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Full text of "In the field : the bulletin of the Field Museum of Natural History"

ilFIELD 



Winter 
2003-2004 



The Field IVIuseum's Member Publication 



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New Parking 
Just Steps 
From Museum 



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Einstein 



FROMTHE PRESIDENT 



The Odyssey of a Novice Naturalist 




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In the fall of 2002, I visited biologist Steve Goodman in Madagascar, the world's' 
fourth largest island southeast of Africa, where he, his students and international 
colleagues are documentina tt»e rare and threatened fauna and flora. 



From AntananarivQj m^OTuntry's 
capital, we traveled'for 2.5 days 
in Land Rovers across rutted lanes 
with ox carts as the only other 
traffic. We finally reached Antsingy, 
V\ "the place where no one walks." We 
\set up our campsite and cnakestjift 
\\ Vi faboratory among jagged limeitone 

v 



collecting with a purpose: 
Museum and University of 
Antananarivo are sharing the 
skeleton for taxonomic and morpho 
logical studies. L'Institut Pastewr^ 
in Paris, France, is investigating 
disease with the blood and endopar- 
asites (internal parasites). Cornell 
University is examining reproduc- 
tion with the bat's sperm. The 
University of Michigan and the^ 
Field are researching the ectopia"-' 
sites (external parasites). Yale 
^ University is conducting molecular 
studies with the tissues. And the 









p^aks, and ceremoniously poured 
rum onto the rock to quench the 
Uthirst of the ancestors. But from - 
\khen on, our purpose of collecting j 
tfictated every moment of the dSy^' 
(ahd nights 

U \v u s 

Lines with bucket traps and mist/J ,, ^. ,,,.,,.„ 

, , ^, / V. Max Planck Institute in Germany is 
nets were set up throughout the /---^ — , . .^ ^ , . , 

referencing its eyes to understand 



brest. For the next five days we 
checked the traps >iourly, finding 
bats, frogs, chameleons, insects, 
akes and other animals. At night, 
e dexterous, barefooted team- 
te leapt onto sharp limestone 
•ags to catch amphibians and rep- 
'tiles,^is reflexes honed by decades of 
fieldwork. Most of the animals were 



sleased; some were kept for study 



Background: Sketchek'fyfii 
John McCarter's journal.'^ 

Below: One bat fa«fe^^' ''^search institutions worldwide 
tain the work of sciemtstsfJ-.Q, 
around the g^obe. \^-^\ 



the evolution of sight in nocturnal 
and diurnal animals. Thus, one spec- 
imen can sustain the work of several 
far-reaching research projects. 

Our mission in Madagascar — and in 
many countries where Field Museum 
scientists are working — is to under- 
stand the diversity of life, preserve 
what is left and train young stu- 
dents so that they can lead research 
and conservation efforts in their 



bat Specimen exemplifies the ^ .^ , , „„ ^ t 

y \, . ,, , x- -J -^s*- country At least 80 percent of 

lortance of collaborationand-' ,-^ ,, , ,,,,-, 

Madagascar's plants and animals 

are found nowhere else in the 
world, yet slash-and-burn agricul- 
ture, overgrazing and urban sprawl 
are swiftly diminishing what pre- 
cious few habitats remain. In a 
country where population explosion 

extreme poverty have led to 
exploiting natural resources, how 
)i do v\/e balance the needs of conser 
c,> V^ioo with the needs of humans? 

My trip to Madagascar sharpened 
my awareness of the differences 




tween the overabundance .t5f"^--^Ij-^ 
Ith in segments of the United .*«£5_ 
tates and the poverty throughouT^^^^^? 
much. of the world. The trip also~^~^— - 
,^UDde*'SCored the complexity and, - 
difficulty of what Field Museumsci^— r^ j 
entists are doing all over the globe. '--^ 
The Museum has established a 
framework 'that supports individual 
^scientists and their research inter- 
ests, but it's their own expertise, 
" ' cdhnfecfiohs, determination 
and passion that make it all hap- 
pen. Would we aspire to research 
biodiversity around the globe with- 
out individuals like Steve Goodman? 
j ^.-€ouldwedo it? No. 

"* the Vear of Biodiversity and 
Conservation (YBC) honors the 
hundreds of Field Museum scien- 
tists working in our research 
laboratories and around the world. 
In this issue of In the Field, and 
over the next three months at the 
Museum, you'll have opportunities 
to learn about island biodiversity, 
the Neotropics and our planet's 
living waters. Also visit www.field- 
museum.org/biodiversity. You'll 
feel proud to be a supporter of 
this Institution. 

KJohn W. McCarter, Jr. 
President and CEO 

See pages 4— 5 for an article on Steve 
Goodman's research. 

Support for Year of Biodiversity and Conservation 
programming provided by the City of Chicago, 
Richard M. Daley, Mayor; Department of 
Environment, N. Marcia Jimenez, Commissioner. 




u thjink about Tn the Field? 



r general membership inquiries, including address chs 
magazine In the Field, call 312.665.7115, email acranch(a)fmnh.org, or write Amy E. Cranch, 
The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 




INTHEFIELD 



Winter 2003-2004, December- February, 
Vol.75, No.l 

Editor: 

Amy E. Cranch, The Field Museum 

Design: 
Depke Design 

Copy editor: 

Laura F. Nelson 

^<r In the Field is printed on recycled paper 
using soy-based inks. All images ©The 
Field Museum unless otherwise specified. 

In the Field (ISSN #1051-4546) is published 
quarterly by The Field Museum. Copyright 
2003 The Field Museum. Annual subscriptions 
are $20; $10 for schools. Museum membership 
includes In the Field subscription. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do 
not necessarily reflect the policy of The Field 
Museum. Notification of address change should 
include address label and should be sent to 
the membership department. POSTMASTER: 
Send address changes to Membership, The 
Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, IL 60605-2496. Periodicals postage 
paid at Chicago, Illinois. 

Cover: See the world through the eyes of a 
genius in Einstein, running through Jan. 19. 
Einstein on a bicycle courtesy the Archives, 
. California Institute of Technology Special 
Relativity manuscript © the Israel Museum, 
Jerusalem. 

The Field Museum salutes the people of Chicago 
for their long-standing, generous support of the 
Museum through the Chicago Park District. 



j: 



te 



Field 



useum 



1400 South Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2496 
312.922.9410 
www.fieldmuseum.org 




Einstein is the first comprehensive exhibition 
that brings to hfe this famous scientist, 
activist and man. 

Top: Einstein at Carnegie Hall in New York 
City, 1934. 



4 



A Field Museum scientist draws interna- 
tional attention to Madagascar's threatened 
species. 

Middle: Steve Goodman, right, and a Malagasy 
colleague examine a bat. 



Michael Yamashita, the first speaker of our 
popular National Geographic Live series, 
retraces much of Marco Polo's legendary 
trek across Asia. 



16 



Field Museum scientists are investigating 

reef fish diversity before these treasures 

disappear. 

Bottom:Titan triggerfish, Balistoides viridiscens. 



U.S. Postal Service Statement of Ownership, Management and Circulation 


1. In the Field 


15. Extent and nature of circulation 


Average no. copies each issue 


No. copies of single issue 


2. 898940 




during preceding 12 months 


published nearest to filing date 


3. Oct. 1, 2003 


A. Total no. copies 


49,125 


44,000 


4. Quarterly 


B. Paid and/or requested circulation 


— 


— 


5. Four 


1. Outside-county subscriptions 


19,361 


16,505 


6. $20 


2. In-county subscriptions 


24,025 


22,079 


7. Amy E. Cranch, 312.665.7115, The Field 
Museum, 1400 S. Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, 
Cook County, IL 60605-2496 (same for nos. 
8, 9 and 10) 


3. Sales through dealers, carriers, street vendors 
counter sales and other non-USPS paid distribution 

4. Other classes mailed through USPS 
C. Total paid and/or requested circulation 


N/A 
N/A 
43,386 


N/A 
N/A 
38,584 


11. None 


D. Free distribution by mail 


— 


— 


12. Has not changed during preceding 12 months 


1. Outside-county 

2. In-county 


184 
1,511 


734 
2,013 


13. In the Field 


3. Other classes mailed through USPS 


N/A 


N/A 


14. Fall 2003 (Sept-Nov) 


E. Free distribution outside the mail 


2,500 


2,500 


16. Winter 2003-2004 (Dec-Feb) 

17. I certify that all information furnished is true 
and complete, /s/ Amy E. Cranch, Editor, In 
the Field 


F. Total free distribution 

G. Total distribution 

H. Copies not distributed 

1. Total 

J. Percent paid and/or requested circulation 


4,195 
47,581 
1,544 
49,125 


5,247 
43,831 
169 
44,000 






WINTER 2003-2004 


December-February ^^^^K 



IN T Mil lELDFEATURE 



Einstein Exiiibition Brings to Life the 
Scientist, Activist and Man 

Cheryl Baidoc. Project Administrator, Exhibitions 

In 1919 British astronomers peered into the sky and observed the following during 
a solar eclipse: Light from distant stars had curved around the sun's mass — a 
phenomenon that physicist Albert Einstein had predicted three years before. When 
the astronomers released their findings, the front page of the London Times said, 
"Revolution in Science, New Theory of the Universe, Newtonian Ideas Overthrown.' 




The proverbial stars had aligned, and Einstein's 
controversial and radical theories had been proven 
true. Suddenly Einstein was launched onto the 
world stage, and his name became synonymous 
with "genius." 

"He became as famous overnight as Madonna, 
plus Tiger Woods, plus President Bush, all rolled 
into one," explained Dr. Michael Shara, curator of 
Einstein, a new exhibition that appears at The Field 
Museum through Jan. 19, 2004. 

Covering his groundbreaking theories, personal 
life and humanitarian passions, Einstein is the first 
comprehensive exhibition to 
explore the Ufe and work of this 
famous scientist — considered one 
of the greatest thinkers of the 20th 
century. "Einstein is a real hero," Dr. 
Shara said. "He was one of the most 
intelligent, bright, imaginative 
human beings who ever lived, who 
left us a legacy which has allowed 
our civiUzation to leap forward. He 
was also a human being who had 
very deeply held principles, who 
cared deeply about human rights 
and was not afi-aid to speak out, 
even when it might cost him 
dearly." 

The Einstein exhibition received 
excellent reviews and drew enthusi- 
astic crowds when it opened at 
the American Museum of Natural History in 
New York, where Dr. Shara is an astrophysicist. 
Chicago's Field Museum is the first stop for this 
travehng exhibition, which will also appear in 
Los Angeles, Boston and Jerusalem. 

ReveaUng that even the most complex science 
is a fundamentally human enterprise, the exhibi- 
tion is a perfect fit for The Field Museum, where 
more than 200 scientists are working behind the 
scenes in the areas of anthropology, botany, geology 
and zoology. "Einstein exemphfies the passionate 
curiosity and drive to understand our world that 



all scientists share," said Robin Groesbeck, manager 
of exhibition coordination at The Field Museum. 

Science made (relatively) easy 

Einstein's theories capture the imagination because 
they often contradict notions about time, light, 
energy and space that we take for granted in our 
everyday lives. For example, most of us think of 
time as being the same for everyone, moving for- 
ward at a steady pace. Einstein's Special Theory of 
Relativity, however, says that time moves difFerendy 
for objects that are moving at different speeds. And 
the faster an object is moving, the slower time 
passes for that object. 

"As you travel close to the speed of hght, your 
clock slows down, you actually increase in mass 
and you get skinnier in the direction you are trav- 
eling," said Donald Cooke, a former astrophysicist 
who is currendy the vice president of institutional 
advancement at The Field Museum. "Of course, 
this is all relative to your perspective. If Einstein 
had been travehng in a spaceship close to the speed 
of light since his birth in 1879, he would be only 
one day old. Meanwhile more than 100 years have 
passed for the rest of us on Earth." 

Many of Einstein's theories — which popular 
culture has explored in movies, television and 
books — seem like science fiction. Yet they have 
been proven true. And they offer important insights 
into how our world operates, such as why the stars 
shine, why black holes exist and how gravity works. 

The Einstein e.xhibition uses multi-media and 
interactive elements to make these ideas accessible 
and understandable. An interactive screen shows 
visitors what they would look like with a black 
hole in their bellies. A dazzling hght sculpture 
helps explain the speed of light. A giant wall of 
clocks illustrates the possibility of time travel. 
"This exhibirion brings scienrific theory into 
three-dimensional space, really engages people 
in the process, and lets them walk away with 
an understanding they didn't have before," 
Groesbeck said. 



IN THE FIELD 




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unicated to « 1 ^^^^^ 

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Visitors can also see handwritten manuscripts 
from Einstein's major scientific works, including his 
1916 paper on the General Theory of Relativity. 
"This is the most important docuinent, not just in 
Einstein's life, but really in all of modern physics," 
Dr. Shara said. 

A citizen of the world 

Photographs, letters and personal mementos 
throughout the exhibition reveal Einstein's personal 
life and humanitarian pursuits. "He wasn't only 
a scientist making groundbreaking discoveries," 
Groesbeck explained. "He was also actively 
engaged in the political and social problems of his 
time. His feet were firmly planted on the ground." 

Einstein considered himself a global citizen and 
did not hesitate to use his fame to work for the 
causes he believed in. He was a lifelong pacifist and 
socialist, who believed that only a unified world 
government could put an end to war. He was an 
internationally known activist for civil rights and 
nuclear disarmament, who stood up to McCarthyism 
and became a target of the FBI. 

The exhibition features copies of Einstein's 
correspondence with world leaders on a variety 
of topics, including a 1939 letter in which 
Einstein alerted President Roosevelt to the fact 
that the Nazis might be developing an atomic 
bomb. Einstein did not work directly on the cre- 
ation of nuclear weapons, but his name has been 
forever linked to them because of this letter and 
because his famous equation, E=mc-, describes 
the tremendous amount of energy that nuclear 
weapons release. 

The exhibition also includes a less well-known 



letter, offering Einstein the presidency 
of Israel in 1952. Although he graciously 
declined, the offer is a testimony to the deep 
connection Einstein had with his Jewish identity. 

A normal guy 

Visitors will also discover Einstein's life away from 
the public eye. Despite his celebrity status, Einstein, 
it seems, was "a normal guy," Cooke said. Einstein 
loved to sail and play the violin. He declined to 
wear socks because they would get holes in them. 
As he got older, he didn't like to update his glasses 
prescription. He also had two marriages and 
multiple affairs. 

"1 think visitors will be surprised to discover 
how passionate Einstein was about every aspect 
of life," Cooke said. "His correspondence illustrates 
his zeal and shows us that he was an eloquent and 
persuasive writer." 

Einstein's letters also reveal his warmth and 
humor. An avid, articulate correspondent, he 
received dozens of letters each day, including many 
from children. In 1943, he responded to a 12-year- 
old girl with, "Do not worry about your difficulties 
in mathematics. I can assure you that mine are 
still greater." 

A grand legacy 

The exhibition concludes with a look at Einstein's 
unfulfilled quest for a "Grand Unified Theory" that 
would explain every phenomena in the universe, 
from a cosmological scale to a subatomic level. 
This topic remains one of the hottest areas in 
physics today. 

"Einstein's greatest legacy is the idea that the 
universe is beautifiil, symmetric, simple and ulti- 
mately understandable," Dr. Shara said. 

By illuminating Einstein's theories, this exhibi- 
tion proves yet one more of this great thinker's 
ideas to be true. ITF 

Organized by the American Museum of Natural History, New York; The Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem; and the St<irball Cultural Center, Los Angeles. 

Einstein is made possible through the generous support of Jack & Susan Rudin 
and the Skirbali Foundation, and of the Corporate Tour Sponsor TIAA-CREF. 




© HEBREW UNIVERSITY, JERUSALEM 

Left: Einstein in 
Princeton, New Jersey, 
1938. 

Center: A 1939 
letter from Einstein to 
President Roosevelt 
suggested that the Nazis 
might be building a 
nuclear weapon. 

Right: Einstein with his 
first wife, Mileva Marie, 
and their son, Hans 
Albert. 



WINTER 2003-2004 December-February 



YBCSPOTLIGHTrlSLANDBIODIVERSITY 



The Natural Wonders of Madagascar 



Amy E. Cramli, Editor 

All photographs by Harald Schtitz 



Live as if your life depended on it. 



I've whispered this mantra many times to remember that what I think and do really 
matters, not only to me but my community at large. Steve Goodman, a Field Museum 
biologist whose life and work are concentrated in Madagascar, also matters. His untir- 
ing, selfless efforts to document Madagascar's animals have made a lasting contribution 
to this internationally-deemed conservation hotspot. An upcoming photography exhibi- 
tion and definitive book on the island's natural history endorse Goodman's capacity to 
draw attention to the country's threatened species. The island itself depends on it. 




A natural-born forest dweller 

Goodman is no conformist. He fell into biology 
after studying birds for his sculptures, resisted 
pursuing his PhD for years and lived dubiously 
through grants wherever his research interests took 
him. Friends and colleagues call him the bohemian 
biologist. But while an appearance fit for a Grateful 
Dead concert may indicate his free spirit, as a sci- 
entist, Goodman is anything but laid back. Anne 
Yoder, a colleague at Yale University, said he has 
done more to investigate Madagascar's fauna than 
any living person. 

Goodman lives in Madagascar about 10 months 
of the year, half of which are spent documenting 
animals in the forests. He recendy completed his 
160th inventory, recognizing that on an island with 
so many diverse landscapes that are changing so 
rapidly, one has to keep mo\-ing to know the fauna. 
At 6 feet 2 inches, Goodman sweeps through the 
tangled forests with the determination of an ele- 



phant and the grace of a gazelle. Searing heat, dis- 
ease, undrinkable water and tsetse flies covering 
him like blankets come with the job description. 

Goodman is motivated by a sense of imminent 
crisis as he witnesses the country's remaining habi- 
tats diminish. He himself has discovered dozens of 
new species, and the scientists and students he hosts 
on fieldtrips have added hundreds more. While it's 
not uncommon to exclude scientists who Uve in 
the country w^here the work is being done, 
Goodman's inclusive nature is overturning that 
practice in Madagascar. Between being a professor 
at the University of Antananarivo and coordinating 
a WWF-Madagascar project, the Ecological 
Training Program (ETP), Goodman has provided 
education to hundreds of aspiring Malagasy stu- 
dents. More than 35 students have passed through 
the ETP with higher degrees in zoology, paleontol- 
ogy and conservation biology. 

"Many developing countries' education systems 



IN THE FIELD 



have slid into a black hole," said Goodman. "My 
greatest effort isn't necessarily in documenting 
Madagascar's animals, but in giving young Malagasy 
students the knowledge and empowerment — the 
opportunity — to advance their country's conserva- 
tion needs." 

A place like no other 

Comparable to California and Oregon combined, 
Madagascar is the world's fourth largest island. All 
of the land mammals there today belong to four 
groups — tenrecs (small insectivores), rodents, 
lemurs and carnivores — that probably floated to 
the island via land debris after its break from east- 
ern Africa about 1 60 million years ago. Thousands 
of animal species that flourished from these ances- 
tors can be found nowhere else on the Earth, 



of conservation dollars, much of it evaporates in 
the country's bamboozled bureaucracy. Madagascar's 
new democratic president is trying to revamp the 
economy and infrastructure, but there's much to 
accomplish. Goodman's new book. The Natural 
History of Madagascar, is highly anticipated to 
catalyze worldwide interest in saving the landscape 
and wildlife. 

A book of colossal intent 

Co-edited with Jonathan Benstead of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 
and published by the University of Chicago Press, 
Tlie Natural History of Madagascar is by far the 
largest synthesis of tropical biology ever written. 
Inspired by a similar book on Costa Rica, this 
1,800-page volume contains contributions from 




Spiny forests occur in Madagascar's driest regions. Many trees have 
underground tubers that store nutrients and water, while their spiny 
bodies and poisonous leaves and bark keep animals from eating them. 



One set of spines of this streaked tenrec (Heniicentetes seniispinosus) 
becomes embedded in an attacker's mouth in self-defense, while another 
set quivers, sending ultrasonic messages to other streaked tenrecs. 



appearing to have been plunked onto Madagascar 
from another planet altogether. New discoveries are 
swimming, flying or creeping past researchers' paths 
on a regular basis. One trip could churn up 10 
unidentified creatures, leaving researchers in a 
perpetual state of awe — and anxiety. 

Political turbulence over the past four decades 
and a dilapidated infrastructure have prevented sci- 
entists from working there until recently. Yet species 
are disappearing before they can even be named or 
described. Lack of economic growth has forced the 
Malagasy to turn to the land for subsistence: Slash- 
and-burn agriculture, conversion of forests to 
cooking charcoal and clearing land for cattle are 
the biggest threats to habitats and wildlife. If defor- 
estation continues at this rate, Goodman said, the 
original large tracts of forest will faO, along with 
hundreds of plant and animal species. 

While charismatic animals such as lemurs, our 
wide-eyed primate cousins, have attracted millions 



nearly 300 scientists fi-om 19 countries. Its lush 
photographs, accessibility and affordable price 
enhance its appeal to citizens and travelers as well 
as biologists, conservationists and policy-makers. 
Particularly exceptional is that 70 Malagasy scien- 
tists contributed to the tome, pulling their work out 
of the shadows of their foreign colleagues. Since the 
last inventory was published in the late 1800s, this 
book, available before the end of the year, is hailed 
as the single most important volume published on 
Madagascar's land, plants and animals. ITF 

The Natural History of Madagascar will soon be 
available at The Field Museum's in-house and online 
(Itttp: / /store.fieldmuseum.org) stores. The Natural 
Wonders of Madagascar: Photographs by Harald 
Schiitz, an exhibition featuring brilliant images from 
this mystical island, runs Dec. 5, 2003, through July 5, 
2004. Goodman will speak about his efforts on Dec. 6 
at 2pm. 



WINTER 2003-2004 December-February 



INTHEFIELDFEATURE 



National Geographic Live! 

An Interview with IVIichael Yamashita 

Following two successful seasons, The Field Museum and National Geographic are once 
again presenting National Geographic Live! Find adventure, insight and inspiration 
through encounters with the world's top explorers, photographers and scientists. 
(See the calendar for the full schedule and ticket information.) 



Below are edited excerpts from an interview with 
photographer Michael Yamashita, the first speaker 
on March 2. Using Marco Polo's book as his travel 
guide, Yamashita visited 10 countries and encoun- 
tered many landmarks and peoples Polo wrote 
about following his legendary 24-year trek across 
Asia. Yamashita and his travehng companion, Mike 
^^^^^ Edwards, presented their journey 
JI^^H in a three-part National Geographic 
^^^^H series in 2001. 




ITF: Did you read Marco Polo's 

Description of the World? 

MY: Yes, and it's not an easy read. 
We used a version from the 1800s 
that's in two volumes and around a 
thousand pages, but it's the most 
complete. I made a shoot list from the places Polo 
visited. If he talked about a hot spring in a certain 
area, we'd go to each village and ask the locals if it 
existed. It was like a big treasure hunt. Amazingly 
enough, a lot of those places are still the same 700 
years later. 

ITF: Scholars have questioned Polo's credibility, 
largely basing their arguments not on what he 
did write about, but on what he omitted, such as 
bound feet. How did you address this? 

MY: When I was researching the story, I found that 
he lived among the Mongols and would not have 
had much to do with the Chinese. He alludes to 
bound feet in his descriptions of the distinctive 
gait of Chinese women. 

I believe he wrote about things that were of 
interest to him personally. He had no motive. 
He wasn't a writer; he was a merchant. And in 
those days, a travel book was filled with mythology. 
To write a real book and describe real things was 



unheard of. 

One of his great defenders says he alone has 
contributed the most information to geographers 
about world geography, and no has given the world 
that much information since. 

UP: What was the most memorable leg of the trip? 

MY: I've spent a lot of time in the Far East, so for 
me, Afghanistan was the experience. After all those 
years of civil war, the country has been destroyed, 
especially in the north. There's no infrastructure, 
no running water, no electricity, no telephones and 
very few cars. Everything is by donkey cart. It's 
biblical. Everyone's wearing leather shoes, tunics 
and turbans. To be in a place that took me back 
700 years where I knew Polo must have been was 
a great experience. And it's not as meaningful if it's 
not hard. We became close to the people, and I'm 
wondering if they're stiU alive after 9/11. 

I worked with Ahmad Shah Massoud, commander 
of the Northern Alliance. We flew in his helicopter 
to the Panjsheer Valley and I photographed him in 
battle. It was a great experience, even more signifi- 
cant after 9/11. We then traveled with a letter from 
him giving us free passage, and it just so happened 
that the area under his control was exactly Polo's 
route. We also saw the Taliban in Flushing Meadow. 

ITF: What was the most interesting surviving 
custom you witnessed? 

MY: In China, we were looking for people who 
ate raw meat. We hit the right village that said 
they did, but only on special occasions, and we 
wondered how we'd see it. The next day I met a 
student who had come back for his sister's wedding 
and we got invited. They were killing pigs and we 
were thinking, "Oh, my god. Polo never talked 
about raw pork, the one meat you wouldn't even 
think of eating raw. He just said raw 'meat.'" But 
of course as journalists we ended up eating it. We 
went through a lot of funny experiences like that. 

See the calendar for ticket information, or visit 
wunv.nationalgeographic.com/lectures. 

Series Sponsor: The Field Associates — a dynamic, diverse group of young 
professionals dedicated to promoting awareness of The Field Museum's 
collections, research and public programs. For information or to join, call 
312.665.7133 or visit www.fieldmuseum.org/fieldassociates. 

Education outreach activities related to the series are presented in collabora- 
tion with The Field Museum, the Geographic Society of Chicago and the 
Illinois Geographic Alliance. 



IN THE FIELD 



YOURGUIDETOTHEFIELD 



Calendar of Events for Winter 2003-2004 December-February 



Inside: Exhibitions Festivals Family Programs Adult Programs 



New Exhibition- 
The Natural 
Wonders of 
Madagascar: 
Photographs by 
Harald Schiitz 

Dec. 5, 2003-Jiily 5, 2004 

Discover the unique flora and 
fauna of this extraordinary island 
through 39 brilliant color photo- 
graphs. Photographer Harald 
SchiJtz beautifully captures the 
one-of-a-kind Malagasy wildlife 
studied by Field Museum scientist 
Steve Goodman. 

Join Goodman as he shares expedition 
slides and gives you an insider's lool< at the 
new exhibition. He will also discuss his new 
book, The Natural History of Madagascar, 
which will be available for signing after the 
lecture. 

Saturday, Dec. 6, 2pm 

Free with Museum admission 

This exhibition was created by Harald Schiitz in collaboration 
with The Field Museum. 

Support for Year of Biodiversity and Conservation programming 
provided by the City of Chicago, Richard M. Daley, Mayor; 
Department of Environment, N. Marcia Jimenez, Commissioner. 





Einstein 



k 



Through Jan. 19, 2004 

See the world through the eyes of a genius. Meet Einstein, the man 
behind the revolutionary theories, through photographs, personal pos- 
sessions, letters, original manuscripts and multimedia displays. Also 
ask about the Curator's Audio Tour, produced by Antenna Audio. 



Test Your Einstein Quotient 



i>^. 



^ 



.o/^.-;>-^<-4^^t/UM.<i^^ 



1. E=mc2 explains:'^ 

A. Why stars shine 

B. The existence of black holes 

C. Solar eclipses 

Ansv^er: A. It shows that a relatively small quantity or matter 
can release a tremendous amount of energy. 



2. Besides science, which of these wer^ also passions of Ejnstein? 

A. Music y ^ I 

B. Sailing r ' y^ Z. 

C. Women 




I 

J 



Answer: All of the above. Einstein began violin lessons in childhood; he claimed to like 
sailing because it is "the sport that demands the least energy"; and he had affairs with 
women throughout his life and two marriages. 

3. True or false: Einstein was the father of the atomic bomb. 

Answer: False. When Einstein learned that German scientists had split the uranium atom 
and might soon be able to build atomic weapons, he urged President Roosevelt to start a 
similar research program here. His famous equation, E = mc^, explains the energy 
released by an atomic bomb, but doesn't explain how to build one. 

4. Which of these causes did Einstein not use his fame to support? 

A. Civil rights in the United States 

B. Creation of a Jewish homeland 

C. A unified world government 

D. The House Un-American Activities Committee 

E. Socialism 

F. Nuclear disarmament 

Answer: D. In fact, even when he himself was denounced as a "Communist spy," Einstein 
persisted in criticizing the actions of Sen. Joseph McCarthy, head of the committee. 

Organized by the American Museum of Natural History, New York; The Hebrew University of Jerusalem; and the Skirball Cultural 
Center, Los Angeles. 

^m'its'm is made possible through the generous support of Jack and Susan Rudin and the Skirball Foundation, and of the Corporate 
Tour Sponsor, TIAA-CRER 



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ter 



Field 



useum 



General Museum Information: 312.922.9410 

Family and Adult Program Tickets and Information: 312.665.7400 






WINTER 2003-2004 December- Fehmary 



Your Guide to the Field: Calendar of Events for Winter 2003-2004 December-February 



in us for a Year of 
iodiversity and Conservation. 



;^SSSgJ 



im 



The Field Museum 



topics of our time througli special lectures, exhibitions, opportunities to interact with Museum scien- 
tists and suggestions on how you can become personally involved in conservation. 



Supporf for Year'of Stodiversity and Conservation programming provided by the City of Ciiicago, Riciiard M. Daley, Mayor; Department of Environment, N. Marcia Jimenez, Commissioner. 



Featured Exhibition: 

The Natural Wonders of Madagascar: 
Photographs by Haraid SchiJtz 

(Dec. 5, 2003-July 5, 2004) 

Discover the unique flora and fauna of this extraordinary 
island through brilliant color photographs. 

Family Behind the Scenes: 
Madagascar Fossils 

Ji';/i Holsteiii, TFM Geoloj^y Dept. 

Examine striking fossils from Madagascar — unusual 

crocodiles, rare birds and intriguing 

dinosaurs. 

Families with cliildmi cmes 7—12 

Friday, Dec. 5, 6— Spin 

$15, members $12 . 




Lectures: 

The Biological Wonders of Madagascar 

Sieve Goodman, TFM Zoolot^y Dept. 

Learn about Madagascar's biodiversity through breathtaking 
photographs from his fieldwork, exhibition and book. 

