* Prak. vatiia, Pali vattikdj Ur. 
bati, Bang. latJ, Hindi, Panj. baiii, Sindhi vaii, Guj. bati. Mar. 
batti. Skt vrscika ' scorpion,' Prak. vithchia, vimchua, viritcua, 
vihcua, Pali vicchika, Ur. bichil(d), Bang. bicM, Hindi bichm, 
Panj. bicchn, Sindhi bichum, vifhchu, Guj. vimchHj vichu. Mar. 
viiiicU. Skt pavaiia ' wind,' Prak. paUna, Pali pavana^ Ka&n. 



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120 INDO-nUNlAN PHONOLOGY 

jpOvan^ Ur.y Bang, pabatij other New Indian dialects jxnun, also 
Hindi paUtif Panj. paUtiy Guj. pon. 8kt navaii ^ ninety/ Pr&k. 
naUim^ P&li navutiy Ea&n. noma^ Ur. naba^ Bang. ndbbalyBiiail 
nahb€j Hindi, Panj. norr^ Sindhi nav^ Guj. nA^iJiy Mar. tuwvad. 
b. Iranian. Av. fYif9aii9At^n< 'glorious,' PhL varCy vofj^ 
New Pere. vafj. Av. wto 'wind,' FhL vdt^ New Pers. 6dd, 
Gab. vOdj Siv. f?5i, Zaf. vd, Kfifi. t?5t, Von., Kuhr., Nfty. vddj Nat 
rdcZ, Mftz. vay 1^ i^r, Afy. tTd, BaL gvQt, N. BaL i^cd^, grOSj 
Kurd, rfti, 6d, Tag. Oss. vnd. Av. tw/ra ' snow,' PhL vafr^ New 
Pers. harfy Gab., Kftfi., Msz., GiL varf^ M. tw, Judaeo-Pers. 
twAr, SuigL wif/5 Minj. f?a»/a, Afy. rfltra, Kurd, tw/r, 2iaza 
ratira. Av. nava * new,' PhL navakj ndkj Pfiz., New Pers. ndj 
Grab, nova, KfiS., §iyn. naVj Sarq. ni^', Afy. ttarai, BaL nOhj 
N. BaL ndo:^ Kurd, nu, Dig. Oss. navag^ Tag. nvo^. Av. doaxs 
' demon,' PhL, New Pers. dev, WaxI ftt?, Siyn. ilr, Sarq. b^. 

§ 805. The vocalization or samprasfira^a of original t; to ti is a 
rare phenomenon. 

a. Indian. Ski pavana ' wind,' Prsk. paUna, Hindi paUtiy 
pavan^ Panj. pailn^ pavan, etc. (see preceding §). Skt, Prak., 
Pali dSva 'god,' New Ind. dialects dSVy also Ur., Bang, d^ Hindi 
dSOy d&ly Panj., Sindhi dSu^ Gyp. devSly del 

b. Iranian. Av. vaSnaiti 'sees,' Old Pers. vaindhyy PhL 
t?^i»a|. New Pers. blnad, Wftxl, Siyn. rfnam, Sarq. vainam, My. 
t^nam. Dig. Oss. vinun, Tag. wnin. Av. yam 'barley,' PhL 
yav, jaVy New Pera jav, Siv. yw, Zaf. yah, Kfii. ya, Kuhr. yaA^ 
Siyn. yavaj, Sarq. yaMjp, Yayn. yan, BaL j5, Jat?, N. BaL, Kurd. 
jau, MukrI yO, Osa yau, Av. avimnta *bevomited,' archaic 
New Pers. vdnMan, Dig. Oss. vomun. Tag. ^mtn. 

t? > l. 
§ dee. The change of t; to A; is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. varoba 'plant,' PhL vartd, gtd, New Pers. 
gul ' rose,' Samn. vdla, Kurd, kulilk. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 121 

V > g. 
§ 867. The change of t; to j^ occurs regularly before u in Pfizand 
and New Persian. 

b. Iranian. Av. vitorato 'crossed,' Old Pers. viyataraydmay 
PhL vU&rtand, New Pers. gu^aStaUy Gab. vadartdy VSn. baidor' 
natij Kuhr. baudamddan, Kurd. &t«Ai7r^an, hahii/rtin. Av. t;9%rA;a 
* wolf/ PhL, New Pera gurgy KflS. t;af((|f), Mftz. wirgr, Tidg. vwry, 
Yayn. aurak^ My. lUg^ BaL ^corifc, gwrk^ N. BaL jfurAiA, Kurd. 
varg^ Dig. Oss. &aiay, Tag. ftfray. Av. mratoto ' surrounding/ 
Phi. vaStandy gaStand, New Pers. g&Stanj Gab. vdJffoittZn, Sarq. 
ytrsam, Kurd, gariydn. Av. v^rdzyeiti * does," PhL rarar * agri- 
culture,' New Pers. barzy Judaeo-Pers. varz, Kurd. gUrQn. Av. 
t?l5aift ' twenty,' PhL t;?^^, New Pers. blst^ Kfil. rl^fa, t^l^^a), 
Wftrf rl5<, Sarq. vw*, BaL glst^ Dig, Oss. tn^ai. Tag. ssajf. 

It is to be noted also that Old Pera vi > Mid Pers. *vu > 
Pfiz., New Pers. guj and that Old Pera *vr > Mid. Pers. *vur 
> Paz., New Pera gur. 

v>ghyy. 
§ 368. The change of t; to ^^ y, is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. vardtata 'surrounding,' Sarq. yirsam^ etc 
(see preceding §). 

V > gv. 

§ 869. The change of t; to j^ is r^;ular initially before o-vowels 
in BalQcL 

b. Iranian. Av. vOta ' wind,' BaL gvOty N. BaL gvOBy gvOSj 
etc. (see § 864). Av. vdhrka ' wol^' BaL gmrh, gurkj etc. (see 
§ 867). Old Pera vasiy ' much,' PhL vaSy New Pera fcew, Kfii 
t;a^, BaL^rvo^. 

V >n. 

§ 870. The change of v to n is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt navanavati 'ninety-nine,' Bihfirl nini^nab€ 
(assimilation). 

v>ph,/. 

§ 87L The change of viophyfy is extremely rare. 



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122 IKDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

b. IraniaiL Av., Old Pera ava 'this,' Paz. 5, New Pers. at?, 
dy Kurd a/, ava, av. 

V >b. 

§ 872. The change of t; to b is extremely common both in the 
Indian and in the Iranian dialects (cf. the converse change of & to 
V, § 808). 

a. Indian. Skt. suvrsti ^abundance of rain/ Pali svbbtitihi. 
Skt vaspa 'tear, vapor,' Prfik bapp{h)a 'smoke,' bciha 'tear/ 
6aur. Pralc, Pali bajjpa, Ass. hhapj Ea&n. balia^ Ur., Bang. 
bhap, E. Hindi ba(m)i)h, Hindi 6d{m)pA, bMph, Panj. bhapliy 
Sindhi bdpJi, Guj. ba{m)phy Mar. rdpA. Skt rc^/a * enclosure,' 
Pali vethaka, Ass. tcFr, Naip. 6dr, Kii&n. rar, vad, Ur. &(*JA5, 
6/i^(te, Bang. U'da, Hindi, Panj. k\ZAa, Sindhi vadchd, Mult, 
rf r/kl. Mar. v^iM Skt puravdsin ' citizen,' Biharl ptirabdsh 
Skt vridlia * lai^e,' Prak. vaddha, viddha, vuddha, Pali buMha^ 
vdddha, viddha, vuddha. Ass. &ar, Naip. Z^rd, E^adm. &or, balj 
Ur., Bang, ftoda, R Hmdl bara, bard, baddd, Hindi badcl, Panj. 
vadda, W. Panj. baddd, Sindhi ra5^, Guj. vo^, Gyp. baro. Skt., 
Prak., Pali virala * thin,' Siihh. fewrM?. 

b. Iranian. Av. vaeti ' willow,' PhL vHf, New Pers. bed, Gab. 
rid, KaS. i77d, vet, Afy. tala, N. BaL gcO, Kurd, t?, rZ. Av. 
vJsaiti *tAventy,' New Pers. bist, etc. (see § 3G7). Av. vafa 
'wind,' New Pers. bad, Kurd, ba, vat, etc. (see § 861). Av. 
vara 'rain,' PhL varan, New Pers. bctran, Gab. bavara, KaS. 
r^rtln, Maz. vari§, Waxi rttr, Sarq. varaij, varaSa, Afy. varyaj, 
varyaz, Kurd. 6arl(f?), Lurl, Zaza rardn. Dig. Oss. vanm. Tag. 
rarin. Av. vana * tree,' PhL mn, New Pers. biiu, My. vana, 
BaL gvan, gOn, Dig. Oss. bun, Tag. 6m. Av. husravah ' having 
fair fame,' PhL hiisrdb, New Pers. a:ti^ar. 

V > 6A. 

§ 373. The change of t; to && is quite common in the Indian 
dialects, being the sound considered in the preceding paragraph 
further influenced by a neighbouring sibilant, aspirate or h. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 128 

a. Indian. Skt vaspa ' tear, vapor/ Ass. hhdp^ Ur., Bang., 
hhdpj Hindi bhaphy bd(ti%)phy Panj. bMph, etc (see preceding §). 
Skb vSsta ' enclosure,' Ur. &A^, &^Ad, etc. (see preceding §). 

V >fn. 

§ 874. The change of f to tn is not common in the Indian 
dialects, while in the Iranian dialects it is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skb ySvat 'how long,' tavat 'so long,' Apab. 
Pr&k. jdma^ jUiJimj jamahithy tdma, taUntj tdmahithy Pali ydvOy 
tatHL Ski vdiSravana nom. prop., J&ina Prsk. .vdsamana. Skt 
vijhaptika 'request,' Bang, minati, R Hindi mintl, Hindi 
minnat, hintfj Panj. minnaty Sindhi minti. Skt. nava ' nine,' 
Prfik. nava, Pftli nara, Ea£m. ndt4(m), Ur. naa, Bang, nay, 
Bihatl, Hindi ndu, Panj. nauth, naUthy Sindhi natnt;an>, Ouj., 
Mar. naVy Siihh. namo, natXL 

b. Iranian. Av. |>airi ' around '+ Vvar^^r 'do,' New Pers. 
parvaa 'plough,' Bux. parmSUs. Skb vartikd 'partridge,' PhL 
variak, New Pers, vardij, WaxI vole, Afy, maraz, nvaraz, BaL 
gvarddg, Kurd, ranll. 

§ 376. The apparent change of t; to y is not common either in 
the Indian or in the Iranian dialects (cf. the following §). 

a. Indian. Skt. pravartati ' proceeds,' Prak, payatta%. Skb 
diva * by day,' Jaina Prak. diya. Skb dava 'forest,' Pali dlXya^ 
Skb dSvara 'brother-in-law,' Prak. dfara, diara, dSvara, Ur. 
d^yara, diyiAra, Bang, d^ar, Hindi, Panj. dhnir, Sindhi d&ru, 
Guj. dihr, deuTj Mar. d^var, dlr. 

b. Iranian. PhL jufand ' gnaw,' New Pera jUvidan, Afy. 
idyal, iov<d, BaL jdyag, N. Bal. jay, Kurd. jiH(i)n. 

Syncope of v. 

876. Syncope of t; is not common in the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. jlva ' life,' Prak. j\a, Pali jlva. Skb divasa 



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124 INDOIBANIAN PHONOLOGT 

'day/ PrfiL divaluiy diaha, Jftina Pr&k., Psli divasa, Sindhl 
dlihhu, Mar. divdSy Siihh. davas, divas. Skt tray&vimiati 
'twenty-three/ Prfik. Hmsay Pali tCtil$a{ti)y Bihfirl tHs, and 
similarly the other New Ind. dialeets, excepting Sindhi trtvllij 
Guj, irmij Mar, td^. Skt. upavista 'seated,' Prfik. tibaviithay 
uvalUha^ Pfili ujpavitfhay Hindi, Panj. Mi^A, Guj. 65^, Mar. 

b. Iranian. Av. pSt? 'cow/ PhL, New Pers. jfdt?, gdj Zaf., 
KfiS., Van. ^5, Kuhr. gOhy Wfixl yaw, yfi, Siyn. ifit?, Sarq. iao, 
SangL, Minj. yoo, Yayn. pova, Afy. yvd^ BaL ^dA;, N. Bal. gdx^ 
Kurd. ^0, Dig. Oss. yog, Tag. gtJgr. Av. yam ' barley,' Siv. yte, 
KfiS. ya, BaL jV), jat?, MukrI yd, etc. (see § 866). Av. vlsaiti 
' twenty,' Dig. Oss. insai, Tag. ^ajf, eta (see § 367). Av. baSvard 
'ten thousand,' PhL, New Pers. bevar, Dig. Oss. 65um, 6^a, 
Tag. lira. 

ProtJiesis of v. 

§ 377. Prothetic v occurs occasionally both in the Indian and 
in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski ucyatS 'is said,' PrSk. vuccaly Sfiur., Mfig. 
Prak. vuccddi, Psli vuccaii, Skt. ukta ' said,' Prfik. (inscriptions 
of Gimar) vuta. Skt. ti^ita 'inhabited' beside msitay Pfili 
vuttJia, vusita. 

b. Iranian. Av. ojegm ' I,' Old Pers. adam, TftL aj^, Wfixl, 
Siyn. viufy Sarq. vaz, Yidg. zuhj Afy. £a, Kurd., Oss. cuf. Av. 
a^to 'eight,' PhL (h)aSt, New Pers. haSt, Wfixl 7*^1^, Siyn. ro^, 
Sarq. voxt, EoS. /tol^, SangL hcU, Minj. a5ia, Yayn. «x5, Afy. 
ata, Os& a^%. Gk. &6v 'egg,' Lai otn^m, PhL xdyak. New Pers. 
:rdyaA, Gab. vuk, Afy. Ad, BaL %ai%, Kurd, haiikj Af, A^A;, Oss. 
aikh{a). 

Epenthesis of v. 

§ 378. Epenthetic i; is of rare occurrence. 

a. Indian. Ski cMya 'shadow,' Prfik. chdhct, chQyd, Pfili 
ch&y^ Ur. chohlna, Hindi chamv, cMfhiJi), chdOmy Panj. ca(<i)m, 
Sindhi cAdfitt?, cAdrft, Guj. camy. 



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81NGLB CONSONANTS 125 

§ 879. The loss of Indo-Iranian v, which has been noted in 
§ 876, gives rise to various contractions in the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian dialecta The contraction of ivi to A occurs very 
rarely. 

a Indian. Skb prabhavQmi 'am able,' Prfik. pahhavaly Psli 

pabhavOmif Gfithft prdbhdmi. Skt sambhavanti 'are able,' 

Pr&L sambhavalj Pali sambhavati^ Gatha sambhanti. 

b. Iranian. Av. srOvayeiti 'chants,' PhL srdyaty New Pers. 

srOyadj W&zl Hravamy Sarq. nairavam. Av. bavd^ 'may be,' 

New Pers. bad. 

ava > a 

§ 880. The contraction of ava to u occurs both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt lavana 'salt^' Pr&k., Pali l9na, Ea&n., Ur. 
Bang, ntin, Idn^ Bih&rl 2(^ n^ Hindi ntZn, Ztln, n^ Panj. 
nOn, Sindhi lUnUj Guj. ten, Mar. Und^ Gyp. Zon. Skb avajhdk 
'contempt^' P&li uhha. 

b. Iranian. Skb avasthita 'firm,' New Per& ustdntj Ostdtn. 

ava > €. 

§ 88L The contraction of ava to ^ is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skb avalambati 'hangs down,' Elu elabanavilj 
Simh. ellanavlly elvdn^ olambtt. 

b. Iranian. Av. navani ' nine,' Old Pers. tuxoamaj Psz., New 
Pers. nuhy Efifi. muhd5y 1^ na/, W&xl, Siyn. nao^ Sarq. nar, 
SangL, Minj. ttoo, Yayn. nau, Kurd, n^^ 

ava > 0. 

§ 882. The contraction of ava to d is the normal one to which 
ava is subject both in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skb lavana 'salt,' Pr&k., Pali Ze^a, Ea&n., Ur., 
Bang. Uhty nUn^ Biharl ndn^ lOn, Hindi ndn, lUny nUny Panj. nUny 



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126 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Sindhi lanu, Guj. Itln, Mar. tond. Skt hhavati * becomes,' PraL 
Aoi, 6aur. Prak. (6)A5(ii, (J)AM^•ae^i, (J)Aat«w?i, Mfig. Prflk. (b)1iava%^ 
huvaTlj Apab. Prak A5dt, Pail Prak. Z/A(>fi, Pali bJiavati, JiOtiy 
Gatha t/io^i, New Ind dialects hd^ excepting Ur. hSy Sindhi 
hutty Ski samavasrsta ' assembled,' Jaina Prak. samosadha^ Pali 
sanidsata. Skt ararn * lower/ Pali Sm. Skt avavada ' coim- 
sel/ Pali ovOda, Simh. (wel. Skt avaiyAya 'hoar-frost,' Bang. 
05, Hindi, Panj., Guj. 6s. 

b. Iranian. Skt pravcM ' downwards,' PhL yr5^. New Pers. 
furody Sarq. j>r5A Av. nava * new,' PhL n^A, nat;aA;, Paz., New 
Pers. n5, BaL n^A, N. BaL ndx^ Tag. Oss. nwjf, etc. (see § 364). 
Av. am6a ' there,' Old Pera avado^ BaL Oda^ N. BaL ^a. Tag. 
Osa vad. Av. navaiti 'ninety,' PhL fiavat^ New Pers. navad^ 
Afy. nat;^, Kurd, n^f, nud. 

Hva > au. 
§ 383. The contraction of tiva to au is quite rare. 

a. Indian. Skt dhavala ' white,' Apab. Prak. dhavalu, Ur., 
Bang, dhala, Hindi dhduld, Sindhi dhdufhrO, Guj. dhdluth, Mar. 
d/kim, dhaval Skt. avatdra 'descent,' Pali otoro, avatdra, 
Sindhi Qutdru, avatar. 

b. Iranian. Av. yava 'barley,' Sarq. yaugj, Yayn. yaw, 
N. Bal., Kurd, jau^ Oss. yaw, etc. • (see § 865). Av. sydva 
' black,' PhL siydJCy siydh, New Pers. siydJi, WaxI 5t^ SangL Soi^ 
Osa 5au. 

avi > 5. 
§ 384. The contraction of avi to ^ is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt hhavisyS ' I shall be,' Gatha bh^yS. Skt. 
stJuivira 'monk,' Prak. th&rOj (inscriptions of Gimar) thdirOj 
Pali thera^ Mar. fh&r(a4d). 

avi > di. 
§ 386. The contraction of avi to di is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt sthavira 'monk,' Prak. thdira (inscriptions 
of Girnar), thSray etc. (see preceding §). 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 127 

dva > 0. 

§ 386. The contraction of ava to d is very rare, 
b. Iranian. Av. aavard ' might,' PhL gdr(lh)^ New Pers. a^. 

dvay > 5, ai. 

§ 387. The contraction of avay to ^, ai, is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. kavaya 'royal,' Phi. kSj kai, Pfiz,, New 
Pers. kai. 

dvi > Q. 

§ 388. The contraction of dt;^ to d is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. aviskrta * manifest,' Phi. aSk&rdkj New Pers. 
(iSJci^fiQ), aSkdrahy Af y. xkQra. 

iva > d. 

§ 389. The contraction of ivd to d is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Ski. prativasin 'neighbour/ New Indian dialects 
parOsly paddsly parOsl. 

ivB > d. 

§ 380. The contraction of ivS to d is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. prativesayati ' distributes,' Biharljpar^^at. 

Iva > i. 

§ 39L The contraction of ft;a to f is quite frequent in the 
Iranian dialecta 

b. Iranian. Av. jvaiti * lives,' Old Pers. jlvdhy, PhL avds- 
tandj New Pera instan, Kurd. Jgin, Siin. PhL diplvar 'scribe,' 
dipf r(f ft), New Pers. ditHr. 

§ 382. The contraction of ^4 to f is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. d&xira 'brother-in-law,' Mar. dFr, dSmr, etc. 
(see § 875). 

b. Iranian. New Per& devdnah ' bedevilled,' Kurd. din. 



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128 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGT 

uva > (L 

§ 898. The contraction of uva to « is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. yvan * youth,' PhL ytuvOnj New Pers. juvdn- 
mardy Kurd jdnmardi. 

uva >H, d. 
§ 894. The contraction of uva to ^ (^, is the normal one to 
which uva is subject. 

b. Iranian. Iran. *vadhuvaka 'bride,' New Pers. layd{g)^ 
Kurd. 6tJfe Av. drvaUU 'health,' PhL driU, Paz. durHdj New 
Pers. durdcL 

§ 896. Indian S is retained but seldom in the Indian dialects. 
In the Middle Indian dialects the M&gadhi, ArdhamSgadhi, Avan- 
tikfi, and Sakfirl alone preserve i. Of the New Indian dialects 
Gujar&tl and Marft^hl often retain i, although great confusion in 
the use of i and s prevails. Hindi and Sindhi indeed write i, but 
pronounce the S aa Sj while in Bangftll S is pronoimced s. 

a. Indian. Skb Sata 'hundred,' Pr&k. saiyjaj Pail PrSk. 
sata, Mfig. Pr&k. iada^ P&li sata^ Ass. sa, KaSm. haty Ur. Scl^ 
Bang. £ayaj Hindi, Panj. sdi, $auj Sindhi sdu, Guj. id, Mar. 
Sem, iambhaTy Guj. set Ski Slrsa 'head,' Prfik. ^o, sissa^ 
Pali 5i5a, Hindi, Panj. sUs, Sindhi si^^ Guj. ilS^ Mar. Si(m)$, Elu 
hisa^ Siitih. wa, t Aa. Skt oil ^i ' eighty,' Prak. asli^ Pfili ewl^i, 
Ass. ^^ Ka&n. ilth^ Ur. oil, Bang. Oil, Bihfirl, Hindi, Panj. 
05^, Sindhi o^, Guj. ^ift^. Mar. emil. Skt. dciiya 'native,' 
Pali deslya, Ur., Bang. d^l{ya\ Hindi, Panj. d&f, Sindhi dfef, 
^Adl, Guj., Mar. dg^f. 

i > ch. 
§ 896. The change oi S to ch occurs quite frequently in the 
Middle and New Indian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt. Sdvaka ' young animal,' Prak. chdvaa, Pali 
chapa, Ur. ch{u)a, Bang. cha{fh), Hindi chdkada, Panj. chokaddj 
choharOy Sindhi chokaddj Guj. cAeivd, chokardj Mar. chdvado, Gyp. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 129 

ehavd. Skt Sakrt ' once/ Pfili ehakam. Skt Se§a ' end,' Pr&k., 
Pfili s€sa, Guj. eh&Hit, ch^, cheUd. Skb Sana 'hemp/ Ur. 
chanoj Bang. cAano. 

§ 897. The change of i to ^ is ezcesaively rare. 

a. Indian. Ski Sdka 'pot-herb/ P&li 4akaj sOka, Ea&n. hAk 
(of. Skt dclkinl ' sort of female demon ' beside iokint). 

S >y. 
§ 898. The change of i to y is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt dvOdaSanavOrsa 'twelfth year/ Pr&k. (inscrip- 
tions of Eapur di Giri) barayava§aj (Dhauli, Jaugada) duv^tdasor 
vOsGy (Gimar) dvddasavasa^ (Ehfilsi) duvlJ^CLSitvcLsa. 

i >v. 
§ 899. The change of i to t; is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt paraSu ' axe,' M&h&r. Pr&k. parasUj Siifah. 
poravay Maladive yur^. [Really syncope of S (c£ § 402).] 

i > s. 
§ 400. The change of i to 5 is the r^ular one to which Indian 
S is subject in the Middle and New Indian dialects with the excep- 
tion of the dialects already noted in § 395. 

a. Indian. Skt Sohhati 'is beautiful,' Prfik. sdhai^ Pfiii. 
Pr&k. sUbhati^ Psli sohbhati. Skt iuirusa ' obedience,' Pr&L 
(inscriptions of Sh&hb&zgarhi and Kapur di Giri) suirusd^ P&li 
sussusA. Skt iota 'hundred,' Pr&L 8a{y)a^ Pfiii Pr&L, P&li 
sata^ Ass. sa^ Hindi, Panj. 5di, s&u^ Sindhi 5du, etc (see § 895). 
Skt ailti ' eighty,' Pr&L flwli, P&li flwltt, Bihftrt, Hindi, Panj. 
a5Sf, Sindhi o^, Guj, eifwf, etc (see § 895). Skt StUl ' stone,' 
Pr&k. sila^ Msg. Pr&k. SilO, P&li silO^ Ur. Sila, Bang. §il^ Hindi 
^2, Panj. sil^ Sindhi sir^ Mar. ^Z. 

S>h. 
§ 40L The change of i to & is quite common in the Middle 
and New Indian dialects. 

K 



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130 INDO-IBAmAN PHONOLOGT 

a. Indian. Skt da^a 'ten,' Prftk daha^ dasa^ Psli dasa, 
Ea&n. dahy Ur., Bang. da£, das, Hindi das, Panj. daA^ do^ 
Sindhi dahj Ghij. c2a5, Mar. (foAa, Sirfih. dahatfa, dasa. Gyp. de^. 
Skt itaiura ' father-in-law/ Psli sasura, Ur., Bang., Hindi 
sasuTj Panj. sahurOy sauhara, Sindhi sahurdy Ghij., Mar. s^aaray 
Maladive JiurSy Oyp. sastrdy sasrd. Skt |>aiti ' cattle,' Hindi 
(Doab, Oude) i^^A^. Skt h'£ari * lion,' Prak, Pali kesariy Bihftil 
Tcehariy Jcisari, Hindi keharl, Panj. A^eAar, Sindhi Jciharfy Gnj. 
A^^^arf . Skt |7d^a ' noose,' Prak., P&li j>dM, Hindi pdSy pMmSy 
Panj. j>5A, Sindla phdhXy phdsly Guj. /?««. Skt Sirsa * head,' Elu 
%{5a, etc. (see § 895). 

Apocope and syncope of S. 
§ 402. The loss of an initial or internal Indian S occurs fre- 
quently in the Simhalese. 

a. Indian. Skt ^Irsa ' head,' Simh. isa, t7«a, etc. (see § 895). 
Skt. in^ga * horn,' Prftk., Pali simga, Hindi shhgy Mar. ^inigy 
Elu samgu, amgu, SirhL amga, si{m)guy sumgu, Skt. £iSira 
'cold,' Prak., Pali sisiray Siihh. aly hOl. Skt laiuna 'onion,' 
Pali lasunay Siihh. lanu. 



? = ?• 
§ 408. The retention of Indian $ is found only in KaSmlrl, 
Uriya, and Bangall 

a. Indian. Skt sOdaSa ' sixteen,' Prak. sdjahay Pali sdlasay 
sorasay KskxL surdh. Ur. soJialay Bang. soUiy Biharl sdrahy 
Hindi sdlahy Panj. sdldfhy Sindhi sOrahaihy Guj. sol Mar. 5c?to, 
Siihh. ^o?05a. Skt ntUsa 'mouse,' Ur, mUsOy Bang., Hindi, 
Panj. musOy Gyp. musD. 

s > kh. 
§ 404. In Hindi and Panjabi, as well as in other New Indian 
dialects in sporadic instances, Indian s is pronounced khy even if s 
be retained in script 

a. Indian. Skt hhOsa 'vernacular,' Prak., Pali hhOsOy Naip. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 181 

hhOSj hhGJckOy R Hindi, Hindi, Panj. bhOkhO. Skt. mdnusa 
'man,' Prftk., Fsli mdniisa, R Hindi, Hindi, Panj. mdnukhj 
Sindhi manukhuy Gyp. mantis. 

In the tadbhava forms of these semitatsamas we find, as we 
should expect, hh&s&y manus^ etc 

§ > cK 
§ 406. The change of ; to oA is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. sas 'six,' Prsk, Pftli cha^ KaSm. sahy Sih^ 
Ur. cliaay Bang, chayaj Bih&rl c7ta, Hindi cha^ chSy Panj. c/t^, 
Sindhi cAa(A), Guj. cAa, Mar. sah(a), Old Siihh. caia, Simh. 
hayay saya. Gyp. ;o(r). Skt safpada ' bee,' Pr&L chagpaay Jaina 
Pr&k. chappaya. 

? >y. 

§ 406. The apparent change of ; to y is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt kafi§a 'diy cow-dung,' Prfik., Pfili karisa, 
Siihh. kiriya (cf. § 422). 

? >i. 
§ 407. The change of ^ to i occurs only in Middle Indian, 
where it is due to learned influence. 

a. Indian. Skt. anvSsanti ' they seek,' Msg. Prfik. anniSanti. 
Skt. Ulahhisyanti ' they will be immolated,' Prftk. (inscriptions 
of Kapur di Giri) arabhiiatiiti (cf. the parallel passages arabhu 
Saihre Gimar, aldbhayisaihti Dhauli, dlabhiyisaihti Jaugada, 
dlabhtyisaHiti Khfilsi). 

s > $. 
§ 408. The change of ^ to 5 is the normal one to which Indian 
s is subject in the Middle and New Indian dialects. 

a Indian. Skt. sddaSa 'sixteen,' Pr&k. sdZa^a, Puli solasay 
slHyisaj Ur. sOhdUij Bih&rl sdrah^ Hindi sOlahj Panj. sdlaik, 
Sindhi sdrahaih, Guj. solj Mar. sdUtj Siihh. sohsay etc (see § 403). 
Skt sandha 'eunuch,' Prfik. san^lui^ Ass. saiiixrj Bang, sai^ir, 
R Hindi, Hindi sdikry Panj. safhdh, Sindhi sdnu, Mult sdihhj 
sandJidy Guj., Mar. satUd. Skt vrsabha 'bull,' Prfik. vasaJiOy 

k2 



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1S2 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

usaha^ Pftli vasabha. Skt pwrusa 'man,' Prak, Pali jmma, 
Bang. puruSj Hindi pwris, semitatsama purukh. 

? > 7*. 
§ 409. The change of ^ to A is very rare. 

a. Indian. Ski. Skasasti 'sixty-one,' J&ina Prfik. igahatthij 
egasaUhi^ ^gayatthi, Sgavatthij Bgatthi, Ka&n. ekahaith, Panj. 
ik&hatj Sindhi ekahafhi. Skb visa ' poison,' PrfiL, P&li visa, 
Panj. {»i^ {»i^, Sindhi vihu. 



8 = S. 

§ 410. Indo-Iranian ^ is in general preserved unchanged in 
the Middle and New Indian dialects, while in the Iranian dialects 
Indo-Iranian s normally becomes h, Iranian s, arising from Indo- 
Oermanic X* (Old Indian i, see also §§ 895-402), remains unchanged 
in most cases in the Middle and New Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. saptan 'seven,' Pr&k., Pali satta, KaSm. 
safhy Ur., Bang, sdta (pron. sato), Bihfirl, Hindi sat, Panj. saif, 
Sindhi sat, Guj., Mar. sat. Skt. simJia 'lion,' PrfiL ^Jia, 
Mahar. Prak. siihgha, simha, Pali sJha, Hindi, Panj. simgh, 
Sindhi simglw, Slmhu, other New Ind. dialects siihh, Skt. 
karpOsa 'cotton,' Prak., Pali kappasa, Ur. kapa, Bang, kdpas, 
Hindi kapOs, Panj., Sindhi kapah, Guj., Mar. kapHs. Skt, Pali 
atasl ' linseed,' Ur. tm. Bang, tiii, E. Hindi tlsi. 

b. Iranian. Av. sarah 'head,' Phi., New Pers. sar, WaxI, 
Sangl., Minj. sar, Afy., BaL, Kurd., Oss. sar. Av. sar^ta 'cold,' 
PhL safi, New Pers. sard, Gab. sart, Waxi sUr{t), Sarq. pat- 
soram, Afy. sor, BaL sard, N. BaL ^arf A, Kurd, s&r. Tag. Oss. 
5aW. Av. kasu 'small,' PhL kas, Paz. kah, New Pera A;f A, Gab. 
kasaik, Zaf., IQ& few, Von. ka^ssar, Nay. fei5, Afy. fcilr, BaL 
kas{s)an, Oss. khasthar. Av. da^a 'ten,' PhL dahum, New 
Pers. efaA, WaxI i(W, Z(W, Siyn. bis, lis, Sarq. 5^5, Sangl. das, 
Yidg. Zm5, Yayn. das, Afy. Z(W, Kurd, (fat^, Zaza das, Oss. 
(fa5(am). Av. paSsa ' leprosy,' Old Pens, mcrdya^, PhL jp^aA-, 
New Per8.|)^, Gsh.plsk, A{y.pds(ai), Kurd. pis{aj). 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 183 

8 > cK 

§ 41L The change of 5 to cA is a very rare one. 

a. Indian. Skt sudha 'ambrosia)' Prftk. chuM, Pfili st*dha. 
Skt sira * vein,' Prfik, chira, sira, Pfili sira. Skt sHHradhara 
'carpenter/ Ur., Bang, chutar (pron. sutar). Skt sihcati 
'sprinkles,' Prfik. siihcalj Pfili sihcati^ Bihfirl chlfhcai, sifMXi^ 
Mar. siihcaifBAL 

s>j{h). 

§ 412. The change of 5 to j{h) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt haihsa 'goose/ Prfik., Pali haihsa^ Hindi 
hiths, Sindhi haikj{h)u, Siihh. Ao^. 

5 > t 

§ 418. The change of 5 to £ is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. sax^dr^ 'word,' PhL saxun^ New Pers. 
stixwiy Siv. tuxun^ Kfii. suxan. Gr. Kopos ' satiety,' New Pers. 
ser^ Kurd, f^ (Justi, Kurd. Gramm. 64, compares also the Av. 
iv. Xey. eatairi, Yt x, 14). 

$ > th, 0. 

§ 414. The change of ^ to ^A, 0, occurs firequently only in Old 
Persian. 

b. Iranian. Av. stura 'red,' Old Pera ^ttrra. Phi. suxr^ 
New Pers, surXy Wfixl sOkr, Afy. 5«r, BaL suhr^ sohr^ Kurd. 55r, 
Dig. Osa surZj Tag. ^ira:. Gr. Kopo^ 'satiety/ Av. Odtairi, etc. 
(? see preceding §). 

5 > d 

§ 415. The change of ^ to d is very rare. 

a Indian. Skt sahasra 'thousand,' Prfik., Pfili sahassay 
Ka&n. sdSj Bihfirl saJiasarj Sindhi saJumif Siiiih. dahasia, daSj 
daha [d for s by false analogy with Siihh. daliaya ' ten,' Skt 
daian^ etc). 



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184 INDO-ntANIAN PHONOLOGY 

8 >V. 

§ 416. The change of ^ to t; is extremely rara 
b. Iranian. Av. dasa * ten,' Kurd dav, etc. (see § 410). 

8 > S. 

§ 417. The change of 5 to i is very rare. In East Hindi ^ is 
often written for 8, althou^ 8 is retained in pronunciation. This 
lax writing is very frequent in GujarfttI and in Marft^hl most of all 
(cf. §§ 895, 400). The change of ^ to i is regular in Mfigadhi, 
Ardhamflgadhl, and §fik&rl Prakrit, and the Avantika Prakrit 
also shows numerous examples of this development 

a. Indian. Ski vi1a8a ' coquetry/ Msg. Prfik. vil^^^ Mah&r. 
Prfik., Pali viUlsa. Skt sabhika ' keeper of a gambling-house/ 
Mfig. Pr&L Sahia, Ski anuidsana ' instruction,' Prdk. (inscrip- 
tions of Kapur di Giri) anuSaSanOy Mahar. Prfik. anusdsanay 
Pali anuMsana, 

8 > 8. 

§ 418. The change of 5 to f, apart from the r^^ular develop- 
ment in Old Indian of s from s after f, w, r, e, 5, is extremely 
rare. 

a. Indian. Prfik. (inscriptions of Kapur di Giri) nyanasi Mn 
a garden/ beside uydnasi (inscriptions of Dhauli, Jaugada, 
Khfilsi). Ski hhavisyOsi ' thou wilt be/ Gfithfi bliesyasi. 

8 > S. 

§ 419. The change of Iranian ^ to ^ is not frequent. 

b. Iranian. Ski ^ana 'whetstone/ New Pers. sdtiy afsdn, 
dialectic ^n, Wftxl, Sarq. pasdn. Av. suka 'needle/ Phi. 
sHcan, Pfiz. sdzatij sdzan^ New Pers. sdzatiy Gab. sajan, Zaf. sdJgOy 
Wfixl sic, Sarq. slCj BaL sHcifij ^cJn, N. BaL slSin, SlSan, SiShiy 
Kurd. SilSin, stiiin. Ski iaTcrt 'excrement/ Afy. yo-^ahj yd- 
SdSj N. BaL sayan. Av. suSi ' lung/ PliL suS, New Pers. Stis, 
Gab. sus, My, sayai. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 186 

$>A 
§ 420. The change ots to /gia very rara 

b. Iranian. Av. sUirya 'breakfast,' PhL sHr^ New Pers. 
sumai ' trumpet^' Tat Mumai. Av. pasu * cattle,' Psz. pah^ T&t 
pcufj Wfixl puSj po8j Sarq. p(iyis, My. psa, BaL pas^ N. BaL 
|)Aa^, Kurd, jpoir, Dig. Os8..^4^, Tag.y(^ Av. x^aswra 'fiather- 
in-law/ New Pers. xusur^ Wfixl xurSj Aiy. sxar^ N. BaL vasarihy 
Kurd, arort^, xasfir^ xaur. 

3 > h. 
§ 42L The change of Indian $ bo hj which is very similar to 
the Iranian h developed from Indo-G«rmanic 8, where the Old 
Indian retains $, occurs quite frequently in the Indian dialects. 
The change is r^ular in South-Eastern Bangfill (e. g. Bang, sakal 
'all,' S.-E. Bang. hdkaJ)^ and it occurs very frequently in Panjabi, 
Sindhi, and Siihhalese. Iranian s becomes h only internally in 
Middle and New Persian. 

a. Indian. Skt divasa 'day,' PrfiL divaha, diaha^ Saur., 
Jaina Prak., Pali divasa, Mar. divas, Siihh. davaha, davasa. Gyp. 
divSs. Skt ekasaptati 'seventy-one,' KaSm. akasaiath, Ur. 
akastOriy Bang, ekattar, Biharl Ukahattar, Hindi ikahattar, Panj. 
ikhatiar, Sindhi ekaliatariy Guj. ikdtSry Mar. ekahattar, cf. Jaina 
Prak. hattari 'seventy,' Siiiih. MUdva, sdttdva. Skt. karpdsa 
'cotton,' Panj., Sindhi kapah, etc. (see § 410). Skt. sarpa 
' serpent,' Prak., Pali sappa, Ur., Bang, sapa, Hindi sdikp, Panj. 
sapp, Sindhi sapu, Guj., Mar. sap, Siihh. hapu, sapu, sap(d). 

b. Iranian. Av. kasu 'small,' Paz. kah, New Pers. kih, etc. 
(see § 410). Av. dasa ' ten,' PhL dahum, New Pers. dah, etc. 
(see § 410). Av. pasu ' cattle,' Paz. pah, etc. (see preceding §). 

Aphaeresis and syncope of s. 

§ 422. The loss of initial or internal s is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. ^dati 'sits,' Prak. ^aX, sadai, Pali sUdati, 
Simh. imdlnavO, hifhdinavd. Skt prasdda 'favour,' Mahar. 
Prak. pasdya, Fi^pasada, Siihh. pay a. 



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186 INDOnUNIAN PHONOLOGT 

b. IraniaiL Av. x^CLSura '&die]>m-law/ Kurd xauTy xcusOfy 
xojflr, etc. (see § 420). 

§ 428. Iranian I remains in general unchanged in the Middle 
and New Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. Savaiti 'goes,' Old Pera aSiyavantj New 
Pers. Sudan, Bahb. sud, W&xl cauantj Si/n. s(lvumy Sarq. sdniy 
My. Svalj Bal. Suta, N. BaL SuMj StiOa, Kurd, dtatij catij Oss. 
cflttn. Av. gaoSa * ear/ Old Pers. gauSa, PhL, New Pers. ^oi, 
6lr., Bahb. (^m^, Nfiy. ^irflf, Wfixl yfii, yt{, Siyn., ytlf , Sarq. yauly 
Tidg. ytJ, Afy. yvaS, BaL ^5^, Kurd, j^, Dig. Osa y05, Tag. 
3iZ5. Av. raiSah 'wound,' PhL, New Pers. rSSy Afy. rtii. 

S > Cy(. 
§ 424. The change of S to c, 6, ia found occasionally in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. Savaiti 'goes,' W&zl cauam, Kurd. Oattj 
cHUj Oss. 6auny etc. (see preceding §). 

I >i. 

§ 426. The change of I to j is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. A v. baCSa/sa 'physician,' PhL h^aSk, bijaSkj 
h^Sazaky New Pers. hijiSTCj biziSk. 

