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INDUSTRIAL 
ALCOHOL 

THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF ALCOHOL 

FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES AND FOR 

USE AS AN ILLUMINANT AND AS 

A SOURCE OF MOTIVE POWER 



BY 



REMOVAL NOTICE. 

SCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON, 

Technical Book and Trade Journal Publishers, 

Will Remove at the end of June 1907, from / 

19, Ludgate Hill, E.G., to \ 

8, BROADWAY, 
LUDGATE HILL, LONDON, E.G. 



CANADA: COPP CLARK CO. LTD., TORONTO 

UNITED STATES: D. VAN NOSTRAND CO., NKW YORK 

1907 

[All rights remain with Scott, '//"////"' .r .W ) 



.TTOO8 

ioQ& 

j bna siii Is svotnsfl ItiW 



,YAWaAOFia ,8 
.3.3 ,MOOMOJ ,JJIH HTAOQUJ 



INDUSTRIAL 
ALCOHOL 

THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF ALCOHOL 

FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES AND FOR 

USE AS AN ILLUMINANT AND AS 

A SOURCE OF MOTIVE POWER 



BY 

JOHN GEDDES M'INTOSH 

AUTHOR OF 

"THE TECHNOLOGY OF SUGAR" ETC. 

I.K TURER ON MANUFACTURE AND AITLICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL AT 
THE POLYTECHNIC, RECENT STREET, LONDON 



WITH SEVENTY-FIVE ILLUSTRATIONS 
AND TWENTY-FIVE TABLES 




LONDON: SCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON 
19 LUDGATE HILL, E.G. 



CANADA: COPP CLARK CO. LTD., TORONTO 

UNITED STATKS: P. VAN NOSTRAND CO., NEW YoUK 

1907 



[All rights remain with Scott, Grt 



PREFATORIAL NOTE 



THE Author's thanks are due to Messrs. Blair, Campbell, 
& M'Lean, Monsieur Barbet, Messieurs Egrot, Grange et Cie., 
and Herr Stade and others, for illustrations and explanations 
of the most recent and modern installations of distillery 
plant and appliances equipped according to their respective 
systems. The Author also expresses his indebtedness to 
numerous authorities in different branches of the special 
literature of the subject. 

J. G. M. 

LONDON, February 1907. 



LIST OF TABLES 



TABLK fAUK 

I. Contraction of Mixture Per Cent, on Diluting Alcohol with 

Water 7 

II. Showing Correspondence between tin- Spri-ilir ( ;ra\ it \ -and IVr 

Cents, of Alcohol over and under Proof at 60 F. (Ul) , 11 

III. Showing the Specific Gravities of Combinations of Alcohol and 

Water ....... 17 

IV. Density and Percentage of Alcohol by Volume and l' in nia^c 

by Weight at 15 '56 C (TiiALLKs). Water = '9991 . 18 

V. Conversion of Per Cent, by Volume into Per Cent, by Weight, 

corrected for Alcohol . . . . .19 

VI. Alcoholic Content of Boiling Liquid and Vapour of Aqueous 

Alcohol at Different Boiling-points (Gi;t">Nix<;) . . 19 

VII. Showing the Contractions of Alcohol in Cooling down from its 

Boiling-point ...... 20 

VIII. Amount of Water to add to an Alcohol of Givm Stivngtli to 

obtain an Alcohol of any Given Weakrr Stmi^th . . 20 

IX. Boiling-point in Degrees C. of Alcohol of Different Strengths 

(NOYES and WAUFRE) . .... 81 

X. Composition of Sugar Beet and Sugar- l.rct . I uu . . 33 

XI. Showing Average Composition of the Grain of Cereals (L.\\\ i - 

and GILBKUT) ...... 62 

XII. Showing Influence of Higli Kiln Heat mi Infusion Products of 

Malt .63 

XIII. English Inl'iiMon Process Factors of 11} drat ion . . 69 

XIV. Do. do. Influence of Heat ... 69 
XV. Do. do. Influence of Quantity of Water . 69 



vi LIST OF TABLES 

TABLK PAGE 

XVI. English Infusion Process Influence of Ratio of Substitute to 

Malt ........ 70 

XVII. Showing Composition of Unimproved Varieties of Potatoes . 76 

XVIII. Composition of Wines from Different Wine-growing Districts, 

also of " Piquette " or Sour Wine from the Marc . . 84 

XIX. Analysis of Cane-Sugar Molasses . . . . .107 

XX. Showing Results by Analysis by Permanganate at Different 

Phases of Continuous Rectification of Bad Quality Phlegms 145 

XXI. Composition of Fusel Oil from Potatoes and Rye respectively . 205 

XXII. Luminous Intensity of Incandescent Mantles according to Pro- 
portion of Cerium Oxide ..... 229 

XXIII. Comparative Efficiency of Carburetted and Pure Alcohol as 

Motive Power Generators (GOOLICH) . . .241 

XXIV. Comparative Efficiency of Carburetted and Pure Alcohol as 

Motive Power Generators (MEYER) . . . .242 

XXV. Comparative Efficiency of Carburetted and Pure Alcohol as 

Motive Power Generators (PERISSE) .... 244 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

PAOR 

Alcohol and its Properties 

Ethylic Alcohol Absolute Alcohol Adulterations Properties of 
Alcohol Fractional Distillation Destructive Distillation Com- 
bustion Products Alcohol Proof Spirit Analysis of Alcohol 
Table showing Correspondence between the Specific Gravity and 
Per Cents, of Alcohol over and under Proof Other Alcohol Tables 1-21 

CHAPTER II 

Continuous Aseptic and Antiseptic Fermentation and Sterilisation in 

Industrial Alcohol Manufacture ..... 22-32 

CHAPTER III 

The Manufacture of Industrial Alcohol from Beets 

Beet-slicing Machines Extraction of Beet Juice by Maceration, by 
Diffusion Fermentation in Beet Distilleries . . . 33-61 

CHAPTER IV 
The Manufacture of Industrial Alcohol from Grain . . . 62-75 

CHAPTER V 

The Manufacture of Industrial Alcohol from Potatoes . . . 76-82 

CHAPTER VI 

The Manufacture of Industrial Alcohol from Surplus Stocks of Wiin-, 

Spoilt Wine, AViue Marcs, and from Fruit in General . . 83-100 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VII 

PAGE 

The Manufacture of Alcohol from the Sugar Cane and Sugar-Cane 

Molasses ........ 101-121 

CHAPTER VIII 

Plant, etc., for the Distillation and Rectification of Industrial Alcohol 122-184 

CHAPTER IX 

The Manufacture and Uses of Various Alcohol Derivatives, Ether, 
Haloid Ethers, Compound Ethers, Chloroform, Methyl and Amyl 
Alcohols and their Ethereal Salts, Acetone . . . 185-212 

CHAPTER X 
The Uses of Alcohol in Manufactures, etc. . . . 213-224 

CHAPTER XI 

The Uses of Alcohol for Lighting, Heating, and Motive Power . 225-246 

INDEX . 247 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



CHAPTEE I 
ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPERTIES 

1 . DEFINITION : Ethylic alcohol common alcohftl C^IIJIO. 
This is the principal spirit obtained by distillation from fermented 
liquors, e.g. wine, beet juice, malt worts, etc., technically termed wa-li. 
For a good many years the distilling plant employed has been so 
perfected that by a continuous operation an alcohol of 97 per cent. 
strength may be obtained free from ethers and aldehydes on the one 
hand, and fusel oil (amylic alcohol, etc.) on the other. 1 Alcohol being 
more volatile than water, when a mixture of the two is distilled 
the alcohol comes over first, mixed with a certain quantity of wau-r. 
The vapour is more rich in alcohol than the boiling liquid generating 
it. When these vapours are condensed just as they are given off by 
the liquid subjected to distillation, a spirituous liquor is collected, 
the strength of which thus depends upon how far the distillation has 
proceeded. The longer the duration of distillation the weaker the 
spirit. But if, instead of condensing the vapours per decentmn, \\v 
cause them to ascend into a series of receivers arranged one above 
the other, or into a column containing receptacles at different heights 
to receive the condensed liquid, it is clear that the vapour of water 
will condense first and nearest to the still in which the worts, etc., 
are being heated, and to which the condensed liquid is constantly 
being returned, whilst the alcoholic vapours, on the other hand, will 
rise and ascend further and further away from the source of heat 
towards the cooler portions, and where the more condensable vapour 
of water cannot follow them. Finally, the alcoholic vapours are 
themselves condensed in the cooler parts of the condenser most 
distant from the still, but those portions which condense first are 
more dilute than the portions which condense further away. Only 
this latter portion is collected for sale. The more watery portion* 

1 See footnote \ p. 13. 
i 



2 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. I. 

flow back into the heated parts of the column, where they are again 
deprived of their more volatile constituents. The alcohol in the 
"foreshot" of the "pot-still" abounds in aldehydes and ethers, that 
of the last runnings in fusel oil. In the continuous rectification dis- 
tillation columns there is (1) continuous feed of raw spirit and con- 
tinuous separate elimination therefrom of (a) ethers and aldehydes, 
(b) pure alcohol, (c) fusel oil, and (cl) water. 

2. Properties of alcohol. Alcohol is a liquid with a vinous 
spirituous odour and ardent aromatic taste, more mobile and far 
more volatile than w r ater and of much lighter weight. Alcohol is 
miscible in all proportions with most liquid bodies, with the exception 
of the fatty oils, which it only dissolves in very limited proportion 
castor oil and croton oil excepted, both of which it freely dissolves. 
In fact, next to water, it is the most extensive and important solvent. 
Its solvent action on resins, balsams, camphor, etc., is well known. As 
met with in commerce it invariably contains more or less water. The 
term absolute alcohol (9) is really more relative than absolute. Abso- 
lute alcohol, that is, alcohol free from water, even if it were capable of 
being prepared, would, the moment it came in contact with ordinary 
air, absorb water from it. A given bulk of alcohol weighs much less 
than a similar bulk of water. An imperial gallon of water weighs 
10 Ibs. An imperial gallon of absolute alcohol weights 7 '93 8 Ibs. 
at 60 F. As alcohol is miscible in all proportions with water, it is 
obvious that the weight of a gallon of more or less dilute alcohol 
will be a measure of its strength so long as the liquid contains 
only pure alcohol and water (Tables I. -III.). Alcohol is highly 
inflammable. It burns with a pale bluish flame hardly perceptible 
in broad daylight, but the heat of its flame is very intense, as may 
easily be demonstrated by suspending in it a coil of fine platinum 
wire, which becomes white hot. It deposits but little soot on the 
surface of cold bodies held over it. The pale blue colour of the flame is 
accentuated when the alcohol is diluted with a little w r ater, and not 
even a trace of sooty matter is then deposited. We have said that 
the products of the ordinary combustion of alcohol are carbonic acid 
and water. The weight of the water considerably exceeds that of 
the alcohol burnt, thus : 

C 2 H 6 + 6 = 2C0 2 + 3H 2 O 

Alcohol Oxygen ^f^ Water 

46 + 96 88 + 54 



142 142 

Saussure, Junr., found by actual experiment that 100 parts of 
alcohol, when burned, yielded 136 parts of water. 

3. Destructive distillation products of alcohol. When alcohol is 



SBC. 4] ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPERTIES 



through a ml li..t tube, it. U decomposed more or less perfect 1\ 
according to the temperature and to the rapidity of it> passage. Tin 
most accurate results were got by T. de Saussurr, uho passed alcohol 
tii rough a red-hot i>orcelain tube; there was deposited on its interior 
a little charcoal, a volatile crystalline substance (naphthaline), and a 
brown empyreumatic oil; a gas was evolved, tin- specific gravity <>t 
which was 0'856. This gas consists of a mixture of hydrocarbides 
(methane, ethane, acetylene, benzene), carbonic oxide and hydrogen, 
and a great number of pyrogenated hydrocarbides. When alcohol 
vapour and oxygen are mixed in proper proportions and tired by an 
electric spark, a violent explosion ensues, and carlxmic acid and water 
are the results. One volume of alcohol vaj>our requires three volume- 
of oxygen for its perfect combustion, and the result is two volumes of 
carbonic acid and three volumes of aqueous vapour. Uut snl.-tan< - 
very rich in oxygen, like chromic acid, may actually inflame alcohol 
by mere contact. A few drops of alcohol, spotted on dry chromic 
acid, from a separating funnel, immediately become inflamed, the 
chromic acid (CrO 3 ) loses half its oxygen, and is reduced to sesquioxide 
of chromium (real chrome green), Cr 2 O 3 . 

4. When alcohol is burned at a lower tem]>cratiire than that 
required for its inflammation, as by the action of spongy or finely 
divided platinum, the products of its combustion are very different ; 
the proportion of carbonic acid is less, and aldehydie and acetic 
compounds are formed. There are many substances which communi- 
cate colour to the flame of alcohol ; from boracic acid and the soluble 
salts of baryta it acquires a green tint; soda salts cause it to burn 
yellow ; the soluble salts of strontia give it a beautiful rose-colour, and 
chloride of calcium also reddens its flame : copper salts impart 
a fine green tinge. Graham has shown that alcohol may, in many 
instances, be combined with saline bodies, forming, as it wei 
substitute for water of crystallisation. Such combinations have been 
called alcoholates. They are obtained by dissolving the substance- by 
heat in absolute alcohol, and are deposited as the solution cools, 
more or less regularly crystallised. They appear to be definite 
compounds, and in some of them the alcohol is retained by an 
attraction so powerful, as not to be evolved at a temperatun 
400 or 500 F. Graham examined the alcoholic combinatid 
chloride of calcium, nitrate of magnesia, nitrate of lime, chloride of zinc, 
and chloride of manganese. Chloroform, chloral, bromoform, iodo- 
form are the result of the action of chlorine and other halogens on 
alcohol. It combines with nearly all the acids, giving rise to an 
important and varied class of compounds, resulting from their mutual 
action. A series of curious phenomena, arising out of the mixture of 
alcohol and acids, observed by Chevreul, were examined by l'el"U/.e. 
When a little sulphuric acid, for instance, is mixed with alcohol, the 
mixture has no action upon any neutral carbonate, and yet it decom- 



4 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. I. 

poses acetate of potash, evolving acetic acid. A mixture of alcohol 
and hydrochloric acid does not act upon carbonate of potash, but it 
decomposes the carbonates of soda, lime, strontia, and magnesia. A 
mixture of alcohol and nitric acid is without action upon carbonate of 
potash, but it acts powerfully on carbonate of lime, and of strontia, 
and slowly on carbonate of soda, baryta, and magnesia. Alcoholic 
solutions of acetic, and of tartaric acid, decompose none of the 
carbonates : a similar solution of citric acid decomposes carbonate of 
potash and of magnesia, but not carbonate of baryta, strontia, or 
lime ; and the alcoholic solution of oxalic acid decomposes carbonate 
of strontia, of lime, and of magnesia, but not carbonate of potash. 
The addition of a small quantity of water does not affect these 
mixtures, for when a saturated solution of carbonate of potash is 
mixed with the alcoholic solution of acetic acid, the carbonate is 
precipitated without effervescence : an alcoholic solution, therefore, 
may appear neutral to certain tests, whilst, in reality, strongly acid. 
It is difficult to suggest an explanation of these statements. 

5. Alcohol dissolves a small quantity of sulphur, especially at 
its boiling temperature, but the greater portion is deposited, on 
cooling, in small brilliant crystals : the solution has a peculiar odour. 
When a flask of alcohol is suspended in the head of a still, containing 
sulphur, and the latter melted, so that as its vapour rises it may be 
condensed with that of the alcohol, a reddish-yellow liquid passes 
over, containing sulphuretted hydrogen : this solution becomes milky 
upon the addition of water, and appears to contain about a hundredth 
part of sulphur. A very similar solution may be obtained by passing 
sulphuretted hydrogen into alcohol, under slight pressure. Alcohol 
also dissolves phosphorus, taking up about a 240th part at its boiling- 
point, and retaining a 320th part when cold. This solution is 
luminous in the dark on exposure to air, and produces a beautiful 
pale but ineffectual flame, when poured upon hot water. Alcohol 
dissolves carbon-disulphide, and the solution is decomposed by the 
alkalis. Potassium and sodium slowly decompose alcohol at common 
temperatures ; heated with it, they evolve hydrocarbides. Caustic 
potash and soda are soluble in alcohol, and it is sometimes resorted 
to as a means of the purification of those alkalis; after a time, 
however, they begin to act upon each other, and complicated changes 
ensue; alkaline carbonate is formed, and carbonaceous matter is 
evolved on the application of heat; by their slow mutual action, 
acetic acid, a resin, and a species of brown extractive appear to 
be formed. Ammonia and its carbonates are soluble at common 
temperatures in alcohol : it also absorbs a large quantity of 
ammoniacal, and of several other gases. Lithia, baryta, strontia, 
and lime are almost insoluble in alcohol, even in their hydrated 
states ; so also are the fixed alkaline carbonates : their sulphides are 
soluble. The greater number of the chlorides, iodides, and bromides, 



SEC. 6] ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPERTIES 5 

which are soluble in water, are soluble also in alcohol, ami \\itli 
many of them tin- drtinite alcoholised compounds nU)Ve mentioned 
arc produced. Thus there are definite compounds of ehlorid< 
calcium, xine, manganese, etc., with alcohol (/<<,/,, ,/<if. *) ; the same 
is the case \\ith some of the nitrates : lnt the >ulphates are almost 
all insoluble; hence the use often made in the analysis of mixture 
of salts, of the separative power of alcohol. /<!- Mudicd tin- 
mutual action of chloride of platinum and alcohol. Ib- >ho\M-d tin- 
existence of a peculiar class of salts, of \\hich hydrocarbon and 
the chlorides are the elements; he terms them <///<//></ 
Hellot a long time ago obtained a crystallisable compound of chloride 
of antimony and alcohol; and later Lewy described an anal". 
compound of perchloride of tin and alcohol. The uses of alcohol 
in the arts, and its applications to various economical purpose*, are 
extremely numerous; to the chemist it is a most valuable sp. 
of fuel, but we are almost debarred from its use by its high price ; 
and for the same reason many manufactures, in which alcohol is 
an essential agent, cannot be productively carried on in this country. 
Its solvent powers, in regard to resins, oils, and other organic product-, 
have been elsewhere noticed: its medicinal and pharmaceutical 
employment are well known. It is the chief raw material used in 
the manufacture of ether, chloral and chloroform. It is one of tin- 
essential raw materials in the manufacture of numerous intermediate 
products in coal-tar colour manufacture, and in the form of its 
radical ethyl enters into the constitution of both these and the 
finished products of many coal-tar colours, and hundreds of other 
substances. See Chaps. IX. and XI. 

6. Proof spirit is defined by law (58 Geo. in. c. L'S) to be 
such spirit "as shall at the temperature of 5T by Fahrenheit '> 
thermometer weigh exactly -J-jths of an equal measure of distilled 
water." The temperature of the distilled water is not specified, but 
there can be no doubt that it also is referred to as at 51. Taking 
water at 51 F. as unity, the specific gravity of "proof spirit " at 
51 F. is -92308. When such spirit is raised to the more usual 
temperature of 60 F., its specific gravity, compared with \vat- 
60 F., is -91984. To calculate the quantity of spirits at proof in 
a given quantity of spirit over or under proof strength: Multiply 
the quantity of spirit by the number of degrees of strength of tin- 
spirit, and divide the product by 100. The number of degrees of 
strength of any spirit is 100 plu* the number of degrees overproof, or 
minus the number of degrees underproof. 

Example: 19 '8 gallons of spirit at 64 -5 overproof 

100 + 64-5 = 164-5 proof strength. 

164-5 x 19-8 -=- 100 = 32-571 

taken as 32*5 gallons at proof. 
The facility with which the hydrometer can be used is such as 



6 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. I. 

to render it the best adapted for determining the strength of alcohol 
by the Excise. A Committee of the Royal Society many years ago 
recommended to the Government a form of the instrument which they 
considered best adapted to the purpose, accompanied by proper tables. 
The following extract from their report speaks for itself. " With 
regard to the substance alcohol upon which the Excise duty is to be 
levied, there appears to be no reason either philosophical or practical 
why it should be considered as absolute, a definite mixture of alcohol 
and water is as invariable in its value as absolute alcohol can be. It 
is also invariable in its nature, and can be more readily, and with 
equal accuracy, identified by that only quality or condition to which 
recourse can be had in practice, namely, specific gravity. A diluted 
alcohol is therefore that which is recommended by us as the only 
excisable substance, and as, on the one hand, it will make no difference 
in the identification, and, on the other, will be a great commercial 
advantage, it is further recommended that the standard be very nearly 
that of the present proof spirit. The proposition of your Committee 
is that standard spirit be that which, consisting of water and alcohol 
alone, shall have a specific gravity of 0'92 at the temperature of 62 
F., water being unity at that temperature, or, in other words, that 
it shall at 62 F. weigh T 9 ^ths or f f ths of an equal bulk of water 
at the same temperature. The temperature of 62 F. is recom- 
mended as the standard, because it was that at which water was taken 
in the late National survey and adjustment of weights and measures. 
The specific gravity of 0'92 is taken rather than '9 186 3 3 (the specific 
gravity of present proof spirit at 62), because the fraction expressing 
its relation to water is much more simple, and will facilitate the 
construction of the tables and the verification of the instruments 
proposed to be used. This definition of standard spirit appears to 
your Committee to be very simple, and yet as exact as it can be, or 
as any other standard spirit can be. This standard is rather weaker 
than the old proof spirit, in the proportion of nearly 1*1 gallon of the 
present proof spirit per cent. But this disadvantage your Committee 
consider as trifling compared with the great convenience which will 
result if the specific gravity of 0'92 be taken rather than 0'918633. 
It may be interesting hereafter to ascertain what proportion of 
absolute alcohol enters into the composition of the recommended 
standard spirit, should the latter be adopted by the Government; 
but the point possesses not the slightest practical importance in relation 
to the present question. The proposed standard is in fact more 
definite, more sure, and more ascertainable than that of the alcohol 
which it must contain. Philosophers are not yet agreed upon the 
density of absolute alcohol, and the differences of specific gravity 
assigned to it vary from "7910 to '7980. But assuming the truth to 
be somewhere within these extremes, the proposed standard would con- 
tain nearly one-half by weight of absolute alcohol. ('7947 at 59 F., 






ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPER'!!! S 



Kcr/.cliu.s; -7960 at 60 F., Turner, !Y..m ,s',/ //*.<,, ' 7<J10 at C-^ 
lirumlc; 7980, Chaussier '79236 M ''-I P., Gaj i 
mixture of alcohol ami \\atrr, tin- >y < ''>' gravity ap pears to be tin- 
niily quality or condition t \\hich recourse can ! had tor tilt- 
practical purposes of tin' Kxcisr, in order to indicate tin- pn.pmti'.n 
<>(' standard spirit piv^-nt. Your Coimnittrr arc o| opinion that the 
ht/<lr<>iml< , is tlic instrument lu-st lilted in the hands <,t' tin- I'. 
officer to indicate that specific gravity; and they think it ou^ht to 
he so graduated as t<> </in> the indication <>/ *l r> tn.itlt, n<>t HJ,I,H </// 
arbitrary scale, imt in /'////> of specific gravity t <> //'"'/ t> //'/ /'/////, 
n'liich in the present case should be 62 F., for that of the standard spirit. 
The graduation in terms of specific gravity will not only supply a 
very minute yet sensible scale for the purpox- of a>crrtaining .smaller 
ditlerences in the density than is done by the present scale, but will 
also afford an easy means of verifying the instruments \\hen 
required." 1 

V. Heat developed by and contraction ensutny on ;///////</ <//ro//o/ 
and water. Equal mixtures of alcohol (D = 0'825) and water each 
at 10 0. ( = 50 F.) register, when suddenly mixed, a temperature 
of 21 '1 C. ( 70 F.), and a mixture of equal measures of proof 
spirit and water each at 10 C. ( = 50 F.) registers, under like 
conditions, 15*6 C. ( = 60 F.). On thus mixing alcohol and v 
the contraction increases till the mixture consists of 100 parts of 
alcohol and 1 16*23 of water. One hundred volumes of this mixture at 
59 contains 53'739 of anhydrous alcohol and 49*836 of water, tin- 
condensation therefore amounts to 3*575. The specific gravity i- 
0-927 at 15 C. (59 F., Rudberg). From this point the contraction, 

TABLE I. CONTRACTION OF MIXTURE PER CENT. ON DILUTING ALCOHOL 

WITH WATKK. 



A 


B 


A 


IJ 


A 


B 


A 


B 


100 


o-o 


75 


3*19 


50 


3*745 


25 


2*24 


95 


1*18 


70 


3*44 


45 


3*64 


20 


i-:-j 


90 


1*94 


65 


3*615 


40 


3*44 


15 




85 


2*47 


60 


3*73 


35 


3*14 


10 


0-72 


80 


2-87 


55 


3-77 


30 


272 


5 


0*31 



A, volume of alcohol percent. B. i-uiitrartitms in hundredth* of tin- 
of the mixture when 100 per cent, alcohol i> rrdu-vd l.y \\at r i. 
indicated in A. 



1 This recommendation i,l' tl.. K,,v,il S.M-U-ty, nuuli- srvrrul ^i-m-r;iti.-: 
lias never lu-en adopted l>y the Kxcise. By the use of a hydrometer, with 
direct indications 0*800-0'850 according to the sux.i,'e>itiis of the Royal So. 
the strength over proof of any industrial alcohol is easily ascertained from 
Table II., pp. 14-16. 



8 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. I. 

produced by fresh addition of water become more and more feeble, 
and terminate in apparent expansion. When equal volumes of dilute 
alcohol (D = 0'954) and water are mixed the density becomes 0'9768, 
whereas if there were no expansion the density w r ould be O9770. 

8. The maximum of contraction, according to Dumas, indicates 
55 per cent, of alcohol, but Rudberg's experiments place it at 54 per 
cent., which is equivalent to 23 parts by weight of alcohol and 27 of 
water = 1 molecule of alcohol C 2 H 6 O = 46 and 3 molecules of water 
= 54. The absolute amount of the contraction varies with the 
temperature, according to Tralles, at 4 C. (39 F.) it amounts to 3*97, 
at 11 C. (52 F.) to 3-77, at 18 C. (64 F.) to 3-60, and at 37 C. 
(100 F.) to 3-31. 

9. Absolute alcohol. Absolute alcohol is prepared by rectifying 
the alcohol of commerce by substances which take up water. Quick- 
lime is the substance most generally used. The alcohol is digested 
with a large quantity of quicklime in a flask for two days. The 
latter is then connected with a Liebig's condenser, and the alcohol 
is distilled off. The quicklime does not appear to slake much. The 
first and last portions are rejected because even when working with 
almost absolute alcohol the former contains a large proportion of 
water ; whilst, on the other hand, owing to the high temperature the 
last portion is apt to contain water extracted from the calcium 
hydrate by the absolute alcohol. These two portions being collected 
apart, the remainder is absolute alcohol, potassium permanganate 
does not redden it, but imparts a faint brown tint. Instead of 
directly distilling the alcohol through a Liebig's condenser, the flask 
may be attached to a vertical reflux condenser, and boiled on the 
water-bath for an hour, when the condenser is changed to the 
ordinary position and the alcohol distilled off as before ; in this case 
the lime, some lumps of which should originally have projected above 
the surface of the liquid, is completely disintegrated. Care must 
be taken not to use too much alcohol, as the heat generated by the 
slaking of the lime may cause such sudden and violent ebullition as 
to project a mixture of alcohol and lime through the condenser. 
When the alcohol originally contained more than 5 per cent, of water, 
a single rectification is not enough, and less quicklime must be used, 
otherwise the flask may be broken by the heat developed in slaking. 
Better results are obtained by digestion with, and distillation over, 
caustic baryta, made by decomposing the nitrate. 

10. A very pure absolute alcohol is obtained on a larger scale 
by simple filtration through quicklime. Any convenient apparatus 
may be used, such as an inverted two-gallon tin can, the bottom 
being removed and a lid fitted in its place, the cylindrical part of 
the can being lined inside with a cylindrical perforated vessel, in the 
centre of which a tube is fixed. The can acts as a jacket. The 
inner vessel is filled with quicklime and as much alcohol as it will 



SEC. 12] ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPERTIES 9 

hold. The central tube communicates with tin- inter!.. r of the jacket. 
The inverted neck of the can is fitted with a stop cork !-r running 
off the dfli v.l rated alcohol after being left in contact for fnurt. 

.11. In the manufacture of absolute alcohol by very slow. .,!, I 
percolations through large successive portions of quicklime, it not 
unfrequently comes from the rectifying still of a specific gravity U-low 
that of the lowest of the tables and of the U-st and most recent 
authorities ; and the entire product of the process for years has been 
of such strength tl iat all the hydrometers tried have sunk below the 
reading scale. A U.S.A. Government Inspector pronounced the alcohol 
to he in one case 102 per cent, strong! Another inspector made it 
99'8 per cent., but he could not possil.lv ha\e done this \\itli his 
official instruments, because his hydrometer would sink below the 
reading scale, even when the alcohol had I'een e.\]>osed to the air in 
several trials. From these observations upon alcohol that, having 
been managed with a considerable air contact, could not be completely 
anhydrous, since very strong alcohol takes moisture from the air very 
rapidly indeed, and changes proportionately in specific gravity. S.jiiill> 
concluded that the tables were all too high for the present time. 
Table III. gives results of his reinvestigation. Metallic sodium has 
been used to remove the last traces of alcohol. A small piece is dis- 
solved in the alcohol, and the whole distilled at a steam heat. The 
sodium forms ethylate of sodium with disengagement of hydrogen, 
whilst the traces of water which the alcohol contains decomi>ose the 
ethylate with the formation of caustic soda and alcohol. 



O, + H,0= 

Sodic Ethylate and Water = Caustic Soda and Alcohol 

But according to Mendelejeff, when either sodium or sodium 
amalgam are used to dehydrate alcohol, traces of sodium or sodium 
and mercury are found in the distillate. Potassium carbonate ha> 
been used, but it is too weak a dehydrating agent (see sec. 16). 

12. The phlegms furnished by the best distilling columns are far 
from being a mixture of w r ater and pure alcohol. Amongst the 
substances which deteriorate them the following may be mentioned: 
Propylic, butylic, isoamylic, and hexylic alcohols, the aldehyde- of 
ethylic and homologous alcohols, acetone, glyols, armlein, furfuPoL 
The acids produced by the oxidation of these dinerent alcohol-, or 
from the reduction of pre-existing acids, pelargonic acid, etc. Tin- 
ethers (esters or ethereal salts) produced by all the possible 
combinations of all these alcohols with the aldehydes, essential nils 
etc. etc. If some of these bodies by their being present impart to the 
liquors a savour and aroma which constitute their value, the majority. 
on the contrary, are noxious in a high degree and very unpleasant to 
taste and smell. The industrial alcohol distiller is therefore in duty 



io INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. I. 

bound to eliminate them to satisfy both hygiene and his customers' 
requirements. It cannot be done by chemical processes. Continuous 
rectification and " pasteurisation " is alone effectual. 

13. Assay of alcohol. (1) Water may be detected by adding 
anhydrous sulphate of copper, which changes from greyish white to blue 
in dilute alcohol, but this reaction fails to detect minute proportions 
of water. Slight traces may be detected by adding a small amount 
of the alcohol to be tested to a saturated alcoholic solution of liquid 
paraffin. Slight traces of water render the liquid turbid immediately 
(Crismer). Also by permanganate of potash, which under like circum- 
stances turns red. (2) Amylic alcohol (fusel oil) may be detected 
by agitating 5 c.c. of the alcohol to be tested with 6 c.c. of water 
and 15 to 20 drops of chloroform. The chloroformic solution is 
decanted and evaporated, leaving the fusel oil ; about 0*05 per cent, 
may be detected in this manner. (3) The first runnings impurities may 
be recognised and roughly estimated by aid of the reaction of rosaniline 
bisulphite on the aldehydes which it always contains. (4) Furfural 
may be recognised and approximately estimated by the red reaction 
which it gives with aniline acetate. Savalle used an acid reagent which 
he described as very satisfactory as regards rapidity and exactitude in 
detecting and estimating en bloc the impurities in an alcohol; 10 c.c. 
of the alcohol are run into a small flask with 10 c.c. of the reagent, 
and the whole is heated over a spirit lamp with constant shaking. As 
soon as the liquid boils, the heat is withdrawn, and the whole is run 
into one of the empty bottles in the case. The tint of the liquid is 
then compared with that of a typical plate to get the percentage of 
impurities. 

14. MOHLER'S METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL 
ALCOHOL. There are well-known methods for determining extract, 
alcohol, acids, and furfurol. The method now described renders it 
possible in half-litre samples to determine also the ethers, the 
aldehydes, the higher alcohols, and the nitrogenous products. These 
determinations have to be made on the distilled liquid brought to the 
standard of 50 G.L., except as regards the nitrogenous products, 
which are determined in the sample itself, (a) Determination of 
ethers. Boil 100 c.c. of the distilled alcohol for an hour along with 
20 c.c. of decinormal potash, the flask being fitted with an ascending 
condenser. The alkaline liquid is titrated back by decinormal acid, 
and the results are calculated as ethyl acetate. (b) Aldehydes. The 
intensity of the violet colour developed by the action of rosaniline 
bisulphite upon alcohols containing aldehydes is proportional to the 
quantity in solution. To apply this reagent to the determination of 
the aldehydes it must be caused to act upon a solution of known 
strength, and to bring the alcohol to be analysed by dilution to 
contain a quantity of aldehyde equal to that of the standard. To 
10 c.c. of a solution of ethylic aldehyde at Y^^O-, anc ^ to 10 c.c. of 



SEC. 15] ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPERTIES 11 

tin- alcohol under analysis (both at 50 of alcoholum- jilu, 

add at the same time 4 c.c. of rosaniline bisulphite. The tints 
an- allowed to develop for twenty minutes and their inti-n-iiy II then 
compared by means of the Dubosc colorimeter, The operation i> 
recommenced by diluting the alcohol in question until tin- ool 
have the same intensity. If /// represent* this dilution, the weight 
of ethylic aldehyde per litre will In- M x 0'050. 

(c) Higher alco/io/n. Sulphuric acid in tin- conditions in which 
it is employed acts only on the aldehydes and the higher alcohols. 
The aldehydes are kept back by means of aldehyde phosphate. To 
100 c.c. of the distilled sample add 1 c.c. of aniline and 1 c.c. of 
phosphoric acid at 45 P>. Tin- liquid is boiled for an hour with an 
ascending condenser, and is then distilled to dryness in a salt hath. 
The distillate is treated with sulphuric acid at specific gravity 1'84 
(168 Tw.) according to the known method, and the tint observed i> 
examined comparatively in the colorimeter with that given by an alcoholic 
solution containing 0*250 isobutylic alcohol per litre, operating, as in tin- 
case of the alcohols, by diluting the alcohol until the tints are equalled. 

(d) Sif /<></< 'ii 1 1 us products. The weight of ammonia corresponding 
on the one hand to the amides and to saline ammonia, and on the 
other to the pyridine bases and the alkaloids, is determined by sub- 
mitting the alcohol in question first to the action of sodium carbonate, 
and then to that of alkaline permanganate, titrating the small 
quantities of ammonia produced in each operation with Nessler's 
reagent. To 100 c.c. of the sample not distilled add '_' c.c. .f 
phosphoric acid at 45 ]>., and expel all the alcohol by boiling. The 
phosphoric solution of the bases is diluted with about 1 litre distilled 
\\ater; 10 grins, of pure sodium carbonate are added, and the 
mixture is distilled until no more ammonia passes over. The 
permanganate and the potash are then introduced, and the distillation 
is continued, the ammoniacal water being collected in another receiver. 
The ammonia obtained from each operation is determined with 
Xessler's reagent comparatively with a solution containing O'OOOOl 
grin, ammonium chloride per c.c. By the method just described 
500 c.c. samples of alcohol (containing not more than 1-200, 000th of 
acids, 1-200, 000th of aldehydes, 1-1, 000, 000th of ethers, I -1,000,000th 
of furfurol, 1 -20,000th of higher alcohols, and l-100,000th OH 
operating with alcohol at 90, 1-1, 000,000th of ammonia mi responding 
to saline ammonia and amides, and 1-10,000, 000th of ammonia COTW 
spending to the alkaloids and to pyridine bases') may be analysed. 

15. Separation of the a Idch /A '/* ( ;lr< ird a nd Hoct/ut.-*' mit/i'-f. 
The authors dissolve in 200 c.c. of alcohol, at 50, 3 grins. ..f ineta- 
phenylen-diamine hydrochloride, and boil for half an hour \\ith an 
a s.vnding condenser. The liquid takes a pale yellow colour. It is 
let cool for half an hour and slightly stirred towards the end of thU 
time. The colour of the liquid darkens, and if aldehyde is present it 



12 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. I, 



takes a fine green fluorescence. It is then distilled quickly, and 125 
c.c. of distilled alcohol are collected, marking 75. This is then sub- 
mitted to Savalle's test, and the tints obtained are compared with 




FIG. 1. Laboratory Rectifier (SoiiKL). A, rectifying column ; a, auxiliary 
refrigerator; b, thermometer; B, condenser No. 1 regulated to 77 '5 C. ; 
dd, coil of 10 spirals, each with S tube (e) for products condensed therein ; 
//, separate collectors of four different lots from e (viz. 1 and 2 ; 3 and 4 ; 
5, 6, and 7 ; and 8, 9, and 10), so that bulk from each pipe (/) is appre- 
ciably equal ; C, hot condenser No. 2 fed by water from B ; #, pipe for 
vapour from C (liquefied in refrigerator D). 



SEC. 1 6] ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPERTIES i ;, 

those -iveli l.y alcohol at T-". , to uhidi known '<|ll;ii.t it ie, .,!' pure 
amvlic alcohol liiivr l.ren added.. 

16. Commercial "absolute" alcohol al\\a\> contain- inter, 
times as much as 1 to 2 per cent. ; in ad<liti..n to this, aid. -In., 
according to J. B. Tingle, frequently present in varying quantity.' 
methods of purification in genera] us.- in laboraton,.., >M) .J, as distillation 
over lime, baryta, sodium, etc., although adequate to remove tin- \\at.-r. 
fail to affect the aldehyde, and it cannot be eliminated l,y I'nu-ti-.na 
tion. 1 The problem of its removal ha- l.r.-n attacked iv.vntly l.\ 
L. W. Winkler in the following manner (Ber. I'.m:., mviii :;'. I i 1 ):-! 
Silver oxide, prepared from the nitrate, i> \\ell washed and dried at 
the ordinary temperature. It is then triturated \\ith a little of tin- 
alcohol and the thin paste added to the remainder. The quantity of 
oxide used depends, of course, on the particular sample of alcohol ; it 
need not exceed a few grammes to the litre, and may be less. To 
neutralise the acetic acid which is produced, potassium hydroxide. 
1 to 2 grins, per litre, is added; the mixture is frequently shaken and 
allowed to remain for several days at the ordinary temperature, until 
a portion of the alcohol fails to give the test for aldehyde, \ i/. a silver 
mirror, with ammoniacal nitrate of silver solution. 

\V inkier recommends metallic calcium, in the form of filings, for 
the removal of water from alcohol ; 20 grins, are usually sufficient to 
dehydrate 1 litre of commercial "absolute" alcohol. The sultances 
are mixed, and boiled in a distillation flask with a reversed conden> i. 
and then distilled ; cork connections must not be used. The product 
is 99'9 per cent. pure. A second treatment with 0'5 per cent, of its 
weight of calcium appears to remove the last trace of water, because 
a third treatment, also with 0*5 per cent, of calcium, was found to 
produce no further change. Certain physical properties of alcohol, 
purified in this manner and fractionally distilled, were determined 

1 There is no necessity for every chemist to be his own absolute alcohol 
purifier, nor for commercial absolute alcohol to contain even a trace of aldeli 
as the following analysis by Delbruck of the industrial alcohol from one of 
Barbet's continuous distillation rectification stills of 176 gallons capacity p-r 
hour in this case shows : 



Acids Nil. 

Aldehydes . . . Nil. 
Savalle's test . Colourless. 



Colour . Transparent like water. 
Odour . Kiln-. 
Taste . Pure. 



Percentage of alcohol, 94 '4 per cent, by weight at lf>" = 96'39 by volume. 

Such commercial alcohols when rendered absolute should give a chemically 
pure alcohol without the necessity of any such cliniiic.il tn-atnu-nt as that 
suggested by "Winkler. As to its being impossible to free alcohol from 
aldehyde by ordinary fractionation in a laboratory, that is possibly iin- 

Sracticable, even in Sorel's or in Claudon Morin's laboratory rectifiers (Fu 
ut there is no reason why it should not be freed from aldehyde, etc., in Bar 
laboratory rectifier constructed on the same principle as his continuous rccti: 
The results obtained by Sorel's apparatus prove that the condenser B C is not 
an analyser, as generally believed. The analysis is rllYvted on the { : 
(Figs. 46 and 50). 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. I. 



with the following results : Sp. gr. at = 0'80629, at 10 = 079787, 
at 15 = 0-79363, at 20 = 0-78937 ;. these figures are reduced to a 
vacuum, and referred to water at 4. The corresponding values given 
by Mendeleeff are 0-80625, 0-79788, 0'79367, and 0-78945, respect- 
ively. The boiling-points are 77'81 (743'5 m.m.), 78'20 (754-9 
m.m.), and 78'29 (757'8 m.m.); therefore a difference of 1 m.m. 
pressure causes a change of 0'034 in the boiling-point. Winkler 
mentions two rather curious facts which he has observed in the course 
of his work. The reaction between calcium and alcohol is the more 
vigorous the less water is present below 5 per cent., but ordinary 
alcohol, containing 5 to 10 per cent, of water, also attacks calcium 
with considerable energy. Alcohol absolutely free from water is not 
nearly so hygroscopic as is usually supposed. For example, 200 c.c. of 
it were allowed to remain in an uncovered beaker, exposed to the air of 
the laboratory, for fifteen minutes ; it was then found that the amount 
of water which had been absorbed was less than 0*1 per cent (Tingle). 

TABLE II. SHOWING CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND 
PER CENTS. OF ALCOHOL OVER AND UNDER PROOF AT 60 F. (URE). 



Specific 
Gravity. 


Per Cent, 
over 
Proof. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Per Cent, 
over 
Proof. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Per Cent, 
over 
Proof. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Per Cent, 
over 
Proof. 


0-8156 


67-0 


8252 


62-3 


8347 


57-5 


8441 


52-5 


8160 


66-8 


8256 


62-2 


8351 


57-3 


8445 


52'3 


8163 


66'6 


8259 


62-0 


8354 


57-1 


8448 


52-1 


8167 


66-5 


8263 


61-8 


8358 


56-9 


8452 


51'9 


8170 


66-3 


8266 


61-6 


8362 


56-8 


8455 


517 


8174 


66-1 


8270 


61-4 


8365 


56-6 


8459 


51-5 


8178 


65-6 


8273 


61-3 


8369 


56-4 


8462 


51-3 


8181 


65-8 


8277 


61-1 


8372 


56'2 


8465 


51-1 


8185 


65-6 


8280 


60-9 


8376 


56-0 


8469 


50-9 


8188 


65-5 


8284 


607 


8379 


55-9 


8472 


50-7 


8192 


65-3 


8287 


60-5 


8383 


557 


8476 


50-5 


8196 


65-1 


8291 


60-4 


8386 


55-5 


8480 


50-3 


8199 


65-0 


8294 


60-2 


8390 


55-3 


8482 


50-1 


8203 


64-8 


8298 


60-0 


8393 


55'1 


8486 


49-9 


8206 


64-7 


8301 


59-8 


8396 


55-0 


8490 


49-7 


8210 


64-5 


8305 


59-6 


8400 


54-8 


8493 


49-5 


8214 


64-3 


8308 


59-5 


8403 


54-6 


8496 


49-3 


8218 


64-1 


8312 


59-3 


8407 


54-4 


8499 


49-1 


8221 


64-0 


8315 


59-1 


8410 


54-2 


8503 


48'9 


8224 


63-8 


8319 


58-9 


8413 


54-1 


8506 


487 


8227 


63'6 


8322 


587 


8417 


53'9 


8510 


48'5 


8231 


63-4 


8326 


58-6 


8420 


53-7 


8513 


48'3 


8234 


63'2 


8329 


58-4 


8424 


53-5 


8516 


48-0 


8238 


63-1 


8333 


58-2 


8427 


53'3 i -8520 


47-8 


8242 


62-9 


8336 


58-0 


8431 


53-1 -8523 


47-6 


8245 


627 


8340 


57-8 


8434 


52-9 -8527 


47-4 


8249 


62-5 


8344 


57-7 


8438 


527 1 '8530 


47-2 



SBC, i<>] 



ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPERTIES 



\l. Continued. 



1 










111,' 

i.r.tv it\ . 


PerCent. 
over 

Proof. 


Specific 
Gravity, 


Per Cent, 
over 
Proof. 


BlHM'lnC 

i 


nt. 
Proof, 


i 


IVr IV.,1. 
BBte 

}'!' '. 


8f>3:5 


47-0 


8702 


36-4 


8876 


2 i :. 


9056 


11 '4 


8537 


46-8 


8706 


36'2 


8879 


j i :; 


9060 


ll-l 


8540 


46-6 


8709 


35-9 


8883 


LM-u 


9064 


10-8 


8648 


46'4 


8713 


35-7 


8886 


23-8 


9067 


106 


8547 


46-2 


8716 


85-15 


8890 




9071 


10-3 


8550 


If.-o 


8720 


35-2 


8894 


23-2 




10-0 


8558 


45'8 


8723 


35-0 


8897 


23-0 


9079 


9-7 


8556 


45-6 


8727 


34-7 


8901 


2-2-7 


9082 


'.'1 


8560 


l.vi 


8730 


34-5 


8904 


22-5 


9085 


9-2 


8563 


45'2 


8734 


34-3 


8908 


22-2 


9089 


8-9 


8566 


45-0 


8737 


34-1 


8912 


21-9 


9093 


8-6 


8570 


44'8 


8741 


33-8 


8915 


21*7 


9097 


8-3 


S57-'} 


44'6 


8744 


33'6 


8919 


21-4 


9100 


8'0 


8577 


44'4 


8748 


33-4 


8922 


21-2 


9104 


:: 


8581 


44-2 


8751 


33'2 


8926 


20-9 


9107 


7'4 


8583 


43-9 


8755 


32-9 


8930 


20-6 


9111 


7-1 


8587 


437 


8758 


32-7 


8933 


20-4 


9115 


6-8 


8590 


43'5 


8762 


32-4 


8937 


20-1 


9118 


;:. 


859 l 


43-3 


8765 


32 2 


8940 


19-9 


9122 


6-2 


8597 


43-1 


8769 


32-0 


8944 


19-6 


9126 


5-9 


8601 


42-8 


8772 


31-7 


8948 


19-3 


9130 


5-6 


8604 


42-6 


8776 


31-5 


8951 


19-1 


9134 


5-3 


8608 


42-4 


8779 


31-2 


8955 


18-8 


9137 


5'0 


8611 


42-2 


8783 


31'0 


8959 


18-6 '9141 


4-8 


8615 


42-0 


8786 


30-8 


8962 


18-3 


9145 


4-5 


8618 


41-7 


8790 


30-5 


8966 


18-0 


".-I I* 


\-2 


8622 


41-5 


8793 


30-3 


8970 


177 


9152 


3-9 


8625 


41-3 


8797 


30-0 


8974 


17-5 


9156 


3-6 


8629 


411 


8800 


29'8 


8977 


17-2 


9159 


3-3 


8632 


40-9 ' 


8804 


29-5 


8981 


16-9 


9163 


3-0 


8636 


40-6 


8807 


29-3 


8985 


16-6 


9167 


2-7 


8639 


40-4 


8811 


29-0 


8989 


16-4 


9170 


2-4 


8643 


40-2 


8814 


28'8 


8992 


16'1 


9174 


2-1 


8646 


40-0 


8818 


28-5 


8996 


15-9 


9178 


1-9 


8650 


39-8 


8822 


28-3 


9000 


15-6 i -9182 


1-6 


8653 


39-5 


ss-r. 


28-0 


9004 


15-3 


9185 


1-3 


8657 


39-3 


8829 


27-8 


9008 


15'0 


9189 


1-0 


8660 


39-1 


8832 


27-5 


9011 


14-8 


9192 


07 


8664 


38-9 


8836 


27-3 


9015 


14-5 


9196 


03 


8667 


387 


8840 


27-0 


9019 


1 \-2 


9200 


Proof. 


8671 


38-4 


8843 


26-8 


9023 


13'9 


Under 


Proof. 


8674 


38-2 


8847 


26-5 


9026 


13-6 


9204 


0-8 


8678 


38-0 


8850 


26-3 


9030 


13-4 


9207 


0-6 


8681 


37-8 


8854 


26-0 


9034 


13-1 


9210 


0'9 


8685 


37'6 


8858 


25-8 


9038 


12-8 


9214 


1-3 


8688 


37-3 


8861 


25-5 


9041 


12-5 


9218 


i ; 


8692 


37-1 


8865 


25-3 


9045 


12-2 


9222 


1*9 


8695 


36-9 


8869 


25-0 


9049 


12-0 


9226 


2-2 


8699 


36-7 


1 -8872 

1 


24-8 


9052 


11-7 


9229 


2-5 



[TABLI 



16 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. I. 


TABLE II. Concluded. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Per Cent, 
under 
Proof. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Per Cent, 
under 
Proof. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


P HT 


Per Cent. ! 
under 
Proof. 


9233 


2'8 


9426 


20-0 


9615 


41-7 


9810 


73-5 


9237 


3-1 


9430 


20-4 


9619 


42-2 


9814 


74-1 


9241 


3'4 


9434 


20-8 


9623 


42-8 


9816 


74-8 


9244 


37 


9437 


21-2 


9627 


43'3 


9822 


75-4 


924S 


4-0 


9441 


21'6 


9631 


43'9 


9826 


76-1 


9252 


4-4 


9445 


21-9 


9635 


44'4 


9830 


76-7 


9255 


47 


9448 


22-2 


9638 


45-0 


9834 


77-3 


9259 


5-0 


9452 


227 


9642 


45'5 


9838 


78-0 


9263 


5-3 


9456 


23-1 


9646 


46'1 


9842 


78-6 


9267 


57 


9460 


23'5 


9650 


467 


9846 


79-2 


9270 


6-0 


9464 


23-9 


9654 


47-3 


9850 


79-8 


9274 


6-4 


9468 


24-3 


9657 


47-9 


9854 


80-4 


9278 


67 


9472 


247 


9661 


48'5 


9858 


81-1 


9282 


7'0 


9476 


25-1 


9665 


49-1 


9862 


81-7 


9286 


7'3 


9480 


25-5 


9669 


497 


9866 


82-3 


9291 


7-7 


9484 


25-9 


9674 


50-3 


9870 


82-9 


9295 


8-0 


9488 


26-3 


9677 


51'0 


9874 


83-5 


9299 


8-3 


9492 


26-7 


9681 


51-6 


9878 


84'0 


9302 


8-6 


9496 


27-1 


9685 


52-2 


9882 


84-6 


9306 


9-0 


9499 


27'5 


9689 


52-9 


9886 


85-2 


9310 


9-3 


9503 


28-0 


9693 


53-3 


9890 


85-8 


9314 


9-7 


9507 


28-4 


9697 


54'2 


9894 


86'3 


9318 


10-0 


9511 


28-8 


9701 


54-8 


9898 


86-9 


9322 


10-3 


9515 


29-2 


9705 


55-5 


9902 


87-4 


9326 


10-7 


9519 


297 


9709 


56-2 


9906 


88-0 


9329 


11-0 


9522 


30-1 


9713 


56-9 


9910 


88-5 


9332 


11-4 


9526 


30-6 


9718 


57-6 


9914 


89-1 


9337 


117 


9530 


31-0 


9722 


58-3 


9918 


89-6 


9341 


12-1 


9534 


31-4 


9726 


59-0 


9922 


90-2 


9345 


12'4 


9539 


31-1 


9730 


597 


9926 


907 


9349 


12'8 


9542 


32-3 


9734 


60-4 


9930 


91-2 


9353 


13'1 


9546 


32-8 


9738 


61:1 


9934 


91-7 


9357 


13-5 


9550 


33-2 


9742 


61-8 


9938 


92-3 


9360 


13'9 


9553 


- 337 


9746 


62-5 


9942 


92-8 


9364 


14-2 


9557 


34-2 


9750 


63'2 


9946 


93-3 


9368 


14-6 


9561 


34-6 


9754 


63'9 


9950 


93-8 


9372 


14-9 


9565 


35-1 


9758 


64-6 


9954 


94-3 


9376 


15'3 


9569 


35-6 


9762 


65'3 


9958 


94-9 


9380 


157 


9573 


36-1 


9766 


66-0 


9962 


95-4 


9384 


16-0 


9577 


36-6 


9770 


66-7 


9966 


95-9 


9388 


16-4 


9580 


37'1 


9774 


67-4 


9970 


96'4 


9392 


167 


9584 


37-6 


9778 


68-0 


9974 


96'8 


9396 


17-1 


9588 


38-1 


9782 


68-7 


9978 


97-3 


9399 


17-5 


9592 


38-6 


9786 


69-4 


9982 


977 


9403 


17-8 


9596 


39-1 


9790 


70-1 


9986 


98-2 


9407 


18-2 


9599 


39-6 


9794 


70-8 


9990 


98-7 


9411 


18-5 


9603 


40-1 ! -9798 


71-4 


9993 


99-1 


9415 


18-9 


9607 


40-6 


9802 


72-1 


9997 


99-6 


9419 


19-3 


9611 


4i;i 


9806 


72-8 


1-0000 


100-0 


9422 


197 















SEC. 16] 



ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPERTIES 



'7 



I 5,0 

O ""o 



2 ~ 
o 



I-H "^ i^ ** <1> 

s^ s* s 



n 






5 = 



^' 
sli 

^s 

g*5 

:P 



I ^ 




CO CO 1^. O O *< CN 

_ I- CO 0> O I-H <M CO 
I ~ I ~ I I - QO OO 00 CO QO QO OO QO CO QO OS OS OS OS 




i I ^f IO O5 CO 

co TJI co <M a 



:CO lO O ^f* CO -H o 
t^ QC 05 O i-H C^ CO 




l^ OS > 1^ CO OJ rH 




i8 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. I, 



TABLE IV. 

DENSITY AND PERCENTAGE OF ALCOHOL BY VOLUME AND PERCENTAGE 
BY WEIGHT AT 15 0< 56 C. (TRALLES). WATER=0'9991. 



'o 


'o 


d 


'o 


""o 


d 


'o 

r=l 


'o 


o" 


1 







1 


"1 


CD 


g 


a 






^1 


1O 


q 






5s 


^S 


IQ 


^1 


o i 


IH 


*Q __3 


*o -5P 


rH 


Or l 


*c -P 




<u 


<u 


1 -i 


Q 


Q) 


-|J 




o 


4-3 




bD^^ 


c 


^r^*- 


*-T**^ 


ed 


2fci^>- 


W C^^ 


oj 


>> 


3> 


>-j 


3 >~> 


& ^ 


>-> 


>> 




>, 


g- 


fl rO 

0) 


3 


3 


s ^ 


'a 




s 


a 


0) 

PH 


PH 


1 


1 


1 


s 

Q 


1 


1 


1 








0-9991 


34 


28-13 


0-9596 


68 


60-38 


0-8941 


1 


0-80 


0-9976 


35 


28-99 


0-9583 


69 


61-42 


0-8917 


2 


1-60 


0-9961 


36 


29-86 


0-9570 


70 


62-50 


0-8892 


3 


2-40 


0-9947 


37 


30-74 


0-9556 


71 


63-58 


0-8867 


4 


3-20 


0-9933 


38 


31-62 


0-9541 


72 


64-66 


0-8842 


5 


4-00 


0-9919 


39 


32-50 


0-9526 


73 


65-74 


0-8817 


6 


4-81 


0-9906 


40 


33-39 


0-9510 


74 


66-83 


0-8791 


7 


5-62 


0-9893 


41 


34-28 


0-9494 


75 


67-93 


0-8765 


8 


6-43 


0-9881 


42 


35-18 


0-9478 


76 


69-05 


0-8739 


9 


7-24 


0-9869 


43 


36-08 


0-9461 


77 


70-18 


0-8712 


10 


8-05 


0-9857 


44 


36-99 


0-9444 


78 


71-31 


0-8685 


11 


8-87 


0-9845 


45 


37-90 


0-9427 


79 


72-45 


0-8658 


12 


9-69 


0-9834 


46 


38-82 


0-9409 


80 


73-59 


0-8631 


13 


10-51 


0-9823 


47 


39-74 


0-9391 


81 


74-74 


0-8603 


14 


11-33 


0-9812 


48 


40-66 


0-9373 


82 


75-91 


0-8575 


15 


12-15 


0-9802 


49 


41-59 


0-9354 


83 


77-09 


0-8547 


16 


12-98 


0-9791 


50 


42-52 


0-9335 


84 


78-29 


0-8518 


17 


13-80 


0-9781 


51 


43-47 


0-9315 


85 


79-50 


0-8488 


18 


14-63 


0-9771 


52 


44-42 


0-9295 


86 


80-71 


0-8458 


19 


15-46 


0-9761 


53 


45-36 


0-9275 


87 


81-94 


0-8428 


20 


16-28 


0-9751 


54 


46-32 


0-9254 


88 


83-19 


0-8397 


21 


17-11 


0-9741 


55 


47-29 


0-9234 


89 


84-46 


0-8365 


22 


17-95 


0-9731 


56 


48-26 


0-9213 


90 


85-75 


0-8332 


23 


18-78 


0-9720 


57 


49-26 


0-9192 


91 


87-09 


0-8299 


24 


19-62 


0-9710 


58 


50-21 


0-9170 


92 


88-37 


0-8265 


25 


20-46 


0-9700 


59 


51-20 


0-9148 


93 


89-71 


0-8230 


26 


21-30 


0-9689 


60 


52-20 


0-9126 


94 


91-07 


0-8194 


27 


22-14 


0-9679 


61 


53-20 


0-9104 


95 


92-46 


0-8157 


28 


22-99 


0-9668 


62 


54-21 


0-9082 


96 


93-89 


0-8118 


29 


23-84 


0-9657 


63 


55-21 


0-9059 


97 


95-34 


0-8077 


30 


24-69 


0-9646 


64 


56-22 


0-9036 


98 


96-84 


0-8034 


31 


25-55 


0-9634 


65 


57-24 


0-9013 


99 


98-39 


0-7988 


32 


26-41 


0-9622 


66 


58-27 


0-8989 


100 


100-00 


0-7939 


33 


27-27 


0-9609 


67' 


59-32 


0-8965 









SEC. 16] ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPERTIES i 

TAISLE V. CONVERSION OF PER CENT. BY VOLUME INTO Pi i 

WI.ICIIT t m:i:K< Tl.I) FOR ALCOHOL. 



Volume. 


Weight. 


Volum 


'. Wright. 


Yolmm-. 


Weight 


i 
Volum.-. \\Yight. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cen 


t. Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


IVr Cent 


PerCent. Per<Y,,t. 


1 


0'80 


12 


9-68 


60 


52-20 


89 


84*46 


2 


1-60 


13 


10-51 


70 


62-50 


90 




3 


2-40 


14 


11-33 


80 


7:} -59 


91 


! 87-09 






















4 


3-20 


15 


12-15 


81 


71- 


7 1 


92 


88-37 


5 


4-0 


16 


12-98 


82 


75-91 


93 


S9-71 


6 


4-31 


17 


13-80 


83 


77-09 


94 


91-07 


7 


5-62 


20 


17-28 


84 


78- 


29 


95 


i 92-46 


8 


6'43 


25 


20-46 


85 


79-50 


96 


93-89 


9 


7-24 


30 


i 25-69 


86 


80- 


71 






10 


8-05 


40 


33-39 


87 


81-94 






11 


8- 


87 


50 


i 42-52 


88 


83-19 












i 


! 










1 


TABLE VI. ALCOHOLIC CONTENT OF 


BOILING 


LIQUID 


A sit VAPOUR OF 


AQUEOUS ALCOHOL 


AT DIFFERENT BOILING-POINTS (ORCNING). 


Temperature 
of Vapour. 
Degrees. 


Alcohol by 
Volume in 
Boiling 
Liquid. 


Alcohol by 
Volume in 
Distillate. 


Temperature 
of Vapour. 
Degrees. 


Alcohol by 
Volume in 
Boiling 
Liquid. 


Alcohol by 
Volume 
in 
Distillat.-. 






















C. 




Per 


Cent. 


Per Cent. 


c. 




Per Cent. 


Per Out. 


77-2 






92 


93 


87-5 




20 


71 


77'5 






90 


92 


88- 






18 


68 


77-8 






85 


91-5 


90-0 




15 


66 


78-2 






80 


90-5 


91-2 




12 


61 


78-7 






75 


90 


92-5 




10 


55 


79-4 






70 


89 


93- 


" 




/ 


50 


80-0 






65 


87 


95-0 


5 


42 


81-2 






50 


85 


96-2 




3 


36 


82-5 






40 


82 


97-5 




2 


28 


83-7 






35 


80 


98-7 




1 


13 


85-0 






30 


78 


100-0 










86-2 






25 


76 













2O 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. I. 



TABLE VII. SHOWING THE CONTRACTION OF ALCOHOL IN COOLING DOWN 
FROM ITS BOILING-POINT is GIVEN BY DUMAS AS FOUNDED ON GAY- 
LUSSAC'S EXPERIMENTS : 



Temperature. 


Volume. 


Temperature. 


Volume. 


78-14 173 


1000-0 


38-4 


101 


954-4 


73-4 164 


994-4 


33-4 


92 


918-9 


68-4 155 


988-6 


28-4 


83 


943-6 


63-4 146 


982-5 


23-4 


73 


938-6 


58-4 136 


975-7 


18-4 


85 


934-0 


53-4 128 


970-9 


13-4 


56 


929-3 


48-4 119 


965-3 


8-4 


47 


924-5 


43-4 110 


960-0 


3-4 


39 


919-9 


i ' ii 





TABLE VIII. AMOUNT OF WATER TO ADD TO AN ALCOHOL OF GIVEN STRENGTH. 





90 Per 
Cent. 
Alcohol. 


85 Per 
Cent. 
Alcohol. 


80 Per 
Cent. 
Alcohol. 


75 Per 

Cent. 
Alcohol. 


70 Per 
Cent. 
Alcohol. 


65 Per 
Cent. 
Alcohol. 


60 Per 
Cent. 
Alcohol. 


55 Per 
Cent. 
Alcohol. 


50 Per 
Cent. 
Alcohol. 


85 


6-56 


















80 


13-79 


6-83 
















75 


21-89 


14-48 


7-20 














70 


31-10 


23-14 


15-35 


7-64 












65 


41-53 


33-03 


24-66 


16-37 


8-15 








60 


53-65 


44-48 


35-44 


26-47 


17-58 8-76 






55 


67-87 


57-90 


48-07 


38-32 


28-63 19-02 


9-47 






50 


8471 


73-90 


63 -04 


52-43 


41-73 31-25 


20-47 


10-35 




45 


105-34 


93-30 


81-38 


69-54 


57-78 46-09 


34-46 


22-90 


11-41 


40 


130-80 


117-34 


104-01 


90-76 


77-58 64-48 


51-43 


38-46 


25-55 


35 


163-28 


148-01 


132-88 


117-82 


102-84 , 87-93 


70-80 


58-31 


43-59 


30 


206-22 


188-57 


171-05 


153-53 


136-34 118-94 


101-71 


84-54 


67-45 


25 


266-12 


245-15 


224-30 


203-61 


182-83 : 162-21 


141-65 


121-16 


100-73 


20 


355-80 


329-84 


304-01 


278-26 


252-58 226-98 


201-43 


175-96 


150-55 


15 


505-27 


471-00 


436-85 


402-81 


368-83 


334-91 


301-07 


267-29 


233-64 


10 


804-50 


753-65 


702-89 


652-21 


601-60 


551-06 


500-50 


450-19 


399-85 



EXAMPLE : It is required to bring an alcohol containing 80 litres of alcohol 
per 100 litres to 40 per cent, by volume. Running the finger clown the 80 per 
<jent. column until it comes opposite 40, we find that 104 '01 litres of water 
have to be added to 100 litres of 80 per cent, alcohol by volume to bring it to 
40 per cent, by volume. 



SEC. 16] 



ALCOHOL AND ITS PROPERTIES 



21 



T\r.ii: IX. l>oii.iN<;-i'oiM IN h c. OF AI.I-OIIMI. in hnii 

(X<Yi:s \M. WARFKK). 



Per 
Cent, 


Boiling 
Point. 


Per 

Cent. 


Boiling 
Point 


Per Boiling 
(Vnt. Point. 

84-0 7s ;_':; 


Per 

Cent. 


Hoiling 
Point. 


Pel 
Cent 


Boil'g 
Point 


100-0 


78-300 


94-0 


78-195 


69-0 


80-042 


18-0 


87*93 


99-5 
99-0 


78-270 
78-243 


93-5 
93-0 


78-211 83-0 78-806 
78-227 82-0 78-879 


67-0 
65-0 


80-237 


13-0 

10-0 


90-02 
91-80 


98-5 


78-222 


92-5 


78-241 


81-0 78".";- 


63-0 


80-642 


8-0 


93-10 


98-0 
97-5 


78-205 
78-191 


92-0 
91-0 


78-259 

7s"J7<> 


80-0 79-050 
7!'-0 79-133 


55-0 
48-0 


8177 
82-48 


7-0 

:.-:, 


94-84 


<>7-o 


78-181 90'0 


78-323 


7X-0 79-214 


37 8376 


i-:, 




96-5 


78-179 89-0 7S-3x:> 


77-0 79-354 


35-0 83-87 


3-0 


'.'7-11 


96-0 


78-174 88-0 78-445 


760 79-404 


29-0 84-86 


2-0 


98-05 


95-5 


78-176 


87-0 78-530 


7.vO 79-505 


26-0 


85-41 


1-5 


98-55 


95-0 


78-177 


86-0 


78-575 


73-0 79-683 


22-0 


86-11 


1-0 


98-95 


94 ;> 


78-186 85-0 


78-645 


71-0 79-862 


20-0 


87-32 


0-5 


99-65 



N.B. The alcoholic content shown by hydrometer and boiling-point is 
only true of mixtures of pure alcohol and pure water. The weight of ethyl. 'n, 
generated by sulphuric acid, and absorbed by bromine, is useful if methyl- 
alcohol co-exists. lodoform test is undecisive. The Swiss monopoly require that 
90 per cent. " extra fin " and " sin-fin " do not react with metadiaraiclo ben/ol 
hydrochloride, nor must " extra fin " decolorise permanganate in less than live 
minutes, nor " surfin " in less than fifteen minutes. Otherwise the good 
only accepted as inferior ; 90 per cent. " fin " showing more than 0'3 per 1000 
of aldehyde, or which decolorisefl permanganate in less than a minute is 
rejected. 

rii'-mtl lest for (tldcliyttc.limi 2 cc. of sample into test-tulic, add 0'02 
grammes of either carbolic acid, naphthol a, naphthol |3, resorcin, hydru<|uint>iif, 
phlorogluoine, pyrogallol, guaicol, thymol, gallic acid. The reagent dissolved, 
pour Ice. pure colourless H 2 S0 4 down side of tube ; if aldehyde be present, a 
coloured ring forms at the junction of the two layers. Alter shaking, tin- 
colour varies with the nature of the aldehyde and ivagent, suso-ptibli- t> 
of aldehde. 



CHAPTEE II 

CONTINUOUS FERMENTATION AND STERILISATION IN 
INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL MANUFACTURE 

1 . THE manufacture of industrial alcohol comprises : Saccharification, 
Fermentation, Distillation, Rectification. Saccharification. Sucrose, 
glucose, and maltose 1 are either directly capable of undergoing 
fermentation, or can be transformed into a sugar capable of under- 
going fermentation, by a soluble diastase, invertine, secreted by the 
alcoholic ferment. These do not, therefore, require any special initial 
preliminary preparation. Other carbohydrates, inuline, for instance, 
before they can undergo fermentation, must be previously hydrated, 
either (a) by superheated steam, or (b) by the action of dilute acids, at 
a temperature of 100 C. Starch and dextrine, as such, do not undergo 
fermentation. They must previously be saccharified, i.e. they must 
be changed into dextrose (a) by the action of dilute acids (5 Ibs. of acids 
per 100 Ibs. of grain) acting under a pressure of 5 kilogrammes per 
sq. c.m., or (b) by the diastase of malt at 12 C. (53*6 F.) ; about 25 
Ibs. of malt are used for 100 Ibs. of starch to be saccharified. (See 
Chaps. IV. and V.) 

2. Fermentation. The transformation of all the above saccharine 
matters into alcohol is effected by an organised ferment belonging to 
the numerous class of saccharomyces. The great difficulty of 
industrial fermentation is to produce a sufficient vegetation of the 
right and proper species of saccharomyces. This minute organism 
does not propagate itself and develop unless it can find, besides the 
mineral and nitrogenous matter required for its production, a suitable 
amount of carbohydrates capable of undergoing fermentation. If that 
quantity be too small, reproduction is stopped, and the fermentative 
power soon disappears. If too large, it reproduces itself very 
abundantly, to the loss of the distiller, whose object is not to obtain 
unlimited numbers of saccharomyces, but the greatest amount of 
alcohol which the latter can produce. As 1 oz. of saccharomyces 
require for their production at least 1 oz. of sugar, to work in that 
way would spell ruin. It is thus necessary to continually regenerate 
a sufficient quantity of suitable ferment to complete the fermentation, 

1 For a detailed description of these sugars, densities of their solutions, etc., 
sec the author's Technology of Sugar, 2nd ed. 



SEC. 3 ] FERMENTATION AND STERILISATION 23 

hit no niuiv, and to use up nnnplrtrly the ferment produced. The 
presence of other figured ferments must be avoided. They not only 
use up, in waste, some of the sugar treated, hit produce bodies, either 
injurious to the quality of the alcohol, or poisonous and eapaHe .,f 
paralysing or killing the ferment. Fortunately the most frequently 
occurring of these dangerous organisms (disease, terments) are much 
weaker than the alcoholic ferment. Some, without being decidedly 
anaerobic, do not take kindly to the presence of oxygen. They may 
thus be dealt with by oxidising or oxygenising the wort, prior to 
fermentation. Some succumb to an acid, others to an antiseptic, 
incapable from the small dose of seriously hindering the development 
and action of the alcoholic ferment. But when the distillery residuals 
are not to be used as cattle food, the development of disease ferments 
may be prevented by oxidising the worts, or by treating them with 
sulphuric or hydrochloric acids or by organic acids derived from the 
action of the former on the organic salts present in the substance 
treated, which secondary products are capable of paralysing the disease 
ferment without interfering with the alcoholic ferment. Thus, in 
beet-juice fermentation, the acidity of the liquor is regulated so that 
1 litre titrates about 2 '5 grammes of sulphuric acid. Other substances 
are injurious to the alcoholic ferment, viz. the higher acids of the 
fatty series, such as butyric and capric acids, etc., and particularly nitrous 
acid and the compounds of these present, for instance, in beet molasses. 
They may, owing to the volatility of the acids, be eliminated by 
boiling the diluted molasses with a slight excess of sulphuric acid, 
after which the excess of acid is neutralised. Moreover, certain 
extractive matters are eliminated by the action of animal charcoal. 
When the fermentation residuals have to be directly consumed by 
animals (as in the case of tubers and cereals saccharified by malt), the 
above process is not applicable ; as mineral acids engender troubles in 
the digestive system. Until lately, recourse was had to lactic acid 
produced at the expense of sugar by a special form of fermentation, 
effected on a portion of the matters undergoing fermentation. This 
lactic acid is in fact poisonous to the highly dangerous clostr'ulium 
lnitt/i-ii'nm, the existence of which even attenuates the lactic ferment 
it.M-If. But the production of this lactic acid necessitates minute 
precautions and involves a great loss of sugar. Small doses of 
hydrofluoric acid are used in its stead, more especially in France. At 
all times, when working by intermittent fermentation, it is necessary 
to produce the amount necessary for each fermenting tun, but after- 
wards precautions must be taken to avoid producing at the expenae 
of the sugar a useless amount of ferment, and thus cause the ferment 
in a regression stage to secrete disassimilation products injurious to 
the quality of the alcohol. 

3. Care must be taken to allow the ferment to live, without its 
field of action being invaded by foreign ferments. This is done by 



24 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. II. 

carefully watching the temperature at each phase of the operation. 
The greater number of disease ferments only develop rapidly at a 
temperature above 30 C. (86 F.). Some of them even, like the 
distiller's lactic ferment, thrive at a temperature of 50 C. (122 F.), a 
temperature which paralyses many others. The alcoholic ferment, on 
the other hand, may live and thrive at decidedly lower temperatures, 
15-18 C. (59-63*4 F.). The lower temperature brewery ferments 
act slowly, about C. (32 F.). On the other hand, two phases may 
be differentiated in the life-history of the higher temperature distillery 
ferment : (a) the phase of abundant development most active at the 
temperature of 25-26 C. 77-78'SF.) ; (6) the phase of predominant 
fermenting power at higher temperatures. When it is desired to 
develop the ferment so as to form what is known as leaven or yeast, 
or the pied de la cuve (vat bottoms) of the French, the operation is 
carried on at a comparatively low temperature, never exceeding 25 C. 
(77 F.), working with a medium rich in mineral and albumenoid 
food, and in sugars capable of undergoing fermentation. By 
successive additions of saccharine wort, a high percentage of sugar is 
maintained in the mass. Much young ferment is thus produced 
capable of further propagating itself prolifically. Thus, by fermenting 
the concentrated worts from potatoes, and grain saccharified by malt, 
yeasts are produced titrating as much as 18, and even 22 per cent, of 
maltose, and the percentage of sugar is never let fall below 9. 
When that figure is reached, freshly saccharified wort is run into the 
yeast, until the ferment is judged to be sufficiently developed. The yeast 
once applied, or set to work, the temperature of the whole mass rises 
to 28-29 C. (82-4-84-2 F.), so that the yeast exerts to the fullest 
permissible extent its fermentative power without propagating itself 
beyond measure. Moreover, it must not be allowed to reach the 
regression phase, when it appears to secrete products deleterious to 
the quality of the alcohol. The former temperatures of 32-34 C. 
(89 '6-93 '2 F.) have been completely forsaken. This operation, 
especially in the case of rich worts, is a very delicate one. It is, 
in fact, admitted in actual practice that 1 per cent, of sugar trans- 
formed into alcohol raises the temperature 0'9 C. (1'62 F.). The 
temperature of the worts to be treated with yeast must therefore be 
carefully watched, or resource had to the use of refrigerants, and this 
latter process is being most generally adopted, in the case of very rich 
wash. 

4. Yeast is also used in the fermentation of beet juice, but from 
a different point of view. Where substances capable of undergoing 
fermentation like beet juice may be rendered unsusceptible to disease 
ferments by the addition of a suitable amount of strong acids, and 
contain in themselves not only the sugar, but a suitable amount of 
nutritive mineral matter and assimilable albumenoids, the operation is 
remarkably simplified by treating one vat with the requisite amount 



SEC. 5] FERMENTATION AND STERILISATION 25 

of tin- contents of tin- previous one. Yeast W only made at the 
beginning <t' tlic season, or when it is neceBSBT] \<> renew it owin 
its contamination with foreign ferment-. Working normally \\itli .1 
treated with yeast, fresh juico of density 1 "035-1 '04 is run in, 
tlu- How being so regulated that the fermentation constantly absorbs 
the sugar introduced, and that the density in the vat be only I'OOIT) 
at the maximum, and the acidity at L'-.~> grammes of normal -ulphuric 
acid pel- litre. Working in that way there is an abundant production 
of ferment. \Ylien the \at is full it is " mixed," that is, one third of tin- 
contents Is run into an empty vat : fresh vat bottoms an- thus obtained 
for the next fermentation, then juice is run in to fill the two vats but 
in the mother vat the density is maintained not at 1*0015 as formerly, 
but at 1 '00075, so as to prevent the useless production of yeast and 
utilise as much as possible its fermentative power. The mother vat 
once full is exhausted of its sugar in 4 hours. In the case of beet 
juice treated in this way the fermentation process la-t- - I hours, 
with molasses 48 hours, with grain saccharified under pn-siire, or for 
thick grain or potato worts saccharified by malt, 72 hours. 

5. As Pasteur's principles of rational fermentation have become 
more extensively adopted in fermentation industries, it has been 
acknowledged that the first condition to fulfil to obtain the best 
results as regards purity and the largest yields in alcohol consists in 
the daily production in sufficient quantity of pure ferments from a 
strain of yeast appropriate to the industry and acclimatised to the 
nature of the saccharine w r ort. Having secured such yeast, the 
fermentation proper may be conducted in the open air, because 
when the wort is copiously treated with yeast in full activity, it is 
able to defend itself against bacteria during the whole course of tin- 
alcoholic fermentation. The main object is to simplify the apparatus 
and impart very great vitality to the yeast. There should only be a 
single yeast-producing vessel, from which three or four batches of 
yeast may be drawn off in the twenty-four hours. The apparatus 
should be sufficiently large for each batch of yeast to serve directly as 
" vat bottoms " (jn<>d <J< j . /</ cur,) without any intermediate prolification 
in the open air. When once inoculated, the apparatus ought to 
yield yeast tor more than a month without any other precaution bring 
taken against contamination. All the taps are therefore cleaned 
in basins of formalised water, and all the valves possess a small ve el 
in which the packing is protected by antiseptic water. The prolific 
propagation of the yeast is intensified and its fermentation strength 
increased by doing on a large scale what Pasteur did in the 
laboratory : To revivify a languid yeast it must be cultivated in a 
thin film, that is, in a very thin layer of bouillon spread out in 
contact with air. Pasteur used large fiasks, the flat bottoms of which 
were covered with only a thin layer of liquid. How the sterilised 
wort is introduced into the apparatus will be described directly; 



26 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. II. 

suffice it to say that the wort is sterilised outside the apparatus. The 
yeast apparatus (Fig. 2), a cylindrical copper or wrought-iron vessel, rest- 
ing on a cast-iron foundation, consists of two distinct parts : the bottom 
forms a reservoir of juice in pure fermentation, whilst the top com- 
prises 4 to 6 aeration plates, on which the liquid forms a very thin 
layer about 2 c.m., say, |-inch thick. The liquid of the lower 
reservoir is continuously raised on to the upper plate by means of a 
steriliser K. The principle of the emulsifier is known. Zambeaux 
has used it in a very ingenious way to raise sulphuric acid on to the 
upper purifying towers. The emulsifier K is a sort of small elongated 
tubular vessel which only contains some 6-10 thin copper pipes. In 
the lower orifice of each pipe is a small vertical nozzle through which 
a jet of sterilised air issues. The air splits up into a series of air-bells 
which occupy the whole width of the pipe, and which are separated 
one from another by rings of liquid (liquid pistons). If the entrance 
air be sufficient, the sum total of the liquid pistons in any one of the 
tubes forms a column of liquid of less height than the height of the 
liquid in the bottom of the yeast apparatus. Equilibrium is destroyed, 
and, in virtue of the law of communicating vessels, the liquid assumes 
a continuous ascending movement in the tube to spread itself through 
c c on to the upper aerobiose plate ?/. This plate bears in its centre 
a small rim which forms a funnel. The excess of liquid falls on to 
the second plate, which, however, has no funnel. The liquid flows 
alternately from the circumference to the centre, and reciprocally. 
Throughout the whole of this course the saccharine wort in fermenta- 
tion is spread out in contact with the air brought by the emulsifier. 
The carbonic acid is di.sengaged, the wort being totally freed from it, 
and in its place oxygen is dissolved in an analogous manner to 
respiration by the lungs. Without doubt the air in this way acts 
much better on the leaven than air injected in large globules in the 
bottom of the receiver. Suppose, instead of yeast, we place in the 
wort a decidedly amphibious organism, e.g. a mucedinae. The culture 
on the plates will forthwith produce aerial mycelia ; whilst in the 
lower reservoir it would be in vain to inject air, only the anaerobic or 
immerged form of the mucedinse would be produced, the mycelia would 
divide and assume the form of oval globules, like yeast, and yield alcohol. 
6. A vertical axis traverses the yeast apparatus, and carries metallic 
brushes to keep in suspension the yeast deposited on the plates. It 
is turned from time to time by hand mechanism C D E. H is a 
small vessel containing formalised water to clean the packing and 
the safety valves. L is the exit of the mixture of air and carbonic 
acid ; it bubbles into the vessel W of the emulsifier. M, pipe for 
inoculation with pure yeast. R, entrance of sterilised air for direct 
bubbling. G, gauge glasses. T, thermometer. X, discharge pipe 
(cleansed) carrying a lateral pipe to receive steam or sterilised air. 
The air steriliser placed to the left of the figure consists of a cotton 



SEC. 6] FERMENTATION AND STERILISATION 27 

\\a-tr tiller |KTlnaiirlitly rnr|. r<l in a -team a'Hn,-|a\r. Tin- air 

commences to circulate in a <-lran-cl coil in tin- strain j:n-k<-t, \\li-n- 







FK;. 2.- Plant 



cuitiv;itioi! of pure ferments (aerobic cultivatitm 
(E. BARRET, Paris). 



it can be heated to a high temj>eratiire, then it traverses fn>m tlu- 
bottom to the top of the cotton heated by the filter jacket. In this 
manner every portion of the waste is brought to the st>.r<lisi,i</ 



28 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. II. 



temperature. Steam may then be turned off, the filtration of the air 
sufficing to free it from germs, provided the cotton be purified from 




FIG. 3. Forewarmer steriliser (EGROT and GRANGE). A, B, jacketed 
tubular pipes : B, heating ; A, cooling. 

time to time by steam. A small jet of steam may be left on 
permanently to lukewarm the air, because aeration appreciably cools 
the worts. Fig. 3 shows Egrot's combined steriliser and forewarmer. 



SEC. 8] FERMENTATION AND STERILISATION 29 

7. Before the time >l 1'a^t. m\ \rry thing was empirical (rule of 
thumb); whilst at the present day, Pasteur's methods, wliich h 
himself had already applied to luvuery and vineyard practice, are 
beginning to be adopted in industrial distilleries. By their means 
the distiller can regulate his fermentation processes, whereas formerly 
he was completely at their mercy. The work of Pasteur has been 
considerably extended in many directions. In particular, Barbet's 
process of spirit manufacture now about to be described is only an 
extension of his methods. There is one fact, says Barbet, that the 
Pasteur school had left a little in the dark. As a ferment easily 
accustoms itself to culture media of different composition, and as it 
reproduces itself in all saccharine solutions provided they contain 
albumenoids, phosphates, and salts, it became customary not to attach 
any great importance either to the nature of the sugar or of the 
accessory substances. If, instead of cultivating the wine ferment in 
the juice of the grape, we cultivate it twenty consecutive times in malt 
wort, after the twentieth culture it still remains grape ferment, and 
not beer-yeast or barm, the medium has not modified the original 
strain of the ferment in any appreciable way; but Pasteur found 
that beer wort, treated with pure Chablis ferment, imparted to that 
beer a vinous character recalling the flavour of Chablis wine. In 
breweries, the strain of ferment used has a manifest influence on the 
aroma of the beer, and if the strain of ferment (whilst still keeping 
to yeast) be changed, the taste of the beer is immediately altered, 
even if the wort has not varied. These facts have led to an altogether 
preponderating influence being attributed to the strain of ferment, 
and the composition of the saccharine wort has not been sufficiently 
taken into account. Now, if the strain of ferment persists for a very 
long time, even though in a medium counter to its natural and 
favourite food, it is none the less true that there is some change in 
its mode of existence, and this change resolves itself into a modifica- 
tion in the nature and bouquet of its secretion-. 

