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Full text of "In the field : the bulletin of the Field Museum of Natural History"

INTHEFIELD 



turf 
February 
2000 



The Field Museum's Membership 






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Masks: 

Faces of Culture 

Phctegraphing th 
World oC:^' 



From the President 




The Museum's Road Map 
TO THE Next Century 



During his appearance at The 
Field Museum in August, the 14th 
Dalai Lama warned the audience 
not to expect too much in the 
new millennium: 

"Some people are a little excited 
about the new millennium. They 
believe it will bring some new 
things and happiness. They are 
wrong . . . nothing will be differ- 
ent; nothing will be new." 

The Dalai Lama, however, does 
believe that the new millennium 
has significance. It is, as he pointed 
out, a bench mark in human his- 
tory against which we should 
examine our lives and contemplate 
the fiiture. But only through the 
process of self-evaluation and per- 
sonal sacrifice, he concludes, can 
we effect change in our lives. 

A similar message is being con- 
veyed by our board of trustees, 
who recently challenged us to 
transform The Field Museum into 
the best museum in the world. 
During a yearlong strategic plan- 
ning initiative, the trustees 



evaluated all aspects of The Field 
Museum, from our administrative 
policies to our research initiatives. 
Upon completing their evaluation 
in September, they presented us 
with a series of recommendations. 

Their plan, however, is more 
than just a laundry list of recom- 
mendations — it is a philosophical 
road map that we must follow if 
we are to remain competitive in the 
21st century. Underpinning this 
road map is the trustees' conviction 
that we should expand our mission 
of accumulating and disseminating 
knowledge about the world in 
which we live to include a renewed 
focus on creating knowledge 
through our research programs. 

For instance, they have man- 
dated that we immediately invest 
more resources into maintaining 
and expanding our collection of 
21 million cultural objects and 
biological specimens. These collec- 
tions are the lifeblood of this 
institution, used by our curators, 
as well as scholars throughout the 
world. However, they are a wasted 
asset unless we maintain and 
enhance them through an inte- 
grated research and conservation 
program that gives our scientists 
the resources they need to con- 
tinue searching for answers to the 
planets lingering mysteries and 
growing environmental problems. 

The trustees also want us to 
breathe new life into the visitor 
experience by bridging the gap 
between the research and public 
sides of the Museum. In June 1998, 
we took the first step in this direc- 
tion by constructing a fossil prep 
lab in the public space where visi- 
tors could watch our researchers 
clean and prepare Sue's bones. But 
we can do more. Why not, for 
instance, allow visitors controlled 
access to the collections so they 



can see firsthand the eclectic array 
of biological specimens and cul- 
tural objects housed at The Field 
Museum? And why not build more 
pubhc labs so visitors can watch 
our staff examine DNA strands, 
for example, or conserve ancient 
textiles from places like Africa 
and Indonesia? 

As we turn the Museum "inside 
out," we also must systematically 
update our permanent exhibits, 
especially those dealing with the 
earth sciences and the cultures of 
the Americas. In addition, we need 
to use the traveling exhibits that 
we showcase at The Field Museum 
to add depth to the content of our 
permanent displays and to shed 
light on our mission. 

An essential component of this 
plan is to design a more coordi- 
nated and creative educational 
program, one that brings fresh 
insight and perspective to the arti- 
facts and specimens on display. 
We also should search for tech- 
nologies that allow us to broaden 
our outreach and to shatter the 
cultural barriers and geographic 
borders that have hindered our 
ability in the past to communicate 
with new audiences. 

We already have spent the past 
few years developing the founda- 
tion on which to build the 
world-class educational and 
research facility that our trustees 
have envisioned. But as the Dalai 
Lama so eloquently pointed out, it 
takes time and much work before 
significant changes can be realized. 

Have a great New Year and wel- 
come to the new century. 

John W. McCarter Jr. 
President & CEO 



We would like to know what you 
think about "In the Field" 



Please send comments or questions to Robert Vosper, 
publications department. The Field Museum, 
1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496, 
or via e-mail at rvosper@fmnh.org. 



Inside 



View some never-before-seen 
photographs shot specifically for 
scientific applications, and uncover 
the visual world of natural history. 



8 




The Field Museum's 4,000-pound, 
75-foot-long Brachiosaurus prepares 
for arrival at Chicago's O'Hare 
International Airport. 



In March, members are invited to a 
sneak preview of the temporary 
exhibit "The Dead Sea Scrolls." 



11 



Is the "Sounds from the Vaults" 
exhibit really that innovative? A 
Field Museum exhibit developer 
sounds off on the question. 



Your Guide to The Field 

A complete schedule of 
events for January/February, 
including programs offered in 
conjunction with the "Masks; 
Faces of Culture" exhibit. 




In the new exhibit "Masks: 
Faces of Culture," Museum 
visitors can explore the role 
that masks play in human soci- 
ety. See the Calendar Section 
for details. 




There are thousands of kinds of 
mushrooms. While some are 
edible and delicious, most can 
make you sick or even kill you. 



Museum paleontologists have 
discovered a wealth of fossils in 
Madagascar that are filling in 
the holes in some long-held 
evolutionary theories. 



INTHEFIELD 

January/February 2000, Vol. 71, No. 1 

Editor and Designer: 
Robert Vosper 

Design Consultants: 
Hayward Blake & Company 



In the Field (ISSN #1051-4546) is published 
bimonthly by The Field Museum. Copyright 
© 2000 The Field Museum. Annual subscriptions 
are $20; $10 for schools. Museum membership 
includes In the Field subscription. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of The Field 
Museum. Notification of address change should 
include address label and should be sent to 
Membership Department. POSTMASTER: Send 
address changes to In the Field, The Field 
Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 
IL 60605-2496. Periodicals postage paid at 
Chicago, Illinois. 

This issue's cover photograph Is by Lynton 
Gardiner of a bulletproof face mask designed 
in 1989 by American Body Armor and 
Equipment Inc. The mask is from the collec- 
tions of the Saint Louis Art Museum. 



%i 



Field 



useum 



The Field Museum salutes the people 
of Chicago for their long-standing, 
generous support of the Museum 
through the Chicago Park District. 

The Field Museum 

1400 South Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, IL 60605-2496 

ph 312.922.9410 
www.fieldmuseum.org 



Around Campus 



Shedd Aquarium 

Have you ever wondered what it's like 
at the Shedd Aquarium early in the 
morning when the animals wake up? 
You can find out on Saturday, 
February 19, or Saturday, February 26, 
by having Breakfast with the Belugas. 
Beginning at 8 a.m., you'll visit the 
Oceanarium to talk to the animal-care 
staff and watch the whales start their 
day. Afterward, you can enjoy an all- 
you-can-eat buffet breakfast and a 
tour of the Aquarium. The cost is $28 



for adults, $25 for children ages 3 to 
1 1 and for seniors. Admission for 
children 2 and under is free. Call 
312.692.3333 for more information. 

Adler Planetarium 

Now that the Adler has reopened its 
renovated building to the public, it 
will once again showcase part of its 
History of Astronomy collection in The 
Universe in Your Hands. This perma- 



nent exhibit explores the pretele- 
scopic astronomy of the late Middle 
Ages and the Renaissance, an era 
marked by the rebirth of Greek and 
Roman culture and the growing 
influence of Islamic scientists and 
philosophers. Included in this exhibit 
are more than 60 sundials, 33 astro- 
labes and nine armillary spheres from 
the Adier's collection, one of the 
largest assemblages of astronomy- 
related material in the world. 



JANUARY • FEBRUARY 2000 1 



Photographs in the Service of Science 



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1 Preparators found this rare baenid turtle skull encased in 
the rock matrix surrounding Sue's 67-million-year-old 
remains. While removing the matrix, preparators created a 
photographic record oj each oj the T. rex's 200 or so hones, 
as well as of the remains of the other animals buried along- 
side of her. 



2 For the past two years, paleontologist Lance Grande has 
been researching the evolutionary history, comparative 
anatomy and biogeographic distribution of fossil and living 
gars. Grande "clears and stains' the modern fish specimens to 
highlight their bones (red) and cartilage (blue). This makes 
it easier to compare the living species to the fossil specimens. 



2 ;N THE FIELD 



Robert Vosper 

Important scientific information is often ft)und in the 
subtle details of a cultural object or biological speci- 
men — the wear and tear on an animal's tooth, for 
instance, the cracks and sutures on the fossilized 
bones of a dinosaur, the shape of a design on an 
ancient pottery shard, or the texture of a leaf growing 
on a new species of plant. These details are like words 
in a book, providing scientists with a narrative of the 
specimen and its history. As a result, there is no sub- 
stitute for being able to hold, touch and examine a 
specimen or artifact in person. There is one, however, 
that comes very close. 

Each year, the Museums photography department 
shoots on average 15,000 photographs, about half of 
which are requested by the Museum's research staff 
for scientific applications. Researchers use these pho- 
tographs in everything from the classes they teach at 
universities to the records they keep on specimens 
gathered in the field. In addition, the department, 
which maintains a collection of 700,000 images, offers 
its services to scientists and research institutions all 
over the globe. 

For the most part, however, scientists use these 
photographs as visual aids in the papers they publish 
in scientific journals, the main vehicle for communicat- 
ing new discoveries, theories and collection techniques 

Continued on page 5 





3 Anthropologist Alfred Kroeber 
unearthed this piece of pottery while 
excavating the ancient ruins of the 
Nazca Valley of Peru in 1926. 
Altamira Press recently published 
Kroeber's excavation reports from this 
archaeological expedition and included 
hundreds of photographs of the artifacts 
he found that are now housed in the 
Museum's anthropology collections. 

4 Robert Welsch, adjunct curator of 
anthropology, published this photograph 
of a Sulka dance mask from New 
Britain in his two-volume book. An 
American Anthropologist in 
Melanesia. In the book, Welsch used 
photographs to document the vast array 
of objects collected by Museum anthro- 



pologist A.B. Lewis during his travels 
through the former colonies of 
Melanesia from 1909 to 1913. 

5 Glass vials containing alcoholic 
beverages made in the 1930s from 
various botanicals, such as corn and 
cacao beans. This photograph is being 
used on an education- and research- 
based Web site, funded by Abbott 
Laboratories, that documents The 
Field Museum's extensive economic 
botany collections. 



JANUARY . FEBRUARY 2000 3 





1 These three photographs show the 
different anatomical features of the 
skull of a female rhesus monkey 
(Macaca mulatta). Zoologist Jack 
Fooden will publish these images in a 
paper he is writing on the morphologi- 
cal characteristics of the genus. 

2 Scientists use herbarium sheets like 
this one of a Viguiera weberbaueri, 
collected by botanist Michael Dillon in 
Peru, as reference tools when identify- 
ing plants. Since scholars from other 



institutions often need to borrow these 
sheets for their research, the Museum 
will often send photographs in place of 
the real thing when the sheet is too 
fragile or important to travel. 

3 In 1998, curator Lance Grande 
and his colleague William Bemis 
published this photograph of an acid- 
prepared, 100-million-year-old fossil 
of a Calamopleurus cylindricus 
in their 700-page monograph "A 
Comprehensive Phylogenetic Study of 



amiid fishes (Amiidae) Based on 
Comparative Skeletal Anatomy: An 
Empirical Search for Interconnected 
Patterns of Natural History." This 
monograph was published in the 
Society of Vertebrate Paleontology 
Memoir 4. 

4 A professor from the University 
of Indiana requested this photograph 
of turn-of-the-century ceremonial dance 
wands for use in his research of 
Pawnee culture. 

5 A hoy's coat, shirt and leggings from 
the Mesquakie (Fox) Indians of Tama, 
Iowa. In 1998, Field Museum anthro- 
pologist James VanStone published a 
comprehensive study of Mesquakie 
material culture in the Museum's scien- 
tific journal, Fieldiana. 

6 Before 1998, most scientists believed 
that there was only one species of 
mouse lemur inhabiting Madagascar. 
However, field biologist Steve 
Goodman and a Malagasy colleague 
proved otherwise by finding at least 
seven different species. They will 
publish this photograph in a paper 
they are writing that describes the 
morphological characteristics of these 
nocturnal primates. 



4 IN THE FIELD 



to the scientific community. These photographs often 
convey inft)rmation and data that are impossible to 
capture in words alone. 

The Field Museum, like many other museums and 
research institutions across the country, is construct- 
ing photographic databases of its collections, which 
allov/ the Museum to share information without 
having to send specimens and objects off-site. This is 
especially useful when an artifact or specimen is too 
valuable or fragile to travel or be handled. Many insti- 
tutions are also converting these photographs into 
digital formats so that collections can be shared over 
the Internet. 

In addition, anthropologists use photographs in 
the field to gather ethnographical information about 
specific objects in the collections. They will show 
these photographs to members of the cultures that 
crafted the objects, hoping to gain new insight or 
gather information not recorded by the original 
collector. This technique has been used successfially 
by Field Museum anthropologists working in Papua 
New Guinea and Panama. 

These are just a few examples of how Field 
Museum scientists use photographs in their research. 
We thought it might be interesting to showcase a sam- 
ple of these images, most of which have never been 
seen by the public. ITF 




Vlfitlan MbKbawi s. e. BUto 



SK^tM to I mi ny* na dlac yvlloi. 







JANUARY • FEBRUARY 2000 5 



Field Updates 



Fossil Discoveries in Madagascar Fill in the 
Holes in Some Long-Held Evolutionary Theories 




Above: Team leader John Flynn examines a fossil embedded in the red silt of an 
ancient flood plain in Madagascar's Morondava Basin. The National Geographic 
Society and longtime Field Museum supporters John and Withrow Meeker funded 
the team's research. 

Robert Vosper 

While digging through layers of sandy sediment in 
two rift basins in western Madagascar, an international 
team of paleontologists led by John Flynn, MacArthur 
Curator of Fossil Mammals, uncovered two fossil sites 
teeming with the remains of the long-extinct animals 
that once ruled this island nation. 

These animals, some of which have been entombed 
in the sediment for 230 million years, are helping the 
scientists gain new insight into the vast array of life 
forms that inhabited Madagascar during the Mesozoic 
Era (65 million years to 245 million years ago). And 
with each new animal they exhume, the scientists are 
filling in the holes in some long-held theories about 
the evolutionary history of dinosaurs and mammals. 

In the fall of 1999, the team — which includes 
Field Museum paleontologist William Simpson 
and research associates Andre Wyss and J. Michael 
Parrish — published the results of their most signifi- 
cant discoveries in articles in the journals Nature 
(Sept. 2, 1999 ) and Science (Oct. 22, 1999). In N«(i<re, 
they described their discovery of a new species of 
mammal about the same size as a shrew; and in 
Science, they reported on their discovery of a collection 
of cynodonts ("mammal-like reptiles") and the jaw- 
bones of two plant-eating dinosaurs. These jawbones, 
the team argues, might be the oldest-known dinosaur 
bones ever unearthed. 



A Triassic Fauna from Madagascar 

Toward the end of their first of four field seasons in 
Madagascar in 1996, the team discovered a promising 
fossil bed in the Morondava Basin, just east of the 
town of Sakaraha in southwestern Madagascar. 
Although they didn't have time to examine the site in 
detail, Flynn knew immediately that they had stum- 
bled upon something significant. 

"While we were looking around on the first day, we 
found the skull of a cynodont sitting on the surface 
with its eye socket staring up at us," he explains. "The 
skull was deeply weathered but still in great condition, 
so we immediately knew that it was a great site at 
that point. " 

The following year, the team returned to the area 
and unearthed the 230-million-year-old remains of a 
variety of cynodonts and true reptiles in the white 
sand and red silt of an ancient river channel and flood 
plain. According to Flynn, the remains of these early 
vertebrates, which included some partial and complete 
skeletons, are shedding new light on the origins of 
true mammals. 

About 330 million years ago, he explains, primitive 
land vertebrates (amniotes) split into two evolutionary 
branches: the Reptilia (reptile line) and the Synapsida 
(the mammal line). During this split, some of the early 
synapsids were the cynodonts, a sort of physiological 
hybrid between warmblooded mammals and cold- 
blooded primitive land vertebrates. 

"These cynodont fossils will help us complete the 
picture of that evolutionary transformation," Flynn 
says. "The fossils are exquisitely preserved, showing 
a level of detail far superior to anything else from 
that time." 

Only a few hundred yards away from the first dis- 
covery, the scientists uncovered the 3-inch-long and 
5-inch-long bleached-white jawbones of two previ- 
ously unknown species of plant-eating dinosaurs. 
These dinosaurs, the team calculates, are about two 
million years older than Herrerasaurus, a 228-million- 
year-old flesh-eating dinosaur from Argentina that for 
the past decade has held the distinction of being the 
oldest dinosaur ever found. 

Unlike Herrerasaurus, which was a ruthless 13-foot- 
long predator, the two dinosaurs from Madagascar 
were both prosauropods, gentle kangaroo-sized herbi- 
vores that had small heads, long necks and strong 
hindquarters that allowed them to amble on either 
two or four legs. Most paleontologists believe that 
these early dinosaurs either shared a common ancestor 
with, or were themselves the ancestors to, the mighty 
sauropod dinosaurs like Apatosaurus that evolved 
much later. 



6 IN THE FIELD 



Dinosaurs are divided into nvo major groups: the 
Saurischia (the "lizard-hipped dinosaurs" like 
Brachiosaurus and T. rex) and the Ornithischia (the 
"bird-hipped dinosaurs" like Triceratops and 
Stegosaurus). Within Saurischia are the two evolution- 
ary branches known as the theropods, or the meat 
eaters, and the Sauropodomorphs, or the plant eaters. 
The prosauropods found by Flynn's team are early 
members of the latter group. 

Although the two dinosaurs from Madagascar 
are fairly primitive in form, Flynn is quick to point 
out that they are by no means the ancestral species of 
all dinosaurs. 

"Dinosaurs have to be older than this simply 
because of the fact that you have prosauropods, which 
tells you that the major dinosaur branches had already 
split apart. So, the fact that you have a representative 
of some of the sub-branches of the tree tells you 
that the root of the tree is deeper in time. Now, how 
much deeper it goes is hard to tell. But, I think we are 
getting close." 

A Middle Jurassic Mammal from Madagascar 

A few weeks before discovering the fossil site in south- 
ern Madagascar, the team found a much younger fossil 
bed in the Mahajanga Basin in northwestern 
Madagascar. After prospecting the site, which is about 
450 miles north of Sakaraha, the team scooped up a 
few hundred pounds of sediment and shipped it back 
to Chicago for analysis. 

Over the next few years. Field Museum volunteers 
Dennis Kinzig, Ross Chisholm and Warren Valsa 
sifted through the sediment using high-powered 
microscopes. In the summer of 1998, they struck pay 
dirt when they uncovered a jawbone about half the 
size of a piece of rice, complete with three tiny 
teeth, each no larger than the head of a pin. The 
scientists have determined that this jawbone 
belonged to a previously unknown species of a 
shrew-sized mammal that lived in 
Madagascar 165 million years ago. In 
Nature, the team argues that this 
mammal, which they have named 
Amhondro mahaho, doubles the age 
of the oldest-known mammals 
from the island and shatters the 
widely held theory that the subgroup of 
mammals that encompasses most living 
forms (marsupials and placentals) arose first 
in the northern hemisphere. 

"This jaw is the first mammal fossil of any kind 
found from the southern continents during this time 
interval," Flynn says. "And it is much older than any 
advanced mammal from the north, even though the 



Jurassic fossil record is much better known from the 
northern continents." 

According to Flynn, Amhondro mahaho represents a 
group of mammals known as the Tribosphenida that 
had an advanced set of molars that are characteristic of 
most modern mammals, including humans. The more 
primitive forms of mammals, he explains, basically had 
a bunch of cusps (elevations on the chewing surface of 
the tooth) on their molars that formed an elongated 
oval pattern. As mammals evolved, however, the cusps 
on their upper molars formed a more triangular pat- 
tern that, in combination with basin-like platforms 
that developed on the back of their lower molars, 
allowed the animals to use a more effective "slice and 
grind" method of chewing. 

"While the Jurassic dinosaurian giants grab most of 
the attention, major evolutionary advances were occur- 
ring in our mammalian ancestors during that period, 
but their tiny size has up until now made it hard to 
find and study them," Flynn says. 

Once they have finished studying the fossils, the scien- 
tists will construct cast replicas of the bones, returning 
a portion of the original material to scientists at 
Madagascar's Universite d' Antananarivo. For the past 
10 years. Museum scientists have been collaborating 
with researchers from this university on a number of 
different projects. 

"Our Madagascar project illustrates that modern 
science is a truly international and collaborative 
endeavor," Flynn says. "Expeditions in remote and 
little-explored regions, with Malagasy and U.S. scien- 
tists working side by side, have yielded extremely 
important paleontological discoveries. Our 
teams of students, professionals and volunteers 
are making key contributions to understand- 
ing the evolution of two groups near and dear 
to humans: dinosaurs and mammals." ITF 




Above: One of the two dinosaur jawbones the team 
unearthed in the Morondava Basin in 1997. The scientists 
believe these jawbones might be the oldest-known dinosaur 
bones ever discovered. 



JANUARY . FEBRUARY 2000 7 



Field Notes 



Museum Dinosaur Prepares for Arrival 
AT Chicago's O'Hare International Airport 



Robert Vosper 

Museum President John McCarter recently announced 
that the 75-foot-Iong Brachiosaurus that guards the 
northern end of Stanley Field Hall will be moved 
January 17 to the United Airlines terminal at Chicago's 
O'Hare International Airport. The 4,000-pound fiber- 
glass replica, which has been a fixture at the Museum 
for the past seven years, is being relocated to make 
room for the installation of Sue in May 2000. 

"This represents an extraordinary opportunity for 
us to share our Brachiosaurus with a broad audience 
and to further establish Chicago as dinosaur central," 
he said. 

The Museum will position the specimen, which will 
be unveiled to the public the morning of January 19, 
next to the escalator at the United Terminal that joins 
Concourse B with Concourse C. 

"After we truck the dinosaur over to O'Hare, we 
will reassemble it on a special carriage with wheels," 
explained Richard Faron, director of exhibit develop- 
ment at The Field Museum. "We will probably 
assemble it by a freight elevator in the terminal and 
then wheel it into its new home in Concourse B. This 
gives us about a 24-hour window to put all the pieces 
back together." 

According to Faron, the only changes the Museum 
will make to the Brachiosaurus are perhaps some slight 
adjustments to the angle of its tail and some minor 
cosmetic improvements. These include repainting the 
specimen's sandy-colored bones in a darker, more real- 
istic shade of brown and replacing the specimen's 
2-foot-high concrete and wooden base with a sleek, 6- 




to 8-inch steel-tube frame that will accentuate the 
specimen's lifelike pose. In addition, the Museum will 
install an interactive information booth and merchan- 
dise kiosk next to the dinosaur. 

'As Chicago's hometown airline, we are pleased to 
support The Field Museum, one of the city's pre-emi- 
nent institutions," remarked Chris Bowers, the senior 
vice president of United Airlines, North America. 
"The presence of the Brachiosaurus in United's terminal 
will be an exciting addition to our customers' travel 
experience and will offer them a glimpse at the world 
of mystery and science that can be discovered at The 
Field Museum." 

Fortunately, Museum visitors will not have to trek 
out to O'Hare to see their favorite plant-eating 
dinosaur. During the summer, the Museum installed a 
clone of the specimen on the west terrace overlooking 
Lake Shore Drive. The only difference between the 
two replicas is that the one outside is made of a 
weatherproof fiberglass resin. In addition, the 
Museum had to hire engineers to design a special steel 
armature that could withstand the high winds and 
heavy snowfalls that punctuate a Chicago winter. 

Although neither specimen contains real bone, both 
include cast replicas of the fossilized remains of a 
Brachiosaurus unearthed by Elmer Riggs in western 
Colorado in 1900. Riggs, the Museum's first paleontol- 
ogist, discovered about 20 percent of the dinosaur, 
including a 10-foot-long rib bone and a 6-foot-long 
femur weighing 800 pounds. Because Riggs was the 
first to discover a Brachiosaurus, his specimen stands as 
the holotype, the standard against which scientists 
must compare all new Brachiosaurus findings. 

As for the missing bones, those are sculptured from 
a more complete Brachiosaurus found by German pale- 
ontologists working in Africa in 1909. Since their 
specimen was smaller than the one at the Museum, 
designers in 1993 had to increase the scale of the 
sculptured bones to match those found by Riggs. 

Ironically, because of the scientific importance of 
the real bones. Museum officials at the turn of the 
century refused to display Riggs' dinosaur — a deci- 
sion that infuriated the paleontologist who wanted to 
share his discovery with the world. Sadly, Riggs, who 
died in 1963, never got to see his Brachiosaurus on dis- 
play. Today, not only can thousands of Museum 
visitors share in Riggs' discovery each year, but so too 
can the 180,000 airline travelers who pass through 
O'Hare each day. ITF 

I Left: Engineers installing the neck of the Brachiosaurus in 
f 1993. In all, the 75-foot-long dinosaur is made up of about 63 
5 separate sections. 



8 IN THE FIELD 



Membership News 



Members' Viewing Days 
The Dead Sea Scrolls 

March 8 & 9; 10 a.m. - 10 p.m. 

Join the membership department March 8 and 9 for 
an exclusive sneak preview of "The Dead Sea Scrolls" 
a temporary exhibit co-organized by The Field 
Museum and The Israel Antiquities Authority. In 
the coming weeks, members will receive an invitation 
to this preview that will include more details about 
the event. 

"The Dead Sea Scrolls" which will be on display at 
the Museum from March 10 through June 11, features 
portions of 15 different parchment and papyrus 
scrolls, some of which represent the earliest surviving 
copies of the book of the Old Testament. The last 
time any of these 2,000-year-old scrolls were on dis- 
play in Chicago was in 1949 when the Oriental 
Institute exhibited three scroll fragments. 

The scrolls — which were written in Hebrew, 
Aramaic and Greek over a 300-year period beginning 
in 250 B.C. — were first discovered by a Bedouin 
shepherd in some caves in the Qumran region of the 
Judean desert, about 17 miles southeast of Jerusalem. 

Following the shepherds discovery, archaeologists 
searched the cave site for additional artifacts and dis- 
covered more than 100,000 scroll fragments, which 
together represent about 800 individual compositions. 
Although many of these ancient compositions 
are documents from the Hebrew Bible, some 
contain apocryphal books found in Christian and 
Greek scriptures. 

"The Dead Sea Scrolls are one of the greatest man- 
uscript discoveries in the history of archaeology," 
explains Field Museum President John McCarter. 
"They are rarely exhibited outside of Israel." 

"We have worked closely with The Israel 
Antiquities Authority on this exhibit and we are very 
excited to bring a unique collection of scrolls to 




Chicago, including five that have never traveled out- 
side Israel," he adds. "The Dead Sea Scrolls are the 
subject of an extensive and lively academic debate and 
they provide a meaningful connection for many to 
ancient times." 

In addition to the 15 scroll fragments are 80 arti- 
facts from Qumran settlements, including coins, 
goblets, sandals, a scroll storage jar and a pottery 
inkwell. The exhibit also will contain books and manu- 
scripts from the collections of The Field Museum and 
Chicago's Newberry Library, as well as a modern torah 
scroll from the Spertus Museum in Chicago. The Field 
Museum also plans to construct a laboratory inside 
the exhibit where conservators from The Israel 
Antiquities Authority will demonstrate the art of pre- 
serving ancient manuscripts. ITF 



Above: This 
ancient fragment 
of text contains 
commentary on 
the biblical verses 
of Hosea 2: 8-14. 



Membership Programs at a Glance 



Preview — "Star Wars: The Magic of Myth" 
July 14, 21 & 23 

This exciting exhibit showcases original artwork, 
props, models, costumes and characters used to create 
the Star Wars trilogy, and connects the films to ele- 
ments of classical mythology. "Star Wars: The Magic 
of Myth" was developed by the Smithsonian's 
National Air and Space Museum. The exhibit — which 
is on display at the Museum from July 15, 2000, 
through Jan. 7, 2001 — was organized for travel by 
the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service (SITES). All of the artifacts in this exhibit are 
on loan from the archives of Lucasfilm Ltd. 



Members' Nights 
June 8 & 9 

Mark you calendars today for 

Members' Nights, the annual 

extravaganza during which the 

Museum throws open the doors to 

its research and collections areas 

and lifts the curtain on exhibits in 

the making. In addition. Museum 

curators and researchers will be on 

hand to discuss their research and to show off some 

of the specimens they've collected while conducting 

fieldwork around the word. 




JANUARY • FEBRUARY 2000 9 



Your Guide to The Field 



Inside 



1 Exhibits 

3 Calendar of Events 

5 Get Smart 

7 Free Visitor Programs 




Masks: 

Faces of Culture 

Throughout recorded history, masks have 
been part of the human experience. In 
nearly every culture, age and inhabited part 
of the globe, they have functioned as medi- 
ums of expression and transformation. As 
works of art, masks embody dynamic visual 
energy; as cultural icons they present a rich 
panoply of diversities and commonalties in 
humankind. The human need to mask 
reveals a universal desire to transcend 
earthly limitations, to penetrate alien envi- 
ronments and to be reinvented, renewed, 
strengthened and protected. 

Field Museum visitors can experience the 
visual power of these objects in "Masks: 
Faces of Culture," a new temporary exhibit 



Top Row: (Left) Nonmilitary respirator, United States, 19305; (Middle) Devil mask, Mexico, 
1991; (Right) Theatrical mask, Guatemala, 1900s; 

Bottom Row: (Left) Lakisi initiation mask, Zaire, 1800s; (Middle) funerary mask, the Middle 
East, 5000 - 3000 B.C.; (Right) Baseball catcher's mask, United States, 1985. 




on display at The Field Museum from 
February 19 through May 14. The 140 masks 
in this exhibit (nearly 30 of which are shown 
with full costumes) represent 50 countries 
on six continents. Ranging from prehistoric 
times to the present, these masks exemplify 
the exquisite design, provocative imagery 
and compelling purpose found in one of 
humankind's most enduring art forms. 

In addition to familiar types, the exhibition 
introduces a number of lesser-known 
masks from places like rural Europe, Central 
America and Siberia — making this exhibit 
the first to explore such a comprehensive 
range of masks. The diversity of the selec- 
tion, the visual power of their provocative 
imagery and the universal need they express 
offer visitors a rich mosaic of the many 
faces of culture and dramatize masking as 
a dynamic, living tradition throughout 
the world. 

The exhibit is organized around six predom- 
inant themes that examine the 
fundamental, shared reasons why cultures 
mask. As visitors explore these themes — 



Left: A 19th-century Brazilian storm mask 
from the collections of the Staatliches Museum 
fUr Volkerkunde in Germany. These bark- 
cloth masks are worn exclusively by men and 
are meant to represent animals, natural phe- 
nomena and useful plants. 



which include discussions of rites of pas- 
sage, aggression and protection, and 
theater and cinema — it will soon become 
evident that whether in warfare, religion or 
celebration, masks have always been agents 
of change and that the tradition of masking 
has been predominantly male. For instance, 
during Paleolithic times, hunters and 
shamans used masks and costumes as 
decoys and men performed masquerades 
before and after each hunt to gain the 
blessing of the spirits. In addition, masking 
has been important in the depiction of real 
and fictional persona in theater and film, 
both outgrowths of male-dominated rituals 
in mythology and religion. 

After viewing "Masks: Faces of Culture," 
visitors are encouraged to explore the hun- 
dreds of masks on display in the Museum's 
permanent exhibits, such as Africa, Pacific 
Spirits, Tibet and Eskimos and Northwest 
Coast Indians. These masks not only open 
windows into the broader cultural context 
in which they were created, but also illus- 
trate the extent of The Field Museum's vast 
anthropological collections. 

"Masks: Faces of Culture," which is free 
with general Museum admission, was orga- 
nized by Cara McCarty (the Grace L. 
Brumbaugh and Richard E. Brumbaugh 
Curator of Decorative Arts and Design), and 
John W. Nunley (the Morton D. May Curator 
of the Arts of Africa, Oceania and the 
Americas, at the Saint Louis Art Museum). 



1 THE FIELD MUSEUM 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JANUARY • FEBRUARY 2000 



Exhibits 



Sounds from the Vaults 



For decades, more than 6,000 musical arti- 
facts in the Museum's collections have 
rested in silence. They come from around 
the world and their voices are as diverse as 
the people who created them. Now, 
through the magic of digital technology, 
50 of these artifacts will perform again — 
some for the first time in 100 years. 

"Sounds from the Vaults" — which is on dis- 
play through June 18, 2000 — features the 
digitally recorded sounds of 50 musical arti- 
facts of all shapes and sizes, from finger 
cymbals to a 12-foot-long Tibetan trumpet. 
Although the artifacts themselves are dis- 
played behind glass in traditional wooden 
cases, visitors can "play" them by tapping 
on large, touch-sensitive pads mounted in 
front of each case. 

"This exhibit is a new direction for us . . . 
we wanted to do something different for 
the new millennium," explains Field 
Museum anthropologist Alaka Wall. "We're 
pushing the envelope here, using the latest 
interactive media technologies to give visi- 
tors a whole new way of interacting with 
our collections." 

When visitors activate the touch pads below 
each case, they trigger a sampler that plays 
back the digitized sound of the instrument 
on display. And if a person keeps their fin- 
ger on the pad, a rhythmic pattern is heard 
until the pad is released. If someone does 
the same thing at the same time with 
another pad, the rhythms of the two instru- 

CaRTIER 1900-1939 

The "Cartier 1900 - 1939" exhibit, which is 
on display through Jan. 16, 2000, showcases 
more than 200 objets d'art designed by the 
House of Cartier from the turn of the cen- 
tury to the 1930s. Many of the most 
stunning pieces on display show how Cartier 
drew inspiration from newly discovered 
archaeological finds from around the world. 
For example, the discovery of King 
Tutankhamen's tomb and its ancient trea- 
sures contributed a range of highly 
structured motifs and inspired a new gener- 
ation of Cartier designers. 

In addition to the jewelry, cigarette boxes, 
watches, clocks and accessories that visitors 
will find on display are more than 70 design 
drawings from Cartier's remarkable archives, 
as well as client order books, idea sketches 
and recently discovered original plaster casts 
that are records of early pieces that no 
longer exist. Together with new research, 
these materials offer a rare behind-the- 




Above: In "Sounds," visitors can play 50 musical instruments, including this bass drum from Java 
that had been sitting on a shelf in the Museum's collections-storage facilities for nearly a century. 



ments synchronize to reveal Vault Grooves, 
an original composition created by sound 
installation artists Bruce Odiand and 
Sam Auinger. 

"All the artifacts were recorded with a com- 
mon tempo, so they can mix rhythmically In 
interesting ways," says Odiand, the co- 
founder of 30/70 Productions, the New York 
company that spearheaded the project. 
"People will find themselves participating in 
making a new kind of world music." 



scenes look at the creative process of 
the world's premier houses of design. 

"Cartier 1900- 1939" has been orgar 
by The British Museum, London, and 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 
with generous loans drawn from the 
of Cartier Collection, Geneva. 



In addition, the exhibit includes computer 
workstations where visitors can trace the 
stories behind each artifact on display, 
including how it was made, what it was 
used for, who collected it and how it came 
to the Museum. With some of the artifacts, 
visitors can even view original field maps, 
notes, movie clips and wax cylinder record- 
ings made by the anthropologist who 
collected the artifact. 



Admission to the exhibit is $12 for 

adults, $6.50 for children ages 3 to 

1 1 and $8 for seniors and students 

with an ID (ticket prices include 

general admission fees). During free 

day every Wednesday, tickets to the 

exhibit are $6 for adults, $3 for child 

ages 3 to 1 1, and $4 for seniors and 

dents. To purchase tickets in advance, please 

call Ticketmaster at 312.902.1500. 

Members can also receive their two free 
tickets (family members can receive four) 
through Ticketmaster. 




stu- 



Above: A turquoise and pearl vanity case 
made by Renault and Fourrierfor Cartier 
Paris in 1924. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JANUARY • FEBRUARY 2000 2 



Calendar of Events 




Behind-the-Scenes Evening 
What's so Great about Dirt? 

7/74, Friday, 6-8 p.m. 

Join Field Museum mycologist Gregory 
Mueller on an expedition into the Museum's 
newest permanent exhibit. Underground 
Adventure, to learn about the connections 
between soil and the food you eat and 
the clothes you wear. This 15,000-square- 
foot exhibit — which opened to the public 
March 27, 1999 — allows visitors to explore 
the living world of soil while discovering 
how soil affects the environment and influ- 
ences cultural practices. "What's so Great 
about Dirt?" is designed for adults and chil- 
dren grades 3 and up. $10 per participant 
($8 members). Please call 312.665.7400 
for more information or to register. 

Family Workshop 
Fielding Stories 

7/75, 2/79, 3/18, 4/15 3 5/20 
Saturdays, 9:30 - 70:30 a.m. 

Add a new dimension to your favorite bed- 
time stories by participating in a five-part 
family workshop in which Field Museum 
educators will explore a host of children's 
books that delve into the world of culture 
and the environment. At the conclusion of 
each reading, educators will then discuss 
Field Museum exhibits that relate to the 



books being discussed. This workshop is 
designed for children in second and third 
grade. $20 per participant for each class 
($16 members) or $90 per participant 
($70 members) for all five classes. Please 
call 312.665.7400 for more information or 
to register. 

Family Workshop 
All about Movement 

1/22,2/19, 3/11, 4/8 & 5/13 
Saturdays, 9:30 - 10:30 a.m. 

Discover the world around you by examin- 
ing animal biomechanics with the Green 
Light Performing Company, a Chicago-based 
theater group. During the workshop, fami- 
lies can get "down and dirty" exploring 
how animals — such as polar bears and 
mule deer — move in, around and through 
the different places they call home. Since 
this program is basically yoga with a twist, 
participants are encouraged to wear com- 
fortable clothes. "All about Movement" is 
offered in five sessions and is designed for 
adults and children ages three to five. $20 
per participant for each class ($16 members) 
or $90 per participant for all five classes 
($70 members). Please call 312.665.7400 for 
more information or to register. 



Left: A diorama depicting polar bears frolick- 
ing in the ice along the Arctic coast. In the 
workshop "All about Movement," visitors can 
learn how polar bears and other animals move 
in and around the places they call home. 



Lecture — An Evening with 
Jimmy Santiago Baca 

7/25, Tuesday, 6:30 p.m. 

Listen to distinguished poet Jimmy Santiago 
Baca read selections from his new and 
forthcoming books of poetry. Baca, a native 
of New Mexico, has overcome poverty and 
prison to become one of America's most 
gifted writers. He is the author of several 
books of poetry, one of which, Martin and 
Meditations on the South Valley, won the 
1988 American Book Award. He also has 
received the Hispanic Heritage Award for 
Literature, the Pushcart Prize and the 
Southwest Book Award. Among 
his new books are Set This Book on Fire 
and the novel Healing Earthquakes. He 
also has three movie scripts in the works, 
including one that Julia Roberts recently 
purchased about the life of Pancho 
Gonzales, one of the most colorful players 
that the tennis world has ever seen. $15 
($10 members; $12 students and educators). 
Please call 312.665.7400 for more informa- 
tion or to register. 

Adult Course — Nature Writing: 
interesting Explanations 

7/26, Wednesday 6:30 - 8:30 p.m. 
2/2, 2/16, 2/23 S 3/1, Wednesdays, 
6:30-9 p.m. 

Whether you are writing a simple two-sen- 
tence description of a tree or an extended 
essay about a nature preserve, you not only 
will need to inform the reader, but also 
capture their interest and challenge their 
imaginations. In this course, Laurie Lawler, 
an English professor at Columbia College in 
Chicago, will teach you the basics of clear, 
concise exposition, as well as the essential 
ingredients that comprise quality nature 
writing. This class is offered as part of the 
ongoing Naturalist Certificate Program 
(NCP), a collaboration with the Morton 
Arboretum and the Chicago Botanic 
Garden to offer beginning and advanced 
naturalists classes in nature study. $125 
($105 members). Please call 312.665.7400 
for more information, to register or to 
obtain a complete listing of NCP classes 
offered this winter. 



3 THE FIELD MUSEUM 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JANUARY • FEBRUARY 2000 



Adult Course 

Exploring World Movement 

7/27, 213. 2/10, 2/17, 2/24. 3/2, 3/9 & 3/16 
Thursdays. 6-8 p.m. 

People in different cultures have developed 
very unique ways of expressing themselves 
through dance, which they use in every- 
thing from celebrations to rituals. In this 
unique eight-part series hosted by Terry 
Crews, a dance instructor at the University 
of Chicago, a variety of guest instructors 
will explore different dance traditions 
from around the world, including those 
from Spain, West Africa, India and the 
Middle East. Participants are encouraged 
to wear comfortable clothing. $18 per 
participant for each class ($15 members) 
or $110 per participant for entire series 
($93 members). Please call 312.665.7400 
for a complete listing of session topics or 
to register. 

Behind-the-Scenes Evening 
Discovering Sounds 

7/28, Friday, 6-8 p.m. 

Take a trip into the world of rhythm by 
exploring the many aspects of and the 
instruments used in percussion music 
around the globe. During this program, 
Chicago drummer Lenny Marsh will lead 
participants on a cultural and musical jour- 
ney, with stops in Africa and various regions 
of the Pacific. This program, which will 
leave you tapping your feet and whistling a 
new tune, is for adults and children grades 
three and up. $10 per participant ($8 mem- 
bers). Please call 312.665.7400 for more 
information or to register. 





Above: Musicians from West Africa in 1934 playing traditional stringed drums. In the program 
"Discovering Sounds," visitors can learn how percussion instruments are used in African and 
Pacific cultures. 



Lecture — An Evening 
with Wole Soyinka 

2/3, Thursday, 6:30 p.m. 

Wole Soyinka, the first Nigerian and African 
to win the Nobel Prize in literature (1986), 
has been called "an outspoken, daring pub- 
lic figure deeply engaged in the main 
political issues of his country and Africa." 
He is the author of a number of critically 
acclaimed plays and essay collections, 
including / Dance of the Forests, l\/lyth. 
Literature and the African World and The 
Burden of Memory, the Muse of 
Forgiveness. In addition to his work in the 
arts, Soyinka has become a symbol for 
human rights throughout the world and has 
been cited for excellence by Amnesty 
International. He is currently the Robert W. 
Woodruff Professor of the Arts at Emory 
University in Atlanta. $20 ($15 members; 
$18 students/educators). Please call 
312.665.7400 for more information. 

Left: In 1967, Nigerian author Wole Soyinka 
appealed for a ceasefire to the civil war that 
was ravaging his country and, as a result, was 
arrested, accused of conspiring with the rebels 
and held as a political prisoner for two years. 



Lecture — An Evening with 
Anna Quindlen 

2/29, Tuesday, 6 p.m. 

Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for commen- 
tary, Anna Quindlen has written for some of 
America's most influential newspapers and 
magazines. In addition, many of her novels 
have shot to the top of the fiction and non- 
fiction best-seller lists. A former columnist 
for The New York Times and, most recently, 
a columnist for A/eivsi/vee/c, Quindlen has 
written three critically acclaimed best-selling 
novels: Object Lessons (1991), One True 
Thing (1994) and Black and Blue (1998). 
Striking a delicate balance between national 
affairs and personal ones, Quindlen will give 
the audience a more realistic picture of 
modern life in America, and will discuss 
choices and changes in the 21st century. 
$18 ($12 members; $15 students and educa- 
tors). For more information or to register, 
call 312.665.7550. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JANUARY • FEBRUARY 2000 4 



Get Smart 



Masks: Faces of Culture 
Opening Festivities 



On Feb. 19, 2000, the Museum will open 
"Masks: Faces of Culture." a temporary 
exhibit that unites the visual, cultural and 
historical significance of masks by present- 
ing them not only as works of art, but also 
as cultural icons. 

Family Field Days 

Saturday & Sunday, February 19 8 20. 
11 a.m. -3 p.m. 

After exploring the "Masks: Faces of 
Culture" exhibit, visitors are encouraged to 
take a self-guided tour showcasing masks 
from different cultures on display in the 
Museum's permanent exhibit halls. Once 
inspired, you can then design your own 
mask to take home as a souvenir. This pro- 
gram, which also includes a number of 
performances and activities, is free with 
general Museum admission. Please call 
312.665.7400 for more information. 

Between Dark and Daylight: 
Cultures of Masks Revealed 

Saturday & Sur\day, February 19 & 20 
11 a.m., 12:30 p.m. & 1:30 p.m. 
Saturday & Sunday, February 26 & 27 
11 a.m. & Noon 

See, hear and enjoy stories about masks and 
their uses in this specially commissioned 
puppet play by Walkabout Puppets, a 
Chicago-based performance group that 
combines puppets and actors to create a 
unique visual and animated theatrical expe- 
rience. During these free performances, 
visitors will learn about the powerful and 
provocative imagery and role of masks 
throughout the world. 



Curator Lecture: 
Behind the Masks 

Sunday, February 20, 2 p.m. 

Cara McCarty and John Nunley, the curators 
who developed the "Masks: Faces of 
Culture" exhibit, will discuss the central 
themes of the exhibit, as well as the univer- 
sal human fascination with masks and the 
desire to wear them. Their presentation will 
also highlight some of the extraordinary 
works in the exhibit, the contexts in which 
the masks were used and personal anec- 
dotes about the difficulties they had in 
securing these objects for display. For more 
information about this lecture, which is free 
with general Museum admission, please call 
312.665.7400. 



Mask and Puppet Making 

Saturday, February 26 
2-4 p.m. 

This hands-on workshop presented by 
Walkabout Puppets is designed to comple- 
ment the "Masks: Faces of Culture" exhibit, 
as well as to highlight masks on display in 
the Museum's permanent exhibits. In this 
workshop, participants will learn how 
to design and make puppets, and will 
hear about the techniques used to bring 
them alive. $15 ($10 members $12 stu- 
dents/seniors). Please call 312.665.7400 
for more information. 




Above: Chinese and Tibetan masks collected on a 190S Field Museum expedition. 






Cartier 1900 - 1939 Closing Festivities 

Sunday, January 16, 11 a.m.- 3 p.m. 



In celebration of the successful run of the 
"Cartier 1900- 1939" exhibit The Field 
Museum will host a variety of free activi- 
ties for visitors of all ages that highlight 
the connections between jewelry and the 
natural world. There also will be a num- 
ber of hands-on programs that will allow 
visitors to explore different methods of 
jewelry making and design from around 
the world. 



In addition, jewelry specialist Eve Reppen 
Rogers will give a slide presentation at 
2 p.m. about the magnificent jewels sold 
through Sotheby's auction house. Many 
of these jewels were once owned by 
some of the most famous women in 
the world, including Jacqueline Kennedy 
Onassis and the Duchess of Windsor 
Please call 312.665.7400 for more infor- 
mation about this festival. 



5 THE FIELD MUSEUM 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JANUARY • FEBRUARY 2000 



African Heritage Festival: Talking Roots 

February 5 & 6, 11 a.m. - 4 p.m. 
February 7 & 8, 10 a.m. - 1 p.m. 

This year's African Heritage Festival explores 
the history of Africa through music, dance, 
scientific research and hands-on activities, 
with a special focus on the spoken and writ- 
ten word. Throughout this four-day festival, 
visitors can learn about African traditions 
and, in the process, find connections 
to their own lives by discovering how 
American culture is influenced by and 
draws inspiration from African art, music 
and history. 

The festival will kick off on Thursday, 
February 3, with a 6:30 p.m. lecture by Wole 
Soyinka, the Robert W. Woodruff Professor 
of the Arts at Emory University. Soyinka is 
the first Nigerian and African to win the 
Nobel Prize in literature (1986). In 1967, 
Soyinka appealed for a cease-fire to the civil 
war that was ravaging his country and, as a 
result, was arrested, accused of conspiring 
with the rebels and held as a political pris- 
oner for two years. Since his release, 
Soyinka has published about 20 works in 
English, ranging from novels to poetry. 

On Saturday, February 5, the first official 
day of the festival, the council of elders 
from Dance Africa will inaugurate the pro- 
gram by offering libations in honor of past 
ancestors. The festival will continue with a 
variety of programs showcasing African sto- 
ries, poetry, traditions and Field Museum 
research, and will include performances by 
S.P.I. R.I.T.S., the Kuntu Drama Players and 
award-winning poet Michael Warr. 

During the festival, visitors also can partici- 
pate in a number of interactive activities 




'^■fv^J^^'V^ 



Above: An intersection in the Kenyan town ofVoijust outside oJTsavo National Park. For the 
past year, Field Museum researchers have been studying the cause of tnanelessness in male lions 
that inhabit this park. During the African Heritage Festival, visitors can hear about this and 
other Field Museum research projects being conducted in Africa. 



that explore the rich cultures and environ- 
ments of Africa. For example, they can 
watch a mask-making demonstration, help 
write a poem, play traditional African 
instruments, listen as storytellers examine 
African culture and history, and talk to Field 
Museum scientists about their fieldwork on 
the African continent and in Madagascar. 



All festival activities are free with general 
Museum admission, except the Wole 
Soyinka lecture, which is $20 ($15 members; 
$18 student/educators). For more informa- 
tion about this festival or Soyinka's lecture, 
please call 312.665.7400. 

The Field Museum's African Heritage 
Festival is made possible through the gen- 
erosity of Abbott Laboratories. 




Talking Roots: A Poetry Happening at The Field 



Saturday, February 5, 7:30 p.m. 
$7 ($5 members) 

Explore African culture through the spo- 
ken word by participating in a number of 
poetry-related lectures and activities. This 
event also includes a special invitation to 
attend the official release party of 
Quraysh Ali Lansana's recently published 
collection of poems titled "southside 
rain. " As part of this celebration, poet 



Left: Poet Quraysh Ali Lansana. 



Regie Gibson will join forces with some of 
Chicago's finest jazz musicians to create 
an improvisational experience that blends 
the spoken words of poetry with music. 
The evening will also include an open 
microphone so visitors can share their 
poems about Africa and African ancestry 
with others. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JANUARY . FEBRUARY 2000 6 



Free Visitor Programs 




Above: A man relaxes with his family outside their home in a rural village in Kenya. During the 
African Heritage Festival, which begins February 5, visitors can learn about African traditions 
and family life, and, in the process, find connections to their own lives by discovering how 
American and African cultures are linked. 



Every Saturday and Sunday 

1 p.m. Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction. 

Learn new songs and stories, and have fun 
creating artworl< — all in a 20-minute pro- 
gram sponsored by the Siragusa Foundation 
Early Childhood Initiative. In January and 
February, visitors can listen to music from 
around the world and hear stories about 
the lives of children in other cultures. 

Interpretive Station Activities. Drop by 
hands-on stations located throughout the 
Museum (check informational directories 
for daily listings) and delve into the fasci- 
nating world of natural history. 

January 8 — Saturday 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. Watch the Teens Together 
Ensemble perform "Gongs, Ghosts and 
Ancient Anthems: Releasing the Spirits of 
Sound," an original musical play based on 
the "Sounds from the Vaults" exhibit. 

January 9 — Sunday 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 



January 15 — Saturday 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 

January 16 — Sunday 

1 1 a.m. - 3 p.m. Cartier Family Field Day: 
The Nature of Jewelry. Take part in a variety 
of programs designed to complement the 
"Cartier 1900 - 1939" exhibit. 

2 p.m. Lecture: Famous Jewels — Their 
Famous Owners and Designers. Jewelry spe- 
cialist Eve Reppen Rogers will give a slide 
presentation about some of the magnificent 
jewels that have been sold through 
Sotheby's auction house. 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 

January 22 — Saturday 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 

January 23 — Sunday 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 



January 29 — Saturday 

1 1 a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 
View rarely displayed specimens from the 
collections and listen to Field Museum 
mycologist Gregory Mueller discuss his 
research and how it relates to the new 
Underground Adventure exhibit. 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 

January 30 — Sunday 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 

February 5 — Saturday 

1 1 a.m. - 4 p.m. African Heritage Festival: 
Talking Roots. Explore the history of Africa 
through music, dance, oral traditions, scien- 
tific research and hands-on activities. See 
"Get Smart" page for details. 

February 6 — Sunday 

1 1 a.m. - 4 p.m. African Heritage Festival: 
Talking Roots. See February 5. 

February 7 — Monday 

10 a.m. - 1 p.m. African Heritage Festival: 
Talking Roots. See February 5. 

February 8 — Tuesday 

10 a.m. - 1 p.m. African Heritage Festival: 
Talking Roots. See February 5. 

February 12 — Saturday 

2 p.m. Film: Changing our Role. Watch a 
film that examines how the roles of women 
have changed within African society and 
how younger generations of women are 
breaking with tradition at the risk of losing 
their families. 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 

February 13 — Sunday 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 



Daily Highlight Tours 

Take a guided tour of the exhibits that 
maice this Museum one of the world's 
finest and learn about the history of 
these displays. Tours are offered Monday 
through Friday at 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. 
Check the informational directories for 
weekend tours. 



Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories located throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



7 THE FIELD MUSEUM 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JANUARY • FEBRUARY 2000 



February 19 — Saturday 

1 1 a.m. - 3 p.m. Family Field Days: "Masks: 
Faces of Culture." Celebrate the power of 
masks at The Field Museum during a day 
of performances and hands-on activities 
for all ages. 

2 p.m. Film: African Odyssey. Watch a film 
that explores some of the environmental 
problems in Africa and documents the 
return to Zambia of two expelled scientists 
determined to continue their controversial 
environmental research. 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 

February 20 — Sunday 

1 1 a.m. - 3 p.m. Family Field Days: "Masks: 
Faces of Culture." See February 19. 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 



2 p.m. Masks Lecture. Cara McCarty and 
John Nunley, the curators of "Masks: Faces 
of Culture," will discuss the central themes 
of this temporary exhibit and the universal 
fascination that people have with wearing 
and making masks. 

February 26 — Saturday 

11 a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 

View rarely displayed specimens from the 
collections and listen to Field Museum 
entomologist Margaret Thayer discuss her 
research and how it relates to the new 
Underground Adventure exhibit. 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 

February 27 — Sunday 

2 p.m. Performance: Teens Together 
Ensemble. See January 8. 




Resource Centers 

Explore topics in more depth through a 
variety of resources, including computer pro- 
grams, books, activity boxes and much more 
at the Africa Resource Center and the Daniel 
R & Ada L. Rice Wildlife Research Station. 
Open daily from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. See 
below for information on the Webber 
Resource Center and the Crown Family Place 
for Wonder. 

Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Visit a traditional home of the Pawnee 
Indians and learn about their life on the 
Great Plains. Open from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
on weekends and at 1 p.m. during weekdays. 
Check the informational directories or the 
sign in front of the lodge for program times. 

Ruatepupuke: 

The Maori Meeting House 

Discover the world of the Maori people 
of New Zealand at their treasured and 
sacred Maori Meeting House. Open daily 
from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

McDonald's Fossil 
Preparation Laboratory 

Watch Field Museum preparators work 
on a variety of dinosaur bones. Open daily 
from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 



Please Excuse our 
Renovations 



As you plan a visit to the Museum, 
please note that the following resource 
centers and exhibits are currently closed 
for renovations until Memorial Day 
weekend: the Webber Resource Center, 
the Webber Gallery, the Crown Family 
Place for Wonder and the North 
American ethnographic collection (arti- 
facts from the Native American cultures 
of the South, Southwest, Plains and 
Great Lakes regions). In addition, the 
Museum's North American archaeology 
collections, including the Hopewell mate- 
rials, will be unavailable to the public 
until next winter, and the Reptiles Hall 
will be closed from the end of February 
until Memorial Day weekend. 



Above: Sulka dance masks from New Britain, located about 100 miles off the New Guinea coast- 
line in the Bismarck Archipelago. On February 20, visitors can listen to the curators of the 
"Masks: Faces of Culture" exhibit talk about how people from different cultures use masks. 

Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories located throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JANUARY • FEBRUARY 2000 8 



Field Updates 



Mycologist Develops a New Weapon to 
Combat Deadly Mushroom Poisonings 




Robert Vosper 

Above: The The vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps kick in 

deadly Amanita about eight to 12 hours after you've eaten an Amanita 
verna contains verna, or, for that matter, any of the other five deadly 

a toxic peptide mushroom species found growing in Illinois that con- 

known as f^ri amatoxins. After spending hours wishing that 

amatoxin that someone would put you out of your misery, the symp- 

damaves the tis- toms often just disappear. Within a few days, however, 
sue and cells in ^he violent waves of nausea will return, at which point 

the liver. the toxins in your blood have caused irreversible dam- 

age to your liver and kidneys. Your only chance for 
survival now is a liver transplant. And without any 
form of treatment along the way, death will come 
knocking about 12 days after you took the first bite 
out of Amanita verna, more commonly known as the 
"destroying angel." 

Fortunately, most of the hundreds of mushroom 
poisonings that occur each year in Illinois are the 
result of people eating one of the many nondeadly 
species of toxic mushrooms that spring up in back- 
yards and forest preserves around the state. Although 
the initial symptoms of the two different types of poi- 
sonings can be similar, the nondeadly mushrooms 
don't contain any organ-damaging toxins. But this is 
little comfort to doctors who, based on symptoms 
alone, have no way of telling how much danger their 
patients are in. 