S>1 
§ 426. The change of I to { is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. gaoSa 'ear,* Sarq. yauly etc. (see § 428). 
Av. spiS ' louse,' PhL spiS, spuS, New Pers. suptiS, uspuS, SupuS, 
Wsxl SiSf Sarq. spaly Afy. spaJla, Kurd. ^j>i, (urp^, Oss. sisth. 

S > s. 
§ 427. The change of J to $ is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. Savaiti 'goes,' Bahb. sud, Siyn. ^drurn, Sarq. 
sdm, etc. (see § 428). Av. suSi 'lung,' PhL sm5. New Pers. SuS^ 
Gab. ««, Afy. sayai. New Pers. ftir ' salt,' Siv. sHr, BaL sUrag, 
N. BaL iJray, 5^r. Av. gaoSa ' ear,' Dig. Oss. yos, Tag. go^. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 187 

S > A 
§ 428. The change of J to ^r occurs very seldom. 

b. Iranian. PhL Sekaim * belly/ New Pers, Hkam^ iSkanij 
Kurd jrik. Av. xSvaS ' six,' PhL SaS{ufn)y New Pers. &ii, Wftxl 
Salby Salj Siyn. xatiSy Afy. SpaJfy Oss. axsas. 

S >i. 
§ 429. The change of I to i is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. gaoSa ' ear/ Siyn. yHJfy Afy. ytwi, etc. (see 
§ 428). Av. ar?la * bear/ PhL, New Pera xirs^ Mfiz. a*, Siyn. 
y«r$, Sarq. yUrx, Yidg. yarS, Afy. yai, Kurd. Af rS, Aire, virc, Oss. 
ars. Av. ktiSaiti ' kills,' PhL Z:ti^and, New Pers. kuStafij Kurd. 

«> A. 
§ 480. The change of J to A is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. PhL reS(ak) * beard,' New Pers. fiS{ah)y Citrfill 
rixiSj rikiSj Wftxl rSyiSy Minj. yarJfOj Afy. ifm^ Kurd. r^A, rij 
Dig. Oss. r^a;5, Tag. rixl. 

Apocope of L 
§ 48L The loss of final S occurs occasionally in the Iranian 
dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. gaoSa ' ear,' Yidg. yO, etc. (see § 428). Av. 
spii 4ouse,' Kurd, sipiy asp^y etc. (see § 426). 



§ 482. Iranian z remains in general unchanged in the Middle 
and New Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. zanu *knee/ PhL g&nilky New Pers. jefinO, 
Wftxl xan, Sarq. £tin, SangL zong^ Afy. zangUriy iangHriy BaL 
jprtn, Kurd, jeaftna, aJln6h. Av. zarabaya * heart/ PhL, New Pers. 
dily Mftz. Jtllahy Gfl. ^ly Siyn. ^erdd, jwtly, Sarq. zUrdy SangL 
torrdj^, Minj. if J, Afy. zray BaL ir/nK, Kurd, zavy Oss. je^rcZa. 
Av. maezanti 'they make water/ PhL m^and. New Pers. mm- 



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188 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOOT 

dat^ Afy. mUaly BaL miSay, mesay, Kurd. mUtiHj mlsHity Dig. 
OsB. m&mny Tag. mijrin. New Pens. |)<^5 'part about the noee,' 
Gab. pH0y SangL fujrikj Minj. />6;X:a, Afy. jT^ro, |MLRf , BaL i'd(n^ 
N. BaL jpA^ Kurd. i?fi5, piU^ Dig. Oe&.finjaj Tag.fing. 

§ 4da 13ie change of i^ to J is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. zanva ' chin," New Pers. sanaXj Siyn. singU, 
Sarq. ^9i^n, Afy. jana, zana. Afy. jd€ ^ son ' beside jsoe (from 
Vsan * to be bom '). 

5 > 5. 

§ 484. 13ie change of 5 to ^ is veiy rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. cbrdza * bond/ New Pers. darj?, Osa daras 
' garment' 

XT, f > I. 

§ 435. The change of ir, i to i is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. kajsah * hunter's hut,' beside kdiahy 
JcdSah. 

e > S. 

§ 486. The change of xr to i is found occasionally. 

b. Iranian. Av. eitnd *of winter/ PhL, New Pers. zam^ 
Wftxl zantj Siyn. zimj, zinj^ Sarq. zamaUy Afy. iwiaiy zimai, 
jimaij Dig. Oss. zumag, Tag. zitiiag. 

z > h. 
§ 487. 13ie change of £^ to A is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. hdzu 'arm,' PhL hQj^hy bdzakj New Pers. 
haza, Gab. haJj KfiS. 6(>y, fc^/il, bdhflj Siv. &af, Xor. 6^7*0, Judaeo- 
Pers. bdhUL 

Syncope of z, 

§ 488. The loss of internal z occurs very rarely in the Iranian 
dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. bOzu ' arm,' Gab. 6dl, KaS. bO^, bdhl, bohfij 
Siv. 6ftf, etc. (see preceding §). 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 139 

§ 480. Iranian i is in general retained unchanged in the 
Middle and New Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. dtUiah ^heU^* PhL ddSaXy P&z. dOiax^ New 
Pers. ddsaXj My. doiaxj ddsaXj dOyoi^ BaL dUsoikj ddJfSj N. BaL 
ddJKuc, ddie, Kurd. dHJle. Av. duSaka < leech,' PhL iof aft, New 
Pers. iHLfahj Gab. jujJk 

i >y. 

§ 440. The change of ir to y is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. duSah *hell,' Afy. dSydf, ddSax^ ddJBOXj etc. 
(see preceding §). 

§ 44L The change of i to j is very rare. 
b. Iranian. Av. duSdka ' leech,' Oab. jujlkj etc. (see § 439). 

S>L 

§ 442. The change of i to f is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. diAiah 'hell/ PhL dOkix^ etc. (see § 489— 
properly speaking, no change of i to J occurs here, since Pahlavi 
possesses no sign for i, and employs the character for J instead). 

S > e. 
§ 443. The change of i to xr is the most common one of all 
those changes to which Iranian i is subject in the Middle and New 
Iranian dialecta 

b. Iranian. Av. duSdh ' hell,' New Pers. dJl^zaXj Afy. ddeax^ 
dOiax, ddyaS, BaL ddzak, ddzS, N. BaL ddzax, dO£e, etc (see 
§ 439). 

§ 444. Indian % is in general preserved unchanged in the 
Middle and New Indian dialects, and Iranian h (corresponding to 
Indian s) is, in like manner, retained in most cases in the Middle 
and New Iranian dialects. 



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140 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

a. Indian. Skt hasta ' hand/ Prak, Pfili hattha, Asa hat(h\ 
Ka&n. ath, Ur. hat(h)a, Bang. Aa^, Bihfirl, Hindi hath, Panj. 
/ea//A^ Sindhi hathu, Guj. Aa^A^ Mar. hat, Siiiih. o/a. Skt 
hrdaya * heart,' Prfik. Ata(y)a, Pfili hadaya, Ass., Ur., Bihfirl 
Aiei, Hindi hiya, Panj. hiyaritj hiaUm, Sindhi himamti, Mar. 
Ai^, Aiy^. Ski mahargha 'costly,' Pali mahaggha, Ass. 
mahamgaj magar, Nfiip. mahafhgd, R Hindi, Hindi maluiniga, 
Panj. mahimga, Sindhi maAamjjfo, Guj. ntdthghufh. Mar. maMg, 
Skt, Prfik, Pfili to/ia 'iron,' Ur. toAa, ZmM, Bang., Hindi, Panj. 
lolia, Guj., Mar. Idh, Sindhi toAu. 

b. Iranian. Av. haCfia ' army,' Old Pers. haind, PhL, Pfiz. 
hln, Av., Old Pers. Aaiwa *all,' Phi. Jmmah, Pfiz. /wimd. New 
Pers. hamah, BaL Aaiwa(i), Kurd. hamU Av. AajJto 'seven,' 
PhL, New Pers. haft, Wfixl hub, hub, 1*6, t?aw^ Siya vuvd, Sarq. 
«rd, Sangl. 7ia/if, Minj. eb, Yayn. at?, Afy. dm, am, Dig. Oss. q/i!, 
Tag. aft, avd. Old Pera Qura-vahara ' May,' PhL ra/iar. New 
Pera lahar, KfiS. 6oAc>r, v6r, Osa m(;a^. 

§ 445. The change of A to A; is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt hint&la 'kind of palm,' Pfili TcintaJa, Siihh. 
Tcitul, hitul. 

h >kh,x. 

§ 446. The change of A to kh, x, is not infrequent in the Iranian 
dialects, where it occiirs more usually initially than internally or 
finally. 

b. Iranian. Av. huSka * dry,' Old Pers. vSka^ PhL xuSkifh), 
New Pers. ocuSk, Siv. fuSk, KfiS. huSkudan, uSkudan, Wfixl m^k, 
Yidg. ilSk, Afy. vuc, Bal. huSk, Kurd. vilSuk, Oss. a^M^A;. Av. hu 
'pig,' PhL, New Pers. xiik, Wfixl xtljf, Sarq. a^ti/flf, Afy. xug, 
BaL /ifi, N. Bal. hlx, Kurd, a^ft, Oss. xui. Av. /wie^M * bridge,' 
Sarq. yaid, Yayn. ^^^ Dig. Oss. xed, Tag. arid Av. rfwiaA 'hell,' 
Phi. doSax, Pfiz. {toioa?. New Pers. dOzax, My. ddSax, dOmx, 
doyoS, BaL dozak, doz^ N. BaL ddzax, dOi^ Kurd. dUiB. 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 141 

h > C 
§ 447. The change of A to c is exceesively rare. 

b. Iranian. New Pera. hamca 'as,' Siv. camoah (assimila- 
tion). 

h >phyf. 
( 448. The change of h to|>A^/ is very rare, and it seems to 
occur only initially. 

b. Iranian. Av. huSka ^ dry/ Siv. fitSk^ etc (see § 446). 

h>hh. 
§ 449. The change of A to &A is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt vdihOra nom. prop., Jfiina PrSk., Pali 
vdbhUra. 

h > V. 
§ 450. The change of A to t; is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iram'an. Av. hapta 'seven/ W&xl vavdj {h)t4b, hub, Siyn. 
vuvd, etc. (see § 444). Av. huSka * dry/ WaxI vaskj My. vuc, 
Kurd. vOSuky etc. (see § 446). 

A > y, i. 
§ 45L The vocalization of A to y, i, occurs but seldom. 

b. Iranian. Av., Old Pers. mdh ' month,' PhL, New Pers. 
mahy W&xl maiy Siyn. mast, Sarq. mOs, Minj. yomya, Afy. maf, 
Dig. Oss. maya, Tag. mai. 

h > s. 
§ 462. The change of A to « is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt sndihika ' oily,' Pali snisika (but Pali s(i^iSha 
'love; Skt sn^ha). 

h>S. 
§ 453. The change of A to I is veiy rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. n^mah ^ homage,' Phi. namOe, Paz. namaJf, 
New Pers. namOs, Afy. nmHn), BaL namdS, nava§y Kurd, nimii, 
nimf. 



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142 INDO'IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

§ 454. The change of A to iS^ i, is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. n^mah ^homage/ Paz. namaSy New Pers. 
namSiZj Kurd. nimU, nimlj etc (see preceding §). 

ApJiaeresis of h 

§ 455. The loss of initial 7* is excessively rare in the Indian 
dialects. In the Iranian dialects^ on the other hand, the phe- 
nomenon is not infrequent 

a. Indian. Ski liasta 'hand,' Ea&n. ath, Simh. ata, etc. 
(see § 441). 

b. Iranian. Av. hanjamana 'assembly/ PhL anjaman^ hath 
janrntij New Pers. anjuman. Av. Jiapta ' seven/ Wftxl wfc, 7*m6, 
hub, vilvdy Sarq. Uvdy Minj. ^^, Yayn. ar, Afy. dva^ava, Dig. Oss. 
aft, Tag. aft, avd, etc. (see § 444). Av. htdka * dry/ Old Pers. 
iiska^ KfiS. uSkudaHj huSkudan, Yidg. flii, etc. (see § 446). Av. 
/ioca 'from,' Old Pers. Aocd, PhL aj, New Pers. o^ ^(i), Afy. 
j'y BaL ac, a5, Kurd, ai, i(a). 

Syncope of h. 

§ 456. The loss of internal h is very rare in the Indian dialects, 
although it is more frequent in the New than in the Middle period. 
The phenomenon occurs more often in the Iranian than in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt ihaWca 'this world,' Prfik. (Shfihbfizgarhi 
inscriptions) ialdka. Skt brhaspati nom. prop., Prfik. baJiap- 
phaJ, lihayapphal, bihapphal, btihapphal, buhappaJ, bahassal^ 
hahappal, bhaassal, bhuapphal, buhaspadl, Ur. biphai 'Thursday,' 
Bihfirl biphai, bihaphdi. Skt gShinl 'woman,' Prfik. gharinl, 
Siihh. gSni, girini. Skt vrfhi ' rice,' Pfili vihi, Simh. vi. 

b. Iranian. Av. vohuni 'blood,' PhL, New Pers. zan, Siv. 
/fn, Wftxl vuxatiy Siyn. vixin, Sarq. tuxfn, SangL vain, ASy. 
vln^, Kurd. x^. PhL dahiSn 'gift^' New Pers., Gab. doSn. 
Old Pers. Cura-vOhara ' May,' Efii. vdr^ bohdr^ etc. (see § 444). 



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SINGLE CONSONANTS 143 

Apocope of h. 

§ 457. The loss of final h occurs but rarely. 

b. Iranian. Av. namah 'homage/ Kurd nim% nimlij etc. 
(see § 458). 

Prothesis of h. 

§ 458. Prothetic h is not uncommon in the Middle Indian and 
in the Iranian dialects. In the New Indian dialects it occurs but 
rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt. iddnim ' now/ Prak. (Shfthbazgarhi inscrip- 
tions) hidaldJciJcay lit Prak. dani{m). Skt Sdtia *of that kind,' 
PrSk. Srisa, (inscriptions of Kh&Isi) hSdisa. Skt atra Hhere/ 
Prfik. (inscriptions of Eh&lsi) JiS^, Bang. hdtJi&y OthO. Skt 
ostha 'lip/ Prfik., Pali op,ha7 Ur. dtlia, Bang. hd(m){h, Hindi 
diifh, Panj. Jidthth, Guj. hOtj &th, Mar. (hhth. 

b. Iranian. Av. a^Orapaiti 'fire-priest/ PhL inscriptions 
^htpatj lit PhL hetpat, Crpal^ New Pers. lUhrbud. Av. ao^ah 
'death,' PhL, New Pers. U&. Av. aspa 'horse/ Old Pers. 
as{p)a^ PhL, New Pers. asp, lit d^, WaxI yo^, Minj. ya^|>, Afy. 
d5, BaL hapSy aps, Kurd. Ao^, Dig. Oss. afea^ Tag. yq/&. 

Epenthesis of &. 

§ 459. Epenthetic h is extremely rare both in the Indian and 
in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt mdna 'measure,' Ur. mahanay Hindi nianj 
Mar. man. 

b. Iranian. Av. jya ' bowHstring,' Paz. jihj New Pers. /nh^ 
Kag. yahy fa, Afy. iaf, N. BaL jly, Kurd £ih. 



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CONSONANT^ROUPS 

§ 460. In tiie sections dealing with vowels and single conso- 
nants, similarity of development, both in the Indian and in the 
Iranian dialects, has been the rule rather than the exception. In 
the following paragraphs differences will be found more often 
than resemblances. Ciomparatively few consonant-groups have de- 
veloped in the same way in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 
The Indian languages have continued the tendency already observ- 
able in the Middle Indian. The component sounds of consonant- 
groups are assimilated, and the resulting repeated consonant is 
either retained, or one of the letters is dropped with compensatory 
lengthening of a preceding short voweL In the Iranian languages, 
on the other hand, a consonant-group is in the majority of instances 
softened as a whole, and this secondary consonant-group may be 
retained without further change in the New Iranian dialects. 
As a result of these developments with principles which are 
radically different, consonant-groups in Iranian are less easy to 
systematize than those in the Indian languagea For the Indian 
dialects the classification of Beames, Comparative Grammar, L 281- 
282 (cf. 359-860), into the 'strong, weak, and mixed nexus* is 
admirable. But since in the Iranian dialects the consonant-group 
is softened and retained instead of being simplified, such secondary 
consonant-groups are subject to many tertiary developments. 
Moreover, it will be seen in many instances noted in the following 
paragraphs that the component consonants of a consonant-group, in 
the Middle and New Iranian dialects, may each be modified accord- 
ing to the changes to which they are liable as single consonants. 

The essential difference in the treatment of consonant-groups in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialects renders the discussion in 



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CONSONANT'OBOUPS 145 

the present chapter less satis&ctory in results, in some respects, 
than has been the case with the consideration of the vowels and 
single consonanta On the other hand, it will not be without 
interest to note how two closely-related members of the same 
language-group agree in general in certain parts of their phono- 
logy, but at the same time are radically different in other portions 
of it Notwithstanding this, the diveigent developments of the 
Middle and New Indo-Iranian languages are no less instructive 
than their coincident changes, and a survey of disagreement as 
well as of agreement is absolutely necessary if a correct knowledge 
of the entire subject imder discussion is to be gained. 

kt > Jc(k). 
§ 46L The assimilation of A:^ to k{^) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt uikaniha * anxiety,' Prftk. ukkantJiOj Pftli 
ukkanihati ' r^ets.' Skt mukta ^ released,' Prfik. mvkka^ P&li 
mukka, mutta, 

b. Iranian. Skt iakta * able,' PhL, New Pers. saxt, Yidg. 
sukt, BaL sak. 

§ 462. The softening of the consonant-group kt to gdj yd^ia not 
common. 

b. Iranian. Skt. nakta 'm'ght,' Wftxl nayd. Skt takta 
* swift,' Oss. tliayd. 

ktz > yz^ jsy. 
§ 463. The assimilation of kig to yz, zy^ is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. suxta * burned ' + zaranya * gold,' Dig. Oss. 
SMkyzarina^ Tag. sizyarin. 

kt > t{{). 
§ 464. The assimilation of A:^ to t(f) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject both in the Indian and in the 
Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt bhaJcta * boiled rice,' Prfik., Psli bhattaj 
Ka&n. bata, Ur., Bang., E. Hindi, W. Hindi bhatj Panj. bhatt, 

L 



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!46 INDOIRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Sindhi hhatu, Guj., Mar. hhot. Skt muTda ' pearl,' Prak, Pftli 
midfaj Ur. mdti^ Bang, md^t, ntafe, mauktikHj muktU^ Hindi, 
Panj., Sindhi, Guj. mOtl. Ski raAj^a 'red,' Prak., Pfili rcMa, 
Ur., Bang, raktay Hindi r«, Sindhi ra», Guj. ratu^ Simh. rof. 

b. Iranian. ThLpuoctano *to cook,' New Perajpuxten, KaS. 
jwfan, jp5ton, Wftxl pOcam^ Afy. paxavtdj BaL ikw»^, N. Bal. 
phaSay, Kurd. 2>d«n, Dig. Osa /mn. Tag. /cm. PhL sdxtano 
*to bum,' New Pers. soxtan, Msg. ^af, GiL sUt, sUxty Tftl. 5«f, 
Afy. scjBal, scyalj svajavul, BaL ^uoi^, N. BaL ^w&iy, Kurd, ^o^iw, 
BohtanI suJdin, Dig. Osa 5c[;Mn, Tag. sijjin. 

Jet > phi, ft. 
§ 465. The assimilation of kt to pMy ftj is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. yiixta 'joined,' PhL jtixt 'jwur,' New Pera 
j^fiy Afy. juxt, Kurd. (n«:^. New Pera anjuftan *to be wrinkled ' 
beside anjOxtan. 

U > JU. 
§ 466. The assimilation of kt to ht is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Skt pakta 'cooked,' New Pera puxtahy Wsxl 
p6ky Siyn. j)a5ty Sarq. pdxt, BaL pakta, N. BaL pahta. Dig. Osa 
/unx{th), Tag. ^W*. Phi. sdxtano ' to burn,' BohtanI suhtinj etc. 
(see § 464). 

§ 467. The assimilation of ktr to Zi'A, Ix, is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Old Pera hdxtri nom. prop., PliL haxr. New 
Pers. halx. 

ktr > hr. 
§ 468. The assimilation of ktr to hr is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. &aa:dra 'portion,' PhL, New Pers. bahr, 
harx. 

kth > (f)th. 
§ 469. The assimilation of kth to (t)th is not common. 

a. Indian. Skt. siktha 'beeswax,' Prak., Pali sitthaj Hindi 
slthy siih, Panj. seth^ set, Mar. 5ifc Skt. Sakthi 'thigh,' PiUi 



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CONSONANT'QBOUPS 147 

Jen > nfk 

§ 470. The assimilation of A:n to nn is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject 

a. Indian. Skb Sakndti ' is able,* Prak sakkaiy Pfili sakkati, 
saJckdti, sahkunatiy Hindi sak, Sindhi sagh, Guj., Mar. iak. 

km > m(m). 

§ 471. The assimilation of A:m to m{fn) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject 

a. Indian. Skb rvkmavail ' sort of metre/ Pfili rummavtUi. 

b. Iranian. Av. "^staxma ' firm ' (cf. Av. staxra\ PhL sUah- 
maky Now Pers. sitam * violence.' Av. taoxman 'seed/ Old 
Pers. taum&j PhL /oxm, New Pers. tiixm, Gab. tUin, Nay. turn, 
Wfixl taym, Siyn. ^f7>^), Sarq. Wym, Yidg. tUyum, Afy. tow/i, 
BaL tumf tottu 

km > gmj ym. 
^ 472. The softening of the consonant-group km to gm^ ym, is 
not frequent 

b. Iranian. Av. taoxmdn * seed/ Wfixl taym^ Siyn. itiytM, 
Sarq. tOym, Yidg. ftiyum, etc. (see preceding §). 

km > p{p). 
§ 473. The assimilation of km to jp( jp) is excessively rare, 
a. Indian. Skt rukminl * Laksmi/ Prfik. rujppinl. 

ky > k{k). 
§ 474. The assimilation o{ ky to k(k) occurs occasionally. 

a. Indian. Skt cctnakya nom. prop., Prfik. cctnakka. Skt 
dutstikya *zeal/ Pali ussukka. Skt traildkya Hhe three worlds/ 
Prfik. tellokka, telokka. 

kr > Mk). 
§ 475. The assimilation of kr to k{k) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Middle and New Indian 
dialects. 

L 2 



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148 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

a. Indian. Skt cdkra ' wheel,' Prsk, Pali cakka, Ass. cGky 
Ur. caka, Bang. cOkd, R Hindi, Hindi cdkj Panj. caA:%, Sindhi 
cctktij Guj., Mar. cdA;, Siihh. sakj hak Skt. d^n^lcaA;ra ' mystic 
circle of the body/ Siihh. inscriptions anasakj anasat 

kr > r{r). 
§ 476. The assimilation of kr to r{r) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. suxra ' red/ PhL suxr, New Pers. surx, Siv. 
sir, KaS., Kuhr. sUr, Wftxl sdkr, Siyn., Sarq. 5lraA, Yidg. surknh, 
Afy. 5iZr, BaL suhr, sohr, Kurd. 5or, Dig. Osa surx. Tag. 5tra;. 

At > hr. 

§ 477. The assimilation of kr to /ir is not common. 

b. Iranian. Av. caxra ' wheel,* New Pers. carx, cahrah, KfiS. 
cdra, cfr, Oss. 6alx. Av. ^tura ' red/ Bal. 5ti7*r, 5o/ir, etc. (see 
preceding §). 

ifc? > l(J). 
§ 478. The assimilation of kl to Z(Z) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. klista *sick,' Prfik, Pali kiliitha^ Simh. 
leda. 

kv > lik). 
§ 479. The assimilation of kv to k{k) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. pakva * ripe/ Prak. pakka, pikka^ Pali pakka, 
Ass. pakd, Naip. pak, KaSm. j^a^n, Ur. pakka. Bang, j^/rd, 
K Hindi pdkal, Hindi, Panj. pakkd, Sindhi 2?ai5, Guj. Vpik,pak 
* to ripen/ Mar. j;fA;, |?iA^, Gyp. jpaio. 

ks > kiJ^. 
§ 480. The assimilation of ks to k(k) is excessively rare in the 
Iranian dialects as well as in the Indian dialects, excepting Bangall, 
Gujarat!, and MarathL 

a. Indian. Skt buhhuks& ^ hunger/ Pali bubhukkhcUiy Hindi 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 149 

hhtU% Sindhi bulha, Mar. bhuJc, Gyp. iokh. Skt Islm 'milk,' 
Prak. i^fra, cATra, Pali AAlra, Kaf. ^wt, New Ind dialects khlTj 
Simh. Atri, kinij Maladive kirn. 

b. Iranian. Av. maxH *fly,' PhL, New Pers. magaSj Siv., 
Judaeo-Pers. magaZj WaxI wiafo, Minj. n/uya, Afy. mctc^ Bal. 
niakctsk, magisk, N. Bal. mahisky Kurd. mif. 

Z:5 > A'A'/i. 
§ 48L The assimilation of ks to H'^ is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. In 
the Iranian dialects, on the contrary, it is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. maksikd * fly,' Prak. macchiay Pali makkhika, 
Kaim. mach (pron. nias)y Ur. nid(m)chl (vulgar pron. m(l{m)si). 
Bang m^lchJ, R Hindi ni(i(m)chl, Hindi makkhl, mQ(fh)khly Panj. 
makkhly Sindhi nmkhi, Guj. mdkhiy Mar. makluj mdSly Gyp. 
inakhl. Skt. daksina * southern,' Prak. dakkhina, ddhina, Pali 
dakkhinaj Kalm. dachan, Ur. dahind^ ddMfia, Bang, rfdm, 
E. Hindi dachin, Hindi dakhin, d&hinU, Panj. dakkhan, Sindhi 
dakhind, Mar. dakhin. Skt ^wtA-^a * wing,' Prak., Pali pakkJuij 
Kafim. pakh(a)y E. Bang. j)aAf, Bang. j)dA"7tf, Bihan pamkh 
* wing,' pahlm * beside,' pamchl * bird,' Hindi 2?aA7if, panichi, 
Panj. pdnichl, Sindhi pamgu, Guj. |7dificAf, Mar. |)aA7i, pafkchl, 
Simh. |?aA, 2?a5rt, G}^). ^AaAr. 

b. Iranian. Av. A-5qp(an) 'night,* New Pers. 5a6, KaS. 5ar, 
§iyn. 5a6, Sarq. xab, Minj. rr^ara, xaSava, Tidg. x§uvuhy Yayn. 
irfSop, Afy. 5pa, BaL Sop, Kurd, {at;, Oss. dxsav. 

ks > khSj x$. 
§ 482. The assimilation of A:^ to khs^ xs, is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. x5ap(an) ' night,' Oss. axsav, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

ks > gig). 
§ 483. The assimilation of Ij to g{g) is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. maxH *fly,' PhL, New Pers. magaSy Siv., 
Judaeo-Pers. magaz, BaL magiskj makasky etc (see § 480). 



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150 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

ks > C{c). 

§ 484. The assimilation of ks to c{c) is excessively rare both in 
the Indian and in the Iranian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skb ksudra ^ small,' Prfik. khudday Pfili khudda, 
Ur. khudatdy Bang, khuddj Old Simh. cudi, SiihL ktida^ ktidu. 

b. Iranian. Av. *x5apacara *bat/ Bal. Sapcar^ Makranf 
cajpcal (assimilation). 

ks > (c)ch 

§ 485. The assimilation of ks to (c)ch is not infrequent in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. tksa * bear/ Prfik riccha, rikklia, Pali accha^ 
ikka, i${s)af Ur. richa, BihArl rfch, rikh, Hindi ficA, Panj. ricch, 
Sindhi rtc/ifi, Guj. rfc//, Mar. ris. Skt. maksika ' fly/ Prak. 
w(icchidj Easm. txacA (pron. fno^), Ur. ma(»i2)c/il (vidgar pron. 
fiia{m)sJ), Bang, wiflc//!, K Hindi ma(m)chl, etc. (see § 481). Skt. 
ksCtra * field,' Prak. c/tc«a, Pali i'Ac«a, Kasm. khlt Skt. /'.ya- 
/r?ya * warrior/ Prak. khattiaj Pali khatiii/aj Ur. c/icfrF, BiharT, 
Hindi, Panj. cliatrl, khatrij khetri, Sindhi kltitrt, Mar, ksafrl. 

^? >Jj(J)JJi' 
§ 486. The assimilation of A'^ to j, {j)jhj is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt kslna * wasted/ Prak. jJdna, khlna, chhw^ 
Pali khlna, khinna, Asa fin * decay/ Hindi jhhij ccMn, Sindhi 
jhJnOy Gyp. kJiinO. Skt. kslyate 'wastes away/ Prak. jhijja'iy 
Mar. j/i?;. Skt. A'sdmd * earth/ Hindi jhdmd * vitrified brick.* 

Z'5 > s{s). 

§ 487. The assimilation of ks to 5(5) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt iksu 'sugar-cane/ Prak., Pali ucchu, Ur. 
AkhUy Bang, aku, E. Hindi ukh, W. Hindi IkJt, Mar. t?5. Skt. 
rAwa ' bear/ Mar. r?5, etc. (see § 485). Skt maksikd *fly,' Kasm. 
Hiacft (pron. wm^), Ur. fM(}h)chl (vidgar pron. md(fij)sl), etc, (see 
§ 481). Skt paksa * wing/ Simh. j>a5a, pak, etc. (see § 481). 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 151 

Skt ksana * instant/ Prfik. Jchana, chana * feast/ New Ind. 
dialects khany excepting Hindi khaUj cl^n, chin, Siihh. sUnUy 
sanidjOf inscriptions sdndd. 

I's > S{S). 
§ 488. The assimilation of ks to S(S) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian language& 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. xSayaOiya ' king,' P&z., New Pers. Sdh. 
Av. xSira *milk/ PhL, New Pers. Sir, Minj. xSlr, Dig. Oss. 
axHr, Tag. axsir. Av. xSap(an) * night/ New Pers. Sab, KaS. 
Sav, Siyn. Sab, Afy. Ipa, BaL Sap, Kurd. Sav^ etc. (see § 481). 

ks > h{h). 
§ 480. The assimilation of ks to li(h) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. iaiksa * novice/ Jaina Prfik. s^lia, Pftli sek- 
kha, sikha. Skt. paksa * wing/ R Bang. |7aAl, Bih&rl jpdATm 
* beside/ pamchl * bird/ pathkh * wing/ etc. (see § 481). Skt. 
(2aX:5fna * southern/ Prak. cUthina, dakkhina, Ur. dcthiM^dahdna, 
Hindi ddhind, dakhin, etc. (see § 481). 

A-5 > ;e(4' 
§ 490. The assimilation of ks to Jg{£^ is excessively rare, 
a. Indian. Skt. kslra * milk/ Eaf. zu, etc. (see § 480). 

Aphaeresis of ks. 
§ 40L The loss of initial ks is a very rare phenomenon. 

a. Indian. Skt. ks^ra * potash,' Prfik. chOra, Pftli khdra, 
ch&rikn, New Ind. dialects kliAr, excepting Sindhi cMru, Siihh. 
ahi, haluy Maladive hulu. 

ksn > n, n. 
§ 492. The assimilation of ksn to n, n, is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. raoxSna * sliining/ PhL, New Pers. roSan, 
Siyn. rdSnaga, SangL rdSnai, Afy. run, Bal. rdSanl^ Kurd. rOn, 
rUn, ruhr^i, rf7ml(A)i. 



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152 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

hsn > Sn, 
§ 493. The assimilaiion of isn to f n is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. raoxSna 'shining/ Siyn. rdSnaga, SangL 
rdSnai, etc. (see preceding §). 

hsn > lin. 
§ 494. The assimilation of ksn to hn is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. raozSna ' shining,' Kurd. ruhnAiy rHnd{h)iy 
rdUy runj etc. (see § 492). 



gdh > t{f). 
§ 495. The assimilation of gdh to t{t) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skb dugdha ' milk,' Prfik., Pali duddha, Nfiip. diUy 
KaSm. dod, XJr. dudha, Bang, dudhj dud{u), Bihfiii, Hindi dildhy 
Panj. dudd, Sindhl dddhi, Guj., Mar. dUdh, Gyp. thud, 

b. Iranian. Skt. dogdhum * to milk,' Phi. ddxtand, New Pers. 
ddxtan, Wftxl Ugnam^ Sarq. fiat/jeam, Afy. Zm&tZ, Bal. dokiy, 
Kurd. cKfin, Bayazid ddthin^ Dig. Oss. docim, Tag. dwciw. 

gdh > d{d). 
§ 496. The assimilation of gdh to d{d) is excessively rare. 

a Indian. Skt. dtigdha 'milk,' Ka&n. dody Bang. (2u(7(u), 
dwdA, Panj. diAddy Gyp. ^Awd^ etc. (see preceding §). 

§ 497. The assimilation of gdh to (f<ZA is the r^;ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt dugdha 'milk,' Prak,, Pali duddha, Ur. 

dudhu, Bang, dudh, dud{u), Biharl, Hindi dudh^ Sindhl dddhij 

Guj., Mar. dudh, etc. (see § 495). Skt. mugdim 'fool,' Prak., 

Pali muddha. 

^» > 9(9)y y. 

§ 498. The assimilation of gn to g{g\ y, is the r^ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects, but it 
is excessively rare in the Iranian dialect& 



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COKSONANT'GSOUPS 158 

a. Indian. Skt cigni 'fire,' Pifik. aggij aggini, gini, Ur. niOj 
Bang. (IguHy Hindi ag, Panj. agg, Sindhi agi, Guj., Mar. dg, 
SimlL gini, Gyp. ya^. Ski na^^a ^ naked,' Prfik., Pfili nagga^ 
Ur. na%aZa, Bang. n^tii/A, Biharl namgy Hindi, Panj. namgO^j 
Sindhi nafhgd, Guj. nUgnm, Mar. naggdj namgd^ ^J9' f^o^O (cf. 
also Eafim. naf9r&v 'to strip'). Skt. lagna 'attached/ Prfik., 
Pali lagga, Hindi tepd, Kj^, Panj. Za^, other New Ind. dialects 
lag. 

b. Iranian. Av. raoytm * oil,' PhL rdyan, rdkan, Paz. raogan, 
New Pers. r^ya^?, KaS. ruyatij rd, WaxI rwyiin, rttyn, Sarq. 
raun, SangL r^y, Kurd. rUn. 

gn > n{n). 
§ 499. The assimilation of gn to n(n) is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. raoytia *oil,' Sarq. rautiy Kurd. rtZn, etc. (see 
preceding §). 

Syncope and apocope of gn. 
§ 600. The loss of internal or final gn occurs with the utmost 
rarity. 

b. Iranian. Av. raoyna * oil,' KaS. rO, ruyan^ etc. (see § 498). 

gm > w(w). 
§ 601. The assimilation of ^m to m(fn) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt gtigma ^pair,' Prak. jumma, jugga. Skt 
tigma ' sharp,' Prak. timfnaj iigga. 

b. Iranian. GAv. ag^mat 'assembled,' YAv. frdynuU^ Old 
Pers. Mginatdj PhL malandy New Pers, dmtidan. 

§ 602. The assimilation of py to g(g) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt yOgya * suitable,' Prak. jogga^ Pali yogga. 



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154 rSDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

New InA dialects jo^. Skt lagyati (Ninikta, iv. 10) * is attached,' 
Prftk. laggai, Pali laggati, Eagm. Vlig^ Hindi lag^ Panj. lagg, 
Sindhi lag^ other New Ind. dialects lag. 

gr > 9(9)' 
§ 60d. The assimilation of ^ to g{g) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt agra 'front,' Prfik., Pfili agga^ Ass. Og^j 
Naip. aghi, Ur. agUj Bang., K Hindi, Hindi age^ Panj. aggHy 
Sindhi aggoj Gyp. agor^ angle. Skt vyagra 'crooked/ PrSk. 
vagga. 

^'*^ > {9)9f^ 
§ 604. The assimilation of ghr to {g)gh is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt Slghra 'swift,' Prak. siggha^ Pali sJgha, 

Bang. (BurdwanI) iiggir^ Gyp. sigo. Skt vyQghra 'tiger,' Prak. 

i-aggha, Pali vyagglMj Hindi bdghj Sindhi vdghu, Mar. vctgh, 

Simh. vdg, 

ghr > fir). 

§ 505. The assimilation of ghr to r(r) is sometimes found. 

b. Iranian. Av. tiyri 'arrow,' Old Pers. tiyra, PhL, New 
Pers., BaL tlr, N. BaL thJr, Kurd. tlr{ik). 



fdk > fag. 
§ 506. The softening of idh to fog occurs not infrequently in 
the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt paryataka 'bed,' Prak. pallamka^ 6aur. Prak. 
paliatiika, Pali j)aHaiokaj pariyatjka, Ass. jpdletag, Naip. palmog, 
Ur. palaniky Bang. 2)&ldnig, 2)dlafhk, Biharl jf>a?a?M5r, j)5/aX7, Hindi 
italamg^ Panj. palamgh, Sindhi palavgu, Guj., Mar. palamg^ 
Anglo-Ind. palanqiiin. Skt kawkana 'bracelet,' Prak., Pali 
kamkana. Ass. kmogaUj kdiokan, Ka&n. kafjkdin, kawgnm, Ur., 
Bang, kamgan, E. Hindi kauigan, kamkan, kamkcm, Hindi 
kauigany kamkan, Panj. kamgan, Sindhi kawgann, Guj., Mar. 



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CONSONANT'GROUPS 155 

nikt > tht 

§ 607. The assimilation of f9kt to mf occurs occasionally (cf. 
$464). 

a. Indian. Skt patolH ^row/ PrSk., P&li pamtij Bihilrl 
patiUi. 

f9ih > i(hy 

§ 608. The assimilation of f9kh to k{h) is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. SpdJchala * fetter/ Pftli satlikhalaj Ass. 
sikaliy Naip. sikrf, Ur. iikuli, Bang, iikal, sikal, R Hindi 5f(f»i)- 
kar, sik{k)ar, Hindi ^Aar, 5i/:a7, sikhar, Panj. samghar, Sindhi 
satogharOy Guj. 8amg1ux% Mar. 5A(in)/:%a|y ^iirl. 

§ 600. The softening of tokh to ^A, tw^A, is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. spokhala 'fetter/ Panj. sauighar, Sindhi 
satQgharo, Guj. samghal^ etc. (see preceding 5). 

§ 610. The assimilation of ^g to 5f(^) occurs but rarely in the 
Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. Idtogala 'plough/ Prflk. lamgala, namgala, 
Pali namgala, Bang. uQfhgalf Bihilrl lamgalj Mar. ndthgar^ 
SimL naguUiy nagala. Skt. l&idgala ' tail,' Prak. laiiigiUaj Simh. 
nagal, nakuta. 

b. Iranian. Av. angxiHa *toe/ PhL angusf, New Pers. 
anguSf, Slv. ^i<^, KaS. ungusSj anguS{f)j Maz. aw^fw^, Waxi yawflf/, 
Siyn. angait, Sarq. ingaxtj SangL iik//^, Minj. angary Aiy. guia. 
Tag. Oss. aiigursth. 

f9g > f9gh. 

§ 611. The aspirization oiidgio %>gh is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt jatdgala 'desert,' Ass. ja^hal, Sindhi jhatdgu 
<*jaijghu, other New Ind. dialects jamgal, Old Hindi also 
jatiigar, Anglo-Ind. jungle. 



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156 INDO'UtANIAN PHONOLOGY 

cch > Sd(h). 

§ 612. The dissimilation of cch to £c(h) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt gaccha *goI' Mag. Prfik. gaSca. Skt 
prccJuiti * asks,' Mfig. Prak. ptiScadi. Skt ucchista ' remnant, 
6ak. Prak. uschitta, Pali ucchiftha. 

cy > c{c). 
§ 618. The assimilation of cy to o(c) is the r^ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. acyuta 'firm,' Prak. acciida, Pali acaUa. 

Skt cyavaU ' goes,' Prak. cavcCi^ Pali cavati^ Ur. CiiihO, Bang. 

aidn, Hindi cuna^ ^^' cdnd, SindhI ctihcintt^ Mar. cavanvm. 

Skt ticyate *is said/ Mag. Prak. vuccadiy 6aur. Prak. r?rcc«3f, 

Pali vuccati. 

cv > c(c), c(c). 