8. It must be borne in mind that the splitting up or resolution of 
sugar, under the influence of the ferment, is a vital phenomenon ; it 
is a complex digestion, which, in addition to alcohol and carl>onic 
acid, gives birth to numerous by-products. Amongst these accessory 
secretions, Pasteur determined i>er 100 grammes of sucrose, 3*16 of 
glycerine, 0'67 grammes of succinic acid, and 1 gramme of building 
materials, ceded to new ferment cells, but he did not weigh, and 
no one has yet weighed, the accompanying aromatic secretions, the 
simultaneous generation of which is incontestable. Now, in brandy, it 
is n.. t the alcohol which has the commercial value, the whole value of 
brandy rests most decidedly in the perfumed secretions, peculiar to 
this form of fermentation. The alcohol is simply the vehicle for tin- 
perfumed secretion. If we cultivate a grand champagne ferment in 
malt wort, the fermented liquid will possess a certain vinous illusion 



3 o INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. II. 

it will be cervoise, neither wine nor beer ; but if we distil it, it will be 
found that the perfumes are fugitive and in no sense the sum of the 
characteristic aromas of wine, because the culture medium has altered 
the digestive secretions of the ferment. If in the residual lees from 
the distillation of white wine we place a sugar, exempt from any 
intrinsic odour whatever, and if the wort be kept under the same 
conditions of acidity, density, and temperature as grape juice, the vine 
ferment is once more in its favourite medium : the same tartaric 
acidity, the same albumenoids, saline or organic matter as originally. 
Its vital evolution produces a second edition of all the phenomena 
of the first fermentation, it secretes the same fatty, cenanthic, and 
other acids, the same perfumed aldehydes, the same ethers, and 
essences, so that on distillation it would be impossible to differentiate 
the second brandy from the first. Every one knows the radical 
difference that is generally made between the industrial distillery on 
the one hand, and the old malt whisky distillery and those which 
produce the so-called natural brandies on the other hand. One 
hundred years ago, as far as natural brandies are concerned, only wine 
brandy, cherry brandy, rum, etc., produced by altogether crude 
rudimentary processes by so-called "spontaneous" fermentation, and 
distillation in an alembic, were known. 

9. On the dawn of industrial distillation, seeking its raw 
material amongst cheap agricultural products, such as raw grain, 
potatoes, beets, Jerusalem artichokes, or sugar residuals, treacle or 
molasses, recourse had to be made to much more complicated 
processes. Without mentioning the preliminary saccharification of 
starchy substances, attempts were made to induce very rapid 
industrial fermentations by yeast, to carry continuous distillation 
into practical effect, and to purify the product afterwards (because 
it in no way resembled natural brandy) by rectification, filtration, 
chemical or electrical treatment, addition of perfumes, etc. All 
improvements, however, have only served to widen still further 
the gulf separating the two kinds of distilleries : the old distillery 
retaining its old supremacy quite intact, whilst the industrial 
distillery had no other ambition than to make cheap routine 
products in one word, alcohol. It strove to eliminate all smell 
which would betray its origin, and to approach neutrality, and 
chemical purity, as far as possible. But this neutrality itself only 
shows that qualities and grades have been renounced, and that 
the least possible amount of defects is alone aimed at in plain spirits 
(Chap. IV. sec. 12). 

10. To produce spirits resembling natural brandy, Barbet com- 
mences by treating potatoes or beets so as to extract their 
starch or sugar by the usual methods. He saccharifies the 
starch by the following method. He uses normal sulphuric acid, 
in the proportion of 1 to 1J per cent, on the starch, first boiling 



SEC. u] FERMENTATION AND STERILISATION 31 



in the open air t<> dissolve tin- starch, then rluir^in^ into a r.p|N-r 
autoclave at a pressure not exceeding 1 to 1J kilo^rainnics |KT 
square centimetre at the most. Duration about one hour (('hap. 
II. sec. 1). The other process.-^ are: saturation )>y chalk (the 
syrup is extremely pale); filtration through a litter piv-s ;nil through 
animal charcoal, and also, if necessary, through wood charcoal. It 
must be rendered colourless and inodorous. In the composition of 
the saccharine liquor, it is necessary to approach as near as possiMe 
to the composition of the must of fruits, especially as regards saline 
matters and acids. Mineral acids are absolutely interdicted. The 
most convenient manner of reproducing fruit must, consists in ii-in- 
the vinasse from fruit distillation. It may seem difficult at tir-t 
sight, to those engaged in the industry on the large scale, to proem e 
such musts in sufficient quantity for daily use ; but first of all it 
should be borne in mind that the original must can serve at lea-i 
five times, and even more, it being taken for granted that certain 
special heating precautions are observed during distillation. The 
principal danger to be avoided is caramelisation, therefore Barbet 
only heats his distilling plant with exhaust steam. The industry 
formerly demanded acidity as indispensable to fermentation, either 
by mineral acids, or by the manufacture of lactic ferments, or by 
the re-utilisation of a good portion of vinasse (manufacture of pres^ d 
yeast). Barbet claims that it will be seen that his process ha- 
nothing subversive in it. He employs other vegetable acids and 
other vinasses. Certain precautions, certain turns of the wrist, render 
this process far from laborious, and it is the one to which the 
manufacturer should devote all his care and attention. 

11. Barbet reserves to himself the use of his patented process 
of fermentation by pure ferments and continuous sterilisation. He 
claims that he has improved the fermentation process, especially the 
production of ferments in aerobiose culture, so as to yield the 
maximum activity and vitality to the ferment in very acid musts. 
The purity and the high vinosity of the three-six 1 are in direct 
proportion to the organic acidity of the musts. Moreover, he claims 
that his system of pure ferments and aerobiose is pushed by him 
as far as possible with the view of producing a prolific reproduction 
of ferment cells. The distillation of the concentrated lees yields 
highly perfumed products of great body sufficient to perfume large 
quantities of industrial alcohol. Ebullition is necessary to destroy 
the cell, and liberate the perfume. The greater number of cells 
propagated, the greater the amount of perfume produced. Gyrations 
must therefore be conducted as in pressed yeast factories. A small 
fraction of alcohol is sacrificed, in order to produce enough ferment, 
as it is the source of the desired aroma. Therefore, at the end 

1 Trois-sixis a term applied in Franco to 90 |T tvni . alruhol, because 3 volumes 
of it mixed with 3 volumes of water yield a mixture marking 19 Cartier. 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. II. 



of the first pure ferment 
vessel, two or three large 
vessels are placed, which 
serve to leaven the whole 
of the must, and to start 
the fermentation process 
therein. Barbet also uses 
emulsion with sterilised 
air, and with aerobiose, 
so as to make reproduc- 
tion as prolific as is pos- 
sible. Hence the musts, 
copiously treated with 
ferment, and maintained 
up to then in absolute 
purity, are run into tuns 
in the open air, there to 
complete the fermenta- 
tion process, because there 
is now no danger of con- 
tamination ; the alcohol 
already formed, and the 
great acidity, prevent in- 
fection from all kinds of K^^s^^ 
bacteria. It is very 
difficult to produce forced 
ageing of spirits after or 
during distillation. These 
are very delicate culinary 
questions, and success is 
not often attained. Barbet 
gets over the difficulty in 
a great measure by ageing 
the fermented liquor be- 
fore distillation by pro- 
longed heating of the 
fermented wash in a series 
of vessels, PP 1 P 2 P s , Fig. 
3a. By pumping the fer- 
mentation gases into P 3 , 
the aroma is retained, 
and the excess of gas 
condensed in S falls as a 
perfumed liquid into the 
still D, or into a distilling 
column. 




CHAPTER III 

THE MANUFACTURE OF INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 
FROM BEETS 

I. Alcohol from Beets. The sugar beets used for distilling pur- 
poses are not of so fine a strain as those used for sugar manufacture. 
Their juice is of less density and is more impure. When a new 
variety of sugar beet, richer in sugar than those formerly in vogue, has 
been discovered by pedigree selection, those formerly in favour are 
degraded from sugar-house rank and consigned to the distiller. When 
a beet is pulped and the juice pressed, the juice contains, besides 
sugar and water, soluble mineral salts, soluble albumen, and other 
organic bodies, such as certain acids, asparagiii, etc., as shown in 
accompanying table. 

TABLE X. COMPOSITION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR- BEKT Jri< i. 

WaU-r, 79 to 84'5 per cent. 

Dry matter, 15'5 to 21 '0 per cent., of which 

Soluble in water, 11 '5 to 17'0 per cent. 

Insoluble in water, 4 to 5 per cent. 
Ingredients of juice 

I. Water . . 80 per cent. 

II. Dry matter .20 ,, 

A. Sugar . . . lf per cent. 

B. Non-saccharine matter 5 ,, 

(a) Ash, 0-8. 

(1) Incombustible salts 

Potassium, sodium, rubidium, vanadium, calcium, 
magnesium, iron and manganese, combined 
with chlorine, sulphuric, phosphoric, silicic, and 
nitric acids. 

(2) Salts transformed by combustion into carbonates. 

The same metals combined with oxalic, citric, 

malic, and succinic acids. 
(/>) Nitrogenous matter, 1 '60 per cent. 
Proteins (albumen, etc.). 
Plasmatic substances. 

Asparagin (C 4 H 8 N.,0 3 \ and various amides. 
Betaine (C B H n N a O, + H 0). 
Glutamme (C 3 H s (NHo)(CONHo)C0 2 H). 
Leucine (NH 2 C 6 H 10 CO,H). 
Tyn>sine(C 6 H 4 (OH)(C:H 3 XNH.OCO:,II). 



34 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 

(c) Non-nitrogenous bodies, 1 *0. 

Raffinose (C I8 H 32 16 + 5 H 2 0). 
Arabinose (C 6 H 10 5 ) M . 
Dextrine (C 6 H 10 6 ). 
Soluble pectic substances. 
Chlorophyll. 
Chromogene. 
Fat. 

Coniferin (C 16 H 2 .,0 8 + 2 H.,0). 
(Vanillin, C 8 H 8 3 ). 

(d) Cellulose bodies, 1 per cent. ; pectic, 0*6 per cent., and 

colouring substances. 

(e) Cholesterin (C 26 H 43 OH + Aq). 

Distillery beets contain, as a rule, rather less sugar and conversely 
more saline matter than that shown in above table. 

2. Valuation of beets for distillery purposes. Beets are 
valued for distillery purposes by the density of the expressed juice. 
The hydrometer is graduated into Excise degrees, thus 7'0 
Excise degrees means that the juice has a density of 1 '070. But 
even the most rule of thumb distillers are ready to admit that 
there is nothing more deceptive than the hydrometer in determining 
the value of beets, and that the poorer the beet, the more are the 
mistakes due to its exclusive use. In buying beets the percentage 
of sugar should alone be the sole basis of contract with the distiller, 
as with the sugar manufacturer. The alcohol comes solely from the 
sugar. The salts, let it not be forgotten, though they contribute to 
the density, are eliminated with the spent wash. But, whilst in a 
sugar works each lot of beets is passed to the saccharimeter, 1 there 
aro few agricultural distilleries where the instrument is in current 
use. It is, however, met with pretty often, but, w r hen not of a very 
primitive form, or completely out of working order, it is generally 
regarded as an object of curiosity, a luxury, in which the distiller has 
indulged to gratify himself. It is used, occasionally, in the course 
of a " campaign," for example, when very high or very low beets are 
being put through hand,, just " to get a rough idea of what they do 
contain," but it is not yet established on the working bench, along 
with the microscope and the acidimeter. Whether distillery beets 
continue to be bought by density, or by contract, it matters little ; 
what it is desired to establish is, that the distiller has an immediate 
interest in keeping an exact account of the percentage of sugar in 
his beets, if it were only to ascertain whether the alcohol extracted 
corresponded with their sugar content. Besides, the rational use of 
this apparatus tells the distiller that the beets of equal density of 
such and such a district, of such and such a farmer, and from such 
and such a field, are more saline, more saccharine, than others, that 
certain strongly manured fields produce beets of sufficient density, 
but poor in sugar, and hence poor in yield ; on the other hand, that 
1 I.e. to the polariscope, see the author's Technology of Sugar. 



SEC. 3] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 35 

in such a parish, in such ;i district, in coii-,,.,|uence of the nature 
<>f t lie soil, or the kind of manure employed, the beets gro\\n there 
arc more purr, and their density is not factitious but a real alcohol 
producer. He \vill observe, amongst his own growers, tho>.- \\li.i, \\ith 
equal wri^lit, deli\er the most sugar, and, fortified by all tin- 
observations, lie will buy so that, with an equal outlay, the amount 
of alcohol got by him, dur to nothing else, will be more considerable 
than that of his neighbour, who allows himself to be guided solely by 
the misleading indications of the hydrometer. It must not be !<>-t 
sight of, that for densities, bordering on 7, the sugar corresponds well 
with that generally accepted, \i/. twice the density. This coefficient 
decreases in proportion as the density becomes lower, so that a l>eet, 
at I , tor example, rarely reaches more than 6*5 per cent, of sugar. 
Densities of 4 "2 have been known not to reach (i per cent. A typical 
case, submitted to expert distillers, is the following : " How is it 
that the Excise finds that this year 1 required l."i() kilos (.' cwt.) of 
beets more than last year to produce a hectolitre ('2'2 gallons) of 
alcohol, whilst the average density of my beets is, at least, as high aa 
that of other years, and the distillery is in good working order. The 

report on examination is: that the system of fermentation is g 1. 

pulp, wash, exhaustion, normal, no loss during extraction. Examina- 
tion of plant shows no leakage, neither in condensers, nor anywhere 
else. Everything is in good order. We can only come to the con- 
clusion that since nothing is being lost we ought to find again in 
alcohol all the sugar introduced, and reciprocally, if the alcohol be 
deficient, it is the sugar itself that is present in smaller quantity. 
The distiller, if questioned, will declare that the season before, brei- 
being scarce, he had bought almost anything that was offered to him, 
and that numerous lots of beets which in ordinary seasons would 
have been used for cattle feeding, had been consequently mixed with 
his usual beetroots. The cause of the deficiency is found. The 
density of the beet being that season in general ratlin- above the 
average, the average density of the deliveries reached almost those of 
previous years; but the salts, introduced by these beets, the purity of 
which was deplorable, could not take the place of the sugar in the 
fermentation, hence the deficiency in the yield of alcohol. Had the 
distiller, from time to time, made some saccharimetrical tests a> a 
guide to the real value of certain lots of beets, he would have refused 
them; and thus avoided working at a loss, and have been spared 
several weeks' worry, in trying to find the reason for the deficiency in 
his stock. 

3. The tirst stage in the process of manufacturing alcohol from 
beets is the washing of the beets and the elimination of stones, etc, 
This is done in the apparatus shown in Fig. 4. The beets are 
brought by truck to the foot of the archimedean screw elevator, which 
lifts them up and carries them to the washing machine and stone 



36 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 

eliminator, from which they pass by the chain elevator fitted with 
cups, which carry them up and drop them into the beet-slicing 




FIG. 4. Screw elevator for beets Beet washer Stone eliminator Cup 
elevator (EGROT and GRANGE). (Sec. 3.) 



the 



conveyor 



machines (Fig. 8, H), from whence they descend into 
which feeds the diffusers (Fig. 5 ; Fig. 8, I). 

Feeding the washing machines. The cheapest way of feeding the 
beet washers is by hydraulic carriers, a narrow channel or mill-lade of 



SEC. 4] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 37 



L'<) inches wide, rounded at tin- bottom, running right through 
tin- factory yard, iu which a stream of water tln\\- rapidk. WJn-n 
tlu- beets arr pitched into this stivam. Ofl their density i- "iil\ >lightl\ 
greater tlian \\atcr, they are carried along \\itli the current to the 
end of the ehaiinel, which dips into the \\asher. Theiv i> n.i frar of 
a harrow load of beets, tliro\\n in at one point, stopping the flow of 
water, Ill-cause at tliat point the. level of the liquid ri>e>, pa 

over the heap of beets, carrying away tin- top ones in its train, di- 

integrates the heap, and, under the ever increa>ing piv^mv from 
Itehind, forces the individual heels to swim rapidly to the washer. 
The yard may he intersected l.y similar channels and tin- lahoiir in 
handling the beets is much diminished. If the dim-rent channels In- 
completely covered with hoards, the heaps may he piled ahove the 
channel itself, and hy lifting the hoards in rotation a single labourer 
can dismantle them from the one end of the heap to the other, and 
thus feed the washing machine at the same time. The // ij> lrn ////' 
carrier is thus the most convenient and cheapest method of transport 
when there is a slope towards the factory. Its feed water is u>ed 
for the washing machinery, for which there has to he a very abundant 
supply. Whatever method of transport he adopted, the beets have 
first to pass through one or two washing machines, to free them from 
the mud with which they are encumbered, a very difficult oj>eration 
\\hen they have been lifted in wet weather on heavy soils. 

4. Beet-slidny machinery. The essential organ of a beet-slicing 
machine is a circular horizontal plate revolving rapidly round a 
vertical shaft. This plate is pierced with a}>ertures in which kni\e-. 
arranged like the cutting edge of a plane, are inserted. If the beet, 
therefore, comes in contact with this revolving plate the knives will 
plane the beet, and the slices thus cut off fall beneath. Moreover, if 
the knives have an appropriate shape, the shavings or slices cut otl' 
will have the desired roof-ridge-tile shape. The revolving pla: 
enclosed in a frame surmounted by a hopper and shaped underneath 
like a large funnel. The beets are fed into the hopper, ami, as the 
latter is of a certain height, 20 to 40 inches, the weight of the b 
ahove, pressing on those below, and which rest immediately above the 
plate, acting as an automatic pusher, causes the latter to be caught 
by the revolving knives and thus to be cut into slico of the desired 
sixe and shape. The beet-slicer is thus nothing more than a special 
adaptation of the turnip-slicer so very extensively used in Britain for 
cattle-feeding purposes. There are 8 to 10 apertures in the plate, 
into which the blades are fixed. The knives are not fixed directly 
into the plate. They are mounted in movable, easily changeable 
frames, called knife-holders, and it is these knife-holders which rest in 
the apertures of the plate. As the knives soon become used up, there 
is always a complete complementary set, adjusted beforehand, in 
reserve, so that when the knives at work do not cut properly, the 



3 8 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 

knife-holders with the blunt blades are removed bodily, and immedi- 
ately replaced by fresh sets (Chap. III. sec. 16). The change is thus 
effected very rapidly, for the construction of the apertures is such that 
the change involves no difficult operation, the knife blades simply fitting 
into the grooves which hold them fast during rotation. They are, in 
fact, kept in place by centrifugal force. The plate is driven by conical 
gearing acting on its shaft, the gearing being driven by belts and 
pulleys. The shaft rests in a socket, and is kept in the vertical 
position by strong plummer-blocks surrounding it on the top so that 
it cannot shift. The diameter of the plates is very variable the 
average is 5 feet some are 3 feet and others over 6 feet. Plates 
of great diameter are much in vogue in Austria. But as the speed 
of the knives ought always to be the same, plates of large diameter 
must revolve more slowly than smaller ones. Plates of 5 feet in 
diameter make 100 to 120 turns, so that 6J-feet plates need only 
make 60 to 90 turns for their circumference to have travelled the 
same space in the same time as the 5-feet plates. 

Knives may be divided into three classes : (1) Naprawil knives. 
The first, the oldest, called Naprawil knives, make rectangular slices. 
They consist of a straight cutting blade surmounted at intervals by 
cutting ridges, which divide into small sections the slices cut off by 
the knife. (2) Goller knives. The second class of knives, known as 
Goller knives, make triangular slices. They are steel blades | to J 
inch in thickness, cut in the body in a zigzag form at an angle of 60. 
They are also made of wrought-iron bent into an undulating form 
having the same profile. The beet can thus be cut into triangular 
slices. But the form of the slice is quite irregular, because, when the 
knife passes through the beet, it leaves its triangular mark upon it. 
When the next knife comes into play, it therefore cuts the ridges of 
the triangle, forming an irregular-shaped slice. This is bad, because 
the new slice has not the thickness requisite for good diffusion 
working. The thin slices are exhausted sooner than the thick ones, 
and the exhaustion is thus altogether imperfect and incomplete. 
(3) The roof -ridge-tile-shaped knives. The third class of knives, the 
most extensively used, combining the principles of the Goller and 
Naprawil knives, are the roof-ridge-tile shape. They have the same 
profile as Goller's knives ; only on the upper part the summit of the 
angle carries cutting ridges like the Naprawil knives. When a knife 
has passed, leaving the mark of its shape on the beet, when the next 
arrives, it passes into the same furrow, it therefore lifts a roof-ridge- 
tile-shaped slice of perfect shape, and sharply cut on all its faces. 
Care must be taken to mount the knives so that their blades are 
correctly placed one behind another. The knives are mounted in a 
knife-holder like the block of a plane. The slope of the knife and the 
length of steel which overlaps the plane of the knife-holder is varied, 
so that the knife may catch more or less as the slice is to be larger 



SEC. 5] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 39 



nr smaller. Tile knives arc sharpened on \er\ hard itoel disCfl, ulii 
revolve rapidly on their axis, an. I tin- circumference 1.1' \\liich is 
dressed like a tile. Tin- prdilr of tin- !M>UMHI of tlic blade i> ^iu-n to 
tin- circumference, and it is enough to place the knife in trout, firmly 
lu'ld in a clip which guides it, and to press lightly \\ith the hand, to 
sharpen its cutting edge. There are also similar disc* 1W >liar|n-nin^ 
the cutting edges of the ridges. A knife is thus sharpened very 
quickly. The sharping is finished by files, also of the desired 
profile or shape. Some knives are made of hardened non-temp* -red 
steel, and are sharpened immediately they are taken out of the beet- 
slicer. These are the class of knives most generally used. Some, 
made of tempered steel, require softening before sharpening, and 
tempering afterwards. It is a big job, which requires great care to 
do it well, and consequently necessitates a special smithy and a 
skilful, experienced smith ; it is therefore practised in but few 
factories. The knives in current use only have been mentioned. 
There are others derived from the three described, only differing in 
unimportant details. 1 

5. Extraction of beet juice by maceration. About 1830, 
Mathieu de Dombasle (1777-1843), a celebrated French agronomist, 
who not only in his day made improvements in many agricultural 
implements, but who was also one of the original creators of the beet- 
sugar industry, introduced a maceration process for extracting its 
juice from the sugar beet without pulping, rasping, or grating the beet, 
and without hydraulic presses. The beets were cut into thin slices 
by a rotary machine. The slices were then transferred to the No. 1 
of a series of casks arranged in the form of a battery, the juice of No. 1 
being run on to No. 2. The beet slices were macerated in No. 1 for 
about an hour with about their own bulk of water, at a temperature 
of about 212 F. After this treatment, the liquid having now 
acquired a density of 2 Baume\ sp. gr. 1*014 was run off into No. 2 
containing fresh beet slices. From the No. 2 it was run into No. 3, 
and so on until it had passed through the No. 5, charged in the same 
way, when, its density having reached 5 J Baume, sp. gr. 1 '040, it 
was suitable for defecation. No. 1 was thus charged with hot water, 
and No. 5 yielded a juice suitable for further treatment. To prevent 
cooling, it was reheated in its passage through the casks, and the 
maximum amount of sugar possible was -thus extracted. The 
exhausted slices scarcely contained any sugar. But juice obtained 
thus, although transparent and requiring little lime for purification, 
was liable to ferment, or, owing to the dilution water, it was difficult 
to granulate. Hence the process was generally abandoned as far as 
sugar works were concerned, as the juice obtained by it could not be 
successfully treated by the method then in vogue for pressed juice, 
and because the exhausted slices were too wet for cattle-feeding. The 
1 See author's Technology of Sugar. 



40 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 

wet nature of distillery beet diffusion and maceration pulp is one 
reason why extraction of beets by pressing still prevails in districts 
where the farmers are prejudiced against maceration or diffusion 
pulp. When carbonatation (alternate treatment of beet juice by lime 
and carbonic acid) paved the way for diffusion in sugar works, its 
adoption by distilleries followed as a natural sequence. It was first 
used in a distillery by E. Barbet at Telques in 1880. 

6. A diffusion battery consists of a series of eight to fourteen 
cylindrical vessels arranged consecutively, and called dif users. They 
communicate with each other by piping, so that the juice issuing 
from the bottom of one diffuser, flows into the next from above. 
The current may be reversed by taps if need be, so as to pass 
from top to bottom of the diffusers, instead of from bottom to 
top, or the juice may be heated during its passage from the one battery 
to the other. A steam reheater, or calorisator, keeps the liquid 
always hot. Again, taps are so arranged that water may be run 
into each diffuser, instead of juice. There is also a tap for running 
off the liquid after the beets have been exhausted. The diffusers 
have a top door for charging them with fresh beet slices, and a 
bottom door through which the exhausted beet slices are discharged. 
Supposing all the diffusers are charged with fresh beet slices, there 
will still be a certain amount of vacant space between the slices. 
When enough water is run into the diffuser to occupy this vacant 
space, the diffuser will then contain about equal weights of water 
and beet slices. Not only so, but the space occupied by each is also 
almost identical, the density of the beet being only slightly above 
that of the water. If the first diffuser of the series be now charged 
with water, osmosis at once starts to act in the cells of the beet 
so as to cause a certain proportion of the sugar which they contain 
to pass into the water. The batteryman, however, does not wait 
until equilibrium in density is established between the saccharine 
fluid in the beet cells and the exterior saccharine liquid, as that 
would take too long. After a few minutes' contact, however, there 
is no very great difference in density between the two. The liquid 
from the first diffuser, such as it is, is then run into the diffuser next 
to it, being reheated in its passage. The saccharine liquid is now in 
contact with fresh beet slices, whose juice is of greater density than 
its own, osmosis is again energetically started ; it thus soon becomes 
still more highly charged with sugar, until, in fact, the densities are 
nearly equal. The saccharine liquid is once more run into a fresh 
diffuser, and the same interaction of fluids takes place, and the same 
operations are continued until the density of the liquid is only 
slightly inferior to that of the primitive juice. The osmotic action 
is then almost nil. If the crude juice be allowed to stand for 
some time, the pectic matters ferment and are transformed into 
two gelatinous acids the pectic and the pectosic. The juice then 



Si ( . 7] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 41 

sru'ivgates into a jelly, or, if diluted with water, it >t rings, lik- 
ivrtain white wines after they have gone wrong. 

7. Simplified <li/nion. The system \' >iinilitif(l ditl'ii-i-.n 




FIG. 5. Beet diffusers (bottom part) showing doors ami method "I 
discharge of spent slices into lateral tilting trucks on rails en 
route for spent pulp silo (Fig. 10) (EonoT and GRANG). 

installed in the distillery of M. Postel (Fig. 8), consists of 6 diti'us, i -, 
in line; they have a total capacity of 12 hectolitres (264 initial 
gallons) each, and are 13 to 14 feet (4 metres) in height. The body 
of the diffuser is cylindrical or very slightly conical, the widest 
diameter at the bottom. The bottom (Fig. 5) of each diffuser is 



42 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 

entirely constituted by the discharge door, so that that being opened the 
whole contents of the diffuser are discharged directly into a truck under- 
neath. The opening (Fig. 5) and the closing of this door is manipulated 
from above by the man in charge of the diffusion (Fig. 8, H, I) ; for 
each diffuser a single tap enables him, at will, to run in vinasse, 
establish circulation with the adjacent diffuser, or to run the juice to 
the measuring tank. Moreover, the weak juice does not issue from 
the battery, but is directly pressed on to the next diffuser by driving 
it from the end diffuser by compressed air. Further, a special but 
very simple arrangement enables either vinasse or compressed air 
to be run into the tail end diffuser, and the latter under such 
constant .pressure as may be desired, so as to have a very active 
circulation in the battery in spite of the extremely reduced section 
of the diffusers. The working and management of this system 
of diffusion is thus rendered very simple, and requires only a very 
small covered-in space as compared with either ordinary diffusion 
or maceration. The juice runs from the measuring tanks into a 
tubular Egrot and Grange cooler, with great circulation and easily 
removable tubes, where it is cooled to 23 C. (77 F.) prior to pro- 
ceeding directly to the fermentation vats (similar principle to Fig. 3). 
8. A common fault, in distillery working, whatever method 
of extraction be adopted, consists in exaggerating too far the 
proportion of juice withdrawn per kilogramme of beets. This over- 
extraction is made for fear of not sufficiently exhausting the slices ; 
but, very often, the volume of juice withdrawn may be very materially 
reduced without the sugar increasing in the pulp, on that account. 
The three points which determine exhaustion must be better super- 
vised : (1) the state of division of the pulp or slices and the regularity 
of the same ; (2) the temperature in the macerators or diffusers ; (3) 
the length of contact. Very often it is tried to make good, by 
increasing the proportion of juice withdrawn, a defect in 'one of 
the above three factors. It would be more rational to see that 
these three points received due attention and were in harmony with 
each other. The juice withdrawn could thus be reduced to a 
minimum, which it would then be imprudent to further diminish, 
exactly as in a beet-sugar works. The advantages to be gained from 
this reduction in volume of extracted juice are the same from all 
points of view, an increase in the output, and reduction of the general 
expense. The further treatment of the juice, whether it be evaporated 
or distilled, is on a smaller bulk, hence economy in full. The distiller, 
in producing a smaller volume of juice, need not fear that it 
will be too concentrated, juices of 3 '5 to 4 ferment quite as well 
as those at 2 '5. Besides, the expense of acid is less, and the only 
thing to supervise is the exhaustion of the pulp. But to repeat, over- 
extraction is perfectly useless, if extraction has been well done, or 
rather it is only a costly palliative of imperfect extraction. 



SEC. 9 ] 

9. Continuous /< nn> ,if<itinn. The 
system of fermentation practised at 
Dammard Distillery is peculiar. For- 
merly there were three modes of fermen- 
tation. 1. Fermentation in successive 
vats, the fermentation of the juice or the 
wort being induced by a new ferment, 
pure or not of greater or less value. 
'2. Fermentation jtwr coupayes in suc- 
cessive vats, the conpayes being furnished 
by a unique mother vat, or vat nurse, 
the life of which might vary from 1 to 
S days or more. The function of the 
mother vat or nurse is, to furnish all 
the necessary conpayes to induce the 
fermentation in the fermentation proper ; 
the fresh juice flows therefore concur- 
rently into the mother vat to sustain it, 
and into the fermentation vats, which 
have received the coupages from the 
mother vat, to fill them. 3. Fermenta- 
tion by coupayes in successive vats as 
before, only that each fermentation vat 
becomes successively and in rotation the 
mother vat to furnish the coupaye neces- 
sary for one of the succeeding vats. 
This method of fermentation is only 
differentiated from the pre- 
ceding by the fact that the 
mother vats are integrally 
renewed and rejuvenated 
by this fact. It is this 
latter method that is the 
most generally adopted in 
l>eet distilleries, the second 
method described relative 
to periodic or permanent 
mother vats being only an 
exception, except in those 
factories which wish to 
produce strong leavens from 
pure ferments. Now the 
method adopted at 
Dammard differs essentially 
from these three methods. 
It is real continuous 




44 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 

fermentation effected constantly in the same vat, that being never 
emptied nor distilled except, of course, at the end of the campaign. 
It alone receives the fresh juice, and absolutely the whole of the 
fresh juice produced by the diffusion. This vat is not therefore a 
mother vat, nor a nurse vat, as it is still improperly termed, to use 
an already known designation. It is this vat which supports the 
whole fermentation; no other vat receives juice to ferment, and 
none can, in fact, receive it, as the existing piping does not 
admit of it. To send the fermented wort to the distillation, 
a. continuous draw off is made from the fermentation vat, and the 
rate of flow is so regulated as to maintain always in the latter 
the right volume of juice for proper fermentation to the desired 
extent of all the fresh juice which it receives. This fermented 
juice is run into a cuve de chute et de liquidation in which the 
fermentation subsides, and from which it passes to the direct 
distillation rectification plant. At Dammard Distillery, fermentation 
is performed in this way, in two twin vats A A instead of a single 
one of double capacity, so as to facilitate installation, and the 
liquidation of the fermented juice issuing from these vats is 
accomplished by means of 4 cuves de chute B B B B of much smaller 
capacity. It may be added that three of these suffice after working 
for 15 days and at the full capacity of the factory. Fermentation 
is very fine, very active, and very complete, being maintained at 
29 Centigrade in the fermentation vats without ever going beyond 
30, and falling towards 26-27 in the cuves de chute. 

1O. Antiseptic fermentation. Fermentation is often started by 
stirring a quantity of beer yeast into the beet juice, then, when 
fermentation has made a good start, letting the juice fiow on to the 
foots thus formed ; w r hen in full swing several fermenting tuns are kept 
"at -work simultaneously by starting a fresh one when the tail one is 
full. That is working by "coupage," or mixing of the tuns, almost 
exclusively used in distilleries working by beer yeast. In some 
distilleries the use of beer yeast has been given up on account of its 
doubtful purity. Starting from the principle that to obtain a really 
pure ferment it is necessary that the point of departure, that the 
yeast itself be perfectly pure, select ferments are used and carefully 
protected during cultivation from all contamination. The dis- 
advantage of the use of these pure ferments is that they require ex- 
pensive plant " cuves de reveil " (Fig. 2) and ferment tuns of different 
capacities. Besides, the precautions to take to prevent contamination 
are somewhat too elaborate and difficult to realise with not too 
intelligent workmen. Another disadvantage of this system is that 
the aseptic fermentation cannot be maintained to the end. The juice 
of the beet contains at certain epochs a crowd of bacteria and foreign 
ferments, the spores, at least, of which resist the imperfect pasteurisa- 
tion produced in the apparatus which exhausts the pulp. Consequently, 



SEC. ii] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 45 

whilst admitting that all contamination by extraneous germs is 
avoided, contamination from those contained in the juice itself cannot 
In- prevented. If the proportion of the beet juice required for tin- 
making of the leaven be sterilised -which uses up an appreciable 
amount of beat and these remain mire, contamination will perforce 
occur as soon as it reaches the large tun into which the juice coining 
directly from the presses, the macerators, and the ditl'users Hows after 
passing through condensers, gutters, and pumps, which too often are 
hotbeds for microbes. This contamination will make itself manifest 
in a more apparent manner the further the juices have themseh* 
gone wrong. Some distillery socialists therefore urge that the 
-\-tem of true aseptic fermentation can never be applied integrally in 
the working of beets. 

11. There is therefore, they argue, some justice in the remark, 
" Why force us by costly plant and elaborate precautions to refrain from 
introducing foreign ferment into our leaven, if it only be to mix the 
same leavens in a state of purity with a considerable ipiantity of unsteril- 
ised juice ? " The partisai is < >f this system reply, insisting too, and rightly 
so, that by commencing each tun with pure leaven, if the fermentation 
does not maintain altogether its initial purity up to the "chute," it 
will always be less imperfect than in the system of mixing the 
tuns, where the contamination, even momentarily, in one tun may 
affect all which succeed it until the fermentation is renewed. The 
system of fermentation which includes a pure leaven for each tun, 
or the system of "mother" tun which is analogous thereto, is therefore 
preferable when the initial stage is carefully maintained pure. But 
if fermentation in an aseptic medium is not wholly applicable in 
beet distilleries, nothing prevents the difficulty being surmounted by 
fermentation in an antiseptic medium ; that is, by rendering the wash 
incapable of developing bacteria by the addition to the beet juice of 
suitable antiseptics. Sulphuric acid has itself a very decided action 
against contamination, but other agents, and amongst them hydrofluoric 
acid fluorides, possess this power in a high degree. Generally, when 
fermentation is effected in antiseptic washes, a start is made with 
leavens acclimatised to a strong dose of hydrofluoric acid. According 
to the purity of the juice, a greater or less proportion of hydrofluoric 
acid is used. In the following experiment, it was that of an ordinary 
yeast fermentation fed by butyric juices. The fermentation \\ it- 
active but impure, in spite of the large amount of sulphuric acid 
employed. Fluoride was tried in small doses, and antiseptic effects 
were at once apparent, the dose of sulphuric acid could be diminished 
by 1 gramme per litre. Now the quantity of fluoride was only 
O'OIO to 0*015 grammes per litre. Attempts were made to inci 
this proportion, but the fermentation slackened, and became weak, and 
the use of fluoride had to be susf tended for several hours. The same 
results were got by repeating the experiment, and the dose had to be 



46 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 

restricted to the above, otherwise the leaven itself was embarrassed 
by the presence of that antiseptic. In dealing with very impure 
juices from heated or frosted beets, the dose of 3 to 6 grammes per 
hectolitre is sometimes necessary, it follows that beer yeast could 
hardly live in such a media ; it is necessary to start from pure yeast 
acclimatised for the purpose. Those leavens which Effront has 
acclimatised to vegetate in worts containing 36 grammes and more of 
acid per hectolitre are unaffected by washes containing 3, 6, and 12 
grammes of hydrofluoric acid per hectolitre. By these comparatively 
enormous doses the most active bacteria are rendered powerless. 

12. The solution of the problem of pure fermentation in the 
agricultural distillery lies, they say, in the use of pure leaven 
acclimatised to antiseptics and in the judicious use of these latter in 
fermentation. This system of fermentation in an antiseptic medium 
has the great advantage of not requiring for its application any 
special installation. One can work by leavening or by mixing the 
tuns. On the other hand, there is no necessity to take any more 
precautions, or any more care, in regard to cleanliness than in ordinary 
working. One might almost say "the reverse," if cleanliness was 
not always a commendable feature. Besides the advantages secured 
by pure fermentation, increased yield and a larger quantity of better 
" bon gout " alcohol, the use of antiseptics allows the use of sulphuric 
acid to be materially reduced. Finally, from the point of view of 
fermentation mishaps which it suppresses by destroying the cause, it 
gives absolute security in working. 

13. Aseptic fermentation in beet distilleries. Barbet's plant 
(Fig. 7) meets all the objections sraised in sections 11 and 12 above. 
A A are the measuring tanks of the diffusion or maceration juice. The 
whole of the juice is sterilised at a temperature bordering on boiling, not 
only to destroy bacteria, but also the saccharogenic diastase present in 
beet juice, and which, according to Barbet, is the enemy of the invertase 
of yeast. Sterilisation is effected in the wrought-iron tank C, and to 
reduce steam and water to a minimum the juice before entering 
therein traverses a tubular apparatus B, where it seizes by methodical 
exchange the heat of the sterilised juice issuing from C, and entering 
by the valve II into the tubular vessel; the very methodical 
refrigerator V completes the refrigeration of the juice. The tubular 
vessels before use are carefully sterilised by steam (valve J on the 
recuperator), as well as all the connection pipes, the effect of the steam 
is completed by the injection of a little formol instantaneously 
diffused by the steam in all parts of the apparatus. The cooled 
sterilised juice is directed into the yeast apparatus M through the 
valve L, or to the tuns Z by the valve Y. The juice should be dis- 
tributed by pipes, and not by open-air gutters, so as to reach the tuns 
without contamination. The advantage of total sterilisation is that 
the destruction of the saccharogenic diastase enables the diffusion of 






SEC. 13] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 



47 




48 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 

the juice to be made at as high a density as may be desired, whilst 
now it is rather difficult to ferment at 4. Beet juice becomes as 
docile as molasses, which ferments at much higher densities. Now, 
as the expense of distillation is proportional to the volume of the wash, 
there is great advantage in economising one or two tuns per day, 
which effects much more economy than sterilisation entails expenses. 
Besides, diffusion costs less in steam when only 120 per cent, of juice 
is drawn, instead of 160, 180, and even 200 per cent., as is some- 
times done in distilleries. The beet sugar works exhaust well with 1 1 5, 
and even 110 per cent., and it is quite as easy in distillery working 
if desired (Fig. 8). Half the acid is economised owing to sterility of 
the juice and its smaller volume ; the juice does not require such strong 
protection against bacteria. Another advantage consists in not 
putting any acid at all in the diffusers and diffusing with water if 
desired, as the butyric and other germs are killed by the steriliser ; 
therefore no more use of perforated wrought-iron, and no more 
making of antiseptic salt of iron, is necessary. Finally, at the start of 
the season, the first " pied de levain " can no longer refuse to work. 
It is well to bear in mind to make the first yeast with molasses, so as 
not to start the diffusion until good yeast is available. Once 
fermentation is well started in the yeast apparatus, only 4-6 hours 
are required to form each batch of yeast, consequently 4-6 batches 
of yeast are produced per 24 hours. If there are many tuns, there 
will be only one batch of yeast between two, or even three tuns, which 
does not seem inconvenient, the tun treated with yeast will be mixed 
with its neighbour. If a batch of yeast be desired for each tun, two 
sets of yeast apparatus will be necessary. This plant has been in 
operation at the distillery of Marquette lez Bouchain, where it has 
wrought regularly, yielding the advantages just summarised. They 
have been able particularly with pure yeast to bring the juice quickly, 
and feed the tun rapidly without killing the fermentation, which 
would infallibly be the case with juice not freed from its saccharogenic 
diastase. 

14. Fig. 8 shows a general view of the interior structural arrange- 
ments, and the correlation of the individual machines, stills, and other 
organs of the plant and apparatus of a modern beet distillery. It will 
be observed that with the exception of the conveyance of the beets to 
the elevator, and the removal of the spent pulp by trucks, everything 
is, done as nearly in an automatic manner as practicable. 

I . MOTOR POWER. A, Boiler chimney. B, Steam boiler, very 
capacious, to furnish all the steam required by the whole factory, with 
two feed pumps, one of which is in reserve. C, Steam engine. 

II. WATER SUPPLY. D, Pump to elevate the water from a well 
into the two cisterns, E, communicating with each other. 

III. WASHING AND UN-STONING OF THE BEETS BEET -SLICING 
MACHINES. F, Elevator which lifts the dirty beets fed into it at the 



SEC. 14] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 49 

ground level, \\here the\ aiv shut out of the trucks, and carricM them 
into the washing machine. G, Powerful \\a-her sjM-cially arranged 
to effect tin- ierfect separation of stones before automatically trans- 
ferring the washed beets into the elevator whirh conveyi tli'i" to the 
beet -slicing machines. H, Horizontal plate beet -slicing machine 
producing ridge-tile shaped slices as in heet sugar works. 

IV. DIFFUSION. I, Ditl'users (Line), six in number, forming 
( Juillaiime, Egrot and Granges simplified dill'ii-inn, a horizontal 
conveyor distributes the fresh slices into the diffusion battery. J, 
Waggon on rails to receive the pulp from the ditl'users and convey it 
to the silos ; the waggon is made to hold the contents of a diffuser. 
K, Receiver for vinasse and compressed air for diffusion ; the double 
feeding of this common reservoir is effected under a pressure capable 
of being regulated at will by a special pump for the vinasse and by 
another for the compressed air. L, Measuring- tanks for diffusion 
juice. 

V. FERMENTATION. These tanks are placed above a small settling 
tank which serves to clarify the juice and to aerate it prior to 
fermentation. M, Combined cooler and heater, to cool the vinasse 
to 75-80 C. and utilise the heat to the profit of the fermented wash 
going to the direct distillation rectification plant, and to cool to about 
25 C. the fresh juice prior to fermentation. This combined cooler 
and heater (sec. 7) is of the multiple and removable tubular bundle 
type of the type (Fig. 3) used by Egrot and Grange in the pasteurisa- 
tion of wine. N, Principal fermentation vats into which all the fresh 
diffusion juice is run to be continuously fermented. O, Vats into 
which the fermented wash is run from the principal fermentation vats 
to allow the fermentation of the wash to completely subside, after 
which it is sent to the direct distillation rectification apparatus. 

VI. DIRECT DISTILLATION RECTIFICATION PLANT (Guillaume's 
system specially simplified for agricultural distilleries). This plant 
P consumes no more coal than an ordinary distilling column, and 
is more easy to manage ; it produces, on the one hand, and as prin- 
cipal product, a perfectly rectified alcohol, marketable forthwith as 
such on the Exchange, or to retail customers ; and, on the other hand, 
as a by-product, alcohol of the right strength to be sold for methylation. 
Q, Testing reservoir for testing the rectified alcohol coming from the 
direct distillation rectification apparatus; this receiver is divided 
longitudinally into two distinct compartments, into one of which the 
alcohol produced by the day-shift gang is run, and into the other that 
produced by the night-shift gang. In this way the alcohol produced 
by both the day and night shift gangs of workmen can be tested. These 
compartments are arranged to receive compressed air, by which the 
rectified alcohol is pumped after being tested to the vessels allocated to 
receive it. R, Large reservoirs to receive and mix the rectified 
alcohol, the quality of which has been verified in Q. These large 




1! 

8^ 
I 



o 
,'S 



PQ 



I 





1. 2 

3 



r, 

"" G 

If 






l 



ff 

a 2 <y 

5*1 



.2 a 2 

-a o g 

I? 8 * 



ll 



reeerron 

for .sale to be taken \\liidi 
can leave no doubt as to 
the identity of the alcohol 
to deliver with such sam- 
l>h'M. S, Reservoirs for 
alcohol intended for methy- 
lation. T, Cask-filling 
machine. V, Weighing 
machine. 

15. The plant \\;ts 
supplied to treat 50 tons 
of beets i>er day of an 
average density of 6. 
The buildings AN r i i 
-pi-i-ially built to the plans 
of the constructors of the 
plant. The natural 8\o\)e 
of the ground was utilised 
so as to facilitate the 
rolling of the trucks 
bringing the beets from 
the silos to the washer, 
and of the truck running 
the s}>ent pulp from the 
diffusers to the pulp pit. 
Moreover, the general 
situation favoured the 
evacuation of the muddy 
liquors in the mud ponds, 
the overflow from which 
flowed freely on the land 
at a lower level, thus 
fertilising it with the plant 
food contained in the i>or- 
tion of the sj>ent wash 
which was run out and in 
the drainage water. The 
pulp silos are excavated 
out of the ground. The 
truck bringing the pulp is 
tilted directly into the pits, 
the foundation of which 
is on a slope so as to 
ensure the evacuation of 
the drainage water. A 



52 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 

single labourer suffices at any one time to attend to the bottom 
discharge of the diffusers and the trucking of the pulp to the silos. 
The pulp silos abut on the road, and the masonry foundation being 
on a level with the road, the carts can go on to the very centre 
to get loaded and carry it as required to the rather far distant farm 




FIG. 9. View of rear part of beet distillery, showing silos, mud-settling ponds 
from washers (EonoT and GRANGtf). (See Fig. 4 ; Fig. 8, G.) 



steadings. It will be seen from Figs. 10 and 11 that the selection of 
a site for a beet distillery is a matter for very serious consideration, 
and that a slight eminence or rising ground with advantageous slopes 
presents many useful features from the point of view of economical 
working. 

16. Staff. For a turnover of 50 tons of beets daily, the inside 
staff, each shift (day and night), of the Dammard Distillery comprises 
(1) a man for the diffusion; (2) a man to attend to the bottom of the 
diffusers, and remove the spent pulp to the silos ; (3) an engine-driver, 
who also acts as stoker ; (4) an overseer for inside and outside work. 
The latter supervises, at the same time as all the other departments, 
the fermentations and the continuous direct distillation rectification, 
no other workmen being specially told off for either department. 
The combined stokers and engine-drivers attend to all the lubrication 
and do all the interior cleaning, and face, temper, and case-harden 
the knives of the root cutters. The guaranteed daily production 
of 30 hectolitres 660 gallons at 100 (i.e. absolute alcohol) was 



16] MANUFACTUKI-: I- ROM IJKKTS 







FIG. 10. I'oint from which foreman ilistilli-r controls plant shown in Fix- >'. 
showing (Jnilhiumc's steam regulator and dial thermometers of (n\ iBOUBed 
distilling column, (/*) bottom nfrr.-tilii-r K<;KUT ;m.l (:I:AN;I : :). 



54 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 




SEC. 16] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 



55 




56 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 

slightly exceeded, and for the month of December 1905, including 
all stoppages, was 35 hectolitres (770 gallons). At this speed, in spite 
of raising water 90 metres (295'2 feet) and the expense of steam 
for the electric light, the monthly coal consumption was only 78 tons, 
say, less than 85 kilos per hectolitre of alcohol at 100 (say, 8J Ibs. 
of coals per gallon of absolute alcohol). 

17. Application of Barbels pure fermentation process to the 




FIG. 13. Tanks for storing alcohol (EGKOT and GRANGE). (See R, S, 
Fig. 8, sec. 13.) 

distillation of beet molasses. The first idea would be to work in an 
analogous manner to that for beets (sec. 13, Fig. 17), replacing the 
measuring tanks by two large tuns to dilute the molasses to 1 '080 or 



SEC. 17] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 



57 



iu. iv, and the Gyrations would follow in the same order, except the 
sterilisator would actually be brought to the boil so as to denitrate tin- 
molasses. But denitration is not accomplished well in dilute washes, 
because the acidity is not strong enough. The process is therefore 
modified as follows. At A are two dilution vats to 28-30 Be", with 
a little water and the whole of the sulphuric acid required for 
fermentation, b is a regulating feed tank. B is the recuperator 
(forewarmer). The molasses heated to about 80 C. by the fore- 




FIG. 14. Pumps and motor j)ower arrangements (&;ROT and (.JUAMJK). 
(See C, Fig. 8, sec. 13.) 

wanner enters the continuous denitrator C, where it is boiled 
15 to 20 minutes before issuing continuously through the bottom 
of the apparatus. From there, instead of going to the recuj orator, 
it returns to a copper mixer D closed by a cast-iron lid and fitted 
with a mechanical agitator. To dilute the boiling molasses, the 
hot water from the condensers, and even a certain proportion of 
boiling lees, is used, these liquids teing regulated respective!) 
the taps //. and in, and arc mixed with tin- iin>la << in * *ort of 
mixer before cntrrin.i: the thinning \e*sel. The dilution temperature 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. III. 




SEC. 18] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 59 

is about 80 C. It may ! increased a little by injecting steam. 
But, in fact, owing to the presence of acid, the temiK-ratme of effect- 
ive sterilisation is not very high, and the 80 effect a practically 
etlicient purification for the short duration of industrial fermentation. 
At the exit is a test case E, where the temperature and density 
is permanently indicated 1-060 at 80 =1 '082 at 21 C., the 
temperature at which it is sent to the fermenting tuns. At tin- 
exit from this test glass, the diluted wash returns to the recuperator 
B to heat the molasses to be denitrated. From thence it passes 
to the refrigerator V and to the fermenting tuns. For the yeasts 
M direct draw-offs of wash are made on the mixer I ), \vliieh for 
the occasion are reheated to 97-98 so as to have a more certain 
sterilisation. Regulated by the valve H, this wash is cooled in 
the special refrigerator P, and enters through L into the yeast 
apparatus, which works as already described. A little syrup of 
maize saccharified by acid and filtered may be run into L), so as 
to furnish elements more favourable than mola^-s alone; or one 
may rest content by adding maltoi>eptone. The use of very active 
yeasts enables the tuns to be charged at a very high density up 
to I'lOO, which economises coal in the potash department. Tlii- 
same activity of fermentation enables the same end to be obtained 
by the re-use of a certain proportion of lees for dilution. If, for 
example, one-fourth of the lees be made to re-enter, there are only 
three-fourths of the volume of lees to be evaporated, and once this 
routine is established these three-fourths contain the whole of the salts 
and organic matter which should be discharged each working day ; the 
lees are more concentrated and require less coal. ^ Finally, pure yeasts 
diminish the expenditure in acid, enrich the potash salts in carbonate 
of potash, and yield purer spirits. 

18. Instead of heating the distilling column by direct high 
pressure steam, a small triple or even double effect system working 
under pressure is installed. The live steam boils the vinasse in 
No. 1 under a pressure of 3 kilos, the steam from No. 1 (E) heat- 
Xo. 'I (I)), which boils at 1 kilo, and finally this steam at 1 kilo heat- 
the base of the column A either by a pipe, coil, or steam jacket. 
In the case of molasses the vinasse thus concentrated is auto- 
evaporable on the furnace, i.e. the combustion of the organic matter- 
on incineration suffice to complete the evaporation of the water 
without expense of fuel, except in the beginning, to light up the 
potash furnaces. Neither in the triple effect, nor in the furnace, 
is there any consumption of fuel. The salts are obtained gratuitously. 
With beets, Barbet's beet diffusion with the spent wash terminated 
by aqueous diffusion enables the pulp to be pressed, and thus produce 
a cattle food identical with that obtained in sugar factories. With 
grain and potato wash, i.e. with turbid washes multiple effect evapora- 
tion deserves attention. Barbet has rendered tubular heating pra< tic 



6o 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. III. 



able even with thick washes. Consequently 100 litres of fermented 
wash, instead of yielding 105 to 110 litres of dregs, only yield 




FIG. 16. Direct distillation rectification plant (heated by steam from triple 
effect used to evaporate vinasse). A, preliminary purifier ; B, rectifier ; 
C C', condensers ; D E E, multiple effect vinasse evaporators ; K, pas- 
teurised alcohol condenser ; RR', refrigerators (E. BAKBET). 



SEC. 19] MANUFACTURE FROM BEETS 61 

ul .out 85. They are afterwards concentrated by triple effect 
apparatus of special construction, in which the heating surfaces 
aiv constantly brushed. A residue is thus obtained of a consistency 
thick enough to be siloed under perfect conditions of preservation. 
This fodder, less aqueous, is better for cattle, especially in the case 
of potatoes. Freight is three times less, and a stock of food is 
available for many months after the season is over. 

19. Beet distillation in Hritain. Prior to 1870, there were some 
thirteen distilleries in Britain working experimentally on beet, and 
every one of them came to grief. The beets, no doubt, rotted before 
they could be distilled, owing to our arbitrary and despotic Excise 
restriction against brewing and distilling simultaneously, and against 
continuous fermentation. The excellent plant shown in Fig. 8 con- 
travenes our Excise laws in every direction. 



CHAPTEE IV 



THE MANUFACTURE OF INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL FROM 

GRAIN 

1. THE cereals (corn, grain) are the fruit or seed of certain plants, 
all of which almost exclusively belong to the graminaceous family. 
The stem or stalk, termed the straw, long and slender, bearing large 
sheathing leaves which fall on maturity, ends in an inflated part 
called the ear, consisting of the seed and their envelopes. When the 
ears are ripe the stalks are cut down nearly level with the ground, an 
operation now almost invariably performed mechanically by reapers 
and self-binders, except in outlying benighted districts. The grain 
is then separated from the straw by threshing and from the outer 
envelopes by winnowing. 

2. Storage of grain, and its liability to damage during storage, 
Grain is capable of being damaged in many ways during storage, 
whether from the attacks of insects or the development of fungi, or 
even from the germination of the seed itself. It is preserved by 
covering it with substances capable of killing all living germs, whether 
by depriving it of moisture, air, or heat. The chief cereals are wheat, 
barley, oats, rye, maize, and rice. 

TABLE XI. SHOWING AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF THE GRAIN OF CEREALS 
(LAWES AND GILBERT). 





Old 
Wheat. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Rye. 


Maize. 


Rice. 


Water . 


11-1 


12-0 


14-2 


14-3 


11-5 


10-8 


Starch . 


62-3 


527 


56-1 


54-9 


54-8 


78-8 


Fat 


1-2 


2-6 


4-6 


2-0 


4-7 


o-i 


Cellulose 


8-3 


11-5 


1-0 


6-4 


14-9 


0-2 


Gum and sugar 


3-8 


4-2 


5-7 


11-3 


2-9 


1-6 


Albumenoids 


10-9 


13-2 


16-0 


8-8 


8-9 


7-2 


Ash 


1-6 


2-8 


2-2 


1-8 


1-6 


0-9 


Loss 


0-8 


1-0 


0-2 


0-5 


07 


0-4 


Total 


100-0 


100-0 


lOO'O 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 



SEC. 3] 



MANUFACTURE FROM GRAIN 



3. THE MANUFACTUKK <>i ALCOHOL FROM GRAIN BY S 

CHARIFICATION BY TnHKKFIKh <>|; KII.N IHMKH M.M.T. Mlt \* 1 >arley 

which has been made to germinate to a certain -xti-nt. al'tn- \\hi.-li tin- 
process is stopped by heat. In germinating grain tin -re is developed 
a small quantity of a white, insipid, nitrogenous substance termed 
diastase. Diastase is a soluble ferment, and it possesses the property 
if causing starch, which is naturally insoluble, to ferment and become 
soluble i.e. by being changed into dextrine and maltose (sec. ">). 
The barley is steeped in cold water for about 50 hours at a constant 
temperature of 14-15 C., and is then made into aheap, or couch, upon 
the malt-floor a floor of slate or cement until it germinates. Here it 
absorbs oxygen, and evolves carbonic acid; its temperature augment-. 
and then it is occasionally turned, to prevent its becoming too warm. 
In this process the radicle lengthens, and the plumule, called by 
the malsters acrospire, elongates ; and when it has nearly reached the 
opposite extremity of the seed, its further growth is arrested by 
drying at a temperature slowly elevated to 150 F. or more. This 
slight torrefying is effected in a kiln a large stove traversed by 
a current of hot air, the construction of which need not be entered 
into here. If dark-coloured malt be desired, the heat may be raised 
to 164 F. But Payen and Persoz state that at 75 C. (167 F.) 
diastase loses its property of rendering starch soluble ; when, there- 
fore, malt is intended for the brewer or distiller, care should be taken 
not to heat it too much, otherwise its saccharifying power will be 
diminished, as shown below. 

TABLE XII. SHOWING INFLUENCE OF HIGH KILN HEAT ON INFUSION 
PRODUCTS OF MALT. 





80 C. 


100 C. 


120 C. 


Maltose 


37-01 


52-44 


51-32 


Dextrine ..... 


14-92 


18-49 


19-35 


Lactic acid 


6-56 


0-49 


0-31 


Soluble albumenoids . 


2-09 


1-60 


1-50 


Colouring matters, ash, etc. . 


1-49 


1-38 


1-32 


Total dry solids . 


76-07 


74-40 


73-80 



After appropriate drying in the kiln, the malt is then cleansed of the 
rootlets by screening it through wire sieves, so that the sprouted 
radicles called combs or chives are broken off and separated. 



64 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IV. 

According to Dr. Thomson, barley loses about 8 per cent, by 
converting it into malt, of which 

1 '5 is carried off by the steep-water. 
3*0 dissipated on the floor. 
3*0 roots separated by cleansing. 
O5 waste. 



The system of pneumatic malting more especially in vogue on the 
Continent is for the moment beyond the limits of this treatise, and 
falls to be dealt with more appropriately in a treatise on potable 
alcohol. According to Cameron, from 3 to 6 per cent, of the weight 
of grain is lost in the process of malting, exclusive of the amount 
eliminated in the form of dust, or combings, which is about 3 to 4 
per cent. According to Proust, barley also contained a peculiar 
substance, insoluble in hot water, which he called hordein, and which, 
during malting, is diminished in quantity, and converted into sugar 
or starch. Hordein appears to have been confounded with starch. 
The starch of malt also differs in some of its properties from that of 
barley. Germination thus partly converts the starch of the grains 
into a kind of sugar, which is capable of vinous fermentation, by 
which process alcohol is formed. In brewing, the malt is steeped 
until the sugar is dissolved out, forming the " sweet wort." 

4. The chief change which takes place during malting is the 
conversion of about one-eighth part of the starch of the grain into 
maltose : probably nearly as much starch is converted into soluble 
compounds dextrine, etc. But the real rationale of the process 
of malting is to develop the diastase necessary for the sacchari- 
fication not only of the malt itself, but of any raw grain, potatoes, 
etc., which may be used in conjunction therewith under the 
somewhat barbarous term of malt adjuncts. The malt is in reality 
the saccharification adjunct, the so-called adjunct being the main 
product to be saccharified. A large amount of diastase formed during 
germination remains until the last stage of the process. It is this 
excess of diastase which enables the distiller to ferment molasses or 
starch, or unmalted corn, by mixing them with from 10 to 50 per 
cent, of malted grain. 

5. Diastase (from Sc&nrq/u, / separate) was first obtained from 
barley malt by Payen and Persoz. It may be procured from brewers' 
malt, but in greater quantity from germinated barley carefully pre- 
pared for the purpose, in which the germ has been allowed to attain 
about the length of the seed. The malt is pulverised and macerated 
in, or triturated for a few minutes with, water, at the temperature of 
70 or 80 F. ; the pasty mixture is then strongly pressed, and the turbid 
liquor which runs from it filtered ; the filtrate is then heated in a 



SEC. 6] MANUFACTURE FROM GRAIN 65 

i l.atli to about 170 F., at which temperature the greater part of 
tin- foreign mutter coagulates and may !> separated by filtration, and 
tin- dear filtered liquor retains the diastase and may be used for 
many purposes as a solution of that substance; it, however, also 
retains other principles, from which it may be to a great extent 
-eparated by the addition of anhydrous alcohol, which forms a 
tlornilrnt precipitate of diastase insoluble in that liquid; it may be 
collected and carefully dried at a low temperature, for when heated 
in a moist state above 190 F. its properties are materially altered. It 
may be further purified by a second solution in water and precipitation 
by alcohol, and if the solutions are brown, animal charcoal may be 
resorted to as a means of decolorising them. Diastase may also be 
obtained without the aid of heat, but the process requires caution : it 
consists in triturating the finely-ground malt as before with a little 
water, pressing out the liquor, and carefully adding a little alcohol to 
it so as to coagulate its albuminous contents without precipitating the 
diastase; it is then filtered, and the diastase is separated by the 
further addition of strong alcohol : it may be purified by a second 
aqueous solution and alcoholic precipitation, and should be dried at a 
temperature not exceeding 100 F., or in vacuo. It is white, soluble in 
water and in dilute alcohol, but insoluble in strong alcohol ; its aqueous 
solution is tasteless, and soon becomes sour and decomposes ; its effect 
upon starch is entirely destroyed by boiling ; it contains nitrogen, 
but its ultimate composition has not been accurately determined. 

6. The manufacture of alcohol from grain, etc., naturally divides 
itself into two stages, brewing and distilling. The raw materials 
are wheat, rye, barley, oats, maize, rice, etc. The yield in spirits 
which these grains afford depends on their starch content. Mr. 
Young of the Inland Revenue gave the following average figures for 
different raw materials : 

Gallons Proof Spirit. 

1 quarter of barley malt yields . . .18 

1 malt grain . .20 

1 cwt. ,, sugar . .10 

1 molasses . 7J 

1 ton beetroot ,, . .15 

Ure quotes : Alcohol of Specific 

Gravity 0'9427 
^ of British Proof 

Spirit, in Ibs. 

100 Ibs. wheat .... 40-45 

100 rye . . . . . 36-42 

100 barley . . . .40 

100 oats. . . . .36 

100 buckwheat . . . .40 

100 maize . .40 

5 



66 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IV 

or the mean of the whole at 40 Ibs., say, 4J gallons of density 0*9427, 
or 3 - 4 7 gallons at Excise proof. Pooley states that by actual practice 
he found the average produce from undried foreign corn used in the 
following proportion malt 12, oats 16,, barley 112 to be 1 gallon of 
spirit from 20 J Ibs. of the mixed grist, or very nearly 5 proof gallons 
per 100 Ibs. of grist. Again, he quotes the case of an Irish distillery 
where only home-grown barley and oats highly kiln dried, and one- 
fifth malt are used, 1 gallon of proof spirit is produced from 18 Ibs. 
of the mixed grist ; and sometimes, in favourable seasons, he asserts 
that working with high class corn the produce even exceeds the 17 J 
Ibs. mixed grist, producing 1 gallon of proof spirit. Ure gives the 
following proportions as used by some experienced Scotch distillers, 
250 bolls, containing 6 bushels each, being used for a mashing consist 
of 

25 bolls oats weighing 284 Ibs. per boll, or 47 J Ibs. per bushel. 
42 malt 240 40 

25 rye 320 53J 

158 barley 320 53J 

250 48J 

From each boll weighing 291 Ibs., 14 imperial gallons of proof 
spirit are obtained on an average, equivalent to 11 "2 gallons at 
25 overproof, which is about 4-8 proof gallons per cent, of mixed 
grist grain, which thus agrees fairly well in the main with Pooley's 
figures. Ure says 100 Ibs. of starch from Hermstedt's experiments 
should yield 7 '8 gallons of proof spirit. The Scotch and Irish 
distillers use the following mixtures : 

Scotch. Irish. 
Malt . 2 2 

Oats . 1 1 

Rye . . 1 
Barley . 7 7 

Moreover, in a London distillery using about 1000 quarters of 
mixed grain per week, the weekly production from that quantity 
is between 19,000 and 20,000 gallons of proof spirit per week. At 
50 Ibs. per bushel, a yield of 20,000 gallons per 1000 qrs. of grain 
exactly corresponds to 5 proof gallons per 100 Ibs. of grain. 

7. Barley, therefore, is the predominant grain used in distilleries 
for making potable spirit in Britain. But maize and molasses are 
the chief raw material for alcohol for methylation. In Ireland, large 
quantities of home-grown barley and oats highly kiln-dried are mashed. 
Barley is generally used either wholly or, partially in the malted state, 



SEC. 8] MANUFACTURE FROM GRAIN 67 

whilst other grain is not malted, but merely mixed with a certain 
amount of barley malt to induce the conversion of tin- >tarch of what- 
ever grains may lc used into malt<>sr and dextrin. . The main iva-o:- 
for usiiiLT the mixture of different kinds of grain as indicated above 18 

use it i- preferable to use a mix tun- of several sorts of grain 
instead of using all of one sort, because, for example, with wheat, with 
barley and oats, or barley with rye and wheat, the husks of the 
oats diffused through the wheat flour and rye meal keep it oj.en 
and IM.I-OIIS when mashed, and thus favour the extraction of the 
wort. But when the whole of the grain used, however, is malted 
grain, a much more limpid wort is got than that obtained from 
a mixture of malt with raw grain; hence pure malt is preferable 
for the ale and porter brewer, whilst the mixture affords a larger 
product at the same cost of materials to the distiller. When, besides 
malt, barley is the only other grain u<ed, from one-third to one-sixth 
of malt is usually mixed with it; but when wheat and rye are 
also taken, the addition of from one-eighth to one-sixteenth of barley 
malt is sufficient. Oats are peculiarly adapted for mixing with 
\\heat to keep the meal open in the mashing. 

8. Mashing. Raw grain and unmalted barley are ground to 
meal by millstones, but malt is simply crushed between rollers. 
To facilitate drainage of the mass some oat husks are added, i.e. 
if as much as 87 '5-90 per cent, of barley be taken for 10-1 2'5 per 
cent, of malt. But when mashing is done in the proportion of 
40 bushels of barley to 20 of malt, from 600 to 700 gallons of 
water heated to 150 F. are mixed with each 60 bushels in the mash 
tun, and carefully incorporated by the agitation produced by a 
mechanical agitator with blades (Fig. 17). The mixer is kept at work 
for two or three hours, with the gradual admission of about 400 
additional gallons of water at a temperature of 190 F. to counter- 
act the cooling of the materials, unless the operation be performed 
in a steam-jacketed vessel, by which the temperature can be regulated 
at about 160 F. If the wort be tested every half-hour during 
mashing, it will be found to become gradually sweeter, to all 
appearance thinner, but in reality more dense. The wort is dra\\n 
off from the grain whenever it has reached its maximum density, 

which seldom exceeds 150 Ibs. per barrel, i.e. - = 1 ''- 



or 42 per cent. The distiller's corn not being so porous as the 
brewer's, the wort cannot be drawn off from the bottom of the 
tun, but through a series of holes at the level of the liquor bored 
in a pii>e fixed in the corner of the vessel. About one-third only 
of the infusion water can thus be drawn off from the pasty mass. 
Fresh water is then run in at the temperature of 190 F.. well mixed 
by agitation for half an hour, then quietly infused for an hour and 



68 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. IV. 



a half, and then drawn off as before. Fully 400 gallons of water 
are used upon this occasion, and nearly as much liquor may be 
drawn off. Lastly, to extract from the grains everything soluble, 
about 700 gallons of boiling water are run in, mixed, left to 
infuse, and drawn off as before. This weak wort is commonly 
reserved for the first liquor of the next mashing operation upon 
a fresh quantity of meal and malt. With the above proportions 
of malt, raw grain, and water, the first infusion may have a 
strength = 20 per cent. = sp. gr. 1'082, or 73 Ibs. per barrel, the second 
of 50 Ibs. per barrel or 14 per cent., and the two together 




FIG. 17. Mash tun. 



would have a strength of 61*2 Ibs. per barrel =17 per cent., 
sp. gr. 1-070. But direct experiments on a larger scale show 
that no more than four-fifths of the soluble saccharo-starchy matter 
of the worts is decomposed in the best regulated fermentation 
of the distiller from raw grain. For every 2 Ibs. so decomposed, 
1 Ib. of alcohol sp. gr. 0'825 is generated ; and as every gallon 
of spirits of sp. gr. 0'909 contains 4 '6 Ibs. of such alcohol, it 
will take twice 4 '6 Ibs. of saccharine matter to produce the said 
gallon. To these 9 "2 Ibs. actually converted into alcohol, one-fifth, 
i.e. 1-84 Ibs., must be added, which will raise to 11 '04 Ibs. the 
amount of solid matter employed in producing a gallon of above 
spirits. \ 






MANUFACTURE FROM GRAIN 



9. /-.'/'////.N'/f infusion process Factors of /*////>/ //,,// ' ((JKAHAM). 

TABU: XIII. I M I.KKNCE OF TIMI . 
(Malt, 100. Water, 1000. Temperature, 145 F.) 



No. 
of 

Malt. 


Duration 
of 

M.ish. 


Maltose. 


Dextrine. ] 


l\ 


No. 
of 
Malt. 


ii 
& * 


Maltose. 


Dextrine. 


ij 

H 3 

co 




1 1 IS. 


















1 


i 


48-60 


14-61 


63-21 


2 


3 


59-52 


871 


68-23 




1 




12-26 


64-61 





5 


61-47 


7-91 


69-38 




a 




11-39 


64-95 


3 


I 


47-46 


13-89 


61-35 




3 


54-60 


1 1 -Of) 


64-65 





1 


48-69 


14-27 


62-96 




7 


01-47 


3-50 


65-00 




2 


52-81 


12-08 


64-89 




\ 


49-99 


14-98 


64-97 





4 


54-34 


10-67 


65-01 




1 


53-56 


13-43 


66-99 





6 


57-24 


8-67 


65-91 




2 


57-69 


1076 


68-45 













TABLE XIV. INFLUENCE OF HEAT. 
(Ratio of Malt to Water 1 to 10.) 



No. 




| 


O 


rf 


No. 




8 


d 
a 




of 


F. 


-2 


s 


"*"* o 


of 


F. 


3 





-2 gj 


Malt. 




3 


2 


^ 


Malt. 




3 


1 


H I 


1 


150 


47-46 


10-70 


58-16 


2 


160 


41-65 


17-42 


59-07 


' f 


160 


43-50 


13-42 


56-92 


M 


170 


30-24 


25-09 


55-33 


tt 


170 


32-17 


17-61 


49-78 


3 


140 


51-36 


10-60 


61-96 


2 


140 


52-81 


12-08 


64-89 




150 


45-30 


14-35 


59-65 





150 


48-61 


13-83 


62-44 


; j 


160 


39-90 


18-06 57-96 


















1 



The malt was mixed with cold water, and the temperature raised 
in .'50 minutes to the various heats given, and the infusion process 
tin MI conducted for 2 hours at the respective heats. 

TABLE XV. INFLUENCE OF QUANTITY OF WATER. 
(Malt, 100. Temperature, 140 F. Time, 2 hours.) 



No. of Malt.. 


Water. 


Maltose. 


Dextrine. 


Total Sugars. 


1 



2 


1000 

500 
200 
100 
1000 
500 
100 2 


53-56 
49-99 
49-00 
46-80 
52-81 
53-56 
35-70 


1 1 :{'. 
12-92 
13-88 
15-08 
12-08 
9-82 
16-18 


64-95 
62-91 
62-88 
61-88 
64-89 
63-58 
57'88 



* For influence of kiln-drying temperature, see Table XII. p. 63. 
2 In this experiment a portion of the water was allowed to evaporate, and 
therefore the real quantity of water was less than 100, hence the great fall in 

tin 1 amount 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IV. 



TABLE XVI. INFLUENCE OF NATURE AND RA.TIO SUBSTITUTE OF MALT, OR 
PLUS SUBSTITUTE, 100. WATER, 1000. TIME, 2 HOURS. TEMPERATURE, 
145 F. 



Maltose. 


Dextrine. 


Total 
Sugars. 


Maltose. 


Dextrine. 


Total 

Sugars. 


/A 33 '33 


11-42 


44-75 


IN 57-69 


5-65 


63-34 


1 B 37-87 


15-96 


53-83 


53-56 


10-87 


64-43 


C 41-65 


16-96 


58-61 


P 49-99 


15-27 


65-26 


T / D 44-64 


15-90 


60-54 


Q 53-56 


11-89 


65-45 


L '\ E 58-72 


7-12 


65-84 


R 49-99 


15-97 


65-96 


F 60-00 


10-97 


70-97 


S 46-87 


19-99 


66-86 


G 62-49 


11-26 


73-75 


(T 50-87 


14-43 


65-30 


VH 57-69 


1-73 


59-42 


U 48-10 


17-05 


65-15 


II 47-62 


17-38 


65-00 


TV J V 45-11 


19-88 


64-99 


J 46-15 


18-48 


.64-63 


1V - | W 49-99 


18-94 


68-93 


K 42-50 


22-11 


64-61 


X 46-87 


19-98 


22-07 


L 41-34 


22-48 


63-82 


v.y 44-11 


22-07 


66-18 


M 54-15 


22-46 


76-61 









A, barley, 100. B, barley, 90; malt, 10. C, barley, 80; malt, 20. 
D, barley, 50 ; malt, 50. E, rice, 25 ; malt, 75. F, rice, 50 ; malt, 50. 
G, rice, 75 ; malt, 25. H, malt, 100 (rice = 72 per cent, starch). I, raw barley, 50 ; 
malt, 50. J, boiled barley, 50 ; malt, 50. K, high dried barley, 50 ; malt, 50. 
L, high dried barley boiled, 50 ; malt, 50. M, rice boiled, 50 ; malt, 50. 
N, raw barley, 25 ; malt, 75. 0, raw barley, 50 ; malt, 50. P, raw barley, 75 ; 
malt, 25. Q, boiled barley, 25 ; malt, 75. R, boiled barley, 50 ; malt, 50. 
S, boiled barley, 75 ; malt, 25. T, high dried barley, 75 ; malt, 25. U, high 
dried barley, 50 ; malt, 50. V, high dried barley, 75 ; malt, 25. W, high 
dried barley boiled, 25 ; malt, 75. X, high dried barley boiled, 50 ; malt, 50. 
Y, high dried barley boiled. 

The malts and barleys in series I. II. III. and IV. were different, 
though the same for any given series. It will be seen that no 
advantage is obtained by boiling barley previous to mashing, owing 
to the activity of the albumenoids of barley; with rice boiling is 
essential. 

10. Manufacture of alcohol from grain by saccharification by 
green malt. Formerly the distillation of fermented grain wash 
entailed the grinding of the grain employed, the cooking of the 
resultant meal, and the saccharification thereof in macerators by 
means of kiln-dried malt also ground to meal. In this style of 
working a whole series of mills and kilns and a much larger propor- 
tion of malt than is now used were employed. 

It has been found that the saccharification capacity of green malt 
is exactly the same as kiln-dried malt, thus showing an advantage of 
40 per cent, in favour of green malt, and advantage has been taken 
of this fact. It was in 1885 that Warein and Def ranee of Lille 
introduced into France the new process which up to then had been 



SEC. ii] MANUFACTURE FROM GRAIN ft 

confined to Germany, and l>y tin- improvements they brought to bear 
upon it ruux'd it to be adopted by a large number of distillers. The 
plant consists of (1) a wort refrigerator, (2) a mash tun, (3) a fermenting 
tun. A complete working distillery of grain and j>otatoe8 wrought by 
steam was exhibited by the above firm on the occasion of Pannentier's 
centenary at Mnntdidier. By new improvements brought to bear in 
the arrangement of the plant and in the method of working and use of 
sulphurous acid, the constructors claim that the yield obtained may 
be increased to 36 litres of alcohol per 100 kilos of maize, 1 and 10 to 
I L* litres of alcohol at 100 per cent, per 100 kilos of potatoes, 2 a result 
which leaves previous ones far behind. The residues resulting from 
this method of working form a cattle food highly conducive to 
fattening, and are sold in farming districts under the form of liquid or 
drained distillery dregs. Filtration tanks which evacuate naturally 
the liquid portion of the dregs dispenses with mechanical filtration. 
A hectolitre of dregs run into the filtration tanks yields 18 to 20 
kilos of solid dregs; 18 kilos of these dregs contain 

Nitrogenous matter ...... 1*536 

Fat 0-630 

Glucose . .1-105 

Non-nitrogenous matter ..... 2*340 

Mineral matter ....... 0'308 

Water 0*860 

One kilo corresponds to one kilo of meadow hay. To produce 5 
tons of dry dregs in 24 hours, 4 filtering tanks are required. These 
dregs may also be transformed by hydraulic presses into dry edible 
cakes in the proportion of 25 per cent, of its weight, and into oil of 
maize in the proportion of 2 per cent. 

11. The manufacture of alcohol by the acid saccharification of 
'//<ti?i. This method of working has been adopted by many 
continental distillers, some distillers working up beets in winter 
with certain additions to their existing plant for making alcohol from 
beets have been enabled to produce grain alcohol in the summer. It 
is claimed that by this method the yield of alcohol is increased from 
L'-7 gallons to 3 -2 gallons per 100 Ibs., or well on to 20 per cent. more. 
A cuiseur saccharificateur, or boiler saccharifier, is shown in Fig. 19, 
in which by appropriate treatment the starch in grain or corn may be 
transformed into glucose. The entire grain is submitted in presence 
of water to a pressure of 3 atmospheres ; then, when the grains are 
completely transformed into paste, acid is forced into the boiler from 
the globular vessel A by steam pressure from the boiler. Saccharifica- 
tion is complete in 15 to 20 minutes. This plant is made in all sizes, 
according to the scale on which the operations are conducted. A 

1 Say, 3 -6 bulk gallons of 100 per cent, alcohol per 100 Ibs., or 6'3 proof gallons. 

2 Say, 1 -2 bulk gallons of 100 per cent, alcohol, or 2 -1 proof gallons per 100 Ibs. 



72 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IV. 

conical form is given to small plants which are installed vertically. 
The operation is conducted thus : 25 gallons of hot water are run into 
the saccharifier for every 100 Ibs. of maize treated, then, after having 
opened the steam taps and set the agitator at work, it is charged with 
grain. After half an hour the air tap is closed and the pressure 



X L' 




FIG. 18. Digester for saccharification of grain, etc., with acid under pressure 
(EGROT and GRANG). A, Digester ; B, C, manholes ; D, feed pipe ; 
E, rod for manipulating bottom discharge valve ; F, sampling pipe ; H, 
discharge pipe ; K, pressure gauge ; LL, steam pipes. 

increased to 3 atmospheres. This pressure is kept up for 2J hours, 
and the state of the paste is then ascertained. When the paste is 
well formed, concentrated muriatic acid is run in the proportion of 2 J 
per cent, on the weight of the maize being treated. Saccharification 
takes 25 minutes, and the worts obtained in this way are very pale. 
The yields in glucose and dextrine are respectively 68 and 1*75 per 



SEC. n] MANUFACTURE FROM GRAIN 




> 
I 

<o 




if 



Sacks of grain. 

Mill and stone remover. " 

Elevator. 

Cylindrical measurer con- 
taining charge for one 
boiling Boiler. 

Water tank. 

Horizontal saccharifier and 
extractor (mash tun). 

Malt in sacks, malt mills, 
.malt mixer, centrifugal ' 
mixer, air pump. 

^g 
f Boiler for yeast. " 

' Cooler. 

*"C 
< Air steriliser. 

- O .w 

'3 '" " Pure a ?robiose ferment vessel ' 
Air vessel. 



Fermentation tun. 
Fermentation tun. 

Fermentation tun. 
Fermentation tun. 
Yeast mixer. 



^ s 






5 S 



r Condenser, distilling column, ^ "& 
pumps. "H, B 

Refrigerator steam regulator. '5 '55 

Reservoir for raw spirit from .3 13 
column. ^ a 

Special condenser, test ves- OT * 
sels in glass cases, with 4J ^ 
floating hj'drometer. 

Water tank, condenser, and 
rectification column. 

Cooler, special condenser re- 
cuperator or forewarmer. o 

Steam regulator. ^ 

Condenser; purifyingcolumn, ^ 
first runnings (aldehydes ;zj 
and ethers) eliminator. '-2 

Refrigerator,steam regulator. -2 

Tubular boiler. g 

O 

tf.B.The various items are as _; 
near as may be virtually CN 
above title, and in descend- 
ing order. 2 

N 



SEC. 12] MANUFACTURE FROM GRAIN 75 

cent., and 3J British imperial gallons of rectified alcohol of 90 are 
obtained per 100 Ibs. of maize. The distillation residuals (dregs) 
passed through the filter press are dried and pressed in a hydraulic 
press so as to extract the oil which they contain. 

The weight of oil obtained per 100 Ibs. of maize is as follows : 
Oil 2*3 Ibs., or, say, 1 quart, leaving 10 Ibs. of maize cake. 

The oil is sold to soap makers at about 18 shillings a cwt., and 
the cakes are sold as manure at about 3, 10s. a ton. 

Maize, rice, etc., and oil may also be extracted from distillery resi- 
duals by volatile solvents. The plant is illustrated and described in 
De la Coux' Industrial Uses of Water. 

12. The spirit produced in Britain for methylation is substantially 
the same as that produced for consumption. At one time a different 
material may be used, but at any moment the distiller might be 
forced to use the same. Distillers who produce only for methylation 
generally use molasses, or very largely use that material. Approxi- 
mately three-quarters of the spirit which goes for methylation is 
produced from molasses, which at the present time is the cheapest 
material, but the price of molasses has been affected by the price 
of sugar. It has risen rapidly, so that it might at any moment become 
prohibitive for this purpose. Less plant is used in the manufacture 
of spirit from molasses, but all the plant used in the manufacture of 
molasses is used in the manufacture of grain spirit. As to the 
question whether the spirit produced for methylation could be used 
for consumption by being blended but without rectification, it would 
be potable, although it would not be desirable to use it for con- 
sumption. As to whether the spirit produced for methylation is a 
less pure spirit than that produced for consumption, it may be said 
that it is not such a stable spirit, and it would be liable to oxidation. 

The cost of plant on Barbet's principles, as shown in Fig. 20, to 
treat 50 tons of grain daily, or say 2000 quarters per week, with a 
yield of 3 -6 bulk gallons of alcohol calculated to 100 per cent, per 
100 Ibs. of grain, and an hourly consumption of 6J to 7 metric tons 
of steam, say one ton of coal per hour, or about one-half ton coal per 
ton of grain, working continuously day and night, Sunday and 
Saturday, is .14,000. But, owing to our Excise laws, the cost of both 
plant and buildings is about trebled, and continuous working is 
forbidden. 



CHAPTER V 



THE MANUFACTURE OF INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 
FROM POTATOES 

1. THE potato plant is known botanically as the Solanum 
tuberosum. Several kinds of potato were long ago examined by Einhof 
and Lampadius : their composition is shown in the following table : 

TABLE XVII. SHOWING COMPOSITION OF UNIMPROVED VARIETIES OF 

POTATOES. 1 



Kind of Potato. 


Water. 


Starch. 


Gum. 


Albumen. 


Cellulose. 


Red . 


75-0 


15-0 


4-1 


1-4 


7-0 


Sprouted 


73-0 


15-2 


3-7 


1-3 


6'8 


Large red Surinam 


78-0 


12-9 





0-7 


6-0 


Kidney 


81-3 


9-1 


. 


0-8 


8'8 


Sweet . 


74-3 


15-1 





0-8 


8-2 


Peruvian 


76-0 


15-0 


1-9 


1-9 


5'2 


English 


77-5 


12-9 


1-7 


1-1 


6-8 



The quantity of solid matter in the potato varies with its state of 
ripeness : the ripest lose from 68 to 70 per cent, in drying ; the least 
ripe from 70 to 80 per cent. The proportion of starch varies very 
greatly indeed. Davy obtained from 18 to 20 per cent. Korte 
obtained, as the mean result of the examination of 55 varieties of 
potato, a percentage of 24*9 solid matter; the average of the starch 
was 11*86 per cent. Those potatoes keep best in which starch is 
most abundant; but the starch diminishes, probably passing into 
gum and sugar, by keeping : thus, from the same variety of potato, 
Payen obtained 17 "2 per cent, of starch in October, and only 14 '5 
per cent, in April. A portion of the albumen also at the same time 
disappears. Thus in new potatoes Boussingault found 2 '25 per cent, 
of albumen (gluten), but in old potatoes only 1*5 per cent. The 
analyses of diseased potatoes threw no light upon the cause of the 
malady, or the means of cure. But pedigree selection and bouillie 
bordelaise have wrought wonders. Vauquelin examined 47 kinds of 

1 This table is given to show by contrast the increase in starch content effected 
by pedigree selection in the present-day distillery potatoes. See p. 82. 

76 



SEC. 2] MANUFACTURE FROM POTATOES 77 

potatoes and found the amount of starch to vary in 100 parts from 
12 to 24 parts; the average result was found to be from 17 to 19 
per cent. Pedigree selection has increased the percentage of starch, 
the alcohol-producing element of potatoes. 

