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Full text of "Ingersoll's century annals of San Bernadino County, 1769-1904 : prefaced with a brief history of the state of California : supplemented with an encyclopedia of local biography and embellished with views of historic subjects and portraits of many of its representative people"

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San Bernardino County 

1769 to 1904 


A Brief History of the State of California 


An Encyclopedia of Local Biography 

Embellished with Views of Historic Subjects and Portraits of Many of its 
Representative People. 


0|.~j ^^qI l. a. ingersoll 

' _ , , Los Angeles 




The publication of these Annals is the outgrowth of efforts made in 
the year 1898, which contemplated a booklet to cover the history of San 
Bernardino County in concise form, with other information, so arranged as 
to serve the purpose of a guide book. The movement met with due encour- 
agement and support ; but the officially expressed wish of the San Bernar- 
dino Society of California Pioneers, seconded by many good citizens not 
members of that organization, that the history of their "Imperial County" 
might be preserved in some more permanent and fitting form, induced the 
abandonment of the original plan and the adoption of the present one, which 
by suggestion is largelv theirs. 

In preparing this book the aim has been to give a concise history of the 
state, a comprehensive history of the county through all the different stages 
of its development and a biographical record of the men and the women who 
have made this history. Throughout the work I have had the invaluable aid 
of Rose L. Ellerbe, whose signal abilities, literary acumen and untiring de- 
votion to editorial duties have materially contributed to the historical ex- 
cellence of the publication. 

The "Brief History of California" printed as an introduction to the 
County History will, without doubt, be appreciated by the reading public. 
It comes from the pen of a recognized authority upon the history of the 
state. Professor J. M. Guinn, of Los Angeles. 

The Hon. Horace C. Rolfe, has rendered a great service in writing his 
recollections of the Bench and Bar of San Bernardino County. His long 
and continuous residence, his intimate relations with his professional col- 
leagues and his clear memory of past events have made him the fitting per- 
son to do this work. From the inception of my book, Judge Rolfe has 
been constantly referred to for historical facts and consulted upon points 
of uncertainty and the unfailing courtesy and willingness of his responses 
and the valuable information furnished, have placed me under the deepest 
obligation to him. 

The late Miss Eleanor Freeman collected the data and largely prepared 
the history of Ontario before her untimely death, and much credit is due 
to her memory for the careful labor which she expended on her work. The 
history of Highlands was written by E. J. Yokam, one of the first perman- 
ent settlers of that community, who has been in close touch with its develop- 
ment. Mrs. E. P. R. Crafts, of Redlands, furnished much material of value 
concerning the early history of San Bernardino and the East San Bernar- 
dino Valley and of the early churches, particularly the Congregational 


churches of San Bernardino and Redlands. The scholarly article upon the 
Geology of the San Bernardino mountain ranges and San Bernardino Valley 
by the Rev. George Robertson, of Mentone, elucidates a subject upon which 
little has been written. The excellent story of Mill Creek zanja, written 
by Professor Charles R. Paine, gives the reader new facts upon an interest- 
ing subject of hitherto uncertain information. 

A large number of manuscripts, interviews and reminiscences which 
are of great value, since they furnish historical material which would other- 
wise be entirely lost, have been supplied by the pioneer residents of the 
county. The San Bernardino Society of California Pioneers has freely 
opened its archives; Miguel Bustamante, of Agua Mansa; the late Marcus 
Katz, and William McDonald, deceased ; Sheldon Stoddard and the late 
Mrs. Stoddard; Mrs. Harriet Mayfield, W. F. Holcomb, F. T. Perris, John 
Brown, Jr.. Sidney P. Waite, all of San Bernardino ; John Isaac, now of 
Sacramento; Bishop Verdaguer, of Brownsville, Texas; Bethel Coopwood, 
of Loredo, Texas ; Richard Gird, Los Angeles ; E. G. Judson, William M. 
Tisdale, Frank E. Brown, Scipio Craig, Robert Hornbeck, Mrs. E. B. Sey- 
mour, of Redlands ; Dr. James P. Booth and Justice L. V. Root, of Needles, 
as well as many others, have furnished data and personal reminiscences 
which have gone far toward making this work of value and interest. 

One of the most valuable sources of information has been the files of 
the newspapers. It is here we find the most authentic record of local his- 
tory. The files of the following papers and magazines have been con- 
sulted : 

The Los Angeles Star, Los Angeles Library ; The San Bernardino 
Guardian and Argus, furnished by John Brown, Jr. ; The San Bernardino 
Times, from 1879 to 1888, supplied an invaluable fund of information, cov- 
ering that period ; the files of the Redlands Citrograph, from the first pub- 
lication in 1887 to the present, were placed at my disposal by the editor, 
Scipio Craig, and have furnished not only local history, but much valuable 
data on horticultural, agricultural and irrigation topics; the early numbers 
of the Riverside Press and Horticulturist gave data regarding the begin- 
nings of citrus culture and marketing; the early numbers of the Rural Cali- 
fornian supplied much useful information. 

"The Land of Sunshine" and Out West, Overland Monthly, Journal of 
Electricity. Power and Gas; the Colton Chronicle, Redlands Daily Facts; 
Chino Champion, San Bernardino Daily Sun, San Bernardino Times-Index; 
Ontario Observer, and many other newspapers and pamphlets were re- 
ferred to. 

The following authorities have also been consulted : 

History of California, H. H. Bancroft. 

History of California, Theodore H. Hittell. 

Publications of the Historical Society of Southern California. 

On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, Elliott Coues. 

Diary of Padre Juan Crespi, translation published in Los Angeles Times. 


Spanish Colonization in the Southwest, F. W. Blackmar. 

Franciscans in California, Z. Engelhardt. 

Life in California, Alfred Robinson. 

In Pioneer Days, W. H. Davis. 

Reminiscences of a Ranger, Horace C. Bell. 

California in 1839, A. Forbes. 

Old California Days, James Steele. 

Special Reports on Mission Indians, B. D. Wilson; H. H. Jackson. 
Annual Reports of Agents for Mission Indians. 

Present Condition of Mission Indians in California, Helen Hunt Jackson. 

History of San Bernardino Valley, Father Juan Caballeria. 

Ethno-Botany of the Coahuillas, C. P. Barrows. . 

Centennial History of Los Angeles, J. J. Warner. 

San Bernardino County — Its Climate and Resources, W. D. Frazee, 1876. 

History of San Bernardino County, 1883, Warren Wilson. 

History of Southern California, Lewis Publishing Company. 

History of Los Angeles County, Lewis Publishing Company. 

History of Los Angeles County. J. M. Guinn. 

History of Utah, H. H. Bancroft. 

Conquest of New Mexico and California, Col. P. St. George Cooke. 

History of Mormon Battalion, D. Tyler. (This book, which is ex- 
ceedingly rare, was furnished through the courtesy of Dr. J. A. Munk, of 
Los Angeles.) 

The Story of the Death Valley Party, W. Manley. 

Death Valley, John R. Speare.' 

Reports of the State Board of Horticulture. 

Reports of the State Board of Agriculture. 

Orange Culture, Thomas A. Garey. 

Culture of the Citrus in California, B. M. Le Long. 

Irrigation in Southern California. Wm. Hamilton Hall. 

Reservoirs for Irrigation, Domestic Supply and Power, J. R. Schuyler. 

The Water Question in Redlands, William M. Tisdale. 

The Biographical Supplement will doubtless prove not the least valu- 
able feature of the book. It records so much of the personal experience of 
those who have contributed to the material development of this county 
and have borne an honorable part in the direction of its public affairs, that 
it constitutes a fairly comprehensive encyclopedia of local biographical 
reference. These sketches have not been printed for the purpose of gratifying 
the desire of any person to appear conspicuously in print and no compensation 
has been solicited, or received, for such publication. Neither have these 
notices been limited to people who have patronized my enterprise. This 
feature of the work has required a vast amount of labor. More than one 
thousand personal interviews have been made; upwards of two thousand 
personal letters have been written and posted — not to mention the rigid ex- 
actions in the labor of editing the material furnished. The facts, in the 
main, have been gleaned by personal talks with those represented, or with 
relatives of those who have passed away. To insure accuracy the written 
articles have been submitted to those from whom the information was ob- 


tained. In some instances the sketches have not been returned corrected, 
and in such cases errors may have been printed, for which I must disclaim 

The histories of churches and fraternal societies are, in many cases, not 
so complete as I desired, because the necessary data was not obtainable. 

It would hAve been impossible to illustrate the volume so liberally but 
for the public spirit of people who, in many instances, have shared with me 
the burden of expense. 

It is a matter of no little satisfaction that such a work, costing so much 
effort and so large an expenditure of money is, however imperfect, a realized 
fact. I am still further gratified with the thought of having rescued from 
oblivion a historical story which, with the rapid passing of the true pioneers 
and the destruction of other evidences indispensable to the writing of his- 
tory, will soon be entirely out of the reach of human effort, and I trust that, 
to some future historian this work will prove an inspiration, and serve as a 
basis for the more perfect completion of his labors. 

Los Angeles, California, October 19, 1904. 

"No community can claim to be highly 
enlightened which is content to remain 
ignorant of its antecedents, or in other 
words, ignorant of the prime causes that 
have made it what it is." — H. D. Barrows. 






Sandoval's Mythical Island — Jiminez's Discovery — Cortez's Attempts 
at Colonization — Origin of the Name California — Ulloa's Voyage — Cabrillo's 
Discoveries — Francis Drake — Sebastian Viscaino. 



Missions in Lower California — Explorations of Father Kino — Expulsion 
of the Jesuits — Galvez fits out Four Expeditions for Alta California — Father 
Junipero Serra — The Four Expeditions United — 'Founding of San Diego 
Mission — Gov. Portola's Expedition to Monterey Bay — Discovery of San 
Francisco Bay — Founding of San Carlos Mission — Founding of Other Mis- 
sions — Description of Missionary Establishments. 


Military Establishments — Anza Explores Colorado River Route — Agri- 
cultural Colonies, or Pueblos — Founding of San Jose — Founding of Presidio 
at San Francisco — Founding of Los Angeles — Restrictions on Commerce. 
Struggle for Mexican Independence — Bouchard, the Privateer — Hard Times 
in California. 




Transition — Empire — Republic — Royalist Friars — Russians — Other For- 
eigners — Hide Droghers — The Beginning of Revolution. 



Expulsion of Governor Manuel Victoria — Dual Governors — Governor 
Figueroa — The Hijar Colony — Secularization of the Missions — The Pious 
Fund of California — Slaughter of Cattle — Death of Figueroa — Chico — First 
Vigilance Committee — Guitterez Deported. 



The "Hijos del Pais" in Power — The Monterey Plan — California De- 
clared a Free and Sovereign State — Los Angeles Rebels — War Between the 
"Uppers" and the "Lowers" — Los Angeles Surrenders — Carlos Carrillo Ap- 
pointed Governor — Los Angeles the Capital — Alvarado and Castro Invade 


the South— Battle of San Buenaventura — Carrillo Flees to San Diego — Battle 
of Las Flores — Carrillo Surrenders and is Sent Home to His Wife — Alvarado 
Takes the Oath to Support the Constitution'of 1836 — The "Free State" ceases 
to Exist — Alvarado Appointed Governor by the Supreme Government — The 
Graham Affair — Commodore Jones Takes Possession of Monterey. 


Micheltorena Governor — His Army of Convicts — Meets Commodore 
Jones at Los Angeles — His Extravagant Demands — Angelenos Weary of the 
Cholos — On to Monterey — Micheltoreno Establishes Schools — Rebellion 
Against Micheltorena — Bloodless Battle of Cahuenga — Micheltorena Sur- 
renders — Pio Pico Governor — Los Angeles the Capital — Castro's Rebellion. 
Fremont's Arrival at Monterey — Castro's Threat — Fremont Marches North- 
ward — Overtaken by Lieut. Gillespie — Returns — The Bear Flag Revolution. 
Commodore Sloat Raises the Stars and Stripes in Monterey. 



Commodore Sloat Departs — Commodore Stockton in Command- — Fre- 
mont's Battalion Arrives at Monterey and is Sent to San Diego — Stockton's 
Proclamation — Pico and Castro at Los Angeles — Stockton at San Pedro — 
March Against Los Angeles — Fremont and Stockton Join Forces — Flight of 
Pico and Castro — Captain Gillespie garrisons Los Angeles — Revolt of Cali- 
fornians — Gillespie Evacuates Los Angeles — Captain Mervine Arrives at San 
Pedro — March to Recapture Los Angeles — Battle of Dominguez Rancho — 
Defeat of the Americans — Arrival of Stockton at San Pedro — Departs for 
San Diego — Fremonts Battalion Comes Down the Coast — Defeat of Kearney 
at San Pasqual — Stockton and Kearny March for Los Angeles — Battle of 
Paso de Bartolo — Battle of La Mesa — Surrender of Los Angeles — Fremont 
Reaches San Fernando — Treaty of Cahuenga — Fremont Governor — The 
Mormon Battalion — Kearny Governor — Fremont Deposed — Mason in Com- 
mand — Arrival of Stevenson's Regiment — Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo — 
Large Immigration — The Donner Party. 




Discovery of Gold — Rapid Growth — Military Government — Dissatisfac- 
tion — Call for a Convention — Constitution Making — The Great Seal — Elec- 
tion of State Officers — Opposition of Slave-holding Element to the Admission 
of California — A Self-constituted State — Admission into the Union — Great 
Rejoicing in San Francisco. 


Vigilance Committee of 185 1 — Production of Gold — Vigilance Commit- 
tee of 1856 — Filibustering — State Capitals — Civil War — Mining — Cattle In- 
dustry — Railroad Building — Education. 







Spanish Missionaries in New Spain 60 San Bernardino Mission Station 83 

Early History of Indians 72 Later History of Indians 84 

Tribes of San Bernardino County 75 Mexican Rule 84 

Indians Under Mission Rule 76 Our Shame 84 

Description of San Gabriel TJ Coahuilla Chiefs 87 

Mission Settlements in San Bernardino Mojaves in Later Days 89 

County 80 Coahuillas of Today 92 

Politana 81 San Manuel Reservation 94 



Jurupa Grant 95 Irving Affair no 

Agua Mansa 97 El Cajon de Muscupiabe in 

Cucamonga 101 Other Grants 113 

Rancho Santa Ana del Chino 105 San Gorgonio Grant 114 

Battle of Chino 107 

San Bernardino Grant 108 

Indian Troubles no Cattle on a Thousand Hills 

Los Dias Alegres 114 



History of Mormonism 125 First Fourth of July 144 

The Mormon Battalion 126 Troubles Between Mormons and Gen- 
San Bernardino Colony 130 tiles 144 

Organization of Colony 131 Fort Benson 146 

Fort of San Bernardino 133 The Recall 147 

Settlement ■■■••■••■ • .- • ■ ■ ■ ■ • • ■ ■ ■ *35 Character of the Mormons 148 

Segregation of San Bernardino C ountv. . 1A1 „ . T _ 

First Election 14' Captain Jefferson Hunt 149 

The Town of San Bernardino 142 Death Valley Party 151 


A BETWEEN PERIOD— 1858-1875. 

General History 153 The Bee Business 161 

Agriculture iSS Schools 162 

The Town of San Bernardino. 

~rade 157 

Sawmills and Lumbering 158 

Manufacturing 159 First Telegraphic Communication 164 

Mining 161 Railroads 166 


PROGRESSION— 1875-1890. 

General History 167 City of San Bernardino • 168 

Agriculture and Horticulture 168 Expansion — the Boom 169 


Development of Resources 

Public Buildings 


County Divisions 

The Forest Reserve 

Agricultural Experimental Station. 

The Development of Electrical Power. . . 190 

Floods 192 

Drouths 194 

Earthquakes 194 

Rainfall Tables 196 



Agriculture 197 Associations, Packing Houses 212 

Statistics 200 Trade. Marks and Labels 214 

Alfalfa 201 Transportation 215 

Wineries, Canneries and Dried Fruits. .202 Present Situation 215 

Citrus Culture — General History 203 r tr „ e.;„ „„j tt u;i,;»„ „ T i 

Washington Navel Oranges. . . . 20s ? " • Exhibits 216 

First Orange Trees in County 210 Statistics 218 

Marketing of Oranges 211 Horticultural Commission 219 



San Bernardino Valley 223 Bear Valley Reservoir and Bear Valley 

The Water Supply 224 Company 231 

Early Irrigation 224 Arrowhead Reservoir System 237 

Mutual Water Companies 227 Artesian Basin and Wells 239 

The Wright Irrigation District Law. . . .228 Water Litigation 242 



First Travelers 245 Santa Fe Shops 266 

Staging^ and Freighting ... . .246 oil Burning 268 

Railroad History 249 

Southern Pacific 251 

Rate War 269 

Santa Fe System 257 Salt Lake Route 271 



General Review 273 Borax 278 

Bear and Holcomb Valleys 277 The Desert Districts 280 

Lytle Creek District 277 The, Geology of the County 285 



Early History 293 Present Condition 296 

H. C. Brooks 295 Statistics 297 



Early Legal Affairs 299 District Attorneys. Attorneys of Rec- 

First County Judges 300 ord ' ,, 7 

I he Bar of San Bernardino County 302 —. T „ T •, r 

Lis) Of County Judges. Superior Judges, ' lle Lau L,brary ^ 




California in the Civil War 321 First Battalion, Seventh California In- 

Organization of the G A. R 323 f antry u. S . V 331 

W. R. Cornman Post No. 57 325 r v 00 

Woman's Relief Corps 327 

Company K 337 

A Heroine of the War 328 Company G 340 



Ainsworth-Gentry Affair 343 Bear and Holcomb Valleys. . 345 

Piercey-Showalter Duel 344 Crimes 345 



Marcus Katz 348 .Assessment of Louis Rubidoux 365 

Mrs. E. P. R. C. .raft 352 Report of Grand Jury, June 18, 1859 365 

''Father Peter" 353 San Bernardino's Stock Company 366 

Daniel Sexton 357 First and Last May Day Picnic 368 

W. F. Holcomb 357 Some Bear Stories 369 

Captain Joseph Garcia 361 Legends of Arrowhead 374 


Chronological History 377 Postoffice 399 

Banks 387 Schools 401 

San Bernardino Valley Traction Com- Public Library 404 

pany 391 Newspapers 406 

Gas and Electric Company 393 Churches 409 

Water Supply and System 394 Societies 416 

Fire Department 395 Resorts 427 


Old San Bernardino 431 Transportation 491 

Crafton 432 Schools 495 

Lugonia 435 Postoffice 499 

Kenwood Colony 440 Smiley Brothers and Library 501 

The Settlement of Redlands 440 Newspapers 509 

The Town of Redlands 449 Board of Trade 511 

The City of Redlands 455 Visitors 513 

Business Growth 457 Parks, Drives and Resorts 515 

Homes of Redlands 469 Fire Department 518 

Hotels 471 The Saloon Question.... 521 

Water Companies and Water Problem. .476 Women and Their Work 525 

Mill Creek Zanja 483 Churches 529 

Fruit Growing 486 Societies 544 


Charcoal Sketch of Pioneers 548 Fruit Exchange 561 

General History 551 Water Supply 562 

Portland Cement Works 558 Schools 563 

Other Industries 560 Churches 564 



General History 565 Schools 

Water Supply 581 Churches 

Fruit Industry 582 Fraternal Societies 


General History 590 Chino Beet Sugar Factory 595 

Schools 594 How Beet Sugar Is Made 598 



General History 603 East Highland 611 

Irrigation in Highland District 605 West Highland 613 

The Town of Highland 606 Brookings Lumber and Box Co 613 



Cucamonga 615 Rialto 619 

Etiwanda 616 Upland 622 

Iamosa 617 



The Desert 626 The Colorado River 627 

Needles 631 



A Tribute to the Pioneers 637 Mormon Pioneers and Occupants of 

Our Pioneers 638 "Old Fort" 640 

New Mexican Colonists 639 


History of the Society 643 Biographies of Members 649 

Other Pioneers 673 Biographical Supplement 708 


Agua Mansa, Little Church of 98 

Bells of San Gabriel ■jy 

Bear Valley Dam 234 

Bear Valley Reservoir Site 232 

Cabrillo 69 

Camp Rochester 274 

Chapel, San Bernardino Mission 82 

Court House, San Bernardino 62 

Court House, Old 177 

County Officials — 1874 160 

Colton Pioneers 548 

Colton, Business Corner 550 

Chino, Gird School House 594 

Desert Dwellers 626 

Fort Benson 146 

Fort San Bernardino 132 

Grist Mill, Built by Mormons 136 

La Praix Sawmill 158 

Lugonia in 1881 435 

Mojave Buck 76 

Mormon Council House 143 

Needles Smelter 280 

Old Fire Engine 396 

Ontario, General View 575 

Ontario, Gravity Street Railway 578 

Original Plat of San Bernardino 142 

Redlands and Lugonia, From the 

Heights, 1890 442 

Redlands, From 'Canyon Crest Park.... 451 
Junction of Citrus Ave., Orange and 

Cajon Sts 454 

State Street, 1890 461 

Casa Loma • ■ 475 

Prospect Park 515 

Residence A. C. Burrage 469 

Residence J. W. England 846 

Rose Brand 489 

Smiley Library 430 

Rialto, First Congregational Church. .. .619 

San Bernardino in 1852 124 

San Bernardino City High School 292 

Pavilion 384 

Public Library 378 

Masonic Temple 417 

First M. E. Church 410 

St. Paul's M. E. Church 409 

San Bernardino Whoop 263 

Salt Lake Officials 270 

"Shorty" 90 

Stage Advertisements 248 

Uplands, Hotel Algonquin 623 

Victorville, Bridge 628 


Alvarado, Francisco 638 

Amos, J. Wayne 662 

Andreson, John Sr 380 

Andreson, John Jr 423 

Armstrong, Royal M 865 

Bagley, Malon A 716 

Bailey, Charles F 843 

Bandini, J uan 96 

Barton, Dr. Ben 156 

Barton, John H 887 

Bedford, Alfred D., M. D 815 

Benjamin, Isaac 710 

Black, Simon H 747 

Blakeslee, Henry D 866 

Bledsoe, Benjamin F....-- 312 

Bledsoe, Robert E 314 

Boggs, William S 713 

Boren, A D 300 

Boren, Wilford A 664 

Bradford, Daniel M 678 

Brazleton, James A 682 

Breed, Dr. J. B 471 

Brookings, J. E 614 

Brooke, Henry C . .295 

Brown, Frank E 230 

Brown, John Sr 637 

Brown, John Jr 646 

Brown, Philo R 446 

Brush, Frederick M 877 

Bublitz, G. H ■•... .715 

Bustamante, Miguel 99 

Byrne, John J 264 

Campbell, John Lloyd 309 

Carlisle, Robert 108 

Chaff ey, George B 566 

Clapp, T. J. S 717 

Clarke E. P 572 

Clock, Charles L. . . . 542 

Clusker, Charles C . . 698 

Conn, W. A iy 

Colton, D. R 563 

Conner, Henry 807 

Conrad, F. W 402 

Cook, George A • ■ 438 

Coopwood, Bethel 304 

Cornman.VW. R 326 

Corwin, W. S 612 

Cox, Mr. and Mrs. S. C, Sr 706 

Cox, Mr. and Mrs. S. C, Jr 706 

Cov, Louis 1 718 

Crafts, Mrs. E. P. R S3i 

Crafts, M. H 665 

Craig, Scipio 508 

Craig, Dr. and Mrs. William 538 

Cram, Lewis F 675 

Curtis, Robert T 423 

Curtis, William 711 

Daniels, H. H. 

Davies, Benjamin 
Davis, John W. Sr. 



Davis, John W. Jr 829 

Denman, A. C. Jr 392 

Desmond, Louis A 608 

Drew, H. L 382 

Duckworth, Thomas W 808 

Dunham, Edward L 709 

Dunn, Frederick W 746 

Ellerbe. Rose L 62 

England. J. W 847 

Esler, Fred J 885 

Fisk, John P 464 

Flagg, John . . 879 

Fowler, . Benjamin 875 

Fowler, Charles D 773 

Fowler, William T 453 

Fox, William R., M. D 553 

Freeman. INI i s s Eleanor 565 

Galbreath, Mr. and Mrs. Brenton K 850 

Garcia, Joseph S 362 

Gay lord, Cass 844 

Gazzola A. B 339 

Gibson, James A 311 

Gilbert, Milo 554 

Gifford, Charles T 494 

Girard, Isaac C 863 

Gill, Joseph B 790 

Gird, Richard 592 

Gird. Mrs. Richard 596 

Glatz, Albert 398 

Glover, J'. B 182 

Godfrey, William M 701 

Godf rev, Mrs. Lucia 701 

Goff, T. H 335 

Goodcell, Henry Jr 806 

Goodcell, Henry Sr 866 

Graham, E. S 472 

Graham, H. L 512 

Green, Thomas J 828 

Gregg. Frederick W 805 

Gregory, John 696 

Gregory, Mrs. Mary 696 

Guernsey. Henry A 854 

Guinn, J. M 1 

Gustafson, Victor 595 

Haight, Ira C 842 

Haight, L. G 488 

Hamilton, Rev. J. F 539 

Harbison. R. C 407 

Harris, O. W 884 

Hartzell. Joshua 222 

Hattery, J. L 327 

Hattery. Mrs. J. L 787 

Hayes, Benjamin 306 

Hayes. Samuel J 478 

Henderson, Win. McD 681 

Henderson, Mrs. Isabel 681 

Hixon, William ? 830 

Holcomb, W. F 358 

Holt. L. 


Holt, W. F 522 

Hubbard, A. G 

Hubbard, Francis M 

Huff, Samuel G, M. D 820 

Humeston, Monroe W 778 

Hunt, Capt. Jefferson 150 

Huntington, C. P 252 

Hutchings, James 809 

Ingersoll, L. A. (Frontispiece) 

Ingersoll, Joseph 883 

Isaacs, John 257 

Jacobs, Lewis 386 

Jacobs, B. H 543 

Jennings, Thomas R 864 

Jensen, Cornelius 674 

Jensen, Mercedes Alvarado 674 

Johnson, A. .K., M. D 816 

Johnson, Mrs. F. M 180 

Johnson, J. F. Jr 857 

Jones, Isaac 774 

Keir, Mr. and Mrs. Alexander 704 

Kelley, Stephen F 399 

Keuniston, Almyra Moses 886 

King, Lyman M 511 

Knight, Augustus Sr 670 

Knox, John T 400 

Kurtz, Christian 697 

Leeke, William T 624 

Leonard, Frank A 811 

Lester, Edward 699 

Light, J. E 547 

Liles, Abraham B 783 

Linville, H. H 712 

Lockwood, Dr. William E 535 

Lord, George 642 

Lord, Isaac W 1 76 

Luce, G. W 256 

Lytle, Andrew 126 

Lyman, Amasa 130 

Marshall, Seth 741 

Martin, Earnest 804 

Martin, H. B 408 

Martin, W. P 621 

Mashek, V 765 

Mayfield, Mrs. Harriet 685 

McDonald, Alexander 797 

McDonald, William 667 

McKinley, Mr. and Mrs. J. R 763 

McKie. R. M 598 

McManus, Edward 839 

MeNealy, W. T 301 

McPherron, A. S 293 

Mellen. T. J 714 

Meredith, Wm. M 782 

Mever, John, M. D 819 

Milliken. Daniel B 788 

Millikin, Henry L, D. D. S 822 

Mnnaghan, Frank 632 

Morris, Cramer B 812 

Murphy, M. A 556 

Nichols, Frederick C 793 

Nisbet, Henry W 808 

Norton, W. A 764 

Noyes, W. T 604 



Oakey, J. L 389 

Oster, F. F • -3i8 

Otis, George E 3*5 

Owen, Charles E 660 

Paddock, Aland B 794 

Paine, Mr. and Mrs. Chas. R 803 

Paris, Andrew B 316 

Pease, S. A 220 

Perris, Fred T 259 

Petsch, J. B Adolph 618 

Pettijohn. Ernest A 780 

Pfeiffer, Louis A 845 

Phillips, Louis 840 

Phillips, Mrs. Louis 842 

Pine, Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Jr 605 

Pine, Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Jr 696 

Pittman, Henderson, M. D 813 

Polhemus, Jacob 799 

Prescott, Frank C 332 

Rabel, Mrs. E. A 692 

Rabel, Henry 690 

Rains, John 103 

Randall, Wm. Henry 880 

Rasor, E A 39-4 

Reeves, Truman 708 

Rich. Chas. C, 131 

Rich, Joseph E 422 

Richardson, N. A 4°3 

Robbins, Ellison 294 

Roberts, J. W 388 

Roberts, E. D 390 

Roberts, Wm. M 876 

Robertson, Rev. George R 285 

Rolfe, H. C 298 

Root, Leroy V 631 

Rubio, Andrew 580 

Satterwhite, John W 3°7 

Searles, John W 276 

Sepulveda, Diego 109 

Shaw, Rev. Mark B 834 

Shaw, Hon. David A 658 

Shorey, F. A N87 

Shuman, Abraham W 77° 

Sibley, Mr. and Mrs. B. E 620 

Slaughter, Mr. and Mrs. F. M 663 

Slaughter, Frank E 792 

Sloat. Maj. 0. P 33' 

Smiley, Albert K 502 

Smiley, Alfred H 506 

Smith, Hiram H 800 

Smith, Lewis T]\ 

Smith. Wm. M., M. D 814 

Smithson, Mr. and Mrs. J. B 656 

Sparks, Q. S 303 

Spring, A. D 562 

Squires, J. P 7i9 

Starbuck, Granville Ellis 869 

Steele, Robert C 827 

Steinbrenner. Prof. Leopold 754 

Stevenson. O. M 397 

Stillman, Dr. J. D. B 427 

Stoddard, Mr. and Mrs. Sheldon 654 

Stowell, N. W 568 

Suess, J. J 459 

Suttonfield, G. W 657 

Swarthout, Mr. and Mrs. Nathan 661 

Sweet, Mr. and Mrs. 57° 

Thomas, Calvin L 648 

Thompson, Albert. M. D 821 

Thompson, Wesley, M. D 818 

Thurman, Mr. and Mrs. Sylvanus 760 

Tisdale, Wm. M 498 

Troxall, Francis P., M.* D 817 

Tuck. J. W 870 

Tyler, Hoell, M. D 546 

Underwood, E. J 34 1 

Van Frank, M. H 751 

Van Luven, Earl F =;6i 

Vardaguer. Father Peter 354 

Vestal, W. L 323 

Wade, K. H 268 

Waite, Everett R 425 

Wagner, W. D 423 

Waters, Byron 308 

Waterman, R. W 179 

Weeks, Mr. and Mrs. John C 873 

Wells, Curtis 482 

Wells, Karl C 480 

West, J. H 634 

Westland, W. C 625 

White. Theo. F 183 

Wilcox, W. W 560 

Williams, Col. Isaac 104 

Willis, Henry M 305 

Wilsey, Mr. and Mrs. E S 802 

Wilson. John S 832 

Wilson, J. W 462 

Wiltshire. J. E 777 

Wood, Adolph 2^37 

Woodward. De La M 165 

Wright, W. H 784 

Wozencraft. Oliver M 686 

Wyatt, H. C 468 

Young, Nicholas S 769 


Abbey, Charles C 862 

Adams, Charles E 715 

Adams, S. H 720 

Alford, John 713 

Allen, Jared Ethan 747 

Allen, Halsey W 805 

Allen, Oliver A 721 

Alvarado, Francisco 674 

Alverson, David B 719 

Alvidson, Fred 709 

Ammann, F. X 711 

Amos, John Wayne 662 

Anderson, Casper 716 

Anderson, John Y 680 

Anderson, Louis 832 

Andreson, John Sr 693 

Andreson, John J'r 708 

Andrews, Joseph 707 

Aplin, Alfred M 709 

Arborn, Robert 701 

Armstrong, John S 715 

Armstrong. Royal M 865 

Atwood, George Arnold 705 

Atwood, Henry L 837 

Babson, John W 881 

Bagley. Malon A 816 

Bagnell, J. H 769 

Bailey, Charles F 843 

Bailey, Dwight B 724 

Baillie, Fred H 726 

Baker, Calvin 727 

Baker, Dr. Ira S 823 

Bandini, Juan 96 

Barker, George H 723 

Barrett, S. H 745 

Barton, Dr. Benjamin 677 

Barton, H. M 723 

Barton, John H 886 

Bates, Nelson S 868 

Baxter, James 1 740 

Bean, W. H 722 

Bedford, Alfred D., M. D 815 

Bedford, Lyman N., D. D. S 815 

Behlmer, John Peter 775 

Bemis, Edwin 702 

Bemis, Levi A 702 

Bemis, William 702 

Benjamin, Isaac 710 

Bennette, John T 740 

Bennington, Thomas R 740 

Bennink, Cornelius G. H 739 

Benson, Alfred William 705 

Bentien, Troels F 736 

Berryman, Robert F 744 

Bessant, Joseph H 707 

Black, Simon H 747 

Blair, W. J 727 

Blakeslee, Henry D 866 

Bledsoe, Benjamin F 313 

Bledsoe, James Blair 730 

Boalich, George 733 

Bodenhamer, William J 722 

Boggs, William Stewart 713 

Bohannon, Charles H 725 

Bohnert, Henry 713 

Booth, Dr. James 725 

Boren, Alley Dennis 664 

Boren, Beverly C 664 

Boren, Wilford A 664 

Borthwick, John P 730 

Bowler, Robert L 743 

Bradford, Daniel McKenzie 678 

Bradford, James .745 

Brazleton, James A 682 

Breed, Dr. J. B 734 

Brenell, C. W 738 

Brenner, John F 729 

Briggs, E. J .729 

Brimmer, Porter 733 

Brink, Charles Edwin 739 

Bristol, F. M 839 

Bristol, Irvin 838 

Brookings, John Emory 731 

Brookings, Walter Dubois 732 

Brooke, Henry C 295 

Brooks, James S 745 

Brooks, S. F 728 

Brown, Charles T 731 

Brown, David Rowland 738 

Brown, James R 728 

Brown, John Sr 649 

Brown, John Jr 651 

Brown, Philo R 745 

Browning, John F 833 

Bruckman, Rudolph A 743 

Brunn, I. R 689 

Brush, Frederick M 877 

Bublitz, G. H 715 

Bufnngton, Mrs. Susan C 737 

Bunting, Samuel J 743 

Burgess, Clarence W 724 

Burkhardt, Charles 739 

Burrage, Albert C 742 

Butterfield, Minor C 768 

Byrne, John J 834 

Byrne, Mathew 684 

Cadd, Thomas 697 

Campbell, John Lloyd 309 

Campbell, Samuel R 303 

Canterbury, Milton F 869 

Cantwell, Mathew B 729 

Carpenter, Daniel J 739 

Carroll, James 744 

Carson, Milton L 733 

Cave. William Pemberton 714 

Chaffee. Edwin P 738 

Clapp, T. J'. S 716 

Clark, Albert H 304 



Clark, A. R 715 

Clark, John D 705 

Cleghorn, John M 866 

Cleghorn, Mathew 867 

Clemmons, Coston P 813 

Clemmons, Thomas Benton 816 

Clock, Charles L 735 

Clothier, Alfred T 748 

Clucker, Charles C 698 

Coburn, James A 705 

Cole, Frank H 732 

Coleman, Leonidas W 7>8 

Collier, Albert A 74° 

Colli ver, Dr. Jefferson T 824 

Colliver, Dr. John A 824 

Conner, Henry 807 

Conrad, Francis W 720 

Consolidated Abstract Co 73 1 

Cook, George A 804 

Cook, Marion L 718 

Coopwood, Bethel 3°4 

Corwin, Walter S 612 

Cox, J. H 736 

Cox, Silas C 706 

Coy, Louis 1 718 

Crafts, Myron H 665 

Crafts, Mrs. E. P. R 665 

Craig, Scipio 831 

Craig, Dr. William 726 

Cram, Henry 676 

Cram, Lewis F 676 

Cruickshank, William 718 

Cunningham, George D 73° 

Cunningham, John D 727 

Currier, L. G 736 

Curtner, James 735 

Cushing, David J 734 

Curtis, Jesse William 809 

Curtis, Robert T 7" 

Curtis, William 7" 

Curtis, William Jesse 3 11 

Daley, Edward Sr .656 

Daley, J'udson M 683 

Dalgliesh, Orrin W 716 

Daniels, H. H 737 

Darrow, Clyde 7*7 

Davenport, N. 736 

Davies, Benjamin A 877. 

Davies, William H, M. D 820 

Davis, John W. Jr 829 

Davis, Lewis Smith 7 J 2 

Davis, William Watson 769 

Dav, Asa 732 

Day, Edwin M 732 

Dean, Otis 734 

Decrow, Albert A 744 

Decrow, George W 744 

Delphey, William H 734 

Desmond, Louis A 720 

Des Noyers, Vincent 733 

Denton, Richard A 719 

Dickey, Clarence D, M. D 818 

Dickey, Dudley R., M. D 66r 

Donald, D. M 769 

Downer, Jonathan 721 

Downey, William A 707 

Driskell, Joseph 717 

Driver, J. W 885 

Duckworth, Thomas W 808 

Dunham, Edward L 709 

Dunn, Frederick W 746 

Easton, W. H. H 734 

Edwards, James 748 

Edwards, William 772 

Elam, Charles S 772 

Elam, Tilman F 772 

Elkins, Samuel L 777 

England, J. W 847 

Esler, Fred J 885 

Evans, M. H 755 

Ewing, Thomas A 77° 

Fabun, Clark S 681 

Fay, John Lyman 680 

Fish, Gail B 75 1 

Fisk, John P 722 

Flagg, John 879 

Fleming, James 802 

Folz, Walter F 753 

Foote, Ephraim S 753 

Ford Byron 700 

Fowler, Benjamin 875 

Fowler, Charles D 773 

Fowler, George S 773 

Fowler, William T 755 

Fox, William R., M. D 812 

Foy, Charles W 859 

Foy. John M 859 

Franklin, Reuben H 73° 

Frazer, Charles L 863 

Frazer, Guy L 863 

Freeman, Miss Eleanor 766 

Freeman, W. R, M. D 818 

Frink, Alonzo M 7°3 

Frink, Horace Monroe 7°3 

Frink, Marcus L 703 

Fuller, Elijah P 753 

Fuller, Joseph P 694 

Fuqua, John M 756 

Galbreath, Benton K 850 

Garcia, Joseph S 361 

Garner, B. F 859 

Gass, Octavius Decatur 694 

Gaylord, Cass 844 

Gazzola, A. B 860 

Gibson, James A 3" 

Gifford, Charles T 812 

Gilbert, Milo 755 

Gilbert, J. D 668 

Gill, Joseph B 791 

Girard, Isaac C 863 

Gird. Richard 599 

Glasgow, N. B., D. D. S 815 

Glass, Mrs. A. M 844 

Glass, Zachariah, M. D 816 

Glatz, Albert 751 



Glover, James B 686 

Godfrey, William M 701 

Gooding, Leonard 732 

Goodrich, W. H .862 

Goodcell, Henry, Jr 806 

Goodcell, Henrv, Sr 666 

Goff, T. H 750 

Gray, Robert W 77° 

Green, Thomas J 828 

Gregg, Frederick W 805 

Gregory, John 696 

Grow, Samuel L 753 

Grundy, Isaac 671 

Guernsey, Henry A 854 

Gustafson, Victor 710 

Guthrie, Harrison H., M. D 822 

Hadden, Thomas 765 

Hagerman, Harrison W 763 

Haight, Ira C 842 

Haile, Smith C 798 

Halsey, Robert J 826 

Hamer. N. J 752 

Hamerly, John W 750 

Hamilton, Charles B 757 

Hamilton, John W 746 

Hamilton, Rev. J. F 721 

Hammer, Carl 748 

Hanford, J. J 761 

Harbison, R. C 836 

Harmon, Frank H 719 

Harris, C. S., M. D 824 

Harris, O W 886 

Harris, Will A 807 

Hart, Dr. O. P 821 

Hartley, Seth 787 

Hartman, Hiernonymus 835 

Hartzell, Joshua 766 

Harwood, A. P 749 

Harwood, Charles E 749 

Hattery, Lewis 787 

Hattery, Jeremiah L 787 

Hauck, Michael 766 

Haven, George D 835 

Hayden, George B 752 

Hayes Benjamin 306 

Hayes, Samuel J 752 

Heap, J ames 703 

Hebberd, M. A 754 

Hecht, Milton E .754 

Henderson, William McD 680 

Henderson, William T 787 

Hendrickson, Nelson T 868 

Henslee, George Thomas 788 

Hill, Claudius M 748 

Hill, William 749 

Hixon, William 830 

Hoagland, Lucas 667 

Hobbs, William A 683 

Holcomb, William F 651 

Holden, John A 736 

Holt, W. F 756 

Hooper, William Swayzer 837 

Houghton, Lazona D 750 

Hubbard, A. G 781 

Hubbard, Frances M 881 

Hubbard, Walter 750 

Huff, Jacob 752 

Huff, Samuel G.. M. D 820 

Hughes, Henry S 873 

Humphrey, David T 748 

Humeston, Monroe W 778 

Hunt, Ambrose 6qi 

Hunt, F. M 788 

Hunt, Captain Jefferson 149 

Huntoon, William 770 

Hutchings, James 809 

Illingsworth, James 872 

Ingersoll, Joseph 883 

Ingersoll, Luther A 881 

Ingersoll, Thurlow 885 

Ives, Willis C 836 

Jacobs, Bernard H 764 

Jacobs, Lewis 678 

Jackson, Alden 302 

James, William C 844 

Jansen, Chris 860 

Jennings, Thomas R 864 

Jensen, Cornelius 673 

Jessen, Christian 737 

Johndrew, Joseph 67o 

Johnson, A. K., M. D 816 

Johnson, Charles N 804 

Johnson, Emil 764 

Johnson, Frank M 786 

Johnson, J. F. Jr 857 

Jones, Alonzo E 671 

Jones, Henry H 728 

Jones, J. P 759 

Jones, Isaac 774 

Jones, W. H 765 

Jordan, George 729 

Katz Marcus 659 

Keir, Alexander 704 

Kelley, Stephen F 799 

Kellogg, T. D. Dr 817 

Kendall, George T 774 

Kenniston, Almyra M 886 

Kincaid, Madison Moss 789 

King, John C 776 

Kingsbury, Rev. Chas. A 773 

Knight, Augustus, Sr 670 

Knight, Augustus, Jr 772 

Knoblaugh, John N 775 

Kohl, O. H 723 

Kohl, Walter 723 

Kouts, Jacob W 775 

Kuesthardt, G. W 855 

Kurtz, Christian 697 

Kylling, George P 773 

Lackey, Thomas H 725 

La Follett, Charles F 774 

LaNiece, James 784 

Lamar, C. P 768 



Lamar, W. F 768 

Lane, J'. Lansing 779 

Langford, Julius D , . . . .804 

La Praix, William S 683 

Lathrop, Asel A 672 

Laurance, John 839 

Leach, E. E 783 

Leahy, Patrick H 785 

Leavens, John W 786 

Leedom, Andrew J '. 781 

Leeke, William T 747 

Leffen, John Tempest 672 

Leonard, Frank A 811 

Lester, Edward 699 

Letts, Archie D 860 

Lewis, Judson 797 

Lewis, Silas J 780 

Levick, William R 660 

Light. John E 808 

Lightfoot, W. E. W 768 

Liles, Abraham B 783 

Lindner, Charles H 781 

Linfesty, J. P 783 

Linville, Henry Herbert 712 

Little, Samuel M 759 

Littlepage, Louis W 798 

Littlewood, William 860 

Lockwood, Dr. William E 792 

Loehr, William 781 

Logsden, W. H 863 

Longmier, Charles W 789 

Longmier, Rufus E 789 

Lord, George 649 

Loubet, J. P 775 

Louthian, R. L 833 

Lugo, Antonio Maria 108 

Lujan, Manuel 686 

Lyman, Cornelius 772 

Lyman, Eugene H., D. D. S 824 

Lyman, Lorenzo Snow 684 

Mack, J. A. M. D 824 

Magill, C. W 758 

Mark, Julius 785 

Marr, Joseph S : 757 

Marshall. Seth 741 

Mart, John A 797 

Martin Earnest 804 

Martin, E. 1 728 

Martin, Frank B 762 

Martin, H. B 833 

Martin, Howard J 759 

Martin, John S 862 

Martin, Moses 704 

Martin, Robert J 730 

Martin, William P 761 

Matinez, . ..ntonio Jose 704 

Mashek, V 765 

Mayfield, John 685 

Mayhew, J. T 697 

Meyhew, Jesse 695 

McBride, John 798 

McCain, John R 874 

McCain, W. P 759 

McConnell, Clyde E 856 

McDonald, Alexander 797 

McDonald, John 785 

McDonald, William M 667 

McGarvey, John A 778 

McGarvey, George N 778 

Mcintosh, Thomas W 77g 

McKie, R. M 796 

McKinley, J. R 763 

McKinzie, William H 859 

McLain, Henry L 724 

McManus, Edward 8^9 

McNally, Henry J. 758 

McPherron, Asbury S 757 

McRae, George W 798 

McWelthy, Marshall 828 

Mecham, Augustus 861 

Mecham, George F 861 

Mecham, Lafayette 669 

Mellen, Thomas J 714 

Mellon, J. A 775 

Menkin, John R 826 

Meredith, William M 782 

Meserve, Frank P 864 

Mespelf, August 767 

Meyer, Christopher 782 

Meyer, Henry 795 

Meyer, John H., M. D 819 

Middlemiss, Robert H 767 

Miller, George 879 

Milhken, Daniel B 788 

Millikin, Henry L., D. D. S 822 

Mills, James W 758 

Miner, Arthur D '. .874 

Moffatt, James 794 

Moffatt, Thomas 794 

Mogle s Harvey E 874 

Monaghan, Frank 731 

Monaghan, Patrick 838 

Moore, F. C 779 

Morris, Cramer B 812 

Morrison, Frank P 861 

Morse, Clement Ray 756 

Morse, Henry 689 

Mort, Joseph 758 

Moyse, Maurice 797 

Muel, David C 786 

Murphy, M. A 776 

Myers, Winifred A 786 

Newcomb, Leroy E 778 

Nichols. Frederic C 793 

Nisbet, Henry W 808 

Nish, J. N... 870 

Noble, John 869 

Norton, W. A 764 

Noyes, William Tobey 795 

Nye, William E 795 

Oakey, John Lewis 837 

Oehl. Julius 767 

Oster, Frank F 3M 

Otis, George E 315 


Oweger, Frank 767 

Owen, Charles E 660 

Oxley, W. E 795 

Packard, O. M 777 

Paddock, Aland B 794 

Paine, Charles R 803 

Painter, Dr. Edwin Thomas 843 

Paris, Andrew B 316 

Parker, Edward C 763 

Parker, Lemuel 723 

Parks, Arthur 687 

Parrish. Enoch K 726 

Pate, James W 871 

Payton, J. E., M. D 819 

Peacock, Dr. J. C 658 

Pease, Stillman A 771 

Peck, James W 796 

Perris, Fred T 858 

Peters, Emanuel 871 

Petsch, J. P. Adolph 762 

Pettijohn, Earnest A 780 

Pfeiffer, Louis A 84s 

Phillips, Louis 839 

Pickett, William 304 

Pine, Edward 696 

Pine. Myron 697 

Pine, Samuel C, Sr 695 

Pine, Samuel C, Jr 696 

Pittman, Dr. Henderson 813 

Polhemus, Jacob 799 

Polhemus, William 799 

Poole, Edward 707 

Poole. James H 838 

Poppett, Robert 671 

Porter, Burton S 765 

Porter, L E 767 

Powell, John Clark 796 

Pozell, W. B 762 

Prader, Thomas 761 

Pratt, Dr. Armstrong C 819 

Pratt, James Ellis 668 

Preciado. Antonio P 860 

Prescott, Frank C 810 

Rabel, Frederick H 601 

Rabel, Henry 691 

Rabel, Hiram D 691 

Randall. William Henry 880 

Rapp, Christ 767 

Rasor, C. M 876 

Rasor. E. A 876 

Reed. H. A 877 

Reirl. E. W., M. D 823 

Reimers, Reimer 785 

Reimers, Francis 786 

Rcnwick, George 877 

Reynolds. William 838 

Reeves. Truman 708 

Rhea, A. R„ M. D 823 

Rhodes, Edwin 796 

Rich, Joseph E 855 

Richardson, D. Hartley 8=7 

Richardson, E. E 880 

Richardson, Noble Asa 8s2 

Richardson, W. W 880 

Richenberger. Louis 856 

Rightmier, William C 826 

Riley, Joseph H 845 

Robarts, Orlando Perry 858 

Roberds, R. Thomas 653 

Roberts, Berry 667 

Roberts, Edward David 711 

Roberts, J. W 710 

Roberts, William M 876 

Robertson, Rev. George 849 

Robidoux, Louis 100 

Robinson, William Henry 674 

Rohrer, Charles H 874 

Rolfe, Horace C 305 

Root, Leroy V 858 

Ross, Thomas Benton 825 

Rouse, Charles A 759 

Rubio, Andrew 693 

Ruedy, Charles 850 

Sandoz, Henry 783 

Satterwhite, John W 307 

Schaefer, Jacob W 866 

Scheerer, Clem 872 

Schindler, B 778 

Scott, Josiah P 852 

Scott, L. S 760 

Schlott, Dwight C 852 

Schumacher, Charles 859 

Searles, John W 679 

Sell, William 828 

Sexton, Daniel 357 

Seymour, Mrs. Ellen Brown 726 

Shafer, William E 867 

Shaw, John Gerald 717 

Shaw, Rev. Mark B 834 

Shaw, David Augustus 658 

Shay, Walter A, Sr 662 

Shay, Walter A., Jr 664 

Sheld, Leander 851 

Sherlock, George K 791 

Shephard, George 860 

Sholander, Peter 864 

F. A. Shorey . . 887 

Shuman, Abraham W 770 

Siblev, Benjamin E 826 

Skinner, William W 82s 

Skinner, George P 868 

Slade, E. W 848 

Slaughter, Frank E 702 

Slaughter,. Fenton M 663 

Sloan, Joseph G 8s,3 

Sloat, O. P 85.1 

Smiley, Albert K 507 

Smiley, Alfred H .so? 

Smith, Burgess W 801 

Smith, Lewis H 771 

Smith, Hiram H 801 

Smith, Howard B 721 

Smith, John Hartley 833 

Smith, William M., M. D 814 

Smithson. John Bartley 65s 



Snow, H. L 789 

Sparks, Q. S 302 

Spring, Adolphus D 867 

Squires, Josiah P 719 

Starbuck, G. E 869 

Starke, August Henry 8v 

Stearns, A. G 869 

Steele, James B 827 

Steele, Robert C 827 

Steele, William A 827 

Steinbrenner, Leopold 754 

Stewart, Jerre F 874 

Stewart, Munroe 672 

Stewart, William B 86s 

Stewart, William 867 

Stevenson. O. M 702 

Stiles, Edward 1 703 

Stillman, J. D. B.. M. D 861 

Stine, Charles R 872 

Stine, Rollie A 872 

Stine, William A. S72 

Stoddard, Sheldon 653 

Stroven, Henry 791 

Stuart, Zebulon B 811 

Sutherland, John H 774 

Suttonfield, George W 657 

Swarthout, Nathan 661 

Sweesey, Mathias V 875 

Swinney, Robert H 868 

Tasker, B. W 853 

Taylor, John 694 

Terrell, W. P 849 

Thaxter, George E 848 

Thayer, P. L 849 

Thomas, A. B 876 

Thomas, Calvin L 6=9 

Thomas, Charles F 8s7 

Thompson, Dr. Albert 821 

Thompson, Robert S 794 

Thompson, Wesley, M. D 818 

Thorns, Charles F 857 

Thornton, Hugh 853 

Throop. W. S 871 

Thurman. Svlvanus 760 

Tibbott. C. E 871 

Tisdale, William M 842 

Tittle, John H 879 

Tolle, Robert S 874 

Troxall. Francis P., M. D 817 

Tuck. J. W 870 

Turner, George N 871 

Turner, John W 791 

Turner, John C 851 

Turner, Robert 851 

Tyler, Charles N 698 

Tyler, Charles Y 702 

Tyler, J. B 699 

Tyler, Hoell, M-. D 813 

Vale, Milton 838 

Van Frank, M. H 751 

Van Leuven, Anson 679 

Van Leuven, Orson 680 

Van Leuven, Lewis F 865 

Van Luven, Earl F 799 

Van Slyke, W. E 855 

Verner, Peter 848 

Victor, J. N 82s 

Wagner, Joseph H 831 

Wagner, Walter Douglas 831 

Waite, Everett R 855 

Waite, Edward R 829 

Waite, Russell .8^6 

Wallace, William 727 

Wallin, John V 702 

Walsh. Henry A 856 

Warner, Henry Clay 816 

Warren, Alva" A.... 670 

Waters, Byron 308 

Watson, Charles D., M. D 819 

Watson, James B 865 

Watt, Robert F 84s 

Watts. George E 789 

Weaver, Duff G 66q 

Weaver, Warren 66o 

Weir, Cyrus D 848 

Weir, Richard 671 

Weimar, George 839 

Weeks. John Carter 873 

Welch, Charles Courtney 793 

Wells, Karl C 746 

Wells, Louis 703 

Weller, James Edward 853 

West, John H 836 

Westland, W. C 870 

White. D. W.. Dr 814 

Whiting, D. G 830 

Wickersham, Levi 829 

Wilcox, W. W 837 

Wilkinson, Ralph E 848 

Wilkinson, Samuel J ' 849 

Williams, Isaac 105 

Williams, J. R. .0 831 

Willis, Henry M 305 

Wilsey, Edwin S 802 

Wilson, Benjamin D 99 

Wilson, H. B 832 

Wilson. John S 832 

Wilson. John W 833 

Wilson. Sylvester K 873 

Wiltshire, Joseph E 777 

Windle, Stephen M 79» 

Woodward. De La M 65S 

Wozencraft, Oliver M., Dr 686 

Wright. W. H 784 

Yerkes. Tames H 755 

Yokam, E. J 801 

Young, Nicholas S 769 

Zeus. Carl C 836 




Acequia, ditch canal. 
Administrador, administrator. 

Agua, water. 

Alabado, hymn in praise of the sacrament. 

Alegres, joyful. 

Aliso. alder tree. 

Arroba, 25 pounds. 

Arroyo, stream or stream bed. 

Ayuntamiento. body of magistrates. 

Baja, below. 

El Benito, prayer used in Catholic service 

Blanco, white. 

Bueno, good. 

Cajon, box, chest. 

Campo santo, graveyard. 

Capilla, chapel. 

Carreta. cart. 

Castillo, fort. 

Cienega, marsh. 

Ciudad. city. 

Compadre, friend, comrade. 

Dias, days. 

Deputation, deputy, committee. 

Embarcadero, embarking in a ship. 
Espanol, Spaniard. 
Ensenada, creek, small bay. 

Fandango, dance. 

Frey. father of a religious order. 

Frijoles, beans. 

Junta, assembly. 

Juez del campo, Judge of the plains 

Lomeras, ridges of hills or mountains 

Manteca, lard, fat. 
Matanza, slaughter-yard. 
Mayor-domo, steward, overseer. 
Metate, a curved grinding stone. 
Mezcal, a liquor made from the maguej 

Ojo, eye. 

Olla, a round earthern pot, a stew. 

Oso, bear. 

Padre, father. 
Palacio, palace. 
Pais, country. 
Pesos, dollars. 
Plaza, square, market p 
Presidio, garrison, fortn 
Primer, first. 
Pronunciamiento, publ 

Puebl& town. 


Ramada. a brush house or shed 

Rancheria. an Indian village 

Ranchita, small ranch. 

Rancho, farm, range. 

Real. coin. 

Rebosa, shawl. 

Reglemento, regulation. 

Riata (Reata). rope, lasso. 

Seco, dry. 

Serritos, hills. 

Soberano, sovereign, supreme. 

Sobrante, residue, left over. 

Tortillas, litttle cakes, pancakes. 

Vara, 33.385 inches. 

Vaqucro, cow-keeper. 

Vinero, one who cares for vin=s. 

\'iva, hurrah. 

Verba, herh. 

Brief History of California 

By J. M. GUINN, A. M. 

Curator of the Historical Society of Southern California. Secretary of Pioneers 

Society of Los Angeles, Cal. Member of the American 

Historical Association. 



Romance enters into the story of California with its very beginning. 

When Gonzales de Sandoval, in 1524, gave Cortes an account of a wonderful 

island, ten days westward from 
the Pacific coast of Mexico, in- 
habited by women only, and ex- 
ceedingly rich in pearls and gold, 
he no doubt derived his informa- 
tion from Montalvo's romance, 
"The Sergas of Esplandian." 
Cortes seems to have given cred- 
ence to his lieutenant's story, and 
to have kept in view the discov- 
ery of this wonderful island, Cali- 
fornia. The discovery by For- 
tuuo Jiminez, in 1534, of what is 
now known as the peninsula of 
Lower California, but which was 
then supposed to be an island, no 
doubt confirmed in Cortes' mind 
the truth of Sandoval's story told 
him a decade before. For, did 
not the island of Jiminez, like the 
island in Montalvo's fiction, lie 
on the right hand of the Indies — 
or of where the Indies were 

then supposed to be? Pearls were found on it and gold, and — the Amazons 

must be there, too. 

Fortuno Jiminez, the discoverer of Lower California, was chief pilot 

on one of the two ships which Cortez, in 1533, fitted out to explore the 


northwest coast of Mexico. A mutiny broke out on the ship commanded 
by Becerro de Mendoza. Mendoza was killed and his friends forced to go 
ashore at Jalisco. The mutineers, commanded by Jiminez, sailed westerly 
away from the coast of the main land. After several days' sailing out of the 
sight of land they discovered what they supposed to be an island. They landed 
at a place now known as La Paz, in Lower California, and there Jiminez 
and twenty of his followers were killed by the Indians. The few survivors 
of the ill-fated crew managed to navigate the vessel back to Jalisco where 
they reported the discovery of an island rich in pearls. 

Cortes, hearing the report and probably believing the island to be the 
California of the story, fitted out an expedition to colonize it. With three 
ships and a number of soldiers and settlers, he landed in May, 1535, at the 
place where Jiminez was killed, which he named Santa Cruz; but instead of 
an island peopled with women who lived after the manner of the Amazons 
and whose arms and trappings were made of gold, he found a sterile coun- 
try inhabited by the most abject and degraded of human beings. Disaster 
after disaster fell upon the unfortunate colony. Some of the ships sent to 
bring supplies were wrecked and others driven out of their course. Some of 
the colonists died from starvation before the supplies reached them and others 
died from overeating afterward. After two years of struggling against mis- 
fortune, Cortes abandoned the attempt and the wretched colonists were 
brought back to Mexico. Thus ended the first attempt to colonize Cali- 

Sometime between 1535 and 1537 the name California was applied to the 
land still supposed to be an island ; but whether Cortes applied it in the hope 
of encouraging his colonists, or whether the country was so named in de- 
rison. is not known. The name was subsequently applied to all the land 
along the Pacific Coast northward to 42 degrees, the limit of the Spanish 

The vast unexplored regions to the northward of that portion of Mexico 
which he had conquered had a fascination for Cortes. He dreamed of finding 
in them empires vaster and richer than those he had already subdued. For 
years he had fitted out explorations by sea and by land to explore this terra 
incognita; but failure after failure wrecked his hopes and impoverished his 
purse. The last of these parties sent out by him was the one commanded bv 
Francisco de Ulloa. Ulloa, in 1539, sailed up the Gulf of California on the 
Sonora side to its head, and then down the inner coast of Lower California 
to the cape at its extremity which he doubled and then sailed up the outer 
coast to Cabo de Engano (Cape of Deceit). Here the two vessels of the expe- 
dition, after being tossed and buffeted by head winds, parted companv in a 
storm. The smaller, the Aguedo, returned to Santiago. Of the other, the 
Trinidad, directly under Ulloa's command, nothing is definitely known, nor 
of ITlna's fate. The only thing accomplished bv this vovasje was to demon- 


strate that California was a peninsula, although even this fact was not fully 
accepted for two centuries after this. 

Cortes returned to Spain in 1540, where after vainly trying to obtain 
from the king some recognition of his services and some recompense for his 
outlay, discouraged, disappointed and impoverished, he died. 

The next voyage which had anything to do with the discovery and ex- 
ploration of California was that of Hernando de Alarcon. With two ships, 
he sailed from Acapulco, May 9, 1540, up the Gulf of California, or Sea of 
Cortes, as it was sometimes called. His object was to co-operate with Coro- 
nado. The latter with an army of four hundred men, had marched from 
Culiscan, April 22, 1540, to discover and conquer the "Seven Cities of Cibola," 
which the romancing friar, Marcos de Niza, "led by the Holy Ghost" and 
blessed with a fertile imagination, claimed to have seen somewhere in the 
wilds of what is now Arizona. Alarcon, at the head of the gulf, discovered 
the mouth of a great river. Up this river, which he named the Buena Guia — 
now the Colorado — he claimed to have sailed eighty-five leagues. He was 
probably the. first white man to set foot in territory now included in the state 
of California. 

While Coronado was still absent in search of the "Seven Cities" and of 
Quivera, a country rich in gold, lying somewhere in the interior of the conti- 
nent, the successor of Cortes entered into a compact with Pedro de Alvarado, 
governor of Guatemala, who had a fleet of ships lying at anchor in the harbor 
of Navidad, Mexico, to unite their forces in an extensive scheme of explora- 
tion and conquest. An insurrection broke out among the Indians of Jalisco 
and in trying to suppress it, Alvarado was killed. The return of Coronado 
dispelled the myths of Cibola and Quivera and put an end to further ex- 
plorations of the interior regions to the north of Mexico. 

By the death of Alvarado, Mendoza became heir to his ships and it be- 
came necessary to find employment for them. Five ships were placed under 
the command of Ruy Lopez de Villalobos and sent to the Islas de Poniente 
(Isles of the setting sun — now Philippines) to establish trade with the 
natives. Two ships of the fleet, the San Salvador and the Vitoria, were 
placed under the command of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and sent to explore 
the northwest coast of the Pacific. He sailed from Navidad June 2~, 1542. 
Rounding the southern extremity of the peninsula of Lower California, he 
sailed up its outer coast. On August 20th he reached Cabo de Engano. the 
most northern point of Ulloa's exploration. Continuing his voyage along the 
coast, he discovered a number of bays and islands. On September 28. 1542, 
Cabrillo entered a bay called by him San Miguel, now known as San Diego 
bay. October 3d, after three days' sailing, he discovered the islands, now 
known as Santa Catalina and San Clemente, which he named San Salvador 
and Vitoria, after his ships. From the islands, on October 8th, he crossed to 
the mainland and entered a bav which he named Bahia de los Fumos (Bav 


of Smokes), now San Pedro bay. The bay and mainland were enveloped in 
smoke from the burning of the dry grass on the plains which was periodically 
set on fire by the Indians to drive out the small game. On October 9th, 
Cabrillo anchored in a large ensenada, or bight, supposed to be what is now 
Santa Monica bay. Sailing northwestward he passed through the Santa 
Barbara Channel and discovered the islands of Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and 
San Miguel. Continuing up the coast he found a long narrow point of land, 
extending into the sea, which from its resemblance to a galley boat, he called 
Cabo de la Galeria — the cape of the Galley — now Point Concepcion. Novem- 
ber 17th, he doubled Point of Pines and entered Monterey Bay, which he 
named Bahia de los Pinos — the Bay of Pines. Finding it impossible to land 
on account of the heavy seas, he proceeded northward until he reached a point 
on the coast in 40 degrees north latitude, as he estimated. On account of 
cold weather and storms, he turned back and ran down to San Miguel, where 
he decided to winter. Here, from the effects of a fall, he died January 3, 
1543, and was buried on the islands. His companions named the island Juan 
Rodriguez, after the brave commander, but subsequent navigators have 
robbed him of this small honor. The discoverer of California sleeps in an 
unknown grave. 

The command of the expedition devolved on Bartholome Ferrelo, chief 
pilot. Ferrelo prosecuted the voyage of discovery with a courage and daring 
equal to that shown by Cabrillo. On February 28th he discoverd a point of 
land which he named Cape Mendocino in honor of the Viceroy — a name that 
it still bears. Passing this cape he encountered a furious storm which drove 
him violently to the northeast and greatly endangered his ships. On March 
1st the fogs lifted and he saw Cape Blanco, in the southern part of what is 
now Oregon. The weather continuing stormy and the cold increasing, 
Ferrelo was compelled to turn back. He ran down the coast and reached the 
island of San Clemente. Here, in a storm, the ships parted and Ferrelo, after 
a search, gave up the Vitoria as lost. The ships, however, came together 
again at Cerros Islands and from there, in sore distress for provisions, they 
reached Navidad April 18, 1543. 

The next navigator who visited California was Francis Drake, an Eng- 
lishman. He was not so much seeking new lands as a way to escape capture 
by the Spaniards. Francis Drake, the sea-king of Devon, and one of the 
bravest men who ever lived, sailed from Plymouth, England, December 13, 
1577, in command of a fleet of five small vessels on a privateering expedition 
against the Spanish settlements on the Pacific coast. When he sailed out 
of the straits of Magellan into the South Sea, he had but one ship, the Golden 
Hind, a vessel of one hundred tons burden; all the others had been lost or 
had turned back. With this small ship he began a career of plundering among 
Spanish settlements that for boldness, daring, and success, has no equal in 
the world's history. The quaint chronicler of the voyage sums up the pro- 


ceeds of his raids at "eight hundred and sixty-five thousand pesos of silver, 
a hundred thousand pesos of gold and other things of great worth." Plunder- 
ing as he went he reached the port, Guatulco, on the Oaxaca coast. Surfeited 
with spoils and his ship laden to her fullest capacity, it became a necessity for 
him to find some other way of returning to England than the one that he 
came. In the language of the chronicler, "he thought it was not good to re- 
turn by the straits, lest the Spaniards should attend for him in great num- 
bers." So he sailed away to the northward to find the "Straits of Anian," 
which were supposed to connect the North Pacific with the Atlantic. For 
two hundred years after the discovery of America navigators searched 
for that mythical passage. 

Drake, keeping well out to sea, sailed northward for two months. The 
cold, the head winds and the leaky condition of his vessel compelled him to 
turn back. He sailed down the coast until he found a fit harbor under the 
lee of a promontory, now known as Point Reyes. Here he repaired his ship, 
took formal possession of the country in the name of his sovereign, Queen 
Elizabeth, and named it New Albion from a fancied resemblance to Old 
Albion (England). 

He had his chaplain, Parson Fletcher, preach a sermon to the natives. 
The savages were not greatly impressed with the sermon, but were delighted 
with the psalm singing. After a stay of thirty-six days, on the 23rd of 
July, 1579, Drake sailed for England by the way of Cape Good Hope. After 
an absence of nearly three years during which he had circumnavigated the 
globe, he reached home safely and was knighted by Elizabeth. Drake sup- 
posed himself to be the discoverer of the country he named New Albion. 

Sixty years passed after Cabrillo's voyage before another Spanish ex- 
plorer visited California. The chief object of Sebastian Viscaino's voyage 
was to find a harbor of refuge for the Philippine galleons. These vessels on 
their return voyage sailed northward until they struck the Japan current 
which they followed across the ocean until they sighted land in the vicinity of 
Cape Mendocino, then sailed down the California coast to Acapulco. Vis- 
caino sailed from Acapulco, May 5, 1602, with three ships and 160 men. He 
followed substantially the same course that Cabrillo had taken. November 
10th he anchored in Cabrillo's bay of San Miguel, which he named San Diego 
in honor of his flag ship. He remained there ten days, then sailed up the 
coast and on the 26th, anchored in a bay which he named Ensenada de San 
Andres, but which is now San Pedro bay, named — not after the apostle Saint 
Peter — but for St. Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, who suffered martyrdom 
November 26th, A. D. 368. From the mainland he passed over to an island 
which he named Santa Catalina — this was Cabrillo's San Salvador. Viscaino 
also changed the name of Cabrillo's Vitoria to San Clemente. He then 
sailed through a channel, to which he gave the name Santa Bar- 
bara, and visited the different channel islands. He found many towns on the 


main land but did not stop to visit them. The natives came oft" in canoes to 
visit the ships and one enterprising chief, as an inducement to the Spaniards 
to stop at his town, offered ten wives to each man who would visit him. 
After passing Point Concepcion, heavy fogs obscured the land. On the 16th 
of December, Viscaino rounded the Point of Pines and entered a bay to which 
he gave the name of Monterey, after the viceroy who had fitted out the expe- 
dition. The scurvy — that scourge of the sea in early times — had broken out 
on his ships and sixteen had already died. The San Thomas was sent back to 
Acapulco with the sick; twenty-five died on the way and only nine reached 
their destination. With his two remaining ships, the San Diego and the 
Tres Reyes (Three Kings), Viscaino continued his voyage northward. He 
saw Cape Blanco — discovered and named by Cabrillo — and at this point 
turned back. The scurvy had made fearful inroads on his crew. The Tres 
Reyes had become separated from the flag ship and sailed about one degree 
further north than Viscaino himself reached. On her return voyage her two 
commanders and all the crew except five, died of the scurvy. After eleven 
months absence, Viscaino reached Mazatlan, having lost nearly half of 
his crew. 

Viscaino wrote the king a glowing account of the harbor of Monterey and 
the adjacent country, which he pictured as almost a terrestrial paradise. His 
object was to induce the king to establish a settlement on Monterey bay. 
In this he was doomed to disappointment. Delay followed delay until hope 
had vanished. Finally in 1606 orders came from Philip III to the viceroy to 
fit out immediately a new expedition for the occupation and settlement of 
Monterey, of which Viscaino was to be made commander. In the midst of 
his preparations for the dearest object of his life, Viscaino died, and the expe- 
dition was abandoned. Had it not been for Viscaino's untimely death a 
colony would have been planted on the Pacific Coast of California a year 
before the first English settlement was made on the Atlantic Coast of 
North America. 

Two hundred and twenty-seven years had passed since the ships of 
Cabrillo had first cut the waters that lap the shores of Alta California, and yet 
through all these years the interior of the vast country wdiose sea-coast he 
had visited remained a terra incognita — an unknown land. For more than 
two centuries the Manila galleons had sailed down the coast on their return 
voyages: but after the death of Viscaino and the colonization scheme that 
died with him, no other attempt had been made to find'a refuge on the Cali- 
fornia coast for the storm-tossed and scurvy-afflicted mariners of the Philip- 
pine trade. 



The Jesuits began their missonary work among the degraded inhabitants 
of Lower California in 1697. Under their devoted leaders, Salvatierra, Kino, 
Ugarte, Piccolo and their successors, with a perseverance and bravery that 
were highly commendable, they had founded sixteen missions on the penin- 
sula. Father Kino, or Kuhn, besides his missionary labors, had made between 
1697 and 1702, explorations around the head of the gulf of California and up 
the Colorado to the mouth of the Gila which had clearly demonstrated that 
the peninsula was part of the mainland instead of an island as was still 
thought by some. Father Kino formed the design of establishing a chain of 
missions around the head of the gulf and down the inner coast line to Cape 
San Lucas, but did not live to complete his ambitious project. The Jesuit 
missions of Baja California never grew rich in flocks and herds. The country 
was barren and the few fertile valleys around the missions gave the padres 
and neophytes, at best, but a frugal return for their labor. 

For years there had been growing up in Spain a strong hostility to the 
Jesuits, which finally resulted in the issuance of a decree by Carlos III, in 
1767, banishing the order from that country and its American possessions. 
Without previous warning the monks in California were forced to abandon 
their missions and hurried from the country. The missions were turned over 
to the Franciscan order. At the head of the Franciscan contingent that came 
to California to take charge of the abandoned missions, was Father Junipero 
Serra, a man of indomitable will and great zeal. 

Don Jose de Galvez, visitador general of New Spain, had been sent to 
the peninsula to regulate affairs — both secular and ecclesiastical — which had 
been thrown into disorder by the sudden expulsion of the Jesuits. He had 
also received orders to advance the scheme for the occupation and coloniza- 
tion of San Diego and Monterey in Alta, or Nueva California. Galvez was a 
man of energy and of great executive ability. As soon as he had somewhat 
systematized matters on the peninsula, he set vigorously to work to further 
the project of occupying the northern territory. Father Serra entered heartily 
into his plans and church and state worked together harmoniously. Galvez 
decided to fit out four expeditions — two by sea and two by land. These were 
to start at different dates but all were to unite at San Diego and after occupy- 
ing that place, pass on to Monterey. 

On January 9, 1769. the San Carlos sailed from La Paz with sixty-two 
persons on board, twenty-five of whom were soldiers under Lieutenant Fages. 
She carried supplies for eight months. On the 15th of February, the San 
Antonio sailed from Cape San Lucas, with two friars — Vizcaino and Gomez 


on board beside the crew, and a few mechanics. The first land expedition 
started from Velicata, the most northern settlement in Lower California, on 
March 24th. It was commanded by Rivera y Moncado, and consisted of 
twenty-five soldiers, forty-two natives and Padres Crespi and Canizares. The 
last expedition which was under the immediate command of Governor Gaspar 
de Portola, left Velicata, May 15th. It consisted of ten soldiers with a band 
of Lower Californians and was accompanied by Father Serra. 

The San Antonio, although the last to sail was the first to arrive. She 
cast anchor in San Diego bay, April 11, 1769. The San Carlos, after a most 
disastrous voyage, drifted into the harbor on April 29th. The crew were 
prostrated with scurvy and there were not enough well men to man a boat to 
go ashore. The sick were landed, but when the scourge had run its course 
there were but few of the crew left. Rivera's land expedition, after an 
uneventful march, reached San Diego. May 14th. On the first day of July, 
Portola's command arrived and the four divisions aggregating 126 persons 
who had come to remain, were united. The ravages of the scurvy had so 
depleted the crews of the two vessels that only enough men remained to man 
one vessel. The San Antonio was sent back to San Bias for supplies and a 
crew for the San Carlos. A third vessel, the San Jose, named for the patron 
saint of the California expedition, had been fitted out by Galvez and loaded 
with supplies for the missionaries. She was never heard of after the day 
of sailing. 

On July 16th, Father Serra formally founded the first mission in Nueva 
California, which was dedicated to San Diego de Alcala — St. James of 
Alcala — a Franciscan friar who died in 1463 and was canonized in 1588. On 
July 14th, Governor Portala with Padres Crespi and Gomez and a force made 
up of soldiers and natives of Lower California, numbering in all sixty-five 
persons, set out from San Diego to go overland in search of Monterey bay 
and found the intended mission and settlement there. The route of the 
expedition was mainly along the coast, with an occasional divergence inland. 
On the second of August they camped on the future site of Los Angeles. 
Along the coast of the Santa Barbara Channel they found many Indian vil- 
lages, some quite populous. The explorers passed by Monterey bay without 
recognizing it and traveled along the coast to the north. On November 
2nd, some of the hunters of the party climbed a hill and saw what they 
termed a "brazo de mar," an arm of the sea. This is the body of water thai 
we know as San Francisco bay. Their provisions were exhausted and many 
were sick. The expedition turned back and, following the trail it had made on 
the northward journey, reached San Diego in January, 1770. Portola's expe- 
dition had failed in its object — to found a mission on the harbor of Monterey, 
but it had accomplished a far greater feat, it had discovered the bay of San 

In April, 1770, Portola set out again with a force of twenty-five soldiers 


and natives for Monterey. At the same time Father Serra sailed on the 
San Antonio for the same destination. On June 3, 1770, the mission of San 
Carlos Borromeo de Monterey was formally established on the beach, with 
solemn church ceremonies, accompanied by the ringing of bells, the crack of 
musketry and the roar of cannon. Father Serra conducted the services and 
Governor Portola took possession of the country in the name of the king of 
Spain — Carlos III. A presidio, or fort, of palisades, was built and a few huts 
erected. Portola, having formed the nucleus of a settlement, turned over the 
command of the territory to Fages and sailed to Lower California on the San 
Antonio, July 9, 1770. This was the end of his term as governor. The Mis- 
sion of San Carlos, shortly after its founding, was transferred to the Carmelo 
valley, about five miles from its former site. 

The third mission, founded by Junipero Serra was that of San Antonio 
de Padua, June 14, 1771. It was located on a branch of the Salinas river in 
a beautiful oak-covered valley. The bells were hung from a live oak tree and 
rung loudly; a cross was erected and President Serra said a mass beneath a 
shelter made of branches ; but there were no Indians there to hear it. The 
patron saint of the mission, San Antonio de Padua, was born in Lisbon, 1195, 
and died at Padua 1231, and was canonized in 1232. His day in the church 
calendar is June 13th. 

The fourth mission established was that of San Gabriel de Arcangel on 
the San Gabriel River, then known as the San Miguel. The founders, Padres 
Somera and Cambon, with a supply train of mules set out from San Diego 
August 6th ; following Portola's trail they reached the river San Miguel, 
where a spot was selected and the mission founded, September 8, 1771. In 
1775, the site was removed five miles north from its first position. The Padres 
made slow progress at first in the conversion of the Indians. The soldiers 
stationed at the missions as a guard were a bad lot and abused the natives. 
Although christians, their morals were, if anything, worse than those of 
the heathen. 

The fifth mission established was that of San Luis Obispo (St. Louis, 
the Bishop), founded September 1, 1772, by Father Serra. The mission sys- 
tem may now be considered as firmly established in California. Father Serra 
went to Mexico in 1773 and secured a number of concessions favorable to the 
missions and an increase of supplies. With increased supplies and an addi- 
tional force of missionaries, the work of founding new missions progressed 
rapidly. The following list gives the names and the date of founding of the 
twenty-one missions established in California, excepting those already named: 
San Francisco, October 9, 1776; San Juan Capistrano, November 1, 1776; 
Santa Clara, January 18, 1777; San Buenaventura, March 31, 1782; Santa 
Barbara, December 4, 1786; La Purisima Concepcion, December 8, 1787; Santa 
Cruz. August 28, 1791 ; La Soledad, October 9, 1791 ; San Jose, June 11, 1797; 
San Juan Bautista, June 24, 1797; San Miguel, July 25, 1797; San Fernando 


Rey, September 8, 1797; San Luis Rey de Francia, June 13, 1798: Santa Inez, 
September 17, 1804; San Rafael, December 14, 1819; and San Francisco de 
Solano, August 25, 1823. 

It was not the intention of the Spanish government that these estab- 
lishments should remain permanently as missions. According to the law. 
at the end of ten years from the founding of each mission it was to be con- 
verted into a municipal organization, known as a pueblo or town, and the 
property of the mission, both personal and real, was to be subdivided among 
the neophytes of the mission. But the training the natives received at the 
missions did not fit them for self-government. They were forced to labor 
and were instructed in some of the ceremonial observances of the church ; 
but they received no intellectual training and they made no progress. The 
padres persistently urged that the neophytes were incompetent to use and 
manage property. During the time California was subject to Spain no at- 
tempt was made to secularize the missions. In form the different mission 
buildings resembled one another. Col. Warner thus describes them : "As 
soon after the founding of a mission as the circumstances would permit, a 
large pile of huildings in the form of a quadrangle, composed partly of burnt 
brick, but chiefly of sun-dried ones, was erected around a spacious court. A 
large and capacious church which usually occupied one of the outer corners 
of the quadrangle was a conspicuous part of the pile. In this mission build- 
ing, covered with red tile, was the habitation of the friars, rooms for guests 
and for the mayor-domo and their families, hospital wards, store-houses 
and granaries." A guard of four or five soldiers was kept at each mission 
to control the neophytes. Each establishment held possession of large tracts 
of land contiguous to its buildings. These lands were divided, for con- 
venience, into ranchos, over which roamed vast herds and flocks under 
charge of Indian vaqueros. The lands were supposed to be held in trust by 
the padres for their Indian wards and were to be divided among the neophytes. 
Some of the brighter Indians at each mission were taught mechanical trades 
and became fairly good blacksmiths, weavers, tanners, shoemakers, saddlers 
and brickmakers. The Indian received for his labor, food and scanty cloth- 
ing. All the profits of these vast establishments, holding as they did in some 
cases, millions of acres of land in their possession, went to the padres. 

The neophytes, for the most part, were docile and easily managed, but 
sometimes they rebelled. At the mission of San Diego, November 4. 1775, 
three or four renegade neophytes stirred up a rebellion among the "gentile" 
population outside of the mission who attacked the mission in large numbers, 
killing one of the friars and two of the mechanics stationed there. The other 
friar and the five soldiers escaped after a desperate fight. 



For the protection of the missions and to prevent foreigners from en- 
tering California, military posts, called presidios, were established at San 
Diego, Monterey, Santa Barbara and San Francisco. These enclosures 
were in the form of a square and were surrounded by adobe walls ten or 
twelve feet high. Within were the officers' quarters, the soldiers' barracks, 
a guard house, chapel, granaries, or storehouses. A military force, usually 
consisting of one company was stationed at each post under the command 
of a lieutenant or captain. The largest force was kept at Monterey, the 
capital of the territory. The governor, or commandante-general, who, under 
Spanish rule, was always an army officer, was commander-in-chief of the 
troops in the territory. The principal service of the soldiers was to keep in 
check the neophytes, to protect the missions from the incursions of the "gen- 
tiles" or wild Indians and to capture deserting neophytes who had escaped 
to their unconverted relatives. 

The mission fathers were opposed to the colonization of the country by 
white people. They well knew that the bringing of a superior race into con- 
tact with a lower would result in the demoralization of the inferior race. 
As rapidly as they could found missions they arrogated to themselves all the 
choice lands within the vicinity of each establishment. A settler could not 
obtain a grant of land from the public domain if the padres of the nearest 
mission opposed the action. The difficulty of obtaining supplies from Mexico 
for the soldiers at the presidios, necessitated the founding of agricultural 
colonies in California. Previous to 1776, the governor of "Las Californias" 
as the country from Cape San Lucas to the most northern point of the Span- 
ish possessions was called, resided at Loreto, in Lower California. In that 
year the territory was divided into two districts and a governor appointed 
for each. Felipe de Neve, who had succeeded Felipe de Barri in 1774, was 
made governor of Nueva California, of which Monterey was designated as the 
capital; and Rivera y Moncada was appointed governor of Lower California, 
to reside at Loreto. 

Hitherto all expeditions to California had come either, by the coast route, 
up the peninsula, or by the sea. but in 1774. Captain Juan Bautista de Anza, 
commander of the Tubac presidio in Sonora, with a company of thirty-four 
men. explored a route by the way of Gila and Colorado rivers across the desert 
and through the San Gorgon-io Pass to San Gabriel mission. On his return 
to Sonora, he recruited a second expedition composed of soldiers and set- 
tlers and their families, aggregating in all over two hundred persons, who 
were designed to found a mission and establish a presidio on the San Fran- 


cisco bay. After a long and toilsome journey this party reached California 
in 1776. On the 17th of September, 1776, the presidio of San Francisco was 
formally established and on the 9th of October following, the mission 
christened for the founder of the Franciscan order of friars, San Francisco 
de Asis, was founded. 

Governor Felipe de Neve, on his journey overland in 1777 from Loreto 
to Monterey, was instructed to examine the country from San Diego north- 
ward and select locations for agricultural settlements. He chose two colony 
sites, one in the south, on the Rio de Porciuncula, where Portala's expedi- 
tion had camped in August, 1769, and named by Portala, "Nuestra' Sefiora de 
Los Angeles," and the other in the north on the Rio de Guadalupe. 

On November 29, 1777, Governor de Neve founded the pueblo of San 
Jose on the site selected on the Guadalupe. The colonists were nine soldiers 
from the presidios of Monterey and San Francisco and five settlers of Anza's 
expedition. These with their families made a total of sixty-six. The site 
of the pueblo was about a mile north of the present site of the city of San 
Jose. Each settler was given a tract of irrigable land, a house lot. a soldier's 
rations and ten dollars a month. Each head of a family received a yoke of 
oxen, two horses, two cows, a mule, two sheep and two goats, a few farming 
implements and seed for sowing. The colonists were to reimburse the royal 
treasury for all the articles furnished them except their rations and monthly 
pay. Payments were to be made in installments from the sale of fruits, grains 
and cattle to the presidios. 

A Spanish pueblo contained four square leagues, either oblong or in the 
form of a square. The public lands were divided into stiertes, or planting 
fields — so called because they were divided among the colonists by lot; 
propios, lands rented for the purpose of raising a municipal fund ; dehesas, 
or the great pasture lands, where the herds of the pueblo pastured in com- 
mon and the realengos, or royal land, also used for raising revenue. Wood 
and water were communal property. 

Under Spanish domination the pueblo was governed by a comisionado, 
a semi-civil, semi-military officer. There was also an alcalde who was 
mayor and petty judge. A guard of soldiers were kept at the guard house, 
partly for protection against the Indians and partly to preserve peace in 
the pueblo. 

In 1779, Rivera y Moncada, the governor of Lower California, was in- 
structed to recruit in Sonora and Sinaloa settlers for the founding of a pueblo 
on the Rio Porciuncula and soldiers for the founding of a presidio and mission 
on the Santa Barbara channel. The settlers were to receive each $106.50 for 
two years and $60 for the next three years, the payment to be in clothing 
and other necessary articles at cost price ; also they were to receive live stock, 
farming implements and seeds, to be paid for in installments. These libera! 
offers secured but few recruits and those of poor quality. After a year spent 


in recruiting, Rivera had secured but fourteen settlers. Two of these de- 
serted before the company left Sonora and one was left behind at Loreto when, 
in April, 1781, the expedition began its march up the peninsula. The colon- 
ists under command of Lieutenant Zuniga, arrived at San Gabriel, August 
18th, where they remained until September 4th. The eleven settlers and their 
families — forty-four persons in all, escorted by Governor de Neve and a small 
guard of soldiers and accompanied by the priests of San Gabriel mission, on 
September 4, 1781, proceeded to the site previously selected for the pueblo. 
This was on the right bank of the Rio Porciuncula near the spot where 
Portala's explorers had celebrated the feast of "Nuestra Sefiora de Los 
Angeles de Porciuncula," from which circumstance was derived the name 
of the pueblo and the river. A plaza, seventy-five by one hundred varas, 
was laid off on the mesa above the river as the center of the settlement. A 
mass was said by the priests of the mission, a procession was formed and 
marched around the plaza, the soldiers bearing the imperial standard of 
Spain and the women the image of "Our Lady of the Angels." The priests 
blessed the plaza and the house lots. The services over, the governor and 
his escort took their departure and the colonists were left to work out their 

Another pueblo called Branciforte was founded in 1797 near Santa 
Cruz, but it never prospered. The settlers were discharged soldiers, unused 
to labor and adverse to acquiring industrious habits. 

A few grants of land were made to private citizens, but substantially, 
during the Spanish era, all the land outside of the pueblos' used for grazing 
or for cultivation was held by the missions. 

The commerce of California at this period was limited to the supply 
ships of the missions which usually came twice a year from San Bias with 
supplies for the missions and presidios and took away the few commercial 
products of the country, such as otter skins, hides and tallow of cattle. 
About 1800 trie American smugglers began to come to the coast. ,The vessels 
engaged in this trade were principally from Boston and were fast sailing 
craft. They exchanged Yankee notions for otter skins. The authorities 
tried to suppress this illicit traffic but were not often successful. The vessels 
were heavily armed and when not able to escape the revenue officers by speed 
or stratagem were not averse to fighting themselves out of a scrape. 

Of the long and bloody struggle for Mexican Independence, beginning 
with the insurrection led by the patriot priest, Hidalgo, in 1810, and con- 
tinuing under various leaders for eleven years, but little was known in Cali- 
fornia. The men who filled the office of territorial governor during the years 
of the fratricidal struggle — Arillaga, Arguella and Sola — were royalists and 
so were the mission padres, nearly all of whom were Spanish born. The 
soldiers and the common people knew but little about what was going on in 


the world beyond and cared less. They had no ambition to be freed from 
monarchical rule — they, too, were loyal to the king and the church. 

The one event that disturbed the placidity of life in California during 
the closing years of the Spanish rule was the appearance on the coast of 
Bouchard, a privateer, with two frigates heavily armed. Bouchard was a 
Frenchman cruising under letters of marque from the insurgent government 
of Buenos Ayres, against the Spanish. He entered the harbor of Monterey, 
November 21, 1818, probably to obtain supplies, but being coldly received, 
he fired upon the fort. The Californians made a brave resistance but were 
finally overpowered. Bouchard landed and sacked and burned the town. 
He next appeared at Ortega's rancho, where he burned the buildings. Here 
the Californians captured three prisoners who were exchanged next day, 
when Bouchard anchored off Santa Barbara, for one Californian whom the 
insurgents had captured at Monterey. Bouchard next visited San Juan 
Capistrano. where his "pirates" drank the padres' wine and then he took his 
departure from California. Four of Bouchard's men were left in California. 
They became .permanent residents. They were Joseph Chapman, an Ameri- 
can, and Fisher, a negro, who were captured at Monterey; John Ross, a Scotch- 
man, and Jose Pascual, a negro, who deserted at San Juan. Chapman was 
the first American resident of Southern California. He married Guadalupe 
Ortega, a daughter of the owner of the Refugio rancho, which was plundered 
by the insurgents. He settled at the mission San Gabriel and built there the 
first flour mill erected in California. 

The war of Mexican Independence caused hard times in California. The 
soldiers received no pay and the mission supply ships came at long intervals. 
Money was almost an unknown quantity. There were products to sell but 
no one to sell them to — except an occasional smuggler, or a tallow ship from 
Peru. The Independence of Mexico was finally achieved, September 21, 
1821, by the insurgent army under Agustin Iturbide. 




Pablo Vicente de Sola was governor of California when Mexico attained 
her independence from Spain. He was of Spanish birth and was bitterly op- 
posed to the Revolution, even going so far as to threaten death to any one 
who should speak in favor of it. Although the rule of Spain in Mexico was 
overthrown in September. 1821, it was not until March, 1822, that official 
dispatches reached Sola informing him that the "Sovereign Council of the 
Regency of Imperial Mexico" was the governing power. The "Plan of 
Iguala." under which Iturbide finally overthrew the Spanish power, con- 
templated the placing of Fernando VII on the throne of the Mexican Empire, 
or. if he would not accept, then some scion of the royal family of Spain. 
Such a termination to the revolution did not jar Sola's loyalist sympathies. 
He called a junta to meet at Monterey and on the nth of April the oath was 
taken to the new government and the day was closed with a blare of artillery, 
music and an illumination in honor of the "Soberano Junto." 

But Sola's royalist sympathies received a rude shock a few months later 
when news reached California that Iturbide, by coup-d'etat, had overturned 
the "Sovereign Council of the Regency," seized the government for himself 
and been proclaimed Emperor with the imposing title of "Agustin I, by 
Divine Providence and by the Congress of_ the Nation, first Constitutional 
Emperor of Mexico." In September, 1822, the flag of Spain that for half a 
century had waved over the palacio of the governor at Monterey, was low- 
ered and the Imperial banner of Mexico took its place. California, from 
the dependency of a kingdom, had become a province of an empire. Im- 
portant events followed each other in rapid succession. Scarce half a year 
after the flag of the empire floated on the breeze in California, before the 
emperor was dethroned and forced into exile. The downfall of the empire 
was followed by the establishment of a republic fashioned after that of the 
United States. The country over which the viceroys of Spain had ruled 
for three hundred years was divided into nineteen states and four territories. 
The executive power was vested in a president and vice-president and the 
legislative power in a senate and chamber of deputies. Only the states were 
allowed representatives in the senate, the territories, of which Alta Cali- 
fornia was one, were to be governed by a governor appointed by the presi- 
dent and a diputacion, or territorial assembly, elected by the people. Each 


territory was entitled to send a diputado, or delegate, to the Mexican con- 

Luis Antonio Arguello succeeded Sola as governor, or "gefe politico" 
(political chief), as the office was later styled under the republic. He was 
elected November 9, 1822, president of the provincial diputacion and by 
virtue of his office became temporary governor instead of Sola, who had 
been elected delegate to the imperial congress. Arguello was the first gov- 
ernor under the republic. He was a native Californian, having been born at 
the presidio of San Francisco in 1784. He was a man of limited education 
but made good use of what he had. Arguello, as well as Sola, had been a 
pronounced royalist during the revolution, but with the downfall of Spanish 
domination he had submitted gracefully to the inevitable. 

The success of the revolution was most bitterly disappointing to the 
mission padres. Through the long years of internicine strife between Mexico 
and the mother country they bad hoped and prayed for the triumph of Spain. 
In the downfall of Spanish domination in California and the rise of re- 
publicanism, they read the doom of their feudal institutions, the missions. 
On the promulgation of the Federal Constitution of October, 1824, in Cali- 
fornia, Father Vicente de Serria, the president of the missions — a Spaniard 
and a royalist — not only refused to take the oath of allegiance to it, but also 
declined to perform religious services in favor of it, or to allow his imme- 
diate subordinates to do so. An order was issued by the Supreme Govern- 
ment for his arrest, but before it reached California he had been superseded 
in the presidency by Father Narciso Duran, of San Jose. A number of the 
padres were hostile to the Republic and evaded taking the oafh of allegiance 
on the ground of obedience to the orders of their Superior. Their unfriendly 
attitude to the Republic was one of the causes that led to the secularization 
of the missions a few years later. 

The Mexican government shortly after its inauguration, removed most 
of the restrictions imposed by Spain against foreigners settling in Califor- 
nia. The colonization law of 1824 was quite liberal. The state religion was 
the Roman Catholic and all foreigners who settled in the country were re- 
quired to embrace the doctrines and be baptized into that church. During 
Spanish domination not more than half a dozen foreigners had been allowed 
to become permanent residents in California. The earliest English settler 
was John Gilroy, after whom the town of Gilroy was named. He was left 
by his vessel at Monterey in 1814. Being sick with scurvy, he was allowed 
to remain in the country. He married a daughter of Ignacio Ortega and 
at one time owned a considerable body of land, but died poor. Joseph 
Chapman, the first American settler was, as has been previously mentioned, 
one of Bouchard's men captured at Monterey in 1818. 

Beginning with Baron Rezanof's visit in the ship Juno, to San Fran- 
cisco, in 1806, for the purpose of buying grain for the starving Russian 


colon}' at Sitka, the Russians made frequent visits to the California coast, 
partly to obtain supplies, but more for the purpose of hunting seal and sea 
otter. Their Aleut fur hunters in their bidarkas, or skin canoes, killed otter 
in San Francisco bay and the Spaniards, destitute of boats or ships, were 
powerless to prevent them. While hunting otter the Russians had examined 
the coast north of San Francisco bay with the design of founding an agri- 
cultural colony where they might raise grain for their settlements in the far 
north. In 1812 they built a village and fort about eighteen miles north of 
Bodega bay, which they named Ross. The fort mounted ten cannon. They 
also maintained a port on Bodega bay. They had also a small station on 
Russian River. The Spanish protested against this invasion of territory and 
threatened to drive out the Russians, but nothing came of either their protests 
or threats. The Russian ships came to California for supplies and were wel- 
comed by the people and the padres, if not by the government officials. The 
Russian colony was not a success; the ignorant soldiers and the Aleuts, who 
formed the bulk of the three or four hundred inhabitants, knew little about 
farming. After the decline of fur hunting the settlement became unprofitable. 
In 1841 the buildings and stock were sold by the Russian governor to Cap- 
tain John A. Sutter for $30,000. The settlement was abandoned and the fort 
and town have long since fallen into ruins. 

Among the foreigners who came to California soon after the establish- 
ment of Mexican independence and became prominent in affairs may be 
named W. E. P. Hartnell, Captain John R. Cooper, Win. A. Richardson, 
Daniel A. Hill and Wm. A. Gale. 

Win. Edward Petty Hartnell came to California from Lima as a member 
of the firm of McCullock, Hartnell & Co., of Lima, engaged in the hide and 
tallow trade. Hartnell was an Englishman by birth, well educated and 
highly respected. He married Maria Teresa de la Guerra and twenty-five 
children were born to them. He died at Monterey in 1859. 

Wm. A. Gale came to California in 1810 as a Boston fur-trader. He 
returned to the territory in 1822 on the ship Sachem, the pioneer Boston hide 
drogher. The hide drogher was, in a certain sense, the pioneer immigrant 
ship of California. It brought to the coast a number of Americans who be- 
came permanent residents of the country. California, on account of its long 
distance from the centers of trade, had but few products for exchange that 
would bear the cost of transportation. Its chief commodities for barter, 
during the Mexican era, were hides and tallow. The vast range of country 
adapted to cattle raising made that its most profitable industry. After the 
restrictions on commerce with foreigners had, to a great extent, been removed 
by the Mexican government, a profitable trade grew up between the New 
England ship owners and the Californians. 

Vessels were fitted out in Boston with a cargo of assorted goods suitable 
for the California trade. Voyaging around Cape Horn, they reached Cali- 


fornia, and stopping' at various points allong the coast thev exchanged 
their stock of goods and Yankee "notions" for hides and tallow. It took 
from two to three years to make the voyage out from Boston and return, 
but the profits on the goods sold and the hides received in exchange were so 
large that these ventures paid handsomely. Cattle raising, up to the time of 
the discovery of gold in 1848, continued to be the principal industry of the 

During the first decade of Republican rule in California, there was but 
little change in its political condition or in the views of the people con- 
cerning the government. Mission rule was still dominant and the people 
were subservient to the rule of the governors appointed over them. But 
with the increase of foreigners and the advent of ex-revolutionists from 
Mexico, the old-time native California!! loyalists gradually became imbued 
with a kind of republicanism that transformed them into malcontents whose 
protests against the sins of governmental officials took the form of pro- 
nunciamientos and revolutions. 

The first of the numerous revolts against the rule of the governors ap- 
pointed by the Mexican government was that known as the Solis revolu- 
tion which occurred in November, 1829. The soldiers at the presidios for 
years had received but a small part of their pay and were but poorly clothed 
and provisioned. The garrison at Monterey rebelled and seized and im- 
prisoned their officers. Those at San Francisco followed the example of 
their comrades at Monterey. Putting themselves under the leadership of 
Joaquin Solis, an ex-revolutionist of Mexico wdio had been banished from 
that country, they marched southward to meet Governor Echeandia. who 
was moving northward with a force of about one hundred men from San 
Diego, where he had established his capital. The two forces met at Dos 
Pueblos, near Santa Barbara and a bloodless battle ensued. During two 
davs the firing was kept up, then the revolutionists, having exhausted their 
ammunition and their courage, took to their heels and fled to Monterey, 
pursued — at a safe distance — by the governor's soldiers. The rebellious 
"escoltas" (militia) were pardoned and returned to duty. Herrara, the de- 
posed commissary-general, Solis and several other leaders were arrested and 
sent to Mexico to be tried for high crimes and misdemeanor. On their ar- 
rival in that land of revolutions, they were turned loose and eventually 
returned to California. 

The principal cause of the California disturbances was the jealousy 
and dislike of the "hijos del pais" (native sons) to the Mexican born offi- 
cers who were appointed by the superior government to fill the offices. 
Many of these were adventurers wdio came to the country to improve their 
fortunes and were not scrupulous as to methods or means, so that the end 
was accomplished. 



Manuel Victoria succeeded Echeandia as gefe politico of Alta California 
in January, 1831. Victoria was a soldier with but. little idea as to how to ad- 
minister civil affairs. He was ' arbitrary and tyrannical. He refused to 
convoke the diputacion. or territorial assembly. From the very beginning 
of his term he was involved in quarrels with the leading men of the terri- 
tory. Exile, imprisonment and banishment were meted out for small of- 
fenses — and sometimes for none at all. 

At length Jose Antonio Carrillo and Don Abel Stearns, who had been 
exiled to Lower California with Juan Bandini and Pio Pico, residents of 
San Diego, formulated a plot for the overthrow of Victoria, and issued a 
pronunciamiento arraigning him for misdeeds and petty tyrannies. The 
soldiers at the presidio, with their captain, Portilla, joined the revolt. Por- 
tilla and the leading conspirators with fifty men marched northward. At 
Los Angeles they released the prisoners from the jail and chained up instead 
Alcalde Sanchez, the petty despot of the pueblo who had been very ready 
to carry out the arbitrary decrees of Victoria. 

The San Diego army, augmented by the liberated prisoners and volun- 
teers from Los Angeles, to the number of 150 men, marched out to meet 
Victoria, who, with a small force, was moving southward to suppress the 
rebellion. The two armies met west of Los Angeles in the Cahuenga valley. 
In the fight that ensued Jose Maria Avila, who had been imprisoned by Vic- 
toria's orders in the pueblo jail, charged single-handed upon Victoria. He 
killed Captain Pacheco, of Victoria's staff, and dangerously wounded the 
governor himself. Avila was killed by one of Victoria's men. Victoria's 
army retired with the wounded governor to San Gabriel mission and the 
revolutionists retired to Los Angeles. Next day, the governor, who sup- 
posed himself mortally wounded, abdicated ; later he was deported to Mexico. 
Pio Pico, senior vocal of the diputacion, was elected gefe politico by that 
body, but Echeandia, on account of his military rank, claimed the office. 
Pico, for the sake of peace, did not insist upon his rights, but allowed 
Echeandia to take the office. 

Echeandia did not long enjoy in peace the office obtained by threats. 
Captain Agustin V. Zamorano, late secretary of the deposed Victoria, raised 
the standard of revolt at Monterey and pronounced against the San Diego 
plan under which Echeandia and the diputacion were conducting the gov- 
ernment. He raised an army of about one hundred men, some of whom were 
cholos, or convicts. This army, under the command of Captain Ibarra, 
marched southward and met no opposition until it reached El Paso de 


Bartolo on the San Gabriel river. Here Captain Barroso, of Echeandia's 
force, with fourteen men and a piece of artillery, stopped the onward march 
of the invaders. Echeandia gathered an army of neophytes from the mis- 
sions — said to have been a thousand strong. On the approach of this body 
Ibarra's men retreated to Santa Barbara. Captain Barroso, with three 
hundred of his neophyte retainers mounted on horses and armed with rude 
lances, set out to capture Los Angeles, which at the approach of Ibarra's 
army had acknowledged allegiance to Zamorano ; but at the intercession of 
the repentant inhabitants, the recreant pueblo was spared and the neophyte 
invaders were turned aside to San Gabriel, where — much to the disgust of the 
padres — they were regaled on the fat bullocks of the mission. The neophyte 
army was then dismissed. 

The diputacion, which was really the only legal authority ir. the terri- 
"tory, after much correspondence, finally effected a compromise between the 
rival claimants. Zamorano was recognized as military chief of all the terri- 
tory north of San Fernando, and Echeandia all south of San Gabriel, 
while Pio Pico, who, by virtue of his rank as senior vocal, was 
the lawful governor, was left without any jurisdiction. After this adjust- 
ment all parties kept the peace and California, with its trio of governors, was 
happier than with one. 

On the 14th of January, 1833, about one year after the enforced departure 
of Victoria, Jose Figueroa, "gobernador proprietario" of Alta California, 
by appointment of the Supreme Government of Mexico, arrived at Monterey. 
Zamorano at once turned over to him whatever authority he had in the 
north and Echeandia at San Die.sjo, as soon as the arrival of Figueroa was 
known to him, did the same. 

Figueroa was Mexican born and of Aztec descent. He was a general in 
the Mexican army and is regarded as one of the ablest and most efficient 
of the Mexican governors of California. He instituted a policy of concilia- 
tion and became very popular with the people. He inaugurated a number 
of reforms and gave attention to the condition and treatment of the neo- 
phytes. Two of the most important events in the history of California 
during the Mexican era occurred in Figueroa's term of office. The first was 
the arrival of the Hijar colonists and the second was the securalization of 
the missions. 

In 1833, Jose Maria Hijar, a Mexican gentleman of considerable prop- 
erty, aided by Jose Maria Padres, who in modern times would be styled a 
"promoter," set about organizing a scheme for the founding of a colony in 
California. The colonists were to be enlisted in Mexico and were to be given 
free passage from San Bias to California. Each man was promised a ranch 
and each adult was to receive rations to the amount of four reals — and each 
child two reals — per day. The colonists were to be allowed a certain amount 
of live stock and tools. All of these allowances were to be repaid later in 


products of the farms. A corporation known as the "Compania Cosmopoli- 
tana" was organized for the purpose of buying vessels and carrying on a 
shipping business between California and Mexico. 

About 250 colonists were recruited in and about the city of Mexico. 
They left the capital for San Bias in April and in August. 1834, sailed from 
that port for California on the brig Natalia and the ship Morelos. The 
Natalia, on account of sickness on board, put into San Diego, September 
1, 1834, where the passengers were landed. The Morelos arrived at Monterey 
September 25th. The colonists were hospitably received by the Californians. 

Hijar had been appointed gefepolitico by Vice-President Farrias, but 
after the departure of the colonists. President Santa Ana, who had assumed 
control of the government, countermanded the appointment and sent a 
courier overland by the Yuma route with an order to Figueroa not to give 
up the governorship. The courier, by one of the most remarkable rides 
in history, reached Monterey before Hijar and delivered his message to Gov- 
ernor Figueroa. Hijar, on his arrival at the capital, found himself shorn of 
all authority. 