Saturday, Dec. 6, 2pm, free with Museum admission 

A World of Islands: Biodiversity 
and the Geography of Nature 

Dr. Larry Heaney, TFM Mammals Dept. 

Discover why the Philippines boast the highest concentration 
of one-of-a-kind plants and animals in the world. 

Saturday, Dec. 13, 2:30pm, free with Museum admission 

Scientist at the Field 

Dk Larry Heaney, TFM Mammals Dept. 

Peruse fascinating mammal specimens 
and hear about Dr Heaney's fieldwork in 
the Philippines, where he has discovered 
20 new species of mammals. 

Saturday, Dec. 13, 1 lam-2piu, free with Museum admission 




January: Biodiversity in 
the Neotropics 



Featured Exhibitions: 
Plants of the vV 



(Ongoing) 



From its simplest form, algae, to Its most complex, orchids, 
this exhibition offers a magnificent collection of plant and 
flower models in large dioramas. 

Eviction and Homecoming: Ti 5 = ry of 
Brazil's Panara Indians (Through Feb. 8, 2004) 

These dramatic photographs document the triumphant 
struggle of the Panara Indians of Brazil to reclaim 
their homeland and cultural identity. 

This exhibition was developed by instituto Socioambiental, Brazil, in collaboration with 
The Field Museum. 



Scientist Roundtabie: 

Biodiversity in the Neotropics 

Bwce Patterson, Doug Stotz and Robin Foster, TFM 
Academic Affairs 

Explore the New World tropics from Mexico to South 
America, home to approximately a quarter of Earth's plant 
and animal species. 

Saturday, Jan. 10, 2pm, free with Museum 
admission 




IN THE FIELD CALENDAR 



General Museum Information: 312.922.9410; Family and Adult Program Tickets and Information: 312.665.7400 




Scientist at the Field 

James Liiudcniiaii, TFM Insects Dept. 

Hear about striking and rare insects and 
spiders from tlie American tropics. 
Louderman will also discuss his fieldwork on 
how clear-cut foresting affects insect populations. 

Saturday, Jan. tO, I hvii-2piii, free with Museiiiii adinissioii 




oTaOcoDoVN 



IP 




Featured Exhibition: 

What Is an Animal? 

(Ongoing) 

Discover the three 
characteristics that all 
animals share in this 
interactive exhibition, 
then see how scientists 
classify animals. 

Lecture: 

Mollusks: Megadiversity in the Sea 

Riidii^er Biclcr, TFM Zoolo^i^Y Dept. 

Meet Museum scientists whose work on mollusks involves 
scuba diving, deep-water dredging and studying the Museum's 
collections. 

Saturday, Feb. 14, 2pm, free with Museum admission 



Adult Behind the Scenes: 
Plants ana Animals of the Neotropics 

Robert Likkii^ TFM Botany Dept. 

Explore distinctive plants and animals from Central and South 
America and the Caribbean in this tour through the Museum's 
research departments. 

Saturday, Jan. U), 9-Uam 
$15 per person, \nembers $12 




Scientists at the Field 

Justin Grubich and Aaron Rice, TFM Fishes Division 

Explore the most diverse group of vertebrates on Earth — 
fishes! View fish skulls, specimens, skeletons and hi-speed 
video footage that illustrate diverse coral reef and 
Neotropical freshwater fishes. 

Saturday, Feb. 14, 1 lam-2pm,free with Museum admission 
Family Behind the Scenes: 

Held Museum Division of Fishes 

Mark Westneat, TFM Fishes Division 

Dive into the Museum's fishes division and discover what 
Field Museum researchers are studying. 

Friday, Feb. 27, 
6- Spill 

15 per person, 
mendiers $12 



Coming in March... 

Humans and Landscape 

raSt. anCI rrCScnL Armour symposium 

What does archaeology have to do with environmental con- 
servation today? Join archaeologists, social anthropologists, 
geologists and environmental scientists to explore how con- 
nections between past cultures and ecosystems affect human 
and natural ecological change. This symposium. Indigenous 
Ecologies and Sustainability: Humans and Landscape Past 
and Present, illustrates archaeology's role in modern-day 
environmental conservation. 

Saturday, March 6 

Call 312.665.7448 or email twachter@fieldnmseutn.orf> 
to register. 




WINTER 2003-2004 December- Fdmuny 



Family Overnight 

Dozin' With the Dinos 

Sue the T. rex is having a sleepover! Join us for a night of 
family workshops, tours and performances. Explore ancient 
Egypt by flashlight, prowl an African savannah with man- 
eating lions and travel back in time to the Mesozoic Era. 
Then spread your sleeping bag amidst some of our most 
popular exhibitions. The event 
includes an evening snack and 
breakfast. 

Families with children ages 5—12 
5:45pm on Saturday, Dec. 21 
until 9am on Sunday, Dec. 28 
S47, members $40 




Family Workshops 

Family Storytelling 

Fox Ellis, Master Storyteller 

Come listen as Peoria's Fox Ellis spins 
a lively tale, the first part in a three- 
part series focusing on storytelling. 
Ellis uses his craft to teach children and 

adults alike about the importance 

of oral histories. ^ 

Families unth children ages 5-12 

Saturday.Jan. 10, 10am— noon 

(Tlie other series dates are Feb. 21 and April 3.) 

$10, members $8 

Series of three $20, members $16 




African Heritage Festival 



The People of the African Diaspora 

Antlwny Young, 
Howard University 

V 5 four-session course, 
learn how the mystical 
dimension of religion and 
the Black Church character- 
ize the dominant experience 
of people of the African 
Diaspora throughout the United States, including Chicago. 

Tuesdays, Feb. 3, 10, 17 and 24, 6— 8pm 
$70, members $60 





Photographs of the Diaspora in the Americas 

\licliael Bracey, photographer 

Explore award-winning photographer Michael Bracey's images 
that showcase lifestyles and comnrionalities among people of 
African descent living within the Americas. Since 1997, 

Bracey has been docu- 
menting the African 
Diaspora in black and 
white, and continues to 
use his craft to educate 
people about African 
heritage. 

Saturday, Feb. 7, 2:30pm 
$10, students and 
educators $8, members free 




Below is a calendar of current and upcoming temporary exhibitions. Some dates may change. 
Visit our website at www.fieldmuseum.org or call 312.922.9410 as the date of your visit nears. 



The Natural Wonders of Madagascar: 
Photographs by Harald Schutz 

December 5, 2003-July 5, 2004 



Urban Expressions: Young Voices, 
New Technologies 

February 13, 2004-January 17, 2005 



50 Years of Powwow in Chicago 

Through January 18, 2004 



The Two of Us 

Mike Bradccich, TFM Education Dvpt. 

Travel the Museum's exhibition halls, hear stories, touch objects, 
make art projects and enjoy snacks. This winter we'll learn about 
mastabas, monkeys and mud. 

Families with children ages 3—5 

Tuesdays, Jan. 20— March 9 

10-11:30am or 1:30-3pin (Choose one time.) 

$95 per child, $80 per member child 

For each child, one adult attends at no char(>e. 



Sue School 

Sharpen your pencil and get ready to learn about paleontology! 
Talk to members of the Museum's geology department about 
the science of Sue, the most famous dinosaur in the world. 
Colossal dinosaur puppets will roam Stanley Field 
Hall to meet and greet dinosaur enthusiasts o 
all ages. 

Saturday and Sunday, Jan. 3 and 4, 
9am— 5pm; Special {;uest Sue 
Hendrickson , discoverer of Sue. 

Saturday, Feb. 7, 1 lam— 2pm; Specia 
quest Dr. Peter Makovicky, TFM 
Geology Dept. 

Free with Museum admission. 




GEORGE PAPADAKlS/GNa9608 6C 



Adult Courses 



World of Words Presentation: 
Voices, A Spoken Word Performance 

Check out this exciting evening of open-mic performances in the 
increasingly popular spoken-word movement. Each poet's mix of 
dialogue and drama is both thought-provoking and entertaining. 
Join such pioneers as Triple Black, winner of the Def Poetry com- 
petition, Brenda Matthews, Moe Mentum, Armen Rah and Lorra. 

Friday, Feb. 20 

7:30ptn, open-mic registration 7pm 

$10, members $8 



The Field Museum salutes the people of Chicago for their long-standing, generous support of the 
Museum through the Chicago Park District. In addition, Museum programs are partially supported 
fay the Institute of Museum and Library Services, a federal agency; by the Illinois Arts Council, a 
state agency; and by a CityArts Program 4 Grant from the City of Chicago Department of Cultural 
Affairs. 



Madagascar Fossils 

Jim HolsteirtyTFM Geology Dept. 

Explore why Madagascar is an ideal place to find and study 
vertebrate fossils, and learn about the techniques used to collect 
and prepare rare fossil finds of the unusual animals that once 
lived in this ancient environment. 

Saturdays, Jan. 17 and 24, lOam—noon 
$40, members $34 




Einstein 

Through January 19, 2004 



Eviction and Homecoming: 

Tlie Story of Brazil's Panara Indians 

Through February 8, 2004 



Fragments From the Temple Mount of 
Herod the Great: Archaeology News 
From the Holy Land 

Through March 14, 2004 



ming This Spring 

Travel the world with C 



NATIONAL 
GEOGRAPHIC 



Td adventure, insight and inspiration through encounters with 
^ world's top explorers, photographers and scientists. The third 

son of this popular speaker series in our newly renovated James 

npson Theater promises a world of adventure. 




A Journey with Marco Polo 

.\ liiiael Yaiiujsliiti!. PliolO};rapher 

Retrace iVIarco Polo's legendary 24-year 
trek across Asia. Using Polo's book as his 
travel guide, Yamashita visited 10 countries 
and encountered many landmarks and 
peoples Polo wrote about, belying recent 
scholarly questions about the authen- _ - 
ticity of Polo's accounts. Vibrant 
images and fascinating stories wil 
bring this dramatic journey into 
the present. 

Tuesday, March 2, 7:30pin 

The Passion of Seeing Wildlife 

Manias Klniii. Photographer 

Daring, tenacious and artistic, Klum is known for 
his extreme photography — often facing seemingly 
impassable habitats or prolonged physical hardship 
to capture the world's most elusive wildlife. Learn about his assign- 
ments on Borneo, Southeast Asia's poisonous king cobra and 
India's endangered Asiatic lion. 

Tuesday, March 16 



Jt 






Chimpanzees, Tools 
and Termites 

Elizabeth Lonsdorf, Priinatoloff 

Blazing the trail that Jane 

Goodall pioneered years ago, 

Lonsdorf is studying termite 

"fishing" among chimpanzees 

at Tanzania's Gombe National 

Park. Find out how male and 

female youngsters use differen: 

mechanisms to learn these 

"cultural" behaviors, which are present in some groups but not I 

others. Lonsdorf is the director of field conservation at Chicago^ 

Lincoln Park Zoo. 

Tuesday, April 6, 7:.Wpni 

Tibetan Traverse 

Rich Ridgeu'ay, Conrad Anker andjhniity Chin, Mountaineers 

Follow the migration of the chiru, a tiny antelope from Tibet's 
Chang Tang plateau that is being poached for its fine wool. In 
search of the chiru's unknown calving grounds to make a case 
for the habitat's protection, the 
mountaineers encountered spec- 
tacular landscapes, challenging 
terrain and abundant wildlife. 

Tuesday, May 4, ~:30piii 




Ticket Information 



Call 312.665.7400 or visit www.nationalgeographic.com/lec- Patron (reserved seating) 

tures to purchase tickets. A limited number will be available onsite Chicago members SiOO 

the day of the event starting at 5:30pm, but we recommend reserv- ^ . . • • j.o^ 

., ... ... General admission: |«4; 

ing tickets in advance since this series sells out. „, . , .^„ 

• , • • , . -rx, ,., /ii -1 .u Chicaw members S/O; : 

Also, a series subscription makes a great gift! We II send the 

tickets along with a personalized gift card at your request. Individual Events— 



Patron (reserved seating): $110;TFM, NG and Geographic Society of 



General admission: $84; TFM, NG and Geographic Society of 
Chicago members $70; students $48 



Series Subscriptions — On Sale Dec. 1 

Explorers Circle Ensure the continuation of NG Live! Benefits 
hde reserved seating, a private reception and a signed book: 



Individual Events — On Sale Jan. 20 

Patron (reserved seating): $30; TFM, NG and Geographic Society of 
Chicago members $28 

General admission: $24;TFM, NG and Geographic Society of Chicago 



60;TFM, NG and Geographic Society of Chicago members $350 members $22; students $15 

*•$ Sponsor: The Field Associates — a dynamic, diverse group of young professionals dedicated to promoting awareness of The Field Museum's collections, research and public programs. For information or 
iOtj all 312.665.7133 orvisitwww.fieldmuseum.org/fieldassociates. 

^Ral outreach activities related to the series are presented in collaboration with The Field Museum, the Geographic Society of Chicago and the Illinois Geographic Alliance. 



General Museum Information: 312.922.9410; Family and Adult Program Tickets and Information: 



Peaceable Kingdom 

Make The Field Museum a part of your holiday 
traditions! Our Peaceable Kingdom Festival offers 
fun for the entire family with music reflecting cul- 
tures throughout the Chicagoland area and around 
the world. Enjoy The Yellow River Performing Arts 
Company, individual performances by Grammy- 
nominated Margaret Carlson, soprano Kimberly 
Jones and tenor Cornelius Johnson. Songsters Steve 
Kwame Cobb and Chavanduka will also be there to 
Help celebrate Kwanzaa. 

Sartirday, Dec. 21, 1 lam~3pni,frec with Miisawi ddinisswii 



312.665 7400 




See and hear the best of African 
Heritage Month. 




Family Performance: Alyo 
Children's Dance Company 

Celebrate the diversity and richness 
of Africa and its people through 
music, dance and oral traditions, 
featuring a performance by this 
talented company. 

Saturday, Jan. 31, 1pin,free with 
Museum adiiiissioii 



Performance: Sterio and the 
Garifuna Performing Arts Group 

Enjoy the energetic, celebratory music and dance that shares 
their culture and the story of their heritage. 
Saturday, Feb. 7, 1 1am, free 
with Museum admission 



Family Program: Master Storyteller Linda Gorham 

Hear master storyteller Linda Gorham share the historical 
accounts of Ruby Bridges and John Henry as well as tradi- 
tional legends in the second session of our three-part family 
storytelling series. 

Saturday, Feb. 21, 11am and 1pm 

(The other series dates are Jan. 10 and April 30.) 

$10, 'w^w^f^ji^^ik ^fc 

Scries of thr^20\' members SI 6. 



(Permanent Hall Renovations 




Come vjsit the Pawnee Earth Lodge in its new home when it reopens in September 2004' The lodoe is 
currenly closed to visitors, but next fail, you will be able to enter it from either the Hall of Northwest 
Coast ndians and Arctic Peoples or the Hall of North American Indians. We are also pi ased t ann u^ 
c ose at" is?im:T°H""°"°'- '"' °'" '''"" ™"' "''''" '" "'' ^'O"' '"^ ^"'-e ex b ion wil there" e 



Investigate ancient art and 
modern traditions. 



50 Years of 
Powwow in 
Chicago 




Tlnouj'h January W, 2004 

Dynamic photographs explore a vibrant celebration 
of Native American cultures in today's urban world. 

50 Years of Powwow in Chicago is presented by The Field Museum in collaboration with the 
American Indian Center. 




Eviction and 
Homecoming: The 
Story of Brazil's 
Panara Indians 

Tlirouj^h February 8, 2004 

These dramatic photographs document the tri- 
umphant struggle of the Panara Indians of Brazil 
to reclaim their homeland and cultural identity. 

This exhibition was developed by Institute Socioambiental, Brazil, in collaboration with 
The Field Museum. 



Fragments from the Temple 
Mount of Herod the Great: 
Archaeological News from 
the Holy Land 

Throuilh March 14, 2004 

Four beautifully carved, monumental archi^ 
tectural fragments tell the story of the 
Temple Mount in Jerusalem 2,000 
years ago. 

y This exhibition was organized by the Israel Antiquities Author-ity. 



A 

,\ * 



Archaeological Mews from the Holy Land is made possible by tlie 
Pritzker Foundation. 




Visitor Information 




Getting Here: Soldier Field's new North Garage has just opened across 
the street from our main entrance. Visit vwvw.fieldmuseum.org for the latest 
information on new parking lots/rates, free trolleys and public transit. 

Hours: 9am-5pm daily. Last admission at 4pm. 

To get tickets: Einstein is a specially ticketed exhibition. Enjoy the Einstein Curator's Audio 
Tour, which is $5 for the general public and $4 for members and children up to 11. Member 
passes can be reserved in advance by calling Ticketmaster at 312.902.1500 (service charges 
apply) or coming to the membership desk near the Museum's south entrance (no service charges). 
Non-member tickets can also be reserved in advance through Ticketmaster or in person at the 
Museum's admission desks. Day-of tickets are available at the Museum while supplies last. 

Accessibility: visitors using wheelchairs or strollers may be dropped off at the west entrance. 
Handicapped parking and wheelchairs are available on a first-come, first-served basis. Call 
312.665.7400 to check on the accessibility of programs that take place outside of the Museum. 

Information: 312.922.9410 orwww.fieldmuseum.org 



IIM THE FIELD CALENDAR 



YBCSPOTLIGHT:LIVINGWATERS 




IMAGES By RUDIGER BIELER, 



Ugly as sin and often mistaken for a worm, the curly worm-snail would not likely end up in 
a beachcomber's pocket. After it hatches, it glues itself to rocks or other hard substrates 
and hangs out there — for the rest of its life! 

RiJdiger Bieler, PhD, Field Museum curator of invertebrates, has found many worm-snails as 
part of a survey of the Florida Keys, a national marine sanctuary. The unmoving mollusk poses 
interesting biological questions about how it eats and reproduces, among other behaviors. 

To eat, the worm snail pitches a net of mucus into the water that traps food particles, then 
retracts the net and consumes it, reusing its own resources. To reproduce, the male releases 
a sperm package into the current, where it can drift for weeks. The package must stumble 
across a female whose mucus web is extended, become lodged and get sucked back in with 
the food. Somehow the sperm winds its way into her reproductive chamber and fertilizes 
the eggs. As Dr. Bieler joked, this gives "blind date" a whole new meaning. 

The survey started off in 1997 with 582 known mollusk species and has expanded to more 
than 1,700. Bieler and his colleagues keep finding new species, some no bigger than a 
grain of sand. Cross-referencing what they collect with existing collections and literature — 
be it a 19th-century monograph or a shell club newsletter — they are establishing an 
accurate record toward managing the sanctuary. If 582 species had been taken at face 
value to prove the success of the sanctuary 20 years from now, some 1,100 species could 
have disappeared unnoticed. 

Dr. Bieler will speak about his research for the Year of Biodiversity and Conservation 
(YBC) on Saturday, Feb. 14, at 2pm. Free with Museum admission. 



WINTER 2003-2004 December- February 




YBCSPOTLIGHT;LIVINGWATERS 



Threatened Treasures of the Coral Reef 

Justin R. Gnibicli, PliD, Postdoctoral Fellow, and Aaron N. Rice, Graduate Student, Department of Zoolofiy 

My depth gauge reads 15 meters (about 45 feet). I feel tiny, swallowed up by the 
immense deep blue that envelops me. To my right, I see my dive buddy, Aaron Rice, 
collecting survey data. A moving kaleidoscope of corals, sponges and fishes bedazzles 
me with its iridescent colors, fantastic shapes and captivating action. Up to this point, 
our survey of coral reef fishes had been relatively normal, until a looming shadow 
catches my eye. 




Rice and a humphead 
Maori wrasse, Cheilinus 
undulatus. 



My heart pounds as I sense something as big as me 
slowly and ominously gliding forward, propelled 
not by its tail like a shark, but by large, flapping 
pectoral fins that make it appear like a huge green 
bird in flight. Soon recognizing it as a wary hump- 
head Maori wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), we relish 
the moment since specimens topping 100 pounds 
are rare, and human activity has taken a toll on this 
graceful leviathan. 

Scientists have been cataloguing fish biodiver- 
sity — both the number of species and their rich 
natural histories — for centuries. Yet most of our 
planet's living waters still lie undiscovered, a source 
of concern as habitats and species are increasingly 
besieged by pollution, overfishing and climate 
change. Answering questions like how fishes work, 
where they live and how they're related may seem 
like a daunting task for the thousands of reef 
species that have been identified and the countless 
otlicrs that have not. But what \\c do learn about 
behavior, ecology and evolution can liclp niake a 
proverbial splash in tiic bucket of oceanic conserva- 
tion efforts. 



Coral reef buffet 

For every animal or plant that exists in the coral 
reef community, from microscopic plankton to 
crunchy invertebrates, coral reef fishes have evolved 
specialized anatomies and behaviors to eat them. 

Like the buffalo that once roamed vast prairies, 
grazing on grasses to maintain the landscape, 
comb-toothed surgeonfish and beaked parrotfish 
scrape the thick algal turf to prevent it from 
overgrowing sensitive coral animals. One Field 
Museum research project compares feeding behav- 
iors between these herbivores and their carnivorous 
relatives. Carnivorous fishes have to react fast to 
capture escaping prey, whereas herbivores forage 
for sedentary sources such as algae. Examining 
how their mouthparts, fins and senses are similar or 
different and how they contribute to finding food 
is a good case study on how specialization evolves. 

Hogfishes and their wrasse kin are the reef's 
strongmen when it comes to feeding. A second 
set of jaws hidden in their throats performs like a 
powerful nutcracker to crush hard-shelled clams, 
oysters and conchs.Triggerfish also use stalwart 
chisel teeth like bolt cutters to snap off crab legs 
and urchin spines. A 5-pound fish can generate bite 
forces more than 10 times its own body weight. 

In contrast to biting fishes, many coral reef fishes 
inhale their fellow finned inhabitants. Big-mouthed 
groupers and tube-snouted trumpetfish creep up 
and ambush their prey through stealth and camou- 
flage. When they get just close enough, they lunge 
forward and rapidly suck their prey into their 
gaping jaws in fractions of a second, faster than 
the human eye can see. 

Courtship on the reef 

When it comes to reproductive strategies, reef 
fishes do it all. Wrasses, parrotfish and triggerfish 
are polygainists that form harems comprised of one 
dominant male and several temaJes, whereas butter- 
flyfish pair up and mate for life. Their fidelity is 
so strong that they try to minimize the amount 
of time they're separated. The promiscuous yellow 
tang forms huge spawning aggregations in which 
individuals just let loose. 






IN THE FIELD 



Imagine changing your gender to improve the 
odds of finding a mate — an unusual but common 
behavior among coral reef fishes called sequential 
hermaphroditism. This primarily happens when a 
dominant male or female dies and another fish 
needs to fill the vacant position. Anemonefish, 
popularized in the movie Finding Nemo, start life as 
males and change to dominant females (protandry), 
while other fishes like triggerfish, parrotfish and 
their wrasse kin begin as females and change to 
male (protogyny). Going through life as just one 
sex (gonochorism) is a seemingly rare occurrence 
among most reef fishes. 

A female triggerfish exhibits mothering behav- 
iors akin to a watchful bird. After spawning, she 
forms a nest that she fans with oxygenated water 
to help the larvae breathe and defends against 
potential predators: Fish eggs are a popular delicacy. 
Divers need to be wary of a nest-guarding trigger- 
fish. Mothers have been known to attack divers if 
they get too close to the nest, and the titan trigger- 
fish has sent unfortunate divers to the hospital. 

Conserving reef fish diversity 

Storms, tides and other natural forces make coast- 
lines a dynamic zone for coral reef habitats and the 
organisms that live among them. But humans and 
industry also occupy coastlines, startling this com- 
plex ecosystem with pollution run-off, a booming 
seafood industry and other hazards to its delicate 
existence. 

Field Museum scientists are actively, if not fever- 
ishly, involved in collecting data on what's out 
there to aid in our own research projects and local 
or regional conservation plans. With so little docu- 
mented, we don't always know what we're looking 
for, which is especially disheartening since we can 
suppose that species abundance and diversity is 
probably less than it was even 10 years ago. 
We're asking such questions as do 



fish roam freely in undefined territories, or do they 
congregate like elephants to a watering hole? What 
do size, shape and color have to do with survival? 
How did they evolve so many peculiar feeding, 
reproductive and locomotive behaviors? We have to 
document diversity before we can understand 
decline, and whatever information we gather can 
help us identify threatened species or contribute to 
creating marine protected areas. 

We recently visited Busuanga, an island in the 
Philippines, to work with the local fishes bureau 
on cataloguing reef fish biodiversity of this region. 
Our surveys yielded at least 40 new potential 
species, which gives us a double sense of hope and 
urgency since Philippine waters contain some of 
the world's most threatened reefs. The last survey 
was done in the 1950s and was incomplete, making 
ours the first complete reef fish index of this 
particular region. Unfortunately for the iconic 
humphead Maori wrasse, we saw only dead juve- 
niles that had been speared by local fishermen. We 
have no idea what its population size is, where its 
spawning locations are or even what the hump is 
for in this vulnerable species. 

The real work is only now beginning, since we 
have just completed sorting through the 26,000 
specimens gathered. The Field Museum's efforts 
in assessing and documenting fish biodiversity — 
even in small regions like Busuanga — can provide 
critical evidence toward implementing vital reef 
conservation plans. ITF 

For the Year of Biodiversity and Conservation, Rice and 
Grubich will share specimens and video on Feb. 1 4, 
11am to 2pm. Free with Museum admission. 



JUSTIN R. GRUBICH 



Left: The vicious, nest- 
guarding titan triggerfish, 
Balistoides viridiscens. 

Center: Mexican hogfish, 
Bodianus diplotaenia, 
and its pharyngeal 
jaw (inset) that crushes 
clamshells. 

Right: A mated pair of 
saddleback butterfiyfish, 
Chaetodon ephippium. 




WINTER 2003-2004 Dcicmber-Fehruary 



YBCSPOTLIGHT:ISLANDBIODIVERSITY 



Collectina Liverworts Down Under 



Matt uoti Konrat, PhD, Collections Manager, and John Engel, PhD, Curator, Department of Botany 

Rising straight out of the sea and shrouded in mist, IVIount IVIoehau on New Zealand's 
North Island is as revered as the chief whom legend says is buried there. Before a 
recent Field l\/luseum research trip up the tapu (sacred) mountain, a Maori elder led 
our team, which included our collaborators and a Maori guide, in a ritual called a 
karakia, a common practice before entering a culturally significant area. We held 
hands in a circle, bowed our heads and silently listened to the elder's prayers. At the 
ceremony's close, we began our search for the inconspicuous and elusive liverwort. 



Background: FruUania 
congesta, magnified 75 
times under a scanning 
electron microscope. 



Funded by the National Geographic Society, our 
Mount Moehau expedition was part of a larger 
investigation of New Zealand's rare and threatened 
liverworts. These gorgeous, complex organisms, 
which with mosses and hornworts are known as 
bryophytes, form a major component of New 
Zealand ecosystems. Acting as rainfall interceptors, 
they help stabilize terrain and prevent soil erosion. 
They indicate pollutants in the atmosphere, such as 
heavy metals, and potential large-scale changes to a 




Left: Cell anatomy and 
oil-bodies of rare species, 
NeogroUea notabilis. 

Right: Drjohn Engel 
and Dr. Matt von 
Konrat hike Mount 
Arthur, South Island, 
Neii> Zealand. 



habitat or ecosystem. Bryophytes also are home to 
fungi, bacteria, other bryophytes and seed plants, 
and invertebrates. 

An extraordinary 80 percent of the flora of 
New Zealand — one of 25 global biodiversity 
hotspots — is endemic to the archipelago, which, like 
Madagascar, was once part of the ancient supercon- 
tinent Gondwanaland. Containing more than 200 
liverwort species found nowhere else. New Zealand 
is the perfect natural laboratory and a center point 
for institutions invested in conserving these vulner- 
able plants. It also has the largest liverworts in the 
world, Schistochila appendiculata and Monocleaforsteri, 
and the most morphologically complex liverwort 
in the world, Schistochila glaucescens. 

Along with the Auckland War Memorial 
Museum, the University of Auckland and the 
Department of Conservation, we are analyzing a 
range of data, including ecology, reproduction and 



spatial distribution. We've assessed that considerable 
uncertainty surrounds the population status of 
more than 20 liverwort species. We've added to 
the knowledge of how several species, previously 
known only through scant collections, are distrib- 
uted. We also collected new records for the region, 
new species to science and species outside of their 
known range. 

Matt von Konrat, PhD, a Kiwi himself, manages 
the Museum's collection of 1 80,000 bryophyte 
specimens. He is also working with Japan's 
Tokushima Bunri University to assess the biological 
activity and taxonomic significance of isolated 
chemical compounds in selected liverworts. 
Laboratory tests have shown that some of these 
chemicals have anti-microbial, anti-fiingal, muscle 
relaxing and anti-cancer capabilities. The active 
chemicals are found in oil-bodies, globule-like 
organelles that are unique to Uverworts and come 
in a variety of sizes and shapes. 

A Google search for liverworts turns up a 
smidgen of information. To fill in the gap. Dr. 
von Konrat and John Engel, PhD, Field Museum 
curator of bryology, are building a comprehensive 
website — the first of its kind — devoted to these 
plants. Prominently featuring the Museum's collec- 
tions, it will include an image library, interactive 
keys, maps, striking images and descriptions. It 
will also serve as a companion to the Liverwort 
Flora of New Zealand, a new multi-volume te.xt 
co-authored by Dr. Engel that consohdates all that's 
known about their ecology and biology. Both 
media will help scientists, students and conservation 
biologists around the world learn about these 
plants and more easily identify liverwort species. 

Compared to other land plants, many funda- 
mental aspects of liverworts remain undisclosed. 
The Field Museum's leadership in amassing and 
sharing information — whether with research 
institutions or the tangata whenua (people of the 
land) — is vital to protecting and managing the 
habitats where they occur. ITF 

Look for wunv.liverworts.org to open this winter. Or 
visit www.discoverhfe.org for interactive keys. 



IN THE FIELD 



OFSPECIALINTEREST 



The Women's Board Celebrates 



An ancient Buddhist temple bell echoed 
as a colorful dragon danced through the 
crowd. 