2. Alcohol may be produced from potatoes either directly or 
indirectly. By the first or direct method the starch of the potato is 
fermented without having been previously separated from the potato 
as starch, and subsequently converted into sugar by sulphuric acid as 
in the indirect manner. The points in favour of converting potatoes 
into alcohol are that they are cheap, yield a good spirit, the residuals 
form a good cattle food, and less yeast is required. In order to 
obtain spirit directly from potatoes in the older processes, they were 
first steamed for an hour, and then crushed between wooden or stone 
rolls. Ground malt was then made into a pap with warm water, the 
potato paste added, and the whole stirred until uniform, renewing the 
stirring until cold. Yeast was then added, but, as potatoes ferment 
more readily, in less amount. Beets or carrots were said to improve 
the flavour and increase the quantity of the spirit. After the 
fermentation was pushed to its fullest extent the wash was distilled 
in the ordinary way. In Siemens' process (which was said to produce 
half as much spirit again as the ordinary plant used in Germany), and 
which was at one time used in Denmark, 3 to 4 tons of potatoes were 
steamed a little over 212 F., then mashed in the steaming vessel 
by a revolving iron cross and warm water in quantity to form 
a thin paste and rendered slightly alkaline by 1J Ibs. of caustic 
potash added. The resulting starch paste passed through a sieve 
leaving the skin of the potato behind. The starch liquor was rapidly 
cooled, yeast added, and the process finished as usual. By this 
method the yield in spirit from a given quantity of potatoes 
was greatly increased. Fifty hectolitres 30 litres 137 imperial 
bushels of potatoes along with 8 hectolitres of ground malt yielded 
9 hectolitres 198 imperial gallons of spirit. Cadet stated that 
800 Ibs. of potatoes yielded 30 Ibs. of spirit, costing the distiller 36 
francs, and selling for 48. From 50 kilogrammes (110 Ibs.) of potato 
starch converted into glucose by sulphuric acid 20 to 25 litres = 4*4 
to 5 '5 imperial gallons of alcohol at 0*935 were obtained. Oersted, 
at Copenhagen, from a ton of potatoes obtained the poor yield of 16 j 
to 17 quarts of spirit at 50 of Tralles' alcoholometer. 

About the year 1832, says Muspratt, a gentleman visited the 
distillery of Messrs. Calder at Eyemouth in Berwickshire, and found 
that they had worked for some short time from potatoes. He con- 
sidered the spirit, which had the flavour of Hollands, to be pure and 
good, and although it was affirmed that no grain or malt had been 
used he strongly suspected the contrary. The fermentation was 
described as beautiful, the head rising seven or eight feet like clouds 
of cotton, and when beaten down to the surface of the worts it rose 



78 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. V. 

again in the same manner. The gravity worked at was 40, and the 
attenuation was good. The potatoes were ground in a mill like a 
common pepper-mill in shape, but made of sheet-iron perforated like 
a grater. The pulp thus produced was mashed in the keeve with 
boiling water, and the extract run off quite pure and freely. A 
sperge or small wort of about 20 gravity was obliged to be used, 
otherwise the worts at the gravity of 40 could not be got off; the 
produce was good, as there w r as no deficiency. The spirit sent to the 
London market, when called grain spirit in the permits, was highly 
prized ; when the error was corrected, and the product was denominated 
spirit distilled from potatoes, the price fell and it was not so much in 
vogue. About the same time, Mr. Jameson of Fairfield, near Ennis- 
corthy, commenced distilling from potatoes. They were sliced, dried on 
a corn kiln, ground to flour mixed in certain proportion with grain 
and mashed in the ordinary manner. But the manufacture was 
abandoned in consequence of the opposition of the peasantry through 
fear of a scarcity in the article of food. That w r as shortly prior to the 
appearance of the potato disease and the sad famine which ensued. 

3. At the present time alcohol is largely distilled from potatoes 
in Germany. The following account of a German potato distillery 
is from the report of the Excise Committee : 

Marienfelde agricultural distillery. There is in the neighbour- 
hood of Berlin an example of an agricultural distillery. It is situated 
at Marienfelde, some ten miles to the south of Berlin, on a large and 
apparently very flourishing farm. The potatoes (which must be 
produced on the land of the proprietor) are first washed by machinery. 
They are then steamed and pulped, and driven through a strainer 
into the mash-tun (Fig. 17, Chap. IV. sec. 8), where they are mixed 
with a small percentage of malt. The wort is then passed into the 
fermenting vats. Each vat is gauged, and its content marked on the 
outside, together with the number of the vat. The wash is left to 
ferment for thirty hours, and is then conveyed to the still, which is 
of the patent-still type. On issuing from the condenser the spirit 
passes first through a domed glass case in which is a cup (Figs. 41 
and 42). In this cup, into which the spirit flows and from which it 
overflows, there float a thermometer and a hydrometer, to indicate the 
strength of the spirit passing. From this apparatus the spirit flows 
into a (Siemens) meter, fitted with an indicator which records the 
quantity, reduced to the standard of pure alcohol, of spirit transmitted, 
and from the meter the spirit passes on to the receiver. The system 
of control does not require the continuous attendance of Excise officers, 
but is compounded of (1) mechanical contrivances ; (2) book entries ; 
(3) liability to visitation at any time. 

(1) Mechanical contrivances. Up to the point at which the wash 
passes into the still, these are limited to the gauging of the vats and 
to the plumbing under Revenue seal of all joints of the pipes leading 



SEC. 3] MANUFACTURE FROM POTATOES 79 

from the vats to the still. From that point onwards to the receiver 
every vessel is locked and sealed, and no access to the spirit can be 
obtained by the distiller. Up to this point the manager is treated 
as an honest man. Afterwards he is no longer trusted. In the 
smaller distilleries, the meter, an expensive apparatus, is dispensed 
with, and the quantity of spirit distilled is ascertained by the Excise 
officer from the receiver. Whether there be a meter or not, the 
receiver is of course under lock, and is not accessible to the distiller. 

(2) Book entries. The regulations require entry of the quantity 
of materials used. These are regarded as of little practical value, and 
little attention is paid to such records. It is manifest that they cannot 
be susceptible of any real check. The important entries are those of the 
times of charging and discharging the several fermenting vats, and of 
the quantities of wash in each. These entries can of course be checked 
against the spirit found in the receiver, and on them is computed the 
vat-tax and the distillery tax, which have to be paid by the distiller. 

(3) Liability to visitation. It will be seen that the control under 
(1) and (2) provides no security against abstraction of wash from the 
fermenting vats. Visitation at frequent and uncertain intervals 
would seem to be an essential feature of the system, and at 
Marienfelde the visits of Excise officers are regarded as even un- 
pleasantly frequent. Whether they are so in more remote distilleries 
may be open to doubt. In any case the system of control rests so 
heavily upon confidence, that, if satisfactory with a low duty on spirits 
and with a system of rebates of duty that makes the Excise a source 
of profit to the smaller distiller, it could not safely be adopted where 
the duty is as high as it is in the United Kingdom and invariable in 
its incidence. The distillery at Marienfelde is one of the best and 
largest type of agricultural distillery. Its "contingent" is 600 
hectolitres per annum, or about 23,000 proof gallons of spirit. Out 
of the total number of agricultural distilleries in the German Empire 
there are not more than some 2000 or 3000 of similar size and 
character. The vast majority of the agricultural distilleries are to be 
found in the eastern provinces of Prussia and Saxony, where the soil 
is poor, and the cost of conveying agricultural produce to a re- 
munerative market is high : and it is not quite clear how it can be 
commercially profitable on a fertile farm close to Berlin to convert 
potatoes into spirit. In 1905, even with the abnormally high price 
of spirit, no more than from ,2 to 2, 5s. per ton would be realised 
on potatoes used for distillation, whereas if sold for consumption as 
potatoes they would realise 4 per ton. The distiller is, however, 
compelled to use them in the distillery, in order to maintain his 
" contingent," which might be reduced if he should fail in any season 
to reach his prescribed production of 600 hectolitres. Moreover, the 
above figure of return on the potatoes very possibly does not include 
the bonus of 20 marks (<!) per hectolitre on the amount of the 



8o 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. V. 



contingent. This would be equal to more than another <! per ton 
for the potatoes used. The explanation of the maintenance of this 
distillery may be that it is kept up to some extent as a convenient 

object-lesson in the neigh- 
bourhood of Berlin, for the 
instruction of Excise 
officers, and to illustrate the 
teaching at the Institut fur 
Gahrungsgewerbe und 
Starke fabrication in Ber- 
lin, an institution estab- 
lished by the trades with 
assistance from the Govern- 
ment for the purpose of 
giving instruction in brew- 
ing, distilling, and other 
processes in which fermen- 
tation is employed. In 
normal years the return 
from potatoes used in the 
agricultural distilleries does 
not exceed 25s. per ton 
(exclusive presumably of 
bonuses), and in many 
cases is less. The average 
is about 20s. per ton. The 
yield of alcohol from a 
ton of potatoes may be 
taken at about 25 gallons 
of pure alcohol or about 44 
proof gallons. 

4. The distilleries in 
Bavaria are often co-opera- 
tive, and if anything came 
of this industry in Ireland 
the distilleries there would 
probably be co-operative. 
Dr. Hinchcliff, on behalf of 
the Department of Agricul- 




FIG. 21. Autoclave for saccharification, 
by malt, of potatoes under pressure 
(EGKUT and GBA*G). 



ture and Technical Instruc- 
tion for Ireland, inquired 
into the system in Germany 

of the manufacture of alcohol from potatoes. The industry is a 
fairly large one in Bavaria. In some districts within a few 
miles of Munich, w r here the soil is fairly fertile in many parts, 
there is a distillery in every village. The industry is, however, 



SEC. 6] MANUFACTURE FROM POTATOES 81 

routined to the Irss Irrtilr parts, though it is fairly well established in 
n \. win -re there is good land. It is of course more extensive still 
on tin- sandy lands of East Prussia and to the east of Berlin. The 
unsorted potatoes, large and small, sound and bad, are tirst run through 
a \s ashing apparatus and afterwards conveyed to an automatic 
weight recorder before being delivered into the steamer. The 
}>otatoes are weighed mainly in order that the j>eople who send the 
potatoes may be paid according to their weight. It is a weight 
recorder very much like the weighbridges used for automatically 
weighing corn. It tips itself and cuts off the supply when charged 
with a certain amount, be it 1 ton or 3 tons. The spirit as it 
leaves these agricultural distilleries is not at all pure, and for potable 
pin-poses has to be rectified. One cwt. of potatoes produces potato 
spirit = 1'43 gallon of absolute alcohol, or 2'5 proof gallons; say, 
L'S'fi gallons of absolute alcohol per ton, or almost 57 "2 proof gallons. 
According to Bucheler, the actual amount of starch obtained from 
potatoes is 20 per cent. So the actual yield from a cwt. of potatoes 
is '2h proof gallons, or, roughly, two-thirds of the theoretical yield. 
Several of the distilleries near Munich get from just over 60 up to 64 
per cent, of the theoretical yield. When redistilled and further 
purified, the alcohol from potatoes is used as potable spirit and sold 
under various names. Of all the spirit which is produced in Germany, 
something like four-fifths is produced from potatoes. Therefore, 
clearly, a good deal of the potato spirit must be drunk. In the 
seasons 1897-98 to 1901-02 the average production per season was 
just over 381 million litres of alcohol, whilst during the period 1898 
to 1903 the average yearly consumption of spirits was 238 million 
litres of alcohol. 

5. The co-operative distilleries purchase potatoes from the adjoin- 
ing farmers. The price varies to a great extent, somewhat according to 
season as in Britain, but also according to the district. They are cheaper 
on the sandy soils to the east of Berlin, where there is not such a big 
demand. But in. 1904, for instance, they were paying about 27 
marks per metric ton, which is roughly 27s. per imperial ton 
a high price, but potatoes were somewhat scarce owing to a lighter 
crop than usual. The normal price is 20s. in an ordinary year, 
according to authorities, but 23s. per ton is said to be usual. 
Potatoes are at times in Berlin even cheaper than 20s. per ton for 
alcohol purposes. The price of potatoes for domestic consumption is 
usually somewhat higher. 

6. Potatoes used for distillation purposes in Germany are not all 
manipulated in so-called co-operative distilleries. In Bavaria there 
are in certain districts several proprietary distilleries where one farmer 
will have a distillery. In Saxony a large farmer may have his own 
distillery. A single farm in Germany is sometimes able to keep a 
distillery supplied. Some of the large estates in Bohemia and Austria 

6 



82 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. V. 

possess distilleries. But, as a general rule, in Bavaria it takes more 
than one farm, or even estate, to keep a distillery going. In East 
Prussia the farms are large, and that is where potatoes are mainly 
grown, owing to the sandy nature of the soil, and there one farmer 
would be able to grow sufficient potatoes to run a distillery. The 
distilleries are co-operative in the strict sense of the word, they divide 
their profits amongst those who run them. The potatoes are paid 
for on the percentage of starch. That is estimated by a not very 
exact method in some cases, but by means of the specific gravity, and 
then by using Maercker's formula, so that if one person sent in 
potatoes containing 20 per cent, of starch, the price would be regulated 
accordingly. A certain standard is thus taken as the basis, and for 
every unit per cent, of starch more, a certain amount more is paid per 
metric ton or centner. In one distillery visited by Dr. Hinchcliff, 
besides barley, they were using a mixture of imported maize and 
potatoes, but these were the only products met with. In Bavaria the 
varieties of potato specially suited for the production of spirit give 
a somewhat larger yield than the sorts grown for household consump- 
tion, but still 7 tons is considered a satisfactory yield. About 6 
tons per statute acre is something like an average crop in Britain, and 
about 4 tons per statute acre in Ireland, but it is not considered a 
good crop under 7 tons. 

7. The quality of the potato for distillery purposes has risen of 
late years, those having a high starch content have been chosen for 
planting. The duty is not imposed with the object of encouraging 
the production of a high class quality, but rather with the idea of 
encouraging potato culture. The duty, in fact, is not imposed in 
relation to the weight of the raw material that is dealt with in an 
agricultural distillery, but is only imposed with regard to the output 
of alcohol ; but the capacity of the mash-tun is also taxed, so that 
it is to their advantage, to a certain extent, to put in as concentrated 
a mash as possible, and hence to put in a potato that has as high a 
starch content as possible. At the Alcohol Exhibition in Vienna, 
several varieties of potato were exhibited that had been tested at 
some of the experimental stations and found to contain over 22 per 
' cent. ; and not only should the potatoes contain a high percentage of 
starch, but they ought to be of a character not to yield very much 
dextrine. The relative quantities of maltose and dextrine should be 
as wide as possible, and in that respect not only the starch content, 
but also the character of the potatoes as regards the dextrine, has 
been improving. There is a prevalent misunderstanding anent pos- 
sibility of converting diseased potatoes directly into alcohol. But 
this can only be done by first separating the starch from the unsound 
portion of the potato. But the introduction of a potato starch stage 
to work up diseased potatoes indirectly into alcohol would be a very 
doubtful economy. 



CHAPTEE VI 
THE MANUFACTURE OF INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 

FROM SUEPLUS STOCKS OF WINE, SPOILT WINE, WINE MARCS, 
AND FROM FRUIT IN GENERAL 

1. INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL FROM WINE AND WINE MARCS. The 
<ir<t{>e vine and its varieties. The raw material is the grape or fruit 
of the vine, a perennial climbing sarmentose plant which flourishes 
in moderately warm climates, and which comprises several varieties, 
termed cepayes. The quality of the wine depends not only on the 
variety, but also on the soil, its exposure to the sun or aspect, the 
manure, the nature of the ferment, and the care exercised in the 
yiiiitication. Moreover, the different varieties do not prosper in all 
soils and climates : thus le Gamay flourishes in Beaujolais ; le Vionnier, 
la petite si/rah, and la Roussane in 1'Hermitage ; and so on. 
Generally, a high temperature yields red wines, rich in alcohol, but 
poor both in acid and in bouquet. Red grapes may be so used as 
to yield red, rose, or even white wine ; white grapes are only used to 
produce white wines. The grape ripens in September or October. 
Ripening is hastened, in cold climates, or in wet weather, by removing 
the leaves. The degree of ripeness to attain varies with the wine to 
be made, and maturity is estimated by instruments termed mussimetres, 
or, off-hand, when the juice is saccharine. 

2. Collection and pressing. The grapes are detached from the 
pi sii it by a knife, placed in baskets, etc., and carried into large brick, 
cement, or wooden vats, where the juice is pressed out by the feet, 
the hand, or mechanically. The saccharine juice, or must, 
separates from the envelope, and, under the influence of the mycoderma 
vini present on the grape, ferments. This fermentation is favourised 
by aeration, keeping it at a temperature between 15 C. and 30 C., 
and using, if need be, selected ferments. Choice ferments transform 
all the sugar into alcohol, increase the strength of the wine, and prevent 
the formation of secondary products which impart a bad taste. 
Formerly the skins, brought to the surface by the carbonic acid, 
remained on the surface of the liquid. Now, it is preferred to keep 
them under the liquid, so that they do not decompose in the air and 
impart a bad taste to the wine. When fermentation has nearly 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. vt. 



TABLE XVIII. COMPOSITION OF WINES FROM DIFFERENT WINE-GKOWING 
DISTRICTS, ALSO OF "PIQUETTE" OR SOUR WINE FROM THE MARC. 





r o 


EXTRACTS 






3 . 


CM 

O 




SOURCE OF ORIGIN. 


rS 

8 g 


o 




Ash 


1 


I 1 


1 


1? 






<<^ 




o 


o 
p 




A 


3 


lie 


^ 







r- 1 
tf 


1 






& 


02 


=6 


Aude, Corbiere, 1882 . 


10-3 


24-6 


29-6 


4-35 


T30 


3-80 


3-67 


376 


,, Narbonne, 1881 . 


9'6 


22'4 


26-3 


4-10 


2-25 


170 


2-80 


5-00 


1883 . 


10-5 


22-6 


26-3 


4-30 


2-63 


1-08 


3-48 


5-39 


Charente, 1883 . 


8-2 


18-5 


231 


2-40 


273 


1-21 


0'31 


5-09 


Cher blanc, 1883 


7-2 


16-0 


19-6 


1-68 


3-30 


0-86 


0-25 


6'61 


,, rouge, 1883 . 


6-6 


20-6 


25-6 


2-60 


4-22 


1-63 


0-34 


6-81 


Cote-d'Or, Beaune 


9-3 


217 


25-8 


2-10 


376 


2-40 


0'40 


3-19 


, , Pommard vieux 


11-9 


21-6 


24'3 


2-03 


1-51 


0-40 


0-65 


3-25 


,, Puligny, 1879 


6-8 


23-3 


27'5 


1-87 


2-83 


1-00 


0-23 


5-31 


,, rouge, 1883 . 


7-1 


177 


22-9 


1-68 


3-49 


0-91 


0-25 


7-05 


,, blanc, 1883 . 


7'9 


14-1 


20-0 


2-04 


3-02 


1-04 


0-15 


5-00 


Gard, Nimes, 1882 . 


9-4 


227 


25-9 


3-81 


3-49 


0-90 


1-82 


3-43 


Gironde,Saint-Estephe, 1878 


in 


22'4 


28-3 


2-20 


1-31 


1-50 


0-49 


2-96 


,, Saint-Emilion vieux 


10-9 


22-1 


27-9 


2-60 


2-00 


0-80 


072 


4-60 


Chateau-Larose, 1884 


10-9 


21-5 


26-2 


3-00 


1-90 


0-50 


0-53 


3-90 


,, Mouton -Rothschild, ^ 
1878 . . / 


117 


22-3 


27-2 


3-00 


1-60 


0-50 


0-58 


3-50 


Herault, Capestang, 1880 . 


8-0 


18-4 


22-4 


3-56 


2-44 


3-80 


2-33 


3-82 


,, Ramejan, 1881 . 


8-9 


20-9 


25-2 


2-85 


3-00 


T30 


1-32 


2-86 


1883 . 


10-0 


18-2 


22-4 


2-12 


3-67 


0-52 


0-69 


4-85 


,, rouge, 1883 . 


6-6 


237 


25-9 


4-60 


3-01 


0-91 


3-50 


6-51 


Minervois, 1883 . 


7'9 


23-4 


24-2 


4-08 


3-03 


0-89 


2-81 


6-02 


Indre-et-Loire, Blere, 1881 . 


8-2 


237 


26-3 


2-11 


2-03 


1-40 


0-18 


3-00 


Loir-et-Cher, Blois, 1881 . 


7-6 


18-3 


21-9 


2-15 


3-20 


1-80 


0-25 


4-88 


Loire-Inf. Nantes Wowc, 1883 


6'1 


15-1 


19-1 


1-48 


1-89 


1-02 


races 


6-81 


Lot, Cahors, 1881 


10-0 


21-8 


25-0 


1-97 


3-92 


170 


0-16 


3-40 


Pyr. -Orient. Roussillon, 1881 


12-3 


247 


28-9 


3-87 


1-04 


2-50 


3-02 


2-92 


Suone-et-Loire, Macon, 1881 


10-5 


187 


241 


1-85 


2-10 


070 


0-53 


5-07 


Thorins, 1878 


12-2 


24-0 


31-6 


2-14 


2-43 


1-80 


0-30 


4-96 


Yonne, Augy, 1881 . 


7'0 


19-3 


237 


2-30 


278 


2-10 


0-41 


5-00 


,, Joiguy, 1884 


8-0 


20-3 


24'8 


2-24 


3-29 


174 


0-15 


572 


,, blanc, 1883 . 


77 


19-2 


21-9 


1-64 


3-58 


0-81 


0-02 


7'25 


Algeria, Bone, 1881 . 


10-3 


19-1 


24-6 


2-89 


0-82 


0-60 


1-65 


6-37 


Staoueli, 1880 


10-4 


22-3 


28-8 


4-62 


0-80 


070 


4-07 


4-80 


Spain, red, 1881 


14-8 


25-6 


30-0 


4-03 


1-90 


3-oO 


3-00 


270 


1883 . . 


107 


19-2 


24'2 


4-32 


1-98 


1-09 


3-32 


4-50 


Italy, Riposto, 1880 . 


13-2 


24-1 


28-4 


3-88 


0-86 


3-90 


T51 


2-90 


red ... 


13-0 


32-0 


37-6 


4-52 


2-92 


4-38 


374 


6-17 


Sicily, 1883 . 
Portugal, red, 1882 . 


13-8 
13-5 


27-2 
20-8 


33-0 
26-0 


3-08 
2-92 


1-51 
3-15 


3-62 
2'90 


0-37 
0-27 


4-80 
372 


Turkey, Andrinople, 1878 . 


11-4 


22-9 


29-6 


2-47 


2-06 


5-00 


071 


3-10 


Piquette, lixiviation of,~\ 
1883, inarcs, Midi .] 


5-9 


17-9 


20-8 


4-68 


3'59 


races 


275 


4-07 



SEC. 3] MANUFACTURE FROM WINES, ETC. 85 

ceased, tin- liquid is draun oft" whilst it is still mild, ami t lie trans- 
formation of the sugar into alcohol finished in casks. The skins 
left liehind retain ;i certain amount of saccharine juice, and constitute 
th" nt'irt', which, pres-rd and fermented, yields an inferior quality of 
wine. If water be added to the <^rape skins, and they are tln-n 
pressed a second time, the result is piquette (sour wine). The casks 
of wine must always be kept full, but open at the bung hole, so that 
the evaporation surface is not too great, and that the wine does not 
turn sour. (1) Vinage is the adding of alcohol to a poor wine; (2) 
niniiillage is reducing the proportion of alcohol by adding water; (3) 
awvage, brightening the colour by adding sulphate of lime or tartaric 
acid ; (4) coupage is the blending of several qualities to produce an 
average one. White wines may be made from white grapes, or red 
grapes, but in the latter case they are termed vins faits en Wane. If 
white grapes be used, the process is almost the same as for red wine. 
But if red grapes be used, the grapes must be pressed gently so as to 
cause the juice to exude without the envelopes falling into the liquid ; 
the pellicle containing the colouring matter should not rest in contact 
with the liquid after fermentation sets in. 

3. Barbet's process of cultivating pure wine ferment. The 
application of Pasteur's principles to wine presents special difficulties. 
Up to now all that has been done is to despatch to wine-growers 
when wanted a few bottles of ferment germs, leaving the culture 
thereof to the wine-growers themselves when a second crop of ferment 
enables them to set their fermentation tuns. But all such delicate 
preparatory operations are beyond the capabilities of wine-growers, 
who have not the equipment indispensable for maintaining the 
ferment in the proper state of purity. Successive fermentations are 
made in non-sterilised tuns with a must which has not itself been 
suitably freed from its micro-organisms, so that very often when the 
ferment reaches the wine-grower's fermenting tuns it is not at all pure, 
and the wine-grower does not recoup himself in the resultant wine for 
the expense and trouble to which he has put himself. To work 
satisfactorily with pure and active ferments, special plant is required a 
steam boiler for sterilisation and plant for pumping sterilised 
compressed air ; in a word, it requires a mechanical and engineering 
plant on the large scale, which on account of its price cannot be erected 
except in very large viticultural exploitations. But what costs too 
much for an individual, becomes realisable and practicable for a 
sufficiently large group of wine-growers. What is required for each 
district is not a laboratory distributing pure ferment germs, but a 
small factory supplying each vineyard, and, for each vat, a pure copious 
leaven in full activity. 

Fig. 22 shows a plan of a factory of this nature, which is supposed 
to be annexed to an existing wine-cellar. The necessary grape juice 
is supplied by the wine-press to the pure leaven. The juice is 



86 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VI. 



pumped into the upper reservoir A, from whence it passes to the 
tubular heater B, which it traverses from below upwards an apparatus 




in which the juice advantageously benefits by absorbing the greater 
part of the heat of the hot sterilised juice, so that witen it reaches the 
sterilisator C it requires but little steam to be brought to the boil or 
to a temperature bordering on ebullition. The sterilised juice issues 



SEC. 4] MANUFACTURE FROM WINES, ETC. 87 

by the tap b, descends to the heater B, then passes to the cooler D, 
from which it should issue at the right temperature for the fermenta- 
tion for which it is to be used. Another part of the sterilised juice 
enters the cooler F, and from thence passes into the pure leaven 
apparatus G, in which ferment is cultivated on very shallow plates in 
its upper part, and on to which the must is continually elevated by a 
compressed sterilised air emulsifier H. The "aerobiose" treatment 
recommended by Pasteur is thus realised. The air sterilisator L is 
on a new plan. It consists of a cotton-wool filter enclosed in a 
steam autoclave, so that the cotton can be from time to time sterilised 
without any delicate manoeuvring. J is the steam pump to compress 
the air. K is the compressed air receiver. The tubular vessels B D F 
are fitted with sterilisable tubular cases. N N N are galvanised iron 
casks tinned inside. They are intended for transporting the pure 
leavens into the other wine-cellars in the neighbourhood. They are 
mounted on convenient trucks. After washing and sterilisation, 
the leaven casks N are filled with sterilised juice cooled in B and D 
and treated with a little of the pure leaven drawn from apparatus G. 
Fermentation is allowed to go on, and the carbonic acid gas is not 
allowed to escape, only the casks possess a safety valve, gauged to 
1 kilogramme per square centimetre. When the casks reach the 
wine-cellar for which they are intended, they are in full fermentation 
and under a pressure, which will be sufficient to elevate the leaven 
into the vats, to be leavened, without requiring a pump. This simple 
manoauvring avoids contaminating the leaven. Fermentation develops 
instantaneously in the vats, thus ensuring that no mishap occurs in 
fermentation mishaps which occurred too frequently by the old 
methods. If there be in the region in which this system is being 
wrought two or three very distinct kinds of wine which require 
different strains of leaven to be used, it will suffice to have in the works 
two or three apparatus G, each with its own strain of leaven, all the 
remainder of the plant remaining as before. The continuous 
sterilisation of the juice is a perfect instrument for use afterwards in 
pasteurising the juice drawn from it. A double advantage is thus got 
from the same plant. 

4. THE DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL FROM WINE. The agri- 
cultural depression in the South of France and Algeria and similar 
wine-growing districts is due to the fact that the consumption of wine 
has not increased with the too rapid increase in its annual production. 
The annual production of these two districts have exceeded the French 
annual consumption by 440 million gallons. This unsaleable 
merchandise, deprived, by fiscal enactments, of all chance of exporta- 
tion, as such, must needs find a new outlet. The only outlet possible 
is distillation. French opinion encourages alcohol from fruit being 
used widely for consumption, preferably as a beverage ; whilst, on the 
other hand, the French Minister of Agriculture strives to open new 



88 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VI. 

and illimitable outlets for the industrial alcohol of the North of 
France as an illuminant, a heating agent, and a source of motive 
power. But, on the other hand, if its wine is not exportable, as such, 
its brandy is not affected by the same impossibility. It must not be 
forgotten, in fact, that France, twenty-five years ago, exported 1 3,200,000 
gallons of brandy, calculated at 100 G.L. at high prices. This 
wide outlet has gradually narrowed in proportion as somewhat 
unscrupulous merchants blended the Charentais product, decimated by 
the phylloxera, with du Nord alcohol ; and now, when abundance 
has once more returned, the French do not imagine it to be impos- 
sible to reconquer the foreign market by new brandies equal to those 
of their predecessors. The wine-growers of Southern France 
(Armagnac excepted) and Algeria see that their brandies are not 
generally esteemed, neither by direct customers nor by wholesale 
merchants, and that the latter prefer du Nord alcohol for making their 
cheap blends. If the industrial raw material is afflicted with an 
original unpleasant odour, on the other hand, it cannot be denied 
that its fermentation is surrounded with the greatest of care, and 
that it engenders few fermentation impurities. If we place in 
parallel wine alcohol of bad quality, we find in such a product 
special impurities which do not generally exist, in appreciable 
quantity, in good industrial alcohols. There is often found in wine 
alcohols a piquant odour, recalling burnt paper or burnt caoutchouc. 
It is acrolein, due to fermentation at far too high a temperature. 
This defect is almost general in Algerian spirits. Often, again, the 
dominant odour is of sulphurous acid, and sometimes to an unimagin- 
able extent. If a solution of baryta be poured into this alcohol, 
an abundant precipitate not only of sulphite of baryta but even 
of oxide of iron is produced, because this alcohol has strongly 
corroded the iron tuns of the warehouse. Sulphurous acid exists not 
only in the free state, it has formed very bad sulphited ethers in 
contact with the boiling alcohol. If the ethers in the above alcohol 
be destroyed by potash, traces of sulphuretted hydrogen may be 
determined, which was previously combined with the alcohol, and 
formed a sulphuretted ether of very unpleasant odour. Finally, 
chemical analysis reveals the presence of another category of 
impurities, methylic or ammoniacal compounds analogous to those 
given off by over-ripe cheese or fish. None of these grave defects 
should exist in wine alcohol, if made from sound wine. But until 
the southern district of France protects itself against the effect of a 
hot climate, until they produce wines from a sufficiently pure 
fermentation, it will be necessary to worry over purifying branyd by 
distillation. The apparatus must be combined in such a way that 
the plant can produce a sound and proper brandy even from the 
worst wines. Seek, then, the origin of the acetic, sulphuretted, 
and sulphurous ethers, the obnoxious presence of which has just been 



SEC. 6] MANUFACTURE FROM WINES, ETC. 89 

drU'i mined. Chemistry tells us that ethers are formed each time 
that boiling alcohol of great strength comes in contact with an acid, 
mineral or organic, liquid or gaseous. Acetic ether arises from the 
acetic acid in the pique's wines. Sulphurous ether comes from the 
sulphurous acid added to the wine, on the one hand by related 
iiii<-hages of the casks, and on the other hand as bisulphite, to 
make mutage or to preserve the wine against cryptogamic 
maladies, or, finally, to bleach the wine when it was of a rose 
colour. 

5. Sulphuretted ether, or mercaptan, arises from sulphuretted 
hydrogen, which one would scarcely expect to see figuring amongst the 
ingredients of wine. But it must be borne in mind that the vines 
have been drenched several times with bouillies bordelaises containing 
sulphate of copper, and that flowers of sulphur are also used. All 
these chemical products are met with to a great extent in the fermenta- 
tion tun, and certain wine-growers assert that they have sometimes 
found natural sulphur agglomerated in the lees of a tun. It is not 
astonishing under such conditions that the formation of sulphides has 
been determined, which, under the influence of the acidity of the wine, 
disengage sulphuretted hydrogen. Acetic acid, sulphurous acid, 
sulphuretted hydrogen are three volatile acids, which on distillation 
are disengaged from the wine, and rise up into the upper parts of the 
distilling column at the same time as the alcohol becomes stronger 
and stronger, till the moment arrives when the strength of the alcohol 
is such as to enable it to seize hold of the acids which accompany it, 
and combine therewith, under the form of ethers. To allow this 
combination to be accomplished is an almost irremediable mistake, 
because the ethers, so formed, can henceforth only be destroyed 
by energetic chemical reagents, such as potash or soda, which act in 
their turn on the alcohol, and on the vinous perfumes, in a very 
objectionable manner. Prevention is better than cure. 

6. The danger of chemical combination does not exist until the 
alcohol becomes concentrated. It is advisable, therefore, to free the 
vapours from their dangerous associates as soon as they are liberated 
from the wine, and recourse may be made for that purpose to the 
methods adopted by chemists in laboratories for purifying vapours or 
gases. The vapours are sifted, or scrubbed over fragments of marble, 
to retain acid gases, and the action is completed by bubbling through 
a liquid which contains fixed salts, without odour, capable of 
energetically retaining the last traces of sulphuretted hydrogen. One 
of the liquid washers or scrubbers is intended for another purpose, 
that of absorbing ammoniacal compounds, products arising principally 
from fermentation made in unsuitable localities or tuns. Once the 
alcoholic vapours are thoroughly scrubbed by appropriate ablutions, 
they may be allowed to continue their upward course, and it will soon 
be seen that if the wine being treated has not now the defects already 



90 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VI. 

mentioned, we have only to stop introducing the reagents, and every 
defect will reappear (Fig. 25). 

The scrubbers are almost always effective when rectified alcohol 
is desired, because it is necessary to obtain absolute neutrality of 
odour. When it is desired to make brandy, the reaction is less 
indispensable, in so far as the great vinosity of the product has 
a sufficient aroma in general to mask completely small defects. 

7. By-products. The vine contains cream of tartar, the price of 
which in the crude state is twice greater than that of alcohol ; it is 
economically extracted by the same multiple effect processes as are 
used in sugar works (Fig. 25). Wine also contains a notable pro- 
portion of glycerine, 5-9 Ibs. per 100 gallons, worth about 40 per ton. 
The glycerine in a day's turnover of 2200 gallons is worth 55s. to 90s. 
A well-equipped distillery should not neglect such an important 
source of profit, which would pay all its general expenses. The 
working of the marcs, from the pressing, ought also to be in- 
dustrialised, so as not only to extract all the spirit, but also to 
obtain cream of tartar and tartaric acid, then the wine-distiller 
ought to separate the seeds, which are a food for poultry, or 12 
to 15 per cent, of good quality oil may be extracted therefrom. A 
small wine distillery concentrating the working of 1000 to 1250 acres of 
vines ought to fulfil the following programme : Make pure leavens, at 
the moment of pressing. Centralise all the marcs for distillation. 
Profit by use of apparatus for sterilisation of juice for pure leavens so 
as to effect the pasteurisation of the wines from the first pressing. 
Distil the wines. Profit by the plant for the exhaustion of marcs to 
work other alcohol-producing plants, beets, sorgho, asphodel, or Barbary 
figs in Algeria, etc., with the view of producing denatured alcohol for 
lighting. Utilise all the by-products, tartar, salts, glycerine, seeds. 
Such a factory (Figs. 24, 25) would have work for nine months out of 
twelve, and consequently would be in excellent condition to maintain 
a capable technical staff and have slight depreciation expenses. In 
France agricultural distilleries of this nature may be easily formed on 
co-operative principles, making, if need be, appeal to the financial 
aid of the district agricultural banks constituted by the law of 1897. 
The privilege of the Bank of France and that of the Bank of Algeria 
were only renewed on condition of placing an extremely important 
amount of capital at the disposal of agricultural enterprises of this 
nature. 

8. Continuous steam still. More particularly intended for " Vins 
de bon cm." 1. Prolonged boiling. It is of great importance that 
the wine undergoes prolonged boiling. That is the chief reason of the 
superiority of intermittent stills over ordinary columns. The wine to 
be distilled is pumped, in a continuous manner, into the beck P (Fig. 23). 
The feed is regulated by the dial tap (15), and the wine is first warmed 
in the tubular vessel M, absorbing heat froni tjie boiling vinasse 



SEC. 8] MANUFACTURE FROM WINES, ETC. 91 

issuing from the tap (17) of the still D. It is heated, gratuitously, 
without any fuel consumption whatever. The hot wine enters (by 16) 
the bottom of a very large reservoir G, which contains sufficient to 
tVnl tin- plant for 3 or 4 hours. The heating of the wine is 
continued up to 92-93 C, i.e. to a point bordering on ebullition. The 
\viiu' thus undergoes intense and prolonged pasteurisation. The 
heating to 92-93 C is effected by a steam coil, taking its steam from 
the dome of the still D by the tap 19. The boiled wine enters the 
column of plates, and is exhausted in descending through the plates 
E to the still D. There it finds a still, so capacious that the boiling 
of the vinasse is prolonged for 3 hours at least, allowing the volatile 
fatty acids in the wine, or in the cells of the ferment, to be disengaged. 
2. Etherification. Part of the acid vapours ascend through the plates 
E and F, to come in intimate contact with the vapours of the wine, and 
to etherify them. But as these acids are not very volatile, it was to 
be feared that they would be arrested in the lower stages of the 
column, and it would be impossible to reach the level where the brandy 
is of greatest alcoholic strength and easily etherifiable. The steam 
which completes the heating of the wine in G, is the vinasse steam. 
The condensed liquid which results is therefore charged with volatile 
fatty acids and affords an exit for them. This perfumed water is 
collected, after cooling, in the double refrigerator H. It issues 
through the tap R, where a delicate alcoholometer permanently 
controls the exhaustion of the vinasse. When the plant is well 
regulated, no more alcohol remains in the still D, and the liquid from 
the coil of G ought to mark zero on the alcoholometer. This acid 
liquid is pumped into the beck O, and through the dial-gauged tap 20 
it is introduced into the column F, above the wine, a stage at which 
it finds brandy, at 40 or 50. The perfumed acid water may also be 
pumped to the wine beck P. Etherification is effected, and once 
accomplished cannot be destroyed. 3. Purification. The brandy 
becomes more and more concentrated in the plates F, owing to total 
retrogradation from the tubular condensers J and K. At the exit of 
the refrigerator K there is left a permanent flow of first runnings of 
2 to 5 per cent., which is collected at the tap T. It contains some 
aldehydes and unpleasant gases. This product reaches 90, and even 
93. The remainder of the condensed liquid re-enters the apparatus, 
and, as may be imagined, at this great strength the etherification of 
the fatty renanthic and other acids is rapidly effected. The brandy 
redescends on the plates F, where it is actually boiled as in the 
Charentaise "repasse." In proportion as it descends, it loses in 
strength, and the distiller continuously extracts it through taps 2, 2 1 , 
or 2 2 as he thinks fit, according as he finds more finesse at one or 
other of these stages. Generally, with " bon cru " products, the best 
quality is at 60-70 (alcoholic). Brandy very mellow, and matured 
by automatic reboiling and well charged with cenanthic perfumes, 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VI. 




FIG. 23. Plant for distillation of wine. D, still ; E F, rectifier; G, wine 
boiler ; J, condenser ; K, refrigerator ; M, wine forewarmer ; N", pump ; 
0, fatty acid liquor ; P, wine tank (E. BARBET). 

flows through the safe S. A tap fixed at the entrance to the worm 
safe, enables the flow to be regulated in a very precise manner. 
When the brandies have a taste of marc, which it is desired to 



SEC. 8] MANUFACTURE FROM WINES, ETC. 



1 




sp 



94 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VI. 

eliminate, it is drawn from the upper tap 2, whilst by the lower tap 2 2 
a slight extraction is made 1 to 2 per cent, of volatile oils. It is 
there they concentrate. The plant is provided with a steam 
regulator. 

9. In large establishments where the supply of marc to be 
distilled is abundant, four or five maceration vats are used 
(according to the richness of the marcs), so as to form a battery. 
Each has a false bottom 4 inches above the true one, and it is on 
t3 this false bottom that the marc is run. A wide pipe leads 
from the top of one vat underneath the false bottom of the following 
one. This pipe is, moreover, open on the top, so as to allow of water 
being run in direct. The maceration liquid passes consecutively 
through each of the vats, in which it remains some hours, and 
issues from the last as " pique tte " (sour wine). The displacement 
of the liquid from one vat into another is made by running water 
into the false bottom of the first vat. The maceration liquid chased 
from below upwards flows from the top part of the vat, and enters 
under the false bottom of the following one, which discharges into 
No. 3, and so on to the last. After a number of macerations 
corresponding to the number of vats, the exhausted marc of the 
first is withdrawn and replaced by fresh marc. This vat now becomes 
the last of the series, that from which the sour wine is withdrawn, 
and No. 2 becomes the first. Afterwards No. 2 will be the last, 
and No. 3 the first, and so on. This methodical maceration yields 
good results : it furnishes high strength piquette and completely 
exhausts the marcs. The piquette is pumped to D E F, and con- 
tinuously distilled. 

10. Some wines, owing to fermentation errors, as already 
mentioned, are very defective, which ordinary distillery plant is 
powerless to remedy. Special measures are necessary to cope with 
the difficulties they present. It is more especially the acid gases 
that hinder distillation ; sulphurous acid and sulphuretted hydrogen 
ascend the column and combine with the spirit to form very 
bad ethers, which it is impossible to destroy or eliminate after- 
wards. The remedy, therefore, consists in not allowing these 
gases to rise into the upper stages of the column. It is necessary, 
in fact, to seize the alcoholic vapours at the point where they are 
disengaged from the wine, and to free them from their impure gases 
by appropriate cleansing, so that they do not ascend upwards to 
the high strength plates. This washing of the vapours is effected in 
special scrubbers termed the reagent vessels. In the first B, they pass 
over fragments of marble to free them from sulphurous acid and acetic 
acid ; in the succeeding vessel C the vapours bubble through a solution 
of fixed salts without any action on the spirit itself, whilst it absorbs 
sulphuretted hydrogen and ammoniacal compounds. In fact, this 
vapour cleansing is done after the style of Woolf's bottles in 



SEC. 10] MANUFACTURE FROM WINES, ETC. 95 

1 a 1. oratories. If the reagent vessels are outside the column, the 
vapours return thereto. A supplementary condenser is 




then used in connection with these reagent columns to force down 
the amylic vapours so abundant in such wines into the lower part 
of the column. The right hand portion of Fig. 25 shows an arrange- 
ment intended to make from wine in a single operation rectified 



$6 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP* VL 

96 per cent, alcohol. It will at once be observed that this apparatus 
only requires a low building, so that it meets the wants of the greater 
number of distillers in the South of France. From the time it 
is a question of making odourless alcohol, and not a vinous brandy, 
the perfume of which masks certain impurities, it is indispensably 
necessary to eliminate all bad elements. No precaution must be 
neglected, because the wines used for alcohol making are generally 
the worst of all. A is the wine exhaustion column, surmounted 
by reagent vessels. B contains salts in solution. C contains marble 
chips. From there the purified vapours pass to the rectifier proper 
K. Underneath the column K, D D 1 intended to specially purify 
the last runnings. The wine is first heated in the recuperator E 
by absorbing the heat from the residual liquor issuing from the 
column D D 1 . It then passes into the tubular vessel F, where 
the heating is completed. Owing to the chemical purification of 
the alcoholic vapours, pasteurisation expels the first runnings 
products. As at the same time the elimination of the odours 
of the marc by the special column D D 1 is perfect, a 96 
per cent, "bon gout" alcohol, quite fresh and pure, is obtained. 
The vinasse is run alternately into K and L, and the tartaric acid 
saturated by potassium carbonate. The clarified liquid is pumped into 
M N, heated by live steam from boiler. No. 1 steam heats No. 2 
(N), the liquid in which comes from No. 1, the steam disengaged 
from the second vessel N (No. 2) is used to heat both 
the distilling column A by the coil S and a final wooden vat 
P fitted with a steam coil, and into which the vinasse from 
N (No. 2) is allowed to run continuously. After this fresh and 
last concentration, the vinasse is sent to the crystallisers. The 
concentration is such that almost the whole of the bitartrate of 
potash is obtained. In a distillery on a large scale, the utilisa- 
tion of by-products may go further, and the concentration thus 
obtained utilised to extract the glycerine. The cream of tartar 
mother liquors contain, in fact, a sufficient quantity of glycerine 
as to render the rational extraction easy and economical. Such 
work entails the addition of special supplementary plant, and, in 
particular, plant for the use of superheated steam and distillation 
in vacuo; but the product obtained being of great value, the 
capital sunk yields a very profitable return, which distillers should 
not overlook (Chap. III. sec. 18, etc.). 

11. fruit distillation on a small scale. We in Great Britain 
are so accustomed to regard the distillation of fermented liquors as 
a large scale operation only, that we are apt to lose sight of the 
fact that, abroad, distillation is carried on by the peasantry, small 
farmers and proprietors, more especially in France, on what is often 
a very small scale indeed. This they are enabled to do by more liberal 
Excise laws, which permit a farmer or market gardener to distil his own 



SEC. 12] MANUFACTURE FROM WINES, ETC. 97 

produce with the most unexacting of restrictions. An idea of the 
trilling nature of these restrictions may be gathered from the fact that 
|.rr;iinl)ulatin^ stills are carried about the country propelled sometimes 
I iy hand, sometimes by horses, sometimes by automobile, all catering 
for work from the country growers of horticultural produce. The 
distillation is carried on in the open air. No fruit is wasted in 
France, it is distilled. In Great Britain, in seasons when there is 
a glut of fruit, many tons of fruit are wasted or sold at a loss in 
districts like the Vale of Evesham, which under a wise and economical 
administration of our Excise policy would be distilled. Again, it 
would obviously be a wise hygienic measure if jam manufacturers 
were allowed to distil for industrial alcohol purposes such fruit as 
now reaches them in an unfit state for human food. This would 
be a special advantage to such jam manufacturers as grow their 
own fruit, and who deserve every privilege that can be granted them. 
The French fruit-grower has no interest in despatching bad fruit 
to market, he can distil it and utilise it to better profit than by 
accepting the poor price he would get for it as damaged fruit. 
In France the scriptural injunction "Let nothing be wasted" is 
carried out in its integrity. In Britain, one manufacturer seems 
to vie with another as to how profligate he can be not only in 
the use of his raw materials, but in the amount of residual products 
he can send down the drain. 

12. Fig. 26 shows a small portable fire-heated still, one of many 
such kinds used in France. The liquid to be distilled is introduced 
into the body of the still A placed in the wrought-iron furnace B. The 
still head G is fixed in its place by means of bolts Z. The extremity 
m of the flexible tube F is screwed on to the still head, then the 
refrigerator R being filled with water, the furnace fire is lit, and 
the noise of the liquid boiling in the still is soon heard. When 
the distillation is going to commence, easily ascertained by following 
the course of the hot vapours by running the hand along the goose 
neck, a small stream of water is run into the funnel of the rectifier 
U. Then, when the spirit reaches the mouth of the worm at S, water 
is run into the funnel I to cool the worm contained in the tank R. 
More or less water is run into the rectifier according to the alcoholic 
strength of the product to be distilled and the strength desired 
in the distillate. Towards the end of the distillation, when the 
distillate marks less than 40 G.L., it is collected apart and the 
distillation urged. The feed of water into the rectifier is therefore 
stopped. The distillate collected apart is repassed through the 
still with the next lot. If rectified spirits be not desired, or if 
aromatic waters are distilled, water is not run into the rectifier. 
The still then works like an ordinary still. The operation finished, 
the still head is taken off, and the body of the still emptied and 
gleaned with the right hand, the handle JJ i$ dra.wn forward by 

7 



9 8 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VI. 



removing the bolt K with the left hand, the cam D attached to 
the body of the still rolls on the projecting rail E, and the still 
advances, tilting itself towards the horizontal in so doing. To raise 
it, all that has to be done is to raise the handle H without having 
to touch the bolt K, which shuts by itself. 

It is suitable for distillers, spirit dealers, dispensers, chemists, per- 




FIG. 26. Fire heated portable tilting still for small scale distillation of 
wine, fruit, etc. A, body of still ; B, wrought-iron furnace ; C, part of furnace 
fixed to body of still ; D, cam ; E, rail on which D rolls ; G, still head ; d, screw 
box ; Z, bolt ; m, goose neck joint ; F, goose neck during tilting ; H, handle ; 
K, lever bolt ; U, spherical rectifier ; I, water funnel ; R, refrigerator ; 
I, funnel ; V, discharge tap ; S, worm safe ; x, test-glass (EGROT and GKANG). 

fumers, amateurs, etc. For distilling solid matters, metallic baskets 
may be used to prevent burning by contact with the heated surface. 

The still head when taken off forms a copper pan very useful in 
agricultural work for the heating of milk, the manufacture of cheese, 
the melting of sugar, the heating of water, the manufacture of cream 
of tartar, the cooking of food for cattle. 



SBC. 13] MANUFACTURE FROM WINES, ETC. 99 



13. Morin (Comptes Rendus, 105, 1019) distilled 92 litres of 
genuine cognac made in 1883 from Charente Inferieure wine in 
Claudin and Morin's apparatus. The first runnings contained the 
more volatile bodies, the second fairly pure ethyl alcohol, the 




FIG. 27. Egrot's still, with water bath for various purposes (EoROT and 
GRANG^). A, flat-bottomed pan capable of being used for various purposes ; 
B, water bath, may be used as round bottom pan ; C, still head. This plant 
may serve : 

( For the distillation of aromatic 



1. Ordinary still 

2. Still, with water bath . 

3. Round bottom pan 

4. Flat-bottomed pan 

5. Double pan, with water bath 



liquors and spirits of 60-70 
G. L. at the first operation. 
For the manufacture of syrups, 
pastes, pomades ; and for the 
concentration of all products. 



third the higher alcohols. The residue, mainly water, was tested 
for free acids isobutyl alcohol and glycerin. The first three 
portions were then fractionated, 5 litres of light alcohol, 55 
litres of pure ethylic alcohol, and 3 '5 litres of higher boiling 
compounds were obtained. The latter portion smelt strongly 
of fusel oil, and had a burning taste. The residual water was 
added to that previously obtained. The fractions were then 
redistilled from Le Bel and Henninger's apparatus. The fusehoil 



ioo INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VI. 

portion, which after dehydration by potassium carbonate weighed 
352 grammes, gave 

Grammes. 

Water .7 

Ethyl alcohol 130 

Normal propyl alcohol 25 

Isobutyl alcohol . 6 352 

Amyl alcohol . . . . . . .175 

Furfurol 2 

Wine oils 7 

The water contained a little acetic and butyric acids and a small 
quantity of a viscous liquid which distilled undecomposed under 
diminished pressure, and appeared to consist of isobutyl alcohol and 
glycerin. The residue contained tannin and other principles extracted 
from the wood. Column I. of the following table shows the compounds 
contained in 100 litres of the cognac. Column II. those contained in 
the distillate obtained in the same way by the fermentation of 100 
kilos of sugar. 

I. II. 

Grammes. Grammes. 

Aldehyde .... traces . traces 

Ethyl alcohol . . . 50,837'0 . 50,615'0 

Normal propyl alcohol . . 27 '17 . . 2'0 

Isobutyl alcohol . . 6 -52 . . 1-5 

Amyl alcohol . . . 190-21 . . 51'0 

Furfurol bases . . . 2'19 . . O'O 

Wine oil .... 7 '61 . . 2-0 
Acetic acid .... trace 
Isobutyl glycol . . . 2 -19 
Glycerin . . . .4-38 

Butyl alcohol was absent. Furfurol was detected directly by the 
addition of aniline to the cognac, a red coloration being produced 
in the presence of acetic acid. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE MANUFACTURE OF ALCOHOL FROM THE SUGAR 
CANE AND SUGAR-CANE MOLASSES 

1. THE sugar cane is the main source of alcohol in tropical 
countries, whether it be manufactured by direct elaboration from the 
cane juice (vesou) or from fermentation of molasses. Like the must of 
the grape, cane juice (containing as much as 12-16 per cent, of sugar) 
enters into fermentation spontaneously, but often in a much more 
energetic manner. An inferior quality of spirit is made from molasses 
mixed with skimmings and washings of sugar pans. When molasses is 
diluted with 20 times its weight of water, and when the mixture has 
cooled to 78 F. and one-twelfth its weight of yeast be added, fermenta- 
tion will speedily ensue, and an ardent spirit will be generated, which, 
when distilled, has none of the aroma of ruin inherent to cane juice, 
and dissipated at the high temj>erature employed in the production of 
molasses. This product is called Tafia in the West Indies, Cana in the 
Argentine Republic, Cachaca in Brazil. When cane juice is to be used 
for making rum, it is extracted by single or double pressure in mills, 
just as if intended for sugar manufacture (Figs. 28, 29). It is generally 
strained to remove bagasse debris, and then fermented. The natural 
ferment is found in great numbers on the exterior waxy surface of the 
cane. The cane-sugar ferment differs from other European ferments. 
The alcoholic ferments of Venezuela are much smaller than European 
species. In form they approach an octagon, especially the protoplasm. 
They require for their development and propagation in good condition 
a temperature of 30 C. (86 F.). Otherwise fermentation is very 
slow and tedious. Cooling is never done at zero ; injurious secondary 
fermentation seizes the top very easily, whilst at 35 C. (95 F.), 
the temperature which suits this alcoholic ferment best, fermentation 
occurs very rapidly and in good condition with " chutes " at zero. 
The alcoholic ferment can stand strongly acid liquors expressed 
as sulphuric acid. Media in which European ferments would be 
paralysed, the Venezuellean ferment can stand very well. The 
reproduction of the alcoholic ferment is effected at a temperature 
between 30 and 36 C. (86-96'8 F.). Barbet points out that some 
slight exception must be taken in regard to Delafond's remarks 
on acidity. European ferments, he says, do not like mineral acids, 

101 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. Vll. 




I a 

P"H 



a 



hut they stand certain organic acids very well. Bakers' yeast 
ferments with great activity in lactic acid media equivalent to 6-7 



SEC. ij MANUFACTURE FROM SUGAR CAM. 




grammes of sulphuric acid per litre (i.e. 6-7 Ibs. of sulphuric acid 
per 100 gallons), and wine ferments in certain years have a tartaric 
acidity exceeding an equivalent of 7-9 grammes of sulphuric acid per 



104 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VII. 

litre (7-9 Ibs. per 100 gallons). 1 The hotter the wash the more need 
it has of a certain acidity (preferably organic, with the exception of 
volatile fatty acids) to protect it against injurious ferments. This 
law holds good to a greater extent with cane juice than with European 
washes and musts, because non-acidified cane juice is a hotbed of 
bacterian disease. 

2. Sometimes it is a film or web of mycoderms which forms 

on the surface of the vat, so matted and consistent that it can 

be lifted in enormous strings without breaking. Sometimes viscous 

fermentation sets in, against which disease there is no remedy but 

strong acidity, so long as such acidity is not so strong as to be 

injurious to the proper ferment itself. In cane juice stringing like 

thickened oil, says Delafond, I have found the viscose ferment 

under the microscope forming a compact mucilaginous mass, which, 

thinned down with distilled water, formed a froth or "head," and 

it was found in pairs when detached. The viscose ferment does 

not develop in a strongly acid media. The addition of sulphuric 

acid stops viscous fermentation in active evolution, and as it lives 

on levulose, this ferment is not propagated until the alcoholic ferment 

has commenced its chemical work of splitting up sugar. The acetic 

ferment may be contended against by avoiding the heating of the 

juice and by realising as anaerobic a fermentation as possible. In 

regard to other bacteria, the acidity of the juice acts best. The 

best way of securing cheap acidity in the colonies is to utilise 

the spent wash from previous fermentations. Between the. first 

and second pressure of the cane the bagasse is moistened ivith water. 

It would be more rational, says Barbet, to cause the bagasse to 

reimbibe the spent wash; it is a question of trial. Another way 

of checking too energetic fermentation is the rational use of 

antiseptics, refrigeration of the wort, previous sterilisation, etc. 

The refrigeration of the wort is not often practicable for want of 

fresh water, if carelessness, bad air, polluted water, and general 

filthiness are the order of the day, no care being taken in the 

manufacture and preservation of the molasses in the boiling-house, 

and it is not thought worth while to exercise any microscopical 

or chemical supervision for the alleged reason that the whole 

management of a distillery is so simple that it may be left in 

the hands of any overseer or driver then the very finest distillery 

plant might be set up and would prove a failure from a financial 

point of view, even though all the exhaust steam were utilised 

and the very best rectifying apparatus employed. Under such 

circumstances it cannot be wondered that the percentage of the 

theoretical yield which is, and will always remain, the only figure 

for comparison instead of being 80, or more, goes down to 60, 

or less, even though the percentage of wash attains a very high 

1 Chap. VI. sec. 2, Table XVIII. 



SEC. 4] ' MANUFACTURE FROM SUGAR CANE 105 

(In it fallacious) figure, and the yield from the molasses appears 
to be satisfactory. 

3. Fermentation. The sediment from molasses wash, after fermen- 
t at ion, is seen, under the microscope, to consist of innumerable cells, 
smaller in si/e than those of the common beer-ferment (yeast). They 
UK- round and shining, mixed witli small granules and separated from 
one another, not arranged in masses or in form of long bands. Hum 
ferment remains unchanged as long as the nutritive matter in 
\\hieli it grows remains the same. If, however, it is put into 
a liquor containing more sugar than the original wash, or into 
starch and dextrine solutions, there appears in about 48 hours 
a dirty kind of mycelium, the threads of which occupy the whole 
of the liquor. From this mycelium the ferment is easily reproduced 
when it is put back into ordinary wash. The mycelium is always 
present along with the rum ferment in all fermented wash in the 
distillery, particularly when fermentation has been going on slowly 
or the wash has been too much exposed to the air. The rum ferment 
not only differs in structure from the beer ferment, its products 
and behaviour are also of a special nature. (1) The rum ferment has 
the strongest effect at a temperature of 30 to 35 C. (2) It is very 
sensitive in regard to cold. (3) At 18 to 20 C. the fermentation 
slackens, the acidity increases, and the yield of alcohol diminishes. 
(4) The degree of concentration of the wash has a distinct influence 
on the vegetation of the ferment. (5) A solution of saccharose of 
18 to 19 per cent, appears to give the best yield. Of course, 
this means pure sugar, and does not apply to liquids such as 
molasses. 6. The rum ferment both in its proper form and that 
of mycelium separates a diastase which converts saccharose 
into glycose (STADE). 

4. In Jamaica and some of our colonies, says Ure, 50 gallons 
of spent wash or lees are mixed with 6 gallons of molasses, 36 
gallons of sugar-pan skimmings, a substance rich in aroma, and 
8 gallons of water, in which mixture there is about one-twelfth part 
of solid saccharum. The fermentation is seldom complete in less 
than 9 days, and most commonly it requires from 12 to 15, the 
l>eriod being dependent on the capacity of the fermenting tun 
and the quality of its contents. The liquid now becomes clear, 
the froth having fallen to the bottom, and few bubbles of gas are 
liberated from it, whilst its specific gravity falls from 1*050 to 0'992. 
The sooner it is subjected to distillation after this j>eriod the better, 
to prevent loss of alcohol by the acetous fermentation, an accident very 
liable to supervene in the sugar colonies. The crude spirit obtained 
fn>m the large still at the first operation is rectified in a smaller still. 
About 114 gallons of rum, proof -strength, specific gravity 0'920, 
are obtained from 1200 gallons of wash. Now these 1200 gallons 
weigh 12,600 Ibs., and contain nearly one-eighth of their weight of 



io6 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL fCnAP. Vll. 



sugar =1575 Ibs., which should yield nearly its own weight of 

1575 
proof spirit, whose bulk is ^.09 = 171*2 gallons, whereas only 114 

are obtained, proving (according to Ure) the process to be conducted 
in a manner far from economical, even with every reasonable allowance. 
Ure, by his own experiments on the quantity of proof spirits obtain- 
able from molasses, found that 1 gallon of sweets should yield 1 
gallon of spirits, and hence the above 16,666 gallons should have 
afforded the same bulk of rum. 

Dr. Ure also quotes an experiment he made as follows : 150 Ibs. 
of West Indian molasses were dissolved in water and mixed with 2 
gallons of yeast weighing exactly 20 Ibs. The wash measured 70 
gallons and had a specific gravity of 1*0647 at 60 F. In two days the 
gravity had fallen to 1*0055, in three days to 1*0022, and in five days 
to 1*001. The temperature was kept up from 80 to 90 F. during 
the last two days by means of a steam-pipe, to favour the fermenta- 
tion. The product of spirits was 11*35 gallons. Now, 150 Ibs. of 
the above molasses were found to contain of solid matter, chiefly 
uncrystallisable, 112 Ibs., so the yield was in accordance with the 
above statement. 



-^MODERN PERM EJ.NTING HOUSE 

:-. 

Pilfered Air 

4u I W.YTER SPRAY- APPARATUS 



ILISATOR 

COOLER /,M///# t 



\ CENTRAL-ENGINE 
1 DYNAMO VENTIIATOR 




FIG. 30. Modern fermenting room (STADE). 



are 



5. More than one million tons of cane-sugar molasses 
produced annually, sufficient to make 132,000,000 gallons of spirit 
of 60 per cent, strength. The sixth part of it is not made, because, 
especially in the French colonies, they have, as a rule, given up making 



SEC. 6] MANUFACTURE FROM SUGAR CANE 107 



nini, or Tafia as they call it, and even, it is alleged, run their molasses 
into the sea or into streams. 

6. Composition of molasses. The analysis of molasses is 
complicated by the co-existence of a great number of sugars and 
different reducers, saccharose, dextrose, levulose, mannose, glutose, 
ratlinose, caramel, etc. The choice and ratio of the defecation agent 
greatly influence the results. 

TABLE XIX. ANALYSES OF CANE-SUGAR MOLASSES. 





Java (Prinsen Geerligs). 


Thompson 
Average 
Analyses of 
Molasses of 
Different 
Sources. 


Extreme Limits. 


Average. 


Crystallisable sugar . \ 
Calculated by inversion J 
Reducers 
Dextrose 
Levulose 
Total ash 
Water . 
Organic matter 
Density ..... 


From 
5-7 

18-8 
8-2 
5-6 
4-38 
17-1 

1-315 

9-8 


To 
44-3 

39-4 
22-9 
16-5 
9-04 
42-3 

1-481 
0-50 

, 53'7 


35-3 

27-6 
14-2 
13-4 
8-08 
19-1 
11-23 
1-481 
0-19 

43-6 


26-34 
28-13 

8-26 
26-60 
10-67 

2'21 


Acidity as acetic acid . 
Real purity in ratio to ) 
saccharose . . / 
Nitrogenous matter 



The analytical determination of the different sugars in a molasses 
is no safe guide as a basis of estimation of the amount of alcohol 
which it will yield. There is no satisfactory method available for 
this purpose except that of Dr. Ure, viz. a comparative fermentation 
test in the laboratory. 



ANALYSES BY BARBET OF Two MOLASSES FROM EGYPT. 



Crystallisable sugar (Clerget's method) . 
Reducers ...... 

Total sugar calculated as uncrystallisable 
Total by direct inversion of the molasses 



No. 1. 
Per Cent. 

39-10 
19-33 
60-48 
59-96 



No. 2. 
Per Cent. 

39-60 
16-90 
58-53 
58-56 



On inspection of these analyses, No. 1 ought to yield more than No. 
2, but direct experiment yielded rather unlooked-for results. No. 1 



io8 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VII. 

yielded 2 7 '5 9 c.c. of absolute alcohol per 100 grammes of molasses, 
whilst No. 2 gave 31 '03, or 3J per cent. more. Direct fermentation 
method is indispensable. The acidity of the molasses is first 
determined so as to calculate what sulphuric acid has to be added to 
get a wash with 2 grammes of acidity per litre before fermentation. 
Then a well-sterilised 2 litre flat-bottomed flask is taken, tared, and 
200 grammes of molasses weighed into it. Eight hundred grammes of 
water are added to make the fermentation test on the base of 200 
grammes of molasses per litre. The sulphuric acid, calculated to 
amount to 2 grammes at least, is added, and the liquid boiled for 10 to 
15 minutes. " Denitration " sterilisation and slight complementary 
inversion are thus simultaneously effected. The mouth of the flask 
is plugged with cotton-wool and cooled as rapidly as possible to 30 C. 
(86 F.). Whilst this has been going on, 10 grammes of good yeast fresh 
from the bakery is dissolved in a little sterilised water, and run into 
the flask with a little rinsing water, about 1050 grammes of liquid, 
which makes exactly a litre, since the neutral density is about 1 "050. 
The flask is weighed exactly, including cotton-wool plug, and the 
whole brought to 28-29 C. (82 '4-84-2 F.). The progress of the 
fermentation is watched by weighing every six hours for instances. 
When fermentation is finished the weight remains constant. The 
volume of the liquid is then determined, to ascertain to what exact 
weight of molasses the volumes drawn off for distillation, polarisation, 
and determination of acidity will correspond. Suppose that the 
CO 9 is removed by insufflation, 1020 grammes of liquid remain. 
Cool the liquid to 15 C. = 59 F., and take the density with 
an exact hydrometer, say 1018. The real weight in vacuo of a 
litre of this fermented liquid is 1018 x '9 991 6, this latter coefficient 
being the w r eight of water at 15 C. In vacuo 1020 grammes weigh 
1021*1 grammes, air displaced by the liquid, less air displaced by brass 
weights. The real volume of the wort is 

_p_ 1021-1 102MO 

~ d ~ 1018 x 0-99916 1017-1 ' 

The 500 c.c. taken for distillation correspond to 200 grammes x 
TUW ^ 9 '601 grammes of molasses. To get the exact alcoholic 
strength, saturate exactly the 500 c.c. of wort, for without that the 
volatile fatty acids distilled would cause a slight loss of alcohol, 
push the distillation to 200 c.c. The two molasses from Egypt gave 
the following results after fermentation in the laboratory : 

Yield in alcohol per 100 grammes . 27 '59 31 -03 
Density on cooling wash to 15 C. . 1'034 1-020 

Polarisation O'O O'O 

Acidity per litre 1'93 2'10 

Unfermented sugar per litre . . 9 - 55 4 -6 4 

Sugar brought to 1 00 grammes of molasses 3*72 1 '8 2 



SEC. 8] MANUFACTURE FROM SUGAR CANE 109 

7. With pure ferments it is nowise impossible to realise on the 
large scale the results obtained in the laboratory, but the molasses 
have to be treated to eliminate injurious ferments as well as the 
bacteria with which they are infected. In most colonies, mol;i 
t'ermentation is often completely left to itself. Fermentation is 
spontaneous, i.e. the germs in the air sow themselves in the liquid. 
At the end of the season, as germ spores are rare in the air, rule-of- 
thumb processes, justified by strange theories, are resorted to by the 
foremen. Sulphuric acid, lime, sal-ammoniac are capriciously added. 
These may be useful in modifying the composition of the wash, but 
they do not supply ferment. Again, bakers' yeast thinned down is 
added, and yields more lactic and foreign germs than real ferment. 
The best plan is to take the ferments from the cane. Fresh green 
bagasse is placed in a previously sterilised vat and filled with dilute 
sterilised molasses. Fermentation soon sets in, and a leaven with an 
indigenous ferment adapted both to the high temperature and to the 
composition of the culture " bouillon " is thus obtained. When the 
fermentation of the first vat is started, a little of its contents is drawn 
off to leaven the next vat, and so on. Although better than 
spontaneous fermentation, this method still leaves much to be desired, 
because infection of the wash gradually becomes more and more 
accentuated. It is usual to make very large dilution vats, so as to 
make the wash of the same average strength, and to make sufficient 
wash for the night-shift. It is the fermentation antechamber, and 
there the wash left to itself is contaminated, so much the more 
because the vat is rarely emptied and still more rarely washed and 
asepticised. The wash ought to be sent to the fermentation tuns as 
soon as thinned down. It is not difficult to design very simple and 
compact arrangements to mix instantaneously and continuously water 
and molasses and to regulate the two feeding taps so as to get the 
right density. Such plant is in use in Austria to dilute the crude 
phlegm before filtration or rectification. 

8. In spite of its concentration, cane-sugar molasses often 
decomposes so much in the casks as to shoot out the bungs and even 
the bottoms of the casks with disengagement of bad smelling gases. 
Such molasses are often so acid that by dilution they yield a wash 
with an acidity of 3 grammes per litre. All volatile fatty acids are 
antiseptic and hinder fermentation ; they may even stop fermentation 
in favour of injurious secondary fermentations, acetic, butyric, etc. 
The molasses should then be heated or treated with sulphuric acid, 
and air injected into the boiling mass to expel the volatile acids. It 
is not a " denitration " as in beet distilleries, but a sterilisation by an 
equipment quite identical with that used in the " denitration " of beet 
molasses. The most simple process is Barbet's continuous sterilisation 
process. The copper boiling and aeration pan is of such a 
capacity that the molasses previously diluted to 29-30 



no 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VII. 




SEC. 9] MANUFACTURE FROM SUGAR CANE in 

remains there for over a quarter of an hour. The molasses before 
entering is methodically heated by the heat of the issuing boiling 
molasses, so that the plant requires little or no steam. Next to the 
heat recuperator a tubular refrigerator brings the sterilised masses 
back to a good heat for fermentation. It may then be diluted to 
9 or 10 Baume, so as to send the liquid to the fermenting tuns. 
This process gives good results, but it is better to adopt in its 
entirety the processes of the SocUM anonyvw des ferments industriels 
(Brevets Barbet), particulars of which follow. The molasses are 
thinned down, as above, to about 30 Baume, and if need be a small 
dose of sulphuric acid is added so as to liberate fatty acids. The 
thinning down to 30 is done in two alternate wooden or copper 
vats A. At the exit a beck with a ball valve b, and a tap with 
graduated dial, enables the molasses to be fed into the heat recuperator 
in a very regular manner. They pass into the inside tubes of the 
heat recuperator B, and enter almost boiling into the vessel C made of 
red copper. An open steam-pipe brings them to the boil, and air 
injected through a perforated pipe stimulates the elimination of the 
liberated fatty acids. The disengaged vapours are led into a tubular 
refrigerator, where they are condensed, yielding an acid liquid with a 
more or less pleasant smell. When the molasses is of good growth 
and of good quality, the perfume of the acid water is not unpleasant ; 
it is then preserved either to mix it with the fermented wort or with 
the crude rum of the first distillation. If the smell be bad, there is 
no need to condense the vapours, and the utility of continuous 
sterilisation is proved by the expulsion of the bad smelling odours. 
Without this expulsion all these products left in the wash would be 
disengaged on distillation, thus depreciating the good quality of the 
rum pro rata. As the molasses come from the sterilisator C, the 
boiling mass which is at 30 B runs into a supplementary thinning 
pan D before being sent to the recuperator B, and this supplementary 
thinning is done not with cold but with very hot water from the 
condensers, and even with a little spent wort as it comes from the 
distilling column. The three liquids, sterilised molasses, hot water, 
and spent wort, enter into the apparatus through a mixer m and n. 
A special arrangement shows whether the three ingredients are regu- 
lated in the right proportions for fermentation. 

9. According to circumstances, the thinned wash is at a 
temperature of 80-85 C. (176-185 F.). A perforated steam- 
pipe enables the temperature to be raised to 95-97 C. (203- 
206 '6 F.) if desired, but it is well known that the sterilisation 
temperature is lower the greater amount of free acid in the wash. 
Thus natural wines are pasteurised as low as at 67 C. (152*6 F.), 
because their tartaric acidity is such that suitable asepticism is got at 
this temperature. With molasses wash which have more than 2 
grammes of acidity per litre, a temperature of 80 G. (176 F.) is 



ii2 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VII. 

amply sufficient, at least from an industrial point of view. At the 
exit tap of the thinner D, the capacity of which ensures to the wash 
a stay of 20 minutes at a high temperature, there is a special test- 
glass E which attests the density. A table is prepared of the 
relation between the true density of the liquid at 15 C. (59 F.) and 
that which it shows at the test-glass : thus, 1060 at 80 C. (176 F.) = 
1-084 at 15 C. If it be desired to produce wash at 1'084 at 15 C., 
and if the temperature of the exit is 80 C. (176 F.), the operator 
ought to have a flow of density 1 '060 at the exit test-glass E. From 
there the wash goes to the recuperator B, then to the refrigerator, 
which should bring it to the fermentation temperature. The 
refrigerator is constructed according to new rules which reduce the 
consumption of water to a minimum and prevent all contamination of 
the wash during cooling. The wash obtained as a final result of 
constant density and temperature has been twice sterilised first at 
30 Baume, then after complete dilution. It is therefore aseptic, and 
is thus as well prepared as possible to yield a pure fermentation, 
provided it be leavened by a pure ferment. The means to be 
adopted to run a certain amount of spent wort into the wash have 
already been described. In the case of small rum distilleries the 
plant described above is simplified, the thinning vessel A is dis- 
pensed with, and there is then only one recipient for the sterilisator 
C and the thinner D. In it the molasses is first thinned down, 
boiled, the boiling spent wort then added to bring the thinning to the 
right density for fermentation. Thinning is done by hand. 

10. Pure ferments for cane spirit. Several chemists have 
attempted for some years to propagate the use of pure ferment ; in 
the first place, researches were made to select strains of acclimatised 
ferments. But it is not enough to have a good strain of leaven, it 
must be in full vigour, and at the same time furnish a sufficient 
number of active cells to the fermenting tuns for fermentation to 
operate with as little delay as possible, about 36 to 40 hours for 
molasses wash. The stumbling stone of almost all these previous 
attempts was the preparation of pure leaven from the ferments 
furnished by laboratories. Starting with 2 or 3 litres of ferment, a first 
leaven of 50 to 70 litres was prepared, which was run into a second 
tank of 300 to 400 litres, then into a beck of 20 or 30 hectolitres, and 
finally it was this leaven which served as "yeast" to the large 
fermenting tuns. Throughout the whole of this long series of 
operations it was impossible to avoid contamination, so that on a final 
test of the leaven it was no more pure nor no more active than the 
pressed yeast formerly employed. Moreover, these preparations were 
very complicated. Barbet's equipment is much more practical, and 
realises in a single operation the preparation of numerous abundant 
leavens charged with a mass of quite vigorous cells. There is only 
one pure leaven apparatus under way closed and tested .at a. 



SEC. 10] MANUFACTURE FROM SUGAR CANE 113 

kilogramme of pressure. At the outset it is sterilised by steam at 
115 C. (239 F.) for several minutes, then the excess of pressure 
is relaxed, sterilised air is introduced, and 8 to 10 hectolitres of wash 
sterilised in a vessel on one side and cooled in the refrigerator. Cold 
or tepid water circulates in a coil in the apparatus as required to 
correct the temperature of the wash and bring it to the desired point. 
Then the ferment " sowing " tubulure is " singed " or purified by fire, and 
about 1 litre of pure ferment from the laboratory introduced and 
aerated briskly to prolifically push the propagation of the leaven. When 
fermentation is well started, fresh wash is run into the apparatus to 
fill its lower capacity. At this point Barbet's system may be brought 
into play. It consists in cultivating the ferment in a large aerated 
surface, that is to say, en aerobiose. Pasteur showed that highly aerated 
surface culture imparted to leaven quite a characteristic vigour, and 
even went so far as to modify the form of the cells. It at the same 
time accentuates in the leaven the faculty of developing spores. In 
a word, when a leaven is fatigued it is revivified by surface cultiva- 
tion in a wash in as shallow a layer as possible. Pasteur realised 
this very simply by putting a very small quantity of liquid in a large 
flat-bottomed flask. Barbet followed Pasteur's precepts, recalled to 
him by Dr. Calmette, by installing in the upper part of the apparatus 
a series of shallow copper plates on to which he forces the wash to 
continually ascend and spread over them. He borrows from the 
compressed sterilised air the force required to produce the continuous 
circulation of the wash, and that by emulsifying tubes, the number of 
which depends on the capacity of the leaven apparatus. Take a 
reservoir A (Fig. 30&) containing a liquid which it is desired to cause 
to ascend into B. A reverse siphon is fixed, and at the lowest point 
of the longest limb compressed air is admitted through a tap. By 
conveniently regulating the size of the air-bells inside the pipe, a series 
of air-bells are formed therein "liquid pistons,'' as they have been 
termed. If the number of these air-bells be so increased that the 
total number of liquid pistons represent a column of liquid less than 
that of the descending limb, the liquid rises in the second limb, 
which causes the liquid A to ascend regularly into B. This system, 
called " emulsion," is much used for lifting acids without the aid of 
pumps. Barbet has applied it to his pure leaven process so much the 
more profitably because the use of compressed air was already 
obligatory in any case. Instead of sending the air to the bottom of 
the wash, which utilises the oxygen of the air very badly, Barbet 
utilises it to produce a continuous ascending current of wash on to 
the upper plates, where it spreads itself out over a wide surface of 
liquid, dissolving therein, and revivifying the yeast cells. The pure 
leaven apparatus is fitted with a dial thermometer, a water coil, a 
gauge glass, a safety valve. It is likewise fitted with brass brushes 
on each plate, so that when desirable the leaven may be detached 
8 



114 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VII. 

from the plate and forced to descend into the mass of leaven under- 
neath, and from thence to the fermenting tuns. When the leaven is 




FIG. 30&. Plant for producing pure ferment for fermentation of cane-sugar 
molasses (E. BARBET). 

ripe, only two-thirds or more of it are taken for the fermenting tuns. 
The remainder is used to perpetuate the fermentation in the apparatus 
which has been filled with fresh wash, sterilised and cooled. Fresh 



SEC. ID] MANUFACTURE FROM SUGAR CANE 115 




ii6 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP* VIL 

leaven for the fermenting tuns may thus be got every 5 or 6 
hours. All the accessories are so designed as to prevent all interior 
contamination whatever, and in this way the leaven may be preserved 
pure for months. It is only at long intervals that the apparatus is 
emptied, cleaned, and again sterilised to start with a fresh culture 
once more. Molasses alone would not be an excellent culture media 
for ferment. It may be improved by the addition of different 
substances, ammoniacal salts, phosphates, etc., or better by adding a 
small proportion of maize saccharified by acid, neutralised and passed 
to the filter presses, or by a little maltopeptone. 

11. Continuous fermentation. The pure leaven plant just 
described makes a batch of leaven every 6 or even every 5 hours, 
which corresponds to 4 or 5 tuns per day. If the tuns be small and 
numerous, one batch of leaven can do for 2 or 3 tuns in virtue of the 
usual method of mixing. But it is better to work as follows. Next 
to the autoclave which makes the pure leaven, 2 or 3 large copper 
autoclaves are placed fitted with 1 or 2 aerobiose plates and 
an emulsifier. These autoclaves are arranged almost similarly to 
the pure leaven apparatus. The second autoclave B receives at 
regular intervals a certain amount of pure leaven extracted from A. 
Moreover, it is fed continuously by sterilised molasses in the 
proportion of 10 to 20 per cent, of the hourly production. The 
wash is extensively inoculated by the addition of the pure leaven, 
the emulsifier and the " aerobiose " treatment stimulate fermentation, 
and the liquid from B constitutes in its turn a more bulky source of 
leaven than what could be extracted from A. There can thus be 
extracted from B continuously or at predetermined intervals as much 
liquid as the amount of wash fed into it. This liquid, charged with 
vigorous leaven cells in full fermentation, is used in its turn to 
inoculate the autoclave B 1 in proportion as the remainder of the 
sterilised juice is fed into it. In B 1 the same phenomena occur as in 
B. The " aerobiose " is pushed to such an extent, that as the wash 
issues from A it possesses a sufficient number of active cells to be able 
to conduct in the open air the total fermentation of the sugar. The 
whole of the wash is thus inoculated without access of ordinary air, 
and strictly according to Pasteur. When it issues from the last 
autoclave it is pure, and fermentation has got a good start, owing to 
the number of cells which it possesses and their activity. The wash 
may henceforth finish its fermentation in the open air. Bacteria 
cannot easily develop in the liquid in a medium so thoroughly 
inoculated, that is a well-known fact in regard to micro-organisms. 
Once the fermentation is well started, contamination can no longer 
get any appreciable hold on the wash. The capacity of the closed 
vats has been reduced to a minimum, but existing vats cannot be 
altered. All the vats are filled one after the other without any 
precaution in regard to speed mixing or supervision. It is 



SEC. 12] MANUFACTURE FROM SUGAR CANK 117 

enough it the vats be well washed before use. When one vat 
is full, the next is charged, and fermentation is finished very quickly. 
In '24: to 36 hours it can be distilled. So much is this the case, that 
the tuns are too powerful. That is not, however, an evil, because it 
gives a certain elasticity of pace to the manufacture, because a 
certain amount of interval before distillation seems to improve the 
perfume of the rum. 

12. The saline matter of cane-sugar molasses. Aerobiose leavens 
being very vigorous, a large proportion of spent wort may be allowed 
to enter the wash in the tuns without any fear of the accumulation of 
salts and organic matters arresting the fermentation. The spent 
wort becoming richer in salts, the potash salts may be profitably 
extracted by evaporation and incineration. Now potash is a product 
of some value, because all tropical countries have to import their 
potash from Europe and the U.S.A. Take 25,000 kilogrammes 
of molasses as the daily turnover, yielding 1000 hectolitres of 
wash. All the potash of the 25,000 kilogrammes of molasses is 
dissolved in the residual 1000 hectolitres. But say 500 hectolitres 
of wash are taken daily to help to dilute the 25,000 kilogrammes of 
fresh molasses, the daily routine being established in that way, 
it follows that every day there will only be sent to the potash 
evaporators 500 hectolitres containing exactly the potash of 25,000 
kilogrammes of molasses. That is obligatory so that the output of 
potash may be equal to that entering the factory. Thus the wash to be 
burnt daily is reduced to half the preceding volume, which results in 
a saving of half the fuel. It remains to be ascertained whether this 
method of working the fermentation with a high density and a high 
percentage of impurities of all sorts does not act prejudicially on the 
fermentation and the yield. Take the two Egyptian molasses 
1 and 2 previously mentioned. In the distilled vinasses thin 
down respectively a fresh quantity of No. 1 and No. 2 in such 
a proportion that we get once more 250 grammes of fresh molasses 
per litre, i.e. the highest dose used on the large scale. That 
gives the enormous initial densities of 1-109 and 1-102, say 14 
Banine", owing to the re-use of the spent wort, using the same 
dose of leaven as before, 5 grammes per 100 grammes of molasses. 
Fermentation is over 42, and good yields in alcohol are got. 

No. 1. No. 2. 
Initial density at 15 C. (59 F.). . . 1-109 1'102 



Fresh molasses per 100 c.c. 
Acidity per litre at the outset 
Density at the ''chute" 
Polarisation of the fermented wort 
Non-fermented sugar per 100 grammes of molasses 
Yield in alcohol per 100 grammes of molasses 
Instead of first distillation .... 
Ash per 100 c.c. of wash .... 



25 gr. 25 gr. 

1-9 1-8 

1-063 1-043 

o-ooo o-ooo 

5-33 4-48 

26-7 31-3 

27-59 31-03 

5-44 4-42 



n8 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VII. 

Too much importance must not be attached to the percentage of 
unfermented sugar, because it shows the accumulation of two distinct 
fermentations ; what is important is the yield in alcohol. For the first 
molasses, which was of bad quality, the yield is lowered 0'89 per cent. ; 
but from the molasses No. 2, which was a good sample, the alcoholic 
yield was very slightly better, say 0'27 per cent, at the most. One 
may therefore claim on an average the same industrial yield. But beet 
molasses as sent to be incinerated only contain about 3 per cent, of 
ashes, but here is a liquid much more rich in salts and which ought 
to be profitably evaporated and incinerated. Pellet gives numerous 
analyses of cane molasses ashes. Generally there is a large propor- 
tion of insoluble, sometimes even 50 per cent., consisting principally of 
carbonate of lime silica and carbon due to the abuse of lime in the 
fermentation process. The carbonate of potash oscillates on account 
of the insoluble from 10 to 35 and even 40 per cent. If it be 
considered that with the least concentration in the triple effect 
bringing the spent wort to 11 Baume, it may be incinerated 
without any expense in coal, the extraction of potash salts, therefore, 
will yield a great profit whatever price fuel may be in the colonies. 
The most simple triple effect system for this purpose is Barbet's, 
instead of heating the distilling column with high pressure steam, a 
triple or even a double effect working under pressure is installed. 
The live steam boils the vinasse at a pressure of 3 kilogrammes, the 
steam from No. 1 heats No. 2, which boils at about 1 kilogramme, and 
finally this steam at 1 kilogramme heats the base of the column 
either by a pipe, a coil, or a jacket. The spent wort thus concentrated 
is auto-evaporable in the furnace, i.e. the combustion of the organic 
matters incinerated suffices to finish the evaporation of the water 
without expense of fuel, except when the potash furnaces are lit up. 
Neither in the triple effect nor in the furnace are there any expenses 
for coal. The potash salts are thus got gratuitously. 

