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Full text of "Infantry drill regulations, U.S. Army, 1911; with text corrections to February 12, 1917, changes No. 18"

-CD 



INFANTRY 
RiLL REGULATIONS 







{presented to 

library 

of tbe 

of Toronto 



Ira f ess or T.J. 



Infantry 
Drill Regulations 

UNITED STATES ARMY 



1911 



With Text Corrections to February 12, 1917. 
Changes No. 18. 




MILITARY PUBLISHING CO. 

42 BROADWAY 

NEW YORK 



WAR DEPARTMENT, 
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

Washington, November 19, 1918. 

The following ^ystem of Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911, 
with corrections to November, 1913, including the Manual of the 
Bayonet, is approved and herewith published for the informa- 
tion and government of the Regular Army and the Organized 
Militia of the United States. With a view to insure uniformity 
throughout the Army, all infantry drill formations not embraced 
in this system are prohibited, and those herein prescribed will 
be strictly observed. 
By order of the Secretary of War : 

LEONARD WOOD, 
Major General, Chief of Statf. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PABT I Drill. Paragraph. 

1. Introduction 1- 80 

2. Orders, commands and signals _ 31 47 

a School of the soldier . 48-100 

4. School of the squad r ___ 101-158 

6. School of the company .. 159-257 

(a) Close order 167-198 

(&) Extended order 199-231 

(c) Fire 232-257 

6. The battalion _ 25&-326 

(a) Close order 263-289 

(6) Combat principles 290-326 

7. The regiment 327-346 

(a) Close order 333-341 

(6) Combat principles 342-346 

8. The brigade. 347-349 

PABT II Combat. 

1. Introduction _ 350-357 

2. Leadership 358-388 

(a) General considerations 358-370 

(6) Teamwork 371-377 

(c) Orders 378-383 

(<f) Communication 384-388 

3. Combat reconnaissance 389-390 

4. Fire superiority 400-424 

(a) Purpose and nature 400-401 

(6) Fire direction and control 402-424 

5. Deployment 425-441 

6. Attack 442-488 

(a) Deployment for attack 449-452 

(6) Advancing the attack 468-457 

(c) The fire attack 458-463 

(d) The charge 464-475 

(e) Pursuit 476-480 

(/) Attack of fortifications 481-484 

(0) Holding attack *, 485-488 

7. Defense 489-519 

(o) Positions and intrenchments 489-494 

(6) Deployment for defense 495-610 1 

(c) Counterattack 511-616- 

(d) Delaying action 517-Slfr 

5 



6 TABLE OP COHTENTS. 

Paragraph. 

8. Meeting engagements _ 52O-530 

9 Withdrawal from action 531-535 

10. Miscellaneous __..., 31 537-622 

(a) Machine guns *___ "IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 537-546 

(6J Ammunition supply __ 547-563 

(c) 'Mounted scouts 554-557 

(d) Night operations _i : ___; 558-568 

(e) Infantry against Cavalry 569-574 

(/) Infantry against Artillery 575-578 

(g) Artillery supports 579-583 

(h) Intrenchments : 584-595 

(i) Minor warfare *. 596-603 

(/) Patrols __ 604-622 

PART III Marches and camps. 

1. Marches 623-660 

(a) Training and discipline 623-635 

(6) Protection of the march 636-660 

2. Camps 661-707 

(a) Sanitation 661-677 

(6) Protection of camp or bivouac 678-707 

PABT IV Ceremonies and inspections. 

1. Ceremonies :._ 708-765 

(a) Reviews. 711-731 

(6) Parades 732-735 

(c) Escorts 736-744 

2. Inspections- 745-754 

8. Muster 755-757 

4. Honors and salutes 758-765 

PAST V. Manuals. 

1. The color ^ 766-778 

2. The band ,. - _, 779-781 

3. Manual of the saber. , 782-791 

4. Manual of tent pitching 792-803 

6. Manual of 'the bugle 804-807 

(a) Bugle calls. 

(6) Bugle signals. 

APPENDIX A. Manual of Arms, etc., for Rifle Model 1898. 
APPENDIX B. Inspection and shelter tent pitching for troops not 

equipped with model 1910 shelter tent 
APPENDIX C. Manual of the Bayonet. 



INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS. 

UNITED STATES AEMY, 1911. 



DEFINITIONS. 

Alignment: A straight line upon which several elements are 
formed, or are to be formed ; or the dressing of several ele- 
ments upon a straight line. 

Bate: The element on which a movement is regulated. 

Battle tight: The position of the rear sight when the leaf is 
laid down. 

Center: The middle point or element of a command. 

Column: A formation in which the elements are placed one be- 
hind another. 

Deploy: To extend the front. In general to change from column 
to line, or from close order to extended order. 

Depth : The space from head to rear of any formation, including 
the leading and rear elements. The depth of a man is 
assumed to be 12 inches. 

Pittance: Space between elements in the direction of depth. 
Distance is measured from the back of the man in front to 
the breast of the man in rear. The distance between ranks 
is 40 inches in both line and column. 

Element: A file, squad, platoon, company, or 'larger body, form- 
ing part of a still larger body. 

File: Two men, the front-rank man and the corresponding man 
of the rear. rank. The. front-rank man is the file leader. 
A file which has no rear-rank man is a blank file. The term 
file applies also to a single man in a single-rank formation* 

File c/osert: Such officers and noncommissioned officers of a 
company as are posted in rear of the line. For convenience, 
all men posted in the line of file closers. 

Flank: The right or left of a command in line or in column; 
also the element on the right or left of the line, 

1 



8 DEPIKITIONS. 

Formation: Arrangement of the elements of a command. The 
placing of all fractions in their order in line, in column, or 
for battle. 

front: The space, in width, occupied by an element, either in 
line or in column. The front of a man is assumed to be 22 
inches. Front also denotes the direction of the enemy. 

Guide: An officer, noncommissioned officer, or private upon whom 
the command or elements thereof regulates its march. 

Head: The leading element. of a column. 

interval: Space between elements of the same line. The inter val- 
between men in ranks is 4 inches and is measured from 
elbow to elbow. Between companies, squads, etc., it is 
measured from the left elbow of the left man or guide of 
the group on the right, to the right elboTtf of the right man 
or guide of the group on the left 

Left: The left extremity or element of a body of troops. 

Line: A formation in which the different elements are abreast 
of each other. 

Order, close: The formation in which the units, in double rank, 
are arranged in line or in column with normal intervals 
and distances. 

Order, extended: The formation in which the units are separated 
by intervals greater than in close order. 

Pace: Thirty inches; the length of the full step in quick time. 

Point of rest: The point at which a formation begins. Specific- 
ally, the point toward which units are aligned in successive 
movements. 

flank: A line of men placed side by side. 

flight: The right extremity or element of a body of troops. 



PAET I. DRILL. 



INTRODUCTION. 

1. Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military 
training; success may be looked for only when the training is 
intelligent and thorough. 

2. Commanding officers are accountable for the proper train- 
ing of their respective organizations within the limits prescribed 
by regulations and orders. 

The excellence of an organization is Judged by its field effi- 
ciency. The field efficiency of an organization depends primarily 
upon its effectiveness as a whole. Thoroughness and uniformity 
in the training of the units of an organization are indispensable 
to the efficiency of the whole; it is by such means alone that 
the requisite teamwork may be developed. 

'8. Simple movements and elastic formations are essential to 
correct training for battle. 

4. The Drill Regulations are furnished as a guide. They pro- 
vide the principles for training and for increasing the probability 
of success in battle. 

In the Interpretation of the regulations, the spirit must be 
sought. Quibbling over the minutiae of form is indicative of 
failure to grasp the spirit 

5. The principles of combat are considered in Part II of these 
regulations. They are treated in the various schools included 
in Part I only to the extent necessary to Indicate the functions 
of the various commanders and the division of responsibility 
between them. The amplification necessary to a proper under- 
standipg of their application is to be sought in Part II. 

. The following important distinctions must be observed : 
(a) Drills executed at attention and the ceremonies are dis- 
ciplinary exercitos designed to teach precise and soldierly move- 
ment, and to inculcate that prompt and subconscious obedience 
which is essential to proper military control. To this end, 

9 



10 INTRO DTTCTIOH. 

smartness and precision should be exacted in the execution of 
every detail. Such drills should be frequent, but short. 

(6) The purpose of extended order drill is to teach the mecha- 
nism of deployment, of the firings, and, in general, of the employ- 
ment of troops in combat Such drills are in the nature of 
disciplinary exercises and should be frequent, thorough, and 
exact in order to habituate men to the firm control of their 
leaders. Extended order drill is executed at ease. The com- 
pany is the largest unit which executes extended order drllL 

(c) Field exercises arc for instruction in the duties incident 
to campaign. Assumed situations are employed. Each exercise 
should conclude with a discussion, on the ground, of the exercise 
and principles Involved. 

(d) The combat exercise,. a form of field exercise of the com- 
pany, battalion, and larger units, consists of the application of 
tactical principles to assumed situations, employing in the exe- 
cution the appropriate formations and movements of close and 
extended order. 

Combat exercises must simulate, as far as possible, the battle 
conditions assumed. In order to familiarize both officers and 
men with such conditions, companies and battalions will fre- 
quently be consolidated to provide war-strength organizations. 
Officers and noncommissioned officers not required to complete 
the full quota of the units participating are assigned as ob- 
servers, or umpires. 

The firing line can rarely be controlled by the voice alone; 
thorough training to insure the proper use of prescribed signals 
is necessary. 

The exercise should be followed by a brief drill at attention 
In order to restore smartness and control. 

7. In field exercises tlie enemy is said to be imaginary when 
his position and force are merely assumed; outlined when his 
position and force are indicated by a few men ; represented when 
a body of troop acts as such. 

General Rules for Drills and Formations. 

8. When the preparatory command consists of more than one 
part, Its elements are arranged as follows: 

(1) For movements to be executed successively by the sub- 
divisions or elements of an organization: (a) Description of 
the movement; (&) how executed, or on what element executed, 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

(2) For movements to be executed simultaneously by the 
subdivisions of an organization: (a) The designation of the 
subdivisions; (6) the movement to be executed. 

0. Movements that may be executed toward either flank are 
explained as toward but one flank, it being necessary to sub- 
stitute the word Meft" for "rjght," and the reverse, to have 
the explanation of the corresponding movement toward the 
other flank. The commands are given for the execution of the 
movements toward either flank. The substitute word of the 
command Is placed within parentheses. 

10. Any movement may be executed either from the halt or 
when marching, unless otherwise prescribed. If at a halt, the 
command for movements Involving marching need not be pref- 
aced by forward, as 1. Column right (loft), 2. MARCH. 

11. Any movement not specially excepted may be executed 
In double time. 

>lf at a halt, or if marching in quick time, the command double 
time precedes the command of execution. 

12. In successive movements executed in double time the 
leading or base unit marches in quick time when not otherwise 
prescribed ; the other units march in double time to their places 
In the formation ordered and then conform to the gait of the 
leading or base unit. If marching in double time, the command 
double time is omitted. The leading or base unit marches in 
quick time; the other units continue at double time to their 
places in the formation ordered and then conform to the gait 
of the leading or base unit 

13. To hasten the execution of a movement begun in quick 
time, the command: 1. Double time, 2. MARCH, is given. The 
leading or base unit continues to march in quick time, or re- 
mains at halt if already halted: the other units complete the 
execution of the movement in double time and then conform 
to the gait of the leading or base unit. 

14. To stay the execution of a movement when marching, for 
the correction of errors, the command: 1. In place, 2. HALT, is 
given. All halt and stand fast, without changing the position 
of the pieces. To resume the movement the command: 1. Re- 
ume, 2. MARCH, is given. 

15. To revoke a preparatory command, or, being at a halt, 
to begin anew a movement improperly begun, the command, 
AS YOU WERE, is given, at which the movement ceases and the 
former position is resumed. 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

16. Unless otherwise announced, the guide of a company or 
subdivision of a company in line is right; of a battalion in line 
or line of subdivisions or of a deployed line, center; of a rank 
in column of squads, toward the side of the guide of the com- 
pany. 

To march with guide other .than as prescribed above, or to 
change the guide : Guide (right, left, or center). 

In successive formations into line, the guide is toward the 
point of rest; hi platoons or larger subdivisions it is so an- 
nounced. 

The announcement of the guide, when given in connection 
with a movement, follows the command of execution for that 
movement. Exception: 1. As skirmishers, guide right (left or 
center), 2. MARCH. 

17. The turn on the fixed pivot by subdivisions Is used in all 
formations from line into column and the reverse. 

The turn on the moving pivot is used by subdivisions of a column 
in executing changes of direction. 

18. Partial changes of direction may be executed : 

By interpolating in the preparatory command the word half, 
as Column half right (left), or Right (left) half turn. A change 
of direction of 45 is executed. 

By the command : INC LI ME TO THE RIGHT (LEFT). The guide, 
or guiding element, moves in the indicated direction and the 
remainder of the command conforms. This movement effects 
slight changes of direction. 

19. The designations line of platoons, line of companies, line 
of battalions, etc., refer to the formations in which the platoons, 
companies, battalions, etc., each in column of squads, are in 
line. 

20. Full distance in column of subdivisions is such that in 
forming line to the right or left the subdivisions will have their 
proper intervals. 

In column of subdivisions the guide of the leading subdivision 
is charged with the step and direction ; the guides in rear pre- 
serve the trace, step, and distance. 

21. In close order, all details, detachments, and other bodies 
of troops are habitually formed in double rank. 

To insure uniformity of interval between flies when falling 
in, and in alignments, each man places the palm of the left hand 
upon the hip, fingers pointing downward. In the first case the 



IHTROPUCTIOK. 13 

hand is dropped by the side when the next man on the left has 
his interval ; in the second case, at the command front. 

22. The posts of officers, noncommissioned officers, special 
nnits (such as band or machine-gun company), etc., in the 
various formations of thg company, battalion, or regiment, are 
shown in plates. 

In all changes from one formation to another involving a 
change of post on the part of any of these, posts are promptly 
taken by the most convenient route as soon as practicable after 
the command of execution for the movement ; officers and non- 
commissioned officers who have prescribed duties in connection 
with the movement ordered, take their new posts when.sucb 
duties are completed. 

As instructors, officers and noncommissioned officers go 
wherever their presence is necessary. As file closers it is their 
duty to rectify mistakes and insure steadiness and promptness 
in the ranks. 

23. Except at ceremonies, the special units have no flxe<l 
places. They take places as directed; in the absence of direc- 
tions, they conform as nearly as practicable to the plates, and 
in subsequent movements maintain their relative positions with 
respect to the flank or end of the command on which they were 
originally posted. 

24. General, field, and staff officers are habitually mounted. 
The staff -of an officer forms in single rank 3 paces in rear of 
him, the right of the rank extending 1 pace- to the right of :i 
point directly in rear of him. Members of the stnff are nr- 
rnnsrod in order from right to left as follows: General staff 
officers, adjutant, aids, other staff officers, arranged in eioh 
r-lnssi flea t Ion in order of rank, the senior on the right. The 
flng of the general officer and the orderlies are 3 paces in rear 
of the staff, the flag on the right. When necessary to reduce 
the front of the staff and orderlies, ench line executes twos right 
or fours right, as explained in the Cavalry Drill Regulations, 
and follows the commander. 

When not otherwise prescribed, staff officers draw and return 
saber with their chief. 

25. In making the about, an officer, mounted, habitually turns 
to the left. 

When the commander faces to give commands, the staff, flag, 
and orderlies do not change position. 



14 INTKODTTCTIOlf. 

26. When making or receiving official reports, or on meeting 
out of doors, all officers will salute. 

Military courtesy requires the junior to salute first, but when 
the salute is introductory to a report made at a military cere- 
mony or formation, to the representative of a common super 
(as, for example, to the adjutant, officer of the day, etc.), tl 
officer making the report, whatever his rank, will salute first 
the officer to whom the report is made will acknowledge 
saluting that he has received and understood the report 

27. For ceremonies, all mounted enlisted men of a regimenl 
or smaller unit, except those belonging to the machine-i 
organizations, are consolidated into a detachment; tnt 
present commands if no officer is in charge. The detachment la 
formed as a platoon or squad of cavalry in line or column of 
fours ; noncommissioned staff officers are on the right or in the 
leading ranks. 

28. For ceremonies, such of the noncommissioned staff ol 

rs are dismounted are formed 5 paces in rear of the color, ip 
order of rank from right to left In column of squads th( 
march as file closers, 

29. Other than for ceremonies, noncommissioned staff officers 
*md orderlies accompany their immediate chiefs unless other- 
wise directed. If mounted, the noncommissioned staff officers 
are ordinarily posted on the right or at the head of the orderlies. 

30. In all formations and movements a noncommissioned 
officer commanding a platoon or company carries his piece as 
the men do, if he is so armed, and takes the same post as an 
officer in like situation. When the command is formed in line 
for ceremonies, a noncommissioned officer commanding a com- 
pany takes post on the right of the right guide after the com- 
pany has been aligned. 



ORDERS, COMMANDS, AND SIGNALS. 

81. Commands only are employed in drill at attention. Other- 
wise either a command, signal, or order is employed, as best suits 
the occasion, or one may be used in conjunction with another. 

82. Signals should be freely used in instruction, in order that 
officers and men may leadily know them. In making arm sig- 
nals the saber, rifle, or headdress may be held in the hand. 

33. Officers and men fix their attention at the first word of 
command, the first note of the bugle or whistle, or the first 
motion of the signal. A signal includes both the preparatory 
command and the command of execution; the movement com- 
mences as soon as the signal is understood, unless otherwise 
prescribed. 

34. Except in movements executed at attention, commanders 
or leaders of subdivisions repeat orders, commands, or signals 
whenever such repetition is deemed necessary to insure prompt 
and correct execution. 

Officers, battalion noncommissioned staff officers, platoon 
leaders, guides, and musicians are equipped with whistles. 

The major and his staff will use a whistle of distinctive tone ; 
the captain and company musicians a second and distinctive 
whistle; the platoon leaders and guides a third distinctive 
whistle. 

35. Prescribed signals are limited to such as are essential 
as a substitute for the voice under conditions which render the 
voice inadequate. 

^Before or during an engagement special signals may be agreed 
upon to facilitate the solution of such special difficulties as the 
particular situation is likely to develop, but it must be remem- 
bered that simplicity and certainty are indispensable qualities 
of a signal. 

Orders. 

36. In these regulations an order embraces instructions or 
directions given oralJy or in writing in terms suited to the par- 
ticular occasion and not prescribed herein. 

Orders are employed only when the commands prescribed 
herein do not sufficiently indicate the will of the commander. 

Orders are more fully described in paragraphs 378 to 383, 
inclusive. 

15 



16 OJLDEBS, COMMANDS, AND SIGNALS. 

Commands. 

37. In these regulations a command is the will of the com- 
mander expressed in the phraseology prescribed herein. 

38. There are two kinds of commands: 

The preparatory command, such as forward, indicates the move- 
ment that is to be executed. 

The command of execution, such as MARCH, HALT, or ARMS, 
causes the execution. 

Preparatory commands are distinguished by italics, those of 
execution by CAPITALS. 

Where it is not mentioned in the text who gives the com- 
mands prescribed, they are to be given by the commander of the 
unit concerned. 

The preparatory command should be given at such an interval 
of time before the command of execution as to admit of being 
properly understood; the command of execution should be given 
at the instant the movement is to commence. 

The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a loudness 
proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended. 

Each preparatory command is enunciated distinctly, with a 
rising inflection at the end, and in such manner that the com- 
mand of execution may be more energetic. 

The command of execution is firm in tone and brief. 

39. Majors and commanders of units larger than a battalion 
repeat such commands of their superiors as are to be executed 
by their units, facing their units for that purpose. The bat- 
talion is the Largest unit that executes a movement at the com- 
mand of execution of its commander. 

40. When giving commands to troops it is usually best to 
lace toward them. 

Indifference in giving commands must be avoided as it leads 
to laxity in execution. Commands should be given with spirit 
at all times. 

Bugle Signals. 

41. The authorized bugle signals are published in Part V of 
these regulations. 

The following bugle signals may be used off the battle field* 
when not likely to convey information to the enemy : 
Attention: Troops are brought to attention. 



OKDEKS, COMMANDS, AKD SIOHALL. 17 

Attention to orders: Troops fix their attention. 

forward, march: Used also to execute quick time from double 
time. 

Double time, march. 

To the rear, march: In close order, Qxecute squads right about. 

Halt. 

Assemble, march. 

The following bugle signals may be used on the battle field : 

Fix bayonets. 

Charge. 

Assemble, march. 

These signals are used only when intended for the entire 
firing line ; hence they can be authorized only by the commander 
of a unit (for example, a regiment or brigade) which occupies 
a distinct section of the battle field. Exception: Fix bayonet. 
(See par. 318.) 

The following bugle signals are used in exceptional cases on 
the battle field. Their principal uses are in field exercises and 
practice firing. 

Commence firing: Officers charged with fire direction and con- 
trol oi>eu fire as soon as practicable. When given to a firing 
line, the signal is equivalent to fire at will. 

Cease firing: All parts of the line execute cease firing at once. 

These signals are not used by units smaller than a regiment, 
except when such unit is independent or detached from its 
regiment. 

Whistle Signals. 

42. Attention to orders. A short blast of the whistle. This 
signal is used OB the march or in combat when necessary to fix 
the attention of troops, or of their commanders or leaders, pre- 
paratory to giving commands, orders, or signals. 

When the firing line is firing, each squad leader suspends 
firing and fixes his attention at a short blast of his platoon 
leader's whistle. The platoon leader's subsequent commands or 
signals are repeated and enforced by the squad leader. If a 
squad leader's attention is attracted by a whistle other than 
that of his platoon leader, or if there are no orders or commands 
to convey to his squad he resumes firing at once. 

Suspend firing. A long blast of the whistle. 
.All Y)ther whistle signals are prohibited. 



18 OBDEKS, COMMANDS, AND SIGNALS. 

Arm Signals. 

48. The following arm signals are prescribed. In making 
signals either arm may be used. Officers who receive signals 
.on the .firing line "repeat back" at once to prevent misunder- 
standing. 

Forward, march. Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten 
and hold the. arm horizontally, thrusting it in direction of 
march. 

This signal is also used to execute quick time from doubl 
time. 

Halt. Curry the hand to the shoulder ; thrust the hand upwai 
and hold the arm vertically. 

Double time, march.. Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidl 
thrdst the bend upward the full extent of the arm several times. 

Squads right, march. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal ; 
carry it to a vertical position above the head and swing it 
several times between the vertical and horizontal positions. 

Squads left, march. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; 
carry it downward to the side and swing it several times be- 
tween the downward and horizontal positions. 

Squads right about, march (if in close order) or, To the rear, 
march (if in skirmish line). Extend the arm vertically above 
the head; carry it laterally downward to the side and swing 
it several times between the vertical and downward positions. 

Change direction or Column right (left), march. The hand on the 
side toward which the change of direction is to be made is car- 
ried across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizon- 
tal; then swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing 
in the new direction. 

As skirmishers, march. Raise both arms laterally until hori- 
zontal. 

As skirmishers, guide center, march. Raise both arms laterally 
until horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until ver- 
tical and return to the horizontal; repeat several times. 

As skirmisher*, guide right (lefty, march. Raise both arms lat- 
erally nntil horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide 
steadily in the horizontal position; swing the other upward 
until vertical and return it to the horizontal ; repeat several 
times. 

Assemble, march. Raise the arm vertically to its full extent 
nnd describe horizontal circles. 



ORDERS, COJCMAHDS, AND SIG1CALS. 18 

Range, or Change Elevation. To announce range, extend the arm 
toward the leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist 
closed; by keeping the fist closed battle sight is indicated; by 
opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number equal 
to the hundreds of yards; to add 50 yards describe a short horizontal line 
with forefinger. 'o change elevation, indicate the amount of increase or 
decrease by fingers as above; point upward to indicate increase and down- 
ward to indicate decrease. 

What range are you using? or What if the range t Extend the arms 
toward toe person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front, resting on 
the other hand, fist closed. 

Are you ready f or I am, ready. Raise the hand, fingers extended and 
jt 'ned, palm toward the person addressed. 

Commence firing. Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm 
dow , several times through a horizontal are in front of the body. 

Fire faster. Execute rapidly the signal "Commence firing." 

Fire tlower. Execute slowly the signal "Commence firing." 

To swing the cone of fire to the right, or left. ExJtend the arm in full 
length to the front, palm to the right (left) ; swing the arm to right (left), 
and point in the direction of the new target. 

Fix Bayonet. Simulate the movement of the 1 right Band in "Fix bayonet" 
(paragraph 95). 

Suspend firing. Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal 
position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front. 

Cease firing. Raise the forearm as in suspend firing and swing it up 
and down several times in front of the face. 

Platoon. Extend the arm horizontally toward the j>latoon leader; describe 
small circles with the hand. (See Par. 44.) 

Squad. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; swing 
the hnnd up and down from the Wrist. (See Par. 44.) 

Rush. Same as double time. 

44. The signals platoon and squad are intended primarily for communica- 
tion between the captain and his platoon leaders. The signal platoon or 
squad indicates that the platoon commander is to cause the signal which 
follows to be executed by platoon or squad. 

Flag Signals. 

45. The signal flags described below are carried by the company musi- 
cians in the field. 

In a regiment in which it is impracticable to make the permanent bat- 
talion division alphabetically, the flags of a battalion are as shown; flag* 
are assigned to the companies alphabetically, within their respective bat- 
talions, in the order given below. 

First battalion : 

Company A. Red field, white square. Company 0. Red field, white diagonals. 
Company B. Red field, blue square. Company D. Red field, blue diagonals. 

Second battalion : 

Company E. White field, red square. Company O. White field, red diagonals. 
Company F. White field, blue square. Company H. White field, blue diagonals. 



80 OBDERS, COMMANDS, AND SIGNALS, 

Third battalion : 

Company I. Blue field, red square. 
Company K. Blue field, white square. 
Company L. Blue field, red diagonals. 
Company M. Blue field, white diagonals. 

46. In addition to their use in visual signaling, these flags 
serve to mark the assembly point of the company when dis- 
organized by combat, and to mark the location of the company 
in bivouac and elsewhere, when such use is desirable. 

47. (1) FV>r communication between the firing line and the re- 
serve or commander in rear, the subjoined signals (Signal Corps 
codes) are prescribed and should be memorized. In transmission, 
their concealment from the enemy's view should be insured. In 
the absence of signal flags, the headdress or other substitute may 
be used. 



Letter of 
alphabet. 



If signaled from the rear to 
the firing line. 



If signaled from the firing 
line to the rear. 



M 
C C 



II 



C F 
D T 

F 
F L 

G 

H H 
K 

L T 
O 

(Ardois and 
semaphore 
only.) 

(All methods 
but ardois 
and gerna 
phore.) 

P 

R 

K N 

R T 

S S S 

T 



Ammunition going forward. 
Charge (mandatory at all 

times). 
Cease firing. 
Double time- or "rush."" 

Commence firing. 

Artillery fire is causing us 

losses. 

Move forward 
Halt. 
Negative. 
Left. 
What is the (R. N. etc.)? 

Interrogatory. 



What is the (R. N. etc.) ? 
Interrogatory. 



Affirmative. 

Acknowledgment. 

Ban?e. 

Right. 

Support feeing forward. 

Target. 



Ammunition required. 

Am about to charge if no in- 
structions to the contrary. 

Cease firing. 

Double time or "rush" or 
hurry. 

Commence firing. 

Artillery fire is causing us 
losses. 

Preparing to move forward. 

Halt. 

Negative. 

Left, 

What is the (R. N. etc.) f 
Interrogatory. 



What is the (R. N. etc.)! 
Interrogatory. 



Affirmative. 

Acknowledgment. 

Range. 

Right. 

Support needed. 

Target. 



t. The Two-arm Semaphore Code (illustrations on pages following). 



TWO-ABM SEMAPHORE COD*. 





K 





PREPARATORY 




G m 7 





C HI 3 




H * 8 



M 




D K 4 




MUM 



I JK 9 



N 





E M 5 




INTERROGATORY 






u 





6.1 





ACKNOWLEDGE 



INTERVAL 




w 




NUME.RALS 








SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

48. The instructor explains briefly each movement, first exe- 
cuting it himself if practicable. He requires the recruits to 
take the proper positions unassisted and does not tonch them 
for the purpose of correcting them, except when they are unable 
to correct themselves. He avoids keeping them too long at the 
same movement, although each should be understood before 
passing to another. He exacts by degrees the desired precision 
mid uniformity. 

49. In order that all may advance as rapidly as their abili- 
ties permit, the recruits are grouped according to proficiency as 
instruction progresses. Those who lack aptitude and quickness 
are sepa rated from the others and placed under experienced 
drill masters. 

INSTRUCTION WITHOUT ARMS. 

50. For preliminary instruction a number of recruits, usually 
not exceeding three or four, are formed as a squad in single 
rank. 

Position of the Soldier, or Attention. 

51. Heels on the same line and as near each other as the 
conformation of the man permits. 

Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45 

Knees straight without stiffness. 

Hips level arnd drawn back slightly; body erect and resting 
equally on hips; chest lifted and arched; shoulders square and 
falling equally. 

Arms and hands hanging naturally, thumb along the seam 
of the trousers. 

Head erect andsquarely to the front, chin drawn in so that 
the axis of the head and neck is vertical ; eyes straight to the 
front. 

Weight of the body resting fequally upon the heels and balls 
of the feet. 

The Rest*. 

52. Being at a halt, the commands are: FALL OUT; REST; 
AT EASE; and, 1. Parade, 2. Re*t. 

21 - 



22 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

At the command tall out, the men may leave the ranks, but 
are required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume 
their former places, at attention, at the command fall in. 

At the command rest each man keeps one foot in place, but is 
not required to preserve silence or immobility. 

At the command at ease each man keeps one foot in place 
and is required to preserve silence but not immobility. 

53. 1, Parade, 2. REST. Carry the right foot 6 inches straight 
to the rear, left knee slightly bent; clasp the hands, without 
constraint, in front of the center of the body, fingers joined, 
left hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb and fore- 
finger of the right hand; preserve silence and steadiness of 
position. 

54. To resume the attention: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION. 
The men take the position of the soldier. 



Eyes Right or Left. 

55. 1. Eyes, 2. RIGHT (LEFT), 3. FRONT. 

At the command right, turn the head to the right oblique, 
eyes fixed on the line of eyes of the men in, or supposed to be 
In, the same rank. At the command front, turn the head and 
eyes to the front. 

Facings. 

56. To the flank: 1. Right (left), 2. FACE. 

Raise slightly the left heel and right toe; face to the right, 
turning on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the 
ball of the left foot ; place the left foot by the side of the right. 
Left face is executed on the left heel in the corresponding 
manner. 

Right (left) half face is executed similarly, facing 45. 

"To face in marching" and advance, turn on the ball of 
either foot and step off with the other foot in the new line of 
direction; to face in marching without gaining ground in the 
new direction, turn on the ball of either foot and mark time. 

57. To the rear: 1. About, 2. FACE. 

Carry the toe of the right foot about a half foot-length to the 
rear and slightly to the left of the left heel without changing 
the position of the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the 
right on the left heel and right toe ; place the right he*l by the 
side of the left. 






SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 83 

Salute with the Hand. 

B8. 1. Hand, 2. SALUTE. 

Raise the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger 
touches the lower part of the headdress or forehead above the 
right eye, thumb and fingers extended and joined, palm to the 
left, forearm inclined at about 45, hand and wrist straight; 
at the same time look toward the person saluted. (TWO) Drop 
the arm smartly by the side. 

-JfSL 169 * vernln s salutes, see "Honors and Salutes/' pars. 
75o-765. 



STEPS AHD MARCHINGS. 

59. All steps and marchings executed from a halt, except 
i ^ht step, begin with the left foot! 

00. The length of the full step in quick time is 30 inches, 
i ieasured from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 
120 steps per minute. 

The length of the full step in double time is 36 inches; the 
cadence is at the rate of 180 steps per minute. 

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of tl*e 
step by calling one, two, three, four, or left, right, the instant the 
left and right foot, respectively, should be planted. 

61. All steps and marchings and movements involving march 
are executed in quick time unless the squad be marching in 
double time, or double time be added to the command; in the 
latter case double time is added to the preparatory command. 
Example: 1. Squad right, double time. 2. MARCH (School of the 
Squad). 

Quick Time. 

62. Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1. For- 
ward, 2. MARCH. 

At the command forward, shift the weight of the body to the 
right leg, left knee straight 

At the command march, move the left foot smartly straight 
forward 30 inches from the right, sole near the ground, and 
plant it without shock ; next, in like manner, advance the right 



84 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDLEE. 

foot and plant it as above; Continue the march. The arms 
swing naturally. 

63. Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in 
double time: 1. Double time. 2. MARCH. 

It at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the 
body to the right leg. At the command march, raise the fore- 
arms, fingers closed, to a horizontal position along the waist 
line ; take up an easy run with the step and cadence of double 
time, allowing a natural swinging motion to the arms. 

If marching in quick time, at the command march, given as 
either foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and 
then step off in double time. 

64. To resume the quick time: 1. Quick time, 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, 
advance and plant the other foot in double time; resume the 
quick time, dropping the hands by the sides. 

To Mark Time. 

65. Being in march: 1. Mark time, 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, 
advance and plant the other foot ; bring up the foot in rear and 
continue the cadence by alternately raising each foot about 
2 inches and planting it on line with the other. 

Being at a halt, at the command march, raise and plant the 
feet as described above. 

The Half Step. 

66. 1. Halt step, 2. MARCH. 

Take steps- of 15 inches in quick time, 18 inches in double 
time. 

67. Forward, half step, halt, and mark time may be executed 
one from the other in quick or double time. 

To resume the full step from half step or mark time : 1. F or- 
ward, 2. MARCH. 

Side Step. 

68. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Right (left) step, 
2. MARCH. 

Carry and plant the right foot 15 inches to the right; bring 
the left foot beside it and continue the movement hi the cadence 
of quick time. 



SCHOOL OF TEX SOLDIEE. M 

The side step is used for short distances only and is not exe- 
cuted in double time. 

If at order arms, the side step is executed at trail without 
command. 

Back Step. 

69. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Backward, 2. MARCH. 
Take steps of 15 inches straight to the rear. 

The back step is used for short distances only and is not exe* 
cuted in double time. 

If at order arms, the back step is executed at trail without 
command. 

To Half. 

70. To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1. Squad, 
2. HALT. 

At the command halt, given as either foot strikes the ground, 
plant the other foot as in marching; raise and place the first 
foot by the side of the other. If in double time, drop the hands 
by the sides. 

To March by the Flank. 

71. Being in march: 1. By the right (left) flank, 2. MARCH. 
At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the 

ground, advance and plant the left foot, then face to the right 
in marching and 'step off in the new direction with the right foot 

To March to the Rear. 

72. Being in march : 1. To the rear, 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the 
ground, advance and plant the left foot ; turn to the right about 
on the balls of both feet and immediately step off with the left 
foot. 

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking 
four steps in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with 
the left foot. 

Change Step. 

73. Being in march: 1. Change step, 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the 
ground, advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the 
right foot near the heel of the left and step off with the left foot 

The change on the right foot is similarly executed, the com- 
mand march being given as the left foot strikes the ground. 






26 SCHOOL 07 THE SOLDIER. 

MANUAL OF ARMS. 

74. As soon as practicable the recruit is taught the use, 
nomenclature (PI. I), and care of his rifle; when fair progress 
has been made In the instruction without arms, he is taught 
the manual of arms; instruction without arms and that withf 
arms alternate. 

75. The following rules govern the carrying of ttie piece : 
First The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the 

chamber or the magazine except when specifically ordered. 
When so loaded, or supposed to be loaded, it is habitually car- 
ried locked; that is, with the safety lock turned to the "safe.'* 
At all other times it is carried unlocked, with the trigger 
pulled. 

Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are 
immediately inspected at the commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS; 
3. Order (Right shoulder, port), 4. ARMS. 

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal. 

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are 
removed and placed in the belt. 

Third. The cut-off is kept turned "off" except when car- 
tridges are actually used. 

Fourth. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, 
on guard, or for combat. 

Fifth. Fall in is executed with the piece at the order arms. 
Fall out, rest, and at ease are executed as without arms. On 
resuming attention the position of order arms is taken. 

Sixth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece 
is brought to the right shoulder at the command march, the 
three motions corresponding with the first three steps. Move- 
ments may be executed at the trail by prefacing the prepara- 
tory command with the words at trail; as, 1. At trail, forward, 
2. MARCH; the trail is taken at the command march. 

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking 
interval or distance, and assemblings are executed from the 
order, raise the piece to the trail while in motion and resume 
the order on halting. 

Seventh. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The 
execution of the order begins when the halt is completed. 

Eighth. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when 
without arms. 






SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 27 

76. The following rules govi/n the execution of the manual 
of arms: 

First. In all positions of the left hand at the balance (center 
of gravity, bayonet unfixed) the thumb clasps the piece; the 
sling is included in the grasp of the hand. 

Second. In all positions of the piece "diagonally across the 
body " the position of the piece, left arm and hand are the same 
as in port arms. 

Third. In resuming the order from any position in the 
manual, the motion next to the last concludes with the butt of 
the piece about 3 Inches from the ground, barrel to the rear, 
the left hand above and near the right, steadying the piece, 
fingers extended and joined, forearm and wrist straight and in- 
clining downward, all fingers of the right hand grasping the 
piece. To complete the order, lower the piece gently to the 
ground with the right hand, drop the left quickly by the Bide, 
and take the position of order arms. 

' Allowing the piece to drop through 'the right hand to the 
ground, or other similar abuse of the rifle to produce effect in 
executing the manual, is prohibited. 

Fourth. The cadence of the motions is that of quick time; 
the recruits are first required to give their whole attention to 
the details of the motions, the, cadence being gradually ac- 
quired as they become accustomed to handling their pieces. 
The instructor may require them to count aloud in cadence 
with the motions. 

Fifth. The manual is taught at a halt and the movements are, 
for the purpose of instruction, divided into motions and exe- 
cuted in detail; In this case the command of execution deter- 
mines the prompt execution of the first motiop, and the com- 
mands, two, three, four, that of the other motions. 

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cau- 
tions: By the numbert; all movements divided into motions are 
then executed as above explained until he cautions : Without the 
numbere; or commands movements other than those in the man- 
ual of arms. 

Sixth. Whenever circumstances require, the regular positions 
of the manual of arms and the firings may be ordered without 
regard to the previous position of the piece. 

'Under exceptional conditions of weather or fatigue the rifle 
may be carried in any manner directed. 






28 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEB. 

77. Petition of order arms standing: The butt rests evenly on 
the ground, barrel to the rear, toe of the butt on a line with toe 
of, and touching, the right shoe, arms and hands hanging nat- 
urally, right hand holding the piece between the thumb and 
fingers. 

78. Being at order arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS. 

With the right hand carry the piece In front of the center of 
the body, barrel to the rear and vertical, grasp it with the left 
hand at the balance, forearm horizontal and resting against the 
body. (TWO) Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand. 

70. Being at order arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. 

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally 
across the body, grasp it smartly with: both hands; the right, 
palm down, at the small of the, stock; t je left, palm up, at the 
balance ; barrel up, sloping to the left and crossing opposite the 
Junction of the neck with the left shoulder ; right forearm hori- 
zontal; left forearm resting against the body; the piece in a 
vertical plane parallel to the front. 

80. Being at present arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. 

Carry the piece diagonally across the body and take the posi- 
tion of port arms. 

81. Being at port arms : 1. Present, 2. ARMS. 

Carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the center of 
the body and take the position of present arms. 

82. Being at present or port arms : 1. Order, 2. ARMS. 

Let go with the right hand ; lower and carry the piece to the 
right with the left hand; regrasp it with the right hand Just 
above the lower band; let go with the left hand, and take the 
next to the last position in coming to the order. (TWO) Com- 
plete the order. 

83. Being at order arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS. 

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally 
across the body; carry the right hand quickly to the butt, em- 
bracing it, the heel between the first two fingers. (TWO) With- 
out changing the grasp of the right hand, place the piece on the 
right shoulder, barrel up and inclined at an angle of about 45 
from the horizontal, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder, 
right elbow near the side, the piece in a vertical plane perpen- 
dicular to the front ; carry the left hand, thumb and fingers 
extended and joined, to the small of the stock, tip of the fore- 
finger touching the cocking piece, wrist straight and elbow 
down. (THREE) Drop the left band by the side. 



SCHOOL OF THE BOLDIEB. 39 

84. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS. 

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally 
across the body, the right hand retaining the grasp of the butt. 
(TWO), (THREE) Execute order arms as described from port 
arms. 

85. Being at port arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS. 
Change the right hand to the butt. (TWO), (THREE) As in 

right shoulder arms from order arms. 

86. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Port. 2. ARMS. 

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally 
across the body, the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt. 
(TWO) Change the right hand to the small of the stock. 

87. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Preterit, 2. ARMS. 
Execute -port arms. (THREE) Execute present arms. 

88. Being at present arms : 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS. 
Execute port arms. (TWO), (THREE), (FOUR) Execute right 

shoulder arms as from port arms. 

89. Being at port arms: 1. Left shoulder, 2. ARMS. 

Carry the piece with the right hand and place, it on the 
left shoulder, barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoul- 
der; at the same time grasp the butt with the left hand, heel 
'between first and second fingers, thumb and fingers closed on 
the stock. (TWO) Drop the right hand by the side. 

Being at left shoulder arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. 

Grasp the piece with the right hand at the small of the stock. 
( TWO) Carry the piece to the right with the right hand, regrasp 
it with the left, ami take the position of port arms. 

Left shoulder arms may be ordered directly from the order, 
right shoulder or present, or the reverse. At the command arms 
execute port arms and continue in cadence to the position 
ordered. 

90. Being at order arms: 1. Parade, 2. REST. 

Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the rear, left knee 
slightly bent: carry the muzzle in front of the center of the 
body, barrel to the left ; grasp the piece with the left hand Just 
below the stacking swivel, and with the right hand below and 
against the left. 

Being at parade rest: 1. Squad, 2. ATTEMTIOH. 

Resume the order, the left hand quitting the p'ece opposite 
the right hip. 




30 SCHOOL OF TEE SOLDIER. 

91. Being at order arms: 1. Trail, 2. ARMS. 

Kaise the piece, right arm slightly bent, and Incline the 
muzzle forward so that the barrel makes an angle of about 30 
with the vertical. 

When it can be done without danger or inconvenience to 
others, the piece may be grasped at the balance and the muzzle 
lowered* until the piece is horizontal ; a similar position in the 
left hand may be used. 

02. Being at trail arms : L Order, 2. ARMS. 

Lower the piece with the right hand and resume the 

Rifle Salute. 

1)3. Being nt right shoulder arms : 1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE. 

Carry the left hand smartly to the small of the stock, forearm 
horizontal, palm of hand down, thumb and fingers extended and 
joined, forefinger touching end of cocking piece ; look toward the 
person saluted. (TWO) Drop left hand by the side ; turn head 
nnd eyes to the front. 

94. Being at order or trail arms: 1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE. 

Carry the left hand smartly to the right side, palm of the 
baud down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger 
against piece near the muzzle; look toward the person .saluted. 
(TWO) Drop the left hand by the side ; turn the head and eyes 
to the front. 

For rules governing salutes, see "Honors and Salutes" (pars. 
758-765). 

The Bayonet, 

05. Being at order arms: 1. Fix, 2. BAYONET. 

If the bayonet scabbard is-carried on the belt : Execute parade 
rest ; grasp the bayonet with the right hand, back of hand to- 
ward the body ; draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix it 
on the barrel, glancing at the muzzle ; resume the order. 

If the bayonet is carried on the haversack : Draw the bayonet 
with the left hand and fix it in the most convenient manner. 

06. Being at order arms: 1. Unfix, 2. BAYONET. 

It the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade 
rest ; grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, 
pressing the spring with the forefinger of the right hand ; raise 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 31 

the bayonet until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle 
of the piece ; drop the point to the left, back of the hand toward 
the body, and, glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the 
blade passing between the left arm and the body; regrasp the 
piece with the right hand and resume the order. 

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take 
the bayonet from the rifle.. with the left hand and return it to 
the scabbard in the most convenient manner. 

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed 
in the most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece 
returned to the original position. 

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and 
regularity but not in cadence. 

97. CHARGE BAYONET. Whether executed at halt or in 
motion, the bayonet is held toward the opponent as in the posi- 
tion of guard in the Manual for Bayonet Exercise. 

Exercises for instruction in bayonet combat are prescribed in 
the Manual for Bayonet Exercise. 

The Inspection. 

08. Being at order arms: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS. 

At the second command take the position of port arms. 
(TWO) Seize the bolt handle with the, thumb and forefinger of 
the right hand, turn the handle up, draw the bolt back, and 
glance at the chamber. Having found the chamber empty, or 
having emptied it, raise the head and eyes to the front. 

99. Being at inspection arms: 1. Order (Right shoulder, port), 
2. ARMS. 

At the preparatory command push the bolt forward, turn the 
handle down, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the 
command arms, complete the movement ordered. 

To Dismiss the Squad. 

100. Being at halt: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Port, 4. ARMS, 
6. DISMISSED. 



SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 

101. Soldiers are grouped into squads for purposes of instruc- 
tion, discipline, control, and order. 

102. The squad proper consists of a corporal and seven 
privates. 

The movements in the School of the Squad are designed to 
inake the squad a fixed unit and to facilitate the control and 
movement of the company. If the number of men grotfped is 
more than 3 and less than 12, they are formed as a squad of 
4 files, the excess above 8 being posted as file closers. If the 
number grouped is greater than 11, 2 or more squads are formed 
and the group ig termed a platoon. 

For the instruction of recruits; these rules may be modified. 

103. The -corporal is the squad leader, and when absent is 
replaced by a designated private. If no private is designated, 
the senior in length of service acts as leader. 

The corporal, -when in ranks, is posted as the left man in the 
front rank of the squad. 

When the corporal leaves the ranks to lead his squad, his rear 
rank man steps into the front rank, and the file remains blank 
until the corporal returns to his place in ranks, when his rear 
rank man steps back into the rear rank. 