§ 614. The assimilation of ct; to c(c\ c{c), is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. cvant 'how many?' PliL, New Pers. caml, 
WaxI CMW, can, Sarq. ctind, Afy. coni(lb)ray BaL cunt 



§ 516. The assimilation of jn to g{g) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt yajha * sacrifice,' Prak. janna, Saur. Prak. 
jahja, Pali yahha, Ur., Bang, jdga, Old Hindi jajana, jojdj 
J(^9il<^j 3<^Uy^i Hindi ja<7, Tdcayjagg, Sindhlja^w, Msir.jag. 

iA > ?y- 

§ 616. The New Indian dialects, with the exception of Sindhi, 
Gujaratl, and Mara^hi, regularly pronounce jh as gy^ although 
Uriya and Bangall retain jh in script In Gujaratl jh is pro- 
nounced jh or dn, and in Marafhl jh is pronoimced dny. Sindhi 
usually assimilates jh to jj. 

a. Indian. Skt jhdna ' knowledge,' Prak. jd»a, ndna^ Paii 

Prak. Mm, Pali jdna, Ur., Bang, jhana (pron. g^nd), Hindi, 



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CONSONANT'OBOUFS 167 

Panj. pyAn, Sindhi jAnu, Guj., Mar. jan. Skt ajha 'command,' 
Prftk. ana, Pftli ahM, Hindi agya, Panj. agia, Sindhi agya, Guj. 

§ 617. The assimilation of jft to j{j) is not uncommon in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt jMna * knowledge,' Prfik. janay nana, Pali 
jahOy Sindhi janu, Guj., Mar. jan, etc. (see preceding ^). Skt 
sarvajha 'omniscient,' Prfik. sawajja, sawannUy l^ur. Prfik. 
sawahjaj Mfihfir. Prfik. sawannu^ Pfiii Prfik. sawahha. 

jh > n(h). 

§ 618. The assimilation of jn to h(fi) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. sarvajha ' omniscient,' Pfiifi. Prfik. sawahhaj 
etc. (see preceding §). Skt. vijha^ia ' knowledge,' Prfik. vinnana, 
Pfili t;mndna. 

ii'i > n{n). 

§ 619. The assimilation of jn to n{n) is found quite frequently, 
a. Indian. Skt vijhdna 'knowledge, Prfik. vinndna, etc. 
(see preceding §). Skt. rajhl ' queen,' Nfiip., Hindi rawf, other 
New Ind. dialects rani. Skt. ajhacakra ' mystic circle of the 
body,' Simh. inscriptions anasakj anasat 

jh > n(n). 

§ 620. The assimilation of jn to n{n) occurs but seldom. 

a. Indian. Skt. sarvajha ' omniscient,' Mfihfir. Prfik. saV' 
vannu, etc. (see § 617). Skt jhOti 'kinsman,' Pfili hatiy 
Simh. nd. 

jy>jij)' 

§ 62L The assimilation of jy to j(j) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Middle and New Indo- 
Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt rdjya ' kingdom,' Pfili rajja. 

b. Iranian. PhL jutand ' to gnaw,' New Pers. jovldan, Gab. 



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158 TNDO'IBANTAN PHONOLOOT 

jovddmuny My. Sdvuly idyal, BaL j&yagj N. Bai jay, EurcL jUn 
(cf. Old Bulg. iivati, Old High Germ, kiutvan). 

jlf>{j)jh. 
§ 622. The assimilation of jy to {j)jh is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. adhijtja 'having the bow-string taut/ Pali 
adejjhaj but Skt jy& * bow-string/ Pfili j(i)yd. 

jy > ^4 i(i). 
§ 623. The assimilation of jy to g(z)y or i(i), is not infrequent 
in the Iranian dialect& 

b. Iranian. PhL jutand 'to gnaw/ Afy. Jldvul, SdyaL, etc 
(see § 521). Av. jya ' bow-string/ Paz. jlA*, New Pers. eihj KaS. 
.ea/*, ia, Afy. iai, N. BaL jfy, Kurd. iiA. 

§ 624. The assimilation oijv to j{j) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt jvala * flame/ PrSk., Pali jaldy Ur. jvaJibdj 
Hindi b&land, Panj. jalandy hdlaM, Sindhi jalanUj Mranu^ Guj. 
jajavmij Mar. jalancmy Siriih. doZo. 

§ 526. The assimilation of Jt; to (j)jh is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt jvalcUi * flames,' Apab. Prak. jalai^ Pali 

jalatiy Ur. jlialdkan^^ Sindhi jhalhanUj Guj. jhalalavuni, Mar. 

jhalakaneni. 

jv > d{dj. 

§ 626. The assimilation otjv to c7((2) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. jvala ' flame/ Siriik data, etc. (see §§ 524, 182). 

jv > 6(6). 
§ 627. The assimilation of jV to 6(6) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt jvala 'flame/ Hindi halandj Panj. hdlandj 
jalana^ Sindhi hdranu, jalanu, etc. (see § 524). Skt. jvara 
* fever,' Prak, Pali ^*am, Sindhi lar. 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 159 

9iC >f9g. 
§ 628. The assimilation of Ac to 199 is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian* Av. taneiSta 'most narrow/ PhL, New Pers. 
iangy Waxi tang, Sarq. tongj Afy. tangayl^ BaL tank, N. Bal. 
thanaXj thandklij Kurd tank. 

he > €(c). 
§ 529. The assimilation of nc to c{c) occurs very seldom. 

a. Indian. Skt pahcHSata 'fifty/ Prftk. pannlXsOy PUli 
pahtiasa, panndsa, EaiSm. pahcah, Ur. pac&Say Bang. pathcAsaj 
Bihftil, Hindi pacOs, Panj., Sindhi pamjahy Ouj. j?a(^, Mar. 
pannOSj Simh. j?ana%a. 

§ 630. The assimilation of fie to j{j) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt., Pfili kuhcika 'key/ Nftip. kuthjij Kafini. 
kufUfy Ur. Auji, Z:uiftcf9 A:t«fii;Af, Bang, knjl^ kUnyij Hindi, Panj., 
Sindhi kumjly Guj. kunu^, Mar. kumjh 

he > hj. 
§ 631. The softening of he to hj is found both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt kuhcilH * key/ Nfiip. kumjl. Bang. ki4{m)jlj 
Hindi, Panj., Sindhi, Mar. kumjt, etc. (see preceding §). 

b. Iranian. Av. panea * five,' Phi. pane. New Pers. panj, 
Ksi. hanCj Wfixl pdnje^, Siyn., Sarq. j^fnir, SangL jpaiixr, Minj. 
I?anc, Afy. pinjaj Oss. /?n;, /mj>, Kurd, panj^ pSnj. 

he > h(fi). 
§ 632. The assimilation of he to h(h) occurs but seldom. 

a. Indian. Skt pahcilSata 'fifty,' Pfili jpannd^a, panndsa, 
etc. (see § 529). 

he > w(n). 

§ 633. The assimilation of he to n(n) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt pahediata ' fifty/ Prfik. j^annd^a, I^fili pan- 
n&say pahhasOy etc. (see § 529). 



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160 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

he > n{n). 

§ 584. Hie assimilation of nc to n{n) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt.|7ai^(^afo'fi%/Mar.|7anii^,Simh.jpaiiaAay 

etc. (see § 529). 

nc > s{$). 

§ 635. The assimilation of nc to s{s) is extremely rare (c£ § 165). 

a. Indian. Skt. lulhcana ^gold,' Pr^ Jcahcana^ P&li kah- 

canaj Simh. kasun. Skt pahca ' five/ Prfik, Pali pahca^ Ka&n. 

panSj Ur., Bang., Biharl, Hindi jpdniCy Panj., Sindhlp&mjy Guj., 

Mar. pdfiiCj Simh. ^;a5a, i^a/m, Gyp. pane. 

he > h(h). 
§ 536. The assimilation of he to h(h) is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt pahca 'five/ SimL paJia, pasa^ etc. (see 
preceding § and cf. § 169). 

n; > fwd. 
§ 537. The assimilation of hj to liid is excessively rare, except- 
ing in Simhalese (see § 182). 

a. Indian. Skt ahjana 'collyrimn/ PrfiL aujana, Pali 
ahjana, Simh. amduna. 



dg > gig). 

§ 638. The assimilation of d^ to g{g) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. kliadga * sword,* Prak., Pali IJiaggay Ur. 
Jchamddj Bang, kharag, Hindi kJiarag, khdntd, Sindhi kJiam, 
Guj. kMrum, Mar. kJiamd, 

dg > d{d). 
§ 639. The assimilation of dg to d{d) is comparatively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt kliadga * sword,' Ur. khanidd^ Hindi kJidthdy 
kluxragy Guj. kMruniy etc. (see preceding §). 

dg > fi{n). 
§ 540. The assimilation of dg to n(n) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt kha^dga * sword,' Sindhi khanoy etc. (see 
§538). 



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CONSOKANT'OBOUPS 161 

vt>m 

§ 54L The assimilation of ntix>t(f)iB found occasionally. 

a. Indian. Ski kantaJca 'thorn/ Prftk. kantaa, Pftli kaif- 
{{h)akaj Ass. kdtM%, Nftip. kdiiiray Kjb&ol kondy kiind, Ur. lantA^ 
JcaMOj Bang. kOiOy kamta, Hindi Tcamia, Panj., Sindhi ioritdd, 
Ouj. MfMQ^ Mar. X^A, Tcamtay Oyp. A:ani^, /:an(Id^. 

§ 542. The assimilation of ni to (l{d) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt hantaka ' thorn,' N&ip. A^ifird, P^*-y Sindhi 
A'Am^dy etc. (see preceding §). 

nf > nd. 
$ 548. The softening of ni to nd occurs quite rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt kantaka 'thorn,' Ka&n. kandj kUndj Gyp. 
landdj kanrOj etc. (see § 541). 

n{W>nt. 
§ 544. The deaspirization of nth is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. Sunthi 'ginger/ KaSm. iOntj Ur., Bang. 
iuntha, Hindi sdmth, Panj. sundh, sihhdhy Sindhi sundhiy Guj. 
sunth. 

nth > ndh. 
§ 545. The softening of nth to ndh is the most usual change of 
all those to which this consonant-group is subject. 

a. Indian. Skt iunihi 'ginger/ Panj. sundh^ sMidh^ Sindhi 
sundhi, etc. (see preceding ^). 

nd>d(d). 
§ 546. The assimilation of nd to d(d) is not uncommon in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt khandaka 'fragment/ Ea&n. khadakj Ur. 
khanda, E. Hindi, Hindi khamr, Panj. khdrnda, Sindhi khand, 
Guj. khaduthj Mar. klianddy kh&nidd. Skt dfunoTuZ^Aa ' sort of 
lizard,' P&li deddubha. 

u 



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162 INDO'IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

nd> ncL 
§ 647. The decerebralizaidon of nd is not a frequent phe- 
nomenon. 

a. Indian. Skt randd * window/ Ass., Nftip. raihri, Ur., 
Bang., E. Hindi, Hindi rdfhr, Panj. randy Sindhi ran^ Guj., 
Mar. r&md, 

nd > n(n). 

§ 648. The assimilation o{ndto n{n) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt JchandaJca 'fragment,' Sindhi khanOj etc. 
(see § 546). Skt randd ' window,' Sindhi ran^ etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). Skt, Pali gan^aka 'rhinoceros,' Biharl ganndj 
ganddf gdfiida. 

ndh > d(d). 

§ 649. The assimilation of ndh to d{d) is not common. 

a. Indian. Skt sandha ' eunuch,' Prsk. sandha. Ass. sCimrj 
Bang. safhTj R Hindi, Hindi sdmr^ Panj. sdfhdh, Sindhi s&nu, 
Multam samhj sandlid^ Guj., Mar. sdriid. 

ndh > n(w). 
§ 660. The assimilation of ijdh to n{n) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt sandJia 'eunuch,' Sindhi sdnUy etc. (see 
preceding §). 

ndh > fhr. 

§ 561. The assimilation of ndh to mr is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt sandha ' eunuch,' Ass. sdmr^ etc. (see § 549). 

ndh > ihh, 
§ 562. The assimilation of nd^i to mh is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt sandlui 'eunuch,' Multanl sdrnhj sandhd, 
etc. (see § 549). 

ny > hj. 
§ 668. The assimilation of ny to hj is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt hrahmanya ' Brahmanical,' Ssur. Pralc 
vamhahja. 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 168 

ny > fi{h). 

§ 654. The aflflimilation of ny to h(h) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt punya ^ pure,' PrftL punna, Pftli pukkaj 
purmaj Sindhi puhl. Skt araifya ^deeert,' Prfik. rannoy Pfili 
arahhoj Hindi ran^ Sindhi raft, rinUy Ouj., Mar. rdn. 

ny > vivy 

$ 665. The aflflimilation of ny to n{n) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt punya *pure,' Prfik. punna^ Pfili punna^ 
puhha, eta (see preceding §). 

ny > «(»). 

§ 556. The assimilation of ny to n(n) ib exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt aranya ' desert,' Hindi ran, Sindhi rinu, rah, 
Guj., Mar. rSw, etc. (see § 554). Skt hiranya *gold,* Prfik. 
(inscriptions of Ehfilsi and Kapur di Giri) hilafknOj Pfili 
hirahha. 

nv > n{n). 

§ 567. The assimilation of nv to n{n) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt hanva nom. prop., Prfik. lanncu Skt linva 
'yeast,' Pfili kinnaj Sindhi kinu. 

nv > n{n). 

§ 658. The assimilation of nv to n{n) is extremely rara 

a. Indian. Skt kinva ^ yeast,' Sindhi kinu, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

# > m 

§ 660. The cerebralization ottt to i{{) is in the great majority 
of cases due to the presence of a preceding r, r. 

a. Indian. Skt vrtta < happened,' Prfik. vatUif Pfili vatfaj 
vattcL. Skt mrttika 'clay,' Prfik. maiiid, Pfili matiika, Ur., 
Bang, ma^f, Hindi, Panj. nti^l, tno^i, Sindhi mifly Guj. mo/t, 
Mar. mail. Skt pattana ' town,' PrfiL paftaifaf Pfili patiana. 

M a 



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164 INDO-IRAKIAN PHONOLOGY 

tp>p{p). 
§ 560. The assimilatioii of ^ to p(p) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt utpadyarM ^they arise,' Prftk. uppajjaMBj 
Pali uppajjantiy c£ Sindhi ujpano, 6uj. upanliy)o. 

tm>1{fy 

§ 66L The assimilation of tm to Uf) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt dfman ^ self/ Prfik. atfd, appa, (inscriptions 
of Gimar) Qptdj Pftli attdj dtumcLj Ass. dpxiy N&ip. dphu^ Ka&n. 
pan, Vr.j Bang. dp(S)^ dpanoj dpanij Hindi, Panj. dp(an)y Sindhi 
j)dn, 6uj. dp, Mar. dp{an). 

tm >pt 

§ 662. The assimilation of tm tojyt is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. dUnan ' self/ PrSk. (inscriptions of Gimar) 
dptdy lit Pr&k. attd, appd, etc. (see preceding § and c£ Pischel, 
Gramm. d. Prak-Spr., § 277). 

tm >p{p). 

§ 563. The assimilation of tm to p{p) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. dtman ' self/ Pr&k. appd, attd, (inscriptions 
of Gimar) dptdy Ass. dpu, Kasm. pan, Ur., Bang. ap(^ ^P<^V^ 
dpanij Hindi, Panj. dp(an), Sindhi 2)dn, Guj. a/;, Mar. dp(an)y 
etc. (see § 561). 

ty >c{c). 
§ 564. The assimilation of ty to c(c) is the r^ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt satya * true,* Prfik., Pali sacca, Ass. sanicdj 
(pron. hom$d)y Ur. sacdj Bang, sdmcd, sacdj E. Hindi sdthCj 
Hindi sdthCj sa{m)c, Panj. ^acc, Sindhi saciij Guj., Mar. ^ocum, 
Simh. sasOj Gyp. coc^. Skt. Jiatyd 'murder,' Sindhi Aoca. 



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CONSONAITT'OBOVPS 166 

i!f>m 
§ 666. The assimilation of fy to f(Q, while less frequent than 
the assim i lation of fy to o(c), is, neverthelesSy not micommon in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt nitya ^constant,' Pr&L, Pftli niccOj Bihfirl 
nit(()j Sindhi nitUj Siifah. nisadiy nisCidi. Skt amatya ' minister/ 
PrftL, Pali amaccoj Siifah. ametOy ametiya. Skt cUyunncUa 
* very high,' Jfiina Prftk. accunaya. 



ty > 
§ 666. The assimilation of fy to s(s) is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. nitya < constant,' Siihh. nisadlj nisOdl, etc. 
(see preceding §). Skt saiya ^true,' Sixhh. sasa^ etc. (see § 564). 

tr > c(S). 

§ 667. . The assimilation of ^r to ^^ is veiy rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. puBra * son,' Old Pers. puB^a^ PhL pus(ar)^ 
ptihr, New Pers. pus{ar), pUty Gab. j?ar, KfiS. |>«r, |>iZr, Samn. j>fr, 
WaxI pOtVy Siyn. |?ie^, Sarq. pUc, Minj. j>t?r, Yayn. j>u2aA, N. Bal. 
phusay, Dig. 0&&.furt1iy TeLg,Jirthy Kurd, pisir. 

tr > m. 

§ 668. The assimilation of tr to t(f) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt putra 'son,' Prftk. jm^ Sfimr. Prfik. pud{(^ 
Pali ^^a, Ur. jma, Hindi j^tt^, Sindhi j^u/ru, Lar. puttti, Mar. 
imft, Simh. pit, put. 

tr>tr. 

§ 669. The assimilation of tr to tr occurs only in Sindhi. 

a. Indian. Skt trlni Hhree,' Prak tinni, Pali tlni, Ea&n. 
trihy Ur. tiniy Bang, /ino, Biharl tlniy Hindi ^in, Panj. tifhtiy 
Sindhi fn?, Guj. ten. Mar. tin. Gyp. /nn. Skt sUtra * thread,' 
Prak., Pali suttay New Ind. dialects ^, excepting Sindhi sutrUy 
Lar. ^u, Siifah. suia. 



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166 INDO-ISANIAN PHONOLOOY 

ir>ft)fh. 

§ 670. The assimilation of ^ to {f)lh is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt prathamaptUra ' first-bom son,' R Hindi, 
Hindi pcihilaMhaj Fbuj. pahilOthOj Sindhl pahrdthd^ paJirOfu. 

tr>d(4). 

§ 67L The assimilation of tr to d(d) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. putra 'son,' Ssur. Pr&k. pu4(dyiy etc. (see 
§ 568). 

§ 672. The assimilation of fr to ^Q is the r^;ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt rOtri 'night,' PrSk. raMij tttK, Pali raUi, 

KaSm., Ur., Bang., Bihftrl, Hindi riUj Panj. ratt, rat, Sindhi rati, 

Guj., Mar. rat, Simh. rdya, rd, Gyp. rat, Span. Gyp. {a)raci. 

Skt ksStra 'field,' Prftk. chetta, Pali khetta, Ur., Bang. kMta, 

Hindi kJat, khSdO, Panj. hhit, Sindhi khetu, Guj. i/i^, Mar. ic"^, 

Siihh. keta. Skt triniandala ' Buddhist's robe,' Pali timandala, 

Old SirfiL dunwnandul. New Siihh. tunmadulla. Skt j>M/m 

' son,' Prak., Pali jptrfta, Hindi j?wf, Mar. pxdJ, Simh. j;if, j;^^, 

etc. (see § 568). 

/r > dr. 

§ 673. The assimilation of fr to c7r is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. 6ri ' three,' Paz. se, New Pers. sih, Tat se, 
WaxI frwi, Siyn. orrai, Sarq. haroi, Sangl. /rat, Minj. kirai, 
Yayn. ^ara^f, Afy. dr5, Kurd. s€. 

tr>phr,Jr. 

§ 674. The assimilation of tr to phr,fr, is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. eraStaotia nom. prop., PhL fretUn, Paz. 
fi'UdUn, New Pers. farSdiln. 

tr > r{r). 
§ 675. The assimilation of ^ to r{f) is exceedingly rare, 
b. Iranian. Av. puOra * son,' New Pers. jnlr, pu$(ar), Gab. 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 167 

par, KfiS. pUry pikr^ Samn. |>7r, Minj. jHJr, etc. (see § 567). Av. 
ciBra * bright/ Phi. dtri^ New Pers. cilM\ My. 6Sr, Kurd. cara. 

tr>l(^. 

§ 676. The assimilation of fr to {(I) is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. At. ptiOra ' son,' Yayn. ptdahj etc. (see § 567). 
Old Pers. MiOpabdrriSy MiOptbdrris, nom. prop., PhL miirdMy New 
Pers. miUxd. 

tr > s($). 

§ 577. The assimilation of fr to 8(s) is quite common in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. pn0ra * son/ Phi. pu^ar)^ puhr, New Pers. 
jpti^ar), jptJr, N. BaL phusay, Kurd. j?mr, etc. (see § 567). Av. 
^ri * three,' Paz. sc, New Pers. ^i/f, Tftt 56, Kurd. 55, etc. (see 
§ 573). Av. |?fidm * protection,' Phi., New Pers. pOs. 

tr>S(S). 

§ 678. The assimilation of ^r to ^1) is extremely rare, 
b. Iranian. Av. 6ri ' three,' Minj. Saraif etc. (see § 573). 

tr > hr. 

§ 670. The assimilation of tr to hr is common in the Iranian 
dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. puOra ' son,' PhL jM*/<r, ptt8{ar), etc. (see 
§ 567). Av. cidra * bright,' New Pers. cihry etc. (see § 575). 
Av. Sri ' three,' Sarq. haroiy etc. (see § 578). 

Syncope of tr. 
§ 680. The loss of the consonant-group tr internally is a very 
rare phenomenon. 

a. Indian. Ski rdtri 'night,' Prftk. rcti, rattiy Siihh. rS, 
rdfya, etc. (see § 572). Skt mifyra ' friend,' Prak. miaj mitta, 
Pali mittaj Sindhi mid. 



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168 INDO-nUNIAN FHONOLOQT 

§ 68L The assimilation of A; to ^Q is the regular one under- 
gone by this consonani-group in the Middle and New Indo-Iranian 
dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt tvarita ^ quick,' Prfik. turuz, FsM turiia^ 
Hindi, Panj. turathfy Sindhi furtu^ Guj. turaij Mar. turiU. Skt 
catvardh * four/ Prftk. caMarOy caiira^ Psli caiu, Ka&n. idr^ Ur., 
Bang., Bihfirl cdri, Hindi, Panj. car, Sindhi c&ri, Guj., Mar. cHr^ 
Old Siifah. $iv{u)y New Siifah. hatarOj satara, hdr^ Gyp. ^tar. 

b. Iranian. Av. tUm < * ivdm * thou,* Pftz. ftJ, New Pers. <3, 
Afy. tOy Kurd. tUj Dig. Osa dfu, Tag. di. 

tv > d(d). 
§ 682. The assimilation of ft; to d{d) is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. tUm Hhou,' Dig. Oss. dUj Tag. di, etc. (see 
preceding §). 

*^ >P{P)' 
§ 688. The assimilation of ft; to p(p) is not uncommon in the 
Indian dialects, especially in the case of the Old Indian suffix -tva, 
which generally becomes -pan^ -panu, -puniZy etc., in the New 
Indian dialects. In the Iranian dialects an assimilation of tv to 
p{p) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt vrddhatva 'old age,* Bang, hudhapana^ 
budhapOy Hindi bii4Iidpany Panj. budhOpdy Sindhi ludlidpanuy 
Guj. budhdpd. 

b. Iranian. Av. cadward * four,' PhL cahar, Paz. cihar, New 
Pers^ cahdr^ Wfixl cabur, cdbilry Siyn. iavovy cavdry Sarq. corwr, 
cavoTy SangL 5a/&r, Minj. ca/lry Yidg. cFr, Yayn. f/c;, Afy. calory 
Dig. Oss. cuppavy cuphphar, Tag. diy)ar, ciphphar. 

tv >phyf. 
§ 684. The assimilation of A; to phy / is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. caOward 'four,' Sangl. safih'y Minj. cq/Yr, 
Yayn. tjby Dig. Osa 6uppary cuphpJiary Tag. cippavy ciphphoTy etc. 
(see preceding §). 



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CONSONANT-OROUPS 169 

iv>b(b). 
§ 685. The assimilation of ^ to i(b) is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. caOtcdrd * four/ Wftxl cabur^ iabUr^ etc. (see 
§583). 

§ 688. The assimilation ot tv to lifj is extremely rare, 
b. Iranian. Av. caOtcard * four/ Afy. calory etc. (see § 588). 

tv > v(v). 
§ 587. The assimilation of tv to v{v) is found occasionally both 
in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. caivarah ^four/ Old Simh. 8iv{u), etc. (see 
§ 581). 

b. Iranian. Av. caOiCdrO 'four/ Siyn. Satfor^ (avdr^ Sarq. 
(avtir, (avoTy etc. (see § 588). 

tv > sp. 
§ 588. The assimilation of ^ to sp is very rare. 
b. Iranian. Av. OtcaSa ^ firmament^' PhL spctsar. 

tv > h(h). 
§ 589. The assimilation of tv to Ji{h) is quite frequent in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. caOwdrd *four/ PhL. caAdr, Pftz. cihdrj New 
Pers. cdhar^ etc. (see § 588). Av. frapiStva * flourishing,' Phi. 
frapihj farplhy New V&r%,farbth. 

Syncope of tv. 
§ 590. The loss of the consonant-group tv internally is a very 
rare phenomenon. 

b. Iranian. Av. caBtoarO 'four/ Yidg. c7r, etc (see § 588). 

ts > c(c\ 
§ 59L The assimilation of ts to c(c) is extremely rare, 
a. Indian. Skt hlhhatsa 'loathsome,' Pali lObliacca. Skt 



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170 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

vatsa * cal^' Prftk., Pali vaeeha, Abb. Mcru (pron. bllsru\ Kafim. 
vaS, Bang, bacchdj vacchn, R Hindi bdchaj W. Hindi bacOy Panj. 
haccd, Sindhi bacO^ Guj. baccdj Mar. hacr&ky vOsrUfh. 

b. Iranian. Ski vatsa ^ calf^' PhL vacakj hacdky Wftzl vujX:, 
Sarq. viSk^ BaL jfenzc, Kurd, vacahd, Dig. Oss. t^o^ 

fe > (c)ck 
§ 592. The assimilation of ts to (c)c7» is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt vatsara 'year,' Prftk., Pfili vacchara. Skt. 
vatsa ' calf,' Prftk., Pali vaeeha^ Bang, vacchaj bacchdj R Hindi 
bdchCij etc. (see preceding §). 

ts> S(Sj. 
§ 693. The assimilation of ts to SiS) is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Skt. vatsa * calf,' Wftxl vuSk, Sarq. t7i5Z', etc. (see 
§591). 

to > s(s). 

§ 594. The assimilation of to to s(s) is found both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. ntsuka * anxious,' Prftk. vssua, Mfthftr. Prftk. 
iissui/a, Jftina Prftk. usstika. Skt. vyutsarga * eructation,' Prftk. 
vhissagga^ Skt. utsada ' desire,* Pftli ttssada. 

b. Iranian. Skt vatsa ' calf,' Dig. Oss. vass, etc. (see § 591). 

toy > ic)c. 
§ 595. The assimilation of fay to (c)c is found freqiifently in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. matsya *fish,' Apab. Prftk. macdiUy Pftli 
ntaccliaj Ass. mac (pron. md$\ Ur., Bang., Hindi mdc/» (vulgar 
pron. in Bang. mas6\ Panj. wmccA, Sindhi machuj Mar. wid5d, 
Simh. «ia5, Gyp. w/ck^. 

tsy > ic)ch. 
§ 598. The assimilation of tsy to (c)ch is the r^ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 



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CONSONAyT-GBOUPS 171 

a. Indian. Skt matsya 'fish,* Apab. Pr&k. "macchu^ Pftli 
macchoj Ur., Bang^ Hindi mdch (vulgar pron. in Bang, wdsd), 
Panj. wacch^ Sindhl machUy etc. (see preceding §). 

tsy > s{8). 

§ 697. Hie assimilation of % to s{8) occurs quite frequently in 
the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. maisya ' fish,' Asa mde (pron. mas\ Bang, 
vulgar pron. m0$6^ Mar. nUksdy Siihh. mas^ etc. (see § 595). 



thy > (c)clh. 

§ 598. The assimilation of thy to (c)ch is the regular one to 

which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. ^\ii.pathya 'welfare,' Prftk. jTOCc/ta. Skt. mithy& 

* false,' Prak. miccha^ Avanb Prfik. mitthdj Pali mioMy Ass. 

mt(^, Ur. michy Bang., Old Hindi mtc/ia, Sindhl maihyamy 

Siiiih. mt^. 

% > s{$). 

§ 699. The assimilation of thy to 5(5) is very rare, 
a. Indian. Skt. mithyA 'false,' Siibh. mm, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

dg >9{9\ 
§ 800. The assimilation of dg to g{g) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects, but it is 
extremely rare in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. mudga 'kidney-bean,' Prftlc, Pali mugga, 
Ur. mUgaj Bang, mug^ R Hindi, Hindi mUmg^ Panj. mugg^ 
Multanl mun% Sindhl muhu, Mar. mtlg. Skt. mudgara ' ham- 
mer,' Prfik., Pali muggaraj Ur. mdgara, Hindi mUgarOj rndgara, 
Sindhl munirOj Guj., Mar. mogar. 

b. Iranian. Skt. madgu ' cormorant,' New Pers. may. 

dgh>g{g). 
§ 80L The assimilation of dgh to gig) is quite rare. 



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172 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

a. Indian. Skt udghdtayati * opens,* Prftk. uggaX, ugghddal, 
PfiU ugghateti, Ur. ugand, Sindhi ugami, Guj. ugavuth^ Mar. 
ngtwinSfh. 

dgh > (g)gh. 

§ 602. The assimilation of dgh to (g)gh is the r^ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt udgJidtayati 'opens,' Prfik. ugghodat^ Pfili 
ugghaUti, etc. (see preceding §). Skt ttdghOsa 'proclamation/ 
Pali agghdsa. 

ddh > {!)th. 

§ 603. The assimilation of ddh to {f)th is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt iuddha 'pure/ Prak., Pali suddlia^ Hindi 
sudJiy Sindhi sutlw. 

ddh > ((J)dh. 

§ 604. The cerebralization of ddJi is caused in the great majority 
of instances by the presence of r, r. 

a. Indian. Skt iraddM 'offering to the dead,' Prfik. saddh^, 
saddhfiy Pali saddM. Skt V}ddhi ' growth,' Prak. vuddhi^ Pali 
vuddhij vuddhi. 

dm > m{m), 

§ 606. Tlie assimilation of dm to m{m) is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. nihcmy $ii5eman 'resting-place' < 
*ni§tdman. 

dm > nm. 

§ 606. The assimilation of dm to nm is extremely rare. 
a. Indian. Skt bhinadmi ' I split/ Gatha Wiinanmi. 

§ 807. The assimilation of dy toj(j) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt vidyut 'lightning,' Prak, Pali vijjuy Ur. 
bijtdJj Bang., Hindi, Panj. bljali, Sindhi vijum, Guj. vijuU, Mar. 
hijallf vlj. Skt adya ' to-day,' Prak., Pali ajjay Ass. a;7, Ka6n. 



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CONSONANT'GBOUPS 178 

aj, oMj Ur^ Bang, aj^ Old Hindi dju, E. Hindl^ Hindi djy Panj. 

ajj, Sindhi ajUy Guj., Mar. aj^ Siihh, oda. Ski dyu^i ^ lights' 

Pr&k. jui, Pali jtrfi. 

dy >d(d). 

§ 608. The assimilation of c^ to d(d) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. a(2ya ^to-day/ Siinh. ada^ eta (see pre- 
ceding §). Skt. rdtdya 'physician,' Prak., Pali vejja^ Siifah. 
veda. 

dr>j(j). 

§ 609. The assimilation of dr to j(j) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt nidrd 'sleep/ Prak., Pali niddOj Hindi, 
Panj. nlmdy Sindhi nimdf Mar. nl;, nfd. Gyp. Jindr. 

rfr > d{d). 
§ 610. The assimilation of dr to d(^ is quite rare. 

a. Indian. Skt ksudra ' small,' Prak. hhuddci, Pali hhudday 
Ur. hhudatUy Bang. Murid, Old Siifah. oticli, Siifah. huda^ kudu. 
Skt. dadrw 'ring-worm,' Pali daddUj Hindi cteci, Sindhi darhu^ 
dadhUy Guj. (2d(2ar, Mar. ddd^ d&dad. 

dr > {djdh. 
§ 61L The assimilation of dr to {d)dh is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt dadru 'ring-worm,' Sindhi darhUj etc. (see 
preceding §). 

dr> d(d). 

§ 612. The assimilation of dr to d{d) is the r^ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt nidra 'sleep,' Prak., Pali niddd^ Hindi, 
Panj. niHid, Mar. nid^ nJj, etc. (see § 609). Skt mudrd ' seal,' 
Prak., Pali mi4ddct. Skt draksa 'grape,' KaSm. dach, Hindi, 
Panj. d&kh, Sindhi dOch, Gyp. draUi. 

dr>l(ti. 
§ 613. The assimili^on of dr to 2(Z) is very rare, 
a. Indian. Skt. bhadra 'good,' Prak. hhaddoj Pali bhadrOy 



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174 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGT 

hJiadda, Ass. bhol, Ur. hhaloy Bang, hhdla, Hindi, Panj. bludd, 
Sindhi, Guj. ft/wtto, Mar. 6Aate. Ski cAtdra 'hole,' Mahar. 
Prak^ Pftli c7iid(^ BihftrT ched^ Sidik Ailo. 

dr > 9r. 

$ 614. The assimilation of dr to sr is exceedingly rare. 
b. Iranian. Av. xiudra * seed,' PhL siisary Qdh. iosr. 

dr > hr. 
§ 616. Hie assimilation of (7r to %r is excessively rare. 
b. Iranian. Av. habra * portion,* PhL, New Pers. bahr. 

dv >d{d). 

§ 616. The assimilation of dc to d{d^ is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Middle and New Indo- 
Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski Sadvala ' grassy,' Pali saddala. Skt dvara 
*door,' Prftk. dem, diiara^ d^ra, haray Pali ctodm, Ur. danij 
Sindhi dUru, d^rl, Guj. b&r. Mar. ddr, Simh. dira, dora. Skt. 
dvi 'two,' PrAk. duve, Pali dvi, Ka5m. js^ahj Ur., Bang, dui, Hindi, 
Panj. do, Sindhi ba, Guj. &e. Mar. don. Skt cZt;!^, 'island,' 
Prak. dlvOj Pali df^^a, Simh. diva. 

b. Iranian. Av. dvar 'door,' Old Pers. duvaray PhL, New 
Pers. dar. Gab., Ka5. bar^ Samn. barly WaxI bar^ Siyn. diw;(r), 
Sarq. dit*lr, Minj. labray My. vary Kurd, bary Oss. dmr. 

dr > b(b). 
§ 617. The assimilation of dv to &(&) is frequent both in the 
Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. dvara ' door,' Prak. bdra, ddray dudrOy d^ray 
Guj. bary etc (see preceding §). Ski dvOdaian ' twelve,' Prak. 
bdraha, Pali bdrasa, dvddasoy Ka&n. bah, Ur. bara, Bang. bdrOy 
Biharl, Hindi barahy Panj. barauiy Sindhi barahaihy Guj. 6ar, 
Mar. bdrd. 



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CONSONANT'GBOUPS 175 

b. IraniaiL At. dvar ^door/ Gab., E&S. bofj Samn. barij 
WfizI &dr, Kurd, bar^ etc. (see § 616). Ski. dv^fos 'enmity/ 
Av. tbaeSdh, PhL bei. 

dv > v(v). 

§ 618. The assimilation of cfe to t{v) is comparatively rare both 
in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski udvSstati 'surrounds,' Prfik. iwvellat [See 
now Pischely Crramm. d. Prdk-Spr.^ § 107.] 

b. Iranian. Av. dvar ' door/ Afy. var, etc. (see § 616). 



dhy > {j)jh. 
§ 619. The assimilation of dhy to {j)jh is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt madJiya ' middle,' Pr&k., Pali majjha^ Ass. 
maj (pron. m^, KaSm. maifie; Ur. fnS/Ai, Bang. m63\ Burh- 
v&nl maddBj Bihfirl madJiiy Old Hindi maddhSy Hindi ntdjAt, 
mdmjhj niamhj mCmjhdldj Panj. i^Amjli^ niajjhj Sindhi manijhuj 
Mar. ma/A, Elu wme/u, Siiiih. mUdciy inscriptions mdntda^ Gyp. 
ma^nS. Ski upadhydya 'teacher,' Prftk. u(v)ajjh(laj ojjJuia^ 
Pali upajjMya^ Bihfirl padh&y Hindi djhdy Sindhi vajhd. Ski 
Jmdiiyati < understands,' Prfik. bujjha% Pfili bujjhati^ KalSm. &<)ji 
(pron. ftoiri), Ur. bujhiM^ Bang. bt^'Aan, Hindi &t^*Aana^ Panj. 
bujjhanH, Sindhi bujhanUj Guj. (ujatnit^, Mar. &ti;&. Ski 
dliydna ' meditation,' PrSk., Pfili jJUJtna, Hindi samajjMnd. 

b. Iranian. Ski cUiydna ^ meditation,' PhL, New Pers. jan. 

dhy > d{dj. 

§ 620. The assimilation of dhy to d{d) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Ski madhya ' middle,' BurhvfinI maddi^ Elu madu, 
Siihh. n2<S^m)da, etc. (see preceding §). Ski vid/iyati ' pierces,' 
Pfili vijjhati, Siihh. ricfinat^d. 

b. Iranian. Av. mailya 'middle^' Phi., New Pers. miyan^ 



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176 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

W&zl malungy Siyn. ma^dna, Sarq. mSdj SangL mldoj Aly. nUd^ 
Dig. Oss. fnSdagy Tag. mldag. 

dhy >{d^ 
§ 82L The assimilation of dAy to (djdh is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Ski mocJAya ^ middle,' Bihftrl maihiy Old Hindi 
ffiaddlie, etc. (see § 619). 

b. Iranian. Av. maibya ' middle,' Siyn. mabdfuij Sarq. mA, 
etc. (see preceding §). 

dhy >y(y). 
§ 622. The assimilation of dhy to ^) is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. maihya 'middle,' Phi., New Pers. miy&n, 
etc. (see § 620). 

dhy>T{l). 
§ 828. The assimilation of dJiy to Z(I) is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. maihya ' middle,' Wftxl malung^ Afy. mldj 
etc. (see § 620). 

cUiy > £iz). 
§ 624. The assimilation of dhy to z(j^ occurs with the utmost 
rarity. 

a. Indian. Skt. fnadliya ^ middle,' Ass. maz (written mdj)^ 
Ka&n. mathZy etc. (see § 619). Skt. hudliycUi 'understands,' 
Kasm. buJn (written bdji)y etc. (see § 619). 

dliy > Jih). 
§ 825. The assimilation of dliy to Jt{Ji) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt tiiadJiya ' middle,' Hindi mdthJiy mdnyh{old)f 
mamjhy tnSjhi^ etc. (see § 619). 

dJir > {j)jh. 
§ 828. The assimilation of dhr to {j)jh is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. grdhra ' vulture,' Prak. giddhOy Pfili gijjhay 
gaddlia, giddhaj Bang, gidh, Hindi gWij giddhj Panj. (/i(2dA, 
Sindhi gijhuy Guj. ^ld(A), Mar. gxdh^ g^dy gidltad. 



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CONSONANT'GBOUPS 177 

dhr>d(d^ 

§ 627. The assimilation of dhr to c^d) is ezoessiyely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt grdhra ^ YuUTure,' Ouj. gid, gldhj Mar. j/idj 
j^tdkj gidhadj etc. (see preceding §). 

dhr > {didh. 

§ 628. The assimilation of dhr to {d)dh is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt dhruva 'firm^' Jfiina Prftk. dhuva. Skt 
grdhra < vulture,' Prsk. giddhOj Pali gaddha^ giddha, gijjhOf 
Bang, gidhj Hindi gidhy giddh^ Panj. giddh, 6uj. 0dk, gjid^ Mar. 
^A, gidha4y fid, etc. (see § 626). 

d^ > ( j) jA. 
§ 629. The assimilation of dhv to {j)jh is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt cZ&t^a 'flag,' Pr&k. jhaya^ dhaya^ Hindi, 
Panj. dhaja, Ouj. cZ^;(^, Siihh. doda. Skt madhvdlu ^yam," 
Pali majjlUXru. 

dJw >d{d^ 

§ 630. The assimilation of dhv to d((2) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt dhvaja 'flag/ Siifah. dodo, ete. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

dhv > (d)ca^. 
§ 6dL The assimilation of dhv to {d)dh is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. dAvo/a ' flag/ Pr&k. dAaya, i^ayo^ Hindi, Panj. 
dhajOj Ouj. dhajdj eto. (see § 629). Skt adhvan 'road,' Prfik., 
Pfili addlia. 



nt > t(f). 