13. Distillation with purification and ageing. With good 
quality molasses and fermentation as described, little has to be 
done but to distil, say, in the classical alembic of Pere Labat, or, 
say, in still shown in Fig. 33. The ageing of the wort (Fig. 31) 
prior to distillation dispenses with ageing in the distillery plant. 
But routine and resistance to new fermentation methods has to be 
taken into account as well as molasses from bad cane, in which 
cases the still should act as a corrective. Barbet's rum still may 
act as a Charentais still by only utilising the pot-still proper and the 
condenser. A heater for the wash is only added when it has not been 
pasteurised, in which case the wine is very hot when charged into the 
still. The wash heater consists of a copper vessel of the same 
capacity as the still, in which the coil for the alcoholic vapours 
occupies the bottom, afterwards going to the condenser. A dial 
thermometer shows the temperature of the wort in the wort Jieater, 



SEC. 14] MANUFACTURE FROM SUGAR CANE 119 

iin.l when it is high enough a play of taps direct the vapours to 
tin- condenser. The plant comprises a column with plates of the 
so-called slit-cap pattern, and above a condenser and a refrigerator 
with a variable strain regulator. By closing one tap and opening 
another, the vapours from the still, instead of going direct to the 
condenser, are forced to ascend the rectifying column, in which, 
owing to the retrogradation, a methodical classification of the 
volatile compounds is effected according to their respective degree 
of volatility. The plate column forms a real winnowing machine 
adapted to volatile substances, and separates the useless impurities 
from the valuable products, just as the fan separates flour from 
groats and bran. The column separates in a rational way aldehydes 
and methylic alcohol and the higher alcohols from the good spirits. 
But, in addition, it plays the important role of ageing by compelling, 
in virtue of the great alcoholic strength, the fatty acids to combine 
with the alcohol to form fruity ethers and perfumes. 

14. Rectification of rum. Rum is as easily rectified as other 
crude alcohols from beet or molasses, but it is evident that this 
operation is facilitated the less impure and strong smelling the 
rum. Pure fermentation is therefore more necessary in this instance 
than for mere rum distilling, only care must be taken not to use 
spent wash in excess. In making neutral alcohol, it will be well 
to resort to the continuous rectification of low wines, which has 
all the advantage of simplicity of installation and of working, as 
well as a saving in time and fuel. By this operation the first 
runnings, the last runnings, and the ultra last runnings are 
fractionated. Stade makes, in addition to the plant illustrated in 
Fig. 32, a simple distilling column, a description of which will be 
given first. This distilling column type A is identical with Fig. 32, 
except that it has no dephlegmation column. The wash regu- 
lating tank is open at the top, and a pipe from its bottom connects 
with the still, so that the wash is kept throughout at a uniform 
height. The regulating valve must be adjusted so as to allow 
a stream of wash of unvarying uniformity to flow into the apparatus. 
By this simple contrivance a perfectly uniform influx of wash 
into the apparatus is secured so long as the reservoir is kept supplied 
by the wash pump. The wash enters the wash column through the 
funnel pipe, and effects, in the upper part of the column, which 
contains several narrow and contracted passages, what the maker 
describes as "an advantageous dephlegmation of the through-going 
distillation vapours ; " the lower part is appropriated to the distillation 
proper. The remaining lees run out through a valve in the lees 
regulator, and spontaneously emit some vapour into the lees tester, 
which becomes condensed therein, and this condensed vapour affords 
the surest indication of the correct de-alcoholisation of the lees. 
In Stade's type B, Distillation Rectification apparatus, the vapurs 



120 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VII. 



generated in the wash column of dephlegmation pass through the 
latter and thence into the condenser. Each section of the dephleg- 
mator consists of a square cast-iron box containing a number of 
cooling pipes arranged in horizontal rows and secured -between two 
partitions. The cooling water flows inside the pipes, and the spaces 
between the latter are filled up with porcelain balls, thus producing 
alternately powerful dephlegmation and rectification of the vapours. 
The cooling water flows down from one row of pipes to the other 
with the assistance of water boxes screwed to the sides, and as 



FUSEL-OIL 

Spirih-Gauge SEPARATOR 




FIG. 32. Sum distillation and rectification plant (STADE, Berlin). 

the latter contain several outlets, the cooling pipes can be cooled 
without difficulty whilst the machinery is working. The same 
applies to the vertical cooling pipes in the condenser, which, as the 
cooler is open at the top, can at any time be cleaned from the 
top with a brush. 

15. Preservation and transport of molasses. At the outset 
it was mentioned that the cane molasses now produced ought to 
yield 132,000,000 gallons of spirit of 60 per cent, strength yearly. 
This is far from being done, and that is due chiefly to the fact that 
in Cuba, Java, Louisiana, two-thirds of the molasses are run into 
the sea; some factories try to burn them. Sugar factories give 



SEC. 15] MANUFACTURE FROM SUGAR CANE 121 

up distilling them on the spot, such have been the bad yields in 
quality and quantity; moreover, there being no outlet or market 
on the spot, the rum casks must U- transported to them, and rum 
casks are very dear. Tropical climates do not lend themselves 
to the transport and preservation in good condition of empty casks, 
the sun dislocated them, and in spite of re-coopering and steeping 
them in water the damage is considerable, and the returned empties 
are a great expense. More often than not, the value of the cask 
is at least double of that of the molasses it contains. Molasses 
distilleries should be installed at the seaports, then cheap transit 
of the molasses thereto, and their warehousing and preserva- 
tion, must be easily secured. Barbet solves the problem by boiling 
the molasses in vacuo to the broken proof "casse"," and then 
runs it into loaf-sugar moulds or into square or oblong moulds 
with a lining. As all factories possess plant for boiling molasses, 
only a few moulds are required. To diminish the store of these, the 
loaf moulds may be dipped in wrought-iron tanks through which cold 
water circulates. The loaf sets quicker, and the mould is again 
available sooner. Before running the molasses into the mould, 
the latter is lined with a sheet of packing paper. The molasses 
is run in, and, when set, dumped out. The molasses is thus 
packed in the paper, which hinders them from sticking together in 
transit. It protects the somewhat hygroscopic molasses from 
humidity. Transit of such molasses loaves becomes an extremely 
simple matter : manipulation is identical with sugar loaves, there is no 
dead weight to transport except the paper, and that is negligible 
compared with the casks, which often exceeds 2 per cent. The 
concentration itself of the molasses ensures a very appreciable 
economy in freight, because it removes 10 to 12 per cent, of water; 
there is only 88 to 90 per cent, of the original weight. In colonies 
deprived of roads, transit was done formerly on the backs of mules. 
Moreover, the molasses cakes may be stored in ordinary warehouses 
instead of immense wrought-iron tanks. Moreover, there is no need 
to fear the deterioration of the molasses which frequently takes 
place, so far as to be incapable of being fermented, or even to burst 
the casks. Owing to its concrete condition and complete solidification, 
it is impossible for it to go wrong, the more so as the mass has been 
sterilised by the boiling which has solidified it. It may be preserved 
indefinitely. 

N.B. The coffey type of still described in Chap. VIII., Figs. 39- 
37 is extensively used in the distillation of alcohol from the sugar 
cane in the British Colonies, also fire-heated stills like Fig. 33, p. 123. 



CHAPTER VIII 

PLANT, ETC., FOR THE DISTILLATION AND RECTIFICA- 
TION OF INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 

1. Water and fuel. The purer the water for distillery purposes 
the better, and the distiller could not do better than consult the English 
edition of De la Coux' Industrial Uses of Water. Each kind of water 
must be treated differently in order to purify it, and to discuss such 
processes would lead us too far. Some distillers are accustomed at 
the end of the season to take into account, after each spell of working, 
what it has cost them in the form of working expenses to produce a 
hectolitre of alcohol. This total is, moreover,, subdivided under the 
headings "wages," "acid," "coal," and soon; even "lubricants" have 
a heading. This classification is highly useful, for each year the 
distiller can judge by comparison with previous runs the cause of the 
increase or decrease in general expenses, and take the necessary 
measures to remedy any increased expenditure thus divulged. Now, 
if we compare the cost of manufacture detailed in this way, as 
determined in different distilleries, nothing is more surprising than the 
enormous differences under the heading of coal. Some distilleries use 
per hectolitre of alcohol produced a good third more than their 
neighbours. What is the cause of this anomaly'? The cause or 
rather the causes are complex : (a) the quality of the fuel ; (b) more or 
less complete retention and utilisation of the heat generated ; (c) equip- 
ment ; (d) greater or less economy in using the heat, (a) The quality 
of the fuel. Though every sugar work strictly analyses the coal, coke, 
limestone, and all purchases generally, yet few distillers test their coal. 
It would, however, be rational when trying to reduce the coal bill to 
take quality into account. It may be objected that if the quality be 
inferior the price is low, and that the price per calorie ought to be the 
same. That should be so, but it is not always so, and distillers are 
known to pay very often dear for indifferent coal with much ash. 
This precaution is sometimes very useful, it is never superfluous, (b) 
More or less complete retention and utilisation of the heat generated. 
Here, again, there are great variations from one distillery to another. 
Sometimes it is a bad stoker who rakes his furnaces too much about 
at one time, and loses as black smoke the heat he should generate ; 
again, it is the fire bars that are defective, producing ashes with much 

132 



SEC. 2] 



PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



123 



imperfectly burnl cinders; later on, it is the boilers themaolvee, t&fe 

obsolete pattern of which does not allow complete using up of the heat 
generated. Or it may be the hard water, which deposits a hard layer of 
encrustation in the interior of the boilers, which, gradually increasing, 
prevents the complete utilisation of the heat generated, (c) Equip- 
ment. It is a fact that certain machines require and use up much 
heat to produce the same useful effect as more improved plant, (d) 
Greater or less economy in using the heat. In beet distilling the 
volume of juice withdrawn may be reduced; on the other hand, much 
of the hot vinasse is used over again, so much heat gained or saved. 
It is well to remember in regard to heat, " Nothing is lost, nothing is 
created." The distiller convinced of the truth of the last clause of 
that maxim knows only too well that the first does not apply in his 
case to his out-of-pocket expenses. 

2. Plant. This point merits great consideration. Some distilleries 




Furnace. 

Fire-heated still show- 
ing manhole, discharge 
valve, dome still head 
fitted with pipe lead- 
ing to retort (in older 
forms direct to con- 
denser). 



Retorts or high and 
low wine vessels, with 
gauge glass and va- 
cuum valves. 



Condensing worm. 
(In the ordinary pot- 
still the condenser con- 
nects directly with still 
head without inter- 
vention of the two 
intermediate retorts.) 



FIG. 33. Fire-heated still with fractionating apparatus on Woulfe's bottle 
principle (BLAIR, CAMPBELL, & M'LEAN, Glasgow). 

have obsolete or worn-out plant, and the examination of the question 
of plant to replace it the most advantageously is an important one. 
The first stills used for the distillation of fermented liquors were 
iiit> rinitte.nt pot-stills. The pot-still was a sort of kettle or pot built 



124 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

in brickwork over a furnace and partly filled with the fermented 
liquid to be distilled. The still head of this pot still communicated 
with a condenser consisting of a copper worm suitably cooled. Later 
on (about 1800) attempts were made to fractionate the vapours by 
the intervention of vessels on the Woulfe's bottle principle, as shown 
in Fig. 33. This latter type of still is most commonly used in 
Jamaica in the West Indies generally. But the old intermittent pot- 
still (with or without intervening vessels between it and condenser) 
of this type is only now used for the production of certain potable 
spirits of superior quality, rum, whisky, etc., the value of which is due 
to the high estimation in which the aroma of the alcoholic vapours 
retained by the distillate from the appropriate fermented liquors 
distilled therein is held by connoisseurs. 

3. If a mixture of pure alcohol and water be heated in a pot-still 
under the action of the heat from the furnace, the contents of the 
pot-still boil. As alcohol is more volatile than water, the steam given 
off in the beginning consists of vapours rich in alcohol (Table VI.). 
Then, as the contents of the pot-still become exhausted of alcohol, they 
become more and more aqueous, until, finally, the whole of the 
alcohol is eliminated by boiling, which occurs when about three-fifths of 
the liquid is distilled. The first portion of the distillate contains a large 
proportion of the more volatile alcohol, and the second a larger 
proportion of the less volatile water. But when, say, the wash or 
liquid formed by the fermentation of malt is distilled, the first portion 
consists of a very volatile product, the " fore shot " ; then alcohol mixed 
with water distils over ; and, lastly, there comes over a substance less 
volatile than alcohol, the fusel oil. But these can only be completely 
separated from each other by appropriately constructed fractionating 
stills, the introduction of the two intervening Woulfe's bottles was a 
preliminary attempt at such fractionation. It aided in concentrating 
the alcohol and in the separation of the roughest impurities from the 
distillate without materially injuring the natural aroma. But let us 
examine what occurs in the pot-still pure and simple a little more 
closely. When one charge of the still has been distilled, if a stronger 
alcohol be desired the still is emptied, and the same operation 
repeated on the distillate, until, after a series of successive distillations, 
an alcohol of the desired strength is obtained. The fermented wash, 
in the first instance, consists of (1) non-volatile or very slightly volatile 
bodies : such as mineral salts, proteins, yeast, glycerin, succinic 
acid, lactic acid; (2) volatile bodies alcohol, water, odoriferous 
oils (fusel oil), and a little acetic acid. When this liquid is boiled, 
the vapours formed consist essentially of water and alcohol, and 
the condensed distillate is so far a liquid mixture of alcohol and 
water. Now, as pure alcohol boils at 78 '3 C., whilst water boils at 
100 C. under a barometric pressure of 760 millimetres, it will at 
pnce be seen that the more rich the wash is in Alcohol, the lower is 



SEC. 4 ] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 125 

the temperature at which it will boil. Again, just as the more 
volatile the substance the less heat is required to convert it into 
vapour, so also the temperature at which that vapour is liquefied is 
lower than that required to condense the vapour of a substance which 
boils at a higher temperature. Practice has, moreover, shown that the 
vapour of alcohol which is disengaged from boiling wash behaves 
towards this same wash just as if a current of gas were injected 
through the liquid at the same temperature. Steam is therefore 
entrained, and so much the more abundantly as the temperature 
approaches 100 C., the boiling-point of water. Pure alcohol cannot 
therefore be extracted from fermented liquors by boiling in a pot- 
still. But by passing the mixed vapour simultaneously through a 
good condensing medium, the temperature of which is lower than the 
boiling-point of the less volatile, but not so low as the boiling-point 
of the more volatile, the vapour of the less volatile liquid will be 
condensed whilst the more volatile retains its elastic gaseous form. 

4. Again, as the temperature at which the fermented wash boils 
increases as its alcoholic strength decreases, the proportion of steam in 
the aqueous alcoholic vapour becomes greater until the boiling-point of 
water (100 C.) is reached, the vapour then contains no more alcohol. 
When the mixed vapours are led through a pipe laid in water at 
a temperature under 100 C., but not so low as the boiling-point of 
the mixed liquid, the aqueous vapour is liquefied without affecting the 
alcoholic vapour until the temperature of the condenser sinks below 
78 4 3 C. (176 F.). The same phenomenon occurs with the pot-still. 
The aqueous vapour is partially condensed in the first two or three 
spirals of the worm, whilst the alcohol retains the gaseous condition 
until it reaches a spiral of the worm where the temperature is below 
the boiling-point of alcohol, when it is liquefied. (The cold water 
enters by the bottom and leaves by the top of the trough containing 
the worm, hence the lowest spiral is exposed to the coldest water and 
the top spiral to the most hot. The whole of the water and much of 
the other impurities which passes over with the alcohol are thus found 
in the condensation products of the pot-still pure and simple.) 

In intermittent distillation by the pot-still, therefore, the vapours 
contain at the outset much alcohol and little water, then more water 
and less alcohol, then they consist entirely of water and no alcohol. 
Therefore, as the temperature at which water boils is 100 C. (212 F.), 
and that at which alcohol boils is 78 C. (176 F.), if a mixture of 
these two liquids be distilled, the mixture will boil at an intermediate 
temperature proportional to the percentage of each liquid in the 
mixture, and the boiling-point of the liquid being distilled is an index 
at any given moment of the percentage of alcohol present therein. 
Hence the necessity of repeated redistillations to obtain an alcoholic 
liquid of the desired strength, resulting in loss of time and entailing 
great expense in fuel. Hence, as previously mentioned, intermittent 



126 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

pot-still distillation is now only used in the preparation of whisky, 
rum, brandy, and such like. 1 

5. The use of soap in alcohol distilling.' 2 ' As the use of soap, if 
empirical, was brought prominently to the front in the famous " What 
is Whisky" case, it may be as well to consider its use and abuse. 
To arrest the formation of acetic acid, says Muspratt, as soon as the 
attenuation of the wort has reached its lowest point it is run into the 
still with as little delay as possible. According to what Muspratt 
called the old methods, the wash was distilled in two large iron 
retorts or stills, each of about 600-1200 gallons capacity suited to 
the size of the factory. The retorts, he says, were provided with 
a rotary chain for preventing the lees from adhering to the bottom 
of the still, which, unless prevented, would deposit and become 
charred from the heat and communicate a disagreeable taste to the 
spirit. Previous to distillation about 1 Ib. of soap was added to 
every hundred gallons of the wash. When the charge of wash was 
8000 gallons the distillation was carried on as speedily as possible 
without risk of it running foul, till about 2400 gallons w r ere drawn 
off. These constituted the low wines or singlings, and were very weak, 
not averaging more than 63 below proof on Dicas' hydrometer. The 
remainder of the spirituous product of the 8000 gallons was received 
in another vessel for a further distillation. The singlings were re- 
distilled or doubled in the second still, and the spirit drawn off until 
it began to acquire a disagreeable taste and smell ; these were what 
constituted the feints, and owed their peculiarity to an essential oil 
which was held in solution (fusel oil). The feints were collected in 
the feints back and mixed with the muddy part of the first distillate, 
water added, and the whole redistilled. Very weak singlings were 
obtained, which upon a second distillation afforded finished spirit. 
Some distillers continued the first distillation as long as any alcohol 
came over, and then subjected the low wines to a second distillation in 
the spirit still. The first portions were more or less blue or muddy, 
and consequently were run into the feints back. As soon as the 
spirit became clear and free from disagreeable odour it was run into 
the spirits back. The last runnings feints were mixed with the 
first portions. These feints were mixed, as before stated, with 
a considerable quantity of water, and distilled in order to free 
them from the disagreeable oil " eviscerated " by the husks of the 
grain. A self-regulating bath in some distilleries was put in the 
capital of the still. The then common Scotch stills had the capital 

1 There are many varieties of pot-stills of very large capacity used in the 
manufacture of whisky and rum, and the makers of the still shown in Fig. 33 
and other distillery constructors list a variety of these, but as this is not a 
treatise on the manufacture of potable spirits further description does not come 
within our province. 

2 Soap as a froth preventative is now obsolete, so also are mechanical froth 
preventatives like B, Fig. 40. 



SEC. 5] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 127 

I .") to '20 feet high to prevent the wash from boiling over into the worm : 
it was customary to strike the capital from time to time with a rod, 
and from tin- sound emitted it is inferred whether it be empty, partially 
tilled, or in danger of an overflow, in the latter case the fire is with- 
drawn >r damped by means of a spout near the furnace door supplied 
from a cistern in the upper part of the building. When a very pun- 
spirit was required, it was customary to dilute the liquor with water 
and submit it to a third distillation, in order that the distillate may not 
have the harsh taste of strong alcoholic liquids. In the improved stills 
a liquid 60 per cent. O.P. was obtained even in the first distillation 
and at a comparative saving of fuel, time, and labour, while the use 
of soap was unnecessary. But 67 O.P. is now easily got. 

As a general rule, the lower the temperature at which the distilla- 
tion is carried on, the purer will be the spirit when an excess of soap 
has been used and the distillation urged too rapidly, the distillate 
often possesses a saponaceous flavour, which is occasioned by its 
fatty particles being carried over mechanically in the vapour and 
dissolved in the alcoholic liquid. Muspratt goes on to explain the 
manlier in which the soap acts to prevent the charge running foul, 
as follows. During fermentation and subsequent transference of 
the wort into the still, small portions of acetic acid are generated 
which decompose part of the soap, setting free the oily compound, 
(fatty acids), which then rise to the surface of the liquor and break 
the bubbles of vapour as they ascend through it from the bottom 
of the retort, hence the liquid cannot pass over unless the boiling 
be violently urged. But Muspratt's explanation of the rational 
and judicious use of soap for such a purpose is far from complete. 
It should be used, if at all, in such proportion as to exactly neutralise 
the free acetic acid, and the still hardly seems the right place in 
which to do this if it be the only feasible one. It is the fatty acids 
which act as the froth preventer, not the soap. Similar incon- 
venience occurs with the boiling of beet juice, but here it is oil that 
is used, not soap. Unless the alcoholic liquor and the soap solution 
be titrated and neutralised in exact proportion, an excess of soap 
solution is bound to occur as often as not, and woe betide the 
distiller whose still begins to prime with an excess of soap solution 
in it. If the soap solution be intended to prevent frothing, slight 
excess will accentuate the evil, and frothing and priming will occur 
with redoubled fury. Excessive heating is not always the cause 
of priming with soapy liquors or liquors with a tendency to froth. 
Very often the still acts imperfectly or refuses to act at all, when 
suddenly it commences to prime, and even if the heat be in- 
stantaneously withdrawn, the distiller can only look on whilst 
the still empties itself through the worm. At least such was the 
author's experience with non-alcoholic alkaline soapy solutions in 
a jacketed steam-still, and he has no reason to doubt a repetition 



128 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. Vlll. 



of the same phenomenon with soap in excess in a spirit still. 
Soap is therefore a most dangerous ingredient to put into a still. 
Happily, with continuous rectifiers, soap is unnecessary, and such 
enormous bulks of liquid are not now subjected to heat. Moreover, 
the passing of the acid alcoholic vapour through Barbet's marble or 
limestone scrubbers eliminates all acidity. 

6. The first great step in advance was made in modern methods 
of distillation when it first became practicable to obtain strong 
alcohol from fermented wash in an intermittent fire-heated still 
in one operation. The principle for saturating water with gaseous 
vapours in a series of Woulfe's bottles had been known for a long 




A BODE 

FIG. 34. Diagrammatic representation of principle of Woulfe's 
bottle. A, flask fitted with safety funnel and delivery 
tube ; B C D, Woulfe's bottles fitted with inlet and outlet 
bent tubes and intermediate safety tube ; E, glass jar. 

time prior to this discovery, but no one had hitherto thought of 
applying their principles to the vapours evolved on distillation, 
until Edouard Adam, an illiterate workman from Rouen, settled 
at Nimes, near Montpelier, attended a course of chemical lectures 
at Montpelier, and listened to a discussion on the utility of Woulfe's 
apparatus. The idea apparently occurred to him, that by applying 
the principles of the Woulfe's apparatus to the condensation of 
the vapour from a spirit still, strong alcohol could be obtained in 
one operation. He caused the boiling-hot vapours to chase the 
spirits successively out of one bottle into the other, so as to obtain 
in the successive vessels alcohol of any desired strength and purity 
"at one and the same heat." He obtained a patent for his invention 
on 29th May 1801, and soon afterwards, as a result of his success 



SEC. 6] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 129 

on the small scale, was able to set up a magnificent distillery, which 
excited the admiration of all the practical chemists of that day. 
In November 1805 he obtained a certificate for certain improve- 
ments I'm- extracting from wine in one process the whole of its 
alcohol. Twenty distilleries ( lira /fries) were erected in the South 
of France on his system, with a capital of over 1,000,000 francs. 
Like Count llumford, Adam thus discovered the principle of heating 
liquids by the condensation of their vapours. He applied it to 
the distillation of wine, and caused a given quantity thereof to 
boil by the transmission through it of the vapour from the same 
liquid. His efforts were crowned with success ; he obtained at the 
very outset spirit at 33 Cartier instead of brandy. In six hours he 
distilled in one of his stills 400 velts of wine, say, 679 imperial 
gallons, from which he got by a single distillation 58-60 velts, say, 
100 gallons of 90 per cent, spirit. This apparatus was arranged so 
that the vapours rising from the cucurbit passed into a series of 
egg-shaped- vessels full of wine, and there condensed until the 
wine reached the boiling-point owing to the latent heat liberated 
by the condensing vapours. The wine thus heated and rendered 
more alcoholic sent its vapour more and more highly charged with 
spirit into a series of smaller empty vessels, where they deposited 
in transit their most aqueous portion, the phlegm of the distilleries, 
the amount of which diminished in each successive vessel. The most 
volatile portions were at last condensed, first in a condenser cooled 
with wine, then in another cooled with water. But the Nemesis 
which seems to shadow the fortune of all inventors began to pursue 
Adam. It appears that he was so overjoyed after making his first 
experiments, that he ran about the streets of Montpelier telling 
everybody of the surprising results of his invention. The result 
was that several rivals sprung up, more especially Isaac Solimani, 
Professor of Chemistry in Montpelier, and he obtained, about the 
same time as Adam's first patent, a patent involving much the 
same principle, but his patent was dated somewhat later than 
Adam's, viz. in July 1801. So Solimani's claim of priority fell 
through. Several other adaptations of the still and condenser to 
Woulfe's principle were introduced, Berard's, patented on 16th 
August 1805, being the most important. The Adam's still, 
however, was most used; not so much, it is said, on account of 
its merits, for it was described as considerably inferior to both 
Solimani's and Berard's, but because of the alleged quarrelsome 
disposition of the patentee, whose cupidity, it is further alleged, 
led him to suppose, as his brevet specified, that the whole of the 
alcohol could be obtained from wines when distilled in his apparatus, 
all other inventions were infringements on his rights, and the law- 
suits to which he exposed those using any new invention prevented 
the use of any other improved form of still than his own. 



i 3 o INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

After realising a handsome fortune by his own distillery and the 
proceeds of his patent, he became so involved in lawsuits in 
which he ultimately lost the clay, that expenses and costs reduced 
him to complete penury, in which he died. But some at least 
of Adam's compatriots revere his memory. Girardin especially 
credits him with endowing the South of France with an industry 
which has returned her many millions. But be that as it may, 
notwithstanding the many good points of the stills of Adam and also 
of those of his rivals, they each and all had one grave defect. They 
were intermittent. Labour, fuel, and, above all, time was lost by the 
cooling of the stills for the discharging of the spent liquor, recharging 
the stills, and again getting up sufficient heat to carry on the 
distillation. If Berard's still was not so complex and more easily 
managed, yet it consumed more fuel than either, owing to it 
being necessary to frequently discharge and recharge the still. 

7. History of continuous distillation, continuous rectification 
and continuous distillation cum simultaneous rectification. The first 
to attempt the construction of a continuous still was Baglioni. His 
attempts, however, were not attended with any great success, 
but the subject was further studied by Cellier, Blumenthal, and 
Derosne. Blumenthal constructed a continuous still which afterwards 
became the property of Derosne, who still further improved it. 
Armand Savalle also took the matter up, first in collaboration with 
Blumenthal and Derosne, and soon surpassed them in the perfection 
of his plant. Derosne immediately erected important workshops for 
their construction, and associated himself with Gail, who became a 
celebrated engineering contractor. As to Armand Savalle, he continued 
to improve his work all his life, first in collaboration with his young 
son Desire Savalle, and at the end of his career, abandoning industrial 
practice, he became a consulting engineer. His son Desire Savalle suc- 
ceeded him, and successively created what are claimed to be the most 
improved types. Desire Savalle was succeeded by Albert Savalle, the 
grandson, as the head of this old firm. Other eminent French designers of 
distillery plant are Egrot and Grange, a very old-established firm, and 
Emile Barbet. The latter was the first to bring continuous rectification 
to a successful issue, and not only continuous rectification, but simul- 
taneous continuous distillation and rectification. Within recent years, 
Guillaume, a former pupil or assistant of Barbet, claims to have im- 
proved upon the work of his former patron. But the latter has most 
adversely criticised the work and claims of his former subordinate. 
The latter has inter alia invented an inclined distilling column, which 
at any rate has the merit of novelty, and seems to be easily dismantled 
for cleaning purposes. Though hampered by unwise Excise laws, 
Blair of Glasgow has also designed continuous stills, which work well. 

8. Continuous Distillation. Let us first of all examine 
Derosne's method of continuous distillation, whose plant is shown 



SEC. 8] 



PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



in Fig. 35. The plant consisted of seven principal parts, vix. 
the boilers, the distilling column, the rectifying column, the condenser 
ami \vinr warmer, the refrigerator, the vat where the wine is contained, 
and the vessel which determines the now of wine into the apparatus. 
( >t these A and B are the boilers encased in masonry or brickwork, and 
receiving directly the action of the flame playing beneath them. The 
fire is applied under A, and the extra heat is communicated to B by 
the flue passing under it on its way to the chimney. In the copper 
A, the vinasse, or spent wine, 
is finally exhausted of all 
its alcohol, c is the column 
of distillation; D, the 
column of rectification ; E, 
the wine-heating condenser ; 
F, the refrigerator ; o, a 
vessel supplying vinasse to 
the cooler F, and feeding 
itself at the same time by 
means of a ball stop-cock 
placed in the vessel H; H, 
wash reservoir; i, tube of 
communication conducting 
the alcoholic vapours of 
the rectifying column r> up 
into the flat worm of the 
wine-heater E ; a, stop-cock 
of discharge of the alembic 
A : when the operation goes 
on, the spent vinasse runs 
off continually by the stop- 
cock ; 6, a glass tube to show 
the height of the liquor in 
A ; c, a safety-valve ; d, a 
stop-cock for passing the 
vinasse from the alembic 
B into the bottom of the 




alembic A ; e, a tube to lead 



FIG. 35. Derosn^'s continuous distillation 

plant. 

the alcoholic vapours, gene- 
rated in A, into the bottom of B, which vapours, in passing through the 
liquor in B, heat it, and are partially condensed ; /, glass tube to mark 
the level of the liquor in B ; g and </, level indicators ; h, pipe conduct- 
ing the wash from the lower part of the wine-heater E upon the 
uppermost of the series of horizontal discs, mounted within the column 
of distillation ; i, a stop-cock for emptying the wine-heater at the end 
of an operation ; I I, two tubes fitted to the wine-heater E, of which 
the first descends into the last compartment of the rectifier, whence 



132 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

it rises to the fifth ; and the second tube descends to the third 
compartment, whence it rises above the second. At the curvature of 
each of these two tubes a stop-cock, I and k, is placed on them, for 
drawing at pleasure a sample of the liquor returned to the rectifier; 
m, n, and o are tubes communicating on one side with the slanting 
tube p, and on the other with the tube I. These three communica- 
tions serve to furnish a spirit of greater or less strength. Thus, if it 
be wished to obtain a very strong spirit, the alcoholic vapours which 
condense in the worm enclosed in E are all to be led back into the 
rectifier D, to effect which purpose it is requisite merely to open the 
stop-cocks n and o ; again, weaker spirits may be had by closing the 
stop-cock o, and still weaker by closing the stop-cock n ; for in this 
case the alcoholic vapours condensed in the worm within E will flow 
off into the worm within the upright cooler F, and will get mixed with 
the richer vapours condensed in this refrigerator. The interior of 
the column c contains a series of movable concave scale pans (like 
those of balances), with spaces between, each alternate pan having 
the convex side turned reversely of the preceding one, for the purpose 
of prolonging the cascade descent of the vinasse through c, and 
exposing it more to the heating action of the ascending vapours ; the 
edges of these pans are, moreover, furnished with projecting spiculae 
of copper wires, to lead off the liquor from their surfaces in a fine 
shower. The interior of the rectifier column D is mounted with a 
series of shelves, or floors, the passage from one compartment to that 
above it being through a short tube, bent at right angles, and open 
at either end ; p p p is a general tube, for receiving the vapours 
condensed in each of the turns of the large serpentine within E. The 
axis of this worm is horizontal ; q q q, peep-holes in the top of the 
wine-heater r, a tube to conduct the alcoholic vapours not condensed 
in the worm of E, and also, if desired, those which have been con- 
densed there, into the worm of the refrigerator F; s, a tube to 
bring the vinasse from the reservoir G into the lower part of the 
refrigerator F ; t is a tube which conducts the wine from the top of 
the refrigerator F to the upper part of the wine- warmer E ; u is the 
funnel opening of the pipe leading the wine from g to the refrigerator ; 
v, a stop-cock regulating the flow into the tube t ; x, a tube conducting 
the finished spirit from the refrigerator. It contains a hydrometer 
to indicate the strength. The above explanation of Fig. 39 will 
sufficiently explain the general principle of the working of this still. 
The internal arrangements of the still, especially of the condenser and the 
general working of the still, were somewhat intricate and over-elaborate, 
but as it is now obsolete we need not dwell upon it further here. 

Q. Continuous working steam stills on Coffey's patent prin- 
ciple (sec. 11). This apparatus is constructed to produce alcohol 
continuously 'at 66 to 67 O.P., or 42 to 43 Cartier. The still 
consists of an analyser and a rectifier column, both built of copper 



SEC. 9] 



PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



133 



frames in flan^-d sections, and jointed together with wrought- iron 
flanges, screwbolts and nuts. Both columns are provided with the 
necessary copper diaphragm plates, with their connections and 
tit lings; and the rectifier column has, in addition, seamless copper 




FIG. 36. Continuous working steam-still Coffey type copper frames 
(BLAIU, CAMPBELL. & M'LKAN, Glasgow). 

or brass washpipes, witli inside and outside bends, as shown. A 
refrigerator is provided for the spirits, and a condenser for the 
oM-rhead and feints vapours. A copper hot feints vessel, with 
connections, is also supplied; sampling apparatus of improved con- 
struction, a spirit proof jar or test case, and the necessary mercurial 



134 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



or steam gauges, with copper pipes, cocks, valves, and connections 
to make the still complete. This type of still is certainly economical, 
both as regards fuel and water, and will produce strongest spirit 
continuously, entirely exhausting all the spirit from the wash. Two 
steam-pumps of the horizontal type are usually supplied, one for 




FIG. 37. Continuous working steam-still Cotfey type wood.frames 
(BLAIR, CAMPBELL, & M'LEAN, Glasgow). 

pumping wash, and one for water, but an additional pump for feints 
is sometimes supplied for the larger sizes. A, analyser ; B, rectifier ; 
C, overhead vapour and feints condenser ; D, spirits refrigerator ; 
E, hot feints receiver; F, wash-pump; G, water-pump; H, spirit 
test case ; K, reducing valve for steam ; L, steam stop valve ; 
M, cold feints receiver (supplied of wood on the spot). Fig. 37 
represents Blair, Campbell, <fe M 'Lean's continuous working steam 



SEC. n] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 135 

still, on "Coffey's" principle, with all latest improvements, guaranteed 
to produce absolutely pure spirit of best quality at 43 Cartier in 
one operation continuously. This still consists of an analyser and 
;i rectifier column, each built of wood frames in sections, and bound 
together vertically and horizontally by means of wrought-iron tie 
rods. Both columns are provided with the necessary copper 
diaphragm plates with their connections and fittings, and the 
rectifier column has, in addition, seamless copper wash pi{>es, with 
inside and outside bends as shown. The copper spirits overhead 
and feints worms are all tinned inside and outside, and the necessary 
tank for worm is of cast-iron ; also hot feints vessel and connections, 
sampling apparatus ; spirit test safe and lockings, and the necessary 
mercurial and steam gauges, copper pipes, cocks, valves, and 
connections complete the still. The spirit measuring vessel (if 
required) is made in two compartments, tinned inside, and provided 
with inlet and outlet connections with lockings and graduated scales. 

This apparatus is claimed to be the most economical in the market, 
both as regards fuel and water, and will, it is further claimed, produce 
the strongest alcohol, entirely exhausting all the spirit from the wash. 

The wood frames (even in the warmest climates) last many years, 
and can be easily replaced at small cost when worn out. These stills 
can also be constructed with the columns built entirely of copper. 
(Fig. 36). 

10. Fire-heated distilling and rectifying column. For small dis- 
tilleries or farms which do not possess a steam boiler, the purifying 
column may be constructed as shown in Fig. 36. By aid of the system of 
invariable now (15) the slight variations due to fire heat are remedied and 
the sharpness of the separations leaves nothing to be desired. Economy 
in heating is assured by the use of a heat recuperator R, and the 
pasteurised alcohol may at will be blended with the oenanthic vapours 
in the vessel P as in the case of steam-heated wash. Alcohol of 
any desired strength may be obtained. In starting, no extraction is 
pasteurised until the first runnings worm safe tap marks the desired 
strength. In a very short time the apparatus will have reached the 
point because that only requires a very feeble stock of alcohol on the 
plates. If it be desired to reach 94 or 95, it will take rather a long 
time to get ready, possibly more than an hour, during which time the 
alcohol entering as wash accumulates and grades itself on the upper 
plates owing to the total retrogradation. The interior working of this 
still is explained in sections 14-20. 

11. Coffey's still. This ingenious, original, and powerful 
apparatus for distilling spirits from fermented worts or wash of all 
kinds, was, after many struggles with the illiberal prejudices of the 
Excise, at last universally recognised as the best, most economical, 
and surest in a revenue point of view, of all the contrivances of 
eliminating the alcohol, in the purest state, and of any desired 



i 3 6 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



strength, at one operation. Its outer form and internal structure 
differ essentially from those of all the old stills, though it possesses 




FIG. 38. Fire-heated distilling and rectifying column. A, rectifier; B, con- 
denser ; C, refrigerator ; H, pasteurised test safe ; K, first runnings test 
safe; L, last runnings test safe ; M, exhaust test safe ; R, forewarmer; S, 
vinasse exit ; V, wash tank ; a, wash entrance (E. BARBET). 

some of the good principles of Derosne, in continuity of action, and 
in causing a current of spirituous vapour to ascend, and a current of 
wash deprived of its alcohol to descend in one system of continuous 



SBC. n| 



PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



137 



ll>. lt> main .structure consists of a scries of wooden planks, 5 or 
6 inches thick, fixed >\er one another, the joints being covered, or the 
win lc bring liin-d with sheet copper; so that the apparatus resembles 
a great chest, to which is attached the induction pipe of a steam 
boiler, as the active principle of the whole. The essential apparatus 
consists of three main parts; the wash collector A A A, and the two 
rectangular columns or uprights. The front column D D D, or the 
analyser, is for rectifying the wash, the other column is intended for 
wanning the wash; the under part F F F of the fore warmer serves 
aa a drphlrgmator and for the rectification of the feints; the upper 




FIG. 39. Colfey's still, section showing working (sec. 11). 

part E E E serves to condense the strong spirituous vapour. The 
wash collector A is divided into two compartments B and c, by means 
of the copper plate c c ; this plate c c is pieced like a drainer with 
a number of small holes, and is provided also with a ~|~ -shaped valve 
ooo. The wash rectifier D is divided by the plates r r, of a like 
drainer construction, into 12 chambers, and the feint rectifier F F into 
10 chambers by similar plates s s s. These orifices are so narrow as 
to allow the passage of the rising vapour, but to prevent the down- 
ward passage of the liquid resting on the plates, which passes 
downwards through the adjunct tubes, viz. d into the wash collector 
B, v into the rectifier D, and likewise into the dephlegmator F, passing 
t'niiu each upper into the next under chamber. When the steam 
pressure is too strong, the valves o o give it vent. 



138 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

When the apparatus is in action, a continuous stream of wash is 
raised out of G, by means of the pump k, into the tube i, which feeds 
the still. This current must be regulated very nicely, so as just to 
feed the tube i, allowing the excess to return through the stop-cock 
x, and the tube I, into the wash cistern H. The tube i enters into 
the uppermost partition of E, forming 7 zigzag bendings in this 
space, and through F, and then mounts upwards from that chamber 
into the top chamber of D. Thence the wash flows down from 
chamber to chamber, and arrives through d into c, and finally in a 
similar way into B, where it is fully deprived of spirit, and is from 
time to time run off through t. It is necessary throughout that the 
wash in this passage into D and B should stand about an inch high 
upon each plate r r, for which purpose the adjunct tubes v should 
stand an inch above the plate, and thus gives the vapour no indirect 
passage, as the under end of each tube v dips into a shallow cup and 
is thus shut in by the wash remaining in it. The tube d which leads 
the wash from the plate c c into c serves a like purpose. As soon as 
it has risen up in it to the upper orifice of the glass tube y, the valve 
b is to be opened to allow it to flow off into B through the tube b. 
Here into B the very hot and nearly spent wash comes into contact 
with the steam, issuing from the steam boiler through the steam 
tube a a. It rushes through it and carries off the spirit from it 
through the small orifices of the plate c, expands thus into the w r hoie 
breadth of this chamber through the wash standing in it, and deprives 
this at once of every trace of spirit, then collects over the fluid and 
enters through the connection tube e into the undermost chamber of 

D, and thence into the following in succession always through the 
orifices of the plate r r. Whilst the steam meets the wash in every 
chamber and becomes more spirituous the higher it mounts, it at the 
same time becomes cooler and deposits the watery part, absorbing 
more alcohol, so that after this complicated rectification it passes on 
through the tube M M into the lowest chamber of the forewarmer j. 
It here pursues a like path upwards through the plates s s, where the 
feints are at the same time rectified by the dephlegmation of the 
vapour. The steam flows through the different junction tubes into 
F and its subdivisions, whereby, as the wash in D forms on each plate, 
a layer an inch thick is to be penetrated by the steam. The remainder 
passes out through the undermost plate through the tube g g into G, 
where it is carried on by the pump with fresh wash into circulation 
in the apparatus. The alcoholic vapour now reaches E. The plate 
which separates E and F is not perforated, it lets the vapour merely 
pass through the short and wide junction tube u into the condenser 

E, where in like manner the non-perforated plates w w compel it to 
follow the zigzag bendings of i i, so as to complete its condensation 
and the heating of the wash in r. The completely condensed vapour 
is collected on the bottom of E, and is conducted out of the cup of 




Fio. 40. Steam distilling column (SAVALLE). A distilling column to distil 
8800 gallons wash in twenty-four hours. A, rectangular plate column ; 
B, froth preventer ; C, wash heater ; D, refrigerator ; E, test-glass ; G, water 
tank ; H, wash tank ; I, J, steam regulator. 



140 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

the junction tube there (which is larger) through the annexed tube 
sideways at p into the refrigerator not shown in the figure. 

12. In the first distilling columns constructed by Savalle about 
1870, the plates were perforated ones. They were cheap and simple, 
and, when new 7 , wrought perfectly ; but the perforation of the plate 
through which the vapours passed, enlarged, and the proper ratio 
between the passage of vapour and the work accomplished ceased. 
This entailed loss of alcohol in the vinasse, a loss which continued to 
increase by the wear and tear of the plates. To cope with this evil the 
plant shown in Fig. 40 was designed. The design and arrangement 
of the different organs of this system is such that the apparatus is 
constantly adapted to the rate of flow of the material to be distilled, 
which is 40 centimetres 15| inches per second. The apparatus was 
distinguished (1) by its heating being adjusted by a steam regulator ; 
(2) by the method of regulating the feeding of the liquids to be 
distilled; (3) by its wash -heater of great heating surface which 
utilised the caloric of the alcohol vapours to heat the cold wash 
entering the apparatus; (4) by froth preventers, which secure less 
acid products free from entrained impurities; (5) by the tubular 
refrigerator, the interior arrangement of which reduces the condensa- 
tion water required by one-half ; (6) by the special arrangement of 
the column plates with great bubbling surface where each litre of 
liquid to be distilled is subjected to a sheet of vapour representing in 
the larger apparatus 656 feet. Working the column. (1) Set wash 
and cold water pumps to work to fill top reservoirs. (2) Fill the 
refrigerator D with cold water. (3) Fill the wash-heater C and also 
the plates of column A. (4) Close the water (3) and wash-feed taps (2). 
(5) Turn on steam gradually to heat all the plates of the column, and 
expel, without bumping, the air contained in the wash-heater and 
refrigerator. (6) When alcohol flows from test-glass E, open the re- 
frigerator tap 3. (7) Open gradually the wash-feed tap 2. (8) Here 
a difficulty occurs. It is necessary to find a suitable rate of wash-feed, 
so that it be not too great and stop the production of alcohol at the test 
case, and that, on the other hand, it be not great enough to maintain the 
product at the right strength. It is determined by the feed-tap and its 
dial indicator. (9) To satisfactorily determine the point it is necessary 
that the wine reservoir be always full to the same level. It must there- 
fore be constantly fed by the pump, and the overflow from the reservoir 
must return with the aspiration of the pump. (10) The heating steam 
should be cautiously applied at the outset until the alcohol reaches 
the test safe when the steam regulator acts. (11) To stop working, 
close tap 2, then stop steam. If from Saturday to Monday before 
starting again, let steam act a little longer, so as to expel all alcohol. 

13. Test-glasses. Savalle 's gauge test-glass measures with great 
precision the actual output of a distilling or rectifying apparatus. 
The principle of its construction rests on the flow of liquids through 



SEC. 14] 



PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



141 



a thin partition. Its essential part is shown in Kig. 41. The 
alcohol from the condenser enters by the bent tubr, rises by tin- 
tubr (' into the crystal test-glass, and escape^ l>y a fixed orifice F 
made in the graduated tube. The level of the alcohol rises in ihr 
t><t glass until the discharge by the graduated orifice exactly balam - 
that entering the test-glass. The least variation in the output 
of the apparatus alters the level in the test-glass, and this is 
determined by noting the oscillations of this level by means of the 
graduated tube. The outflow orifice is determined ; thus the level 
of the liquid marking 15, an outflow of -100 litres per hour, corresponds 
to an outflow section of 28 sq. mm. It is therefore easily to 





FIG. 41. Savallc's Test Apparatus. 



FIG. 42. Test-glass for measuring 
density and rate of flow of alcohol 
from condenser (E. BARBET). 



determine the right section. A series of graduated alcoholometers 
with a range of 30 degrees of a length of 14 cm. are used so that 
their play may not be impeded by the dimensions of the test-glass. 
When this instrument is applied to the rectifier, the alcohol flows from 
the graduated tube into the spherical reservoir. The various taps 
below are used for the outflow of " moyen gouts," bons gouts, etc. 

14. Barbels test-glass tap (large pattern), used for the discharge 
exit for the pure or pasteurised alcohol, is an improved form of the 
classic test gauge glass. The alcohol, the flow of which is regulated 
by a tap, ascends the central tube CD, then flows away by the 



142 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

beck B of the upper funnel. When the exit tap is closed, the level 
of the alcohol gradually rises in the globe A. Now that globe is 
graduated, from the lower to the upper mark is 5 litres. The time 
is noted when the level is at the lower mark, and again when the 
5 litres is exactly completed. The difference gives the time required 
for 5 litres from which the hourly flow is deduced ; that done, the exit 
tap is in turn regulated so as to keep the level constant at the upper 
mark. So that if by any chance the alcohol passing through the 
entrance tap varied, warning is at once given by the change of level 
in the alcohol in the globe. Finally, the arrangement of the globe 
and the manner in which it is mounted on the test-glass are such that 
the whole of the globe may be emptied and rinsed out top to bottom. 
Barbet's small model intended for the extractions of first and last 
runnings " mauvais gouts " is much smaller, the principle is identical. 

In old models, the alcoholic liquid arrives by the annular part and 
issues by the orifice at the base of the central tube. The top of the 
test-glass, in default of renewing, heats and yields erroneous indications 
by alcoholometer and hydrometer. In Barbet's model two concentric 
tubes are used, and the central tube is capped by a small movable 
discharge lug, by which the flow of alcohol can be at any moment 
controlled. Delivered from the top the alcohol issues from the 
bottom of the test-glass by a hole pierced in the bottom of the 
exterior tube, which bears equidistant marks. The level assumed by 
the alcohol in the globe gives the measure of the hourly flow. The 
outside tube is divided so as to allow the test-glass to be emptied 
when the liquid is not sufficiently fit, and the shape admits of this 
being done completely, whilst in the usual models the projection 
made by the tightening screw hinders the expulsion of sand or 
mastic, which frequently contaminate the test-glass. In countries 
where the Excise require rigorous sealing up of the test-glass, the 
cap of the lid is made of bronze, and it can be joined to a circle of 
bronze fitted to the upper ring of the globe. 

For extracting, the fusel taps are also fixed to the test-glasses 
whether the products be soluble in water 40-50, or insoluble therein 
75-80. The working pressure being constant in the apparatus at 
all stages, it follows that the outflow of oils is also constant, like 
that of the pasteurised and non-pasteurised. Finally, the exit of the 
residual water at the bottom, or the exhausted wash when wash is 
being directly rectified, is entirely automatic and requires no super- 
vision except when the apparatus is to be stopped or when it is 
feared the exhaustion is insufficient. In many factories they do not 
hesitate to push the extractions of non-pasteurised as far as 15-20 
per cent., so as to make a cheaper alcohol than the pasteurised which 
constitutes the superior brand. But when this secondary quality is 
not wanted, this test-glass is suppressed, and the non-pasteurised 
enters directly in the middle of the concentration trunks purifier. 



SEC. 15] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 143 

This an-anp'tiiriit is shown in Barbet's 1900 models, sometinn- 
rxrlusivt'ly and sometimes <<> rxistnit with the non-pasteurised tc-t 
glass. In the first instance a slight practical difficulty had t ! 
overcome. In fact, a large proportion of non-pasteurised cannot be 
conveniently returned to the purifier ; this alcohol has been driven off 
from the high strength alcohol in the rectifier, and the pasteurised 
should only constitute the complement of the non-pasteurised, so that the 
total corresponds with the hourly output of the apparatus. Thus, take 
a rectifier the capacity of the plates and condenser of which correspond 
to a normal flow of 400 litres per hour. This flow includes pasteurised 
and non-pasteurised. Therefore if 1 00 litres be withdrawn per hour from 
the non-pasteurised, the pasteurised must be reduced to 300 litres. So 
long as the non-pasteurised is collected as a second-class marketable 
product, the output of the apparatus is a purified phlegm which contains, 
associated with pure alcohol, only water and the less volatile products 
of the last runnings. That is a great step in advance, because nothing 
further has to be done than to separate the pure alcohol, on the one hand, 
from the remainder, all that is less volatile than itself, viz. water and 
oils. The last problem is still analogous to the previous one. It is a 
little more delicate, but it is quite legitimate to predict the solution in 
advance by means of an appropriate continuous apparatus. 

Adopting the principle of the division of labour, the fractional 
separation of the two great classes of impurities may be effected by 
two consecutive but conjunctive operations both acting in concert and 
continuously. There are three principal classes of substances in 
phlegm: (1) The aggregate of all those substances which are more 
volatile than alcohol or the first runnings. (2) Pure ethylic alcohol. 
(3) The aggregate of all those substances which are less volatile than 
alcohol or the last runnings. Therefore the whole science and 
practical skill of the distiller should be concentrated and brought to 
bear upon the subject so as to only make these three sorts. All 
other sorts are bastard or mongrel lots. He ought, moreover, so to 
act that his first and last runnings are reduced to a minimum volume. 
Just as we possess distilling columns that yield highly concentrated 
alcohol at the outset, in a similar manner the preliminary purification 
of the phlegms should be so conducted that it only yields as far as 
practicable first runnings of a maximum degree of concentration. 
Owing to the great mutual affinity which subsists between the first 
runnings and the alcohol, the task is not so simple as the separation of 
alcohol from wash. It may even be affirmed that there is a technical 
difficulty to overcome. More or less promising solutions of the 
problem may be got, but the actual result must be attained. The 
second operation rectification, properly so called, must be conducted on 
exactly similar lines. The condenser is not an analyser. 

15. Invariable regulation of flow. Pasteurisation will be better 
understood by a diagrammatic illustration introducing invariable 



i44 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



regulation of flow to reduce extraction of ethers as far as necessary at 
T. The refrigerator F is on the same floor and level as the condenser E. 
The cooled first runnings issue by L, with its test-glass T and 
regulating tap N interposed at the entrance to the latter, just as there 








. j 


K 




H 






----- 






\ 




M 



FIG. 43. Invariable regulation of flow (E. BAKBET). A, Eectifica- 
tion plates ; E, condenser ; F, refrigerator ; G, refrigerator 
pasteurised ; H, tap for extraction of pasteurised alcohol ; 
K, air escape ; L, exit of cold alcohol ; M, tap regulating 
flow of pasteurised ; N, tap regulating invariable flow ; P, 
test-glass ; R, return to retrogradation or excess of first 
runnings ; T, first runnings test-glass. 

is a regulating tap M to the test-glass P of the pasteurised alcohol, 
on the alcohol descending pipe connected with the retrogradation 
from the condenser E. If the apparatus at work the tap N be 
quite shut, the ethers ascend the pipe NK, through the tube R, to mix 
with the retrogradation re-entering the rectifier A at B. With rather 



SEC. 15] 



PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



'45 



more water than formerly, rectification still proceeds as l.rtoiv, even 
though there be no alcohol outflow. Open N to get 5 per cent. 
initial How. Open fully pasteurisation tap H and regulate flow from 
P by tap M to 95 per cent, of front flow from T. The apparatus is 
nmv regulated, or .1 may be drawn from T, and f from P, or equal or 
any other proportions, without appreciable variation in amount of 
\\ater used, nor of pressure on regulator. In spite of small variations 
in level of water-tank, working is very regular. If water feed 
diminishes slightly, condenser E gives less retrogradation ; but as 
cooler F is too strong (it is so in all plant), cooling of the alcohol 
is assured anyhow. As all the alcoholic vapour is condensed, and as 
flow from T cannot vary owing to tap N, the excess of alcohol must 
re cuter the apparatus, thus completing almost mathematically t In- 
efficiency in retrogradation from E. The analysis of crude aqueous 
alcoholic vapours in the condenser is thus insignificant, and the test- 
glass alcohol in no way differs in composition from that of retrograda- 
tion from E. This plan and, with the aid of the variable pressure 
regulator, the flow and play of the column can be modified during 
rectification either to alter the quality of the rectified, or when the 
phlegms are changed. Pasteurisation is thus a new method of 
expelling ethers, a new process of continuous fractionation applicable 
to other products, e.g. petroleum. In a continuous column fed 
regularly with retrogradation, and flow constant, each plate is 
charged with liquid of constant composition corresponding to boiling- 
point on that plate. As many extractions can thus be made as there 
are different liquids to be isolated, or of special mixtures on given 
plates. Table shows purifying capacity of pasteurisation. 

TABLE SHOWING RESULTS BY ANALYSIS BY PERMANGANATE AT DIFFERENT 
PHASES OF RECTIFICATION OF BAD QUALITY PHLEGMS (CRUDE SPIRIT) 
IN A CONTINUOUS RECTIFIER. 



Duration of Decolonisation. 


Duration of Decolorisation. 


Pasteurised 
Alcohol. 


First Runnings. 


Pasteurised 
Alcohol. 


First Runnings. 


1' 30" 
3' 
4' 45" 
6' 
7' 


0' 02" 
0' 03" 
0' 05" 
0' 06" 
0' 08" 


8' 45" 
13' 30" 
15' 
17' 


0' 10" 
0' 13" 
0' 19" 
0' 22" 



From very impure products an alcohol is thus produced sixty times 
more pure than that flowing simultaneously from the first runnings 



10 



146 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



tap. By adopting pasteurisation the ethers may be extracted without 
a purifier as vapour, which is driven upwards from plate to plate until 
it enters another column or passes to a condenser, where we shall 
leave it for the time being and pass to the steam regulator. 

16. Savalle's steam regulator. Its essential organ is a red 

copper float C, playing in the 
beck B, and controlling by the 
differential lever D the balanced 
steam valve E. This float 
exercises in this way on the 
rod of the valve a pressure of 
400 kilogrammes, capable of 
overcoming all accidental re- 
sistances. The principle of 
this regulator is quite easily 
understood. Cold water is run 
into the beck A, forming the 
foundation up to the level of 
the pipe F, acting as an over- 
flow and communication pipe 
between the beck and the 
steam reservoir, the pressure 
of which is to be regulated. 
The top of this beck forms an 
air-cushion between the pres- 
sure steam and the layer of 




FIG. 44. Steam regulator (SAVALLE) 



water; under the influence of the pressure the water rises in the 
lower beck, raises the float C, and causes the lever which controls the 
steam valve to act. The pressure can be regulated in this way to a 
centimetre of water, say, y-oV T> f an atmosphere. 

IV. Barbels steam regulators. Barbet was the first to call 
attention to the importance, even with intermittent rectifiers, of 
being able to vary the working pressure without disturbing it in 
any way. In intermittent rectification, towards the end, when there 
is hardly any alcohol in the still, it is desirable to apply more steam, 
without which final exhaustion and expulsion of oils are retarded. 
Xow Savalle's classical regulator is essentially fixed, and every change 
in the working pressure effects quite a transformation, and entails, 
in the first place, the stoppage of the plant. The benefit of being 
able to vary the pressure during the course of the rectification has 
been so much recognised, that Savalle, Egrot, Crepelle, Fontane, and 
Guillaume have invented steam regulators meeting this requirement. 
But none of them solve the problem in such a practical and simple 
manner as Barbet, who was also the first in the field. His method 
is a simple improvement on the Savalle rectifier, on the lower receiver 
of which he has placed two small taps connected with the pipe which 



SEC. 17] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



communicates the pivsxmv. Hence the expense is insignificant, and 
it can be adapted to all existing regulators. The working is equally 





FIG. 45. Steam regulator (E. BARBET). 

simple. If more pressure be desired, the first tap a is opened. 
More pressure still, the second is opened, and vice versd to return 
to lesser pressures. The explanation is equally simple to understand 



148 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



when the two taps a are closed, the working pressure is H. By 
opening the first tap the level in the lower vessel descends to the 

extent of A, but the upper level 
does not move, therefore the work- 
ing pressure becomes H + h. By 
opening the second, the pressure 
becomes H + h + h. The heat 
being more and more energetic, 
the plant can do more work. 
Barbet's rivals have tried to do 
better. He has only three working 
pressures at command. They have 
varied it from centimetre to centi- 
metre, which is not practice but 
hollow theory, because it is impos- 
sible to perceive the actual modi- 
fication produced in the working 
by 3 or 4 centimetres of variation 
in the pressure. It requires at 
least 8-10 centimetres to have a 
tangible effect. Now variation 
from centimetre to centimetre has 
led to unpleasant if not dangerous 
mechanical complications. All 
that is wanted so as to regulate 
the rectification speed by the 
stage of progress of the brewing, 
is to be able to tell the distiller to 
go at a slow, a fair, or at a quick 
speed. By prolonging these speeds 
to a greater or less extent the speed 
of manufacture is followed with 
the greatest of ease. Barbet has 
also improved the regulator itself. 
First of all, he has replaced the 
balanced valve of Savalle by a 
nap valve ; the latter requires 
less force to work it, so that the 
regulator need not be so wide. 
The ^wear and tear of the flap 
valve is very slow, whilst in the 
balanced lve the rush of the 
steam hollowed out the grooves 
which soon wore out the valve. Besides, it is more easy to regulate 
the flap valve than the balanced valve, so as to be able to raise 
or lower easily the upper reservoir of the regulator ; the rod which 




SEC. 17] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 149 

works the ilap valve is sheathed. A pressure screw adjusts the 
rut ranee of the rod into the sheath to the desired extent. Finally, 
Barbet's model is intended to prevent the expulsion !' liquid, uliidi 
sometimes occurs and drives inexperienced distillers crazy. The upper 
float is fitted with two small lateral studs fixed in the arm of a lever. 
For the free disengagement of air, a pipe is fitted to the upper part, 
but this pipe may be 50 cm. long, so that it would require quite 
an extraordinary pressure to cause the liquid to be expelled through 
the orifice of this pipe. This new type of regulator is very trust- 
worthy, it is less liable to get jammed than the old type, the long 
screwed rod of which was not always well enough centred. In 
continuous rectifiers, where the pressure is often applied at a rather 
strong stage, it is important to be protected from priming not only 
on account of the loss of alcohol itself, but because of the risk of 
fire. But this is not to be feared with the new model. As to the 
functions of the plates, condensers, as will be seen in the sequel, have no 
appreciable effect on the elimination of impurities, i.e. on the analysis of 
alcoholic vapours. They are not analysers, as the Germans term them. 
The whole work of fractionation and of assortment is accomplished 
on the plates by aid of the retrogradation or the condensed liquid 
which falls back on to the plates from the condenser, which acts 
as a refining washing liquor. The plates are the sole seat of 
rectification, and it matters little whether the washing liquor comes 
from tubular, serpentine, horizontal, or vertical honiotherines, or 
counter-current condensers. The only important thing is the manner 
in which the plates utilise this purifying agent. The best plate 
is that which, with the minimum of retrograded alcohol, yields the 
most decisive and well-defined fractionation; because the more 
one is obliged to condense the alcohol at the condenser to get the 
right strength and purity, the more heat and water is consumed. 
The more perfect the plate and the fewer the number required, the 
greater is the economy in the price of the plant and the less the 
height of the building. The question of the capacity to be imparted 
to the plates to obtain 96*5 per cent, alcohol as a minimum is 
an important one, for they cannot be multiplied indefinitely, especially 
in an agricultural distillery. The owners will demur to the height 
of the buildings, besides the cost would be excessive. The number 
of plates in distilling plant is usually grossly exaggerated. Theoreti- 
cally, four plates should be sufficient to exhaust wash without 
increasing the steam. The main obstacle to this simplification of 
the number of plates arise"s from the habitual imperfection of the 
bubbling of the vapour in the liquid. With long round caps, 
with smooth rims, boiling is quite tumultuous, the vapours being 
evolved as enormous bubbles. These only come into contact with 
the liquid by their periphery. All the vapour in the centre of the 
bubble bursts on the surface without having been utilised. So 



150 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

far as analytical capacity is concerned, nothing up to 1896 could 
have been desired better than Savalle's perforated plates, which 
molecularise the vapour in the alcoholic liquid, and thus impart the 
maximum facility of exchange between a weak and a strong vapour. 
Unfortunately, these plates run the risk of being discharged at any 
moment by the least variation in pressure, and such a change in 
pressure is made each time the feed is modified. Finally, by 
continued use, especially with acid wines or washes, the holes enlarge, 
and the apparatus no longer works normally. 

Barbet's plates consist of a great number of quite small 
equidistant caps of hammered copper, around which the wash is 




FIG. 46. Distilling column cross section, showing circulation of wash on plate, 
and bubbling of alcoholic vapours through comb-slit caps (E. BARBET). 

divided, and circulates easily. The developed length of the line of 
ebullition or bubbling compared with that of the older patterns 
is increased considerably. But what differentiates this system from 
others is the fact that the circumference of the caps is divided by 
a large number of saw cuts which make them in a way look like 
long-toothed combs. The vapour, imprisoned under each cap, is 
finely laminated through these combs, thus securing perfect 
molecularisation, and a maximum utilisation. With the old per- 
forated plates, the drops of liquid were projected, vertically, against 
the upper plate. Here the jets of vapour are horizontal, and 
collide against each other, to form a much more regular and tranquil 
emulsion, and without vesicular entrainment of the liquid, in the 



SEC. 17] 



PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



path of the vapour. In fact, these caps cannnt. be constructed 
except by machine. There is therefore perfect regularity and 
absolute uniformity in the sections for the passage of the vapour, 
and in the dips, and so on. To control the efficacy of his plates, 
IJarbet made several precise tests 
at the base of the trunks reserved 
for rectification. He fixed a tap 
at the level of a certain number 
of plates (Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 1 1, and 
17) so as to draw oft' a sample of 
the liquid from the upper over- 
flow. Then, the apparatus having 
been perfectly regulated, during 
several hours previously, as regards 
feed, as testified by the thermo- 
meter controlling the working, sam- 
ples of sufficient size to be tested 
by the control alcoholometer were 
drawn off as rapidly as possible. 

The first two plates are affected by the proximity of the feed. Taking 
No. 3 as a starting-point, it was 19'l deficient in actual working 
capacity. According to Sorel's tables, the vapours disengaged from a 
liquid of 19'l ought to have a strength of 65 *6. Therefore, if the 
plates are perfect, if analysis is effected according to theory, the plate 
immediately above should have a strength of 65 '6. In its turn, the 
liquid on plate 4, having a density of 65 '6, should yield a vapour of 
80 !, and so on. The following figures were got by the above test : 




FIG. 47. Comb-slit cap dipping into 
liquid alcohol through -which 
vapour of alcohol hubbies, on 
plate of distilling column (E. 
BAR BET). 



No. of Plate. 


Degree G.L. 


Tables 
G.L. 


No. of Plate. 


Degree G.L. 


Tables 
G.L. 


2 


12-4 




7 


87'9 


89-1 


3 


19-1 





11 


93-3 


93'9 


4 


60-2 





17 


95-5 





5 


77-4 


78-24 












If No. 4 had been taken as the point of departure instead of No. 3, 
the tables would have given 78 '24, whereas 77'4 or one degree less 
was obtained. Taking 5 as the point of departure, the tables yield 
theoretically 85'2 for No. 6, and 89'l for No. 7, whilst the test 
yielded 87 '9, average loss of 0'6 per plate. Finally, starting from 
No. 7 with 87 '9, consecutive calculation shows that No. 8 should 
mark 90'6 ; No. 9, 92'2; No. 10, 93'3; No. 11, 93'9. The 4 
plates have had exactly the same effect as three theoretical plates, 
since No. 11 with 93%3 corresponds exactly with what No. 10 



152 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



should give. The coefficient of capacity has therefore attained 75 
per cent. From No. 5 to No. 7 it may be said that only 10 "5 have 

10'5 
been gained instead of 11 '7. ^, = 90 per cent, of theoretical 

capacity. The same calculation would give 88 - 4 per cent, from 
plate 3 to plate 4, and 95*3 from plate 4 to plate 5. These are 
very satisfactory yields. As comparative experiments, those of Agde, 
1889, may be quoted: No. 3, 81'3; No. 8, 90; No. 15, 95; No. 
21, 95-5. It thus took 18 plates to rise from 81-3 to 95'5, whilst 
with the new plates only 12 were required. In making calculations 
like the above by comparison with the theoretical increase in strength, 
it is found that starting with No. 3 plate at 81 '3 it is the 10th 
plate which ought theoretically to show 95 *5; that is, with 7 plates 
instead of 12. Capacity 58*3 per cent. Sorel gives the following : 
"Ascent of degrees found in the plates of a rectifying apparatus 
Savalle system with rectangular plates." In the middle of the 
operation, in full normal working, Savalle got the following results : 



No. of Plate. 


Degree G.L. 


No. of Plate. 


Degree G.L. 


4 


87'5 


24 


94-6 


9 


92-0 


29 


95-0 


14 


93-3 


34 


95-3 


19 


94-0 









If these plates had, starting from 4, followed the theoretical rule of 
increase in strength, there would have been got on No. 5, 90 '41 ; 
No. 6, 92-l ; No. 7, 93'3 ; No. 8, 93-9 ; and No. 9, 94'5. Instead 
of that it is the 24th plate which registers 94 '6, and not No. 9. 
Twenty plates have therefore been required instead of 5 according 
to theory, hence the yield is only 25 percent. Besides, 10 plates were 
required to rise from 87*5 to 93*3, whilst only 4 plates were 
required at Eprunes to rise from 87*9 to 83'3, and 20 plates to 
rise from 93 0> 3 to 95'3, whilst only 6 were required at Eprunes to 
rise from 93*3 to 95 '5. The yield of the new plates is therefore 
2| to 3 times better, w r hich constitutes a considerable improvement. 
Again, with washes titrating only 1*25, Barbet got the following 
alcoholic strengths at the different test taps : 



Pasteurised 


96-8 at 15 C. 


Actual capacity 96 '8 


First runnings not pas- 






teurised 


97'6 at 18 C. 


97'0 


Last runnings, 5 plate 


80 -0 at 21 C. 


78'2 


First runnings from 






purifier 


96'6 at 20 C. 


95'6 



SEC. iy] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 153 

The above results give a striking idea of the power of the con- 
centration plates, for there were only 10 to secure this result with 
extremely weak wash. Barbet also tested the expenditure of water 
and steam by the apparatus. All the water, hot or tepid, was run 
into a small tank of 250 litres capacity. In 7 minutes 195 litres of 
water ran in at a temperature of 46. The cold water was at 7 C. 
The water had gained 39. That made 1670 litres per hour. The 
apparatus put through in the same time 2500 litres of wash at 125, 
and yielded 31 litres of alcohol, calculated to 100. Finally, the spent 
wash issued from the recuperator at 83. By making all calorimetrical 
calculation, it will be found that the expenditure in steam was 36C 
kilos, say, 14*64 kilogrammes per hectolitre of wash and 67 kilogrammes 
of water. These two numbers are respectively the half of that which 
the German columns expend according to Maercker; now these 
columns only yield an impure phlegm at 90, whilst that produced by 
Barbet's apparatus yields an excellent rectified alcohol at 96*5 per 
cent., sold at a premium for quality. Barbet's cap-comb plates 
possess the powerful analytical capacity of the old perforated plates, 
but with the advantage of being no longer capricious and of being 
incapable of emptying themselves on the slightest provocation. 
Continuous rectification may be stopped for several hours, then re- 
started without any trouble, because each plate has retained its 
liquid and is ready instantly to resume its role. Barbet's plates 
possess other advantages upon which it will be well to insist. When 
through use the holes of the perforated plate enlarge, that disturbs 
the regularity of working of the apparatus. It requires more pressure 
to maintain the liquid on the plate, hence a quite useless expenditure 
of steam. 

If the pressure be not increased, the plates become partly dis- 
plenished. In the end it is necessary to replace all the plates. With 
Barbet's plates nothing of this nature occurs. Even when the slits 
become a little wider by use, the molecular division of the vapour will 
be effective for many years. And if one day it be necessary to remedy 
matters, all that has to be done is to remove the caps, and not the 
] dates, nor the central vents of the caps. The expense is therefore 
very limited. As regards the old plates with round or long cups, 
Barbet's plates, in addition to analytical capacity, have other very i\\>- 
preciable practical advantages. Whatever may be the daily production 
demanded of an apparatus, the same proportion can be maintained 
between the following different elements. 1. Developed length of the 
1 1 tie of bubbling. Let A be the daily production, experience of Barbet's 
apparatus has demonstrated that each comb-cap corresponds to a 
daily production equal to a. Therefore the number n of comb-caps 
to use is determined in a precise manner and without error by the 
equation A = na. However, the difficulty of spreading large caps, 
round or long, never allows this proportion, the necessity of which is 



154 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

evident to be respected. 2. Area of the plate and stock of lif/uid 
which it contains. This proportion can always be respected. If n 
small caps are fixed on an area S, then 2 n caps can always be encased 
in double the area 2 S. 3. Section of passage for the circulation of 
liquids between the caps from one overflow pipe to t/ie next. That is a 
condition which is very rarely fulfilled by the old cap plates. It follows 
that the thickness of the layer of liquid is never uniform, and that the 
caps near the overflow do more work than those which are in proximity 
to the chute of the overflow from above. Barbet's caps are arranged 
in such a quincunx style, that the liquid is forced to spread itself 
uniformly throughout their winding maze. 4. Section of passages and 
outlets for the vapour both by small vents and slits. That depends 
on the fact that the number of caps is strictly proportional to the 
capacity demanded. From a construction point of view the advantages 
are more striking still. All the caps are made mechanically, and 
are thus perforce identical. They are turned in the lathe, in a 
mathematical manner, and the slits are made in a mortice machine. 
The regularity of construction is absolute ; finally, the constructor has 
the advantage of being able to make beforehand the fittings for these 
caps, so as to be able to construct the apparatus in a minimum of 
time. The central chimneys, owing to a special equipment, are also 
made by mechanical stamping. It follows, therefore, that over the 
whole of the plate, the dips are perforce absolutely uniform, and that is 
a condition of good working which has never been obtained, especially 
with long caps. Supposing the plates of the apparatus, once mounted 
in the factory, are not absolutely horizontal, suppose they are 10 
millimetres out of level, with the old caps the bubbling would be 
suppressed, as far as those most deeply immersed were concerned. 
Only the other portion of them w r ould work. Whilst with Barbet's 
long slit there are 35 millimetres of length of slit which will be 
utilised, and 25 millimetres in the other ; but all the caps will work, 
and the irregularity will be a small matter. 

18. Working of thick washes. For the working of thick washes 
Barbet makes a comb-slit cap of a special type. The cap is conical 
in its upper part, so that no dregs can be deposited thereon. More- 
over, the cap emerging very little above the liquid, the latter by the 
tumult of boiling constantly washes the cone and prevents it getting 
dirty. This cap is prolonged till it comes in contact with the plate, 
to prevent the pellicles of bran from penetrating under the cap. In 
the same way, the slits are very fine. During the working of the 
apparatus there is no danger of penetration, but it is when the column 
is stopped that it is necessary to protect the interior from obstruction. 
Moreover, a column, working thick wash, ought never to be stopped 
without being fed with water, to displace all the muddy liquids both 
in the wine-heater and on the plates. Working thus, annoyance is 
avoided. With thick wash there are in the columns points on the 




SEC. 19] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 155 

plate which are more subject than others to get obstructed \\itli 
dregs. That is due almost always t< tin- bad design of tin- plate*, ami 
because of recesses or backwaters, in \\hich then- is no bubbling, 
hence tin- decaiitation and thick deposition of solid matter. The 
great superiority of Uarbet's plate> resides in the fact that owing to 
the small diameter nf the caps no p<.'mt in Hie plate eocapefl the 
bubbling. \\'hen a pair of peep-hole 
glass panes are placed above one 
of the comb-cap plates, the absolute 
regularity of the bubbling is easily 
seen without any violence or projec- 
tions on the upper plate. Owing 
to the great length of the comb 
slits, the deep layers of the liquid 
are brought into play, thus allow- 
ing of a large stock of liquid being ~~1 

. , L . . lie. 48. Non-obstructable comb- 

left on each plate without mcon- slit cap for thick washes (E . 

venience, thus imparting a perfect BAUBET). 

stability to the working of the 

apparatus in the most simple, natural, and infallible manner. The 
way in which the truncated comb-caps are fixed to the plate renders 
them removable at will to clean the interior. There are no bolts nor 
rivets to undo. Once cleaned and put in its place the tongue is 
lowered with a slight tap from a hammer and the cap cannot get dis- 
placed. It may even be applied to cast-iron columns by a simple 
letting in of the vent into the body of the plate. 

19. Barbet's tubular condensers are of bronze or red copper, 
without solder. Responsible makers now construct them in no other 
way. They are furnished with a raised cast-iron pedestal which holds 
a large stock of liquid, the water or the wash enters in the centre, the 
entrance pipe is on the side and above the floor, so that the connection 
joint may be easily made. This joint is too often placed under the 
floor of the condenser, about 20 feet above the test-glass floor, i.e. in 
an inaccessible or dangerous position. The height of the pedestal 
admits of one or two peepholes being inserted according to the 
diameter of the tubular vessel, wide enough for one to enter the 
dudgeon to fix a tube if need be, at any rate a leaking tube which 
can be plugged. It is desirable to provide for the cleaning of the 
outside of the tubes of the tubular bundle, e.y. in the case of re- 
cuperators, or even in the case of wine-heaters, through which weak 
alcohol vapours pass. Not only is froth entrained, but volatile acids 
and gases, which corrode the copper and cover it with saline encrusta- 
tions. In Barbet's tubular vessels the whole bundle is movable, that 
is, capable of being lifted out of its envelope. The wash enters by 
the upper pipe, which branches into a central pipe of the tubular 
plate. At the bottom the second tubular plate is independent of the 



156 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



envelope, it connects with a bomb-shaped bottom furnished with 
a cleaning manhole. The wash now changes its direction and 




FIG. 49. Tubular vessels, condensers, recuperators, etc. 
(E. BARBET). 



SEC. 19] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



'57 



spreads into the tubes of the tubular bundle, becoming heated as 
it ascends. It isuses from the top of the tube. The methodical 




FIG. 49. Tubular vessels, condensers, recuperators, 
etc. (E. BAUBET). 



158 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



circulation of the spent wash is in the opposite direction. It enters 
by an upper pipe, is cooled as it descends, and issues by a pipe at 
the bottom. A reascending tube forces the tubular vessel to remain 




FIG. 50.- 



-Vertical and cross section of distilling column, showing cascade 
arrangement of plates and caps (EGROT and GRAXGK). 



full. Fig. 50 shows the arrangement of Egrot and Grange's plates. 
The liquid descends from the upper plate through the pipe a, traverses 
in the direction of the arrows the exterior ring a b, descends into c, 
and traverses c d in an opposite direction. Finally, reaching the 
centre of the plate o, this liquid descends on to the plate below, where 
it recommences a similar circulation. The surface of the plate is 
therefore utilised so that the wash descends by a very long circuitous 
route moreover, by the cascade arrangement the level of the flow is 
very regular over the whole of this long circuitous route. Again, the 
numerous small " boilers " k fixed in the path of the liquid split it up 
and agitate it so that the whole liquid mass is well exposed to the 
action of the ascending vapours. 



SEC. 20] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



'59 



20. " Blair's " continuous forkim/ sfmtn. stills. Fig. 51 shows 
" Blair's " patent continuous working strain still, constructed specially 
to produce high-class rum or spirit of best aroma and good quality, 




FIG. 51. Blair's continuous working steam still. A, 
still kettle, with steam coils ; B, patent analysing 
and rectifying column ; C D, patent rectifying 
wash-heaters ; E, refrigerator or condenser (Bi.Ai K, 
CAMPBELL, & M'LEAW, Glasgow). 

continuously, in one operation. By this still all the spirit is entirely 
exhausted from the wash, and a good spirit obtained, free from 
impurities, but retaining its anm;i and flavour. The still, as shown, 
will produce spirit continuously from good wash up to 40 Cartier 
(95'9 G.L.), or at lower strengths than this as drsiiv.l. It wrakn- 
spirit only say 25 to 30 Cartier (67-7-79'l G.L.) be iv-piiiv,!, 
the vessel D is dispensed with, and the column nuuK- somewhat 
shorter. The still is constructed almost entirely of copper ami 



i6o INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

and consists of a steam chamber surmounted by a distilling and 
rectifying column, with all internal fittings and mountings, patent 
rectifying wash - heaters, with spirit separators, spirit refrigerator, 
spirit test case, sampling apparatus, and all mountings and connec- 
tions to make the foregoing complete. For small sizes of stills direct 
fire instead of steam may be applied. An essence box can be 
adapted to give special flavouring to the spirit if required. 

21. Inclined distilling column. Guillaume's distilling column 
differs from previous types used hitherto. All distilling columns 
belong to one or other of two types (a) plate columns, or (b) full 
columns (those working full of the wash to be distilled). Each type 
has its advantages and disadvantages. The plate column distils 
much more economically, because each plate has its own expansion 
chamber, where the alcoholic vapours are freed from any dregs 
brought in the train of the wash, and because the regular exhaustion 
of the wash and the enrichment of the vapours is well accomplished 
therein. But this type, says Guillaume, is defective in distilling 
thick washes, because obstructions which arrest the circulation of the 
wash are very frequent. In full columns the wash presses directly 
from top to bottom on all the liquid mass in circulation, as well as 
on the discharge of the spent wash, the exit regulator of which 
ensures the permanent level of the wash in the upper part of the 
column. It will easily be seen that obstructions may be avoided by 
this arrangement ; but then distillation becomes more costly because 
the emulsion produced by the steam in the mass injuriously affects 
to a considerable extent the regularity of the exhaustion of the W 7 ash 
and the enrichment of the vapours. The vapours disengaged are 
therefore poorer in alcohol, and the risk of bad exhaustion of the 
spent wash is greater, both items which entail an abnormal waste of 
steam. The advantages of the one type debar those of the other. 
Guillaume, in constructing his inclined column, aimed at combining 
the merits of both, and to eliminate their defects. The bottom of the 
column consists of a continuous channel in which the wash circulates 
freely in one continuous section and slope. The hydrostatic pressure 
is exerted from top to bottom without loss of pressure, nor interruption, 
so as to force this circulation. The wash to be distilled enters by the 
top portion of this inclined column, and the spent wash issues from 
the bottom by means of the extraction regulator B. The heating 
steam enters through 2, passes through the partitions 3, 3 1 , from 
chamber to chamber bubbling regularly through the wash. After 
each period of bubbling, it is arrested in a chamber which retains the 
entrained liquid portions ; it finally reaches the upper chamber 4, and 
the dome 5. The crude alcohol vapours then pass to the wash-heater 
(chaufe viri) if it be desired to produce weak spirits, or to an 
appropriate concentration trunk if strong spirits or directly rectified 
alcohol be desired. This column thus consists of two parts only 



SEC. 21] 



PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



161 



(1) tin- inrliiu-.l ,,r >I.,|HM| l.uttojn, ii-r.l for the regular circulation of 
the wash, consisting of a continuous channel ; and (2) the top, used a.s 
\;i|iiir trap and bubbling - rap chambers. It rnibiiH-s the good 
features of full columns and plate columns. Mniv<.\rr, in order to 
inspect the whole of the interior, all that has to be done is to unscrew 
the single chief joint C, and to lower, so as to leave the bottom 
suspended on the vertical rods A. Lowering and raising into position 




f 



FIG. 52. Guillaume's " inobstructable " iuclined column, longitudinal section 
(EGROT and GRANG). 

again are thus done very rapidly. But copper columns which are 
lighter do not require this arrangement. The use of this " inobstruct- 
able " column is said to be particularly adapted for thick potato and 
grain washes. Moreover, it also possesses very appreciable advantages 
in the working of limpid washes on account of its extreme simplicity 
and the ease with which it can be lowered, its compactness and low 
height, etc. The apparatus is generally heated by direct open steam, 
except in particular cases where it is not desirable to add the 
ii 



1 62 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



condensed water to the spent wash issuing from the apparatus ; for 
example, in distilling molasses, which have to be concentrated after- 
wards to extract the salts. 

Escape steam can, however, be utilised. So as to employ escape 
steam, an escape steam " balloon " is installed of a volume proportionate 
to the size of the plant. All the steam of the distilling apparatus is 
taken from this balloon. An admission regulator of direct steam into 
this latter ensures regular feeding when the escape steam is in- 
sufficient, or in case of the stopping of the engine. This balloon is 
fitted with a loaded safety valve which allows the escape of steam 




FIG. 53. Guillaume's " inobstructable " inclined column, ground plan (EGROT 

and 



when the interior pressure exceeds J kilogramme per square centi- 
metre, and the steam entrance regulator is arranged so that the steam 
cannot enter the balloon until the pressure descends to 450 grammes, 
and that just in proportion to keep it at that pressure. By this 
arrangement the distilling column uses up the escape steam first of 
all, and only takes automatically direct steam when the escape steam 
becomes insufficient. 

22. Surface heating of the apparatus. When the wash cannot 
be diluted, surface heating has to be resorted to, using the arrange- 
ment shown in Fig. 54. The spent wash issuing from column 
A flows into the evaporator J, where they are boiled by a tubular 



SEC. 22! 



PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



163 



surf sice, itself heated |,y strain. TllC UWVllporMed villiWM IMOM 

automatically, regulated as to quantity ly tin- \\ide "pen >iph>n C. 
The heat i n>r steam is admitted 1>\ tin- tap /, and it- output is n-^ulated 
by the valve \\liicli follows this tap, ami \\liidi is \\i<,u^ht l.y the 
variable regulator (). The regulation of tin- heating .! tin- plant is 
done automatically by Guilluumc's automatic >t,ini i-.-.'ulati.r. if the 




Fio. 54. Guillaume's plant for surface heating of wash to be distilled whirli 
cannot be diluted by open steam (Eoiior and GRANG). 

plant be heated by steam ; or if by naked fire, by an automatic regulator 
acting on the steam entrance. By Guillaume's regulator the pressure 
at the bottom of the distilling column can be varied by hand and the 
consumption of steam regulated to the work to be done ; that is to 
say, only to use what steam is necessary to exhaust the wash and no 
more. 