104. In battle officers and sergeants endeavor to preserve 
the integrity of squads ; they designate new leaders to replace 
those disabled, organize new squads when necessary, and see 
that every man is placed in a squad. 

Men are taught the necessity of remaining with the squad to 
which they belong and, in case it be broken up or they become 
separated therefrom, to attach themselves to the nearest squad 
and platoon leaders, whether these be of their own or of another 
organization. 

135. The squad executes the halt, rests, facings, steps and 
marchings, and the manual of arms as explained in the School 
of the Soldier. 

To Form the Squad. 

106. To form the squad the instructor places- himself 3 paces 
In front of where the center is to be and commands : FALL IN. 
32 



SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 88 

The men assemble at attention, pieces at the order, and are 
arranged by the corporal in double rank, as nearly as practicable 
in order of height from right to left, each man dropping his left 
hand as soon as the man on his left has his interval. The rear 
rank forms with distance of 40 inches. 

The instructor then commands: COUNT OFF. 

At this command all except the right file execute eyet right, 
and beginning on the righj, the men in each rank count one, 
two, three, four; each man turns his head and eyes to the front 
as he counts. 

Pieces are then inspected. 

Alignments. 

107. To align the squad, the base file or files having been 
established: 1. /tight (Left), 2. DRESS, 3. FRONT. 

At the command dress all men place the left hand upon the 
hip (whether dressing to the right or left) ; each man, except 
the base file, when on or near the new line executes eyes right, 
and, taking steps of 2 or 3 inches, places himself so that his 
right arm rests lightly against the arm of the man on his right, 
and so that his eyes and shoulders are in line with those of the 
men on his right ; the rear rank 'men cover in file. 

The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from the 
right flank and orders up or back such men as may be in rear, 
or in advance, of the line; only the men designated move. 

At the command front, given when the ranks are aligned, each 
man turns his head and eyes to the front and drops his left 
hand by his side. 

In the first drills the basis of the alignment is established on, 
or parallel to, the front of the squad; afterwards, in oblique 
directions. 

Whenever the position 6f the base file or files necessitates a 
considerable movement by the squad, such movement will be 
executed by marching to the front or oblique, to the flank or 
backward, as the case may be, without other command, and at 
the trail. 

108. To preserve the alignment when marching: GUIDE 
RIGHT (LEFT). 

The men preserve their intervals from the side of the guide, 
yielding to pressure from that side and resisting pressure from 



M SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 

the opposite direction ; they recover intervals, if lost, by gradu- 
ally opening out or closing in ; they recover alignment by slightly 
lengthening or shortening the step ; the rear-rank men cover 
their file leaders at 40 inches. 

In double rank, the front-rank man on the right, or designated 
flank, conducts the march; when marching facjed to 'the flank, 
the leading man of the front rank is the guide. 

To Take Intervals and Distances. 

109. Being in line at a halt: 1. Take interval, 2. To the right 
(left), 3. MARCH, 4. Squad, 5. HALT. 

At the second command the rear-rank men march backward 
4 steps and halt; at the command march all face to the right 
and the leading man' of each rank steps off ; the other men step 
off in succession, each following the preceding man at 4 paces, 
rear-rank men marching abreast of their file leaders. 

At the command halt, given when all have their intervals, all 
halt and face to the front 

110. Being at intervals, to assemble the squad: 1. Assemble, 
to the right (left), 2. MARCH. 

The front-rank man on the right stands fast, the rear-rank 
man on the right closes to 40 inches. The other men face to 
the right, close by the shortest line, and face to the front. 

111. Being in line at a halt and having counted off: 1. Take 
distance, 2. MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT. 

At the command march No. 1 of the front rank moves straight 
to the front ; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front rank and No's. 1, 2, 3, 
and 4 of the rear rank, in the order named, move straight to 
the front, each stepping off so as to follow the preceding man 
at 4 paces. The command halt is given when all 'have their 
distances. 

In case more than one squad is in line, each squad executes 
the movement as above. The guide of each rank of numbers- is 
right. 

112. Being at distances, to assemble the squad: 1. Assemble, 
2. MARCH. 

No. 1 of the front rank stands fast ; the other numbers move 
forward to their proper places in line. 






SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 35 

To Stack and Take Arms. 

113. Being in line at n halt: STACK ARMS. 

Bach even number of the front rank grasps his piece with 
the left hand at the upper band and rests the butt between his 
feet, barrel to the front, muzzle inclined slightly to the front 
and opposite the center of the interval on his right, the thumb 
and forefinger raising the stacking swivel ; each even number 
of the rear rank then passes his piece, barrel to the rear, to 
his file leader, who grasps it between the bands with his right 
hand and throws the butt about 2 feet in advance of that of 
his own piece and opposite the right of the interval, the right 
hand slipping to the upper band, the thumb and forefinger 
raising the stacking swivel, which he engages with that of his 
own piece; each odd number of the front rank raises his piece 
with the right hand, carries it well forward, barrel to the front : 
the left hand, guiding the stacking swivel, engages the lower 
hook of the swivel of his own piece with the free hook of that 
of the even number of the rear rank; he then turns the barrel 
outward into the angle formed by the other two pieces and 
lowers the butt to the ground, to the right of and against the 
toe of his right shoe. 

The stacks made, the loose pieces are laid on them by the 
even numbers of the front rank. 

When each man has finished handling pieces, he takes the 
position of the soldier. 

114. Being in line behind the stacks : TAKEARMS. 

The loose pieces are returned by the even numbers of the 
front rank ; each even number of the front rank grasps his own 
ptece with the left hand, the piece of his rear-rank man with 
his right hand, grasping both between the bands; each odd 
number of the front rank grasps his piece in the same way with 
the right hand, disengages it by raising the butt from the 
ground and then, turning the piece to the right, detaches it 
from the stack ; each even number of the front rank disengages 
and detaches his piece by turning it to the left, and then passes 
the piece of his rear-rank man to him, and all resume the order. 

115. Should any squad have Nos. 2 and 3 blank files, No. 1 
rear rank takes the place of No. 2 rear rank in making and 
breaking the stack ; the stacks made or broken, he resumes his 
post 

Pieces not used in making the stack are termed toot* piec**. 
Pieces are never stacked with the bayonet fixed. 



36 SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 

The Oblique March. 

}16. For the Instruction of recruits, the squad being In 
column or correctly aligned, the instructor causes the squad to 
lace half right or half left, points out to the men their relative 
positions, and explains that these are to be maintained in 
the oblique inarch. 

117. 1. Right (Left) obliqua, 2. MARCH. 

Each man steps off in a direction 45 to the right of his 
original front He preserves his relative position, keeping his 
shoulders parallel to those of the guide (the man on the right 
front of the line or column), and so regulates his steps that the 
ranks remain parallel to their original front 

At the. comma iid halt the men halt faced to the front. 

To resume the original direction : 1. Forward, 2. MARCH. 

The men half face to the left in marching and then move 
straight to the front. 

If at half step or mark time while obliquing, the oblique march 
is resuuled by the commands : 1. Oblique, 2. MARCH. 

To Turn on Moving Pivot. 

118. Being in line: 1. Right (Left) turn, 2. MARCH. 

The movement is executed by each rank successively and on 
the same ground. At the second command, the pivot man of 
the front rank faces to the right in marching and takes the 
half step ; the other men of the rank oblique to the right until 
opposite their places in line, then execute a second right oblique 
and take the half step on arriving abreast of the pivot man. 
All glance toward the marching flank while at half step and 
take the full step without command as the last man arrives on 
the line. 

Right (Left) half turn is executed in r .. similar manner. The 
pivot man makes a half change of direction to the right and 
the other men make quarter changes In obliquing. 

To Turn on Fixed Pivot. 

110. Being in line, to turn and march: 1. Squad right (left), 
2. MARCH. 

At the second command, the right flank man in the front rank 
faces to the right in marching and marks time ; 'the other front 
rank ineo oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the 



SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 37 

pivot, and mark time. In the rear rank the third man from the 
right, followed in column by the second and first, moves straight 
to the front until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face 
to the right in marching and mark time; the other number of 
the rear rank moves straight to the front four paces and places 
himself abreast of the man on his right. Men on the new line 
glance toward the marching flank while marking time and, as 
the last man arrives on the line, both ranks execute forward, 
march, without command. 

120. Being in line, to turn and halt: 1. Squad right (loft), 2. 
UAKCH, 8. Squad, 4. HALT. 

The third command is given immediately after the second. 
The turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph 
except that all men, on arriving on the new line, mark time 
until the fourth command is given, when all halt. The fourth 
command should be given as the last man arrives on the line. 

121. Being in line, to turn about and march: 1. Squad right 
(Mi) about, 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, the front rank twice executes squad 
right, initiating the second squad right when the man on the 
marching flank has arrived abreast of the rank. In the rear 
rank the third man from the right, followed by the second and 
first in column, moves straight to the front until on the prolonga- 
tion of the line to be occupied by the rear rank ; changes direc- 
tion to the right; moves in the new direction until in rear of 
his front-rank man, when all face to the right in marching, 
mark time, and glance toward the marching flank. The fourth 
man marches on the left of the third to his new position ; as he 
arrives on the line, both ranks execute forward, march, without 
command. 

122. Being in line, to turn about and halt: 1. Squad right 
(Mt) about, 2. HARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT. 

The third command is given immediately after the second. 
The turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph 
except that all men, on arriving on the new line, mark time 
until the fourth command is given, when all halt. The fourth 
command should be given as the last man arrives on the line. 

To Follow the Corporal. 

123.* Being assembled or deployed, to march the squad with- 
out unnecessary commands, the corporal places himself in front 
of it and commands: FOLLOW M. 



38 SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 

If in line or skirmish line, No. 2 of the front rank follows in 
the trace of the corporal at about 3 paces; the other men con- 
form to the movements of No. 2, guiding on him and maintain- 
ing 4heir relative positions. 

If in column, the head of the column follows the corporal. 

To Deploy at Skirmishers. 

124. Being in any formation, assembled: I. As skirmishers, 
2. MARCH. 

The corporal places himself in front of the squad, if not 
already there. Moving at a run, the men place themselves 
abreast of the corporal at half-pace intervals, Nos. 1 and 2 on 
his right, Nos. 3 and 4 on his left, rear-rank men on the right 
of their file leaders, extra men on the left of No. 4; all then 
conform to the corporal's gait. 

When the squad is acting alone, skirmish line is similarly 
formed on No. 2 ol the front rank, who stands fast or con- 
tinues the march, as the case may be ; the corporal places him- 
self in front of the squad when advancing and in rear when 
halted. 

When deployed as skirmishers, the men march at ease, pieces 
at the trail unless otherwise ordered. 

The corporal is the guide when in the line; otherwise No. 2 
front rank is the guide. 

125. The normal interval between skirmishers is one-half 
pace, resulting practically in one man per yard of front. The 
front of a squad thus deployed as skirmishers is about 10 paces. 

To Increase or Diminish Intervals. 

126. If assembled, and it is desired to deploy at greater than 
che normal interval ; or if deployed, and it is desired to increase 
or decrease the interval: 1. As skirmishers, (so many) paces, 
2. MARCH. 

Intervals are taken at the indicated number of paces. If 
already deployed, the men move by the flank toward or away 
from the guide. 

The Assembly. 

127. Being deployed: 1. Assemble. '2. MAQCH. 

The men move toward the corporal and form in their proper 
places. 



SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 39 

If the corporal continues to advance, the men move in double 
time, form, and follow him. 
The assembly while marching to the rear is not executed. 

Kneeling and Lying Down. 

128. If standing : KNEEL. 

Half face to the right ; carry the right toe about 1 foot to the 
left rear of the left heel ; kneel on right knee, sitting as nearly 
as possible on the right heel ; left forearm across left thigh ; 
piece remains in position of order arms, right hand grasping it 
above the lower band. 

120. If standing or kneeling: LIE DOWN. 

Kneel, but with right knee against left heel; carry back the 
left foot and lie flat on the belly, inclining body about 35 to the 
right; piece horizontal, barrel up, muzzle off the ground and 
pointed to the front ; elbows on the ground ; left hand at the 
balance, right hand grasping the small of the stock opposite the 
neck. This is the position of order arms, lying down. 

130. If kneeling or lying down: RISE. 

If kneeling, stand up, faced to the front, on- the ground marked 
by the left heel. 

If lying down, raise body on both knees; stand up, faced to 
the front, on the ground marked by the knees. 

131. If lying down: KNEEL. 

Raise the body on both knees; take the position of kneel. 

132. In double rank, the positions of kneeling and lying 
down are ordinarily used only for the better utilization of cover. 

When deployed as skirmishers, a sitting position may be taken 
In lieu of the position kneeling. 

LOADINGS AND FIRINGS. 

133. The commands for loading and firing are the same 
whether standing, kneeling, or lying down. The firings are 
always executed at a halt 

When kneeling or lying down in double rank, the rear rank 
does not load, aim, or fire. 

The instruction in firing will be preceded by a command for 
loading. 

Loadings are executed in line and skirmish line only. 

134. Pieces haying been ordered loaded are kept loaded 
without command until the command unload, or inspection arms, 
fresh clips being inserted when the magazine is exhausted. 



40 SCHOOL OP THE SQUAD. 

135. The aiming point or target is carefully pointed out. 
This may be done before or after announcing the sight set- 
ting. Both are indicated before giving the command for firing, 
but may be omitted when the target appears suddenly and is 
unmistakable; in such case battle sight is used if no sight set- 
ting Is announced. 

136. The target or aiming point having been designated and 
the sight setting announced, such designation or announcement 
need not be repeated until a change of either or both is neces- 
sary. 

Troops are trained to continue their fire upon the aiming point 
or target designated, and at the sight setting announced, until 
a change is ordered. 

137. If the men are not already, in the position of load, that 
position is taken at the announcement of the sight setting ; 
if the announcement is omitted, the position is taken at the first 
command for firing. 

138. When deployed, the use of the sling as an aid to accu- 
rate firing is discretionary with each man. 

To Load. 

139. Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. With dummy 
(blank or ball) cartridges, 2. LOAD. 

At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces 
half right and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, 
to such position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadi- 
ness of the body ; raises, or lowers, the piece and drops it into 
the left hand at the balance, left thumb extended along the 
stock, muzzle at the height of the breast, and turns the cut-off 
up. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back, 
takes a loaded clip and inserts the end In the clip slots, places 
the thumb on the powder space of the top cartridge, the fingers 
extending around the piece and tips resting on the magazine 
floor plate; forces the cartridges into the magazine by pressing 
down with the thumb ; without removing the clip, thrusts the 
bolt home, turning down the handle; turns the safety lock to 
the " safe " and carries the hand to the small of the stock. 
Eoch rear rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar 
position opposite the interval to the right of his front rank man, 
muzzle of the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads. 

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held 
as nearly as practicable in the position of load. 



SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 41 

If kneeling or Bitting, the position of the piece is similar; if 
kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh ; if sitting the 
elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down,, the left hand 
steadies and supports the piece 'at the balance, the toe of the 
butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground. 

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying 
down) are designated as that of load. 

140. For instruction in loading: 1. Simulate, 2. LOAD. 
Executed as above described except that the cut-off remains 

" off " and the handling of cartridges is simulated. 

The recruits are first taught to simulate loading and firing; 
nfter a few lessons dummy cartridges may be used. Later, 
blank cartridges may be used. 

141. The rifle may be used as a single loader- by turning the 
magazine " off." The magazine may be filled in whole or In 
part while "off" or "on" by pressing cartridges singly down 
and back until they are in the proper place. The use of 
the rifle as a single loader is, however, to be regarded as 
exceptional. 

To Unload. 

142. UNLOAD. 

Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and move 
bolt alternately back and forward until all the cartridges are 
ejected. After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is 
closed by first thrusting the bolt slightly forward to free it 
from the stud holding it in place when the chamber is open, 
pressing the follower down and back to engage.it under the 
bolt and then thrusting the bolt home; the trigger is pulled. 
The cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and returned to the 
belt and the piece is brought to the order. 

To Set the Sight. 

143. RANGE, ELEVEN HUNDRED (EIGHT-FIFTY, etc.), or BAT- 
TLE SIGHT. 

The sight is set at the elevation indicated. The instructor 
explains and verifies sight settings. 

To Fire by Volley. 

144. 1. READY, 2. AIM, 3. Squad. 4. FIRE. 

At the command ready turn the safety lock to the " ready ; ** 
at the command aim raise the piece with both hands and sup- 



42 SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 

port the butt firmly against the hollow of the right shoulder, 
right thumb claspiiig the stock, barrel horizontal, left elbow 
well under the piece, right elbow as high as the shoulder; in- 
cline the head slightly forward and a little to the right, cheek 
against the stock, left eye closed, right eye looking through the 
notch of the rear sight so as to perceive the object aimed at, 
second joint of forefinger resting lightly against the front of 
the trigger and taking up the slack ; top of front sight is care- 
fully raised into, and held in, the line of sight. 

Each rear-rank man aims through the interval to the right 
of his file leader and leans slightly forward to advance the 
muzzle of his piece beyond the front rank. 

In aiming kneeling, the left elbow rests on the left knee, 
point of elbow in front of kneecap. In aiming sitting, the elbows 
are supported by the knees, 

In aiming lying down, raise the piece with both hands; rest 
on both elbows and press the butt firmly against the right 
shoulder. 

At the command fire press the finger against the trigger ; fire 
without deranging the aim and without lowering or turning the 
piece; lower the piece in the position of Load and load. 

145. To continue the firing: 1. AIM, 2. Squad, 3. FIRE. 
Each command is executed as previously explained. Load 

(from magazine) is executed by drawing back and thrusting 
home the bolt with the right hand, leaving the safety lock at 
the "ready." 

To Fire at Will. 

146. FIRE AT WILL. 

Each man, independently of the others, comes to the ready, 
aims carefully and deliberately at the aiming point or -target, 
fires, loads, and continues the firing until ordered to suspend or 
cease firing. 

147. To increase (decrease) the rate of fire in progress the 
instructor shouts : FASTER (SLOWER). 

Men are trained to fire at the rate of about three shots per 
minute at effective ranges and five or six at close ranges, de- 
voting the minimum of time to loading and the maximum to 
deliberate aiming. To illustrate the necessity for deliberation, 
and to habituate men to combat conditions, small and compara- 
tively indistinct targets are designated. 



SCHOOL OF TTTE SQUAD. 43 

To fire by Clip. 

148. CLIP FIRE. 

Executed in the same manner as fire at will, except that each 
man, after having exhausted the cartridges then in the piece, 
suspends firing. 

To Suspend Firing. 

149. The instructor blows a long blast of the whistle and 
repeats same, if necessary, or commands : SUSPEND FIRING. 

Firing stops; pieces are held, loaded and locked, in a posi- 
tion of readiness for instant resumption of firing, rear sights 
unchanged. The men continue to observe the target or aiming 
point, or the place at which the target disappeared, or at which 
it is expected to reappear. 

This whistle signal may be used as a preliminary to cease 
firing. 

To Cease Firing. 

150. CEAjE fIRING. 

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the 
position of load; those not loaded, are loaded; sights are laid, 
pieces are locked and brought to the order. 

Cease firing is used for long pauses, to prepare for changes of 
position, or to steady the men. 

151. Commands for suspending or ceasing fire may be given 
nt any time after the preparatory command for firing whether 
the firing has actually commenced or not. 

THE USE OF COVER. 

152. The recruit should be given careful instruction in the 
individual use of cover. 

It should be impressed upon him that, in taking advantage of 
natural cover, he must be able to fire easily and effectively 
upon the enemy ; if advancing on an enemy, he must do so 
steadily and as rapidly as possible ; he must conceal himself as 
much as possible while tiring and while advancing. While 
setting his sight, he should be under cover or lying prone. 

153. To teach him to fire easily and effectively, at the same 
time concealing himself from the view of the enemy, he i 
practiced in simulated firing in the prone, sitting, kneeling, a 
crouching positions, from behind hillocks, trees, heaps of eai 
or rocks, from depressions, gullies, ditches, doorways, or 
dows. He is taught to fire around the right side of his concef 
inent whenever possible, or, when this is not possible, to i 
enough to fire over the top of his concealment. 



44 SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD. 

When these details are understood, he is required to select 
cover with reference to an assumed enemy and to place himself 
behind it in proper position for firing. 

154. The* ,evil of remaining too long in one place,, however 
good the concealment, should be explained. He should be taught 
to advance from cover to cover, selecting cover in advance 
before leaving his concealment. 

It should be impressed uion him that a man running rapidly 
toward an enemy furnishes a poor target. He should be trained 
in springing from a prone position behind concealment, running 
at top speed to cover and throwing himself behind it. He should 
also be practiced in advancing from cover to cover by crawling, 
or by lying on the left side, rifle grasped in the right hand, and 
pushing himself forward with the right leg. 

155. He should be taught that, when fired on while acting 
independently, he should drop to* the ground, seek cover, and 
then endeavor to locate his enemy. , / 

156. The instruction of the recruit in the use of cover is con- 
tinued in the combat exercises of the company, but he must 
then be taught that the proper advance of the platoon or com- 
pany and the effectiveness of its fire is of greater importance 
than the question of cover for individuals. He should also be 
taught that he may not move about or shift his position in the 
firing line except the better to see the target. 

OBSERVATION. 

157. The ability to use his eyes accurately is of great impor- 
tance to the soldier. The recruit should be trained in observing 
his surrounding from positions and when on the march. 

'He should be practiced in pointing out and naming military 
features of the ground ; in distinguishing between living beings ; 
in counting distant groups of objects or beings ; in recognizing 
colors and forms. 

158. In the training of men in the mechanism of the firing 
line, they should be practiced in repeating to one another target 
and aiming point designations and in quickly locating and point- 
ing out a designated target. They should be taught to dis- 
tinguish, from a prone position, distant objects, particularly 
troops, both with the naked eye and with field glasses. Simi- 
larly, they should be trained in estimating distances. 






SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

159. The captain is responsible for the theoretical and prac- 
tical instruction Of his officers and noncommissioned officers, not 
only in the duties of their respective grades, but in those of the 
next higher grades. 

160. The company in line is formed in double rank with the 
men arranged, as far as practicable, according to height from 
right to left, the tallest on the right. 

The original division into squads is effected by the command : 
COUNT OFF. The squads, successively from the right, count off 
as in the School of the Squad, corporals placing themselves 
as Nos 4 of the front rank. If the left squad contains less than 
six men, it is either increased to that number by transfers from 
other squads or is broken up and its members assigned to other 
squads and posted in the line of file closers. These squad or- 
ganizations are maintained, by transfers if necessary, until tin* 
company becomes so reduced in numbers as to necessitate a now 
division Into squads. No squad will contain less than six num. 

'161. The company is further divided into two, three, or four 
platoons, each consisting of not less than two nor more than 
four squads. In garrison or ceremonies the strength of platoons 
may exceed four squads. 

162. At the formation of the company the platoons or squads 
are numbered consecutively from right to left and these designa- 
tions do not change. 

For convenience in giving commands and for reference, the 
designations, right, center, left, when in line, and leading, center, 
rear, when in column, are applied to platoons or squads. These 
designations apply to the actual right, teft, center, head, or rear, 
in whatever direction the company may be facing. The center 
squad is the middle or right middle squad of the company. 

The designation " So-and-so's " squad or platoon may also 
be used. 

163. Platoons are assigned to the lieutenants and noncom- 
missioned officers, in order of rank, as follows: 1, right; 2, left; 
3, center (right center) ; 4, left center. 

45 



46 

LINE 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 



OD CE 






COLUMN or SQDS COLUMN 

L. ('?Sqas..- or PLATOONS 



t ^ 'J^' I "1 




Rate II. 
THE COMPANY 

CAPTAIN 
f'UEUT 
1-SJEUT. 
i^SERGT. 
LEADER. 3PUAT. 

cuipe 

SOuAD LtADCR 
MUSICIAN 

OTMCRS IN LINE 
OF FiLE-CtOSERS 




SKIRMISH LiNE-hALTED.(l6Sqds. - 



r 

4* 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 47 

The noncommissioned officers next in rank are assigned as 
guides, one to each platoon. If sergeants still remain, they are 
assigned to platoons as additional guides. When the platoon is 
deployed, its guide, or guides, accompany the platoon leader. 

During battle, these assignments are not changed; vacancies 
are filled by noncommissioned officers of the platoon, or by the 
nen rest available officers or noncommissioned otflcers arriving 
with reenforcing troops. 

164. The first sergeant is never assigned as a guide. When 
not commanding a platoon, he is posted as a file closer opposite 
the 'third file from the outer flank of the first platoon ; and when 
the company is deployed tye accompanies the captain. 

The quartermaster sergeant, when present, is assigned accord- 
in? to his rank as a sergeant. 

Enlisted men below the grade of sergeant, armed with, the 
rifle, are in ranks unless serving as guides; when not so armed, 
they are posted in the line of file closers. 

Musicians, when required to play, are at the head of the 
column. When the company is. deployed, they accompany the 
captain. 

105. The company executes the halt, rests, facings, steps and 
marchings, manual of arms, loadings and firings, takes intervals 
and distances and assembles, increases and diminishes intervals, 
resumes attention, obliques, resumes the direct march, preserves 
alignments, kneels, lies down, rises, stacks and takes arms, as 
explained in the Schools of the . Soldier and the Squad, sub- 
stituting in the commands company for squad. 

The same rule applies to platoons, detachments, details, etc., 
substituting their designation for squad in the commands. In the 
same manner these execute the movements prescribed for the 
company, whenever possible, substituting their designation for 
company in the commands. 

.166. A company so depleted as to make division into platoons 
impracticable is led by the captain as a single platoon, but re- 
tains the designation of company. The lieutenants and first 
sergeant assist in fire control ; the other sergeants place them- 
selves in the firing line as skirmishers. 



48 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

CLOSE ORDER. 

Rules. 

167. The guides of the right and left, or leading and rear, 
platoons, are the right and left, or leading and rear, guides, 
respectively, of the company when it is in line or in colu 

of squads. Other guides are in the line of file closers. 

In platoon movements the post of the platoon guide is at 
head of the platoon, if the platoon is in column, and on the 
guiding flank if in line. When a platoon has two guides their 
original assignment to flanks of the platoon does not change. 

168. The guides of a column of squads place themselves on 
the flank opposite the file closers. To change the guides and 
file closers to the other flank, the captain commands: 1. File 
closers on /eft (right) flank; 2. MARCH. The file closers da 
through the column ; the captain and guides change. 

In column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment 
ward the side of the guide. 

169. Men in the line of file closers do not execute the loa 
ings or firings. 

Guides and enlisted men in the line of file closers execute t 
manual of arms during the drill unless specially excused, wh 
they remain at the order. During ceremonies they execute 
movements. 

170. In taking intervals and distances, unless otherwise di- 
rected, the right and left guides, at the first command, place 
themselves in the line of file closers, and, with them, take a 
distance of 4 paces from the rear rank. In taking intervals, at 
the command march, the file closers face to the flank and each 
steps off with the file nearest him. In assembling the guides 
and file closers resume their positions in line. 

1J1. In movements executed simultaneously by platoons (as 
platoons right or platoons, column right), platoon leaders repeat 
the preparatory command (platoon right, etc.), applicable to 
their respective platoons. The command of execution is given 
by the captain only. 

To Form the Company. 

1 72. At the sounding of the assembly the first sergeant takes 
position 6 paces in front of where the center of the company is 
to be, faces it, draws saber, and commands: FALL IN. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPACT. 48 

The right guide of the company places himself, facing to the 
front, where the right of the company is to rest, and at such 
point that the center of the company wyi be 6 paces from and 
opposite the first sergeant; the squads form in their proper 
places on the left of the right guide, superintended by the other 
sergeants, who then take their posts. 

The first sergeant commands: REPORT. Remaining in posi- 
tion at the order, the squad leaders, in succession from the 
right, salute and report: All present; or, Private(s) ab- 
*ent. The first sergeant does not return the salutes of the 
squad leaders; he then commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. 
Order, 4. ARMS, faces about, salutes the captain, reports: Sir, 
all present or accounted for, or the names of the unauthorized 
absentees, and, without command, takes his post. 

If the company can not be formed by squads, the first ser- 
geant commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Right shoulder, 4. 
ARMS, and calls the roll. Each man, as his name is called, 
answers here and executes order arms. The sergeant then 
effects the division into squads and reports the company as 
prescribed above. 

The captain places himself 12 paces In front of the center of, 
and facing, the company in time to receive the report of the 
first sergeant, whose salute he returns, and then draws saber. 

The lieutenants take their posts when the first sergeant has 
reported and draw saber with the captain. The company, if 
not under arms, is formed in like manner omitting reference 
to arms. 

173. For the instruction of platoon leaders and guides, the 
company, when small, may be formed in single rank. In this 
formation close order movements only are executed. The single 
rank executes all movements as explained for the front rank of 
a company. fo ^ /fm/M ^ Company. 

174. Being in line at a halt, the captain directs the first 
sergeant: Dismiss the Company. The ofllcers fall out; the first 
sergeant places himself faced to the front, 3 paces to the front 
and 2 paces from the nearest flank of the company, salutes, 
faces toward opposite flank of the company, and commands : 1. 
Inspection, 2. ARMS. 3. Port, 4. ARMS, 5. DISMISSED. 

Alignments. 

175. The alignments are executed as prescribed in the 
School of the Squad, the guide being established instead of 



50 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

the flank file. The rear-rank man of the flank file keeps his 
head and eyes to the front and covers his file leader. 

At each alignment the captain places himself in prolongation 
of the line, 2 paces from and facing the flank toward which 
the dress is made, verifies the alignment, and commands: 
FRONT. 

Platoon leaders take a like position when required to verify 
alignments. 

Movements on the Fixed Pivot. 

176. Being in line, to turn the company: 1. Company righi 
(left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT; or, 3. Forward, 
MARCH. 

At the second command the right-flank man in the front rani 
faces to the right in marching and marks time ; the other front- 
rank men oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of th< 
pivot, and mark time ; in the rear rank the third man from the 
right, followed, in column by the second and first, moves straight 
to the front until in rear of his front-rank man, when all fact 
to the right in marching and mark time; the remaining men of 
the rear rank move straight to the front 4 paces, oblique to th( 
right, place themselves abreast of the third man, cover their fil< 
leaders, and mark time; the right guide steps back, takes pos 
on the flank, and marks time. 

The fourth command is given when the last man is 1 pace ii 
rear of the new line. 

The command halt may be given at any time after the move- 
ment begins; only those halt who are in the new position. 
Each of the others halts upon arriving on the line, aligns him- 
self to the right, and executes front without command. 

177. Being in line, to form column of platoons, or the 
reverse: 1. Platoons right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT; 
or, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH. 

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. 

Before forming line the captain sees that the guides on the 
flank toward which the movement is to be executed are cover- 
ing. This is effected by previously announcing the guide to 
that flank. 

178. Being in line, to form column of squads, or the reverse; 
or, being in line of platoons, to form column of platoons, or the 
reverse: 1. Squads right (left), 2. MARCH; or, 1. Squads right 
(left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 51 

Executed by eacli squad as described in the School of the 
Squad. 

If the company or platoons be formed in line toward the side 
of the file closers, they dart through the coluinn and take 
posts in rear of the company at the second command. If the 
column of squads be formed from line, the file closers take posts 
on the pivot flank, abreast of and 4 inches from the nearest 
rank. 

Movements on the Moving Pivot. 

179. Being in line, to change direction: 1. Right (Left) turn, 
2. MARCH, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH. 

Executed as described in the School of the Squad, except 
that the men do not glance toward the marching flank and that 
all take the full step at the fourth command. The right guide 
is the pivot of the front rank. Each rear-rank man obliques on 
the s:i me ground as his file leader. 

180. Being in column of platoons, to change direction: 1. 
Column right (/eft), 2. MARCH. 

'At the first command the leader of the leading platoon com- 
mands : Right turn. At the command march the leading platoon 
turns to the right on moving pivot; its leader commands: 
1. Forward, 2. MARCH, on completion of the turn. Rear platoons 
march squarely up to the turning point of the leading platoon 
and turn at command of their leaders. 

181. Being in column of squads, to change direction: 1. Col- 
umn right (left), 2. MARCH. 

At the second command the front rank of the leading squad 
turns to the right on moving pivot as in the School of the 
Squi-.d; the other ranks, without command, turn successively 
on the "same ground and in a similar manner. 

18fc. Being in column of squads, to form line of platoons or 
the reverse : 1. Platoon*, column right (left), 2. MARCH. 

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. 

183. Being in line, to form column of squads and change 
direction: 1. Squad* right (left), column right (left), 2. MARCH; 
or, 1. Right (Left) by tquad*, 2. MARCH. 

In the first case the right squad initiates the column right ns 
soon as it has completed the tquad right. 

In the second case, at the command inarch, the right squad 
marches forward; the remainder of the company executes tquad* 



52 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

right, column left, and follows the right squad. The right guide, 
when he has posted himself in front of the right squad, takes 
four short steps, then resumes the full step; the right squad 
conforms. 

184. Being in line, to form line of platoons: 1. Squads right 
(left), platoons, column right (left), 2. MARCH; or, 1. Platoons, 
right (left) by squads, 2. MARCH. 

Executeci by each platoon as described for the company in 
the preceding paragraph. 

Facing or Marching to the Rear. 

185. Being in line, line of platoons, or in column of platoons 
or squads, to face or march to the rear: 1. Squads right (left) 
about, 2. MARCH; or, 1. Squads right (left) about, 2. MARCH, 

3. Company, 4. HALT. 

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the 
Squad. 

If the company or platoons be in column of squads, the file 
closers turn about toward the column and take their posts; 
if in line, each darts through the nearest interval between 
squads. 

186. To march to the rear for a few paces: 1. About, 2. 
FACE, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH. 

If in line, the guides place themselves in the rear rank, n 
the front rank; the file closers, on facing about, maintain thei 
relative positions. No other movement is executed until the 
line is faced to the original front. 

On Right (Left) Into Line. 

187. Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line on 
right or left : 1. On right (left) into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 

4. HALT, 5. FRONT. 

At the first command the leader of the leading unit commands : 
Right turn. The leaders of the other units command : Forward, 
if at a halt At the second command the leading unit turns to 
the right on moving pivot. The command halt is given when 
the leading unit has advanced the desired distance in the new 
direction; it halts; its leader then commands: Right dress. 
>The units in rear continue to march straight to the front; 
each, when opposite the right of its place in line, executes right 
turn at the command of its leader; each is halted on the line 



o. 
eir 



SCHOOL OF TEE COMPANY. 53 

at the command of its leader, who then commands : Right dress. 
All dress on the first unit in line. 

If executed in double time, the leading squad marches in 
double time until halted. 

Front Into Line. 

188. Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line to 
front : 1. Right (Left) front into /me, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 

HALT, 5. F ROUT. 

At the first command the leaders of the units In rear of 
the leading one command: Right oblique. If at a halt, the 
leader of the leading unit commands: Forward. At the second 
command the leading unit moves straight forward; the rear 
units oblique as indicated. The command halt is given when 
the leading unit has advanced the desired distance; it halts; its 
leader then commands: Left dress. Each of the rear units, 
when opposite its place in line, resumes the original direction 
at the command of its leader ; each is halted on the line at the 
command of its leader, who then commands: Left dress. All 
dress on the first unit in line. 

189. Being in column of squads to form column of platoons, 
or being in line of platoons, to form the company in Hue: 
1. Platoons, right (left) front into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 
4. HALT, 5. FRONT. 

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. In 
forming the company in line, the dress is on the left squad of 
the left platoon. If forming column of platoons, platoon leaders 
verify the alignment before taking their posts; the captain com- 
mands front when the alignments have been verified. 

When front into line is executed in double time the commands 
for halting and aligning are omitted and the guide is toward 
the side of the first unit in line. 

AT EASE AMD ROUTE STEP. 

190. The column of squads is the habitual column of route, 
but route step and at ease are applicable to any marching 
formation. 

191. To march at route step: 1. Route step, 2. MARCH. 
Sabers are carried at will or in the scabbard; the men carry 
their pieces at will, keeping the muzzles elevated; they are not 
required to preserve silence, nor to keep the step. The ranks 
cover and preserve their distance. If halted from route step, 
the men stand at rest. 



54 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

192. To march at ease: 1. At ease, 2. MARCH. 

The company marches as in route step, except that silence is 
preserved ; when halted, the men remain at ease. 

193. Marching at route step or at ease: 1. Company, 2. AT- 
TEHTION. 

At the command attention the pieces are brought to the right 
shoulder and the cadenced step in quick time is resumed. 

TO DIMINISH THE FRONT OF A COLUMN OF SQUADS. 

194. Being in column of squads: 1. Right (Lett) by two*, 
2. MARCH. 

At the command march, all files except the two right files of 
the leading squad execute in place halt; the two left files of the 
leading squad oblique to the right when disengaged and follow 
the right files at the shortest practicable distance. The remain- 
ing squads follow successively in like manner. 

195. Being in column of squads or twos : 1. Right (Left) by 
file, 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, all files execute in place halt, except 
the right file of the leading two or squad. The left file or files 
of the leading two or squad oblique successively to the right 
when disengaged and each follows the file on its right at the 
shortest practicable distance. The remaining twos or squads 
follow successively in like manner. 

196. Being in column of files or twos, to form column of 
squads; or, being in column of files, to form column of twos: 1. 
Squads (Twos), right (left) front into line, 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the leading file or files halt. The 
remainder of the squad, or two, obliques to the right and halts 
on line with the leading file or files. The remaining squads 
or twos close up and successively form in rear of the first in 
like manner. 

The movement described in this paragraph will be ordered 
right or left, so as to restore the files to their normal relative 
positions in the two or squad. 

197. The movements prescribed in the three preceding para- 
graphs are difficult of execution at attention and have no value 
as disciplinary exercises. 

198. Marching by twos or files can not be executed without 
serious delay and waste of road space. Every reasonable pre- 
caution will be taken to obviate the necessity for these forma- 
tions. 






SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 55 

EXTENDED ORDER. 

Rules for Deployment. 

199. The command. guide right (left or center) indicates the 
base squad for the deployment; if in line it designates the actual 
right (left or center) squad; if in column the command guide 
right (left) designates the leading squad, and the command 
guide center designates the center squad. After the deployment 
.is completed, the guide is center without command, unless other- 
wise ordered, 

200. At the preparatory command for forming skirmish 
line, from either" column of squads or line, each squad leader 
(except the leader of the base squad, when his squad does not 
advance), cautions his squad, follow me or by the right (left) 
flank, as the case may be; at the command march, he steps in 
front of his squad and leads it to its place in line. 

201. Having given the command for forming skirmish line, 
the captain, if necessary, indicates to the corporal of the base 
squad the point on which the squad is to march; the corporal 
habitually looks to the captain for such directions. 

202. The base squad is deployed as soon as it has sufficient 
Interval. The other squads are deployed as they arrive on the 
general line; each corporal halts In his place in line and com- 
mands or signals, at skirmishers; the squad deploys and halts 
abreast of him. 

If tactical considerations demand it, the squad is deployed 
before arriving on the line. 

203. Deployed lines preserve a general alignment toward the 
guide. Within their respective fronts, individuals or units 
march so as best to secure cover or to facilitate the advance, 
but the general and orderly progress of the whole is paramount. 

O halting, a deployed line faces to the front (direction of 
the enemy) in all cases and takes advantage of cover, the men 
lying down if necessary. 

204. The company in skirmish line advances, halts, moves by 
the flank, or to the rear, obliques, resumes the direct march, passes 
from quick to double time and the reverse by the same commands 
and In a similar manner as in cloae order ; if at a halt, the 
movement by the flank or to the rear is executed by the same 
commands as when marching. Company right (left, half right, 



66 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

half left) is executed as explained for the front rank, skirmish 
intervals being maintained. 

205. A platoon or -other part of the company is deployed and 
marched in the same manner as the company, substituting in 
the commands, platoon (detachment, etc.) for company. 



Deployments. 



. 



206. Being in-line, to form skirmish line to the front: 
As skirmishers, guide right (left or center), 2. MARCH. 

If marching, the corporal of the base squad moves straight to 
the front ; when that squad has advanced the desired distance, 
the captain commands: 1. Company, 2. HALT. If the guide be 
right (left), the other corporals" move to the left (right) front, 
and. in succession from the.base, place their squads on the line; 
if the guide be center, the other corporals move to the right or 
left front, according as they are on the right or left of the center 
squad, and in succession from the center squad place their 
squads on the line. 

If at a halt, the base squad is deployed without advancing ; 
the other squads may be conducted to their proper places by the 
flank ; interior squads may be moved when squads more distant 
from the base have gained comfortable marching distance. 

207. Being in column of squads, to form skirmish line to the 
front: 1. As skirmishers, guide right (left or center), 2. MARCH. 

If marching, the corporal of the base squad deploys it and 
moves straight to the front j if at a halt, he deploys his squad 
without advancing. If the guide be right (left), the other cor- 
porals move to the left (right) front, and. in succession from the 
base, place their squads on the line; if the guide be center, the 
corporals in front of the center squad move to the right ( if at a 
halt, to the right rear), the corporals in rear of the center squad 
move to the left front, and each, in succession from the base, 
places his squad on the line. 

The column of twos or files is deployed by the same commands 
and in like manner. 

208. The company in line or in column of squads may be 
deployed in an oblique direction by the same commands. The 
captain points out the desired direction; the corporal of the 
base squad moves in the direction indicated ; the other corporals 
conform. 






SCHOOL OF THE COXPAVY. 57 

209. To form skirmish line to the flank or rear the line or 
the column of squads is turned by squads to the flank or rear 
and then deployed as described. 

210. Ihe intervals between men are increased or decreased 
as described in the School of the Squad, adding to the prepara- 
tory command, guide right (left or center) if necessary. 

The Assembly. 

211. The captain takes his post in front of, or designates, 
the element on which the company is to assemble and com- 
mands: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH. 

If in skirmish line the men move promptly toward the desig- 
nated point and the company is re-formed in line. If assembled 
by platoons, these are conducted to the designated point by 
platoon leaders, and the company is re-formed in line. 

Platoons may be assembled by the command; 1. Platoons, 
assemble, 2. MARCH. 

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. . 

One or more platoons* may be assembled by the command : 
1. Such platoon(s), assemble, 2. MARCH. 

Executed by the designated platoon or platoons as described 
for the company. 

The Advance. 

212. The advance of a dompany into an engagement (whether 
for attack or defense) is conducted in close order, preferably 
column of squads, until the probability of encountering hostile 
fire makes it advisable to deploy. After deployment, and before 
opening fire, the advance of the company may be continued in 
skirmish line or other suitable formation, depending upon cir- 
cumstances. The advance may often be facilitated, or better 
advantage taken of cover, or losses reduced by the employment 
of the platoon or squad columns or by the use of a succession of 
thin lines. The selection of the method to ba used is made by 
the captain or major, the choice depending upon conditions aris- 
ing during the progress of the advance. If the deployment Is 
found to be premature, it will generally be best to assemble the 
company and proceed in close order: 

Patrols are used to provide the necessary security against 
surprise. 



IS SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

213. Being in skirmish line: 1. Platoon columns, 2. MARCH. 
The platoon leaders move forward through the center of their 

respective platoons; men to the right of the platoon leader 
march to the left and follow him in file; those to the left march 
in like manner to the right; each platoon leader thus conducts 
the march of his platoon in double column of flies; platoon 
guides follow in rear of their respective platoons to insure 
prompt and orderly execution of the advance. 

214. Being in skirmish line: 1. Squad columns, 2. MARCH. 
Each squad leader moves to the front; the members of each 

squad oblique toward and follow their squad leader in single 
file at easy marching distances. 

215. Platoon columns are profitably used where the ground is 
so difficult or cover so limited as to make it desirable to take 
advantage of the few favorable routes; no two platoons should 
march within the area of burst of a single shrapnel. 1 Squad 
columns are of value principally in facilitating the advance over 
rough or brush-grown ground ; they afford no material advantage 
in securing cover. 

216. To deploy platoon or squad columns: 1. As skirmisher*. 
2. MARCH. 

Skirmishers move to the right or left front and successively 
place themselves in their original positions on the line. 

217. Being in platoon or squad columns: 1. Assemble, 2. 
MARCH. 

The platoon or squad leaders signal assemble. The men of 
each platoon or squad, as the case may be, advance and, moving 
to the right and left, take their proper places in line, each unit 
assembling on the leading element of the column and re-forming 
in line. The platoon or squad leaders conduct their units 
toward the element or point indicated by the captain, and to 
their places in line; the company is re-formed in line. 

218. Being in skirmish line, to advance by a succession of 
thin lines: 1. (Such numbers), forward, 2. MARCH. 

The captain points out in advance the selected position in 
front of the line occupied. The designated number of each 
squad moves to the front; the line thus formed preserves the 
original intervals as nearly as practicable; when this line has 
advanced a suitable distance (generally from 100 to 250 yards, 

1 Ordinarily about 20 yards wide. 



SCHOOL 07 THE COMPACT. 59 

depending upon the terrain and the character of the hostile 
fire), a second is sent forward by similar commands, and so 
on at irregular distances until the whole line has advanced. 
Upon arriving at the indicated position, the first line is halted. 
Successive lines, upon arriving, halt on line with the first and 
the men take their proper places in the skirmish line. 

Ordinarily each line is made up of one man per squad and the 
men of a squad are sent forward in order from right to left as 
deployed. The first line is led by the platoon leader of the right 
platoon, the second by the guide of the right platoon, and so on 
in order from right to left. 

The advance is conducted in quick time unless conditions de- 
mand a faster gait. 

The company having arrived at the indicated position, a fur- 
ther advance by the same means may be advisable. v 

219. The advance in a succession of thin lines is used to 
cross a wide stretch swept, or likely to be swept, by artillery 
fire or heavy, long-range rifle fire which can not profitably be 
returned. Its purpose is the building up of a strong skirmish 
line preparatory to engaging in a fire fight. This method of 
advancing results in serious (though temporary) loss of control 
over the company. Its advantage lies in the fact that it offers 
a less definite target, hence is less likely to draw fire. 

220. The above are suggestions. Other and better forma- 
tions may be devised to fit particular cases. The best formation 
is the one which advances the line farthest with the least loss 
of men, time, and control. 

The Fire Attack. 