This is where Field Museum mycologist and botany 
department chairman Gregory Mueller steps in. 

Since joining the Museum in 1985, Mueller has 
been identifying mushrooms for physicians around the 
state as a nonpaid consultant for the Illinois Poison 
Control Center. In a few cases, Mueller can identify a 



mushroom over the phone based on a doctor's descrip- 
tion. However, because many mushroom species are 
similar in appearance, Mueller usually needs to exam- 
ine the mushroom in person. 

"There have been times when I've had the state 
police or a relative of a patient drive for hours to give 
me a mushroom to identify," Mueller says. 

Since deadly mushroom poisonings require imme- 
diate treatment, doctors often can't wait this long. As a 
result, they have to treat the poisoning as though it 
was deadly, which means pumping a patient's stomach 
or pouring activated charcoal down their throats to 
absorb the toxins, rather than just waiting for the 
patient's body to expel the mushroom naturally. 

This past summer, Mueller and Connie Fischbein, a 
poison information specialist at the Center, began 
experimenting with a system that might take some of 
the guesswork out of treatment. This system allows 
hospital staff with access to digital cameras to e-mail a 
photograph of the mushroom directly to Mueller. To 
date, Mueller and Fischbein have used the system in 
three cases, all of which resulted in an identification 
being made within an hour. 

"In one case, I had a doctor who began describing a 
mushroom that sounded like it was one of the deadly 
poisonous varieties," Mueller says. "From the photo- 
graph, however, it was obvious that the mushroom 
was a green-spored lepiota, a nonfatal toxic mushroom 
that causes severe gastrointestinal problems." 

As a result, the doctor was able to modify the 
course of treatment, saving the patient unnecessary 
discomfort and expense. 

The obvious drawback is that the system relies on 
people saving enough of the mushroom they've eaten 
for a mycologist to identify. Based on experience, how- 
ever, Mueller doesn't see this as much of a problem: 

"What often happens is that if the patient is a child 
then their parents will catch them eating the mush- 
room and bring it with them to the emergency room. 
If it is an adult, then they usually were greedy and 
grabbed more mushrooms that they could eat in 
one sitting." 

Although the new system seems to be working just 
fine, Fischbein is hesitant to declare victory. 

"We still have to collect a lot more data before we 
can really evaluate it," she says. "Right now, we are 
developing the protocols that our staff can use to 
instruct doctors on the kinds of photographs we need 
to make an identification." 

If the program is as successful as the initial data 
suggest, Mueller and Fischbein will write a paper 
instructing poison control centers around the country 
on how to set up similar systems. ITF 



10 IN THE FIELD 



Q&A 

Playing The Field with Richard Faron, 
A Field Museum Exhibit Developer 



For more than a year, Richard Faron, director of 
exhibit development at The Field Museum, and his 
staff worked with a team of designers, computer pro- 
grammers and musicians from 30/70 Productions in 
New York to create "Sounds from the Vaults," a tempo- 
rary exhibit currently on display through June 18. In 
this exhibit, visitors can interact with and play 50 
musical instruments from the Museum's anthropology 
collections. See "Exhibit" page in the calendar section 
for details. 

In the Field: Is "Sounds" really that much different from 
our other exhibits? 

Richard Faron: Yeah, It's different. And thank God, 
because that is what we set out to do. A big part of our 
mission was to create something unique and to discover 
something new. You know, the old Star Trek thing: "To go 
where no one has gone before." We especially wanted to 
surprise, please and maybe even upset the visitor a little. 
Basically, we wanted to make them think. We had a suspi- 
cion that our audience might have become complacent or 
used to a certain routine. It was a challenge to break our 
own mold. 

ITF: And what is that mold? 

RF: It's the tradition of collecting, conserving and inter- 
preting. This Is the formula that has served us well for 100 
years. It fuels the kinds of exhibits that we are so familiar 
and comfortable with. You know, exhibits with objects, 
labels and handicrafts like dioramas and models. It's how I 
learned to do things 15 years ago. 

ITF: So, how is "Sounds" different? 

RF: It's truly interactive. People use "Sounds." They touch 
it and toy with it and grab the person next to them 
and make them join in. There is conversation and play 
happening in "Sounds." The interactions are surprising 
and beyond anything I've seen in any other venue. It's 
truly innovative. 

ITF: How so? 

RF: 'Experience' Is the big buzzword in museums today. In 
a sense, "Sounds" creates an experience. Museums have 
struggled to make interactive elements in exhibits deliver; 
however, I think "Sounds" has succeeded where the oth- 
ers have failed. 

ITF: How does technology contribute to that experience? 

RF: Technology has finally caught up with our desires and 
has allowed exhibit developers to turn their daydreams 
into reality. Without getting too caught up in the details, 
"Sounds" is basically driven by a customized computer 
network that makes the interactions immediate, elegant 
and seamless. 



ITF: Who came up with the idea for the exhibit? 

RF: It took a partnership. 30/70 supplied designers, the 
hardware and the software jocks. We provided content 
expertise, management skills, awareness of the visitor and 
a vision of what The Field Museum is all about. The intro- 
duction of a collaborator helped us break with tradition 
by introducing fresh ideas. The outsiders asked questions 
that we've been trained not to ask, such as "Can we 
touch and play these artifacts?" and "Can we record their 
sounds?" These were important questions that made the 
difference and shaped the product. To my knowledge, no 
one has ever played a priceless museum collection before. 

ITF: You mentioned a vision. What did you mean by that? 

RF: At the Museum's core there is a collection, which is 
the institution's soul. But how does one deliver and com- 
municate that soul to the public? Members' Night does it, 
but only once a year. I think "Sounds" delivers a daily 
helping of that soul. 

ITF: Do you think that "Sounds" is a preview of what 
exhibits will look like in the 21st century? 

RF: I think so, but it doesn't mean the older exhibits are 
obsolete. This type of exhibit simply strengthens our over- 
all program by adding to our repertoire. Exhibits that 
focus on objects and interpretation will last as long as 
real objects fascinate people and for as long as we can 
learn from them. In a sense, "Sounds" needed to happen. 
We needed to know that we could pull it off and that the 
public could learn from it and enjoy it. 




Above: To the left of Richard Faron is one of the exhibit cases where visitors can 
play a selection of musical instruments from different cultures. 



JANUARY . FEBRUARY 2000 1 1 



Field Museum Tours at a Glance 




In August, travel throughout Peru with Field Museum 
anthropologist Jonathan Haas and visit some of South 
America's most captivating Pre-Columbian archaeological 
sites, including Paracas, Nazca, Cuzco, Machu Picchu and 
Moray. The tour also includes an optional extension to the 
Amazon rainforest. 

British Columbia and Alaska's 
Inside Passage 

May 18 -May 27 

Duration: 10 days 

Museum Leader. Gregory Mueller, 

chairman of the botany department 

Price: Starts at $2,340, not including 

airfare of $750 from Chicago 

Fire & Ice: Japan, the Kuril 
Islands and Kamchatka 

May 21 -June 1 

Duration: 12 days 

Guest Leader: Explorer and oceanog- 

rapher Don Walsh 

Price: Starts at $5,490, not 

including airfare 

Archaeology and Landscapes 
of China 

May 23 -June 10 

Duration: 19 days 

Museum Leader. Archaeologist 

Deborah Bakken 

Price: $5,695, including airfare 

from Chicago 

Northwest Submarine Safari 

Three departures: June 30 - July 4; 

July 3 - July 7; or July 5 - July 9 

Duration: 5 days 

Guest Leader. Marine biologist 

Joe Valencic 

Price: $3,890, not Including airfare 



For more information or 
free brochures, please call Field 
Museum Tours at 800.811.7244, 
or send them an e-mail at 
fmtours@sover.net. 

Galapagos Island Adventure 

July 19 -July 29 
Duration: 1 1 days 

Museum Leader. Conservation ecolo- 
gist Doug Stotz 

Price: Approximately $3,900, includ- 
ing airfare from Chicago 

Archaeological Treasures 
of Peru 

August 25 - September 5 

Duration: 12 days 

Museum Leader. Anthropologist 

Jonathan Haas 

Price: TBA 

Wildlife of Southern Africa: 
Botswana and Zimbabwe 

Ortober 5 - October 19 
Duration: 14 days 
Museum Leader: Zoologist 
David Willard 

Price: $8,535, including airfare 
from Chicago 

Egypt Revisited 

October 15 - October 29 
Duration: 15 days 
Museum Leader. Egyptologist 
Frank Yurco 

Price: Approximately $5,000, includ- 
ing airfare from Chicago 



On the Drawing Board 

Egyptian Odyssey 
Amazon by Riverboat 
Treasures of Israel 
Tunisia Unveiled 
Wildlife of Borneo 





Join Field Museum botanist Gregory 
Mueller in May on a tour of British 
Columbia and Alaska's Inside Passage 
aboard a 69-cabin cruise ship. During 
this 11-night voyage, you will visit 
many magnificent bays, hidden ^ords 
and vast glaciers, as well as some of the 
cultural sites of the indigenous peoples 
of the northwest coast. 



■ m 



In October, explore some of the finest wildlife parks of southern Africa on a safari 
with Field Museum zoologist David Willard. While traversing through Botswana 
and Zimbabwe in 4-wheel drive vehicles and small riverboats, you will see many of 
the region's most spectacular natural wonders, including the Okavango Delta, 
Victoria Falls and the Hwange National Park. 



Please Note: Dates, prices and itineraries are subject to change. Prices are per person, double occupancy. 




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The Dead^ejaScrolls 

March 10 through Jurie ll 



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Keeping the Peace in 
Tsavo National Park 



From the President 




Cultural Diversity in 
THE 21 ST Century 

The story of evolution is like that 
of a mighty river slicing through 
the landscape of time — powerful, 
unpredictable and ever changing. 
Yet, this river would soon stagnate 
if it weren't for the thousands 
of small streams that infuse it 
with life and energy along the way. 
The same is true for human 
evolution, which today relies on 
the rich mosaic of the world s 
cultures to propel it forward and 
shape its course. 

Over the past few centuries, 
this cultural mosaic has begun to 
crumble, the victim of warfare, 
ethnic cleansing, rapid industrial 
development and a global culture 
that is spreading rapidly to every 
society and community. Together, 
these forces have stripped many 
people of their knowledge systems, 
languages and ways of life. No 
longer exposed to the new ideas, 
creativity and knowledge that 
diversity fuels, the mighty river of 
human-cultural evolution could be 
in danger of running dry. 

Sounds extreme, doesn't it? 
Well, not to those who study cul- 
tures for a living. 



For years, anthropologists have 
been sounding the alarm that cul- 
tural diversity, which they believe 
is as essential to our survival as 
biological diversity, is under attack. 
To illustrate the extent of this 
problem, they often point out that 
of the 6,000 or so languages that 
were spoken at the turn of the 
20th century, more than half have 
vanished, threatening the distinct 
cultural identities of many peoples 
around the world. 

About six years ago, we cre- 
ated a department within the 
Academic Affairs division to 
address these urgent cultural 
issues. The mission of this depart- 
ment, called the Center for 
Cultural Understanding and 
Change (CCUC), is to promote 
understanding and respect for 
cultural diversity through the 
use of the Museum's various 
anthropological resources. 

Recently, CCUC has been 
using more and more of these 
resources to bring the cultural 
crisis to the forefront of public 
attention and to understand the 
effect it is having on the interna- 
tional and local cultural landscape. 

With the many different cul- 
tures and traditions practiced here, 
Chicago is really a microcosm of 
the diversity found around the 
world. At times, this diversity can 
lead to confusion and conflict 
among diverse groups — which 
often spills over into our school- 
yards, neighborhoods and places of 
work. Part of the solution to this 
problem is to educate people about 
the many contributions different 
cultures have made to our lives and 
how these cultures continue to 
enrich them. 

To that end, CCUC developed 
Cultural Connections, a yearlong pro- 
gram that exposes participants to 
local cultures through the help of 



14 ethnic museums and cultural 
centers in the city. At these institu- 
tions, participants interact with 
people from different cultures, 
explore the collections housed at 
these institutions and engage in 
activities that shed light on the 
role local cultures have played in 
Chicago's social, political and eco- 
nomic development. 

On the research front, CCUC 
and its partners have created a pro- 
gram called the Urban Research 
Initiative in which university stu- 
dents work with community 
organizations to learn how anthro- 
pological research methods can be 
used to study local diversity. So far, 
the graduates of this program have 
investigated a wide range of issues, 
from the effect that gentrification 
has had on Chicago's West Town 
community to how generational 
issues are reshaping Chicago's 
Korean-America community. In 
addition, CCUC is working with 
Museum ecologists to foster com- 
munity conservation efforts that 
tap into indigenous peoples' knowl- 
edge of the environment. 

Obviously, we can't resolve the 
cultural crisis alone. However, we 
are dedicated to bringing this issue 
to the same level of public con- 
sciousness as the environmental 
crisis and to lend our support to 
the many people around the world, 
as well as here at home, who are 
fighting to protect and preserve 
their cultural identities. 

You can learn more about 
CCUC's activities and partnerships 
at www.fieldmuseum.org/ccuc. 

John W. McCarter Jr. 
President & CEO 



We would like to know what you 
think about "In the Field" 



Please send comments or questions to Robert Vosper, 
publications department. The Field Museum, 
1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496, 
or via e-mail at rvosper@fmnh.org. 




Save the Date! 



Friday, May 19 

Celebrate Sue's unveiling at an action-packed 
Sue Family Festival on Friday, May 19! Start with a 
1^ special 5 p.m. screening of Disney's new Dinosaur movie 

in Arie Crown Theatre on the day of its national 
premiere. Then join a Dino-parade up the lakefront to The Field Museum to see Sue in 
person! Kid-friendly food and lots of fun activities make this a night to remember. 

Tickets are limited, so call now or respond with this postcard to receive a ticket purchase form. 
Sue Family Festival Night Hotline: 312-665-7552. 

ICS; I want ticket purchase information! 



Address 



Phone . 



Pri^fin +l-fc^i Owr\r'l^r\wf%* 



BUSINESS REPLY MAIL 

FIRST-CLASS MAIL PERMIT NO 7401 CHICAGO IL 



NO POSTAGE 

NECESSARY 

IF MAILED 

IN THE 

UNITED STATE 



POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 

THE FIELD MUSEUM 
SUE FAMILY FESTIVAL 
1400 S LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO IL 60605-2496 



l.ll..ll....ll..ll....l.l.„l.t.l..ll.l...ll....l.ll 



Inside 



Roland Kays reveals how the 
Kenya Wildlife Service keeps the 
peace between animals and 
humans in Tsavo National Park. 



8 



What do diamonds and football 
helmets have in common with 
canoes and totem poles? 



11 



Botanist William Burger retires 
after 34 years of collecting plants 
in Costa Rica. But don't expect 
him to stop working. 



13 



An indigenous group from the 
Amazon has used a Museum speci- 
men to overturn a U.S. patent on a 
sacred medicinal plant. 

Your Guide to The Field 

A complete schedule of events 
for March/April, including pro- 
grams offered in conjunction with 
"The Dead Sea Scrolls" exhibit. 




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On March 10, the Museum will 
unveil one of the greatest manu- 
script discoveries in the history 
of archaeology. See the 
Calendar Section for details. 



Africa was the cradle of 
civilization for thousands of 
years. So, why do non-Africans 
continue to ignore the contribu- 
tions Africans have made to our 
cultural heritage? 



When things go horribly wrong 
in the field. Museum scientists 
are turning to the heavens for 
some assistance. 



INTHEFIELD 

March/April 2000, Vol. 71, No. 2 

Editor and Designer: 
Robert Vosper 

Design Consultants: 
Hayward Blake & Company 



In the Field (ISSN #1051-4546) is published 
bimonthly by The Field Museum. Copyright 
©2000 The Field Museum. Annual subscriptions 
are $20; $10 for schools. Museum membership 
includes In the Field subscription. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of The Field 
Museum. Notification of address change should 
include address label and should be sent to 
Membership Department. POSTMASTER: Send 
address changes to In the Field, The Field 
Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 
IL 60605-2496. Pehodicals postage paid at 
Chicago, Illinois. 

This issue's cover photograpli is by the Israel 
Antiquities Authority of the Hosea 
Commentary scroll. 




useum 



The Field Museum salutes the people 
of Chicago for their long-standing, 
generous support of the Museum 
through the Chicago Park District. 

The Field Museum 

1400 South Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, IL 60605-2496 

ph 312.922.9410 
www.fieldmuseum.org 



Around Campus 



Shedd Aquarium 

With so many depleted fish stocks, 
what's a seafood lover to eat? Find 
out at the Shedd Aquarium's Right 
Bite on Friday, Saturday and Sunday, 
April 21 to 23. At this program, you 
will learn that you can help protect 
the health of the oceans by avoiding 
depleted species, such as swordfish 
and orange roughy, and instead 
select delicious alternatives that are 
abundant and thriving. The Shedd 
will let you sample some of these 
"right bites," such as mahi-mahi and 



Alaska salmon, during seafood tastings 
on Friday and Saturday. On all three 
days, you can win prizes, watch 
films and partake in some fun activi- 
ties. Please call 312.939.2428 for 
more information. 

Adler Planetarium 

In the StarRider Theater™ show 
Blueprint for the Red Planet, you can 
take a voyage to Mars and investigate 
the secrets of this mysterious red 



planet. After arriving on Mars, you 
can then play the role of pioneer by 
building a new community and flying 
through your completed settlement. 
If taking a journey to Mars doesn't 
interest you, come relax in the Sky 
Theater and catch Millennium 
Mysteries, a traditional Zeiss plane- 
tarium presentation that emphasizes 
the relationship between the cycles 
observed in the heavens and calen- 
dars created on Earth. Please call 
312.322.0304 for more information. 



MARCH . APRIL 2000 1 



Keeping the Peace in 
TsAvo National Park 




Above: A Kenya Wildlife Service ranger escorts a group of Field Museum researchers through the thick 
thorn brush ofTsavo National Park. In addition to hungry lions, the park is also full of elephants and 
buffalo that will charge without warning when they feel threatened. As a result, tourists and scientists 
are not allowed to walk around the park unless accompanied by armed KWS personnel. 



2 IN THE FIELD 



Roland Kays 

Curator of Mammals at the New York State Museum 

The tale was just too bizarre to be true — the Hair 
Ball of Death? Sarah Lansing, my assistant, shot me a 
covert skeptical glance. Surely I didn't believe this leg- 
end. I responded with my own skeptical look. After 
all, most legends and superstitions stem from fear of 
and mystery in the natural world. Lions have hunted 
the thick scrub of Tsavo National Park in Kenya since 
before the dawn of time, and humans have always 
been on the menu. Not surprisingly, local tribal lore is 
full of fearsome lion stories. The tale of the Hair Ball 
of Death fit the legend profile so perfectly that we 
assumed it was just that — a legend. 

Over dinner at our camp in Manyani, Tsavo, Kisio 
and Chui were talking about the final seconds in the 
life of a Tsavo lion. Sergeant Kisio, a Wakamba 
tribesman employed by the Kenya Wildlife Service 
(KWS), and Mr. Chui of the Kikuyu tribe explained 
that some lions cough up a ball of hair just before 
dying. In the Kikuyu language this ball of hair is 
known as a Kio Ngero. Anyone who finds one will 
have great luck from that day forward. If a man walks 
around the village with it in his pocket, other men will 
instinctively respect and fear him. But the Kio Ngero 
is not easy to find. This mass of feline hair does not 
just plop out onto the ground; it rockets forth from 
the last breath of this king of beasts and usually disap- 
pears into the undergrowth of the African savanna. 

Imagine our surprise a few days later when 
William Mukabane showed us his Kio Ngero. He 
obtained it from a large male lion he shot a few years 
ago. Mukabane, an expert KWS lion hunter, was help- 
ing us survey the lions in Tsavo as part of an ongoing 
Field Museum research project. His job is to defend 
civilians from the untamed wildlife in Tsavo. He is not 
a coldblooded lion killer, but a friendly man with great 
bush knowledge and a compassion for the animals he 
tracks, as well as the people he protects. As a sharp- 
shooter with the Problem Animal Control (PAC) unit 
of the KWS, Mukabane has shot 222 lions in the past 
12 years, but has found only the one Kio Ngero. 

Working with Mukabane is always interesting. We 
were introduced over a lioness that had been horribly 
gored by a buffalo and had to be put down before it 
wandered into a tourist lodge or began attacking goats 
in the nearby village. While we were examining the 
animal at a KWS camp, Mukabane entered the scene, 
led by a wide smile and followed by a little boy and a 
herd of goats. A tall man from western Kenya, he has 
a friendly demeanor that offsets his large build. He 
and his family live in the KWS compound where the 
PAC unit is based. Like most of the constituency he 
protects, his family keeps a herd of goats. His son 
took the goats home while Mukabane told us about 
the unfortunate lion at our feet and the nature of 
problem animal control in Tsavo. 

According to Mukabane, conflict between humans 
and wildlife is on the rise in the region and the KWS 




Above: In 1898, two maneless male lions like this one stalked and ktlled 130 
workers who were building a railroad bridge in Tsavo for the British army. 
Eventually, the officer in charge of the bridge killed the two lions and sold their 
remains to the Museum. For the past few years, Bruce Patterson, Mac Arthur 
Curator of Mammals, has been leading a comprehensive research program to deter- 
mine why so many ofTsavo's male lions are maneless. Kays' surveys in 1999 were 
part of this program. 

rangers in the Tsavo PAC unit are always busy. At 
stake is the safety of local herders and the survival of 
the threatening wildlife populations. Conflict with 
humans is the number one mortality factor for African 
lions. If problem situations are left unchecked, lions 
can be wiped out of an area by vigilante herdsmen. 
Mukabane and his KWS colleagues are skilled experts 
who remove offending individuals before the locals 
take more extreme measures. The KWS rangers do 
not enjoy killing lions. In fact, they try to stop con- 
flicts by scaring the animal away with blank gunshots 
or by relocating the animal to another region. If a lion 
must be killed, the rangers use their tracking skills and 
bush knowledge to pursue only the offending individ- 
ual. When dealing with problem lions, ranchers with 
hungry families are not likely to be as discriminating. 
The boundaries of Tsavo National Park were not 
drawn with the human-animal conflict in mind. The 
heavily populated areas of Voi Town and the Taita 
Hills were excluded from the park, and their human 
populations continue to grow. However, these areas lie 
virtually in the middle of 4,536 square miles of pro- 
tected national park, forming a human center 
completely ringed by wildlife. Other areas of potential 



MARCH • APRIL 2000 3 



conflict encircle the park, including Masai ranch land, 
the Tanzanian border and a dangerous no man's land 
buffering the Somali border. 

Tsavo National Park is an incredible landscape of 
thorn scrub, grassland, rock and red dirt. A typical 
view from the top of a kopje (rock outcropping) in 
September shows a parched wasteland of red sandy 
soil barely concealed by lifeless bush twigs and thin 
grass. Acacia trees break up the landscape here and 
there, but are nowhere abundant. This is the long dry 
season. Vegetation and rivers are so dry that grazing 
animals are forced to concentrate around the few 
remaining water sources. This is the best time to fully 
appreciate the diversity and abundance of mammal life 
in the park. Hundreds of buffalo race for a drink on 
one side of a water hole while bull elephants trumpet 
and spar for control of the other. This is the fat season 
for lions. Pride members find shade near a water 
source and wait for dinner to come to them. 

When the rains return, Tsavo is transformed — 
the red dirt is shaded by new leaves sprouting from 
the thorn bushes. Ungulates spread out across 
the landscape to harvest the bounty and drink from 
the abundant small streams and rejuvenated water 
holes. The lion prides no longer have it easy — 
they must cover much more ground to find their 
dispersed quarry. 

In the past decade, wildlife populations within 
Tsavo National Park have started to recover from 
uncontrolled poaching in the 1970s and 1980s. The 
KWS anti-poaching patrols used military methods 
and shoot-to-kill orders to vanquish the poachers. The 
growing population of animals, however, regularly 
cross out of the unfenced park and into neighboring 
private lands, weaving their way around towns and 
through herds of livestock. It is surprising that there 
are not more problems with Tsavo wildlife. Millennia 
of conflict with humans have produced a guild of car- 
nivores that is wary of humans and their stock, and 
rural inhabitants who are used to the ways of African 
predators. Nonetheless, conflict does occur. Goats and 
cows are the perfect helpless victims in comparison to 
the savvy buffalo and fleet gazelle within the park. 
Some individual lions are unusually bold; others 
become sick or injured and must resort to easier prey 
at the risk of being shot. 

Field Museum scientists are studying the details 
of these carnivore attacks by looking for patterns in 
Mukabane's reports. Julian Kerbis, an associate profes- 
sor at Roosevelt University and adjunct curator of 
mammals at the Field Museum, and Tom Gnoske, a 
Field Museum zoologist, predict a temporal pattern of 
increasing attacks during wet seasons, when lions are 
hungry. During the dry season, the lions have little 

Right: William Mukabane is one of eight KWS rangers in 
Tsavo responsible for dealing with problem animals. Unlike 
his colleagues who use automatic weapons, Mukabane 
prefers the accuracy of a rifle. 



reason to risk attacking livestock. Kerbis and Gnoske 
will also test the idea that smaller women and children 
are more vulnerable to deadly attack than men, and 
that certain areas in Tsavo are more risky than others. 
In the end, it is hoped that this study will help identify 
the most dangerous situations and help KWS rangers 
focus their education and prevention efforts. 

Although killing livestock is the most common 
strife brought by rogue carnivores around Tsavo, mod- 
ern man-eating lions are not unheard of. Trouble 
typically starts with sneak attacks on goats or cows, 
which can lead directly to attacks on humans when 
herdsmen try to ward off the lions and are themselves 
attacked. This has happened at least six times in the 
past four years. Luckily, Tsavo-area herders have 
learned to travel in groups, and five of these lions were 
chased off before they could finish the man off. 
Unfortunately, in the sixth case the poor man's compa- 
triots were so scared by the lion that they ran off in 
terror and the victim was completely eaten. It pays to 
have good friends in Tsavo. 

Mukabane may be the best friend of all. He and 
the other KWS rangers who staff the Tsavo PAC 
office travel all over the region in response to com- 
plaints about problem animals. Kenya does not permit 




4 IN THE FIELD 



civilians to hunt except on certain game ranches; only 
trained KWS staff are allowed to kill rampaging lions. 
If caught early, these animals may be permanently 
scared off by loud blank gunshots. More determined 
lions are trapped and moved away from population 
centers to the National Park. As a last resort, the 
rangers stake out the area in an all-night vigil, perch in 
a tree above a recently killed cow, and wait for the cul- 
prit to return to the scene of the crime. 

After a successful hunt, the lion is killed and its 
carcass is brought to park headquarters where the 
skull and hide are locked away to prevent black-mar- 
ket theft. These specimens have proved valuable to 
Field Museum scientists who are interested in the 
genetics and morphology of Tsavo lions. Bruce 
Patterson, The Field Museums MacArthur Curator of 
Mammals, and the other Museum scientists are work- 
ing with Mukabane to improve the quality of his data. 
Using Field Museum tags, Mukabane is now collecting 
more information when a lion is shot (e.g., location, 
date and sex), preserving the full skeleton and arrang- 
ing to store the specimens at the National Museums 
of Kenya in Nairobi. 

Carnivores are not the only problem in Tsavo 
National Park. In the dry season, some elephants leave 
the park boundaries and stream across private prop- 
erty in search of food and water. A group of elephants 
can eat and completely trample a small family farm in 
minutes. African elephants are rarely intimidated by 
farmers who try to scare them away by banging pots 
or machetes. The PAC crew has more success with 
blank gunshots and can usually scare off problem ele- 
phants without being forced to shoot them. 

Problems are expected to increase, however, as the 
park's population of about 8,000 elephants continues 
to grow. During a long dry season, Mukabane is fre- 
quently called to chase elephants away from farms. In 
one situation a villager was trampled and gored to 
death as he stumbled between a mother elephant and 
her calf at night. Some conservationists predict that 
the Tsavo ecosystem can hold 40,000 elephants. When 
asked what his job would be like with five times more 
elephants, Mukabane responded, "40,000 elephants? 
That would be a nightmare." 

On our way out of Tsavo we found Mukabane at 
the Voi market and stopped to say goodbye. 
Mukabane's friendly nature and reputation for bush 
knowledge are world-renowned. His tracking skills 
have helped many scientists and film crews locate and 
document the growing wildlife in Tsavo and the result- 
ing conflict with humans. By the end of our survey, 
Mukabane had helped us track a number of lion 
prides and showed us firsthand the delicate and dan- 
gerous work of problem animal control in Tsavo. 

Now, as to the Kio Ngero — the Hair Ball of 
Death. Tracking and killing dangerous lions requires 
great skill, but luck is also important. Mukabane gets 
his luck from his Kio Ngero, to which he credits his 
perfect personal safety while on the job. I was privi- 





Above: Mukabane found his Kio Ngero about five years ago when he shot a large 
male lion that was wreaking havoc in the region. According to Mukabane, the lion 
coughed up the object just before taking its last breath. 

leged to hold and photograph his prize. The ball of 
fur was about 2 inches in diameter and sand-colored, 
like the body hair of Tsavo lions. The hair was tightly 
packed and amazingly smooth over most of the 
surface. Historically, tribesmen tie these to their arms 
for luck, but Mukabane keeps his in his pocket or in 
a drawer at home. He said that the hair ball has 
brought him good luck in his lion encounters and 
with the Western film crews that have come to docu- 
ment his work. 

So the Hair Ball of Death is a true story. We 
could not deny it now that we had heard from the 
most experienced lion hunter in Kenya and actually 
held the evidence in our hands. But why do lions 
cough it up before dying? Which lions expel hair balls? 
What kind of hair is in the ball? We had plenty of new 
questions, but these will likely remain unanswered 
since Kio Ngero are so rare and Mukabane is not 
about to give up his lucky charm for scientific dissec- 
tion. Given the nature of his dangerous profession, I 
don't blame him. If Mukabane attributes his years of 
success during thousands of dangerous field experi- 
ences to the Hair Ball of Death, how can anyone argue 
with the power of its legend? ITF 

During this research project, Roland Kays was a post-doc- 
toral fellow working at The Field Museum on the Tsavo 
Lion Project. In January, he accepted a position as the cura- 
tor of mammals at the New York State Museum in Albany, 
N.Y. Sarah Lansing, Kays' assistant, is a high-school senior 
at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., and a summer volun- 
teer in The Field Museum's mammal division. 



MARCH • APRIL 2000 5 



Field Updates 



What Does Africa Mean to You? 




Chapurukha Kusimba 

Curator of African Archaeology and Ethnology 

and Bennet Branson 

Curator of Asian Archaeology and Ethnology 

There are striking contradictions in the ways people 
see Africa's role in the past and present world. Few 
people still question that Africa was the birthplace of 
the modern human lineage and that it was the only 
home known to humans until about a million years 
ago. Nevertheless, non- Africans still devalue both the 
historical and contemporary contributions that 
Africans have made around the globe. 

Before 10,000 B.C., Afi-ica's greatest contribution 
was advanced stone-tool technologies. For instance, 
the invention of the stone knife and spear either 
occurred in Africa and spread to Eurasia or 
occurred in Africa at the same time as the rest 
of the Old World. 

After 10,000 B.C., Egyptians and other north 
Africans began to tame animals and raise food plants, 
while Africans further south domesticated crops like 
sorghum, three species of millet, legumes, yams, coffee, 
oil palm and possibly watermelon. It didn't take long 
for Eurasians to begin growing several of these African 
crops, including sorghum and two species of millet, 
and for Africans to begin raising such Eurasian domes- 
ticates as cattle, sheep, wheat, barley and bananas. 
Genetic and linguistic evidence shows that people, as 
well as crops, were moving in and out of Africa during 
this period, which might explain why the Semitic (i.e., 
Hebrew, .\ssyrian and Arabic) and ancient Egyptian 
languages seem to have originated in central Africa. 



Left: This 62-year-old Field Museum mural, painted by 
Julius Moessel, shows French merchants purchasing coffee in 
Yemen in 1706. Coffee was first domesticated in Africa and 
then introduced to Yemen during the first millennium A.D. 



Most people know that civilization in ancient 
Egypt is now thought to be as old as in the Middle 
East with regard to such key developments as 
writing, architecture, royalty, written laws and 
bureaucracy. But few are aware that Egypt was in close 
and almost constant contact with regions 
further south. Extremists on both sides of the "Black 
Cleopatra" controversy have tended to ignore the evi- 
dence that sub-Saharan Africa regularly supplied 
Egypt with workers, entertainers, soldiers and even 
ruling dynasties. 

Although most direct evidence of what Egypt sent 
south in return has vanished, one impiortant export 
has survived: the Coptic form of Christianity, which 
was brought to Ethiopia from Egypt more than 1,200 
years ago. The ancient rock churches of Lalibela in 
Ethiopia bear witness to the intensity of this early cul- 
tural interchange between the Nile Valley and parts of 
sub-Saharan Africa. 

Around 3,000 years ago, trade between the sub- 
Saharan region and the rest of the world became 
almost routine. For instance, the Egyptians and 
Carthaginians were conducting overland trade on a 
regular basis at the beginning and middle of the first 
millennium B.C. As early as the first century A.D., 
improvements in ship building and the introduction of 
the camel made it possible for Eurasians to trade 
across the Indian Ocean with East Africa and across 
the Sahara with West Africa. In northeast Africa, 
important urban centers, including the kingdoms 
of Kush and Axum, began emerging at this time. In 
eastern and southern Africa, long-distance trade stim- 
ulated urban development along the East African coast 
and in the interior, especially in Zimbabwe. In West 
Africa, the trans-Saharan caravan trade led to the 
birth of a series of large, highly centralized kingdoms, 
such as Ghana, Mali and Songhai. One sub-Saharan 
African group, the Almoravids of the upper Niger 
area, expanded northward beyond the desert in the 
12th century. Conquering first Morocco and then 
Spain, they eventually established one of the most 
impressive dynasties of the Islamic Middle Ages. 

So, why did a negative image of Africa emerge and 
persist even among people in parts of the world who 
had little or no direct contact with Africans? We think 
there are at least three reasons. 

The first is slavery. Because some parts of Africa 
were p)opulous, poor and militarily weak, they became 



6 IN THE FIELD 



the major source and suppliers of slaves. In Christian 
Europe and the Americas, although not necessarily in 
Islamic countries, slaves were low in social status, an 
identification that eventually rubbed off on all 
Africans, whether in chains or free. 

The second reason is that as European imperial- 
ism grew in the 19th and 20th centuries, Africa was 
forced from its role as an equal trading partner to a 
supplier of raw materials, such as ivory, gold, platinum, 
diamonds, chromium, manganese, bauxite and ura- 
nium. Because Africa was seen as producing nothing 
from its resources, it lost much of its prestige among 
Europeans as a major manufacturing and trade center. 
However, very few Europeans noticed that the colonial 
and post-colonial systems, which they themselves 
erected, kept Africans from building plants to convert 
their raw materials into finished goods. 

Third, East Asians and Westerners were often "cli- 
matological chauvinists." Both groups had light skin 
and lived in chilly climates; so it was quite natural for 
them to think that partial nudity was immoral, that 
dark-skinned people were inferior and that warm cli- 
mates encouraged laziness, messiness and 
undisciplined attitudes. Europeans also believed that 
Africans and people from other tropical regions shared 
another "uncivilized" trait: They bathed too much. 
Europeans, on the other hand, bathed infrequently 
and tended to regard this, along with their heavy 
clothes, as symbols of their civilized status. 

None of these reasons, however, fully account for 
Africa's negative image, especially in places like the 
Far East where people had little historical contact 
with Africa. Yet, this image has persisted with some 
serious consequences. 

One such consequence is a general lack of interest 
in Africa's agricultural and cattle-breeding practices. 
Western experts have spent more than a century try- 
ing to persuade Africans to raise European and 
American breeds of cattle, even though these breeds 
do poorly in Africa's tropical climates. Only recently 
have breeders realized that African cattle, once consid- 
ered primitive, are the product of hundreds of 
generations of carefully controlled, patient and intelli- 
gent selection. One of the first results of this new 
attitude is the introduction of the Tuli breed to the 
United States. With the quality of its meat on a par 
with that of an Angus steer, its exceptionally docile 
nature and its ability to thrive in spite of extreme heat 
and drought, the Tuli, which originated in Zimbabwe, 
may replace many of the breeds that are currently 
popular on American cattle ranches. 

Another consequence of this negative image is 
that much of the material culture of traditional Africa 
has disappeared. For several millennia, African com- 



munities had earthenware industries that were well- 
adapted to their own functional and symbolic cultural 
needs. Yet today, many African nations import ceramics 
at the expense of the indigenous industries, harming 
local economies and leading to the deterioration of tra- 
ditional skills among craftspeople. 

In addition, this negative image has led to the loss 
of centuries-old knowledge about architectural and 
urban-planning methods that work well in the African 
environment. In recent years, many elegant houses con- 
structed out of indigenous material have been allowed 
to decay and collapse without any effort to preserve 
them. Others have been remodeled without any 
thought about how they will fare in the African cli- 
mate. Additionally, modern structures built from 
imported materials tend to be poorly designed, deterio- 
rate quickly and are difficult to repair. This has led to 
the increased perception around the world that mega- 
slums are overrunning African cities. 

We could cite more examples of how this negative 
image has impacted Africa and the achievements of its 
people; however, the point, we think, has been 
made. While many communities around the world may 
be aware of how Africa has contributed to their cul- 
tural heritage, they seem to ignore the contributions 
that Africans have made to their lives today. The solu- 
tion, we think, is educating people about Africa's 
contributions through programs developed not only by 
non- Africans, and Americans and Europeans of 
African ancestry, but, more importantly, by Africans 
themselves. When Africans can confidently and knowl- 
edgeably offer their heritage as solutions to the 
problems of other continents, Africa's historical place 
in the modern world will no longer be questioned. ITF 



Below: At his 
excavation site in 
Mtwapa on the 
Kenyan coast, 
Chap Kusimba has 
found evidence of 
a sophisticated 
trade-orientated 
society that dates 
hack to 1000 A.D. 




MARCH • APRIL 2000 7 



Field Notes 



Exploring the Anthropology of 
Diamonds and Football Helmets 



The following was written by Gary Feinman, chair- 
man of the anthropology department, and Bennet 
Bronson, curator of Asian archaeology and ethnology, 
in response to a letter they received from a volunteer. 
In the letter, the volunteer asked for their thoughts on 
the anthropological significance of some recent tempo- 
rary exhibits showcased at the Museum, specifically 
"Carrier: 1900-1939," "The Art of the Motorcycle" and 
"The Chicago Bears: 80 Years of Gridiron Legends." 

We appreciate your letter and believe it deserves an 
answer from both of us. 

All the objects in these exhibits are every bit as 
relevant to understanding the diverse nature of 
humanity as are those on display in our permanent 
exhibition halls. The jewelry is an especially obvious 
case since designers at Carrier made so much use of 
non-Western shapes and motifs found in objects 
housed at museums like ours. Even the reasons why 
Carrier's clients wore that jewelry are familiar to every 
anthropologist. Rarely has status competition been 
more frenetic than it was during the rivalries among 
the Euro-American and colonial elite in the first four 
decades of the 20th century. In fact, as we look around 
the globe, it is unusual to find status markers that are 
as functionless and arbitrary as the enormous, exquis- 
itely set Cartier gems favored by Indian maharajahs, 
French duchesses and American millionaires. In gen- 




Above: Some of the objects on display in the recent "Chicago 
Bears" exhibit included a Super Bowl trophy, jerseys worn 
by some of the team's greatest legends, leather helmets from 
the early years of the franchise and even Papa Bear's 
brown fedora. 



eral, we think the exhibit is strangely exotic, highly 
educational and in line with what a museum like ours 
should be exhibiting. 

In addition, all the artifacts on display here, 
whether in "Cartier" or "Ancient Egypt," were made and 
used in a real human society. They may seem over- 
whelmingly exotic, but they are not fictional, which is 
one of the main reasons why good anthropology dis- 
plays are so compelling. 

You also wanted to know how we differ from art 
museums. Well, we think that in many ways we are 
very similar. "The Art of the Motorcycle," for example, 
meshes nicely with our traditional approach, which 
has always been to showcase a lot of art. After all, we 
have a lot of art in our collections and, judging by the 
size and quality of our artistic holdings, we are one of 
the top art museums in the Midwest. The anthropolo- 
gists in our department are in agreement with the 
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (the developer of 
"The Art of the Motorcycle") that the symbolism of 
motorcycles can sometimes be as important as their 
uses. However, our only problem with the exhibit 
was that our New York colleagues chose too many 
pretty and unusual machines to display, whereas we 
probably would have picked more routine and perhaps 
"uglier" ones. 

And this is why Chicago Bears memorabilia were 
worth exhibiting; not because they are ugly, but 
because their beauty or lack of it doesn't matter. In 
fact, we judge the appearance of the helmets, jerseys 
and trophies as surpassingly important symbols, 
encapsulating more emotion and cultural meaning 
than most other artifacts in American society. True, 
they are on exhibit because they are popular, but 
should we take them off display because of this? No, 
we should do a better job of educating the public 
about the anthropological meaning of these objects. 
In addition, we should spend more time putting 
these objects and items in their social, cultural and 
economic contexts. 

You will be pleased to know that most of our 
upcoming exhibits, such as "The Dead Sea Scrolls," are 
more straightforward in their anthropological content 
and contexts, and more reflective of the anthropology 
department's mission. However, there are a few 
upcoming exhibits that are causing some debate in the 
department. One such show is "Star Wars: The Magic 
of Myth," which opens this summer. Some stafi^ mem- 
bers think the exhibit is a brilliant example of the 
anthropology of human imagination; others view it as 
devoid of anthropology. 

We hope that you and your friends will continue 
to let us know what you think and like about all of the 
marvelous, diverse and curious things that we plan to 
exhibit during the year ahead. ITF 



8 IN THE FIELD 



Membership News 



Membership Department Announces 
Price Changes 



On April 1, 2000, we will be increasing membership 
rates across all categories. These new rates will be $60 
for families; $50 for individuals; $40 for seniors; $35 
for students; and $30 for national affiliates. 

This rate change, only the second in 12 years, in 
part reflects the dramatic increase over the past few 
years in the value of a Field Museum membership, as 
well as some new benefits that we will begin offering 
this spring. The change also coincides with the 
Museum's plan to raise the general admission price for 
adults by $1 on March 1, 2000. 

Some of the new benefits we plan to offer you this 
spring includes reciprocal admission privileges to more 
than 225 museums around the country, such as the 
Exploratorium in San Francisco and the Orlando 
Science Center in Florida. Depending on your mem- 
bership category, you can now receive up to four free 
passes to special exhibits that can be used at any time 
during the run of the exhibit (you can even pass them 
on to friends and family). With the upcoming special 
exhibition lineup to include "The Dead Sea Scrolls," 
"Star Wars: The Magic of Myth" and "Kremlin Gold," 
you will be receiving up to $72 worth of tickets this 
year alone. These new benefits are in addition to some 
improvements we have already made to membership, 
such as: 

Free admission to Underground Adventure, the new 

permanent exhibit that allows you to explore the 
world beneath your feet (admission for non-members 
is $4 per adult and $2 per child). 

An additional day added to Members' Nights, 
as well as a change in policy that allows you to 
bring two guests for free to this annual behind-the- 
scenes extravaganza. 

Membership Updates 

Free Passes for 'The Dead Sea Scrolls" 

Members are eligible to receive up to four free passes 
to see "The Dead Sea Scrolls" exhibit, which is on dis- 
play from March 10 through June 1 1 (family members 
can receive four tickets; all others can receive tvi/o). 
Passes are coded for timed entry every half hour 
from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Since we anticipate record 
attendance for this exhibit, we recommend that you 
reserve your free passes by coming down to the 
Museum and ordering tickets for a future date (no 
service charge) or by calling Ticketmaster at 
31 2. 902. T 500 (a service charge and transaction fee will 
be assessed). Please remember that these free passes 
are in addition to those you may have already 
received for the Members' Preview on March 8 and 9. 
For more information, please call 312.665.7700. 




Above: At the new membership desk at the south entrance, members can order and 
pick up tickets to special exhibitions, get their questions answered and even renew 
their membership cards. 

A new and improved magazine-style In the Field that 
features more in-depth coverage of Field Museum 
events, exhibits and the work of our scientists. 

Free members-only previews to all ticketed exhibits 
(this is in addition to the free passes described above). 

As in the past, you will continue to receive a compli- 
mentary Field Museum calendar and a 10 percent dis- 
count in the new Corner Bakery restaurant and the 
vastly improved Museum Store. We appreciate the 
loyal support of our members and look forward to 
serving you in the years to come. 



The Membership Department 



Members' Nights — June 8 & 9 

Mark your calendars today for Members' 
Nights, the annual extravaganza during 
which the Museum throws open the 
doors to its research and collections areas 
and lifts the curtain on exhibits in the 
making. In addition. Museum scientists 
will be on hand to discuss their research 
and to show off some of the specimens 
they've collected while conducting field- 
work around the word. The theme of this 
year's Members' Nights is Sue, who will be on display 
in all her ferocious glory in Stanley Field Hall. 




MARCH . APRIL 2000 9 



Your Guide to The Field 



Inside 



1 Exhibits 

3 Calendar of Events 

5 Get Smart 

7 Free Visitor Programs 








-.1-v 



lp*f 







The Dead Sea Scrolls 








^'X'" 



Above: Datingfrom 200 B.C., this scroll frag- 
ment is a portion of the apocryphal Book of 
Enoch, which is quoted in Jubilees and the 
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, and 
referred to in the New Testament (Jude 1:14). 



For the first time in 50 years, the Dead Sea 
Scrolls will be on display in Chicago in a 
special exhibition at The Field Museum from 
March 10 through June 11. Written on 
parchment and papyrus more than 2,000 
years ago, these scrolls are one of the 
greatest manuscript discoveries in the 
history of archaeology and are rarely exhib- 
ited outside Israel. 

The scrolls — which were written in 
Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek over a 300-year 
period beginning in 250 B.C. — were discov- 
ered in 1947 by a Bedouin shepherd in caves 
in the Qumran region of the Judean desert, 
about 17 miles southeast of Jerusalem. 
Following the shepherd's discovery, archae- 
ologists searched the area and discovered 
more than 100,000 scroll fragments in 1 1 
caves. Together, these fragments represent 




about 800 individual compositions. 
Although many of these ancient composi- 
tions are books of the Hebrew Bible, some 
contain apocryphal books found in Christian 
and Greek scriptures, while others are sec- 
tarian documents, such as community laws. 

Portions of 15 different scrolls will be on 
display at The Field Museum, including five 
that have never traveled outside Israel. One 
of those five is a segment from the book of 
Deuteronomy, which includes the Ten 
Commandments. The other four contain 
language and concepts similar to those later 
found in the Gospels of the New Testament. 

Many scholars believe that these scrolls 
were created by the Essenes, a group of sec- 
tarians who broke away from mainstream 
Judaism and set out to live a communal life 
in the desert. When the Romans invaded 
the region around 58 A.D., this group hid 
their manuscripts in nearby caves. The 
archaeological ruins of Qumran, located 
at the base of the caves, are believed by 
many to represent the communal homes 
of these people. 

"Whoever was writing these documents was 
not in the mainstream of Judaism at the 
time," says James Philips, an anthropologist 
at the University of Illinois at Chicago and a 
Field Museum adjunct curator who has 
worked in the Sinai and Judean deserts for 

Lefr: One of the many storage jars found in 
the caves at Qumran. 



more than 35 years. "We have no idea what 
happened to these people after the destruc- 
tion of Qumran." 

Despite the probable connection between 
Qumran and the scrolls, a few scholars 
believe the Essenes were not the exclusive 
authors of these ancient documents. They 
assume that at least some of the manu- 
scripts were written in Jerusalem and later 
deposited or hidden in the caves at Qumran 
when the Romans invaded. 

The exhibit, which is coorganized by The 
Field Museum and the Israel Antiquities 
Authority, also features 80 artifacts from 
Qumran settlements, including coins, gob- 
lets, sandals, a scroll storage jar and a 
pottery inkwell. It also contains books and 
manuscripts from the collections of The 
Field Museum and Chicago's Newberry 
Library, as well as a modern torah scroll 
from the Spertus Museum in Chicago. 

"The Dead Sea Scrolls" is sponsored by The 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
The Fourth Presbyterian Church of Chicago, 
Chicago Sinai Congregation, the 
Archdiocese of Chicago and the Jewish 
United Fund/Jewish Federation of 
Metropolitan Chicago. Additional support is 
provided by The Joseph and Bessie Feinberg 
Foundation, the Dorot Foundation, Claire 
and Gordon Prussian, Marshall and Doris 
Holleb and Fern and Manfred Steinfeld. This 
exhibition is indemnified by the Federal 
Council on the Arts and the Humanities. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 1 



MARCH/APRIL 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Exhibits 



Masks: Faces of Culture 



"Masks: Faces of Culture," which is currently 
on display through May 14, presents 139 
masks from nearly 50 countries on six conti- 
nents. Ranging from prehistoric times to the 
present, these masks, some of which are on 
view with full costume, exemplify the 
exquisite ciesign, provocative imagery and 
compelling purpose found in mask-making 
— one of the most enduring forms of artis- 
tic expression. The largest global exhibit to 
explore the visual power of masks, "Masks: 
Faces of Culture" unites visual, cultural and 
historical perspectives to present these 
anthropological artifacts as works of art and 
cultural icons. 

Throughout recorded history, masks have 
been part of the human experience. In 
nearly every culture, age and inhabited part 
of the globe, they have functioned as medi- 
ums of expression and transformation. As 
works of art, they embody dynamic visual 
energy; and as cultural icons, they present 
the rich panoply of diversities and common- 
alties in humankind. The human need to 
mask, so vividly emphasized in the exhibit, 
reveals a human desire to transcend earthly 
limitations, to penetrate alien environments 
and to be reinvented, renewed, strength- 
ened and protected. 

One highlight of the exhibit is a 230-year- 
old Siberian shaman's costume discovered in 
Gottingen, Germany, that has not been 
removed from its case in more than 50 
years. Another remarkable piece, the oldest 
in the exhibit, is a 5,000-year-old funerary 




Above (from left to right): Funerary mask from Guatemala, circa 400 A.D. to 500 A.D.; 
Dzonoqua mask of the Kwakwaka'wakw people of Canada, 1800s. 



mask from the Middle East that was made 
to resemble a grinning human skull. In addi- 
tion to the 139 masks on display are music 
and video footage of masquerades, carni- 
vals and festivals in which masks play a 
central role. 

"Masks: Faces of Culture," which is free 
with general Museum admission, was 
curated by Cara McCarty (the Grace L. 
Brumbaugh and Richard E. Brumbaugh 
Curator of Decorative Arts and Design), and 
John W. Nunley (the Morton D. May Curator 



of the Arts of Africa, Oceania and the 
Americas, at the Saint Louis Art Museum). 

The exhibit was organized by the Saint 
Louis Art Museum. The exhibition and 
catalogue were made possible by a 
grant from AT&T. Additional generous 
funding was provided by the National 
Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency; 
the Jordan Charitable Foundation; the 
Rockefeller Foundation; the Helen Clay 
Frick Foundation; and Jefferson 
Smurfit Corporation. 



Sue is on her way 



On May 17, The Field Museum will unveil 
Sue, the largest and most complete T. rex 
ever discovered. 

When fully erected in Stanley Field Hall, 
Sue will stand 13 feet high at the hips and 
42 feet long from head to tail. One of the 
only pieces of Sue that will not be mounted 
is her 5-foot-long skull, which is too heavy 
to be placed on the steel armature that will 
hold together her 200 or so fossilized bones. 
As a result, the Museum will install a cast 
replica of the skull on the skeleton, placing 
the real one on display in an exhibit on the 
second-floor balcony overlooking Stanley 
Field Hall. Here, visitors will be able to get 
an up-close view of the predator's massive 
head, as well as some insight into the 
mounting process and the story of how Sue 
ended up at The Field Museum. In addition, 
visitors can view animated CT scans of the 



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skull and touch a variety of casts of Sue's 
bones, including a rib, forelimb and tooth. 

To celebrate Sue's unveiling. The Field 
Museum will be hosting a number of special 
dino-related programs from May 17 to 
May 21, including a family event featuring 
a special screening of Walt Disney Pictures' 
spectacular new animated action movie. 
Dinosaur, a theater piece written specially 




for The Field Museum that offers a peek 
into the life and times of Sue; and a 
family concert featuring the Chicago 
Chamber Musicians. 

"Sue at The Field Museum" is made possible 
in part by McDonald's Corporation and 
Walt Disney World Resort. Additional exhi- 
bition support is provided by the Elizabeth 
Morse Charitable Trust. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



MARCH/APRIL 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



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Above: Gary Feinman's excavation site in Oaxaca, Mexico. On March 18, Feinman, the chair- 
man of the Museum's anthropology department, will talk about his more than 20 years of 
fieldwork in the Valley of Oaxaca in southeast Mexico. 



Family Workshop: 
All About Movement 

3/11, 4/8 a 5/13 
Saturdays, 9:30 - 10:30 a.m. 

Discover the world around you by examin- 
ing animal biomechanics with the Green 
Light Performing Company, a Chicago-based 
theater group. During the workshop, fami- 
lies can get "down and dirty" exploring 
how animals — such as polar bears and 
mule deer — move in, around and through 
the different places they call home. Since 
this program is basically yoga with a twist, 
participants are encouraged to wear com- 
fortable clothes. "All about Movement" is 
offered in three sessions and is designed for 
adults and children ages three to five. 
$20 per participant for each class ($16 mem- 
bers). Please call 312.665.7400 for more 
information or to register. 

New Discoveries: 

Unraveling the Economy of the 

Ancient Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico 

3/18, Saturday, 2 p.m. 

In his first public lecture at The Field 
Museum, Gary Feinman, the new chairman 
of the anthropology department, will talk 
about his more than 20 years of fieldwork 
in the Valley of Oaxaca in southeast Mexico. 
Specifically, Feinman, who is also the 



Adult Course: 

Mining the Museum — Exploring 

Identity Through Mask-Making 

3/25, 4/1 & 4/8, Saturdays, 
10 a.m. - 12:30 p.m. 

Join Museum educator Cyd Engel for an in- 
depth journey into the "Masks: Faces of 
Culture" exhibit, which uses 139 masks to 
explore the universal desire of people 
around the world to transcend earthly limi- 
tations, penetrate alien environments and to 
be reinvented, strengthened and protected. 
The program also will include a tour of 
masks from various cultures that are on dis- 
play in the Museum's permanent exhibition 
halls. Many of these masks illustrate how 
people around the world have used masks 
to disguise their identities during celebra- 
tions, ceremonies, performances and 
warfare. After learning about the reasons 
people mask, you will retreat to a classroom 
to create your own mask. No prior art expe- 
rience is required. $70 ($60 members). Call 
312.665.7400 for more information. 



Museum's curator of Mesoamerican archae- 
ology, will reveal the different field 
procedures and techniques he has used to 
decipher the systems of production and 
exchange employed by the peoples of this 
region. $12 ($10 students/educators; 
$8 members). Please call 312.665.7400 for 
more information or to register. 

A World of Words: Literary 
Reading with Jhumpa Lahiri 

5/27, Tuesday, 6:30 p.m. 

During this evening of literary and cultural 
exploration, author Jhumpa Lahiri will read 
selections from her critically acclaimed book 
of short stories. Interpreter of Maladies. Set 
in the United States and India, these stories 
chart the emotional journeys of different 
characters in search of love beyond the bar- 
riers of nations and generations. Imbued 
with sensual details of Indian culture, the 
stories also speak to everyone who has ever 
felt like a foreigner. As one reviewer noted, 
the author, who was born in London and 
grew up in Rhode Island, is "a sensitive 
chronicler of the immigrant experience, and 
her collection is wise and sophisticated." 
$15 ($10 members; $12 students/educators). 
Call 312.665.7400 for more information. 




Above: On April 20, nature writer Peter 
Friederici will talk about the amazing wildlife 
that can be found in the suburbs of Chicago. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



MARCH/APRIL 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



New Discoveries: 

Medicine Quest — in Search of 

Nature's Healing 

414, Tuesday, 6:30 p.m. 

On this night of botanical exploration and 
adventure, ethnobotanist Mark Plotkin will 
reveal how scientists are harvesting nature's 
pharmacy in the hope of finding cures to 
some of the world's nastiest diseases. 
Plotkin — president of the Amazon 
Conservation Team and a research associate 
at the National Museum of Natural History 
in Washington, D.C. — has spent 15 years 
trying to uncover the medicinal "secrets" of 
the shamans of the Amazon rain forest, a 
sojourn made famous in his book Tales of a 
Shaman's Apprentice. With his latest book. 
Medicine Quest, Plotkin takes readers on a 
journey from the freezing Arctic Circle to 
the burning jungles of South America in 
search of the source of new medicines. 
$12 ($8 members; $10 students/educators). 
Call 312.665.7400 for more information. 

Dead Sea Scrolls Lecture: 

An Evening with Elaine Pagels and 

Michael Eric Dyson 

4/13, Thursday, 6:30 p.m. 