The discharge of the spent vinasses is effected by means of a 
floating extractor, which is indispensable when working with thick 



164 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

potato and grain, etc., washes, or by an extractor siphon, which is more 
simple and preferable if liquid substances are being distilled. The 
apparatus used in \vorking limpid liquids is furnished with a wash 
entrance regulating tank supported on the apparatus itself. Finally, 
the constructors supply a very solid iron foundation, on which all the 
parts of the apparatus are mounted in such a way that no support 
has to be fixed on the spot, and, each organ having its place marked 
on the support, fitting up is rendered very easy. The inclined column, 
it is said, replaces the old columns which comprised a great number 
of superimposed plates and which occupied a great height. There is 
no further need for cleaning manholes, the bottom of the column being 
capable of being undone in a few minutes and the interior laid bare 
for inspection. 

23. The type M a of this distilling column (Fig. 55) is intended to 
produce raw spirits of 60-70 G.L. (22-26 Cartier). The inclined 
column A can distil all sorts of liquids, limpid or thick, wine, piquettes, 
ciders to make common brandy, cane juice for rum or tafias, grain wash 
for making raw spirits, or wash from potatoes, beets, Jerusalem arti- 
chokes. Certain alterations are made on the column, the wine-heater, 
and the wash extractor in the case of thick washes. The advantage 
claimed for this apparatus is its great working capacity under a small 
compass, which renders the fitting up easy and simplifies supervision. 
The exhaustion of the liquids distilled is absolute. It is economical 
because it suppresses loss of alcohol and expends less steam in 
proportion to the diminished size of the cooling surfaces, and that 
without prejudice to the economy of the system already described. 
This column can be worked by any labourer first on the spot. In 
cleaning there is no need for manholes. The inside is accessible 
in a few minutes by undoing the big joint by which the whole plate 
is let down below the column. In larger-sized columns the bottom 
is lowered by a special arrangement as far as desired by turning the 
nuts placed on 4 screw bolts. To raise it into position the same 
tightening screws are turned in an opposite direction, so that the 
bottom of the column reassumes its original position, and the 
joint may be again made by fixing the bolts. The liquid or wash to 
be distilled, which comes from a tank placed above the apparatus, 
is fed by a ball valve in the regulating tank K, from which a pipe 
leads to the tap m, which regulates the output of the apparatus. 
The wash reascends into the wash-heater, in which it is heated as it 
ascends ; it then descends through a pipe (bent at the top) into the 
top of the inclined column, in the circuitous descent of which it is 
exhausted, and finally discharged through the siphon tube C after 
passing through the extractor D. The exhaustion of the vinasse is 
constantly verified by the test-glass G", through which the liquid 
flowing from the condensation of the vapour from the spent wash 
may be inspected. This vapour is brought by pipe from b. 



SEC. 23] 



PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



165 




FIG. 55. Guillaiime's distilling column, Type M a . A, distilling column : c, 
entrance of wash into wash-heater ; B, wash-heater ; b, exhaust test-tap : . 
exit of spent wash ; D, spent wash extractor ; d, steam valvr ; <:, almhol 
test-glass ; G", exhaust test-glass ; K, feed regulating tank ; m, \\ a>h n-gulat- 
ing valve ; 0, steam regulator ; o, valve for regulating strength of spirit ; p t 
water entrance tap ; R, refrigerator ; r, exit tap under extractor D (EoROT 
and GRANGE). 



i66 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



The heating steam enters the bottom of the inclined column, rises 

from one division to another, be- 
coming charged with alcohol from 
the descending wash. The alcoholic 
vapours issuing from the inclined 
column are condensed in the wash- 
heater B, then in the refrigerator 
II underneath. Finally, the alcohol 
is collected at the test-glass G. 
Heating is regulated automatically 
by o, which acts on the entrance 
steam valve. The alcoholic strength 
is regulated by opening the tap 
O, more or less. By a slight altera- 
tion,! in distilling weak washes, 
water may be dispensed with, and 
the wash alone used for condensa- 
tion. 

24. According to raw mate- 
rials, and final quality aimed at, the 
result to be attained by distillation- 
rectification varies from one dis- 
tillery to another. Take an existing 
distillery with rectification plant 
desirous of improving the quality 
of its spirits without double rectifi- 
cation, which would entail too 
much loss and too great an expense 
in fuel. It would not be a question 
of attaining perfection at the outset, 
as the operation would be completed 
by existing rectifiers. Elimination 
of the roughest impurities ; expul- 
sion of ethers and oils as far as 
practicable would suffice. This is 
done in column shown in Fig. 56. 
There is no continuous purifier. 
Ethers are eliminated by " pasteur- 
isation" on top of the rectifying 
plates. By the invariable regulation 
of flow the extraction of ethers is 
effected to as minimum or as great an 
extent as desired. The oil extraction 
identical with that of the continuous 
rectifier must be placed underneath 
Being a high strength 




FIG. 56. High strength rectifying 
column, model No. 3 (E. BARBET). 

the rectifying trunks and not below the feed. 



SEC. 25] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 167 

column, is it more economical than low strength distillation followed 
by rectification ? Not only is it not more costly than ordinary column-, 
but it may even consume less steam, esi>ecially when the nature of the 
liquor being distilled allows a forewanner to be used. Again, furtli. i 
rectification in the intermittent rectifier will yield a much larger 
proportion of bon yout, there is both economy in fuel and improvement 
in the spirit. The pasteurised alcohol it produces is chemically very 
pure. It attained 96 per cent, at Clastres decolorised permanganate 
in !.") minutes and even more. One hour five minutes as a maximum 
at the exit from the test-glass, that is a chemical purity not attaim-d 
by double rectification. Were analysis the only criterion of the 
market value of alcohol, this column would be perfect. But 
pasteurised alcohol retains trace of odours of origin more perceptible, 
as there are no others to mask them. In distillation of wine, cider, 
fruits, cane sugar, the odours of origin are very precious, distinguishing 
brands affording evidence of genuineness highly appreciated and 
esteemed by consumers. But in distilling beets, the subsistent odour, 
however weak it may be, is a drawback which must be eliminated 
either by continuous purification, at low strength, or, finally, by 
continuous or even intermittent rectification. The i>asteurised 
phlegm, filtered or not, being of very great purity, further recti- 
fication has few impurities to eliminate. It no longer produces 
mauvais gouts, but moyens (/outs only. With continuous rectifiers 
these are in very minimum proportion. Here it is not rectifi- 
cation but distillation that furnishes the concentrated niauvais 
youts to be sold for denaturation. It is better, therefore, to 
produce them at the outset of maximum strength. The oils being 
extracted between 40 per cent, and 60 per cent, are not market- 
able at that strength. They must be concentrated. This is effected 
automatically by a small column much resembling Barbet's labora- 
tory apparatus. 

25. The oils extracted from the distilling column enter half-way 
up the additional apparatus, the upper plates of which effect a 
summary purification. The pasteurisation from this additional 
column yields oils at 90-94 very bad, and only containing traces of 
ethylic alcohol, whilst the latter ascends to the condenser and 
refrigerator, from whence it descends into the exhaustion plates of the 
rectifying column. The ethers may be concentrated by diminishing 
the flow of first runnings, but that would affect the quality of the 
pasteurised, whilst with the additional apparatus in Fig. 57 the 
pasteurised is improved. At the condenser exit the vapours instead 
of going direct to the refrigerator are concentrated in a small plate 
column underneath the refrigerator. It is solely in these plates that 
the first runnings settle ; moreover, the retrogradation from the first 
condenser is itself very impure. The pasteurised derived in a direct 
line from it is itself so much the better, and the flow of ethers may 



1 68 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



with impunity be diminished to a minimum 2 and even 1 per cent., 
according to the impurities of the wash. 

26. Suppression of " mauvais gout " rectifiers. The concentration 
of oils and ethers are important to agricultural distilleries which 




FIG. 57. Continuous rectification column, with 
apparatus for concentrating oils (E. BAE.BET). 

do not rectify, or for rum or brandy distilleries, for they economise the 
installation of a special rectifier for all the mauvais gouts, whilst 
furnishing 96-97 per cent, of bon gout premier jet. For large 
distilleries likewise the mauvais gout rectifier is also suppressed. 
Some distillers have no low produce apparatus, and return all the 
mauvais gouts de tete et de queue from the rectifier to the wash. But 



SEC. 27] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 169 

that is bad working, for of two alternatives, either the column does 
not completely exhaust the wash, and the oils disappear with the 
vinasses, a loss pure and simple, or exhaustion by the column n is 
complete, as it ought to be, and then the oils are evaporated afresh 
and soil the phlegms. It then becomes impossible to produce a 
suitable alcohol by rectification, whilst with rectifying columns nothing 
is more legitimate than the return of the moyens gouts of rectification, 
the column giving a special outlet to both first and last runnings 
products. Accumulation therefore becomes impossible, and the 
distiller is freed from the constant worry of indefinite repassages. 
The manufacture is continuously resolved without loss into pasteurised 
bon gout, and mauvais gouts to sell. One meets many distillers with 
old plant who boast of never selling mauvais gouts de tete, i.e. they 
use these products up by repassing them. It is a manufacturing loss, 
and therefore wrong. 

27. Twin column. Take a distillery to be erected, say a beet 
distillery, only ivorking three months a year, an agricultural, and not 
a commercial company, desiring to make alcohol as good as possible, 
but aiming at making permanent customers with high grade alcohol. 
It desires to work economically to avoid traces of original odour, 
which are a defect of the preceding simple rectifying column, low 
strength purification is resorted to which easily eliminates any such 
impurity. The column is double or twin. In the first part purifica- 
tion from ethers is effected ; in the second, which constitutes rectification 
proper, pasteurised alcohol is obtained at 97, and the oils are separated 
in the concentrated condition. The apparatus thus seems identical with 
the German or English twin columns. It differs from them essentially 
by the first column possessing, above the feed, some rectifying plates, as 
well as a condenser and refrigerator. In the German columns, the 
alcofiolic vapour of low strength issues from the top of the first column, 
to be rectified in the second. Here it is not the vapour but a purified 
boiling phlegm ivhich passes from the first to the second column, and 
this modification is vitally important as regards purification. The 
alcoholic vapours at about 40, produced by the exhaustion plates, 
ascend the upper plates, where an assortment of alcoholic liquors, by 
increasing strength, is effected as in the preceding apparatus. A very 
small volume is extracted so as to get it very concentrated. The 
'retrogradation from the condenser is thus itself very impure, but that 
is no disadvantage, because it is no longer intended to extract high 
strength pasteurised alcohol. The retrogradation is allowed to descend 
to the base of the rectifying plates, and, in this long methodical 
passage, it has ample time to become thoroughly pasteurised, i.e. to 
lose all trace of first runnings impurity. The whole retrograded liquid 
is discharged through E. This liquid is perforce of the strength of 
the vapour disengaged from the wash at the feed plate, diminished 
by the small quantity resulting from the extraction of the ethers. 



170 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



Take this vapour to be 40 G.L., and that 2J per cent, of ethers are 
extracted for each hectolitre at 40, one litre in the state of ethers will 




ILBER61/ 

FIG. 58. Twin rectifying column (E. BARBET). 



SEC. 27] PLANT FOR'DISTILLATION 171 

be drawn off. The strength will therefore l>e brought to 39. It 
contains the whole of the last runnings impurities, but is free not 
only from first runnings impurities, like all pasteurised, but also from 
odours. After having vaporised the latter by boiling tin- \\a^h, tli.y 
cannot be stopped by the liquid of the first rectifying plates, for they 
are too slightly soluble in dilute boiling liquors of about 40. It 
is only on the upjier plates that they might be partially redissohr.l 
by alcohol at 95, but without injurious accumulation, owing to the 
permanent outlet furnished by the extraction of ethers. A pnritird 
phlegm, fit for supplementary rectification in the twin, issues from K. 
The phlegm passes through a closed social tyi>e test-glass H to 
ascertain the strength and rate of production. The strength ifl, 
moreover, shown by the boiling-j)oint registered by thali>otasimeter T. 
The second column is like a continuous rectifier with fresh pasteurisa- 
tion, the Fig. 58 shows that an oil concentrator like that described 
above has been adapted thereto. The twin rectifying column occupies 
by itself the whole distilling-room. The 4 or 5 [>er cent, of moyens 
(jonts extracted from the second column return to the first. 80 only 
extra pure alcohol issues on the one hand, and ethers and oils are 
reduced to a minimum volume on the other. 

As to the elimination of fusel oil, etc., Barbet, so far back as 
1881, attempted to solve the problem by reserving the use of a 
thermometer in the lower part of the apparatus, where he thought 
the oils ought to occur. It was much too low down ; being unable 
to regulate his plant, he took the opportunity of placing a small 
tap above the feed plate on the side opposite to the entrance of 
the phlegm, to permanently maintain a stream of liquid the strength 
of which was shown by an alcoholometer. By maintaining constant 
alcoholic strength on the feed plate, the working of the apparatus was 
perforce regulated. Barbet thought in this way to cut short the 
odours from the last runnings, which were due, he imagined, to the fact 
that the exhaustion rose too high up the apparatus without his being 
aware of it. The extraction of this sample of the liquor rendered the 
service desired of it. But it was a revelation at the same time. 
Instead of getting a liquor analogous to the phlegm, a horrible 
product issued, rotten with ainylic oils, demonstrating that in that 
zone of the plant there was an accumulation of fusel which refused 
to issue at the bottom with the residual water. After extraction had 
gone on for some time, the product assumed its normal state as regards 
fusel. The apparatus was gradually desaturated ; the problem of the 
continuous elimination of these impurities was solved. Only it 
was highly improbable that the stage where the phlegm was diluted 
with the rectification ivllux was the best to obtain ;i maximum amylic 
extraction. 

Barbet made extractions from the plate immediately above, then 
from the plates underneath, and ended by recognising that the zone 



172 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

of maximum infection was two or three plates below the feed plate, 
on a plate where the normal strength of the liquid was 40 to 50. 
Hence, the continuous extraction of amylic oils at 40 to 50 both 
serves to extract these impurities and to regulate the feed tap 
of the rectifier. That level in the apparatus is precisely the spot 
where the least difference in the exact rate of feeding has the most 
rapid reaction on the strength. It is the most sensitive stage. 
Barbet therefore installed a dial thermometer T at this level, as a com- 
plementary control visible from afar. The distiller regulates his feed 
by its indications, because he is warned by it sooner than by his 
fusel test-glass. It is not difficult to establish equilibrium between the 
inflow and the outflow. The plates of the rectifying column are 
charged with liquid, and all these distinct reservoirs added together 
represent a very imposing bulk of alcohol which constitutes the 
fly-wheel of the operation, to which it may be added that, when the 
feed is completely cut off, " bon gout " still flows for 2| hours, so great 
is the bulk of stock to be exhausted. In all continuous apparatus 
the stock facilitates regulation. No objection has been raised 
against the triple effect in sugar works, under the pretext that it 
was difficult to regulate the respective feed taps of each vessel, so 
as to suffice for the output of the factory, and to maintain in each 
vessel both a suitable gravity and the level of the liquid best adapted 
to good working. Owing to the stock, these adjustments are made 
very easily. Certainly it is good policy to increase the " fly-wheel " 
of the apparatus, and, in 1893, Barbet did so by increasing the depth 
of liquid on each plate in the bottom parts of the rectifier : Barbet's 
comb-shaped bubbling caps lend themselves readily to this increase 
in the height of the liquid. In 1894 he went further still in the 
model of rectifying column installed at Clefs, which contained a real 
phlegm reservoir which can be seen under No. 12 (Fig. 58), the level 
of the gauge glass. This reservoir receives the purified phlegm coming 
from the first column pipe E and closed test-glass H, and the reflux 
from the rectifying trunks K. From there the mixture redescends 
to the lower plates by the tap 4 and the elbow pipe. The tap was 
so regulated as to leave the reservoir half-full, and, according as the 
thermometer T' showed excess of alcohol or exhaustion, the tap 4 
was adjusted so as either to let the reservoir get further charged 
or to let it empty itself. That gave time to correct the production 
of phlegm from the first column by a slight retouch of the wash 
entrance tap 9. In a word, there was a reservoir which could 
momentarily absorb the excess of alcohol or restore it at the will 
of the operator. 

Barbet afterwards found that this precaution was superfluous, 
and that the increase of the stock on each plate was quite sufficient 
to ensure regular working. On the other hand, Guillaume, in his 
accumulating receiver V, Figs. 62, 63, and 64, has set himself to 



SEC. 29] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 173 

exaggerate the stock, and, according to Barl>et, he has done so in 
such a way that whilst hyperbolising the inconveniences of tin- 
system, IK- has only introduced a useless complication. Fur from 
regulating the working, he has, Barbet alleges, introduced a \ter- 
manent cause of irregularity and inconvenience. 

28. Whether it be required to rectify phlegm, wine, or fermented 
wash, the methods of working are slightly different, but there is 
nothing to prevent a continuous rectifier of wash being used to 
rectify phlegms. The reciprocal is not possible because wash or 
wine requires larger surfaces than phlegms. Take first of all the 
rectification of phlegms. The complete and radical solution consists 
in using an isolated column for the ainylic products. The last runnings 
purification column E E 1 , Fig. 59, fed by the refluxes from the 
rectifier, and by these alone, then possesses, like every other continuous 
distilling column, its exhaustion plates E, those of concentration E 1 , 
its condenser F, and its steam regulator. As to the purified phlegms 
they also have their separate plates of exhaustion D, and their 
steam regulator R. 

Now the refluxes from the rectifier are much more impure than 
the purified phlegm. It is therefore better to purify and refine tlu-m 
apart. The model represented here exhausts the purified phlegm in 
the column D, and the refluxes in the column E E 1 . The plates 
E exhaust the refluxes, and the plates E 1 concentrate the last runnings, 
which is effected by a special supplementary condenser F. An 
appropriate extraction is made of the last runnings impurities, and 
the high strength alcoholic vapours which issue from the condenser 
F, being purified by the supplementary refining, pass to the bottom 
of the rectifier C, and mix with the vapour of the purified phlegm. 
The results obtained by this complementary purification are excellent. 
The alcohol has been compared favourably with that furnished by 
the same phlegm after two intermittent rectifications, each preceded 
by very energetic filtration over wood charcoal. All Russian 
refineries of alcohol using Barbet's rectifiers have been authorised 
by ministerial decision to suppress filtration through charcoal. ' 

29. By the continuous rectification of wash, merchantable 
alcohol may be obtained very pure on analysis. But such alcohols 
always retain trace of source odours caused by the too intimate 
contact of the alcohol at high strength with the fermentation gases. 
This drawback is very much in evidence when badly fermented 
washes are rectified directly, the fermentation of which has generated 
gases which prolonged boiling is alone capable of expelling from the 
wash, such as sulphuretted hydrogen, for example. This is obviated, 
and alcohols obtained, not only pure on analysis, but irreproachable 
as regards both taste and smell, by exhausting the wash totally, in 
a first column, in which also first and last runnings products are 
separated. The alcohol purified by pasteurisation passes into a 



174 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII 



second column, where, after dilution with hot water, it is thoroughly 
purified by live steam. The product thus obtained, doubly purified 




FIG. 59. Continuous rectifier of raw spirit (phlegm), exhausting by two 
distinct columns both the purified phlegm and the amylic refluxes from the 
rectifying plates (E. BARBET). 

as regards first and last runnings, is run into a complete rectifying 
column, where it is concentrated at great strength and perfectly 



SEC. 29] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION , 75 

purified. It follows that the pasteurised alcohol is absolutely pure 




FIG. 60. Plant for continuous indirect rectification of wash. V, feed tank 
(wash) ; V 1 , feed regulator ; A E E 1 , rough purifying columns ; N O, 
condenser and refrigerator ; H, oils test-glass for rough purifier ; T, first 
runnings from rough purifier ; B, purifier ; d, feed from purifier to rectifier 
C C 1 ; G, rectifier ; U, recuperator forewarmer ; L, condenser ; M, refrig- 
erator ; P, refrigerator of pasteurised alcohol ; F, test safe ; K, fusel oil 
test safe (E. BARBET). 



i 7 6 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 



and perfectly free from odour or taste to betray its origin. The 
plant consumes but very little more coal than the direct rectifiers. 




FIG. 61. Continuous rectification of raw spirit (phlegm) ; F, feed tank with 
feed regulator ; U, forewarmer ; R R 1 , steam regulators ; E E 1 , preliminary 
purifier ; N, condenser ; 0, refrigerator for first runnings ; J, special 
condenser ; G, rectifier ; C C 1 , last runnings rectifier ; P, refrigerator for 
pasteurised alcohol ; T, test safe for first runnings ; Q, test safe for pas- 
teurised alcohol ; K, exhaust test safe ; H, test safe for oils (E. BARBET). 



SEC. 31] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 177 

The exhausting column C (Fig. 61) is surmounted by a sen 
plates C 1 , and a special condenser J. These new organs form a mm 
jilrte last runnings jmrilicr. They cleanse the vajiours cinitt.-d by 
the exhaustion of the purified phlegm and by the refluxes from the 
rectifier G. The oils are extracted at h h l . Very pure alcohol 
results. 

30. The production of good quality rectified alcohol, i.e. at least 
"commercial," required prior to Guillaume's researches, he says, two 
distinct operations: (1) Distillation, generally in continuous stills, 
consisting solely in extracting the alcohol from the wash, so as to 
produce a more or less pure spirit of a greater or less strength, but 
which it was always necessary to rectify afterwards, so as to obtain 
an alcohol which could be marketed as fine. (2) Rectification in 
intermittent or continuous rectifiers. Continuous rectifiers have 
already taken the place of the intermittent form to a considerable 
extent. It is evident they possess all the advantages of continuous 
over intermittent distillation ; steam economy ; economy in handling 
and working ; initial economy in installing. Continuous rectification 
eliminates the intervals in intermittent rectification when the worm 
safe yields middling quality products only. With continuity of 
distillation and rectification the products once classified on the plate 
columns remain constantly fractionated into (1) foreshot products; 

(2) fine tasted, finished alcohol ; (3) after-products. These three products 
run respectively to their individual worm safes, and always in the 
same proportion once the latter is regulated. It is easy thus at 
a low estimate to get 90 per cent, of very pure fine alcohol, and 
10 }>er cent, for the aggregate of the foreshot and after-products, 
and that at the very outset and without redistilling. The coal bill 
is thus reduced to a very great extent (1) from the continuity of the 
operation, (2) from the utilisation of the heat of the spent wash, 

(3) from the j>ernianent regularity and routine established, but (4) more 
especially owing to the elimination of the numerous redistillations 
incidental to intermittent plant. The continuous distillation- 
rectification of wash is more economical and profitable than inde- 
I>endent continuous rectification, because it produces rectified alcohol 
directly of very good quality in the above projwrtions, starting 
directly with the distillation of wash without any intermittent 
operation. To the above advantages must be added the elimination 
of all cooling, of warehousing, and intermediate manipulation of 
phlegms with loss of alcohol. 

31. The chief difficulty which, according to Guillaume, his 
predecessors had not surmounted was the irregular working of plant 
of this nature. The least hitch, he says, caused the classification of 
products in each part of the plant to be disarranged. Each variation 
in heating, in the alcohol, in the feeding, in the condensation, 
destroyed the regularity of the classification on the plates, causing 

12 



178 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

the alcohol issuing from the worm safes to vary likewise. Again, 
owing to the want of fixity in the strength of the alcohol in- 
tended to be rectified, one is never sure of the wash being regularly 
exhausted of alcohol. These drawbacks were common up to now to 
all continuous columns working up to great strength. With the 
latter, if the quantity of alcohol extracted at the gauges does not 
correspond exact at each instant with the amount introduced into the 
columns, there is continual irregularity in the working of the column. 
If the quantity flowing out of the gauge glasses be less than the 
quantity fed into the rectifier, all at once the column is surcharged 
in strength; and as the plates on the top, already of very great 
strength, cannot be charged further, this surcharge must be 
absorbed by the lower plates, so that if matters be not at once 
remedied the bad exhaustion makes itself felt very quickly, and 
the surplus of alcohol at once flows away with the spent wash. 
Guillaume states that in important continuous plant other than his 
own there are losses of alcohol in the spent wash amounting to more 
than 8 per cent, in normal industrial working, as letters from 
interested parties show. And the state of affairs will last until 
remedied almost always to fall into the opposite extreme the flow 
of alcohol to the gauges when the feed has not been diminished in 
the necessary proportions. If, now, the amount flowing to the gauges 
is greater than the feed, the column must discharge itself gradually of 
the exact deficiency produced by the excess of flow. The plates 
then become exhausted successively from the foot of the column 
upwards, so that if the plate where the strength was, say 40, was at 
the moment the 12th plate, it becomes first the 13th, then the 14th, the 
15th, the 16th, the 17th, etc., continuing to ascend thus higher and 
higher until the flow from the gauges is exactly diminished or the 
feed increased proportionately. To get back to the normal classifica- 
tion on each corresponding plate the correction to be made has to be 
exceeded, which causes matters to fall into the opposite extreme, and 
so on. It will thus be seen that there is a series of continuous 
fluctuations on the plates; at one time, when the column is over- 
loaded with alcohol, the excess soon descending to escape by the 
wash outlet ; or, again, the strength diminishing on the lower plates, 
the seat of the maximum concentration of the fusel, etc., oils ascends 
towards the top, thus approaching nearer and nearer the spot where 
the ethylic alcohol ought to remain absolutely exempt therefrom, and 
the series of plates which succeed this maximum concentration of 
fusel oils, soiled in decreasing proportion, ascend in the same way. 
Hence the great difficulty and danger in managing continuous 
columns for great strengths up to now and the almost absolute 
impossibility of getting perfect products regularly. It is impossible 
to regulate the flow of alcohol to the gauges by hand so that it 
corresponds at each instant with the feed. But Barbet (sec. 27) 



SEC. 32] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 179 

Contradicts ;ill this. I'.y taking tin- \apniirs diivrtly from tin- di-tilla- 

tion of tin- \\.i-li refilling I'n.m - ! iiuniial Irnnrntati'.n, iimn; than 

90 and up to 93 and 94 per cent, of rectified of great purity, and 
6 to 10 per cent, for the aggregate of fmv>hot and aft. i products, 
are obtained by the first distillation and without n-pa ing. < iuillauiw 
guarantees the total loss to be lover than 1 per cent. The installation 
expense is less by the .smaller space occupied by simplification of 
piping and diminution in the number of reservoirs. The mild 
and mellowness of the alcohol produced by Quillaume's appliances 
he claims as incomparable. He asserts that it is the repeated and 
prolonged heating the redistillations which impart dryness and hard 
ness to alcohol. Now, with direct distillation-rectification tin-, 
defects are reduced to a minimum, in a single operation, without any 
redistillation, the spirit only remaining a very short time in tin- 
apparatus A. Large numbers of installations have already been 
made, and are said to be working satisfactorily. 

32. Guillaume's direct distillation-rectification Type 0, J ////' 
cultural (Fig. 62). A, inclined distillation column ; a, tank for wash 
to be distilled ; 6, cold water tank ; C, rectification column ; D, final 
I unification column ; e> water feed tap ; I, wash-heater ; K, condenser ; 
K 1 , gas refrigerator; N, distillation thalpotasimeter ; O, bons gouts 
and first runnings refrigerator; Q, last runnings refrigerator; R, 
vinasse extractor; 7-, siphon for vinasse discharge; S, steam 
regulator; s, tap and pipe for leading phlegms to distilling column : 
U U 1 , water regulator ; u, extraction taps for intermediate impurities ; 
V, accumulating receiver; v, last runnings extraction tap; X, exit 
test-glasses of "bon gout" alcohol; Y Y 1 Y 2 , test-glasses for first 
runnings, last runnings, and intermediate products ; Z, exhaustion of 
spent wash test-glass. It is claimed by the constructors that : 
This apparatus is easily worked, and expends no more steam than 
an ordinary distilling column. It consists of (1) the distilling column 
A. The figure shows that described in 21 et seq., but this organ may 
be of another tyj>e than that prescribed. Any plate column may be 
utilised, but then it would not be possible to return the retrogradation 
from the rectifying column C, on account of the great height whicli 
it would then be necessary to impart to the distillery building, and it 
is necessary to provide in that case a special exhaustion column for 
this retrogradation. This column is shown in Fig. 64, p. 183. (2) 
The concentration column C, with the accumulating receiver V, 
and surmounted by its condensers K I, in which the extraction 
of the first and last runnings and oils is effected which flow 
in a continuous fashion from the test-gla-- - Y Y 1 Y' 1 . The ac- 
cumulating receiver V filled with the retrogradation liquid from tin- 
rectifying column assures regularity and stability in working. (3) 
The final purifying column D, and the refrigerator O. This final 
purification column submits the finished alcohol to a real redistillation 



i8o 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 




62. Direct distillation-rectification (GUILLATTME, EGROT, and GRANGK) 
Type C, Agricultural (sec. 32). 



SEC. 33] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 181 

which extracts from it the last traces of first runnings product*. 

After moling in <), tin- pure alcohol flows into tin- lot gla^ X. It 
is claimed that in these type> ( ' of ( Juillaunie's apparatu> the rectified 

alcohol is of very good i|ii;lity. ami even >i|| at a greater or less 
premium according to local eirciim-t.iiirr-. .md .it a guaranteed 
strength of 96 97 G.L., tin- alcohol being obtained in one single 
operation in the proportion of about IK) JUT cent, of the \\holcalcohol 
produced, and \\ith, so to speak, no ]o^ in iv-t ilieation, and which i- 
always guaranteed under 1 per cent. It is wrought by farm 
labourers formerly quite unacquainted with distillation. They become 
quite expert at working it in a few days. 

33. Guillaume's system of direct distillation rtiii<-ntion Type 
B, Industrial (Fig. C3). A, distilling column ; a, tank for wash to 
be rectified ; B, low strength purification column ; B 1 , column for con- 
centration of first runnings products ; b, water tank ; C, rectifying 
column ; I") D 1 , final purification column ; e, water feed tap; A, steam 
tap for distilling column; I, wash-heater, steam tup purification 
column; J, condenser; P, gas refrigerator; L, condenser; L 1 , gas 
refrigerator ; O, " bon gout " alcohol and first runnings products re- 
frigerator ; p p 1 , pressure indicators ; Q, last runnings refrigerator ; 
R, spent wash extractor ; r, spent wash exit ; 8, steam (distillation) 
regulator ; s, tap and pipe for leading wash to distilling column ; 
T, steam (rectification) regulator ; U U 1 , water regulators ; u w 1 , 
return from rectification to first runnings products ; V. Accumulating 
receiver ; X, " bons gouts " test-glass ; Y, first runnings test-glass ; 
Y 1 , last runnings test-glass; Z, test-glass for determining degree of 
exhaustion of spent wash. According to the constructors of this 
plant, the preceding type C (Fig. 62) does not suit a distillery whose 
chief aim is the production of alcohol of very high quality capable of 
competing with the great French and foreign brands. The type B is 
particularly designed for that purpose. The proportion of bon* gmit* 
of high quality obtained as first distillate by this apparatus varies with 
the substance treated, it is often over 92 per cent, of the total alcohol 
obtained. The bad flavoured first and last runnings are collected 
apart. The arrangement differs very appreciably from tin- preceding 
tyi>e. As they issue from the distilling column A the crude alcoholic 
vapours pass up into the concentration column B B 1 . The major 
part of these products is extracted at the bottom of ]\\ whilst tin- 
first runnings are concent rated in the upper part and extracted from 
the condensers I J. The whole of the part B of this purifier placed 
below the entrance of the vapour from the distilling column com- 
pletes the purification from first and last runnings by a real jiartial 
redistillation of the retrogradation from the part B 1 . The purified 
alcoholic liquors pass to the rectifying column proper C and to the 
accumulating receiver V. The process is finished by removing the 
last runnings in V, whilst on the top the concentrated alcohol is sent 



182 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII, 




FIG. 63. Direct distillation -rectification (GUILLAUME, EGROT, and GRANGE) 
Type B, Industrial (sec. 33), for beets, molasses, grain, potatoes. 



SEC. 33] PLANT FOR DISTILLATION 



183 




FIG. 64.- Continuous rectifier Type S (GUILLAUMK, EOKOT, and GRAN:K) 

(sec. 34). 



184 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. VIII. 

to the final purifying column D D 1 , to be there freed from first 
runnings products which are reformed in the course of working. 

34. Guillaume' 8 continuous rectifier Type, 8. Fig. 64, a, tank for 
raw spirit to be rectified ; b, water tank ; B, first runnings products 
concentrating column ; C, rectification column ; D D 1 , final purification 
column ; E, exhaustion column ; F, low wine (to be rectified) feed 
tap ; H, recuperator (raw spirit, heated by hot spent wash) ; K, con- 
denser; K 1 , gas refrigerator; k, steam pipe; O, refrigerator; o, 
thalpotasimeter ; pp, pressure gauges ; Q, last runnings refrigerator ; 
T, steam regulator; V, accumulating receiver. According to Guil- 
laume, his continuous rectifier type S is based on the same principles 
and comprises almost the same organs as the direct distillation- 
rectification apparatus type B (Fig. 63) previously described. There 
is no distillation column, and the purification column which received the 
phlegms in the state of vapour from the distilling column is fed with 
them in the liquid state. Owing to the absence of the distilling 
column into which the retrogradation from the rectifier are returned, 
the continuous rectifier comprises an exhausting column E, from the 
bottom of which the spent liquor flows to the drum. The problem 
of complete rectification is less difficult to solve than that of the 
production of rectified alcohol from wash. Regularity in working is 
in that case more easily obtained, for if the quality of phlegms may 
vary, their strength is uniform. Guillaume says the instability of 
working of the plant formerly in use has rendered the adoption of 
this principle very slow. Instability is denied by Barbet, though less 
advantageous than direct distillation-rectification as far as economy 
is concerned, continuous rectification none the less presents great 
advantages over the ordinary methods : obtaining from 90 to 94 per 
cent, of " bon gout " alcohol in a single operation, great economy in 
fuel compared with intermittent rectification. Elimination of leakage 
in rectification, great facility in working, complete stability of strength 
and quality of the good alcohol flowing from the test-glass. Absolute 
security for the perfect exhaustion of the spent wash from the 
apparatus. Of course any system of prior purification used in inter- 
mittent rectification, whether by chemical treatment or by filtration, 
may be adopted with continuous rectification, but such costly opera- 
tions are unnecessary with Guillaume's apparatus. Rectifiers have 
lost their interest, says Guillaume, since direct distillation-rectification 
yields products equal to those from independent rectifying plant. 
The literature of this controversy is far too voluminous to be further 
dealt with here. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE MANUFACTURE AND USES OF VARIOUS 
ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 

1. Alcohol is the parent of numerous compounds used in industry, 
many of which are almost of equal importance with itself. Want 
of space prevents us dealing with any but the more important com- 
pounds. Of the higher alcohols we can only treat of amylic alcohol (15) 
and its most important derivative, amylic acetate (16). Allied 
to ethylic alcohol are the spirituous products methyl alcohol (17) 
and acetone (18) obtained from wood spirit, a constituent of the wood 
tar and crude pyroligneous acid obtained by the destructive dis- 
tillation of wood. Ether (3). Amongst the substances directly 
derived from alcohol into which combined ethyl enters as an essential 
constituent, ether occupies the first place. Germany and France each 
produces 8 to 10 times as much ether as Great Britain. This is a 
serious matter as affecting the manufacture of smokeless powders. The 
ether is called sulphuric ether, as sulphuric acid is used in producing 
it. Ether is used by itself as a solvent in a great number of instances, 
also in conjunction with other solvents, particularly alcohol, as a solvent 
for many commercial products, more especially nitro-cellulose. It was 
used as an anaesthetic prior to chloroform, and is still used for the same 
humane purpose. Its use in refrigeration (cold storage) is well known. 
Ethylic chloride (4). By the action of hydrochloric acid gas on 
alcohol, ethylic chloride is obtained. It is a liquid boiling at 12 '5 C., 
often used as an anaesthetic, but several fatal accidents have recently 
resulted from its use. Ethylic bromide (5) and iodide (6) are pn-- 
duced by acting on alcohol with bromine and iodine in presence of 
amorphous phosphorus. These two heavy liquids are used in making 
intermediate products in coal-tar colour manufacture, which are the 
starting-points of at least 100 distinct dyes, each of which is a well- 
defined chemical compound. Chloroform (10). This liquid, the 
humane use of which as an anaesthetic is well known, is manufactured 
in large quantities by heating alcohol with a solution of calcic chloro- 
hypochlorite (chloride of lime). Chloral (13). By the direct action 
of chlorine on alcohol, chloral is formed, and the latter treated by an 
alkali is decomposed into formic acid and chloroform. Both are well- 
known medicinal agents. Bromoform (11). By the action of bromine 
on alcohol, bromoform is produced. It is prescribed as a remedy for 

185 



1 86 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 



coughing. lodoform (12). By the action of iodine on alcohol, the 
well-known antiseptic iodoform is formed. Paraldehyde, sulphonal, 
and urethane are three substances all used as anaesthetics directly 
derived from alcohol. 

2. Ethereal salts Haloid ethereal salts Esters Compound 
ethers. These compounds correspond to the metallic oxides, to the 
metallic salts of the halogen acids, and to the metallic oxysalts of the 
acids. The acids from which they are derived may be either mineral 
or organic ; but the base must always be organic. Ether corresponds 
to potassium oxide. The haloid ethereal salts ethylic chloride, 
ethylic bromide, ethylic iodide correspond to potassium chloride, 
bromide, and iodide. The ethereal salts are produced by reactions 
analogous to those employed for the preparation of metallic salts : 



Icoko 

Acetic acid 



KHO = 

Potassic 
hydrate 



/cm, 
i. COKO 



OH 



Potassic 

acetate 



Water 



{coko 

Acetic acid 



rCH 3 

tCOC 2 H ft O 



Alcohol 
(Ethylic hydrate) 



Ethylic 
acetate 



OH 2 

Water 



But as the hydrates of the organic radicals do not act upon acids 
so energetically as potassic hydrate, it is often advisable to employ 
the acid in the form of a potassic salt, and the radical as a sulphoacid ; 
thus, with acids of the acetic series : 

C 2 H 5 HS0 4 + 00 ^ CO(C 2 H 5 )0 HKS 4 

Ethyl Potassium Ethyl Potassium 

disulphate acetate acetate disulpliate 



3. SULPHURIC ETHER. Ordinary ether 



C 2 H 5 






O molecular 



weight, 74 ; boiling-point, 34 -8 C. ; flash point, - 20 C. is prepared 
by the action of sulphuric acid on ordinary (ethylic) alcohol. On a small 
scale the process is conducted as follows : 9 parts concentrated sulphuric 
acid and 5 parts of alcohol are carefully mixed together, and, after 
cooling, heated to a temperature of 90 C., and a continuous stream of 
alcohol is caused to flow into the mixture. The flow of alcohol is 
regulated so that the mixed liquid is always maintained at the same 
height in the etherifying vessel. The temperature gradually rises to 
136 to 137 C., and remains constant as long as there is production 
of ether. Working in this manner, a mixture of ether and water 
distils over and is collected in a well-cooled receiver. At the same 
time a little alcohol, and, if the operation is carried too far, a little 
sulphurous acid also passes over. The ether thus produced generally 



SEC. 3] USES OK ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 187 

contains an oily body, from which it may be freed by adding caustic 
potash and allowing it to stand for twenty-four hours. Th. -tln-r 
is decanted, washed with water to remove alcohol, and repeatedly 
rectified over calcic chloride ; if it must be exceptionally pun-, a small 
piece of sodium will remove the last traces of alcohol and water. The 
tube leading the va]Mjui-s from the generating vessel to the condenser 
should be drawn out to a point in the former, and a thermometer 




Fie. 65. -7 Laboratory apparatus for preparation of ether. A, alcohol vessel ; 
B, tap and funnel regulating feed ; C, etherifier ; D, sand hath ; E, gas 
burner ; F, thermometer; G, tube leading vapour to condenser; H, con- 
denser ; I, refrigerator ; K, receiver. 



dipping into the boiling liquid serves to indicate the teini>erature. 
The reaction takes place in two continuous stages. The sulphuric 
acid and alcohol first form sulphovinic acid and water. The 
sulphovinic acid reacting on the fresh supply of alcohol forms ether 
and regenerates sulphuric acid, and the latter reacting on fresh alcohol 
reforms sulphovinic acid, and so on. 

= C.,H 5 HSO 4 
Sulphoviuic 

acid 
46 + 98 126 + 18 



C.,H r HO 

Alcohol 



Sulphuric 
acid 



II .0 
Wa'ur 



144 



in 



1 88 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 



C 2 H 5 HS0 4 + C. 2 H 5 HO = (C 2 H 5 ) 2 + A , 2 ^ 

Sulphuric Alcohol Ether Sulphuric 

acid 

126 + 46 74 + 98 

172 172 

Thus the same cycle of reactions goes on indefinitely with the 
same quantity of sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid unceasingly 
regenerated is always the same, but in forming sulphovinic acid it 
reacts continuously upon fresh supplies of alcohol in such a manner 
that the sulphovinic acid existing at one moment is not the same 
as that which existed before or will exist afterwards. Ether is a 
colourless light mobile liquid of a characteristic agreeable fragrant 
ethereal odour. Its taste is first burning, then cooling. It is very 
volatile and inflammable, burning with a brilliant flame ; it does not 
redden litmus, but becomes slightly acid by the absorption of oxygen 
and the formation of acetic acid from contact with the air in 
imperfectly stoppered bottles. When pure its specific gravity at 
15'5 C. is about '720 under the normal pressure. At -31 C. it 
congeals, forming brilliant white plates. Ether is miscible in all 
proportions with alcohol, carbon disulphide, chloroform, wood spirit, 
and benzol ; 36 parts pure ether dissolve 1 part of water, increasing 
thereby its density from '720 to '723 at 15'5 C. ; 9 parts of water 
dissolve 1 part of ether. From its solution in ether the water may 
be completely removed by, say, carbonate of potash, provided the ether 
be free from alcohol and otherwise pure. When completely free from 
alcohol and water, ether has no action on dry tannic acid, which, if 
either of these be present, liquesces to a thick syrupy fluid. Ether 
freely dissolves essential oils, gun cotton, most of the fatty and 
resinous substances, alkaloids, and in general all substances rich in 
carbon and hydrogen. Its vapour mixes rapidly with air and forms 
with the oxygen contained therein a mixture which explodes most 
violently in proximity to an incandescent body. Shaken with an 
equal bulk of water in a small graduated cylinder, ether should not 
lose more than one-fifth of its volume. Blue litmus paper when 
immersed in both strata in the cylinder should remain unaltered, as 
also when a small quantity of the ether is evaporated in a porcelain 
capsule until reduced to a few drops and then tested with litmus 
paper ; a slight acid reaction would indicate acetic acid, and in crude 
ether possibly sulphurous or sulphuric acid ; the acid reaction may also 
be caused by traces of ethyl sulphate ; traces of this and other ethylic or 
amylic ethers or alcohols are also indicated when about half an ounce of 
ether is evaporated from a flat porcelain capsule by causing the fluid 
to flow to and fro ; when the ether is evaporated, the surfaces of the 
capsule should be covered with a deposit of moisture without taste or 
smell and without any oily appearance. Alcohol and ether mix in all 



SEC. 3] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 189 



proportions, and, as above stated, the ether of commerce generally 
contains alcohol, \\liich atl'tvlx its density and its iMiilin-Njint : tin- 



\ 




FIG. 66. Pl.-int fur manufacture ofrthcr (K. 15 vui-.K.r). B, Alcohol feed tank ; 
B 1 , regulating tank ; /f, regulating tap ; F, coil heated .-tlu-i ill. -i II 8< 
in through li<l manhole); J, caustic -.mla tank; K, Jil-nh<il cxti.i'tiuii 
(returned to F) ; M. s-itnrator <.. -\.vss of acid); h, caiisti.- -.la \ . 
steam regulator; A D E rectiticr : ( ', special oOBdtOMF] '-. OOlMfc 
H, refrigerator; S, ether and alcohol condenser: I', ether test-glass; O, 
alcohol test-glass ; L, first running* test-glass ; T, oils and exhaustion. 



igo INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 

means of abstracting the alcohol have been before mentioned. 
Hoffman's anodyne liquor, and the spirit of ether of Pharmacy, are 
such alcoholic solutions. When water, alcohol, and ether are shaken 
together, the mixture separates into two layers, each of which contains 
the three liquids ; in the uppermost there is excess of ether, and in 
the lowermost excess of water. By the further addition of alcohol, 
the specific gravity of the upper layer may be brought to 0'82, and 
that of the lower to 0'92, after which an increase of alcohol produces a 
homogeneous mixture. The production of ether has become a most 
important industry, large quantities being required for manufacturing 
purposes (e.g. smokeless powder, artificial silk, etc.) and for refrigerat- 
ing purposes. For most, if not for all of these purposes, ether made 
from ordinary methylated spirit is quite suitable. But inasmuch as 
it requires much more than a gallon of strong spirit to produce a 
gallon of ether, the price of spirit is manifestly a consideration of 
primary moment to this industry. Richardsoris ether is a very 
dangerous solution of hydrogen peroxide in ether. It is not, therefore, 
a real ether. General caution. Too great care cannot be exercised, 
whether in manufacturing, storing, or handling of ether. If ether 
takes fire in a vessel, it should be at once shut, and not opened until 
contents are thoroughly cool. The heat of burning ether vaporises 
ether so rapidly that when mixed with air an explosion is bound to 
occur. Flash point, - 4 F., say 36 "degrees of frost." 

4. Ethyl chloride (C 2 H 5 C1); boiling-point, 11 C.(57'8F.) Sweet 
or dulcifted spirit of salt was a favourite preparation with the old 
chemists ; they conceived it to possess some peculiar solvent powers 
in regard to the salts of gold : it was also used in medicine : it was 
prepared in various ways ; either by distilling a mixture of alcohol 
and hydrochloric acid ; or of chloride of sodium, sulphuric acid, and 
alcohol. Its preparation by the action of alcohol upon chloride of tin 
was first described by the Marquis de Courtanvaux in 1768 (Mem. de 
VAcad. Royaledes Sciences, v. 19). Ethylic chloride may be obtained 
by subjecting to careful distillation a concentrated solution of hydro- 
chloric acid gas in alcohol ; or a mixture of 1 part of alcohol, 1 of sul- 
phuric acid, and 2 of fused and finely powdered chloride of sodium ; or 
a mixture of chloride of antimony, or of chloride of tin, and alcohol. 
Groves leads HC1 gas into the heated alcohol containing half its weight 
of zinc chloride in solution. The chlorides of phosphorus may also be 
used for the replacement of the HO of alcohol C 2 H-HO by 01, as 
they react with alcohol in an analogous manner as with water 

PC1 3 4 3 H 2 O = P(OH) 3 + 3 HC1 

PC1 3 + 3 C 2 H 5 HO - P(OH) 3 + 3 C 2 H 5 C1 

In all these cases, ethyl chloride passes over ; it should first be trans- 
mitted into warm water, by which its adhering acid and alcohol are 
abstracted, and its vapour may then be condensed by conducting it 



SEC. 6] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 191 

through a cold tube, and receiving it in a bottle surrounded by ice 
and salt. The amount of ethyl chloride made in Germany is not 
differentiated in the same way as ethyl bromide, which has a special 
denaturant of its own, viz. itself. 

5. Ethylic bromide (C 2 H 5 Br) is the bromine compound corre- 
sponding to ethylic chloride and iodide : it is made in an analogous 
manner to ethylic iodide. 

6. Ethylic iodide (0 2 H 5 I); molecular weight, 156. 1 litre of 
ethylic iodide vapour weighs 78 criths (78 x 0'0896 grammes). 
Specific gravity, 1'9464. Boils at 72*2 C. 

Preparation. Ethylic iodide may be prepared in an analogous 
manner to ethylic chloride, viz. by saturating alcohol with hydriodic 
acid gas and distilling, but it is more easily prepared by the action 
of phosphorus and iodine on alcohol. The phosphorous and the 
iodine mutually interacting to hydriodic acid (HI) and phosphorous 
acid H 3 PO 3 . The proportions are 

Brande. Frankland. "VVurtz. Joly. Equation. 

Iodine . 4 2 23 1 381 

Alcohol . 10 5 35 1 138 

Phosphorus. . 2'5 1 7 0'2 31 

It will be seen that authorities differ greatly as to the relative pro- 
portions. According to the equation representing the reaction these 
should be as follows : 

3C 2 H 5 HO + P + I 3 30>H 5 I + H 3 P0 3 

Alcohol Phosphorus Iodine Ethylic Iodide Phosphorous acid 
46x3 = 138 + 31 + 127x3 = 381 468 82 



550 550 

"VVurtz used the apparatus described below, and the proportions 
given under his name above. The distilling flask is surmounted by a 
conical glass vessel filled w r ith the iodine mixed with fragments of 
glass. A bent tube is adapted to the neck of the conical vessel, 
which connects with an ascending Liebig's condenser. On placing the 
flask in the water-bath and heating, the alcohol boiled ascended the 
conical vessel and dissolved the iodine. The alcoholic solution of iodine 
falls back into the flask, where the iodine and phosphorus decompose 
the alcohol with formation of ethylic iodide and phosphorous acid. 
When all the iodine has disappeared from the conical vessel, and the 
liquid in the flask is completely decolorised, the cone-shaped vessel is 
removed, and the liquid distilled on the water-bath as long as anything 
passes over. The product of the distillation being mixed with water, 
the ethylic iodide collects at the bottom of the aqueous liquid. If it 
be coloured by an excess of iodine, the latter is removed by a weak 
solution of caustic potash. The ethylic iodide is then dehydrated 
over calcium chloride and rectified. A more usual method of pre- 



I 9 2 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 



paration is to mix the iodine and the alcohol in a retort or flask, and 
gradually add the amorphous phosphorus, digesting for some hours 
with a reflux condenser, and then distilling and rectifying as before. 
Ethylic iodide recently prepared is a neutral colourless liquid, but 
it becomes rose-coloured, owing to liberation of free iodine after 
standing some time in diffused daylight. Heated with water to 
100 C., it is resolved like methyl iodide into alcohol and hydriodic 
acid (Bernthsen). It is not easily inflammable, but when dropped 
on red-hot charcoal it diffuses purple vapour. It is decomposed 
when passed through a red-hot tube, and among the products is an 
unctuous matter containing iodine. It is sparingly soluble in water, 
but readily so in alcohol and ether. Potassium does not decompose 
it. Alkalis, nitric acid, and chlorine only slowly act upon it, sulphuric 
acid rapidly decomposes it. It decomposes argentic oxide energetically 
in the cold, forming ether and silver iodide. It acts similarly by de- 
composition on other silver salts to form compound ethers and silver 
iodide, e.g. it at once yields, even in the cold, a yellow precipitate 
of silver iodide with nitrate of silver. It is decomposed .in contact 
with a great number of metals, C 4 H 1(? being liberated with forma- 
tion of iodides. Under suitable conditions, the nascent ethyl may 
unite with the metals to form organo-metallic compounds. 

According to Frankland, ethylic iodide, when heated with water 
in a sealed tube, produces ether and hydriodic acid 



2 C 2 H 5 I 

Ethylic 
iodide 



(H 

1 
H 



Water 




2 HI 

Hydriodic 
acid 



7. Ethylic acetate. Acetic ether, so extensively used, inter alia, 
as a solvent in smokeless powder-making, occurs naturally with other 
organic acetates in both wine and vinegar, and contributes to their odour 
and flavour. It was discovered as far back as 1759 by the Count de 
Lauraguais (Mem. Acad. Par.). The methods of manufacture, the 
materials and their relative proportion vary somewhat. It is generally 
made by distilling acetic acid or a metallic acetate with sulphuric 
acid and alcohol (cp. sec. 2), using either of the following formulae : 





A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 





H 


Acetic acid . 














63 




Potassic acetate 


3 








___ 














Sodic acetate 





6 


6 


10 











12| 


Plumbic acetate 











. 


6 


32 







Sulphuric acid 
Alcohol 


3 
2 


9 
3'6 


15 
6 


7 
8 


3 

2 


10 
9 


17 
100 


10 
10 



SEC. 8] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 193 

The sulphuric acid, as a rule, is mixed with the alcohol in a vessel 
surrounded by ice, and when cold the mixture is ]>oured on the 
acetate or the acetic acid, and the whole distilled on a sand bath. In 
I 'lot-ess A the distillate is mixed with ! part of sulphuric acid, and by 
careful redistillation acetic ether equal in volume to the alcohol may 
be obtained. The product of the operation contains free acid and 
alcohol. The distillate consists, in fact, of a mixture of acetic ether, 
ether, acetic acid, and alcohol ; sulphurous acid is also generally 
present. The distillate is therefore agitated with a solution of 
chloride of calcium, to which a little milk of lime has been added ; the 
former eliminates alcohol, the latter neutralises the acidity where lead 
acetate is used. It is also purified by agitating it with water and adding 
carbonate of soda as long as any effervescence ensues. The ether 
which separates is then dehydrated by means of chloride of calcium, 
and distilled, and the ether, which first passes over, is put aside. When 
the boiling-point rises to 165 F., pure acetic ether is obtained. Acetic 
ether is a colourless, limpid, very volatile, and highly inflammable liquid, 

with a very pleasant ethereal fruity odour, of density 0*9072 ( ) : 

^15 O./ 

Perkin, 0'89 ; Dumas and Boullay, vapour density 3 '03. It boils at 77*5 
C.(Perkin). It burns with a yellowish flame, and acetic acid is developed 
by its combustion. Water dissolves about one-seventh of its weight 
of this ether, and the solution is decomposed by potash, giving rise 
to an acetate, and to alcohol. Ammonia has no action upon it. It 
is soluble in all proportions in alcohol and in ether. Acetic ether is 
rapidly absorbed by a mixture of quicklime and caustic potash ; on the 
application of heat, hydrogen is evolved, and acetate of potash 
remains (Dumas and Stass, Ann. der Pharm. xxxv. 162). It has 
been analysed by Dumas and Boullay (Poggend. Ann. xii. 440, and 
Ann. Ch. et Ph. xxxvii. 15), and by Liebig (Poggend. xxvii. 616), 
with the following results : 

Calculated. Liebig. Dumas and 

Boullay. 

Carbon. . . 4 = 48 54 "55 54 '820 54 '47 

Hydrogen . .8=8 9 '09 8755 9 -67 

Oxygen . . 2 = 32 36 3G 36'425 35'86 

Acetic ether . . 1 = 88 lOO'OO lOO'OOO lOO'O 

Acetic ether is intermediate in danger between absolute alcohol 
and sulphuric ether. It is not quite so extremely dangerous as 
ordinary ether. Hence it replaces the latter as a solvent when the 
risk is too great. 

8. Et hylic nitrite Nitrous ether (C ? H 5 NO 2 ). The production of 
an ethereal fluid by the mutual action of nitric acid and alcohol is said to 
have been remarked by Paracelsus, and afterwards by Kunckel, but it 
was forgotten till rediscovered by Navier in 1742 (Navier and Geoffroy, 

13 



194 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 

Mem. de I'Acad. de Paris, 1742). It was subsequently studied 
by Thenard (Mem d'Arciieil, 1. 75 and 359), and later still by Dumas 
and Boullay (Ann. Ch. and P. xxxvii. 19). Many processes have been 
published for the preparation of this ether (see Dumas, Chim. App, 
aux Arts, v. 553 ; and Thomson, Inorg. Chem. ii. 317), among them the 
following, due to Thenard, is the least objectionable : Introduce into 
a sufficiently capacious tubulated retort equal weights of alcohol 
(specific gravity, 0*820) and of nitric acid of commerce (specific gravity, 
1 '30), and connect it with five Woulfe's bottles, the first of which is 
empty, and the remaining four half-filled with a saturated solution of 
salt in water. Apply a gentle heat to the retort, till the liquor begins 
to effervesce, then withdraw the fire, and the vapour passing through 
the bottles, which should be kept cold by a mixture of ice and salt, 
deposits the ether on the saline solution. In performing this 
experiment the retort should be more than one-sixth filled with the 
mixture of acids and alcohol, and cold water should be at hand to cool 
it if required, in order to subdue the violence of the effervescence. 
The alcohol should be first poured in, and then the acid, and not mixed 
by agitation. If the materials are warm, the acid fuming, and the 
alcohol of proper strength, the action often begins immediately, with 
a cracking noise, escape of air-bubbles, and great effervescence, so 
that, notwithstanding the size of the retort, its contents are very apt 
to pass over into the first receiver, and it is often burst; this may 
generally be prevented by applying a wet cloth to the retort. The 
tubes through which the vapour is to pass should not be too small, 
for, in consequence of the suddenness and abundance of its extrication, 
it requires a ready means of escape ; indeed, the whole process requires 
much management and caution, and is most successful when conducted 
upon rather a small scale in a large retort, with from 2 to 4 ounces 
of alcohol and acid, for instance. When the effervescence has entirely 
ceased, the residue in the retort is found to be equal in bulk to less 
than one-third of the material employed : the first bottle contains an 
acid mixture of alcohol, water, and nitrous ether; but the bulk of the 
ethereal product is found upon the cold saline solution of the second 
bottle ; a little also passes into the third bottle. The ethereal products 
are collected, digested with powdered lime, and redistilled into a receiver 
cooled by ice : not more than 10 parts of rectified ether are usually 
obtained from 100 of the mixture of acid and alcohol. Besides the 
ether, many other products are the result of this operation, such as 
nitrogen and its oxides, nitrous acid, carbonic acid, and traces of 
acetic acid and acetic ether : oxalic acid sometimes is found in the 
contents of the retort. Liebig prepared nitrous ether as follows : 
1 part of starch is heated in a retort with 10 parts of nitric acid, sp. 
gr. 1 *3. The retort is connected by means of a long glass tube with 
a tubulated bottle containing a mixture of 2 parts of alcohol, sp. gr. 
0'835, with 1 part of water, and kept cool by being wrapped in a wet 



SEC. 9] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 195 



cloth; the other opening of this hottlr is roiiim-trd l>\ meaiu< 
tulx- \\itli a oondenaer, to which a receiver is att;i- !//'.< 

C,,iK/ t -n.er). Whfii the nitrous arid produced in the ivtni i passes 
through the diluted alcohol, it decomposes it so as to form nitrous 
ether vapour, which is condensed and ultimately collected in the 
receiver; it is purified by being shaken with water, and is tin n 
dehydrated by chloride of calcium. Nitrous ether has the following 
properties : It has a slightly yellow tint and a peculiar odour, which 
\\hrn much diffused is not unlike that of ripe apples; its specific 
gravity is O'SSO at 40 F. (0'947 at 60 F., Liebig ; 0'909, Favre). It 
is extremely volatile, boiling under mean pressure at a temperature of 
about 70 F., so that at summer heat it is apt, on removing the stopper 
of a bottle containing it, to evaporate very rapidly, and even to enter 
into spontaneous ebullition : dropped uj>on the hand it instantly 
disappears and excites great cold. The specific gravity of its vapour 
is i>-568; or experimentally, 2 '627 (Dumas and Boullay). It is 
very inflammable, burning with a yellowish flame, and leaving no 
l>erceptible residue ; when recent, it has no action on litmus, but in a 
few days it becomes perceptibly sour, especially in the presence of 
moisture and light. Mixed with water, a part is dissolved, and 
another part decomposed, forming nitric acid, and giving off nitrous 
gas ; mixed with solution of potash it soon forms potassium nitrite, 
alcohol, and traces of potassium acetate. It is without action on 
ammonia. Owing to its dangerous nature, it must be highly diluted 
with alcohol before use. The ultimate components of this ether are 

Percent. Dumas and 

Boullay. 

Carbon . . . 2 =- 24 32 '00 32 '69 

Hydrogen 5 = 5 6 '67 6 '85 

Oxygen ... 2 = 32 42'67 41-46 

Nitrogen ... 1 14 18 '66 19'00 

Nitrous ether 1 75 10000 lOO'OO 

9. Ethylic nitrate (C H 5 NO 3 ). Millon succeeded in obtaining a 
true ethyl nitrate, and preventing the formation of nitrous acid in a 
mixture of nitric acid and alcohol by the addition of nitrate of urea ; 
1 volume of pure nitric acid, sp. gr. 1*401, and 2 volumes of alcohol, 
sp. gr. '842 (being nearly equal weights), are mixed with a proper 
proportion of nitrate of urea, one or two parts of the latter sufficing 
for 120 to 150 parts of the mixture ; the operation succeeds best upon 
the small scale, as upon 4 or 5 ounces of the mixture : it should be 
gently heated, and about seven-eighths distilled over, in which case 
the operation proceeds quietly, and without that violence which occurs 
in the absence of urea ; the nitrate of urea remains nearly intact, and 
may be repeatedly used. The first product is weak alcohol, soon 
followed by nitric ether, which is recognised by a peculiar odour, and 



196 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 

which on the addition of a little water falls in the form of a dense 
liquid ; it is purified by washing with an alkaline solution, then left 
for a day or two in contact with fragments of chloride of calcium, and 
distilled (Ann. Ch. et Ph., Seme Ser., viii. 233). Nitric ether has a 
peculiar sweet odour distinct from that of nitrous ether ; its taste is 
sweet and slightly bitter ; its density, 1 *1 12 at 62 F. ; its boiling-point, 
185; it decomposes at a temperature a little above this : it burns with 
a very white flame ; it is not decomposed by caustic potash, except 
in alcoholic solution, in which case crystals of nitrate of potash 
without any nitrite, are formed : it is insoluble in water, but soluble 
in alcohol, from which a little water immediately precipitates it ; it is 
decomposed by nitric acid. (Enanthic ether. The cenanthic ether of 
Liebig and Pelouze, obtained from the oil of the Marc brandy of France, 
has been shown by Faget and Fischer to consist of a mixture of the 
ethylic ethers of caproic and caprylic acid. The product met with on 
the market under the name of Artificial Essence of Cognac is generally 
a mixture of the ethylic ethers of different acids. The pelargonate of 
ethyl in particular possesses the real cognac odour. Pelargonic acid is 
obtained by the oxidation of oil of rue. It is etherified by passing a 
current of hydrochloric acid gas through its alcoholic solution. The 
cenanthic acid obtained by oxidation of cenanthol may also be 
etherified. In fact the ethers prepared from the fatty acids of cocoa 
nut oil, caprylic, caproic, and capric are used as a basic for artificial 
essence of cognac. 

10. CHLOROFORM (CHC1 3 ). This important body was discovered 
in 1831 by MM. Soubeiran and Liebig. By distilling chloral mixed 
with lime and water, or with caustic potash solution, they obtained a 
liquid which, when shaken with sulphuric acid and then separated 
and rectified over baryta, yielded a dense fluid, viz. chloroform. The 
term chloroform refers to the constitution of formic acid (HCOHO), 
so that looking at it from that point of view chloroform is a 
trichloride of formyl (Brande). But it is better to regard it as 
marsh gas, CH 4 , the old formene in which three atoms of hydrogen 
have been replaced by chlorine. 

Preparation. 10 parts of chloride of lime and 3 parts of slacked 
lime are stirred up with 60 parts of warm water. The milky fluid 
thus obtained is placed in a capacious retort, and ought not to fill it 
more than one-third at the most ; 2 parts of alcohol are then added, 
and the whole strongly heated. Towards 80 C. a very energetic 
action ensues, causing a very considerable frothing up. The heat is 
then withdrawn. Distillation commences and continues of its own 
accord. As the reaction ceases, it is again heated to carry on the final 
product, and when this has no longer the sweet taste of chloroform 
the operation is stopped. In the receiver are found two or three 
parts of a more or less liquid form in two layers. The lower dense 
layer is chloroform, mixed with alcohol, and coloured yellow by an 



SEC. 10] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 197 

excess of chlorine. The UPJH.T i*>rtion is a rather milky mixtiu 
alcohol, water, and chloroform. The chloroform is decanted, washed 
with water, then with a solution of carbonate of potash, and ivrtitied 
over calcium chloride, and again distilled. Chloroform is a dense, 
colourless, volatile, very mobile liquid of an agreeable, other* ,il, 
aromatic odour. The specific gravity of pure chloroform is about 
1'50 at 15*5 C. In this state of purity it is subject to decomposition 
by exposure to air and light, but a slight percentage of ethylic alcohol 
protects it therefrom, and medicinal chloroform contains '_' ot ''< 
per cent, of ethylic alcohol, so as to lower in density from 1 *496 to 
1 '480, Its taste is first sharp, then cool and sweetish. It does not 
act upon litmus and is not readily inflammable; but when a wic-k i- 
saturated with chloroform and ignited it burns with a greenish flame, 
giving off pungent fumes containing hydrochloric acid. It is very 
volatile even at ordinary temperatures, producing by rapid evaporation 
great cold, but leaving neither a residue nor a film of moisture, nor 
any unpleasant odour when wholly evaporated by the warmth of the 
hand by causing the chloroform to flow to and fro in a porcelain basin. 
Its boiling-point is about 140 F. ; vapour density, 4 '2. When its 
vapour is respired it soon induces insensibility, in the same way but 
more rapidly and effectually than ether vapour, hence its use in the 
performance of painful operations, as originally suggested by Sir James 
Simpson of Edinburgh (Pkarm. Journ., vii. 277 and 313). Poured on 
water, the greater part sinks in globules, which are of a milk-white 
appearance when the chloroform is not perfectly free from alcohol. 
It is so little soluble in water that 3 drops added to 9 ounces of 
distilled water and well shaken did not wholly disappear, though they 
imparted a strong odour to the liquid. It boils at 61 to 62 C. 
Ten parts chloroform dissolve in 7 of rectified spirit, 1 part in 1 J of 
ether, and 1 in 200 of water. Its specific gravity is 1'490. It is 
miscible in all proportions with absolute alcohol, ether, benzol, carbon, 
disulphide, and essential and fatty oils, and is an extensive solvent for 
resins, beeswax, acting on vulcanite, and dissolving caoutchouc, gutta- 
percha, paraffin, camphor, mastic, elemi, tolu, benzoin, and copal ; 
amber, sandarac, and lac are only partially soluble. Contrary to 
Dumas, Taylor found that it did not perceptibly dissolve sulphur and 
phosphorus. It dissolves iodine and bromine, forming deep red 
solutions. A few drops of chloroform shaken with an aqueous solution 
of iodine or bromine removes either of those bodies, and the chloroform 
falls to the bottom of the vessel, acquiring a red colour, the depth of 
which is proportional to the quantity of either substance present. 
Chloroform floats on concentrated sulphuric acid, which is only 
darkened by it at a boiling temperature, when the chloroform is 
rapidly dissipated in vapour. It slowly decomposes nitric acid in the 
cold ; but at a higher temperature deoxidation is rapid, and nitrous acid 
is evolved. It scarcely affects a solution of iodic acid, which acquires 



198 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 

after a time only a faint pink colour. It has no bleaching properties ; 
it does not decompose iodide of potassium, nor does it dissolve gold 
either by itself or when boiled with concentrated nitric acid. When 
nitrate of silver is added to it there is no precipitate, the chloroform 
merely acquiring that milky opacity which it has when dropped into 
distilled water. When the vapour of chloroform is passed over copper 
or iron heated to redness, it is decomposed, a metallic chloride results, 
and carbon is deposited, but according to Liebig no inflammable gas 
is evolved. It is not decomposed by potassium some bubbles of 
hydrogen are sometimes evolved, but it may be distilled over the 
metal without change. Caustic alkalis do not decompose it, except 
after long boiling, when it is entirely converted into chloride of 
potassium and formiate of potassa." Chloroform consists of 

Calculated. Dumas. 

Carbon . . . . 1 12 10 '04 10 '24 

Hydrogen . . . 1=1 0'84 0'83 

Chlorine . . . 3 = 106 '5 89 '12 88 '93 

Chloroform . . . 1 119-5 lOO'O lOO'O 

Storage. Chloroform should be stored in the dark, in cool cellar?, 
in glass vessels. As it does not burn without a wick, it is compara- 
tively safe. Its vapours are non-explosive. 

Qualitative tests for impurities. Chlorine. (1) A test-tube is 
rinsed out with aqua ammonia and then a few spots of chloroform 
dropped into the bottom of the tube. White fumes of ammonium 
chloride would indicate chlorine. (2) On agitation with zinc iodide, 
and starch solution, no blue coloration should appear. Chlorine 
Compounds. Shake 20 cc. with 15 cc. H 2 S0 4 in stoppered tube 
washed with the acid prior to the test. No coloration must occur to 
the acid in less than an hour. 

Ethylene chloride, C 2 H 4 C1 2 (oil of Dutch chemists). Fused potas- 
sium hydrate is dissolved in absolute alcohol in dry test-tube, the clear 
part decanted into another dry test-tube, and a little of the chloroform 
added. No reaction occurs unless the chloroform contains oil of Dutch 
chemists, when a rise in temperature will be registered by a thermo- 
meter dipping into the liquid, with simultaneous evolution of gas and 
formation of a crystalline precipitate of potassium chloride. 

Test for alcohol. As medicinal chloroform always contains about 
2 or 3 per cent, of alcohol, an examination for an admixture of 
alcohol by delicate tests would obviously be out of place. The density, 
the percentage decrease in volume when shaken with water, and the 
property of chloroform to form a perfectly clear and transparent 
mixture with sweet oil of almonds, which it will not do if it contains 
more than 5 or 6 per cent, of alcohol, afford a sufficient evidence 
of the quality of chloroform in regard to alcohol test. A chloroform 



SEC. 10] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 199 

with a density less than IMS, at l-~> :> ('., \\hi.li yields ;i turbidity 
\\ith oil of almonds, and causes an appreciable rise of temperature 
when shaken in a dry test-tube with an equal volume of concentrated 
sulphuric acid, cannot be regarded as officinal. 

Tests for the detection of alcohol in chlornfm ///. (1) Stnn^ 
sulphuric acid, to which a little potassium bichromate has been added, 
shaken with an equal bulk of chloroform, will turn green in 
presence of alcohol. (2) Two volumes of chloroform and one volume 
of concentrated sulphuric acid an- mixed in a bottle closed by a glass 
stopper; after repeated agitation the bottle is let stand for a few 
hours ; the liquid is then carefully diluted with about an equal bulk 
of water, the supernatant aqueous layer is decanted into a beaker, and 
so much of a mixture of pure barium carbonate in water added, with 
constant stirring by a glass rod, as completely to neutralise the acid, 
so that, after gentle warming, the cooled liquid does not change blue 
litmus-paper ; it is then passed through a moist filter, and the filtrate 
tested with diluted sulphuric acid. If the chloroform contained traces 
of alcohol, this would have given rise to the formation of ethyl- 
sulphuric acid (sulphovinic acid), and subsequently to soluble barium 
ethyl-sulphate, contained in the filtered solution, and which is 
precipitated by sulphuric acid as barium sulphate. Consequently, 
the occurrence of a white precipitate will be evidence of the presence 
of alcohol. (3) A mixture of two volumes of the chloroform with five 
volumes of water is warmed, in a test-tube, to about from 30 to 48 
C. ; after violent agitation for a few minutes, the liquid is passed 
through a moist filter, and to the filtrate is added a little solution of 
iodinised potassium iodide ; liquor potassse is then gradually added, 
until the colour of the liquid disappears. After 1 2 hours' standing in 
a conical glass, a crystalline deposit of iodoform will have taken 
place, if alcohol be present ; the crystals may be recognised under 
the microscope, when the deposit is carefully removed, by means 
of a small pipette from the lowest point of the conical glass, and 
transferred to a glass slip. (4) Koninck uses a solution of potassium 
permanganate in saturated barium hydrate in the event of alcohol 
being present ; reduction occurs, the red colour turning green. 
Commercial chloroform is freed from alcohol and water by agitation, 
with double its volume of concentrated sulphuric acid, neutralised with 
px>tassium carbonate and then rectified. 

Quantitative determination of chloroform. Baudrimont has 
based a process for the quantitative determination of chloroform 
on its reducing action on Fehling's solution. 

CHC1 3 + 5KHO + 2CuO = Cu,O + 3KC1 + K 2 CO 3 + 3H,O 

Chloroform Caustic Cupric Cuprous Potassic Potassic Water 
potash oxide oxide chloride carbonate 

German commercial brands of chloroform. There are on the 



200 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 

German market besides the German officinal chloroform various other 
brands of chloroform, e.g. "Chloroform Anschutz," Chloroform ex- 
chloral. Chloroform Pictet. The chloroform from chloral is very 
pure, but it is nearly always equalled in purity by the officinal. The 
chloroform Pictet, prepared by crystallisation at 70 C. and below 
100 C., is likewise in a high state of purity, but that from the purest 
chloral hydrate equals it in that respect, but both decompose in the 
absence of the small amount of alcohol required to preserve them. 
Anschutz salicylide chloroform is prepared from a crystalline compound 

of salicylide C 6 H 4 JQ 2 \ 4, with chloroform, the compound 
formed being C 6 H 4 j Q 2 | 4, 2CHC1 3 , the chloroform . acting as 

water of crystallisation. By simple distillation it can be examined 
in a chemically pure state. 

Manufacture of chloroform from acetone. Even manufacturers 
of acetone chloroform use a certain quantity of alcohol. Chloroform 
needs a little spirit to help in preserving it. There is always a half 
per cent, in it in England, and up to 1 per cent, in Germany. If the 
chloroform is not made from spirit, naturally spirit has to be added 
to it. It is made in Britain from acetone, and the pure alcohol added 
to it. British makers have competed with Germany for some foreign 
orders, and have got the orders; but the duty places them at a 
disadvantage to the extent of that 1 per cent, of alcohol. In this 
connection it is very important, if it is the fact, to know that 
chloroform is made from acetone, because then the question arises, 
Where are we disadvantaged in our exportation price 1 It is not all 
made from acetone. In Scotland, a great deal is made from pure 
alcohol, and a great deal also from methylated spirit. Chloroform is 
exported, and no rebate is granted. 1 

11. Bromoform (CH 3 Br) is the bromine compound which corre- 
sponds to chloroform. It has a density of 2-902 at 15 C. It 
sometimes occurs associated with chloro-bromoform (CHBr 2 Cl) and 
carbon tetrabromide (CBr 4 ) in residual liquor from bromine rectifica- 
tion. It is made by acting on acetone with bromine, with simulta- 
neous action of potash, or by action of alkalis on bromal. The pure 
liquid is colourless, solidifying at 8 C. It has been prescribed for 
diphtheria, and as an anaesthetic. 

12. lodoform (CHI 3 ). This body, which represents methylic 
iodide (CH 3 I), of which two of hydrogen are replaced by iodine, was 
discovered by Serrulas. Dumas determined its composition. Bouch- 
ardat examined its properties. It is produced when iodine reacts in 
presence of an alkali or an alkaline carbonate on numerous organic 
bodies, e.g., wood spirit, alcohol, ether, dextrine, gum, albumenoid 

1 Excise Committee Report and evidence. 



SEC. 13] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 201 

matter. It may In- prepared by dissolving 2 parts of crystallised 
carbonate of soda in 10 parts of water; 1 part of alcohol is added 
and then (small portions at a time) 1 i>art of iodinr U introduce! 
into the liquid heated to 60-80. lodoform separates in crystals; 
thr liquid is filtered, again brought to 60~80 C., and '1 parts of soda 
crystals and 1 part of alcohol are then added ; then a rapid current 
of chlorine is injected through the liquid, with constant stirring, and 
a fresh quantity of iodoform is obtained. It is best obtained by 
boiling in a long-necked flask a mixture of 60 grains of iodine, 50 
of carbonate of potassa, and 60 of alcohol diluted with 3 i>arta of 
water : the boiling is continued till the colour of the iodine has 
disappeared ; on diluting with water the teriodide falls, and only 
requires washing with water (Mohr, Ann. der 7V////-///., xxix. 12). 
Iodoform crystallises in yellow nacreous, hexagonal tables, possessing 
an odour of saffron of density 2 '05. They melt between 115 C. 
and 120 C., and are volatilised in part without decomposition. It 
distils over with the vapour of water. It is insoluble in water and 
dissolves in ether, volatile oils, and fatty acids. Heated with an 
alcoholic solution of sodium ethylate, it forms methylenic iodide, 
CHI 2 . It reacts on acetate of silver with formation of argentic 
iodide and liberation of carbonic acid. 

CHI 3 + 3AgO = CO, + H 2 O + 3AgI. 

British makers of fine chemicals make iodoform. They crystal list- 
from methylated spirit. It is very fortunate that iodoform smells 
so nasty, or people would complain of the British make as against 
the Germans', because there is a very distinct flavour of methylated 
spirit about it, even after all possible purification (Howard). 

13. Chloral (Trichloracetaldehyde, CC1 3 CHO). The mutual 
action of chlorine and alcohol was originally inquired into by Scheele 
and Westrumb ; it afterwards engaged the attention of the principal 
chemists who expounded the theory of etherification, and later on 
was investigated by Liebig and by Dumas (Ann. Ch. et Ph., xli.v. 
146, Ivi. 113), and by Stadeler (ibid., 61, 101). The resulting product 
was originally termed heavy muriatic ether', the term chloral (re- 
ferring to chlorine and alcohol) was applied to it by the last- 
mentioned chemists. Chloral is obtained by passing a large quantity 
of carefully dried chlorine in a continuous current through anhydrous 
alcohol; the alcohol is at first kept cold, but when the first action 
is over it requires to be gradually warmed to about 60 J C. during 
the whole operation, which lasts several hours ; hydrochloric acid gas 
is evolved, and must be, allowed to escape. The current is continued 
until the action is complete and no more chlorine is absorbed by the 
syrupy liquid. Liebig found that several days were required to 
complete this action upon a quantity of alcohol amounting to about 
8 ounces. The product, chloral alcoholate, of this oration is mixed 



202 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 

with twice its bulk of sulphuric acid, and after digestion for several 
hours at 60 C. is decomposed into alcohol and chloral, the latter 
separates as an oil and is subjected to careful distillation ; a limpid 
oil-like liquid passes over, which is to be heated in an open flask till 
its boiling-point attains about 93 C., 200 F. ; it should then again 
be distilled off sulphuric acid, and finally rectified off a small quantity 
of fresh quicklime, the distillation being performed in a bath of salt 
and water. Some authorities rectify the oily liquid from H 2 SO 4 
straight away over calcium carbonate. It cannot be prepared, as might 
be inferred from its composition, viz. that of a chlorinated aldehyde, 
by treating acetaldehyde with chlorine unless water be present 
together with calcium carbonate to neutralise free HC1, since butyric 
chloral is the result when dry materials are employed. Chloral is 
a transparent colourless liquid, of a greasy aspect ; its specific gravity 
at 18-3 C.,'65 F., is 1 '502 ; its boiling-point - 206 F. ; and the density 
of its vapor about = 5'0. It has an irritating odour, is almost tasteless, 
somewhat caustic in its action upon the skin, soluble in water, 
neutral, and its solution is not affected by nitrate of silver. If, 
instead of dropping the chloral into water, and heating it to effect 
the solution, it be put into the contact of a few drops of water, the 
liquids combine into a white crystalline solid, and heat is evolved ; 
and when a few drops of chloral are put into a flask containing 
humid air, small groups of crystals gradually form upon its interior ; 
these are hydrate of chloral. When chloral is poured upon sulphuric 
acid, and left to itself, it forms a white substance, which Liebig calls 
insoluble chloral. Chloral dissolves iodine, bromine, sulphur, and 
phosphorus. When its vapour is passed over heated lime or baryta, 
those bases become incandescent, carbonic oxide is evolved, and 
metallic chlorides mixed with carbon remain. This sometimes 
happens in rectifying chloral over quicklime. The hydrated alkaline 
oxides decompose chloral. Nitric acid is almost without action upon 
it. Chloral consists of 

Duma?. 

Carbon .... 2 24 16 '27 16'6 

Hydrogen ... 1 1 0'68 07 

Oxygen .... 1 16 10'Sl 10 '8 

Chlorine. . . 3 106 '5 72'24 71 '9 



Chloral .... 1 147'5 lOO'OO lOO'OO 

Hydrate of chloral consists of 1 atom of chloral and 1 of water. 
It occurs in the form of colourless, semi-transparent, crystalline 
plates, or crystals, of a peculiar ethereal odour and pungent taste. 
Exposed in a dry test-tube to a gentle heat, by dipping the tube into 
hot water, chloral hydrate fuses at about 58 C., and solidifies again 
when cooled down to 15 C. ; at about 95 C. it boils, and is partly 
resolved into chloral and water, which, however, combine again, and 



SEC. 14] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 203 

form a crystalline deposit in the cooler parts of the tube; at a higher 
temperature it is wholly volatilised without combustion. Chloral 
hydrate is soluble in about half its weight of cold water, and freely 
in both alcohol and ether, but only sparingly soluble in <>,/,/ chloro- 
form, in carbon bisulphide, or in oil of turjxjntine. Its aqueous 
solution is neutral, and gives no reaction when slightly acidulated 
with diluted nitric acid, with diluted solution of argentic nitrate, nor 
upon subsequent addition of aqua ammonia? ; but upon heating this 
mixture, decomposition takes place with effervescence, and with the 
formation of argentic chloride and metallic silver, the latter coating 
the walls of the tube. When the aqueous solution is acidulated with 
diluted sulphuric acid, and faintly tinged with a few drops of 
solution of potassium j>ermangaiiate, no decoloration should take 
place within a few hours. Concentrated sulphuric, nitric, and 
hydrochloric acids dissolve chloral hydrate with decomposition, but 
without colour, and without the evolution of coloured vapours. 
Solutions of the alkaline hydrates decompose it, when heated, into 
soluble formiates and chloroform. Ammonium sulphide dissolves 
chloral hydrate, with the evolution of heat, forming a turbid, reddish- 
brown liquid; the same reagent produces, in concentrated as well 
as in diluted solutions of chloral hydrate, a yellow coloration, which 
becomes dark brown, forming, with the separation of sulphur, a 
reddish-brown compound, gradually when cold, immediately ujKm 
warming. Chloral alcoholate is a colour reagent for resins. 

14. Antipyrin. Febrifuge produced by action of aceto-acetic 
ether on phenyl hydrazin. Antipyrin was quoted before the 1904-5 
Excise Committee as an instance of very large profits made out of one 
of these preparations by the patentees. A very large profit was made 
at one time on antipyrin. 60,000 a year was made by Messrs. 
Meister, Lucius, and Briining, the patentees, for several years while 
the patent ran. The patent has now expired, and it is quite probable 
that English manufacturers would take up the manufacture of that 
product, as it is a profitable product, if they could have alcohol 
sufficiently pure and sufficiently low-priced. Alcohol is by far t In- 
most important body used in the making of that comjxmiul. The 
following paragraphs are condensed from the evidence before the 
Kxcise Committee. Where alcohol enters to a very large extent into 
these preparations, then, quite apart from the duty, a substantial 
difference in the price of the alcohol, as for instance the difference 
between the price of methylated spirit and unmethylated spirit, 
would of itself be a heavy handicap against them undoubtedly, but 
not quite so heavy a handicap as in the case of the colouring matters. 
These pharmaceutical products are produced in smaller quantities 
and bear higher profits. They are not cut quite so fine, and the 
competition is not so keen, as in the case of the colouring matters. 
Consequently the difference in the price of alcohol would not be 



204 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 

of the same weight as in the case of the colouring matters, but it 
must always be a hindrance. 

Taking antipyrin, the wood naphtha in the methylated spirit 
would be perceptible in the finished product, if methylated spirit were 
used. It is not so much the methyl alcohol in the methylated spirit 
which is objectionable, but the other impurities the acetones and so 
on which are present, and which would be very detrimental indeed. 
Aceto-acetic ether is necessary in the manufacture of antipyrin. 
It certainly would be made in this country if manufacturers could 
get acetic ether at practically its short price, that is without the 
duty. Acetic ether functions in the manufacture of antipyrin and in 
the manufacture of aceto-acetic ether. Antipyrin is the methylated 
condensation product of phenyl hydrazine and aceto-acetic ether. 
Aceto-acetic ether could not be made for such a purpose from 
methylated spirit. Acetic ether in a pure state cannot be made from 
methylated spirit. It is necessary that it should be in a pure state. 
Because neither a satisfactory yield nor a satisfactory product would 
be obtained if it were tried to make aceto-acetic ether from crude 
acetic ether. Pure acetic ether is necessary. There is the methyl 
alcohol and the acetones in methylated spirit which would prevent 
the formation of commercially pure aceto-acetic ether. Take it on 
the 10 per cent, of wood spirit, there would be somewhere about 7 
per cent, of methyl alcohol and about 3 per cent, of acetones. 
There is a very large percentage of acetones in crude wood naphtha, 
but that is a matter entirely within the control of the methylator. 
There is no obligation to use such an amount of acetones, to use a 
crude wood naphtha which contains a considerable amount of 
acetones and ketones. The regulations define very accurately the 
amount of methyl alcohol and of acetone and of the other substances 
which may be used. There is no obligation to have, say, three-tenths 
of the amount acetone. Therefore it is a matter which in that respect 
is entirely under the control of the user. But the new regulations 
provide for the use of pure alcohol in cases like antipyrin. 