§ 682. The assimilation of n^ to ^Q is veiy rare. 

a. Indian. Skt -^^nt term, of pres. part, act, PrSk. ^antay 
Apab. Pr&k. -antu, Sftur. Prftk. -^^ndd, Ass. -MM, Nsip. -ddd, 
Ea&n. -dn, Ur. <i.ntj Bang, -if, R Hindi -at, Old Hindi -an/, 

N 



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178 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOOT 

Hindi •atd, Panj. -ain^da^ Sindhi -andOj Mult&nl -amZd, -enda, 
Guj. 'Otd, Mar. hUQ, -at, 'it 

nt > (Of A. 
§ 638. The assimilation of n/ to {f)th is not of frequent occur- 
rence. 

a. Indian. Av. dantan 'tooth,' Phi., New Pers. cJamZdn, 
WaxI dUndUk, Si/n., Sarq. banddHy Minj. land, BaL dantdnj 
N. BaL do^Mn, danthdn, Kurd. dfuJan, Tag. Oss. dandag. Av. 
&ar9i%in^ 'high,' New Pera hulandy Dig. Oss. barzanththa (plural), 
Tag. harzathiha. 

nt > did). 
§ 634. The assimilation of nt to d{d) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. -ant term, of pres. part, act., Nfiip. -dda, 
Panj. -aefa, -am^ etc. (see § 682). 

b. Iranian. Av. dantan 'tooth,* Kurd, diddn, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

nt > nd. 

§ 636. The softening of nt to nd is very common both in the 
Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. -ant term, of pres. part, act., §aur. Prftk. 
Hindd, Panj. •andd, -ad(i, Sindhi -anddy Midt&nl •andd, -endd, etc. 
(see § 682). 

b. Iranian. Av. dantan 'tooth,' PhL, New Pers. danddu, 
WaxI dilndiiJc, Siyn., Sarq. bandan, Minj. land, Tag. Oss. 
dandag, etc. (see § 633). Av. jvant ' living,' PhL zlvandak, New 
Pers. eindah, KfiS. janda, Af y. £vand. 

nt > w(n). 

§ 636. The assimilation of nt to n(») is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. ^ant term, of pres. part, aci, KaSm. •dn, etc. 
(see § 682). 

b. Iranian, Av. gainti ' stench,' PhL, New Pers. gand, Afy. 
ganda(l), Kurd. gannaJc * castor-oil plant' 



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CONSONAyr-GBOUPS 179 

ntr > ntr. 
§ 637. The assimilation of ntr to ntr is confined to the Sindhi 
(cf . § 569). 

a. Indian. Skt fitanfm ' incantation,' Sindhi nuift^rti, mandru. 

ntr > itdr. 
§ 638. The assimilation of ntr to ndr also is confined to the 
Sindhi 

a. Indian. Skt mantra ' incantation,' Sindhi mandrUj 

viantru. 

ntr > lif). 

{ 639. The asaimili^on of ntr to r{f) is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. tqOra *dark,' PhL, New Pera ftlr, Minj. 
tar&vij Afy. A^, Dig. Osa thalingay Tag. thaling. 

ntr > l(fy 
{ 640. The assimilation of ntr to 2(2) is extremely rare. • 

b. Iranian. Av. tqBra ^dark,' Dig. Osa thalinga^ Tag. 
thaling, etc. (see preceding §). 

nth > iif). 
§ 64L The assimilation of nth to t{f) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. granthi *knot,' Prfik, Pfili ganthi^ Sindhi 
gariidhi, ghumdij Mar. gamthy Simh. gCUayd. 

nth > ihth. 
§ 642. The cerebralization of nth is of very unusual occurrence, 
a. Indian. Skt granthi *knot,' Prfik., Pfili ganthij Mar. 
gaMhj etc. (see preceding §). Skt. grantha 'book,' Pali gantluiy 
Ur. gantha^ Bang, gamty gdihth, Hindi ganttJi, Panj. gathdhj 
gandhj Sindhi gamdh, Guj., Mar. gdrnthy SiifaL ^ate. 

n^A >mdh, 
§ 643. The assimilation of nth to md7» is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. grantha * book,' Paiy. gamdh, gan^hj Sindhi 
gamdlij etc. (see preceding §). 

Ha 



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180 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

§ 644. The assimilation of n^ to ^Q is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. graniha 'booV Siihh. goto, etc. (see § 642). 

nth > did). 

§ 645. The assimilation of nth to d(d) is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. pantan * way/ PhL, New Pera pand^ Siyn. 
pwidy Sarq. pdnd^ SangL pandah, Yidg. pdduh^ Dig. Oss. /itki 

nth > nd. 

§ 646. The assimilation of nth to imI is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av, pantan 'way/ PhL, New Pers. jNind^ Siyn. 
ptindy Sarq. pdndj San^ pandah. Dig. Oss. /and, etc. (see 
preceding §). 

nth > ndh. 

§ 647. The softening of n^ to ndh occurs very seldom. 

a. Indian. Skt. pantJia 'way/ Prak. pamtha^ Pfili pantha, 
KaiSm. j;aitn^ paihth, panth, Simh. pandhu. 

ndr > nrfr. 

§ 648. The cerebralization of ndr to n^ is confined to the 
SindhL 

a. Indian. Skb candra 'moon,' Prak. canda^ camda, Pali 
candaj New Ind. dialects cCiihd, also Ka&n. Sandar, K Hindi 
c:/n, Hindi, Panj. camd, Sindhi camdu, candru, SImh. sanda, 
lianda, Maladive hal{}^)du, Gyp. con. 

nrfr > nd. 

§ 649. The assimilation of ndr to n^ is the. regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt candra 'moon/ Prsk. canda^ caihda, Pfili 
canda. New Ind. dialects cdmdy also Hindi, Panj. camd, Siihh. 
sanda, handa, Maladive ha{n)du, eto. (see preceding §). 



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CONSONANT'GBOUPS 181 

ndr > n(n). 

§ 660. The assimilation of ndr to n{n) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt candra ' moon,' R Hindi cAn, Oyp. con, etc. 
(see §648). 

ndh > t{f). 

§ 66L The assimilation of ndh to ^Q is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. banddmi * I bind,' PhL ba^an6j New Pers. 
bandam^ Msz. t»n(n)am, GiL datxuUUtmj Waxi vandaniy &yn., 
Sarq. vindam^ Bal. bandag^ Kurd, tondim, Dig. Oss. battim, Tag. 

§ 662. The assimilation of ndh to (f^th is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. band&mi 'I bind,' Tag. Oss. haththin, etc. 
(see preceding §). 

tuZA >c;((I). 

§ 663. The assimilation of ndh to d(cZ) is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. banddmi ' I bind,' GiL davaddam^ etc. (see 
§651). 

§ 664. The deaspirization of ndh is not a frequent phenomenon. 

a. Indian. Ski skandha 'shoulder/ PrSk., Pali khandha^ 
Ass. kathdj Jcdfkdh, Ur., Bang, kamdhy Bihfirl idritdka, hhamdA, 
Hindi Z^nuZAd, Panj. handJUXj Tcannh^ Sindhi handhuj Guj. 
khamddj Mar. Z;%dmiZa, Siifah. ^m2a. 

wdA > n(n). 

§ 666. The assimilation of ndh to n{n) is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. handdmi ' I bind,' Mfiz. mn(n)am, etc (see 
§651). 

ndh > {n)nh. 

§ 666. The assimilation of ndh to {n)nh is veiy rare. 

a. Indian. Skt satidhi 'friendship, burglar's mine,' Prfik., 
Pali sandliiyAss, sindhi, Ka&n. san, Ur., Bang, sithdh, R Hindi 
sinhi^ sSriidh, Hindi s^fhdh, Panj. 5annA^ Sindhi semdhi, Multfin! 



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182 INDO-IBAmAN PHONOLOGY 

sandlk Skt. skandha ' shoulder,' Panj. kannh, kandhd, etc. (see 
§ 654). Skt, Pfili andhakOm * darkness,' Hindi amdhMi, 
aihdlilydrd^ Panj. annhira. 

ndhy > fhj(j).. 

§ 657. The assimilation of ndhy to fhj(j) is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. sandhya 'twilight,' Prftk. safhjJuiy Pfili 
sahjlia, Ur. sdfhjhj Bang, sa^hj, samjhj Bihfirl, Hindi ^atfy/*, 
Panj. sa^hjhy Sindhi satiijMy samjhSy Guj. sAmj^ Mar. 55ih;, 

ndhy > fh{j)jh. 

§ 668. The assimilation of ndhy to fh{j)jh is the regular one 
to which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects, 
a. Indian. Ski sandhyd 'twilight,' Pr&k. sathjhdj P&li 
sahjhdj Ur. sdAjh^ Bang, sdnfjh^ sathj, Biharl, Hindi sdriijhj 
Panj. samjh, Sindhi samjhay samjhl^ Mar. samjh^ samjy etc. (see 
preceding §). Skt. bandhya * barren,' Pali vahjha^ Asa tamji, 
Ur. bamjhay Bang, baiftjha, R Hindi, Hindi ftdwyft, Panj. &anjA, 
Guj., Mar. vdmjh. 

nm > mwe. 

§ 669. The assimilation of nm to mm is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. janman ' birth,' Prfik., Pftli jamma. Skt. 
unmctrga 'underground watercourse,' Mahar. Prfik., Pftli urn* 
niagga. 

b. Iranian. Av, saSna m^r9ya 'eagle-bird,' PhL s^nmurv. 

New Pers. sJmury. 

ny > hj. 

§ 660. The assimilation of ny to hj is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. kaijyd 'girl,' Msg. Prftk. lahhakdj Pfiil 
Prftk. kahja, kaHhaka, Pfili teahfia, Panj. kania^ Sindhi kaha. 

ny > ft(ft). 
§ 66L The assimilation of ny to ^A) is extremely rare. 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 188 

a. IndiaiL Ski JsanyH 'girl,' Msg. Prfik. kahhdkd, Pftil 
Prak. kahhakdj kahjA, Psli kahha, Sindhi kahO^ etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). Skt an^a ' other/ Prfik. oiifta, anno^ Pfili ahnaf Old 
Hindi ant, Siifah. ariik(ak)j amkek. 

ny > n{n). 
§ 662. The assimilation of ny to n{n) is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Ski Sunya ' empty/ Mfthftr. Prftk. sunnay sunnOy 
Psli suhnay Ass. sund, Kalm. c/idn^, R Hindi, Hindi san(d)y 
Panj. ^nn(d), Sindhi suM, Guj. iun, Mtfen, Mar. suiUl. 

ny > n{n). 
§ 668. The assimilation of ny to n(n) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski manyQmi 'I think,' Jfiina Pr&k. manndmi 
(cf. Skt manySy Prftk. mannB^ Pfili mahhB). Skt iunya 'empty,' 
Mfthftr. Prftk. sunna, sunnoy Ass. sundy Ka&n. d^Ond^y K Hindi, 
Hindi 5t2n(d), Panj. $unn(d)y Guj. ^un, ^;ftn. Mar. sundy etc. 
(see preceding §). Skt. anya ' other/ Prftk. anna, ahhoy Old 
Hindi aniy etc. (see § 661). 

b. Iranian. Av. nyaka 'grandfather,' Old Pers. apanydkOy 
PhL nyaky New Pers. niyOy Afy. nf£a, BaL nOkUy N. BaL ttdx^. 
Av. anya ' other,' Old Pers. aniyay Pftz. /lan, Oss. inncL 

nv > n(n), 
§ 664. The assimilation of nv to n{n) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt anvesana ' inquiry,' Mfthftr. Prftk. annSsana. 



pt > d(d^ . 
§ 665. The assimilation otpt to d{d) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt sapt(i8asli 'sixty-seven,' Prftk. saitasatihly 
Ka&n. satahAiihy Ur. satsathiy Bang. sOtsatthiy Bihftrl sarasathy 
sarasalhiy scUaaapiiy Hindi sarscUhy satsaihy Panj. satahcriy Sindhi 
sathathiy Guj. sadsethy Mar. satsasi. 



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184 JXDO-IXANIAN PHONOLOGT 

pt>m 

§ 666. The assimilation of pt to t({) is the rq^ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the IGddle and New Indo- 
Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski saptan 'seven,' PrSk, Pftli sattOj Ea&n. 
sath^ Un, Bang., Hindi sOt, Panj. sattj Sindhi satj Guj., Mar. 
sat, Simh. satOj hata. Skt supta 'asleep,' Pr&k., Pali suttCj 
Sindhi sutd. 

b. Iranian. Av. ^ofap *to sleep,* PhL x^aftan6j New Pers. 
xuftatij Gab. xuftmUn, Zaf. r5/if, KaS. xdty Von. rw/lf, Kuhr. a^irf^ 
Nay. havdftandy Msz. a:i^ WazI rUxpafn, §iyn. ifot;^m, Sarq. 
xt{f$am, BaL vapsag^ N. BaL m/^y. Dig. Oss. a;ti«9t«n, Tag. 
rruasin. Phi. kafiand 'to &11,' Gab. kaftman, YjbA. darkafan, 
darkaftan, Maz. daJcatany Gfl. bakaftany BaL ^^mc^, Kurd. X^tn. 

§ 667. The assimilation otpt to d(d) is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Skt. supta 'asleep,' New Pers. xtiftahj Afy. tlda. 
Skt tapta 'warm,' New Pers. to^ Afy. ftkJ, S. Osa Utafth. 

pt > {d)dh. 
§ 668. The assimilation otpt to (d)dh is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. hapta 'seven,' PhL, New Pers. haftj WaxI 
hiiby (h)uh, Siyn. vuvdy Sarq. Uvdy SangL Ao/if, Minj. tid, Yidg. 
avduhy Yayn. ar, Afy. om, am, Oss. atyJ^ Dig. also aft. 

pt > phtyft. 
§ 669. The spirantization of pt toft occurs not infrequently in 
the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. Jiapta 'seven,' PhL, New Pers. hafty SangL 
Jioftj Dig. Oss. aftj avdy etc. (see preceding §). 

pt>phthjftK 

§ 670. Hie double spirantization of pt to phth,fthy is veiy rare. 
b. Iranian. Skt tapta ' warm,' S. Oss. tliaftl^ etc. (see § 667). 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 185 

pt>Kby 

§ 67L The assimilation otpt to b(b) is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. hapta 'seven,' WazI hiib, {Kfub^ etc. (see 

§668). 

pt >r{f). 

§ 672. The assimilation o{pt to r{f) is excessively rare (c£ § 280). 

a. Indian. Skt saptasasti 'sixty-seven,' Bihftrl sarasa(hi, 
sarasafh, satasathiy Hindi sarsath^ satsaih^ etc. (see § 665). 

pi > v(v). 
§ 673. The assimilation oipt to t^^) is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. "hapta ' seven,' Yayn. av, Afy. Hva, ava^ etc. 

(see §668). 

pt > vd. 

§ 674. The softening of the consonant-group j>^ to i^ is not 

veiy common. 

b. Iranian. Av. hapta * seven,* Siyn. vuvdy Sarq. iivd, Yidg. 

avduJij Oss. avdj etc. (see § 668). 

im > PI?. 
§ 676. The assimilation of jm tojRp is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. smpna 'sleep,' Pfili soppa, supina. Skt 
prapnOti 'obtains,' PrSk. paUnatj pavaX^ Pfili pappOti, pOpunati^ 
Ur. jpd. Bang. pOd, Old Hindi pdU, Hindi pa(v\ Panj. pdU, 
Sindhli>d, Guj. pam^ Mar. j^v, SiMl pdminenava. 

pn>A/y 

§ 676. The assimilation of jpn to /{/) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. tafnu ' heat,' New Pers. taf. 

pn > fn{fn). 
§ 677. The assimilation of jpn to fn{m) is very rare (c£ § 291). 

a. Indian. Skb prOpndti ' obtains,' Siihh. pOminenav^ etc. 
(see § 675). 



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186 INDO-IBANUK PHOKOLOOT 

pny > m(m). 

§ 678. Uie asBunilation of pny to fn{m) is exceedingly rare, 
b. Iranian. Ay. xSafnya ' supper/ PhL, New Pers. SUm. 

§ 679. The assimilation of j^ to p{p) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt kupyati 'is angry/ Pr&k. JcuppaX^ Pfili hup- 
pati, BihAn kdpAi. Skt. tapyat^ 'is warmed,' Pfili tappati. 

pr>p(p). 

§ 680. The assimilation of ^ to p(p) is the r^;ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt prati 'toward,' Prak. padiy Pfili poih P^h 
New Ind. dialects pad(i). Skt. apriya ' offensive,* Pr&k. appia^ 
Pfili appiya. Skt prasthapana 'sending,' Ur. pathaxfAj Bang. 
pathan^ Hindi pathdna^ Sindhi pafJiantiy Guj. pCUJiavum, Mar. 
pAiavinCih. 

pr >r{f). 

§ 68L The assimilation ofpr to r(t) is the r^^ar one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av., Old Pers./fw 'forward,' PhL .^,/ar, New 
Pers. faVj fir^ Pamir dialects n», Kurd, hal, hiL Phi. firdxtan6 
'to sell,' New Pers, furoxtany Zaf. haxrO§ 'sell ! ' Von. bartUf 
Kuhr. bcumS, Samn. namSuniy Msz. raS, riU, N. BaL SavaSkayy 
SoSkay. Av. frqS ' forward,' PhL frOc, Pftz. /ra?, fraJf^ New 
Pers. JardJif, Oss. m^i. 

i)r > hi. 

§ 682. The assimilation o{pr to W is very rare (c£ § 854). 

b. Iranian. Av. jc^fra 'deep,' PhL zufar, zafar, New Pers. 
Jiarff Judaeo-Pers. zorf, My. Savar^ Bal. juhly Kurd. i5r, Zaza 



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CONSONANT'GBOUPS 187 

§ 683. The assimilation otpS to ^^ is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. fSardma 'shame/ PhL, New Pers. kmn^ 
Dig. Oss. afsarmij Tag. qfsarm. Av. ^fSu-pdna * shepherd,' 
PhL S(u)panj New Pers. hibatiy WazI spUn, SUpUUf BaL sipdnk, 
N. BaL Savankhj Sajhnkh. 

p$ > {c)ch. 
§ 684. The assimilation of ps to {e)ch is the r^ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt apsard 'nymph,' Prak., Pali acchard, Old 
Hindi acchari^ apchar, Sindhi apcharO. Skt. jugupsati 'de- 
spises/ Pr&k. du{g)uccha%, duigjumchai^ Fsiijigucchati. 

ps > Isf. 
§ 685. The softening oipsiohsfia very rare. 

b. Iranian. Lit vapsd 'wasp/ Old High Germ, wafsa^ BaL 

gvabgy gvamg, 

ps > msf. 

§ 686. The assimilation otps to tn^ is extremely rare (c£ § 291). 
b. Iranian. Lit vapsA 'wasp,' BaL gvanue, gvabSj etc. (see 
preceding §). 

ps >vs. 

§ 687. The assimilation of |^ to t;^ is exceedingly rare. 

b. Iranian. PhL afsdr 'headstall,' New Pers. cifsar, Siyn., 

Sarq. avs&r. 

ps > s{s). 

§ 688. The assimilation o{ps to s(s) is excessively rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. x^afsata ' sleep ye I ' Phi. x^afsftand^ New 

Pers. xuspldaUf Siyn. Sarsanij Sarq. xt^fsam, Bal. vapsag^ N. BaL 

vafsayy Dig. Oss. onissunf Tag. xtissin. 

pstr > sir. 
§ 689. Uie assimilation oipstr to sA" is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. xrafstra 'noxious beast,' PhL xrc^fstr^ New 
Pers. (P&rsi) xarilstary archaic arqfstar. 



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188 nnx>'jRAmAN phokologt 

§ 690. The hardening of Iranian /r to jp5 occurs veiy seldom. 

h. Iranian. Av. x'qfsata 'sleep yel' BaL vapsag, etc (see 
§68^ 

§ 60L The assimilation of Z^ to j(j) is found but rarely. 

a. Indian. Skt hOja ' humpjiacked,' Prsk^ Psli khujjaj 

Ka&n. kobby Ur. kHjO, Bang. hu{fk)jd, iubja, Hindi hOja, ItiMd, 

kubra (rare), Panj. ktMOj kiiba, Sindhi kuUj Guj. Jkti(ar^, Mar. 

khuby kubadd. 

bf>bd. 

{ 692. The assimilation of Zr; to M is very rare (c£ § 182). 

a. Indian. Skt kubja 'hump-backed,' Hindi kubrd (rare), 
kubbd, kubj&j etc (see preceding §). 

y > J(&). 
§ 698. Hie assimilation of Ij to bQ)) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt. kuhja ' hump-backed,' Ka&n. kobbj Hindi 
kuibba, hibjdy kuhrd, Panj. kubba^ kubdj Sindhi kuboy Mar. khub, 
kubaddy etc. (see § 691). 

bd>d{d^ 

§ 694. The assimilation of M to d{d) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt iabda 'word,' PrSk, Pali sadda, Old Hindi 
sad. 

bdh > (d)dh. 

§ 696. The assimilation of bdh to {d)dh is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt labdha 'received,' Prftk., Pfili laddhOy Sindhi 
ladJid. 

br>b(b). 

§ 696. The assimilation of &r to 5(&) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialecta 



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CONSONANT'OBOUFS 189 

a. Indian. Skt bhihmana ^Brahman,' Prftk. baihblianaj in- 
scriptions of Eapur di Oiri bamatto, Jfiina Prfik. mUhanOj Psli 
brahmanoj Bihftrl bamatty baikhanj bAmahany Sindhl laikbhaffUj 
SiiblL bariiba. 



hhy > {f))jbK 

§ 697. The assimilation of hhy to (&)6A is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skb abhyantara internal,' Pr&L, Pfili ahbhan- 
taruj Ur., Bang. Ihitarij Bih&rl, Hindi hhltary Oig. hhitarj Mar. 
hhitan. Ski IdbhyaU 'is taken,' Pr&k. lahbhai^ Pfili Uhbhati, 
Old Hindi lahbh, Sindhl labh. 

Ihr > 6(6). 

§ 698. The assimilation of bhr to b(b) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt bhramara 'bee/ Prfik., Pfili bhamara, Ur. 
6Aai>tam, Bang, bhamar, Hindi, Panj. bhamvar, bhdutiir, Sindhl 
bhdufhru, Mar. bUMir, Siibk bambaHL 

bhr> (6)6 A. 

§ 699. The assimilation of 6^ to {b)bh is the r^ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt bhrOtar ' brother/ Prfik. bhdHy Pfili bhatOy 
New Ind. dialects bhaly also Panj. bhrdUy Sindhl bhdUy Mar. 
bhaUy Gyp. phral Skt bhramara ' bee/ Prfik, Pfili bhamara^ 
Ur. bhafharay Bang. 6Aamar, Hindi, Panj. bluimvary 6touifir, 
Sindhl bJidufkrUy Mar. 6Admr, etc. (see preceding §). 

6Ar > tr. 

§ 700. The assimilation of bhr to tr is very common in the 
Iranian dialecta 

b. Iranian. Av., Old Pera brdtar 'brother,' PhL bhat(ar)y 
New Pers. birOdary KfiS. barOy baraiy GiL 6nflr, Waxi vrUty Siyn. 
virddy Sarq. vrOdy SangL t;un^ Yidg. vmi, Yayn. virAty Afy. t;r^, 



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190 INDO'IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Bal. hrai, N. Bal. brOs, bra$, Kurd bara, Dig. Oss. arvOday Tag. 
arvdd. Av. atvra * cloud,' PhL, New Pers. abry Gab,, KfiS. avr^ 
Judaeo-Pera. (ibfy Afy. varyajf, BaL fe»rr, Kurd. (A)aw, Aewr, 
Oss. arv. 

mn > mm. 

§ 701. The assimilation of mn to mm is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av., Old Pers. Jcamna 'small,' PhL, New Pers. 
ham. 

^p > p(py 

§ 702. Hie assimilation of mp to p(p) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt parampara 'reciprocal,' Pfili paramparay 
Siihh. patnpura. Skt. camjxiJca 'sort of tree,* Apab. Prak. 
campayUf Pali campaha, SiihL sapu. 

mp > m6. 
^ 703. The softening of mp to mh is quite a frequent phe- 
nomenon. 

a. Indian. Skt. Jcampati 'trembles,* Prak. kampalj Pfili 
kampati, Ass. Jcaihp, Ka^m. J:um{p), Ur. Jcamp^ Bang, kdmj)^ 
Hindi Jc&mp, Panj. Jcamh, Sindhi Jcamh, Guj., Mar. Mmp. 

b. Iranian. Av. hqmpdfraiti ^ntens.) 'fills,' Phi., New Pers. 
amhdStan (written anbdStan). 

mh > b(b). 
§ 704. The assimilation of mb to b(l) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. kamlala 'blanket^' Prak., Pali kanibalay Ur. 
hamdlay Bang, hambal, Jcamli, E. Hindi Jcammary Hindi kammaU 
kambaly Panj. kam^nal, Jcantbalf Sindhi iamari^ Guj. kdbald, 
Jc&ntal, kamallj Mar. kdmbala. 

mb > m(m). 
§ 706. The assimilation of mb to m{m) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian dialects. 



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CONSONANT-OROUFS 191 

a. Indian. Skt dlambana ' support,' Pali arammana. Skt 
jambvika 'rose-apple/ Ass. jamu, Bang, jdm, R Hincb, Hindi, 
Panj. jamufij Sindbl JamtZn, 6uj. jdmhij Mar. jULfkb. Skt kam-' 
hala ^blanket,' Ur. hamala^ R Hindi kammar, Hindi hammdlj 
katkbalj Panj. kammal kathbal, Sindhi kamari, Guj. kamal, 
kamaUy kibaldy etc. (see preceding §). Skt nim&a ^sort of tree,' 
Prfik. liihbaj Pali nitnba, Bihfirl nfm, Hindi {7m, nim, Sindhi 
Ztmti, Guj. litkbadOj Mar. Iifl»&. 

b. Iranian. PhL Sikumb ' stomach,' New Pers. Stkum, Kurd, 
jrii. New Pers. hambOz * comrade,' Kurd. Aam^, xamJs. 

mbh > m{m). 

§ 706. The assimilation of mbh to fn(m) is very rara 

a. Indian. Skt kufnbJuikdra 'potter,' Prfik. kumbhaara^ 
kumbharay Pali kumbhakdroy Ass. kumdrj Naip. A;umdmly^ Ur. 
kumh&ray kuhmara. Bang. ^Mmdr, R Hindi, Hindi, Panj. 
kumMr^ Sindhi kmhbharu, Guj., Mar. kumbJUlr. 

mbh > mh. 

§ 707. The assimilation of mbh to mh is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian, Skt kumbhakdra 'potter,' Ur. kumhUra^ kuh- 
fndraj R Hindi, Hindi, Panj. kumhar, etc (see preceding §). 

mbh > hm. 

§ 708. The assimilation of mbh to Am is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt kumbhakdra 'potter,' Ur. kuhmdray kumharOy 
etc. (see § 706). 

mr > mbr > mb. 

§ 709. Insertion of b in the group mr and subsequent assimila- 
tion to m& is found in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt ^mra ' copper,' Prak. tamba, tamhirOj Pali 
tambay Ass. tdmy Ka^m. irdmy Ur. tdmdj tdmbd, Bang. Utrnd, 
R Hindi, Hindi, Panj. tdmay tdriiba, Sindhi tamd, Guj. tdmbum, 
Mar. tamb^f Siihh. tambara, Skt dmra 'mango,' Prak., Pali 



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192 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOOT 

amba, Vr., Bang., Hindi dm, a$hb^ Panj. amabj Sindhl athbUy 
Larl dmdy dmO, Ouj. dm6d, Mar. 2ih&a, Simh. athba. 

mr > mbr > m{m). 
§ 710. Insertion of 6 in the group mr and subsequent assimila- 
tion to fn{m) is found in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt tOmra * copper/ Ass. Mm, Ea&n. Mm, Ur. 
tctma, tariiba, Bang. »md, K Hindi, Hindi, Panj. tdmcty tariibct, 
Sindhl jamdy etc. (see preceding §). Ski amra < mango,' Ur., 
Bang, dm, anibj Larl QmO, amiij etc. (see preceding §). 

mt; > m(m). 
§ TIL The assimilation of mt; to fn{m) is very rare. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. hafnvSrah 'ever' beside hamdtrah. 

ihh > thgh. 
§ 712. The assimilation of mh to mgh is found occasionally in 
the Middle and New Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. siriiha 'lion,' Prfik. ^I^, M&har. PrSk 
simgha, slJia, P&li slhc^ (jkUhft ^fhha, Ea&n. $uh, Bihftrl, R Hindi 
simghj singh^ ^thhj Panj. simghy other New Ind. dialects sithh 
(pron. and often written simgh). 



rk > k(k). 
§ 713. The assimilation of i^ to k{k) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects, but it is very 
rare in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski arka 'sun,' Prfik., Pfili akka. Skt. karkara 
' gravel,' Ass., Naip. kOfhkary Bang, k&mkar. Skt. karkcUa *crab,' 
Pali kakkaiakay Ur., Bang. kdrnkarOy E. Hindi kdkarOy MkarOy 
Hindi katiikaray Sindhl kamkaro. Skt. karkatikoL 'cucumber,' 
Ur., Bang. ka{rh)kudl, Hindi, FBnj:ka(k)kadly Sindhl kakidl, Guj., 
Mar. kdkadh Skt. karkara ' sugar,' Pali sc^kkara, sakkharay New 
Ind. dialects sakkary except Mar. sOAjAar. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. sirkah ' vinegar ' beside sikah. 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 198 

§ 714. The aseimilation of rk to (k)kh is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. Sarkara 'sugar/ Pfili sakkhara^ sdkkam^ 
Mar. sdkhary etc (see preceding §). 

§ 715. The change of ri to ^Q is extremely rare (cf. § 119 ?). 

a. Indian. Ski kurkura ' dog ' besides kukkuraf Pfili kukkura^ 
Bang, kutta, ktMur^ Bihfirl ktUta, kuk{k)ar, Hindi kutta, kukka^ 
Sindhi kutd, Guj. kidrd^ Mar. J;u^. 

r* > fr. 

§ 716. The change of rA; to ^r is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt kurkura, kukkura 'dog,' Guj. kiUrd, Mar. 
kuirtl, etc. (see preceding §). 

§ 717. The assimilation of rg to g(g) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialect& 

a. Indian. Ski varga 'row/ PrSk., Pftli vagga. Ski mdrga- 
yati 'seeks,' PrSk. maggai, Pfili maggatij maggStij Ass. mdg, 
Kasm. matltgy Ur. mag. Bang., E. Hindi, Hindi mathg, Panj. 
mathgy Sindhi twa», Guj., Mar. mAg, Gyp. man^. 

^^ > (?)?*• 
§ 718. The assimilation of rgr to (j;)$f% is found but seldom. 

a. Indian. Ski nirgrantha 'ascetic,' Prfik. (inscriptions of 
Delhi) nighamta. 

r9h>g{g). 
§ 719. The assimilation of rgh to g{g) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Ski mahargha 'costly,' Pftli mahagghay Ass. 
mahaihgciy magaTy R Hindi, Hindi mahamgOy Panj. mahiihgOy 
Sindhi niahamgdy Guj. rndthghuthy Mar. mahOg, Mfiladive agu. 

o 



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194 rSDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

rgh > {g)gh. 
§ 720. The assimilation of rgh to {g)gh is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski nirghrna ^pitiless,' Prsk. nigghina. Skt. 
argJia 'sacrifice/ Pftli agtfJia, Skt dlrgha 'long/ Prak. diggha^ 
dllia, Pali digha, Sindhi driglio. 

rgh > Ji{h). 
§ 721. The assimilation of rgh to h{h) is extremely rare (cf. § 152). 
a. Indian. Skt. dlrgha 'long/ Prfik. diha, diggha, etc. (see 
preceding §). 

Kf>J{J)' 
§ 722. The assimilation of rj to j(j) is the r^ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt ^ar; ito 'must-elephant^'Prftk. gajjida, Pilli 
gajjita. Skt garjana 'thunder/ Pdli gajjana^ Hindi gajanA^ 
Panj. gajjandj Sindhi gajanu^ Guj. gOjavum^ Mar. gdjan&h, 

rj > rsf. 
§ 723. The change of rj to rj is very rare (cf. § 185). 

b. Iranian. Av. ardjah 'value,' Phi. arj, Pflz. araHtiy New 
Pers. arz, KfiS, a£ily ajiyd, ajiyd, Afy. yars. 

rj>m 

§ 724. The assimilation of rj to £{i) is extremely rare (cf. § 186). 

b. Iranian. Av. ardjah 'value,' Efli. a£ilj ajiyd, ajiyd, etc. 

(see preceding §). 

rjh > ijjjh. 

§ 725. The assimilation of rjh to {j)jh is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects, 
a. Indian. Skt nir;%am ' cascade/ Pr&k., Pali nijf/Aom. 

rn > n{n). 
§ 726. The assimilation of r» to n(n) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 



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CONSONANT'QROVPS 195 

a. Indian. Skt suvarna 'gold,' Prsk. suvannc^ Pali sonna^ 
sivannay Ka&n. son^ Ur. sunQ,^ sOndy Bang. sOnd, Hindi, Panj. sdnd, 
Sindhi 8d(m)nUj Guj. sOnu, Mar. ^unam, ^dn^. Gyp. samfMkay. 

rn > n{n). 

§ 727. The assimilation of rn to n{n) is very frequent in the 
New Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt karna ' ear,' Pali kannay Ur., Bang., Biharl, 
Hindi kdity Panj. ^nn, Sindhi A^anti, Guj., Mar. Jcatty Gyp. A^ti. 
Skt. tdmraparna * copper-leaf, Ceylon,' Prfik. (inscriptions of 
Gimar, Khftlsi, and Kapur di Giri) tdihhapa{m)niy Pali tamhO' 
pannl (Gr. Tair/x))3ainj). Skt suvarna *gold,* Ea&n. son^ Ur. 
sunAy sOndy Hindi, Panj. sondy Sindhi $0{m)nUy Guj. ^^u, Mar. 
sdunathy sdn&hy etc (see preceding §). Skt Urna 'wool,' Pali 
unna, Hindi an, Panj. tinn, Sindhi, Guj. un. 

rn >f{r). 

§ 728. The assimilation of rn to r(f) is not infrequent in the 
Indian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt cUrna 'powder,' Prak., Pali cunndy Ka&u. 
cany Ur. curdy Bang. ct?r, Hindi cUrdy Panj. cur, Sindhi curd, 
Guj. curdy Mar. ct<r, but also with the signification 'lime,' Ur., 
Bang, cundy Hindi, Panj. cUndy Sindhi, Guj. cUnd, cUndy Mar. 
cundy cand. Skt pHrna 'full,' Pali punnay Ur., Bang., Hindi, 
Psnj,ptlrdy Sindhi j?i?ri5, Qnj.purdy Mar. jniftt. 

rt > rfh. 

§ 729. The aspirization of r^ to rf A is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. sardta 'cold,' PhL sarty New Pers. sardy 
Wazi sari})y My. sdr^ BaL sardy N. BaL ^or^A^ Kurd, sdr^ Tag. 
Oss. ^ald 

rt>m 

§ 730. Hie assimilation of r^ to ^(0 is very rare. 
* a. Indian. Skt nartoA^ 'dancing-girV Pr&k. noifaf, Pali 

o a 



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196 INDO'IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

naUaM, New Ind dialects nail. Skt vartakd 'quail,' Pali 
vattaka^ Ur., Bang., Hindi, Panj. vo^, Sindhl hat^dy Siihh. 
vatuvO. 

H>d(d). 
§ 7dL The assimilation of r^ to d(d) is extremely rare (cf . § 226). 
a. Indian. Skt ga/rta 'ditch,' PrSk gaddaj Ur. gadUa, Bang. 
gady Hindi gad, gdda^ Panj. gaddanUy Sindhl gdranUy Guj. 
gAravuthj Mar. gdranSm. 

rt>t{t). 

§ 782. The assimilation of ft to ^Q is very common in the 
Indian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skb muhUrta 'instant,' Prak., Pali tnuhiMa. 
Skt avarta 'whirlpool,' Pali dvatt^, dvaUa. Skt vartikd 'wick,' 
Prak. vattiaj Pali rattikH, Ur. batiy Bang, hotl, Hindi, Panj. 
fca^/7, Sindhl vati, Guj. 6att, Mar. 6atfi. Skt kartarl 'scissors,' 
Prfik. kattarij Ur. katurO^ Bang. Jcafaran, Hindi, Panj. kataranl, 
Sindhl X^afari, Mar. JcOfar. 

rt > d{d^. 

§ 733. The assimilation of rt to d(d) is extremely rare (cf. 
§228). 

b. Iranian. Av. kardta ' knife,' Phi. Jcdrf, New Pers, kard^ 
Siyn. cSd, Kurd, iird, ilr, Oss. ftAarci 

ft > rd 

§ 734. The softening of rt to f df is not infrequent in the Iranian 
dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. kar^ia ' knife,' New Pers. kd,rdj Kurd, ifn?, 
Air, Oss. khardy etc. (see preceding §). Skt. vartakd ' quail,' Phi. 
vartdkj New Pers. vanif;, WaxI wfc, Afy. nvarazy Bal. gvarddgy 
Kurd. rarc?y. 

f<>f(t). 
§ 735. The assimilation of ft to f(f) is very rare. 
b. Iranian. Av. sar9ta 'cold,' WaxI sUtit), Kurd, ^flr, etc 



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CONSONANT'GBOUPS 197 

(see § 729). Av. karata 'knife,' Kurd hfr, hrd, etc (see 
§ 733). 

rt>J{^. 

§ 736. The assimilation of r< to 2(Q is extremely rare (cf. 
§354). 

b. Iranian. Av. p9r9tu ' bridge,' PhL puhr^ jmW, New Pers. 
puly GiL purd, Kurd, pel, jpor, |>in^ jwrdL 

§ 787. The softening of rf to U is exceedingly rare. 
b. Iranian. Av. sardta 'cold,' Tag. Osa sdldj etc. (see § 729). 

rt>hl 

§ 788. The change of rf to A2 is fomid occasionally (c£ §§ 227, 
742). 

b. Iranian. Av. pordiu 'bridge,' PhL puhl^ puhr, etc. (see 
§736). 

rth > /CO- 
§ 789. The assimilation of rth to t{f) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. artha ' object/ Prfik. atthay attha (cf. inscrip- 
tions of Eapur di Giri anatha)^ Pfili aftay attJia, attha. Skt 
caturtha ' fourth,* Prfik. cottha, Pfili catutthOy Ur. dXHtha^ Bang, 
cdti/d, Hindi, Panj. cautha^ Sindhi, Guj. cdthd^ Mar. cSiwMhA. 

rth > CQ/A. 
§ 740. The assimilation of rth to (f)th is veiy rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. artha ' object,' Prak. atthoy attha (Eapur di 
Giri) anathaj Pali 0^.^/20^ atthay atta. Skt caturtha 'fourth,' 
Prak. caiittJiay cottha, Sfiur. Prfik. cadutthay Ur. c&uthdy etc. (see 
preceding §). 

rth > (f^h. 

§ 74L The assimilation of rth to {t)th is the normal one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt caturtha ' fourth,' Prftk. cottha, Pfili catuUhay 



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198 INDO-nUNIAN PHONOLOOT 

Hindi, Panj. caulha, Sindhi, Guj. cothd, Mar. cHwhtha, etc. (see 
§789). 

rth > hi 

§ 742. The change of rth to hi occurs with extreme rarity in 
the Iranian dialects (c£ §§ 854, 245, 956). 

b. Iranian. Old Pers. parthava nom. prop., Phi., New Pers. 
ftahlav. Skt. samartha ' suitable,' New Pera hawdl. 

rd>m 
§ 743. The assimilation of nl to d(d) \s quite frequent in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt chardcUi 'rejects,' Pr&k. chaddatiy Pfili chad- 
ditty Ass. car (pron. sdr)j Kja£m. char^ car^ Ur., Bang. chnVj Old 
Hindi chariidj E. Hindi, Hindi chamry Panj. chaddy Sindhi chady 
Mar. sdmr. Skt gardcibha ' donkey,' Prak. gaddaliGy gaddahay 
Pali gadrabhoy but gaddcibhanday Ass. gcuUiy Nfiip. gaddhOy Ur. 
/jfa(i^. Bang, ^/id, R Hindi, Hindi gadhdy Panj. ^oJ/^ ^cufcia, 
Sindhi gaddhuy Guj. gadhirOy Mar. gOdhaVy Gyp. i/tcJ, AAer, 

rd > (rf)rf/i. 

§ 744. The assimilation of rd to (^A is extremely rai*e. 

a. Indian. Skt gardabha 'donkey,' Mar. gddhaVy etc. (see 
preceding §). 

rd > d(d). 

§ 746. The assimilation of ni to d{dj is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt ccUurdaia * fourteen,' Prfik. canddaluiy Pfili 
ccUtiddasa, cdddasa, ctidddsOy Ka^ cdddhy Ur. cdnday Bang. 
rifidday Bihsrl, Hindi cdudah, Panj. cduddniy Sindhi cddahmUy 
(Juj. candy Mar. cdiidd. Skt gardabha 'donkey,' PrSk. gadr 
dahay gaddahay Naip. gaddha, Panj. gadddy gadhdy etc. (see 
§743). 

rd > {d)dh. 

§ 746. The a««similation of nl to {d)dh is not frequent 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 199 

a. Indian. Skt gardabha 'donkey/ Ass. gOdh, Ur. gadhOj 
Bang, gadhaj E. Hindi, Hindi gadho, Panj. gadJid, gaddd, Guj. 
gadhih[dy etc. (see § 748). 

rd >r(r% 
§ 747. The assimilation of nl to r(r) is very rare. 