Join scholars Elaine Pagels and Michael Eric 
Dyson as they explore "Issues in Christianity: 
From the Ancient World to the Modern 
Day." Pagels gained international acclaim as 
the author of the bestselling book The 
Gnostic Gospels, which won the National 
Book Critics Circle Award and the National 
Book Award. Dyson, an ordained Baptist 
minister and professor at DePaul University, 
has been called "one of the youngest stars 
in the firmament of black intellectuals." 
In 1993, he published Reflecting Black: 
African American Cultural Criticism, which 
won the Gustavus Myers Center for Human 
Rights Award. $20 ($15 members; $18 
students/educators). Call 312.665.7400 
for more information. 



Family Presentation: 

Dr. Art's Environmental Show 

4/15, Saturday, 1 p.m. 

For the past 20 years. Art Sussman, an envi- 
ronmental educator and creator of the 
popular "Dr. Art's Planet Earth Show," has 
been developing fun and exciting demon- 
strations that teach adults and children 
about complex ecological and environmen- 
tal concepts. Using the principles of matter, 
energy and life, he provides the audience 
with a simple, yet powerful framework to 
understand how the planet has been oper- 
ating for more than a billion years and how 



Right: A Sulka dance mask from New Britain. 
On March 25, April 1 and April 8, you can 
explore the art of mask-making and the 
different reasons why people wear masks. 




the actions of humans are threatening this 
delicate operating system. Members who 
attend this performance, which is free with 
general Museum admission, will receive 
free copies of Sussman's book Dr Art's 
Guide to Planet Earth. Please call 
312.665.7400 for more information. 

1999 Chicago MVP 
Chess Tournament 

4/19, Wednesday, 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. 

To some, chess is art; to others it is science. 
Find out for yourself as students of all ages 
from 125 Chicago public schools battle it 
out for $10,000 in scholarship money from 
the David R. MacDonald Foundation. This 
daylong tournament celebrates the Chicago 
Public Schools' innovative chess program, 
which teaches students about the art and 
science of chess through summer instruc- 
tion, team and private tutoring, and 
organized competitions. During the tourna- 
ment. Field Museum visitors can watch as 
the students compete at three different lev- 
els, beginning with novice matches in 
Stanley Field Hall and ending with the 
championship match in the Maori Meeting 
House at 4 p.m. Please call 312.665.7400 for 
more information about this free program. 

New Discoveries: 
The Suburban Wild 

4/20, Thursday, 6:30 p.m. 

Spend some time with author and field 
biologist Peter Friederici and learn about 
the rich and fragile environments that exist 
in Chicago's North Shore suburbs. During 
this lecture, Friederici will discuss his new 
book. The Suburban Wild, which traces the 
seasons from one spring to the next in the 
Chicago suburbs, revealing, along the way, 
a host of natural miracles and a landscape 
less tamed than you might imagine. 
Friederici was raised in Chicago and now 
lives in Arizona. His writings about the 
beauty of the American wilderness, the mir- 
acles of nature and the damage caused by 
human indifference have been widely pub- 
lished in magazines and journals across the 
nation. $12 ($8 members, $10 students/edu- 
cators). For more information or to register, 
please call 312.665.7400. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



MARCH/APRIL 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Get Smart 



The Dead Sea Scrolls Opening Festivities 



March 10-12, Friday to Sunday 
10-3 p.m. 



On March 10, The Field Museum will unveil 
"The Dead Sea Scrolls," a temporary 
exhibit featuring portions of 15 different 
papyrus and parchment scrolls written in 
what is now Israel more than 2,000 years 
ago. In celebration of the exhibit's opening, 
the Museum has designed a number of 
programs that delve into the history, 
significance and meaning of these ancient 
religious and secular manuscripts. All 
opening weekend activities are free with 
general Museum admission. Please call 
312.665.7400 for a more complete and 
detailed list of programs. 

Family Activities 

Friday, Saturday & Sunday, 
March 10, 11 & 12 
10 a.m. - 3 p.m. 

During the family activities portion of the 
festival, you can learn about the science 
used to unmask the mysteries of the scrolls 
and watch as a Jewish safer (scribe) demon- 
strates the art of scroll writing. Younger 
visitors can put together a map of the 
Middle East or piece together fragments 
of a scroll. 

Exhibit Meet and Greet 

Friday & Saturday, March 10 & 11 
10:30 - 1 1:30 a.m. 

Listen as a Field Museum scientist, designer 
and exhibit coordinator offer their insights 
into the development of the exhibit, the 
significance of the manuscripts and some of 
the controversies surrounding the scrolls. 




/thove: In addition to the IS icrolh that will he on display in the exhibit are more than 80 arti- 
facts that were found in and around the Qumran caves. These objects include storage jars, coins, 
inkwelb, baskets and these two combs, which were used for straightening hair and removing lice. 



Family Presentation: 
Storytelling and Puppetry 

Friday & Saturday March 10 & 11 
1 1 a.m., 1 p.m. & 2 p.m. 

Watch as Marilyn Price, a storyteller and 
puppeteer, shows how the values espoused 
in the 2,000-year-old scrolls can be applied 
to modern life. Price also will lead a story- 
telling and scroll-writing family workshop 
on Saturday, March 25. 



Sunday Symposium: 
Opening Lecture 

Sunday, March 12, 2 p.m. 

Listen to Eric Meyers of Duke University dis- 
cuss the historical development of Judaism 
and Christianity. Meyers' appearance is part 
of an ongoing series of lectures in which 
world-renowned experts will explore the 
content and controversies surrounding the 
Dead Sea Scrolls. 




Africa: From Eritrea with Love 



On Display Through July 2, 2000 

The exhibit "Africa: From Eritrea with 
Love" presents paintings by Betty LaDuke 
that capture the diverse cultures of 
Eritrea, one of the youngest nations in 
northeastern Africa. LaDuke, a painter, 
activist and former professor at Southern 
Oregon State University, first traveled 
to this nation on the Red Sea in 1993, 
just three years after it won a 30-year 
struggle for independence from Ethiopia. 
During her travels there over a four-year 
period, she recorded on canvas the daily 
life of the Eritrean people, their depen- 
dency on the region's mountainous 



terrain and their agricultural and spiritual 
practices and beliefs. 

Throughout her career, LaDuke has devel- 
oped a number of exhibitions on cultural 
themes, such as "Impression of India. " 
"China, an Outsider's Inside View" and 
"Totems and Creation Myths." She also 
has organized exhibits of women's 
art from India, Borneo, Latin America 
and Africa. 

Left: Saho Basket Weavers,' 1997, acrylic, 
54 inches by 50 inches. 



CALENDAR OF EVBNTS 



MARCH/APRIL 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



It's Wild in Chicago 2000: 
Taking Action 

April 1 & 2, 11 a.m. - 4 p.m.; April 3 & 4, 10 a.m. - 1 p.m. 



April 22, 2000, marks the 30th anniversary 
of Earth Day, an event that many regard as 
the birthday of the modern environmental 
movement. In celebration of this anniver- 
sary, The Field Museum will host "It's Wild 
in Chicago," the kickoff event for Chicago's 
Earth Day celebrations. Together with 
members of the Chicago Wilderness organi- 
zation and Chicago's Earth Month Coalition, 
the Museum will offer visitors a unique 
opportunity to learn about the work of 
some 100 organizations that are giving back 
to Mother Earth so that future generations 
will have a healthy environment in which 
to live. 

During this four-day program, Chicago 
Wilderness will highlight its new 
Biodiversity Recovery Plan. This regional 
action plan identifies the most significant 
ecological communities in the greater- 
Chicago region, evaluates the condition of 
these communities and outlines recommen- 
dations for restoring and protecting them. 
In addition. Field Museum scientists will 
be on hand to discuss their environmental 
research programs, shed light on how 
humans are impacting the biological 
world and encourage visitors to become 
more involved in environmental issues in 
their communities. 




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Above: Chicago Wilderness is comprised of 90 organizations, including The Field Museum, that 
are working together to restore the natural communities of the Chicago region. This photograph 
was taken in Pilcher Park, about 40 miles southwest of Chicago. 



"It's Wild in Chicago" also will include a 
number of fun activities for visitors of all 
ages, including puppet shows, scientific pre- 
sentations and musical performances by the 
likes of the Green Light Performing 
Company and musician Stan Slaughter, who 



has written more than 30 award-winning 
songs and melodies about the environment. 

"It's Wild in Chicago" is free with general 
Museum admission. Please call 312.665.7400 
for more information. 



The Dead Sea Scrolls Performing Arts Programs 



Join the Museum for a series of musical and 
artistic performances that examine the 
cultural and historical significance of the 
Dead Sea Scrolls. All programs are $15 
($10 members; $12 students/seniors) unless 
otherwise noted. 

Shesh-Besh 

Sunday, April 9, 7 p.m. 
Shesh-Besh is an ensemble of four musicians 
from Israel whose sounds and melodies 
meld classical and jazz music with tradi- 
tional elements from the Middle East and 
the Far East. 

The Golden Age 

Monday, April 10, 7 p.m. 
Listen to Ofri Eliaz and the Sahar Ensemble 
explore the music of the Sephardic Jews, 
who settled in North Africa, the Balkans, 
Turkey, Greece and present-day Israel after 
being expelled from Spain in 1492. 



To the Land of Sheba 
and Back Again 

Sunday April 16, 11 a.m. & 1:30 p.m. 
Through storytelling and song, Zipporah 
Sibahi Greenfield will explore the role of 
women in the Jewish family and the fasci- 
nating culture preserved by Jews in Yemen. 
Free with general admission. 

Live at The Field! 
Body Scriptures 

Saturday, June 3, 8 p.m. 
Watch the world-renowned Liz Lerman 
Dance Exchange perform material from 
their ongoing project that examines the 
role of faith and identity in community. 
Call 312.665.7400 for more information. 



Right: Singer Ofri Eliaz will perform the 
music of the Sephardic Jews with the Sahar 
Ensemble on April 10. 




THE FIELD MUSEUM 



MARCH/APRIL 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Free Visitor Programs 




Above: During the "It's Wild in Chicago" festival in April, visitors can learn about the rich biolog- 
ical diversity that surrounds Chicago. This photograph was taken in November at Hogwash 
Slough in Palos Hills, III, about 20 miles southwest of downtown Chicago. 



Every Saturday and Sunday 

1 p.m. Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction. 
Learn new songs and stories, and have fun 
creating artwork in the Grainger Gallery — 
all in a 20-minute program sponsored by 
The Siragusa Foundation Early Childhood 
Initiative. In March and April, you can hear 
stories about a heroine in the tundra, ani- 
mals that spend their lives underground 
and the beauty and diversity of the wilder- 
ness that surrounds Chicago. 

Interpretative Stations Activities. Drop by 
hands-on stations located throughout the 
Museum (check informational directories 
for daily listings) and delve into the fasci- 
nating world of natural history. 

March 4 — Saturday 

9 a.m. - 3:30 p.m. Ibeji 2000 International 
Festival: Creation Stories and Dances of 
Women. Celebrate the first Women's 
History Month of the new millennium by 
taking advantage of musical performances, 
craft demonstrations and storytelling. The 
Ibeji 2000 festival seeks to unite women of 
different social backgrounds and traditions 
in order to explore the universality of 
women's aims, goals and purposes. 



March 10 — Friday 

11 a.m. - 3 p.m. Dead Sea Scrolls Family 
Field Days. Visitors are invited to discover 
the mysteries surrounding the Dead Sea 
Scrolls, one of the greatest manuscript dis- 
coveries in the history of archaeology. 
Programming will include demonstrations, 
storytelling and highlight tours of the 
exhibit. See "Exhibit" page in the calendar 
section for more information. 

March 11 — Saturday 

11 a.m. - 3 p.m. Dead Sea Scrolls Family 
Field Days. See March 10. 

1:30 p.m. Tibet Today and Bhutan, Land of 
the Thunder Dragon. This slide presentation 
takes you to places now open to tourists in 
Tibet and the Himalayan Buddhist country 
of Bhutan. 

March 12 — Sunday 

11 a.m. - 3 p.m. Dead Sea Scrolls Family 
Field Days. See March 10. 

2 p.m. - 4 p.m. Dead Sea Scrolls Sunday 
Symposia: Second Temple Judaism and the 
Dead Sea Scrolls. As an introduction to the 
Dead Sea Scrolls Symposia, Eric Meyers, a 
professor at Duke University, will share his 



thoughts on the religious sects that once 
inhabited Qumran, the site in the Judean 
desert where a Bedouin shepherd discov- 
ered the Dead Sea Scrolls. 

March 18 — Saturday 

1 1 a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 
Join scientists from the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture to learn about soil science 
and careers relating to agriculture. The 
scientists also will discuss how they 
work to educate the public about the 
importance of soil, one of the planet's most 
valuable resources. 

April 1 — Saturday 

1 1 a.m. — 4 p.m. Festival: It's Wild in 
Chicago 2000. To kick off the first Earth 
Month of the new millennium. The Field 
Museum will host "It's Wild in Chicago 
2000," a festival comprising activities, 
demonstrations and performances designed 
to introduce families, kids, school groups 
and other visitors to issues of local conserva- 
tion. See "Get Smart" page in the calendar 
section for more information. 

Noon & 2 p.m. Performance: Stan Slaughter. 
Experience the amazing sounds of award- 
winning "eco-troubadour" Stan Slaughter, 
who uses his music to educate the public 
about sustainable environmental practices. 

April 2 — Sunday 

1 1 a.m. - 4 p.m. Festival: It's Wild in Chicago 
2000. See April 1. 

Noon & 2 p.m. Performance: Stan Slaughter. 
See April 1. 

April 3 — Monday 

10 a.m. - 1 p.m. Festival: It's Wild in Chicago 
2000. The featured performers for this day 
of environmental celebration will include 
the Green Light Performing Company at 
noon and Hody Coyote, a puppeteer whose 
performance at 11 a.m. will focus on the 
natural wonders of prairie ecosystems. 
See the "Get Smart" page in the calendar 
section for more information. 

10:30 a.m. Performance: Stan Slaughter. 
See April 1. 

Daily Highlight Tours 

Take a guided tour of the exhibits that 
make this Museum one of the world's 
finest and learn about the history of 
these displays. Tours are offered Monday 
through Friday at 1 1 a.m. and 2 p.m. 
Check the informational directories for 
weekend tours. 



i 



Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories located throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



MARCH/APRIL 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



April 4 — Tuesday 

10 a.m. - 1 p.m. Festival: It's Wild in Chicago 
2000. The featured performers for this day 
of environmental celebration will include 
the Green Light Performing Company at 
noon and Hody Coyote, a puppeteer whose 
performance at 1 1 a.m. will focus on the 
natural wonders of prairie ecosystems. 

See the "Get Smart" page in the calendar 
section for details. 

April 15 — Saturday 

Noon - 3 p.m. Hall Demonstrations: Artists 
In the Field. Watch student artists from The 
School of the Art Institute demonstrate the 
drawing and painting techniques they use 
to capture the beauty of the Museum's 
many dioramas and cultural artifacts. 

1 p.m. Presentation & Book Signing: 
Dr. Art's Environmental Show. Join Art 
Sussman, a world-renowned scientist and 
environmental educator, as he makes sci- 
ence come alive in this exciting show for all 
ages. As an added bonus. Field Museum 
members who attend this free program will 
receive a complimentary copy of Art's book. 
Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth. 

April 16 — Sunday 

11 a.m. & 1:30 p.m. Storytelling: To the 
Land of Sheba and Back Again. Storyteller 



Zipporah Sibahi Greenfield will transport 
you back in time to a distant land filled 
with unfamiliar melodies. Greenfield has 
designed her performances to shed light on 
the role of women in the Jewish family. 

April 19 — Wednesday 

9 a.m. - 5 p.m. The 1999 Chicago MVP Chess 
Tournament. The Field Museum is proud to 
host the 1999 Most Valuable Player Chess 
Tournament, an event celebrating the 
Chicago Public Schools' chess program. See 
the "Calendar" pages for more information. 

April 22 — Saturday 

11 a.m. - 2 p.m. Earth Day Festivities. Enjoy 
a variety of environmental programs and 
activities designed to help you celebrate 
Earth Day. 

1 1 a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 

See March 18. 

1 1 a.m. - 2 p.m. Interpretive Station: Mud 
Management. Learn about soil and the 
work of soil scientists through activities that 
demonstrate soil classification techniques, 
the tools used to study soil and the differ- 
ent types of life forms that inhabit the soil. 



Resource Centers 

Explore topics in more depth through a vari- 
ety of resources, including computer 
programs, books, activity boxes and much 
more at the Africa Resource Center and the 
Daniel F. & Ada L. Rice Wildlife Research 
Station. Open daily from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
See below for information on the Webber 
Resource Center and the Crown Family Place 
for Wonder. 

Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Visit a traditional home of the Pawnee 
Indians and learn about their life on the 
Great Plains. Open from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
on weekends and at 1 p.m. during weekdays. 
Check the informational directories or the 
sign in front of the lodge for program times. 

Ruatepupuke: 

The Maori Meeting House 

Discover the world of the Maori people of 
New Zealand at their treasured and sacred 
Maori Meeting House. Open daily from 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

McDonald's Fossil 
Preparation Laboratory 

Watch Field Museum preparators work on a 
variety of dinosaur bones. Open daily from 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 




Please Excuse our 
Renovations 

We are on the move! As you plan your next 
visit to The Field Museum, you should note 
that some of our exhibit halls and resource 
centers are temporarily closed for reorgani- 
zation. These include the Crown Family 
Place for Wonder, the Webber Gallery, 
Webber Resource Center, and Place for 
Wonder — all of which will reopen this 
summer. Although the new "Ancient 
Mesoamerica and North America" hall will 
not be complete until mid-July, sections of it 
are currently available for public viewing. In 
addition, portions of our North American 
archaeology collections, including some of 
the Hopewell material, are currently 
unavailable to the public. The reinstallation 
of these collections will occur in stages 
beginning in late winter. This summer, the 
Museum also will be opening a Plains and 
Southwest Native American Gallery. For 
more information, please call 312.665.7400. 



Above: Join students from The School oj the Art Institute on April 15 as they reveal the secrets to 
painting the Museum's world-renowned dioramas, such as this one of mule deer in the "Nature 
Walk" exhibit. 



Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories located throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



MARCH/APRIL 2000 



8 CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Field Updates 



Satellite Phones Keep Field Museum 
Scientists Out of Trouble 



Robert Vosper 

Just about every medical emergency imaginable has 
befallen a Field Museum expedition at one time or 
another. For instance, scientists in the field have bro- 
ken their legs, been bitten by deadly venomous snakes, 
stricken with acute appendicitis and contracted a slew 
of unpronounceable tropical diseases. Since most of 
these emergencies occur in remote locations far from 
civilization, the expedition team usually carries their 
fallen comrade out of the field on their backs. And 
although nobody has died in the field in recent years, 
the concern hangs over the head of every scientist who 
conducts fieldwork. 

To help alleviate that concern. Motorola Inc. 
recently donated six satellite phones that work off the 
new Iridium System, a network of 66 low-orbit satel- 
lites 485 miles above the Earths surface. This network 
allows you to call anyone in the world, whether you 
are in the Andes, the African savanna, the Amazon 
rain forest or the middle of the Pacific Ocean. 

"If one of your researchers is in Afi^ica, for exam- 
ple, and calls The Field Museum, their voice will travel 
from one satellite to the next and then down to a gate- 
way (a land-based switching station) where it will 
travel through a land line to Chicago," says Eva 
Valentine, a spokeswoman for Motorola's satellite 
phone division. "Basically, it will help them keep in 
touch when they are in places where there is no com- 
munication or they've gone outside the boundaries of 
traditional terrestrial cellular sites." 

In addition to expanding the range of wireless 
communication, these state-of-the-art phones are ideal 
for fieldwork: They weigh only 16 ounces and can run 
on a high-capacity battery that provides 72 hours of 
standby time and nearly eight hours of continuous 
talk time. The phones, which can be recharged with 
an optional solar charger, also can receive voice and 
written messages. 

So far. Field Museum scientists have used these 
phones during fieldwork in North America, South 
America and Africa. Although no one has had to use 
the phones in an emergency, they have found them to 
be invaluable logistical tools. For example, Bruce 
Patterson, MacArthur Curator of Mammals; Doug 
Stotz, a conservation ecologist; and Sergio Solari, a 
research associate, used the phones to reprovision 
their field camp in Manu, a five-million-acre nature 
preserve located on the remote edge of the Amazon 
Basin in Peru. 

For nearly nine weeks this past fall, these Field 
Museum scientists, joined by a small army of biolo- 
gists, trekked through the rain forests of Manu 
conducting biological surveys along an elevation gradi- 
ent of 1,320 feet to 11,550 feet above sea level. 



"The schedule of this fieldwork required that we 
head out to camp, spend three weeks sampling birds, 
mammals, ticks, fleas, bat flies and lice; then picking up, 
moving to another site along this gradient and doing it 
all over again," Patterson says. 

With each move, the team had to resupply the camp 
with food and replace broken equipment. In the past, 
this meant someone would have to miss at least three 
days of fieldwork traveling to and from Cuzco, the near- 
est town. However, on this trip the scientists were able 
to use the phones to call a colleague in town who sent 
the needed supplies by bus. 

"I really wouldn't have wanted to do this Peruvian 
project without these phones," Patterson says. "They are 
that vital to the coordination of our fieldwork. Basically, 
they gave us the flexibility to cope with changing needs 
and problems." 

Patterson also found one other use for the phones: 
While in Manu, he called his 4-year-old son, Dan, to 
wish him a happy birthday. 

"I spent a total of five months in the field last year, 
which is insane. For somebody like me, these phones 
make a big difference in terms of security, convenience 
and keeping my family supportive of my work. And it 
really makes the difference for my son to be able to call 
me when I am working on the other side of planet." ITF 




Above: The new Motorola Satellite Series 9505 portable 
phone is water, shock and dust resistant, and can be used as 
either a satellite or cellular phone. 



10 IN THE FIELD 



Botany Curator Retires After 34 Years of Service 



Robert Vosper 

There isn't much that William Burger, curator of vas- 
cular plants, would change about his life. 

"I was awfully lucky, gee, was I lucky," remarks 
the 65-year-old botanist, who announced on Dec. 31, 
1999, that he was retiring after 34 years of service to 
the Museum. 

"I really can't think of doing anything different. 
Part of that reflects my personality. I simply don't have 
the kind of personality that would have allowed me to 
succeed in business, medicine or law." 

However, his personality was well-suited for 
botany, where he became a world-renowned expert on 
the flowering plants of Costa Rica. 

Ironically, Burger, who grew up on the streets of 
Manhattan in the 1930s and 1940s, admits that botany 
wasn't what he really wanted to study. 

"What I really wanted to do was study insects, but 
the premeds at Columbia University were so competi- 
tive that I couldn't score higher than a B in zoology. 
So, when it came to applying to graduate school, I 
decided that I had a better chance in botany where 
I had gotten an A. It worked out pretty well, don't 
you think?" 

It did. After graduating from Columbia with a 
B.A. in biology in 1953, Burger was drafted by the 
Army and sent to Western Europe where he served as 
a soil analyst. After returning stateside two years later, 
he used the GI Bill to help pay his way through gradu- 
ate school at Cornell University and earn his Ph.D. at 
Washington University. It was in St. Louis that his life 
took a dramatic change when he decided in July 1961 
to enroll in a teaching program at an agricultural col- 
lege in Ethiopia. 

"This was an incredible experience," says Burger, 
who spent four years at the college teaching plant tax- 
onomy. "Within a three-hour Jeep ride we could be in 
subdesert grassland, acacia thorn bush or agricultural 
areas that were once broadly forested. We also could 
trek into the mountains to explore evergreen forests 
and unique alpine habitats." 

But his time in this botanical paradise was soon to 
be over. During a break from teaching in 1964, he 
attended a botanical conference in Scotland where he 
met former Field Museum botany chair Louis 
Williams. Williams was so impressed by the young 
botanist that he asked Burger on the spot to help him 
start a research and collecting program in Costa Rica. 
Knowing that this was a chance of a lifetime. Burger 
agreed to relocate to the urban, mountain-starved 
landscape of Chicago. 

For the next three decades. Burger immersed him- 
self in the botanical world of Costa Rica, spending on 
average one month each year in the field collecting 
plants for the Museum's herbarium, studying the 




Above: William Burger taking some photographs of coconut 
palms at Punta Cahuita, Costa Rica, in 1981. 

regions plant diversity and developing a comprehen- 
sive survey of all the flowering plants of Costa Rica. 

"His work in Costa Rica is really seminal," says 
Gregory Mueller, chair of the botany department. 
"His plant treatments are so elucidating that everyone 
wants to use them. The other thing that makes his 
work so important is that he chose the most difficult 
flowering-plant families to study. He also has been a 
valuable member of the department, serving eight 
years as the botany chair and six years as editor of 
the Museum's scientific journal." 

His sense of service, however, was not just 
reserved for his department. Throughout his career, 
he has gone out of his way to provide assistance to the 
education, fund-raising and exhibition departments. 
But to Burger, this is only part of the story. What he is 
most proud of are his "nonscientific" accomplishments. 

"My daughters and my wife have been the most 
wonderful aspects of my life," he says. "The business of 
watching little human beings grow up has got to be 
one of the most satisfying things in life." 

As for the future. Burger plans to continue study- 
ing and collecting the plants of Costa Rica, as well as 
leading Museum tours to Central America. 

"My other plan is to enjoy the beauty of nature 
for as long as I can," he adds. ITF 



MARCH . APRIL 2000 1 1 



The Archives 




From the Photo Archives 



You can learn 
more about Jame} 
MacEride at 
www.iacha.org 



Around noon on March 22, 1922, Museum botanist 
James MacBride, pictured here with an unidentified 
child outside a bar along the Higaris River in Peru, 
boarded the SS Teresa in New York Harbor on what 
became the most grueUng eight months of his life. 

MacBride, a 29-year-old newcomer to fieldwork, 
had been assigned the daunting task of collecting the 
plants of the Peruvian Andes — a challenge that 
thrilled this native of Rock Valley, Iowa. 

"We stood astern until we could no longer see the 
Statue of Liberty; then I seemed to have started my 
adventure, to me, a great adventure," he wrote in his 
field diary. 

However, after a few months of trekking across 
the cold, rugged terrain of the Andes, dodging roving 
bands of thieves and trying to ignore the dysentery 
that was ravaging his system, MacBride had lost much 
of his initial enthusiasm. 

"Today, about 15 miles further — very tired, no 
alfalfa — a grain country entirely and the people 
either too lazy or stupid to have hay. Slept in a field 
and little indeed because of taking turns watching lest 
robbers or cutthroats attack us," he wrote on Aug. 18. 

The Peruvians weren't the only ones on whom 
MacBride took out his frustrations. As the months 
dragged on, he began to lash out at the W.R. Grace 
Company for constantly misplacing money wired to 
him from Chicago, the American Consul General for 
refusing to help him get his collections through cus- 
toms and even the Catholic Church, which he blamed 



for his difficulties in finding a blacksmith to shoe his 
horse on Good Friday. 

"May God damn the Catholic Church — I do my 
part in this regard," he filmed. 

Although MacBride may not have been the most 
culturally sensitive Field Museum employee, he proved 
to be a competent botanist, amassing a huge collection 
of specimens during his expedition. These collections, 
along with another he made in Peru the following 
year, served as the foundation of what would become 
the most comprehensive collection of Peruvian flora in 
North America. He also became an accomplished 
author, writing a series of journal articles about the 
flora of Peru that together stand as one of the most 
complete surveys of Peruvian plants ever published. 

However, these journal articles may have been 
MacBride's undoing. 

As the years passed by, MacBride became increas- 
ingly obsessed with finishing this survey, often at the 
cost of his other curatorial duties. Facing increasing 
pressure from his superiors to perform, MacBride, 
who was rumored to be independently wealthy, left 
the Museum in the 1940s to finish his work in the 
peace and quiet of Northern California, What became 
of MacBride at this point is unclear. According to one 
account, he was "swindled" out of his fortune and 
became destitute. 

In the early 1970s, he entered a convalescent home 
in California, where he died fi-om pneumonia on 
June 15, 1976, at the age of 85. ITF 



12 IN THE FIELD 



Ask a Scientist 



Do you have a question for one of 
our scientists? If so, please send it to 
the Publications Department, The 
Field Museum, 1400 South Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, or via 
e-mail to rvosper@fmnh.org. Only 
questions published in the magazine 
will be answered. An archive of 
questions and answers that have 
appeared in past issues can be 
found at ww.fieldmuseum.org. 
askascien tist.htm. 

Did you kill the animals that are 
on display? 

Nearly all the mammals featured in 
our exhibits have been on display for 
at least 50 years, and some for more 
than 100 years. At the time they 
were collected, mammal populations 
were large and people were accus- 
tomed to hunting animals for food. 
Consequently, very few people were 
concerned at the time about killing a 



few animals to put on display at the 
Museum, and perhaps even less con- 
cerned when they knew that these 
animals were helping to educate mil- 
lions of people. However, because so 
many of these animals today are 
endangered from overhunting and 
habitat loss, we could not nor would 
we want to kill more. And because 
we have been able to reuse the old 
taxidermy mounts very effectively, 
we only have had to create a few 
new ones in recent years. The ani- 
mals in these contemporary displays 
have come from zoos, nature centers, 
state wildlife agencies or similar 
organizations. Since The Field 
Museum remains one of the nation's 
primary centers for both education 
and basic research on biological 
diversity and environmental conser- 
vation, we feel these new displays, as 
well as the older ones, are a great 
way to educate our visitors about the 



natural world and illustrate how 
we must change our attitudes and 
activities if we are to preserve the 
biological diversity that remains. 

— Lawrence Heaney 
Associate Curator and Head 
Division of Mammals 

Why were the arms of 7; rex 
so short? 

We really don't know why. What we 
do know is that their arms, which 
were about the same length as those 
of a human, were robust and 
extremely powerful. Muscle scarring 
on the arm bones of Sue indicate 
that her forelimb muscles were very 
well developed. So, whatever these 
dinosaurs were doing with their 
arms, they were doing it with force. 

— William Simpson 

Chief Preparator and Collections 
Manager, Geology Department 



Field Museum Specimen Overturns U.S. Patent 



An indigenous group from the Amazon rain forest has 
used a 20-year-old Field Museum herbarium specimen 
(right) to overturn a U.S. patent on Banisteriopsis caapi, 
an hallucinogenic plant used by shamans in a ceremo- 
nial drink known as "yage." 

In 1986, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 
(PTO) granted the patent to American researcher 
Loren Miller because he had proved to their satisfac- 
tion that the plant was cultivated from a domesticated 
variety (Miller said he found the plant growing in a 
"garden" in the Amazon). More importantly, he had 
proved that his cultivated plant was unique (it had 
flowers that were "rose colored, fading to white with 
age," whereas all published material about B. caapi at 
the time described the flowers as "pale pink, fading to 
pale yellow"). 

Naturally, the indigenous group was infuriated 
that a foreigner could own the rights to a plant that 
they had been using for centuries. Eventually, the 
Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL) 
in Washington, D.C., stepped in on their behalf by fil- 
ing a Request for Reexamination in March 1999. In 
their petition, CIEL attorneys argued that Miller's 
plant wasn't unique because a specimen of B. caapi 
with rose-colored flowers had existed in The Field 
Museum's herbarium about 13 months before Miller 
filed his original application on May 21, 1981. The 
PTO agreed with CIEL's assessment, and revoked 
the patent. 




"If it (the plant) had been accessioned 364 days before 
the application, it wouldn't have qualified under the 
PTO statute and we wouldn't have been able to use it 
in our petition," says CIEL attorney Glenn Wiser. "And 
all the testimony in the world would not have con- 
vinced the PTO to reopen the case." ITF 



MARCH • APRIL 2000 13 



Field Museum Tours at a Glance 




In October, explore some of the finest wildlife parks of south- 
ern Africa on a safari with Field Museum zoologist David 
Willard. While traversing through Botswana and Zimbabwe 
in 4-wheel drive vehicles and small riverboats, you will see 
many of the region's most spectacular natural wonders, 
including the Okavango Delta, Victoria Falls and the 
Hwange National Park. 



Fire & Ice: Japan, the Kuril 
Islands and Kamchatka 

May 21 - June 1 
Duration: 1 2 days 
Guest Leader. Explorer and 
oceanographer Don Walsh 
Price: Starts at $5,490, not 
including airfare 

Archaeology and Landscapes 
of China 

May 23 -June 10 

Duration: 19 days 

Museum Leader: Archaeologist 

Deborah Bakken 

Price: $5,695, including airfare 

from Chicago 

Pacific Northwest 
Subnfiarine Safari 

June 30 - July 4, or July 5 - July 9 

Duration: 5 days 

Guest Leader. Marine biologist 

Joe Valencic 

Price: $3,890, not including airfare 



For more Information or 
free brochures, please call Field 
Museum Tours at 800.811.7244, 
or send them an e-mail at 
fmtours@sover.net. 



Galapagos Island Adventure 

July 19 -July 29 

Duration: 1 1 days 

Museum Leader. Conservation 

ecologist Doug Stotz 

Price: $5,725, including airfare 

from Chicago 

Archaeological Treasures 
of Peru 

August 25 - September 6 

Duration: 12 days 

Museum Leader: Anthropologist 

Jonathan Haas 

Price: $5,995, including airfare 

from Chicago 





In August, travel throughout Peru with Field Museum 
anthropologist Jonathan Haas and visit some of South 
America's most captivating Pre-Columbian archaeological 
sites, including Paracas, Nazca, Cuzco, Machu Picchu and 
Moray. The tour also includes an optional extension to the 
Amazon rainforest. 



Join conservation ecologist Doug Stotz 
in July on a 22-passenger ship as he 
explores the different islands and 
habitats that comprise the world- 
famous Galapagos archipelago. Along 
the way, you will get to snorkel with 
sea lions and penguins in a world 
where the wildlife shows virtually no 
fear of humans. 

Wildlife of Southern Africa: 
Botswana and Zimbabwe 

October 6 - October 19 
Duration: 14 days 
Museum Leader: Zoologist 
David Willard 

Price: $8,535, including airfare 
from Chicago 

Egypt Revisited 

October 15 - October 29 
Duration: 15 days 
Museum Leader: Egyptologist 
Frank Yurco 

Price: Approximately $4,445, includ- 
ing airfare from Chicago 

Tunisia Unveiled 

November 2 - November 16 
Duration: 15 days 

Guest Leader: Willard White, former 
V.P. for Institutional Advancement 
Price: $5,880, including airfare 
from Chicago 

On the Drawing Board 

Egyptian Odyssey 
Amazon by Riverboat 
Central America Under Sail 



Please Note: Dates, prices and itineraries are subject to change. Prices are per person, double occupancy. 



The Field Museum's Me 




The Natural Jewels 
of the Amazon 



From the President 




Unmasking the Secrets 
AND Mysteries of Sue 



It was a long and nerve-racking 
eight minutes. 

Here we were bidding on the 
worlds most famous fossil at 
Sotheby's in New York City on 
Oct. 4, 1997. Fortunately, my close 
friend Richard Gray, president of 
the Art Dealers Association of 
America, was doing the bidding for 
the Museum and Peter Crane, the 
former vice president of our 
Academic Affairs division and now 
director of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens in Kew, England, was tak- 
ing copious notes. The only thing 
left for me to do was fidget. 

As the price of Sue skyrocketed 
from $500,000 to $6 miUion in a 
matter of minutes, I started to 
think that there was no way that 
the Museum could compete in this 
race. It seemed inevitable that Sue 
would be snatched up by a private 
collector, forever shielded from the 
inquisitive eyes of the public and 
scientific community. 

After about five minutes, the 
auction suddenly slowed to a 
crawl. As it turned out, we were 



one of only a few bidders left in 
the running at this point. When 
the auctioneer reluctantly slammed 
down his hammer on our bid of 
$7.6 million, it took me a few sec- 
onds to realize that Sue would be 
spending the rest of her life at 
The Field Museum. 

On May 17, we will unveil Sue 
after two and a half years of clean- 
ing, restoring and preserving her 
more than 250 fossilized bones. 
For months to come, she will be 
the focus of intense media atten- 
tion, educational programming, 
scientific reporting, dinner galas 
and even a "Cretaceous Concerto." 
During this time of celebration, 
let's not forget why we set our 
sights on Sue more than two 
years ago. 

When we competed for Sue 
that autumn day in New York, we 
knew that her prehistoric bones 
harbored a fountain of information 
about a species of dinosaur that 
is still a relative mystery to scien- 
tists. Before Susan Hendrickson 
unearthed Sue's remains in the 
high plains of western South 
Dakota on Aug. 12, 1990, only 
about 20 T. rex skeletons had ever 
been found — almost all less than 
60 percent complete. Sue is not 
only 90 percent complete, but also 
is larger and significantly better 
preserved than these other speci- 
mens. As a result. Museum 
scientists are gradually uncovering 
some long-held secrets of T. rex, 
such as how the animal moved, 
whether or not it was a skilled 
hunter or an opportunistic scav- 
enger, and whether its evolutionary 
path led to modern-day birds. 

From CT scans of Sue's skull, 
we now have a better idea of the 
size of an adult T. rex brain and 
how developed this animal's senses 
were. For instance, we recently dis- 



covered that Sue has a pair of 
massive olfactory bulbs (a part of 
the brain that receives scent signals 
from the nose), suggesting that 
Sue may have "sniffed" her way 
through life. We also have deter- 
mined that the scars on her lower 
jaws, once thought to have been 
teeth marks, were actually caused 
by an infection. 

While gleaning these scientific 
data from Sue's remains, we also 
realized that Sue is an extraordi- 
nary tool for teaching visitors 
about paleontology, the geologic 
forces that shape our planet, the 
extensive collections of vertebrate 
fossils housed here and the impor- 
tant scientific work of our research 
staff. Right after purchasing Sue, 
for example, thousands of people 
flocked to the Museum to watch 
our researchers clean and preserve 
Sue's bones in the specially 
designed McDonald's fossil prepa- 
ration lab. During the two-year- 
long preparation process, we also 
created a number of small exhibits 
about Sue that touched on every- 
thing from fossilization to the 
theory that dinosaurs evolved into 
the birds that grace our skies. 

Sue has only just started to 
reveal her educational potential 
and will no doubt continue to yield 
new information about the life and 
times of the dinosaur known as the 
Tyrant Lizard King. I believe she 
will soon become Chicago's star 
attraction, helping us introduce 
millions of new people to the many 
other important and fascinating 
stories housed in our building. 

John W. McCarter Jr. 
President &■ CEO 



We would like to know what you think about 
"In the Field" 



Please send comments or questions to Robert Vosper, publications 
department. The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, IL 60605-2496, or via e-mail at rvosper@fmnh.org. 



Inside 



Jaime Raduenzel reveals why some 
South American indigenous 
groups decorate their bodies with 
animal and insect parts. 



8 



For the price of a luxury sedan, 
you can be one of 10 people to 
own a bronze replica of Sue's 
5-foot-long skull. 



It's time again for the Museum to 
unlock its doors and let members 
explore areas of the building usu- 
ally off-limits to the public. 



11 



A new book by botanist Michael 
Dillon offers readers a peek at the 
botanical beauty and diversity of 
northern Peru. 



Your Guide to The Field 

A complete schedule of events 
for May /June, including programs 
offered in conjunction with the 
Sue exhibit. 



Around Campus 




After more than two years of 
being cleaned, preserved and 
restored. Sue is ready to reveal 
herself to the world. See the 
Calendar Section for details. 




What do Field Museum scien- 
tists really mean when they say 
that Sue is the most complete 
and best-preserved T. rex fossil 
ever unearthed? 




Find out why Daniel Burnham 
pleaded with state legislators 
to let him build The Field 
Museum on a man-made island 
in Lake Michigan, 



INTHEFIELD 

May/June 2000, Vol. 71, No. 3 

Editor and Designer: 
Robert Vosper 

Design Consultants: 
Hayward Blake & Company 



In the Field (ISSN #1051-4546) is published 
bimonthly by The Field Museum, Copyhght 
©2000 The Field Museum. Annual subscriptions 
are $20; $10 for schools. Museum membership 
includes In the Field subscription. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of The Field 
Museum. Notification of address change should 
include address label and should be sent to 
Membership Department. POSTMASTER: Send 
address changes to In the Field, The Field 
Museum, 1400 South Lalce Shore Drive, Chicago, 
IL 60605-2496. Periodicals postage paid at 
Chicago, Illinois. 

This issue's cover photograph (GE08e278.2C) 

is by John Weinstein of a cast replica of Sue's 
5-foot-long sl<ull. 



Tbr Pield 

Museum 



The Field Museum salutes the people 
of Chicago for their long-standing, 
generous support of the Museum 
through the Chicago Park District. 

The Field Museum 

1400 South Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, IL 60605-2496 

ph 312.922.9410 
vvww.fieldmuseum.org 



Adler Planetarium 

From June 3 through September 5, the 
Adler will host the world premiere of New 
Views of the Universe: The Hubble Space 
Telescope. Organized by the Smithsonian 
Institution and the Space Telescope Science 
Institute, the exhibit offers a rare and 
breathtaking view of the cosmos as offered 
by the world's best-known observatory — 
the Hubble Space Telescope. It features 
videos and interactive components that 
take visitors on a tour of the universe and 
provides in-depth background information 
about the history of the telescope. A spe- 



cial sky show in the Adier's original plane- 
tarium theater will accompany this exhibit. 
Call 312.322.0304 for more information. 

The Field Museum 

See the Calendar Section for a list of pro- 
grams and exhibitions offered in May 
and June. 



Shedd Aquarium 

The flooding starts this summer when 
Shedd Aquarium opens Amazon Rising: 
Seasons of the River. This permanent 



exhibit takes you on a journey through a 
year in the Amazon River floodplain forest, 
from low water to floods to receding 
waters. Along the way, you will discover 
the enormous diversity of animals that 
inhabit this ever-changing ecosystem. 
Amazon Rising features more than 250 
kinds of fishes, reptiles, amphibians, 
insects, birds and mammals in dramatic 
multispecies habitats. Throughout, the 
exhibit explores the connections among 
animals, plants and people — all of which 
benefit from the seasonal cycles of the 
great river. Please call 312.939.2438 for 
more information. 



MAY . JUNE 2000 1 



The Natural Jewels of the Amazon: 

Discovering their Mysticism and Meaning 




Above: Adult males of the Karajd, an indigenous group that lives in Brazil, 

created feathered headdresses like this one for hoys who had reached puberty. When a boy wore this 

object it gave the impression that spiritual energy was radiating 

from his head. 



2 IN THE FIELD 



Jaime Raduenzel 

Collections Management Assistant 

Anthropology Department 

Most Americans, especially' those living in urban areas, 
are detached from the animal world. For example, we 
no longer have to hunt for survival; we view the 
byproducts of the animals we eat as garbage; we would 
rather fumigate our homes with noxious chemicals 
than share them with insects; and when designing 
jewelry, we tend to shy away from organic material, 
preferring instead the luster of metal and the 
brilliance of precious stones. In fact, just about the 
only thing we wear these days that is derived from an 
animal is leather, which has been tanned, processed 
and treated to the point where we no longer have a 
clue as to its origin. 

For many indigenous peoples in South America the 
opposite is true. In general, these people consider 
themselves an integral part of nature, equal to all the 
creatures with which they share their environment. 
While working on the more than 9,000 objects in the 
Museums South American ethnographic collections, I 
discovered that this belief is deeply rooted in the items 
with which indigenous people adorn their bodies. 

As an assistant collections manager in the anthro- 
pology department, each day I handle and organize 
hundreds of items that have been collected from 
around the world by Field Museum scientists. 
Unfortunately, when surrounded by so many artifacts, 
a million or more to be exact, it is easy to become 
blind to their beauty and the stories they can tell. 
However, while organizing the South American mate- 
rial, I was captivated by a collection of artifacts 
comprised of hundreds of necklaces, armbands, head- 
dresses and jewelry made from different animal 
products, including bone, teeth, jaguar and monkey 
skins, beetle wings and feathers. 

At first I was floored by their beauty — the rich 
reds, greens, yellows and blues of macaw feathers care- 
fully woven into headdresses; the glistening metallic 
greens of insect wings delicately attached to necklaces 
and armbands; the rows of sandy-colored jaguar claws, 
each about the length of a human pinkie finger, 
threaded through a thin strip of leather. The more I 
worked with these objects, the more intrigued I 
became. Did the people who created them use animal 
material because they found it beautiful? Or did this 
material also hold important meaning in their lives? 

In posing these questions to Museum anthropolo- 
gists and scouring through the library after work, I 
learned that just as in Western culture — in which 
something like a crucifix hanging from someone's neck 
is more than just a piece of jewelry — the animal- 
based ornaments of indigenous groups harbor a 
wealth of sociocultural information. While there are 
hundreds of distinct indigenous groups living in South 
America that use animal material to create decorative 
objects, the Shuar and Desana of the northwest 




Amazon, and the Bororo of central Brazil offer strik- 
ing and diverse lessons in how these animals are used, 
valued and honored. 

The Desana 

In the northwest Amazon, as well as in other parts of 
the tropical forests of South America, animals such as 
birds and jaguars have important roles in the complex 
ideology and methodology of shamanism, a practice in 
which religious and herbal leaders communicate with 
the spirit world through rituals and ceremonies. At 
the heart of this practice is the belief that evil spirits, 
especially those sent by an enemy, are as responsible 
for pain, sickness and death as are natural forces such 
as disease. It is the role of the shaman to combat these 
evil spirits. Often this means turning to the animal 
world for help. 

One of the many South American cultures that 
practices shamanism is the Desana, a hunter-gatherer 
society that lives along the Vaupes River in the center 
of Colombian northwest Amazon. Brazilian anthro- 
pologist Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff has discovered 
that the Desana people believe that animals are the 
shamans allies, assisting him in his role as mediator 
between human and nonhuman realms. For example, 
they believe that the red feathers of the scarlet macaw 
are transformations of the Sun, possessing mystical 
and medicinal powers. So, when somebody in the vil- 
lage becomes ill, the shaman will often rub the 
patient's body with an ornament made from macaw 
feathers. This practice helps the shaman transmit his 



Above: Shuar 
earrings made 
from beetle wings 
and red, yellow 
and orange tou- 
can feathers. The 
armband in the 
center also con- 
tains monkey 
teeth, seeds and 
bird bones. 



MAY • JUNE 2000 3 



own therapeutic powers and helps him call on the 
spirits for assistance. Conversely, the shaman might 
use these feathers to send a spirit to kill an enemy. 
Anthropologists also have witnessed shamans in 
the Desana culture using jaguar body parts in rituals 
and ceremonies. According to the origin myth of these 
people, the early shamans had the power to transform 
themselves into jaguars by simply wearing a costume 
made from the bones, skin, teeth and claws of the ani- 
mal. These clothes were not only meant to disguise the 
shaman, but also to help him shift his shape from 
human to animal. Some shamans didn't even need an 
entire costume to transform. They could "become" 
jaguar, for instance, by hanging the fang or claw of a 
jaguar around their necks, wearing a belt of jaguar skin 
around their waists or even imitating a jaguar's growl. 



The Bororo 

Unlike the Desana, who inhabit forested areas, the 
Bororo live on a central plateau in the state of Mato 
Grosso in central Brazil. This lowland environment 
generally consists of tropical savanna and flat fields, a 
stark contrast to the densely forested areas of the 
Amazon Basin. Although it is somewhat barren in 
comparison to the Amazon rain forest, it is still home 
to a wide variety of animals, many of which hold sym- 
bolic value in Bororo culture. 

Before the Spanish colonized South America in the 
1500s, the Bororo were mainly hunters and gatherers. 
According to anthropologist Elizabeth Netto Calil 
Zarur, however, today they survive by growing cas- 
sava, maize and rice. They also are a matrilineal 
society, which means that at birth an individual 
becomes a member of a certain clan based on the 
mother's lineage. Within Bororo society, there are 




about eight different clans — all of which have names 
drawn from different immortal spirits. Often this 
immortal spirit is an animal, claimed by an ancestor of 
the clan who first came in contact with the animal. For 
example, the founder of one clan, the Kie, claimed the 
right to use the great tapir as his symbol. Thereaftrer, 
all members of his clan were given names that reflect 
the physical, behavioral and spiritual characteristics of 
this creature. To identify themselves as Kie, clan mem- 
bers wear ornaments made from material gleaned from 
the tapir. Another clan, the Bokodori Exerea (which 
means "animal with carapace like a great basket") took 
its clan name, personal names and ornamentation from 
the spiritual and physical traits of the giant armadillo. 

Although these clans have claimed the exclusive 
right to use these animals, they do not own them. 
Anyone in the community can hunt or eat a tapir, 
for instance, but only the Kie can wear the animal's 
body parts. 

There is, however, one animal that belongs to all 
the Bororo: the macaw. This brightly colored bird is 
significant because it inhabits areas of the environment 
that provide the Bororo with the foods and materials 
they need to survive. It also builds nests in caves along 
rocky outcrops — the same places the Bororo believe 
their ancestors once lived and were buried. As a result, 
the Bororo never kill or eat macaws, especially those 
with red feathers. They use these feathers to create 
objects for healing ceremonies. 

Anthropologists don't really know why the Bororo 
hold red macaw feathers in such high esteem. Some 
have suggested that the Bororo believe that their 
ancestors visit the human world as these majestic, 
colorful birds. 

The Shuar 

Perhaps one of the best-known indigenous groups of 
South America is the Shuar, who live in a section of 
the Amazonian rain forest that straddles the border 
between Ecuador and Peru near the eastern slope of 
the Andes. Because narrow, rocky rivers slice through 
Shuar territory, the Spanish were unable to conquer 
these people for centuries. When they did finally man- 
age to penetrate the region, the Spanish were quickly 
forced back by Shuar warriors, which might explain 
why they were once called the Jivaro, the Spanish 
word for "uncivihzed." The combination of their mili- 
tary prowess and the rugged terrain of their homeland 
allowed the Shuar to maintain their autonomy long 
after the Spanish subjugated neighboring groups. 
However, this part of their history and culture has 
since been overshadowed in popular lore by their now- 



Left: Taken in 1925 on the border of Colombia and Brazil, 
this photograph shows men from an unidentified indigenous 
^t I group wearing traditional ceremonial attire, including neck- 
laces made from bone or teeth and feathered headdresses. 



r.l 



4 IN THE FIELD 



abandoned custom of shrinking and preserving human 
heads. This emphasis is unfortunate because head- 
hunting was just a small part of a very complex 
religious belief system — a system that is reflected in 
the way the Shuar dress and decorate their bodies. 
Much of this belief system is beautifully described by 
anthropologist Michael Harner in his book The Jivaro: 
People of the Sacred Waterfalls. 

As with most cultures, the Shuar believe that dress 
and ornamentation can enhance an individual's power, 
protect against sickness and injury, and reaffirm status 
in the community. Among the most interesting and 
unique materials the Shuar use to create body decora- 
tions are the iridescent greenish-purple wing covers of 
Euchroma gigantea, the largest wood-boring beetle in 
the New World. The wings of these nearly 3-inch-long 
"jewel beetles" have a seemingly magical appearance 
and have been used as decorative elements for cen- 
turies in places like Amazonia, northern Thailand, 
Australia, New Guinea, the West Indies and Victorian 
England. For the Shuar, however, these beetles are 
more than just decorative objects — they symbolize 
wealth, well-being and power, and are incorporated by 
the Shuar in everything from armbands and earrings 
to headdresses and skirts. 

The beetle is not the only significant creature in 
Shuar culture. For example, they also believe that tou- 
cans possess power in the spirit world. In some 
ceremonies men attach stuffed toucans to their waists 
or breast ornaments as a way to ward off^ evil spirits. 
They also use femur bones from the tayu bird 
(Steatornis caripensis) to advertise to their peers, as well 
as to young women, that they are brave and skilled 
hunters. One reason these bones have so much mean- 
ing is because the tayu, a small reddish-brown 
nocturnal bird, likes to live in caves that are inhabited 
by jaguars, making the task of collecting the bones 
quite dangerous. In addition, many of these animal 
parts are often found on objects that contain beetle 
wings and human hair. When combined, these items 
probably take on additional symbolic meaning or mys- 
tical powers for the Shuar. 

Preserving Material Culture 

One of the difficulties in writing about indigenous 
groups like the Desana, Bororo and Shuar is deciding 
whether to use the past or present tense when 
describing their cultural practices. While some of 
their traditional belief systems are still alive and well, 
others have been transformed or completely destroyed. 
Some of the greatest obstacles these groups face in 
trying to preserve their cultural practices are defor- 
estation, habitat destruction and unchecked 
development — all of which have made it difficult for 
them to maintain their connection to nature and find 
the materials essential to their ceremonies and rituals. 
The other problem is that the indigenous populations 
have been greatly reduced by disease, economic pres- 
sures and the influx of nonindigenous groups into 




their traditional homelands. For example, the popula- 
tion of the Bororo, which once numbered in the 
thousands, is today estimated to be no larger than 
800. Yet indigenous peoples today persist in holding 
on to their traditional way of life because they believe 
it is the only way they can safeguard the forest for 
future generations. 

Museums are an important resource for some tradi- 
tional cultural practices. We, and people of indigenous 
cultures, can learn from the objects and artifacts that 
are preserved in museums. But, because these artifacts 
often are made from fragile material, they will deterio- 
rate over time unless money and time are spent to 
conserve them. With funding from the National 
Endowment for the Humanities, The Field Museum is 
addressing this issue by moving its South American 
collections into greatly improved storage facilities. As 
part of this process, the Museum's collections manage- 
ment staffs has packaged these objects in archival 
material and reorganized them to facilitate research. 
Thousands of feather items and other delicate 
ornaments, which at one time were stored in over- 
crowded drawers and shelves, are now housed in 
airtight cabinets and mounted on supportive struc- 
tures to protect them. 

In describing museum collections, anthropologist 
Ruben Reina once wrote, "These objects are the books 
of non-literate people. Museums are their libraries." 
The collections management staffs and conservators 
in the anthropology department have taken this state- 
ment to heart, priding themselves on helping to 
preserve the knowledge of indigenous cultures around 
the world. As the artifacts created by the Desana, 
Bororo and Shuar illustrate, these collections provide a 
vivid introduction into the lives of the people who 
helped shape and continue to shape the diverse cul- 
tural landscape of South America. ITF 



Above: Once 
on display at 
the 1893 World's 
Columbian 
Exposition, this 
jaguar necklace 
was worn by 
men of the Guato, 
an indigenous 
group that lived 
in the same area 
of Brazil as 
the Bororo. 



MAY • JUNE 2000 5 



Field Updates 



Sue is More Than a Pretty Face 




Above: This 3-D 
image of Sue's 
skull is made up 
of 748 individual 
CT or X-ray 
"slices." 



Ever since dinosaur hunter Barnum Brown unearthed 
the first Tyrannosaurus rex fossil in Wyoming in 1900, 
T. rex has become one of the best-known pop-culture 
icons in history. From silent films to Jurassic Park, 
in comic books and novels, at toy stores and theme 
parks, the menacing creature with the powerful 
jaws and tiny arms is king to dinosaur enthusiasts 
of all ages. 

Although it is the most popular dinosaur in the 
world, very little is known about T. rex. Was it a 
predator, a scavenger or both? Was it warmblooded 
like a bird or coldblooded like a crocodile? How did it 
stand, move, eat or live? How much did it rely on its 
eyesight, hearing and sense of smell to survive? Most 
importantly, how is T. rex related to other dinosaurs of 
its time and to species that lived before and after it? 

Nobody really knows the answers to these ques- 
tions. However, Sue, who will be unveiled May 17 in 
Stanley Field Hall (see calendar section for details), 
may contain some of these answers. 

"T. rex may be familiar to virtually everyone, but 
what we don't know about this creature would fill vol- 
umes," says Chris Brochu, a research scientist in the 
geology department and the lead researcher on Sue. 
"Look at the literature on ancient crocodiles — it's 
huge. It fills shelf, aftrer shelf, after shelf By compari- 
son, the literature on tyrannosaurids, the dinosaur 
family that Sue belongs to, makes a very small stack, 
maybe a couple of feet high." 

Brochu will add a major volume to that stack 
when he completes the monograph on Sue. This trea- 



tise will be a fiiU scientific description of the specimen, 
complete with detailed measurements and images of 
all her bones and anatomical features. Basically, it will 
serve as a reference for all future work on T. rex. 

"You can't do anything with a fossil until 
you know what's there," Brochu explains. "Sue's 
completeness is letting us do that to a far greater 
extent and with far greater confidence than it has ever 
been done before." 

Only four other T. rex specimens are even as much 
as 60 percent complete; Sue's skeleton, in contrast, is 
about 90 percent complete and possesses one of only 
two existing T. rex forelimbs. Her completeness, 
combined with the exquisite preservation of her 
bones, makes Sue an invaluable resource for those 
studying the species. 

"Because we have all the important pieces from a 
single animal," says Brochu, "we're beginning to draw 
conclusions about its motion, its growth and the rela- 
tionship of T. rex to other species." 