15. Amylic alcohol, C 5 H 12 O ; molecular weight, 87 '81. Scheele 
was acquainted w r ith this body in its impure state as fusel oil. 
Ordinary or fermentation amylic alcohol is one of the eight possible 
alcohols of the formula C 5 H 12 O, and is the main ingredient of the 
fusel oil in the last runnings from the rectification of alcohol. Dumas 
determined its composition in 1834. Cahours in 1837 pointed out 
its analogy with ordinary alcohol, an analogy which was confirmed 
by the researches of Dumas and Stas, but more especially by those of 
Balard. The fusel oil, which is the last body to come over in the 
rectification of alcohol (whether from malt, wine, potatoes, or beetroot), 
consists principally of amylic alcohol. Amylic alcohol is invariably 
present in fermentation alcohol, but how formed is unknown. 
Commercial fusel oils of different degrees of purity are to be found on 



SEC. 15] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 205 



the market. ( )rdinary commercial only contains ;il>out 30 i>er cent, of 
|.iiiv amyl alcohol. To obtain it pure, the I'IIM-| oil i> vl, ;l ken \\itli hot 
milk of lime, decanted, dried over calcium chloride, and rectified, that 
\\hi.h parses over between 128 and 132 C. is collected apart. The 
portion distilling over below 128 C. contains Imtylic alcohol. Five c.c. 
mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid should only give a faint 
yellow or reddish colour. Commercial amylic alcohol in coloured 
black to blackish brown by sulphuric acid. Amylic alcohol, colourless 
when mixed with sulphuric acid, can only be obtained by repeated 
tedious treatment with concentrated sulphuric acid, ami quite 
pure amyl alcohol can only be got by decomposing pure amyl 
sulphate. Amylic alcohol is a clear, colourless liquid without action 
on litmus paper, which turns brownish by age ; it Assesses a disagree- 
able odour, and the vapour is most irritating to the throat and lungs, 
causing persistent coughing, and preventing its use to extent its sui>erior 
solvent capacities for resins, etc., warrant. Rabatte uses it as a pota-li 
solvent in oil analysis and technically to neutralise free acid in rosin oil. 
It has a burning taste, and burns with a white smoky flame. It boils 
at 132 C. Its density at 15 C. is 0'8184. It dissolves in alcohol 
and ether, carbon disulphide, essential and fatty oils, but is sparingly 
soluble in water 1 in 39 at 16'5 C. will stand 1 in 50 at 13-H C., 
and the solution becomes milky at 50 C. (Balbiano). It dissolves in 
all proportions in acetic acid diluted with own bulk of water. It 
deviates the plane of polarisation to the left, but to a different extent, 
according to its source. Ordinary amylic alcohol is a mixture in 
varying proportions of two isomerides, one of which is inactive and 

TABLE XXI. COMPOSITION OF FUSEL OIL (WixmscH) PER CENT. 
BY WEIGHT. 





Potato 
Fusel Oil. 


Potato Fusel Oil 
free from Water 
and Alcohol. 


Rye Fusol 
Oil. 


Rye Fusel Oil 
free from "NY 
and Alcohol. 


Water 


11-61 


10-150 




Ethyl alcohol . 


2-76 





4-020 





Normal propyl alcoho 


5-87 


6-854 


3-170 


3-690 


Isobutyl alcohol . 


20-85 


24-350 


13-530 


l.v/60 


Amyl alcohol 


58-88 68-760 


68-530 


79-850 


Free fatty acids . 


0-009 0-011 


0-137 


0-160 


Esters of fatty acids 


0-017 0-020 


0-262 


0-305 


Furfural, etc. 


0*004 0-005 


0-018 


0-021 


, Hexyl alcohol . 





0-114 


0-133 


Terpene 





0-028 


0-033 


Terpene hydrate 








0*041 


0-048 




100-000 


100-000 


100-000 


100-00 











206 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX 

the other levo-rotary. By converting mixture into amyl sulphuric 
acids and neutralisation with barium carbonate, the two isomeric 
alcohols can be separated, as the barium salt of the active alcohol is 
2 1 times more soluble in water than that of the inactive alcohol. 
Amylic alcohol does not take fire by mere contact with a flame, 
and when dropped on paper does not leave a permanent greasy 
stain. Ten grammes evaporated on the water-bath should leave no 
residue. 

16. Amylic acetate. There are several possible isomeric acetates 
of amyl. The commercial amyl acetate known to chemists as iso- 
amyl acetate, (CH 3 ) 2 CH. CH 2 CH 9 O. C 2 H 3 O, is a colourless mobile 
liquid with a pleasant aromatic, if somewhat suffocating, odour, 
recalling that of Jargonelle pears. It may be prepared by heating a 
mixture of iso-amylic alcohol with concentrated sulphuric and acetic 
acid, CH 3 . CO 2 H +SCMH 2 + C 5 H"OH = CH S . CO 2 C 5 H n + H 2 SO 4 + 
H 2 O, but it is better to replace acetic acid by an alkaline acetate. 
In that case it may be prepared by distilling a mixture of 1 part amyl 
alcohol, 1 part strong sulphuric acid, and 2 parts dried potassium 
acetate. The distillate is agitated with water, the upper layer of amyl 
acetate is run off, shaken up with a strong solution of sodium carbonate, 
again run off, dried over calcium chloride, and redistilled. Dried 
potassium acetate may be replaced by fused sodium acetate. The 
fused sodium acetate is prepared by heating the crystallised salt in an 
enamelled basin of wrought - iron, aqueous fusion occurs at about 
100 C., then the salt solidifies, to again melt at about 320 C. As 
soon as the salt is completely transformed into a clear liquid, the 
basin is covered and allowed to cool. When its temperature has 
cooled down to 50 - 60 C., the product is pulverised. It is preserved 
in a stoppered bottle, the mouth of which is suitably lubricated. 
Preparation. Into a 300 c.c. flask surmounted by a vertical con- 
denser there are introduced 

Acetate of sodium dry crushed . .30 grammes 

to which are added a mixture of sulphuric acid and amylic alcohol 
prepared beforehand in the proportion of 

Amylic alcohol . . . .30 grammes 

Sulphuric acid (concentrated) . .60 grammes 

and the whole is heated on the sand-bath for about one hour. The 
product is then run into an excess of cold water, and the acetate of 
amyl formed is separated by decantation, washed with dilute soda and 
water, dried over calcium chloride, and distilled. The yield is 80-90 
per cent. The amyl acetate of commerce contains other isomeric 
acetates of amyl. It is manufactured in a similar manner to the 
laboratory processes already described, but the more pure amyl 
alcohol is replaced by the ordinary rectified fusel oil, consisting chiefly 
of a mixture of active and inactive primary iso-amyl alcohol, and 
acetate of lime is often used instead of the acetates of potassium or 



SEC. 17] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 207 

sodium. As tin- rther always retains a little amylic alcohol, if it be 
desired to free it from such, it is treated with acetic acid diluted 
\sith its own weight of water, wh'u-h dissolves the alcohol but does not 
act on the ether. The persistent choking smell of some samples of 
commercial amyl acetate may be due to unchanged amyl alcohol, and 
it might lc advisable to attempt to purify them in this way. Acetate 
of amyl is less dense than water, in which it is insoluble ; it boils at 
133 C. Sp. gr. 0*857. It dissolves in all proportions in ether, and in 
both amyl and ethyl alcohols. Its solution in ethyl alcohol is extensively 
used under the trade name of Jargonelle pear essence for flavouring 
confectionery. Amyl acetate freely dissolves resins, camphor, and a 
solution of pyroxylin in amyl acetate is used as a lacquer, although the 
persistent smell of the crude acetate stands somewhat in the way 
of its more extended use. The flame of acetate of amyl has been 
suggested as a photometric standard. 

17. METHYLIC ALCOHOL (CH 3 HO-32; B.P. = 66'6 C) may be 
obtained in the pure state from winter green oil, which consists of acid 
methyl salicylate C 7 H 4 O 3 HCH 3 by distillation over potash, whereby 
potassium salicylate is formed and methyl alcohol distils over 
C 7 H 4 O 3 HCH 3 + KHO = C 7 H 4 O 2 HK + CH 3 HO. The product is very 
pure. Wood spirit. Crude pyroligneous acid, in which P. Taylor, in 
1819, first discovered wood spirit (methyl alcohol, wood naphtha), con- 
tains 1 percent, of wood spirit. The crude pyroligneous acid is redis- 
tilled in copper stills heated externally by hot gases, or internally by a 
steam coil (25 Ibs. steam). Cast-iron stills may be used instead of 
copper ones, but less advantageously. The tar, deposited at this 
stage, is run off whilst still hot. The first runnings or 20 per cent of 
the whole distillate consists of crude dilute wood spirit (methylic 
alcohol), a volatile liquid extensively used in methylating, or, as they 
call it on the Continent, "denaturing," ordinary ethylic alcohol for 
industrial purposes. As the methylic alcohol distils, a certain amount 
of tar, which is held in solution, is left behind in the still. The crude, 
weak naphtha is neutralised and repeatedly rectified with quicklime, 
sometimes with the acetic acid distillate added. The addition of 
lime also keeps back tarry matters and converts methylic acetate 
into methylic alcohol. The clear liquid separated from the oil 
which floats on the surface, and from the sediment, is treated with 
a small quantity of sulphuric acid which absorbs ammonia and 
precipitates tarry matters, and is redistilled over quicklime. The 
vapours given off during both the distillation of the wood and 
its redistillation are inflammable and explosive, and great care must 
be exercised in the process. The final rectification is done in Coffey's 
stills (Figs. 36, 37), or by Barbet's continuous process. Barbet has 
adapted the plant shown in Fig. 60 (p. 175) for the rectifying of 
wood spirit. The tar does not adhere to the comb-slit caps of his 
rectifying columns. 



208 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 

The ordinary wood spirit of commerce is rarely pure. When 
mixed with water, it turns milky, and an oily layer forms on the top, 
consisting of different bodies insoluble in water. The insoluble portion 
being separated, and the clear aqueous liquid distilled, methyl alcohol 
passes over first and is rectified over quicklime. These processes are 
long and tedious, and only give imperfect results. When wood spirit 
is mixed with a fourth of its volume of olive oil, the latter combines 
with the impurities, and on distillation of the purified product a com- 
paratively pure methyl alcohol is obtained. A surer process is to distil 
the wood spirit with oxalic or citric acid so as to obtain a crystallis- 
able ether (methyl oxalic ether). The latter is decomposed by 
distilling with water (after a previous purification by expression 
between folds of filter paper). The wood spirit thus obtained is 
rectified over quicklime. Wood naphtha can be made miscible with 
water by diluting until complete precipitation is effected, and then 
shaking with molten paraffin, cooling with continued agitation, filter- 
ing and redistilling. The paraffin may be revivified by steaming, 
and used repeatedly. Pure methyl alcohol is a colourless, mobile 
liquid, with a spirituous odour. The empyreumatic odour of the 
wood spirit of commerce is due to impurities. Its density at C. is 
O8142. It boils at 66*5 C. under the ordinary atmospheric pressure. 
However, its boiling-point varies between rather wide limits (60-65), 
according to the nature of the sides of the distilling vessel. Methyl 
alcohol burns with a non-luminous flame, and hence may be burnt in 
a spirit lamp. It mixes in all proportions with water, alcohol, and 
ether, and dissolves certain resins and fatty and volatile oils; its 
deportment in this respect being similar to ordinary ethylic alcohol, 
although its solvent action on gum resins is often different. Thus 
some gums are insoluble in ordinary alcohol, and also in wood spirit, 
but if a mixture, of certain proportions of these two may dissolve the 
gum, yet it often happens that an excess of either of the alcohols 
precipitates the resin from solution. 

The following have been detected as amongst the natural con- 
stituents of crude wood spirit : (1) Acetone, at least 3-4 per cent, 
methyl ethyl ketone ; (2) higher ketones, methyl propyl ketone, allyl 
methyl ketone, allyl ethyl ketone ; (3) aldehydes ; (4) dimethyl acetal, 
methyl ethyl acetal, di ethyl acetal, and methyl propyl acetal; (5) 
allyl alcohol ; (6) propyl aldehyde ; (7) dimethyl furfuran ; (8) methy- 
lic formiate and (9) acetate ; (10) crotonic and (11) angelic acids ; (12) 
pyroxanthine ; (13) traces of ammonia and (14) methylamine. There 
are 360,000 gallons of wood naphtha used in this country annually, 
of which only 140,000 gallons are produced from home-grown raw 
material. It is not a case of getting over a crude product from 
America, or some place, and purifying it here. There is a certain 
quantity which comes over from America, and is purified here, but 
the above 140,000 gallons are distilled from wood, in this country. 



SEC. 20] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 209 

Thriv is IK. \VIMM! distilling done in hvhmd. A p-nt It-man from 
Bradford started works in Ireland, hut after he got the concern info 
working order the men struck for higher wages, and the enterpri- 
was discontinued. All hard woods, chiefly oak or beech, are suitable 
for distilling; rim is not a good wood for the purpose, and pinewood 
is worse. This alcohol, esj>ecially when crude, is more volatile, and 
its vapours more readily inflammable than those of ethylic alcohol ; 
and, owing to the high acetone content of crude spirit, its vapour is 
explosive at the ordinary temperature. Flash point, 32 F. 

18. Methylic ch/<*ide. This compound is best obtained by 
heating a mixture of 2 parts of chloride of sodium, 1 of methyl 
alcohol, and 3 of sulphuric acid ; a gas is evolved, which is washed 
with water, and which is pure methyl chloride. Any impurities are 
abstracted by the water. The gas is collected in tubes filled with 
mercury. This gas is not condensable at ; exposed to intense cold it 
condenses to a liquid which boils at 22 C. It is colourless, of an 
ethereal odour, and sweet taste, and burns with a greenish- white 
flame. Water at 60 F. dissolves 2*5 volumes. It forms with water a 
hydrate crystallisable at -f 6 C. It is very soluble in alcohol. It is 
quite neutral, and gives no precipitate with solution of nitrate of 
silver, resembling in these respects ethyl chloride. Its density, 
is 0*9523 at C. Its chief source is beet distillery residues. 
When chloride of methyl is passed through a red-hot tube, it is 
resolved into hydrochloric acid, marsh gas ethylene, and other car- 
bides. It burns with a yellow flame, and is condensed by chlorine 
under exposure to light. Heated with caustic potash, chloride of 
methyl evolves hydrogen, and formiate of potash is formed, which by 
further decomposition yields carbonate of potash. In ordinary daylight 
chlorine produces no change on chloride of methyl ; but in the direct 
rays of the sun the following compounds are successively formed, 
namely, CHC1 2 ; CHC1 3 ; and CC1 4 . 

The components of chloride of methyl are 

Carbon . .1 12 2376) M . . 
Hydrogen . .3 3 5'94J == Meth y ] 
Chlorine .1 35 '5 70 "30 Chlorine 1 35 '5 70 '30 



Chloride of methyl 1 50'5 lOO'OO 1 50'5 lOO'OO 

19. Methyl bromide (CH 3 Br.). A colourless liquid prej)ared by 
acting on methyl alcohol with bromine in presence of phosphorus. 
It contains 53*7 of combined methyl calculated to methyl alcohol. 

20. Methyl iodide (CH 3 I) is prepared in a similar way to methyl 
bromide. The necessary quantity of iodine is dissolved in alcohol, 
and then run in a stream into a still provided with an agitator, and 
containing vitreous phosphorus. The methylic alcohol and iodine goes 
in a continuous stream into the still, and methyl iodide (D = 2'199 ; 
B.P. = 43*8 C.) issues in a continuous stream from the condenser. 

14 



210 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 

21. The ethereal salts of methylic alcohol, methyl acetate, methyl 
nitrate, and methyl sulphate are made by processes so analogous to 
the corresponding ethyl salts, that we need not occupy further space 
with a description of their manufacture. Suffice it to say that methyl 
acetate has been suggested as a solvent to replace ami/lie acetate as a 
solvent for nitro-cellulose in the facing up of cotton to resemble silk. 
The smell of the former if pleasant is too persistent. 

22. ACETONE (Pyroacetic spirit Pyroacetic ether Dimethyl- 
'ketone Propanone) was known in the Middle Ages. It was 
obtained so far back, at least, as the sixteenth century by the distilla- 
tion of Salt of Saturn (lead acetate). It was obtained by Derosne 
(Ann. de Chim. Ixiii. 267) by the destructive distillation of cupric 
acetate. Chenevix obtained it from other acetates. Subsequently it 
was examined by Macaire and Marcet (Ann. of Phil. N.S. viii. 69), by 
Liebig and Dumas, who established its composition in 1832. Gerhardt 
regarded it as acetylic methide. It has, in fact, been prepared by 
replacing the chlorine of acetylic chloride by methyl. The relationship 
between acetic acid, acetylic chloride, and acetone is that acetylic 
chloride 

PIT fCH ^ 

acet * c ac ^ ' * n w ^ c k *ke hydroxyl is replaced by 



COC1 * s ace * c ac \ COHO ' 



chlorine. In acetone \ QQCH ^ * S re pl ace d by methyl. The 

experiment was carried out by Pebal and Freund, who in 1861 
effected the synthesis of acetone by treating zinc-methide by acetylic 
chloride 

Zn.(CH,) s + .!{<*&, ZnCl 2 + 2 

Zinc methide Acetylic chloride Zinc chloride Acetylic methide 

(Acetone) 

Acetone, in fact, belongs to a class of bodies termed generically 
ketones. Frankland regarded acetone and other ketones as derived 
from the fatty acids by the substitution of the hydroxyl of the latter 
by a monad alkyl radical ; they thus resemble the aldehydes in 
constitution 

fCH 3 /CHo 

\COH \COMe 

Acetic acid Acetic Acetone 

aldehyde 

The ketones are also correctly represented as compounds of carbonic 
oxide with monad alkyl radicles ; that is, they, contain the carbonyl 
group CO linked on both sides with an alcohol radical 

Me CO Me 

Acetone 



SEC. 22] USES OF ALCOHOL DERIVATIVES, ETC. 211 

This composition is illustrated by the reaction which takes place 
when acetone is produced by the dry distillation of acetate of lime 

CH.V 



Calcium acetate Acetone Carbonate of lime 

158 50 + 100 

Acetone may also be produced by the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol, 
which thus loses 2 atoms of hydrogen 

CH 3 CH(OH)CH 3 + O CH 3 COCH 3 + H,O 
Isopropyl alcohol Oxygon Acetone Water 

By distilling together the salts of two different fatty acids, ketones 
containing two different alkyl radicles are obtained. 

C 3 H 7 COKO + CH 3 COKO c?H T / CO + K 2 CO 3 

Potassic butyrate Potassium Propyl methyl Potassium 

acetate ketone carbonate 

In the same way, if a mixture of the acetate and propionate of calcium 
be distilled, methyl ethyl ketone is produced. 

CH 3 - COOca + CH 3 CH 2 COOca = j g 8 ^CO + CaC0 3 

2 5/ 

Laboratory methods of preparing acetone on small scale. When 
dry acetate of lime is carefully distilled in a fireclay retort, it yields 
a considerable portion of this product. The vapours disengaged are 
condensed in a well-cooled receiver, and the crude distillate is rectified 
with a small quantity of bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid. It 
may be freed from water and any remaining traces of empyreumatic 
oil by repeated rectification over chloride of calcium. Acetone is also 
formed during the dry distillation of anhydrous acetate' of lead 
(Wohler). Zeise gives the following as the best process for the 
preparation of acetone. One part of dry quicklime and 2 parts of 
crystalline sugar of lead are well pulverised and mixed, and intro- 
duced into a retort , or iron bottle ; 4 of lead acetate to 1 of lime 
(Wurtz) ; after a time the lime becomes hydrated at the expense of the 
water of crystallisation of the acetate, and much heat is evolved. 
The retort is then adapted to a receiver immersed in a freezing 
mixture, or in ice, and heat gradually applied till red-hot. The 
crude product is a mixture of acetone, water, and two oily bodies ; it 
is redistilled in a water-bath of chloride of calcium, and the distillate 
is then again poured upon chloride of calcium, and after some days is 
poured off, and three-fourths of it distilled over. Acetone may also 
be prepared from sugar, starch, gum, etc., by distillation with eight 
times their weight of powdered quicklime. It is, however, accom- 
panied in this case by phorone an oily liquid separable by water, in 



212 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. IX. 



which it is insoluble. It is also produced by heating citric acid with 
potassium permanganate (St. Gilles, Jahr uber de Fort chemie, 1858, 
585). Acetone is also one of the products produced in the destructive 
distillation of wood (Volckel, A, 80, 310) and of citric acid (Robiquet). 
It would be best prepared by destructive distillation of barium acetate 
at a moderate heat, but barium acetate is costly. Hence acetate of 
lime is generally used for the preparation of acetone on the large scale, 

but the temperature required is greater 
and the distillate is contaminated with 
such like impurities as dwnann, an 
isomeride of mesityle oxide. Acetone can 
also be manufactured from crude wood 
spirit of which it is an important con- 
stituent, by the continuous rectification 
plant, now in use both in France and 
Canada, shown in Fig. 66a. The raw 
product contains about 25 per cent, 
acetone, and the plant yields acetone of 
95-98 per cent, purity. The arrows 
show the circulation of the liquid or 
vapour. As acetone boils at 55 *5 C. 
and methyl alcohol at 66*5 C., there is 
a difference of 10 C. between their 
boiling-points, which suffices for frac- 
tionation. The product thus obtained 
FIG. 66. Acetone still (E. can finally be purified by treatment with 
BARBET. Paris). 1, Feed ; 2, sodium or potassium bisulphates (thereby 
feed regulator; 3, forewarmer) taking advantage of the fact first dis- 
4, entrance of crude raw mate- CQVered b Limpricht, that acetone 
rial; 5, steam regulator; 6, , . %., 

special condenser; 7, con- combines like aldehyde with alkaline 
denser ; 8, refrigerator ; 9, bisulphite to form crystalline corn- 
first runnings ; 10, pasteur- pounds), crystallising the crystalline 
ised acetone ; 11 pasteurised Compoun d 5 and then treating the crystals 
methyl alcohol; 12, refrigera- -,, 1 ,' ,. ,.,,. > , ; 

tor; 13, oils and exhaust! wlth and distilling over carbonate of 
soda lye. Acetone is used for cleaning 

galvanised iron, in spirit varnish manufacture, as a solvent for resin, 
fats, and oils. In the purification of crude anthracene, in the manu- 
facture of chloroform, and in the process of producing artificial silk, 
and, above all, in smokeless powder manufacture. Acetone requires 
similar precautions in use as benzol. 

23. Ketone oils. The salts which the higher homologues of 
acetic acid produce with alkaline salts yield on distillation the higher 
homologues of acetone : the so-called ketone oils used as solvents. 




CHAPTEK X 
THE USES OF ALCOHOL IN MANUFACTURES, ETC. 

1. THE following is an alphabetical list of uses to which alcohol 
may be put, and of arts, crafts, and industries in which alcohol is 
an important factor, with reference letters and key showing the 
function of the alcohol in the industry. 

2. Key. (a) The alcohol acts as solvent for resins, or both dyes and resins, 
the solution of which is applied to articles in this industry (varnishes, varnish 
stains, lacquers, antifouling compositions, insulating compositions, etc.). 
Lacquers are thin and dilute, and most generally applied to metals. Spirit 
varnishes are glossy paints in which varnish formed as above plays the part of 
vehicle. 

(b) Alcohol is vehicle for flavouring material fruit essence. 

(c) As in (a), but solvent for waterproof and . airproof materials in addition. 

(d) Alcohol acts to bring substances into solution and as volatile vehicle 
and diluent. 

(e) The alcohol acts as preserving medium or remedial agent per se. 

(/) The alcohol acts as the raw material, the purifying medium, the coagu- 
lant, or as the solvent vehicle in which the reaction takes place, or the medium 
by which the finished article is used or applied. 

(g) The alcohol acts as a solvent vehicle for an aseptic or antiseptic agent or 
disinfectant. 

(h) The alcohol acts as the volatile solvent for a dye generally insoluble in 
water. 

(i) The alcohol acts as a solvent for a stiffening agent, insoluble in water. 

(j) The alcohol acts as a solvent vehicle for nitro-cellulose. 

(k) The alcohol acts as a solvent vehicle for scents and perfumes. 

(I) The alcohol acts as a solvent vehicle for a salt which imparts a coloured 
flame to burning alcohol. 

(m) The alcohol is used in adjusting these instruments. 

(n) The alcohol is used as a solvent for coating to protect steel. 

(0) The generator of cold, the ether which produces sterilisation is an 
alcohol derivative. 

(p) The alcohol acts as a solvent for the impuritit >. 

(q) The alcohol acts as vehicle for acting agents, or as a necessary con- 
stituent of the mixed solvent. 

(r) The alcohol solution of resin acts as vehicle for vitrifiable pigment. 

(s) The alcohol acts as vehicle for flux. 

(t) The alcohol acts as solvent volatile, or otherwise. 

(u) The alcohol is used in candle polishing, or as vehicle for wick-curing 
chemicals. 

213 



214 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. X. 



(v) The alcohol acts as combustible fuel. There is also a "solidified" alcohol 
used as a fuel. In blackboard slating the alcohol is fired to produce a dull 
surface. 

(w) The alcohol acts as a volatile vehicle for the tan. 

(x) The ignited vapour of alcohol renders mantle incandescent. 

(y) Alcohol is main raw material. 

(z) Motive power for machinery. 



Accoutrements, military 

() (c) (h). 

Accroides varnish (a). 
Acetic acid and acetates (/). 
Acetic ether (/). 
Aconitine (f) (p). 
Aerated waters (6) (&). 
Agricultural implements 

(a). 

Airproof vessels (c). 
Alkaloids (/). 
Alkanet root (d ). 
Aluminium enamel (a). 
,, printing 

ink (a). 

Amber varnish (d). 
Anatomical specimens (e). 
Aniline dyes (/). 
Antipyrin (/). 
Antiseptics (g). 
Aquaria (c). 
Articles of vertu (a). 
Artificial camphor (/) (p). 
,, ebony (a) (h). 
,, flowers (a) (h). 
,, grass (a) (h). 
,, jasmine (/). 
leather (y). 
,, malachite (a) (A). 
musk (/). 
neroli (/). 
,, perfumes (k). 
shellac (t). 
silk (/). 
,, stone (a) (h). 

teeth (a). 

,, tortoiseshell (a). 
Astronomical instruments 

().. 

Atropine and salts (/). 
Automobiles () (/). 

B 

Badges (a) (h) (r). 
Bags, canvas (a) (h). 



Bags, leather (a) (h). 
Balance, chemical (a). 

spring (). 
Balloons (c). 

toy (c). 
Balls (a). 
Bangles (). 
Barrows (a). 
Baskets (a). 
Bedsteads (). 
Bells, hand (a). 
Benzoin tincture (d). 
Bicycles (a). 
Bird stuffing (g). 
Black enamel (a). 
,, varnish (a). 
Blackboy gum varnish (a). 
Blacking (d). 
Blasting powders (/) (/). 
Blue dyes (h). 
enamel (a). 
lacquers (a). 
, varnish (a). 
Boat building (a). 

models (a). 
, painting (a). 
Bookbinding (a). 
Boot polishes (h). 
Boots (h). 

Botanical specimens (e). 
Boxmaking (a). 
Brass instruments (a). 
,, ornaments (a). 
,, polishing (f,). 
Brassfounding (a) (2)). 
Brazing (s). 
Brewer's glaze (a). 
Bridles (a). 
Brilliantine (h). 
Bronze printing ink (a). 
Bronzing (a). 
Brown dyes (a). 
,, enamels (a). 
,, lacquers (a). 
,, stains (a). 
,, varnishes (a) 
Brushes (a). 



Buckets (a). 
Burns (e). 
Butyric ether (y). 

C 

Cabinetmaking (a). 
Cagemaking (a). 
Candelabra (a). 
Candlemaking (a). 
Canes (a). 

Canisters (japanning) (). 
Canoe building (a). 
Cantharidine (f). 
Canvas (c). 
Caoutchouc (/). 
Capsules (a). 
Carbolic acid (g). 
Carpenters' tools (a). 
Carriage decoration (a). 
Cartridge case making (c). 
Case, show, etc. (a). 
Cattle medicines (g). 
Celluloid (;'). 
Cement (*). 
Chandeliers (a). 
Chatelaines (). 
Chemical analysis (/) (t). 
cleaning (p). 
,, processes. 

Cherrywood stains (.). 

Choral hydrate (y). 

Chlorodyne (c). 

Chloroform (y). 

Church illumination. 

Clarionette (a). 

Cleaning (p). 

Clinometer (a). 

Clockmaking (a). 

Cocaine hydrochloride (/). 

Cochineal tincture (h) (t). 

Cold storage (o). 

Collodion (/). 

Compasses (m). 

Copal varnish. 

Copperplate (a). 

Copying presses (a). 

Corkscrews (a). 



SEC. 2] ALCOHOL IN MANUFACTURES, ETC. 215 



Corsetmaking (it). 
Cosmetics (). 
Cotton dyeing (It). 
Cotton treating \\ it h nih<> 

cellulose (j). 
Crape stiffening (i). 
Curling tongs heaters (r). 

D 

Decoration and decorative 
industries generally (a). 
Disinfectants (/) (g). 
Dog collars (a). 
Dominoes (a). 
Dragon's blood (h). 
Drapery (h). 
Drawers (a). 
Drums (a) (c). 
Dry-rot preventives (</). 
Dye manufacture (/). 
Dyeing (/*). 

E 

Eau de Cologne (k) (y). 
Edible fats (p). 
Electric light (z). 
Electrical instruments (a). 
Electrical lamp filaments 

(/) 

Electrodes for storage 

batteries. 
Embalming (g). 
Emulsions (photo) (j). 
Enamelling (a). 
Enamel paints (a). 
Engine models (a) (z). 
Engines,motor power fuel 

in Serpollet's steam (z). 
Engraving (a). 
Eserine and its salts (/). 
Etching (a). 
Ether (/). 
Ethyl bromide (/). 
Ethyl chloride (/). 
Fthyl iodide (/). 
Explosives (j) (q). 



Fabrics (c) (h) (i) (j). 
Feathers (h). 
Fiddles (a) (*). 
Finish (a). 
Fireworks (I). 
Floor polish (a). 
Fluxes (a). 
Frescoes (a). 
Fruit essences (b). 



Fuel (r). 
Fulminates (/). 
Furniture (a). 

G 

Gallic acid (d) (p) (t). 
Garment cleaning (p). 
Gas brackets (a). 
Gas-pipe deposit remover 

(I). 

Gauges (a). 
Glass enamelling (r). 
gilding (a) (/}. 
painting (a), 
staining (). 
Glazes, coloured (r) (s). 
glass (r) (s). 
porcelain (r) (H). 
Globes (a). 
Gloves (h) (w). 
Gold gilding and enamel- 
ling china, glass, 
pictures (r) (f). 
Gramophones (a). 
Green dyes, stains, enamels, 
lacquers, varnishes (a) 
(*). 

Grinding machinery (z). 
Guaiacol carbonate (/). 
Guitar making (a). 
Gutta percha (a). 

varnishes (a). 

H 

Hair pins (a), 
wash (g). 
Halls, public illumination 

of (4 

Hammer handles (a). 
Hard spirit varnish (a). 
Harness compositions (t). 
Hat dyeing (h). 

making (h). 

stiffening (A). 
Heliotropine (/). 
Hemp dyeing (h). 
House decoration (a). 
Horn (a). 
Hosiery (h). 
Hospital purposes (e) 
Hydrometers (m). 
Hydroquinone (/). 

I 

!ce making (o). 
"Humiliation (x). 



Implements (a) (j). 
Incandescent light (/) (") 

(/). 

Inkstands (a). 
Insecticides (//) (h). 
Insulators (a). 
Iridescent varnishes (a). 
Ironmongery (a). 
Ironwork (a). 



Japanning (a) (h). 
Jewellery gilding (a), braz- 
ing, enamelling (r) (s). 



Laboratory (d) (/). 
Lace (. 
Lacquers (a). 
Lakes (/). 
Lamps (a) (v) (x). 
Lantern projections (x). 
Latticework (a). 
Laundry irons (v). 
Lavatories (a). 
Lead acetate (p). 
Lead pencils (a). 
Leather dyes (h). 

,, enamels (a). 

,, stains (h), 

,, tanning (t). 

,, varnishes (a). 
Lens (mountings) (a). 
Light (x). 

Lincrusta Walton (a). 
Liniments (g). 
Linen dyeing (h). 
, treating (j). 
Linoleum (a). 
Liquid fuel (v). 
Lithophane (a). 
Lithography (j). 
Looking-glasses (a) (/). 
Luminous paints (a). 

If 

lachinery (c). . 
Magnets (a). 

ilahogany stains (a). 

Malachite stains (a) (/<). 

Mantles, incandescent (x). 

rlaps (a) (j). 
Marquetry (a) 0')- 

lasks (a). 
Mats (h). 
Mats varnish (a). 

ledicine. 



216 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. X. 



Mercerising (j). 
Metal plate work (a) (z). 
Metalochrome (a). 
Metals (a). 
Microscopes (a). 
Military uniform and ser- 
vice equipments (a) (c). 
Mixing machinery (z). 
Models (a). 
Mordant (a). 

N 

Negatives (j). 
Nets (h) (ic). 
Nitrous ether (y). 
Nubian blacking (a). 



Oil extraction (t). 

,, refining (p) (t). 
Orange dyes (h). 

,, lacquer (a). 

,, stains (a). 
Outdoor illuminant 
Overmantels (a). 



Paint cleaning (p). 

,, machinery (z). 

,, making (t). 

removing (p). 

,, restoring (h). 
Paper (a) (J). 
Paraldehyde (/). 
Parquet floors (a). 
Pedestals (a). 
Pegamoid (y). 
Percussion-caps (/). 
Perfumery (6) (/) fa). 
Phenacetin (/). 
Phenazone (/). 
Pharmacy (6) (rf) () (/) ( 

(A) (*) (?). 
Pianos (a). 
Picture cleaning (p). 

,, framing (a). 

,, gilding (a). 

painting (a). 

,, restoring (p). 
Pilocarpine and salts (/). 
Picric acid (/) (t) (h). 

,, stains (t) (h}. 
Pipe and pipe cases (a). 
Printing (a) (*). 





Sulphonal (/). 




Surgery (</) (e). 


Rackets (a). 


Surveying instruments (a). 


Red dyes (A). 


Syringes (a). 


,, enamels (a). 




,, stains (a). 


T 


,, varnishes (a). 
Ribbons (h). 
Ropes (i). 
Rubber goods finishing (t) 
(*} 


Tan extraction (t). 
Tannic acid (t) (u). 
Tanning leather (w). 
Tapestry (h). 


\fj* 


Tartan (h). 


S 


Therraometry (m). 


Saddlery (h) (a). 
Salicylates (/). 
Sandalwood (t) (/). 
lake (t) (/). 
Santonin (/). 


Thymol (/). 
Timber preservation (e). 
Tin decoration (a). 
, , soldering (s). 
Tinacedine (room disin- 


Sauces (6). 
Scalds (c). 
Scent (yt). 


fectant) (g). 
Tinctures arnica, 
benzoin, cantharides, 


School bags (a) (j). 
,, furniture (a). 
black boards (a) (h) 


cochineal, iodine (iron, 
turmeric, etc.) (t) (q). 
Tinned goods, japanning 


(V). 

Shaving soaps (g). 
Ship building (a). 
painting (a). 
,, bottom compositions 
(d). 
Signalling, coloured flames 

tn 


(a). 
Tobacco (t). 
Toilet soaps (/) 
Toys (a). 
Tramcars (a) (j). 
Transparent soaps (/) (g) 
(h) (*). 
Trunks (a) (g). 


\i>). 

Silk (h). 


Turmeric (h), 


Shop fittings (a) (y). 
Skin tanning (w). 
Skins curing (w). 


Turnery (a) 
Turnips, etc., preservation 
for show (g). 


Slate enamel (a). 


U- 


Soap manufacture (t}. 




Solidified spirit (v). 


Uniforms, accoutrements, 


Soporifics (/). 
Spectroscopes (a). 


and equipments (a) (d) 
(h). 


Spinning textile (z). 


V 


,, wheels (). 
Spittoons (). 
Stains, black (a). 


Vanilla (/). 
Varnish (a). 


,, blue (a). 
green (a). 
,, yellow (a). 
mahogany (a). 


Vinegar (y). 
Village illumination (x). 
Violet dyes, enamels, lac- 
quers, varnishes, stains 

/ _,\ / r \ 


walnut (tt). 


(a) (h). 


Steel pens (a). 


Violin varnish (a) (h). 


Stereoscopes (a). 




Stethoscopes (a). 


W 


Street illumination (a;). 


Waterproofing (a). 


Stoves (v). 


Water-pumping (z). 


Sugar (from molasses) (p) 


Weaving (z). 


('). 


White lead (p). 



SEC. 5] ALCOHOL IN MANUFACTURES, ETC. 217 



Winnowers (ftoiMn) () i Wood fat (/>). 



carving (a), 
dy.-ing (/<). 
"enamelling" (). 
staining (a). 
work machinery (2). 



Wool dyeing (A). 



X 
Xylui.liu (j). 

Y 
Yacht building (a). 



ili-ri, i.ition (a) 



Yellow dyes (/t). 



enamels (a) (j). 
lacquers (a) (j). 
stains (a) (j). 
varnishes (a) (j). 



3. Alcohol ia most extensively used where it first acts as a 
solvent for the raw material so as to bring it into a condition tit 
for use, and is permanently retained in the preparation as the solvent 
vehicle by which the article may be used or applied in any desired 
degree of consistency. Alcohol thus figures as a raw material in 
chemical industry mainly by acting as a solvent for such organic 
matter as is insoluble in water. As a solvent, alcohol is the anti- 
thesis of water. A resin dissolves in alcohol, it will not dissolve in 
water ; water precipitates the resin from its alcoholic solution. Gum 
dissolves in water, it will not dissolve in alcohol. Alcohol, in fact, 
precipitates the gum from its alcoholic solution, and advantage is 
taken of this principle to purify gums. Far more organic substances 
dissolve in alcohol, and to a greater extent than in water. Anatomical 
specimens. The ordinary methylated spirit is used in Britain. In 
Germany 1 litre commercially pure methyl alcohol and 1 litre petro- 
leum benzine are used to denature 100 litres of alcohol for this pur- 
pose. In Belgium 500 grammes nitro-benzol, 500 grammes camphor, 
or 1 J litres of methyl-ethyl-ketone are used to denature 100 litres of 
alcohol, and in 1903 they so denatured 1100 gallons at 50 per cent, 
strength. Antiseptics. Alcohol is the raw material for many anti- 
septics, e.g. iodoform. Artificial floivers. Alcohol is used as vehicle 
for dye to dye paper, and as vehicle for scent to perfume. 

4. Bedstead enamels. Almost pure alcohol, J litre of turps per 
100 litres, is used in Germany as solvent for resin. Bismarck browtt. 
Much alcohol is used in dissolving this dye, and in dissolving resins 
in the alcoholic solution to form the spirit varnish stain which 
produces imitation mahogany. Blacking. Blacking figures in the 
British Inland Revenue returns as one of the products in which 
methylated spirit is used. No doubt it is used as a solvent for some 
ingredient in liquid blacking, or as a vehicle for a scent. Black lead. 

These remarks apply also to black lead. Brastfounding. This 
figures in British returns as a methylated spirit consuming business, 
possibly as vehicle for lacquer for the brass, or as varnish for foundry 
patterns. 

5. Calico printing is also an alcohol consuming industry, possibly 
as solvent for dye. Candlemaking. Industrial alcohol is consumed 
possibly in treatment of wicks, or polishing of candles, or as solvent 
for dyes, etc. Castor oil. Alcohol has been experimentally tried in 
Marseilles on the large scale as a medium or solvent by which to 
extract castor oil from the bean. The experiments are said not to 



218 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. X. 

have been attended with success, possibly from want of attention to 
details. Otherwise, there is no reason why castor oil should not 
be economically extracted from the castor oil bean by alcohol. 
Celluloid, Here alcohol acts as an ingredient of the solvent 
mixture used to dissolve the cellulose. In France 5069 hectolitres 
(111,518 gallons) of alcohol were used in this industry in 1901, only 
about one-half of that used in 1899. In Germany 493,636 gallons 
of alcohol were used in this industry in 1903. The denaturant in 
Germany is 1 kilogramme of camphor, or 2 litres of turpentine, 
or J litre of benzol, per 100 litres. China manufacture. Alcohol 
is used as a solvent for the varnish vehicle used to paint the verifiable 
pigments on the china goods. Coal-tar colour ivories. In coal- 
tar colour works it is extensively used as the starting-point of the 
manufacture of ethyl-aniline, from which so many coal-tar colours are 
derived, and as a purifying, extracting and crystallising medium, and 
each German coal-tar colour factory is said to use 10 to 60 metric 
tons of alcohol per annum, but, of course, much of it is recovered 
and used over again. Corsetmaking. This figures as an unmineralised 
methylated spirit consuming industry in the Excise returns for 1901, 
to the extent of 590 gallons, possibly as a vehicle for stiffening agents. 
Crape. These remarks also apply to crape. This industry, with silk 
and embroidery manufactures, consumed 8434 gallons of unmineralised 
methylated spirit in 1901. 

6. Diastase. The preparation of this enzyme or soluble ferment 
is apparently pursued on a commercial scale in France by the aid 
of alcohol. Pure alcohol is used, and is added to a solution of malt. 
The operations are conducted in close vessels under Excise supervision. 
Drying. Alcohol as it evaporates carries away the last traces 
of water in its train. In drying ethereal extracts, especially oils, 
it is invaluable in expelling the last traces of water and thus pre- 
venting bumping. Water may even be displaced from a substance 
by a great head of alcohol under pressure, as in making smokeless 
powders. Dyeing, etc. Again, a somewhat recent development is 
the dyeing of delicate tints by alcoholic solutions of dye-stuffs. The 
objection to ordinary water in dyeing is that the salts in solution, 
especially lime, affect the tints. A more weak solution of a colour 
can be struck on to delicate fabrics from alcohol than from water 
the two solvents act differently ; suffice it to say, spirit penetrates more 
uniformly into the interstices of the fibre without manipulation than 
water, and does so more evenly and brings all the affinity of the fibre 
for the dye into play by a far more intimate contact than is possible 
with water. 

7. In those instances where alcohol acts as an extracting and 
purifying agent, the edible fat industry may be mentioned, in which 
the alcohol dissolves the impurities, floats to the top, and the 
impure alcoholic liquid may be syphoned off and the alcohol distilled, 



SEC. 9 ] ALCOHOL IN MANUFACTURES, ETC. 219 

for re-use. Enamel paints spirit. Alcohol is used as the solvent for 
the resins, and the solution of the resin in the alcohol as the vehicle 
tor tin- paint m enamel. Engines, Driving of. Alcohol is not used 
tn drive engines in Britain. In Germany 648,010 gallons were used 
in alcohol-driven engine-driving in 1903. Elrrtri'' /'imp fila- 
iin-iita. Methylated spirit is employed in the making of filaments 
in. incandescent electric lamp manufacture. Electrodes for electric 
storage batteries. The German Excise give a method for denatura- 
tion of alcohol for this industry, but it is difficult to see the function 
of the alcohol unless it be as a vehicle for an insulating medium. 
Electrotyping. The British consumption of unmineralised methylated 
spirit for this purpose was 128 gallons in 1901. Embrocations, 
liniments, lotions, cattle, and other medicines. The British con- 
sumption of methylated spirit for 1901 in the preparation of these 
often proprietary articles was 15,410 gallons. Essential oils. 
Alcohol is used as the solvent vehicle medium, purification and 
crystallisation agent and diluent for sale. 

8. Fireworks. Many salts when dissolved in alcohol impart 
exceeding bright colours to its non-luminous flame, e.g. common salt 
colours it yellow ; cupric chloride, bright green ; boracic acid and 
barium chloride, pale green ; strontium chloride and lithium chloride, 
bright red ; potassium chloride, purple. Both alcohol and salts should 
be pure to get best results. French polishing. Both crude methyl 
alcohol (i.e. wood spirit) and crude ethyl alcohol, methylated, are used 
as vehicles, solvents, and diluents for the solutions of dyes and resins 
used in this industry. Crude wood spirit is bad from a hygienic point 
of view. Fruit essences. This is an extensive industry in which 
alcohol figures largely. These substances are alcoholic solutions of 
aromatic products used in the making of sweets. They are made 
from fusel oil derivatives, i.e. from the last runnings in the rectifica- 
tion of raw spirit, and, curiously enough, in the development of this 
new industry the German distillers are at times able to sell their 
residuals at a higher price than their main product. Furniture 
jiolishes (household revivers). Alcohol enters into the composition of 
some of these, though more frequently turpentine is the solvent, as 
turps dissolves beeswax, but alcohol only acts a very partial solvent 
indeed. Alcohol has, however, the advantage of being a solvent for 
dyes, 

9. Gas-pipe deposit remover. This is used in Russia and 
Switzerland, where the intense cold in winter renders deposits of 
naphthalene of frequent occurrence. Possibly the addition of a 
little camphor to the alcohol would aid the solvent action of the 
alcohol. Gilding. Alcohol forms a medium for the reduction of 
the gold chloride. Glyceropliosphate of lime. The French Excise 
publish a method for denaturing alcohol for use in this industry. 
The alcohol is added to the glycerophosphate dissolved in an aqueous 



2 2 o INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. X. 

mixture of ammoniacal salts and ammonia. The work is done in 
closed vessels under the permanent supervision of the Excise at the 
manufacturer's expense. Gum resins. See under Varnish. Of true 
gum resins only the resinous ingredient is soluble in alcohol. 

10. Hatmaking. Both crude methyl alcohol (wood spirit) and 
immineralised but methylated spirit are extensively used as solvents. 
The British industry consumed 121,104 gallons of immineralised 
spirit in 1901. The French, 9218. 

11. IncKarubber. 1. Use of alcoJiol as a coagulant for tJie latex. 
According to Morisse, " One volume of 90 per cent, alcohol coagulates 
6 volumes of latex, yielding a fine superb rubber of brilliant whiteness, 
and yellowing but slightly on ageing, but the dearness of alcohol and 
its feeble coagulating power puts it out of the reckoning." This was 
written in 1889, when alcohol was much dearer than it is now. Un- 
fortunately the latex must be treated on the spot. Under favourable 
circumstances, however, alcohol should be the coagulant par excellence 
for indiarubber latex, and where rubber is produced in plantations it 
may be advantageously used. By aid of a still, much of it might be 
recovered and used over again. It will be seen that as alcohol coagu- 
lates the rubber in the latex, rubber is insoluble in alcohol. 2. Finishing 
of rubber goods. The use of alcohol for this purpose is possibly to 
remove the sulphur efflorescence, or as a vehicle for a scent to drown 
the smell of coal-tar naptha, and of sulphuretted hydrogen, the latter 
from the vulcanisation process. Ink manufacture. This industry 
figures amongst those in which unmineralised methylated spirit was 
used in 1901. The probabilities are that the alcohol was used as 
an ingredient of a sort of spirit varnish or spirit stain used as a 
marking ink, or as an aid to reduce silver nitrate. Insecticides. 
The function of the alcohol is as a solvent for nicotine. 

12. Laboratory. The uses of alcohol in the laboratory are 
numerous. 1. As a solvent, it is the solvent par excellence for all 
organic substances which do not dissolve in water. Ammoniated 
alcohol is a better extracting agent than alcohol alone, where a coal- 
tar is "struck" on to an inorganic base. 2. It takes the place of 
water in saponification with many advantages, both the solid caustic 
alkalis (potash and soda) being soluble therein. 3. As a precipitating 
medium, it is only necessary to refer to the precipitation in alcohol 
of concentrated lead solutions by sulphuric acid, and the estimation 
of potash and ammonia by platinum chloride. The use of alcohol in 
the separation of barium from strontium and calcium are well known. 
We need not dwell on these minor uses of alcohol. The Auer incan- 
descent lamp burning the vapour of alcohol is of use in polarimetry 
where gas, etc., is not available. The new alcohol lamps must prove 
invaluable in such situations. There is also a great future for alcohol 
engines in laboratories. Lanolin is a mixture or emulsion of purified 
wool fat with about 20-25 per cent, of water, which has the peculiar 



SEC. 15] ALCOHOL IN MANUFACTURES, ETC. 221 



projerty of taking up water like a SJMHI^C, lit-iio- it is an excellent 
medium for the preparation of salves and ointment. The wool fat is 
extracted from the crude wool or grease by i>etroleuin spirit. Alcohol 
is used in its piiritieatimi ; no less than 21,824 gallons of methylated 
spirit were used in Germany for this pur|>ose in 1903. Tin- method 
of denaturing is 5 }>er cent, of petroleum. A///r/-//x/// }\'n/ton. In the 
case of i>egamoid the function of the alcohol is, of course, to aid in 
dissolving the nitro-cellulose, but the function of alcohol both in 
linoleum making and lincrusta Walton is obscure, i>ossibly it is used 
as a solvent for coloured rosinates, or as a finishing spirit varnish to 
impart a gloss. In any case, 21,128 gallons of unmineralised methy- 
lated spirit were so used in Britain in the three industries in 1903. 

13. Mahogany stain. Enormous quantities of alcohol, whether 
as finish, ordinary methylated spirit, or unmineralised methylated 
.spirit, are used as a vehicle in the staining of wood to imitate 
mahogany. There are no available statistics. See under Bismarck 
brown. Museums. Spirit varnish is largely used in show-case making, 
and in polishes for same, but also in preserving natural history 
specimens, e.g. serpents. Besides, it is used in the varnishes employed 
to coat delicate specimens to protect them from the action of the 
air and preserve them from decay, and as an ingredient of insecticides. 
It is of frequent use in taxidermy. 

14. Oil refining. Alcohol is used as a solvent of free fatty 
acids and other impurities. In 1901, 1 1 50 gallons of unmineralised 
methylated spirit were used for paint cleaning, according to the 
Excise. Most likely the alcohol in question was used as a re- 
mover ingredient or as a vehicle for some of the substances which 
dissolve dried paint, viz. carbolic acid, etc. Perfumery. Alcohol is 
a constituent of the great bulk of perfumes now sold. It acts as the 
vehicle for the perfume. It also acts as a diluent. Perfumes in their 
natural state are often far too strong to be pleasant. Alcohol, more- 
over, is the raw material for many }>erfunies, such as acetic ether, 
butyric ether. 

15. The perfumery industry consumes enormous quantities of 
alcohol. A special phase of the perfume industry is the absorption 
of the perfume of flowers by fats, and the extraction of the absorbed 
perfume by alcohol. This is a sort of converse of the principle of tin- 
purification of animal fats, so as to render them edible, to which 
reference has already been made. In the former case the alcohol is 
used to remove the bad-smelling impurities, and is recovered for 
future use. Here it is not only used to recover the scent, but also 
to act as the permanent vehicle and diluent therefor. The perfume 
industry has attained great developments in Germany. Although 
Germany started in the competition for this trade without a single 
advantage in the race, even its climate being against it, and not at 
all kindly disposed to odoriferous flowers and plants, yet, strange to 



222 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. X. 

say, it has been in this rigorous, unfriendly climate that the chemically 
pure odoriferous principles of essential oils have each in their turn 
been successively isolated; amongst others, citral from essence of 
lemons, anethol from essence of anise, and menthol from essence of 
peppermint, geraniol from geranium oil, and so on. But to crown 
these triumphs, several perfumes have been built up synthetically, all 
by German chemists. Both natural and synthetic perfumes come 
upon the market as alcoholic solutions. 

16. Photography. Alcohol is used in photography in various 
ways. 1. In collodion manufacture as a solvent. The pyroxylin 
or mtro-cellulose is steeped in alcohol for 24 hours, but there is no 
disadvantage in adding at the same time 10 per cent, of the ether. 
A gallon and a half of collodion suffices to cover 500 square feet of 
collodion paper. The price of collodion would be very much reduced 
if it could be made from duty free spirit ; as it is, absolute alcohol 
costs 4s. 4d. per Ib. 2 In the process of photography for stripping 
and drying negatives, alcohol is used for the purpose of stripping 
negatives and drying dry-plate negatives. A large quantity is con- 
sumed where the dry-plate process is used, because they must get 
the negatives dried quickly. Methylated spirit is not suitable. It 
is used, however, but often spoils negatives. In the art of photo- 
graphy alcohol appears mainly as an ingredient of the solvent mixture 
for nitro-cellulose in the making of collodion and of the mixtures used 
to dilute it. Throughout the trade a great deal of collodion is used 
that is made with methylated spirit. A proportion is made with 
methylated spirit, but few commercial collodions are made entirely 
with it because they give too much trouble. They foul the silver- 
bath, and you cannot get the same class of negative. The dot in 
the half-tone process has ragged edges instead of cleanly and sharply 
defined edges. Colour photography. Alcohol figures largely in 
photography in colours, e.g. Lippman uses, inter alia, in the making 
of his gelatine plates, an alcoholic solution of cyanine. He moistens 
each plate with alcohol before washing it. Again, before use, the 
sensitised film is washed in a solution of absolute alcohol 100, nitrate 
of silver 0'5, glacial acetic 0'5. 

17. JResins. There are several solvents for resins, but alcohol 
and its derivatives are par excellence the solvents to be employed 
in making spirit varnishes, lacquers, etc. This is one of its prin- 
cipal uses. Sheep c%>s. Possibly the 450 gallons of methylated 
spirit used in 1901 were for the extraction of nicotine from 
tobacco. Silk manufacture. This industry aided by crape and 
embroidery manufacture consumed 834 gallons of alcohol, mainly for 
stiffening in 1901. Silvering mirrors Martin's process. No. 1 
Solution : 1 . Dissolve in the cold 4 grammes of crystallised nitrate 
of silver in 100 c.c. of distilled water. 2. Dissolve 6 grammes of 
nitrate of ammonia in 100 c.c. of distilled water. Allow the solutions 



SEC. 18] ALCOHOL IN MANUFACTURES, ETC. 223 



to stand for some time, then mix them. The solution should ! 
in the manner given further on. No. 2 Solution: Dissolve '2~i 
grammes of common sugar in 250 c.c. of water. Add 3 grammes 
of tartaric acid, boil about 10 minutes; add, after cooling, 50 c.< . 
90 per cent, alcohol, and make up the volume to 500 c.c. No. 3 
Solution : Dissolve 10 grammes of pure caustic potash in 100 
of water. Clean the mirror to be silvered (1) with nitric acid, ('!) 
with a mixture of equal parts of solution 3 and alcohol, then the 
mirror is washed, standing it in the distilled water. Then 100 c.c. 
of No. 1 solution are run into a test-tube, then poured into a HUU< r 
or plate according to size of the mirror; 50 c.c. of No. 2 solution 
are run into a second test-tube, and 50 c.c. of No. 3 solution added. 
The mixture is shaken and run into solution No. 1. The mirror 
which has remained under water is brought rapidly into the liquid 
in id kept at J centimetre from the bottom of the dish, taking care 
to agitate it gently. If the solutions have been well made, the 
transparency of solution No. 1 is not altered when the mixtures 
of solutions Nos. 2 and 3 are added. Soldering. Some 660 bulk 
gallons of alcohol were denatured in Belgium in 1903 for dissolving 
the resin used for soldering metal boxes. But not only is alcohol 
used as a flux in soldering, but it also constitutes the heating agent 
in new and improved brazing and soldering alcohol lamps, which burn 
a mixture of alcohol vapour and air instead of coal-gas and air. 

18. Spirit stains. Alcohol is a solvent and vehicle for dye and 
resin. Soap. In the manufacture of transparent soap, the soap is 
made in the ordinary way first, then it is shredded, and the natural 
water of it is dried out ; then the soap is dissolved in methylated spirit, 
and part of the methylated spirit is distilled off. The resultant soap 
and spirit is then cast into blocks and cut up. It has to be kept for 
a long time to enable the spirit to come away at normal temperatures. 
As the soap is kept, it gets more and more transparent. Soap' made 
with methylated spirit is quite as transparent as that made with 
pure spirit. The French use certain scents which cannot be used 
in the concentrated state, which can only be used in solution, which 
are practically put out of reach in this country. They are mostly 
synthetic perfumes of slight solubility. Small quantities of soap 
have been made with duty paid spirit, but there is no appreciable 
difference in the transparency. The alcohol is used mainly in 
connection with transparent soap. Alcohol has certain influent v- 
on the physical nature of the soap which tend to make it a superior 
article. The real object of using alcohol is to eliminate the excess 
of the alkali and the other uncombined materials from the true soaj>- 
forming substance. The principal object in using alcohol in the 
finishing of soap, is to bring about a closer chemical combination 
between the alkali and the grease. Sugar Use of alcohol in 
extraction of sugar from molasses. Again, alcohol has long been used 



224 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. X. 

to extract the impurities from lime sucrate, so as to recover sugar from 
molasses. The alcoholic processes of extracting sugar from molasses 
have, however, nearly all been abandoned. There, however, remain 
a few applications of Manoury's system in Germany and Russia. 

19. Tannin. Alcohol is largely used abroad in the extraction 
of tannic acid from tanniferous substances. Tanning leather. An 
alcoholic solution of tannic acid is used as a quick and effective 
vehicle in tanning. Tannic acid is soluble in alcohol, and not only 
is alcohol used to extract the tan from gall nuts and other tanniferous 
products, but here, and this is a somewhat novel if recent use of 
alcohol, the alcoholic solution of tannin is used to tan leather. We 
have only to go one step further, that is, to cure, tan, and dye the skin 
with one application of one solution. That will no doubt be done in 
the not far-distant future, and here again alcohol will come once more 
successfully into play. 

20. Varnish making. We now come to the spirit varnish 
industry founded on the solubility of the raw resin in alcohol. 
Many resins are more or less completely soluble in alcohol, such as 
sandarac, shellac, common rosin, grass tree gum, and the oleoresin 
turpentine. Some varieties of manilla are soluble, others not. White 
hard spirit varnish and brown hard spirit varnish are alcoholic solu- 
tions of resins. By adding an alcoholic solution of Bismarck brown 
to a brown hard spirit varnish, a mahogany stain is obtained, and so 
on. Lacquers are more dilute solutions of resins, etc., than the spirit 
varnishes, and they may be tinted green by an alcoholic solution of 
brilliant green, yellow by a similar solution of chrysoidine, blue by 
an alcoholic solution of spirit blue, and black by nigrosine. Vinegar 
inaking. Vinegar is made in Britain from malt, and there is now no 
tax on malt. France converted in 1901, 50,576 hectolitres of alcohol 
directly into vinegar, say, 1,112,672 bulk gallons; Germany in 1903, 
3,624,588 gallons; Switzerland in 1903, 60,980 gallons; Belgium in 
1903, 240,548 gallons. 

21. Waste products from distilleries, Utilisation of. Amongst 
products obtained from distillery residuals may be mentioned acetal 
andfurfurol, both of which find a use in coal-tar colour manufacture. 
Butyric ether is also another product, with the odour of pine-apples, 
obtained from distillery residuals. Methyl chloride is obtained from 
beet distillery spent wash. Amylic acetate is got by appropriate 
treatment of the fusel oil. We need not enlarge further on this 
part of the subject here, as it has already been dealt with. 



CHAPTEK XI 

THE USES OF ALCOHOL FOR INCANDESCENT 
LIGHTING, HEATING, AND MOTIVE POWER 

7' in-: principles of alcoholic illumination. Two systems of lighting by 
alcohol are in vogue : (1) Imparting luminosity to alcohol by carburet- 
ting it. Substances rich in carbon are added to the alcohol, e.g. coal- 
tar distillates, petroleum or shale oil products i.e. coal tar, j>etroleum, 
and shale naphthas, capable of imparting that luminosity to the 
alcohol which it lacks. (2) Rendering certain earths incandescent by 
the ignition of the vapour of alcohol previously mixed with air. 

1. The enrichment of alcohol with liquids capable of burning with 
highly luminous flames was the object of numerous researches during 
the latter part of the first half of the nineteenth century. Spirits of 
turpentine, for instance, burns with a highly luminous but very smoky 
flame. By mixing it with alcohol the latter became luminous, and 
the tendency of the spirits of turpentine to burn with a sooty flame, 
if not entirely eliminated, was greatly diminished. But these efforts 
were made rather with the object of eliminating the smoke from the 
flame of the spirits of turpentine, than with the view of invoking the 
aid of spirits of turpentine, etc., to render alcohol luminous. We are 
now using hydrocarbons, which burn in a similar manner to spirits of 
turpentine, to render alcohol luminous without even distilling the 
mixtures. The first attempts to produce a "burning oil" from a 
mixture of alcohol and hydrocarbons were made about 1832. About 
that time turpentine and tar distillers vied with each other in 
producing illuminants known in Britain as "camphine," and in France 
as "gasogene." The British camphine, which differed essentially from 
the French gasogene, was often only a more or less well-rectified 
spirits of turpentine pure and simple. The French gasogene was a 
mixture in predetermined proportions of ethylic alcohol with wood 
spirits, spirits of turpentine, naphtha, shale oil, etc. Both French and 
British patents insisted, as was natural, on the alcohol being free from 
water, as otherwise the mixtures would separate into as many layers 
as there were ingredients in the mixture. Besides, it was insisted 
upon that the mixture should be distilled prior to use. The light 
afforded by the combustion of this fluid in suitable lamjxs camphiue 
and gasogene (vapour) lamps was white and pleasant. The inventors 

15 



226 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. XI. 

all claimed this method of illumination as generally suitable, but 
particularly so for distilleries. Amongst the numerous patents for 
this style of illumination, that of Ludersdorf of Berlin, of date 1834, 
is the most simple. Ludersdorf used a mixture of four volumes of 
95 per cent, alcohol and one volume of rectified spirits of turpentine. 
His lamp was so arranged that the liquid sucked up by a wick placed 
in a suitable tube is vaporised by the heat of the flame, and it is the 
vapour thus produced which burns with a fine white flame. Moreover, 
this mixed fluid, if it yielded a less intense light than that got by the 
use of turpentine alone, was more easily managed and less liable to 
smoke owing to its lower carbon content. Further, the inherent 
difficulty of the diminution of capillarity in the wick incidental to the 
combustion of resinous products and due to the deposition of carbon 
in the pores of the wick was overcome, and the lamp was lit at the 
outset by burning a little alcohol in a cup fixed round the tube 
containing the wick, so as to vaporise the alcohol brought up by 
capillarity. The burner tube containing the wick descends almost 
to the bottom of the reservoir. It is contracted at the top and 
terminated by a metallic knob, at the base of which are a row of 
perforations. Some alcohol is burned in a cup surrounding the wick 
tube, so as to vaporise the fluid raised by the wick. As the vapour 
issues from the perforations, it ignites, and the flame heats the knob. 
The lamp once lit, the heat conducted from the knob continuously 
vaporises the illuminant. An outer tube forms an annular air-space 
which surrounds the upper part of the burner tube, so as to prevent the 
spirit in the reservoir getting overheated. 

2. Rendering a mantle of the rare earths incandescent by the 
ignition of the vapour of alcohol. The alcohol is first of all vaporised, 
and the vapour is burned in a Bunsen burner capped by an incan- 
descent mantle on the Auer principle, or by some similar mantle. 
This latter method is simply a variation of the principle on which the 
limelight is based. The intense luminosity of the limelight is due 
to the heat of an oxyhydrogen flame impinging on quicklime, the 
intense heat rendering the lime incandescent. The ordinary 
incandescent gas mantle is rendered intensely luminous by the coal- 
gas being burnt in admixture with excess of air in a Bunsen burner. 
This mixture of coal-gas and air burns in air with a non-luminous 
flame, but the heat generated is so intense as to render the mantle 
incandescent. If the mantle were not made of intractable material it 
would fuse it, and the heat would be used up in fusing it and keeping 
it in a state of fusion. But as the heat cannot be used up in fusing 
the mantle, the material of which it is composed being infusible, the 
heat is converted into light. The heat must be sufficient to maintain 
the mantles continuously incandescent for the light to be continuous, 
and this is done by burning the proper amount of the mixture of coal- 
gas and air. To pass from a mixture of coal-gas and air to a mixture 



SEC. 2] ALCOHOL FOR LIGHTING, ETC. 227 

of alcohol vapour and air did not occupy much time. Incandescent 
ali-.ih.il lamps \\riv in tact tin- natural .sequence of incandescent gas 
burners. But as a matter of history that is not quite convrt. It 
\\ould ln. more correct to say that incandescent gas wa> the tardy 
sequel to the invention, about 1847, of a system of incande-c.-nt 
lighting in general by the use of alcohol in particular, l-'ranken-tein. 
the editor of a trade journal at Gratz, about that time published a 
series of articles on a peculiar system of lighting of his own invent inn. 
by which he imparted great luminosity to the colourless or rather 
IIDII -luminous alcohol flame. A report, published in 1848, gives a 
detailed description of Frankenstein's method. It is based on tin- 
known fact that certain bodies, especially the alkaline earths, when 
heated to incandescence, emit a very intense light. The inventor used 
a lamp with a round wick, burning alcohol with a colourless flame. I n 
this flame he introduced a gauze cone, or a cone of any other appropri- 
ate tissue, steeped in a paste of lime, magnesia, water, and guin arabic. 
The preparation of the paste, the method of shaping the tissue cone, 
steeped in this paste and dried, and other particulars, are all 
described with many details, so that the reader sees at a glance the 
forerunner of the Auer or Welsbach mantle, which only differs from 
that of Frankenstein by the substitution of the rare earths for the 
alkaline earths, and by the use of salts decomposable by heat, in place 
of oxides. Whether Frankenstein's invention had any temporary 
success is unknown. But he certainly had a great many imitators, as 
the numerous English and German patents for this style of lighting 
testify. But it was not until 1895 that a really practical solution to 
the point raised by Frankenstein was found in Auer's mantle, and in 
improved lamps which yield a fine light with a moderate consumption 
of methylated spirit. But the most remarkable point of all is that, 
however imperfect Frankenstein's system of alcoholic incandescent 
lighting may have been, it probably afforded a clue or a starting-point 
to Auer. In all probability it served as the basis of his system of 
incandescent gas lighting, which in its turn has served as the basis of 
a new and practical system of incandescent lighting by alcohol, a 
system of illumination now in its infancy, but of which much is to be 
expected, much to be gained. There are several links in the chrono- 
logical chain of the history of incandescent lighting. There is first 
the well-known oxyhydrogen limelight, then Frankenstein's alcohol 
lime-magnesia light. Then the coal-gas Bunsen burner and mantle 
of salts of the rare earths, the prelude to the ignited vai>our of alcohol 
mixed with air rendering a similar mantle incandescent. Having now 
briefly summarised the principles of these systems of incandescent 
lighting, leaving incandescent electric lighting out of account for 
the present, as being the result of electrical phenomena pure and 
simple, let us pass to the consideration in detail of the system 
which concerns us for the time being, namely, the study of the different 



228 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAT. XI. 

indoor and out-of-door applications of illumination by the ignition of 
a mixture of the vapour of alcohol and air rendering an infusible 
white tissue of the rare earths luminous. By means of alcohol it is 
possible to have table lamps with the incandescent light. The incan- 
descent light was formerly only possible practically with gas, although 
paraffin lamps have been made for an incandescent mantle. It is 
stated that one firm sold 53,000 alcohol lamps in three months in 
Germany. The general principle of their construction is as follows : 
The alcohol is vaporised by a small heating vessel often so 
minute as to consist of a mere tube charged either by (1) capillarity, 
or (2) pressure : charging by capillarity involves cotton wicks dipping 
into the reservoir ; charging by pressure necessitates placing a charging 
reservoir on the burner, or the air contained in the alcohol reservoir 
may be compressed by means of a pump fixed on the exterior, occa- 
sionally the necessary pressure is got by the expansion of the air 
contained in the reservoir by the heating of the metal parts of the 
lamp. Auer causes the alcohol in the reservoir of the lamp to rise 
up by a series of wicks towards a small vessel heated by the flame 
of a small night-light wick fed from the same reservoir. In this way 
the alcoholic vapour is made to issue with great force through the 
small cone of the burner and to suck in a draught of air, and the 
alcohol-charged air, on reaching the upper part of the jet, burns with 
an extremely hot but non-luminous flame, which immediately renders 
the Auer mantle of incandescent tissues of the rare earths incan- 
descent. It has been urged against this method that it requires to 
be lighted twice, first the small wick, and then the mantle, and that 
it wastes a small quantity of alcohol in heating a larger ; it, however, 
burns regularly and very cheaply, but, as will be seen, it is somewhat 
dangerous, and does not admit of glass or porcelain containers. 

On the same principle as the Auer, the Continental Nouvelle Co. 
of Paris manufacture a burner styled the bee prefere, in which the 
gasifier, in which the alcohol is vaporised, is fed with alcohol by 
means of wicks. The alcohol vapour issues from the injector, sucks 
in an exactly regulated draught of air, and thus reaches the burner. 
The vaporiser is heated by a night-light wick shielded from draughts 
by a metal jacket. The wick of this small jet may be regulated by 
raising or lowering at will a hooked tube to a greater or less extent. 
To light the lamp, the hooked tube is lowered to the bottom, the 
small jet lit, and in a minute or so the lamp is lighted by holding 
a light of some kind at the top end of the glass chimney. The 
mantles hitherto used for alcoholic lamps are those made for use 
with coal-gas, without regard being had to the difference in tempera- 
ture between an alcohol burner and a gas burner. Good mantles such 
as the Auer mantles are made by means of a solution of the nitrates 
of the rare earths, consisting of 99 per cent, thorium and 1 per cent, 
cerium. This formula was determined on by the result of the experi- 



SEC. 3] ALCOHOL FOR LIGHTING, ETC. 



229 



i units of Landolt and Hintz, who found that mantles of the same 
dimensions, steeped in solution of the same concentration, gave, 
according to the relative proportion of oxide of cerium, the following 
luminous intensity estimated in carcels of 9'62 bougies: 

TAIJLK XXII. Lr.\iiM'i-< I VITALITY OF INCANDESCENT MAM 



1 


j 


jA 


5 

T 

o 


.j 
n 


| 


| 


E 




H 

















H 







99-1 


O'l 


1-8 


99 


1 


7'8 


IT. 


5 


4'4 


99-8 


0-2 


4-5 


98 


2 


6-8 


90 


10 


1-2 


99-5 


0-5 


6'8 


97 


3 


3-5 


85 


15 


1-0 














80 


20 


1-0 



3. The effect of the Auer mantle on the luminosity of an alcohol 
flame is very wonderful. M. Sorel has demonstrated that an alcohol 
flame burning freely is so feebly luminous that it is necessary to burn 
100 grammes to produce one French candle-power per hour. But 
if a mantle be placed in the flame of previously vaporised alcohol 
the consumption diminishes to about 2 grammes. An alcohol flame 
burning freely expends per French candle-power per hour, 6 grammes 
of carburetted alcohol and barely 1 gramme of carburetted alcohol burn- 
ing on a mantle. Carburetted alcohol compared against methylated 
spirit, ceteris paribus, has therefore greater luminosity, and thus fan 
of it is consumed to get the same amount of light. This is dtu- ti- 
the difference in their composition. Illumination is generally the 
more economical the more intense it is. The unit of luminosity costs 
less in a very powerful lamp than in a domestic lamp. It has been 
demonstrated that the pressure with which the alcohol arrives at the 
injector increases the intensity and diminishes the expense per unit 
of light owing to the fact that the jet of burning alcohol is projected 
more perfectly and brings into a more constricted space the amount 
of air to be burnt, making a column of flame analogous to a blow-pipo 
flame. If the mantle has been well chosen it exactly encloses the 
flame, and the mantle thus assumes its maximum luminosity. It 
follows, therefore, that for illumination on the large scale it is desirable 
to employ carburetted alcohol, and at the present price of benzine this 
can be clone economically. It is desirable to use powerful lamps 
so as to get a cheaper unit of light. Pressure lamps are in fact 
best, since provided with well-fitting mantles they produce excess of 
luminosity. But in houses where carburetted alcohol cannot be burnt 
for fear of producing a smoky flame, where an intensity of 25-30 
bougies cannot be exceeded, and where a pressure reservoir is not 
available in spite of the few farthings extra per night, it is better to 



2 3 o INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. XL 

use methylated spirit. Incandescent alcohol lamps without previous 
vaporisation in which quick lighting is a feature, consist simply of 
a paraffin oil Argand lamp with a round wick which is lighted directly, 
and by a bayonet arrangement there is fixed above the flame the 
Auer mantle and the glass chimney. The wick is raised to a certain 
height so that the flame strikes the mantle, and the latter immediately 
becomes incandescent, the burner being so constructed as to ensure 
a supply of air all round the flame. The first lamp based on this 
principle was exhibited in Berlin in 1902 by Aschner, and acted only 
fairly well. But other makers succeeded in doing better, so that at 
the Paris Exhibition of 1902, two models of lamps on this principle 
were exhibited by Schuster and Baer of Berlin. One of these, made 
entirely of copper, is furnished with an open unobstructed channel 
through the axis of the alcohol reservoir, thus ensuring a good current 
of air through the interior of the flame, which, increasing the heat 
of the latter, renders the mantle still more vividly incandescent. 
The second model had a glass reservoir without a central air 
channel. 

4. Jean Delamotte's alcohol (Figs. 67, 68) vapour lamp has 
neither heating jet nor recuperator. The alcohol is drawn into the 
heater A (Fig. 68) by the cotton wicks C, within the tubes B. A 
is heated by small flames coming from the Bunsen D, and the alco- 
holic vapour from A descends by the tube a to the injector b. The 
Bunsen D is simply placed in c above the injector b, it is held in P, 
supported against the rim of the heater A. It is lighted by heating 
the Bunsen D by means of a "topette" dipped in alcohol, the gas 
escaping by the small orifices o first becomes alight itself, warms the 
heater A, then lights the mixed gases above the orifice of the Bunsen 
D, and the mantle Z becomes incandescent and soon extremely 
bright. To extinguish the lamp the injector b is closed by the key 
M. Light is applied by the " topette " inserted for the purpose into 
the funnel ; the tail end of the " topette " is rested in the small recess. 
The alcohol drawn up continuously by the wicks into the heater is 
vaporised, the gas formed in this way ascends into the upper part 
of the heater and redescends by the small tube C as far as the holes 
of the injector, through which it issues and passes into the Bunsen 
burner, drawing in the requisite amount of air for its complete com- 
bustion on the grating at the exit of the Bunsen. The lamp lights 
itself by a single application of a flame without it being necessary to 
bring a flame above the glass. On the upper part of the Bunsen are 
three groups of small holes through which a portion of the gas is 
derived, this gas burns with a blue flame, and heats the upper part 
of the heater, and thus induces vaporisation of the alcohol. On the 
upper part of the Bunsen are three copper studs to keep the Bunsen 
in its place, and care has to be taken to place the Bunsen quite vertical 
stride-legs across the injector, and to insert it at the bottom. The 



SEC. 4] ALCOHOL FOR LIGHTING, ETC. 



231 



notch at the bottom of the Bunsen is intended for this inn-pose. To 
extinguish the lamp the button is turned to tin- rL'Iit. In two or 
three seconds the button is given two turns to the left, so as to <p<-n 
it, and then it is left so. This manoeuvre is necessary. In a \\<n-.|, t h. 
tap of tin- lamp should always be open, it is only closed for a moment 
to extinguish the light. The mantle. Take tin- mantle in its box, 





FIG. 67. 



FIG. 68. 



Alcohol vapour lamp on incandescent principle for domestic illumination 
(essential parts) (DlLAMOTTE, Paris). 

l-ing careful not to squeeze it in the hand. It is far better not to 
touch it, and to seize it, to place it on the burner, by the small cotton 
thread attached to it. To put the mantle Z on the burner D, hook 
it on to the rod, then fix it on the socket, pressing the screw seen in. 
Fig. 68. The mantle fixed, the socket is placed on the I'.nnsen. The 
first time a mantle is used it should he inflamed before lighting the 
lamp, thus : The mantle is placed on the burner and a Maine applied 



232 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. XI. 

to its upper part, the small layer of collodion with which it is covered 
so as to protect it before being brought into use, is instantaneously 
burned. Wicks. These last very long and are easily renewed, they 
only require to be pulled to remove them. To insert the new wick, 
seize with flat pincers the metal rod with which each is furnished 
and insert wick well at bottom. 

5. The working arrangements of the " Monople " lamp for indoor 
and outdoor illumination are shown in Fig. 69. The alcohol in the 
circular reservoir a descends through c into another small, lower 
circular receptacle into which the extremities of tubes lined with 
asbestos dip, which suck up the alcohol, which is then vaporised by 
the heat of the mantle, and the vapour passes through the tubes k k 
to I, where it deposits the condensed drops, mixes with the air drawn 
in from the exterior, and burns under the mantle. The use of the 
small reservoir d d in communication with the principal reservoir a a 
is to ensure the regularity of the flame, by automatically regulating 
the feeding of the alcohol into the vaporisers by hydrostatic pressure. 
But it is urged against this arrangement that it involves the dis- 
mantling of the upper part of the lamp when it is necessary to change 
the lining of the vaporisers N N. A small model is also made which 
consumes 56 c.c. of alcohol with a light of 30 bougies. 

6. The use of petroleum lamps in projection of light appliances 
presents many inconveniences of which all public lecturers are aware. 
So as to avoid the bad smell and the smoke, alcohol lamps have been 
invented for use in halls not fitted up either with gas or electricity. 
These alcohol lamps are fitted with an Auer mantle, which the ignited 
mixture of vapour of alcohol and air renders incandescent. The chief 
defect of these mantles is their great fragility. The conical form of 
the mantle causes, moreover, a great portion of the light produced to 
be lost, in fact more than half the luminous rays emitted by the 
incandescent tissue does not fall on the lens of the condenser ; they are 
therefore not utilised. The substitution of an incandescent sheet for an 
incandescent mantle has another advantage, the price of 6 sheets is 
almost that of a single mantle, and the lifetime of one is at least equal 
to that of the other. Henceforth the lecturer will not be interrupted by 
frequent renewal of the fragile tissue, the expense becoming insignificant 
and the manipulation more simple. There is no danger in working the 
apparatus. The capacity of the reservoir B (Fig. 7 1 ) has been calculated 
so as to feed the lamp in a continuous manner and with maximum 
intensity for two hours at least. Ordinary methylated spirit is run in 
through the screw stopper b, fitted with a pipe from an indiarubber 
bulb. By capillarity of the wick in the tube T, the alcohol from the 
reservoir B rises in A, where it is volatilised, at first by the heat of 
the combustion of a little alcohol previously poured into the cup c, 
and afterwards by the flame of the jet B, when that is fed by the 
vapour produced in A, led by the tube t, and mixed with the air 



SEC. 6| ALCOHOL FOR LIGHTING, ETC. 



233 




FIG. 69. Monopole lamp for indoor and outdoor illumination (DEi.AM<>[ 1 1 . 
Paris), a, reservoir ; ft, aperture for filling ; c, feed : d, regulator ; c, pije 
leading alcohol to/ ; /, receptacle for lighting ; </, lamp glass ; h, cylinder 
prolonging lamp glass ; /, vaporiser ; /*, alcoholic vapour pipe ; I, asbestos 
receptacle ; m, burner ; n, asliestos cone holder ; 0, protective envelop : /, 
apartment entering into <> ; r, tap lever ; N. ashotos cone ; /, lilling oritiee : 
v, air pipe ; w, lighting funnel ; ./, shutter for w. (llhuninating eapaeity. 
80 to 150 French candle-power and upwards.) 



234 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 



[CHAP. XI. 



entering by the orifice O. The air compressed by the indiarubber 
bulb cannot pass by the tube t. It simply forces the ascension of 
the alcohol up the wick. It will be seen that no communication is 
possible between the name of the jet B and the alcohol of the reservoir 
R ; if the stopper b is screwed in its place, the mixture of air and 
alcoholic vapour contained in R cannot become inflamed nor any 
explosion occur. If the alcohol be made to ascend too rapidly in A, 
owing to too strong pressure of 
the indiarubber bulb, volatilisa- 
tion may be incomplete, and a 
few drops of alcohol may become 
entrained into the tube t and 
produce a cracking sound in O, 
where they might become in- 
named. They may even be 
projected by the jet B on the 





FIG. 70. 



S.CPC 
FIG. 71. 



Alcohol vapour incandescent lamps, for magic laiitern demonstrations, with flat 
incandescent film instead of conical mantle. Fig. 70, general view of lamp. 
Fig. 71, sections. The top section to left shows method of extinguishing. 

tissue of the frame C and damage it. All this is avoided by pressing 
the indiarubber bulb gently. It is detached from the stopper b at 
the first crack, besides it must not be adjusted to the tube of the 
stopper until the alcohol in the cup is burnt out and the flame of the 
jet B has become regular, which happens in two or three minutes. If the 
profile of this flame be examined, it seems to form a very regular blue 
sheet, one side of which impinges on the tissue placed in the frame C, 
and the upper extremity of which heats strongly the metallic piece m, 
and consequently the space A where the vapour of alcohol is formed. 
To produce the maximum luminosity, the flame ought to occupy a 



SEC. 7] ALCOHOL FOR LIGHTING, ETC. 235 

determined place neither too near, nor too far away from, tin- ti 
to be rendered incandescent. This position is easily found by mani- 
pulating the screw V, by which the frame C may be moved to and 
from the flame. The frame C is easily removed, opened, shut, re- 
placed hung on S, without difficulty. The sunk part of the frame C 
is intended to receive one of the sheets of collodion drawn from a case 
containing a small supply, and which can be despatched by post. It 
is useless to inflame the tissue before lighting the lamp ; this operation 
is done only by the name rising from the cup c or issuing from the 
tube B. To extinguish the lamp, all that is required is to prevent the 
current of alcohol vapour from ascending to the jet B. To do this the 
extremity x of a glass tube, or a tube made out of a goose-quill <>r a 
toothpick, is kept for a few seconds on the orifice O. By blowing on 
the jet B the tissue of the frame would fly away as dust. This tissue 
may be used on several occasions when the lantern has not to be 
transported to another locality. Method of working. 1. Regulate 
the height of the tube t. This tube slides in a stuffing-box P. It 
must be raised or lowered so that the centre of the empty rectangle of 
the frame C is at the same height as the centre of the condensator. 
This Gyration is done once for all for the same apparatus. 1. Almost 
completely fill the reservoir B with ordinary methylated spirit, rescrew 
the stopper b right to the bottom. On the first occasion, this should 
be done half an hour beforehand ; it is necessary for the wick in the 
tube T to get completely soaked. 3. Fill the frame C and fix in posi- 
tion. 4. Three-quarters fill the cup c with alcohol, inflame and wait 
the finish of the combustion. 5. Moisten the end of the tube of the 
indiarubber bulb, adjust it to b, and inflate it moderately. 6. Regu- 
late the screw V. 7. Place the lamp in the lantern so as to give tin 
maximum of brilliancy to the disc projected on the screen. 8. Slide 
and adjust the cue frame. 

7. Alcohol heating apparatus. Polo's alcohol vapour furnace 
(Figs. 72, 73) is a type of this class of stove. Other forms only differ 
in detail. It consists of a cylindrical reservoir, on the periphery of 
which is mounted a flat brass socket *, containing an asbestos wick </, 
fed by a cotton wick t, and fitted in its upper part with an injector /, 
directed towards the centre of the furnace and regulated by/. On 
heating the upper part of the wick, the alcohol therein evaporates and 
escapes through the injector in the form of vapour. This jet is receivr.I 
in a brass tul>e S, arranged almost horizontally so as to form a Bnnsen 
feeding a perforated ring which touches the flat brass socket .*, already 
referred to, on both its flat sides. The furnace is lit by heating the 
extremity of the wick// by means of a small jet j placed against the 
socket, which is extinguished as soon as the ring burner is lit. The 
requisite evaporation heat is maintained by two jets of flame in the rini 
itself directed against the flat socket. The burner is regulated by 
turning the tap/, the vaporisation of the alcohol dei>endsoii the orifice 



236 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. XI. 



of this tap and the height of the flame coming from it. According to 
Lindet, all these heaters, whether with or without wicks with simple 




FIG. 72. Polo's alcohol vapour heater (section). 







FIG. 73. Ground plan. 

vaporisation and mixing with air, consume in bringing a litre of water 
to boiling-point almost the same amount of methylated spirit, say, 
30-35 grammes of 90 per cent, methylated spirit. However, the time 



SEC. 9 ] ALCOHOL FOR LIGHTING, ETC. 237 

iv, |iiired to do this varies in different heaters, and depute on the 
power of the furnace. In any case, vaporisation heaters, especially 
those where the alcohol gas is mixed with air, are tetter t. iv^ul 
and produce a flame easily directed under the ve^s.-l uhidi it 
desired to heat. 