8. Indian. Skt kapardika 'small shell,' Prfik. hcwaddOy 
R Hindi, Hindi kaufij A^urf, Anglo-Ind. cowry. 

rd> 1(1). 
§ 748. The assimilation of nl to {(2) is exceedingly rare in the 
Indian dialects. In the Iranian dialects^ on the contrary, it is not 
infrequent (cf. §§ 854, 258). 

a. Indian. Skb balimrda ' bull,' Pr&k. bailla. 

b. Iranian. Av. sargba 'year,' PhL, New Pers, 5fil, Dig. Oss. 
sarda, Tag. sard. 

rdh > d(d). 

§ 749. The assimilation of rdh to d(if) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. vardhat^ ' grows,' Prak. vaddliaXf Pfili vad- 
dhatij Ass. bdrh, Easm. body Ur. batii^ Bang, bad, R Hindi, 
Hindi badh, W. Hindi barhy Panj., Sindhi, Guj. vadh, Mar. 
&a«rA. Skt. 5an2/ia ' plus one-half,' Prak. saddha, saddha, Ka&n. 
sadU, Ur. $arA^, Bang. sar€, R Hindi, Hindi sarh^j Panj. sddA^, 
Sindhi ^odlAd, Guj. s&dA, Mar. sa^, Simh. ado. 

rdh > [djdh. 

§ 750. The assimilation of rdh to {d)dh is the r^ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt vardhatS 'grows,' Prfik. vaddhal, Pali vad- 
dhatij Ass. bdrh^ Ur. barh^ R Hindi, Hindi bOdh^ W. Hindi bathy 
Mar. fcodA, etc. (see preceding §). Skt. vardhaki ' carpenter,' 
Ur., Bang., R Hindi, Hindi barhai, Panj. baddhl^ Sindhi, Guj. 
vddh6j Mar. t;arA(^. Skt sdrdha ' plus one-half,' Prak. saddha. 



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200 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGT 

saddha, Ur., R Hindi, Hindi sdrhSj Panj. sddh^ Sindhl sddhd, 
etc. (see preceding §). 

rdh > [d^h. 

§ 76L The assimilation of rdh to {d)dh is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. mrdhaU ' grows,' Panj., Sindhl, Gnj. vadh, 
etc. (see § 749). 

rdhv > {d)dh. 

§ 762. The assimilation of rdhv to {d)dh is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. Urdhva 'high,' Prftk., Pali uddhOj uhhha, 
Sindhl ubJid, 6uj. ubhuthj Mar. ubhd. 

rdhv > Q))hh. 
§ 753. The assimilation of rdhv to (b)bh is frequent in the 
Indian dialects {rdhv > ddhv > ddhb > dJib > bbh). 

a. Indian. Ski Urdhva 'high,' Prftk., Pftli ubbha^ itddliGj 
Sindhl idyhdy Guj. ubhum^ Mar. ubhd. 

rn > n{n). 

§ 764. The assimilation of m to n{n) is the r^ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in Af yftn, which has borrowed 
the cerebral row from the Indian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. kargna *deaf,' New Pers. Jcar(f% Laym. 
I'anna^ Sarq. cUnfij Afy. kdn^ kUn, Oss. kumicUhcL Av. par^na 
' leaf,' PhL, New Pers. par{r)j Gab., WaxI ])ar, Afy. pana, Bal. 
pan, Kurd, par, Zazapal. 

m > n(n). 

§ 756. The assimilation of m to n{n) is not infrequent in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. karona 'deaf,' Laym. kannOj Sarq. cAnn, 
etc. (see preceding §). Skt. Urna 'wool,' §iyn. vUn, vdn, Sarq. 
vdn. Av. Parana ' full,* Phi., New Pers. pur, Yayn. pun. A v. 
parana 'leaf,' BaL jTan, etc. (see preceding §). 



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CONSONANT'OROVPS 201 

m > r(r\ 

§ 766. The assimilation of m to r(f) is very common in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. dardna ^gullet,' New Pers. darrahj WazI 
h&r, Sarq. bar. Av. parBna * leaf/ Phi., New Pers. paf(f)y Gab., 
WaxI, Kurd, jwir, etc. (see § 764). Av. sfardndh ' glory,' Old 
Pers. v\da]fam(ihj PhL /int[&agr, New Pera /ar(»). 

m > ?(?). 

§ 767. The assimilation of m to ^(1) is veiy rare (of. §§ 864, 281). 
b. Iranian. Av. pardna ^ leaf,' Zaza pal, etc. (see § 764). 

np>iKj>). 

§ 768. The assimilation of rp to p(p) is the r^;ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. sarpa ' serpent,' Prftk., Pflli sappa^ Ur., Bang. 
sap^ Hindi sampj Panj. sapp^ Sindhi sapu^ Guj., Mar. s&p^ Siihh. 
sapUy sap(S)y hapUy Gyp. sap. Skt. katpHra ' camphor,' Prftk., 
Pftli kappUray New Ind. dialects kapHry except Mar. JcapUr. 

rb>b(b). 

§ 769. The assimilation of rb to &(&) is the r^ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski arhuda ^ten million raised to the eighth 
power,' Pftli abbtida. Skt. durbala ^ weak,' Prftk., Pftli dubbaiOf 
Bang. dublOj Bihftrl dubara^ dUbar^ Hindi dubVij Panj. dubbalf 
Sindhi dulirdj dabaldy Guj., Mar. dubal 

rbh > (b)bh. 

§ 760. The assimilation of rbh to {b)^h is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dial 

a. Indian. Skt. garbha ^ uterus,' Prftk., Pftli gabbhoj Hindi 
garabhj gabh, Panj. gabbhj gdbhy garabh^ Sindhi gabhUf garabhu, 
Guj., Mar. gabh^ c£ also Gyp. khabnl ' pregnant' 



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202 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

rm > m{m). 
§ 76L The assimilation of rm to m{m) is the r^ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt cannan ' skin,' Prfik., Pfili camfiia^ New Ind. 
dialects cAm^ excepting Panj. cammj Sindhi eamu^ Siihh. sama^ 
hnnxcu Skt. harman 'deed/ Prftk., Pfili kammOy New Ind. 
dialects him, excepting Panj. kamm, Sindhi kamu, Simh. kanut. 

rm > r{r). 
§ 762. The assimilation of rm to r{r) is the r^^Iar one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. caronmn 'skin,* Phi. cannln, New Pera 
carm, Afy. cannan, Tag. Oss. car, cann. Av. garama ' warm,* 
Old Pers. gannor, New Pers., Siyn. garm, Sarq. gUnn, iilmi, 
Afy. ydr^noy BaL garm, Dig. Oss. yar, yann, Tag. ganw. 

ry > ]{]\ 
^ 768. The assimilation of ry to j{j) is very rare (cf. § 331). 

a. Indian. Skt. kdrya 'business,' Prfik. kajja, Mfig. Prfik. 
k^yy^f Sfiur. Prfik. k^a, Pfili kayya, kariya, kayira, Hindi, 
Panj. kdj, kdraj, Sindhi karju, Guj. kaj, kdraj, Mar. kaj. 

ry > r{r). 
§ 764. The assimilation of ry to r(r) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Middle and New Indo- 
Iranian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt. tHrya * trumpet,' Prfik. tHra, Pfili turiya, Ur. 
turfy Bang, tunim, Hindi tUri, tUrahl, Panj. tUram, Sindhi, Guj. 
turl. Skt. sUrya ' sun,' Prfik. sujja, sHria, Pfili suriya, Hindi, 
Panj. suraj, Sindhi silfju, sHriju, Guj. sdr, stiraj, Siinh. {k)irti. 

b. Iranian. Av. cirya 'brave,' Phi., New Pers. 6fr. Av. 
airya ' noble,' Oss. ir, 

ry > rj. 
§ 765. -The change of ry to r; is not imknown to the Indian 
dialects (cf. § 331). 



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CONSOKANT'OEOUPS 208 

a. Indian. Skt harya 'businees,' Sindhi karju (cf. also 
Hindi, Panj., Guj. Mraj^ ferj), etc. (see ^ 763). Skt. sihrya 'sun,' 
Sindhi aikjUf sUriju (c£ also Hindi, Panj. saraj, Guj. suraj^ sUr)^ 
etc. (see preceding §). 

§ 766. The assimilation of ry to 1(1) occurs quite frequently in 
the Indian dialects (cf. § 854). 

a. Indian. Skt pas-yatdha ' bed,' Pr&k. poXlatkhc^ ArdhamSg. 
Prftk. paliafhka^ Pali paOathTia, New Indj^oZant^, Anglo Jnd. 
jyalavi^in. Skt pary&na ' saddle,' Pr&k. pall&na^ Ur. j^alAna, 
Bang. pAlan^ Hindi j)22dn, Panj. |Hx{dn, Sindhi pal&nUj Guj. 
i;a{an(d), Mar. p&lan. 

rv>p{p). 

§ 767. The hardening of rt? to p{p) is very rare (cf. § 872). 

a. Indian. Skt carvayati 'chews,' Pali cappStiy Ur. cdbct^ 

Bang., Hindi cab, Panj. cabby Sindhi ca&, Guj., Mar. oOv, Siihh. 

5apanat;d, hapanava. 

TV > &(&). 

§ 768. The assimilation of rv to 5(i) is not very frequent (c£ 
§ 372). 

a. Indian. Skt carvayati 'chews,' Ur. cobOy Bang., Hindi 
caby Panj. cabby Sindhi caby etc. (see preceding §). Skt parvaia 
* mountain,' Pfili pabbcUOy Siihh. pava. Skt. sarva ' all,' Prak. 
sawOy Pfili salbOy Ass. 506, Ur. ^aJw, Bang, saby R Hindi, Hindi 
saby sabhy Panj. 506/*, 5am&, Sindhi sabhity G}^). 5avofi5. 

ro > {b)bh. 
§ 769. The assimilation of n; to {b)bh is extremely rare (cf. § 878). 
a. Indian. Skt sarva ' all,' Hindi, E Hindi sabhy saby Panj. 
sabhy saraby Sindhi sabhuy etc. (see preceding §). 

n; > rbh. 
\ 770. The change of n; to rbh is exceedingly rare (cf . § 878). 

a. Indian. Skt. parvan 'festival,' Pftli j?a66a, -Ur., Bang., 
Hindi, Panj.|>afad, Sindhi |?tr6/m, Guj., Mar.jpan^. 



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204 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

rv > r{r). 

§ 77L The aBsimilBtion of n? to r(*) is excessively rare, 

b. Lranian. Av. haurva 'all/ Old Pera hartwa, PhL, New 
Pers. Mr. 

rv > v(v). 

§ 772. The assimilation of rt; to v{v) is not common either in 
the Indian or in the Iranian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt. sarva 'all,' Pr&k. sawa^ eke. (see § 768). 
Skt. j)arvata ' mountain,' Siihh. pava^ etc. (see § 768). 

b. Iranian. New Pers. yarvar ' friend ' besides ydvar. 

ri > iks. 

§ 773. The change of ri to m^ is very rare in Indian. 

a. Indian. Skb darSana ' sight,' Pr&k. dam$ana^ Ass. dar- 
Sana (pron, darhana\ Sindhi darsmu. 

rS > s{s). 

§ 774. The assimilation of ri to s(s) is quite common in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. spariana 'touch,' Prak. phasa^ Pali phassa, 
Hindi, Panj. phamsand, Sindhi phasanu, Guj. phasavutiij Mar. 
phasanefh. 

riv > s(s). 

§ 776. The assimilation of rSv to s(s) is the r^;ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt. pdrSva ' side,' Prak. pasQj Hindi p^^ Panj. 
pas^ pdhf Sindhi, Guj. pOsS^ Mar. pOlas, pasiihj Gyp. paS. 

riv > h(h). 

§ 776. The assimilation of riv to A(7») is exceedingly rare (cf. 
§401). 

a. Indian. Skt. pdrha ' side,' Panj. p&hy pas, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 



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CONSONANT'GSOUPS 205 

§ 777. The assimilation of t? to {dfih is very rare (c£ § 851). 

a. Indian. Skt karfana ^dragging,' Ur. hathibAj Bang. kQr" 
Aan, Hindi Mfhna, Panj. karthanO^ Sindhi karhanu, Guj. kciJiO' 
ravuriij Mar. k&fhanim, 

rs>iif). 
§ 778. The assimilation of r§ to r{r) is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. mdrgaSlrsa ' November-Deoember/ Apab. 
Prftk. maggasirUj Ur. rndgiKju^a^ magusara^ Panj. magharj 
Sindhi mm^htru. 

rS > TZ. 
§ 779. The change of r J to r^f is found occasionally in the 
Iranian dialects (cf. § 428). 

b. Iranian. Av. hardha 'mane/ Phi., New Pers. 6«5, Afy. 
mai^ BaL huSk^ Dig. Oss. harssa^ Tag. harz. 

rs > i{£y 
§ 780. The assimilation of rs to S{i) is very rare (cf. § 407). 

8. Indian. Skt. SJrsa 'head/ Prak. sissa, slsa, Pfili 5l5a, 
Hindi, Panj. sis, Sindhi ml, Ouj. iii, Mar. ^f(m)$, Siihh. sis, his, 
isa, iha. 

rs, rS > s(s), ^1). 

§ 78L The assimilation of rs, rS to s{s), S{S) is the r^;iilar one 
to which this consonant-group is subject in the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt varsa 'year,' Prftk. (inscriptions of Eapur di 
Giri) vasa, varsa, lit Prftk. vasa, Pali vassa. Gyp. ber§, breS. 

b. Iranian. Av. bardSa 'mane,' PhL, New Pers. buS, Bal. 
huSk, etc. (see § 779). Av. kar§ay9n 'they may drag,' Phi. 
kaSUand, New Pers. kaSidan, Afy. kSal, Bal. kaSag, N. BaL 
khaSay, Kurd. kiSdn. 

rs > s(s). 
§ 782. The assimilation of rs to s{s) occurs frequently in the 
Indian dialects (cf. § 408). 



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206 ISDO-ntANJAN PHONOLOGY 

a. Indian. Skt Slrsa 'head,' Prfik. sissa^ slsa, li slsn. 
Hindi, Panj. ^s, Sindhl sisl, Mar. il(m)Sj Simh. siSj his, isa, iJuL 
etc. (see § 780). 

rs > h(h). 

§ 783. The assimilation of rs to Mh) is excessively rare (cf. 
§409). 

a. Indian. Skt kar§dpana 'a certain coin,' Prftk. kihdvanoy 
Pali hah&pana, Ur. hnhana, Bang, kahan, Hindi kaJuin. Skt. 
,v7rja 'head/ Simh. t/io, wa, 5W, /tf5, etc. (see § 780). Skt. 
varsati ' rains,' Pali vassaiiy Siihh. vahiuuy Maladive vehenl. 

rSn > khj x. 

\ 784. The assimilation of rh% to kk, or, is very rare (cf. § 922). 

b. Iranian. Av. tarSna 'thirst,' Phi. tiSn, New Pers. iiS, 
WaxI tax{t), Siyn. taSna, Sarq. ^flr(f), Yidg. trusna^ My. iaiai^ 
BaL iunnag, tUnag, N. BaL ^Aunf, Kurd. /7, ^an?. 

ri^n > n(n). 
§ 785. The assimilation of rin to n(n) is quite rara 

b. Iranian. Av. iarhia ' thirst,' BaL tunnag, tUnag, N. Bal. 
thunl, Kurd, towl, /J, etc. (see preceding §). 

rSn > r(r). 

§ 786. The assimilation of rin to r{r) is exceedingly rara 
b. Iranian. Av. tar5na ' thirst,' Sarq. ^iir(T), etc. (see § 784). 

§ 787. The assimilation of r&n to rs is excessively rare (cf . § 427). 
b. Iranian. Av. varSni ' virile,' Phi. guSan, New Pers. giiSn, 
Tag. Os& urs, S. Oss. rur^r. 

rfn > r * 

§ 788. The assimilation of rSn to r^r is most rare (cf. § 925). 

b. Iranian. Av. var§ni ' virile,' S. Oss. vurjf, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 



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CONSONANT'OROUPS 207 

rSn > 5(5). 
§ 789. The assimilation of rSn to 5(5) is extremely rare. 
b. Iranian. Av. tarSna 'thirst/ New Pera tiSj etc. (see § 784). 

rSn > Sn. 
§ 790. The reduction of rSn to Sn is quite common. 

b. Iranian. Av. iarhia ' thirst/ PhL ti§n, Siyn. tdSna^ Yidg. 
trtiSnOj etc. (see § 784). Av. varSni ' virile,' Phi. ju5aii, New 
Pers. (/t«5», etc. (see § 787). 

r5n > i(S). 
§ 791. The assimilation of rSn to i(i) is extremely rare (cf. 
§ 429). 

b. Iranian. Av. tarSna * thirst/ Afy. taJlaij etc. (see § 784). 

rSv > Sv. 
§ 792. The assimilation of rSt; to 5t; is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. TcarSvar 'clime/ Phi., New Pera kiSvar. 

rs > hi. 
§ 793. The transposition of r5 to 7J is very rare (c£ §§ 354, 421). 
b. Iranian. Av. par9Su ' side,' Phi. pahluk, New Pera pahlu. 

§ 794. The assimilation of rz to V$\ is extr mely rare (cf. § 354). 
b. Iranian. Av. bar9ziS 'pillow,' PhL bdliSn^ New Pera 
bans, Gab. bdliSt, Ksk hdUSm, bOliSt. 

rh > r{f). 
§ 796. The assimilation of rh to r{r) is exceedingly rare, 
a. Indian. Skt. garha ' abuse,' Bihftrl gari, gOU. 

rh > l(ti. 
§ 796. The assimilation of rh to l(t) is excessively rara 
a. Indian. Skt. garha ' abuse,' Bih&rl gaJlj gari. 



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208 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

lk>Mk). 
§ 797. The assimilation of Ik to h(k) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. ulM < meteor/ Prfik., Pali uJsM, Hindi lOo, 
Sindhi luJc. Skt vaJkala <bark,' Pr&k., Pali vakkala, Sindhi 
bakaru. 

§ 798. The assimilation of Ig to g{g) is the r^ular one to idiich 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. valga 'rein,' New Ind. dialects bdg. Skt. 
valguli < bat,' P&li vagguU. 

Jp>p{py 

§ 799. The assimilation of Ip to p(p) is the r^ular one to 

which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. kalpa 'time/ Fsii kappa, Skt kalpaU 

'conducts himself / Mahfir. Prak. kappaSj Pali kappati^ Siifak 

kapanavd. 

Im > mb. 

§ 800. The assimilation of Im to mb is very rare (cf . §§ 323, 360). 
a. Indian. Skt. iahnall ' silk-cotton tree,' Jaina Prfik. san^ 
bila, Pali simbaUj Ur. ^imilOy Hmula, Bang. Simul, Hindi s&^ialj 
simbal, Panj. simabal, simnial, Mar. sdmvar. 

Im > ni{m). 
§ 801. The assimilation of Im to m(m) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt Mlmall 'silk-cotton tree,' Ur. Htnila^ Simula^ 
Bang. Hmulf Hindi s^ial^ sifhbal, Panj. simmal, simahal, etc. 
(see preceding §). Skt jalma ' reckless,' Pali jamma, 

Im > mv. 

§ 802. The change of Zm to tnv is extremely rare in Indian (cf. 
§§824,360). 

a. Indian. Skt Sdhnall 'silk-cotton tree,' Mar. sdmvar^ etc. 
(see § 800). 



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CONSONANT'QBOUPS 209 

hf>m 

§ 808. Tbe aadmilation of ly to I({) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. kalya ' dawn,' Prak., Pali haUa, Asa, Ur., 
Bang, mi, K Hindi, Hindi kil, kalh, Panj. kaU, haUh, Sindhi 
hSlh, Guj., Mar. kal 

§ 804. The assimilation of ly to (I|I& is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt idlffa 'dawn,' R Hincb, Hindi halh, JdO, 
Panj. kallhy kaUy Sindhi Jcilh, etc. (see preceding §). Skt miUffa 
^ price,' Prftk. mulla, molla, Ealm. mol, Ur. mwla, Bang., Hindi 
mClj Panj. mun, Sindhi mu^Au, Mar. mdl 

lv>h(f>). 

§ 806. The assimilation o£ fo to b(b) is extremely rare (c£ § 872). 
a. Indian. Skt. balvc^a 'reed,' F^pdbhcya. 

h > l{ti. 

§ 806. Hie assimilation of Zt; to Z(Z) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. bilva ' wood-apple,' Pfili &tKa, belki, New Ind. 
dialects bel Skt. khalvcUa ' bald,' Pr&k. khaUidOy Psli khaUdta. 



ty > 6(6). 

§ 807. The assimilation of ry to b(b) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects (cf. § 872). 
In Bangfill vy is regularly pronounced b. 

a. Indian. Skt. sluycUi 'sews,' Pfili sibbati. Skt. vyaMa 
' passed,' Ur. bitibd, Hindi bitna, Panj. bitltmaj 6uj. vaiavufh. 
Skt. vyanisana 'division,' Hindi bachndj Panj. bamchuanctf 
Sindhi vircAanu. Skt. vj/o^Arcir 'tiger,' Prilk. vaggha^ Psli tyo^- 
^Ao, Hindi bagh, Sindhi v&ghu^ Mar. vdigh, Siihh. t;a9. 



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210 INDO-nULNIAN PHONOLOGY 

§ 808. The assimilation of vy to v(r) occurs very frequently in 
the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. vyaHta 'passed,' Guj. iXjUavufh, etc (see pre- 
ceding §). Skt. vyOghra ' tiger/ Pr&k. vaggha, Sindhi vOghu, Mar. 
vdghj Siifah. ixtg^ etc. (see preceding §). 

vr > v{v). 
§ 809. Hie assimilation of <;r to v{v) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. urroif nom. prop., Pr&k. utwa^, Skt. vrihi 
* rice,* Prak., Pali vlhiy Siifah. rf. 



ic > c(c). 
§ 810. The assimilation of Sc to c{c) is not very common. 

a. Indian. Skt. dScarya 'wonderful,' Prak. acchira, Pali 
acchSra, acchariya, Hindi, Panj. acaraj, Sindhi acaraj, acarat 
Skt. paScaf * behind,' Prak, Pali paccho, Ass. pic^, pace (pron. 
pisS^ pas^j Kafim. paU)i\ Ur. pcuM, Bang, pachdy picM (pron. 
piXsa^pis^j Hindi pQchej2){lchtl,pf€hil, Panj. pichs, pichdm, Sindhi 
p6e, puathj Guj. pachey pachl, pOchd^ Sirfih. pas{u), 

Sc > {c)ch. 
§ 81L The assimilation of Sc to {c)ch is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. vrScika 'scorpion,' Prak. vmcua, vicchuaj 
vimchiuij Pali vicchiha, Naip. bicchu, Ka^m. Vtc, bilch, Ur., 
Bang, hicha, E. Hindi biccu, Hindi bichud, Panj. vicchHy Sindhi 
vichUm^ Guj. vichu, vimchuj Mar. vihcUj vimchnm. Skt. paicat 
'behind,' Prak., Pali paccha, Ur. pacM^ Bang. pQchO^ pichi^, 
Hindi pacMjP&cha, plcha, Panj. pichs, pichom, Guj. pachp^pachl^ 
p&chdj etc. (see preceding §). 

f c > s{8). 
§ 812. 13ie assimilation of Sc to 5(«) is very rare (cf. § 400). 



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CONSONANT'GSOUFS 211 

a. Indian. Skt paScOt 'behind,' Abb. pis^ pOsS (written 
pichiy pOchg^ Bang. pOsO, pisB (written pOchOy pichg)^ Siibh. 
pas(u), etc (see § 810). 

Syncope of ie. 
§ 813. The lo8B of internal Sc is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skb paScOt ^ behind,' Sindhi pd^, puAfkj etc. (see 
§ 810). Skt trayaScaMHikiat * forty-three,' Prak. tMisa, 
EaSm. Uyatajihy Bihan tatMiliSy Hindi mJJs, tetOllsay tahhtatlSj 
Sindhi tmllh. 

im > fn{m). 

§ 814. The assimilation of im to m(m) is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialecta 

a. Indian. Skt. imairu 'beard,' Prftk. nUksu^ fMissUy mafksuj 
Pali massuy Ass. mOCy Bang. mOchy Bih&rl mdihchy tnHihchy 
Hindi mUcJwmy Panj. mucchy Sindhi fnuch. Gig. much. Skt 
SmaSana 'cemetery/ Pr&k. masdnay Mfig. Prfik. maSanay Jfiina 
Pr&k. sHyanOy sxisanay Pali siisGnOy Ur. mai6n(iy Bang. maSdn, 
Hindi mo^an, Panj. t^io^n, Sindhi tno^dttu, Guj. masany Mar. 

im > s(s). 

§ 816. The assimilation of im to 5(^) is comparatively rare (cf. 

§400). 

a. Indian. Skt imaidna 'cemeteiy/ J&ina Pr&k. ^ydna, 

susdnay P&li stASdnay etc. (see preceding §). Skt raimi ' ray,' 

Prak. ro^, Pali rasmiy ramsiy Ass. mot (pron. rcwi), Kalm. rar, 

Ur., Bang, rasly R Hindi, Hindi, Panj. rassdy rassiy Sindhi 

rasHy Mar. rassi. 

ir > mj. 

§ 816. The change of ir to mj is very rare (cf. § 850 ?). 

a. Indian. Skt airu ' tear,' Pr&k. amsUy P&li a6$u, Kalm. 
duSy asily N&ip. dfft^, Ur. dnijhUy driistly Bih&rl, Hindi drnsH, 
Panj. ahjhuy Sindhi hahjy Guj. dthjUy Mar. at?^ 0^ 

ir > fkjh. 
§ 817. The change of ir to wjh is excessively rare. 



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212 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

8. Indian. Skt aSru ^tear/ Ur. dthjhuj Otfi^ Panj. ahjhu, 
etc (see preceding §)• 

if >i(i). 

§ 818. The assimilation of ir to i(i) is extremely rare. 

8. Indian. Skt. iravana ^hearing/ Ur. ^unibd^ Bang. Sunan, 
Hindi ^unnA, Panj. sunatUXj Sindhl sunanu. Skb htiifH 
* motheivin-law/ P&li sassu^ Ur. Saict^ Bang, id^, Hindi sASj Panj. 
$a^ Sindhl «a^ Guj. sMisOj Mar. «d^ 

ir > 8(8). 

§ 819. The assimilation of ir to ^5) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects (c£ § 400). 
8. Indian. Skt iinaSm ^ beard,* Prfik. nidsuj massu, mafk8u, 
Pfili massu, Ass. mdc. Bang. mOcJi, Bih&rl mdmchy mUfhch, 
Hindi mUch&ihj Panj. mucch, Sindhl much, Ouj. fitOcA. Skt 
oirii *tear/ Prak. amsUj Pali assu, Naip. dmsU, Ur. amsU, 
dthjha, Bihan, Hindi dihsii, Mar. athsil, dsiij etc. (see § 816). 
Skt. SvaSra * mother-in-law/ Pali sosm, Bang. id5, Hindi sas, 
Panj. 5^5512, Sindhl ^cwu, Guj. sdmsU, Mar. 50^, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). Skt Sravana 'hearing/ Hindi sunna, Panj. sunanA, 
Sindhl sunanu, etc. (see preceding §). 

H > 8(8). 

§ 820. The assimilation of iZ to s{8) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects (cf. § 400). 
a. Indian. Skt iUsma ' slime,' Prak. simhha, Pali silesuma, 
semha, SiihL 8€in(a). 

Sv > s(s). 

§ 821. The assimilation of it; to s(s) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects (cf. § 400). 
a. Indian. Skt. a^va 'horse,' Prak. assa, asa, Pali assa, 
Siifah. as. Skt iSvara 'lord,' Prak. Isara, Pali issara, Hindi, 
Panj. Isar, cf also Sindhl 2?aramto/rM. Skt ivairH ' mother-in- 
law,' Pali sassUy Ur. SaSa,, Bang, ias, Hindi sds, Panj. sassH, 



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C0NS0NANT-0B0UP8 213 

SindhI sasu, Guj. sMhsO, Mar. sOsO. Skt ivOsa ' breatih,' Pr&k., 
Pali «d^y Sindhi sdhu. 



si > liH). 

§ 822. The assimilation of sk to k(k) is not frequent 

a. Indian. Skt dusktta 'evil/ Prftk. dukkada, (inscriptions 
of Gimar) duJuUa, Pftli dukkatOy dukkata. Skt itiska 'dry/ 
Prftk. ^A'X:ay sukkhaj Psli $u£A:Aa, Asa «uA^na (pron. Autona), 
Ka&n. Ad/;Ay Ur., Bang. Sukdy Hindi ^^ Panj. sukkhd, sukkdy 
Sindhi sukdy Guj. sUkhd^ Mar. suifcd, ^ifcAd. Skt niskarsana 
'dragging out,' Pftli nikkaddha^ Hindi nikdlan&j nikOsandj Panj. 
ntA:(A;)d^na, nikMUmd^ Sindhi nikOraifUfhy nikeranUj ntkar&i" 
ffuthy Guj. nikdhvum, nikasavum^ Mar. nikofanefh, nikal 

sk > (k)kh. 

§ 823. The assimilation of ;ft to {k)ikh is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. Suska ' dry/ Prftk. sukkha^ sukka^ Pftli suh^ 
khOy Kalm. hokh^ Hindi siXkha^ Panj. svlckhay sukkd^ Guj. sUkhdy 
Mar. sukhdy suki^, etc. (see preceding §). Skt jmskara ' pool/ 
Prftk., Pftli pokkharOy Ur. pdkhariy Bang. jmA^tir, Hindi, Mar. 
l?dJfcAar. 

§ 824. The assimilation of ^ to f(^ is quite rare. 

a. Indian. Skt mrsta 'polished,' Pftli mattOy tnattha. Skt. 
sasfi ' sixty,' Prftk. scUthiy Ea&n. Saifhy Sethy Ur. ^Ai^, Bang. 
smhoy Bihftrl sa^Ai, Hindi sd^A, Panj. saUhy Sindhi ^o^At, Guj., 
Mar. saihy Siihh. ^a. 

jf > (0?A. 
§ 826. The assimilation of ^ to {f^h is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt ya^^ 'staff;' Prftk. la^hiy Sftur. Prftk. jo^Ai, 
PftU laiihiy Ur., Bang, laihly Hindi Whly lat(X)y Panj. IcMkly 
Sindhi to/Af, Gi«. feWA, te^, Mar. ia<a Skt a?tott 'eighty' Prftk., 



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214 IKDO-ISAKIAN PHONOLOGY 

Pgli attha, Ka&n. (Uh, Ur. dtha, Bang. Gia, Bihftrl, Hindi Gih, 
Panj, aUh, Sindhl o/A, Guj., Mar. dih. Skt ja^i 'sixty/ Prak. 
saMhi^ Ea&n. iSt/A, ^^A, Ur. mhii^ Bang. 5^.^Aa, Biharl ^.^At, 
Hindi $i>th, Panj. ^o^A, Sindhl sathi, Guj., Mar. 5d^A. 

§ 826. The assimilation of ^ to d(d) is very rare (cf. § 192). 

a. Indian. Sk& v^taika ^ enclosure/ Pftli vSthaka, Ass. b&% 
Nfiip. h&Ty Ea£m. vadj rdr, Ur. &&^d, &Q^ Bang. bSrOy Hindi, 
Panj. berhdj Multfinl vSfh&j Sindhl vadehoj vSttiOj Mar. vSdha. 
Skt 2^ < clod,' Mfthfir. Prftk. letthuyoy Pfili leddu. 

St > mh' 
§ 827. The assimilation of ^ to (ijih is extremely rare (cf. § 198). 
a. Indian. Ski v^staka * enclosure/ Ur. bi!rh&y hhMt, Hindi, 
Panj. Uflidy Mult&nl vBtM^ Sindhl verhOy vadshdy Mar. vSdMy 
etc. (see preceding §). Skt. rusta 'angry/ Bang., Hindi, Panj. 
tUdh. 

?tr > m 

§ 828. The assimilation of sfr to {f)t is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Ski uslra 'camel.' Prfik. uiia, KaSm. {v)iimthj 
Bihfin ii{m)t, Sindhl uthu. 

str > (f)tt. 
§ 829. The assimilation of sir to (()th is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski mahardsira * great kingdom,' Pali maMraU 
thoj Sindhl marCUhl, Quj. marethd. 

str > did). 

§ 880. The assimilation of str to d{d) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Ski daMra ' tusk,' Prak. dadM, Pali daiM^ Ur. 
dadhH^^ Bang. dar{T^, Hindi dadh(% Panj. dahad{% Sindhl ^/*, 
dadah, Guj. (7clJAl, ^d/k7r, Mar. (2diA, Simh. dala. 



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CONSONAlfT-aEOVFS 215 

§ 88L The assimilation of ^ to {d)dh is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Ski dathsfrd 'tusk,' Pr&k. dOdha, Ur., Hindi 
diidli{t)j Guj. dA4^h ddhdTf Mar. dadhy etc. (see preceding §). 

ftr>m 
§ 882. The assimilation of 5^r to ^ is excessively rare (o£ § 213). 
a. Indian. Skt dathstrd ' taak; SiihL data, etc. (see § 830). 

str > h(h). 

§ 888. The assimilation of sir to h(h) is exceedingly rare (cf. 

§206?). 

a. Indian. Skt. dathstrd ' tusk,' Panj. dahad{% Guj. dAA^r, 

d^Af, etc. (see § 830). 

?(h > i{f). 

§ 884. The assimilation of sih to ^(Q is very uncommon. 

a. Indian. Ski kdstha 'granary/ Pfili kofiha. New Ind. 
dialects koti, Tcotih. 

sth > {f)th. 

§ 885. The assimilation of sth to {f)jth is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt prstha 'back,' Apab. Pr&k. patthi, pifihi^ 
puHhiy Pali pittha, Ass., Ur. piihi, Bang, pithi, pit, Hindi pUh^ 
Panj. pitthf putth, Sindhi ini^Ai, Guj. puihy ptfh, Mar. pQthj Gyp. 
pilSto. Ski gdsthl ' assembly/ Prftk. gotthl, Psli gottha, Sindhi 
gOihu^ Mar. gotfhl. Skt dsfha 'lip/ Mfihfir. Ptak. oftha^ tUfJ^ 
Pali o^&o, Ea&n. vuth^ Ur. df Ao, Bihfirl %^tii);A, Hindi (hMh^ 
Panj. A^%, Guj. d{h, hdt, Mar. dtfifA, Gyp. vidt. 

sth>d{d^ 
§ 886. The assimilation of s(htod(d) is very rara 

a. Indian. Skt kustha 4eprofify/ Ur. kudhaj Bang, iti^iy 
Sindhi kdfhu, Guj., Mar. le^, JOfhj hdhdr. 

# > (d)^*. 
§ 887. The assimilation of sth to (d)^A is extremely rare. 



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216 INDO-IRANIAN FHONOLOOT 

a. Indian. Skt hustha 46pros7/ \5r. Tcudha^ Sindhi TcgHiu^ 
Guj.y Mar. h^ kdr, kohdry etc. (see preceding §). 

§ 888. The assimilation of ^ to h{h) is exceedingly rare. 

s. Indian. Skt usna 'hot,' M&hfir. Prftk., Pftli unha (but 
P&li ^Uunnaka 'heat and cold' besides slUuf^haka)^ Sindhi uii, 
Guj. unhufhj Mar. tSnto, Simh. (A)unu. 

sn > n{n). 
§ 880. The assimilation of 5n to n{n) occurs but seldom. 

a. Indian. Skt usna 'hoty' SiifaL {h)unUy etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

m >nh. 

§ 840. The change of ^ to n% is the regular one to which this 
consonant-group is subject in the Middle Indian dialects, but it is 
very rare in the Middle Indian dialect& 

a. Indian. Skt. usna 'hot,' Mfihfir. Pr&k. unha, etc. (see 

§ 838). Skt krsna nom. prop., Prftk., Pftli kanha, Hindi, Panj. 

k&nh, kanhdij Sindhi kanu, Guj. kanhd, Mar. kanhOM. 

sn > n{n). 
§ 84L The assimilation of ^ to n{n) occurs frequently (cf. § 218). 
a. Indian. Skt Slta ' cold ' + usna ' hot,' Pali sltunnakcif 
sUtunhaka, Mar, anha, etc. (c£ § 838). Skt krsna nom. prop., 
Sindhi kdnu, etc. (see preceding §). 

Sfj^ > nh. 
§ 842. The change of ^ to n% is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt usna 'hot,' Guj. unhuih, eta (see § 888). 
Skt krsna nom. prop., Hindi, Panj. kdnhy kanhaiy Guj. kdnhdj 
Mar. kanhdbOy etc. (see § 840). 

«?>*(*). 
§ 848. The assimilation of ^ to h{h) is extremely rare (cf. § 409). 



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C0N80NANTGE0UP8 217 

a. Indian. Skb tr^ < thirsty' Pr&k. tanhO, Pfili Hnha, tasinO, 
Panj. tiha^ Sindhl fih^ Mar. toAdn. 

«P>lKl>). 
§ 844. The assimilation of sp to p(p) is exceedingly rare. 

s. Indian. Skt bdspa 'tear, smoke,* Pr&k. bdha 'tear/ bappha 
'smoke,' Saur. Prftk., Pali bappOj Ass. bhOp, Ea&n. (aAo, Ur., 
Bang, bluip, R Hindi &a(m)pA, Hindi bhapj ba{th)phf Panj. 
bAdpA, Sindhl laph^ Guj. &d(fn)p^ Mar. vdpK Skt ini^pa 
'flower/ Prfik., P&li puppha^ Ka&n. j>d;, Bih&rl pMp^ phikph^ 
Old Hindi jmAup, Hindi phUp^ Guj., Mar.i>%al. Skt ni^pu/ra 
' sonlees/ Sindhl niptdrd. 

sp > {p)ph. 

§ 846. The assimilation of g> to {p)ph is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt bdspa 'tear, smoke,' Prfik. bappha 'smoke,' 
baha ' tear,' K Hindi ba{m)ph^ Hindi ba(m)ph, bhap, Panj. bhOph^ 
Sindhl laphj Guj. bii{fh)phj Mar. vaph, etc. (see preceding §). 
Skt jpi4£pa ' flower/ Prftk., Pftli puppJu^ Bihfirl phUph^ P^^pj 
etc. (see preceding §). 

8p> h(h). 

§ 846. The assimilation of g? to A(A) is very rare (c£§§ 421, 800). 
s. Indian. Skt bCtspa 'tear, smoke,' Pr&k. baha 'tear/ bap- 
pha ' smoke/ Ka£m. bdJia, etc. (see § 844). 

m > (6)6*. 

§ 847. The assimilation of ^ to (6)6% is excessively rare (c£ 
§ 828). 

a. Indian. Skt. u§man ' hot season,' Prfik. umhd^ Old Hindi 
06%, Mar. umhal Skt gri§ma ' hot season,' Prfik. gimha, Apab. 
Prfik. gMibhOj Pftli gimha^ Old Hindi gatisanij Mar. (;fiih6&, ^m. 

^911 > m(9n). 
§ 848. The assimilation of ^ to fn{m) is veiy rare. 



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218 INDO^IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

a. Indian. Skt grisma ' hot season/ Mar. ^m^ ginibh^ etc. * 
(see preceding §). 

stn > fith. 

§ 849. The change of sm to mh iB the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects (cf. § 409). 
a. Indian. Skt. grfsma 'hot season/ Prak., Psli gimha, etc. 
(see § 817). Skt tisman ^ hot season/ Pr&k. umhctf Mar. umhal, 
etc. (see § 847). 

sy > {k)kh. 

§ 860. The change of 5y to {k)kh is very rare (c£ § 404). 

a. Indian. Skt iisya ^ pupil,' Pr&k. sUsay P&li sissa^ Sindhi 
sikhu. 

§ 861. The assimilation of sy to 59 is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt pusya^ pdusya ' December- January/ Prfik. 
pUSGy Ur. pilsa^ Bang. p(iu^y Hindi jm^, Panj. pdh, Sindhi jT^Ati. 

?y > «(4 
§ 862. The assimilation of ^ to 8{s) is the r^ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt Sasyati 'dries/ Prak. snsaXy Pali sussati. 
Skt 2^usya,pdu$ya * December- January/ FrSk^pilsa, Hindi i>tl5, 
etc. (see preceding §). 

sy > h{h). 

§ 863. The change of jy to h{h) is very rare (c£ § 409). 

a. Indian. Skt. bhavisydmi ^ I shall be/ Prfik. hoh^mi^ hd- 
himiy hossdmi, Pftli bhavissdmi. Skt pusya, pdtisya ^December- 
January/ Panj. 2>(^ky Sindhi |>dAu, etc. (see § 851). 



sk > Mk). 

§ 864. The assimilation of sk to k(k) is very frequent in the 
Indian dialects. 