221. The principles governing the advance of the firing line 
in attack are considered in the School of the Battalion. 

When it becomes impracticable for the company to advance 
as a whole by ordinary means, it advances by rushes. 

222. Being in skirmish line: 1. By platoon (two platoon*, 
tquad, tour mon, etc. ) , from the right (loft), 2. RUSH. 

The platoon leader on the indicated flank carefully arranges 
the details for a prompt and vigorous execution of the rush 
and puts it into effect as soon as practicable. If necessary, he 
designates the leader for the indicated fraction. When about to 
rush, he causes the men of the fraction to 'cease firing and to 
hold themselves flat, but in readiness to spring forward ln 



60 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

etantly. The leader of the rush (at the signal of the platoon 
leader, if the latter be not the leader of the rush) commands: 
Follow me, and, running at top speed, leads the fraction to the 
new line, where he halts it and causes it to open fire. The 
leader of the rush selects the new line if it has not been pre- 
viously designated. 

The first fraction having established Itself on the new line, 
the next like fraction is sent forward by its platoon leader, 
without further command of the captain, and so on, successively, 
until the entire company is on the line established by the first 
rush. 

If more than one platoon is to Join in one rush, the junior 
platoon leader conforms to the action of the senior. 

A part of the line having advanced, the captain may increase 
or decrease the size of the fractious to complete the movement. 

223. When the company forms a part of the firing line, the 
rush of the company as a whole is conducted by the captain, as 
described for a platoon in the preceding paragraph. The cap- 
tain leads the rush; platoon leaders lead their respective pla- 
toons; platoon guides follow the line to insure prompt and 
orderly execution of the advance. 

224. When the foregoing method of rushing, by running, 
becomes impracticable, any method of advance that brings th9 
attack closer to the enemy, such as crawling, should be employed. 

For regulations governing the charge, see paragraphs 318 
arid 319. 

The Company in Support. 

225. To enable it to follow or reach the firing line, the sup- 
port adopts suitable formations, following the principles ex- 
plained iii paragraphs 212-218. 

The support should be kept assembled as long as practicable. 
If after deploying a favorable opportunity arises to hold it for 
some time in close formation, it should be reassembled. It is 
redeployed when necessary. 

226. The movements of the support as a whole and the 
dispatch of reeuforcements from it to the firing line are con- 
trolled by the major. 

A reinforcement of less than one platoon has little influence 
and will be avoided whenever practicable. 

The captain of a company in support is -constantly on the 
alert for the major's signals or commands. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 61 

22 7. A reenforcement sent to the firing line joins it deployed 
as skirmishers. The leader of the reenforcement places it in an 
interval in the line, if one exists, and commands it thereafter 
MS a unit. If no such suitable interval exists, the reenforce- 
ment is advanced with increased intervals between skirmishers ; 
each man occupies the nearest interval in the firing line, and 
each then, obeys the orders of the nearest squad leader and 
platoon leader. 

228. A reenforcement joins the firing line as quickly as pos- 
sible without exhausting the men. 

229. The original platoon division of the companies in the 
firing line should be maintained and should not be broken up by 
the mingling of reenforcements. 

Upon Joining the firing line, officers and sergeants accompany- 
ing a reenforeement take over the duties' of others of like grade 
who have been disabled, or distribute themselves so as best to 
exercise their normal functions. Conditions will vary and no- 
rules can be prescribed. It is essential that all assist in master- 
ing the increasing difficulties of control. 

The Company Acting AJone. 

230. In general, the company, when acting alone, is employed 
according to the principles applicable to the battalion acting 
alone ; the captain employs platoons as the major employs com- 
panies, making due allowance for the difference in strength. 

The support may be smaller in proportion or may be dis- 
pensed with. 

231. The company must be well protected against surprise. 
Combat patrols on the flanks are specially important. Each 
leader of a flank platoon details a man to watch for the signals 
of the patrol or patrols on his flank. 

FIRE. 

232. Ordinarily pieces are loaded and extra ammunition is 
issued before the* company deploys for combat. 

In close order the company executes the firings at the com- 
mand of the captam, who posts himself in rear of the center of 
the company. 

Usually the firings in close order consist of saluting volleys 
only. 



62 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

233. When the company is deployed, the men execute the 
firings at the command of their platoon leaders ; the latter give 
such commands as are necessary to carry out the caption's 
directions, and, from time to time, add such further commands 
as are necessary to continue, correct, and control the fire 
ordered. 

234. The voice is generally inadequate for giving 'commands 
during fire and must be replaced by signals of such character 
that proper fire direction and control is assured. To attract 
attention, signals must usually be preceded by the whistle signal 
(short blast). A fraction of the firing line about to rush should, 
If practicable, avoid using the long blast signal as an aid to 
cease firing. Officers and men behind the firing line can not 
ordinarily move freely along the line, but must depend on mutual 
watchfulness and the proper use of the prescribed signals. All 
should post themselves so as to see their immediate superiors 
and subordinates. 

235. The musicians assist the captain by observing the 
enemy, the target, and the fire effect, by transmitting commands 
or signals, and by watching for signals. 

236. Firing with blank cartridges at an outlined or repre- 
sented enemy at distances less than 100 yards is prohibited. 

237. The effect of fire and the influence of the ground in 
relation thereto, and the individual and collective instruction 
in marksmanship, are treated in the Small-Arms Firing Manual. 

Ran get. 

238. For convenience of reference ranges are classified as 
follows : 

to 600 yards, close range. 
600 to 1,200 yards, effective range. 
1,200 to 2,000 yards, long range. 
2,000 yards and over, distant range. 

239. The distance to the target must be determined as accu- 
rately as possible and the- sights set accordingly. Aside from 
training and morale, this is the most important single factor hi 
securing effective fire at the longer ranges. 

4 O. Except in a deliberately prepared defensive position, 
the most accurate and only practicable method of determining 
the range will generally* be to take the mean of several esti- 
mates. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 68 

Five or six officers or men, selected from he most accurate 
estimators in the company, are designated as range estimator* 
and are specially trained in estimating distances. 

Whenever necessary and practicable, the captain assembles 
the range estimators, points out the target to them, and adopts 
the mean of their estimates. The range estimators then take 
their customary posts. 

C/aatea of firing. 

241. Volley firing has limited application. In defense it may 
be used in the early stages of the action if the enemy presents 
a large, compact target. It may be used by troops executing 
fire of position. When the ground near the target is such that 
the strike of bullets can be seen from the firing line, ranging 
volleys may be used to correct the sight setting. 

In combat, volley firing is executed habitually by platoon. 

242. Fire at will is the class of fire normally employed in 
attack or defense. 

243. Clip fire has limited application. It is principally used: 
1. In the early stages of combat, to steady the men by habitu- 
ating them to brief pauses in firing. 2. To produce a short burst 
of fire. 

The Target. 

244. Ordinarily the major will assign to the company an 
objective in attack or sector in defense; the company's target 
will lie within the limits so assigned. In the choice of target, 
tactical considerations are paramount; the nearest hostile troops 
within the objective or sector will thus be the usual target. 
This will ordinarily be the hostile firing line; troops in rear 
are ordinarily proper targets for artillery, machine guns, or, at 
times, infantry employing fire of position. 

Change of target should not be made without excellent reasons 
therefor, such as the sudden appearance of hostile troops under 
conditions which make them more to be feared than the troops 
comprising the former target. 

245. The distribution of fire over the entire target is of 
special Importance. 

The captain allots a part of the target to each platoon, or 
each platoon leader takes as his target that part which corre- 
sponds to his position in the company. Men are so instructed 



64 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

that each fires on that part of the target which is directly 
opposite him. 

246. All parts of the target are equally important. Care 
must be exercised that the men do not slight its less visible 
parts. A section of the target not covered by fire represents a 
number of the enemy permitted to fire coolly and effectively. 

247. If the target can not be seen with the naked eye, pla- 
toon leaders select an object in front of or behind it, designate 
this as the aiming target, and direct a sight setting which will 
carry the cone of fire into the target 

Fire Direction. 

248. When the company is large enough to be divided into 
platoons, it is impracticable for the captain to command it 
directly in combat. His efficiency in managing the firing line 
is measured by his ability to enforce his will through the platoon 
leaders. Having indicated clearly what he desires them to do, 
he avoids interfering except to correct serious errors or omis- 
sions. 

249. The captain directs the fire of the company or of desig- 
nated platoons. He designates the target, and, when practicable, 
allots a part of the target to each platoon. Before beginning 
the fire action he determines the range, announces the sight 
setting, and indicates the class of fire to be employed and the 
time to open fire. Thereafter, he observes the fire effect, cor- 
rects material errors in sight setting, prevents exhaustion of 
the ammunition supply, and causes the distribution of such extra 
ammunition as may be received from the rear. 

Fire Control. 

250. In combat the platoon is the fire unit. From 20 to 35 
rifles are as many as one leader can control effectively. 

251. Each platoon leader puts into execution the commands 
or directions of the captain, having first taken such precautions 
to insure correct sight setting and clear description of the tar- 
get or aiming target as the situation permits or requires ; there- 
after, he gives such additional commands or directions as are 
necessary to exact compliance with the captain's will. He cor- 
rects the sight setting when necessary. He designates an aiming 
target when the target can not be seen with the naked eye. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 65 

252. In general, platoon leader* observe the target and the 
effect of their fire and are on the alert for the captain's com- 
mands or signals; they observe and regulate the rate of fire. 
The platoon guide* watch the firing line and check every breach 
of fire discipline. Squad leader* transmit commands and signals 
when necessary, observe the conduct of their squads and abate 
excitement, assist in enforcing fire discipline and participate in 
the firing. 

253. The best troops are those that submit longest to fire 
control. Loss of control is an evil which robs success of its 
greatest results. To avoid or delay such loss should be the con- 
stant aim of all. 

Fire control implies the ability to stop firing, change the 
sight setting and target, and resume a well directed fire. 

Fire Discipline. 

'254. " Fire discipline implies, besides a habit of obedience, a 
control of the rifle by the soldier, the result of training, which 
will enable him in action to make hits instead of misses. ' It 
embraces taking advantage of the ground: care in setting the 
sight and delivery of fire; constant attention to the orders of 
the leaders, and careful observation of the enemy ; an increase 
of fire when the target is favorable, and a cessation of fire when 
the enemy disappears; economy of ammunition." (Small-Arms 
Firing Manual.) 

In combat, shots which graze the enemy's trench or position 
and thus reduce the effectiveness of his fire have the approxi- 
mate value of hits; such shots only, or actual hits, contribute 
toward fire superiority. 

Fire discipline implies that, In a firing line without leaders, 
each man retains his presence of mind and directs effective fire 
upon the proper target. 

255. To create a correct appreciation of the requirements of 
fire discipline, men are taught that the rate of fire should be j'S 
rapid as is consistent with accurate aiming; that the rate will 
depend upon the visibility, proximity, and size of the target ; and 
that the proper rate will ordinarily suggest itself to each trained 
man, usually rendering cautions or commands unnecessary. 

In attack the highest rate of fire is employed at the halt pre- 
ceding the assault, and in pursuing fire. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

256. In an advance by rushes, leaders of troops in firing po- 
sitions are responsible for the delivery of heavy fire to cover 
the advance of each rushing fraction. Troops are trained to 
change slightly the direction of fire so as not to endanger the 
flanks of advanced portions of the firing line. 

257. In defense, when the target disappears behind cover, 
platoon leaders suspend fire, prepare their platoons to fire upon 
the point where it is expected to reappear, and greet Its re- 
appearance instantly with vigorous fire. 






SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 

258. The battalion being purely a tactical unit, the major's 
duties are primarily those of an instructor in drill and tactics 
and of a tactical commander. He is responsible for the theo- 
retical and practical training of the battalion. He supervises 
the training of the companies of the battalion with a view to 
insuring the thoroughness and uniformity of their instruction. 

In the instruction of the battalion as a whole, his efforts will 
be directed chiefly to the development of tactical efficiency, de- 
voting only such time to the mechanism of drill and to the 
ceremonies as may be necessary in order to insure precision, 
smartness, and proper control. 

259. The movements explained herein are on the basis of a 
battalion of four companies; they may be executed by a bat- 
talion of two or more companies, not exceeding six. 

26 O. The companies are generally arranged from right to 
left according to the rank of the captains present at the forma- 
tion. The arrangement of the companies may be varied by the 
major or higher commander. 

After the battalion is formed, no cognizance is taken of the 
relative order of the companies. 

261. In whatever direction the battalion faces, the companies 
are designated numerically from right to left in line, and from 
head to rear in column, first company, second company, etc. 

The terms right and /eft apply to actual right and left as the 
line faces ; if the about by squads be executed when in line, the 
right company becomes the left company and the right center 
becomes the left center company. 

The designation center company indicates the right center or 
the actual center company according as the number of com- 
panies is even or odd. 

202. The band and other special units, when attached to the 
battalion, take the same post with respect to it as if it were the 
nearest battalion shown in Plate IV. 

67 



68 



SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 



CLOSE ORDER. 

Rules. 

263. Captains repeat such preparatory commands as are to 
be immediately executed by their companies, as forward, squads 
right, etc.; the men execute the commands inarch, halt, etc., if 
applying to their companies, when given by the major. lu 



UNE. (Cos. in Line) -.-f 



UNE or COMPANIES.(Cos.m Cot. of Sqds.) 





CLOSE -(Cos.in Col. . 
LINE |f of Sqds) 



fl 



THE BATTALION. 

Rate HI. MAJOR (WITH STAFF E.TC)- 4 GUIDE AND DIRECTION-! THE COLOR- X 

rvn_viERAi_s ARE: DISTANCES OR IMTE.RVAL.S IM RACES. 

movements executed in route step or at ease the captains repeat 
the command of execution, if necessary. Captains do not repeat 
the major's commands in executing the manual of arms, nor 
those commands which are not essential to the execution of a 
movement by their companies, as column of squads, first 
pan/, squads right, etc. 



SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. . 69 

In giving commands or cautions captains may prefix the 
proper letter designations of their companies, as A Company, 
HALT; B Company, squads right, etc. 

264. At the command guide center (right or left), captains 
command : Guide right or left, according to the positions of their 
companies. Guide center designates the left guide of the center 
company. 

265. When the companies are to be dressed, captains place 
themselves on that flank toward which the dress is to be made, 
as follows : 

The battalion in line: Beside the guide (or the flank file of the 
front rank, if the guide is not in line) and facing to the front. 

The battalion in column of companies: Two paces from the 
guide, in prolongation of and facing down the line. 

Each captain, after dressing his company, commands : FRONT, 
and takes his post. 

The battalion being In line and unless otherwise prescribed, 
at the captain's command dress, or at the command halt, when 
it is prescribed that the company shall dress, the guide on the 
flank away from the point of rest, with his piece at right shoul- 
der, dresses promptly on the captain and the companies beyond. 
During the dress he moves, if necessary, to the right and left 
only : the captain dresses the company on the line thus estab- 
lished. The guide takes the position qf order arms at the com- 
mand front. 

266. The battalion executes the halt, rests, facings, steps and 
marchings, manual of arms, resumes attention, kneels, lies down, 
rises, stacks and takes arms, as explained in the Schools of the 
Soldier and Squad, substituting in the commands battalion for 
squad. 

The battalion executes squads right (left), squads right (left) 
about, route step and at ease, and obliques and resumes the 
direct march, as explained in the School of the Company. 

267. The battalion in column of platoons, squads, twos, or 
files changes direction; in column of squnjls forms column of 
twos or files and re-forms columns of twos or squads, as ex- 
plained in the School of the Company. 

268. When the formation admits of the simultaneous execu- 
tion by companies or platoons of movements in the School of 
the Company the major may cause such movement to be exe- 
cuted by prefixing, when necessary, companies (platoons) to the 
commands prescribed therein : as 1. Companies, right front into 
ii i>9, 2. MARCH. To complete such simultaneous movements, the 



70 SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 

commands halt or march, if prescribed, are given by the major. 
The command front, when prescribed, is given by the captains. 

269. The battalion as a unit executes the loadings and firings 
only in firing saluting volleys. The commands are as for the 
company, substituting battalion for company. At the first com- 
mand for loading, captains take post in rear of the center of 
their respective companies. At the conclusion of the firing, 
the captains resume their posts in line. 

On other occasions, when firing in close order is necessary, 
it is executed by company or other subdivision under instruc- 
tions from the 'major. 

To Form the Battalion. 

270. For purposes other than ceremonies: The battalion is 
formed hi column of squads. The companies having been 
formed, the adjutant posts himself so as to be facing the col- 
umn, when formed, and 6 paces in front of the place to be occu- 
pied by the leading guide of the battalion; he draws saber; 
adjutant's call is sounded or the adjutant signals assemble. 

The companies are formed, at attention, in column of squads 
in their proper order. Each captain, after halting his company, 
salutes the adjutant ; the adjutant returns the salute and, when 
the last captain has saluted, faces the major and reports: Sir, 
the battalion is formed. He then joins the major. 

271. For ceremonies or when directed: The battalion is 
formed in line. 

The companies having been formed, the adjutant posts himself 
so as to be 6 paces to the right of the right company when line 
is formed, and faces in the direction in which the line is to 
extend. He draws saber; adjutant's call is sounded; the band 
plays if present. 

The right company is conducted by its captain so as to arrive 
from the rear, parallel to the line; its right and left guides pre- 
cede it on the line by about 20 paces, taking post facing to the 
right at order arms, so that their elbows will be against the 
breasts of the right and left files of their company when it is 
dressed. The guides of the other companies successively pro- 
long the line to the left in like manner and the companies 
approach their respective places in line as explained for the 
right company. The adjutant, from his post, causes the guides 
cover, 

I 



SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 71 

When about 1 pace in rear of the line, each company Is halted 
and dressed to the right against the arms of the guides. 

The band, arriving from the rear, takes its place in lins when 
the right company is halted ; it ceases playing when the left 
company has halted. 

When the guides of the left company have been posted, the 
adjutant, moving by the shortest route, takes post facing the 
battalion midway between the post of the major and the center 
of the battalion. 

The major, staff, noncommissioned staff, and orderlies take 
their posts. 

When all parts of the line have been dressed, and officers and 
others have reached their posts, the adjutant commands: 1. 
Guides, 2. POSTS, 3. Present, 4. ARMS. At the second command 
guides take their places in the line. The adjutant then turns 
about and reports to the major: Sir, the battalion is formed; 
the major directs the adjutant : Take your post, Sir; draws saber 
and brings the battalion to the order. The adjutant takes his 
post, passing to the right of the major. 

To Dismiss the Battalion. 

272. DISMISS YOUR COMPANIES. 

Staff and noncommissioned staff officers fall out; each captaiu 
marches his company off and dismisses it. 

To Rectify the Alignment. 

273. Being in line at a halt, to align the battalion: 1. Center 
(right or left), 2. DRESS. 

The captains dress their companies successively toward the 
center (right or left) guide of the battalion, each as soon as the 
captain next toward the indicated guide commands : Front. The 
captains of the center companies (if the dress is center) dress 
them without waiting for each other. 

274. To give the battalion a new alignment: 1. Guides cen- 
tor (right or left) company on the line, 2. Guides on the line, 3. 
Center (right or left), 4. DRESS, 5. Guides, G. POSTS. 

At the first command, the designated guides place themselves 
on the line (par. 271) facing the center (right or left). The 
major establishes them in the direction he wishes to give the 
battalion. 



78 SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 

At the second command, the guides of the other companies 
take posts, facing the center (right or left), so as to prolong 
the line. 

At the command dress, each captain dresses his company to 
the flank toward which the guides of his company face. 

At the command posts, given when all companies have com- 
pleted the dress, the guides return to their posts. 

To Rectify the Column. 

275. Being in column of companies, or in close column, at a 
halt, if the guides do not cover or have not their proper dis- 
tances, and it is desired to correct them, the major commands : 
1. Right (left), 2. DRESS. 

Captains of companies in rear of the first place their right 
guides so as to cover at the proper distance; each captain 
aligns his company to the right and commands: FRONT. 

On Right (Left) into Line. 

270. Being In column of squads or companies: 1. On right 
(left) into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Battalion, 4. HALT. 

Being in column of squads : At the first command, the captain 
of the leading company commands: Squads right. If at a halt 
each captain in rear commands: Forward. At the second com- 
mand the leading company marches in line to the right; the 
companies in rear continue to march to the front and form suc- 
cessively on the left, each, when opposite its place, being 
marched in line to the right. 

The fourth command is -given when the first company has 
advanced the desired distance in the new direction; it halts 
and is dressed to the right by its captain; the others complete 
the movement, each being halted 1 pace in rear of the line 
established by the first company, and then dressed to the right. 

Being in column of companies: At the first command, the 
captain of the first company commands: Right turn. If at a 
halt, each captain in rear .commands: Forward. Each of the 
captains in rear of the leading company gives the command : 
1. Right turn, in time to add, 2. MARCH, when his company 
arrives opposite the right of its place in line. 

The fourth command is given and the movement completed as 
explained above. 



SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 7S 

Whether executed from column of squads or column of com- 
panies, each captain places himself so as to march beside the 
right guide after his company forms line or changes direction 
to the right. 

If executed in double time, the leading company marches in 
double time until halted. 

Front into Line. 

277. Being in column of squads or companies: 1. Right (Left) 
front into line, 2. MARCH. 

Being in column of squads : At the first command, the captain 
of the leading company commands : Column right; the, captains 
of the companies in rear, column half right. At the second com- 
mand the leading company executes column right, and, as the 
last squad completes the change of direction, is formed in line 
to the left, halted, and dressed to the left Each of the com- 
panies in rear is conducted by the most convenient route to the 
rear of the right of the preceding company, thence to the right, 
parallel to and 1 pace in rear of the new line; when opposite its 
place, it is formed in line to the left, halted, and dressed to the 
left. 

Being in column of companies: If marching, the captain of 
the loading company gives the necessary commands to halt his 
company at the second command ; if at a halt, the leading com- 
pany stands fast. At the first command, the captain of each 
company in rear .commands: Squads right, or Right by squads, 
and after the second command conducts his company by the 
most convenient route to its place in line, as described above. 

Whether executed from column of squads or column of com- 
panies, each captain halts when opposite or at the point where 
the left of his company is to rest. 

To Form Column of Companies Successiye/y to the Right or Left. 

278. Being in column of squads: 1. Column of companies, first 
company, squads right (left), 2- MARCH. 

The leading company executes squads right and moves for- 
ward. The other companies move forward in column of squads 
and successively march in line to the right on the same ground 
as the leading company and in such manner tbut the guide 
covers the guide of the preceding company. 



74 SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 

To Form Column of Squads Successively to the Right or Left. 

279. Being in column of companies: 1. Column of squads, first 
company, squads right (left), 2. MARCH. 

The leading company executes squads right and moves for- 
ward. The other companies move forward in column of com- 
panies and successively march in column of squads to the right 
on the same ground as the leading company. 

To Change Direction. 

280. Being in column of companies or close column : 1. Cof- 
umn right (left), 2. MARCH. 

The captain of the first company commands : Right turn. 

The leading company turns to the right on moving pivot, the 
captain adding: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH, upon its completion. 

The other companies march squarely up to the turning point ; 
each changes direction by the same commands and means as the 
first and in such manner that the guide covers the guide of the 
preceding pompany. 

j281. Being in. line of companies or close line: 1. Battalion 
right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Battalion, 4. HALT. 

The right company changes direction to the right; the other 
companies are conducted by the shortest line to their places 
abreast of the first. 

The fourth command is given when the right company has 
advanced the desired distance in the new direction ; that com- 
pany halts; the others halt successively upon arriving on the 
line. 

282. Being in column of squads, the battalion changes direc- 
tion by the same commands and in the manner prescribed for 
the company. 

Mass Formations. 

283. Being in line, line of companies, column of companies or 
column of squads: 1. Close on first (fourth) company, 2. MARCH. 

*If at a halt, the indicated company stands fast; if marching, 
it is halted; each of the other companies is conducted toward it 
and is halted in pioper order in close column if the indicated 
company be in line, or In close line if the indicated company be 
in column of souads. 



SCHOOL 07 THE BATTALION. 75 

If the battalion Is in line, companies form successively In rear 
of the indicated company; if in column of squads, companies in 
rear of the leading company form on the left of it. 

In close column formed from line on the first company, the 
left guides cover; formed on the fourth company, right guides 
cover. If formed on the leading company, the guide remains as 
before the formation. In close line, the guides are halted 
abreast of the guide of the leading company. 

The battalion in column closes on the leading company only. 

To Extend the Mass. 

284. Being in close column or in close line: L Extend on 
first (fourth) company, 2. MARCH. 

Being in close line; Jf at a halt, the indicated compan^ 
stands fast ; if marching, it halts ; each of the other companies 
is conducted away from the indicated company and is halted in 
Its proper order in line of companies. 

Being in close column, the extension is made on the fourth 
company only. If marching, the leading company continues to 
march; companies in rear are halted and successively resume 
the march in time to follow at full distance. If at halt, the 
leading company marches ; companies in rear successively march 
In time to follow at full distance. 

Close column is not extended in double time. 

285. Being in close column: 1. Right (Left) front into line. 
2. MARCH. Executed as from column of companies. 

286. Being hi close column : 1. Column of squads, first (fourth) 
company, squads right (left), 2. MARCH. 

The designated company marches in column of squads to the 
right. Each of the other companies executes the same move- 
ment in time to follow the preceding company in column. 

287. Being in close line: 1. Column of squads, first (fourth) 
company, forward, 2. MARCH. 

The designated company moves forward. The other compa- 
nies (halting if in march) successively take up the march and 
follow in column. 

Roots Step and At Ease. 

288. The battalion marches in route step ami at ease as 
prescribed in the School of the Company. When marching 
in column of companies or platoons, the guides maintain the 
trace and distance. 



78 SCHOOL OF THE BATTAIION. 

In route marches the major marches at the head of the col- 
umn ; when necessary, the file closers may be directed to march 
at the head and rear of their companies. 

Assembly. 

~289. The battalion being wholly or partially deployed, or the 
companies being separated: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH. 

The major places himself opposite to or designates the ele- 
ment or point on which the battalion is to assemble. Compa- 
nies are assembled and marched to the indicated point. As the 
companies arrive the major or adjutant indicates the formation 
to be taken. 

COMBAT PRINCIPLES. 

Orders. 

290. The following references to orders are applicable to 
attack or defense. 

291. In extended order, the company is the largest unit to 
execute movements by prescribed commands or means. The 
major, assembling his captains if practicable, directs the dispo- 
sition of the battalion by means of tactical orders. He controls 
its subsequent movements by such orders or commands as are 
suitable to the occasion. 

292. In every disposition of the battalion for combat the 
major's order should give subordinates sufficient information 
of the enemy, of the position of supporting and neighboring 
troops, and of the object sought to enable them to conform 
intelligently to the general plan. 

The order should then designate the companies which are to 
constitute the firing line and those which are to constitute the 
support. In attack, it should designate the direction or the 
objective, the order and front of the companies on the firing 
line, and should designate the right or left company as base 
company. In defense, it should describe the front of each com- 
pany and, if necessary, the sector to be observed by each. 

293. When the battalion is operating alone, the major pro- 
vides for the reconnaissance and protection of his flanks; if part 
of a larger force, the major makes similar provisions, when 
necessary, without orders from higher authority, unless such 
authority has specifically directed other suitable reconnaissance 
and protection. 



BCH00I OF THE BATTALIOK. 77 

894. When the battalion is deployed upon the Initiative of 
the major, he will indicate whether extra ammunition shall 
be issned ; if deployed in pursuance of orders of higher author- 
ity, the major will cause the issue of extra ammunition, unless 
such authority has given directions to the contrary. 

Deployment. 

295. The following principles of deployment are applicable 
to attack or defense. 

290. A premature deployment involves a long, disorganizing 
and fatiguing advance of the skirmish line, and should be 
avoided. A greater evil is to be caught by heavy fire when 
in dense column or other close order formation; hence ad- 
vantage should ^be taken of cover in order to retain the battalion 
in close order formation until exposure to heavy hostile fire 
may reasonably be anticipated. 

297. The major regulates the depth of the deployment and 
the extent and density of the firing line, subject to such restric- 
tions as a senior may have imposed. 

Companies or designated subdivisions and detachments are 
conducted by their commanders in such manner as best to ac- 
complish the mission assigned to them under the major's 
orders. Companies designated for the firing line march inde- 
pendently to the place of deployment, form skirmish line, and 
take up the advance. They conform, in general, to the base 
company. 

298. Tne commander of a battalion, whether it is operating 
alone or as part of a larger force, should hold a part of his 
command out of the firing line. By the judicious use of this 
force the major can exert an influence not otherwise possible 
over his firing line and can control, within reasonable limits, an 
action once begun. So If his battalion be assigned to the firing 
line the major will cause one, two, or three companies to be 
deployed on the firing line, retaining the remaining companies 
or company as a support for that firing line. The division of 
the battalion into firing line and support will depend upon 
the front to be covered and the nature and anticipated severity 
of the action. 

299. If the battalion be part of a larger command, the num- 
ber of companies in the firing line will generally be determin- 
able from the regimental commander's order; the remainder 
constitutes the support. If the battalion is acting alone, the 



78 SCHOOL OF THE BATTAUOW. 

support must be strong enough to maintain the original flre 
power of the firing line, to protect the flanks, and to perform 
the functions of a reserve, whatever be the issue of the action. 
See paragraph 346. 

300. If the battalion is operating alone, the support may, 
according to circumstances, be held in one or two bodies and 
placed behind the center, or one or both flanks of the firing line, 
or echeloned beyond a flank. If the battalion is part of a larger 
force, the support is generally held in one body. 

301. The distance between the firing line and the supporting 
group or groups will vary between wide limits ; it should be as 
short as the necessity for protection from heavy losses will per- 
mit. When cover is available, the support should be as close 
as 50 to 100 yards ; when such cover is not available, it should 
not be closer than 300 yards. It may be as far as 500 yards in 
rear if good cover is there obtainable and is not obtainable at 
a lesser distance. 

302. In exceptional cases, as in a meeting engagement, it 
may be necessary to place an entire battalion or regiment in the 
firing line at the initial deployment, the support being furnished 
by other troops. Such deployment causes the early mingling 
of the larger units, thus rendering leadership and control ex- 
tremely difficult. The necessity for such deployment will in- 
crease .with the inefficiency of the commander and of the serv- 
ice of information, 

Fire. 

303. Fire direction and fire control are functions of company 
and platoon commanders. The major makes the primary 
apportionment of the target in defense, by assigning sectors 
of fire ; in attack, by assigning the objective. In the latter case 
each company in the firing line takes as its target that part of 
the general objective which lies, in its front. 

304. The major should indicate the -point or time at which 
the fire fight is to open. He may do this in his order for de- 
ployment or he may follow the firing line close enough to dp so 
at the proper time. If it be impracticable for him to do either, 
the senior officer with 'the firing line, in each battalion, selects 
the time for opening fire. 

Attack. 

305. The battalion is the attack unit, whether operating alone 
or as part of a larger unit. 



SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 79 

806; If his battalion be one of several in the firing line, the 
major, in executing his part of the attack, pushes his battalion 
forward as vigorously as possible within the front, or section, 
assigned to it. The great degree of independence allowed to 
him as to details demands, in turn, the exercise of good judg- 
ment on his part Better leadership, better troops, and more 
favorable terrain enable one battalion to advance more rapidly 
in attack than. another less fortunate, and such a battalion will 
insure the further advance of the others. The leading battalion 
should not, however, become isolated; isolation may lead to its 
destruction. 

307. The deployment having been made, the firing line ad- 
vances without firing. The predominant idea must be to close 
with the enemy as soon as possible without ruinous losses. The 
limited supply of ammunition and the uncertainty of resupply, 
the necessity for securing fire superiority in order to advance 
within the shorter ranges, and the impossibility of accomplish- 
ing this at ineffective ranges, make it imperative that fire be not 
opened as long as the advance can be continued without de- 
moralizing losses. The attack which halts to open fire at ex- 
treme range (over 1,200 yards) is not likely ever to reach its 
destination. Every effort should be made, by using cover or in- 
conspicuous formations, or by advancing the firing line as a 
whole, to arrive within 800 yards of the enemy before opening 
fire. 

808. Except when the enemy's artillery is able to effect an 
unusual concentration of fire, its fire upon deployed infantry 
causes losses which are unimportant when compared with those 
inflicted by his infantry; hence the attacking infantry should 
proceed to a position as described above, and from which an 
effective fire can be directed against the hostile infantry with a 
view to obtaining fire superiority. The effectiveness of the 
enemy's fire must be reduced so as to permit further advance. 
The more effective the fire to which the enemy is subjected the 
less effective will be his fire. 

309. Occasionally the fire of adjacent battalions, or of infan- 
try employing fire of position, or of supporting artillery, will 
permit the further advance of the entire firing line from this 
point, but it will generally be necessary to advance by rushes 
of fractions of the line. 

The fraction making the rush should be as large as the hostile 
fire and the necessity for maintaining fire superiority will 



80 SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 

permit. Depending upon circumstances, the strength of the 
fraction may vary from a company to a few men. 

The advance is made as rapidly as possible without losing 
fire superiority. The smaller the fraction which rushes, the 
greater the number of rifles which continue to fire upon the 
enemy. On the other hand, the smaller the fraction which 
rushes the slower will be the progress of the attack. 

310. Enough rifles must continue in action to insure the suc- 
cess of each rush. Frequently the successive advances of the 
firing line must be effected by rushes of fractions of decreased 
size ; that is, advances by rushes may first be made by company, 
later by half company or platoon, and finally by squads or files ; 
but no subsequent opportunity to increase the rate of advance, 
such as better cover or a decrease of the hostile fire, should be 
overlooked. 

311. Whenever possible, the rush is begun by a flank fraction 
of the firing line. In the absence of express directions from the 
major, each captain of a flank company determines when an 
advance by mshes shall be attempted. A flank company which 
inaugurates an advance by rushes becomes the base company, 
if *iot already the base. An advance by rushes having been 
inaugurated on one flank, the remainder of the firing line con- 
forms; fractions rush successively from that flank and halt on 
the line established by the initial rush. 

The fractions need not be uniform in size; each captain indi- 
cates how his company shall rush, having due regard to the 
ground and the state of the fire fight. 

312. A fraction about to rush is sent forward when the 
remainder of the line is firing vigorously; otherwise the chief 
advantage of this method of advancing is lost. 

The length of the rush will vary. from 30 to 80 yards, de- 
pending upon the existence of cover, positions for firing, and the 
hostile fire. 

313. When the entire firing Hhe of the battalion has advanced 
to the new line, fresh opportunities to advance are sought as 
before. 

314. Two identical situations will never confront the bat- 
talion; hence at drill it is prohibited to arrange the details of 
an advance before the preceding one has been concluded, or to 
employ a fixed or prearranged method of advancing by rushes. 

315. The major posts himself so as best to direct the reen- 
forcing of the firing line from the support. When all or nearly 



SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 81 

all of the support has been absorbed by the firing line, he joins, 
and takes full charge of, the latter. 

316. The reenforcing of the firing line by driblets of a squad 
or a few men has no appreciable effect The firing line requires 
either no reenforcement or a strong one. Generally one or two 
platoons will be sent forward under cover of a heavy fire of the 
firing line. * 

317. To facilitate control and to provide intervals in which 
reenforcements may be placed, the companies in the fixing line 
should be kept closed in on their centers as they become depleted 
by casualties during the advance. 

When this is impracticable, reenforceinents must mingle with 
and thicken the firing line. In battle the latter method will be 
the rule rather than the exception, and to familiarize the men 
with such conditions the combat exercises of the battalion 
should include both methods of reenforcing. Occasionally, to 
provide the necessary intervals for reenforcing by either of 
these methods, the firing line should be thinned by causing men. 
to drop out and simulate losses during the various- advances. 
Under ordinary conditions the depletion of the firing line for 
this uuruose will be from one-fifth to one-half of its strength. 

318. The major or senior officer in the firing line deter- 
mines wnen bayonets shall be fixed and gives the proper com- 
mand or signal. It is repeated by all parts of the firing line. 
Each man who was in the front rank prior to deployment, as 
soon as he* recognizes the command or signal, suspends firing, 
quickly fixes his bayonet, and immediately resumes firing; 
after which the other men suspend firing, fix bayonets, and im- 
mediately resume firing. The support also fixes bayonets. The 
concerted fixing of the bayonet by the firing line at drill does 
not simulate battle conditions and should not be required. It 
is essential that there be no marked pause in the firing. Bayo- 
itets will be fixed generally before or during the last, or second 
last, advance preceding the charge. 

3l. Subject to orders from higher authority, the major de- 
termines the point from, which the charge is to be made. The fir- 
ing line having arrived at that point and being in readiness, the 
major causes the charge to be sounded. The signal ia repeated 
by the musicians of all parts of the line. The company officers 
lead the charge. The skirmishers spring forward shouting, 
run with bayonets at charge, and close with the enemy 

The further conduct of the charging troops will depend upon 
circumstances : they may halt and engage in bayonet combat or 



82 SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION. 

In pursuing fire; they may advance a short distance to obtain a 
field of fire or to drive the enemy from the vicinity ; they may 
assemble or reorganize, etc. If the enemy vacates his position 
every effort should be made to open fire at once on the retreat- 
ing mass, reorganization of the attacking troops being of second- 
ary importance to the infliction of further losses upon the 
enemy arfd to the increase of his confusion. In combat exercises 
the major will assume a situation and terminate the assault 
accordingly. 

Defense. 

320. In defense, as in attack, the battalion is the tactical 
unit best suited to independent assignment. Defensive positions 
are usually divided into sections and a battalion assigned to 
each. 

321. The major locates such fire, communicating, and cover 
trenches and obstacles as are to be constructed. He assigns 
companies to construct them and details the troops to occupy 
them. 

322. The major reenforces the firing line in accordance with 
the principles applicable to, and explained in connection with, 
the attack, maintaining no more rifles in the firing line than are 
necessary to prevent the enemy's advance. 

323. The supply of ammunition being usually ample, fire is 
opened as soon as it is possible to break up the enemy's forma- 
tion, stop his advance, or inflict material loss, but this rule must 
be modified to suit the ammunition supply. 

324. The ^ major causes the firing line and support to fix 
bayonets when an assault by the enemy is imminent. Captains 
direct this to be done if they are not in communication with the 
major and the measure is deemed advisable. 

Fire alone will not stop a determined, skillfully conducted 
p.ttack. The defender must have equal tenacity ; if he can stay 
iu his trench or position and cross bayonets, he will at least 
have neutralized the hostile first line, and the combat will be 
decided by reserves. 

325. If ordered or compelled to withdraw under hostile in- 
fantry fire or in the presence of hostile infantry, the support 
will be posted so as to cover the retirement of the firing line. 

326. When the battalion is operating alone, the support must 
be strong and must be fed sparingly into the firing line, espe- 
cially if a counterattack is planned. Opportunities for counter- 
attack should be sought at all times. 



THE REGIMENT. 



9&T. Normally, the regiment consists of three battalions, but 
regulations are applicable to a regiment of two or more 



A LlKlE (Bns in Line) 



n 

Jg 

o 



UNEorMASSElS (Bns.in Ckase Column), 



I 



| | 



If 



Ptate IV 
THE REGIMENT. 

COLONEL (WITH STAFT ETC; 



MOUNTED OCTACHMCMT 



I* 



:OLUMN or . 

MASSES. 

(Bns. In Cloae 

Column). 



battalions. Special units, such as baud, machine-gun company, 
and mounted scouts, have special formations for their own use, 

83 



84 THE REGIMENT. 

Movements herein prescribed are for the battalions; special 
units conform thereto unless otherwise prescribed or directed. 

328. The colonel is responsible for the theoretical instruction 
and practical training of the regiment as a whole. Under his 
immediate supervision the training of the units of the regiment 
is conducted by their respective commanders. 

329. The colonel either gives his commands or orders orally, 
by bugle, or by signal, or communicates them by staff officers or 
orderlies. 

Each major gives the appropriate commands or orders, and, 
in close-order movements, causes his battalion to execute the 
necessary movements at his command of execution. Each 
major ordinarily moves his battalion from one formation to an- 
other, In column of squads, in the most convenient manner, and, 
in the presence of the enemy, in the most direct manner con- 
sistent with cover. 

Commanders of the special units observe the same principles 
as to commands and movements. They take places in the new 
formation as directed by the colonel; in the absence of such 
directions they conform -as nearly as practicable to Plate IV, 
maintaining their relative positions with respect to the flank 
or end of the regiment on which they are originally posted. 

330. When the regiment is formed, and during ceremonies, 
the lieutenant colonel is posted 2 paces to the left of, and 1 pace 
less advanced than the colonel. In movements subsequent to 
the formation of the regiment and other than ceremonies, the 
lieutenant colonel is on the left of the colonel. 

331. In whatever formation the regiment may be, the bat- 
talions retain their permanent administrative designations of 
first, second, third battalion. For convenience, they may be desig- 
nated, when in line, as right, center, or left battalion; when in 
column, as leading, center, or rear battalion. These designations 
apply to the actual positions of the battalions in line or 
column. 

332. Except at ceremonies, or when rendering honors, or 
when otherwise directed, after the regiment is formed, the bat- 
talions march and stand at ease during subsequent movements. 



THE BEGIHEHT. 85 

CLOSE ORDER. 

To Form the Regiment. 

333. Unless otherwise directed, the battalions are posted 
from right to left, or from head to rear, according to the rank 
of the battalion commanders present, the senior on the right 
or at the head. A battalion whose major is in command of the 
regiment retains its place. 

334. For ordinary purposes, the regiment is formed in column 
of squads or in column of masses. 

The adjutant informs the majors what the formation Is to be. 
The battalions and special units having been formed, he posts 
himself and draws saber. Adjutant's call is sounded, or the 
adjutant signals assemble. 

If forming in column of squads, the adjutant posts himself 
so as to be facing the column when formed, and 6 paces in front 
of the place to be occupied by the leading guide of the regiment ; 
if forming in column of masses, he posts himself so as to be 
facing the right guides of the column when formed, and 6 paces 
in front of the place to be occupied by the right guide of the 
leading company. Later, he moves so as best to observe the 
formation,- 

The battalions are halted, at attention, In column of squads 
or close column, as the case may toe, successively from the front 
in their proper order and places. The band takes its place when 
the leading battalion has halted. Other special units take their 
places in turn when the rear battalion has halted. 

The majors and the commanders of the machine-gun company 
and mounted scouts (or detachment) each, when his command is 
in place, salutes the adjutant and commands: At ease; the adju- 
tant returns the salutes. When all have saluted and the baud is 
in place, the adjutant rides to the colonel, reports : Sir; the regi- 
ment is formed, and takes his post. The colonel draws saber. 

The formation in column of squads may be modified to the 
extent demanded by circumstances. Prior to the formation the 
adjutant indicates the point where the head of the column is to 
rest and the direction in which it is to face; he then posts him- 
self so as best to observe the formation. At adjutant's call or 
assemble the leading battalion marches to, and halts at, the 
indicated point. The other battalions take positions from which 
they may conveniently follow in their proper places. 



86 THE REGIMENT. 

335. For ceremonies, or when directed, the regiment is 
formed in line or line of masses. 

The adjutant posts himself so as to be 6 paces to the right 
of the right or leading company of the right battalion when the 
regiment is formed and faces in the direction in vwhich the line 
is to extend. Adjutant's call is sounded; the band plays. 

The adjutant indicates to the adjutant of the right battalion 
the point of rest and the direction in which the line Is to 
extend, and then takes post facing the regiment midway be- 
tween the post of the colonel and the center of the regiment. 
Each of the other battalion adjutants precedes his battalion 
to the, line and marks its point of rest. 

The battalions, arriving from the rear, each in line or close 
column, as the case may be, are halted on the line successively 
from right to left in their proper order and places. Upon halt- 
ing, each major commands: 1. Right, 2. DRESS. The battalion 
adjutant assists in aligning the battalion and then takes his 
post. 

The band, arriving from the rear, takes its place In line 
when the right battalion has baited; it ceases playing when 
the left battalion has halted. The machine-gun company and 
the mounted scouts (or detachment) take their places in line 
after the center battalion has halted. 

The colonel and those who accompany him take post. 

When all parts of the line have been dressed, and officers and 
all others have reached their posts, the adjutant commands: 
1. Present, 2. ARMS. He then turns about and reports to the 
colonel : Sir, the regiment is formed; the colonel directs the ad- 
jutant : Take your post, Sir, draws saber and brings the regiment 
to the order. The adjutant takes his post, passing to the right 
of the colonel. 

To Dismiss the Regiment. 

336. Being in any formation: DISMISS YOUR BATTALIOHS. 
Each major marches his battalion off and dismisses it. 

Movements by the Regiment. 

337. The regiment executes the halt, rests, facings, steps 
and marchings, manual of arms, resumes attention, kneels, Met 
down, rises, stacks and takes arms, as explained in the Schools 
of the Soldier and Squad, substituting in the commands, when 
necessary, battalion a for squad. 



THJE REGIMENT. 87 

The regiment executes squads right (left), squad 9 right (left) 
about, route step and at ease, obliques and resumes the direct 
march as explained in the School of the Company. 

The regiment in column of files, twos, squads, or platoons, 
changes direction, and in column of squads forms column of 
twos or files and re-forms column of twos or squads, as ex- 
plained in the School of the Company. In column of companies, 
it changes direction as explained In the School of the Battalion. 

838. When the formation admits of the simultaneous execu- 
tion, by battalions, companies, or platoons, of movements pre- 
scribed in the School of the Company or Battalion, the colonel 
may cause such movements to be executed by prefixing, where 
necessary, battalions (companies, platoons), to the commands 
prescribed therein. 

339. The column of squads is the usual column of march ; to 
shorten the column, if conditions permit, a double column of 
squads may be used, the companies of each battalion marching 
abreast in two columns. Preliminary to an engagement, the 
regiment or its units will be placed in the formation best suited 
to its subsequent tactical employment. 

340. To assume any formation, the colonel indicates to the 
majors the character of the formation desired, the order of 
the battalions, and the point of rest Each battalion Is con- 
ducted by its major, and is placed in its proper order in the 
formation, by the most convenient means and route. 

Having halted in a formation, no movements for the purpose 
of correcting minor discrepancies in alignments, intervals, or 
distances are made unless specially directed by the colonel 
or necessitated by conditions of cover. 