33!SS^ 

-rii-SSt-. ,:- 

FIG. 74. Twin alcohol vapour heater, for cooking, etc., purposes. 

8. Amongst sundry appliances heated by alcohol, there may be 
enumerated soldering and brazing blowpij>es, iron heaters, plate- 
heaters, frizzing and curling tongs, stoves for sitting-rooms, bedrooms, 
greenhouses, camp stoves, etc. Fouillard's brazing and soldering blow- 
pipe (Fig. 75) is especially useful when it is desired to get a very high 
temperature quickly, as in brazing or soldering operations very often 
obligatory in the case of agricultural machines and implements. The 
principle of all these blowpipes or brazing lamps is the same, they 
consist essentially of a Bunsen burner fed by 50 per cent, carburetted 
alcohol from a reservoir under a pressure from a hand-pump of 1-3 
kilogrammes. The vaporisation of the alcohol is produced by a pre- 
liminary heating, then by a special piece of metal to recuperate the 
waste heat a nozzled tap regulates the intensities of the flame, which 
rapidly becomes very hot. The reservoir may be either independent 
or self-contained. Room and carriage stoves are made of many sizes 
and designs. 

9. Alcohol motors. The widespread use of motors on the internal 
combustion principle is due to the undoubted advantages which they 
possess over steam-driven engines, more especially in the case of 
machinery which is only driven intermittently. The 4-cycle type of 



238 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. XI. 



engine characteristic of all explosive motors was invented in 1862 by 
Beau de Rochas, but it is more generally known as the Otto cycle, i.e. 
(1) aspiration of the explosive mixture ; (2) compression of this mixture ; 
(3) inflammation, explosion, and expansion producing the propelling 
effort ; (4) expulsion of the burnt gases. 1. In the first forward course 
of the piston the air carburetted by the gaseous or liquid fuel is 
aspirated, and the return backward stroke of the piston compresses the 
explosive mixture. At the end of that course then the mixture is 
ignited by a special arrangement so as to explode the gas. As a 
result of the expansion the piston is driven forward to do useful work, 
returning afterwards to drive out the spent gases produced by the 




FIG. 75. Fouillard's alcohol vapour soldering blowpipe. 

combustion. Of the four motions of the piston in its cycle aspiration, 
compression, expansion, and escape only one of these does useful work, 
the three others result from the revolution of the fly-wheel. The 
aspiration and compression phases are reproduced every two turns of 
the fly-wheel, the entrance and escape valves are wrought by cams 
fixed on a shaft revolving half as fast as the fly-wheel and connected 
to the latter by suitable gearing. Gas and petrol motors on the 
4-cycle principle have been in use for some time, but alcohol-driven 
motors of this type are more recent. One reason for this is that the 
calorific intensity of petrol is 10,000 calories, whilst methylated spirit, 
even slightly carburetted, has a calorific intensity of only 6000 calories ; 
hence it was deduced theoretically that petrol was perforce more 



SEC. 9] 



ALCOHOL FOR LIGHTING, ETC. 



239 



economical than alcohol. (lint see see. 10.) Hence, in searching for 
new outlets for industrial alcohol, the ilmnaiii "f d>mr-tir heating and 
lighting was first explored and exploited. Kut in that domain tin- 
question of economy and expense is ot't.-n a -t.ndary one to tliat ! 
hygiene and general comfort. The first attempts to substitute alcohol 
for i>etrol were made in a petrol engine constructed by Grob of Leip-i<-, 
capable of working also with alcohol. Hartmann rented on the 
characteristic advantages of the alcohol: combustion was letter and 
inodorous, but it consumed 839 grammes of alcohol against PJil 
grammes of petroleum i>er horse-hour. Later on, trials were made at 







FK;. 76. Alcohol vapour motor engine, Charon type. (There are also vertical 
engines of same type.) 

the Berlin Fermentation Institute under encouragement and auspiv- 
of German Government. The alcohol used was 85-90 per cent, by 
weight, say, 89 '5-93 '5 G.L., i.e. the alcohol which the German distillers 
produce directly in their own distilleries. Slaby, of the Charlottenburg 
Polytechnic, about the same time tested a 5 horse- power motor fitted 
with a Petreano evaporator, and obtained per horse-hour a consumption 
of 550 grammes of alcohol of 86*2 per cent. (90 '4 G.L.), say, a yield of 
24'6 per cent. In March 1897, Haak tested a 6 horse-i>ower Koertini; 
system j>etroleum spirit motor internally fitted up for the use of alcohol 
(sec. 11), and obtained a force of 9 '93 horse-i>ower with a consumption i KT 
horse-hour of 3 90 grammes of alcohol of 93 percent, by weight (94*4 G.L.). 
The engine tested was fitted with a vaporisation chamber intercalated 



2 4 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. XL 



between the fuel pulveriser and the entrance valve, a vaporiser heated 
by the escape gases in direct communication with the alcohol and air 
valves. After these experiments an alcohol engine was erected in the 
Berlin Fermentation Institute, which was used for many subsequent 



Essence 



Aicool 



au cylindre 




FIG. 77. Section of feeding and escape arrangements of type of alcohol engine 
shown in Fig. 76. A, entrance of petrol for starting ; B, entrance of 
alcohol ; C, hot air valve ; D, cold air entrance ; E, temperature regu- 
lator ; F, hot air entrance pipe ; G, air heating chamber ; H, escape gas 
chamber ; I, liquid feed valve ; J, feed and pulverisation valve. 

tests. Carburation by benzol and the effect on the horse-power was 
first examined. The results got by Goolich with 86 per cent, alcohol by 
weight (90-2 G.L.), with 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 per cent, of benzol by 
weight, are given in the following table. The reason for studying the 
effect of benzol was connected with its use as a denaturant. The price 



SEC. 9] ALCOHOL FOR LIGHTING, ETC. 



241 



of benzol at Ifis. tin- ht'rtolitiv, say, 1M. the Dillon, N 1< ^ than that of 
the general German dniaturant 2 per cent, of wood spirit and per 
cent, of pyridine bases. 




FIG. 78. Alcohol engine iu use on light railways. 

TABLE XXIII. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF CARBURETTED AM> 
ALCOHOL AS MOTOR POWER GENERATORS (GOOLICH). 







l! 

fi S2 


gia 


"S 




S s 


_1 


;ti 




.2 2 


"^ J 


s^ 




.0 6 


5 | jB 


~ C 




tr i 


^> &<^ 






^M * 


^* ^**^ 


S 


H.P. 


S 2 

IE 


||| 


i 


H.P. 


6 

~ o 
SK 


11 

i S 






*i 


^feTl 
*0 


^ 




l 


| 





8-809 


420 





20 


8-819 


370 


120 


5 


8-862 


405 


3-6 


25 


8-887 


386 


8-0 


10 


8-888 


386-5 


8-0 


30 


8-880 


390-5 


7-0 


15 


8-867 


381-5 


9-0 











The inference from above is that 20 per cent, carburation is the 
maximum. Meyer (Charlottenburg Polytechnic) made analogous tests 
on an alcohol-driven Otto locomobile 14 horse-power. His results 
given in Table XXIV. confirm those of Goolidi. 
16 



242 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. XI, 



TABLE XXIV. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF PURE AND CARBURETTED 
ALCOHOL AS MOTOR POWER GENERATORS. 



Load. 



%s & Jt 



H.P. 



- 

g <5 



a 



H.P. 



g 2 g 
2*0 2 



H.P. 



9 s *.' 

o c 



H.P. 



S 0> o 

3 W 



Full 
Normal 



16-14 
13-78 



445 
463 



19-00 
14-07 



422 gr. 
433 



15-90 
14-09 



388 gr. 

412 ., 



16-09 
14-18 



375 gr. 
385 



10. The first alcohol-driven locomobile (of Oberarsel construction) 
of 15 horse-power was tested in February 1900, and 21*8 horse-power 
obtained with a consumption of 410 grammes of 88 per cent, alcohol 
carburetted with benzol in the proportion of 20 per cent. The above 
and similar tests prove that alcohol, whether pure or carburetted, can 
be advantageously and economically employed as a motor power. 
The combustion of carburetted alcohol is perfect, and the work is 
comparatively more cleanly and less dangerous than with petroleum 
spirit. The consumption of carburetted alcohol varies from 360 to 
420 grammes per horse-hour. Alcohol motors compared with 
petroleum spirit motors do 25 per cent, more work. There is no 
difficulty in starting alcohol motors. Owing to the composition of 
alcohol and the injurious products incidental to incomplete com- 
bustion, it is necessary that both vaporisation and combustion be 
complete. The piston rings and the valves of the alcohol - driven 
engine of the Berlin Fermentation Institute, after working three con- 
secutive years, were found, when it was dismantled in 1903 for 
inspection, to be in excellent condition. To find the practical result, 
i.e. the work accomplished compared with the calories contained in the 
liquid fuel, it must be borne in mind that alcohol carburetted to 
extent of 20 per cent., i.e. 80 litres of 90 per cent, alcohol and 20 
litres of benzol, has a density of 0'844 and a calorific intensity of 6*633 
calories per kilogramme, say, 5*598 calories per litre, or the mechanical 
equivalent of heat being 427 kilogrammes, the complete combustion of 

1 kilog. of that alcohol producing 6 '633 calories will give $.QQQ i^- = 
10 '49 horse-power. But in actual practice the horse-power takes 400 



SEC. 10] ALCOHOL FOR LIGHTING, ETC. 243 

uiaiiiiiit s of alcohol, say, 2*5 horse-power for 1 kilog. of alcohol, hence 

9FJ y 100 

iQ.49 = 23'8 per cent, efficiency. This result is certainly \ i\ 

high, since the best steam engines only give an efficiency of 13 ].n 
cent. According to Musil, petroleum spirit gives 14 to 18 ; petroleum 
(lamp oil), 13 ; steam, 13 ; gas, 18 to 31 ; alcohol on an average, 2 1 *s. 
This demonstrates the greater value of the alcohol-driven engine 
over not only a steam-driven engine, but over that driven by any 
other liquid fuel. It is, of course, in the comparison with steam- 
driven engines, a question of intermittent engines that require heating 
to get up steam before they can be used. There is no question 
of comparison with a stationary engine working continuously, against 
which the alcohol-driven engine does not compete. But we shall 
soon see that better results still have been obtained with alcohol- 
driven engines. But, first of all, before we go further let us glance 
at how the efficiency of an alcohol-driven motor is tested. 

Testing tfw working capacity of an alcohol motor. The following is 
an abstract of a report made by Perisse on an alcohol motor (i.e. engine) 
of the Charon (Economique) type. The brake used in testing acted 
on the plate of a bascule through the intermediary of a vertical rod 
fixed to the extremity of the lever of the brake. The bascule being 
balanced, the effective work in horse-power was ascertained by the 
formula 

= 0-001396 Pn L 



in which L represents the length of the lever; P, the weight indicated 
by the index of the bascule diminished by the tare of the brake, the 
actual weight of the rod which acts on the plate and arm of the 
lever ; number of revolutions per minute, n. 

L = 1 '0 metre. Tare of brake, 5 kilogrammes. 

Density of the 50% carburetted alcohol, Electrine Lepretre 0'839 

,, 8% 0-840 

pure alcohol, Moto-Schnick LeprtHre 0'838 

The horizontal motor tyi>e Economic No. 3002 of 15-18 horse-i>m\vr 
specially designed for alcohol had the following characteristics : 

Course, 360 m.m. Capacity of compression chamber, 2'65 litres. 

Diameter, 230 m.m. Height of reservoir, 1*95 metre. 

Ratio of course Diameter of fly-wheel, 1*9 metre. 

to diameter, 1'56. Width of fly-wheel, 130 m.m. 

Speed, 200 revolutions. Diameter of brake pulley, 0'50 metre. 

Function and regularity were excellent. Starting was effected 
without any difficulty with carburetted alcohol and with pure alcohol. 
The distribution pipes were tested several times, either after running 



244 



INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. XI. 



several hours or after several days without cleaning, and neither oxida- 
tion nor encrustation was found. The general results are embodied in 
the following table : 



IS 



gg 

o 

g 

W o 

H 



w 
^ 



* 


1 1 | i 


!' 


- 


US OO O CO O 
i <M (M CO i C" 
| T* CO CO 1 ri Cf 

OOO O C 


1 CO CO 05 
1 1 US * (N 
) | US CO 00 

> 000 


H- 1 


t^- f t CO O C' 

o 05 05 I T* a 

OOO O C 


J O CO <N 

) I CO rH O5 

> 000 


w 


oo to oo oo o 

US i 1 CO I US C 

OO '"f 1 t^- OO C 

r I i 1 r- 


1 t>- r-t US 
H r-t r^ 


o 


| O O US 1 O C 
1 CO US CO 1 CO 


> 1 US (M 1 
3 1 CO US 1 


N 


131 1 II 


1 1 1 1 


w 


O US US CO u-2 T}I l> 

O CO US OS CO CO C< 


3 O O 

US US 1 
3 O5 Tji | 




CO * US t> CO Tj* 


> r^COCO 


Q 


O US US CO 1^ CO 3 
O ^ OO i 1 CO CM C 


J US US 
3 (M t-- i 

> oo p 1 








o 


1 OO 1 1 00 


O I O5 O 

^ 1 05 05 


CQ 


O O O O O CO C 


? | 

H r-l rH <M 1 


- 


OO US CO US 1^ US C 
OOOO O O C 
<M <N (M C<l (N C^ r 


15 CO O O , 
J5 T-H O O 1 










.... 1 . 
8 "a "a s "-g- 

53 ^ cS Ji g 

w w 


.3 
P 

. . . .| 

4 - -s 

3 r ^ ^^ *Q 



I Sll 

! ^N 

| I 8^| 
-3-S S ^3^ 

j^ ^ gg 

2 rt . S G 

^''i I a 

>j^ p^ S S & 

filly 

||^.S.S & 



. 



U&s 3 

Sisg 

S.S-IS -J 



III N^ 



SEC. n] ALCOHOL FOR LIGHTING, ETC. 245 

11. There are two points in changing from a petrol driven motor 
to be considered. There is first the r;irl>uivttur and tin- increased 
compression. The full advantage is not got from tin- alcohol \\itlnnit 
mi increased compression, lull that i> an exceedingly Dimple alt. -ration, 
it merely moans placing on the end of tin- piston >r cylinder !ial 
a blank to till u]> so much space. So "tlu-iv \\mild In- no srrioiis 
ditlicnlty in adapting the present petrol engine. IVtrl cars in r'ram e 
have been adapted for aleoliol l.y merely altering the carluircltor ; tin- 
modern jH3trol engine has a very much higher compression than -in h 
engines used to have. In any case, there is no difficulty in adapting 
the carburettor, for the simple reason that petroleum itself can l>e n>ed 
in some of the carburettors that are commonly running now. Tip- 
Cremorne carburettor runs quite well with j>etroleum. Such efficiency 
is being got with agricultural motors that the actual volume of 
alcohol required would be practically identical with that of petrol. 
If high-speed motor engines can be built with the same degree of 
efficiency, a motor car may be built to run as many miles on a gallon 
of alcohol as it will on a gallon of petrol. That result has been 
obtained with perhaps four or five firms working on it who have not 
bothered probably to tackle the matter in that way which a motor- 
car builder would where efficiency counts for much more in his sale-. 
A few years' practice might possibly lead to a larger alcohol mileage 
than petrol mileage. A larger number of calories can be got from 
a given cylinder capacity with alcohol than with petrol. It would 
be more safe to back an alcohol motor racer specially designed for 
alcohol than a petrol motor, as a larger number of calories in a given 
cylinder capacity can be converted into work in an alcohol engine 
than in a petrol engine. That is important, as every motor-car 
builder desires to find an engine which for a given size and weight 
will give the largest possible output of work, and their efforts go 
more in that way than tow r ards an absolute efficiency in consumption. 
For tropical countries there is no doubt that alcohol would be of 
enormous advantage, because of the volatility and explosive risk 
of petrol, and there are such tremendous objections to the use of 
paraffin oil. There is not, of course, any reason why petrol .should 
not be used in hot countries as long as care is taken. The Indian 
Government at the present time have relaxed their re>tricti"ii- 
very largely, and allow petrol to be used in India where it \\as not 
allowed to be used eight or ten years ago; but it is a fact that, unless 
considerable precautions are taken, the mileage of petrol, taken fr.>m 
one week's end to another in India, is apt to come out very l.\\, 
because of the evaporation, that would make it distinctly a pastime 
for rich people in India. Therefore if from that point of view, if 
this country has got to build motor cars for the colonies, it i> e\ n 
now desirable that we should l>e experimenting with alcohol engines. 
The mere fact, so encouraging to know, that it is so largely used in 



246 INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL [CHAP. XI. 

Egypt in British made alcohol engines, is a sign of the times, and 
.shows that it is a desirable fuel in hot countries. We may take it that 
the German, etc., owners of agricultural alcohol engines are interested 
in having alcohol at as cheap a price as possible ; probably similar 
agricultural engines would become largely used in this country if 
alcohol were obtainable at the same price. But the conditions are 
somewhat different in this country to the conditions in Germany, 
in so far as coal-gas is so widely used here. There is no place of 
any reasonable size here but what has a coal-gas supply, or where 
coal is not easily available. 

If we analyse the results of alcohol-driven engines in engineering 
literature, and the reports as to the appearance of the machinery after 
it has been used for some time with alcohol, one of the most serious 
objections is the extraordinary corrosion which, it is alleged, takes 
place. Where there is a very high degree of corrosion, alcohol-driven 
engines being seriously damaged in that way, the fault is to be attri- 
buted either to badly rectified alcohol on the one hand, or imperfect 
combustion on the other. 

The use of alcohol in motors in Germany, in spite of the advantages 
which are given, is not very extensive yet ; but the reason lies very 
much on the surface. The agencies for the distribution of motor 
alcohol are not so complete as are the distributing facilities for petrol, 
since petrol is distributed through all the agencies instrumental in 
distributing ordinary paraffin oil, or can be, since they are largely 
controlled by the same people. Again, it would not pay the big 
motor manufacturing firms to start making engines and put down 
plant and make templates for machines specially designed to run 
with alcohol, which would only be sold in Germany, say, where 
the alcohol is comparatively easily obtainable, and which would be 
useless outside the boundary of their own country. The German 
manufacturers probably send more cars to this country than they sell 
in their own. These cars would be useless here, because if built to 
work to the best advantage with the aid of alcohol they would work 
at such a high compression that they could not be used with petrol 
at all. The use of alcohol must become pretty equal in various 
countries, because these big manufacturers, who look to a European 
sale, and not merely to one in their own country, will not go to the 
expense of building motors for use in one country only. Besides loco- 
mobiles, alcohol-driven engines are used for driving light machinery, 
spinning and weaving machinery, wood-working machinery, driving 
dynamos for electric light, pumping and all sorts of light machinery 
work. Several engines of this type constructed in Paris are actually 
at work in different continental countries. 

FINIS. 



IN DI:X 



ABSOLUTE alcohol, 2, 6, 8, 9. 
Acetic acid in brandy, 100. 
,, in molasses, 107. 
,, in wine alcohol, 89. 
Acetic ether, 192. 

,, ferment, 104. 
Aceto-acetic ether in the preparation 

of antipyrin, 204. 

Acetone as source of chloroform, 200. 
,, preparation of, 210, 212. 

still, 224. 

Acids injurious to fermentation, 23. 
Acrolein in crude spirit vapour, 9. 

,, in wine alcohol, 88, 89. 
Adam's still, 128, 129. 
Aerobic cultivation of ferments, 26-32. 
Aerobiosis, 26, 31, 32. 
Ageing spirit prior to distillation, 31, 

32, 118, 119. 
Albumen in potatoes, 76. 
Albuminoids in cereals, 62. 

,, soluble, in malt, 63. 

Alcohol vapour furnace, 235-237. 

,, lamps, 230-235. 

Alcoholates, 3, 5. 
Alcoholometry, 10-21. 
Alcohols, higher, determination of, 11. 

,, ,, in phlegms, 9. 

Aldehydes, detection of, 10, 21. 
,, in phlegms, 9. 
,, separation of, 11, 13. 
Alkaloids, 188. 

Ammonia, determination of, 11. 
Amyl alcohol, detection of, 10. 
,, in fusel oil, 100. 

preparation of, 204-206. 
Amylic acetate, preparation of, 206. 
Analysis of alcohol, 10-14. 
Antipyrin, preparation of, 203, 204. 
Antiseptic fermentation, 44, 45. 
Antiseptics, use of alcohol in, 217. 
Aroma, secretions producing, 29, 30. 
Aseptic fermentation, 44-49, 110, 116. 
Aseptic fermentation plant, 32, 86. 
Assaying alcohol, 10. 
Autoclave (saccharification), 80. 



BALSAMS, 2. 

Barbct's analysis of molasses, 107. 
,, acetone still, 224. 
,, aseptic fermentation of mo- 
lasses, 110-116. 

,, comb-slit caps, 150-155, 172. 
,, condensers, 155-158. 
,, continuous rectifiers, 174, 

175, 176. 

,, ether still, 189. 
,, fermentation system, 26-32, 

56-61. 

,, flow regulator, 143, 144. 
,, grain distillery, 74, 75. 
,, pure beet fermentation plant, 

46, 47. 

,, pure wine ferment, 85. 
,, rectifying column, 166-168, 

170, 171, 173. 

,, steam regulator, 146-149. 
,, sterilising process for 1110- 

Laaaes, 58, 109, 113. 
,, still and rectifier, 136. 

test-glass, 141, 142. 
,, wine still, 925. 
,, wood spirit still, 175, 207. 
Barley, composition of, 62. 

,, saccharification by malt, 79. 
,, yield of alcohol from, 65, 

66. 

Bavarian potato distilleries, 80-82. 
Beets, alcohol from, 33-61. 
composition of, 33. 
distillation in Britain, 61. 
distillery plant, 48-61. 
juice, fermentation of, 24, 25. 
maceration, extraction by, 39. 
molasses, fermenting by the 

Barbet method, 56-61. 
slicing machines, 37, 38. 
valuing for distillery use, 34. 
washing plant, 36, 48, 49. 
IJiMiiuivk brown, alcohol for dissolving, 

217. 

Black lead, alcohol in making, 217. 
Blacking, alcohol in, 217. 



247 



248 



INDEX 



Blowpipe, alcohol, for brazing, etc., 

237, 238. 
Boiling-point of alcohol, 14, 19, 21, 

124, 125. 

Brandy, composition, 99, 100. 
purifying, 91. 
still, 92. 

Brassfoundiug, alcohol used in, 217. 
Brazing lamp, alcohol, 237, 238. 
Brornoform, preparation of, 200. 

,, uses of, 185. 

Butyric acid, 23. 

,, ether from distillery waste, 
224. 

CALCIUM for dehydrating alcohol, 13. 

Calcium glycerophosphate, 219. 

Calico printing, use of alcohol in, 217. 

Camphine, 225. 

Camphor, 218. 

Candlemaking, use of alcohol in, 217. 

Caps of distilling column plates, 150- 

155, 172. 

Caramelisation, avoidance of, in dis- 
tillery, 31. 
Carbohydrates in beet, 34. 

,, in cereal -i, 62. 

Carburetting alcohol with benzol, 240- 

242. 

Castor oil, alcohol as solvent of, 217. 
Celluloid, use of alcohol in making, 

218. 

Cellulose in beet, 34. 
,, in cereals, 62. 
,, in potatoes, 76. 
Cereals, 62. 

Charon alcohol motor, 239. 
China manufacture, alcohol in, 218. 
Chloral, 185, 201, 202. 
Chloral hydrate, 202, 203. 
Chloroform, commercial brands of, 199. 
,, preparation of, 196-200. 

,, quantitative determina- 

tion of, 199. 
storage of, 198. 
,, tests for alcohol in, 198, 

199. 
., tests for impurities in, 

198. 

,, uses of, 185. 

Clostridium butyricum, 23. 
Coal-tar colours, use of alcohol in 

making, 5, 218. 
Coffey's still, 132-139. 
Collodion making, alcohol in, 222. 
Compounds of metals and alcohol, 3-5. 
Condensers, 155-158. 



Contraction of alcohol in cooling, 20. 
,, of mixed alcohol and water, 

7, 8. 

Corset making, use of alcohol in, 218. 
Cream of tartar, recovering from 
vinasse (wine), 90, 95, 96. 

DAM HARD, distillery plant at, 43, 51, 

52, 54. 
De Dombasle's beet maceration process, 

39. 

Dehydration of alcohol, 8, 9, 13. 
Delamotte's indoor and outdoor alcohol 

vapour lamp, 230, 233. 
Denaturing alcohol, 217, 219. 
Denitration of beet molasses, 109. 
Derivatives (alcohol), manufacture and 

uses of, 185-212. 
Derosne's continuous distillation 

method, 130-132. 
Dextrin in malt, 63, 69, 70. 
Dextrose in molasses, 107. 
Diastase, 23, 64. 

,, alcohol in making, 218. 
,, saccharogenic of beet, 46. 
Diffusion process for beet juice, 40-42. 
Dimethyl ketone. See Acetone. 
Distillation (destructive) products of 

alcohol, 2. 

Distillation of cane spirit, 118, 119. 
Distillery, beet, 33-61. 
,, grain, 74, 75. 

rum, 102, 103, 118-121. 
,, wine, 87-96. 
Distillery plant for beet, 48-61. 

., for industrial alcohol, 

122-184. 
,, for potatoes, 78-80. 

for rum, 102, 103, 120. 
,, for wine, 87-96. 

regulating flow in, 

143-149. 
,, surface heating in, 

152-164. 

See also Stills. 

Distilling alcohol from wine, 87-96. 

,, use of soap in, 126, 127. 
Dregs, distillery, composition of, 71. 
Drying, use of alcohol in, 218. 
Dumas' table of contraction, 20. 
Dyeing, use of alcohol in, 218. 



EGEOT & GRANGE'S air steriliser, 28. 
,, beet distilling 

plant, 36, 41, 
42, 49, 52-57. 



INDEX 



249 



Egrot & Grange's continuous recti- 
fiers, 177-184. 
,, distillery plant, 

4:5, 19, 51-57. 
,, distilling column, 

158, 164, 166. 
,, inclined column, 

161-163. 

,, portal ill- still, 1'!'. 

,, potato sacehari- 

li.-r, 80. 

,, rum distillery 

plant, 102, 103. 
,, saecharifier, 72. 

,, wine distilling 

plant, 93. 
Electric filaments, alcohol in making, 

219. 

Electrodes, alcohol in making, 219. 
Electrotyping, alcohol in, 219. 
Embrocations, use of alcohol in, 219. 
Emulsifier, 26. 

Enamels, alcohol in, 217, 219. 
Engines, alcohol-driven, 219. 
K>s. utial oils, alcohol in making, 219. 
Esters, compound, 186. 

,, in phlegms, 9. 
Ether, apparatus for preparing, 187. 
OMianthic, 196. 
Richardson's, 190. 
still, 189. 

sulphuric, 186-190. 
uses of, 185. 
Ethereal salts, 186. 
Etherification in ruin distilling, 119. 
,, in wine distilling, 91. 

Ethers, determination of, 10. 
Ethyl-aniline, 218. 
Ethylic acetate, 192, 193. 

,, alcohol, assay of, definition, 
properties, strength, 
1-21. 

,, in fusel oil, 100. 
bromide, 185, 191. 
chloride, 185, 190. 
iodide, 185, 191, 192. 
nitrate, preparation of, 195. 
nitrite, preparation of, 193-195. 

FAT in dregs, 71. 

Fats, edible, alcohol in making, 218. 

Ferment, Burbot's pure beet, 46. 

>, grain, 73. 

,, ,, wine, 85. 

,, pure plant, 114. 
Fermentation, aseptic, 44-49. 

,, ,, of molasses, 11 0,1 16. 



Fermentation, aseptic, fluorides in, 45, 

46. 
plant, :w, 58, 

86, 106. 
routinum^ process of, 

22-32. 
,, of beet jui- . , 13-49. 

of grain wash, 73. 
,, of molasses, 105, 106, 

108, 109, 116, 117. 
,, nt sugar wash, 105. 

Fermenting room, modern, 106. 

tuns, 43, 47, 50, 51, 7.', 

102, 103, 106, 115. 
Ferments for molasses, 109. 

influence of, on aroma, 29. 
injurious, 23. 
pure, for cane spirit, 112. 
used in alcohol manufacture, 

22-24. 

Venezuelan, 101. 
viscose, 104. 
Fireworks, alcohol in making, 219. 
Fluorides, use of in antiseptic fer- 
mentation, 45, 46. 
Fractionation distillation products. 

149. 

French polish, alcohol for, 219. 
Fruit, distilling, for alcohol, 96-98. 

, , essences, alcohol in making, 219. 
Furfnrol, detection of, 10, 11. 

,, from distillery waste, 224. 
,, in brandy oil, 100. 
Furniture polish, alcohol in, 219. 
Fusel extraction taps, 142, 143. 
Fusel oil, composition of, 99, 100, 205. 
,, SVr also Amylic alcohol. 

GAS mantles, alcohol in making, 226- 

230. 

Gasogene, 225. 
Gaspipe deposits, alcohol for removing, 

219. 

Germination in malting barley, 63. 
Gilding, use of alcohol in, 219. 
Glucose in dregs, 71. 
Glycerine from wine alcohol, 90. 
,, in brandy, 100. 
,, in wash, 124. 
Grain, alcohol from, 62-75. 
., distillery, plan of, 73. 
,, saccharification by acid, 31. 
,, storage of, 62. 
,, yield of proof spirit from, 65, 66. 
Grapes, collecting, 83. 

,, pressing, 83. 
G roiling stable of alcoholic strength, 19. 



250 



INDEX 



Guillaume's continuous rectifiers, 177- 

184. 

,, distilling column, 164-166. 
,, inclined column, 160-163. 
,, rectifying plant, 49. 
Gum in cereals, 62. 
,, in gun cotton, 188. 
,, in potatoes, 76. 

HALOID ethereal salts, 185, 186, 190, 

191. 

Hatmaking, use of alcohol in, 220. 
Heat developed by mixing alcohol and 

water, 7. 
Heat liberated by combustion of 

alcohol, 242, 243. 
Heating, alcohol for, 235-246. 
Hydrofluoric acid in fermentation, 45, 

46. 

Hydrometer tables, errors of. 9. 
,, use of, 5, 6, 7. 

ILLUMINATION by alcohol, 224-235. 
Indiarubber making, alcohol in, 220. 
Ink making, alcohol in, 220. 
Insecticides, alcohol in, 220. 
lodoform, preparation of, 200. 

,, test, 21. 

,, uses of, 186. 
Isobutyl alcohol in brandy, 100. 

,, glycol in brandy, 100. 

KETONE oils, 212. 

Knives for slicing beet, 38. 

LABORATORY uses of alcohol, 220. 
Lactic acid in malt, 63. 

,, as antiseptic in fermenta- 
tion, 23. 

,, ferments in yeast, 100. 

,, in wash, 124. 
Lamps, alcohol, 231, 233, 234, 235. 
Lanolin, alcohol for purifying, 221. 
Levulose in molasses, 107. 
Lighting, use of alcohol for, 225-235. 
Lime for dehydrating alcohol, 8, 9. 

MACERATION process of extracting 

beet juice, 39. 

Mahogany stain, alcohol in making, 221 . 
Maize, composition of, 62. 

,, oil, 71, 75. 
Malt, 23. 

,, for alcohol, 63. 

,, green, use of, in saccharifying, 
70, 71. 

,, substitutes, 70. 



Malt dust, 64. 
,, mills, 74. 
Malting grain, 63, 64. 
Maltose in malt, 63, 69, 70. 
Marienfeld potato distillery, 78-80. 
Mashing process, 67-70. 
Mash tun, 68. 
Maturing. See Ageing. 
Mercaptan in wine alcohol, 89. 
Meter, alcohol, 29. 
Methyl alcohol, 207-209. 

,, still, 175, 224. 

,, ,, - test for, 21. 

,, bromide, 209. 

,, chloride, preparation of, 209. 

,, compound ethers of, 210. 

,, ethyl ketone, 217. 

,, iodide, preparation of, 209. 
Methylation, spirit for, 75. 
Mineral matter in beets, 34. 

,, ,, in cereals. 64. 

,, ,, in dregs, 71. 

,, ,, in grapes, 84. 

,, ,, in molasses, 107. 

Mohler's method of analysis, 10. 
Molasses, alcohol from, 101-121. 

,, composition of, 107. 

fermenting, 105, 106, 108, 
109, 117. 

, , preservation and transport of, 
120, 121. 

,, saline matter of, 117. 
,, sterilising, 109-111. 

,, wash, composition of, 108. 
Monopole alcohol vapour lamp, 232, 

233. 
Motors, alcohol, 237-246. 

,, testing, 243, 244. 

,, v. petrol, 245, 246. 

Museums, use of alcohol in, 221. 
Mycoderma on fermenting sugar wash, 
104. 

NAPHTHALENE, alcohol as a solvent 

for, 219. 

Nitrogenous matter in beet, 33. 
,, in dregs, 71. 
,, ,, in molasses, 107. 

,, products, determination 

of, 11. 

Nitrous ether, preparation of, 193-195. 
Non-nitrogenous matter in dregs, 71. 

OATS, composition of, 62. 
Oil of Dutch chemists, 198. 

refining, use of alcohol in, 221. 



INDEX 



25' 



Oils in brandy, 100. 

Organic matter in molasses, 107. 



J'AINT, deanim;- ami ivnmving, use of 

alcohol in, 221. 
Paraldehyde, uses of, 186. 
Pasteur's rational fermentation, 25. 
"Pasteurisation" in distilling, 143- 

145. 

Perfumery, use of alcohol in, 221. 
Permanganate test for rectification, 

145. 

Phenol test for aldehyde, 21. 
Phlegms (crude spirit), composition 

of, 9. 

Photography, alcohol in, 222. 
" Piquette," composition of, 84. 
Polo's alcohol vapour heater, 235- 

237. 

Pot stills, intermittent, 123-130. 
Potash, recovery from molasses spent 

wash beet, 59. 
Potash, recovery from molasses spent 

wash cane, 117. 
Potatoes, alcohol from, 76-82. 
,, composition of, 76. 
,, pedigree, selection of, 76, 77. 
Preservative, alcohol as a, 221. 
Proof spirit, 5-7. 
Properties of alcohol, 1-21. 
Propyl alcohol in brandy, 100. 
Pyridine bases, 11, 241. 
Pyroacetic ether. See Acetone. 

RECTIFICATION of wine alcohol, 91. 

plant, Guillaume's, 49. 

Rectifier, laboratory, 12. 
Rectifiers for suppressing "mauvais 

gout," 168, 169. 
Rectifying cane spirit, 118, 119. 
,, wine alcohol, 89, 90. 
,, column, 135. 
,, ,, twin, 169, 170. 

,, plant for industrial alcohol, 

122-184. 

,, plant for rum, 120. 
Reducing substances in molasses, 

107. 
Resin, alcohol as solvent for, 2, 217, 

221, 222. 

Rice, composition of, 62. 
,, yield of alcohol, 65. 
,, ,, oil, 75. 
Rum distillery plant, 102, 103. 

rectifying, 119. 
Rye, 62. 
,, yield of alcohol, 65. 



S.\ II \l: I Hi \TlM.v, 22. 

,, acid, <>l irr.iin, 71- 

74. 

,, by malt, 61-70. 

,, by green malt, 70, 

71. 
Saccharifier, 72-74. 

,, for potatoes, 80. 

Saccharogeuic diastase, 46. 
Saccharomyces, 22. 
Saline matter of molasses, 117. 
Savalle's steam regulator, 146. 
still, 139, 140. 
test-glass, 140, 141. 
Scrubbers for removing impurities 

from alcohol vapours, 89, 94. 
Sheep dips, alcohol in making, 222. 
Siemens' potato spirit process, 77. 
Silk manufacture, alcohol in, 222. 
Silo, beet, 54, 55. 
Silvering mirrors, alcohol in, 222, 

223. 

Smokeless powder, 192. 
Soap, use of, in distilling, 126, 127. 
Sodium for dehydrating alcohol, 9. 
Sorel's rectifier, 12. 
Specific gravity of alcohol, 5-7. 
,, ,, of molasses, 107. 

tables, 14-18. 
Squibb's tables of density and strength, 

Starch in grain, 30, 64. 

,, in potatoes, 76, 81, 82. 
Steam regulators, 146-149, 170, 174- 

176, 180, 184, 189. 
Sterilisation in alcohol manufacture, 

22-32. 

Steriliser for air, 28. 
Sterilising molasses, 109-111. 
Still, continuous steam, 90, 91, 131, 

138, 165. 
Stills, continuous, 130-184. 

,, fire-heated, 136. 

,, portable, 96-99. 

,, See also Distillery plant. 
Strength of alcohol at various dens iti.-, 

14-18. 

,, ,, comparative, by vol- 

ume and weight, 
19. 

Succinic acid, 124. 
Sugar cane, alcohol from, 101-121. 

,, in beet, 33. 

,, fermentation products of, 29. 

,, in molasses, 107. 

,, making, alcohol in, 224. 
Sulphonal, uses of, 186. 



252 



INDEX 



Sulphuretted hydrogen in wine alcohol, 

88, 89. 

Sulphuric acid in fermentation, 45. 
Sulphurous acid in wine alcohol, 88, 

89. 
"Surfin," Swiss monopoly test, 21. 

TANKS (storage), 50, 51, 56. 
Tannin, alcohol in making, 224. 
Tanning leather, alcohol in, 224. 
Temperature of fermentation, 22-26, 

101, 106, 108, 111, 112. 
Test-glasses for stills, 140-1 43. 
Tralles' table of density and strength, 

18. 
"Trois-six" alcohol, 31. 

URE'S tables of density and strength, 

14-16. 
Ure thane, uses of, 186. 

VARNISH MAKING, alcohol in, 224. 

Vat bottoms, 24, 25. 

Venezuelan ferments, 110. 

Vine, varieties of, 83. 

Vinegar making, alcohol process, 224. 

Viscose fermentsin sugar distilling, 104. 



WASHES, working thick, 154, 155. 
Waste products from distilleries, 

utilisation of, 224. 

Water, amount to add to alcohol, 20. 
,, detection of, 10. 
in beet, 33. 

,, v. alcohol as solvent, 
Wheat, composition of, 62. 
Wine alcohol, by-products of, 90. 

,, ,, impurities in, 88, 89. 

,, ,, rectifying, 89, 90. 

,, and wine waste, alcohol from, 
83-100. 

,, distilling plant, 92, 93, 95, 96. 

,, marc, distilling, 94. 

,, oils in fusel oil, 100. 
Wines, composition of, 84. 
Winkler on removing aldehydes, 13. 
Wood spirit, 207-209. 

,, still and rectifier, 175, 209, 

224. 
Woulfe's bottle principle in stills, 123, 

124, 128. 



YEAST in fermentation, 22-26. 

Veasts, Effrouts acclimatised, 48. 



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THE TECHNOLOGY 
OF SUGAR. 

A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Sugar from the 

Sugar Cane and Sugar Beet, with elaborate data for both 

the Engineering and Chemical Control of the 

Manufacture, Schemes for Analysis of Raw 

Materials and Finished Products, and 

for the Analysis of Commercial 

Sugars, and of Merchandise 

containing Sugars. 

By JOHN GEDDES M'INTOSH, 

Lay Lecturer on Agricultural Chemistry, The Polytechnic, Regent Street. 

Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 
Demy 8uo. 450 Pages. 108 Illustrations and 91 Tables. 1906. 

EXTRACTS FROM PRESS OPINIONS ON THE FIRST EDITION. 

"The main part of the work is naturally devoted to the beet-sugar industry, and here we 
are pleased to note a careful and useful treatment. The processes of defecation and carbona- 
tation of the juice are well described, and the interesting matter of the formation of the 
sucro-carbonates given prominence. Filter presses are also well described. Perhaps the 
best part of this section is that dealing with the saving of fuel by the use of multiple-effect 
systems, and the author is to be congratulated upon the clearness with which he treats the 
advantages of such methods." Dundee Courier. 

" It has been the aim of the author to show the most modern methods employed in this 
industry. All who are in any way identified with the sugar industry should have a copy of 
this work." Scientific American. 

" This interesting and very valuable book. . . ." Sugar Trade Journal. 

"Those concerned with the special manufactures treated will find a great deal of 
interesting information in the book." Grocer. 

" The primary object and design of the work is to give help to those who are devoting or 
who intend to devote their active energies to the prosecution of the sugar industry. Readers 
of this class will find that the author has spared no pains in presenting them with the valu- 
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method, adding copious illustrations where these are required to carry the reader along with 
him. The spirit in which Mr. M'Intosh writes is admirable." Green ock Herald. 

" Mr. M'Intosh shows an intimate acquaintance with the practical operations of the beet 
industry, more especially as these are conducted in the French-growing districts. Practical 
methods for analysis of both beet and cane products have been fully and explicitly detailed, 
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EVAPORATING, CONDENSING, 
and COOLING APPARATUS. 

Explanations, Formulae, and Tables for Use in Practice. 
By E. HAUSBRAND, Engineer. 

Translated from the Second, Revised German Edition by 
A. C. WRIGHT, M.A.(Oxon.), B.Sc. (Lond.). 

21 Illustrations and 76 Tables. 400 pages, Demy 8uo. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Chapters I. The Coefficient of Transmission of Heat, k, and the Mean Temperature 
Difference, Om. II. Parallel and Opposite Currents. III. Apparatus for Heating 
with Direct Fire. IV. The Injection of Saturated Steam. V. Superheated Steam. 
VI. Evaporation by Means of Hot Liquids. VII. The Transference of Heat in 
General, and Transference by Means of Saturated Steam in Particular. VIII. The 
Transference of Heat from Saturated Steam in Pipes (Coils) and Double Bottoms. 
IX. Evaporation in a Vacuum. X. The Multiple-effect Evaporator A. The Evapo- 
rative Capacity of Each Vessel B. The Percentage of Dry Material in the Liquid in each Vessel. 
XI. Multiple-effect Evaporators, from which Extra Steam is taken. XII. The 
Weight of Water which must be Evaporated from 100 kilos of Liquor in order to 
bring its Original Percentage of Solids from 1.25 per cent, up to 20-70 per cent. 
XIII. The Relative Proportion of the Heating Surfaces in the Elements of the 
Multiple Evaporator and their Real Dimensions. XIV. The Pressure Exerted by 
Currents of Steam and Air upon Floating Drops of Water. XV. The Motion of 
Floating Drops of Water, upon which Press Currents of Steam. XVI. The 
Splashing of Evaporating Liquids. XVII. The Diameter of Pipes for Steam, 
Alcohol Vapour and Air. XVIII. The Diameter of Water Pipes.-XIX. The Loss 
of Heat from Apparatus and Pipes to the Surrounding Air, and Means for Pre- 
venting the Escape. XX. Condensers A. Jet Condensers B. Surface Condensers (Coolers'). 
XXI. Heating Liquids by Means of Steam A. Steam Heating Coils in the Liquid 
B. Steam Vessels with Double Bottoms C. The Liquid flows through Tubes around which Steam 
is at rest. XXII. The Cooling of Liquids A. The Direct Introduction of Ice.B. The 
Direct Addition of Cold to Hot Liquid C. By Partial Evaporation D. By Means of a Odder 
Liquid B. Open Surface- Coolers F. By Contact with Metallic Surfaces Cooled by Air G. Direct 
Cooling by Means of AirB.. Cooling Air by Means of Water. XXIII. The Volumes to be 
Exhausted from Condensers by the Air Pumps. XXIV. A Few Remarks on Air 
Pumps and the Vacua they Produce. XXV. The Volumetric Efficiency of Air-Pumps. 
XXVI. The Volumes of Air which must be Exhausted from a Vessel in order to 
Reduce its Original Pressure to a Certain Lower Pressure. INDEX. 



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INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 


PAGE 


PAGE 


PAGE 


Agricultural Chemistry .. 
Air, Industrial Use of 


10 
11 


Dyers' Materials 21 
Dye-stuffs 22 


Petroleum 6 
Pigments, Chemistry of ... 2 


Alum and its Sulphates .. 


9 


Enamelling Metal ... . 18 


Plumbers' Work 27 


Ammonia 


9 


Enamels 18 


Porcelain Painting 18 


Aniline Colours 


3 


Engraving 31 


Pottery Clays 16 


Animal Fats 


6 


Essential Oils ... . 7 


Pottery Manufacture .. 14 


Anti-corrosive Paints 
Architecture, Terms in .. 


4 

30 


Evaporating Apparatus . 26 
External Plumbing... . 27 


Power-loom Weaving .. 19 
Preserved Foods 30 


Architectural Pottery 


16 


Fats ... 5,6 


Printers' Readv Reckoner 31 


Artificial Perfumes 


7 


Faults in Woollen Goods... 20 Printing Inks 3 


Balsams 


10 


Gas Firing 26 Recipes for Oilmen, etc. . 3 


Bibliography 
Bleaching 


32 
23 


Glass-making Recipes ... 17 
Glass Painting 17 


Resins 10 
Risks of Occupations ... 11 


Bone Products 


8 


Glue Making and Testing... 8 


Rivetting China, etc. ... 16 


Bookbinding 


31 


Greases 5 


Sanitary Plumbing ... 28 


Brick-making ... U 


,16 


History of Staffs Potteries 16 


Scheele's Essays 9 


Burnishing Brass 


28 


Hops 28 


Sealing Waxes 11 


Carpet Yarn Printing 
Ceramic Books ... 14 


21 
, 15 


Hot-water Supply 28 
How to make a Woollen Mill 


Silk Dyeing 22 
Silk Throwing 19 


Charcoal 


8 


Pay 21 


Smoke Prevention 26 


Chemical Essays 


9 


India-rubber .. ...13 


Soaps 7 


Chemistry of Pottery 


17 


Inks 3,11 


Spinning 20 


Chemistry of Dye-stuffs .. 


23 


Iron-corrosion .. ... 4 


Staining Marble, and Bone 31 


Clay Analysis 


16 


Iron, Science of .. ... 26 


Steam Drying 11 


Coal-dust Firing 


26 


Japanning 28 j Sugar Refining 32 


Colour Matching ... 
Colliery Recovery Work . 


21 

25 


Lacquering ... 28 
Lake Pigments .. ... 2 


Steel Hardening 26 
Sweetmeats 30 


Colour-mixing for Dyers . 
Colour Theory 


21 
22 


Lead and its Compounds ... 11 
Leather Industry 13 


Terra-cotta 16 
Testing Paint Materials ... 4 


Combing Machines... 
Compounding Oils ... 


24 
6 


Leather-working Materials 14 
Lithography 31 


Testing Yarns 20 
Textile Fabrics 20 


Condensing Apparatus 


26 


Lubricants 5,6 Textile Materials ... 19,20 


Cosmetics 


8 Manures 8, 10 Timber 29 


Cotton Dyeing 


23 1 Mineral Pigments 3 Varnishes 4 


Cotton Spinning ... 


24 


Mine Ventilation 25 j Vegetable Fats 7 


Damask Weaving ... 
Dampness in Buildings 
Decorators' Books ... 


20 
30 

'28 


Mine Haulage 25 
Oil and Colour Recipes ... 3 
Oil Boiling .. .. 4 


Waste Utilisation 10 
Water, Industrial Use ... \2 
Waterproofing Fabrics ... 21 


Decorative Textiles 


20 Oil Merchants' Manual ... 7 


Weaving Calculations ... 20 


Dental Metallurgy... 


25 I Oils 5 Wood Waste Utilisation ... 29 


Dictionaryof Paint Materia 
Drying Oils 


s 2 O/one, Industrial Use of.. 12 Wood Dyeing 31 
5 Paint Manufacture 2 Wool Dyeing ... 22,23 


Drying with Air 


12 Paint Materials 3 Writing Inks 11 


Dyeing Marble 


31 Paint-material Testing ... 4 X-Ray Work 13 


Dyeing Woollen Fabrics .. 


23 Paper-pulp Dyeing 18 Yarn Testing 20 



PUBLISHED BY 



SCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON, 

19 LUDGATE HILL, LONDON, E,C. 



Tel. Address: "PRINTERIES, LONDON". 



Tel. No. 5405, Bank. 



Paints, Colours and Printing 
Inks. 

THE CHEMISTRY OF PIGMENTS. By ERNEST J. PARRY, 
B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S., and J. H. COSTE, F.I.C., F.C.S. Demy 
8vo. Five Illustrations. 285 pp. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Introductory. Light White Light The Spectrum The Invisible Spectrum Normal 
Spectrum Simple Nature of Pure Spectral Colour The Recomposition of White Light 
Primary and Complementary Colours Coloured Bodies Absorption Spectra The Appli = 
cation of Pigments. Uses of Pigments : Artistic, Decorative, Protective Methods of 
Application of Pigments : Pastels and Crayons. Water Colour, Tempera Painting, Fresco, 
Encaustic Painting, Oil-colour Painting, Keramic Art, Enamel, Stained and Painted Glass, 
Mosaic Inorganic Pigments. White Lead Zinc White Enamel White Whitening- 
Red Lead Litharge Vermilion Royal Scarlet The Chromium Greens Chromates of Lead, 
Zinc, Silver and Mercury Brunswick Green The Ochres Indian Red Venetian Red 
Siennas and Umbers Light Red Cappagh Brown Red Oxides Mars Colours Terre Verte 
Prussian Brown Cobalt Colours Creruleum Smalt Copper Pigments Malachite 
Bremen Green Scheele's Green Emerald Green Verdigris Brunswick Green Non- 
arsenical Greens Copper Blues Ultramarine Carbon Pigments Ivory Black Lamp Black 
Bistre Naples Yellow Arsenic Sulphides : Orpiment, Realgar Cadmium Yellow 
Vandyck Brown Organic Pigments. Prussian Blue Natural Lakes Cochineal Carmine 
Crimson Lac Dye Scarlet Madder Alizarin Campeachy Quercitron Rhamnus 
Brazil Wood Alkanet Santal Wood Archil Coal-tar Lakes Red Lakes Alizarin Com- 
pounds Orange and Yellow Lakes Green and Blue Lakes Indigo Dragon's Blood 
Gamboge Sepia Indian Yellow, Puree Bitumen. Asphaltum, Mummy Index. 

THE MANUFACTURE OP PAINT. A Practical Handbook 
for Paint Manufacturers, Merchants and Painters. By J. CRUICKSHANK 
SMITH, B.Sc. Demy 8vo. 200 pp. Sixty Illustrations and One Large 
Diagram. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Preparation of Raw Material Storing of Raw Material Testing and Valuation of Raw 
Material Paint Plant and Machinery The Grinding of White Lead Grinding of White 
Zinc Grinding of other White Pigments Grinding of Oxide Paints Grinding of Staining 
Colours Grinding of Black Paints Grinding of Chemical Colours Yellows Grinding of 
Chemical Colours Blues Grinding Greens Grinding Reds Grinding Lakes Grinding 
Colours in Water Grinding Colours in Turpentine The Uses of Paint Testing and Matching 
Paints Economic Considerations Index. 

DICTIONARY OF CHEMICALS AND RAW PRO- 
DUCTS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF 
PAINTS, COLOURS, VARNISHES AND ALLIED 
PREPARATIONS. By GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S. Demy 
8vo. 380 pp. Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF LAKE PIGMENTS FROM 
ARTIFICIAL COLOURS. By FRANCIS H. JENNISON, 
F.I.C., F.C.S. Sixteen Coloured Plates, showing Specimens of 
Eighty-nine Colours, specially prepared from the Recipes given 
in the BOOk. 136 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

The Groups of the Artificial Colouring Matters The Nature and Manipulation of Artificial 
Colours Lake-forming Bodies for Acid Colours Lake-forming Bodies' Basic Colours Lake 
Bases The Principles of Lake Formation Red Lakes Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Violet 
and Black Lakes The Production of Insoluble Azo Colours in the Form of Pigments The 
General Properties of Lakes Produced from Artificial Colours Washing, Filtering and Fin- 
ishing Matching and Testing Lake Pigments Index. 



3 

THE MANUFACTURE OF MINERAL AND LAKE 
PIGMENTS. Containing Directions for the Manufacture 
of all Artificial, Artists and Painters' Colours, Enamel, Soot and Me- 
tallic Pigments. A Text-book for Manufacturers, Merchants, Artists 
and Painters. By Dr. JOSEF BERSCH. Translated by A. C. WRIGHT, 
M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. (Lond.). Forty-three Illustrations. 476 pp., demy 
8vo. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 
15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Introduction Physico-chemical Behaviour of Pigments Raw Materials Employed in 
the Manufacture of Pigments Assistant Materials Metallic Compounds The Manufacture 
ot Mineral Pigments The Manufacture of White Lead Enamel White Washing Apparatus 
Zinc White Yellow Mineral Pigments Chrome Yellow Lead Oxide Pigments 
Other Yellow Pigments Mosaic Gold Red Mineral Pigments The Manufacture of Ver- 
milion Antimony Vermilion Ferric Oxide Pigments Other Red Mineral Pigments Purple 
of Cassius Blue Mineral Pigments Ultramarine Manufacture of Ultramarine Blue 
Copper Pigments Blue Cobalt Pigments Smalts Green Mineral Pigments Emerald 
Green Verdigris Chromium Oxide Other Green Chromium Pigments Green Cobalt Pig- 
ments Green Manganese Pigments Compounded Green Pigments Violet Mineral Pig- 
mentsBrown Mineral Pigments Brown Decomposition Products Black Pigments Manu- 
facture of Soot Pigments Manufacture of Lamp Black The Manufacture of Soot Black 
without Chambers Indian Ink Enamel Colours Metallic Pigments Bronze Pigments 
Vegetable Bronze Pigments. 

PIGMENTS OF ORGANIC ORIGIN Lakes Yellow Lakes Red Lakes Manufacture of 
Carmine The Colouring Matter of Lac Safflower or Carthamine Red Madder and 
its Colouring Matters Madder Lakes Manjit (Indian Madder) Lichen Colouring Matters- 
Red Wood Lakes The Colouring Matters of Sandal Wood and Other Dye Woods Blue 
Lakes Indigo Carmine The Colouring Matter of Log Wood Green Lakes Brown Organic 
Pigments Sap Colours Water Colours Crayons Confectionery Colours The Preparation 
of Pigments for Painting The Examination of Pigments Examination of Lakes The 
Testing of Dye-Wpods The Design of a Colour Works Commercial Names of Pigments 
Appendix : Conversion of Metric to English Weights and Measures Centigrade and Fahrenheit 
Thermometer Scales Index. 



RECIPES FOR THE COLOUR, PAINT, VARNISH, OIL, 
SOAP AND DRYSALTERY TRADES. Compiled by 
Ax ANALYTICAL CHEMIST. 350 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India 
and British Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Pigments or Colours for Paints, Lithographic and Letterpress Printing Inks, etc.- 
Mixed Paints and Preparations for Paint-making, Painting, Lime-washing, Paperhanging. 
etc. Varnishes for Coach-builders, Cabinetmakers, Wood-workers, Metal-workers, Photo- 
graphers, etc. Soaps for Toilet, Cleansing, Polishing, etc. Perfumes Lubricating Greases, 
Oils, etc. Cements, Pastes, Glues and Other Adhesive Preparations Writing, Marking, 
Endorsing and Other Inks Sealing-wax and Office Requisites Preparations for the Laundry, 
Kitchen, Stable and General Household Uses Disinfectant Preparations Miscellaneous 
Preparations Index 



OIL COLOURS AND PRINTING INKS. By Louis 
EDGAR ANDS. Translated from the German. 215 pp. Crown 8vo. 
56 Illustrations. Price 5s. ; India and British Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Linseed Oil Poppy Oil Mechanical Purification of Linseed Oil Chemical Purification of 
Linseed Oil Bleaching Linseed Oil Oxidizing Agents for Boiling Linseed" Oil Theory of 
Oil Boiling Manufacture of Boiled Oil Adulterations of Boiled Oil Chinese Drying Oil and 
Other Specialities Pigments for House and Artistic Painting and Inks Pigment for 
Printers' Black Inks Substitutes for Lampblack Machinery for Colour Grinding and 
Rubbing Machines for mixing Pigments with the Vehicle Paint Mills Manufacture of 
House Oil Paints Ship Paints Luminous Paint Artists' Colours Printers' Inks: 
VEHICLES-Printers' Inks:-PIGMF.NTS and MANUFACTURE-Index. 
(See alsj Writing Inks, p. ix.) 



CASEIN. By ROBERT SCHERER. Translated from the German 
by CHAS. SALTER. With 11 Illustrations. 160 pp. Price 7s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; net. 

Contents. 

Casein, its Composition and Properties Preparation and Purification Casein Water- 
Paints Casein Putties and Adhesives Casein Plasters and Pastes Casein in the Textile 
Industry Casein Foodstuffs Various Uses of Casein as Paper, Pulp, etc. 



SIMPLE METHODS FOR TESTING PAINTERS' 
MATERIALS. By A. C. WRIGHT, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. 
(Lond.). Crown 8vo. 160 pp. Price 5s. ; India and British Colonies, 
5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Necessity for Testing Standards Arrangement The Apparatus The Reagents 
Practical Tests Dry Colours Stiff Paints Liquid and Enamel Paints Oil Varnishes 
Spirit Varnishes Driers Putty Linseed Oil Turpentine Water Stains The Chemical 
Examination Dry Colours and Paints White Pigments and Paints Yellow Pigments and 
Paints Blue Pigments and Paints Green Pigments and Paints Red Pigments and Paints 
Brown Pigments and Paints Black Pigments and Paints Oil Varnishes Linseed Oil 
Turpentine. 

IRON - CORROSION, ANTI - FOULING AND ANTI- 
CORROSIVE PAINTS. Translated from the German of 
Louis EDGAR ANDES. Sixty-two Illustrations. 275 pp. Demy 8vo. 
Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Iron-rust and its Formation Protection from Rusting by Paint Grounding the Iron with 
Linseed Oil, etc. Testing Paints Use of Tar for Painting on Iron Anti-corrosive Paints 
Linseed Varnish Chinese Wood Oil Lead Pigments Iron Pigments Artificial Iron Oxides 
Carbon Preparation of Anti-corrosive Paints Results of Examination of Several Anti- 
corrosive Paints Paints for Ship's Bottoms Anti-fouling Compositions Various Anti-cor- 
rosive and Ship's Paints Official Standard Specifications for Ironwork Paints Index. 



THE TESTING AND VALUATION OP RAW MATE- 
RIALS USED IN PAINT AND COLOUR MANU 
FACTURE. By M. W. JONES, F.C.S. A Book for the 
Laboratories of Colour Works. 88 pp. Crown 8vo. Price 5s. ; India 
and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Aluminium Compounds China Clay Iron Compounds Potassium Compounds Sodium 
Compounds Ammonium Hydrate Acids Chromium Compounds Tin Compounds Copper 
Compounds Lead Compounds Zinc Compounds Manganese Compounds Arsenic 
Compounds Antimony Compounds Calcium Compounds Barium Compounds Cadmium 
Compounds Mercury Compounds Ultramarine Cobalt and Carbon Compounds Oils 
Index. 



STUDENTS' MANUAL OF PAINTS, COLOURS, OILS 
AND VARNISHES. By JOHN FURNELL. Crown 8vo. 12 
Illustrations. 96 pp. Price 2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Plant Chromes Blues Greens Earth Colours Blacks Reds Lakes Whites- 
Painters' Oils Turpentine Oil Varnishes Spirit Varnishes Liquid Paints Enamel Paints 



Varnishes and Drying Oils. 

OIL CRUSHING, REFINING AND BOILING THE 
MANUFACTURE OF LINOLEUM, PRINTING AND 
LITHOGRAPHIC INKS, AND INDIA-RUBBER 
SUBSTITUTES. By JOHN GEDDES MC!NTOSH. Being 
Volume 1. of the Second, greatly enlarged, English Edition, in three 
Volumes, of " The Manufacture of Varnishes and Kindred Industries," 
based on and including the work of Ach. Livache. Demy 8vo. 150 pp. 
29 Illustrations. 1905. Price 7s. 6d. ; Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. ; strictly net. Post free. 

Contents. 

Oil Crushing and Refining; Oil Boiling Theoretical and Practical ; Linoleum Manufacture; 
Printing Ink Manufacture; Rubber Substitutes; The Manufacture of Driers; The Detection 
of Adulteration in Linseed and other Drying Oils by Chemical, Physical and Organoleptic 
Methods. 



DRYING OILS, BOILED OIL AND SOLID AND 
LIQUID DRIERS. By L. E. ANDES. Expressly Written 
for this Series of Special Technical Books, and the Publishers hold 
the Copyright for English and Foreign Editions. Forty-two Illustra- 
tions. 342 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 15s.; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Properties of the Drying Oils ; Cause of the Drying Property ; Absorption of Oxygen ; 
Behaviour towards Metallic Oxides, etc. The Properties of and Methods for obtaining the 
Drying Oils Production of the Drying Oils by Expression and Extraction ; Refining and 
Bleaching; Oil Cakes and Meal; The Refining and Bleaching of the Drying Oils; The 
Bleaching of Linseed Oil The Manufacture of Boiled Oil; The Preparation of Drying Oils 
for Use in the Grinding of Paints and Artists' Colours and in the Manufacture of Varnishes 
by Heating over a Fire or by Steam, by the Cold Process, by the Action of Air, and by Means 
of the Electric Current ; The Driers used in Boiling Linseed Oil ; The Manufacture of Boiled 
Oil and the Apparatus therefor Livache's Process for Preparing a Good Drying Oil and its 
Practical Application The Preparation of Varnishes for Letterpress, Lithographic and Copper- 
plate Printing, for Oilcloth and Waterproof Fabrics : The Manufacture of Thickened Linseed 
Oil, Burnt Oil, Stand Oil by Fire Heat, Superheated Steam, and by a Current of Air Behaviour 
of the Drying Oils and Boiled Oils towards Atmospheric Influences, Water, Acids and Alkalies 
Boiled Oil Substitutes The Manufacture of Solid and Liquid Driers from Linseed Oil and 
Rosin; Linolic Acid Compounds of frhe Driers The Adulteration and Examination of the 
Drying Oils and Boiled Oil. 



Oils, Fats, Soaps and Perfumes. 

LUBRICATING OILS, FATS AND GREASES: Their 
Origin, Preparation, Properties, Uses and Analyses. A Handbook for 
Oil Manufacturers, Refiners and Merchants, and the Oil and Fat 
Industry in General. By GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S. Second Revised 
and Enlarged Edition. Sixty-five Illustrations. 317 pp. Demy 8vo. 
Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries. 12.; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Introductory Hydrocarbon Oils Scotch Shale Oils Petroleum Vegetable and 
Animal Oils -Testing- and Adulteration of Oils -Lubricating Greases Lubrication- 
Appendices Index. 



6 
TECHNOLOGY OP PETROLEUM : Oil Fields of the 

World Their History, Geography and Geology Annual Production 
and Development Oil-well Drilling Transport. By HENRY NEU- 
BERGER and HENRY NOALHAT. Translated from the French by J. G. 
MclNTOSH. 550 pp. 153 Illustrations. 26 Plates. Super Royal 8vo. 
Price 21s. ; India and Colonies, 22s. ; Other Countries, 23s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Study of the Petroliferous Strata Petroleum Definition The Genesis or Origin of 
Petroleum The Oil Fields of Galicia, their History Physical Geography and Geology of 
the Galician Oil Fields Practical Notes on Galician Land Law Economic Hints on Working, 
etc. Roumania History, Geography, Geology Petroleum in Russia History Russian 
Petroleum (continued) Geography and Geology of the Caucasian Oil Fields Russian Petro- 
leum (continued) The Secondary Oil Fields of Europe, Northern Germany, Alsace, Italy, etc. 
Petroleum in France Petroleum in Asia Transcaspian and Turkestan Territory Turkestan 
Persia British India and Burmah British Burmah or Lower Burmah China Chinese 
Thibet Japan, Formosa and Saghalien Petroleum in Oceania Sumatra, Java, Borneo 
Isle of Timor Philippine Isles New Zealand The United States of America History 
Physical Geology and Geography of the United States Oil Fields Canadian and other North 
American Oil Fields Economic Data of Work in North America Petroleum in the West 
Indies and South America Petroleum in the French Colonies. 

Excavations Hand Excavation or Hand Digging of Oil Wells. 

Methods of Boring:. 

Accidents Boring Accidents Methods of preventing them Methods of remedying them 
Explosives and the use of the "Torpedo" Levigation Storing and Transport of Petroleum 
General Advice Prospecting, Management and carrying on of Petroleum Boring Operations. 

General Data Customary Formulae Memento. Practical Part. General Data 
bearing on Petroleum Glossary of Technical Terms used in the Petroleum Industry Copious 
Index. 

THE PRACTICAL COMPOUNDING OF OILS, TAL- 
LOW AND GREASE FOR LUBRICATION, ETC. 
By AN EXPERT OIL REFINER. 100 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Introductory Remarks on the General Nomenclature of Oils, Tallow and Greases 
suitable for Lubrication Hydrocarbon Oils Animal and Fish Oils Compound 
Oils Vegetable Oils Lamp Oils Engine Tallow, Solidified Oils and Petroleum 
Jelly Machinery Greases: Loco and Anti-friction Clarifying and Utilisation 
of Waste Fats, Oils, Tank Bottoms, Drainings of Barrels and Drums, Pickings 
Up, Dregs, etc. The Fixing and Cleaning of Oil Tanks, etc. Appendix and 
General Information. 

ANIMAL FATS AND OILS: Their Practical Production, 
Purification and Uses for a great Variety of Purposes. Their Pro- 
perties, Falsification and Examination. Translated from the German 
of Louis EDGAR ANDES. Sixty-two Illustrations. 240 pp. Second 
Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. ; India 
and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Introduction Occurrence, Origin, Properties and Chemical Constitution of Animal Fats 
Preparation of Animal Fats and Oils Machinery Tallow-melting Plant Extraction Plant 
Presses Filtering Apparatus Butter: Raw Material and Preparation, Properties, Adul- 
terations, Beef Lard or Remelted Butter.. Testing Candle-fish Oil Mutton-Tallow Hare 
Fat Goose Fat Neatsfoot Oil Bone Fat: Bone Boiling, Steaming Bones, Extraction, 
Refining Bone Oil Artificial Butter: Oleomargarine, Margarine Manufacture in France, 
Grasso's Process, " Kaiser's Butter," Jahr & Mtinzberg's Method, Filbert's Process, Winter's 
Method Human Fat Horse Fat Beef Marrow Turtle Oil Hog's Lard : Raw Material- 
Preparation, Properties, Adulterations, Examination Lard Oil Fish Oils Liver Oils 
Artificial Train Oil Wool Fat: Properties, Purified Wool Fat Spermaceti : Examination 
of Fats and Oils in General. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF GREASES, BLACKINGS 
AND LUBRICANTS. By RICHARD BRUNNER. Translated 
from the Sixth German Edition by CHAS. SALTER. 10 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. t'd. ; net, post free. 



THE OIL MERCHANTS MANUAL AND OIL TRADE 
READY RECKONER. Compiled by FRANK F. SHERRIFP. 
Second Edition Revised and Enlarged. Demy 8vo. 214 pp. 1904. 
With Two Sheets of Tables. Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colon ict, St. ; 
Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Trade Terms and Customs Tables to Ascertain Value of Oil sold per cwt. or ton Specific 
Gravity Tables Percentage Tare Tables Petroleum Tables Paramne and Benzoline Calcu- 
lations Customary Drafts Tables for Calculating Allowance for Dirt, Water, etc. Capacity 
of Circular Tanks Tables, etc., etc. 

THE CHEMISTRY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND ARTI- 
FICIAL PERFUMES. By ERNEST J. PARRY, B.Sc. 
(Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S. 411 pp. 20 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. Price 
12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries. 15s.; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 
The General Properties of Essential Oils Compounds occurring: in Essential Oils 

The Preparation of Essential Oils The Analysis of Essential Oils Systematic 

Study of the Essential Oils Terpeneless Oils The Chemistry of Artificial Perfumes 

Appendix : Table of Constants Index. 

VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS: Their Practical Prepara- 
tion, Purification and Employment for Various Purposes, their Proper- 
ties, Adulteration and Examination. Translated from the German of 
Louis EDGAR ANDES. Ninety-four Illustrations. 340 pp. Second 
Edition. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other 
Countries, 12s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

General Properties Estimation of the Amount of Oil in Seeds The Preparattno 
of Vegetable Fats and Oils Apparatus for Grinding Oil Seeds and Fruits Installation 
of Oil and Fat Works Extraction Method of Obtaining Oils and Fats Oil Extraction 
Installations Press Moulds Non -drying Vegetable Oils Vegetable drying Oils- 
Solid Vegetable Fats Fruits Yielding Oils and Fats Wool-softening Oils Soluble Oils- 
Treatment of the Oil after Leaving the Press Improved Methods of Refining Bleaching 
Fats and Oils Practical Experiments on the Treatment of Oils with regard to Refining and 
Bleaching Testing Oils and Fats. 

SOAPS. A Practical Manual of the Manufacture of Domestic, 
Toilet and other Soaps. By GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S. 390 pp. 
66 Illustrations. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Introductory Soap-maker's APkalies Soap Fats and Oils- Perfumes Water as 
a Soap Material Soap Machinery Technology of Soap-making Glycerine in Soap 
Lyes Laying out a Soap Factory Soap Analysis Appendices. 



Textile Soaps. 



TEXTILE SOAPS AND OILS. Handbook on the Prepara- 
tion, Properties and Analysis of the Soaps and Oils used in Textile 
Manufacturing, Dyeing and Printing By GEORGE H. HURST, F C.S. 
Crown 8vo. 195 pp. 1904. Price 5s.; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; 
Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Methods of Making Soaps Hard Soap Soft Soap. Special Textile Soaps Wool 
Soaps Calico Printers' Soaps Dyers' Soaps. Relation of Soap to Water for Industrial 
Purposes Treating Waste Soap Liquors Boiled Off Liquor Calico Printers and Dyers' 
Soap Liquors Soap Analysis -Fat in Soap. 

ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS AND FATS Tallow Lard Bone Grease- 
Tallow Oil. Vegetable Soap, Oils and Fats Palm Oil Coco-nut Oil Olive Oil Cotton- 
seed Oil Linseed Oil Castor Oil Corn Oil Whale Oil or Train Oil Rene Oil. 
GLYCERINE. 

TEXTILE OILS Oleic Acid Blended Wool Oils Oils for Cotton Dyeing, Printing and 
Finishing Turkey Red Oil Ali/arine Oil Oleine Oxy Turkey Red Oils Soluble Oil- 
Analysis of Turkey Red Oil Finisher's Soluble Oil Finisher's Soap Softening Testing and 
Adulteration of Oils Index. 



Cosmetical Preparations. 

COSMETICS : MANUFACTURE, EMPLOYMENT 
AND TESTING OF ALL COSMETIC MATERIALS 
AND COSMETIC SPECIALITIES. Translated 
from the German of Dr. THEODOR KOLLER. Crown 8vo. 262 pp. 
Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. net. 
Contents. 

Purposes and Uses of, and Ingredients used in the_Preparation of Cosmetics Preparation of 
Perfumes by Pressure, Distillation, Maceration, Absorption or Enfleurage, and Extraction 
Methods Chemical and Animal Products used in the Preparation of Cosmetics Oils and Fats 
used 'in the Preparation of Cosmetics General Cosmetic Preparations Mouth Washes and 
Tooth Pastes Hair Dyes, Hair Restorers and Depilatories Cosmetic Adjuncts and 
Specialities Colouring Cosmetic Preparations Antiseptic Washes and Soaps Toilet and 
Hygienic Soaps Secret Preparations for Skin, Complexion, Teeth, Mouth, etc. Testing and 
Examining the Materials Employed in the Manufacture of Cosmetics Index. 



Glue, Bone Products and 
Manures. 

GLUE AND GLUE TESTING. By SAMUEL RIDEAL, D.Sc. 
(Lond.), F.I.C. Fourteen Engravings. 144 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 
10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Constitution and Properties: Definitions and Sources, Gelatine, Chondrin and Allied 
Bodies, Physical and Chemical Properties, Classification, Grades and Commercial Varieties 
Raw Materials and Manufacture : Glue Stock, Lining, Extraction, Washing and Clari- 

- - ! on of Bacteria and of Antiseptics, 
etc., Secondary Products Uses 



fying, Filter Presses, Water Supply, Use of Alkalies, Action of Bacteria and of Antiseptics, 
Various Processes, Cleansing, Forming, Drying, Crushing, etc., Secondary Products Uses 
of Glue : Selection and Preparation for Use, Carpentry, Veneering, Paper-Making, Book- 



binding, Printing Rollers, Hectographs, Match Manufacture, Sandpaper, etc., Substitutes for 
other Materials, Artificial Leather and Caoutchouc Gelatine : General Characters, Liquid 
Gelatine, Photographic Uses, Size, Tanno-, Chrome and Formo-Gelatine, Artificial Silk, 
Cements, Pneumatic Tyres, Culinary, Meat Extracts, Isinglass, Medicinal and other Uses, 
Bacteriology Glue Testing : Review of Processes, Chemical Examination, Adulteration, 
Physical Tests, Valuation of Raw Materials Commercial Aspects. 

BONE PRODUCTS AND MANURES : An Account of the 
most recent Improvements in the Manufacture of Fat, Glue, Animal 
Charcoal, Size, Gelatine and Manures. By THOMAS LAMBERT, Techni- 
cal and Consulting Chemist. Illustrated by Twenty-one Plans and 
Diagrams. 162 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chemical Composition of Bones Arrangement of Factory Properties of Glue Glutin 
and Chondrin Skin Glue Liming of Skins Washing Boiling of Skins Clarification of Glue 
Liquors Glue-Boiling and Clarifying-House Specification of a Glue Size Uses and Pre- 
paration and Composition of Size Concentrated Size Properties of Gelatine Preparation 
of Skin Gelatine Drying Bone Gelatine Selecting Bones Crushing Dissolving Bleaching 
Boiling Properties of Glutin and Chondrin Testing of Glues and Gelatines The Uses of 
Glue, Gelatine and Size in Various Trades Soluble and Liquid Glues Steam and Waterproof 
Glues Manures Importation of Food Stuffs Soils Germination Plant Life Natural 
Manures Water and Nitrogen in Farmyard Manure Full Analysis of Farmyard Manure 
Action on Crops Water-Closet System Sewage Manure Green Manures Artificial 
Manures Mineral Manures Nitrogenous Matters Shoddy Hoofs and Horns Leather 
Waste Dried Meat Dried Blood Superphosphates Composition iManufacture Common 
Raw Bones Degreased Bones Crude Fat Refined Fat Degelatinised Bones Animal 
Charcoal Bone Superphosphates Guanos Dried Animal Products- 1 - Potash Compounds 
Sulphate of Ammonia Extraction in Vacuo French and British Gelatines compared Index. 



Chemicals, Waste Products and 
Agricultural Chemistry. 

REISSUE OF CHEMICAL ESSAYS OP C. W. 
SCHEELE. First Published in English in 1786. Trans- 
lated from the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, with Additions. 300 
pp. DemySvo. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 
6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Memoir: C. W. Scheele and his work (written for this edition by J. G. Mclntosh} On 
Fluor Mineral and its Acid On Fluor Mineral Chemical Investigation of Fluor Acid, 
with a View to the Earth which it Yields, by Mr. VViegler Additional Information 
Concerning Fluor Minerals On Manganese, Magnesium, or Magnesia Vitrariorum On 
Arsenic and its Acid Remarks upon Salts of Benzoin On Silex, Clay and Alum Analysis 
of the Calculus Vesical Method of Preparing Mercurius Dulcis Via Humida Cheaper and 
more Convenient Method of Preparing Pulvis Algarothi Experiments upon Molybdaena 
Experiments on Plumbago Method of Preparing a New Green Colour Of the De- 
composition of Neutral Salts by Unslaked Lime and Iron On the Quantity of Pure Air which 
is Daily Present in our Atmosphere On Milk and its Acid On the Acid or Saccharum Lactis 
On the Constituent Parts of Lapis Ponderosus or Tungsten Experiments and Observations 
on Ether Index. 

THE MANUFACTURE OP ALUM AND THE SUL- 
PHATES AND OTHER SALTS OF ALUMINA AND 
IRON. Their Uses and Applications as Mordants in Dyeing 
and Calico Printing, and their other Applications in the Arts, Manufac- 
tures, Sanitary Engineering, Agriculture and Horticulture. Translated 
from the French of LUCIEN GESCHWIND. 195 Illustrations. 400 pp. 
Royal 8vo. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Theoretical Study of Aluminium, Iron, and Compounds of these .Metals 
Aluminium and its Compounds Iron and Iron Compounds. 

Manufacture of Aluminium Sulphates and Sulphates of Iron Manufacture of 
Aluminium Sulphate and the Alums Manufacture of Sulphates of Iron. 

Uses of the Sulphates of Aluminium and Iron Uses of Aluminium Sulphate and 
Alums Application to Wool and Silk Preparing and using Aluminium Acetates Employment 
of Aluminium Sulphate in Carbonising Wool The Manufacture of Lake Pigments Manu- 
facture of Prussian Blue Hide and Leather Industry Paper Making Hardening Plaster 
Lime Washes Preparation of Non-inflammable Wood, etc. Purification of Waste Waters 
Uses and Applications of Ferrous Sulphate and Ferric Sulphates Dyeing Manu- 
facture of Pigments Writing Inks Purification of Lighting Gas Agriculture Cotton Dyeing 
Disinfectant Purifying Waste Liquors Manufacture of Nordhausen Sulphuric Acid 
Fertilising. 

Chemical Characteristics of Iron and Aluminium Analysis of Various Aluminous 
or Ferruginous Products Aluminium Analysing: Aluminium Products Alunite 
Alumina Sodium Aluminate Aluminium Sulphate Iron Analytical Characteristics of Iron 
Salts Analysis of Pyritic Lignite Ferrous and Ferric Sulphates Rouil Mordant Index. 

AMMONIA AND ITS COMPOUNDS : Their Manufacture 
and Uses. By CAMILLE VINCENT, Professor at the Central School of 
Arts and Manufactures, Paris. Translated from the French by M. J. 
SALTER. Royal 8vo. 114 pp. Thirty-two Illustrations. Price 5s.; 
India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

General Considerations: Various Sources of Ammoniaca! Products: Human Urine 
as a Source of Ammonia Extraction of Ammoniacal Products from Sewage- 
Extraction of Ammonia from (ias Liquor Manufacture of Ammoniacal Com- 
pounds from Bones, Nitrogenous Waste, Beetroot Wash and Peat Manufacture of 
Caustic Ammonia, and Ammonium Chloride, Phosphate and Carbonate Recovery 
of Ammonia from the Ammonia-Soda Mother Liquors Index. 



10 

ANALYSIS OF RESINS AND BALSAMS. Translated 
from the German of Dr. KARL DIETERICH. Demy 8vo. 340 pp. 
Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Definition of Resins in General Definition of Balsams, and especially the Gum Resins 
External and Superficial Characteristics of Resinous Bodies Distinction between Resinous 
Bodies and Fats and Oils Origin, Occurrence and Collection of Resinous Substances 
Classification Chemical Constituents of Resinous Substances Resinols Resinot Annols 
Behaviour of Resin Constituents towards the Cholesterine Reactions Uses and Identi- 
fication of Resins Melting-point Solvents Acid Value Saponification Value Resin Value 
Ester and Ether Values Acetyl and Corbonyl Value Methyl Value Resin Acid Syste- 
matic Resume of the Performance of the Acid and Saponification Value Tests. 

Balsams Introduction Definitions Canada Balsam Copaiba Balsam Angostura 
Copaiba Balsam Babia Copaiba Balsam Carthagena Copaiba Balsam Maracaibo 
Copaiba Balsam Maturin Copaiba Balsam Gurjum Copaiba Balsam Para Copaiba Balsam 
Surinam Copaiba Balsam West African Copaiba Balsam Mecca Balsam Peruvian 
Balsam Tolu Balsam Acaroid Resin Amine Amber African and West Indian Kino 
Bengal Kino Labdanum Mastic Pine Resin Sandarach Scammonium Shellac Storax 
Adulteration of Styrax Liquidus Crudus Purified Storax Styrax Crudus Colatus Taca- 
mahac Thapsia Resin Turpentine Chios Turpentine Strassburg Turpentine Turpeth 
Turpentine. Gum Resins Ammoniacum Bdellium Euphorbium Galbanum Gamboge 
Lactucarium Myrrh Opopanax Sagapenum Olibanum or Incense Acaroid Resin 
Amber Thapsia Resin Index. 



MANUAL OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. By 

HERBERT INGLE, F.I.C., Lecturer on Agricultural. Chemistry, the 
Yorkshire College; Lecturer in the Victoria University. 388 pp. 11 
Illustrations. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; 
Other Countries, 8s. 6d. net. 

Contents. 

Introduction The Atmosphere The Soil The Reactions occurring in Soils The 
Analysis of Soils Manures, Natural Manures (continued) The Analysis of Manures The 
Constituents of Plants The Plant Crops The Animal Foods and Feeding Milk and Milk 
Products The Analysis of Milk and Milk Products Miscellaneous Products used in Agri- 
culture Appendix Index. 



THE UTILISATION OF WASTE PRODUCTS. A Treatise 
on the Rational Utilisation, Recovery and Treatment of Waste Pro- 
ducts of all kinds. By Dr. THEODOR ROLLER. Translated from the 
Second Revised German Edition. Twenty-two Illustrations. Demy 
8vo. 280 pp. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

The Waste of Towns Ammonia and Sal-Ammoniac Rational Processes for Obtaining 
these Substances by Treating Residues and Waste Residues in the Manufacture of Aniline 
Dyes Amber Waste Brewers' Waste Blood and Slaughter-House Refuse Manufactured 
Fuels Waste Paper and Bookbinders' Waste Iron Slags Excrement Colouring Matters 
from Waste Dyers' Waste Waters Fat from Waste Fish Waste Calamine Sludge 
Tannery Waste Gold and Silver Waste India-rubber and Caoutchouc Waste Residues in 
the Manufacture of Rosin Oil Wood Waste Horn Waste Infusorial Earth Iridium from 
Goldsmiths' Sweepings Jute Waste Cork Waste Leather Waste Glue Makers' Waste 
Illuminating Gas from Waste and the By-Products of the Manufacture of Coal Gas 
Meerschum Molasses Metal Waste By-Products in the Manufacture of Mineral Waters 
Fruit The By-Products of Paper and Paper Pulp Works By-Products in the Treatment 
of Coal Tar Oils Fur Waste The Waste Matter in the Manufacture of Parchment Paper 
Mother of Pearl Waste Petroleum Residues Platinum Residues Broken Porcelain. 
Earthenware and Glass Salt Waste Slate Waste Sulphur Burnt Pyrites Silk Waste- 
Soap Makers' Waste Alkali Waste and the Recovery of Soda Waste Produced in Grinding 
Mirrors Waste Products in the Manufacture of Starch Stearic Acid Vegetable Ivory 
Waste Turf Waste Waters of Cloth Factories Wine Residues Tinplate Waste Wool 
Waste Wool Sweat The Waste Liquids from Sugar Works Index. 



11 

Writing Inks and Sealing Waxes. 

INK MANUFACTURE : Including Writing, Copying, Litho- 
graphic, Marking, Stamping, and Laundry Inks. By SIG.MUND LEHNER. 
Three Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 162 pp. Translated from the German 
of the Fifth Edition. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 6s. ; net. 

Contents. 

Varieties of Ink Writing Inks Raw Materials of Tannin Inks The Chemical Constitution 
of the Tannin Inks Recipes for Tannin Inks Logwood Tannin Inks Ferric Inks Alizarine 
Inks Extract Inks Logwood Inks Copying Inks Hektographs Hektograph Inks Safety 
Inks Ink Extracts and Powders Preserving Inks Changes in Ink and the Restoration of 
Faded Writing Coloured Inks Red Inks Blue Inks Violet Inks Yellow Inks Green 
Inks Metallic Inks Indian Ink Lithographic Inks and Pencils Ink Pencils Marking Inks 
Ink Specialities Sympathetic Inks Stamping Inks Laundry or Washing Blue Index 

SEALING-WAXES, WAFERS AND OTHER ADHES- 
IVES FOR THE HOUSEHOLD, OFFICE, WORK- 
SHOP AND FACTORY. By H. C. STANDAGE. Crown 
8vo. 96 pp. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 
6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Materials Used for Making Sealing- Waxes The Manufacture of Sealing-Waxes 
Wafers Notes on the Nature of the Materials Used in Making Adhesive Compounds Cements 
for Use in the Household Office Gums, Pastes and Mucilages Adhesive Compounds for 
Factory and Workshop Use. 

Lead Ores and Compounds. 