These relationships are especially important to 
Brochu, whose main interest is studying evolutionary 
family trees. By looking at the key features that an ani- 
mal shares with other species — such as the shape of 
its foot bones or the holes in its skull — scientists like 
Brochu can determine a creature's place in the evolu- 
tionary tree. This in turn allows them to study and 
test theories about evolutionary processes, ancient 
ecosystems and even plate tectonics. 

"This skeleton is just filled with scientific infor- 
mation," adds Barbara Ceiga, a senior exhibit developer 
at the Museum. "With the right people looking at it in 
the right ways, the stories will come tumbling out." 

Sue, Her Life and Times 

Among the stories hidden in Sue's bones are clues as 
to what life is like at the extreme. 

More than 40 feet long. Sue is one of the largest 
creatures ever to walk on two legs. Even as dinosaurs 
go, she is huge (Museum scientists estimate that in life 
she weighed 7 tons). Unlike mammals, but like most 
reptiles, dinosaurs continued to grow even after reach- 
ing adulthood. The longer they lived, the bigger they 
grew. But what happens to bones and muscles when 
something gets as big as a T. rex? Because Sue is so 
well preserved, it is still possible to see fine surface 
details showing where muscles, tendons and other soft 
tissue attached to bone. These details allow scientists 
to reconstruct what Sue may have looked like in life, 
her range of motion, how she was able to stand and 
move and how she rested. 

Some of these details also reveal more extraordi- 
nary events in her life. A number of her bones show 



6 IN THE FIELD 



pathologies, such as misshapen teeth and scars. 
Initially, some researchers believed that these patholo- 
gies were bite marks and battle scars. Brochu, however, 
disagrees. He thinks most of these lesions were proba- 
bly caused by infections. 

"What's interesting," Brochu points out, "is that 
Sue didn't die from any of these wounds. They all 
show extensive healing, a sign of good health. At this 
point it looks like Sue lived a good, long life and then 
just died." 

Brochu also is interested in other ways in which 
Sue interacted with the world — especially through 
her senses. Because soft tissue doesn't fossilize, it's dif- 
ficult to say just how this prehistoric creature saw or 
heard, smelled or tasted. 

"We do know that Sue could see and hear because 
we can tell from the bone structure and nerve open- 
ings that these systems were well built," he says. 

One of Brochu's most significant finds to date is 
that Sue had enormous olfactory bulbs, twin struc- 
tures located at the front end of the brain that were 
developed to detect smells. According to Brochu, these 
bulbs are nearly as large as the brain itself, suggesting 
that sense of smell played a vital role in the life of 
a T. rex. 

"When Sue explored the world," he says, "it was 
nose first." 

The Age of Dinosaurs Meets 
the Age of Computers 

The spaces that held Sue's olfactory bulbs — as well 
as openings for nerves and blood vessels, and bony 
structures surrounding the delicate semicircular canals 
of her inner ear — were uncovered by CT scanning 
technology. That extraordinary procedure was a break- 
through in its own right. 

In August 1998, Sue's 5-foot-long skull was care- 
fully wrapped and crated, then trucked to Boeing 
Company's Rocketdyne lab in Ventura County, Calif. 
It was then hoisted up by a crane and bolted to an 
industrial-strength CT scanner normally used for 
examining jet engines. There it underwent more than 
500 hours of X-ray scanning, subjecting it, according 
to the tongue-in-cheek calculation of one Boeing tech- 
nician, to "more radiation than Godzilla received when 
the French A-bomb was detonated in Polynesia." 

Because this was the first time scientists had used 
an industrial CT technology to examine a T. rex, it 
allowed them to go where no paleontologist has gone 
before: inside the head of a T. rex. 

The 748 images — each an X-ray "slice" of the 
skull — fill eight CD-ROMs. Brochu can view these 



images individually or stack them to create a 3-D 
image of Sue's skull and snout. With the help of a 
computer program, he also can take a virtual journey 
through Sue's head, traveling down narrow passages, 
looking behind bony walls and even slipping inside the 
bone itself. Because much of this is uncharted terri- 
tory, it is opening up entire new areas of study for 
scientists, as well as new possibilities for examining 
other fossils. 

Sue's Future as a Scientific Specimen 

Although Sue will soon be taking her place among 
the fighting elephants and Haida totem poles that 
adorn Stanley Field Hall, it doesn't mean that her 
days as a scientific specimen are over. The steel 
framework that supports her more than 250 
separate bones for display is designed so that 
researchers can easily remove individual bones with- 
out disrupting the mount. As a result, scientists can 
continue searching for the secrets hidden in her 
bones, while Sue introduces a whole new generation 
to the lore of the dinosaur known as the Tyrant 
Lizard King. ITF 



Below: Chris 
Brochu examining 
one of the CT 
scans on his com- 
puter. Brochu is 
using these scans to 
study the internal 
detail of Sue's skull. 




MAY . JUNE 2000 7 



Your Guide to The Field 



Inside 



1 Exhibits 

S Calendar of Events 

7 Get Smart 

9 Free Visitor Programs 




Exhibits at a Glance 



The Dead Sea Scrolls 

On display through June 1 1, 2000 

Discovered by a Bedouin shepherd in caves 
in the Qumran region of the Judean Desert 
in 1947, the Dead Sea Scrolls connprise 800 
compositions written in Hebrew, Aramaic 
and Greek more than 2,000 years ago. 
Although many of these scrolls represent 
books of the Hebrew Bible, some contain 
apocryphal works found in Christian and 
Greek scriptures, while others are sectarian 
documents, such as community laws. 
Portions of IS different scrolls are on dis- 
play at The Field Museum, including five 
that have never traveled outside Israel. The 
exhibit which is coorganized by The Field 
Museum and the Israel Antiquities 
Authority, also features 80 artifacts from the 
Qumran settlement and books and manu- 
scripts on loan from the Newberry Library 
and the Spertus Museum. Tickets for 'The 
Dead Sea Scrolls" are $3 for adults, $2 for 
children ages 3 to 11, seniors and students 
with ID. Tickets can be ordered in advance 
by calling Ticketmaster at 312.902.1500. 

"The Dead Sea Scrolls" is sponsored by Lilly 
Endowment Inc., The Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints, The Fourth Presbyterian 
Church of Chicago, Chicago Sinai 
Congregation, the Archdiocese of Chicago 
and the Jewish United Fund/Jewish 
Federation of Metropolitan Chicago. 



Masks: Faces of Culture 

On display through May 14, 2000 

"Masks: Faces of Culture" presents 139 
masks from nearly 50 countries on six conti- 
nents. Ranging in age from the prehistoric 
times to the present, these masks, some of 
which are on display with full costume, 
exemplify the exquisite design, provocative 
imagery and compelling purpose found in 
mask-making — one of the most enduring 
forms of artistic expression. In addition to 
the masks that are on exhibit are music and 




Above: Cartonnage mummy mask from 
Egypt, circa 1325 - 1224 B.C. 



Above: The "Psalms Tehillim' scroll is a 
liturgical collection of songs and hymns com- 
prising parts of 41 biblical psalms. 



video footage of masquerades, carnivals 
and festivals in which masks play a central 
role. The exhibit was curated by Cara 
McCarty (the Grace L. Brumbaugh and 
Richard E. Brumbaugh Curator of Decorative 
Arts and Design), and John W. Nunley (the 
Morton D. May Curator of the Arts of 
Africa, Oceania and the Americas), both 
from the Saint Louis Art Museum. "Masks: 
Faces of Culture" is free with general 
Museum admission. 

Africa: From Eritrea with Love 

On display through July 4, 2000 

The exhibit "Africa: From Eritrea with Love" 
features paintings by Betty LaDuke that 
capture the diverse cultures of Eritrea, one 
of the youngest nations in northeastern 
Africa. LaDuke, a painter, activist and for- 
mer professor at Southern Oregon State 
University, first traveled to this nation on 
the Red Sea in 1993, just three years after it 
won a 30-year struggle for independence 
from Ethiopia. During her travels there over 
a four-year period, she recorded on canvas 
the daily life of the Eritrean people, their 
dependency on the region's mountainous 
terrain and their spiritual practices and 
beliefs. The exhibit is free with general 
Museum admission. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



MAY/JUNE 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Sue Exhibit 



Sue at The Field Museum 



Opens May 17 

Sixty-seven million years ago. Sue and 
her species, Tyrannosaurus rex, were the 
undisputed rulers of their world. The 
biggest, fiercest meat-eaters to ever roam 
the North American landscape, they faced 
no rival to their domination. 

Sue lived a long life and when she died the 
fine silt of an ancient river covered her mas- 
sive bones. For millions of years, while 
continents shifted around her and countless 
species came and went. Sue lay burled 
deep within the high plains of western 
South Dakota. There she waited, slowly fos- 
silizing, until Aug. 12, 1990, when fossil 
hunter Susan Hendrickson encountered the 
sleeping giant. 

Seven years later. The Field Museum pur- 
chased Sue for $7.6 million at a Sotheby's 
auction in New York City. For the past two 
and a half years. Field Museum preparators 
have been carefully removing the rocky 
matrix that has entombed her skeleton 
since the late Cretaceous period. 

Now Sue, her magnificent bones carefully 
restored, rules a new domain: The Field 
Museum's Stanley Field Hall. 

On May 17, 2000, she will take her throne, 
presiding over her kingdom from the north 
end of the hall where visitors can examine 
her bird-like feet, massive legs, pelvis, razor- 
sharp teeth and powerful jaws, and, if they 

continued next page 




^IIHSTIINA 




Sue Over Time 



67 million years ago 

Sue is born, lives and dies in what is now 

Soutli Dakota. 

1990 

August 12 — While working with fossil 
hunters from the Black Hills Institute of 
Geological Research Inc. (BHI), Susan 
Hendrickson discovers Sue on the prop- 
erty of Maurice Williams near Faith, S.D. 
BHI pays Williams $5,000 for the fossil. 

1992 

May — The federal government seizes 
Sue, arguing that BHI didn't have the nec- 
essary permits to excavate the fossil from 
Williams' property. 

1994 

February — A federal appeals court rules 
that Williams is still the rightful owner of 
the fossil. Williams decides to place the 
dinosaur on the auction block. 

1997 

October 4 — With the help of McDonald's 
Corporation and Walt Disney World 
Resort, the Museum purchases Sue at 
Sotheby's for $7.6 million. 



November 18 — Visitors get their first 
peek at the famous fossil in the exhibit 
"Sue Uncrated. " 

1998 

June 10 — The Museum opens the 
McDonald's Fossil Preparation 
Laboratory, allowing visitors to watch as 
Museum researchers clean, preserve and 
restore Sue's bones. 

August to September — Boeing techni- 
cians perform CT scans on Sue's skull. 
Museum researchers use these scans to 
reconstruct the anatomy of the skull. 

1999 

April — Museum scientists begin the first 
step in creating cast replicas of Sue by 
making molds of her prepared bones. 

May 29 — The Museum opens the 
exhibit "Sue: The Inside Story, " which 
features some of the discoveries that 
were made about T. rex based on new 
research and the CT scans. 



2000 

May 17- 



Sue will be unveiled. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



MAY/JUNE 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Sue Exhibit 




have the courage, stare into her dark, bot- 
tomless eye sockets. 

Unlike most museums, which display cast 
replicas of dinosaur skeletons. The Field 
Museum has strengthened Its commitment 
to authenticity. This is Sue — not a plastic 
model or a plaster cast, nor a patchwork 
or composite of bones from different 
species. The bones on display are the real 
fossilized remains of the single largest, most 
complete and best-preserved 7: rex fossil 
ever unearthed. 

Each of Sue's approximately 250 fossilized 
bones is cradled in a hand-forged iron 
bracket on which the bones rest like a dia- 
mond in the setting of a ring. However, 
these brackets are hinged and locked, 
allowing scientists to remove the bones 
for research. 

One of the few pieces of Sue that will not 
be mounted is her 5-foot-long skull, which 
Is too heavy to be placed on the steel arma- 
ture that will support Sue's skeleton. 
Instead, the Museum will install a cast 
replica of the skull on the skeleton, placing 
the real one on display in an exhibit on the 
second-floor balcony overlooking Stanley 
Field Hall. There, you can get an up-close 
view of the predator's massive head, as well 
as learn about the mounting process and 
the story of how Sue ended up at The Field 
Museum. In addition, you can view ani- 
mated CT scans of the skull and touch a 
variety of casts of Sue's bones, including a 
rib, forelimb and a 12-inch-long tooth. 

Just around the corner, the Museum will 
install additional displays that focus on the 
ongoing scientific study of T. rex and Sue. In 
this section, you also will learn how fact, 
theory and speculation have all played a 




role in solving the mysteries of T. rex; why 
scientific and popular views of T. rex have 
changed and will continue to change over 
time; and how Sue's bones may hold the 
clues to understanding how a T. rex lived. 

To celebrate Sue's unveiling, the Museum 
will be hosting a number of special dino- 
related programs from May 17 to May 21, 
including a day of family entertainment on 
May 17, a family festival on May 19, a 
lecture by the lead researcher on Sue on 
May 20, and a concert performance about 
the life and times of Sue on May 21 (see 
"Get Smart" page in the calendar section 
for more information). 

If you can't make it to Chicago to see Sue, 
don't despair. A life-sized cast replica of 
the dinosaur Is being installed at DinoLand 
U.S.A. in Disney's Animal Kingdom at Walt 
Disney World Resort in Florida. In addition, 
two other cast replicas will be traversing the 
country as part of a traveling exhibit 
sponsored by McDonald's Corporation. 
This exhibit will be on display at Boston's 
Museum of Science on June 23, 
followed by Honolulu's Bishop Museum on 



Above: Fossil hunter Susan Hendrickson 
standing next to Sue's right foot. She discov- 
ered Sue near Faith, S.D.. on Aug. 12, 1990, 
after the truck in which she was riding 
broke down. 

Upper Right: Field Museum preparator Paul 
Brinkman removing the matrix from one of 
Sue's more than 250 fossilized bones. 

Right: Sue's razor-sharp teeth ranged in length 
from 7.5 inches to 12 inches. During her 
life, Sue's teeth would have continually shed 
and regrown. 




CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



MAY/JUNE 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 





July 14. It will spend approximately three 
months in each city on the tour, which 
also will include stops in St. Paul, Minn., 
Los Angeles, Calif., and Columbus, Ohio. 

"The traveling Sue exhibition is our way of 
ensuring that families nationwide have the 
opportunity to enjoy and learn from this 
unprecedented scientific discovery," says 
Jack Greenberg, chairman and CEO of 
McDonald's Corporation. 

These two McDonald's exhibits will include 
a 42-foot articulated cast skeleton of Sue, 
touchable casts of bones, video footage and 
interactive anatomical models that allow 
visitors to control the movements of a 
T. rex jaw, tail, neck and forelimb. 

You can also access information about Sue 
on the Web at www.fieldmuseum.org/Sue/. 
There you will find details about Sue and 
the world in which she lived, photographs 
of her bones and even a live Web cam that 
allows you to watch preparators clean and 
restore fossilized bones uncovered by 
Museum scientists. ITF 

Sue at The Field Museum, which is free with 
general Museum admission, is made possi- 
ble by McDonald's Corporation. A major 
sponsor of Sue is Walt Disney World Resort. 
The Elizabeth Morse Charitable Trust is the 
generous sponsor of this exhibition. 



Above: The shaded areas show the hones 
that are missing from Sue's skeleton. 



Some Fun Sue Facts 



It took six fossil hunters 17 days to get 
Sue out of the ground; it took 12 
Museum preparators two years (30,000 
hours of total preparation time) to dean 
and repair her bones. 

A T. rex skeleton is made up of approxi- 
mately 321 bones. Sue was found with 
most of these bones. Among the bones 
she is missing are a foot, one arm and a 
few ribs and vertebrae. 

T. rex lived closer in time to the first 
humans (about 60 million years apart) 
than it did to the first dinosaurs (about 
160 million years apart). 



Only two complete T. rex forelimbs have 
ever been found — and Sue has one 
of them. 

Sue's legs are enormous, but her arms 
are the size of a human's — so short that 
they couldn't even reach her mouth. 
Nobody knows how T. rex used these 
tiny forelimbs. 

Sue's razor-sharp teeth were continually 
shed and regrown during her lifetime. 

The first T. rex was unearthed in 
Wyoming by Barnum Brown in 1900. 



Picturing T rex: Selections From the Lanzendorf Collection 



While visiting The Field Museum as a child 
in the 1950s, Chicago resident John 
Lanzendorf purchased a small brass T. rex 
figurine. For Lanzendorf, this purchase was 
the beginning of a lifelong fascination with 
dinosaurs and dinosaur collectibles. Today, 
that figurine is just one of hundreds of 
pieces that comprise one of the most com- 
prehensive private collections of dinosaur 
art in the world. 

From May 17 through November 13, The 
Field Museum will present a portion of 
Lanzendorf's extraordinary collection in the 
new exhibit "Picturing T. rex: Selections 
from the Lanzendorf Collection." Free with 
general Museum admission, the exhibit 
features more than 70 original paintings, 
drawings, sculptures and toys — most 
depicting Tyrannosaurus rex, the largest car- 
nivore to walk the Earth. 

The objects on display range from carefully 
modeled bronzes based on the latest 
scientific research to whimsical T. rex 



salt-and-pepper shakers. Some reflect 
the changing theories about the anatomy 
and behavior of T. rex. For instance, a cou- 
ple of his sculptures depict T. rex as upright 
and lumbering, while others portray it as 
a more agile creature. Lanzendorf's collec- 
tion also reveals the range of solutions that 
artists have come up with to add color and 
skin texture to a creature known only 
by its bones. For example, some have 
depicted T. rex as a darkly camouflaged 
animal, whereas others have opted for 
lizard green or even orange and white like 
a spotted giraffe. 

Some of the more fascinating objects on dis- 
play were created by artists involved in films 
in which T. rex played the starring role. For 
instance, one T. rex in Lanzendorf's collec- 
tion was created by Michael Trcic for the 
first Jurassic Park movie. 

Right: John Lanzendorf surrounded by his col- 
lection ofT. rex paintings and sculptures. 




THE FIELD MUSEUM 



MAY/JUNE 2000 



4 CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Calendar of Events 




Literary Reading with 
Kathleen Norris 

5/1, Monday, 6:30 p.m. 

Greet the Day with Kathleen Norris 

5/2, Tuesday, 7- 8 a.m. 

In her novels — which include Dakota: A 
Spiritual Geography and The Cloister Walk 
— Kathleen Norris examines issues of 
contemporary spirituality and offers illumi- 
nating perspectives on difficult theological 
concepts. In addition to her novels, Norris 
also has published personal narratives, 
essays and poetry in a variety of magazines, 
including The New Yorker and The New 
York Times Magazine. She also has written 
several popular essays on monasticism that 
have appeared in The Gettysburg Review, 
Hungry Mind Review and North Dakota 
Quarterly. On May 1, Norris will read a 
selection of her short essays; presenting 
them the following day with a morning of 
meditation along the lakeshore. Tickets for 
the "Literary Reading" are $15 ($10 mem- 
bers; $12 students and educators) and for 
"Greet the Day" are $42 ($35 members; $38 
students and educators). Please call 
312.565.7400 for more information or 
to register. 



Sunday Symposia Series: 

The Scrolls and Millenarianism 

5/7, 2-4 p.m., Sunday 

The State of the Continuing 
Publication of the Dead Sea Scrolls 

5/14, 2-4 p.m, Sunday 

As part of its Sunday Symposia Series that 
delves into the history and controversy sur- 
rounding the Dead Sea Scrolls, The Field 
Museum will present "The Scrolls and 
Millenarianism" in which four prominent 
scholars will debate the apocalyptic refer- 
ences found in the scrolls, including one 
that mentions a final battle that will be 
waged between the Sons of Light and the 
Sons of Darkness. Then on May 14, Emanuel 
Tov, editor in chief of the Israel Antiquities 
Authority's Dead Sea Scrolls Publication 
Project, will close out the series by talking 
about his organization's ongoing effort 
to publish and transcribe these ancient 
manuscripts. Tickets to the "Scrolls and 
Millenarianism" are $12 ($8 members; 
$10 students and educators). Tov's lecture 
Is free with Museum admission on a 
first-come, first-served basis. Please call 
312.665.7400 for more information or 
to register for the paid program. 



Left: This Black-crowned Night Heron 
(Nycticorax nycticoraxj is one of the many 
species of birds that you might encounter on 
the "Weekend Birding at Black Swamp" 
field trip. 



Adult Field Trip 

Weekend Birding at Black Swamp, 

Ottawa City, Ohio 

5/19 - 5/21, Friday to Sunday 

Join The Field Museum and The Chicago 
Audubon Society for a birding trip to the 
Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Magee 
Marsh and Navarre Marsh along the shores 
of Lake Erie. The bus will depart from The 
Field Museum Friday evening, arriving in 
Port Clinton, Ohio, later that night. The 
next morning, you will trek through 
Magee Marsh and then hike the roads 
around the wetlands of the Ottawa 
National Wildlife Refuge. After dinner, 
Julie Shieldcastle from the Black Swamp 
Bird Observatory will discuss the vast array 
of wildlife that inhabits the region's 
marshes and swamps. On Sunday morning, 
she will then introduce you to the art and 
science of bird banding. Afterward, you will 
have a few hours to explore the Navarre 
Marsh before boarding the bus back to 
Chicago. $185 ($170, members). Please 
call 312.665.7400 for more information 
or to register. 

Body Scriptures: 

Praise, Prophets and Possibilities 

Liz Lerman Dance Exchange 

6/3, Saturday, 8 p.m. 

In celebration of "The Dead Sea Scrolls" 
exhibit, the internationally renowned Liz 
Lerman Dance Exchange has created a spe- 
cial performance based on material from its 
national tour of Hallelujah! — a series of 
dances that shed light on the question, 
"What are we in praise of?" Over the past 
20 years, the Liz Lerman Dance Exchange 
has produced a number of award-winning 
works, including The Good Jew?, which 
took an unflinching look at issues of faith, 
ethnicity and identity. Most of Dance 
Director Liz Lerman's original pieces are 
defined by the spoken word drawn from 
literature, personal experience, philosophy 
and political and social commentary. $15 
($10 members; $12 students and educators). 
Please call 312.665.7400 for more informa- 
tion or to register. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



MAY/JUNE 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Field Trips 

Chicago Jewish Roots 

614, Sunday, Noon - 5 p.m. 
African-American Chicago, 1936 

6/1 1, Sunday, 10 a.m. - 5 p.m. 

Throughout the summer, the Spertus 
Museum in Chicago will be showcasing 
"The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936," an extra- 
ordinary exhibit that highlights the stories 
of athletes who boycotted, participated or 
were barred from participating in the most 
controversial games in modern Olympic his- 
tory. In conjunction with "The Nazi 
Olympics," The Field Museum is hosting two 
bus tours in June that explore some of the 
themes examined in the exhibit. The first 
tour, on June 4, will be led by Irvin Cutler, a 
professor emeritus in Chicago State 
University's geography department, who 
will take participants on a journey to areas 
in Chicago in which Jewish culture once 
flourished. The June 1 1 field trip will be led 
by author and historian Timuel D. Black Jr. 
who will take you on a tour of neighbor- 
hoods in Chicago that were the center of 
African-American life in the 1930s. Both 
trips will depart from the Spertus Museum. 
Tickets for "Chicago Jewish Roots" are $50 
($43 members) and for "African-American 
Chicago" are $60 ($50 members). Please call 
312.665.7400 for more information. 

Lecture 

The Sacred Depths of Nature 

6/6, Tuesday, 6:30 p.m. 

Ursula Goodenough, one of America's lead- 
ing cell biologists, will offer insight into the 
connection between modern science and 
spiritual meaning, a connection that is the 
focus of her acclaimed book, The Sacred 
Depths of Nature. Goodenough's book is 
a celebration of molecular biology com- 
bined with meditations on the spiritual 
and religious meaning that can be found 
at the heart of science. During her lecture, 
Goodenough will explain this connection 
while covering such topics as gene 
expression, embryology, evolution and bio- 
diversity. $12 ($8 members; $10 students 
and educators). Please call 312.665.7400 for 
more Information or to register. 

Right: A photograph from the Spertus 
Museum's new summer exhibit, "The Nazi 
Olympics: Berlin 1936." On June 4 and 
June 11, you can explore some of the themes 
examined in this exhibit by taking bus tours 
into areas of Chicago that were once the center 
of Jewish and African-American culture. 



The State of the Art 

The National New Plays Network 

6/24, Saturday 2 - 3:30 p.m. 

Join The Field Museum and The National 
New Play Network as they host "The State 
of the Art," a lively exchange on contempo- 
rary theater moderated by local theater 
critic Jonathan Abarbanel. The National 
New Play Network is an alliance of non- 
profit theater companies dedicated to 
helping its members develop and produce 
new works and strengthen relationships 
within their communities. "The State of the 
Art" is sponsored by the Prop Theater 
Group, The Field Museum and the City of 
Chicago's Department of Cultural Affairs. 
For more information about this free pro- 
gram, please call 773.486.PROP 

Summer Camp 

2000 Summer Worlds Tour: 

Extreme Environments 

7/1 0-7/1 4; 7/1 7 -7/21; 
7/24 -7/28; or 7/31 -8/4 

Are you looking for a summer day camp for 
your kids that is both fun and educational? 
Well, you might want to consider the 
"2000 Summer Worlds Tour," a summer 
camp coorganized by the Adier Planetarium 
and Astronomy Museum, The Field Museum 
and the Shedd Aquarium. During these 



camps, participants will get to explore envi- 
ronments that are unique and extreme, 
such as Mars, the so-called red planet; the 
mysterious Mesozoic habitat that was home 
to dinosaurs like Sue; and the delicate and 
mystical rain forests of the Amazon. Parents 
can sign up their children for one of the 
four one-week sessions (see above). $200 
per participant, per session ($180 members). 
Please call 312.665.7400 for more informa- 
tion or to register. 



Downtown Thursday 
Nights at The Field 

June 22 - August 17 

Beginning June 22 and continuing 
through the summer. The Field Museum 
will be open until 9 p.m. on Thursday 
evenings. During these late summer 
nights, you can come in and explore the 
Museum's exhibits (which will close at 
8 p.m.), enjoy some lively performances 
and outdoor celebrations and take a 
walk around campus to take in the 
beauty of the city's skyline. Please call 
312.665.7400 for more information. 




THE FIELD MUSEUM 



MAY/JUNE 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Get Smart 



Sue at The Field Museum 
Opening Festivities 



On May 17, Sue will stand fully erected for 
the first time in nearly 70 nnillion years. In 
celebration of her unveiling, The Field 
Museum has organized a number of pro- 
grams designed to help you explore the 
world of Sue and to uncover the secrets 
hidden in her prehistoric bones. 

Family Activities 

Wednesday, May 17 
Saturday & Sunday, May 20-21 
Saturday, Sunday & Monday, May 27 - 29 
10 a.m. - 3 p.m. 

During the family activities portion of the 
celebration, you can delve into the world of 
Sue by creating a dinosaur from foam and 
wire; uncovering hidden fossils embedded 
in the Museum's limestone floors; and 
watching dinosaurs come to life through 
the magic of puppetry. On May 20 and 
May 21, you also can meet some children's 
authors who have written about Sue. All 
activities are free with general Museum 
admission. Please call 312.665.7400 for 
more information. 

Sue Family Festival 

Friday, May 19 
5:30- 10p.m. 

Celebrate Sue's unveiling at the "Sue Family 
Festival," a fun evening for all ages. 
Highlights of the evening will include an 
opportunity to meet and get an autograph 
from Susan Hendrickson, the discoverer of 
Sue; a dino parade around the Museum led 
by massive dinosaur puppets; a picnic-style 
dinner; and a number of dino-related the- 
atrical performances and hands-on 
activities. Tickets are $15 for children and 
$20 for adults ($12 member children and 
$18 for member adults). To order tickets, 
please call Ticketmaster at 312.902.1500. 

The Science of Sue 

Saturday, May 20 
3:30 p.m. 

Chris Brochu, a research scientist in the 
geology department and lead researcher on 
Sue, will reveal what he has learned about 
Sue from studying her fossilized bones for 
the past two years. He also will discuss his 
soon-to-be-published monograph, which 
contains the full scientific description of 
Sue. $12 ($8 members; $10 students and 
educators). Please call 312.665.7400 for 
more information or to order tickets. 




Above: A view from inside Sue's mouth. Sue would have used her teeth, which were serrated like 
the blade of a steak knife, to tear apart the flesh of her prey and keep her victims from escaping 
her powerful jaws. 

7th Annual Silver 
Images Film Festival 



A Family Dinosaur Concert: 

A Celebration of a r. rex Named Sue 

Sunday, May 21 
11 a.m. & 1 p.m. 

Join the Chicago Chamber Musicians and 
The Field Museum as they present "A Family 
Dinosaur Concert: A Celebration of a I rex 
Named Sue." Designed for families with chil- 
dren ages 3 and above and sponsored by 
Ronald McDonald House Charities, the con- 
cert will feature the world premiere 
performance of "Tyrannosaurus Sue: A 
Cretaceous Concerto," with music by Bruce 
Adolphe, poems by Kevin Crotty and illustra- 
tions by Kurt Vargo. It also will feature 
a reading of Jan Wahl's book. The Field 
Mouse and the Dinosaur Named Sue. Call 
312.225.5226 to reserve your tickets ($10). 
For more information, please call 
312.665.7418 



Sunday, May 4 
11 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

During The Silver Images Film 
Festival, which celebrates the oppor- 
tunities that come with aging, 
visitors can watch a variety of inter- 
national films and video shorts that 
depict the elderly as active, produc- 
tive and empowered members of 
society. Festival director Sheila 
Malkind will hold discussions about 
the films after each screening. 
Organized by the Terra Nova Films 
Inc., a nonprofit organization, the 
festival is free with general Museum 
admission (the Museum will waive 
admission for those with senior-citi- 
zen cards). Call 312.881.6940 for 
more information. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



MAY/JUNE 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



An Evening with Julie Taymor 



Thursday, May 4 

6:30 p.m. 

As part of its ongoing exploration of tine 
"Maslcs: Faces of Culture" exiiibit, the 
Museum is proud to present an evening 
with Julie Taymor, a theatrical designer and 
director who has choreographed, directed 
and created costumes for a variety of plays 
and operas that incorporate masl<s and 
masl<-lil<e outfits. 

During the course of her career, Taymor has 
made a significant impact on contemporary 
popular theater through her use of uncon- 
ventional stagecraft, including masks, 
puppets and experimental staging tech- 
niques. For instance, she recently designed 
large-scale puppet masks for the Broadway 
adaptation of The Lion King that allowed 
the actors to mimic the movements of the 
creatures they were portraying. 

In addition to The Lion King, Taymor has 
worked on The Flying Dutchman, The 
Tempest and Shakespeare's Titus 
Andronicus, which she recently adapted into 
a feature film. Her "braiding together of 
global stage forms," as theater historian 
Eileen Blumenthal has described her work, 
has earned Taymor a number of awards, 
including the MacArthur "Genius Grant" 
and a Guggenheim Fellowship. $20 ($15 
members; $18 students and educators). Call 
312.665.7400 for more information. 




Above: Tsidii Le Loka wearing one oJTaymor's costumes in the Broadway production of'The 
Lion King." After graduating college, Taymor was awarded a fellowship to study Javanese shadow 
puppetry in Indonesia. While on the island of Bali, she formed her own theater troupe, whose 
first work was called "Way of Snow," based on an Inuit legend. 



Collecting Dinosaur Art 
With John Lanzendorf 



Friday, July 7 

6 to 8 p.m. 

On display from May 17 through Nov. 13, 
the exhibit "Picturing T. rex: Selections 
from the Lanzendorf Collection" features 
original art and popular representations of 
Tyrannosaurus rex. These objects, which 
range from sophisticated bronzes to salt- 
and-pepper shakers, were all collected by 
Chicago resident John Lanzendorf over the 
past 50 years. 

On July 7, you can meet Lanzendorf, who 
will explain why he began collecting 
dinosaur art and how he has transformed 
his first piece, a brass T. rex figurine he 
bought as a child while visiting The Field 
Museum, into one of the most comprehen- 
sive private collections of dinosaur art in the 



world. Participants are encouraged to bring 
along selections from their own dinosaur 
collections to share with others. $12 ($10 
members). Please call 312.665.7400 for 
more information. 



Right: Any good collection of dinosaur art 
usually includes at least one of these $1 "Mold 
a-Rama" plastic T. rex miniatures. For more 
than 10 years, the Museum has been selling 
these dinosaur figurines in coin-operated vend' 
ing machines on the ground floor. 




THE FIELD MUSEUM 



MAY/JUNE 2000 



8 CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Free Visitor Programs 





Left: A watercolor illustration by Peggy 
Macnamara, the Museum's resident artist, of a 
spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura similis). On 
May 13, visitors can learn how to paint and 
draw the thousands of biological and cultural 
specimens on display at the Museum. 



2-4 p.m. Dead Sea Scrolls Sunday 
Symposia: The State of the Continuing 
Publication of the Dead Sea Scrolls. For the 

closing lecture in the Museum's Symposia 
Series, professor Emanuel Tov from the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem will 
talk about the future of the Israel 
Antiquities Authority's Dead Sea Scrolls pub- 
lication project. Started in 1950 by a small 
team of scholars, this project is an attempt 
to publish all 800 compositions that com- 
prise the Dead Sea Scrolls. 

May 17 — Wednesday 

10 a.m. - 3 p.m. Opening Day: Unveiling of 
Sue. See the "Get Smart" page in the 
calendar section for a full description of 
opening festivities. 

10 a.m. & 1 p.m. Tour: Inside Ancient Egypt. 
See May 3. 



Every Saturday and Sunday 

1 p.m. Preschoolers Alert! Story Time — 
Facts, Fables and Fiction. Learn new songs 
and stories, and have fun creating artwork 
in the Grainger Gallery — all in a 20-minute 
program sponsored by The Siragusa 
Foundation Early Childhood Initiative. In 
May and June, you can hear stories about 
dinosaurs, music and life in the woods, as 
well as design a T. rex, forest habitat, 
dream tree or dazzling drum. One adult for 
every three children, please. 

Interpretive Station Activities: Drop by 
hands-on stations located throughout the 
Museum (check informational directories 
for a daily listing) and delve into the fasci- 
nating world of natural history. 

May 3 — Wednesday 

10 a.m. & 1 p.m. Tour: Inside Ancient Egypt. 
Explore the lives and afterlife of the 
ancient Egyptians. 

May 10 — Wednesday 

10 a.m. & 1 p.m. Tour Inside Ancient Egypt. 

See May 3. 



May 11 — Thursday 

1 1 a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 

Extend your journey into the Underground 
Adventure exhibit by listening to scientists 
from the U.S. Department of Agriculture 
talk about the process of soil formation in 
Illinois and around the world. Opened 
March 27, 1999, Underground Adventure 
allows visitors to explore the hidden world 
beneath their feet. 

May 13 — Saturday 

Noon - 3 p.m. Hall Demonstrations: Artists 
in the Field. Watch student artists from the 
School of the Art Institute demonstrate the 
drawing and painting techniques they use 
to capture the beauty of The Field 
Museum's many dioramas and cultural and 
biological collections. 

May 14 — Sunday 

1 1 a.m. - 4 p.m. 7th Annual Silver Images 
Film Festival. Come watch films and videos 
produced from around the world that cele- 
brate long life and the latter stages of 
adulthood. Sheila Malkind, the director of 
the festival, will lead discussions about the 
films after each screening. Please call 
312.665.7400 for information about film 
titles and screening times. 



May 20 — Saturday 

10 a.m. - 3 p.m. Family Programs for 
Opening Weekend of Sue. Opening-week- 
end activities for Sue will continue with a 
variety of family programs designed to 
encourage visitors to explore the world of 
dinosaurs. See the "Get Smart" page in the 
calendar section for details. 

May 21 — Sunday 

10 a.m. - 3 p.m. Family Programs for 
Opening Weekend of Sue. See May 20. 

May 24 — Wednesday 

10 a.m. & 1 p.m. Tour: Inside Ancient Egypt. 
See May 3. 



Daily Highlight Tours 

Take a guided tour of the exhibits that 
make this Museum one of the world's 
finest and learn about the history of 
these displays. Tours are offered Monday 
through Friday at 1 1 a.m. and 2 p.m. 
Check the informational directories for 
weekend tours. 



Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories located throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



MAY/JUNE 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



May 27 — Saturday 

10 a.m. - 3 p.m. Family Programs for Sue. 

Both educational and entertaining, these 
family activities are designed to enhance 
your enjoyment of Sue, the largest and 
most complete T. rex ever unearthed. 
During this program, you can create your 
own dinosaur from foam and wire, and 
view artwork created by dinosaur artists. 
You can even search the Museum's lime- 
stone floor for evidence of buried fossils. 

1:30 p.m. Tibet Today and a Faitli in Exile. 

This slide presentation takes you to Tibetan 
refugee sites around the world and to 
places in Tibet now open to tourists. 

May 28 — Sunday 

10 a.m. - 3 p.m. Family Programs for Sue. 
See May 27. 

May 29 — Monday 

10 a.m. - 3 p.m. Family Programs for Sue. 
See May 27. 

May 31 — Wednesday 

10 a.m. & 1 p.m. Tour: Inside Ancient Egypt. 

See May 3. 

June 3 — Saturday 

Noon - 5 p.m. Meet John Lanzendorf. 

Dinosaur art collector John Lanzendorf will 
be on hand to speak to visitors about the 
exhibit "Picturing T. rex: Selections from 
the Lanzendorf Collection." Visitors are 
encouraged to bring along pieces from their 
own dinosaur collections to share with 
others. Please call 312.665.7550 for a list of 
additional dates. 

June 7 — Wednesday 

10 a.m. & 1 p.m. Tour: Inside Ancient Egypt. 
See May 3. 

June 8 — Thursday 

1 1 a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. Join 
scientists from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture to learn about soil science, soil 
conservation and careers relating to agricul- 



Right: This Egyptian woman died more than 
5,500 years ago during the Naqada I period. 
It is one of the many mummified remains you 
will discover while on the Museum's free 
"Inside Ancient Egypt" tour that is offered 
throughout May and June. 



ture. The scientists also will discuss how 
they strive to educate the public about the 
importance of soil, one of the planet's most 
valuable resources. 

June 14 — Wednesday 

10 a.m. & 1 p.m. Tour: Inside Ancient Egypt. 
See May 3. 

June 21 — Wednesday 

10 a.m. & 1 p.m. Tour: Inside Ancient Egypt. 
See May 3. 

June 28 — Wednesday 

10 a.m. & 1 p.m. Tour: Inside Ancient Egypt. 

See May 3. 

Resource Centers 

Explore topics in more depth through 
a variety of resources, including computer 
programs, books, activity boxes and much 
more at the Africa Resource Center and 
the Daniel F. & Ada L. Rice Wildlife Research 
Station. Open daily from 10 a.m. to 
4:30 p.m. See next column for information 
on the Webber Resource Center and the 
Crown Family Place for Wonder. 

Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Visit a traditional home of the Pawnee 
Indians and learn about their life on 
the Great Plains. Open from 10 a.m. to 
4:30 p.m. on weekends and at 1 p.m. 
during weekdays. 



Ruatepupuke: 

The Maori Meeting House 

Discover the world of the Maori people of 
New Zealand at their treasured and sacred 
Maori Meeting House. Open daily from 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

McDonald's Fossil 
Preparation Laboratory 

Watch Field Museum preparators work on a 
variety of dinosaur bones. Open daily from 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 



Please Excuse our 
Renovations 

We are on the move! As you plan your next 
visit to The Field Museum, you should note 
that some of our exhibit halls and resource 
centers are temporarily closed for reorgani- 
zation. These include the Crown Family 
Place for Wonder, the Webber Gallery, 
Webber Resource Center and Place for 
Wonder — all of which will reopen this 
summer. Although the new "Ancient 
Mesoamerica and North America" hall will 
not be complete until mid-July, the majority 
of it is currently available for public view- 
ing. This summer, the Museum also will be 
opening a Plains and Southwest Native 
American Gallery. For more information, 
please call 312.665.7400. 




Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories located throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



MAY/JUNE 2000 



10 CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Field Notes 



Canadian Sculptor Combines Art with Science 
TO Re-create Sue's Skull 




Above: Brian 
Cooky working on 
his Sue sculpture in 
one of the geology 
department's 
preparation labs. 



Robert Vosper 

Are you looking for a collectors item that is a little 
more upscale than baseball cards, Pokemon toys or 
Beanie Babies? Are you going insane trying to find a 
gift for that special someone who has everything? Or 
perhaps you are in the market for some artwork that 
will make your dinner guests' heads spin with curios- 
ity? If your answer is yes, then we have something 
right up your alley. 

Beginning May 17, Brian Cooley, a 43-year-old 
sculptor from Calgary, will begin selling 10 limited- 
edition, one-third-scale bronze replicas of Sues 
5-foot-long skull. Cooley will sell the first five sculp- 
tures for $34,000 each; then will increase the price in 
increments of 5 percent for the remaining pieces. As 
part of his licensing agreement with The Field 
Museum, Cooley will donate the first sculpture to the 
Museum and will share 50 percent of the total sales. 

Since 1983, Cooley has been creating life-sized 
and scale models of dinosaurs for museums and theme 
parks around the world. In the past couple of years, he 
also has created a number of models for National 
Geographic magazine, which has used them as illustra- 
rions in articles about major dinosaur discoveries. The 
magazine even published a photograph of one of his 
pieces, a fleshed-out recreation of the flightless feath- 
ered dinosaur Caudipteryx zoui, on the cover of its July 
1998 issue. Not long after this issue hit the news- 
stands, the magazine commissioned Cooley to create a 
model of another important flightless dinosaur: Sue. 



For its June 1999 feature about the Museums 
famous fossil. National Geographic asked Cooley to cre- 
ate two models of Sue, one showing how facial 
muscles would have attached to its jaws and the other 
depicting Sue as she may have looked when alive. To 
design these models, Cooley first had to create an 
exact replica of the skull in polyester. Working closely 
with Museum preparators and paleontologists, Cooley 
studied and measured the skull for months. Since 
the Museum hadn't removed all the rocky' matrix 
encasing the fossil at this point, Cooley had to fill in 
some of the missing pieces by studying T. rex fossils at 
other institutions. 

"It was a lot like taking diflPerent pieces of a jigsaw 
puzzle and putting them together," he says. 

After completing the piece, Cooley approached 
the Museum about the possibility of selling the replica 
of the skull as a limited-edition bronze. Once Museum 
lawyers gave him the green light, he returned to 
Chicago late last year to resculpt the sections that 
were based on other specimens. 

"I was impressed by how accurate his sculpture 
looks," says William Simpson, chief preparator in the 
geology department. "He was genuinely interested in 
getting it right. There were several times when I 
would say to him, 'That just doesn't look right, Brian.' 
He would immediately get out his calipers and mea- 
sure it. On the rare occasion it was off^, he would tear 
apart that section and rebuild it." 

This type of detailed work was new to Cooley, 
who in his 17 years of creating dinosaur models has 
never had to capture every crack, fissure and defect of 
an individual fossil. 

"This was the first time I've created a portrait of a 
specific dinosaur," Cooley says. "Usually, I create 
generic models based on many different fossil remains. 
Working on Sue was certainly one of the most enjoy- 
able pieces I've ever created because you learn so much 
from studying something that closely." 

Because the sculpture is a facsimile of Sue's skull 
(it doesn't, however, reflect the distortions to much of 
the fossil skull that were caused by geologic forces), 
Cooley hopes it will appeal to more than just collec- 
tors of dinosaur art. 

"As far as I know, there has never been a situation 
where a fossil has been as famous as Sue and there 
has never been a sculpture of a fossil created with 
this much detail," he explains. "These sculptures 
represent something unique in both the art world 
and paleontology." 

For Sue's unveiling May 17, the Museum will 
place one of the sculptures on public display. For 
information about purchasing Cooley 's bronze repli- 
cas, please call 312.665.7651. ITF 



8 IN THE FIELD 



Membership News 



Members' Nights 2000 

Thursday, June 8 and Friday, June 9 
5-10 p.m. 



Join us for Members' Nights, our 
annual behind-the-scenes extrava- 
ganza during which you can meet 
our scientific staff and explore the 
areas of the Museum usually 
closed to the public. 

During these two nights of dis- 
covery and exploration, we will 
take you on a journey into the 
collections areas, through the exhi- 
bition department and to the 
research labs where our scientists 
will show you how they are uncov- 
ering the cultural and biological 
secrets of the planet. You also will 
get to see Sue, who will be on dis- 
play in all her frightful glory at the 
north end of Stanley Field Hall. 

While the focus of Members' 
Nights is science and research, you 
can also explore our classic diora- 
mas, permanent exhibits and 
temporary displays, such as "The 
Dead Sea Scrolls," which will be 
open for viewing on a first-come, 
first-served basis. 

After you've completed your 
behind-the-scenes journey, you can 




kick back and enjoy some musical 
and theatrical performances in 
Stanley Field Hall, grab some food 
at Corner Bakery or McDonald's, 
and visit our store, which will be 
offering members a 20-percent dis- 
count on most merchandise. 



Admission to "Members' Nights 
2000" requires advance tickets. 
Members will receive an invitation 
by mail and an order form for tick- 
ets. Each member household will 
be able to request two free guest 
passes for friends and family. ITF 



Members' Nights Highlights 



Afterlife in Ancient Egypt 

Find out what ancient Ushabti 
statues unearthed in Egyptian 
tombs can tell us about the 
Egyptian belief in life after death. 

Venomous Arthropods 

Examine some of nature's scariest 
animals, such as scorpions, 
black-widow spiders and foot- 
long centipedes. 

In the Shadow of Sue 

Come see some of the 
fossil animals and plants 
(right) that were found buried 
alongside Sue in the high plains 
of western South Dakota. This is 
the first time these fossils have 
been on public display. 



Sue in the Laboratory 

Examine some of the tools that 
Museum preparators used to 
remove the rock from Sue's 
bones and discover how a team 
of preparators managed to 
remove this rock in just two years. 




Hidden Anthropology 

See some of the Museum's newest 
acquisitions from New Guinea and 
existing collections of featherwork 
from South America. 

What's in all These Cases? 

Find out how the Museum's 
collection of 2.5 million botanical 
specimens has helped scientists 

uncover some of nature's 

lingering mysteries. 

Mammals: The Inside Story 

Watch Field Museum prepara- 
tors remove the flesh and 
skin from a mammal and learn 
how scientists use these 
prepared specimens in 
their research. 



MAY. JUNE 2000 9 



Photo Archives 




When architect Daniel Burnham began searching for a 
site to build a permanent home for The Field Museum 
in 1906, he ran into a powerful roadblock by the name 
of A. Montgomery Ward. 

After making millions from his mail-order busi- 
ness, Ward became the self-appointed protector of 
Chicago's lakefront, which had become overrun by 
railroad tracks, garbage and squatters' shacks. Ward 
not only wanted the city to clean up the mess, but also 
to protect the area from development. 

"I fought for the poor people of Chicago, not for 
the millionaires," he once said. "Here is a park frontage 
on the lake . . . which city officials would crowd with 
buildings, transforming this breathing spot for the 
poor into a show ground for the educated rich." 

So, it was no surprise that Ward took Burnham to 
court after the architect announced his grand plan to 
create a cultural metropolis in Grant Park filled with 
marble-clad museums. At the center of this metropo- 
lis, Burnham revealed, would be The Field Museum. 
Although the public was on Burnham's side, the courts 
were not. Burnham, however, was not ready to give up. 
He immediately drafted a plan (above) that called for 
building the Museum on a 2,000-foot-Iong, 950-foot- 
wide man-made island about 200 feet from the 
shoreline. This time he sent his plan for Isle Marshall, 
as he called it, to the state legislature for consideration 
as a bill. 

While debating Burnham's proposal, the legisla- 
tors kept receiving letters signed by "Mr. Nobody" 



with advice on how to handle Ward's lawyers. 
Although no one has been able to confirm the author's 
identity, some historians have suggested that Mr. 
Nobody was actually Burnham himself. 

"If Isle Marshall ... is a part of Grant Park, the 
Montgomery Ward lawyers think they must win on 
the same grounds as before," wrote Mr. Nobody on 
Dec. 8, 1909. "Why not make it strictly an island, cut- 
ting the ground from under the objectors . . . Let Isle 
Marshall be truly an island, and the bill for it so drawn 
will leave the Ward lawyers no leg to stand on." 

The legislators were not swayed by Mr. Nobody's 
arguments and summarily rejected the plan. At this 
point, Burnham realized that the only option left was 
to build his masterpiece in Jackson Park next to the 
crumbling Palace of Fine Arts Building, which had 
served as the Museum's temporary home since the 
close of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. 
However, just as construction was to begin, the 
Illinois Central Railroad offered Museum officials use 
of some landfill they owned on the shores of Lake 
Michigan, just south of Grant Park. 

On May 3, 1921, the Museum opened its doors 
(inset) in this new location and within a few years was 
joined by the Shedd Aquarium, the Alder Planetarium 
and Soldier Field. 

Ironically, neither Ward nor Burnham ever got 
to see the fruits of their labor. Burnham died 
June 1, 1912, of complications associated with colitis 
and Ward a year later from a pulmonary edema. ITF 



10 IN THE FIELD 



Field Tidbits 



Ask a Scientist 



Do you have a question for one of 
our scientists? If so, please send it to 
the Publications Department, The 
Field Museum, 1400 South Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, or via 
e-mail to rvosper@fmnh.org. Only 
questions published in the magazine 
will be answered. An archive of 
questions and answers that have 
appeared in past issues can be 
found at www.fieldmuseum.org. / 
askascientist. 



Did 7: rex have any predators? 

No it didn't. Although a juvenile 
Tyrannosaurus might have been vul- 
nerable, a healthy, full-grown adult 
was not. We know of no other meat- 
eaters even close to T. rex in size at 
the end of the Cretaceous period. 

— William Simpson 

Chief Preparator and Collection 
Manager, Geology Department 



Why don't ants or other small Insects 
drown In the rain? 

Ants that live underground generally 
abandon their homes when they 
flood, often bringing their pupa and 
larvae along with them. Once they 
find dry refuge, the colony will wait 
until the ground dries out before 
attempting to build a new home. 
Most ants, however, try to find areas 
that offer some drainage so they 
don't have to move during heavy 
rainfalls. Other small insects have 
their own unique ways of coping 
with floods. The 17-year cicada, for 
instance, will encase itself in a water- 
proof capsule of soil during floods. 
And lion ants avoid the problem 
altogether by restricting themselves 
to sandy areas under hanging cliffs 
and logs before each rainy season. 

— Daniel Summers 

Collection Manager of Insects 
Zoology Department 



What is the difference between a 
chimpanzee and a gorilla? 

Chimpanzees and gorillas are both 
members of the primate group, 
which includes mammals such as 
lemurs, monkeys and humans. All pri- 
mates have relatively large braincases 
(in comparison to other mammalian 
groups) and possess agile limbs and 
fingers. Chimps generally differ from 
gorillas several ways. For example, 
chimps are smaller than gorillas and 
have larger and more conspicuous 
ears. In addition, female chimps are 
almost the same size as males, 
whereas female gorillas are much 
smaller than their male counterparts. 
Using collections like those housed 
at the Museum, scientists continue to 
debate the exact relationships 
among primates and often ask them- 
selves questions similar to yours. 

— William Stanley 

Collection Manager of Mammals 
Zoology Department 



The Floristic Diversity of Northern Peru 



In the course of conducting fieldwork in Peru over the 
past 28 years, Field Museum botanist Michael Dillon 
has taken thousands of photographs of just about 
every plant he has ever set eyes on. Last year, Dillon 
and some of his Peruvian colleagues decided to put 
this encyclopedic collection to use by publishing a 
Spanish-language book that provides a descriptive and 
visual overview of 185 of the most stunning examples 
of the plant species found in northern Peru. 

Along with basic taxonomic information that 
accompanies each photograph, the book, Diversidad 
Floristica del Norte de Peru, also contains a 15-page 
introduction that explains why the region is blessed 
with so much botanical diversity and endemism. 
Although the book contains very detailed color pho- 
tographs and taxonomic identifications, it is not meant 
to serve as a field guide, says Dillon. 

"It's a book that we hope will stimulate Peruvians, 
especially kids, to go out and look around and learn 
about the wealth of diversity that exists in their back- 
yards," he explains. "In general, there is a real lack of 
information available to the public in Peru about the 
botanical treasures that exist in their country." 

The authors will use all the proceeds from the 
book, which was funded in part by the World Wildlife 
Fund and the Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego in 




Diversidad 
Floristica del 
Norte de Peru is 
available for $30 
through Dillon's 
Web site at 
www.nolana.com 
or by contacting 
him directly at 
dillon(ainolana.com. 



Trujillo, Peru, to publish future volumes that examine 
the flora of northern Peru's distinct habitats, such as 
rain forests and coastal deserts. ITF 



MAY . JUNE 2000 1 1 



Field Museum Tours at a Glance 




For more information or free brochures, please call Field Museum Tours at 
800.811.7244, or send them an e-mail at fmtours®sover.net. Please note that 
rates, prices and itineraries are subjea to change and that prices are per per- 
son, double occupancy. 



Spend 16 days aboard a ISS-passenger 
sailing yacht with Field Museum 
botanist William Burger as he explores 
five Central American countries and 
two oceans. Participants also can take 
a pre-extension trip to the Tikal ruins 
in Guatemala and a post-extension 
tour to Costa Rica. 



Pacific Northwest 
Submarine Safari 

June 30 - July 4, or July 5 - July 9 

Duration: 5 days 

Ouest Leader. Marine biologist 

Joe Valencic 

Price: $3,890, not including airfare 

Galapagos Island Adventure 

July 19 -July 29 

Duration: 1 1 days 

Museum Leader. Conservation 

ecologist Doug Stotz 

Price: $5,725, including airfare 

from Chicago 



On the Drawing Board 



Archaeological Treasures 
of Peru 

August 25 - September 6 

Duration: 1 2 days 

Museum Leader: Anthropologist 

Jonathan Haas 

Price: $6,290, including airfare 

from Chicago 

Wildlife of Southern Africa: 
Botswana and Zimbabwe 

October 6 - October 19 
Duration: 14 days 
Museum Leader. Zoologist 
David Wiliard 

Price: $8,535, including airfare 
from Chicago 

Egypt Revisited 

October 15 - October 29 
Duration: 15 days 
Museum Leader. Egyptologist 
Frank Yurco 

Price: Approximately $4,445, includ- 
ing airfare from Chicago 




Accompany Field Museum Egyptologist 
Frank Yurco on a tour next October 
to some of the most spectacular tourist 
destinations in Egypt, including Abusir, 
Dashur Maidum, Abydos, Dendara, 
Lake Nasser, Abu Simbel and Amada. 
You also will get to see some lesser- 
known sites in Cairo, Luxor 
and Aswan. 



Tunisia Unveiled 

November 2 - November 16 
Duration: 15 days 

Guest Leader: Wiliard White, former 
V.P. for Institutional Advancement 
Price: $5,880, including airfare 
from Chicago 

Amazon by Riverboat 

December 9 - December 17 

Duration: 9 days 

Museum Leader. Botanist 

William Burger 

Price: $3,498, including airfare 

from Chicago 

Central America Under Sail 

February 10 - February 25, 2001 

Duration: 16 days 

Museum Leader Botanist 

William Burger 

Price: Starts at $7,990, not 

including airfare 




In November, travel with Wiliard White to Tunisia and visit 
World Heritage sites, such as Carthage, Kairouan and 
ancient Thysdrus (above). You also will get to see Bulla 
Regia and Dougga, two extraordinary archaeological sites 
firom the Roman occupation. This tour is limited to 14 par- 
ticipants, so make your reservations early. 



Egyptian Odyssey: A Comprehensive Introduction 

Ancient Monuments of Southeast Asia 

The Natural and Cultural History of Tsavo: A Tented Safari Through the Land 

of the Man-eaters 




EFiaD 



August 
2000 



."^j:' 



« 




t^\ 



Star Wars 

The Magic of Myth , 

Cave Lipns 

' • ^The Truth Behin^ 
., .; Biblical Myths' " ' 



.«xV* 




From the President 




Seeing the Forest 
Through The Trees 



Envision yourself approaching 
the Museum from Grant Park 
with Chicago's skyline at your 
back. You pass through a shady 
grove of linden trees, planted 
there last year to honor retired 
Congressman Sidney R. Yates, 
a long-time champion of the 
arts, humanities, environment 
and the people of Illinois. 

As you ascend the north 
steps, you see the monstrous 
silhouette of a Tyrannosaurus- 
rex skeleton stretched out along 
the tall columns of the Museum 
on a gigantic banner. Once 
inside, you are swept into the 
whirlwind of excitement around 
Sue. You gaze in wonder at the 
fossil's miraculous visage as 
hundreds of thousands of oth- 
ers have since we unveiled it 
on May 17. The scene seems 
dominated by this new star 
attraction. 

But if you were to look away 
you would see the Museum in 
a larger context that is alive and 
ever-changing. As you set out 
over the myriad footpaths and 
hallways that branch out in 
every direction, the Museum 



appears as a vast forest of 
scientific and cultural knowl- 
edge, under whose sprawling 
canopy you can explore the 
whole world. 