341. To correct Intervals, distances, and alignments, the 
colonel directs one or more of the majors to rectify their bat- 
talions. Each major so directed causes bis battalion to correct 
its alignment, intervals, and distances, and places it in its 
proper position in the formation. 

COM BUT PRIHCIPLS. 

342. The regiment is deployed by the colonel's order to the 
commanders of battalions and special units. The order should 
give them information of the situation and of the proposed 
plan of action. In attack, the order should assign to each 
battalion not in reserve its objective or line of advance. In 
defense, it should assign to each its sector. In either case It 



88 THE REGIMENT. 

should designate the troops for, and the position of, the reserve 
and prescribe the employment of the machine guns and 
mounted scouts. 

Both in attack and defense the order may fix the front to be 
covered in the deployment. 

Encroachment upon the proper functions of subordinates and 
unnecessary details should he studiously avoided. When the 
regiment deploys, the colonel habitually places the band at the 
disposal of the surgeon for employment in caring for the 
wounded. 

343. The regiment, when operating alone and attacking, 
should undertake an enveloping attack if it does not result hi 
overextension. 

A ssuming a regiment of 1,500 rifles, an extension of more than 
1,000 yards between its extreme flanks when making an envelop- 
ing attack alone is seldom justifiable ; when part of a battle 
line, a front of 500 yards can rarely be exceeded. 

344. In defense the front occupied when acting alone or 
posted on or near the flank of a battle line should seldom exceed 
600 yards ; when posted as an interior regiment, the front may 
be increased to 800 yards. The front may be somewhat longer 
than hi the attack, since smaller battalion supports are justi- 
fiable. When the regiment is operating alone, however, the regi- 
mental reserve should be as strong in the defense as in the 
attack unless the flanks are secure. 

345. The colonel should always hold out a reserve generally 
one battalion ; but when the regiment is operating alone, it is 
generally advisable to hold out more at first. 

346. Whereas the support held out in each battalion of the 
firing line is intended to thicken the diminishing firing line at 
the proper times and sometimes to lengthen it, the reserve held 
out in a regiment operating alone is used for this purpose only 
as a last resort Its primary functiuns are : In attack, to pro- 
tect the flanks, to improve fully the advantage following a 
victory, or to cover defeat ; in defense, to prolong the firing line, 
to effect a counterattack, or to cover withdrawal. It is the 
colonel's chief means of influencing an action once begun. It 
should be conserved to await the proper moment for its em- 
ployment; the combat will seldom come to a successful issue 
without its employment in some form. 

The reserve of a regiment operating as part of a large force 
becomes a local reserve. It replaces depleted supports and IB 
attack strengthens and protects the firing line in the charge. 



THE BRIGADE. 

847. The brigade does not engage In prescribed drills. It 
engages in route marches and battle or other tactical exercises. 
These are conducted pursuant to commands or orders formu- 
lated to suit the conditions of the proposed movement or exer- 
cise, and, in general, in accordance with the principles applicable 
tp the regiment. 

848. A brigade of about 4,000 rifles, as part of a general 
battle line, would be deployed on a front of not more than 1,200 
yards in attack or 1,600 yards in defense. 

When acting alone the distance between extreme flanks in an 
enveloping attack should not exceed 2,000 yards at the time the 
attacking infantry opens flre. 

When acting alone, the front in defense should not exceed 
1,600 yards. 

These limits apply to the original deployment of the brigade 
for combat and presuppose an enemy of equal or nearly equal 
training and morale. The limits necessitated by the subsequent 
progress of the combat can not be foreseen. 

349. Units larger than the brigade are generally composed 
of all arms. Combined tactics are considered in the Field 
Service Regulations. 



PART II. COMBAT. 



INTRODUCTION. 

850. Part II of these regulations treats only of the basic 
principles of combat tactics as applied to infantry and to the 
special units, such as machine guns and mounted scouts, which 
form a part of infantry regiments and battalions. 

The combat tactics of the arms combined are considered In 
Field Service Regulations. 

351. Modern combat demands the highest order of training, 
discipline, leadership, and morale on the part of the infantry. 
Complicated maneuvers are impracticable; efficient leadership 
and a determination to win by simple and direct methods must 
be depended upon for success. 

352. The duties of infantry are many and difficult. All in- 
fantry must be fit to cope with all conditions that may arise. 
Modern war requires but one kind of infantry good infantry. 

353. The infantry must take the offensive to gain decisive 
results. Both sides are therefore likely to attempt it, though 
not necessarily at the same time or in the same part of a long 
battle line. 

In the local combats which make up the general battle the 
better endurance, use of ground, fire efficiency, discipline, and 
training will win. It is the duty of the infantry to win the 
local successes which enable the commanding general to win the 
battle. 

354. The infantry must have the tenacity to hold every ad- 
vantage gained, the individual and collective discipline and skill 
needed to master the^enemy's fire, the determination to close 
with the enemy in attack, and to meet him with the bayonet in 
defense. Infantry must be trained to beaV the heaviest burdens 
and losses, both of combat and march. 

01 



92 INTRODUCTION. 

Good infantry can defeat an enemy greatly superior in num- 
bers, but lacking in training, discipline, leadership, and morale. 

355. It is impossible to establish fixed forms or to give gen- 
eral instructions that will cover all cases. Officers and non-. 
commissioned officers must be so trained that they can apply 
suitable means and methods to each case as it arises. Study 
and practice are necessary to acquire proper, facility in this re- 
spect Theoretical instruction can not replace practical instruc- 
tion; the former supplies correct ideas and gives to practi- 
cal work an interest, purpose, and definiteness not otherwise 
obtainable. 

356. After the mechanism of extended order drill has been 
learned with precision in the company, every exercise should be, 
as far as practicable, in the nature of a maneuver (combat exer- 
cise) against an imaginary, outlined, or represented enemy. 

Company extended order drill may be conducted without ref- 
erence to a tactical situation, but a combat exercise, whatever 
may be the size of the unit employed, should be conducted under 
an assumed tactical situation. 

35 7 i An effective method of conducting a combat exercise is 
to outline the enemy with a few men equipped with flags. The 
umpire or inspector states the situation and the commander 
leads his troops with due regard to the assumptions made. 

Changes in the situation, the results of reconnaissance, the 
character of artillery fire, etc., are made known to the cbm- 
mander when necessary by the umpire or inspector, who, /in 
order to observe .and influence the conduct of the exercise^ re- 
mains in rear of the firing line. From this position he indicates, 
with the aid of prearranged signals, the character of the fire 
and movements of the hostile infantry. These signals are in- 
tended for the men outlining the enemy. These men repeat the 
signals ; all officers and men engaged in the exercise and in sight 
of the outlined enemy are thus informed of the enemy's action 
and the exercise is conducted accordingly. 

Assistant umpires, about one for each company in the firing 
line, may assist in indicating hostile fire and movements and in 
observing the conduct of the exercise. 

An outlined enemy may be made to attack or defend. 

Situations should be simple and natural. During or after the 
exercise the umpire or inspector should call attention to any 
improper movements or incorrect methods of execution. He 
will prohibit all movements of troops or individuals that would 



LEADERSHIP. 93 

be Impossible if the enemy were real. The slow progress of 
events to be expected on the battle field can hardly be simulated, 
but the umpire or inspector will prevent undue haste and will 
attempt to enforce a reasonably slow rate of progress. 

The same exercise should not be repeated over the same 
ground and under the same situation. Such repetitions lead to 
the adoption of a fixed mode of attack or defense and develop 
mere drill masters. Fixed or prearranged systems are pro- 
hibited. 

LEADERSHIP. 

General Considerations. 

358. The art of leadership consists of applying sound tactical 
principles to concrete cases on the battle field. 

Self-reliance, initiative, aggressiveness, and a conception of 
teamwork are the fundamental characteristics of successful 
leadership. 

350. A correct grasp of the situation and a definite plan of 
action form the soundest basis for a successful combat. 

A good plan once adopted and put Into execution should not 
be abandoned unless it becomes clear that it can not succeed. 
Afterthoughts are dangerous, except as they aid in the execu- 
tion of details in the original plan. 

360. Combats that do not promise success or some real advan- 
tage to the general issue should be avoided ; they cause unneces- 
sary losses, impair the morale of one's own troops, and raise 
that of the enemy. 

361. Complicated maneuvers are not likely to succeed in war. 
All plans and the methods adopted for carrying them into 
effect must be simple and direct. 

362. Order and cohesion must be maintained within the units 
if success is to be expected. 

363. Officers must show themselves to be true leaders. They 
must act in accordance with the spirit of their orders and must 
require of their troops the strictest discipline on the field of 
battle. 

364. The best results are obtained when leaders know the 
capacity and traits of those whom they command; hence In 
making detachments units should not be broken up, and a de- 
ployment that would cause an intermingling of the larger unit* 
in the firing line iiould be avoided. 



94 LEADERSHIP. 

365. Leading is difficult when troops are deployed. A high 
degree of training and discipline and the use of close order for- 
mations to the fullest extent possible are therefore required. 

366. In order to lighten the severe physical strain insepar- 
able from infantry service in campaign, constant efforts must be 
made to spare the troops unnecessary hardship and fatigue; 
but when necessity arises, the limit of endurance must be ex- 
acted. 

367. When officers or men belonging to fighting troops leave 
their proper places to carry back, or to care for, wounded dur- 
ing the progress of the action, they are guilty of skulking. This 
offense must be repressed with the utmost vigor. 

368. The complete equipment of the soldier is carried into 
action unless the weather or the physical condition of the men 
renders such measure a severe hardship. In any event, only 
the pack 1 will be laid aside. The determination of this ques- 
tion rests with the regimental conmmander. The complete 
equipment affords to men lying prone considerable protection 
against shrapnel. 

369. The post of the commander must be such as will enable 
him to observe the progress of events and to communicate his 
orders, -Subordinate commanders, in addition, must be in 
position to transmit the orders of superiors. 

Before entering an action the commander should be as far to 
the front as possible in order that he personally may see the 
situation, order the deployment, and begin the action strictly 
in accordance with his own wishes. 

During the action, he must, as a rule, leave to the local 
leaders the detailed conduct of the firing line, posting himself 
either with his own reserve or in such a position that he is in 
constant, direct, and easy communication with it. 

A commander takes full and direct charge of his firing line 
only when the line has absorbed his whole command. 

When their troops are victorious, all commanders should press 
forward in order to clinch the advantage gained and to use 
their reserves to the best advantage. 

370. The latitude allowed to officers is in direct proportion 
to the size of their commands. 'Each should see to the general 
execution of his task, leaving to the proper subordinates the 
. } 

1 The " pack " includes blanket, poncho, and shelter tent. 






LBADEHSHIP. 95 

supervision of details, and Interfering only when mistakes are 
made that threaten to seriously prejudice the general plan. 

Teamwork. 

371. The comparatively wide fronts of deployed units in- 
crease the difficulties of control. Subordinates must therefore 
be given great latitude in the execution of their tasks. The 
success of the whole depends largely upon how well each 
subordinate coordinates his work with the general plan. 

A great responsibility is necessarily thrown upon subordinates, 
but responsibility stimulates the right kind of an officer. 

372. In a given situation it is far better to do any intelligent 
thing consistent with the aggressive execution of the general 
plan, than to search hesitatingly for the ideal. This is the 
true rule of conduct for subordinates who are required to act 
upon their own Initiative. 

A subordinate who is reasonably sure that his intended 
action is such as would be ordered by the commander, were 
the latter present and in possession of the facts, has enough 
encouragement to go ahead confidently. He must possess the 
loyalty to carry out the plans'of his superior and the keenness 
to recognize and to seize opportunities to further the general 
plan. 

373. Independence must not become license. Regardless of 
the number of subordinates who are apparently supreme In 
their own restricted spheres, there is but one battle and but 
one supreme will to which all must conform. 

Everv subordinate must therefore work for the general re- 
sult. He does all in his power to insure cooperation between 
the subdivisions under his command. He transmits important 
information to adjoining units or to superiors in rear and, 
with the assistance of information received, keeps himself and 
his subordinates duly posted as to the situation. 

374. When circumstances render it impracticable to consult 
the authority issuing an order, officers should not hesitate to 
vary from such order when it is clearly based upon an incorrect 
view of the situation, is impossible of execution, or has been 
rendered impracticable on account of changes which have oc- 
curred since its promulgation. In the application of this rule 
the responsibility for mistakes rests upon the subordiuate, but 



96 LIADEESHIP. 

unwillingness to assume responsibility on proper occasions ia 
indicative of weakness. 

Superiors should be careful not to censure an apparent dis- 
obedience ^here the act was done in the proper spirit and to 
advance the general plan. 

375. When the men of two or more units intermingle in >the 
firing line, all officers and men submit at once to the senior. 
Officers and platoon guides seek to fill vacancies caused by 
casualties. Each seizes any opportunity to exercise the func- 
tions consistent with his grade, and all assist in the mainte- 
nance of order and control. 

Every lull in the action should be utilized for as complete 
restoration of order in the firing line as the ground or other 
conditions permit 

370. Any officer or noncommissioned officer who becomes sep- 
arated from his proper unit and can not rejoin must at once 
place himself and his command at the disposal of the nearest 
higher commander. 

Anyone having completed an assigned task must seek to rejoin 
his proper command. Failing in this, he should join the nearest 
troops engaged with the enemy. 

377. Soldiers are taught the necessity of remaining with 
their companies, but those who become detached must join the 
nearest company and serve with it until the battle is over or 
reorganization is ordered. 

Orders. 

378. Commands are deployed and enter the combat by the 
orders of the commander to the subordinate commanders. 

The initial combat orders of the division are almost invariably 
written; those of the brigade are generally so. The written 
order is preferable and is used whenever time permits. 

If time permits, subsequent orders are likewise written, either 
as field orders or messages. 

379. The initial combat orders of regiments and smaller units 
are given verbally. For this purpose the subordinates for whom 
the orders are intended are assembled, if practicable, at a place 
from which the situation and plan cnn be explained. 

'Subsequent orders are verbal or in the form of verbal or 
written messages. Verbal messages should not be used unless 
they are short and unmistakable. 



LEADERSHIP. 97 

380. The initial combat order of any commander or subordi- 
nate is based upon his definite plan for executing the task con- 
fronting him. 

Whenever possible the formation of the plan is preceded by 
a personal reconnaissance of the terrain and a careful consid- 
eration of all information of the enemy. 

381. The combat order gives such information of the enemy 
and of neighboring or supporting friendly troops as will enable 
subordinates to understand the situation. 

The general plan of action is stated In brief terms, but 
enough of the commanders intentions is divulged to guide the 
subsequent actions of the subordinates. 

Clear and concise instructions are given as to the action to 
be taken in the combat by each part of the command. In this 
way the commander assigns tasks, fronts, objectives, sectors 
or areas, etc., in accordance with his plan; If the terms em- 
ployed convey definite ideas and leave no loopholes, the conduct 
of subordinates will generally be correspondingly satisfactory. 

>Such miscellaneous matter relating to special troops, trains, 
ammunition, and future movements of the commander is added 
as concerns the combat itself. 

Combat orders should prescribe communication, reconnais- 
sance, flank protection, etc., when some special disposition is 
desired or when an omission on the part of a subordinate may 
reasonably be feared. 

382. When issuing orders, a commander should indicate 
clearly what is to be done by each subordinate, but not hour it 
is to be done. He should not encroach upon the functions of 
a subordinate by prescribing details of execution unless he has 
good reason to doubt the ability or judgment of the subordinate, 
and can not substitute another. 

Although general in its terms, an order must be definite and 
must be the expression of a fixed decision. Ambiguity or 
vagueness indicates either vacillation or the inability to formu- 
late orders. 

383. Usually the orders of a commander are intended for, 
' and are given to, the commanders of the next lower units, but 

in an emergency a commander should not hesitate to give orders 
directly to any subordinate. In such case he should promptly 
inform the intermediate commander concerned. 



98 COMBAT KBCOVNAISSAHCE. 

Communication. 

384. Communication is maintained by means of staff officers, 
messengers, relay systems, connecting files, visual signals, tele- 
graph, or telephone. 

385. The signal corps troops of the division establish lines of 
Information from division to brigade headquarters. The fur- 
ther extension of lines of information in combat by signal 
troops is exceptional. 

886. Each regiment, employing its own personnel, is responsi- 
ble for the maintenance of communication from the colonel 
back to the brigade and forward to the battalions. For this 
purpose the regiment uses the various means which may be 
furnished it. The staff and orderlies, regimental and battalion, 
are practiced in the use of these means and in messenger serv- 
ice. Orderlies carry signal flags. 

387. Connection between the firing line and the major or 
colonel is practically limited to the prescribed flag, arm, and 
bugle signals. Other means can only be supplemental. Com- 
pany musicians carry company flags and are practiced in sig- 
naling. 

388. The artillery generally communicates with the firing 
line by means of its own staff officers or through an agent who 
accompanies some unit in or near the front. The infantry 
keeps him informed as to the situation and affords him any 
reasonable assistance. When the infantry is dependent upon 
the artillery for fire support, perfect coordination through this 
representative is of great importance. 

COMBAT RECONNAISSANCE. 

389. Combat reconnaissance is of vital importance and must 
not be neglected. By proper preliminary reconnaissance, deploy- 
ments on wrong lines, or in a wrong direction, and surprises 
may generally be prevented. 

390. Troops deployed and under fire can not change front 
and thus they suffer greatly when enfiladed. Troops in close 
order formation may suffer heavy losses in a short time if sub- 
jected to hostile fire. In both formations troops must be pro- 
tected by proper reconnaissance and warning. 



COMBAT BECONNAISSANCE. 99 

391. The difficulty of reconnaissance increases in proportion 
to the measures adopted by the enemy to screen himself. 

The strength of the reconnoitering party is determined by the 
character of the information desired and the nature of the 
hostile screen. In exceptional cases as much as a battalion may 
be necessary in order to break through the hostile screen and 
enable the commander or officer in charge to reconnoiter in 
person. 

A large reconnoitering party is conducted so as to open the 
way for small patrols, to serve as a supporting force or rallying 
point for them, and to receive and transmit information. Such 
parties maintain signal communication with the main body if 
practicable. 

392. Each separate column moving forward to deploy must 
reconnoiter to its front and flank and keep in touch with ad- 
joining columns. The extent of the reconnaissance to the flank 
depends upon the isolation of the columns. 

893. Before an attack a reconnaissance must be made to de- 
termine the enemy's position, the location of his flanks, the 
character of the terrain, the nature of the hostile field works, 
etc., in order to prevent premature deployment ana the result- 
ing fatigue and loss of time. 

It will frequently be necessary to send forward a thin skir- 
mish line in order to induce the enemy to open fire and reveal 
his position. 

394. It will frequently be impossible to obtain satisfactory 
information until after the action has begun. The delay that 
may be warranted for the purpose of reconnaissance depends 
upon the nature of the attack and the necessity for promptness. 
For example, in a meeting engagement, and sometimes in a 
holding attack, the reconnaissance may have to be hasty and 
superficial, whereas in an attack against an enemy carefully 
prepared for defense there will generally be both time and 
necessity for thorough reconnaissance. 

395. In defense, reconnaissance mu*t be kept up to determine 
the enemy's line of advance, to ascertain his dispositions, to 
prevent his reconnaissance, etc. 

Patrols or parties posted to prevent hostile reconnaissance 
should relieve the main body of the necessity of betraying its 
position by firing on small bodies of the enemy. 

390. Reconnaissance continues throughout the action. 



100 FIRE SUPERIORITY. 

A firing or skirmish line can take care of its front, but its 
flanks are especially vulnerable to modern firearms. The moral 
effect of flanking fire is as great as the physical effect. Hence, 
combat patrols to give warning or covering detachments to give 
security are indispensable on exposed flanks. This is equally 
true in attack or defense. 

397. The fact that cavalry patrols are known to be posted 
in a certain direction does not relieve infantry commanders of 
the responsibility for reconnaissance and security. 

To be surprised by an enemy at short range is an unpardon- 
able offense. 

398. The commander of a battalion on a flank of a general 
line invariably provides for the necessary reconnaissance and 
security on that flank unless higher authority has specifically 
ordered it. In any event, he sends out combat patrols as- 
needed. 

Where his battalion is on a flank of one section of the line 
and a considerable interval lies between his battalion and the 
next section, he makes similar provision. 

399. Battalion commanders in the first line establish patrols 
to observe and report the progress or conduct of adjoining 
troops when these can not be seen. 

FIRE SUPERIORITY. 

PURPOSE AND NATURE. 

400. In a decisive battle 'success depends on gaining and 
maintaining fire superiority. Every effort must, be made to gain 
it early and then to keep it. 

Attacking troops must first gain fire superiority in order to 
reach the hostile position. Over open ground attack is possible 
o^y when the attacking force has a decided fire superiority. 
With such superiority the attack is not only possible, but suc- 
cess is probable and without ruinous losses. 

Defending troops can prevent a charge only when they can 
master the enemy's fire and inflict heavy losses upon him. 

401. To obtain fire superiority it is necessary to produce a 
heavy volume of accurate fire. Every increase in the effective- 
ness of the fire means a corresponding decrease in the effective- 
ness of the enemy's fire. 






* FIRE SUPERIORITY. 101 

The volume and accuracy of fire will depend upon several 
considerations : 

(a) The number of rifles employed. On a given front the 
greatest volume of fire is produced by a firing line having only 
sufficient intervals between men to permit the free use of their 
rifles. The maximum density of a firing line is therefore about 
one man per yard of front. 

(ft) The rate of fire affects its volume; an excessive rate 
reduces its accuracy. 

(c) The character of the target influences both volume and 
accuracy. Larger dimensions, greater visibility, and shorter 
range increase the rate of fire; greater density increases the 
effect. 

(d) Training and discipline have an important bearing on the 
rate or volume of fire, but their greatest influence is upon 
accuracy. 

The firing efficiency of troops is reduced by fatigue and ad- 
verse psychological influences. 

(e) Fire direction and control improve collective accuracy. 
The importance of fire direction Increases rapidly with the 
range. Control exerts a powerful influence at all ranges. 

FIRE DIRECTION AND CONTROL. 
Opening Fire. 

402. Beyond effective ranges important result? can be ex- 
pected only when the target is large and distinct and much 
ammunition is used. 

Long-range fire is permissible in pursuit on account of the 
moral effect of any fire under the circumstances. At other 
times such fire is of doubtful value. 

403. In attack, the desire to open fire when losses are first 
felt must be repressed. Considerations of time, target, ammu- 
nition, and morale make it imperative that the attack withhold 
its fire and press forward to a first firing position close to the 
enemy. The attacker's target will be smaller and fainter than 
the one he presents to the enemy. 

404. In defense, more ammunition is available, ranges are 
more easily determined, and the enemy usually presents a larger 
target. The defender may therefore open fire and expect results 



102 FIEE SUPERIORITY. 

at longer ranges than the attacker, and particularly if the de- 
fenders intend a delaying action only. 

If the enemy has a powerful artillery, it will often be best for 
the defending infantry to withhold its fire until the enemy offers 
a specially favorable target. Vigorous and well-directed bursts 
of fire are then employed. The troops should therefore be 
given as much artificial protection as time and means permit, 
and at an agreed signal expose themselves as much as necessary 
and open fire. 

405. In unexpected, close encounters a great advantage ac- 
crues to the side which first opens rapid and accurate fire with 
battle sight. 

Use of Ground. 

406. The position of the firers must afford a suitable field 
of fire. 

The ground should permit constant observation of the enemy, 
and yet enable the men to secure some cover when not actually 
firing. 

Troops whose target is for the moment hidden by unfavorable 
ground, either move forward to better ground or seek to execute 
cross fire on another target. 

407. The likelihood of a target being hit depends to a great 
extent upon its visibility. By skillful use of ground, a firing 
line may reduce its visibility without loss of fire power. Sky 
lines are particularly to be avoided. 

Choice of Target. 

408. The target chosen should be the hostile troops most 
dangerous to the firers. These will usually be the nearest hos- 
tile infantry. When no target is specially dangerous, that one 
should be chosen which promises the most hits. 

409. Frequent changes of target impair the fire effect. Ran- 
dom changes to small, unimportant targets impair fire discipline 
and accomplish nothing. Attention should be confined to the 
main target until substantial reason for change is apparent. 

410. An opportunity to deliver flanking fire, especially against 
artillery protected in front by shields, is an example warrant- 
ing change of target and should never be overlooked. Such fire 
demoralizes the troops subjected to it, even if the losses iu- 



FIKE SUPERIORITY. 103 

fltcted are small. In this manner a relatively small number of 
rifles can produce important results. 

The Range. 

411. Beyond close range, the correct setting of the rear sight 
is of primary importance, provided the troops are trained and 
well in hand. The necessity for correct sight setting increases 
rapidly with the range. Its importance decreases as the quality 
of the troops decrease, for the error in sight getting, except pos- 
sibly at very long ranges, becomes unimportant when compared 
with the error in holding and aiming. 

412. In attack, .distances must usually be estimated and cor- 
rections made as errors are observed. Mechanical range finders 
and ranging volleys are practicable at times. 

In defense, it is generally practicable to measure more accu- 
rately the distances to visible objects and to keep a record of 
them for future use. 

Distribution of Fin and Target. 

413. The purpose of fire superiority is to get hits whenever 
possible, but at all events to keep down the enemy's fire and 
render it harmless. To accomplish this the target must be cov- 
ered with fire throughout its whole extent. Troops who are not 
fired upon will fire with nearly peace-time accuracy. 

The target is roughly divided and a part is assigned to each 
unit. No part of the target is neglected. In attack, by a system 
of overlapping in assigning targets to platoons, the entire hostile 
line can be kept under fire even during a rush. 

dbservation. 

414. The correctness of the sight setting and the distribution 
of fire over the target can be verified only by careful observa- 
tion of the target, the adjacent ground, and the effect upon the 
enemy. 

415. Observation only can determine whether the fire fight 
is being properly conducted. If the enemy's fire is losing In 
accuracy and effect, the observer realizes that his side is gaining 
superiority. If the enemy's fire remains or becomes effective 
and persistent, he realizes that corrective measures are neces- 
sary to increase either volume or accuracy, or both. 



104 FIRE STTPERIOBITY. 

Discipline. 

416. Discipline makes good direction and control possible 
and is the distinguishing mark of trained troops. 

417. The discipline neessary in the firing line will be absent 
unless officers and noncommissioned officers can make their 
will known to the men. In the company, therefore, communica- 
tion must be by simple signals which, in the roar of musketry, 
will attract the attention and convey the correct meaning. 

Expenditure of Ammunition. 

418. In attack the supply is more limited than in defense. 
Better judgment must be exercised in expenditure. Ordinarily, 
troops in the firing line of an attack can not expect to have 
that. day more ammunition than they carry into the combat, 
except such additions as come from the distribution of ammuni- 
tion of dead and wounded and the surplus brought by rein- 
forcements. 

419- When a certain, fire effect is required, the necesary 
ammunition must be expended without hesitation. Several 
hours of firing may be necessary to gain fire superiority. True 
economy can be practiced only by closing on the enemy before 
first opening fire and thereafter suspending fire when there is 
nothing to shoot at. 

Supporting Artillery. 

420. Artillery fire is the principal aid to the infantry in gain- 
ing and keeping fire superiority, not only by its hits, but by the 
moral effect it produces on the enemy. 

421. In attack, artillery assists the forward movement of the 
infantry. It keeps down the fire of the hostile artillery and 
seeks to neutralize the hostile infantry by inflicting losses upon 
it, destroying its morale, driving it to cover, aiid preventing it 
from using its weapons effectively. 

In defeuse, it ignores the hostile artillery when the enemy's 
attack reaches a decisive stage and assists in checking the at- 
tack, joining its fire power to that of the defending infantry. 

$22. Troops should be accustomed to being fired over by 
friendly artillery and impressed with the fact that the artillery 
should continue firing upon the enemy until the last possible 






DEPLOYMENT. 105 

moment The few casualties resulting from shrapnel bursting 
short are trifling compared with those that would result from 
the increased effectiveness of the enemy's infantry fire were the 
friendly artillery to cease firing. 

Casualties inflicted by supporting artillery are not probable 
until the opposing infantry lines are less than 200 yards apart. 

428. When the distance between the hostile infantry lines 
becomes so short as to render further use of friendly artillery 
inadvisable, the commander of the infantry firing line, using a 
preconcerted signal, 1 Informs the artillery commander. The 
latter usually increases the range in order to impede the 
strengthening of the enemy's foremost line. 

Fire of Petition. 

424. Infantry Is said to execute fire of position when it is 
posted so as to assist an attack by firing over the heads, or off 
the flank, of the attacking troops and is not itself to engage in 
the advance; or when, in defense, it is similarly posted to aug- 
ment the fire of the main firing line. 

Machine guns serve a like purpose. 

In a decisive action, fire of position should be employed when- 
ever the terrain permits and reserve infantry is available. 

DEPLOYMENT. 

425. Troops are massed preparatory to deployment when 
the nature of their deployment can not be foreseen or it is 
desirable to shorten the column or to clear the road. Otherwise, 
in the deployment of large commands, whether in march col- 
umn, in bivouac, or massed, and whether forming for attack 
or for defense, they are ordinarily first formed into a line of 
columns to facilitate the extension of the front prior to de- 
ploying. 

The rough line or lines of columns thus formed enable troops 
to take advantage of the terrain in advancing and shorten the 
time occupied in forming the firing line. 

426. In deploying the division each brigade is assigned a 
definite task or objective. On receipt of his orders, the brigade 

1 With a 4-foot white and red regimental signal flag. 



106 DEPLOYMENT. 

commander conducts his brigade in column or in line of regi- 
ments until it is advisable that it be broken into smaller 
columns. He then issues his order, assigning to each regiment 
its task, if practicable. In a similar manner the regimental 
commanders lead their regiments forward in column, or in line 
of columns, until the time arrives for issuing the regimental 
order. It Is seldom advisable to break up the battalion before 
issuing orders for its deployment. 

427. Each subordinate commander, after receiving fcis order 
for the action, should precede his command as far as possible, 
in order to reconnoiter the ground personally, and should pre- 
pare to issue his orders promptly. 

428. Each commander of a column directs the necessary 
reconnaissance to front and flank; by this means and by a 
judicious choice of ground he guards against surprise. 

429. The premature formation of the firing line causes un- 
necessary fatigue and loss of time, and may result in a faulty 
direction being taken. Troops once deployed make even minor 
changes of direction with difficulty, and this difficulty increases 
With the length of the firing line. 

430. In the larger units, when the original deployment ia 
found to be in the wrong direction, it will usually be necessary 
to deploy the reserve on the correct front and withdraw and 
assemble the first line. 

43 1. To gain decisive results, it will generally be necessary 
to use all the troops at some stage of the combat. But in the 
beginning, while the situation is uncertain, care should be 
taken not to engage too large a proportion of the command. Oa 
the other hand, there is no greater error than to employ too 
few and to sacrifice them by driblets. 

432. When it is intended to fight to a decision, fire superi- 
ority is essential. To gain this, two things are necessary : A 
heavy fire and a fire well directed and controlled. Both of 
these are best obtained when the firing line is as dense as prac- 
ticable, while leaving the men room for the free use of their 
rifles. 

If the men are too widely separated, direction and control 
are very difficult, often impossible, and the intensity of fire is 
slight in proportion to the front occupied. 

433. In an attack or stubborn defense the firing line should 
Lave a density of one man per yard of front occupied. 






DEPLOYMENT. 107 

Where the tactical situation demands the holding of a line 
too long to be occupied throughout at this density, it is gen- 
erally better to deploy companies or platoons at one man per 
yard, leaving gaps in the line between them, than to distribute 
the men uniformly at increased intervals. 

434. A relatively thin firing line may be employed when 
merely covering the movements of other forces; when on the 
defensive against poor troops; when the final action to be taken 
lias not yet been determined; and, in general, when fire superi- 
ority is not necessary. 

435. The length of the firing line that the whole force may 
employ depends upon the density of the line and the strength 
in rear required by the situation- 

Support* and reserves constitute the strength in rear. 

In a decisive attack they should be at least strong enough to 
replace a heavy loss in the original firing line and to increase 
the charging line to a density of at least one and one-half men 
per yard and 'still have troops in rear for protection and for 
the other purposes mentioned above. 

430. In the original deployment the strength of the reserve 
heKL out by each commander comprises. from one-sixth to two- 
thirds of his unit, depending upon the nature of the service 
expected of the reserve. 

A small force in a covering or delaying action requires very 
little strength in rear, while a large force fighting a decisive 
battle requires much. Therefore, depending upon circumstances, 
the original deployment, including the strength In rear, may 
vary from 1 to 10 men per yard. Against an enemy poorly dis- 
ciplined and drained, or lacking in morale, a thinner deployment 
is permissible. 

437. The density of the whole deployment increases with the 
size of the command, because the larger the command the 
greater the necessity for reserves. Thus, a battalion acting 
alone may .attack with two men per yard of front, but a regi- 
ment, with three battalions, may only double the front of the 
one battalion. 

438. By the assignment of divisions or larger units to parts 
of a line of battle several miles long, a series of semi-independent 
battle, or local combat, districts are created. 

The general deployment for a long line of battle comprising 
several battle districts is not directly considered in these regul* 



108 ATTACK. 

tions. The deployments treated of herein are those of the nfan- 
try within such districts. 

The density of deployment in these districts may vary greatly, 
depending upon the activity expected in each. Within these 
battle districts, as well as in smaller forces acting alone, parts 
of the line temporarily of less importance may be held weakly, 
in order to economize troops and to have more at the decisive 
point. 

439. The front that a unit may occupy when deployed de- 
pends also upon whether its flanks are secured. If both flanks 
are secured by other troops, the unit nirty increase its front 
materially by reducing its reserve or supports. ' If only one 
flank is so secured, the front may still be somewhat increased, 
but the exposed flunk must be guarded by posting the supports 
or reserve toward that flank. 

Natural obstacles that secure the flanks have practically the 
same effect upon deployment. 

440. Except when assigned as supports or reserve, regiments 
in the brigade, battalions in the regiment, and companies in the 
battalion are, when practicable, deployed side by side. 

441. In the deployment, battalions establish the firing line, 
each furnishing its own support. 

In each unit larger than the battalion a reserve is held out, 
its strength depending upon circumstances. In general, the 
reserve is employed by the commander to meet or improve con- 
ditions brought about by the action of the firing line. It must 
not be too weak or too split up. It must be posted where the 
commander believes it will be needed for decisive action, or 
where he desires to bring about such action. When necessary, 
parts of it reenforce or prolong the firing line. 

ATTACK. 

442. An attack is bound to succeed if fire superiority is 
gained and properly used. 

To gain this superiority generally requires that the attack 
employ more rifles than the defense ; this in turn means a longer 
line, as both sides will probably hold a strong firing line. 

443. With large forces, a direct frontal attack gives the 
attacker little opportunity to bring more rifles to bear. How- 
ever, if the enemy is unduly extended, a frontal attack may give 
very decisive results. 



ATTACK. 109 

444. Owing to the difficulty of control and the danger of the 
parts being defeated in detail, wide turning movements are sel- 
dom allowable except in large forces. 

445. If the attack can be so directed that, while the front 
Is covered, another fraction of the command strikes a flank 
more or less obliquely (an enveloping attack) the advantages 
gained are a longer line and more rifles in action ; also a con- 
verging fire opposed to the enemy's diverging fire. 

446. An envelopment of both flanks should never be attempted 
without a very decided superiority in numbers. 

447. The enveloping attack will nearly always result locally 
in .1 frontal attnck, for it will be met by the enemy's reserve. 
The advantage of envelopment lies in the longer concentric line, 
with its preponderance of rifles and its converging fire. 

448. Cooperation between the frontal and enveloping attacks 
is essential to success. Both should be pushed vigorously and 
simultaneously, and ordinarily both should move simultaneously 
to the charge; but at the final stage of the -attack conditions 
may sometimes warrant one in charging while the other supports 
it with fire. 

The envelopment of a flank is brought about with difficulty 
when made by troops already deployed in another direction 
or by their reserves. The two attacks should be deployed at a 
suitable distance apart, with the lines of attack converging in 
rear of the hostile position. The troops that are to make the 
enveloping attack should deploy in the proper direction at the 
start and should be given orders which enable them to gain 
their point of deployment in the most direct and practical 
manner. 

The enveloping attack is generally made the stronger, es- 
pecially in small forces. 

DEPLOYMENT FOR ATTACK. 

449. Where open terrain exposes troops to hostile artillery 
fire it may be necessary to make the deployment 2 miles or 
more from the hostile position. 

The foreground should be temporarily occupied by covering 
troops. If the enemy occupies the foreground with detachments, 
the covering troops must drive them back. 

450. To enable large forces to gain ground toward the enemy. 
It may sometimes be cheaper and quicker in the end to move well 



110 ATTACK. 

forward and to deploy at night. In such case the area in which 
the deployment is to be made should, if practicable, be occupied 
by covering troops before dark. 

The deployment will be made with great difficulty unless the 
ground has been studied by daylight. The deployment gains 
little unless it establishes the firing line well within effective 
range of the enemy's main position. ( See Night Operations. ) 

451. Each unit assigned a task deploys when on its direction 
line, or opposite its objective, and when it lias no longer suffi- 
cient cover for advancing in close order. In the firing line, 
intervals of 25 to 50 yards should be maintained as long as 
possible between battalions. In the larger units it may be nec- 
essary to indicate on the map the direction or objective, but to 
battalion commanders it should be pointed out on the ground. 

452. The reserve is kept near enough to the firing line to be 
on hand at the decisive stage. It is posted with reference to 
the attack, or to that part of the attacking line, from which the 
greater results are expected ; it is also charged with flank pro- 
tection, but should be kept intact. 

Supports are considered in paragraphs 225 to 228, inclusn 
and 298 to 302, inclusive. 

ADVANCING THE ATTACK. ' 

453. The firing line must ordinarily advance a long distai 
before it is justified in opening fire. It can not combat the 
enemy's artillery, and it is at a disadvantage if it combats the 
defender's long-range rifle fire. Hence it ignores both and, by 
taking full advantage of cover and of the discipline of the 
troops, advances to a first firing position at the shortest range 
possible. 

Formations for crossing this zone with the minimum loss are 
considered in paragraphs 212 to 220, inclusive. These and other 
methods of crossing such zones should be studied and practiced. 

454. The best protection against loss while advancing is to 
escape the enemy's view. 

455. Each battalion finds its own firing position, conforming 
to the general advance as long as practicable and taking ad- 
vantage of the more advanced position of an adjacent battalion 
in order to gain ground. 

The position from which the attack opens fire is further con- 
sidered in paragraphs 306 to 308, inclusive. 



ATTACK. Ill 

456. It will frequently become necessary for infantry moving 
to the attack to pass through deployed artillery. This should 
be done so as to interfere as little as possible with the Intter's 
fflre. nnd nover so as to cause that fire to cea?e entirely. As fnr 
*s practicable, advantage should be taken of intervals in the 
line, if any. An understanding between artillery and infantry 
commanders should be had, so as to effect the movement to the 
best advantage. 

457. In advancing the attack, advanced elements of the firing 
line or detachments in front of it should not open fire except 
-in defense or to clear the foreground of the enemy. Fire on 
the hostile main position should not be opened until all or nearly 
all of the firing line can join in the fire. 

THE FIRE ATTACK. 

458. At the first firing position the attack seeks to gain fire 
superiority. This may necessitate a steady, accurate fire for a 
long time. The object is to subdue the enemy's fire and keep 
it subdued so that the attacking troops may advance from this 
point to a favorable place near the enemy from which the 
charge may be made. Hence, in the advance by rushes, suffi- 
cient rifles must be kept constantly in action to keep down the 
enemy's fire; this 'determines the size of the fraction rushing. 

459. To advance without fire sui>eriority against a deter- 
mined defense would result in such losses as to bring the at- 
tack .to a standstill or to make the apparent success barren of 
results. 

06 O. Diminution of the enemy's fire and a pronounced loss in 
effectiveness are the surest signs that fire superiority has been 
gained and that a part of the firing line can advance. 

461. The men must be impressed with the fact that, having 
made a considerable advance under fire and having been 
checked, it is suicidal to turn back in daylight. 

If they can advance no farther, they must intrench and hold 
on until the fall of darkness or a favorable turn in the situation 
develops. 

Intrenching is resorted to only when necessary. Troops who 
have intrenched themselves under fire are moved forward again 
with difficulty. 

462. Supports and reserves occupying intrenchments vacated 
by the firing line should improve them, but they must not be 
held back or diverted from their true missions on this" account 



112 ATTACK. 

463. Paragraphs 309 to 317, inclusive, deal more in detail 
with the conduct of the fire attack. 

TH CHARGE. 

464. Fire superiority beats down the enemy's fire, destroys 
his resistance and morale, and enables the attacking troops to 
close on him, but an actual or threatened occupation of his posi- 
tion is needed to drive him out and defeat him. 

The psychological moment for the charge can not be deter- 
mined far in advance. The tactical instinct of the responsible 
officer must decide. 

465. The defenders, if subjugated by the fire attack, will 
frequently leave before the charge begins. On the other hai 

it may be necessary to carry the fire attack close to the positioi 
and follow it up with a short dash and a bayonet combal 
Hence the distance over which the charge may be made will 
vary between wide limits. It may be from 25 to 400 yards. 

The charge should be made at the earliest moment that 
promises success; otherwise the full advantage of victory wil 
be lost. 

466. The commander of the attacking liye should indicate 
his approval, or give the order, before the charge is mail* 
Subordinate commanders, usually battalion commanders, whos 
troops are ready to charge signal that fact to the commander. 
It may be necessary for them to wait until other battalious or 
other parts of the line are ready or until the necessary reserves 
arrive. 

At the signal for the charge the firing line and near-by sup- 
ports and reserves rush forward. See paragraphs 318 and 319. 

The charge is made simultaneously, if possible, by all the 
units participating therein, but, once committed to the assault, 
battalions should be pushed with the utmost vigor and no re- 
straint placed on the ardor of charging troops by an attempt to 
maintain alignment. 

467. Before ordering the charge the commander should see 
that enough troops are on hand to make it a success. Local 
reserves Joining the firing line in time to participate in the 
charge give it a strong impetus. Too dense a mass should be 
avoided. 



ATTACK. 113 

468. The line should be strengthened by prolongation, if prac- 
ticable, and remaining troops kept in formation for future use; 
but rather than that the attack should fail, the last formed 
body will be sent iu, unless it is very apparent that it can do ho 
good. 

469. To arrive in the hostile position with a very compact 
firing line and a few formed supports is sufficient for a victory, 
but an additional force kept well in hand for pursuit is of inesti- 
mable value. 

470. A premature charge by a part of the line should b 
avoided, but if begun, the other parts of the Hue should join at 
once if there is any prospect of success. Under exceptional 
conditions a part of the line may be compelled to charge with- 
out authority from the rear. The intention to do so should 
be signaled to the rear. 

471. Confidence in their ability to use the bayonet gives the 
assaulting troops the promise of success. 

472. If the enemy has left the position when the charging 
troops reach it, the latter should open a rapid fire upon the 
retreating enemy, if he is in sight. It is not advisable for the 
mixed and disordered units to follow him, except to advance 
to a favorable firing position or to cover the reorganization of 
others. 

473. The nearest formed bodies accompanying or following 
the charge are sent instantly in pursuit. Under cover of these 
troops order is restored in the charging line. If the captured 
position is part of a general line or is an advanced post, it 
should be intrenched and occupied at once. 

The exhaustion of officers and men must not cause the neglect 
of measures to meet a counterattack. 

474. If the attack receives a temporary setback and it is 
Intended to strengthen and continue it, officers will make every 
effort to stop the rearward movement and will reestablish the 
firing line in a covered position as close as itossible to the 
enemy. 

475. If the attack must be jibandoned, the rearward movo- 
ment should continue with promptness until the troops reach a 
feature of the terrain that facilitates the task of dun-king and 
reorganizing them. The point selected should be so far to the 
rear as to prevent interference by the enemy before the troops 
are rQady to resist. The withdrawal of the attacking troops 



114 ATTACK. 

should be covered by the artillery and by reserves, if any are 
available. 

See Night Operations. 

PURSUIT. 

476. To reap the full fruits of victory a vigorous pursuit 
must be made. The natural inclination to be satisfied with a 
successful charge must be overcome. The enemy must be al- 
lowed no more time to reorganize than is positively unavoidable. 

477. The part of the reserve that is still formed or is best 
under control is sent forward in pursuit and vigorously attackn 
the enemy's main body or covering detachments wherever found. 

The artillery delivers a heavy fire upon the retreating enemy ; 
the disordered attacking troops secure the position, prom 
re-form, and become a new reserve. 

478. If the captured position is a section of the general li 
the breach should be heavily occupied, made wider, and stron 
secured by drawing on all reserves in the vicinity. 

479. After the pursuit from the immediate battle field, pur- 
suit by parallel roads is especially effective where large com- 
mands are concerned. 

480. Artillery and cavalry are very effective in pursuit. 



ATTACK OF FORTIFICATIONS. 



. 



481. Few modifications enter into the problem of attacki 
fortifications. Such as are to be considered relate chiefly to the 
greater time and labor of advancing, the more frequent use of 
darkness and the use of hand grenades to augment the fire. 

482.. If the enemy is strongly fortified and time permits, it 
may be advisable to wait and approach the charging point under 
cover of darkness. The necessary reconnaissance and arrange- 
ments should be made before dark. If the charge is not to be 
made at once, the troops intrench the advanced position, using 
sand bags if necessary. Before daylight the foreground should 
be cleared of obstacles. 

483. If the distance is short and other conditions are favor- 
able, the charge may be made without fire preparation. If 
made, it should be launched with spirit and suddenness at the 
break of day. (See Night Operations.) 

484. In siege operations troops are usually advanced to the 
charging point by sapping. This method, however, presupposes 



DEFENSE. 119 

that an early victory is not necessary or that it is clearly 
inadvisable to attempt more direct methods. 

HOLDING ATTACK. 

485. The holding attack must be vigorous enough to hold 
the enemy in i>osition and must present a front strong enough 
to conceal the secondary nature of the attack. 

The holding attack need have comparatively little strength 
in rear, but conceals the fact by a firing line not distinguish- 
able from that of a decisive attack. 