Part of the scheme of Hijar and Padres was the sub-division of the mis- 
sion property among themselves and their colonists. But the revocation of 
his commission as gefepolitico deprived him of all power to enforce his 
scheme. An attempt was made to form a settlement of the colonists at San 
Francisco Solano on the northern frontier, but it was abandoned. The 
colonists were finally scattered throughout the territory. Some of them 
returned to Mexico, those who remained in California were incorporated 
in the different settlements and formed a very respectable element of the 
population. Hijar and Padres were accused of being the instigators of a 
plot to overthrow Figueroa and seize the mission property. They were 
shipped out of the country and thus ended in disaster to the promoters, the 
first California colonization scheme. 

The missions, as has been previously stated, were founded by Spain for 
the conversion of the Indians and their transformation into citizens. As 
originally planned by the Spanish government at the end of ten years from 
its founding, each mission establishment was to be secularized and the 
land divided among the Christianized Indians. Early in the history of the 
missions it became apparent that although the California Indian might 
be made a Christian, he could not be made a self-supporting citizen. 

The Indians inhabiting the country between the Coast Range and the 
ocean from San Diego to San Francisco, had been gathered into the various 
missionary establishments and had been taught, by the padres and mayor- 
domos, some rude industrial callings. While controlled and directed by the 
priests and white overseers, the Indian could be made self-supporting, but 
the restraint removed, he lapsed into barbarism. 

Each of these religious establishments held possession, in trust for its 


neophyte retainers, of large areas of the most fertile lands in the territory. 
This absorption of the public domain by tbe missions prevented the colon- 
ization of the country by white settlers. 

The first decree of secularization was passed by the Spanish Cortes in 
1813. but nothing came of it. Spain was engaged in a death struggle with 
her American colonies and she had neither power nor opportunity to en- 
force secularization decrees. In July, 1830, the territorial diputacion adopted 
a plan of secularization formed by Echeandia in 1828, but before it could be 
enforced, Echeandia was superseded by Victoria, who was a friend of the 
padres and opposed to secularization. Governor Figueroa, after his arrival 
in California, was instructed to examine into tbe condition of the neophytes 
and report the best method of bringing about a gradual emancipation of the 
Indians from missionary rule. His examination convinced him that any 
general measure of secularization would be disastrous to the neophytes. A 
few might be trusted with property and given their liberty, but the great 
mass of them were incapable of self-support or self-government. Figueroa 
visited the older missions in the south with tbe purpose of putting into 
effect his plan for their gradual secularization. He found the Indians at San 
Diego and San Luis Rev indifferent to the offers of freedom and caring 
nothing for property of their own, unless they could immediately dispose of 
it to gratify their passions. Out of all the families at these missions, only- 
ten could Lie induced to try emancipation. 

In the meantime the Mexican Congress, without waiting for informa- 
tion from the governor, or those acquainted with the true condition of the 
neophytes, ordered their immediate emancipation. August 17. 1833, a decree 
was passed ordering the secularization of the missions in both Alta and 
Lower California. This decree provided that each mission should consti- 
tute a parish served by a priest, or curate, who should be paid a salary. 
The regulars, or those who were connected with the great orders, as the 
Franciscans and Dominicans, who had taken the oath of allegiance to the 
republic were to return to their colleges, or monasteries, while those who 
had refused to take the oath should quit the country. The expense of 
putting in operation this decree was to be paid out of the "pious fund." 

The "Pious Fund of California" was a fund made up of contributions 
from pious persons for the founding and maintenance of missions in the 
Californias. It began with contributions to the missions of Lower Cali- 
fornia in 1607. ^ increased until it amounted to one and a half millions of 
dollars in 1832. It was finally confiscated by the Mexican government; but 
after long litigation the Catholic Church of California was given judgment 
for its loss by the Hague tribunal in hjoj. 

Figueroa and the territorial diputacion, under instructions from the 
Supreme Government. June 31, 1834, adopted a plan for the secularization 
of the missions of Alta California and the colonization of the neophytes into 


pueblos. Each head of a family was to receive from the mission lands a 
lot not more than 500 nor less than 100 varas square. One-half of the cattle 
and one-half of the farming implements and seed grains were to be divided 
pro rata among those receiving lands for cultivation. Out of the proceeds of 
the remaining property, which was to be placed under a mayor-domo, the 
salaries of the administrator and the priest in charge of the church were 
to be paid. No one could sell or incumber his land nor slaughter his cattle — 
except for subsistence. The government of the Indian pueblos was to be ad- 
ministered the same as that of the other pueblos in the territory. Before 
the plan of the diputacion had been promulgated, Figueroa had experimented 
with the neophytes of the San Juan Capistrano mission and a pueblo had 
been organized there. For a time it promised to be a success but finally 
ended in a failure. 

For years the threat of secularization had hung over the missions, but 
heretofore something had always occurred to avert it. When it became 
evident that the blow would fall, the missionaries determined to save some- 
thing for themselves before the final wreck came. There were, on the vari- 
ous mission ranges, in 1833, nearly half a million head of cattle. San Gabriel, 
the richest of the missions, had over fifty thousand head. Thousands of 
these were slaughtered on shares for their hides alone and the carcasses left 
on the ground to rot. So terrible was the stench arising that the ayunta- 
miento of Los Angeles, in 1834, passed an ordinance compelling every one 
slaughtering cattle for their hides to cremate the carcasses. The diputacion 
finally issued a reglamento prohibiting the wholesale destruction of the 
mission cattle. What remained of the mission property was inventoried bv 
the commissioners appointed by the governor and a certain portion distrib- 
uted to the Indians of the pueblos into which the missions had been con- 
verted. The property was soon wasted : for the Indian was improvident and 
indolent and took no thought for the morrow. He would not work except 
under compulsion. Liberty to him meant license to commit excesses. His 
property soon passed out of his hands and he became virtually the slave of 
the white man, or else a renegade living by theft. 

Governor Figueroa died at San Juan Bautista, September 29, 1835. and 
was buried in the mission church at Santa Barbara. His funeral obsequies 
were the grandest ever witnessed in the territory. He was called the "Bene- 
factor of California." 

Figueroa, before his death, had resigned his political command to Jose 
Castro, primer-vocal of the diputacion. Castro held the office for four 
months, when, by order of the Supreme Government, he delivered it over to 
Col. Nicolas Gutierrez, who held the military command of the territory, until 
the arrival in May, 1836, of Mariano Chico. the regularly appointed "gober- 
nador proprietario." Chico was a man of inordinate self-conceit and of but 
little common sense. He very soon secured the ill-will of the Californians. 


Shortly before his arrival in California a vigilance committee, or as it was 
called by its organizers, "Junta Defensora de la Seguridad Publica," the 
first ever formed in California, had taken from the legal authorities at Los 
Angeles, two criminals, Gervasio Alispas and Maria del Rosaria Villa, under 
arrest for the murder of the woman's husband, Domingo Feliz, and had 
executed them by shooting them to death. This violation of law greatly en- 
raged Governor Chico and one of his first acts on taking office was to send 
Col. Gutierrez with troops to Los Angeles to punish the vigilantes. Victor 
Prudon, the president of the Junta Defensora, Manuel Arzaga, the secretary, 
and Francisco Aranjo, the military officer who had commanded the members 
of the junta, were arrested and committed to prison until such time as the 
governor could come to Los Angeles and try them. He came in June and 
after heaping abuse and threats upon them, he finally pardoned the three 
leaders of the "Defenders of Public Security." Then he quarreled with 
Manuel Requena, the alcalde of Los Angeles, who had opposed the vigilantes, 
and threatened to imprison him. He returned to Monterey, where be was 
soon afterward involved in a disgraceful scandal which ended in his placing 
the alcalde of that town under arrest. 

The people, disgusted with him, arose en masse and with arms in their 
hands, assumed a threatening attitude. Alarmed for his safety, Chico took 
passage for Mexico in a brig that lay in the harbor and California was rid 
of him. Before his departure he turned over the political and military com- 
mand of the territory to Col. Guiterrez. Chico had filled the office just three 
months. He was a centralist, or anti-federalist, and was in sympathy with 
the party in Mexico that favored a centralized government. Centralism vir- 
tually placed the government in the hands of the president and made him a 
dictator. The Californians were federalists and bitterly opposed to "cen- 

Gutierrez, like Chico, was a man of violent temper. It was not long 
before he was involved in a quarrel that eventually put an end to his official 
career in California. In his investigation of governmental affairs at Mont- 
erey, he charged fraud against Angel Ramirez, the administrator, and Juan 
Bautista Alvarado, the auditor of the custom house. A war of words ensued 
in which volleys of abuse were fired by both sides. Gutierrez threatened to 
put the two officials in irons. This was an insult that Alvarado, young, 
proud and hot-blooded could not endure in silence. He left the capital and 
with Jose Castro, at San Juan, began preparations for a revolt against the 
governor. His quarrel with Gutierrez was not the sole cause of his fomenting 
a revolution. He was president of the diputacion and the governor had 
treated that body with disrespect, or at least, the members, of whom Castro 
was one, so claimed. General Vallejo was invited to take command of the 
revolutionary movement, but, while he sympathized with the cause, he did 
not enlist in it. 


News of the projected uprising spread rapidly among the rancheros of 
San Jose and of the Salinas and Pajaro valleys. Castro and Alvarado with- 
out much effort soon collected an army of seventy-five Californians. They 
also secured the services of an auxiliary force of twenty-five Americans — 
hunters, and trappers — under the command of Graham, a backwoodsman from 
Tennessee. With this force they marched to Monterey. By a strategetic 
movement they captured the castillo. The revolutionists demanded the sur- 
render of the presidio and the arms. Upon the refusal of the governor a shot 
from the cannon of the castillo crashed through the roof of the commandante's 
house and scattered Gutierrez and his staff. This — and the desertion of most 
of his soldiers — brought the governor to terms. November 5, 1836, he sur- 
rendered the presidio and resigned his office. With about seventy of his ad- 
herents he was placed on board a vessel in the harbor and a few days later 
departed for Mexico. 


The Mexican governor having been expelled, the diputacion, which 
was composed of hijos del pais, was called together and a plan for the in- 
dependence of California was formulated. This plan declared that "Cali- 
fornia is erected into a free and sovereign state, establishing a congress which 
shall pass all special laws of the country, also assume the other necessary 
supreme powers." The diputacion issued a Declaration of Independence 
which arraigned the mother country, Mexico, for sins of commission and 
omission; and Castro promulgated a pronunciamiento ending with a "Viva 
for EI Estado Libre y Soverano de Alta California." (The Free and Sov- 
ereign State of Alta California.) Amid the vivas and the pronunciamientos, 
with the beating of drums and the roar of cannon, the state of Alta Califor- 
nia was launched on the political sea. The revolutionists soon found that it 
was easy enough to declare the state free; but quite another matter to make 
it free. 

For years there had been a growing jealousy between Northern an ' 
Southern California. Los Angeles, through the efforts of Jose Antonio 
Carrillo, had, by the decree of the Mexican congress in May, 1835, been raised 
to the dignity of a city and made the capital of the territory. In the move- 
ment to make California a free and independent state, the Angelenos recog- 
nized an attempt on the part of the people of the north to deprive their 
city of its honor. Although as bitterly opposed to Mexican governors and 
as actively engaged in fomenting revolutions against them as the people of 
Monterey, the Angelenos chose at this time to profess loyalty to the mother 


country. They opposed the Monterey plan of government and formulated 
one of their own, in which they declared that California was not free and 
they wotdd obey the laws of the supreme government only. 

Alvarado had been made governor by the diputacion and Castro com- 
mandante general of the army of the Free State. They determined to sup- 
press the recalcitrant sureiios (southerners). They collected an army of 
eighty natives, obtained the assistance of Graham with his American riflemen 
and marched southward. The ayuntamiento of Los Angeles bad organized 
an arm} - of 270 men, part of whom were neophytes. This force was sta- 
tioned at the Mission San Fernando. Before the northern troops reached 
the mission, commissioners from Los Angeles met them and a treaty of 
peace was patched up. Alvarado with his troops arrived in Los Angeles 
January 23, 1837, and was received with expressions of friendship. An 
extraordinary meeting of the ayuntamiento was called. Pio Pico expressed 
the great pleasure it gave him to see a "hijo del pais" in office and Antonio 
Osio, one of the most belligerent of the southerners declared that "sooner 
than again submit to a Mexican governor, or dictator, he would flee to the 
forest and be devoured by wild beasts." Alvarado made a conciliatory speech 
and an agreement was entered into to support the "Monterey plan," with 
Alvarado as governor pro tempore, until the Supreme Government should 
decide the question. Quiet reigned in the south for a few months. Then 
San Diego formulated a plan of government and the standard of revolt was 
again raised. The San Diego plan restored California to allegiance to 
the Supreme Government and the officials at San Diego and Los Angeles took 
the oath to obey the centralist constitution of 1836; this, in their opinion, 
absolved them from obedience to Juan Bautista Alvarado and his Monterey 
plan for a "Free State." 

In October came the news that Carlos Carrillo of Santa Barbara had bee' 1 
appointed governor of California bv the Supreme Government. Then con- 
sternation seized the "Free State" men of the north and the sureiios of Los 
Angeles went wild with joy. They invited Carrillo to make Los Angeles his 
capital — an invitation which he accepted. December 6th was set for his 
inauguration and great preparations were made for the event. Cards of in- 
vitation were issued asking the people to come to the inauguration "dressed 
as decent as possible." A grand inauguration ball was held in the governor's 
palacio — the house of the widow Josefa Alvarado. the finest in the city. 
Cannon boomed on the old plaza, bonfires blazed in the streets and the city 
was illuminated for three nights. Los Angeles was at last a real capital and 
had a governor all to herself. 

Alvarado and Castro, with an army, came down from the north deter- 
mined to subjugate the troublesome southerners. A battle was fought at 
San Buenaventura. For two days cannon volleyed and thundered — at inter- 
vals. ( >ne man was killed and several mustangs died for their country. The 


"surehos" were defeated and their leaders captured and sent as prisoners of 
state to Vallejo's bastile at Sonoma. Los Angeles, Carrillo's capital, was 
captured by Alvarado. Carrillo rallied his demoralized army at Las Floref. 
Another battle was fought — or, rather a few shots were fired, at long range, 
from the cannon. Nobody was hurt. Carrillo surrendered and was sent 
home to his wife, at Santa Barbara, who became surety for his future good 
behavior. Alvarado was now the acknowledged governor of El Estado 
Libre de Alta California, but the "Free State" had ceased to exist. Months 
before the last battle in the war for Independence, Alvarado had made his 
peace with the Supreme Government by taking the oath of allegiance to the 
constitutional laws of Mexico, and thus restoring California to the rule of 
the mother country. In November, 1838, Alvarado received his formal ap- 
pointment as "gobernador interino" of California, or rather of the Califor- 
nias ; for under the new constitution creating twenty-four departments 
instead of states, the two Californias constituted one department. 

In their internecine wars and in their revolts against the Mexican gov- 
ernors, the Californians invoked the aid of a power that would not down 
at their bidding — that was the assistance of the foreigners. Zamorano in 
his contest with Echeandia was the first to enlist the foreign contingent. 
Next Alvarado secured the services of Graham and his riflemen to help in 
the expulsion of Gutierrez. In his invasion of the south he and Castro again 
called in the foreign element headed by Graham and Coppinger. Indeed the 
fear of the American riflemen, who made up the larger part of Graham's 
force, was the most potent factor in bringing the south to terms. These 
hunters and trappers, with their long Kentucky rifles, shot to kill and any 
battle in which they took part would not be a bloodless affair. 

After Alvarado had been confirmed in his office, he would gladly have 
rid himself of his late allies. But they would not be shaken off and were 
importunate in their demands for the recognition of their services. There 
were rumors that the foreigners were plotting to overthrow the government 
and revolutionize California as had already been done in Texas. Alvarado 
issued secret orders to arrest a number of foreigners whom he had reason to 
fear. About one hundred men were arrested during the month of April, 
1840. Of these, forty-seven were sent as prisoners in irons to San Bias. The 
others were released. The prisoners were about equally divided in nation- 
ality between Americans and Englishmen. They were confined in prison 
at Tepic. Here the British consul, Barron, was instrumental in securing 
their release — the American consul being absent. The Mexican government 
paid them damages for their imprisonment and furnished those who had a 
legal right to residence in California with transportation to Monterey, where 
they landed in July, 1841, better dressed and with more money than when 
they were sent away. 

The most important event during Alvarado's rule that remains to be 


noted is the capture of Monterey, October 19, 1842, by Commodore Thomas 
ap Catesby Jones, commander of the United States forces of the Pacific. 
Jones, who was cruising in the South Pacific, learning that Admiral Thomas, 
in command of the English squadron of the Pacific, had sailed out of Callao 
under sealed orders, suspected that the Admiral's orders were to seize 
California. Knowing that war was imminent between Mexico and the 
United States, Jones determined to take possession of California for the 
United States, if he could reach it before the English admiral did. Crowding 
on all sail, he reached Monterey October 19th and immediately demanded 
the surrender of California, both Upper and Lower, to the United States 
government. He gave Governor Alvarado until nine o'clock on the morn- 
ing of the 20th to decide on his course. Alvarado had already been super- 
seded by Micheltorena, who was then somewhere in the neighborhood of 
Los Angeles. Alvarado at first decided to shirk the responsibility of sur- 
render by leaving the town; but he was dissuaded from this step. The 
terms of surrender were agreed upon and at ten o'clock the next morning 150 
sailors and marines disembarked, took possession of the fort, lowered the 
Mexican flag and raised the American colors. The officers and soldiers of 
the California government were discharged and their guns and arms taken 
possession of by the United States troops and carried into the fort. On 
the 21st, at four p. m., the flags again changed places — the fort and arms were 
restored to their former claimants. Commodore Jones had learned from 
some Mexican newspapers found in the captured fort that war did not 
exist between the two republics. 


For some time ill feeling had been growing between Governor Alvarado 
and the commandante general, M. G. Vallejo. Each had sent commissions 
to the Supreme Government to present the respective sides of the quarrel. 
The Supreme Government decided to combine the civil and military offices in 
the person of a Mexican officer. On January 22, 1842, Manuel Micheltorena, 
who had seen service with Santa Anna in Texas, was appointed to this office. 
He was to be provided with a sufficient number of troops to prevent the 
intrusion of foreigners — particularly Americans — into California. The large 
force promised him finally dwindled down to 300 convicts, known as cholos, 
who were released from Mexican prisons on condition that they serve in the 

Governor Micheltorena had landed with his ragged cholos at San Diego, 
in August, and was leisurely marching northward to the capital. On the 


night of October 24th he had arrived at a point twenty miles north of San Fer- 
nando when news reached him of the capture of Monterey by Commodore 
Jones. The valiant commander and his cholos retreated to San Fernando, 
where they remained until they learned of the restoration of Monterey to 
the Californians. Then they fell back to Los Angeles. Here, January 20, 
1843, Commodore Jones held a conference with the governor, who made 
some exorbitant demands — among others that the United States government 
should pay $15,000 to Mexico for the expense incurred in the general alarm 
and for a set of musical instruments lost in the retreat, and also replace 
1500 uniforms ruined in the violent march. Commodore Jones did not deign 
an answer to these ridiculous demands ; and Micheltorena did not insist upon 
them. The conference closed with a grand ball — and all parties were pacified. 

Micheltorena took the oath of office at Los Angeles, December 31, 184.?. 
Speeches were made, salutes were fired and the city was illuminated for three 
nights. With his Falstaffian army, the governor remained at Los Angeles 
until mid-summer. The Angeleiios had, for years, contended with the 
people of Monterey for the capital and had gone to war for it in Alvarado's 
time. Now that they had the coveted prize, they would gladly have parted 
with it, if, by so doing, they could have rid themselves of Micheltorena's 
thieving soldiers. The men were not altogether to blame. Their pay was 
long in arrears and they received but scant supplies of clothing or rations. 
It was a case of steal or starve — and they stole. 

In August, Micheltorena and his cholo contingent reached Monterey. 
The Californians did not welcome the Mexican governor very heartily. 

Micheltorena, while indolent and vacillating, was a man of considerable 
ability. He began his rule with the intention of improving conditions in 
California. One of his first attempts was to establish a public school system. 
Education had been sadly neglected, both under Spanish and Mexican dom- 
ination. Five hundred dollars was apportioned from the public funds for 
the maintenance of schools in each of the larger towns and arrangements 
were made for the opening of several schools for girls in the territory. 
Heretofore the public schools had been open — when they were open at all — 
only to boys. He restored what was left of the mission estates to the padres 
and made an earnest effort to reconcile the sectional animosity that had 
long existed between the arribenos (uppers) of the north and the abejenos 
(lowers) of the south ; but with all of his efforts to be just and better the 
condition of California, there was still an undercurrent of hostility to him. 
Part of this was due to the thieving of his convict soldiers; but a more potent 
cause was the ambition of certain hijos del pais to rule the territory. They 
blamed the governor for retaining his cholos in the country, claiming that 
they were kept for the purpose of subjugating or terrorizing the natives. 

The appointment of Micheltorena to fill both the civil and military of- 
fices was a bitter disappointment to Alvarado and Vallejo. They were 


not long in discovering that much as they hated each other — they hated the 
Mexican more. They buried the hatchet and combined with Castro to do 
what the trio had done before — drive the Mexican governor out of the coun- 
try. The depredations of the cholos had so imbittered the people that they 
were ready to join the standard of anyone who would head a revolution. On 
November 15, 1844, a meeting of the leaders of the dissatisfied was held at 
Alvarado's Rancho del Aliso ; and a pronunciamiento against Micheltorena 
was issued. 

Alvarado and Castro headed a body of revolutionists, numbering about 
thirty, who moved northward to San Jose, where they were largely reinforced. 
Micheltorena set out in pursuit of them. The two forces maneuvered some 
time without coming to battle. A treaty was finally effected between the 
belligerents. Micheltorena pledged his word of honor to send back to Mex- 
ico, within three months, his vicious soldiers and officers: while Alvarado 
and Castro, on their part, agreed to go into winter quarters at San Jose, with 
their troops, who were to constitute the military force of the territory after 
the departure of the convict soldiers. Micheltorena returned to Monterey, 
but the censure of his officers for the surrender caused him to break his word 
and secretly plot for the capture of the insurgents. He secured the aid of 
Captain John A. Sutter, a Swiss gentleman, who had an establishment at 
New Helvetia — now Sacramento. Sutter had a company of Indians drilled 
in military maneuvers and the use of arms. Beside his Indians, Sutter se- 
cured for Micheltorena the services of a number of foreigners, mostly Amer- 
icans. Alvarado and Castro learned of the perfidy of Micheltorena through 
the capture of one of his messengers with a letter to Sutter. 

Not being prepared to sustain an attack from the combined forces of 
Micheltorena and Sutter, they hurriedly broke camp at San Jose and with a 
portion of their force marched to Los Angeles, .where they arrived January 
21, 1845. They endeavored to fire the southern heart against the governor, 
but the old animosity between the abajehos and the arribehos was as strong 
as ever and the southerners regarded with suspicion the friendly advances 
of their old enemies. The Pico brothers were finally won over and Pio Pico, 
who was primer-vocal of the "junta departmental," or assembly, called that 
body together to meet at Los Angeles. It met on January 28th and de- 
clared Micheltorena to be a traitor to the country who must be deposed. 

Sutter with his force numbering about two hundred men, one hundred 
of whom were Indians and the rest foreigners — mostly Americans, joined 
Micheltorena at Salinas early in January. The combined forces — about four 
hundred — began a leisurely march to the south. The fear of a raid by Michel-. 
torena's cholos and Sutter's Indians had stimulated recruiting in the south. 
Castro and Pico soon found themselves at the head of about four hundred 
men. A commission from Los Angeles met Micheltorena at Santa Barbara 
on February 7th with propositions for a settlement of the difficulty. The 


governor treated the commissioners with scant respect and offered but one 
condition — unconditional surrender of the rebels. 

A week later the departmental assembly met at Los Angeles and passed 
resolutions deposing Micheltorena and appointing Pio Pico temporary gov- 
ernor. In the meantime, disgusted with Micheltorena's slow movements, 
about half of the foreigners in his army had deserted. February 7th, Michel- 
torena's army, moving down by way of Encinas, and Castro's forces ad- 
vancing from Los Angeles, met on the Cahuenga plains. Artillery firing 
began at long range and continued at long range all day. A horse, or, some 
say, a mule had its head shot off — this was the only blood shed. The for- 
eigners in the respective armies got together in a ravine during the fight 
and agreed to let the Mexicans and Californians settle their dispute in their 
own way. 

Toward evening Micheltorena undertook to make a flank movement and 
marched his troops to the eastward, evidently intending to follow the river 
down to the city. Castro and Alvarado moved back through the Cahuenga 
Pass and again encountered the opposing force at the Verdugo rancho. A 
few cannon shots were fired when Micheltorena displayed a white flag in 
token of surrender. Terms of capitulation were drawn up by which Michel- 
torena and his convict army were to be sent back to Mexico. Pio Pico was 
recognized as temporary governor and Castro was made comandante gen- 
eral of the military force. As a sedative to his military pride, Micheltorena 
was granted permission to march his army to San Pedro with all the honor's 
of war. trumpets sounding, drums beating and colors flying, taking with them 
to San Pedro their three pieces of artillery, but the guns were to be given up 
at the embarcadero (port). The governor and his soldiers were sent 
in the Don Quixote to Monterey and there, joined by the garrison that had 
been stationed at the capital, all were sent to San Bias, Mexico. Captain 
Sutter was taken prisoner during the battle and was held under arrest for 
some time after the departure of Micheltorena. He was at length released 
and allowed to return, with his Indians, by way of Tejon Pass and the 
Tulares, to New Helvetia — a sadder and perhaps a wiser man for the ex- 

Pio Pico, by virtue of his position as senior vocal of the assembly became 
governor and Castro, in accordance with the treaty of Cahuenga, was com- 
andante general. Alvarado was made administrator of the custom house in 
Monterey. Thus the hijos del pais were once more a power and the factional 
fight between the "uppers" and the "lowers" was once more declared off. 

Pico established his government at Los Angeles and that ciudad, ten 
years after the Mexican Congress had decreed it the capital, became the 
seat of government. Castro established his military headquarters at Mont- 
erey and Jose Antonio Carrillo, one of the leaders of the "lowers," was made 
comandante of the military in the south. Pico began his rule with a desire 


to benefit the territory. He might have succeeded had he been able to control 
the discordant factions. 

As has been previously stated, Micheltorena restored, as far as possi- 
ble, the mission property to the padres. It was impossible for the mission- 
aries to establish the old order — even on a small scale. The few Indians re- 
maining at the missions were unmanageable. Through the neglect or in- 
competency of the administrators, debts had been incurred and creditors 
were importunate. The padres in charge were mostly old men, unable to 
cope with the difficulties that beset them on every side. Pico, with the con- 
currence of the junta, decided to make a change in the mission policy of his 
predecessor. In June, 1845, ne issued a decree, warning the Indians at San 
Rafael, Soledad, San Miguel and Purisima to return to their respective mis- 
sions. Failing to do so, they were to be declared vagrants and punished as 
such. At Carmel, San Juan Bautista, San Juan Capistrano and Solano, 
where pueblos had been established, the church and the curate's home were 
to be reserved and the balance of the property sold at auction to pay the 
debts of the missions. The abandoned missions (the Indians not returning) of 
San Rafael, Solano, San Juan Bautista, San Miguel and Purisima and the 
mission pueblos before mentioned were sold in December, 1845, and ten of 
the missions were rented for a term of nine years. The proceeds of the sale 
were to be used for the benefit of the Indians and the support of the padres. 
In those rented, the Indians were at liberty to remain in the service of the 
lessees. A portion of the proceeds were to be used for the support of re- 
ligious services. The change brought no improvement in the condition of 
the neophytes. They sank still lower in degradation; while the missions, 
deprived of income and of power, ceased to exist. 

Notwithstanding Pico's efforts to conciliate the discordant elements, 
it soon became evident that the old spirit of turbulence was still dominant. 
The first insurrectionary movement originated with Jose Antonio Carrillo, 
Pico's own brother-in-law. This was suppressed and Carrillo and Yareles, 
one of his auxiliaries, were shipped to Mexico for trial, but were released and 
returned to California. Castro ignored Pico in military affairs and soon a bit- 
ter quarrel was on between the gefe politico and the comandante general. 
For a number of years there had been a steady influx of foreigners — mostly 
Americans. Many of them had married into prominent families and had be- 
come by naturalization Mexican citizens. In 1841, the first train of immi- 
grants arrived in California overland. The immigration over the plains con- 
tinued to increase after this. The leading Californians saw that it was the 
manifest destiny of California to become a territory of the United States. 
Texas had been wrested from Mexico by the same foreign element that 
was now invading California. Early in 1846, Castro called a junta of his 
officers at Monterey. This council issued a pronunciamiento declaring hostil- 
ity to the United States and the members pledged themselves to defend the 


honor of .the Mexican nation against the perfidious attacks of its rivals — the 
North Americans. In this council, Pico had been ignored and the hostile 
feeling between the political and military chiefs grew more bitter. Pico had 
been appointed constitutional governor by President Herrera and, April 18, 
1846, in the presence of the territorial assembly and a large concourse of 
people gathered at Los Angeles, he took the oath of office. 

Castro and his associates were soon to be given an opportunity to test 
their courage in the defense of -Mexican honor against the attacks of the 
perfidious North Americans. Captain John C. Fremont, who had previously 
led two expeditions through the Rocky Mountains, Oregon and California, 
in January, 1846, arrived in California. His company numbered sixty-two 
men, scientists, guides and servants. These he left encamped in the Tulare 
country, east of the Coast Range, while he repaired to Monterey to secure 
some needed supplies and to acquaint the comandante general with the ob- 
ject of his expedition. As the expedition was scientific in its object and 
Fremont expressed his intention of proceeding to Oregon as soon as his 
men were rested and recruited, Castro made no objection to his remaining 
in California during the winter. But when, a few weeks later, the whole 
force of men marched into the Salinas valley, Castro ordered Fremont to 
leave the country at once. Instead of leaving, Fremont marched his men 
to Gabilan Peak (Hawk's Peak) about thirty miles from Monterey, where he 
raised the Stars and Stripes and proceeded to fortify his camp. Castro 
marshaled his force on the plains below out of range of Fremont's men. 
After holding the fort on Gabilan Peak two days, Fremont, on the night of 
March 9th, abandoned it and leisurely proceeded northward by way of the 
San Joaquin Valley to Sutter's Fort, and from there, after a short stop, to 
Lassen's Rancho on Deer Creek, where he remained until April 14th. Pie 
then resumed his march toward the Oregon line. 

On May 5th, he was encamped near Klamath Lake, when Samuel Neal 
and William Sigler, two settlers of the Sacramento valley, rode into his 
camp and informed him tbat a United States officer, bearing dispatches, was 
endeavoring to overtake him. The officer had but a small escort and the 
Indians being hostile, he was in great danger. Fremont next morning took 
nine of his men and the two messengers and hurried to the relief of the 
officer. The parties met that evening and encamped on the bank of a creek. 
About midnight the Indians attacked the camp, killing three of Fremont's 
men and losing their chief. The dispatch bearer proved to be Lieutenant 
Archibald H. Gillespie, of the United States Navy. He had left Washington 
in November, 1845, with instructions from the government. He had crossed 
Mexico, disguised as a merchant and from San Bias had taken passage to 
Honolulu and from there reached Monterey, April 17th. He had then fol- 
lowed Fremont's trail until they met near the Oregon line. 

Fremont, with his entire force, after punishing the Klamath Indians for 


their treachery, returned to Sutter's Fort, where Lieutenant Gillespie, who 
had gone ahead, met them with supplies procured from San Francisco through 
Captain Montgomery of the Portsmouth. The substance of the dispatches 
sent to Fremont from Secretary of State Buchanan was to prevent the occu- 
pation of California by any European power and in the event of war with 
Mexico to take possession of the country for the United States. It was well 
known that England had designs on California and it was partly to circum- 
vent these and partly to warn Fremont that war with Mexico was pending 
that the dispatches had been sent. The report that a large immigration was 
on its way to California from the United States was no doubt the cause of 
the hositility of the authorities to Fremont and to the recently arrived immi- 
grants. There were rumors that Castro was organizing a force to drive the 
settlers out of the country. Many of the Americans were in California with- 
out authority under the Mexican laws and a feeling of uncertainty pervaded 
the country. 

Believing themselves in danger and regarding Fremont as their pro- 
tector, a number of the settlers repaired to Fremont's camp. The first 
aggressive act of the settlers was the capture of 250 horses that were being 
moved by Lieutenant de Arce and fourteen men, from the north side of the 
bay to Castro's camp at Santa Clara. A party of twelve Americans, under 
Ezekiel Merritt, captured the horses and made prisoners of the escort. The 
prisoners were brought into Fremont's camp and there released. Hostilities 
having been begun, it became necessary for the settlers to widen the breach 
so as to provoke retaliation on the part of the Californians rather than 
be punished for the seizure of government property without author- 
ity. The next move was to seize the military post and the principal men 
of Sonoma. 

On the morning of June nth, twenty men under command of Merritt. 
armed with pistols and rifles and mounted on fresh horses, set out from Fre- 
mont's camp on Bear Creek for Sonoma. On the way their number was 
recruited to thirty-two men. On the morning of the 14th. about daybreak, 
they surrounded the town and took' Gen. M. G. Vallejo, Captain Salvador 
Vallejo. his brother, and Lieut. Col. Victor Prudon prisoners. There seems 
to have been no private soldiers at Sonoma — all officers. The military force 
that had formerly been stationed there to guard the northern frontier against 
the Indians had been disbanded or had dwindled away. The castillo, or fort, 
contained about a dozen rusty old cannon and two hundred and fifty muskets. 

Gen. Vallejo and his officers as prisoners of war gave their word of 
honor not to take up arms against the revolutionists on a guarantee from 
their captain to respect the lives and property of the prisoners, their fam- 
ilies and the residents of the jurisdiction. The guarantee, signed by Merritt, 
Semple, Fallon and Kelsey, was given in writing. The prisoners, although 
they had given their parole, were taken to Sutter's Fort by a guard which 


included Merritt, Semple, Grigsby, Hargrove, Knight and five or six others. 
Twenty-four men remained at the fort. The leaders of the party having gone 
with the prisoners, W. B. Ide, who had come to the front on account of a 
speech he made advocating a movement to make the country independent, 
was chosen commander. X\>Jt2jL^?V> 

Ide immediately set about formulating a Declaration of Independence 
and Wm. Todd, one of his men, having procured a piece of manta, or coarse 
cotton .cloth, about two yards long, set to work to fashion a flag for 
the new republic. Todd, assisted by some others, painted a star in the 
upper corner and in the center a figure supposed to represent a bear, but 
which the natives called a "cochina" (pig). Below these figures he painted 
in large letters, "California Republic." Along the lower edge of the flag 
was stitched a strip of red woolen cloth said to have been a part of a red 
woolen petticoat that had been brought across the plains. When completed 
the famous "Bear Flag" of California was run up on the flag staff where 
the Mexican colors had formerly floated. The cannon and muskets were 
loaded, guards posted, military discipline established and the California 
Republic duly inaugurated. On June 18th, the same day that Ide issued his 
proclamation. Thomas Cowie and George Fowler, two of Ide's men. volun- 
teered to go to Fitch's ranch to procure a keg of powder from Mose Carson. 
On the way they were captured by a band of Californians under Juan Padilla 
and brutally murdered. The news of this outrage reached Sonoma and later 
a report that Todd, who had been sent to Bodega with a message, had been 
captured. Captain W. L. Ford, with a force of twenty-three men, hastily 
set out from Sonoma to capture Padilla. At Olampali Rancho Captain Ford 
unexpectedly came upon the combined forces of Captain de la Torre and 
Padilla. numbering eighty-three men. The Americans fell back into a willow 
thicket. The Californians, supposing that they were retreating, charged upon 
them but were met by a volley of rifle balls that some reports say killed 
eight of the Californians. Todd, while the fight was going on, made his 
escape and joined Ford's men, who fell back to Sonoma. 

Fremont, who had been encamped at the Buttes, having learned of Ide's 
attempt to establish a California Republic and that Castro would not attack 
them to rescue the prisoners, but was gathering a force to recapture Sonoma. 
broke up his camp and moved down to New Helvetia, where he put his 
prisoners in the fort under guard. 

On June 23d, Fremont, leaving his prisoners at Sutter's Fort, hastened 
to Sonoma with a force of seventy-two mounted riflemen. He arrived June 
25th. The force of Americans, including Fremont's men now numbered 
two hundred. The next day Fremont and Ford, with a force of 135 men. 
started out to hunt Captain de la Torre, who was in command of the Cali- 
fornians north of the bay. Torre, it is claimed, wrote letters stating that 
Castro was about to attack Sonoma with a large force. These were placed 


in the boots of three of his men who allowed themselves to be captured. The 
stratagem succeeded. Fremont and Ford hurried back to Sonoma, but the 
three Californians were shot without trial. Authorities differ as to the cap- 
ture of the letters on the three prisoners. If such letters were captured, 
they were not preserved, and it is more than probable that the prisoners, 
Berryessa and the two de Haro boys, were shot in retaliation for the murder 
of Cowie and Fowler. Whether from the captured letters, or from some 
other source, Fremont believed that Castro's force was north of the bay. 
Castro, however, had not left Santa Clara. Captain de la Torre, taking ad- 
vantage of the absence of his pursuers, crossed the bay at Saucelito and 
joined Castro. Fremont finding himself deceived, returned to the pursuit the 
next morning; but he was too late — the game had escaped and he marched 
back to Sonoma, where he arrived July 3d. The Fourth of July was cele- 
brated with great eclat by the Bears. Wine, gunpowder, eloquence and a 
grand ball stirred up all the latent patriotism of the revolutionists. The 
California Republic reached the zenith of its power that day. The next 
day it collapsed. Ide was deposed by a vote of the Bears. Fremont was 
chosen to head the movement for Independence. 

On the 7th of July, Commodore Sloat raised the Stars and Stripes at 
Monterey and took possession of the country in the name of the United 
States. He had arrived on the Savannah on the 2d from Mazatlan, where he 
had heard rumors of hostilities between the United States and Mexico, but 
not having learned of any formal declaration of war, he was undecided what 
course to pursue. Having heard of the Bear Flag movement and of Fre- 
mont's connection with it, he presumed that Fremont had later information 
from the United States and finally decided to take possession of the country. 

Fremont, on July 6th, leaving Captain Grigsby with fifty men at Sonoma, 
started with the rest of his battalion, about 160 men, for Sacramento with the 
intention of making preparations to attack Castro. Captain Montgomery, of 
the Portsmouth, had raised the flag at San Francisco, Lieut. Revere arrived 
at Sonoma on the 9th; the Bear flag was lowered and the Stars and Stripes 
unfurled. On the nth the flag was raised over Sutter's Fort and the same 
day over Bodega. All Northern and Central California was now in pos- 
session of the Americans. 

For months there had been ill feeling between Governor Pico and the 
comandante-general, Castro. Pico had made Los Angeles his capital, while 
Castro had established his headquarters at Monterey. Their quarrel was 
the old sectional jealousy of the "uppers" and the "lowers" — of the north and 
the south — and their respective sections supported them in their dispute. 
Castro was accused of plotting to overthrow the government. At the time 
Sloat raised the United States flag at Monterey, Pico, with an armed body, 
had reached Santa Barbara, intending to fight Castro, who was at Santa 
Clara when Sloat seized the country. With a part of his force, Castro re- 


treated southward and joined Pico. They patched up a truce and, uniting 
their forces, retreated to Los Angeles, where they began preparations to re- 
sist the "perfidious North Americans." 



The American era of California history begins with the raising of the 
flag at Monterey on July 7, 1846. Within a week after that event all of the 
territory north of Monterey had been taken possession of without oppo- 
sition. Castro, with a part of his force had retreated to Los Angeles, and 
those remaining behind had disbanded and retired to their homes Fremont, 
as previously stated, had moved his battalion of about 160 men to a camp 
on the American river above Sutter's Fort. Here he was encamped when, 
on the nth of July, a messenger bearing Sloat's proclamation and an 
American flag reached him. This flag was raised over the fort and saluted 
with twenty-one guns. Immediately after the receipt of the news that Sloat 
had taken possession of California. Fremont's battalion began its march to 
Monterey, where it arrived on the 19th. Fremont had an interview with 
Commodore Sloat which was not very satisfactory to either. Sloat was in- 
clined to blame Fremont for acting without sufficient authority in precipitat- 
ing hostilities and Fremont was disappointed because Sloat would not endorse 
his scheme of making a campaign against Castro. 

On the 15th of July, Commodore Stockton, on the Congress, arrived 
at Monterey from Honolulu and reported to Commodore Sloat for duty. Sloat 
was an old man, having entered the Navy in 1800: his health was failing and 
he was anxious to retire from active service. He made Stockton commander- 
in-chief of all the land forces in California. Stockton on taking command, 
made Fremont a major ami Gillespie a captain. On July 26th, the battalion 
was loaded on the Cyane which sailed the next day for San Diego. Sloat, 
after transferring the command of the Pacific squadron to Stockton, sailed on 
July 29th, on board the Levant for home. 

Commodore Stockton, on assuming command, issued a proclamation in 
which he arraigned the Mexican government for beginning hostilities against 
the United States. He was very severe on General Castro, whom he called 
a usurper, and upon the Californians for outrages committed on the American 
settlers. "Three inoffensive Americans," said he, "residents of the country, 
have been within a few days brutally murdered ; and there are no California 
officers who will arrest and bring the murderers to justice — although it is 
well known who they are and where they are." He ignored the brutal mur- 


der of the three Californians, Berryessa and the two de Haro boys, who were 
shot down in cold blood by Fremont's men while begging for quarter. Ban- 
croft says of the proclamation : "The paper was made up of falsehood, of 
irrevelent issues and of bombastic boasting in about equal parts." Commo- 
dore Sloat read the proclamation at sea and did not approve of it. 

Governor Pico and General Castro, on their arrival at Los Angeles im- 
mediately set to work to organize an army. Every man between fifteen and 
sixty was summoned for military duty and any Mexican refusing or excusing 
himself on any pretext was to be treated as a traitor. Those physically un- 
able to do military duty were required to aid with their property. The 
response to the call of the leaders was not very enthusiastic: sectional jeal- 
ousies, quarrels and feuds had destroyed, or at least, paralyzed patriotism. 
The foreigners, who were mostly Americans, secretly sympathized with the 
invaders. Money and the munitions of war were scarce. Castro had brought 
about ioo men with him from the north and Pico had recruited about the 
same in the south — these constituted the available force to resist Stockton 
and Fremont. Stockton, with 360 sailors and marines, arrived at San Pedro 
on August 6th. This force was landed and drilled in military maneuvers on 
land. Castro sent a message by two commissioners, Flores and de la Guerra, 
expressing his willingness to enter into negotiations with Stockton. The 
commodore showed the messengers scant courtesy and dismissed them with 
an "insulting threat." Castro and Pico finding it impossible to defend the 
capital with the small force at their command, determined to quit the country. 
On the night of August 10th, they took their departure: Castro accompanied 
by his secretary Francisco Arce and eighteen men, going by way of the San 
Gorgonio Pass and the Colorado river route ; Pico, by the way of San Juan 
Capistrano and Santa Margarita, to Lower California. 

Stockton began his march to Los Angeles on August nth. Two days 
were spent on the road. On the 13th, Major Fremont, with his battalion of 
160 mounted men. met him just outside the town and the combined force 
entered the capital. The U. S. flag was* raised and possession taken of the 
town. The reception of the Americans was not cordial. Some of the better 
class of citizens had fled from the city, but these in a few days returned to 
their homes. Fremont's cavalry scoured the country and brought in a num- 
ber of the leading men who had held civil or military office: these were 

Stockton, on the "th, published a proclamation in which he announced 
himself as commander-in-chief and governor of the territory of California. 
This was a much milder production than the first; he stated that California 
belonged to the UJnited States and would be governed by military law until 
a civil government could be established. 

Captain Gillespie was commissioned by Stockton as commandant of the 
southern department with headquarters at Los Angeles. He was assigned 



a garrison of fifty men taken from Fremont's force. On September 29th, 
Commander Stockton, with his sailors and marines, returned to their ships 
at San Pedro and sailed for Monterey. A few days later Fremont, with the 
remainder of his battalion, began his march northward for Sutter's .Fort, 
where he expected to recruit bis force from the immigrants now arriving in 
the country. 

While the combined forces of Stockton and Fremont, numbering about 
500 men, had occupied the town, the inhabitants had been quiet and sub- 
missive. But with a small force left to keep them in subjection, they soon 
began to manifest their old turbulent and revolutionary disposition. On 
September 16th, the anniversary of Mexican Independence, a number of 
young men. under the stimulation of wine, and probably more in a spirit of 
mischief than with any serious intent, made an attack about midnight on 
Gillespie's headquarters, which were in the old government house. The 
garrison drove them off with a volley of musketry, in which three men were 
killed — so Gillespie reported — but the dead were never found. The next day 
Gillespie ordered the arrest of a number of leading citizens to be held as 
hostages. He also vigorously enforced military law. In a very short time 
he had a full grown' Mexican revolution on his hands. Some 300 men, under 
the leadership of Flores and Serbulo Vareles, besieged his garrison. In the 
corral of the government house were five or six old cannon that Castro had 
spiked and abandoned. Gillespie had two of these unspiked and hauled up 
Fort Hill, where they were mounted. He made cannon balls out of some lead 
pipe that he found and cartridge covers put of a piece of red flannel captured 
from a store. The Californians had a brass four-pounder, known as "the 
Old Woman's Gun," because, on the approach of Stockton's army, an old 
woman by the name of Rocha had buried the gun in her garden ; it had been 
used in firing salutes at church festivals, and the old lady declared that the 
"gringos" should not have the gun of the church. 

While besieged on Fort Hill. Gillespie on September 24th. sent a messen- 
ger, Juan Flaco (lean John) with dispatches to Stockton asking aid. By one 
of the most wonderful rides in history, this man, John Brown, reached San 
Francisco where Stockton had gone from Monterey, six hundred miles dis- 
tance, in five days. Stockton, at once ordered Mervine, commanding the 
Savannah, to go to the relief of Gillespie. On account of a dense fog. the 
vessel did not leave San Francisco Bay until October 4th. Gillespie held out 
bravely for seven days then capitulated, with honorable terms. On Septem- 
ber 30th, with flags flying, drums beating and his two old cannon mounted on 
carretas, he began his march to San Pedro. He was not molested by the 
Californians. He spiked the two old cannon and threw them in the bay, then 
went on board the Vandalia, a merchant ship lying at anchor in the harbor, 
but did not leave San Pedro. On October 7th, Mervine entered the harbor. 
At 6:30 a. m. of the 8th, he landed a force of 299 men, which included Gilles- 


pie's volunteers. A small force of the enemy appeared and Captain Mervine 
ordered Lieutenant Hitchcock, with a reinforcement of eighty men from 
the vessel, to attack: but the enemy retreated and the detachment returned to 
the ship. Captain Mervine and his men then started for the pueblo. They 
took no cannon and had no horses. After a fatiguing tramp through tall 
mustard and clouds of dust, they encamped about 2 130 p. m., at the Domin- 
guez Rancho. The enemy, under the command of Jose Antonio Carrillo, and 
numbering about eighty men, appeared on the foothills and some skirmishing 
at long range took place. During the night, Flores arrived from the pueblo 
with a reinforcement for the Californians of about sixty men and the "old 
woman's" gun. They opened fire during the night on Mervine's camp with 
this cannon, but did no damage. The next morning at six a. m., Mervine's 
men resumed their march in columns and by platoons. They had not pro- 
ceeded far before they encountered the enemy with his piece of artillery 
drawn up by the roadside. The Californians opened fire, and Mervine, 
fearing a charge from their cavalry, formed his troops in a hollow square with 
their baggage in the center. A running fight ensued. The Californians firing, 
then dragging the gun back with riatas, loading, and firing again. Mervine 
finding he was losing men without injuring the enemy ordered a retreat. The 
Californians fired a parting shot or two but did not pursue the Americans, as 
they had exhausted their ammunition. Mervine reached San Pedro that 
evening and went aboard his vessel. His loss was four killed and six 
wounded. The dead were buried on the Isla de los Muertes, or Deadman's 
Island. The Savannah remained in the harbor and the Californians kept a 
small detachment at Sepulveda's ranch and another at Cerritos to watch the 

On the 25th, Commodore Stockton arrived at San Pedro on the Congress 
and learned from Mervine the particulars of his defeat. Stockton remained 
at San Pedro about a week, and although he had a force of about 800 men, did 
not deem this number a sufficient force to recapture the capital. He greatly 
overestimated the strength of the enemy. On November 1st, he sailed for 
San Diego. 

At the time of Flores' attack on Gillespie the American garrisons at 
San Diego and Santa Barbara were driven out of these towns. The force at 
San Diego went aboard the Stonington, a whale ship lying in the harbor. 
Lieutenant Talbot with ten men was stationed at Santa Barbara. When 
called upon to surrender, this party fell back into the hills and by traveling 
through the mountains reached the head of the San Joaquin river where they 
obtained food from the Indians. They traveled down the valley, subsisting 
on the flesh of wild horses and finally, by way of Pacheco's pass, they crossed 
over to the coast and joined Fremont's battalion at Monterey. 

The departmental assembly, having been called together by Flores, met 
at Los Angeles. October 26th. The members were all from the south. The 


first business in order was to fill the offices of governor and comandante 
general left vacant by the flight of Pico and Castro. It was decided to com- 
bine the two offices in one person. Jose Maria Flores was chosen commander- 
in-chief and governor-ad-interim. He took the oath of office November 1st. 
and was really the last Mexican governor of California. Flores and the mem- 
bers of the assembly made some provisions for continuing the war, but their 
resources were very limited. Their recent successes over the Americans had 
somewhat encouraged them and they hoped to be able to hold out until 
reinforcements arrived from Mexico. 

Stockton, on his arrival at San Diego, had set to work to organize an 
expedition against Los Angeles. The Californians had driven the cattle and 
horses back into the mountains and the Americans found great difficulty in 
procuring animals. Frequent forays were made into Lower California and 
horses, cattle and sheep procured. 

The remnant of Fremont's battalion, after taking from it garrisons for 
San Diego, Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, bad returned to the Sacramento 
valley in September. Here it was recruited to 160 men. On October 13th, 
Fremont sailed with his men from San Francisco on the Sterling, a merchant 
vessel, with orders to operate against the rebels in the south ; but between 
Monterey and Santa Barbara, he met the Vandalia and learned of Mervine's 
defeat, and of the impossibility of procuring horses in the lower country. 
The Sterling was put about and the battalion landed at Monterey on Octo- 
ber 28th. Vigorous efforts were at once made to recruit men and horses. A 
number of immigrants had arrived from the states. These were induced 
to enlist on the promise of $25 per month pay. Horses were purchased, or 
where owners refused to sell, were confiscated. A company of Walla-Walla 
Indians was enlisted — these were known as the "Forty Thieves." Sutter's 
"warriors in bronze" (Indians) were also enrolled for service. In the latter 
part of November, the recruits were collected at San Juan. They numbered 
about 450 rifle-men and forty artillery men. They represented many nations 
and many different kinds of arms. They were divided into ten companies. 
Fremont had been commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel in the regular army 
and w r as commander-in-chief of the battalion. The other officers were. 
Archibald H. Gillespie, major; P. B. Reading, paymaster; Henry King, com- 
missary: Jack R. Snyder, quartermaster: W. H. Russell, ordinance officer; 
Theodore Talbot, adjutant; John J. Myers, sergeant-major. 

While Fremont's officers and men w r ere engaged in collecting horses an 
engagement took place between a detachment numbering about sixty men. 
under Captains Burroughs and Thompson, and the Californians under Manuel 
Castro, who had been made commandante of the Californian forces in the 
north. The Americans had gathered several hundred horses and were taking 
them to the camp at San Juan. The advance guard, consisting of eight 
scouts, encountered the Californians near Natividad. The scouts posted them- 


selves in an "encinalito," or grove of little oaks, and a fight ensued. The 
main body of the Americans coming up, a reckless charge was made. Captain 
Burroughs and four or five others were killed and five or six were wounded. 
The Californians lost about the same number. The result was a drawn battle. 

The American consul, Thomas O. Larkin, had started for San Francisco 
and had stopped at Gomez' ranch over night. A squad of Californians, under 
Lieutenant Chavez, surrounded the house about midnight and made him 
prisoner : he was held until the close of the war. The only other engage- 
ment in the north was the so-called "Battle of Santa Clara," which took place 
between a force of about ioo Americans under Captains Weber, Marston and 
Aram, and an equal number of Californians under Francisco Sanchez. The 
battle was fought at long range with artillery and so far as known, there were 
no fatalities on either side. 

On November 29th, 1846, Fremont's battalion began its march southward 
to co-operate with Stockton in the subjugation of the rebellious Californians 
at Los Angeles. And here we shall leave it to pursue its weary way while 
we review the operations of the Californians and the Americans in the south. 

The garrison at San Diego, after it had remained on the Stonington about 
ten days, stole a march on the Californians by landing at night and recaptur- 
ing the town and one piece of artillery. A whale boat was sent up to San 
Pedro with dispatches and an earnest request for reinforcements. It reached 
San Pedro October 13th. Lieutenant Minor and midshipmen Duvall and 
Morgan, with thirty-five sailors of Mervine's force and fifteen of Gillespie's 
volunteers were sent on the whale ship, Magnolia, to reinforce Merritt at 
San Diego. This force upon arrival set to work to build a fort and mount 
the cannon taken from the old presidio. Although continually harassed by 
the Californians, they succeeded in building a fort and mounting six brass 

About the first of November, Commodore Stockton arrived at San Diego. 
He began fortifications on the hill and built a fort out of casks filled with 
earth, on which he mounted guns. The whole work was completed in three 
weeks. Provisions ran short and frequent forays were made into the sur- 
rounding country for supplies. About December 1st. word reached Stockton 
that General Kearny was at Warner's pass, about eighty miles from San 
Diego, with 100 dragoons. Stockton sent a force of fifty men and one piece 
of artillery, under Captain Gillespie to conduct this force to San Diego. 
Gillespie joined General Kearny and on their return march the entire force 
was surprised on the morning of December 6th by about ninety Californians 
under Captain Andres Pico, near the Indian village of San Pasqual. Pico 
had been sent into that part of the country to intercept and capture squads 
of Americans sent out after horses and cattle. The meeting was a surprise 
on both sides. The Americans foolishly charged the Californians and in 
doing so, became strung out in a long irregular line. The Californians rallied 


and charged in turn. The Americans lost in killed. Captains Johnston and 
Moore, Lieutenant Hammond and sixteen dragoons. The Californians es- 
caped with three men slightly wounded. They captured one piece of artillery. 
Three of Kearny's wounded' died, making the total American death list, 
twenty-two. Less than one-half of Kearny's force were engaged in the battle. 

After the engagement, Kearny took position on a barren hill, covered 
with rocks. The enemy made no attack but remained in the neighborhood and 
awaited a favorable opportunity to renew the assault. The night after the 
attack. Lieutenant Godey, Midshipman Beale and Kit Carson, managed to 
pass through the pickets of the enemy and eventually — by different routes — 
reached San Diego with the news of the disaster. On December 9th, detach- 
ments of sailors and marines, numbering in all about 200, from the Congress 
and the Portsmouth and under the immediate command of Captain Zielin, 
began a march to relieve General Kearny. They marched at night and 
camped -in the chapparal by day. On the second night they reached Kearny's 
camp about 4 a. m. and took him by surprise. Godey, who had been sent ahead 
to inform Kearny of the relief, had been captured by the Californians. 
General Kearny had destroyed all of his baggage and camp equipage, saddles, 
bridles, clothing, etc., preparatory to forcing his way through the enemy's 
lines. The enemy disappeared on the arrival of reinforcements. General 
Kearny and the relief expedition reached San Diego after a march of two 

It is necessary to explain how General Kearny came to be in California 
with so small a force. In June, 1846, General Stephen W. Kearny, com- 
mander of the Army of the West, as it was designated, left Fort Leavenworth 
with a force of regulars and volunteers to take possession of New Mexico. 
The conquest of that territory was accomplished without a battle. Under 
orders from the War Department, Kearny began his march to California 
with a part of his force, in order to co-operate with the naval force already 
there. Near Socorro, N. M., October 16th, he met Kit Carson with an escort 
of fifteen men, enroute from Los Angeles to Washington with dispatches from 
Commodore Stockton, giving a report of the conquest of California. General 
Kearny selected 120 men from his force, sent the remainder back to Santa Fe, 
and compelled Carson to turn back and guide him to California. After a toil- 
some journey across the arid plains of Arizona and the Colorado desert, they 
reached the Indian village where the engagement took place, destitute of 
provisions and with men and horses worn out. 

Stockton had been actively pushing prepartions for his expedition against 
Los Angeles. His force numbered 600 men, mostly sailors and marines, but 
he had been drilling them in military evolutions on land. On the 19th of 
December this army started on its march for the capital. General Kearny 
was made second in command. The baggage and artillery was hauled on 
carretas, but the oxen being ill-fed and unused to long journeys gave out on 
the way and the marines had to assist in dragging the carts. 


Near San Juan Capistrano, a commission bearing a flag-of-truce met 
Stockton with proposals from Governor Flores, asking for a conference. 
Stockton replied that lie knew no "Governor Flores", that he — Stockton — 
was governor of California. "He knew a rebel 'by the name of Flores, and if 
the people of California would give' him up, he — Stockton — would treat with 
them." The embassy refused to entertain such terms, saying that they pre- 
ferred death to surrender under such terms. On January 8th, 1847, Stockton's 
army encountered the Californians at "El Paso de Bartolo" (Pass of Bartholo- 
mew) on the San Gabriel river and a battle was fought. The Californians 
had planted four pieces of artillery on the bluff over the river with the design 
of preventing the Americans from crossing. In the face of the artillery fire, 
the Americans crossed the river, dragging with them through the quick- 
sands, two nine-poundefs and four smaller guns. They placed their guns 
in battery on the river bank and opened fire on the Californians with such 
telling effect that one of their guns was disabled and the gunners were driven 
away from the others. The California cavalry made a charge on the rear but 
were repulsed by Gillespie's riflemen. The Americans charged the Californian 
center, advancing their artillery in battery. The enemy were driven from 
the heights but succeeded in taking their artillery with them. The battle 
lasted about one and a half hours. The Americans lost two killed and eight 
wounded. The loss of the Californians was about the same. The Ameri- 
cans encamped on the battlefield while the Californians fell back toward the 
the city and camped in plain view of their opponents; but they moved their 
camp during the night. 

Stockton resumed his march on the morning of the 9th. moving in a 
northwesterly direction across the plains. The Californians had posted them- 
selves in Canada de los Alisos (Canon of Sycamores) near the main road. 
As the American column appeared the}- opened fire with their artillery and 
an artillery duel, at long range, continued for several hours. Finally the 
Californians, concentrating all their efforts' into one grand charge, dashed 
down upon the American column. A volley from the rifles of Stockton's 
men checked their advance, and turning, they fled in every direction, leaving 
a number of their horses dead upon the field. The "Battle of the Plains," as 
Stockton calls it. was over. The loss on the American side was five wounded ; 
on the other side one man was killed and an unknown number wounded. 
Stockton's force numbered about 600 men, hut not all of them took part in the 
engagement. The Californians had about 300 men. The small loss on the 
American side was due in part to the inefficient weapons with which the Cali- 
fornians were armed and to the poor quality of their home-made gun powder, 
manufactured at San Gabriel. The small loss of the Californians was due in 
part to the long range at which most of the fighting was done and in part to 
the execrable marksmanship of Stockton's sailors and marines. After the 
battle, Stockton continued his march and crossed the river below the city 
where he encamped on the right bank. 


On the morning of the 10th. as he was about to resume his march, a flag 
of truce, borne by De Celis and Alvarado, Californians. and Wm. Workman, 
an Englishman, came into camp. The commissioners offered the peaceful 
surrender of the city on condition that the Americans should respect the rights 
of property and protect citizens. The terms were agreed to and Stockton's 
army marched into the city, moving up the main street to the plaza to the 
stirring strains of Yankee Doodle and Hail Columbia. The "gringos" as 
the Americans were nicknamed, met with no hostile demonstrations, but it 
was very evident that they were not welcome visitors. The better class of 
the native inhabitants closed their houses and took refuge with friendly 
foreigners or retired to ranches in the country ; the fellows of the lower class, 
exhausted their vocabularies of abuse against the "gringos." Flores, after the 
"Battle of La Mesa," retreated up the Arroyo Seco to the San Pasqual ranch, 
where he established his camp. Stockton, not aware of the location of the ene- 
my and fearful of an attack determined to fortify the town. On the nth, Lieu- 
tenant Emory, of Kearny's staff, sketched the plan of a fort: on the 12th. the 
site was selected on what is now Fort Hill, and work was begun and con- 
tinued on the 15th and 16th. 

We left Fremont's battalion on its march down the coast irom Monterey. 
The rains set in early and were heavy; the roads were almost impassable and 
the men suffered from the inclemency of the weather and from lack of sup- 
plies. The horses nearly all died and part of the artillery had to be aband- 
oned. On January nth, the battalion reached San Fernando valley, where 
Fremont received a note from General Kearny informing him of the defeat 
of the Californians and the capture of the city. The battalion advanced and 
occupied the mission buildings. Jesus Pico had been arrested near San Luis 
Obispo, having broken his parole. He was tried by court martial and 
sentenced to be shot, but Fremont pardoned him and he became in conse- 
quence a most devoted friend. He now volunteered to find the Californian 
army and induce them to surrender to Fremont. He found a part of the 
force encamped at Verdugo and urged Flores, who in response to a message- 
had come from the main camp at San Pasqual, to capitulate to Fremont, 
claiming that better terms could be secured from the latter than from Stock- 
ton. A council was held and the Californians decided to appeal to Fremont, 
but Flores resolved to quit the country and started that same night for Sonora. 
Before leaving he transferred the command of the armv to General Andre* 

General Pico, on assuming command, appointed Francisco Rico and 
Francisco de La Guerra, to go with Jesus Pico and confer with Colonel Fre- 
mont. Fremont appointed as commissioners to negotiate a treaty. Major 
P. B. Reading, Major W. H. Russell and Captain Louis McLane. On the 
return of Rico and de La Guerra to the Californian camp. General Pico ap- 
pointed as commissioners Jose Antonio Carillo and Augustin Olvera, and then 


moved his army to a point near the river at Cahvtenga. On the 13th, Fremont 
moved his camp from San Fernando to Cahuenga. The commissioners met 
in a deserted ranch house at that place and the treaty, or capitulation, of 
Cahuenga was drawn up and signed. The principal stipulations of treaty 
were that the Californians should surrender their arms and agree to conform 
to the laws of the United States. They were to be given the same privileges 
as citizens of the United States and were not to be required to take an oath of 
allegiance until a treat}- of peace was signed between the United States and 
Mexico. General Pico surrendered two pieces of artillery and a few muskets 
and disbanded his men. 

On January 14th, Fremont's battalion marched through the Cahuenga 
pass and entered Los Angeles, four days after its surrender to Stockton. 
Commodore Stockton approved the treaty, although it was not altogether 
satisfactory to him. On the 16th, he appointed Colonel Fremont governor 
of the territory. General Kearny claimed that under his instructions from 
the War Department, he should be recognized as governor. For some time 
there had been ill feeling between Stockton and Kearny. This precipitated 
a quarrel. General Kearny and his dragoons left Los Angeles on the 18th 
for San Diego, and on the 20th, Commodore Stockton with his sailors and 
marines left the city for San Pedro, where they embarked on a man-of-war to 
rejoin their ships at San Diego. Stockton, was, shortly after this, superseded 
in the command of the Pacific squadron by Commodore Shubrick. Colonel 
Fremont was left in command at Los Angeles. Colonel P. St. George Cooke 
arrived on January 27th, with his Mormon battalion, at San Luis Rev. This 
force consisted of five companies of Mormons who had been recruited at 
Kanesville, near Omaha, and after a long march by way of New Mexico and 
Arizona had reached California too late to assist in its conquest. From San 
Diego, General Kearny sailed to San Francisco and from there went ta 
Monterey, where he established his governorship. California now had a gov 
ernor in the north and one in the south. Colonel Cooke was appointed mill 
tary commander of the south and brought his Mormon troops to Los Angeles. 
Fremont's battalion was mustered out and he was ordered to report to General 
Kearny at Monterey. He did so and passed out of office. He was nomi- 
nally governor of California for two months. General Kearny turned over 
the command of the troops in California to Colonel R. B. Mason, who became 
military governor of the territory. General Kearny returned to the states 
by the Salt Lake route. He required Colonel Fremont to accompany him, 
and at Fori Leavenworth preferred charges against Fremont for disobedience 
of orders. He was tried by court martial at Washington, found guilty and 
dismissed from the service. President Polk remitted the penalty and ordered 
him to resume his sword and report for duty. Fremont did so, but shortly 
afterward resigned from the army. 

The First New York Infantry had been recruited in eastern New York 


in the summer of 1846, for the double purpose of conquest and colonization. 
It came to the coast well supplied with provisions and with implements of 
husbandry. It reached California via Cape Horn, in three vessels. The first, 
the Perkins, arrived at Yerba Buena. March 6th, 1847; the second, the Drew, 
March 6th, and the third, the Loo Choo, March 19th. The regiment was 
divided up and sent to different places on guard duty. Two companies, A 
and B, under Lieutenant-Colonel Burton, were sent to Lower California, 
where they saw some hard service and took part in several engagements. 

Colonel Cooke resigned his position as commandant of the south and 
Colonel J. D. Stevenson, of the New York volunteers was assigned to the 
command. The Mormon battalion was mustered out in July and Companies 
E and G, of the New York Volunteers and a company of U. S. dragoons did 
guard duty at Los Angeles. 

Another military organization that reached California after the conquest 
was Company F, of the Third U. S. Artillery. It landed at Monterey, Jan- 
uary 2j, 1847, under command of Captain C. 0. Thompkins. With it came 
Lieutenant E. O. C. Ord, William T. Sherman and II. W. Halleck, all of 
whom were prominent afterward in California and attained national reputa- 
tion during the civil war. 

During 1847-48, until the treaty of peace between the Uhited States and 
Mexico was proclaimed, garrisons were kept in all of the principal towns. 
The government of the territory was quasi-military. Attempts were made 
to establish municipal government in the towns. In the northern towns 
these efforts were successful : but in Los Angeles there was some clashing 
between Colonel Stevenson and the "hijos del pais." There were rumors of 
uprisings and of Mexican troops on the way to recapture the place. Colonel 
Stevenson completed the fort on the hill, begun by Lieutenant Emory, and 
named it Fort Moore. There were no hostile acts by the citizens and the 
asperities of war were gradually forgotten. The natives became reconciled 
to the situation. 

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was concluded February 2, 1848. 
It was ratified at Washington, March 10th ; at Ouerataro, May 30th and was 
proclaimed by the President of the United States, July 4th. The news reached 
California August 6th and was proclaimed next clay by Governor Mason. The 
war was over and California had become a territory of the United States. 

Governor Pio Pico returned to California from Mexico in August, 1847. 
Colonel Stevenson, fearing that he might incite rebellion placed him under 
arrest, but he was soon convinced that Pico's intentions were harmless and 
gave him his liberty. 

A large overland immigration from the United States arrived in California 
in 1846 and 1847. The Dormer party, made up principally of immigrants 
from Illinois, were caught in the snows of the Sierra Nevadas in October, 1846, 
and wintered at a lake since known as Dormer's Lake. Of the original party, 


numbering eighty-seven, thirty-nine perished of starvation and exposure ; 
the remainder were brought to Sutter's Fort by rescuing parties sent out 
from California. 



While the treaty negotiations were pending between the United States 
and Mexico, an event occurred in California that ultimately changed the 
destinies of that territory. That event was the discovery of gold at what is 
now known as Coloma, on the American River, in the foothills of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains, about thirty-five miles above Sutter's Fort. The dis- 
covery was made January 24th, 1848. 

Gold had previously been discovered on the San Francisquito Rancho, 
about forty-five miles northwesterly from Los Angeles, in the spring of 1841. 
Placers had been worked here, principally by Sonoran miners, up to the break- 
ing out of the Mexican war. But the gold fields were of limited extent, water 
was scarce, the methods of mining crude .and wasteful and this discovery 
created little excitement. 

Both discoveries were purely accidental. The first discoverer, Lopez, 
was hunting for stray horses. While resting under an oak tree and amusing 
himself by digging wild onions with his sheath knife, he turned up a nugget 
of gold. Continuing his digging he found more gold. He made known his 
discovery and a number of persons came from Santa Barbara and Los Angeles 
to work in these placers. 

James W. Marshall, who had made the second discovery, was at the time 
engaged in building a saw mill for Captain Sutter, proprietor of Sutter's Fort 
and owner of an extensive grant at the junction of the American and Sacra- 
mento rivers. Marshall, to deepen the race, turned a head of water through 
it. The next morning while examining the effect of the water, he picked up 
in the race a round piece of yellow metal, which he thought might be gold. 
Searching further he found several of these nuggets. He went to the Fort 
to notify Sutter of his discovery. Sutter tested the metal with aqua fortis 
and pronounced it gold. He returned with Marshall to the mill to make 
further investigations. The men working on the mill had discovered the 
nature of the metal and had also been collecting it. Sutter found several 
nuggets and before leaving the mill exacted a promise from the men to keep 


the discovery a secret for six weeks. Beside the saw mill he was building a 
large flouring mill near the fort and he feared all of his men would desert for 
the mine. But the secret could not be kept. Mrs. Wimmer, who did the 
cooking for the men at the mill, told a teamster and he reported it at the 
fort. The news spread slowly at first and there were many who would not 
believe the report. It was three months before the rush began. Kemble, 
the editor of the California Star, visited the mines two months after their 
discovery and upon his return to San Francisco pronounced them a sham 
and advised people to stay away. 

During April considerable quantities of gold were received in San Fran- 
cisco and the excitement became intense. The city had been building up 
rapidly since the conquest ; but now the rush to the mines almost depopulated 
it. Houses were left tenantless, business was suspended, ships were left in 
the bav without sailors, soldiers deserted from the forts and rancheros left 
their grain unharvested. 

The news did not spread abroad in time to bring many gold-seekers into 
California during 1848. In the spring of 1849, tne great rush from the out- 
side world began — both by land and by sea. Gold had now been discovered 
over an area of more than two hundred miles and new fields were constantly 
being opened. San Francisco, which was the great entry port for commerce 
and travel by sea, grew with astonishing rapidity. At the time of the dis- 
covery of gold the population of San Francisco was about 800, and the white 
population of California about 6000. At the close of 1849, the population of 
the territory numbered one hundred thousand, four-fifths of which had 
reached the land of gold in that one year. During 1848, Sutter's Fort, or 
New Helvetia, as it was called, was the great distributing point for the mines. 
Sacramento was laid out in 1849, an ^ soon became the chief commercial city 
of the interior. At the end of the year its population had reached 5000. 

California, at the time of the discovery of gold, was still held as a con- 
quered country. The Mexican laws were in force and the government was 
half civil and half military. The rapid influx of population brought complica- 
tions in the government. After the treaty was proclaimed in California, 
August 7th, 1848, Governor Mason promulgated a code of laws that were in- 
tended to tide over affairs until a territorial government could be established 
by Congress. It was not satisfactory to Americans. 

Governor Mason was a faithful and conscientious military officer with 
but little knowledge of civil affairs. He did the best he could under the cir- 
cumstances, but he was able to exercise very little authority, either civil, or 
military. His soldiers deserted to the gold fields and the municipal govern- 
ments were anomalous affairs, generally recognizing no authority above them- 

Colonel Mason, who had been in the military service for thirty years, 
asked to be relieved. April 12, 1849. Brigadier General Bennett K. Riley 


arrived at Monterey and the next day entered upon the duties of his office as 
governor. Brigadier General Persifer F. Smith, was made military com- 
mander of the U. S. troops on the Pacific coast. Most of the troops he 
brought with him deserted at the first opportunity after their arrival in 

A year had passed since the treaty of peace was sighed and California 
became United States territory; but Congress had done nothing for it. The 
pro-slavery element in that body was determined to fasten the curse of slavery 
on a portion of the territory acquired from Mexico and all legislation was at 
a standstill. The people were becoming restive under the mixed military 
and civil government. The question of calling a convention to form a state 
constitution had been agitated for some time. Conforming to the expressed 
wish of many leading men of the territory, Governor Riley called an election 
August ist, 1849, to elect delegates to form a state constitution, or a terri- 
torial government, if that should seem best, and to elect judges, prefects and 
alcaldes for the principal municipal districts. The convention was to consist 
of thirty-seven delegates but forty-eight were elected and when the conven- 
tion met at Monterey, September ist, 1849, i° Colton hall, this number was 
seated. Colton hall was a stone building erected by Alcalde Walter Colton 
for a town hall and school house. The money to build it was derived partly 
from fines and partly by subscription and the greater part of the construction 
work was done by prisoners. It was at that time the most commodious 
public building in the territory. 

Of the forty-eight delegates, twenty-two were from the northern states, 
fifteen from the slave states, four were of foreign birth and seven were native 
Californians. Several of the latter neither spoke nor understood English and 
Wm. E. P. Hartnell was appointed interpreter. Dr. Robert Semple, of Bear 
Flag fame was elected president; Wm. G. Marcy, secretary, and J. Ross 
Browne, reporter. Early in the session the slavery question was disposed 
of by adopting a section, declaring that "neither slavery nor involuntary 
servitude, unless for the punishment of crimes, shall ever be tolerated in this 

The question of fixing the boundaries of the future state excited the most 
discussion. The pro-slavery faction was led by Wm. M. Gwin, who had 
recently come to the territory with the avowed intention of representing the 
new state in the United States Senate. The scheme of Gwin and his southern 
associates was to make the Rocky Mountains the eastern boundary. This 
would create a state with an area of about four hundred thousand square 
miles. They reasoned that when the admission of the state came before Con- 
gress the southern members would oppose the admission of so large a territory 
under a free state constitution and that ultimately a compromise would be 
effected. California would be split in two from east to west, the old dividing 
line, the parallel of 36 deg. 30 min. would be established, and Southern Cali- 


fornia would come into the union as a slave state. There were, at this time, 
fifteen free and fifteen slave states. If two states, one free and one slave were 
made out of California territory, the equilibrium would be preserved. The 
Rocky Mountain boundary was adopted at one time, but in the closing days 
of the session, the free state men discovered Gwin's scheme and it was 
defeated. The present boundaries were established by a majority of two. 

A committee had been appointed to receive propositions and designs 
for a state seal. But one design was received, presented by Caleb Lyon, but 
drawn by Robert S. Garnett. It contained a figure of Minerva; a grizzly bear 
feeding on a bunch of grapes ; a miner with his gold rocker and pan ; a view of 
the Golden Gate with ships in the bay and peaks of the Sierra Nevada in 
the distance; thirty-one stars, and above all the word "Eureka." The con- 
vention adopted the design as presented. The constitution was completed on 
October 10th and an election was called by Governor Riley for November 
13th. to ratify the constitution, elect state officers, a legislature and members 
of Congress. 

At the election Peter H. Burnett was chosen governor ; John McDougall, 
lieutenant governor ; George W. Wright and Edward Gilbert, members of 
Congress. During the session of the legislature, Wrrt. M. Gwin and John 
C. Fremont were elected to the United States Senate. 

San Jose had been designated as the state capital. On December 15th, 
the state government was inaugurated there. The legislature consisted of 
sixteen senators and thirty-six assemblymen. On the 22nd. the legislature 
elected the remaining state officers, viz. : Richard Roman, treasurer ; John 
S. Houston, controller; E. J. C. Kewen, attorney-general; Charles J. Whiting, 
surveyor-general; S. C. Hastings, chief justice; Henry A. Lyons and 
Nathaniel Bennett, associate justices. The legislature continued in session 
until April 22nd, 1850. Although this law-making body was named the 
"Legislature of a thousand drinks." it did a vast amount of work and did most 
of it well. It divided the state into twenty-seven counties and provided for 
county government. It also provided for the incorporation of cities and 
towns, passed revenue laws and other necessary laws, both civil and criminal. 

California was a self-constituted state. It had organized a state govern- 
ment and put it into operation without the sanction of Congress. It had not 
been admitted into the Union and it actually enjoyed the privileges of state- 
hood for nine months before it was admitted. 

When the question of admitting California came before Congress it 
evoked a bitter controversy. The Senate was equally divided — thirty 
senators from slave states and thirty from the free states. There were 
among the southern senators some broad-minded men, but there were 
many extremists on the subject of negro slavery — men who would sacrifice 
their country in order to extend and perpetuate that "sum of all villainies" — 
slavery. This faction resorted to every known parliamentary device to pre- 


vent the admission of California under a free state constitution. On August 
13th, the bill for admission finally- came to a vote; it passed the Senate — 
thirty-four ayes to eighteen noes. Even then the opposition did not cease. 
Ten of the Southern extremists joined in a protest against the action of the 
majority. In the house the bill passed by a vote of one hundred and fifty to 
fifty-six. It was approved and signed by President Fillmore, September 9th, 
1850. On the nth of September, the California Senators and Congressmen 
presented themselves to be sworn in. The southern faction of the Senate, 
headed by Jefferson Davis, who had been one of the most bitter opponents to 
admission, objected. But their protest came too late. 

The news' of the admission of California as a state, reached San Francisco 
on the morning of October 18th, by the mail steamer, Oregon. Business was 
at once suspended, courts adjourned and the people went wild with delight. 
Messengers mounted on fleet horses spread the news throughout the 
state. Everywhere there was rejoicing. For ten months the state govern- 
ment had been in full operation ; its acts were now legalized and it continued 
in power without change or interruption under the officers elected in 1849 for 
two years. The first state election after admission was held in October. 1851. 
John Bigler was elected governor. 



Tales of the fabulous richness of the California gold fields were spread 
throughout the civilized world and drew to the state all classes and conditions 
of men — the bad as well as the good. They came from Europe, from South 
America and from Mexico ; from far Australia and Tasmania came the ex- 
convict and the "ticket-of-leave" man ; and from Asia came the "heathen 

In 1 85 1 the criminal element became so dominant as to seriously threaten 
the existence of the chief city of the state — San Francisco. Terrible con- 
flagrations swept over the city that year and destroyed the greater part of 
the business portion. The fires were known to be of incendiary origin. The 
bold and defiant attitude of the lawless classes led to the organization of the 
better element into a tribunal known as the "Vigilance Committee." This 
organization disregarded the legally constituted authorities, who were either 
too weak or too corrupt to control the law-defying element and took the power 
in their own hands. They tried and executed by hanging four notorious 
criminals- — Jenkins, Stuart. Whitaker and McKenzie. Such vigorous meas- 
ures adopted by the Committee soon purified the city from the vile class 
that preyed upon it. Several of the smaller towns and some of the mining 


camps also formed "vigilance committees" and a number of the rascals who 
had fled from San Francisco met a deserved fate in these places. 

During the early fifties the better elements in the population of San 
Francisco were too much engrossed in the rushing business affairs of that pe- 
riod of excitement, to give time or thought to political affairs and conse- 
quently the government of the city gradually drifted into the hands of vicious 
and corrupt men. Many of the city authorities had obtained their offices by 
fraud and ballot stuffing and instead of protecting the community against 
scoundrels they protected the scoundrels against the community. 

James King, an ex-banker and a man of great courage and persistence, 
started a small paper called the Daily Evening Bulletin. He vigorously as- 
sailed the criminal element's and the county and city officials. His denun- 
ciations at last aroused public sentiment. The murder of United States 
Marshal Richardson by a gambler named Cora still further inflamed the 
public mind. It was feared that by the connivance of the county officials, 
Cora would escape punishment. The trial resulted in a hung jury and there 
were strong suspicions that some of the jury had been bribed. King con- 
tinued through the Bulletin to hurl his most bitter invectives against the 
corrupt officials. They determined to silence him. He published the fact 
that James Casey, a supervisor from the twelfth ward, was an ex-convict 
from Sing Sing prison. Casey waylaid' King at the corner of Montgomery 
and Washington streets and in a cowardly manner shot him down. The 
shooting occurred on May 14, 1856. Casey immediately surrendered him- 
self to a deputy sheriff, Lafayette McByrne, who was near. King was not 
killed outright but the physicians, after an examination, pronounced the 
case hopeless. Casey was confined in the city jail and as a mob began to 
gather there, he was taken to the county jail for greater safety. A crowd 
pursued him crying, "Hang him, kill him." At the jail the mob was stopped 
by an array of deputy sheriffs, police officers and a number of Casey's per- 
sonal friends — all armed. The excitement spread throughout the city. The 
old Vigilance Committee of 1851, or rather a new organization out of the 
remnants of the old one, was formed. Five thousand men were enrolled with- 
in a few days. Arms were procured and headquarters secured on Sacramento 
street, between Davis and Front. The men were divided into companies. 
William T. Coleman, chairman of the old vigilantes, was made the president, 
or No. 1, and Isaac Bluxom, Jr., was the secretary, or No. 30. Each man 
was known by a number. Chas. Doane was elected chief marshal of the mili- 
tary division. 

The San Francisco Herald, edited by John Nugent, then the leading 
paper of the city, came out with a scathing editorial denouncing the vigilance 
committee. The merchants at once withdrew advertising patronage. The 
next morning the paper appeared reduced from forty columns to a single 
page, but still hostile to the committee. It died for lack of patronage finally. 


Sunday. May 18, 1856, the military division was ready to storm the 
jail if necessary to obtain possession of the prisoners, Casey and Cora. The 
different companies marched from their headquarters and completely in- 
vested the jail. There were fifteen hundred vigilantes under arms. They 
had with them two pieces of artillery. One of these guns was planted so as 
to command the door of the jail. A demand was made on Sheriff Scannell 
for the prisoners. Case)- and Cora. The prison guards made no resistance. 
The prisoners were surrendered at once and taken to the headquarters of the 

On May 20th. while the murderers" were on trial the death of King was 
announced. Both men were convicted and sentenced to be hanged. King's 
funeral, the largest and most imposing ever seen in San Francisco, took place 
on the 23d. While the funeral cortege was passing through the streets Casey 
and Cora were hanged in front of the windows of the vigilantes' headquarters. 
About an hour before his execution Cora was married to a notorious courte- 
san, Arabella Ryan, better known as Bell Cora. 

Gov. J. Neely Johnson at first seemed not inclined to interfere with the 
vigilance committee : but afterward, acting under the advice of Volney E. 
Howard and David S. Terry and others of the dominant proslavery faction, 
issued a proclamation commanding the committee to disband — to which no 
attention was paid. The governor then appointed William T. Sherman 
Major General. Sherman called for recruits to suppress the uprising. Seven- 
ty-five or a hundred — mostly gamblers — responded. Gen. Wool, in com- 
mand of the troops in the department of the Pacific, refused to loan Gov. 
Johnson arms to equip his "Law and Order" recruits and Gen. Sherman re- 
signed. Volney E. Howard was then appointed Major General. 

A squad of the Vigilance Committee was appointed to arrest a man 
named Maloney, who was at the time in the company of David S. Terry 
(then chief justice of the state) and several other members of the "Law and 
Order" party. They resisted the police and in the melee Terry stabbed the 
sergeant of the part}-. Sterling A. Hopkins, and then he and his associates 
made their escape to the armory of the San Francisco Blues, one of their 

When the report of the stabbing reached headquarters the great bell 
sounded the alarm and the vigilantes, in a very short space of time, sur- 
rounded the Armory, and had their cannon planted to batter it down. Terry. 
Maloney and the others of their parts' in the building, considering discretion 
the better part of valor, surrendered and were at once taken to Fort "Gunny- 
bags," so named on account of a breastwork made of gunnybags filled with 
sand, which the vigilantes had placed about the building used as headquar- 
ters. Cannon were placed at the corners of the redoubt. The arms of the 
"Law and Order" party at their various rendezvous were surrendered to 
the vigilantes and the companies disbanded. 


Terry was closely confined in a cell at the headquarters of the Com- 
mittee. Hopkins, after lingering some time between life and death, finally 
recovered. Terry was tried for assault upon Hopkins and upon several other 
parties and was found guilty; but after he had been held a prisoner for some 
time, he was released. He was forced to resign his office as chief justice. He 
at once joined Johnson and Howard in Sacramento, where he felt safer than 
in San Francisco. 

On July 29th, Hethrington and Brace were hanged from a gallows 
erected on Davis street, between Sacramento and Commercial. Both of these 
men had committed murder. The Committee transported from the state 
some thirty disreputable characters and a number of others deported them- 
selves. A few. among them the notorious Ned McGowan. managed 
to keep concealed until the storm was over. A few of the exiles returned 
after the Committee was disbanded and began suit for damages, but failed 
to secure anything. The Committee had paid the fare of the exiles and it 
was only the high-toned rascals who had been given cabin passage, that 
began the suits. The Committee finished its labors and dissolved with a 
grand parade, August 18, 1856, after doing a most valuable work. For sev- 
eral years afterwards San Francisco was one of the best governed cities 
in the United States, instead of one of the worst. It is a noticeable fact 
that the Vigilance Committee was largely made up of men from the northern 
and western states, while the so-called "Law and Order*' party was com- 
posed mostly of the pro-slavery, office-holding faction which then ruled the 

The rush of gold-seekers to California in the early fifties had brought to 
the state a certain class of adventurers — many of whom were too lazy or too 
proud to work. They were ready to engage in almost any lawless under- 
taking that promised plunder and adventure. The defeat of the pro-slavery 
politicians in their attempt to fasten their "peculiar institution" upon any 
part of the territory acquired from Mexico made them very bitter. The more 
unscrupulous among them began to look about for new fields over which 
slavery might be spread. As slavery could only be made profitable in south- 
ern lands, Cuba. Mexico and Central America became the arena for enacting 
that form of piracy known as "filibustering." Although the armed invasion 
of countries with which the LJnited States was at peace was in direct vio- 
lation of international laws, yet the federal office-holders in the, Southern 
States and in California — all of whom belonged to the pro-slavery party — 
made no attempt to prevent these invasions, but instead secretly aided them, 
or at least sympathized with them to the extent of allowing them to recruit 
men and depart without molestation. One of the leading filibuster- from 
California was a Tennesseean by the name of Walker. His first attempt was 
against Lower California. He captured La Paz and established what he 
called the "Republic of Lower California" and proclaimed it slave territory. 


He and his army plundered and robbed wherever there was anything to be 
obtained. The country was so poor and his army so mutinous that he 
was compelled to abandon his so-called republic. He shot several of his 
dupes for desertion. After this he had a varied career as a filibuster in 
Central America. He was captured in Honduras in i860, court-martialed 
and shot. 

The last filibustering expedition to enter Mexico was a body of 100. men 
commanded by Henry A. Crabb, a Stockton lawyer and politician of the 
southern school. He entered Sonora by way of the Yuma route and pene- 
trated as far as Cavorca. Here he was attacked by a large force of Mexi- 
cans. After holding out for five days in an adobe building he surrendered. 
All the Americans, with the exception of a fifteen-year-old boy, were shot 
the next morning. 


As has been previously stated, the Constitutional Convention of 1849 
met in Colton hall in Monterey. During its sessions the question of locat- 
ing the capital came up. San Jose offered to donate a square of' thirty-two 
acres valued at $6o.oco for capital grounds and give the free use of a build- 
ing for meetings of the legislature. The offer was accepted and the first 
legislature convened there December 15, 1849. The first capitol of the state 
was a two-story adobe building, 40 by 60 feet, which had been built for a 
hotel. This building was destroyed by fire April 29, 1853. The accommo- 
dations at San Jose were not satisfactory. 

The Legislature next accepted a proposition from Gen. M. J. Yallejo to 
locate the capital at his new town of Yallejo. He offered to donate 156 
acres of land for a site and within two years to give $370,000 in money to be 
expended in the erection of public buildings. When the members of the 
legislature met at the new capital January 2, 1852, they found a large un- 
furnished and partly unfinished wooden building for their reception. Ac- 
commodations were very poor and even food was wanting for the hungry 

Sacramento then offered its new court house as a meeting place and 
on the 16th the legislature convened in that city. The great flood of 1852 
inundated the town and the lawmakers were forced t'o reacb the halls of 
legislation in boats — again there was dissatisfaction. 

Benicia now came to the front with the offer of her new city hall, which 
was assuredly above high water mark. Gen. Vallejo had become financially 
embarrassed and could not carry out his contract so it was annulled. The 
offer of Benicia was accepted and on May 18, 1853, that town was declared 
the permanent capital. 

In the legislature of 1854 the capital question again came to the fore. 
Offers were received from several aspiring cities, but Sacramento won with 


the offer of her new court house and a block of land between I and I. Ninth 
and Tenth streets. Then the question of locating the capital got into the 
courts. The Supreme Court decided in favor of Sacramento. Before the 
legislature met again the court house burned down. A more commodious 
one was at once erected and rented to the state at $12,000 a year. Then 
Oakland made an unsuccessful attempt to secure the capital. Finally a bill 
was passed authorizing the erection of a capitol building in Sacramento at a 
cost not to exceed $500,000. Work was begun on the foundation in October, 
i860. The great flood of 1861-62 inundated the town and ruined the founda- 
tions of the capitol. San Francisco made a vigorous effort to secure the seat 
of government but was not successful. Work was resumed on the building, 
the plans were changed, the edifice enlarged, and finally after many delays 
it was ready for occupancy in December, 1869. From the original limit of 
half a million its cost, when completed, had reached a million and a half. 
The amount expended on the building and the grounds to date is $2,600,000. 
State Senator E. C. Seymour, representing Orange and San Bernardino 
counties in the Thirtieth and Thirty-first sessions, introduced a bill to re- 
move the capital to San Jose. The bill passed, but the scheme was defeated 
in the courts. 


The Civil War (1861-1865) did not seriously affect the prosperity of Cali- 
fornia. During its progress about 16,000 volunteers enlisted in the Union 
army. Much to their disappointment these men were retained on the Pa- 
cific coast to fight Indians and keep the disloyal element in check. One bat- 
talion of five companies paid its own passage to the east and joined the 
Second Massachusetts Cavalry, in which it did splendid service in Virginia 
and Maryland. Quite a number of Confederate sympathizers from Califor- 
nia joined the Southern armies during the war. Those who remained in tire 
state were closely watched by the federal authorities and were not able to 
render much assistance to their friends of the South. 


Previous to i860 the chief industry of the state was mining. During 
the decade between 1850 and i860 a number of rushes were made to new dig- 
gings reputed to be rich in the precious metals. The most famous of these 
were the Kern river in 1855 and the Frazer river in 1857 — both ended in 
disaster to those engaged in them. In 1859 the silver mines of Washoe were 
discovered and -a great rush made to these. The Comstock lodes were very 
rich and many fortunes were made. Stock gambling became a mania in San 
Francisco and fortunes were made and lost — mostly lost. 



The southern part of the state was devoted to cattle raising and in the 
earlv fifties this occupation was immensely profitable. The land was field 
in large ranchos and at the time of the discovery of gold was mostly owned 
by native Californians. The sudden influx of population consequent on the 
discovery of gold greatly increased the value of cattle and made the stock 
owners rich . With wealth came extravagant habits and when the decline 
began they borrowed money at usurious rates and the high interest ruined 
them. The terrible dry years of 1863-64, when thousands of cattle starved 
to death, put an end to cattle raising as the distinctive industry of the south. 
The decadence of cattle raising brought about the sub-division of the large 
ranchos and the development of grain growing and fruit culture. In the 
southern part of the state the culture of citrus fruits — the orange and lemon 
— has become the leading industry. In favorable localities in the central and 
northern sections of the state the production of deciduous fruits — the apple, 
peach, prune, pear, etc. — takes precedence: while the great valleys of the 
Sacramento and the San Joaquin are vast wheat fields. 


Several schemes for the building of railroads from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, or rather from the Pacific to the Atlantic, for most of them originated 
on this side of the continent, were promulgated in California during the 
fifties, but they all "gang aglee." The first railroad built in California was 
the Sacramento Valley road. It was completed to Folsom in February, 1856, 
and was twenty-two miles in length. The next was the road from San 
Francisco to San Jose, fifty-one miles long, completed January 16, 1864. On 
June 28, 1 86 1 , at Sacramento the Central Railroad of California was organ- 
ized with Leland Stanford, president; C. P. Huntington, vice-president; 
Mark Hopkins, treasurer; James Baily, secretary, and T. D. Judah, chief 
engineer. The capital stock of the company was fixed at $8,500,000. The 
whole amount of stock subscribed by its promoters would not have built 
five miles of road ; none of the men at that time connected with the road were 
rich and the whole affair seemed to be a huge joke. On July I, 1862, the 
Pacific railroad bill was passed by Congress, authorizing the issuance of 
government bonds to the amount of $16,000 per mile to the foot of the 
mountains and of $48,000 per mile through the mountains. " Forty miles had 
to be built and equipped before any bonds were issued. In addition to this 
there was a government land subsidy of 12,800 acres per mile. Ground was 
broken for the road at Sacramento February 22, 1863. The Union Pacific 
was built westward from Omaha. On May 10, 1869, the two roads met 
at Promontory near Salt Lake and were united. 

The first road built in the southern part of the state was the Los An- 


geles and San Pedro, completed to Wilmington in October, 1869. This 
connected Los Angeles with a seaport and greatly facilitated commerce. 

The Southern Pacific railroad was completed to Los Angeles Septem- 
ber 5, 1877. It had, in 1872, obtained a subsidy from Los Angeles county of 
about $600,000 ; $225,000 being the Los Angeles and San Pedro railroad. 
For this it was to build twenty-five miles of road north of Los Angeles and 
the same distance to the east. The northern end met the extension of the 
road south from Lathrop on the Central Pacific in the Soledad Canon 
on September 5, 1877. and the last tie was laid and the golden spike driven. 
The eastern end was completed in 1883 to El Paso, where it met the Texas 
Pacific and thus gave California a second trans-continental line. 

The Atlantic and Pacific uniting with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa 
Fe, built jointly their main line from Albuquerque to the Colorado at the 
Needles. From there the A. & P. built to Barstow about eighty miles north- 
east of San Bernardino. From there the California Southern continued the 
line to San Diego. The road was completed to Colton in August, 1882, and 
opened from San Diego to San Bernardino September 13, 1883. In 1887 the 
road was built westward from San Bernardino until it met the San Gabriel 
Valley — which was built eastward from Los Angeles — at Mud Springs. The 
different divisions of the road were united under one management with its 
western terminus at Los Angeles, thus giving California its third trans- 
continental line. 

The growth of the state and particularly of the southern part of the 
state since the advent of the railroads has been phenomenal. 


The first public school in California was opened at San Jose in Decem- 
ber, 1794, seventeen years after the founding of that pueblo. The pioneer 
teacher of California was Manuel de Vargas, a retired sergeant of infantry. 
Jose Manuel Toca, a ship boy, opened the first school in Santa Barbara in 
1795. Maximo Pina. an invalid soldier, was the first schoolmaster of Los 
Angeles. He taught during the years 1817 and 1818. During the Spanish 
era the schoolmasters were mostly invalid soldiers — men of little learning — 
about all they could teach was reading and writing and the doctrina Chris- 
tiana. They were brutal tyrants and their school governments military 
despotisms. The people were indifferent to education and as the school- 
masters were paid by rate bills the terms were short and the vacations long-. 

Mexico did somewhat better for public education than Spain. The 
school terms were a little longer and the vacations proportionately shorter, 
but it was not uncommon then for a vacation to last two or three years. 

During the war of American conquest the schools were all closed. After 
the cessation of hostilities in 1847 a school under army regulations was es- 


tablished in Los Angeles — or rather it was under the superintendence" of Col. 
J. B. Stevenson, the military commander of the department of the South. 
Dr. William B. Osburn was appointed teacher. This was the first English 
common school established in California. After peace was declared and 
the municipal governments organized, schools were opened in the large 
towns. These were subscription schools, although in some cases the town 
council appropriated public funds for the education of a certain number of 
poor children who were entitled to attend some private school. 

The first act to establish a common school system in California was ap- 
proved May 3, 1852. Great advance was made in perfecting and building up 
this system from 1863 to 1869 under the administration of State School Su- 
perintendent John Swett, who has been called the Horace Mann of Cali- 

The first State Normal school for ''the training of teachers" was es- 
tablished in San Francisco in 1863. It was afterwards removed to San 
Jose. There are now five Normal schools in the state. The public school 
system and the public schools of California rank among the best in the 
United States. 





Gaspar de Portala 

Felipe de Barri 

Felipe de Neve 

Pedro Fages 

Jose Antonio Romeu 

Jose J. Arrillaga 

Diego de Borica 

Jose J. Arrillaga 

Jose Arguello 

Pablo Vincente de Sola. . . 























| From I To 


Pablo Vincente de Sola. . 

Jose Maria de Echeandia 

Manuel Victoria 

Pio Pico 

Jose Figueroa 

Jose Castro 

Nicolas Gutierrez | 

Mariano Chico 

Nicolas Gutierrez 

Juan B. Alvarado 

Manuel Micheltorena 

Pio Pico | 

1 822 



Commodore John D. Sloat, July 7, 1846. 

Commodore Robert S. Stockton, August 17, 1846. 

Colonel John C. Fremont, appointed by Stockton, January 17, 1847. 

General Stephen W. Kearney, proclaimed at Monterey, March 1. 1847. 

Col. Richard B. Mason, proclaimed at Monterey, May 31, 1847. 

Gen. Bennett Riley, appointed by the President, April 13, 1849. 



Peter H. Burnett . . . 

John McDougal 

John Bigler 

J. Neelv Johnson... 

John B.' Weller 

Milton S. Latham 

John G. Downev. . . . 
Leland Stanford. 
Frederick F. Low. . . . 

Henry H. Haight 

Newton Booth 

Romualdo Pacheco . 

William Irwin 

George C. Perkins... 
George Stoneman .... 
Washington Bartlett. 
R. W. Waterman . . . 

H. H. Markhani 

James H. Budd 

Henry T. Gage 

G. D. Pardee 

.December 20, 
. . January 9, 
. . January 8, 
...January 9, 
...January 8, 
. . .January 9, 
. . January 14, 
. January 10, 
.December 10, 
.December 5, 
.December 8, 
. February 27, 
December 9, 
. January S, 
. . January 10, 
January 8, 
Septembe'r 13, 
January 8, 
January 11, 
. . . January 4, 
. . . .January 4 


anuary 8, 

anuary 8, 

anuary 9, 

anuary 8, 

anuary 9, 

anuary 1 1 , 

anuary 10, 

December 10, 

1863| December 5, 

1867 December 8, 

February 27, 

.December 9, 

. . .January 8, 

...January 10, 

January 8, 

September 12, 

. . January S, 

. . January 11, 
. . . January 4. 
. . . January 4, 




1850 i860 1870 1880 1890 

9^-597 379.994 560.247 864.604 1.208,130 



ROSE L. 1-1.1 I U\',l 

San Bernardino County 



San Bernardino has been well named the "Imperial County;" her 
position, her size, her resources, and her people all combine to make her 
an empire within herself, and yet she is proud to be known as one county of 
the Great Golden State. 

The county is bounded on the north by Inyo county, on the west by Kern 
and Los Angeles counties, on the south by Riverside county and 011 the east 
by the state of Nevada and by Arizona. The area is 20,235 square miles, 
which is divided about as follows: Agricultural, 575 square miles; dry lakes. 
700; mountain ranges, 8,000, and deserts, 10,960 square miles. Its popula- 
tion in 1900 was 27,929. It contains 12,902,400 square acres — an area almost 
equal to that of Belgium and Holland combined, which two kingdoms possess 
a population of about ten millions. 

Its desert surface extends from the Sierra Madre mountains in the south- 
west corner of the county to its northern boundary and eastward to Nevada 
and the Colorado river. It is broken by innumerable short mountain ranges 
and isolated peaks, by dry lakes and by tiny oases where springs are found. Its 
one river, the Mojave, rises in the mountains and flows to the northeast until 
swallowed up bv the sands. The arroyo. or river bed, is traceable for 
nearly a hundred miles and at points the water rises to the surface in consid- 
erable volume. 

The Sierra Madre mountains in this county are rugged and precipitous, 
their crest line ranging from six to seven thousand feet above the level of the 
sea, and their peaks rising to nine, ten and nearly eleven thousand feet. Their 
southern crest and ravines are well wooded. There is but one complete pass 
through the entire range, the Cajon. The culminating peak, Mt. San Bernar- 
dino, rises 10.680 feet, and between it and Greyback, of the San Jacinto 
range, lies the San Gorgonio pass. Mt. Greyback. or San Gorgonio, is 11,485 
feet, the highest point in Southern California. 

Shut in by the Sierra Madre range on the north, the San Jacinto range 
on the south and the Coast range on the southeast, lies the San Bernardino 
valley, the largest and best watered in Southern California. In the upper 


end of this valley, included in San Bernardino county, is the San Bernardino 
basin, which is described thus : "Hemmed in on the north by the most abrupt 
portion of the very abrupt Sierra Madre, overshadowed on the east by the 
towering peaks of San Bernardino and Greyback, closed in on the south by a 
high range of hills, extending southwesterly from the foot of the San Bernar- 
dino mountains to the Coast range, this valley is open only to the west and in 
that direction is still overlooked by the somewhat abrupt rising edge of the 
Cucamonga plains." 

This valley is a basin filled with a vast alluvial deposit of a compara- 
tively recent geological placing. Coming into it from the northwest, at the 
extreme northwest end, is the Cajon pass. Coming into it from the south- 
west corner, from the San Gorgonio pass, and by a northwesterly course, is 
the San Timoteo Canon. Entering at its extreme eastern end, crossing it 
and emerging at the southwest corner, is the Santa Ana river. It is the 
best watered valley in Southern California and one of the most inviting in 
appearance. In area it is about one hundred square miles, of which about 
twenty square miles are within the known limits of an artesian water-pro- 
ducing basin, which occupies its lowest lands, just above the outlet on the 
course of the Santa Ana river. 

The geological history of this great area of desert, mountains, plains and 
valleys is a wonderful story of the working out of nature's plans through 
ages of change. Within this county are indications of many ages and periods, 
of upliftings and of submergences, of volcanic and of glacial action. 

The known history of man in this valley begins with the entrance of 
the Spanish priests and soldiers, in 1774. They found the territory now 
occupied by this county inhabited by Indians, who, while not so degraded 
either physically or morally as many of their neighboring tribes, were still 
far below the pueblo dwellers of Arizona and New Mexico in civilization. 
There are evidences scattered through the county of an occupation prior to 
the coming of these Indians, by a race far superior to them in advancement. 
The time may come when the history of the pre-historic dwellers of this 
section may be unfolded to us, but as yet we can but conjecture. 

Since 1774, when Anza led his expedition across the Colorado desert 
and through the San Gorgonio pass into the San Bernardino valley, we have 
records, though often far too meager, of the changes and the developments 
through which this section has passed. An attempt has been made in these 
Annals of San Bernardino County, to tell briefly the story of the Indians 
of the county, of the Mission period, the Mexican occupation, the Mormon 
and New Mexican colonies, of the days of the Pioneers, and of these later 
days of Progress when history is made so rapidly that no pen, or thought, 
can keep pace with it. 

In some features the history of San Bernardino county is unique — in its 
isolated missions which seem to have prospered although left almost entirely 


to the management of neophyte Indians — no Spanish soldiers and no priest 
having ever been permanently stationed at either Politana or Old San Ber- 
nardino, so far as our knowledge goes ; in its lonely frontier ranchos which 
were in constant danger from the raids of the desert Indians; in its colonies 
of New Mexican and Mormon settlers ; in its desert industries and 
thriving desert towns ; and in the wide range of its resources. 
No other county in the state possesses such a variety of valuable mineral 
products; the mountains of San Bernardino furnish an extensive timber area; 
her mountain streams furnish power, not only for herself, but for her neigh- 
boring counties ; her great storage basin and her Santa Ana river furnish irri- 
gation waters for all of the great San Bernardino valley, extending through 
four counties; her deserts and barren mountain ranges contain mines that 
have placed her in the front rank of mining counties; an infinitesimal por- 
tion of her surface has made her the third county in the state in citrus 
products ; her mountain passes have made her the gateway between the 
Pacific coast and the great body of the United States, for three trans- 
continental lines. 

And the history of material development in this county is as yet in its 
opening chapter. During the last fifty years the foundations have been laid; 
we must look to the future for the completion and the fulfillment of the 


March 14, 1774 — Anza and party entered San Gorgonio Pass. 

January 1. 1776 — Anza forded Santa Ana river in San Bernardino valley. 

March 21, 1776 — Garces came down through Holcomb and Bear valleys. 

May 20, 1810 — Padre Dumetz of San Gabriel entered the valley and gave 
it the name of San Bernardino. 

1810 — Foundation of mission station of Politana. 

1812 — Formation of Urbita Springs by earthquakes and destruction of 
Politana by Indians 

1822 — Building of mission San Bernardino and construction of Mill 
Creek zanja. 

1831 — Destruction of the mission by desert Indians. 

1833 — Rebuilding of mission. 

1834 — Revolt of mission Indians and plunder of mission which was then 
abandoned by the San Gabriel priests. 

1838 — Jurupa Rancho granted to Juan Bandini. 

1839 — Cucamonga Rancho granted to Tiburcio Tapia. 

1 841 — Santa Ana del Chino granted to Antonio Maria Lugo. 


1842 — San Bernardino Rancho granted to Antonio Maria Lugo and his 

1S42. Tuly 4 — Daniel Sexton raised American flag in San Gorgonio Pass. 