On Oct. 25, 800 guests wandered 
through sumptuous courtyards in Stanley 
Field Hall at the Dream of Nine Dragons 
Ball. Inspired by the upcoming exhibition, 
Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The 
Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong, the 
i gala raised more than $900,000 to support 
i The Field Museum's conservation efforts. 

The Women's Board gratefully acknowledges the gala's sponsors, collectively called Architects, Engineers, 
Building Consultants & Contractors — Friends of The Field Museum. They include: CATH Associates, Inc.; 
Crown Construction & Development; Era Valdivia Contractors, Inc.; HiU Mechanical Corp.; Kroeschell, 
Inc.; McGuire Engineers, Inc.; Superior Mechanical Systems, Inc.; Urban Resources, Inc. Architects & 
Planners; and Vernon Williams— Architects. 

The festive atmosphere continues on Dec. 4 with the annual Children's Holiday Celebration, a seasonal 
treat filled with crafts, stories and entertainment. The Women's Board thanks Sears, Roebuck and Co. for 
its generous support of this event, which will bring holiday cheer to more than 1 ,000 children and adults 
from the Chicago area. 



<^v. ^ 


1 ^ J 


in^ 


f k 




fcpw*] 





Left: Field Museum 
Women's Board President 
Patricia Sdinadig (left) 
with ball co-chairs Jean 
Baldwin- Herbert, Daphne 
Hoch Cunningham and 
Dorothy Mackevich 
Marks. 




Frantz Cartright, 
President, CATH 
Associates (left), and John 
McCarter, Field Museum 
President and CEO. 



New Parking Just Steps From Field Museum 



Parking on Museum Campus has never been more convenient. 

Soldier Field's new North Garage, a 2,50()-space indoor lot, has just 
opened across the street from The Field Museum's south entrance. The 
new Waldron Garage south of Soldier Field provides 1 ,700 spaces tor over- 
flow on busy days. For quick access, exit onto 1 8th Street from Lake Shore 
Drive and follow it until it becomes Museum Campus Drive. This new 
lakefront route takes you to the North Garage, the East Museum lot 
(between the Field and Shedd Aquarium) and the Adler Planetarium lot. 

You can also access Museum Campus using McFetridge Drive, but 1 8th 
Street is a more efficient option. Taxis, trolleys and CTA buses will con- 
tinue to drop you off via McFetridge Drive if you choose not to drive. 

All lots offer handicapped parking. Each lot is $ 1 2 a day, and discounts 
apply if you arrive before 9:30am or after 4pm. These hours and rates do 
not apply when there are special events at Soldier Field. Parking is not 
available to Museum Campus visitors on Bears' home game days. Visit 
www.museumcampus.org for details. 

Other wondertiil amenities dot the revitalized parkland. A sledding KT 
offers wintertime fun and a breathtaking view of the city. Families can stop 
by the Children's Garden across from the Museum to play. Or pay homage 
to our country's veterans at the 25()-foot-long water wall as you exit the 
North Garage on your way to The Field Museum. 

Thank you for your patience during the construction period. 
We welcome you back to Museum Campus. 



Lake 
Michigan 




9 Free Trolley Stop 
'^f CTA Bus Stop 

 Handicapped 
Parking 

Parking Lots 



WINTER 2003-2004 Deccmher-Febnuiry 



FROMTHEARCHIVES 



Tale of Two Thom psons 



Stephen E. Nash, Head of Collections, Department of Anthropology 

Every specimen was personally found by me and taken by hand. ..and the notes made 
make the specimens. ..priceless and will give to the Museum at one blow the best 
existing collection of the kind from the ruined groups of the Yucatan. 
~ Edward H. Thompson 




West courtyard and tower 
of the palace at Palenque, 
Mexico, built around 
600 AD. 



While capturing the 19th-century romantic spirit 
of Edward H. Thompson (Edward), an early Field 
Museum anthropologist, such flourish did litde to 
validate his legitimacy as a Maya scholar in later 
years. J. Eric S.Thompson (Eric; no relation to 
Edward), a successor who also researched prehis- 
toric Maya cultures, frequently expressed his 
disdain for Edward's research techniques and 
results. Their disparities, 
however, say little of what 
each man contributed 
between 1890 and 1934 
to our understanding of 
Neotropic (New World) 
cultures. 

While working for the 
World's Columbian 
Exposition of 1893, Edward 
created realistic, full-sized 
papier mache reproductions 
of Maya ruins that were 
popular with the Fair-going 
pubHc.They especially capti- 
vated Allison Vincent 
Armour, a Field Museum 
trustee and young member 
of one of Chicago's wealthi- 
est families. In 1894, 
Armour sailed his yacht to 
the Yucatan to visit Edward and "assist" in collect- 
ing. Under Armour's patronage, Edward added 
considerably to the Museum's Maya collection 
and gave credence to the Museum as a hub for 
Mesoamerican studies. As an expatriate, Edward 
spent the next four decades living and working 
in the Yucatan. 

While typical for the time, Edward's excavation 
and collecting techniques are today considered 
inadequate or worse. He gathered objects without 
recording their archaeological context, saved only 
what he considered to be museum-quality and sent 
objects across international borders. He allegedly 
gutted the High Priest's Grave and Sacred Cenote 
at Chichen Itza, and the accuracy of his notes has 
been questioned. 

Regardless of Edward's practices, scholars are 
still beholden to his collections, and museums still 
display his photos and the artifacts he unearthed. 
It is also often overlooked that living among the 



Maya influenced Edward's progressive awareness of 
the relationship between understanding the present 
in order to reconstruct the past. 

It is likely that Edward and Eric crossed paths 
at Chichen Itza in 1926. Eric knew of Edward's 
reputation and wrote in 1929 that there was only 
"a fragment of truth hidden below the fantastic 
embroidery of a lurid imagination. The romantic 
mind of Mr. Edward H.Thompson pervades 
[Chichen Itza] to make it useless for scientific 
purposes." 

A proponent of sound scientific classification, 
Eric systematically collected nearly 1,000 Maya 
objects. While most archaeologists focused on 
temples at large sites, Eric excavated smaller, less- 
glamorous sites to study the daily life of average 
people. His collection includes a glorious range 
of mundane, technological and artistic artifacts, 
including elaborate ceramic effigy whistles, fiber 
gourd carriers, decorative jade earplugs and eccen- 
tric flint objects. The whole ceramic vessels he 
found offer an unparalleled sequence of pottery 
types that span a thousand years of history. 

Eric himself was not above getting artifacts to 
the Museum, whatever the circumstances. Most 
government permits required that excavated arti- 
facts be divvied up among museums with a vested 
interest in the area. Eric reportedly disguised a vase 
from British Honduras (now Belize) with ash and 
soil to prevent the British Museum from selecting 
it. Yet he also contributed greatly to Maya scholar- 
ship. He published the first correlation of the Maya 
and Christian calendars and produced one of the 
first catalogues of Maya hieroglyphics. His still- 
popular leaflet, Tlie Cimhzation of the Mayas, went 
through 57 editions before his death in 1975. 

Both Edward and Eric were caught, at different 
times, in a classic battle between academia and 
business, trying to collect and study while respond- 
ing to a pubUc thirst for all things Maya. Their 
story is but a small strand in a rich weave of schol- 
arship, philanthropy, success, tragedy, chutzpah and 
all the aspects that make life — particularly scholarly 
Hfe — so interesting. 

This article was inspired by Donald McVicker's contribu- 
tion to Curators, Collections, and Contexts: Field 
Museum Anthropology 1893-2002. Edited by Stephen 
E. Nash and Gary M. Feinman, this new publication is 
available in the Museum store. 



IN THE FIELD 



MEMBERSHIP/ ANNUALFUNDNEWS 



Double Discount Shopping Days 



The Field Museum stores are your one-stop-shop for distinctive holiday gifts. 



On Dec. 8, 13 and 17, members receive 20 percent 
off all Museum merchandise — an additional 10 
percent over your regular discount. Explore three 
stores, or visit http://store.fieldmuseum.org. Our 
handcrafted gifts, colorful textiles, home accessories, 
children's items and books will help you create 



meaningful, educational holiday presents. 

Proceeds support The Field Museum's education 
and research efforts. Bring your membership card 
to the Museum, or have your member number 
handy if you visit the online store. i 



New Annual Fund Website 



Visit the new annual fund website at www.fmnh.org/annualfund. Learn more 
about upcoming events and programs and how your generous support helps 
the Museum expand its collection and educational offerings. 



The Essential Year-round Gift 



For friends and family who seem to have everything, a Field Museum membership 
is the essential gift to enjoy all year. 




CATHRYN C. SCOTT 



Available at three levels — 160 for individuals, $70 
for families or $100 to join the Annual Fund — 
membership offers terrific benefits, including: 

• Free basic admission every day; 

• Free passes to 2004's special exhibitions. Splendors 
of China's Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of 
Emperor Qianlong znA Jacqueline Kennedy: The White 
House Years; 

• A subscription to In the Field, our award-winning 
member publication; 



• Discounts on educational programs, food and 
merchandise; 

• Exclusive events and behind-the-scenes tours. 

Give a Field Museum membership, and we'U give 
you and your recipient an exclusive, Umited-edition 
tote bag. To purchase the $60 individual or $70 
family membership, call 866.312.2781. To purchase 
an Annual Fund membership at $100, call 
312. 665. 7777. You can also fill out the form below 
and mail it in. Thank you for your support. 



Yes, I'd like to give the gift of a 
Field Museum membership. 

(Copy this form for multiple gifts.) 



Send the membership cards and 

coupon for a limited-edition tote 

bag to: 



Gift from: 



Mail to: 

Membership Department 
The Field Museum 

1400 S. Lake Shore Dr 
Chicago, IL 60605 



D $60 Individual 



D $70 Family D $100 Annual Fund 



NAMES 


ADDRESS 


CITY 


STATE 


ZIP 


PHONE 


EMAIL 




MEMBER NO. 


NAMES 


ADDRESS 


CITY 


STATE 


ZIP 



PHONE 



WINTER 2003-2004 December-February 




ItL iw 



STOP^OUBm^ 




The Field Museum's Year of Biodiversity and Conservation 
(YBC) explores the most pressing environmental topics of 
our time through special lectures, exhibitions, opportuni 
ties to interact with Field Museum scientists and 
suggestions on hovj you can become personally engage 
in conservation. 

Look in this issue's calendar for programs on 
island biodiversity in December, the Neotropics in 
January and living waters in February. Or visit 
www.fieldmuseum.org/biodiversity for a gorgeous, 
nformation-packed look at what the 
useum is doing — and what you can 
-to understand and protect our 
s rich plant and animal life. 



At right, US Coiigressironhiii Judy Biiigcrt, Field Miiseiiin President and CEO John 
McCarter and City of Cliicago Department of Eiwironmem Commissioner N. Marcia 
Jimenez welcomed more than 500 participants and hundreds of supporters to the Race to 
Stop Global Warming, the YBC kickoff event. 






dnservation makes aTworld of differenced 




'•DiMiMIfhftJj^irn I 



Curator of Invertebrates 

Department of Zoology 

The Field Museum 




DfTBieler's research focuses on marine 

mollusks and diversity in island groups 

such as the Florida Keys. His work with 

colleagues from around the world has 

_nearly tripled the number of mollusk 

species known to inhabit the area. 

Hear Dr. Bieler speak on 
Saturday, February 14 at 2 p.m. 




The Field Museum's Member 



Spring 2004 
March-May 



Publication 



Splendors of 

Chinas 

Forbidden City 




FROMTHEPRESIDENT 



Positive Steps Follow Challenging Times 




Left: A neiv hook covers 
the history and science of 
Tsauo's lions. 

Right: Terrace level of the 
neu' Collections Resource 
Center. 



The past few years have been difficult for all of us, both outside and inside The Field 
Museum. World events, a decline in the stock market and construction on Museum 
Campus affected our endowment, donations, government support and attendance. But 
we are rebounding. Whether you have just joined the Museum, increased your annual 
support last year or are part of our invaluable 600-plus volunteer corps, you have 
helped us get through a tough period. 



We are poised to have an excel- 
lent year in 2004. 

• Our scientific efforts are flour- 
ishing, as measured by new 
species discovered, growth in 
our collections and more criti- 
cal environments conserved. 
Among accomplishments 
throughout the research 
areas, Bruce Patterson, 

PhD, MacArthur Curator of 
Mammals, has just published 
the definitive bool< on the best- 
known lions of all time — The 
Lions of Tsavo. 

• We continue to be a museum 
leader in receiving grants 
from the National Science 
Foundation and other major 
grant-making organizations. 

• The new central plant is opera- 
tional, with improvements in 
cost and energy efficiency. The 
plant's updated heating and 
cooling equipment allows us to 



better control the temperature 
and humidity in our collections 
areas, while providing greater 
comfort year-round for our 
staff and visitors. 

The remodeled James Simpson 
Theatre, opening for the 
National Geographic Live! 
series in March, features ele- 
vators, new seats and upgraded 
acoustics. A handicapped entry 
and seating and wider aisles 
make it fully accessible to all 
visitors. 

We continue to develop classes, 
fieldtrips, overnights and pro- 
fessional workshops for learners 
of all ages and backgrounds. 
Take part in the remaining 
Year of Biodiversity and 
Conservation programs. Also 
join expeditions@fieldmuseum 
to witness the growth of pere- 
grine falcon chicks from 
nesting through flight. 




• Three excellent exhibitions are 
scheduled for 2004: Splendors 
of China's Forbidden City; The 
Glorious Reign of Emperor 
Qianlong; Machu Picchu: 
Unveiling the Mystery of the 
Incas; and Jacqueline Kennedy; 
The White House Years. 

• The 170,000-square-foot 
Collections Resource Center 
is scheduled to open this fall, 
providing state-of-the-art 
research laboratories and 
mobile shelving in a controlled 
environment for more than two 
million artifacts and specimens. 

• Two new permanent halls will 
open in 2006, Halls of the 
Americas and Life Over Time. 
Both tell stories that are 
central to our mission — the 
peopling of the Americas and 
the process of evolution. 

We are grateful to our members, 
annual fund donors and other 
Museum supporters who sustain 
our mission to explore the Earth 
and its peoples through public 
education and scientific discovery 
and conservation. Thank you for 
keeping The Field Museum in 
your life. 

John W. McCarter, Jr. 
President and CEO 




aboiit I^^ 



4-U, 



Fl£Ld? 



For general membership inquiries, including address changes, call 866.312.2781. For questions about 
the magazine In the Field, call 312.665.7115, email acranch@fmnh.org, or write Amy E. Cranch, 
Editor, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 



INTHEFIELD 



Spring 2004, March- May, 
Vol.75, No. 2 

Editor: 

Amy E. Cranch, The Field Museum 

Design: 

Depke Design 



♦^ In the Field is printed on recycled paper 
■w using soy-based inks. All images ©The 
Field Museum unless otherwise specified. 



In the Field (ISSN #1051-4546) is published 
quarterly by The Field Museum. Copyright 
2004 The Field Museum. Annual subscriptions 
are $20; $10 for schools. Museum membership 
includes In the Field subscription. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do 
not necessarily reflect the policy of The Field 
Museum. Notification of address change should 
include address label and should be sent to 
the membership department. POSTMASTER; 
Send address changes to Membership, The 
Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, IL 60605-2496. Periodicals postage 
paid at Chicago, Illinois. 

Cover: Splendors of China's Forbidden City will 
be at The Field Museum March 12 through 
Sept. 12, 2004. Emperor Qianlong in formal 
court robe, detail (1736). ©Palace Museum, 
Beijing. 

The Field IVIuseum salutes the people of 
Chicago for their long-standing, generous 
support of the Museum through the 
Chicago Park District. 



j: 



fe 



Field 



useum 



1400 South Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2496 
312.922.9410 
www.fieldmuseum.org 




2 



Explore the hidden world of the Imperial 
Court in Splendors of China's Forbidden City. 
Top: Imperial golden dragon seal, Qing dynasty 
(17th- 18th century). 



4 



A Field Museum scientist uses spiders' 
complex genitalia to identify species. 
Middle: Black and yellow argiope. 



The Green Chicago symposium features 
leaders in environmentally responsible build- 
ing practices and home care. 



16 



Philippine rats help a Field Museum scien- 
tist explain biological diversity on islands. 
Bottom: Dwarf cloud rat, Carpomys phaeurus. 



Correction: In the Einstein quiz on the front 
page of the Winter 2003-2004 calendar. Sen. 
Joseph McCarthy was incorrectly identified 
as the head of the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities. 



Museum Ca 




Shedd Aquarium Imagine a birthday celebration with more than 
19,000 party animals. It's yours at Shedd Aquarium. Arrange a party 
for a child or an adult, with catering, a visit from a costumed charac- 
ter and an activity. Then spend the rest of the day at the aquarium 
with family, friends and Shedd's fabulous animals. Really want to get 
your feet wet? Try the new Trainer for a Day program, beginning in 
April. Follow a marine mammal trainer as he or she prepares food, 
feeds the animals and conducts a training session. 

For details and registration information about either program, 
visit www.sheddaquarjum.org. 



Adier Planetarium As part of the Adier's coverage on the Mars 
Rover mission, see a full-scale replica of the spacecraft through April. 
In Tfie Future is Wi/d, scientists' forecasts help you imagine Earth 
millions of years from now, when the continents have shifted, mass 
extinctions have occurred and new species — such as fire-breathing 
birds — dominate the planet. And on Friday and Saturday nights 
beginning in March, Sonic Vision transforms alternative rock and 
techno music into neo-psychedelic animation on the StarRider's 
dome. It's a mind-bending, pulsing ride with such artists as 
Radiohead, Goldfrapp, U2, David Bowie and the Flaming Lips. 
Visitwww.adlerplanetarium.org or call 312. 922. STAR. 



SPRING 2004 March-Mr 




Above: Tlie Emperor 
Qiaiiloiig hunting deer, 
assisted by Rotigfei, one 
of his wipes (ca. 1760). 

Right: Elephant of cloi- 
sonne on gilded bronze 
(1746). 



New Exhibition Gives Unprecedented Look 
at 18th Century Imperial China 

Amy E. Cranch, Editor 

All images ©Palace Museum, Beijing 

It was the largest empire the country has ever known, stretching from the Siberian 
forests to the South China Sea, and from the mountains of Tajil<istan to Sal<halin north of 
Japan. Its resources — gold and jade, rice and silk, livestock, land and priceless art — 
made it richer than all of Europe combined. And at its zenith, one man held absolute 
power for 60 years over 300 million subjects. This was China in the 18th century, 
under the emperor known as Qianlong (cheeyen-loong). 



Splendors of China's Forbidden City:Tlie Glorious 
Reign of Emperor Qianlong, a new exhibirion 
running March 12 through Sept. 12, 2004, 
opens the door to the final, magnificent 
flowering of hnperial China and the 
man who guided its growth. To create 
the exhibition. The Field Museum 
borrowed nearly 400 treasures fi-om 
Beijing's Palace Museum, formerly 
called the Forbidden City, a 178-acre 
walled complex that was the symbolic 
heart of the Chinese empire. Most of 
the objects have never been seen in the 
United States, and many have never 
traveled outside of the palace com- 
pound. "Exelon Corporation is pleased 
to support this remarkable exhibition and 
help bring it to Chicago," said John Rowe, Exelon 
chairman and a Field Museum trustee. 

The idea for Splendors of China's Forbidden City 
was born when Sophia Siskel, now vice president 
of exhibitions and education, and anthropology 
curators Chuimei Ho and Bennet Bronson were 
in China preparing for last year's Pearls exhibition. 




Enhance your exhibition experience with these offerings. Rent the audio tour, 
available in an adult or family version. Look in the calendar for related family 
and adult programs. Purchase the companion book, written and edited by the 
exhibition's curators and co-published by Merreil Publishers, with contributions 
from other Qianlong scholars. Or shop for exquisite items, including antique 
tables and trunks and jade ceremonial objects and jewelry, all carefully chosen 
and brought from China especially for The Field Museum. 



Following lengthy negotiations and several trips 
to handpick and prepare the objects, it is proof 
of The Field Museum's superior knack for both 
research and exhibitions. 

Other Forbidden City exhibitions 
have either been highly specialized — 
focusing on jade or calligraphy, for 
example — or "provided a good gen- 
eral overview," said Ho, the 
e.xhibition's lead curator. "We thought 
American audiences were ready 
for something more focused and 
in-depth — and at the same time 
engaging and beautiful." The 
e.xhibition deals with a relatively 
recent time, 1736 to 1795, and 
everything connects to one extraordinary man. 

A wise and learned leader 

Any discussion of Qianlong must first recognize that 
he was a Manchu, an ethnic minority, ruhng over the 
Han Chinese majority. Yet he deftly intertwined both 
cultures into his personal and poHrical life, incorpo- 
rating Han Chinese symbols and colors into almost 
everything he touched, including his clothes, dishes 
and cushions. In one suggested palace environment, 
you will see his gold-lacquered throne featuring the 
five-clawed dragon, an ancient Han imperial symbol 
reserved exclusively for the emperor. 

To successfully rule the vast empire, Qianlong 
had to excel across the board, from tireless bureau- 
crat to hands-on administrator, and from expert 



IN THE FIELD 




huntsman to dedicated scholar and arts connoisseur. 
"Qianlong was groomed from an early age to be a 
great leader," said Francesca Pons, the exhibition's 
project administrator. "His well-rounded abilities 
helped China become the most powerful empire 
in the world at that time." 

Splendors of China's Forbidden City examines keys 
to his accomplishments: his tours to review public 
works and offer tax relief; his relationship with 
other leaders; and his support and personal explo- 
ration in all of the empire's languages and religions. 
You will also see the tools of his talents, including 
his writing desk, calligraphy brushes and weapons. 

Infinitely inquisitive, Qianlong also cultivated his 
artistic interests. He assembled massive coUec 
tions and commissioned radical new works 
for his time, while making notable efforts, 
such as writing essays or creating cata- 
logues, to understand the objects' cultura 
context. Bronson, the exhibition's co- 
curator, said Qianlong may be the 
greatest collector who has ever lived: His 
collections form the bulk of objects in 
China's two major state museums. The 
exhibition features selections from his 
jade, snuff bottle and pottery collec- 
tions. Such ventures backed his personal 
passions while proving that he was a 
superior ruler learned in all things. 

A world of women 

One tender aspect of Qianlong's life is 
his relationship with Xiaoxian (sheeyow- 
sheeyen), his first wife and empress. Married 
as teens, they fell deeply in love over the years. 
Tragically, she died at 33. Although Qianlong had 
more than 40 wives and hundreds of court ladies 
and maidservants, none held the same place in his 
heart. 

Qianlong seems to have thought it was important 
that women be smart and fit. The famous painting 
above, attributed to Jesuit artist Giuseppe Castiglione, 
shows the emperor hunting deer with one of his 
wives. Yet most of the time, the ^vomen lived in 
small, closed areas, largely secluded from the rest of 
the world. To ensure a pure bloodline, no men — 
besides Qianlong and the palace eunuchs — could 
stay the night. Once married to the emperor, the 




women could never again live outside of the com- 
plex. They could accept visitors and travel with 
permission, and often visited the summer palace 
for its gardens, festivals, market and other activities. 

One painting of a court lady surrounded 
by exquisite objects conveys the luxury — and isola- 
tion — many women must have felt. The exhibition 
developers have recreated this scene, using objects 
thought to be the ones in the painting. But, as in 
the Forbidden City, you cannot enter her chamber. 
You can only peer through a window and imagine 
her loneUness amidst the opulence. 

Faith in the Forbidden City 

Whether as a benefactor or practitioner, Qianlong 
supported many religions. The exhibition fea- 
tures four religions practiced inside the palace 
walls — Tibetan Buddhism, Han Buddhism, 
Shamanism and Daoism. Ritual objects 
on view include mirrors, altars, musical 
instruments and representations of deities, 
such as statues, a tangka painting and 
stupas, or spire-like monuments that often 
contain holy relics. Visitors wiU encounter 
a bronze statue of the ferocious 
Yamantaka, "Slayer of the Lord of 
Death," and an outstanding gold statue 
of Guanyin, goddess of mercy. 

Qianlong voluntarily stepped 
down from the throne in 1795. When 
he died four years later, the empire had 
already begun to lose its splendor. The 
exhibition concludes with Qianlong's 
memorial throne, a tablet said to enshrine 
his spirit and offering vessels. None of these has 
ever been publicly displayed, even in the Palace 
Museum. They are presented as a silent gesture of 
honor for this man — artist, poet, scholar, warrior 
and ruler — who, with his father and grandfather, 
catapulted Imperial China to its greatest size and 
power. Following a century of turmoil, China 
reestablished itself in the 20th centviry, but the 
glorious reign of China's emperors had ended 
forever. ITF 

Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The Giorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong 
was developed by The Field Museum in cooperation with the Palace Museum^ 
Beijing. 

Presented by Exelon, Proud Parent of ComEd. 




Above: A court lady 
at leisure (early 18th 
century). 

Left: Gold statue of 
seated four-armed 
Guanyin, goddess 
of mercy (1748). 



SPRING 2004 March-M.: 



BIODIVERSITY 



Barbs, Screws, Hoo<s and Hairy Legs 



Dcpiirlniait of Zoolo^jy 



The title of this article may remind you of a fascinating B-rated monster movie, but 
for me, this is not a movie at all. It is my daily life. 

As a curator in The Field Museum's insect division, I see a lot of hairy legs every 
day. Whereas all true insects have only six legs, spiders have at least eight, and milli- 

ive up to 3JflBj|J|||HMH's not their legs that intrigue me. It's their barbs, 
screws aBjU^BBj^^^^Kaoramariiy bizarre yet incredibly utilitarian parts of their 
genitalia. ^^^^^^^^ 




©2003 CAS/DONG 



Ahovc:This colorful lynx 
spider from Myanmar 
has not yet been identi- 
fied. 

Below: Tliis millipede's 
(Signioria sp.) striking 
color warns others of the 

nasty chemicals it exudes. 




All spiders have a pair of "hands" next to their 
mouthparts called palps that handle prey and silk 
threads. In full grown males, though, these palps 
contain extremely complex organs that transfer 
sperm to the female receptacles — a fiinction that is 
still mysterious in many ways. The male produces a 
small triangular sperm web, then releases sperm 
from his hind body onto the web. He dips his palps 
into the seminal fluid to extricate the sperm. He 
then inserts them, with their 
hooks or other tool-like struc- 
tures, into hoods and nooks in 
front of the sperm receptacles 
on the female's beOy. She 
stores the sperm and deter- 
mines when her eggs will 
become fertilized based on 
such conditions as weather 
and the availability of food 
and an ideal nesting spot. 



A perfect fit 

You may wonder why the love lives of spiders fasci- 
nate me. It is exciting when males sometimes get 
eaten or females sometimes become wrapped up in 
silk. But their cannibalistic naaire is highly exagger- 
ated. I studied North America's five widow spiders. 
Most males do not get eaten, and some female 
species even share her dinner. 

My primary interest is in using genitalia to iden- 
tify' species. Early research used spiders" shape and 
color in identification, which was often incomplete 
or incorrect. But incredibly, we now know, each 
species — male and female — has a difl^erent set ot 
genitalia. With 37.()00 known spider species, that's 
74,000 sets of exclusive genitalia! Not only does a 
male have to find a female with whom he perfecdy 
fits in order to reproduce, but scientists have to dif- 
ferentiate between all genitalia to identifs- spiders to 
species level. 

In one species offish-eating spiders from Afiica, 



IN THE FIELD 



the male genitalia carry a hook that engages in a 
small but deep pit in the female genitalia. In another 
closely related species, the tip of the hook is large 
and shaped like a hammer. Accordingly, the female 
has large pouches to accommodate the male's organ. 

Technology lightens the load 

It is impossible for me — or any researcher — to 
memorize the minuscule, detailed genital structures 
for 37,000 species. Historically, highly trained illus- 
trators created images while looking through a 
microscope. While illustrations are still a core piece 
of the identification puzzle, technology is enabling 
us to see these structures to acute levels of detail. 
We are fortunate at The Field Museum to have 
several superior laboratories. 

The Field Museum's scanning electron micro- 
scope (SEM) gets a lot of use, and we can now 
make digital images through our light microscopes. 
We also compare the specimens we collect with the 
Museum's collection of about 20,000 specimens. 
With so many species and such fine detail, it is not 
surprising that we know very little about the spi- 
der, millipede or beetle species right here in Cook 
County, much less understudied parts of the world. 

Field Museum curators travel to these unex- 
plored places to add to our collections and to 
determine the species diversity of habitats under 
consideration for protection. Collecting techniques 
can range fi-om setting up mass traps to roaming 
around on our hands and knees, negotiating with 
the birds and snakes as to who gets the spider! 

We worked with Burmese students and mem- 
bers of the forestry department on a recent 
collecting fieldtrip to Myanmar (Burma) in 
Southeast Asia, where spiders are everywhere. I col- 
lected in rice fields for the first time and saw more 
spiders there than I have ever experienced. Spiders 
hunt on the water surface between the rice plants, 
build webs among the rice leaves and run up and 
down the rice plants in search of food. In fact, they 
protect the rice from insect crop pests and are vital 
to keeping the fields productive. 

Misunderstood millipedes 

About six years ago, I began working on those 



strange, slow-moving worms 
with legs — millipedes. Less 
dynamic than their spider 
counterparts, most millipedes 
root around for rotten leaves in 
the dark of night. Deciduous 
forests would drown in their 
own leaf litter if it weren't for 
millipedes eating their way 
through the debris. Yet their 
cryptic nature has detracted 
enthusiasts from studying them, leaving our knowl- 
edge of millipedes far behind other groups. We don't 
know how many species have been described and 
have litde idea about who lives in our backyards and 
what they are doing there. 

About 10 years ago, the American National 
Science Foundation began pushing for research on 
neglected organism groups. At that time, there were 
only five known millipede researchers in the world. 
When I heard about the program, I discovered that 
The Field Museum had a large and wonderful, 
albeit dormant, collection. What a grand declaration 
of building and maintaining collections over time, 
as you never know when information will be 
needed for urgent research. 