480. Supports and reserves are kept at short distances. 
Their strength is less if the object is merely to hold the enemy 
fast than if the object is, m addition, to compel him to use up 
reserves. 

487. Holding attacks which may later develop into decisive 
attacks should be correspondingly strong in rear. 

488. All feint attacks should employ dense firing lines. Their 
weakness is in rear and is concealed. 

DEFENSE. 

POSITIONS AND INTRENCHMENTS. 

480. The first requirement of a pood position is a clear field 
of fire and view to the front and exposed Hanks to a distance 
of GOO to 800 yards or more. The length of front should be 
suitable to the size of the command and the Hanks should be 
secure. Tbo position should have lateral communication and 
cover for supports and reserves. It should be one which the 
enemy can not avoid, but must attack or give up his mission. 

A position having all those advantages will rarely, if ever, be 
found. The one should be taken which conforms closest to the 
description. 

490. The natural cover of the position should be fully util- 
ized. In addition, it should be strengthened by fieldworks and 
obstacles. 

The best protection is afforded by deep, narrow, inconspicu- 
ous trenches. If little time is available, as much as practicable 
must bo done. That iho fiell\vorks may not be needed should 
not cause their construction to be omitted, and the fact that 



116 DEFENSE. 

they have been constructed should not influence the action of a 
commander . if conditions are found to be other than expected. 

491. When time and troops are available the preparations 
include the necessary communicating and cover trenches, head 
cover, bombproof s, etc. The fire trenches should be well sup- 
plted with ammunition. 

The supports are placed close at hand in cover trenches when 
natural cover is not available. 

492. Dummy trenches frequently cause the hostile artillery 
to waste time and ammunition and to divert its flre. 

493. The location, extent, profile, garrison, etc.. of fieldworks 
are matters to be decided by the infantry commanders. Office 
must be able to choose ground and properly intrench it. (! 
Intrenchments. ) 

494. In combat exercises, when it is impracticable to 
struct the trenches appropriate to the exercise, their trace ma; 
be outlined by bayonets, sticks, or other markers, and the 
sponsible officers required to indicate the profile select* 
method and time of construction, garrisons, etc. 

DEPLOYMENT FOR DEFENSE. 

495. The density of the whole deployment depends upon tl 
expected severity of the action, the character of the enemy, tl 
condition of the flanks, the field of fire, the terrain, and tl 
available artificial or natural protection for the troops. 

49(J. If exposed, the firing line should be as dense in defense 
as in attack. If the firing line is well intrenched and has a 
good field of fire, it may be made thinner. 

Weaker supports are permissible. For the same number of 
troops the front occupied on the defensive may therefore be 
longer than on the offensive, the battalions placing more com- 
panies in the "firing line. 

497. If it is intended only to delay the enemy, a fairly strong 
deployment is sufficient, but if decisive results are desired, a 
change to the offensive must be contemplated and the corre- 
sponding strength in rear provided. This strength is in the 
reserve, which should be as large as the demands of the firing 
line and supports permit. Even in a passive < defense the re- 
serve should be as strong as in the attack, unless the flanks are 
protected by other means. 



DEFENSE. 117 

498. Supports are posted as close to the firing line as practi- 
cable and reinforce the latter according to the principles ex- 
plained in the attack. When natural cover is not sufficient for 
the purpose, communicating and cover trenches are constructed. 
If time does not permit their construction, it is better to begin 
the action with a very dense firing line and no immediate sup- 
ports than to have supi>orts greatly exposed in rear. 

409. The reserve should be posted so as to be entirely free 
to act as a whole, according to the developments. The distance 
from firing line to reserve is generally greater than in the at- 
tack. By reason of such a location the reserve is best able to 
meet a hostile enveloping attack ; it has a better position from 
which to make a counter attack; it is in a better position to 
cover a withdrawal and permit an orderly retreat. 

The distance from firing line to reserve increases with the 
size of the reserve. 

500. When the situation is no longer in doubt, the reserve 
should be held in rear of the flank which is most in danger or 
offers the best opportunity for counterattack. Usually the same 
Hank best suits both purposes. 

501. In exceptional cases, on broad fronts, it may be neces- 
sary to detach a part of the reserve to protect the opposite 
flank. This detachment should be the smallest consistent with 
its purely protective mission. 

502. The commander assigns to subordinates the front to be 
occupied by them. These, in turn, subdivide the front among 
their next lower units in the firing line. 

503. An extended position" is so divided into sections that 
each has, if practicable, a field of fire naturally made distinct 
by the terrain. 

Unfavorable and unimportant ground will ordinarily cause 
gaps to exist in the line. 

504. The size of the unit occupying each section depends 
upon the latter's natural strength, front, and importance. If 
practicable, battalions should be kept intact and assigned as 
units to sections or parts of sections. 

505. Where important dead space lies in front of one section, 
an adjoining section should be instructed to cover it with fire 
when necessary, or machine guns should be concealed for the 
like purpose. 

506. Advanced posts, or any other form of unnecessary dis- 
persion, should be avoided. 



118 DEFENSE. 

507. Unless the difficulty of moving the troops into the posi- 
tion be great, most of the troops of the firing line are held in 
rear of it until the infantry attack begins. The position itself 
is occupied by a small garrison only, with the necessary out- 
guards or patrols in front. 

508. Fire alone can not be depended upon to stop the attack. 
The troops must be determined to resort to the bayonet, if 
necessary. 

509. If a night attack or close approach by the enemy 
expected, troops in a prepared position should strengthen th 
outguards and firing line and construct as numerous and ef 
fective obstacles as possible. Supports and local reserves should 
move close to the firing line and should, with the firing line, 
keep bayonets fixed. If practicable, the front should be illumi 
nated, preferably from the flanks of the section. 

510. Only short range fire is of any value in resisting nigh 
attacks. The bayonet is the chief reliance. (See Night Opera- 
tions.) 

COUNTERATTACK. 



511. The passive defense should be assumed only when cir- 
cumstances force it. Only the offensive wins. 

512. An active defense seeks a favorable decision. A favor- 
able decision can not be expected without counterattack. 

.513. A passive defense in a position whose flanks are not 
protected by natural obstacles is generally out of the question. 

5 14. Where the defense is assumed with a view to making a 
counterattack, the troops for the counterattack should be held 
in reserve until the time arrives for such attack. The defensive 
line should be held by as few troops as possible in order that 
the force for the offensive may be as large as possible. 

The force for the counterattack should be held echeloned in 
rear of the flank which offers it the greatest advantage for the 
proposed attack. 

515. The counterattack should be made vigorously and at 
the proper time. It will usually be made: 

By launching the reserve ngainst the enemy's flank when his 
attack is in full progress. This is the most effective form of 
counterattack. 

Straight to the front by the firing line and supports after 
repulsing the enemy's attack and demoralizing him with pur- 
suing fire. 



I 

\ 

I 



MEETING ENGAGEMENTS. 119 

Or, by the troops in rear of the firing line when the enemy 
has reached the defensive position and is in disorder. 

510. Minor counterattacks are sometimes necessary in order 
to drive the enemy from important positions gained by him. 

DELAYING ACTION. 

517. When a position is taken merely to delay the enemy and 
to withdraw before becoming closely engaged, the important 
considerations are: 

The enemy should be forced to deploy early. The field of fire 
should therefore be good at distances from 500 to 1,200 yards 
or more; a good field of fire at close range is not necessary. 

The ground in rear of the position should favor the with- 
drawal of the firing line by screening the troops from the ene- 
my's view and fire as soon as the position is vacated. 

518. A thin firing line using much ammunition will generally 
answer the purpose. Supports are needed chiefly to protect the 
flanks. 

The reserve should be posted well in rear to assist in the 
withdrawal of the firing line, 

519. Artillery is especially valuable to a delaying force. 

MEETING ENGAGEMENTS. 

520. Meeting -engagements are characterized by the necessity 
for hasty reconnaissance, or the almost total absence of recon- 
naissance; by the necessity for rapid deployment, frequently 
under fire; and usually by the absence of trenches or other 
artificial cover. These conditions give further advantages to the 
offensive. 

521. The whole situation will usually indicate beforehand 
the proper general action to be taken on meeting the enemy. 

522. Little fresh information can be expected. The boldness, 
initiative, and determination of the commander must be relied 
upon. 

523. A meeting engagement affords an ideal opportunity to 
the commander who has intuition and quick decision and who 
Is willing to take long chances. His opponent is likely to be 
overcautious. 



120 MEETING ENGAGEMENTS. 

524. The amount of information that the commander is war- 
ranted in awaiting before taking final action depends entirely 
upon his mission. One situation may demand a blind attack; 
another may demand rapid, partial deployment for attack, but 
careful and time-consuming reconnaissance before the attack is 
launched. 

525. A great advantage accrues to the side which can deploy 
the faster. The advantage of a close-order formation, favoring 
rapid deployment, becomes more pronounced with the size of th( 
force. 

526. The first troops to deploy will be able to attack with 
longer firing lines and weaker supports than are required ii 
the ordinary case. But if the enemy succeeds in deploying a 
strong defensive line, the attack must be strengthened accord- 
ingly before it is wasted. 

527. If the situation warrants the advance, the leading troops 
seek to deploy faster than the enemy, to reach his flanks, check 
his deployment, and get information. In any event, they seek 
to cover the deployment of their own troops in rear especially 
the artillery and to seize important ground. 

> 528. The commander of a long column which meets the 
enemy should be with the advance guard to receive informa- 
tion promptly and to reconnoiter. If he decides to fight, the 
advance guard must hold the enemy while the commander 
formulates a plan of action, issues the necessary orders, aiid 
deploys the main body. Meantime, the column should be clos- 
ing up, either in mass or to form line of columns, so that the 
deployment, when determined upon, may be made more promptly. 

529. The action of the advance guard, prior to the receipt of 
orders, depends upon the situation. Whether to attack deter- 
minedly or only as a feint, or to assume the defensive, depends 
upon the strength of the advance guard, the terrain, the char- 
acter of the hostile force encountered, and the mission and in- 
tentions of the commander of the whole. 

> 530. If the enemy is beforehand or more aggressive, or if the 
advance guard is too weak, it may be necessary to put ele- 
ments of the main body into action as fast as they arrive, in 
order to check him. This method should be avoided; it pre- 
vents the formation and execution of a definite plan and com- 
pels piecemeal action. The best results are obtained when the 
main body is used as a whole. 



WITHDRAWAL FROM ACTION. 121 

WITHDRAWAL FROM ACTION. 

581. The withdrawal of a defeated force can generally be 
effected only at a heavy cost. When it is no longer possible to 
give the action a favorable turn and the necessity for with- 
drawal arises, every effort must be made to place distance and 
a rear guard between the enemy and the defeated troops. 

532. Artillery" gives especially valuable assistance in the 
withdrawal. The long-range fire of machine guns should also 
be employed. Cavalry assists the withdrawal by charging the 
pursuing troops or by taking flank positions and using fire 
action. 

533. If an intact reserve remains it should be placed in a 
covering position, preferably on a flank, to check the pursuit 
and thus enable the defeated troops to withdraw beyond reach 
of hostile fire. 

The covering position of the reserve should be at some dis- 
tance from the main action, but close enough to bring the with- 
drawing troops quickly under the protection of its fire. It 
should have a good field of fire at effective and long ranges and 
should facilitate its own safe and timely withdrawal. 

534. If the general line is divided, by terrain or by organiza- 
tion, into two or more parts, the firing line of the part in the 
least danger from pursuit should be withdrawn first. A con- 
tinuous firing line, whose parts are dependent upon one another 
for fire support, should be withdrawn as a whole, retiring by 
echelon at the beginning of the withdrawal. Every effort must 
be made to restore the organizations, regain control, and form 
column of march as soon as the troops are beyoud the reach of 
hostile fire. 

As fast as possible without delaying the march, companies, 
and the larger units should be reformed, so that the command 
will again be well in hand. 

535. The commander of the whole, having given orders for 
withdrawal, should go to the rear, select a rendezvous point, and 
devote himself to the reorganization of his command. 

The rendezvous point is selected with regard to the natural 
channels of movement approximately straight to the rear. It 
should be distant from the battle field and should facilitate the 
gathering and protection of the command. 



SUMMAKY. 

536. 1. Avoid combats that offer no chance of victory 
other valuable results. 

2. Make every effort for the success of the general plan ai 
avoid spectacular plays that have no bearing on the genen 



3. Have a definite plan and carry it out vigorously. Do 
vacillate. 

4. Do not attempt complicated maneuvers. 

5. Keep the command in hand; avoid undue extension and 
dispersion. 

6. Study the ground and direct the advance in. such a way 
as to take advantage of all available cover and thereby 
diminish losses. 

7. Never deploy until the purpose and the proper direction are 
known. 

8. Deploy enough men for the immediate task in hand; hold 
out the rest and avoid undue haste in committing them to the 
action. 

9. Flanks must be protected either by reserves, fortifications, 
or the terrain. 

10. In a decisive action, gain and keep fire superiority. 

11. Keep up reconnaissance. 

12. Use the reserve, but not until needed or a very favorable 
opportunity for its use presents itself. Keep some reserve as 
long as practicable. 

13. Do not hesitate to sacrifice the command if the result is 
worth the cost. 

14. Spare the command all unnecessary hardship and exertion. 
122 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

MACHINE GUMS. 

537. Machine guns must be considered as weapons of emer- 
gency. Their effectiveness combined with their mobility ren- 
ders them of great value at critical, though infrequent, periods 
of an engagement. 

538. When operating against infantry only, they can be used 
to a great extent throughout the combat as circumstances mny 
indicate, but they are quickly rendered powerless by efficient 
field artillery and will promptly draw artillery fire whenever 
they open. Hence their use in engagements between large 
commands must be for short periods and at times when their 
great effectiveness will be most valuable. 

539. Machine guns should be attached to the advance guard. 
In meeting engagements they will be of great value in assisting 
their own advance, or in checking the advance of the enemy, 
and will have considerable time to operate before hostile artil- 
lery fire can silence them. 

Care must be taken not to leave them too long in action. 

540. They are valuable to a rear guard which seeks to check 
a vigorous pursuit or to gain time. 

541. In attack, if fire of position is practicable, they are of 
great value. In this case fire should not be oi>ened by the 
machine guns until the attack is well advanced. At a critical 
period in the attack, such fire, if suddenly and unexpectedly 
oj>ened, will greatly assist the advancing line. The fire must be 
ns heavy as possible and must be continued until niqsked by 
friendly troops or until the hostile artillery finds the machine 
guns. 

542. In the defense, machine guns should be used in the 
same general manner as described above for the attack. Con- 
cealment and patient waiting for critical moments and excep- 
tional opix)rtunities are the special characteristics of the ma- 
chine-gun service in decisive actions. 

54,'*. As part of the reserve, machine guns have special im- 
portance. If they are with the troops told off to protect the 
flanks, and if they are well placed, they will often produce de- 

123 



124 MISCELLANEOUS. 

cisive results against a hostile turning movement. They are 
especially qualified to cover a withdrawal or make a captured 
position secure. 

544. Machine guns should not be assigned to the firing line of 
an attack. They should be so placed that fire directed upon 
them is not likely to fall upon the firing line. 

545. A skirmish line can not advance by walking or running 
when hostile machine guns have the correct range and are 
ready to fire. Machine-gun fire is not specially effective agaim 
troops lying on the ground or crawling. 

546. When opposed by machine guns and without artillei 
to destroy them, infantry itself must silence them before it cai 
advance. 

An infantry command that must depend upon itself for pi 
tection against machine guns should concentrate a large minil 
of rifles on each gun in turn and until it has silenced it. 

AMMUNITION SUPPLY. 

547. The method of supply of ammunition to the combat 
trains is explained in Field Service Regulations. 

548. The combat train is the immediate reserve supply 
the battalion, and the major is responsible for its proper us 
He will take measures to insure the maintenance of the pi 
scribed allowance at all times. 

In 'the absence of instructions, he will cause the train \< 
march immediately in rear of his battalion, and, upon sepa- 
rating from it to enter an engagement, will cause the ammuni- 
tion therein to be issued. When emptied, he will direct that 
the wagons proceed to the proper rendezvous to be refilled. 
Ordinarily a rendezvous is appointed for each brigade and the 
necessary number of wagons sent forward to it from the ammu- 
nition column. 

549. When refilled, the combat wagons will rejoin their bat- 
talions, or, if the latter be engaged, will join or establish 
communication with the regimental reserve. 

550. Company commanders are responsible that the' belts of 
the men in their companies are kept filled at all times, except 
when the ammunition *.s being expended in action. In the 
firing line the ammunition of the dead and wounded should be 
secured whenever practicable. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 125 

551. Ammunition in the bandoleers will ordinarily be ex- 
pended first Thirty rounds in the right pocket section of the 
belt will be held as a reserve, to be expended only when, 
ordered by an officer. 

552. When necessary to resupply the firing line, ammunition 
will be sent forward with reenforcements, generally from the 
regimental reserve. 

Men will never be sent back from the firing line for ammu- 
nition. Men sent forward with ammunition remain with the 
firing line. 

553. As soon as possible after an engagement the belts of the 
men and the combat wagons are resupplied to their normal 
capacities. Ammunition which can not be reloaded on combat 
wagons will be piled up in a convenient place and left under 
guard. 

MOUNTED SCOUTS. 

554. The mounted scouts should be thoroughly trained in 
patrolling and reconnaissance. They are used for communi- 
cation with neighboring troops, for patrolling off the route of 
inarch, for march outposts, outpost patrols, combat patrols, 
reconnaissance ahead of columns, etc. Their further use is, 
In general, confined to escort and messenger duty. They should 
be freely used for all these purposes, but for these purposes 
only. 

555. When infantry is acting alone, or when the cavalry of 
n mixed command has been sent to a distance, the mounted 
scouts are of special importance to covering detachments and 
should be used to make the reconnaissance which would other- 
wise fall to cavalry. 

556. In reconnaissance, scouts should be used in preference 
to other troops as much as possible. When not needed for 
mounted duty, they should be employed for ^necessary dis- 
mounted patrolling. 

557. Battalion staff officers should be specially trained in 
patrolling and reconnaissance work in order that they may be 
available when a mounted officer's patrol is required. 

MIGHT OPERATIONS. 

558. By employing night operations troops make use of the 
cover of darkness to minimize losses from hostile fire or to 



126 MISCELLANEOUS. 

escape observation. Night operations may also be necessary for 
the purpose of gaining time. Control is difficult and confusion 
is frequently unavoidable. 

It may be necessary to take advantage of darkness in order 
to assault from a point gained during the day, or to approach a 
point from which a daylight assault is to be made, or to effect 
both the approach and the assault, 

559. Offensive and defensive night operations should be 
practiced frequently in order that troops may learn to cover 
ground in the dark and arrive at a destination quietly and in 
good order, and in order to train officers in the necessary prep- 
aration and reconnaissance. 

Only simple and well-appointed formations should be em- 
ployed. 

Troops should be thoroughly trained in the necessary details 
e. g., night patrolling, night marching, and communication at 
night. 

06 O. The ground to be traversed should be studied by day- 
light and, if practicable, at night. It should be cleared of 
hostile detachments before dark, and, if practicable, should be 
occupied by covering troops. 

Orders must be formulated with great care and clearness. 
Each unit must be given a definite objective and direction, and 
care must be exercised to avoid collision between units. 

Whenever contact with the enemy is anticipated, a distinctive 
badge should be worn by all. 

561. Preparations must be made with secrecy. When the 
movement Is started, and not until then, the officers and men 
should be acquainted with the general design, the composition 
of the whole force, and should be given such additional informa- 
tion as will insure cooperation and eliminate mistakes. . 

During the movement every precaution must be taken to keep 
secret the fact that troops are abroad. 

Unfriendly guides must frequently be impressed. These 
should be secured against escape, outcry, or deception. 

Fire action should be avoided in offensive operations. In 
general, pieces should not be loaded. Men must be trained to 
rely upon the bayonet and to use it aggressively. 

562. Long night marches should be made only over well- 
defined routes. March discipline must be rigidly enforced. The 
troops should be marched in as compact a formation a prac- 
ticable, with the usual covering detachments. Advance and rear 



MI8CXLLAJTEOUB. 127 

guard distances should be greatly reduced. They are shortest 
when the mission is an offensive one. The connecting files are 
numerous. 

563. A night advance made with a view to making an attack 
by day usually terminates with the hasty construction of in- 
trenchments in the dark. Such an advance should be timed so 
as to allow an hour or more of darkness for intrenching. 

An advance that is to terminate in an assault at the break of 
day should be timed so that the troops will not arrive long 
before the assault is to be made; otherwise the advantage of 
partial surprise will be lost and the enemy will be allowed to 
reenforce the threatened point. 

564. The night attack is ordinarily confined to small forces, 
or to minor engagements in a general battle, or to seizure of 
positions occupied by covering or advanced detachments. Deci- 
sive results are not often obtained. 

Poorly disciplined and untrained troops are unfit for night 
attack^ or for night operations demanding the exercise of skill 
and care. 

Troops attacking at night can advance close to the enemy in 
compact formations and without suffering loss from hostile ar- 
tillery or infantry fire. The defender is ignorant of the strength 
or direction of the attack. 

A force which makes a vigorous bayonet charge in the dark 
will often throw a much larger force into disorder. 

565. Reconnaissance should be made to ascertain the position 
and strength of the enemy and to study the terrain to be 
traversed. Officers who are to participate in the attack should 
conduct this reconnaissance. Reconnaissance at night is espe- 
cially valuable. Features that are distinguishable at night 
should be carefully noted, and their distances from the enemy, 
from the starting point of the troops, and from other important 
points should be made known. 

Preparations should have in view as complete a surprise as 
possible. An attack once begun must be carried to its conclu- 
sion, even if the surprise is not as complete as was planned or 
anticipated. 

566. The time of night at which the attack should be made 
depends upon the object sought. If a decisive attack is In- 
tended, it will generally yield the best results if made just be- 
fore daylight. If the object is merely to gain an intrenched 
position for further operations, an earlier hour is necessary in 



128 MISCELLANEOUS. 

order that the position gained may be intrenched under cover of 
darkness. 

567. The formation for attack must be simple. It should be 
carefully effected and the troops verified at a safe distance 
from the enemy. The attacking troops should be formed in 
compact lines and with strong supports at short distances. The 
reserve should be far enough in rear to avoid being drawn into 
the action until the commander so desires. Bayonets are fixed, 
pieces are not loaded. 

Darkness causes fire to be wild and ineffective. The attack- 
Ing troops should march steadily on the enemy without firing, 
but should be prepared and determined to fight vigorously with 
the bayonet. 

In advancing to the attack the aim should be to get as close 
as possible to the enemy before being discovered, then to trust 
to the bayonet. 

If the assault is successful, preparations must be made at 
once to repel a counterattack.* 

568. On the defense, preparations to resist night attacks 
should be made by daylight whenever such attacks are to be 
feared. 

Obstacles placed In front of a defensive position are especially 
valuable to the defense at night. Many forms of obstacles 
which would give an attacker little concern in the daytime be- 
come serious hindrances at night. 

After dark the foreground should be illuminated whenever 
practicable and strong patrols should be pushed to the front. 

When it is learned that the enemy is approaching, the trenches 
are filled and the supports moved close to the firing line. 

Supports fix bayonets, but do not load. Whenever practicable 
and necessary they should be used for counterattacks, prefer- 
ably against a hostile flank. 

The defender should open fire as soon as results may be ex- 
pected. This fire may avert or postpone the bayonet combat, 
and it warns all supporting troops. It is not likely that fire 
alone can stop the attack. The defender must be resolved to 
fight with the bayonet 

Ordinarily fire will not be effective at ranges exceeding 50 
yards. 

A white rag around the muzzle of the rifle will assist In 
sighting the piece when the front sight is not visible. 

See paragraphs 450, 482, 483, 509, 510. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 129 

INFANTRY AGAINST CAVALRY. 

569. A cavalry charge can accomplish little against infantry, 
even in inferior numbers, unless the latter are surprised, become 
panic-stricken, run away, or can not use their rifles. 

570. A charge from the front is easily checked by a well- 
directed and sustained fire. 

If the charge is directed against the flank of the firing line, 
the supports, reserves, or machine guns should stop it. If this 
disposition is impracticable, part of the line must meet the 
charge by a timely change of front. If the flank company, or 
companies, in the firing line execute platoons right, the successive 
firing lines can ordinarily break a charge against the flank. If 
the cavalry line passes through the firing line, the latter will 
be little damaged if the men retain their presence of mind. 
They should be on the watch for succeeding cavalry lines and 
leave those that have passed through to friendly troops in rear. 

571. Men standing are in the best position to meet a charge, 
but other considerations may compel them to meet it lying 
prone. 

572. In a mlee, the infantryman with his bayonet has at 
least an even chance with the cavalryman, but the main de- 
pendence of infantry is rifle fire. Any formation is suitable 
that permits the free use of the necessary number of rifles. 

Ordinarily there will be no time to change or set sights. Fire 
at will at battle sight should be used, whatever the range may 
be. It will usually be unwise to open fire at long ranges. 

573. An infantry column that encounters cavalry should 
deploy at once. If attacked from the head or rear of the 
column, and if time is pressing, it may form a succession of 
skirmish lines. Infantry, by deploying 50 or 100 yards in rear 
of an obstacle, may check cavalry and hold it under fire beyond 
effective pistol range. 

In any situation, to try to escape the issue by running is 
the worst and most dangerous course the infantry can adopt. 

574. In attacking dismounted cavalry, Infantry should close 
Vapidly and ertdeavor to prevent remounting. Infantry which 

adopts this course will not be seriously checked by delaying 
cavalry. 

Every effort should be made to locate and open fire on the 
led horses. 



130 MISCELLANEOUS. 

INFANTRY AGAINST ARTILLERY. 

575. A frontal attack against artillery has little chance of 
succeeding unless it can be started from cover at comparatively 
short range. Beyond short range, the frontal fire of infantry 
has little effect against the artillery personnel because of their 
protective shields. 

Machine guns, because their cone of fire is more compact, will 
have greater effect, but on the other hand they will have fewer 
opportunities and they are limited to fire attack only. 

As a rule, one's own artillery is the best weapon against 
hostile artillery. 

576. Artillery attacked in flank by infantry can be severely 
damaged. Oblique or flank fire will begin to have decisive 
effect when delivered at effective range from a point to one 
side of the artillery's line of fire and distant from it by about 
half the range. Artillery is better protected on the side of the 
caisson. 

577. Guns out of ammunition, but otherwise secure against 
infantry attack, may be immobilized by fire which will prevent 
their withdrawal, or by locating and driving off their limbers: 
Or they may be kept out of action by fire which will prevent the 
receipt of ammunition. 

578. Artillery when limbered Is helpless against infantry 
fire. If caught at effective range while coming into action or 
while limbering, artillery can be severely punished by infantry 
fire. 

In attacking artillery that is trying to escape, the wheel 
horses are the best targets. 

ARTILLERY SUPPORTS. 

579. The purpose of the artillery support is to guard the 
artillery against surprise or attack. 

Artillery on the march or in action is ordinarily so placed as 
to be amply protected by the infantry. Infantry always pro- 
tects artillery in its neighborhood. 

580. The detail of a support is not necessary except when 
the artillery is separated from the main body or occupies a 
position in which its flanks are not protected. 

The detail of a special support will be avoided whenever 
possible. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 131 

581. The formation of an artillery support depends upon 
circumstances. On the march it may often be necessary to pro- 
vide advance, flank, and rear protection. The country must be 
thoroughly reconnoitered by patrols within long rifle range. 

582. In action, the formation and location of the sui>port 
must be such as to gain and give timely information of the 
enemy's approach and to offer actual resistance to the enemy 
beyond effective rifle range of the artillery's flanks. It should 
not be close enough to the artillery to suffer from fire directed 
at the artillery. In most cases a position somewhat to the 
flank and rear best fulfills these conditions. 

583. The support commander is charged only with the pro- 
tection of the artillery. The tactical employment of each arm 
rests with its commander. The two should cooperate. 

INTRENCHMEMTS. 
(Plate V.) 

584. Ordinarily, Infantry intrenches itself whenever it is 
compelled to halt for a considerable time in the presence of the 
enemy. 

Infantry charged with a resisting mission should intrench 
whenever there is any likelihood that the cover constructed 
will be of use. 

585. Except in permanent fortifications or in fortifications 
prepared long in advance, the infantry plans and constructs the 
field works that it will occupy. 

When performing their duties in this connection onlcers 
should bear in mind that profile and construction are simple 
matters compared with location and correct tactical use. 

586. Intrenchments enable the commander to hold a position 
with the least possible number of men and to prolong his line 
or increase his reserve. 

They are constructed with a view to giving cover which will 
diminish losses, but they must not be so built or placed as to 
interfere with the free use of the rifle. Fire effect is the first 
consideration. 

587. The trace of a fire trench or of a system of fire trenches 
depends upon the ground and the proposed density of the entire 
firing line. The trenches are laid out in company lengths, if 
possible. 



132 MISCELLANEOUS. 

Adjoining trenches should afford each other mutual support. 
The flanks and important gaps in the line should be protected 
t>y fire trenches echeloned in rear. (Fig. 6). 

588. To locate the trace, lie on the ground at intervals and 
select the best field of fire consistent .with the requirements of 
the situation. 

A profile should be selected which will permit the fire to 
sweep the foreground, require the minimum of labor and time, 
and permit the best concealment. No fixed type can be pre- 
scribed. The type must be selected with due regard to the 
terrain, the enemy, time, tools, materials, soil, etc. 

589. Hasty cover. With the' intrenching tool, troops can 
quickly throw up a low parapet about 3 feet thick which will 
furnish considerable cover against rifle fire, but scarcely any 
against shrapnel. Such cover is frequently of value to an 
attack that is temporarily unable to continue. In time, and 
particularly at night, it may be developed into a deep fire or 
cover trench. 

590. Fire trenches should be placed and constructed so as to 
give a good field of fire and to give the troops protection behind 
a vertical wall, preferably with some head or overhead cover. 
They should be concealed or inconspicuous in order to avoid 
artillery fire or to decrease its .accuracy. They, should have 
natural or artificial communication with their supports, but in 
establishing the trace this is a secondary consideration. 

The simplest form of fire trench is deep and narrow and 
has a flat, concealed parapet. (Fig. 1.) In ordinary soil, and 
on a basis of two reliefs and tasks of 5 feet, it can be con- 
structed in about two hours with intrenching tools. 

This trench affords fair cover for troops subjected to fire, but 
not actually firing. When it is probable that time will permit 
elaboration, the simple trench should be planned with a view 
to developing it ultimately into a more complete form. (Figs. 
2 and 3.) Devices should be added to increase the security of 
the trench and the comfort of the men. 

Where the excavated earth is easily removed, a fire trench 
without parapet may be the one best suited to the soil and 
other conditions affecting the choice of profile. (Fig. 4.) The 
enemy's infantry, as well as his artillery, will generally have 
great- difficulty in seeing this type of trench. 

In very difficult soil, if the time is short, it may be necessary 
to dig a wider, shallower trench with a higher parapet. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

9' 



133 




Nofa*ftt-*aA the corth 
Fig. 4 




^Po&'ble arrangement of 2 3rs. cf Inf. intrenched (Rey mental Resent :? I Qn.n?. --.-*$ 
A Firing trenches. 
B Cc*r trencfif 

C Communi'ca^ 1rtKh; D &TK traversed ; ' commjnitatmy *ey 
f Closed supporting point for flank prakcficn 
MG Fb&Ue potion for machine p/ns. concealed from front 
F,g6 



134 MISCELLANEOUS. 

Head cover, notches, and loop holes are of value to troops 
when firing, but many forms weaken and disclose the location 
of the parapet. Filled sandbags kept in the trench when the 
men are not firing may be thrown on the parapet to form 
notches or loopholes when the troops in the trench open fire 
and concealment of the trench is no longer necessary or possible. 

By the use of observation stations the maximum rest and se- 
curity is afforded the troops. Stations are best located in the 
angles of traverses or at the end of the trench. 

591. Where the nature of the position makes it advisable to 
construct traverses at regular intervals it is generally best to 
construct a section of trench for each squad, with traverses be- 
tween squads. (Fig. 5.) 

592. Coyer trenches are placed as closely as practicable to 
their resistive fire trenches. Where natural cover is not 
available, each fire trench should have artificial cover in rear 
for its support either a cover trench of its own or one in com- 
mon with an adjoining fire trench. 

The cover trench is simple and rectangular in profile. Con- 
cealment is indispensable. It is generally concealed by the 
contour of the ground or by natural features, but to guard 
against hostile searching fire overhead cover is frequently 
advisable. 

Cover trenches should be made as comfortable as possible. 
It will often bo advisable to make them extensive enough to 
provide cooking and resting facilities for the garrisons of the 
corresponding fire trenches. 

59ii. Communicating trenches are frequently necessary in or- 
der to connect fire trenches with their corresponding cover 
trenches where natural, covered communication is impracti- 
cable. They are generally rectangular in profile, deep, and nar- 
row. They arc traversed or zigzagged to escape enfilade. 

Hot urns or pockets should be provided for use as latrines, 
storerooms, dressing stations, passing points for troops, etc. 

Cover from observation while passing through the trench 
may insure against loss as effectively as material coyer from 
the enemy's tiro. 

Communicating ways, naturally or artificially screened from 
the enemy's view, sometimes provide sufficient cover for the 
passage of troops. 

"59-4. Dummy trenches frequently draw the enemy's attention 
and fire and thus protect the true fire trench. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 135 

Any type is suitable which presents to the enemy the appear- 
ance of a true trench imperfectly concealed. 

595. When it is .uncertain whether time will permit the com- 
pletion of all the work planned, work should proceed with due 
regard to the order of importance of the several operations. 
Ordinarily the order of importance will be : 

1. Clearing foreground to improve the field of fire and con- 
struction of fire trench. 

2. Head or overhead cover; concealment. 

3. Placing obstacles and recording ranges. 

4. Cover trenches for supports and local reserves. 

5. Communicating trenches. 

6. Widening and deepening of trenches; interior conven- 
iences. 

See paragraph 5G8. 

MINOR WARFARE. 

596. Minor warfare embraces both regular and irregular 
operations. 

Regular operations consist of minor actions involving small 
bodies of trained and organized troops on both sides. 

The tactics employed are in general those prescribed for the 
smaller units. 

697. Irregular operations consist of actions against unor- 
ganized or partially organized forces, acting in independent or 
semi-independent bodies. Such bodies have little or only crude 
training and are under nominal and loose leadership and con- 
trol. They assemble, roam about, and disperse at will. They 
endeavor to win by stealth or by force of superior numbers, 
employing ambuscades, sudden dashes or rushes, and hand-to- 
hand fighting. 

Troops operating against such an enemy usually do so In 
small units, such as platoons, detachments, or companies, and 
the tactics employed must be adapted to meet the requirements 
of the situation. Frequently the enemy's own methods may be 
employed to advantage. 

> In general, such operations should not be undertaken hastily ; 
every preparation should be made to strike suddenly and to 
inflict the maximum punishment. 

598. In general, the service of information will be insuffi- 
cient; adequate reconnaissance will rarely be practicable. 



136 MISCELLANEOUS. 

March and bivouac formations must be such as to admit of 
rapid deployment and tire action in. any direction. 

5J>. In the open country, where surprise is not probnblo, 
troops may le marched in column of squads preceded, within 
sight, by a squad as an advance party. 

600. In close country, where surprise is possible, the troops 
must be held in a close formation. The use of flank patrols be- 
comes difficult. Occasionally, an advance party never less than 
a squad may be sent out. In general, however, such a party 
accomplishes little, since an enemy intent on surprise will per- 
mit it to pass unmolested and will fall upon the main body. 

Under such conditions, especially when the road or trail is 
narrow, the column of twos or files is a convenient formation, 
the officers placing themselves in the column so as to divide it 
into nearly equal imrts. If rushed from a flank, such a column 
will be in readiness to face and fire toward either or both 
flank, the ranks being back to back: if rushed from the front, 
the head of the column may be deployed, the rest of the column 
closing up to support it and to protect its flanks and rear. In 
any event, the men should be taught to take some form of a 
closed back-to-back formation. 

, G01. The column may often be broken into two or more 
approximately equal detachments separated on the march by 
distances of 50 to 100 yards. As a rule the detachments should 
not consist of less than 25, men each. With this arrangement 
of the column, it will rarely be possible for an enemy to close 
simultaneously with all of the detachments, one or .more being 
left unengaged and under control to support those engaged or 
to inflict severe punishment upon the enemy when he is repulsed. 

602. The site for camp or bivouac should be selected with 
special reference to economical and effective protection against 
surprise. Double sentinels are posted on the avenues of ap- 
proach and the troops sleep in readiness for instant action. 
"When practicable, troops should be instructed in advance as to 
what they are to do in case of attack at night. 

6OJ5. Night operations are frequently advisable. With the 
small forces employed, control is not difficult. Irregular troops 
rarely provide proper camp protection, and they may frequently 
be surprise! and severely punished by a properly conducted 
night march and attack. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 137 

PATROLS. 

004. The following paragraphs on patrols arc placed here 
for convenience. They relate in particular to th^e conduct of 
the patrol and its leader, and apply to patrols employed in cover- 
Ing detachments as well as in combat reconnaissance. 

605. A patrol is a detachment sent out from a command to 
gain information of the country or of the enemy, or to prevent 
the enemy from gaining information. In special cases patrols 
may be given missions other than these. 

606. The commander must have clearly in mind the purpose 
for which the patrol is to be used in order that he may deter- 
mine its proper strength, select its leader, and give the latter 
proper instructions. 

In general, a patrol should be sent out for one definite purpose 
only. 

607. The strength of a patrol varies from two or three men 
to a company. It should be strong enough to accomplish its 
purpose, and no stronger. 

If the purpose is to gain information only, a small patrol is 
better than a large one. The former conceals itself more readily 
and moves less conspicuously. For observing from some point 
in plain view of the command or for visiting or reconnoitering 
between outguards two men are sufficient. 

If messages are to be sent back, the patrol must be strong 
enough to furnish the probable number of messengers without 
reducing the patrol to less than two men. If hostile patrols 
are likely to be met and must be driven off, the patrol must be 
strong. 

In friendly territory, a weaker patrol may be used than would 
be used for the corresponding purest 1 in hostile territory. 

608. The character of the leader selected for the patrol de- 
pends upon the im[>ortance of the work in hand. 

For patrolling between the groups or along the lines of an 
outpost, or for the simpler patrols sent out from a covering de- 
tachment, the average soldier will be a competent leader. 

609. For a patrol sent out to gain information, or for a dis- 
tant patrol sent out from a covering detachment, the leader 
must be specially selected. lie must be able to cover large 
areas with few men ; he must be able to estimate the strength 
of hostile forces, to reiw>rt intelligently as to their dispositions, 
to read indications, and to judge as to the importance of the 



13S MISCELLANEOUS. 

information gained. He must possess endurance, courage, and 
good judgment. 

His instructions should be full and clear. He must be made 
to understand exactly what is required of him, where to go and 
when to return. He should be given such information of the 
enemy and country as may be of value to him. He should be 
informed as to the general location of his own forces, particu- 
larly of those with whom he may come in contact. If possible, 
he should be given a map of the country he is to traverse, and 
in many cases his route may be specified. 

Besides his arms and ammunition, the patrol leader should 
have a compass, a watch, a pencil, a note book, and, when prac- 
ticable, field message blanks and a map of the country. 

The patrol leader assembles the men detailed for the patrol. 
He inspects their arms and ammunition and satisfies himself 
that they are in suitable condition for the duty. He sees that 
none has any papers, maps, etc., that would be of value to the 
enemy if captured. He sees that their accouterments do not 
glisten or rattle when they move. He then repeats his instruc- 
tions to the patrol and assures himself that every man under- 
stands them. He explains the signals to be used and satisfies 
himself that they are understood. He designates a man to take 
his place should he be disabled. 

010. The formation and movements of the patrol must be 
regulated so as to render probable the escape of at least one man 
should the patrol encounter a superior force. The formation 
will depend upon the nature of the ground traversal and the 
cover afforded. The leader must adopt the formation and 
measures best suited to the accomplishment of his object. 

In general, it should have the formation of a main body with 
advance, rear, and flank guards, though each be represented only 
by a single man. 

611. The distances separating the members of the patrol 
vary according to the ground. If too close together, they see no 
more than one man: if too widely senarated they are likely to 
be lost to the control of the leader. 

With a patrol of four or five men the distances may vary from 
25 to 50 yards; with a larger patrol they may be as great as 
100 yards. 

At times a column of files, serrated by the distances pre- 
scribed, is a satisfactory formation. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 139 

612. The country must be carefully observed as the patrol 
advances. In passing over a hill, the country beyond should 
first be observed by one man ; houses, inclosures, etc., should be 
approached in a similar manner or avoided entirely; woods 
should generally be reconnoitered in a thin skirmish line. 

613. The strength and composition of hostile troops must be 
observed. If they can not be counted, their strength may be 
estimated by the length of time a column consumes in passing 
a given point, or by the area covered if In camp. 

Patrol leaders should know, if practicable, the uniforms, 
guidons, etc., of the enemy, as It will assist in determining the 
class of. troops seen when no other means for doing so are 
available. 

Insignia from the enemy's uniforms, picked up by patrols, 
often convey valuable information by indicating what troops 
nre in the vicinity. 

,614. Patrols avoid fighting, except in self-defense or in order 
to prevent the enemy's patrols from gaining valuable informa- 
tion, or when necessary in order to accomplish their mission. 
In such cases, a patrol should fight resolutely even though 
inferior in numbers. 

6 15. Information gained by patrols is generally of no value 
unless received in time to be of use to the commander. Patrol 
leaders must therefore send back information of importance as 
soon as it is gained unless the patrol itself is to return at once. 

616. If written, messages should state the place, date, hour, 
and minute of their dispatch. The information contained in 
them should be clearly and concisely expressed. They should 
be signed by the patrol leader. 

The authorized message book should be used and the form 
therein adhered to. 

617. If the message be an oral one, the patrol leader should 
require the messenger to repeat It before starting back. In 
general, an oral message should cover but one point Except 
when there is little chance of error in transmission, messages 
should be written. 

618. When in friendly territory and not very far from 
friendly troops, one messenger is sufficient unless the message 
is very important. In hostile territory, either two men should 
go together or the message should be sent in duplicate by 
different routes. 



140 MISCELLANEOUS. 

019. Whether the information gained is of sufficient impor- 
tance to be reported at once or may await the return of the 
patrol is a question which must be decided in each ease. In 
rase of reasonable doubt, it is generally better to send the re- 
ix>rt promptly. If the patrol leader has received proper instruc- 
tions before starting out and has the requisite ability to lead a 
patrol, he can generally decide such questions satisfactorily as 
they arise. 

020. Infantry patrols are generally used for work within 2 
miles of supporting troops, but cases arise where they must go 
to greater distances. 

021. Patrols composed of mounted scouts are conducted like 
-cavalry patrols and should be trained in accordance with the 
Cavalry Drill Regulations. 

For distant patrolling, a mounted patrol under an officer 
should be used. 

0212. For controlling the movements of the patrol, the leader 
should, when necessary, make use of the arm signals prescribed 
in these regulations. 

On account of the short distances separating them, ordinary 
communication between members of the patrol is best effected 
quietly by word of mouth. 

When a member of a patrol is sent to a distant point, com. 
munication may be effected by means of simple, prearranged 
signals. 

When practicable, the patrol leader may communicate with 
the main body by means of visual signaling. 



PART III. MARCHES AND CAMPS. 



MARCHES. 

TRAINING AND DISCIPLINE. 

623. Marching constitutes the principal occupation o troops 
in campaign and is one of the heaviest causes of loss. This 
loss may be materially reduced by proper trailing and by the 
proper conduct of the march. 

624. The training of infantry should consist of systematic 
physical exercises to develop the general physique ami of 
actual marching to accustom men to the fatigue of bearing 
arms and equipment. 

Before mobilization troops should be kept in good physical 
condition and so practiced as to teach them thoroughly the 
principles of marching. At the. first opportunity after mobiliza- 
tion the men should be hardened to cover long distances without 
loss. 

625. With new or untrained troops, the process of hardening 
the men to this work must be gradual. Immediately after be- 
ing mustered into the service the physical exercises and march- 
ing should be begun. Ten-minute periods of vigorous setting- 
up exercises should be .given three times a day to loosen and 
develop the muscles. One march should be made each day 
with full equipment, beginning with a distance of 2 or 3 miles 
and increasing the distance daily as the troops become hard 
ened, until a full day's march under full equipment may be 
made without exhaustion. 

626. A long march should not be made with untrained 
troops. If a long distance must be covered in a few days, the 
first march should be short, the length being increased each* 
succeeding day. ; 

627. Special attention should be paid to the fitting of shoes 
and the care of feet Shoes should not be too wide or too 

141 



148 MARCHES. 

short. Sores and blisters on the feet should be promptly 
dressed during halts. At the end of the march feet should be 
bathed and dressed ; the socks and, if practicable, the shoes 
should 'be changed. 

628. The drinking of water on the march should be avoided. 
The thirst should be thoroughly quenched before starting on 
the march and after arrival in camp. On the march the use 
of water should, in general, be confined to gargling the mouth 
and throat or to an occasional small drink at most. 

629. Except for urgent reasons, marches should not begin 
before an hour after daylight, but if the distance to be cov- 
ered necessitates either breaking camp before daylight or mak- 
ing camp after dark, it is better to do the former. 

Night marching should be avoided when possible. 

630. A halt of 15 minutes should be made after the first half 
or three-quarters of aq hour of marching; thereafter a halt 
of 10 minutes is made in each hour. The number and length 
of halts may be varied, according to the weather, the conditiort 
of the roads, and the equipment carried by the men. When the 
day's march is long a halt of an hour should be made at noon 
and the men allowed to eat. 

631. The rate of march is regulated by the commander of the 
leading company of ea*ch regiment, or, if the battalions be sepa- 
rated by greater than normal distances, by the commander of 
the leading company of each battalion. He should maintain a 
uniform rate, uninfluenced by the movements of troops 'or 
mounted men in front of him. 

The position of companies in the battalion and of battalions 
in the regiment is ordinarily changed daily so that each in turn 
leads. 