Through corridors brimming 
with materials about the 
planet's peoples and wildlife, 
you encounter thousands of 
biological specimens and cul- 
tural objects from the Museum's 
outstanding collections of more 
than 21 million items. You 
also see a changing marquee 
of temporary exhibitions, such 
as Cartier 1900-1939, Sounds 
From the Vaults and The Dead 
Sea Scrolls. 

On the ground floor, you 
discover a special exhibitions 
hall that recently mounted 
Masks: Faces of Culture and 
where later this month, Star 
Wars: The Magic of Myth will 
debut. Just past the exit to our 
newest permanent exhibition. 
Underground Adventure, you 
notice an intimate new gallery 
that features items from our 
insect collections. 

This floor is home to edu- 
cational facilities such as the 
Harris Loan Center, the new 
Siragusa Center and the 
soon-to-be refurbished James 
Simpson Theatre, which 
recently played host to ocea- 
nologist and archeologist 
Robert Ballard and his JASON 
Project and a presentation by 
theatrical director and designer 
Julie Taymor. 

Under the watchful glares 
of Bushman and the new man- 
eating Lion of Mfuwe, you 
board the elevator for the sec- 
ond floor, where you travel 
the Pacific to learn about the 
geological, cultural and evolu- 
tionary forces that shape our 
world and the ways in which 
we depend upon nature for 
our survival. 



We would like to know what you think about "In the Field". . . . 

Please send comments or questions to Steve Mines, The Field Museum, 
1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496, or via e-mail at 
shines@fmnh.org. 



If you explored the third 
floor and other research areas 
as thousands of others did 
during last month's Members' 
Nights, you will see why Sue 
isn't the only big news at the 
Museum these days. Scientific 
accomplishments include the 
discovery in Madagascar of the 
world's two oldest dinosaurs; 
the naming and description of a 
fossil snake with well-developed 
hind legs that offers new clues 
about snake evolution; and a 
long list of publications by Field 
scientists, including works on 
the rise and fall of Swahili 
states, on flowers that bloom 
during El Nifio in Peru, and on 
tree-ring dating techniques. 

Our efforts on behalf of the 
environment remain vigorous, 
and the conservation staff 
works to document biodiversity 
in places as far away as Pando, 
Bolivia, and as close to home as 
the Lake Calumet region with 
profound impact on threatened 
ecosystems. 

Visitors to the fourth floor 
would see the imaginative work 
of exhibits architects, designers 
and set builders as they prepare 
to bring you Americanos in 
August and Kremlin Gold and 
The Endurance: Shackleton's 
Legendary Expedition, both in 
October. 

I can't begin to do justice 
to all of the remarkable things 
happening at The Field 
Museum. Sue is not the least 
of these. But as thrilled as we 
are about Sue, we need to think 
of this institution as the sum 
total of its many parts. Floor 
by floor, day after day, year in 
and year out. The Field 
Museum brings the whole 
world to Chicago. 

John W. McCarter Jr. 
President & CEO 



Inside 



Thomas Gnoske and Julian 
Kerbis Peterhans go in search 
of Hon dens in Western Uganda. 



7 



The Field Museum acquires 
the Vida Chenoweth 
Collection, an exquisite assem- 
blage of nearly 600 artifacts 
from highland New Guinea. 



13 




Outreach luncheon held by 
Field Museum Women's Board 
donates $40,000 to Dr. Robert 
Ballard's Jason Project. 

Your Guide 
to The Field 

A complete schedule of events for 
July/ August, including programs 
in conjunction with Star Wars: 
The Magic of Myth exhibit. 




Lion researchers are convinced 
two distinct forms of lions live in 
Africa. See page 2 for full details. 



Star Wars: The Magic of Myth is one 
of the most visited Smithsonian 
exhibits of all time and now it is at 
The Field Museum. See Calendar 
Section for family program details. 




Sue's Debut 2000! A photomontage 
of the exciting events surrounding 
the largest and most complete 
T. rex on display. 



Around Campus 



INTHEFIELD 

July/August 2000, Vol. 71, No. 4 

Editor: 

Lisa Laske, k/g communications, ltd. 

Design Consultants: 
Hayward Blal<e & Company 



In the Field (ISSN #1051-4546) is published 
bimonthly by The Field Museum, Copyright 
©2000 The Field Museum, Annual subscriptions 
are $20; $10 for schools. Museum membership 
includes In the Field subscription. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of The Field 
Museum. Notification of address change should 
include address label and should be sent to 
Membership Department. POSTMASTER: Send 
address changes to In the Field, The Field 
Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 
IL 60605-2496. Periodicals postage paid at 
Chicago, Illinois, 

This issue's cover photograph: Chewbacca, 
1997 Eric Long and Mark Avino Star Wars: The 
Magic of Myth, Star Wars'" and ©1997 by 
Lucasfilm Ltd, 



^ 



FielH 



useum 



The Field Museum salutes the people 
of Chicago for their long-standing, 
generous support of the Museum 
through the Chicago Parle District. 

The Field Museum 

1400 South Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, IL 60605-2496 

ph 312.922.9410 
www.fieldmuseum.org 



Shedd Aquarium 



The Shedd Aquarium's popular Thursday- 
night event, Jazzin' at the Shedd, offers 
guests a special opportunity to see the new 
exhibit, Amazon Rising: Seasons of the 
River, and spend a year on the Amazon 
floodplain in one evening. If that's not 
enough, visitors can take free dance lessons 
to the sizzling sounds of Latin jazz. Jazzin' 
happens every Thursday night through 
Sept. 28. The Oceanarium, Seahorse 
Symphony and Amazon Rising stay open 
until 8 p.m., while the Aquarium and 
Jazzin' keep going until 10 p.m. After 



5 p.m. on Jazzin' night, admission is $8 for 
adults, $6 for children (ages 3-1) and 
seniors. Call 312.939.2438 or visit Shedd's 
Web site at www.sheddaquarium.org for 
more information. 

Adler Planetarium 

The Adler Planetarium & Astronomy 
Museum will premiere a new sky show. 
Spirits from the Sky, Thunder on the Land 

on July 28. Developed at the Adler in part- 
nership with members of the Skidi Band 
of the Pawnee Nation, this landmark pro- 



duction will involve audiences in exploring 
cross-cultural principles of directional and 
cyclical astronomy, making very rich use of 
ethnographic data and visual representa- 
tions of artifacts from Pawnee star and sky 
lore rituals along with authentic historic 
and modern recordings of Pawnee music. 
Call 312.322.0304 for more information. 

The Field Museum 

See the Calendar Section for a list of 
programs and exhibitions offered in July 
and August. 



JULY • AUGUST 2000 1 



CAVE LIONS 

The Truth Behind Biblical Myths 

Thomas Gnoske 

Field Museum Assistant Collection Manager, Bird Division/and Chief Preparator, Zoology 

Julian Kerbis Peterhans 

Field Museum Adjunct Curator, Mammals and Associate Professor, Roosevelt University, Chicago 




Tbe lion of the bible. Within historical times, large Asiatic lions once roamed along rivers and associated 
gallery forests throughout Eurasia, from the Jordan River depression east to Bihar India and west to 
Turkey and Greece, hunting large prey, especially wild cattle. 



2 IN THE FIELD 



Despite numerous biblical references to the "lion's 
den," lion researchers had consistently found that 
modern lions did not use dens or caves, and had 
dismissed the early references to cave-dwelling lions 
as mythical. In fact, renowned lion researcher George 
Schaller summarized years of extensive behavioral 
observations of African savannah lions in his classic 
monograph The Serengeti Lion, which was published 
in 1972. Schaller never found lions using caves. Over 
the next 25 years, no other researchers recorded evi- 
dence of cave-dwelling lions. However, recent Field 
Museum research has shed new light on this subject. 
Scientists may have discovered the existence of cave 
lions, and are rethinking the evolution of all lions. 

In 1996, the late George Bwere of the Uganda 
Wildlife Authority was surveying potential hiking 
trails along the Kyambura River (a tributary of the 
Nile River) in a gorge by the same name. Thick 
tropical vegetation lines the valley, which bisects 
the savannahs of the Albertine Rift Valley in western 
Uganda. While pushing through the dense vegetation, 
Bwere was attacked by a furious lioness at the same 
time a large male lion retreated into a nearby cave 
with young cubs. Bwere narrowly escaped with his 
life. Over the next few years, there were numerous 
reports of two male lions attacking people and vehicles 
in the vicinity of this cave. When we learned of this in 
early January 1998, we were immediately interested. 
Could this cave be an example of a modern lion 
living in a den? 

Despite the reports of cave-dwelling lions in 
Uganda and observations shared by our Kenyan 
colleague Anthony Russel that certain lions do in 
fact use caves, we still had our doubts. In the spring 



of the previous year, we along with our Kenyan col- 
leagues re-discovered the alleged den of the infamous 
Man-eating Lions of Tsavo (see July/ August 1998 
In The Field). We found no evidence to support the 
theory that bones found in the cave at the time of its 
original discovery in 1898 indicated a lion's den. Even 
so, Bwere's story and Russel's observations were 
convincing enough to compel us to investigate the 
Kyambura River area report. 

Because these Nile River Hons were considered 
extremely dangerous, we experienced difficulty gaining 
access to the gorge. In October 1998, we were finally 
given clearance to enter. Our goal was to establish 
whether the cave that Bwere had found was actually 
the first known lion cave of modern times. 

Cave Exploration 

Accompanied by a single ranger armed with an AK-47, 
we entered the gorge and descended a steep embank- 
ment until we reached the river. We felt as if we had 
stepped into an enchanted sanctuary, the lush vegeta- 
tion contrasting with the dry surrounding savannahs, 
the silence broken by the whoops of chimpanzees and 
exotic calls of rainforest birds. Surely this was typical 
leopard habitat, not lion territory. 

We approached the mouth of the cave, hoping 
there were no lions currently inside. While we were 
concerned for our own safety, we were also worried 
that an attack might lead to injury or death of one of 
these lions. Nervously, we crawled through the mouth 
of the cave on our hands and knees. We were relieved 
that no lions greeted us. With hearts pounding hard 
and flashlights in hand, we explored the interior of 
the cave. It was decorated with numerous stalactites 




Tfje Kyambura Lions' Den is the first scientific documenta- 
tion of a cave used by living lions. 



Kyambura Gorge in the Albertine Rift Valley, western 
Uganda. It was here that George Bwere first encountered the 
cave-dwelling lions of Kyambura in the mid 1990s. 



JULY • AUGUST 2000 3 



and an internal waterfall. A perfectly preserved iron 
smelting platform indicated past human use. But most 
importantly to us, we found the floor littered with 
buffalo bones and blond hairs from the mane of a lion. 

Tempted to continue the exploration, we noticed 
the rising sun. Typically, lions hunt at night and seek 
shelter from the extreme heat of the day. If lions 
occupied the gorge and returned to the cave after the 
nights hunt, we could find ourselves trapped with 
no way to escape. Even an armed ranger is no match 
for two 600 pound male lions and an angry mother 
lioness. We all felt fortunate to leave that place 
without incident. 

Our excitement that this cave might represent 
the first modern documentation of a lion den was 
tempered by our knowledge that bone accumulations 
in a cave can have numerous explanations. Humans 
can bring food to a cave that they are using as a 
shelter, and hyenas routinely drag bones containing 
marrow into caves to eat in seclusion. Bone assem- 
blages in caves throughout the world have confused 
paleontologists and archaeologists because of the 
difficulty of reconstructing the circumstances of their 
origins. Explaining the source of these bone accumula- 
tions requires research known as "taphonomy," which 
is akin to the work of a forensic detective. 

In our Kyambura River cave, the taphonomic mys- 
tery was easily solved. The iron smelter was the only 
evidence of previous use by humans, and there were 
no other indications of recent human use. The buffalo 
bones found lacked the heavy gnawing "fingerprint" 




Left: South African Buffalo Lion (Panthera leo vernayi — 
Roberts 1948). While mature Buffalo Lions frequently 
exhibit short manes, they are variable. In fact, manelessness 
15 a relative term, all mature male lions as well as tigers 
possess some version of a mane. 



from hyena predation or scavenging. The abundance 
of intact buffalo bones and the lion's mane hair, along 
with confirmed eyewitness accounts of two buffalo 
being dragged down the steep bank of the gorge by 
male lions convinced us that this cave was an actual 
lion's den. 

Discovering Lion Lineage 

So why should these lions along the Kyambura 
River and other Nile River tributaries use caves, when 
the more familiar lions of the savannahs of eastern 
and southern Africa do not? The answer may lie in 
the very different social systems of lions living in 
different habitats. 

The lions of the savannahs live in large prides, 
which are usually groups of related lionesses and their 
young of various ages, with one or two accompanying 
adult males. In the prey-rich savannahs, the females 
hunt and care for their cubs cooperatively, while the 
males enjoy the meals the females provide. Their pri- 
mary prey is zebra and wildebeest. 

In contrast, the lions along the Nile River typically 
live in small family groups. In these families, the males 
are the active hunters, and they frequently hunt large 
prey, especially mature buffalo. Without the safety 
that large prides provide, Nile River lion cubs are 
much more vulnerable to predation, particularly by 
hyenas, so acting aggressively toward intruders and 
rearing young in caves may give them protection that 
is not required by the savannah lion cubs. 

Now, a whole new suite of questions arose. Are 
the differences in social systems simply a result of 
the circumstances in which the lions find themselves, 
or are the lions that behave so differently distinct in 
other ways as well? In 1913, the legendary zoologist 
Edmund Heller (Field Museum Assistant Curator of 
Mammals, 1921-1927) described a new subspecies of 
lion, Panthera leo nyanzae, from near the source of the 
Victoria Nile. Heller was very familiar with the pride 
lion Panthera leo massaicus from his field work on the 
Athi and Serengeti plains. He noticed that this new 
animal had a disproportionately small head relative 
to its body size. In 1924, J.A. AUen of the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York described 
yet another new subspecies (Panthera leo azandicus) 
from near the source of the White Nile. Allen 
gave this lion the distinction of being the largest 
living subspecies. 

For various reasons, many modern lion taxonomists 
no longer recognize subspecific differences between 
African lions, separating only the rare Asiatic lion as 
a distinct subspecies. The forms described by Heller 
and Allen are treated as identical to the lions of the 
Kenyan and Tanzanian plains. Our discovery of the 
lion den, along with the differences we noted in lion 
behavior, started us on a line of inquiry to see whether 
these early taxonomists were on to something real. 
This research has taken us to museums around 



4 IN THE FIELD 



Europe, Africa and North America to compare living 
and extinct lions throughout Africa and Eurasia. 

Our findings suggest that there are two distinct 
forms of lions living in Africa. The lions described 
by Heller and Allen as well as our cave lions in the 
Kyambura River gorge appear to be identical to one 
another. They represent something quite distinct 
from the Pride Lions. We also found that Nile River 
lions share more features with the last remaining 
Asian lions in the Gir Forest of India than they do 
with the Pride Lions of Africa. Although widely sepa- 
rated geographically, the Nile lions and the Asian lions 
both have thick tail tufts, a thick flap of loose skin on 
their bellies, generally small but variable manes, and 
small skulls relative to their body sizes. Behaviorally, 
both specialize in large prey and the males in both 
groups hunt regularly. Pride lions share none of 
these features. 

The cave lions of the Nile also seem to share 
characteristics with the extinct lions of Europe, the 
same lions that fascinated Paleolithic artists. There 
are numerous depictions of these prehistoric lions in 
30,000-year-old cave art. Associated species in these 
same scenes include woolly rhinos, mammoths and 
primitive cattle. The prehistoric lion depictions bear a 
remarkable similarity to the living Nile lions, particu- 
larly with their restricted manes, belly folds and scenes 
portraying the hunting of large wild cattle. According 
to some authorities, these animals {Panthera leo 
spelaea), became extinct sometime between 25,000 and 
8,000 years ago. They are the only lions known to have 
inhabited caves, and they were remarkable for their 
large size, which paleontologists estimate as 25 percent 
greater than the size of modern (Pride) lions. The 
Nile lions share the habit of cave dwelling with this 
extinct form. They also share similar body proportions 
and very large size. 

From our comparisons of skeletons, we now believe 
that our Nile lions, the Asian lion, and several other 
described subspecies, including Panthera leo vernayi 
from South Africa and Panthera leo senegalensis from 
West Africa, are all the same lion and may represent 
a living lineage of the now extinct European cave lions. 

Migrating to Africa 

So how did lions get from central Asia into Africa? 
The Asiatic lion was once much more widespread than 
it is today, living throughout western Asia and south- 
ern Europe, including sites near the Dead Sea with 
strongholds along the Tigris/Euphrates and Indus 
River drainages. In fact the Jordan River depression 
links the Euphrates River to the Nile River, creating 
a corridor for lions of this type to invade Africa from 
the Middle East. Because these lions dispersed along 
the associated riverine gallery forests by following 
migrations of large prey, such as wild oxen and buffalo 
that never wander far from permanent water, 
these semi-nomadic lions became established along 




Large Buffalo Lion from Northern Congo (Panthera leo 
anzandicus — Allen 1924). This lion 'type' was described 
as the largest living subspecies of lion. However, equally large 
specimens of Buffalo Lions from east, west and south Africa 
and India, have been examined by the authors. 



many of the major African river systems. We have 
combined the Nile and other river lions of Africa 
with the Asian lion under the name "Buffalo Lions" 
to distinguish them from "Pride Lions" because of 
their preferred prey. 

Buffalo Lions are restricted to the major rivers, 
their tributaries and associated lakes with their 
attendant buffalo herds. Unlike Pride Lions, Buffalo 
Lions rarely take small prey, and sometimes even 
attack young elephants and hippos that congregate 
near rivers. Family groups rarely exceed a single 
breeding pair with cubs of various ages, and males 
do the hunting. Pride Lions presumably evolved from 
Buffalo Lions that ventured into the savannahs and 
encountered new challenges in the hunting of plains 
wildlife. In the savannahs, lions encountered swiftly 
running, wary prey, necessitating new cooperative 
hunting strategies and changes in group size. With 
multiple females in a group, breeding access for the 
males became limited and male-male competition for 
mating opportunities became intense; the dispropor- 
tionately large heads of the pride males may have 
evolved primarily for the battles they have between 
each other, and their aggressiveness toward rivals 
may prevent Buffalo Lion males from any access 
to female Pride Lions. 

We are now convinced that there are two socially 
and physically distinct forms of lions living in Africa. 
One is the big-headed and relatively small but 
stout-bodied Pride Lion that has been the subject 



JULY . AUGUST 2000 5 



of countless documentaries over the years. These lions 
live in large groups or 'prides' of related females who 
hunt cooperatively. Males, once they have taken over 
a pride, do little hunting. Male Pride Lions, which 
must compete with large numbers of other males for 
limited access to females who are concentrated in large 
groups, have evolved specialized tools for winning 
fights with rival males. These include bodies with a 
lower center of gravity, thick manes to protect their 
necks and extremely powerful jaws that can produce 
a bone crushing and mutilating bite. 

The second is the small-headed, large-bodied 
Buffalo Lion that lives in small groups with the males 
serving as the primary hunters. Their much more 
massive and powerful bodies probably reflect their 
specialization on large and dangerous prey. This type 
of lion occupied the den that stimulated us to look 
more closely at the legend of lions' dens and to review 
lion taxonomy from a new perspective. We believe that 
Buffalo Lions are closer to the ancestral form, having 
descended from primitive lions that followed large 
prey into Africa (south) down the Nile River. From 
there they dispersed along other major river systems 
that converge with the Nile River, eventually dispers- 
ing throughout the entire African continent. 

So as it turns out, the biblical references to 
the lion's den are not mythical as many modern 
researchers have thought. Instead they probably 



refer to the caves of Buffalo Lions. With so much 
modern research focused on the intricacies of Pride 
Lion social behavior, the existence of the second type 
of lion has been overlooked. If the "lion's den" were not 
such a pervasive image, we might well have thought 
that George Bwere's observations of the Kyambura 
lion cave were an anomaly. But the many early refer- 
ences to these dens spurred us to look more carefully, 
with results that may shed light on many unsolved 
mysteries regarding lions. Daniel may well have been 
thrown into a lion's den in ancient Babylon. However, 
had he been a wild ox instead of a human, the lions 
might well have dismembered and devoured him. ITF 

Authors note: 

We will continue to study differences in lion behavior 
with our international colleagues, and pursue leads on the 
occupation of additional caves by lions and hyenas. Because 
most reports of serious conflict between lions and humans, 
including preying upon humans, point to Buffalo Lions, 
we will focus on their behavior in order to answer what 
makes them more prone to aggression. 

This article is dedicated to the late George Bwere — 
educator, protector of wildlife, discoverer of the first 
modern lion's den, and friend. 

Copyright Tom Gnoske and Julian Kerbis Peterhans. 





Above left: Classic "Pride Lion" (Panthera leo 
massaica/krugeri — Neuman 1900/Roberts 1929) from 
the savannahs of East and South Africa. Males vary in size 
between 36-38 inches at the shoulder and weigh 385-410 lbs. 

Above right: Typical Buffalo Lion with single female. 
Males reach a shoulder height between 42A3 inches and 
weigh 460-520 lbs. 

Left: Skulls of two mature male Sergenti lions. Left is a 
typical "Buffalo Lion" and Right is a classic "Pride Lion." 



6 IN THE FIELD 



Field Updates 



Boar's Tusks and Cassowary Toes: 

The Vida Chenoweth Collection from Highland New Guinea 



Stephen E. Nash, Rob Welsch, Jon Rogers, 
Nadia Kahn and Jack MacDonald, 

Department of Anthropology 



The Department of Anthropology curates one of the 
world's finest collections of material culture from Papua 
New Guinea. It contains tens of thousands of spears, 
arrows, masks, ritual paraphernalia, statues, paddles, 
canoes and other objects, a sample of which can be 
see in the beautiful and permanent Traveling the Pacific 
and Pacific Spirits exhibits on the balcony level of the 
Museum. In December 1999, the Department of 
Anthropology made a significant addition to this col- 
lection by acquiring the Chenoweth Collection, an 
exquisite assemblage of nearly 600 artifacts from high- 
land New Guinea. Assembled between 1959 and 1975 
by ethnomusicologist Vida Chenoweth, the collection 
comes from the remote mountain community 
of Usarufa in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New 
Guinea and is now one of the best-documented 
ethnographic collections in the Museum. 

Museum visitors ofi:en wonder how artifact collec- 
tions are acquired. Are collections purchased? Are they 
donated? Do curators still conduct collecting trips? 
How does the Museum decide what to collect? Does 
the Museum ever reject donation offers and, if so, 
what criteria lead to rejection? The answers to these 
questions are surprisingly complex; if this were a mul- 
tiple-choice examination, the answers would be "all 
and yet none of the above." We use the Chenoweth 
Collection as a case study to explore the complexity 
and wonder of Anthropology collections management. 

The Department of Anthropology was formed in 
1894 as one of the original academic departments at 
the Field Museum, along with botany, zoology, geology 
and mineralogy, the latter of which were ultimately 
combined. These departments were established to orga- 
nize and manage the extensive collections that resulted 
from the World's Columbian Exposition held in 
Chicago in 1892-93. 

Anthropological research in the Pacific Islands has 
a long history at The Field Museum although work in 
New Guinea essentially ceased between 1930 and about 
1950 due to pofitical unrest in the area. The Chenoweth 
Collection is particularly important because it consti- 
tutes one of the few well-documented collections of 
material culture to be acquired by any Museum from 
highland New Guinea in the past 50 years. 

The Chenoweth Collection contains a stunning 
array of musical instruments, toys, tools, objects of 
personal adornment and ritual paraphernalia. These 
include 230 arrows, 32 whistling tops, 20 mouth harps, 




Chenoweth Collection mask approximately 8 inches high. 



11 flutes, two drums, 12 wooden bowls, 37 adzes, 
four bark beaters, 15 tusk ornaments, 26 needles, seven 
string bags and a host of other objects. More impor- 
tantly, Chenoweth's detailed and painstaking notes, 
numbering more than 1,000 pages; a dozen albums con- 
taining hundreds of photographs; and sound recordings 
allow Museum researchers to know in detail who made 
the objects, where, when, why and how. In the absence 
of such documentation, the Chenoweth Collection 
holds only aesthetic value. With these data, the 
Chenoweth Collection will provide researchers with 
the information they need to truly understand these 
objects in their cultural context. By extension, they will 
allow us to better understand our existing and preemi- 
nent collection from New Guinea. 

Chenoweth is a graduate of Northwestern Univer- 
sity and spent a number of years in the Chicagoland 
area as a Professor of Ethnomusicology at Wheaton 



JULY • AUGUST 2000 7 



Field Updates 



College from 1975 until her retirement several years 
ago. An accomplished musician, Chenoweth was the 
first classical marimbist to appear as a guest soloist at 
Carnegie Hall, is a member of the Percussive Arts 
Society Hall of Fame and has appeared with symphony 
orchestras all over the world. A hand injury in the late 
1950s precipitated a career change, and in 1959 
Chenoweth joined the Summer Institute of Linguistics 
as a bible translator in highland New Guinea, where 
the Oklahoma native found the rain forest to be "as 
thick as broccoli!" With her colleague and fellow lin- 
guist Darlene Bee, Chenoweth lived with the Usarufa 
for many years between 1959 and 1975, and continued 
to visit her friends in New Guinea until just a few years 
ago. Bee died tragically in a plane crash several years 
ago, and it is believed that Chenoweth is the last fluent 
Anglo speaker of Usarufa in the world. 

The remote Usarufa live in four small hamlets in 
the eastern highlands and constitute one of the smallest 
language groups in New Guinea, a linguistically com- 
plex island characterized by 1,000 languages, some of 
which contain differences as wide as those between 
Chinese, Bantu and English. The Usarufa first became 
aware of Western people in 1930 when government 
patrols and prospectors first explored the upper Ramu 
river area, but these patrols did not reach Usarufa until 
the late 1940s. When Chenoweth started working in 
New Guinea in 1959, very few outsiders had encoun- 
tered the Usarufa, and few or none had any detailed 
knowledge of their customs, rituals, traditions, subsis- 
tence practices or social organization. 

Recognizing the research potential of the Chenoweth 
Collection nearly a decade ago. Curator of Pacific 
Archaeology and Ethnology John Terrell and Adjunct 
Curator Rob Welsch began discussing the prospect of 
purchasing the collection. Because the Department of 
Anthropology has no dedicated acquisitions budget. 




the project was on hold until Charles Benton became 
chair of the Museum's Cultural Collections Committee 
(CCC) several years ago. Field Museum President John 
McCarter generously offered half the purchase price 
of the Chenoweth Collection if CCC could raise the 
rest. In October 1999, CCC hosted a luau for more 
than 100 members of the Pacific Arts Association, with 
representatives of 16 countries, including Papua New 
Guinea and other Pacific Island nations, present. At the 
luau, the CCC announced that they had raised the nec- 
essary fiinds and that the Department of Anthropology 
could begin to make arrangements to transport the 
collection from Chenoweth's home in Enid, Oklahoma, 
to the Field Museum. 

Just before Christmas 1999, Head of Anthropology 
Collections Steve Nash and Collections Manager Jon 
Rogers rented a truck and headed for Oklahoma. There 
they met Diane Harbison, a free-lance conservator 
from Oklahoma City, and spent four lO-hour days 
gently wrapping each object for transport. 

In January 2000, Chenoweth was reunited with 
her collection in Chicago. For four days, she and 
Welsch catalogued the collection, after which Nadia 
Kahn and Jack MacDonald joined the research team 
to pack the collection in archive quality materials, and 
transcribe notes, climate-controlled storage locations. 

The acquisitions process for the Chenoweth 
Collection stands as a classic example of efficient col- 
laboration in anthropological and Museum practice. 
Chenoweth collaborated originally with the Usarufa 
and Darlene Bee in compiling the collection; Field 
Museum curators collaborated with Chenoweth to 
evaluate the research potential of the Collection; 
Museum administration and the Cultural Collections 
Committee collaborated to raise necessary funds; 
Anthropology collections staff collaborated with 
everyone; and volunteers, interns and free-lance con- 
servators helped guarantee that the Collection received 
the careftil attention it deserved. 

The Chenoweth Collection also stands in testimony 
to ethical Museum collection acquisition practices. 
It complements nicely the Field Museums existing 
collection from the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea, 
which previously consisted of material from only two 
other groups, the Tairora and Agarabi, which were 
visited by James B. Watson in the 1950s. In the face 
of increasing contact with people of other cultures, and 
the culture change that comes as a result, the Usarufa 
are losing some of their understanding of the form, 
function and meaning of these objects. Chenoweth 
once dreamed of creating a Museum specifically for 
the Usarufa near their homeland in New Guinea. 
In the absence of such a facility, the Department of 
Anthropology at The Field Museum is proud to pro- 
vide a caring home for this unique collection and the 
intellectual legacy it represents. ITF 



Dr. Chenoweth works with Taaqi Yda. 



8 IN THE FIELD 



Membership News 



Star Wars: The Magic of Myth 



Members will be among the first to welcome the 
exhibition Star Wars: The Magic of Myth to The Field 
Museum. The exhibition is a tribute to the power and 
timeless appeal of Star Wars, the ultimate space epic 
that explores the struggle between good and evil, and 
technology and humanity. Star Wars: The Magic of Myth 
showcases original artwork, props, models, costumes 
and characters used to create the Star Wars saga, and 
connects the films to elements of classical mythology. 
Visitors will see Princess Leia's gown, the droids 
C-3PO and R2-D2, Chewbacca and other artifacts 
from these classic films. 

Member Passes for Star Wars: 
The Magic of Myth 

Field Museum members are eligible to receive up to 
four free member passes to see the Star Wars: The 
Magic of Myth exhibition which is on display from July 
15, 2000 through January 7, 2001. Family members can 
receive four passes; Senior, Student, Individual and 
National Affiliate Members can receive two passes. 
Passes are coded for timed entry every half hour. 

Passes are available by calling Ticketmaster at 
312.902.1500 (a discounted service charge and trans- 
action fee will be assessed). Members may be able to 
obtain passes for same day viewing if available at the 
Museum. No service charge will be incurred. For more 
information, please call 312.665.7700. 

Please remember that Member passes are in 
addition to those you may have already received and 
used for the Viewing days on July 13, 14, 21 and 23. 
For more information, please call 312.665.7700. ITF 




Tbe original costumes for Han Solo and the character 
Chewbacca the Wookiee. 



Star Wars; The Magic of Myth was developed by the 
Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum. The exhibi- 
tion was organized for travel by the Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service. All of the artifacts in this exhi- 
bition are on loan from the archives of LucasFilm Ltd. 



Record Breaking Members' Nights 2000 



The Field Museum boasts the largest Members' 
Nights attendance in recent history. More than 21,000 
members, and their families and friends, came out for 
the Museum's unique behind-the-scenes event that 
highlights the institution's research activities. 
Highlights of the event were "Sue," standing in her full 
glory in Stanley Field Hall, and a slide lecture about 
how she was mounted. As in years past, much of the 
focus was on the third floor where curators and 
researchers were available to talk with members about 
their latest projects. Attendance this year broke all 
recent records, due to the tremendous increase in 
Museum members. In future years, the Museum will 
consider adding more days to preserve the character 
of this wonderful event. ITF 




"Behind-the-scene" at Field Museum Members' Nights. 



JULY • AUGUST 2000 9 



Your Guide to The Field 



Inside 



1 Exhibits 

3 Calendar of Events 

S Get Smart 

7 Free Visitor Programs 



Star Wars: 

THE Magic of Myth 



Star Wars: The Magic of Myth, one of the 
most visited Smithsonian exhibitions of all 
time will be on view at The Field Museum 
from July 15, 2000 to January 7, 2001. 
Developed by the Smithsonian Institution 
in cooperation with LucasFilm Ltd, this 
exhibition showcases more than 250 original 
artworks, props, models, costumes, and 
characters used to create the four Star Wars 
films. The exhibition opens a window onto 
the creative process of filmmaking by giving 
Field Museum visitors a chance to examine 
more than 75 original artworks, including 
concept drawings and paintings, as well as 
storyboards with production notes. These 
works highlight changes in the Star Wars 
personalities and places as they evolved 
from early ideas to their final realization 
on the screen. 

George Lucas explained, "Filmmaking is 
a collaborative effort, and the creation of 
the artwork, costumes and creatures play 
a major role in my movies. I'm thrilled that 
the public now has the opportunity to 
examine their artistry in a museum setting. 
And, I hope the exhibit will inspire young 
people who are interested in art, science 
and computer technology to use their skills 
and imagination to create new worlds 
and pursue their dreams." 




Yoda, a wise, long-lived Jedi Master, has trained Jedi Knights in the ways of the force. 



Upon entering the gallery, visitors will 
see objects from Star Wars: A New Hope 
(1977), including an 11 -foot production 
model of the Imperial Star Destroyer and 
the white gown worn by Princess Leia, the 
droids C-3PO and R2-D2, Chewbacca the 
Wookie, a Stormtrooper, a Jawa and a 
Tusken Raider. Artifacts from The Empire 
Strikes Back (1980) include the Jedi Master 
Yoda and costumes such as Luke Skywalker's 
ice planet Hoth gear. This section also 
includes an Imperial AT-AT Walker and 
Rebel Snowspeeder, which are examples 
of the props and production models used 
in the making of the film, as well as the 
Wampa Ice Creature costume developed 
for the Special Edition The Empire Strikes 
Back 0997). 




From Return of The Jedi (1983) visitors will 
find Jabba the Hutt, bounty hunter Boba 
Fett, skiff guard Weequay, Salacious B. 
Crumb and Han Solo frozen in carbonite. 
This section of the exhibition features Darth 
Vader and Luke Skywalker's Jedi costume — 
each with their lightsaber weapons — as 
well as photo murals of the Emperor 
Palpatine's throne room and the Death Star. 

The exhibition ends with Star Wars: 
Episode I — The Phantom Menace (1999). 
Artifacts featured focus on Anakin 
Skywalker (the future Darth Vader), 
and include Anakin's slave costume and 
a detailed model of his pod racer. Also 
featured is concept artwork for Tatooine 
and the Mos Espa Pod Race Arena. 

Visitors can view a short documentary 
film, which examines the influences of 
popular culture, folklore and myth on the 
development of the Star Wars films. The 
film includes interviews with George Lucas, 
and actors Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher and 
Mark Hamill, as well as sound effects direc- 
tor Ben Burtt, composer John Williams and 
others. Visitors may purchase an audio tour, 
narrated by James Earl Jones, which con- 
tains interviews and sound effects, and was 
created especially for the exhibition by 
Antenna Audio. 

Star Wars: The Magic of Myth, was devel- 
oped by the Smithsonian's National Air 
and Space Museum. The exhibition was 
organized for travel by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 
All of the artifacts in this exhibition are on 
loan from the archives of Lucasfilm, Ltd. 



C-3PO and R2-D2. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 1 



JULY/AUGUST 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Exhibits 



Chicago's 
Oldest Debutante 
Reigns Supreme 



With fanfare surpassing that of the most 
elite Chicago debutante, Sue now reigns In 
the Field Museum's Stanley Field Hall where 
she greets visitors with a menacing grin. 
Weighing in at nearly 1 ton (7 tons if she 
were living). Sue is 42 feet in length with 
her skull just shy of 5 feet in length. She is 
the single largest, most complete and best- 
preserved T. rex fossil ever unearthed. 

Unlike many museums, which display cast 
replicas of dinosaur skeletons. The Field 
Museum has strengthened its commitment 
to authenticity. The bones on display are 
the real thing — not a plastic model or com- 
posite of bones from different specimens. 

Each of Sue's fossilized bones is cradled in a 
hand-forged iron bracket on which the 
bones rest, similar to a diamond in the set- 
ting of a ring. However, these brackets are 
hinged and locked, allowing scientists to 
remove the bones for research. The number 
of bones that show pathologies intrigues 
scientists; there are holes, scars, calluses and 
two misshapen teeth. Paleontologist Chris 
Brochu, a research associate at The Field 
Museum and lead researcher on Sue, 




An up-close look at Sue's massive head. 

believes Sue's wounds were probably caused 
by infections and are not battle scars. 

One of the few pieces of Sue that will not 
be mounted with the rest of her skeleton is 
her massive skull, which is too heavy to be 
placed on the steel armature that supports 
Sue's skeleton. The Museum installed a cast 
replica of the skull on the skeleton and dis- 
plays the real skull on the second floor 
balcony overlooking Stanley Field Hall. Here 
you can get an up-close and personal view 
of the most-feared predator's massive head. 
In addition, visitors can view animated CT 
scans of the skull and touch a variety of 



casts of Sue's bones, including a rib, fore- 
limb and 12-inch-long tooth. 

Check the 'Calendar of Events Section' to 
see the ongoing fun and educational events 
surrounding Sue or visit the Museum's web 
page at www.fieldmuseum.org/Sue/. 

Sue At The Field Museum, which Is free with 
general Museum admission, is made possible 
by McDonald's Corporation. A major sponsor 
of Sue is Walt Disney World Resort. The 
Elizabeth Morse Charitable Trust is another 
generous sponsor of this exhibition. 



Toys to Masterpieces: 'The Picturing T-rex' Collection 




John Lanzendorf with his first T.rex from 
The Field Museum. 



As a student during the late 1950s, Chicago 
resident John Lanzendorf visited The Field 
Museum to view the dinosaur exhibits. 
During this trip he purchased a small brass 
T. rex figurine from the Museum's store. It 
was the first dinosaur sculpture he pur- 
chased and the beginning of a collection 
that would grow to more than 70 original 
paintings, drawings, sculptures and toys — 
all depicting Tyrannosaurus rex, the largest 
carnivore to walk the earth. 

Lanzendorf's lifelong fascination with 
dinosaurs has led him to build one of the 
most comprehensive private collections of 
dinosaur art in the world. Picturing 7: rex: 
Selections from the Lanzendorf Collection 
will be on display until November 12, 2000. 
The exhibition is free with regular Museum 
admission. 

Some objects in the collection reflect the 
changing theories about T. rex anatomy and 
behavior, including a pair of 200-pound 
bronze sculptures — one depicting an early 
consensus of how the dinosaur might have 



looked (upright and lumbering) and 
another depicting the current scientific view 
(a much more agile animal). Other objects 
come from artists involved with film pro- 
ductions featuring T. rex in a starring role. 
Jurassic Parl<'s T. rex, made by Michael Trcic 
for Stan Winston Studios, is one of several 
bronze maquettes created for the first 
Jurassic Parl< movie. On the more whimsical 
side of the collection is the T. rex toy dis- 
play, which includes the humorous T. rex 
"Santa Claws." 

When you come to the Museum to meet 
Sue, don't forget to visit the fascinating 
array of T. rex images from Lanzendorf's 
extensive private collection. 

The Field Museum wishes to thank John 
Lanzendorf for the generous loan of works 
from his collection. 

Correction: The Field Museum incorrectly 
credited the photo of John Lanzendorf in 
the May/June Issue. The correct credit Is 
Barbara Brenner 1999. We regret the error. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



JULY/AUGUST 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Calendar of Events 




Storytime: Facts, Fables and Fiction lets children explore, 
relax and learn. 



The Two of Us family program provides hands-on activities. 



Adult Course: 

Field Ecology: Summer 

7/6, 7/9, 7/16 a 7/23 (see times below) 

Join Naturalist Tom Hintz as you investigate 
the many arenas in which populations 
interact with each other. The questions of 
competition and altruism will be addressed 
for inter- and intra-population levels. Look 
at some basic equations used to determine 
the fitness of populations, including the 
effects of genetics on individuals and popu- 
lations. Be prepared to be outdoors most of 
the time. The recommended text, Ecology 
and Field Biology by R. L. Smith, will be 
for sale the first class session. Naturalist 
Certificate Requirement, both tracks. Meets 
at The Field Museum: Thursday, July 6; 6 - 9 
p.m. Meets at the Site: Sundays, July 9, 16, 
and 23; 9 a.m. - Noon (4 sessions) $125; 
Members $105. Call 312.665.7400 for more 
information or to register. 



Family Evening: 
Behind the Scenes with 
John Lanzendorf 

Selections From Your Collections 
7/7, Friday, 6-8 p.m. 

Whether it is matchbooks, monster trucks 
or paper dolls, everyone has some type of 
collection. Collecting objects that interest 
us helps to define who we are. John 
Lanzendorf, owner of many amazing 
dinosaurs, 72 of which comprise the tem- 
porary exhibition Picturing T. rex, will share 
how and why he began his now enormous 
collection of dinosaur images. Participants 
are invited to bring along important or spe- 
cial selections from their collections at home 
to share. For families with children in grades 
1 and up. $12 ($10 per member participant). 
Please call 312.665.7400 for more infor- 
mation or to register. 



Family Program: 
Scientist on The Floor 

7/13, Thursday, 11 a.m. - 2 p.m. 

Extend your Underground Adventure 
deeper into the earth by discussing with a 
U.S. Department of Agriculture soil scientist 
the processes of soil formation. Learn 
how soil in Illinois is different from various 
soils throughout the world! Free with 
Museum admission. For more information 
call 312.665.7400. 

Family Program: 
The Two of Us 

7/78 & 7/25, Tuesdays, 1:30 - 3 p.m. 

Preschoolers (ages 3-5) and their adult 
companions are invited to join our instruc- 
tor for a 2-week mini-course exploring birds 
and their habitats. Using galleries and in- 
class activities, and going behind the scenes 
to meet with our scientists, this program 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JULY/AUGUST 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



will include fun facts, stories, songs and 
a snack. We will also use nnany hands-on 
materials and make an art project to take 
home. Learning experiences include feeling 
the difference in bone weight between 
flying and non-flying birds, studying some 
unusual nests and much, much more. Cost 
is $24 per child; $20 per member child. 
For each child, one adult attends at no 
charge. Call 312.665.7400 for more infor- 
mation or to register. 

Adult Course: 

A Focus on Composites 

7129 & 7130, 9 a.m. -Noon 

Learn how to identify sunflowers, asters, 
goldenrods and many other groups of our 
native composite flora in a workshop with 
Field Museum Instructor Rich Hyerczyk. 
Naturalist Certificate Enrichment. Meets 
at the Site. $65 ($55 members.) Call 
312.665.7400 for more information 
or to register. 

Adult Course: 
Introduction to Natural 
Areas Management 

8/3, 8/5, 8/6, 8/19 (see times below) 

Today's prairies, savannas, woodlands and 
wetlands are disturbed, fragmented and 
isolated. The role of the land manager is 
to return them to biologically diverse and 
healthy natural ecosystems. Take a trip with 
Jim Anderson, Natural Resource Manager at 
Lake County Forest Preserve District, for a 
visit to a variety of natural areas to meet 
with local professionals and learn about the 
issues and techniques of managing natural 
areas. Naturalist Certificate Requirement, 
Natural Areas track. Meets at The Field 
Museum: Thursday, August 3; 6 - 9 p.m. 
Meets at the Site: Saturday, August 5; 9 
a.m. - Noon. Sunday, August 6; 1 - 4 p.m. 
Saturday, August 19; 9 a.m. - Noon. $125 
($105 members.) Call 312.665.7400 for more 
information or to register. 

Family Program: 

Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction 

Dally at 1 p.m. 

Learn new songs and stories and have 
fun creating artwork — all in a 20-minute 
program in Living Together. In July 
and August, hear stories about dinosaurs, 



life in the woods, animal camouflage, 
Underground Adventure, animals in winter 
and outer space adventures. Design your 
own special T. rex, forest habitat, under- 
ground environment, winter wonderland 
or space ship. This program, designed espe- 
cially for young children and their families, 
offers an opportunity to relax and learn. 
The songs are fun to learn and easily could 
become family favorites. This program is 
sponsored by The Siragusa Foundation Early 
Childhood Initiative. One adult for every 
three children, please. For more information 
call 312.665.7400. 

Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Weekday: Programs at 1 1 a.m., 1 1:30 a.m., 
1 p.m. & 1:30 p.m. 

Weekends: Open House 10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. 

Visitors can experience a way of life as the 
Pawnee Indians lived more than a century 
ago out on the Great Plains. In this hands- 
on exhibit, people are invited to sit on 
buffalo hides around the cooking fire and 
try to use buffalo horn spoons. Then they 



can examine tools and toys made of buffalo 
as they listen to stories of what it was 
like to go on a buffalo hunt. Free with 
Museum admission. Call 312.665.7400 for 
more information. 

Citywide program spotlights "Sue" 
Tyrannosaurus reads at Chicago 
Public Library 

Continuing through August 5 

All children and teens, ages 5-14, are 
invited to celebrate the arrival of Sue, 
the largest and most complete T. rex ever 
found, by participating in the Chicago 
Public Library's 2000 Summer Reading 
Program, Tyrannosaurus Reads. All 78 
libraries will highlight specially chosen 
books about dinosaurs. Neighborhood 
branch libraries will host programs through- 
out the summer including storytellers, 
interactive dinosaur programs by Timestep 
Players, Jabberwocky Marionettes and 
Green Light Performing Company. It's 
fun and it's free! Call 312.747.4780. 





Interior of the Pawnee Earth Lodge. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



JULY/AUGUST 2000 



4 CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Get Smart 




Star Wars: The 
Magic of Myth 

July 15 - 18, Daily at 1 p.m. 

Preschoolers Alert! 

Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction 

Imagine what it's like to travel through 
space! Join us in Living Together dunng the 
opening week of Star Wars: Tlie Magic of 
Mytii for special readings of / Want to Be An 
Astronaut, a story in words and pictures 
about what it might be like to go on a real 
space mission. Then create your own space- 
ship to take home — all in this 20-minute 
program sponsored by The Siragusa 
Foundation Early Childhood Initiative. One 
adult for every three children, please. Free 
with Museum admission. Call 312.665.7400 
for more information. 



Left: Han Solo's Millennium Falcon in front of 
the Death Star. Constant modifications turned 
this old battered looking spacecraft into a ship 
capable of going up against the Empire's most 
fearsome weapons. 



Dancing with Dinosaurs: 
The Story of Sue 

Mondays - Fridays, July 5 - August 5 
11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m. 

The Field Museum and Music Theatre 
Workshop present the Teens Together 
Ensemble in Dancing with Dinosaurs: The 
Story of Sue, a 30-minute musical featuring 
two colossal puppets created especially for 
The Field Museum. Dancing with Dinosaurs 
presents the story of Sue through the eyes 
of a multi-generational, diverse group of 
people who have traveled to the museum 
specifically to see Sue the T rex. Before 
they can meet Sue, they are approached 
by a Troodon dinosaur that claims to be 
a smarter, more interesting dinosaur. He 
offers to take the group through the exhibit 
hall to a place where they can hear the 
story of Sue. Anticipating this vision, the 
characters learn about the evolution of 
dinosaurs as they sing and dance out their 
own dreams. Both adults and children will 
be charmed by this unique, tuneful journey. 
Free with Museum admission. Call 
312.665.7400 for more information. 

Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue 
is generously sponsored by ComEd and 
LaSalle Bank. 



Fun On the Floor: 
Family Hall Activities 

From July 15. Schedule varies; please call 
312.665.7400 for updates 

See a T. rex run and make the X-wing 
starfighter fly with your own filmmaking 
flip book, or test your Star Wars trivia 
knowledge with a special Field Museum 
quiz! What do museums and films have in 
common? They both take us on journeys of 
the imagination — whether to a fictional 
galaxy far, far away, or to the very real 
Earth of millions of years ago. Join us this 
summer for family hall activities exploring 
the connections between the art of Star 
Wars and the science all around you in 
The Field Museum. 



Top right: Family activities include crafts 
that spark children's creativity. 

Bottom right: Dancing with Dinosaurs, 
The Story of Sue. 






JOHN WEINSTEIN/GN89739,16AC 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JULY/AUGUST 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Field Nights: Summer Celebration at The Field Museum 



July 6 - August 17, Every Thursday, 5:30 p.m. - 9 p.m. 



As part of Chicago's Downtown Thursday 
Nights program, The Field Museum con- 
tinues to bring together great music, 
spectacular views, food and drink, and 
a T. rex named Sue for Field Nights. 

The outdoor celebration takes place on 
the northwest terrace, where visitors are 
treated to a stunning view of downtown 
Chicago at sunset. There they can dance to 
the rhythm of a different world music band 
each Thursday. Throughout the summer. 
Field Nights acts scheduled to appear 
include the return of the popular interdisci- 
plinary performance group MASS Ensemble, 
and world music artists Funkadesi. 

Field Nights visitors are also invited to 
venture inside the Museum where they 
can explore the exhibitions after hours and 
come snout to snout with Sue, the largest 
and most complete T. rex ever found. And 
to commence each evening, everyone is 
encouraged to join in a group-drumming 
circle at sunset, led weekly by Chicago's own 
Rhythm Revolution (percussion instruments 
provided). Food and drink are available 
for purchase throughout the evening. 
Admission is $12 for Members and 
Non-members. 




MASS Ensemble. 



Egypt in Chicago: Festival of the Sun Summer 2000 



Music and Drama in Ancient Egypt 
July 20, 6:30 - 8:30 p.m., for all ages 



Egypt in Chicago: Festival of the Sun 
Summer 2000 is a magnificent citywide 
collaboration of Chicago arts and cultural 
institutions sponsoring exhibitions, lectures 
and workshops with a focus on ancient 
Egypt during the Summer of 2000. The Field 
Museum is participating in the collaboration 
by spotlighting Inside Ancient Egypt the 
Museum's extraordinary permanent exhibi- 
tion and by hosting a Music and Drama in 
Ancient Egypt multi-media discussion led 
by composer Douglas Irvine. Irvine will 
speak about music and drama at the time 
of Akhnaten's reign and what distinguishes 
this period when arts flourished in ancient 
Egypt. For tickets and information call 
312.665.7400. 



Other Egypt In Chicago: Festival of the 
Sun Summer 2000 participating organiza- 
tions include the Chicago Opera Theater, 
the Art Institute of Chicago, University 
of Chicago Graham School of General 
Studies, the Oriental Institute Museum, 
The Museum of Science and Industry, the 
Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs 
and the Chicago Park District's Gallery 37 
Neighborhoods Program. 



Right: This elaborately painted and gilded car- 
tonnage mask made of linen and coated with 
plaster was placed over a mummified child. 




THE FIELD MUSEUM 



JULY/AUGUST 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Free Visitor Programs 




Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 

Daily 

Preschoolers Alert! 

1 p.m. Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction. 

Learn new songs and stories and have fun 
creating artworic — all in a 20-minute pro- 
gram sponsored by The Siragusa Foundation 
Early Childhood Initiative — in Living 
Together. See "Calendar of Events" page 
for a more complete description. 

Interpretive Station activities: Drop by 
hands-on stations located throughout the 
Museum (check informational directories 
for daily listing) and delve into the fasci- 
nating world of natural history. 

Weekends & Mondays 

Through the end of August* 

Noon - 5 p.m. Meet John Lanzendorf. 
Mr. Lanzendorf will be in the gallery to 
meet visitors and speal< with them infor- 
mally about the temporary exhibition, 
Picturing T. rex: Selections from the 
Lanzendorf Collection. Visitors are encour- 
aged to bring in pieces from their own 
dinosaur collections. 

* Schedule dependent on Mr Lanzendorfs 
availability. Please call ahead to The Field 
Museum Education Department at 
312.665.7550 for a complete listing of 
dates. See the "Calendar of Events" page 
for more information on the Behind the 
Scenes evening with Mr Lanzendorf. 

July 1— Saturday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m. Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of 
Sue. The Field Museum and Music Theatre 
Workshop present the Teens Together 
Ensemble in a 30-minute musical about 



Sue, the largest, most complete and best 
preserved T. rex ever found. See the "Get 
Smart" page for a more complete descrip- 
tion. Call 312.665.7400 for specific times. 

July 2 — Sunday 

1 1 :30 a.m. & 1 :30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 5 — Wednesday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

1 p.m. Tour: Ancient Egypt Hall. Tour 4,000 
years of ancient Egyptian history, from a 
predynastic burial site to the Egypt of the 
Greek and Roman conquest. 

July 6 — Thursday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1 . 

July 7 — Friday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 10 — Monday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 11 — Tuesday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 



July 12 — Wednesday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

I p.m. Tour: Ancient Egypt Hall. See July 5. 

July 13 — Thursday 

I I a.m. -2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor 
Join scientists from the U.S. Department 

of Agriculture as they discuss how they help 
educate the community to conserve the 
soil — one of our most valuable resources. 
Visitors will also learn about soil science 
and about careers related to agriculture. 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m. Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 14 — Friday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 17 — Monday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 18 — Tuesday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 19 — Wednesday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

I p.m. Tour: Ancient Egypt Hall. See July 5. 

July 20 — Thursday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

I I a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 
See July 13. 



Daily Highlight Tours 

Take a guided tour of the exhibits that 

make this Museum one of the world's 
finest and learn about the history of 
these displays. Tours are offered Monday 
through Friday at 1 1 a.m. and 2 p.m. 
Check the informational directories 
for weekend tours. 



Due to an editorial change of In The Field, we apologize for the late publication of dates, feel free to call 312.665.7400 for program updates. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



JULY/AUGUST 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



July 21— Friday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 24 — Monday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 25 — Tuesday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 26 — Wednesday 

1 1 :30 a.m. & 1 :30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

1:00 p.m. Tour: Ancient Egypt Hail. 

See July 5. 

July 27 — Thursday 

1 1 :30 a.m. & 1 :30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

July 28 — Friday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 



Please Excuse Our 
Renovations 

We are on the move! As you make your 
plans for visiting ttie Museum over the 
2000-2001 school year, you will need to 
be aware of the temporary closings and 
reorganization of some of the exhibition 
halls and resource centers. The Webber 
Resource Center and The Webber Gallery 
are closed for renovations and will 
reopen September 2, 2000 in Hall M-8E. 
Portions of our North American ethno- 
graphic collection, are currently off 
display. Artifacts from the Native 
American cultures of the South, 
Southwest, Plains and Great Lakes 
regions will be available for viewing in 
Hall M-8E beginning September 2, 2000. 
Our North American archaeology collec- 
tions, including the Hopewell materials, 
will also be unavailable to the public. 
The reinstallation of these collections 
will occur in stages beginning in late 
Winter 2000. 



July 31 — Monday 

1 1 :30 a.m. & 1 :30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

August 1 — Tuesday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

August 2 — Wednesday 

1 1 :30 a.m. & 1 :30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

1 p.m. Tour: Ancient Egypt Hall. See July 5. 

August 3 — Thursday 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

August 4 — Friday 

1 1 :30 a.m. & 1 :30 p.m Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue. See July 1. 

August 9 — Wednesday 

I p.m. Tour: Ancient Egypt Hall. See July 5. 

August 10 — Thursday 

I I a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 
See July 13. 

August 12 — Saturday 

1:30 p.m. Tibet Today and a Faith in Exile. 

View a slide presentation that takes you to 
places now open to tourists in Tibet, and 
refugee sites around the world. 

August 16 — Wednesday 

I p.m. Tour: Ancient Egypt Hall. See July 5. 

August 17 — Thursday 

I I a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 

See July 13. 



August 23 — Wednesday 

I p.m. Tour: Ancient Egypt Hall. See July 5. 

August 24 — Thursday 

I I a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 
See July 13. 

August 30 — Wednesday 

1 p.m. Tour: Ancient Egypt Hall. See July 5. 

Resource Centers 

Explore topics in more depth through 
a variety of resources, including computer 
programs, books, activity boxes and much 
more at the Africa Resource Center and the 
Daniel F. & Ada L. Rice Wildlife Research 
Station. Open daily from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 

Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Visit a traditional home of the Pawnee 
Indians and learn about their life on the 
Great Plains. See "Calendar of Events" 
page for a more complete description. 

Ruatepupuke: 

The Maori Meeting House 

Discover the world of the Maori people 
of New Zealand at the treasured and sacred 
Maori Meeting House. Open daily from 9 
a.m. to 5 p.m. 

McDonald's Fossil 
Preparation Laboratory 

Watch Field Museum preparators work 
on Sue, the largest and most complete 
T. rex ever found. Open daily from 9 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. 

Daily Highlight Tours 

Visit the exhibits that make this museum 
one of the world's finest and hear the sto- 
ries behind these displays. Tours are offered 
Monday through Friday at 1 1 a.m. and 2 
p.m. Check the informational directories 
for weekend tours. 




The Demotic description 
on the coffin of these two 
mummies reads "Children 
of Myron," indicating they 
were quite young when 
they died and were proba- 
bly related. 



Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories /ocated throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



JULY/AUGUST 2000 



8 CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Field Updates 



Sue's Debut 2000 




10 IN THE FIELD 




1 Sue displays her splendor as visitors 
look on in awe. 

2 More primping and priming before 
her big night. 

i\M ^ ^ Banner announcing Sue's arrival. 

■I 

g 4 Face painting at Sue Family Night. 