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CONSONANT'GROUPS 219 

a. Indian. Sk& taskara 'ihieV Prfik., Pfili takkara. Skt. 
skandha ' shoulder/ Pr&k. ihand(h}af Pfili khandhoj Ur., Bang., 
Hindi kiimdhay Panj. ^nnA, kamdhd, Sindhi, Guj. kdfhdhd, 
Mar. ^Adnula, Elu kariida^ Mfiladive kodu. 

sk > {k)kh. 

§ 866. The assimilation of sk to (k)kh is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski skandha < shoulder/ Prfik. khand(h)ay Pfili 
khandhay Mar. khdmdd, etc. (see preceding §). 

sc > c{c). 

§ 866. The assimilation of sc to c{c) is found occasionally in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. At. pascai 'afterward/ Old Pers. pas&j Phi., 
New Pers. pas, Efifi. pac, Kuhr. pas, paS, Bal. paS, Kurd pdSly 
Dig. Osa /o^^a, Tag.fastag. 



sc > . 

§ 867. The assimilation of sc to S(S) is not uncommon in the 
Iranian dialects (cf. §§ 419, 166). 

b. Iranian. Av. pascai ^ afterward,' Kuhr. pc^y paSy BaL paiy 
Kiurd. p&My etc. (see preceding §). 

sc> Sh 
§ 868. The change of sc to {A; is very rare (cf. § 419). 

b. Iranian. Av. scindayeiti ^breaks,' Phi. Skastandy New 
Pers. Hkastatiy Oss. sadhtiny satthin. 



sc >. 

§ 869. The assimilation of ^ to s(s) is not infrequent in the 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. pasccU 'afterward,' Old Pers. pasO, PhL, 
New Pers. paSy Kuhr. paSy paSy etc. (see § 856). Av. scindayeiti 
' breaks,' Oss. sadhtiny satthiny etc. (see preceding §). 



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220 INDMBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

St > {k)kh. 

§ 860. The change of ^ to {k)kh is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Ski stambha 'post,' PrSk. khashbhaj ihathhhaj 
Pftli thanibhay Ur. khaihbh(a), khatMfia), Bang. khathbO, Hindi, 
Panj. thafhhj Sindhi thaihbhu, 6uj. khdmb^ khambh, thamb. Mar. 
khaihb, Simh. taMa. [See now Pischel, § S06.] 

st > t{i). 

§ 86L The assimilation of ^ to t(f) is excessively rare (cf. § 224). 
a. Indian. Skt stafnbha * post,' Simh. tdmba, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

rf > «(f). 

§ 862. The assimilation of ^ to ^Q is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. stainya ^ thief/ Jfiina Pr&k. Uniya, Ski 
hyastana 'yesterday's,' Pfili hlyattana. Skt. hasta 'hand,' 
Prsk., Pali hattha, Ass. Mt, Jiafh, Ka&n. ath (but Ao^^ 'ele* 
phanf),!!?.. Bang, hafa, Bihfirt, Hindi Mth, Panj. Aa«A, Sindhi 
/ao/Am, Guj. hath, Mar. Aa/, Siihh. ata, Gyp. vo^f. 

b. Iranian. Lat sturnus ' starling,' Old High German stdra, 
New Pers. tar. 

st > {f)th. 

§ 863. The assimilation of ^ to {t)th is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. pustaka ' book,' Prfik. potthaa, Pfili pdthaka, 
Ea&n. pUth^ Ur. pdtha, Sindhi, Guj., Mar. pOthl, Simh. j?dto. 
Skt. hasta 'hand,' Pr&k., Pali ;<aft/ia. Ass. hath, h<U, KsSm. ath, 
Bihfiri, Hindi hdth, Panj. Aa«A, Sindhi hathu, Guj. Mtt, etc. 
(see preceding §). Skt. prastara ' stone,' Prak., Pali patthara, 
Ur. pathara, BBxig. pathar, Hindi, Panj. 2>aftAar, Sindhi |>a//MirM, 
Guj., Mar. patthar, Skt. stana ' female breast,' Pali thana, Ur., 
Bang. ^Aana, Hindi than, Panj. ^/mf), Sindhi fAanu, Guj. th&n, 
Mar. ^/mnS, Siihh. tana. 

st > s{s). 

§ 864. The assimilation of ^ to s(s) is very rare. 



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CONSONANT'OROUPS 221 

b. Iranian. Av., Old Pen. rOsta ^right,' PhL rOst^ New Pers. 
rOSy rOstf 088. rastf rasth. 

Oy > ih, th. 
§ 866. The a88imiIation oistyio fh, th, is excessively rare, 
a. Indian. Skt stydna ' idleness,' Prfik., P&li ihlnOy thina. 

sth > {k)kh. 
§ 866. The change of sth to {k)kh is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. sth&nu ^firm, diva,' Prfik. hhanUj khannUy 
' firm/ th&nu ' &va.' [See now Pischel, § 809.] 

sth > /(f). 
§ 867. The assimilation of sth to i(f) is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt asthi * bone/ Prftk., Pali aUhi, Ur., Bang. 
hada, Hindi had, haddJ, Panj. haddl, Guj., Mar. had, Siifah. ^a. 

5<A > {f)fh. 
§ 868. The assimilation of sth to (/)f7* is very rare (c£ § 288). 

a. Indian. Skt sthana ^ place/ Pr&k. fAdiui, fAdno, P&li 
thana, N&ip. /Aafat, Ur. //MinA, thana, Bang. ^Aond, fAan, Hindi 
thanna, thana, Panj. f/(</n, ^/iano, Sindhi thanu, thOnu, Gig. f%an, 
than. Mar. f/^it, ^%dr, Siifah. tdna, tana, Gyp. <Aan. 

rfA>d(d). 
§ 860. The assimilation of sth to d(d) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. o^/ti < bone/ Ur., Bang. %dia, Hindi hOd^ 
haddly Panj. Aod^, Guj., Mar. had, etc. (see ^ 867). 

5^A > <(/). 
§ 870. The assimilation of sth to t(() is exceedingly rare (cf. 
§240). 

a. Indian. Skt sthira 'firm,' Prak., Pfili thira, Ur. thira, 
Hindi ^*tr, Siifah. tern. Skt. ^//wft 'kettle/ PaU tholl, Ur., 
Panj. <*alf, Guj. thOid, Mar. <^to, Siifah. tali, Mfiladive teli. 



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222 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOOT 

Sth > {Dth. 

§ 87L The asaimilatioii of sih to {(^h is the r^ular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects and in 
North BalQcL 

a. Indian. Skb sthana 'place/ Prsk. thanay thana^ Naip. 
thaf9i, X7r. tMnd, {handy Bang, th&n, thana^ Hindi thdnOy 
thanndy Panj. thandj tjumndy thdn^ Sindhi thOntij fhanUj Guj. 
than, than, Mar. thdr, thdn, Gyp. than, etc. (see § 868). Skt. 
sthira 'firm/ Prfik., Pftli thira, Ur. tttm, etc. (see preceding §). 

b. Iranian. Av., Old Pers. 'Stdna 'standing/ PhL, New 
Pers. 'Stan, N. BaL tJidn, Kurd. SUn. 

sth > sL 

§ 872. The deaspirization of 5^A to ^ is very rare (c£ § 240). 

a. Indian. Skt ^f^^/ui ' householder/ Pali ^oAo/fAa, Bih&rl 
girhast, Hindi grihast, Panj. g{a)risati, Sindhi grihastu, Guj. 
grastha (semi-tatsama). 

sth > S{S). 

§ 878. The assimilation of sth to S(S) is extremely rare ^. § 419). 

b. Iranian. Av., Old Pers. -stdna 'standing/ Kurd. iHn, 
etc. (see § 871). 

sn > nh. 

§ 874. The change of sn to nh is very rare (cf. §§ 421, 277). 

a. Indian. Skt. sndna 'bathing/ Apab. Pr&k. nJidnu, Pfili 
nahdna, sinana, Hindi nMna^ Panj. nhdUnd, Guj. naJidn, Mar. 
naAdn, nahan&h. 

sn > n{n). 

§ 876. The assimilation of ^/t to n{n) occurs both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialects. It is more frequent in the latter group. 

a. Indian. Skt s^i^ha 'love/ Prftk. ncha, sin^ha, Apab. 
Prfik. nihu, Pftli s(i)n€ha, BihUrl n^h, Sindhi nlmhu, sanSJtd. 

b. Iranian. Av. snaoha ' cloud/ BaL nOd, N. BaL ndb. Skt 
snusar ' daughter-in-law/ Afy. nidr, BaL na§ar, Oss. n(v)ostha. 
Av. snawn 'bow-string/ Dig. Oss. naw, Tag. nvar. 



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CONSONANT'GEOUPS 228 

m > nA. 

§ 876. The change of ^n to nA is not infrequent in the Indian 
dialects (cf. § 421). 

a. Indian. Ski sn&na ^ bathing,' Hindi nhdnOy Panj. nltaUnay 
etc. (see ^ 874). 

sp>pip). 

§ 877. The assimilation of sp to p{p) is very rare (cf. § 298). 

a. Indian. Skt. vanaspati 'tree,' Pr&k. vanassaX, vanapphaly 
Pdi vanappaii. Ski sparSa ' topch,' PrSk. pharisOj Pfili pJiassOy 
A8& V|>a^, Bang. sparSa (pron. p6rSS)y Hindi, Panj. i^oro^, Guj. 
jidrof, Mar. paras. 

b. Iranian. Av. spdrdoa 'spleen,' PhL ^rir. New Pers. 
supure, EfiS. cu^HZl, a^o?, Tftt siJipM^ Kurd. j?ijiii 

5p > {p)ph. 

§ 878. The assimilation of ^ to {p)ph is the regular one to 

which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian languages. 

a. Indian. Ski sparia ' touch,' Pr&k. pharisOj Pfili phassa^ 

etc. (see preceding §). Ski spandana 'throb,' Prfik. phamdanay 

Pfili phandanay Hindi phUmdancty Panj. phariidandj Mar. j^Aam- 

5p > s{s). 

§ 870. The assimilation of 5p to ${s) is the r^;ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects. In the 
Indian dialects, on the other hand, it is very rare. 

a. Indian. Ski vanaspati 'tree,' Prfik. vanassaty panappha% 
etc. (see § 877). Ski brhaspati nom. prop., Prfik. bihassaty 
hlioassaly bahappaiy bhaapphal. 

b. Iranian. Av. span ' dog,' Old Pers. (Median) cnrofca, PhL 
saky sagy New Pers. sagy Oab. sabAy saiod^ Efifi. asb(Xy aspdy Samn. 
asba, TsiL sipd. My. spaiy Kurd. sah. Av. aspa ' horse,' Old 
Pers. asay aspa. Phi., New Pers. aspy Tftt asy Waxl yaSy Minj. 
yasia'^y ASy. Os, BaL {h)apSy Kurd, hasp. Dig. Oss. (nftoy Tag. 



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224 INDO^IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

yafs. Skt aSvcUara ^mule/ PhL, New Pers. astar^ Bal. istal^ 
N. BaL hastal, Kurd. isHr, histir. 

sp > sphjtf. 
§ 880. The aspirization otspto sphj sfy is not oommon. 

b. Iranian. Av. gao^pnta 'holy kine/ PhL gdspand^ New 
Pers. gd^andy gdspancL Av. spaSta 'white,' PhL spi^y New 
Pers. sq/Mj sipSdj i^ed, Zaf. siMf, Efti. asb€, Kuhr. 056^ Afy. 
spin, Kurd. (t)^. 

5p > sb. 
§ 881. The softening of ^ to ^& is not uncommon in the 
Iranian dialects (c£ § 290). 

b. Iranian. At. ymeta 'white,' Zaf. sUbS, KfiS. asb^, Kuhr. 
asbedy etc. (see preceding §). Av. span ' dog,' Qab. sdbiXy sav^ 
K& asbdy aspdy Samn. asba, etc. (see § 879). 

5pA > (A:)iA. 
§ 882. The assimilation of sph to {k)kh is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. sphdtaka 'boil,' Prfik. khodaa, Pftli jp^.^ 
Ur., Bang., Hindi, Panj. phoddy Sindhi phurdt. [So the Prakrit 
grammarians, falsely. See now Pischel, § 311.] 

sph > {p)ph. 
§ 883. The assimilation of sph to (p)ph is the regular one to 
which this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. q^hufa ' thrilled,' Prfik. phuda, P&li phuta. 
Skt. sphdtaka 'boil,' FHi phdia, Ur., Bang., Hindi, Panj. j>A^, 
Sindhi j^Aurc^. 

sm > mh. 
§ 884. The change of ^m to mA is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Middle Indian dialects 
(cf. § 421). 

a. Indian. Skt asmi ' am,' Pr&k. amhiy Pftli amhi, a$mi. 
Skt. vismaya 'wonder,' Prftk. vimhaa, Pftli vimhaya, Sindhi 
visdi. 



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C0NS0NANT-QB0UP8 225 



sni > 

§ 886. The aaaimilation of jm to s(8) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. vismaya 'wonder/ Sindhl vi$a%y etc. (see 
preceding §). Skt. smrti ' memory/ Hindi, Panj. surat^ Sindhi 
surti. Ski smarati 'remembers,' Prfik. saraij sumarai^ Pali 
sarati, sumaraii. 

sm > sb. 

§ 886. The change of ^m to ^6 is excessively rare (cf. § 828). 

b. Iranian. Av., Old Pers. asman * heaven,' PhL, New Pers. 
Osmarij Gab. ashdny Bal. Osmdn^ N. BaL aimdn, 

sm > jb{j^ 

§ 887. The assimilation of 5w to M/s) is very rare (c£ §§ 825, 420). 
b. Iranian. Av. aesma ' fuel,' PhL (Kf^eamf Pfiz., New Pers. 
hSjBamj Gab. ijnna, Efifi., Kuhr. (h'^jsamj Kurd, hcusang. 

SM > SM, 

§ 888. The softening of $m to ;g^ is rare (cf. § 420). 

b. Iranian. Av. aiSMa 'fuel,' Gab. isfma, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

SM > Sm. 
§ 880. The change of $m to im is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. asman 'heaven,' N. BaL aSMdny etc. (see 
§886). 

sy > {j)jh. 
§ 890. The change of sy to {j)jh is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. hdmsya, kariisa ' beU-metal,' Prflk. kaMsia^ 
Pali hanisa, Ur., Bang., Hindi hdmsd, Panj. ka^hsJ^ Sindhi 
JcamjJhDj Guj. kdnisuthj Mar. Mriis^m (cf. also Prak. tujjha ' of 
thee '< Old Ind. Husya). 

sy > s{8). 
§ 80L The assimilation of 5y to s{s) is found both in the 
Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a 



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226 lyDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

a. Indian. Skt. sylAa ^brother-in-law/ P&li sala^ Bang. SoL 
Hindi sal^ Panj. saVSL^ Sindhi sQlo^ 6uj. saXo^ sdlOy Mar. sala, 
Gyp. fioto. 

b. Iranian. Av. syava * black,* Phi. siyak, siydh, New Pers. 
siydh, WaxI 5fi> SangL Sot, Oss. saw. 



§ 802. The assimilation of sy to £(l) is very rare (cf. § 419). 

b. Iranian. Av. sydva ' black,' WaxI 1^ SangL Soi, etc. (see 
preceding §). 

§ 808. The change of sr to {k)kh is extremely rare (c£ § 404 ?). 
b. Iranian. Av. sraoni ' thigh,* Phi. sariik, sar^tij New Pers. 
sun^n, surin, WaxI Sunj, Siyn. ^un, Sarq. xaun, Bal. saren. 

sr > b. 
§ 804. The metathesis of 5r to b is rare (cf. § 354). 

b. Iranian. Av. asm *tear,' PhL, New Pers. ars^KsA. aslj 
Mfiz. asr, My. o5tf, Bal. afe, Kurd. (/i)irffr, «5r. 

5r > 5(5). 
§ 806. The assimilation of sr to s(8) is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt sahasra thousand,' Prak., Pali sahassa, 
Ka^m. 5d5, Biharl saJmsar, Sindhi sahasti. Skt. srdtas ' river,' 
Pmk. sotta, Pali sota, Siihh. sd, soya, {h)oya, 

b. Iranian. Skt. ivairu 'mother-in-law,' New Pers. xusH^ 
xtiSfHf KtlS. xasrU, Afy. x^ctSa, Bal. vo^^c;, vassH, vassd, Kurd. 
rro5i, xas^, xasrU. 

sr > si 
§ 806. The change of ^ to ^Z is very rare (cf. § 854). 
b. Iranian. Av. asm ' tear,' K&S. o^Z, etc. (see § 894). 



5r > 
§ 807. The assimilation of sr to S(Si is rare (cf. § 419). 



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CONSONANT'GROVPS 227 

b. Iranian. Av. asru ' tear/ Afy. dSa, etc. (see § 884). Skt. 

svaira * mother-in-law/ New Pers. xns(f)il^ A5y, X^CtSa, etc. (see 

§ 895). 

sr > /*(A). 

^ 808. The assimilation of ^r to 1i{h) is rare (cf. ^ 421). 

a. Indian. Skt. srOtas * river,' Siihh. hoya^ oya, sOj soya, etc. 
(see § 895). 

Aphaeresis of sr, 

§ 800. Tlie loss of initial sr occurs very seldom. 

a. Indian. Skt srOtas * river,' Simh. oya, hoyay sdy soya, etc. 
(see § 895). 

sv > Iranian x^, hv > k(Jcy 

§ 000. The assimilation of sv to 1c(k), through Iranian x^, hv, is 
very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. x^afsata 'sleep!' PhL X'a^and, New Peii?. 
xuspldan,^Slv. faian^ TaL asp, Wajl xdfsam, Siyn. iorsani, Sarq. 
xn/sam, Zaza knana, 

sv > Iranian x^, hv > (k)kh, x. 
^ OOL The assimilation of ^ to (k)kh, x, through Iranian x^, hv, 

is the regular one to wliich this consonant-group is subject in the 

Iranian dialects (cf. § 404 ?). 

b. Iranian. Av. hvar9 ' sun,' PhL xur, x^ar, New Pers. xur. 
Siyn. xCr, Sarq. xar, Yidg. xHr, Afy. nmar^ nvar, Dig. Oss. xor, 
Tag. xtlr. Av. x^araiti * eats,' PhL x^artand, New Pers. xurdan, 
Gab. xartin, Slv. fordan, Zaf. buxort, KftS. xOrdamHn, V<5n. 
xUrtan, Kulir. xardan, Nfiy. «a:ar * eat ! ' TfiL hahardvn, Siyn. 
oraram, Sarq. xoram, Sangl. x^aram, Minj, a:ar, Yidg. xUrah, 
Afy. arora?, BaL varojr, N. BaL varay, Kurd, arwnw, Dig. Oss. 
xvarun. Tag. ararin. Av. sax^dr^ 'word,' PhL, New Pers. 
siixun, Slv. tuxun, KsS. ^uoran. 

sv > Iranian x^, hv > nm, nv. 
§ 002. The change of ^ to nmj nr, through Iranian x^, hv, is 
very rare (cf. §§ 904, 829?). 

9a 



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228 lyDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

b. Iranian. Av. hvara * sun,' Afy. nmar^ nvoTy etc (see pre- 
ceding §). 

sv > Iranian x^^ hv > {p)phj / 

§ 908. The change of w to {p)ph, / through Iranian x^y hv, is 
exceedingly rare (c£ §§ 904, 871 ?). 

b. Iranian. Av. x''araiH 'eats,' Siv. yjJrcfan, etc. (see § 901). 
Av. x'afsafa * sleep ! ' Siv. fatan, etc. (see § 900). 

sv > Iranian x^^ hv > v(v). 

§ 904. The assimilation of w to fip\ through Iranian xPj hv, is 
extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. PhL x^aS, xHS * good,' Pftz. x^aSj New Pers. aidy 
JOS J Ka§. J iiSy xOSf di/n. xdiS, Sarq. xSx, Bal. vaS, Kurd. xdS, 
Zaza vaS, Av. x^araiti * eats,' BaL t;ara^, N. BaL varay^ etc. 
(see § 901). 

sv > s(s). 

§ 905. The assimilation of w to s(s) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt. svdmin * lord,' Prfik. s&nii, Pali sdml^ stiv&m}, 
Ur., Bang, idlwi, Hindi, Panj. sdlm^ Sindhi sdmlrhy Simh. hamiy 
himi, Skt. bhasvara * brilliant,' Pftli Ihassarcu Skt svala 
' own,' Hindi sngd, Panj. saggO^ Sindhi sdgdy Quj. sagum^ Mar. 
^ajfd. Skt. svdidga * mimicry,' Hindi, Panj. sdmgj Sindhi sMigOj 
Guj., Mar. sOmg. 

sv > ]}{h), a)id sv > Iranian x^f hv > h{h). 
{ 906. The assimilation of sv to h{h) is very rare (cf. § 421). 

a. Indian. Skt svdmin 'lord,' Simh. hami, himi, etc. (see 
preceding §). 

b. Iranian, Av. x^araiti 'eats,' Tal. bahardStij etc. (see § 901). 
Av. x^aida ' sweat,' PhL x^ai, x^SdS, New Pers. x^ai, WaxI arii, 
Sarq. xaib, Afy. x^'afc', BaL hed, N. BaL *^d, Kurd. xU, xoi, x6h, 
Oss. oracf. 



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CONSONANT'GBOVPS 229 

Aphaeresis ofsv> Iranian x^^ hv. 

§ 907. The loss of initial sv through Iranian x^^ ho^ is extremely 
rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. x^^afsaia ^ sleep I ' TfiL a^^ etc (see § 900). 



5* > c(cy 

§ 908. The assimilation of Sk to c{c) is rare (cf. §§ 424, 118). 

b. Iranian. Av. JiuHka *dry/ Old Pers. uSka^ PhL, New 
Pers. xxiSky ElfiS. uSI:, WaxI vask^ Aiy. vuc, Bal. Ati^a/, Oss. 

ik > s{s). 
§ 909. The assimilation of Sk to s{s) is extremely rare (cf. §427). 
b. Iranian. Av. At<£X;a * dry/ Oss. :ru5, ittwi, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

Sk > sh 

§ 910. The change of Sk to sk is excessively rare (cf. § 427). 

b. Iranian. Av. h(SJ:a * dr)%' WaxI ra^i, Oss. xtisky xuSy etc. 

(see § 908). 

Sk > S(S}. 

§ 911. The assimilation of Sk to S(S) is the regular one to whidi 
this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. New Pers. puSk * cat,' Gil. pled, WatlpiS^ Siyn. 
paSj Afy. piSd, Bal. pUSiy j;i5?, Kurd. ptSlk. 

Sk > Sc. 
§ 912. The change of SI to Sc is very rare (cf. § 118). 

b. Iram'an. New Pers. puSk * sheep-droppings,* WaxI pdSk 
Siyn. paSCj Afy. jHica. 

St > kid, jt 
§ 913. The change of St to kht, xt, is rare (cf. § 404 ?). 

b. Iranian. Av. anguSta * finger,' PhL angust^ New Pers. 
anguSt, Siv. yw^, Von. ungusSj Mftz. an^rti^, WaxI ya}igly Siyn. 
angaSt, Sarq. ingaxt, Sangl. tnyiY, Minj. an^ar, Afy. ^o, Oss 
an^r^/i. 



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230 IXDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

St > kllSj XS. 

5 914. The change of St to kJis, xSy is very rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. aSta ' eight,' PhL (h)aSt, New Pere. haitj 
WaxI M$, hat, §iyn. vaSt, Sarq. voxt, B/SL hattj SangL hatj 
Minj. aSkOj Yayn. tiocSj Afy. o/a, Osa a^^A. 

§ 915. The assiuiilation of ^ to i(f) is quite common in the 
Iranian dialect& 

b. Iranian. Av. aSta 'eight,' WaxI hat, haS, SangL hatj Afy. 
^f^a, etc (see preceding §). Av. a wjf wlto * finger,* Sangl. ingit, 
Afy. flrttfa, etc. (see § 913). 

St > (t)th. 

^ 916. The assimilation of St to (()th is extremely rare. 
b. Iranian. Av. aSta 'eight,' WaxI haO, hat, etc. (see § 914). 

St > l(J). 

§ 917. The assimilation of St to 1(1) is exceedingly rare (cf. § 426). 
b. Iranian. Av. avguSta * finger,' WaxI yangl, etc. (see § 913). 

St > $($). 

§ 918. The assimilation of St to s($) is quite common in tlie 
Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. anguSfa * finger,' Siv. gusy Von. ungtiss, Mftz. 
anguSf etc. (soe § 913). 

St > Sk. 
§ 919. The cliange of St to Sk is very rare (cf. § 222 ?). 
b. Iranian. Av. aSta ' eight,' Minj. aSka, etc. (see § 914). 

Sty > St. 

§ 920. The assimilation of % to 1^ is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is su)>ject in the Iranian dialects. 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 281 

b. Iranian. Av. iStya * brick,' PhL, New Pers. xiSt^ BaL 

Sn > khfiy xn. 

§ 021. The change of jfn to hhn. arn, is very rare (c£ § 404 ?). 

b. Iranian. Av. pOSna ' heeV PhL pOSnaky New Pers. pOS- 
nah, Waxl iyOSnah, Sarq. puxnAj My. panda^ BaL piXmjngj plfha, 
N. Bal. phlZj phld, Kurd. pdn%. 

Sn > d{d), nd. 

§ 022. The change of Sn to d{d^y nd^ is extremely rare. 

b. Iranian. Av. paSna 'heel,' Afy. pUnda, N. BaL phid^ 
phiz, etc. (see preceding §). 

Sn > n(n). 

§ 023. The assimilation of Sn to n{n) is exceedingly rare, 
b. Iranian. Av. j^^Sna ' heel,' Kurd, pdniy etc. (see § 921). 

Sn > M/^ ling. 

§ 024. The assimilation of ^ to s^s^ the, is rare (c£ § 428). 

b. Iranian. Av. pdlSna *heel,' BaL pUmzig, plikz, N. BaL 
pMzj phidj etc. (see § 921). 

Sm > m(m), 

§ 026. The assimilation of Svn to m(m) is very common. 

b. Iranian. Av. ca&man *eye,' PhL, New Pers. ca^i, Gab. 
cam, Slv., Zaf. caS, KaS., Von. cam, Kuhr., Samn. caS, Maz. cas, 
GiL ciSy Waxl ce^im, Siyn. &t», Sarq. &m, SangL &im, Minj. 
cam, Yidg. cwm, BaL mm, N. Bal. cham, Kurd, car, Zaza dwi, 
Dig. Oss. oz^to, Tag. casth. 

Sm > v(v). 

§ 026. The assimilation of ^ to v{j)) is rare (cf. § 324). 

b. Iranian. Av. calhian *eye,' Kurd. cQv, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 



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282 JNDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Sm > sm. 

§ 927. The change of ^ to ^m is very rare (cf. § 427). 

b. Iranian. Av. yuSmdJc^m ' of you,* P&z., New Pers. Sumd, 
BaL SaMj Dig. Oss. smaXy Tag. sumax. 

§m > 5(5). 

§ 028. The assimilation of Sm to 5(5) is veiy common. 

b. Iranian. Av. caSman ' eye/ Siv., Zaf., Kuhr., Samn. co5, 
GiL 0/5, etc. (see § 925). 

§m > im. 

§ 020. The softening of 5m to im occurs but seldom (c£ § 429). 
b. Iranian. Av. cainian ' eye/ WaxI cdim, etc. (see § 925). 

Sy > c(c), £{c). 

§ 030. The assimilation of 5y to c(c), 6(6}, is very rare (cf. § 424). 
b. Iranian. Av. §avaite 'goes/ Old Pers. oMyavamy New 
Pers. Sudan, WaxI cauwHy Siyn. viSafcaniy Sarq. vaiavsaniy Aiy. 
Svaly BaL Suta, N. BaL 5u2d, §uday Kurd, clan, Oss. ^t<n. 

Stj > 5(5). 

§ 031. The assimilation of 5y to 5(5) is the regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. Savaite 'goes/ Old Pers. aSiyavamj New 
Pers. h^Hy Afy. 5ml, BaL Suta, N. Bal. Sula, SuQay etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). Av. saiti * peace,' Old Pera siyatiy PhL ^^/(lAX New 
Pers. 5ady Oss. ancacL 

Sy > i(i). 
§ 032. The softening of §y to i(i) is very rare (c£ § 429). 

b. Iranian. Av. Savaite 'goes,' Old Pers. aSiyavaniy Siyn. 
viSafcam, Sarq. vaiavsam, etc. (see § 930). 



§ 083. The change of jsy to ig is extremely rare (cf. § 486). 



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CONSONANT'QROVPS 288 

b. Iranian. Av. mcusga ' marrow/ PhL maeg, New Pers. iwa/ir, 
Sarq. muig^ My. mdym, Bal. maJlg, Oss. mayz. 

sfd > je(^. 

§ 084. The assimilation of ^ed to i(4 ^ ^^ regular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. naeda ' near/ Phi. nazcMcy New Pers. naz- 
d(l7t), Sarq. nied^ My. nizcU, ni£dSj BaL ncuflk^ N. BaL najiit(j% 
Kurd. n«>«/j, n^xrli. 

^ > dr. 

§ 036. The change of ^ to dr is very conmion in the Iranian 
dialects. 

b. Iranian. Av. zrayah ' sea,' Old Pers. drayah, Phi. drayaJc, 
zrS, New Pers. darya, eara\ eiri\ Tat dairu\ BaL zircL 

zv > em. 

§ 036. The change of ^ to zm is very rare (cf. § 874). 

b. Iraniaa Av. hizva * tongue/ PhL {h)%ugvAny zuvdn^ New 
Pers. zahdHy zvMn, Gab. izvUn^ WaxI zik^ Siya ^r, Sarq. ziv, 
My. iihay Bal. zim&n, Kurd. a^7?An, Oss. awzag. 

zb>£b. 

§ 037. The change of -sft to it is extremely rare (cf. § 436). 

b. Iranian. Av. hizva ^tongue/ Afy. £iba, etc. (see pre- 
ceding §). 

£d > z{z). 

§ 038. The assimilation of zd to z{z) is the r^ular one to which 
this consonant-group is subject in the Iranian dialects (cf. § 443). 
b. Iranian. Av. diddah ' wretched/ PhL, Pfiz. duid ' thief,' 
New Pers. duzdj Gab. duz^ TfiL diz, Bal. duz. 

id> zd. 
§ 030. The change of id to ^ed is quite common in the Iranian 
dialects (cf. § 448). 



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234 lyDO-IRAyiAN PHONOLOGY 

b. Iranian. Av. duidah * wretched,' New Pers. dtudj etc. 
(see preceding §). Av. infi(2a ' reward,' PhL muzdj Paz. mojsdy 
New Pers. mujfd, m%iidy Kurd, Oss. mizd. 



hn > nk. 
§ 940. The metathesis of An to nA is very rare (cf. § 277). 
a. Indian. Skt vahni ^ fii*e,' Prfik. vanhi^ Sindhi b&hi. 

hn > n{n). 

§ 94L The assimilation of hn to n{n) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. cihna 'mark,' Prfik. cinha^ cindha, Naip. 
tlthnUy Ur., Bang, cinhaj Bihfirl cTn, cinaha^ Hindi cthna^ Panj. 
ct7mi7, Sindhi cihanu, Quj., Mar. ciiklia. 

hn > ndh. 

§ 942. The change of hn to ndh is excessively rare. 

a. Indian. Skt cihia 'mark,' Pr&k. cindlia, dnha, etc. (see 
preceding §). 

hn > h{h). 

^ 943. The assimilation of hn to h{h) is exceedingly I'are. 
a. Indian. Skt. vahni * fire,' Sindhi lahi, etc. (see § 940). 

hm > fn{m). 

§ 944. The assimilation of hm to m{m) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. brdhmana ' Brahman,' Prftk. bamhana, (in- 
scriptions of Kapur di Gin) bamana, Jaina Prftk. mdhana, Pali 
hrdhmanay Bihdrl hdinan^ Idmhan, bdmahan, Sindhi bdthbhanu, 
Simh. bathba. 

hm > mb. 

§ 946. The change of hm to mb is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt brahmana 'Brahman,' Siihh. bamba, etc. 
(see preceding §). 



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CONSONANTGROUPS 235 

hm > nibh 

§ 946. The cliaDge of km to mhh is rare (cf. § 449). 

a. Indian. Skt hrdhmana ^ Brahman/ Sindhl iMibhanUf etc. 
(see § 944). 

§ 947. The assimilation of hy to j{j) is very rare (cf. § 331). 

a. Indian. Ski guhya 'hidden,' Pr&k. gujjha, Panj. gujjh^ 
Sindhl gujhd^ Quj. guj, Mar. gUj. 

hy > (j)3h. 

§ 948. The assimilation of hy to (])jh is quite common in the 
Indian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt nahyati ' binds,' Prfik. najjhai. Ski guhya 
* hidden,' Prfik. gujjhay Panj. gujjha^ Sindhl gujhdy etc. (see 
preceding §). 

hv > (b)bh. 
§ 949. The assimilation of hv to (]b)bh is not infrequent in the 
Indian dialects (cf. § 373). 

a. Indian. Skt. jiAt^ ' tongue,* Prfik. jihbha, jlha, Pfili jirAd, 
Ass. Jita, Nfiip. jibrd^ K^alm. ^^o, other New Ind. dialects jlbh, 
excepting Sindhl Ji2^/i, Simh. diva^ Mfiladive eft?, Gyp. cib. Skt. 
gahvara * cavern,' Pfili gabbhara. Skt. vihvala * agitated,' Prfik. 
vcbbhalaj vihaJa, Hindi bihabaly Panj. 6i/j«i. 

/iv > r(t;). 

§ 950. The assimilation of hv to r(t;) is very rare. 

a. Indian. Skt, jihva 'tongue,' Simh. diva, etc. (see pre- 
ceding ^). 

hv > h(h). 

§ 95L The assimilation of hv to h(h) is extremely rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. jihvd * tongue,' Prfik jT/id, jibbha, etc. (see 
§ 949). Skt. mhvala ' agitated,' Prfik. vihala^ vebbhala, Hindi 
bihabal, Panj. ftiAuJ. 



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286 INDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Syncope of hv. 
§ 952. The loss of internal hv is exceedingly rare. 

a. Indian. Skt. jihva 'tongue/ Ea&n. JsSOf Mftladive dHj etc. 
(see § 949). 

Anusvdra and Anundsika. 
§ 963. In the Middle Indian dialects the anusvfira, a purely nasal 
soimd, has been almost entirely lost, and has vanished altogether 
in the New Indian dialects. On the other hand the anunfisika, 
or nasalization of a vowel sound, became more and more frequent 
during the Middle and New Indian periods, until it now completely 
supersedes the anusvfira. AnunSsika may stand before h or $j 
and is interchangeable with the class-nasal in all vargas in the 
New Indian dialects. Final anusvSra becomes anunSsika in the 
transition from Middle to New Indian, and such an anunSsika i>; 
retained unchanged after long vowels in Panjabi, Sindhi, QujarfitI, 
and Mar&^hl, although they elide it after a short voweL In the 
other New Indian dialects final anunasika is lost under all circum- 
stances. Avestan q possesses a certain resemblance to Indian 

a. Indian. Skt. sifhha ' lion,' Prak., Pfili 5f Ao, Hindi, Panj. 
simgh, Sindhi sinighd, ilmlm^ other New Ind. dialects simh 
(pron. simghy Skt, Prak. hanisa * goose,' E. Hindi JidmSj ham. 
Skt. snakhala * fetter,' Pali samkhala. Ass. sikali, Naip. sikrly 
Ur. iikuli^ Bang, sikal^ sikaly K Hindi ^mkar^ slkar, sik(k)ar, 
Hindi slkar, sikliar, sikal, Panj. samghar, Sindhi sa^hard, Quj. 
samglialj Mar. sdmklialy sdkhal, sikrh Skt. kuhcikd 'key,' 
Ea&n. kufiJf, Ur. kunuH, kinhjhly kuji, Bang. kHmjl, kt^'t, Hindi, 
Panj. kumjJf Sindhi knhjl^ Guj. kumcl, Mar. himjf. Skt. sandha 
' eunuch,' Prak. sandlia, Ass. sdmr^ Bang, sdmr^ R Hindi, Hindi 
samvy Panj. samdhy Sindhi sanu. Mult, samh^ sandhd, Guj., Mar. 
satiid. Skt skandlia * shoulder,' Prak., Pali khandlia, Ass. 
kdfhd(h)j Ur., Bang. kaMh, Biharl kanidlid, khdmda, Hindi 
kdfhdiid, Panj. kandhd, kannhj Sindhi kandhti, Guj. kMmdd^ 
Mar. khdfhddj Sunh. Icanda. Skt kampati Hrembles,' Prak. 



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CONSONANT'GBOUPS 287 

kaihpa% hampai, Pali kampatiy Abb. Icathp, Ea&n. 1cam(p\ 
Hindi TAii^y Panj. kamb, Sindhi AotfeA, Giq^ Mar. jfedifijp. Skt. 
idanlfk 'now/ PrSk. ddnim^ i2dni. Skt. dadhi 'cunk,' Prftk. 
da7»tfii, E. Hindi, Hindi dahi^ Paig. dahlm, Sindhi ^ftit, 6iq., 
Mar. ddhlik. 

Visarga. 
§ 064. The Old Indian visarga is entirely lost in the Middle 
and New Indian dialects. In the few instances in which h appears 
in script in New Indian it is employed under learned influence, 
and is not pronounced. 

a. Indian. Skt. duhkha ' misery,' Hindi duhkh (pron. dukh), 
duhh. Skt atUahkarana 'heart/ Hindi antahkaran (pron. 
ant{a)karan). Skt. nihSvdsa 'sigh,' Hindi nihsvds (pron. nisvas)^ 
nisvas. 

Metathesis. 
§ 066. Metathesis occurs veiy frequently in the Middle and 
New Indo-Iranian dialects, especially when one of the consonants 
involved is a liquid or a sibilant. Although transposition of indi- 
vidual consonants is the more usual case, instances of the meta- 
thesis of entire syllables are not lacking. 

a. Indian. Ski hrada 'sea,* J&ina Prfik. drahOj ArdhamSg. 
Pr&k. daha. Skt dlana 'elephant's tie-post,' Pr&k. andla. 
Skt. lagkuka ' light,' Prfik. hdluaj lahua^ Pfili Idhukc^ Ur., Bang. 
halka, R Hindi hcduk, Hindi halaka, Sindhi hOkdy Guj. AaZo- 
kuiky Mar. halaka. Skt sakaia 'stupid,' Pfili kascda. Skt. 
garddbha 'donkey,' Prfik. gaddaliOj gaddahci, Pali gadrahluiy 
Ass. gadl^j Naip. gaddJia, Ur. gadhO^ Bang, gddhdy Biharl, Hindi 
gadhd, Panj. gadhdy gaddd, Sindhi gardhu, Guj. gadhidd, Mar. 
gadhav. Skt. ks^pana ' toss,' Prak. klK^pOy Ur. phimgibOj pa- 
kdibdj Hindi, Panj. phSmknd^ Sindhi phakanu, Guj. phSthknA^ 
Mar. phMikneth. Skt vrudati ' sinks,' Prak. buddai, Ur., Bang. 
budy Hindi WW, Sindhi ludy Guj., Mar. bud beside Ur., Bang. 
dubnOy Panj. dubbandj Sindhi ^i46anu, Guj., Mar. dubanu. 



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23S INDO-IRANIAX PHONOLOGY 

Skt. paridhlycU^ ' is clothed,' Apab. PrftL parihai^ Ea&u. prat\ 
Vr.paJiary Bang., E. Hindi, Hindi pahir, Guj. j>5r, cf. also Mar. 
p^ran, pehran 'shirt/ Skt. hidala 'cat,' Apab. Prak, vidlu, 
Nfiip. hirdlu^ R Hindi, Hindi 2»f7dr, Guj. bilodl. Skt samudra 
' sea,' Prak. sanwdda, samudrxij Pfili samudda, Siihh. ^hamuda 
> *niahuda > muhuda. Skt nUpura 'anklet,' Prfik itcttm, 
nium, Pali nupura, Ur. ncpura, nupuraj Sindhi nt7n5, Guj., Mar. 
n5|>tir, Siihh. nuruva, Skt Sayana * bed,' Prfik. sayana, Pali 
sayanttj sSna, Simh. yahana. 