LEAD AND ITS COMPOUNDS. By THOS. LAMBHHT, 
Technical and Consulting Chemist. Demy 8vo. 226 pp. Forty Illus- 
trations. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. ; net. Plans and Diagrams. 

Contents. 

History Ores of Lead Geographical Distribution of the Lead Industry Chemical and 
Physical Properties of Lead Alloys of Lead Compounds of Lead Dressing of Lead Ores 
Smelting of Lead Ores Smelting in the Scotch or American Ore-hearth Smelting in the 
Shaft or Blast Furnace Condensation of Lead Fume Desilverisation, or the Separation 
of Silver from Argentiferous Lead Cupellatipn The Manufacture of Lead Pipes and 
Sheets Protoxide of Lead Litharge and Massicot Red Lead or Minium Lead Poisoning 
Lead Substitutes Zinc and its Compounds Pumice Stone Drying Oils and Siccatives 
Oil of Turpentine Resin Classification of Mineral Pigments Analysis of Raw and Finished 
Prod ucts Tables I ndex. 

NOTES ON LEAD ORES : Their Distribution and Properties. 
By JAS. FAIRIE, F.G.S. Crown 8vo. 64 pages. Price 2s. 6d. ; Abroad 
3s. ; strictly net. 

Industrial Hygiene. 

THE RISKS AND DANGERS TO HEALTH OF VARI- 
OUS OCCUPATIONS AND THEIR PREVENTION. 

By LEONARD A. PARRY, M.D., B.Sc. (Lond.). 196 pp. Demy 8vo. 
Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly 
net. 

Contents. 

Occupations which are Accompanied by the Generation and Scattering of Abnormal 
Quantities of Dust Trades in which there is Danger of Metallic Poisoning C ertain Chemi- 
cal Trades Some Miscellaneous Occupations Trades in which Various Poiso nous Vapours 
are Inhaled General Hygienic Considerations Index. 



12 

Industrial Uses of Air, Steam and 

Water. 

DRYING BY MEANS OF AIR AND STEAM. Explana- 
tions, Formulae, and Tables for Use in Practice. Translated from the 
German of E. HAUSBRAND. Two folding Diagrams and Thirteen Tables. 
Crown 8vo. 72 pp. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

British and Metric Systems Compared Centigrade and Fahr. Thermometers Estimation 
of the Maximum Weight of Saturated Aqueous Vapour which can be contained in 1 kilo, 
of Air at Different Pressure and Temperatures Calculation of the Necessary Weight and 
Volume of Air, and of the Least Expenditure of Heat, per Drying Apparatus with Heated 
Air, at the Atmospheric Pressure: A, With the Assumption that the Air is Completely Satur- 
ated with Vapour both before Entry and after Exit from the Apparatus B, When the 
Atmospheric Air is Completely Saturated before entry, but at its exit is only f , \ or J Saturated 
C, When the Atmospheric Air is not Saturated with Moisture before Entering the Drying 
Apparatus Drying Apparatus, in which, in the Drying Chamber, a Pressure is Artificially 
Created, Higher or Lower than that of the Atmosphere Drying by Means of Superheated 
Steam, without Air Heating Surface, Velocity of the Air Current, Dimensions of the Drying 
Room, Surface of the Drying Material, Losses of Heat Index. 

(See also " Evaporating, Condensing and Cooling Apparatus " p. 27.) 



PURE AIR, OZONE AND WATER. A Practical Treatise 
of their Utilisation and Value in Oil, Grease, Soap, Paint, Glue and 
other Industries. By W. B. COWELL. Twelve Illustrations. Crown 
8vo. 85 pp. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 
6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Atmospheric Air ; Lifting of Liquids ; Suction Process ; Preparing Blown Oils; Preparing 
Siccative Drying Oils Compressed Air; Whitewash Liquid Air; Retrocession Purification 
of Water; Water Hardness Fleshings and Bones Ozonised Air in the Bleaching and De- 
odorising of Fats, Glues, etc. ; Bleaching Textile Fibres Appendix : Air and Gases ; Pressure 
of Air at Various Temperatures ; Fuel; Table of Combustibles; Saving of Fuel by Heating 
Feed Water ; Table of Solubilities of Scale Making Minerals ; British Thermal Units Tables ; 
Volume of the Flow of Steam into the Atmosphere; Ten >perature of Steam Index. 



THE INDUSTRIAL USES OP WATER. COMPOSI- 
TION EFFECTS TROUBLES REMEDIES RE- 
SIDUARY WATERS PURIFICATION ANALYSIS. 

By H. DE LA Coux. Royal 8vo. Translated from the French and 
Revised by ARTHUR MORRIS. 364pp. 135 Illustrations. Price 10s. 6d. ; 
Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chemical Action of Water in Nature and in Industrial Use Composition of Waters 
Solubility of Certain Salts in Water Considered from the Industrial Point of View Effects on 
the Boiling of Water Effects of Water in the Industries Difficulties with Water Feed 
Water for Boilers Water in Dyeworks, Print Works, and Bleach Works Water in the 
Textile Industries and in Conditioning Water in Soap Works Water in Laundries and 
Washhouses Water in Tanning Water in Preparing Tannin and Dyewood Extracts Water 
in Papermaking Water in Photography Water in Sugar Refining Water in Making Ices 
and Beverages Water in Cider Making Water in Brewing Water in Distilling Preliminary 
Treatment and Apparatus Substances Used for Preliminary Chemical Purification Com- 
mercial Specialities and their Employment Precipitation of Matters in Suspension in Water 
Apparatus for the Preliminary Chemical Purification of Water Industrial Filters Indus- 
trial Sterilisation of Water Residuary Waters and their Purification Soil Filtration 
Purification by Chemical Processes Analyses Index. 

(See Books on Smoke Prevention, Engineering and Metallurgy, p. 26, etc.) 



13 



X Rays. 



PRACTICAL X RAY WORK. By FRANK T. ADDYMAN, 
B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., Member of the Roentgen Society of London; 
Radiographer to St. George's Hospital ; Demonstrator of Physics and 
Chemistry, and Teacher of Radiography in St. George's Hospital 
Medical School. Demy 8vo. Twelve Plates from Photographs of X Ray 
Work. Fifty-two Illustrations. 200 pp. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and 
Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Historical Work leading up to the Discovery of the X Rays The Discovery Appara- 
tus and its Management Electrical Terms Sources of Electricity Induction Coils 
Electrostatic Machines Tubes Air Pumps Tube Holders and Stereoscopic Apparatus 
Fluorescent Screens Practical X Ray Work Installations Radioscopy Radiography 
X Rays in Dentistry X Rays in Chemistry X Rays in War Index. 

List of Plates. 

Frontispiece Congenital Dislocation of Hip-Joint. 1., Needle in Finger. II.. Needle in 
Foot. III., Revolver Bullet in Calf and Leg. IV., A Method of Localisation. V , Stellate 
Fracture of Patella showing shadow of "Strapping". VI., Sarcoma. VII., Six-weeks-old 
Injury to Elbow showing new Growth of Bone. VIII., Old Fracture of Tibia and Fibula 
badly set. IX., Heart Shadow. X., Fractured Femur showing Grain of Splint. XI.. Bar- 
rell's Method of Localisation. 

India-Rubber and Gutta Percha. 

INDIA-RUBBER AND GUTTA PERCHA. Translated 
from the French of T. SEELIGMANN, G. LAMY TORVILHON and H. 
FALCONNET by JOHN GEDDES MC!NTOSH. Royal 8vo. 

[Out of print. Second Edition in preparation. 
Contents. 

India- Rubber Botanical Origin Climatology Soil Rational Culture and Acclimation 
of the Different Spe:ies of India-Rubber Plants Methods of Obtaining the Latex Methods 
of Preparing Raw or Crude India-Rubber Classification of the Commercial Species of 
Raw Rubber Physical and Chemical Properties of the Latex and of India-Rubber 
Mechanical Transformation of Natural Caoutchouc into Washed or Normal Caoutchouc 
(Purification) and Normal Rubber into Masticated Rubber Softening, Cutting, Washing, 
Drying Preliminary Observations Vulcanisation of Normal Rubber Chemical and Physical 
Properties of Vulcanised Rubber General Considerations Hardened Rubber or Ebonite- 
Considerations on Mineralisation and other Mixtures Coloration and Dyeing Analysis 
of Natural or Normal Rubber and Vulcanised Rubber Rubber Substitutes Imitation Rubber. 

Gutta Percha Botanical Origin Climatology Soil Rational Culture Methods of 
Collection Classification of the Different Species of Commercial Gutta Percha Physical 
and Chemical Properties Mechanical Transformation Methods of Analysing Gutta Percba 
Substitutes Index. 



Leather Trades. 



PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE LEATHER IN- 
DUSTRY. By A. M. VILLON. Translated by FRANK T. 
ADDYMAN, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S. ; and Corrected by an Emi- 
nent Member of the Trade. 500 pp., royal 8vo. 123 Illustrations. 
Price 21s. ; India and Colonies, 22s. ; Other Countries, 23s. 6d. ; strictly 
net. 

Contents. 

Preface Translator's Preface List of Illustrations. 

Part I., Materials used In Tanning Skins: Skin and its Structure; Skins used in 
Tanning; Various Skins and their Uses Tannin and Tanning Substances: Tannin; Barks 
(Oak); Barks other than Oak; Tanning Woods; Tannin-bearing Leaves; Excrescences: 
Tan-bearing Fruits; Tan-bearing Roots and Bulbs; Tanning Juices; Tanning Substances 
used in Various Countries; Tannin Extracts; Estimation of Tannin and Tannin Principles. 

Part II., Tanning: The Installation of a Tannery: Tan Furnaces; Chimneys, Boilers, 
etc.; Steam Engines Grinding and Trituration of Tanning Substances: Cutting up Bark: 
Grinding Bark; The Grinding of Tan Woods; Powdering Fruit, Galls and Grains; Notes on 



14 

the Grinding of Bark Manufacture of Sole Leather: Soaking; Sweating and Unhairing; 
Plumping and Colouring; Handling; Tanning; Tanning Elephants' Hides; Drying; 
Striking or Pinning Manufacture of Dressing Leather : Soaking ; Depilation ; New Pro- 
cesses for the Depilation of Skins; Tanning; Cow Hides; Horse Hides; Goat Skins; Manu- 
acture of Split Hides On Various Methods of Tanning : Mechanical Methods ; Physical 
Methods; Chemical Methods; Tanning with Extracts Quantity and Quality; Quantity; 
Net Cost; Quality of Leather Various Manipulations of Tanned Leather: Second Tanning; 
Grease Stains; Bleaching Leather; Waterproofing Leather; Weighting Tanned Leather; 
Preservation of Leather Tanning Various Skins. 

Part III., Currying Waxed Calf: Preparation; Shaving; Stretching or Slicking; 
Oiling the Grain ; Oiling the Flesh Side; Whitening and Graining; Waxing; Finishing; Dry 
Finishing; Finishing in Colour; Cost White Calf: Finishing in White Cow Hide for 
Upper Leathers: Black Cow Hide; White Cow Hide; Coloured Cow Hide Smooth Cow 
Hide Black Leather Miscellaneous Hides: Horse; Goat; Waxed Goat Skin; Matt Goat 
Skin Russia Leather: Russia Leather; Artificial Russia Leather. 

Part IV., Enamelled, Hungary and Chatnoy Leather, Morocco, Parchment, Furs 
and Artificial Leather Enamelled Leather: Varnish Manufacture; Application of the 
Enamel; Enamelling in Colour Hungary Leather: Preliminary; Wet Work or Prepara- 
tion; Aluming; Dressing or Loft Work; Tallowing; Hungary Leather from Various Hides 
Tawing: Preparatory Operations; Dressing; Dyeing Tawed Skins; Rugs Chamoy Leather 
Morocco: Preliminary Operations, Morocco Tanning- Mordants used in Morocco Manu- 
facture; Natural Colours used in Morocco Dyeing; Artificial Colours; Different Methods 
of Dyeing ; Dyeing with Natural Colours ; Dyeing with Aniline Colours ; Dyeing with 
Metallic Salts; Leather Printing ; Finishing Morocco ; Shagreen ; Bronzed Leather Gilding 
and Silvering: Gilding; Silvering; Nickel and Cobalt Parchment Furs and Furriery: 
Preliminary Remarks; Indigenous Furs; Foreign Furs from Hot Countries; Foreign Furs 
from Cold Countries ; Furs from Birds' Skins; Preparation of Furs; Dressing; Colouring; 
Preparation of Birds' Skins; Preservation of Furs Artificial Leather: Leather made from 
Scraps; Compressed Leather; American Cloth ; Papier Mache ; Linoleum; Artificial Leathar. 

Part V., Leather Testing and the Theory of Tanning Testing and Analysis of Leather : 
Physical Testing of Tanned Leather; Chemical Analysis The Theory of Tanning and the 
other Operations of the Leather and Skin Industry: Theory of Soaking; Theory of Un- 
hairing; Theory of Swelling; Theory of Handling; Theory of Tanning; Theory of the 
Action of Tannin on the Skin ; Theory of Hungary Leather Making ; Theory of Tawing ; 
Theory of Chamoy Leather Making; Theory of Mineral Tanning. 

Part VI., Uses of Leather Machine Belts: Manufacture of Belting; Leather Chain 
Belts; Various Belts, Use of Belts Boot and Shoe-making: Boots and Shoes; Laces- 
Saddlery : Composition of a Saddle ; Construction of a Saddle Harness : The Pack Saddle ; 
Harness Military Equipment Glove Making Carriage Building Mechanical Uses. 

Appendix, The World's Commerce in Leather Europe; America; Asia; Africa; 
Australasia Index. 

THE LEATHER WORKER'S MANUAL. Being a Com- 
pendium of Practical Recipes and Working Formulae for Curriers, 
Bootmakers, Leather Dressers, Blacking Manufacturers, Saddlers, 
Fancy Leather Workers. By H. C. STANDAGE. 165 pp. Price 7s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Blackings, Polishes, Glosses, Dressings, Renovators, etc., for Boot and Shoe Leather 
Harness Blackings, Dressings, Greases, Compositions, Soaps, and Boot-top Powders and 
Liquids, etc., etc. Leather Grinders' Sundries Currier's Seasonings, Blacking Compounds, 
Dressings, Finishes, Glosses, etc. Dyes and Stains for Leather Miscellaneous Information 
Chrome Tannage Index. 



Books on Pottery, Bricks, 
Tiles, Glass, etc. 

THE MANUAL OP PRACTICAL POTTING. Compiled 

by Experts, and Edited by CHAS. F. BINNS. Revised Third Edition 
and Enlarged. 200 pp. Price 17s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 18s. 6d. ; 
Other Countries, 20s. ; strictly net. 



15 
Contents. 

Introduction. The Rise and Progress of the Potter's Art Bodies. China and Porcelain 
Bodies, Parian Bodies, Semi-porcelain and Vitreous Bodies, Mortar Bodies, Earthenware* 
Granite and C.C. Bodies, Miscellaneous Bodies, Sagger and Crucible Clays, Coloured 
Bodies, Jasper Bodies, Coloured Bodies for Mosaic Painting, Encaustic Tile Bodies, Body 
Stains, Coloured Dips Glazes. China Glazes, Ironstone Glazes, Earthenware Glazes, 
Glazes without Lead, Miscellaneous Glazes, Coloured Glazes, Majolica Colours Qold and 
Oold Colours. Gold, Purple of Cassius, Marone and Ruby, Enamel Coloured Bases, 
Enamel Colour Fluxes, Enamel Colours, Mixed Enamel Colours, Antique and Vellum 
Enamel Colours, Underglaze Colours, Underglaze Colour Fluxes, Mixed Underglaze Colours, 
Flow Powders, Oils and Varnishes Means and Methods. Reclamation of Waste Gold. 
The Use of Cobalt, Notes on Enamel Colours, Liquid or Bright Gold Classification and 
Analysis. Classification of Clay Ware, Lord Play-fair's Analysis of Clays, The Markets of 
the World, Time and Scale of Firing, Weights of Potter's Material, Decorated Good* 
Count Comparative Loss of Weight or Clays Ground Felspar Calculations The Conver- 
sion of Slop Body Recipes into Dry Weight The Cost of Prepared Earthenware Clay 
Forms and Tables. Articles of Apprenticeship, Manufacturer's Guide to Stocktaking, 
Table of Relative Values of Potter's Materials, Hourly Wages Table, Workman's Settling 
Table, Comparative Guide for Earthenware and China Manufacturers ir> the use of Slop Flint 
and Slop Stone, Foreign Terms applied to Earthenware and Chinz. Goods, Table for the 
Conversion of Metrical Weights and Measures on the Continent and South America Index. 

CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY : Being some Aspects of Tech- 
nical Science as Applied to Pottery Manufacture. Edited by CHARLES 
F. BINNS. 100 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Preface The Chemistry of Pottery Analysis and Synthesis Clays and their Com- 
ponentsThe Biscuit Oven Pyrometry Glazes and their Composition Colours and 
Colour-making Index. 

A TREATISE ON THE CERAMIC INDUSTRIES. A 

Complete Manual for Pottery, Tile and Brick Works. By EMILB 
BOURRY. Translated from the French by WILTON P. Rix, Examiner 
in Pottery and Porcelain to the City and Guilds of London Technical 
Institute, Pottery Instructor to the Hanley School Board. Royal 
8vo. 760pp. 323 Illustrations. Price 21s. ; India and Colonies, 22s. ; 
Other Countries, 23s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Part I., General Pottery Methods. Definition and History. Definitions and Classifi- 
cation of Ceramic Products Historic Summary of the Ceramic Art Raw Materials of 
Bodies. Clays: Pure Clay and Natural Clays Various Raw Materials: Analogous to Clay 
Agglomerative and Agglutinative Opening Fusible Refractory Trials of Raw Materials 
Plastic Bodies. Properties and Composition Preparation of Raw Materials: Disaggrega- 
tion Purification Preparation of Bodies: By Plastic Method By Dry Method By Liquid 
Method Formation. Processes of Formation: Throwing Expression Moulding by Hand, 
on the Jolley, by Compression, by Slip Casting Slapping Slipping Drying. Drying of 
Bodies Processes of Drying: By Evaporation By Aeration By Heating By VentiLition 
By Absorption Glazes. Composition and Properties Raw Materials Manufacture 
and Application Firing. Properties of the Bodies and Glazes during Firing Description 
of the Kilns Working of the Kilns Decoration. Colouring Materials Processes of 
Decoration. 

Part II., Special Pottery Methods. Terra Cottas. Classification: Plain Ordinary, 
Hollow, Ornamental, Vitrified, and Light Bricks Ordinary and Black Tiles Paving Tiles 
Pip es Architectural Terra Cottas Vases, Statues and Decorative Objects Common Pottery 
Pottery for Water and Filters Tobacco Pipes Lustre Ware Properties and Tests for 
Terra Cottas Fireclay Goods. Classification: Argillaceous, Aluminous, Carboniferous, 
Silicious and Basic Fireclay Goods Fireclay Mortar (Pug) Tests for Fireclay Goods- 
Faiences. Varnished Faiences Enamelled Faiences Silicious Faiences Pipeclay Faiences 
Pebble Work Feldspathic Faiences Composition, Processes of Manufacture and General 
Arrangements of Faience Potteries Stoneware. Stoneware Properly So-called: Paving 
Tiles Pipes Sanitary Ware Stoneware for Food Purposes and Chemical Productions- 
Architectural Stoneware Vases, Statues and other Decorative Objects Fine Stoneware 
Porcelain. Hard Porcelain for Table Ware and Decoration, for the Fire, for Electrical 
Conduits, for Mechanical Purposes: Architectural Porcelain, and Dull or Biscuit Porcelain- 
Soft Phosphated or English Porcelain Soft Vitreous Porcelain, French and New Sevres- 
Argillaceous Soft or Seger's Porcelain Dull Soft or Parian Porcelain Dull Feldspathic 
Soft Porcelain Index. 



16 

ARCHITECTURAL POTTERY. Bricks, Tiles, Pipes, Ena- 
melled Terra-cottas, Ordinary and Incrusted Quarries, Stoneware 
Mosaics, Faiences and Architectural Stoneware. By LEON LEFEVRE. 
With Five Plates. 950 Illustrations in the Text, and numerous estimates. 
500 pp., royal 8vo. Translated from the French by K. H. BIRD, M.A., 
and W. MOORE BINNS. Price 15s. ; India and Colonies, 16s. ; Other 
Countries, 17s. 6d. ; strictly net. 



Contents. 

try. Clays 
Part II. Made-up or Decorated Pottery. 



Part I. Plain Undecorated Pottery. Clays, Bricks, Tiles, Pipes, Chimney Flues, 
Terra-cotta. 



THE ART OF RIVETING GLASS, CHINA AND 
EARTHENWARE. By J. HOWARTH. Second Edition. 
Paper Cover. Price Is. net ; by post, home or abroad, Is. Id. 



NOTES ON POTTERY CLAYS. Their Distribution, Pro- 
perties, Uses and Analyses of Ball Clays, China Clays and China 
Stone. By JAS. FAIRIE, F.G.S. 132 pp. Crown 8vo. Price 3s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 4s. ; Other Countries, 4s. 6d. ; strictly net. 



A Reissue of 

THE HISTORY OP THE STAFFORDSHIRE POTTER- 
IES; AND THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE 
MANUFACTURE OF POTTERY AND PORCELAIN. 

With References to Genuine Specimens, and Notices of Eminent Pot- 
ters. By SIMEON SHAW. (Originally Published in 1829.) 265 pp. 
Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Introductory Chapter showing the position of the Pottery Trade at the present time 
(1899) Preliminary Remarks The Potteries, comprising Tunstall, Brownhills, Green- 
field and New Field, Golden Hill, Latebrook, Green Lane, Burslem, Longport and Dale Hall, 
Hot Lane and Cobridge, Hanley and Shelton, Etruria, Stoke, Penkhull, Fentbn, Lane Delph, 
Foley, Lane End On the Origin of the Art, and its Practice among the early Nations 
Manufacture of Pottery, prior to 1700 The Introduction of Red Porcelain by Messrs. 
Elers, of Bradwell, 1690 Progress of the Manufacture from 1700 to Mr. Wedgwood's 
commencement in 1760 Introduction of Fluid Glaze Extension of the Manufacture of 
Cream Colour Mr. Wedgwood's Queen's Ware Jasper, and Appointment of Potter to Her 
Majesty Black Printing Introduction of Porcelain. Mr. W. Littler's Porcelain Mr. 
Cookworthy's Discovery of Kaolin and Petuntse, and Patent Sold to Mr. Champion re- 
sold to the New Hall Com. Extension of Term Blue Printed Pottery. Mr. Turner, Mr. 
Spode (1), Mr. Baddeley, Mr. Spode (2), Messrs. Turner, Mr. Wood. Mr. Wilson, Mr. Minton 
Great Change in Patterns of Blue Printed Introduction of Lustre Pottery. Improve- 
ments in Pottery and Porcelain subsequent to 1800. 

A Reissue of 

THE CHEMISTRY OF THE SEVERAL NATURAL 
AND ARTIFICIAL HETEROGENEOUS COM- 
POUNDS USED IN MANUFACTURING POR- 
CELAIN, GLASS AND POTTERY. By SIMEON SHAW. 
(Originally published in 1837.) 750 pp. Royal 8vo. Price 14s. ; India 
and Colonies, 15s. ; Other Countries, 16s. 6d. ; strictly net. 



17 
Contents. 

PART I., ANALYSIS AND MATERIALS.-lntroduction : Laboratory and Apparatus: 
Elements Temperature Acids and Alkalies The Earths-MeUU 

PART II., SYNTHESIS AND COMPOUNDS.-Science of Mixing -Bodies: Porcelain 
Hard, Porcelain Fritted Bodies, Porcelain Raw Bodies, Porcelain Soft, Fritted llodie*, 
Raw Bodies, Stone Bodies, Ironstone, Dry Bodies, Chemical Utensils, Fritted Jasper, Fritted 
Pearl, Fritted Drab, Raw Chemical Utensils, Raw Stone, Raw Jasper, Raw Pearl. Raw Mortar, 
Raw Drab, Raw Brown, Raw Fawn, Raw Cane, Raw Red Porous, Raw Egyptian, Karthenware, 
Queen's Ware, Cream Colour, Blue and Fancy Printed, Dipped and Mocha, Chalky, Rings, 
Stilts, etc. Glazes: Porcelain Hard Fritted Porcelain Soft Fritted Porcelain Soft 
Raw, Cream Colour Porcelain, Blue Printed Porcelain, Fritted Glazes, Analysis of Pritt, 
Analysis of Glaze, Coloured Glazes, Dips, Smears and Washes; Glasses: Flint Glass, 
Coloured Glasses, Artificial Garnet, Artificial Emerald, Artificial Amethyst, Artificial Sap- 
phire, Artificial Opal, Plate Glass, Crown Glass, Broad Glass, Bottle Glass, Phosphoric Glass, 
British Steel Glass, Glass-Staining and Painting, Engraving on Glass, Dr. Faraday's Experi- 
ments Colours: Colour Making, Fluxes or Solvents, Components of the Colours: Reds, 
etc., from Gold, Carmine or Rose Colour, Purple, Reds, etc., from Iron, Blues, Yellows, 
Greens, Blacks. White, Silver for Burnishing, Gold for Burnishing, Printer's Oil, Lustres. 

TABLES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES. 



Glassware, Glass Staining and 
Painting. 

EECIPES FOR FLINT GLASS MAKING. By a British 
Glass Master and Mixer. Sixty Recipes. Being Leaves from the 
Mixing Book of several experts in the Flint Glass Trade, containing 
up-to-date recipes and valuable information as to Crystal, Demi-crystal 
and Coloured Glass in its many varieties. It contains the recipes for 
cheap metal suited to pressing, blowing, etc., as well as the most costly 
crystal and ruby. Crown 8vo. Price for United Kingdom, 10s. 6d. ; 
Abroad, 15s. ; United States, $4 ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Ruby Ruby from Copper Flint tor using with the Ruby for Coating A German Metal- 
Cornelian, or Alabaster Sapphire Blue Crysophis Opal Turquoise Blue Gold Colour- 
Dark Green Green (common) Green for Malachite Blue for Malachite Black for Mela- 
chite Black Common Canary Batch Canary White Opaque Glass Sealing-wax Red 
Flint Flint Glass (Crystal and Demi) -Achromatic Glass Paste Glass White Enamel- 
Firestone Dead White (for moons) White Agate Canary Canary Enamel Index. 

A TREATISE ON THE ART OF GLASS PAINTING. 

Prefaced with a Review of Ancient Glass. By ERNEST R. SUPPLING. 
With One Coloured Plate and Thirty-seven Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 
140 pp. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. net. 

Contents. 

A Short History of Stained Glass Designing Scale Drawings Cartoons and the Cut Line 
Various Kinds of Glass Cutting for Windows The Colours and Brushes used in Glass 
Painting Painting on Glass, Dispersed Patterns Diapered Patterns Adding Firing- 
Fret Lead Glazing Index. 

PAINTING ON GLASS AND PORCELAIN AND 
ENAMEL PAINTING. A Complete Introduction to the 
Preparation of all the Colours and Fluxes used for Painting on Porce- 
lain, Enamel, Faience and Stoneware, the Coloured Pastes and Col- 
oured Glasses, together with a Minute Description of the Firing of 
Colours and Enamels. By FELIX HERMANN, Technical Chemist. With 
Eighteen Illustrations. 300 pp. Translated from the German second 
and enlarged Edition. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other 
Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 



18 
Contents. 

History of Glass Painting The Articles to be Painted : Glass, Porcelain, Enamel, Stone- 
ware, Faience Pigments : Metallic Pigments: Antimony Oxide, Naples Yellow, Barium 
Chromate, Lead Chromate, Silver Chloride, Chromic Oxide Fluxes : Fluxes, Felspar, 

uartz, Purifying Quartz, Sedimentation, Quenching, Borax, Boracic Acid, Potassium and 
odium Carbonates, Rocaille Flux Preparation of the Colours for Glass Painting The 
Colour Pastes The Coloured Glasses Composition of the Porcelain Colours The Enamel 
Colours: Enamels for Artistic Work Metallic Ornamentation : Porcelain Gilding, Glass 
Gilding Firing the Colours : Remarks on Firing : Firing Colours on Glass, Firing Colours on 
Porcelain; The Muffle Accidents occasionally Supervening during the Process of Firing 
Remarks on the Different Methods of Painting on Glass, Porcelain, etc. Appendix : Cleaning 
Old Glass Paintings. 



Paper Staining. 



THE DYEING OF PAPER PULP. A Practical Treatise for 
the use of Papermakers, Paperstainers, Students and others. By 
JULIUS ERFURT, Manager of a Paper Mill. Translated into English 
and Edited with Additions by JULIUS HUBNER, F.C.S., Lecturer on 
Papermaking at the Manchester Municipal Technical School. With 
Illustrations and 157 patterns of paper dyed in the pulp. Royal 
8vo, 180 pp. Price 15s. ; India and Colonies, 16s. ; Other Countries, 
20s. ; strictly net. Limited edition. 

Contents. 

Behaviour of the Paper Fibres during the Process of Dyeing, Theory of the 
Mordant Colour Fixing Mediums (Mordants) Influence of the Quality ol the Water 
Used Inorganic Colours Organic Colours Practical Application of the Coal Tar 
Colours according to their Properties and their Behaviour towards the Different 
Paper Fibres Dyed Patterns on Various Pulp Mixtures Dyeing to Shade Index. 

Enamelling on Metal. 

ENAMELS AND ENAMELLING. For Enamel Makers, 
Workers in Gold and Silver, and Manufacturers of Objects of Art. 
By PAUL RANDAU. Translated from the German. With Sixteen Illus- 
trations. Demy 8vo. 180 pp. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
11s. ; Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Composition and Properties of Glass Raw Materials for the Manufacture of Enamels 
Substances Added to Produce Opacity Fluxes Pigments Decolorising Agents Testing 
the Raw Materials with the Blow-pipe Flame Subsidiary Materials Preparing the 
Materials for Enamel Making Mixing the Materials The Preparation of Technical Enamels, 
The Enamel Mass Appliances for Smelting the Enamel Mass Smelting the Charge 
Composition of Enamel Masses Composition of Masses for Ground Enamels Composition 
of Cover Enamels Preparing the Articles for Enamelling Applying the Enamel Firing 
the Ground Enamel Applying and Firing the Cover Enamel or Glaze Repairing Defects 
in Enamelled Ware Enamelling Articles of Sheet Metal Decorating Enamelled Ware 
Specialities in Enamelling Dial-plate Enamelling Enamels for Artistic Purposes, Recipes 
for Enamels of Various Colours Index. 

THE ART OF ENAMELLING ON METAL. By W. 

NORMAN BROWN. Twenty-eight Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 60 pp. 
Price 2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net. 

Silk Manufacture. 

SILK THROWING AND WASTE SILK SPINNING. 

By HOLLINS RAYNER. Demy 8vo. 170 pp. 117 Illus. Price 5s.; 
Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

The Silkworm Cocoon Reeling and Qualities of Silk Silk Throwing Silk Wastes The 
Preparation of Silk Waste for Degumming Silk Waste Degumming, Schapping and Dis- 
charging The Opening and Dressing of Wastes Silk Waste " Drawing " or " Preparing " 
Machinery Long Spinning Short Spinning Spinning and Finishing Processes Utilisation 
of Waste Products Noil Spinning Exhaust Noil Spinning. 



19 

Books on Textile and Dyeing 
Subjects. 

THE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OP TEXTILE 
FIBRES: Their Origin, Structure, Preparation, Washing, 
Bleaching, Dyeing, Printing and Dressing. By Dr. GEORG VON 
GEORGIEVICS. Translated from the German by CHARLES SALTER. 
320 pp. Forty-seven Illustrations. Royal 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. ; India 
and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s. net. 

Contents. 

The Textile Fibres Washing, Bleaching, Carbonising Mordants and Mor- 
dantingDyeingPrintingDressing and Finishing. 

POWER-LOOM WEAVING AND YARN NUMBERING, 

According to Various Systems, with Conversion Tables. Translated 
from the German of ANTHON GRUNER. With Twenty-Six Diagrams 
in Colours. 150 pp. Crown 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Power-Loom Weaving in General. Various Systems of Looms Mounting and 
Starting the Power- Loom. English Looms Tappet or Treadle Looms Dobbies 
Oeneral Remarks on the Numbering, Reeling and Packing of Yarn Appendix Useful 
Hints. Calculating Warps Weft Calculations Calculations of Cost Price in Hanks. 

TEXTILE RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR CON- 
VERSION INTO YARNS. (The Study of the Raw 
Materials and the Technology of the Spinning Process.) By JULIUS 
ZIPSER. Translated from German by CHARLES SALTER. 302 Illus- 
trations. 500 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 

Contents. 
PART I. The Raw Materials Used in the Textile Industry. 

MINERAL RAW MATERIALS. VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS. ANIMAL RAW MATERIALS. 

PART II. The Technology of Spinning or the Conversion of Textile Raw 
Materials into Yarn. 

SPINNING VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS. Cotton Spinning Installation of a Cotton 
Mill Spinning Waste Cotton and Waste Cotton Yarns Flax Spinning Fine Spinning Tow 
Spinning Hemp Spinning Spinning Hemp Tow String Jute Spinning Spinning Jute Line 
Yarn Utilising Jute Waste. 

PART 111. Spinning Animal Raw Materials. 

Spinning Carded Woollen Yarn Finishing Yarn Worsted Spinning Finishing Worsted 
Yarn Artificial Wool or Shoddy Spinning Shoddy and Mungo Manufacture Spinning 
Shoddy and other Wool Substitutes Spinning Waste Silk Chappe Silk Fine Spinning 
Index. 

THE GRAMMAR OP TEXTILE DESIGNING. By H. 

NISBET. With many Illustrations. [In the press. 

Contents. 

Introduction The Plain or Calico Weave and its Modifications Twill and Kindred 
Weaves Diamond and Kindred Weaves Bedford Cords Backed Fabrics Fustians Terry 
Pile Fabrics Gauze and Leno Fabrics Tissue, Lappet and Swivel Figuring Onduld and 
Lapped Effects. 

HOME LACE-MAKING. A Handbook for Teachers and 
Pupils. By M. E. W. MILROY. Illustrated with Diagrams. Crown 8vo. 
64 pp. Price Is. net, post free in United Kingdom ; Abroad, Is. 6d. net. 



20 

THE CHEMISTRY OF HAT MANUFACTURING. Lec- 
tures delivered before the Hat Manufacturers' Association. Revised 
and Edited by ALBERT SHONK. With 16 Illustrations. [In the press. 

Contents. 

Textile Fibres Wool, Hair, etc. Water, Chemistry of, and Impurities in Tests of Purity 
Acids and Alkalies Boric Acid, Borax, Soap Shellac, Wood Spirit Stiffening and Proofing 
Mordants: their Nature and Use Dyestuffs and Colours Dyeing of Wool and Fur 
Optical Properties of Colours. 

THE TECHNICAL TESTING OF YARNS AND TEX- 
TILE FABRICS. With Reference to Official Specifica- 
tions. Translated from the German of Dr. J. HERZFELD. Second 
Edition. Sixty-nine Illustrations. 200 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, lls. ; Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Yarn Testing. Determining the Yarn Number Testing the Length of Yarns- 
Examination of the External Appearance of Yarn Determining the Twist of Yarn 
and Twist Determination of Tensile Strength and Elasticity Estimating the 
Percentage of Fat in Yarn Determination of Moisture (Conditioning) Appendix. 

DECORATIVE AND FANCY TEXTILE FABRICS. 

By R. T. LORD. Manufacturers and Designers of Carpets, Damask, 
Dress and all Textile Fabrics. 200 pp. Demy 8vo. 132 Designs and 
Illustrations. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics A Few Hints on Designing Orna- 
mental Textile Fabrics (continued) A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics 
(continued) A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics (continued) Hints for 
Ruled-paper Draughtsmen The Jacquard Machine Brussels and Wilton Carpets Tapestry 
Carpets Ingrain Carpets Axminster Carpets Damask and Tapestry Fabrics Scarf Silks 
and Ribbons Silk Handkerchiefs Dress Fabrics Mantle Cloths Figured Plush Bed Quilts 
Calico Printing. 

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DAMASK WEAVING. 

By H. KINZER and K. WALTER. Royal 8vo. Eighteen Folding Plates. 
Six Illustrations. Translated from the German. 110pp. Price 8s. 6d. ; 
Colonies, 9s. ; Other Countries, 9s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

The Various Sorts of Damask Fabrics Drill (Ticking, Handloom-made) Whole 
Damask for Tablecloths Damask with Ground- and Connecting-warp Threads Furniture 
Damask Lampas or Hangings Church Damasks The Manufacture of Whole Damask 

Damask Arrangement with and without Cross-Shedding The Altered Cone-arrangement 
The Principle of the Corner Lifting Cord The Roller Principle The Combination of the 
Jacquard with the so-called Damask Machine The Special Damask Machine The Combina- 
tion of Two Tyings. 

FAULTS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF WOOLLEN 
GOODS AND THEIR PREVENTION. By NICOLAS 
REISER. Translated from the Second German Edition. Crown 8vo. 
Sixty-three Illustrations. 170 pp. Price 5s. ; Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Improperly Chosen Raw Material or Improper Mixtures Wrong Treatment of the 
terial in W 



Material in Washing, Carbonisation, Drying, Dyeing and Spinning Improper Spacing of the 
Goods in the Loom Wrong Placing of Colours Wrong Weight or Width of the Goods 
Breaking of Warp and Weft Threads Presence of Doubles, Singles, Thick, Loose, 



Cross-weaving Inequalities, i.e., Bands and Stripes Dirty Borders Defective Selvedges 
Holes and Buttons Rubbed Places Creases Spots Loose and Bad Colours Badly Dyed 
Selvedges Hard Goods Brittle Goods Uneven Goods Removal of Bands, Stripes 
Creases and Spots. 



21 

SPINNING AND WEAVING CALCULATIONS, especially 
relating to Woollens. From the German of N. REISER. Thirty-four 
Illustrations. Tables. 160 pp. Demy 8vo. 1904. Price 10s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 11s. ; Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Calculating the Raw Material Proportion of Different Grades of Wool to Furnish a 
Mixture at a Given, Price Quantity to Produce a Given Length Yarn Calculations Yarn 
Number Working Calculations Calculating the Reed Count Cost of Weaving, etc. 

WATERPROOFING OF FABRICS. By Dr. S. MIERZINSKI. 
Crown 8vo. 104 pp. 29 Illus. Price 5s. ; Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Introduction Preliminary Treatment of the Fabric Waterproofing with Acetate of 
Alumina Impregnation of the Fabric Drying Waterproofing with Paraffin Waterproofing 
with Ammonium Cuprate Waterproofing with Metallic Oxides Coloured Waterproof 
Fabrics Waterproofing with Gelatine, Tannin, Caseinate of Lime and other Bodies Manu- 
facture of Tarpaulin British Waterproofing Patents Index. 

HOW TO MAKE A WOOLLEN MILL PAY. By JOHN 
MACKIE. Crown 8vo. 76 pp. 1904. Price 3s. 6d. ; Colonies, 4s. ; 
Other Countries, 4s. 6d. ; net. 

Contents. 

Blends, Piles, or Mixtures of Clean Scoured Wools Dyad Wool Book The Order Book 
Pattern Duplicate Books Management and Oversight Constant Inspection of Mill De- 
partments Importance of Delivering Goods to Time, Shade, Strength, etc. Plums. 
(For "Textile Soaps" see p. 7.) 

Dyeing, Colour Printing, 
Matching and Dye-stuffs. 

THE COLOUR PRINTING OF CARPET YARNS. Manual 
for Colour Chemists and Textile Printers. By DAVID PATERSON, 
F.C.S. Seventeen Illustrations. 136 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Structure and Constitution of Wool Fibre Yarn Scouring Scouring Materials Water for 
Scouring Bleaching Carpet Yarns Colour Making for Yarn Printing Colour Printing 
Pastes Colour Recipes for Yarn Printing Science of Colour Mixing Matching of Colours 
-" Hank " Printing Printing Tapestry Carpet Yarns Yarn Printing Steaming Printed 
Yarns Washing of Steamed Yarns Aniline Colours Suitable for Yarn Printing Glossary of 
Dyes and Dye-wares used in Wood Yarn Printing Appendix. 

THE SCIENCE OF COLOUR MIXING. A Manual in- 
tended for the use of Dyers, Calico Printers and Colour Chemists. By 
DAVID PATERSON, F.C.S. Forty-one Illustrations, Five Coloured Plates, 
and Four Plates showing: Eleven Dyed Specimens of Fabrics. 132 

pp. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other 
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Colour a Sensation ; Colours of Illuminated Bodies ; Colours of Opaque and Transparent 
Bodies ; Surface Colour Analysis of Light ; Spectrum ; Homogeneous Colours ; Ready 
Method of Obtaining a Spectrum Examination of Solar Spectrum ; The Spectroscope and 
Its Construction; Colourists' Use of the Spectroscope Colour by Absorption ; Solutions and 
Dyed Fabrics; Dichroic Coloured Fabrics in Gaslight Colour Primaries of the Scientist 
versus the Dyer and Artist; Colour Mixing by Rotation and Lye Dyeing; Hue, Purity* 
Brightness; Tints; Shades, Scales, Tones, Sad and Sombre Colours Colour Mixing; Pure 
and Impure Greens, Orange and Violets; Large Variety of Shades from few Colours; Con- 
sideration of the Practical Primaries: Red, Yellow and Blue Secondary Colours; Nomen- 
clature of Violet and Purple Group; Tints and Shades of Violet; Changes in Artificial Light 
Tertiary Shades ; Broken Hues; Absorption Spectra of Tertiary Shades Appendix : Four 
Plates with Dyed Specimens Illustrating Text Index. 



22 

DYERS' MATERIALS : An Introduction to the Examination, 
Evaluation and Application of the most important Substances used in 
Dyeing, Printing, Bleaching and Finishing. By PAUL HEERMAN, Ph.D. 
Translated from the German by. A C. WRIGHT, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. 
(Lond.). Twenty-four Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 150 pp. Price 5s. ; 
India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

COLOUR MATCHING ON TEXTILES. A Manual in- 
tended for the use of Students of Colour Chemistry, Dyeing and 
Textile Printing. By DAVID PATERSON, F.C.S. Coloured Frontis- 
piece. Twenty-nine Illustrations and Fourteen Specimens Of Dyed 
Fabrics. Demy 8vo. 132 pp. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; 
Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Colour Vision and Structure of the Eye Perception of Colour Primary and Comple- 
mentary Colour Sensations Daylight for Colour Matching Selection of a Good Pure Light 
Diffused Daylight, Direct Sunlight, Blue Skylight, Variability of Daylight, etc., etc. 
Matching of Hues Purity and Luminosity of Colours Matching Bright Hues Aid of Tinted 
Films Matching Difficulties Arising from Contrast Examination of Colours by Reflected 
and Transmitted Lights Effect of Lustre and Transparency of Fibres in Colour Matching 
Matching of Colours on Velvet Pile Optical Properties of Dye-stuffs Dichroism. Fluor- 
escence Use of Tinted Mediums Orange Film Defects of the Eye Yellowing of the Lens 
Colour Blindness, etc. Matching of Dyed Silk Trimmings and Linings and Bindings Its 
Difficulties Behaviour of Shades in Artificial Light Colour Matching of Old Fabrics, etc. 
Examination of Dyed Colours under the Artificial Lights Electric Arc, Magnesium and Dufton, 
Gardner Lights, Welsbach, Acetylene, etc. Testing Qualities of an Illuminant Influence 
of the Absorption Spectrum in Changes of Hue under the Artificial Lights Study of the 
Causes of Abnormal Modifications of Hue, etc. 

COLOUR: A HANDBOOK OP THE THEORY OF 
COLOUR. By GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S. With Ten 
Coloured Plates and Seventy-two Illustrations. 160 pp. Demy 8vo. 
Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, Ss. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Colour and Its Production Cause of Colour in Coloured Bodies Colour Pheno= 
mena and Theories The Physiology of Light Contrast Colour in Decoration and 
Design Measurement of Colour. 

Reissue of 
THE ART OF DYEING WOOL, SILK AND COTTON. 

Translated from the French of M. HELLOT, M. MACQUER and M. LE 
PILEUR D'APLIGNY. First Published in English in 1789. Six Plates. 
Demy 8vo. 446 pp. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Part I., The Art of Dyeing Wool and Woollen Cloth, Stuffs, Yarn, Worsted, etc. 
Part II., The Art of Dyeing Silk. Part III., The Art of Dyeing Cotton and Linen 
Thread, together with the Method of Stamping Silks, Cottons, etc. 

THE CHEMISTRY OF DYE-STUFFS. By Dr. GEORG VON 
GEORGIEVICS. Translated from the Second German Edition. 412 pp. 
Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s. ; Other Countries, 
12s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Introduction Coal Tar Intermediate Products in the Manufacture of Dye-stuffs The 
Artificial Dye-stuffs (Coal-tar Dyes) Nitroso Dye-stuffs Nitro Dye-stuffs Azo Dye-stuffs 
Substantive Cotton Dye-stuffs Azoxystilbene Dye stuffs Hydrazones Ketoneimides 
Triphenylmethane Dye-stuffs Rosolic Acid Dye-stuffs Xanthene Dye-stuffs Xanthone Dye- 
stuffs Flavones Oxyketone Dye-stuffs Quinoline and Acndine Dye-stuffs Quinonimide 
or Diphenylamine Dye-stuffs The Azine Group : Eurhodines, Safranines and Indulines 
Eurhodines Safranines Quinoxalines Indigo Dye-stuffs of Unknown Constitution 
Sulphur or Sulphine Dye stuffs Development of the Artificial Dye-stuff Industry The 
Natural Dye-stuffs Mineral Colours Index. 



23 

THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS: A Practical 
Handbook for the Dyer and Student. By FRANKLIN BEECH, Practical 
Colourist and Chemist. 272 pp. Forty-four Illustrations of Bleaching 
and Dyeing Machinery. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Structure and Chemistry of the Cotton Fibre Scouring and Bleaching of Cotton Dyeing 
Machinery and Dyeing Manipulations Principles and Practice of Cotton Dyeing Direct 
Dyeing; Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Metallic Salts: Direct Dyeing followed by 
Fixation with Developers; Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Couplers; Dyeing on 
Tannic Mordant ; Dyeing on Metallic Mordant ; Production of Colour Direct upon Cotton 
Fibres; Dyeing Cotton by Impregnation with Dye-stuff Solution Dyeing Union (Mixed Cotton 
and Wool) Fabrics Dyeing Half Silk (Cotton-Silk, Satin) Fabrics Operations following 
Dyeing Washing, Soaping, Drying Testing of the Colour of Dyed Fabrics Experimental 
Dyeing and Comparative Dye Testing Index. 

The book contains numerous recipes for the production on Cotton Fabrics of all kinds of * 
great range of colours. 

THE DYEING OF WOOLLEN FABRICS. By FRANKLIN 

BEECH, Practical Colourist and Chemist. Thirty-three Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. 228 pp. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other 
Countries, 8s. 6d. net. 

Contents. 

The Wool Fibre Structure, Composition and Properties Processes Preparatory to Dyeing 
Scouring and Bleaching of Wool Dyeing Machinery and Dyeing Manipulations Loose 
Wool Dyeing, Yarn Dyeing and Piece Dyeing Machinery The Principles and Practice of 
Wool Dyeing Properties of Wool Dyeing Methods of Wool Dyeing Groups of Dyes 
Dyeing with the Direct DyesDyeing with Basic Dyes Dyeing with Acid Dyes Dyeing 
with Mordant Dyes Level Dyeing Blacks on Wool Reds on Wool Mordanting of Wool 
Orange Shades on Wool Yellow Shades on Wool Green Shades on Wool Blue Shades on 
Wool Violet Shades on Wool Brown Shades on Wool Mode Colours on Wool Dyeing 
Union (Mixed Cotton Wool) Fabrics Dyeing of Gloria Operations following Dyeing 
Washing, Soaping, Drying Experimental Dyeing and Comparative Dye Testing Testing of 
the Colour of Dyed Fabrics Index. 



Bleaching and Washing. 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE BLEACHING OF 
LINEN AND COTTON YARN AND FABRICS. By 

L. TAILFER, Chemical and Mechanical Engineer. Translated from the 
French by JOHN GEDDES MC!NTOSH. Demy 8vo. 303 pp. Twenty 
Illusts. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 
15s.; strictly net. 

Contents. 

General Considerations on Bleaching Steeping Washing: Its End and Importance- 
Roller Washing Machines Wash Wheel (Dash Wheel)- Stocks or Wash Mill Squeezing 
Lye Boiling Lye Boiling with Milk of Lime Lye Boiling with Soda Lyes -Description of 
Lye Boiling Keirs Operations of Lye Boiling Concentration of Lyes Mather and Platt's 
Keir Description of the Keir Saturation of the Fabrics Alkali used in Lye Boiling- 
Examples of Processes Soap Action of Soap in Bleaching Quality and Quantity of Soaps 
to use in the Lye Soap Lyes or Scalds Soap Scouring Stocks Bleaching on Grass or on 
the Bleaching Green or Lawn Chemicking Remarks on Chlorides and their Decolour- 
ising Action Chemicking Cisterns Chemicking Strengths, etc. Sours Properties of the 
Acids Effects Produced by Acids Souring Cisterns Drying Drying by Steam Drying 
by Hot Air Drying by Air Damages to Fabrics in Bleaching Yarn Mildew Fermentation 
Iron Rust Spots Spots from Contact with Wood Spots incurred on the Bleaching Green 
Damages arising from the Machines Examples of Methods used in Bleaching Linen 
Cotton The Valuation of Caustic and Carbonated Alkali (Soda) and General Information 
Regarding these Bodies Object of Alkalimetry Titration of Carbonate of Soda Com- 
parative Table of Different Degrees of Alkalimetrical Strength Five Problems relative to 
Carbonate of Soda Caustic Soda, its Properties and Uses Mixtures of Carbonated and 
Caustic Alkali Note on a Process of Manufacturing Caustic Soda and Mixtures of Caustic 



24 

and Carbonated Alkali (Soda) Chlorometry Titration Wagner s Chlorometric Method 
Preparation of Standard Solutions Apparatus for Chlorine Valuation Alkali in Excess in 
Decolourising Chlorides Chlorine and Decolourising Chlorides Synopsis Chlorine 
Chloride of Lime Hypochlorite of Soda Brochoki's Chlorozone Various Decolourising 
Hypochlorites Comparison of Chloride of Lime and Hypochlorite of Soda Water 
Qualities of Water Hardness Dervaux's Purifier Testing the Purified Water Different 
Plant for Purification Filters Bleaching of Yarn Weight of Yarn Lye Boiling 
Chemicking Washing Bleaching of Cotton Yarn The Installation of a Bleach Works- 
Water Supply Steam Boilers Steam Distribution Pipes Engines Keirs Washing 
Machines Stocks Wash Wheels Chemicking and Souring Cisterns Various Buildings 
Addenda Energy of Decolourising Chlorides and Bleaching by Electricity and Ozone 
Energy of Decolourising Chlorides Chlorides Production of Chlorine and Hypochlorites 
by Electrolysis Lunge's Process for increasing the intensity of the Bleaching Power of 
Chloride of Lime Trilfer's Process for Removing the Excess of Lime or Soda from De- 
colourising Chlorides Bleaching by Ozone. 



Cotton Spinning and Combing. 

COTTON SPINNING (First Year). By THOMAS THORNLEY, 
Spinning Master, Bolton Technical School. 160 pp. Eighty-four Illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo. Second Impression. Price 3s. ; Abroad, 3s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Syllabus and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London Institute Cultiva- 
tion, Classification, Ginning, Baling and Mixing of the Raw Cotton Bale-Breakers, Mixing 
Lattices and Hopper Feeders Opening and Scutching Carding Indexes. 

COTTON SPINNING (Intermediate, or Second Year). By 
THOMAS THORNLEY. 180 pp. Seventy Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 
Price 5s. ; India and British Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Syllabuses and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London Institute The 
Combing Process The Drawing Frame Bobbin and Fly Frames Mule Spinning Ring 
Spinning General Indexes. 

COTTON SPINNING (Honours, or Third Year). By THOMAS 
THORNLEY. 216pp. Seventy-four Illustrations. Crown 8vo. Price 5s. ; 
India and British Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Syllabuses and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London Institute Cotton 
The Practical Manipulation of Cotton Spinning Machinery Doubling and Winding Reeling 
Warping Production and Costs Main Driving Arrangement of Machinery and Mill 
Planning Waste and Waste Spinning Indexes. 

COTTON COMBING MACHINES. By THOS. THORNLEY, 
Spinning Master, Technical School, Bolton. Demy 8vo. 117 Illustra- 
tions. 300 pp. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. net. 

Contents. 

The Sliver Lap Machine and the Ribbon Cap Machine General Description of the Heilmann 
Comber The Cam Shaft On the Detaching and Attaching Mechanism of the Comber 
Resetting of Combers The Erection of a Heilmann Comber Stop Motions : Various Calcu- 
lations Various Notes and Discussions Cotton Combing Machines of Continental Make 
Index. 



25 

Collieries and Mines. 

RECOVERY WORK AFTER PIT FIRES. By ROBERT 
LAMPRECHT, Mining Engineer and Manager. Translated from the 
German. Illustrated by Six large Plates, containing Seventy-six 
Illustrations. 175 pp., demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Causes of Pit Fires Preventive Regulations : (1) The Outbreak and Rapid Extension 
of a Shaft Fire can be most reliably prevented by Employing little or no Combustible Material 
in the Construction of the Shaft : (2) Precautions for Rapidly Localising an Outbreak of Fire in 
the Shaft; (3) Precautions to be Adopted in case those under 1 and 2 Fail or Prove Inefficient. 
Precautions ?g linst Spontaneous Ignition of Coal. Precautions for Preventing Explosions of 
Fire-damp and Coal Dust. Employment of Electricity in Mining, particularly in Fiery Pits. 
Experiments on the Ignition of Fire-damp Mixtures and Clouds of Coal Dust by Electricity 
Indications of an Existing or Incipient Fire Appliances for Working in Irrespirable 
Oases: Respiratory Apparatus; Apparatus with Air Supply Pipes; Reservoir Apparatus; 
Oxygen Apparatus Extinguishing Pit Fires: (a) Chemical Means; (b) Extinction with 
Water. Dragging down the Burning Masses and Packing with Clay; (r) Insulating the Seat 
of the Fire by Dams. Dam Building. Analyses of Fire Gases. Isolating the Seat of a Fire 
with Dams: Working in Irrespirable Gases ("Gas-diving"): Air-Lock Work. Complete 
Isolation of the Pit. Flooding a Burning Section isolated by means' of Dams. Wooden 
Dams : Masonry Dams. Examples of Cylindrical and Dome-shaped Dams. Dam Doors : 
Flooding the Whole Pit Rescue Stations : (a) Stations above Ground ; (b) Underground 
Rescue Stations Spontaneous Ignition of Coal in Bulk Index. 

VENTILATION IN MINES. By ROBERT WABNER, Mining 
Engineer. Translated from the German. Royal 8vo. Thirty Plates 
and Twenty-two Illustrations. 240 pp. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and 
Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 

Contents. 

The Causes of the Contamination of Pit Air The Means of Preventing the 
Dangers resulting from the Contamination of Pit Air Calculating the Volume 
of Ventilating Current necessary to free Pit Air from Contamination Determination 
of the Resistance Opposed to the Passage of Air through the Pit Laws of Re- 
sistance and Formulas therefor- Fluctuations in the Temperament or Specific Re- 
sistance of a Pit Means for Providing a Ventilating Current in the Pit Mechani- 
cal Ventilation Ventilators and Fans Determining the Theoretical, Initial, and 
True (Effective) Depression of the Centrifugal Fan New Types of Centrifugal Fan 
of Small Diameter and High Working Speed Utilising the Ventilating Current to 
the utmost Advantage and distributing the same through the Workings Artifici- 
ally retarding the Ventilating Current Ventilating Preliminary Workings Blind 
Headings Separate Ventilation Supervision of Ventilation INDEX. 

HAULAGE AND WINDING APPLIANCES USED IN 

MINES. By CARL VOLK. Translated from the German. 
Royal 8vo. With Six Plates and 148 Illustrations. 150 pp. Price 
8s. 6d. ; Colonies, 9s.; Other Countries, 9s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Haulage Appliances Ropes Haulage Tubs and Tracks Cages and Winding Appliances 
Winding Engines for Vertical Shafts Winding without Ropes Haulage in Levels and 
Inclines The Working of Underground Engines Machinery for Downhill Haulage. 

Dental Metallurgy. 

DENTAL METALLURGY : MANUAL FOR STUDENTS 
AND DENTISTS. By A. B. GRIFFITHS, Ph.D. Demy 
8vo. Thirty-six Illustrations. 200 pp. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and 
Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Introduction Physical Properties of the Metals Action of Certain Agents on Metals 
Alloys Action of Oral Bacteria on Alloys Theory and Varieties of Blowpipes Fluxes 
Furnaces and Appliances Heat and Temperature Gold Mercury Silver Iron Copper 
Zinc Magnesium Cadmium Tin Lead Aluminium Antimony Bismuth Palladium 
Platinum Iridium Nickel Practical Work Weights and Measures. 



26 



Engineering, Smoke Prevention 
and Metallurgy. 

THE PREVENTION OP SMOKE. Combined with the 
Economical Combustion of Fuel. By W. C. POPPLEWELL, M.Sc., 
A.M.Inst.,C R., Consulting Engineer. Forty-six Illustrations. 190pp. 
Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. , strictly net. 

Contents. 

Fuel and Combustion Hand Firing in Boiler Furnaces Stoking by Mechanical Means 
Powdered Fuel Gaseous Fuel Efficiency and Smoke Tests of Boilers Some Standard 
Smoke Trials The Legal Aspect of the Smoke Question The Best Means to be adopted for 
the Prevention of Smoke Index. 

GAS AND COAL DUST FIRING. A Critical Review of 
the Various Appliances Patented in Germany for this purpose since 
1885. By ALBERT PUTSCH. 130 pp. Demy 8vo. Translated from the 
German. With 103 Illustrations. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Generators Generators Employing Steam Stirring and Feed Regulating Appliances- 
Direct Generators Burners Regenerators and Recuperators Glass Smelting Furnaces- 
Metallurgical Furnaces Pottery Furnace Coal Dust Firing Index. 

THE HARDENING AND TEMPERING OF STEEL 
IN THEORY AND PRACTICE. By FRIDOLIN REISER. 
Translated from the German of the Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 
120pp. Price 5s. ; India and British Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 
6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Steel Chemical and Physical Properties of Steel, and their Casual Connection - 
Classification of Steel according: to Use Testing the Quality of Steel Steel- 
Hardening -Investigation of the Causes of Failure in Hardening Regeneration of 
Steel Spoilt in the Furnace Welding Steel Index. 

SIDEROLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF IRON (The Con- 
stitution of Iron Alloys and Slags). Translated from German of 
HANXS FREIHERR v. JUPTNER. 350 pp. Demy 8vo. Eleven Plates 
and Ten Illustrations. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other 
Countries, 12s. ; net. 

Contents. 

The Theory of Solution. Solutions Molten Alloys Varieties of Solutions Osmotic 
Pressure Relation between Osmotic Pressure and other Properties of Solutions Osmotic 
Pressure and Molecular Weight of the Dissolved Substance Solutions of Gases Solid Solu- 
tions Solubility Diffusion Electrical Conductivity Constitution of Electrolytes and Metals 
Thermal Expansion. Micrography. Microstructure The Micrographic Constituents of 
Iron Relation between Micrographical Composition, Carbon-Content, and Thermal Treat- 
ment of Iron Alloys The Microstructure of Slags. Chemical Composition of the Alloys 
of Iron. Constituents of Iron Alloys Carbon Constituents of the Iron Alloys, Carbon 
Opinions and Researches on Combined Carbon Opinions and Researches on Combined 
Carbon Applying the Curves of Solution deduced from the Curves of Recalescence to the De- 
termination of the Chemical Composition of the Carbon present in Iron Alloys The Constitu- 
ents of Iron Iron The Constituents of Iron Alloys Manganese Remaining Constituents of 
Iron Alloys A Silicon Gases. The Chemical Composition of Slag. Silicate Slags- 
Calculating the Composition of Silicate Slags Phosphate Slags Oxide Slags Appendix 
Index. 



27 

EVAPORATING, CONDENSING AND COOLING AP- 
PARATUS. Explanations, Formulae and Tables for Use 
in Practice. By E. HAUSBRAND, Engineer. Translated by A. C. 
WRIGHT, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. (Lend.). With Twenty-one Illustra- 
tions and Seventy-six Tables. 400 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; net. 
Contents. 

A't Coefficient of Transmission of Heat, k/, and the Mean Temperature Difference, 0/ m 
Parallel and Opposite Currents Apparatuslor Heating with Direct Fire The Injection of 
Saturated Steam Superheated Steam Evaporation by Means of Hot Liquids The Trans- 
ference of Heat in General, and Transference by means of Saturated Steam in Particular 
The Transference of Heat from Saturated Steam in Pipes (Coils) and Double Bottoms 
Evaporation in a Vacuum The Multiple-effect Evaporator Multiple-effect Evaporators 
from which Extra Steam is Taken The Weight of Water which must be Evaporated from 
100 Kilos, of Liquor in order its Original Percentage of Dry Materials from l-'25 per cent, 
up to 20-70 per cent. The Relative Proportion of the Heating Surfaces in the Elements 
of the Multiple Evaporator and their Actual Dimensions The Pressure Exerted by Currents 
of Steam and Gas upon Floating Drops of Water The Motion of Floating Drops of Water 
upon which Press Currents of Steam The Splashing of Evaporating Liquids The Diameter 
of Pipes for Steam, Alcohol, Vapour and Air The Diameter of Water Pipes The Loss 
of Heat from Apparatus and Pipes to the Surrounding Air, and Means for Preventing 
the Loss Condensers Heating Liquids by Means of Steam The Cooling of Liquids 
The Volumes to be Exhausted from Condensers by the Air-pumps A Few Remarks on Air- 
pumps and the Vacua they Produce The Volumetric Efficiency of Air-pumps The Volumes 
of Air which must be Exhausted from a Vessel in order to Reduce its Original Pressure to a 
Certain Lower Pressure Index. 

Plumbing, Decorating, Metal 
Work, etc., etc. 

EXTERNAL PLUMBING WORK. A Treatise on Lead 
Work for Roofs. By JOHN W. HART, R.P.C. 180 Illustrations. 272 
pp. Demy 8vo. Second Edition Revised. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and 
Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Cast Sheet Lead Milled Sheet Lead Roof Cesspools Socket Pipes Drips Gutters- 
Gutters (continued) Breaks Circular Breaks Flats Flats (continued) Rolls on Flats 
Roll Ends Roll IntersectionsSeam Rolls Seam Rolls (continued) Tack Fixings Step 
Flashings Step Flashings (continued) Secret Gutters Soakers Hip and Valley Soakers 
Dormer Windows Dormer Windows (continued) Dormer Tops Internal Dormers 
Skylights Hips and Ridging Hips and Ridging (continued) Fixings for Hips and Ridging 
Ornamental Ridging Ornamental Curb Rolls Curb Rolls Cornices Towers and Finials 
Towers and Finials (continued) Towers and Finials (continued) Domes Domes (continued) 
Ornamental Lead Work Rain Water Heads Rain Water Heads (continued) Rain Water 
Heads (continued). 

HINTS TO PLUMBERS ON JOINT WIPING, PIPE 
BENDING AND LEAD BURNING. Third Edition, 
Revised and Corrected. By JOHN W. HART, R.P.C. 184 Illustrations. 
313 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other 
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Pipe Bending Pipe Bending (continued) Pipe Bending (continued) Square Pipe 
Bendings Half-circular Elbows Curved Bends on Square Pipe Bossed Bends Curved 
Plinth Bends Rain-water Shoes on Square Pipe Curved and Angle Bends Square Pipe 
Fixings Joint-wiping Substitutes for Wiped Joints Preparing Wiped Joints Joint Fixings 
Plumbing Irons Joint Fixings Use of "Touch" in Soldering Underhand Joints Blown 
and Copper Bit Joints Branch Joints Branch Joints (continued) Block Joints Block 
Joints (continued) Block Fixings Astragal Joints Pipe Fixings Large Branch Joints 
Large Underhand Joints Solders Autogenous Soldering or Lead Burning Index. 

WORKSHOP WRINKLES for Decorators, Painters, Paper- 
hangers and Others. By W. N. BROWN. Crown 8vo. 128 pp. Price 
2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. strictly net. 



28 

SANITARY PLUMBING AND DRAINAGE. By JOHN 
W. HART. Demy 8vo. With 208 Illustrations. 250 pp. 1904. Price 
7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Sanitary Surveys Drain Testing Drain Testing with Smoke Testing Drains with Water 
Drain Plugs for Testing Sanitary Defects Closets Baths and Lavatories House Drains 
Manholes Iron Soil Pipes Lead Soil Pipes Ventilating Pipes Water-closets Flushing 
Cisterns Baths Bath Fittings Lavatories Lavatory Fittings Sinks Waste Pipes 
Water Supply Ball Valves Town House Sanitary Arrangements Drainage Jointing 
Pipes Accessible Drains Iron Drains Iron Junctions Index. 

THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OP DIPPING, 
BURNISHING, LACQUERING AND BRONZING 
BRASS WARE. By W. NORMAN BROWN. 35 pp. Crown 
8vo. Price 2s. ; Abroad, 2s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

HOUSE DECORATING AND PAINTING. By W. 

NORMAN BROWN. Eighty-eight Illustrations. 150 pp. Crown 8vo. 
Price 3s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 4s. ; Other Countries, 4s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. 

A HISTORY OP DECORATIVE ART. By W. NORMAN 

BROWN. Thirty-nine Illustrations. 96pp. Crown Svo. Price 2s. 6d. ; 
Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net. 

A HANDBOOK ON JAPANNING AND ENAMELLING 
FOR CYCLES, BEDSTEADS, TINWARE, ETC. By 

WILLIAM NORMAN BROWN. 52 pp. and Illustrations. Crown Svo. 
Price 2s. ; Abroad, 2s. 6d. ; net. 

THE PRINCIPLES OP HOT WATER SUPPLY. By 

JOHN W. HART, R.P.C. With 129 Illustrations. 177 pp., demy Svo. 
Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Water Circulation The Tank System Pipes and Joints The Cylinder System Boilers 
for the Cylinder System The Cylinder System The Combined Tank and Cylinder System 
Combined Independent and Kitchen Boiler Combined Cylinder and Tank System with 
Duplicate Boilers Indirect Heating and Boiler Explosions Pipe Boilers Safety Valves 
Safety Valve? -The American System Heating Water by Steam Steam Kettles and Jets 
Heating Power of Steam Covering for Hot Water Pipes Index. 



Brewing and Botanical. 

HOPS IN THEIR BOTANICAL, AGRICULTURAL 
AND TECHNICAL ASPECT, AND AS AN ARTICLE 
OP COMMERCE. By EMMANUEL GROSS, Professor at 
the Higher Agricultural College, Tetschen-Liebwerd. Translated 
from the German. Seventy-eight Illustrations. 340 pp. Demy Svo. 
Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. od. ; Other Countries, 15s.; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

HISTORY OF THE HOP THE HOP PLANT introductory The Roots The Stem 
and Leaves Inflorescence and Flower : Inflorescence and Flower of the Male Hop ; In- 
florescence and Flower of the Female Hop The Fruit and its Glandular Structure : The 
Fruit and Seed Propagation and Selection of the Hop Varieties of the Hop: (a) Red Hops; 
(b) Green Hops; (c) Pale Green Hops Classification according to the Period of Ripening: 
Early August Hops; Medium Early Hops; Late Hops Injuries to Growth Leaves Turning 
Yellow, Summer or Sunbrand, Cones Dropping Off, Honey Dew, Damage from Wind, Hail 



29 

and Rain ; Vegetable Enemies of the Hop: Animal Enemies of the Hop Beneficial Insects on 
Hops CULTIVATION The Requirements of the Hop in Respect of Climate, Soil and 
Situation : Climate ; Soil ; Situation Selection of Variety and Cuttings Planting a Hop 
Garden : Drainage ; Preparing the Ground ; Marking-out for Planting ; Planting ; Cultivation 
and Cropping of the Hop Garden in the First Year Work to be Performed Annually in the 
Hop Garden: Working the Ground; Cutting; The Non-cutting System; The Proper Per- 
formance of the Operation of Cutting: Method of Cutting: Close Cutting, Ordinary Cutting, 
The Long Cut, The Topping Cut; Proper Season for Cutting: Autumn Cutting, Spring 
Cutting: Manuring; Training the Hop Plant: Poled Gardens, Frame Training; Principal 
Types of Frames: Pruning, Cropping, Topping, and Leaf Stripping the Hop Plant; Picking, 
Drying and Bagging Principal and Subsidiary Utilisation of Hops and Hop Gardens Life 
of a Hop Garden ; Subsequent Cropping Cost of Production, Yield and Selling Prices. 

Preservation and Storage Physical and Chemical Structure of the Hop Cone Judging 
the Value of Hops. 

Statistics of Production The Hop Trade Index. 



Timber and Wood Waste. 

TIMBER : A Comprehensive Study of Wood in all its Aspects 
(Commercial and Botanical), showing the Different Applications and 
Uses of Timber in Various Trades, etc. Translated from the French 
of PAUL CHARPENTIER. Royal 8vo. 437 pp. 178 Illustrations. Price 
12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 15s.; net. 

Contents. 

Physical and Chemical Properties of Timber Composition of the Vegetable Bodies 
Chief Elements M. Fremy's Researches Elementary Organs of Plants and especially of 
Forests Different Parts of Wood Anatomically and Chemically Considered General Pro- 
perties of Wood Description of the Different Kinds of Wood Principal Essences with 
Caducous Leaves Coniferous Resinous Trees Division of the Useful Varieties of Timber 
in the Different Countries of the Globe European Timber African Timber Asiatic 
Timber American Timber Timber of Oceania Forests General Notes as to Forests ; their 
Influence Opinions as to Sylviculture Improvement of Forests Unwooding and Rewooding 
Preservation of Forests Exploitation of Forests Damage caused to Forests Different 
Alterations The Preservation of Timber Generalities Causes and Progress of De- 
teriorationHistory of Different Proposed Processes Dessication Superficial Carbonisation 
of Timber Processes by Immersion Generalities as to Antiseptics Employed Injection 
Processes in Closed Vessels The Boucherie System, Based upon the Displacement of the 
Sap Processes for Making Timber Uninflammable Applications of Timber Generalities 
Working Timber Paving Timber for Mines Railway Traverses Accessory Products 
Gums Works of M. Fremy Resins Barks Tan Application of Cork The Application of 
Wood to Art and Dyeing Different Applications of Wood Hard Wood Distillation of 
Wood Pyroligneous Acid Oil of Wood Distillation of Resins Index. 



THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE. Translated from 
the German of ERNST HUBBARD. Crown 8vo. 192 pp. Fifty Illustra- 
tions. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; net. 

Contents. 

General Remarks on the Utilisation of Sawdust Employment of Sawdust as Fuel, 
with and without Simultaneous Recovery of Charcoal and the Products of Distillation 
Manufacture of Oxalic Acid from Sawdust Process with Soda Lye; Thorn's Process; 
Bohlig's Process Manufacture of Spirit (Ethyl Alcohol) from Wood Waste Patent Dyes 
(Organic Sulphides, Sulphur Dyes, or Mercapto Dyes) Artificial Wood and Plastic Com- 
positions from Sawdust Production of Artificial Wood Compositions for Moulded De- 
corations Employment of Sawdust for Blasting Powders and Gunpowders Employment 
of Sawdust for Briquettes Employment of Sawdust in the Ceramic Industry and as an 
Addition to Mortar Manufacture of Paper Pulp from Wood Casks Various Applications 
of Sawdust and Wood Refuse Calcium Carbide Manure Wood Mosaic Plaques Bottle 
Stoppers Parquetry Fire-lighters Carborundum The Production of Wood Woo" -Bark- 
Index. 



30 

Building and Architecture. 

THE PREVENTION OF DAMPNESS IN BUILDINGS ; 

with Remarks on the Causes, Nature and Effects of Saline, Efflores- 
cences and Dry-rot, for Architects, Builders, Overseers, Plasterers^ 
Painters and House Owners. By ADOLF WILHELM KEIM. Translated 
from the German of the second revised Edition by M. J. SALTER, F.I.C., 
F.C.S. Eight Coloured Plates and Thirteen Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 
115 pp. Price 5s.; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 
6s. ; net. 

Contents. 

The Various Causes of Dampness and Decay of the Masonry of 'Buildings, and the 
Structural and Hygienic Evils of the Same Precautionary Measures during Building against 
Dampness and Efflorescence Methods of Remedying Dampness and Efflorescences in the 
Walls of Old Buildings The Artificial Drying of New Houses, as well as Old Damp Dwellings, 
and the Theory of the Hardening of Mortar New, Certain and Permanently Efficient 
Methods for Drying Old Damp Walls and Dwellings The Cause and Origin of Dry-rot : its 
Injurious Effect on Health, its Destructive Action on Buildings, and its Successful Repres- 
sion Methods of Preventing Dry-rot to be Adopted During Construction Old Methods 
of Preventing Dry-rot Recent and More Efficient Remedies for Dry-rot Index. 

HANDBOOK OF TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN ARCHI- 
TECTURE AND BUILDING, AND THEIR ALLIED 
TRADES AND SUBJECTS. By AUGUSTINE C. PASSMORE. 
Demy 8vo. 380 pp. 1904. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; 
Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 



Foods and Sweetmeats. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF PRESERVED FOODS AND 
SWEETMEATS. By A. HAUSNER. With Twenty-eight 
Illustrations. Translated from the German of the third enlarged 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 225 pp. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 
8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; net. 

Contents. 

The Manufacture of Conserves Introduction The Causes of, the Putrefaction of Food 
The Chemical Composition of Foods The Products of Decomposition The Causes of Fer- 
mentation and Putrefaction Preservative Bodies The Various Methods of Preserving Food 
The Preservation of Animal Food Preserving Meat by Means of Ice The Preservation 
of Meat by Charcoal Preservation of Meat by Drying The Preservation of Meat by the 
Exclusion of Air The Appert Method Preserving Flesh by Smoking Quick Smoking Pre- 
serving Meat with Salt Quick Salting by Air Pressure Quick Salting by Liquid Pressure 
Gamgee's Method of Preserving Meat The Preservation of Eggs Preservation of White 
and Yolk of Egg Milk Preservation Condensed Milk The Preservation of Fat Manu- 
facture of Soup Tablets Meat Biscuits Extract of Beef The Preservation of Vegetable 
Foods in General Compressing Vegetables Preservation of Vegetables by Appert's Method 
The Preservation of Fruit Preservation of Fruit by Storage The Preservation of Fruit 
by Drying Drying Fruit by Artificial Heat Roasting Fruit The Preservation of Fruit with 
Sugar Boiled Preserved Fruit The Preservation of Fruit in Spirit, Acetic Acid or Glycerine 
Preservation of Fruit without Boiling Jam Manufacture The Manufacture of Fruit 
Jellies The Making of Gelatine Jellies The Manufacture of "Sulzen " The Preservation of 
Fermented Beverages The Manufacture of Candies Introduction The Manufacture of 
Candied Fruit The Manufacture of Boiled Sugar and Caramel The Candying of Fruit 
Caramelised Fruit The Manufacture of Sugar Sticks, or Barley Sugar Bonbon Making 
Fruit Drops The Manufacture of Dragees The Machinery and Appliances used in Candy 
Manufacture Dyeing Candies and Bonbons Essential Oils used in Candy Making Fruit 
Essences The Manufacture of Filled Bonbons, Liqueur Bonbons and Stamped Lozenges 
Recipes for Jams and Jellies Recipes for Bonbon Making Dragees Appendix Index. 



31 

Dyeing Fancy Goods. 

THE ART OP DYEING AND STAINING MARBLE, 
ARTIFICIAL STONE, BONE, HORN, IVORY AND 
WOOD, AND OF IMITATING ALL SORTS OF 
WOOD. A Practical Handbook for the Use of Joiners, 
Turners, Manufacturers of Fancy Goods, Stick and Umbrella Makers, 
Comb Makers, etc. Translated from the German of D. H. SOXHLET, 
Technical Chemist. Crown 8vo. 168pp. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies 
5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; net. 

Contents. 

Mordants and Stains Natural Dyes Artificial Pigments Coal Tar Dyes Staining 
Marble and Artificial Stone Dyeing, Bleaching and Imitation of Bone, Horn and Ivory 
Imitation of Tortoiseshell for Combs: Yellows, Dyeing Nuts Ivory Wood Dyeing Imitation 
of Mahogany: Dark Walnut, Oak, Birch-Bark, Elder-Marquetry, Walnut, Walnut-Marquetry, 
Mahogany, Spanish Mahogany, Palisander and Rose Wood, Tortoiseshell, Oak, Ebony, Pear 
Tree Black Dyeing Processes with Penetrating Colours Varnishes and Polishes: English 
Furniture Polish, Vienna Furniture Polish, Amber Varnish, Copal Varnish, Composition for 
Preserving Furniture Index. 

Lithography, Printing and 
Engraving. 

PRACTICAL LITHOGRAPHY. By ALFRED SEYMOUR. 
Demy 8vo. With Frontispiece and 33 Illus. 120 pp. Price 5s. ; 
Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; net. 
Contents. 

Stones Transfer Inks Transfer Papers Transfer Printing Litho Press Press Work 
Machine Printing Colour Printing Substitutes for Lithographic Stones Tin Plate Printing 
and Decoration Photo-Lithography. 

PRINTERS AND STATIONERS READY RECKONER 
AND COMPENDIUM. Compiled by VICTOR GRAHAM. 
Crown 8vo. 112 pp. 1904. Price 3s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 4s.; 
Other Countries, 4s. 6d. ; strictly net, post free. 
Contents. 

Price of Paper per Sheet, Quire, Ream and Lb. Cost of 100 to 1000 Sheets at various 
Sizes and Prices per Ream Cost of Cards Quantity Table Sizes and Weights of Paper, 
Cards, etc. Notes on Account Books Discount Tables Sizes of spaces Leads to a Ib. 
Dictionary Measure for Bookwork Correcting Proofs, etc. 

ENGRAVING FOR ILLUSTRATION. HISTORICAL 
AND PRACTICAL NOTES. By J. KIRKBRIDE. 72 pp. 
Two Plates and 6 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. Price 2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 
3s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Its Inception Wood Engraving Metal Engraving Engraving in England Etching- 
Mezzotint Photo-Process Engraving The Engraver's Task Appreciative Criticism 
Index. 

Bookbinding, 

PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. By PAUL ADAM. Translated 
from the German. Crown 8vo. 180 pp. 127 Illustrations. Price 5s. ; 
Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; net. 
Contents. 

Materials for Sewing and Pasting Materials for Covering the Book Materials for 
Decorating and Finishing Tools General Preparatory Work Sewing Forwarding, 
Cutting, Rounding and Backing Forwarding, Decoration of Edges and Headbanding 
Boarding Preparing the Cover Work with the Blocking Press Treatment of Sewn Books, 
Fastening in Covers, and Finishing Off Handtooling and Other Decoration Account Books 
School Books, Mounting Maps, Drawings, etc. Index. 



32 

Sugar Refining. 

THE TECHNOLOGY OF SUGAR: Practical Treatise on 
the Modern Methods of Manufacture of Sugar from the Sugar Cane and 
Sugar Beet. By JOHN GEDDES MC!NTOSH. Second Revised and 
Enlarged Edition. Demy Svo. Fully Illustrated. 436 pp. Seventy-six 
Tables. 1906. Price 10s. 6d. ; Colonies, lls. ; Other Countries, 12s. ; net. 
(See " Evaporating, Condensing, etc., Apparatus" p ( 27.) 
Contents. 

Chemistry of Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose, Glucose, Invert Sugar, etc. Purchase and 
Analysis of Beets Treatment of Beets Diffusion Filtration Concentration Evaporation 
Sugar Cane: Cultivation Milling Diffusion Sugar Refining Analysis of Raw Sugars- 
Chemistry of Molasses, etc. 

Bibliography. 

CLASSIFIED GUIDE TO TECHNICAL AND COM- 
MERCIAL BOOKS. Compiled by EDGAR GREENWOOD. 
Demy Svo. 224 pp. 1904. Being a Subject-list of the Principal 
British and American Books in print ; giving Title, Author, Size, Date, 
Publisher and Price. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies 8s. ; Other 
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net, post free. 
Contents. 

1. Agriculture and Farming Agricultural Chemistry Bee-keeping Cattle, Pigs, Sheep 
Dairy and Dairy Work Feeding Animals Forestry Fruit Growing Irrigation Manures 
Poultry Farming. 2. Air, Aerial Navigation. 3. Architecture and Building. 4. Art 
Lettering Modelling Ornament Painting Perspective. 5. Arts and Crafts, Amateur 
Work. 6. Auction Sales. 7. Banking. 8. Book and Newspaper Production, Paper- 
making, Printing Bookbinding Bookselling Copyright Journalism Lithography 
Paper-making Printing, Typography Process Work Stationery. 9. Brewing and Dis- 
tilling. 10. Cabinet -making. 11. Calculators, Ready Reckoners, Discount Tables. 
12. Carpentry and Joinery. 13. Chemicals, Chemistry. 14. Coachbuilding. 15. 
Commerce, Business. 16. Dams, Docks, Harbours. 17. Dogs. 18. Domestic Eco- 
nomy Cookery Dressmaking Laundry Millinery. 19. Electricity Alternating Currents 
Dynamos Electric Heating Electric Lighting Electric Traction Telegraphy Tele- 
phonesWireless Telegraphy. 20. Elocution, Voice Production. 21. Engineering and 
Metal Work Architectural Engineering Blacksmithing Boilers Bridges Civil Engineer- 
ingFuel, Smoke Galvanising, Tinning Gas, Oil and Air Engines Hardware Hydraulic 
Engineering Indicators Injectors Iron and Steel Ironfounding Lathes, Tools- Loco- 
motives Machine Construction and Design - Marine Engineering Mechanical Engineering 
Metal Work Pattern Making Pipes Power Transmission Pumps -Refrigeration Saw 
Filing Screw Cutting Steam Engine Strains and Stresses Turbines. 22. Factories and 
Workshops. 23. Financial Investments Stockbroking. 24. Foods and Beverages- 
Adulteration and Analysis Bread Cakes Fish Flour, Grain Food and Drug Acts Tea. 
25. Foreign Exchange Tables, Metric System. 26. Foreign Languages. 27. Gardening, 
Flowers. 28. Gas Acetylene Gas Fitting- Gas Lighting and Supply. 29. Glass. 30. 
Glues, Inks, Pastes. 31. Horses. 32. Hospitals, Nursing. 33. House Decoration. 
34. Hygiene, Public Health- Bacteriology-Hygiene -Public Health- Sanitary Inspection 
Sewage and Sewerage. 35. India-Rubber. 36. Insurance. 37. Jewellery, Silver and 
Goldsmith's Work. 38. Land, Property. 39. Leather Trades. 40. Legal Arbitration 
Bankruptcy Law Commercial Law Contract Law Solicitors Stamp Duties Trustee 
Law Wills. 41. Metallurgy. 42. Military. 43. Mining, Quarrying. 44. Motor Cars 
and Cycles. 45. Music. 6. Nautical, Navigation. 46a. Navy. 47. Oils, Fats. 48. 
Optical, Microscopy, Instruments. 49. Paints, Colours, Varnishes. 50. Patents, 
Trade Marks. 51. Photography. 52. Physics. 53. Physical Training. 54. Plumbing, 
Heating, Ventilation. 55. Pottery, China, Bricks. 56. Public Meetings, Elections, 
Taxes. 57. Railways and Tramways Construction of Railways Carriage and Wagon 
Building Law of Railways Light Railways Management. 58. Rivers, Canals. 59. Roads, 
Highways. 60. Shopkeeping, Ticket Writing. 61. Shorthand, Typewriting. 62. 
Soaps, Candles. 63. Building, Co-operative and Friendly Societies. 64. Surveying. 
65. Teaching, Education. 66. Telegraph Codes. 67. Textile Trades. 68. Timber. 
69. Veterinary. 70. Watches, Clocks. 71. Water. Subject Index. 

SCOTT, GREENWOOD & Co. will forward these Books, post free, upon 
receipt of remittance at the published price, or they can be obtained through 
all Booksellers. 

Full List of Contents of any of the books will be sent on application. 

SCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON, 

ZTecbnical 3Boofc ipublisbers, 

!9 L.UDGATE HILL. LONDON, E.G. 





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