632. The marching efficiency of an organization is judged 
by the amount of straggling and elongation and the condition 
of the men at the end of the march. 

An officer of each company marches in its rear to prevent 
undue elongation and straggling. 

When necessary for a man to fall out on account of sickness, 
he should be given a permit to do so. This is presented to the 
surgeon, who will admit him to the ambulance, have him wait 
for the trains, or follow and rejoin his company at the first halt. 

633. Special attention should be paid to the rate of march. 
It is greater for trained than for untrained troops; for small 
commands than for large ones; for lightly burdened than for 



MARCHES. 143 

heavily burdened troops. It is greater during cool than during 
hot weather. With trained troops, in commands of a regiment 
or less, marching over average roads, the rate should be from 
2} to 3 miles per hour. With larger commands carrying full 
equipment, the rate will be from 2 to 2} miles per hour. 

634. The marching capacity of trained infantry in small 
commands is from 20 to 25 miles per day. This distance will 
decrease as the size of the command increases. For a com- 
plete division the distance can seldom exceed 12$ miles per day 
unless the division camps in column. 

035. In large commands the marching capacity of troops is 
greatly reduced by faulty march orders and poor march disci- 
pline. 

The march order should contain such Instructions as will en- 
able the troops to take their proper places in column promptly. 
Delay or confusion in doing so should be investigated. On the 
other hand, organization commanders should be required to time 
their movements so that the troops will not be formed sooner 
than necessary. 

The halts and starts of the units of a column should be regu- 
lated by the watch and be simultaneous. 

Closing up during a halt, or changing gait to gain or lose 
distance should be prohibited. 



PROTECTION OF THE MARCH. 
General Consideration*. 

636. A column on the march in the vicinity of the enemy is 
covered by detachments called "advance guards," "rear guards," 
or " flank guards." The object of these covering detachments is 
to facilitate the advance of the main body and to protect it 
from surprise or observation. 

They facilitate the advance of the main body by promptly 
driving off small bodies of the enemy who seek to harass or 
delay it; by removing obstacles from the line of advance, by 
repairing roads, bridges, etc., thus enabling the main body to 
advance uninterruptedly in convenient marching formations. 

/They protect the main body by preventing the enemy from 
firing into it when In close formation ; by holding the enemy and 
enabling the main body to deploy before coming under effective 
fire; by preventing its size and condition from being observed 



144 MARCHES. 

by the enemy ; and, in retreat, by gaining time for it to make its 
escape or to reorganize its forces. 

63 7. Tactical units should not be broken in making details 
for covering detachments. 

638. The march order of the whole command should explain 
the situation, and, among other things, detail the commander 
and troops for each covering detachment. It should specify the 
route to be taken and the distance to be maintained between 
the main body and its covering detachments. It should order 
such reconnaissance as the commander specially desires to have 
made. 

The order of the commander of a covering detachment should 
clearly explain the situation to subordinates, assign the troops 
to the subdivisions, prescribe their distances, and order such 
special reconnaissance as may be deemed necessary in the be- 
ginning. 

An advance or flank guard commander marches well to the 
front and, from time to time, orders such additional reconnais- 
sance or makes such changes in his dispositions as the circum- 
stances of the case demand. 

Advance Guards. 

639. An advance guard is a detachment of the main body 
which precedes and covers it on the inarch. 

640.- The advance guard commander is responsible for its 
formation and conduct. He should bear in mind that its pur- 
pose is to facilitate and protect the march of tlie main body. 
Its own security must be effected by proper dispositions and 
reconnaissance, not b'y timid or cautious advance. It must 
advance at normal gait and search aggressively for information 
of the enemy. Its action when the enemy attempts to block it 
with a large force depends upon the situation and plans of the 
commander of the troops. 

G41. The strength of the advance guard varies from one- 
twentieth to one-third of the main body, depending upon the 
size of the main body and the service expected of the advance 
guard. 

642. The formation of the advance guard must be such that 
the enemy will be met first by a patrol, then in turn by one or 
more larger detachments, each capable of holding the enemy 
until the next in rear has time to deploy befpre coming under 
effective fire. 

G43. Generally an adv.ance guard consisting of a battalion or 
more is divided primarily into the reserve and the support. 



MAECHES. 145 

When the advance guard consists of less than a battalion, the 
reserve is generally omitted. 

044. In an advance guard consisting of two battalions or 
less, the reserve and support, if both are used, are approxi- 
mately equal ; in larger advance guards, the reserve is approxi- 
mately two-thirds of the whole detachment. 

In an advance guard consisting of one battalion, the machine 
guns, if any, form part of the reserve. In an advance guard 
consisting of two or more battalions, the machine guns form 
part of the support. 

645. The support sends forward an advance party. The ad- 
vance party, in turn, sends a patrol, called a point, still farther 
to the front. Patrols are sent out to the flanks when necessary. 
When the distance between parts of the advance guard or the 
nature of the country is such as to make direct communication 
difficult, connecting files march between the subdivisions to 
Keep up communication. Each element of the column sends the 
necessary connecting files to its front. 

646. A battalion acting as an advance guard should be 
formed about as follows : The reserve, two companies ; the sup- 
port, two companies; the advance party, three to eight squads 
(about a half company), depending upon the strength of the 
companies and the reconnaissance to be made; the point, a non- 
commissioned officer and three or four men. Or the reserve 
may be omitted. In such case the advance party will consist 
of one company preceded by a strong point. The remaining 
companies form the support. 

647. The distances separating the parts of an advance guard 
vary according to the mission of the whole force, the size of 
the advance guard, the proximity and character of the enemy, 
the nature of the country, etc. They increase as the strength 
of the main body increases; they are less when operating in 
rolling, broken country than in open country; when in pursuit' 
of a defeated enemy than against an aggressive foe; when 
operating against cavalry than when against infantry. 

If there be a mounted point, it should precede the dismounted 
point by 250 to 600 yards. The advance party may be stronger 
when there is a mounted point in front The infantry main- 
tains its gait without reference to the mounted point, the lat- 
ter regulating its march on the former. 

648. To afford protection to an infantry column, the country 
must be observed on each side of the road as far as the terrain 



146 MARCHES. 

affords positions for effective rifle fire upon th<* column. If the 
country that it is necessary to observe be open to view from 
the road, reconnaissance is not necessary. 

649. The advance guard is responsible for the necessary 
reconnaissance of the country on both sides of the line of march. 

Special reconnaissance may be directed by the commander of 
the troops, or cavalry may be reconnoitering at considerable dis- 
tances to the front and flanks, but this 'does not relieve the ad- 
vance guard from the duty of local reconnaissance. 

650. This reconnaissance is effected by patrols sent out by 
the leading subdivisions of the advance guard. In a large ad- 
vance guard the support commander orders the necessary re- 
connaissance. 

Patrols should be sent to the flanks when necessary to re- 
conrioiter a specified locality and should rejoin the column and 
their proper subdivision as soon as practicable. When the ad- 
vance party is strong enough, the patrols should be sent out 
from it. When depleted by the patrols sent out, the advance 
party should be reenforced during a halt by men sent forward 
from the support. If it be impracticable to send patrols from 
the advance party, they will be sent from the support. 

Where the country is generally open to view, but localities in 
it might conceal an enemy of some size, reconnaissance is nec- 
essary. Where the road is exposed to fire and the view is re- 
stricted, a patrol should be sent to examine the country in the 
direction from which danger threatens. The object may be ac- 
complished by sending patrols to observe from prominent points. 
When the ground permits and the necessity exists, patrols may 
be sent to march abreast of the column at distances which per- 
mit them to see important features not visible from the road. 

Mounted scouts or cavalry, when available, should be used for 
flank patrols. 

651. Cases may arise where the best means of covering the 
head and flanks of the column will be by a line of skirmishers 
extending for several hundred yards to both sides of the road, 
and deployed at intervals -of from 10 to 50 yards. A column 
may thus protect itself when passing through country covered 
with high corn or similar vegetation. In such case, the vege- 
tation forms a natural protection from rifle fire beyond very 
short ranges. 

352. Fixed rules for tne strength, formation, or conduct of 
advance guards can not be given. Each case must be treated 
to meet conditions as they exist. That solution is generally the 



MARCHES. 147 

best which, with the fewest men and unbroken units, amply 
protects the column and facilitates the advance. 

Rear Guard 9. 

653. A rear guard is a detachment detailed to protect the 
main body from attack in rear. In a retreat, it checks pursuit 
and enables the main body to increase the distance between it 
and the enemy and to re-form if disorganized. 

The general formation is that of an advance guard reversed. 

(Jo 4. Its commander should take advantage of every favor- 
able opportunity to delay the pursuers by obstructing the road 
or by taking up specially favorable positions from which to 
force the enemy to deploy. In this latter case care must be 
taken not to become so closely engaged as to render withdrawal 
unnecessarily difficult. The position taken should be selected 
with reference to ease of withdrawal and ability to bring the 
enemy under fire at long range. 

055. In large commands artillery and cavalry form a very 
Important part of the rear guard. 

Flank Guard 3. 

650. A Hank guard is a detachment detailed to cover the flank 
of a column marching past, or across the front of, an enemy. 
It may be placed in position to protect the passage, or it may be 
BO marched as to cover the passage. 

657. The object of the flank guard is to hold the enemy in 
check long enough to enable the main body to pass, or, like the 
advance guard, to euable the main body to deploy. 

Like all other detachments, it should be no larger than is 
necessary, and should not be detailed except when its protection 
Is required. 

658. When a flank guard consists of a regiment or less, its 
distance from the main body should not exceed a mile and a 
half. Practicable communication must exist between it and 
the main body. 

Or>9. The flank guard is marched as a separate command; 
that is, with advance or rear guards or both, as circumstances 
demand, and with patrolling on the exiwsed flank. 

6OO. At times it may be necessary for an advance-guard 
commander to send out large reconnoitering parties which tem- 
porarily assume the character and duties of a flank guard. 
Such parties should be given specific orders as to when and 
where they are to rejoin the column. 



CAMPS. 

SANITATION. 

661. If the area of the available ground is sufficient and 
suitable, the camp of the battalion or regiment should con/orm 
to the plates published in the Field Service Regulations. Tinder 
similar favorable conditions, the brigade may camp in column or 
In line of columns. In the latter formation the interval between 
regiments should be about 50 yards. When the camp site has 
a restricted area, intervals and distances are rodm-cd. 

Under service conditions, camp sites that will permit, the en- 
campment of regiments and brigades as above indicated will 
not often be available and regularity must be sacrificed. 

662. In large commands the halt order should assign camp 
sites to the next smaller commands, and the commanders of the 
latter should locate their respective commands to the best ad- 
vantage on the area assigned them. 

The Selection of Camp Sites. 

663. In campaign, tactical necessity may leave little choice 
in the selection of camp sites, but under any conditions the re- 
quirements of sanitation should be given every consideration 
consistent with the tactical situation. 

664. Great care should be exercised in selecting sites. In 
general, the following principles govern: 

The site should be convenient to an abundant supply of pure 
water. 

Good roads should lead to the camp. Interior communica- 
tion throughout the camp should be easy. A camp near a main 
road is undesirable on account of dust and noise. 

Wood, grass, forage, and supplies should be at hand or easily 
obtainable. 

148 



CAMPS. 149 

The ground should accommodate the command without crowd- 
ing and without compelling the troops of one unit to pass 
through the camp of another. 

The site should be sufficiently high and rolling to drain off 
storm water readily, and, if the season be hot, to catch the 
breeze. In cold weather it should preferably havefa southern 
exposure, with woods to the north to break the void winds. In 
warm weather an eastern exposure, with the site moderately 
shaded by trees, is desirable. 

The site should be dry. For this reason porous soil, covered 
with stout turf and underlaid by a sandy or gravelly subsoil, is 
best. A site on clay soil, or where the ground water approaches 
the surface, is damp, cold, and unhealthful. 

Alluvial soils, marshy ground, and ground near the base of 
hills, or near thick woods or dense vegetation, are undesirable 
as camp sites on account of dampness. Ravines and depressions 
are likely to be unduly warm and to have insufficient or unde- 
sirable air currents. 

Proximity to marshes or stagnant water is undesirable on 
account of the dampness, mosquitoes, and the diseases which 
the latter transmit. The high banks of lakes or large streams 
often make desirable camp sites. 

Dry beds of streams should be avoided; they are subject to 
sudden freshet. 

665. The occupation of old camp sites is dangerous, since 
these are often permeated by elements of disease which persist 
for considerable periods. Camp sites must be changed promptly 
when there is evidence of soil pollution or when epidemic dis- 
ease threatens, but the need for frequent changes on this ac- 
count may be a reflection on the sanitary administration of the 
camp. 

A change of camp site is often desirable in order to secure a 
change of surroundings and to abandon areas which have be- 
come dusty and cut up. 

Water Supply. 

666. Immediately on making camp a guard should be placed 
over the water supply. If the water be obtained from a stream, 
places should be designated for drawing water (1) for drinking 
and cooking, (2) for watering animals, (3) for .bathing and 



150 CAMPS. 

washing clothing. The first named should be drawn farthest 
up the stream ; the others, in the order named, downstream. 

If the stream be small, the water supply may be increased by 
building-a dam. Small springs may be dug out and esich lined 
with a gaVion, or a barrel or box with both ends removed, or 
with stones, the space between the lining and the earth being 
filled with puddled claj. A rim of clay should be built to keep 
out surface drainage. The same method may be used near 
swamps, streams, or lakes to increase or clarify the water 
supply. 

667. Water that is not known to be pure should be boiled 
20 minutes; it should then be cooled and aerated by bein^ 
poured repeatedly from one clean container to another, or it 
may be purified by approved apparatus supplied for the purpose. 

668. Arrangements should be made for men to draw water 
from the authorized receptacles by means of a spigot or other 
similar arrangement. The dipping of water from the recepta- 
cles, or the use of a common drinking cup, should be prohibited. 

Kitchens. 

669. Camp kettles can be hung on a support consisting of a 
green pole lying in the crotches of two upright posts of the same 
character. 

A narrow trench for the fire, about 1 foot deep, dug under the 
pole, not only protects the fire from the wind but saves fuel. A 
still greater economy of fuel can be effected by digging a similar 
trench in the direction of the wind and slightly narrower than 
the diameter of the kettles. The kettles are then placed on the 
trench and the space between the kettles filled in with stones, 
clay, etc., leaving the flue running beneath the kettles. The 
draft can be Improved by building a chimney of stones, clay, 
etc., at the leeward end of the flue. 

Four such trenches radiating from a common central chimney 
will give one flue for use whatever may be the direction of the 
wind. 

A slight slope of the flue, from the chimney down, provides 
for drainage and improves the draft, 

670. The lack of portable ovens can be met by ovens con- 
structed of stone and covered with earth to better retain the 
heat If no stone is available, jm empty barrel, with one head 



CAJfPS. 151 

out, is laid on its side, covered with wet clay to a depth of 6 or 
more inches and then with a layer of dry earth equally thick. 
A flue is constructed with the clay above the closed end of the 
barrel, which is then burned out with a hot fire. This leaves a 
baked clay covering for the oven. 

A recess can be similarly constructed with boards or even 
brushwood, supported on a horizontal pole resting on upright 
posts, covered and burnt out as in the case of the barrel. 

When clay banks are available, an oven may be excavated 
therein and used at once. 

To bake in such ovens, first heat them and then close flues and 
ends. 

071. Food must be protected from flies, dust, and sun. Fa- 
cilities must be provided for cleaning and scalding the mete 
equipment of the men. Kitchens and the ground around them 
must be kept scrupulously clean. 

672. Solid refuse should be promptly burned, either In the 
kitchen fire or in an improvised crematory. 

673. In temporary camps, if the soil is porous, liquid refuse 
from the kitchens may be strained through gunny sacking into 
seepage pits dug near the-kitchen. Flies must not have access 
to these pits. Boards or poles, covered with brush or grass 
and a layer of earth may be used for this purpose. Ttite 
strainers should also be protected from flies. Pits of this kind, 
dug in clayey soil, will not operate successfully. All pits should 
be filled with earth before marching. 

DispoaaJ of Excreta. 

674. Immediately on arriving in camp sinks should be dug. 
This is a matter of fundamental sanitary importance, since the 
most serious epidemics of camp diseases are spread from human 
excreta. 

One sink is usually provided for each company and one for the 
officers of each battalion. Those for the men are invariably 
located on the side of camp opposite the kitchens. All sinks 
should be so placed that they can not pollute the water supply 
or camp site as a result of drainage or overflow. To insure 
this, ttieir location and their distance from camp may be varied. 

When camp is made for a single night, shallow trenches, 12 
inches deep and 15 to 18 inches wide, which the men may 
straddle, will suffice. 



nci 
h e 

111 



152 CAMPS. 

In more permanent camps, the trenches should be about 2 feet 
wide, 6 feet deep, and 15 feet long. They should be provided 
with seats and back rests made of poles, and should be screened 
by brush or old tent flys. 

675. In cold weather the contents of sicks should be covered 
once daily with quicklime, ashes, or dry earth. When filled 
to within 2 feet of the top, sinks should be discontinued and 
filled in. 

Open pits are dangerous during the fly season. However, t 
danger may be greatly reduced by covering the excreta witl 
earth or by a thorough daily burning of the entire area of the 
trench. Combustible sweepings or straw, saturated with oil, 
may be used for this purpose. 

In fly season, trenches may be closed with seats covered down 
to the ground with muslin and supplied with self-closing lids. 
Urinal troughs, made of muslin and coated with oil or paint, 
should discharge into the trenches. 

676. In permanent camps special sanitary facilities for the 
disposal of excreta will ordinarily be provided. 

If necessary, urinal tubs may be placed in the company streets 
at night and removed at reveille. Their location should be 
plainly marked and thoroughly and frequently disinfected. 

677. When troops bivouac for the night the necessity for 
extensive sanitary precautions is not great ; however, shallow 
sink trenches should be dug to prevent general pollution of the 
vicinity. If the cooking be collective, shallow kitchen sinks 
should be dug. If the cooking be individual, the men should bo 
required to build their fires on the leeward flank of the camp 
or bivouac. 

Before marching, all trenches should be filled in. 

PROTECTION OF CAMP OR BIVOUAC. 
General Considerations. 

678. The outpost is a covering detachment detailed to secure 
the camp or bivouac against surprise and to prevent an attack 
upon it before the troops can prepare to resist. 

679. The size and disposition of the outpost will depend upon 
many circumstances, such as the size of the whole command, the 
proximity of the enemy and the situation with respect to him. 
the nature of the terrain, etc. 



CAMPS. 153 

A suitable strength may vary from a very small fraction to 
one-third of the whole force. For a single company in bivouac 
a few sentinels and patrols will suffice; for a large command a 
more elaborate outpost system must be provided. It should be 
no stronger than is consistent with reasonable security. 

The most economical protection is furnished by keeping close 
contact with the enemy by means of outpost patrols, in con- 
junction with resisting detachments on the avenues of approach. 

The outpost should be composed of complete organizations. 

680. In a brigade or smaller force on the march toward the 
enemy, the outlast is generally formed from the advance guard, 
jind is relieved the following day when the new advance guard 
crosses the line of outguards. In a retreat, the detail for ont- 
post duty is generally made from the main body. The new out- 

becomes the rear guard the following day. 

681. When, as in large forces, an advance and rear guard 
performs such duty for several days, the outpost, during this 
period, is furnished by the advance or rear guards. 

When the command is small and stationary for several days, 
the outpost is relieved daily. In large commands, the outpost 
\vrll. as a rule, be relieved at intervals of several days. 

082. The positions held by the subdivisions of the outpost 
should generally be prepared for defense, but conditions may 
render this unnecessary. 

Troops on outpost keep concealed as much as is consistent 
with the proper performance of their duties; especially do they 
avoid appearing on the sky Ime. 

Outpost troops do not render honors. 

Distribution of Outpost Troops. 

683. The outpost will generally be divided into three parts. 
These, in order from the main body, are the reserve, the line of 
supports, and the line of outguards. 

The distances separating these parts, and their distance from 
the main body, will depend upon the object sought, the nature 
of the terrain, and the size of the command. There can be no 
uniformity in the distance between supports and reserve, nor 
between outguards nd supports, even in the same outpost. The 
avenues of approach and the Important features of the terrain 
will largely control their exact positions. 



154 CAMPS. 

The outpost of a small force should ordinarily hold the enemy 
beyond effective rifle range of the main body until the latter caa 
deploy. For the same purpose the outpost of a large force 
should hold the enemy beyond artillery range. 

084. The reserve constitutes the main body of the outpost 
and is held at some central point from which it can readily 
support the troops in front or hold a rallying position, on which N 
they may retire. The reserve may be omitted when the outpost 
consists of less than two companies. 

The reserve may comprise one-fourth to two-thirds of the 
strength of the outpost. 

685. The supports constitute a line of supporting and resist- 
ing detachments, varying in size from a half company to a 
battalion. They /urnish the line of outguards. 

The supports are numbered consecutively from right to left. 
They are placed at the more important points on 'the outpost 
line, usually in the line on which resistance is to be made in 
case of attack. 

686. As a general rule, roads exercise the greatest influence 
on the location of support*, and a support will generally be 
placed on or near a road. The section which it is to cover 
should be clearly defined by means of tangible lines on the 
ground and should be such that the support is centrally located 
therein. 

687. The outguards constitute the line of small detachments 
farthest to the front and nearest to the enemy. For convenience 
they are classified as pickets, sentry squads, and cossack posts. 
They are numbered consecutively from right to left in each 
support. 

688. A picket is a group consisting of two or more squads, 
ordinarily not exceeding half a company, posted in the line of 
outguards to cover a given sector. It furnishes patrols and one 
or more sentinels, double sentinels, sentry squads, or cossack 
posts for observation. 

Pickets are placed at the more important points hi the line 
of outguards, such as road forks. The strength of each depends 
upon the number of small groups required to observe properly 
its sector. 

680. A sentry squad is a squad posted in observation at an 
indicated point. It posts a double sentinel in observation, the 
remaining men resting near by and furnishing the reliefs of 
entinels. In some cases it may be required to furnish a patrol. 



CAMPS. 15S 

690. A cossack post consists of four men. It Is an observa- 
tion group similar to a sentry squad, but employs a single 
sentinel. 

091. At night, it will sometimes be advisable to place some 
of the outguards or their sentinels in a position different from 
that which they occupy in the daytime. In such case the ground 
should be carefully studied before dark and the change made 
at dusk. However, a change in the position of the outguard 
will be exceptional. 

692. Sentinels are generally used singly in daytime, but at 
night double sentinels will be required in most cases. Sentinels 
furnished by cossack posts or sentry squads are kept near their 
group. Those furnished by pickets may be as far as 100 yards 
away. 

Every sentinel should be able to communicate readily with 
the body to which he belongs. 

693. Sentinel posts are numbered consecutively from right 
to left in each outguard. Sentry squads and cossack posts fur- 
nished by pickets are counted as sentinel posts. 

694. Instead of using outguards along the entire front of 
observation, part of this front may be covered by patrols only. 
These should be used to cover such sections of the front as can 
be crossed by the enemy only with difficulty and over which he 
is not likely to attempt a crossing after dark. 

In daylight much of the local patrolling may be dispensed 
with if the country can be seen from the posts of the sentinels. 
However, patrols should frequently be pushed well to the front 
unless the ground in that direction is exceptionally open. 

695. Patrols or sentinels must be the first troops which the 
enemy meets, and each body in rear must have time to prepare 
for the blow. These bodies cause as much delay aa possible 
without sacrificing themselves, and gradually retire to the line 
where the outpost is to make its resistance. 

696. Patrols must be used to keep up connection between the 
parts of the outpost except when, during daylight, certain frac- 
tions or groups are mutually visible. After dark this connec- 
tion must he maintained throughout the outpost except where 
the larger subdivisions are provided with wire communication. 

697. In addition to ordinary outpuards, the outpost com- 
mander may detail from the reserve one or more detached posts 
to cover roads or areas not in the general line assigned to tht 
supports. 



156 CAMPS. 

In like manner the commander of the whole force may order 
detached posts to be sent from the main body to cover important 
roads or localities not included in the outpost line. 

The number and strength of detached posts are reduced to 
the absolute needs of the situation. 

Establishing the Outpost. 

698. The outpost is posted as quickly as possible- so that 
the troops can the sooner obtain rest. Until the leading outpost 
troops are able te assume their duties, temporary protection, 
known as the march outpost, is furnished by the nearest avail- 
able troops. 

699. The halt order of the commander, besides giving the 
necessary information and assigning camp sites to the parts of 
the command, details the troops to constitute the outpost, as- 
signs a commander therefor, designates the general line to be 
occupied, and, when practicable, points out the position to be 
held in case of attack. 

700. The outpost commander, upon receipt of this order, 
should issue the outpost order with the least practicable delay. 
In large commands it may often be necessary to give the order 
from the map, but usually the outpost commander will have to 
make some preliminary reconnaissance, unless he has an accu- 
rate and detailed map. 

The order gives such available information of the situation as 
is necessary to the complete and proper guidance of subordi- 
nates; designates the troops to constitute the supports; assigns 
their location and the sector each is to cover; provides for the 
necessary detached posts ; indicates any special reconnaissance 
that is to be made; orders the location and disposition of the 
reserve; disposes of the train if same is ordered to join the 
outpost; and informs subordinates where information will be 
Bent. 

701. Generally it is preferable for the outpost commander to 
give verbal orders to his support commanders from some local- 
ity which overlooks the terrain. The time and locality should 
be so selected that the support commanders may -join their 
commands and conduct them to their positions without causing 
unnecessary delay to their troops. The reserve commander 
should, if possible, receive his orders at the same time as the 



CAMPS. 157 

support commanders. Subordinates to whom he gives orders 
separately should be informed of the location of other parts of 
the outpost 

In large outposts, written orders are frequently most con- 
venient. 

After issuing the initial orders, the outpost commander In- 
spects the outpost, orders the necessary changes or additions* 
and sends his superior a report of his dispositions. 

702. The reserve is marched to its post by its commander* 
who then sends out such detachments as have been ordered and 
places the rest in camp or bivouac, over which at least one 
sentinel should be posted. Connection must be maintained with 
the main body, the supports and nearby detached posts. 

703. The supports march to their posts, using the necessary 
covering detachments when in advance of the march outpost. 
A support commander's order should fully explain the situation 
to subordinates, or to the entire command, if it be small. It 
should detail the troops for the different outguards and, when 
necessary, define the sector each is to cover. It should provide 
the necessary sentinels at the post of the support, the patrols 
to be sent therefrom, and should arrange for the necessary in- 
trenching. Connection should be maintained with adjoining 
supports and with the outguards furnished by the support. 

704. In posting his command the supi>ort commander must 
seek to cover his sector in such manner that the enemy can not 
reach, in dangerous numbers and unobserved, the position of 
the support or pass by it within the sector intrusted to the 
support. On the other hand, he must economize men on obser- 
vation and patrol duty, for these duties are unusually fatiguing. 
He must practice the greatest economy of men consistent with 
the requirements of practical security. 

705. As soon as the posting of the support is completed, itr 
commander carefully inspects the dispositions and corrects de- 
fects, if any, and reports the disposition of his support, includ- 
ing the patrolling ordered, to the outpost commander. This re- 
port is preferably made by means of a sketch. 

706. Each outguard is marched by its commander to Its 
assigned station, and, especially in the cnse of a picket, is cov- 
ered by the necessary patrolling to prevent surprise. 

Having reached the position, the commander explains the 
situation to his men and establishes reliefs for each sentinel. 



158 CAMPS. 

and, if possible, for each patrol to be furnished. Besides these 
sentinels and patrols, a picket must have a sentinel at its post. 

The commander then posts the sentinels and points out to 
them the principal features, such as towns, roads, and streams, 
and gives their names. He gives the direction and location of 
the enemy, if known, and of adjoining parts of the outpost. 

He gives to patrols the same information and the necessary 
orders as to their routes and the frequency with which the 
same shall be covered. Each patrol should go over its route 
once before dark. 

707. Every picket should maintain connection by patrols 
with outguards on its right and left. Each commander will 
take precaution to conceal his outguard and will generally 
strengthen his position by intrenching. 



PART IV. CEREMONIES AND INSPEC- 
TIONS. 



CEREMONIES. 

Genera/ Rules for Ceremonies. 

708. The order in which the troops of the various arms are 
arranged for ceremonies is prescribed by Army Regulations. 

When forming for ceremonies the companies of the battalion 
and the battalions of the regiment are posted from right to left 
in line and from head to rear in column, in the order of rank 
of their respective commanders present in the formation, the 
senior on the right .or at the head. . 

1 The commander faces the command ; subordinate commanders 
face to the front. 

709. At the command present arms, given by the colonel, the 
lieutenant colonel, and the colonel's staff salute; the major's 
staff salute at the major's command. Each staff returns to the 
carry or order when the command order arms is given by its 
chief. 

710. At the assembly for a ceremony companies are formed 
on their own parades and informally inspected. 

At adjutant's call, except for ceremonies involving a single 
battalion, each battalion is formed on its own parade, reports 
are received, and the battalion presented to the major. At the 
second sounding of adjutant's call the regiment is formed. 

REVIEWS. 
General Rules. 

711. The adjutant posts men or otherwise marks the points 
where the column changes direction in such manner that its 
flank in passing will be about 12 paces from the reviewing 
officer. 

The post of the reviewing officer, usually opposite the center 
of the line, is indicated by a marker. 

Officers of the same or higher grade, and distinguished per- 

159 



1*0 CEBEMONIES. 

son ages invited to accompany the reviewing officer, place them- 
selves on nis left; their staffs and orderlies place themselves 
respectively on the left of the staff and orderlies of the review- 
ing officer ; all others who accompany the reviewing officer place 
themselves on the left of his staff, their orderlies in rear. A 
staff officer is designated to escort distinguished personages and 
to indicate to them their proper positions. 

712. While riding around the troops, the reviewing officer 
may direct his staff, flag and orderlies to remain at the post 
of the reviewing officer, or that only his personal staff and flag 
shall accompany him; -in either case the commanding officer 
alone accompanies the reviewing officer. If the reviewing officer 
is accompanied by his entire staff, the staff officers of the com- 
mander place themselves on the right of the staff of the review- 
ing officer. 

The reviewing officer and others at the reviewing stand salute 
the color as it passes ; when passing around the troops, the re- 
viewing officer and those accompanying him salute the color 
when passing in front of it 

The reviewing officer returns the salute of the commanding 
officer of the troops only. Those who accompany the reviewing 
officer do not salute. 

713. In passing in review, each staff salutes with its com- 
mander. 

714. After saluting the reviewing officer, the commanding 
officer of the troops turns out of the column, takes post on the 
right of the reviewing officer, and returns saber; the members 
of his staff accompanying him take post on the right of the re- 
viewing officer's staff and return saber. When the rear element 
of his command has passed, without changing his position, the 
commanding officer of the troops salutes the reviewing officer ; 
he and the members of his staff accompanying him then draw 
saber and rejoin his command. The commanding officer of 
the troops and the members of his staff are the only ones 
who turn out of the column. 

715. If the person reviewing the command is not mounted, 
the commanding officer and his staff on turning out of the 
column after passing the reviewing officer dismount prepara- 
tory to taking post. In such case, the salute of the command- 
ing officer, prior to rejoining his command, Is made with the 
hand before remounting. 

7 1O. When the rank of the reviewing officer entitles him to 
the honor, each regimental color salutes at the command 



CZKEKOimSS. 161 

arms, given or repeated by the major of tbe battalion with 
which it is posted ; and again in passing in review. 

717. The band of an organization plays while the reviewing 
officer is passing in front of and in rear of the organization. 

Each band, immediately after passing the reviewing officer, 
turns out of the column, takes post in front of and facing him f 
continues to play until its regiment has passed, then ceases 
playing and follows in rear of its regiment; the band of the 
following regiment commences to play as soon as the preceding 
band has ceased. 

While marching in review but one band in each brigade plays 
at a time, and but one band at a time when within 100 paces of 
the reviewing officer. 

718. If the rank of the reviewing officer entitles him to tbe 
honor, the band plays the prescribed national air or tbe field 
music sounds to the color, march, flourishes, or ruffles when nrms 
are presented. When passing in review at the moment the 
regimental color salutes, the musicians halted in front of the 
reviewing officer, sound to the color, march, flourishes, or ruffles. 

719. The formation for review may be modified to suit the 
ground, and the present arms and the ride around the lino by 
the reviewing officer may be dispensed with. 

720. If the post of the reviewing officer is on the left of tbe 
column, the troops march in review with the guide left ; the 
commanding officer and his staff turn out of the column to the 
left, taking post as prescribed above, but to the left of the 
reviewing officer ; in saluting, the captains give the command : 
1. Eyes, 2. LEFT. 

721. Except in the review of a single battalion, the troops 
pass In review In quick time only. 

722. In reviews of brigades or larger commands, each bat- 
talion, after the rear has passed the reviewing officer 50 paces, 
takes the double time for 100 yards in order not to interfere 
with the march of the column in rear; if necessary, it then turns 
out of the column and returns to camp by the most practicable 
route; the leading battalion of each regiment is followed by the 
other units of the regiment. 

723. In a brigade or larger review a regimental commander 
may cause his regiment to stand at ease, rest, or stack arms and 
fa/1 out and resume attention, so as not to interfere with the 
ceremony. 

724. When an organization is to be reviewed before an in- 
siMX-tor Junior In rank to the commanding officer, the command- 



162 CBBEMOSIKS. 

ing officer receives the review and is accompanied by the in- 
spector, who takes post on his left 

Battalion Review. 

725. The battalion having been formed Jn line, the major 
faces to the front ; the reviewing officer moves a few paces toward 
the major and halts; the major turns about and commands: 
1. Present, 2. ARMS, and again turns about and salutes. 

The reviewing officer returns the salute; the major turns 
about brings the battalion to order arms, and again turns to 
the front 

The reviewing officer approaches to about 6 paces from the 
major, the latter salutes, takes post on his right, and accompa- 
nies him around the battalion. The baud plays. The reviewing 
officer proceeds to the right of the band, passes in front of the 
captains to the left of the line and returns +o the right passing 
in rear of the file closers and the band. 

On arriving again at the right of the line, the major salutes, 
halts, and when the reviewing officer and staff have passed 
moves directly to his post in front of the battalion, faces it and 
commands : 1. Pass in review, 2. Squad* right, 3. MARCH. 

At the first command the band changes direction if necessary, 
and halts. 

At the third command, given when the band has changed 
direction, the battalion moves off, the band playing'; without 
command from the major the column changes direction at the 
points indicated, and column of companies at full distance is 
formed successively to the left at the^ second change of direc- 
tion ; the major takes his post 30 paces in front of the band 
immediately after the second change ; the band having passed 
the reviewing officer, turns to the left out of the column, takes 
post in front of and facing the reviewing officer, and remains 
there until the review terminates. 

The major and staff salute, turn the head as in eyes right, 
and look toward the reviewing officer when the major is 6 
paces from him; they return to the carry and turn the head 
and eyes to the front when the ma}or has passed 6 paces be- 
yond him. 

Without facing about, each captain or special unit com- 
mander, except the drum major, commands : 1. /**, in time to 
add 2. RIGHT, when at 6 paces from the reviewing officer, and 
commands FROHT when at 6 paces beyond him. At the com- 
mand eyes the company officers armed with the saber execute 



CEREMONIES. 163 

the first motion of present snber : at the command right all turn 
head and eyes to the right the company officers complete 
present saber and the noncommissioned officers armed with the 
saber execute the first motion of present saber ; at the command 
front all turn head and eyes to the front, and officers and non- 
commissioned officers armed with the saber resume the carry 
saber; without arms in hand the first motion of the hand 
salute is made at the command right and the second motion 
not made until the command front. 

Noncommissioned staff officers, noncommissioned officers In 
command of subdivisions, and the drum major salute, turn the 
head and eyes, return to the front, resume the carry or drop the 
hand, at the points prescribed for the major. Officers and dis- 
mounted noncommissioned officers in command of subdivisions 
with arms in hand render the rifle or saber salute. Guides 
charged with the step, trace, and direction do not execute e/e 
right. 

If the reviewing officer is entitled to a salute from the color 
the regimental color salutes when at 6 paces from him, and is 
raised when at 6 paces beyond him. 

The major, having saluted, takes post on the right of the 
reviewing officer, returns saber and remains there until the 
rear of the battalion has passed, then salutes, draws saber, and 
rejoins his battalion. The band ceases to play when the col- 
umn has completed its second change of direction after nassing 
the reviewing officer. 

726. When the battalion arrives at its original position in 
column, the major commands: 1. Double time, 2. MARCH. 

The band plays in double time. 

The battalion passe* In review as before, except that in double 
time the command eyos right is* omitted and there is no saluting 
except by the major when he leaves the reviewing officer. 

The review terminates when the rear company has passed 
the reviewing officer ; the band then ceases to play, and, unless 
otherwise directed by the major, returns to the position it occu- 
pied before marching in review, or is dismissed ; the major 
rejoins the battalion and brings it to quick time. The battalion 
then executes such movements as the reviewing officer may 
have directed, or is marched to its parade ground and dismissed. 

Marching past in double time may, In the discretion of the 
reviewing officer, be omitted; the review terminates when the 
- rejoins his battalion. 



164 CEJUEMONIXS. 

727. At battalion review the major and bis staff may be dis- 
mounted in the discretion of the commanding officer. 

Regimental Review. 

728. The regiment Is formed in line or in line of masses. 
In line the review proceeds as in the battalion, substituting 

"'colonel" for "major" and "regiment" for "battalion." 

To march the regiment in review, the colonel commands: 
J>ASS IN REVIEW. The band changes direction, if necessary, and 
halts. Each major then commands: 1. Squads right, 2. MARCH. 

The band marches at the command of the major of the lead- 
Ing battalion. 

At the second change of direction each major takes post 20 
paces in front of his leading company. 

The rear of the column having passed the reviewing officer, 
the battalions, unless otherwise directed, are marched to their 
parades and dismissed. 

In line of masses, when the reviewing officer has passed around 
the regiment, the colonel commands: PASS IN REVIEW. The 
band changes direction, if necessary, and halts. The major of 
the right battalion then commands: 1. Column of squads, first 
company, squads right, 2. MARCH. At the command march the 
band and the leading company of the right battalion move off. 
Each company and battalion in rear moves off in time to follow 
at its proper distance. 

>729. The review of a small body of troops composed of 
different arms is conducted on the principles laid down for the 
regiment. The troops of each arm are formed and marched 
according to the drill regulations for that arm. 

Review of Large Commands. 

730. A command consisting of one regiment, or less, and 
detachments of other arms is formed for review as ordered by 
the commanding officer. The principles of regimental review 
will be observed whenever practicable. 

731. In the review of a brigade or larger command the 
present arms and the ride around the line by the reriewing 
officer are omitted. The troops form and march in the order 
prescribed by the commanding officer. 

PARADES. 
General Rules. 

732. If dismounted, the officer receiving the parade, and his 
staff, stand at parade rest, with arms folded, while the band is 



CEREMONIES. 165 

sounding off; they resume attention with the adjutant If 
mounted, they remain at attention. 

733. At the command report, given by a battalion adjutant, 
the captains in succession from the right salute and report: 
A (or other) company, present or accounted for; or, A for other) 
company, (so many) officers or enlisted men absent, and resume 
tile order saber ; at the same command given by the regimental 
adjutant, the majors similarly report their battalions, 

Battalion Parade. 

734. At adjutant's call the battalion is formed in line but 
not presented. Lieutenants take their i>osts in front of the 
center of their respective platoons at the captain's command 
for dressing his company on the line. The major takes post at 
a convenient distance in front of the center and facing the 
battalion. 

The adjutant, from his post in front of the center of the 
battalion, after commanding: 1. Guides, 2. POSTS, adds: 1. 
Parade, 2. REST; the battalion executes parade rest. The adju- 
tant directs the band : SOUND OFF. 

The band, playing in quick time, passes in front of the line of 
officers to the left of the line and back to its post on the right, 
when it ceases playing. At evening parade, when the' band 
ceases playing, retreat is sounded by the field music and, follow- 
ing the last note and while the flag is being lowered, the band 
plays the Star Spangled Banner. 

Just before the last note of retreat, the adjutant comes to 
attention and, as the last note ends, commands: 1. Battalion t 
2. ATTENTION. When the band ceases playing he commands: 
1. Present, 2. ARMS. He then turns about and reports: Sir, 
the parade is formed. The major directs the adjutant: Take 
your post, Sir. The adjutant moves at a trot (if dismounted, 
in quick time), passes by the major's right, and takes his post. 

The major draws saber and commands: 1. Order, 2. ARMS, 
and adds such exercises in the manual of arms as he may de- 
sire. Officers, noncommissioned officers commanding companies 
or armed with the saber, and the color guard, having once 
executed order arms, remain in that position during the exer- 
cises in the manual. 

The major then directs the adjutant : Receive the reports, Sir. 
The adjutant, passing by the major's right, advances at a trot 
(if dismounted, in quick time), toward the center of the line, 



166 CEREMONIES. 

halts midway between it and the major, and commands: 
REPORT. 

The reports received, the adjutant turns about, and reports: 
Sir, all are present or accounted for; or Sir, (90 many) officers or 
enlisted men are absent, including in the list of absentees those 
from the band and field music reported to him by the drum 
major prior to the parade. 

The major directs : Publish the orders, Sir. 

The adjutant turns about and commands: Attention to orders: 
he then reads the orders, and commands : 1. Officers, 2. CENTER, 
3. MARCH. 

At the command center, the company officers carry saber and 
face to the center. At the command march, they close to the 
center and face to the front ; the adjutant turns about and takes 
his post. 

The officers having closed and faced to the front, the senior 
commands: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH. The officers advance, the 
band playing; the left officer of the center or right center com- 
pany is the guide, and marches on the major ; the officers are 
halted at 6 paces from the major by the senior who commands : 

1. Officers, 2. HALT. They halt and salute, returning to the 
carry saber with the major. The major then gives such instruc- 
tions as he deems necessary, and commands; 1. Officers, 

2. POSTS, 3. MARCH. 

At the command posts, company officers face about. 

At the command march, they step off with guide as before, 
and the senior commands: 1. Officers, 2. HALT, so as to halt 3 
paces from the line; he then adds: 1. POSTS, 2. MARCH. 

At the command posts, officers face outward and, at the com- 
mand march, step off in succession at 4 paces distance, resume 
their posts and order saber; the lieutenants march directly to 
their posts in rear of their companies. 

The music ceases when all officers have resumed their posts. 

The major then commands: 1. Pass in review, 2. Squads right, 

3. MARCH, and returns saber. 

The battalion marches according to the principles of review; 
when the last company has passed, the ceremony is concluded. 

The band continues to play while the companies are in march 
upon the parade ground. Companies are formed in column of 
squads, without halting, and are marched to their respective 
parades by their captains. 

When the company officers have saluted the major, he may 
direct theiu to form line with the staff, in which case they indi- 



CEREMONIES. 167 

vldnally move to the front, passing to the right and left of the 
major and staff, halt on the line established by the staff, face 
about, and stand at attention. The music ceases when the offi- 
cers join the staff. The major causes the companies to pass in 
review under the command of their first sergeants by the same 
commands as before. The company officers return saber with 
the major and remain at attention. 

Regimenial Parade. 

735. The regiment is formed in line or in line of masses; 
the formation having proceeded up to, but not including the 
present, the parade proceeds as described for the battalion, with 
the following exceptions : 

** Colonel " is substituted for " major" " regiment " for bat- 
talion," in the description, and "battalions" for "battalion" in 
the commands. 

Lieutenants remain in the line of file closers. 

After publishing the orders, the adjutant commands: 1. Offi- 
cer*, center, 2. MARCH. 

The company commanders remain at their posts with their 
companies. 

The field and staff officers form one line, closing on the center. 
The senior commands : 1. Forward, 2. MARCH. 

The second major is the guide and marches on the colonel. 

After being dismissed by the colonel, each major moves in- 
dividually to the front, turns outward, and followed by his staff 
resumes his post by the most direct line. The colonel directs 
the lieutenant colonel to march the regiment in review; the 
latter moves to a point midway between the colonel and the 
regiment and marches the regiment in review as prescribed. If 
the lieutenant colonel is not present the colonel gives the neces- 
sary commands for marching the regiment In review. 

ESCORTS, 
dcori of the Co/or. 

736. The regiment being in line, the colonel details a com- 
pany, other than the color company, to receive and escort the 
national color to its place in line. During the ceremony the 
regimental color reuiaius with the color guard at its post with 
the regiment. 

The band moves straight to its front until clear of the line of 
field officers, changes direction to the right, and is halted; the 
designated company forms column of platoons in rear of the 
band, the color bearer or bearers between the nlatoons. 



168 CEREMONIES. 

The escort then marches without music to the colonel's office 
or quarters and is formed in line facing the entrance, the band 
on the right, the color bearer in the line of file closers. 

The color bearer, preceded by the first lieutenant and fol- 
lowed by a sergeant of the escort then gqes to obtain the color. 

When the color bearer comes out, followed by the lieutenant 
and sergeant, he halts before the entrance, facing the escort; 
the lieutenant places himself on the right, the sergeant on the 
left of the color bearer ; the escort presents arms, and the field 
music sounds to the color; the first lieutenant and sergeant 
salute. 

Arms are brought to the order; the lieutenant and sergeant 
return to their posts; the company is formed in column of 
platoons, the band taking post in front of the column ; the color 
bearer places himself between the platoons; the escort marches 
In quick time, with guide left, back to the regiment, the baud 
playing ; the march is so conducted that when the escort arrives 
at 50 paces in front of the right of the regiment, the direction 
of the march shall be parallel to its front; when the color 
arrives opposite its place in line, the escort is formed in line to 
the left; the color bearer, passing between the platoons, ad- 
vances and halts 12 paces in front of the colonel. 

The color bearer having halted, the colonel, who has taken 
post 30 paces in front of the center of his regiment, faces about, 
commands: 1. Present, 2. ARMS, resumes his front, and salutes; 
the field music sounds to the color; and the regimental color 
bearer executes the color salute at the command present arms. 

The colonel then faces about, brings the regiment to the 
order, at which the color bearer takes his post with the color 
company. 

The escort presents arms and comes to the order with the regi- 
ment, at the command of the colonel, after which the captain 
forms It ngain in column of platoons, and, preceded by the band, 
marches it to its place in line, passing around the left flank of 
the regiment. 