1842 — The Lugos offered lands in the vicinity of Politana to a colony of 
New Mexicans. 

1843 — Lorenzo Trujillo and others settled at Agua Mansa. 

1846 — Louis Robidoux built gristmill on Jurupa Grant. 

April 12, 1847 — Detachment of Mormon Battalion sent to establish mili- 
tary post at Cajon Pass. 

April, 1848 — Party of Mormon Battalion passed through Cajon Pass 
with wagon — first wagon to cross this route. 

June n, 1851 — First party of Mormons reached Cajon Pass. 

September, 1851 — Purchase of San Bernardino grant by Mormons. 

1852— Erection of the Old Fort. 

1852 — Erection of the grist mill by Mormons. 

1852 — Building of road up Twin Creek canon. 

1852 — Military post established on Jurupa. 

1853 — April 26 — Act segregating San Bernardino from Los Angeles 

1853 — Townsite of the city of San Bernardino laid out. 

1853 — Erection of Mormon Council House. 

1854, April 13 — Act incorporating city of San Bernardino. 

1854 — First stage service between San Bernardino and Los Angeles. 

1855 — Volunteers under Captain Lytle went out into desert after Indians. 

1855 — City purchased six school lots from the grant owners. 

1856 — Trouble between Mormons and Independents. 

1857 — Recall of the Mormons. 

1858 — First Union Sunday School organized. 

1858 — First May Day picnic. 

1858— Butterfield stage route established. 

1859 — Ains worth-Gen try fight. 

i860 — Discovery of gold in Bear and Holcomb valleys. 

i860, June 16 — First appearance of the San Bernardino Herald ; first 
newspaper in county. 

1861 — Toll road through Cajon Pass established with ferry across Colo- 
rado river in connection. 

j86i — C. W. Piercey, assemblyman for San Bernardino, shot in duel near 
San Rafael. 

1861 — Camp Carleton, United States troops, established on Santa Ana 

1862 — January flood; Agua Mansa swept away. 

1862 — May — First educational convention held in the county. 

1862 — First orange grove (of four acres) set out at old San Bernardino. 


1863 — A. P. Andrews put on four-horse coach between San Bernardino 
and Los Angeles. 

1863 — First Republican victory in county; plurality of 83 votes for 

1865 — Banning & Company put on stage from Wilmington, via San Ber- 
nardino to Yuma. 

1867 — Party of rangers pursued a band of Indians and killed four of 

1867 — Establishment of the San Bernardino Guardian. 

1867 — Stage line between San Bernardino and San Diego established. 

1868 — First artesian well put down at Old San Bernardino and in city. 

1868 — Railroad proposed between Anaheim and San Bernardino, and 
"Pacific and San Bernardino line," incorporated. 

1869 — Silk Culture Colony purchased Jurupa lands. 

1870 Muscat grape vines introduced. 

1871 — Foundation of Riverside begun. 

1872 — Discovery of Borax lake in northwestern part of county. 

1873. Sept. 18 — Completion of telegraph line from Anaheim to San 

1873 — Organization of Cucamonga Association and Val Verde > 
pany — both to irrigate and cultivate fruit lands. 

1873 — Slover Mountain Association formed — origin of Colton. 
1874 — Erection of new Court House ; cost $25,000. 

1874, October — Southern Pacific officials visited San Bernardino and rail- 
road meeting was held to discuss the coming of the Southern Pacific railway. 

1874 — San Bernardino honey took first prize at St. Louis fair. 

1874 — First Washington Navel orange trees sent to Riverside. 

1875 — July 30 — The Southern Pacific Railroad reached Colton. 

1877 — Colton Land and Water Co., and Cucamonga Homestead Co., or- 
ganized for irrigation on extensive scale. 

1879 — Santa Fe officials first visited the county. 

1879 — First Citrus Fair ever held in the world at Riverside. San Bernar- 
dino county. 

1880 — First cannery in county opened at Colton. 

1881 — Redlands Water Company organized and colonization of Redlands 

1881— City of San Bernardino first lighted by gas. 

1881 — First overland train between San Francisco and Kansas City by 
southern route. 

1882, August 21 — Southern California road completed from San Diego 
to Colton. 

1882 — Colony of Ontario started by Chaffey Brothers. 


1883, September 13 — First train on California Southern entered citv of 
San Bernardino. 

1883 — October — Bear Valley Reservoir Company incorporated. 

1884 — Heaviest rainfall ever recorded in county. 

1884 — Completion of Bear Valley Dam. 

1884 — Riverside and Lugonia fruit took first prize and premiums against 
the world at New Orleans. 

1885 — November 15 — Completion of California Southern extension from 
San Bernardino to Waterman and first overland train over Santa Fe. 

1886 — "Rate war" started the "boom." 

1886 — County Hospital erected. 

1886 — Motor line between Colton and San Bernardino began operation in 

1886 — Citrus Exhibit in Chicago. 

1887 — February 1st — First street-car line in city of San Bernardino put 
in operation. 

1887 — Town plats of Redlands and Lugonia filed. 

1887 — Town of Chino laid out. 

1888 — Railroad and motor lines completed to Redlands. 

1888 — Motor line to Riverside opened for service in November. 

1888 — San Bernardino, Arrowhead and Waterman Railway completed, 
August 17th. 

1888 — Chino Valley narrow gauge road built. 

1888— Creation of the Board of Horticulture. 

1890 — December 15 — Corner stone of Southern California Insane Asylum 
laid at Highlands. 

1891 — Board of Supervisors voted direct tax to build Hall of Records. 

1891 — First Riverside bill for county division defeated, March 25th. 

1891 — Erection of Chino Beet Sugar factory; machinery set in motion 
August 28th. 

1891 — Arrowhead Reservoir Company organized. 

1892 — Hall of Records completed and tax levied for Court House. 

1892 — Woman's Non-partisan Political Convention met in San Bernar- 
dino, October 12th. 

1892 — San Antonio and Redlands Electric Power companies formed. 

1893 — February 24 — Riverside bill passed legislature. 

1893 — Setting aside of San Bernardino Forest Reserve, February 25th. 

1894 — Anti-Chinese riots. 

1898 — Edison Electric Company purchased plants of Redlands and South- 
ern California Electric Power Companies. 





The story of the Spanish missions 
and missionaries must always remain 

--._::^zr—iZ--i-Z- ■ „ '■'"*' one of the most interesting and ro- 

. . mantic chapters in American hist- 

~~ r ~" ■-'» --«>*» . ,,1-y. So closely were the church and 

-"--,. state united, that the history of the 

Cabriiio and San Diego Bay missions is practically the history of 

the Spanish rule in what is now the 

territory of the United States. Of late years Americans have been inclined 

to feel that "no good thing could come out of Spain" and to decry the Spanish 

regime as one of self-interest and inertia alone : but, while the rule of the 

Spanish on this continent was far from perfect, it may be questioned whether 

the native races would have received wiser treatment at the hands of any 

other European nation. 

As early as 1534, the bishoprics of New Spain were established and 
organized in Mexico, and from this time on the Church carried forward 
active efforts to instruct and convert the natives. Monks and priests were 
sent out "to make the natives give up their savage vices and teach them the 
faith of our Holy Catholic Church." Missions and pueblos were established 
and churches built and Indians were gathered about these stations and 
taught what the priests considered necessary to their salvation. In order 
that the establishments might be supported the Indians were compelled to 
work for the priests and in time became dependent on their spiritual fathers 
and entirely subject to the control of the Church. Such a system was, of 
course, open to grave abuses. Yet the majority of the fathers who labored 
among the natives seemed to be sincere and ready to sacrifice comfort — life 
itself — in their devotion to their work. 

Led by their zeal for souls and their desire to add new glory to Snain, 
the friars pushed into unknown regions. Crossing barren plains, burning 
deserts, and rugged mountain chains; footsore, suffering from hunger and 
thirst, surrounded by unfriendly or hostile Indians, often driven back yet 
never discouraged, these humble brothers worked northward through Mexico, 
Lower California, along the Pacific Coast ; they followed the Rio Grande 
and the Colorado, they reached Great Salt Lake and the Missouri, and thus 
gradually explored the country and established their little oases of missions 
throughout all the broad sweep of the southwest. 


The first man to thread the deserts of Arizona and enter what is now- 
New .Mexico, was Fray Marco, "the lying priest" as Coronado calls him, 
after being induced through the priest's glowing accounts of the country to 
make the same expedition. 

After establishing a number of missions along the Sonora coast and mak- 
ing many explorations of the gulf coast, Father Kino, a Jesuit monk, decided 
that Lower California was a peninsula and not an island as was then com- 
monly supposed. He conceived the idea of carrying a chain of missions 
around the gulf and along the Pacific Coast, and labored unceasingly to carry 
out this magnificent project, but for many years could gain no aid either 
from the government or from his own brotherhood. All attempts to colonize 
Lower California had been unsuccessful on account of the savage character 
of the inhabitants and at last in despair the government offered to turn the 
Peninsula over to tbe Jesuits. The Superior of the order in Mexico had no 
desire to undertake so unpromising a task, but Father Kino and a colleague, 
Father Salvatierra, were determined that the gospel must be carried here 
and through their almost unaided efforts missions were established among 
these heathen and Father Kino's chimerical plan became a reality. 

In 1767 the Spanish government decided that a determined effort must 
be made to colonize L T pper California. To this end, Don Caspar Portala was 
appointed political governor of that territory and Fray Junipero Serra was 
made President of the missions to be established. 

Father Serra was a Franciscan monk of brilliant gifts and high rank, and 
it was largely through his zeal and energy that the task of colonizing this 
large territory and of civilizing, to an extent, at least, a great number of 
savages, was accomplished. 

As a beginning, three missions, one at San Diego, one on Monterey Bay, 
and one between these points, were to be established. Three small vessels 
were dispatched from Mexico with supplies, and Father Serra, accompanied 
by Portala, made the trip overland, coming up through Lower California and 
reaching San Diego in July, 1769. Many unexpected difficulties arose: one 
of the ships was lost, many of the sailors on the other ships died en route and 
after arrival ; the Indians at first curious, soon became indifferent and then 
hostile, attacking the Spanish before the completion of the buildings and kill- 
ing one man and wounding several. The party sent to examine the site at 
Monterey returned without having been able to locate the Bay, and Serra. 
being obliged to return to Mexico for supplies and new arrangements, did not 
found the mission of Monterey until 1771. 

At first all supplies for the missionaries had to be brought from Mexico, 
and the Indians could only be induced to listen to the gospel through the gift 
of "baubles" and food. But Father Serra lived to establish nine missions 
between San Francisco and San Diego harbors; he baptized and confirmed 
with his own hands between five and six thousand "gentiles ;" he saw his 



missions gather great numbers of neophytes about them, erect large and sub- 
stantial churches, cultivate flourishing fields and orchards, and become not 
only self-supporting but wealthy. Pueblos, or towns, sprang up in the 
vicinity of the missions. Spanish settlers came into the country and California 
became an important province of New Spain. 

All of this was not accomplished 
without unwearied vigilance on the 
part of the president of the missions. 
Frail of body, worn with constant 
fastings, self-afflicted tortures and 
an incurable disease, he traveled 
constantly between the establish- 
ments, administering affairs, preach- 
ing, admonishing, and keeping close 
watch upon every feature of the 
mission life. Again and again he 
made the toilsome journey to Mex- 
ico, sometimes on foot, or riding a 
sometimes pitching for weeks in one of the dreary little ships of the 
He met and overcame opposition from the government, from his super- 
iors, from his subordinates, vvi i'° 1- e constantly endured terrible spiritual 
conflicts of his own. Surely Junipero Serra is worthy to rank with the 
saints he so faithfully emulated. 

The nine missions were increased to twenty-one and they continued to 
grow in power and wealth until about the time of their secularization in 
1832. At that time nearly all of the Indians in California had been brought 
more or less directly under their influence. Many of the natives had collected 
about the missions and under the instruction of the Padres had become valu- 
able laborers. They were the workmen in building the churches: they built 
the houses, store rooms, etc., necessary for a large settlement ; they dug with 
the rudest of tools, irrigation ditches which would task modern appliances; 
they cultivated the fields and cared for the stock. Some of them learned to 
read and write, and many of them gained some knowledge of music. They 
learned to use the Spanish tongue and to an extent adopted Spanish customs 
and ideals. 

They could have had but little comprehension of the doctrines so faith- 
fully dealt out to them — for the salvation of their souls — and for the teacher's 
salvation, too, perhaps: but they gained an abiding faith in the efficacy of 
the church and its forms, and to this day the Indians of the southwest are 
Catholics, and the word of the priest has more influence over them than all 
the elaborate machinery that the United States has set in motion in their 

As the missions had prepared the way for the Spanish settlements, so. it 


may be said, they made the way easy for the American conquest. The natives 
had been prepared to furnish "cheap labor," the resources of the country had 
been discovered, if not developed; the monks had demonstrated that the most 
arid and unpromising soil would produce luxuriantly under irrigation ; they 
had also introduced the grape and the sub-tropical fruits. 

To the Spanish missionaries we owe the most of our knowledge con- 
cerning the ancient history of our country. They made notes and kept careful 
records of their journeyings. Some of them attempted to gather up the 
traditions and legends of the Indians. The records and papers of the missions 
furnish much valuable historical material. 

The Franciscan fathers left behind them an architecture which was note- 
worthy for its distinctive character, and for its fitness for the purpose and for 
the conditions. Some of these buildings, now more than a century old, are 
still in a fair state of preservation. We owe the missionaries much, also, for 
the nomenclature they gave to the southwestern states. To the initiated 
the fitness — and sometimes unfitness — in the names they bestowed is a con- 
stant joy. As. for example, Sierra Nevada, literally the "saw with a fall of 
snow upon it ;" Los Angeles was originally. "Nuestro Senora de Los Angeles 
de la Porciuncula :" San Gorgonio pass was "Puerto de San Carlos," "door of 
St. Charles," etc. 

The Indians were not exterminated under Spanish rule as were the natives 
of the north and west who came into contact with the English element. The 
"mission system" had many and serious defects, and it left the Indians with 
little ability for self government, but it must be admitted that under the 
teaching of the fathers, the Indians made more progress toward civilization 
than they have ever done under any other system applied to them, and we 
must believe with the devout fathers, that they were "chosen" for the work 
that they' did. 


The various explorers who touched upon the coast of California prior to 
the explorations of the interior, give conflicting accounts of the natives. All, 
however, agree that they found a gentle, amenable people, not without some 
intelligence and skill in providing for their wants, although they were far infe- 
rior to the aborigines found upon the Atlantic coast or to the Aztecs of Mexico. 
They made various tools, they wove baskets, hunted small game ; those in 
the vicinity of Santa Barbara, made boats and went out considerable distance 
from the shore to fish. They prepared acorns and various seeds for food, 
and dressed skins for clothing. They lived in villages, or rancherias as the 
Spanish named them, and ranged over the surrounding country, but seldom 
went outside their limits. Although there was a strong resemblance in lang- 
uage and customs between the various tribes or branches, there seems to 


have been but little relationship between them ; yet the coast Indians were not 

Yiscaino, who visited the coast of California in 1603, describes the natives 
thus: "The country (around Monterey Bay) is thickly settled with people 
whom I found to be of gentle disposition, peaceable and docile, and who can 
be brought readily within the fold of the holy gospel and into subjection to 
the crown of your majesty. Their food consists of seed which they have in 
abundance and variety, and of the flesh of game, such as deer larger than 
cows ( ?). and of bear and of neat cattle and of bisons and of many other ani- 
mals. The people are of good stature and of fair complexion, the women 
somewhat lesser in size than the men, and of pleasing countenance. The 
clothing of the people of the coast lands consists of the skin of the otter, 
abounding here, which they tan and dress better than is done in Castile; they 
possess also in great quantity flax, like tbat of Castile, hemp and cotton, from 
which they make fishing lines and nets for rabbits. They have vessels, very 
well made, in which they go to sea with great dexterity, even in stormy 

Evidently Viscaino was bent upon impressing the king with the import- 
ance of his "find." and large allowance must be made for the truth of his 

One of the most interesting and truthful accounts of tbe native Califor- 
nians which we have is found in the diary of Father Crespi, who was a member 
of the first overland expedition made in California — that of Caspar de Portala, 
which set out from San Diego, July 14, 1769, to go to Monterey and found 
the second of the proposed missions in California. Frey Crespi kept a daily 
account of the journey and the simple directness and accuracy of this narrative 
makes it valuable as a historical document and interesting as revealing the 
sincere piety and sturdy manliness of tbe good father himself. The course 
of their journey and the location of their camping places can still be traced, 
so minutely does he describe tbe country through which they passed. He 
notes the birds, animals and plants, marvels at the dry riverbeds which bear 
the marks of mighty torrents, the sudden disappearance of streams in the sand, 
tbe full currents of night where only a thread of water trickled at noon : he 
sets down the appearance and manners of the various groups of Indians — 
all of this almost without comment. Again and again he refers to the sweet- 
ness of the wild roses, and frequently he points out the fact that some particu- 
lar spot is especially fitted for the site of a mission. He mentions frequent 
earthquakes in the vicinity of Santa Ana and named the river now known as 
Santa Ana, "Rio del dulcisimo Nombre de Jesus de los Temblores" (River of 
the sweet name of Jesus of the Earthquakes).- 

The earlier part of their journey through the broad, rich valleys of 
Southern California was not difficult, especially as the Indians met the 
Spaniards with the greatest friendliness, bringing them food and guiding 


them to the best springs. Father Crespi declares : "They came without 
weapons, but with a gentleness that has no name, bringing as gifts to us 
their poor seeds, and we in return gave them ribbons and gewgaws." The 
priest made ever}' effort to preach the gospel to these poor "gentiles" : "I 
made the gentiles say the acts of Faith, Hope and Charity, which, without 
understanding one word, they repeated after me with such tenderness and 
fervor that it found, in my heart, at least, an echo." The Spaniards were fre- 
quently invited to remain at various rancherias. At one place, "fifty Indians, 
with their captain, invited us by signs which we understood perfectly to come 
and live with them ; that they would build us houses and give us grain and 
the meat of antelopes and hares. They insisted on their offer, telling us that 
all the land in sight, and it was much, was theirs and they would divide it 
with us." Frequently the natives awaited the travelers with feasts already 
spread and honored them with ceremonials and dances — sometimes to the 
discomfort of the guests. At one place Father Crespi says. "Toward evening 
we received the visits of the chiefs of each town, one after the other, who 
came in all their finery of paint and overloaded with feather ornaments, 
holding in their hands split reeds, the motion and the noise of which they 
used as a measure to their chants and dances, and this they did so well and 
so uniform that the effect was harmonious. The dances lasted all the even- 
ing and we had hard work sending our guests home. We dismissed the gen- 
tiles, begging them by signs not to come back and trouble us during the 
night. But it was in vain ; as soon as night had set in they returned blowing 
horns whose infernal noise was enough to tear our ears in pieces." The 
comandante was obliged to resort to threats to secure sleep — the only place 
in the journal where any mention of disagreement with the natives is made. 
Thus we see how these people welcomed the race which was to work their 
destruction. Father Crespi may have been somewhat prejudiced in favor 
of these simple "gentiles" whose salvation he was most anxious to accom- 
plish. But Constanzo, the civil engineer of the same party, was certainly free 
from any undue bias in favor of the natives. He says : "These natives 
(about San Diego) are of good figure, well built and agile. They go naked 
without more clothing than a girdle. Their quivers, which the)- bind between 
the girdle and the body, are of wild cat, coyote, wolf, or buck skins, and their 
bows are two varas (66 inches) long. Besides these they have a species of 
war-club, whose form is that of a short and curved cutlass, which they fling 
edgewise and it cleaves the air with much violence. They hurl it a greater 
distance than a stone ; without it they never go forth into the fields : and if 
they see a viper (rattlesnake) they throw the club at it and commonly sever 
it half from half. According to later experience, they are of haughty temper, 
daring, covetous, great jesters and braggarts; although of little valor, they 
make great boasts and hold the most vigorous the most valiant." 

This report, while not so flattering as Father Crespi's, is still a far cry 
from the lazy and degraded brutes whom Bancroft pictures. 



The principal tribes located in what is now San Bernardino county were 
the Coahuillas, "masters" or "ruling people," who lived in the mountain 
ridges and valleys east of San Bernardino mountain and in the San Jacinto 
range and along the eastern border of these mountains. These Indians came 
but little into contact with the Spanish and were never brought under mis- 
sion influence so that we know but little of them until a later period. 

The Serranos lived in the vicinity of San Bernardino valley. The name 
signifies "mountain Indians," but they do not seem to have been so much 
"mountain Indians" as were the Coahuillas. They were a more peaceable — 
and a weaker — people than either the Coahuillas, or the desert Indians. The 
Gauchamas, of San Bernardino valley, and probably the Cucamongas, be- 
longed to this division. 

East of the mountains we find the Chemehuevi, or Paiutes, belonging to 
the great Shoshone tribe, the Panamints, to the north and tlhe Mojaves, a 
branch of the Yuma tribe. These desert tribes were much more warlike and 
aggressive than their coast neighbors. 


Father Garces, who made an entrada (journey) from the Colorado river 
to San Gabriel in 1776, thus describes his experience with the Chemehuevis 
in the southeastern part of what is now San Bernardino county: "February 
26, 1776, I passed through a gap in a sierra that runs northwest and at its 
base made a halt at some springs of water that I called. Ojito del Santo Angel 
(little angel eyes), where I met some forty persons of the Chemehuevi na- 
tion. Six Indians that were on a hill came down as soon as I called them, 
with the speed of a deer and regaled us with some good mezcal. The garb 
of these Indians is Apache moccasins, shirt of antelope skin, white head 
dress like a cap with a bunch of those feathers which certain birds have in 
their crest. These Indians gave me the impression of being the most swift- 
footed that I have seen yet— they sow grain— they keep friendship with the 
Apaches — they have a language distinct from all the nations of the river — 
they are friends of the Jamadabs (Mojave). They also make coritas (bas- 
kets). Thev conducted themselves with me most beautifully. By no means 
were they thievish or molestful, but rather quite contrary." 


"The Mojaves were the most populous tribe of the Yumas and formerly 
the most warlike. In historic times they occupied the valley of the Colorado, 
but mainly the eastern part between Black Rock and Needles. Their name 
signifies 'big rock' or "mountain.' " 

Father Garces followed on up the Colorado river on the California side 
and on February 28th, he reached the vicinity of the Needles. He was the first 

7 6 


European to visit the country of the Mojaves. He thus describes them: "I 
can say with entire truth that these Indians have great advantages over the 
Yumas and the rest of the nations of the Colorado; they are less molestful and 
none are thieves ; they seem valiant and nowhere have I been better served. 
I showed them the picture of the Virgin ; it pleased them much but they did 
not like to look at the picture of the lost soul. As I am the first Espanol that 
has been within their land they celebrated it beyond bounds by their great 
desire to become acquainted with the Espanoles : and considering them to 
be very valiant they manifested extraordinary 
joy at being now friends of a people so valor- 

"February 29, 1776. I tarried here because 
there came successively many people and 
among them tnree captains, of whom one said 
that he was the head chief of the nation, 
against whose will was naught determined; 
that he had come in order that I should tell 
that which was for him to do; that I should 
know him for what he was when I should see 
him do out of goodness of his heart all that 
which I might propose — and finally he said 
that he would be baptized and married to a 
woman, adding other good things of like tenor. 
This is the captain general of them all and he 
lives in the center of the nation. The female 
sex is the most comely on the river, the male 
very healthy and robust. These say that they 
are very strong ; and so I found them to be es- 
pecially in enduring hunger and thirst. There 
came to visit me about twenty hundred souls. 
Their language is different, but through con- 
stant communication they understand well 
enough the Yuma, They talk rapidly and 
with great arrogance. I have not heard any 
a Mojava Buck Indian who talked more or with less embar- 

rassment than their captain general." 



On September 8, 1 771 . El Mission del Glorisimo Principe San Gabriel. 
San Gabriel Arcangel, or San Gabriel de los Tcmblores (of the earthquakes) 
as the mission was variously known, was formally dedicated. This was the 



igjfclb <>/ SmGthmi. 

fourth in order of the cordon of missions planned for Alta California. Its 
founders, Padres Cambon and Somero, had been sent out from San Diego 
with a party of fourteen soldiers, a supply train of mules and four muleteers. 

Reid says that the site chosen was a 
complete forest of oak with consid- 
erable undergrowth — a lagoon near 
by and a spring. The first build- 
ings were rude and the growth of 
the mission for the first two or 
three years, very slow, owing prin- 
cipally to the brutality of the soldiers 
with the natives. The first site of 
the mission was abandoned some 
years after its founding and a new 
one selected a few miles distant in 
a more eligible location. In 1776, 
when Font and Garces visited the 
mission considerable progress had 
been made. Father Font accompanied Anza on his second expedition from 
Sonora and he has left a description of what he saw at San Gabriel, which 
is such a graphic picture of the life of all the Indians at the missions, that 
we copy it here from Elliott Coues "On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer." 


"After breakfast I went with Padre Sanchez to see the spring of water 
whence they bring the acequia for this mission, by means of which are con- 
ferred the greatest conveniences ; for, besides being sufficient and passing in 
front of the house of the padres and of the little huts of the Christian Indians 
who compose this new mission, who will be some fifty souls of recent converts, 
this acequia renders all the flats of the immediate site apt for sowing, so that 
the fields are close to the pueblo; and it is a mission that has such good 
adaptabilities to crops, and is of such good pasture for cattle and horses, 
that no better could be desired. The cows that it has are very fat and give 
rich milk, with which they make many cheeses and very good butter ; there is 
a litter of pigs and a small flock of sheep, of which, on our coming, they 
killed four or five muttons that they had, and I do not remind myself of 
having eaten mutton more fat or beautiful ; and they also have some chickens. 
It has enough of wood and other logs for building. ... At present the 
whole building is reduced to one very large hovel, all in one piece with three 
divisions, and this serves as the habitation of the padres, granary, and every- 
thing else ; somewhat apart from this there is another square hovel which 
serves as church ; and near this another which is the guardhouse, or quarters 
of the soldiers of the escort, who are eight; and close by some little huts of 


tule which are the little houses of the Indians, between which and the house 
of the padres runs the acequia. In the spring of water grows herbs which 
appear to be lettuces and some roots like parsnips ; and near the old site of 
the mission, which is southward from this one about a league, grow great 
abundance of water cresses, of which I ate enough; and, finally is the land, as 
Padre Paterna says, like the Land of Promise, though indeed the padres 
have suffered in it many needinesses and travails, because beginnings are 
always difficult and more so in those lands where there was nothing. . . . 
The converted Indians ... of this mission seem tame and of middling 
good heart; they are of medium stature and the women somewhat smaller, 
round faced, flat nosed and rather ugly ; their custom is in gentiledom for 
the men to go entirely naked, and the women wear some kind of deer skin 
with which they cover themselves, and also some small coat of skins of otter 
or hare ; though the padres try to make the converts dress as well as they 
can. The method which the padres observe in the reduction is not to force 
anybody to make himself Christian, and they only admit those who volun- 
tarily offer themselves and this they do in this fashion. As these Indians are 
accustomed to live in the plains and hills like beasts, so if they wish to be 
Christians they must not take to the woods, but the}' must live in the mission 
and if they leave the rancheria, they will be gone in search of and punished. 
Whereupon the padres begin to catechise the gentiles who voluntarily come, 
showing them how to make the sign of the cross and the rest that is neces- 
sarv, and if the Indians persevere in the catechism for two or three months, 
with the same mind, being instructed therein, they pass on to baptism. The 
discipline of every day is this: In the morning at sunrise mass is said regu- 
larly . . . and the padre recites with all the Christian doctrines, which 
is finished by singing the Alabado, which is sung in all the missions in one 
way and in the same tone, and the padres sing it even though they may not 
have good voices, inasmuch as uniformity is best. Then they go to breakfast 
on mush, which is made for all, and before partaking of it they cross them- 
selves and sing the Bendito ; then they go to work at whatever can be done, 
the padres inclining them and applying them to work by setting an example 
themselves; at noon they eat their soup (Pozole), which is made for all alike; 
then they work another stint and at sunset they return to recite doctrines 
and end by singing the Alabado. ... If any Indian wishes to go to 
the woods to see his relatives, or to gather acorns, he is given permission for 
a specified number of days, and regularly they do not fail to return and 
sometimes they come with a gentile relative who stays to catechism, either 
through the example of the others, or attracted by the soup which suits them 
better than their herbs and eatables of the woods, and thus these Indians 
are wont to be gathered in by the mouth. . . . The doctrine which 
is recited at the mission is the brief of Padre Castani, with total uniformity, 
without being able to add a single thing or vary it by a word ; and this is 


recited in Castilian, even though the padre may understand the Indian 

"In the missions it is arranged that the grown-up girls sleep apart in 
some place of retirement and in the mission of San Luis Obispo I saw that a 
married soldier acted as mayor-domo and his wife took care of the girls 
and she by day kept them with her, teaching them to sew and other 
things, and at night locked them in a room where she kept them safe from 
every insult and for this they were called nuns, which seemed to be a very 
good thing. Finally the method which the padres employ in these missions 
seemed to me very good, and that which is done in one is done in all." 

This is the clearest picture we have of life at the missions in early days 
and though Font was himself a Franciscan, it bears every mark of truthful- 

A later visitor, who was certainly not prejudiced in favor of the mis- 
sions was Alfred Robinson, an American who visited San Gabriel about 1830. 
He says: "In the morning at six o'clock we went to the church, where the 
priest had already commenced the service of the mass. The imposing cere- 
mony, glittering ornaments and illuminated walls were well adapted to capti- 
vate the simple mind of the Indian, and I could not but admire the apparent 
devotion of the multitude, who seemed absorbed, heart and soul, in the 
scene before them. The solemn music of the mass was well selected and 
the Indian voices ascended harmoniously with the flutes and violins that ac- 
companied them. . . . There are several extensive gardens attached to 
the mission, where may be found oranges, citrons, limes, apples, pears, 
peaches, pomegranates, figs and grapes in abundance. The storehouses and 
granaries are kept well supplied and the corridor in the square is usually 
heaped up with piles of hides and tallow. Besides the resources of the vine- 
yard the mission derives a considerable income from the sale of grain and 
the weekly slaughter of cattle produces a sufficient sum for clothing and sup- 
porting the Indians." 

In 1806 Father Zalvidea was appointed to San Gabriel and for twenty 
years he ruled the Indians and administered the affairs of the mission with a 
vigor and a severity that fully entitles him to the phrase "clerical Napoleon," 
applied to him by Professor Guinn in his late history of Los Angeles county. 

At the zenith of its power San Gabriel possessed some twenty-four 
ranchos, including a million and a half acres of land and extending from the 
ocean to the San Bernardino mountains. Among its possessions were Chino, 
Cucamonga, San Bernardino, San Gorgonio, and San Jacinto ranchos. It 
had small outstations at all of these points. 

In 1817 there was a population of 1701 gathered about the mission and 
its dependencies. This was the highest figure attained. In 1828, its cattle 
were numbered at 26,300 head. In 1830 over 40,000 head of stock, including 


cattle, horses, mules, sheep and goats, is reported. Large yields of wheat, 
barley, beans and grapes were annually produced. 

The breaking up of the missions began about 1832 and so rapid was the 
destruction that in less than ten years the population, the flocks and the 
wealth of San Gabriel had all disappeared. Its lands were granted by the 
Mexican government to various grantees, its stations were abandoned, and 
the mission itself fell into ruins. 


In the year 1773 the viceroy of Mexico commissioned Juan Bautista de 
Anza, Captain of the Presidio of Tubac. to open a road between Sonora in 
Mexico and Monterey in California. The expedition consisted of thirty- 
four men, 140 horses and sixty-five cattle. Two priests, Fathers Garces and 
Diaz, accompanied the party. Three of the soldiers and some of the stock 
was left at the Colorado river, which was crossed at Yuma and the rest fol- 
lowing very nearly the route of the Southern Pacific, reached "El Puerto de 
San Carlos" (San Gorgonio Pass) March 14, 1774. On the 18th they passed 
through "El Valle de San Jose" (San Bernardino Valley). On the 20th they 
reached "Rio Sta Ana," which they crossed on a bridge of boughs and on 
the 21st they encamped at "Arroyo de Osos or Alisos" (Cucamonga). This 
was the first party of Europeans to look upon the beautiful valley of San 
Bernardino. In a few weeks Anza returned to Sonora by the same route and 
in 1775 he again came from Mexico, this time with a large number of soldiers 
and colonists, who were intended to settle San Francisco, and also 695 horses 
and mules and 355 cattle. They again camped in the San Bernardino valley. 
Father Font, who accompanied this party has left a diary giving a full account 
of the journey and Anza's official diaries and reports of both of these expedi- 
tions are extant. 

In 1775. Father Garces, who had been left by Anza to visit among the 
Indians of the Colorado with a view to establish missions in that vicinity, 
went up the Colorado river to a point near Needles. Accompanied only by two 
or three Indians, he struck across the desert, camping on the site of Camp 
Cady, exploring the. Mojave river, of which he was the discoverer, and entering 
the San Bernardino valley, Bancroft says by way of Cajon Pass, but Elliott 
Coues. who carefully went over the ground, following the daily itinerary, 
states, by way of Holcomb and Bear Valleys, which he reached by following 
up the watercourse from the Mojave, and then came down into the valley 
through the Santa Ana Canon. He reached the valley March 21st, 1776, find- 
ing here a rancheria of Indians, the Gauchamas, who greeted him "joyfully." 

To Garces belongs the honor of first exploring a considerable part of' 
this county, as well as first entering the Tulare country. 



The overland route from Mexico by way of the Colorado river and San 
Bernardino valley proved more practicable than the sea route. But the 
revolt of the Colorado Indians in 1781 and the destruction of the two mis- 
sions that had been established along the river, with good Father Garces, his 
fellow priests, the soldiers and their families — fifty souls in all — gave travel 
over this "camino real" a set back. This route continued to be used, however. 
San Gabriel was the first stopping place after reaching California. But as 
travel increased it was arranged to establish another station on the route be- 
tween this mission and the Colorado river. Father Caballeria in his history of 
San Bernardino valley says: "With this object in view a party of mission- 
aries, neophytes and soldiers of the San Gabriel Mission, under the leader- 
ship of Padre Dumetz, were sent out to select a location and on the 20th of 
May, 1810, they came into the valley 'Valle de San Jose.' This, according 
to the Roman calendar, was the feast day of San Bernardino of Sienna and 
they renamed the valley in his honor. . . . The supply station was 
planted at the Guachama rancheria, which was near the place now known as 
Bunker Hill, between Urbita Springs and Colton. This location was chosen 
on account of the abundance of water in this vicinity. Here a 'capilla' was 
built and dedicated to the patron saint of the valley- — San Bernardino. After 
completing the building of the station, the fathers returned to San Gabriel, 
leaving the chapel, station, and a large quantity of supplies in the care of 
neophyte (Indian) soldiers, under the command of a trusty Indian — Hipolito. 
The settlement took its name from this man and became known as 'Politana.' 
During the next two years the padres made frequent visits to the capilla, the 
Gauchama Indians were friendly, grain was planted and the settlement 
seemed in a fair way to permanent prosperity." The same author adds that 
in 1812, the "year of earthquakes," the Gauchamas were so alarmed by the 
frequent shakings that they believed the mission must be the cause of this 
manifestation of the evil spirits and consequently massacred the mission 
Indians and the converts and destroyed the buildings. Later these were re- 
built and occupied for many years. 

Within the memory of the first settlers in the valley there was still a 
considerable settlement of Indians in the neighborhood of Politana, or "Ran- 
cheria," as it was familiarly known. An old graveyard here was used by the 
Indians for many years, but has now entirely disappeared. 



About 1821 the Gauchama ranchita of Indians, according to the records, 
asked the padres of San Gabriel to assist them in establishing agriculture and 
stock raising in their valley. The fathers were only too glad to accede to this 
request for they were in constant fear of attacks from the desert Indians 
who made their entry into the coast districts through the San Bernardino 
passes. In 1822 a priest was sent out and with the aid of the Indians an 
adobe chapel was erected, probably on, or near, the site of the present ruins 
of the old "mission" of San Bernardino. A mayor-domo. said by Father 
Caballeria to have been Casius Garcia, was appointed, a zanja was con- 
structed, fields were cultivated and large herds of stock soon accumulated. 
The zanja, now known as Mill Creek zanja, has been in continuous use ever 
since it was constructed. It now resembles a natural water course and with 
its fringe of willows and alders is one of the most interesting and picturesque 
bits of scenery in the county. 

In 183 1 the desert Indians made a raid upon the mission, destroyed the 
buildings and stole and scattered most of the stock. The church was rebuilt 
in 1834 in a more substantial manner, having been 250 feet in length, 125 in 
width, with walls three feet thick — corrals and enclosures intended to resist 
the attacks of savage neighbors were also put up. A large granary of adobe 
was built at some little distance from the main structures. The remains of 
this were evident upon the old Curtis place for many years after the Ameri- 
cans came in but were finally leveled. A large burying ground was located 
at a point just opposite the Anson Van Leuven place, where now stands a 
walnut grove. 

In 1834 there was much dissatisfaction and uneasiness among the mis- 
sion Indians all through Southern California, stirred up by Hijar's colonists, 
a party from Mexico, says Hittell. The Indians in the vicinity of San Ber- 
nardino finally revolted and a battle was fought between 200 Indians and a 
body of troops sent from San Gabriel to subdue them. Later Father Este- 
naga, with a military officer and troops, was sent to try and pacify the In- 
dians, but the rebels took the father prisoner, robbed him and would only 
give him up when a ransom was paid. More troops were sent against San 
Bernardino, but they themselves revolted, robbed the church of the vest- 
ments and ornaments and, after committing other crimes, took to the 

The decree secularizing the missions was already being carried into 
effect ; the church was fast losing ground and no further attempts to hold 
San Bernardino were made. For some years the country was left to the al- 
most undisputed possession of the Indians. Some of them went back to 
their old savage condition, but some of them seem to have remained at the 
old mission and continued to cultivate land and raise stock. Daniel Sexton 
states that when he first came into the country in 1842, the Indians were ir- 


rigating and cultivating a considerable area around Old San Bernardino, 
raising beans, wheat, grapes, etc. 

When the San Bernardino Rancho was granted to the Lugos in 1842, 
one of the brothers seems to have lived in the vicinity of the mission — prob- 
ably in the building itself. When the Mormons came in Bishop Tenny settled 
here and occupied the mission building. 

Lieutenant Blake, who passed through here in November, 1852, de- 
scribes the vicinity thus: "We soon reached the ruins of the old church or 
rancho, located on slightly elevated ground and overlooking the whole valley 
towards the east. It is surrounded by a broad area of excellent farming land 
and a row of old trees (cottonwood row) set thickly together extends in 
a straight line for three-fourth of a mile along the acequia. The building is 
made of adobes, but is now in ruins. A part of it, however, is now occupied 
as a farm house and granary.'' 



With the passage of the Secularization Act in 1823, when Mexico came 
into power in California, began the downfall of the Missions. In 1833, it was 
estimated that 30,000 Indians were connected with the various Mission es- 
tablishments. By 1843 tne greater part of these Indians had been dispersed. 
A few remained on lands that they had cultivated under direction of the 
Padres ; others settled wherever they could find unoccupied land with water. 
Those who remained in the vicinity of the pueblos rapidly yielded to the 
vices, and became the slaves of white men. 

It had always been the intention of the Spanish government to provide 
the Indians with lands and divide a share of the riches accumulated by the 
Missions among them. The Mexican government passed laws, which, if they 
had been carried out. would have protected the Indian in his rights and given 
him a chance to become self-supporting. But in the era of greed and utter 
disregard of law or of justice, which followed the breaking up of the Mission 
establishments, the Indian received nothing. 

Still the Mexican holders of land grants left the Indians on their lands 
undisturbed; the Indians were, in fact, the only laborers and carried on nearly 
all of the work connected with the great stock ranges of the period. As re- 
tainers of the great Ranchos, the Indians seem to have been treated with 
fairness and to have been comfortably situated — except that they had no 
rights to land or property. 


The history of the Indians of Southern California, under the United 
States, is a chapter that every American must read with shame. Our gov- 


ernment found land titles in a state of chaos when it took possession of the 
territory of California. And in the scramble for possession that followed 
and the endless litigations between grant owners, squatters, and the United 
States government, the rights of the Indians — the first owners of the entire 
state — seem to have been entirely overlooked. From 1849 down to this 
year of grace, 1904, the Indians have been driven from the lands cultivated 
and improved by them and their ancestors for generations, because they had 
no legal title, approved by the government of Mexico, or by the United 
States. Possession and occupation and bona fide improvements counted for 
nothing, in the case of the Indian and when a white man wanted the land, 
whole villages were evicted and their houses, orchards and other improve- 
ments "appropriated." It is true that as early as 1852 the government began 
setting aside "reservations" for the Indians. There are now thirty-three 
reservations in Southern California, containing some 210.000 acres. But 
the greater part of the lands thus reserved are absolutely worthless for agri- 
cultural purposes and a very small area of the entire amount is suitable for 
grazing. On some of these reservations allotments have been made ; but the 
greater part of the land is still undivided and these Indians, who are primarily 
home lovers, and whose strongest feeling is for their own homes, their own 
places and their own traditions, are most of them practically homeless. 

In 1852, Benito D. Wilson, who had been appointed United States In- 
dian Agent, reported about 15,000 Indians; in i860 the United States Census 
reported 3028 Indians in San Bernardino county. In 1880. the census gives 
the Serranos, 381 ; the Coahuillas, 675 ; the entire number in Southern Cali- 
fornia. 2907. Of this, Helen Hunt Jackson, in her report of 1884, says: "This 
estimate falls considerably short of the real numbers, as there are no doubt in 
hiding, so to speak, in remote and inaccessible spots, many individuals, fam- 
ilies, or even villages; some on reservations set apart for them by executive 
order ; some on Government land not reserved, and some upon lands included 
within the boundaries of confirmed Mexican grants. Considerable numbers 
of these Indians are also to be found on the outskirts of the white settlements, 
as at San Bernardino, Riverside and Redlands, and the colonies of the San 
Gabriel valley, where they live like gypsies in brush huts, here today, gone 
tomorrow, eking out a miserable existence by a day's work, the wages of 
which are too often spent for whiskey." These latter Indians, the outcasts 
of the tribes and villages, are too often judged by those who are not acquainted 
with the Indian in his home among the mountains, as fair representatives of 
the Southern California Indians, and the whole race is condemned accord- 

In 1897, Indian Agent Wright reports 3.848 Indians in Southern Cali- 
fornia. Some attempt has been made in later years to right the wrongs of 
these people and save the remnant of them from extinction. Schools have 
been established on a number of the reservations, and the government sup- 


plies the people with some farming implements, seeds, fruit trees, and when 
necessary, seed grain, and a small ration allowance is made for the sick and 
poor. The Perris Industrial School was erected in 1892, and many of the 
children have been trained there'. In 1902, Sherman Institute at Riverside was 
opened with full equipment for industrial training. 

Many of the Indians have left the reservations, finding it impossible 
to make a living on the lands furnished them by the government ; others 
rent lands in their neighborhood and farm on a considerable scale : many of 
them are employed in the vicinity of the reservations as farm laborers, rail- 
road builders and at other work. B. D. Wilson said of the Mission Indians 
in 1852: "These Indians have built all of the houses in the country, planted 
all the fields and vineyards. Under the Missions they were masons, carpen- 
ters, plasterers, soapmakers, tanners, shoemakers, blacksmiths, millers, bak- 
ers, cooks, brick-makers, carters and cart-makers, weavers and spinners, 
saddlers, shepherds, agriculturists, horticulturists, viiieros. vaqueros — in a 
word, they filled all of the laborious occupations of civilization." 

Of the Mojave Indians as laborers, Dr. Booth says in 1902: "Much of 
the hard labor clone on the railroad is performed by these Indians and more 
industrious or more faithful workers were never in the employ of a corpora- 
tion. They lay and line up track, heave coal, wipe engines, etc., better than 
the ordinary white man." 

Some idea of the condition of the Indians in the vicinity of San Bernar- 
dino is furnished by Mrs. Crafts, who was one of the early settles of the 
East San Bernardino valley. When she moved to Altoona. later Crafton, 
there were many of the Serrano and Coahuilla Indians in the vicinity. Mr. 
Crafts employed them to do the work of the ranch and found them to be hon- 
est and willing. During the fruit season the Coahuillas came from Potrero 
to cut and dry fruit. Mr. Crafts found that when they went into San Ber- 
nardino to purchase supplies, they spent most of their money for whiskey, so 
he opened a store and paid them in supplies. 

The Indians lived in huts made of poles and tules. When one died he was 
wrapped in a winding sheet for burial and his possessions were either burned 
or buried with him. Mr. Crafts gave them a burial place and taught them the 
rites of Christian burial. Some of the young Indians wished to learn to read 
and came regularly to Mrs. Crafts for lessons. In 1875. ncr daughter, now 
Mrs. Canterbury, taught an Indian school at Crafton. 

Mr. Crafts felt that the government should protect the rights of these 
Indians and especially that they should be given title to their lands. As a 
result of his correspondence on the subject, a special commissioner, Rev. J. 
G. Ames, was sent out in 1875 and reported in favor of giving these Indians 
titles to the land occupied by them. But of this report and various other re- 
ports, as Mrs. Jackson says, "nothing came, except the occasional setting off 
of reservations, which, if the lands reserved were worth anything, were 
speedily revoked at the bidding of California politicians." 



Old Cabezon, the head of the Coahuillas, frequently came to Crafton and 
consulted with Mr. Crafts. He had absolute control over his people and fre- 
quently prevented his tribesmen from making a disturbance. 

The Coahuillas have always been closely connected with the history 
of San Bernardino valley. The first chief of this tribe, of whom we have 
any record was known as "Razon" (white man) and was a peaceable man 
who tried to teach his people agriculture and to live like "whites." He was 
succeeded by Juan Antonio, who was well known in the early days of the 
county. It was he who led the Indians in the fight with Irving's band in 
1851. For his services on this occasion, the County Supervisors, according 
to B. D. Wilson, allowed Juan Antonio one hundred dollars' worth of cloth 
and supplies. It is said that he ruled his people like -an emperor, demanding 
the most absolute obedience. Helen Hunt Jackson says that he received the 
title of "General" from General Kearney during the Mexican war and never 
appeared among the whites without some signs of a military costume about 
him. She also relates this story with regard to him: "In 1850 an Indian of 
his tribe, having murdered another Indian, was taken prisoner by the countv 
authorities and carried to Jurupa for trial. Before the proceedings had begun 
Juan Antonio, followed by a big band of armed Indians, dashed up and de- 
manded that the prisoner be turned over to him for punishment. T come 
not here as a child,' he said, T wish to punish my own people in my own 
way. If they deserve hanging, I will hang them. If a white man deserves 
hanging, let the white man hang him. I am done.' The prisoner was given 
up. The Indians strapped him to a horse and returned to their village. Here 
in an ®pen grave the body of the murdered man was laid: into this grave, 
on the top of the. corpse of his victim. Juan Antonio, with his own hands, 
pushed the murderer and ordered the grave immediately filled up." 

This chief died of smallpox in 1863. He was followed by Cabezon. 

A letter from Captain J. G. Stanly, a former Indian Agent, to Mrs. H. H. 
Jackson, written in 1882, gives some details about Cabezon and the Coa- 

"Dear Madam : — In compliance with your request I proceeded to the 
Cabezon A^alley and have endeavored as far as possible with the limited time 
at my command, to ascertain the present condition and actual necessities 
of these Indians that still inhabit that portion of the Colorado Basin known as 
Cabezon Valley, that being also the name of the head chief who, from the best 
information that can be obtained, is not less than ninety, and probably one 
hundred, years old. and who still has great influence with the Indians in 
that vicinity. ... At present there are eight villages, or rancherias, 
.each with its own captain, but all recognizing old Cabezon as the head chief. 
I ascertained from each captain the number in his village and found the ag- 
gregate to be 560 souls. These Indians are not what are called Christianized 


Indians. They never belonged to any mission and have never been received 
into any church. They believe in spirits and witchcraft. . . . They are 
very anxious to have schools established among them and are willing to live 
in one village, if a suitable place can be selected." 

Cabezon was well known in San Bernardino and was respected as a 
peaceable, law-abiding man who, more than once, prevented trouble between 
his people and the whites. In his old age he was obliged to appeal to the 
count}' Supervisors for aid, so impoverished had his people become. He 
died in 1886. Mrs. Jackson said of him: "The Indians known as the desert 
Indians are chiefly of the Coahuilla tribe and are all under the control of an 
aged chief named Cabezon, who is said to have more power and influence 
than any other Indian now living in California." 

In 1879 a considerable Indian scare was created by reports of an upris- 
ing of Indians on the reservations. It is said some citizens of San Bernar- 
dino and of Lugonia and vicinity found it convenient to visit Los Angeles 
about this time. The trouble grew out of the efforts of Indian Agent Lawson 
to suppress the liquor traffic among the Indians and there was probably 
never the remotest danger that the Indians would attack the white people. 
Indeed, they were much more likely to be attacked than to take the offensive. 

These Coahuilla Indians, having never come under mission influence 
retained their old, savage superstitions and habits until they came into con- 
tact with the Americans. As late as 1885 a trial for witchcraft took place in 
the city of San Bernardino. This was detailed in the Times. 


"A considerable concourse of men and boys, among whom was a large 
sprinkling of Indians, were gathered in a circle in the court house yard this 
morning. In the center of the circle squatted a sturdy looking buck of some 
fifty or sixty years of age. while circled around him was a number of his 
tribe. The old fellow's name was Domingo, a member of the Coahuilla tribe, 
who had been brought in by his chief, Fernandez, escorted by twenty-one 
prominent men of the tribe, and was now answering to the solemn conclave 
on the serious charge of witchcraft. Hon. John Lloyd Campbell, as prose- 
cuting attorney, took charge of the proceedings, and Captain John Brown, 
Jr., acted as judge and counsel for both sides. All preliminaries being ar- 
ranged/the natives stated the case in substance as follows: "On the 9th 
inst. one of the tribe named Jose died suddenly, and immediately after some 
members of the tribe went crazy. As the Indians know nothing about nat- 
ural causes, they began to cast around for the one who wrought the deed of 
shame, and finally fixed upon Domingo. He was arrested on a charge of 
witchcraft, a jury of twelve of his peers impaneled and sworn to try the 
case on its merits ; and as the untutored savage had learned nothing of the 
intricacies of law. there were no demurrers, cross complaints, nolle prosequi*. 


habeas corpuses, writs of ejectment, forcible entry and detainer, or any other 
of the numerous peculiarities filed, and the trial went on as though such ar- 
rangements did not exist. The upshot of it was that after a fair trial in 
which witnesses for both sides were examined, and the attorneys made forci- 
ble arguments, the jury found a unanimous verdict of guilty, and Domingo 
was sentenced to be hanged for witchcraft, which consisted, as the witnesses 
testified, in his breaking up and burning a certain noxious weed, the fumes 
from which caused the parties against whom directed to cut up didos, die and 
such. He was accordingly securely bound and imprisoned and was to die 
yesterday, but in the meantime he managed to slip his tether and escape. 
Hiram Barton of Old San Bernardino had heard of the case, however, and 
forming a party of rescue, found the old fellow and took him in charge. The 
tribe in the meantime demanded his surrender for punishment, and as a com- 
promise it was agreed to appeal the case from the Court below to Agent 
McCullam, the latter not being at hand, John Brown acted in his ex-officio 
capacity. After all the evidence had been adduced, John Brown, with the 
advice and consent of J. L. Campbell, held the accused man to answer on a 
charge of having by the use of certain mysterious and occult means caused 
the death of one Jose, and set his family cranky, and that he be held in the 
sum of ten thousand dollars to appear before Judge McCullam on Monday 
next to answer thereto. Domingo not having friends willing to pungle up 
for him was then turned adrift on his own recognizance." 


Dr. Booth, of Needles, furnishes some very interesting stories of the 
Mojaves as he has known them. "Many eastern tourists who are in the habit 
of visiting the Pacific Coast over the Santa Fe route have been entertained at 
the Needles depot by 'Shorty' the 'song and dance artist,' as he was called. 
This poor devil was a medicine man, not from choice, but by inheritance, 
and a little more than a year ago was cruelly and quietly clubbed to death 
because of the great mortality among his patients. He was a cripple and it 
was believed by the whites for a long time that he was placed upon a funeral 
pyre some years ago to be cremated, according to the custom of the tribe, and 
that his feet and hands were burned before his cries had sufficiently con- 
vinced his mourning friends that though very sick, he was by no means dead. 
An unpoetic old squaw, however, cruelly dissipated the glow, of romance that 
lighted up this little legend, by informing the credulous pale-face that 
"Shorty" like all children, red. white, or black had crawled before he walked, 
and that on one occasion during his crawling stage of existence. "Shorty" 
escaped the vigilant eye of his loving mother and crawled into the camp fire, 
hence his crippled condition. This crematory fairy tale is characteristic 
of the tribe, for they incline to mystery and rude romance. Illustrative of 
this is the story they tell of a hunchback buck, who formerly lived among 



the soldiers at Fort Mojave. It seems that Providence frequently endows the 
hunchback with brighter intellect than is usually possessed by the average 
man, and this poor dwarfed, deformed creature was no exception to the rule, 
for lie was as bright as a new dollar. The soldiers taught him to speak Eng- 
lish fluently and correctly. He could give all 
the commands of the ordinary army drill and 
beat a snare drum equal to the best of the 
army drummers. Questioned as to the cause 
of his mal-formation he would assume a seri- 
ous expression of countenance and say. "I 
am not a Mohave Indian. I came from way 
up yonder," pointing to the skv. "I have no 
father, no mother, and never had any little 
sisters or brothers, but I am all alone on this 
earth. Long time ago, when I was living up 
there, I saw a beautiful rainbow, and went to 
play with it. I got on the rainbow and the col- 
ors were so pretty that I followed them down, 
down, almost to the mountain below. Sud- 
denly the hot sun came out from behind 
a white cloud, and the rainbow ran away and 
left me, and I fell to the mountain. That's 
-shorty" why I am deformed, and that's how I came 

to be among the Mojaves. 

"As already intimated, cremation is the Mojave method of disposing of 
the dead, and though their crematories are but rude pyres constructed of 
mesquite wood, the process is quite as effective and satisfactory as the more 
elaborate and expensive ones of the white man, for by it the body is reduced 
completely to ashes. During the burning process mourning relatives and 
friends gather around the pyre, and throw into the blaze trinkets, clothing, 
beads, gaudy colored cloth, etc. The squaws who are relatives of the de- 
ceased then cut off their hair, while the bucks sacrifice just a small tuft of 
their long well preserved locks — for hair is the Indian's pride. Some years 
ago the most notable cremation occurring within the last decade took place 
near Needles, and it was strongly indicative of the Indian's affection and faith- 
fulness. A prominent member of the tribe known as "Captain Joe Nelson," 
had a pretty little squaw for a wife known as O-Chay. Captain Joe must have 
been 35 or 40 years of age, while his wife was surely not more than sixteen. 
She was the neatest, prettiest, and most modest squaw in the tribe. The 
white ladies in the town had petted her, made her presents of dresses, rib- 
bons and feminine wearing apparel. Captain Joe was exceedingly proud of 
his child wife, while she was a perfect model of blind devotion to her tall, 
dignified liege lord. O-Chay sickened and died, and on the day of her ere- 


mation there must have been half a thousand whites and two or three hundred 
Indians at the burning. The pyre was laid just in front of Captain Joe's 
wickiup and more pains than usual was taken in its preparation. When the 
fire was lighted the relatives drew near the pyre and threw in their offerings, 
while many of the whites cast gaudy colored calicoes into the roaring flames 
as a mark of their regard for the little dead squaw. Presently Captain Joe 
retired into his wickiup and in a few minutes reappeared dressed in the full 
uniform of a captain of the United States army — a dress which had been given 
him by an officer at Fort Mojave and of which he was very proud. Feathers 
adorned his head and all the bead ornaments which he possessed were strung 
around his neck and arms. In one hand he carried a handsome cane — also 
a present from a white friend — and in the other a bundle in which was 
wrapped the remainder of his clothing and every present and gew-gaw he 
possessed. Towering high above his companions in grief he raised his hand 
and began an oration. It must have been full of. eloquence and pathos, for 
the weeping relatives wept more, and even the whites were moved by his 
feeling tones and expressive gesticulations. His speech concluded, he tossed 
the cane and bundle into the flames, and slowly undressing threw each article 
of clothing in which he was dressed upon the pyre. As he stood bv the roar- 
ing flames, with only a breech clout to hide his nakedness, he presented a 
long-to-be-remembered picture of perfect physical manhood, and strong de- 
votion to his dead child-wife. Like a bronze statue he stood without motion 
or sound, until the devouring flames had consumed the body, and every vestige 
of the wood ; then with a wail of despair he fled to the river. For months he 
was not seen again by the whites and when he did make his appearance was 
shorn of his long glossy hair; his form was bent, his face haggard and sad. 
The Captain Joe of yesterday was no more. His heart was broken, his verv 
soul had gone before to join that of his dead O-Chay. That was ten vears 
ago, artel Captain Joe remains a heartbroken widower. 

"'Whether deserved or not, all Indians have the reputation of being thiev- 
ish and lazy. Not so with the Mojaves. They are honest and industrious. 
Should one of them find property of any kind lying upon the ground he would 
considered it abandoned and its ownership relinquished, and therefore might 
take it; but one's coat, or hat, or utensil of work, if hung upon a tree, or 
carefully cached, would never be molested. The younger members of the 
tribe, or nearly all of them, can read, write and converse in English. The 
boys are particularly expert in writing, and their chirograph}- is, as a rule, 
better than that of the whites; while the girls have learned to run sewing 
machines, to cut and make their own clothing and to ape their white sisters 
generally, except in the matter of wearing shoes. No squaw has ever been 
seen yet who could walk while shod with more grace than a crab. 

"At the Fort Mojave school there are now about 150 pupils, all bright 
and studious, and all fairly fond of the discipline maintained. Major John J. 


McKoin, an experienced Indian teacher and a gentleman of many accomplish- 
ments and rare executive ability, is the superintendent, and he is assisted by 
a corps of competent ladies and gentlemen. Pupils turned out of this school 
are educated, but with the education is too frequently imbibed the triflingness 
of the white man and the thrifty educated Indian is an exception to the rule. 
The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad, or rather that portion of it for- 
merly known as the Atlantic and Pacific, and now designated the Santa Fe- 
Pacific, has done more to educate, and to ameliorate the condition of the 
Mojave Indian than all the Indian schools combined." 


Mr. David Prescott Barrows has recently made an exhaustive study of 
the Coahuilla Indians and has published the results under the title "Ethno- 
Botany of the Coahuilla Indians of Southern California." From this work, 
we copy his tribute to the Coahuillas who have borne so large a part in the 
history of Southern California and San Bernardino County. "I am certain 
that from any point of view, the Coahuilla Indians are splendid types of men 
and women. Physically, they are handsome, often large of size, many being 
six feet or over, with splendid shaggy heads and faces of much command and 
dignity. Their desert home has given them great powers of endurance and 
enormous toleration of heat and thirst. With rare exceptions, and those 
always young men who have frequented the settlements, they are absolutely 
honest and trustworthy. Unlike the Mojaves and Cocapahs, they know 
neither beggary nor prostitution. Their homes and persons are orderly and 
clean. The fine pools and springs of warm mineral waters throughout their 
habitat are most gratefully prized possessions. Probably not less than two 
centuries ago the ancestors of these Indians entered the great range of terri- 
tory still occupied by their descendants. They came from the deserts north 
of the San Bernardino range and the stock from which they came belong to a 
desert people, but the Colorado valleys and surrounding mountains raised 
new difficulties and presented new opportunities. Their adaptations to these 
conditions, their utilization of whatever there was to be secured, raised their 
standard of culture until, as it seems to me, it will compare favorably with 
that of any Indians in the western United States, save the Pueblo builders. 
After having explored with some completeness the various portions of their 
country and realized the difficulties attending life in certain portions, and 
the call upon courage and endurance that the desert always makes, the knowl- 
edge gained by this people, the culture they attained, apparently long before 
seen by white men, seem to me to be a remarkable triumph for men of a low 
and barbarous inheritance. 

"Their splendid wells, unique perhaps among the Indian tribes of America, 
their laborious though rude irrigation of the maize, their settled community 
life, with its well built houses and basket granaries, their effective pottery, 


their exquisite basketry, their complete and successful exploitation of all the 
plant resources throughout hundreds of square miles of mountains and plains 
— these are not insignificant nor contemptible steps toward civilized life." 

The Coahuillas now occupy several villages in the northwestern portion 
of the Colorado desert, enclosed by the San Bernardino range and the San 
Jacinto mountains, known as the Coahuilla or Cabezon valley. Air. Barrows 
says : "The villages or rancherias of the Coahuillas at the present time are 
as follows : Their last villages in the San Bernardino and San Jose valleys 
were broken up some thirty years ago and although they still come to the 
vicinity of Redlands and Riverside for work, their camps in these places 
are no longer permanent homes. They were driven from the San Timoteo 
canon in the forties by the ravages of smallpox, and the first reservation to 
be. met with now as one rides eastward through the pass where they once held 
sway is below Banning at Potrero, a fertile spot, irrigated by the water from 
a canon of Mount San Gorgonio. or Greyback. Here live several hundred 
Coahuillas and Serranos who have considerably intermarried — the ancient 
antipathy having broken down. Beyond Palm Valley is a small rancheria 
known as Agua Caliente. There is a small village at Indio and a few miles 
east the very interesting rancheria of Cabezon. Further south is La Mesa, 
and in the San Jacinto range are found Torres and Martinez, Alamo and 
Agua Dulce, and still higher among the mountains are Santa Rosa and San 

Of the houses of the Coahuillas, Mr. Barrows says: "The houses of a 
Coahuilla rancheria are not grouped in a village but are scattered about as 
widely as the habitable portions of the reservations permit. Each family 
occupies a cluster of little dwellings by itself and near it are usually some 
attempts at cultivation of the soil. . . . There is a strange quietness 
surrounding these homes, a quietness frequently saddened by the absence 
of little children. No loud voices are heard; the ordinary work of the house- 
hold .goes forward awaking but little sound. There is little social inter- 
course except at the times of the feasts and a strange sad somberness hangs 
over an Indian village, especially at nightfall. . . . The site for the 
house is marked off in a rectangle perhaps twelve by eighteen feet, or smaller, 
as is desired. Trunks of trees are trimmed so as to leave a crotch at the 
smaller end. One is then sunk at each corner of the proposed dweliling. 
Midway between two end posts is planted a larger, stouter trunk, also 
crotched at the top and rising eight or ten feet above ground. 
Ridge poles and side beams of poles are then added and poles for rafters, 
all bound in place with green pliant leaves of the yucca. Stakes are driven 
in at the ends and sides and then brush of the willow is closely wattled in 
to form the walls and the roof is thatched with tules. Often walls and roof 
are daubed with mud or adobe." . . . "In the hot months the family 
usually moves into summer quarters. The patches of maize, melons and 



vegetables ripening at this time are likely to be at some distance from the 
permanent residence. So on the edge of the garden a ramada is built and 
here are moved the metates, pots, water jars and other needful plunder and a 
picnic begins which ends only when the garden truck is exhausted." 

These Indians manufacture pottery, baskets, sandals, cordage, baby 
hammocks, bows and arrows and "rabbit sticks" (used in hunting rabbits) 
and all of these from the plants of the desert. 

The Serrano tribe, as a tribe, has disappeared, except for the little reser- 
vation in the foothills above Redlands, known as "Manuel's Village." 


This reservation is situated about one mile north of the state insane 
asylum at Highland. It consists of 640 acres of mountain-side and it is 
doubtful if the whole reservation contains five acres of arable land. It rises 
abruptly from the valley, and it requires the agility of a mountain goat to 
climb the stony hillsides. It appears utterly incapable of sustaining any- 
thing, even though San Manuel is called a "self-sustaining reservation." 
That means these Indians receive no annuity or supplies from the United 
States government. Once in a while they are visited by an Indian agent from 

somewhere, but that 
is all. There are 
about seventy-five 
Indians belonging to 
the reservation. 
Their houses are 
scattered here and 
there among the 
hills, and though 
poor and mean in 
appearance, the sur- 
roundings are re- 
markably clean. The 
men are sometimes 
employed as wood 

A Home on San Manuel Reserva ion C h O p p e r S On the 

mountains and by 
the ranchers as laborers in thevalley. The women are able to obtain some 
work as washerwomen. They also make a fewbaskets. These Indians 
are said to be perfectly honest. One rancher in the vicinity frequently loans 
them small amounts of money which, he says, are always repaid. There 
are a few families of Indians at Craftonville and a few others scattered 
through the valley. They are all that remain of the descendants of the 
original owners of the valley. 


The Indians of San Bernardino valley have had, at least, two large 
burial places. A very old graveyard, established by the padres, to teach the 
Indians the white man's mode of burial, instead of cremation, was situated 
near the rancheria of Politana. It has been crowded out little by little until, 
now it is entirely covered by an orange grove. Another Indian burial place 
was taken by the Santa Fe railroad, and it is said was paid for by the railroad 



The downfall of Spanish rule in North America came with the Revolu- 
tion of 1822. In 1823 the Mexican Republic was formed and California be- 
came a territory under the jurisdiction of that government and remained 
under Mexican rule until it passed into the control of the United States 
in 1847. 

Under the Spanish rule the Missions had absorbed the best part of the 
land and had produced the greater part of the wealth of the country. A few 
large grants had been made outside of the mission holdings, but the settlers 
outside of the missions and pueblos were few and widely scattered. The 
growth of the pueblos of San Diego, Monterey, Los Angeles and San Fran- 
cisco had been very slow ; a large proportion of their inhabitants were 
soldiers who had completed their service and remained in the country, marry- 
ing native women in many instances ; others were colonists who had come 
to the country because of the inducements held out by the government, but 
none of these were calculated to make progressive citizens and they did little 
except to cultivate their "suertes" (.l° ts ) an d raise a little stock. 


During the Spanish period no regular grants were made in San Ber- 
nardino territory. A grant known as "Santiago de Santa Ana," containing 
60,000 acres, was made to Antonio Yorba in 1S01, in the Santa Ana canon. It 
is probable this may have extended slightly within our bounds but the main 
body of it lies in what is now Orange County. In the Temescal Valley a grant 
was made about 1817 to Leandro Serrano, who had married a daughter of 
Antonio Yorba. After long litigation this Temescal Grant was decided by 
the courts to be but a "permit for grazing privileges" and was not sustained. 

The Mexican government did not make any grants for some time after 
it came into power. And at first, it was a somewhat difficult matter to 
find persons who desired to take large grants, except where there was some 
very exceptional advantage offered. The first Mexican land grant in this 
section was that of Jurupa. 



The first land grant made in this county under the Mexican government 
was that made to Juan Bandini, in 1838, of seven leagues of land, known as 
the Jurupa Grant. Jurupa is said to be an Indian word, meaning "friendship" 
or "peace." 

Juan Bandini was one of the ablest and most prominent of the Spanish 

pioneers. Born in Peru, he came to San Diego in 1821 and almost at once, 
by reason of his unusual education and ability, was appointed a member of 
the territorial assembly. He held many important offices and bore a large 
share in the history of California territory under Mexican rule. He first 
married a daughter of Juan Estudillo, of San Diego, by whom his children 
were, Arcadia, who married Don Abel Stearns and then Col. R. S. Baker; 


Josefa, who married Pedro C. Carrillo ; Ysidora, who married Col. Cave J. 
Coutts ; Jose M. and Juan. Of these Mrs. Baker and Juan, Jr., still live. 
Later Seilor Bandini married Senorita Refugio Arguello. Of this marriage 
Mrs. C. E. Johnston, Mrs. J. B. Winston and Arturo Bandini still survive. 
Bancroft says of Bandini : "He was a man of fair education and abilities, 
of generous impulses, of jovial temperament; famous for his gentlemanly 
manners, of good courage in the midst of discouragements and always well 
liked and respected; indeed, his record as a citizen is excellent. He also per- 
formed honestly and efficiently the duties of his various official positions. 
He was an eloquent speaker and fluent writer." 

' Senor Bandini at once began stocking his Jurupa Rancho and built a 
ranch house there, which he and his family occupied for a time. 


(The little town of the Trujillos.) 

The early occupants of grants in San Bernardino county were greatly 
troubled by the raids of the desert Indians, who would dash in through the 
various passes, drive off a band of stock and get back to their own strong- 
holds, while the ranch owners were helpless. In order to protect their stock 
the Lugos induced a few New Mexican families to settle in the vicinity of 
Politana, by giving them a half league of land (about 2,200 acres) in exchange 
for which these settlers were to help fight the Indians and act as vaqueros. 

About 1843, Bandini offered these colonists a better location and more 
land if they would move across the Santa Ana River and settle on the Jurupa. 
After some hesitation and discussion, their leader, Lorenzo Trujillo, decided 
to accept this proposition and consequently five families moved to a location 
several miles south of Politana and established a new settlement which was 
known as Trujillo's, or Bandini's Donation, as referred to on the records. 
This was at first composed of five families, but others soon came in. They 
were on the flat where they could irrigate their lands and soon had vineyards, 
orchards and grain fields. They began the erection of an adobe church but 
it was washed down before it was completed by the heavy rains of 1852. 


(Gentle Water.) 
About 1852 another colony of New Mexicans was located on the river a 
mile or more northeast of "la Placita.*' These people also made improve- 
ments and cultivated the land as well as caring for stock and aiding in its 
protection. A considerable settlement grew up here and the two colonies 
decided to unite in building a church to replace the one swept away in 1852. 
Miguel Bustamente, who was one of the early settlers of Agua Mansa, gives 
this description of the erection of this church : "The colonists appointed a 
committee to select a site that would be safe from flood, and after going up 


and down the river they decided upon the hill of San Salvador. Then all of 
the colonists went to work — some with their hands and some with money — 
and made the new church. They made the 
adobes and the cement. Joaquin Molla, who 
had twelve or fourteen yoke of oxen hauled 
the timber from Aliso's mill. (This must have 
fgfk been the mill of Vignes and Sexton in Mill 

Creek canon.) We paid from $35.00 to S40.00 
per M. for the lumber. It took a year to build 
the new church. Father Amable held the first 
mass in it." For many years this little chapel 
was the only Catholic church in the county. 
It has crumbled away now until the very foun- 
dations are gone. The bell, however, made 
from metal collected in the vicinity and cast at 
ft iflH Agua Mansa, now hangs in the Catholic 

church at Colton. 
^ r- 1/ .. m (See Father Peter's Reminiscences). 

miguel bustamente The g reat flood of l862 washed away both 

of these prosperous little settlements and 
buried the fields and vineyards in sand. Fortunately no lives were lost, but 
the church on the hill of San Salvador and the residence of Cornelius Jan- 
sen near it, were the only buildings left standing. There was naturally 
much distress at this time and the people of Los Angeles rendered assistance. 
The San Bernardino correspondent of the Los Angeles Star, January 
26th, 1862, writes : "The Agua Mansa, a beautiful and flourishing settlement 
is destroyed, not a vestige of anything left to denote that such a place ever 
existed. The suffering and loss of property in this district is indescribable. 
Fortunately no lives were lost although there were many narrow escapes." 
The same paper in another column appeals to its readers for help : "We 
beg to call the attention of the public to the deprivation sustained by the peo- 
ple of the town of Jurupa, in San Bernardino county. Here are five hundred 
of our fellow creatures suddenly deprived of everything — left in utter deso- 
lation." The correspondent reports in the paper of February 22nd: "Last 
week two of the Sisters of Charity from your city arrived here to superin- 
tend the distribution of clothes, provisions, etc., provided by the citizens of 
Los Angeles for the sufferers of Agua Mansa." 

A new village was built up about the church and was long one of the 
best known settlements of the county. 

In 1843, Bandini sold a part of the Jurupa Rancho to B. D. Wilson, who 
had lately come into California with a party from New Mexico. 

Benjamin D. Wilson was a native of Tennessee. He spent a number of 
years trapping and hunting in New Mexico, and then came to California in 


1841 with the Workman party. This party, who came with the intention of 
settling permanently, brought with them their families. It included Wil- 
liam 'Workman, who became one of the most prominent citizens of Los 
Angeles; B. D. Wilson, Lorenzo Trujillo, Ygnacio.Salazar, and a number of 
other New Mexicans. Wilson purchased the Jurupa Rancho in 1844, and 
settled down as a stock rancher ; he married Ramona, daughter of Bernardo 
Yorba, and one of the daughters of this union, Mrs. J. de Barth 
Shorb, still survives. In the fall of 1844, he was severely wounded by a 
grizzly bear that had attacked and slain one of his cattle. After recovering 
from the wounds, he hunted up the bear and put an end to it, after a pitched 
battle. In the fall of 1845. ne took charge of an expedition against a band 
of marauding Indians and went across the mountains in pursuit. On the 
way out, the party camped at a lake where grizzlies were so numerous that 
twenty-two men lassoed eleven bears, and on the return of the party the feat 
was repeated, making twenty-two bears killed in this vicinity. 

After selling Jurupa, Wilson located near Los Angeles and served a 
term as State Senator; acted as Indian Agent and took an active part in all 
affairs political and in the development of the country. He died in Los 
Angeles in 1878. 

Colonel Johnson and Isaac Williams purchased the grant from Bandini 
and Wilson, and in 1847 they sold a part of it to Louis Robidoux, a French- 
man, possessing considerable property who had come from New Mexico. 

Louis Robidoux was born in St. Louis, the son of one of the pioneer 
merchants of that city. The family were prominent in the early history of 
Missouri and one of the brothers, Joseoh Robidoux, was the founder of St. 
Joseph. Louis went to New Mexico in the thirties, where he accumulated 
considerable property by hunting and trapping. He married a New Mexican, 
and in 1844 came to California with a party of New Mexicans. He purchased 
the Jurupa rancho and became one of the largest and most progressive ranch- 
eros of the day. He served as Juez de Paz, and was one of the first board of 
supervisors. He was genial and kindly in disposition and honorable in all 
his dealings. He died in 1867. 

Robidoux improved the rancho by building fences and putting in a large 
acreage of grain. He built a grist mill which is described as of the most 
primitive type, having a turbine wheel and two sets of stones. The grain 
was washed and dried in the sun and shoveled into the hopper with a rawhide 
scoop. This was at the time- — 1846-7 — the only grist mill in Southern 


The San Bernardino frontier was always subject to frequent invasions of 
the Mojave and Paiute Indians. In 1847, Colonel A. J. Smith, of the l T . S. 
Infantry, was sent to Cajon Pass with forty dragoons to protect the settlers 
of that vicinity. In April, 1847, a corps of the Mormon Battalion was sent 


to establish a post at Cajon. This does not seem to have been maintained 
any length of time. A few troops were posted at Chino rancho for a time. In 
1852 a post was established on the Jurupa grant by Captain Lovell and Colonel 
Smith. A small body of troops was stationed here from this time until 1854, 
when they were withdrawn. 

A part of the Jurupa rancho is now included in the city of Riverside. 
Agua Mansa district alone now remains in San Bernardino county. Here 
a few crumbling adobes and an old graveyard mark what was the first settle- 
ment within the limits of this county. 


Cucamonga is said to mean "Sandy Place." Among the Cucamonga 
hills and on the mesa below was a rancheria of Indians who had never come 
directly under the mission influence. They cultivated their fields, raised 
stock, and were generally quiet and industrious people. They had occupied 
this vicinity when the Spanish first came into the country and the history of 
their extinction is but the common history of the native American. 

In 1839, Governor Alvarado granted this tract of land to Tiburcio Tapia, 
a wealthy and influential citizen of Los Angeles. Robinson says, regarding 
him : "We stopped at the house of Don Tiburcio Tapia, the 'Alcalde Con- 
stitutional' (Constitutional Judge) of the town, who was once a common 
soldier, but who, by honest and industrious labor has amassed so much of 
this world's goods as to make him one of the wealthiest inhabitants of the 
place. His strict integrity gave him credit to any amount (with the trad- 
ing vessels which Robinson represented), so that he was the principal mer- 
chant and the only native one in 'el Pueblo de Los Angeles.' " 

Don Tiburcio employed the unsuspecting natives to aid him in building a 
house which was practically a fortress upon one of the highest hills of the 
grant. They also assisted in setting out vineyards and orchards and caring 
for the stock. Some Mexicans were brought in and as the stock increased and 
the settlement grew, the Indians were driven from their fields back into the 
hills and canons. When their crops failed them, it was only natural that 
they should seize on a beef, fattened upon their own ranges. Seiior Tapia 
was at last forced to employ guards to protect his cattle and at length the 
depredations grew so frequent that his ranchmen went out in force and a 
fierce battle was fought which resulted in the destruction of the greater part 
of the Cucamonga Indians; their existence as a separate rancheria was ended. 

Many tales of battles, of buried treasure, of love and of hatred, are told 
in connection with the house on the red hill and the estate of Cucamonga. 
One of these tales is like this : Don Tiburcio amassed a large amount of 
property and especially of gold coin — something unusual in those days; when 
rumors of American occupation began to disturb the country, he feared that 
this might not be safe in Los Angeles, so he transferred it to his ranch home. 


But even here he became uneasy and one night, so the story goes, he packed 
it into an iron-bound chest, loaded it on his cart and taking a blindfolded 
Indian with him, went off into the hills. He returned without the chest, and 
shortly afterward died suddenly. When his daughter came, some years later, 
to live in the old house, she was constantly troubled by a mysterious light 
moving about and stopping at one particular spot on the wall of the room 
once occupied by her father. At last her husband, determined to satisfy her 
of the idleness of her imagination, and dug into the clay wall. To his own 
discomfiture, he found a small skin purse, and in the purse a sheet of parch- 
ment containing some tracing and writing and a Spanish coin. This was 
supposed to be the key to the hidden treasure, but it was already so faded that 
it was not decipherable (though why parchment should have faded in so 
short a time is not explained). The Indian held the word he had given to 
his old master as inviolable, only intimating that the box was buried at the 
foot of an oak tree. Credulous searching parties have, since the death of 
Senor Tapia down to the present day, dug at the roots of oak trees, or places 
where they suppose oak trees sometime to have stood, all through that sec- 
tion, but so far as known, no treasure has ever been discovered. 

After Senor Tapia's death, the estate was managed for the daughter, 
Maria Merced, by his old mayor-domo and compadre, Jose M. Valdez. Under 
his supervision the "mother" vineyard, containing twelve rows of forty-seven 
vines each, was planted, and from this stock other vineyards were started. 
A winery and distillery were also put up. The daughter, who had been 
brought up in a French family in Los Angeles, married a French settler of 
that city, Leon V. Prudhomme. In 1857 the rancho came into the hands of 
John Rains, through his marriage with Maria Merced, the daughter of Isaac 
Williams of the Chino Rancho. Rains, who was an enterprising and pro- 
gressive young American, at once began improving the place, setting out 
more vines and adding more stock. A correspondent of the Los Angeles 
Star for 1859, after stating that 125,000 additional vines had been set out, thus 
describes the Cucamonga vineyard : "This vineyard is laid out in ten-acre 
lots with roads two rods wide traversing it. In the center of the vineyard is 
a lot two acres square to be reserved for wine press, cellars and necessary 
buildings. This square is enclosed by fruit and ornamental trees. The plans 
have been made under the supervision of F. P. Dunlap." Mr. Rains aband- 
oned the old fortress on the hill and built a house which was complete in every 
respect, and which became a social center for the society of the country. 
The winery, shops and stage station gave employment to many men, and 
Cucamonga became the most important point between San Bernardino and 
Los Angeles, while its wines were known for their fine quality all over the 

John Rains filled a prominent place in the business and political life of 
the time. In i860, he was a delegate with John Bidwell to the Democratic 


National Convention at Charleston. In 1861 occurred the terrible tragedy of 
his assassination. He was shot to death while driving to Los Angeles and 
dragged from his wagon and hidden away in a cactus patch. It was near- 
ly a week after his death before the body was discovered. 

"On the 17th of November. 1862, as he was traveling alone and unarmed, 
he encountered several men, one of whom inquired where he was going. 
Rains replied, "to town." "I think not: we've got you now!" was the 
rejoinder, and immediately he was fired upon 
by the assassins, who jerked him from his 
wagon by one arm. As he was still able to 
speak and make resistance, they lassoed him 
and dragged him across the road into the 
bushes, where his body was afterwards found, 
bearing marks of most brutal treatment, his 
clothing torn off, and one boot lost in the 
struggle. The murder was committed for the 
sake of plunder. Upon suspicion of participa- 
tion in this crime, Manuel Ceredel was arrested. 
Taken ill with smallpox, and thinking himself 
about to die, Ceredel disclosed all the particu- 
lars of the conspiracy against Rains, in con- 
sequence of which several parties started in 
pursuit of his confederates, arresting five or 
six, who were identified by Ceredel. Recov- 
ering somewhat unexpectedly, Ceredel was tried and sentenced to ten years 
in the State prison, a decree that did not satisfy the people. While in the 
hands of the sheriff, on board the steamboat Cricket, en route for San Quen- 
tin. the prisoner was seized by the vigilance committee of Los Angeles and 
hanged to the yard-arm. After remaining there for about twenty minutes 
the body was taken down, some stones were tied to his feet, and it was 
thrown overboard. Between betrayed comrades, smallpox, state prison and 
vigilantes further residence on this planet seemed for Ceredel impossible." 

On the 5th of February, 1864, Santiago Sanches was hanged for the 
murder of Manuel Gonzales. He admitted his guilt, but protested that his 
arrest and execution were to gratify the spite of Americans who suspected 
him of the murder of John Rains, a charge of which he was innocent. In 
June, 1864, Jose Ramon Carrillo, while riding with a Californian on the high- 
way near the stage station, Cucamonga, was shot by a man in ambush, who 
escaped without having been seen. The cause of the cowardly assassination 
was attributed to the suspicion that had always been entertained that he was 
accessory to the murder of John Rains in November, 1862. Although he had 
twice surrendered himself to the authorities for trial, his examination and 
release did not remove the feeling entertained by the friends of Rains, and 



Carrillo had felt his life endangered ever afterward. His assassin was never 

The widow married later Jose C. Carrillo, and is still living in Los An- 
geles. One of her daughters by her first husband is the wife of Ex-Gov. H. 
T. Gage. 

In 1870 Mrs. Carrillo disposed of her interest in the Cucamonga Rancho 
to the Cucamonga Company, a corporation. 

(See Later History of Cucamonga. Chapter XXII.) 


In 1841 this fine tract of land, known for its rich soil and abundant water 
supply, was granted to Don Antonio Maria Lugo. In 1843, his son-in-law, 
Col. Isaac Williams, purchased the Lugo claim for $10,000 and secured an 
additional grant, making a holding of some 35,000 acres in all. Various 
theories are advanced as to the meaning of the name "Chino," but the most 
plausible seems to be that it took its name from a curly-leafed willow growing 
on the place — "chino" sometimes meaning "curly-haired" in Spanish. 

Col. Williams increased the stock upon the place, importing a large 
number of sheep from New Mexico ; built a grist mill and set out orchards. At 
one time he proposed to erect a fort in the Cajon Pass to shut out maraud- 
ing Indians, and he did begin to build an adobe wall entirely about his rancho, 
to confound the horse thieves, but the breaking out of the gold excitement 
drew off his laborers and it was not completed. He built for himself a 
hacienda (farm house) which was the scene of many historic events. The 
exterior presented the usual fortress-like appearance, but the interior was 
finished and furnished perhaps more elaborately than any dwelling previously 
erected in Southern California. Robinson, who enjoyed the boundless hos- 
pitality of the Williams home calls it a delightful spot and says: "It is the 
most spacious building of the kind in the country and possesses all desirable 

Col. Williams was born in Pennsylvania in 1799. He early became a 
hunter and trapper in the west; after several years in New Mexico and 
Arizona, he came to California about 1832 with Ewing Young's band of trap- 
pers. He was so pleased with the country that he remained and located in 
Los Angeles. Here he put up an adobe building on Main street, about where 
the St. Charles hotel now stands, and became a trader. It is said that he 
was the first merchant in the country to put his goods on shelves and sell 
them over a counter. Later he sold this building to the city and during the 
brief period when Los Angeles was the capital of California, it served as the 
seat of government. It was also used as a court house when the county of 
Los Angeles was organized. 

Williams was naturalized as a citizen of Mexico and about 1842 married 
Seiiorita Maria de Lugo. As a wealthy ranch owner and an influential citi- 


zen, he did not forget his frontier experience. Chino was a stopping place 
on the overland route between Yuma and the northern gold fields and when 
the migration to the gold mines began, Col. Williams welcomed every Ameri- 
can who passed that way. Many an old frontiersman was received as a brother 
and went on his way with replenished purse and stomach. Frequently Isaac 
Williams "grubstaked" miners who were hard up and provided them with 
horses. Several times he sent out men and supplies to meet immigrant 
trains who were reported by their scouts as being in want. In later years 
Chino was a station on the Butterfield stage route and Richard Gird still has 
in his possession a book which contains many signatures and autobiographies 
of the passers-by 

Col. Isaac Williams was a fine type of the American pioneer. In ap- 
pearance he is said to have been tall, fine looking, courtly and yet genial in 
manner. Many stories are related among the "old timers" of his great 
generosity and kindness to all who were in need. He was an energetic busi- 
ness man and accumulated a large amount of property. Davis says of him : 

"Isaac Williams was one of those Americans who first came to the De- 
partment of California, and was known by the name of Don 'Julian' from 
the similarity in sound of William to Julian in the ears of the Californians. 
He gave as one reason for his coming here that he wanted to see the setting 
sun in the farthest west. In June, 1846, Don Julian came on board my 
vessel and bought a large quantity of goods, the payment for which was to 
be made in the following, 1847, matanza (killing). One exceedingly hot day 
in August, 1847, I visited Don Julian, who was busy slaughtering cattle for 
hides and tallow, to meet his engagements to different supercargoes on the 
coast. Don Julian's home was built in the heart of a fertile valley in which 
were thirty thousand horned cattle, sheep and horses. It seemed to me like 
a young Mission with American ideas added to the ancient notions of im- 
provements. I found the enterprising man in the midst of the matanza, 
with more than a thousand head of steers slaughtered, the work to be con- 
tinued until two thousand or more were killed. I observed with great in- 
terest the 'try-pots' bubbling with the melted tallow and the manteca, the 
latter the delicate fat that lies between the hide and meat of the animal. 
He was preparing this to add to the exports of the hacienda. His income 
from, say two thousand five hundred steers killed, would be from the 
tallow and manteca, at six arrobas to the animal, 15,000 arrobas, or $25,000; 
add to this $5000 for the hides. This is an illustration of the income of the 
hacendados (ranchers), proportionate to the number of cattle they slaught- 
ered at the matanzas season, exclusive of the sales of cattle, horses, wool 
and sheep." 

D. Tyler, in his "History of the Mormon Battalion," furnishes this de- 
scription of soap making on the Chino Rancho: 

"Mr. Williams had a soap factory conducted about as follows: 


" 'Over a furnace was placed a boiler about ten feet deep and the same 
in diameter, the upper part being of wood. This was filled with tallow and 
the fattest of the meat. A little water was also poured into it and the whole 
tried out, after which the grease was dipped into a box ten or twelve feet 
square. The meat was then thrown away. Mineral earth was then leached 
like ashes, the lye obtained from it and the grease put together and boiled 
into soap. The best quality of soap when made was almost as white as 
snow. Indians usually did the work.' " 


In September, 1846, Chino rancho house was besieged by a body of 
Californians under Barelas, the leader of the revolt that resulted in the 
evacuation of Los Angeles by Gillespie. B. D. Wilson had been sent out 
with about twenty Americans to protect the San Bernardino frontier. He 
was at Jurupa, but when Williams learned of the proposed attack, he asked 
Wilson to come to his aid. Wilson complied, but they found on joining 
forces that they were very short of ammunition. Barelas, with about fifty 
Californians, was joined by the Lugos from San Bernardino with twenty 
men. They surrounded the house in the evening and a few shots were ex- 
changed. The next morning the attack was renewed and a sharp fusilade 
followed. Several horses fell, one Californian was killed and two or three 
Americans wounded. The besiegers closed up and set fire to the roof of the 
house. Then Williams, taking his children with him, went out and appealed 
to their uncles, the Lugos. Barelas demanded the surrender of the party 
and promised protection as prisoners of war. The terms were finally ac- 
cepted and Wilson and his party, Williams, D. W. Alexander, John Rowland, 
Louis Robidoux, Joseph Perdue, William Skene, Isaac and Evan Callaghan, 
Michael White, Mat Hardin and George Walters, were taken to Los An- 
geles. It is said that some of the capturers wished to attack the prisoners in 
revenge for the Mexican who had been slain, but Barelas, at some risk, in- 
sisted upon the party being turned over to the authorities unharmed. Later 
they were exchanged and released. Colonel Williams, after California had 
become one of the United States, put in a claim for damages sustained to his 
property through this affair and was awarded some $80,000. 

Col. Williams died in 1856. He was buried in the old Catholic cemetery 
on Buena Vista street, Los Angeles, where his tomb may still be seen. The 
bulk of his large estate was left to his two daughters, Maria Merced, who 
married John Rains and afterwards lived on the Cucamonga Rancho and 
Francesca, who married another American, Robert S. Carlisle, and resided 
for a number of years at the Chino Rancho. 

A correspondent of the Sacramento Union thus describes the Chino 
rancho in 1862: 


"Chino rancho, which is considered one of 
the finest in the country, is situated in a level 
valley with mountain scenery on every side. 
JK*„jiL Here we see cattle in such herds as would 

^T defy human calculation to arrive at an accurate 

W trm f($L idea of the number. The residence of Carlisle, 

f the proprietor, is one of the first-class adobes, 

j^MJHHf exceedingly plain but comfortable and fur- 

^^QCjj^L nished with taste and an eye to elegance. A 

^^[j l^^^k beautiful garden surrounds the house enclosed 

by large trees which seem to bear the impress 
R^-w^Hf of antiquity. Some distance from the house 

arc the quarters for the Indian servants, about 
rme hundred in number. They are exceedingly 
quiet, inoffensive and obedient, and are used 
to herd the stock and indeed in anv depart- 


inent of the ranch necessary. 
Robert Carlisle was a Southern man by birth and sentiment. He was 
well educated, energetic, instinctively a good business man and while in 
control of the Chino ranch he conducted its affairs wisely. He was of fine 
appearance, genial disposition, was widely known and socially popular. As a 
brother-in-law of John Rains of Cucamonga, who had been murdered, he was 
somewhat involved in the settlement of the Rains estate, which developed 
strenuous difficulty with the King brothers in Los Angeles and he was shot in 
cold blood at the Bella Union hotel in that city, July 5, 1865. which brutal 
affair constitutes one of the darkest pages in the Criminal Annals of Los 
Angeles City. Mrs. Carlisle became the wife of Dr. F. A. McDougal, who, 
to the time of his death, was one of the wealthy and influential citizens of 
Los Angeles and its able and conscientious mayor in 1877 and 1878. By her 
more recent marriage she is well known in Los Angeles as Mrs. Francesca 
Jesurum, a lady of wealth, social prominence and unostentatious charity. 


In 1842, a grant known as "Rancho de San Bernardino" was made 
by Covernor Alvarado to Jose Maria Lugo, Jose del Carmen Lugo, Vi- 
cente Lugo — all sons of Antonio Maria Lugo and Diego Sepulveda. This 
grant, which included some nine square leagues, or 37.700 acres of land, 
comprised the best part of the San Bernardino valley and later gave its 
name to the county. Antonio Maria Lugo was one of the most prominent of 
the native Californians. He owned a large grant, San Antonio, near 
Los Angeles. This was one of the finest stock ranges in the country and 
H. D. Barrows says that his stock increased so wonderfully that he had 



more than he knew what to do with. So he secured the San Bernardino 
grant for his sons and stocked it with cattle from his other ranches. Seiior 
Lugo was a fine example of the old Spanish Don, a magnificent horseman, a 
man of his word, who never knew fear, and who, while somewhat stern and 
commanding in bearing, was generous and kindhearted. Senor Lugo had 
ten children by his first wife, Dolores Ruis, and several children by the sec- 
ond wife, Maria Antonia German. These children married into the leading 
families of California ; one daughter became the wife of Isaac Williams, 
another of Stephen C. Foster, and the descendants, down to the fifth genera- 
tion, are now widely scattered and many of them are well known citizens. 
The Lugo brothers settled on the San Bernardino property ; one of them, 
Jose M., built a house, which was known as 
Homolla, about two miles south of the present 
city. Here about twenty acres of land was 
put under cultivation. Jose C. lived at Old San 
Bernardino Mission and probably occupied the 
old mission building itself as a residence: 
Vicente lived at Politana, and Sepulveda lived 
in Yucaipe _ valley, in an old adobe previously 

"In the time intervening between the pass- 
ing of the friars and the coming of the Lugos 
there seems to have been an occupant of the 
rancho de San Bernardino in the person of 
Jose Bermudas, who, with his family, came 
from Los Angeles about 1836 and "squatted" 
on the property afterward granted to the Lugos. 
He built the historic "old adobe" dwelling, 

afterwards the site of the "Mormon fort," and now the property of Wozen- 
craft on C street. Bermudas occupied the property until dispossessed by the 
Lugos. It is doubtful if he ever made any regular claim co or application for 
the property. At all events the matter of his relinquishment was amicably 
settled and he removed to the Yucaipe valley, having been promised a grant 
in that locality. This promise was never fulfilled. Later land was promised 
him in Canada de San Timoteo and he removed from Yucaipe to the land now 
occupied by his son. This son, Miguel Bermudas, was born at San Gabriel 
and was a child of five years of age when his father moved into the valley. 
He claims to be the oldest settler in point of residence of San Bernardino 

ihb,o SHl'l I.VFIPA 

•History of S. B. Valley 

-Father Jn 



The Lugos lost much stock by the raids of the desert Indians and about 
1843 they offered to give a half league of land just south of the Rancheria, or 
Politana, near what is now known as Bunker Hill, to Lorenzo Trujillo and 
several other families of New Mexicans, who had lately come into the 
country. In exchange, the newcomers were to help protect the stock and 
when necessary join the Lugos in fighting Indians. Several interesting 
skirmishes were engaged in by these New Mexicans under this arrangement. 
They were armed with their own guns and were used to Indian warfare, 
having had many battles with the Utes and other Indians in their expeditions 
before settling here. On one occasion three of the Trujillos were wounded 
by arrows, while pursuing a band of marauders through the mountains near 
the present site of Riverside. Early in 1851, a party of Utes made a raid 
into the San Bernardino valley and stole a number of horses, including a 
large band of the Lugos' horses. A party of twenty followed them and in 
an ambuscade on the Mojave one of them was killed. 


On the return of the party of Californians from pursuit of this band of 
Indians, they passed two men with a camping outfit. These men had given 
some directions as to the whereabouts of the Indian, marauders, which the 
Lugo party believed were intentionally false and which had led them into the 
ambuscade in which they lost a comrade. Four men, including two of the 
Lugos. lingered behind the rest of the party. When the two men were found 
murdered, suspicion fell on these ; they were arrested, and one of them con- 
fessed that they had done the deed. The other three were held in jail in Los 
Angeles, charged with murder. 

In April. 1851, a band of some thirty outlaws under the leadership of one 
Irving appeared in Los Angeles, coming from the north. Irving made a 
proposal to Don Maria Lugo, offering to deliver his grandsons from jail on 
the payment of $5000. Sehor Lugo declined. Irving swore then that if the 
court admitted the Lugos to bail, he and his party would seize the boys and 
hang them. The sheriff, getting wind of threatened trouble, secured the 
presence in court of a troop of United States dragoons which had just arrived 
in the vicinity. Irving and his men, armed to the teeth, were present when 
court opened, but when the dragoons, also armed, appeared, the trial was 
permitted to proceed without disturbance, and after the young men had 


been released they were escorted out of town by the troops and returned to 
San Bernardino. 

About the last of May, Irving left Los Angeles with a party ostensibly 
for Mexico. It soon became known that he proposed to go to San Bernardino, 
raid the Lugos' stock and seize one or more of the Lugos — to be held for 
ransom. Only sixteen of his men were willing to undertake this affair. The 
Lugos were warned of his coming and a party accompanied by 
some of the New Mexicans and Juan Antonio's band of Coahuillas prepared 
to resist. Irving, after breaking into one of the Lugo houses, found that the 
stock was guarded and started for the San Jacinto mountains. His party 
was pursued by the Indians and after a long skirmish was driven into the 
"canada of Dona Maria Armenta," on the south side of San Timoteo canon. 
Here the party of twelve were surrounded and all but one of them killed. 
The one who escaped afterwards told the story. A posse from Los Angeles 
arrived just as the fight was over. The officials went to San Bernardino, 
where an investigation and inquest was held. The testimony given before 
Coroner A. P. Hodges and County Attorney Benjamin Hayes, resulted in 
a verdict that Edward Irving and ten other white men, names unknown, came 
to their death at the hands of the Coahuilla Indians and that the killing was 
justifiable. The Indians had divided among themselves the spoils of the 
dead men, but out of twelve horses and saddles, nine were claimed by their 
owners, having been stolen by the band of Irving. B. D. Wilson states that 
Juan Antonio was voted a hundred dollars' worth of supplies by the County 
Supervisors as a reward for the part he and his tribe took in this affair. 


In September, 1851, the San Bernardino Rancho was sold to the Mormons 
and the Lugos returned to Los Angeles and vicinity, taking most of their 
stock with them. 


In 1843 a grant consisting of one league of land lying within certain 
boundaries was made to Miguel White on condition that he occupy the land 
and prevent the Indians from coming through the Cajon Pass to the coast 

Michael White, or Miguel Blanco, as he was known among the Spanish- 
speaking people, was an Englishman who had come to this coast about 1817. 
He engaged in the coasting trade and in trade with the Sandwich Islands 


until 1828, when he settled at Santa Barbara. In 1830 he came to Los An- 
geles and in 183 1 married Rosalia, the daughter of the famous Eulalie Perez, 
who was so long matron in charge of the San Gabriel mission. He secured 
a grant, after his marriage, to a valuable tract of land near San Gabriel and 
later the Muscupiabe Grant, which he occupied for a number of years. 

In 1856 he sold a half interest in the grant to Isabel Granger and 
Charles Crittenden and the following year the other half to Henry Hancock, 
the surveyor, who later acquired the balance of the grant. The Mexican gov- 
ernment had offered White as much land as he chose to take in the Cajon 
Pass, but he had desired only one league at first. Before the grant was con- 
firmed to him, however, he had it changed from a grant of quantity to one 
of boundaries, the boundaries, like those of all Mexican grants being in- 
definite. In 1867, Hancock, as deputy United States surveyor, surveyed and 
located the grant of El Cajon de Muscupiabe, which now included nearly 
eight leagues of land. The grant thus surveyed was confirmed and a patent 
issued by the United States government, the patent bearing date of 1872. 
Many people in this vicinity and among them a number who had settled on 
lands included within the grant boundaries, believing that it was, or ought 
to be, government land, were greatly dissatisfied with the decision of the 
government, and the patent was only issued after considerable opposition and 
a re-survey. But the question of the validity of the grant so made was still 
agitated and in 1886, the United States Attorney began suit to set aside the 
patent issued by the government on the ground that it was obtained by 
fraudulent acts. This suit was, however, denied and the original patent fully 
confirmed. Since that time other suits have been instituted to secure the 
setting aside of the patent — at one time the White heirs began suit on the 
ground that the Hancock deed to the property was a forgery; but the title 
has remained unshaken and the purchasers who received their title through 
the Hancock survey are now secured in their rights. 

Considerable litigation has also arisen over the water rights connected 
with this grant. A suit was begun in 1877 by the settlers located on the 
grant against the large number of settlers in the valley below who were using 
water from Lytle Creek, the entire flow of this stream being claimed by the 
grant occupants. In 1879 this case was decided by the Supreme Court in 
favor of the grant owners. This decision had an important bearing upon 
later irrigation litigation as it established the supremacy of riparian rights 
against appropriation, and decided that "the statute of limitations" does not 
hold when the land title is in question and held in abeyance by the United 
States authorities. 

After this decision the Lytle Creek Water Company, which included 
nearly all of the water users, was organized with a capital stock of $75,000. 
"Its purpose was to unify the interest of appropriators on the stream and to 
fight the grant owners. These latter had the law on their side, but the 


settlers had the water and were holding and using it. An injunction was 
issued in favor of the grant owners but was never enforced. The conflict was 
a long and bitter one. In the meantime the grant-owners and others operating 
with them, quietly bought up the stock of the Lytle Creek Water Company, 
until enough to control it was secured and then sold out these rights to 
the Semi-Tropic Land and Water Company, with the riparian lands, which 
seems to have quieted the conflict. This practically ended the litigation con- 
cerning Muscupiabe grant." 

(Irrigation in Southern California.) 


A number of other ranchos were granted in the county, among them 
San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero, 48,861 acres, which was confirmed in 1872 to 
T. W. Sutherland, guardian of the minor children of Miguel Pedrodeno. This 
was located in the extreme southern end of the county and ran into San Diego 

There was another grant known as San Jacinto Yiejo in the northern 
part of San Diego county and extreme south end of this county. Between 
these two, in 1846, Governor Pico granted to Sehora Don Maria del Rosario 
Estudillo de Aguirre a tract of land which had been left out of the former 
grants as worthless. This was known as "Rancho San Jacinto Sobrante," 
and was afterwards surveyed to include the Temescal tin mines, thus giving 
rise to endless litigation. 

"El Rincon," lying in the Santa Ana valley below Jurupa was granted to 
Don Bernardo Yorba, one of the famous Yorba brothers, descendants of 
Antonio Yorba, to whom the King of Spain had made a grant of 60,000 acres 
in 1 801, located in what is now Orange county, and known as Santiago de 
Santa Ana. El Rincon contained one league and B. D. Wilson says : "While 
Anaheim was still unconceived of, Santa Ana at Teodosio Yorba's gave the 
earliest grapes in the county and up the river at Don Bernardo Yorba's, El 
Rincon presented a settlement of Californians, contented and happy. Their 
loss was great when the head and front of everything useful, or elegant among 
them, Don Bernardo, died. He died November 20, 1858, a very large num- 
ber of children and grandchildren surviving him. His estate, in part, con- 
sisted of 7,000 head of cattle, valued at $84,000, and his landed property was 
valued at $30,625, May 1, 1859." 

"Rancho La Sierra" was also granted to Bernardo Yorba. This tract, 
lying between Jurupa and Rincon, contained 17,774 acres. This grant was 
confirmed to Vicente Sepulveda in 1872. In 1876 this grant was sold by Jose 
Ramon Carrillo and his wife, Vicenta Sepulveda, to Abel Stearns, and was 
afterwards known as the "Steam's Rancho." 



One of the earliest American settlers in the San Bernardino valley was 
Pauline or Powell Weaver, who had long been employed on the frontier as 
a pioneer, scout and trapper and as an Indian fighter. He frequently served 
as scout for the United States Army and was the guide who met Col. Cooke 
and the Mormon Battalion at the Colorado and guided them across the 
desert to San Diego. 

For services rendered the Californians he was given a grant of three 
leagues in the San Gorgonio Pass by Gov. Pio Pico, the last of the Mexican 
governors ; but this grant was never confirmed by the United States. Ac- 
cording to B. D. Wilson, a small outpost of San Gabriel was located also in 
the pass. Weaver settled here probably as early as 1846. Lieutenant Blake 
gives a picture of the ranch house of San Gorgonio as it appeared in Novem- 
ber, 1852, and his journal reads as follows : 

"November 12, 1852. After procuring several thousand pounds of barlev 
(at Old San Bernardino Mission) we again traveled eastward. We encamped 
in a wide grassy valley, without trees, within sight of a solitary house on a 
slight eminence, known as 'Young Weaver's." November 13. — Leaving the 
camp near the house of Mr. Weaver, Jr., we ascended the valley of a stream 
which has cut its way downwards below the general level of the slope. The 
ascent continued very gradual, at length a short hill brought us to the edge 
of a broad and gently sloping plain, upon which an adobe house is built. 
This, although partly in ruins, was occupied by Mr. Weaver, well known as 
an experienced mountaineer. He is the claimant of a large rancho at this 
place. The presence of fruit trees and other evidences of cultivation showed 
that the rancho had been in use for many years and it is said that the in- 
habitants have been driven away several times by Indians. The situation 
of this rancho and of the bouse is such as one would least expect, being at 
the summit of the pass." 

In 1859 tne place was sold to Dr. William F. Edgar, a United States 
Army surgeon, who had seen extensive service. He owned the place for 
many years, it being under the management of his brother, F. M. Edgar, who 
was well known in San Bernardino. 


The life of the Spanish-speaking Californians has been told and retold, 
and yet it never loses its charm and interest. To the descendants of the 
Puritans and of the sturdy pioneers of the Middle West, it is like the story 
of some long-forgotten time and some far-distant land ; we can hardly be- 
lieve that such a care-free, irresponsible existence was ever possible in our 
century and in our America. 