While looking at the collection, I noticed that 
the males had converted the legs of their seventh 
ring into fantastic sperm transfer organs called 
gonopods. These organs motivated a new field of 
study. Since then, we have trained new graduate 
students to specialize on milhpedes. In an eflirt to 
replenish the vanishing scientific expertise, we have 
produced catalogs of all existing millipede collec- 
tions in the world and computerized the Museum's 
collections. We are now creating a catalog of all 
millipede species ever described. Several students 
and volunteers have supported this task — impossi- 
ble to do without them. 

Of course, many millipede species await discov- 
ery, which will be much easier to find once we 
know what has already been described. Like a 
road being built to reach a destination faster, we are 
improving the scientific infrastructure for describ- 
ing millipedes and their important ecological role 
in our world's forests. ITF 




Above: Collecting in 
Myanmar was wet, 
muddy and faced with 
snakes and leeches. 




SPRING 2004 March-May 



INTHEFIELDFEATURE 



Greener Snaces for Home and Work 



Tifl'ciiiy Phuc, 1 1 'liter 

Ever wonder how environmentally friendly your home and workplace are? Find out in 
April, when The Field Museum hosts a symposium on "green" building and home care. 



What is green architecture? 

Developers, architects and builders are just catching 
on to how to reduce waste, conserve natural 
resources and improve air quality through their 
projects. The U.S. Green Building Council pro- 
motes buildings that are environmentally 
responsible, profitable and healthy for living and 
working. Through the Leadership in Energy and 




Top: Tlie Tuthill building 
resides on restored lands 
and is constnicted of 
etwironmentally friendly 
materials. 

Bottom: Rooftop sedum 
on this house by EHDD 
Architecture absorbs 
storm water runoff. 



bnvironniental Design (LEED) rating 
system, buildings can be certified sil- 
ver, gold or platinum based on their 
inclusion of green attributes. 

Because LEED is rather new and 
involves lengthy documentation, rela- 
tively few buildings are certified. The 
Chicago Center for Green Technology, 
for example, is the only platinum site in Chicago. 
Credit-earning features include: the site's proximity 
to pubhc transportation; use of low-emitting paints, 
carpets and adhesives; storage space and shower 
facilities for bicyclists; renewable energy systems; 
water-efiicient landscaping; and use of sustainable 
wood or recycled materials. 

Though adapting to different building practices 
and certification can be time consuming, green 
architecture is on the rise. Government incentives 
are increasing, and long-term energy and cost sav- 
ings are becoming better understood. Above all, 
rewards such as fewer to.xins and more green space 
contribute to healthier, more productive and, ulti- 
mately, happier humans. 



How The Field Museum stacks up 

One way the Museum can promote environmen- 
tally forward thinking is to talk about what we are 
doing to conserve the Earth's resources. To date, we 
have installed 98 of 250 photovoltaic cells, or PV 
cell panels, on the Museum's roof that convert the 
sun's energy to usable electricity. A new central 
plant contains energy-efficient heating boilers and 
ice machines working overnight to help offset high 
costs during periods of peak demand. The Museum's 
600-person stafi" vigorously recycles paper, card- 
board, packing materials, aluminum and glass. We 
purchase recycled office supplies, and provide stor- 
age and shower facilities for employees who bike to 
work. On your next visit, look for signage sup- 
ported by the Illinois Clean Energy Community 
Foundation on our latest environmental initiatives. 

What's inside counts, too 

A building's environmentally friendly "shell" is only 
the first step. Barry Bursak, an environmental con- 
sultant, promotes eco-friendly home furnishings. 
"There are non-toxic, environmentally sustainable 
home furnishings being manufactured on a small 
grassroots level," said Bursak. Vendors are creating 
products that use sustainably grown wood, plant- 
based finishes, organic cotton and hemp fabrics, 
and non-to.xic, animal-free glues. 

While not always easy to find or afford, more 
products are becoming increasingly available, espe- 
cially as consumers become educated and retailers 
understand that the public is looking for them. 
"Every time people consider buying home furnish- 
ings, they should ask what the products are made 
of, if they contain volatile organic compounds such 
as formaldehyde, and if the wood came from a 
managed forest," said Bursak. 

PV cell panels may not be feasible for everyone, 
but we can all make small changes in our daily 
lives, whether through properly insulating our 
homes or purchasing chemical-free cleansers. To 
learn more, hear prominent building engineer 
Guy Batde speak on April 22, or attend the Green 
Architecture Symposium on April 23. Also stop 
by the Eco-Friendly Homes Fair on April 24 fixjm 
9am to 4pm. See the calendar for details. ITF 

Green Chicago was organized in collaboration with the Chicago Architecture 
Foundation and in partnership with AIA Chicago, and is presented with gener- 
ous support from the Illinois Clean Energy Foundation. 



IN THE FIELD 



YBCSPOTLIGHT:TREEOFLIFE 




They're as famous as Pavlov's dogs and Freudian slips. Darwin's finches, a flagship in 
understanding evolution, include an estimated 13 to 14 species in the Galapagos Islands 
and one on Cocos Island off the Pacific coast of Central America. Although similar in body 
size and coloring, some bills look like short, thick cones, suitable for cracking seeds, while 
others resemble a sliver of the moon, adapted to probing for insects. 

Biologists presumed for years that Darwin's finches descended from a South American 
species. Yet no rigorous studies had been done to substantiate that. Shannon Hackett, PhD, 
a curator in the Museum's bird division, and two colleagues began asking where the finches 
came from and how such beak diversity arose. 

Dr. Hackett's team used traditional methods, such as measuring bills, combined with DNA 
sequencing and powerful computer analyses. Most importantly, they gathered data from a 
broad range of songbird species. They discovered, among many things, that Darwin's finches 
are closely related to a group whose distributions are centered mainly in the Caribbean — 
not simply the long-accepted South American connection. 

Surprisingly, they also found that the Caribbean relatives exhibited even greater bill diver- 
sity than Darwin's finches and had been inaccurately classified into three separate avian 
families. While the Galapagos have long been considered a prime laboratory for natural 
selection, the inherent potential of this songbird group to generate remarkably different 
bills appears not just in the Galapagos, but in the previously unrecognized Caribbean radia- 
tion as well. 

Even when we think we know a lot, new findings can ruffle the proverbial feathers. Dr. 
Hackett's team altered centuries-old assumptions about the origins of Darwin's finches, 
while igniting further exploration into bill size, shape and function. 

Dr. Hackett will lecture on May 15 at 2:30pm about Tree of Life, an inteniatioiuil project to determine the relation- 
ships among all of Earth's species. She directs the avian segment. 



SPRING 2004 March-.Miiy 



V. 



YBCSPOTLIGHT-.ASIANBIODIVERSITY 



Lji:oii sluew-mouse, 

Archboldomys 

inusseri. 



Remarkable Rats and the Origins 
of Island Biolo gical Diversity 



!/*- 



Lawrence R. Heatiey, Curator of Mainmals, Department of Zoology 
niustratioiis hy I'elizar Simeonorski , 



Biologists are an odd lot^we often get intensely excited about things that leave other people 
shaking their heads. Who else would spend one to two months each year in remote tropical 
mountain ranges, eagerly racing at dawn through fog-shrouded forest to see what beautiful 
rats were caught in their traps overnight? 

"What's that?" you might ask. "Did you say 'beautiful rats?' They stink, they're filthy, 
they carry disease and they do massive damage! Surely you mean beautiful birds or butter- 
flies!" But the rats of the Philippines are marvelous, and are a wonderful example of how 
biological diversity is produced. There are at least 60 species, 58 of which live nowhere else, 
and most of them look nothing like anyone's typical image of a rat 



For at least 200 years, even before Charles 
Darwin's famous visit to the Galapagos Islands, 
scientists have known that oceanic islands usually 
have unique — often bizarre — plant and animal 
species. Oceanic islands are those that have had 




no dry-land connection to a continent. When a 
small animal or plant population reaches a group 
of oceanic islands, it finds itself with abundant 
resources and few or no competitors or predators. 
Over millions of years, the original species increases 
fiom one to many, evoUang in response to the 
available (and often unusual) resources. A classic 
example to illustrate this process, called adaptive 
radiation, has emerged ftom our studies of the 
weird and wonderfiil rodents of the Philippines. 

Branches on the Tree of Life 

Scientists classify species based on their position 
in the Tree of Life. For more than 20 years, my 
American and Fihpino collaborators and I have 



been working to understand why the Philippine 
archipelago has unusually large numbers of unique 
species with distinctive ways of making a living. 
Oiu: recent DNA studies have confirmed what 
we tentatively suggested from anatomical studies 
a decade ago: all 60 known species are technically 
rats because they are on that branch of the Tree 
of Life. But the DNA data also show us that 
most of the 60 species are members of just 
two groups (or two complete '"branches") 
that are confined to the Philippines. 
They are the descendents of two 
different ancestral populations that 
originally came from the Asian 
mainland 10 to 12 million years ago. 

Most members of one group, 
\\ hich includes about 25 species, 
live in the extremely wet forest high 
in the mountains. Though they are 
closely related, the only things they 
have in common are a tendency to live 
on the ground, to have fairly short tails 
and to ear very htde other than earthworms, 
which are tremendously abundant in the area. 
While few rat species elsewhere in the world eat 
earthworms, all 25 members of this group have 
evolved ways to effectively use this abundant 
resource. 

One Luzon species, which we informally call 
the tweezer-beaked hopping rat, hops along trails 
that it clears through the moss and pounces on 
worms at the surface, mostly at night. In the same 
forest, the Luzon striped shrew-rat digs for worms 
through the thick layer of decomposing moss and 
leaves. A small mouse about the size of a Chicago 
shrew flits ftom one log to another during the 
daytime, in search of worms along the edges of 
fallen logs. Several species that look like the wild 
mice of American forests climb more actively. 
Most amazingly, our DNA data tell us that all of 

•I* 



^ 



16 IN THE FIELD 



i 



these are closely related and are descended from 
one ancestral population that reached the 
Philippines from the Asian mainland 
about 10 million years ago. 

One day in early 2003, in the 
high, wet, cool mountains of 
northern Luzon, a local hunter 
we had trained as a field assis- 
tant returned to our camp, his 
face lit with triumph. After 
weeks of effort, he had caught a 
dwarf cloud rat that was high in a 
tree cloaked with moss, orchids, 
and ferns, and woven into the canopy 
in a web of vines. While we had seen ^^ 

the few existing museum specimens, nothing 
prepared us for its thick, lustrous pelage, nicely 
rounded face and furry tail. We could scarcely 
believe its broad hind feet with "big toes" that 
were as flexible as human thumbs. No wonder no 
one had caught one in five decades: It seems per- 
fectly adapted to living high in the canopy, with 
two pairs of "hands" and soft, dense fur that sheds 
water from the frequent thick fog. 

This animal belongs to a second group of 
about 15 species descended from an Asian colonist 
that reached the Philippines about 12 million 
years ago. Most live in the treetops, feed on ten- 
der, young leaves and some seeds and fruit, and 
have long, thick fur covering the body and tail. 
Several species of giant cloud rats weigh up to 
7 pounds. In many ways, this group 
seems to be the ecological equiva 
lent of some African and 
South American monkeys. 

Thus, from just two 
successful movements of 
a few rats from the Asian 
mainland, about 40 
species have evolved, 
from tiny shrew-like ani- 
mals to large arboreal 
herbivores. 

The birth of diversity 

The history of life on 
Earth, and especially the 
increase in biological 
diversity, is intimately 
tied to geological his- 
tory. The Philippine 
Islands originated in the 
Pacific Ocean, first pop- 
ping above water far 
from land, and have 
never been connected 
to the mainland (except 
for one island near 
Borneo). The islands are 




isj'^^f*^'^C^*tMS^ 



of vastly different ages, from 300,000 to 20 million 
years old. While some of the current islands were 
once connected to one another, most have never 
been connected to anyplace, even though they are 
often separated by 20 miles or less. We have found 
that each isolated island is a unique center of bio- 
logical diversity. For example, about 80 percent of 
the small mammal species on Luzon Island live 
nowhere else on Earth. Thus, it's clear that an 
islands isolation promotes the development of 
unique species. 

The fact that closely related species usually live 
on nearby islands clearly shows that they occasion- 
ally move between 
islands. We believe this 
happens during 
typhoons, when 
rarely — but 
inevitably — a few 
"^animals inside a 
hollow log are 
swept out to sea 
and blown by 
strong winds to 
a nearby island. In 
response to differ- 
ent resources, 
predators and 
competitors, the 
anatomy, behavior 
and genes of the 
isolated population 
change, eventually 
becoming a new 
species on the new 
island. Our latest 
DNA studies show 
that a given species' 

is often within a 
hundred thousand 




Se 



: *H- 



Above: Luzon striped 
shrew-rat, Chrotomys 
whiteheads 

Below: Tweezer- 
heaked hopping rat, 
Rhynchomys sori- 
coides. 



> > J 



'^■\'^:^- 



Ji 



k: 



BACKGROUND IMAGE ERIC A. RICKART 



SPRING 2004 March-May 



years of the island's age — a small difference in 
geological time. In other words, our weird and 
wonderful rats caught a ride on a log to each new 
island shortly after it surfaced above the sea. 

Sometimes these new species stayed on their 
new island, but sometimes a few caught a log 




back to the original island, increasing the number 
there from one to two, and eventually more. Over 
the 1 to 12 million years that rats have been in 
the Philippines, the number of species on Luzon 
has increased from the original two to 13 in the 
earthworm specialist group and seven in the arbo- 
real leaf-eater group (plus about five that arrived 
separately from Asia). The same holds true for the 
other islands, totaling to 58 unique species. 
And so it becomes apparent why oceanic 
islands have such large concentrations of rare 
biological diversity: It is the seemingly inevitable 
result of a geological setting interacting with 
organisms' tendency to undergo genetic change 
over time when they are isolated. With new meth- 
ods of DNA analysis, we can study this at a level 
of detail never imagined by Darwin, while still 
addressing what he referred to as that mystery 
of mysteries — the origins of species. ITF 



Dti'dtf cloud rat, Carpomys phaeurus, niid its flexible \^ 
hind foot adapted to living high in the canopy. '^^ 




Act II: James Simpson Theatre 

Following a five-month intermission, the curtains are being pulled back on the James 
Simpson Theatre to reveal a brand new set. New seats, increased accessibility and 
updated acoustics make this the premier venue for special events at The Field Museum. 
Refurbishing James Simpson Theatre was made possible through generous support 
from The Simpson Family and The Buehler Family Foundation, in addition to gifts 
from friends of the Museum. 



Since the 1 920s, the historic theater has welcomed 
school groups, businesses, scientists and Museum 
friends for an array of events. But its decades-old 
seats and equipment required renovation. The 
Museum will celebrate the theater's reopening in 
March with the National Geographic Live! lecture 
series. (See the calendar for details.) 

The revitalized space has a new handicapped 
entry at the rear and an updated lift at the stage. 
New seats provide greater comfort and easier access 
in and out of the rows. The center aisle has been 
widened and handicapped seating added, and a 
crossover aisle has been created for further accessi- 
bility and flexible crowd circulation. An upgraded 
sound system allows for better control and 



enhanced acoustics. An additional control booth 
improves the theater's video projection capabilities. 
Box seats have been installed in the balcony, which 
was previously unused. 

The new theater, along with the adjacent west 
lobby, lecture halls and classrooms, is the ideal 
center for conferences and events. Institutions can 
hold a general session for 700 guests, and then 
use surrounding rooms for breakout sessions. The 
Museum's approved caterer list offers a range of 
food and beverage choices, from continental break- 
fasts to boxed lunches to a formal dinner in Stanley 
Field Hall. Call the special events department at 
312.665.7600 to rent Simpson Theatre for your 
next big event. 



18 



IN THE FIELD 



OFSPECIALINTEREST 



Planned Giving — Rea chin g Our Goals Together 



Introduced to American philanthropy in the late 1960s, planned giving has become a 
cornerstone of support for nonprofit institutions. 



Planned gifts, which range from straightforward 
wills to sophisticated trusts, offer many advantages 
to both the donor and the recipient, from provid- 
ing you with income and significant tax benefits to 
helping ensure that your institution of choice ful- 
fills its mission for years to come. Above aO, 
planned gifts can be tailored to meet your family's 
individual financial situation and philanthropic 
goals. 

There are numerous vehicles and combinations 
that allow you to construct your gift plan, includ- 
ing outright gifts, outright bequests, appreciated 
stock, insurance policies, charitable gift annuities 
and charitable lead trusts. 



Whatever aspects of The Field Museum you are 
interested in supporting, we encourage one-on-one 
conversations to help you build a plan. Friends who 
include the Museum in their estate plans are recog- 
nized through the Edward E. Ayer Society, whose 
namesake was the Museum's first president. 

Thank you to those who already support The 
Field Museum through planned giving. If you are 
interested in designating the Museum as a benefi- 
ciary, please contact Steve Hines, director of planned 
giving, at 312.665.7775 or shines@fmnh.org. Hines 
will work with you and your legal and tax advisors 
to help you make a gift that you may not have 
imagined possible. 



^Yes, it's dark in here," a sign outside of the Hall of Jades read. Last renovated in 
the early 1970s, the gallery's deteriorating lighting conditions left visitors not only 
frustrated, but unaware that its beautiful jade collection is one of the best in North 
America. 



The renovated Hall of Jades., opening on March 
12, presents more than 45(J artifacts from Chinas 
long and distinguished history. It features fiber optic 
lighting, an elegant, tranquil setting and a more 
lucid storyline that incorporates contemporary jatie 
scholarship. 

While many museums' jade holdings cover one 
or two periods. The Field Museum's Hall of Jades 
highlights 6,000 years and relates the artifacts to the 
times and cultures from which they originate. 
Visitors will first learn about jacle mineralogy, how 
the stone is ground and its meanings in other cul- 
tures. Then they will move from Neolithic burial 
sites; through the Bronze Age and formation of the 
Chinese empire; through centuries of powert'ul 
dynasties; to the early 20th century. 

In the Neolithic section, carefully carved objects, 
such as ceremonial weapons and disks with holes 
called hi (bee), were buried with the dead. Jade later 
became an unmistakable display of power and 
wealth. Visitors will see the footplate of a wealthy 
person's full-body jade burial suit from the Han 
period (206 BC-AD 220). As dynasties flourished 



and fell over the next 14 centuries, more styles 

and functions of jade objects evolved, 

including vessels, personal acces 

sories and animal figurines. 

During the Qing Dynast)' 

(1644- 1 91 1 ). jade artistry 

achieved new heights. The 

gallery includes bells, 

flutes and other musical 

instruments, as well as 

intricate desktop items 

that held special meaning 

for educated men. A 281- 

pound jar carved from a 

single boulder once stood in 

Beijing's Imperial Palace 

during the reign of Emperor 

Qianlong. 

The Museum has createei a fitting 
home for its important collection. Stop by after Detail fnvii Qi 

your visit to Splendors of China's Forbidden City, and (1644-191 1) 
discover why jade is China's most enduring symbol screen. 
of prosperity, power and virtue. 




ng period 
desk 



SPRING 2004 March-M.i] 



i9 



YBCSPOTLIGHT:BACKYARDBIODIVERSITY 



The Creatures of Mazon Crepk 



Top: Dr. Eugene 
Richardson overlooking 
Pit U. 

Bottom: A reconstruction 
oJTully Monster. 



David Dolak, Instructor, Department of Education, and Volunteer, Department of Geology 

As Chicago settled into its annual deep freeze, I smiled with confidence that the season 
would soon change. But during the Pennsylvanian Period 300 million years ago, today's 
northern Illinois was a tropical swamp astride the equator, an alien world with giant 
ferns and mammoth dragonflies. One season — a perpetual hot, steamy summer — sea  
the senses. 






>vVv%k- . ^i :^ 



The prehistoric life spread throughout The Field 
Museum captivated me as a child, particularly one 
fossil type — compact, beautifiil impressions of plant 
and animal creatures from Mazon Creek, 50 miles 
southwest of Chicago. When my family visited this 
magical place, my siblings and I collected rocks, 
smashed our thumbs and stared at the glories that 
lay open before us. 

Mazon Creek carves through a badland of aban- 
doned coalmines. Extensive mining beginning in 
the 1860s yielded waste piles seeded with 300 
million-year-old fossil jewels. The largest and last 
strip mine was Peabody Coal Company's Pit 11, 
which operated until the mid- 1 970s. The Mazon 
Creek area is a lagerstatten, a fossil mother load, 
and is ranked among a handfiil of sites around the 
w^orld that are famous for their organism diversity 
and wondrous preservation. 

Neatly pre-packaged in ironstone concretions 
that resemble flattened eggs, the fossils can be split 
into mirror-image halves. They are easy to spot as 
they erode out of the hiUsides. Early fossil hunters 
would wade along the creek barefoot, feeling for 
smooth concretions with their feet! 

The Field Museum's involvement with Mazon 
Creek began in the 1940s. By the 1960s, largely 
because of Eugene Richardson, PhD, curator of 
fossil invertebrates, the Museum was recognized as 
the preeminent repository of Mazon Creek fossils. 
The Museum conducted research at Pit 1 1 through 
the early 1980s. During the area's first systematic 
fossil census, which the Museum coordinated, 
dozens of buckets were stacked on the Museum's 
roof, taking advantage of Chicago's seasonal freeze- 
thaw cycles to aid in cracking the fossils open. 





Dr. Richardson welcomed amateur collectors 
to share their discoveries. When I met him, he 
graciously assessed my unknown blobs and showed 
me how to identify them. I discovered that I was 
the proud owner of a jellyfish, sea cucumber and 
coprolite (fossil dung)! 

About 100 plant species and more than 300 ani- 
mal species have been identified from the Mazon 
area. At least 50 species have been named after local 
collectors, and an additional dozen species are 
named after scientists associated with The Field 
Museum. While perhaps less appealing than other 
prehistoric favorites, the preservation of soft-body 
organisms at Mazon, especially jellyfish, is wdthout 
scientific comparison. 

The most illustrious Mazon fossil is the Tully 
Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium), named after its 
discoverer, Francis TuUy, a soft-spoken farmer-cum- 
collector. With a single-toothed jaw on one end, a 
tail and r^vo fins on the other and two eyes that 
projected out sideways, this foot-long denizen of 
the swamp's marine bay is of uncertain lineage. It 
may not have been monstrous, or even sociable, but 
it is ours. It exists nowhere else on Earth, and was 
designated as Illinois' state fossil in 1991. 

Mazon Creek's collecting heyday ended by the 
mid- 1 980s, but interest remains strong. Scientists 
worldwide continue to reference our 50,000 speci- 
mens, and the education department regularly 
offers family fieldtrips to old Pit 1 1 . 1 invite you 
to come along, crack a few rocks and explore this 
ancient sUce of northern Illinois. 

See the calendar section for upcoming fieldtrips on March 
20 and April 24. 



IN THE FIELD 



MEMBERSHIP/ ANNUALFUNDNEWS 



New Exhibition's Private Viewing s 



Explore the hidden world of the Imperial Court in Splendors of China's Forbidden City 
The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong. 

Annuaf Fund Preview and Reception 

Wednesday, March W, 6:30 to 9:30pm 

This wonderful private event includes a lecture by one of the exhibition's creators, along with light fare 
and educational activities. Reservations are required. Call 312.665.7777 for information. 

Membership Previews 

March 11 from 9am to 5pm and March 14, 18, 21 and 25 from 5 to 10pm. Reservations required. 
Call 866.312.2781 for information. 

Hotel Packages for Family and Friends 



With convenient locations, wonderful amenities and a range of budget options, 
several Chicago hotels are offering special packages that include tickets to 
Splendors of China's Forbidden City. Below is a snapshot of participating 
partners. Check our website for further details. 



Chicago's Essex Inn 
800.621.6909 

Days Inn Lincoln Park North 
888. LPN. DAYS 

The Drake Hotel 
312.787.2200 



Holiday Inn Chicago City Centre 
312.787.6100 

Hotel 71 
800.621.4005 

Park Hyatt Chicago 
312.335.1234 



Ritz Carlton 
312.266.1000 

Swissotel Chicago 
312.565.0565 

Whitehall Hotel 
312.944.6300 




The Field Museum With Friends 



Bring your alumni group, book club or special group of friends to see Splendors of 
China's Forbidden City. Discounted rates are available for 15 or more. Call the group 
sales office at 312.665.7300. 

Choose from two jam-packed itineraries. The Art of Chinese Jade includes a visit to the newly renovated 
Hall of Jades, the Museum Store for its exquisite jade items, and Corner Bakery, where you can enjoy 
green tea and almond cookies. China Immersion includes your own docent and a walking tour of 
Chinatown to explore its old-world architecture and imperial-style restaurants. 




Field Museum members now have two phone numbers for member services. Call 
866.312.2781 for ail general questions about benefits or renewals. Call 312.665.7705 to 
reserve your free tickets to special exhibitions. Ticketmaster will no longer be providing 
this service. 

In addition, due to rising operating costs, members will now be asked to pay $1 
per item at the coat check. 



-^^^^^■^^^^^^^^^■^'-^ 



i^SB^i. 



SPRING 2004 Manh-May 




nfthpYRC! 



Don't miss the final days of the Year of Biodiversity and Conservation 
(YBC). See the calendar for programs on Asia, backyard biodiversity 
and the Tree of Life, or visit www.fieldmuseum.org/biodiversity. 

Just added! Peregrine falcons, an endangered species in 
Illinois, are returning to Chicago's high-rise buildings to nest and 
raise their young. Mary Hennen, a Field Museum ornithologist and 
head of the Chicago Peregrine Program, leads a team that monitors 
their health and safety and bands the chicks for tracking. Because 
peregrines are near the top of the food chain, the cumulative effects of 
pesticides caused females to lay thin, fragile eggs that couldn't withstand 
the weight of incubation. Active monitoring programs are recovering populations 
throughout the United States. Though previously extirpated from Illinois, 10 breeding 
pairs lived here last year. 

Witness the falcons in their nest from development through fledging. Email 
expeditions@fieldmuseum.org or visit www.fieldmuseum.org/expeditions to register 
for Hennen's first-hand accounts on the falcons' progress. 

All adult falcon nesting at the historic i'ptoutt Theater. 




^JBa^? 




toci&ibHiia 



Curator 

'DepartiTient of Botany 

The Field Museum 

I 

, An^expert'on^Asia's flowering plants, 

Dr. Wen studies the genetics and 

geographical distribution of plants 

that are economically important and 

threatened by overexploitation. 

She focuses on ginseng, used in 

many Asian countries as a tonic for 

strengthening those who are weak or ill. 

Hear Dr. Wen speak on 
Saturday, March 13 at 2:00 p.m. 



INTHEFIELD 



Summer 2004 
June-August 



The Field Museum's Member Publicatioi 









"^■^ 





\ 



(. * 



% Iff ''^'%«|2 

^ Community and 

Environment Alivd 

in Calumet 

The Beijing Eight 








T 



i^^H^i^ 



FROMTHEPRESIDENT 



A Cool Place to Work 




When Field Museum employees tell people where they work, the response is usually 
something like, "Cool. What's it like?" This issue of Jn the Field shares some real-life 
experiences our staff members have had. An ethnographer introduces us to Lake 
Calumet residents who are striving to revitalize their communities and the environment. 
An outreach educator describes a typical day teaching squeamish, curious school- 
children about soil and the life in it. Exhibition professionals convey their experiences 
in Beijing's Palace Museum preparing the objects you see in Splendors of China's 
Forbidden City. And there's more. 



John McCarter joins 
Joanna McCaffrey to 
chart Lake Calumet's 
biological difersity, one 
activity among his 
duties as president. 



For me, each day is different, but 
here are six ingredients that char- 
acterize many of my days: 

1. Start with a good breakfast: 

The "Breal<fast Club" meets many 
mornings at IVIcDonald's. 
(Remember Don IVIcNeil, light- 
hearted host of the long-running 
radio and television show?) 
Curators and staff share the excite- 
ment of discovery, and the 
conversation occasionally deterio- 
rates into a game of "Beat up the 
President!" 

2. Small is beautiful: People are 
always amazed at how an institu- 
tion so big — research activity in 
90 countries, 22 million specimens, 
an extraordinary lineup of exhibi- 
tions, a grand Daniel Burnham 
classical building — can be so 




small. $59 million budget, 620 
staff. The combination of complexity 
and intimacy makes this a fascinat- 
ing workplace. 

3. Extramural: As soon as I 
realized that I brought no "value 
added" to the study of ichthyology 
or vertebrate paleontology, I went 
to work on deepening the Museum's 
presence and impact in Chicago's 
schools and ethnic neighborhoods, 
and securing governmental support. 

4. It's not about the money: But it 

is. A mission to "Explore the Earth 
and its peoples," advanced labora- 
tories and equipment, the deferred 
maintenance of a 1921 building, 
keeping up with new information 
technology, and large-scale exhibi- 
tions that share the wonders of the 
world and our collections with the 
public. All of these require 
immense capital, and anyone who 
does not love raising money should 
not be a museum director! 

5. True believers: Our board of 
trustees has expanded from 35 to 
60 members over the past decade. 
As new trustees grow to know this 
place, their enthusiasm becomes 
boundless, and working with them 
is a joy. Involving trustees, building 
on the range of talents and resources 
each one brings, is critical to the 
institution. 



6. Intramural: Where else can 
you travel through the tales of a 
colleague from the depths of the 
Pacific Ocean to the reaches of 
the solar system? The scholarship 
of the scientist, the creativity of 
the exhibition designer, the 
patience of the conservator, the 
entrepreneurship of the adminis- 
trator Each person here provides 
an endless sense of knowledge 
and wonderment. 

And these are my Chicago days. 
(My days in the field with cura- 
tors — that's another story.) I 
hope to see you at the annual 
behind-the-scenes events on June 
2, 3 and 4, when your family and 
friends can explore the private 
world of this Museum and meet 
some of the remarkable people I 
work with every day. If you can't 
make this anticipated tradition, 
please support our work with 
the enclosed gift envelope. 
Checkmark for point no. 4 
above! 



John W. McCarter, Jr. 
President and CEO 




nk ^bouyrmj^Field^ 



For general membership inquiries, including address changes, call 866.312.2781. For questions about 
the magazine In the Field, call 312.665.7115, email acranch@fmnh.org, or write Amy E. Cranch, 
Editor, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 



INTHEFIELD 



Summer 2004, June-August, 
Vol.75, No.3 

Editor: 

Amy E. Cranch, The Field Museum 

Design: 

Depke Design 



jf^ In the Field is printed on recycled paper 
^w using soy-based inl<s. All images ©The 
Field Museum unless otherwise specified. 