I 5 Sue Hendrickson signs autographs. 

z 
I 
O 

6 Local and national media broadcast 
Sue's debut. 

1 The President of the United States, 
Bill Clinton, and six U.S. senators visit 
to see Sue. (Left to right, front row) 
Senator Tom Harkin (D-IA), Senator 
Carl Levin (D-MI), Senator Evan 
Bayh (D-IN), Senator Robert 
Torricelli (D-NJ), John McCarter, Sue 
Hendrickson, President Bill Clinton, 
and Senator Richard Durbin (D-IL). 
Not pictured but present: Senator 
Tom Daschle (D-SD) 

8 Busiest day at Sue exhibit. 

9 Children hold a Dinosaur 
s Party banner in celebration 
s of the exhibit's opening. 




JULY . AUGUST 2000 1 1 



The Photo Archives 




From the Photo Archives 



In its annual report to the Board of Trustees 
in 1909, The Field Museum announced that 
Assistant Curator S.C. Simms secured the notes 
and materials the late anthropologist William 
Jones collected during his expedition to the 
Philippines. Out of respect, Simms erected a 
monument to mark Jones' burial place in Echague 
(above). Jones was murdered, for reasons that 
may never be known, by a group of men from 
the Ilongot tribe on the island of Luzon. 

While the inscription may be viewed as a 
snapshot of western attitudes during his era, 
Jones' diary and letters depict in vivid detail the 
daily lives of the people with whom he lived for 
more than a year, the incredible biodiversity of 
the Philippines and the risks and rewards of 
scientific exploration. 

Jones' passion for anthropology was born 
during his childhood on the Great Plains of the 
United States, where his Fox Indian grandmother, 
Katiqua, told him of the legends and customs of 



her people. Jones entered Harvard in 1896 and 
studied under the famous anthropologist F.W. 
Putnam and later under Franz Boas at Columbia, 
where he become the first Native American PhD 
in Anthropology. 

With no positions available to study Native 
American ethnology at the Field Museum, Jones 
agreed to come to Chicago in 1907 to begin 
preparations for an expedition to the Philippines. 
Landing at Manila in 1907, Jones sailed to the 
northern part of the island to the mouth of the 
Cagayan River that would take him into the heart 
of the Llongot territories. His diary describes 
the difficulties in moving his growing collections 
back toward Manila so that they could be shipped 
back to Chicago. The river was the only avenue 
available through most of the rough country, and 
warring among the various groups in the region 
impeded travels. Furthermore, moving his ethno- 
logical freight required that his hosts supply him 
with the bamboo poles to construct balsas, or 
rafts. Frequent delays in complying with his 
request led to an increasing number of heated 
exchanges between Jones and some Ilongot men. 

A disparity exists over the precise date, but 
one aft:ernoon in March or April 1909, Jones' 
party came to a remote beach near some rapids 
on the Cagayan to await the arrival of more rafi:s. 
As they talked and ate along the shore, one of the 
Ilongot men tapped Jones on the shoulder and 
said, "We shall bring more balsas tomorrow." At 
that same moment, the man struck at Jones with 
a large knife, catching him on the forehead. 
Twenty men quickly descended upon him, and he 
was speared beneath his heart. Two of Jones' ser- 
vants, who described the incident later, came to 
his rescue and managed to fight off the attack 
long enough to jump into a boat that was whisked 
away to safety by the rapids. Jones died hours 
later, still lying in the boat. In one of his last 
letters, he wrote: "I was born out of doors, now 
it looks as if I shall keep on under the open sky, 
and at the end, lie down out of doors, which 
of course, is as it should be." ITF 



12 IN THE FIELD 



Field Tidbits 



Ask a Scientist 



Do you have a question for one of 
our scientists? If so, please send it to 
the Publications Department, The 
Field Museum, 1400 South Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, or 
via e-mail to shines@fmnh.org. Only 
questions published in the magazine 
will be answered. An archive of 
questions and answers that have 
appeared in past issues can be 
found at vrww.fieldmuseum.org. 
askascientist.htm. 

Where would you most likely find 
dinosaur footprints? 

If the right types of rocks are pre- 
sent, dinosaur footprints can be 
found almost anywhere. The right 
types of rocks include those that 



are sedimentary in origin, come 
from continental (not marine) 
environments, and are from the 
Mesozoic Era (the time when 
dinosaurs lived, 250 to 55 million 
years ago). Specifically, tracks are 
usually preserved in areas where 
the water table was at or near 
the surface when the tracks were 
made. Your best chances of finding 
dinosaur tracks are in areas where 
significant erosion or mining activi- 
ties have exposed large portions 
of these rocks. 

Darin A. Croft 
Program Developer and 
Post-Doctoral Research Associate 
Department of Geology and 
Department of Education 




Dinosaur footprints, one of the few clues that 
mark their existence. 



Women's Board Luncheon Donates $40,000 to Jason Project 



Reaching for the Limits was the theme of the 2000 
Outreach Luncheon held by the Women's Board of 
the Field Museum. More than 500 guests attended 
the luncheon and lecture with Dr. Robert Ballard, 
deep-sea explorer and Titanic discoverer. The $40,000 
raised from the event was donated to Ballard's educa- 
tional "outreach," The Jason Project, at The 
Field Museum. 

The Jason Project, created by Ballard, is designed 
to excite and involve middle-school students (fifth 
through eighth grades) in science and technology and 
promises to spark the imagination of students and 
change the way teachers are teaching. The Field 
Museum participated in the Jason Project and has 
brought this award-winning program to more than 
12,000 Chicago public school students as well as five 
YMCA youth centers. 

Student and teachers gathered at the Field 
Museum for live, on location, satellite broadcasts 
with Ballard and a team of researchers at NASA's 
International Space station and NOAA's Aquarius 
Underwater Laboratory. During the telecasts students 
interacted with the research teams. 

Reaching for the Limits is the second in an ongoing 
Outreach Program sponsored by the Women's Board. 
The Board is comprised of 300 of Chicago's most 



civic-minded citizens with a shared interest in pro- 
moting awareness of The Field Museum's collections, 
research and public programs. The Women's Board 
thanks Merrill Lynch for their generous sponsorship 
of the entire luncheon. ITF 




Dr. Robert Ballard (center) and Chicago Public School 
students who participated in the Jason Project. 



JULY . AUGUST 2000 13 



Field Museum Tours at a Glance 



Wildlife of Southern Africa: 
Botswana and Zimbabwe 

Octobers- 19 

Duration: 14 days 

Museum Leader: Zoologist 

David Willard 

Price: $8,535, including airfare 

from Chicago 

Egypt Revisited 

October 15-29 

Duration: 1 5 days 

Museum Leader. Egyptologist 

Frank Yurco 

Price: Approximately $4,895, 

including airfare from Chicago 



For more information or free brochures, please call Field Museum Tours 
at 800.811.7244, or send them an e-mail at fmtours@sover.net. Please note 
that rates, prices and itineraries are subject to change and that prices are 
per person, double occupancy. 




In early February 2001, sail on a 16- 
day odyssey with Field Museum botanist 
William Burger that encompasses five 
Central American countries and two 
oceans, aboard the 138-passenger yacht. 
Wind Song. Or, in late February 2001, 
travel exclusively on land and explore 
Costa Rica's jungle river channels of 
Tortuguero, Poas Volcano, cloud forests 
of Monte Verde, and Palo Verde's 
wildlife areas on the Pacific. 



The Natural and Cultural 
History of Tsavo: A Tented 
Safari Through the Land 
of the Man-eaters 

March 3 -17, 2001 
Duration: 15 days 
Museum Leaders: Zoologist 
Bruce Patterson, archaeologists 
Chap and Sibel Kusimba, and 
ecologist Barbara Harney 
Price: $7,345, not including airfare 
from Chicago. 




Three outstanding African safaris are 
scheduled. In October, explore southern 
Africa and the vast wilderness of the 
Okavango Delta, Hwange National 
Park and Victoria Falls. In February 
2001 tour Tanzania's national parks 
— timed to witness the unforgettable 
wildebeest migration. In March 2001, 
join four Field Museum scientists for a 
tented safari focusing on Kenya's Tsavo 
National Park, home of the legendary 
man-eating lions. 



Special Note: A few spaces are 
still available for our July Calapagos 
Islands Adventure with Doug 
Stotz and our August/September 
Ancient Wonders of Peru with 
Jonathan Haas. Call FM Tours for 
the latest information. 



Amazon by Riverboat 

December 9-17 

Duration: 9 days 

Museum Leader. Botanist 

William Burger 

Price: $3,598, including airfare 

from Chicago 

Classic Tanzania Safari: 
Wildebeest Migration 

January 22 - February 4, 2001 
Duration: 14 days 

Museum Leaders: Zoologists William 
Stanley and Mary Ann Rogers 
Price: $7,940, including airfare 
from Chicago 



Egyptian Odyssey 

January 21 - February 4, 2001 
Duration: 15 days 
Museum Leaders: Frank Yurco, 
Egyptologist and Research 
Associate at The Field Museum 
Price: $5,550, including airfare 
from Chicago 

Central America Under Sail 

February 10-25,2001 
Duration: 16 days 
Museum Leader. Botanist 
William Burger 
Price: Starts at $7,990, not 
including airfare 



On the Drawing Board 

Natural Wonders of Hawaii 2/01 
Ancient Wonders of Israel 3/01 
Treasures of Oaxaca 4/01 
Archaeology of Southwest USA 5/01 
Circumnavigation of Crete 4/01 



Baja: Among the Great Whales 

March 9 -17, 2001 
Duration: 9 days 
Museum Leader Zoologist 
Janet Voight 
Price: Starts at $2,990, 
not including airfare 

Costa Rica Adventure 

February 25 - March 6, 2001 
Duration: 10 days 
Museum Leader: Botanist 
William Burger 

Price: $3,995, including airfare 
from Chicago 






*?^-w 




Unravel the mysterious world of the Egyptians with Field 
Museum Egyptologist Frank Yurco. In October, Egyptian 
Odyssey offers a comprehensive introduction to the many 
major archaeological sites. In January, Egypt Revisited is 
designed for those who want an indepth, second visit. One 
highlight of this tour is a visit to Abu Simbel that is timed to 
witness the sun shining straight down the axis of the temple 
to illuminate the statues of the gods in the sanctuary! 



Hi- FIELD 



September 

October 

2000 



The Field Museum's Membership Publ i^a t i o n 




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Kremlin Gold 

1000 Years of Russian 
Gems and Jewels 

Mappmg Evolution: 
^* '^^ai.evel Cha: 



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From the President 




Local Address, 
Global Domain 



Anthropologist Frederick Ward 
Putnam stood before Chicago's 
leadership on November 29, 1891 
and outlined a plan for a perma- 
nent museum to house the cultural 
and biological collections being 
assembled for the World's 
Columbian Exposition. The fair, 
scheduled to open in 1893, would 
bring together thousands of exam- 
ples of human achievement and 
natural diversity from around the 
globe. Putnam argued that by 
building a museum, Chicago could 
retain these treasures for the edu- 
cation and improvement of the 
community. These collections 
formed the nucleus of this institu- 
tion, which would become a 
centralizing force for the burgeon- 
ing city on the prairie. 

Since then, humanity has 
suffered two world wars, unfath- 
omable atrocities, wide-spread 
extinctions and the destruction 
of natural habitats. Humankind 
has developed technologies that 
can connect the entire planet in 
a single instant, and technologies 
that can destroy it in the same 
space of time. The events of the 
museum's first full century under- 
score our obligation to understand 
the earth's cultures and environ- 



ments in all their abundant diver- 
sity. The accomplishments of The 
Field Museum during this time 
underscore its ever-increasing 
global relevance. 

The collections have grown 
both in number and in the diver- 
sity of geographic areas they 
represent. Thanks to gifts, pur- 
chases, and collecting expeditions 
to nearly every part of the globe. 
The Field Museum today stewards 
internationally-significant collec- 
tions of cultural objects and 
biological specimens numbering 
over 21 million. Whether in Papua 
New Guinea or Peru, Madagascar 
or Lake Michigan, the world is 
our workplace. Whether they are 
working out in the field or in our 
on site laboratories and collections 
facilities, independently or in close 
collaboration with staff from other 
institutions, our scientists are 
creating critical information that 
contributes to humanity's under- 
standing of the planet's cultural 
and biological diversity. 

The Museum's commitment 
to exploring diversity around the 
world actually begins at home, here 
in Chicago. It can be seen in our 
work force and in our adherence 
to the belief that we are a more 
productive and progressive institu- 
tion when our employees represent 
all ages, communities, ethnic 
groups, beliefs, disciplines and 
skills. We strive to be a workplace 
that celebrates differences and 
encourages diverse points of view. 
Similarly, our leadership reflects 
the value of diversity. As only one 
example, among our board of 
trustees, 20% are women and 20% 
are members of minority groups. 

Our exhibition programming is 
consistent with a tradition of cele- 
brating the world's peoples, with 
permanent exhibitions on Africa, 
Asia, the Pacific and the Americas 
and an exhibition specifically about 
diversity called Living Together. 
Earlier this year nearly 298,000 
people came to view The Dead Sea 



We would like to know what you think about "In The Field". . . . 

Please send comments or questions to Steve Mines, The Field Museum, 
1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496, or via e-mail at 
shines@fmnh.org. 



Scrolls, and last month, in a unique 
partnership with The Mexican 
Fine Arts Center in Chicago, we 
opened Americanos: Latino Life in 
the United States, a photographic 
celebration of Latino cultures in 
this country. And in October, as 
this issue features on its cover, 
we will present the treasures of 
the State Museums of The 
Moscow Kremlin. 

The Museum hosts festivals 
celebrating the world's cultures, 
such as the upcoming Celebracion 
on October 5 and 6, the African 
Heritage Festival and other com- 
munity-wide events. In addition, 
we conduct community outreach 
programs such as The Two of 
Us, which focuses on early child- 
hood education, and the Field 
Ambassadors, through which 
we reach out to the Chicago 
public schools. 

And then, of course, there is 
you, the member and visitor. In 
recent weeks, because of the large 
crowds we have been enjoying, I 
have spent many hours out on the 
public floors of the Museum greet- 
ing visitors, answering questions 
and giving directions. I am thrilled 
by the tremendous diversity I 
have been seeing first hand. This 
museum draws people from every 
part of our vast metropolitan area, 
from the inner city to the farthest 
suburbs. In addition, travelers from 
across the Midwest, throughout 
the country and around the world 
visit The Field Museum. They 
represent every age, income and 
education level. 

Just as it did in that summer of 
1893, the world continues to come 
to Chicago. In The Field Museum's 
time-honored tradition of diversity, 
and our never-ending pursuit of 
knowledge about the earth and its 
peoples, we continue to bring the 
world to our audiences. 

John W. McCarter Jr. 
President &■ CEO 



Inside 



Marine zoologist Harold Voris 
investigates sea level changes and 
its impact on evolution. 



Audubon's journal is on display 
in the Museum's library and 
Journal of Voyage describes 
Audubon's long and tedious trip 
to England and his acceptance 
into British society. 



10 



Carl Akeley was the Field 
Museums Chief Taxidermist 
from 1896 to 1909. During his 
time at the Museum he not only 
created fabulous dioramas but 
also created a motion picture 
camera that changed the film 
industry. 

Your Guide 
to The Field 

A complete schedule of events 
for September/October. 





Presence of extremely deep 
water between the islands is 
why the mammals of the East 
Indian Archipelago differ from 
the Western side. See page 2 
for the full story. 



Kremlin Gold: 1000 Years of Russian 
Gems and Jewels brings Russian 
history and culture to Chicago. 
See Your Guide to The Field for 
more information. 




Americanos: Latino Life in the United 
States explores the impact of Latino 
culture in our country. 



INTHEFIELD 

September/October 2000, Vol.71, No. 5 

Editor: 

Lisa Laske, k/g communications, ltd. 

Design Consultants: 
Hayward Blal<e & Company 



In the Field (ISSN #1051-4546) is published 
bimonthly by The Field Museum. Copyright 
©2000 The Field Museum. Annual subscriptions 
are $20; $10 tor schools. Museum membership 
includes In the Field subscription. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of The Field 
Museum. Notification of address change should 
include address label and should be sent to 
Membership Department. POSTMASTER: Send 
address changes to In the Field, The Field 
Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 
IL 60605-2496. Periodicals postage paid at 
Chicago, Illinois. 

This issue's cover photograph: Diamond 
Crown of Tsar Ivan Alexeivich, Courtesy of State 
Museum, Moscow Kremlin, © 2000. 



The Field 

Museum 



The Field Museum salutes the people 
of Chicago for their long-standing, 
generous support of the Museum 
through the Chicago Park District. 

The Field Museum 

1400 South Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, IL 50605-2496 

ph 312.922.9410 
www.fieldmuseum.org 



Around Campus 



Shedd Aquarium 



In conjunction with its new exhibit, 
Amazon Rising: Seasons of the River, 
Shedd Aquarium presents a three-lecture 
series. Treasures and Terrors: Three Tales 
of Working in the Amazon. On September 
27, ethnobotanist Mark Plotkin will take 
guests into the realm of Witchdoctors and 
Biotechnology to examine the synergy of 
natural pharmaceuticals, indigenous knowl- 
edge and high-tech research methods to 
treat "incurable" diseases. On October 25, 
Michael Goulding of the Rainforest Alliance 
talks candidly about The Conservation Flow 
of the Amazon, and how the world's richest 
river valley is an arena for ecological, social 
and economic agendas. On November 29, 
National Geographic photographer Joel 



Sartore shares his harrowing experiences 
amid caimans, wild pigs and flesh-eating 
parasites in Madidi National Park, Bolivia. 
Each program begins at 6 p.m. and includes 
viewing of Amazon Rising, cocktails and 
buffet, the presentation and a reception. 
Tickets are $45 per lecture, or $120 for the 
series. Call 312.692.3333 to register 

Adler Planetarium 

The Adler Planetarium will present The 
Remarkable Work of Copernicus, Hevelius 
and Other Historic Polish Astronomers from 
October 6, 2000 through January 28, 2001. 
The exhibition is an awe-inspiring display 
of rare antique books by pioneering Polish 
astronomers, presented by the Adler in 



partnership with the Polish American 
Congress — Illinois Division and the Con- 
sulate General of the Republic of Poland in 
Chicago. Also on October 27, the StarRider 
Theater Show Premier is Black Holes: Into 
the Dark Abyss. In this Interactive show the 
audience will explore the force of gravity 
and the regions surrounding Black Holes 
which exhibit strange effects that help 
scientists better understand the nature 
of extreme gravity. 

The Field Museum 

See the Calendar Section for a list of 
programs and exhibitions offered in 
September and October. 



SEPTEMBER • OCTOBER 2000 1 



Mapping Evolution: 

The Sea Level Change Phenomenon 

Karen Sandrick, Volunteer, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles 




Map of Southeast Asia, dated 1653, from the Boone Collection in The Field Museum 
Library's Mary W. Runnells Rare Book Room. Commander Gilbert E. Boone and 
Katharine Phelps Boone built extensive collections of Japanese cultural artifacts while 
Commander Boone was stationed in Japan in the late 1950's as a naval intelligence 
officer. The Boones gave those collections to The Field Museum, in addition to their 
impressive library which demonstrated a broad range of interests. This map is one 
of a group of 65 sheets from a 17th century Dutch atlas. 



2 IN THE FIELD 



When Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was formulating 
the theory of evolution, he struggled to make sense 
of obvious conundrums in the biological world: If 
organisms evolve from common ancestors and adapt to 
their surroundings, how can distant parts of the world, 
such as Europe, Asia and Africa, harbor the same ani- 
mal or plant families? How can wildly different plants 
and animals exist on strings of the same island chain? 
In particular, how can Southeast Asia and Australia, 
which have the same rainfall patterns, temperature 
and other physical conditions, have such widely diverse 
animal and plant populations? 

It wasn't until Darwin began drawing maps to plot 
the distribution of some types of flora and fauna that 
he was able to identify critical barriers that interfered 
with the movement and ultimate evolution of species. 
In fact, Darwin's maps, in combination with nautical 
charts and descriptions of the locations of species, 
led him to the realization that the presence of 
extremely deep water between major islands was 
the reason mammals on the eastern end of the East 
Indian Archipelago bore little resemblance to those 
on the western side. 

Another forefather of evolutionary theory, Alfred 
Russel Wallace (1823-1913), also turned to maps to 
support his views. Although Wallace is not as well 
known as Darwin, he made many important contribu- 
tions to the theory of evolution, and is considered to 
be the father of animal geography. 

Wallace's 1855 paper proposing that new species 
evolve from pre-existing ones was based on his obser- 
vations of birds on the islands of Southeast Asia. 
For 8 years during the mid- 1800s, Wallace traveled 
throughout Southeast Asia, observing and collecting 
wildlife specimens from Singapore to New Guinea. He 
was struck in particular by the huge difference in bird 
species on two islands only 20 miles away from each 
other. Birds on Bali were similar to those on islands 
to the west — Java and Sumatra — as well as Malaysia. 
Birds on Lombok, however, were more closely related 
to species on New Guinea and in Australia to the east. 

After further study on other islands in the region, 
Wallace concluded that there was a distinct boundary 
that separated animals and plants into Asian and Aus- 
tralian geographic regions. On a map of the Malaysian 
Archipelago, Wallace marked this boundary between 
the Philippines, Borneo and Sumatra on the west and 
Sulawesi, New Guinea and Australia on the east. 

According to historian Jane R. Camerini, author 
of Evolution, Biogeography, and Maps. An Early History of 
Wallace's Line, ever since Wallace drew what has come 
to be known as Wallace's Line (1863), scientists have 
been using maps not only to guide travel but to orga- 
nize and communicate information about animal and 
plant populations, predict the range of biological dis- 
tribution and explore evolutionary theories. 

Present-day maps can only go so far in helping to 
explain the genetic relationships among species, how- 
ever, because they depict the natural physical barriers 
between geographic regions as they currently exist. 




Pleistocene sea level maps may provide clues to understand- 
ing why the Taiwanese macaque differs genetically from 
macaques on the Asian mainland. 

Yet the barriers that influenced the origins of species 
in Southeast Asia occurred over millions of years as a 
result of massive shifts in tectonic plates that caused 
mountains and valleys to emerge, eruptions of lava 
from volcanoes on the ocean floor that created new 
land masses, and fluctuations in sea level that trans- 
formed shallow seas between islands into continuous 
stretches of land and vice versa. Of particular interest 
are events of the past 2 million years, the Pleistocene 
Epoch, when great sheets of ice advanced and 
retreated and in the process significantly changed sea 
levels. So scientists interested in understanding the 
pattern of evolution of specific animals or plants need 
maps that reliably reconstruct changes in land and sea 
configurations during this time. 

Although some maps in the scientific literature 
depict land bridges and river systems during the 
Pleistocene age, the maps typically focus on only one 
factor — the extent to which the continental shelf in 
Southeast Asia was exposed when the sea level was 
100 meters below the present level. The maps do not 
reflect shorelines during a specific portion of the 
Pleistocene period. Nor do they estimate the effects 
of different sea levels (10 to 120 meters below present 
level), the length of time a particular sea level persisted 
or the number of times sea levels rose and fell. These 
time frames are particularly important, because the 
longer a physical barrier existed between geographic 
areas, the more likely species in each area developed 
independently. 

The gaps in knowledge about sea level and its 
effects on land bridges in Southeast Asia led Harold 
Voris, Field Museum Curator of Amphibians and Rep- 
tiles, on a series of data-mining journeys of his own. 

Voris has been studying a group of Asian snakes 
known as the homalopsines that are making a transi- 
tion from the terrestrial to an aquatic way of life. One 
species of homalopsine, Cerberus, lives in coastal areas 
from India to Australia. 



SEPTEMBER • OCTOBER 2000 3 



Voris began examining the phenomenon of chang- 
ing sea levels to gain a better understanding of the 
origin of observed genetic differences between popu- 
lations of Cerberus in various locales. His theory was 
that if sea levels drop, there would be greater expanses 
of land between bodies of water, which essentially 
would form a barrier for the dispersal of marine and 
coastal species, like Cerberwi. "What's important for 
dispersal of Cerberus is continuous habitat along shore- 
lines. So if a drop in sea level produces more land 
between Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, it creates a 
sea barrier between snake populations in the Andaman 
Sea and the South China Sea. If this sea barrier stays 
in place for an extended period of time, you can get 
speciation. The Cerberus populations would be geneti- 
cally separated long enough for them to evolve into 
different species," he explains. 

Yet when Voris searched for maps that traced the 
rise and fall of sea level over the past 250,000 years, he 
could find only scattered examples in scientific papers 
and texts. And descriptions about the characteristics 
in sea floor topography of Southeast Asia often were 
sketchy or dated; some sea level maps had been created 
as far back as the 1700s. 

Once he learned that most of the data on estimat- 
ing past sea levels came from ocean depth contours, 
Voris scanned the most detailed and up-to-date 
resources on sea floor mapping, including U.S. govern- 
ment, international and private data bases that have 
accumulated more than 7 million soundings of ocean 
topography. He also used findings from side scanning 
radar, which has been used by petroleum companies to 
detect oil reserves in the Java Sea, as well as maps from 
the Field Museum and University of Chicago libraries. 
Sonar soundings and side scanning radar measure and 
plot the sea floor by detecting changes in sound or 
energy levels that bounce off sea mounts and valleys. 




Harold Voris, Field Museum Curator of Amphibians and 
Reptiles, and scientific illustrator Clara Simpson use many 
sources of published data to formulate sea level maps of 
Southeast Asia during the Pleistocene age. 



With current information on ocean depth contours 
as well as published data on sea level changes in the 
past, Voris was able to estimate the changes in sea level 
that occurred during the major ice ages of the 
Pleistocene age (2 million years ago). With this infor- 
mation, Voris could reconstruct the coastlines of 
mainland Asia and the islands of Southeast Asia dur- 
ing three time periods — 17,000, 150,000, and 250,000 
years ago. The information from side scanning radar 
helped him plot the rivers that may have served as 
corridors for freshwater species in the past. 

But Voris was interested not only in the land and 
sea barriers that appear when sea levels fall and rivers 
emerge; he also wanted to consider their longevity. 
"If sea level was at or below 75 meters half the time, 
a land bridge would become very well established, and 
species would have plenty of time to disperse across 
it. But if sea levels went up and down every few 100 
years, a land bridge wouldn't have existed long enough 
for vegetation to produce a suitable habitat for species 
to disperse across. So both the extent and the duration 
of sea level change determine the effectiveness of a 
land or sea bridge as a corridor for the dispersal of 
species," he says. 

While mapping has been an important tool for 
hundreds of years, Voris is the first to produce a series 
of maps that illustrate some of the processes and 
dynamics of sea level change during the Pleistocene 
age. Voris' work brought data together from many 
sources to calculate the percentage of time sea levels 
met or fell below certain points. He reviewed informa- 
tion from coral reef terraces in New Guinea that 
provided an indication of the effect of tectonic move- 
ment of land on shorelines. The science is complicated 
but in essence reflects how the formation of moun- 
tains can push coral reefs inland from beneath the sea. 

Voris also estimated the number of times sea levels 
fluctuated from oxygen isotope ratios, which is analo- 
gous to carbon dating and tells when a phenomenon, 
like sea level change, occurred in prehistoric times. He 
turned over all this data to Field Museum Scientific 
Illustrator Clara Simpson, who applied computer 
graphics and interpretative skills to produce maps that 
reconstructed the coastlines of islands and continents 
in Southeast Asia during the Pleistocene period. 

Each of the maps provides interesting insights in 
biogeography. When sea level was 75 meters or lower 
than today (approximately 32% of the time 17,000 
years ago), most of the continental shelves were 
exposed, forming lowland connections between 
Sumatra, Java and Borneo and adding 3.2 million 
square kilometers of land in Indo-China. The islands 
of Hainan and Taiwan were joined to mainland China, 
and Sri Lanka was linked with India. It's also likely 
that one or more freshwater lakes or swamps existed 
at various times in depressions where the Gulf of Siam 
is now located, and a peat swamp covered the eastern 
coast of the Malay Peninsula (see map, p. 5). 



4 IN THE FIELD 



The map of coastlines at a sea level of 50 meters 
or lower, which occurred at least 30% of the time 
between 17,000 and 250,000 years ago, shows extensive 
land bridges between the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Java and Borneo. But Taiwan is separate from main- 
land China, and the Gulf of Thailand, the Java Sea 
and the Gulf of Carpenteria in Australia are significant 
bodies of water. And river corridors for freshwater 
species are missing between Sumatra and Borneo. 

Voris is using the Field Museum's computer-based 
maps in combination with other lines of investigation 
to understand the dispersal of Cerberus. "We think that 
when sea levels fell below 50 meters, sea barriers iso- 
lated populations of Cerberus into separate basins and 
displaced some populations over large distances. Our 
analysis of the genetic makeup of Cerberus populations 
supports this hypothesis," he says. 

Voris also hopes that these Pleistocene age sea 
level maps may be used as templates for scientists who 
are investigating the plants and animals of Southeast 
Asia. "Whether they're working on beetles, butterflies, 
shrimp or coral — all the botany and zoology in this 
part of the world affected by the sea level change 
phenomenon," he points out. 

That is why he presented the maps, as well as 
details on how they were constructed, at the 
Biogeography of Southeast Asia 2000 meeting in 
Leiden, The Netherlands, in June, in a paper that 
will be published in the Journal of Biogeography later 
this year, and on a Web site, which went live in 
August: http://www.fmnh.org/research_collections/ 
20ology/zoo_sites/seamaps/. 

Voris got help and encouragement on his map work 
from Jack Fooden, Field Museum adjunct curator of 
mammals, who has been plotting the distribution of 
all species of a genus of Asian macaque for the past 30 
years. The genus, which includes 19 species, extends 
from Sumatra to Borneo and Java all the way to 
Sulawesi, the Philippines, Hainan, Taiwan and Japan. 

"One species with about 10 subspecies inhabits 
many of these islands. Another species inhabits 
Hainan Island and adjacent mainland China, and the 
island form is identical to the mainland form. Each 
of two other species are entirely restricted to Taiwan 
and Japan," Fooden says. 

"The puzzle is, why is that so? Presumably the 
answer has to do with when and how those monkeys 
got to those islands. And that is related to sea level 
change — how deep or how shallow the straits were 
between the islands and between the islands and the 
mainland," Fooden adds. 

The strait between Taiwan and mainland China 
generally is deeper than 100 meters, and there is a 
ridge that forms an underwater bridge that is no more 
than 60 meters below the surface. During the time of 
the last glacier, when sea level was 120 meters lower 
than it is today and Taiwan was connected to China, 
the monkeys easily could have migrated across the 
land bridge without getting wet. 




Map of sea level 75 meters below present level shows that the 
islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo were connected and one 
or more freshwater lakes or swamps existed in what is now 
the Gulf of Siam. 

The strait between mainland China and Hainan 
is much narrower and shallower. It makes sense, there- 
fore, that the same form of macaque lives on both 
Thailand and Hainan. But the monkeys on Taiwan 
are genetically different from those in China. "The 
monkeys presumably did not get to Taiwan at the 
same time that monkeys got to Hainan. That's a diffi- 
cult problem to solve, but it would seem that the 
dispersal of monkeys from the mainland to Taiwan 
did not occur at the time of the last glacial period but 
during a prior glaciation," Fooden explains. 

Fooden believes the Pleistocene sea level map 
templates are valuable because they coalesce data 
from a variety of sources. "There hasn't been such a 
comprehensive set of maps up to now. The maps also 
incorporate some of the vast new quantities of infor- 
mation that were not available before, such as data 
from radar techniques for sensing the sea floor," he says. 

The maps also provide historical context. "We know 
about the distribution of land and water in Southeast 
Asia today, and we know how land and water affects 
the distribution of plants and animals. Presumably, 
those same kinds of factors affected their distribution 
in the past. The maps are one way we can begin to 
visualize that historical information," says Fooden. 

Wallace believed that the similarity of fauna on 
different islands in Southeast Asia was due to dispersal 
across shallow seas by swimming or rafting. He wasn't 
aware that sea levels had changed dramatically thou- 
sands of years ago and therefore that animals in the 
Pleistocene Epoch could disperse by walking across 
areas of exposed land. "The maps of sea level change 
represent a refinement of our understanding and doc- 
umentation of the importance of sea level change in 
influencing the distribution of plants and animals 
over Sumatra, Java, Borneo and mainland Indo-China," 
said Voris. In fact, Voris' work may help many students 
of biogeography in their search for understanding 
today's distributions of plants and animals in 
Southeast Asia. ITF 



SEPTEMBER • OCTOBER 2000 5 



Field Updates 




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The final entry (Dec. 31) from Audubon's 1826 journal. 

Journal of a Voyage 

Be« WiHiams 

FieU Mwiettm Librarian 

"I Left My Beloved Wife Lucy Audubon 
and My Son John Woodhouse on Tuesday afternoon 
the 26th April, bound to England." 

So begins John James Audubon's handwritten journal 
of his pivotal trip to England in 1826 to seek publica- 
tion of his paintings of Americas birds. The gift of 
Charles W. Palmer and family, this remarkable manu- 
script now resides in the Library's Mary W. Runnells 
Rare Book Room. There it joins the splendid Runnells 
copy of Audubon's The Birds of America (London, 1827- 
1838), one of the finest surviving sets of the double 
elephant folio. 

Addressed to his wife Lucy, the journal describes 
Audubon's long, tedious voyage, his introduction to 
influential families and individuals in England, and the 
whirlwind of his acceptance into British society and 
the scientific establishment. Within weeks of his 
arrival in Liverpool, Audubon's new friends and sup- 
porters arranged an exhibition of his paintings at the 
Royal Institution there, with similar shows to follow 
in Manchester and Edinburgh. Throughout his ever- 
growing series of introductions, Audubon was moved 



by the warmth and generosity of his new friends and 
acquaintances, and was especially struck by an ease of 
manner where he had least expected it. On meeting 
Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby, he was astonished to see 
this patron of naturalists and artists drop to his knees 
to closely examine and discuss Audubon's paintings. By 
the end of October his chain of introductions led him 
to William Home Lizars, Edinburgh publisher and 
engraver, who by mid-November produced the first 
prints of Tloe Birds of America, laying the foundation for 
the nearly mythic status Audubon and his book were 
to achieve even during his lifetime. 

It is Audubon himself, "quite dazzled with uncer- 
tainties of hope and fear," that the journal gives us. 
The date he chose for departure on his momentous 
voyage- April 26 -was his birthday, and the journal 
repeatedly shows us Audubon on a threshold, gripped 
by a sense that success in his mission will mean his 
own birth into a new life, and that he will return to his 
beloved America a changed man. After nearly six 
weeks of slow progress through the Gulf of Mexico 
following their departure from New Orleans, 
Audubon reports on June 23: 

We at last Entered the Atlantic Ocean this Morning 23d 
with a propitious Breese — The Land Birds have left us and, 
I — I leave my Beloved America, my Wife Children and 
acquaintances — The purpose of this Voyage is to visit not 
only England hut all Europe with the intention of Publishing 
My Work of the Birds of America; if not sadly disapointed. 
My return to these happy shores will be the brightest Birth 
day I shall have ever enjoyed: Oh America, Wife, Children 
and acquaintances Farewell! 

Audubon never doubted his hard won accomplish- 
ments as an ornithological painter or the significance 
of his vast fund of observational knowledge of birds in 
the wild. He was fearful, however, about the response 
his work would receive from the circle of the more 
academic ornithologists and systematists. The term 
"academician," in fact, had acquired a sour taste to 
Audubon after his conflict with George Ord in 
Philadelphia. Ord was collaborator with Alexander 
Wilson on the latter's American Ornithology, 
(Philadelphia, 1808-1814), authored the final volume 
of the work after Wilson's death in 1813 and produced 
further editions in the following years. When 
Audubon had sought publication of his paintings in 
Philadelphia, Ord became his relentless antagonist, 
belittling Audubon's learning and enlisting colleagues 
in a campaign against Audubon. Ord and Wilson's 
engraver, Alexander Lawson, called Audubon an 
"imposter" and widely denigrated his skills. Ord con- 
tinued his opposition to Audubon in England, even 
trying to prevent his election to membership in 
learned societies. 

By contrast, the naturalists Audubon met in 
England appreciated the depth of his knowledge of 
living birds and valued the skill evident in his dynamic 
paintings. On December 13 Audubon met and spent 
the day with the ornithologist Prideaux John Selby, 



6 IN THE FIELD 



whose Illustrations of British Ornithology, then being 
issued with life-size portraits of birds engraved by 
Lizars, would later earn him the title of "the English 
Audubon." Selby and his equally well-known collabo- 
rator Sir William Jardine were so impressed with 
Audubon's knowledge and talent that they requested 
lessons in his techniques of painting, which he duly 
provided. In the journal Audubon reports to Lucy on 
that first meeting with Selby, reassuring her he is not 
at all like Ord: 

Mr Selby is a Gentleman Naturalist — not in the least 
resembling the Venomous Tallow Chandler of Philadelphia, 
the possessor of 3 Greek words, 7 of Latin, none belonging to 
what ought to be his usual Language, and the Describer of 
Objects unknown yet to the Almighty. Mr Selby is not a man 
that would say at a large meeting of the Wernerian Society 
that he would be damned rather than to give me a favorable 
vote of Election — he is not a man who would say that I 
knew nothing about Drawing, nor the habits of Birds, no my 
Lucy Mr Selby is not an Hipocritical Fool I assure thee — 

A published version of the journal by Audubon 
scholar Alice Ford (1967; 2nd ed. 1987) now proves, 
by comparison with the original, to be more of a 
rewriting of Audubon's text than a faithful transcrip- 
tion. With the stated intention of making the journal 
more accessible to the modern reader, Ford justifies 
regularizing Audubon's spelling and punctuation, cor- 
recting his grammar, rearranging his word-order and 
rephrasing passages that seemed unclear to her. The 
result is a transformation of Audubon's vigorous style 
into proper school prose, stripping away much of its 
verbal richness and meaningful idiosyncracy. The effect 
is felt from the very first sentence. Compare the literal 
transcription on page 6 with Ford's version, given here 
with her changes italicized:"! left my beloved wife 
Lucy Audubon and my son John Woodhouse on 
Tuesday [afternoon is deleted] the 26th of April, bound 
for England." Such alterations seem entirely gratuitous 
and beg the question of exactly what Ford means by 
the statement in her foreword that her transcription is 
"scrupulously faithful to the original manuscript." At 
its worst Ford's rewriting changes the literal sense of 
Audubon's statements, sometimes into the opposite of 
his meaning. As his ship nears England, for example, 
Audubon spins a political metaphor from a persistent 
cold, damp fog that obscures the sun over the Old 
World just as the culture of Europe dims "that real 
hope of Freedom now only better felt in the Western 



Hemisphere ... The Englishmen on Board pro- 
nounced it. Clear weather of England, but I named it the 
Blasting atmosphere of Comfort." Ford makes the final 
phrase "the atmosphere that blasts comfort," contra- 
dicting Audubon's clear meaning and transforming the 
boundlessly energetic Kentucky Woodsman into 
a lover of comfort. An accurate transcription of the 
journal is now in progress, intended to serve as a face- 
to-face guide to each page of the original in a facsimile 
publication of the manuscript. 

Audubon's journal also served as his sketchbook, 
especially during the tedious weeks aboard the ship. 
Fourteen full-page pencil sketches include a dolphin, 
a shark and other fishes, a dusky petrel, several 
sketches of the ship's crew and captain, and three 
delicate landscape scenes done in the Derbyshire coun- 
tryside. Four sketches of the crew appear on the final 
pages of the journal, and are "upside down" since 
Audubon turned the volume over and opened it from 
the back for these sketches that amused both him 
and the crew. 

Through a remarkable circumstance, a 
leaf removed from the journal — possibly 
by Audubon himself — was rediscovered 
in private hands and acquired by the 
journal's appraiser following the Palmers' 
gift of the volume. On its reverse the leaf 
bears a fifth "upside down" sketch of the 
ship's crew, and on front Audubon's final 
entry in the journal, dated "Edinburgh 
31st December 1826, Sunday Night 12 
o'clock." Ford had seen this leaf and 
includes it in her book, but refers to it as 
"addressed to Lucy." Although perhaps 
serving as a cover letter to Lucy when he sent her the 
journal, the entry is addressed to the book itself, his 
constant companion during the most momentous 
events of his life: "and now My Dear book, must I part 
with thee?" Audubon consigns his fate, however "happy 
or miserable," to his "Supreme comander," and con- 
cludes: "go let my Wife read this, let my Children read 
it — let the world know these my heartfelt sentiments, 
and believe me my Dear Book, for ever thy most 
obliged, yes truly obliged Friend. John J. Audubon. 
Citizen of the United States of North America." 

The Friends of The Field Museum Library have 
committed to the acquisition of this leaf returning it 
to its point of origin, and completing Audubon's record 
of the birth of his great masterwork. ITF 




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Above: Pencil 
sketch of a 
sailor on back 
of last leaf. 

Left: Closing 
entry of Audubon's 
1826 journal. 



SEPTEMBER • OCTOBER 2000 7 



Field Updates 



Americanos: Latino Life in the United States 
La Vida Latina en los Estados Unidos 



Actor, producer, activist Edward James Olmos had a 
dream to capture Latino life in the United States and 
to expose the world to its beauty and culture. His idea 
became a book of photographs and essays titled, 
Americanos: Latino Life in the United States, (Little, Brown 
and Company, 1999.) that reveals a people who are 
"diverse in culture, color ideas, and dreams, but who 
share a common desire to make a better life for them- 
selves, their families, and their communities." After 
publication, the book became a traveUng photographic 
exhibition produced by the Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service. The Field Museum, in 
collaboration with the Mexican Fine Arts Center 
Museum, is pleased to bring this extraordinary, bilin- 
gual exhibit to its members from August 19 to 
November 12. 

The 120 images organized into six sections repre- 
senting different aspects of Latino life are accompanied 
by panels of text by prominent Latinos, including nov- 




Ahove: Ramona Sandoval, 80, spends 
a light moment with her granddaugh- 
ter Jasmine Zuhia, in Los Angeles, 
California. 

Right: Carlos Santana, 1998 tour. 
Concord California. 




elist Carlos Fuentes, singer Celia Cruz, novelist Julia 
Alvarez and baseball player Sandy Alomar. The Field 
Museum features the sections depicting Family, Work, 
Sports and Culture and the Arts, while the Mexican 
Fine Arts Center Museum showcases photos of 
Community and Spiritual Life. Two of the 30 photog- 
raphers who contributed to the exhibition work in 
Chicago: Antonio Perez, photographer from the 
Spanish language newspaper Exito, and Jose Osorio, 
photographer from the Chicago Tribune. 

In the introductory panel, Fuentes writes, "Recog- 
nize yourself in he and she who are not like you and 
me." Some of the panels reflect the struggles of 
immigrants in the United States as with California 
Congressman, Xavier Becerra, who writes of his par- 
ents Maria Teresa and Manuel who came to California 
and "helped build our nation from the ground up, 
laying pipe and setting concrete." He concludes his 
essay with, "Whether in the House or in the home, 

I am realizing my dreams because of the sacrifice and 
devotion of Maria Teresa and Manuel." Intimate 
glimpses into the souls of the Latino people make this 
exhibition a powerful and enriching experience. 

Since art has the power to transcend all mediums, 
Americanos: Latino Life in the United States is now an 
HBO documentary conceived and co-produced by 
Olmos and directed by Andy Young and Susan Todd 
celebrating the unique heritage of Latino-Americans. 
In addition, Americanos: Latino Life in the United States — 
A Musical Celebration was produced featuring a 
wonderful collection of Latino-American musical 
artists, including Ruben Blades, Los Lobos, Santana, 
Celia Cruz, Eddie Palmieri and many more. The music 
can be heard in the exhibition. The documentary can 
be viewed during the Museum's Celebracion 2000: 
Americanos (see the Get Smart section). 

Olmos summed up his experience in creating 
Americanos: Latino Life in the United States: "There have 
been few experiences in my life that have been as 
rewarding to me as the making of Americanos. As it 
evolved, it became a source of inner peace, and short of 
the birth of my children, nothing has inspired me more." 
The Field Museum will provide trolley service to the 
Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum every Saturday that 
the exhibition is open in October and November from 

II a.m. to 5 p.m. ITF 

The Chicago presentation is sponsored by Target Stores and 
Marshall Field's Project Imagine. Americanos, a project of 
Olmos Productions, has been organized by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service and the Smithsonian 
Center for Latino Initiatives. The exhibition has been made 
possible through the generous support of Time Warner Inc. 
and US West. Additional support has been provided by 
Farmers Insurance. Media support provided by Exito. 



8 IN THE FIELD 



Membership News 



Kremlin Gold: 1000 Years of Russian Gems 
Members' Viewing Days 



October 17, 3- 10 p.m. 
October 19, 9-4 p.m. 
October 29, 5-10 p.m. 

Drawn from the vast array of treasures in Moscow's 
Kremlin Museums, Kremlin Gold will present 120 mas- 
terpieces of gems and jewelry spanning one thousand 
years of Russian history. Illustrating major chapters 
from Russia's storied past, the objects in the exhibition 
include many never before seen in the United States. 
Thousand-year-old icons excavated on the Kremlin 
grounds, diamond-and-sapphire-encrusted crowns of 
the tsars and two Imperial Faberge eggs, among other 
treasures, testify to both the splendor of Russian cul- 
ture and the richness of its natural mineral resources. 
Members will be among the first to see the exhibi- 
tion during special viewing hours on October 17, 
19, and 29, 2000. Look for your invitation in the mail. 
Reservations are required and must be ordered by mail. 

Free Member Passes to Special Exhibitions 

Members are eligible to receive up to four free member 
passes to see both Kremlin Gold: 100 Years of Russian 
Gems and Star Wars: The Magic of Myth. Member passes 
are available to you in addition to any tickets you may 
receive to attend the members' previews. 

The passes may be used to see the exhibition a sec- 
ond time or pass them on to friends. Family members 
can receive up to four passes and Senior, Student, 
Individual and National Affiliate members up to 
two passes, by calling Ticketmaster at 312.902.1500. 
(A service charge and transaction fee will be assessed.) 
Members may be able to obtain passes for same day 
viewing if available at the Museum. No service charge 




Kolt Medallion, Ryazan Old Russia, 
12th century. 



Chewhacca, Star Wars: The Magic 
of Myth, Star Wars™ and ©1997 
by Lucasfilm Ltd. 



will be incurred. For more information, call the mem- 
bership office at 312.665.7700. ITF 

Kremlin Gold: 1000 Years of Russian Gems and Jewels 

collection loaned by The State Museums of the Moscow 
Kremlin. Kremlin Gold was organized for its U.S. tour by 
The Field Museum in partnership with The Houston 
Museum of Natural Science. 

Star Wars: The Magic of Myth was developed by the 
Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum. The exhibi- 
tion was organized for travel by the Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service. All of the artifacts in this 
exhibition are on loan from the archives of LucasFilm Ltd. 



Field Museum Membership Tops 40,000 



What an exciting time it is to be a member of the 
Field Museum! We currently have more than 40,000 
active members on our roster. At last count, the 
Museum has more than 34,000 members in Chicago 
and almost 7,000 in the United States and worldwide. 

As members, you share in the pride when your 
Museum is featured on the nightly news with Peter 
Jennings and is featured in newspapers all over the 
world. Bringing natural history to the people has 
always been the Field Museum's mission. The 
Museum looks forward to continue sharing our latest 
discoveries and exhibitions with our members. The 
more we understand where we have been, the better 
we can chart our course for the future. ITF 




Sue continues to bring in the crowds at the Museum. 



SEPTEMBER • OCTOBER 2000 9 



Your Guide to The Field 



Inside 



1 Exhibits 

3 Calendar of Events 

5 Get Smart 

7 Free Visitor Programs 




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The tradition oj the famous Faberge eggs 
began with Tsar Alexander III, who first 
commissioned them as Easter presents for his 
wife. The custom was continued by his son, 
Nicholas 11, the last tsar. Each egg contained 
a surprise, usually commemorating an event 
in the imperial family's life; this exquisite 
model of the imperial yacht Standart was 
among the most beautiful. Inside a hollow 
egg carved of transparent quartz, riding on 
waves of aquamarine, is an exact replica of 
the yacht — complete with platinum lifeboats, 
moveable cannons and anchors on delicate 
gold chains. 



Collection loaned by The State Museums of 
the Moscow Kremlin. Kremlin Gold was orga- 
nized for its U.S. tour by The Field Museum 
in partnership with The Houston Museum of 
Natural Science. 



Kremlin Gold: 

1000 Years of Russian Gems and Jewels 




This dipper illustrates the great changes that 
affected the life of Russia's nobility in the mid- 
eighteenth century, when the introduction of 
European arts such as fine tableware rendered 



The Field Museum exhibition Kremlin Gold: 
1000 Years of Russian Gems and Jewels 
brings the richly woven tapestry of Russian 
history and culture to Chicago from October 
21, 2000 to March 30, 2001. More than 100 
masterpieces of gems, jewels and precious 
metal objects, including many never before 
publicly displayed, will be exhibited. 

The objects, both secular and sacred, 
represent major chapters in Russia's storied 
past, from the introduction of Byzantine 
Christianity in 988, through the turbulence 
of the Mongol invasions of the 13th cen- 
tury, to the rise of towering figures such 
as Ivan the Terrible, Boris Godunov, Peter 
the Great, Catherine the Great and Nicholas 
and Alexandra. 

The treasures on display testify to the splen- 
dor of Russian culture and the wealth of the 
region's mineral resources. Breathtaking in 
their scope as well as their beauty, they 
include thousand-year-old icons excavated 
in the Kremlin grounds, diamond-and-sap- 
phire-encrusted crowns belonging to the 
tsars, 12th and 13th century articles from 
the buried Ryazan treasure hoard, a gold- 
and jewel-encrusted Gospel from the 15th 



traditional Russian vessels obsolete. This ves- 
sel is an example of the transformation of a 

traditional utilitarian object into a symbolic 
and decorative presentation piece. 



century, a 17th century miter of gold thread 
and pearls and two imperial Faberge eggs. 
Together, these glittering works provide 
unique insight into the history and charac- 
ter of the Russian people over the past 
millennium. 

Beyond the inherent beauty of the objects 
themselves, however, Kremlin Gold repre- 
sents something more. Partnering with The 
Houston Museum of Natural Science, The 
Field Museum joined the directors and cura- 
tors of the Moscow Kremlin Museums to 
organize this ambitious exhibition for its 
exclusive presentation in Houston and 
Chicago. Teaming up on research visits to 
Moscow, exchanging curatorial expertise 
and project management skills, sharing 
design inspirations and jointly publishing 
the catalogue to the exhibition, the two 
museums have taken the first steps toward 
a model for museum exhibitions in the 21st 
century. Presenting the world's scientific and 
cultural riches and bringing down the barri- 
ers that have so often separated peoples in 
the past, collaborations like Kremlin Gold 
actively further The Field Museum's mission 
of exploring the world and its people. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 1 



SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Exhibits 



The Endurance: Shackleton's 
Legendary Antarctic Expedition 



October 7, 2000 through January 14, 2001 



This exhibition brings to life the epic story 
of Sir Ernest Shackleton's 1914 Endurance 
expedition, one of the greatest tales of 
survival in expedition history. More than 
150 photographs of the expedition, taken 
by ship photographer Frank Hurley, are dis- 
played chronologically alongside memoirs 
and rare film footage. These extraordinary 
photographs were printed from Hurley's 
glass plate negatives; They capture the 
courageous expedition crew and the 
extreme hardships they faced. 

This exhibition was developed by the 
American Museum of Natural History with 
generous underwriting support from Mr. 
and Mrs. Joseph F. Cullman, 3rd. Images by 
Frank Hurley are from the collections of The 
Royal Geographical Society (with The 
Institute of British Geographers), The Scott 
Polar Research Center and State Library of 
New South Wales. 



Right: The return of the sun. 1915 Hurley. 
Royal Geographical Society. 

Below: A glimpse in thefo'c'sle. 1915 Hurley 
Scott Polar Research Institute. 




Kachinas: Gifts from the Spirit Messengers 



October 3, 2000 - June 16, 2001 



Kachinas: Gifts From The Spirit Messengers 
presents an exploration of a familiar, yet 
fascinating. Native American art form. 
The exhibition, which is part of the Webber 
Gallery program highlighting contemporary 
Native American artifacts, will run from 
October 3, 2000 to June 16, 2001. 

Created by the Hopi people of North 
Eastern Arizona, colorful, carved wooden 
kachinas represent spirit messengers (called 
katsinam) who act as intermediaries 
between the Hopi world and the supernat- 
ural realm. In Hopi belief, katsinam are 
spiritual helpers who provide rain and 
abundant crops and assure the continuation 
of life in a harsh desert land. Small kachina 
dolls representing these spiritual friends 
are given to children, and sometimes 
women, to reinforce their religious and 
cultural education. 



Important in transmitting and safeguarding 
ancient Hopi traditions, kachinas also illus- 
trate the dynamics of cultural change and 
adaptation, as Hopi carvers respond to 
influences from outside their own world. 
Created both for traditional religious uses 
and for commercial trade, many contempo- 
rary kachinas in the exhibition reflect the 
use of new carving tools and techniques, 
as well as the introduction of motifs from 
Western popular culture. 

Curated by Dr. Jonathan Haas, Field 
Museum Curator of North American Anthro- 
pology, Kachinas was made possible by 
bequests from the collections of Marcia and 
Vernon Wagner and through the generous 
support of Mr. Donald W. Paterson. 




THE FIELD MUSEUM 



SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Calendar of Events 




Stephen Jay Gould to speak on paleontology, 
evolution and science education at the Museum. 



An Evening with Stephen Jay Gould 

9/14, Thursday, 6:30 p.m. 

Acclaimed for his literate and accessible 
interpretations of the social consequences 
of science, Stephen Jay Gould presents an 
engaging lecture on paleontology, evolu- 
tion and science education. As a scientist, 
Gould has directed and participated in 
debates of the biological and geological 
sciences. As a writer, he has authored more 
than 20 books and hundreds of essays and 
articles, becoming one of the most popular 
and well-known scientists in America. A 
winner of the MacArthur Foundation prize 
fellowship, his credentials include being 
Professor of Zoology and Professor of 
Geology at Harvard, Curator of Invertebrate 
Paleontology in the Harvard Museum of 
Comparative Zoology and president of the 
American Association for the Advancement 
of Science. 

Co-sponsored by the Earth Science Club of 
Northern Illinois. $20, $18 students/educa- 
tors, $15 members. Please call 312.665.7400 
for more information or to register. 

Museum Week 

9118-9124, 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. 

The Field Museum proudly celebrates 
Museum Week, organized by Chicago's 
Department of Cultural Affairs in apprecia- 
tion of the city's 49 museums. The Field 



Museum will be offering two-for-one 
admission to the Museum during that week. 
Highlights include the World Music Festival, 
performances of Dancing With Dinosaurs 
and Unity Day. Rounding out the activities 
for the week will be hands-on activities 
and other programs, all free with Museum 
admission. For more information, please 
call 312.665.7400. 

UNITY Day 

World Music Festival: Chicago 2000 

9/23, Saturday, 1 1 a.m. - 3 p.m. 

The Field Museum, the Human Relations 
Foundation and the Chicago Commission 
on Human Relations celebrate UNITY, in 
this day filled with music and activities. This 
year, UNITY Day helps kick off the opening 
weekend for the World Music Festival: 
Chicago 2000. This daylong celebration of 
diversity in culture and musical traditions 
will highlight various hands-on artistic and 
musical activities. Enjoy performances by 
musicians from around the world; hear the 
sacred chants of the Drepung Gomang 
Monks, see the riveting classical Indian 
dance of the Natyakalalayam Dance 
Company and experience the spiritual world 
of Steve Coleman and the Mystic Rhythmic 
Society. Free with Museum admission, 
pre-registration not required. For more 
information, please call 312.665.7400. 





The Natyakalalayam Dance Company 
specialize in Bharatanatyam, a classical dance 
style of Southern India. 



Chicago Samba brings Brazilian rhythms to 
the Museum during the World Music Festival: 
Chicago 2000. 

U.N.O. Day 

World Music Festival: Chicago 2000 

9/30, Saturday 9:30 a.m. - 3 p.m. 

Over 10,000 guests are expected at The 
Field Museum for the United Neighborhood 
Organization's (U.N.O.) Take 10! Minutes 
With Your Child parental involvement initia- 
tive annual kick-off event. The day begins 
with a public welcome at 9:30 a.m. outside 
the Museum and will continue with musical 
performances, storytelling and educational 
activities throughout the day. Offered in 
collaboration with the World Music Festival, 
this all-day family event will feature the 
rhythmic Brazilian sounds of Chicago 
Samba, the intoxicating Latin romance of 
Casolando and the West African group 
WOFA. Free with Museum admission, 
Pre-registration not required. For more 
information, please call 312.665.7400. 

Dozin' with the Dinos 

9/29-9/30 5:45 p.m. -9 a.m. 

What is it like to be in the museum after 
the crowds have gone home and the doors 
have been locked? Experience The Field 
Museum in a unique way as you and your 
family spend a night of discovery before 
falling asleep among specially chosen exhi- 
bitions. Overnights are designed for families 
(adults accompanied by children grades 1-6) 
and include two natural science or culturally 
based workshops, an evening snack, a per- 
formance and a continental breakfast. Our 
official Dozin' with the Dinos T-shirt (avail- 
able only at overnights) will be sold. This 
program is designed for families with 
children ages 6 and up. Cost is $45 for 
non-members, $38 for members. Please 
call 312.665.7400 for more information 
or to register. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Adult Course 

Russia Then and Now 

70/5- J 7/9, Thursdays, 6-8 p.m. 