We have no account of the social life of the Lugos in their San Ber- 
nardino homes — probably that still centered in the Los Angeles and San 


Antonio homes of the head of the house — Senor Don Antonio Lugo. Their 
San Bernardino homes were unpretentious adobes, long, low buildings, with 
walls sometimes three feet thick — proof against heat and cold, earthquake 
and Indians. The houses of this period were usually built on three sides 
of an open court, with a low veranda running around the outer side; the 
roofs of brea (asphaltum) ; the floors were of earth, light and air admitted 
by the doors opening upon court and veranda. The only heat for the brief 
winter days and the chilly evenings was supplied by a fireplace in one of 
the rooms, and this was often wanting. The cooking was done by an open 
fire, or in an adobe oven in an outside building. The furniture was of the 
crudest kind — for beds a rude frame over which was stretched a bull hide — 
and this perhaps covered with a satin spread and adorned with sheets and 
pillow-cases elaborately trimmed with drawn work that had taken weeks 
of patient labor to accomplish ; chairs and table were mostly home made, al- 
though some of the houses in the later part of the period were furnished with 
the most elaborate and expensive articles imported from the United States 
and China. A feature of every house was its shrine, decorated with elabo- 
rate embroideries and drawn work, a figure of a patron saint, perhaps of the 
Christ upon the cross, or of the Virgin, some sacred pictures, a rosary — often 
of pearl and gold, and silver candlesticks. The images, mere dolls, were often 
clothed in the richest of silks and the finest of linens, and sometimes had a 
complete wardrobe for their adornment. 

The family life was simple and healthful; they rose early as a rule; the 
mother spent her day in directing her Indian servants and teaching her 
daughters to sew and embroider ; the father, after his chocolate, rode away to 
direct his mayor-domo, or overseer, or to look over his herds, or perhaps to 
gallop twenty or thirty miles to call upon his nearest neighbor and talk over 
the last Indian raid, or the latest report, by way of Los Angeles, from Mont- 
erey, of the new governor, or government. 

The Lugo houses were somewhat out of the beaten track : but the 
hacienda of the Yorbas was near the road from San Juan Capistrano to 
San Gabriel : the Cucamonga was a stopping place between San Bernardino 
and Los Angeles, and "El Chino" was on the overland trail from the Colo- 
rado to Monterey. Travelers came occasionally and they never passed a 
hacienda without entertainment. A hearty welcome, "Como hay de buena 
por aqui!" (How much good we have here), and a feast of fresh beef and 
mutton, "olla," tortillas (cakes), frijoles (beans), with fruit and wine of the 
country, was set ; a fresh horse in place of the wearied one and a vaquero as 
guide, if needed, were furnished; in some houses it is said to have been a 
custom to place a handful of gold upon the table of the guest room — the 
guest might help himself, if he had need. Truly in those days the Spanish 
phrase, "my house is yours," meant something more than mere form. 

The California women were noted for their beauty and their simple- 


hearted goodness. Alfred Robinson, who was acquainted with nearly every 
family between San Diego and San Francisco from 1829 to 1842, says : "The 
men are generally indolent and addicted to many vices, caring little for the 
welfare of their children who, like themselves, grow up unworthy members 
of society. . . . Perhaps there are few places in the world where, in 
proportion to the number of inhabitants, can be found more chastity, indus- 
trious habits and correct deportment, than among the women of this place. 
. . . Their adherence to the faithful observances of the church, as in all 
Catholic countries is truly firm ; and the most trifling deviation from its 
commands is looked upon with abhorrence. The extreme deference shown 
toward the holy teachers of their religion and the wonderful influence exer- 
cised by them, even in the affairs of their every-day life, may account for an 3 
virtue the}' may exhibit. The friar's knowledge of the world and his su- 
perior education, give him a station far above the unenlightened state of the 
laity and place him in a sphere to inculcate good or disseminate evil. Fort- 
unately, however, for the country, the original founders of Christianity in 
California were truly pious, excellent men, and their successors generally have 
endeavored to sustain their honorable character." 

Of one California woman, the same author says: "An American woman 
once remarked to me that there were two things supremely good in Cali- 
fornia — la Seriora Noriega and the grapes !" 

Of the dress of this time, Robinson says : "The dress worn by middling 
class of females is a chemise trimmed with lace, a muslin petticoat flounced 
with scarlet and secured at the waist by a band of the same color, shoes of 
velvet or of satin, a cotton reboso, or scarf, pearl necklace and ear-rings, with 
the hair falling in broad plaits down the back. Others of the higher class dress 
in the English style, and instead of the reboso substitute a rich and costly 
shawl of silk or satin." There are still to be seen among some of the old 
families exquisite shawls embroidered by hand and others of rich Chinese 
crape, relics of the day when they served as rebosas and were managed with 
such skill as to add greatly to the beauty of the wearer. 

The costume of the men. according to Robinson, was : "Short clothes 
and jacket trimmed with scarlet, a silk sash about the waist, botas (gaiters) 
of ornamented and embroidered deerskin, secured by colored garters, em- 
broidered shoes, the hair long, braided and fastened behind with ribbons, 
a black silk handkerchief about the head, surmounted by an oval and broad- 
brimmed hat, is the dress universally worn by the men of California." 

Except for the occasional passing of travelers and visits of "neighbors" 
from perhaps fifty miles away, the women of the San Bernardino homes 
must have led a very quiet life — no gossip outside the family, and seldom a 
church service to attend, unless they went to one of the Missions for a 
"Fiesta" (feast day). On these occasions the whole family went on horse- 
back, attended by a retinue of Indian servants — or, in later days, my lady may 


have been driven in her "carreta," a home-made cart, drawn by oxen or 
mules. Elaborate services were held in the church, then followed games, 
horse races, bear and bull baiting, and in the evening a fandango. The 
fathers entertained the guests of distinction at their own tables, setting forth 
rich spreads for all comers, while the Indians were feasted in tbeir "ramadas." 

Weddings, or "festas de boda," were also celebrated with great fes- 
tivities. All the relatives and friends of the families from San Diego to 
Santa Barbara were gathered for the event and the dancing and feasting 
was often prolonged for several days. 

"El Noche Buena" (Christmas) was observed with much ceremony and 
rejoicing. The arrival of a ship at San Pedro was an event eagerly awaited, 
even as far from the coast as San Bernardino. When it was at hand, "El 
Padrone," as the Indians called him, loaded his wooden-wheeled carts with 
hides and tallow and, drawn by oxen — each yoke guided by a pair of Indians 
armed with sharp pointed sticks — he proceeded to the coast to exchange his 
goods for the year's supplies.. Perhaps "la Senora." or his bright-eyed, swift- 
tongued daughters, accompanied "el papa" on horseback to visit relatives 
and make their own selection of ribbons, silks and finery. 

The common custom in dealings between the merchants and the Cali- 
fornians was for the purchaser not to take occasion to ask the price, the 
seller quietly naming it at once. There was a perfect understanding between 
the parties and confidence was felt on both sides that no advantage would 
be taken. 

"The merchants sold to the rancheros and other Californians whatever 
goods they wanted, to any reasonable amount, and gave them credit from 
one killing season to another. I have never known of a single instance in 
which a note, or other written obligation was required of them. At the time 
of purchase they were furnished with bills of the goods, which were charged 
in the account books, and in all my intercourse and experience in trade with 
them, extending over many years, I never knew a case of dishonesty on their 
part. They always kept their business engagements, paid their bills promptly 
at the proper time, in hides and tallow, which were the currency of the time, 
and sometimes, though seldom, in money. The}' regarded their verbal 
promises as binding and sacred. . . . This may be said of all their 
relations with others — they were faithful in their engagements and promises 
of every kind. They were too proud to condescend to do anything mean 
or disgraceful. This honesty and integrity was eminently characteristic 
of these early Californians." — Davis. 

A picture of this life would not be complete without a reference to 
faithful service rendered these families by many of their Indian servants. 
Some of these people, trained in the missions, usually, became the mayor- 
domos, assuming a large share of the care and the responsibility of large 
estates and making their master's interest entirely their own. 


These warm-blooded, impulsive Spanish Californians loved -and hated, 
rejoiced and sorrowed with a vehemence — and a changeableness — that we 
colder-blooded Americans do not know. And they were happy with a light- 
hearted freedom from worry and forethought that makes us look back from 
the complicated perplexities of our present day civilization with something 
lik: regret to the simpler and more easily satisfied needs of those "dias 
alegres" (care-free days). 


Tbe chief occupation of the residents of California and the chief source of 
their wealth from the settlement of the Missions to the discovery of gold, was 
stock raising. The party of Gov. Portala and Fray Junipero Serra which ar- 
rived in Alta, California in 1769, brought with them a few cattle and mules. 
As the Missions were established, every supply ship or train brought its 
complement of domestic animals. By Spanish law it was decreed that every 
colonist in the pueblos (towns) should be furnished two mares, two cows and 
a calf, two sheep, two goats, one cargo mule and one yoke OI oxen or steers. 
These animals, under the genial climate of California and feeding upon the 
rich ungrazed valleys and mesas, multiplied with wonderful rapiditv. The 
Spansh policy discouraged trade ; few vessels touched on the California coast 
prior to 1830; after supplying the residents with meat and with saddle horses, 
there was little use for the stock which roamed wild over the hills. As early 
as 1806, it was necessary to get rid of the surplus horses and near San Jose 
more than 7,000 horses were slaughtered in a single month. J. J. 'Warner 
says that in 1825, the number of neat cattle and horse kind had increased so 
much that the pasturage embraced in this (Los Angeles) county was insuffi- 
cient for its support and for that of the wild horses of which there were tens 
of thousands that had no claimant and which in small bands, each under its 
leader, roamed over their respective haunts, consuming the herbage, and 
enticing into their bands the horses and brood mares of the stock breeders. 
To relieve themselves of these horses the rancheros constructed large pens 
(corrals) with outspreading wings of long extent from the doorway into 
which the wild horses were driven in large numbers and slaughtered. At a 
later period and when the number of neat cattle had been somewhat lessened, 
the wild horses were driven into such pens and domesticated." Manv stories 
are told of dry seasons in later years when large numbers of both horses and 
cattle were killed, or driven over banks into the ocean in order to- save the rest. 

In 1834 it was estimated that the Missions alone possessed 396,400 head 
of cattle, 32,600 horses, and 321,500 sheep, goats and swine. Within ten 
years these vast herds had vanished. With the final decree of secularization 
began an indiscriminate slaughter of Mission stock and destruction of Mission 
property. Robinson remarks, "Contracts were made with individuals to 
slaughter the cattle and divide the proceeds with the Missions. At San 


Gabriel the ruin was more perceptible than at other places, owing to the 
superiority of its possessions. Thousands of cattle were slain for their hides 
only, whilst their carcasses remained to decompose upon the plains." 
A MATANZAS (Slaughter) 

The same author gives a good description of the annual cattle killing of 
the thirties. "Numbers of the poor animals lay stretched upon the ground, 
already slaughtered; others just suffering under the knife of the butcher; 
whilst, in a spacious enclosure hundreds were crowded for selection. The 
vaqueros, mounted on splendid horses and stationed at the entrance, per- 
formed by far the most important part of the labor. When the mayor-domo 
pointed out the animal to be siezed, instantly a lasso whirled through the air 
and fell with dexterous precision upon the horns of the ill-fated beast. The 
horse accustomed to the motion, turned as the rope descended and dragged 
him to slaughter. Another lasso was then thrown which entrapped his hind 
legs and threw him prostrate on the ground. In this position he was slaught- 
ered and the horseman returned for another. Sometimes one would escape 
and make off for the fields, pursued by the vaqueros, who, as they rode close 
in full chase, swung their lassos above their heads aad flung them over the 
animal's head and horns and neck, giving their well trained horses a sudden 
check, which brought him tumbling to the earth ; or some one of the more 
expert would seize upon him by the tail and, putting spurs to his horse, urge 
him suddenly forward, overthrowing the bull in this manner." 

The hides and tallow, which were the chief staples of California trade, 
were sold to the American and English ships which were becoming frequent 
visitors under Mexican rules in the thirties. 

A RODEO. (Round-up) 

Every year rodeos were held in the different localities when all the stock 
on the ranges were collected, the owners of the various ranges, or their repre- 
sentatives, assembled, the stock was sorted, so to speak, each owner taking 
possession of his own and branding his calves. An officer known as "El Juez 
de Campo" (Judge of the Plains) was usually present, whose duty it was to 
settle disputes as to brands and ownership. A lively picture of such a rodeo 
in Southern California is given by Maj. Horace Bell in his "Reminiscences of 
a Ranger." "In May, '53, I was invited to attend a grand rodeo, which was to 
take place on the San Joaquin Rancho, about forty-two miles east of Los 
Angeles; so in company with a fellow gringo (American) I betook myself 
thither, arriving late in the afternoon. Reaching the ranch house. I was 
surprised at the numbers present ; rancheros from all parts of the country, and 
from San Diego, either in person, or by their representatives, the mayor 
domos. The Machados of La Ballona, the Picos from San Fernando and San 
Diego, the Dominguez, the Sepulvedas, the Lugos from everywhere, the 


Avilas, the Sanchez, the Cotas. the Stearns, Rowlands, Reeds, Williams, the 
Yorbas of Santa Ana, and the Temples of Puente — all were there. All were 
there with their trains to separate and to drive to their respective ranchos 
whatever cattle may have strayed to the confines of San Joaquin. When I 
unsaddled I could see groups of dozens here and there, seated upon and sur- 
rounding a blanket spread upon the ground, engaged in the national game of 
monte. These were the vaquero servants. At the housel found Don Jose 
Sepulveda, the owner of San Joaquin, with dignified courtesy receiving the 
visitors to the rodeo. The ranchmen are busy in dealing out beef and other 
comestibles to the vaqueros, and the house emits the odors of cookery, for 
the patrons and mayor domos must be entertained as becomes their quality. 
Full a hundred persons sup at the ranch table, after which conversation com- 
mences and is kept up long after the writer has passed the boundary of dream- 
land. Before daylight, however, the whole camp is astir, and when I take 
my coffee scarce a man is to be seen, all having gone to the field to form 
the rodeo for the day's work. By nine o'clock, thirty thousand head of horned 
cattle are brought into one herd and surrounded by vaqueros, armed with 
the terrible riatas, and now the work of separation and marking begins. 

"The cattle of these many owners have not only to be separated, but the 
calves must be marked on the ear and branded. All of this work must be 
done inside of two days, as during this time this great herd has no food 
and may become maddened and unmanageable from hunger and thirst. To 
penetrate this formidable body, to a gringo, is a most delicate and dangerous 
operation, but to see how the vaqueros do it, their perfection of horsemanship, 
the adroitness with which they apply the riata, the cleverness and ease with 
which they extricate a cow and calf from this living labyrinth, excites one's 
admiration in the highest degree. As they are extricated, each owner receives 
his own marks, and brands the calf and drives them to his separate herd. 
So by the time the rodeo is over the grand herd of 30,000 is broken into many 
small herds and the vaqueros drive them to their respective ranches. These 
rodeos were grand affairs and the young men of the ranchos vied with each 
other in feats of horsemanship and throwing the lasso." 


The annual sheep shearing was another great occasion in the life of 
the ranchos. All the bands of sheep belonging to one owner were driven to- 
gether. The shearers, who were usually bands of Indians, camped near the 
corrals. The herders drove the sheep in to a small corral where they were 
caught and passed to the shearer, who threw the animal on the ground, caught 
its head between his knees and shaved it so skillfully that when it bounded 
away, a perfect mold of the shorn was left. The wool was packed into great 
gunny-sacks, the packer trampling it down into the sacks, and the shearers 
were paid five cents every time they tossed a fleece to the packers. 



No history of Stock raising would be complete without some description 
of the early California horse and the racing which was one of the chief amuse- 
ments of the Spanish-speaking people. The California horse, was not large, 
and did not possess all the "points" of the thoroughbred ; but for intelligence 
and endurance, these "mustangs,'' or "broncos" as they were called, were far 
superior to any other horse ever known. Wonderful stories are told of the 
rides that were made and the endurance displayed by these early Califor- 
nian horses and riders. Harlan tells of one horse which was ridden hard for 
nearly thirty-six hours and then after a few hours rest was taken out of the 
stable and started off as "fresh" as though just from the pasture. Robinson 
mentions rides of fifty-four miles in seven hours, and of eighteen leagues in 
eight hours, as ordinary occurrences. Fremont rode from Los Angeles to 
Monterey and back again — over 800 miles — in eight and a half days, being in 
the saddle almost 100 hours. Guinn tells of the ride of John Brown, or Juan 
Flaco. who was sent by Gillespie with a message to Stockton and rode from 
Los Angeles to Monterey, a distance of 460 miles in 52 hours, without sleep ; 
then after three hours sleep, he continued to Yerba Buena (San Francisco), 
130 miles further. 

The California boy learned to ride horseback as soon as he learned to 
walk, and the men spent most of their waking hours in the saddle — even 
taking their meals horseback, one writer declares. 

The following interesting account of methods employed in stockraising 
in the early days in California is from the pen of Judge J. E. Pleasants, a 
well known Orange county resident, and appeared some years ago in a Los 
Angeles publication : 

"From the settling of California by the Spanish to 1863 the principal in- 
dustry of the country was stock raising — chiefly horses and cattle, as up to 
that date sheep were raised in comparatively small numbers. The horses 
were generally understood to be of Andalusian stock, introduced from Spain 
into Mexico and thence to California. The horses of California were super- 
ior to those of Mexico, probably owing to the difference in climate and feed. 
It has since been proven in the rearing of blooded horses that California 
climate is a strong factor in making the bone and muscle necessary to the 
speed and endurance required to compete with the world's record breakers 
And for beauty, spirit and endurance. I have never seen the old California 
horses surpassed, even by blooded stock. I have known horses to be 
ridden a hundred miles in a day without injury, and fed entirely 
upon the wild grass. Indeed, I believe that the horses fed en- 
tirely upon the native grasses possessed greater endurance than those 
fed on grain. Their hoofs possessed great durability. Saddle horses were 
never shod, and suffered nothing in consequence. The greatest care was 
taken in breaking and training the saddle horses. There has probably never 


been better trained or more beautiful saddle horses in any country than 
those of California at that time. The work and travel of the country was 
clone on horseback; so the saddle horse was an institution. All the men and 
many of the women were expert riders. The horse and all the equipments 
of the horseman were matters of especial pride. It was usually considered 
that it required a year's time to properly bit a horse. Then a mere touch 
of the rein served to guide him. The shades of color and markings of stock 
all had their names. It has been estimated that the Spanish language con- 
tains at least two hundred names for the colors of stock. There are many 
colors for which we have no synonyms in English. 

"During the early sixties there was more stock in the country than had 
ever been at any previous time. The Stearns ranchos alone at that time 
branded from 5000 to 6000 head of calves a year ; and many rancheros counted 
their yearly increase by the thousand. 

"Nearly the whole of the southern part of the state was used as grazing 
land. Around Los Angeles, the missions, and along the rivers there was a 
limited amount of farming and fruit raising done, but the balance of the land 
was one great pasture. The old method of managing stock was very sys- 
tematic, though done on a large scale. Each rancho had its majordomo, and 
under him served a corporal. Then came the regular vaqueros, who num- 
bered from ten to twenty for each rancho, according to the size of the place 
and number of stock to be handled. During the spring rodeos there would 
be twice that number employed. The business of the vaquero was to look 
after the stock and break saddle horses. As a rule, his work was light and 
his wages small. Fifteen dollars a month was about the average. Each 
vaquero had his own caballos de su silla, or saddle horses, allotted to him, 
and no man rode another's horse. Enough horses were allotted to one man 
to make the work light for the animals. A horse was never ridden two days 
in succession during the busy season, and one usually had several days of 
rest to one of work. In this way they were kept in excellent condition the 
season through. Horses were kept in separate bands. A manada, or band 
of mares and quite young stock, would usually number from forty to sixty. 
These would be under the leadership of a stallion. Each horse would keep 
his manada to itself, and while they usually avoided each other, when two 
old leaders did meet there would be a fight worth seeing. The young geld- 
ings and fillies remained with the manada until the fillies were two to three 
years old and the geldings three to four. 

"The fillies were put at the proper age into a newly-formed manada ; and 
the geldings were taken away to be broken. Mares were never used to work 
or ride. In the spring the young horses (potros) were put into a band by 
themselves under the leadership of a bell-mare (caponera.) They were 
herded for a time until they grew accustomed to the new leader. They were 
now apportioned out among the vaqueros for breaking, each man taking 


a number, riding and gentling them in turn. They were also broken to stake. 
Broncos (wild horses) were ridden for some time with a hacima, a sort of 
halter, before using the bit. Quite strict observance of ranch lines was kept. 
The boundaries were well denned and recognized; and though stock roamed 
frequently from one rancho to another, one ranchero or his men must obtain 
permission of the owner before driving stock away from his land. In the 
spring, varying in time with the season, came the rodeos, or round-ups. 
They were never begun until feed was plentiful and the stock in good con- 

"The 'recogidos', or gathering of horses, began about a month earlier 
than the rodeo of the cattle, and were managed in the same way. All 
orejanos (unbranded) stock became the property of the rancho on which 
they were found at the time of the rodeo. After taking the stock home the 
animals were herded for a time to break them to the home range. Following 
the recogidos and rodeos came the private ones at each rancho for the pur- 
pose of branding young stock. These also were under supervision. The 
municipal regulations of San Jose of January 16, 1835, say that 'none might 
brand, mark or kill stock except on days designated by the Ayuntamiento, 
and never without permit of the Juez del Campo, who should inform the 
Alcalde of such.' The penalty for the first offense was twenty reales ; who- 
ever lassoed or saddled a beast not belonging to him should pay $9, and as 
much more as the owner claimed in justice. The rodeos were scenes of 
lavish hospitality, such as is now seldom seen. It was often the custom to 
place a complete complement of saddle horses at the disposal of the visiting 
rancheros during their stay at the rancho, that their own need not be used 
until the time of their departure. Many beeves were killed, and much good 
cheer abounded." 

Warner, in his "Centennial History of Los Angeles," says: "The Pion- 
eers of 1850 were passionately fond of the turf. They might justly boast of 
their horses which had sometimes drawn applause at the capital of Mexico. 
Now, and for many successive years, they gave full play to this passion. 
August 16th, 1851, Don Pio Pico and compadre, Tomaso Yorba, gave their 
printed challenge 'to the North' with bold defiance — the glove is thrown 
down, let him who will ! take it up' — for a nine mile race, or four and a half 
miles, and repeat, the stake 1,000 head of cattle, worth $20.00 apiece and 
$2,000; with a codicil, as it were, for two other races — one of two leagues out 
and back, the other of 500 varas, (about half a mile) — $2,000 and 200 head of 
full grown cattle, bet on each race. March 21st following, the nine-mile heat, 
was run two miles south of the city (Los Angeles), between the Sidney mare. 
Black Swan, backed by Jose Sepulveda, and the California horse Sarco, staked 
by the challengers. The mare won by 75 yards in 19 minutes and 20 seconds. 
Sarco, the previous spring had run nine Mexican miles in 18 minutes and 45 
seconds. Not less than $50,000 must have changed hands over this race." 



As the Missions decayed and the land was granted under Mexican laws 
to private individuals, there grew up a class who might well be called "cattle 
barons." The Lugos, Sepulvedas, Yorbas and Isaac Williams. Michael White 
and Louis Robidoux were the chief men of this class in San Bernardino 
county. After the discovery of gold, from 1850 to '60, there was a large 
demand for beef and mutton to supply the northern mining camps. Stock 
was sold by the thousands and at good prices. The stock owners of the 
south were as "flush" as the miners of the north and fifty dollar gold slugs 
were spent as freely as Mexican dollars had been a few years previously. 

But the civil war and the decay of the mining "boom" ended the "golden 
days;" the great stock ranges began to be divided and the small farm and the 
fruit orchard took the place of the herds. The stock business, now is but one 
of many resources, and the day of the "California cattle barons" is long past. 



The history of this section from September, 1851, when Elders Lyman 
and Rich purchased the San Bernardino Rancho, until the winter of 1857-58 
when the Faithful were recalled to Zion to aid in the impending war with 

the United States, ma}- be regarded as the Mormon period. 


About 1820, Joseph Smith, the son of a New York farmer, began to see 
visions and receive supernatural instructions. These revelations continued 
until about 1827, when the "Book of Mormonism" was delivered to him upon 
golden plates, with a key for its translation. After considerable difficulty in 
making the translation and delay in securing means for publication, the Book 
was finally given out about 1830, and the first Mormon church was organized. 
In spite of much ridicule and some persecution, the organization flourished ; 
but to avoid trouble the headquarters of the church was transferred to Ohio, 
then to Illinois and later, to Missouri and Iowa. 

When the Mormons first made their settlements in Missouri they pros- 
pered greatly and for a time were left in peace. But soon the "gentiles" and 
the other churches rose against them ; they were eventually driven from the 
state and many of them went to Illinois where they made the city of Nauvoo 
their headquarters. By 1840 it had become evident that the Mormons could 
not exist in- proximity to other churches, or in any civilized community of 
Americans. After the assassination of Joseph Smith in Illinois, the Saints 
determined to move to the far west— probably to the Pacific coast — then un- 


der Mexican government. Brigham Young, the newly elected head of the 
church, led this movement and in 1847, Young and some of his apostles 
arrived in the Great Basin, and here Young received a vision announcing 
that this was the spot on which to raise the city Zion. This migration of 
12,000 people over more than a thousand miles of unexplored country to an 
unknown destination, is one of the most remarkable movements recorded in 

Young was ambitious to occupy a large territory and to establish a port 
on the Pacific Coast where converts from Europe and foreign countries 
might land. One party of Mormons had already reached California by way 
of Cape Horn and were settled in San Francisco. The Mormon Battalion 
reached the coast in 1847. 


During the war with Mexico, the Mormons proposed to the govern- 
ment to raise a company of troops to aid the United States. In consequence 
of this offer an act of Congress authorizing the enlistment of a Mormon com- 
pany was passed and 500 Mormons were enrolled as "Iowa Volunteers." 
Among the officers of the company were Jefferson Hunt, Andrew Lytle and 
Jessee Hunter, all later prominent in .San Bernardino affairs. The company 
was directed to proceed to California by way of Santa Fe and take possession 
of the territory for the United States. Under the command of Lieut.-Col. 
Philip St. George Cook, the battalion marched through Santa Fe and on to 
San Diego, experiencing great hardships and many losses by the way. When 
they reached the coast the conquest of California was practically completed. 
After a short stay at San Diego, members of 
the company were sent to perform garrison 
duty at San Luis Rey and at San Diego, and 
on March 23d, 1847, Col. Cook arrived in Los 
Angeles with his men. Shortly afterward they 
were set to work constructing Fort Moore — on 
the hill above the Plaza. On July 15th, the 
battalion was mustered out ; but one com- 
pany re-enlisted for six months and was sent 
to San Diego on garrison duty. During their 
stay in Los Angeles, Captain Hunt and oth- 
ers, were sent on various expeditions about 
the country and visited Chino and probably 
the Cajon Pass and made the acquaintance of 
Col. Isaac Williams and others of the pioneers. 
The officers of the company and the people 
among whom they were sent speak highly of 
. At San Diego the citizens gave a banquet 


the character of the Mormons 
to the Mormon soldiers before they left the country 


The discharged Mormons started for Utah by the northern route and a 
number of them stopped in the gold fields when they found that gold had 
been discovered. Some of them took considerable quantities of gold with 
them when they at last started for Salt Lake City, to rejoin their families and 
brethren whom they had left at Fort Leavenworth. 

The following men, who afterward became citizens of San Bernardino, 
were enlisted in the Mormon Battalion, according to the lists published by 
D. Tyler in his history of the Mormon Battalion. Not all of these men 
came through to California with the battalion. A number of them were in- 
valided and sent back before the body set forth on the march from Santa Fe 
to California: 

Co. A. — Captain, Jefferson Hunt. 
1st Corp. Gilbert Hunt. 
Privates, Robert Egbert, 

Lafayette Shepherd. 
Co. B.— 3rd. Lieut., Robert Clift. 

Privates, W. E. Beckstead, 
Abner Blackburn, 
James Clift. 
Co. D. — Privates, Lucas Hoagland, 

Montgomery Button. 
Co. E. — 2nd. Lieut., Andrew Lytle. 

3d. Sergt., Ebenezer Hanks. 
Privates, Luther Glazier, 
Albert Tanner. 
Among the women who started with the party were Mrs. Celia Hunt and 
her children, Mrs. Matilda Hunt, Mrs. Montgomery Button and children and 
Mrs. Jesse Hunter. The latter was one of the few women who accompanied 
the Battalion through to California ; she died in San Diego. 

Upon the arrival of the Battalion at San Diego, their commander, Captain 
Cook, issued the following: 

Headquarters Mormon Battalion. 

Mission of San Diego, 

January 30, 1847. 
Orders No. 1. 

The Lieutenant-Colonel commanding congratulates the Battalion on 
their safe arrival on the shore of the Pacific Ocean and the conclusion of their 
march of over two thousand miles. 

History may be searched in vain for an equal march of infantry. Half 
of it has been through a wilderness where nothing but savages and wild beasts 
are found, or deserts where, for want of water, there is no living creature. 
There, with almost hopeless labor, we have dug deep wells which the future 
traveler will enjoy. Without a guide who had traversed them, we have ven- 


tured into trackless table-lands where water was not found for several 
marches. With crowbar and pick and axe in hand, we have worked our way 
over mountains, which seemed to defy aught save the wild goat, and hewed 
a passage through the living rock more narrow than our wagons. To 
bring these first wagons to the Pacific, we have preserved the strength of 
our mules by herding them over large tracts. Which you have laboriously 
guarded without loss. The garrison of four presidios of Sonora, concen- 
trated within the walls of Tucson gave us pause. We drove them out with 
their artillery, but our intercourse with their citizens was unmarked by a 
single act of injustice. Thus, marching half naked and half fed, and living 
upon wild animals, we have discovered and made a road of great value to 
our country. 

Arrived at the first settlement of California, after a single day's rest, 
you cheerfully turned off the route from this point of promised repose, to 
enter upon a campaign and meet, as we supposed, the approach of an 
enemy; and this too without even salt to season your sole subsistence of 
fresh meat. 

Lieutenants A. J. Smith and George Stoneman, of the First Dragoons, 
have shared and given valuable aid in all these labors. 

Thus, volunteers, you have exhibited some high and essential qualities 
of veterans. But much remains undone. Soon you will turn your atten- 
tion to the drill, to system and order, to forms also which are all necessary 
to the soldier. 

By order, 

Lieutenant Colonel P. St. George Cook. 
P. C. Merrill, Adjutant. 

Of this Battalion, General Kearney said: "Napoleon crossed the 
mountains, but the Mormon Battalion crossed a continent." 

The following extracts concerning the Battalion are taken from 
"Tyler's History of the Mormon Battalion" : 

"Up to the 19th of February, 1847, our fare continued to be about the 
same — fresh beef. Upon that date, however, Lieut. Oman returned from 
Robideau's, whither he had been sent five days previously, with a quantity 
of unbolted flour and some beans — a most agreeable change of diet." 

This flour mill at Robidoux's on the Jurupa, seems to have been the 
first in Southern California. Of this same incident, the late Stephen C. 
Foster, of Los Angeles, who acted as interpreter for the Battalion, says: 

"The commissary and myself were ordered to Los Angeles to try and 
get some flour. We found the town garrisoned by Fremont's Battalion., 
about 400 strong. They too had nothing but beef served out to them. 
Here we met Louis Robideau of the Jurupa ranch, who said he could spare 
us some two or three thousand pounds of wheat which we could grind at 
a little mill he had on the Santa Ana river. So, on our return, two wagons 


were sent to Jurupa and they brought 1700 pounds of unbolted flour and 
two sacks of beans — a small supply for 400 men. I then messed with one 
of the captains and we all agreed that it was the sweetest bread we ever 

"Owing to the fact that the Californians were not allowed to bear arms, 
the following, and similar orders, were issued for their protection from 
marauding bands of Indians: 
(Orders No. 7.) 

Headquarters Southern Military District. 
Los Angeles. April 11, 1847. 

(1.) Company C, Mormon Battalion, will march tomorrow and take 
post in the canon pass of the mountains, about forty-five miles eastward of 
the town. Lieutenant Rosecrans. its commander, will select a spot for its 
camp as near to the narrowest and most defensible part as the convenience 
of water, feed and grass will admit of, and, if necessary, effectually to pre- 
vent the passage of hostile Indians, with or without horses, he will erect a 
sufficient cover of earth and logs. It will Ik- his duty to guard the pass 
effectually and, if necessary, to send out armed parties, either on foot or 
mounted, to defend the ranchos in the vicinity, or to attack wandering 
parties of wild Indians. 

(2.) The assistant commissary of subsistence will take measures to 
provision this post until further notice. 

P. St. George Cook, 

Lieut. Col. Commanding. 

"Agreeably with this order, Company C took up the line of march for 
Cajon Pass on the 12th." 

"Lieutenant Samuel Thompson, of Company C, and party, who had 
proceeded to rout the Indians according to the Colonel's orders, surprised 
a small band in a cove in the mountains, killing six of them. F. T. May- 
field and George Chapin, two of his men, were slightly wounded. One 
Spaniard who accompanied them was also slightly wounded. The Span- 
iard ran, unobserved, and scalped and took off the ears of the dead Indians. 
Under the California rule, a premium was given for wild Indians' scalps. 
This barbarous custom, however, was then and there abolished and the 
Alcalde forbidden to pay any bounty on those referred to, or any others in 
the future." 

"At this period (June 12, 1847) several of the men were in the country 
on a furlough, laboring for provisions for the return trip, mostly in the 
harvest field, this being the usual time for cutting grain in California. They 
were engaged by a Mr. Williams (of Chino rancho) who had about a thou- 
sand acres of wheat to cut. His staple crop was wheat, although he raised 
some barley, beans, peas and had large vineyards." 

"On the 14th of March, 1848. the company's time of enlistment ( this 



was the company who re-enlisted for six months) having overrun nearly 
two months, it was disbanded at San Diego. These veterans drew their 
pay on the day following and on the 21st, a company of twenty-five men 
with H. G. Boyle as captain, set out for Salt Lake Valley. 

"On the 31st they arrived at Williams' rancho, and there fitted out for 
the journey by the southern route. On the 12th of April the little company, 
having obtained a proper outfit, again took up the line of march. Orrin 
Porter Rockwell and James Shaw, who had traveled the route the previous 
winter, were chosen pilots by and for the company. They started with 
only one wagon and 135 mules. Of course they were packers. They ar- 
rived at Salt Lake on the 5th of June. 

"Theirs was the first wagon that ever traveled the southern route. 
This is the only feasible route from Salt Lake, and all Utah for that matter, 
to travel by wagons in winter, to Southern California. Thus another great 
national road for wagons was pioneered by the enterprise of a portion of 
the indomitable Battalion of "Mormons" or "Latter Day Saints." 


Bancroft states: "A company was organized in March, 1851, at the 
suggestion of Brigham, to go to California and form the nucleus of a set- 
tlement in the Cajon Pass, where they should cultivate the olive, grape, 
sugarcane, and cotton, and gather about them the saints and select loca- 
tions on the line of a proposed mail route. The original intention was to 
have twenty in this company with Amasa M. 

©Lyman and Charles C. Rich in charge. The 
number, however, reached over 500, and Brig- 
am's heart failed him as he saw them at the 
starting. "I was sick," he says in a manu- 
script history, "at the sight of so many of the 
saints running to California, chiefly after the 
gods of this world, and I was unable to ad- 
dress them." The object of the establishment 
of this colony was that the people gathering 
in Utah from the Sandwich Islands, and 
even from Europe, might have an outfitting 
post." (Bancroft from Mss, history of Young.) 
It was small wonder that the people who had 
heard the stories of the Battalion concerning 
Southern California, were so ready to join in this expedition. 

The party marched in three divisions — one under the leadership of 
Rich, piloted by Captain Hunt, one under Lyman, led by Captain Seeley, 
and the third under Captain Lytle, who was the captain in charge. Seeley's 



party reached the Pass June n, and camped in Sycamore Grove. The rest 
of the company arrived June 20th, and camped on the other side of the 
Cajon Canon. They remained in these camps 
while the leaders examined the country, vis- 
iting Chino and other ranchos and finally 
deciding on the purchase of San Bernardino 

In September the colonists who had at 
first thought of locating their city on the foot- 
hills to the east of Cajon Canon, hence the 
name City Creek, decided on the present loca- 
tion of the city of San Bernardino because of 
the abundance of feed for their stock found 
there. Before the purchase of the grant was 
complete, some of the newcomers began to 
select lands and make improvements, but 
the danger from Indians which threatened 
at that time, led to the erection of a stockade for safety and nearly all of 
tbtcolonists joined in its erection and built their houses within its walls. 


The purchase of San Bernardino Rancho. which is described as 
bounded on the east by "Sierra de Yucaipe," on the west by "Arroyo de 
Cajon" and the "Serrito Solo," on the south by the "Lomeras" and on the 
north by "El Faldo de Sierras" (Brow of the mountains), was completed 
in the spring of 1852, the deed having been recorded February 27, the price 
named as $77,000 "in hand paid." 

The colonists had already begun to put in crops. A considerable area 
between San Bernardino and the Santa Ana River was fenced and each 
man put in as much land as he desired, paying his proportion of the cost 
of the fence. The first crop in the spring of 1852 was most bountiful, some 
of the grain being so rank that it could not be cut at all. The wheat was 
sold at $4.00 per bushel and flour, which they had ground at Puente, sold 
for $32.00 per barrel in Los Angeles. The colonists had considerable stock, 
too. Tithes of one-tenth of all the produce were paid to the church authori- 
ties, and were doubtless used toward the purchase of the rancho. As soon 
as the land was surveyed, it was sold in tracts to suit the colonists — the 
prices seem to have run from $11.00 to $16.00 per acre — and some was 
perhaps higher. 

In 1854, the Elders mortgaged the property for $35,000, with interest 
at 3 per cent a month, with San Francisco parties. The same yeai, ac- 
cording to Sheldon Stoddard, parties were sent out over the state among 


the miners, many of whom were Mormons, and considerable land was sold 
to them and $10,000 collected from them to aid in paying for the ranch. 

New settlers came in, a party coming from Australia in 1853, and many 
coming from Salt Lake and the East. The lands sold readily and the colony 
was so prospered and the affairs so well managed that when the Saints 
were recalled to Salt Lake City, the property was practically free from debt. 


During the years of 1850-51-52, the Utes, Chemehuevis and other 
desert Indians made frequent raids through the San Bernardino mountain 
passes into the coast valleys, in which they drove off much stock and com- 
mitted other depredations. In the fall of 1851 there was a wide-spread fear 
of a general uprising among the Indians, and unusual preparations were 
made to meet it. A troop of United States Volunteers was stationed on the 
coast, and a few troops were located at Chino Rancho. A volunteer com- 
pany under Gen. J. H. Bean was organized and went out against the 
Indians. The Mormons may have lost some stock, at any rate they decided 
to build a fort somewhat after the plan of the stockade that had been built 
at Salt Lake on the arrival of the Mormons at that point. 

The following description of this fort is furnished by Hon H. C. Rolfe : 
"The Fort built by the San Bernardino colonists in the fall of 1851 was 
a palisade enclosure, or stockade on the east side and the two ends, made 
by splitting the trunks of cottonwood and large willow trees in halves, 
roughly facing them on the split side, straightening the edges so that they 
would fit closely as they stood upright side by side. These stakes were set 
some three feet into the ground and stood about twelve feet high — with 
the split sides facing in. This composed the outside stockade and was in 
the form of a parallelogram about three hundred feet in width by seven 
hundred feet in length. Small one-story houses of logs and of adobes were 
built inside in long rows parallel with the stockade, leaving some sixteen 
or eighteen feet clear space between each. The west side of the enclosure 
was made up of houses which had been built in various places before the 
necessity of fortification was realized and which were moved and placed 
with their outside walls adjoining so as to form a tight wall Or, where 
this could not be done, separate barricading walls of logs laid up in block- 
house fashion were constructed so as to complete the stockade. There as 
no stockade outside of these houses. Many of the houses were merely con- 
tinuous rows of rooms, the end walls forming partitions, while others were 
separate houses. 

The principal entrance to the Fort was on the east side. This was 
located a little south of the center and the gates were made to open out- 
ward. Another gateway opened on the west side and one on the north 


end. The stockade at these gates turned in at right angles eight or ten 
feet, and was provided with loopholes for protection. The houses on the 
north and east also stood well back from the direct line of the gateways, 
which were about twelve feet wide. Loopholes were ajso placed a few feet 
apart all around the stockade. At each corner of the enclosure the stockade 
projected outward about eight feet, forming a sort of bastion with loop- 
holes for the purpose of cross firing along the sides and ends should an 
enemy elude the direct fire from the walls and stealthily creep up and at- 
tempt to set fire to the stockade. The bastion at the southeast corner was 
much larger than the others in order to enclose the row of houses on the 
east side which extended some tweilty-five or thirty feet further south on 
a point of land that can still be seen just south of the present site of the 
Starke Hotel, and the southeast angle of the row of houses at this end. 
Another bastion also projected a short distance north of the gate on the 
east side, as this gate was in a hollow, or gully, that ran from the bench on 
which the Fort was built, down into the creek bottom, and the gate, being 
below the ground level, could not be protected from the corner bastions. 

The south end of the Fort was not at right angles with the sides, but 
ran more northwesterly and southeasterly, on account of the rather deep 
gulch running in the same direction at that end of the structure. Part of 
this gulch can still be seen, although it is mostly filled up. The present 
gas factory stands on the southwest side of the gulch with some of the 
buildings extending over it. Its eastern wall stood along Warm Creek bench 
760 feet, about northeast arid southwest, and the enclosure was 320 feet 
in width. It crossed the present corners of C and Third streets. The south- 
west corner stood close upon the spot where now stands the city gas 
works. The northwest corner stood where the new Fourth street school 
house now stands. The main entrance was eastward and stood in the center 
of what is now Third street, immediately in front of the Bradford House, 
better known as Starke's Hotel. 

Within the Fort, a stream of water was brought for domestic purposes 
through a ditch from Garner's Springs or Lytle Creek. Had this water 
supply been cut off, water could easily have been obtained by digging wells 
twelve or fifteen feet deep. In the northeast corner a canvas pavilion was 
put up and used for school purposes, William Stout being the teacher, and 
also for church services. A small house used as a business office stood 
south of the pavilion, and still further south and within the line of houses 
was a three-roomed house which was used for storage purposes. In the 
southeast corner and also in the northeast corner were a few scattered 
houses, there not being room to place all of the houses in line. One of 
these houses was rebuilt from the ruins of an old adobe ranch house that 
had been erected during the Mexican occupation. 

A great many wagon beds with canvas covers, such as were used by 


the overland emigrants, were taken from the running gear and placed in 
convenient proximity to the houses for use as sleeping apartments. These 
made very comfortable substitutes for more commodious household ac- 

Somewhat more than a hundred families occupied the Fort, together 
with a number of men without families and also a number of families that 
included several grown men. There were at least one hundred and fifty, 
and probably more, able-bodied men capable of performing good service in 
repelling an attack. The military organization was very simple, it being 
merely a division into three companies with their respective captains, and 
without other officers. Jefferson Hunt, as senior captain, was in command 
of the whole. Vigilant guard was kept at night. Uncle Grief, a colored 
man, had a large tin horn, about six feet long, with which he used to make 
music for his own amusement. He acted as bugler and blew his horn to 
assemble the men, or for other purposes, according to different signals 
which had been adopted and were understood by all. Many times were all 
hands called out by the sound of Uncle Grief's horn. Everyone knew 
something about the use of firearms. With few exceptions all were tol- 
erably expert in this line, and a number of the first settlers were "crack 
shots." Most of the men were well supplied with arms of their own, but 
to supply any deficiency a lot of muskets and of ammunition was sent to 
them from the small garrison of regular soldiers then stationed at Chino." 
A carefully compiled list of the occupants of the "Old Fort'' will be found 
in the chapter on Pioneers. 

There is no record of any attack having ever been made on this fort, 
and it really seems rather a pity that this, the most elaborate fortification 
ever attempted in Southern California, should never have been called into 
use. It doubtless served its purpose, however, for the Indians seeing the 
elaborate preparation for protection, made no attempt to raid the valley. 


The colonists lived in the Fort for a year or more. As they felt that 
the danger from the Indians was past, they began to make improvements 
on their own holdings, and also to make community improvements for the 
benefit of the entire colony. Gradually the Fort was taken down and the 
logs used for other purposes. 

Bishop Tenney located in the old Mission buildings and several other 
families settled in that vicinity. These constructed the Tenney irrigation 
ditch, and also utilized the water of Mill Creek zanja. Fifty-two one-acre 
tracts were laid off in 1854, on the north side of Lytle Creek and an irri- 
gation ditch constructed to water these, which were cultivated as gardens 
by the Mormons from the town. Other irrigation ditches were made by 



the Mormons, and the foundation of later water systems was laid during 
these years. 

The able-bodied men of the colony, under the direction of Captain 
Hunt, built a road up West Twin Creek Canon, now known as Waterman 
Canon, to reach the timber in the mountains. This road was sixteen miles 
long, and so well built that it was used for many years for hauling logs 
and timber down the mountains. Within a few months after the com- 
pletion of the highway, three sawmills were built. These supplied lumber 
for the houses of the Mormons, and also furnished a supply for Los Angeles 
and other points. 


In 1852 a large flour mill was built on the site where electric power 
house now stands. Lieut. W. P. Blake, who made an exhaustive report 
to the government upon his explorations and surveys for a Pacific railway 
route, thus describes the settlement of San Bernardino in November, 1852. 
"The city consists of a square surrounded by log houses and stout pickets. 
They are, however, erecting neat adobe buildings in all parts of the valley 
and bringing it under cultivation. Messrs. Lyman and Rich, the prominent 
men of the settlement, have erected a convenient store and postoffice in 
the center of the square, and we were enabled to procure a fresh stock of 
provisions, flour, fish, butter, etc. A large flour mill, 25 by 40 feet, with 
two sets of burr stones and a race way one mile in length, had just been 
completed : a store house of adobe, 30 by 70, was nearly full of sacks of 
grain waiting to be ground. A large quantity of good flour is made here 
and sent to Los Angeles, or to San Pedro for shipment." 



When the Mormon colonists purchased the San Bernardino ranch prop- 
erty in 1851, this section of the state was a portion of Los Angeles County, 
its boundaries extending eastward to the Colorado River, with the county 
seat at Los Angeles, sixty miles distant from San Bernardino. 

In 1853, Captain Jefferson Hunt, of San Bernardino, was elected one of 
two members to represent Los Angeles County in the State Legislature. The 
settlement of San Bernardino was thriving and progressive, but labored 
under the inconvenience of being far removed from the county seat, where 
all business pertaining to the courts and the transfer of property must be 
taken. To obviate this difficulty, Mr. Hunt was instructed to present a 
petition to the legislature, asking for a division of the County of Los 
Angeles; the portion segregated therefrom to be known as San Bernardino 
County; taking its name from the Rancho de San Bernardino. 

Complying with this petition, "An Act for dividing the County of Los 
Angeles and making a new county therefrom, to be called San Bernardino 
County," was passed by the legislature, in session at Benecia, April 26, 1853. 
It provided as follows : 

"Section 1. The County of Los Angeles is hereby divided as follows: 
Beginning at a point where a due south line, drawn from the highest peak 
of the Sierra de Santiago; thence, running along the summit of said sierra 
to the Santa Ana River between the ranch of Sierra and the residence of 
of Bernardo Yorba ; thence across the Santa Ana River, along the summit 
of the range of hills that lie between the Coyotes and Chino (leaving the 
ranches of Ontiveras and Ybana to the west of this line) ; to the southeast 
corner of the ranch of San Jose ; thence along the eastern boundaries of said 
ranch and of San Antonio, and the western and northern boundaries of 
Cucamonga ranch, to the ravine of Cucamonga; thence up said ravine to its 
source in the Coast Range ; thence due north to the northern boundary of 
Los Angeles County; thence northeast to the State line; thence along the 
State line to the northern boundary line of San Diego County; thence west- 
erly, along the northern boundary of San Diego, to the place of beginning. 

Section 2. The eastern part of Los Angeles County, so cut off, shall 
be called San Bernardino County, and the Seat of Justice thereof shall be at 
such place as the majority of voters shall determine at trie first county 
election hereinafter provided to be held in said county, and shall remain 
at the place so designated until changed by the people, as provided by law. 

Section 3. During the fourth week of June next, there shall be held an 
election in said San Bernardino County for the election of the following 
officers, to-wit. : One County Judge, one County Attorney, one County 


Clerk, who shall also be Recorder ; one County Surveyor, one Sheriff, one 
Coroner, one Treasurer, and one Assessor. 

Section 4. The County Judge, chosen under this Act, shall hold office 
until the first Monday of April, A. D. one thousand, eight hundred and fifty- 
four, and until his successor shall be elected and qualified. The other officers 
shall hold their offices until the first Monday of October, one thousand, eight 
hundred and fifty-three, and until their successors are elected and qualified. 
The successors of the officers elected under this Act shall be chosen at the 
general elections established by law, which shall take place next preceding 
the expiration of their respective terms. 

Section 5. Isaac Williams, David Seely, H. G. Sherwood and John 
Brown, are hereby appointed and constituted a Board of Commissioners, to 
designate the election precincts in the County of San Bernardino, for the 
election of officers at the first election, and to appoint the Inspectors of 
Election at the several precincts designated, to receive the returns of election, 
and to issue certificates of election. 

Section 6. The provisions of "An Act to Regulate Elections" passed 
March twenty-third, one thousand eight hundred and fifty, shall apply to 
the county election ordered by this Act, except that the Board of Commis- 
sioners shall designate the election precincts, appoint the Inspectors of 
Election at such precincts, receive the returns of election, and issue the 
several certificates to the persons elected. 

Section 7. For the purpose of designating the several precincts in the 
county, the said Board shall meet two weeks previous to the day of election, 
and at said meeting shall designate the precincts of the county, and appoint 
the Inspectors of Election at such precincts. The said Board shall appoint 
one of their number as President, one as Clerk, and shall keep a record of 
their proceedings; two-thirds of the number of said Board shall constitute 
a quorum to transact business. 

Section 8. The said Board shall, immediately after designating the 
precincts in the county, and appointing the Inspectors thereof, give notice 
of such precincts and Inspectors, by advertisement in Spanish and English, 
in the Los Angeles Star, and by notice posted at each of said precincts, in 
Spanish and English. 

Section 9. If precincts be not established according to the provisions 
of this Act, an election may be held at -any place or places where there are 
not less than thirty resident electors present. 

Section 10. Sealed returns from the officers of election may be deliv- 
ered to any member of the Board. The Board shall meet in the county 
within five days subsequent to the election, and the returns shall then be 
opened and read, and under their direction, and in their presence, a tabular 
statement shall be made out, showing the vote given in each precinct in the 
county, or if precincts be not established, at each place where polls were 


opened as provided for in the preceding section of this Act. for each person, 
and for each of the offices to be filled at the election, and for the Seat of 
Justice of the county, and also the entire vote given in the county for each 
person. The statement thus made out by such Board shall be signed by 
the President and the Clerk. 

Section n. So .soon as the statements and certificates are made out 
by the Board, the President shall declare the result, and immediately make 
out, send or deliver to each person chosen, a certificate of election signed by 
him as President of the Board of Commissioners, and attested by the Clerk. 

Section 12. Each person chosen shall qualify and enter upon the dis- 
charge of his duties within twenty days after the receipt of his certificate 
of election. The person elected as County Judge shall qualify before the 
President of the Board of Commissioners of the County. Persons elected to 
the other offices may qualify before said President, or before the County 

Section 13. The President of said Board shall transmit, without delay, 
a copy of the tabular statement prepared as provided in section ten, to the 
Secretary of State. The election returns of said county, the tabular state- 
ment, and the record of proceedings of the Board, shall be retained by the 
President of the said Board until the person elected as Clerk of said County 
shall have qualified and entered upon his duties, after which they shall be 
filed in the office of said Clerk. 

Section 14. The County of San Bernardino is hereby excepted from 
the operation of the Supervisor Act, passed May third, A.D., one thousand, 
eight hundred and fifty-two ; shall be attached to the First Judicial District, 
and shall be entitled to one member of Assembly and Los Angeles County 
to one member of Assembly, and the two counties jointly shall elect one 
Senator, until otherwise provided by law. 

Section 15. At the first term of the Court of Sessions held in San Ber- 
nardino County, there shall be appointed two Commissioners, to meet a 
like number of Commissioners to be appointed by the Board of Supervisors 
of Los Angeles County, for the purpose of ascertaining proportion of the 
debt of Los Angeles County that is justly chargeable to San Bernardino 
County. The said Commissioners shall proceed to ascertain the total in- 
debtedness of Los Angeles County that shall have accrued up to the time of 
the organization of San Bernardino County. They shall apportion to the 
respective counties a portion of said indebtedness, proportioned to the 
amount of taxable property returned by the Assessor of Los Angeles County 
for the -year of one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three, which is hereby 
made the basis of apportioning the debt aforesaid. Said Commissioners shall 
report their apportionment to the Court of Sessions and Board of Super- 
visors of their respective counties, and if they shall ratify said apportion- 
ment, it shall be final and binding on the two counties. For the proportion 


of the unfundable debt of Los Angeles County, the Court of Sessions of 
said county shall draw a warrant in favor of the Treasurer of Los Angeles 
County, payable out of the treasury of San Bernardino County. 

Of the funded debt of Los Angeles County, the amount found justly 
chargeable to San Bernardino County shall be assumed by said county, and 
the principal and interest thereof paid at its County Treasury; Provided, 
That the holders of said proportion of the debt consent to such assumption 
and payment. 

Section in. All the provisions of the Act "to fund the debt of Los 
Angeles County, and provide for the payment thereof," passed March the 
eighteenth, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three, shall have the same 
force, and be obligatory on the same officers in San Bernardino County as in 
Los Angeles County, and shall continue in full force and obligation until 
the extinguishment of the said funded debt, and until its proportion of the 
said funded debt shall be set off to said county as provided for in the pre- 
ceding section. The Court of Sessions in San Bernardino County shall each 
year draw a warrant on the Treasurer of said County in favor of the Trea- 
surer of Los Angeles County, for the total amount of the interest tax of 
that vear, payable out of the first moneys paid into the treasury on the annual 
assessment of each vear, as provided m the Act aforesaid, and shall each and 
every vear draw a warrant for said tax. until the total extinguishment of the 
debt aforesaid. 

It shall be the duty of the Treasurer of Los Angeles County to bring 
suit against any and every officer of San Bernardino County who may hinder 
the prompt payment of the interest tax aforesaid into the treasury of Los 
Angeles County; and the District Court having jurisdiction in said county, 
shall have power to issue all necessary writs to enforce the provisions of 
this Act and the Funding Act aforesaid ; and the proportion of the funded 
debt set off to San Bernardino County shall be paid and liquidated to the 
holder thereof in a manner provided in the said Funding Act. 

Section \j. In case the Assessor of Los Angeles County shall have 
completed his assessment of the portion of said county that is hereby set off 
to San Bernardino County, or any part thereof, before the organization of 
said county, he shall certify to the Court of Sessions of said county, when 
organized, his assessment of all property and polls in said count}-, for their 
action, and such assessment shall be deemed the legal assessment of said 
county for the previous year, subject to the action of the Board of Equaliz- 
ation of said county ; and the delinquent list of all property and polls in said 
county of San Bernardino, for the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-two, that shall not have been collected on the organization of said 
count}', shall be assigned to said county for its use and benefit. 

Section 18. The Associate Justices of the Court of Sessions of said 
county shall receive as compensation two dollars per diem, for each day's 


actual attendance on the terms of Court. The township officers of the 
several townships of San Bernardino County, that were elected at the general 
election of one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, in Los Angeles County, 
shall continue in office until their successors, to be elected at the general 
election of one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three, shall be elected and 
qualified." Approved April 26, 1853. 

On April 2, 1857, a subsequent Act was passed slightly changing the 
boundaries as set forth in the original Act. ' 

"Beginning at a point on the boundary line of Los Angeles County, 
where a due south line, drawn from the highest peak of the Sierra de San- 
tiago intersects the northern boundary of San Diego County; thence 
running along the summit of said sierra to the Santa Ana River, between 
the ranch of Sierra and the residence of Bernardo Yorba : thence across the 
Santa Ana River, along the summit of the range of hills that lie between 
the Coyotes and Chino (leaving the ranches of Ontiveras and Ybana to the 
west of the line), to the southwest corner of the ranch of San Jose; thence 
along the eastern boundaries of said ranch, and of San Antonio, and the 
western and northern boundaries of Cucamonga Ranch, to the ravine of 
Cucamonga ; thence up said ravine to its source in the Coast Range : thence 
due north to the northern boundary of Los Angeles County; thence north- 
east to the State line ; thence along the State line to the northern boundary 
line of San Diego County; thence westerly, along the northern boundary line 
of San Diego County, to the place of beginning.'* 

The county thus brought into existence was the largest in the state of 
California and one of the largest ever created in the United States, having an 
area equal to about half of the state of New York. It contained 23,472 square 
miles and was one hundred and fifty miles north and south and averaged 
about two hundred miles from east to west. It was an inland county, having 
no sea coast but bounded on the east by the Colorado River. Its position, 
lying between Nevada and Arizona and the Pacific Coast and the fact that 
the two great overland routes to the coast converged in the San Bernardino 
Valley, gave it an especial commercial advantage. 


In accordance with the enabling act, an election was held in January, 
1853, 200 votes being cast, and the following officers being chosen: Hon. 
Jefferson Hunt, who was already a member of the Assembly, representing 
Los Angeles County, was made representative of San Bernardino County: 
D. M Thomas was elected County Judge; Robert Gift. Sheriff; R. R. Hop- 
kins, Clerk; V. J. Herring, Assessor; William Stout, District Attorney; H. 
G. Sherwood, Surveyor. 

These officers with one or two changes, were re-elected at the first 



regular election the following fall, and almost without exception served until 
the withdrawal of the Mormons. To their credit be it said that they left 
the county entirely free from debt and with a small balance in the treasury. 
The Mormon Council House served as the first Court House for the 
new county, and was used for several years., The Court House was then 
transferred to the residence built by O. S. Sparks, corner of Fifth and E 
streets. In 1862, the Supervisors purchased the "elegant" residence of 
Charles Glaser, standing on the grounds now occupied by the Court House, 
and this was used until 1875. 


In 1853 the townsite of the City of San Bernardino was laid out in the 
Babylonian style — a miniature Salt Lake City. The town was one mile 
square, laid out in blocks containing eight acres, with wide streets running 

at right angles, each one bor- 
dered by a zanja, or irrigation 
ditch. The streets were given 
good Mormon names as will be 
seen by the accompanying plat, 
and these names continued in 
use for many years. 

The survey of the town site 
and of the county was made by 
H. G. Sherwood, who had made 
the original survey of Salt 
Lake City. 

April 13, 1854, the Legisla- 
ture passed a special act incor- 
porating the city of San Ber- 
ardino, and another special act 
of the same legislature author- 
ized the new city to appropriate 
the waters of the Twin Creeks 
for municipal and domestic 
purposes. Under this au- 
thorization a ditch was dug 
by direction of the municipal authorities and the waters of both creeks were 
brought into the town in 1855. It was soon found, however, that in winter 
the works were washed away by each freshet and in summer the waters 
were lost in the sands before reaching the town limits, and so this ditch was 
abandoned several years later. 

Probably the first public building erected in this county was the Council 





House, built by Lyman and Ricb, and intended as the general office of the 
Mormon interests, both religious and secular. It was used also as the first 

Court House of the county. It was 

....■ill in j— aiwm located on the southeast corner of 

'; Third and Grafton (now C) streets 

T"\^^ \ an d was a two-story adobe build- 

• ing. Judge Rolfe describes it as be- 

iijgj) ing 24 ft. by 16 ft., containing one 

i r mi room b , el 7i an V ne a T bove - , and 

j surrounded by a fence. In settling, 

the walls of the building cracked 

' • ::■:.' brao- w m- -rl '■> ■ piv- 

L\ vent their falling out. Curiously 
iniiij^^^SS^S^^3B? ^illSil enough, the rocking motion of the 
earthquake of 1857 caused these 
braces to press the walls together 
so that they were again solid and firm. The walls were considerably 
damaged by the heavy rains of 1862, but the building stood until 1867, when 
it was demolished to make way for a brick block. The ground is now occu- 
pied by the James Water's building. 

The first school house in the city was the tent pavilion used in the Fort. 
In 1853 the Superintendent of Common Schools, V. J. Herring, reports 
an expenditure of $300 for library and apparatus and $291.50 for building 
or renting and furnishing school house. This was probably for rent. In 
November, 1855, a committee consisting of the trustees of District No. 1. 
David Seely, James H. Rollin and Theodore Turley, with the County Super- 
intendent, C. A. Skinner, acting by order of the City Council, selected six 
lots for school purposes and in 1856 a deed was made by Lyman, Rich and 
Hanks to the city for these six lots. Two adobe rooms stood on one of these 
lots, the present site of Fourth street school house, and were used as the city 
school house for many years. When these buildings were put up and 
whether they were first erected as school buildings, does not appear. Thev 
were known as the Washington and Jefferson buildings, and seem to have 
been occupied as school rooms until the erection of the brick school house 
on Fourth street in 1874. 

A two-story adobe building was erected by Amasa Lyman as a home 
for his family, which included five wives, Maria Tanner, Caroline Partridge, 
Priscilla Turley. Cornelia Leavitt and Denicia Walker. Priscilla was the 
mother of the first white child born after the colonists reached San Ber- 
nardino Valley, Lorenzo Snow Lyman, still residing in this county. Each 
of the wives with her children had separate apartments, while a common 
kitchen and dining room was provided, but it is said, was never used by the 
women — each preferring her own establishment. The house is described 


as having no windows, but lighted from skylights above, and was facetiously 
named the "steamboat" from some fancied resemblance. It stood next to 
the Council House on the north. The building was burned down, but a 
portion of the adobe kitchen is still standing and forms a part of the kitchen 
at the Wozencraft house. 

Another house built to accommodate plural wives was that of Charles 
C. Rich, which was a long adobe of four or five rooms standing where the 
residence of Joseph Brown, at the corner of E and First streets, is now 
placed. Rich had three wives. 


After the organization of the new county in 1853, some of the citizens 
felt that there should be a suitable Fourth of July celebration. John Brown, 
Sr., went to Fort Tejon to procure an American flag, and was presented 
with a large bunting flag by L. A. Bishop. On his return a liberty pole had 
been procured from the mountains, a twelve pounder brought from Los 
Angeles and a platform erected on the ground where Tyler's butcher shop 
was later built, and here on the Fourth of July, 1853, was held the first cele- 
bration of our national holiday in San Bernardino city. 

Daniel Sexton, however, claims the honor of raising the first American 
flag in the county. He states that in 1842, while cutting timber for Col. 
Williams in the San Gorgcinio Pass, the Indians asked him if the Americans 
had no feast days. He told tbem about our Fourth of July, made an American 
flag and hoisted it in his camp north of San Gorgonio Pass, and with the 
Indians celebrated the Fourth of July, 1842. This, if true, must have been 
the first celebration of the occasion on California soil. 


Attracted by the richness of the valley and the evident prosperity of 
the colonists, a number of "gentile" settlers had come in. Some of these 
were disappointed miners from the north, others belated gold seekers who 
never reached their El Dorado and others immigrants from the east — 
mostly from the southern states. These newcomers did not understand the 
sincere religious convictions of the Mormons, and they felt that the Mor- 
mon control of the city and the county was a "menace to our free institu- 
tions" — perhaps they desired to share in the "spoils" also. Considerable 
feeling grew out of these conditions. 

The Fourth of July, 1854. was observed only by the reading in the church 
of an address delivered the previous Fourth of July in Salt Lake City. On 
the third of July, which was Sunday, Amasa Lyman stated that the next 
day would be the anniversary of American Independence, then spread out 


a copy of the Deseret News and read the address which was delivered in 
Salt Lake by an unnaturalized Englishman the previous year. It in sub- 
stance eulogized the founders of the Republic and Washington, but de- 
clared that in the latter days the government was being diverted from its 
original purposes and had become degenerate, etc. 

In 1856, the "Independents," as the party which was coming into op- 
position to the church party was called, decided to have a regular old- 
fashioned "back-east" Fourth of July celebration. Accordingly a committee 
was appointed to make the arrangements for the affair, which was to be 
open to all — without regard to party lines. But the church party at once 
announced their intention to celebrate the day without paying any attention 
to the move already under way. Naturally a rivalry between the two 
parties followed. The Independents procured a flagpole sixty feet high and 
erected it on the south side of Third street directly opposite the present 
location of McDonald & Son's furniture establishment. The other party 
procured a pole a hundred feet high and put it up on the public Plaza. The 
Independents procured a neat new flag and ran it up — the church people 
got a larger flag and hoisted it ; the Independents erected a bowery covered 
with green brush and placed seats for an audience : their rivals set up a 
larger bowery with seats for a larger audience. On the great day, the Third 
street patriots organized an impromptu chorus which sang the patriotic 
songs, but the Mormons had secured a band of musical instruments which 
made more noise. The church part)- had also gotten together a mounted 
squad of some twenty-five or thirty young men uniformed in red flannel 
shirts, black pantaloons and hats, who acted as escort for the officers of the 
day. Here they got the better of their competitors, who had no guard and 
no procession. But the church party fired salutes with a little brass cannon 
which the other party named the "pop gun," while the Independents had a 
real cannon which made the mountains echo with its deep reports. This 
cannon was obtained for the occasion in Los Angeles, and was hauled over 
on a carreta drawn by two yokes of oxen driven by William McDonald. It 
wa^ undoubtedly one of the weapons brought from Mexico in early days. 
Four of these cannon have recently been gathered up in Los Angeles, and 
are to be restored as far as possible and preserved as valuable historical 
relics in the Chamber of Commerce. Professor J. M. Guinn has looked up 
their history and states that they were brought to California from Mexico 
in 1818 for defense against privateers-men coasting up from South America, 
who had already made some attacks on the California shore. The cannon 
were first planted at San Diego, but were later brought to Los Angeles and 
used at the battle of Cahuenga and turned against the American invaders 
under Commodore Stockton and General Fremont. Afterwards they were 
left scattered about the town. The gun brought to San Bernardino has 



been used many times since to remind her citizens of the day we celebrate. 
It has been dismounted and out of use for years, with one trunnion broken 
off, and it is now set in the ground as a protecting post to a hydrant in 
McDonald's Place, which opens off Fourth street, between C and D. 

At the Plaza an oration was delivered, which while fairly patriotic, still 
took occasion to score the government for its degeneracy — according to the 
ideas of Brigham Young's followers. At Third street, Q. S. Sparks, then 
well known as a brilliant speaker, delivered an oration picturing in glowing 
terms the past and the present glory of our nation — with a good natured 
fling at those who drew off to observe the day by themselves. Although 
the Independents had the smaller following, they enjoyed their celebration 
and their dinner, and felt that they had succeeded in carrying out their in- 
tentions. There was no disturbance or hard feelings, the people went back 
and forth between the two centers of interest, and the church squad visited 
Third Street in a body and saluted their flag. 


i 1854 one Jerome Benson, who had been connected with the Mor- 
but who had left the church, came to San Bernardino and located on 

a piece of land three 
miles southeast of 
the city — now known 
as the Ambrose Hunt 
place. The Mormon 
elders were not anx- 
ious to sell him land, 
as they were inclined 
to shut out anyone 
from whom the y 
might expect opposi- 
t i o n . Benson be- 
lieved that he had 
located on govern- 
ment land, as the 
grant had not then 
been definitely sur- 
veyed. Later it was found that he was on the grant, and the owners or- 
dered him off, and on his refusal it is said ordered the sheriff to eject him. 
Benson had sympathizers, and he called upon themto assist him. F. B. Van 
Leuven and others pBij oua\ identified themselves with the Independents, 
helped him to throw up earth works in front of hishouse, and armed them- 
selves for resistance. The cannon was brought over from San Bernardino, 


and the flagpole that had been used for the Fourth of July celebration was 
planted on the fort and the stars and stripes raised. The party had powder. 
but no balls for the cannon, so it was loaded with small rocks as ammuni- 
tion. There is no authentic record of any fight here, although- it is stated by 
some of the old settlers that the Sheriff, accompanied by a party of men, did 
come out, but one explosion of the cannon full of rocks decided them to 
withdraw. At any rate Benson was left in possession of the land and was 
subsequently able to give a clear title to it. 

The feeling between the two parties in the settlement was augmented 
by many things. There were various conflicts at the polls which left hard 
feelings. One of the most active opponents to the church control of affairs 
civil and political, was William McDonald, who had then been a resident 
of the place for several years. So strong had the feeling grown between 
him and his neighbors of the church party that in the spring of 1857 he de- 
termined to remove to Los Angeles, or some other point, where he would 
be more in harmony with his surroundings. But some of the opposing 
party were determined not to allow him to depart in peace. One Marion 
Perkins declared that he should not leave without a threshing. On the day 
and about the time that McDonald was ready to leave the town with his 
family and household effects, Perkins, who was drunk and quarrelsome, 
made an attack upon him as he was crossing the street. Perkins had been 
making loud threats and McDonald had been warned of his danger. He 
was therefore armed with a knife. Perkins, who was a large powerful man, 
tried to throw McDonald to the ground and while he stooped above his 
victim, McDonald stabbed him to the heart. McDonald at once surrendered 
himself to the officers of the law and was locked in a room, as there was then 
no regular jail in the county. A crowd gathered and there were threats of 
lynching, but better counsel prevailed and the prisoner was finally left to 
be dealt with by the law. He was held to answer before the next grand 
jury, and was allowed bail, which was readily furnished by his friends. A 
few weeks later the grand jury was regularly convened, and after a full in- 
vestigation they refused to indict him, and the charge against him was 

Fourth of July, 1857, was again marked by a double celebration, the 
Independents holding theirs at Fort Benson. By this time the feeling of 
opposition was stronger, and there was little affiliation between the partici- 
pants in the two affairs. 


The disputes and difficulties between Brigham Young's State of Deseret 
and the United States authorities culminated in 1857, in the dispatch of a 
body of United States trcops to Utah. It was believed that war was im- 


minent, and Young called all of the Faithful who were scattered in various 
colonies to return to Salt Lake City. Many of the San Bernardino colonists 
were Josephites and did not agree with Young's policy or believe in the 
practice of polygamy. Some of these refused to obey the call, but most of 
the San Bernardino settlers felt obliged to comply, and sold the property 
which they had accumulated by hard work and economy at a ruinous sac- 
rifice. Instances are related where an improved farm was exchanged for a 
camping outfit with which to make the long return journey. In one case 
a good four room house, well located and furnished, was sold for $40.00 — 
with a buggy, a cloak and a sack of sugar thrown in for good measure. 

The balance of the church property was put into the hands of Ebenezer 
Hanks, who had previously bought a third interest in the grant, and was 
later sold to W. A. Conn. F. L. Tucker, Richard G. Allen and Bethel Coop- 
wood. The title to lands in the San Bernardino Rancho has always been 
unquestioned, and the new owners continued to sell on liberal terms to 
actual settlers. 


It is the universal testimony that the Mormon colonists who created 
the city of San Bernardino and were largely instrumental in the organization 
of the county, were industrious, peaceable citizens — most sincere and 
earnest in their religious convictions. The majority of them seem not to 
have been in sympathy with the polygamist doctrine of the later church, 
although some of them practiced it as a matter of duty. 

Their methods of co-operation and their simple, hard-working lives 
were in strong contrast to the shiftless and often ill-directed efforts of many 
of their "gentile" neighbors. In the six years from their settlement in 1851-2 
to their departure in 1857-8 they had built up a substantial town, with two 
adobe school rooms, tbe "Council House," several substantial store build- 
ings, a flour mill, three saw mills, irrigation ditches and good roads. They 
had brought a large share of the 36,000 acres purchased under cultivation; 
had set out orchards and vineyards. A stage line and post route between 
San Bernardino and Los Angeles had been established and a pony line to 
Salt Lake made regular trips. And beside these community improvements 
many of the individual members of the colony had acquired well improved 
homes, with the comforts of life about them, and some of them had accumu- 
lated considerable property. Certainly, no better showing could have been 
made by any equal number of "gentiles." They had also demonstrated that 
small farms and agriculture were not only possible, but profitable, in this 
land which had hitherto been given over almost entirely to grazing purposes, 
and they had paved the way for the numerous "colonies"' that have since 
been so large a factor in the prosperity of our South Land. 



Jefferson Hunt may be called the pioneer of the Mormon settlement at 
San Bernardino, and the father of San Bernardino County. As an officer 
of the Mormon Battalion he had first become familiar with the advantages 
of Southern California. He had twice led parties from Salt Lake to Cali- 
fornia by way of the southern route through Cajon Pass, and had thus be- 
come acquainted with the country and with the people. He was one of the 
guides of the Mormon colonists and assisted Lyman and Rich in their pros- 
pecting for a home for the colony. He took a prominent part in the building 
of their Fort, and was the leader of their military organization. Under his 
direction the road through Twin Creek Canon to the timber district was 
constructed and he was one of the first to engage in the lumber industry. 
In 1852 he was chosen as Assemblyman for Los Angeles County, and it was 
he who presented the bill for the formation of San Bernardino County. He 
represented this county in the Legislature from the time of its organization 
until his departure in 1857. In 1855, he was commissioned as a Brigadier 
General in the State Militia by Governor Bigler. He was a Democrat in 
politics. Soon after coming to San Bernardino he secured a contract for 
carrying the mail from Los Angeles to Salt Lake via San Bernardino and he 
held important mail contracts throughout his stay in I he slate. 

Captain Hunt was born in Kentucky in 1805. He mairied Miss Celia 
Mount, and in 1835 ne and his wife were baptized into the Mormon church 
by Sidney Rigdon. They had removed to Missouri and Jefferson Hunt at 
once took an active part in the church, becoming an elder and being employed 
by Joseph Smith both in the religious and secular affairs of the community. 
He was a prosperous farmer and business man during his stay in Missouri, 
and when the call to move westward came, he was able to equip his own 
iamuy comfortably and also to aid many of the less fortunate brethren in 
their outfitting. 

When the Mormon Battalion was organized. Hunt and two of his sons, 
Gilbert and Marshall, were among the first to enlist. Hunt was made cap- 
tain of Company A. The interesting history of this band of volunteers has 
been told elsewhere. During their stay in California Captain Hunt saw a 
good deal of the country and its settlers, and was most favorably impressed 
with its climate and advantages. When the Company was discharged in 
1847, Hunt and his sons went north to the rold fields near Colima. They 
were very successful in their mining operat.jns, and when they went on 
to Salt Lake City they carried a considerable amount of gold dust with 
them. Here Captain Hunt found his family, which he had left at Santa Fe 
in 1846, when the Battalion started for California. They had come on to 
Salt Lake City with the other Saints and were now in almost destitute cir- 

.11 I I I UsoN HINT 


Very soon after his return. Captain Hunt organized a party to return 
to California by a new Indian trail which had not been hitherto traveled by 
white men. This led southward and through the Cajon Pass. He pur- 
chased 300 head of cattle from the Lugos at San Bernardino valley, and 
bought horses at Puente and supplies in Los Angeles ; then returned to Salt 
Lake by the northern route. In 1849, Captain Hunt again returned to 
California as the guide of the party from which separated the ill-fated Death 
Valley party. 

Captain Hunt was a man of strong character, deeply pious by nature. 
He believed with all his heart in the divine revelation of the Mormon doc- 
trines, although he found many of them a sore trial to his faith. Energetic, 
clear-sighted and indomitable in will, he was especially fitted for the leader- 
ship which he always acquired, in whatever position he was placed. Gen- 
erous to a fault, his home was always open to the less fortunate brethren, 
and he gave a helping hand to man}' a needy man — Saint and Gentile alike — 
for he was above petty distinctions. He deserves a large place in the 
memory of the citizens of San Bernardino, for he filled a large place in the 
early and vital events of the history of the town and of the county. 

After his return with the Saints to Salt Lake in 1858, Captain Hunt 
took a mail contract from Salt Lake to Humboldt. He also took up land 
in Utah and later secured a large ranch in Idaho. In i860 he founded 
Huntsville, a flourishing agricultural settlement near Ogden. 

He died at Oxford, Idaho, in the spring of 1866. 

Mrs. Hunt survived him and died in 1897, at the home of her daughter, 
Mrs. Sheldon Stoddard, in San Bernardino. Captain Hunt had eleven chil- 
dren, of whom are now living Mrs. Nancy Daley, widow of Edward Daley, 
and Mrs. Harriet Mayfield, of San Bernardino and John and Gilbert, of 
Arizona. The daughters, Mrs. Nancy Dalev, Mrs. Harriet Mayfield and 
Mrs. Sheldon Stoddard, have lived for many years in this city and are uni- 
versally loved and respected. 

Eighty-nine grandchildren, one hundred and forty-nine great-grandchil- 
dren- and seventy-nine great-great grandchildren are descended from Jef- 
ferson Hunt. 


Late in the summer of 1849, a large number of goldseekers reached 
Utah Valley. It was too late for them to go on to California by the northern 
route, and it was feared that the Mormon settlers could not supply provisions 
for so large an extra force during the winter. Captain Hunt offered to take 
the party to California by the southern route which he had gone over the 
previous year. After much discussion and planning, a train of about one 
hundred wagons was made up and Captain Hunt was engaged as guide. 


Each wagon paid him ten dollars, and he agreed to take the party through 
to Los Angeles in nine weeks. Some weeks were spent in preparation and 
organization. The company was divided into seven sections, each one 
choosing its own leader and all agreeing to obey Captain Hunt's orders im- 
plicitly, except that in case of necessity, a majority of the whole train might 

September 30, 1849, the party started out, and for some days all went 
well and the immigrants were in the best of spirits. But the trail was lost 
and the course had to be changed, which caused much confusion, as so large 
a party had to move systematically and was unwieldly. It also disturbed 
their confidence in their leader. Not long after the start the party was 
joined by another body of goldseekers, under the leadership of a Captain 
Smith. A map made by one Williams, who professed to know all the routes 
through the mountains, was in possession of Smith. This map showed a 
route turning off from the trail to be followed by the Hunt party and cutting 
across the mountains and plains in an almost direct line, thus saving several 
hundred miles of distance. There was much discussion among Captain 
Hunt's followers and the Smith party concerning this new route and finally 
the matter became so worked up that a meeting of the entire train was 
called to decide whether they would continue on the southern trail or follow 
the one which was to be taken by the Smith party. Captain Hunt stated at 
this meeting that he knew no more than the rest of the party about this 
particular route, but he doubted whether a white man had ever been over 
it, and did not consider it safe for those who had women and children in 
their company to undertake an unknown trail. Young men who had no 
families might possibly get through even though the road were not so good 
as trte Los Angeles road. "But," said he. "if you all decide to go with Smith, 
I will go with you even though the road leads to hell. But I was hired to go 
by way of Los Angeles and if one wagon decides to go on that way, I shall 
feel bound to go that way, with that wagon." So Mauley reports him, in 
his book on the Death Valley Party. 

The majority' decided in favor of the shorter route, but when the party 
reached the "cut off," seven wagons concluded to follow Hunt on the route 
originally decided upon and he went on with them. The rest of the party 
took the Smith route, but after two or three days of travel they came to a 
point where it seemed to be impossible to go further with the wagons. After 
a day or two spent in reconnoitering, a large portion of the party — probably 
sixtv or seventy wagons — turned back and started after Hunt. The greater 
part of this company reached Southern California in safety. The remainder 
soon divided up into small parties and each made its way as best it could, 
taking its own course. All of these parties suffered untold torture of hunger 
and thirst, wagons were abandoned, oxen killed for food and women and 
children were compelled to walk across the barren desert of the valley which 



has since that time been known as "Death Valley." Some of these stragglers 
came into California in the vicinity of the Tehachapi Pass, others reached the 
San Francisquita Pass, some were taken prisoners by the Indians; at least 
thirteen of the original party perished in the fated valley. 

There can be no question that if the entire party had remained with 
Captain Hunt they would have reached Los Angeles with no serious diffi- 
culty. Among the party which set out from Salt Lake were Sidney Waite 
and Jerry McElvain, now of San Bernardino. Miss Melissa Bennett, the 
daughter of Mr. A. Bennett, who gave the name to the Bennett party to 
which belonged W. L. Manley, whose interesting account of the various 
Death Valley parties is the chief authority on the subject, was the first wife 
of Judge H. C. Rolfe. This little group, after intense suffering reached the 
San Francisquita Pass, in a state of starvation, and were fed and cared for 
by the Del Yalle family, then residing on the San Francisquita Rancho. 


A BETWEEN PERIOD— 1858-1875. 

** «*? 

The withdrawal of several hundred Mormon settlers in 1857-58 greatly 
decreased the population of San Bernardino County and was a serious blow, 
for a time to its prosperity. Although newcomers, attracted by the chance 
to purchase improved land for less than the 
cost of the improvements came in, they were 
not as a class, equal to the Mormon settlers in 
character or in energy. The unsold San Ber- 
nardino Rancho lands passed from the hands 
of the syndicate who purchased them from the 
church to W. A. Conn, who, for many years, 
I rented and sold them to settlers. 

The breaking out of the Civil war also 

greatly affected this county. The withdrawal 

of United States troops from Forts Tejon and 

Mojave left the entire frontier unprotected 

and was a signal for a general outbreak among 

the hostile Indians. For a number of years 

raids upon stock ranches, freighters and 

miners were frequent. In 1861 all stock on 

w. a. conn the desert was driven over into the San Ber- 

ardino valley for safety. 

In 1855 a volunteer company was organized in San Bernardino under 

Captain Andrew Lytic to punish the Indians of the San Gorgonio Pass for 


depredations. A corps of men under Orderly Sergeant H. C. Rolfe were en- 
camped for some time at the Weaver ranch. In 1861 a company of infantry 
was formed under command of Captain C. E. Bennett; First Lieutenant. 
William Clark: Second Lieutenant, John Brook: Orderly Sergeant, Wm. 
Van Curen. 

In 1862 and for several years afterward, a body of California Volunteers 
was kept in the vicinity of San Bernardino. These were at first camped 
on the Santa Ana, south of the city, but after the flood of 1862, Camp Carle- 
ton was established some two miles north of the town. Captain Eyre was 
then in command and four companies of 85 men each were in camp. 

While no regularlv organized body of men went from San Bernardino 
to take part in the great struggle, a number of citizens returned east — some 
to join one side, some the other. There were many southerners in the com- 
munity, whose sympathies were naturally with their own people. Party 
feeling ran very high. The mining excitement in Bear and Holcomb valleys 
in 1861-2 had brought a large population into that vicinity. There was a 
strong secession element there and a still stronger element of lawlessness 
that cared for nothing but a fight, with or without excuse. There was con- 
stant discord both at the mines and at San Bernardino. A Union League 
was organized by John Brown, Sr., in 1861, to support the government. 
Uncle George Lord was the president of the association, and among the first 
members were Charles G. Hill, William Heap and Moses Martin. There 
was strong opposition at first and attempts to break up the League meetings, 
but it gained in strength until in 1863 the county, for the first time in its 
history, gave a Republican majority. Lincoln having a plurality of eighty- 
three votes. 

Out of the political feeling grew the contest over the election for assem- 
blyman between Conn and Piercey, which ended in Piercey taking the seat, 
although strong allegations of fraud were made. Piercey's death in the duel 
with Showalter was also a result of the bitterness between Union and Seces- 
sion sentiment. 

It was at one time reported that San Bernardino was to be raided by a 
band of fillibusters organized in the vicinity of Visalia to join the confederate 
army in Texas. Much alarm was felt and the town was 'kept under guard 
for several nights, but no fillibusters appeared. Indeed, the party proceeded 
quietly through the valley and doubtless had no intention of disturbing the 
citizens of San Bernardino. 

The close of the war and the departure of a! large part of the lawless 
element from the mining district brought renewed cpiiet to the better class 
of San Bernardino settlers. But the Indians continued to make trouble and 
many citizens were killed by scattering bands who were always ready to 
-leal stock, or to attack a small party wherever found. 

In 1866, the Slate Range Quartz Mill, owned by P. Beaudry of Los An- 


gelcs, with twelve buildings connected with the mill were burned by the 
Indians. In 1867 a company of Volunteers was made up in San Bernardino 
to punish the Indians for numerous depredations. The Guardian of Feb- 
ruary. 1867. says : 

"For several years past our citizens have been greatly annoyed by roving 
bands of Indians who come into the valley and steal all the horses and cattle 
they find unguarded. Nor do the}' hesitate to attack stockmen and trav- 
elers, if an opportunity offers. Already Messrs. Parish, Bemus, Whiteside 
and a dozen other citizens have fallen victims to their blood thirstiness 
within the past four years. Growing bolder by impunity, on the 2Qth of 
January, they attacked the saw mill of Mr. James, upon the mountain, a few 
miles east of this place, having previously robbed the house of Mr. Cain, 
carried off five horses and burned down the house. The party at the mill 
consisting of Messrs. Armstrong, Richardson, Cain and Talmadge, sallied 
out to meet them. A brisk fight followed when the party finding most of the 
Indians had guns, and fearful of being overpowered, retreated to the mill. 
The next morning the party having been reinforced went out and were at- 
tacked again, the fight lasting for more than an hour. Two of the white men 
were wounded and two Indians killed and three wounded. A party was 
made up to pursue these Indians, and after following them found the Indians 
encamped on the desert at Rabbit Springs. The company made an attack, 
the men having to climb up the steep mountains and over the rocks on all 
fours and the skirmishing lasted till dark. The skirmishing lasted for two 
days longer when the whites were compelled to withdraw because supplies 
were exhausted. Four Indians were killed and two of the white party 

In 1868 Camp Cady was regularly established as a military post for the 
protection of the Mojave region, on the road between Wilmington and 
Northern Arizona Territory, by about 100 United States troops, under Col- 
onel Avers. It was maintained until about 1870. 


For several years after the departure of the Mormons farming seemed 
to be at a standstill, although good crops were raised where they were put 
in. Yet a number of first-class settlers appeared during the period between 
1858 and 1865. 

Dr. Barton purchased the Old Mission property — 640 acres for $500, and 
in 1859 set out 60,000 vines. The same year H. M. Willis set a large vine- 
yard at Old San Bernardino and H. M. Carpenter put out his vineyard 
in the foothill district that was later known as Crafton. There were already, 
as has been noted, large vineyards at Cucamonga and El Rincon and small 
orchards and vineyards in the New Mexican settlements along the Santa 

|)k. Hi; N MARION 


Ana. During this period the first orange trees in the county were set out 
and orchard products began to attract attention. The United States cen- 
sus for i860 reports 8,219 acres in the county under cultivation. The value 
of live stock is put at $141,661. According to the assessment rolls the valua- 
tion of the county was $417,228 in i860. 

About 1870 the raisin, or Muscat grape was introduced and the first 
raisins were put upon the market. The first Muscat raisins in the county 
were made by George Lord in this year. By 1870, it had been demonstrated 
that the orange would do well at Old San Bernardino and several small 
groves were coming into bearing. An influx of settlers began to come in 
about this time. The "Silk Culture Company" purchased lands on the plains 
beyond the Santa Ana in 1869, and began selling lands and putting out orch- 
ards and vineyards. Out of this small beginning grew the present city of 

In 1873, the Cucamonga Association was formed to irrigate and sub- 
divide this already highly improved tract of land. The same year the Val 
Verde Company, made up of prominent citizens of San Bernardino was 
organized to utilize the waters of the Mojave river for irrigation purposes. 

During the year 1872, according to carefully compiled statistics used 
by Judge Boren in an address upon the resources of San Bernardino county, 
the county produced 300.000 lbs. of wool, 250.000 bushels of grain, 300,000 
lbs. of potatoes, 3,500 tons of hay and manufactured somewhere in the neigh- 
borhood of 200,000 gallons of wine and brandy. 

The county assessment of 1873 puts the entire valuation of the countv 
at $1,339,377. (For further details see chapter on Agriculture.) 


The completion of the toll road through the Cajon Pass and the ferry 
across the Colorado river at Ft. Mojave in 1862, both of which were due to 
the energy of John Brown, Sr., gave a new impetus to the trade with Arizona 
and Utah. Regular stage communication with Arizona was maintained and 
a large amount of freighting to the mines of the desert and to Arizona and 
Utah was carried on during the sixties. Grain, hay and flour produced in 
the valley, goods from San Pedro and mail and express matter brought 
from San Francisco and overland by the Butterfield stage company were 
distributed from San Bernardino. In 1866, several stage lines were giving 
regular service to different points in Arizona. In 1867, we find this notice 
in the Guardian of February 23: "For Montana. The trade with this ter- 
ritory is now opening up as it is expected that the snow will have disappeared 
by the time wagons from this point will have reached that part of the moun- 
tains that are snowclad. Last week two long trains started out and on 
Wednesday last another followed. May thev have a successful venture." 


In 1869 note is made of a shipment of fruit made to Arizona by Mr. 


The mountains pf San Bernardino were originally heavily timbered. 
The upper canyons and ravines were well covered with pine and spruce and 
this timber supply early attracted attention. The first mill of which we have 
record is mentioned by B. D. Wilson in his report on the Indians made to 
the government in 1852. He says: "In the San Bernardino mountains 
there is a single millsite claimed by Louis Vignes as lessee from the Mexican 
government for five years. I believe now occupied by Daniel Sexton in his 
name." This mill was located in the Mill Creek canon and was probably 


the first saw mill in the county. In 1854 the county records show the sale of 
the mill of Louis Vignes and Daniel Sexton to Julian Williams, (Col. Isaac 
Williams) for $1000. In 1859 Williams' heirs disposed of the"Chino Mill" 
to Len Nappy for $5000. 

The Mormons were in need of timber for their residences on their first 
arrival and early in 1852 built a road into the mountains and erected two 
and possibly three sawmills, within a few months. These were located on 
Seeley and Huston flats. One of these, which is on record in 1854 as the 
"Salamander Steam Saw Mill" was built by Lyman, Rich and Taylor, and 
after passing through various hands was known as the Davis Mill. In Nov- 
ember 1854, Captain Jefferson Hunt purchased of Charles Crisman, one-half 


of a certain steam sawmill, known as "Crisman's steam sawmill," for which 
lie paid $6000. 

As the timber on the lower flats was cut off mills were erected higher 
in the mountains and new roads were opened. Among the lumbermen of 
the sixties were J. M. James, who built the first circular steam sawmill ijj 
the county ; D. T. Huston who operated the "Clipper" sawmill for several 
years : W. N. La Praix, whose mill was located on Cedar Flats, and others. 
Timber hauled from the San Bernardino mountains to Los Angeles and 
coast points sold for $40.00 per M, and $15.00 per M was paid for hauling 
it about this time. 

In 1873, according to a report made to the State Board of Agriculture, 
there were four saw mills in the county which produced 3,000,000 feet of lum- 
ber and 500,000 shingles. In 1881 the assessment rolls give four steam saw- 
mills with an output of 400,000 feet of lumber and 500,000 shingles. In 1882, 
William La Praix, Tyler Brothers, E. Somers, Hudson & Taylor and Frank 
Talmadge were operating the saw mills, most of which were located in 
Devil's Canon. Lumber was freighted to San Bernardino by especially 
constructed lumber wagons- which carried from three to four thousand feet 
at a load. The season for lumbering in this district was short as the winters 
at this elevation are cold and the snowfall too deep to admit of work. 

During the boom years — 1886-1889 — the lumber men did a thriving 
business as it was impossible to get lumber out fast enough to supply the 
demand. There were then six mills operating with a capacity of five or six 
million feet per annum. At present there is, according to the report of the 
forest reserve examiners, a timber area of 249,000 acres in the San Ber- 
nardino mountains, 90,000 of which is classed as "first-class." The timber 
is principally yellow pine. The government does not own the best timber 
lands as they had been acquired by various lumber companies before the 
forest reserve was made. The Brookings Lumber Company of Highland, 
is now doing the heaviest lumber business. 


The first grist mills in the county were very primitive affairs erected at 
Chino and on the Santa Ana at Jurupa, known as Robidoux's mill. The 
large flour mill built by the Mormons was for many years the principal one 
in this part of the state and large quantities of flour were shipped from it to 
Arizona and other points. "Meeks" mill was built on Warm Creek near its 
juncture with the Santa Ana. in 1859 — this was later known as Mathews 
mill. A grist mill was also located at Rincon in early days. In 1873 the 
three grist mills in the county ground out 7,350 barrels of flour, according 
to a report made to the State Board of Agriculture. 

About 1858 the Cram Brothers began the manufacture of chairs, tables 



and chests of drawers at Old San Bernardino, using the Mill Creek zanja as 
power. A "breast" water wheel was put into the zanja and the machinery 
necessary was improvised as there was none to be obtained in the country 
at that time. The timber used was mostly the elders and willows growing 
along the zanja. This furniture, while very primitive in structure, was sub- 
stantial, and some of the chairs, at least, are still in use. It was sold in this 
vicinity and taken to neighboring settlements and to Los Angeles for sale. 
During the sixties and seventies, William McDonald manufactured cof- 
fins, and furniture and supplied the neighboring towns, some of his product 

H. M. Willis, W. J. Curtis, 

Judge Dist. Att'y 

Sydney P. Waite, 

County Clerk 

J. J. Rousseau. 

John Garner, 

John Mavfield, Harden 

Sheriff Treas 

Cornelius Jensen, 


Henrv (ioodcell, 

nes W. Waters, 

being shipped to Los Angeles. The firm of Tittle & Brodhurst, succeeding 
W. S. Tittle wdio began business in the early seventies, had one of the largest 
wagon manufactories outside of San Francisco in the state and their work 
was distributed over Southern California and as far east as Arizona. 

The Guardian of October 16, 1869, stated: "The enterprising firm of 
Rodgers & Kier have just completed and shipped to Arizona, on Tuesday 
last, 120 sets of harness, being a fit-out for twelve ten-mule teams ordered bv 
Mr. Arriola of Prescott. Another order for the same amount is now being 
filled by the same firm." 



Holcomb and Bear valleys were largely exploited during the sixties an'd 
more or less work continued to be done in their vicinity during the seventies. 
The Ivanpah district was first opened up about i860 and considerable 
amounts of silver were taken from its mines during these years. 

Considerable prospecting was done in Lytle Creek canon and both 
placer and hydraulic mining was carried on here and more or less gold taken 
out. There was also prospecting done in the Yucaipe valley. 

The Twenty-nine Palm and Panamint Districts began to come into 
prominence in the early seventies. The Borax mines of the Armogosa coun- 
try were first located about 1870 and at once began to yield a rich harvest. 
It was known that a rich tin mine existed at Temescal and the marble ledges 
near Colton had been uncovered but not worked to any extent. 

During the ten years from 1863 to 1873. $115,000 in bullion was shipped 
from San Bernardino by Wells Fargo, and this was doubtless but a small 
part of the entire output of the county. 

For further information see chapter on Mining. 


It is said that the first bees were brought into Los Angeles County about 
1856 and $150.00 was paid for the first stand. The first bees were brought 
into San Bernardino county about i860 by Lafayette Mecham, and Mrs 
Craft states that her husband, Ellison Robbins. paid $50.00 for a single stand 

San Bernardino with its extensive foothill and mountain bee "pastures^ 
was particularly well adapted to the business of honey making and the num- 
ber of bees multiplied rapidly. 

In 1872, it was estimated that about ten tons of honey were produced 
in the county. In 1874, Dr. Sheldon of San Bernardino was awarded the 
first prize at the St. Louis Fair for honey. And here San Bernardino honey 
was brought into competition with that from every other state in the Union. 

The sages, both white and black, are abundant in many localities in 
this county and the sage honey is universally acknowledged as superior to 
an\- other variety. The business of the apiarist is a pleasant and profitable 
one in a favorable season, but is too uncertain to be depended upon alone. 

The Census report of 1900 gives the county 5602 swarms of bees, but 
this census was taken in 1899, J us t after the drought when the stock had 
run very low. It is estimated that there are 17.000 stands in the county at' 
the present time. 



As has been seen, the Mormons established a school as soon as they 
reached the valley. With the organization of the county, several districts 
were established and schools were maintained from the first. The school 
buildings of this early period were mostly adobes, the furnishings were 
scanty and the organization crude. In 1858, six school districts were in ex- 
istence; in 1861 the number had increased to nine. In 1862, Ellison Robbins, 
then County Superintendent, held the first Educational Convention ever con- 
vened in the county. During the seventies a number of new and very credit- 
able school houses were built, and the schools made decided advance both in 
attendance and effectiveness. (See chapter on Schools.) 


This city which had been incorporated, as we have seen in 1854. was 
disincorporated, March 6, 1863, and did not again have a corporate existence 
until 1869, when it was reincorporated as a town. 

In 1858, there were three stores in San Bernardino — Jacob's General 
Store (which later became Meyerstein's), on the corner of C and Fourth 
streets; Calisher's on the N. E. corner of C and Fourth, and Lewis Anckers' 
store on Third street. Brazleton's livery stable was then the only estab- 
lishment of that kind, and Pine's, which later became Starke's Hotel, was 
opened. Dr. Barton had established his drug store which was followed by 
a store kept by Dr. Peacock. 

A writer in the Los Angeles Star, thus describes San Bernardino in 
1866: "There are from eighteen to twenty large stores, well stocked with 
goods; two large hotels — Pine's and Miller's; a saddler's — Foy; livery stable 
and apothecary's shop. The Court House is a neat, well arranged one-story 
building and is well cared for." 

A correspondent of the Wilmington News, for the same year, gives this 
description of the appearance of San Bernardino and vicinity: 

"Large trains of wagons are constantly arriving and departing for Salt 
Lake, La Paz and other points in Arizona. The whole appearance of the 
town is that of progression. Some of the finest stock I have seen in the 
lower country, I have seen in and around San Bernardino. The Wilming- 
ton and Yuma stage established by Banning, has given quite an impetus to 
this town. Brick buildings are taking the place of adobe." 

The first brick block in the city is said to have been put up by W. H. 
Stewart, in 1867, on the corner of Third and D streets. 

During the sixties there seems to have been considerable social activity 


in the little frontier town. The San Bernardino Dramatic Association was 
organized in 1859 and for a number of years furnished the citizens with 
amusement. A Temperance Association was also organized the same year, 
which "it is hoped will prove of lasting benefit to all those who need its in- 
fluence. On Tuesday last, O. S. Sparks delivered a temperance lecture in 
the school house. It has seldom been the privilege of our citizens to listen 
to a more beautiful or more eloquent oration," writes the correspondent of 
the Los Angeles News. The officers were. N. Vise, president ; O. S. Sparks, 
vice-president: N. C. Fordham. secretary: William Pickett, treasurer. 

A Library Association was formed under the title "San Bernardino 
Association," with H. G. Sherwood, president; D. N. Smith, secretary and 

The first newspaper seems to have been the San Bernardino Herald, 
Tnder the editorial management of J. Judson Ames, which made its first ap- 
pearance June 16, i860. In 1861 J. S. Waite became the editor. The San 
Bernardino Patriot was established about the same time and died in the 
spring of 1862. The Guardian made its first appearance in Februarv. 
1867, H. Hamilton, editor, succeeded by E. A. Nisbet, and the Argus, Will 
D. Gould, f-ditor, appeared in 1873. 

Efforts were made to secure telegraphic connection with Los Angeles in 
the early sixties when the first telegraphic communication was established 
at that place but were unsuccessful. Fourth of July celebrations. May Day 
picnics and balls, both public and private, seem to have been very popular. 
Watermans Springs, the Arrowhead Springs and hotel were the popular 

A Union Sunday School had been started about 1858. and was main- 
tained for many years. Early in the sixties a Congregational church was' 
organized and not long afterward a Methodist church. The Latter Day 
Saints maintained regular services, their first church having been located near 
corner of Second and Utah streets. A Catholic church was built about 1865 
but was destroyed by fire. In 1871 a new church, then one of the finest in 
the country was dedicated. 

The two adobe rooms which had served as school rooms during the 
Mormon period continued to be used until the erection of the two-story 
brick school building in 1874. Several private schools were maintained in 
San Bernardino in early days. Many of our older citizens will remember 
the tall, stern, yet kindly Captain J. P. C. Allsop. who had a private school 
here, located on Fifth street between Grafton and Canal, from 1862 until 
1867. Mrs. E. A. Nisbet also kept a school, and in 1873 Prof. C. R. Paine 
opened his Academy and Business College. 

In 1866. there were two different companies operating stages between 
San Bernardino and Los Angeles. The Banning Company was running a 
weekly stage from Wilmington to Yuma via San Bernardino and the U. S. 


Mail Company sent weekly stages to La Paz, A. T. In 1867 a weekly stage 
was started between San Diego and this city, via Temecula and San Luis 
Rey and was kept up for several years. For fuller account of the stage 
station period of San Bernardino's history see chapter IX. 

During the year 1871 a number of "elegant and substantial" buildings 
were put up. Among these were, the store of William McDonald, a two- 
story brick, 23 by 70 feet.' This was built to accommodate his furniture 
business, which at this time was one of the most extensive interests of the 
town. Furniture and coffins Were shipped from this establishment to Los 
Angeles, and to all parts of Southern California. Judge Boren built a hand- 
some store building on the corner of Fourth and Utah (D), to be occupied 
by Meyerstein's General Store — one of the largest establishments in the 
country. The Masonic Hall, built this year, was the finest structure yet put 
up in San Bernardino. It stood on Utah street and was 27 by 80 feet, two 
stories, of brick, with an imitation stone front. Most elaborate services 
were held at the laying of the corner stone of this building — the first Masonic 
Hall, built especially for the purpose in this part of the state. 

The "Resources of San Bernardino," published by Arthur Kearney in 
1873, notes: "The Catholic church, the new school house, the Masonic 
Hall, Mr. "Water's building and Miller's Hotel, are costly and creditable 
structures, and so is the Boren block on Fourth street. The wagon manu- 
factory of Tittle & Brodhurst, on Utah street is one of the most complete 
of the kind in Southern California — even Los Angeles patronizes it. The 
furniture house of McDonald is also an elegant establishment. The 
private residences of Judge Boren and Mr. Jacobs are also costly and 

In 1873, San Bernardino was put into telegraphic communication with 
the outer world by the completion of a line from Anaheim. The office was 
established in the Boren block. 


The first effort to secure telegraphic communication with the outside 
world was made in i860 when the telegraph wires first reached Los Angeles. 
A meeting was called at Dr. Barton's drug store and a committee w-as ap- 
pointed to raise funds to build a line between San Bernardino and Los An- 
geles. Evidently the citizens of the town felt that two stage lines a week 
could supply all the news they cared for, as nothing seems to have resulted 
from the meeting. 

In 1873. however, when the railroad had brought the telegraphic wires 
as far as Anaheim, the citizens were more ready to act: After many discus- 
sions and some dissension of opinion, the bonus, $2500.00, demanded by the 
Western Union Company, was raised, principally through the efforts of 



Judge A. D. Boren and Meyerstein & Co. September 18th, 1873, the line 
was completed and the first message was sent out from San Bernardino, by 
De La M. Woodward, who acted as operator, and as president of the board 
of town trustees, dictated the first message. 

The Argus of this date says: "Telegraphs are the percursers of railroads, 
and consequently the advance guard of the grand and invincible army of 
progress and universal prosperity. Let us rejoice, and in our rejoicing let 
no dissension mar the festivities of so important an epoch in the history of 
our embryo city. The following dispatches were sent and received last 
night : 

"San Bernardino, Sept. 18, 1873, To Horton, founder ot San Diego — 
The telegraph line from Anaheim to this city has just been completed. As 
the interests of San Diego and San Bernardino are mutual, we extend to your 
thriving city the hand of fellowship, hoping that the iron rail may soon con- 
nect our thriving city with the rising metropolic of the Pacific Coast. 
De la M. Woodward, 

President Board of Town Trustees.'' 
"San Diego, Sept. 18. 
"De La M. Woodward, President Board of Trustees, San Bernardino: 

"Your telegram just received. 
Allow us to congratulate you on 
being thus brought intimately 
into connection with the world. 
We appreciate your sentiments 
with regard to our mutual inter- 
ests and earnestly await the day 
when we can return the compli- 
ment in person by the railroad. 
Allow us to shake hands through 
the medium of the telegraph. 
Our little city by the sea extends 
to you and to the citizens of San 
Bernardino, her best wishes for 
your success and future pros- 
perity. A. E. Horton." 

Telegrams were also received 
from the citizens of Anaheim, the 
World and Union of San Diego; 
C. A. Wetmore and from the Alta, 
of San pTancisco. On the same 
ut la montaigne woodward day a tele&ram announced that 

forty miles of the San Diego and Arizona Military line had been completed 
the same date. 



Between 1865 and 1875, San Bernardino was kept in a state of almost 
constant agitation upon the subject of railroads. It was inevitable that a 
transcontinental line would some time enter Southern California, and the 
probabilities were largely in favor of either the San Gorgonio or Cajon Passes 
as the gateway for admission. Railway connection with Wilmington and 
Los Angeles and with San Diego was also certain, yet year after year passecl 
by and rumors, organizations, surveys and talk all had no practical results. 
The Texas Pacific, the Narrow Gauge Coast line, the Narrow Gauge 
between San Diego and San Bernardino, the Los Angeles and Independence, 
and a dozen other projects loomed up and faded out of existence, although 
in a number of cases work was actually begun. 