The band plays, until the escort passes the left of the line, 
when it ceases playing and returns to its post on the right, 
passing in rear of the regiment. 

The regiment may be brought to a rest when the escort 
passes the left of the line. 

737. Escort of the color is executed by a battalion according 
to the same principles. 



CEREMONIES. 168 

Escorts of Honor. 

738. Escorts of honor are detailed for the purpose of receir- 
Ing and escorting personages of high rank, civil or military. 
The troops for this purpose are selected for their soldierly 
appearance and superior discipline. 

The escort forms in line, opposite the place where the per- 
sonage presents himself, the band on the flank of the escort 
toward which it will march. On the appearance of the person- 
age, he is received with the honors due to his rank. The escort 
is formed into column of companies, platoons or squads, and 
takes up the march, the personage and his staff or retinue tak- 
ing positions in rear of the column ; when he leases the escort, 
line is formed and the same honors are paid as before. 

When the position of the escort is at a considerable distance 
from the point where the personage is to be received, as for in- 
stance, where a courtyard or wharf intervenes, a double line 
of sentinels is posted from that point to the escort, facing in- 
ward; the sentinels successively salute as he passes and are 
then relieved and Join the escort. 

An officer is appointed to attend him and bear such com- 
munication as he may have to make to the commander of the 
escort. 

Funeral Escort. 

789. The composition and strength of the escort are pre- 
scribed in Army Regulations. 

The escort is formed opposite the quarters of the deceased; 
the band on that flank of the escort toward which it is to march. 

Upon the appearance of the coffin, the commander commands: 

1. Present, 2. ARMS, and the band plays an appropriate air; 
arms are then brought to the order. 

The escort is next formed into column of companies, platoons, 
or squads. If the escort be small, it may be marched in line. 
The procession is formed in the following order: 1. Music, 

2. Escort, 3. Clergy, 4. Coffin and pallbearers, 5. Mourners, 6. Mem- 
bers of the former command of the deceased, 7. Other officers and 
enlisted men, 8. ^Distinguished persons, 9. Delegations, 10. Socie- 
ties, 11. Civilians. Officers and enlisted men (Xos. 6 and 7), 
with side arms, are in the order of rank, seniors in front. 

The procession being formed, the commander of the escort 
puts it in march. 

The escort marches slowly to solemn music ; the column bay- 
ing arrived opposite the grave, line is formed facing it 



190 CE&EXOHZE8. 

The coffin is then carried along the front of the escort to the 
grave ; arms are presented, the music plays an appropriate air ; 
the coffin having been placed over the grave, the music ceases 
and arms are brought to the order. 

The commander next commands: 1. Parade, 2. REST. The 
escort executes parade r**t, officers and men inclining the head. 

When the funeral services are completed and the coffin low- 
ered into the grave the .commander causes the escort to resume 
attention and fire three rounds of blank cartridges, the muzzles 
of the pieces being elevated. When the escort is greater than a 
battalion, one battalion is designated to fire the volleys. 

A musician then sounds taps. 

The escort is then formed into column, marched in quick 
time to the point where it was assembled, and dismissed. 

The .band does not play until it has left the inclosure. 

When the distance to the place of interment is considerable, 
the escort, after having left the camp or garrison, may march 
at ease in quick time until it approaches the burial ground, when 
It is brought to attention. The music does not play while march- 
Ing at ease. 

In marching at attention, the field music may alternate with 
the band In playing. 

740. When arms are presented at the funeral of a person 
entitled to any of the following honors, the band plays the pre- 
scribed national air, or the field music sounds to the color, march, 
flourishes, or ruffles, according to the rank of the deceased, after 
which the band plays an appropriate air. The commander of 
the escort, jn forming column, gives the appropriate commands 
for the different arms. 

741. At the funeral of a mounted officer or enlisted man, his 
horse, in mourning caparison, follows the hearse. 

742. Should the entrance of the cemetery preveqt the hearse 
accompanying the escort till the latter halts at the grave, the 
column is halted at the entrance long enough to take the coffin 
from the hearse, when the column is again put in march. The 
Cavalry and Artillery, when unable to enter the inclosure, turn 
out of the column, face the column, and salute the remains as 
they pass. 

743. When necessary to escort the remains from the quarters 
of the deceased to the church before the funeral service, arms 
are presented upon receiving the remains at the quarters and 
also as they are borne into the church. 

744. The commander of the escort, previous to the funeral, 

.ration 4-VtA nlAvmrmon anrl rvi llliu'l ra*fi all n 



INSPECTIONS. 

Company Inspection. 

745. Being in line at a halt: 1. Open ranks, 2. MARCH. 

At the command march the front rank executes right dress; 
the rear rank and the file closers march backward 4 steps, halt, 
and execute right dress; the lieutenants pass around their 
respective flanks and take post, facing to the front 3 paces in 
front of the center of their respective platoons. The captain 
aligns the front rank, rear rank, and file closers, takes post 
3 paces in front of the right guide, facing to the left, and com- 
mands: 1. FRONT. 2. PREPARE FOR INSPECTION. 

At the second command the lieutenants carry saber; the 
captain returns saber and inspects them, after which they face 
about, order saber, and stand at ease; upon the completion of 
the inspection they carry saber, face about, and order saber. 
The captain may direct the lieutenants to accompany or assist 
him, in which case they return saber and, at the close of the 
inspection, resume their posts in front of the company, draw 
and carry saber. 

Having inspected the lieutenants, the captain proceeds to the 
right of the company. Each man, as the captain approaches 
him, executes inspection arms. 

The captain takes the piece, grasping it with his right hand 
just above the rear sight, the man dropping his hands. The 
captain inspects the piece, and, with the hand and piece in the 
same position as in receiving it, hands it back to the man, who 
takes it with the left hand at the balance and executes order 
arms. 

As the captain returns the piece the next man executes 
inspection arms, and so on through the company. 

Should the piece be insisted without handling, each man 
executes order arms as soon as the captain posses to the next 
man. 

The inspection is from right to left in front, and from left to 
right in rear, of each rank and of the line of file closers. 

171 



172 INSPECTIONS. 

When approached by the captain the first sergeant executes 
inspection saber. Enlisted men armed with the pistol execute 
inspection pistol by drawing the pistol from the holster and hold- 
ing it diagonally across the body, barrel up, and 6 inches in 
front of the neck, muzzle pointing up and to the left. The pistol 
is returned to the holster as soon as the captain passes. 

Upon completion of the inspection the captain takes post facing 
to the left in front of the right guide and on line with the lieu- 
tenants and commands : 1. Close ranks, 2. HI ARCH. 

At the command march the lieutenants resume their posts in 
line ; the rear rank closes to 40 inches, each man covering his file 
leader ; the file closers close to 2 paces from the rear rank. 

746. If the company is dismissed, rifles are put away. In 
quarters, headdress and aecouterments are removed and the men 
.stand near their respective bunks ; in camp they stand covered, but 
withouj accouterments, in front of their tents. 

If the personal field equipment has not been inspected in ranks 
And its inspection in quarters or camp is ordered, each man will 
arrange the prescribed articles on his bunk, if in quarters or perma- 
nent camp, or in front of his half of the tent, if in shelter tent 
camp, in the same relative order as directed in paragraph 747. 

The captain, accompanied by the lieutenants, then inspects the 
quarters or camp. The first sergeant precedes the captain and calls 
the men to attention on entering each squad room or on approach- 
ing the tents ; the men stand at attention but do not salute. 

747. If the inspection is to include an examination of the 
equipment while in ranks, the captain, after closing ranks, causes 
the company to stack arms, to march backward until 4 paces in 
rear of the stacks and to take intervals. He then commands : 
1. UMSUMG EQUIPMENT. 2. OPEN PACKS. 

At the firs^ command, each man unslings his equipment and 
places it on the ground at his feet, haversack to the front end of 
the pack 1 foot in front of toes. 

At the second command, pack carriers are unstrapped, parks 
removed and unrolled, the longer edge of the pack along the lower 
edge of the cartridge belt. Each man exposes shelter tent pins, 
removes meat can, knife, fork, and spoon from the meat-can pouch, 
and places them on the right of the haversack, knife, fork, and 
spoon in the open meat can; removes the canteen and cup from 
the cover and places them on the left side of the haversack ; un- 
straps and spreads out haversack so as to expose its contents ; 
folds up the carrier to uncover the cartridge pockets ; opens same ; 
unrolls toilet articles and places them on the outer flap of the 
haversack ; places underwear carried in pack on the left half of 
the open pack, with round fold parallel with front edge of pack ; 



INSPECTIONS. 173 

opens first-aid pouch and exposes contents to view. Special articles 
carried by individual men, such as flag kit, field glasses, compass, 
steel tape, notebook, etc., will be arranged on the right half of the 
open pack. Each man then resumes the attention. Plate VI 
shows the relative position of all articles except underwear and 
special articles. 

The captain then passes along the ranks and file closers as before, 
inspects the equipment, returns to the right, and commands : 
CLOSE PACKS. 

Each man rolls up his toilet articles and underwear, straps up 
his haversack and its contents, replaces the meat can, knife, fork, 
and spoon, and the canteen and cup ; closes cartridge pockets and 
first-aid pouch ; restores special articles to their proper receptacles ; 
rolls up and replaces pack in carrier ; and, leaving the equipment 
in its position on the ground, resumes the attention. 

All equipments being packed, the captain commands: SLING 
EQUIPMENT. 

The 'equipments are slung and belts fastened. 

The captain then causes the company to assemble and take arms. 
The inspection is completed as already explained. 

748. Should the Inspector be other than the captain, the latter, 
after commanding front, adds REST, and faces to the front. When 
the inspector approaches, the captain faces to the left, brings the 
company to attention, faces to the front, and salutes. The salute 
acknowledged, the captain carries saber, faces to the left, com- 
mands: PREPARE FOR INSPECTION, and again faces to the front. 

The inspection proceeds as before ; the captain returns saber and 
accompanies the inspector as soon as the latter passes him. 



Battalion Inspection. 

749. If there be both inspection and review, the inspection 
may either precede or follow the review. 

The battalion being in column of companies at fall distance, 
all officers dismounted, the major commands : 1. Prepare for in- 
spection, 2. MARCH. 

At the first command each captain commands: Open ran lit. 

At the command march the ranks are opened in each company, 
as in the inspection of 'the company. 

The field musicians join their companies. 

The drum major conducts the band to a position 30 paces in 
war of the column, if not already there, and opens ranks. 



174 - IHSPECTIOHS. 

The major takes post facing to the front and 20 paces in front 
of the center of the leading company. The staff takes post as 
tf mounted. The color takes post 5 paces in rear of the staff. 

Field and staff officers senior in rank to the Inspector do not 
take post in front of the column but accompany him. 

The inspector inspects the major, and, accompanied by the 
latter, inspects the staff officers. 

The major then commands: REST, returns saber, and, with 
his staff, accompanies the inspector. 

If the major is the inspector he commands: REST, returns 
saber, and inspects his staff, which then accompanies him. 

The inspector, commencing at the head of the column, then 
makes a minute inspection of the color guard, the noncommis- 
sioned staff, and the arms, accouterments, dress, and ammuni- 
tion of each soldier of the several companies in succession, and 
inspects the band. 

The adjutant gives the necessary commands for the inspection 
of the color guard, noncommissioned staff, and band. 

The color guard and noncommissioned staff may be dismissed 
as soon as inspected. 

750. As the inspector approaches each company its captain 
commands: 1. Company, 2. ATTENTION, 3. PREPARE FOR IN- 
SPECTION, ,and faces to the front; as soon as inspected he 
returns saber and accompanies the inspector. The inspection 
proceeds as in company inspection. At its completion the cap- 
tain closes ranks and commands: REST. Unless otherwise 
directed by the inspector, the major directs that the company 
be marched to its parade and dismissed. 

751. If the inspection will probably last a long time the rear 
companies may be permitted to stack arms and fall out; before 
the inspector approaches they fall in and take arms. 

752. The band plays during the inspection of the companies. 
When the inspector approaches the band the adjutant com- 
mands: PREPARE FOR INSPECTION. 

As the inspector apnroaches him each man raises his instru- 
ment in front of the body, reverses it so as to show both sides, 
and then returns it. 

Company musicians execute inspection similarly. 

753. At the inspection of quarters or camp the inspector 
is accompanied by the captain, followed by the other officers 
or by such of them as he may designate. The inspection is 
conducted as described in the company inspection. 



MUSTER. 175 

Regimental Inspection. 

754. The commands, means, and principles are the same as 
described for a battalion. 

The colonel takes post facing to the front and 20 paces in 
front of the major of the leading battalion. His staff takes 
post as if mounted. The color takes post 5 paces in rear of the 
staff. 

The inspector inspects the colonel and the lieutenant colonel, 
and, accompanied by the colonel, inspects the staff officers. 

The colonel then commands: REST, returns saber, and, with 
the lieutenant colonel and staff, accompanies the inspector. 

If the colonel is the inspector he commands: REST, returns 
saber, and inspects the lieutenant colonel and staff, all of whom 
then accompany him. 

The inspector, commencing at the head of the column, makes 
a minute inspection of the color guard, noncommissioned staff, 
each battalion in succession, and the band. 

On the approach of the inspector each major brings his bat- 
talion to attention. Battalion inspection follows. 

MUSTER. 

Regimental, Battalion, or Company Muster. 

755. Muster Is preceded by an inspection, and, when prac- 
ticable, by a review. 

The adjutant is provided with the muster roll of the field, 
staff, and band, the surgeon with the hospital roll ; each captain 
with the roll of his company. A list of absentees, alphabetically 
arranged, showing cause and place of absence, accompanies 
each roll. 

756. Being in column of companies at open ranks, each cap- 
tain, as the mustering officer approaches, brings his company to 
right shoulder arms, and commands: ATTENTION TO MUSTER. 

The mustering officer or captain then calls the names on the 
roll; each man, as his name is called, anwers Here and brings 
his piece to order arms. 

After muster, the mustering officer, accompanied by the com- 
pany commanders and such other officers as he may designate. 



176 HONORS ANB SALUTES. 

verifies the presence of the men reported in hospital, on guard, 
etc. 

757. A company may be mustered in -the same manner on 
its own parade ground, the muster to follow the company 
inspection. 

HONORS AMD SALUTES. 

758. Further rules governing honors, courtesies, etc., are 
prescribed in Army Regulations. 

759. (1) Salutes shall be exchanged between officers and 
enlisted men not in a military formation, nor at drill, work, 
games, or mess, on every occasion of their meeting, passing near 
or being addressed, the officer junior in rank or the enlisted 
man saluting first. 

(2) When an officer enters a room where there are several 
enlisted men, the word "attention" is given by some one who 
perceives him, when all rise, uncover, and remain standing at 
attention until the officer leaves the room or directs otherwise. 
Enlisted men at meals stop eating and remain seated at 
attention. 

(3) An enlisted man, if seated, rises on the approach of an 
officer, faces _ toward him, stands at attention, and salutes. 
Standing he faces an officer for the same purpose. If the 
parties remain in the same place or on the same ground, such 
compliments need not be repeated. Soldiers actually at work 
do not cease work to salute an officer unless addressed by him. 

(4) Before addressing an officer, an enlisted man makes the 
prescribed salute with the weapon with which he is armed, or, 
if unarmed, with the right hand. He also makes the same 
salute after receiving a reply. 

(5) In uniform, covered or uncovered, but not in formation, 
officers and enlisted men salute military persons as follows : 
With arms in hand, the salute prescribed for that arm (senti- 
nels on interior guard duty excepted) ; without arms, the right- 
hand salute. 

(6) In civilian dress, covered or uncovered, officers and en- 
listed men salute military persons with the right-hand salute. 

(7) Officers and enlisted men will render the prescribed 
salutes in a military manner, the officer junior in rank, or the 
enlisted men, saluting first. When several officers in company 
are saluted, all entitled to the salute shall return it 



HOlCOBS AND SALUTES. 177 

(8) Except in the field under campaign or simulated cam- 
paign conditions, a mounted officer (or soldier) dismounts be- 
fore addressing a superior officer not mounted. 

(9) A man in formation shall not salute when directly ad- 
dressed, but shall come to attention if at rest or at ease. 

(10) Saluting distance is that within which recognition is 
easy. In general, it does not exceed 30 paces. 

(11) When an officer entitled to the salute passes in rear of 
a body of troops, it is brought to attention while he is opposite 
the post of the commander. 

(12) In public conveyances, such as railway trains and 
street cars, and in public places, such as theaters, honors and 
personal salutes may be omitted when palpably inappropriate 
or apt to disturb or annoy civilians present 

(13) Soldiers at all times and in all situations pay the same 
compliments to officers of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and 
Volunteers, and to officers of the National Guard as to officers 
of their own regiment, corps, or arm of service. 

(14) Sentinels on post doing interior guard duty conform to 
the foregoing principles, but salute by presenting arms when 
armed with the rifle. They will not salute if it interferes with 
the proper performance of their duties. Troops under arms 
will salute as prescribed in drill regulations. 

760. (1) Commanders of detachments or other commands 
will salute officers of grades higher than the person command- 
ing the unit, by first bringing the unit to attention and then 
saluting as required by subparagraph (5), paragraph 759. 
If the person saluted is of a Junior or equal grade, the unit 
need not be at attention in the exchange of salutes. 

(2) If two detachments or other commands meet, their com- 
manders will exchange salutes, both commands being at 
attention. 

761. Salutes and honors, as a rule, are not paid by troops 
actually engaged in drill, on the march, or in the field under 
campaign or simulated campaign conditions. Troops on the 
service of security pay no compliments whatever. 

762. If the command is in line at a halt (not in the field) 
and armed with the rifle, or with sabers drawn, it shall be 
brought to present arms or present sabers before its commander 
salutes in the following cases: When the National Anthem is 
played, or when to the color or to the standard is sounded during 



178 HONORS AND SALUTES. 

ceremonies, or when a person is saluted who is its immediate or 
higher commander or a general officer, or when the national or 
regimental color is saluted. 

763. At parades and other ceremonies, under arms, the com- 
mand shall render the prescribed salute and shall remain in the 
position of salute while the National Anthem is being played; 
also at retreat and during ceremonies when to the color is 
played, if no band is present. If not under arms, the organiza- 
tions shall be brought to attention at the first note of the Na- 
tional Anthem, to the color or to the standard, and the salute 
rendered by the officer or noncommissioned officer in command 
as prescribed in regulations, as amended herein. 

7C4. Whenever the National Anthem is played at any place 
when persons belonging to the military service are present, all 
officers and enlisted men not in formation shall stand at atten- 
tion facing toward the music (except at retreat, when they 
shall face toward the flag). If in uniform, covered or uncov- 
ered, or in civilian clothes, uncovered, they shall salute at the 
first note of the anthem, retaining the position of a salute until 
the last note of the Anthem. If not in uniform and covered, 
they shall uncover at the first note of the anthem, holding the 
headdress opposite the left shoulder and so remain until its 
close, except that in inclement weather the headdress may be 
slightly raised. 

The same rules apply when to the color or to the standard is 
sounded as when the National Anthem is played. 

When played by an Army band, the National Anthem shall 
be played through without repetition of any part not required 
to be repeated to make it complete. 

The same marks of respect prescribed for observance during 
the playing of the National Anthem of the United States shall 
be rhown toward the national anthem of any other country 
when played upon official occasions. 

7OJ5J Officers and enlisted men passing the uncased color 
will render honors as follows : If in uniform, they will salute as 
required by subparagraph (5), paragraph 759; if in civilian 
dress and covered, they will uncover, holding the headdress 
opposite the left shoulder with the right hand ; if uncovered 
they will salute with the right-hand salute. 



PART V. MANUALS. 



THE COLOR. 

766. The word " color " implies the national color ; It includes 
the regimental color when both are present. 

The rules prescribing the colors to be carried by regiments 
and battalions on all occasions are contained in Army Regula- 
tions. 

767. in garrison the colors, when not in use, are kept in the 
office or quarters of the colonel, and are escorted thereto and 
therefrom by the color guard. In camp the colors, when not in 
use, are in front of the colonel's tent. From reveille to retreat, 
when the weather permits, they are displayed uncased ; from re- 
treat to reveille and during inclement weather they are cased. 

Colors are said to be cased when furled and protected by the 
oil-cloth covering. 

768 The regimental color salutes in the ceremony of escort 
of the color, and when saluting an officer entitled to the honor, 
but in no other case. 

If marching, the salute is executed when nt 6 paces from the 
officer entitled to. the salute; the carry is resumed when 6 paces 
beyond him. 

The national color renders no salute. 

The Color Guard. 

769. The color guard consists of two color sergeants, who 
are the color bearers, and two experienced privates selected by 
the colonel. The senior color sergeant carries the national 
color; the junior color sergeant carries the regimental color. 
The regimental color, when carried, is always on the left of the 
national color, in whatever direction they may face. 

179 



180 THE COLOR. 

770. The color guard Is formed and marched In one rank, 
the color bearers in the center. It is marched in the same man- 
ner and by the same commands as a squad, substituting, when 
necessary, guard for squad. 

771. The color company Is the center or right center com- 
pany of (the center or right center battalion. The color guard 
remains with that company unless otherwise directed. 

772. In line the color guard is in the interval between the 
inner guides of the right and left center companies. 

In line of columns or in close line, the color guard is midway 
between the right and left center companies and on line with 
the captains. 

In column of companies or platoons the color guard is mid- 
way between the color company and the company in rear of 
the color company and equidistant from the flanks of the 
column. 

In close column the color guard is on the flank of the color 
company. 

In column of squads the color guard is in the column between 
the color company and the company originally on its left. 

When the regiment is formed in line of masses for ceremonies, 
the color guard forms on the left of the leading company of 
the center (right center) battalion. It rejoins the color com- 
pany when the regiment changes from line of masses. 

773. The color guard, when with a battalion that takes the 
battle formation, joins the regimental reserve, whose commander 
directs the color guard to join a certain company of the reserve. 

774. The color guard executes neither loadings nor firings; 
In rendering honors, It executes all movements in the manual; 
In drill, all movements unless specially excused. 

To Receive the Co/or. 

775. The color guard, by command of the senior color ser- 
geant, presents arms on receiving and parting with the color. 
After parting with the color, the color guard is brought to 
order arms by command of .the senior member who is placed as 
the right man of the guard. 

776. At drills and ceremonies, excepting escort of the color, 
the color, if present, is received by the color company after its 
formation. 



THE COLOR. 181 

The formation of the color company completed, the captain 
fcices to the front ; the color guard, conducted by the senior ser- 
geant, approaches from the front and halts at a distance of 10 
paces from the captain, who then faces about, brings the com- 
pany to the present, faces to the front, salutes, again faces 
about and brings the company to the order. The color guard 
comes to the present and order at the command of the captain, 
and is then marched by the color sergeant directly to Its post on 
the left of the color company. 

777. When the battalion is dismissed the color guard escorts 
the color to the office or. quarters of the colonel. 

Manual of the Color. 

778. At the carry the heel of the pike rests in the socket of 
the sling; the right hand grasps the pike at the height of the 
shoulder. 

At the order the heel of the pike rests on the ground near the 
right toe, the right hand holding the pike in a vertical position. 

At parade rest the heel of the pike is on the ground, as at the 
order; the pike is held with both hands in front of the center of 
the body, left hand uppermost. 

The order is resumed at the command attention. 

The left hand assists the right when necessary. 

The carry is the habitual position when the troops are at a 
shoulder, port, or trail 

The order, and parade rest ar$ executed with the troops. 

The color salute: Being at a carry, slip the right hand up the 
pike to the height of the eye, then lower the pike by straighten- 
ing the arm to the front 



THE BAND. 

779. The band Is formed in two or more ranks, with suffi- 
cient intervals between the men and distances between the 
ranks to permit of a free use of the instruments. 

The field music, when united, forms with and in rear of the 
band ; when the band -is not present the posts, movements, and 
duties of the field music are the same as prescribed for the band ; 
when a musician is in charge his position is on the right of the 
front rank. When the battalion or regiment turns about by 
squads, the band executes the countermarch ; when the battalion 
or regiment executes right, loft, or about face, the band faces in 
the same manner. 

In marching, each rank dresses to the right. 

In executing open ranks each rank of the band takes the dis- 
tance of 3 paces from the rank next in front; the drum major 
verifies the alignment. 

The field music sounds the march, flourishes, or ruffles, and to 
the color at the signal of the drum major. 

780. The drum major is 3 paces in front of the center of the 
front rank, and gives the signals or commands for the move- 
ments of the band as for a squad, substituting in the commands 
band for squad. 

Signals of the Drum Major. 

781. Preparatory to a signal the staff is held with the right 
hand near the head of the staff, hand below the chin, back to 
the front, ferrule pointed upward and to the right 

Prepare to play: Face toward the band and extend the right 
arm to its full length in the direction of the staff. Play: Bring 
the arm back to its original position in front of the body. 

Prepare to cease playing: Extend the right arm to its full 
length in the direction of the staff. Cease playing: Bring the 
arm back to its original position in front of the body. 

To march: Turn the wrist and bring the staff to the front, 
the ferrule pointing upward and to the front; extend the arm 
to its full length in the direction of the staff. 

To halt: Lower the staff into the raised left hand and raise 
the staff horizontally above the head with both hands, the arms 



THE BAND. 183 

extended ; lower the staff with both hands to a horizontal posi- 
tion at the height of the hips. 

To countermarch: Face toward the band and give the signal 
to march. The countermarch is executed by each front-rank 
man to the right of the drum major turning to the right about, 
each to the left:, turning to the left about, each followed by the 
men covering him. The drum major passes through the center. 

To oblique: Bring the staff to a horizontal position, the bead 
of the staff opposite the neck, the ferrule pointing in the direc- 
tion the oblique is to be made; extend the arm to its full length 
in the direction of the staff. 

To march by the right flank: Extend the arm to the right, the 
staff vertical, ferrule upward, back of the hand to the rear. 

To march by the /eft ftonk: Extend the arm to the left, the 
staff vertical, ferrule upward, back of the hand to the front. 

To diminish front: "Let the ferrule fall into the left hand at the 
height of the eyes, right hand at the height of .the hip. 

To increase front: Let the ferrule fall into the left hand at the 
height of the hip, right hand at the height of the neck. 

The march, flouritbet, or ruffles: Bring the staff to a vertical 
position, hand opposite the neck, back of the hand to the front, 
ferrule pointing down. 

. To the color: Bring the staff to a horizontal position at the 
height of the neck, back of the hand to the rear, ferrule point- 
Ing to the left. 

When the band is playing, in marching, the drum .major beats 
the time with his staff and supports the left hand at the hip, 
fingers in front, thumb to the rear. 

The drum major, with staff in hand, salutes by bringing his 
staff to a vertical position, head of the staff up and opposite 
the left shoulder. 

The drum major, marching in review with staff in hand, 
salutes by bringing his staff to a vertical position, head of the 
staff up and opposite the left shoulder. 

At a halt, and the band not playing, the drum major holds 
his staff with the ferrule touching the ground about 1 inch from 
toe of right foot, at an angle of about 60, ball pointing upward 
to the right, right hand grasping staff near the bail, back of 
the hand to the front; left hand at the hip, fingers in front, 
thumb to the rear. 



MANUAL OF THE SABER. 

782. 1. Draw, 2. SABER. 

At the command draw unhook the saber with the thumb and 
first two fingers of the left hand, thumb on the end of the hook, 
fingers lifting the upper ring ; grasp the scabbard with the left 
hand 'at the upper band, bring the hilt a little forward/ seiz? 
the grip with the right hand, and draw the blade 6 inches out 
of the scabbard, pressing the scabbard against the thigh with 
the left hand. 

At the command saber draw the saber quickly, raising the 
arm to its full extent to the right front, at an angle of about 
45 with the horizontal, the saber, edge down, in a straight line 
with the arm ; make a slight pause and bring the back of the 
blade against the shoulder, edge to the front, arm nearly ex- 
tended, hand by the side, elbow back, third and fourth fingers 
back of the grip; at the same time hook up the scabbard with 
the thumb and first two fingers of the left hand, thumb through 
the upper ring, fingers supporting it ; drop the left hand by the 
side. 

This 13 the position of carry saber dismounted. 

Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber 
unhook the scabbard before mounting; when mounted, In the 
first motion of draw saber they reach with the right hand over 
the bridle hand and without the aid of the bridle hand draw 
the saber as before; the right hand at the carry rests on the 
vight thigh. 

On foot the scabbard is carried hooked up. 

783. When publishing orders, calling the roll, etc., the saber 
is held suspended from the right wrist by the saber knot ; when 
the saber knot is used it .is placed on the wrist before drawing 
saber and taken off after returning saber. 

784. Being at the order or carry: 1. Present, 2. SABER (or 
ARMS). 

At the command present raise and carry the saber to the 
front, base of the hilt as high as the chin and 6 inches in front 
of the neck, edge to the left, point 6 inches farther to the front 
than the hilt, thumb extended on the left of the grip, all fingers 
grasping the grip. 
184 



KAKUAL OF TEE SABER. 196 

At the command saber, or arms, lower the saber, point in 
prolongation of the right foot and near the ground, edge to the 
left hand by the side, thumb on left of grip, arm extended. If 
mounted, the hand is held behind the thigh, point a little to the 
right and front of the stirrup. 

In rendering honors with troops officers execute the first mo- 
tion of the salute at the command present, the second motion at 
the command arms; enlisted men with the saber execute the 
first motion at the command arms and omit the second motion. 

785. Being at a carry: 1. Order, 2. SABER (or ARMS). 

Drop the point of the saber directly to the front, point on or 
near the ground, edge down, thumb on back of grip. 

Being at the present saber, should the next command be order 
arms, officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the 
saber order saber; if the command be other than order or/nt, they 
execute carry saber. 

When arms are brought to the order the officers or enlisted 
men with the saber drawn order saber. 

78G. The saber is held at the carry while giving commands, 
marching at attention, or changing position in quick time. 

When at the order sabers are brought to the carry when arms 
are brought to any position except the present or parade rest. 

787. Being at the order : 1. Parade, 2. HIST. 

Take the position of parade rest except that the left hand is 
uppermost and rests on the right hand, point of saber on or 
near the ground in front of the center of the body, edge to the 
right 

At the command attention resume the order saber and the 
position of the soldier. 

788. In marching in double time the saber is carried diag- 
onally across the breast edge to the front; the left hand 
steadies the scabbard. 

789. Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the 
saber, on all duties under arms draw and return saber without 
waiting for command. All commands to soldiers under arms 
are given with the saber draxvn. 

790. Being at a carry: 1. Return, 2. SABER. 

At the command return carry the right hand opposite to and 
6 inches from the left shoulder, saber vertical, edge to the left ; 
at the same time unhook and lower the scabbard with the left 
nand and grasp it at the upper band. 



186 MANUAL OF THE SABER. 

At the command saber drop the point to the rear and pass the 
blade across and along the left arm ; turn the head slightly to 
the left, fixing the eyes on the opening of the scabbard, raise 
the right hand, insert and return the blade; free the wrist from 
the saber knot (if inserted in it), turn the head to the front, 
drop the right hand by the side ; hook up the scabbard with the 
left hand, drop the left hand by the side. 

Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber, 
when mounted, return saber without using the left hand; the 
scabbard is hooked up on dismounting. 

791. At inspection enlisted men with the saber drawn exe- 
cute the first motion of present saber and turn the wrist to 
show both sides of the blade, resuming the carry when the in- 
spector has passed. 






MANUAL OF TENT PITCHING. 

Shelter Tents. 

792. Being In line or In column of platoons, the captain 
commands: FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS. 

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fall out; the cooks form 
a file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen^ the first 
sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file of the 
company; blank files are filled by the file closers or by men 
taken from the front rank ; the remaining guide, or guides, and 
file closers form on a convenient flank. Before forming column 
of platoons, preparatory to pitching tents, the company may be 
redivided into two or more platoons, regardless of the size of 
each. 

703. The captain then causes the company to take intervals 
ns described in the School of the Squad, and commands: PITCH 
TEMTS. 

At the command pitch tents, each man steps off obliquely to 
the right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the 
butt of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the 
front, barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each 
front-rank man then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the 
ground by the outside of the right heeL 

Equipments are unslung, packs opened, shelter half and pins 
removed ; each man then spreads his shelter half, small triangle 
to the rear, flat upon the ground the tent is to occupy, the rear- 
rank man's half on the right The halves are then buttoned to- 
gether ; the guy loops at both ends of the lower half are passed 
through the buttonholes provided in the lower and upper halves th 
whipped end of the guy rope is then passed through both guy 
loops and secured, this at both ends of the tent Each front-rank, 
man inserts the muzzle of his rifle under the front end of the 
ridge and holds the rifle upright, sling to the front, heel of butt 
on the ground beside the bayonet His rear-rank man pins 
down the front corners of the tent on the line of bayonets, 
stretching the tent taut ; he then inserts a phi in the eye of the 
front guy rope and drives the pin at such a distance in front of 
the rifle as to hold the rope taut ; both men go to the rear of the 
tent, each phis down a corner, stretching the sides and rear of 
the teut before securing ; the rear-rank man then inserts an in- 
trenching tool, or a bayonet in its scabbard, under the rear end 

187 



188 MANUAL OF TENT PITCHING. 

/ 

of the ridge inside the tent, the front-rank man pegging down 
the end of the rear guy ropes; the rest of the pins are then 
driven by both men, the rear-rank man working on the right. 

The front flaps of the tent are not fastened down, but thrown 
back on the tent. 

As soon as the tent is pitched each man arranges his equip- 
ment and the contents of his pack in the tent and stands at at- 
tention in front of his own half on line with the front guy- 
rope pin. 

To have a uniform slope when the tents are pitched, the guy 
ropes should all be of the same length. 

In shelter-tent camps, in localities where suitable material is 
procurable, tent poles may be improvised and used in lieu of the 
rifle and bayonet or intrenching tool as supports for the shelter 
tent. 

794. When the pack is not carried the company is formed for 
shelter tents, intervals are taken, arms are laid aside or on the 
ground, the men are dismissed and proceed to the wagon, secure 
their packs, return to their places, and pitch tents as heretofore 
described. 

795. Double shelter tents may be pitched by first pitching 
one tent as heretofore described, then pitching a second tent 
against the opening of the first, using one rifle to support both 
tents, and passing the front guy ropes over and down the sides 
of the opposite tents. The front corner of one tent is not pegged 
down, but is thrown back' to permit an opening into the tent. 

Single Sleeping Bag. 

796. Spread the poncho on the ground, buttoned end at the 
feet, buttoned side to the left ; fold the blanket once across its 
short dimension and lay it on the poncho, folded side along the 
right side of the poncho : tie the blanket together along the left 
side by means of the tapes provided : fold the left half of the 
poncho over the blanket and button it together along the side 
and bottom. 

Double Sleeping Bag. 

4 797. Spread one poncho on the ground, buttoned end at the 
feet, buttoned side to the left ; spread the blankets on top of the 
poncho; tie the edges of the blankets together with the tapes 
provided, spread a second poncho on top of the blankets, but- 
toned end at the feet, buttoned side to the right ; button the two 
ponchos together along both sides and across the eud. 



MANUAL OF TENT PITCHING. 189 

To Strike Shelter Tents. 

798. The men standing in front of their tents: STRIKE 
TENTS. 

Equipments and rifles are removed from the tent ; the tents 
are lowered, packs made up, and equipments slung, and the men 
stand at attention in the places originally occupied after taking 
intervals. 

To Pitch Tents. 

799. To pitch all types of Army tents, except shelter and 
conical wall tents : Mark line of tents by driving a wall pin on 
the spot to he occupied hy the right (or left) corner of each 
tent. For pyramidal tents the interval between adjacent pins 
should be about 30 feet, which will give a passage of two feet 
between tents. Spread tripod on the ground where the center 
of tent is to be, if tripod is used. Spread the tent on the 
ground to be occupied, door to the front, and place the right 
(or left) front wall loop over the pin. The door (or doors if 
more than one) being fastened and held together at the bot- 
tom, the left (or right) corner wall loop is carried to the left 
(or right) as far as it will go and a wall pin driven through 
it, the pin being placed in line with the right (or left) corner 
pins already driven. At the same time the rear corner wall 
loops are pulled to the rear and outward so that the rear wall 
of the tent is stretched to complete the rectangle. Wall pins 
are then driven through these loops. Each corner pin should 
be directly in rear of the corresponding front corner pin, mak- 
ing a rectangle. Unless the canvas be wet, a small amount of 
slack should be allowed before the corner pins are driven. Ac- 
cording to the size of the tent one or two men, crawling under 
the tent if necessary, fit each pole or ridge or upright into the 
ring or ridge pole holes, and such accessories as hood, fly and 
brace ropes are adjusted. If a tripod be used an additional 
man will go under the tent to adjust it. The tent steadied by 
the remaining men, one at each corner guy rope, will then be 
raised. If the tent is a ward or storage type, corner poles 
will now be placed at the four corners. The four corner guy ropes 
are then placed over the lower notches of the large pins driven 
in prolongation of the diagonals at such distance as to hold the 
walls nnrt ends of the tent vprtieol nnd smooth when the guy 



190 MANTTAL OF TENT PITCHING. 

ropes are drawn taut. A wall pin is then driven through each 
remaining wall loop and a large pin for each guy rope is driven 
in line with the corner guy pins already driven. The guy ropes 
of the tent are placed over the lower notches, while the guy 
ropes of the fly are placed over the upper notches, and are 
then drawn taut. Brace ropes, when used, are then secured to 
stakes or pins suitably placed. 

8OO. Rescinded. 

Conical Wall Tent. 

SOI. Drive the door pin and center pin 8 feet 3 inches apart. 
Using the hood lines with center pin as center, describe two 
concentric circles with radii 8 feet 3 inches and 11 feet 3 inches. 
In the outer circle drive two door guy pins 3 feet apart. At 
intervals of about 3 feet drive the other guy pin. 

In other respects conical tents are erected practically as in 
the case of pyramidal tents. 

To Strike Common, Wall, Pyramidal, and Conical Wall Tents. 

802. STRIKE TENTS. 

The men first remove all pins except those of the four corner 
guy ropes, or the four quadrant guy ropes in the case of the 
conical wall tent. The pins are neatly piled or placed in their 
receptacle. 

One man holds each guy, and when the ground is clear the 
tent is lowered, folded, or rolled and tied, the poles or tripod 
and pole fastened together, and the remaining pins collected. 

To Fold Tents. 

803. For folding common, wall, hospital, and storage tents : 
Spread the tent flat on the ground, folded at the ridge so that 
bottoms of side walls are even, ends of tent forming triangles 
to the right and left; fold the triangular ends of the tent in 
toward the middle, making it rectangular in shape ; fold the top 
over about 9 inches; fold the tent in two by carrying the top 
fold over clear to the foot; fold again in two from the top to 
the foot; throw all guys on tent except the second from each 
end; fold the ends in so as to cover about two-thirds of the 
second cloths ; fold the left end over to meet the turned-in edge 
of the right end, then fold the right end over the top, com- 
pleting the bumdle; tie with the two exposed guys. 



MANUAL OF TENT PITCHING. 

Method of Folding PyramidtU Tent. 

The tent is thrown toward the rear and the back wall and 
roof canvas pulled out smooth. This may be most easily 
accomplished by leaving the rear-corner wall pins in the ground 
with the wall loops attached, one man at each rear-corner guy, 
and one holding the square iron in a perpendicular position 
and pulling the canvas to its limit away from the former front 
of the tent This leaves the three remaining sides of the tent 
on top of the rear side, with the door side in the middle. 

Now carry the right-front corner over and lay it on the left- 
rear corner. Pull all canvas smooth, throw guys toward square 
iron, and pull bottom edges even. Then take the right-front 
corner and return to the right, covering the right-rear corner. 
This folds the right side of the tent on itself, with the crease 
in the middle and under the front side of tent 

Next carry the left-front corner to the right and back as dcs'rribcJ 
above; this when completed will leave the front and rear sides oi i ho 
tent lying smooth ana flat and the two side walls folded inward, 
each on itself 

Place the hood in the square iron which has been folded down- 
ward toward the bottom of tent, and continue to fold around the 
square iron as a core, pressing all folds down flat and smooth, and 
parallel with the bottom of the tent. If each fold is compactly 
made and the canvas kept smooth, the last fold will exactly cover 
the lower edge of the canvas: Lay all exposed guys along the 
folded canvas except the two on the center width, which should be 
pulled out and away from bottom edge to their extreme length for 
tying. Now, beginning at one end, fold toward the center on the 
first seam (that Joining the first and second widths) and fold again 
toward the center so that the already folded canvas will come to 
within about 3 inches of the middle width. Then fold over to 
the opposite edge of middle width of Canvas. Then begin folcfing 
from opposite end, folding 'the first width in half, then making a 
second fold to come within about 4 or 5 inches of thut already 
folded, turn this fold entirely over that already folded. Take the 
exposed guys and draw them taut across each other, turn bundle 
over on the under guy, cross guys on top of bundle drawing tight 
Turn bundle over on the crossed guys and tie lengthwise 

When properly tied and pressed together this will in.iko a package 
Jl by 23 oy 34 inches, requiring about 8.855 cubic inehoa to store or 
pack. 

Stencil the organisation designation on the lower luilf of the 
middle width of canvas iu the back wall. 



MANUAL OF THE BUGLE. 

Warning Calls. 

804. First call, guard mounting, full dress, overcoats, drill, 
stable, water, and boots and saddles precede the assembly by such 
interval as may be prescribed by the commanding officer. 

Mess, church, and fatigue, classed as service calls, may also be 
used as warning calls. 

First call is the first signal for formation for roll call and for 
all ceremonies except guard mounting. 

Guard mounting is the first signal for guard mounting. 

The field music assembles at first call and guard mounting. 

In a mixed command, boots and saddles is the signal to 
mounted troops that their formation is to be mounted; for 
mounted guard mounting or mounted drill, it immediately fol- 
lows the signal guard mounting or drill. 

When full dress or overcoats are to be worn, the full dress or 
overcoat call immediately follows first call, guard mounting, or 
boots and saddles. 

Formation Calls. 

805. Assembly: The signal for companies or details to fall in. 
Adjutant's call: The signal for companies to form battalion; 

also for the guard details to form for guard mounting on the 
camp or garrison parade ground; it follows the assembly at 
such interval as may be prescribed by the commanding officer. 

It is also used as a signal for the battalions to form regiment, 
following the first adjutant's call at such interval as the com- 
manding officer may prescribe. 

To the color: Is sounded when the color salutes. 

Alarm Calls. 

806. Fire call: The signal for the men to fail in, without 
arms, to extinguish fire. 

To arms: The signal for the men to fall in, under arms, on 
their company parade grounds as quickly as possible. 
192 



MANUAL OP THE BUGLE. 193 

To horse: The signal for mounted men to proceed under arms 
to their horses, saddle, mount and assemble at a designated 
place as quickly as possible. In extended order this signal is 
used to remount troops. 

Service Calls. 

807. Tattoo, taps, mess, sick, church, recall, issue, officers', cap- 
tains', first sergeants', fatigue, school, and the general. 

The general is the signal for striking tents and loading wagons 
preparatory to marching. 

Reveille 'precedes the assembly for roll call; retreat follows the 
assembly, the interval between being only that required for 
formation and roll call, except when there is parade. 

Taps is the signal for extinguishing lights; it is usually pre- 
ceded by call to quarters by such interval as prescribed by Army 
Regulations. 

Assembly, reveille, retreat, adjutant's call, to the color, the 
flourishes, ruffles, and the marches are sounded by all the field 
music united; the other calls, as a rule, are sounded by the 
musician of the guard or orderly musician; he may also sound 
the assembly when the musicians are not united. 

The morning gun is fired at the first note of reveille, or, if 
marches be played before reveille, it is fired at the commence- 
ment of the first march. 

The evening gun is fired at the last note of retreat. 



BUGLE CALLS. 



1. FIRST CALL. 







2. GUARD MOUNTING. 



Quick. 



irdtrmfifrm 




101 



BUGLE CALLS. 

3. FULL DRESS. 



195 



Quick. 




4. OVERCOATS. 




quick. 



5. DRILL. 



m 






3=&j#^L 



6. STABLE. 






196 



Quick. 



BUGLE CALLS. 

7. WATER. 



8. BOOTS AND SADDLES. 




Moderate. 



9. ASSEMBLY. 




1 0. ADJUTANT'S CALL. 
Quick. 




Qtc ic)k /me. 



11. To THE COLOR. 



BTT3LE CA1LS. 
To THE COLOR Concluded. 

**r. 



End. 




D.C. 



12. FIRE. 




1 3. To ARMS. 



m m . ^ Be P eat * ^^ 



V** 



198 



BUGLE CALLS. 
14. To HORSE. 



Presto. 



-8 ,f * M M -r-r 

gfr/MLT^JI 



15. REVEILLE. 



Quick. 




1 6. RETREAT. 
Moderate. 



m 



B^-flf-a 

' ' ' !U 



F-S- 



BTJ8LE CALLS. 

RETREAT Concluded. 



I 



199 




\- II 





200 



Quiet. 



BUGLE CAI0.8. 
17. TATTOO. 




fe^LJL^fc 



*=t 



-J-H **- 




BUGLE CALLS. 

TATTOO Continued. 









^F 


rF 










E 


M- 


^s 1 fjj 


5S 

f r 


i ^ i - 






/^ 


s 

g 


f 




iL^t-Li' 


4 b^ 


U 






/: 

==- 


\ 

hr 


m 




La i r La " : 


J=t3 


t=K 




* 4 


1- J < 


1. ,^_ 





202 



BUGLE CALLS. 

TATTOO Concluded. ' 





3 - ,-a 

* * 









/rs 



I 






i 



ip 



m 




BUGLE CALLS. 

18. CALL TO QUARTERS. 



203 




19. TAPS. 



J j r 



20. MESS. 




204 



BUGLE CALLS. 
21. SICK. 



Quick. 




22. CHURCH. 



Slow. 







23. RECALL. 



Moderate. 




24. ISSUE. 



Allegro. 




BUGLE CALLS. 
25. OFFICERS' CALL. 



Qirfdfe. 



206 




26. CAPTAINS' CALL. 



Quick. 



27. FIRST SERGEANTS' CALL. 




28. FATIGUE. 

Quick. l_m_m 



.1.. 