An instance of vowel-metathesis seems to be found in Skt 
picumanda * nimba-tree,' Pfili pucinfanda. 

b. Iranian. Av. 5tuTa 'roil,' Old Pers. $uxra-j PhL ^tor. 
New Pers. 9urXj Sir. 5fm/*, Siv. 57r, Yazdl surkuhj Kuhr., Kfil. 
silr, WaxI ^d'ir, §iy. 5lraA^ Afy. stir, BaL «*Ar, Kurd. 55r, Dig. 
Oss. surx, Tag. 5ir.r. Av. vafra ' snow,' New Pers. barf, Gab., 
KaS., Mfiz., GiL, Sarq. varf, Minj. var/ah, Yidg. vatfuh, Tayn. 
ro/fr, Afy. rarra, Kurd, ftayr. Av. /ar^na 'thirsty' PhL tUit, 
New Pers. tiS, WaxI to^(f), §iyn. ^oiwo, Sarq. tar{l), Yidg. 
frtiSiia, Afy. /aiai, Bal. iuntiag, iu7uxg, N. BaL ^/iim?, Kurd, ft, 
/awf. Old Pers. haxfri nom. prop., PhL hajtr, haxl^ New Pci>j. 
balx, Av. a^TM ' tear,* PhL, New Pers. arSj KaS. (wl, Maz. o^r, 
Afy. 5Sa, BaL ok, Kurd, (wr, (A)i5fir. Av. iarana 'boundary,' 
PhL Jcandrf New Pers. lardUj l:andr, Oss. Jcliaron. Av. mo^ 
' marrow,' PhL mazg, New Pers. tnayjr, Sarq. vmSg^ Afy. mdy£0, 
Bal. maigf Oss. i)/ay£r. Av. rZto^/i ' span,' PhL vitast, New Pers. 
lidasty gidastj Afy. rZilf, vkSfj Ivlst Skt ZiAjd 'nit,' New Pers. 
riSl% Afy. rica. Dig. Oss. liska^ Tag. ?wi;. Av. fSu ' cattle,' Afy. 
Spa, Span. Av. ^rra ' horn,' Phi. srttb, sruv, New Pers. saru(7i\, 
surHy BaL srunbiy surtan, Kurd, ^air 'stag.' Av. pudra 'son,* 
Old Pera jm^'^a, PhL pu^ar), puhr, New Pers. pus(ar), par. 
Gab. inJr, KaS. pUr, pxlr, Samn. |>lr, Wr/xi p6tr, §i/n. j)t«^, Sarq. 
|)^ Minj. par, Yayn. j?u/a7i, N. BaL phusay, Dig. Oss. /«rfA, 
Tag. frth Av. attra ' cloud,* Oss. arw. 



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CONSONANT'GBOUrS 289 

Assimilation of syllables, 

§ 956. The assimilation of syllables is found occasionally both 
in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Skt nairahjana nom. prop., Pali nerahjara. 
Ski navanavati ' ninety-nine/ Ka&n. namdwafnathy Bang, niv^ 
nawaXj Bihflr!, Hindi nindiiavS, niyCmavP, Panj. fiadlndvcj SindhT 
nadhdnav^f vadhdnavS, navdnavS. 

b. Iranian. Av. navadasa 'nineteen/ Phi. navdcdahum, New 
Pers. nuvdzdahy Aty. nUnas, «tf&w, Dig. Oss. naudas. Tag. nudas. 
Ski iiakJia * finger-nail,* Phi., New Pers. ndxurij Afy. nUky Bal. 
ndkun, ndhun, N. Bal. ndzun, Kurd, nainuk. PhL dlnxnak 
(read ddvlnak ?) ' mirror,' New Pers. dytfiah, BaL ddSn(k), Dig. 
Oss. aidana. 



Dissimilation of syllables. 

§ 957. Dissimilation of syllables is found occasionally, although 
the phenomenon is comparatively rare. 

a. Indian. Ski kakkola ^ bdellium,' Pali takkdla, Simh. takul 
Ski jahVcikd 4eech,' Pali jalOpikaj jaluka. Ski dadrOghna 
* remedy for leprosy,' Pali gadduhana. Ski pipilika ' ant,' Pali 
kipillikaj pipllika. 

Loss of syllables. 
§ 968. The loss of entire syllables is found quite frequently 
both in the Indian and in the Iranian dialects. 

a. Indian. Ski astamayana ' sunset,' Prak. atthamana. Ski 
avata ' ditch,' Prak ada^ Siifah. vdUi. Ski durgddcvl ' wife of 
6iva,' Prak. duggdvl. Ski devakula 'temple,' Prak. dSula^ 
dSmUla, dSvakultty Ur. dSulOj Bang., Hindi dSval, Panj. d&)dldj 
Sindhi dHnllj Guj. (femj Mar. dSul Skt. dvddaia 'twelve,' 
Prak. vdrahay Pali dvddasa, bdrasa, Kalm. bdh, Ur. bdra^ Bang. 
vdrdy Bihan, Hindi bdrah, W. Hindi Mrd, Panj. bdrdthy Sindhi 
BoraAan*, Guj. bdr. Mar. 6drd. Ski i«/«Ia 'slack,' Prak. 
sidhila, sa^ila, Mag. Prak. dhilla, Pali ^fAite, ^orfWte, Ass. 



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240 IKDO-IBANIAN PHONOLOOT 

dhO, Nfiip. dJaldj Ur. dhfUt, Bang, dhtl, BihArl dJula^ R Hindi 
dJud, Hindi dhflO, Panj. ^tAiOo^ Sindhi dhild, dhiro, dhard, Guj. 
dAiluiJ^ Mar. dhilOj dM, sadhal Skt vifhSati 'twenty/ Pr&k. 
riffoiy F&li tUsatij visa, Ea&n. vuA, Bang. vUy Bihfirl, Hindi bis, 
Panj., Sindhi vlh, Guj., Mar. tTis. Skt anurOpa ' parable,' Pr&k. 
anurikfay Pfili anurUpOy SiihL wtirM. 

b. Iranian. Ay. paitiddua ' mouth-ydl,' Pahl. paddm^ New 
Pers. jian^ iMifklm. Av. Orisata * thirty,' PhL «/*, Pftz., New 
Pers. ^, Afy. cferl. At. anfor^ 'within,' Old Pera. qiar, PhL 
a»u2ar, New Pers. dar^ andar. Old Pers. *duvUf^m karam 
'for the second time,' PhL datlgary Psz. dadigary New Per& 
cfF^or, dadigary N. BaL ^l(A), Kurd, difor, cKim. Av. hizH 
'tongue,' Old Pers. {h)i9avay PhL (A)u.«w»i, ^nftxaii, mvan, New 
Pers. MbAn, subdny Osh. ijmlfiy WazI j^iky Siyn. .sat;, Sarq. jnVy 
Afy. ii^a, Kurd. ogmdHy Tag. Oss. aweag. Ay. a^tguMa ' finger/ 
PhL angusty New Pers. anguSty Siv. i/ii^, Von. ungusSy Mto. 
att^ti^ WaxI yan^l^ Siyn. angaHy Sarq. ingcuriy SangL tM^ 
Minj. an^ar, Afy. ^fifo^ Oss. angursth. 



Contraction. 

§ 069. Contraction of vowels frequently results from the 
syncope of an intervocalic consonant in the Middle and New Indo- 
Iranian dialects. In the latter group there was no objection to 
hiatus, although y or, more rarely, v was occasionally inserted to 
prevent the contact of two vowels (see §§ 122, 123, 137, 138, 143, 
144, 164, 183, 184, 229, 232, 242, 256, 260, 270, 272, 292, 307, 
and consult §§ 341-348, 379-394). Hiatus m the New Indian 
dialects is not as frequent as in Middle Indian* The Middle and 
New Iranian dialects afford comparatively few examples of vowel- 
contraction. 

The principal contractions in the New Indian dialects are as 
follows : 

&-ti>d'y a-¥t>di'y a + t«>aM; { + !>!; t + a>^; u + u>U; 



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CONSONANT'GBOUPS 241 

U'¥a>dy butd+f, a + il, «+a, fi + l, and « or (J + long vowel ordi- 
narily remain in hiatus. 

a. Indian. 81d.carfMkiJtra^leaihet»woAeTy'FBhw 

Ur. camdra, Bang, cdmdr, Hindi, Panj. carndtj Sindhi cantdrw, 
€hij. camitrj Mar. cdiftAdr. Skt bhaginl ' sister/ Prfik. &a%tiif, 
bhaMj Pali iAo^mf, Ur. 6%diin{, bhaUnl^ Bang. baTn^ Hindi 
baftin, Panj. bJulinj bdiihhj Sindhi bh&tUj Guj. bShSny Mar. 
ioAln, &Aai»i. Skt. caturtha 'fourth,' Pr&k. caUUha, caMtha, 
eoUhay Ur. dXudhc^ Bang. cdtidS, Hindi, Panj. cSkuiMy Sindhi, 
Guj. cdthOy Mar. cdumthO. Ski vyajana 'fan,' Prfik. viana, 
Hindi d^tia. Skt rajo^ula ' palace,' Prfik. rdUlct, rdaula, l&Ula, 
P&li r^jakulaj Bihftrl raar, Hindi rdal. Skt lulpito ' barber,' 
Prftk. nhdvia, naviOj Ssk. Prfik. ndbid<i, Bih&rl, Mar. naU, other 
New Indian dialects ndl. Skt nikcUa 'near,' Mfig. Prsk. niadOy 
Pfili nikatOy Bihfirl niyar, na*. Skt ctoi^na' twofold,' Prfik. 
dutina, Pfili diguna^ Hindi, Panj. dUnd, Sindhi dUnH^ Mar. dUn. 
Skt sngandha ' fragrant,' Prfik. ^uamd/io, Pfili sugandhd, Hindi, 
Panj. saufhdhd. Skt, Pfili rddana ' lament,' Bang. rdit€f Hindi 
r(^nd, Panj. rlhUl, Sindhi nuinUj Guj. rcHnfife. Skt kdkila 
'cuckoo,' Prfik., Pfili kdilOy Ur. kdyilay Hindi, Panj., Sindhi 
koilf Guj. A:()ya^ Mar. kdkll, Anglo-Ind. kdil. Skt gddhuma 
'wheat,' Apab. Prfik. gdhiimu, Pfili gOdhUmUj As& gheihhti, Nfiip. 
gahUfhj Ur. gahamay gama, Bang, ^e^, ^am, Bihfirl gohiifh, 
Hindi 9(^m)At«ifi, gMihumj gheuthy Panj. ghenifh, Sindhi gShuthj 
Guj. ghaUniy Gyp. ^tt;. 

b. Iranian. PhL daAifn 'gift,' New Pers., Gab. (Klifn. Old Pers. 
tiai6a 'beautiful,' PhL nft;, nawi{lA), New Pers. n^. Av. haoa 
' from' + adairi 'beneath,' PhL as^^ Pfiz. oi^, New Pers. isgir, Siv. 
If, Zaf. i&Ty other Central dialects jFr, Samn. j^,TfiLyiar, Judaeo- 
Pers. JB5^, Kurd, jrtv. Tag. Oss. dato. Av. vtbu^ vibava 'widow,' 
PhL vevaky New Pers. bevdh, KfiS. vT^fd, xHS, Kurd. 61, Tag. Oss. 
iday. Av. rooytia ' oil,' PhL r^yan^ rdkan, New Pers. rdyan^ Kfifi. 
ruyan, r5, Wfixl ruyiin, ruyn^ Sarq. ramn, SangL n>y, Minj. royan, 
Kurd. rdn. A v. ^dlUabara 'judge' (cf. the Aramaean loan-word 
wnan*^, Dan. iii. 2), Phi. datvar, datbar^ ddvar, New Pers. davar. 

B 



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242 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOG Y 

Epenfhesis of vowels. 

§ 060. The insertion of vowela in a consoniint-group to obviaie 
a succession of consonants is extremely frequent both in the Indian 
and in the Iranian dialects. The phenomenon occurs somewhat 
more often in the latter system of dialects on account of their ten- 
dency toward assimilation rather than retention of consonant- 
groups (see § 460). In the Middle and New Indian dialects the 
vowel most commonly inserted to break up a consonant-group is a. 
Epenthetic i, which is comparatively rare, is found chiefly in 
Panjsbl and Sindhl, while epenthetic u seems to be hardly found 
except in the eastern dialects (cf. §§ 3, 4). The three vowels a, i, 
and tt are all used in the Middle and New Iranian dialects. Of 
these a is generally preferred, but if the consonant-group contains 
a sibilant, i is regularly inserted, while u is employed when the 
group includes a labial soimd. The usage is, however, very 
capricious, and it seems scarcely possible to lay down exact rule& 

The epenthesis of long vowels occurs with extreme rarity in the 
Middle and New Iranian dialect& 

a. Indian, Skt. khadga 'sword,* Prfik., Pali khagga^ Ur. 
khamddj Bang, kharag, Hindi kharag, kMg, khdHidj sagg, Sindhl 
khandj Guj. kharum, Mar. kh&mdj khadga. Skt. dadru ' ring- 
worm," Pali dadduy Hindi dadj Sindhl dddh(r)u, Guj. dddar^ Mar. 
dada^j dad. Skt surya 'sun,' Prfik. styja, sHriay Pfili sUriyOj 
Hindi, Panj. sUraj^ Sindhl suriju, sHrju, Guj. svlraj, sUrj Siihh. 
(h)iru. Skt snana 'bath,* Apab. Prftk. nhdnUj Pfiifi. Prfik. 
sananaj Pfili nahanay sindnaj Bihfirl nahanj Hindi nMna, Panj. 
nhaUnay Guj., Mar. nahan. Skt. iUsma * slime,' Prfik. simbha^ 
Pfili siUswnay s^hha, Simh. sem{a). Skt. agni 'fire,' Prfik. 
aggij Pfili {ag)giniy aggi^ Ur. nia, Bang, agwi^ Hindi ag^ Panj. 
aggj Sindhl agi^ Guj., Mar. ag^ Simh. gini^ Gyp. yog. Skt 
Slagha 'praise,' Prfik. salaha^ Pfili sildghOy Bihfirl, Hindi, Panj., 
Sindhl sardhnd. Skt ratna 'jewel,' Prfik. rayana^ 6fiur. Prfik 
radanoy Pfili, Gfithfi ratafia^ Hindi ratatiy Sindhl ratanUy ratnuy 
Simh. ruvan. Skt. mlayati * withers,' Prfik. milaXy Pali milayati, 



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CONSONANT-GROUPS 248 

ffindl milnHy Sindhl milanu. Ski Kls£a ' trouble,' Hindi haUsj 
ilcs, Panj. Xral^, Sindhl JcilSsUj Mar. liZ^ JfciZe^. Skt slr% 
* woman,' Prftk., Pali Uth% tJOj G&ihft wfr^, XJr. «ff, vulgar Ur. 
ftfa, colloquial Hindi t^frf, as/rf, Panj. Wraya, Sindhl tiriyHj 
istrly Elu f^ri, Siihh. istri. Skt. ^marana 'recollection,' Apab. 
Pr&k sumaranUf Bihfiil mmtran, sumaran. 

b. Iranian. Av. raoyna * oil,' PhL r^Awn, rdyan, Pftz. raoganj 
New Pers. r^yan, KsS. ruyany r5, WatI ru/an, rwyti, Sarq. 
mun, SangL r^, Kurd. rUn, Av. ^pan ' dog,' Med. (nraica, PhL 
^A:, sagy New Pers. ^o^, Gab. sdbdy sava^ KsS. os&a, aspd, Samn. 
ashay TsL 5t|>a, Afy. spai^ Kurd. 5a%. Av. rooxSna ' shining,' 
PhL, New Pers. rdSany Siyn. rdSnagaj SangL rC^nai, Afy. rtiii, 
BaL r^janf, Kurd, rdn^ riZn, ruAnat, rt?na(%)i. Av. ^dZa ' army,' 
PhL 5paA, New Pers. sipdhj Dig. Oss. afsOdj Tag. a/«4d, cf. Anglo> 
Ind. sepoy. GAv. xSmaka 'yours,' TAv. ynSmaka^ Pfiz., New Pers. 
jumd, BaL £at^. Dig. Oss. sntaXy Tag. .sumoo?. Av. taoxman 
' seed,' Old Pers. toum^ PhL tox^n^ New Pers. fturni. Gab. iilmj 
Nfiy. /«w, Wfixl taynij §iyn. ^Oym, Sarq. Wym, Tidg. Myum^ 
Afy. f^a, BaL /tim, torn. Av. ^ooni ' loin,' PhL sarin^ sartikj 
New Pers. surUny surin, WaxI ^wj, Siyn. Sautiy Sarq. a:5u», 
Bal. sarSn, Av. xraosdit 'should scream,' PhL xrOs 'cock,' 
New Pers. xnrdSj Gab. wrt«5, BaL A'um^, hrdSy Kurd. Jor55. Av. 
^oyd ' three,' Pfiz. 5^, New Pers. sihy Tfit 5e, Wfixl truly §iyn. 
arrai, Sarq. Aaroi, SangL trdiy Minj. ^orai, Tayn. 6ara% Afy. 
dr^, Kurd. s^. Av. hrvai ' brow,' PhL 6r«, New Pers. otrii, 
Gab. hurdy Wfixl varoo, Siyn. WMy, Sarq. varaOy Sangl. twrij, 
Afy. vrHjOy BaL fetirtwn, &irt^n, Kurd. hurUy hur% Dig. Oss. 
ar/^%. Tag. arfig. Av. draoya 'lie,' Old Pers. drauga^ PhL 
dr^jr, c?r5y, New Pers. (for^, dur^, Mfiz. darUy durU, TfiL dti, 
Sarq. duruy Afy. (lardy, BaL dardgy drdgy N. BaL dr5y. Av. 
m9r96yu * death,* Oss. malath. Av. mai-paitifrasa 'with re- 
sponse,' PhL pdtfiUSy Pfiz. pddajrdhy New Pers. j7a<2^/braA, 
|7d(2q/braA. 



B 2 



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244 INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 

Final Syllables. 
§ 90L During the transition from the Old Indo-Iranian dialects 
to the New, original final syllables have been almost completely 
lost. Final single consonants of the Old Indo- Iranian dialects 
have thus disappeared for the most part, and the same hie has 
met the old short final vowels, while long final vowels have either 
been shortened or else lost altogether. Complete discussion of 
these problems, however, belongs rather to inflection than to 
phonology, but numerous examples of reduction and loss in the 
Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects of final syllables existing 
in the Old Indo-Iranian languages may be gathered from almost 
every page of this work. 



Sandhi. 

§ 062. The elaborate system of sandhi found in Sanskrit^ and 
the less artificial conditions observable both in Avestan and Old 
Persian, ceased to exist in the Middle and New Indo-Iranian 
dialects, although certain traces are still found in Middle Indian 
(Pischel, Granmu d. Prah-Spr.,^^ 156-175, 353, ChUders, JRAS., 
N.S. xi. (1879), 99-121, Miiller, Pali-Gramm., 59-64, Frankfurter, 
Ifandb. of Pali, 21-25) and possibly in the Pftmir dialects of the 
New Iranian (Geiger, Gruudr, der iran, Philol, L b, 307-308). In 
the New Indian dialects, however, as in the Middle and New 
Iranian dialects (excepting the P&mir group) sandhi is concerned 
entirely with word-composition. It does not, therefore, strictly 
form part of a discussion of the comparative phonology of the 
Middle and New Indo-Iranian dialects. 



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I. SUBJECT-INDEX 



(Nomben refer to §f .) 



Anaptyxis of d 23, u 55. 

Anunfisika 953. 

Anusv&ra953. 

Aphaeresis of a 11, a 21, i 31, 
u 51, ^ 93, A; 127, 5 422, A 455, 
Jcs 491, sr 899, sv 907. 

Apocope of a 13, d 22, { 33, 1 42, 
f« 53, € 94, k 129, y 338, ^ 402, 
£ 431, A 457, ^n 500. 

Assimilation of syllables 956. 

Consonants, single 113-459. 

Consonants, single: k 114-130, 
kh, X 131-139, g 140-147, flfA, y 
148-153, ta 154, C 155-171, Ch 
172-177, j 178-187, i& 188-190, 
n 154, ^ 191-198, th 199-207, 
d 208-213, dA 214-217, n 218- 
219, < 220-236, th, $ 287-245, 
d 246-263, dh, h 264-274, n 275- 
286> 1> 287-294, l?A, / 295-302, 
b 303-310, bA, iO 311-318, m 
319-329, y 330-348, r 349-357, 
I 358-363, V 364-394, J 395-402, 
; 403-409, S 410-422, S 423-431, 
ir 432-438, i 439-443, h 444- 
459. 

Consonant-groups 460-952. 

Consonant-groups, single, begin- 
ning with A: 461-494, g 495-503, 
flfA, y 604-505, 19 506-511, C 612- 
514, j 515-527, h 528-537, d 538- 
640, n 641-558, ^ 559-597, th, $ 
698-599, d 600-618, dh, b 619- 



631, n 632-664, l) 665-^689, 1>A, / 
690, b 691-696, 6A, W 697-700, 
m 701-712, r 713-796, 1 797-806, 
V 807-809, i 810-821, S 822-853, 
8 854-907, S 908-932, M 933-937, 
i 938-939, h 940-952. 

Contraction 969. 

Dissimilation of syllables 967. 

Epenthesis of vowels 960, k 130, 
^ 236, d 263, n 286,/302, b 310, 
m 329, m 329, r 357, v 378, h 
459. 

Final ^Uables 961. 

Loss of syllables 958. 

Metathesis 955. 

Prothesis of a 14, t 34^ ti 54, 
kh 139, n 285, y 340, V 377, * 
45a 

Sandhi962. 

Syncope of a 12, t 32, ti 52, A: 128, 
g 147, gh 153, C 171, j 187, t 235, 
d 262, dA 274, n 284, l> 294, jpA 
301, 6 309, tn 328, y 339, r 356, 
I 363, t' 376, ^ 402, 5 422, # 438, 
h 456, jrn 500, ^ 580, fe 590, 
ic 813, hn 952. 

Visarga954. 

Vowels 1-112. 

Vowels, single : a 2-14, d 15-23, 
f 24-34, f 36-42, U 43-65, « 56- 
65, r 66-82, f 83, I 84, ^ 85- 
94, it 95-98, b 99-107, dtc 106- 
112. 



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II. REVERSE-INDEX 

(Nombert refer io f §.) 



a = a 2, < a 16, t 25, 1 36, u 44, 

u57, r68, ^86,0 101. 
ar < r 67. 
oZ < r 80. 
d < a 6, = d 15, < i 26, f 39^ 

tt 46, « 60, r 76, 5 88, aya 341, 

aya 346, avd 379, ari 388, uva 

393. 
t < a 3, d 17, = i 24, < f 37, 

u 45, a 58, r 71, 5 87, 6 102, 

^ 221, d 247, iya 345, A 451. 
ir < r 70. 
f < a 6, a 17, i 28, = f 35, < H 47, 

fi 61, r 77, ^89, ai 97, d 104, iya 

345, fm 391, ^ 392. 
« < a 4, tt 18, i 27, f 38, = w 43, 

< « 59, f 74, d 103, dtt 110, i; 365, 
am 380. 

tir < f 73. 

tl < a 7, a 18, f 29, M 48, = « 56, 

< d 105, du 111, t; 365, am 380, 
tiva 394. 

r = r 6a 

6 < a 8, d 19, 1 30, f 40, ti 49,fi62, 

r 78, (? 85, ai 98, ^ 106, aya 342, 

ayo 344, aya 347, ava 381, at;i 

384, dtwty 387. 
ai < e 91, ai 96, aya 348, dray 

387. 
ai = ai 95, < ay5 344, avi 385. 
< a 9, a 20, f 41, W 50, « 63, 

r 79yd 90, d 99, du 112, aya 343, 

am 382, dm 386, iva 389, tt;^ 

390, uva 394. 



ati < a 10, d 100, au 109, am 383. 

du r= dti 108. 

ft = * 114, < iA 132, jT 141, gh 149, 

1> 288, t; 366, & 445. 
ft(ft) < kt 461, Ay 474, ftr 475, Jto 

479, A-J 480, I9kh 508, rft 713, Ik 

797, 5ft 822, sft 854, SV 900. 
A4 < ft 117. 
kh < ft 115, = ftft 131, < gh 150, 

5 404. 
(ft)ftA < k$ 481, f9kh 508, rft n4, 

rf » 784, $k 823, jy 850, sk 855, 

5^ 860, 5f% 866, sph 882, sr 893, 

5t;901. 
a: < ft 115, d 248, Ih 312, h 446. 
a:(4 < «; 901. 
xt< Sk 913. 
ic» < Sn 921. 
iW < ft^ 482, 5ft 914. 
g<k 116, = ^ 140, < gh 161, < 222, 

d 249, r 367. 
gig) < ks 483, ^n 498, gy 602,gr 

503, »9gr 610, jn 515, dg 538, ci? 

600, dgh 601, t^ 717, ry& n9, 

^7 798. 
^<jn616. 
gv < t;369. 

gh < ftft 133, flf 142, = jrA 148. 
{g)gh < ghr 504, dgh 602, ryr 718, 

rjf A 720. 
y < ft-A 133, g 142, i 179, t? 368, 

i44a 
{y)Y < 9^ 498. 
yd < kt 462. 



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IL REVERSE-INDEX 



247 



ym < km 472. 

y£<kUf^3. 

fog <f9k 506, he 528, m 321. 

99gh < f9kh 509, f9g 511. 

c < t 118, iA 134, = c 155, < cA 

173, j 180, < 223, 5 424, * 447. 
(c)c < A:^ 484, cy 513, ct? 514, hc 

529, ^ 564, f5 591, ilsy 595, ^C 

810, $C 856, fib 908, ^ 930. 
d < C 170. 

^ < t 118, C 156, S 424. 
(c)^ < ct; 614, fr 567, Stf 930. 
{* < C 157, = ch 172, < ^ 396, J 

405, S 411. 
(c)c& < its 485, fe 592, % 596, thy 

598,1)5 684, ^C 811. 
i < C 158, = j 178, < j& 189, y 

331, r 360, S 412, 1 425, f 441. 
{j)j< *? 486, jn 517, jy 521, jt; 

524, nc 530, dy 607, dr 609, bj 691, 

rj 722, ry 763, hy 947. 
J< Cl59,jBr433. 
jh < j 181, = jh 188, < (I 250, 

5 412. 
( j)iA < ks 486, jy 522, jv 625, d% 

619, dAr 626, dhv 629, rjA 725, 

sy 890, Ay 948. 
n < n 27a 
{h)h < jh 518, tic 632, ny 664, ny 

661, sn 838. 
n; < nV531, ny 563, ny 660. 
^ < ch 174, = .* 191, < th 200, rf 

209,^224. 
{t)f < nt 541, it 569, ^r 668, n^A 641, 

rt 730, r^A 739, st 824, irfr 828, 

^A 834, st 861, 5f A 867. 
ir < tr 669. 
iA < c 160, cA 176, = ^A 199, < t 

226, th 238. 
CO^A < tr 670, eWA 603, rf A 740, st 

'825, ^r 829, Sth 835, 5^ 866, 5^A 

868. 
rf < ^92, ^A 201, = ^ 208, < ^ 

226, d 251, dA 265, i 359, i 397. 
(djd<dg 539, n< 542, nd 646, ndA 



649, fr 671, dr 610, i>< 666, r< 731, 

rd 743, rdA 749, ft 826, ?fr 830, 

5^A 836, sth 869. 
dA'< ; 193, .^A 202, ^ 239, cZA 266, 

r361. 
(d)^A < ddA 604, <lr 611, rd 744, 

rdA 760, rs 777, ?? 827, str 831, 

^A837. 
n < n277. 

{n)n < ksn 492, jft 519, he 633, ny 
' 665, nv 667, ny 662, m 726, m 

754, fn 839. 
nt < nth 544. 
nir < ntr 637. 
^ < vt 543. 
ndr < nir 638, nclr 648. 
ndA < n^A 546. 
nA < m 840, sn 874, An 940. 
i < k 'll9, e 161, eh 176, < 194, 

= ^220, < ^A 240,(2 252, dA 267, 

5 413. 
(^ < At 464, gdh 496, tm 561, «y 

666, fr* 572, ft; 581, nt 632, n<A 

644, n(fA 651, pt 666. rA 715, rt 

732, S< 862, rfA 870, st 915. 
fr < rA 716. 
th<e 162, f 227, = th 237, < d 

263. 
(f)th < kth 469, n< 633, ndA 662, 

rth 741, st 863, 5fy 866, 5fA 871, 

£^916. 
^ < C 162, * 227, 5 414. 
d < C 163, j 182, d 210, < 228,= d 

246, < dA 268, r 362, 5 415. 
(d)d < gdih 496, JV 526, tv 682, dy 

608, dr 612, dt; 616, dAy 620, 

dAr 627, dAt; 630, nt 634, nth 646, 

ndA 663, l)f 667, 6d 694, rt 733, 

rd 746, In 922. 
dr < tr 673. 

dA < <A 241, d 264, = dA 264. 
(d)dA < ydA 497, dAy 621, dAr 628, 

dAv 631, i?* 668, 6dA 695, rd 746, 

rdA 751, rdhv 752. 
5<d254. 



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248 



INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 



n< n 218, d 256, = n 275, < m 

320, r 363, I 360, i; 370. 
{n)n < hn 470, km 492, gn 499, 

Jft 620, ftc 634, 'dg 640, wd 648, 

ndh 560, ny 656, nt; 658, n< 636, 

ncfr 660, ndft 665, ny 663, nr 

664, rn 727, rn 755, rin 785, sn 

841, sn 875, In 923, /m 941. 
nd < nd 547, nt 635, n^A 646, ♦idr 

649, ndl^ 654, £n 922. 
ndh < nth 647, An 942. 
{n)nh < ndh 656. 
nm < dm 606, 50 902. 
nv < sv 902. 
nA < 5n 842, sn 876. 
i? < *'l20, t 195, =i> 287, < ph 

296, 6 304. 
p(p) < km 473, tp 660, ^w 663, tv 

583, jm 675, i>y 679,|?r 680, inp 

702, rp 758, n; 767, Ip 799, jp 

844, 5p 877. 
pt < tm 662. 
i?S < y& 690. 
i>A<j?289, =i?A296. 
(l?)i?A < sp 845, 5p 878, 5i?A 883, 

6t;903. 
/ < 1? 289, hh 313, m 322, r 371, 

A 448. 
/(/) < ft? 584, im 676, SV 903. 
ft< if 466, j?^ 669. 
/?A < I?/ 670. 
fr < tr 574. 
b<n 27SyP 290, i?A 297, = b 303, 

< 6A 314, m 323, y 332, t; 372. 
h(h) < jv 527, tv 585, cto 617, j?^ 671, 

hj 693, 6r 696, bhr 698, w6 704, 

r6 759, rv 768, Zt? 805, vy 807. 
6d < 6j 692. 
ba < ps 685. 
bh < k 121, (% 269, ph 298, 6 305, 

= bh 311, < y 333, r 373, A 

449. 
{b)bh < bhy 697, bhr 699, rdAt; 753, 

rbh 760, rr 769, «n 847, hv 

949. 



m < n 279, i> 291, b 306, (A 315, 
= w 319, < t? 374. 

ni{m) < km 471, ym 601, dm 605, 
nm 659, pn 677, ^wy 678, mn 
701, nib 705, m6A 706, mr 710, 
mt? 711, rm 761, Im 801, im 814, 
sm 848, f >n 925, Am 944. 

mb < mp 703, mr 709, Im 800, Am 
945. 

m6A < Am 946. 

mv <m 327. 

mh < bh 316, m6A 707, sm 849, sm 
884. 

iWjer < |>5 686. 

y < « 92, A 122, AA 137,flf 143, C 164, 
j 183, ^ 229, th 242, d 256, dA 270, 
i? 292, 6 307, = y 330, < V 375, 
i 398, S 406, A 461. 

yiy) <dhye22. 

yah < iZ 64. 

r<r 81, 1 196, ^ 211, dA 216, 1 230, 
d 267, n 280, y 334, = r 349, < 
2 361. 

r(r) < kr 476, ghr 605, tr 575, n/r 
639, pt 672, |?r 681, m 728, rt 
735, frf 747, m 766, m 762, fy 
764, rv 771, rs 778, rSn 786, rA 
796. 

ra < r69. 

ri< r 72. 

ru< r 75. 

rj < nf 765. 

ffA < r^ 729. 

rd<rt 734. 

r6A < ft; 770. 

rs < rSn 787. 

rjg < fj 723, rl 779, rSn 788. 

r A < th 203. 

r < d 211. 

fA < th 203, dA 214. 

i < t 197, <A'204, d 212, dA 216, 
n 219, t 231, m 243, d 268, dA 
271, n 281, y 335, r 364, = i 368, 
< ^426. 

l(^ < kl 478, tr 676, tv 586, dr 613, 



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//. REVEBSE'INDEX 



249 



dhy 623, ntr 640, rl 736, rd 748, 
m 767, fy 766, rs 794, rA 796, Zy 
803, Iv 806, 5^ 917. 

lx<ktr 467. 

W < ff 737. 

b< ^894. 

Ik < ih 205, (fil 2ia 

(tfik <lyS0i 

I < t 198, d 213, d* 217, n 219, th 
244, c2 259, n 282, r 355', { 362. 

I®<5?r832. 

lA < dA 217. 

t; < i 123, kh 138, jT 144, j 184, 
/232,(i260,(iA272,n283,l>293, ! 
i?A 299, b 308, 6A 317, m 324, 
y 336, = t; 364, < f 399, 5 416, 
A 450. 

v(v) < tv 587, dv 618,1?^ 673, rv 772, 
ty 808, vr 809, ^ 904, hn 926, 
At; 960. 

t«K fi 65, 5 107. 

vd<pt 674. 

ty < 6Ar 700. 

vs < ps 687. 

6' = ^ 395, < 5 407, 5 417. 

s(i) < rs 780,'^ 818. 

ic < cch 512. 

icA < cch 512. 

5 = 5 403, 5 418. 

5(f) < r5 781, 5y 851. 

5 < *A "l35, C 165, cA 177, t 233, 
m 325, i 400, ? 408, = 5 410, < 
S 427, xr 434, A 452. 

s{8) < Is 487, nc 535, i^ 666, *r 577, 
is 594, % 597, thy 599, ps 688, 
ri 774, rsv 775, r5 782, & 812, 
im 815, ^ 819, ^ 820, A; 821, 
5y 852, sc 859, st 864, ^ 879, Sfn 
885, 5y 891, 5r 895, 5t; 905, 5* 909, 
5*918. 

5A; < Sk 910. 

st < sth 872. 

str < pstr 689. 

sp < tv 588. 

5/< 5p880. 



5& < 5p 881, sm 886w 

5m < 5m 927. 

sr < dr 614. 

5i < 5r 896. 

£ < A; 124, c 166, 5 419, s 5 423, 

< #435, i 436, 442, A 453. 
§(S)<ks 488, tr 578, is 593, pS 688, 

r5 781, r§n 789, 5C 857, 5*A 873, 

sy 892, 5r 897, Sk 911, £m 928, 

^931. 
Sk< SCB58, St 919. 
& < Sk 912. 
5* < % 920. 
Sn < ksn 493, rSn 790. 
Sv < rSv 792. 
ir< * 126, C 167, j 186, jA 190, 

5 420, 5 428, = # 432, < i 443, 

A 454. 
;8<j^ < Jcs 490, iy 623, rfAy 624, sni 

887, 5n 924, 0d 934, i(2 938. 
;ey < ktj8 463. 
ed <£d 939. 
;e7n < 5m 888, Jsv 936. 
i < A: 126, g 145, C 168, i 186, S 429, 

# 436, = i 439, < A 454. 
i(i) < iy 623, fj 724, r5» 791, Sy 

932. 
Sg < eg 933. 
i6 < £& 937. 
im < 5m 889, Sm 929. 
A < A 125, *A 136, g 146, jA 152, 

C 169, ;A 206, < 234, th 245, d 261, 

dh 273, i?A 300, 6A 318, y 337, 

i 401, 5 409, 5 421, 5 430, jer 437, 

rr A444. 
A(A) < ks 489, he 536, *i; 589, dhy 

626, r^A 721, rit; 776, rs 783, ^ 

833, sn 843, 5p 846. sy 863, 5r 

898, SV 906, An 943, tiv 961. 
Af < kt 466. 
An < A5n 494. 
Am < m6A 708. 
Ar < A*- 468, Ar 477, tr 579, dr 

616. 
hr < th 207. 



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250 



INDO-IBANIAN FHONOLOQY 



«< l>r 682, r< 738, ff* 742, rs 

793. 
1^ < m 326. 
fkgk < f9kh 509. 
fkj{j)< fwtty 657, ir 816. 
Mj)jh < ndhy 658, §r 817. 
fii/% < nth 642. 



ifMtA < n(k 643. 

fM < ft; 537. 

mr < ndh 551. 

ikv<lin 802. 

ffw < rf 773. 

fker< ifn924. 

mh < ndh 552, tfi^A 712. 



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HL WORD-INDEX 

(Nomben refer to f §.) 



akrnavam 74. 
akrndt 74. 
aJcsapOta 193. 
agni 498, 96a 
dgra^ 503. 
afdkdiha 204. 
ai9A*(;!(Z)a 204. 

a99gara 3, 355. 
afogtUikd 4. 
oco&l 158. 
o^yuto 513. 
ajagara 187. 
ahjana 537. 
atorf 192. 
a^o^ 11,410. 
atyxmnata 565. 
o/ra 458. 
a/%a 241. 
athava 245. 
aiya 607, 60a 
a(2Aa5 11. 
adhijya 522. 
adhvan 631. 
anuraga 11. 
aniirtZj?a 958. 
aniiiasaTWt 417. 
antahkarana 954. 
andhakdra 656. 
anya 661, 663. 
anv^afia 664. 
ant^an^i 407. 



A« Sanakrit. 

opi 290. 
apriya 680. 
op^rd 684. 
cAhimanffu 324. 
*abhiSana 313. 
dbhyani'ara 607. 
aWiyayana 341. 
amatya 11, 565. 
araglioHa 152. 
aranya 11, 554, 556. 
arAa 713. 
arj/?a 72a 
aWAa 739, 740. 
arbuda 759. 
alafgkara 11. 
aZfAa 37. 
avakaSa 128. 
avajhd 380. 
awYa 11, 958. 
at;a?dra 38a 
avatrdna 11. 
at^^ra 382. 
avalamhaii 381. 
avavdda 382. 
avaSyaya 382. 
avasthita 380. 
ai7« 395, 400. 
ai^ia 11. 
ajfrw 816, 817, 819. 
aim 821. 
aSvatara 879. 
of.^i 8. 
os/du 825. 
astamanaya 958. 



os^&i 867, 869. 
o^mi 884. 

a. 
aX^dm 122. 
dA^oia 125. 
di^afa 147. 
acdrya 163, 164. 
djnd 516. 

d/ndcaAra 475, 519. 
atapa 232. 
a^man 561, 562, 563. 
dd^a 256. 
opa/a 227. 
aplda 291. 
*dbhdtapa 16, 312. 
dma 139. 

dmalaka 324, 358. 
fimra 709, 710. 
dyadfia 336. 
drabdha 351. 
dryapuira 294. 
dlabhisyayiti 407. 
dlambana 361, 706. 
atewa 955. 
dZdA^a 19. 
dvaria 732. 
drirbAtt/t^ 34a 
dviskrta 388. 
did 19. 
dicarya 8, 810. 

i. 
iA:ju 26, 27, 29, 487. 
f fora 229. 



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252 



IKDO-IBAmAN PHONOLOar 



iti2S. 

iddnim 31, 328, 458, 

953. 
iva 24. 
isu 27. 
i'haldJca 456. 



i^vara 37, 821. 

u. 

ukfa 377. 
iicchista 512. 
ucyate B77. 
udupa 211, 213. 
t</^22& 
ufkaniJid 461. 
iiipadyanU 560. 
uf^ada 594. 
ufsava 48. 
ut^uha 594. 
t<e2!aA:a 5J, 122. 
udumbara 51. 
wrf;?rf/ta 216. 
ndghatayati 601, 602. 
nd<jhdsa 602. 
udvcsfati 618. 
ndvOdha 2ia 
undara 45. 
nndnra 45. 
umndrga 659. 
npaiiMydka 34a 
upadhyaya 61, 293, 

619. 
upaviSati 51. 
vpavista 37a 
upasthana 51. 
upastJUlpitvd 16. 
tOToif 809. 
uluTchala 50. 
«?M 50, 797. 
t^f tto 377. 
tf^/ra 82a 
tiyna838,839,840,84], 

842. 



ti^ffitan 847, 849. 

tinariifciafi 65. 
«rja 63. 
ilrna 727, 755. 
t2rnat;a&/ii 313. 
OrrfAt^i 752, 753. 
tirmi 83. 



rA?a 72, 485, 487. 
Wm 74, 220. 
rf t^; 70. 
rdciAd 72. 
m 71, 82. 