The growth of San Bernardino county and city was slow during these 
years of waiting; there was no rushing in any direction — the citizens mostly 
seem to have been satisfied with an ideal climate, a comfortable living and 
existing conditions. Yet both the county and the town made substantial 
progress, as has been seen. 

In April, 1874. the Southern Pacific road reached Spadra, twenty-five 
miles east of Los Angeles, and there came to a standstill. The next move 
appeared uncertain and San Bernardino watched for it anxiously. There 
were various railroad meetings, much discussion and great hopes. It was 
not until fall that the railroad officials got around to San Bernardino and 
then they offered little encouragement. The town was off their direct route, 
and they could not afford to deflect a transcontinental line, thev said. When 
it began to be hinted that the depot might be located at Colton rather than 
San Bernardino, the citizens seem to have regarded this as too absurd for 
serious consideration. Later, after conferences with the Southern Pacific 
officials, San Bernardino found that she might "get left." but she still ridi- 
culed the idea of a rival town at Colton. It was a serious blow to the hopes 
of the county seat when the depot was finally built at Colton. yet from the 
coming of the railroad must be dated a new era in the growth and prosperitv 
of San Bernardino county. 

In 1874, San Bernardino began to take on city airs. The new Court 
House — now the "Old Court House" — was built and was the pride of the 
county, although there had been much discussion and a good deal of opposi- 
tion to the "excessive expense" before the plans and location were agreed 
upon. With the approach of the railroad, the influx of many strangers, and 
the numerous improvements entered upon, there was a change of spirit in 
the "Forest City." The Guardian in an editorial thus expatiates: 

"San Bernardino lay dormant too long. Shrouded in her isolation, like 


a pretty girl's face behind a veil, the outside world was in ignorance of her 
healthful and fertile valley, her matchless climate and her gold ribbed moun- 
tains. Besides, while population was sparse, San Bernardino was too far 
from 'Frisco to attract much attention. And, then, Los Angeles with her 
beautiful groves and fertile fields stood like a smiling syren, with open arms 
to welcome every stranger who came along. But all this is changed. Emi- 
grants are pouring across the mountains by thousands — coming in search 
of cheap lands, and invalids in search of rejuvenating climate. We ought to 
and will secure our share of this population. Again, money is becoming 
more plentiful, and capital can wish for no more profitable nor sure specu- 
lative field than this county. But. it is idle to expect that people, whether 
men in search of land, or men in search of investment, will come by chance. 
They must be informed of the advantages which we hold out to them — of 
our waste lands and their fertility. our facilities for manufactures, our un- 
developed mines, our immense forests — in short of the countless opportuni- 
ties open alike to wealth and work." 

A fuller account of railroad matters will be found in the chapter on 


PROGRESSION— 1 875- 1 885. 

The coming of the Southern Pacific railroad did not bring the immediate 
and unbounded prosperity that had been predicted. It put an end practic- 
allv to the freighting business and the trade with Arizona and largely de- 
creased the trade of all stage stations. But stage travel and post routes were 
still necessary in many directions. A stage line between San Bernardino 
and Colton and Riverside was kept up for many years. A stage made regu- 
lar trips between the county seat and Lugonia and Redlands until the com- 
pletion of the railroad to those points in 1888. 

The merchants of San Bernardino found that goods could be shipped 
to Anaheim Landing by steamer and hauled from there by mule team cheaper 
than they could be brought to Colton by the railroad. And the "mule line" 
was patronized until the Southern Pacific reduced their rates to meet the 

In 1882 the California Southern road reached Colton, and in 1883 the 
first train entered San Bernardino. In 1885 the branch line to Waterman was 
completed, thus giving San Bernardino a second transcontinental route. 

Fares from the east continued to be high even after the completion of 
the railroad and new settlers did not come in rapidly during this decade. 
Still there was a steady and healthy growth in all directions. The county 
had a population of 7,786 in 1880. In assessed valuation the county in- 


creased from $1,339,377. m ^70, to $3,159,456 in 1880, and $11,189,842 in 
1885. Thus it will be seen that San Bernardino county had really begun to 


This decade marked the beginning of the great horticultural epoch in 
this valley. In 1873 there were, according to statistics gathered by the 
State Board of Agriculture, 7,111 orange trees in this county. In 1879, the 
value of the fruit products of the county is given as $56,612. By 1881 their 
value had increased to $106,457, while the number of orange trees was given 
as 15,435. For 1885, 1,018, 517 fruit trees are reported for the county of 
which 214,513 were orange trees. Thus the era of orange planting was fully 
upon us. The large increase in acreage of fruit trees was largely due to the 
number of new settlements developed during these years. The completion 
of the Southern Pacific road to Colton in 187^ marked the foundation of that 
town which grew rapidly and set out a considerable acreage before 1880. In 
1883, the colony of Etiwanda was established and the work of development 
begun here. The same year the Chaffev Brothers purchased the land and 
laid out the model colony of Ontario, which at once proved a success, and set 
out a large acreage of groves, orchards and vineyards. At the same time 
Richard Gird was making extensive improvements on his lately purchased 
Chino Rancho, especially along the line of improved stock. (See chapter 
on Agriculture.) 


In 1876, San Bernardino supported seventeen mercantile houses, several 
groceries and provision stores, four drug stores, three boot and shoe estab- 
lishments, four jewelry, two furniture and four cigar and tobacco establish- 
ments, two steam planing mills, two door and sash factories, twelve saloons, 
one hank — Meyerstein's ; two hotels — Starke's and Pine's — and four flouring 
mills in and about the city. 

During 1878-79 the town suffered from several disastrous fires. At 
one time a considerable portion of the business district was burned over. 
The fruit store of R. I. Trask, a millinery store, the offices of Drs. Rene and 
Campbell and of Justice Morris, the Boston Bakery, the shoe shop of John 
McCall, and the Lone Star Saloon were among the establishments burned 
out. All of these but one were frame buildings and were later replaced by 
more substantial structures. One of the worst of these fires was that which 
consumed the O. K. stables, when a number of buildings were destroyed 
and several fine horses were burned to death. 

In 1879, the Santa Fe representatives were induced to visit San Ber- 
nardino and to examine the Cajon Pass as a possible route for their proposed 
transcontinental line. As a result of the negotiations of this vear, the Cali- 


fornia Southern road was built from San Diego through the San Bernardino 
valley and on September 13th, 1883, the first railroad train arrived in San 
Bernardino, an event which aroused great rejoicing. The coming of the 
road gave an impetus to the town and new buildings and projects multiplied. 
In 1883 the theater was erected by Messrs. Waters and Brinkmeyer, 
and was then the most complete theater building on the coast outside of San 
Francisco. In 1882 a telephone service was established between the Trans- 
continental Hotel at Colton and Starke's Hostelry at San Bernardino. It 
was inaugurated by a concert, the Misses Bufford singing and the band play- 
ing. Riverside and Redlands were also reached by this line which was under 
the management of Mr. R. T. Blow. Its working was, however, never very 


The first franchise for gas works was let to Wm. Farrel & Co., in 1873. 
This company purchased a lot opposite Starke's garden and erected a plant. 
But the quality of the gas furnished did not prove satisfactory and the plant 
was soon shut down. 

In 1881 the National Gas Company of New York, secured a franchise 
and put in an extensive plant. November 2nd, 1881, the city was first lighted 
by gas, and the Times of that date declares : "Gas under the new dispensa- 
tion is a brilliant success as was abundantly made manifest last evening. 
The brilliancy of light from many places of business and residences was 
equal to an illumination. It is a light, soft, pure, clear, and brilliant. Its 
power and diffusive qualities, united with its other good merits, make it a 
marvel among the successes of artificial illumination. The exhibition of its 
effects last evening was highly gratifying to the throngs of our public streets, 
to our citizens in their residences, to our guests at the hotels, and to those 
enjoying the charms of the dance or the delights of social intercourse." And 
after all that, it is only a year or two before the Times is kicking vigorously 
about the poor gas and without doubt protesting every bill of $5.00 per 

1885-1890— EXPANSION— THE BOOM. 

Historian Guinn says that the first California "boomer" was Viscaino, 
who visited this coast in 1603, and lied most cheerfully about what he fonnd.' 
The Santa Monica Outlook claims that Lieutenant Derby, who was stationed 
at San Diego in the forties and wrote of the climatic conditions of that port 
with a vigor that attracted attention, was the first Souther California 

Perhaps the most consistent and effective boomer who ever boosted or 



boasted San Bernardino county, was L. M. Holt. As editor of the Southern 
California Horticulturist, the Riverside Press and Horticulturist, the Orange 
Belt, the Times-Index and other papers, he did good service in exploit- 
ing- the resources of this coun- 
try and in spreading- knowl- 
edge concerning ways and means 
that would win success, especially 
in fruit raising. It was largely 
due to his energy that the Citrus 
Fair in Chicago in 1886 was suc- 
cessfully carried through and 
opened the eyes of thousands to 
the new "golden era" in Califor- 

He has been closely seconded 
as a "boomer" by Scipio Craig, 
who, as editor of the Colton 
Semi-Tropic and of the Redlands 
Citrograph, has for years written 
and worked incessantly to make 
known to the world the advan- 
tages of this county in particu- 
lar and "South California" in 
general. No man has done more 
towards advancing our home in- 
dustries. Many others have labored earnestly to build up the reputation of 
San Bernardino County and to develop its advantages to the full. 

The completion of the Santa Fe line to the east in 1885 gave California 
a competing line to the Missouri river and in 1886 followed a rate war which 
led to what Charles F. Lummis calls the "Pullman conquest" of California. 
To most eastern people California had been a far-away, vague and beautiful 
dream — something that might only come true for the wealthy — the globe- 
trotter; but the sudden fall of rates — $25.00 with a rebate and even lower 
figures — unexpectedly brought the journey to California within their grasp 
and thousands siezed the opportunity and realized their dream. The "boom" 
was precipitated by the rate war which followed the dissolution of the Trans- 
continental Traffic Association January, 1886. Rates were slashed merci- 
lessly — both on passenger and freight traffic, all the other roads combining 
against the Atchison System which had first withdrawn from the pool. The 
cutting of rates lasted for many months and the old high figures were never 
fully restored. How many thousands of people visited California during 
the two years of 1886 and '87. it is now a difficult matter to determine, but 
the number ran into the hundred thousands. 


The flood of visitors thus poured into California saw what soil, water 
and climate, utilized by intelligent industry, had accomplished at Riverside, 
Redlands, Anaheim, Santa Ana. and many other points. They saw that 
California was still a "land of gold" — gold dug from the ground and trans- 
muted into currency by the orange tree — and the "boom" was on. This 
"boom" which began in the spring of 1886 was a remarkable example of the 
contagious excitement which sometimes sweeps through a community and 
deprives men of their reason and good sense. Pioneer, "tenderfoot," pro- 
moter and farmer alike lost their heads and apparently believed that the 
possession of California soil, with the remotest possibility of water, was a 
sure road to fortune. 

At first established orchards, ranches, and lots changed hands with un- 
wonted rapidity and prices leaped upwards by the hundreds of dollars. Soon 
the rise was by thousands of dollars and people began buying for investment 
and then for speculation. Then came the syndicate-colonization craze. Land 
almost anywhere was platted into tracts and lots and advertised as the "com- 
ing metropolis." Stores, residences and hotels were erected, or at least 
begun ; auction sales were the favorite method of doing business ; excursions, 
free lunches, band concerts and free carriage rides were among the induce- 
ments and often a lottery of one or more houses or lots — to be given away 
under certain conditions — helped to increase the fever. Men and women 
rushed by the thousands to each new scheme, standing in line for hours — 
sometimes even all night — awaiting their chance to purchase lots in some 
new sub-division located miles from anywhere. 

February 24, 1886, a "Grand Excursion and Auction Sale of Real Estate," 
was advertised in San Bernardino, which may be taken as a fair sample of 
the earlier stages of the boom. Free drives, free lunch, free fruit and a con- 
tinuous band concert were among the inducements. 

In and about San Bernardino many additions and suburbs were offered 
for sale. Fairbanks,' Everts', Owen's, Christy's additions ; Urbita, St. Elmo, 
Daley, the Hart tract — these were a few of the many. Outside of the city, 
Redlands, Lugonia, Beaumont, South Riverside, East Riverside, Rialto, the 
Barton tract, Terracina, Auburndale, Allessandro, Banning — were among the 
settlements originated during the "boom" period. 

It was believed that the rush of tourists that so flooded the countrv in 
'86 and '87 was to become a permanent situation and preparations were made 
accordingly. Every town or settlement projected had its "boom" hotel, large, 
well-fitted, surrounded by carefully laid-out grounds, the whole thing ridicu- 
lously out of proportion to its environment. An interesting chapter might 
be written on the history of these boom hotels. When "the ball was over" 
they remained desolate reminders of unrealized expectations. A large num- 
ber of them burned down in the next few years — indeed there seemed to be 
an epidemic of fires among this class of buildings. Some of them were converted 


into school houses or "colleges," others torn down for their lumber, and a 
few are still in use as hotels and are a constant wonder to the new-comer 
who cannot understand how a building suited to a city, got lost in a fruit 

The advertisements of the "boomers" were another curious feature of 
the times. Every sort of extravagance was resorted to. Aside from news- 
paper space, which was used by the page, circulars, handbills, booklets and 
every description of printed matter known — excursions, with auctions, lot- 
teries, prizes, etc., fakes, frauds and stool pigeons of every sort were resorted 
to in the latter frenzy of speculation which was engineered by professional 

Here is a specimen which ran in the San Bernardino Times during Sep- 
tember, '87: "Boom! Of All the Booming Booms in the Booming City 
of S. B., the Boomiest Boom is the Boom of the Hart Tract — the Garden-spot 
of Beautiful Base Line. Fourteen prizes aggregating $16,000. First thirty 
lots will be sold for $750 each ; the remaining forty lots. $850 each. Buy early 
and make $100." 

Another advertiser drops into poetry. From a column ad we quote: 

"We will come to the land where the olives grow, 

Wrote the tenderfoot to his friend ; 
Where the sun with a golden mouth can blow 

Blue bubbles down a vineyard row ! 
Wrote the tenderfoot to his friend. 

We are weary of work in this sunless plain, 

Wrote the grasshopper blighted man. 
We are weary of work in the snow and the rain — 

Where to labor is loss, and to live is pain. 
Wrote the grasshopper blighted man. 

Our pen is poor and our ink is pale. 

As they were in the school-day rhyme ; 
But our love for the land will never fail. 

And who buys our lots will never bewail 
The investment of his dimes." 

A comparison of the assessment rolls illustrates more forcibly than 
words can do the effect of the boom in San Bernardino county. In 1880 the 
valuation was $3,680,745: in 1885, it was $11,189,842: in 1886, it was $13,- 
309.750: in 1887 it was $23,000,000. The census showed a population in the 
county of 7.786 in 1880: in 1890 this had become 25,497. San Bernardino, 
the city, had a population of 1.675 in 1880. and 4,012 in 1890. 


Expansion in every line and development of every resource of course 
followed such an increase of wealth and population. Bear Valley reservoir 
and water system, the most important in the county, was carried to comple- 
tion and a large acreage put under irrigation and set out in fruit. The 
Gage canal at Riverside was finished in 1888. The Riverside water system 
was largely increased and the South Riverside system constructed. A num- 
ber of smaller water companies were organized and began active develop- 
ment both of water and orchards. The acreage of orange trees multiplied 
very rapidly. 

The railroads kept pace with other growth. Many branch lines were 
built and improvements in rolling stock and service were made. Several 
lines of street railway were constructed in the county, but the most import- 
ant transportation movement of the time was the building of the various 
motor lines — forerunners of the present electric service. The line from Col- 
ton to San Bernardino was first put into operation and later the lines Lo 
Riverside and to Redlands gave a great impetus to communication between 
these points. 

Many large and costly public buildings, business blocks and residences 
were erected which proved in advance of the need, yet, although the un- 
natural excitement and increase of values necessarily reacted and a period 
of depression followed. The "boom" was certainly responsible for great 
material improvements which would not have appeared for years in the 
natural course of events. As L. M. Holt justly summed it up in the Orange 

"It is true that during the boom years of '86-'87, there was a considerable 
amount of wild speculation that had little or no foundation. Acre property 
was cut into town lots where no town lots ought to be. Dry land was =ofrl 
at high figures regardless of prospective irrigation, or whether or not the 
land would ever be productive. The question of production was never dis- 
cussed. The only argument used for the time being that the property could 
be bought today for $2000 and sold next week for $3000, or in a few weeks 
for $5000. And yet during this wild speculative craze there was established 
many solid improvements that have since been turned to good use in build- 
ing up the country and making it attractive to eastern people who are seek- 
ing homes in our midst. 

"There is no section in this state or in the United States where good 
cement sidewalks in cities and towns begin to compare with those of South- 
ern California. There is no other section where cities and towns have so 
good a supply and system of domestic water service, it frequently being 
found that the domestic piped water system under pressure is established 
before there are people to use the water. There is no other section where 
there are so many rapid transit motor railroads that stop at any point on the 


line to pick up passengers and yet make schedule time, including stoppages, 
oi fifteen to twenty miles an hour. 

"The boom was not an evil in all respects. During that period of in- 
tense speculative excitement there were many foolish things done and many 
men lost money. But as a whole there was more money made than lost and 
the country as a whole forged to the front in a manner that could not be 
equalled under any other circumstances in less than several decades." 


Although the "boom" has passed and gone, San Bernardino County has 
continued to advance, if not with such phenomenal rapidity as during the 
previous ten years, still with long and steady strides. The county of today 
stands upon a firm basis of accomplished results ; her resources are becoming 
known: her possibilities are more clearly understood; her wealth and pros- 
perity are assured. 

During 1890 and for two or three years succeeding, the "wildcat" de- 
velopments of the Bear Valley Irrigation Company and the anticipated com- 
pletion of the extensive Arrowhead system, induced the formation of several 
Irrigation Districts and other projects which had little foundation for success 
and naturally met with disaster. Of the various Districts formed in the 
county under the Wright act, nearly all have now gone out of existence as 
Districts. The Rialto District has become a prosperous settlement. Alles- 
sandro and Grapeland have not yet recovered from the setback then received. 

*The extensive development of artesian water, particularly during the 
late dry seasons, has been of great benefit to the county. It is estimated 
that in 1899 alone, between three and four thousand inches of water were 
thus brought into use. Many of these wells flow, but a large number of 
them are pumped, electricity being used as power. The Journal of Engineer- 
ing states : "Among the records of the Interior Department there was one 
made in the fall of 1902, carefully covering the territory under irrigation 
from electrically operated pumps in San Bernardino. valley, and it was there 
conclusively shown that the amount of water thus made available for use 
for irrigation covered one-half as much ground again as that covered by the 
natural flow of the streams from the power of which the electricity is gen- 

tThe large increase in citrus fruit acreage and the successful suppression 
of fruit pests, together with" the fact that the citrus belt of the valley is prac- 
tically frostless and that the supply of water for irrigation has never fallen 
short, has placed the county in the front rank of fruit counties 


*Our mineral resources have been largely uncovered and the production 
greatly increased within the past fifteen years. f But the greatest advance 
within this period has been in the creative industries and in the utilization 
of raw material. The first large manufacturing enterprise in this county 
was the Chino Beet Sugar factory, which was erected in 1891. This industry 
has benefited not only the stockholders, the railroads and the laborers, but 
has put a large amount of money into the hands of the farmers of this and 
adjoining counties. The amount of wealth created and distributed by this 
factory since it went into operation counts up into the millions and a large 
part of it has remained in the county. The plant itself cost in the neighbor- 
hood of a million dollars. In 1902, it was estimated that half a million dollars 
was paid to the beet raisers. During the season, the pay roll of the factory 
averages $20,000 per month. 

The wonderful development and utilization of electricity produced by 
the water power of our streams is a factor of incalculable value in the 
progress of this county. The plants of the Edison Electric Company repre- 
sent an outlay of at least $1,200,000, and have given employment to large 
forces of men in their construction. The Company also employs a consid- 
erable force of men aside from the various industries promoted by the power 
thus supplied. This available electricity has given San Bernardino County 
as complete and fine a suburban service as many large cities enjoy. The 
towns and rural communities of the valley have thus been united and busi- 
ness of every kind greatly facilitated. As a direct result of the cheapness of 
her electrical power, one of the largest Ice factories in the West has been 
located at Mentone. 

JThe California Portland Cement Company of Colton has established 
one of the most important productive industries of the county. Their plant 
located at Slover Mountain represents an estimated value of $1,000,000. 
They now produce 450 barrels of cement per day, and the capacity is soon 
to be increased to 1000 barrels per day. They employ from one to two 
hundred men, and their various outputs foot up to half a million dollars per 

§ Another very important industry is that of the Pacific Coast Borax 
Company, located in the eastern part of the county. The average annual 
product of their mines is $500,000, and their annual expenditure is $250,000. 
They employ over one hundred men in the county. 

|| The Brookings Lumber Company has an extensive plant at Fredalba 
Park, with a capacity of 50,000 feet of lumber per day, most of which is made 
into fruit boxes at their factory at Highland. This company is the chief 
producer of this class of material in Southern California. 




The first public building in the county was the Mormon Council House, 
which was used as the County Court House for some years. The first build- 
ing erected by the county was a jail, built in 1858. About the same year, the 

county rented a one- 
story brick residence 
built by Q. S. Sparks 
and located on the 
corner of Fifth and E 
streets. Here the 
county business was 
transacted until 1862, 
when the Supervisors 
purchased the "ele- 
gant" residence of Mr. 
Charles Glasier, which 
stood on the site occu- 
pied by the present 
Court House. This 
building was used un- 
til the erection of the 
"old" Court House in 
About 1872-73. the matter of a new Court House began to be discussed. 
Many citizens were opposed to the old location, and it was proposed that the 
site be changed to one near the public square. Public meetings were held, 
and a lot was purchased, but the majority of voters petitioned that the Court 
House remain on the old site, and eventually the new building was placed 
on the lot already owned by the county. Court Street had not then been 
opened, and E street was then Salt Lake. A two-story wooden building, 
costing $25,000, was put up which was, at the time, one of the best structures 
of its kind in the state, and it answered the needs of the county until the 
erection of the present Court House. 

In 1887 the Supervisors submitted to the people a proposition to vote 
bonds to the amount of $125,000 for building a County Jail and rebuilding 
the Court House. This proposal met with strong opposition, as it was de- 
clared that the sum was not sufficient to put up such a building as the county 
needed, and there were strong objections to the site. The Supervisors then 
proposed a bond issue of $75,000 for a Hall of Records, — this, too, was voted 
down, and the county officials then proceeded to levy a tax of $40,000 to build 
the Hall of Records. This plan met with strenuous opposition, and the talk 
of change of county seat and of county division dated from its inception. The 
Supervisors, however, proceeded with the work, and in 1891 completed the 
handsome, fireproof and earthquake-proof building which now contains the 



county records. The building- is of Colton marble and Mentone sandstone, 
and is well built and substantial in every particular, and well adapted for its 

Bond propositions to raise money for the erection of a Court House and 
Jail were twice voted down, and the fight was hot and long; but the redoubt- 
able Board of Supervisors, Messrs. J. N. Victor, I. W. Lord. J. C. Turner and 
Win. H. Randall, proceeded to levy direct taxes and to let the bids for the 
work on the Court House. The people declared that the sums expended were 
extravagant and unnecessary, but the work proceeded, slowly but surely, and 
when the building was completed in 1898, it was, with the exception of the 
State Insane Asylum, the finest structure in the county and is one of the most 
complete and convenient courthouses in the state. It is a handsome struc- 
ture, built of Mentone sandstone with trimmings of Colton marble and Sespe 
sandstone, stone floors, iron stairways and spacious hallways and rooms. The 
design is dignified and altogether it is a source of pride to the citizens of the 
county, and as it is paid for. with no bonds or interest to meet, there is a 
general feeling of satisfaction that the work is done and the county in pos- 
session of ample and adequate buildings for many years to come. 


Prior to i8qo the only state institutions in the southern section of the 
state were the Reform School at Whittier and the Normal School at Los 
Angeles. During the session of the Legislature of 1889, a bill was introduced 
and passed providing for the erection of an Insane Asylum in one of the 
five southern counties of the state and a board of commissioners, one from 
each of the counties, was appointed. The Commission was made up of M. 
S. Severance, Los Angeles; James Kier, San Jacinto; K. P. Grant, Ventura: 
W. N. Hawley, Santa Barbara; Joseph Brown, San Bernardino. Proposi- 
tions without end for the location of the institution were examined into by 
this board. Nearly every town and section in the five counties had some site 
to offer. But the commission finally decided to purchase 360 acres of the 
Daley Tract at Highlands, with sixty inches of water from the North Fork 
Ditch, the consideration being $114,000. 

The bill providing for the establishment of the asylum appropriated 
$350,000 for the purchase of the site and the erection of the main building 
and north and west wings, which were first completed. The bill also pro- 
vided for the appointment by the governor of a board of five trustees, all to 
lie Southern California men. three to be appointed for two years and two for 
four years, and thereafter all appointments to be for a term of four years. 
Another provision of the bill was that it authorized the board to select an 
architect to prepare the plans of the building, and also appoint another com- 
petent architect to act as superintendent of construction. 



The true responsibility in the erection of a building of this character 
rests with the board of trustees and when the governor selected as such board 
Messrs. H. L. Drew, E. F. Spence, M. A. Murphy, John Andreson and H. A. 
Palmer, the public gave itself no further concern about the matter. It was a 
foregone conclusion that the affairs attendant upon the erection of the 
asylum would be honestly and economically administered, and that each 
member of the board would bring his fine business training and intelligent 
knowledge of affairs to bear upon the matter and the trust reposed in them 
by the state would receive the same careful attention as if it were a private 

enterprise in which the individ- 
ual fortunes of the trustees were 
embarked. The sagacity of these 
gentlemen was first shown in the 
employment of Messrs. Curleit & 
Eisen of Los Angeles and San 
Francisco to draw the plans and 
specifications, and the appoint- 
ment of Mr. T. H. Goff of San 
Bernardino as superintendent of 
construction to see that the plans 
and specifications were faithfully 
and honestly carried out. 

The board of trustees were for- 
tunate in that the lowest responsi- 
ble bidder in the erection of the 
work was Mr. Peter Crichton of 
San Francisco. 

December 15, 1890, the corner 
stone of the building was laid 
with appropriate ceremonies 
under the auspices of the Grand 
Lodge F. and A. M. of Califor- 
nia, Governor Waterman and staff being present, and the exercises were 
followed by the most elaborate banquet ever spread in San Bernardino 

The first building was completed in 1893. It was built in the most sub- 
stantial manner and was fully equipped with a complete water and sewer 
service, electric plant and all modern conveniences. It was opened August 
1st, 1893, 100 patients being brought from the north to start with. Dr. M. 
B. Campbell was appointed superintendent, a position which he ably filled 
until September, 1904. A completely equipped farm, extensive orchards and 
grounds are largely cared for by inmates, who are thus healthfully and use- 
fully employed. 




In 1902 an appropriation was made to complete another wing of the 
building, and this was finished in 1903 at a cost of $250,000. 

The buildings, now accommodate more than eight hundred inmates. 
The monthly pay roll of the establishment is $4,100, and the annual expend- 
iture for the asylum is given as $138,000. 

The present board of managers are : E. P. Clark, Riverside ; John H. 
McGonigle, Ventura; J. W. A. Off, Los Angeles; H. B. Wilson, Redlands, 
and G. P. Adams, Los Angeles. 


In February, 1893, the Associated Charities of San Bernardino City, Mrs. 
Robert F. Garner, President ; Mrs. Laura P. Bidgood, Secretary and Treas- 
urer ; Mrs. Olive Byrne, Vice President, and Mrs. F. M. Johnson, Lewis 
Jacobs, S. F. Zombro and H. Goodcell, trustees, decided to opeu an Orphan's 
Home. Accordingly the lease of the Hart place on the corner of C street and 
Base Line, was secured. This, which was one 
of the oldest and most beautiful places in the 
city, comprised an acre of ground, set with 
fruit trees of many kinds and with an abund- 
ance of shade and room for playgrounds. Some 
alterations were made in the house, and the 
Home was opened with about twenty chil- 
dren, most of whom were transferred from 
the Orphan's Home at Los Angeles. Children 
were received here from San Bernardino 
County and San Diego County, particularly. 
In 1896, it was necessary to enlarge the build- 
ing and it was refitted with modern conven- 
iences and made more suitable for the purpose 
for which it was used. In 1899 it was char- 
tered and incorporated by the state, and it 
now draws funds from the state for the sup- 
port of all orphans. There are, at present, 
about twenty-five children in the institution, who are being educated and 
cared for and carefully trained. 

In 1901, the County Supervisors erected a sick ward for the use of 
the Home, and the county makes occasional appropriations for the aid of 
the Home. 

Mrs. Florence D. Draper is now President of the Board, and Miss Mary 
Barton, Secretary and Treasurer. 


After the opening of Anza's highway between Sonora and Monterey, 



via Yuma, the Puerto de San Carlos, or San Gorgonio Pass, and San Ber- 
nardino Valley, the next traveled road in the county was probably that 
between San Juan Capistrano and San Gabriel, by way of Temecula, "Laguna 
Grande" (Elsinore), Temescal and Rincon, thence via Chino to San Gabriel 
and Los Angeles. This latter became the route of the Butterfield stages. 
The New Mexican overland route was much traveled during the thirties and 
forties — this came through the Virgin and Green River valleys and crossing 
the Colorado near where Ft. Mohave was later established, followed the 
Mohave River up to the Cajon Pass. The old "Mormon route" also went 
out by way of Cajon Pass, but struck across the county further north and 
crossed Nevada to Salt Lake. Between San Bernardino and the coast there 
were several routes in early days, one by way of Agua Mansa and Cuca- 
monga, another crossed the Jurupa plains and passed through Chino. These 
early roads followed the contour of the country. No bridges were built, and 
probably very little work of any kind was done on them. 

• The first constructed road in the county was the one up Waterman 
canon built by the Mormons in the winter of 1851-52 under the direction of 
Captain Hunt. This was a free road open to all and for twenty years large 
quantities of timber were annually hauled down over it. At one point the 
grade was so heavy that ordinary brakes refused to hold: the teamsters were 
obliged to attach heavy trees to their wagons, which were thrown off at the 
end of the grade and formed what was known as the "drag yard." In 1859, 
the first toll road in the county was built up Twin Creek Canon, and was 
known as the "Daley road." In 1861 John Brown, Sr., H. M. Willis and 
G. L. Tucker received a franchise for the construction of a toll road through 
the Cajon Pass. This was built, and in 1862 John Brown started a ferry 
across the Colorado at Ft. Mojave. For twenty years the life of the conces- 
sion, this toll road was kept up and much heavy traffic went over it. 

The first bridge across the Santa Ana was that built to the south of 
Colton across the river between Riverside and San Bernardino. The citizens 
of Riverside petitioned for this convenience for several years. Finallv the 
drowning of a man by the name of Tibbits at this crossing induced the county 
to act and the bridge was built about 1877. 

Various toll roads into the mountains have been established at different 
times. In 1890 the Bear Valley toll road from Highlands to Bear Yallev 
was built. In 1891 the Highland Lumber Co.. now the Brookings Co.. built 
its toll, road up through City Creek Canon. The Devil's Canon toll road 
was built about the same time. The Arrowhead Reservoir Company built 
a toll road in 1892, which was nineteen miles long and was well constructed : 
this gives access to some of the finest scenery in the country. For many 
years there has been a demand for a free mountain road which should enable 
the people to visit the lumber camps and the resorts of the San Bernardino 
mountains and give them free access to the magnificent scenery and the won- 


derful air and water of the great mountain range. Although many projects 
have been discussed the matter has never taken any definite shape until the 
passage of a new act by the Legislature in 1903, enabling counties to build 
roads out of the general funds. The county at once took action upon the 
opening of the way. Various surveys have been made for the county, several 
of the existing toll roads have offered to sell their routes at reasonable figures 
and within a short time, without doubt, a free mountain road which shall 
enable the visitor to drive with ease to the summit of the mountains and to 
visit all the many attractions offered in the heart of the San Bernardino 
range, will be an actual fact. 

Within the past few years San 
Bernardino county has adopted, 
or rather developed, a system 
of oiling her roads which not 
only does away with one of 
the greatest drawbac ks to 
travel in this county — dust — 
but also greatly improves the 
roadbed. To the Supervisors 
of the county and particularly to 
J. B. Glover, of Redlands, and T. 
F. White, of Chino, belongs the 
credit of working out a practical 
method of road building and oil- 
ing which has attracted attention 
all over the United States and 
which is fast giving our county 
the best roads in the State. The 
advantage of hard and dustless 
roads in this hot, dry climate, 
and with the many sandy and 
rough roads which were formerly 
common, can hardly be over 
a long step in advance for the 


It was natural that San Bernardino, the largest county in the state, 
should sometime be divided. Yet so large a portion of the county was made 
up of mountains and desert, which is and must remain, sparsely settled, and 
the main population was so closely confined to the San Bernardino Valley, 
that practically the county was not more unwieldly for government than 
many smaller counties. But, unfortunately, there was for many year- a lack 


of unitv between the two largest towns of the county. Riverside and the 
county seat. At the very outset of the settlement of Riverside, the old set- 
tlers and particularly the residents of San Bernardino, ridiculed the idea that 
anyone could ever make a living' off "that desert" as the plains of Jurupa 
were known. Naturally the Riverside settlers resented the attitude of their 
neighbors. They continued in their undertaking until, developed water 
and Riverside Washington Navel oranges made their unpromising venture 
a bewildering success. Riverside grew more rapidly than San Bernardino. 
Her citizens were largely young men from the east, whose ideas and methods 
were different from the conservative movements of San Bernardino's solid 
citizens' who were mostly of an earlier date — pioneers who had been trained 
in the school of hard circumstances rather than in the colleges and the rush- 
ing business life of eastern cities. Differences, small but rankling, grew out 
of the citrus fairs and exhibits, road matters, the management of the County 
Immigration Society, the Chicago Exhibit, the development of artesian 
water, and other matters. There was too, a touch of the old soreness grow- 
ing out of the location of the Southern Pacific depot and the building up of 
Colton that prevented the hearty co-operation of Colton and San Bernardino. 
The dissatisfaction in the county culminated upon the question of building 
a new Court House. 

The sudden expansion of 1886-87 rendered the old Court House, built 
in 1874. entirely inadequate to the needs of the county. Accordingly the 
Supervisors, in 18S7, submitted to the voters of the county a proposition for 
bonds to the amount of $175,000 for a new Court House. The people of 
Riverside, especially, opposed this proposition on the ground that the sum 
was too small to build a suitable county building and that the location of the 
Court House should be changed before building. The proposition was lost 
and the Supervisors next proposed a bond issue of $75,000 for a Hall of 
Records. This too, was lost, but the county fathers immediately took steps 
to raise $40,000 for this purpose by direct taxation. The citizens of River- 
side, Colton, Chino and other points objected so decidedly to this movement 
that they began to discuss the question of a change of the county seat. En- 
thusiastic meetings were held, excursions with brass bands and torch light 
processions were employed. Riverside, Colton and Redlands were aspirants. 
Colton offered to put up a $200,000 building and donate it with a block of 
ground, to the county free of cost, provided that town was made the county 
seat. November 5, 1889, a petition with 3,700 signatures, asking that the 
matter of the removal of the county seat be submitted to the vote of the 
people was presented to the Board of Supervisors. The Supervisors in the 
meantime proceeded with the plans of the Hall of Records and let the first 
contract April 8, 1890. In May, 1890, after a long and bitter legal fight, it 
was decided that more than 1,000 of the names on the petition for count v 


seat removal, were incompetent, for various causes, and consequently there 
were not enough signatures to call an election. 

Then began the talk of County Division. January 2, 1891. a mass meet- 
ing was held in Riverside at which it was determined to form a new county 
to be known as "Riverside," with Riverside as county seat, and to include, ■ 
Riverside, South Riverside, Jurupa, Rincon, Beaumont, Banning. Alessan- 
dro and Perris. Senator-elect, H. M. Streeter, was pledged to support the 
scheme. Pomona county with the county seat at Pomona was also proposed 
and the bills were duly introduced into the Legislature. The Supervisors 
resolved to oppose all schemes -for the dismemberment of the county and to 
fight the Riverside bill in the Legislature. Men and money were sent to 
Sacramento by both sides and after a vigorous campaign the Riverside bill 
was defeated, March 25, 1891, and the Pomona bill met a like fate. 

Tune 13, 1891, another bond issue — this time for $350,000 — for the erec- 
tion of Court House and Jail, to be located on present grounds, was voted 
upon and received a majority of 425 votes, which was less than the two- 
thirds majority required. The county officials, nevertheless, advertised for 
bids for a county jail and for extension and additions to the Court House. 
December 9, 1891, Supervisors Glass and Garcelon of Riverside, resigned. 
and their places were filled by J. C. Turner and \Ym. H. Randall. 

March 9. 1892. a contract for the foundations and first floor of the Court 
House was let for $42,693; and March 12, $78,611 was transferred from the 
county funds to the building fund. A convention of the voters of the county 
was called at Colton and passed most vigorous protests against the extrava- 
gant and useless expenditures for Court House and Jail. These were duly 
presented to the Supervisors and tabled. June 18, 1892, the Supervisors once 
more came before the voters with a proposition for $250,000 bonds. This 
was voted down with a considerably increased majority against it. 

The air was now full of projects for new counties. San Jacinto county. 
to take in the northern part of San Diego and the southern portion of San 
Bernardino county, and with Perris or San Jacinto for county seat, was 
strongly supported. San Antonio county, including Ontario, Chino and 
Pomona, was also a favored proposition with the people of that section. A 
strong representation for Riverside county went before the Legislature of 
1893. Large delegations went from Riverside and San Bernardino, and the 
light was most bitter. Loud charges of "boodle" were made and the Super- 
visors declared that Riverside had spent more in the county division fight 
than her share of the bonds for the Court House would have come to. 
February 25, 1893. the bill which created Riverside county finally passed the 

The bill contained seventeen sections, fully defining boundaries and 
providing for a commission to adjust the financial questions and other points 


arising, or "adjustment and fulfillment of certain rights and obligations." 
According to the provisions, the Supervisors of San Bernardino county were 
to select two members, and they chose H. M. Barton and Joseph Brown. 
Riverside selected John G. North and W. S. Wise, and Gov. Markham ap- 
pointed G. T. Stamm, the Ontario banker, as the fifth member. 

"The Commission organized by electing H. M. Barton chairman and 
John G. North secretary, and proceeded to business, setting out to do three 
things : 

First: To ascertain the assessed valuation of that part of Riverside 
county which had been taken out of San Bernardino county, and the assessed 
valuation of property in the territory still embraced in San Bernardino 

Second : To ascertain and fix the value of all county property in or be- 
longing to the original county. 

Third : To ascertain what proportion of such county property belonged 
to the new county of Riverside, according to the ratio of its assessed 

The commission met and organized June 2, 1893, and met at intervals 
from that date until April 7, 1894, gathering testimony with reference to the 
value of county property, and county assets, and on the latter day the com- 
mission, by votes of Messrs. Barton, Brown and Stamm, adopted a resolution 
fixing the amount due Riverside at $15,586.82. Messrs. Wise and North pro- 
tested vigorously, but to no purpose. This resolution was introduced by 
Commissioner Stamm. 

The limits of the claims of the rival interests are indicated in two resolu- 
tions, both of which were defeated, before Mr. Stamm's resolution was voted 
upon. The Riverside commissioners claimed $132,027.09, and this resolution 
was voted down, San Bernardino's representatives going solidly against it. 
Then Joseph Brown introduced a resolution fixing the award at $3144.48, 
which was also defeated. Mr. Stamm's resolution was then carried. 

Following this action the Riverside commissioners proposed two com- 
promise amounts, first asking for an even $100,000, and finally for $50,000, but 
the San Bernardino people resolutely refused and the Riversiders went home, 
mad through and through, and that marked the high water line of feeling 
over the division of the Imperial county, and the bitterness was no joke in 
those days. 

Three months later Riverside county had engaged the services of two of 
the most eminent lawyers in the State, and with J. S. Chapman of Los An- 
geles and R. E. Houghton of San Francisco, went into court, and August 9, 
1894, filed suit in the Superior Court of Los Angeles county for $132,027.09, 
and the war was on. 

J. X. Victor was chairman of the Board of Supervisors at the time, des- 
perate fighter that he was, and the new gauge of battle was picked up in- 


stantly. San Bernardino county's interests were entrusted to the firm of 
Curtis, Oster & Curtis of this city. With them was associated Judge Van R. 
Patterson of San Francisco. 

What with "the law's delay" and the time needed to square for the battle, 
the case did not come to trial until September 29, 1896. in Judge McKinley's 
court, in Los Angeles, without a jury. The trial occupied weeks, and on the 
evening of the last day of the year, December 31, 1896, Judge McKinley pre- 
sented this county with a bitter New Year's gift, filing an opinion which set 
aside the finding of the commission and referring the whole matter back to 
them for readjustment. The court found : 

"That the plaintiff is entitled to judgment setting aside the award made 
by the said commissioners, with directions to make the said award in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the said act, and to omit from the liabilities of 
the said county of San Bernardino the salaries of officers and expenses of 
administration of offices accruing after the nth day of March, 1893, and 
interest accruing on the bonded indebtedness of said county of San Bernar- 
dino after said time, and making a fair valuation of the real and personal 
property of the county of San Bernardino, and making the adjustment of 
affairs under the provisions of the said act creating the county of Riverside ; 
and for its costs of suit. Let judgment be entered accordingly.'' 

It was in these same findings that Judge McKinley ripped the San Ber- 
nardino commissioners up the back unmercifully, and seemed to agree with 
?he contention of the Riversiders that there had been a conspiracy to defraud 

But neither side was satisfied with this decision. Riverside wanted a 
judgment for $132,000. and did not care to take chances with the commission 
again, while San Bernardino took the position that the Los Angeles court 
nev?r had any jurisdiction; that the act of the Legislature made the decision 
of the commission absolutely final, and that it could not even be reviewed by 
,1 court. Everybody appealed. 

The attorneys for San Bernardino filed their appeal December 7, 1897, 
and more than two years elapsed before the case was presented to the 
Supreme Court." — The San Bernardino Sun. 

November 19, 1901. the Supreme Court rendered a decision reversing 
the action of the Los Angeles Court and dismissing the case, thus sustaining 
tiie acts of the Commission and leaving Riverside County with costs to pay 
and a prospect of losing the $15,000 awarded by the Commission. Further 
litigation followed and in October, 1902, the County of San Bernardino drew 
its warrant for $8,000 in full payment of all claims of Riverside County and 
thus closed finally the history of the county division. 


One of the important events of the later history of the count}' was the 
setting aside of the San Bernardino Forest Reserve. The matter of setting 


aside this reservation was discussed for several years before action was 
taken and was strongly favored by many — and met with strong opposition 
from other — interests. Numerous petitions and resolutions for and against 
the action were sent to the authorities at Washington, but President Harrison 
signed the act creating the Reserve, February 25, 1893. 
The Forest Reserves. 

"The first real step in the establishment of a system of forest reserves on 
the mountains and high plateaus — the headwaters of rivers — in what is 
known as the arid and semi-arid regions of the United States was the passage, 
on March 3, 1891. of an act of Congress authorizing the President to set aside 
areas of forest lands under a permanent national plan whereby the forests 
might be preserved, thereby securing and increasing the water supply of the 
streams below and also by holding back, by soil absorption, heavy winter and 
spring rains and melting snows, thus preventing or mitigating the damage 
arising from spring floods on the lands lying below. Thus the forest reserves 
serve a double purpose, they hold back the precious waters in times of rain, 
giving out the water in more continuous flow, through springs and seepage, 
and underground channels and also prevent flood damage. 

"President Harrison and his Secretary of the Interior, John W. Xoble, at 
once designated sixteen reservations, with an area of more than 13,000,000 
acres. These first named reservations included large tracts adjoining the 
Yosemite and Yellowstone national parks. This wise policy of forest re- 
serves has been continued. President Cleveland setting aside other large 
tracts of forest area. At present there have been created some thirty forest 
reservations, having a total area of 40.000,000 acres, or more than 6c,ooo 
square miles, an area almost equal to half that of the state of California. 
These reservations are in eleven states and territories — California, Arizona, 
Utah, New Mexico, Idaho, Montana. Colorado, Oregon, Washington, Wyom- 
ing and South Dakota. In the boundaries of these reservations are included 
the high mountain ranges and the highest peaks, nearly all of the unsecured 
forests of the Big trees — the sequoias, both semper virens and gigantea — 
and great expanses of pines and cedars. The preservation of these great 
forests on the high mountains preserves the water supply of fully half the 
United States. 

"In South California the principal forest reservations are the San 
Gabriel, the San Bernardino and the San Jacinto. The latter was set aside 
by President Cleveland, arid the tw r o former by President Harrison. They 
might almost be called one reservation, as they form a continuous chain, 
reaching over a hundred miles." — Citrograph. 

The San Bernardino reserve comprises 737,280 acres, of which 249,000 
is classed as timber land and 90,000 of this is graded as "first-class." Thirty- 
five thousand acres of the best timber land is located in the Santa Ana basin. 
The best of the timber lands had been appropriated by lumber companies 


and settlers before the reserve was made and are not controlled by the gov- 
ernment. The timber is mostly yellow pine ; fir, cedar, pinon and juniper 
also offer some timber. Among the forest growth is found mountain mahog- 
any, live oak, mountain alder, ash, sycamore, cottonwood, black oak, black 
willow and yucca. Bear Valley drains about 35,000 acres of the area and the 
reservoirs proposed by the Arrowhead system will drain about 100,000 acres. 
Nearly 50 per cent of the forest reserve is classed as grazing land. Extend- 
ing from the Cajon Pass eastward to the county line is a portion of the San 
Gabriel reserve, some 150,000 acres. This also contains considerable timber. 
In 1898, the patrol system was established. Forest Supervisor Thomas, 
has general oversight of both the San Gabriel and San Bernardino reserves. 
From five to twelve rangers are employed in the San Bernardino reserve, 
whose duty it is to patrol their districts, guard against fires, prevent trespass 
of all kinds, measure timber, cut trails and use every effort to protect and 
preserve our forest water sheds. An effort is now being made to re-timber 
burnt districts and to introduce new species which are suited to the en- 


This station was established in 1891, through the efforts of Richard 
Gird, who donated thirty acres of light and loamy soil on the northern bound- 
aries of the Chino Rancho, together with the necessary water and also ten 
acres of damp land one mile west of the Sugar Factory. The citizens of 
Pomona raised $4,000 which was used for implements, buildings, equipment 
and teams. The station was established under the auspices of the California 
State University and was at first under the charge of Kenneth McLennen. 
Experiments were at first devoted principally to fruit — citrus, deciduous. 
olives and small fruits, many varieties being set and a study made of their 
adaptability to this section and of their diseases and drawbacks. 

In 1893, J. W. Mills took charge of the station — a position which he still 
fills. About 1895 attention was largely turned to experiments to green 
manuring for fertilizing purposes and also to suitable growths for semi- 
alkali lands. 

The station is now regarded as one of the most important in the state. 
It is the only one in Southern California, and owing to the variety of soil and 
conditions, is fairly typical of the entire state. There is one other agricultural 
station in the state at Tulare, Tulare county. The government keeps a num- 
ber of experts in the field all over the world, and the seeds, plants and infor- 
mation collected by these are distributed from Washington to the various 
stations according to their presumed adaptability to the conditions of each. 

Some $25,000 has been spent in improving and equipping this station. 


Some very valuable experiments have been made here, and the superin- 
tendent, Mr. Mills, is considered an authority on agricultural and horticul- 
tural matters. In 1903 he was placed in charge of co-operative experimental 
work in Southern California, including experiments at Riverside, Redlands 
and on the Colorado desert. 


The marvelous development of electric power and the use of electricity 
for manifold purposes has been one of the greatest sources of wealth and of 
progress in this county during the past ten years. The first attempt at 
developing electricity in the county was made by the Electric Light and 
Power Company of San Bernardino, organized in 1888, making use of the 
water power obtained by a fall in the Riverside canal near Colton to generate 
power, which was used to light San Bernardino and Riverside. But the 
power was insufficient for the purpose. 

The next company in the field was the San Antonio Company, employ- 
ing power oh+ained from the San Antonio creek. 

The waters were first appropriated for irrigating purposes in "82 by the 
Chaffey Brothers. In '92, ten years later, the company was organized and 
xheir power house built. They developed and used about 250 horse power, 
furnishing power to the Ontario electric car line, a number of small pumping 
stations and lights to the surrounding towns. This company had the honor 
of constructing the first high potential long distance plant in the United 
States, transmitting at the start electricity to the city of San Bernardino, a 
distance of twenty-eight miles from the power house. 

The Redlands Electric Light and Power Company, composed of Messrs. 
George H. Craft, George B. Ellis, F. G. Feraud and H. H. Sinclair, was 
organized in the spring of 1892, "for the purpose of supplying electric light 
and heat for both public and private use, power for manufacturing purposes, 
and for operation of street railroads in the city of Redlands and the country 
round about within a radius of ten miles. Such power to be developed from a 
transmission plant to be built at the mouth of Mill Creek canon, some eight 
miles from Redlands." The first reality which gave assurance of the sound- 
ness of the views which had led these enterprising men to enter upon a project 
which at the time seemed far in advance of the needs of Redlands, was the 
fact that the Union Ice Company, one of the largest handlers of ice in the 
western part of the country at once entered into a contract with the Red- 
lands Company to furnish electric power, under a twenty-five year contract, 
at a price that was so much cheaper than could be obtained elsewhere that 
the ice company could afford to pay $2.00 per ton freight on 7,000 tons of ice 
per year and still deliver it in Los Angeles at a rate of fifty cents per ton 
less than it could be manufactured there. 


Mr. A. W. Decker, who had installed the plant of the San Antonio Elec- 
tric Company and also of the Mount Lowe Electric Railway, was engaged, 
and under his direction, the plant now known as Mill Creek Station No. i, 
was constructed. Mr. Decker's plans for this plant were original and intro- 
duced some new features which the electrical manufacturing companies at 
first said could not be carried out ; but in the end, he succeeded in proving the 
feasibility of his ideas which have since been generally applied. This plant 
at first supplied light for Redlands and power for the Union Ice Company 
and for some light purposes in the town. By 1896, the business had so 
extended that it became necessary to increase the amount of power, the trans- 
mission system having been extended to Riverside and to Colton. In 1899 
Mill Creek Station No. 2 was erected to further increase the supply of the 
plant. In 1903 the Edison Company had completed Mill Creek Station No. 
3, 600-horse power, at a cost of $200,000. 

In December, 1896, the people comprising the Redlands Company or- 
ganized the Southern California Power Company, making service of the 
water rights of the Santa Ana Canon, and having appropriated and perfected 
them, entered into contract in the spring of 1897 for the apparatus which has 
since been installed as the Santa Ana Canon-Los Angeles transmission plant. 
In April, 1898, when the plant was partially completed the entire property 
of the Southern California Power Company was sold to the Edison Electric 
Company and the owners of the California Southern stock — Messrs. H. H. 
Sinclair and Henry Fisher — accepted in payment thereof stock of the Edison 
Electric Company. The Santa Ana plant was completed in December, 1898, 
when the water was turned into the canal. The whole construction was 
under the general management of Mr. H. H. Sinclair, and the plant cost 
approximately, $625,000. 

A sub-station at Redlands was constructed in 1901. This is supplied 
with a steam plant also. The power for supplying the city of Redlands and 
vicinity, the Redlands street railway and also the San Bernardino Traction 
Company is furnished from this sub-station. Another sub-station furnishes, 
power for the Colton Cement works, which are one of the largest users of 

From the power house in the Santa Ana Canon, the great artery of the 
system, carrying 33,000 volts, extends eighty-three miles to Los Angeles — 
at the time of its completion the longest "long distance transmission line" in 
existence. A scorpion shaped 10,000 volt system distributes power in the 
San Bernardino and Riverside valleys, which is supplied by the Mill Creek 
power houses. The San Bernardino Traction Company, now operating lines 
between San Bernardino, Colton, Redlands and Highland, is supplied through 
a sub-station located at San Bernardino, and having a 10,000 volt motor 

The largest consumers of power are the pumping plants, and of these, 


the most extensive user is the pumping plant of the Riverside Trust Com- 
pany, whose wells are located in the bed of the Santa Ana River, about two 
miles southeast erf San Bernardino. This company uses fifty horse power 
and thirty horse power motors, which are located in neat and substantially 
constructed plants. The plants work under very small headway and pump 
very large quantities of water into the Gage canal, which furnishes water to 
Riverside and adjoining tracts. 

The capacity of the Edison Company's plants in San Bernardino county 
is as follows : 

Southern California Power Company's water plant in Santa Ana Canon. 
4,coo horse power ; 

Redlands Electric Light and Power Company's water power plants in 
Mill Creek canon, Nos. i, 2 and 3, 1,250 horse-power. 625 and 3,000 horse- 
power, respectively ; 

Redlands sub-station and steam driven plant, 834 horse-power. 

The expenditure for these plants with the flumes, pipe lines, transmission 
lines, etc., necessary, has been over one million dollars — probably a million 
and a half dollars would be a conservative estimate. The building of these 
extensive works has given employment to large forces of men, and the keep- 
ing up of the 'plants and the necessary improvements require a large force. 
The use of cheap electrical power has greatly facilitated the building of street 
and traction roads, and in consequence of her cheap power, the San Bernar- 
dino valley now has a more complete equipment of suburban and city electric 
roads than any other section of the country. 



The first flood which did serious damage in San Bernardino county so 
far as we have records, was that of 1850-51, which did much damage through- 
out the State. The New Mexican settlers of Agua Mansa and El Placita 
de Trujillos had begun the erection of an adobe church which was completely 
destroyed by the rains of this season. These good people took care to build 
their next church on higher ground and so built the church of San Salvador 
on a hill and it was the only building, except the residence of Cornelius 
Jansen, in the two settlements which was not swept away by the flood of 
1862. During the winter of 1861-2, fifty inches of rain flooded the entire 
state. The prosperous colonies along the Santa Ana were completely de- 
stroyed and a barren waste of sand took the place of fields, orchards and 

Mrs. Crafts describes the flood of January in San Bernardino, thus: 
"The fall of 1861 was sunny, dry and warm until Christmas which proved 
to be a rainy day. All through the holidays a gentle rain continued to fall. 


This much needed moisture lasted until the 18th of January, 1862, when 
there was a down-pour for twenty-four hours, or longer. All the flat from the 
Santa Ana River to Pine's Hotel was under water — a perfect sea of water 
inundating the valley for miles up and down the stream. Lytle Creek came 
rushing down D street, across Third and found an outlet through an open 
space into Warm Creek, Many families were compelled to flee in the night 
to higher ground and leave their homes to the flood. There were so many 
families homeless that every house in San Bernardino had two families and 
some three or four under shelter. The constant rain on the adobe houses 
turned them to mud and they fell in. Men were out in the drenching rain 
all day, trying to cover the adobe walls with lumber and thus save them. 
Every one was ready to help his neighbor in their trouble — in fact there was 
true brotherhood among those old pioneers of San Bernardino." 

1867-8 was another rainy winter: the rains were continuous but not so 
heavy as in '62 and less damage resulted. 

1884 was the great flood year of later times. 37.50 inches are reported 
this season for San Bernardino, while over forty inches were registered in 
Los Angeles and more in other places. This year was particularly disastrous 
to the railroad companies, the newly completed California Southern track be- 
tween San Diego and National City, being completely disabled, some fifteen 
or twenty miles of the Temecula canon division carried away. The Southern 
Pacific also suffered many washouts and much delay of traffic. 

In July '84 occurred a remarkable cloud burst in the Cajon Pass. The 
Times says : 

"A most terrific cloud burst occurred in the Cajon yesterday afternoon. 
It commenced about two o'clock and for a short time the waters came down 
in solid masses. In a narrow gorge called the railroad canon, the waters 
rose fifty feet in height in a short time. The torrent carried everything 
before it and the whole canon was inundated. At the narrows in the Cajon 
the waters stood above the railroad grade. An orchard above Taj' & Law- 
rence's was swept away with the buildings and other propertv that was on 
the ground. The water rose nearly to Tay & Lawrence's house and swept 
away a large portion of their property. The road in some places was cut 
out as much as ten feet in depth and will be impassable for a week or more. 
The entire flat from here to the mouth of the Cajon was one vast sheet of 
water, and the crossing between this town and Colton. ordinarily only a few 
inches in depth, was raised six feet and spread for a long distance on either 
side of its usual channel, while a number of farms along its course were in- 
undated. All this vast body of water fell in the course of two or three hours 
and in a comparatively limited area, only a few drops reaching to town. It 
is said to have been the severest storm ever known in the canon and to have 
done more damage in a few minutes than all the heavy rains of last winter, 
severe as they were." 


Much inconvenience was also caused by the exceedingly heavy rains of 
1886-7. The Times thus announces the situation in San Bernardino, in 
December, '86: "The people west of town are nearly drowned out. A cul- 
vert through the railroad grade on I street at the head of Fifth, pours the 
whole drainage of the surrounding country into town and has swamped the 
blocks west of G street, so that people there are unable to leave their homes." 

In January, eleven inches of rain fell in a single night in the Cajon Pass 
and the California Southern tracks were buried in mud. This .was the "boom 
vear" and the travel was very heavy. At one time hundreds of people were 
detained at San Bernardino — even standing room at the depot was at a 
premium, and many came up into the town. 

1888-9 was another wet winter, but since that time, rainfall has caused 
but little loss or inconvenience in the southern part of the state. 


The flood year of 1862 was succeeded by three dry years, the most dis- 
astrous drouth on record in the history of California. Hundreds of head of 
stock perished by starvation and thousands were slaughtered for their hides, 
or sold for almost nothing in order to preserve pasturage for any at all. For 
three years the rainfall was insufficient to produce grain crops or start vegeta- 
tion on the ranges. The orchards and vineyards which were already begin- 
ning to be an important feature in the industries of the state were almost 
annihilated by the drouth. From this period dated the beginnings of irriga- 
tion on a large scale. The farmers, who were now settling up the country 
found that they could not depend upon the natural conditions for a crop, and 
the stock men ceased to depend entirely upon the natural range for grazing. 

The dry seasons of 1898-99 and 1900, which are still fresh in our memor- 
ies, marked the great change from the old to the new — from dependence 
upon natural conditions to the present great irrigating systems. While the 
"drv ranches" which in ordinary seasons raise fair crops suffered, the agri- 
cultural and horticultural interests of the county as a whole, suffered little. 
There was fear that the storage supplies might fail, but they did not, and 
much water previously undeveloped, or unavailable was brought into use. 
Indeed, in the long run, the drouth was a benefit to the country because so 
large a quantity of water was developed that a much larger acreage than for- 
merly may now be put under cultivation. And yet the rainfall was even 
less than that of the drouth of the sixties. 


The first "temblor" of record in this country is of the year 1812, which 
is known as the "earthquake year," when the church of San Juan Capistrano 
was shaken down and thirty worshippers crushed to death. The internal 


disturbances of this season, it is said, caused the appearance of the springs 
known as Urbita. The Gauchama Indians, who lived in this vicinity, were 
so alarmed by this phenomena and by the succession of "quakes" that they 
feared they had offended their higher powers, and after due consideration 
came to the conclusion that their Gods didn't approve of the Mission of 
Politana, established by the Franciscans of San Gabriel a year or two prev- 
ious. Therefore they destroyed the buildings and massacred most of the 
converts. At least this is the account given by Father Caballeria in his His- 
tory of San Bernardino Valley. 

In 1855 a severe shock jolted the town of San Bernardino but did no 
serious harm, and again in 1882 a heavy earthquake is recorded, but with no 
serious consequences. 

The "shake" of Christmas day, 1900, caused no damage in the immediate 
vicinity of San Bernardino, but created a good deal of havoc in the San 
Jacinto mountains. There a considerable area, took a drop and the con- 
figuration was materially changed. Two or three Indian women were killed 
at San Jacinto by the falling of an adobe house at that time. 


Hurricanes and cyclones are unknown in this country, but in 1887 oc- 
curred a very unusual wind — a "norther" which did great damage, as this 
extract will show. 

"Although the wind had blown severely here for several days, and con- 
siderable damage had been done, happily it was attended, so far as known, 
with no personal injury or loss of life. Los Angeles county, however, was 
not so fortunate. At Crescenta Canyada the large hotel erected hardly more 
than a month ago was razed to the ground by the fierce gale, and Mrs. Edwin 
G. Arnold and her eleven-year-old daughter Claudie were instantly killed. 
A number of other guests of the hotel were badly bruised and escaped with 
their lives by a miracle. The disaster took place about midnight. A coro- 
ner's jury found that in their belief the building had been insufficiently braced 
and the foundations were not secure. 

"At Rialto, three houses were destroyed. 

"At Cucamonga, the depot was almost totally destroyed ; also the new 
hotel and several stores and buildings ; loss, $50,000. 

"Between Cucamonga and Colton the cab was blown off the engine of 
an east-bound freight train. 

"The fine large hotel at North Cucamonga, costing $20,000. was com- 
pletely demolished, the sleeping guests being awakened just in time to escape 
with their lives. A Chinaman is reported to have been killed, and another 
one missing — probably took to the brush. The bank building at Ontario was 
partially blown down. Several houses on the south side were also blown 



down. It was reported that Rose's store was burned down." — San Bernar- 
dino Times, July, 1887. 


Since July 1, 1870, a Rainfall Table for the city of San Bernardino has 
been kept. The record was made by Sydney P. Waite up to 1891, and since 
that date has been kept by Dr. A. K. Johnson. Careful study of this table 
presents some very interesting facts. It will be seen that the greatest rain- 
fall was in the season of 1883-84 and the least fall, 7.49 inches, came in 


Latitude 34 06' 05' 
SYDEEY P. WAITE. Observer 







































2. 29 


























6 10 

















15 10 

11 54 

21 83 


8 11 






We also present a table of Redlands rainfall kept by Scipio Craige of 
the Citrograph. 






.00 00 
.00 2.16 

1 50 .52 
.00, .00 
00 .03 
.95 .50 
.07i .00 
.03 2.03 
.38 .Hi 
.ill 23 

.79 1.911 
52 3 72 

Hi 1.58 

IS. 23 
25 78 


9 51 




The history of agriculture in this county begins with the location of a 
branch of the San Gabriel Mission in the San Bernardino Valley. Although 
this station was chiefly valuable to the mother settlement as a stock range 
and protection from hostile Indians, it was also intended as a resting and out- 
fitting point for travelers over the Colorado route between the missions and 
Mexico, and it is probable that considerable quantities of wheat was raised 
here as there are well authenticated accounts of grain fields and storerooms 
full of grain. The fact that Mill Creek zanja was constructed about 1820, 
makes it likelv that orchards, vineyards and gardens were also cultivated, 
although nothing but a few old grape roots remained when the Mormons 
came in. 

Daniel Sexton says that in 1842. the Indians were raising considerable 
crops of corn, potatoes and beans around the old Mission. During the 


forties a few fruit trees and vines were in bearing on the grants of Cuca- 
monga, Chino and Rincon, and about this time a considerable number of 
New Mexicans located on San Bernardino and Jurnpa grants and cultivated 
a number of fields and orchards along the Santa Ana river bottom. But the 
chief industry of that day was the raising of stock, and herds of cattle, horses 
and sheep grazed over the hills and plains of San Bernardino Valley until 
well into the sixties. 

The agricultural development of the county really began with the advent 
of the Mormons in 1851. These settlers at once selected a large tract of their 
new purchase for cultivation and sowed it to grain. This land was sur- 
rounded by a ditch and pole fence to keep out stock and was cultivated in 
common for two or three years. The early yields of this virgin soil were 
very large, some claim from fifty to ninety bushels per acre. The grain 
brought a good price and enabled the new colonists to purchase their own 
land. The entire San Bernardino Grant was divided into tracts to suit pur- 
chasers and was sold at low prices and on easy terms. Upon the departure 
of the Mormons, their successors continued to sell the land to actual settlers 
on very favorable terms. Hence, at a time when California was still a vast 
stock range, San Bernardino county had a number of small farmers who 
raised grain and vegetables without irrigation and utilized the many natural 
streams that were at hand to irrigate, where necessary, their orchards and 

The State Agricultural Report for 1856, credits San Bernardino county 
with 30,000 busheJs of wheat and 15,000 bushels of barley; no account is 
taken of the grain cut for hay. The value of the fruit products of the county 
is put at $2,450 — but there is no statement of what the fruit products were — 
probably wine and brandy, however. The same Reports give the acreage 
under cultivation in the county in i860 as 8,219 acres; in 1863, 15.000 acres 
are reported under cultivation. By this time a considerable acreage of wine 
grapes had been put out at Cucamonga, Old San Bernardino and Rincon, and 
some scattering orange trees had been set, but these were regarded rather as 
a curiosity than an investment. 

The census of 1870 reports 10,360 bushels of wheat, 51,906 bushels of 
barley and 1808 tons of hay; 48,720 gallons of wine was made and fruit pro- 
ducts were valued at $5,235. Stock was still the chief resource of the county. 
being valued at $151,530. 

The settlement of Riverside in 1870-71. marks the commencement of 
horticulture as a business in the county. At first, deciduous fruits, wine and 
raisin, or Muscat grapes were the chief dependence, but by 1873 the plant- 
ing of orange trees had fairly begun. Statistics gathered by the state in 
1873, show 7,111 orange trees, 268 lemon and about 25,000 other fruit trees 
in the county. 

Both the horticultural and agricultural interests of the county were rap- 


idly developed in the decade between 1870 and 1880. The latter year an 
acreage of 53,461 acres is under cultivation — nearly eight times the acreage 
of 1870. There were 741 acres in vines, 15,425 bearing orange trees and a 
largely increased area of deciduous fruit. The orchard products of 1879 
are estimated at $56,612 in value while in 1881 they are put at $106,457 — nearly 
double. The census report of 1880 gives the value of all farm products as 
$430,407, while live stock only footed up to $397,806 — the supremacy of the 
cattle business was at an end. 

The period from 1880 to 1890 was phenomenal in its expansion in every 
direction. For a time it was apparently believed that oranges and grape- 
vines could be raised anywhere. Hundreds of acres of these two fruits were 
set out on lands and in localities entirely unsuited to them, only to be later 
rooted out for fuel. It took years of time and thousands of mis-spent dollars 
for people to find that only a limited area possesses the exact combination 
of soil, water, elevation and exposure for bringing the orange to perfection, 
or for properly developing and curing the raisin grape. As early as 1873, 
the first Muscat, or raisin grapes were introduced at Riverside. By 1878, the 
making of raisins was becoming an important industry and in 1879, some 
30,000 boxes were shipped from the county. For a time raisin culture was 
believed to offer fully as great inducements as citrus fruit growing and many 
vineyards were set out. About 1890 the shipments of raisins reached their 
highest point, but the raisin-making industry has steadily decreased since 
that date and now comparatively few raisins are made in the county, the 
vineyards having been replaced by citrus fruit, alfalfa, or other crops. 

For many years large quantities of hay, grain and flour had been an- 
nually freighted from San Bernardino Valley to the mines in the eastern part 
of the county, to Arizona, Utah and other interior points. Early in the 
eighties the shipment of fruits began to form an important factor in the 
wealth of the county. The first shipments of oranges to the east began about 
1882; by 1886, Riverside sent out over 500 carloads, and the shipments for 
the county in 1888 were a thousand carloads. 

Although fruit growing had become so important and profitable an in- 
dustry, a large area of the valley was still devoted to grain culture. The 
San Bernardino Times, in May, 1888, thus comments on the grain prospects 
for the season : 

"As a general proposition, the more trees and vines are set out in any 
section, the less grain will be grown there. All over the State the wheat 
field is being encroached upon by the orchard and vineyard. San Bernar- 
dino, however, is an exception to this rule. Though thousands of acres are 
now devoted to fruit growing, and though more orchards and vineyards will 
be set out this year than ever before, it is also a fact that the area seeded to 
grain is the largest ever known in the county. All over the valley, from one 
end to the other, the plow and seeder have been at work, and an immense 


area of virgin soil has for the first time felt the plow and will unquestionably 
produce a large crop. 

"Go north from town, and on the Muscupiabe one finds almost a con- 
tinual grain field, reaching along the hills east and west for a long distance. 
East of the Santa Ana river the plain and mesa is all seeded to grain. Up 
through the San Timoteo and out in the broad San Gorgonio Pass is almost a 
continuous grain field. 

"Out at Banning the Indians even have caught the infection, and for the 
first time on record they have gone into farming on a large scale and have 
put in nearly a thousand acres of barley. 

"The plains above and below Riverside are either already sowed or are 
still being broken and seeded. Down at Rincon the same state of affairs 
prevails. On every side and in every direction grain growing is the order of 
the day. Barley is the crop mostly planted, and it will be converted into hay 
or allowed to mature as the season may favor." 


Acres under cultivation 126,479 

Acres irrigated, or under irrigation systems. . . . 144,750 

Acres in barley 16,682 

Bushels of barley raised 302,916 

Acres in wheat 3-7 2 8 

Bushels in wheat 36,019 

Acres in hay 24.967 

Tons of hay 49-885 

Acres in grapes 9-S^ 2 

Gallons of wine made 279.000 

Boxes of raisins 375,000 

Acres in tropical fruit trees !6,523 

Acres in orange trees 15483 

Boxes of oranges 619,980 

Value of oranges $1,221,360 

Estimated value of farm products $2,545,910 


Number of farms 2 -35° 

Total value of domestic animals $ 642,280.00 

Number of cattle 13,000 

Number of horses 6,500 

Number of sheep 12.000 

Number of poultry 54,000 

Value of poultry 27,313.00 



Swarms of bees 5-6° 2 

Value of bees 16,959.00 

Pounds of honey, 1899 123.45° 

Acres of alfalfa 6,347 

Tons of alfalfa 29,637 

Acres grain cut for hay 18,112 

Tons of hay 12,074 

Acres in potatoes 4°6 

Bushels of potatoes 55.°°° 

Acres in vegetables 3 12 

Value of vegetables raised 3 I - I 34-00 

Value of deciduous fruit products 150,482.00 

Value of grapes, wine and raisins 9°-573- 00 

Value of sub-tropical fruits 1 ,393,728.00 

Boxes of oranges 1,244.021 

Total values given in U. S. Census, which does not include value of many 
agricultural products. 


The cultivation of alfalfa has become an important industry in this 
state and throughout the West. As San Bernardino County can claim the 
first successful culture of this plant in the United States, a brief outline of 
its history may not be out of place. 

Alfalfa is the oldest grass known, having been introduced into Greece 
from Media, 500 years before Christ. The Romans, finding its qualities good, 
cultivated it extensively and carried it into France when Caesar reduced 
Gaul. It has always been extensively cultivated in Europe under the name 
of lucerne, supposed to be derived from the province of Lucerne in Switz- 
erland. The name alfalfa was given the plant in Chili, where it grows spon- 
taneously in the Andes as well as on the pampas of that country and of 
Argentine Republic. 

It was introduced into the United States as early as 1835 — and probably 
earlier — and attempts at cultivation in New York and other Eastern states 
were unsuccessful. 

In the United States Agricultural Report for 1872, Mr. N. Wyckoff, of 
Yolo, Napa County, Cal, reports: "In the winter of 1854. I sowed four acres 
with alfalfa, or lucerne, as it was then called, seed brought from Chili. As 
far as I know, it was a part of the first parcel of seed brought into this 
country. My sowing proved so foul with weeds that I plowed it up and 


did not re-sow until 1864." In the United States Agricultural Report of 
1878, a considerable production of alfalfa is reported from some of the 
northern counties of the state. 

In the winter of 1852-3, a party of Mormons arrived in San Bernardino 
from Australia. At least one of the party, Mr. John Metcalf, brought with 
him some alfalfa seed. This was sown on his place, now the Metcalf place 
on Mount Vernon avenue, near First street. It was irrigated from Lytle 
Creek and did well and the plant was soon cultivated by others. The seed 
was at first sold for $1.00 per pound and was distributed from San Bernar- 
dino to other points in Southern California. The early supply of seed for 
Los Angeles was obtained from San Bernardino, and the seed was taken 
from here to Salt Lake and thus the alfalfa industry, one of the most im- 
portant of Utah, was started. The alfalfa crop is now one of the most im- 
portant of the county and San Bernardino County had, in 1900, more than 
six thousand acres seeded to this plant. 


The first winery built in the county was that at Cucamonga, built in the 
fifties and still a landmark. So far as known the winery on the Barton ranch 
was the second one of any importance in the county. In 1873, the product 
of this establishment was 30,000 gallons of wine. It was operated for many 
years by the Vache Freres, and its wines were well known and of high 
repute. It is now known as the Brookside winery. In 1885, Dr. Stillman 
erected a winery on his place in Lugonia to utilize the product of his large 
vineyard of assorted grapes. In 1887, F. M. Slaughter built his winery at 
Rincon. It is probable that a winery was located in this vicinity during 
the Mexican period, also. Many smaller establishments and individuals put 
up wines in the early days, as at first all vineyards were of the "mission" or 
other wine varieties. 

In 1880 a San Jose Company 'established the first cannery in the county 
at Colton. A cannery was built at Riverside in 1882 and turned out an 
average of 8000 cans per day for the season. In 1887 a cannery went into 
operation at San Bernardino and in 1889 a fruit evaporator was built at 
Ontario and later a cannery established there. In 1897, Redlands secured 
a cannery. A large amount of canned fruit was put up at these various 
establishments, but a combination of all the canneries in the state, together 
with the decrease in the production of deciduous fruits, led to the closing 
of all canneries in the county. In the later seventies a dryer was put into 
operation at Riverside. As the production of fruit increased, it was found 
impossible to ship it all on account of difficulties in the way of transportation, 
and the drying of large quantities of fruit by individuals was not profitable. 
Fruit dryers which handled large quantities of peaches, apricots and other 


fruits were necessary. One was established in Redlands in 1881, and others 
followed at various points. 

The dried fruit industry, like raisin making and wine and brandy manu- 
facture, has decreased with the growth of other industries that have replaced 


The development of the Citrus Fruit Industry in this county is one of 
the most interesting and one of the most important features in her history. 
The production of oranges as a business has grown from the carefully 
counted hundreds of oranges growing on a few scattered seedling trees in 
1876, to 14,000 acres of carefully cultivated orchards containing nearly a 
million and a half trees, in 1904. The sales have increased from a few loosely 
tossed together boxes and barrels of fruit to 4,500 carloads of scientifically 
packed fruit sent out in recent seasons. And San Bernardino County has 
but kept pace with the increase in the state. In the year 1881, California 
sent out 400 cars of fresh fruit — of all varieties; during the season of 1902-3, 
she sent out 22,390 carloads of citrus fruit alone. 


The tale of the mission gardens which proved the possibility of citrus 
culture in the state has often been told. It is supposed that the first orange 
orchard in California was set at San Gabriel in 1804, the trees brought from 
the Lower California missions, although Vancouver reports having seen 
in 1792, apples, pears, figs, plums, oranges, grapes, peaches and pomegranates 
at Mission San Buenaventura. 

In 1834, Louis Vignes set out a few trees, presumably from the San 
Gabriel stock at his home place, now a part of the city of Los Angeles. In 
1841, William Wolfskill put out two acres of trees, the first orange orchard 
put out for profit, and in 1858, he set out the famous "Wolfskill" orchard 
of thirty acres, for many years the largest orchard in the state. The ap- 
pearance of the white scale and the growth of the city caused the removal 
of this orchard about 1885. The first carload of oranges ever sent out from 
California were shipped from this orchard in 1877. In 1878 the first packing 
house in the state was erected here and that year Eugene Germain purchased 
the crop, paying $25,000 for it on the trees, and packed and shipped it from 
this packing house. The fruit went to San Francisco and thence to other 
coast points. 

With regard to early experiments in orange culture. L. M. Holt, who is 
an authority, said in an address in 1890: 

"Seventeen years ago (1873) orange culture in California was in its 
infancy. . . . All orchards at that time were composed of seedling trees. 


About that time T. A. Garey and other nurserymen began to introduce 
budded varieties from other countries — from England, from South America. 
Australia, China and Japan. Over a hundred varieties were thus introduced, 
but only a few were retained as having any special value as compared with 
the seedlings. 

"The first variety of importance that proved to be of value was the Med- 
iterranean Sweet. This tree was imported by T. A. Garey, who ordered a 
number of trees from Ellwanger & Berry of Rochester, N. Y., who brought 
the trees from Europe. In this lot was one which had lost its label, but one 
of the trees was of a variety supposed to be called the Sweet. This was 
known as Garey's Best, and later as the Mediterranean Sweet. It proved 
to be the best variety of the lot, and was extensively cultivated. It is a late 
orange, and takes the market during the early summer months. 

"There was also the Paper-rind St. Michael and large St. Michael, 
known to the nurserymen of that date. The former was a thin skinned, small 
orange of excellent flavor, and the other was a larger orange, somewhat re- 
sembling the Mediterranean Sweet. For several years past this latter 
variety has disappeared entirely, and today there is but the one St. Michael. 
It is a very fine fruit, of excellent flavor, but having many seeds. The rind 
is thin and very compact, and hence is a good shipper. This fruit was never 
largely planted, and is not propagated today to a very great extent. 

"The Malta Blood was another variety that proved to be good, but the 
tree is a very poor grower, and hence this variety has never been planted 
to any great extent, although the fruit sells at a good price and brings in 
the market as much or nearly as much as the Riverside Washington Navel. 

"In 1876-7 the first Navel orange was fruited in Southern California — the 
fruit coming from an orchard at Orange. In 1879, the first Citrus Fair held 
at Riverside under the auspices of the Southern California Horticultural 
Society of which J. DeBarth Shorb of San Gabriel was president, developed 
the fact that there were two varieties of navels grown in this country, and 
they have proved to be of much more value than the others. The one came 
from trees imported from Australia, and the other came from trees sent from 
the Agricultural Department at Washington to L. C. Tibbetts of Riverside. 
Hence these varieties were named Australian Navels and Washington 
Navels to distinguish them. The latter was afterward called the Riverside 
Navel and still later the Riverside Washington Navel." 

The resemblance between the Washington and Australian Navel stock 
was so close that even an expert could not tell them apart. Yet the Austra- 
lian Navel fruit proved to be so poor that nurserymen were asked to guar- 
antee their stock as Washington Navels and were compelled by the courts 
to replace Australian stock when a mistake was made. In consequence 
some dealers were compelled to go out of the nursery business and lose 
their stock, as they could not guarantee it. 


"The Tangerine was introduced and has been cultivated to some extent 
but it is not an orange that captures the market, and no large orchards of 
this variety have been planted except one put out by W. S. Chapman, of 
San Gabriel. 

"It is a question with some good growers yet, whether there is more 
profit in any of these varieties — even the Riverside Washington Navel, than 
there is in the seedling, because of the fact that the seedling trees grow so 
much larger and therefore produce more fruit to the acre. If the markets 
were always to remain as they are today, then there would be good reason 
to stand by the seedling, but as prices become lower with increased pro- 
duction, it is believed that the seedling will become less profitable at a time 
when the navel will still bring a price that will pay largely." (This prophecv 
has been amply borne out by fifteen years experience since it was made.) 

"From fifteen to twenty years ago the orange was propagated on various 
kinds of stock — the citron, Chinese lemon, lime and orange. The China 
lemon stock was used extensively, but it was soon demonstrated that the 
tree, which was a vigorous grower, produced a large, coarse orange of in- 
ferior quality and this stock was abandoned. The lemon stock was found 
to be unhealthy and it has ceased to be used even for propagating lemon 
trees, and for years past seedling orange stock alone is used on which to bud 
the choice varieties of oranges and lemons." 


"That world-renowned nurseryman, fruit grower, botanist, author and 
horticultural authority. Prof. H. E. Van Deman, writes for the Rural New 
Yorker an article on the origin of the now world-famed Washington Navel 
orange. Prof. Van Deman corroborates the story as frequently told in these 
columns, but we tell it again for the benefit of those who have but lately had 
the pleasure ol regularly reading 'The Citrograph.' He says : 

"The recent statement in the Rural New Yorker, and some other pa- 
pers, that Mr. L. C. Tibbets, of California, who is now in a house of public 
charity, "Gave the seedless orange to the world,' is not entirely correct. It is 
evident that the variety known as Washington Navel, or more properly, the 
Bahia is meant. The latter is the true name, as it was and should have 
been first given by Mr. William Saunders of Washington, D. C. It is to 
him that the world is indebted for this orange more than to anyone else, 
although Mr. and Mrs. Tibbets too, (the latter now deceased), were instru- 
mental in bringing it prominently before the public in California. The facts 
are as follows: 

"During the Civil War, a woman who had been sojourning in Brazil, told 
Mr. Saunders that she knew of an orange at Bahia, Brazil, that exceeded any 
other varietyshe had ever tasted or heard of. He sent there and had twelve 
trees propagated by budding-, and sent to him in 1870. They all grew, and 


some of them are yet bearing fruit in the orange house at Washington. 
None of the original trees was sent out to the public, but all were there and 
used as stock from which to propagate by budding. Many young trees were 
budded from them, and sent to Florida and California. 

"Early in 1873 Mrs. Tibbets was in Washington, just previous to going 
to her new home at Riverside, California. Mr. Saunders offered to give her 
some trees of this new and untried orange, and she most gladly accepted two 
trees. She and her aged husband planted them beside their cottage, and 
when they bore fruit, it was found to be equal to the most extravagant 
reports of its quality and size, and the trees were very prolific in that section. 
The trees sent to Florida produced equally good fruit, but they did not bear 
well. This is why many fruit growers thought there was more than one vari- 
ety in the lot of trees imported from Brazil ; but the difference in fruitfulness 
came from climatic causes, as has been most thoroughly proved by many 
years of experience in all the orange-growing sections of the country. It has, 
also, been said that there was only one tree at the Tibbets place, and that 
it was unlike the other trees bearing the same name. But this is a mistake, 
for I have gathered and eaten fruit from these two trees, and had their his- 
tory direct from Mr. and Mrs. Tibbets, aiso from Mr. Saunders. Besides, I 
have critically examined the trees of Bahia in bearing in many parts of 
Florida and California, and compared them and their fruit in many ways, 
and found them to be identical, except in variations caused by climate, 
soil and culture." — Redlands Citrograph. 

The Hon. E. W. Holmes, in the Los Angeles Express, gives a somewhat 
different version of the history of the original Washington Navel trees of 
Riverside : 

"It is a question if the ascendency of California in the markets would 
have been so pronounced had not the peculiar fitness of our soil and climate 
for the production of the world's best orange — known in America as the 
Washington navel — been so conclusively demonstrated by the Riverside 

"Settled upon a grain ranch without water rights were Mr. and Mrs. L. 
C. Tibbets, who came from Washington. Near them were irrigated lands 
occupied by Josiah Cover and Samuel McCoy and Thomas W. Cover. These 
last named had planted small orchards and were engaged in growing nursery 
trees. They were studying the problem of new and more desirable varieties, 
and found in an encyclopedia the description of an orange grown at Bahia 
in Brazil, which was described as seedless and said to be the finest known. 
Chatting with Mrs. Tibbets one evening they told her about this and ex- 
pressed a wish that they might get the department of agriculture at Wash- 
ington to import a tree of this variety. Mrs. Tibbets said she was acquainted 
with Mr. Saunders at Washington and proposed to write him inquiring re- 


garding the possibility of obtaining a tree of the variety desired. His reply 
was to the effect that the department had already imported one of the trees, 
from which buds had been taken and young trees had grown. Several of 
these had gone to Florida, and others would be sent to California. The 
Florida experiment was a failure. The variety did not do well there. Those 
sent to Mrs. Tibbets were. upon their arrival planted and cared for by Cover 
& McCoy, and it was due to this care that they lived and became the pro- 
genitors of the millions of navel trees now bearing in Southern California. 
Tom Cover obtained buds, and I believe sold the first trees which went to 
other districts, for the trees had fruited and he had concluded thev would 
prove superior to anything we had. 

"When the first specimens ripened a dozen of the pioneer growers 
gathered at G. W. Garcelon's residence to hold' the first "Citrus Fair," and 
the writer was one of the company to taste the first specimen cut of the 
now famous Washington navel. All the varieties were good and proved to 
the anxious growers that their faith and work was to result in success ; but 
the navel was unmistakably superior to any and its beauty of form and color, 
its firmness and flavor justified the decision to plant it extensivelv. The 
result proved that the 'Citrus Belt' of California was larger than was sup- 
posed, and that Riverside was strictly in it." 

The history of the original Riverside Washington Navel oranges would 
not be complete without this: 

"Riverside Enterprise: One of the most gracious acts on the part of 
President Roosevelt on his recent visit to Riverside, and one that more than 
all others will endear him to the memory of the people of this valley, was 
the planting of the original navel orange tree in the Glenwood grounds on 
the morning of his departure. The tree, a gift to the Riverside Historical 
Society, had been placed in position, and at half past seven in the morning. 
President Roosevelt accompanied officers and members of the society and 
invited guests to the spot where stood the tree that had assisted so gener- 
ously in giving to Riverside and Southern California its immense wealth 
in orange groves. John G. North, president of the -Historical Society, ad- 
dressing President Roosevelt, told of the good this tree had done, and asked 
that their distinguished guest plant it in its new home in order that the 
society might cherish and care for it, and that their thoughts might ever 
be linked with the president who planted it for them in that favored spot. 
President Roosevelt took the shovel, remarking, 'I am glad to see that this 
tree shows no signs of race suicide,' he shoveled several shovelfuls of earth 
on the roots, handing the shovel to Mr. North, who has placed it in the 
archives of the society, where it will remain as one of its most valued trea- 
sures, and as a memento of the use it was put to in the hands of President 



The Redlands Citrograph quotes from the New York Fruitman's Guide : 

"A writer to a New York daily, Thomas D. James, of Nassau, New 
York, claims that an article printed in that paper "is a trifle off in crediting 
California with the first production of navel oranges in the United States. 

" 'In 1870,' says Mr. James in his letter to the editor, T planted an orange 
grove near Palatka, Florida, and in the early '70's had a number of trees 
budded with Bahia or navel oranges. The buds were taken from bearing 
trees in the vicinity, which trees must have been planted before the agri- 
cultural department had taken any steps in the matter.' 

"Instigated by this letter of Mr. James, W. A. Taylor, assistant pom- 
ologist of the United States Department of Agriculture, has within the last 
few days brought to a conclusion an investigation, the purpose- of which was 
to trace the history of the seedless orange in this country. Mr. Taylor 
reports his conclusions in a paper entitled 'The Bahia or Washington Navel 
Orange in the United States.' He says in his paper: 

" 'According to the late James Hogg of New York, a wealthy Brazilian 
planter, a Scotchman by birth, determined to manumit his slaves and re- 
move with them to the United States. This he did about 1838, settling on 
an island in Middle or Southern Florida. He then returned to Brazil and 
secured a collection of Brazilian plants for introduction, which he consigned 
to the late Thomas Hogg, who then conducted a nursery at the corner of 
Broadway and Twenty-third street, New York city. Among these plants 
were several Navel orange trees. The collection was held in the greenhouse 
in New York for nearly a year, until the plants had recovered from the effects 
of the sea voyage, and was then forwarded to the owner in Florida. During 
the Seminole war the entire collection was destroyed by the United States 
troops, the owner being charged with giving aid and comfort to the enemy. 
The owner then removed to Hayti. 

" 'While it is not known positively that these trees were of the same 
variety as that subsequently introduced by the department, it seems probable 
that this was the case. None of the trees survived long enough to come 
into fruit, however, and no trace of them now exists. The facts regarding 
this early introduction of the navel orange do not appear to have been gen- 
erallv known until 1888, when the above statement was published by Mr. 

" 'During the year 1868, William Saunders, then horticulturist, land- 
scape gardener and superintendent of garden and grounds of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, learned through a correspondent then in 


Bahia, Brazil, that the oranges were of a superior character to any known 
in the United States. The department accordingly ordered a small shipment 
of trees. The first lot were found dead upon arrival. By sending minute 
directions as to budding, packing and shipping, twelve small trees in fairly 
good condition were finally received by the department in 1870. These 
were planted in one of the greenhouses and propagated' from by budding 
on small orange stocks. The young trees thus propagated were distributed 
to orange growers in Florida and California under the name "Bahia" for 

"In 1873 two of these young trees propagated from those originally 
imported from Brazil were sent to L. C. Tibbetts, Riverside, California. 
When these came into bearing the superiority of their fruit to that of the 
other varieties then grown in California was quickly recognized, and trees 
on Mr. Tibbetts' place were largely propagated from by California nursery- 
men. One of these renamed the variety "Riverside Navel," and claimed to 
have imported the trees from Brazil himself. Later, at a conference of 
orange growers held in Los Angeles, the name "Washington Navel" was 
adopted for the variety in recognition of the fact that its introduction by the 
department of agriculture, and it is very generally grown at present under 
that name. 

" 'The American Pomological Society still adheres to the name "Bahia," 
unde' which Mr. Saunders introduced it, and recognizes the name "River- 
side Navel" and "Washington Navel" as synonyms. It is now the most 
extensively grown variety in California. 

" 'In Florida this variety yields fruit of fine quality, but when budded 
on orange stocks has not proved sufficiently productive in most sections to 
be profitable for planting in a commercial way. There are strong indica- 
tions that when budded on stocks of the "rough lemon" its productiveness 
is sufficiently improved to warrant commercial planting, and experimental 
efforts along this line are now being made in that state. 

" 'The exact place of origin of this orange is unknown, but the navel 
type is known to have existed for centuries. Thus a very good illustration 
of such an orange appears in a "Natural History of Trees and Fruits" pub- 
lished at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1662. It seems altogether probable that 
varieties bearing the navel mark have originated in widely separated regions, 
either as seedlings or as bud variations which have been perpetuated by man 
by means of budding and grafting. 

"'In this is of interest to note that several navel varieties 
have been introduced in this country at different times. Some of these are 
known under the name "Australian Navel," "Parsons' Navel," and "Sanford 
Navel," but none have been found equal to the Bahia in seedlessness and 
productiveness or high quality.' " 



In 1857, Anson Van Leuven brought six orange trees from San Gabriel 
to San Bernardino and set out three of them on his place. These were the 
first bearing trees in this county. 

In 1889, the Redlands Orange Grove and Water Association collected 
some data regarding the oldest orchards in the county. 

Anson Van Leuven stated with regard to his orchard : 

"I have four acres of thirty year old .seedlings. Nursery stock was three 
years old. (This would make this grove set out in 1862.) The stock was 
brought from Los Angeles. At the seventh year from planting, the yield was 
one and one-half boxes per tree, eight years from planting, two boxes per 

L. R. Van Leuven said: "In 1865, I planted 50 three-year-old seedlings 
and in 1873 planted 100 seedlings, the same age. The sixth year from planting 
the yield was one-fourth box per tree." 

Lewis F. Cram : "At the time I located on my place in the East San 
Bernardino Valley orange culture was hardly thought of. No attempts had 
then been made to start in the business with any hope of making it a success, 
and we early settlers had not at that time, the slightest inkling of the great 
changes that were to take place in this valley as soon as it was known that 
oranges could be grown here with profit. At the time I set out my grove, 
1869, I had an opportunity of purchasing 500 young trees, or enough to plant 
five acres of land, but I decided to take only enough to set out 1 3-4 ncres. 
thinking as an experiment it would be as well to start with a few trees. This 
orchard is now over twenty years old and it is believed that there is not a 
finer grove in California, either in productiveness, or in size and appearance 
of trees. The trees have never failed to bear since coming into bearing, but 
have increased from year to year until in 1887, I realized $1,757 from the 
1 3-4 acres." 

The San Bernardino Guardian reports in 1874, that Mr. Lewis Cram "is 
engaged in setting out 1,500 orange trees." 

The Crafts orchard at Crafton was set out about 1870. In 1874, Col 
Tolles planted the seeds of his Lugonia orchard, using the seed of rotten 
Tahiti oranges brought from San Francisco. 

W. R. Fox and Rev. Jas. Cameron put out the first orchards at Colton 
about 1875, planting nursery stock, and E. J. Waite set the first orchard in 
Redlands in the spring of 1882. 

At Riverside, W. P. Russell put out an orchard of six acres in 1872 while 
the old "Hewitson" grove was set in 1871. After 1872 the planting was brisk- 
in Riverside and by 1880 over 15,000 orange trees were bearing in the county. 



The first orange growers had a bonanza. The first bearing trees on the 
Anson Van Leuven place at Old San Bernardino were a great curiosity. 
People drove miles to visit them and pluck oranges with their own bands and 
paid as high as seventy-five cents per dozen, it is said, for the privilege. I. N. 
Hoag, in a report to the State Agricultural Board, made in 1879, sa y s : "A 
gentleman in old San Bernardino has an orange grove of 83 trees to the acre 
and the average sales have been 2,000 oranges to the tree, sold at three cents 
a piece — $60.00 per tree, or $4,980.00 per acre." 

In the Riverside Press and Horticulturist an old resident wrote as follows 
in 1882: 

"Nearly ten years since the few of us who then resided in Riverside, 
journeyed often over the bad roads of the canyon to Old San Bernardino to 
see Captain Pishon and Mr. Anson Van Leuven, and get an impetus from 
seeing 1, 000 to 3,000 oranges on thirteen year old trees, worth upon the tree 
from fifty to sixty cents per dozen, and which price we cheerfully paid, for 
had we not young trees that would in a few years bring us in from $40.00 to 
$80.00 each? Our purchased fruit we would keep to look at and see the gold 
and silver in the dim distance." The same writer states that in 1882, it cost 
from $t.i 5 to $1.40 per box to pack and ship oranges to San Francisco. "My 
oranges have sold in San Francisco this year at from $2.00 to $4.00 per box ; 
at about the same time in Denver, the same class of fruit — seedling oranges — 
sold for $7.83 per box containing 165 oranges to a box. A gentleman who 
shipped to Denver with me received for his Riverside Navels about $8.22 Der 
box of 137. It costs about $4.20 to pay freight and commission on a box of 
lemons to Denver and $3.50 on a box of oranges." 

Thomas A. Garey writes in the Semi-Tropic Californian : "I find by a 
careful examination of prices in San Francisco for the years 1877-78 that the 
price for Los Angeles oranges averages $22.50 per thousand." 

As early as 1879, J 5 cars °f oranges were sent from Los Angeles to Salt 
Lake, but the freight rates were practically prohibitive at this time. Decem- 
ber 10, 1881, the Riverside Press and Horticulturist reports: "Messrs. Cover 
and McCoy have sold their Riverside, or Washington Navel oranges — the 
entire crop — to Mr. F. B. Everest for $40.00 per thousand on the tree. Mr. 
Everest will ship these oranges to the principal cities of the east and place 
them on the market and see how they sell." 

At first fruit was shipped packed loosely in boxes or barrels and was 
sent by wagon to Arizona and New Mexico and by steamer to San Francisco 
and coast points. By 1880, a uniform box had been adopted and some atten- 
tion was being paid to sorting and packing. 


In December, 1881, the Southern Pacific, owing to the increase in orange 
production and the approach of another transcontinental line, dropped the 
rate on carload lots of oranges from $650 per car to Chicago to $350, at the 
same time making a rate of $300 from Los Angeles to Kansas City, $335 to St. 
Louis and $10.00 per ton on carload lots between Los Angeles and San Fran- 
cisco. — 300 boxes to a car. 

The Riverside Press of April 24, 1882, chronicles: "G. W. Garcelon and 
A. J. Twogood are getting ready to ship a carload of oranges and lemons to 
Denver. This will take all their surplus fruit." So far as the records show 
this was the first carload shipment made out of San Bernardino county. 


At a meeting of some fifty orange growers called in Riverside in Decem- 
ber, 1884, a discussion was held as to the advisability of selling fruit on com- 
mission and it was unanimously agreed that "this is the best method that can 
be adopted." A committee of nine were appointed to correspond with com- 
mission houses and "submit a plan for action." 

This seems to have been the first step toward the organization of growers 
or the recognition of orange selling as an industry in San Bernardino county. 
The Orange Growers' Protective Union of Los Angeles was organized proba- 
bly in 1885. This included Los Angeles and Riverside. J. de Barth Sh'orb was 
the president in 1886 and two representatives, one of whom was James 
Bettner of Riverside, were sent east to look after the interests of the Union. 
It seems to have had the same troubles as the present Union for the shipments 
for 1885-86 are reported as "891 cars for the Orange Growers Protective Union 
and 791 cars for others." 

In the winter of 1885-86 the California Fruit Growers Union was organ- 
ized in San Francisco. 


At first the fruit was mostly marketed by the growers themselves, the 
larger orchardists shipping for the smaller ones; but gradually the business 
developed, firms making a business of handling- fruit were established, eastern 
commission houses sent their representatives to various points and many 
packing houses were built. 

In December, 1882, the Riverside Fruit Co. announced that it was readv 
to handle oranges on commission, — boxes and packing on lowest terms. — 
superior facilities for shipping in carload lots." B. D. Burt was president of 
this company. The E. C. Packard Co. also announced itself as ready for busi- 
ness in December, 1882, "having erected a fruit packing house on Eighth street, 
west of Main." Griffin and Skclley and Germain Co. built packing houses 
and were ready for business in 1884. 


"At a meeting of the principal fruit packe'rs of Southern California, held 
at Riverside on December 28th, 1887, the following rules were adopted and tin- 
packers whose names are attached pledged themselves to abide by the same 
for the present season. The subject of prices was not touched upon: 

1. In buying oranges or lemons delivered at our several packing houses, 
we shall in all and every case insist on such fruit being stem cut, stems to be 
cut close to the fruit. All oranges pulled from the trees without being 
clipped, to be classed as culls and weighed back to the grower or sold for his 

2. The weight of a box of loose Navel, or paper-rind St. Michael oranges 
to be seventy pounds net merchantable fruit. The weight of all other varieties 
of oranges to be sixty-five pounds net merchantable fruit. The weight of a 
box of loose green or cured lemons to be seventy pounds of net merchantable 

3. The merchantable size in Navels to be 176 size to the standard box, 
and all larger sizes. The merchantable size in the paper-rind St. Michaels to be 
250 size and all larger sizes. The merchantable size of all other varieties to be 
128 to 226 inclusive. The merchantable sizes of Navels or the Paper-rind St. 
Michaels to be classed with the seedling oranges of the same sizes and bought 
at the same price as seedlings of such sizes. The unmerchantable sizes of all 
other varieties of oranges except Navels or Paper-rind St. Michaels, to be 
paid for at the rate of one-third less than the price paid for the merchantable 
sizes of such varieties. 

The merchantable sizes in green lemons to be 200 to 250 to the standard 
box. and of cured lemons. 250 to 300 to the box. all other sizes to lie classed 
as unmerchantable and weighed back to the grower or sold for his accounl 

4. All windfalls, thorned, or limb-scratched, bruised, frosted, pulled. 
buttoned and otherwise injured oranges to be classed in all cases as culls and 
weighed back to the grower, or sold for his account. 

Germain Fruit Co., 

Griffin & Skelley. 

Earl Fruit Co., 

A. J. & D. C. Twogood. 

C. J. Shepard. 

Thacker Pros. & Mann. 

W. R. Strong & Co., 

Riverside Fruil G ., 

Boyd & Devine, 

Geo. W. Meade & Co." 
A- will be seen, the standard sizes differed considerably from those ai 
present in use. At that time the oranges ran much larger than now. 

"Standard Car of Oranges for ir;oo. — The regulati 01- governing the 


variety of size in the 'standard car of oranges' were adopted by the Fruit 
Growers and Shippers' Association of Southern California, as follows : 

"Navel Oranges. — A standard car of Navel oranges to consist of sizes 
96's to 200's inclusive; not over 15 per cent 96's and 112's. Any excess of 15 
per cent 96's and 112's to be considered off-sizes and invoiced at a reduction 
of 50 cents per box. Sizes 64's, 8o's and 250's, Navel, to be considered off- 
sizes and invoiced at a reduction of 50 cents per box from the price for regular 
sizes. Sizes 216's, in Navels, to be considered off-sizes and invoiced at a 
reduction of 25 cents per box. 

Seedlings, Mediterranean Sweets, etc. — The standard car of other varieties 
(except Yalencias and Paper-rind St. Michaels) to consist of sizes 126's to 
250's inclusive; not to exceed 15 per cent 126's and not over 15 per cent 250's. 
Any excess of 15 per cent 126's and 15 per cent 250's to be considered off-sizes 
and invoiced at a reduction of 25 cents per box. Sizes of Sv-edling oranges 
larger and smaller than 126's to 250's, inclusive, to be considered off-sizes and 
invoiced at a reduction of 25 cents per box. 

"It is understood that each car of oranges may contain a reasonable quan- 
tity of off-sizes, at the reductions named above." 

The number of boxes in a car has also undergone a marked change. From 
1886-87 IO r 893-94, 300 boxes of oranges was counted as a car; from 1894-Q5 
to 1897-98, 334 boxes constituted a carload ; during the season of 1898-99, 360 
boxes were counted to the car and now the standard car contains 362 boxes. 


About 1889 the adoption of trademarks and labels began to be discussed. 
The Riverside Press in March, 1889, published the following: 

"The new trade mark labels printed by the Riverside Board of Trade have 
been received and are being used by some of our packers. This label is 25 x 6 
inches and is printed in colors, showing a handsome view of Magnolia avenue 
and a full bearing orange tree on either side and a fine Navel orange in the 
center, with the words 'Riverside Oranges, California,' on a ribbon. Above 
this, 'Trade Mark, Registered February, 1889,' and below it, 'Oranges packed 
under this Trade Mark were grown in Riverside.' On the right and left are 
fac-similes of the gold and silver medals won at the New Orleans Exposition 
in 1884. The label also bore the following notice: 'The Board of Trade of 
the city of Riverside have, after due consideration, deemed it advisable to 
provide a trade-mark for the use of all growers and packers of Riverside fruits. 
Any dealer who purchases a box with this label intact may know it to be 
Riverside fruit. D. L. Wilbur, President.' '" 

At this time all fruit grown in San Bernardino county was shipped under 
the Riverside name and by Riverside packers. Riverside fruit then brought 
higher prices than that raised in Los Angeles and other counties, the black 


scale and other pests having greatly injured the fruit and indeed almost 
destroyed the industry in the coast counties. 

"In 1890, San Bernardino county, which was not affected by scale at all, 
shipped 1,705 carloads of oranges while Los Angeles shipped only 781. The 
introduction of the Vedalia followed which in less than a year freed the trees 
of the cottony cushion scale, and in 1891, the returns were 2,213 car-loads for 
Los Angeles county and 1,708 for San Bernardino." (LeLong.) 

The first shipments of Redlands fruit under the name of "Redlands" were 
made in the season of 1889-90 by the Haight Fruit Co., under their "Rose" 
brand. Ontario also began shipping fruit under her own name and brands 
about the same time. 

The first record of systematic grading of oranges is furnished by Prof. 
Chas. R. Paine, of Crafton, who in 1884-5 made a grader for himself to grade 
fruit according to a description furnished him by a Florida friend. The Jones 
grader, manufactured in Philadelphia was used in Riverside in 1886 and in 
1887, J. W. Keeney patented a grader which proved successful. 


As the production of oranges increased, the transportation of the orange 
crop to the east became an important item in the railroad business. The 
Southern Pacific and Santa Fe vied with each other in furnishing facilities. 
The ventilated fruit car was adopted in 1887 and orange trains were run as 
specials. In March 1888, a car of oranges was started from Riverside on the 
13th and reached New York city on the 25th, the shortest time on record at 
that date. In 1899, the refrigerator car service was instituted and now a 
regular sysem of inspection and "icing" adds to the efficiency — and the cost — 
of the service. 


The raising and the marketing of oranges has passed through a valuable 
but a very expensive experimental development. The localities best suited for 
orange culture and the varieties that would prove profitable were only de- 
termined by costly trials. While San Bernardino county has been little 
affected by insect pests as yet, she has kept herself exempt only by constant 
vigilance. The existence of an efficient Board of Horticulture which has 
largely devoted its efforts to this end bas been an absolute necessity. Only a 
few favored localities have escaped an occasional blight of frost. Continued 
and extensive irrigation has produced changes in soil and conditions that have 
sometimes made orange growing unprofitable or less profitable than the 
raising of some other crop. 

During the eighties the difficult)- was to supply the market, and the 


growers reaped large profits : but the increased production, not only of Cali- 
fornia, but also of Florida and the increased importation of foreign oranges 
tended to lower prices. The glutting of the markets offering high prices, the 
shipping of green or frosted fruit by irresponsible parties, the high cost of 
transportation, the number of middlemen between the grower and the con- 
sumer have all tended to reduce the profits and demoralize the trade. 

Various combinations, associations, unions, etc., of growers and of 
packers have grown up and become factors in the business. Of these the 
strongest has been the Southern California Fruit Exchange, made up of the 
various local and county exchanges, which are largely composed of the orange 
growers. In 1902-3, a determined effort was made for co-operation of the 
various elements and the packers formed the California Citrus Union, which 
in turn combined with the Fruit Exchange, each body appointing a committee 
of 16 members, to form the California Fruit Agency. The Fruit Agency was 
to have entire control of the marketing of fruit handled by the Fruit Exchange 
and the Citrus Union. And it was estimated that they would, during the 
season of 1903-04 control some 85 per cent of the entire citrus crop. The 
object of the combination was to eliminate competition and distribute the 
fruit systematically throughout the United States. It had agents in every 
city of any size in the country and these agents were responsible for the sale 
of fruit consigned to them, and it was intended to ship only as much fruit as 
was actually demanded by the needs of the market. The disastrous season of 
1903-4 and the dramatic finale of the California Fruit Agency, are still fresh 
in the minds of all. The reasons for the failure of the well laid theories of the 
organization are numerously and diversely stated — the results are undeniable. 