In the Field (ISSN #1051-4546) is published 
quarterly by The Field Museum. Copyright 
2004 The Field Museum. Annual subscriptions 
are $20; $10 for schools. Museum membership 
includes In the Field subscription. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do 
not necessarily reflect the policy of The Field 
Museum. Notification of address change should 
include address label and should be sent to 
the membership department. POSTMASTER: 
Send address changes to Membership, The 
Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, IL 60605-2496. Periodicals postage 
paid at Chicago, Illinois. 

Cover: Residents of the Lake Calumet region are 
enlivening its sense of community and environ- 
ment. Photos by Hannah Anderson. 

The Field Museum salutes the people of Chicago 
for their long-standing, generous support of the 
Museum through the Chicago Park District. 



Field 



:i 



fe 



useum 



1400 South Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2496 
312.922.9410 
www.fieldmuseum.oi-g 




Field Museum ethnographers investigate the 
strengths of Lake Calumet communities. 
Top:The Arcade Park Garden Club uses raised beds 
to protect edibles from tainted soil. 



4 



A Field Museum botanist hunts for his favored 
genus in the Galapagos Islands. 
Middle: Nolana galapagensis. 



16 



The self-anointed Beijing Eight travels to 
China to prepare for the exhibition Splendors 
of China's Forbidden City. 



18 



Four Field Museum scientists venture to South 
Africa seeking poorly known rove beetles. 
Bottom: Fungi are home and food for some beetles. 



Field Museum and Title IX Compliance 

As an institution that provides education and training programs and 
receives financial assistance from federal agencies, in accordance vyith 
Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972, v^^e do not discrimi- 
nate on the basis of sex in such programs. Should you have any 
questions, please contact our Title IX coordinator in the human resources 
department at 312.665.7271. 



Museu rn Campus N ejqhbor^^^ 



Museum Campus IVluseum Campus Free 
Week returns June 6 through 11. All three of 
our world-class museums — The Field IVluseum, 
Adier Planetarium and Shedd Aquarium — 
offer free general admission during the 
six-day kickoff to summer. Ticketed exhibi- 
tions and Sky Shows are available at a 
nominal additional fee. 



AdIer Planetarium Voyage through a 
Universe of excitement with astronomical 
exhibitions, up-to-date coverage of NAS.A 
events and Sky Theater and StarRider 
Theater shows. Travel to a future world of 
incredible beasts with The Future is Wild, or 
see music transformed into animation in 
Sonic Vision, playing on the weekends. 
Explore the cosmic mysteries of ancient 
Egypt in Stars of the Pharaohs, and iearn 
about the Cassini mission to Saturn through 
special programs scheduled all summer long. 
For information call 312. 922. STAR or visit 
www.adlerplanetarium.org 



Shedd Aquarium Reach for the stars, 
and a lot of other cool animals, at Sea Star 
Quest. This new special exhibition opening 
June 17 is Shedd's most hands-on production 
ever. Kids will be able to high-five a live sea 
star, tickle a sea urchin's tube feet and meet 
moi'e than 30 other species of tiny, spiny- 
skinned marine invertebrates at touch pools, 
child-height displays and a play station. See 
and do something everywhere you turn amid 
one of the most diverse collections of echino- 
derms in the world. For information, visit 
wvwi/.sheddaquarium.org. 



SUMMER 2004 June-August 




INTHEFIELDFEATURE 



Community and Environment Alive in Calumet 

Madeleine Tudor, Communicatioiis Manager, Caiterfor Cultural Understanding and Change 



The hot summer sun beat down as we talked with Frank Ramos amid a surge of flowers 
near the Chicago Skyway overpass at 100th Street. Cars rushed overhead, and it was 
hard to breathe without inhaling their exhaust fumes. Sweat ran down my face and 
back as I jotted down notes to capture Frank's story — how a community garden came 
to be in such a seemingly unlikely place. 




Families flock to 
Calumet Park to pioiit 
and swim in Lake 
Michigan. 



With time and efibrt, Frank and his wife, Magdalena. 
turned this unpromising patch of land in Chicago's 
East Side neighborhood into a Uvely oasis of ecol- 
ogv' and communin; Frank belongs to East Side 
Pride, one of many local organizations concerned 
with building comniunit)- in the region. Ha\ing 
worked in the steel mills for more than 40 years, he 
says that his early retirement was due to associated 
health problems. He recalls when the mills were in 
fiill swing and says they often dumped toxic debris 
on land where homes now stand. He enjoys out- 
door activities and nurturing something that's good 
for the neighborhood. 

Thus is the stor\- of the Lake Calumet region — 
a complex of industrial remnants, municipal waste 
sites, powerfi.ll personal histories, strong communities 
old and new, and some of the richest biological 
diversity- in Northern lUinois. I was introduced to 
the region years previous, when I found myself dri- 
ving through an area of Chicago that couldn't have 
been more dramatic. On one side of a thoroughfare 
laden with trucks was some of the last remaining 
hea\-\- industry, and on the other side a weriand. 
Down the road, historic Pullman homes lured mv 
imagination into another time and place. 



To outsiders, as I had been, this is an area of 
paradox. Once one of the largest steel producers in 
the United States, the region has become a "rust- 
belt," "ghost town" or "armpit of the cit\" to some. 
To residents, however, seemingly disparate pieces of 
a puzzle come together to create home. Policy mak- 
ers and funding agencies have identified the area for 
environmental and economic revitalization and have 
committed substantial hinds — S-^4 million — toward 
that end. 

I met Frank as pan of an ethnographic research 
team investigating how local residents could be 
efiectively engaged in reviving their commtmities, 
economy and environment. Whereas common social 
policy practices describe communities by their 
deficits. The Field Museum's Center for Cultural 
Understanding and Change (CCUC). with funding 
fiwm the USDA Forest Service, identified Calumet's 
conununitN- strengths — or social assets — and how 
they are connected. We also examined what en\-i- 
ronment means to the residents and how they 
relate to it. 

Social assets exist in all communities, but find- 
ing their core — the intangible relationships, values 
and ideas that helped create them — required 
ethnographic, quahtative research and analysis. 
From 20(1 1 to 2003, under the direction of Dr. 
Alaka Wali. CCUC director and a curator in 
anthropology, I managed two-person teams of 
undergraduate and graduate interns who immersed 
themselves in the Chicago communities of South 
Deering, East Side, Pullman and Altgeld Gardens, 
and in Hammond. Indiana. They essentially "hung 
out" with the locals, but in a structured, systematic 
way called participant observation. This corner- 
stone method of ethnography helps us understand 
a place fiom the insiders' perspective, while 
translating this knowledge through our analytical 
outsiders' objectivitv'. 

Social assets are the building blocks of commu- 
nit\", the relationships that people create to address 
the needs of evervday life. We saw them ever\- day, 
evervAvhere. At the area's waterways, where people 
flock to swim, fish and picnic ... at the Pullman 
Palace Car Company, where citizens are in "rescue 




IN THE FIELD 




East Side residents created a garden beueam 
the Chicago Skyway at 100th Street. 



mode" to save the historic fabric of this fire -struck 
building ... at St. Kevin's Church in South Deering, 
known for bridging ethnic divides among its cul- 
turally diverse parishioners ... at the iconic Pierogi 
Fest in Hammond, where a man dressed up as a 
pierogi both pokes fun at the doughy pocket while 
celebrating it as a common connection for the 
area's Eastern European immigrants ... and through 
such people as Roman Villarreal, who leads a 
weekly drum circle in an old warehouse in 
Hammond ... and Hazel and Cheryl Johnson, a 
mother-daughter team in Altgeld Gardens who, 
after watching many people die of cancer, have 
been active in getting toxic sites cleaned up. 

Our research also helped discern what environ- 



ment means to the residents. For example, research 
interns Hilary del Campo and Ines Lagos, who 
both speak Spanish, celebrated Fourth of July at 
Calumet Park, a popular spot for Latino residents. 
As they roasted their tofu hotdogs, they solved a bit 
of a mystery. Local environmental activists are 
concerned about park patrons dumping their hot 
cooking coals next to the trees, which kills the 
roots, rather than in the assigned garbage cans. 
Hilary and Ines realized that since the park is typi- 
cally filled to capacity with families with small 
children, hot coals at the base of a tree make it a 
visual marker of caution. Children can't see hot 
coals inside garbage cans, thus increasing the likeli- 
hood of a dangerous accident. Therefore, rather 
than specifically unclerstanding that hot coals 
degrade the environment, families have a broader 
perception of environment that includes making 
choices based on health and safety. 

These places, organizations, people and choices 
are the tip of the iceberg. For every social asset 
that's counted, layers of unseen strengths exist. And 
it is through people connecting that things are 
accomplished, organizations are formed, buildings 
are built, biodiversity is conserved, the environment 
is protected and community is strengthened. 

Frank sat on an overturned crate in the shade 
of the Skyway and offered us a cold soda from his 
lunchbox. As I gratefully accepted, I could sense my 
perspective on the area shifting toward an insider's 
eyes. Frank shed Hght on a critical result of the 
study: Contrary to popular assumptions about 
Calumet being a dying or stagnant region, social 
assets abound, and the environment is integral to, 
not separate from, people's daily lives. ITF 

Visit u'U'w.fieldinuseuin.oro/cahiinetfor a vibrant look 
at the study and coituniinities. The Association of 
American Geographers awarded this site the best 
website of 2003. 




SUMMER 2004 June-AugusI 



INTHEFIELDFEATURE 



Another Piece of the Nolana Puzzle 

Story and Photos by Michael Dillon, PhD, Curator and Head of Flowering Plants, Department of Botany 

It was my first day in the Galapagos Islands alone. Rather than being greeted by my 
colleagues at the Charles Darwin Research Station (CDRS), I instead witnessed local 
fishermen setting bonfires and denying access to the facility. They were unhappy with 
the regulations that restrict commercial fishing of such delicacies as shark fins and lob- 
sters in this heavily protected area. I was never able to enter the station during my field 
research, but I had longed for this opportunity too long to dismiss my pursuit of Nolana. 



Beloii': Iguanas sawr the 
sweet, juicy leaves of 
Nolana galapagensis. 



Perhaps no other place on Earth evokes the same 
emotions and questions among scientists as the 
Galapagos Islands. Serving as both a sanctuary and 
laboratory for studying animals and plants uniquely 
shaped by their isolation, the islands have inspired 
nearly 200 years of discovery since Charles 
Darwin's legendary voyage. While 1 had led three 
Field Museum tours to the Galapagos, my trip this 
past February, funded in part by Barb and Gene 
Schmitt and Sue and By Dickes, was for scientific 
business. My "official papers" included a Cotwenio 
de Cooperacion fiom the CDRS and memorandum 
of understanding with Dr. AlanTye, the station's 
head botanist. These papers gave me powers to 
wield my clippers on only three of the islands' 
nearly 650 species of flowering plants: Xolana gala- 
pagensis and its near relatives, Lycium minimum and 
Grabowskia boerliaainaefolia. 1 knew what they looked 
Uke. and everything else was essentially ofi'-limits. 

A lifelong attraction 

Between you and me, this trip was really about my 
ongoing love affair with the genus Nolana, part of 
the Solanaceae or tomato family. Since 1 first laid 
eyes on her in 1983, Nolana has inspired me to 
search for, observe and describe new members, as 
v,?ll as ferret out the relationships of this large 

secies) and beautiful genus. Nolana had been 
from six islands, and my mission was 



to collect at least one sample for our molecular 
systematic studies. Dr. Jun Wen, a curator in The 
Field Museum's botany deparmient, is spearheading 
the DNA sequencing efforts that allow us to e.xamine 
relationships bet\veen representatives found on the 
coasts of Peru and Chile and those found on the 
islands. We had conducted preliminary studies with 
a Nolana galapagensis sample taken from a herbar- 
ium sheet that had been completely expended, and 
attempts to isolate DNA from additional herbarium 
samples also proved unsuccessful. There was only 
one choice: Go to the Galapagos to retrieve a 
viable sample. Collecting Lycium and Grabowskia 
would be an added bonus. 

After \isiting several sites on two islands, 1 was 
both perplexed and discouraged. I found abundant 
Lycium and Grabowskia, but not a single Nolana 
galapagensis. Could goats and iguanas have eaten 
its small, sweet, succulent leaves out of existence? 
I had examined the entire holdings — three sheets — 
in Quito's herbarium the week before. If I didn't 
find Nolana in the last known spot, Isla Caamaiio, I 
would return to Chicago in disgrace! This potential 
regret motivated my last-chance quest. 

A rocky, wet start 

On the last day, I hired Capt. Armando Leon, a 
water ta.xi pilot who services ships anchored in 
the area. Several locals had never heard of Isla 




Caamano, but Capt. Leon confidently said, "Ninguna 
probkma," or "No problem!" My Geo-Positioning 
System (GPS) told me exactly where the Nolana 
had been collected on this teeny island less than 
two miles south of the Equator and due east of 
where we were located. 

When we arrived around 6:30am, the tide was 
receding. Capt. Leon motored to within 20 feet of 
Isla Caamafio's rocky shore and admonished me to 
"Salta," or "Jump." 1 threw my legs over the bow 
and into the water. At that moment, a wave drove 
the back of the boat into me, pushing me under 
water. Capt. Leon threw the boat into reverse. 1 got 
back to my feet in the surging surf and struggled to 
shore, praying that my digital camera had survived 
the dunking. I frantically opened the backpack and 
found all but its innermost contents wet: The digi- 
tal camera was dry! As I gathered myself, Capt. 
Leon anchored the boat in deeper water and 
snorkeled to shore. 

As the excitement of the landing subsided, I 
became aware of my surroundings. A quick review 
showed a bruised and bloody knee and shinbone — 
mere flesh wounds for someone on the verge of 
finding the elusive plant of his desires. It was a sur- 
real scene with sea lions, mostly females and pups, 
and dozens of black marine iguanas lounging 
about. I saw some shrubs several meters away and 
cleaned my glasses, recognizing the distinctive shape 
of Nolana galapagensis! Its leaves were so dense thaj: 



the sinuous branches looked like fleshy, lime green 
snakes arising from the body of the shrub. Within 
45 minutes, I sampled more than a dozen individuals 
over the entire island. 1 swam back to the boat with 
some difficulty, holding my treasure-filled backpack 
above my head. 

Time and economic constraints forced me to be 
content with one population, but future plans call 
for sampling populations on every island to examine 
DNA variation. Many Nolana species from Peru 
and Chile have been sequenced in our preliminary 
studies, allowing us to address such questions as: 
What is Nolana galapagensis most closely related 
to on the mainland? Where did it originate? How 
long has it been isolated on the islands? How 
genetically diverse is each island's population? 
And the most intriguing question will never be 
answered: How did Nolana galapagensis ancestors 
arrive on these remote islands? ' 

Injuries and near-zero yields are part of the lot 
for scientists in the field. But they're also what keep 
us going, especially in such mysterious places as the 
Galapagos Islands. We'd be out of a job if we weren't 
driven by inquiry and unnerved by inconvenience. 
The fishermen's strike prevented me from bringing 
my collections back to Chicago, and my CDRS 
colleagues are still rebounding from the event. But 
we are planning a series of investigations in cooper- 
ation with the CDRS, and I eagerly await my 
return. ITF 

For more on t^l Dillon 's research in the Galapagos 
iJiafds, consult ipuw. sacha.org. 



Left: Capt. Leon was as 
excited as I was to find 
Nolana galapagensis. 

Below. A sea lion basks 
near Nolana. 




INTHEFIELDFEATURE 



SAM and I 



Jason Knight, left, and 
Elah Brooks of Hoover 
School in Cahmiet City 
got a hands-on lesson 
in dirt. 



Todd Dresser, Environmental Outreach Specialist, Departmettt of Education 

How many people do you know who play in the dirt for a living? As an educator with 
the Soil Adventure Mobile (SAM), the outreach component of the Underground 
Adventure exhibition, I bring educational programs about soil and the life in it to 
children throughout the Midwest. SAM educators can present four one-hour programs 
a day for up to 30 students each session. Dig into this account of a typical day: 



6:30ani Beetles ... check.Worms ... check. 
Direcrions to program site ... hmnini. Am I going 
to Oak Park, Oak Lawn or Oak Brook? At some 
point, 'Oak" should have been outlawed from town 
names! Mapquest.com thankfiilly offers salvation, 
and I am on my way. 

7:30am Arrive at today's school. Traveling opposite 
the rush-hour traffic is definitely a perk of the job. 
Now, if I can just wedge my UPS-sized SAM into 
the Honda Civic-sized spot reserved for it... 

8:00am Roll the exhibit carts into the school. 
Students will investigate soil ecology- with the crit- 
ter cart, nutrient flow with the decomposer cart 
and the inorganic parts of soil with the rock cart. 
Or, as I tell the students, they'll learn about living 
stuff, dead stuff and stuff that has never been ahve. 

8:30am First class, third grade. The average age of 
youngsters that SAM educates, third graders are 
curious, excited and unafraid to touch things that 
they will consider gross in a few years. Fortunately, 
their teacher prepared them with the curriculum I 
had sent a few weeks earlier. The students' synapses 
are firing, and they are eager to delve deeper into 
the "world beneath their feet." 




9:30am Second class, sixth grade. It's a nice day, 
and the teacher has just completed a soil ecology 
unit. So, I grab my soU probe and take the smdents 
outside to test samples. Using their background 
knowledge and tidbits they have gathered from the 
exhibit carts, we assess how the samples were made. 
Students are asked how h\-ing organisms interacted 
with parent material under a climate regime over 
rime, and if the sample would be good for farming, 
building a house, putting in a septic system and 
other uses. 

10:45am After downsizing the exhibit carts, it's 
time for a ston,* and tactile soU exploration with 
the kindergarteners. The beautiful thing about five- 
year-olds is that they bravely plunge their hands 
into the soil and discuss it, yet they are also daring 
enough to put a worm in their mouths. Fortunately 
for their taste buds — and me — we avoid that pitfall 
and enjoy our time together. 

11:15am Lunch. Is it casserole or pizza day? If it's 
pizza day, I save my lunch for tomorrow. If not, I 
stick to the peanut butter and jelly sandwich I 
brought fix)m home. 

12:15pm Last class, eighth grade. The abihty to 
work in small groups must be hormonally Unked — 
maybe in the pimple gland — because it surfaces 
between sLxth and eighth grades. Each group 
gathers soil samples along a hillside in the school- 
yard, then we all reconvene to discuss the samples 
and how the slope affected soU formation. Together 
we try to identify organisms living in the soil. 

1:15pm Bid adieu to the schoolduldren. Load the 
exhibit carts back onto SAM. 

2:30pm Arrive back at The Field Museum. Return 
critters to the containers that prevent them from 
roaming around the Museum. Push some papers, 
and get directions to tomorrow's program. It's a 
dirty job, and I'm happy to do it. ITF 

If you'd like the Soil Advaiture Mobile to visit yotir com- 
munity center or event this summer, call Todd Dresser at 
312.665.7506 or email tdresser^fieldmusaim.org. 

The Soil Adventure Mobile is sponsored by Monsanto. Additional supiiort 
provided by The Albert Pick, Jr. Fund. 



IN THE FIELD 



YOURGUIDETOTHEFIELD 



Calendar of Events for Summer 2004 June-August 



Night Visions: 
The Secret 
Designs of 
IVIoths 

July 24, 2004-Jan. 9. 2005 



Discover the surprising beauty of 
moths through stunning, larger-than- 
life images. In a small farm in New 
York, artist Joseph Scheer has 
collected more than 1,000 species 
of moths. Using a high-resolution 
scanner and magnifying images up 
to 60 times their actual size, he 
creates richly detailed prints that 
reveal secrets rarely visible to the 
naked eye. 

Join Scheer for an insider's look at 
this new exhibition. 

Saturday, July 24, Ipm 
Free with Museum admission 



This exhibition was developed by The Field 
Museum in coiiaboration with Joseph Scheer. 



j: 



fe 



Field 



useum 



Splendors of 
China's 
Forbidden City 

Through Sept. U, 2004 






Explore the hidden world of the Imperial Court and experience the 
Chinese empire at the peak of its wealth and power. This incredible 
exhibition opens a window into the daily life of a Chinese emperor, 
with all its spectacular ritual and awe-inspiring symbolism. Detailed 
displays evoke the ambiance of palace chambers, transporting you to 
the sumptuous private quarters of the emperor and his many wives. 
You'll see a five-foot Buddhist stupa made entirely of gold, jade- 
handled swords, embroidered silk robes, detailed paintings of court 
life and nearly 400 other extraordinary treasures that were 
once hidden from all but the highest ranking officials. 

Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The Gionovs Reign of Emperor Qianlong was developed by The Field Museum in 
cooperation with the Palace Museum, Beijing. 

Presented by Exelon, Proud Parent of ComEd. 

Additional support provided by the Elizabetr F. Cheney Foundation and the E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Foundation. 

This exhibition is supported by an indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities. 




General Museum Information 

Family and Adult Program Tickets and Information: 312.665.7400 

Please note: Refunds wilt be issued by Field Museum staff, minus a $10 processing fee, for group and family overnights only. No 
refunds or exchanges are permitted for any other programs. Fees for programs cancelled by The Field Museum will be refunded in full. 



SUMMER 200'i June-August 



Your Guide to the Field: Calendar of Events for Summer 2004 June-August 



Examine the vibrant cultural history 
of contemporary and ancient China. 

Call 312.665.7400 to register for an exciting array of adult and family programs designed to 
complement the Splendors of China's Forbidden City exhibition. 



Inside China's Forbidden City 



Discover the hidden world of China's Forbidden City! Understand Imperial China's religions, art 
and court life, as well as its relationship with the Western world. The Field Museum and the 
University of Chicago are co-presenting this lecture series. 

Each lecture: $16, students /educators $14, members $12 

Full series (save 15 percent): $82, students /educators $72, members $62 

Any three lectures $44, students /educators $38, members $32 



Bringing the Forbidden 
City to Chicago 

Dr Matt Matcuk, TFM 
Exhibitions Dept. 

Find out how a diverse 
team of anthropologists 
and exhibition specialists 
brought the imperial court 
18th-century China to life for IVluseum visitors. 




of 



Wednesday, June 30, 6pm 

Religious Traditions of the 
Forbidden City 

Susan Naquin, Princeton Llniversity 

IVlarvel at the diverse religious conventions 
of the QIng imperial family. Learn about 
their pilgrimages, how they supported 
Daoist priests and Buddhist monks and 
participated in Confucian rituals. 
Hear how the exhibition's religious 
objects are related. 

Wednesday, July 7, 6pm 



O PALACE MUSEUM, BEIJING 




Beyond Chinese Borders: Relations with 
the Western World in the 18th Century 

Theodore N. Foss, Utiiversity oj Chicago Center for East 
Asian Studies 

Explore China's relations with the outside world under the 
remarkable reigns of Kangxi, Yongjeng and Qianlong. 
Examine negotiations between China and Russia over the 
northern borderlands; the Jesuits' scientific, artistic and 
religious activities; and the country's burgeoning trade. 



Wednesday, July 14, 6pm 
Living the Emperor's Life 

Dr. Harold Kaliii, Stanford University 

Contemplate the emperor's many roles — as gentleman 
and scholar, poet and aesthete, warrior and hunter, 
^^^^^^ husband and son, traveler, religious practitioner, judge, 
^^^^^^^ and supreme administrator of 
a multi-ethnic empire. 

Wednesday, 
July 21, 
6pm 




O PALACE MUSEUM, BEIJING 



8 IN THE FIELD CALENDAR 



General Museum Information: 312.922.9410; Family and Adult Program Tickets and Information: 312.665.7400 



The Emperor's Ladies: Women 
in Qing Court Society 

Dr. Ei'clyti Raii'ski, Uiiwersity of 
Pittsburgh 

Examine the vast roles different 
groups of women played, including 
wives, servants and shamans, and 
discover the political and personal 
dimensions of their lives in court 
society. 

Wednesday, July 28, 6pm 



Family Programs 

Chinese Arts Festival 

Expand your horizons! Build l<ites, learn about Chinese 
calligraphy and instruments and witness dazzling dance 
performances. Show off your new kite in a celebration on 
the Museum's north side at 2pm. 

Saturday, July 17, 1 lam -3 pin 
Free with Museuin admissioti 

Artists at the Field 

Watch Chinese calligraphers demonstrate their striking craft, 
then have your name or another special character created. 

Saturdays, June 19, July 17, Aug. 21 and Sept. 11 
Free with Museum admission 

Story Time 

Hear a story and make an art project — all in 
just 20 minutes! One adult for every three 
children, please. 

Saturday and Sunday, 1:30pm 
Daily in July and August 
Free with Museum admission 

Interpretive Stations 

These hands-on stations let families delve 
further into China's natural and cultural 
history. 

Daily in July and August, 10am— noon and 

1pm -3pm 

Free with Museum admission 




Art and Identity: 
Representations of 
Emperor Qianlong 

Maxwell K. Hearn, The Metropohtan 
Museum of Art 

Hear how Emperor Qianlong presented 
himself as an archetypal monarch by 
sponsoring a new synthesis of Chinese and 
Western painting that resulted in ideal- 
ized imperial portraits. 

Wednesday, August 4, 6pm 



Walking Tour 



Chinatown 

Explore a window into China, just minutes from downtown 
Chicago! Visit a mural, a square filled with sculptures of zodiac 
animals and Ping Tom Park's striking gardens. 

By appointment. Please call the Chinatown Chamber of 
Commerce at 312.236.5320. 
Free, donation suggested 




SUMMER laO'i June -August 9 



Performance 



Princess Magogo 

Ravinia Festival opens its 2004 centennial season with an 
American premiere of the first South African opera in Zulu 
Princess Magogo. Composer Mzilikazi Khumalo and libret- 
tist Themba Msimang based the opera on this popular Zulu 
princess, herself a singer. The work was selected in part to 
recognize the 10th anniversary 
of democracy in South Africa. 
Preview this enchanting opera at 
the Museum with a Zulu choral 
music program by the show's 
performers. 



Field Museum preview, Saturday, May 29, 1 1am 
Free with Museum admission 

Ravinia Festival performances, June 4—6 
Tickets on sale at wiinv.rauinia.org. 




Fieldtrips 



Fossil Collecting at Thornton Quarry 

Dare Dolak, Columbia Colic^^c 

Reconstruct the Illinois landscape of 425 million years ago 
when a shallow, subtropical sea covered the area. You'll 
learn about the organisms that lived in this ancient environ 
ment and discover techniques for finding the fossils that 
time left behind. Limited to 
40 adults. 

Saturday, June 19, 8niii-3pni 
$60, members $50 





m 



Big & Green Day 

Clmaiio Architecture 
Foundation (CAF) 

Tour Chicago's greener side. See two CAF exhibitions. Big & 
Green: Toward Sustainable Architecture in the 21st Century, 
and Chicago Green; the Chicago Center for Green Technology; 
and Loop buildings old and new that contain sustainable ele- 
ments. Big & Green Day was planned by CAF in collaboration 
with The Field Museum. 

Tours iiicci at CAF, 224 S. Michigan Ave. 

Saturday, June 19, Wam—2pni 

Free admission. Check wuntKarchitecturcorg for event details. 

The CAF exhibitions, featuring models and drawings of envi- 
ronmentally friendly projects here and around the world, will 
run through Sept. 12. 



l». 



,^\ 



Below is a calendar of cu.iv n and upcoming temporary exhibitions. Some dates may change, 
fisit vwwv.fieldmuseum.org "9410 as the date of your visit nears. 



Night Visions: The Secret Designs of Moths 

July 24, 2004-January 9, 2005 



The Natural Wonders of Madagascar: Photographs 
by Harald SchiJtz 

Through July 5 




Family Overnight 



Dozin' with the Dinos 

Sue the T. Rex is having a sleepover! Explore ancient 
Egypt by flashlight, prowl an African savannah w\th 
man-eating lions and stroll through the Royal 
Palace in Bamun, Africa. Then spread your 
sleeping bag amid some of our most popular 
exhibitions. The event includes an evening 
snack and a light breakfast in the morning. 

Families with children ages 6—12 
5:45pm on Fnday,Jtine 25 until 9am on 
Saturday, June 26 
$47, members $40 




Chicago Waterways %^'!'^ 

Dr. Iruiug Cutler, Professor Emeritus, Chka^ State University 

Cruise Chicago's waterways for a unique perspective on the 
economic, ecological and historical development of our 
metropolitan area. 

Saturday, July 10, 9am- 5pm 
$60, members $50 

Participants meet at the Wendella Boat Dock on Michigan Ave 
Bring a lunch and beverage (no alcohol please). An alternative 
route is planned if inclement weather prevents travel on Lake 
Michigan. 








Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of 
Emperor Qianlong 

Through September 12, 2004 



Urban Expressions: Young Voices, New Technologies 

Through January 17, 2005 



I 



Summer Camp 

Limited Space Available 
Summer Worlds Tour 2004: 
Where Art Meets Science 



With stops at all three Museum Campus insti- 
tutions, summer camp l<ids will examine 
telescopes, 18th-century Chinese art 
and spineless sea creatures. Campers 
will also explore exhibitions, make 
art, play games and eat lunch by the 
lake. 

For children aj^es 5—10 only. 
Choose one session: July 5— 9, July 
i2-i6,July i9~23 or July 26-30. 
Register through the Adler 
Planetarium, 312.322.0329. 
$220, members $200. 




Family Adventures Tour 

Want an easy way to teach your children about biodiversity and 
conservation? Our newest Family Adventures Tour offers exhibition 
highlights and intriguing questions that will get your group sharing 
and having fun together. Learn how all plants and animals are 
connected, and how even the youngest visitor can help protect our 
environment. Download the tour from the Planning Your Visit 
section ofwww.fieldmuseum.org, or pick 
it up at the information desk. 




Explore the Lost Mound National Wildlife Area 

Alau Anderson, Ciiicago Audubon Society 

Travel to the shores of the Mississippi River to explore Illinois' 
largest contiguous remnants of sand prairie and savanna. This 
expansive wildlife and fish refuge area provides diverse habitats 
for a variety of threatened and endangered species. You'll study 
native plants and search for late nesting birds and juveniles. 
Limited to 40 people. 