806 



BUGLE CALLS. 
29. SCHOOL. 



m 



30. THE GENERAL. 



Quick 







BUGLE CALLS. 
The following bugle calls are added on page 206: 

. THE GENERAL'S MABCH. 



206A 



3 




BUGLE SIGNALS. 

See paragraph 41. 



31. ASSEMBLE. MARCH. 
Same as Assembly, No. 9. 

32. ATTENTION. 
Slow. 



33. ATTENTION TO ORDERS. 

. Slow. ^ ^ 



34. FORWARD. MARCH. 
Slow. 



X 



35. HALT. 



36. DousU TIME. MARCH. 



m 



208 



Slow. 



BUGLE SIGNALS. 
37. TO'THE REAR. MARCH. 

m - 



/TS 



38. COMMENCE FIRING. 



Quick. 




QiuJt 



40. Fix BAYONETS. 
2 




Qufe*. 



41. CHARGE. 




o 



APPENDIX A. 



WAB DEPABTMENT, 
OFFICE or THE CHIEF OF STAFF, 

Washingtoji, December 8, 1911. 

The Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911, have been prepared for 
the* use of troops armed with the United States magazine rifle, 
model 1903. For the guidance of organizations armed with the 
United States magazine rifle, model 1898, the following alter- 
native paragraphs are published and will be considered as sub- 
stitute paragraphs for the corresponding paragraphs in the 
text: 75 (in part), 96, 98, 99, 134, 139, 141, 142, 148, and 150. 
By order of the Secretary of War: 

LEONABD WOOD, 
Major General, Chief of Staff. 

75. 

Third. The cut-off is kept turned down, except when using 
the magazine. 

***** 

96. Being at order arms: 1, Unfix, BAYONET. 

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Take the posi- 
tion of parade rest, grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with 
the right hand, press the spring with the forefinger of the left 
hand, raise the bayonet until the handle is about 6 inches 
above the muzzle of the piece, drop the point to the left, back 
of hand toward the body, and, glancing at the scabbard, return 
the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm and body; 
regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the order. 

209 



210 APPENDIX A. 

If the bayonet scabbard is -carried on the haversack: Take 
the bayonet from the rifle with the left hand and return it to 
the scabbard in the most convenient manner. 

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed 
in the most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece 
returned to the original position. 

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and reg- 
ularity, but not in cadence. 

98. Being at order arms: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS. 

At the second command, take the position of port arms. 
(TWO) With the right hand open the magazine gate, turn the 
bolt handle up, draw the bolt back and glance at the magazine 
and chamber. Having found them mpty, or having emptied 
them, raise the head and eyes to the front. 

99. Being at inspection arms: 1. Order (Right shoulder, port), 
2. ARMS. 

At the preparatory command, push the bolt forward, turn 
handle down, close the magazine gate, pull the trigger, 
resume port arms. At the command arms, complete the move- 
ment ordered. 

134. Pieces being loaded and in the position of load, to exe- 
cute other movements with the pieces loaded: 1. Lock, 2. PIECES. 

At the command Pieces turn the safety lock fully to the right. 

The safety lock is said to be at the "ready" when turned to 
the left, and at the "safe" when turned to the right. 

The cut-off is said to be "on" when turned up and "off" 
when turned down. 

139. Being in line or skirmish line at halt: I. With dummy 
{blank or ball) cartridges, 2. LOAD. 

At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces 
half right and carries the right foot to the right, about one foot, 
to such position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadi- 
ness of the body; raises or lowers the piece and drops it into 
the left hand at the balance, left thumb extended along the 
stock, muzzle at the height of the breast. With the right hand 
he turns and draws the bolt back, takes a cartridge between 
the thumb and first two fingers and places It in the receiver; 
places palm of the hand against the back of the bolt handle; 



APPENDIX A. Sll 

thrusts the bolt home with a quick motion, turning down the 
handle, and carries the hand to the email of the stock. Bach 
rear-rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar position 
opposite the interval to the right of his front-rank man, muzzle 
of the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads. 

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held 
aa nearly as practicable in the position of load. 

If kneeling or sitting the position of the piece is similar; if 
kneeling the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting the 
elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down the left hand 
steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the 
butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground. 

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying 
down) are designated as that of load. 

141. FILL HAGAZHE. 

Take the position of load, if not already there, open the gate 
of the magazine with the right thumb, take five cartridges from 
the box or belt, and place them, with the bullets to the front, in 
the magazine, turning the barrel slightly to the left to facili- 
tate the insertion of the cartridges; close the gate and carry the 
right hand to the small of the stock. 

To load from the magazine the command From magazine will 
be given preceding that of LOAD; the cut-off will be turned up on 
coming to the position of load. 

To resume loading from the belt the command From belt will 
be given preceding the command LOAD; the cut-off will be turned 
down on coming to the position of load. 

The commands from magazine and from belt, indicating the 
change in the manner of loading, will not be repeated in subse- 
quent commands. 

The words from belt apply to cartridge box as well as belt 

In loading from the magazine care should be taken to push 
the bolt fully forward and turn the handle down before draw- 
ing the bolt back, as otherwise the extractor will not catch the 
cartridge in the chamber, and jamming will occur with the 
cartridge following. 

To fire from the magazine, the command MAGAZINE FIRE may 
be given at any time. The cut-off is turned up and an increased 
rate of fire is executed. After the magazine is exhausted the 
cut-off is turned down and the firing continued, loading from 
the belt 



819 APPENDIX A. 

Magazine fire is employed only when, In the opinion of the 
platoon leader or company commander, the maximum ratt of 
fire becomes necessary. 

142. UNLOAD. 

All take the position of load, turn the cut-off up, if not already 
there, turn the safety lock to the left, and alternately open and 
close the chamber until all the cartridges are ejected. After 
the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed and the trig- 
ger pulled. The cartridges are then picked, up, cleaned, and 
returned to the box or belt, and the piece brought to the order. 

148. CUP FIRE. 

Turn the cut-off up; fire at wilt (reloading from the maga- 
zine) until the cartridges in the piece are exhausted; turn the 
cut-off down; fill magazine; reload and take the position of 
tuspend firing. 

150. CEASE FIRING. 

Firing stops ; pieces not already there are brought to the position 
of load, the cut-off turned down if firing from magazine, the cart- 
ridge is drawn or the empty shell is ejected, the trigger is pulled, 
sights are laid down, and the piece is brought to the order. 

Cease firing is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of 
position or to steady the men. 



APPENDIX B. 



WAB DEPABTMENT, 
OFFICE OF THI CHIEF OF STAFF, 

Wtuhington, December 2, 1911. 

Paragraphs 747, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797, and 798, Infantry 
Drill Regulations, 1911, apply only to troops equipped with the 
Infantry Equipment, model 1910. For troops equipped under 
General Orders, No. 23, War Department, 1906, and orders 
amendatory thereof, the alternative paragraphs published here- 
with will govern. 
By order of the Secretary of War : 

LEONARD WOOD, 
Major General, Chiel of 8t*ff. 



747. If the inspection is to include an examination of the 
blanket rolls the captain, before dismissing the company and 
after inspecting the file closers, directs the lieutenants to remain 
in placet closes ranks, stacks arms, dresses the company back to 
four paces from the stacks, takes intervals, and commands: 
1. Uniting, 2. PACKS, 3. Open, 4. PACKS. 

At the second command each man nnslings his roll and places 
it on the ground at his feet, rounded end to the front, square end 
of shelter half to the right 

At the fourth command the rolls are untied, laid perpendicu- 
lar to the front with the triangular end of the shelter half to 
the front, opened, and unrolled to the left; each man prepares 
the contents of his roll for inspection and resumes the attention. 

The captain then returns saber, passes along tb^e ranks and 
file closers as before, inspects the rolls, returns to the right, 
draws saber and commands: 1. Close, 2. PACKS. 

At the second command each man, with his shelter half 
smoothly spread on the ground with buttons up and triangular 
end to the front, folds his blanket once across its length and 
places it upon the shelter half, fold toward the bottom, edge 

213 



214 APPENDIX B. 

one-half inch from the square end, the same amount of canvas 
uncovered at the top and bottom. He then places the parts qf 
the pole on the side of the blanket next the square end of shelter 
half, near and parallel to the fold, end of pole about 6 Inches 
from the edge of the blanket; nests the pins similarly near the 
opposite edge of the blanket and distributes the other articles 
carried in the roll ; folds the triangular end and then the ex- 
posed portion of the bottom of the shelter half over the blanket. 

The two men in each file roll and fasten first the roll of the 
front and then of the rear rank man. The file closers work simi- 
larly two and two, or with the front rank man of a blank file. 
Each pair stands on the folded side, rolls the blanket roll closely 
and buckles the straps, passing the end of the strap through 
bo*. l \ keeper and buckle, back over the buckle and under the 
keeper. With the roll so lying on the ground that the edge of 
the shelter half can just be seen when looking vertically down- 
ward one end is bent upward and over to meet the other, a 
clove hitch is taken with the guy rope first around the end to 
which it is attached and then around the other end, adjusting 
the length of rope between hitches to suit the wearer. 

As soon as a file completes its two rolls each man places his 
roll in the position it was in after being unslung and stands at 
attention. 

All the rolls being completed, the captain commands: 1. Sling, 
2. PACKS. 

At the second command the rolls are slung, the end containing 
the pole to the rear. 

The company is assembled, takes arms, and the captain com- 
pletes the inspection as before. 

792. Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain 
commands: FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS. 

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fall out; the cooks 
form a file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the 
first sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file of 
the company ; blank files are filled by the file closers or by men 
taken from the front rank ; the remaining guide or guides, and tile 
closers form on a convenient flank. Before forming column of 
platoons, preparatory to pitching tents, the company may be 
redivided into two or more platoons, regardless of the size of each. 

793. The captain then causes the company to take intervals 
as described in the School of the Squad, and commands: PITCH 
TENTS. 



APPENDIX B. 215 

At the command pitch tenlt, each man steps off obliquely to the 
right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the butt of 
the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the front, barrel to 
the left, and steps back into his place ; each front rank man then 
draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground by the outside of the 
right heel. All unsling and open the blanket rolls and take out the 
shelter half, poles, and pins. Each then spreads his shelter 'half, 
triangle to the rear, flat upon the ground the tent is to occupy, rear 
rank man's half on the right. The halves are then buttoned together. 
Each front rank man joins his pole, inserts the top in the eyes 
of the halves, and holds the pole upright beside the bayonet placed 
in the ground ; his rear rank man, using the pins in front, pins 
down the front corners of the tent on the line of bayonets, stretch- 
ing the canvas taut; he then inserts a pin in the eye of the rope 
and drives the pin at such distance in front of the pole as to hold 
the rope taut. Both then go to the rear of the tent ; the rear 
rank man adjusts the pole and the front rank man drives the pins. 
The rest of the pins are then driven by both men, the rear rank 
man working on the right. 

As soon as the tent is pitched each man arranges the contents 
of the blanket roll in the tent and stands at attention in front 
of his own half on line with the front guy rope pin. 

The guy ropes, to have a uniform slope when the shelter tents 
are pitched, should all be of the same length. 

7f)4. When the blanket roll is not carried, intervals are taken 
as described above ; the position of the front pole is marked with 
a bayonet and equipments are laid aside. The men then proceed 
to the wagon, secure their rolls, return to their places, and pitch 
tents as heretofore described. 

705. To pitch double shelter tent, the captain gives the same 
commands as before, except Take half interval is given instead of 
Take interval. In taking interval each man follows the preceding 
man at 2 paces. The captain then commands: PITCH 
DOUBLE TENTS. 

The first sergeant places himself on the right of the right 
guide and with him pitches a single 'shelter tent. 

Only the odd numbers of the front rank mark the line with 
the bayonet. 

The tent is formed by buttoning together the square ends of 
two single tents. Two complete tents, except one pole, are used. 
Two guy ropes are used at eacb end, the guj pins being placed 
in front of the corner pins. 



216 APPENDIX B. 

The tents are pitched by numbers 1 and 2, front and rear 
rank ; and by numbers 3 and 4, front and rear rank ; the men 
falling in on the left are numbered, counting off if necessary. 

All the men spread their shelter halves on the ground the 
tent is to occupy. Those of the front rank are placed with the 
triangular ends to the front All four halves are then buttoned 
together, first the ridges and then the square ends. The front 
corners of the tent are pinned by the front-rank men, the odd 
number holding the poles, the even number driving the pins. 
The rear-rank men similarly pin the rear corners. 

While the odd numbers steady the poles, each even number of 
the front rank takes his pole and enters the tent, where, assisted 
by the even number of the rear rank, he adjusts the pole to the 
center eyes of the shelter halves in the following order: (1) The 
lower half of the front tent; (2) the lower half of the rear 
tent; (3) the upper half of the front tent; (4) the upper half 
of the rear tent The guy ropes are then adjusted. 

The tents having been pitched, the triangular ends are turned 
back, " contents of the rolls arranged, and the men stand at 
attention, each opposite his own shelter half and facing out from 
the tent. 

796. Omitted. 

797. Omitted. 

798. Omitted. 



APPENDIX C. 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 

WAR DEPARTMENT, 
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

Washington, February 20, 1913. 

The following Manun! of the Bayonet, prepared by a board 
consisting of Capt Herschel Tupes, First Infantry, and Capt. 
Grosvenor I.. Townsend, First Infantry, is approved and Issued 
for the information and government of the Regular Army and 
the Organized Militia of the United States. 
By order of the Secretary of War 

LEONARD WOOD, 
Major General, Chief of Staff. 

217 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 

UNITED STATES ARMY. 



1. The infantry soldier relies mainly on fire action to disable 
the enemy, but he should know that personal combat is often 
necessary to obtain success. Therefore, he must be instructed 
in the use of the rifle and bayonet in hand-to-hand encounters. 

2. The object of this instruction is to teach the soldier how to 
make effective use of the rifle and bayonet in personal combat ; 
to make him quick and proficient in handling his rifle; to give 
him an accurate eye and a steady hand ; and to give Mm con- 
fidence in the bayonet in offense and defense. When skill in 
these exercises has been acquired, the rifle will still remain a 
most formidable weapon at close quarters should the bayonet 
be lost or disabled. 

8. Efficiency of organizations in bayonet fighting will be 
Judged by the skill shown by individuals in personal combat. 
For this purpose pairs or groups of opponents, selected at ran- 
dom from among recruits and trained soldiers, should engage 
In assaults, using the fencing equipment provided for the pur- 
pose. 

4. Onlcers and specially selected and thoroughly instructed 
noncommissioned officers will act as instructors. 

5. Instruction in bayonet combat should begin as soon as the 
soldier is familiar with the handling of his rifle and will pro- 
gress, as far as practicable, in the order followed in the text. 

6. Instruction is ordinarily given on even ground; but prac- 
tice should also be had on uneven ground, especially in the at- 
tack and defense of intrenchments. 

7. These exercises will not be used as a calesthenic drill. 

8. The principles of the commands are the same as those given 
In paragraphs 9, 15, and 38, Infantry Drill Regulations.- Inter- 

219 



280 



MANUAL OP THE BAYONET. 



vals and distances will be taken as in paragraphs 100 and 111, 
Infantry Drill Regulations, except that, in formations for bayo- 
net exercises, the men should be at least four paces apart in 
every direction. 

9. Before requiring soldiers to take a position or execute a 
movement for the first time, the instructor executes the same 
for the purpose of illustration, after which he requires the sol- 
diers to execute the movement individually. Movements pre- 
scribed In this manual will not be executed in cadence as the 
attempt to do so results in incomplete execution and lack of 
vigor. Each movement will be executed correctly as quickly 
as possible by every man. As soon as the movements are ex- 
ecuted accurately, the commands are given rapidly, as expert- 
ness with the bayonet depends chiefly upon quickness of motion. 

10. The exercises will be interrupted at first by short and fre- 
quent rests. The rests will be less frequent as proficiency is 
attained. Fatigue and exhaustion will be specially guarded 
against as they prevent proper interest being taken in the 
exercises and delay the progress of the instruction. Rests will 
be given from the position of order arms in the manner pre- 
scribed in Infantry Drill Regulations. 

THE BAYONET. 

AND DESCBIPTION. 



11. The bayonet is a cutting and thrusting weapon consisting 
of three principal parts, viz, the Uade, guard, and grip. 




MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. aal 

12. The blade has the following parts : Edge, false edge, back, 
grooves, point, and tang. The- length of the blade from guard 
to point is 16 inches, the edge 14.5 inches, and the false edge 
5.6 inches. Length of the rifle, bayonet fixed, is 59.4 inches. 
The weight of the bayonet is 1 pound ; weight of rifle without 
bayonet is 8.69 pounds. The center of gravity of the rifle, with 
bayonet fixed, is Just in front of the rear sight. 

I. INSTRUCTION WITHOUT? THE RIFLE. 

13. The instructor explains the importance of good footwork 
and impresses on the men the fact that quickness of foot and 
suppleness of bodv are as important for attack and defense as 
is the ability to parry and deliver a strong point or cut. 

14. All foot movements should be made from the position of 
guard. As far as practicable, they will be made on the balls of 
the feet to insure quickness and agility. No hard and fast rule 
can be laid down as to the length of the various foot move- 
ments; this depends entirely oa the situations occurring in 
combat. 

15. The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor 
commands : 

1. Bayonet exercise, 2. GUARD. 

At the command guard, half face to the right, carry back and 
place the right foot about once and a half its length to the rear 
and about 3 inches to the right, the feet forming with each other 
an angle of about 60, weight of the body balanced equally on 
the balls of the feet, knees slightly bent, palms of hands on 
hips, fingers to the front, thumbs to the rear, head erect, head 
and eyes straight to the front 

16. To resume the attention, 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION. The 
men take the position of the soldier and fix their attention. 

17. ADVANCE. Advance the left foot quickly about once Its 
length, follow immediately with the right foot the same distance. 

18. RETIRE. Move the right foot .quickly to the rear about 
once its length, follow immediately with the left foot the same 
distance. 

19. 1. Front. 2. PASS. Place the right foot quickly about once 
Its length in front of the left, advance the left foot to its proper 
position in front of the right. 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 

20. 1. Rear, 2. PASS. Place the left foot quickly about once 
its length in rear of the right, retire the right foot to its proper 
position in rear of the left. 

The passes are used to get quickly within striking distance or 
to withdraw quickly therefrom. 

21. 1. Right, 2. STEP. Step to the right with the right foot 
about once its length and place the left foot in its proper relative 
position. 

22. 1. Left, 2. STEP. Step to the left with the left foot about 
once its length and place the right foot in its proper relative 
position. 

These steps are used to circle around an enemy, to secure a 
more favorable line of attack, or to avoid the opponent's attack. 
Better ground or more favorable light may be gained hi this 
way. In bayonet fencing, and in actual combat the foot first 
moved in stepping to the right or left is the one which at the 
moment bears the least weight 

IL INSTRUCTION WITH THE HIFLE, 

23. The commands for and the execution of the foot, move- 
ments are the same as already given for movements without the 
nfle. 

24. The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor 
commands : 

1. Bayonet exercise, 2. GUARD. 

At the second command take the position of guard (see par. 
15) ; at the same time throw the rifle smartly to the front, grasp 
the rifle with the left hand just below the lower band, fingers 
between the stock and gun sling, barrel turned slightly to the 
left, the right hand grasping the small of the stock about 6 
inches in front of the right hip, elbows free from the body, 
bayonet point at the height of the chin. 

25. 1. Order, 2. ARMS. 

Bring the right foot up to the left and the rifle to the posi- 
tion of order arms, at the same time resuming the position of 
attention. 

26. During the preliminary instruction, attacks and defenses 
will be executed from guard until proficiency is attained, after 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 



223 




Par. 24. 



224 MANUAL OP THE BAYONET. 




Par. 28. 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 225 

which they may be executed from any position in which the 
rifle is held. 

ATTACKS 

27 1. THRUST. 

Thrust the rifle quickly forward to the full length of the left 
arm, turning the barrel to the left, and direct the point of the 
bayonet at the point to be attacked, butt covering the right fore- 
arm. At the same time straighten the right leg vigorously and 
throw the weight of the body forward and on the left leg, the 
ball of the right foot always on the ground. Guard is resumed 
Immediately without command. 

The force of the thrust is delivered principally with the right 
arm, the left being used to direct the bayonet. The points at 
which the attack should be directed are, in order of their im- 
portance, stomach, chest, head, neck, and limbs. 

28. 1. LUNGE. 

Executed in the same manner ns the thrust, except that the 
left foot is carried forward about twice its length. The left 
heel must always be in rear of the left knee. Guard is resumed 
immediately without command. Guard may also be resumed by 
advancing the right foot if, for any reason, it is desired to hold 
the ground gained in lunging. In the latter case, the preparu 
tory comman forward will be given. Each method should be 
practiced. 

29. 1. Butt, 2. STRIKE 

Straighten right arm and right leg vigorously and swing butt 
of rifle against point of attack, pivoting the rifle in the left 
Land at about the height of the left shoulder, allowing the 
bayonet to pass to the rear on the left side of the head. Guard 
is resumed without command. 

The points of attack in their order of Importance are, head, 
neck, stomach, and crotch. 

30. 1. Cut. 2. DOWN 

Execute a quick downward stroke, edge of bayonet directed 
at point of attack. Guard Is resumed without command. 

31. 1. Cut, 2. BIGHT (LEFT) 

With a quick extension of the arms execute a cut to the right 
(left), directing the edge toward the point attacked. Guard Is 
resumed without command 



226 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 




Far. 29. 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 227 

The cuts are especially useful against the head, neck, aud 
Lands of an enemy In executing left cut it should be remem- 
bered that the false, or back edge, is only 5.6 inches long. The 
cuts can be executed in continuation of strokes, thrusts, lunges, 
and parries. 

32. To direct an attack to the right, left, or rear the soldier 
will change front as quickly as possible in the most convenient 
manner, for example: 1. To the right rear, 2. Cut, 3. DOWN; 
1 To the right, 2. LUNGE; 1. To the left, 2. THRUST, etc. 

Whenever possible the impetus gained by the turning move- 
ment of the body should be thrown into the attack. In general 
this will be best accomplished by turning on the ball of the 
right foot. 

These movements constitute a change of front in which the 
position of guard is resumed at the completion of the movement. 

33. Good judgment of distance is essential Accuracy ill 
thrusting and lunging is best attained by practicing these at- 
tacks agaiust rings or other convenient openings, about 3 inches 
in diameter, suitably suspended at desired heights. 

34. The thrust and lunges at rings should first be practiced by 
endeavoring to hit the opening looked at This should be fol- 
lowed by directing the attack against one opening while looking 
at another 

35. The soldier should also experience the effect of actual 
resistance offered to the bayonet and the butt of the rifle in 
attacks. This will be taught oy practicing attacks against a 
dummy 

36. Dummies should be constructed in such a manner as t> 
permit the execution of attacks without injury to the point or 
edge of the bayonet or to the barrel or stock of the rifle. A 
suitable dummy can be made from pieces of rope about 5 feet 
in length plaited closely together into a cable between 6 and 
12 inches in diameter Old rope is preferable. Bags weighted 
and stuffed with hay straw, shavings, etc., are also suitable. 

DEFENSES 

37. In the preliminary drills in the defenses the position of 
guard is resumed, by command, after each parry When the 




228 Par. 



rar.se. 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 




Par. 40. 



Par. 41. 



230 MAOTA1 OF THE BAYONET. 

men hate become proficient, the instructor will cause them to 
resume the position of guard instantly without command after 
the execution of each parry. 

38. 1. Parry, 2. RIGHT. 

Keeping the right hand in the guard position, move the rifle 
sharply to the right with the left arm, so that the bayonet point 
Ss about 6 Inches to the right. 

39. 1. Parry, 2. LEFT. 

Move the rifle sharply to the left trout with both hands so as 
to ccver the point attacked. 

40. 1. Parry ; 2. HIGH. 

Eaise the rifle with both hands high enough to clear the line 
of vision, barrel downward, point of the bayonet to the left 
front 

When necessary to raise the rifle well above the head, it may 
be supported between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. 
This position will be necessary against attacks from higher ele- 
vations, such as men mounted or on top of parapets. 

41. 1. Low parry, 2. RIGHT (LEFT). 

Carry the point of the bayonet down until it is at the height 
of the knee, movfng the point of the bayonet sufficiently to the 
right (left) to keep the opponent's attacks clear of the point 
threatened. 

These parries are rarely used, as an attack below the waist 
leaves the head and body exposed. 

42. Parries must not be too wide or sweeping, but sharp, short 
motions, finished with a jerk or quick catch. The hands should, 
ns far as posible, be kept in the line of attack. Parries against 
butt strike are made by quickly moving the guard so as to cover 
the point attacked. 

43. To provide against attack from the right; left, or rear the 
soldier will change front as quickly as possible in the most con- 
venient manner; for example: 1. To the left rear, 2. Parry, 
3. HIGH; 1. To the right, 2. Parry, 3. RIGHT, etc. 

These movements constitute a change of front in which the 
position of guard is resumed at the completion of the movement. 

In changing front for the purpose of attack or defense, if 
there is danger of wounding a- comrade, the rifle should first be 
brought to a vertical position. 



HAOTAL OF THE BAYONET. 



231 




Par. . 



Par. 44. 



232 MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 

III. INSTRUCTION WITHOUT THE BAYONET. 

44. 1. Club rifle, 2. SWING. 

Being at order arms, at the preparatory command quickly 
raise and turn the rifle, regrasping it with both hands between 
tlie rear sight and muzzle, barrel down, thumbs around the 
stock and toward the butt; at the same time raise the rifle 
above the shoulder farthest from the opponent, butt elevated 
and to the rear, elbows slightly bent and knees straight. Each 
individual takes such position of the feet, shoulders-, and hands 
as best accords with his natural dexterity. SWING. Tighten 
the grasp of the hands and swing the rifle to the front and 
downward, directing it at the head of the opponent and imme- 
diately return to the position of club rifle by completing the 
swing of the rifle downward and to the rear. Repeat by the 
command, SWING. 

The rifle should be swung with sufficient force to break 
through any guard or parry that may be Interposed. 

Being at club rifle, order arms is resumed by command. 

The use of this attack against dummies or in fencing is pro- 
hibited. 

45. The position of dub rifle may be taken from any position 
of the rifle prescribed Jn the Manual of Arms. .It will not be 
taken in personal combat unless the emergency is such as to 
preclude the use of the bayonet. 

IV. COMBINED MOVEMENTS, 

46. The purpose of combined movements is to develop more 
vigorous attacks and more effective defenses than are obtained 
by the single movements; to develop skill in passing from at- 
tack to defense and the reverse. Every movement to the front 
should be accompanied by an attack, which is increased In 
effectiveness by the forward movement of the body. Every 
movement to the rear should ordinarily be accompanied by a 
parry and should always be followed by an attack. Movements 
to the right or left may be accompanied by attacks or defenses. 

47. Not more than three movements will be used in any com- 
bination. The instructor should first indicate the number of 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 



233 







Par. 44. 



MAHUAL OF THE BAYONET. 

movements that fire to be combined as two movements or three 
movements. The execution is determined by one command of 
execution, and the position of guard is taken upon the comple- 
tion of the last movement only. 

EXAMPLES. 

Front pass and LUNGE. 
Right step and THRUST. 
Left step and low parry RIGHT. 
Rear pass, parry left and LUNGE. 
Lunge and cut RIGHT. 
Parry right and parry HIGH. 
JQi/tt strike and cut DOWN. 
Thrust and parry HIGH. 
Parry high and LUNGE. 
Advance, thrust and cut RIGHT. 
Right step, parry left and cut DOWN. 
To the left, butt strike and cut DOWN. 
To the right rear, cut down and butt STRIKE. 

48. Attacks against dummies will be practiced. The appi 
will be made against the dummies both in quick time a' 
double time. 

V. PEACTICAL BAYONET COMBAT. 

49. The principles of practical bayonet dombat should 
taught as far as possible during the progress of instruction In 
bayonet exercises. 

60. The soldier must be continually impressed with the ex- 
treme importance of the offensive due to its moral effect Should 
an attack fail, it should be followed immediately by another 
attack before the opponent has an opportunity to ass-ime the 
offensive. Keep the opponent on the defensive. If, due to cir- 
cumstances, it is necessary to take the defensive, constantly 
watch for an opportunity to assume the offensive and take 
immediate advantage of it. 

51. Observe the ground with a view to obtaining the best foot- 
ing. Time for this will generally be too limited to permit more 
than a single hasty glance. 



KAJTOAL OF THE BAYONET. 235 

52. In personal combat watch the opponent's eyes if they can 
be plainly seen, and do not fix the eyes on his weapon nor upon 
the point of your attack. If his eyes can not be plainly seen, 
as in night attacks, watch the movements of his weapon and 
of his body. 

58. Keep the body well covered and deliver attacks vigorously. 
The point of the bayonet should always be kept as nearly as 
possible in the line of attack. The less the rifle is moved up- 
ward, downward, to the right, or to the left/the better prepared 
the soldier Is for attack or defense. 

54. Constantly watch for a chance to attack the opponent's 
left hand. His position of guard will not differ materially from 
that described in paragraph 24. If his bayonet is without a 
cutting edge, he will be at a great disadvantage. 

55. The butt is used for close and sudden attacks. It is par- 
ticularly useful in riot duty. From the position of port arms a 
sentry can strike a severe blow with the butt of the rifle. 

56. Against a man on foot, armed with a sword, be careful 
that the muzzle of the rifle is not grasped. All the swordsman's 
energies win be directed toward getting past the bayonet. At- 
tack him with short, stabbing thrusts, and keep him beyond 
striking distance of his weapon. 

57. The adversary may attempt a greater extension in the 
thrust and lunge by quitting the grasp of his piece with the left 
hand and advancing the right as far as possible. When this 
Is done, a sharp parry may cause him to lose control of his 
rifle, leaving him exposed to a counter attack, which should 
follow promptly.' 

58. Against odds a small number of men can fight to best 
advantage by grouping themselves so as to prevent their being- 
attacked from behind. 

59. In fighting a mounted man armed with a saber every 
effort must be made to get on his near or left side, because here- 
his reach is much shorter and his parries much weaker. If not 
possible to disable such an enemy, attack his horse and then 
renew the attack on the horseman. 

80. In receiving night attacks the assailant's movements can 
be best observed from the kneeling or prone position, as his 



236 MANUAL OF THE BAYONET 

approach generally brings him against the sky line. Wlieii he 
arrives within attacking distance rise quickly and lunge well 
forward at the middle of his body. 

VI. FENCING EXERCISES. 

61. Fencing exercises in two lines consist of combinations of 
thrusts, parries, and foot movements executed at command or 
at will, the opponent replying with suitable parries and returns. 

62. The instructor will inspect the entire fencing equipment 
before the exercise begins and assure himself that everything is 
in such condition as will prevent accidents. 

63. The men equip themselves and form in two lines at the 
order, facing each other, with intervals of about 4 paces between 
files and a distance of about 2 paces between lines. One line 
is designated as number 1 ; the other, number 2. Also as attack 
and defense. 

64. The opponents being at the order facing each other, the 
instructor commands: SALUTE. 

Each man, with eyes on his opponent, carries the left hand 
smartly to the right side, palm of the hand down, thumb and 
fingers extended and joined, forearm horizontal, forefinger 
touching the bayonet.. (Two.) Drop the arm smartly by the 
side. 

This salute is the fencing salute. 

All fencing exercises and all fencing at will between indi- 
viduals will begin and terminate with the formal courtesy of 
the fencing salute. 

65. After the fencing salute has beeu rendered the instructor 
commands: 1. Fencing exercise, 2. GUARD. 

At the command guard each man comes to the position of 
guard, heretofore defined, bayonets crossed, each man's bayonet 
bearing lightly to the right against the corresponding portion 
of the opponent's bayonet This position is known as the 
engage or engage right. 

66. Being at the engage right: EMC AGE LEFT. 

The attack drops the point of his bayonet quickly .until clear 
of his opponent's rifle and describes a semicircle with it upward 
and to the right ; bayonets are crossed similarly as in the en- 



MANUAL OP THE BAYONET. 237 

gaged position, each man's bayonet- bearing lightly to the left 
ngainst the corresponding portion of the opponent's bayonet 

67. Being at engage left: ENG AGE RIGHT. 

The attack quickly drops the point of his bayonet until clear 
of his opponent's rifle and describes a semicircle with it upward 
and to the left and engages. 

68. Being engaged. ENGAGE LEFT AND RIGHT. 

'jfhe attack engages left and then immediately engages right. 

69 Being engaged left ENGAGE RIGHT AND LEFT 

The attack engages right and then immediately engages left. 

70. 1. Number one, ENGAGE RIGHT (LEFT);..2. Number tw.o, 
COUNTER. 

Number one executes the movement ordered, as above; num- 
ber two quickly drops the point of his bayonet and circles it 
upward to the original position. 

71 In all fencing while maiutaiuing the pressure in the en- 
gage, a certain freedom of motion of the rifle is allowable, con- 
sisting of the play, or up-and-dowu motion, of one bayonet 
against the other. This is necessary to prevent the opponent 
from divining the intended attack. It also prevents his using 
the point of contact as a pivot for his assaults. In changing 
from one engage to the other the movement is controlled by the 
left hand, the right remaining stationary. 

72. After some exercise in engage, engage left, and counter 
exercises will be given in the assaults 

ASSAULTS 

73. The part of the body to be attacked will be designated by 
name, as head, neck, chest, stomach, legs. No attacks will be 
made below the knees The commands are given and the move- 
ments for each line are first explained thoroughly by the in- 
structor; the execution begins at the command assau/t. Num 
ber one executes the attack, and number two parries; conversely, 
at command, number two attacks and number one parries. 

74. For convenience in instruction assaults are divided Into 
simple attacks, counter attacks, attacks on the rifle, and feints. 



MANUAL 07 THE BAYONET. 
SIMPLE ATTACKS. 

75. Success in these attacks depends on quickness of more- 
men t. There are three simple attacks the straight, the disen- 
gagement, and the counter disengagement. They are not preceded 
by a feint. 

76. In the straight the bayonet is directed straight at an open- 
Ing from the engaged position. Contact with, the opponent's 
rifle may, or may not, be abandoned while making it. If the 
opening be high or low, contact with the rifle will usually be 
abandoned on commencing the attack. If the opening be near 
his guard, the light pressure used in the engage may be con- 
tinued in the attack. 

Example: Being at the engage right, 1. Number one, at neck 
(head, chest, right leg, etc.), thrust; 2. Number two, parry right; 

a ASSAULT. 

77. In the disengagement contact with the opponent's rifle is 
abandoned and the point of the bayonet is circled under or over 
his bayonet or rifle and directed into the opening attacked. This 
attack is delivered by one continuous spiral movement of the 
bayonet from the moment contact is abandoned. 

Example : Being at the engage right, 1. Number one, at stomach 
(left chest, left leg, etc.), thrust; 2. N umber two, parry left (etc. 
3. ASSAULT. 

78. In the counte^ disengagement a swift attack is made in 
the opening discloseW while the opponent is attempting to change 
the engagement of his rifle. It is delivered by one continuous 
spiral movement of the bayonet into the opening. 

Example: Being at the engage right, 1. Number two, engage 
/eft; 2. Number one, at chest, thrust; 3. Number two, parry left; 
4.' ASSAULT. 

Number two initiates the movement, number one thrusts as 
soon as the opening is made, and number two then attempts to 
parry. 

79. A counter attack or return is one made instantly after or 
in continuation of a parry. The parry should be as narrow as 
possible. This makes it more difficult for the opponent to re- 
cover and counter parry. The counter attack should also be 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 239 

made at, or just before, the full extension of the opponent's 
attack, as when it is so made, a simple extension of the arms 
will generally be sufficient to reach the opponent's body. 

Example: Being at engage, 1. Number two, at chest, lunge; 
2. Number one, parry right, and at stomach (chest, head, etc.), 
thrust; 3. ASSAULT. 

ATTACKS ON THE RIFLE. 

80. These movements are made for the purpose of forcing or 
disclosing an opening into which an attack can be made. They 
are the press, the beat, and the twist. 

81. In the press the attack quickly presses against the oppo- 
nent's bayonet or rifle with his own and continues the pressure 
as the attack is delivered. 

Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, press, and at 
Chest, thnrst; 2. Number two, parry right; 3. ASSAULT. 

82. The attack by disengagement is particularly effective fol- 
lowing the press. 

Example: Being at the engage, 1. ffumber one; press, and at 
stomach, thrust; 2. Number two, low parry left; 3. ASSAULT. 

83. The beat is an attack in which a. sharp blow is struck 
against the opponent's rifle for the purpose of forcing him to 
expose an opening into which an attack immediately follows. 
It is used when there is but slight opposition or no contact of 
rifles. 

Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, beat, and at 
stomach (chest, etc.), thrust; 2. Number two, parry left; 3. AS- 
SAULT. 

84. In the twist the rifle is crossed over the opponent's rifle 
or bayonet and his bayonet forced downward with a circular 
motion and a straight attack made into the opening. It requires 
superior strength on the part of the attack. 

Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, twist, and at 
stomach, thrust; 2. Number two, low parry, /eft; 3. ASSAULT. 

FEINTS. 

85. Feints are movements which threaten or simulate attacks 
and are made with a view to inducing an opening or parry that 



240 MANUAL OP THE BAYONET. 

exposes the desired point of attack. They are either single or 
double, according to the number of such movements made by the 
attack. 

86. In order that the attack may be changed quickly, as little 
force as possible is put into a feint. 

Example : Being at the engage, Number one, feint head thrust; 
at stomach, lunge; 2. Number two, parry right and low parry right; 
3. ASSAULT. 

Number one executes the feint and then the attack. Number 
two executes both parries. 

87. In double feints first one part of the body and then an- 
other is threatened and a third attacked. 

Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, feint straight 
thrust at chest; disengagement at chest; at stomach, lunge; 
2. Number two, parry right, parry left, and low parry left; 3. AS- 
SAULT. 

88. An opening may be offered or procured by opposition, as 
in the press or beat. 

89. In fencing exercises every feint should at first be parried. 
When the defense is able to judge or divine the character of 
the attack the feint is not necessarily parried, but may be nulli- 
fied by a counter feint. 

90. A counter feint is a feint following the opponent's feint or 
following a parry of his attack and generally occurs in com- 
bined movements. 

COMBINED MOVEMENTS. 

91. When the men have become thoroughly familiar with the 
various foot movements, parries, guards, attacks, feints, etc., 
the .instructor combines several of them and gives the com- 
mands in quick succession, increasing the rapidity and number 
of movements as the men hecome more skillful. Opponents will 
be changed frequently. 

1. Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, by disen- 
gagement at chest, thrust; 2. Number two, parry left, light step 
(left foot first), and lunge; 3. ASSAULT. 

2. Example: Being at engage left, Number one, press and 
'unge; 2. Number two. parry right, left step, and thrust; 3 AS- 
SAULT. 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 241 

3. Example* Being at the engage, If umber one, by disengage- 
ment at chest, thrust; 2. Number two, parry left, front pass, and 
at head butt strike; 3. Number one, right step; 4. ASSAULT. 

92. Examples 1 and 2 are typical of movements known as 
cross counters, and example No. 3 of movements known as close 
counters. 

93. A chancery is an attack by means of which the opponent is 
disarmed, which causes him to lose control of his rifle, or which 
disables his weapon. 

94. When the different combinations are executed with suffi- 
cient skill the instructor will devise series of movements to be 
memorized and executed at the command assault. The accuracy 
and celerity of the movements will be carefully watched by the 
instructor, with a view to the correction of faulty execution. 

95. It is not intended to restrict the number of movements, 
but to leave to the discretion of company commanders and the 
ingenuity of instructors the selection of such other exercises as 
accord with the object of the drill. 

VH. FENCING AT WILL. 

96 As satisfactory progress Is made the instructor will pro- 
ceed to the exercises at will, by which is meant assaults between 
two men, each endeavoring to hit the other and to avoid being 
hit himself. Fencing at will should not be allowed to degenerate 
into random attacks and defenses. 

97 The instructor can supervise but one pair of combatants 
at a time. Frequent changes should be made so that the men 
may learn different methods of attack and defense from each 
other. 

98. The contest should begin with simple, careful movements, 
with a view to forming a correct opinion of the adversary; 
afterwards everything will depend on coolness, rapid and correct 
execution of the movements and quick perception of the adver- 
sary's Intentions. 

99. Continual retreat from the adversary's attack and fre- 
quent dodging to escape attacks should be avoided. The 
offensive should be continually encouraged. 



342 JCAHTTAL OF THE BAYONET. 

100. In fencing at will, when no commands are given, oppo- 
nents facing each other at the position of order arms, salute. 
They then immediately and simultaneously assume the position 
of guard, rifles engaged. Neither man may take the position 
of guard before his opponent has completed his salnte. The 
choice of position is decided before the salute. 

101. The opponents being about two paces apart and the fenc- 
ing salute having been rendered, the instructor commands, At 
will, 2. ASSAULT, after which either party has the right to 
attack. To interrupt the contest the instructor will command 
HALT, at which the combatants will immediately come to the 
order. To terminate the contest the instructor will command, 
1. Halt, 2. SALUTE, at which the combatants will immediately 
come to the order, salute, and remove their masks. 

102. When men have acquired confidence in fencing at will, 
one opponent should be required to advance upon the other in 
quick time at charge bayonet, from a distance not to exceed 10 
yards, and deliver an attack. As soon as a hit is made by 
either opponent the instructor commands, HALT, and the assault 
terminates. Opponents alternate in assaulting. The assailant 
js likewise required to advance at double time from a distance 
not exceeding 20 yards and at a run from a distance not exceed- 
ing 30 yards. 

103. The instructor will closely observe the contest and decide 
doubtful points. Pie will at once stop the contest upon the 
slightest indication of temper. After conclusion of the combat 
ie will comment on the action of both parties, point out errors 
and deficiencies and explain how they may be avoided in the 
future. 

104. As additional instruction, the men may be permitted to 
wield the rifle left handed, that is on the left side of the body, 
left hand at the small of the stock. Many men will be able to 
use this method to advantage. It is also of value in case the 
left hand is wounded. 

105. After men have fenced in pairs, practice should be given 
m fencing between groups, equally and unequally divided. When 
practicable, intrenchments will be used in fencing of this char- 
acter. 



XAOTAL OF THE BAYONET. 243 




Par. iw. 



244 MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 

In group fencing it will be necessary to have a sufficient num- 
ber of umpires to decide hits. An individual receiving a hit is 
withdrawn at once from the bout, which is decided in favor of 
the group having the numerical superiority at the end. The 
fencing salute is not required in group fencing. 

RULES FOB FENCING AT WILL. 

106. 1. Hits on the legs below the knees will not be counted. 
No hit counts unless, in the opinion of the Instructor, it has 
sufficient force to disable. 

2. Upon receiving a hit, call out " hit" 

3. After receiving a fair hit a counter attack is not permitted. 
A position of engage is taken. 

4. A second or third hit in a combined attack will be counted 
only when the first hit was not called. 

5. When it is necessary to stop the contest for example, be- 
cause of breaking of weapons or displacement of means of pro- 
tection take the position of the order. 

6. When 'it is necessary to suspend the assault for any cause, 
it will not be resumed until the adversary is ready and in con- 
dition to defend himself 

1. Attacks directed at the crotch are prohibited in fencing. 
8. Stepping out of bounds, when established, counts as a hit 

SUGGESTIONS FOB FENCING AT WILL. 

107. When engaging in an assault, first study the adversary's 
position and proceed by false attacks, executed with speed, to 
discover, if possible, his instinctive parries. In order to draw 
the adversary out and induce him to expose that part of the 
body at which the attack is to be made, it is advisable to simu- 
late an attack by a feint and then make the real attack. 

108. Return attacks should be frequently practiced, as they 
are difficult to parry, and the opponent is within easier reach 
and more exposed. The return can be made a continuation of 
the parry, as there is no previous warning of its delivery, al* 



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET. 245 

though it should always be expected. Returns are made with- 
out lunging if the adversary can be reached by thrusts or cuts. 

109. Endeavor to overcome the tendency to make a return 
without knowing where it will hit Making returns blindly Is 
a bad habit and leads to instinctive returns that is. habitual 
returns with certain attacks from certain parries a fault which 
the skilled opponent will soon discover 

110. Do not draw the rifle back preparatory to thrusting and 
lunjriug. 

111 The purpose of fencing at will is to teach the soldier as 
many forms of simple, effective attacks and defenses as pos- 
sible. Complicated and intricate movements sh'ould not be at- 
tempted. 

HINTS FOB INSTRUCTORS. 

112 The influence of the instructor is great He must be 
master of his weapon, not only to show the various movements, 
but also to lend in the exercises at will. He should stimulate 
the zeal of the men and arouse pleasure in the work. Officers 
should qualify themselves as instructors by fencing with each 
other 

113. The character of each man, his bodily conformation, and 
his degree of skill must alwnys be taken into account When 
the instructor is demonstrating the combinations, feints, re- 
turns, and parries the rapidity of his attack should be regu- 
lated by the skill of the pupil and no more force than is neces 
sary should be used. If the pupil exposes himself too much in 
the feints and parries the instructor will, by an attack, con 
vince him of his error, but if these returns be too swiftly or 
too strongly made the pupil will become overcautious and the 
precision of his attack will be impaired. The object is to teach 
the pupil, not to give exhibitions of superior skill 

114. Occasionally the instructor should leave himself uncov- 
ered and fail to parry. In order to teach the pupil to take quick 
advantage of such opportunities. 



MAHITAL OF THE BAYONET. 
. COMPETITIONS. 



246 



115. In competitions between different organizations none but 
skillful fencers will be allowed to participate. 

116 In contests between two men judges may assign values 
to hits as follows: 





Thrusta 
and 
lunges. 


Cuts. 


Butt 
of 
rifle. 




4 




1 


Chest 


3 






Head 


3 


2 


3 


Neck 


2 


2 


2 




1 


I 




Arm? and hands 


1 


1 













Stepping out of bounds, 4 points. 

117. When superiority between two men is decided by bouts, 
each bout will be decided by itself, i. e., points won in one bout 
can not be carried over to another. 

118. Details other than those mentioned above will be ar- 
ranged by the officials of the competition. 




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