The series of citrus fairs held in the eighties and early nineties without 
doubt were a great impetus to the citrus fruit industry and of great benefit to 
the orchardists. The first "Citrus Fair" ever held in the world was success- 
fully accomplished in Riverside in February, 1879. It was at this fair that the 
Washington Navel was first exhibited and its superior qualities recognized. 
Mr. Albert S. White and Mr. H. J. Rudisill were among the most zealous 
workers in organizing and preparing for this exhibit. It was such a success 
that another was held in February 1880, and in March, 1881, occurred the third 
fair. By this time the people of Riverside had determined to make the event 
annual and money was subscribed and a pavilion especially for that purpose 
was erected and used for the fair of 1882. The fifth annual fair in 1883 was a 
gala occasion, as the semi-annual State Convention of Fruit Growers was held 
in Riverside at the same time and the State Editorial Association also attended 
the fair in a body. 

Among the exhibitors at these earlv fairs, outside of Riverside, were R. 


Ingham, R. F. Cunningham, Capt. Pishon, M. Haight, M. H. Crafts, D. A. 
Shaw and others. The fairs were held annually in Riverside with the excep- 
tion of one or two at Colton, until 1891, when San Bernardino, having com- 
pleted her pavilion, held her first citrus fair. In 1892. the fair was held in 
Colton and in 1893 Colton dedicated an expensive pavilion with a state fair 
at which the finest exhibit of fruits ever made in the state was arranged. 
Citrus fairs were also held in Los Angeles and Pasadena and at these San 
Bernardino fruit always attracted much attention and won many premiums. 
At the Los Angeles Exposition held in 1879, a fine exhibit of San Bernardino 
County apples, raised at an elevation of 3.500 feet, was made by Peter Forsee : 
dried fruits and raisins were shown by H. A. Westbrook and A. J. Twogood 
of Riverside; Port wine of the vintage of 1874, by Dr. Wm. Craig of Crafton, 
and red wine by N. B. Hicks, of Old San Bernardino: oranges by Mrs. Cath- 
erine Boyd and budded fruit by James Boyd, of Riverside. 

An exhibit which was a triumph indeed was that made by San Bernar- 
dino County at the New Orleans Exposition of 1884-85. Here her oranges 
were put into competition with the world, and won premiums, as follows: 

Cold medal for the best twenty varieties of oranges grown in California. 

Gold medal for the best twenty varieties of oranges grown in the United 

Gold medal for the best twenty varieties of oranges grown in world. 

Silver medal (the highest premium offered in this department) for the 
best displav of lemons, from any part of the world. 

Tn this competition were met oranges and lemons from various districts 
of California, from Sonora and other Mexican States, from Louisiana. Flor- 
ida, the West Tndies. and various places along the Mediterranean. 

Mrs. G. A. Cook, of Lugonia. sent an exhibit of one hundred varieties of 
fruit raised in the county, and put up in glass jars, which attracted wide- 
spread attention. 

Another event which drew attention to the fruit and the possibilities of 
fruit culture in Southern California was the Chicago Citrus Fair of 1886. 
This was a bold attempt to transfer a California Citrus Fair bodily to the 
city of Chicago. It was originated by L. M. Holt and others of Riverside. 
The Southern Pacific was asked to take twelve carloads of material, fruit and 
trees, together with sixteen men to take charge of same, to Chicago, free of 
charge. They finally replied that their company would take six carloads of 
freight, and eight of the men, free of charge to Chicago, if the Santa Fe would 
take the other half, to which proposition the Santa Fe officials readily con- 
sented. Mr. Holt then associated with him J. E. Clark, of Pasadena, and 
C. Z. Culver, of Orange, and IT. N. Rust, who agreed to assume the respon- 
sibility of conducting the fair in Chicago: fruit-growers responded with fruit 
and trees and other products, and early in March the managers were in 
Chicago with a large exhibit, which was put up in Battery D Armory, on 


Michigan avenue, and opened to the public. This building ivas 140 by 160 
feet in size, and it was full of exhibits, which constituted the finest citrus 
fair ever held up to that time on tbe American continent. Several carloads 
of orange and lemon trees, in fruit and in bloom, were placed on exhibition, 
together with hundreds of boxes of the choicest varieties of oranges and 
lemons and other products of Southern California. This fair was kep,t open 
five weeks, during which time it was estimated that it was attended by 
75,000 people from all parts of the great northwest. 

"On to Chicago ! The Citrus Fruit Exhibit Train Pulls Out — San Bernardino 
Has the Finest Decorated Car. 

At about noon to-day the train carrying the citrus exhibit from San 
Bernardino and Los Angeles counties for the Chicago fair pulled out, amid 
loud hurrahs from those who were at the depot and along the line of the 
track. The train was a long one and was made up of citrus fruits from South- 
ern California. It took three large engines to haul it, or at least three were 
hooked on. At the head of the long train of cars were five decorated cars 
from San Bernardino, Riverside and Los Angeles. The San Bernardino car 
was handsomely trimmed with evergreens, while about two dozen American 
flags floated to the breeze from the top and sides of the car. On each side, 
near the top. "San Bernardino" was painted in colors, and underneath on both 
sides of the car door, "Semi-Tropic Fruit and Mineral Exhibits." It Was 
decidedly the most handsome looking car on the train. On the Riverside car 
was the legend. "Riverside Fruits for Chicago Citrus Fair — 1886," in large 
letters, with evergreen decorations. The cars from Los Angeles county 
were also decorated, and gave the destination and import of the cars and 
their contents. No doubt this freight train will create more excitement along 
its line of travel than any that ever before crossed the continent. It is expected 
tbe exhibit will arrive in Chicago about the 15th. William Simms, of River- 
side, went along with the exhibit to regulate the ventilation and attend per- 
sonally to the fruit in its transit." — San Bernardino Times, March 3, 1886. 


Number of orange trees in San Bernardino County — 

1872. 1880. 1890. 1 goo. 

7.5 1 1 15,345 467-670 I-347-9" 
Orange shipments, boxes — 

1881. 1891. 1900. 1902-03. 

15.000 487,882 1,241,021 1,562,108 
Value of Orchard products — 

i860. 1870. 1880. 1890. 1900. 

$2,450 $5-235 $56,012 $1,221,360 $1,634,783 


Shipments of citrus fruits from state — 

1886-7 1.000 cars 1894-95 7-575 cars 

1887-8 1,800 cars 1895-96 6.915 cars 

1888-89 2,600 cars 1896-97 9-35° cars 

1889-90 3.350 cars 1897-98 15,540 cars 

1890-91 4,000 cars 1898-99 10.351 cars 

1891-92 5,000 cars 1899-00 17.809 cars 

1892-93 5,871 cars 1900-01 -24.954 cars 

1893-94 5.022 cars 1901-02 20.387 cars 

1902-03 22,390 cars 


The San Bernardino Horticultural Commission was organized in 1888, 
the supervisors appointing as members, N. B. Muscott, of San Bernardino ; 
W. E. Collins. Ontario ; W. H. Claflin, Riverside. These commissioners di- 
vided the county into districts, each man supervising a district and making 
separate reports to the secretary. 

The task confronting the commission was by no means a simple one. It 
was their duty to protect the most important wealth producing interests of the 
county — one paying nearly two-thirds of the assessed taxes of the county. 
For this purpose they must find means for eliminating or limiting the numer- 
ous parasitic insects that are destructive to these interests and must guard 
against the importation of infected trees, shrubs and vines. The work of the 
commission met with more or less opposition at first. The methods pursued 
were largely experimental and each commissioner pursued his own method. 
Many orchardists complained of unnecessary destruction of their trees and 
crops without corresponding benefit and it was generally felt that the large 
expenditures of the commission were not warranted by the results and that the 
labors of the board were of doubtful value to the fruit growers. 

Tlie history of the first four years of the commission snows friction with 
orchardists and dissension with nurserymen and dealers, following the efforts 
to exclude diseased stocks in order to guard against the dreaded "peach yel- 
lows." "Root knot" was reported as affecting deciduous trees to an alarming 
extent, but the commissioners could offer no remedy for the disease except the 
elimination of the trees. Spraying with a salt, lime and sulphur solution was 
found an effective remedy, when properly prepared and applied at the right 
season, for Aspidictus Perniciosus (San Jose scale). The red and white scale 
were found to be steadily increasing in some parts of the county and caused 
much concern. In November, 1888, the Yedalia Cardinalis was introduced 
and found to be a perfect parasite for the white scale, practically reducing the 
white scale to a minimum and keeping it in check from that date to the 
present. Considerable alarm was occasioned in 1892 by the appearance of 


Mytilaspis Citrocola (Purple scale), which notwithstanding fumigation was 
imported on young orange trees from Florida. Investigation, however, proved 
this scale acclimated only near the sea coast with no danger in this countv. 

The cutting off of Riverside county in 1893, necessitated the retirement 
of N. H. Claflin from the board and J. H. Pierson, of Redlands. was appointed 
his successor. This division of the county reduced the expenses of the Hor- 
ticultural commission very materially. Several years succeeding show little 
change in the conditions, but. while the methods were always largely experi- 
mental, there was steady improvement all along the line. The opening of 
large tracts to cultivation and the unprecedented demand for trees and shrubs 
of all kinds, taxed the resources of the commission, but they were able to con- 
trol importations to a large extent. This resulted in healthier trees and better 
conditions. In 1893 the grape vine flea beetle made its first appearance in San 
Bernardino Valley, causing considerable damage to vineyards in Grape- 
lands and Rialto. Olive, orange and lemon trees suffered severely in the 
western portion of the county through an increase of Lecanium Oleae (black 
scale) and the general treatment of kerosene emulsion or resin wash, through 
lack of persistency in application, proving of little avail, the commission 
recommended the use of gas as a substitute for all other remedies. 

In 1894, the State Board of Horticulture began the colonization of the 
Rhezobius Yentralia, or Australian Ladybug, and introduced them through- 
out the state believing that they would prove 
the solution to all difficulties arising from the 
black scale. 

1896 brought a radical change in the Board 
of Horticulture. The commission had been in 
existence eight years andthough the conditions 
threatening deciduous trees had been largely 
improved, the black scale, red scale, and soft 
brown scale were rapidly increasing in the 
county, notwithstanding the efforts of the com- 
mission with a force of twenty-two local in- 
spectors. The greatest burden had fallen on 
Commissioner Collins, whose district, being in 
the western portion of the county contiguous 
to Los Angeles County, was exposed to an 
army of parasites sweeping onward from that 
section. Local complaint increased against the 
arbitrary measures sometimes resorted to by 
the commissioners, although they never exceeded the authority vested in 
them. There was also strong objection to the cost of the commission to the 
county. The Board of Supervisors determined to re-organize the commission 
upon a new basis. At this time Secretary Collins tendered his resignation, as 


he was called elsewhere, and the Supervisors, desiring to reduce what they con- 
sidered as the unnecessary expense of three commissioners, and finding 
authority in an amending act of the Legislature approved March 31, 1891, they 
proceeded to declare the offices of the Board of Horticulture vacant and, on 
January 6, 1896, appointed S. A. Pease, of Ontario, sole commissioner. Mr. 
Pease had been employed as a local inspector and was thoroughly familiar 
with the work; he had also made a special study of entomological questions 
involved. The new commissioner prepared a set of blanks for making com- 
plete reports to be sent in by the inspectors monthly and appointed six local 
inspectors, stationed at points where the principal orchard interests were 
located or where there was the greatest danger from importation of infected 
stock. Mr. Pease also began the collection and classification of entomological 
specimens, for the benefit of the inspectors and others interested in fruit pests 
and their remedies. This collection now comprises not only the destructive 
and beneficial insects and parasites native to San Bernardino County, but also 
includes many specimens from different sections of the United States and 

Commissioners Muscott and Pierson refused to recognize the authority of 
the Board of Supervisors to appoint a commissioner, other than to fill the 
unexpired term of Commissioner Collins, and continued to act in their official 
capacities. The Supervisors refused to recognize their salary claims and the 
case was taken into the courts, where Judge Otis decided against the Super- 
visors, declaring the act under which they had made the appointment, uncon- 
stitutional, at the same time he decided that the plaintiff's term of office had 
lapsed and that they held merely by reason of no successors having been named 
by the Supervisors. In accordance with this decision, Mr. Muscott and Mr. 
Melville, of Redlands, were appointed and the new board of Horticultural 
Commissioners was organized with Mr. Pease as chairman. The old system 
of handling the county by districts was abolished. 

During the year 1896, a thorough trial of the Australian Ladybug as a 
means of exterminating black scale was made. Ten thousand Rhizobius per 
month were purchased, for five months in succession. These were divided 
into lots of five hundred and liberated in different portions of the county twice 
each month. This trial demonstrated that the parasite could not be depended 
upon to do the work with required thoroughness, and the Board, believing 
fumigation a better method than spraying, set about preparing a more thor- 
ough system of fumigation than had yet been used. A superintendent of 
fumigation was appointed by the Board and four outfits, each consisting of 
about thirty tents, were put in the field, the county furnishing the tents and 
necessary appliances, while chemicals, purchased at wholesale rates by (he 
county, were furnished the orchardists at cost. 

The report of Commissioner Pease for 1897, states, "the few orchardists 
on the west side, who were at first opposed to fumigation have fallen into 



line, and we have now more requests for the fumigators than we could fill with 

double the number of tents." 

In 1898, the report of the Board states: "Comparison of our last season's 

fumigation with that done by 
contract work shows emphatically 
in our favor. Probably 150 acres 
were fumigated in this county by 
contract outfits, and I think it is 
safe to say that there is not one 
tree in the lot today that is free 
from black scale, and some of 
them are very badly infested. 
This showsconclusively that it is 
absolutely necessary to have the 
work done by methods that will 
abolish the excuse or incentive to 
withhold chemicals or shorten the 
time of exposure — for the purpose 
of increasing the profits of indi- 

The opposition to the work of 
the Horticultural Commission has 
lessened year by year and the 
benefits of the intelligent and well- 
directed efforts against pests of all 
kinds, are now generally recog- 
nized by the orchardists, who as a 

rule co-operate with the Board in the work of protecting their orchards. Mr. 

S. A. Pease has continued as the chairman of the Board of Horticulture for 

the county down to the present date, and is recognized as an authority on 

parasites — of all descriptions. 

The present board consists of S. A. Pease, Joshua Hartzell and George 

R. Holbrook. 





The valley of San Bernardino has an area of 325,640 acres, which thus 
far constitutes the irrigable section of the county. This corner, containing 
less than one-fortieth of the area of the original county is. nevertheless, the 
largest and most fertile valley in Southern California, and produces more 
agricultural wealth to the acre than any other known section of the earth. 

The census reports of 1900 show an area of 37,877 acres in the county 
under irrigation in 1899. 

At the eastern apex of the valley the San Bernardino mountains converge 
in the peaks, each more than 11,000 feet above sea level, of San Bernardino 
and "Greyback." To the north stretches the San Bernardino range and the 
Cucamonga hills, the south is bounded by the San Jacinto range and the 
Coast range lies to the east. 

The Santa Ana river rises in the highest San Bernardinos, enters the valley 
at its extreme eastern point and flows, south of its center, throughout the 
entire length of the valley, then breaks through the Coast range to the Coast 
plains beyond. From all sides the drainage of the surrounding mountains 
pours into this valley through numerous water courses. The most important 
of these are: On the north side, Plunge, City. Twin, Devil's Canon, Cajon 
Pass, Lytle and San Antonio creeks; on the south side. Mill, San Timoteo 
and Temescal creeks. Many of these streams flow through the valley but 
a short distance ordinarily before they sink beneath the surface and thus 
feed the artesian belts and the subterranean stream of the Santa Ana. 

The Santa Ana river is the most valuable stream in the sp'- f hern section of 
the state for irrigation purposes. Its extensive water shed, its many feeders — 
both above and below surface, and its low banks make it of the highest 
importance as a source of supply for water systems. The Bear Valley and 
the Redlands and Lugonia water companies draw their main supply from the 
Santa Ana; the Riverside system is largely supplied from it, while the water 
systems of Orange county — the Santa Ana, Anaheim, Orange and others are 
largely dependent upon this stream. It also furnishes the greater part of the 
power for the Edison Electric system of Los Angeles, which operates the 
first long-distance electric power transmission system ever installed. 



Mr. C. A. Wentworth writes thus of the water supply of the San Bernar- 
dino valley, in "Forestry and Irrigation" : 

''The water supply of this valley comes primarily from the rain clouds 
which sweep inland from the Pacific during the winter, or rainy season, and 
precipitate their moisture on coming into contact with the mountains to the 
east. Much of this precipitation in the higher slopes is in the form of snow, 
some of which does not melt until the spring months, keeping the streams 
at a comparatively even flow. The rainfall in the valley approximates 15 
inches annually, but comes in the period of least growth. On the lower slopes 
of the mountain the streams have grades of from 100 to 200 feet in the mile, 
with still heavier grades in their granite-walled mountain canons. Natu- 
rally these streams carry down immense quantities of material, which has 
spread out over the valleys to a great depth. This material, formed of coarse 
particles, overlies clay beds, which appear at certain points in the valley. 
When the streams leave the hills they sink into the loose material, one-third 
of whose mass consists of voids, or interstices between gravel particles 
forming a great underground reservoir whose aggregate storage capacity is 
enormous and sufficient to carry the irrigation communities through a long 
period of dry years, and capable of being recharged at times of copious rain- 
fall. The Santa Ana river, the largest in Southern California, in common 
with other streams of the same region, sinks below this mountain detritus, 
reappearing only in one or two places where upward folds of the clay sub- 
stratum forces it to the surface. One clay ridge forms the natural dam of the 
Upper Santa Ana irrigation basin, from which almost all of the water for 
Riverside is obtained, and forces the river to the surface. At Rincon the 
underground waters, as well as the return waters from irrigation in the 
higher parts of the valley are again forced to the surface, creating wet lands 
and making available a water supply for Santa Ana and other points on the 
coastal plain." 


The first European occupants of tHs valley, the Spanish priests, came 
from a land where irrigation was common. They introduced irrigation into 
California, and when they established the "Asistencia" de San Bernardino 
they utilized the waters of Mill creek by constructing the zanja which has 
been in use ever since its completion in 1822. The New Mexican settlers 
who came in during the forties and located along the Santa Ana, below the 
present town of San Bernardino, diverted various ditches to water their bean 


patches, orchards and vineyards. Some of these ditches are still in use and 
almost in their primitive simplicity. Others have become a part of the 
Jurupa and Riverside water systems. 

When the Mormons arrived they almost immediately began the con- 
struction of ditches to water their garden spots and grain fields. While they 
made no concerted effort at irrigation, they dug a number of open ditches 
and brought a considerable area under irrigation. On Lytle Creek they 
had fifty acres laid out into one-acre tracts, which were used as gardens by 
townspeople, and at Old San Bernardino they had a vineyard which was 
common property and was irrigated from the old zanja which they at once 

Probably the first work done by these colonists was the digging of an 
open ditch carrying about forty inches from Raynor Springs into the stock- 
ade. This was soon after their arrival, in 1851 or 1852. The Davis Mill 
ditch was taken from the junction of City and Warm creeks in 1853 and car- 
ried some 1,500 inches of water, which was used to run the grist mill. The 
Rabel's Dam ditch was taken from Warm creek in 1854, and carried about 
200 inches. The Tenney ditch, originally a large ditch taken from the Santa 
Ana near the head of the valley in 1855. was used to irrigate two or three 
sections of grain near Old San Bernardino. The Lord ditch and the Hale 
& Perdue ditch were taken from Lytle Creek in 1854 and 1855. These ditches, 
with others taken out about the same time, furnish the original water rights 
upon which many of the present water rights are based. 

After the departure of the Mormons the settlers continued to use these 
various ditches, and others were taken out, as the Meeks and Daley, from 
Warm creek, carrying 600 inches, in 1858-0; the Timber ditch near the h 'ad 
of the Santa Ana. on the south side ; the Cram-Yan Leuve«v the Waterman 
and the Berry Roberts ditches. 

At first the water obtained was divided among the land owners as they 
mutually agreed, subject to the direction of Water Masters, who were 
appointed by the Board of Water Commissioners. These commissioners 
were elected by the people under a special act of the Legislature applying to 
San Bernardino county alone, approved February 18, 1864. 

L. M. Holt says, regarding the distribution of water during this period: 

"Usually a number of persons owning land in a compact form along the 
margin of a stream would unite together and agree to take out of the stream 
enough water to irrigate such lands. Each person thus entering the compact 
was to be entitled to such proportion of the water as he owned land to be 
irrigated, and each person was to do work in constructing the diverting ditch 
in proportion to the amount of water to which he was to be entitled. 

"In those days it was not necessary to post notices of appropriation. 
In fact, it is not necessary now, only that it protects the person's rights 


while he is getting ready to commence work, and while the work is pro- 
gressing up to the time that the ditch is completed sufficiently to indicate 
how much water it would carry. When the diversion was once made and 
the water once used the right was established, and it could not be successfully 

"Gradually, as land and water became more valuable, more elaborate and 
sometimes complicated systems of division and delivery grew out of the 
simple neighborhood associations which had at first been formed. Then 
came the period of regularly organized and incorporated water companies, 
in most cases deriving their rights from the old water rights, either by com- 
binations of the land holders, or by purchase. One of the first incorporated 
water companies in Southern California was formed at Riverside, growing 
out of the Southern California Colony Association, formed in 1870. "It was 
a land and water company combined. It was a close corporation and was 
organized to make money for its stockholders by selling water for irrigation 
purposes after all of its land bad been sold. It fixed the price of water at first 
at a low figure, intending to advance the rate as the settlement grew. In 
those days there was practically no limit to what a company might charge 
for water." L. M. Holt. 

In 1873 the South Fork of the Santa Ana ditch was organized informally, 
using the water from the Berry Roberts ditch, which was a relocation of the 
old Tenney ditch, to which was added water from the old Timber d'itch. 
In- 1877 this association was merged into the Sunnyside Ditch Association, 
a combination of water users, for the improvement of their ditch and delivery 
system. Out of this has grown the Lugonia Water Companv, organized in 

The Colton Land and Water Co. was organized about 1877 with a 
capital stock of $50,000, acquiring its water from Raynor's Springs, the 
Rancheria ditch and from artesian wells. 

The Cucamonga Homestead Company was also organized in 1877, deriv- 
ing its waters from the Cucamonga canon and cienega. These rights were 
a part of the Cucamonga Water Company's source of supply — that company 
coming into existence in 1887. 

The Lytle Creek Water Company was incorporated in October, 1881, 
with capital stock of $75,000. and formed a part of the Semi-Tropic Land 
and Water Company, formed in 1887, with a capital stock of $3,000,000 to 
irrigate some 28,000 acres of land lying along the Lytle Creek channel. 

The Redlands Water Company was formed October, 1881, with a capital 
stock of $1,500,000, divided into 1,500 shares. 

The San Antonio Water Company was incorporated in October. 1882, to 
supply water from San Antonio canon and other sources for the newly 
started colony of Ontario. 

The North Fork Water Company was incorporated in 1885. This grew 


out of water rights which had been used since the Mormon period, the water 
being derived from the North Fork ditch, the Cram-Van Leuven ditch and 
other claims. The increase in the value of water is well illustrated by a 
table made by Wm. Ham. Hall, from the records of the water-users of these 
rights. In 1865 one inch of North Fork water was sold for $18.00; in 1881, 
$60.00: 1883, $330.00; 1888, $720.00; at present the value would be not less 
than $1,000.00. 

The Bear Valley Reservoir Company was incorporated in October, 1883. 

The "boom" of 1886-87 naturally largely increased the number of water 
companies and of irrigation projects. The value of the foothill and mesa lands 
was now understood ; profits of from $250 to $450 per acre on citrus fruits 
were tempting — to say nothing of the wild figuring that was done at this 
time. Up to 1889 some 17,000 acres of land had been brought under irriga- 
tion in San Bernardino county. The United States census report of 1890 
says : 

"Irrigation in San Bernardino county. — This county contains some of 
the best examples of irrigation development to be found in the whole coun- 
try. Although dealing with comparatively small quantities of water, these 
systems are notable for the elaboration of details and the care and expense 
lavished in saving and utilizing the water resources." 


L. M. Holt, after a review of the irrigation interests of Southern Califor- 
nia, in 1890, states: "There are three plans for the ownership and manage- 
ment of irrigation systems under the laws of California at the present time 

"Fi rs t_The Irrigation District law — where the land in a given district is 
made the basis of credit on which to raise money to construct the irrigation 

"Second — The Mutual Water Company plan, under which the system 
is owned by a corporation, the stock of which is held by the owners of the 
land to be irrigated in proportion to the amount of land owned by each. 

"Third — Water companies for profit to be so managed as to pay dividends 
to the stockholders from the profits arising from the sale of water under rates 
to be fixed either by contract between the water company and the land owner, 
or by the board of supervisors as provided by law. 

"It is seen that neither one of these plans or systems can be utilized to 
reclaim much of the arid lands found to-day in Southern California. 

"First — Because irrigation districts are a business failure. 

"Second — Because small land owners cannot raise the money to construct 
irrigation systems under the ownership of a corporation formed under the 
mutual water company plan. 

"Third — Because private capital will not furnish money to construct 


works where boards of supervisors have the fixing of rates, unless the law 
will allow such company to contract water rights and rates with land owners." 

The most successful method yet adopted has been the Mutual Water 
Company, regarding which Mr. Holt writes : 

"During the past twenty-five years a system of Mutual Water companies 
has grown up that is deservedly very popular. The first company incorporated 
on this plan was the Pomona Water Company, in 1875. This plan was based 
on the idea that the stock of the water company should be owned by the men 
who owned the land to be irrigated, in proportion to the acreage of each, 
and that the water belonging to such company should be distributed to the 
stockholders only. 

"This system was the natural outgrowth of the Southern California plan 
for subdividing and settling large tracts of land. A land company would 
purchase a large tract, subdivide it into small holdings, construct a complete 
irrigation system, deed such system to a mutual water company having as 
many shares of stock as there were acres of land to be irrigated in the tract, 
taking in payment therefor the stock of the company, and then it would sell 
off the land to actual settlers, transferring one share of stock with each acre 
of land deeded to such purchaser, so that when the land was all sold the 
stock was all transferred to the settlers and the transaction was closed and 
the land company would close up its business. 

"The original Pomona Water Company ceased to exist, but its plan was 
afterwards adopted by the Redlands Water Company in 1881, by the Etiwanda 
Water Company in 1882, the San Antonio Water Company in 1883 at On- 
tario, and afterwards by the reorganization of the Riverside Water Company 
in 1884. After this the Temescal Water Company at Corona was formed on 
this plan, and the Santa Ana and the Anaheim Union Water Company were 
also incorporated on the mutual plan." 

The water systems of Rialto. Highlands, Hermosa and of the North 
and South Fork Companies have been along this line. 

The owners of water rights and holders of stock in Bear Valley water 
have recently formed the Bear Valley Mutual Water Company, and propose 
to secure control of the Bear Valley system and conduct it for the benefit 
of the landholders. This will be a new extension of the idea of a mutual 
company, and will be watched with interest. If it is proved that a plant as 
extensive as the Bear Valley can be handled by the mutual plan, a long step 
ahead in solving the irrigation problem in this state will have been taken. 


In 1887 the Legislature passed an act which became known as the Wright 
Irrigation District law. Under this act a community might organize an 
irrigation district and bond itself to develop or purchase water, and to pro- 
vide itself with a complete irrigation system. Districts were thus formed 


all over the state, bonds were voted in almost unlimited quantities : the 
"boom" had inflated values and repeated decisions of the courts sustained trie 
legality of these bonds and they became a favorite investment and found 
ready sale. 

In this county the following- districts were organized: 

Grapeland 10,787 acres $200,000 bonc\s voted, none sold 

Rialto 7,200 acres 500,000 bonds voted. all sold 

Citrus Belt 12,160 acres, 800,000 bonds voted. all sold 

Alessandro -25.340 acres 700,000 bonds voted, all sold 

East Riverside 3.000 acres 250,000 bonds voted, $100,000 sold 

The expansion of the Bear Valley Irrigation system to provide the Ales- 
sandro District in this county and the Ferris District in San Diego county 
with water, the large amount of money expended and the large amount of 
work actually done — all to result in a gigantic and dismal failure, is still 
fresh in the minds of many. 

Air. Win. M. Tisdale. in his History of the Water Question in Redlands, 
says : 

"To deliver water at Alessandro, from the mouth of the Santa Ana river, 
a ditch or pipe line was necessary which should span the wider Mill Creek 
canon, climb the steep northern slopes of precipitous San Timoteo canon, 
dive into that abyss, ascend the still heavier grade on the south and cross 
the range of hills between the San Timoteo caiion and the San Jacinto valley, 
traversing, in all, some fifteen to twenty miles of exceedingly rugged country. 
Nothing daunted by the great engineering difficulties in the way, the Bear 
Valley Irrigation Company carried water to Alessandro through a line of 
steel pipe twenty-four inches in diameter. Commencing at a point 300 feet 
higher than the point of final delivery, this line twists about, down hill and 
up hill, across canons, around curves and through fifteen tunnels, the dig- 
ging of which was necessary in order to avoid the steepest grades. Sweep- 
ing through the longest of these, 2,330 feet in length, the water bursts from 
the mountain-side at an altitude of several hundred feet above the broad 
acres which it was intended to fertilize and above the village of Moreno, still 
three miles distant. The comparatively slight difference in altitude between 
the point of departure and the point of delivery was sufficient to make up for 
all the loss in momentum through friction. The grades along this pipe line 
are very nicely calculated, and it is, in every respect, a creditable piece of 

"The Alessandro Town Company was organized, with a capital stock 
of Si. 500,000, and the Alessandro Land Company, with a capital stock of 
$i,ooo,coo. There was great rejoicing at Alessandro when water was finally 
"turned on" at the farther end of the long pipe line and sparkled into the 



flumes and ditches that conveyed it still farther to spread abroad upon the 
thirsty acres waiting to receive it." 

Town sites were laid out and buildings erected, a complete system of 
distributing pipes was laid, and it was confidently believed that a rival to 
Redlands and Riverside was already in the field. 

The sudden collapse of the Bear Valley projects and of the irrigation 
districts, in 1893, was a death-blow to these plans. The stockholders found 
themselves utterly unable to pay interest, to say nothing of the bonds them- 
selves. Suit after suit followed, and in 1895 a decision rendered by Judge 
Ross declared the Wright act unconstitutional, and many districts were 
allowed to lapse and their bonds became void. 

The whole history of the Wright Irrigation District law is a most 
remarkable example of the utter inadequacy of any law yet evolved to deal 
with irrigation problems. And its utter failure has been a great hindrance 
to the legitimate extension of irrigation systems since. As the irrigation 
laws now stand there is little or no prospect of any extensive development of 
our water supply. The whole question of water ownership and distribution 
is in confusion, and the courts have rendered decisions which are so conflict- 
ing that there is no basis for any certainty in a question concerning water. 


The possibilities of Bear Valley as a storage reservoir were first brought 
to notice in 1880, when a topographical survey was made under the direc- 
tion of the State Engineer, and Bear Valley was reported as one of the best 
sites for a storage reservoir in Southern California. In 1883 the founders of 
the new colony of Redlands were looking about for an increased water 
supply for their lands. Mr. F. E. Brown, in company with Hiram Barton, 
who' was familiar with the ground, went up into the mountains and examined 
Bear Valley. Both gentlemen were satisfied that the impounding of the 
waters which annually ran to waste in these mountains was the only practical 
solution to the water problem before them. After their investigation they 
were convinced that a storage reservoir could be constructed and that the 
channel of the Santa Ana river might be utilized for the flow which could 
be diverted at any elevation required. Such use would not interfere with 
water rights already in force and covering the flow of the Santa Ana. 

As a result of Mr. Brown's report and of his enthusiastic plans a com- 
pany was formed and was incorporated, October 2, 1883, with a capital stock 
of S360,000, and with F. P. Morrison, E. G. Judson, F. E. Brown, G. A. 
Cook and W. C. Butler, of Redlands; Jas. G. Burt, Lewis Jacobs, Jas. A. 
Gibson, H. L. Drew and H. M. Barton, of San Bernardino, and Geo. W. 
Meade, of San Francisco, as stockholders. The capital stock was divided 



into 3,600 shares, and Mr. David Morey parchased the first ten shares 
ever sold out of the original issue, at $9 per share, paying for the same in 
labor in the construction of the dam. Later the price went as high as $125- 
per share. A temporary dam was first placed in the canon and work upon 
the permanent dam was commenced June 17, 1884, and completed in Novem- 
ber of same year. All the supplies for the hundred men employed, and such 
material as was not upon the ground, had to be hauled by way of the Cajon 
Pass and the desert to the valley, a distance of seventy miles or more. The 
dam is founded on granite, and abuts against granite mountain sides. Its 
length between abutments is 250 feet, over all 300 feet. It is in the form of 
an arch, having a radius of 335 feet, with the convex side up stream, and is 

64 feet in heighth. 
The structure is of 
granite, rough-ash- 
lar masonry on both 
faces and broken 
coursed rubble on the 
interior, all laid in a 
cement mortar and 
grouting. The or- 
iginal cost o f t h e 
dam was about $75,- 

"The rock of this 
country is, for the 
most part, granite, 
of which huge bould- 
ers and massive 
ledges crop out 
around the slopes, particularly towards the western extremity of the valley. 
Limestone is found near the eastern end, and some excellent lime has been 
burned. The channel, at the point where the dam was placed, was some 
sixty to seventy feet wide when construction was commenced. It is entirely 
practicable to increase the height of this dam and to strengthen it, or to build 
a new dam immediately below, thereby greatly increasing its storage 
capacity. With the water standing in this dam at a depth of 57 feet the lake 
extends back for about five and a half miles, and this supply would give a 
daily flow of 8,581 miner's inches for one hundred days. If the height of the 
dam could be doubled the lake would extend back eleven and a half miles and 
the capacity of the reservoir would be a daily flow of 116,000 miner's inches 
for one hundred days. 

"Bear Valley itself is a remarkably large and flat mountain basin, about 
6,200 feet above the sea. Apparently this valley once held a lake, whose 



waters, at a surface elevation of 125 feet above its bottom, overflowed at 
its eastern extremity into a canon which leads away into the Mojave 
desert. At the present time there is a deep, narrow, rock-bound gorge at the 
western extremity of this mountain valley, which is the upper extremity of 
the canon of the Santa Ana. and is perhaps fifteen miles from the outlet 
of the Santa Ana river into the valley. This gorge holds Bear creek, and 
the clam was thrown across the narrow canon a little distance above the 
point of departure of Bear creek from the valley. It has been conjectured 
that the western end of the valley was formerly closed, the waters of the 
basin escaping, as we have already said, into the desert at the eastern end, 
but that the gorge was rent asunder, and the outlet of the mountain lake 
changed from east to west, by an earthquake. The rugged character of the 
canon and the rapid fall of Bear creek after leaving the dam support this 

"The watershed tributary to this mountain basin is forty-five square miles 
in extent, and is heavily wooded. Yet altitude, rather than area, is the fea- 
ture to be considered when estimating water sheds in these mountains, and, 
being the highest water shed of importance in Southern California, Bear val- 
ley is in the midst of the heaviest annual rainfall. The clouds collect around, 
and bank up against, the lofty peaks of San Bernardino and San Gorgonio 
and spread over into this water shed. Holding so great an altitude its precip- 
itation is largely received in the form of snow, which, in the wooded and 
shaded portions of the water shed, lies unmelted for several months. The 
reservoir also receives a number of little streams from the wooded hillsides 
having springs along their margins." — Wm. M. Tisdale. 

The land for the reservoir site was obtained by purchase, 3,800 acres from 
Los Angeles parties, and 700 acres from the Southern Pacific Companv and 
the government, at a cost of about $30,000. 

J. B. Schuyler, in his "Reservoirs and Reservoir Sites," says: "Probably 
the most widely-known irrigation system in California is that of the Bear 
Valley Irrigation Company, chiefly by reason of the remarkably slender pro- 
portions of Bear Valley dam, which has been to the engineering fraternity 
the 'eighth wonder of the world,' and has no parallel on the globe. The dam 
has no stability to resist water pressure except the arched form, and has been 
expected to yield at any time, although it has successfully withstood the pres- 
sure against it for twenty years past, and is to-day apparently as stable as 
ever. The probabilities are that nothing short of an extraordinary flood or 
earthquake or a combination of unusual movements will accomplish its de- 

As Redlands grew and more orchards were planted the demand for water 
increased until, in 1886, the directors determined to issue a dividend to the 
stockholders and also devise a means of regulating the water supply to con- 
sumers. In place of the original 3,600 shares of stock 7,200 "Class A" certifi- 



cates were issued. These certificates entitled the holder to receive a continu- 
ous fiow of one-seventh of an inch of water to the acre of land to which the 
said certificates might be applied — under certain conditions. Thus came into 
existence a peculiar form of water scrip or certificate of title to water, the 
exact legal status of which is still an unsettled question. In 1887 many of 
these certificates were put to use, and in order to deliver this water in Red- 
lands and beyond, the Redlands Canal was conveyed to the Bear Valley Land 
and Water Company, and from February, 1887, until 1894, the water was 
under the certificates distributed through this canal without extra charge to 
the users. But in 1894 the directors of the Bear Valley Irrigation Company 
attempted to impose a charge for this service, and litigation followed which 
resulted in a decision in favor of the certificate holders, so far as their right 

of way through the 
canals of the com- 
pany were con- 
cerned. The holders 
of these certificates 
have always received 
their proportionate 
share of water under 
them, although the 
question of the val- 
idity of their title 
has never been de- 

On June 1, 1886, 
the Bear Valley 
Company entered 
upon an agreement 
with the N'orth 
Fork Company, whereby the Reservoir Company by the payment of $4,000 
acquired a half interest in the North Fork canal, which was to be 
jointly reconstructed and enlarged, and the North Fork Company was in 
return to receive a stipulated amount of water delivered through the canal. 
A similar agreement was entered into with the South Fork Company. After 
the issue of the Class A certificates the Bear Valley Company still had water 
to sell, for the normal capacity of .its reservoir in an ordinary season was not 
yet exhausted. It therefore made some sales of water outright, conveying 
title by deed. The principal sale was that made to the Redlands, Lugonia and 
Crafton Domestic Water Company of two hundred inches of water. The 
Class A certificates and this deeded water are now the principal sources of 
the water used in Redlands, with the exception of that developed from 
artesian wells. After providing for its obligations to the North and South 



Fork Ditch Companies, the Class A certificates and the deeded water, the 
capacity of the reservoir, or rather the supposed capacity, based on results for 
several years, was still not all utilized. There were also large projects on foot 
for the increase of the water supply. 

The original projectors of the Bear Valley reservoir undoubtedly did not 
realize at the outset the vast possibilities of the enterprise which they had 
undertaken. But as the situation developed and they found that the value 
of water and of the land upon which water could be placed was increasing 
rapidly, they began to realize that they held a bonanza, and to plan to make 
the most out of their holding. They decided to increase the capacity of the 
dam by building it higher and by putting in other subsidiary dams. December 
30, 1890, the Bear Valley Land and Water Company executed a deed of all 
its property to a new company, the Bear Valley Irrigation Company, which 
assumed all the obligations of the old organization. The capital stock of the 
new company was $4,000,000, $1,000,000 of which was preferred stock, the 
balance common stock. Out of the earnings of the company the preferred 
stock was to be paid a dividend of 8 per cent, after which the common stock 
was to receive such dividends as the company might be able to pay. In order 
to carry out all the projects of the company various auxiliary corporations 
were formed, among these the Alessandro Improvement Company and the 
Bear Valley and Alessandro Development Company. Thirty thousand acres 
of land in the San Jacinto valley were purchased at prices varying from 
$12.50 to $18 per acre. This land was subsequently put on the market and 
10,000 acres of it actually sold at from $50 to $125 per acre. The Alessandro 
and Perris Irrigation Districts were formed and issued bonds which were 
turned over to the Bear Valley Company in payment for water rights in the 
form of certificates known as Class B certificates, of which 100,000 were to 
be issued. These carried a right to one-eighth of an inch of water, and were 
valued at $15 apiece, with an annual rental for delivery of water called for 
by each certificate of $2.78 in place of $1.00, as in the case of the Class A 

This was the high tide of the Bear Valley history. Work was vigorously 
pushed on developments and the Alessandro pipe line was constructed and 
water turned into it. Large blocks of the stock of the company were sold 
in England and Scotland at a premium ; dividends were paid to the amount 
of a million dollars, it is claimed. 

In December, 1893, the Alessandro Irrigation District began suit in River- 
side county against the Bear Valley Company, and pending the result Judge 
Noyes appointed F. P. Morrison receiver. This was the beginning of the end. 
The foreign stockholders and the creditors began investigations. In October. 
1892, the company had given a trust deed of its property to the Savings and 
Trust Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, to secure a loan of $300,000. After exam- 
ining into affairs the other creditors began suit in the Unitea States District 


Court, through their agent, John Gilbert Foster, and Judge Ross appointed, 
April 2, 1894, J. A. Graves and A. B. McGinnis as receivers. 

Under the instructions of the Court the receivers proceeded to collect 
such sums as could be collected, and also to meet the obligations of the com- 
pany, and to pay some of the debts of the corporation, issuing receivers* cer- 
tificates when funds were not available. By the time that the suit brought by 
Mr. Foster came to judgment these certificates aggregated a large sum. 
Judgment was finally rendered against the defendant, and the property was 
sold at receiver's sale to satisfy the judgment, but not the receivers* certifi- 
cates. Arthur Young was the purchaser and the price paid was $380,000, 
but the property was still subject to incumbrances which were then computed 
at about one million dollars. A Master of Chancery had been appointed by 
the Court, who took testimony and made his report, establishing such claims 
as could be maintained under the technical construction of the laws governing 
such proceedings and wiping out many others that were, perhaps, considered 
simply as moral but not as legal obligations, equally binding. 

Air. Young subsequently conveyed the property to the New Bear Valley 
Irrigation Company, a corporation organized under the laws of Arizona. In 
September, 1896, an action was commenced in the Circuit Court of the 
United States by the Cleveland Savings and Trust Company to foreclose their 
deed and to foreclose the receiver's certificates issued in the case of Foster vs. 
the Bear Valley Irrigation Company, amounting to $153,000. In this action 
E. H. Spoor was appointed receiver of the company's property by Judge Ross. 
Mr. Spoor is still receiving and the action is still pending. October 1, 1896, 
Mr. Spoor, as receiver, attempted to establish an entirely new basis of com- 
pensation for the use of the Bear valley waters by ignoring the certificates 
entirely and fixing a rate for the sale and delivery of an inch of water per 
day, the price demanded varying with locality between ten cents, the lowest 
winter rate, and thirty-five cents, the highest summer rate. The only water 
excepted from these rates was the guaranteed North and South Fork water 
and the 108 inches of tunnel water delivered to the Redlands "Water Com- 
pany. Naturally the holders of Class A certificates, and other water users 
resisted this new demand, and a great deal of technical sparring between 
the attorneys employed on the respective sides took place. Numerous peti- 
tions, briefs, demurrers, complaints and answers were submitted and argued 
and this active contention in the courts brought the case down to the close 
of 1898, without a decision. In a report rendered in October of that year 
this language occurs: "It appears that for upwards of four years the ( Bear 
Valley) plant has been involved in a complicated, expensive and tedious liti- 
gation in the Circuit Court of the United States for the Ninth Circuit, which 
litigation is still pending, and from all that appears will be likely to remain 
unconcluded for years to come." 

The present status is about the same that it was in 1898. While some 



of the suits and contentions have been disposed of, the entire property is 
covered by liens held by the Savings and Trust Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
to secure the payment of bonds and receiver's certificates, now aggregating 
something over one million dollars. Various incidental questions are involved 
in the suit, it being sought for one thing to determine the legal status of the 
water certificates and the so-called deeded water and foreclose all rights 
thereunder ; the holders, some hundreds in number, being made defendants. 
There can be no knowing when this suit will be settled or what the result 
of the decision may lead to. At present the newly formed Bear Valley Mutual 
Water Company of Redlands, made up of the water-users from the Bear 
Valley system, are negotiating with the Savings and Trust Company for the 
purchase of the property. Should this be done the legal questions involved 
would be much simplified and the large area now supplied from the reservoir 
would be assured of a sufficient and cheap supply of water. 


In the year 1889 L. M. Holt, W. E. Van Slyke and A. H. Koebig located 
a reservoir site on Huston flat, in the San Bernardino range, almost due north 
of the city of San Bernardino. Soon afterward a company was formed by 

Mr. Koebig, Chas. J. Perkins and 
others, which thoroughly explored 
the mountains and located and sur- 
veyed a series of reservoirs to be 
Connected with Deep creek by a 
large canal. 

In 1891 the Arrowhead Reser- 
voir Company was formed in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, with a capital stock 
of $1,000,000 and the following 
board of directors: James N. Gam- 
ble, president; Adolph Wood, vice- 
president and general manager; 
Benjamin F. Ehrman, secretary: 
Chas. G. Gove, treasurer; Jas. E. 
Mooney. Chas. H. Kilgour, Henrv 
Lewis, Ellis M. Potter, C. Bendy 
Mathews, Robinson J. Jones, of 
Etiwanda, and L. M. Holt, of San 

This was the period when the 
Bear Yallev Irrigation Company 
was beginning its expansion. The 
Wright irrigation law had not then 
been declared unconstitutional, and 
adolph wood irrigation districts were being 

formed in every direction. Irrigation bonds were in high favor as invest- 
ments and the outlook for any irrigation scheme was most favorable. The 


new company at once began securing title to reservoir sites in the San Ber- 
nardino mountains, and locating rights of way, and superseded the former 
organization. In 1892 the Arrowhead Company commenced work on a 
masonry dam of large proportions, which was intended to store water in a 
valley known as "Little Bear," on the headwaters of the Mojave river. This 
stream flows northward from the San Bernardino mountains into the desert, 
and its waters are now wasted. The project of the Arrowhead Company 
was to gather a number of tributaries of this stream above an elevation of 
4,800 feet and store the water in several reservoirs to be carried across the 
San Bernardino mountains and used for irrigation purposes in the San Ber- 
nardino valley. The Little Bear reservoir, when completed, will cover an 
area of 884 acres and impound 60,178 acre feet of water. The company has 
been at work on the main conduit of the line since 1892, their efforts being 
devoted mainly to opening the principal tunnels, of which there are a number 
on the line. The longest of these, the outlet to the main reservoir, is 4,937 
feet in length, exclusive of approaches. This tunnel is now completed, and 
is a fine piece of rock work, much of it passing through solid rock. Work 
upon the dam of the Little Bear reservoir is now being rapidly pushed, and 
this great reservoir will soon be added to the water sources of our county. 

The total length of conduit required to turn the water over the mountain 
divide is thirteen miles. All of this is to be pipe line or tunnel, so that the 
water will pass through a closed conduit from reservoir to point of delivery 
from the company's main line. 

A number of factors beside the extensive and difficult work to be accom- 
plished have tended to delay the work of the company. There was difficulty 
in securing right of way through the Government reservation. The Ross 
decision, with regard to the Wright irrigation act, left the status of irriga- 
tion companies in an unsettled state. The provision of the constitution 
permitting supervisors to fix water rates has also complicated matters. But 
the time has been utilized by the company in making the most careful stream 
measurements and precipitation records that have ever been kept. When 
the company is ready to deliver water they will be able to furnish data that 
will show the exact value of the property, and will know to the drop how 
much water they can furnish. The Arrowhead Company is organized on a 
different basis from any other irrigation company that has, as yet, been 
formed in California. They own no land other than the reservoir basins in 
the mountains, and will put in no individual delivery system. They will 
simply sell water by the wholesale from their main conduit* 

From the summit crossing to the grade of the conduit at the base of 
the mountain skirting the upper slopes of the valley north of San Bernardino 
the total descent is 2.700 feet, which force will be utilized to develop power, 
for electrical purposes. 

The preliminary work of this great undertaking is now well completed. 


the rights of way have been secured and the projectors are now pushing the 
work rapidly to a completion. 


"The San Bernardino valley, whose floor is formed of an open gravel, 
constitutes a great reservoir or tank, which yields a uniform flow to the 
various wells which tap it. This great reservoir is filled by winter precipita- 
tion and by seepage water. Some idea of its size may be gained from the 
following figures: The entire valley comprises some 563 square miles: the 
flat area above Colton, presumably all formed by gravels eroded from the 
mountains, contains 132 square miles. On a conservative estimate, 100 square 
miles of this is of gravel to great depths, approximating 1000 feet — numerous 
wells have been sunk to 900 feet with no indications of bed rock. Suppos- 
ing this gravel bed to have an average depth of 300 feet, the total water 
storage capacity, estimated at one-third of the mass, would be 6,400,000 acre 
feet, or eight times the storage capacity of the famous Assuan dam of Egypt. 
Enormous as this seems, it is believed to be greater, rather than less, than 
the amount stated. 

"The importance of this reservoir and the limits of its capacity are only 
beginning to be understood. So far it has not been accurately determined 
whether the present rate of withdrawal is permanently lowering the water 
plane or whether years of abundant rain will restore it to its fullest capacity. 
With the running surface water fully utilized, it can be seen that an increase 
in the available supply must of necessity come from this reservoir, and 
careful studies will have to be made to arrive at a just and definite conclusion 
as to the amount which may be drawn therefrom. From experiments in other 
places it has been fairly well settled that the greater the drain on an under- 
ground reservoir the greater the capacity. Capacity does not mean flow, 
however. Cycles of dry years have proved that all wells cannot be depended 
upon. Some have failed altogether, others have had decreased flow, and in- 
several cases the sinking of a new well has resulted in a substantial diminu- 
tion in the supply of the older ones. To the problem that arises from this 
there is no definite legal solution. How much one well may be responsible 
for the failure of others is too hard to determine, and the motions and courses 
of underground waters are too little understood to allow of a legal adjudica- 
tion of rights, and the only possible remedy lies in one of two very simple 
and similar ways : One is to have enough water for all wells, and the other 
is to have only enough wells to properly tap the water supply. It can be 
said, however, that wells in the central and deeper portions of the valley have 
no difficulty whatever, and only those shallower ones around the edges of 
the underground basins will fail when the water plane is lowered through 
successive demands on it." 



"The Citrograph has frequently brought forth the theory that at least 
some portion of this underground water comes from the still higher Sierra 
Nevadas, and, possibly from the backbone of the continent — the giant Rocky 
mountains. Although rather "laughed out of court" by many of those who 
claim to be "scientists" yet many original thinkers and close observers and 
reasoners agree in this direction. 

"Wm. M. Bristol of East Highlands, recently published an article in 
which he takes the same ground, taking the ground that, in no other way. 
can this enormous and continuous flow of the hundred's of artesian wells in 
this valley be satisfactorily explained. He also notes the fact of unfailing 
springs and flowing wells far up the mountain side and even on almost the 
top of the range. The flow from these is so considerable that the water must 
come through an inverted siphon underground of enormous length. Tt is 
generally admitted that water will travel a mile through rock that is pretty 
compact, and. if this be true, why not, if time be granted, through a thousand 

"Roughly speaking." Mr. Bristol savs. "the Mojave desert is a thousand 
feet above the San Bernardino valley. The mountain rans:e which separates 
them is a rock dam, many miles in thickness. Were this mighty dyke of 
granite, or of any less solid rock, in position similar to that in which it was 
formed it might be fairly impervious to water. But in the upheaval which 
lifted it to its present position it was seamed and shattered, and, even within 
a half century, has been rent by tremendous earthquakes. It is reasonable, 
therefore, to suppose that a portion of the water of the Mojave basin finds 
its way through it. not by a vast air-line tunnel, but by a miljion devious 
crevices and under great pressure into the San Bernardino basin, as well as 
other valleys south of the Sierra Madre." 


In 1868 H. M. Willis put down the first artesian well in the San Bernar- 
dino valley on his place at Old San Bernardino. He did not succeed in 
obtaining water, but the tools were removed to the city of San Bernardino 
and a flow obtained, and later a well was put down at the Willis place, from 
which a flow was obtained. The Wolff well on the south side of Third street 
between E and F streets, was one of the first wells in San Bernardino. 

In 1 88 1 it was estimated that there were from 400 to 425 artesian wells 
in the valley, the most easterly being at the Old Mission. At that time the 
deepest well was 410 feet, located on Judge Willis' place. These wells were 


from two to eight inches in diameter — generally two-inch wells — which sup- 
plied water, without pumping, for domestic and garden purposes. As the 
need for water pressed, the wells were bored deeper and pumping plants were 
installed in many places. Now many of the wells are 900 and 1,000 feet deep 
and some even deeper. 

In 1879 the Riverside Improvement Company was formed to supply 
Riverside with domestic water, the chief source of supply being artesian wells 
in the San Bernardino basin. The company purchased J4V2 acres of land 
along the Santa Ana and Warm creek and constructed a pipe line to convey 
the water obtained there to Riverside. 

The Gage Canal system, one of the most important irrigation enter- 
prises in Southern California, is almpst altogether dependent upon artesian 
water derived from their lands lying along the upper limit of the artesian 

"Thus Riverside is supplied with a bountiful and permanent flow of 
water, pouring in constant streams from the depths of the earth, forced up 
by tremendous pressure of unknown volumes of water crowding from higher 
altitudes. This water is conveyed to the point of use miles away, in cement- 
lined ditches and pressure pipes, for irrigation and domestic use. It is all 
flowing water, no pumps being necessary, and Riverside, being two hundred 
feet below its wells, gravity does all the work at no cost whatever." 

Of the artesian supply of Riverside in 1899, the Los Angeles Times thus 
reports : 

"Riverside. The largest body of irrigation water in Southern Cali- 
fornia is that which flows through the canal of the Riverside 'Water Company, 
while there are several other canals running into the Riverside district, in- 
cluding Highgrove and Arlington Heights. It is said that the waters of these 
various canals aggregate 6000 inches. This is something of a gain over the 
flow of previous years, and the supply is ample for all the trees growing in the 
largest body of citrus-fruit orchards in the world. But the development of 
water must be liberallv discounted here to make good the shrinkage in other 
wells, the developments of the Riverside Trust Company and the Riverside 
Water Company practically representing the shrinkage in the old wells of 
those companies. This supply may increase with winters of heavy rainfall, 
though the water is taken from the San Bernardino basin, the water level of 
which is being lowered by increased number of wells. The Riverside supply 
is from artesian wells, and it is evident that by pumping at any time the flow 
could be immensely increased. The record of developments is as follows. 
exclusive of the big gusher at San Bernardino, leased by the Riverside Water 
Company; Riverside Water Company, artesian wells, 360: same company 
from increased drainage, 50: Riverside Trust Company, 399; Highgrove, 100: 
R. C. Stewart, 50; C. S. Burgess. 25: George Thomas, 40: by several fanners 
on lowlands. 100. The total for Riverside is 112^ inches. 


"San Bernardino. The water developments about San Bernardino 
during the past year have been great, aggregating fully 900 inches, of which 
the record is given for about 750 inches, there being a number of smaller wells. 
One of the greatest wells in the country is that belonging to L. S. Davis and 
Mrs. S. E. Wells, regarding which there has been considerable published. 
This well yielded about 400 inches when it was first struck, but finally settled 
down to a steady flow of 300 inches. The water from this well was rented 
by Riverside for the season. Other wells are : Cosmos Land and Water Com- 
pany, 25 inches; J. E. Garner, 75 ; J. F. Beam, 60; Frink Bros., 28; F. M. John- 
son, 20; W. M. Curtis, 20; James Lamb, 25; E. H. Durnford, 30; P. J. Clev- 
inger. 30; J. H. Pierson. 20: Mr. Scott, 25; William Barton, 25; Mr. Anderson, 
20 ; Haws Bros., 25 ; John B. Clark, 25. 

"Colton. The Colton Water Company has put down five wells near 
San Bernardino from which there is being pumped 170 inches. Fox, Archi- 
bald & Co. have a new well yielding sixty inches. There are a number of 
smaller wells which would bring the total new water of Colton to at least 
350 inches. 

"Highland. Quite extensive work has been done in Highland witjh 
better results than was considered possible a year ago. Among the wells 
sunk and yielding water are the following: Highland Well Company, 35 
inches; Highland Domestic Water Company, 20; Capt. Fry. 20; Mr. Pattee, 
25; W. S. Corwin, 8; Mrs. Dr. Burcham, 30; Linville & Burgoyne, 20; Mc- 
Abee tract, id: W. M. Bristol, 15; City Creek Water Company, 20; A. G. 
Hubbard, 25; George M. Cooley, 33; G. W. Strowbridge, 10." 

The domestic supply of the city of San Bernardino is drawn almost en- 
tirely from artesian wells as is that of Colton also. The dry seasons ha^e 
pushed the development of artesian water into fields at first supposed to be 
impracticable. Wells have been put down at Highlands, in the Yucaipe 
valley and in other localities along the upper edges of wfiat is supposed to 
be the artesian belt, but most of these wells require pumping to secure a flow. 
There are now in the artesian belt more than 1,000 wells, some of them having 
been in use since 1870, although the greater proportion of the older wells have 
now ceased to furnish water. During 1900 a careful investigation of all the 
wells in the Redlands and San Bernardino quadrangles was made under the 
direction of J. B. Lippincott of the U. S. Hydrographic Service, full reports 
of what are published in Bulletins Nos. 59 and 60, of Water Supply Reports. 


Water is so valuable an asset in this county and the laws governing its 
ownership and use are so uncertain that much litigation regarding water 
rights has necessarily arisen and some very important decisions have been 
rendered in cases originating here. 


Disputes over the use of water began with the appearance of white set- 
tlers. The necessity for some authority to deal with these was so great that 
the Legislature created a special Board of Water Commissioners to settle 
conflicting claims and have general oversight of water questions, the use of 
ditches, construction, etc., in this county. But this did not prevent suits at 
law. The first lawsuit over water in the county was that of the North Fork 
ditch owners against the Cram-Van Leuven ditches in 1861, which was settled 
by an agreement between the parties. 

■ Out of the appropriation of Mill Creek waters by settlers in the vicinity 
of Crafton has grown a long and hotly contested battle between the individual 
holders at Crafton and those of Old San Bernardino. The Cave vs. Crafts suit 
brought in 1875 was locally celebrated for the length and exhaustiveness of 
the testimony and the decisions. The case was disposed of in the lower court 
in 1876 and it was found that although Craft had been using water at times 
when he was not entitled to it, still he had certain rights, and that certain 
other defendants had rights by adverse use. By this decision it was. de- 
termined that the waters were not inseparably appurtenant to any land, but 
that certain persons had established rights. 

In 1883-84 another case regarding Mill Creek waters was brought — 
Byrne vs. Crafts — in which it was claimed that the waters had been used on 
the Rancho San Bernardino since 1820 and were exclusively an appurtenance 
to the lands of said grant. It was found in deciding this case, however, that 
none of the waters at the time of the grant were ever or at all incident or ap- 
purtenant to the ranch lands, or to any portion of them, except to that portion 
known as Cottonwood Row. The former decision was sustained and it was 
furthermore found that an owner of a water-right in the ditch could do what 
he chose with the water during the hours the flow was allotted to him, pro- 
vided he did not deprive the holders of other hour-rights, of the full flow of 
the stream during the period of their turn ; and, moreover, that the waste 
waters of the ditch were not and could not be any specified quantity, but only 
such water as irrigators from time to time did not use. 

One of the most interesting and important water cases which has come 
before the courts of the state was that of Pope vs. Kinman, brought in 1877, 
in regard to Lytle Creek water rights. A. J. Pope, one of the owners of the 
Muscupiabe grant sued W. J. Kinman and others of the water appropriators, 
alleging that the waters of Lytle Creek were due to the Muscupiabe grant 
lands which were riparian to the stream, and that use of them on lands not 
bordering on it, was without authority of law. The defense of appropriation 
under the laws of the state and of Mexico was set up, and it was urged that the 
waters having been used over five years, the right to continue their use had 
been established under the "statute of limitations." In December of 1878 the 
case was decided in the Superior Court of San Bernardino County in favor 
of the principal defendants and substantially in accordance with their answer. 


It was appealed to the Supreme Court which rendered a decision in December, 
1879, m effect reversing the lower court and declaring, first, the supremacy of 
the doctrine of riparian rights as against appropriation, and second, that the 
"statute of limitations" does not run in favor of an appropriator of water 
against a claimant of land whose title is held in a-beyance by the United States 

The early complications of Riverside water companies led to much liti- 
gation which was only disposed of by the land owners incorporating the city 
of Riverside and organizing a water company which secured control of .the 
conflicting interests. 

The failure of the Bear Valley Irrigation Company has led to endless 
complications and litigations which are more fully discussed under the Bear 
Valley History. 

Of the complications likely to arise regarding underground water rights, 
Mr. W. M. Tisdale, of Redlands, says in 1902: 

"Many intricate, confusing, perplexing and harrassing questions are likelv 
to arise over the question of ownership of underground waters. Many ques- 
tions have already come before the courts and many hundreds of thousands of 
dollars have been spent in getting decisions which are themselves confusing. 
The laws regarding surface waters have been in the courts ever since the 
adoption of the present constitution in 1879. Millions of dollars have been 
spent already, and the dockets of the courts are clogged with water cases. 
And the end seems far distant. "What will be the outcome wdien litigation 
over underground waters fairly sets in. no man knoweth. At present any one 
who feels inclined to dig for water on his own land, will dig. And he will 
have not the slightest regard for his neighbor above him. Sometimes, possi- 
bly, the courts may step in and prevent the man on the low ground from rob- 
bing his neighbor on the ground above him, but that time seems to be in the 
dim and far distant future." # 

The foregoing prediction, written in 1902, was verified much sooner than 
its author had anticipated, for, on the seventh day of November, of that vear, 
the Supreme Court of the state rendered its now celebrated decision in the 
case of Katz vs. Walkinshaw. This decision establishes an entirely new rule 
respecting the ownership of underground waters and lays down the law to be 
that no person can deprive the owner of water-bearing lands of the use of that 
water by digging wells upon adjoining lands and draining the water away. In 
other words, the owner of water-bearing land owns the water with which that 
land is saturated and c*annot legally be deprived of that water without his 

This case arose in San Bernardino. The plaintiff was the owner of water- 
bearing lands within the city limits. The defendant dug wells upon adjoining 
lands deep enough to drain away the water. The plaintiff brought suit asking 
an injunction prohibiting this practice. The case was non-suited in the lower 


court but this decision was overruled by the Supreme Court and the above 
principle was established. The decision was re-affirmed in December, 1903. 
Arguments against the decision were made by many of the leading lawyers 
of Southern California but without securing a modification. 

This decision will, in the future, effectually prevent the common practice 
of sinking wells at the lowest point in any given area of water-producing 
lands, draining the water by artesian wells, or by wells that are pumped, and 
conveying the water thus obtained to other points, perhaps at a great distance, 
and there using it upon other lands. As regards systems of tbis sort already 
existing the decision may or may not work a hardship upon those who have 
expended large sums of money upon such systems of irrigation, in accordance 
with the facts of each case. If the statute of limitation does not interfere, and 
if proof can be produced to establish a case coming within the rule, injunctions 
will undoubtedly be issued to restrain the operation of some of these systems. 
In fact, several suits have already been instituted with this object in view. 



The first white traveler through the San Bernardino Valley was Juan 
Bautista de Anza, who was sent to explore an overland route between Sonora, 
Mexico, and the Mission of Monterey, in 1774. Accompanied by some twen- 
ty-five or thirty men and a considerable number of horses and cattle, he struck 
the Colorado River at the junction of the Gila, crossed here, and pushed across 
the desert to the Puerto de San Carlos, as he named the San Gorgonio Pass 
and then through "El Valle de San Jose.'" In a few weeks he retraced his 
steps and two years later he again made the trip, this time in company with 
177 people, colonists and soldiers, and with a herd of 590 animals. Such a 
party must have broken a very good trail through this valley. This overland 
route from Mexico was much used, for long and dangerous as the Wciy was. 
it was less perilous than a trip by water in one of the little vessels constructed 
by unskilled hands on the west coast of Mexico and baffled by the conflicting 
winds and waves of the Pacific. 

The first American to enter the San Bernardino Valley was undoubtedly 
Jedediah Smith who came in from Utah in 1824 and who is, so far as we know, 
the first traveler to enter by way of the Cajon Pass. In [831, the Workman 
party came into California from New Mexico by way of the Virgin River and 
Cajon Pass. During the thirties and forties considerable traffic between Cali- 
fornia and New Mexico was carried on and it came chiefly by the route taken 
by the Workman party and thus passed through the San Bernardino Valley. 
The New Mexican colonies in this county were a result of this trade. Thus 


the San Bernardino Valley was, from the first settlement of California, a high- 
way for travel and for trade. 

Many of the gold seekers of 1849, and the succeeding years, entered the 
state by one of these southern routes and thus passed this way. Emigrant 
trains of canvas covered wagons, drawn by oxen or mules ; trappers and pros- 
pectors with trains of pack mules ; single men or little groups of two or three, 
on horseback and afoot, — all of these after the long and terrible journey 
across the deserts and mountains must have felt that they had reached the 
land of promise when they came down into the San Bernardino Valley and 
found streams and springs, flowers and luxuriant feed for their starving ani- 
mals. A regularly appointed wagon train traveled in a carefully arranged 
order while crossing the plains and tried to keep their routine when deserts 
and mountains were to be crossed, although often necessity compelled a sep- 
aration, in order that water and feed might be obtained for all. If there were 
any number of wagons, a leader, or wagon master, was chosen and his com- 
mands must be strictly followed. There was usually some stock and a number 
of men on horseback accompanying the party. Guards, herders and scouts, 
were detailed. The yoking and handling of the half dozen, or more, oxen to a 
team was a work requiring experience and skill. Every member of the train 
must be in constant readiness for emergencies. Danger — from Indians, lost 
trails, difficult mountain passes, swollen streams, or lack of water and many 
other contingencies were constantly encountered. And yet, despite all the ap- 
parently insurmountable difficulties of this journey, between the years of 1849 
and 1859, thousands — some authorities say three hundred thousand — immi- 
grants reached California by the overland routes. 


With the coming of the Mormons and the settlement of San Bernardino 
began the days of the stage "coach" — in early days a "mud" wagon or buck- 
board, and of the mule freighter. The first mail service between San Ber- 
nardino and Los Angeles seems to have been somewhat irregular. One of 
the first mail carriers was U. U. Tyler. He drove oxen and made occasional 
trips. It is related that at one time he left Los Angeles with the mail, driving 
a yoke of steers attached to the running gear of a wagon. At El Monte a 
couple of passengers were awaiting the "stage" to San Bernardino. It was a 
case of riding the wagon reach or waiting indefinitelv for other transportation, 
so they made the trip — in safety if not in comfort. One of the first mail 
carriers was named Rockefeller, and carried the mail and passengers with 
a mud wagon and two horses, making the trip once a week and taking two 
days from this city to Los Angeles. John Miller, in 1854, ran a stage between 
the two points. In 1852 Captain Hunt secured a mail contract for three year? 
to carry mail from Los Angeles to Salt Lake, by way of San Bernardino. 
The trip was made on horseback, two men carrying the mail, often accom- 


panied by others who wished to make the journey. Among the riders on this 
Hue were Dan Taft, Dan Ratliburn, Ed Hope, Gilbert Hunt and Sheldon 
Stoddard. The latter made the round trip between here and Salt Lake twelve 
times in 1853. 

By 1858 a regular bi-weekly stage service was maintained between Los 
Angeles and San Bernardino. Its advertisement reads as follows : "Regular 
line carrying United States Mail. Leaves Los Angeles Monday and Thurs- 
day of each week, at 7 a. m. ; San Bernardino Wednesdays and Saturdavs. 7 
a. m. All applications at Bella Union, or Jacob's Hotel, corner Third and E 
Streets. No person will be allowed to enter the stage without his fare is pre- 
paid. Fare each way, $8.00." 

This was evidently a cash proposition, but it was not equal to the tactics 
of the stage driver who waited until he reached El Monte and then insisted 
upon the payment of the fare in full — no pay, no further ride — and not many 
people cared to be stranded at EI Monte. In the latter part of 1859 or in i860 
a rival line was put into operation and the fare dropped to $6.00. 

The establishment of the Butterfield stage line between St. Louis and 
San Francisco, in 1858, was a great event in California history. By this route 
the overland mail time between New York and San Francisco was greatly 
reduced, the quickest time on record by this line having been twciu^-otie 
days. Two mails a week were carried by the Butterfield route, and the time 
made, after everything was in working order was very regular. They made 
the trip between Los Angeles and Yuma, via Warner's Ranch — 282 miles — 
in 72 hours and 20 minutes. Time made on first trip from St. Louis to San 
Francisco, 24 days 20 hours 25 minutes." 

The breaking out of the civil war caused the withdrawal of United States 
troops from California, Arizona and New Mexico. The Indians at once 
became troublesome, and in consequence the Butterfield route was aban- 
doned. The "pony express" from St. Joe to San Francisco and the telegraph 
lines which were put through to the coast in 1861-2, still further shortened 
the time for mail and for "news," although the overland passenger travel 
was almost brought to a standstill. 

In 1863 A. P. Andrews put on a four-horse coach between Los Angeles 
and this city wdiich made tri-weekly trips, and must have given the town 
quite a metropolitan air. In 1864 a mail route was established from Los 
Angeles to Prescott, A. T., via San Bernardino. The contract for this route 
was let to James Grant, who was a large mail contractor for many years. 
At first the mail was carried by riders, but afterwards a Concord coach, be- 
tween Los Angeles and San Bernardino and a mud wagon from San Bernar- 
dino on to Arizona Territory, was used. In 1866 the Banning Company- 
furnished a "fast and reliable" mail coach which started from Wilmington 
weekly, passed through Los Angeles. El Monte, Mud Springs, Cucamonga 
and San Bernardino and thence by way of Warner's to Yuma, making the 
Hp in about seventy-two hours — considered a feat in that time. In 1867 we 
find the following stage advertisements in the San Bernardino Guardian : 




Overland Mail Company. 

For Hardyvllle, Culville, Prcscott. 

Williams' Fork. La Paz, and 

Fort Yuma. 

WOLFF *'f'oLKS. Agenli. UPC "° ™.™!i 

U. S. Mail Line 



Four-llorse Coaches, carrying 
UmlL. S. SlaOL 

Fr-ra LOS ANGELES, connool.n - at SAV RER- 
WliMS" ..thine FOKT Villi .id TITSON 

THEOUUH PASSAGE can u secured, by ap- 
plying, in Los Angeles, to 

0. M. WOZEXCRAFT, Agent. 

The Overlauil Stage (oast Line! 

United States Mails and Wells, 
Fargo & Co's Express, 




Connecting with the San Francisco and Bon Jose 
Railroad, at San Jose, 

OFFICE— Bella Union note], Los Angeles. 

W. E. LOVETT * CO., Proprietors, 
Wu. Bccklev, General 
Los Angeles, May 14. 1 



At Wilmington, Cal, 

At 4 o'clock, EVERY MOXDAY 

Los Angeles and San Bernardin<v 

LETTERS, PACKAGES, Etc., forwarded on 
-SS- The Overland Stage for San Francisco, 

I Pan Oiego I" I,<" Ao-.'lfi 

During- the Mormon occupancy a consid- 
erable business was done in sending supplies 
— hay. flour and stock to Arizona and Utah 
points. During the fifties and early sixties 
freight was taken from Southern California 
points, not only to Arizona, Nevada and Utah, 
but as far north as Montana and even Idaho, 
and tlte greater part of this business passed 
through the San Bernardino Valley and the 
Cajon Pass. 

"Freighting" became an important occu- 
pation. The man who wished to engage in it 
must be a considerable capitalist, for the 
heavy wagons, constructed especially for the 
purpose, were expensive, and strong, well- 
broken mules were required. Eight, ten. 
twelve and sometimes eighteen or twenty 
mules were used as motive power for the 
"outfit." The wagons were carefully packed, 
and often carried thousands of dollars' worth 
of merchandise. The driving of one of these 
"freighters" over the mountains and deserts 
required forethought, prompt action and good 
judgment. There was always danger from 
the Utes. Apaches and other Indians. The 
heat and the cold, the alkali dust, the blinding 
glare of the sun upon the desert sands, thirst 
and hunger — all of these tested to the utter- 
most the physical and mental powers of the 

In 1873-74 Meyerstein Brothers of San 
Bernardino had a contract for hauling all sup- 
plies to the then booming P cl namint district. 
They regularly transported by wagon train 
200 tons of freight per month. San Bernar- 
dino was the base of supplies for the desert 
country and the mines throughout the county, 
and consequently freighting was one of 
her greatest sources of revenue. In early 
days she also exported wheat, flour and lum- 
ber to the coast district, and her "mule line." 
which successfully competed with the South- 
ern Pacific Company, is still well remembered 


by old settlers. The coming of the railroad era, however, practically put an 
end to the business of the stage coaches and the freighters, although local 
stages were still in use in the eighties, and a few lines are still in existence 
in the county. 


For many years San Bernardino county awaited the coming of her first 
railroad. It was early apparent that some time a transcontinental line would 
be built from the lower Mississippi river to the Pacific coast. San Diego peo- 
ple felt confident that this line would make its terminus on San Diego harbor 
— "the only harbor worthy of the name south of San Francisco'': while the 
residents of San Bernardino were equally sure that the road must come 
through one of her two great gateways — San Gorgonio or Cajon. 

In 1867 the Memphis & El Paso road, with J. C. Fremont, president, was 
incorporated, to reach the Pacific coast. Work was begun at the eastern end 
of the line, but the scheme fell through. A line was surveyed from San Diego 
to the Gila river at one time, but never got further than the survey. There 
was much talk of the International line, to run in a direct course from San 
Diego eastward, partly on Mexican territory; surveys and concessions were 
made — and that was all. It was confidently expected that the Texas & 
Pacific railway, which was organized by Tom Scott, of financial fame, in 
1869, would solve the railway problem for Southern California. San Diego 
made large grants of land and of harbor front to this corporation, and work 
was actually begun and ten miles of roadbed graded, after an elaborate cere- 
mony in which the first shovelful of dirt was turned. But the financial panic 
of 1873 paralyzed this scheme also. 

Of local roads, dozens were built — upon paper. A narrow gauge line 
between San Diego and San Bernardino direct was surveyed and seemed at 
one time an assured fact. In August. 1868, the citizens of San Bernardino 
assembled at the Court House and resolved: "That we citizens here assem- 
bled are in favor of building a railway from the landing at Anaheim to this 
place, and pledge ourselves and our individual exertions to enlist the county 
in its favor, and obtain an appropriation of at least $5,000.00 per mile for every 
mile built in the county, by the issue of county bonds for this purpose, to be 
issued under and by virtue of an act of Legislature passed for that purpose." 
This resolution was signed by all of the leading citizens of the county, but 
it seems to nave had no effect — the road did not materialize. 

The Guardian of October 2nd, 1868, contains the following- railroad 


Pacific and San Bernardino Railroad Company. 

"Such is the name of a company incorporated September 23, 1868, with 
a capital stock of two millions, the object of which is to connect San Bernar- 
dino with the sea, and while developing the resources of the country along 
its line, will attract the entire freighting business of Arizona and Southern 
Utah, which for some time has been diverted from us by the high prices 
charged by our teamsters for freighting, and carried by vessels via the Gulf 
of California and Colorado river. The books of tbe company are now open 
in San Francisco, and the stock is being taken very liberally. A set of sub- 
scription books will be sent to this place by the next steamer, and our citizens, 
possessing the means, will no doubt interest themselves in this enterprise and 
invest in some shares. 

"The incorporation of the company has been delayed by the absence 
of Mr. Ben Holladay in Oregon. But now we may look for a speedy prose- 
cution of the enterprise. Gen. Davidson, writing in regard to the road, says: 
'I look upon the road as a fixed fact.' So do we, and consequently look for- 
ward to the future of San Bernardino with anticipations of seeing her become 
what nature has established the foundation for, a thriving interior city, draw- 
ing to her the trade and traffic of Arizona and Southern Utah, and producing . 
from her own fertile hills, valleys and plains, a surplus of products that will 
attract wealth and prosperity to her producers. We are not informed when 
the work will be commenced, but presume as soon as the necessary arrange- 
ments are effected the ground will be broken and grading began. Once the 
ground broken, the grading and laying of the rails will be pushed on rapidly, 
until San Bernardino will stand as it were on the sea shore, and gather into 
her lap the wealth that comes floating on its bosom." 

And this is the beginning and the end of the "Pacific & San Bernardino 
Railroad Company," so far as we have been able to find it. 

In 1874 the Los Angeles & Independence railway, to be built from Santa 
Monica to Independence, -Inyo county, was organized by Governor Downey, 
F. P. F. Temple and other merchants of Los Angeles, backed by Senator John 
P. Jones. Several routes- were proposed, but that through the Cajon Pass was 
selected, and San Bernardino was invited to co-operate in the enterprise, and 
thus secure a route to the sea coast. The road was constructed between Los 
Angeles and Santa Monica and put into operation in December, 1875. San 
Bernardino, however, seemed to feel that any road passing through the valley 
could not skip her, and made no decided move to secure the road. Consider- 
able grading was done on the line this side of Los Angeles and in the Cajon 
Pass. The Guardian of January 16, 1875, reports, enthusiastically: 

"Work has been commenced on the Independence railroad in earnest. A 
force of forty men. under the energetic Crawford is engaged on the Cajon 
grade. Mr. Crawford tells us that in a few davs he will be re-enforced by 


loo Chinamen. The Southern Pacific people have also a force at work in the 
Cajon. It seems their object is to head off the Narrow Gauge. Jones, how- 
ever, is not likely to bluff worth a dollar. Stanford, we believe, declares his 
intention of building a Broad Gauge, to Panamint, via the Cajon. San Ber- 
nardino is certainly looming up in importance to the commercial world. And 
now, let us avail ourselves of our magnificent opportunities. Let energy, 
enterprise and liberality be the order of the day with our business men and 
men of property. And let us all act for the general good." 

The Los Angeles & Independence Railway never reached the San Bernar- 
dino Yallev, however. 


The first western railroad project was put forth in 1835, when a line 
starting from Lake Michigan and extending to the Puget Sound was pro- 
posed. In 1849 Thomas Benton introduced a bill into Congiess to subsidize 
a road, to be rail where practicable, and the rest of the way turnpike, from 
St. Louis to San Francisco. At nearly every session of Congress after this 
date some proposal for a transcontinental road was submitted and discussed, 
but no decided action was taken until the act authorizing the Union and Cen- 
tral Pacific roads in 1862. 

In 1856 the first railroad in California, a line from Folsom to Sacramento, 
was completed. This road was built by a young engineer, Theodore D. Judah, 
who had come out from the east for this purpose. Judah became very much 
interested in the possibility of a transcontinental road, and made a careful 
examination of all the routes practicable through the Sierra Nevadas. In 
1856 Mr. Judah published a pamphlet, "A Practical Plan for Building the 
Pacific Railway." A writer in the Overland Monthly says of this document, 
"Rarely has there been so much practical matter comprised within thirty 
pages. It suggested a plan for sleeping and restaurant cars, thus ante-dating 
the Pullman idea and obviating one of the greatest obstacles to the overland 

In 1859 a Railroad Convention was called in San Francisco. Judah was 
one of the delegates, and presented the information that he had gathered and 
the plans that he had formulated. So impressed were the members of the 
convention that they appointed the young engineer to act as their accredited 
agent to present their proceedings at Washington. Mr. Judah went to "Wash- 
ington and made a most favorable impression upon the statesmen with whom 
he came in contact, without accomplishing any immediate result. 

Largely through Judah's zeal and his conviction in the 'feasibility of the 
route he had selected, Huntington, Crocker, Stanford and Hopkins became 



interested, and in 1861 the Central Pacific Company was organized with a sub- 
scribed capital of $125,000. Of this amount Huntington. Hopkins, Stanford 

and Crocker subscribed $15,- 
000 each. These men gradually 
acquired most of the other 
stock subscribed, including 
that of Judah. The breaking 
out of the civil war increased 
the importance of the Pacific 
railway to the country at 
large, and the withdrawal of 
the Southern members of Con- 
gress minimized the opposi- 
tion to the project. The Cen- 
tral Pacific sent Judah again 
to Washington to work in their 
interests, and largely through 
his earnest and well-calculated 
efforts, Congress, in 1862. 
passed an "Act to aid in the 
. construction of a railroad and 
telegraph line from the Mis- 
souri river to the Pacific ocean 
and to secure to the govern- 
ment the use of the same for 
postal, military and other purposes." 

For the carrying out of this construction the government gave, with- 
in tne boundaries of California, two million acres of land and six millions in 
bonds; the state gave $105,000 a year for twenty years; Sacramento gave 
S300,000 in stock and Placer took $250,000 in stock— all of this applying to 
the road only between Sacramento and the eastern boundary of the state. 

Ground was broken in Sacramento in 1863 and the work was pushed 
with unexpected rapidity. The Union Pacific Company was also organized 
and work was begun at the eastern terminus on the Missouri. To these two 
roads the government, between the years 1865 and 1869, granted bonds to 
the amount of $55,090,692, bearing 6 per cent interest. Congress also gave 
them over 26.000.000 acres of land, as well as right of way 400 feet wide, and 
depot grounds throughout the route. Important concessions and subsidies 
were also granted by the states and cities through which the roads passed. 
Thus aided the work was pushed rapidly, and May 10, 1869, the last spike 
was driven when the two roads met near Ogden, and thus the Atlantic and 
the Pacific were at last united, and the long-talked of "transcontinental" rail- 
road was a fact. 




In the meantime it had become a certainty that a southern transconti- 
nental line would be built also. In 1853 the government had sent out a party 
to explore and survey routes in California to connect with the routes near 
the thirty-fifth and thirty-second parallels, which had already been explored 
Lieutenant Williamson, in charge of the party, reported as follows: 

"Under the supposition that a road has been constructed from the Missis- 
sippi to the mouth of the Gila, if the question is simply how to continue the 
road to the Pacific, the answer is apparent. It would follow a nearly direct 
line to the entrance of the San Gorgonio pass, the best in the coast range ; then 
through that pass into tTie San Bernardino valley : and from thence to San 
Pedro or some other point in the vicinity of the coast. To go from the mouth 
of the Gila to San Francisco we must still go through the San Gorgonio 

In 1865 the Central Pacific Company had organized the Southern Pacific 
Company, with the intention of building a southern route. In 1866 the At- 
lantic & Pacific Company was organized and authorized to build a road from 
Springfield, Mo., by way of Albuquerque to the Little Colorado, and thence 
along the thirty-fifth parallel as nearly as possible to the Pacific coast. It 
was given large grants of lands, but no bonds. In 1871 the Texas Pacific road 
was incorporated to build through Texas, El Paso and New Mexico to the 
Colorado, and thence to San Diego. Still earlier the Memphis, El Paso & 
Pacific Railway Company had begun operations. All of these lines began 
construction from their eastern termini. 


Soon after its organization the Southern Pacific began building south- 
ward through California, and by 1872 had constructed a line as far south 
as Tehachapi. From this point its course was undecided. It might cross 
the Mojave desert direct to the Colorado river, or it might follow the San 
Gorgonio route. Los Angeles determined to secure the road at any cost, and 
after a long and bitter fight voted something over $600,000 subsidy, if the 
main line should be put through that city. In pursuance of their agreement 
to secure the subsidy the railroad at once built twenty-five miles of road to 
the north of Los Angeles to San Fernando and twenty-five miles east to Spa- 
dra. completing the work to that point in April, 1874. There for a time the 
work paused and uncertainty ruled. There were doubts whether the nai! 
would ever go any further — and some believed that San Bernardino was the 
ultimate terminus. 


In November, 1873, when it was known that the road would certainly 
reach Spadra, or Rnebottom's as it was more familiarly known, a meeting 
of the citizens of San Bernardino was held and the matter of offering induce- 
ments for the immediate completion of the line as far as San Bernardino was 
warmly discussed. 

Judge Boren moved that a committee be appointed and steps be taken to 
find out what would induce the company to come into the valley before 
removing their force from the field. Colonel Kelting favored the committee, 
but did not believe the company could possibly avoid running their line 
through the town. Mr. Katz opposed the appointment, because it looked like 
truckling to the railroad people. The majority were in favor of a committee, 
at least, yet some citizens were opposed to the railroad on general principles, 
and didn't want one, anyway. The meeting finally appointed a committee 
of prominent citizens, with instructions to meet every Wednesday until fur- 
ther orders. Judge Boren was appointed chairman, W. H. Gould secietary 
and E. A. Nisbet corresponding secretary. 

Despite the efforts of this committee no definite results followed. The 
Guardian and Argus and the people who write letters to the newspapers dis- 
cussed the situation warmly and grew enthusiastic over the future prospects 
of their city. The Guardian declared: "With the railway terminus in this 
town the business would quadruple in one year. And if we only display the 
energy dictated by common sense we will have the terminus within nrie shot 
of the town." 

In October. 1874, Gen. D. D. Colton, Gen. S. T. Gage, Col. C. F. Crocker 
and Judge Underhill, Southern Pacific magnates, after going over the pro- 
posed route through San Gorgonio pass, returned to San Bernardino and 
met the citizens in a largely attended mass meeting. The meeting was 
called to order by the chairman, Hon. W. A. Conn, who introduced the rail- 
road men and outlined the object for which the meeting was held. He 
pointed out the vital necessity of the railroad to the county and the necessity 
of the citizens doing all possible to co-operate with the railroad people. Mr. 
Crocker acted as spokesman for the visitors, and made a lengthy speech, in 
which he set forth the benefits which San Bernardino would derive from the 
building of the road, and stated that they did not ask for a subsidv from the 
town, but would like to have the business men of the place subscribe for at 
least $100,000 worth of their bonds. This was their proposition. Judge A. D. 
Boren, at that time one of the heaviest property owners, and one of the most 
enterprising citizens, said : 

"Mr. Crocker, if we subscribe for $100,000 worth of your bonds will you 
build your road through this place or anywhere near it?'* There was then 
some talk of putting the depot at the foot of "E" street. 

Mr. Crocker, in reply, said that the Southern Pacific was building a great 
transcontinental line to be run for all time ; that their through business was 


of vastly more importance than the local traffic ever could be, and that they 
could not afford to swerve their line to the right or to the left to accommodate 
any little town ; that it was not alone the cost of building the additional few 
miles of track that a curve reaching and passing through San Bernardino 
would entail, but the cost of operating it for all time, and this additional 
mileage on all through trains would be so great that the company could not 
afford it; yet, to accommodate the people, they would build the line through 
the valley, and as near as they could to San Bernardino. 

A later meeting of citizens discussed the bond matter, and decided, 
almost unanimously, with Senator Conn, "that if the railway company comes 
through the town, we, the committee, will propose to the county to buy the 
bonds; if it does not come through the town we will not raise one cent." 
Inasmuch as no definite promise of anything, not even a depot at the foot of 
E street, could be obtained from the railroad, no bonds were subscribed for. 

In 1S73 some wide-awake business men had organized the Slover Moun- 
tain Association, and purchased a tract of 2,000 acres of land southwest of 
San Bernardino. It afterwards developed that at the time of the first rail- 
road meeting in San Bernardino, arrangements had been practically com- 
pleted to locate the depot on this tract, which was directly in line between 
Spadra and the San Gorgonio pass and the owners of which had agreed 
to donate 640 acres of land to the railroad company, upon certain conditions. 

At first the people of San Bernardino refused to believe that they were 
to be passed by. The Argus, in a warm editorial, declared : "God made San 
Bernardino a site for the central town of the valley, and the railroad, if 
inclined, and we have no reason to believe it to be. cannot change his fiat. 
The new town talk is simply nauseating; it is possible a village may grow up 
around the depot; if so let it and welcome." 

The railroad reached Colton July 30, 1875. A depot, roundhouse, etc., 
were constructed, a hotel put up and other improvements made. The failure 
of San Bernardino to purchase bonds was not conducive to good feeling on 
the part of the railroad people to that town, and the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany threw its entire weight to the building up of Colton and diverting busi- 
ness to the new town. For a time this influence was keenly felt ; Colton grew 
rapidly, while San Bernardino was almost at a standstill. 

September 6, 1876, the northern and southern ends of the road were 
united and San Bernardino and Colton thus put into direct communication 
with San Francisco. There being no competition, and not enough local busi- 
ness to pay the expenses of keeping the local lines in operation, freight rates 
were very high. So high, indeed, that the merchants of San Bernardino en- 
tered into an arrangement with McFadden Bros., of Newport, Los Angeles 
county, who were the owners of a steamboat, to run their boat in competi- 
tion with the railroad in carrying freight for San Bernardino. They put on 
a mule train between Newport and San Bernardino, and it is a fact that 



freight from San Francisco, by this line, was more expeditiously delivered, 
and at lower rates than tlie railroad had laid it down at Colton. 

When the Southern Pacific people saw that the merchants were in 
earnest and were succeeding in their opposition, they sent an agent and 
called a meeting of the San Bernardino merchants and shippers at Starke's 
Hotel. The company proposed a compromise, offering lower rates and bet- 
ter service. The rates were accordingly put down and a strong effort made 
to regain San Bernardino business. Many of the business men accepted the 
terms offered and the mule line was finally done away with. Although there 

was a marked improvement in 
service and in rates the freight 
was still all the "traffic would 
bear," and there were contin- 
ual complaints of the business 
men as to the treatment re- 
ceived from the company. 

In March, 1881, the con- 
nection between the Southern 
Pacific and the Atchison, To- 
peka & Santa Fe, at Deming, 
New Mexico, was made and 
the first through passenger 
train between San Francisco 
and Kansas City, by the south- 
ern route, went over the road. 
Thus at last San Bernardino 
county was connected with the 
east by direct railway route. 

In 1886 the Motor line be- 
tween Colton and San Bernar- 
dino was put into operation, 
having been built by R. W. 
Button. In November, 1888, this motor line was extended to Riverside. 
The same year a motor line between San Bernardino and Redlands was com- 
pleted. In 1892, the Southern Pacific Company purchased these motor lines, 
thus gaining direct entrance to Redlands, San Bernardino and Riverside. 
The same year a branch line was put in between Chino and Ontario. 

The motor service between Riverside, Colton, San Bernardino and Red- 
lands has been maintained and a broad gauge system added. 

During the last year the Southern Pacific Company ha^ purchased land 
in the center of San Bernardino city, and a new and adequate railway ^epot 
and service is now promised that town — after thirty years of waiting. 

g. w. LUCE 


On the 7th day of Jul}-, 1866, an act passed Congress approving and sub- 
sidizing a new transcontinental line, starting from Springfield, Mo., "thence 
running by the most direct route to Albuquerque, N. M., thence to the head- 
waters of the Little Colorado, and then along tbe 35th parallel, north latitude, 
to the Colorado and thence to tide water." 

There was a race between this road and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe, which had been organized in Kansas. In 1879 tne Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, the St. Louis & San Francisco and the Chicago & Alton Companies 
were combined for the purpose of building a joint line from Albuquerque to 
the Pacific coast. San Diego, undaunted by her many failures to secure rail- 
road facilities, at once set to work to induce this new line to make San Diego 
Harbor its terminus. Mainly through the efforts of the Kimball Brothers, 
who had invested heavily in San Diego and vicinity, two representatives of 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Messrs. G. B. Wilbur and L. G. Pratt, of Bos- 
ton, came to California and visited San Diego. These gentlemen were favor- 
ably impressed with the situation of San Diego, and also with the very 
liberal propositions made them by the Kimball Brothers and the citizens of 
San Diego generally. 

San Diego offered "six thousand acres of land within the city, with a 

water front of one mile, $15,000 cash and 1,000 city lots; Messrs. Kimball, of 

the National Rancho, offered 10.000 acres, with another mile of water front; 

Tom Scott, of the defunct Texas & Pacific, agreed to deed to the Atchison, 

Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Company, 4.500 

acres of the land previously granted to him." 

When San Bernardino heard that San 
Diego was to secure a visit from the railway 
men she was once more aroused. Mr. John 
Isaacs, who was then editor of the San Ber- 
nardino Times, and who took an active part 
in the campaign to secure the Santa Fe to San 
Bernardino, has furnished this statement of 
the work then done : 

"On October 20, 1879, a meeting was held 
at the Court House, attended by the greater 
part of our leading business men, at which was 
discussed the advisability of trying to secure 
this new line. It was unanimously decided 
that every effort should be used to this end, 
and a delegation consisting of Mr. Fred Per- 
ris, then county surveyor, and John Isaacs, was appointed to meet the railway 
men when they should arrive, while Messrs. Anderson and Gregory were in- 




structed to correspond with the railway officials in regard to their movements 
and extend an invitation to visit this valley. A committee to raise funds 
was also appointed, and by diligent labor secured S40.00, one of which was 

With this sum the delegates started for San Diego, November 2d. The 
journey between the two cities was not a picnic in those days. There were no 
places of public entertainment along the road and few settlers. It was a three 
days' trip over rough and muddy roads. Upon arrival in San Diego it was 
found that Messrs. Wilbur and Pratt would not reach the city for five days. 
The committee, therefore, had ample time to spend its funds and to look over 
the lay of the land. They found that there were opposing interests at work. 
One party was bound that the road, if built at all. must come by the Interna- 
tional boundary line that had been surveyed and much talked of some years 
previous to this. Another party with interests along the coast and in the 
northern part of the count}', was equally determined that the road must come 
that way. The San Bernardino men soon found that their presence was not 
considered desirable by one party, at least, and a determined effort to prevent 
their meeting the railway men when they arrived, was made. 

Messrs. Wilbur & Pratt, however, declined the private hospitality that 
was pressed upon them, and went to the Horton House, where the San 
Bernardino delegation at last secured an appointment. At this interview 
there were present beside Messrs. Perris and Isaacs, Don Juan Foster, H. I. 
Willey and C. J. Cox. It lasted from 8 o'clock p. m. until i 130 a. m., and Mr. 
Perris furnished facts and gave topographical data which these gentlemen 
were totally unprepared for. At the close of the talk Mr. Wilbur said: "Gen- 
tlemen, if you will come for us in two weeks we will go up and see your 

That promise was the turning point for San Bernardino, and from that 
moment we may date our railroad history. 

Well satisfied with their labors, the committee started for home, to be 
caught in the worst storm of the season and to reach San Bernardino after 
three days of hard, wet traveling. At the appointed time they met the two 
railroad men, accompanied by their engineer, Morley, and Harry I. Willey, 
at the Santa Margarita Rancho, and drove back to San Bernardino. 

In the meantime a bureau of information had been started in this city; 
a collection of its various products was gathered together, and all the inform- 
ation available regarding the resources of the county and its possibilities was 
compiled for the visiting railroad directors. Mr. Perris also took Engineer 
Morley over the line, from Santa Magarita through the San Gorgonio and 
Morongo Passes and to the summit of Cajon Pass, and Mr. Morley remarked 
of the Cajon Pass, which had been pronounced as insurmountable, "This is 
nothing; we can go through here easily enough." 

An editorial in the Times of November 30, 1879, regarding the visit of 


these Santa Fe railway officials, says : "We have spent several days with 
the gentlemen now among us representing the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
railway, and we are forced to the conclusion that their visit here is not a mere 
dodge, but that they mean business and are in earnest in their efforts to learn 
the feasibility of a road to our coast, the best route to be taken by it, the 
present and possible resources of the country through which they would pass, 
and other points bearing upon their line as a paying investment. They are 
here as an investigating committee, and upon their report future action will 
be taken by their company, and it is for the purpose of making an intelligent 
report that they are staying among us so long and making so studious an 
examination of the counties of Southern California." 

As a result of the investigations of this committee the route by the way 
of Cajon Pass was decided upon and work was begun from the San Diego ter- 
minus in 1880, and by May, 1881, the graders were at work in Temecula canon. 
The question of the route to be pursued between Temecula and the 
Cajon Pass was still unsettled. Riverside was making strenuous efforts to 
bring the line through the Temescal valley, Arlington and Riverside. As 
inducements she offered "free right of way from the Laguna (Elsinore lake) 
to the Santa Ana river at the narrows, $10,000 from the Tin company, 500 
to 1,000 acres from the Sierra Ranch owners, $5,000 from the citizens of 
Arlington and vicinity, and 500 acres in the lower part of Riverside valley." 

Another route was surveyed by way of Box Springs which would bring 
the line nearer to San Bernardino. Railroad meetings were held and proposi- 
tions were made, but nothing definite was arrived at. 

August 21, 1882, the Southern California road was completed to Colton 
and a regular service put on, thus giving San Diego an outlet to the east and 
to San Francisco. Here construction stopped for nearly a year, and San 
Bernardino still debated the question of what she would offer to secure a 
depot within her own limits. At length she guaranteed right of way and 
depot grounds, amounting to some $20,000 in value, and it was settled that 
the road should pass through San Bernardino, and thence through the Cajon 
Pass to join the eastern extension which was being pushed through New 
Mexico and Arizona. 

September 13, 1883, the first train whistle rang through the city of San 
Bernardino. But the long-awaited event had not been attained without a 
final struggle. The Southern Pacific road had interposed every possible obsta- 
cle — legal and material — to the advent of its rival. Its last stand was made 
at the intersection of the roads at Colton. Injunctions had been served to 
restrain the California Southern road, and some of its property at San Diego 
had been attached. Rather an amusing incident occurred with regard to the 
railroad crossing which was intended to be used at Colton. The San Diego 
Sun reports : 

"The California Southern Railroad Company perpetrated the best joke 


of the season on the Southern Pacific Company, on Thursday night. It ap- 
pears that among the property levied on by the latter company was the rail- 
road crossing to be used at Colton. It had remained at National City for 
several months, and Mr. Bradt was ordered to take charge of it, as deputy 
sheriff, on Thursday. The limb of the law, when night came on, instead of 
sitting on the crossing, went to the hotel and was soon wrapped in profound 
slumber, dreaming of the sheriff's sale which was destined to never take place. 
Meanwhile the defendant got a force of men, hoisted the crossing on a car 
and immediately dispatched a special train to Colton. The surprise of Mr. 
Bradt when he arrived at the yards in the morning and found that his charge 
had been transported to San Bernardino county can better be imagined than 

The Southern Pacific found it convenient to station locomotives and cars 
along its tracks where the crossing was to be placed, and at one time it looked 
as though serious trouble might arise, but when the last legal steps had failed 
and the company found themselves in danger of "contempt of court'' proceed- 
ings, they removed the hindrances and aided in laying the disputed crossing. 

The rejoicing over the entrance of the railroad was soon turned to mourn- 
ing. The winter of 1883-4 proved to be a flood year — second only to the great 
flood of 1862. Many washouts occurred along the line of the newly con- 
structed road, and some fifteen miles of track through the Temecula canon 
was completely destroyed. This canon is a narrow, winding gorge with most 
precipitous sides. The eastern engineers refused to believe that the modest 
little stream trickling through the bottom of the canon far below their track- 
could ever harm their carefully planned grades and bridges. They had lessons 
to learn concerning California streams. 

For a time the railroad outlook was gloomy for San Bernardino, and black 
■ — dead black — for San Diego. No move was made to repair the road, and in 
response to inquiries the railroad officials gave very unsatisfactory answers. 
The Southern Pacific, on the approach of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 
had built a branch from its main line at Mojave across to the Needles on the 
Colorado river, in order to secure the subsidy offered by the government for 
the first line building through this territory. This branch, completed in April. 
1883, seriously interfered with the plans of the new road. It must either 
parallel the Southern Pacific, or buy out the line from Needles to Mojave. 
The latter course was finally agreed upon, and in July, 1884, an arrangement 
was entered into whereby the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe secured the use 
of the Mojave line, and also the right to run their trains over the Southern 
Pacific tracks into San Francisco. At the same time it was announced that 
the California Southern extension would be completed to Waterman (now 
Barstow) and the breaks fully repaired. Work after this was pushed 
rapidly. Two hundred and fifty thousand dollars was expended in repairing 


and rebuilding the line through the Temecula canon, and the extension was 
hurried along. In November, 1885, the California Southern was completed 
to Barstow, and San Bernardino turned out with fireworks and bands to wel- 
come ber first transcontinental train. The editor of the Times, Saturday, 
November 14, 1885, comments thus: 

"The last spike on the California Southern Railway was driven to-day, 
and San Bernardino is now in rail connection with the mining section and all 
of central United States by means of the Atlantic & Pacific and its branches. 
This important event, the most important in our history, has taken place 
quietly, without fuss or feathers, and while generally known, is the subject of 
no comment or rejoicing. Yet with the opening of this road a new era dawns 
upon us. San Bernardino will have on the railroad maps and time tables of the 
future a "local habitation and a name." She will no longer be ignored as here- 
tofore, but will take her proper place as the second city of Southern California. 
She will be made the distributive point for this section, and goods from the 
East will be left off at the San Bernardino depot, and not shipped first to 
Los Angeles and then returned to Colton with charges to pay both ways. 
The immense mining trade of which w-e have so long been deprived will now 
return to us. Eastern people will know of us and come here. The trains that 
pass will go through a fertile portion of our valley and not through the desert 
portion of it, and travelers who pass through will not believe as heretofore 
that San Bernardino was a desert and nothing else. All this is before us. 
The turning point in our history has come, and we greet it as we do all other 
blessings — in silence. We are perhaps the most undemonstrative people in- 
America. Nothing short of an earthquake will shake us up. San Diego is 
preparing for a great celebration on the completion of the road, and we — well. 
we'll let 'em ; but we'll just be durned ef we'll make any fuss about it." 

Evidently the editorial took effect, as the first train was duly welcomed. 

The California Central had already begun the construction of the numer- 
ous branch lines which have made it the beneficiary of Southern California. In 
1884 a survey was made for a line between San Bernardino and Los Angeles, 
via Pasadena and the San Gabriel Valley. In 1885 the Riverside, Santa Ana 
& Los Angeles Railway was incorporated to build the line through the Santa 
Ana canon. 

In 1886 the California Southern proposed to the citizens of San Bernar- 
dino that if the}' would donate 18 acres of land adjoining the 20 acres already 
owned by the company, the Division Headquarters would be made at San 
Bernardino, and machine shops, depot and improvements to the amount of 
$200,000 would be at once put under way. The proposition was enthusias- 
tically accepted. A meeting was called and $10,000 raised on the spot toward 
the purchase price of the land. Again the editor of the Times was called upon 
to "whoop it up," and this is the way he did it: 

"In answer to an invitation, privatelv sent out, a number of the citizens of 


lit;;- 1 . 

our town who are interested 
the rear room of the Farmers 


n the further advancement of the place, met in 
Exchange Bank, last evening, to see what plan 
could be arrived at for the advancing 
of those interests in which San Bernar- 
dino is directly intere: ted. The meet- 
ing was called to order by John Andre- 
son, and on motion R. W. Waterman 
was chosen chairman and John Isaac 

"H. L. Drew stated that the object 
of the meeting was to consider a prop- 
osition from the California Southern 
Railroad Company relative to making 
San Bernardino division headquarters, 
with machine shops, round-house, etc. 
The railroad company want the citizens 
of this town to give them eighteen 
acres of land contiguous to the land 
which the company at present own. 
The citizens desired to make their offer 
a cash one, but the company did not 
want the cash. What they want, and 
all they want, is the land, upon which 
they propose to erect their machine 
shops, etc. Colton has made them an 
offer, and we understand some of the 
officers of the company favor locating 
those improvements at Colton ; but Mr. 
Victor, superintendent, and Fred T. 
Perris, chief engineer, are in favor of 
San Bernardino, and will do all in their 
power for us, provided we will do our 
share. Mr. Perris stated to the meet- 
ing that he had been waiting and 
watching for an opportunity to make 
a definite proposition to the citizens of 
san Bernardino whoop! this place, and he considered that he 

could now lay before them the opportunity to make a second Los Angeles 
right here, if they would only do their part. The proposed contract was read 
and submitted to the meeting, together with plans of depot, maps, diagrams, 
etc., all of which go to show the willingness of the railroad company to locate 
those improvements here, if we will only assist them to do so. After discuss- 
in- the feasibility of the proposition from all sides, a committee was 




appointed to thoroughly canvass the town and see what our citizens would do. 
Whether they would give their money toward the improvement of San Ber- 
nardino, or. whether they would allow Colton to beat us in the race. Of course 
there can be but very little, if any. opposition, for all will readily see the 
great benefit such a proposition will be to our town, if carried into effect. 

"A committee of three, consisting of John Andreson, R. W. Waterman 
and H. L. Drew, was appointed to prepare a guarantee of what each man is 
willing to do in the matter, to be circulated and signed by all who may feel 
disposed to aid in this proposed building up of the town. This committee 
are also to act as trustees to look after the money raised and put it to the use 
it is raised for. 

"A committee of three was also appointed to solicit subscriptions. This 

committee was composed of W. A. 
Harris, M. Katz and W. G. Morse. 
The work of this committee is to 
be done at once, and a report 
made at a meeting to be held at 
the Farmer's Exchange Bank to- 
night, so get out yonr pencils, 
shut your eyes and write as many 
figures after your names as your 
consciences will allow. 