Saturday, July 17, 6am—6pni 
$60, members $50 



Reading the Landscape of Michigan's Upper Peninsula 

Dr. Phil Janney, IFM Geology Dept., and Dr IVendy Taylor, 
University of Chicago 

Join geologists on a two-day fieldtrip to explore the rich geology 
and history of the Keweewaw Peninsula of Michigan. Learn about 
Copper Country, land formed before life existed on Earth's surface! 
Visit working mines, geologic outcrops, historic villages and magnif- 
icent national parks. 

3:30pm on Friday, August 21 until 6pm on Sutiday, August 29 
$215, members $200 ' 







I 



Treasures of the Americas: Selections From the Anthropology 
Collections of The Field Museum 

Thr-^ijgh May 30, 2005 



Life Over Time has closed to make way for an exciting new exhibition 
opening In 2006 exploring the history of life on Earth — complete with 
an expanded dinosaur hall! In the meantime, stop by Dino Zone near the 
McDonald's Fossil Prep Lab for hands-on activities and a look at the 
new exhibition's design concepts. 



General Museum Information: 312.922.9410; Family and Adult Program Tickets and Information: 312.665.7400 



Coming This Fall — 
JACQUELINE KENNEDY 

THE WHITE HOUSE YEARS 

Selections from the 
JOHN F. KENNEDY LIBRARY AND MUSEUM 



influenced American statesmanship and diplomacy. More than 70 garments, along with photographs, 
documents and film clips, reveal how the former first lady carefully shaped her image to reflect the 
vigor, ideals and internationalism of her husband's administration. An extraordinary slate of lectures, 
film screenings and panel discussions has been designed to complement Jacqueline Kennedy: The 
White House Years. The exhibition runs Nov. 13, 2004, through May 8, 2005. 



We'll kick off this fabulous lineup on Mov. 13 with 
acclaimed historian and author Robert Dallek. 
Dallek's landmark biography, An Unfinished Life: 
John F. Kennedy 1917-1963, creates a dramatic, 
vivid portrait of the bold, brave, human Kennedy. 

On Dec. 1, Hamish Bowles, European editor-at- 
large of Vogue and curator of Jacqueline Kennedy: 
The White House Years, will investigate how Mrs. 
Kennedy helped revolutionize the nation's taste and 
fashion and became a leading promoter of 
American arts and culture. 

Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years— Selections from the John F. Kennedy Library and 
Museum was organized by The John F. Kennedy Library and Museum and The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. 

This exhibition is made possible through the generous support of The Grainger Foundation and 
Marshall Field's. 




Witness a Peruvian excavation 



Join expeditions@fieldmuseum now to follow four 
scientists excavating a mountalntop in remote 
southern Peru throughout the summer. The team 
Is Investigating how provincial dignitaries of the 
ancient Tlwanaku state and the contemporary 
War! empire of South America interacted in elab- 
orate festivals. Sponsored in part by the National 
Endowment for the Humanities, the team Is form- 



ing the foundation for understanding the origins 
of religious differences among the Andean 
empires of 1,500 years ago. To register for first- 
hand dispatches during the excavation, email 
expeditions@fieldmuseum.org or visit www.fleld- 
museum.org/expeditlons. 




t *f M* 



.u ..»■ 




Discover secret worlds and ancient relics. 



Urban 

Expressions: 
Young 

Voices, New 
Technologies 

TImtighJari. 17,2005 

See and hear first- 
hand accounts of young 
Chicagoans reflecting on urban life. 

This exhibition was developed by Street-Level Youth Media in collaboration with 
The Field Museum. 

Night Visions: The Secret 
Designs of IVIoths 

July 24. 2004-Jau. 9, 2005 

Discover the surprising beauty of these night crea- 
tures through stunning, larger-than-life images that 
reveal secrets rarely visible to the naked eye. 

This exhibition was developed by The Field Museum in collaboration with Joseph Scheer. 




Treasures of the Americas: 

Selections From the 

Anthropology 

Collections 

of The Field 

Museum 

Tlmugh May 30, 2005 

Witness the exquisite 
craftsmanship and sophis- 
tication found within the 
Museum's extraordinary 
collections — from cultures 
as diverse as Arizona's 
living Apache to Ohio's 
ancient Hopewell. 



The Field Museum salutes the people of Chicago for their long-standing, generous support of the 
Museum through the Chicago Park District In addition, Museum programs are partially supported 
by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, a federal agency, and by a CityArts Program 4 
Grant from Uie City of Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs and the Illinois Arts Council, a state 
agency. 

In accordance with Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972, we do not discriminate on 
the basis of sex in our programs or activities. Should you have any questions or concerns, please 
contact our Title IX coordinator in the human resources department, 312.665.7271. 





^^^^^^ 




Getting Here: Soldier Field's North Garage is across the street from our 
main entrance. Visit www.fieldmuseum.org for the latest information on parking 
lots/rates, free trolleys and public transit. 

Hours: 9am-5pm daily. Last admission at 4pm. 

To get tickets: Splendors of China's Forbidden City is a specially ticketed exhibition. IVIember 
passes can be reserved through the membership department (312.665.7705) or picked up at the 
membership desk. Non-member tickets can be reserved through 866. FIELD. 03, www.tickets.com 
or at Tickets.com outlets (service charges apply). Non-member tickets are also available at the 
IVIuseum's admission desks while supplies last (no service charges). 

Accessibility: Visitors using wheelchairs or strollers may be dropped off at the west entrance. 
Handicapped parking and wheelchairs are available on a first-come, first-served basis. Call 
312.665.7400 to check on the accessibility of programs that take place outside of the Museum. 

Information: 312.922.9410 orwww.fieldmuseum.org 



14 ; IN THE FIELD CALENDAR 



SCIENTIST'SPICK 



An. Intact Tomh 




Last spring, during an excavation at the hilltop terrace site of El Palmillo in Oaxaca, 
Mexico, Field Museum archaeologists uncovered an elaborate residence of rooms around a 
sunken patio. But the lack of human burials was an enigmatic chink in the team's ongoing 
efforts to reconstruct the site's prehispanic past. 

Fate finally shifted when the team, led by Gary Feinman, PhD, anthropology department 
chair and a curator, found a subterranean tomb. Would there be anything inside? How 
would they enter it without disrupting the surfaces above? With so little time left on the 
fieldtrip, could they excavate the tomb with proper care, or leave it unattended for another 
year, fearing that it might get looted? 

Once excavation was imminent, the team photographed the tomb's interior through a small 
opening in the massive stone door. Astoundingly, neither looters nor nature had disturbed its 
contents much since it was sealed 1,500 years ago. It took seven men to safely remove the 
door. Inside were 25 ceramic vessels and three individuals, including one person in a cross- 
legged position who seems to have worn a green stone bead, a symbol of high rank. 

The more arduous work continues in the lab, where sometimes years of analysis, interpreta- 
tion and documentation are required for each field season. The tomb turned out to be one of 
the most elaborately constructed tombs found outside the ancient Zapotec capital of Monte 
Alban, and the artifacts are revealing how people at the top of the hill lived differently from 
those below. 

Dr. Feinman's expedition was featured in a free program In which our scientists share 
their field experiences through emails, photographs, video and other media. Email 
expediti0n5@fieldmuseum.org or visit www.fieldmuseum.org/expeditions to sign up. 



Removing the tomb 
door carefully, and with 
some trepidation. 
Inset: Ceramic vessels 
piled in a corner of the 
tomb. 



SUMMER 2004 Jiiiie-Aiigiist 



INTHEFIELDFEATURE 



The Beijing Eight: Working in the Forbidden City 

Robin Groesbeck, Manager, Exhibition Coordination 

On a brisk morning in January, a team of Field IVluseum exhibition professionals, clad 
in bulky layers of polar fleece, examines exquisite imperial artifacts in the dim light of 
the Wenhua Dian, or Hall of Literary Glory, in Beijing, China. Aspiring bureaucrats 
once sweated over civil service exams here some 250 years ago, but the times and 
inhabitants have changed dramatically. 



Top: Felisia Wesson (left) 
and Jill Plitnikas assess 
the emperor's desk. 

Bottom: Conservator 
Betsy Allaire (far right) 
and two Chinese 
colleagues inspect a 
national treasure. 



Formerly the Forbidden City and exclusive home 
to China's supreme rulers, this 1 78-acre walled 
complex, housing more than 1 million objects, is 
now the Palace Museum. And today, the Beijing 
Eight, as we have anointed ourselves, has begun 
examining and packing the objects that will travel 
to Chicago for the exhibition Splendors of China's 
Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of Emperor 
Qianlong. 

Halls full of surprises 

Electrical heating and lights are not allowed in the 
Palace Museum in order to protect its ornate, 
ancient wooden buildings from the ever-present 
threat of fire. In our honor. Ding Meng, the Palace 
Museum's project manager for this phase of the 
exhibition, had a few bulbs temporarily installed, 
and we applauded him before diving into work. 

For 1 1 days, nearly 30 people from The Field 
Museum, Palace Museum, the Chinese Bureau of 
Cultural Relics and our packing and shipping 
agent, Huaxie hiternational Fine Art Freight 
Services, examined some 400 stunning artifacts, 
including teapots, vases, writing instruments, armor, 
garments and weaponry. We unrolled vividly pre- 
served 39- to 75-foot-long scrolls and inspected 
elaborate Tibetan Buddhist stupas that come apart 
into 40 pieces. And we photographed, videotaped, 
annotated and assembled incredibly detailed 
records, called condition reports, that would 
accompany every piece on its journey to The Field 
Museum, The Dallas Museum of Art and back 
home to Beijing. 

While compiling the exhibition's object list two 
years before. Field Museum curators Bennet 
Bronson, PhD, and Chuimei Ho, PhD, selected 
inany pieces that had never been on display — 
even at the Palace Museum. For example. Palace 
Museum curators expressed surprise when Drs. 
Bronson and Ho asked to borrow the emperor's 
funerary tablet, which they found in a storage area. 
In fact, our Palace Museum colleagues studied 
many pieces during the condition reporting process 
for the first time — not unusual in this compound 
of nearly 10,000 rooms. 

Angle Morrow, exhibitions registrar, and 
Francesca Pons, project administrator, organized the 



trip's logistics. Pons explained, "As soon as we 
arrived, I realized my fears had been groundless. 
The Palace Museum staff and the Hall of Literary 
Glory were totally organized and ready for us to 
begin." Workstations had been set up, and new 
yellow packing crates were stored nearby. The 
Palace Museum staff had also spent weeks preparing 
custom-made, traditional silk-lined inner boxes for 
many pieces. 




We formed three teams that each included an 
interpreter, curators, conservators and note-and- 
picture takers. We pored over each object, noting 
every loose thread, tiny dent or missing inlay, before 
trained art handlers skillfijUy, carefully wrapped and 
packed it. This process was repeated nearly 400 
times over 11 straight days of work! 

To help sustain this intense activity, the Palace 
Museum generously served elaborate lunches each 
day. Morrow, who subsists largely on Nutter Butters 
and Peeps Marshmallow Treats in the States, broad- 
ened her culinary horizons as she sampled "fish 
with many paws" (baby octopus), steamed lotus 



BACKGROUND: PAVILION OF RAINING FLOWERS/MATT MATCUK 



IN THE FIELD 



root and many varieties of mushrooms. "The hot 
lunches really got us through the day," she said. We 
were treated to as many as 20 dishes each noon, 
very few of which were repeated during the trip. 

Our responsibilities didn't end with condition 
reporting. As figurehead of The Field Museum's 
delegation, Vice President and General Counsel 
Felisia Wesson attended meetings and banquets, 
presented gifts and advised the team on legal and 
insurance issues. But these duties played second 
fiddle to Wesson's main job — helping the team 
photograph and document the objects, day after day. 

Wesson reflected, "The trip gave me the chance 
to get out from behind my desk and participate in 
fieldwork. As a result, I feel more connected to the 
Museum and have a real appreciation for what goes 
into these exhibitions." 

Field Museum conservators Ruth Norton, Betsy 
Allaire and Jill Plitnikas relished the chance to 
closely examine an extremely wide variety of 




materials, including porcelain, jade, gold, silver, 
ivory, bronze, wood, lacquer, kingfisher feathers, 
cloisonne, water-based and oil paintings, calligra- 
phy, pearls and textiles. 

"I loved examining the pieces! My Chinese 
colleagues, Mr. Zhao and Mr.Tu, talked about the 
nature and history of the objects as we worked," 
said Allaire. "I really appreciated learning so much 
more about Chinese art. 

At first it was slow going, but as we began to 
understand the condition issues that were important 
to each of us, the process went more smoothly," 
Allaire continued. "For example, my Chinese 



colleagues noted recent changes such as dents or 
scratches, while I was looking for active corrosion 
in metal, lifting paint in lacquer, brittle areas — 
weaknesses that could lead to issues down the road." 

Challenges onboard 

Packing and transporting the objects required con- 
siderable teamwork and ingenious problem solving. 
To move an intricately carved jade boulder, "The 
Nine Elders of Huichang," for example, we used 
carefully placed straps and a customized shipping 
crate to protect the delicate surfaces of the one-ton 
object. 

After packing, the crates were loaded onto 
trucks and taken under police escort, with sirens 
blaring, to the Beijing airport. Ensuring that airport 
personnel treated the crates gently provided the 
trip's most difficult moments for Morrow. , 

"The hardest part was the last few days when I 
had bronchitis and had to stand out on the open 
tarmac in wintry weather, or sit in a truck for 
hours on end, watching our crates being grouped 
onto pallets for air transport. Unfortunately I don't 
speak Chinese, so at times it was hard to communi- 
cate with the airport crew," Morrow said. 

Later, members of the Beijing Eight accompa- 
nied each bright yellow shipment home to 
Chicago. Morrow, who has flown as a courier for 
more than 30 exhibitions, took the toughest leg, 
which included 30 hours aboard an air freighter 
and stops in Anchorage and New York. She had to 
guarantee that every crate was loaded back onto 
the aircraft after each landing. In New York, airport 
personnel wanted to give Field Museum cargo 
space to another client, yet Morrow refused to let 
the plane take ofl^ until our shipment was safely 
back on board. 

After each airplane arrived in Chicago, the crates 
were delivered to the Museum's loading dock and 
transferred into the exhibition hall. Production 
Supervisor Nel Fetherling, whose team built and 
installed the exhibition, remarked, "It was a relief to 
finally get the crates, to have our coworkers back 
safe and sound and to realize the quantity of arti- 
facts was actually ^«iYe." 

The physical chaOenges and pressure we had 
faced faded into the background as the Beijing 
Eight surveyed a sea of crates, now securely 
ensconced in The Field Museum. 

Morrow concluded, "We enjoyed a feeling of 
great accomplishment after doing something that 
seemed so daunting — seeing it all come together. 
And how many people get the opportunity to 
work in an amazing place like the Palace 
Museum?" ITF 

Splendors of China's Forbidden City riws thnmgli 
Sept. 12, 2004. See the calendar for exciting programs 
that complement the exhibition. 



Top: Ruth Norton, chief 
conservator, and Zhang 
Guangwen examine the 
emperor's saddle. 

Bottom: Palace Museum 
staff exercise regularly 
during breaks. 



■f^'f 



SUMMER2004 June-August 




ATURE 



Arrowinus, an odd 
germs restricted to Soutli 
Africa. 



Southern Beetle Quest 



Margaret K. Thayer, PhD, and Alfred F. Newton, PhD, Curators of Coleoptera, Department of Zoology 

Our latest beetle-collecting trip started with unwelcome news after a 14-hour flight from 
New York to Johannesburg: Our luggage hadn't come with us. Eight big pieces, contain- 
ing countless pounds of field gear and clothes for four people on a six-week trip in South 
Africa! Fortunately^ our visit began with a scientific conference for biologists and geolo- 
gists in bustling Cape Town, and our gear caught up with us a day and a half later. 




ALFRED F. NEWrON/200402; 



What brought this Httle group 9,500 miles from 
wintry Chicago to summer on the far side of the 
world? We're both curators of insects (especially 
beetles) in The Field Museum's zoology depart- 
ment, and were accompanied by Alexey 
Solodovnikov, PhD, our post-doctoral research 
associate, and Dave Clarke, our University of Illinois 
at Chicago graduate student. This expedition to 
explore the poorly known rove beetles (the family 
Staphylinidae) that live in temperate parts of the 
southern continents was our second trip under a 
five-year research and training grant from the 
National Science Foundation's Partnerships for 
Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy (PEET) pro- 
gram. The grant involves research in the southern 
countries of Chile, Australia and New Zealand as 
well. While the two of us have repeatedly visited 
those three countries since 1980 — totaling 16 
months and extending over most of our married 
life— this was the first trip to Africa for all four 
of us. 



Fieldwork requires lots of advance planning and 
preparations: learning about different habitat types; 
getting maps and travel literature; selecting areas in 
which to collect; seeking advice about good sites; 
planning visits with South African and other 
museum colleagues; planning our itinerary; applying 
for collecting permits — yes, even for insects — after 
finding out, sometimes with difiiculty, where to 
apply; buying and preparing field equipment; 
purchasing plane tickets; renting a vehicle; and 
booking some accommodations. 

Of some 48,000 species of rove beetles world- 
wide, about 1,150 species have been scientifically 
named from South Africa. Little is known about 
most of them, and many more species are still 
unstudied and unnamed. Our trip turned up 
even more, both in the field and in museums. 

The four of us are doing separate research 
projects on different groups of rove beetles with 
varied habits, but our usual array of collecting 
methods, used in appropriate places, is effective 



IN THE FIELD 



at catching them all. Most are predators and live in 
forests or other moist places. Flight intercept traps 
catch beetles flying about in search of their favored 
foods or breeding sites, and carrion-baited pitfall 
traps attract beetles that seek carcasses, often eating 
the maggots there rather than the carrion itself. We 
installed both kinds of traps at 16 sites, sifted leaf 
litter at those and other sites for smaller beetles and 
hand-searched through many microhabitats to find 
out exacdy where our beetles are and what they 
may do for a living. Rove beetles are found under, 
on, or in a variety of materials, including the bark 
of logs, mushrooms, flowers, leaf litter, ant or ter- 
mite colonies, and dung and carrion, but the habits 
of many remain a mystery. 

Alexey and Al were especially interested in find- 
ing Arrowinus, an odd, evolutionarily isolated genus 
that is endemic, or restricted, to South Afi-ica.Just 
before our trip, they had finished a scientific paper 
naming and describing three new species in the 
genus — only one was known before — and describ- 
ing the larvae of one species for the first time. 
Beetle larvae, including those of rove beetles, have 
been found and studied much less than the adults 
they grow to be. Yet knowledge of larval features is 
essential to understanding their biology and useful 
in deciphering the evolutionary relationships of 
different species and genera. Almost nothing was 
known o{ Arrowinus' biology from previous speci- 
men labels. We hunted around in many places near 
where the few existing museum specimens had 
been collected before we finally found adults of 
one of the new species near a stream. 

Better yet, since our return, Al has quickly 
scanned through our leaf litter collections. Growing 
up to 35 millimeters (1.3 inches), Arrowinus is not 
hard to spot among its smaller relatives, which are 
mostly less than 6 millimeters (0.25 inches) long. 
Although it will take us a few months to fiilly sort 
and process the samples, he discovered that we had 
collected more adults of all three new species 



described in the paper and larvae of all four 
Arrowinus species! Happily, Alexey and Al were able 
to add this new information to their paper before it 
is published later this year. 

Keeping thorough, accurate records is as essential 
as collecting. We log our collections in a field note- 
book during the day, and in the evening label the 
samples with where, when, how and by whom 
they were collected. That information wUl get 
transferred to each and every pin and vial so that 
anyone studying the specimens in the future will 
have it. Without such data, the specimens are of 
little scientific value. Many old museum specimens 
have vague labels. For example, "Cape" in South 
Afi-ica may refer specifically to the Cape of Good 
Hope, to the region around Cape Town or to 
more than half of South Africa (the former Cape 
Province), which is almost as large as Illinois, 
Indiana, Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota together. 
Many very different kinds of habitats exist through- 
out that area, so a label that says "Cape" is 
unhelpful to biologists. 

The unaccustomed presence of dangerous 
animals, such as crocodiles, hippos and poisonous 
snakes, and destructive animals, such as baboons, 
weasel-like animals and small cats, raised concerns 
for both our personal safety and the security of our 
traps. We saw most of these from a distance, but 
only one carrion trap was disturbed, and we saw 
only two snakes during the whole trip. Spiny trees, 
shrubs and vines proved to be more hazardous, 
causing numerous scrapes and punctures to all! 

Through 5,000 miles of driving, sifting 509 
pounds of leaf litter and collecting perhaps as many 
as 100,000 beetles, our worst mishaps were three 
flat tires. We returned to Chicago (with luggage!) 
on a very long February 29th, a leap year day to 
remember. ITF 

Visit www.fteldmuseum.org/peet_staph for more 
information on this project. 





Left: Dave Clarke, Charlotte Hardy, Margaret Thayer, Al Newton and Peter Hlavac peer under bark for beetles. Middle: Alexey Solodovnikov 
inspects a flight intercept trap. Right:The team labels every .sample it collects. 




DSCN2214/ALEXEY SOLODOVNIKOV 



20O4O227N01/ALFRED F, NEWTON 



DSCN1997/ALEXEY SOLODOVNIKOV 



SUMMER 2004 Jiitie-Aii^i;iiii 



FROMTHEARCHIVES 



She Married a Dinosaur 



Paul Briiikniaii, Ltbrar)' Assodatc 

At the turn of the 19th century, The Field Museum entered into a furious competition 
with rival institutions to collect dinosaurs. In 1900, paleontologist Elmer Riggs led an 
expedition with his Indiana cousin, Victor Barnett, and photographer Harold Menke to 
a new Jurassic locality near Grand Junction, Colo. At the time, Elmer was courting 
Helen Mosher, a Chicago schoolteacher. Fortunately for historians, their correspon- 
dence provides a rich array of otherwise unrecorded details about his fossil fieldwork. 



Curious locals visited 
the dinosaur collecting 
team 's campsite near 
Grand Junction, Colo. 



Creating what Elmer called "an oasis in the desert," 
the parr\^ built its acconiniodarions at an abandoned 
stone shelter that enclosed a spring flowing into a 
crude stone trough. "The spring and house were 
soon put in order and a camp planned so cozily 
that we all claim credit for it," Elmer boasted, eager 
to impress Helen with his eflicient domesriciry. 

The team pitched its tent opposite the shelter 
and stretched a tarpaulin between the two to create 
an enclosed porch. "At the west end near the house 
we placed the camp stove. The mess chest ... serves 
a[s] cupboard, while its falling door does duty as 
kitchen table. ... [T]he loosened door 6x>m the 
spring-house was... made to do duty as dining 
table. Inside the spring-house the crates of canned 
goods are stacked against the wall with one side of 
each opened to afibrd easy access. The ... trough 
[preserves our perishables], while its lower extremity 



^^» 



« 




does famous duty for washing photographic plates. 
An inverted box serves Menke as developing table, 
while the whole, curtained and used at night forms 
a first-rate dark room with running water. ..." 

Nobody lingered in the tent. "Everybody sleeps 
in the open air by preference, and for a sitting 
room the porch ... is much pleasanter. Even now 
Menke is at one end of the improvised dining table 
writing many letters to his best girls ... while I with 
a candle ... am stru^Jing between wind and the 
flapping canvas at my elbow ... to write something 
that may interest a young lady who expects much 
in the way of letter- wTiting." 

Though comfortably situated, Elmer s first few 
weeks were "the most discouraging... period that I 
have known in seven years collecting." But luck 
changed in early July, when his party collected 
several tons of valuable fossils, including the type 
specimen of the gigantic Bracliiosaurus. Helen was 
impressed:"! am very glad you are having so much 
success. ... It is a pity that you were unsuccessfiil ... 
[at] first... and if I were not sure of an indignant 
denial I might add a little homesick too ... good 
luck has cured all that. ..." 

Good luck also attracted the locals, and the 
team s solitude gave way to a tiresome procession of 
\isitors. During a Sunday picnic arranged for local 
fanuUes, "Fifiy-odd souls besides ourselves lunched 
on the sand-stone ledge back of the spring-house. 
The women were shy of coming in, probably 
because Victor was baking pies beside the entrance, 
until a sudden shower came on and then the tent 
was fijll of sodden millinery." Elmer enjoyed 
explaining things to the visitors, but became fiTJS- 
trated v\nth idlers and "souvenir fiends" who pried 
off fossils when the team wasn't around. 

Elmer withheld data until the work was finished, 
not wanting to "give the shop away" to other fossil 
collectors. While the news leaked nonetheless, 
Elmer's team netted 38 crates filled with more than 
six tons of fossils. The following year, he collected 
another immense Colorado dinosaur — the hind- 
most half of an Apatosaurus — and continued to 
write Helen. They married in September 1901. 
While the vivid details subsided, Elmer's earUer 
courtship of Helen proves how history can be 
exposed in the most intimate places. 



IN THE FIELD 



MEMBERSHIP/ ANNUALFUNDNEWS 



XRT93 Presents Play thp Fipid 

Mix culture with cocktails. Experience the best bands. 
Explore our exhibitions. And view Chicago's 
spectacular skyline — all for a discount. 



PbytheField 



TheFielc 

Museum 



.^^ 



Tickets to Play the Field, a popular monthly concert series 
presented by XRT93, are $10 at the door for Field Museum 
members with an ID. Summer shows are held on our terrace, 
giving you a front-and-center view of the skyline, as well as 
access to the Museum. Each ticket includes a complimentary 
cocktail. 

Play the Field has featured such favored bands as Poi Dog 
Pondering's Frank Orran,The Commitments and Michelle 
Shocked. On June 24, Liquid Soul, Grammy-nominated in /■' 
2000 for Best Contemporary Jazz Album, will have you 
grooving immediately with its irresistible mixture of jazz 
and urban dance music. 

The event is usually the fourth Thursday of each month from 6 to 10pm and is 21 and over. For 
a schedule of performers and dates, visit www.fieldmuseum.org.All proceeds benefit the Museum. 



Don't Forg et Your Benefits 





Thank you to all our annual fund supporters. Please take 
advantage of your free admission, special exhibition tickets 
and guest privileges. Your invitation to the third annual 
Donor Appreciation Night will arrive soon. What a wonder- 
ful way to celebrate the end of summer and have one last 
chance to view Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The 
Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong. For information 
about the annual fund, call 312.665.7777 or email annu- 
alfund@fieldmuseum.org. 



©PALACE MUSEUM, BEIJING 



Bloomingdale's Sho pping Benefit 



Snag the best in fall fashion and home accessories, while supporting The Field 
Museum. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 1, shop at Bloomingdale's with the Field Associates, the 
Museum's young professionals group. When you buy a $10 ticket through the Field 
Associates, Bloomingdale's will offer 15 to 20 percent off every purchase at all city 
and suburban locations, as well as the Bloomingdale's Home & Furniture Store. Some 
exclusions apply at each store. 

The Field Museum will receive 100 percent of all ticket sales. In addition, the Field 
Associates will get an extra $5 for each ticket presented at Bloomingdale's doors on 
Sept. 1. Email field_associates@fieldmuseum.org or call 312.665.7133 to purchase 
your shopping benefit tickets. 



SUMMER 2004 li,iu-Aii;^ii 



Rf^buildin g Your Museum 



It may not pique journalists/ but The Field Museum's new central plant is one of 
the hottest — and coolest — stories of the year. 

Our heating and cooling systems had exceeded 
their life expectancies, challenging varied 
climate needs in our million-square-foot 
building that continues to expand. 
Whereas organic materials in our 
collections and exhibitions require 
precise temperature and humidity 
levels, visitor and staff needs depend 
on Chicago's erratic weather! 




The complex central plant 
has a switchgear electrical vault; 
chillers that make ice during off-peak 
hours; 48 4,000-gallon ice storage 
tanks; low-pressure steam boilers; a fire 
detection and protection system; and 
automated controls, among many advanced 
features. The renovations also cost less, save 
energy and are built to accommodate future growth, 
upholding the Museum's commitment to environmentally responsible action. 

All of this was delivered on time, on budget and while maintaining faultless 
24-hour operation of the Museum. Now that's a headline story! 

Tlw condenser pumps (right) and ice chillers (above). 

The central plant renovation was generously funded in part by ttw 
Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity and the 
Illinois Department of Natural Resources. 







■-v:-*J:>/.VW. 



;V 



T h o r ; r. i ,[ If. 



ir 



lELD 



Fall 2004 
September- 
November 



■jss* 



Jacqueline Kennedy: 
The White House Years — 

Selections from the John F. 
Kennedy Library and Museum 






•— 



u r 



/' 



1 



FROMTHEPRESIDENT 



New Doors Opening Amund the Museum 




The Field Museum was teeming this past summer with construction and field research, 
opening new doors both to the Museum and to understanding our natural world. 

It has been easy to get caught in a jumble of construction barricades, cabs, schoolchild- 
ren and picture takers as you enter The Field Museum. The chaos will wane when a new 
entrance opens this fall on the Museum's east side. Previously, the only entrance acces- 
sible to visitors with special needs was on the Museum's west side, since impressive but 
daunting marble steps lead to both the north and south entrances. 



Tire east entrance's most 
attractive feature is a 
42 feet by 42 feet glass 
skylight. 



Traffic and parking for IVIuseum 
Campus have been rerouted to 
accommodate the new Soldier 
Field. The reconstruction 
requires that schoolchildren and 
disabled patrons be dropped off 
in a new bus staging area on the 
Museum's east side. If we hadn't 
built the entrance there, they 
would have had to walk or be 
assisted for about a third of a 
mile around the Museum to the 
west side. Not only is this dan- 
gerous during the winter, it also 
sends an unacceptable message 




that special needs are not con- 
sidered. 

Disabled visitors and families 
with strollers can now be conve- 
niently dropped off or picked up 
at the new ADA-compliant 
entrance. It provides the 
300,000 children who visit the 
Museum each year with a direct 
route to the Museum's group ori- 
entation area. It improves access 
to key visitor amenities and more 
directly connects guests to Shedd 
Aquarium and Adier Planetarium. 
The entrance was funded in part 
with a $5 million grant from the 
Illinois Department of Commerce 
and Economic Opportunity. 