^ha 86, 92, 114. 
ekasasti 409. 
^ka'saptati 421. 
ekadasa 9, 86, 87, 257. 
vtadrSa 257. 
^{fria 458. 
enas 281, 282. 
Uranda 9a 

5jas loa 
d^^^a 458, 835. 

dti. 

cttifsidcya 110. 
dupamya 112. 
ctupaSivi 2a 
dvsadJfi 27a 



iama 890. 
A«iA;<Jfa 119, 957. 
l-aidhana 506. 
laccftapa 5, 291. 
AaYa7*a 192, 196, 197. 
kathina 25. 



ion^a 541, 542, 54a 
^nm 557. 
^^na 24a 
Xa<Aafii32a 
kathayati 114, 342: 
ito/^d 240. 
A:ai2am&a 25a 
A-acfaft 260, 261, 262. 
kanyd 660, 661. 
kapardikd 747. 
Aopd^ 8, 191, 290, 

29a 
kap&la 29a 
kapihjala 28, 29a 
kapittha 294. 
kapdta 290. 
kabafidha 306, 307. 
Aamjpa^i 703, 95a 
kan^ala 704, 70a 
kambdja 18a 
A'orff a 40a 
fairSfi 19a 
karkata 7ia 
iartefafci 197. 
ZwAaitto 4, 7ia 
karkara 7ia 
A-arna 727. 
kaHari 732. 
karpOsa 18, 410, 421. 
karpQra 349, 76a 
A^rfcwra 44. 
A'an>f<iH 761. 
A^ar^ana 777. 
A*aZj>a 799. 
kalpaU 799. 
A^aZya 803, 804. 
kdrhsya 89a 
A'^Ara lia 
A'ancana 53a 
kdt<ira 229. 
Awi-ya 763, 76a 
kdrsdpana 78a 
A^dla 362. 
kdUlyasa 34a 
A^Om lia 



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in. WOBD-INDEX. A. SANSKRIT 



258 



hUkeutakaXS. 
kinva 557, 56a 
kiyant 345. 
kirOta US. 
Jdsalaya 339. 
I^a 37, 192. 
k^r§a iO. 
klra 116. 
*lr^i 37. 
Jala 37. 

kuhcika 530, 531, 953. 
ktUuniba 45. 
kiUumbaka 194. 
kuthara205. 
kuthari 200, 202, 203, 

205, 206, 207. 
kudd&la 50, 127. 
kunda 118. 
kupyati 679. 
*ttfe;a 115, 691, 692, 



kumdra 327. 
kumhhakdra 706, 707, 

708. 
kurkura 715, 716. 
Atila 4a 

kusika 50, 836, 837. 
/custhin 50. 
itO^a 19a 

AriTpa 59, 115,294, 329. 
A-rte 71, 228, 231. 
kriva 80. 
krpana 71. 
*rji Vf), 118, 119. 
A:r^a 840, 841, 842. 
klpia 84. 
ikyUra 8a 
Jt^arf 401. 
kaitabJia 19a 
kaivarta 9a 
{;dA;i7a 122, 123, 128, 

959. 
Jfcof i 357. 
kdstha 834. 
kdukseyaka 110. 



totimiidi 112. 

Xrfda4a 

ibida^i212. 

Arodoiallfi. 

AZe^^a 47a 

kUSa 960. 

A:^atta 487. 

ksairiya 485. 

A:^aiiid 3^ 319. 

ksaya 342. 

A^sdra 355, 491. 

A:^fna48a 

kslyaU^e. 

ksira 35, 37, 480, 490. 

ksudra 484, 6ia 

ksudha 264, 26a 

2'^^^ 485, 572. 

A^^na 955. 

kh. 

khcUvd 5. 

khadga 538, 539, 540, 

960. 
khandaka 546, 54a 
AAan^^ 277. 
khara 131. 
A;%a;u 132, 363. 
khalvd4a 806. 
A:/»d 132. 

khadaii 16, 131, 256. 
khddana 262. 
A:/<d(2ifo 256. 

gacphaSlZ 
gaja 18a 
^andaA:a54a 
^afa 22a 
gadgada 257. 
5fa(w)6Alra 37, 141. 
garuda 141. 
garjana 722. 
garjita 722. 
garta 731. 



9an2»5Aal40^743,744, 

745, 746, 956. 
^ar&Aa 760. 
^ar&Ai^i 25, 42. 
garha 795, 79a 
^ala 35a 
gahvara 949. 
^Ad 245. 
gunaganayukta 2ia 
^Aya 947, 94a 
grdhra 71, 626, 627, 

62a 
grha p. ix, 67, 68, 78, 

82 [bis), 142. 
grhagOdhika 271. 
grhastlia 72, 872. 
grhltvd 40. 

flr^Aa p. ix, 67, 78, 142. 
jT^Amf 45a 
gdirika 27, 9a 
gddhUnia 101, 106, 142, 

273, 274, 959. 
gdsthika lia 
flfSi/'*^ 835. 
gdsvdtnika 324, 32a 
(^dtira 112. 
gdurava 109. 
grantha 642, 643, 644. 
granthi 641, 642. 
flprflma 16, 319. 
jrrT^a 847, 848, 849. 

gh. 

gJiata 148, 192. 
ghria 71. 
ghotaka 151. 

c 
cak^a 122. 
caArra 165, 169, 47a 
caifti 9, la 
cancu 9, 160, 162. 
caiurtha 235, 739, 740, 

741, 959. 
caturdaia 746. 



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254 



INDO-nUNIAN PHONOLOGY 



cahOH 155, 156, 581, 

587. 
catvarimSat 354^ 355. 
candra 648, 649, 650. 
campaka 702. 
carana 354. 
carmalOi^a 128, 959. 
carman 761. 
carvayati 767, 768. 
calami 358. 
calana 5. 
cdna%a 474. 
cdmara 12, 328. 
dkitsd 161. 
ciAna 941, 942. 
v^cu? 191. 
cOrna 59, 72a 
cHa 196, 197. 
c^a 106, 169. 
ciUirya 110. 
cyavate 513. 

chagala 141. 

-/cfcop 172, 173, 174, 

175, 176, 287. 
chardati 743. 
cft^d 22, 177,329,337, 

378. 
chidra 613. 
\/cAtrf 191. 
c&u|?a^i 43. 

i- 

jfaflfa* 14a 
jafdgala 181, 511. 
jaf9gha 178. 
Jana 8, 181. 
janiftan 659. 
japana 287. 
jambuka 705. 
jambala 360. 
jardyu 332. 
yab 185. 
jaliikik& 120, 957. 



jdgarati 12. 
jamdtrka 81. 
y^^ma 801. 
jiAt^ 28, 182, 185, 949, 

950, 951, 952. 
jffm 38. 
jflw 35, 37a 
jfft;ifti 35. 
jtyupsaii 182, 684. 
j[t«a235. 
j[ad« 520. 
jffiana 516, 517. 
jy(XS22. 
jydti 220. 
jydtsna 103. 
jtwra 527. 
jvalati 526. 
JM&» 524, 526, 527. 

jh. 
jhampa 188. 
jf^Oa 189. 
jhaulika 112. 



t 



fo2a^ 362. 



^^dap 210. 
daA:inf 397. 



^^462. 
taksan 226. 
fafal^ 228. 
to^Ad 241. 
tapas 289, 294. 
toi?to 667, 670. 
iapyaU 679. 
tatnasa 3. 
^arw 53. 
tote 94. 
taskara 854. 
^arfr^ 257. 
tdmbula 63. 



filmra 224, 709, 710. 
idmm|Mirna 727. 
^Ia359. 
Mm^ 228, 374. 
tintidl 27, 30. 
ft ro^na 39. 
tilaka 224. 
tisthati223. 
tlksna 37. 
ftr/*a 41, 83. 
^ti^Aa 233, 234. 
tunda 220, 225. 
^uld(2Adra 272. 
*<twya 890. 
^Orj^a 59, 764. 
^rna 66, 82. 
trpyati 227. 
irsna 71, 82, 843. 
^'228. 
tejas 182. 
taila9B. 

traya^catvdriihSatBlS. 
trayastrUhSat 336. 
trayddaSa 8, 13, 344. 
traydviih4ati 376. 
trimandala 572. 
^rlni 569. 
trutati 191. 
trdildkya 474. 
tvarita 581. 



daihstra 830, 831, 832, 

833. 
(fo^a 122. 
(fo^'na 481, 489. 
dodrw 610, 611, 960. 
dadrUghna 249, 957. 
cfadAi 953. 
Vdam 9. 
(foyd^u 330. 
darSana 773. 
(iaia 246, 401. 
(2a^a^i 246, 251. 
dahati 251. 



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///. WORD-INDEX. A. SAN8KEIT 



255 



dddima 212. 
ddman B22. 
ddlima 212. 
dava 375. 

divasa 25, 376, 421. 
diva 375. 

(ftr5f;/a35,83,720,721. 
duhkha 954. 
dukula 57. 

dugdha 495, 496, 497. 
dundtibha 546. 
dt^n^ff&Ai 315. 
durdsariia 356. 
dwrj^ 252. 
durgOdevJ 958. 
durbala 12, 44, 759. 
dtiskrta 822. 
duhiiar 52, 250, 254. 
JOto 251. 
dtfr»a22. 
drthhita 254. 
(2f^^ 217. 
rfr^i 33. 
({r^^a 55. 
d^85, 365. 
dijvakula 958. 
etoara 87, 375, 392. 
d^valaya 16, 339. 
efciFya 395. 
d&hall 360. 
ddgdhum 495. 
(2;{d 251. 
(idAacfo 258, 259. 
ddhala 258, 259. 
(Jdut^rt/xs 110. 
dyuti 607. 
dyiUalcara 3. 
dydtayati 335. 
draksA 612. 
dvada^an 617, 958. 
(2udda^nat^r^ 398. 
dt;ara 616, 617.' 
Jf;i 61& 

dvigufj^ 147, 959. 
(2(7i%a 37. 



dinbhdga 30. 
it^i^a 61& 
dt^os 617. 

y(2%aJbJb 266. 
dJiattitra 268. 
{2%anu4. 
dkamati 268. 
dharma 268. 
dtotwia 264, 383. 
d%araya^i 15, 267, 342. 
dhawdca 264. 
d&i2ma59,61,326,328. 
(2%rfa80. 
c2/tr j;to 265, 266. 
cU^ti277. 
dhairya 97. 
dJiyana 619 (&i^). 
d&rum 628. 
dAwja 629, 630, 631. 



na^Ia 123, 128. 
naA-to462. 
nakha 5, 131, 956. 
nagara 141, 143, 144. 
nagma 5, 278, 498. 
nodi 262, 277. 
nabhas 317, 329. 
nayaii 342. 
nayana 342. 
narfaA;! 730. 
naw 'new* 281. 
nava * nine ' 374. 
fiavaka 129, 281. 
navati 364. 
navanavcM 370, 956. 
navanlta 281. 
nahyati 948. 
n^k^a 143. 
n&pita 290, 959. 
nei&Ai 315. 
ndman 275, 326, 327. 
n^maya^i 275. 



fidriJb^Za 122, 128. 
nihhOsa 954. 
niA:a<a 959. 
niAroia 125. 
nitya 565, 566. 
ni(2rd 22, 30, 609, 61Z 
nimfta 281, 705. 
nirgrantha 718. 
nirjArna 72a 
nifjhara 725. 
ni^A»r5ana 822. 
ntgH</ra 844. 
nloS 155. 
nldei40. 
nl|ia 291. 
nlla 55, 281. 
ntiftam 57, 59. 
nUpura 62, 955. 
n^mi 328. 

ndirahjana 280, 956. 
ndtil08. 



paktai&d. 

pdkfXl 2, 3, 5, 287, 479. 
paksa 481, 487, 489. 
pa^kti 507. 
pacati 165. 
jpanca 535, 536. 
pahcadaSa 263. 
pahcavifh&iti 4. 
paiiod^a 529,532,533, 

534. 
panjara 3. 
pa.^Aa<i 202, 203. 
pathana 201. 
pataii 226. 
paiaka 226. 
pattana 559. 
pathya 598. 
i>^a 256. 
padika 262. 
pantha 647. 
IKiraiii 35a 
j?arampara 702. 



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2&6 



INDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOOT 



paraSu 399. 
parasvawt 290. 
pa/righa 289. 
paridhlyatB 955. 
parlksAB^ 
partd 5. 
parusa289. 
pars 356. 

paryaf9ka 506, 766. 
paryana 766. 
parvata 768, 772. 
parvan 770. 
paldycUi 347. 
palaia 359. 
jMxmna 364, 365. 
paiu¥^l. 
paicat 7SS!, 810, 811, 

812, 813. 
*iwiic5 94. 
pddika 261. 
jpd;>a293. 
pdribhadra 289. 
jpdriwi 775, 776. 
J?dia 289, 401. 
picumanda 955. 
/?«7ar 235. 
pipasd 292. 
piplUka 288, 957. 
pippala 358, 361. 
pibati 309. 
j?ffAa 201, 202. 
jildana 208, 211, 213. 
punya 554, 555. 
|?u6a 568, 571, 572. 
punar 44, 291. 
pupphusa 49. 
jDwra 48. 
purandara 352. 
I?{<rat7d^fn 372. 
purusa 43, 45, 40a 
ptiskara 823. 
i?Mgpa 289, 844, 845. 
i^tiiya 851, 852, 853. 
pustaka 50, 863. 
pagaphala 12. 



jhiya 332. 
pHrana 350. 
pQrna 728. 
j?ami62. 
j?r(c)c^« 177, 512. 
prthaktva 4. 
p'rth{i)vl 9, 74, 24a 
prdaku 68, 82, 329. 
i?i?</Ml 71, 76, 77, 82 

(6/4 835. 
|)aura 109. 
pAusya 851, 852, 85a 
|>rafi 224, 68a 
pratihhnti 311. 
j)ra^it?A^n 389. 
prativ^aka S7. 
prativesayati 390. 
prathama 4, 238, 244, 

245. 
prathamaputra 570. 
*prathara 3. 
pradaksina 5. 
pradnpta 258. 
pradvsa 252. 
prabhavdnti 379. 
pravata 382. 
pravartati 375. 
pravdda 251. 
pravdsin 38. 
prasdda 422. 
prastara 863. 
prastMpana 680. 
praliara 3. 
j)rap}wti 675, 677. 
|>ri.ya 345. 
jpr^ma 85. 

phadif9ga 296. 
phana 295. 
X)haigu 8, 296. 
j>//d/a 361. 
phupphtisa 49. 
^Aeita 87. 



6a^i^209. 
&a^ura9. 
hcidhira 8, 273. 
badhnati 303. 
bandhya 308, 658. 
balivarda 363, 748. 
balvaja 304, 806. 
bdhuriXpa 61. 
toiAa304. 
6dg)a 308, 844, 845, 

846. 
MAu53. 
i &t^Za 955. 
&in(2t« 27. 
6i2m 806. 
6fia 37. 
labhatsa 591. 
budhyatS 303, 619, 624. 
&u&/aiA:sd 480. 
brhaspati 305, 456, 
' 879. 

brahnanya 553. 
&rdA;72ana 218, 696, 

944, 945, 94a 

6fta7cfo 464. 

6Aa(7inl 28, 147, 314, 

959. 
bhar^ga 315. 
6ftafa 192. 
bhanati 3ia 
bhadra 6ia 
6/(»aya 342. 
bharati 2. 
bhavati 318, 382. 
bhavisydwi 85a 
bJMvisydsi 4ia 
bhavisyd 384. 
bhasvara 905. 
bhdgadJi^a 147. 
bhdginSya 16, 146. 
6Adnda 318. 



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///. WORD-INDEX. A. SANSKRIT 



257 



bhanufnatl 4a 
bhasa 40i. 
ihdsya 357. 
bhinadmi 606. 
bhima 40. 
bhisnia 36. 
bhrnise^ZU, 326. 
&A^a 140. 
bhojana 99. 
bhramam 325, 698, 

699. 
bhratar 699. 
bhrdtrja 17a 
bhrdtfjaya 178. 
bhrUmukha 57. 

twa.fcjita481,485,487. 
nm^ 141. 
niatlia 199. 
maisya 595, 596, 597. 
matliana 237. 
ntadffu 600. 
madhu 26a 
madhtira 270. 
madhya 8, 319, 619, 

620, 621, 624, 625. 
madlivOlu 629. 
manorama 4, 323. 
mantra 637, 638. 
manmatha 324. 
manydmi 663. 
mayOm 343. 
marakata 116. 
>wa5«raia 60. 
maharOstra 829. 
mahargha 16, 444, 719. 
mahisa 323, 329. 
f^idm 158. 
9n4/ar 232, 235. 
matrka 81. 
9>2dfra 19. 
«72d>}a 459. 
manand 27a 
mAntm 4, 404. 



f>)ar^ 16. 
margayati 717. 
mdrgaSira la 
margailrsa 778. 
mitra 580. 
mithya 598, 599. 
mii){Aif»$ 324. 
muA:^ 461. 
mtiA-^a 50, 464. 
mt<A'Aa 44, 131, 136, 

138. 
mugdha 497. 
mucanti 163. 
muc^a 600. 
inti{2^ara 4, 13, 600. 
mt((2m 43, 612. 
mu^Ia 4a 
wiMf/f 48. 
fnnWto 732. 
wi?d//a 214. 
miJdJiatva 215. 
fWOZya 58, 59, 804. 
7;?t2^ 58. 
futlsa 40a 
wrjfa 71. 
mrgaya 336. 
mrgdtdka 71. 
mrnaJa 74. 
»wrto 68, 319. 
nirttikd 68, 82 (W^), 

'55a 
wr5a(t?adin) 79, 82 

'(6/s). 
mrsf a 824. 
}?i^^/ui 89, 150, 152. 
mdu^i 109. 
mlayati 960. 
mleccha 8a 



ya 331. 
yajna 515. 
yatprabhrti 329. 
2^a^^ 3, 331. 
yoii 246, 252. 
s 



yantragrha 331. 
ya&J^^/'330. 
ySmaZa 324, 361. 
yti^i 335, 825. 
ydfkl 331. 
ydm< 374. 
yuga 50, 142. 
yugala 140, 147. 
yugma 501. 
ytifmdAam 338. 
ytZA-d 338. 
yw^/ia 237. 
ydktra 99. 
y^^ya 331, 502. 
yauvana 112, 331. 

r. 

raA:&i464. 
rojnda 547, 548. 
ra^na 960. 
m/nl354. 
ratha 242, 245. 
ranahjaya 337. 
rara/a 359, 360. 
miwi 815. 
rdjakula 959. 
rajan 180, 183, 184, 

187, 349. 
rdjila 27. 
rajhl 519. 
r^iya 621. 
rOtrt 19, 572, 580. 
rdyatt 348. 
rukmavaH 471. 
rMfowi nf 47a 
rusfa S27. 

reMia 133, 34a 

rSjJH 354. 
r^^;/ia 29a 
fi^Ami 35a 
rocati loa 
rodana 959. 
roman 310, 32a 
r^Aite 106. 



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258 



INDO-JBANJAN PHONOLOGY 



lagna 358, 49S. 
lagyaUQO^ 
laghu 152. 
la^huka 955. 
lifogilla 510. 
lajja 329. 
labdlia 6Q5. 
labhati 318. 
labhyaU 697. 
ZoZo^ 359^ 360. 
lavana 360, 380, 382. 
laSuna 402. 
ZaAarf a 
ldf9gala 360, 510. 
/lA-^ 361, 955. 
likhati 131, 137. 
Z(pe 290. 
limpaii 353. 
Z//n/(A)a 360. 
Z^^ifw 826. 
Wimi 358. 
7%(3m loa 
toiJeiia 16, 17, 290, 293, 

361. 
Uha 444. 
loliakara 103. 



mexzna 171, 277. 

vadi^a 209. 

tH^ 5,7,591 (&i^),592, 

693, 594. 
vatsara 592. 
vadhU 59, 270, 27a 
va^ta 281, 282. 
vanaspati 877, 879. 
varkara 3, 9. 
rar^'a 717. 

vartaka 374, 730, 734. 
vartika 364, 732. 
varcUiaJci 750. 
vardhate 749, 750, 751. 
rar^a 781. 



valkala 797. 

m^ 79& 

valguU 798. 

m/mi 940, 94a 

t^ni/a 219. 

t;diiianad28. 

wly w 339. 

valukU 45. 

t^i>a 372, 37a 

viihSati 28, 958. 

vikardti 123. 

vikaSatB 123. 

vigliataU 151. 

vijhaptika 374. 

mjfidna 518, 519. 

v/rfyi*^ 24, 607. 

vidhyati 620. 

veraZa 372. 

t7to5a 417. 

v/5a 409. 

vismaya 884, 885. 

vilivala 949, 951. 

vrfoa p. ix, 69, 75. 

rr^te 559. 

rr^i 225. 

vr<M!Aa OS, 74, 82, 1( 
372. 

vrddhatva 58a 

vrddhi 604. 

vrnte 82. 

vrScilM 364, 811. 

rr^a 70. 

vrsdblia 68, 408. 

^?*'?f' 74. 

vedand 87. 

r^/a 372, 37a 

vesfaka 826, 827. 

vBstana 90. 

vdidya 008. 

vaisravana 374. 

vdihayasa 34a 

vdihdra 449. 

t?ya»^na 807. 
I t^^aA^t 3a 
I tyoflfra 603. 



vyajana 187, 959. 
f^yaftte 807, 808- 
vyathayati 241. 
vyOghra 16, 16, 604, 

807, 80a 
v^d^a 357. 
vyutsarga 594. 
rro/att 180. 
trlAi 45a 
vrudati 956. 



Sakaiika 19a 

&ir ^ 396, 419. 

^Mt 469. 

Sakndti 470. 

M-fo 461. 

iana 39a 

^ato 235, 395, 400. 

Saphari 298, 300, 301. 

Sahara 303, 30a 

ia&(fo 694. 

Sayana 955. 

SayanAsana 342. 

ia^^d a 

iara(2 262. 

Sarkara 713, 714. 

iiSAra 397. 

iaXrinI 397. 

^dAAd 133. 

iiSna 419. 

Sddvala 616. 

^ZfU-a 59. 

.^'iSZi^iall 800, 801, 802. 

Sdvaica 39a 

iffAlTa 26, 239, 958. 

ield 400. 

SiSira 402. 

^'^a 850. 

Sl'kara 121. 

%/jm 504. 

^to 841. 

iirsa 37, 396, 401, 402, 

780, 782, 78a 
iuka 123. 



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///. WOBD-INDEX. A. SAN8KEIT 



259 



^unthi 544, 545. 
iuddha eos. 
iuSrusd, 400. 
Suska 822, 823. 
it/^o^ 852. 
Satnya 662, 663. 
in9khala 133,508,509, 
' 95a 
ip9ga 71. 
^5a396. 
Sdiksa 489. 
^di2a 9a 
^d&Ao/i 400. 
Sdurya 111. 
hnah,na 814, 815. 
hnaSrti 9, 814, 819. 
iyamala 324, 361. 
^(2drAd604. 
^amna 818, 819. 
^Aman^ 334. 
A^/'d 125. 

SUsma 820, 960. 
haiura 349, 401. 
^ra^rti5,818,819,821, 

895, 897. 
Sf)^sa 821. 



^{poda 405. 
kin^Aa 408, 549, 550, 

661,552,953. 
^405. 
sasli 824, 825. 
'sfsidaia 212, 213, 403, 

40a 

a 

5a%a^ 955. 
saJcala lia 
5aHi 136. 

$099^^94. 

sata 19a 

M(fya 5, 13, 564, 566. 

saiknimnahaii 269. 



MiidAi 8, 656. 
sandhya 657, 65a 
sapOdika 291. 
saptacatvarifhiat a 
saptati 23a 
saptan 410, 666. 
saptaaasti 665, 672. 
sapJiala 29a 
sahhika 417. 
samaja 18a 
9anuxva$r§ta 382. 
samudrd 4, 48, 955. 
samrddhi 5. 
sam&Aaran^i 379. 
saniDiar^ 9. 
^rayu 33a 
^*3>a 421, 75a 
6arm 768, 769, 772. 
^rro/^ 517, 518, 520. 
sarsapa 5. 
saJiasra 415, 896. 
5^Atf 27a 
5flrdAa 749, 750. 
sd^nd 18. 
5iw*a 28, 410, 712, 

95a 
^Ar/Aa 469. 
sihcati 411. 
sindHra 30. 
5?Va 411. 
^(fafi 422. 
sft^afi 807, 
sukumara lia 
^A;rfo 66. 
stigandha 959. 
5t<(2Ad 411. 
^i>fo 666, 667. 
$uruf9ga 44. 
^t^rna 726, 727. 
suvrsti 372. 
5flci iVl. 
^t2^569. 
sUtradhara 411. 
^i3^ 58, 764, 765, 96a 
srgala 34, 147. 

8 2 



srjanakara 125. 

sdinya 96. 

skandha 654, 656, 854, 
855,95a 

^na 276, 86a 

stambha 860, 861. 

$^tifi 45 (bis). 

stdinya 862. 

^d92a865. 

stri 14, 34, 960. 

^Aa7a 362. 

sthavira 384, 385. 

5^Adnu 86a 

^Adna 14, 280,284, 868, 
871. 

sthapayati 19, 290. 

sthaU 870. 

sthira 870, 871. 
; sthura 54, 57. 
'^ndno 14, 275, 874, 876, 
I 96a 
, sndyuS^. 

snusar 875. 

sniha 452, 87a 

sndihika 452. 

spandana 87a 

5paria 877, 878. 

spariana 5, 774. 

5pAa^iA:a 125, 197. 

^%tito 88a 

^phuraii 44. 

sphdtaka 882, 88a 

^J7^to/i 198. 

smarana 960. 

^mara^i 885. 

5mrfi 88a 

sydZa 891. 

5rwcl58. 

srdt<is 895, 898, 899. 

svaka 905. 

$mpan< 291. 

^ropna 67a 

svayampati 337. 

5t;a999a90a 

^t^min 905, 906. 



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260 



INDO-IRANIAN FHONOLOGY 



h. 

hofhsa 412, 953. 
hatya 664. 
haridrd 25. 



hasta 444, 455, 862, 

863. 
hdridra 354. 
hintala 445. 
hiranya 556. 



*hrddka 251. 
hrdaya 71, 256, 330, 

* 339, 444. 
hyastana 862. 
Aroda 955. 



B. Iranian. 



(0.P.1B Old Persian, which is cited in the Index only when no Avesta 
equivalent is found.) 



a. 

aiwirocayeiti 3ia 
axSaSna 12, 87, 89. 
anguSta 11, 510, 913, 

915, 917, 918, 958. 
antar9 958. 

anya 3, 663. 

&p 20, 287, 290, 293, 

294. 
apordnayu II, 67, 82. 
ai)qs 11. 
rizrra 700, 955. 
O.P. amctnaya 17. 
arojah 723, 724. 
(ira&i 67, 71, 139, 429. 
ava 371. 
ara^a 382. 
O.P. avOkanam 328. 
avivanta 365. 
a^aya 177, 330. 
asdnga 11. 
as/?a 2, 5, 340, 468, 

879. 
asman 11, 886, 889. 
asru 9, 236, 894, 896, 

897, 955. 
ahmaoya 149. 
asta 8, 377, 914, 915, 

916, 919. 
{WWW 377. 
O^iid 11. 

a£i dahdka 357. 
aAmdA^ 11, 15. 



ahmak9m 115. 
aAmi 340. 

a. 

d^dmat 501. 
fitorS 3, 21, 222, 340. 
afirlna 279. 
dyapta 21. 

i. 

«/ya 24, 28, 920. 

tejxiiri 51, 293. 
iiSi 50. 
wi/m 44, 51. 

aexa 89, 92, 131. 
aeOrajHiiti 458. 
ocra 92. 

aesma 86, 887, 888. 
aelma 139. 

ao, 
aoSah 458. 

Jca 116, 118. 
fcito 117, 118, 221. 
O.P. KamOn 168. 
kafa 115, 295, 296. 
Icamna 701. 
A:arana 955. 
Aar^to 733, 734, 735. 
kardna 754, 755. 



Vkardh 8. 
karhaydn 781. 
iE;ar£to 74. 
karhsar 792. 
X^o^ 410, 421. 
kdhrkOsa 16, 115. 
kdvaya 387. 
^rd/a lia 

kar^iiaoiti 74, 82, 114. 
kdr^ifia 67, 70, 82. 
kuSaiti 429. 
Xia 59. 

Aao/Ji 103, 114, 117, 
296, 297, 299, 300. 

r. 
xara 131, 132, 134, 135, 

136. 
*xarargao§a 144. 
xrafstra 689. 
ocraosoH 960. 
iC&z/K^w) 289, 290, 293, 

481, 482, 488. 
*x§apacara 484. 
xhafiiya 678. 
O.P. xSayaOiya 346, 

488. 
a-^Tra 488. 
xSudra 614. 
x5;M^ia 115, 338, 960. 
ar^ra^ 428. 
xSvaSti 8. 



(7ada 142. 



.7. 



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UL WOElhlNDEX. B. IRANIAN 



261 



gainli 636. 

garah 358. 

garania 140, 141, 145, 
762. 

9du,^t;140,145,37a 

gatu 15. 

g^rdpta 71. 

O.P. gqdumava 328. 

gOda 59, 237, 243, 245. 

gaSSanqm 245. 

^aona 105. 

gaospdnta 880. 

^ao5a 34, 99, 102, 103, 
107, 141, 142, 423, 
426, 427, 429, 431. 

C. 
caxra 155, 477. 
ca^trfirS 4, 18,156,170, 

583, 584, 585, 586, 

587, 589, 590. 
cardman 762. 
caSman 155, 156, 157, 

925, 926, 928, 929. 
^ci-gaona 147. 
cidra 155,165,575,579. 
cit 24. 
drifa 764. 
O.P. ciy 30. 
O.P. ciSciy 28, 161. 
cvant 514. 

J' 
jaini 3, 6, 7, 178, 179, 

183, 185, 186, 275, 

281. 
jainti 17B. 
jafra 185, 186, 682. 
O.P. jJvahy 27. 
jya 459, 523. 
jvaiti 185, 186, 391. 
jvant 635. 

t. 
Uicaiti 167. 
tonu 220. 



tanciSta 528. 
to^M 67a 
tauruna 354. 
torifM 8. 
tarSna 4, 7, 71, 220, 

784, 785, 786, 789, 

790, 791, 955. 
tava 228. 
tola 302. 
taScU357. 
tApayeiti 227. 
idrdsaiti 18, 227. 

SOra 5, 639, 64a 
.P. tigra 13. 
f/yri 505. 
fti59n45. 
ft2m 581, 582. 
fooj^man 471, 472, 960. 

e. 

Oatairi 413, 414. 

O.P. Oura-vaharaiU. 

OwOSa 5SS. 

Orayd 960. 

Ori 573, 577, 578, 579. 

Brisata 958. 

Ora^taona 574. 



d!aya 149. 
daiiihurpaiii 52. 
dahaiti 253, 254. 
dan/an 246, 633, 634, 

635. 
(Jara/a 13, 83, 253. 
dardna 756. 
dtwa 13, 254, 258, 410, 

416, 421. 
data 227, 233. 
"^databara 959. 
ddna 263. 

O.P. ddrayamuS 341. 
O.P. daraydmiy 353. 
^pra^ea 434. 
O.P. dwtoto 358. 



duySar 4a 

du^na 44, 47, 310. 

O.P. *duvitiyam Ad- 
ram 958. 

duiaka 439, 441. 

(I24ia& 439, 440, 442, 
443,44a 

duSddh 938, 939. 

(2t?ra 56, 61. 

da£fnan 89, 246, 324. 

daSva 85, 364. 

(2a^je%i 87. 

drOjah 18a 

draoya 105, 147, 960. 

drvatat3Qi. 

dvar 616, 617. 

t. 
tbaiSah 617. 
n. 
mxa 131, 132, 13a 
war 354. 
nairya 27a 
nam 275, 364, 382. 
navaiti 382. 
navadasa 255, 956. 
navani 381. 
na£%2a 934. 
nd/&A 315. 
ndvaya 108. 
wamaA 12, 324, 453, 

454, 457. 
nqman 20, 275, 319, 

320,321. 
*wi + y du6 24a 
O.P. waeta 87, 308, 

309. 
naSma 324. 
nyaka 115, 663. 

P- 
pacata 10. 
jxicai^i 166, 161, 162, 

289. 
paiiidana 279, 958. 



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262 



INDO-IEANIAN PHONOLOGY 



paiticMa 22a 
paOana 12, 237, 243, 

245. 
plUa 15, 246, 247, 254, 

258,287. 
panca 9, 53L 
pantun 645, 646. 
parona 289, 754, 755, 

756, 757. 
par9su 793. 
pairi 3. 

*pairi + \fioar9Z 374. 
^pairi^fximiti 324. 
O.P. parthava 742. 
parSti 74, 77, 82. 
pasu 4, 420, 421. 
|>a^ca287. 

pasccU 5, 856, 857, 859. 
paSra 577. 
fdifna 921, 922, 923, 

924. 
P9r9tu 48, 736, 738. 
p9rdna 73, 755. 
poTdsahi 73, 82. 
jpi/ar 24, 229, 231. 
puOra 45, 48, 50, 567, 

575, 576, 577, 579, 

955. 
paesa ilO. 
^paourva-ayatd 342. 

/ 
/m681. 
fratdrdsaiti 74. 
JraOanjayeiti 237, 240. 
JrapiBwa 589. 
Jrasaocaydhi 158, 159. 
fircLsnayanta 348. 
firaegcbtaiti 258. 
firdymat 501. 

yi-ei68r. 

/rya 345. 
yjarama 683. 
>Jti 955. 
*>5e4rpana 683. 



baxto 357. 
baa^ftra 46a 
baxSaiti 303. 
O.P. BayMTToyoir 152. 
(af^Aa 315. 
&a5ra 615. 
handUmi 651,652, 653, 

655. 
baraiti 2. 
har9Sa 779, 781. 
bar9£fiS 794. 
iat^d^ 379. 

O.P."' tojrfri 467, 955. 
O.P. baji 178. 
bajm 437, 43a 
b9r9Js(a) 73, 303. 
tar^^n^ 633. 
O.P. 6^Aw 129. 
buTia 45. 
Z»ami 56. 
&um59, 30a 
haevard 376. 
ba^Saza 425. 
6aoi^i 99,264, 268,271. 
6rater 14,221, 227,228, 

233, 700. 
&rm^ 14, 960. 

m. 

O.P. fno^ 144. 
maxH 480, 483. 
tmxyna 278. 
niabu 9, 270. 
maibya 620, 621, 622, 

623. 
maihyqna 7, 319. 
mai'patifirasa 23, 960. 

wa;»gfa 933, 955. 
fW^rtor 229, 235, 356. 
mah 451. 

mgr^a 73, 142, 144. 
fitdr9to 319. 
mara^u 960. 



mi^ooorfo 130. 
O.P. Mi^pa^injy 57a 
mlSda 38, 939. 
mo^ 14a 
nujMana 240, 245. 
ma^;09nf i 432. 
maoiri 103, 354. 

y- 

yava 330, 331, 365, 376, 

38a 
yaska 330. 
yoAifongm 12. 
yakard 3, lia 
ydna 16, 33a 
y&ma 331. 
ytM:to 331, 465. 
yuvan 44. 
O.P. ywriyd 331. 
yu^iOka 115, 960. 
yuhndkdm 927. 
ymn39a 

r. 
raya 153. 
rai 95. 
rftjia 18. 
rfi5to 349, 864. 
ra^cayat 35 4. 
raeSah 423. 
raoxSna 492, 493, 494, 

960. 
rooyna 105, 349, 498, 

499, 500, 959, 960. 
raocah 99, 105, 107, 

159,166,167,168,171, 

349. 
O.P. rautah 220. 



*v(ibumka 394. 
vana 4, 372. 
t«0-a 5, 364, 955. 
vardkaSO. 
var9cai9hvant 364. 
vardtata 367, 36a 



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///. WORD-INDEX. B. IRANIAN 



mr^Sa 966. 
var9mi 83. 
var9Sa p. is, 78. 
fforSni 787, 788, 790. 
O.P. vasty 369. 
vata 20, 228, 230, 235, 

364, 369, 372. 
vaiH 15. 
vAra 372. 
vdrayna 354. 
vicindit 2a 
t?r^w"274. 
vibu 274, 959. 
rftor^to 367. 
ffffo^t955. 
rfra 35. 
rlsaift 12, 31, 221, 367, 

372, 376. 
V9r9bka 74, 80. 
Vdrdsyeiti 367. 
r^Aria 367, 369. 
t^/mni 45a 
vam 86, 86, 228, 231, 

372. 
vaBna 89, 283. 
va^naiti 365. 
moca^ 158. 



sajd^ard 413, 901. 

^ocai^t 167. 

^afo 3. 

safa 296, 299. 

saraA 4ia 

sarota 5, 67, 410, 729, 

735, 737. 
sar^la 13, 74a 
suhuruna lia 
^stuia-mranya 46a 
5fi^a 47, 48, 50, 414, 

476, 477, 956. 
8uSi 419, 427. 
saka 62, 118, 124, 126, 

419. 
siairya 420. 



^ti^na m^r^ya 659. 
8(wk9ntavant 100. 
saocaydhi 101, 106. 
scindayeiti 868, 869. 
*8taxma 471. 
^ftura 310, 471. 
^f9 14, 54, 34a 
-^na 871, 87a 
stana 64. 
^namra 87a 
5n€U>6a 87a 
QMin 123, 126,129, 879, 

881,96a 
spaha 16, 960. 
sp9ra4»877. 
spiS 25, 27, 64, 426, 

431. 
spaSta 34, 89, 880, 881. 
sydfXl 383, 891, 892. 
srdtxiyeiH 379. 
^aoni 101, 893, 960. 
9rm955. 

§. 
SaUi 931, 932. 
&itYii/e4,49,423,424, 
427, 930, 931. 



eanva 43a 
eayaia 330. 
eayeiti 342. 
jeairi-jKiona 32, 14a 
eavard 38a 
j^nu 18, 432. 
i;>r95aya 67, 71, 432. 
eimd 25, 27, 319, 43a 
zrayah 935. 

h. 
haca 166, 46a 
^haca-abairi 33, 86, 

168, 274, 95a 
hanjamana 45a 
Aop^a 444, 450, 466, 

668,669,671,673,674. 



hatna 44i. 
Aaurtxi 771. 
O.P. haldita 36a 
hoMfaraBy 28a 
A^m^e^iti 70a 
hiitaiti 31. 
Aim 95a 

Aieva 25, 27, 936, 937. 
huciOra 28, 16a 
Au^ramA 372. 
Atlj%a43,446,448,460, 
455, 908, 909, 910. 

Aa44a 

%a^/ti89, 44a 
ha6na444. 
haoma loa 
hvatd 901, 902. 

af'aidhar^ 
Vx^an 4. 
Vx^ap 666. 
x^asura 420, 422. 
a^afsata 688, 690, 900, 

903,907. 
X^araiti 349, 901, 903, 

904, 9oa 
a;car9naA 76a 
rr^'o^da 91, 264, 90a 

O. Greek. 

K6pos 413, 414. 
Xcrx<» 36a 
&6p 139, 377. 

D. Latin. 

gula 35a 
labium 368. 
OTMm 377. 
^umus 862. 
vegxi 329. 

B. Old High 
Qerman. 

£^Za36a 



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264 



rNDO-IRANIAN PHONOLOGY 



kiutvan 521. 
leckdn 35a, 
stdra 862. 



7. Anglo-Saxon. 

lippa 358. 

Q. Old Bulgarian. 
iivati 521. 



H. Uthaanian. 

2^t^35a 

vapsd 329, 685, 686. 



CORRIGENDA 

§ 2, L 10, § 6, L 45, § 468, L 12-13, § 879, L 10 omit Old Pers. (w(i>)a. 

§ 4, L 12 for manusa read mdnasa. 

§ 4, L 14 for karkatika read karX-atikd, 

§ 4, L 24 for vaii& read vana. 

§ 5, L 46 (orpaScat resdpascat. 

§ 16, L 12 for upastMpiiva reacl upasthdpitviL 

§ 68, L 18, § 82, L 15 for prdaku read pnldku. 

§ 71, L 8 for mrda^ka read mrddtoka. 

§ 79, L 5 for mtisavddin read mrsdvddin. 

§ 82, L 20 for nirttika read mritika. 

\ 87, 1. 14 for 'green' read *blue.* 

§ 91, 1. 2 for x^acda read x^aiba. 

§ 115, L 21 for niifdka read ntfdka, 

§ 133, L 3 for r^A7/a read re/;/k 

§ 167, 1 5, § 168, L 5 for raucah read raocak 

§ 184, L 5 for rOjatiah read rdjdnah. 

§ 207, heading, L 1 for hr read /in 

I 329, 1. 19 for vapsa read vajisd. 

§ 337, 1. 2, § 378, L 2 for chdi/a read cAflyet. 

§ 339, 1. 7 for d^valaya read dSvdlaya. 

§ 342, L 11-12 omit Ski 9i/aya ' mother,' Siifah. maSniyam. 

§ 372, L 5, § 373, L 4 for vaspa read rfl^pa. 

§ 374, L 12, § 734, 1. 4 for vartikd resAvartakd. 

§ 395, L 10, § 401, L 12 for ilf^sa, Slrsa read iirsa. 

§ 396, 1. 6 for * once ' read * excrement.' 

§ 423, L 3, § 424, L 3, § 427, L 2 for Savaiti read hvaite. 

§ 458, L 4 for iddnim read iddnlui. 

§ 459, L 5 iorjyd rend jya. 

§ 464, L 6 for mukta read muktd. 

§ 472, 1. 3 for taoxmdn read taoxittan. 

§ 486, L 4 for ksiyate read kslyatS. 

§ 495, 1. 5 for dogdhum reeAddgdhum. 

§ 562, 1. 1 /or assimilation rearf change. 

§ 612, 1. 5 for drdksa read drdksd. 

Read throughout Avantl, Wax! /or AvantikA, WfixT. 



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