"The proposition of the com- 
pany was so well thought of by 
the citizens present at this meet- 
ing that something over $10,000 
was raised immediately. The 
idea advanced at this meeting 
was to raise, if possible, the sum 
of S25.000, and to use as much of 
it as is necessary for the purchase 
of the eighteen acres of land, the 
balaece, if any be left, to be re- 
turned, pro rata, to the subscrib- 

JOHN J. BYRNE „_,, .. , , 

"The railroad company now 
own about twenty acres of land in our town. They need about forty acres 
for their proposed improvements. The only question is, will the people take 
interest enough in the advancement of the town to give them the eighteen 
acres of land necessary for these improvements, or will they allow all this 
work to be done at Colton.- 

"The committees will report to the meeting to-night, and as there can be 
but one result, a grand ratification meeting will be held in the Court House 


on to-morrow evening by all of our citizens. Let the list be so full that there 
will be no possible chance of missing this grand opportunity. 

"Acting upon the suggestion of the Times last evening, the citizens' 
committee have bonded the whole of block 17, of the five-acre survey, except 
two acres, giving them control of eighty-eight acres of land, which can be 
had at a cost of from $400 to $500 per acre. ' Out of this it is proposed to offer 
the railroad company a choice of forty acres, the balance to be sold to secure 
the signers of the guarantee fund. Surveyors are now engaged in running a 
line north from the Fabun place to the northwest corner of block 17, which 
will be entered with a curve, as the present grounds now are. This property 
lies between Fifth and Seventh streets, and there are a number of reasons 
why it is superior for railroad purposes, outside of its lessened cost. It is 
more level than the present location, and the cost of grading will be materially 
reduced, a big item to the railroad, as the present grounds will have to be cut 
down in some places as much as five or six feet. It can be got without trouble 
or litigation of any kind, and there will be no contest with the Lytle or any 
other heirs, as there cannot be even the shadow of a cloud upon the title. It is 
proposed to either abandon the present grounds or use them only for storage 
purposes, for keeping extra cars or unused machinery. So far as the citizens' 
committee is concerned, all the work lias been done, the whole of this property 
has been bonded, and the proposition laid before Air. Perris, who has tele- 
graphed it East and received instructions to complete the survey and report. 
If his report is favorable there is little doubt that the depot and machine shops 
will go on to block 17 instead of 16. While, of course, the property immediate- 
ly around the present depot would depreciate from its removal, the new loca- 
tion will be much better for the town as a whole, because it will be centrally 
located instead of as at present in one end, and the benefits derived from it 
would be more equally distributed. There can be little doubt that Mr. Perris 
will recommend the new location and that it will be accepted. What then 
remains for the citizens is to ratify the action of their committee." 

The "boom" years of 1886-7 saw a wide extension of railway "feeders" 
in Southern California. At one time there were ten different parties, all under 
the supervision of F. T. Perris. chief engineer of the California Southern, 
engaged in railroad construction in various parts of the country. The Cali- 
fornia Central road was organized, and the year 1887 saw completed the fol- 
lowing lines of road, all of which were parts of the Santa Fe svstem: 


California Southern, from National City to Barstow 210J/ 

San Bernardino and Los Angeles, including the San Gabriel valley 6oy 2 

Riverside, Santa Ana and Los Angeles, from Citrus via Santa Ana to Los 

Angeles 77 

San Bernardino and San Diego, from Santa Ana to Oceanside 48 

San Bernardino Yallev, from San Bernardino to Mentone 12 



San Jacinto Valley, from Perris to San Jacinto ig 

San Diego Central, from Oceanside to Escondido 23 

San Diego and El Cajon Valley 16 

Los Angeles and Santa Monica to Port Ballona 18 

Total miles -. 484 

In 1893 the "loop" around the San Bernardino valley was built, thus com- 
pleting the celebrated "kite-shaped" track, by which one may travel from Los 
Angeles, through the San Gabriel valley to San Bernardino and thence to 
Redlands, and, returning by the loop, cross the track at San Bernardino and 
thence to Los Angeles via the Santa Ana valley, or vice versa. 

In 1887, and again in 1892, the Temecula division of the California South- 
ern was washed out, and in the latter year this route was abandoned, a branch 
line being built to Fallbrook in the lower part of the. canon, and so con- 
structed that the flood water washes over, instead of under the bridges— 
an innovation which has worked successfully. 

In 1901, the Santa Fe system by the acquisition of the San Joaquin 
Valley road and the building of some trrck gained an en, ranee of its own into 
San Francisco, thus giving that city, for the first time, a competing line of 


When the location for depot and shop grounds was made in 1886 for San 
Bernardino, condemnation suits were found necessary to secure part of the 
land sought, this comprised about 45 acres of ground. At the time of the trial, 
witnesses, under oath, stated that 5 acres of ground would be ample for the 
company** needs. Since that time about 22 1-2 acres have been added, making 
a total of 67 1-2 acres, the present crowded conditon of which suggesis that at 
least 100 acres will be ultimately required to meet the increasing demands for 

The original tract of 45 acres was graded at great expense, the east end 
having to be raised some 3 1-2 to 4 feet to secure proper working grade for 
vard. The first improvements made in the way of shop and round-house 
facilities consisted of a ten-stall round-house of brick and 60-foot turn-table, 
machine shop and blacksmith shop were also of brick. 

The freight and passenger buildings were erected in 1887 and subsequently 
much enlarged. These early improvements cost nearly $100,000. The year 
1901 demonstrated the fact that more room was absolutely required for shop 
and yard extensions. This resulted in the acquirement of 22 1-2 acres more 
ground at a cost exceeding $20,000. During the year 1902 this ground has been 
occupied with new brick machine shop. 200 feet by 120 feet, and transfer table. 


A frame brass foundry and tin shop, 125 feet by 50 feet ; a brick paint shop, 
275 feet by 80 feet, and a brick car shop, 275 feet by 120 feet, all brick buildings, 
being covered with tiles imported from the east. Many other improvements 
and additions have been made to the old shops. A large amount of new ma- 
chinery has been installed in all the shops. Included in this is one of the 
largest air compressors on the coast, supplying air under 100 pounds pressure 
for a multitude of purposes. All shops are electrically- lighted and provided 
with electric as well as steam power. Steam heat has been carried to all points 
where most required during the winter months. 

A large extension to the blacksmith shop was made in 1900 in which car 
axles for the coast lines are now made from scrap. Not the least of the im- 
provements made is the increase of side and spur tracks which now have an 
aggregate length of 17 miles. A brick store-house for patterns only and a fire 
department house should be added to the above list. 

In addition to water received from the city mains a 12-inch well has been 
provided 475 feet in depth, having a capacity of 350 to 400 gallons per minute, 
water from which is pumped by compressed air into a steel tank 24 feet in dia- 
meter and 60 feet in height. 

For fire protection a Deane Under-Writer Fire Pump, supplied with steam 
from two 60 h. p. boilers and water from a concrete reservoir, has been installed 
at the west end of the yard. This is ready for instant service day and night and 
forces water under 100 pounds pressure through cast iron mains and laterals 
laid throughout the yard and commanding all buildings with suitable hydrants 
and connections. 

San Bernardino is a main distributing point for fuel oil, a storage tank 
with a capacity of over 36,000 barrels having been erected at a cost of nearly 
$12, coo. 

Expenditures during the past three years for the various improvements 
and machinery mentioned have aggregated about $350,000. 

During the busy season "about 800 men are employed and the San Bernar- 
dino pay rolls vary from $40,000 to $fio,ooo per month. 

All classes of repair work is done at the San Bernardino shops, this in- 
cludes the rebuilding of engines and cars and the general repairs of all cars 
used on the coast lines. San Bernardino is also the distributing point for 
railroad material of all descriptions, a large store-house and yards occupying 
much space for this especial purpose. 

Notwithstanding the unique geographical position of San Bernardino, its 
real growth was not assured until it became known that it was selected as the 
chosen spot for extensive "Santa Fe Shops." 

Dating from the purchase of the last 22 1-2 acres and the erection of the 
before named shops, public confidence in the future of the city grew to the 
extent of securing the advent of the various electric roads now centering in 
San Bernardino. This again has begotten a large measure of confidence with 


the further result that the "Old Town"' is already laying claim to being one 
of the best business points in Southern California. More houses have been 
built and greater improvements made during the year 1903 than in any pre- 
vious five years. This taken in connection with the fact that the count}' of 
San Bernardino is already third in point of importance in the state as a mineral 
producer and wonderful mineral developments still taking place in its desert 
portions, emphasizes the statement that San Bernardino is destined to become 
second only in importance in Southern California to Los Angeles. 


The high price of coal which must be brought to Southern California from 
New Mexico, Washington or Vancouver, made the cost of transportation in 
the southwest necessarily higher than in any other part of the country. The 
question of cheap fuel was most important and the increased output of 

petroleum in Southern California 
in the earlier nineties induced K. 
H. YYade, general manager, and G. 
W. Prescott. supt. of machinery, 
for the Southern California sys- 
tem to experiment with crude oil. 
Repeated experiments satis- 
fied them of its utility and cheap- 
ness as compared with coal, but 
it was not until 1895 that a satis- 
factory appliance for burning it 
in engines was completed. It 
was found then that a saving of 
at least ten cents a train mile 
could be made by using oil pur- 
chased in the market over coal. 
In addition, the danger of fire in 
the dry region traversed by west- 
ern roads was greatly reduced, as 
there are no sparks. Cinders, are 
also done away with and smoke 
and dust greatly reduced. A sav- 
ing on the wear and tear of ma- 
chinery is another gain. So suc- 
cessful was the experiment at first tried on one or two engines that the entire 
equipment for both Southern California and Southern Pacific roads has been 
changed to use oil as fuel. The railroad companies now own extensive oil 
fields and are taking out the oil necessary for their own use. Oil burning 
engines are now used as far east as New Mexico. 



The oiling- of the railroad tracks and of roads and streets with crude oil 
has proved another great boon to travelers. Over the oiled tracks dust is 
almost overcome and the comfort and cleanliness of passengers greatly 


The completion of the branch line between Colton and the Southern 
Pacific at Barstow gave the A. T. & S. F. line an entrance into Southern Cali- 
fornia and gave California a second transcontinental route. This was a most 
important event and gave rise to many and far reaching changes. The first 
result of the Santa Fe's reaching the Pacific Coast was the "rate war." 

At the January, 1886, meeting of the Transcontinental Association, a pool 
of all lines in the transcontinental business, held' in New York City, the 
Atchison system announced that it was in a position to handle one-half of the 
business to and from Southern California and claimed 50 per cent of the busi- 
ness. The Southern Pacific opposed this claim with vehemence and the Asso- 
ciation upheld the Southern Pacific. In consequence the Atchison withdrew 
from the pool and the other lines joined forces against it. The Santa Fe 
authorized its agents to "cut" rates. According to a Chicago dispatch, Feb- 
ruary 10. 1886: "An overland rate war growing out of the collapse of the 
Transcontinental Association, was instituted today in a thoroughly aggres- 
sive way, both as to passenger and freight traffic. All lines make a 1st class 
unlimited $70 rate, $60 limited, and $42, 2nd class. Agents given carte 
blanche to receive all freight possible at any figures." The rates up to this 
time had been: 1st class, Chicago, unlimited, $115; St. Louis, $112. 

By February 21, a rate of $25.00 between the coast and Missouri river 
points had been reached. On the 24th. tickets between Kansas City and San 
Francisco were $30.00 with $5 rebate, and $24 with $3 rebate. 

March 6th the Southern Pacific was selling tickets at a "flat" rate, $16 
between the coast and Missouri, $20.00 to Chicago and $35 to New York. 
Down the fare continued to drop until it reached a point where it was cheaper 
to travel than to stay at home. The climax of the cheap rates was reached in 
Los Angeles, however, when, on March 8th, tickets were sold by the Southern 
Pacific at a "flat" rate of $1.00 to Missouri river. This rate was only main- 
tained for a few hours and was not met by the Santa Fe, which continued to 
sell at $8.00, although a $5.00 rate was previously put on. 

Of course such rates led to a phenomenal travel both ways. California 
was flooded with tourists and the "boom" was on. The cheap freight rates 
also caused almost a complete blockade of business. Merchants ordered large 
stocks of goods — but the stocks already on hand were sometimes sold at a loss. 

The "war" continued, with variations, for some months and rates were 
not settled until toward the close of 1887. The rush continued through the 


winter of 1886-7, trains coming- in sections and parties of several hundred 
coming in a body to look over the land and to invest. 

One most important result of the rate war was the fact that the old rates 
were never restored. The first class fare from Chicago has since remained 
near the $60 mark and the second class at about $50. 

It is hard to estimate the number of people who came into California 
during the rate war, but the population of the state increased from 864,686 in 
1880, to 1. 208,130 in 1890, a gain of 347.444 in the ten years. San Bernardino 
county leaped from 7,786 in 1880 to 25,497 in 1890. According to careful 
estimates based on the school population census, the population of the state 
in 1886 was 1,117,982, and in 1887 1,170,298, a gain of 52,316, a large per cent 
of whom were doubtless "boom" comers. The greater per cent of the increase 
in the state was in the southern counties and as seen San Bernardino county 
multiplied more than 300 per cent during the ten years and gained the greater 
part of her increased population during the "boom" years. 


For years there has been almost constant talk of a connecting line of 
railway between Southern California and the Great Salt Lake Basin. 

In 1886, Captain C. E. Thorn, Judge Ross and otber property owners of 
Los Angeles built a narrow gauge line between Los Angeles and Glendale. 
About the same time Captain John Cross came from Arkansas and in company 
with other capitalists constructed a narrow gauge line between Los Angeles 
and Pasadena. This road absorbed the Los Angeles and Glendale line and 
was known as the "Cross" road. About 1890 it was confidently believed that 
the Union Pacific would at once complete the Utah Southern into California 
and would utilize some of the franchises already granted to enter this city. 
The same year a new railroad company was organized by St. Louis capital- 
ists, which purchased the "Cross" roads and their franchises, bought 115 
acres of land at San Pedro for terminal purposes and constructed a line from 
Los Angeles to San Pedro which was known as the "Terminal" road. It was 
then believed that this line was intended as a part of a Salt Lake route. But 
all the hopes and the unending newspaper rumors proved idle. 

It was not until Senator W. A. Clark, of Montana, became the moving 
spirit of a new company organized in the fall of 1900, which purchased the old 
"Terminal" road and also bought portions of the lines of the Oregon Short 
Line Railway Co., that there was any definite move toward the fulfillment of 
the project. For the past three years plans have been formulating and for 
two years past work has progressed rapidly on the Salt Lake route. The 
old roadbed between San Pedro and Los Angeles has been rebuilt. Extensive 
improvements at San Pedro have been undertaken ; a roadbed between Los 
Angeles and Riverside is completed and regular train service is now main- 
tained. Arrangements have been made with the Santa Fe and the Southern 


Pacific to give the new line entrance into Colton and San Bernardino, and 
trackage to Daggett. From that point road building across the desert to meet 
the northern end of the line which extends from Caliente, Nevada, to Daggett. 
California, is well under way and will be finished by January i, 1905. For the 
past year neither men nor money have been spared, and no road in all the 
record of railroad building has ever been pushed through so difficult a country 
with such rapidity. 

From Daggett the line follows the contour of the Mojave river for sixty- 
five miles, then turns across the Colorado Canon, passing through the "Cave 
country." Many tunnels, bridges and trestles are necessary through this 
wildly picturesque region. The route will be notable indeed for the weird 
beauty of its desert and mountain scenery. 

It follows closely the old "Salt Lake Trail," first traversed by Captain 
Jefferson Hunt in 1847, an d broken by the little band of the Mormon Battalion 
who, in 1848, drove the first ox-team through the Cajon Pass on their way to 
the new "City of Zion" in the Salt Lake Basin. Strange tales of bloodshed, of 
iron courage; of starvation and of rescue; of mines found — and lost; of 
Spanish explorers and Indian tribes, of trappers, hunters, of prospectors and 
of religious fanatics are mingled with the history of this "Salt Lake" or "Mor- 
mon" trail. What thoughts must overwhelm the few old "mule-whackers" 
and pioneers of this trail now living, — what tales must come to their minds — 
as they see palatial trains flying over the carefully ballasted and graded road- 
bed and making the journey in twenty-four hours that once required weeks 
of sturdy, unflinching endurance. 

The road-bed and the equipment of the "Salt Lake" route is the most 
complete possible ; the buildings, stations, etc., are of the finest architecture 
and the most substantial character. The concrete bridge across the Santa 
Ana, near Riverside, is the largest concrete bridge in the world, being 980 
feet in length, with eight arches, sixty feet above the river bed, while the 
foundations rest on rock from twelve to thirty feet below the surface of the 
ground. 30,000 tons of concrete were used in constructing this bridge which 
is a marvel of engineering. 

The completion of this line will give to Southern California a third trans- 
continental route. It will open another large section of San Barnardino's 
desert area, thus bringing vast mineral deposits which have hitherto been 
unavailable, into requisition. New industries and new settlements will in- 
evitably follow the establishment of the new line. More than 125 miles of 
track will pass through a portion of the county hitherto almost unattainable. 

The junction of three great lines at Colton and San Bernardino will give 
an added impetus to these towns. New trackage and storage facilities will be 
required. It is likely that the repairing, etc., will for a time, at least, be done 
at the Santa Fe shops. Already these cities are growing with a rapidity 
unknown since the days of the "boom." 




San Bernardino County, with its large area — equal to that of Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Delaware combined, with its many 
mountain ranges, its vast deserts and its numerous valleys, presents a very 
wide range of mineral deposits. While much development work has already 
been done and great wealth has already been derived from these resources, 
the mineral wealth of the county has. as yet, scarcely been touched. Sys- 
tematic exploitation, not only of gold, silver, copper, borax, and other com- 
mon minerals, but of many less known products, is still in the development 
stage. The Mojave desert, forbidding and barren as it is, is a treasure house 
of riches which await the future. Undeveloped as its resources are, San 
Bernardino county, in 1902. ranked third in the state in the production of 
mineral wealth. In 1901 her mineral production was more than 11 per cent 
of her total wealth. 

The State Mineralogist furnishes this table of the mineral production 
of the county for the past ten years : 





S3 1, 622 

$ 6,250 

37, 672 


12 376 


$ 2,000 













76.7 K 




-l:'.n,ll'.i il-|s,2l2i 726,509? 2I,6i«i ?::2,»0o 

-972 2,1 

'.199| 4 

I. nun 

1 ..1 




l,sn. _•:-:'.> 

tSalt {Macadam 

I.ead-1900, S400; 1901, S20, included in total. 

Turquoise— 1900, S20.000; 1901, $20,0110; 1902, $11,600; 1H03. 510,000. included in i 

The lack of capital, the scarcity of water and of fuel, the great difficulty 
in reaching many of the desert mines, and the cost of transporting ore to 
mills or smelters, have all been great hindrances to the working of most of 
our mines. One great drawback to the erection of smelters within the 
county, the lack of fuel, has been largely overcome in recent years by the 
development of oil and the cheapness with which it can be laid down at anv 
railroad point. The building of new lines of railway within the county is 


also facilitating transportation and removing many of the obstacles which 
have hitherto stood in the way of success. 

Of quartz mines bearing gold and silver, there are now some 250 loca- 
tions on record, most of which have been more or less fully opened up, and 
which are scattered through some twenty mining districts. At present the 
most active operations are being carried forward in the Clark, Vanderbilt 
and New York districts in the northeastern corner of the conntv, the Oro 
Grande. Calico, and Black Hawk districts in the central portion of the county 
and in Rand district — partly located in Kern county. 

There are seventy-seven copper claims, fourteen borax mines, seventeen 
niter deposits on which claims have been located, eleven locations of lime, 
four granite quarries, three marble quarries, two kaolin claims, besides loca- 
tions of cement, cobalt, corundum, graphite, asbestos, nickle, rubble and 

Aside from these, the following minerals, ornamental material, and gems 
are known to exist in the county and await development: Tin, iron, zinc, 
mineral paint, porphyry, sandstone, gypsum, potters' clay, fire clay, fullers' 
earth, bauxite, coal, oil, asbestos, mica apatite, niter, carbonate of soda, 
glauber salts, epsom salts, aragonite, azurite, agate, obsidian, octahedrite, 
and onyx. 

San Bernardino leads all the other counties of the state in the production 
of borax, cement, turquoise and rubble and leads the world in the production 
of borax. 

Practically, the history of mining in this county begins with the dis- 
covery of gold in Bear and Holcomb valleys in the fall of i860, a full account 
of which is given elsewhere. About the same time the prospectors began 
to develop silver mines at Ivanpah and placer mining began on Lytle Creek. 
Placer mining was carried on quite extensively during the sixties in Bear 
and Holcomb valleys and along Lytle Creek, and was attempted in the 
Yucaipe valley and at other points, but without much success. Hydraulic 
mining was first employed in this count)- on Lytle Creek and was also used 
to a small extent in the mountain claims. But the mines of the countv have 
been almost exclusively quartz formations and quartz mining has been ihe 
rule. During the seventies the gold and silver mines of the Panamint, Ivan- 
pah and Ord districts were opened up, and later the rich silver mines of the 
Calico district and of Providence Mts. were developed. During the eighties 
the production of silver in this county was very heavy, the Providence mines 
having been by far the richest silver bearing mines ever discovered in the 
state. The last twelve or fourteen years, the borax output has been San 
Bernardino's most valuable mineral resource. The extent and value of these 
deposits and their products is a most interesting example of the possibilities 
of the desert. 

JOHN w. si:ai,'I IS 



. In 1859, prospecting for gold began in Bear Valley, high in the San Ber- 
nardino mountains. A company of miners prospected for some time with 
poor results. The first "pay dirt" was struck by Jack Martin and W. F. 
Holcomb, two well known pioneers. When it was known that gold had 
been found here a rush followed and soon a large number of men were 
panning dirt in the valley. May 5th. i860, AY. F. Holcomb and Ben Ware 
located the first claims in Holcomb Valley, five miles beyond Bear Valley. 
For two or three years these two valleys formed a typical mining camp. 
Men came in from all parts of the country, considerable settlements were 
totmed and stores, hotels and restaurants flourished. 

Large amounts of gold were taken out — the diggings were shallow and 
easily worked. Then for a few years the diggings seemed to be worked out 
and were practically deserted. About 1870 a forty stamp mill was erected at 
Gold Mountain in Bear Valley, but was soon afterward burned. Some time 
later a five stamp mill was set up on a hill near the former location, but was 
never used and was finally removed. In 1876 a ten stamp mill was erected 
in Bear Valley, but this-, too, proved a disastrous investment. "Lucky" 
Baldwin was one of the owners of this Gold Mountain property, but he cer- 
tainly never won his title here. About 1887 an English company was formed 
by Alex Del Mar to work in Holcomb Valley. Extensive plans were made 
and a large amount of money expended. The difficulty of obtaining water 
and fuel has always been a great drawback to successful operation here. 


Early in the sixties placer gold was found in Lytle Creek canon, and a 
considerable excitement followed its discovery. In 1867 the Harpending 
Company, of New York, acquired property there and installed a hydraulic 
outfit under the management of Captain Winder, of San Diego. A flume 
five miles long and carrying 600 inches of water was constructed. Forty 
men were employed and the returns are reported by the newspapers of the 
day as running up to $2000.00 per week. This was the first successful hy- 
draulic mining in Southern California, and was at the time the most im- 
portant mining enterprise in the county. The New York company sold out 
to a party of Frenchmen, of whom Mr. Louis Abadie was one, which con- 
tinued hydraulic mining for a time. The placer mining was also rich in this 
valley; it is claimed that men sometimes picked up $40.00 per day at it. 

More or less placer mining has been carried on in Lytle Creek canon 
ever since the early discoveries. In 1890, 100 men are reported as working 


these placers and clearing on an average $4.00 per day. Operations are stil. 
carried on here and gold is taken out in paying quantities. 


In 1 86 1 , John W. Searles, a noted pioneer and hunter of early days, was 
prospecting in company with his brother Dennis, in the Slate Range, in the 
extreme northern edge of San Bernardino county. Their camp looked down 
on a wide marsh that gleamed in the hot sun like molten silver. It was sup- 
posed to be a vast bed of salt and carbonate of lime. The carbonate of lime 
was used in working their ores and their engineer complained that the 
stuff had borax in it which interfered with its proper influence on the ore. 
About 1863, borax was discovered at Clear Lake, the first discovery of borax 
in America, and a San Francisco company began exploiting it. About 1872 
there came the news of the borax finds of F. M. Smith and others in Nevada, 
which made a furore. Soon afterward a sample of the Nevada borax was 
brought into California and Searles had a chance to examine it. He immed- 
iately packed an outfit, and with his brother, Dennis, E. W. Skilling and J. 
D. Creigh, went to the marsh west of Slate Range. There the party pre- 
empted claims of 160 acres each. The news of the borax find spread 
and soon other prospectors appeared. It was learned that the land must 
be taken up as placer claims of jo acres each, and in a short time the entire 
marsh was covered with claims and a large number of men were in the 
field. Most of these were unsuccessful and soon left the district. Searles 
and his company began taking out borax, however. During 1873 more than 
one million pounds of borax, worth nearly $200,000, was taken from the 
marshes of San Bernardino county. Searles' Marsh, as it was known, was 
a basin-like depression, or dry lake, ten miles long and five miles wide, con- 
taining an almost unlimited quantity of the material. The Searles company 
erected an extensive plant with a capacity of 100 tons per month of refined 
borax. Situated as it was, far from railroads or markets, the transportation 
of their product was one of the most important features. For this purpose, 
specially constructed wagons, carrying immense loads and drawn by twelve, 
eighteen, or twenty mules were used. Stations along the route were estab- 
lished by placing water in tanks at various points along the road and cache- 
ing supplies of horse feed and provisions. 

From 1873 to 1881 the principal borax production of the state, and of the 
United States as well, was from the borax marshes of San Bernardino 

In 1882 borax was discovered in the Calico district by W. T. Coleman 
and F. M. Smith. These deposits were very rich, but were in a different 
form from the marshes and not so easily worked. This property passed into 
the hands of the Pacific Borax Company, which had its reduction works at 


Alameda. From 1888 to 1893, Calico furnished most of the borax mined in 
the county. 

In 1898 work was begun on the erection of a 100 ton borax plant at Borax 
Lake, but it was not completed before it was sold to a syndicate, which was 
organized that year with a capital of seven million dollars to control all 
borax output. The same year the branch railroad from Daggett to Calico 
was completed, thus facilitating the shipment of borax from this point. In 
1899, the borax syndicate secured control of all of the California works and 
the different refineries were all shut down, the crude borax being now shipped 
to Bayonne, New Jersey for refinement. The profits of the borax trust are 
stated by the state mineralogist to have equalled $1,363,705 for the years 
1899 to 1901. 

Most of the borax now being taken out in the county is at the works of 
the Pacific Borax Company, near Ivanpah, in the northeastern corner of the 
county, and at Calico. The average annual value of their produce in this 
county is placed at $500,000, and their annual expenditure, $250,000. 

Borax deposits are found in San Bernardino county on the Armagosa 
river, at Searles' Lake, at Calico and Daggett, and in the Clark district. 

The Calico borax district, lying north and northeast of Daggett, has 
become famous both at home and abroad for its borate deposits. Soon after 
the biborate of common borax had been found there, a new mineral was dis- 
covered among the brightly colored strata that have given name to the dis- 
trict. This mineral was snowy white and composed of radiating crvstals 
of singular beauty.. To the surprise of those who analyzed it, the mineral 
proved to be a compound of boric acid and lime. It was named "Coleman- 
ite," after \Y. T. Coleman, who was associated with F. M. Smith in the borax 
industry at the time of the discovery. Later the Pacific Coast Borax Com- 
pany built a crushing and drying plant at Marion, about four miles north of 
Daggett, and a railroad about ten miles long, connecting Daggett, Marion 
and its Colemanite beds at Calico. This property belongs now to the Borax 
Consolidated Limited, which has absorbed most of the properties in this 
district, and which ships the crude ores, after crushing and drying, to its 
large reduction works at Bayonne, N. J. 

The Western Mineral Company, W. T. Bartlett, manager, and the 
Columbia Mining and Chemical Company are also located in the Calico dis- 
trict and put out a considerable produce, particularly of boric acid. 


Ivanpah is located in the Clark district, in the northeastern corner of 
the county. In 1872, Mat Palen re-located a silver mine, one of the first 
to be discovered in the count}', which bad been worked at some previous 
time by unknown miners. A shaft fifty feet deep, filled with debris was 



uncovered, but no traces of machinery or tools were found. Since that time, 
it is claimed that stone hammers, and evidences of pre-historic occupation 
have been found in the turquoise mines in the same vicinity. Mr. Palen 
opened up a rich prospect, and a stamp mill, probably the first one in the 
county, was erected. About 1870, the McFarlane brothers located the Lizzie 
Bullock mine, which proved exceedingly rich in silver. For a number of 
years, large quantities of ore were taken from this and neighboring mines. 
During the seventies Ivanpah was the chief silver producing district of the 
countv. and it is said the amount of bullion produced ran up into the mil- 
lions in value. In the eighties, Tom McFarlan and J. S. Alley located the 
Alley mines, which were also very profitable. But the silver was mostly in 
stringers, and, for many years, the silver mines have been deserted. In re- 
cent years copper and turquoise mines have been worked, and a number of 
promising gold claims have been located. One turquoise mine is being 
developed and, for a number of years, has made considerable shipments. 



The Providence Range, which is located in the eastern part of the 
county, near the Colorado, extends northeast and southwest for eighty miles, 
and reaches an elevation of 6,350 feet in its highest peak, Mt. Edgar. 

In these mountains was located the richest bodv of silver ever un- 


covered in the state. The Bonanza King, the principal mine of the group, 
was located in the later seventies. About 1880, a ten stamp, dry crushing 
mill was erected by the Bonanza Consolidated Company. In 1881. the offi- 
cial returns from this mine, as reported in the papers, were $251,604.15. for a 
run of 115 days. In 1884, Thomas Ewing, the superintendent, reports: 
"The Bonanza King is better opened up, better worked, and we have ob- 
tained better results from the ore than any other mine in this great mineral 
desert. Nearly one million dollars has been taken from the mine in eighteen 
months and ten days." 

But these mines, like others, proved to be veins, or the ore became too 
low grade to pay for working, after the drop in silver came. For many 
years work has ceased. Some locations for gold have been made in this 
district, known as the Trojan, and also some copper locations. But no ac- 
tive operations are being carried on at present. 


This district received its name on account of the many colored rocks 
and hills that mark it. It first came into prominence in the early eighties, al- 
though silver had been discovered prior to that time. The first location in 
Calico mountains was made by Lowery Silver, an old miner. Several hun- 
dred locations were made through this district about 1880. In 1881, Tom 
Warden, Hues Thomas and others located the Silver King mine, which was 
a very rich silver producer. In 1884, the output of the Silver King, Bis- 
marck, Cuba and other Calico mines exceeded $642,000, the greater part of 
which came from the Silver King. In 1888, the state mineralogist reports 
that 70 per cent of the silver produced in the state was the product of San 
Bernardino county, and the greater part of this amount came from the 
Calico mines. These were the days when Calico district was a full-fledged 
mining "bonanza." 170 stamps were then in operation. The Waterloo mine 
alone employed from 100 to 150 men and kept a sixty stamp mill constantly 
at work. This mine was one of the best in the district, and vielded an im- 
mense amount of ore. In 1892, the low price of silver and the low grade of 
the ore then taken out, made it unprofitable to operate the mine, and it was 
shut down. The Silver King was operated for a year or two longer, but 
the continued depression of prices and the working out of veins caused this 
also to be abandoned. The silver mines of Calico have now been idle for 
several years. The discovery of borax and the large operations carried on 
in handling this product are spoken of under the head of Borax. 


North of Barstow, which was originally Waterman, lies the Grapevine 
mining district, organized in the seventies. A man named Lee, who was 
afterwards lost in the desert, or killed by Indians, made the first location, a 


silver mine, here. Later this mine was re-located by Messrs. Waterman 
and Porter. It proved rich and a ten-stamp mill was put up and a good deal 
of silver taken out for a time. A large number of other locations were made 
in the district and mining prospects were good for a flourishing district and 
a good deal of work was done. Some mines are still located in this section 
but little work is being done at present. 


This district, one of the largest and richest in the county, lies just across 
the San Bernardino Range and has three towns, Hesperia. Victor and Oro 
Grande, located on the railroad, within its boundaries. The district is rich 
in minerals; gold, silver and marble, limestone, gem stones, etc., having been 
located. Gold bearing claims were located about 1880 and the Oro Grande 
Mill and Mining Co. was organized to develop them and at once put up a ten- 
stamp mill. Some seventy locations of gold claims have been made and con- 
siderable is still being done. About 1890 the Embody and the Carbonate 
(silver) mines were located and produced another mining excitement. A ten- 
stamp mill and a smelter were put up at Victor in the later eighties to handle 
the ore from the various mines. Marble of a superior grade was discovered 
about 1886 and large quantities have since been shipped. Smelters are estab- 
lished at Victor and Oro Grande and a number of stamp mills are crushing 
ore. Lime is burned and shipped in large quantities and granite and marble 
for building purposes are being sent out extensively. 


Forty-five miles from Fenner on the line of the A. & P. railway, in the 
eastern part of the county, lies Yanderbilt district, formerly one of the rich 
silver bearing regions, but now the claims are nearly all for gold. Consid- 
erable work has been done on some of the gold bearing claims. A ten-stamp 
mill and also an air compressing plant are located in the district. 


This district is located in the southern part of the county and on account 
of its distance from the railroad, lack of water, and refractory ores, has liad 
many difficulties to contend with. A large number of claims have been 
located, and considerable ore taken out. A stamp mill is located at Dale. 



The richest district now located in this county is known as the Bagdad- 
Amboy districts and contains the rich gold mines that are now being- worked 
by the Bagdad Mining and Milling Co., Benjamin E. Chase Gold Mining Co., 
Ludlow Belle M. & M. Co., and numerous others. 

"When John Suter five years ago, then in the employ of the Santa Fe 
as road master, invaded the red looking hills that lie eight miles south of 
Ludlow, in San Bernardino county, for the purpose of discovering springs or 
any source of water, which was urgently needed by that corporation, he found 
ledges and croppings of ores that were not of the ordinary variety, but proved 
many feet in width and that prospected in gold in the horn. Even his dis- 
covery at that time, owing to the inaccessibility of the country, into which 
every cupful of water had to be carried on the backs of burros, and where 
provisions cost their weight in silver dollars, was nursed with that care that 
is born of every prospector who makes a rich find. 

"John Suter located his claims and named the leading properties the 
Bagdad, protecting his lines by taking in a group. Today this property is 
regarded as one of the wonders of the mining world, and is surrounded by 
scores of properties that bear every evidence of value. 

"Across the valley, passing an ancient river bed, filled deep with the 
matter eroded from surrounding hills, have valuable discoveries been made, 
and ledges traced : and have hundreds of discovery monuments been erected, 
and evidence, by constant prospecting, seems to accumulate that the Bagdad 
section is so thoroughly mineralized that it is popularly described as "a poor 
man's mining camp." This very fact enabled John Suter, the original dis- 
coverer, to employ his spare moments to use his wages as a railroad man. to 
sink his shafts and open his ledges until capital was induced to step in and 
create a mine that has proved a revelation to mining men. Other mines 
and other properties in the same district with well directed energy soon will 
be placed in the profit column, as the opportunity is not lacking. 

Riches of the Bagdad. 

"The Bagdad mine is known as the mine owned by millionaires who knew 
nothing of mining, who were typical tenderfeet, and who took a 'flyer' in 
mines for the fun of the venture, playing on 'velvet' and declaring they would 
not 'go the limit." 

"The Bagdad mine is also known as the one that was under bond to a 
Los Angeles promoter, who failed to sell the property at $1,500,000. thinking 
that a profit of $400,000 was the least he could take, and who at the last stroke 


of 12 o'clock on the day the bond expired discovered that his principals would 
not give one second in an extension of his bond. Pending the sale develop- 
ment was continued, and the camp report goes that a rich discovery prompted 
the owners to quake in fear, thinking the purchasers would materialize with 
their coin. With the contract abrogated, all attempts to renew negotiations 
for a sale have been declined, and the Bagdad mine is not on the market. 
'•The Bagdad mine is owned by the Bagdad Mining and Milling Com- 
panv, capitalized for $300,000, divided into 3,000 shares. Of this corporation 
J. N. Beckley, of Rochester, New York, is president ; E. Van Etl.en, of Boston, 
vice-president: Benjamin E. Chase, of Rochester, treasurer; J. H. Stedman, 
of Rochester, secretary, and Gertrude YVatkeys, assistant secretary. The di- 
rectors are Chauncey M. Depew and the principal officers named. The 
companv owns six patented claims and four unpatented claims that were 
purchased from the discoverer. John Suter. for a sum that doubtless proved 
satisfactory, but the amount does not touch $100,000. as commonly reported. 
Mr. Snter. it can be stated, does not own any interest in the Bagdad mines 
group, but by location is still interested in a large number of properties in 
the district. 

Work of Development. 

"Since the expiration of the bond, the development work on the Bagdad 
mines has been persistent, and at this time it is estimated that over $2,500,000 
of ore is blocked out in the mine ready to be stoped and turned into bullion, 
as soon as the corporation completes plans for handling the output. 

"During the past eighteen months the company has expended $200,000 in 
improvements in the mine and the mill at Barstow, and during that time the 
income has been more than sufficient to pay for this work and leave a com- 
fortable balance. The property is opened with eight shafts, of which three 
are equipped with Tioists. On the dip of the vein the Bagdad is down 550 feet 
from the apex. This depth will indicate the permanency of the vein with depth, 
and as the ore body is from forty to fifty feet in width below ground, the 
prodigality of mother nature can be understood by the layman. At present 
the company is shipping one hundred tons of ore each day by rail to Barstow, 
where the reduction works of the company are located. This mill is equipped 
with fifty stamps, each weighing 1,000 pounds, with five Huntington mills 
of five and one-half feet each, to regrind the ore and free the gold that is 
encased in iron. In connection with the works is a cyanide plant having a 
daily capacity of 200 tons. October 1, 1903. shipments from the Bagdad 
mines were increased to 200 tons daily, this being about four tons to each 
stamp." — L. A. Herald. 




By George R. Robertson. 

It is not the purpose of this article to give an exhaustive treatment of 
the geological features of the Imperial county of San Bernardino. A volume 
would be required to deal with the varied 
rock structure, historical development and 
dynamical forces, which have left their 
mark on the desert, mountain and valley. 
The county of San Bernardino com- 
prises a large territory and covers three 
well defined geological fields. The first 
includes the San Bernardino Basin — a 
valley south and west of the mountains, 
coming under a high state of cultivation, 
and possessing a most intelligent, well-to- 
do class of people who are bound to make 
this valley the Athens of America and of 
the golden west ; the second division com- 
prises the noble mountain chain which 
cuts the county in two ; the third division 
embraces all that oortion east of the 
Sierras, under desert conditions and ex- 
tending to the Colorado River. 

Since the mountains are by far the 
most important geological part of the county, we will notice the San Ber- 
nardino Sierras first. 

The San Bernardino mountains lie between Cajon Pass on the west 
and Mill Creek Divide on the east. Two noble peaks crown the range. 
namely, Gorgonio (Greyback) whose elevation is 11,485 feet and the highest 
point in Southern California and San Bernardino, elevation 10,630 feet. West 
of the Cajon Pass, Cucamonga, 8,911 feet, and San Antonio, 10,080 feet, are 
striking landmarks but they lie in the San Gabriel range. The general 
range averages from 7,000 to 8,000 feet' and possesses geological history full 
of interest. Like all other mountain ranges the San Bernardino Sierras 
arose from an old sea margin. During the long ages preceding the Jurassic 
era, the Pacific coast line was east of the Sierras. The Plateau Basin region 
had been contributing great quantities of sediment to its western sea margin 
now occupied by these mountains. When the Plateau sediment became a 
deposit under the sea. of 30,000 feet, its weight caused the sea-floor to give 



way. Rock crushing and lateral pressure eastward and upward set in. Old 
Baldy, San Bernardino and Greyback first appeared as islands. There were 
no cataclysms. " Slowly by mighty forces fhe elevation continued ; new island 
peaks were born and in time formed a noble part of a grand mountain chain 
600 miles long, extending from San Jacinto in the south to Mt. Shasta in the 
north. The Sierras average from fifty to eighty miles wide. The eastern 
escarpment by reason of a great fault of 10.000 feet, is precipitous, while the 
western slope descends more gradually to the plain. 

The age of these mountains is determined by the latest strata lying on 
their slopes. The last deposit on the old sea-margin elevated into the San' 
Bernardino mountains, must have been the Jurassic. The reason why there 
are no Cretaceous, Eocene or Miocene rocks found on these Sierra Nevadas 
has but one answer: the Sierras were born before these ages came. In fact 
these mountains were dying during these eras, because the cretaceous and 
later sedimentary deposits are found on the foothills. 

The appearance of the continent at the time Highlands, Mentone and 
Yucaipe were the extreme western margin of the Pacific, is suggestive. Then 
Florida was sleeping under the sea: a mighty mediterranean sea divided the 
continent ; the cretaceous sea flowed between the Rocky mountains and the 
great-lake region. From the Pacific shore near Arrowhead, looking west- 
ward, all the present fruitful valleys were a melancholy waste with the ex- 
ception of an occasional island. It was during the Cretaceous. Eocene and 
Miocene ages that erosion deposited nearly 30,000 feet of sediment on this 
new sea floor. This caused fhe earth's crust under the sea to give way, so 
giving birth to the Coast range. Could the reader have stood on Mt. San 
Bernardino at the close of the Eocene age and cast the eye westward, he 
would at first have seen an occasional island rising out of the deep, then a 
sea of islands and finally a mountain range, pushing the sea further west. 
The equilibrium of a mountain can only last as long as its own weight over- 
balances its marginal sea deposit. When erosion causes the mountain to be 
lighter than the mass on the sea floor, a new elevation of the mountain takes 
place. This is what happened at both elevations of the San Bernardino 
mountains. At the close of the Miocene age when the Coast range was 
formed, a second elevation of these Sierra Nevadas took place. The fused 
material under the mountain crust, being squeezed by tremendous force 
sought freedom. The weaker points of the mountains seemed to be in the 
north and eastward slopes. At these points lava poured forth from funnels 
and fissures. Great faults, dykes and fissures displayed in outcroppings, 
are monuments of that stormy age. Since the lava covers tertiary beds, we 
can fix the volcanic flow as preceding the glacial period. The mountain 
slopes facing the San Bernardino valley, contain but scant volcanic material. 

The relation of San Gorgonio and San Bernardino to the history of the 
earth's crust is interesting. There have been four great mountain making 


periods in the history of the American continent. The first was the Lauren- 
tian ; the second, the Appalachian; the third, the Sierra Nevada; the fourth 
the Coast mountains, the baby mountains of the world. The latter corre- 
spond with the Alps and Himalayas. 

During the first elevation of the Sierra Nevadas there came into the 
world's life, the earliest birds, giant reptiles, the first bony fishes and butter- 
flies. When the second elevation took place, Heilprin informs us the world's 
fauna was enriched by the "hedge-hog, mole, porcupine, beaver, squirrel, 
rabbit, tapir, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, hog, deer, giraffe, elephant, cat, dog 
and hyena." These, though not of the living species, were the ancestors of 
those of modern days. Nature like nations- and races of men, has her periods 
of life history. Great intellectual and moral, as well as physical movements, 
work in cycles, spend their forces, yet the progress is ever onward and up- 

A striking characteristic of the San Bernardino mountain strata is its 
metamorphism. The granite rib and later sedimentary deposits on its slopes, 
have been changed. Change, the progressive order of nature, is the divine 
law of development. Professor Le Conte wrote: "Metamorphism seems to 
be universal in the Laurentian, is general in the Paleozoic, frequent in the 
Mesozoic, exceptional in the Tertiary and entirely wanting in recent sedi- 
ments." The rock exposures found east and north of the city of San Ber- 
nardino, in the Potato canon, Mill creek, Santa Ana, Cajon pass and Lytle 
creek canons, all abound in metamorphic rock. The granite rib is often asso- 
ciated with gneissic structure and contains so many well defined boulders 
in the crystalline mass, we see no serious objection to classifying it as meta- 
morphic. The rib is a mass of well developed and complete crystallization. 
Excepting in the case of .the gneiss all lines of stratification are lost. Great 
beds of Hornblendic gneiss and Syenite alternate with granite. Mica and 
Hornblendic schist abound in portions of Mill creek rock. The later sedi- 
mentary deposit lying on the lower faces of the granite rib, have been greatly 
disturbed since it was placed. Metamorphism made sweeping changes in 
this deposit. Limestone was changed to marble. The old sea cemetery was 
not only tilted, but heated in connection with moisture and cooled slowly 
under pressure. The change by crystallization unfortunately destroyed all 
fossils. Excellent examples of the metamorphism of limestone are found in 
Lytle creek. Mill creek, Colton and Potato canon. There are extensive beds 
of sandstone in the county and frequently metamorphism has changed the 
deposit into quartzite. But not all the sandstone has been so changed. The 
Mill creek sandstone exposures are well preserved. The material of the Mill 
creek sandstone may be studied in the walls of the county Court House, 
San Bernardino. Fossil fragments of plant life are found between the layers 
of sandstone at the Mentone quarries. However, metamorphism has almost 
changed these fragments into coal. Metamorphism changes plant remains 


from wood to lignite, from lignite to anthracite and from anthracite to 
graphite. As an example of the latter, all vegetable remains in the Laurentian 
rocks have been changed to graphite. The Mill creek sandstone varies from 
fine to coarse, argillaceous, arenaceous, conglomerate, lving comformably on 
beds of shale. These sandstone beds form most excellent liquid storage 
reservoirs. Tertiary beds frequently occur in the Yucaipe foothills. 

The granite rib as seen in Gorgonio and San Bernardino peaks, often 
presents great beds of porphyritic granite with large scattered crystals of 
flesh colored feldspar. This rock being hard and flinty would make an ex- 
cellent building stone. The Crafton foothills near Redlands, contain porphyr- 
itic rock in the later sedimentary deposit, but it is not granitic. Trap and 
shale are plentiful on the desert side of the mountains, but there is none 
of the former found on the inside slopes. 

The prevalence of gravely clay deposits on the mountains at elevations 
of from 3,000 to 7.000 feet, often attract the attention of mountain climbers. 
How came this gravel to be deposited in such quantities so far above the 
detritus deposits of the present day? Some have ventured a solution by 
asserting that these mountain gravel beds were deposited by marine condi-* 
tions. This theory is untenable, for no deposit of marine animals has been 
found in these gravels. Any signs of life found as yet, indicate land and fresh 
water deposits. Very good exposures of this gravel deposit are seen in 
Lytle creek bluffs and the Santa Ana and Mill creek higher slopes. The 
lines of stratification of these gravels show that they were caused by detritus 
carried down by streams from higher mountains — mountains now unknown. 
Occasionally the detritus seems to have been deposited in lake-like conditions. 
These gravel beds are contemporaneous with the placer gravel beds of the 
north, so frequently covered with the lava flow. These high gravels belong 
to ancient rivers in existence at the close of the Miocene age. We may desig- 
nate these gravels at Pliocene. A good exposure may be studied at the 
Mill creek divide overlooking the desert. The beds of these local Pliocene 
rivers are now found high up on the brush covered mountain slopes. An- 
other feature of these gravels seems to prove that the San Bernardino mount- 
ains, in the age of the ancient rivers, were lower in elevation and of 
a more gentle slope than now. When the second elevation of the Sierras 
took place, the Pliocene gravel was lifted to great rieighth on some of the 
mountain spurs. It would therefore appear that the second and last great 
elevation of these mountains occurred nearer the glacial period than is gen- 
erally believed. The Pliocene gravel is called the "auriferous gravel'' of the 
north and constitutes the rich placer mines. No lava flows cover our mount- 
ain gravels ; for there were no fissures pouring forth lava in this region unless 
we include the desert side of the mountains. 

The degredation of the granite rib and late metamorphic deposit is an- 
other characteristic of the San Bernardino mountains and is a subject worthy 


of a more careful study than this article will allow. The death of granite 
and shale gives us sand and clay. Our granite abounds in quartz, feldspar, 
hornblende and mica. Iron, the artist of geology, has tinted the rocks all 
shades of color and made them exquisitely beautiful. The death of these 
rocks leaves us sand and clay — this clay, when vegetable matter is absent 
becomes red colored by peroxide of iron. Redlands gets its name from the 
color of its clay. Peroxide of iron is insoluble in water. When this red 
clay, coming down from the mountains, is acted upon by decaying animal 
or vegetable matter, it is changed to a brown or black. The peroxide of 
iron becomes a soluble oxide of iron, a ferrous carbonate. Red clay simply 
means a clay devoid of carbonaceous plant food. Bring the red clay under 
a high state of cultivation and it will no longer be red. There is no special 
virtue in red soils. Red suggests the need of humus fertilizers. 

The relationship of San Bernardino mountain erosions to the valley 
soils is as intimate as brain and blood. The exposure of granite, gneiss, lime- 
stone, sandstone, shale, conglomerate and slate, are natural perennial store- 
houses of soil supplies. Their erosion gives us clay, sand, gravel, boulders. 
lime, iron, potassium and some phosphoric acid. In flood times humus and 
plant food are conveyed to the valley by mountain streams. 

Geologically, it is of supreme importance that the attention of all should 
be called to the economic value and the adaptability of rock formation to store 
up moisture. Sandstone shale and even granite are designed to absorb 
moisture. This is especially true of the disintegrating rock surface of the 
San Bernardino mountains with their dip and joint cleavages. 

During the winter rains, water percolates to great depths and seeps out 
long afterwards in the lower outcropping and eroded rock formations in 
canons. This is abundantly evident in all of our water-bearing canons. 
From this evidence we are convinced that except from storage reservoirs, all 
the irrigation water which finds its way down mountain streams in the late 
months of the dry season, comes from this source. The seepage veins of 
water-carrying rocks are often hidden from the eye by soil, rock slides, boulder 
deposits and dense growth of brush, mimuli, columbines, ferns, willows and 
grass. Many of these rock springs issue from the flint}- fissures of granite. 
It follows that everything which brains and money can devise, should be done 
to protect the pines, chaparral and undergrowth from fire. The mountain 
flora allows moisture to percolate rock and come out slowly to irrigate farms 
and gardens. Every farmer should study the principles involved in water 
percolating through mountain rock. 

The mountain strata is wonderfully contorted. Synclinal and anticlinal 
structure appears in bewildering confusion. The sedimentary deposit lying 
on the granite ribs clips southward and westward. Not unfrequently the 
strata is tilted into a vertical position. This sedimentary deposit gives shape 
and color to the mountain spurs and foothills. As it extends into the valley 


it disappears under the quaternary deposit and affords an opportunity for 
artesian wells. 


The San Bernardino basin is a mountain valley ranging from 1,100 to 
2,000 feet elevation. At the western border of the basin is an underfold of 
bed-rock so situated near Rialto, extending to East Riverside, that it acts as a 
dyke preventing the retained water from escaping to the sea. Tbe basin at 
first was a lake with a circumference of twenty-five miles. All the mountain 
streams of the quaternary period down to the present day have gradually 
filled this lake with sediment. Today the San Bernardino basin is a sub- 
merged lake filled with detritus in layers, a number of which are water-bear- 
ing, with artesian pressure. As we near the boundaries of this submerged 
lake, the deposit passes from sand to gravel which grades into large boulders, 
piled up into wild confusion. The Santa Ana river between Redlands and 
Highlands bas made good exposures of quaternary deposits. The banks, es- 
pecially that on the south side, tell a story of times when water came down 
the Santa Ana and Mill Creek canons in torrents. 

The hot springs of this valley and mountain slopes, at Arrowhead and 
Santa Ana canon, are considered by so many people as volcanic that a word 
in reference to them may be in place. We found the rock around tbe Arrow- 
head springs so hot that we could not stand long in one place with comfort. 
The water wis found hot enough to cook an egg. Plants peculiar to the sea- 
shore were found growing near the springs. The alkalies in the water of the 
springs point to a chemical cause for the heat. The water in percolating 
through different rock formations carried different minerals in solution. 
Chemical action at length sets in, heat is generated, and finally the water issues 
hot and steaming from the rock fissures. The temperature of the springs 
varies from 108 to 172. The water is clear and pleasant to drink. The ab- 
sence of all volcanic signs points to chemical action as the perennial source of 
heat. Tbe alkaline deposit accumulating in the vicinity of each spring con- 
firms the theory. 

We may ask a practical question. Does the geology of San Bernardino 
mountains promise serious earthquakes? We think not; for the rock forma- 
tion of the valley and of the mountains are devoid of dykes, fissures, or faults. 
Igneous filling of fissures or dykes does not appear in the outcroppings. True 
there are small seams filled from the neighboring rock, but no results of vio- 
lent earthquake movement are visible, at least in the deposit of the last 50,000 
years. On tbe valley side of the mountains we would seem to have reached 
the period of rest in mountain making. No earthquakes, such as would cause 
great damage to wisely constructed buildings, need be expected. The mount- 
ains have entered the period of degredation by erosion in which the vallev 
will have its Cretaceous, Miocene and Eocene deposits buried deeper and 


deeper under the modern deposit of clay, sand and gravel. The lake evidences 
may become more obscure, but the original outlet of the lake by the way of 
Riverside, will remain. Cretaceous and Tertiary as well as Quaternary de- 
posit, cover the valley and foothills. Metamorphism has destroyed the ter- 
tiary fossils. 


The desert is a unique part of the count}-. The mountains abruptly de- 
scend to the desert by a great fault. During the second elevation of the San 
Bernardino mountains at the close of the Miocene age, the Sierra fault, one of 
the most remarkable in the world, occurred. The mountains separated from 
the desert portion and elevated the eastern escarpment thousands of feet. 
This granite rim looking out over the desert presents magnificent proportions 
in a similar formation in Lower California. The fault is wonderfully exposed 
at Canon Diablo, San Pedro Martir mountain. Standing on the western rim, 
or edge of the fault, the eye can trace the "lift" or "slide" down a perpendicular 
pitch-off of almost 10,000 feet. The numerous felsite dykes show where the 
rock formation cleaved, as if cut with a Titan's knife. The rock correspond- 
ing to that on which our feet rested, lay on the desert's edge, nearlv two miles 
below us, to which we could all but toss a pebble. The evidence seemed clear 
that not only did the eastern edge of San Pedro Mar«ir rise thousands of 
feet; but also that the gulf subsided at the same time. It seems to the writer 
clear that the Gulf of California is a submerged mountain plateau. This may 
help to throw a ray of light on the relations of San Bernardino mountains to 
the desert. The granite rib is clear, definite and well defined on the east. 
There were fissures and volcanic conditions on the desert. Valuable gold 
mines have been discovered east of the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio 
peaks. But we must leave to the article on mineralogy and mining some 
account of the great mineral wealth of the county. 

The most remarkable erosion on the desert is caused by sand driven by 
the wind. Mountain streams carrying sands to the valleys may be called 
liquid files cutting all the rock surface over which the water flows, breaks or 
plunges. The wind swept plains contain rock exposures carved into fantastic 
shapes by wind files. These wind storms bite and sting the face with their 
swiftly driven grains of sharp sand. All the streams rising in the mountains 
and flowing eastward are soon drained dry by the thirsty, sandy, porus soil. 
The Mojave river is a good example of the mountain stream conquered by the 

Volcanic material and shale abound. Frequently the shale is beautifully 
marked by dendrites, the fern-like tracings of oxide of iron and manganese. 
By mistake these are often collected and sold for fossil ferns. True fern 
impressions are so different from dendrites and so easily distinguished by a 
pocket microscope, that no one need make the mistake the second time. 

The desert portion of the county is closely connected with the Plateau 
region, the ancient store house of material from which the San Bernardino 
mountains first came. 





Probably the first school in this county was taught 
he Cajon Pass, while the Mormons waited for the: 

Superintendent of Schools 

a tent at the foot 
eaders to select a 
location for their new "Zion." The 
teacher of this school, Rupert Lee, 
was later known as "Lazy" Lee, be- 
cause he refused to do his share in 
building the stockade around the 
buildings. This school was suc- 
ceeded by another, also in a tent, in 
the ( )ld Fort taught by William 
Stout. About the same time, Mig- 
uel Ochoa, gathered a few children 
together in the little New Mexican 
settlement of La Placita and in the 
Spanish tongue, instructed them. 

The first official record of our 
schools that we now have is a report 
of the School Commissioners of San 
Bernardino, November 17, 1853. 
Theodore Turley, James H. Rollins, 
David Seeley, School Commission- 
ers, report as follows: "Whole num- 
ber of children between 4 and 18 
years of age in Districts No. 1 and 
2, 263. Number of boys, 142, girls, 

"Amount raised by subscription and paid teachers, $1,438.00. Names 
of teachers employed: District No. 1, William Stout, 8 months, $60.00 per 
mo. ; Wm. N. Cook, grade No. 2, 6 months. $60. co per mo. ; O. S. Sparks, three 
months, $76.00 per mo.: Sarah Pratt, 3 months, ten days, $50.00 per mo. 

"District No. 2, Ellen S. Pratt. 4 months, $35.00 per mo. : Lois Pratt. 
Assistant (Primary grade) one month, $27.50: M. S. .Mathews, 1 month. 

'Number of pur 

it in first and secom 

stricts. 206; dail\ 




attendance, 160: amount expended for school library and apparatus, $300; 
amount expended for renting or building and furnishing school house, $291.50. 
Total amount of all expenditures on account of schools, $2,029.50. 

"The whole of the above was raised by subscription. The above Com- 
missioners excuse themselves by saying that the County Superintendent of 
Common Schools for Los Angeles County was a defaulter, therefore their 
report did not reach headquarters last year, etc. V. J. Herring, County 
Superintendent of Schools." 

Two adobe rooms served as school houses in the town of San Bernardino, 
after the tent school house and were used until the erection of the brick school 
house in 1872, on Fourth Street, between C and D Streets. 

In 1855, the Commissioners report: "Oct. 1st — Received school report 
of Francis Clark, teacher in District No. 1, 2j pupils, school from June 1 8th to 
Sept. 8th. The same school commissioners as in 1853. 

"Nov. 1st. 1855 — Went with the Board of Trustees of the City District 
No. 1, as a committee chosen by the City Council, to select for the use of the 
city as school lots; selected as follows: Lot 2, block 5; lot 8, block 7; lot 6, 
block 28: lot 2, block 8: lot 7. block ly; lot 4, block 64. Reported the same 
Nov. 3rd, 1855." In 1856. the city paid $600.00 for the lots thus selected. On 
page 19, of the first Book of Records of the County Superintendent appears 
the following: "Received the report of the County Clerk for the amount of 
taxable property in this county for the year 1855, $312,778.19. C. A. Skinner, 
County Superintendent." 

On Oct. 1, 1857, a meeting of the school 
trustees was called by the Board of Super- 
visors to elect a County Superintendent and to 
fix the boundaries of school districts. The 
trustees duly met and fixed the boundaries of 
six districts, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. These 
boundaries are now so indefinite that they 
cannot be followed, but they were evidently 
City, Mt. Vernon, Mill, Mission, Warm Spring 
and Jurupa or San Salvador. R. B. Pierce 
was named as Superintendent. 

In 1853 or '54 an adobe school house was built 
near the little church of Agua Mansa. This 
was replaced in 1863 by a frame building lo- 
cated on two acres of land donated by W. A. 
Conn in the S. W. corner of San Bernardino 
Rancho. Mr. W. R. Wozencraft is mentioned 
as the teacher in both of these buildings. About 1855 a log room was used 
as a school house in Mill district. The walls were chinked with mud in 
good Missouri style and the building was surrounded by a live willow hedge. 




It was replaced in 1872 by a neat frame school house. One of its first teach- 
ers was Ellison Robbins. 

Ellison Robbins and his wife, now Mrs. E. P. R. Crafts, came to San 
Bernardino in January, 1858, and at once took charge of the school, Mr. 
Robbins teaching one room and his wife the other. The schools were known 
as the Washington and the Jefferson rooms. 

According to the report of 1863, there were 1.072 census children. In 
1867, there were twelve school districts in the count}' with a total of 1,330 
census children. The value of school property in City District is put at 
$2,000.00. Of the twelve school houses in the county, five were of adobe. 
The first schools were necessarily crude. Trained teachers were rare 
and school houses and appliances, as we have seen were of the primitive 
order. Yet the state of California had from the first provided most gener- 
ously for her public schools. Beside the school fund raised by the countv, 
the state made an appropriation for each school district. Under the law of 
i860 which revised the school law, provision was made for a library fund of 
$50.00 for each district; state examination of teachers was also required and 
some attempt at uniformity of methods and text books was made. 

The first trained teacher in this county seems to have been Ellison 
Robbins, who, when he became superintendent used every effort to raise the 
standard of teachers and to make the schools more efficient. In 1862, he 
called the first educational convention ever 
held in the county, which lasted for two or 
three days and carried out a good program. 
His untimely death in the spring of 1864 was 
a loss to the schools of the county. 

In many of the districts at this time the ma- 
jority of the pupils were Mexican and only the 
Spanish language was used among the people. 
Other districts were very large, covering 
leagues of land, the children were scattered 
and necessarily the attendance was small and 
irregular. We can only wonder that the 
schools were as good as they seem to have 
been at this period. 

In 1S67, Henry C. Brooke came to the coun- 
ty and began teaching at Rincon, then one of 
the largest and most important districts in the 
county. In 1870, he was chosen as County Superintendent. To Mr. Brooke 
the schools of the county owe much. He began teaching in the state in 1857. 
He was a member of the first Board of Examination of teachers, which met 
under the revision of the school law in i860, and aided in establishing the 
school law of the state. 


Prior to his service as County Superintendent he was chosen principal of 
the San Bernardino city schools in 1869, and acted until 1872. He was again 
principal of the city schools in 1881-82. He was elected as County Superin- 
tendent in 1870 and served as a substitute for nearly two years after his term 
expired. In 1883, he was again elected and held office until 1891, thus acting 
as County Superintendent more than ten years, and as principal of the city 
schools for several years. He was a member of the County Board almost 
continuously from its organization in IHhO, under the new Constitution, until 
1893, and was frequently a member of the Board of Examination under the 
old State Board prior to 1880. 

Through his long connection with the schools of the county he 
knew their needs and the conditions that must be met in each district as 
no other Superintendent could know them. He was the moving spirit in the 
erection of the school house in this city in 1872 and it was largely clue to his 
efforts that the Central school house was built in 1883 — a building that was 
then looked upon as quite remarkable for the time and the place. He per- 
fected a practical plan for the issuance of bonds by the school districts, and 
a majority of the better class of school houses in the county were built largely 
through Mr. Brooke's personal influence and enthusiasm. In the year 1887, 
$110,846.25 was expended for new buildings, and school houses were put up 
— or under way of construction — in Ontario, Etiwanda, Agua Mansa, Chino, 
Riverside. Lytle, Redlands, Prospect, Jurupa, Crafton and Fairview districts, 
and these buildings were all well planned and a credit to the county. 

Mr. Brooke worked constantly and disinterestedly for the improvement 
of the school system of the county. He was an educator of practical good 
sense, rather than of theory, and the county of San Bernardino owes a debt 
of gratitude to him for many years of painstaking work that is only increased 
by the sad ending of his career. 

In 1885, the state text book law. under which the state began to print its 
own text books, went into effect. The object was to provide the children 
with uniform books at a minimum cost and also to do awav with the evil 
effects of the various school book lobbies. The state provides $500 for each 
district having from twenty to seventy census children, beside the countv 
funds. For many years each district, regardless of size, had a fund of $50.00 
from the state that could only be expended for library and apparatus. In 
consequence the older districts are supplied with large, and in main- cases, 
well selected libraries, and with all necessary — and sometimes, it must be 
confessed, with much unnecessary apparatus. Text books are provided for 
children who need them, and school "supplies of all kinds are abundantly 


The standard of our public schools has been steadily raised. The country 
schools are now carefully oracled and their graduates are accredited in the 


City, or Union High Schools. The requirements for teachers have also been 
steadily advanced, until soon all teachers except Normal School or University 
graduates will be eliminated. The High School law which went into effect in 
1891, has been an important factor in the completion of the school system. 
The City, or Union High School stands between the bare-foot boy of the 
country school and the college graduate. Two city High Schools existed in 
the county prior to 1890. those of Riverside and San Bernardino. In 1891, 
the Union High School of Redlands, Lugonia and Crafton was organized. 
In 1895, the High School of Colton was established. For this school a beauti- 
ful and costly building has just been completed. In 1897, the Richard Gird 
High School of Chino was opened and has already taken high rank. Ontario 
High School was established in '97 and Needles High School in 1^02. 

A glance at the reports for the years set forth will show the progress that 
our schools have made in a material way since 1871. 

1871 1881 . 1891 1903 

Census children 1.633 2 -37 (:i 7. I 9 I 8,313 

Average Daily Attendance 756 1.023 i^7i 6,990 

Number School Districts 19 36 71 52 

Number of School Houses 19 42 124 86 

Number of Teachers 19 4 2 : 3 2 IO \- 

Value School Property $11,404 $44,085 $510,695 $419,116 

Riverside county took from San Bernardino, more than 3000 census 
children and $200,000 worth of school property in 1893. 


1853 V. J. Herring 

1854 V. J. Herring 

1855 C. A. Skinner 

1856 C. A. Skinner 

1857 R. B. Pierce 

1858 J. A. Freeman 

1859 Ellison Robbins 

i860 \. F. McKinney 

1861: A. F. McKinney 

1862 Ellison Robbins 

1863 A. F. McKinney 

1864 Ellison Robbins- 


[866-67 W. L. Ragsdale 










W. J. Clark 

H. C. Brooke 

John Brown, Jr. 

H. Goodcell, Jr. 

77 C. R. Paine 

81 J. A. Rossean 

82 D. B. Sturges 

87 H. C. Brooke 

91 H. C. Brooke 

95 G. W. P.eattie 

99 Margaret M. Mogeau 

to Sept., 1901 . .Lulu Claire I'.ahr 
Sept. — A. S. McPherron 





By H. C. Rolfe. 

Among the early Mexican settlers of what is now the Imperial county 
of San Bernardino, there was little request for lawyers. The "rancheros" 
exercised almost absolute control over their retainers, mayor-domos, vaqueros 
and Indian servants, and any disputes among these subordinates was referred 
to "el padrone." Aside from the great stock ranchos the only inhabitants of 
the county during' this period were the few hundred New Mexican settlers 
along the Santa Ana in the villages of Agua Mansa and Trujillos. These 
bad their "alcaldes" whose business it was to settle such disputes of a civil 
nature as could not be disposed of by the parish priest, and to decree punish- 
ment, in a summary way. for all minor offenses. We have no account of the 
commission of graver offenses in those early days beyond the jurisdiction of 
the "alcaldes." In civil disputes the parties came before the officer who first 
collected "dos reales" (twenty-five cents) which was supposed to pay for the 
expense of stationery, and when necessary for the' "escribano," or clerk. 
The alcalde would then hear the statements and proof. If necessary, he 
would make personal inspection of premises or boundary lines, or of an animal 
on a question of its identity. Sometimes no doubt, he exercised his power in 
cases not strictly belonging to the jurisdiction of the inferior courts. But 
his decisions were final: for the people were ignorant of any process of appeal 
to a higher tribunal, if any such existed. 

There was little resort among the Mormon colonists to the civil courts; 
for they usually took their differences into the local church council for settle- 
ment. After the creation of San Bernardino county in 1853. the regular terms 
of district and county courts were held, whether there was business for them 
to transact or not. 



The first county judge of San Bernardino county was Daniel M. Thomas, 
who was elected with the first officers of the county at a special election held 

under the act creating the count}' in 
June, 1853. At the regular ejection in 
the following fall he was re-elected for 
the full term — four years. Judge 
Thomas was a man of fair education, 
but without any training as a lawyer. 
In 1857- he resigned to return to Salt 
Hr / Lake with his people and A. D. Boren 

was appointed to fill the vacancy, and 
later elected for the full term. He also, 
while a man of some education had no 
special legal preparation. He was en- 
gaged in farming when elected. 

Through some mistake in the elec- 
tion proclamation for 1861, no mention 
was made of the county judge. M. H. 
Crafts was brought forward by his 
friends and received a considerable vote 
but he did not follow up the election 
with a contest and Judge Boren contin- 
x ^' ued in office until he was regularly re- 

a d. boren elected in 1862. He was again elected 

in 1866. He retired from office in Jan- 
uary, 1871, having held the judgeship fourteen years. He was succeeded by 
Henry M. Willis, who held the office for eight years, or until the new state 
constitution abolished the office of county judge. 

For many years the county judge with two associates chosen from among 
the justices of peace of the county, constituted the court of sessions. The 
jurisdiction of this court was to try all criminal cases amounting to felony, 
except when the charge was a capital offense punishable by death. It also 
called and impanelled grand juries to inquire into and make presentment of 
all public offenses committed or tryable in the county, of which they might 
have legal evidence, with other duties similar to those of grand juries called 
by our present superior courts. The county judge alone held a county court 
with jurisdiction in all civil cases on appeal from justices of the peace and 
some other original jurisdiction. He also had jurisdiction in all probate 
matters. Subsequently the court of sessions was abolished by a change in 
the constitution and the original jurisdiction given to the county court. The 
act creating this county, either by oversight, or for some other reason, did not 



fix any salary for the county judge. The salaries of the county judges were 
paid by their respective counties — those of all other judges by the state. 
Until the salary for the county judge of this county was fixed by the legisla- 
ture in 1859, the board of supervisors allowed a salary of $500 a year, a small 
amount for a judge; but considering the small amount of business in this 
sparsely settled county and the small amount of legal knowledge possessed 
by the incumbents, it was probably a fair compensation. The legislature 
fixed the salary at $1000; but at that time the treasury of the county was 
much depleted — about this time. 1859, county warrants were worth but thirty 
or forty per cent of their face value. By 1862, the county had sufficiently 
recovered its credit so that warrants were very nearly at par. The first 
judge. Thomas, was also postmaster as was also Judge Boren, as their salary 
of $500. did not come within the "lucrative positions" which forbid the hold- 
ing of more than one office. 

When San Bernardino county was first created it was attached -to the 
first judicial district, previously composed of Los Angeles and San Diego 
counties. Each county had its regular term of district court held about three 
times a vear by the district judge. This court had general jurisdiction of all 
civil actions above the county courts and justices of the peace. It also had 
jurisdiction to try all capital offenses. At the time of the creation of the 
countv Benjamin Hayes of Los Angeles was district judge, succeeding O. S. 
Witherby of San Diego, who had been appointed by the legislature on the 
formation of the district. 

By an amendment which went into effect in 1863. the state was redis- 
tricted and Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo counties were added to the 
first district. A new election for judges 
was called and Pablo de la Guerra of Santa 
Barbara was elected for the full term of six 
years. But in March, 1868, on account of 
the growth in population and business of 
the southern counties, a new district was 
created, the seventeenth, composed of Los 
Angeles, San Bernardino and San Diego, 
and Murrey Morrison of Los Angeles, was 
appointed by the governor, judge of the new 
district. He was elected to the office at the 
next regular election, but in 1871 he died, 
and R. M. Widney was appointed to com- 
plete his term. In February. 1872, another 
judicial district was created, the eighteenth, 
niade up of San Bernardino and San Diego 
w. t. mcnealy counties and the governor appointed H. C. 

Rolfe, of San Bernardino, judge thereof. In 1873, W. T. McNealy of San 


Diego was elected and held the office until 1880, when the new constitution 
went into effect, by which district courts were abolished. 


The first person who made any pretense of establishing in this county 
the business of a lawyer, was Alden A. M. Jackson, who came here from San 
Francisco in 1854. By courtesy he was called "Colonel" Jackson, but like 
the campaign names given to some of Col. Roosevelt's rough riders, the title 
must have been given to him under the rule of contrariness — for he had 
never had the slightest military experience nor was he in any way combative. 
He had previously had some experience as a court clerk and probablv had 
been a notary public. In opening his career as a lawyer in San Bernardino, 
he posted up notices, written — as there was no printing press here then — to 
the effect that he would draw up and prepare in proper and legal form, deeds, 
mortgages, notes or any kind of agreements or other legal documents, or 
attend to any kind of legal business for a reasonable consideration. His law 
library consisted of a book of forms and business directions called "The New 
Clerk's Assistant." By its aid and some tact in the use of antiquated legal 
phrases he made quite a reputation among the citizens of San Bernardino for 
legal ability. He was quite an adept in effecting compromises and settling 
differences out of court. He did a lively business for a time in divorcing 
people who came to him with their domestic troubles. He would write for 
them an agreement of separation in the usual form and endorse on it, "Articles 
of Separation and Bill of Divorce," and have the parties sign and acknowl- 
edge it with much formality, under the belief that they were regularly- 
divorced with all the due and binding force of law. Several parties whom 
he had thus "divorced," married again. And some of them found themselves 
in trouble when the legality of the new marriages was questioned. For many 
years he carried on his law business without going much into court. On one 
occasion he appeared for a young fellow by the name of Tom Morgan, to 
defend him on a charge of assault and battery in the justice's court. After 
the defense was in, the Colonel weakened on the case and began to address 
the jury by admitting, tacitly at least, that his client had violated the law, 
but urging that he was an industrious young man and had had some provoca- 
tion and on account of the hard times ought to be let off easv. When Tom 
himself caught onto the drift of his remarks, he interrupted and proceeded 
to make a speecli to the jury himself, claiming that he had acted in self- 
defense. The jury took the same view of the case and acquitted him. 

Q. S. Sparks, who was one of the Brannan party which arrived in San 
Francisco in 1847, came to San Bernardino in 1853. He brought with him 
several thousand dollars but he met with financial troubles and was soon 
"broke." Of gentle manners and a ready flow of language, he gained quite 




a reputation for oratory and occasionally appeared in court for clients, al- 
though not then admitted to the bar as an attorney. At the time of the exo- 
dus of the Mormons and the filling- of their places by other population, 
Sparks had a very good standing as a practi- 
tioner, especially in the defense of criminal 
cases. About 1858 he was admitted to the bar 
of the district court. He had only a very ordi- 
nary common school education and no learning 
as a lawyer, nor was he naturally studious ; vet 
with his tact and his natural gift of oratory, he 
for several years stood among the leaders in 
the bar of the county." He was also in high 
repute as a speaker on public occasions and 
acquitted himself in such addresses with 
much ability. 

As illustrative of his traits, an anecdote of 
one of the last cases in which he appeared in 
this county is told. His client was charged 
with grand larceny in stealing a horse. His 
associate counsel in the case tried to have a con- 
sultation with him in order to agree upon a line of defense and prepare some 
instructions for the jury. But Spark's could not be got down to such business. 
His associate finally asked him what he expected to rely upon, to which he 
answered: "I rely on God Almighty, O. S. Sparks and the jury." He prob- 
ably knew that the law and the facts were against his client, but by his tact 
and his address, he so worked upon the jury as to secure an acquittal, notwith- 
standing that the accused was seen stealing the horse from the pasture at night 
and was caught riding the horse next day. During his later years Mr. Sparks 
lived in Los Angeles, but he returned to San Bernardino where lie died in 
August, 1891, aged seventy-five. 

Samuel R. Campbell, another Texas attorney, came here from Los An- 
geles and located in 1857. He had been a lawyer of considerable promi- 
nence in Texas, a member of the state senate and had taken an active part in 
public affairs there. Immediately upon his settling in San Bernardino he 
was appointed district attorney by the board of supervisors to fill an unex- 
pired term. He was well educated and of great natural ability and had he 
been able to control his taste for strong drink he would doubtless have had 
a successful career here. In the winter of 1862-3 he started from San Bar- 
nardino horseback to go to the western part of the county. It was one of the 
stormy days of that winter of rain and flood and he was never seen aliye again. 
His horse returned riderless and a few days later his body was found on the 
plains beyond Slover mountain. 




Bethel Coopwood came to San Bernardino in 1857. He was one of the 
syndicate that purchased the balance of the San Bernardino ranch unsold from 
Lyman and Rich. Mr. Coopwood was then a 
young man of about thirty, with a fair educa- 
tion, some legal learning and much energy. He 
had practiced law in Los Angeles previously 
and he continued to practice here in addition to 
his land business. Mr. Coopwood stood well 
up in the profession and having a thorough 
knowledge of the Spanish language gained 
many clients among the Mexican population, 
which was then large and many of whom were, 
at that time, well off. He married Miss Wood- 
ward, a sister of De la M. Woodward. In 1861 
he closed up his business here having probably 
lost in land speculation as much as he made 
from his profession and returned to Texas, his 
bethel coopwood native state, where he still resides. 

William Pickett came to San Bernardino in 1858, from San Francisco, 
where he had been one of the earliest arrivals from the east. He was of more 
than average ability and although brought up to the trade of a printer, was a 
good lawyer. He brought with him to this city a very good law library — the 
first law library of any consequence in San Bernardino. At one time he had 
his office in a little one-room shack on Third street — suitable office rooms were 
not plenty in the town at that time — and he gave permission to a newly elected 
justice of the peace' to hold his court and transact his business in the saint 
office until he could procure one of his own. Xot long afterward Pickett was 
attorney in a suit before this justice and the latter made several rulings against 
him In the admission and rejection of testimony. This was more than Pickett 
could stand in his own office, especially as the case was going against him on 
its merits. In his wrath he ordered the court out of his office — a ruling to which 
the court meekly submitted. Picking up his docket and his hat, the magis- 
trate directed the jury to re-convene at another place. But there was not 
much re-convening. Some of them went to the place indicated by the court, 
some tarried by the wayside, some went the other way, and that was the last 
of the case in court. Pickett was inclined to be somewhat aggressive in a 
court which did not know how, or did not have spunk enough to keep him 
within bounds. But before a competent court with courage to maintain its 
dignity he knew how and always did keep within the bounds of decorum. He 
remained here about four years then removed to Los Angeles and later to San 

Albert H. Clark also came here about 1858. He was a man of fair ability 
and did well as a lawyer during the short time that he remained. He was 



HENRY M. Will is 

elected district attorney for the county in 1859, but left the country in i860. 

Henry M. Willis was a graduate of the State University of North Caro- 
lina. He came to San Francisco with his parents in 1849 an d there studied 
law and entered into practice. For a time he 
was prosecuting attorney in the police court of 
that city. In 1856 he came to this vicinity with 
his mother, then a widow, who had some valu- 
able real estate interests in the eastern end of 
the valley. Mr. Willis, with his younger 
brother, at first engaged in farming, but occas- 
ionally appeared in court for clients. He owned 
a good law library and after a few years opened 
an office in the county seat and began active 
practice. In 1861, he married Miss Amelia 
Benson, daughter of Jerome Benson, of this 
county, and they were blessed with several 
children. One of his sons, Henry, studied law 
with his father. Judge Willis, as he afterwards 
became, was a forcible speaker and was always 
considered a lawyer of more than ordinary 
ability. For a short time in 1861, he was district attorney of the county. In 
1871 he was elected county judge for the term of four years, and again in 
1875 for a second term. In 1879 he returned to the bar and carried on an 
active practice until the legislature of 1885-6 created a second superior judge 
in this county, and Governor B.artlett named him to occupy the place. His 
term expired in January, 1889. On retiring from the bench of the superior 
court he again resumed practice for a time, but in a year or so his health 
failed and he retired from business. He died at Oceanside, where he had 
gone for his health, in the autumn of 1895. 

H. C. Rolfe is the writer of this article. I came to California when quite 
young and have lived most of the time at San Bernardino. From 1850 to 
1857, while still young, I spent the time in various parts of the state; did some 
Indian campaigning in Southern California and worked several years at min- 
ing in Nevada count}-, gaining nothing but experience. In 1858 I commenced 
the study of law with William Pickett, then recently established at San Ber- 
nardino with a good law library as before stated. With but a common school 
education, I devoted my time to hard study, was admitted to the bar, and in 
1861 was elected district attorney of the countv for a term of two years and 
re-elected in 1863 for another term. At that time this was on the remote fron- 
tier of what were called the "cow counties." a name used to designate the 
sparsely populated southern part of the state. t There had drifted into this 
county many lawless and some desperate characters, with little or no regard 
for the good of things or property rights. The war of the rebellion afforded 
a pretext for many who pretended to be in open sympathy to the cause of 



dissolution and disruption, whether sincerely or only as a pretext to 
commit lawless depredations and skip off into Dixie, or hide in 
the wilds of the Colorado desert or Arizona, while many hard cases remained 
who had no respect for any government and were quite bold in setting at 
defiance all law and order. It can well be understood that the office of public 
prosecutor was not a delightful luxury under such circumstances. Still I 
managed to hold my footing quite fairly, and during my two terms a goodly 
number of the lawless and criminal classes were sent off as convicts from this 
county to the state prison, though most of them could hardly be considered 
citizens of this county, or of any other place, for that matter. On retiring 
from that office I continued the practice of law until the creation of the 
eighteenth judicial district, composed of the counties of San Bernardino and 
San Diego, by an act of the legislature in Februarys, 1872, when I was ap- 
pointed judge of said district by Governor Booth, to hold until the next en- 
suing election. Though a candidate for the next full term, I was not elected, 
and on retiring from the office I resumed practice at San Bernardino. At 
the special election in June 1878 for members of the state constitutional con- 
vention, I was elected joint delegate from the same two counties and served 
as a member of that body through its session. The work of that convention 
was approved by the people by the adoption of the constitution it had prepared. 
At the first general election under the new constitution, held in the fall of 
1879, my home constituency elected me judge of the superior court of the 
county, a court that had been created to take the places of the former district 
and county courts, from which office I retired at the expiration of the term to 
again resume practice at the bar. 

Benjamin Hayes, who served as district judge in 1857-58, when San 
Bernardino county was a part of the district, then including all of 
Southern California, was one of the earliest 
and one of the most respected of the early 
lawyers of the state. He was born in Balti- 
more, Md., in 1815. He came to California 
overland in 1850, arriving in Los Angeles in 
February of that year. In 1857, he was 
elected as district judge, an office which he 
filled for eleven years in all. In 1867, he was 
appointed district attorney of San Diego 
count}', and in 1868, he was elected to the 
State Legislature from that county. He 
died in Los Angeles, August 4, 1877. Judge 
Hayes was a man of wide learning, a student 
of the Spanish language, and was deeply in- 
terested in the history of this country. He 
furnished much valuable material for Ban- 
croft, and preserved much historical matter. 
He was loved and respected by the people of Southern California, both Ameri- 





cans and native Californians, and will long be remembered for his services— 
both legal and historical. 

John W. Satterwhite came to Southern California from Texas in 1861, 
being then about nineteen years of age, poor and without influential friends. 
He soon after- went to mining in Holcomb Val- 
ley in this county. He remained there two or 
three years, and it is safe to say that he made 
no great strike financially. He then worked 
at mining on Lytle Creek for a year or two, in 
the capacity of superintendent. With but a 
common school education he was nevertheless 
bright and ambitious. He became quite well 
and favorably known, and in the fall of 1865 
w r as elected to the legislature as a member of 
the assembly from this county and served in 
the session of 1865-6. Having for several years 
devoted much of his time to picking up such 
knowledge of the law as was within his reach, 
with a view of sometime becoming a lawyer, 
also having had some justice court practice at 
Holcomb Valley, he, on his return from the ses- 
sion of the legislature, commenced devoting his 
time to the study of law as a regular student at San Bernardino, with such as- 
sistance as a young man of his natural ability and aspirations will generally re- 
ceive from members of the profession under like circumstances. The next 
year he was admitted to practice. As a speaker he was logical and quite 
fluent, and in both respects had profited much by his recent legislative experi- 
ence. As a statesman, he in after years, used to laugh about it, and say that 
during his first experience in the assembly he came to a knowledge of how 
little he knew. But he was a man of strong convictions and had courage to 
act upon them. He was one of the few members of the legislature who voted 
against ratifying the thirteenth amendment to the United States Constitution. 
prohibiting slavery. 

Though still young, he soon established a good standing as a lawyer. In 
1870 Mr. Satterwhite was appointed by the board of supervisors to fill the 
unexpired term of district attorney, made vacant by the death of Hulett Clark. 
At the next ensuing election in 1871, the people of the county showed their 
appreciation of his services in that office by electing him without opposition 
to continue in the same office for another term of two years. Con- 
tinuing his law practice during that time and after his second term had ex- 
pired, he was engaged in some of the most important litigation in the county. 
With additional years of experience he greatly gained in reputation as a law- 
yer, and the confidence of the people as a legislator. In 1875 he was elected 


to the state senate from the senatorial district composed of the counties of 
San Bernardino and San Diego, for a term of four years, which included the 
session of the legislature for 1875-6 and 1877-8. 

Though of strictly temperate and steady habits, his health about this 
time began .to give way. compelling him eventually to withdraw from any part 
His health still declining, he had to quit the practice of law en- 

in politic 

tirely for a year or two before his death, which occurred in February, 

A widow and several children survive him. 

Byron Waters, for many years a resident of San Bernardino 
born in Canton, Cherokee county, Georgia 



n June, 1849. His father was 
a native of New York, and his 
mother a native of Georgia. He 
passed his boyhood in his na- 
tive state and witnessed the hor- 
rors of the civil war, since his 
home was in line with Sher- 
man's "March to the Sea." In 
1867 he came to California and 
for a time resided with the late 
James Waters, his uncle, at Old 
San Bernardino. The young 
man decided to make law his 
profession and in 1869 entered 
the office of Judge H. C. Rolfe, 
and later continued his studies 
with Judge H. M. Willis. He 
was admitted to the bar of Cali- 
fornia in January, 1871, and 
soon took rank as a lawyer of 
unusual acumen and good judg- 

In 1877 Mr. Waters was 
elected to the general assem- 
bly to represent San Bernar- 
; his term was recognized as one of the demo- 
In 1879 he served as delegate-at-large in the 

dino county, and while serv: 
cratic leaders of that body, 
constitutional convention and aided in preparing the present constitution 
of the state. In 1881, he organized the Farmer's Exchange Bank, now one 
of the solid financial institutions of San Bernardino, and acted for several 
years as its president, handling its affairs with marked success. On retiring 
from the bank he again took up the legal profession and has since gained the 
reputation of being -one of the ablest lawyers in the state. In 1886 he was 
the democratic nominee for supreme judge, but was defeated with the state 


ricket by a small majority. Mr. Waters is now engaged in the practice of 
his profession in Los Angeles. 

John Lloyd Campbell was born in Illinois in 1855. He was a 
descendant of Gen. Wm. Campbell, a distinguished American officer of the 

Revolutionary war. His father, 
John Lewis Campbell, a Ken- 
tuckian by birth, served all 
through the civil war and re- 
turned home to die, leaving' a 
large family in dependent cir- 
cumstances. John Lloyd, after 
serving a year as page in the 
U. S. Senate Chamber, com- 
pleted his preparatory course in 
his own state and entered Col- 
umbia Law School. He gradu- 
ated in 1878 and was admitted 
to the Illinois bar. In 1879 he 
came to California and located 
at San Bernardino, forming a 
partnership with Col. A. B. 
Paris. After a year in this city 
he removed to St. Paul, Minn., 
where he practiced his profes- 
sion until 1883, when he re- 
turned to San Bernardino. He 
joined the Hon. James A. Gib- 
son in practice until he entered 
upon the duties of district attorney in January, 1885. At the expiration of 
his term of office he resumed the legal practice until he was elected superior 
judge for San Bernardino county, in 1888. At the end of his six year-' term 
he was re-elected and thus served the county upon the superior bench for 
twelve years. 

The litigation in the superior court of this county has involved many 
important legal questions, particularly in the legal status of mining cases, 
water and land titles. Judge Campbell has without doubt tried more import- 
ant cases bearing upon water rights than any other judge in the state, and 
many of these cases have involved perplexing and unsettled points of law. 
Hi- judgments have rarely been reversed by the superior courts. 

In 1888, he married Miss Harriet Muscott of this city . and he has two 

As a citizen, Judge Campbell has taken a large interest in all questions 
of nublic interest and welfare. 




James A. Gibson, now of Los Angeles, but for many years a resident of 
San Bernardino county, is a native of Boston, Mass., born August 21, 1852. 
His father, Thomas Gibson, was of Scotch-Irish descent and a mechanic by 
trade. He enlisted in the ranks in the civil war and was mortally wounded 
during Gen. Bank's Red River expedition. His mother, who was of English- 
Irish parentage, died while he was still a child. He received his education 
in the public schools and while still but a lad began to learn the printer's 
trade. He later entered the employ of a large manufacturing establishment 
and remained with them until he came to California in 1874, and soon there- 
after located at Colton, then but the beginning of a town. He studied law in 
the office of William Gregory, formerly of Philadelphia, and in 1879 was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He at once entered upon the practice of his profession, 
soon associating himself with Hon. Byron Waters and later forming a part- 
nership with Hon. John L. Campbell. In 1884 he was elected to the superior 
bench in San Bernardino county and retained the office until he resigned to 
accept the position of supreme court commissioner, to which he was ap- 
pointed by the supreme court in May, 1889, a position which he held until 

On resuming private practice he located in San Diego, joining the firm 
of Works, Gibson & Titus. In 1897 he removed to Los Angeles and entered 
into the firm of Bicknell, Gibson & Trask, one of the strongest law firms in 
Los Angeles. 

Judge Gibson married in 1882, Miss Sarah Waterman, of Colton, a native 
of St. Joseph, Mo. She died December 2, 1889. leaving two children. Mary 
W. and James A., Jr. He afterwards married Miss Gertrude Van Norman, 
of Ohio, by whom he has two children, Martha and Horace W 

William Jesse Curtis is the eldest son of Hon. I. C. and Lucy M. Curtis: 
his father was a prominent member of the bar of Marion county. Iowa, for 
many years, and represented that county in the state legislature for several 
terms. His mother is the daughter of Jesse L. Holman, one of the early jus- 
tices of the supreme court of the state of Indiana, and a sister of Hon. Wil- 
liam S. Holman, who for more than thirty years was a member of Congress 
from that state. 

Mr. Curtis was born in Aurora, Indiana, on the 2nd day of August 1838. 
In 1844, ' le moved with his parents to the then territory of Iowa, and settled 
in Marion county near the present city of Pella. He was educated at the Cen- 
tral University of Iowa, studied law in his father's office, was admitted to the 
bar in 1863, and became a partner of his father. In 1861 he married Miss 
Frances S. Cowles, of Delaware. Ohio. In 1864 he crossed the plains with ox 
and mule teams, came to California and settled in the city of San Bernardino, 
where he has resided ever since. 

The first five years after his arrival in California, he devoted to teaching 
school. In January 1872, he opened a law office in the City of San Bernardino. 


In 1873 he was elected district attorney of San Bernardino county and was 
re-elected in 1875. 

He has been associated at different times during the practice of his profes- 
sion with Judge H. C. Rolfe, Hon. J. W. Satterwhite, Judge Geo. E. ( >tis and 
Judge F. F. Oster, and is now associated with his son, Jesse W. Curtis. The 
various firms with which Mr. Curtis has been connected all occupied promi- 
nent positions at the bar of Southern California, and were retained in many 
important civil cases tried in San Bernardino county, and frequently in cases 
tried in adjoining counties, and the United States circuit and district courts. 

Mr. Curtis has always taken an interest in matters pertaining to the wel- 
fare of the city, county and stite. and especially in the subject of education, 
and served for a number of yeais as president of the city board of education. 
He is president of the bar association of the county, and one of the trustees 
of the law library. 

Benjamin F. Bledsoe was born in San Bernardino in February, 1874. He 
attended the public schools of this city and graduated from the High School 
in 1891. He entered Stanford Ui versity in 1892, and graduated in the de- 
partment of History. Economics and Law. in 1896. While in Stanford Mr. 
Bledsoe took an active interest in inter-collegiate debating, and was one of the 
participants in the Stanford-California debate during his junior year. 

He took his bar examination before the supreme court in Los Angeles in 
October, 1896, and immediately entered upon the practice of his profession in 
his native city, and in partnership with his father, R. E. Bledsoe. Their prac- 
tice has been general and extends over all the southern counties of the state. 
In 1898, Mr. Bledsoe was appointed referee in Bankruptcy by Judge Wellborn. 

In August. 1900, at the solicitation of bis friends, he became a candidate 
oefore the Democratic Convention of the county for the nomination for super- 
; or judge. There were three candidates, Hon. J. W. Curtis. Hon. Byron 
Waters and Benj. F. Bledsoe, characterized as the "boy lawyer'*. Both Mr. 
Curtis and Mr. Waters were old democratic "war horses"; each had a strong 
and determined following, and the claims of each were presented to the con- 
vention by men of ability, and of great influence in the party. Young Bled- 
soe was nominated by Dr. James 1'. Booth and Thos. Doffelmeyer in speeches 
which aroused wild enthusiasm for the "hoy lawyer" and secured his nomina- 

The contest was an unusually exciting one. and the fight centered 
mainly upon the judgeship. Although the county is strongly republican, and 
there was disaffection among the democrats, the vote which resulted 
was a tie — a most unfortunate result for both parties, as in such case the ordi- 
nary statutory election content could not be made. It was contended that 
there was no means of reaching a recount, nor any remedy for any wrong that 
might have been done by the precinct officers in counting the ballots: and 




the bench might hold ov< 

itil the 


that Judge Campbell who 
next general election. 

The law firm of Bledsoe and Bledsoe took a different view of the law 
and after a long delay, and a persistent fight, secured from the Attorney Gen- 
eral of the State permission to commence a 
contest. The action came on for trial before 
Judge Lucien Shaw, holding court for Judge 
F. F. Oster. He decided that the ballots 
should be re-counted, which was done, and it 
was found that Bledsoe had received a major- 
ity of the legal votes cast. In consequence he 
was declared elected to the office of superior 
judge. An appeal to the supreme court was 
taken. The supreme court in due time af- 
firmed the judgment in favor of Mr. Bledsoe. 
The judgment of the lower court was ren- 
dered on the 27th day of July, 1901, and on the 
29th day of July, 1902, Mr. Bledsoe qualified 
and took possession of the office, and from that 
time until the rendition of the decision of the 
supreme court in April, 1903, performed the 
duties of the office without pay, as the disbursing officers of the county were 
unwilling to pay until the final decision was rendered. 

Owing to the delay in trying the case. Judge Campbell held the office and 
collected the salary for a number of months. It was conceded on the final ren- 
dition of judgment, that Judge Bledsoe could collect the salary for this time: 
but believing that the money had been paid to Judge Campbell in good faith, 
and that to compel the county officers to refund it, would be a hardship to 
the officials and to Judge Campbell, Judge Bledsoe decided not to contend for 
the amount. 

Judge Bledsoe has presided in department two of the supreme court 
since July 9th, 1901, and during that time has tried several very important 
cases in the counties of Riverside, Orange and Los Angeles, in addition to his 
work in this county. He is a cautious and studious judge, always courteous, 
but firm and dignified in the conduct of trials before him, and he has won the 
respect and confidence of the lawyers and people generally. 

Frank Frederick .Oster, presiding judge of department one, su- 
perior court of San Bernardino county, was born June 3, i860, at Sparta, 
Wis. He graduated from the High School of his native city in 1878, and at 
once entered the University of Wisconsin, at Madison, graduating from the 
classical course in 1882. His first employment was city editor of the "Winona. 
( Minn. ) Daily Tribune," which position he held for three months, resigning to 
become traveling correspondent for the "La Crosse Chronicle," which he con- 



tinued one year. He then entered the law office of Morrow & Masters, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1885, by the supreme court of the state of Minne- 
sota. In the same year coming to California, he opened a law office at Colton. 
and on the incorporation of the city was elected city attorney, holding- that of- 
fice for four years. January 1, 1891, he formed a law partnership with W. J. 
Curtis of San Bernardino, and in the fall of 1892 was elected district attorney 
for the county. On January 4, 1897. he took his seat as judge of the superior 
court, a position to which he had been elected the preceding November. 

Judge Oster's success in his profession is but the reward of his ability and 
merit. His knowdedge of the law and eminent attributes render him well qual- 
ified for the important position he now holds. 

On October 15. 1891, Judge Oster married Miss Elsie Donald, daughter of 
Rev. William Donald of Colton. 

George E. Otis was born in Boston. Mass., in 1847. He attended the 
Boston Latin school and later Norwich University, Vermont, but before 

completing his u n i v e y 
course he enlisted in the Sixth 
Mass. Volunteers. Co. H. and 
served throughout the Civil 
war. After returning to Bos- 
ton, he studied law for two 
years in the office of Richard 
H. Dana, author of "Two Years 
Before the Mast," and then en- 
tered Harvard Law School, 
graduating with the degree of 
L. L. B. in 1869. After his ad- 
mission to the bar he practiced 
his profession in Boston until 
1875. when he removed to Cali- 
fornia and located in San Ber- 
nardino. Here he formed a 
partnership with Hon. W. J. 
Curtis, the district attorney for 
the county. Two years later 
he removed to San Francisco 
and there was a member of a 
firm made up of Charles E. Wil- 
son and John J. Roche. I Fpi m 
887. he returned to San Bernardino and re- 
old partner. Air. Curtis, until his election to the 
Upon the expiration of his term as superior judge 

the dissoluti. 
sinned practi 
superior bent 

n of this firm 

in 189] 


he entered into partnership with F. W. Gregg, a relation which fie still 

Judge Otis has won a wide reputation in the state as a lawyer of fine 
mental qualities and of deep learning. As a jurist he was noted for the fair- 
ness and soundness of his decisions. He is a man of unusual social gifts, and 
has taken a telling part in the public and political interests of the county. 

Andrew B. Paris was born in Virginia in 1839. After attending the Vir- 
ginia Military Institute, at the age of twenty-one, he enlisted as a soldier in 
the defense of his native state. He entered as a 
private, and emerged therefrom as a colonel, hav- 
ing been at the head of artillery of General 
Hoke's division of Gen. Johnston's army. 
r" \w After the close of the war, he studied law at 

MZl the University of Virginia, and after graduating. 

I?& *»*- ^< practiced for several years in his native state. In 

1874, he came to San Bernardino and entered up- 
on the practice of his profession. In 1886 he was 
elected as district attorney. In 1889 he was 
married to Miss Kate Brown Smith of Virginia, 
but his wedded life was brief, as she died the next 

In 1894, he was nominated for the office of 
Attorney General of California. In 1896, he was 
nominated for the office of superior judge of San 
Bernardino county, and during this campaign, he 
contracted the cold which resulted in his death in 
November, 1896. 
lan of unusual gifts, of broad mind and humane 


Colonel Paris was 

heart. He had won the love and respect of his fellows at the bar, and was a 
valued member of many fraternal societies of the city. 

( For other members of the Bar see Index.) 


County Judges. 

1853-7 Daniel M. Thomas. 

[858-1871 A. D. Boren. 

1871-Q H. M. Willis. 

District Judges. 

1853-63 Benjamin Hayes. 

1863-8 Pablo de la Guerra. 

1868-71 Murray Morrison. 

1871-72 R. M. Widney. 

1872-75 H. C. Rolfe. 

1875-9 W. T. McNealv. 

Superior Judges. 

879-85 H. C. Rolfe 

886-1891 fames A. Gibson Department One. 

886-1889 H. M. Willis Department Two. 

889-1902 John L. Campbell Department Two. 

891-1897 George E. Otis Department ( >he. 

898 — Frank F. Oster Department ( hie. 

902 — Benjamin F. Bledsoe. ..Department Two. 


1853-5 William Stout. 

1856-7 Ellis Ames. 

1858 Samuel Surrine. 

1859 A. H. Clark. 

1860-1 S. R. Campbell. 

1862-5 H. C. Rolfe. 

1 866- 1 87 1 Hewlett Clark 

1872-3 J. W. Satterwhite. 

1874-7 W. J. Curtis. 

1878-9 W. A. Harris. 

1 890- 1 . 

C. W. C. Rowell. 
. .R. E. Bledsoe. 
.J. L. Campbell. 
....A. B. Paris. 
. .T. T. Fording. 
. ...F. F. Oster. 

1897-1900 F. B. Daley. 

1901-2 J. W. Curtis. 

1903 — L. M. Sprecher. 


Allen. A. W 


Allison. C. L. ... 

.San Bernardino. 

Annable, E. R.. .. 

.San Bernardino. 

Bailey, C. F 


Bledsoe, R. E.. .. 

.San Bernardino. 

Brown, John Tr. . 

.San Bernardino. 

Brvne. Walter. . . 

.San Bernardino. 

Campbell, E. L. . 


Campbell, }. L. . . 

.San Bernardino. 

Campbell, W. M 


Chapman, C. E. . 


Connor, H 

.San Bernardino. 

Curtis, W. T 

Curtis, J. W 

. San Bernardino. 

Daley, F. B 

.San Bernardino. 

Damron, C. N.. . . 

.San Bernardino. 

Duckworth, T. W 

.San Bernardino. 

Ely, H. B 


Felter, A. T 

. San Bernardino. 

Field, K. H 


Foster. A. M.... 


Goodcell, H. 

...San Bernardino 

Goodcell. Robert. 

...San Bernardino 

Gregg, F. W 

. San Bernardino. 

Haskell. C. C. ... 

.San Bernardino. 

Hight. Percv San 

Hornby, F. "C 

Hutchings, lame-. San 

Toliffe, E. F 

Katz, E. E San 

Leonard, F. A San 

Light, J. E San 

. . San 
. . San 

Mack, ]. L.. 
Morris. C. I', 
Meyers, R. H. .. . 

Nisbet, H. W San 

Otis, George E....San 

Oster. F. F San 

Parke, T. E 

Pierson. T. B 

Pollock, J. R 

Prescott, Frank C. .San 

Rolfe, H C San 

Smith. C. AI 

Sprecher, L. M....San 
Stephenson, J. W..San 

Swing. Ralph San 

Surr, Howard San 

Tisdale. Wm. M 

Truesdell, C. E 

Bernardim 1. 
. .Redlands. 
. . .Ontario. 
. .Redlands. 

. . . Ontario. 
.Dale City. 
. . . ( hitario. 

. . Redlands. 
. . Redlands. 




In the year 1891 the legislature of the State of California passed an act 
entitled "An Act to Establish Law Libraries." This act provides that on the 
commencement in, or removal to, the Superior Court of any county in the 
state, of any civil action, proceeding or appeal, on filing the first papers there- 
in the part}- instituting such proceeding, or filing first papers shall pay to the 
clerk of the court the sum of one dollar, to be paid by the clerk to the county 
treasurer who shall deposit the same in the "Law Library Fund." This fund 
is to be used for the purchase of books, journals, publications and other per- 
sonal property, and is to be paid out by the county treasurer only on orders 
of the "Board of Law Library Trustees". By the terms of this act it is made 
discretionary with the board of supervisors of any county to provide by or- 
dinance for the application of provisions of said act to such county. 

On the second day of June. 1891. the board of supervisors of the county 
of San Bernardino unanimously adopted Ordinance No. 34, making said act 
applicable to their county, and on the 25th day of the same month, they ap- 
pointed Ex-Judge H. C. Rolfe and W. J. Curtis, Esq., trustees of said Law 
Library to act in conjunction with the two superior judges. Hon. Geo. E. 
Otis and Hon. John L. Campbell, and the chairman of the board of supervis- 
ors, J. N. Victor, who were by the terms of said act ex-officio trustees. These 
five gentlemen constituted the first "Board of Law Library Trustees" of the 
county. This board held its initial meeting the third day of July. 1891, but 
apart from a general discussion on the purposes and work confronting them, 
and the appointment of Judges Rolfe and Otis as a committee to draft by-laws, 
and of Mr. Victor as a committee to procure a room in the court house for a li- 
brary, did nothing at the first meeting except to elect F. W. Richardson deputy 
county clerk, and acting clerk of the board of supervisors, as permanent sec- 
retary of the board for the first year. Four days later another meeting wa s 
held, at which Mr. Victor reported that he had secured the store room in the 
Hall of Records as a library, and. inasmuch as a store room was all that was 
then required, this report and room was accepted. The next meeting was 
held on the 26th day of August, 1891, and at that time Judge Otis was elected 
president of the board for the current year. The fourth meeting of the board 
of trustees was held on the 30th day of December, 1891. and at this meeting 
the organization was completed by the adoption of a code of by-laws, and the 
election of Mr. Richardson as librarian, in addition to his duties as secretary. 
This organization continued without change until the third day of .May. 181)3. 
when T. C. Chapman Esq.. was elected librarian at a salary of twenty-four 
dollars per month, with the understanding that he was to occupy the library 


room as his law office, and keep the library open during the business hours 
of each day. At this time the library was located in the temporary room 
originally constructed for the use of the board of supervisors, above the land- 
ing of the stairway in the old court house. At this time, also, the library be- 
gan to assume character, and for the first time, might be said to be something 
more than an empty name. The board of library trustees had recently en- 
tered into a contract with the West Publishing Company, of St. Paul, Min- 
nesota, for the purchase, on credit, of its Reporter System, embracing eight 
seperate sets of reports, and covering the decisions of courts of last resort in 
all of the states of the Union. This contract called for all continuations of 
these reoorts, including the bound volumes, and advance sheets. At this 
time, also, the library contained the American Decisions, American Reports 
and some of the American State Reports, as well as Morrison's Mining Re- 
ports, a set of general digests published by the West Publishing Company, 
and a miscellaneous collection of text books donated principally by Judge 
Otis, Judge Rolfe and Mr. Curtis; but, when all was said, it was still a rather 
crude and rudimentary library, used only by members of the local bar, and to 
no great extent by them. Meantime, Mr. Chapman continued to sit in lonely 
and solemn state for a consideration of twenty-four dollars per month : and 
while it must be admitted that this rate of compensation was rather low, for 
the practically solitary confinement which it entailed on the librarian, never- 
theless, the amount was sufficient to keep the library fund practically de- 
pleted, permitting an increase in the indebtedness of the association, already 
considerable, and making the purchase of other books impossible. Thus mat- 
ters continued until January. 1897. when the financial report of the board of 
trustees impressed upon the body the necessity of a radical reform. The 
term of Judge Otis as superior judge having expired with the year 1896, he 
was succeeded by Judge Frank F. Oster. his successor on the bench. At a 
meeting held on the eleventh day of January, 1897, the board was re-organ- 
ized by the election of Judge Oster as president, and Mr. Chapman as secre- 
tary ; this organization still continues. At this meeting the board of trustees 
concluded that it was lfecessary, as an economic measure, to do away with the 
services of a librarian, however desirable they might be on other grounds. 
Mr. Chapman readily concurred in this view, and. since this time those de- 
siring to consult the books in the library have to secure admittance through 
the services of the janitor. This condition of affairs interferes not a little 
with the usefulness of the library, but the trustees are hopeful that at some 
time in the near future, they will have completed the purchase of such books 
as may be necessarv to constitute this an all-round working and reference 
library: whereupon they will immediately re-employ Mr. Chapman, or some 
other competent librarian, notwithstanding the limited income available. 
Meantime the library is thrown open to the general public without any cost 


or expense whatever to the users. At the close of the year iyoo. the library 
was moved to the present large and commodious room situated on the ground 
floor of the old court house, in the former assessor's office. 