Summer Is the prime season for 
scientists to conduct fieldwork 
around the world. We had con- 
servation biologists in Ecuador 
and Bolivia, zoologists in Utah 
and Australia and archaeologists 
in Mexico and Peru, to name a 
few examples. 

My wife Judy and I took two 
trips to Wyoming with Field 
Museum geologists. We joined 
Peter Makovicky to excavate 
sauropod and ornithopod bones 
from llO-million-year-old rocks 
near Lovell. Makovicky just pub- 
lished his research on the age 
and growth patterns of Sue and 
other tyrannosaurs in Nature 
magazine on Aug. 12. Sue, it 
turns out, was 28 years old at 
the time of death. 



We also visited Lance Grande 
in the Green River Formation, 
known for its beautifully pre- 
served fossils of a 52-million- 
year-old extinct lake community. 
For more than 25 years, Grande 
has conducted paleontological 
excavations in Wyoming for his 
research on the early develop- 
ment of North American fish 
fauna. He was recently promoted 
to vice president for collections 
and research. 

During both trips, it was fasci- 
nating to work alongside such 
geology team members as Matt 
Brown, Jim Holstein, Akiko 
Shinya, Lisa Bergwall, Sebastian 
Apesteguia, Connie Vanbeek and 
Nathan Kley. Gourmet fare 
included bison burgers, elk stew, 
pad thai, spaghetti and pineapple 
cobbler washed down with Moose 
Drool and Fat Tire beers — quite 
different from our usual food 
options, but fun and memorable 
aspects of life in the field. 

Come back this fall for a whole 
new way to get into the Museum, 
and keep reading In the Field to 
learn how our scientists are 
opening new doors to compre- 
hending the world we live in. 

John W. McCarter, Jr. 
President and CEO 





[< a b ontl 

For general membership inquiries, including address changes, call 866.312.2781. For questions about 
the magazine In the Field, call 312.665.7115, email acranch@fmnh.org, or write Amy E. Cranch, 
Editor, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 



INTHEFIELD 



Fall 2004, September-November, 
Vol.75, Mo. 4 

Editor: 

Amy E. Cranch, The Field Museum 

Design: 

Depke Design 



OIn the Field is printed on recycled paper 
using soy-based inks. All images ©The 
Field Museum unless otiierwise specified. 



In the Field (ISSN #1051-4546) is published 
quarterly by The Field Museum. Copyright 
2004 The Field Museum. Annual subscriptions 
are $20; $10 for schools. Museum membership 
includes In the Field subscription. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do 
not necessarily reflect the policy of The Field 
Museum. Notification of address change should 
include address label and should be sent to 
the membership department. POSTMASTER: 
Send address changes to Membership, The 
Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, IL 60605-2496. Periodicals postage 
paid at Chicago, Illinois. 

Cover: Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House 
Years vi/ill be at The Field Museum Nov. 13, 
2004, through May 8, 2005. Senator and Mrs. 
Kennedy, Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, 1959. 
© Mark Shaw/Photo Researchers 

The Field Museum salutes the people of Chicago 
for their long-standing, generous support of the 
Museum through the Chicago Park District. 



Field 



X 



fe 



useum 



1400 South Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2496 
312.922.9410 
www.fieldmuseijm.org 




2 



Jacqueline Kennedy's style and spirit helped 
redefine the American identity. 
Top: Ole^ Cassini. Evening dress in celadon silk 
jersey, 1962. 



4 



Field Museum scientists engage Bolivian com- 
munities in preserving their lands. 
Middle: A Bolpebra teen solves an educational 
puzzle. 



Conservators restored an enormous silk 
tapestry for a traveling exhibition to Japan. 



16 



A Field Museum graduate student hunts for 
frogs in the Brazilian rainforests. 
Bottom: Ana Carnaval recently discovered this new 
species o/^Hyla. 



Museum Campus Neighbors 



Museum Campus For express entry to 
Museum Campus, exit onto eastbound 18th 
Street from Lake Shore Drive. Follow the 
signs to Museum Campus Drive, which takes 
you to Soldier Field's IMorth Garage on the 
left, where you can park for The Field 
Museum or Shedd Aquarium. To access the 
Adier Planetarium lot, continue north on 
Museum Campus Drive to Solidarity Drive. 
Both lots cost $12 during the day. Public 
transit is also a great alternative. Visit 
www.museumcampus.org for further trans- 
portation details. 



AdIer Planetarium Take a virtual 3D 

tour of the pyramids and temples of ancient 
Egypt in Stars of the Pharaohs. You'll learn 
about the important role astronomy played in 
Egyptian culture, architecture and politics. On 
Oct. 30, walk like an Egyptian, and dress like 
one, too, at Haunted Planetarium, The Curse 
of the Pharaoh. Children wearing costumes 
will be admitted free with a paid adult. For 
more information, visit www.adlerpianetar- 
ium.org or call 312. 922. STAR. 



Shedd Aquarium Looking for fun, food 
and more fun? Visit Sea Star Quest, the 
hands-on special exhibition for children on 
live sea stars and their cool relatives. October 
is National Seafood Month, and during 
Columbus Day weekend, Shedd will serve up 
free samples of sustainable seafood and hand 
out seafood wallet cards and tips on how to 
enjoy seafood and protect the health of our 
oceans. Celebrate Halloween with Spooky 
Seas on Oct. 27 to 31, and wear your best 
costume to the Spooky Seas overnight, Oct. 
29. For details, visit vvww.sheddaquarium.org 
or call 312.939.2438. 



FALL 2004 Scptcmha -November 



INTHEFIELDFEATURE 



Oleg Cassiiii. Dress in 
apricot silk ziberline, 
1962. 



Jacqueline Kennedy^"he Woman Behind the Style 

Dcbra N. Maiicoff, Arts Author and Adjunct Associate Professor at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago 
All images ©fFK Library Foundation andfFK Library and Museum 

An image of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy is etched in the American imagination. 
Youthful, poised and impeccably dressed, IVIrs. Kennedy lent a fresh face and striking 
presence to the spirit of optimism and promise that defined her husband's administra- 
tion. She understood the semantics of style, and her signature mode of dress — clean 
lines, clear colors, fine fabrics, superb construction — reflected the shift in American 
identity that distinguished the all too brief tenure of the Kennedy presidency. 



Jacqueline Kennedy: Tlie Wliite House Years — Selections 
from the John F. Kentiedy Library and Museum is 
on display Nov. 13, 2004, through May 8, 2005. 
Supported by The Grainger Foundation and 
Marshall Fields, the exhibition pre- 
sents the style and spirit of that 
memorable time in American history. 
More than 70 items of clothing, as 
well as letters and rarely seen 
photographs, provide a view of the 
Kennedy years through the lens of 
Mrs. Kennedy's distinctive taste and 
insight. Along with these intimate 
objects, video excerpts from her tele- 
vised tour of the restored White House 
and a recreation of the Red Room wiU 
celebrate Mrs. Kennedys commit- 
ment to preserving national heritage 
and promoting national culture. 
Exploring the substance behind 
the "Jackie Style," the exhibition 
offers a vivid portrait of the 
woman whose intelligence, 
energy and image recast the 
traditional role of the first lady 
as the embodiment of mod- 
ern American idealism at 
home and abroad. 

From the public's first 
glimpse of her during her 
husband's campaign for 
the presidency, Jacqueline 
Kennedy attracted atten- 
tion. A profile in LIFE magazine, 
covering their swing through Wisconsin in the 
summer of 1960, declared that the crowds were 
eager to greet the candidate's "striking wife," and 
that "Women crane to see what she is wearing." 
Well educated and accomplished, Mrs. Kennedy 
soon demonstrated that her appearance was only 
one facet of what she could bring to the White 
House. Through her studies atVassar, the Sorbonne 
and George Washington University, where she 
earned a degree in French literature, she honed her 
intellectual curiosity and developed a passion for 





history and the arts. 

In fact, Mrs. Kennedy's distinctive sense of 
style developed in tandem with her education and 
fascination with French culture. She appreciated 

the spare lines and easy fit of classic 
suits made by the House of Chanel, 
which had reopened in 1954 to 
provide an alternative to the confin- 
ing garments of the post-war "New 
Look." Even more appealing were 
the understated designs of Hubert de 
Givenchy, who, inspired by his muse 
Audrey Hepburn, had redefined 
French couture for a younger client, 
creating simple dresses with precise 
decorative touches, such as a perfecdy 
placed bow or set of fabric buttons. 
Prior to the campaign, Mrs. 
Kennedy developed a mode of 
dress that was sleek and modern — 
garments that never restricted 
movement, that expressed sophis- 
tication and decorum, and that 
enhanced, rather than distracted 
from, the woman who wore 
them. 

As a student of art and 
culture, Mrs. Kennedy under- 
stood the role that personal 
appearance played in the 
perception of public identity. 
The day her husband 
accepted the presidential 
nomination from the Democratic 
Party, a front-page editorial in Women 's Wear Daily 
described the flair of the young candidate's wife, 
who seemed to be "running for election on the 
French Couture Fashion ticket." The Associated 
Press picked up the story, and Mrs. Nixon 
announced that she preferred American designers 
and always bought off the rack in Washington, D.C. 
Within a few weeks, Mrs. Kennedy wrote to Diana 
Vreeland, fashion editor of Harper's Bazaar, "I must 
start to buy American clothes and have it known 
where I buy them." 



IN THE FIELD 




Mrs. Kennedy collaborated with American 
designers to translate her French preferences into a 
new national vernacular that became known as the 
"Jackie Style." She supplied them with suggestions, 
swatches and her own sketches, and made her pen- 
chants clear: "I like terribly simple, covered up 
clothes," she wrote to Vreeland, and she required 
that her clothes skim rather than contour her figure 
to allow her to move with ease. On the bitter cold 
morning of Inauguration Day, Mrs. Kennedy stood 
next to her husband on the podium in a greige 
wool coat designed by Oleg Cassini and a plain 
pillbox hat made for her by Halston. Her simple 
ensemble marked a bold contrast to the dark furs 
and elaborate garments worn by the other women 
in attendance and represented a new image for 
America — fresh, clean and looking forward to a 
new phase of national endeavor. 

Mrs. Kennedy played an active role in creating 
her public image. She disliked wearing hats, which 
covered her face and flattened her hair, but 
respected prevailing traditions. So she chose a sim- 
ple, domed pillbox, whimsical yet decorous, that she 
tipped back over the crown of her head. Her White 
House wardrobe featured a distinctive set of style 
lines — the A-line silhouette, the boat neck, the 
collarless jacket and the sleeveless bodice — that 
cast a consistent image of her own personality as 
practical, elegant and demure. 

Throughout her years in the White House, Mrs. 
Kennedy used the nuance of style in what she 
called the "State Wardrobe" to give meaning to 
every event. She dressed with absolute simplicity 
for formal dinners and receptions, relying upon the 
exquisite cut and drape of her gowns — rather than 
ostentatious jewels — to mark the occasion. In 
France, she wore French designs, recalling the 
American founders' respect for French culture. As 



part of her attentive preparation for her "Goodwill 
Tours," along with studying history and culture, 
she selected garments that expressed an aesthetic 
response to her host nation, such as the "sun color" 
garments made for Mexico and the brilliant silk 
dresses worn in India. Richard Martin, late curator 
of the Metropolitan Museum's Costume Institute, 
characterized Mrs. Kennedy's style as "a way of 
living, not simply adorning herself but expressing 
her vision of beauty in the world." And even today, 
nearly a half-century later, the meaning of "Jackie 
Look" endures as fresh, contemporary and unmis- 
takably American as the woman who gave it her 
name. ITF 

Debra Mancoffmll be speaking at the member previews 
on Nov. 8, 9, 10, 14 and 28. See the calendar for other 
programs, or visit unvw.fieldmuseum.org/jkennedy. Also 
stop by the specialty store to purchase the beautiful com- 
panion catalog. 

This exhibition was organized by The John F. Kennedy Library and IWuseum 
and The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

This exhibition is made possible through the generous support of 
The Grainger Foundation and Marshall Field's. 



Left: Jacqueline Kennedy 
and Lee Radziwill on 
Lake Pichola, India, 
March 17, 1962. 

Right: White House 
Nobel Laureate dinner, 
April 29, 1962. 



Coat by Oleg Cassini 
in greige wool melton 
with sable muff, 1961. 
Pillbox hat by Bergdof 
Goodman in beige felt, 
1961. 




( 




FALL 2004 September-November 



INTHEFIELDFEATURE 



Bolivian Communities Working 
Toward Conservation 



try lain. Writer 



An excited man gestures wildly as he imitates a rodent trying to break open a nut 
and swings from side to side as if carrying a lieavy load. The man is from Bolpebra, 
a small community in the extreme northwest corner of Bolivia, deep in the heart of 
the Amazon. Seamlessly intertwining Spanish and Portuguese, he tells Anne Umali, 
an international programs coordinator for The Field Museum's Environmental and 
Conservation Programs Department (ECP), the story of the ]och\, or agouti, a 
common rodent legendary for its ingenuity in cracking open the castafia, or Brazil 
nut {Be\-iho\\et\a excelsa). Like the squirrel, the ]och\ hoards nuts in its mouth and 
paws, burying them where other animals cannot access them. 



Anne L'liiali, standing at 
right, leads a discussion 
on Amazon forests. 



The abundant myths surrounding the joclii under- 
score the important relationship between the rodent, 
the Brazil nut, the local population and the envi- 
ronment. The jochi is the only known seed disperser 




^^Z'' 




of Brazil nuts, its jaws strong enough to break the 
shell. Luckily, the joclii often forgets where it buried 
the nuts. New trees sprout fi-om its secret treasure, 
providing the farmers with their main source of 
income, harvesting Brazil nuts. 

Science in action 

The jochi story is just one of many that Umali and 
her ECP colleagues have learned through their 
community outreach efforts in the state of Pando, 
Bolivia, where ECP works as part of an interna- 
tional team that includes scientists, teachers and 
students from the Universidad Amazonica de Pando, 
and the Centre de Investigacion y Preservacion de 
la Amazonia. The team, based in Pando's capital of 



Cobija, is creating an array of programs that address 
how we can all act together — from the university 
biologist to the Bolpebra farmer — to preserve this 
area of high biological diversity. 

Since 1999, ECP has 
conducted rapid biological 
inventories of Pando's plant 
and animal species in three 
different areas and established 
that this area has some of the 
highest biodiversity in 
Bolivia. However, surveys 
alone do not ensure the 
species' lasting protection. 
Alliances must be made from 
the community level to the 
highest ranks of government, 
and extensive education and 
technical support must be 
provided to translate science 
into conservation action. 

Starting in 2001, Field 
Museum and Bolivian 
researchers mapped out the 
strengths, or social assets, of 
29 communities in western Pando to understand 
how best to engage them in conserving their lands. 
The results are still being tabulated, but recommen- 
dations will eventually be made to the government 
to establish municipal conservation areas that local 
communities can manage. This lofty plan will 
require training the communities in how to oversee 
their own protected lands in a sustainable manner, 
and will eventually be replicated throughout Pando. 

New approach to outdated practices 

The people of Pando want to safeguard this beauti- 
flil area, yet are wary of researchers and officials 
who quickly survey the area and leave with empty 
promises of economic development. Shattering the 




image of the distant observer, ECP has a number of 
initiatives that reach out to the communities them- 
selves and to the university teachers and students in 
Cobija who will eventually work with the commu- 
nities to develop sustainable forestry. 

In one initiative, ECP is creating visually 
dynamic educational materials on such topics as 
agroforestry systems, which are diverse, productive 
landscapes, and how to implement and monitor 
conservation plans. These simple and direct visual 
aids often serve as the center point for active dis- 
cussions, a more appropriate method for rural 
audiences than a high-tech video or the Internet. 
In another project, ECP is developing a book, 
Descubre Tu Bosque de Pando (Discover your Pando 
Forest), that contains colorful illustrations, games 
and puzzles in a comic-like format. The communi- 
ties of northern Bolivia provided input on the 
book. 

Each outreach effort is part of a long, multi-lay- 
ered process called capacity building: increasing the 
ability of diverse local people and institutions to 
develop and implement their own conservation 
programs. For example, preparing the university 
teachers and students involves getting donations of 
used computers, offering technical assistance and 
providing courses in how to communicate about 
conservation. The people of Pando know the land, 
and the students are learning the science. ECP 
helps them organize and present the information 
in useful ways. 

Since community work has only recently begun, 
ECP is addressing such challenges as arduous travel 
along unpaved roads, adjusting to the farmers' unpre- 
dictable schedules and communicating in areas 
without electricity. Yet despite the difficulties, ECP's 
efforts continue to expand. For example, the U.S. 
embassy in Bolivia has asked the Museum to help 
develop a small traveUng exhibition about sustainable 
forest products and harvesting rubber and castanas. 

Bolpebra families gathered in the small school to 




Deje la area abajo del arboi en su estado 
natural — no llm|)ie la vegetaeion. 



« 




Ares Limpiada 



Coeos 
Infectados 




Area Natural Sin Limpiado 

►.MOORE ^TcS,i 



Castafias, or Brazil nuts, 
the main source of income 
for many Pando commu- 
nities. 



welcome Umali's team. They shared stories of the 
jochi, lamented over the lack of educational 
resources and expressed great interest in Descubre 
Tu Bosque de Pa« Jo. Together they solved a puzzle, 
guiding the jochi through hunters, fires and defor- 
ested wasteland toward its much-desired castana 
tree. In some ways, the relationship between the 
jochi and the Bolpebra families reflects the relation- 
ship between the people of Pando and ECP, each 
working together to ensure that the Pando way of 
life, and the lands they inhabit, will thrive. ITF 



An illustration from a 
technical manual about *^ 
preventing mold from 
damaging a Brazil nut 
harvest. 







i# >-«^ ^ 




Something Important is Happening 



Five students from the Universidad Amazonica de Pando visited 

The Field Museum last year to train in collections management 

and education. Their experience helped sparl< 30 students to 

enroll in the university's biology program, following two years 

without a single new registrant. Students i 

know "something important is happening," — 

according to faculty, as word has traveled > 

about the Museum's efforts to involve them in 

our research, education and outreach initia- J 

tives throughout Pando. • -. 

With this renewed interest, the university 
reopened its natural history museum and has 
since welcomed more than 2,000 visitors, 
including school groups from across the river *  



in Brazil. In addition, several Field Museum zoologists have led 
short courses at the university on such topics as taxonomy, 
biodiversity and how to collect and prepare Amazonian fishes. 
''We are fortunate to have such strong resources in the 

I States," said Phil Willink, a Field Museum 
ichthyologist who taught one of the work- 
shops. "The Pando students are hungry for 
information and support, and it was a great 
opportunity to visit with them." Other Field 
Museum staff members may go to Pando this 
year to lead additional trainings on exhibition 
production and taxidermy. 



I Field Museum ichthyolooisi Phil 
i trains university students in Cob 
a management. 





FALL 2004 September-November 



INTHEFIELDFEATURE 



Tapestry Restoration the Experience of a Lifetime 



Amy E. Cranch, Editor 



Katheritie Ridgway 
mends a massive 
Japanese tapestry 
made for the World's 
Columbian Exposition 
of 1893. 



It was a 23 by 13 feet dream job for a textile conservator. 

An enormous silk tapestry made for the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, 
and since then part of The Field Museum's anthropology collections, was restored this 
past spring. The hand-stitched masterwork is the signature piece in an exhibition trav- 
eling to Osaka, Tokyo and Nagoya on Japanese objects commissioned for three 
19th-century expositions. Designed by Jinbe Kawashima of Japan's oldest and most 
famous manufacturer of decorative fabrics, the tapestry depicts more than 1,500 
men — each one's facial features, costumes and gestures distinctly different — partici- 
pating in a religious festival at the temple of Nikko. Phoenixes, chrysanthemum blooms 
and other plants intricately frame the lavish scene. 



The weavers used a precise 
and demanding technique in 
which they filed their finger- 
nails into a saw-toothed 
pattern to press the fine sUk 
threads into place. Despite 
the tapestry's unmatched 
craftsmanship, time and 
human activity, such as dis- 
playing it without protection 
for 17 years, had caused Spy- 
ing, stretching and tears and 
holes. Once the Japanese 
exhibition developers chose 
the tapestry, the Museum s 
conservation team had less 
than four months to plan 
and execute its comple.x 
treatment. 

Katherine Ridg%vay, the 
team s manager, hsted some 
logistical challenges they had 
to work through: "What 
room is big enough to 
accommodate this large tapestry? Who can we 
release fix>m other projects to focus on this? How 
do we position the tapestry so that all areas can be 
reached? How do we mend it without creating 
more harm? It was quite overwhelming!" 

To prepare the team, chief conservator Ruth 
Norton led a course on repairing holes using sev- 
eral stitching techniques. "The type of stitch and 
the size and color of thread are critical to making a 
mend that will support the original tapestry threads 
and visually blend in," said Norton. 

The first challenge was umoUing the tapestry 
one section at a time so that the facade faced out- 
ward and the center, suspended between tables, 
could be accessed fixjm above and below. 
Meticulous attention was paid to matching the 
mending thread to the original color. Each section 
had to be completely stabilized before the rolls 




were undamped and the 
tapestry was rotated to the 
next section. 

"Stitching down gold 
thread was the most difficult 
part," said conservator 
Carolyn Powell. "It is hard to 
see and even harder to repair 
since the thread used for 
mending it is about as thick 
as a strand of human hair and 
very slippery." 

Once all the mending was 
completed, the team unrolled 
the entire tapestry onto a 
plastic-covered floor with the 
reverse side up to attach strips 
f of fining that could be hung 
I on a pole and bear the weight 
^1 5 of suspension. Long basting 
± stitches temporarily held the 
^ strips in place, and since this 
g required some walking on the 
^ tapestry, protective sheets were 
laid over the tapestry to distribute weight and pre- 
vent the weave fix)m stretching. Then the tapestry 
was rolled again with the facade facing outward, 
and each lining piece was secured with 1 1 tows 
of thread in the appropriate color. 

Nearly everyone in the conservation department 
worked on the tapestry at some point, even mem- 
bers of an employee/volunteer handiwork club. 
Tatsumi Brown, a volunteer who donated more 
than 200 hours to the project, said, "I couldn't have 
imagined a more rewarding volunteer opportunity 
than working with professional conservators on a 
gorgeous tapestry." 

In the end, repairing this one artifact took rougjily 
500 hours and a dozen people. Everyone agreed 
that since this is the Museum s only large Japanese 
tapestry, conserving it was an experience they will 
likely never repeat at the Museum again. ITF 



IN THE FIELD 



YOURGUIDETOTHE FIELD 



Calendar of Events for Fall 2004 September-November 



Inside: E x h i b i t i o n s Festivals Family Programs Adult Programs 



An Evening with 
Isabel Allende 

Join world-renowned author Isabel Allende as 
she recounts a life of love, writing and years 
spent in politically unstable South America. 
Ailende's childhood — following her stepfa- 
ther's diplomatic career through 
Chile, Bolivia, Europe and the 
Middle East — exposed her to a 
range of cultures and politics that 
shaped her extraordinary imagina- 
tion. She'll share memorable 
personal experiences, reflecting on 
family relationships and the larger 
societal and political forces that 
shape our lives. She has written 
numerous bestsellers, including The 
House of the Spirits, which was made 
into a major motion picture. 

Monday, Oct. 25, 7pm 

Reserved seats: $24, members $22 

General admission: $20, members 

$18, students /educators $15 (limited 

supply 




- ISABEL^' 
S ALLENDEL-i^ 





JACQUELINE KENNEDY: 

■^ THE WHITE HOUSE YEARS 

Selections from the 

JOHN F. KENNEDY LIBRARY AND MUSEUM 




November 13, 2004- 
May 8, 2005 

Revisit an era of style 
and grace to explore how 
Jacqueline Kennedy's 
taste, intelligence and 
charisma influenced 
American statesmanship 
and diplomacy. More than 
70 garments, along with 
photographs, documents 
and film clips, reveal 
how the former first lady 
carefully shaped her image 
to reflect the vigor, ideals 
and internationalism 
of her husband's adminis- 
tration. 



An Afternoon with Robert Dallel< 

Acclaimed historian and author Robert Daliek will examine critical issues rich in rele- 
vance to our current domestic and international crises. Dallek's landmark biography 
of President Kennedy, An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy 1917-1963, tells the dra- 
matic story of his life and times, creating a vivid portrait of a bold, brave, human 
Kennedy, once again a hero. 

Saturday, Nov. 13, 2pm 

Reserved seats: $28, members $26 

General admission: $24, memiiers $22, students /educators $15 (limited supply) 

This exhibition has been organized by The John F. Kennedy Library and Museum and The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
This exhibition is made possible through the generous support of The Grainger Foundation and Marshall Field's. 



General Museum Information: 312.922.9410 

Family and Adult Program Tickets and Information: 312.665.7400 

Please note: Refunds will be issued by Field Museum staff, minus a $10 processing fee, for group and family overnights only. No 
refunds or exchanges are permitted for any other programs. Fees for programs cancelled by The Field Museum will be refunded in full. 



FALL 2004 September— November 



Your Guide to the Field: Calendar of Events for Fall 2004 September-November 



Explore the fascinating history 
of Machu Picchu. 



r 



d out more about this 



of history through these dynamic programs. Call 
'^  " " " Trough Feb. 13, 2005. 



Machu Picchu: UnveiJing the Mvsterv of the Incas was organi?ed by the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. 

Presented by SAP 

The exhibition is made possible by support from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Nationai Science Foundation, the Connecticut Humanities Council, Yale University, 
and the Heritage Wark Foundation. 



Family Programs 

Performance 

Machu Picchu 

Hear the enchanting music of Peru! Come listen to the band 
Machu Picchu perform traditional Peruvian music, and 
learn how the environment has shaped the beautiful and 
vibrant sounds of this South American country. 

Saturday, Oct. 16, 12:30pm 
Free with Museum admission 



-4.j^ 



Workshop 

Traditions of the Incas 

This fascinating workshop series explores the daily life of 
the Incas. Make your own knotted quipu, learn about the 
ancient use of archaeoastronomy, examine Incan mummifi- 
cation practices, and discover the enchanting mythology 
and craftsmanship of Inca culture. 

Families with children ages 6—12 
Saturdays, Oct. 30-Nou 20, 10-1 1:30am 
Each workshop: $15, members $12 
Workshop series (four classes): $45, members $36 




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8 ! IN THE FIELD CALENDAR 



General Museum Information: 312.922.9410; Family and Adult Program Tickets and Information: 312.665.7400 



Adult Programs 

Course 

People of the Andes 

Robin Coleman, Northwestern University 

Examine the sacred traditions that have shaped — and 
continue to shape — the lives of the Andean people. You'll 
discover the cities, culture and fascinating rituals of the Inca 
Empire within a historical context. 

Tuesdays, Oct. 19-Nov. 9, 6:30-8:30pm 
$70, members $60 

Lectures 

Lecture Series: Andean Civilizations 

Presenters include Jonathan Haas, Donna Nash and 
Patrick Ryan WiUiams,TFM Anthropology Dept. 

Checl< vvww.fieldmuseum.org for a complete list of presenters. 

Interested in learning more about this remarkable ancient 
culture? Meet Field Museum experts and their colleagues 
who are studying the long, complex history of Andean 
civilization. Each week will feature a 
different scientist who is dissecting 
important cultural elements of different 
time periods in the dynamic history of 
this South American people. 

Fridays, Oct. 8— Dec. 3, 2pm 
Free with Museum 
admission 



An Evening with the Curators 

Dr Richard L. Burger and Dt Lucy Salazar, 
Yale Peabody Museum 

Get a rare glimpse of the ancient global wonder Machu Picchu 
through the eyes of the exhibition developers. Learn about the 
research and commitment behind this magnificent exhibition, 
and enjoy an exhibition walk-through prior to the public opening. 

Tliursday, Oct. 14, 6pm 

$16, students /educators $14, members $12 

Excavating the Andes 

Dr. Maria Cecelia Lozada, 
University of Chicago 

Discover Dr. Lozada's unique research 
in bioarchaeology in the history-rich sites 
of the Andes, and the invaluable insights 
it provides on pre-Columbian Andean 
lifestyles. 

Thursday, Nov. 20, 1:30pm 

$16, students /educators $14, members $12 





FALL 2004 September- November 9 



Family Workshops 

Bring Yourself Up To Street-Level: 

An Immersive Workshop in Video Storytelling 

Learn the art of video storytelling, and take your cues from the pros! 
Experts from Street-Level Youth Media will guide you through an expio 
ration of the Urban Expressions exhibition, and then help you write and 
tape your own short narrative. 

FiViiilies with children ages 8—16 

Saturday, Sept. 25, 10-11 :30atn (for 8- to IZ-year-olds), 

l-2:30pni (for 13- to 16-year-olds) 

$15, members $12 



©CAROL BECKWITH/ANGELA FISHER 



Lectures 



NATIONAL M ■» ^ # 

GEOGRAPHIC » mm Jj^" m 



Faces of Africa 

Carol Bcckwith and Angela Fisher, Authors 

Join these renowned photographers and writers on a 
voyage through the circle of African life as they celebrate 
the release of their new book. Faces of Africa, a follow up 
to their visual masterpiece African Ceremonies. You'll get a 
rare glimpse into their personal perspectives of 30 years of 
work on the African continent — a journey that has taken 
them more than 270,000 miles on foot, camelback, mule 
train, dugout canoe and four-wheel-drive vehicle to Africa's 
remotest corners. 

Tlmrsday, Sept. 23, 7:30pin 

Reserved scats: $30, iiicwbers $28 

General admission: $24, members $22, students /educators S15 

(limited supply) 




Below is a calendar of current and upcoming temporary exhibitions. Some dates may change. 
Visit our website at www.fieldmuseum.org or call 312.922.9410 as the date of your visit nears. 



Machu Picchu: Unveiling the Mystery of the Incas 

October 15, 2004-February 13, 2005 



Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years — 
Selections from the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum 

November 13, 2004-May 8, 2005 



Family Overnight 



Cultural Connections 



Dozin' with the Dinos 

Sue the T. rex is having a sleepover! Join us for a night of family 
worl<shops, tours and performances. Explore ancient Egypt by 
flashlight, prowl an African savannah w/ith man-eating lions and 
take a stroll through the Royal Palace in Bamun, Africa. Then 
spread your sleeping bag amid some of our 
most popular exhibitions. The event 
includes an evening snack and a light 
breakfast in the morning. 