Join Russian historian Michael Johnson 
(PhD Candidate, History Department, 
University of Illinois at Chicago) as he 
explores Russia in a historical overview 
from the country's beginnings to the pre- 
sent day. Major personalities from Russian 
history come alive in this six-week course, 
which includes the Kievan period, the devel- 
opment of Moscow and the rise and fall 
of the Russian Empire. The course also 
examines the Russian Revolution and the 
subsequent Soviet Union, before concluding 
with the collapse of the Communist system 
and a review of Russia's current situation. 
Individual classes consist of lecture and dis- 
cussion, with questions taken throughout. 
Cost is $90 for non-members, $75 for mem- 
bers. Please call 312.665.7400 for more 
information or to register. 

Valley of the Golden Mummies 
Zahi Hawass 

10/13, Friday, 6:30 p.m. 

In the summer of 1996, archaeologist Zahi 
Hawass discovered more than 100 undis- 
turbed mummies in a 2000-year-old tomb 
deep in the Egyptian desert. Considered 
perhaps the most spectacular Egyptian 
archaeological discovery since King Tut's 



tomb, Hawass' find represents the first time 
in history that so many perfectly preserved 
mummies were discovered at one time. 
Hawass is Egypt's Director General of the 
Giza Pyramids and Field Director of the 
Bahariya Oasis Excavation; has been profiled 
in National Geographic and Newsweel<; 
and has appeared on the Today Show, 
Dateline, Nova and fox TV. Admission is 
$12 non-members, $10 students/educators, 
$8 members. Please call 312.665.7400 for 
more information or to register. 

Margaret Mead Traveling Film 
and Video Festival 

70/27, Saturday, 11 a.m. - 6 p.m. 

The Field Museum hosts the American 
Museum of Natural History's Margaret 
Mead Traveling Film and Video Festival, 
which features highlights from the largest 
showcase of independent cultural docu- 
mentaries in the United States. This year's 
exhibition at the Museum — the only 
Chicagoland presentation of the Margaret 
Mead Film and Video Festival — includes 
three programs, each devoted to specific 
social or cultural topics. Ethnographic film 
specialist Martha Foster introduces the films 
and moderates a discussion following each 
program. Free with Museum admission. 
Please call 312 665 7400 for a complete 
listing of movie titles and times. 




Zahi Hawass is Egypt's Director General 
of the Giza Pyramids and Field Director 
of the Bahariya Oasis Excavation. 



Coming Thanksgiving Weekend! Julie Taymor's The King Stag 



Friday-Sunday, November 24-26 

Friday, 7:30 p.m.; Saturday, 8 p.m.; Sunday, 3 p.m. 



Performances at the Chicago Theatre 

Presented by The Field Museum and CAPA 
The American Repertory Theater of Boston. 
The King Stag is a fairy tale for all ages, a 
story of love and betrayal, intrigue and 
mirth, magic spells and pageantry. Puppet 
birds zoom through space, and fanciful 
beasts cavort with delicacy and grace. Carlo 
Gozzi's 18th-century fable about the search 
for true love is a delightful theatrical event 
with costumes, masks, puppetry and move- 
ment by Tony-winning Julie Taymor (The 
Lion King and The Green Bird). 

Tickets: $24, $34, $44 mention your Field 
Museum Membership and receive a $5 
discount. For tickets call Ticketmaster at 
312.902.1500 or visit the Chicago Theatre 
Ticket Office or any Ticketmaster outlet. 
Or visit www.capa.com 




Scenes from The King Stag, costume, masks, puppetry, and choreography by Julie Taymor. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Get Smart 



Celebraci6n 2000: Americanos 



October 5-6, 10 a.m. - 1 p.m. 
October 7-8, 11 a.m. - 4 p.m. 




Experience Latin American culture at 
Celebracion 2000: Americanos. The 4-day 
festival gives visitors the opportunity to talk 
with representatives from Chicago's Latino 
communities about what it means to be 
Latino in Chicago and participate in inter- 
active educational demonstrations. 

Field Museum Division of Insects scientist, 
Phil Parrillo will explain and demonstrate 
how insects are used as objects of art and 
religion by South American Indian cultures. 
Learn about the long history of scientific 
bird investigation in South America with 
staff from the Museum's Bird Division. 
Chat with scientist from the Office of 
Environmental and Conservation Programs 



Queen of Salsa, Celia Cruz is pictured 
with her husband, conductor Pedro Knight. 
This is one of the many images depicting 
Latino life in the photographic exhibition 
Americanos: Latino Life in the United 
States. You can also hear Cruz's music 
while walking through the exhibit. 



and explore life in the Cofan Village of 
Zabalo in Amazonian Ecuador. 

The Museum will also screen the award- 
winning HBO documentary Americanos. 
On October 5 at 6:30 p.m. see the video 
and hear panelists David Carrasaco, Antonio 
Perez and Mark Hinojosa discuss their work 
on the project Americanos: Latino Life in 
the United States. Admission is $12 non- 
members, $8 members and $10 student/ 
educators. A free screening of the docu- 
mentary will also be shown on October 
8, at 1 p.m. 

Throughout the festival, Latin Street 
Dancing Inc. will offer demonstrations and 
instruction in traditional style Latin "street" 
dances such as Merengue, Mambo and Salsa. 
Festival activities also include demonstra- 
tions of traditional Latin American toys and 
musical instruments, and culinary stations 
featuring salsa and chocolate. For more 
information, call 312.665.7400. 



World Music Festival: Chicago 2000 



September 21 - October 1 



The Field Museum in association with the 
Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs, 
Mayor's Office of Special Events, the Old 
Town School of Folk Music, Museum of 
Contemporary Art and Hothouse/CIPEX 
(Center for International Performance and 
Exhibition) present the World Music Festival: 
Chicago 2000. This is Chicago's second 
annual multi-venue music festival, which 
will kick off on Thursday, September 21 with 
an evening concert on the north steps of 
the Field Museum. Performers include; Steve 
Coleman and the Mystic Rhythm Society, 
Canada's Kanenhi:io Singers, Zimbabwean 
legend Oliver Mtukudzi and Black Spirits 
and Puerto Rico's Plena Libre. The opening 
night musical extravaganza begins at 5:30 
p.m. and ends at 9 p.m. and is free. 



A wide variety of venues will host musical 
entertainment featuring performers from 
dozens of countries. Last year, more than 
50,000 people attended more than 100 
concerts, live radio broadcasts, workshops 
and educational programs. To ensure that 
everyone can attend the concerts, the World 
Musical Festival: Chicago 2000 is made up of 
a mixture of free and ticketed events cost- 
ing no more than $10. A detailed brochure 
including a complete schedule is available 
by calling the World Music Festival: Chicago 
2000 hotline at 312.742.1938 or by visiting 
the website at www.cityofchicago.org/ 
worldmusic. For more information on the 
Field Museum's concerts and educational 
programs call 312.665.7400. 




WerLci 



Steve Coleman will perform at the Field 
Museum opening night of the World Music 
Festival: Chicago 2000. 

Coming to the Museum September 29; 
Savina Yannaton &■ Primavera en Salonico 
and Caslando, 8 p.m. Tickets are $10. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Halloween at The Field Museum 



Field Museum Halloween 
Harvest Festivities 
Costume Creation Stations 

Saturdays, October 14, 21, & 28 
10 a.m. -3 p.m. 

Supplies and materials fee for costumes, 
masks and pumpkins 

'Dem bones, 'dem bones, 'dem bones gonna 
walk around.... It took 67 million years for 
Sue's bones to fossilize, be discovered and 
then erected at The Field Museum. Now 
visitors can use Sue and the Museum's other 
world class exhibitions to inspire creativity 
and construct a unique Halloween master- 
piece with the help of artists. Fashion your 
own dinosaur mask, design a unique alien 
creature or produce a festive decoration 
that expresses your personality and interest! 



Halloween Harvest Festival 

October 28, 10 a.m. - 3 p.m. 

Whether you want to howl at the moon 
with the creatures of the night, or give 
thanks for the bounty of a good harvest, 
join The Field Museum for the Halloween 
Harvest Festival. Activities include self- 
guided terror tours, pumpkin painting, 
costume creation stations and two fun-filled 
performances by Dave Herzog's Mari- 
onettes. The festival will culminate with a 
spectacular performance by Chicago's own 
Redmoon Theatre presenting their annual 
Halloween Spectacle that includes larger- 
than-life puppets, elaborate masks and 
dynamic physical performances. Wear a 
costume or create one on-site, but don't 
miss the fun. 



Redmoon Theatre creates thrills and chills 
during their Halloween Spectacle. 




Polar Explorations at The Field Museum 
AND THE Newberry Library 




Sir Ernest Shackleton. 1915 Hurley Scott 
Polar Research Institute 



Join The Field Museum and the Newberry 
Library for two programs that complement 
the Museum's The Endurance: Shackleton's 
Legendary Antarctic Expedition exhibition 
and To the Ends of the Earth: Exploring the 
Poles, on view at the Newberry from 
October 7, 2000 - January 1 3, 2001 . 

Going to Extremes: The Arctic, 
the Antarctic, and the Himalayas 

Saturday, October 7, 10 a.m. 
Newberry Library (60 W. Walton, 
312.255.3700) 

In the opening public program for the two 
exhibitions, three lllinoisans who have per- 
sonally experienced the earth's extremes 
join journalist Bill Kurtis to discuss what 
motivates humans to explore and live on 
the ends of the earth. Panelist James 
VanStone has spent nearly half a century 
working with Arctic and Subarctic peoples. 
Sharon Hogan twice attempted to climb 
Mount Everest, often dubbed the earth's 
third pole. As a student in 1949 and 1950, 
Edmund Thornton participated in Admiral 
Donald B. McMillan's Arctic expedition and 



met two of the Inuits who accompanied 
Admiral Peary on his 1909 quest to reach 
the North Pole. Kurtis is producer of the 
television series. The New Explorers. 
Admission is free. 

Shackleton: The Man and 
the Expedition 

Saturday, October 14, 2 p.m. 
The Field Museum 

The guest curator for The Endurance: 
Shackleton's Legendary Antarctic 
Expedition, Caroline Alexander brings imag- 
ination and rich detail to the story of Ernest 
Shackleton and his crew. The exhibition, 
and a companion book, features the strug- 
gle to survive that began when Shackleton's 
sailing ship Endurance became trapped in 
ice on January 19, 1915. The cost is $12 
non-members, $10 students/educators, 
$8 Field Museum Members and Newberry 
Library Associates. 

These programs are made possible in part 
by a grant from the Illinois Humanities 
Council, the National Endowment for the 
Humanities and the Illinois General Assembly. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Free Visitor Programs 



Saturdays and Sundays 

Family Fun at The Field 

I p.m. Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction. 
Learn new songs and stories and have fun 
creating artwork — all in a 20-minute pro- 
gram in the Living Together exhibit. In 
September and October, hear stories about 
Underground Adventure, hibernation, the 
fall harvest, music or a Mexican folk tale 
and then design your own cuckoo bird, 
forest habitat, underground environment, 
jack-o-lantern or drum. This program, 
designed especially for young children 

and their families, offers an opportunity 
to relax and learn about different aspects 
of our environment. From worms to birds 
to pumpkin hunts to learning where ani- 
mals sleep in the winter, we offer a wide 
variety to whet the appetite and send you 
exploring our galleries to learn more. The 
songs are fun to learn and easily could 
become family favorites. This program 
is sponsored by The Siragusa Foundation 
Early Childhood Initiative. One adult for 
every three children, please. 

Daily 

Interpretive Station activities: Drop by 
hands-on stations located throughout the 
Museum (check informational directories for 
daily listing) and delve into the fascinating 
world of natural history. 

September 9 - Saturday 

II a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 

Visitors will have the opportunity to view 
rarely displayed specimens from Museum 
collections and listen as Museum specialists 
discuss their research relating to our new 
permanent exhibit. Underground Adventure. 

11 a.m.. Noon & 2 p.m. Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue 

The Field Museum and Music Theatre 
Workshop present the Teens Together 
Ensemble in a 30-minute musical about 
Sue, the largest, most complete, and best 
preserved T. rex ever found. 

September 16 - Saturday 

11 a.m.. Noon & 2 p.m. Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 
See September 9 

September 18 - Monday 

9 a.m. - 5 p.m. Museum Week 

The Field Museum proudly celebrates 
Museum Week, organized by Chicago's 
Department of Cultural Affairs in appreci- 




Join the fun at the Halloween Harvest Festival! 

ation of the city's 49 museums. The fes- 
tivities include performances by the Music 
Theater Workshop Teens Together Ensemble 
and various music-related activities. 

September 19 - Tuesday 

9 a.m. - 5 p.m. Museum Week. 
See September 18 

September 20 - Wednesday 

9 a.m. - 5 p.m. Museum Week. 
See September 18 

September 21 - Thursday 

9 a.m. - 5 p.m. Museum Week. 
See September 18 

September 21 - Thursday 

5:30 p.m. - 9 p.m. World Music Festival: 
Chicago 2000, Opening Concert. Dance and 
sway into the sunset with a mixture of tra- 
ditional, spiritual and rhythmic sounds from 
Africa, the Latin-Caribbean, Canada and the 
United States. See Get Smart section for a 
more complete description. 

September 22 - Friday 

9 a.m. - 5 p.m. Museum Week. 
See September 18 

September 23 - Saturday 

9 a.m. - 5 p.m. Museum Week. 
See September 18 



September 23 - Saturday 

1 1 a.m. - 3 p.m. UNITY Day. The Field 
Museum, the Human Relations Foundation 
and the Chicago Commission on Human 
Relations celebrate diversity in culture and 
musical traditions with various hands-on 
artistic and musical activities. 

11 a.m.. Noon & 2 p.m. Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 

See September 9 

September 24 - Sunday 

9 a.m. - 5 p.m. Museum Week. 
See September 18 

September 30 - Saturday 

11 a.m., Noon & 2 p.m. Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 
See September 9 

9:30 a.m. - 3 p.m. U.N.O. Day. Over 10,000 
guests are expected at The Field Museum 
for the United Neighborhood Organiza- 
tion's (U.N.O.) Take 10! Minutes With Your 
Child kick-off event. The day begins with 
a public welcome at 9:30 a.m. and continues 
with musical performances and educational 
activities throughout the day. 

October 5 - Thursday 

10 a.m. - 1 p.m. Festival: Celebracion 2000: 
Americanos. Enjoy music and activities that 
celebrate the arts and culture of Latin 
America. See "Get Smart" section for a com- 
plete description. 



Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories located throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



October 6 - Friday 

10 a.m. - 1 p.m. Festival: Celebracion 2000: 
Americanos. See October 5 

October 7 - Saturday 

10 a.m. Lecture: Going to Extremes: The 
Arctic, the Antarctic, and the Himalayas. In 

a powerful opening public program, three 
lllinoisans who have personally experienced 
the earth's extremes comprise a panel to 
discuss what motivates humans to explore 
and live on the ends of the earth. The lec- 
ture meets at the Newberry Library, see 
"Get Smart" section for more details. 

11 a.m. - 4 p.m. Festival: Celebracion 2000: 
Americanos. See October 5 

October 8 - Sunday 

1 1 a.m. - 4 p.m. Festival: Celebracion 2000: 
Americanos. See October 5 

October 14 - Saturday 

10 a.m. - 3 p.m. Costume Creation Stations. 

Create a unique costume of your favorite 
creature or plant with the help of artists 
who will encourage the use of the sur- 
rounding exhibitions for inspiration. 
See the "Get Smart" section for a more 
complete description of Halloween Harvest 
Festival activities. 

1 1 :30 a.m. & 1 :30 p.m. Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 

See September 9 

1 1 a.m. - 2 p.m. Scientists on the Floor. 
See September 9 



October 21 - Saturday 

10 a.m. - 3 p.m. Costume Creation Stations. 
See October 14 

1 1 a.m. - 6 p.m. Margaret Mead Travel- 
ing Film and Video Festival. This film 
festival features highlights from the largest 
showcase for independent cultural docu- 
mentaries in the United States. See 
"Calendar of Events" section for a more 
complete description. 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m. Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 

See September 9 

October 28 - Saturday 

10 a.m. - 3 p.m. Halloween Harvest Festival. 
The Field Museum's Halloween Harvest 
Festival includes self-guided terror tours, 
pumpkin painting and costume creation 
stations. The festival culminates with 
a Halloween Parade and performance by 
Redmoon Theatre. See the "Get Smart" 
section for a more complete description of 
Halloween Harvest Festival activities. 

11:30 a.m. & 1:30 p.m. Performance: 
Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 

See September 9 

Resource Centers 

Explore topics in more depth through a 
variety of resources, including computer 
programs, books, activity boxes and much 
more at the Africa Resource Center and the 
Daniel F. & Ada L. Rice Wildlife Research. 
Open daily from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 





The Field Museum hosts the American 
Museum of Natural History's Margaret 
Mead Traveling Film and Video Festival, 
which features highlights from the largest 
showcase of independent cultural documen- 
taries in the United States. 



Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Visit a traditional home of the Pawnee 
Indians and learn about their life on 
the Great Plains. Open from 10 a.m. 
to 4:30 p.m. on weekends and at 1 p.m. 
during weekdays. 

Ruatepupui<e: 

The iVIaori Meeting House 

Discover the world of the Maori people 
of New Zealand at the treasured and sacred 
Maori Meeting House. Open daily from 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

McDonald's Fossil 
Preparation Laboratory 

Watch Field Museum preparators work on 
various fossil specimens. Open daily from 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 



Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue delights children of all ages. 

Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories located throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000 



8 CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Field Updates 



Motion Pictures as Taxidermy: 
Carl Akeley and his Camera 



Mark Alvey 

Administrative Coordinator, Academic Affairs 



Although time has diminished his celebrity, Carl 
Akeley s name is still famiUar to those steeped in the 
age of exploration, natural history and the art of taxi- 
dermy. He was The Field Museums Chief Taxidermist 
from 1896 to 1909. Akeley revolutionized taxidermy 
and museum dioramas with The Four Seasons deer 
groups in Nature Walk and The Fighting Bulls that stand 
in Stanley Field Hall; the basic principles of his 
groundbreaking techniques are largely unchanged 
today. His African collecting trips for the Museum 
inspired no less an adventurer than President 
Theodore Roosevelt to undertake his famed 1909 
safari. Akeley was also a sculptor (witness the Nandi 
Lion Spearing bronzes on the Museum's ground floor), 
and an inventor (with patents on a WW I -era search 
light and a cement gun, among many others). From 
the standpoint of both zoological documentation and 
popular culture, however, Akeley s most important 
invention was surely the Akeley Motion Picture 
Camera, which countless newsreel cameramen, doc- 
umentary filmmakers and Hollywood cinematog- 
raphers would come to rely on in the '20s and '30s. 




The Akeley Motion Picture Camera. Because of its 
distinctive shape, the Akeley was affectionately dubbed 
'the pancake" by the Hollywood cameramen who used if. 



Akeley 's camera was a direct product of his 
museum collecting experiences, bom of the same 
impulse as his taxidermy — a passion to document the 
wildhfe of Africa. Akeley regarded photographic gear 
as an essential tool on his first Field Museum expedi- 
tion to Africa in 1896, and by 1906 was already 
working on his first designs for a motion picture cam- 
era in his Chicago studio. It was on an expedition for 
the American Museum of Natural History in 1910 
that Akeley 's quest for the ideal movie camera gar- 
nered the fuU force of his inventiveness. Akeley longed 
to film the Nandi of Uganda in a traditional (albeit 
staged) Uon hunt, but his camera was not up to the 
task — the bulky apparatus was awkward at best when 
it came to recording the actions of quick-moving, 
unpredictable game. After three weeks of finistrated 
attempts to capture the Uon-spearing on film, Akeley 
resolved not to return to Africa until he had created 
his dream camera. 

Back in New York in 1911, Akeley attracted some 
investors to form the Akeley Camera Company, and 
spent his spare moments working through the design 
of the camera. After devising and abandoning several 
versions, in late 1915 Akeley patented the Akeley 
Motion Picture Camera. The Akeley incorporated a 
number of truly revolutionary advances, but the most 
important feature to the naturalist, and the one that 
would make it indispensable to other filmmakers, was 
the freewheeUng damped-action gyroscopic tripod 
head that allowed the operator to pan (side-to-side) 
and tilt (up and down) with a steady, fluid motion, 
using only one hand. Previous tripod heads required 
left-hand cranking of two separate levers for each axis 
of movement, in addition to the right-hand cranking 
that advanced the film. 

World War I created a rapid and probably unex- 
pected demand for the camera. After inviting Akeley 
to Washington to demonstrate his invention, the 
U.S. Signal Corps adopted it for aerial reconnaissance, 
purchasing the Akeley factory's entire output for the 
duration of the war. After the war ended, newsreel 
companies like Pathe and Fox Movietone were 
quick to adopt the Akeley camera to film their "news 
weeklies." Such momentous events as Man O' War's 
final race, the Dempsey-Carpentier fight and the 
1925 Shenandoah dirigible disaster were captured 
with Akeleys. 

Not surprisingly, the Akeley also became the cam- 
era of choice for explorers and scientists. In 1921 
Akeley himself used his invention, eqixipped with an 
extra-long lens, to take the first-ever motion pictures 
of gorillas in the wild in present-day Zaire. The list of 



10 IN THE FIELD 



expeditions that added Akeley cameras to their gear 
reads like a greatest hits list of early 20th century 
exploration: the Katmai Expedition of the National 
Geographic Society, the Mulford Biological 
Expedition to the Amazon, the American Museum 
Natural History Third Asiatic Expedition and the 
Byrd Antarctic Expeditions. Akeley took a direct 
role in equipping the Field Museum's 1925 Simpson- 
Roosevelt Asiatic Expedition with movie gear, and on 
the Chancellor-Stuart-Field Museum Expedition to 
the South Pacific, Philip Chancellor used an Akeley 
to record some of the earliest footage of Komodo 
Dragons on Flores Island, Malaysia. 

The Akeley camera was also embraced by docu- 
mentary filmmakers and commercial "motion picture 
explorers." Filmmaker Robert Flaherty took two 
Akeleys with him to the Arctic to film his classic 
Nanook of the North (1922), and used Akeleys in Samoa 
to film Moana (1926). Noted still photographer Paul 
Strand bought an Akeley after the war and worked as 
a freelance newsreel cameraman in the '20s, along the 
way shooting the experimental film Manhatta (1921) 
with artist Charles Sheeler. Explorer-filmmaker 
Martin Johnson used Akeleys in his dramatized 
(and sensationalized) wildlife films, most notably 
Simba (1928), which included lion-spearing footage 
shot by Carl Akeley himself, and Congorilla (1932). 

By this time the Akeley camera was as well-known 
on Hollywood back lots as it was in tropical jungles. 
The skills of 'Akeley specialists" were in demand — 
they were even listed separately on the American 
Society of Cinematographers roster. The influence 
of postwar German films caused producers to seek 
more camera movements and unusual angles, for 
which the Akeley was ideally suited. Thus, "Akeley 
specialists were called upon to lash their instruments 
high on the masts of ships, on the arms of derricks, 
or to be still different, in deep holes looking up," as 
an American Cinematographer writer put it in 1928. 
By the mid-'20s Akeleys were in such wide use 
in studios that "Akeley shots" were routinely called 
for in shooting scripts. 

Akeleys were the natural choice when Hollywood 
undertook ambitious location projects, traveling to 
Africa for the epic Trader Horn, and to Newfoundland 
for the seafaring adventure The Viking (both 1931). 
The Akeley 's deft mobility also made it the ideal tool 
for action and spectacle, Hollywood style. Akeley spe- 
cialists shot some of the most breath-taking aerial 
sequences ever put on film for William Wellman's 
Wings (1927), helping it win the first Academy Award 
for Best Picture, and the studios sent Akeleys into the 
sky for dozens of subsequent aerial-actioners, like 




Above: "Motion Picture Explorers" 
Osa and Martin Johnson in Africa 
with their Akeley (right, outfitted with 
extra-long lenses), circa 1925. 

Left: Carl Akeley with an early version 
of his camera. Subsequent models 
added more innovations and features. 



Frank Capra's Flight (1929) and Howard Hughes' Hell's 
Angels (1930). Western star Tom Mix and swashbuck- 
ler Douglas Fairbanks both called on Akeleys to 
capture the elaborate and daring stunts for which they 
were famous. Akeleys were also used to shoot the 
spectacular chariot races in the 1926 version of Ben 
Hur, racetrack scenes in Silks and Saddles (1929), and 
chases, stunts and daredevilry in numerous adventure 
serials and countless westerns (e.g.. The Last Outlaw 
[1927] starring a young Gary Cooper). 

The Akeley camera hung on in Hollywood for a 
remarkably long time considering it debuted in the 
teens. Although it eventually gave way to lighter and 
more mobile gear developed during World War II, the 
Akeley gyroscopic tripods continued to be used by 
major studios at least through the late 1980s. While 
Carl Akeley was undoubtedly tickled at Hollywood's 
adventurous uses of his invention, his own interest in 
the camera never went beyond his original aims, and 
he continued to promote the importance of nature 
filmmaking for educational uses. All of Akeley 's artis- 
tic endeavors harked back to the business cards he had 
printed up while still in his teens announcing his pro- 
fession: "artistic taxidermy in all its branches." In a 
sense, motion pictures for Carl Akeley were simply 
another branch of the art form that was always his 
primary passion. I7F 



SEPTEMBER • OCTOBER 2000 1 1 



The Photo Archives 




Lefi: Stephen and Peter Nash with 
YorubaTwin Figures in 1967. 

Above: Stephen and Peter Nash 
in 2000. 



From the Photo Archives 



Old Friends: Then and Now 



Stephen E. Nash 

Head of Collections, Department of Anthropology 

"The birth of twins and their subsequent relationship to each 
other and to their society have always fascinated men . . ."' 

With these words. Assistant Curator of African 
Ethnology Leon Siroto introduced Field Museum of 
Natural History Bulletin (precursor to In Tbe Field) read- 
ers to the temporary exhibit entitled "Yoruba Twin 
Figures." The exhibit highlighted the acquisition of 68 
Yoruba twin statues collected by English artist John 
Underwood. As part of the public relations efforts 
preceding the exhibit, Edward G. Nash, at that time 
Managing Editor of the Bulletin, arranged this photo- 
graph of his twin sons Stephen and Peter with these 
Yoruba statues. The photograph was published in the 
Chicago Sun-Times on July 7, 1967 under the headline 
"Chicago Twins Meet Yoruba Twins''.^ 

Thirty-three years to the day after this photo was 
published, the Museum Loan Network, a granting 
agency based at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, officially awarded The Field Museum a 
grant of $14,490 to conserve, photograph and research 
its Yoruba Collection. Interestingly, Stephen, pictured 
here on the left (or is it the right?), is now Head of 
Collections in the Department of Anthropology and 
wrote the Museum Loan Network grant with assis- 
tance from Research Associate Deborah Stokes and 



Curator of African Anthropology Chap Kusimba. 
Though his father left the Museum in 1970, The Field 
Museum was critical in helping Steve develop a 
life-long interest in the natural and social sciences. 
Some of his earliest and fondest memories are from 
The Field Museum in the late 1960s, including a 
Department of Geology fossil hunting trip to southern 
Illinois, a tour through the insect collections in the 
Department of Zoology and a visit to the Department 
of Anthropology's archaeological field school at 
Vernon, Arizona. 

After completing a major in Anthropology and 
Environmental Studies at Grinnell College in 1986, 
Steve pursued graduate study in archaeology at the 
University of Arizona before coming to the Museum 
as a Post-Doctoral Fellow in Anthropology in 1997. 
He was promoted to his current position in August 
1999 and looks forward to renewing an old friendship 
with Yoruba twins. Peter became an economics major 
at Macalester College and went on to earn an M.B.A. 
at the University of Southern California. He is now a 
stock and market surveillance analyst with Thomson 
Financial Investor Relations in Oak Brook, IL. ITF 

Siroto, Leon, 1967. "Twins of Yorubaland" Field Museum of Natural 
History Bulletin 38(7):4. 

The statues in each photograph are catalog numbers 210116 and 210118, 
acquired by t/jc Museum in 1957 from Dr. William Bascom of San 
Francisco, who collected them at Oyo, Nigeria, at an unknown date. 



12 IN THE FIELD 



Field Tidbits 



' Ask a Scientist 



Do you have a question for one of 
our scientists? If so, filease send it to 
the Publications Department, The 
Field Museum, T400 South Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, or 
via e-mail to shines@fmnh.org. Only 
questions published in the magazine 
will be answered. An archive of 
questions and answers that have 
appeared in past issues can be 
found at www.fieldmuseum.org. 
askascientist.htm. 



Can I see Sue even if I don't 
live in Chicago? 

Two identical Field Museum, A T-rex 
Named Sue, exhibitions sponsored by 
McDonald's Corporation will travel 
simultaneously to cities across the 
country. The tours began at Boston's 
Museum of Science on June 21, 2000, 
and Honolulu's Bishop Museum on 
July 15, 2000. The exhibitions will 
spend approximately three months in 
each city on the tour. A current list of 
cities hosting A T-rex Named Sue can 
be found at www.fieldmuseum. 
orglsueltravel. The centerpiece of the 
exhibition is a breathtaking life-sized 
articulated cast skeleton of Sue. The 
exhibition tells the amazing story of 
this fossil through video footage, 



freestanding interactive exhibits, col- 
orful graphics and touchable casts of 
bones. Interactive anatomical models 
will allow visitors to control the 
movements of a T. rex's jaw, tail, 
neck and forelimbs. Visitors can put 
together a large format 3D puzzle 
of Sue's skeleton, see the Cretaceous 
world through Sue's eyes, experience 
an eye-level view of Sue's massive 
skull and touch models of Sue's 
dagger-like 12" long teeth. 

Marlene Rothacker 
Project Administrator 
The Field Museum 



Celebrate the Past, Present 

AND Future of Field Museum Anthropology 



The Cultural Collections Committee and the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology are planning a two-day event 
to Celebrate a Century of anthropology at The Field 
Museum. Dr. Gary Feinman, Curator of Mesoamer- 
ican Archaeology and Ethnology and Chair of the 
Department of Anthropology will serve as host and 
moderator for a symposium beginning at 4 p.m. 
Sunday, October, 22 followed by cocktails and dinner 
on Monday, October, 23 at 5:30 p.m. 

The keynote speaker on Sunday, October 22, will 
be Dr. David Wilcox of the Museum of Northern 
Arizona who will present Curating Field Anthropology — 
Why Remembering Matters. Following this presentation, 
anthropologists Jonathan Haas of the Field Museum, 
Elaine Bluhm Herold of the State University of New 
York at Buffalo, Alice Kehoe of Marquette University 
and Don McVicker of North Central College in 
Naperville will comment on Wilcox's presentation and 
offer their own perspectives on the legacy and future 
of Field Museum anthropology. 

On Monday, October 23, at 5:30 p.m., guests will 
gather for cocktails and have the opportunity to exam- 
ine artifacts from Field Museum storerooms, hunt for 
objects that have been on exhibit since the 1893 



World's Columbian Exposition and enjoy a slide show 
on the history of Field Museum anthropology. Dinner 
will begin at 7 and will be accompanied by short his- 
torical presentations by Sibel Barut on Henry Field, 
the Old World, and paleolithic archaeology; Ben 
Bronson on Berthold Laufer and Asian anthropology; 
Steve Nash on George Dorsey, Paul Martin, and 
North American anthropology; and John Terrell 
on A.B. Lewis and Pacific anthropology. 




Lecture Presentation Only 

October 22 

$12 ($10 students/ educator 

& $8 members) 

For more information, please 

contact The Education Department 

at 312.665.7400 

Lecture Presentation 
and Dinner 

October 22 & 23 

$100 

For more information, please 

contact Stephanie Powell 

at 312.665.7132 



SEPTEMBER • OCTOBER 2000 13 



Field Museum Tours at a Glance 




For more information or free brochures, please call Field Museum Tours 
at 800.811.7244, or send them an e-mail at fmtours@sover.net. Please note 
that rates, prices and itineraries are subject to change and that prices are 
per person, double occupancy. 



Central America Under Sail 

February 10-25, 2001 
Duration: 16 days 
Museum Leader. Botanist 
William Burger 
Price: Starts at $7,990, not 
including airfare 

The Natural Wonders of Hawaii 

February 14-24, 2001 
Duration: 1 1 days 
Museum Leaders: 
Zoologist Harold Voris 
Price: $5,545 including airfare 
from Chicago 

The Natural and Cultural 
History of Tsavo: A Luxury 
Tented Safari Through the 
Land of the Man-eaters 

March 3- 17, 2001 
Duration: 15 days 
Museum Leaders: Zoologist 
Bruce Patterson, archaeologists 
Chap and SIbel Kuslmba, and 
ecologlst Barbara Harney 
Price: $8,800, including airfare 
from Chicago. 

Baja: Among the Great Whales 

March 9 -17, 2001 
Duration: 9 days 
Museum Leader: Zoologist 
Janet Voight 
Price: Starts at $2,990, 
not including airfare 



Each winter grey whales migrate 
south from their arctic feeding grounds 
to breed and rear their young in 
Baja's sheltered lagoons. In March 
2001 join Dr. Janet Voight to learn 
about whale behavior. 

Amazon by Riverboat 

December 9-17 

Duration: 9 days 

Museum Leader: Botanist 

William Burger 

Price: $3,598, Including airfare 

from Chicago 

Egyptian Odyssey 

January 21 - February 4, 2001 
Duration: 1 5 days 
Museum Leaders: Frank Yurco, 
Egyptologist and Research 
Associate at The Field Museum 
Price: $5,550, Including airfare 
from Chicago 

Classic Tanzania Safari: 
Wildebeest Migration 

January 22 - February 4, 2001 
Duration: 14 days 

Museum Leaders: Zoologists William 
Stanley and Mary Ann Rogers 
Price: $7,940, including airfare 
from Chicago 



On t he D ra wing Board 

Ancient Wonders of Israel 3/01 
Treasures of Oaxaca 4/01 
Archaeology of Southwest USA 5/01 




"Hie isolation of the Hawaiian Archipelagos, has allowed 
much of the island's extraordinary geology and biology to 
remain undisturbed. The February 2001 tour, led by Dr. 
Harold Voris, studies Hawaii's marine life through tide 
pooling, snorkeling and whale-watching. 

Costa Rica Adventure 

February 25 - March 6, 2001 
Duration: 10 days 
Museum Leader: Botanist 
William Burger 

Price: $3,995, Including airfare 
from Chicago 

Circumnavigation of Crete 

May 3-13, 2001 

Duration: 11 days 

Museum Leader: Archaeologist 

David Reese and anthropologist 

Catherine Sease. 

Price: $3,795 and higher, 

not including airfare 




For the first time, the Field Museum 
is sponsoring a trip to Tsavo National 
Park in Kenya led by four Field 
Museum scientists. 



Travelers will explore this rugged, pristine park in 
depth, studying its incredible fauna, fiora, geology, overall 
ecology and human history. Also see Amboseli National 
Park's large, well-researched herds of elephants. 



INTHEFIELD 

The Field Museum's Member Publication 



November 
December 
2000 




^•^'^^Htii 'm^ 



The Endurance 

Shackletons Legendary 
Antarctic Expedition 

Through January 15, 2001 

Mounds, Myths 
and Museums . 

The Hopewell Culture 
of Central Ohio 







From the President 




Innovation Rooted 
IN Tradition 



Because they amass collections, 
museums are frequently viewed 
as storehouses of the past. While 
a good museum carefully preserves 
the past, a great museum finds 
new ways to bring its resources 
to the public. The vitality of 
a great museum lies in the inter- 
play between traditional and 
new approaches to museum- 
based learning. 

Consider the Harris Educa- 
tional Loan program. When it 
began in 1911, a truck carried 
boxes of specimens and objects to 
classrooms throughout Chicago to 
establish a branch of the Museum 
in every school. Today, Harris 
provides teachers with access 
to interactive experience boxes, 
miniature dioramas and other 
resources. Every year, these materi- 
als teach more than 300,000 area 
students about nature and culture. 

A more recent example of the 
portable outreach museum is the 
Soil Adventure Museum or SAM. 
Launched last year as an extension 
of "Underground Adventure," SAM 
trucks bring the world of soil to 



life for thousands in schools and 
community organizations from 
as close as Chicago to as far away 
as Washington, D.C., and St. 
Louis, Missouri. 

Creative partnerships also help 
us stimulate learning far outside 
the Museum's doors. One partner- 
ship with an indigenous 
community in South America is 
helping its citizens protect and 
study endangered turtles along the 
rivers of eastern Ecuador. The 
Cofan are also sharing what they 
know and learn with other South 
American communities through 
displays, posters and illustrated 
technical booklets. 

While one tradition brings the 
Museum to the public, it remains 
important to bring the public to 
the Museum. We are on a pace to 
welcome 350,000 school visitors by 
the end of 2000 — an increase from 
317,000 visits last year. 

In 1999, we created the Field 
Ambassadors program to extend 
our reach into the classroom and 
encourage increased school visits 
to the Museum. This program 
familiarizes teachers, known as 
Field Ambassadors, with the 
Museum's resources so they, in 
turn, can provide exciting, effective 
and unforgettable learning experi- 
ences for their students. This year, 
64 Field Ambassadors are exposing 
more than 3,000 students to the 
wonders of natural science, and 
visits from these schools have 
increased dramatically. 

Our Dozin' with the Dinos pro- 
gram allows children and their 
families to spend the night in the 
Museum. Here they enjoy flash- 
light tours of exhibitions, 
art-related activities and educa- 
tional performances. During the 
2000-2001 school year, we will wel- 
come close to 7,000 people through 
14 of these special evenings. 



We are constantly exploring 
new ways of how technology can 
introduce students to all this 
Museum offers. Starting next 
month, for example, you can once 
again share in the process of dis- 
covery as Dr. Gary Feinman and a 
team of Chinese and American 
archeologists excavate an ancient 
site in China. Regular e-mail 
updates and digital photographs 
give participants in this virtual 
archeological expedition a first- 
hand view of scientific exploration. 

We also offer multimedia educa- 
tional programs called e-fieldtrips, 
which feature live broadcasts of 
field research and supporting 
online curriculum activities. The 
broadcasts have enabled more than 
5 million students to participate 
in scientific investigation by giving 
them access to our scientists, col- 
lections and field research sites. 
The online activities allow students 
to conduct scientific experiments 
of their own. Since the first e-field- 
trip in 1999, the program has 
broadcast from a working dinosaur 
dig in Grand Junction, Colorado, 
to the live Sue unveiling this past 
May, which an estimated 3 million 
students viewed. 

These are only a few examples. 
We constantly develop new 
workshops, symposia and other 
programs to serve students, teach- 
ers, families, younger learners and 
older adults. Now that 2000 signi- 
fies another successful chapter 
in the Museum's history, we look 
forward to bringing you exciting 
developments in 2001. 

John W. McCarter Jr. 
Preiicient £r CEO 



What do you think about /n the Field? 



Please send comments or questions to Amy Cranch, publications manager. 
The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496, 
or via e-mail at acranch@fmnh.org. 



Inside 



Anthropologists Stephen E. Nash 
and Jonathan R. Haas explore 
the facts and fiction of the Ohio 
Hopewell moundbuilders. 



The Cofan, an indigenous group 
from Ecuador, are saving endan- 
gered river turtles and teaching 
other communities and countries 
how to participate. 



Fun member events and savings 
will light up your holidays. 



10 



The Field Museum Library joins 
the digital movement. 

Your Guide 
to The Field 

Whether it's a polar expedition, 
Puerto Rican guitar concert or 
dinosaur festival for the family, 
find the activity that suits you 
in our complete schedule for 
November and December. 




Grizzly bear tooth inlaid with 
freshwater pearl. 





^ 

k ^ 



At the Field, Roberto Aguinda 
(right) explains how the Cofan 
rescue endangered turtles to a 
Shipibo chief from eastern Peru, 
Jose Roque Maynas. 




Detail from the Common 
American Wild Cat, Plate I, in 
J. J. Audubon, The Viviparous 
Quadrupeds of North America 
(1845-1848) 



INTHEFIELD 



November/December 2000, Vol.71, No. 6 

Editor: 

Amy E. Cranch, The Field Museum 

Consultant: 

Lisa Laske, k/g communications, ltd. 

Designer: 

Hayward Blake & Company 

Copy editor: 
Laura F. Nelson 

In the Field (ISSN #1051-4546) is published 
bimonthly by The Field Museum. Copyright 
2000 The Field Museum. Annual subscriptions 
are $20; $10 for schools. Museum membership 
includes In the Field subscnption. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessanly reflect the policy of The Field Museum. 
Notification of address change should include 
address label and should be sent to the member- 
ship department. POSTMASTER: Send address 
changes to In the Field, The Field Museum, 1400 
South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
Periodicals postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. 

This issue's cover photograph, "The Endurance 
keeling over" by Frank Hurley, 1915, © Royal 
Geographical Society can be viewed in the exhi- 
bition, "The Endurance: Shackleton's Legendary 
Antarctic Expedition." 



TV Field 



% 



useum 



The Field Museum salutes the people 
of Chicago for their long-standing 
generous support of the Museum 
through the Chicago Park Distrirt. 

The Field Museum 

1400 South Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, IL 60605-2496 

ph 312.922.9410 
wvvw.fieldmuseum.org 



Museum Campus Neighbors 



Shedd Aquarium 



Looking for a New Year's celebration 
the whole family can enjoy? Join Shedd 
Aquarium for its traditional Kiddie New 
Year, Sunday, Dec. 31, from 3 to 6 p.m. 
This family-oriented party features crafts, 
games, refreshments, entertainment and a 
noisy "midnight" countdown to 2001 that 
even the littlest revelers can stay awake 
for. Admission is $35 for adults and $30 for 
children (ages 3 to 11) and seniors. Children 
age 2 and under attend free. All children 
must be accompanied by an adult. 
Reservations are required; call Shedd 
at 312.692.3333. 



Adler Planetarium 

Visit Adler on Friday nights through mid- 
April for a free telescope viewing of 
exploding stars. For more in-depth learning, 
participate in our extensive lecture pro- 
grams. Call 312.322.0323 for dates and costs 
on the secrets of black holes, the beauty in 
physics and the accelerating universe, or the 
discovery of pulsar planets beyond our solar 
system. Call 312.322.0329 to register for a 
free Oct. 22 Webster Lecture on "Tombs, 
Temples and Their Orientation: Adventures 
in Mediterranean Archeology." Or, take an 
Education Department class on stargazing 



for beginners, previewing the fall and win- 
ter skies, the remarkable work of legendary 
Polish astronomers, and more. For class 
information, call 312.322.0551. 

The Field Museum 

See the Calendar Section for a list of 
programs and exhibitions offered in 
November and December. 



NOVEMBER • DECEMBER 2000 1 



Mounds, Myths and Museums: 

The Hopewell Culture of Central Ohio, 

100 B.C.-A.D. 400 

Stephen E. Nash and Jonathan R. Haas, Department of Anthropology 



StAx^^i • 




THE FIELD MUSEUMA:SA39651 



Early archaeological rendering of the Hopewell Site, including plan and cross sections. 



2 IN THE FIELD 



In the land we call Ohio, a sophisticated, flamboyant 
and prosperous people thrived 2,000 years ago. Known 
by archaeologists as the Ohio Hopewell, they were 
successful gatherers, hunters, gardeners and engineers. 
They built large ritual and burial mounds without the 
aid of draft animals such as horses or oxen, traded all 
over North America without knowledge of the wheel, 
and developed sophisticated naturalistic and geometric 
art forms and styles that distinguished them from 
other cultures across the continent. 

Developing our understanding of Hopewell culture 
is a story of anthropological research at The Field 
Museum, from the earliest excavations in the 1890s 
through collections-based research today. 

Who were the Ohio Hopewell? 

The Ohio Hopewell were one of dozens of prehistoric, 
largely autonomous cultures present all over North 
America 2,000 years ago. Recent radiocarbon dating 
of organic remains in The Field Museum collection 
by Dr. N'omi Greber, curator of archaeology at the 
Cleveland Museum of Natural History, has confirmed 
that the Hopewell thrived between approximately 100 
B.C. and A.D. 400. Their cultural center was located in 
southern Ohio, and the Hopewell Site, for which the 
culture is named, is now part of the Hopewell Culture 
National Historic Park near Chillicothe, Ohio. 

The Ohio Hopewell survived in a lush environment 
by gathering wild plants, nuts and seeds, and hunting 
wild deer, turkey and fishes. Though maize horticul- 
ture was introduced to the Ohio Hopewell by about 
A.D. 100, they were never full-time maize agricultural- 
ists and instead tended local oily (e.g., sumpweed and 
sunflower) and starchy (e.g., goosefoot, maygrass, erect 
knotweed, little barley) seeds and 
plants. They did, however, 
make ritual use of corn to 
supplement their already 
diverse diet. Despite their 
relatively well-balanced diet, 
life was not always easy. 
Physical ailments, including 
arthritis, rickets, osteoporosis, 
tuberculosis and syphilis, 
plagued individuals, and the 
average life expectancy was 
much shorter than it is today. 

What makes the Ohio 
Hopewell so unusual among 
prehistoric North American 
populations? Two things — 
mounds and objects. Burial and 
ceremonial mounds of various 
shapes and sizes, including snakes, 
spirals and vast complexes of Copper celt. 





Effigy fii"''^"^- 



circles, squares and walled enclosures dotted the land. 
The mounds, often containing elaborate funerary 
structures and ceremonial artifacts, ranged from small, 
simple, single-burial mounds to large, multiple-acre 
mounds constructed to honor the elite, as indicated by 
the sheer mass of mounds and the exotic raw materials 
and objects buried with the dead. 

The Ohio Hopewell did not live on these large 
mounds, however. They lived in small homesteads 
and camps of one to a few households each, 
evenly dispersed across the valleys and orga- 
nized around mound sites. It is difficult 
to reconstruct prehistoric societies without 
written records, yet we do know that the 
Ohio Hopewell's social and political systems 
changed during their 500-year history. 
It is likely that leadership was determined 
through social custom, familial lineage, 
persuasion and individual abilities and 
accomplishments. 

Ohio Hopewell ritual and burial 
deposits contain a bewildering variety of 
finished artifacts and exotic raw material, 
often fashioned into ceremonial objects, 
from all over North America. Copper from Lake 
Superior's shores became ear spools, celts, plaques and 
headdresses. Freshwater pearls and grizzly bear teeth 
from the northern Rocky Mountains were used to 
make necklaces and ornaments. Mica sheets from 
eastern Tennessee were fabricated into silhouette and 
cutout forms of geometric and naturalistic objects. 
Soft pipestone was ground into ornate pipes with 
human and animal effigy forms. Obsidian from 
Wyoming's Yellowstone area and crystal quartz were 
shaped into extremely large blades and other stone 
tool forms. Interestingly, each raw material and fin- 
ished artifact is uniquely distributed across space and 
through time, suggesting that the Hopewell exchanged 
with a vast array of groups across North America at 
any given moment. 

Sometime around A.D. 400 the Hopewell trade 
networks collapsed, inter-regional art styles disap- 
peared, and moundbuilding activity in the core Ohio 
Hopewell area ceased. Archaeological evidence does 
not explain why, though a complex combination of 
social, environmental and other factors probably dis- 
rupted the balance Ohio Hopewell culture had enjoyed 
for five centuries. It is important, however, that we 
resist saying the Ohio Hopewell "mysteriously disap- 
peared." Rather, they changed the way they lived off 
the land and, like other well-known ancient cultures, 
faded from their dominant position. Descendants 
of the Ohio Hopewell exist in Native American 
populations today. 



NOVEMBER • DECEMBER 2000 3 




Obsidian blade. 



The Hopewell Site and Collection 

The Hopewell Site at Paint Creek in Ross County, 
Ohio, is massive, with at least 38 mounds scattered 
over about 110 acres. Its most prominent feature is 
a rectangular earthwork enclosing more than 99 acres 
that follows the contours of the creeks north fork. 
A smaller square earthwork conjoins the enclosure's 
eastern side, and another D-shaped enclosure 
surrounds the largest mound inside the larger 
rectangular enclosure. 

The contents of Hopewell Site mounds are 

impressive. Mound 2 held more than 8,000 
chipped stone disks made of Knife River 
flint from South Dakota. Mound 11, two 
feet high and 45 feet in diameter, con- 
tained a ritual cremation deposit with 
nearly 500 pounds of obsidian from 
Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. 
Mound 17 contained one individual 
buried with 3,000 sheets of mica, a silicate 
mineral from eastern Tennessee and south- 
western North Carolina, and 200 pounds of 
galena, a bluish gray mineral that forms in 
perfect cubes in western Illinois and elsewhere. 
Mound 25, the largest and arguably most 
complex mound at the Hopewell Site, consisted 
of three segments that covered a central building 
complex flanked by plaza areas. It is 500 feet long, 
180 feet wide, 30 feet high and contained more 
than 250 burials. The central buildings, which housed 
burials and groups of artifacts, including one with 150 
ceremonial obsidian spear points and 63 copper celts, 
were destroyed before the final construction of the 
mound. Layered deposits indicate that these mounds 
were used over generations of time. In short. Mound 
25, and others like it, was not constructed as a mound 
per se; it was constructed to cover ritual and ceremonial 
spaces filled with deposits of exotic raw materials or 
finished artifacts. 

The Hopewell Site stands out in Ohio Hopewell 
culture. It is more massive, elaborate and com- 
plex. It has received the most archaeological 
attention, particularly because of its artifact 
types and features. And it has greatly influ- 
enced our understanding of Hopewell life. 

Recent Research 

The Field Museum and the Ohio Historical 
Society now curate the massive collections created 
from the first expeditions in the 1890s and 1920s. 
The Kalamazoo Valley Museum greatly enhanced our 
collection this year with a major donation, including 



at least 45 objects that we had given them in 1931, and 
they are now giving back. The new objects have been 
fully integrated into our collections, fascinating archae- 
ologists who continue to tease additional information 
from the vast materials yet unanalyzed. 

To enhance research access to our rich Hopewell 
collection, we recently reorganized and computerized 
it with support from the National Endowment for 
the Humanities. Recent analyses have focused on a 
variety of topics ranging from Hopewell iconography 
to geophysical origins of silver and other minerals, to 
paleodemographic and paleopathology analyses of 
human remains. 

In 1998, The Field Museum awarded a Karl P. 
Schmidt Fellowship to Dr. Greber to obtain new 
radiocarbon dates for the Hopewell collection. Because 
of recent technological advancements in radiocarbon 
dating, it is now possible to derive dates from very 
small samples of organic materials, such as bits of 
wood, plants, textiles or bone. In 1999, Greber gath- 
ered organic samples from pieces in the collection and 
submitted them to a radiocarbon dating laboratory. 
We now have 10 radiocarbon dates for the Hopewell 
Site, when we previously only had three, that reinforce 
our belief that the Hopewell lived between 100 B.C. 
and A.D. 400. 

Earlier this year. Dr. Christopher Carr, professor 
of anthropology at Arizona State University, analyzed 
copper plaques and ornaments using digital photogra- 
phy, electron microprobes and image enhancement 
techniques. He was trying to determine whether the 
Ohio Hopewell attached materials such as pigments, 
textiles or shells to the plaques to enhance their 
visual imagery and symbolism. Carr's technologically 
sophisticated analyses testify to the value of curating 
museum collections, for his insights 
help us better understand the 
fascinating world of the prehis- 
toric Ohio Hopewell. 

Conclusion 

The Field Museum had, and will 
continue to have an integral part in 
understanding the Hopewell 
culture. From one of the early 
successes of scientific archae- 
ology — refuting the Myth of 
the Moundbuilders (see page 
5) — to applying 21st century technol- 
ogy in the study of prehistoric cultures, 
Field Museum anthropologists do more than manage 
collections. They facilitate the creation of new 
knowledge. ITF 




W^D P'P^ 



4 IN THE FIELD 



The Myth of the Moundbuilders 



Early Euro-American attempts to 
understand the source and function 
of mounds in eastern North America 
resorted to pure, unabashed specula- 
tion based on Biblical, historical and 
mythical texts. Published theories 
attributed the mounds to the Asians, 
Celts, Egyptians, Hindus and other 
groups that, we now know, never 
came close to the Americas in ancient 
times. Other theories, later known 
as the Lost Race Theory or the Myth 
of the Moundbuilders, held that a 
technically advanced, artistically 
sophisticated super-race of Anglo or 
Asian origin created the mounds but 
then disappeared or was vanquished 
by intruding Native Americans. 
Anthropologist Donald Blakeslee has 
recently found archival evidence that 
the Myth of the Moundbuilders may 
be attributed to one individual — 
John Rowzee Peyton. 

In 1774, the intrepid, creative and 
socially connected Peyton was 
arrested for unknown reasons in 
Santa Fe, N.M. During his incar- 
ceration he convinced the jailer's 
daughter to help him and his servant 
break out of jail. After a successful 
escape, the trio acquired an old, rudi- 
mentary map of the American West 
and walked to St. Louis, Mo. During 
an arduous four-month flight, the 
trio took time out to excavate a bur- 
ial mound in central Kansas. Though 
not considered scientific, their exca- 
vation constitutes one of the earliest 
documented archaeological exam- 
inations in the New World. Peyton's 
diaries describe the investigations 
and speculate about a super-race 
of technological sophisticates that 
created the mounds. 

The Peyton family was prominent 
in Virginia's political and intellectual 
circles, befriending such notables as 
Ben Franklin and Patrick Henry. By 
the time John Rowzee Peyton arrived 
in Washington, now a seasoned 
fugitive and partially paralyzed 
Revolutionary War hero, he was the 
talk of the town. Books containing 
various permutations of his Myth of 
the Moundbuilders were published, 
and resolving who constructed the 
mounds, as well as other mounds 
discovered in the Southwest, came to 
dominate the archaeological agenda 
between the 1780s and the 1880s. 




Moorehead's excavation crew at their field camp, 1891. 



The myth — inaccurate, speculative 
and fantastic though it was — served 
several socio-political functions that 
helped maintain its appeal, despite 
the lack of material evidence to sup- 
port it. It satisfied romantic notions 
that superhuman forces created the 
mounds; it justified Euro-American 
emotional prejudice against Native 
Americans who, they believed, 
could not possibly have created the 
mounds; and it supported Biblical 
and mythical explanations of other 
phenomena around the world. In 
short, the Myth of the Mound- 
builders helped European Americans 
justify exploitation of Native 
Americans by suggesting that they 
were technologically inferior, or had 
somehow regressed, from the sophis- 
ticated moundbuilder culture. 

Serious scholarly attention to resolv- 
ing the moundbuilder question 
began with the 1820 publication 
of Caleb Atwater's Archaeological 
Americana, which detailed numerous 
mound groups in Ohio and else- 
where but did not attempt to explain 
their origin. Between 1825 and 
1840 political events such as moving 
Native Americans to reservations 
did nothing to dissuade mound- 
builder believers. 

Ephraim G. Squire and Edwin H. 
Davis were the next archaeologists to 
tackle the issue when, in 1845, they 



visited and mapped the Hopewell 
Site and excavated four or five 
mounds. In 1848, Squire and Davis' 
report was published as the first 
scholarly contribution of the newly 
founded Smithsonian Institution. 
Like Atwater, their predecessor, they 
offered descriptions but not explana- 
tions of the mounds, and for the 
next 50 years, almost no systematic 
field research was conducted on 
Ohio Hopewell sites. 

Warren K. Moorehead supervised 
the first formal excavations of the 
famous Hopewell Site in Ross County, 
Ohio, in 1891 and 1892. Moorehead's 
excavations collected artifacts for the 
1893 World's Columbian Exposition 
at Chicago and illuminated the 
moundbuilder problem. As he wrote 
in Primitive Man in Ohio in 1892, 
"The purpose of our book is to do 
away with certain of these illusions... 
The time has come when we prefer 
facts to flights of fancy." Indeed, the 
materials he recovered became part 
of The Field Museum's founding col- 
lection in 1893 and helped slay the 
mighty Myth of the Moundbuilders. 
Today, a richly detailed archaeologi- 
cal record helps us recognize that 
the marvelous mounds and material 
culture of the Hopewell were the 
products of Native American 
genius and creativity. ITF 



NOVEMBER • DECEMBER 2000 5 



Field Updates 



Project Toolbox: Supporting Community 
Conservation in the Ecuadorian Amazon 



Dan Brinkmeier, community outreach program developer. 
Environmental and Conservation Programs 

Zabalo, Ecuador: A small group of men and women 
cluster around the glowing screen of a laptop as they 
tap in numbers on a keyboard. Others take turns 
reading figures from their hand-written notes in their 
own language, Cofan. The data they enter into a 
spreadsheet — changes in the river's temperature and 
level, rainfall and the number of turtle eggs found in 
nests — will be used to help the Cofan and scientists 
understand environmental effects on endangered 
river turtles. 