Since January, 1897, by the exercise of the most rigid economy, the board 
of trustees has paid off an indebtedness of over four hundred dollars, and, be- 
sides paying the subscription for all current reports, amounting to several 
hundred dollars, has also purchased several additional sets of books, includ- 
ing the reports of the United States Supreme Court, the Century Digest, the 
second edition of the American and English Encyclopedia of Law. the Ency- 
clopedia of Pleading and Practice, and the American State Reports to date. 
An inspection of the shelves at the present time, will disclose nearly two 
thousand volumes, consisting for the most part of statutes, reports, digests 
and text books ; and when it is remembered that most of these books cost 
from three to seven dollars per volume, and that, apart from the donations, 
above referred to, they have all been purchased, after paying the necessary 
running expenses, out of an average income of about thirty dollars per month, 
it will be seen that the board of trustees are able to render a good account of 
their stewardship. 




California was peculiarly situated in the late civil war. Though the 
loyalty of the larger portion of the population was unquestioned, the con- 
dition of affairs was entirely different from that of any other state in the 
Union. The residents were composed of immigrants from all portions of 
the United States, and had brought with them their local traditions and 
political prejudices. The children born in California had not as vet attained 
to manhood and there was, therefore, no influential class entirely disabused 
of opinions formed by early associations. Men were northern or southern 
in sentiment according to the section in which they had been reared. There 
were, it is true, instances where residents of the Pacific coast who were born 
in the south took patriotic ground in favor of the Union ; but for the truth 
Df history it should be stated that the great majority of the southern people 
resident in the state were strongly and avowedly on the side of the place 
of their birth, and those who were not avowed sympathizers with the se- 
cession movement were opposed to any attempt by force of arms to coerce 


the seceding states. This condition of affairs resulted in strong talk of an 
independent Pacific Republic, and the reports received by the administration 
at Washington as to what might be the stand taken by California, were so 
conflicting as to cause great uneasiness. In consequence. General Edwin 
V. Sumner, an old officer of the regular army and of known loyalty, was 
hastily and secretly dispatched from Washington to relieve General Albert 
Sidney Johnston, who was of southern birth and affiliations, from the com- 
mand of the Military Division of the Pacific and the Department of Cali- 
fornia. It is due to the memory of a general who afterwards became dis- 
tinguished in the Confederate Army to say that no one who knew General 
Johnston ever entertained grave doubts that, whatever his personal feeling 
or sentiment might have been, he would have been true to the flag of the 
Union so long as he retained his commission in the United States Army. His 
established reputation was that of unquestioned ability, and the highest and 
keenest sense of honor. But times were dangerous and those in authority, 
realizing the wide disaffection among officers of the army and navy, hardlv 
knew whom to trust, and where the shadow of doubt rested, deemed it best 
to place in authority those whose fealty was unquestioned. 

General Sumner brought with him full authority to raise and equip 
volunteer regiments and to place California in a complete state of defense. 
The ease with which regiments were recruited and the numerous and enthus- 
iastic meetings which were held in all sections of the state, soon established 
the fact that California was safe for the Union. The officers and men of the 
California volunteer regiments were all in hopes that they would be assigned 
to duty at the front in the east. A large majority asserted that they had no 
fear of a serious outbreak at home, and had enlisted with the expectation of 
being sent to the front. The officers and men even offered to contribute 
largely toward the expenses of transportation. A notable instance of this 
was that of Corporal Goldthwait, a man of some means, who tendered the 
Colonel of his regiment, the Third California, a certified check for $5000 for 
such expenses. 

The War Department felt, however, that it was advisable to keep the 
California regiments on duty nearer home. The distance across the plains 
was too great, and the only other available route — via Panama — too ex- 
pensive, for any considerable body of troops to be sent across the continent. 
Beside which the Indians were restless and in many cases openly hostile : 
watch must also be kept upon the Mormons. California troops were, there- 
fore, distributed in Utah and adjoining territory. One California column 
operated in Arizona, New Mexico and as far east as Northern Texas. Thev 
made arduous marches over deserts and plains, endured much suffering 
from exposure and were constantly engaged in scouting and in actual Indian 
warfare. They dealt with the Kiowas and Comanches in Texas, the Navajos 
in New Mexico and the Apaches in Arizona, and their record is unsurpassed 


for bravery and skill. A part of the California volunteer forces were sta- 
tioned in the vicinity of San Francisco; for the fortifications of the harbor 
had been stripped of their regular garrison, which had been sent east to join 
their respective regiments. In addition to ten regiments, one battalion and 
four companies of California Volunteers, there were the California Hundred 
and Battalion which went east and became a part of the Cavalry Corps of 
the Army of the Potomac. They participated in over fifty engagements, 
beginning at South Ann Bridge in Virginia and ending at Appomattox. 
There were also many single representatives of California in eastern regi- 
ments and one regiment recruited by Senator Edward Baker of Oregon, at 
Philadelphia, was largely composed of old Californians and was known gen- 
erally as the "First California." 

The fact must not be overlooked that California, during the continuation 
of the war, contributed very large sums — well into the millions — for the 
prosecution of the war, and that she also contributed very largely to the 
Sanitary Fund. Indeed, it cannot be questioned that California nobly per- 
formed her part in the war for the preservation of the Union. 


When the civil war had ended and the battle scarred patriots who had 
saved their country returned to their homes 
and their accustomed avocations, it was a nat- 
ural consequence that they should eagerly 
desire to perpetuate the ties of brotherhood 
which had joined them shoulder to shoulder in 
a common cause, and with the lapse of time 
that they should find these bonds of fraternity 
growing stronger and more sacred. 

With the purpose of welding and perpetuat- 
ing these bonds of fellowship and common 
interest, the society of the Grand Army of the 
Republic was organized April 6, 1866, at De- 
catur, Mason Co., Illinois. Its originator was 
Dr. Benjamin F. Stephenson, a physician of 
Springfield, 111., who had served during the 
war as a surgeon in the Fourteenth Illinois 

COL. W. L. VESTAL ,. , T ° TT . , 

\ olunteer Infantry. He had spent many 
weeks in studying the situation and making plans to the end that 
the proposed order might be one to meet the general approval of sur- 
viving comrades, and thus enlist their hearty co-operation. He made 
a draft of a ritual and sent it by Captain John S. Phelps to Decatur 


where two veterans, Messrs. Cottrin and Prior, owned a printing; office. 
These gentlemen, with their employes, who had been in the service, were first 
sworn to secrecy and then the ritual was put into type in their office. Captain 
Phelps returned to Springfield with the ritual, but comrades in Decatur were 
so interested in the project that with the active assistance of Captain F. M. 
Kanan, and Dr. J. \Y. Roth, a sufficient number of names were at once se- 
cured for a charter and these gentlemen went to Springfield to request Dr. 
Stephenson to return with them and organize a post at Decatur. The form- 
ation of a post was under way at Springfield, but it was not ready for muster 
and Dr. Stephenson, with several comrades, went to Decatur and there or- 
ganized the first post with General Isaac Pew as Post-commander and Cap- 
tain Kanan as Adjutant. The title. "The Grand Army of the Republic," 
was formally adopted at the date of this organization, April 6, 1866. Soon 
after this, Post No. 2 was organized at Springfield. Nothing was done in 
the eastern states toward establishing posts until opportunity was given for 
mature discussion of the subject at a national Soldiers' and Sailors' Con- 
vention at Pittsburg, Pa., the following September. There prominent com- 
rades from eastern states were obligated and empowered to organize posts. 
The first posts so established were Post No. 1, in Philadelphia, and No. 3, 
in Pittsburg, by charter direct from the acting Commander-in-chief, Dr. 
Stephenson. Post No. 2, Philadelphia, was established by charter received 
from Gen. J. K. Proudfit, Department Commander of Wisconsin. 

A Department Convention was held that same year at Springfield, 111., 
and adopted resolutions declaring the objects of the "G. A. R." Gen. Tohn 
M. Palmer was elected first Department Commander and Major B. F. Ste- 
phenson was given full recognition as the originator and true head of the 



By E. A. Smith. 

So far as known to the writer the first movement toward the organiza- 
tion of a post of the G. A. R., in San Bernardino, was made during the winter 
of 1883-84. It originated with Captain Frank T. Singer, who was enthus- 
iastic on the subject. He met with scant support at first, however, as few 
believed that there were a sufficient number of old soldiers in this vicinity 
to maintain a post. A vigorous agitation of the subject, to the surprise of 
all, developed the fact that "the woods were full of them." The requisite 
number of names was attained, application for a charter was made and was 
promptly granted, and April 24, 1884, W. H. Long Post, No. 57, G. A. R. 
Department of California and Nevada, was regularly mustered in with a 
membership of twenty-four. 

Col. W. H. Long was a wealthy Boston merchant, a friend of Major 
T. C. Kendall, with whom he had served in the Sixth Army Corps, and who 
assured the comrades that Col. Long would highly appreciate the honor 
and would do something handsome for the post in response. This he did 
by presenting the new organization with an elegant silk banner suitably 

Memorial day was observed for the first time in San Bernardino, May 
30th, 1884. The people of the city and of the surrounding countrv turned 
out "en masse." The Knights of Pythias assisted the post ; the public school 
children and several civic and fraternal organizations joined the procession, to- 
gether with many ex-soldiers not yet members of the post. It was the largest 
gathering that had ever been seen in San Bernardino up to that time, and was 
voted a great success. 

Meetings were held weekly and the post steadily grew in numbers. When 
the banner from Col. Long arrived, it was decided to hold a grand demon- 
stration, with a presentation at the Opera House, a bean-bake and a ball. Col. 
A. B. Paris, a Confederate veteran, who always took a deep interest in G. A. R. 
matters, made the presentation speech. "The boys" responded later by elect- 
ing him district attorney. Two large store rooms on Third street were used 
for the banquet and ball. There was an abundance of eatables for all — and a 
very large number of persons enjoyed them, and the ball was all that a ball 
should be. 

Of course this event was fully exploited in the local papers and also in 
the Los Angeles and San Francisco papers, and thus it became known to 
"the powers that be" that, contrary to the regulations of the society, AY. H. 
Long Post, No. 57, had been named after a man who was still very much 



alive, and its charter was promptly revoked. However, it was generously 
allowed the privilege of retaining its number, of adopting a new name and 
being remastered at once. Accordingly, on the fifth day of December, 1884, 
"W. R. Cornman Post, Xo. 57, succeeded to all the rights and privileges of 
its predecessor and forty-two members were mustered in at that date. This 
by no means represented the strength of the post, for many more members 
were received later. 

William Ravmond Cornman was a native of Illinois, born at what 
is now East St. Louis, December 19, 1844. About 1858 the family 
removed to Stillwater, Minn., and there .Mr. 
Cornman attained his majority. In 1861 he 
joined the United States Army and aided- in 
fighting the Indians in the frontier states. 
Later he entered the ranks of the First Minne- 
sota Infantry, which had already seen severe 
service at the front. He rose rapidly and re- 
ceived his commission as> Second Lieutenant 
before being mustered out. 

He returned to Stillwater, but soon started 
westward, mining in Utah and finally came to 
.San Bernardino in 1875. Here he engaged in 
the livery business, and also handled wagons, 
carriages, grain, etc. 

Xovember 9, 1876, he married Miss Jose- 
phine A., daughter of George Flisom, a prom- 

W. R. CORNMAN inent dtizen of g an Bernard j no AugUSt I 5, 

1877, he was killed in Death Valley. 

In 1886 the Xational Encampment was held in San Francisco and 
many were desirous of attending, but in numerous cases there were financial 
reasons forbidding. The situation was carefully considered, and it was 
finally determined to hold a loan exhibition and a flower and fruit festival 
for the purpose of raising a part, at least, of the needed funds. The Fourth 
street school house was secured and an attractive program was arranged, 
and the scheme proved a great success financially. Six hundred and fifty 
dollars was the net result. The greater part of this sum was voted to mem- 
bers who considered it as a loan and what remained was placed in the hands 
of the Quartermaster to be divided pro rata among those who attended the 

Notwithstanding many lapses from death, transfers, and other causes, 
the post steadily gained in numbers during the first three years of its ex- 
istence. Then came a slow and steady decline. High water mark had been 
reached. The infirmities of age were becoming more apparent. Comrades 
could not attend meetings as of yore. The death rate has not been high 



during recent years, but the inevitable end is rapidly approaching. In the 
comparatively near future, the last post will have surrendered its charter 
and the last veteran of the greatest war of modern times will have passed 

Since the organization of Cornman Post 231 names have appeared on 
its rolls. It now has a membership of 75. Twenty-four of its members 
have died, thirty have been discharged, all of the rest have been dropped 
or suspended. 

The following is the list of Commanders from the organization to the 
present time. 


Frank T. Singer. 


T. C. Kendall.' 


E. C. Seymour. 


E. A. Smith. 


C. N. Damron. 


Frank T. Singer. 


James E. Mack. 


Samuel Leffler. 


Joseph Marchant. 


N. G. Gill. 


Wesley Thompson 


G. L. Hattery. 


A. Fussel. 


Ward E. Clark. 


M. P. Sutinger. 


James la Niece. 


T. C. Chapman. 


Toel A. Taylor. 


E. C. Sevmour. 


W. L. Vestal. 

Woman's Relief Corps, W. R. Cornman Post, No. 9, was organized in 
San Bernardino, January 9, 1885. The earlier records of the organization 
were destroyed by fire, and official information concerning its historv is not 
available. The Corps works in accord with the G .A. R., aiding in all social 
and benevolent efforts. It especially looks after the families of old soldiers 
who are in need of assistance. The most important work that the San Ber- 
nardino Corps has undertaken is the erection of a monument to departed 
comrades of the civil war which they hope to place in the City Park. They 
have long had a fund devoted to this purpose which they increase year by 
year. A substantial contribution of $400 to this fund has recentlv been made 
by the school children of the city, being the money contributed during the 
Spanish war for the building of the proposed battleship "American Boy," 
which was to take the place of the Maine. 

The Corps had a charter membership of fourteen ; the first president was 
Mrs. Jennie Hargrove; secretary, Mrs. J. J. Whitney. 

The Corps now has a membership of 106. The present officers are : Mrs. 


E. C. Seymour, president; Airs. Coburn, senior vice-president; Mrs. Robert 
Hancock, junior vice-president; Minnie E. King, secretary; Alary Hoagland, 
treasurer. The chaplain for many years has been Airs. Martha M. Kendall. 


There lives in San Bernardino a modest, home-loving little woman, 
who has had a most interesting and romantic career. Martha Alatilda 
Whittle was born in New York City, July 19, 1826. While she was a girl 
her father removed to Camden, N. J., where she was married. At the 
breaking out of the civil war she was residing in Philadelphia and was 
employed in rescue work by the Penn Relief Association and also by the 
Rosina Association, an Episcopalian organization for relief work. 

After the first bloodshed at Fort Sumter, the wounded were brought 
north on a United States vessel. Nurses were called for to meet this ship 
and Airs. Page, who was already well known for her works of mercy, was 
one of the women who were sent to aid the sufferers. A tent hospital 
was prepared for their reception at Philadelphia, and here Airs. Page did 
her first work as an army nurse. 

A large number of the men who were rushed southward in response to 
the first call for troops passed through Philadelphia. The good people of 
that city erected the Cooper Shop Refreshment Saloon for the entertainment 
of these passers-by, and here hot coffee and sandwiches and other refresh- 
ments were served the "boys." Patriotic men and kindly women were here 
waiting with a word of cheer and a kindly greeting for the weary and home- 
sick ; a rest room with reading matter and writing material was at hand for 
the idle moment. Airs. Page was one of those who labored most heartilv 
in this work. She relates some of her experiences of this time with much 

"The Quakers don't believe in war, of course, and they couldn't en- 
courage it. — but when I wanted food or clothing for the soldier boys, I 
went among my Quaker friends. 'Aunt Jane,' I would say, 'I want a pie, 
or a loaf of bread, or a slice of meat, for those hungry men.' And Aunt Jane 
would shake her head and say reprovingly, 'Thee knows I don't believe in 
war, my dear, — but — if thee sees anything in the pantry thee wants — .' And 
I would go into the pantry and help myself to a part — not all — that I found 

In the latter part of 1861, AlcClellan Hospital was erected at Nicetown, 
Philadelphia. This was the second hospital in size in the United States, 
when erected. It was in charge of Dr. Taylor, as surgeon-at-large. Airs. 
Page became assistant matron here when the hospital was opened, and later 
was matron in charge, which position she held until the close of the war. 


She relates many interesting reminiscences of her life and work during these 
busy years. 

On one occasion, Mrs. Page, with a sister-in-law, went to visit her 
husband, son and brother, all of whom were in the army of the Potomac, 
then stationed near Hunt's Chapel, on the Arlington road. After leaving 
the train in which they had ridden on the engine because the cars were so 
crowded with soldiers, they walked down the Arlington road through the 
camp. At one point they noticed a crowd and, in womanly curiosity, joined 
it. In the center of the group they found a young mother in deep grief — ■ 
her dead baby in her arms. The men, helpless for all their sympathy, made 
way for the two women, and soon the poor mother was sobbing out her 
troubles — not the least of which was that there seemed to be no way to give 
her child a Christian burial. There was no time nor opportunity for elab- 
orate care of the dead, but Mrs. Page took off one of the numerous white 
petticoats worn in that day and from it a little shroud was soon fashioned. 
A cracker box was lined with white cloth and trimmed with fresh leaves, 
and the little form was tenderly laid in its last bed. A grave was hastily 
dug and the child was buried there on the camp ground and left with only 
a small board to mark the grave. 

After the first battle of Fredericksburg, in December, 1862, Mrs. Page's 
son, who had been engaged in the battle, was very ill. A message was sent 
for her and she started at once, forgetting in her haste, to secure the neces- 
sary papers in Philadelphia. This caused a delay when she reached Wash- 
ington. While waiting for her passes she noticed an old woman weeping 
broken-heartedly. A few kind words brought out the pitiful little story. 
The only son, "my baby," was with the army at Acquia Creek. He was not 
wounded, but the mother had a presentiment that if she did not see her bov 
now she would not see him alive again. So she had come all the way from 
Vermont to see her son. But the War Office made no account of "presenti- 
ments." She could not secure a pass on such an intangible basis. There 
had been much smuggling of quinine and other necessities by Southern 
women through the Union lines, and so the orders were to issue no passes 
upon any pretense. Mrs. Page, after hearing the story, could hold out no 
hope until an inspiration seized her. "If you could see President Lincoln, 
he might give you a pass," she said to the woman, but the poor soul was 
too dazed and helpless to follow out the suggestion. So Mrs. Page assumed 
charge, and after considerable effort and a long wait, the two women were 
admitted to the presence of the President. When the weary, kindly voice 
questioned their need, both women were at first too overcome by emotion 
to answer. But presently Mrs. Page found her voice and explained. Very 
gently the President asked the mother about herself and her boy, and at 
last he wrote the pass that would gratify her wish. 

"And your bov is very low at Fredericksburg," he said to Mrs. Page. 


"You must be a good woman to take so much trouble for an entire stranger 
when you are in such trouble yourself. Let me shake hands with you." 
As he shook hands he asked her name, and she told him that she was the 
matron of McClellan Hospital. 

"I am sure the boys there are well cared for then," he said, and asked 
a number of questions about her work. Then he gave her a pass for her 
son and another permitting her to take any of the Pennsylvania boys that 
she thought best, back to Philadelphia. 

Mrs. Page describes the terrible condition of the soldiers at Fredericks- 
burg. It was mid-winter, cold and rainy. There were no facilities for caring 
for the sick and wounded : there were not even coffins enough for the dead. 
Among the dying she found a man from Philadelphia. She determined that 
he should not be left to a nameless grave, so when he died she went among 
the Pennsylvania men and secured money enough to buy a coffin and ship 
the body back to Philadelphia. But there was no coffin to be had. A box 
was made from cracker boxes and used. When the story was told in the 
city, an undertaker provided a coffin and buried the soldier free of charge, 
while the money that had been collected by his comrades was placed (by the 
matron) in the hands of his wife, who was left with eight little children to 
care for. 

At one time the matron was called to the front after a severe battle. 
Upon the ferry boat between "Washington and Alexandria, was a little 
woman whose husband was about to be shot as a Confederate spy. She had 
been permitted to visit him and he had requested that she should bring him 
a flask of whiskey. The rules were exceedingly strict about bringing whiskey 
within the lines, and when the woman's basket was examined, the whiskey 
was confiscated, leaving the wife inconsolable because she must deny her 
husband's last request. Mrs. Page was always prepared for exigencies. It 
was the day of the hoop skirt, and to save time and questions the matron 
carried several flasks tied to the underside of her hoops which she was 
taking across to the hospital at Alexandria. One of these she placed in the 
hands of the wife and aided her in secreting it. Though she might be 
robbing the living for the dying, her tender heart could not let the wife 
grieve so bitterly for that which she could supply. 

It was on this same trip to Fort Lyon that the matron was sent to 
spend the night at the house of a baker whose wife was a bitter rebel. As 
Mrs. Page was undressing that night she heard voices below and glancing 
over the bannisters caught a glimpse of what she was sure was a rebel 
uniform. She listened until she heard the man leave the house, but her 
suspicions were aroused and she kept a close watch of things about her. In 
the morning she took her tea-pot downstairs for hot water. She felt sure 
that her entertainer dropped something into the pot with the hot water, 
and did not use the tea. Instead she took it to the camp doctor, who after 



an analysis found enough arsenic in the pot to kill a dozen army nurses. 
The matter was brought to the attention of General Butler, and a corporal 
and guard were sent out to search for the Confederate. The man was cap- 
tured and proved to be a Confederate captain. The woman was also placed 
under guard. 

After the war Mrs. Page removed to Chicago. Here she lost all of her 
possessions in the big fire. From Chicago she went to Milwaukee, where 
she acted as matron of the Soldiers' Home at that place. In 1875 she came, 
with her husband, Maj, T. C. Kendall, to San Bernardino. Since 1877 she 
has lived in her present home on the corner of Third and D streets. 

She is an active member of the Woman's Relief Corps, Cornman Post, 
No. 0. and has always taken a deep interest in G. A. R. affairs. 

She is still active, full of life and of interest in all things about her, and 
though she modestly says little of her experiences during the civil war, one 
can still see what a force she must have been and how the maimed and suf- 
fering "boys" must have rejoiced in her cheery, comforting presence. 


Seventh California Infantry, United States Volunteers. 

By Gen. F. C. Prescott. 

From the formation of Company G of Redlands, the history of the San 
Bernardino County Companies is that of the First Battalion of the Seventh 
Infantry, N. G C. and U. S. V. The addi- 
tion of Company G and the Act of March 9, 
1893, added another major to the field of the 
Ninth Regiment. An election was called at 
San Diego on June 17. 1893, and Frank C. 
Prescott was elected major of the Second Bat- 
talion, which included Companies C of River- 
side, G of Redlands, E of San Bernardino and 
D of Pomona. At the consolidation of the 
Seventh and Ninth regiments of the National 
Guard these companies remained in the same 
battalion with the letters changed to M of 
Riverside and K of San Bernardino. At the 
Santa Monica camp in 1897 Company D of 
Pomona was transferred to another battalion 
and Company B of San Diego placed in 
maj. o. p. sloat the battalion., thus giving Captain Dodge 

of San Diego, the senior officer of the regiment in time of service, the right 
of the line. The reorganization also resulted in the battalion becoming the 



First Battalion as Major Prescott who was re-elected was the Senior Major. 

The Battalion has been called upon for active duty three times : First 
on September 2, 1893, when ordered to rendezvous at the armories of the 
respective contpanies for duty in suppressing anti-Chinese riots threatened 
at Redlands and assembled all night. Second on April 14, 1894, ordered 
to rendezvous and with Company K to proceed to Colton to protect rail- 
road property from the Coxey Army riotous demonstrations. Company K 
bivouaced one night at the City Hall, Colton. Third on May 5, 1898, as- 
sembled at armories ordered to and started for San Francisco May 6, 1898, 
camped at Presidio Ma}" 7, 1898, and mustered into the United States Vol- 
unteers for Spanish-America war on May 9, 1898. In camp at the Presidio, 
May 7 to 25 inclusive; took station at Fifth avenue Camp Merrit, San 
Francisco May 25, 1898, changed station to First avenue, Camp Merritt, 
June 28, 1898, returned to Presidio August 24, furloughed October 13, to 
rendezvous at Agricultural Park, Los Angeles, November 12, 1898, mus- 
tered out December 2. 1898, and returned to duty with National Guard. 

The battalion has been repeatedly commended in orders and was dis- 
tinguished for instruction, discipline and esprit. Its first tour of active 
duty was characterized by good judgment and efficiency. Regimental orders 
No. 14, Headquarters Ninth Regiment, First Brigade, N. G. C, San Diego, 
Cal., September 16, 1893, paragraph V reads as follows: 

"The commanding officer desires to commend Major Frank C. Prescott 
and the officers and men of Companies C, E and G for the promptness with 
which they responded to the orders of the Brigade Commander upon the 
occasion of the recent threatened anti-Chinese riots at Redlands, and the 
manner in which they exemplified their readiness to discharge their duties 
under the law. The large percentage of attendance secured upon short 
notice, and the energy and efficiency shown in the discharge of duty, justifies 
the commanding officer's large faith in the fidelity and efficiency of his entire 
command and in its capacity to properly aid the civil authorities to meet 
those emergencies of public disorder the danger of whose occurrence jus- 
tifies the National Guard's existence. 

Bv Order of Colonel Spileman. 

Ed. F. Brown, Adjutant." 

At the time of the industrial army troubles the preservation of peace 
was accomplished without immoderate zeal or supine indifference. 

While in the service of the United States as the First Battalion of the 
Seventh California Infantry, U. S. V., it was part of the First Brigade, In- 
dependent Division of the Eighth Army Corps, and was always a part of 
the Expeditionary Forces. Its officers were Frank C. Prescott, Major, and 
Harvey E. Higbey, First Lieutenant. The tour of duty at the Presidio was 
one of instruction and discipline. Major Prescott carried out the work to 


the uttermost limit. The battalion was soon drilling in both close and ex- 
tended order by trumpet signals. The infantry drill regulations were cov- 
ered. The shelter tent drill, and physical exercise with arms and to music 
were mastered. The work culminated in the exhibition drills given by the 
different regiments on different nights at the Mechanics' Pavilion. The bat- 
talion was assigned the duty of giving a battalion drill which should illus- 
trate the school of the battalion as far as the floor space would permit. Hie 
four hundred men made a column the full length of the floor. Despite this 
the movements of the close order were fully exemplified. It was noted and 
commented upon by Major General Merriam, the reviewing officer, and the 
press of the city, that at the order "arms." where the iron butts of nearly four 
hundred rifles struck the board floor together, not a sound was heard. This 
was conformable to the infantry drill regulations which prescribe that the 
guns shall be lowered gently to the ground. The perfection of discipline 
will be appreciated that will bring hundreds of rifles down to a hard floor 
without a sound. This was a unique refinement of military precision. The 
efficiency of the battalion was recognized by the regular army authorities 
who ordered it for a tour of duty wherein the captains were ordered to fall 
out and regular army lieutenants placed in command of the companies to 
test their proficiency of drill. This was reported by the San Francisco news- 
papers as follows : 

''First and Second Lieutenants of the United States Army undergoing 
examination for promotion, were examined in drill June 14, 1898, Major 
Prescott"s battalion of the Seventh California Infantry, U. S. V., was 
brought over from Camp Merritt to the Presidio for the purpose of exam- 
ination. It was a matter of universal comment among the officers of the 
Presidio what a fine body of men the soldiers of the battalion were, excel- 
lently drilled and strong and martial in appearance." 

After the muster out from the volunteer service the battalion returned 
to duty in the National Guard and showed less bad effects of the reaction 
from regular army life than many organizations. Many of its members 
re-enlisted in the United States Army, and on September 12, 1899, its com- 
mander. Major Prescott. accepted a commission as Captain in the United 
States Volunteers, with rank from August 17, 1899, and opened recruiting- 
offices in Redlands and San Bernardino. He recruited sixteen men in the 
county as follows : 

John G. Baldridge, Dann Perry Butler, Charles G. Clifton, Charles C. 
Covington. Albert D. Gage, Elmer F. Gleason, Parker B. Greason, Marcus 
Hawley, Charles J. Kerr. Charles W. Nixon. William H. Ralston, William 
D. Rosenberg, Theodore H. Tarbox. Lorenzo D. Taylor, Duane H. Timmons 
and Lemuel Grant White. This formed the nucleus of Company L of the 
43rd Infantry, United States Volunteers. This organization was the con- 
tribution of San Bernardino County to the Philippine campaign. It lost 


saw much hard duty. Its official 

tory in the Wai 

many men in action ant 
Office is as follows: 

Captain Prescott began recruiting September 22, 1899, at Redlands, and 
Captain Cooke September 21, 1899, at Sacramento. Captain Prescott ar- 
rived at the Presidio of San Francisco with fifteen recruits October 14. and 
forty-two recruits arrived from Sacramento October 5. and Captain Cooke 
arrived with eight recruits October 11. These, with assignments from gen- 
eral recruiting stations, were consolidated, equipped and instructed by Cap- 
tain Prescott and the provisional company mustered in as Company L, 43rd 
Infantry. U. S. V., and muster in roll dated November 3. 1899. The com- 
pany marched from Presidio of 
San Francisco at 11 a. m., ar- 
rived on board of United States 
chartered transport "City of 
Puebla" 12:45 P-m., and sailed 
same day 5 p. m., November 
20, 1899, for Philippine Islands, 
with First Battalion, .44th In- 
fantry, U. S. V., on board and 
in company with- U. S. Army 
transport "Hancock 1 ." Ar- 
rived at Honolulu, Hawaiian 
Islands, November 28th. On 
the 30th the company, with 
First Battalion, 44th Infantry, 
took a march of six miles and 
witnessed a camp of instruction 
and drill of the National Guard 
of Hawaii. Sailed from Hon- 
olulu December 3, 1899. Ar- 
rived Manila, Luzon, Decem- 
ber 19, 1899, a,1( l learned 
L hat Major General H. W. 
Lawton, whose home was at Redlands, had been killed that day. 
Landed at Manila and quartered at the Exposition Building, Malate, De- 
cember 21, 1899. Marched to El Deposito de las Aguas Potables, Maraquina 
Crossing. December 22, distance six miles, camped in tents alreadv erected 
there. Moved into tents 100 yards distant in front of Headquarter- First 
Brigade, First Division, Eighth Army Corps, El Deposito, Saturday, Decem- 
ber 23. Marched four miles to pumping station, ferried across San Mateo 
river to Santolan, bivouaced for night December 26. Marched eight miles 
to San Mateo escort to twenty-nine carabao wagons loaded with supplies, 
arrived 10 a.m. December 27, having marched toward heavy fire in hills for 


last four miles, held in reserve and participated in action in mountains back 
of town. Marched back to El Deposito with two wounded, arriving at camp 
12:20 a.m. December 28. This was the first engagement participated in by 
any part of the 43rd regiment. Marched five miles to Camp Maraquina, took 
station and camped first night in shelter tents December 28, and participated 
in skirmish December 30, at canon skirting Camp Maraquina. Patrolled 
right bank of San Mateo river, Luzon, Maraquina, to Novaliches trail. Broke 
camp and marched to El Deposito and took station, thus joining regiment for 
the first time January 1, 1900. The headquarters and ten companies of the 
43rd, Colonel Arthur Murrey, having come from Fort Ethan Allen, Ver- 
mont, on U. S. Army transport "Meade," Xew York via the Atlantic, Med- 
iterranean, Red and Indian seas to Manila. 

Marched with regiment and took station at Malate Nipa Barracks, Manila, 
Sunday, January 14, 1900. Embarked on U. S. chartered transport "Venus" 
January 18, with companies I, K and M of 43rd., constituting the Third 
Battalion, Henry T. Allen, Senior Major. Arrived Sorsogon Bay, Luzon, 
and transferred to U. S. A. T. "Hancock," to allow use of "Venus" in land- 
ing troops at Legaspi, Luzon, Jan. 22. Returned to "Venus" and sailed 
for Calbayog, Samar, January 25, 4 p. m. Arrived Calbayog, Second Battal- 
ion lands and takes town, no casualties. Sail for Catbalogan, Jan. 26. Jan. 
27, arrived Catbalogan, Samar, 9:30 a.m., landed from small boats and par- 
ticipated in capture of town from insurgents and assisted in extinguishing 
fires started in church and principal buildings by insurrectos. Private Logan, 
of L Company, killed, being first fatality in action in regiment. Camped on 
heights east of town, night of January 27. January 28, returned to Catba- 
logan from hill, 4 p. m. ; quartered in barracks of insurgents and Spanish 
forces at the north extremity of town, near Mercedes bridge. January 29, 
5 a. m., marched 3 miles to Maestranza, Bang-on river, thence to source 
and south three miles on southern side of mountain, in pursuit of General 
Lukban ; bivouaced at Maestranza powder works, destroyed works and cap- 
tured $18,000 Filippino and Mexican silver money, returned Catbalogan 
Jan. 30, 10 a.m. Feb. 5, Lieutenant Burt and detachment from L return to 
Maestranza for maps. Feb. 14, Captain Prescott, Lieutenant Burt and 40 
men leave 3 p. m. on launch for Calbiga. Captain Prescott and twenty men, 
in row boats, leave launch at midnight for mouth Calbiga river, two miles 
distant, reach Calbiga 5 a.m., 15th. Feb. 16, Captain Prescott and 8 men 
march Calbiga, 8 miles to coal mines Camanga mountains. Lieutenant Burt 
and 2j men remain in garrison at Calbiga. 17th, Captain Prescott and de- 
tachment leave Camanga coal mines, march 8 miles head waters Bucalan 
river, thence by barotos to mouth, along strait of San Sebastian, thence by 
barotos with sails, across bay to Catbalogan. Feb. 26, Captain Prescott ap- 
pointed and sworn Provost Judge of Catbalogan. March 24. Corporal Dann 


Perry Butler wounded in left hand by bolo night attack on detachment un- 
der Lieutenant Andrews, above Jiabong, Samar. 

March 13, Captain Prescott, with 33 men, to Majayog by barotos ; Lieu- 
tenant Conrow, with 27 men, to same place via Maestranza, returning next 
day. March 24 to April 2, Private Lippman Samuels, of L. lost 2 miles north 
of Biga river; left column with Yisayan guides and carriers, complaining of 

May 21, 1900, Captain Prescott, Lieutenant Burt and 21 men, on launch 
Lotus to Pasigay river, thence up river by barotos the 22nd, and by land to 
Calbiga, returning same date by barotos on Pasigay river, ambushed while 
in barotos. Private Weden. of L, and one man, of M Company, wounded: 
returned with wounded to Catbalogan evening May 22nd. On 23rd, Captain 
Prescott and same detachment left on launch "Lotus" for Islands Lamingao, 
Villa Real, Santa Rita, Tulalora, on Samar, and Tacloban, Leyte, and Basay, 
Samar, returning to Catbalogan, 25th. From June 4, 1900, to July 2, 1900, 
almost daily firing on garrison of Catbalogan. On latter date, under Captain 
Prescott, company boards launch "Defender" and towed to Dulag, Leyte, 
where took station, July 4th. "Defender" went ashore wrecked. Captain 
Prescott placed in command post at Dulag; Lieutenant Conrow placed in 
command of company. Sept. 16, 1900, Corporal Tarbox died at Alang-Alang. 
Sept. 27, company changes station to Tanauan, Captain Prescott remains in 
command Dulag. October 14, Captain Prescott starts for Iloilo to take 
command as Supervisor of Internal Revenue of Department of the Visayas, 
on the staff of General Hughes. 

Dec. 8, 1900, Sergeant Loomis, Corporals Gage and Walsh, and 14 pri- 
vates of L, and others from A and K, under Lieutenant Swann left on expe- 
dition to San Juanico straits. On 14th engaged band of insurgents near 
Sabang, Leyte: killed, Privates Granville P. Sims and Edwin E. Hamilton; 
mortally wounded, Harry P. Higgins and Arthur Carr ; moderately wounded, 
Lorenzo D. Taylor — all of L. 

April 30, 1901, Captain Prescott relieved from command of Internal 
Revenue Department, and on May 20th, rejoins company at Tanauan. May 
31, company boards transport "Kilpatrick" at Tacloban. Arrives Manila 
May 5th, San Francisco June 2j, and mustered out July 5, 1901. 

Major Prescott's activities during this tour of duty were varied and 
covered the wdiole range of army work, both military and civil. Upon his 
return, he was placed upon the retired list of the National Guard as Major. 

COMPANY K, 7th INFY., U. S. V. 

The Waterman Rifles of the City of San Bernardino, an independent 
company of infantry, was formed in the early part of 1887. R. W. Waterman, 
a citizen of San Bernardino, had been elected Lieutenant Governor of Cali- 


fornia in November, of 1886, and became Governor, September 12, 1887, on 
the death of Washington Bartlett. The legislature, in the spring of 1887, 
provided for an increase of the National Guard, and the interest of Governor 
Waterman procured the formation of the Waterman Rifles, with a view to 
their being ultimately mustered into the state service. The name of Water- 
man Rifles was a compliment to the Governor, which he generously acknowl- 
edged. The original officers and members mustered on October 29, 1887. 
as Company E, Seventh Infantry, were : 

Captain, William J. Wilsey; First Lieutenant, George L. Bryant; 
Second Lieutenant, Myron W. Littlefield; First Sergeant, James E. Alack: 
Duty Sergeants, N. A. Richardson, Scott Karns, George W. Thomas, George 
L. Hisom, Harry J. Kane: Corporals, Dwight W. Fox, John Bryant, E. D. 
Palmer, W. B. Dodson, C. H. Reeves, O. M. Morris, James D. Faris, George 
G. Sevmour ; Musicians (forming Seventh Regiment Band), George Blake, 
C. L." Sears, D. C. Ross. J. A. McDonald. W. H. Hale. J. D- Folks. J. W. 
Driver, John E. Bailey, George S. Nickerson, Fred E. Moore. Oscar D. Foy, 
F. G. Erbe, Louis Ancker, Jr.; Privates, M. L. Aldridge, George E. Ames, L.N. 
Allen, R. H. Allen. C. L. Allison, W. A. Ball. A. L. Beach, Irwin W. Bemis, 
Isaac Benjamin, George Black, James B. Foley, F. F. Breese. A. Lee Brown, 
J. W. Bayles, H. H. Budington, W. L. Cave, j. A. Doyle, E. M. Duco-, D. J. 
Dawson, Louis Field, George C. Fox. F. Frederick, John George, \. B. 
Gilbert, Albert Grover, S. L^ Grow, A. S. Guthrie, Charles A. Hart, W. G. 
Hastings, Isaac Jackson. H. A. Keller, J. C. Littlepage. John W. Marshall. 
Robert Matthews. S. P. Matthews. W. A. J. McDonald, William McKenzie. 
Fred Muscott, C. G. Patton, D. G. Parker, E. C. Peck, Myron Perkins, C. 
E. Pierce, W. M. Phillips. D. D. Rich. J. E. Rich. Theodore Shrader, William 
Stevens. Z. B. Stuart. R. J. Shelton. E. B. Tyler. Leolin Taylor, L. H. Taylor, 
E. R. AYaite, H. H. Wykorf, J. H. Wagner. 

The company remained with the original Seventh Infantry until the 
formation of the Ninth Infantry, N. G. C, to which Company E was trans- 
ferred with its original letter. Upon the disintegration of the Ninth In- 
fantry regiment G. O. 17, A. G. O., Dec. 7. 1895, Company E was assigned 
provisionally to the Second Battalion of Infantry of the First Brigade, N. G. 
C, and G. O. 18. A. G. O., Dec. 9, 1895 two days later, was designated as 
Company K, and transferred to the First Battalion, Seventh Infantry, N. G. 
C. Companv K rendezvoused at San Bernardino. May 5, 1898, and was, with 
the rest of the regiment, mustered into the Seventh California Infantry, 
United States Volunteers. Independent Division. Eighth Army Corps. U. 
S. A., on May 0, 1898, at the Presidio of San Francisco, with the following 
membership : 

O. P. Sloat. Captain Commanding: Wm. C. Seccombe, First Lieutenant; 
Arthur F. Halpin, Second Lieutenant: First Sergeant. J. D. Mathews: Quar- 
termaster Sergeant, W. A. Rowntree ; Duty Sergeants, W. G. Bodkin, C. S. 



Rollins, B. W. Allen, D. W. Strong; Corporals, D. L. Noble, A. J. Rogers, 
F. J. Atkinson, J. P. Doyle, A. B. Gazzola, J. L. Whitlock, I. S. Martin, John 
Hall, E. I. Cleveland, E. L. Barrows; Wagoner, H. N. Peck; Artificer, 
N. S. Young; Musicians, D. S. Brown, C. A. King; Privates, J. 0. Adams, 
John Averill, Frank Baker. L. R. Barrow, S. G. Batchelor, \Y. T. Baxter, 
A. J. Beattie, C. E. Binckley, Arthur Brill, Leonard Brooks, N. N. Brown, 
D. P. Butler, L. A. Coburn, J. I. Cole. P. B. Conant, W. S. Cooper, C. C. 
Corkhill, Riland Cox, Andrew Craig. J. E. Cram, C. E. Crawford, W. P. 
Davies, H. G. Davis, E. L. Davis, J. P. Dolan, W. H. Dubbs. Starkey Dun- 
can, A. A. Eshelman, A. D. Frantz, R. A. Gremlin, R. B. Glaze, Cuthbert 
Gully, R. T. Hawley, G. W. Hendley, Jas. Hospelhorn, E. H. Horton, E. L. 
Howell, B. L. Hauck, M. E. Johnson, V. T. Johnson, Harry Johnson. A. H. 
Keller, Grove Ketchum, Edwin La Niece. Wm LaRue, G. E. Lauterborn, C. 
H. Lefter, J. A. Magill, J. B. Mann, Chas. Miller, L. E. Mitchell, T. G. Mort, 
C. K. McDonald, W. M. Morton, H. Mourning, Robt. Nelson, C H. Nichol- 
son, G. G. Osborn, L. W. Plants, R. C. Powell, John Purcell, W. H. Ralston. 
T. O. Ramirez, Chas. Reat, T. Gi. Ritchie. F. W. Scott, D. H. Sibbett, F. W. 
Singer, K. E. Smith. J. W. Stoliker, J. A. Storm, G. W. Swing, T. H. Tarbox, 
Clyde Taylor. E. B. Tyler, W. F. U'Ren, Arthur Walton, J. L. Wever, T. 
G." Weed," J. C. Weil, L. G. White, G. E. Whitlock. C. A. AVilliams, W. B. 
Williamson. J. Worley, J. W. Young. 

The following is a list of the officers jn com- 
mission since organization : 

Captains: William J. Wilsey, afterwards 
Lieutenant Colonel and Aide de Camp on the 
staff of the Governor; George L. Bryant, 
afterwards Lieutenant Colonel 9th Infantry; 
N. A. Richardson; Isaac Benjamin, previously 
Major 7th Infantry; Earl M. Ducoe, Alex E. 
Frye, W. A. Ball, T. H. Goff. Orin P. Sloat. 

First Lieutenants: George L. Bryant. Al- 
bert Lee Brown, N. A. Richardson, George 
W. Thomas, Earl M. Ducoe, Fred Muscott, H. 
La V. Twining, afterwards 1st Lieutenant 
Company I. "th California Infantry. I". S. V., 
and Captain and Adjutant "th Infantry, N. G. 
C, ( ). P. Sloat; William C. Seccombe, after- 
wards Major 7th Infantry, N. G. C. ; John D. 
Matthews. Byron W. Allen. 
Myron W. Littlefield, George W. Thomas, Earl 
Charles L. Allison, O. P. Sloat, W. C. Seccombe, 

Second Lieutenants : 
M. Ducoe. Fred Muscott 
D. C. Schlott, E. L. Barrow- 
Members of the companj 


>n otherwise commissioned as follows: 


Sergeant A. S. Guthrie, Captain Company H, 6th Infantry, U. S. V. ; Cor- 
poral W. A. Yarney, ist Lieutenant ist California Infantry. U. S. V., now 
ist Lieutenant Heavy Artillery, N. G. C. ; Sergeant Donald W. Strong, 2nd 
Lieutenant 35th Infantry, U. S. V., now 2nd Lieutenant Artillery Corps, U. 
S. A.; Private Harvey E. Higbey. ist Lieutenant and Battalion Adjutant 
7th California Infantry, U. S. V., Captain Company G. 7th Infantry. 
N. G. C. ; Sergeant James E. Mack, ist Lieutenant and Quartermaster 9th 
Infantry, N. G. C. ; Sergeant George C. Fox, ist Lieutenant and Battalion 
Adjutant qth Infantry, N. G. C. 

Members of Company K. who subsequently performed duty in the Phil- 
ippines in the United States Army: D. W. Strong, Ira S. Martin, E. I. 
Cleveland, H. N. Peck, D. P. Butler, C. E. Crawford. R. Nelson, John Pur- 
cell. William H. Ralston, D. H. Sibbett, Theodore H: Tarbox. L. G, White, 
C. A. Williams, Harry Johnston. L. W. Plantz ; in Naval Militia, Spanish 
war, T. B. Robertson; in U. S. Navy. C. O. Hoyt. 

Death Roll. 

Idle following members died at San Bernardino: Corporal John Bryant. 
May 20, 1888; Private A. J. McDonald. September 22, 1890; Private S. W. 
Roach, January 8, 1892. At the Presidio of San Francisco: Sergeant Cur- 
tis S. Rollins, July 22, 1898, pneumonia; Private 'William H. Dubbs, July 
24, 1898. pneumonia. In the Philippines: Sergeant Don L. Noble, 18th U 
S. Infantry, Iloilo. Panay, smallpox; Corporal Theodore H. Tarbox, Com- 
pany L. 43rd Infantry, U. S. V., Sept. 16, 1900 Alang-Alang, Leyte, typhoid ; 
Lerov W. Plantz, 4th U. S. Cavalry, north line Luzon, boloed, body thrown 
in well. 


The Redlands Guard was organized on Friday evening. June 10, 1892, 
at Society Hall, in the Feraud Building, at the corner of Orange and Water 
streets, Redlands. On the Friday evening following, J. Wallace F. Diss 
was elected Captain ; Frank C. Prescott, First Lieutenant, and James F. 
Drake, Second Lieutenant. Drilling began regularly on Thursday nights, 
and uniforms were soon provided. One of the stores in the brick building, 
where the Casa Loma was afterwards built, was used as an armory. In 
August, 1892, the company went to Camp Butler, at Long Beach, under 
command of Lieutenant Prescott. Captain Diss being there during the camp 
as a guest of the National Guard. Here Adjutant General Allen entertained 
a plan, whereby state Springfield rifles were stored with and used by the 
company. The membership at this time included the following: First Ser- 
geant, Harvey E. Higbey : Sergeants, Musgrove, Steele ; Corporals, E. J. 
Underwood, E. E. Raught, J. W. Edwards. John F. Byrne. Charles Howard, 
Musician Huff: Privates, C. A. Wise, Charles Roberts, T. F. Dostal. Herman 



Yorker, T. S. Holliday, Ruggles, John Rundberg, Chapman, Young, Holli- 
day, F. N. Chevalier, Charles W. Lehr, B. R. Sheldon, J. A. Weitzel, A. C. 
Fowler, J. F. Sutherland, A. R. Welton, George S. Biggin, W. W. Dingwall, 
Fred Higinbotham, William Koehler, Will Bryan, L. A. Pfeiffer, Jacob 
Maierl John Carson, S. Kenady. 

On June 3, 1893, the independent company, as Company G, was mus- 
tered into the Ninth Infantry, National Guard of California, with the fol- 
lowing membership: J. Wallace F. Diss, Captain; Frank C. Prescott, 1st 
Lieutenant; Harvey E. Higbey, 2nd Lieutenant; George S. Abrahams, Jr., 

G. D. Adams, Walter C. Aston, 
Fred Babcock, G. S. Biggin, P. 
N. Brown, Harry Cherry, F. N. 
Chevalier, O. D. Collins, Herbert 
Comer, Otto Comer, Frank Cook, 
A. A. Cronkhite, A. L. Dean, W. 
W. Dingwall, Louis H. Dorr, Jr., 
John F. Dostal, James A. Doyle, 
C. E. Budley. H."h. Edwards, H. 
M. Forbes, A. C. Fowler, F. T. 
Gernich, F. H. Hunt, F. J. Hart- 
horn, I. M. Hough. James S. 
Haskell. C. E. Iveson, N. B. 
Irons, W. S. Johnston, S. E. Kan- 
ady, J. Kircher, Charles W. Lehr, 
W. S. Littleneld. J. A. Mack. Jr.. 
J. D. Matthews. H. H. Maxwell, 
Andrew Muldowney, Jacob Maier, 
Harry D. Meacham, J. H. Niell, 
Jesse E. Norris, B. I. Norwood. 
Lonson H. Patchem, William T. 
Phelps. C. H. Roberts. J. E. 
Rhein, J. C. Reeder. E. E. Raught, 
Henry B. Raught. Jr.. E. J. Underwood, John J. Steele, Karl Schodin. R. E. 
Sargent, George M. Smallwood, Otto G. Suess, B. R. Sheldon, J. F. Suther- 
land, Thos. Sweeny, Lincoln Sherrard, Alexander A. Yaldez, Marvin C. Yan 
Leuven, J. A. Weitzel, Jesse A. Wooliscroft, A. L. Witwer. A. R. Welton. 
P. C. West, F. W. Wiedey. 

Upon the disintegration of the 9th Infantry, Regiment G. O. 17. A. G. O.. 
Dec. 7, 1895, Company G was assigned provisionally to the Third Battalion 
of Infantry of the First Brigade, N. G. C, and two days later, G. O. 18. A. 
G. O., Dec. 9. 1895, retaining its old letter, was transferred to the First bat- 
talion, 7th Infantry, N. G. C. Company G rendezvoused at Redlands, May 
5, 1898, and was, with the rest of the regiment, mustered into the 7th Cal- 

CAPl". E. J. I'NDERWix >1> 


ifornia Infantry, U. S. A"., Independent Division, 8th Army Corps. U. S. A., 
on May 9, 1898, at the Presidio of San Francisco, with the following mem- 
bership : 

George S. Biggin, Captain Commanding; George M. Smallwood. First 
Lieutenant; Lewis Palmtag, Second Lieutenant; First Sergeant, G. E. Cryer ; 
Quartermaster Sergeant, Frank Cook ; Duty Sergeants, H. F. H. Brown . 
L. K. Brown. J. E. Hosking, Jacob Kircher ; Corporals, E. S. Logie, W. H 
Fletcher, C. F. Ford, A. G. Reynolds. O. H. Burton. A. R. Welton. Chas. J 
Johnson. Arthur W. Hunt, Geo. A. Weber, Jno. A. Mack. Harry C. Lock- 
wood, Will L. Fowler; Wagoner, J. G. Baldridge ; Artificer, A. C. Sherman: 
Musician, Chas. Danielson. 

Privates : Jos. Allen, J. H. Alder. W. E. Arnold, H. T. Arnold, F. L. 
Ball. W. W. Bender, J. H. Bickford, Peter Brooks, A. C. Brown, A. P. A. 
Brown. G. J. Butler, D. Carlson. W. G. Caldwell, J. C. Condit, C. Conklin, 
Waide Cook, F. T. Corbin, G. G. Cousins, Frank Cryer, Oliver Cummins. 
Frank Curless. E. Daniels, F. S. Dicks, Peter Dickie, W. W. Dixon, J. F. 
Earle, C. R. Ferguson, W. T. Ferguson, C. E. Foster, W. E. Foster, H. A. 
Fowler. O. A. Goth .O. A. O. Goth, C. Craver. P. B. Greason, J. M. Gwin. 
L. P.. (".win, H. C. Gwynn, A. Hancock, C. Heidt, J. D. Hettman. S. H. 
Hinckley, C. A. Hunt, X. B. Irons. J. P. Johnson, J. S. Kincher, W. F. King, 
G. W. Knapp, C. A. Kline, O. Ladwig, C. Larbig, M. J. Lewis, E. B. Lukens, 
C. Lyman, Wm. Marske. H. H. McCormick, A. J. McGrady, F. J. Michaelis, 
Augustus Millard, T. J. O'Brien, Jno. O'Dea, Wm. H. Pettit, M. F. Pierce. 
F. C. Preston, W. H. Reece. Adam Reising, B. L. Roberts, W. H. Ross. A. J. 
Rhodes, C. L. Rucher. N. C. Scott, A. C. Sheppard, M. D. Sherrard. M. E. 
Shorey. C. F. Tilden, W. D. Timmons, F. Thomas, Jno. Toll, F. J. Valdez. 
H. F.'Wallace. F. H. Weidey. G. Willett. O. Y. Williams, E. M. Woodbury. 
L. J. Wood. 

The following is a list of the officers in commission since its organiza- 
tion : Captains, J. Wallace F. Diss, June 3, 1893 ; Edwin J. Underwood. 
Feb. 21, 1896; George S. Biggin, Nov. 17, 1897; Harvey E. Higbey, Feb. to, 
1900. First Lieutenants: Frank C. Prescott, June 3, 1893; Harvey E. Higbey, 
October 19, 1893; Albert A. Welton, February 21, 1896; George S. Biggin. 
Feb. 10, 1897; George M. Smallwood, Nov. 17, 1897; Edwin J. LJnderwood, 
Sept. 12, 1900. Second Lieutenants: Harvey E. Higbey, June 3, 1893; Edwin 
J. Underwood. Oct. 19, 1893; George S. Biggin, Feb. 21, 1896; George M. 
Smallwood, Feb. 10, 1897; Lewis Palmtag, Nov. 17, 1897; Lewis K. Brown. 
Feb. 10, 1900. 

Members of the company have been later commissioned as follows: 
Frank C. Prescott, elected Major 9th Infty., N. G. C. Major 7th Infty.. 
N. G. C, appointed Major 7th Infty., U. S. A'., appointed Captain 43rd Infty., 
U. S. V., retired Major N. G. C, J. Wallace F. Diss, appointed Major and 
Inspector First Brigade. N. G. C, 1st Lieut. Cal. Heavy Artillerv, U. S. Y., 


Captain Cal. Heavy Art., U. S. V., Lieut. Col. on staff Governor, N. G. C. 
Harvey E. Higbey, appointed Battalion Inspector 7th Infty., U. S. V., G. C. 
Thaxter, appointed 1st Lieut. Inspector Rifle Practice 7th Infty., N. G. C, 
H. Sinclair, appointed 1st Lieut. Inspector Rifle Practice 9th Infty., X. G. C. 

Members of Company G who subsequently performed duty in the United 
States Army in the Philippines: Frank C. Prescott, 43rd Infty., U. S. Y. ; 
J. Wallace F. Diss. Cal. Heavy Art., U. S. Y. ; John G. Baldridge. 43rd Infty. : 
Charles R. Ferguson, 33rd Infty.; H. H. McCormick, 3rd Art., U. S. A.; 
W. D. Timmons, 43rd Infty.: F. J. Michaelis, U. S. A.; G. Willett, 35th 
Infty.: F. J. Yaldez. 18th Infty.: Arthur L. Dean, U. S. Art.: Geo. Moseley, 
U. S. Art. ; M. Royal, George j. Beasley, 43rd Infty. : W. E. Foster, U. S. A. 

The following members died at San Francisco: Private Lindsey J. 
Wood, July 4, 1898: William C. Marske. July 28, 1898: W. T. Ferguson, 
July 31, 1898; Harry Wallace. In the Philippines: Frank J. Yaldez, fever; 
Arthur L. Dean, shot. 



From the days of 1856-7 when strong feeling between the Independents 
and Mormons began to manifest itself in quarrels and even in bloodshed, 
down through the sixties, the quiet and law-abiding citizens of the county, 
who were always largely in the majority, were constantly disturbed by a 
lawless element of some kind. Outlaws from Utah and Arizona, restless 
and reckless miners, bands of thieving Apaches or Pah-utes. drink-crazed 
Coahuillas, desperadoes who had drifted into the county from the north — ■ 
especially during the years of the civil war, all of these elements combined 
to make and to keep things lively. 

One of the most noted instances of disregard for right or law occurred 
in 1859 and is known as "The Ainsworth-Gentrv affair."' An eve-witness 
and participant describes it thus: "San Bernardino at this time had two 
physicians, one of whom was union in sentiment, the other a southerner. 
This fact, mingled with a feeling of professional rivalry and perhaps with 
other causes not made public, produced a rancor which finally led Dr. Gentry 
to attack Dr. Ainsworth with a horse whip. Dr. Ainsworth seized the whip 
and struck his assailant in the face. The next day. Gentry, on meeting his 
rival, fired his pistol at him. Ainsworth escaped the shot by dodging, and 
returned the fire — but no one was hurt. Gentry collected his friends and 
they began to make serious threats against Ainsworth. The friends of the 
latter determined to protect him and eight young men armed themselves. 


removed Ainsworth to an old adobe house on the corner west of the South 
Methodist church and there kept guard over him for two or three days The 
Gentry party sent word to El Monte that the Mormons had attacked them, 
and about fifty men from that settlement armed themselves and rode over 
to San Bernardino. On learning that the Ainsworth party were simply pro- 
tecting their man, the better class of these visitors returned home. But a 
few of the more lawless under the leadership of a desperado — one Green, 
remained and paraded the streets, firing their guns, terrorizing the citizens 
and defying the authorities. They loaded the old cannon which had looked 
so formidable in the Fort Benson affair and hauled it into place, announcing 
their intention of burning clown the house where Ainsworth was in hiding 
and shooting his guard. One of the guard succeeded in reaching the cannon 
unnoticed and spiked it with a rat-tail file. When the attacking party be- 
came too aggressive the guard prepared to fire. Word was passed to "save 
fire and shoot low" — and the most of the attacking mob suddenly vanished. 
A few shots were exchanged, however, and one of the Ainsworth party. 
Bethel Coopwood, was wounded in the shoulder." 

The sheriff, R. V. Herring, was finally compelled to call upon the citizens 
generally to aid him in restoring order, and the intruders were driven out 
and sent home. 

The political campaign of i860 was a sharp one. C. W. Piercev was 
nominated for Assemblyman by one party and W. A. Conn, who had already 
served a term, by the other side. After a bitter contest Piercey was elected 
— it is claimed by bare-faced fraud. It is stated on good authority that the 
polls at Temescal were kept open for three weeks, and whenever more votes 
were needed by Piercey they were furnished by his henchman, Greenwade, 
from this precinct. 

During the contest in the courts which followed this election, a lively 
encounter took place in the court room between two young lawyers, H. M. 
Willis and Bethel Coopwood, over the depositions in the case. One of them 
drew a slung shot and the other a revolver. The sheriff interfered, but not 
until Coopwood had received a slight wound. The Los Angeles Star reports: 
"Both the combatants were put under bonds, but the indications are that 
trouble is not over. Last night a rowdy gang took possession of the town. 
They smashed Jacob's bar and demolished signs of nearly every Jew store 
in town and broke into two stores. No arrests." 


"In 1861, a sharp contest arose over the election of U. S. Senator. In 
the course of the contest a quarrel arose between Daniel Showalter, assem- 
blyman from Mariposa county, and C. W. Piercey, assemblyman from San 
Bernardino county. It appears that Piercey, who was a Union Democrat, 
had been in the caucus that nominated John Nugent, but afterwards an- 


nounced that he would not vote for him because he found that he was not 
sound on the Union question. Showalter, who though born in Pennsylvania, 
was in favor of slavery and secession, took exception to Piercey's declaration. 
Subsequently Piercey voted for the Union resolutions and objected to Sho- 
walter's being allowed to explain his vote against them. The result was that 
Showalter insulted Piercey, and Piercey challenged him. The hostile meeting 
took place on Saturday, May 25, 1861, near the residence of Charles Fairfax, 
about three miles west of San Rafael, Marin county. The seconds of Piercey 
were Henry P. Watkins and Samuel Smith ; those of Showalter, Thomas 
Hays and Thomas Lespeyre. The weapons were rifles at forty yards. The 
first fire was ineffective. Showalter . demanded another shot and on the 
second fire hit Piercey in the mouth and killed him. As in the Broderick 
and Terry duel and also in that of Johnson and Ferguson, the anti-chivalry 
man was killed. The fact occasioned remark. And on this account, as well 
also of an advance in civilization in California, this was the last of the po- 
litical duels in the state." — Hittell. 

Showalter subsequently, a fugitive from justice, was concerned in an 
attempt to organize a secession force in the vicinity of \Yarner*s Ranch, 
was captured by a troop of the First California Volunteers and was a pris- 
oner at Fort Yuma, until exchanged, when he joined the Confederate forces 
in Texas, and became an officer of the Southern Army. 


There had been a great influx of miners, speculators, gamblers and the 
riff-raff which generally collects about a successful mining camp at the 
newly-discovered gold mines in these valleys. Many of these people were 
secessionists, and being naturally lawless, gave free rein to their propensities 
during the unsettled condition of affairs brought about by the first breaking 
out of the war. Fights were the order of the day, and the respectable ele- 
ment was completely overwhelmed. At one time ten men, wounded in dif- 
ferent affrays, were reported in these camps. Another report announces that 
four horse thieves have been convicted and five more are on trial. In July, 
1 861, the court brought in ten convictions for grand larceny. It was claimed 
that the sheriff was powerless to handle the ruffian element, and a call for 
United States troops was asked for. (See Reminiscences of W. F. Holcomb.) 


The list of crimes is a long one. A large county, sparsely settled, with 
mountain fastnesses and desert stretches, a large transient population at 
all times, and a large element of Mexicans, half-breeds, Indians, desperadoes 
in hiding — furnished natural conditions for crime. 

During the sixties a number of citizens were murdered upon the roads, 


presumably by outlaws and thieves. Edward Newman was thus murdered 
in 1864 about five miles from San Bernardino. A posse was formed to punish 
his supposed murderers, and after a hot chase killed Celestino Afipaz at the 
Santa Ana river. Another of the murderers was later hung in Los Angeles. 
It was supposed that Mr. Alexander Patterson was thus murdered, although 
no evidence could be produced. 

In 1869 a cold-blooded murder occurred in Miller's Hotel. The bar- 
keeper. AVarner, fired five shots at John C. Steadman, with whom he had 
quarreled over a board bill, and wounded him so that he died within twenty- 
four hours. In 1871 one Rafael Buteres shot and instantly killed the girl 
with whom he lived, at Agua Mansa. He was found guilty of murder in 
the first degree, but before his sentence, dug his way out of the jail, made 
his escape and was never recaptured. 

December 16, 1873, Mr. A. Abadie, a Frenchman who had mined for a 
number of years' in Lytle Creek and who was reputed to have taken out 
large amounts of gold from these mines, was shot while on the road between 
Cucamonga and his home in Lytle Creek. He was shot in his wagon and 
the horses carried him to the nearest house, where he was found dead. No 
cause except malice could be assigned, as the dead man was not robbed, ap- 
parently, and the affair seems to have remained a mystery. 

In 1874 a man named Brown was knocked in the head with an ax and 
killed instantly by a Mr. Bonner at the ranch of the latter in Hoi comb Valley. 
Bonner was given a life sentence in the penitentiary. On August 16, 1878, 
the first white man was hanged in the county. This was N. M. Peterson, 
who had murdered a boy, George Barrett, in the most cold-blooded manner 
as the two were riding along the road near Banning. In 1879 a man named 
Mitchell blew out the brains of his wife during a dispute. He was arrested 
and placed in the county jail, from which he made his escape. Later the 
murderer was caught in San Diego and brought back to San Bernardino, but 
he again made his escape by overpowering the warden and walking out of 
the jail was never recaptured. In 1881, John Taylor, a miner from Calico, shot 
and killed his partner, John Peterson, at Brinkmeyer's corner in San Bernar- 
dino. After the dastardly deed he turned his revolver on himself and in- 
flicted a fatal wound. 

March 28, 1884, William B. McDowell was hung by Sheriff Burkhart 
in San Bernardino for one of the most atrocious murders on record. As it 
was developed in the trial. McDowell and his wife came to Colton and then 
induced a young girl, Maggie O'Brien, with whom he had been intimate, to 
come from Los Angeles to Colton. He and his wife met her, took her into 
a buggv and carried her to a gulch at the foot of the mountains and killed 
her with some blunt instrument, afterward tying a rope about her neck. 
They hid the bodv in a hole in the side of the ravine. Nearly a month later, 
the wife sent for an officer and confessed, and McDowell was arrested. Ex- 


citement ran high and there was talk of lynching- when the crime became 
known to the public; but the man was tried, convicted of murder in the first 
degree and sentenced to be hung July 10, 1883. An appeal to the Supreme 
Court was taken, however, and while awaiting its session, McDowell made 
his escape. A most exciting chase followed ; he was recaptured, his sentence 
sustained, and carried out. 

In 1885 one of the most terrible deeds ever perpetrated in the county 
was committed. Thomas Stanton was attacked by four drunken Indians 
on the banks of Warm Creek, near the town, and was held over the fire 
which he had built to cook his supper and roasted so that he died the next 

In 1887, George Farris was shot to death by Edward Callahan at a 
lodging house on Court street. Callahan acknowledged his guilt, gave him- 
self up to the officers, and was acquitted. In 1887, Katie Handorff was mur- 
dered at the Transcontinental Hotel in Colton by her husband. Springer. 
The couple who had just been married came to the city and took a- room at 
the hotel. The next morning the body of the young woman was found, het 
throat cut from ear to ear and her head crushed in by some heavy instrument. 
Large rewards were ofifered and every effort made to capture the criminal, but 
no trace of him could- be discovered. Months afterward the body of a man, 
with a bullet hole through the head was found at Little Mountain, and on 
investigation this proved to be all that remained of the assassin. 

In 1888 one of the most lamentable affairs ever known in San Bernardino 
took place. On December 15th, E. C. Morse, cashier of the San Bernardino 
National Bank, was approached by one Oakley, an insane man, who claimed 
that he had $3000 in the bank and wanted it. When Morse refused to deliver 
the money the man drew a gun and fired. Morse returned the fire, shooting 
three times, but he was shot in the abdomen fatally and expired in a short 
time. Oakley after a wild race upon the street was captured and was sen- 
tenced for life. Morse was an old and well-known citizen and one who was 
greatly respected and loved and the event was the cause of general sorrow. 

. In 1890 William McConkey, a hotel keeper of Redlands, shot and killed 
Edward Gresham in the old Windsor house and then killed himself. 

In 1893 a Mexican, Jesus Furan, actuated by jealousy, stabbed William 
Golfkoffer and a Mexican woman, Francesca Flores, to death in the most 
brutal manner. April 17th a mob entered the jail, took possession of the fiend 
and lynched him — the first instance of lynch law in the county for many 



Marcus Katz. 

My first visit to the Lugo Rancho dates back as early as May, 1851, 
before the immigration from Salt Lake set in. The Lugo Rancho was a vast 
pasture of live stock, consisting of mustang horses, horned cattle, sheep and 
goats, the property of the Lugo estate ; and of unclaimed stock, brown and 
grizzly bears, mountain lions, wild cats, coyotes and foxes. 

I made camp upon the elevated ridge about one and a half miles south- 
west of the city. This ridge and the vicinity was occupied by about forty 
Indian families and was known as the Rancheria. It is now the John Ralph 
place. From this point a large part of the San Bernardino valley is visible 
and I gazed in bewildered admiration at the extent and beauty of the scene 
before me. 

In the years of 1852-53, prosperity reigned supreme in the country. 
Farmers received fancy prices for their live stock and large sums of money 
for their produce. I bought and loaded sixteen wagons with wheat and flour 
and forwarded the lot to Childs and Hicks of Los Angeles. The flour sold 
for $32.00 per barrel and the wheat for $4.00 per bushel. The eight-cornered 
fifty dollar gold pieces called "slugs" were then plentifully in circulation. I 
began to be a little sluggish myself, but was soon relieved of the feeling. 

The settlers at this time raised grain and vegetables, horses and cattle. 
Sometimes they stole these from their neighbor — Lugo — this, however, was 
not a criminal offense. On the contrary, the party wd:o stole but a few cattle 
or horses was considered a very social neighbor. The party who stole a 
band of horses or cattle was followed and if overtaken, lynched, otherwise 
was considered a hero and if he got successfully away with his prize he was 
entitled to a membership in the "Four Hundred." 

After the Mormons had left the country a new immigration set in, chiefly 
from Texas and the southwest : then the "band began to play" and the "ball 
commenced." Quarrels, fights and general disturbances — sometimes shoot- 
ing and killing, ensued. On one occasion a pitched battle was fought on the 
corner of C and Fourth streets, between the Coopwood and Green factions, 
About twenty men were engaged in the conflict and a sharp fusilade lasted 
for about twenty minutes. Green, the leader of his faction, a desperado. 


marched through the streets, a gun at his shoulder and a revolver at his side, 
and defied any official or any citizen to touch him. He denounced all of the 
Coopwood faction as a set of cowards — except that "Little Devil," pointing 
his finger at Taney De la Woodward. "That little devil understand the 

It is needless to say that many of these newcomers were very excellent 
people, but they were in the minority. 

Politically, socially and morally, San Bernardino was ruled by a set of 
corrupt politicians, gamblers and desperadoes, with the sheriff of the county 
as their leader. The district attorney openly declared that he meant to get 
even with the county. He -was successful in his commendable enterprise — 
but shortly afterward left the county of his own free will. He changed the 
election returns of Y. J. Herring, county clerk, in favor of James Greenwade, 
who proved the most efficient clerk that San Bernardino ever had. He drove 
the Board of Supervisors, three in number, out of the court house at the 
point of a cocked revolver. The board understood the situation at a glance 
and rushed for the door in a body. Greenwade, reformed, committed suicide 
and became a better man. 

At another time in 1861, a forgery was committed in the campaign for 
legislative honors. It was the hardest fought election that ever occurred in 
the county. The Piercey faction consisted of shrewd political tricksters — 
unscrupulous is scarcely a strong enough word to apply to them. The Conn 
party was made up of our best citizens. It was arranged that the editor of 
the only paper, the Herald, should print the tickets for the election. But 
this editor was always drunk during office hours, and in his leisure hours — 
not sober. Rather than depend on him to get the tickets ready, a friend and 
myself obtained his permission to use the press ourselves. When the Piercey 
party found out that the press was placed in our hands, their leaders asked 
us to lend them the press, promising to return it in plenty of time. Fearing 
a trick on their part, we sent to Los Angeles and had two thousand tickets 
printed for the outside precincts. Our expectations were realized ; they kept 
the press until the evening before the election and then the editor was too 
drunk to open the office. Having no key, we kicked the door open and found 
everything in the office topsey-turvey. in order to prevent our printing the 
tickets. But in their haste, they had left a notice, or hand bill, already set 
up and in perfect order, announcing that "today is the day to vote for Charles 
W. Piercey." We erased the name of Piercey and put in the name of Wm. A. 
Conn in its place ; then we sent a messenger to the Spanish settlement to 
post our bills over those of Piercey. The Piercey men wondered much how 
such a gross mistake could have occurred, but they never found out who did 
the mischief. 

On the day of the election one of the Piercey party challenged any man 
to bot on Piercey's election. I foolishly offered to bet with him. No sooner 


did I say the word than he drew his pistol and fired, but I quickly dodged— 
I was afraid lie would soil my new coat. He was held before the grand jury 
without results ; grand juries in those days were afraid to discharge their 

Win. A. Conn was duly elected our representative, but the Piercey in- 
terests were managed by a fellow named Skinker — a deriviative of "skunk." 
He was one of the election officers of Temescal precinct and two weeks after 
the election, he changed the poll list in favor of Piercey, and by this fraud 
placed Piercey in the legislature. Piercey had scarcely taken his seat when 
he challenged another member of the body to a duel. Showalter. the man 
challenged, accepted, and Piercey was killed at the second shot. This, to a 
certain extent, broke up the combine; still, "the band played on." 

Our public schools were in a deplorable condition, a majority of the male 
teachers belonging to the element already described. Our school superin- 
tendent, Mr. Ellison Robbins, a good, conscientious worker for the cause of 
education, was in constant fear of bodily harm at the hands of the male 
teachers. Matters went from bad to worse, until finally Robbins made a 
report to the State Superintendent. When this report was published and 
copies forwarded to San Bernardino, a tempest was created among the school 
teachers and the matter of avenging themselves on Robbins for his expose 
was considered and reconsidered. Finally an indignation meeting was called 
by the aggrieved teachers, and Robbins was to be crucified. I felt deeply for 
him but was powerless to render him any assistance. However, I attended 
the indignation meeting and there met a former school superintendent, glori- 
ously drunk. 'When in this condition this man could easily talk a weakly 
constituted person to death. By some little contrivance, I managed to have 
him appointed chairman of the meeting. When he was seated upon the plat- 
form, I realized that I had won my case. He called the meeting together with 
an emphatic "Hie" and "Thanks for the hon-hic-or conferred on me; shall 
preside over this dignified body-hic-with honor to myself and to the American 
nation-hie. Shall allow no interrogations — due respect must be paid the 
Chair-hie- ; shall decide all questions-hic-impartially-". 

The audience, one by one, left in disgust and the name of Superintendent 
Robbins was not mentioned. I remained to the last in order to congratulate 
the Chairman, and I left with the conclusion that intemperance was not en- 
tirely an evil. 

Some of the social events of those clays were slightly unsocial. As an 
instance, this affair may be mentioned. The colored elite of the town were 
giving a dance and a general festivity according to the code of dusky etiquette, 
when they were unceremoniously interrupted by the entrance of a number 
of white sports under the leadership of one McFeely, who desired to partici- 
pate in the amusements. The colored proprietor objected and McFeely or- 
dered a general house-cleaning with a solid thrashing for the colored leader — 


all of which was accomplished in double-quick order. The proprietor was 
sorely grieved at being ejected from his own house and having his guests 
so grossly insulted. The next clay he swore out a complaint before Judge 
Willson, J. P., against McFeely and his associates. McFeely, with his chums, 
appeared on the day set for trial and asked to plead his own case — he very 
politely requested the court to let him read the complaint — the court readily 
complied with the request and handed him the paper. The defendant took 
the complaint and handed it to the prosecuting witness and holding a cocked 
pistol to his head, ordered him in most emphatic language to "eat that com- 
plaint." The poor fellow turned as pale as nature would allow him to do, 
and while his pearly teeth chattered, ground the complaint at the rate of a 
running quartz mill. An additional demand was made of the prosecuting 
witness : "You swallow the mutilated complaint." The defendant still held 
his weapon in a bee-line with the African's face, and it is needless to say that 
his royal decree was strictly carried out. 

The court graced the official chair with sealed lips, ashen pale face and 
bristled hair, but dared not interrupt the proceedings. He watched his first 
opportunity to adjourn court — sine die — lest he should have to swallow the 
record of his court. 

The first band of music which paraded the streets of San Bernardino on 
national occasions consisted of four persons of recognized musical ability, 
Mr. Highmore, who is no more, played the flute ; Mrs. Highmore played the 
drum ; Joseph Hancock, still in good humor, played the fife : John Yan 
Leuven whistled on two knuckles between his fingers: this notable instru- 
ment is still in good order and is highly esteemed by its owner. 

On account of the unfriendly feeling between the Mormons and the 
Independent party, each celebrated the Fourth of July, 1857. on its own hook. 
Each party made great preparations in order to excel the other faction, 
especially in the number of invitations sent out. Cordial invitations were 
sent by both to Cabezon, chief of the Coahuilla Indians, and his tribe, to par- 
ticipate in the celebration. The Independent party was honored by the dis- 
tinguished guests, who did full justice to the occasion — being muv hambre — 
(very hungry). The Independent celebration was held at Fort Benson, while 
the Mormons held the town. Serious trouble was anticipated, but nothing 
occurred until three o'clock in the afternoon, when the news of the fatal 
shooting of young Perkins — a Mormon— reached the Fort, and was soon 
proved to be true. It appeared that Perkins, who was a strong, vigorous 
young fellow, had assailed a highly respected citizen of the town who was a 
member of the Independent party, and who was in feeble health. The man 
assaulted stopped his assailant with a bullet which proved fatal. Excitement 
was at the highest pitch. The man who had done the shooting was arrested. 
but was acquitted by a jury, chiefly made up of Mormons, the verdict being 
"justifiable homicide." Had the verdict been different, serious consequences 


might have followed, for the trial was closely watched by the citizens of El 
Monte and Los Angeles. 

The first newspaper issued in San Bernardino was the "Scorpion," editors 
"Tom, Dick and Harry;" terms of subscription, one bale of hay, two dozen 
eggs, iooo shakes and a sack of onions ; the Bank of England was the only 
authorized agent to collect subscriptions. Scarcely had the "Scorpion" gained 
popularity and a long subscription list, when an opposition paper, provoked 
by jealousy, was started — "The Illustrated Hog Eye" — edited by Harry, Dick 
and Tom — terms of subscription, a cow and calf; Rothschild the only author- 
ized agent to make collections. No small abuse was exchanged between 
these papers. They were written instead of printed, for the want of a printing 
press. The proprietors of both journals were, Henry Mugridge, Marcus 
Katz and Griff Williams. 

FLOOD OF 1867-1868. 

Mrs. E. P. R. Crafts. 

I must not forget to chronicle the flood of 1867-8. The Sunday before 
Christmas, 1867, was cloudy and threatened rain, so I stayed at home with 
my two children, while Mr. Crafts, with his son Harry, went to church, as was 
our custom, at San Bernardino, intending to stay all night. The hired man 
went home across the river to return in the afternoon. It began to rain before 
noon. By three o'clock there was a downpour, with heavy wind. There were 
eight horses, two cows and eleven hogs to be cared for and I was alone with 
my little children. All night the rain fell in torrents, the wind and rain 
creeping in at every crevice. 

Monday morning came bright, clear and warm, but I knew that the 
Santa Ana river would be impassable for several days, for there were no 
bridges, and I could hear it roaring like the ocean. Mill Creek was rushing 
and foaming across the plain, carrying everything before it ; great trees and 
immense boulders were tumbled along like playthings. Jose, one of the ranch 
Indians, who had been drunk on Sunday, was now sober and came to my aid. 
Together we got the hogs out of the mire and gave them dry quarters. The 
cows were brought out, but the Indian could not milk and they had never 
been milked by a woman. There was only one resort — I made myself look 
as much like Mr. Crafts as possible. The cows smelled the coat and hat — 
and I found the problem solved. 

On Tuesday we feared the zanja would break and the water come rush- 
ing down upon us; but, fortunately, at a bend in the stream two miles above, 
big rocks piled and formed a dam, which sent the water in another direction. 
The next Sunday my husband managed to get home by swimming two 
streams, one of which was a road changed into a river by the freshet. It was 
a happy meeting. Be assured that we enjoyed Christmas together the next 


Wednesday. Fording the river in high water was to bo greatly dreaded at 
any time on account of the quicksand, and there were many narrow escapes 
from loss of life, as well as much inconvenience. There was general rejoicing 
when the Colton bridge was built early in the eighties. 

One Wednesday in May, 1865, Mr. Crafts went to the county seat, our 
nearest post office and market, but he did not return at his usual hour. I 
waited and watched for him until a late hour, thinking that he was detained 
by business. Early the next morning I set out for the town, sending the hired 
man ahead on horseback. When I reached San Bernardino, I learned that it 
had been considered unsafe for Mr. Crafts to return home alone the night 
before, and he had been, with other federals, on picket duty all night, in the 
unfinished Catholic church which was used as a fort. 

A company of confederates had been organized at Visalia to go to Texas 
by way of San Bernardino, intending to make a raid on the Union men in 
the latter place, to obtain their outfit. Dr. Barton, a southern gentleman, 
being informed of the projected plot, advised the citizens to defend them- 
selves. Accordingly at the time set for the depredations, pickets were posted 
and the city was guarded. It was afterward found that the scheme failed 
because of the unwillingness of the captain to carry out the designs of the 
party. We remained in San Bernardino until Sunday evening before it was 
considered safe to return home. 


I was appointed Pastor of San Salvador de Agua Mansa. May. 1863. and 
left Los Angeles on horseback, and not knowing the road, June 22, 1863, I 
went as far as Cucamonga, where I was well received by Mr. Rains. Leaving 
early, I arrived at Agua Mansa at twelve o'clock and went to the house of 
Mr. Cornelius Jansen, where I stopped a few days until my house was pre- 
pared. As the 23rd was the vigil of St. John, a da)' that the Mexicans cele- 
brate everywhere, I went to the church after dinner to ring the bell and an- 
nounce to the people that there would be mass the next day. But where was 
the bell? I went around the church — no bell, no belfry. I thought of re- 
turning to Mr. Jansen's to ask where the bell was, when a boy appeared and, 
in answer to my eager question, pointed to a big tree near the church. No 
wonder that I could not see it for it was among the branches of the big tree. 
I was curious to know why the bell had been hung in such an odd place and 
was toid that when the bell was brought to Agua Mansa. there being no 
belfry, the people got two large poles, put a cross piece on them and there 
hung the bell. But as the poles were green they soon began to grow, and in 
time became large trees. After some years one of these died ; the other con- 
tinued to grow, so the bell hung in a rather curious and dangerous position. 
It was then that the bell was taken from the pole and hung in the living tree. 



Two or three years later the bell became cracked and then the tree died. 
I suppose that when the tree saw that the bell, the object for which it had 
been planted and was living, was dead, it thought it was proper for it to die 
also. Some may wonder why those Catholics did not build a decent belfry. 
They would not wonder if they knew the condition of the Mexicans at Agua 
Mansa, and indeed, of all the missions attended from there. They were few 

and poor, but they were good peo- 
ple and good Catholics. They 
had great love and respect for the 
Priest, which they proved imme- 
diately after my arrival, although 
they did not know me or whether 
1 would please them or not. The 
house which was made of adobe, 
consisted of two miserable rooms, 
not plastered and with the floor 
as nature had made it. There 
was no furniture except a broken 

The next Sunday the men said 
that they would fix the house and 
furnish it. On Monday the men 
came with their carts.; they made 
adobe and began to lay the walls 
for a kitchen. The women, 
using also mud, plastered 
the walls of the room a n d 
leveled t h e floor and the gal- 
lery outside. The kitchen 
was soon finished and the walls whitewashed and then my residence was 
ready, but there was no furniture. The next day, two women with a wagon, 
went from house to house to beg furnishings. Some gave towels, others a 
chair, another a bench, one family gave a cot and mattress and all that was 
necessary for a comfortable bed. Some gave forks and others knives and 
spoons; one gave a little looking-glass and many gave provisions; thus everv- 
thing was ready for housekeeping. I thanked them all for their kindness, 
took possession of my new residence and began. I may say, a bachelor's life, 
which had only one advantage — I could not complain if the house was not 
kept clean, the soup had too much salt in it, or the meat was not well done — 
everything was to my own taste and satisfaction. Things went pretty well 
for a time, but soon all the provisions were gone and money to buy more was 
yet buried in the mines. How many times I have saddled my horse and gone 
to some ranch to get meat to prepare for my dinner. But this lasted only 



some eight or nine months. Then one morning Mr. Cornelius Jansen came 
down. I had just finished saying Mass and was making a fire to have some 
coffee. He was accompanied by his eldest son, a boy of seven years. He 
said to little Cornelius, "Tell Father Peter to come and take breakfast with 
us." Then Mr. Jansen said. "If you had something to cook, it would be bad 
enough, to have to cook it yourself, but when you have nothing to cook, that 
is too much, I cannot allow it. Come, and from this day you will take all your 
meals in my house." You may imagine how I felt and how thankful I was 
to Mr. and Mrs. Jansen, who for more than three years, were most kind to 
me. I have never forgotten, nor shall I ever forget, the kindness of Mr. 
Jansen's family to me. 

But now the old bell was broken and it was absolutely necessarv to have 
another. But how? It was impossible to collect fifty or sixty dollars — the 
price of even the smallest bell. I heard that an old Mexican in the neighbor- 
hood could make a bell. I went to see him and he agreed that should I give 
him two horses and twelve dollars, with the material necessarv, he would 
make a good bell. I wished a larger bell than the old one, hence it was neces- 
sary to have more material. The next day I borrowed a horse and buggy 
and set out. I w r ent to the Robidoux rancho, to Rincon, Temescal and Santa 
Ana, and I got the twelve dollars and had no difficulty in getting the horses, 
and I got all the material I needed, also. The man went to work at once at 
the foot of the small hill where Mr. Jansen's house stood; he made the oven 
and the moulder and soon the bell was made. Hundreds of people were 
present when the Mexican broke the mould, and when the bell was seen 
there was a shouting which resounded from hill to hill. But, alas, the joy 
was soon changed to sorrow, because we noticed on one side at the top two 
small holes, which not only disfigured the bell, but were the cause that its 
sound was not as pleasant as we expected. 

When I was appointed rector of Agua Mansa. there were only three or 
four houses near the church: the most important was that of Mr. Jansen; 
but I was told that formerly it was a nice little village with good houses and 
beautiful orchards and gardens. But in 1862 a great flood destroyed the 
village. They spoke often to me about that flood, but what impressed them 
most and caused them to remember the flood, was that the first house it 
destroyed and took down the river was their dancing house, where they had 
dances every Saturday night, and they looked upon it as a punishment, be- 
cause it was the cause of many losing Mass on Sunday. One Sunday I 
preached a pretty strong sermon on dancing, and remembering their belief 
that they had been punished for dancing on Saturday night and losing Mass. 
I tried to make them change the day — instead of dancing on Saturday, night 
to dance on Sunday night ; and I succeeded and sure I had many more at Mass 
on Sunday. 

I do not know whether Agua Mansa is the proper name for this place; 


some called it Agua Mansa, some Jurupa and some San Salvador. The 
Bishop, in the letter of my appointment, wrote "rector of San Salvador." 
These different names remind me of an incident, rather hard on me, which 
occurred some two or three months after my arrival. I left San Bernardino 
almost at sundown and taking one road for another, I lost myself. For 
more than two hours I tried to find the way to Agua Mansa, but in vain. At 
last I noticed a light, and after traveling fifteen minutes longer I came to a 
house. Believing it to be some Mexican family, I called "Buenas noches." 
Xo answer. I shouted louder and louder, "Buenas noches," when I heard 
some one answering, "Wbo is there?" I saw that I was mistaken and I 
answered, "I am the Catholic Priest from San Salvador and I am lost." An 
American came to the fence and said there is no such place as San Salvador 
around here — there is a Catholic church at Agua Mansa, and you are not lost, 
you are just on the street that will take you directly to San Bernardino. 
"But," I said, "I am coming from San Bernardino, and I must go on to San 
Salvador, or, as you say, Agua Mansa — for I know there is but one Catholic 
church in the county of San Bernardino; but could I not pass the night here 
and tomorrow you will show me the way to Agua Mansa?" "Oh, yes; come 
in," and he opened the gate and took charge of my horse and told me to 
go into the house. I was very hungry, and beside I had to travel next morn- 
ing. I did not know how far, and say Mass, before I could breakfast. So 
I asked if they could give me supper. "I am very sorry," they answered, 
"there is nothing in the house to eat as we have just come from town and took 
supper there." I knew I could not stand fasting until eleven or twelve 
o'clock the next day, which was Sunday, so I said, "Have you nothing at 
all?" and they gave me a glass of milk and a bit of very dry bread and some 
cheese. Having but one room, they put a blanket on the floor, threw a cur- 
tain in front of their bed and there I passed a good night. I woke very earlv 
and I had not finished washing myself when the husband came and said. 
"Come to breakfast. I cannot tell you how bad I felt last night in not being 
able to give you a good supper; but I got up at half-past three and went 
to town, and you will have a good breakfast." Indeed, I saw on the table, 
eggs, ham and a chicken, hot cakes, coffee and milk — and I could not eat. "I 
am sorry, so sorry," I said, "that you have gone to so much trouble, and I 
really thank you with all my heart, but I cannot take anything." "Why?" 
he asked in surprise. "Because I must hold service this morning and we 
are not permitted to break our fast before saying the Mass." I could see 
that the good man felt it and he said, "But our ministers always breakfast 
well before they go to preach well," and I could only answer. "They have a 
privilege we have not." I asked him to show me my direction, and after 
traveling five or six miles I arrived at my church and found my people won- 
dering what had become of their Rector. 


How man}- times I remember that good American family and pray God 
to bless them. 

Bishgp Verdaguek. 
Laredo, Texas, August 4th, 1903. 


Daniel Sexton, says, as quoted in "San Bernardino County, Its Climate 
and Resources," 1876: 

"I was born in Louisiana, the 24th day of March, 1818. I arrived at Old 
San Bernardino in December, 1841. The Indians at that time had full and 
entire possession of the country. I hired a number of Indians to cut and 
saw timber in the San Gorgonio Pass, just north of where Dr. Edgar's ranch 
is located now (1876). I furnished lumber to Williams on the Chino, and to 
others. I paid the Indians twenty-five cents per day for labor; horses and 
cattle could be bought for fifty cents each ; one hide was worth two living ani- 
mals. I acquired great influence over them and could have raised 500 war- 
riors in a few hours. In 1842, the Indians asked me if the Americans had any 
feast days ; I told them that they had and I made an American flag and hoisted 
it over the camp north of San Gorgonio Pass, and with the Indians celebrated 
the Fourth of July, 1842. 

During this year the Lugos came in and brought with them cattle and 
horses to stock their ranch. There were already three or four thousand 
wild horses on this plain. I have seen hundreds of them in a drove go down 
in bands to water at the river near Riverside. At the Old San Bernardino 
Mission, the Indians cultivated more ground than is now under cultivation 
and raised large crops of corn, potatoes and beans. Mill Creek zanja was 
then in better condition than now. The Indian, Solano, who laid ofr this 
ditch in 1822, died at my house in 1858. He told me about the Temescal 
tin mines. I married his niece in 1847. In 1852 I built a saw mill near the 
foot of the San Bernardino mountains in Mill Creek canon. There was more 
rain in that early day and more feed for stock than at present." 


By W. F. Holcomb. 

In the fall of 1851;. I reached Los Angeles. Here I met an old mount- 
aineer who told me of a valley about one hundred miles to the east which was 
known as "Bear Valley" on account of the number of bear seen there. I 
determined to visit this valley and my friend. Jack Martin, decided to accom- 
pany me. Y\"e procured horses and supplying ourselves with a little flour, 
bacon and salt, started. The first day out. we could hear nothing of the 
place, but the second night we camped on Lytle Creek near the ranch of 



George Lord. He directed us to San Bernardino, a place which I think I 
had never before heard of. Here we were told to go up the canon and we 
would find an old settler, F. M. \'an Leuven — Uncle Fred, as he was known — 
who could tell us how to reach Bear Yalley. We went up the Santa Ana 
canon and Air. Yan Leuven gave us all the information he could about the 

route and told us that a party was already up 


We strated on. following the trail of the 
burros. The second day we reached the sum- 
mit and found deep snow, so deep that our 
horses had great difficulty in floundering 
'through. By good luck we ran across the 
company who were camped here and they re- 
c e i v e d us kindly — pioneer fashion. This 
party, as well as I can now recall, was made 
up of Jo Caldwell, Josiah Jones, Jack Elmore, 
Jim Ware and Madison Chaney. They had 
found a little gold but not in paying quantity. 
Martin and myself located near the other 
fellows and began prospecting. Days and 
weeks rolled by and still we prospected here 
and there, with no success. Sydney P. Waite 
and a partner were also in the valley at this time, prospecting for quartz and 
working an arrastra. 

Martin at length decided to abandon the attempt and return to his family 
in Los Angeles. I determined to stay until the bear came out. As yet, we 
had killed nothing but deer and small game. On the day before his departure 
we strolled up to the top of a little hill. I said to Martin. "We have pros- 
pected every likely place we have seen in the valley, now let us try this hill- 
side where we are sure there is no gold." He objected, but I insisted and 
shoveled up a pan of dirt off the naked bed rock, pine leaves and all. Martin 
took it to the foot of the hill to wash out while I sat down and waited. 
Pie=ently I noticed that he seemed excited and he came rushing up the hill 
to exhibit about ten cent's worth of fine gold. We scraped up another pan 
of dirt and after washing it out found about the same amount. We kept 
on working and by night were convinced that we had at last struck "pay dig- 
gings. " The next day we began to work with a rocker and found that we 
could make about five dollars each per day. 

After a few days, Martin left for Los Angeles to bring up provisions 
and also bring his family back with him. He exhibited some of the gold dust 
in San Bernardino. This raised quite an excitement. When he got to Los 
Angeles and paid for a considerable bill of goods with dust, there was a stir. 
People at once 'began to rush into Bear Valley. 


About this time I one day took my gun and strolled northward to look 
over the country. When I reached the summit of the ridge that divides the 
head waters of the Santa Ana and the Mojave. I looked down from this 
eminence in a northerly direction and saw about two miles distant, a beautiful 
little valley. In camp that night I told the boys of the discovery I had made 
and one of the men — Jim Ware — at once offered to go with me and explore 
"Holcomb's Valley" as they jokingly called it. 

The first time we visited the valley I killed two bear and we had no time 
for examining our surroundings. The next day we took donkeys and went 
over after our bear; it took all day to make the trip and at night we had a 
general jollification over our bear steak and "that valley of Holcomb's." 
One of the party, Ben Choteau, proposed to go with me and prospect the 
new valley. The first day we wounded a bear and in following its trail came 
upon a quartz ledge. We stopped to examine it and found gold. We let the 
bear go and taking some dirt in a handkerchief, went down and dug a hole in 
the main gulch and washed it out. To our joy we found that we had a good 
prospect. Then we panned out some dirt from the main gulch and found 
more gold and still further examination showed us several good prospects. 

When we returned to the camp in Bear Valley there was great rejoicing 
and a big bonfire to celebrate the discovery of gold in "Holcomb's Yallev." 
The next day. May 5th? i860, we returned and located our claims. Many 
people were now in Bear Valley and log cabins were going up. A store, with 
a liquor bar of the most infamous sort, had been started by one Sam Kellev, 
and John M. Stewart had established a blacksmith shop. The place began to 
assume the appearance of a busy little village. The remains of these old log 
cabins, the reservoir and the diggings — long since worked out — can still be 

We moved over into the new valley and camped on the main gulch be- 
tween what is now called upper and lower Holcomb Valley. There were eight 
in our party and we met with very good success from the start. We had 
not worked long before our gold dust began to be scattered about in the 
different avenues of trade. As soon as it became known that we were taking 
out considerable quantities of gold from the new claims in Holcomb Vallev, 
the excitement grew. People came in from every direction, some on horse- 
back, some with pack animals and some with their outfits on their backs. 
Most of this immigration was made up of lionest, industrious men, who were 
anxious to make a few honest dollars. Every day strangers would call upon 
us and question us about the diggings. We made it a point to tell them truth- 
fully that we were making from five to ten dollars to the man. Before the 
end of July many buildings — some mere brush huts, some of a more sub- 
stantial character — were going up. A number of the new claims were paying 
well. Among these early arrivals I might mention Dr. Whitlock, Allen and 
Fred Mclntyre, Jim Jackson, Gregory, E. H. Thomas and his son Mark. 


brother to C. L. Thomas, Beverly Boren, brother to A. D. Boren, and U. U. 
Tyler. Tyler and Boren opened a store. A blacksmith by the name of 
Van Dusen came in with his wife, and W. H. St. John. 

The water gave out at our first camp and we had to move to lower 
Holcomb Valley, where we built a comfortable log cabin. We brought our 
pay dirt down with horse and cart or in sacks on burros. Scarcity of water 
in the valley greatly hindered mining operations. 

Some new developments of water and of mines were made in upper 
Holcomb, and a new town sprang up there in a very short time. It was here 
that we held our first Fourth of July celebration. Mrs. Van Dusen furnished 
the flag for the occasion and we named the place, on that account, Belleville, 
after her little girl, Belle. 

Lumber was also scarce and very high. Provisions must all be brought 
in by pack mules and were of course very dear. The necessity for a wagon 
road was so great that the miners subscribed $1500, and a road was con- 
structed down the easterly slope of the mountains to connect with the old 
toll road through the Cajon Pass. This road proved to be a great advantage 
to the valley. Later the miners constructed a road from Holcomb to Bear 
Valley, thus giving that section an outlet. These roads were built entirelv at 
the expense of the settlers in these valleys and were free to all. At the 
presidential election of that fall, Belleville, the new precinct which had grown 
up in little more than six months, cast a vote of nearly one hundred, while the 
entire vote of the county was 820. 

On November 15th, it began to snow and continued until five feet of 
snow lay over the valley. This closed mining operations until the next April 
and the valley became almost depopulated. Early in the spring of 1861, how- 
ever, people began to rush in again. New mines were discovered almost 
every day. Stores, butcher-shops, restaurants and a hotel were opened. All 
was quiet and harmonious until the news of the firing upon Fort Sumter 
reached the valley, then a change, socially and politically began to appear. 
The population continued to grow ; saloons of the lowest character, gambling 
dens and bagnios followed. The population was the typical mining town 
variety, good men and industrious workers, worthless characters and profes- 
sional "bad" men. Notwithstanding all drawbacks, large quantities of gold 
were being taken out daily. The diggings were generally shallow and easilv 
worked, in fact, they were what is often called "poormen's diggings." and 
nearly every working man took out some gold. Quartz mining also began 
to attract some attention, but was never very successful here. Among the 
arrivals in the valley this year were Horace C. Rolfe, John W. Satterwhite, 
Sidney P. Waite, A. F. McKinney, James M. Coburn and Richard Garvey. 
But there was also a rush of the very worst characters and the valley became 
a center of disorder. Night was made dreadful by the drunken yells and 
cursing; guns and pistols were fired off at all hours of night and day; no one 


was safe; the peaceful citizen was in almost as much danger as the rowdy. 

At the state election held September 4th, 1861, there was great confusion, 
and a riot was only prevented by the prompt and determined action of a few 
law-abiding citizens. Belleville precinct cast a vote of 300 for governor. 
One desperado, known as "Hell Roaring Johnson," attempted to kill a con- 
stable and was shot dead. An attempt was made to lynch the constable but 
it was frustrated and the man was acquitted as having only discharged his 
duty. After this the lawless element quieted down somewhat. This reign 
of lawlessness was of course a great drawback to the successful working of 
the claims in tbe valley. The hardworking miner was in almost as much 
danger from accidental shooting as were the rowdies from intentional shots. 
Still, of the forty or fifty men who were shot at different times, not more 
than three or four innocent men were killed. The rest were of the tough 
element, generally strangers in the place and their bodies now rest in un- 
marked graves. 

Mining has been carried on in Holcomb Valley every year since its dis- 
covery. Several quartz mills have been erected here, and while they have 
not added to the wealth of their owners, they have considerably increased the 
world's supply of gold. Placer mines, both shallow and deep, have always 
been worked, but every year the product grows less. Yet the entire produc- 
tion of Holcomb Valley has added materially to the output of gold from this 
county and from the state. 


One of the first settlers of Cucamonga, Etiwanda and Ontario, was 
Captain Joseph S. Garcia, a man of unusual character, who had passed 
through a long life of adventure. He was born in Fayal, one of the Azore 
Islands. June 9, 1823, the son of Monwell and Ann Garcia. His father 
was founder and president of the College of Fayal. Later he became 
an attorney-at-law, and was finally a judge. His parents were Catholic, 
and. as was the custom of the country, the father desired his only 
son to become a priest. But the boy was of a restless, venturesome nature, 
and in consequence, his father yielded to his entreaties, and when he 
was thirteen bound him for four years to Captain James 'Wooley, of Lynn, 
Mass. On the first voyage to Boston, Joseph went as cabin bow The ship, 
after unloading at Boston, went south for a cargo of cotton. On its return 
to Massachusetts, the boy was sent to school for six months in Lynn. He next 
shipped in a vessel bound for India. During this voyage, the vessel was 
shipwrecked, and the crew spent seven days upon a desert island with no food 
but scant rations of hardtack and water. They were rescued by a whaler 
which had been out for a year, but, on account of the inefficiency of the crew, 
had secured but one whale. With the addition of the Indiaman's crew, the 



vessel's luck changed and in three months it was well loaded, and Joseph 
realized quite a sum for his share of the profits upon reaching shore, at Cape 
Ann. He next sailed from New York on the brig, George Otis, for Manila, 
where they loaded with hides for South Africa, and on the return voyage 
took a cargo of horn to Manila, and then loaded with rice, manilla and to- 
bacco, and returned to Boston. During this trip, Mr. Garcia gained a knowl- 
edge of the Boers of South Africa, and the natives of Manila. Again he 

voyaged from Boston to Manila, 
and thence to Zanzibar, Africa. 
Here he visited the ruins of the 
ancient palace of Zanzibar, and 
saw something of the slave trade. 
Upon the voyage from Zanzibar, 
the ship met with a gale wdiich 
drove them ashore. For twenty- 
four hours they wrested with the 
breakers, while their d o o m 
seemed certain. One member of 
the crew was a man of prayer, 
and he prayed for salvation with 
all his power. He finally an- 
nounced that the crew would 
be saved, but would be e n- 
dangered by cannibals on t h e 
shore. The vessel struck and 
one sailor managed to m a k e 
his way through the break- 
ers to the shore with a rope, 

JOSEPH GARCIA am ] thus the crew wag save( J, 

They began gathering up the wreckage, when they heard the yells 
of savages, and were soon approached by a part}- of natives whom they be- 
lieved to be cannibals. One of their number knew a little of a dialect of the 
country, and by means of signs, managed to communicate with them. While 
he was parleying, a lizard, which the natives knew to be of a poisonous spe- 
cies, the bite of which was fatal, ran out of the fire and bit the hand of the 
ship's doctor, who was standing near. The doctor had brought a few of the 
most necessary remedies with him, and applied some simple antidote, which 
was effective. The savages watched in wonder, and when they saw none of 
the symptoms of the bite which they expected, they were so impressed that 
they declared the man must be a supernatural being. Naturally the "inter- 
preter" encouraged the idea, and they fell down before the doctor with cries 
and homage. They asked if he could heal others, and soon afterwards brought 
a man on a litter. The doctor was able to relieve the fever from which he was 


suffering, and the natives, completely won, gladly supplied the sailors with 
fruit and such food as they had. Nevertheless, it was with great joy that 
the little party sighted a ship in the distance. Signals of distress were made 
and seen, and the men were taken on hoard of what proved to be a merchant- 
man enroute for Hong Kong. 

In the port of Hong Kong, Mr. Garcia shipped on what was supposed to 
be a merchant vessel, but which proved to be a slaver bound for Zanzibar, 
then the center of the slave trade. Here Mr. Garcia again saw the horrors 
of the slave market. The vessel was loaded, but had not proceeded far when 
she foundered on the African coast. The departure from the ship was here 
more dangerous than in the former shipwreck, for 300 negroes, were penned 
up in the hull of the vessel. The officers did not dare to set them free, for 
fear they would overpower and murder the ship's crew. The hatches were 
fastened down, and with one exception, the entire cargo of slaves went down 
with the vessel. The crew reached land and were picked up by a passing 
vessel bound for Malaga and then for Boston. In 1844, Mr. Garcia sailed for 
Port An Prince, Hayti, where he found a revolution in progress and aided in 
saving some of the refugees. In 1847, he sailed to New Orleans and up the 
Mississippi river for a cargo of molasses. During his twelve years of sea- 
faring life, Mr. Garcia had visited many countries, gained much experience, 
and acquired the fluent use of English, French, Spanish and Italian. His 
father had thoroughly grounded him in Latin in his boyhood days, which 
had greatly assisted him in the acqui