Families with children a^cs 6—12 
5:45pm on Saturday, Nov. 21 
until 9am on Sunday, Nou 28 
$47, members $40 



CATHRYN C SCOTT/GN90451 1 5C 




Narratives: Doorways to Our Communities 

Narratives — such as murals, dance and storytelling — educate, 
entertain and help shape and maintain a community's rules and 
values. They often depict social and historical topics or examine 
the human condition. Throughout the 2004-2005 program year, 
visit the city's diverse cultural museums for different perspectives 
on how we tell stories. The kickoff event at The Field Museum 
will feature live performances and ethnic foods. 

Kickoff on Tuesday, Sept. 21, 6— 8:30pm 
Register through 3 12. 665. 7474 




Adult Course 



Fieldtrip 



Ancient Egypt: Hieroglyphs and History 

Tom Mudlojf, Hgyptologist 

Unlock the secrets of the past as you develop a basic knowledge 

of the remarkable language of ancient Egypt. You'll study the 

hieroglyphic language and explore 

actual hieroglyphic records 

historic events. Beginners 

welcome, but be prepared 

to do some homework! 

Class limited to 20 

people. 

Wednesdays, Sept. 29- 
Nov. 3, 6-8:30pm 
$85, members $72 




The Great Hawk IVIigration 

Alan .Anderson. Audubon Society 

Investigate the migration of diurnal hawks at Illinois Beach 
State Park — one of Illinois' top hawk-watching sites. Observe 
how experts watch and record the migrations of such hawks as 
buteos, falcons, accipiters and more. You'll also visit Middlefork 
Savanna Forest Preserve, an excellent spot for viewing ducks, 
shorebirds and grassland birds. 
Saturday, Oct. 16, 8:30am— 3pm 
S60, members $50 





Splendors of China's Forbidden City: 
The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong 

Through September 12 



Night Visions: The Secret Designs of Moths 

Through January 9, 2005 



Symposium 

A Dream Deferred: Remembering 
Haiti's Revolution, Exploring Its 
Future 

Dr. Lisa Brock, Columbia College; Dr 
Jewima Pierre, VIC; Michelle Agins, 
Photographer; and Michael Bracey, 
Photographer 

Explore the dramatic history of the Haitian Revolution. Along 
with the Harold Washington Cultural Arts Center, the Museum 
will commemorate the bicentennial anniversary of Haiti's indepen- 
dence with a slate of lectures, performances and screenings. The 
afternoon will bring Haitian writers and scholars together to 





discuss work by and about them, as well as the economic and 
social factors that shape life in Haiti. 

Saturday, Oct. 23, 1 i:30am-4pm 

$16, members $14, students /educators $12 

Check wuw.Jieldntuseum.org for a complete program schedule. 




An Evening with Ladysmith Black Mambazo 

This legendary band has inspired people throughout the world 
with its captivating harmonies and interpretations of tradi- 
tional South African culture. The event celebrates 10 
years of South African democracy, and proceeds go 
toward Shared Interest, a not-for-profit social invest- 
ment fund that catalyzes social and economic change 
in South Africa. Join the pre-concert reception to 
learn about this valuable organization. 

Tuesday, OctAl9' 

Rcccpridn 6:30pin. coiurn 7:30pm 

Coa.rrt only: $5U in advnmc (312.665.7400), or $60 

<n !lic ihor 

Rarprion and concert: S150. Tickets auailable through 

infoia^haredint^rest.org. 



Between Past and Future: 

New Photography and Video from China 

At the Museum of Contemporary Art and the Smart Museum 

Don't miss this major exhibition featuring contemporary photogr 
phy and video from China. Ambitious in scale and experimental i 
nature, the work included in this groundbrea 
ing project offers a range of highly 
individual responses to the unprece- 
dented changes in China's economi 
~--^ social and cultural life in the pas 

decade. 

Oa. 2, 2004-Jan. 16. 2005 

This exhibition is co-organized and circulated 
the David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art, 
University of Chicago, and the International 
Center of Photography, New York, in collabor 
tion v^ith the Asia Society, New York, and the 
Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago. 




Urban Expressions: Young Voices, New Technologies 

Through January 17, 2005 



Treasures of the Americas: Selections From the Anthropology 
Collections of The Field Museum 

Through May 30, 2005 



Special Programs to Enhance 
Your Exhibition Experience 



Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years — Selections 
from the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum 



Screening of film PT 109 

Check out this suspenseful, fact-based 1963 drama 
about the youthful John F. Kennedy and his wartime 
experiences, including the sinking of the PT boat he was 
captaining. 

Second Saturday and Sunday of 
every month from 
Dec. U-May 8 1:30pm 
(Running time: 2 lirs. 20 min.) 
Free until Museum admission 




Lecture 

Defining Style: Jacqueline Kennedy's White 
House Years 

Hamish Boti'les, European Editor-at-Larqe ofVogue 

Investigate Mrs. Kennedy's enthralling approach to style. 
Bowles, a guest curator of the exhibition, will explore how the 
first lady carefully shaped her image to convey her primary 
interests and concerns. Learn how her style extended beyond her 
wardrobe as she used her passion for the arts and history to ele- 
vate American culture. 

Wednesday, Dec. 1, 7pm 

Reserved seats: $ 24, members $22 

General admission: $20, members $18, students /educators $15 

(limited quantity) 




New Hall of Dinosaurs 

Behind the Scenes 

Discovering the New Dinosaur Hall 

Richard Kissel and Todd J. Tubutis, TFM Exiiibitions Dcpt. 

Where have all the dinosaurs gone? Witness the evolution of our 
new exhibition, opening in 2006, that will tell the history of life 
on Earth. Designers and content specialists will give you a 
behind-the-scenes look at models, drawings and designs. 

For famiUes with children ages 6—12: Friday, Oct. 22, 6— 8pm 
Adults: Saturday, Oct. 23, 10am— noon 
$15, members $12 

The renovation of Life Over Time is made possible, in part, with support from the illinois 
Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity, the U.S. Department of Housing and 
Urban Development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Education. 




Night Visions: The Secret Designs of Moths 

Behind the Scenes 

Moths and Butterflies 

Look closely at the enchanting diversity found in moths. 
Decipher the differences between moths and butterflies with 
an expert on Lepidoptera, the order in which these vibrant 
insects are found. 



For families with children ages 6-12: Friday, Nof. 5, 6- 
Adults: Saturday, Nov. 6, lOam-nooii 
'$15, members $12 



8pm 




Witness luminous creatures and 
stunning artifacts. 




Night Visions: 
The Secret 
Designs of Moths 

Tliroiii^h January 9, 2005 ** 

Discover the surprising beauty of these night 
creatures through stunning, larger-than-life images 
that reveal secrets rarely visible to the naked eye. 

This exhibition was developed by The Field Museum in collaboration with Joseph Scheer. 

Urban Expressions: 
Young Voices, New 
Technologies 

Tiirough January 17, 2005 

See and hear first-hand accounts of young 
Chicagoans reflecting on urban life. 

This exhibition was developed by Street-Level Youth Media in collaboration 
with The Field Museum. 



Grand Reopening: 
Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Opens Sept. 7, 2004, in its new location in the 
Native American exhibition lialls 

Explore this full-scale reconstruction of a traditional 
Pawnee dv\/elling. The new lodge will examine the 
history of the Pawnee people and explore issues that 
21st-century Native Americans face. 




^^jiifl 




isitor inrormation 




Getting Here: Soldier Field's parking garage is open across the street from 
our main entrance. Visit www.fieldmuseum.org for the latest information on new 
parl<ing lots/rates, free trolleys and public transit. 

Hours: 9am-5pm daily. Last admission at 4pm. 

Admission and Tickets: Member passes can be reserved through the membership department 
(312.665.7705) or picked up at the membership services desk. For non-members, The Field 
Museum's new gold pass, which includes general admission plus one special exhibition, ranges in 
price from $7 to $17, depending on your age category and whether you are a Chicago resident. 
Please bring your ID to receive the appropriate ticket price. 

Tickets are available at the Museum's admission desks, or in advance via www.fieldmuseum.org 
or 866. FIELD. 03. For all admission and ticket details, visit vwwv.fieldmuseum.org. 

Accessibility: Visitors using wheelchairs or strollers may be dropped off at the west entrance. 
Handicapped parking and wheelchairs are available on a first-come, first-served basis. Call 
312.665.7400 to check on the accessibility of programs that take place outside of the Museum. 

Information: 312.922.9410 orwww.fieldmuseum.org 



rfor their long-stanrfing, generous support of the Museum through the Chicago f 
irtment of Cultural Affairs and the Illinois Arts Council, a state agency. 

T ^fcc^Vdafice with Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972, we do not discriminate on the basis of sex in our progr; 
iUe !X Coordinator in the human resources department, 312.665.7271. 



IN THE FIELD CALENDAR 



SCIENTIST'SPICK 



RprKP;^tinn;5l Rpsp;^i^rh 




MARK WIDHALM/Z94408 02D 



It's a fish-eat-fish world. Each year about 3,200 tenacious anglers and 100,000 spectators 
descend upon Dauphin Island for the Alabama Deep Sea Fishing Rodeo. Participants 
compete for the biggest catch in more than 30 categories, including king mackerel, tarpon, 
shark and "most unusual." 



A stingray from ihc rodeo 
that's now part of the 
Musewn collections (left); 
rodeo spectators (inset). 



"The fishermen aren't interested in keeping what they can't eat," said Phil Wiilink, PhD, 
a collections manager in The Field Museum's fish division. That's good news for scientific 
opportunists. No occasions exist beyond this rodeo in which researchers can obtain such 
numbers and diversity of fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. 

Dr. Wiilink and Eric Hilton, PhD, a post-doctoral research scientist who studies the skele- 
tons of live and fossil fishes, attended the tournament to replenish the Museum's Gulf 
collections, last updated in the 1950s, and gather specimens for research and education 
programs and events. Making the Dauphin Island Sea Lab their home, they prepared 
enough remarkable finds to fill five barrels. Dr. Willink's prize discovery was an inch-long 
stingray spine lodged in the upper lip of a 343-pound bull shark. 

Coincidentally, Dr. Wiilink is part of a cross-disciplinary team studying the use of stingray 
spines in Maya bloodletting rituals. Stingray toxins can cause tissue necrosis, even death. 
Since the Maya likely knew the dangers, the team's research, co-authored by Helen Haines, 
PhD, of the Museum's anthropology department, hypothesizes that the spines were used 
specifically in severe or intense rituals. In other words, the more grave the situation neces- 
sitating the ritual, such as political instability, the greater the devotion, and hence the risks, 
to attract the gods. Further research is in the works. 



FALL 2004 Scptcmher-Wnrmhci 



15 



INTHEFIELDFEATURE 



Forest Tales of a Brazilian Graduate Student 

Ana Carolina Carnaval, PhD Candidate, Department of Zoology 

I couldn't avoid laughing when my guide screamed after his flashlight illuminated the 
foot-long female Labyrinth frog I had been searching for since dusk. After all, Severino 
had been specially designated to protect me during my nightly herpetological expedi- 
tions in northeastern Brazil. 




Hylomantis granulosa 



I had arrived at that sugarcane plantation a few days 
earlier. Dr. Jose Guilherme, the landlord, skeptically 
asked what a young carioca like me (a native of Rio 
de Janeiro) was doing in such a remote area of 
Brazil. I explained that I was pursuing a doctorate 
degree from the University of Chicago Committee 
on Evolutionary Biology and The Field Museum, 
and was searching for field sites in the 5,000-acre 
forest fragment that still remained amid his sugar- 
cane fields. Amused with my unusual request to set 
up camp and catch frogs at night. Dr. Guilherme 
arranged for a pick-up truck to take me and two 
other Brazilian biologists to a nearby forest site. He 
also told me to find a local sugarcane worker to 
help as a bodyguard and guide. That's how I met 
Severino, a kind, quiet plantation employee who 
was wise enough to ensure my safety but, as I found 
out, absolutely terrified of frogs! 

Forest fragmentation, frogs and DNA 

Severino's story is just one unforgettable memory 
I have from my research experiences. Since 1999, 
under the orientation of Field Museum associate 
curator and chairman of the zoology department. 



John Bates, PhD, I have been 
studying frogs from northeastern 
Brazil's endangered Atlantic rain- 
forest. Strongly affected by 
environmental changes, amphib- 
ians are important models for 
ecological and evolutionary stud- 
ies and invaluable indicators of ecosystem health. 
Additionally, some amphibian populations are 
declining worldwide, motivating further studies of 
this group. Working in the Neotropics reflects not 
only my background, but also a desire to generate 
new information about this hugely diverse, yet 
poorly known region. 

The Atlantic rainforest lies along the coast of 
Brazil. Home to nearly 22,000 species of plants and 
tetrapods (four-legged animals) — 9,000 of which 
occur nowhere else on the planet — it ranks among 
the world's top priority areas for conservation. 
Sadly, human activities such as logging and road 
building have severely fragmented the area, and 
today's remnants barely add up to 8 percent of its 
original extent. Approximately 350 species of frogs 
and toads inhabit this biodiversity hotspot, roughly 
300 of which are endemic to the region. 

One of my main goals is to assess the effects of 
long- and short-term habitat fragmentation on the 
genetic structure of BraziUan amphibians. I collect 
two species of frogs in both human-made forest 
fragments that are less than 500 years old, and in 
older, naturally isolated forests within a semi-arid 



IN THE FIELD 



region known as the Caatinga. I harvest a small 
amount of tissue for biochemical analyses from each 
of the 10 to 20 individual frogs I gather per site. The 
tissue samples can be taken from either the liver, 
which is removed after the animal is anesthetized 
and sacrificed, or from the tip of a toe, after which 
the frog is immediately released back into its natural 
habitat. Toe-clipping works well because small cuts 
heal rapidly, allowing field biologists to distinctively 
mark each individual for future identification. 

Thanks to permits issued by the Brazilian and 
US governments, I do all my genetic analyses 
in The Field Museum's Pritzker Laboratory for 
Molecular Systematics and Evolution. By comparing 



low genetic variability is the result of natural 
processes that occurred before humans arrived, such 
as forests retracting in response to climate change. 

New friends in the field 

An exciting aspect of being a student here is that 
my field and laboratory work can extend beyond 
my doctoral thesis. My trips to previously unknown 
forest sites have yielded new frog species that I am 
now describing, and I am able to train Brazilian 
undergraduate and graduate students in field tech- 
niques and herpetology. Most rewarding are my 
experiences of meeting and learning from the 
simple rural people that live near my sampling 








iliiieata 



DNA sequences of frogs from different forest frag- 
ments, I can study how genetically distinct and 
diverse each population is. For instance, my work 
on the ground-dweller frog Proceratophrys boiei has 
shown that each of the seven sampled populations 
in northeastern Brazil is genetically unique. Some 
of these frog populations have been isolated from 
each other (not exchanging migrants) for thousands 
of years. Therefore, if conservation efforts were chan- 
neled toward protecting only a few populations, we 
could lose others that are genetically distinct and 
hence reduce overall diversity in this species. 

Another interesting result of my work is that 
frogs in naturally isolated forests within the 
Caatinga show significantly lower levels of genetic 
variability compared to those in human-made 
fragments. These populations have become inbred, 
which could affect their long-term survival. Their 



sites — people like Severino and his family. 

When I first started my fieldwork, the local chil- 
dren were shy and the elder village men couldn't 
understand why I had left my family to spend 
months in the forest looking for frogs. In these rural 
communities, women are often raised to take care 
of their relatives, husband and children. Today my 
returns are cheerful, and the children can't wait to 
help me find tadpoles. With a mix of pride and sad- 
ness, one of my field guides just told me he decided 
to support his daughter's wish to move to the near- 
est village. "She wants to go to school to become a 
lawyer," he said, "or a doctor, just like you. Ana." 
Then he added, "Perhaps one day she will help you 
save this forest from being logged. " I smiled. I know 
my work alone isn't enough to change the environ- 
mental and social scenario of Brazil's rural areas. 
But it's a start. ITF 



Ana Carnaval with her 
field assistants in 
Maranhao (top), and with 
Jaciel and Toni, local chil- 
dren from Rcserm Fret 
Caneca (bottom). 



ANA CAROLINA CARNAVAL 



FALL 2004 Seplcmhcr-Soi'cmhcr ^!l7;;f) 



OFSPECIALINTEREST 



In Full View: New Lab Visible to Public 



If you had 1.2 million things in your house, how would you take care of them? 



Re^ensteiti Laboratory 
consermtors will work oti 
such nrtifacts as this bowl 
from the north coast of 
Papua New Guinea. 

JOHN WEINSTEIN/An4365.01D 



A new 1 ,600-square-foot facility, the Regenstein 
Laboratory, is now open in Trauclini^ the Pacific. As 
with the McDonald's Fossil Preparation Laboratory, 
visitors can observe our anthropology 
conservators and collec- 
tions staff working on 
artifacts from all over 
the world. The lab also 
displays objects from the 
Pacific Islands and explains 
key tenets of managing 
anthropology collections. 

"The Regenstein 
Laboratory provides needed con 
servation space to accommodate 
our expanding collections," said John 
Edward Terrell, curator of Pacific anthro 
pology. "It also brings work that is normally 
performed behind the scenes to our guests so they 
can see the depth of what we do to take care of our 
treasured collections." 




A permanent display case includes such splendid 
things as a necklace and armband that George 
Dorsey, one of the Museum's first anthropologists, 
purchased in 1908 from a South Seas 
plantation director, and a 
crocodile-shaped canoe 
prow that honors the spirit 
world. 
Visitors can also learn 
about the Museum's four-phase 
process for collections: registra- 
tion, which involves recording 
detailed descriptions of each object 
and how we obtained it; conservation, 
such as how we treat damaged items; 
management, which includes how artifacts 
are housed, organized and handled; and use. 
Few people know that The Field Museum exhibits 
less than 1 percent of its collections. The rest is 
available for study, or to loan out for research and 
public exhibitions done elsewhere. 



icm Structures in Macro View 



Field Museum scientists are seeing unseen worlds with new laboratory instruments that 
keep them at the head of research and swiftly changing technology. 



An SEM ima(;e of the 
underside of a croton leaf. 



Magnifying surfaces 10 to 200,000 times Hfe-size, 
the new scanning electron microscope (SEM) 
creates 3-D images that reveal levels of detail and 

complexity impossible 
to acquire with 
conventional light 
microscopes. It has 
the largest chamber 
available for viewing 
sizeable specimens and 
objects, such as skele- 
tons or fossil plants, 
and it can analyze 
an object's elemental 
composition by mea- 
suring the X-rays that 
are emitted from the 
sample. In one project, archaeologists are studying 
Inca metal objects to determine what alloys the 
Inca used in different parts of their empire. 
Funded in part by the National Science 
Foundation (NSF), an upcoming elemental analysis 
facility will house a plasma mass spectrometer that 




complements the SEM and a geochemistry labora- 
tory used to examine meteorites and terrestrial 
rocks. With speed, accuracy and minimal destruc- 
tion, this spectrometer can evaluate more than 30 
trace elements at once, often at the level of parts 
per billion. It etches a micro-thin line with a laser, 
allowing different components of one ceramic, such 
as the paste, paints and slip, to be tested individually 
and compared to other sources. 

Another NSF grant has helped purchase an 
additional automated DNA sequencer, tripling the 
Pritzker Laboratory's capacity to accommodate the 
more than 60 Museum and visiting scientists who 
use it annually in their molecular biology and 
systematic studies. Former methods were tedious 
and time-consuming, but automated sequencers 
are faster and yield longer DNA sequences than 
previous methods. The sequencer and its attached 
computer both analyze and store the data, decreas- 
ing the likelihood of inaccuracies, and increasing 
scientists' ability to understand and preserve 
Earth's tremendous diversity of life from the 
genetic level up. 



18 



IIM THE FIELD 



OFSPECIALINTEREST 



Get An Early Jump on Children's Holiday 
Celebration Tickets 



The Field Museum's holiday season begins Thursday, Dec. 2 when The Women's Board 
hosts its annual Children's Holiday Celebration. Children of all ages are invited to 
explore and celebrate the diverse cultures of Chicago and the world through crafts, 
stories and entertainment at this festive event. 

Hear holiday favorites performed by the Stu Hirsh Orchestra, marvel at the gravity-defying Jesse White 
Tumblers and enjoy the grace of the Ballet Chicago Studio Company. Delicious food, special appearances 
by such favorite characters as Ronald McDonald and a visit with Santa Claus will create a memorable 
afternoon. 

Reservations are limited and tickets will not be sold at the door. For tickets or further information call 
312.665.7145. 



The Women's Board thanks Sears, Roebuck and Co. for its generous support of this event. 



Donor Groups Support Museum's Science 




Kate Porick, Writer 

A South African student uses The Field Museum's labs to assemble 
DNA data on a poorly known group of birds. An anthropology 
curator leads fervent collectors through rows of ancient pottery. 
An ethnographer tells stories about working in Chicago's diverse 
neighborhoods. If you are interested in these activities, or support- 
ing the science behind them, join one of The Field Museum's special 
interest donor groups. 

The Council on Africa brings African and Malagasy culture and biology to you, 

while supporting Field Museum research on the continent and training for its next 

generation of scientists. Up to 10 African students visit the Museum each year to 

learn and assemble data for their graduate school applications or dissertations. 

"They don't have access to the same resources in their homeland," said John Bates, chair of the zoology 

department. "Their stays here empower them to become better scientists and strengthen the relationship 

between Africans and Malagasy and the Museum." 

Education, housing, health care, the environment and leadership are critical issues faced by communities 
everywhere. The Center for Cultural Understanding and Change (CCUC) Council brings together 
CCUC curators and constituents, community activists, government officials and others who value cultural 
differences. "The world is getting smaller by the moment. This council will help us better understand how 
we're all connected, and how to appreciate and support cultural diversity," said Laura Washington, a board 
member and co-chair of the CCUC Council. 

Imagine visiting the glittering church of Santo Domingo in Oaxaca, Mexico, attending the opening of 
the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian or delving into the anthropology depart- 
ment's storerooms. Members of the Cultural Collections Committee (CCC) participate in extraordinary 
events like these annually. "As an avid collector myself, the CCC teaches me about the objects I love and 
how to care for them," said Kathleen Rummel, a member of the CCC. "And I can learn about the 
Museum's e.xceptional collections, or travel for a private look at other collections." 

Other member organizations include the Field Associates, which gathers young professionals to support 
education initiatives, and the Friends of the Field Museum Library, which raises money to preserve and 
enrich the library's collections that are central to the Museum's research and education mission. New groups 
are continuously forming, including one dedicated to the botany department's collections and research. 

Wherever your passions lie, join a Field Museum donor group for distinctive opportunities to grow as 
an individual while contributing financially to science. For more information, call 312.665.7130. 



The Council on Africa 
supports such activities 
as training Congolese 
students on how to 
identify the region's 
small mammals. 



FALL 2004 Svpiiiiih,'r-\\^irii:hn 



19 



FROMTHE ARCHIVES 



Louis Agassiz Fuertes — A Rare Bird Himself 



Secretary bird, 
Sagittarius serpentarius 



Siijata Rdiii Singhal, Writer 

"Louis Agassiz Fuet-tes was an artist, sensitive, ardent, impetuous, full of almost boyish 
enthusiasm..." 

This statement by Wilfred Hudson Osgood, a former curator and chair of The Field 
Museum's zoology department, sums up the preeminent bird illustrator of the 20th cen- 
tury. Intensely interested in the natural sciences since childhood, Louis Agassiz Fuertes 
(1874-1927) taught himself the art of illustration by studying John James Audubon's 
monumental Birds of America. He imitated Audubon's meticulous sense of detail and 
depiction of birds in their natural habitats, eventually surpassing Audubon in his ability 
to freely illustrate what he observed. 

won the backing of Osgood, 
Museum president Stanley Field, 
and the Chicago Daily News. 
Osgood led the expedition, the first 
of its kind by a modern museum to 
Abyssinia. 

Unfortunately, Fuertes' luggage 
never arrived in Abyssinia. Adjusting 
to borrov^'ed clothing and equipment, 
he still fervently collected and pre- 
pared his specimens during the day, 
and sketched and painted at night by 
lantern light with an unfamiHar kit 
he had purchased in Addis Ababa. 
His genius rose to the occasion, as 
SecTicroTM/Bi** jjg Qfjgjj finished each watercolor 
within an hour. 

"The change Fuertes brought to 
bird illustration arose fham his ability 
to render what the eye actually sees, 
not what the mind expects to see or 
thinks it sees," said Ben Williams, the 
1 Museum's head librarian. So acute 
were his observations and memory 
that he could accurately paint a scene years after he 
saw it, yet his impressionistic artistry was never lost 
in the details. 

Osgood hired Fuertes as a collector rather than 
an artist, which meant that Fuertes owned what 
he created. In a sad twist of fate, this fact saved 
Fuertes' family from losing the art when he died 
shortly after the expedition in a train-automobile 
accident. C. Suydam Cutting, a wealthy volunteer 
member of the expedition, purchased 115 Abyssinia 
paintings and drawings ft-om Fuertes' widow and 
donated them to The Field Museum. Selections 
from the collection still grace the walls of the 
library's Mary W. Runnells Rare Book Room. 

Tlie Friends ofllie Field Museum Library supports 
the developmettt of its natural history research materials 
and enjoys special programs on such topics as how to 
collect and consent rare books. To join, write 
library_Jriends^ieldmuseum.org, or call 312.665. 7137. 







jnar. 



Fuertes' skills eventually brought requests to join 
expeditions for the American Museum of Natural 
History and the National Museum of Natural 
History (the Smithsonian), among others. His most 
notable work was done on a Chicago Daily News- 
Field Museum expedition to Abyssinia (now 
Ethiopia) in 1926 and 1927. By that time, Fuertes 
had established a new standard in ornithological 
illustration. Many people consider the fruits of this 
expedition — his longest, farthest and last — to be the 
essence of a career that spanned more than 30 
years. 

James E. Baum, a wealthy Chicago writer, con- 
cocted the trip. He wrote in a letter to Fuertes: "If 
a man should come to you and ask, 'What is the 
strangest country in the world today? Where is 
the bird life the most curious and plentifial?' 
you would unquestionably answer both by one 
word — Abyssinia." Baum and Fuertes successftiUy 



IN THE FIELD 



MEMBERSHIP/ ANNUALFUNDNEWS 



Private Viewings of Jacqueline Kennedy Exhibition 



Annual Fund Preview 

Sunday, Nov. 7. For information, visit www.fieldmuseum.org/annualfund, call 312.665.7777 or email 
annualfund@fieldmuseum.org. 

Membership Previews 

Monday, Nov. 8 (llam-10pm);Tuesday, Nov. 9 and Wednesday, Nov. 10 (9am-10pm); Sunday, Nov. 14 and 
Sunday, Nov. 28 (5-1 0pm). 

How to Get Tickets Beyond the Previews 

Since we anticipate a high demand for tickets throughout the exhibition's run, we encourage you to 
reserve advance tickets. The tickets you use for the members-only previews (dates above) will be subtracted 
from the total number of free passes you may obtain during regular public hours. Family members can 
receive up to four passes, and senior, student, individual and National Affiliate members get two passes. 

For tickets, call 312.665.7705, or stop by the membership services desk while supplies last. For general 
membership information, call 312.665.7700. 



Hotel Packages for Family and Friends 

Do you have out-of-town guests interested in seeing Jacqueline Kennedy: The White 
House Years? They'll receive non-timed, non-dated tickets if they stay at one of our 
wonderful hotel partners below. See the Planning Your Visit section of www.fieldmu- 
seum.org/jkennedy for hotel phone numbers and package details. 



Chicago City Centre 

Holiday Inn 
Chicago's Essex Inn 
Days Inn Lincoln Park North 
The Drake Hotel 
Fairfield Inn and Suites 



The Fairmont 

Four Seasons 

Hilton Chicago 

Hotel 71 

Hotel Burnham 

Millennium Knickerbocker 



Palmer House Hilton 
The Raphael 
Ritz Carlton 
Swissotel Chicago 
Tremont Hotel 
Whitehall Hotel 




New Select Series Offers Ultimate 
Jac queline Kennedy Experience 



Hear a lecture by an esteemed Kennedy expert, see the exhibition, shop in our 
specialty store and enjoy a cocktail reception featuring menus inspired by the 
former first lady's White House events — all in one day! The Field IVIuseum's new 
Select Series lets you purchase general admission tickets for $110 or reserved 
seats for $120. Tables of 10 are available. Call the special events department 
at 312.665.7600. 



/ 



An Afternoon with 
Robert Dallel< 

Acclaimed Historian and Author 

Saturday, Nop. 13 

Lecture 2— 3:30pm, exhibition viewing 4-6pm, 

reception 5:30— 7pm 



Defining Style: Jacqueline Kennedy's 
White House Years 

Hamish Bowles, 

European Editor- at-large qfVogue 

Wednesday, Dec. i 

Exhibition viewing 4— 6pm, reception 

5:30-7pm, lecture 7— 8:30pm 



If you're unable to attend a Select Series event, discounted rates are available for groups of 15 or more to 
see the exhibition only. Call the group sales department at 312.665.7300. 




JFK LIBRARY FOUNDATION 



FALL 2004 Seplemher-November 



21 



1 



Rebuilding Your Museum 



The Field Museum is unlocl<ing more doors to fun and learning. 

A new entrance is opening on the Museum's east side this fall. Partly necessi 
tated by reconfigurations to Museum Campus that followed the renovation of 
Soldier Fields the entrance primarily will serve the 300,000 schoolchildren that 
annually make a Museum pilgrimage, as well as guests with special needs and 
strollers. Flowing into the heart of the Museum, the entrance provides a straighter 

route to key amenities, while 
also linking visitors more 
directly to our Museum 
Campus neighbors. 

The new entrance, designed 
in keeping with the original 
neo-Classical architecture, 
was funded in part with a $5 
million grant from the Illinois 
Department of Commerce 
and Economic Opportunity.