Suddenly, chaos erupts. The group is yelling excit- 
edly in Spanish, "It's a little animal!" A man runs to 
tell me that an "animal" is in the computer! I see that 
they have accidentally activated the help menu and are 
experiencing 21sr century technological humor. An 
animated icon of a bug-eyed "paperclip man" wiggles 
and whirls across the blinking screen — an animal that 
couldn't exist in their wildest dreams. I close out the 
help menu, and the cartoon paperclip jumps up, spins 
around and disappears from the screen, the Cofan 
laughing and waving goodbye. Modern technology 
crashes headlong into the rainforest, sometimes with 
amusing consequences. 

This is just another typical day for Project 
Toolbox, as The Field Museum's Environmental and 



Conservation Programs (ECP) collaborates with 
an indigenous group — the Cofan — to recover popu- 
lations of two species of endangered river turtles, 
Podocnemis unifilis and Podocnemis expansa. This commu- 
nity of 25 families on the Aguarico River, deep in the 
Ecuadorian rainforest, collects baby turtles from their 
nests on the river's beaches, and then raises the hatch- 
lings for one year before releasing them back into the 
wild. Larger, and with harder shells, the yearlings have 
a greater chance of escaping predation and surviving 
into adulthood. Combined with a moratorium on turtle 
hunting and collection of eggs for food, this program is 
increasing the number of turtles in the Aguarico River. 

For conservationists, the key to this successful grass- 
roots effort comes from within the community itself. 
This is a Cofan-based initiative that capitalizes on their 
knowledge of the environment. Now, in collaboration 
with The Field Museum and others, the Cofan are 
showing the way for other communities as well. 

But the rescue of endangered turtles is not the 
entire story. In addition to collecting data and informa- 
tion about the turtles and the environment for nearly 
10 years, the Cofan are also demonstrating how the 
rainforest can be managed in a sustainable way for 
future generations. A gentle society, the Cofan have 
instituted progressive resource-use regulations on 
nearly 130,000 hectares of rainforest now under their 
control. Hunting animals such as turtles, parrots and 




Le/r: ECP stag Sophie Twichell (standing with backpack) 
and Tyana Wachter {lower right), along with turtle project 
members, carefully open a turtle nest on a river beach. The 
baby turtles are removed, raised in ponds for one year and 
then released into the wild. 



Right: Tfce kids in Zdbalo actively help save turtles. Elio 
Lucitante holds a yearling before it is weighed, measured and 
marked for its release. 



6 IN THE FIELD 



monkeys is prohibited, and restricted hunting zones 
around the village allow each family to take only a 
certain number of some animal species each year. Using 
poisons and dynamite for fishing is prohibited. Forest 
resources are also protected, and families cannot sell 
wood for profit. 

These self-imposed environmental management 
practices starkly contrast the uncontrolled hunting and 
logging the Cofan see around them on lands invaded 
by colonists or other indigenous groups pushed out of 
their own ancestral lands by unregulated development. 
The Cofan reserve at Zabalo stands as a sanctuary of 
protected rainforest in a world where rivers are pol- 
luted with oil spills, animals have disappeared from 
habitats and forests are clear-cut for raising cattle and 
crops that exhaust fragile tropical soils. The Cofan are 
alarmed and struggle to combat what is happening 
around them. 

Museum initiatives with the Cofan also include 
ECP s Robin Foster's development of visual reference 
guides that identify local plants using scientific and 
Cofan names, and labeling trees and vines along an 
interpretive trail at Zabalo. As part of this ongoing 
collaboration to document Cofan knowledge and use 
of plants, Zabalo president Roberto Aguinda recently 
spent eight weeks at the Museums herbarium, thanks 
to a gift from Mrs. Robert D. Hyndman. The Cofan 
people were once renowned throughout the 
Ecuadorian Amazon for their extensive knowledge 
of medicinal plants, and that heritage now benefits 
the Museum. 

The Cofan realize that if they are going to help 
protect the rainforest, they cannot do it alone. The 
community of Zabalo controls only the section of 
the Aguarico River that runs through its protected 
reserve, and since river turtles do not know the 
reserve's boundaries, the Cofan are reaching out to 
other communities — and other countries — to include 
the whole watershed in their conservation efforts. Afi:er 
learning that an indigenous community in Venezuela 
wanted to start its own turtle recovery project, Zabalo 
turtle project leader Eduardo Yiyoguaje said, "They're 
indigenous people... like me... and they need our 
help." And while working with the Museum's botany 
collection, Aguinda met members of an indigenous 
group from Peru, the Shipibo, and off^ered Cofan 
expertise to the Shipibo when they start a turtle con- 
servation project of their own. The Shipibo, in return, 
ofi^ered to help the Cofan relearn how to produce 
pottery, a traditional skill the Cofan have lost. 

To get their word out, the Museum is working with 
the Cofan to develop their own educational tools such 
as illustrated books, posters and small exhibits — 
appropriate resources for a rural world of poor 
schooling and little access to mass media. Early last 
year Museum staflF and the Cofan designed an illus- 
trated technical manual depicting the rescue and care 
of river turtles — a "comic book for conservation." Since 



Utilici ant btmbi fttt neitr f ^iri llm^iar It ^Ueim et^t 1 1 
li iitttd no la hau la> ehara^ilai ^«tdan anfarmarit. 

Motoro bombaiccu poi ccoa'gi ccovuga sutsaen cati'jcja pisinamanda. Tsambitatsu charapachocco pa'faya. 



(§) 



Vaeit la piscina y raeaja 
las eliarapitas en baldas... 

Sutsaen catipa indija chantpachoccoanda 
vande jaccuga. 




Giyena'cho tsu ande loya'caen ccaqueje 
congumba jin'choma tsu catiya'cho 



Isu'ccuiiia ombaemba cease maenjan 
toe'ccugayi charapamanda 



iui^» wwtH tktiaf* ttmtplM UMi, FMjailti MrnlfMtl* Mia. tutht^ Pi^M 
jft » ulikmiltii in •! FliM MilMa, ClilMit II.UI). T fc' E j," 




Above: Page from bilingual version 
of the turtle conservation technical 
booklet, with captions in Spanish 
and Cofan. The Cofan are the nar- 
rators in the drawings. Versions 
in other indigenous languages are 
also under way. 

Left: Boys on the remote Muyumanu 
River in northwestern Bolivia eagerly 
read the Cofan's illustrated technical 
manual on how to save turtles. 



the same turtle species are endangered throughout the 
Amazon, other versions of the book are being produced 
in different languages, including a bilingual version in 
Cofan and Spanish. 

This past July marked the grand opening of the 
Turtle Project Information Center along the Aguarico 
River at Zabalo, next to a pond in which last year's 
baby turtles will grow until they are released next 
spring. It may appear rustic compared with more for- 
mal institutions, and may not receive as many visitors, 
but it is as important as any museum in the world 
because it symbolizes how "citizen scientists" teaching 
other people just like themselves is what the future of 
conservation is all about. It all starts right here at the 
ground level, with the Cofan and Project Toolbox. 

Project Toolbox has been funded in part by the 
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 
Patricia Schnadig-Field Dreams and the Kaye Family 
Foundation. To find out more about the Cofan, visit 
www.cofan.org. ITF 



NOVEMBER • DECEMBER 2000 7 



Field Notes 



Gift Giving Simplified at The Field Museum Store 



Lisa G. Laske 

Every holiday season the same troubling thoughts 
dance like sugarplums in my head. What do I give 
my friends and family who seem to have everything? 
Where can I shop to find unique, one-of-a-kind 
gifts that fit my budget? After a visit to see Sue the 
T. rex, the answer hit me — The Field Museum Store. 
I receive a 10 percent discount as a member, my 
purchases support education and research at the 
Museum, and the array of merchandise is amazing! 
If jewelry lovers are on your list, this is the place 
for unique pieces. Personalized cartouche necklaces, 
styled after the nameplates and seals used by ancient 
pharaohs, are handcrafted by Egyptian artists and 
shipped direct from Egypt. The cartouches translate 
English names or words such as "peace" into hiero- 
glyphics. If your taste leans toward turquoise and 
beads, consider Native American jewelry. Using a 
design technique called "symmetry," Navajo artisans 
focus on the center of each piece and work outward 
to create intricate designs. I also found a beautiful 




A delight for all ages and interests. The Field Museum Store 
is a New World marketplace embodying the extraordinary 
diversity for which the Museum itself is so well known. 



display of Native American fetishes, small stone 
carvings used to invoke protection, luck, fertility 
and healing through an association with the animal 
it represents. My favorite is the horned toad, said 
to bring good luck! 

Teapots, vases, copperware, bookends and silk 
scarves can all be found within 15 feet of one another. 
This year's Egypt in Chicago: Festival of the Sun has 
set the trend for collecting Egyptian artifacts, such 
as a pair of Pharaoh bookends or a delicate glass- 
blown perfume bottle. Tea lovers would relish Korean 
Celadon pottery teapots, replicas of Koryo Dynasty 
(A.D. 918-1392) pottery with their characteristic green 
hue. Pick up one of the numerous books on tea as a 
perfect companion to the teapots. 

For me the gifi:'s origin often holds as much mean- 
ing as the gift itself. The store's copperware from 
Nepal has a wonderful tale. Beautifully decorative 
and useful hand-hammered artifacts made under 
the guidance of the Association for Craft Producers 
support indigenous craft-focused development organi- 
zations in Nepal. The 24 blacksmiths come from 
low-income social groups that do not own land and 
depend on copper making for their livelihood. In fact, 
the Museum supports many impoverished nations 
by purchasing local artifacts to sell in the store. 

If you are looking for the written word, the store 
offers books to please any friend or relative with an 
eclectic taste in literature. Colorful field guides can 
help nature enthusiasts identify birds, trees, flowers 
and other wildlife. Cookbooks featuring global foods 
and flavors might inspire a different holiday dinner, 
or select from numerous books about religions around 
the world. For the armchair academic the store carries 
more than 30 titles written by Field Museum scientists 
ranging from memoirs of a paleontologist to the man- 
eating lions of Tsavo to tree-ring dating. For young 
readers, Jan Wahl's The Field Mouse and the Dinosaur 
Named Sue (Scholastic Inc., 2000) is a delightful 
tale told by a curious mouse of how Sue came to 
The Field Museum. 

Cookbooks, vases, candles, birdhouses and hun- 
dreds of children's games, books and t-shirts — the 
list runs long. I can't think of a better way to prepare 
for the holidays than touring my favorite Field 
Museum exhibits and then finding rare gifts in the 
store for those hard-to-buy-for friends and relatives. 
The store is open daily from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., and 
some items can be purchased via phone or mail forms 
located at www.fieldmuseum.org. For additional store 
information, call 312.665.7694. ITF 



8 IN THE FIELD 



Membership News 



Notes on Shopping Days, Programs and Visiting Guests 



Member Double Discount Shopping Days 

On December 2, 3 and 4, enjoy a double discount 
off merchandise purchased in the Museum Stores, 
where you will find an abundance of distinctive hand- 
crafted gifts, educational toys, books and festive 
souvenirs to please anyone on your holiday gift list. 
Instead of your regular 10 percent discount, receive 
20 percent off nearly all of your purchases in The 
Field Museum stores. 

ASTC Reciprocal Admission Program 

Since May, The Field Museum has been a member 
of The Association of Science -Technology Centers 
(ASTC) Reciprocal Free Admission Program, which 
offers you free admission privileges when visiting one 



of the more than 200 institutions in 50 states and 
several foreign countries that participate. These privi- 
leges are subject to restrictions established by each 
institution, so it is wise to call before visiting. Call the 
membership department at 312.665.7700 if you would 
like to receive a roster of participating institutions. 

Visiting with a Guest 

Members often visit the Museum with a non-member 
guest who is required to pay admission. To expedite 
purchasing tickets for your visitors, you can now 
obtain admission and special exhibition tickets at 
the Membership Desk on the south side of Stanley 
Field Hall. ITF 



Children's Holiday 
Tea Celebration 

Wednesday, December 6, 4-6:30 p.m. 



Every December the Women's Board hosts the 
Museum's Children's Holiday Tea Celebration for 
Field Museum members and their families. This year's 
celebration will spotlight one of our newest exhibits, 
"The Endurance: Shackleton's Legendary Antarctic 
Expedition." Through craft-making activities and 
educational programs along our Winter Wonderland 
Walk, guests will learn how animals and humans 
adapt to Mother Nature's harshest season. 

As is tradition, the celebration will also include 
an appearance by Santa Claus and one of his merry 
elves, holiday music by the Stu Hirsh Orchestra 
and performances by the Jessie White Tumblers, 
Mr. Imagination, Ballet Chicago Youth Company, 
the Chicago Children's Choir, and stilt walkers and 
jugglers Frank Birdsall and Andy Head. Throughout 
the afternoon, guests can feast on pizza, popcorn, 
hot dogs, ice cream and a host of holiday treats 
and refreshments. 

If you would like to attend, please fill out the 
form on the right, cut it out or photocopy it and mail 
to: Children's Holiday Tea Celebration, The Field 
Museum, Women's Board Office, 1400 South Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605. 

To receive your tickets by mail, include a self- 
addressed stamped envelope and a check made payable 
to The Field Museum. Guests cannot purchase tickets 
at the door. Reservations are limited, so please reply 
early. For more information, call 312.665.7135. ITF 




Ballet Chicago Youth Company. 



The Women's Board Children's Holiday Tea Celebration 

Please fill out this form, cut it out or copy and mail to: 

Children's Holiday Tea Celebration, The Field Museum, Women's Board Office, 
1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 



NAME 


ADDRESS 


CITY STATE 


ZIP 




PHONE 

Adult Members at $12 each 
Adult Non-Members at $17 each 


NO. OF TICKETS 
NO. OF TICKETS 
NO. OF TICKETS 


PRICE 
PRICE 


Children (13 and under) at $7 each 
Total 


PRICE 





NOVEMBER • DECEMBER 2000 9 



Your Guide to The Field 



Inside 



1 Exhibits 

3 Calendar of Events 

5 Get Smart 

7 Free Visitor Programs 



The Endurance: Shackleton's 
Legendary Antarctic Expedition 




Through striking photographs, vintage 
filnfis and diary excerpts, "The Endurance: 
Shackleton's Legendary Antarctic 
Expedition" tells a true drama of adventure, 
courage, heroism and survival against a 
brutal polar backdrop. It follows Sir Ernest 
Shackleton's 1914 expedition to Antarctica, 
when his ship sank and he traveled 800 
miles In a lifeboat to rescue his crew, who 
lived in severe conditions for nearly a year. 
Frank Hurley was the ship's photographer 
whose bold, experimental approach inspired 
a dive into icy waters as the ship descended 
to retrieve his glass plate negatives. 




14 January, 1915. "This ice was more like 
serracs than pack ice for it was so tossed, bro- 
ken & crushed. Great pressure ridges thrown 
up 15 to 20 feet in height hear evidence of 
the terrific force &■ pressure of the ice in these 
latitudes." (Hurley, diary). 

This exhibition was developed by the 
American Museum of Natural History with 
generous underwriting support from Mr. 
and Mrs. Joseph F, Cullman, III. Images 
by Frank Hurley are from the collections of 
the Royal Geographical Society (with the 
Institute of British Geographers), the Scott 
Polar Research Center and State Library of 
New South Wales. "The Endurance" runs 
through Jan. 15, 2001. 



Hauling tbe James Caird. "We all followed with the heavier boat on the composite sledge. It was 
terrific work to keep it going. We all did our best but were practically exhausted by the time we 
reached the new camp, No. 4, barely % miles away." (Lees, diary). Loaded, the boats weighed as 
much as a ton each. 

Here is an abbreviated timeline of events to accompany 
the photos in the exhibit: 



1914 

Jan. 13 Sir Ernest Shackleton announces 
the trans-Antarctic expedition. 

Aug. -Dec. The Endurance first sails 
from England to South America and then 
to South Georgia Island. On Dec. 5 it leaves 
South Georgia through the Weddell Sea 
for Vahsel Bay, Antarctica. It enters pack 
ice two days later and still proceeds toward 
the continent. 

1915 

Jan. 18 One day's sail from the continent, 
the Endurance becomes trapped. 

Feb.-Oct. Ice floes carry the Endurance 
to its southernmost point, the 77th parallel. 
Shifting ice shakes, wrenches and throws 
the ship, sometimes onto its side, and 
dangerous leaks form in the sternpost. 

Oct. 27-Nov. 1 Shackleton orders the 
crew to abandon ship. They establish Dump 
Camp and try to march on for three days. 
On Nov. 1 they establish Ocean Camp. 

Nov. 21 The Endurance sinks. 

December The crew hauls the three 
lifeboats westward, but can only go a short 
distance. They abandon Ocean Camp on 
Dec. 23, march for six days and set up 
Patience Camp on Dec. 29, which drifts 
north of the Antarctic Circle. 

1916 

April 9-23 The ice breaks and the crew 
journeys to Elephant Island in the three 
lifeboats. On April 16, they touch dry land 



— the first in 16 months. For the next eight 
days, the crew prepares a lifeboat for its 
voyage to South Georgia Island and sets 
up camp for the 22 men staying behind. 

April 24-May 10 Shackleton and five 
crewmen set sail in the James Caird for 
South Georgia Island, 800 miles away. 
They land safely at King Haakon Bay. 

May 11-18 The band recovers mentally 
and physically from the voyage and plans 
its route to the whaling stations on the 
other side of the island. 

May 19-20 Shackleton and two men 
cross snowfields, glaciers and mountains, 
covering 22 miles in 36 hours. From 
Stromness Station they plan a rescue for 
those on the other side of South Georgia 
and the 22 left on Elephant Island. 

May23-July12 Three rescue attempts 
are all thwarted by unrelenting pack ice. 

Aug. 25-30 With help from the Chilean 
government, Shackleton sets sail on trawler 
Yelcho for his fourth attempt. It finally 
penetrates the pack ice and rescues the 22 
men left on Elephant Island. 

Sept 3 Shackleton and crew arrive 
in Chile. All 28 men had survived the 
22-month odyssey. 

1922 

Jan. 5 Shackleton dies of a heart attack 
in South Georgia while on his fourth 
Antarctic expedition. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 1 



NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Exhibits 



it 



Kremlin Gold:" Beyond the Glitter 



"Kremlin Gold: 1000 Years of Russian Gems 
and Jewels" brings 120 sacred and secular 
objects to The Field Museum in an exhibi- 
tion that illuminates the grand pageant 
of Russian history — both glorious and 
tragic— as well as the objects themselves. 
Many have never before been publicly 
exhibited, while others are making their 
first U.S. appearance. 




Most of Russia is unknown to the average 
American, and the objects do not fit our 
stereotypical vision of its vast, cold terrain. 
Cast in gold, worked into exquisite detail 
and encrusted with precious jewels, each 
piece represents a moment in Russian cleri- 
cal or imperial history, the human story 
behind it surpassing its value in carat 
weight and beauty. 

For example, in 1557 Ivan IV, also known 
as Ivan the Terrible, commissioned the icon 
cover pictured left as a frame to fit over a 
painting of the Madonna and child. Amidst 
the saints depicted along the edge is St. 
Anastasia, for whom Ivan's first wife was 
named. She died 13 years after they were 
married, and historians often cite this psy- 
chological trauma as a source of Ivan's 
reputed madness and sadism. 

The "Kremlin Gold" exhibition, as evocative 
as the pieces themselves, expands viewers' 
knowledge and appreciation of Russian 
history. It runs through March 30, 2001. 



Icon cover: Our Lady of Odighitria, 
1557-60. Gold, ruby, sapphire, emerald, 
tourmaline and pearl. 



Visit The Field Museum Store for a 

wide variety of Russian merchandise to 
complement "Kremlin Gold. " Choose from 
items to fit every price or gift need, 
including lacquered boxes, nesting dolls, 
decorative enameled eggs, fine porcelain 
tableware, linens, books, jewelry, toys, 
stationery and holiday items such as hand- 
carved Santa Clauses and ornaments. 
(Reminder: member double discount 
shopping days are Dec. 2, 3 and 4.) 
For more information, call 312.665.7651. 




Collection loaned by The State Museums 
of the Moscow Kremlin. "Kremlin Gold" 
was organized for its U.S. tour by The Field 
Museum in partnership with The Houston 
Museum of Natural Science. 



Kachinas Dolls Bridging the Cultural Gap 




Days after "Kachinas: Gifts From The 
Spirit Messengers" opened in October, Dr. 
Jonathan Haas, curator of North American 
anthropology, received a pointed letter 
from a fifth-grade boy disputing the labels 
on two wooden dolls. "Donatello and 
Leonardo's tags should be switched around. 
Donatello is the purple one and Leonardo 
is the blue one." 

He wasn't referring to replicas of the 
famous Italian Renaissance artists. He was 
referring to the Teenage Mutant Ninja 
Turtles, or vibrant representations of them 
created by the Hopi people of northeastern 
Arizona. Not only did the letter allow us to 
fix an error, but it revealed a more global 
accomplishment The Field Museum is always 
striving for — that a Chicago child visiting 
our Museum could connect to an Arizona 
Hopi child through their mutual interest in 
these cartoon icons. 



Kachina dolls represent spirit messengers 
called katsinam who act as intermediaries 
between the Hopi world and the supernat- 
ural realm. The Hopi believe katsinam 
provide rain and abundant crops to ensure 
continued life in a harsh desert land. Small 
kachina dolls signifying these spiritual 
friends are given to children, and sometimes 
women, to reinforce their religious and 
cultural education. 

Important in transmitting and safeguarding 
ancient Hopi traditions, kachinas also illus- 
trate the dynamics of cultural change and 
adaptation as Hopi carvers respond to out- 
side influences. Created both for traditional 
religious uses and commercial trade, many 
contemporary kachinas in the exhibition 
reflect new carving tools and techniques 
and motifs from Western popular culture. 



"Kachinas" was made possible by bequests from the collections of Marcia and Vernon 
Wagner and through the generous support of Donald W. Paterson. It runs through 
June 16, 2001. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Calendar of Events 



Family Behind-the-Scenes Evening: 
Department of Geology 

Friday, Novembers, 6-8 p.m. 

Did you know that The Field Museum has 
more than 70 scientists on staff helping us 
learn more about our world? Fossil prepara- 
tor Jim Holstein will take you on a guided 
tour of the Museum's Geology Department. 
Get the inside scoop on how scientists col- 
lect, transport and prepare the fossils that 
are on display in the Museum's exhibit halls. 
You'll also learn about the research that 
goes on behind-the-scenes at the Museum 
and what scientists have learned about life 
on Earth millions of years ago. $12; mem- 
bers $10. Please call 312.665.7400 for more 
information or to register. 

Family Field Trip: Life Underground 

Saturday, November 4, 10 a.m. -3 p.m. 

Discover what goes on every day in the 
exciting world that is just beneath our feet. 
Start your day at The Field Museum, where 
you'll be magically shrunk to the size of a 
bug and receive a guided tour through the 
"Underground Adventure" exhibition. You'll 
walk through a soil ecosystem that has been 
blown up to 100 times its normal size so 
that you can see what life is like through 
the eyes of a bug. You'll meet millions of 



microscopic creatures that aren't usually 
visible to the human eye. Then board a bus 
for Lincoln Park Zoo, where you'll meet a 
ferret, a rabbit and other animals that make 
their homes in the earth. Join us to learn 
how life below the earth's surface sustains 
life above it. Fee includes round-trip trans- 
portation to the Lincoln Park Zoo and 
admission to The Field Museum and 
"Underground Adventure." Please bring a 
sack lunch. Beverages will be provided. $12; 
members $10. Please call 312.665.7400 for 
more information or to register. 

Adult Course: Healing 
Aromatherapy/Essential Healing 

Saturday, November 11, 10 a.m. -5 p.m. 
and Sunday, November 12, 10 a.m. -4 p.m. 
(2 sessions.) 

Discover the healing properties and 
therapeutic uses of essential oils and 
develop your own therapeutic blend to 
take home. You'll learn the basics of aro- 
matherapy, including its history, safety and 
distillation practices. You'll also learn the 
basic recipes and techniques to promote 
healing for the skin, body, stomach, heart, 
chest and lungs. $175; members $150. 
Please call 312.665.7400 for more infor- 
mation or to register. 





On November 4, the Life Underground 
Family Field Trip will include a guided tour 
through "Underground Adventure" and a trip 
to Lincoln Park Zoo. 



Adult Field Trip: Orthodox 
Cathedrals and Churches 

Saturday, November 4, 9 a.m. -4 p.m. 

Experience the powerful architecture of 
Orthodox Cathedrals and learn the history 
of the Orthodox Christian community in 
Chicago. Join church historians Harold and 
Faye Peponis for a day-long tour of these 
cathedrals, many of which were established 
more than a century ago by industrious 
immigrants who were nurtured by tradition, 
a love of freedom and a strong faith. Key 
stops include Annunciation Greek Orthodox 
Cathedral, Holy Resurrection Serbian 
Orthodox Cathedral and Holy Trinity 
Orthodox Cathedral — a Chicago landmark 
that is also on the National Register of 
Historic Places. Lunch Is Included. $60, mem- 
bers $52. Please call 312.665.7400 for more 
information or to register. 

Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Every Saturday and Sunday, 
Open House 10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. 
Weekdays, Programs at 1 p.m. 

Experience a way of life as the Pawnee 
Indians lived more than a century ago out 
on the Great Plains. An interactive exhibi- 
tion, the Pawnee Earth Lodge is a full-size 
replica of an 1850s Pawnee lodge. Sit on 
buffalo hides around the cooking fire and 
try to use buffalo horn spoons. Examine 
tools and toys made of buffalo as you listen 
to stories of what It was like to go on a buf- 
falo hunt. Free with Museum admission. Call 
312.665.7400 for more information. 



Fossil preparator. Join us on November 3 for a behind-the-scenes tour of 
the Museum's Geology Department. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Performing Arts: The Puerto Rican 
Cuatro Conference and Festival 

Conference: Friday, November 3, 

10 a.m. -4 p.m. 

Evening Concert: Friday, November 3, 7 p.m. 

Discover the cuatro guitar — the 10-string 
instrument that is a compelling symbol of 
Puerto Rican identity. Organized by the 
Puerto Rican Arts Alliance, this event 
includes a series of public workshops for 
both adults and students. Enjoy musical 
demonstrations and learn about the history 
of this guitar and its significance in Puerto 
Rican society. The conference will culminate 
in an evening concert that features several 
of today's most important cuatro musicians. 
Workshops at the conference are free. 
Tickets to the evening concert are $20. For 
more information, call 773.342.8865. 



(oirfereMce Afr Feftivnl 



This festival, celebrating the 10-string cuatro guitar, 
will he at The Field Museum on November 3. 




SoR JuANA Festival featuring Las Super Tejanas 



Friday, November 10, 7 p.m. 




Come hear the musical legends of Tejano 

music in this showcase of Latina artists. 
From Lydia Mendoza's pioneering recording 
to Selena Quitanillas' meteoric rise and 
tragic death, the music of Texas Mexican- 
American women has made a significant 
impact on their community. This first-time 
grouping includes a wide range of Tex-mex 
musical styles, from contemporary country 
to traditional romantic trios. Performers 
include stellar guitar player Rosie Flores, 
conjunto accordionist Eva Ybarra and shin- 
ing stars Tish Hinojosa and Shelley Lares. 
This program is presented through a part- 
nership between The Field Museum and 
The Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum. For 
more information and tickets, please call 
312.738.1503. 




The powerhouse musical showcase known as Las Super Tejanas will 
make its Midwest premiere at The Field Museum on November 10. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2000 



4 CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Get Smart 



New Dinosaur Discoveries 



New Discoveries from the 

Age of Dinosaurs in Madagascar 

Thursday, November 16, 6:30 p.m. 

Find out what Field Museum scientists are 
discovering about dinosaurs and other ani- 
mals that lived millions of years ago. Dr John 
Flynn, chair of the Museum's department of 
geology, has lead numerous field expeditions 
in the United States, Madagascar, Mexico 
and South America. You'll learn what his 
latest research reveals about dinosaurs, mam- 
mals and "cynodonts" — mammal ancestors 
with some reptile-like traits. Dr. Flynn is also 
the associate chair of the Committee on 
Evolutionary Biology at the University of 
Chicago and the president of the Society 
of Vertebrate Paleontology. Tickets are $12 
for general admission, $10 for students and 
educators and $8 for members. For more 
information, call 312.665.7400. 




Field Museum Geologist Dr. John Flynn will share his latest research on November 16. 



Polar Explorations 



The Field Museum and the Newberry 
Library are collaborating on this series 
about polar exploration to complement 
exhibitions at both institutions. 

"The Endurance: Shackleton's Legendary 
Antarctic Expedition" is at The Field 
Museum through January 15, 2001. 

"To the Ends of the Earth: Exploring the 
Poles" is at the Newberry Library through 
January 13, 2001. The Newberry Library is 
located in Chicago at 60 W. Walton. 

For inquiries about programs at The 
Field Museum, please call 312.665.7400. 
For programs at the Newberry Library, 
please call 312.255.3700. 




A Social Anthropologist 
in the Arctic 

Thursday, November 2, 6:30 p.m. 
The Field Museum 

Ernest S. Burch Jr. of the Smithsonian 
Institution's Arctic Studies Center will reflect 
on his experiences from 23 research trips to 
the Arctic over the past 40 years. Tickets are 
$12 for general admission, $10 for students 
and educators and $8 for Field Museum 
Members and Newberry Associates. 

World Premiere: The Arctic and 
Antarctic in Image, Word and Song 

Saturday, November 11, 11 a.m. 
The Newberry Library 

Music, images and dramatic readings of 
first-person accounts let you experience 
the feelings of fear, excitement and accom- 
plishment that polar explorers have faced. 
Written and directed by Douglas Post. 
Tickets are $12 for general admission, $10 
for students and educators and $8 for Field 
Museum Members and Newberry Associates. 

Left: Frank Hurley, the Australian photog- 
rapher whose images tell the tale of "The 
Endurance: Shackleton's Legendary Antarctic 
Expedition" at Tbe Field Museum. 



The Politics of Polar Exploration 

Saturday, December 9, 1 1 a.m. 
The Newberry Library 

Take a provocative look at how the politics 
of gender and cultural identity influence 
the portrayal of polar exploration in our 
culture. Lisa Bloom of the University of 
California at San Diego presents this slide 
lecture. Learn about African-American 
explorer Matthew Henson — the unacknowl- 
edged co-claimant to the discovery of the 
North Pole. Find out how rethinking famous 
expeditions has assumed new cultural 
importance. Admission is free. 

Mapping the Poles 

Saturday, December 16, 11 a.m. 
The Newberry Library 

Track the history of polar cartography, 
beginning with the earliest European 
expeditions. 

Curator of Maps at the Newberry Library, 
Robert W. Karrow Jr draws on materials 
from the library's own collection to present 
this slide lecture. Karrow is also the curator 
for the current exhibition "To the Ends of 
the Earth." Admission is free. 



These programs are made possible in part by a grant from the Illinois Humanities Council, 
the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Illinois General Assembly. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 5 



NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



Julie Taymor's 
The King Stag 

Coming Thanksgiving Weekend! 

Friday, November 24, 7:30 p.m.; 
Saturday, November 25, 8 p.m.; 
Sunday, November 26, 3 p.m. 




Dinosaurs and More Festival 

Saturday and Sunday, November 11-12, 11 a.m. -3 p.m. 
Monday, November 13, 10 a.m.-l p.m. 



Explore the world of dinosaurs at this 
festival for the entire family. Enjoy theater 
performances, hands-on activities, story- 
telling and demonstrations by Field Museum 
scientists — including Chris Brochu, who 
heads the research on Sue the T. rex. Sue 
Hendrickson, the fossil hunter who discov- 
ered Sue the dinosaur in South Dakota in 
1990, will sign autographs from 11 a.m. 
to 2 p.m. each day of the festival. John 
Lanzendorf, whose dinosaur art collection is 
featured in the "Picturing T. rex" exhibition, 
will offer tours at noon on Saturday and 
Monday and sign autographs from 10 a.m. 
to noon and 1:30 to 3 p.m. on Monday. 
Learn about the evolution of dinosaurs 
through Dancing with Dinosaurs: The Story 
of Sue, the latest original musical by The 
Field Museum's Teens Together Ensemble. 
You can also search the Museum floor for 
remnants of ancient sea creatures, interact 
with colossal dinosaur puppets and create 
your own dinosaur with fun foam. Free with 
Museum admission. 




Sue Hendrickson, who discovered Sue the 
T. rex, will he signing autographs at the 
Dinosaurs and More Festival. 



Julie Taymor, best known for her Tony- 
award-winning direction of The Lion King 
on Broadway, brings her vibrant costumes, 
enchanting movement and remarkable 
puppets to the lavish Chicago Theater for 
three special Thanksgiving weekend per- 
formances. Performed by the American 
Repertory Theater, The King Stag is a magi- 
cal Italian fable for all ages about the 
search for true love. The Field Museum is 
collaborating with the Chicago Association 
of Performing Arts (CAPA) to present this 
event, and a retrospective exhibition, "Julie 
Taymor: Playing with Fire," will open at the 
Field in June 2001. 

"Julie Taymor: Playing with Fire" will fea- 
ture designs from The King Stag, The Lion 
King, the film Titus and other examples 
of Taymor's flair for visual wizardry. The 
exhibit is organized by the Wexner Center 
for the Arts at The Ohio State University 
and is made possible by a generous gift 
from Ford Motor Company. Major support 
is also provided by Agnes Gund and Daniel 
Shapiro, the John S. and James L. Knight 
Foundation and PricewaterhouseCoopers. 

Tickets for The King Stag are $24, $34 and 
$44. Field Museum members receive a $5 
discount. For tickets, call Ticketmaster at 
312.902.1500 or visit the Chicago Theater 
box office or any Ticketmaster outlet. Visit 
www.capa.com or www.fieldmuseum.org 
for more information. 



Star Wars Symposium 




"Star Wars: The Magic of Myth" was 
developed by the Smithsonian's National 
Air and Space Museum and organized 
for travel by the Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service. All artifacts 
are on loan from Lucasfilm Ltd. 



The Stories Behind Star Wars 

and Sue: Envisioning Environments 

in Film and at The Field 

Saturday, December 9, 
8:30 a.m. -5 p.m. 

Get a behind-the-scenes look at how film- 
makers and museum professionals create 
the environments that transport us to other 
worlds and bring ancient creatures to life. 
Presenters include artists from The Field 
Museum's acclaimed exhibits department 
and award-winning film artists Lome 
Peterson and Paul Huston from Lucasfilm's 
Industrial Light & Magic, who created mod- 
els and visual effects for the Star Wars films. 
Hear how design, storytelling, model mak- 
ing and special effects come together to 
produce such industry-changing projects as 
Star Wars and "Sue." This symposium 
includes lunch and a viewing of "Star Wars: 
The Magic of Myth" and "Sue." Tickets are 
$30 for general admission, $25 for students 
and educators and $23 for members. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2000 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Free Visitor Programs 



Every Saturday and Sunday 

Family Fun at The Field 

1 p.m. Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction. 
In November and December, hear a Russian 
folk tale, a story about Sue the T. rex, 
children around the world or Antarctica. 
From life today to prehistoric times, we 
offer a wide variety of subjects to whet the 
appetite and send you exploring our gal- 
leries to learn more. Story Time takes place 
in the "Living Together" exhibit. This pro- 
gram for young children and their families 
is sponsored by the Siragusa Foundation 
Early Childhood Initiative. One adult for 
every three children, please. For more 
Information, call 312.665.7400. 

Interpretive Station Activities 

Every weekend you'll find a variety of 
hands-on activities throughout the Museum 
as you delve into the world of natural 
history and culture. For example, you may 
be able to learn what makes a dinosaur 
a dinosaur, see a soil scientist at work, 
find out what your name would look like 
in Egyptian hieroglyphs or dissect an owl 
pellet to see what the bird ate. Check 
the informational directories when you 
arrive at the Museum for a list of each 
day's activities. 



November 1 -Wednesday 

1 1 :30 a.m. and 1 :30 p.m. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eskimos. 

Discover a spectacular array of artifacts 
depicting two very different North 
American neighboring environments 
and cultures. 

November 3-Friday 

10 a.m. -4 p.m. The Puerto Rican Cuatro 
Conference and Festival. Join us for a series 
of public workshops on the cuatro guitar, 
the 10-string instrument that is a com- 
pelling symbol of Puerto Rican identity. 
This event is organized by the Puerto Rican 
Arts Alliance and includes workshops for 
students and adults. 

November 4-Saturday 

11 a.m., 1 p.m. and 2:15 p.m. Dancing with 
the Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. Learn 
about the evolution of dinosaurs and the 
science of paleontology in this original 
musical by the Teens Together Ensemble. 

November 8-Wednesday 

1 1 :30 a.m. and 1 :30 p.m. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eskimos. 

See November 1. 



Peaceable Kingdom Holiday Festival 




11 a.m.-4 p.m. 

December 26-December 31 

Take a break from the hustle and bustle 
of the holiday season and join us for 
our annual celebration of winter. 

Music and hands-on activities will fill 
the halls throughout this six-day festival. 
Take a self-guided tour along the 
"Winter Wonderland Walk" to learn 
how animals and humans in different 
regions have adapted to Mother 
Nature's harshest season. 

This festival is free with Museum 
admission. 



This tranquil winter scene is one of many on 
display during the holidays. 



November 11 -Saturday 

10:30 a.m. and noon. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eskimos. 

See November 1. 

1 1 a.m. -3 p.m. Dinosaurs and More 
Festival. Explore the world of dinosaurs 
at this festival for the entire family. Enjoy 
theater performances, hands-on activities, 
storytelling and demonstrations by Field 
Museum scientists. See page 6 for details. 

11 a.m., 1 p.m. and 2:15 p.m. Dancing 
with the Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 

See November 4. 

November 12-Sunday 

11 a.m. -3 p.m. Dinosaurs and More 
Festival. See November 11. 

2:15 p.m. Dancing with the Dinosaurs: 
The Story of Sue. See November 4. 

November 13-Monday 

10 a.m.-l p.m. Dinosaurs and More 
Festival. See November 11. 

November 15-Wednesday 

1 1 :30 a.m. and 1 :30 p.m. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eskimos. 
See November 1. 

November 18-Saturday 

10:30 a.m. and noon. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eskimos. 

See November 1. 

11 a.m. -2 p.m. Scientist on the Floor. 
Find out more about those creepy critters 
that live beneath our feet from Field 
Museum scientist Dan Summers. 

11 a.m., 1 p.m. and 2:15 p.m. Dancing 
with the Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 

See November 4. 

November 25-Saturday 

11 a.m., 1 p.m. and 2:15 p.m. Dancing 
with the Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue, 
See November 4. 

1 1:30 a.m., 1 p.m. and 2:30 p.m. Guided 
Tour: The Aztec, Maya and Their 
Predecessors. Learn about the diverse 
and complex pre-Columbian cultures 
of Mexico and Central America. 

November 29-Wednesday 

11:30 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eskimos. 

See November 1. 



Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories located throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2000 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



December 2-Saturday 

10:30 a.m. and noon. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eslcimos. 

See November 1. 

11 a.m., 1 p.m. and 2:15 p.m. Dancing 
with the Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 

See November 4. 

11 a.m. -2 p.m. Scientist on the Floor. 

See rarely displayed specimens from the 
Museum collections and hear scientists talk 
about their research as it relates to the 
"Underground Adventure" exhibit. 

1:30 p.m. Tibet Today and Faith in Exile. 

Visit Tibet and Tibetan refugee sites around 
the world through this slide show. 

December 6-Wednesday 

11 :30 a.m. and 1 :30 p.m. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eskimos. 

See November 1. 




The Pawnee Earth Lodge. 



December 9-Saturday 

11 a.m., 1 p.m. and 2:15 p.m. Dancing 
with the Dinosaurs: The Story of Sue. 

See November 4. 

December 13- Wednesday 

1 1 :30 a.m. and 1 :30 p.m. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eskimos. 

See November 1. 

December 16-Saturday 

10:30 a.m. and noon. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eskimos. 
See November 1. 

December 26-Tuesday 

11 a.m. -4 p.m. Peaceable Kingdom Holiday 
Festival. See sidebar on previous page. 

December 27-Wednesday 

11 a.m. -4 p.m. Peaceable Kingdom Holiday 
Festival. See sidebar on previous page. 

11 :30 a.m. and 1 :30 p.m. Guided Tour: 
Northwest Coast Indians and Eskimos. 

See November 1. 

December 28-Thursday 

11 a.m. -4 p.m. Peaceable Kingdom Holiday 
Festival. See sidebar on previous page. 

December 29-Friday 

11 a.m. -4 p.m. Peaceable Kingdom Holiday 
Festival. See sidebar on previous page. 



December 30-Saturday 

11 a.m. -4 p.m. Peaceable Kingdom Holiday 
Festival. See sidebar on previous page. 

December 31 -Sunday 

11 a.m. -4 p.m. Peaceable Kingdom Holiday 

Festival. See sidebar on previous page. 

January 2 -Tuesday 

1 p.m. Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction. 

See Family Fun at The Field, page 7. During 
the first week in January this program will 
also be offered during the week. 

January 3-Wednesday 

1 p.m. Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction. 
See January 2. 

January 4-Thursday 

1 p.m. Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction. 

See January 2. 

January 5-Friday 

1 p.m. Story Time: Facts, Fables and Fiction. 
See January 2. 

Resource Centers 

Explore topics in more depth through a 
variety of resources, including computer 
programs, books, activity boxes and much 
more at the Africa Resource Center and the 
Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Wildlife Research 
Center. Open daily from 10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. 



Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Visit a traditional home of the Pawnee 
Indians and learn about their life on 
the Great Plains. Open from 10 a.m. to 
4:30 p.m. on weekends and at 1 p.m. 
on weekdays. 

Ruatepupuke: 

The Maori Meeting House 

Discover the world of the Maori people 
of New Zealand at the treasured and sacred 
Maori Meeting House. Open daily from 9 
a.m. to 5 p.m. 

McDonald's Fossil 
Preparation Laboratory 

Watch Field Museum preparators work 
on various fossil specimens. Open daily 
from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 



Daily Highlight Tours 

Want to learn more about what you see 
at the Field? Take a guided tour of the 
exhibits that make this Museum one of 
the world's finest. Tours are offered 
Monday through Friday at 1 1 a.m. and 2 
p.m., and at 1 1 a.m. and 1 p.m. on 
Saturdays and Sundays. 



Please note that programs are subject to change. Check the informational directories located throughout the Museum for daily program listings. 



THE FIELD MUSEUM 



NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2000 



8 CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



Field Updates 



Rare Books, New Formats: 
Toward the Digital Library 



Ben Williams, Librarian 




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mtrnmnn m nwtuovH moi* Munn nmi i ifiua »t miitvi hui fvnti. JstiCH 



Above: Rare classroom wall chart from Rudolph Martin's 
Wandtafeln fiiir den Unterricht in Anthropologic (Zurich, 1902). 

Opposite page top: The Museum's original charter, September 16, 1S93, 
under the name Columbian Museum of Chicago. 

Opposite page bottom: Detail from the Virginian Partridge, Plate 76, in 
fj. Audubon, The Birds of America (1827-1838). 



At any given moment 20,000 of the 265,000 total 
volumes from The Field Museum Library's regular 
research collections have been checked out by research 
stafF, exhibit developers or education specialists. 
Volumes flow in and out of nine separate stack areas, 
and photocopiers run almost continuously as Museum 
staff copy essential resources for their ongoing work. 
And since no library can own everything it desires, 
an interlibrary loan specialist borrows or acquires 
requested materials from other holding libraries. More 
and more, these copies are received in electronic for- 
mat and forwarded through the Museum's computer 
network to individual desktops. 

For more than a century, as the Museum's scientific 
collections grew toward 21 million objects, the Library 
has built its research collections through purchase, 
gift and exchange with other institutions. Each year 
we receive about 3,000 journals and acquire more than 
2,000 books — each one a record of the natural and 
cultural objects in our own Museum and other muse- 
ums throughout the world. The Library's holdings 
could conveniently be called the collection that is 
used to study collections. 

The Library's regular research holdings merit 
bibliographic and historical study in their own right, 
but they form only part of a broader, richer context 
that includes special collections of rare books, original 
art, archives, manuscripts and objects. This distinctive, 
varied treasure trove can be mined for historical 
insight into scientific disciplines, notable individuals 
and the origins and development of our Museum. 
With startling immediacy these special collections, 
which contain many objects found nowhere else, often 
reveal the "news that stays news" about our endless 
endeavor to understand the world. 

Entering the Mary W. Runnells Rare Book Room 
one walks past the case holding our remarkable copy 
of Audubon's The Birds of America and is suddenly sur- 
rounded by original paintings and sketches by Louis 
Agassiz Fuertes, the best of all ornithological artist- 
naturalists. His watercolor field studies, created on the 
Museum's Abyssinian Expedition of 1926-1927, feature 
his favorite birds of prey poised and looking at you, 
the viewer, as if ready to strike. 

A large table that once stood in President Stanley 
Field's oflSce is usually littered with books and objects 
examined by researchers, visiting groups or college 
students from the School of the Art Institute, the 
University of Chicago and other institutions. One 
recent class surveying how fibers are used across the 
world left in its wake a pictographic divinatory manu- 
script rendered on bark by a Nakshi divine in China, 
our volume of tapa cloth samples collected on Captain 
James Cook's voyages to the Pacific in the 1770s and 
1780s, and a portfolio of loose prints of classic Indian 
ornamental calico patterns. One might also find 
among the table's clutter some of our oldest Western 



10 IN THE FIELD 



and Eastern printed books: the Gart der Gesundheit 
(Garden of Health), printed in Augsburg, Germany, 
in 1486, an herbal with hand-colored woodcuts; and 
the Gazetteer of the Great Unified Ming, the "Domesday 
Book" of the Ming Dynasty, completed in 1461. 

The Archives section presents a similarly abundant 
treasury holding the history of The Field Museum, 
beginning with its origins from the World's 
Columbian Exposition. One is confronted with 2,500 
linear feet of records, ledgers, personal papers and 
manuscripts, 40 drawers of oversize flats of every 
description, including maps, plans and scientific illus- 
trations, and 400 reels of film that include numerous 
expeditionary films, mostly in poor condition. We 
are slowly transferring important films to new stock 
and digital formats. Restored films of Malvina 
Hoffman's world travels and the Chicago Daily 
News/Field Museum Abyssinian Expedition of 1926- 
1927 can once again be viewed. We are planning a 
public exhibition space in which we hope to share 
more of these treasures directly with our visitors. 

There is an ever-growing need to provide electronic 
access to these rarely held and unique materials. The 
digital library movement is creating a broad electronic 
neighborhood of library resources by supplementing 
the already familiar online catalogs of collections 
with digitized content of books, journals and special 
collections of every description. Our need to join this 
movement received greater emphasis when the Library 
reorganized under the new Information Services and 
Technology division, which is charged with managing, 
developing and disseminating the Museum's rich 
information resources. In the emerging plans, provid- 
ing electronic access to the Library's collections has 
become a clear and immediate priority. 

The essential first step is to convert our card cata- 
log to an Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) freely 
available on the World Wide Web, now under way 
thanks to a generous gift from Nicolas Jannes, Chicago 
businessman and fine art publisher. The Friends of 
The Field Museum Library also established a special- 
ized image-licensing program several years ago to build 
the Library's endowment and create high-resolution 
digital images of prints and original art in the collec- 
tions. These images are perfected and profiled for 
various types of output, including offset lithography 
and fine art Giclee digital printing. We are creating 
a portfolio, for example, called Audubon's Fifty Best, 
The Oppenheimer Field Museum Edition, published by 
Kenyon Oppenheimer Inc., Chicago. It includes lim- 
ited edition Giclee facsimile prints from the Library's 
gloriously colored set of Tl)e Birds of America. 

The Library will be seeking new support to expand 
its efforts toward creating both exhibit-oriented and 
scholarly electronic databases. Meanwhile, in future 
issues of In The Field we will let some of the remark- 
able treasures in our collections tell their stories. ITF 



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NOVEMBER • DECEMBER 2000 1 1 



From the Archives and Beyond 



Big Museum on the Lake 

Amy Cranch, publications manager 




W^f SSSBB^ ^^ 3 child I wanted to 
rWliflBli^^^l be two things when I 
grew up — English and 
Laura Ingalls Wilder. 
I still occasionally fake 
an English accent to 
my friends' embarrass- 
ment, and while I don't 
live on the prairie, my 
favorite TV show and hours of backyard 
pretend (reluctantly playing Ma because 
I was too tall for Laura) have deeply influ- 
enced me as an adult. 

My idea of a vacation is a week in 
the woods. A simple cabin surpasses any 
hotel, and hot almond milk by the fire 
tastes like a fine cocktail. I relish a trick- 
ling creek, a moss-covered rock or a 
meadow lit by fireflies and a full moon. 
Finding nature — or nature finding me 
— has given me a greater sense of adven- 
ture, wonder and peace. 



As the new editor for In the Field, 
I hope to bring some of my passion and 
curiosity about the natural world to the 
magazine. A journalist with nearly 10 
years experience, including two years at 
the John G. Shedd Aquarium, I am learn- 
ing how to put some scientific context 
around the splendor I observe outdoors. 
For In the Field I will look at every poten- 
tial article with fresh eyes and an ear 
toward ensuring the magazine can be 
understood by our 10- and 80-year-old 
members alike. My desire is to make the 
faces and facts behind the Field more 
accessible to you — to keep you reading, 
learning and coming back. 

I have the Field's commitment and the 
talent and foresight of my predecessors to 
thank for making In the Field the quality 
publication that it is. As I plan for 2001 
and beyond, I will be reviewing how to 
even better serve our growing readership. 



now at about 50,000 members, with sur- 
veys or other opportunities to add your 
opinion. After all, this is your publication 
and one of the best ways to stay con- 
nected to the Museum. 

I don't anticipate writing any books 
like my childhood heroine's famed Little 
House on the Prairie series, but upcoming 
issues of In The Field may become my own 
personal anthology of all our experiences 
with this beloved institution. Maybe I'll 
call it Big Museum on the Lake. ITF 



The museum's magazine first started in 
1930 and was called Field Museum News. 
In 1944 it became The Bulletin and then 
changed to its current name, In the Field, 
in 1990. Tbe covers below are: (top row, left 
to right) 1948, 1963, 1964 and 1974; (bottom 
row, left to right) 1985, 1988, 1997 and 2000. 




Keeping tlic PcaiT in 
T.JVO Ninonil P^k 



12 IN THE FIELD 



Field Tidbits 



Live from The Field: 

A Virtual Archaeological Expedition in China 



From Dec. 10, 2000, through Jan. 15, 2001, you can 
virtually join an archaeological field expedition in 
Shandong, China. In his sixth year of fieldwork. Dr. 
Gary Feinman, chair of The Field Museums anthro- 
pology department, will send electronic updates about 
a Chinese and American archaeological team's work to 
investigate the origins of early civilization more than 
4,000 years ago. 

Consider what you will learn on this virtual 
expedition through regular e-mails and digital 
photographs: 

Get a taste of the day-to-day challenges of fieldwork 
and the experiences of a team of archaeologists. 

Hear about the team's efforts to pioneer a research 
method new to China called regional survey. Walking 
systematically over the land, scientists look for ancient 
pottery and other surface remains that are used to 
map and date the sites. 

Share discoveries of ancient sites. To date, the team 
has covered 400 square kilometers, more than two- 
thirds the size of Chicago, and discovered and mapped 
hundreds of sites. 

Gain insight to the world of anthropology and 
Chinese culture and life. 

One teacher, whose students received e-mails from a 
previous dig, said, "Feinman in China was a wonderful 
experience for our students. They eagerly awaited each 



update, charted where he was and had many lively dis- 
cussions. It was a revelation to find that fieldwork 
does not resemble an Indiana Jones movie. Other stu- 
dents started investigating anthropology because they 
thought that kind of work would be very 'cool.'" 

If you would like to subscribe to this FREE list, 

e-mail fieldexpeditions@fieldmuseum.org with the 
subject heading "Feinman in China." For more 
information, call 312.665.7557. ITF 




Dr. Feinman (standing right) collects ceramics from the sur- 
face of an archaeological site in China with the help of his 
colleague, Fang Hui (white cap), and local schoolchildren. 



Obtaining Member Passes for Special Exhibitions 



Members are eligible to receive free passes to see 
selected special exhibitions throughout the year. 
Family members receive four free passes, and 
Individual, Senior, Student and National AflSliate 
members receive two passes to each special exhi- 
bition. Use them yourself or give them to friends 
or family members. 

You can obtain your member passes three 
different ways: 

Come to the Museum the day you would like to see 
an exhibition and obtain your passes on a first-come, 
first-served basis. Tickets are not guaranteed but are 
usually available before 11 a.m. each day. 



Reserve your passes for a future date and time 
through Ticketmaster at 312.902.1500. Remember to 
give them your member number. Ticketmaster adds 
a discounted service charge and transaction fee to 
provide this service. 

Visit the Membership Services Desk if you are visit- 
ing the Museum and would like to reserve your passes 
for future dates. There is no extra service charge. 
Regular operating hours are from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. 

If you have any questions about member events or 
benefits, please call the membership department at 
312.665.7700 between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. ITF 



NOVEMBER • DECEMBER 2000 13 



Field Museum Tours at a Glance 




For more information or free brochures, please call Field Museum Tours at 
800.811.7244, or send them an e-mail at fmtours©sover.net. Please note that 
rates, prices and itineraries are subject to change and that prices are per 
person, double occupancy. 



This winter you will have two 
chances — one by water and one by 
land — to join Field Museum Botanist 
William Burger and explore Costa 
Rica and Central America. Dr. 
Burger has been conducting research in 
Costa Rica for more than 30 years. 

Central America Under Sail 

Feb 10-25, 2001 (16 days) 

On this 16-day odyssey, sail aboard 
the luxurious Wind Star in the Pacific 
and the Caribbean, visiting Costa 
Rica, Panama, Nicaragua, Honduras 
and Belize. Optional extension to 
see Costa Rica's volcanoes and cloud 
forest, and/or the Mayan ruins of 
Tlkal in Guatemala. 

Museum Leader: 
Botanist William Burger 
Pnce; $7,990 and higher, 
not including airfare 

The Natural Wonders of Hawaii 

Feb 14-24, 2001 (11 days) 

Join us on an in-depth natural his- 
tory excursion to Hawaii — a living 
museum of geology and biology. 
Study marine biology through 
exploring tide pools, snorkeling 
and a whale-watching cruise, and 
observe spectacular birds and vivid 
examples of volcanic activity. 

Museum Leader: 
Zoologist Harold Voris 
Price: $5,545, including 
airfare from Chicago 



On the Drawing Board 

Treasures of Oaxaca, 4/01 



Costa Rica Adventure 

Feb 25-March 6. 2001 (10 days) 

Costa Rica's natural heritage Is one 
of astonishing diversity. Our itinerary 
includes the jungle river channels of 
Tortuguero on the Caribbean coast, 
Poas Volcano and the cloud forests 
of Monte Verde high in the central 
mountains and Palo Verde's wildlife 
areas on the Pacific. Optional exten- 
sion to Tamarindo Bay. 

Museum Leader: 
Botanist William Burger 
Price: $3,995, including 
airfare from Chicago 

The Natural and Cultural 
History of Tsavo: A Deluxe 
Tented Safari Through the 
Land of the Man-eaters 
March 3-17, 2001 (15 days) 

For the first time ever, four FM 
scientists are leading a trip to the 
spectacular Tsavo National Park, 
home to the legendary man-eating 




Explore Crete, home oj the ancient 
Minoans, with Field Museum 
Anthropologists David Reese and 
Catherine Sease, who combined have 
nearly 40 years of archaeological expe- 
rience on this historic island. David 
and Catherine led last year's successful 
Crete voyage and look forward to 
again showing you the rich cultural 
heritage of the island. 



lions. Experience the unforgettable 
ambiance of a luxury mobile tent 
camp while enjoying the company 
of Museum scientists involved with 
primary research In Tsavo. Also visit 
Amboseli National Park, home to 
large, well-researched herds of ele- 
phants, and experience urban Africa 
in Nairobi. Extensions available 
to Kenya's Indian Ocean coastline 
and/or Tanzania's Serengetl. 

Museum Leaders: Zoologist Bruce 
Patterson, Archaeologists Chap 
and Sibel Kusimba and Ecologist 
Barbara Harney 
Price: $8,800, including airfare 
from Chicago 




Circumnavigation of Crete 

May 3-13, 2001 (11 days) 

Circumnavigate Crete on a 34- 
passenger luxury yacht, visiting 
a variety of splendid archaeolog- 
ical sites such as Gournia, Lato, 
Phaestos, Gortyn and Knossos. 
Explore quaint villages and breath- 
taking ocean views, plus the wildly 
beautiful Kourtaliotiko Gorge, 
Frangokastello fortress and 
Europe's only palm-tree forest. 

Museum Leader: Archaeologist 
David Reese and Anthropologist 
Catherine Sease 
Price: $3,795 and higher, 
not including airfare 



Explore Tsavo National 
Park, with four Museum 
scientists and learn 
about the infamous man- 
eating lions that killed 
and ate 135 railroad 
workers at the end of the 
19th century. Lt. Col. 
Patterson, the railroad's 
chief engineer, shot these 
lions, which Tbe Field 
Museum later bought 
and still exhibits.